Skip to main content

Full text of "The first three English books on America : -1555 A.D. : being chiefly translations, compilation, etc.,"

See other formats

The lirst Thre 

English books 

on America. 

Richard Eden. 







Gift of 
Henry R. Wagner 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 


The first Three English books on America. 

[? 151 i]-i555 A.D. 

7« AI^KK (i-rol. E.), Editor. The first 
Three English Books on America. I Of 

the new landes [a Tract in English printed at 
Antwerp, about 15 11]. II Munster (Seb.) A 
Trealyse of the newe India, translated by Richard 
El)ENriS53]. Ill Mart\T (Peter) The Decades 
of the Jyew Wcrlde, translated by Richard Edkn 
1555. Reprinted in full (No. Ill is 320 pages) 
with Introduction, Extracts from other Writers 
and Notes, forming the volume " An English 
Cyclopsedia of the Geographical Knowledge " of 
the Age, by Edward Ariikr. large paper (one 
of one hundred so printed). Impl. 4° 
(jf3 V) 

'88s I 

The first 

Three English books 


U 15"]— 1555 *•!>• 

Being chiefly Translations, Compilations, &c., by 


From the Writings, Maps, &c., of 

PIETRO MARTIRE, of Anghiera (1455-1526), 

Apostolical Protonotary, and Councillor to the Emperor Charles V.; 

SEBASTIAN MUNSTER, the Cosmographer (1489-1552), 

Professor of Hebrew, &'c., at the University of Basle ; 

SEBASTIAN CABOT, of Bristol (1474-1557), 

Grand Pilot of England : 

With Extracts, &c., from the Works of other Spanish, 
Italian, and German Writers of the Time. 



Fellow of King's College, London ; Hon. Member of the Virginia and Wisconsin Historical Societies ; 

Examiner in English Language and Literature, Victoria University, Manchester; 

Professor of English Language and Literature, 

Sir Josiah Mason's College, Birmingham. 

Editor of English Reprints, English Garner, English Scholar" s Library, 

A Transcript 0/ the Registers 0/ the Company 0/ Stationers of London, 1554-1640; &c. 

22 June 1885. 

{_Atl rights reserved,') 

E Ki 

I I I I |. /, l\M. Iv W I I I M. h r, I. 

To THE Reader. 

Ach of the three Texts in this Volume is of 
great rarity; the firft two are extraordinarily 

The prefent impreffion of them was begun 
fo far back as 1870, and was nearly finifhed by 
1872 ; when it came to a ftand dill through the 
great preffure of other work on all concerned, 
but more efpecially on myfelf 

For then, there came to me the over- 
powering vocation, for the fake of the Literature 
of our Golden Age, of attempting (fmgle-handed 
though it might be, and when every one elfe forfook it and fled) the printing of A 
Tranfcript of the Regijlers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1 554-1646 a.d. 
Through the toil and anxiety of the years 1873 to 1877, that great piece of work 
was religioufly and accurately accomplifhed, in four Demy 4to volumes, containing in all 
fome 2,800//.: and thus the Bibliography of Sidney, Spenfer, Shakcfpeare, Bacon, 
Ben Jonfon, and their contemporaries, was fafely fecured from deftruction or oblivion, 
to the end of time. 

Other circumftances then intervened; fo that it was not till January 1885, on the 
occafion of my firfl vifit to Edinburgh (where the book was in hand), that I was able to 
refume it. Once, however, the reproduction was again taken up, it was refolutely pufhed 
through to its completion. 

This Volume cannot fail to intereft the cultivated reader. One is able therem 
to look out on the New World as its Difcoverers and firfl Explorers looked upon it. 
Now-a-days, this Globe has but few geographical myfleries; and it is lofing its romance as 
faft as it is lofmg its wild beafts. In the following Texts, however, the Wonderment of \ 
its Difcovery in all its frefhnefs, is preferved, as in amber, for all time : and they alfo 
contain notices of not a few barbaric civilizations which have long fince paffed away 
from off the face of the earth. 

B2 » 


To the Reader. 

But this book has alfo fome very fpecial points of interefl : 

It is in many refpects, an Englifh Cyclopaedia of the geographical and fcientific 
knowledge of its Age. 

No one can read the portion of the Decades of Pietro Martire given herein, without 
wifhing to know a great deal more about him and his writings. 

A large portion of what little we do know about Sebaftian Cabot, will be found in 
the notices of him fcattered through this volume. 

It may alfo be regarded as a fitting Literary Monument of one of the Private 
Secretaries of Lord Burlegh, and a very worthy Englifhman, Richard Eden : of whom 
fome account will be found at //. xxxvii.-xlviii. ; and who was certainly one of the 
principal Authors of the reign of Mary Tudor. 

It is alfo clear, that from the third Text in this book (Eden's tranfiatlon of the 
Decades of Pietro Martire), which was publifhed in 1555, Francis Drake muft have 
obtained all the knowledge that Englifh books could give him refpecting the Weft 
Indies and the Spanifli Main, before he first went out there, under Captain John 
Lovell, in 1565. 

Laftly, William Shakefpeare read this third Text alfo, and created the character of 
Caliban in the Tempejl out of the defcription of the Patagonian giants given dXpp. 251-2. 

But for us Moderns, the chief intereft in thefe three Works may be, that they are 
the very beginning of a mighty Literature. The future of Mankind lies with the Anglo- 
Saxon race : and of all Englifli books relating to the American portion of that race, the 
three reprinted in this volume are the very firjl. 

The large initial letters are in the ftyle of the Spanifh defigns of the Bifcayan, Juan 
de Yciar (b. 1523), as they are found in the two editions of his Orthographia practica, 
Saragoffa, 1548 and 1550, 4to. Yciar, who evidently looked upon them as the gems of 
his Work, calls them Letras de Compas para ilhwiviadores. 

In conclufion I desire moft gratefully to acknowledge and record the very kind and 

cordial help rendered to me in the reproduction of this volume at Edinburgh, by the late 

Mr William Burnefs and the late Mr John Stevenfon, with whom it was commenced: 

and alfo by Mr James Skinner, of the firm of Meffrs Burnefs & Co., and Mr James 

TurnbuU, of the firm of Meffrs Turnbull & Spears, by whom it has been brought to a 

succeffful conclufion. 


Sir Josiah Mason's College, 


To the Reader ...,.,.., 

Contents . . . 

Preface . ^ .....,, . 

The First English book on America. 

This Text is ike first English book containing tJte word America (Armenica). 

li Of the newe landes and of ye people founde by the messengers of the kynge^ 

of portyngale named Emanuel. 

Of the. X. dyuers nacyons cryslened. 

Of pope lohn and his landes and of the costely keyes and wonders molodyes 

that in that lande is. 

[Antwerp, ? 1511,] 4to. 


[ The voyage round Africa to Indi, 
Of the blacke Mores [of Guinea] 
[Of the lande of AUago] 

Of greate Indyen 
Of Gutchin \Cochin\ that Kyngedome 

Of the X. dyverce cristened nacions , 

The fyrst nacion [ The Latins and Germans\ 
The seconde nacyon [ The Greeks] 
The thyrde nacyon [They of India under Pope John] . 

The Life and Labours of Richard Eden 




The fourth nacyon \The Jacobites ( ? Abyssinians) ] 

The fyfth nacyon [ The Nestorians\ 

The syxte nacyon [ The Maronites\ 

The seuenth nacyon \The Armenians] 

The eyght nacyon [ The Georgians] 

The nynthe nacyon [ The Syrians atid Samaritans] 

The tenthe nacyon \The Morabites] 





\_An abridgement of the mediaeval Legend of Presterjohn xxxii-xxxvi.] 
Of the people named Pygoies , . . xxxiii. 


Richard Eden's Contributions to our Literature, during the reigns of Edward VL and Mary, 1553-1555, A.D. 

The Second English book on America. 

^ A treaty se of the newe India, with other new foitnde landes and I landes, ^ 
aszvell eastwarde as westwarde, as they are knowen and found in these oure dayes, 
after the descripcion of Sebastian Aftmster in his boke of vniversall Cosmographie : 
wherein the diligent reader may see the good successe and rewarde of noble and ( 
honeste enterpryses, by the zohich not only wordly ryches are obtayned, but also 
God is glorified, and the Christian fayth enlarged. Translated out of Latin into 
Englishe. By Rycharde Eden. [London. 1553.] 8vo. / 

(Richard) Eden. [Dedication] To . . . the Duke of Northumberlande, hys Grace . 
(Richard) Eden. To the Reader ...... 

The Table ........... 

Of the newe India, as it 
[The description of the Navigations from Spain to the new 

India, Eastward ..... 
Of the Diamande stone, called in Latin Adamas 
Of the kingdoms and cities of Narsinga and Canonor . 
How the Elephantes in India are prepared to warre . 
Of the beaste called Rhinoceros 
Of Calicut, the most famous market towne of India . 


is knowen and found in these our dayes 

Of the maners of the Indians in Calicut . 

13] Of Pepper and other spices which growe in the region of Calicut 

14 Of byrdes and beastes which are found in the region of 

14 Calicut : and of the wyne of the merueylous tree . . 

15-16 Of the sundrye kindes of Spices, which are founde in Calicut, 

16 and from whence they are brought thyther 

16-17 Of 'lis Hand of Zaylon, and of Cinomome found there 


7-1 1 







VI 11 


Of the cytie of Tamasseri, and the maner of the cytezins there 

Of the kingdoms and cities of Pego and Bangella 

Of the greate and ryche Ilande of Sumatra, or Samolra, some- 

tyme called Taprobana . . . • 

Of the Ilande of Bornei .... 

Of the Hand of Giaua ..... 
Of the Hand of laua ..... 
Of the Hand of Madagascar .... 
Of the Hand of Zanzibar 
Of the two Handes, in one of the which dwell onely men^ and 

in the other onely women .... 




Of the greate Empyrc of Cathay, being vnder the dominion of 
the great Cham (whiche some call the great Can) Emper- 
oure of Tartaria, in olde tyme called Scythia , . 24-25 

Of certaine Prouinces and regions subiect vndcr the dominion 

of the greate Cham Emperour of Cathay , . 25-26 

Of the Prouince of Mangi, and merueylous cyties conteyned 

in the same ...... 26 

Of the region of Tangtit, and of the great desertes, and 
voyces of deuylles heard in the same, and of the Sala- 
mandra •....., 26-27 

C Of the newe India, and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea, how, when, and by whom they were found, 28-42 

[Of the new Islands and India found in the West Ocean sea, 

from Spain Westward and South-west . . 28-31, 33-39] 

Of the two Ilandes Johanna and Hispatia ... 28 

Of the people called Canibales or Anthropophagi, which are 

accustomed to eate mans fleshe .... 29 

Of the maners of the inhabitantes of the Hand of Hispana and 

of suche thynges as are found there ... 29 

How Columbus, after he had found new Ilandes, returned 

agayne to Spayne, where preparinge a newe nauie, he 

toke his viage to ye Canibales .... 29-30 
How the Admirall passed manye Ilandes, and what thynges 

chaunced to hym and his companie in that viage . 30-31 

How the Spaniardes afjused the submission and frendeshippe 

of the inhabitantes of the Ilandes . . . . 31 

How the Portugals sought new Ilandes in the East partes, 

and how they came to Calicut .... 32-33 
How Magellanus by a strayght or narrow arme of the sea, 

sayled by the west into the East to dyuers Ilandes : where 

also he was slayne ..... 33-34 

(Richard) Eden. To al aduenturers, and suche as take in hande greate enterpryses 

How the Spaniardes came to the Ilandes of Molucca, and of 

the people with great hanging eares . . 

The thyrde nauigacion of Christophortts Columbus 
Howe Pdrus Alonsus soughte newe Ilandes . 
Howe Pinzonus, companion to the Admirall, sought newe 

Ilandes ....... 

Of the foure nauigacions of Americus Vesfutius to the newe 

Ilandes ....... 

The fyrste viage of Americus Vesputitts , , . 

The seconde viage of Vesputius .... 

The thyrde viage of Vesputitts .... 

The fourth viage of Vesputius ..... 

How the king of Portugale subdued certayn places in India : 

and of the ryche Cytie of Malacha 
Of the Hand of Medera, and the fortunate Ilandes, olherwyse 

called the Ilandes of Canaria .... 
Whether vnder the ^Equinoctial circle or burninge lyne (called 

Torrida zona) be habitable Regions , 










The Third English book on America. 

T/ie Decades of the newe worlde or west India, conteynyng the naiiigatiotts\ 
and conquest es of the Spanyardes, with the particular description of the moste 
ryche aud large landes and Ilandes lately founde in the west Ocean perteynyng 
to the inheritaunce of the hinges of Spayne. In the which the diligent reader 
may not only consyder what commoditie may hereby chaunce to the hole christian 
world in tyme to come, but also learne many secreates touchynge the lande, the sea, ) 
and the starres, very necessarie to be knowen to al such as shal attempte any naui- 
gations, or otherwise haue delite to beholde the strange and woonderfull woorkes 
of God and nature. Wrytten in the La tine tounge by Peter Martyr of 
Angleria, and translated into Englysshe by Rycharde Eden. 

Londini, In sedibus Guilhelmi Powell. Anno. 1555. / 


The Table of the Contents of this Booke (besyde the Decades) 45 

(Richard) Eden. Latin Epistle to King Philip and Queen Mary ...... 46-48 

(Richard) Eden. To the Reader . 49-6o 

[Section I. ..... . 61-204.] 

(Pietro) Martire's Epistle to the Emperor Charles V., 30 September 1516 




Book I. 
Book II. 
Book III. 
Book IV. 
Book V. 

Book I. 
Book II. 
Book III. 
Book IV. 
Book V. 

Book I. 
Book 11. 
Book III. 
Book IV. 
Book V. 

The First Decade (or Ten Books) 

{For confeuts, see fp. 


(For contents, see pp, 


(For contents, see fp. 395-7) 



Book VI. . 
Book VIII. 
Book IX. , 
Book X. . 

The Second Decade 


Book VI. . 
Book VII. 
Book Vlir. 
Book IX. . 
Book X. . 

The Third Decade 

137-142 Book VI. . 

142-145 Book VII. 

146-150 Book Vlir. 

150-156 Book IX. . 

156-160 Book X. . 

Of the Landes and Ilandes lately founde 
Pope Alexander VT. Bull dividing the New World between the Spaniards and the Portuguese, 
4 May 1593 .... In Latin and English. 






129 130 
« 34 136 



[Section II. . . . 205-242.] 

(Richard) Eden. To the Reader ....... 

(Gonzalo) Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdds. Epistle to the Emperor Charles V. . 

The [Natural] Hystorie of the weste Indies 

Of the ordinary nauygation from Spayne to the Weste 
Indies ...... 

Of twoo notable thynges as touchsmg the West Indies : 
And of the great rychcsse brought from thense into 
Spayne ...... 

Of the mynes of golde, and the maner of woorkynge in 
theym ...... 

Of the maner of fyshynge for perles 

Of the familiaritie which certeyne of the Indians haue 
with the deuyll, and howe they reccaiie answere of 
hym of thynges to coome .... 

Of the temperature of the regions vnder or neare to the 
burnt lyne cauled Torrida zona or the Equinocliall : 
and of the dyuers seasons of the yeare 

Of dyuers particular thynges, as woormes, serpentes, 
beastes, foules, trees, etc. .... 

Of trees, fruites, and plantes .... 






Of Reedes or Canes ..... 

Of venemous apples wherwith they poyson theyr arrowcs 

Of fysshes and of the maner of fysshynge . 

Of th[e]increase and decrease, (that is) rysynge and 
faullynge of our Ocean sea and Southe sea caulled the 
sea of Sur ...... 

Of the strayght or narowe passage of thelande lyingc bet wene 
the North and South sea, by the whiche spyces may 
much sooner and easlyer be brought from the Ilandes 
of Molucca into Spayne by the West Ocean then by 
that way wherby the Portugales sayle into East India 

Of the maners and customes of the Indians of the firme 
lande, and of theyr women .... 

Oi \}c^& cM\^{& \\xCidL&% Hispaniola xaA Cuba 

Of the Ilande of Cuba and other .... 

Of the lande of Bacoaleos cauled Terra Bnccalearum, 
situate on the North syde of the firme lande. . 













[Section III 
Of the Universal Garde and Newe Worlde 
(Richard) Eden. A Discourse of the Vyage made by 

the Spanyardes rounde abowte the Worlde . 
Maximilian Transilvanius. Epistle to the Emperor 

Charles V 




(Antonio) Pigafetta. A briefe Declaration of the Vyrge 

or Navigation made abowte the Worlde . . 249-262 

Of the prices of Precious Stones and Spices . . 263-269 

Cadamosto of the Dooues of the Ilande of Madera . 270 

Of the Ilande of saynt Thomas under the Equinocliall line 270 


(Francisco) Lopez de G6mara. The Debate and Stryfe betwene the Spanyardes and Portugales 

for the diuision of the Indies and the trade of Spices [at the Conference at Badajos, in 152.}] 271-274 

/ A J N J ,-^ 1- ?■ Of the Pole Antartike and the Starres about the same, &c. 
(Andrccis) de Corsali. J 


[Section IV. 

Of Moscouie and Cathr.y 

(Galeazzo) Butrigarius 
(Sebastian) Cabot . , 



(Sebastian) MUnster. (Jacopo) Gastaldo. A briefe 
description of Moscouia .... 




(Jacobus) Ziglerus. 

Of the North Regions and of the moderate and continuall 

heate in coukie regions aswell in the nyght as in the 

day in the soommer season 
Schondia .... 
Gronlande . 

Islande .... 

Of the North Regions 

Laponia .... 

Norwegia or Norway 
295298 Suecia or Svethlande 
298-299 Bothnia .... 

299 Gothia or Gothlande 

300 Finland and Eningia 

fference of Regions, and causes of great cities 
(Paolo) Giovio, Bishop of Nocera. The Historic ... of the Legation or Ambassade of th 

greate Basilius Prince of Moscouia to Pope Clement VII. of that name 
(Sigismund) Liber. Other notable Things concerning Moscovia .... 

(Girolamo) Cardano. Of the d 

The description of the regions, people, and ryuers, lying 

North and Easte from Moscouia 
Of the famous ryuer of Tanais .... 

Edward VI. The Copy of the Letters Missive 


More directly from Moscouia to Cathay 

Of the Tartars 

The nauigation by the frosen sea . 

sent to the Kynges, Princes, and other 





le of th2 


• • 



. 318-321 

• • 


potentates inhabytynge the Northeast partes of the worlde towarde the myghtye 
Empire of Cathaye. 1553 . . In Latin and English. ..... 

[Section V, 
(Francisco) Lopez de G6mara. ) 

(Sebastian) Cabot. 

Of the foreknowleage that the Poet Seneca had of the 
fyndynge of this new Worlde and other Regions not 
then knowen .-..,. 337 

Of the great Ilande which Plato cauled Atlantica or 

Atlantide ...... 337-338 

Of the colour of the Indians .... 338 

Why they were cauled Indians .... 339 

The fyrste discouerynge of the Weste Indies . . 339 

What maner of man Chrystopher Colon was : and howe 

he Came fyrst to the knowleage of the Indies . 340 

What labour and trauayle Colon tooke in attemptyng his 

fyrst vyage to the Indies .... 340-342 

Of newe Spayne cauled Noua Hispania, or Mexico . 342 

Of Peru ....... 343 

Of the great ryuer cauled Rio de la Plata (that is) the 

ryuer of syluer ..... 343-344 

Other notable thynges as touchinge the Indies 

Of the hygher East India cauled India Terccra or Terciera 
Of the landes of Laborador and Baccalaos, lyinge west and 

northwest from Englande, and beiiige parte of the 

firme lande of the West Indies 
The discouerynge of the lande of Floryda 
An opinion that Europa, Africa, and Asia, are Ilandes : 

and of certeyne nauigations abowt the same . 
That the Spanyardes haue sayled to the Antipodes (that 

is) suche as go fiete to fiete ageynst vs, and inhabite 

the inferiour hemispheric or halfe globe of the earthe, 

contrarie to th[e]oppinion of the owlde writers 
Who fyrst founde the needle of the compasse, and the vfe 

therof ...... 

The Situacion and byggenes of the earth . 

What degrees are ...... 

(Richard) Eden. A demonstration of the roundnesse of the Earth .... 

Diodorus, Siculus. What credit ought to bee gyuen to Wryters as touchynge the workes of nature 











[Section VI. . . . 353-369-] 

(Richard) Eden. The prQ^ace to The Booke of Metals . . . . . . 355 

(Vannuccio) Biringuccio. Of the generation of Metalles, and their mynes ; with the maner of 

fyndinge the same .......... 356-362 

Of the myne of golde and the qualitie therof in particular 362-366 | Of the myne of siluer and the qualitie therof . 366-368 

Diodorus, Siculus. The maner of workynge in golde mynes in Egipt in owld tyme . . 369 

[Section VIL . . . 371-390.] 

(Richard) Eden. The Description of the two Viages made owt of England into Guinea 
(Richard) Eden. A breefe Description of Affrike . . . . . . 

The fyrst Vyage to Guinea ......... 

The Second Vyage to Guinea ........ 

Gemma Phrysius. The maner of fyndynge the Longitude of Regions by dyuers waycs . 



(Richard) Eden. Th[e] Interprelours excuse ..... 





p 3i e df a € e. 

riLL labouring in the diffusion of English Literature : we here, with heart-felt 
pleasure, present the reader with reprints of three exceedingly rare, curious, 
and costly Cosmographical Works; which are also the very earliest printed 
documents in our language, relating to South, Central, and North America. 

It rarely falls to the lot of man to be able to put one's hand on the very 
earliest beginnings of a mighty literature. Yet it is not too much to say, that of 
all the vast multitude of English books that have been, or ever will be, pro- 
duced, either in, or relating to, what we call our New World ; the three Works 
reprinted in this Volume are the very first and earliest. However mighty and 
majestic, however subtle and eloquent, however deep and far-reaching, the 
American-English literature may become; here are its first fruits ! Whatever 
period of mental florescence and splendour may yet be in store for the English- 
speaking races on that vast Continent; with these three Works begins the 
printed English Story of their Action, their Mind, and their Progress. 

Almost all nations light their lamp with fire borrowed from their predeces- 
sors. They commence with translations ; progress to imitations ; and then, 
often by distinctly marked steps, the Literature mounts up to the height to which 

(through all the 
It rests not long 

the united wit and genius of the nation 
vicissitudes of earthly empire) can raise it. 
at the summit ; but first declines, and then decays. In its full 
ripeness, it oftentimes lights up the mind of younger and suc- 
ceeding races ; and so, at length, its life and vitality pass away. 
Thus has the now blazing, now dim, torch of human knowledge 
and mind-craft been handed down to us over the heads of 
the nations, through all the successive Ages of Time. 

Human literature is also, like human nature, in many essen- 
tials evermore the same in all Ages. As is the life of a Man ; 
so is the mind, that is, the higher life, which is the glory of a 
Nation. Both alike pass through Inception, Growth, Flores- 
cence, Decay, and Death : both alike but minister to the 
purposes of a Power greater than they, until the cycle of His 
plans shall be completed. Then cometh the end, when the 
World shall crack at the fiat of the Almighty Trinity. 

Instances of this Law of successive Literary Cycles 
inter-ringing one with the other, readily suggest themselves. 
Such was the Literature of Greece in its earlier relations to Egypt 
and Phoenicia ; and in its later to Rome. Such also that of 
the Renaissance in Italy, in respect to the Greek literature of 
Byzantium ; and to its subsequent influence (which, either as 
to fulness or extent, has hardly yet been measured) on the 
rawer nations of Spain, Germany, France, and England. 

Such was that of Spain (which now we consider so dead), with 
reference to the anterior civilisation and letters of the Moorish 
kingdom there. Such undoubtedly has been, and will be the 
literature of England ; now, it may be, in the early afternoon 
of its glory. And such has been, and will be that of English- 
America; now in the morning of its strength and power. 
In the words of the great and wise Preacher, " To every 
thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under 

Under any circumstances, therefore, the present Texts would 
excite great interest; whatever might be the nature of their 
contents. It is pleasant, however, to find that each of them has 
for us modern readers, a distinct interest and a strong charm : 
while all three do afford us a most vivid picture of those early 
days of oceanic discovery ; of the terrible real dangers, and the 
still more terrible imaginary ones, undergone and dared by the 
many noble-hearted Portuguese and Spaniards for themselves 
and for us ; when they wan, in their little cockboats, for the 
succeeding Human Race, a truer knowledge of the Globe in 
which, by the Divine Providence, it has been placed. 

But the first impression — the most salient and significant 
interest of this volume — is that it contains reprints of The 
first Three English books on America. 


P R E F A C E. 


Ur next consideration respects their contem- 
porary standpoint ; their relation to the 
story of the nation, for whom the three 
Texts were printed: and especially to 
supply Eden's omissions, as regards the 
very early oceanic voyages of the English, 
both East and West. 

These publications are of great and perpetual interest, 
inasmuch as they photograph for all time, the fragmentary and 
imperfectly attained knowledge, and the vast and credulous 
wonderment, prevailing in England in respect to far-distant 
countries, during the reigns of Henry VIII. and his two im- 
mediate successors. The Texts of this volume embrace, in fact, 
all that the gentry and merchants of England could, down 
to the year 1555, A.D., read in the tongue in which they were 
born, of the wonderful discoveries, and still more marvellous 
conquests, of the Portuguese and Spaniards in the two Indies. 

Neither was this amount of printed information much added 
to, in Eden's lifetime. His greatest literary feat — the Compila- 
tion of 1555 — found no immediate imitators : so that it was left 
to himself (after twenty years more, of great vicissitude, had 
passed over his head) to undertake its repetition, in the form 
of a Second and much revised Edition of this labour of 
love ; in the preparation of which he died. This revised Com- 
pilation finally appeared in 1577, "set in order, augmented, 
and finished " by Richard Willes, under the fresh title of The 
History of Trauayle in the West and East Indies, and other 
countreys lying either way, 6^c. It was five years later (1582), 
that R[ichard] H[akluyt] published his first Collection, under 
the title of Diuers voyages, d^c. 

An enquiry into the printed naval literature of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign, has also elicited the fact, that it was not 
until about that same year (1577), that our Oceanic Literature 
fairly began to constitute a distinct section of English books. 
It soon, however, greatly increased in bulk, variety, and 
interest ; until now, it has no compeer in any other language. 

Eden is therefore, in very deed, the Pioneer of British 
geographic research, the very First of our Naval Chroni- 
clers, and the Herald and Forerunner of all our subsequent 
discoveries and victories at sea. So that in English literary 
history, Richard Eden stands in the same relation to Richard 
Hakluyt, that Richard Hakluyt does to Samuel Purchas ; and 
Samuel Purchas, to our present Hakluyt and Royal Geo- 
graphical Societies. 

This multifarious volume should be studied in conjunction 
with the inland Chronicles of Halle, Grafton, Stow, and others; 
together with the more modem histories of the Reformation 
Age. These are chiefly, if not exclusively, occupied with home 
and continental affairs ; and but rarely travel further abroad. 
In this direction, this Work will help, in a very important 
manner, to complete for us, the external history of England, 
during the period 1511-1555, a.d. 

2. It will soon, however, be seen that it does this rather by 
way of narrating the deeds of other nations, and thereby teaching 
and guiding our forefathers to do the like ; than by describing 

the English navigations of its own time. Indeed, there are 
only two English voyages described in it with any detail, and 
those are rather late ones, viz., the voyages to Guinea in 1553 
and 1554. Yet these accounts (the very earliest of their kind 
ever printed in our language) were not, as it is quite evident 
from page 388, included in the original conception and plan 
of the Work : but were added, just as the book was being com- 
pleted, by way of a postscript ; the extra expense of which, was 
borne by Master Toy, the London printer and publisher. 

It is also to be especially noted, that this omission did not 
arise because there were no English Voyages to relate ; but be- 
cause the custom of narrating them in print had not yet arisen 
in our language. Sea-Histories had not, as yet, become an 
section of our Literature. 

Inasmuch, therefore, as so large a portion of this Volume is 
occupied with the famous deeds of other nations, and particu- 
larly of those of the Spaniards ; it may be well (as it is indeed 
but just to our own race) to place in the forefront of them all, 
a very slight account, by way of a rescue from oblivion, of the 
sea-doings and sea-daring of our forefathers in the reigns of 
Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Mary : — narrating the Oceanic 
voyages with fuller detail than those to the Continent and the 
Levant, as they were the more adventurous and difficult 

3. From the capture of Constantinople in 1454, till after the 
battle of Lepanto in 1572 ; there was an almost ceaseless fight 
between the Christians and the Turks along the eastern shores 
of the Mediterranean Sea. The Knights of St. John of Jeru- 
salem, after they had been driven from Rhodes in 1522, finally 
settled at Malta in 1530; where by their heroic valour in the 
frightful siege in 1565, they materially contributed, with the 
great naval victory of Don John of Austria, to stem the flow 
of Turkish invasion, which else threatened to swallow up all 
Christian States. 

Recollecting that the formidable, ruthless, and barbaric power 
of the Turkish empire was at this time ever surging onward 
and westward in those eastern seas; it will interest most of us to 
know that there was a regular organised and direct commerce 
by sea between England and the Levant so early as 15 1 1, a.d. ; 
and for many years afterwards. For our knowledge of this we 
are indebted to our great English Worthy and famous Cosmo- 
grapher Richard Hakluyt, Preacher; sometime a Student of 
Christ Church in Oxford: who, in the second edition of his great 
work entitled The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques,and 
Discoueries oj the English Nation, &'c. ^'c, London, 1 599-1 600 
fol., has preserved for us the following important note on — 

TTie antiquitie of the trade with Engiijhjhips into the Leuant 

|N the yeeres of oure Lord, 151 1, 1512, &c., till theycere 1534. 
diuers tall fliips oi London, namely, The Chrijlopht^ Campion, 
wherein was Factor one Roger Whitcome; the Mary George, 
wherein was Factor William Crejtiam; the great Mary 
Grace, the Owner whereof, was iVilliam Gun/on, rnd the 
mafter one John Hely; the Trinitie Fitz<uilliams, whereof was mafter 
Laurence Arkey; the Afalthiw of London, whereof was mafter William 
Capling, with certaine other fliips of Southampton and Brijlmo, had an 
ordinarie and vfuall trade to Sicilia, Candte, Chio, and fomewhilcs to 
Cyprus, as alfo to Tripolis and Baruiti [Beyrouth in Syria. The com- 



modities which they caried thither were fine Kerfies of diuers colours, 
courfe Kerfies, white Wefteme dozens. Cottons, certaine clothes called 
Satutes, and others called Cardinal-whites, and Caluetkins which were well 
fold in Skilie, &c. The commodities which they returned backc were 
Silks, Chainlets, Rubarbe, Malmefies, Muflcadels and other wines, fweete 
oyles, cotten wooU, Turkic carpets, Galles, Pepper, Cinamom, and fome 
other fpices, &c. Befides, the naturall inhabitants of the forefayd places, 
they had, euen in those dayes, traffique vrith lewes, Turkes, and other 
forreiners. Neither did our merchants onely eniploy their owne Englilh 
(hipping before mentioned, but fundry flrangers alfo : as namely, Car.diols, 
Ragufeans, Sicilians, Gcnouezes, Venetian galliaffes, Spanish and Portugale 
fliips. All which particulars doe moll euidently appeare out of certaine 
auncient Ligier bookes \i.e. Ledgers^ of the R[ight]. W[or(hipful]. Sir 
William Locke Mercer of London, of Sir William Bixwyer Alderman of 
London, of mailer lohn GreJJiam, and of others; which I Richard Hakluyt 
haue diligently perufed and copied out. — Vol. \l.,Part I.,/. 96, Ed. 1599. 

4. Next in the order of time comes the mythical voyage of 
1517 of Sebastian Cabot and Sir Thomas Pert from England 
towards Cathay ; the sole authority for which is Eden's state- 
ment at page 6 of this Volume : in which, so far as we have 
been able to inquire, we believe him to have been utterly 
mistaken, and that the voyage had no existence ; and the more 
especially because Sebastian Cabot was at that date in Spain, 
where he remained until after the Conference of Badajos in 
1524, which (as Gomara tells us at/. 272) he attended as an 
expert on behalf of the Emperor Charles V. 

5. Important and authentic as is that early Levant traffic ; 
it was a very different thing from a voyage across the then but 
half discovered Atlantic. As Pietro Martire vaunts, few or 
none but Spaniards were licensed to go from Spain to the 
New World. It is, therefore, very striking to find, ere Cortes 
had consolidated his marvellous conquest of Mexico, or Pizarro 
had finally set forth to imitate him in Peru ; and while at home, 
the great Cardinal was in serene prosperity and unruffled 
power, our first printed New Testaments were being secretly 
read in the principal English towns, and our nation's Reforma- 
tion was just beginning to bud forth : it is indeed surprising to 
trace one Englishman at least in the West Indies ; to learn, of 
a certainty, that one, if not two English expeditions had 
reached the American coast ; and, most startling of all, to 
know that one of these squadrons found in the harbour of 
St John's, Newfoundland, not another royal fleet of discovery, 
but a fleet of fourteen fishing-boats (and, if Spanish reports be 
correct, thirty or forty more in the neighbourhood), that had 
ventured (at a time when, to us, so little appears to have been 
known of the north-eastern seaboard of America; and so much 
to have been dreaded in a voyage thither) across the wide 
Atlantic, simply for the sake of codfish. 

6. Hakluyt gives the following account of Thomas Tyson 
or Tison, the first Englishman known to have reached the 
West Indies : — 

A briefe note concerning an ancient trade of the Euglijk Marchants to the 
Canarie-ilands, gathered out of an olde ligier booke [ledger] of M. Nicolas 
Thome the elder a worfhipfull marchant of the city of '&x\Qi.o\\. 

JT appeareth euidently out of a certaine note or letter of remem- 
brance, in the cuftody of me Richard Hakluyt, written by M. 
Nicolas Thome the elder a principall marchant of Brifloll, 
to his friend and factour Thomas Midnall and his owne 
feruant William Ballard at that time refident in S. Lucar 
in Andeluzia ; that in the yeere of our Lord 1526 (and by all circumstances 

and probabilities long before) certaine Englilh marchants, and among the 
reft himfelfe with one Thomas Spacheford exercifed vfuall and ordinary 
trade of marchandife vnto the Canarie Hands. For by the fayd letter 
notice was giuen to Thomas Midnall and William Ballard aforefayd, that 
a certaine fliip called The Chriflopher of Cadiz bound for the Wejl Indies 
had taken in certaine fardels of cloth both courfe and fine, broad and nar- 
row of diuers forts and colours, fome arouas [aroliasj of packthreed, fixe 
cerons or bagges of fope, with other goods of M. Nicolas Thome, to be 
deliuered at Santa Cruz, the chiefe towne in Tenerifa, one of the feuen 
Canary-Hands. All which commodities the fayd Thomas and William were 
authorized by the owner in the letter before mentioned to barter and fell 
away at Santa Cruz. And in lieu of fuch mony as (hould arife of the fale 
of thofe goods, they were appointed to retume backe into England good 
ftore of Orchell (which is a certaine kinde of mofle growing vpon high 
rocks, in thofe dayes much vfed to die withall), fome quantity of fugar, and 
certaine hundreds of kid-ikinnes. For the procuring of which and of 
other commodities, at the beft and firft hand, the faid Thomas and William 
were to make their abode at Santa Cruz, and to remaine there as factours 
for the abouefaid M[after] Nicolas Thome. 

And here alfo I thought good to fignifie, that in the fayd letters mention 
is made of one Thomas Tifon, an Englilh man, who before the forefayd 
yere 1526 had found the way to the Wefl Indies, and was there refident, 
vnto whom the fayd M[afler] Nicolas Thome fent certaine armour and 
other commodities fpecified in the letter aforefayd. — Principal Navigations, 
(Sr^f. Sfc. Of the English Nation, Vol. II. , Part 11., p. 3, Ed. 1599. 

Hakluyt, referring again to this note, hazards the following 
surmise : — 

This Thomas Tifon (fo farre as I can coniecture) may feeme to haue bene 
fome fecret factour for M. Thorne aud other Englilh marchants in thofe 
remote partes, whereby it is probable that fome of our marchants had a 
kind of trade to the Weft Indies, euen in thofe ancient times and before 
alfo. — Idem, Vol. III., /. 5cx), Ed. 1600. 

This conjecture is confirmed by the fact that Nicolas Thorne, 
at his death in 1527, owed this Thomas Tyson the sum of 
;^i2 : 5s. (probably on account of business). — See Letters and 
Papers on the Reign of Hairy VIII., Edited by the Rev. J. S. 
Brewer, M.A., IV. (2),/. 1256. 

7. Imbedded in Halle's Chronicle is the following note, 
quite unconnected with anything going before or after, and to 
which also he makes no subsequent allusion whatever : — 

This fame moneth [May 1527, 19 lien. VIII.], the kyng fent two fayre 
fhippes, well manned and vitailed, hauing in theim diuers conning men, to 
feke ftrange regions; and fo furth thei fet, out of the Thamis, the twentie 
day of May, if thei fped well you lliall here at their retorne. fol. 158, b. 

This note Richard Grafton, who had printed Halle's Chro- 
nicles in 1548, transferred (with but variations of spelling) to/. 
1 149 of his own Chronicle, printed by Henry Denham in 1569. 

Richard Hakluyt, in his Principal Navigations, Voyages, and 
Discoveries, thus records his researches as to this expedition : — 

ND whereas mafter Hall and mafter Grafton fay, that in thofe 
Ihips there were diuers cunning men, I haue made great 
inquirie of fuch as, by their yeeres and delight in nauigation, 
might giue me any light to know who thofe cunning men 
(hould be, which were the directers in the aforefayd voyage. 
And it hath bene told mee by Sir Martin Frobilher, and mafter Richard 
Allen a Knight of the Sepulchre, that a Canon of S. Paul in London, 
which was a great Mathematician, and a man indued with wealth, did much 
aduance the action, and went therein himfelfe in perfon, but what his name 
was, I can not learne of any. And further they told mee that one of the 
(hips was called the Dominus vobiscum, which is a name likely to bee giuen 
by a religious man of thofe dales, and that failing very farre Northweft- 
ward, one of the (hips was caft away as it entred into a dangerous gulphe, 
about the great opening, betweene the North partes of New found land, 
and the countrey lately called by her maieftie Mela Iiuognita \i.e. Labrador]. 



Whereupon the other (hip (haping her courfe towards Cape Brittor, and the 
coaft of Norumbega [Hakluyt substitutes Aramhec in his 1600 Edition], 
and oftentimes putting their men on land to fearch the ilate of thofe 
vnknowen regions, returned home about the beginning of October, of the 
yeere aforefaid. And thus much (by reafon of the great negligence of the 
writers of thofe times, who (hould haue vfed more care in preferuing the 
memories of the worthie actes of our nation) is all that hitherto I can leame, 
or find out of this voiage.— /. 517, Ed. 1589; also, iii 129, Ed. l6co. 

Of this enterprise, Purchas some thirty-five years later has 
preserved for us, at //. 808-91 of the Third volume of his 
Pilgrimcs, 1625, the following more authentic testimony: — 

' EE will recreate you with a plaine Mariners Letter endorsed 
in homely phrafe, To the Honourable Kings Grace of Eng- 
land, here (as I thinke) giuen you from the Originall. I 
haue alfo another written to Cardinal Wolfcy touching the 
fame voyage in Latin, by Albertus de Praia ; for the 
antiquitie rather then any remarkable raritie, worthy here to be mentioned.' 
'' I mentioned before Mafler Thames fathers finding out New-found Land, 
with Mailer Eliol. Thefe animated King Henrie the eight to fet forth 
two (hips for difcouerie, one of which perifhed in the North parts of New- 
found Land. The Mafler of the other, lohn Rul, writ this Letter to King 
Henrie, in bad EngUfli and worfe Writing. Ouer it was this fuperfcription. ° 
Mafter Grubes two (hips departed from Plymatilh the 10. day 
of lune, and arriued in the Nexu- found- Land in a good Harbour, 
called Cape de Bas, the 21. day of July : and after we had left the 
fight of Selk [? Scilly], we had neuer fight of any Land, till we 
had fight of Cape de Bas. 

^ leafing your Honorable Grace to hcare ofyourferuant lohn Rut, 
with all his Company here, in good health, thanks be to God, 
and your Graces fhip. The Mary of G[u]il[d]ford with all 
her thanks be to God: And if it pleafe your 

honorable Grace, we rannein our courfe to the Northward, till 
we came into 53. degrees, and there we found many great Hands of Ice and 
deepe water, we found no founding, and then we durfl not goe no further to 
the Northward for feat e of more Ice, and then we cajl about to the Southward, 
and within foure dayes after we had one hundred and fxtie fathom, and then 
•wee came into 52. degrees, and fell with the may ne Land, and within ten 
leagues of the mayne Land we met with a great Hand of Ice, and came hard 
by her, for il wasflanding in deepe water, andfo went in with Cape de Bas, 
a good Harbor, and many small Hands, and a great frefh Riuer going vpfarre 
into the mayne Land, and the maytie Land allwilderneffe and mountaines and 
woods, and no naturall ground but all moffe, and no inhabitation nor no people 
in thefe parts: and in the woods we found footing of diners great beafls, but we 
faw none not in ten leagues. And pleafe your Grace, the Samfon and wee kept 
company all the way till within tioo dayes beforewee metwith all the Hands of 
Ice. That was the firfl day of luly at night, and there rofe a great and a mar- 
uailous great florme, and much foule weather; I trufl in Almightie lefu to 
heare good newes of her. And pleafe your Grace, we were confidering and a 
writing of all our order, how we would wafh [? watch'\ vs, and what courfe 
wee mould draw, and when God doe fend fault weather, that with Cape de 
%'^xflie [i.e. each fhip'\ fhould goe, and he that came firfl fhould tarry the 
fpace of fixe weeks one for another, and watered at Cape de Bas ten dayes, 
ordering of your Graces fhip, andfifhtng, andfo departed toward the South- 
ward to feeke our fellow: the third day of Auguft we entered into a good 
Hauen, called Saint lohn, ajtd there we found eleuenfaile «/" Normans, and 
one Brittaine, and two Portugall Barkes, and all a fifhing, and fa we are 
readie to depart towatd Cape de Bas,* and that is twentie fiue leagues, as 

1 The very high antiquity of these letters — which are the earliest ever known to have 
been sent home by Englishmen from America — constitutes their great modern value. 

8 The next two sentences are a jumble of error. It is clear from the text that the 
expedition consisted of three ships : Master Gnibe's or Grub's two ships, one of which was 
called the Sampson, the name of the other does not transpire (if it could be ascertained 
to be the Dominus Vobiscuyn, the chain of testimony would be complete) : together with 
the King's ship, the Mary 0/ GuiLi/ord. commanded by John Uut. 

^ Purchas evidently intends us to understand that the endorsement is contemponuy 
with the letter. 

* This is evidently a mistake through the hurry in writing. It should be Cape de Sper 
[Cabo de Spcra, " tlu Cape 0/ the Spear "X For the two ships, after having stayed 

fliortly as we haue fifhed, and fo along the coaft till we may mcete with our 
fellow, andfo with all diligence that lyes in me toivards parts to that Hands 
that we are commanded by the grace of God, as we were commanded at our 
departing. And thus lefu faue and keepe your honorable Grace, and all 
your honourable Reuer., in the Hauen of Saint lohn, the third day ofAugufi, 
written in hafie. 1527. 

By your feruant lohn Rut, to his vttennoft of his power. 

I haue by me alfo Albert de Praia's'^ originall Letter, in Latin (lille, 
almofl as harsh as the former Englifh, and bearing the fame date, and was 
indorfed. Reverend in Chrifto Patri Domino Domino Cardinali el Domino 
Legato Anglice: and began, Reuerendiffime in Chrifto Pater falutem. 
Retierendiftime Pater, placeat Reuerendiftimcc paternitati veftrce fcire Deo 
fauente poftquam exiuimus h Plemut qucefuit x. lunij &'c. (The fubftance 
is the fame with the former, and therefore omitted.) Datum apudle Bay a 
Saint lohan in Terns Nouis, die x. Augufti 1527. Reuer. Pair. veft. 
humilis feruus, Albertus de Praia (the name written in the lowed comer ol 
the (lieet). 

We are fortunately able to trace this expedition still further. 
By " towards parts to that Hands that we are commanded," 
John Rut meant the West Indies ; and we have accounts by 
two Spanish historians of his arrival there, which will demand 
of us some further attention. 

Gonzales Fernandez de Oviedo y Valde's — b. at Madrid 1478, 
ti. at Valladolid 1557, and who resided for many years in the 
West Indies — wrote, in addition to the Natural hysteria de las 
Indias printed at Toledo on 15th February 1526, from which 
Eden has translated large extracts at pp. 208-242 of this 
Volume; another and his most important work, entitled La 
historia general de las Indias, the printing of which was com- 
pleted at Seville on 30th September 1535 (or about eight years 
after Rut's expedition) ; every copy of which is attested with 
Oviedo's written signature. It does not appear that Eden had 
met with this important work, or he would have assuredly 
have made the following extract from it. 

On folio clxj. of this work, being the Thirteenth chapter of 
the Nineteenth book, is the following passage, for the literal 
translation of which we are much indebted to the courtesy 
and kindness of the celebrated Spanish scholar, Don Pasgual 
de Gayangos. 

Before we come to the extract ; an error as to its date (which 
misled Hakluyt, and may mislead others) must be noted for 
avoidance, in the Third Volume of J. B. Ramusio's Navigationi 
e Viaggi. Each Volume of this celebrated Collection was printed 
in a different year by L. A. Giunti at Venice. Vol. I., of which 
a First Edition had been printed in 1550, appeared corrected 
and enlarged in March 1554. Of Vol. II., the Preface of which 
is dated 7th July 1554, the earliest known is that of 1559; 
while Vol. III., the Preface of which is dated 20th June 1553, 
appears to have been first printed in 1556; that is to say, in 
the year after Eden's Compilation was published in London. 

Now, at p. 204 of this Third Volume, of 1556, occurs this 
important typographical error. Oviedo in 1535 begins Elanno 

ten days, 21-31 July 1527, at Cape de Bas, sailing southward, had reached St. John's 
harbour on the 3d of August, and then purposed to go 75 miles more, evidently to the 
southward, to Cape de Sper, the appointed rendezvous, where they hoped to meet the 
Sampson. From the date of the priest's letter, however, it is evident that the two 
English ships stayed a week longer at St. John's. These letters were probably sent to 
England in one of the Norman or Breton fishing boats. 

1 I have quite failed to find any notice of this Albertus de Prata Might that be a 
latinised form of Albert Prat ? or was the bearer of the name a foreigner? I can trace 
no such name in Le Neve's Fasti or Newcourt's Repertorium. It would be interesting 
if he coul'i be tdcntiiicd with Hakluyt's mathematical Canon of Sl Paul's. 



de M.d.xxvij. annos, S^c; which Ramusio in 1556 translates 
JVe/ 13 ly instead of Nel 15 2J. Hakluyt in 1589, not suspect- 
ing any falsification, thereupon adduces the following extract 
in support of fabulous English voyage of 1517, hereafter 
asserted by Eden at /. 6 : but the date being wrong, his 
argument, of course, falls to pieces. 

It would also seem that Oviedo was residing in the city of 
Santo Domingo, when he wrote this portion of his history. 

Chapter 13. Of certain foreign corsairs -which passed to these parts and 
Indies, and what has been the cause and origin of their bad thoughts. 

\ N the year Mdxxvii. an English corsair, under colour or pre- 
tence that he was going to discover land, came with a large 
ship to the Brazil on the coast of Tierra Firme, and from 
thence crossed to this Island Hispanola, and arrived close to 
the mouth of the harbour of this city [Santo Domingo]. He 
sent his boat properly manned, and asked for permission to come into port, 
saying that he came with merchandise and to barter [with the inhabitants]. 
At the same moment the Governor, Francisco de Tapia, ordered a gun to 
be fired against the said [English] ship, which was coming straight into 
the harbour ; which being observed by the English, they went away, after 
taking on board the said boat's crew. And, to tell the truth, the Governor 
[Tapia] was wrong in what he did, for had the English vessel entered the 
harbour, armed though she was, she could not have left without the con- 
sent of this city and castle. 

So that the English, seeing the reception that was made to them, sailed 
in the direction of the Island of San Juan, and having entered the Bay of 
San German, spoke to the inhabitants of that town, and asked for provi- 
sions : uttering complaints against the people of this island [Hispaniola], 
and saying that they had not come to annoy the people, but to traffic with 
them, if they consented, for money or merchandise . Provisions were given 
to them, and they gave pewter vessels and other goods in return. After 
which the ship sailed for Europe ; but it is supposed that she never reached 
her destination, for nothing more was heard of her. 

Considering that Oviedo printed the above less than eight 
years after the event, there can hardly be any mistake as to the 
year being 1527. Yet in a later Spanish historian we find these 
circumstances, in much fuller detail, narrated as occurring in 
1519. So that of the three dates 1517, 1519, and 1527; the 
last is the true one. 

Antonio de Herrera Tordesillas, [^. issgat Cuella de Segovia; 
d. 29th March 1625 at Madrid], was born two years after the 
death of Oviedo. The first four Decades of his Historia General 
de los Hechos de los Castellanos en las Islas i tierra firme were 
printed in 1601, the last four in i6i5;both at Madrid. In the 
second Decas, which was published seventy-four years after 
Rut's voyage, we have an account of him and his doings, evi- 
dently derived from a written deposition ; as Oviedo's had been 
either from hearsay or from personal observation. It consists 
of the narrative (for the translation of which I am indebted 
to my friend, the late H. Pyne, Esq., Assistant Tithe 
Commissioner) of Ginfes Navarro, master of a Spanish caravel, 
who apparently piloted Rut's ship from Porto Rico by the 
island of Mona to Santo Domingo, and then back again to 
San Germano in the island of Porto Rico. 

The Arrival of an English Ship in the Indies, and the State 
OF Affairs in the Islands. 

FTER the departure of the ships which carried [? to Spain'] 
the gold pearls and ordinary merchandise ; a caravel of 
Saint Domingo being in the island of San Juan [de Porto 
Rico], loading with casava ; there arrived [at Porto Rico] a 
ship of three masts, and of the burden of 150 tons. The 

master of the caravel, [who] went out in his boat to this ship, supposing 
it to be a Spanish vessel, discovered [coming towards him] a pinnace 
containing twenty-five men armed with corslets and cross-bows, and having 
two pieces of artillery in its prow. 

They said that they were Englishmen, and that their ship was from 
England ; that, in company with another armed ship, they had sailed to 
seek the country of the Great Khan, but that the ships had been separated 
in a tempest : and that theirs, proceeding on its voyage, came to a frozen 
sea, where they found large islands of ice ; that they had then altered their 
course, and came to a hot sea [? the Gulf Streani], which seethed like water 
in a caldron ; and in order that the caulking of the ship might not be 
melted, they went in search of the Baccalaos,' where they found fifty'^ 
Spanish, French, and Portuguese ships, and that they wishing to land thert 
in order to obtain an Indian interpreter, they [the Indians] killed the pilot, 
who was a Piedmontese. From thence, they had coasted as far as the 
Rio de Chicora [the River of Chicora, i.e. River in Carolina], and had 
crossed over from that river to the island of San Juan [de Porto Rico]. 

Upon being asked. What they were searching for in those islands ? they 
said that they were desirous of seeing them, for the purpose of giving an 
account of them to the King of England, and to take a cargo from Brazil. 

They invited the master of the caravel, who was called Gines Navarro, 
to come on board their ship, and to show them the course to Saint Dom- 
ingo. He saw in the ship a quantity of wine, flour, and other provisions ; 
as well as much cloth, linen, and other articles of merchandise. They 
carried much artillery and a forge, and carpenters for ship-building, and an 
oven for baking bread ; and there were [in the ship] threescore men. 

Gines Navarro further stated that, if he could have read them, the 
captain of the ship wished to show him the instructions which he brought 
from the King of England ; that they had sent a company ashore at the 
Island of Mona, ' and that they had bartered some pewter in the Island of 
San Juan. 

This ship went to the port of Santo Domingo, and sent the bark ashore, 
saying That they were desirous of trading ; and [it] tarried there two days, 
The governor of the Castle, upon the arrival of the ship, sent to inform the 
Magistrates [? the Royal Audicnce\ for the purpose of their giving him 
orders what to do ; and as they returned no answer, he discharged a gun 
at the ship, in consequence of which, she forthwith recalled the bark, and 
by and by set sail. 

The ship then returned to the back of the island of San Juan, and 
tarried a short time there, trading with the inhabitants of the town of 
Saint Germans ; and did not appear again. 

The magistrates [of Saint Domingo] arrested the governor, saying that 
he ought to have waited for their answer ; and sent information of this affair 
to the King [of Spain], as well as of the bad condition of the fortress, so 
that orders might be given for the fortification of it, and [that] there should 
be directions [given] for the providing it with men, artillery, and military 
stores. — Decades, ii.. Book v., Chapter 3., Ed. 1601. 

Thus from four perfectly distinct and independent sotu-ces, 
comes to us the certainty of this English voyage across the 
Atlantic in 1527; for a further discussion of which see that 
masterpiece in its way, and rare book (in the Ej.stern 
hemisphere at least), Mr. J. G. Kohl's History of the Discovery 
of Maine, published by the Maine Historical Society at Port- 
land, in 1869; and Mr. Biddle's Memoir of Sebastian Cabot, 
London 1832. Both these writers think that the Piedmontese 
pilot was the celebrated Verazzano. 

It is interesting to know that John Rut got back safely to 
England. For in Sept-Dec. 1528, while still in the command 


1 The Indian word for codfish, applied by S. Cabot to the land he first discovered, 
and afterwards loosely and vaguely applied to the American coast from Labrador far to 
the southward. Here it evidently includes Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the north- 
em seaboard States of the United States. 

* This number may be an exaggeration. If it be correct, the English squadron mi:st 
have met thirty or forty other fishing-boats on the Newfoundland ' banks,' beside the 
fourteen they saw in St. John's harbour 
3 Mona is a small island in the track from Fort Rico to Santo Domingo. 



of the Mary of Guildford, he was employed in freighting 
home, on the King's behalf, wine from Bourdeaux. See Royal 
M.S. 14. B. xxix., in the British Museum. 

8. We have seen by the above that the King's ships left the 
Thames on 20th May 1527. Whatever else may be doubtful, 
that is certain : and therefore it is equally certain that the 
' Book ' which Robert Thome, the Bristol merchant, wrote at 
Seville in that year, and sent to Doctor Leigh, the King's 
almoner, and the English ambassador in Spain, had nothing to 
do with the fitting out of that London expedition. 

This far-seeing discourse, with its preliminary exhortation to 
the King, was first printed by R[ichard] H[akluyt] in his 
Diuers Voyages, cvc. in 1582. Its only date is 1527, which 
occurs twice ; each time after the author's signature — ' Robert 
Thome. 1527.' As Hakluyt reproduced Thome's curious 
' Carde ' or map, it is quite evident that he had before him, in 
1582, the original and autographic book penned by the author ; 
and therefore the date 1527 must be accepted by us without a 

Now it was the English custom at that time, to reckon the 
year from the 25th March, the Feast of the Annunciation of 
the Virgin. The ' Book ' was therefore written at the earliest 
after the 25th March 1527. 

The two following passages in it, taken together, would seem 
to show that it was not written till the summer was far advanced, 
probably while Rut's expedition was skirting the American coast. 

In a flote of three (hippes and a carauell that went from this citie, armed 
by the merchauntes of it, which departed in Aprill lad pad, I and my 
partner haue 1400. Ducates that we employed in the fayd fleete, principally 
for that two Engliflimen friends of mine \see p. xiii.] whiche are fomewhat 
learned in Cofmographie, (houlde go in the fame (hippes, to bring mee 
certaine relation of the fituation of the countrey, and to bee experte in the 
Nauigation of thofe feas, and there to haue informations of many other 
things, and aduife that I defire to know efpecially. Seeing in thefe 
quarters are fliips, and marriners of that countrey, and cardes \charts\ by 
which they fayle, though much vnlike ours, that they fhould procure to 
haue the faid cards, and learne howe they vnderflande them, and 
efpecially to know what Nauigation they haue for thefe Ilandes North- 
wardes and Northeaftwarde. B. 4. 

But if it pleafe God that into Englande I may come with your Lordfhip, 
I will fhewe fome coniectures of reafon though againfl the generall opinion 
of Cofmographers, by which fliall appeare this that I fay not to lacke fome 
foundation. And tyll that time I befeeche your Lord(hip let it bee put to 
fdence : and in the meane feafon, it may pleafe God to fende our two 
Engliflimen, that are gone to the fpicerie, which may alfo bring more plaine 
declaration of yat which in this cafe might be required. . . Z>. 3. 

It would seem that Thome by ' April lad parte ' means April 
1527 ; for if he had intended April 1526, and wrote this ' Book ' 
in the seven days of 25-31 March, then by English custom 
reckoned as the first days of 1527, he would assuredly have 
said 'April lad year.' It is also evident from the allusion that 
a considerable time had elapsed since the two Englishmen had 
left for the West Indies; and that, at the time of writing, Thome 
was looking forward to their return. The earliest approximate 
date that can therefore be assigned to its composition is the 
summer of 1527. Dr. Leigh did not retum to England till 
January 1530. 

We must therefore assign the occasion and preparation of 
this English voyage of Oceanic discovery of 1527 to other 

persons than Robert Thome. Such an important effort, as this 
expedition most certainly was, could not have been suddenly 
determined upon, and probably originated in the previous year. 
Thome's ' Book ' is also interesting for another reference to 
a very early English voyage across the Atlantic. 

So that as afore is fayde, if betweene our Newe founde landes or Norway, 
or IHande the Seas towarde the north be Nauigable, wee fhoulde goe to 
thefe Ilandes a (horter way by more then 2000. leagues. And though wee 
went not in the faide Ilandes, for that they are the Emperours or Kinges 
of Portingale, wee ihoulde by the way, and comming once to the line Equi- 
noctiall, finde landes no lefie riche in Golde and fpicerie, as all other landes 
are vnder the faide line Equinoctiall : and alfo (houlde, if wee may palTe 
vnder the North, enioye the Nauigation of all Tartaric. 

Which (hould bee no lefle profitable to our commodities of clothe, then 
thefe fpiceries to the Emperour, and King of Portugale. 

But it is a generall opinion of all Cofmographers that paffing the feuenth 
clyme, the fea is all ice, the colde fo much that none can fuffer it. And 
hitherto they had all the like opinion that vnder the line Equinoctiall for 
muche heate the lande was inhabitable. 

Yet fince by experience is proued no lande fo much habitable nor more 
temperate. And to conclude, I thinke the fame (houlde bee founde vnder 
the North, if it were experimented. For as all iudge, Nihil fit vacuum in 
rerum natura, fo I iudge there is no lande inhabitable [i.e. uninhabiiable\, 
nor Sea innauigable. If I (hould write the reafon that prefenteth this 
vnto me, I (houlde be too prolixe, and it feemeth not requifite for this 
prefent matter. God knoweth that though by it I flioulde haue no great 
intereft, yet I haue had and dill haue no little minde of this bufineffe : So 
that if I had facultie to my will, it ilioulde bee ye fird thing that I woulde 
vnderdande, euen to attempt, if our Seas Northwarde be nauigable to the 
Pole or no. I reafon, that as fome fickenefles are hereditarious, and come 
from the father to the fonne, fo this inclination or defire of this difcouerie 
I inherited of my father, which with another merchant of Bridowe named 
Hugh Eliot were the difcouerers of newe found lands, of the which there 
is no doubt, as now plainly appeareth, if the marriners would then haue 
been ruled and folowed their pilots mind, the lands of the Wed Indies, 
from whence all the gold commeth, had beene ours. For all is one coade, 
as by the carde appeareth, and [as] is aforefaide. . . . Z>. 2. 

A most excellent account of the merchant family of the 
Thomes of Bristol will be found in English Merchants, 
1869, written by my fellow-student at King's College, Mr. H. 
R. Fox Bourne. 

9. The next English Voyage on our record introduces us to 
a very famous name. It is thus preserved to us by Hakluyt. 

A Voyage to Brasill, made by the worshipfull M[aster] Wil- 
liam Haukins of Plimmouth, father to sir John Haukins, 
Knight, now living,* in the yeere 1530. 

Lde M. William Haukins ol Plimmouth, a man for his wifdome, 
valure, experience, and (kill in fea caufes, much edeemed and 
beloued of King Henry the eight, and being one of the prin- 
cipall Sea Captaines in the West partes in his time, not con- 
tented with the fhort voyages commonly then made onely to 
the knowen coades oi Europe, armed out a tall and goodly Hiip of his owne 
of the burthen of 250 tunnes, called the Pole [Paule, Ed. 1600] oi Plim- 
mouth, wherewith hee made three long and famous voyages vnto the coad 
of Bra/ill, a thing in thofe dayes very rare, efpecially to our Nation. In 
the courfe of ■hhich voyages he touched at the Riuer of Sc/los vpon the 
coad of Guinea, where hee trafiqued with the Negroes, and tooke of them 
Oliphants [Elephants, Ed. 1600] teeth, and other commodities which that 

I As this was printed in 1589, old William Hawkins lived to see the overthrow of the 
Spanish Armada, and so b very properly introduced by the Rev. Canon Kingsley, with 
his usual truthfulness in details, in his celebrated Elizabethan romance of Wcsttvard Ho ! 
as a very old man, present at Plymouth with the Captains who were waiting the arrival 01 
the grc£tt Spanish Fleet. 


XV 11 

place yeeldeth : and fo arriuinij on the coatl of Brafil, vfed there fuch dif- 
cretion, and behaued himfelf fo wifely with thofe fauage people, that he 
grew into great familiaritie and frienddiip with them. Infomuch that in 
his 2. voyage, one of the fauage kings of the countrey oi Brafill, was con- 
tented to take fliippe with him, and to bee tranfported hither into 
England, whereunto M\ajler\ Haukins agreed, leaning behinde in the 
Countrey as a pledge for his fafetie and retume againe, one Martin Cocke- 
ram oi Plimmouth. This BrafUian king being arriued \i.e. in 1531], was 
brought vp to London, and prefented to King Henry the 8. lying as then 
at Whitehall: at the fight of whome, the King and all the Nobilitie did not 
a little marueile, and not without caufe : for in his cheekes were holes made 
according to their fauage raaner, and therein fmall bones were planted, 
(landing an inche out from the faid holes, which in his owne Countrey was 
reputed for a great brauerie. He had alfo another hole in his nether lippe, 
wherein was fet a precious (lone about the bignefle of a peafe. All his 
apparell, behauiour, and geflure were very (Irange to the beholders. 

Hauing remained here the fpace almod of a whole yere, and the king 
with his fight fully fatiffied, M\after'\ Uaukim according to his promife 
and appointment, purpofed to conuey him againe into his Countrey : but it 
fell out in the way that, by change of ayre and alteration of diet, the faid 
fauage king died at Sea, which was feared would turne to the lolTe of the 
life of Martin Cockeram his pledge. Neuerthelefle, the Sauages being fully 
perfwaded of the honed dealing of our men with their Prince, redored 
againe the faide pledge, without any harme to him, or any man of the com- 
panie : which pledge of theirs they brought home againe into England, 
with their (hippe fraighted and fumifhed with the commodities of the 
Countrey. Which Marline Cockeram, by the witneCTe of Sir lohn Haukins, 
being an officer in the towne of Plimmouth, was liuing within thefe fewe 
yeares.— /. 520, Ed. 15S9. 

10. Let us now look eastward. In 1592, (three years after 
the appearance of the First edition of his Voyages, &c.), Hakluyt 
became acquainted with a very old man, a Londoner named 
John Williamson, then apparently the sole suivivor of our first 
traffic in the Levant; which dying out, had been revived in 1580. 

These early Levant voyages were veiy important; inasmuch 
as they were the school in which some of the principal Agents 
and Captains of the Moscovy Company, like Richard Gray and 
Richard Chancellor, received their chief training. 

A voyage made ivith the Jhippes called the Holy CrofTe, and the Matthew 
Gonfon, to the lies 0/ Candia and Chio, about theyere 1534, according to 
a relation made to Majier Richard Hackluit by lohn Williamfon, Cooper 
and citizen of London, who lined in theyere 1592, and went as cooper in 
the Mathew Gonfon the next voyage after, 

' He (hippes, called the Holy Croffe and the Matthew Gonfon, 
made a voyage to the Ilandes of Candia and Chio in Turkic, 
about the yeere 1534- And in the Mathew went as Captaine 
M[ader] Richard Gonfon, fonne of old Mader William 
Gonfon, paymader of the kings Nauie. In this fird voyage 
\i.e. of the two described by Williamson\ went William Holflocke (who after- 
wards was ControuUer of her Maiedies {i.e. Queen Elizabeth's] Nauie, lately 
deceafed) as page to M[ader] Richard Gonfon aforefaid, which M[ader] 
Gonfon died in Chio in this his fird voyage. The (liip called the Holy 
Croffe was a (liort (hippe, and of burden 160 tunnes. And hauing beene 
a full yeere at the fea in performance of this voyage, with great danger (he 
■•etunied home, where, vpon her arriuall at Blacknvall, in the riuer of Thames, 
her wine and oyle ca(ke was found fo weake that they were not able to 
hoyfe them out of the (hip, but were condrained to draw them as they lay, 
and put their wine and oyle into new velTels, and fo to vnlade the (hippe. 
Their chiefe fraight was very excellent Mufcatels and red Malmefie, the like 
whereof were feeldome feene before in England. They brought home alfo 
good quantitie of fweete oyles, cotton wooUes, Turkic Carpets, Galles, 
Cynamon, and fome other fpices. The faide (hippe called the Holy Croffe 
was fo (haken in this voyage, and fo weakened, that (lie was layd vp in the 
docke, and neuer made voyage after. — Vol. II., Fart I., p. 98, Ed. 1599. 

Another voyage to the lies ^Candia and Chio made by thefliifpe, the Mathew 
Gonfon, about the yeere I535> according to the relation o/'Iohn Williamfon, 
then Cooper in the fame fhip, made to M[ayljr] Richard Hackliut, in the 
yeare 1592. 

^ff^reraS He good (liippe called the Mathao Gonfon, of burthen 300 
i_sl (\^ tunnes, whereof was owner old M[ader] William Gonfon, 
pay-mader of the Kings Nauie, made her voyage in the yere 
1 535- In this fliip went as Captaine, Richard Gray, who long 
after died in RuJJla. Mader William Holflocke, afterward 
ControuUer of the Queenes Nauie, went then as purfer in the fame voyage. 
The Mader was one John Picket, feruant to old M[ader] William Gonfon. 
lames Rumnie was Maders mate. The mader cooper was lohn William- 
fon, citizen of London, liuing in the yeere 1592, and dwelling in Sa\f\nt 
Dunflons parish, in the Ead. The M[ader] Gunner was Lohn Godjrey of 
Brifloll. In this (hip were 6 gunners and 4 trumpetters, all which foure 
trumpetters at our retume homewards went on land at Meffma in the Hand 
of Sicilia, as our (hip road there at anker, and gat them into the Gallies 
that lay neere vnto vs, and in them went to Rome. The whole number of 
our companie in this (hip were about 100. men, we were alfo fumifhed with 
a great bote, which was able to carry 10 tunnes of water, which at our 
retume homewards we towed all the way from Chio vntil we came through 
the draight of Gib[r]altar into the maine Ocean. We had alfo a great 
long boat and a (kiff. We were out vpon this voyage eleuen months, yet 
in all this time there died of ficknede but one man, whofe name was George 
Forrefl, being feruant to our Carpenter called Thomas Plummer. — Idem, 

The Island of Scio, the extreme point of the above two 
voyages, had long been the property of a Genoese family, the 
Justiana, under the sovereignty of the Senate of that city. 
How the Turks first put it to tribute, and finally took posses- 
sion of it in 1568, is thus narrated in two letters, written on 
the 14th of February 1569 by an Englishman, Caspar Campion, 
who had " traded in this countrey \i.e. the island and its vici- 
nity] about this 30. yeres \i.e. 1539-1569], and haue beene 
marled in the towne of Chio full 24. yeres \i.e, 1544-1569]." 

^jS Ir, you (hall vnderdand that the Ifland of Chio in time pad 
**' ' hath bene a Signiorie or lordlhip of it felfe, and did belong 
to the Genowaies. There were 24. of them that gouemed 
the illand which were called Maunefes. But in continuance 
of time the Turke waxed fo drong and mightie, that 
they, confidering they were not able to keepe it, unlefie they (hould 
become his tributaries, becaufe the Idand had no come, nor any kind of 
vitailes to fudaine themfelues, but onely that which mud of neceffitie come 
out of the Turkes dominions, and the fayd idand being inclofed with the 
Turks round about, and but 12. miles from the Turks Continent, therefore 
the faid Genowaies did compound and agree to be the Turkes tributaries, and 
to payhim 14000. thousand ducates yeerely, Alwayes prouided that they Ihould 
keep their lawes both fpiritual and temporall, as they did when the Hand 
was in their owne hands. Thus he granted them their priuiledge, which they 
inioyed for many yeeres, fo that all drangers and alfo many Englifh men 
did trade thither of long continuance, and went and came in fafety. In this 
meane time, the prince Pedro Doria (being a Genouois) became a captaine 
to ferae the Emperour with 30. or 40. gallies againd the Turke. And fince 
that time diuers other captaines belonging to Genoa haue beene in the 
feruice of king Philip againd the Turke. Moreouer, whenfoeuer the Turke 
made out any army, he perceiued that no nation did him more hurt then 
thofe Genouois, who were his tributaries. Likewife at the Turkes fiege of 
Malta, before which place he lay a great while, with loffe of his men, and 
alfo of his gallies, he found none fo troublefome vnto his force as one 
luanette Doria, a Genouois, and diuers others of the Hand of Chio, who 
were his tributaries. At which fight, he tooke fuch difpleafure againd them 
of Chio, that he fent certaine of his gallies to the Hand, for to feife vpon all 
the goods of the 24. Maunefes, and to tume them with their wiues and 
children out of the Hand ; but they would let none other depart, becaufe 
the Hand fiiould not be vnpeopled. So that now the Turke hath fent one 
of his chiefe men to rule there.— //aX///)'/, Vol. II., Part I., p. ln,Ed. IS99' 



Another letter of Campion's, begins thus : 

It may pleafe your worfhip to vnderftand, that as concerning 
the voyage to C/u'o, what great profit would be gotten, both 
for merchants and alfo for owners of Ihippes (as it was well 
knowen in thofe dayes when iheMalt/ie-M Gonfon, the Trinitie 
FiliTwilliains, and the Sauiotir of Brijlaw, with diuers other 
(hips, which traded thither yerely, and made their voyage in ten or twelue 
moneths, and the longed in a yeere), M[after] Francis Lambert, M[after] 
John Brooke, and M[after] Drauer c£.n truely inform you hereof at large. 
And by reafon that wee haue not traded into thofe parts thefe many yeeres 
\i.e. previous to 1569], and the Turke is growen mighty, whereby our (hips 
doe not trade as they were woont . . . . — Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. 
II., Part I.,/. 116, Ed. 1599. 

Finally we may take leave on this occasion of the interesting 
subject of the early English trade in the Mediterranean, with 
the following note of Hakluyt's. 

i His trade into the Leuant. . . . was very vfuall and much 
frequented from the yeere of our Lord 1 5 1 1 till the yeere 
1534, and afterwards alfo, though not fo commonly, vntil the 
yeere 1550, when the barke Aucher under the conduct of 
M [after] Roger Bodenham made a profperous voyage into 
Sicilia, Candio, Sio, and other places within the Leuant. Since which 
time the forefaid trade (notwithftanding the grand Signiors ample priuilege 
granted to M[afterJ Anthony lenkenfon 1553, and the ftrong and weighty 
reafons of Gafpar Campion for that purpofe) was vtterly difcontinued, and 
in maner quite forgotten, as if it had neuer bene, for the fpace of 20. yeares 
or more [/'.<■. from the date of Jenkinson's privilege of 1553 until 1575 ; when 
the preliminary steps which resulted in the formation of the Turkey Com- 
pany, were taken]. Voyages, Vol. II., Part I., p. 136, £d. 1599. 

11. We now come to the tragical English voyage to New- 
foundland, in 1536 ; as narrated by Master Oliver Daubeny, a 
London merchant, to Hakluyt's cousin and namesake, Richard 
Hakluyt of the Inner Temple ; and by Master Thomas Butts 
of Norfolk, to himself. It will ever be thought one of the 
worthiest acts of our younger Hakluyt's worthy life, that, for the 
simple assurance, with further details, of this voyage, he travelled 
200 miles on horseback, probably into Norfolk and back. 

T&i voyage of majler I/ore and diuers other Gentlemen, to Netafound land 
and Cape Breton, in the yeere 1536. and in the 28. yeere of King Henry 
the eight. 

,Ne mafter Hore of London, a man of goodly ftature and of 
great courage, and giuen to the ftudie of Cofmographie, in 
the 28. yeere of King Henry the 8. and in the yeere of our 
Lord 1536. encouraged diuers gentlemen and others, being 
affifted by the kings fauour and good countenance, to accom- 
pany him in a voyage of difcouerie vpon the Northwefl partes of America : 
wherein his perfwafions tooke fuch effect, that within fliort fpace many 
gentlemen of the innes of court, and of Chauncerie, and diuers other of good 
worfhip defirous to fee the ftrange things of the world, very willingly entered 
into the action with him, fome of whofe names were as foUoweth : M[after] 
Wickes, a gentleman of the Weft countrey of fine hundred markes [tv/«- 
valent to an income of £2^00 of the present day'] by the yeere lining. Mafter 
Tucke, a gentleman of Kent. Mafter Tuckfield. M[after] Thomas Buts, 
the fonne of Sir William Buts, Knight of Norfolke, which is yet aliue, and 
from whofe mouth I wrote moft of this relation. Mafter Hardie, Mafter 
Biron, Mafter Carter, Mafter Wright, Mafter Raftall Sarieant Raftals 
brother, Mafter Ridley, and diuers other, which all were in the admirall 
called the Trinitie, a fliip of feuen fcore tunnes, wherein M[after]. Hore him- 
felfe was imbarked. In the other ftiippe, whofe name was the Minion, 
went a very learned and vertuous gentlemen, one mafter Armigil Wade, 
father to the worftiipfull mafter William Wade, now clerke of the priuie 
counsel). Master Oliuer Daubeney merchant of London, M [after] loy after- 
ward gentleman of the kings chappell, with diuers other of good account. 
The wliole number that went in the two tall fliips aforefayd, to wit, the 

Trinitie and the Minion, were about fix fcore perfons, whereof 30. were 
gentlemen, which all were muftered in warlike maner at Grauefend, and 
after the receiuing of the facrament, they embarked themfelues at the end 
of Aprill, 1536. 

From the time of their fetting out from Grauefende, they were very long 
at fea, to witte, aboue two moneths, and neuer touched any lande vntill 
they came to part of the Weft Indies about Cape Breton, fliaping their 
courfe thence Northeaftwards, vntill they came to the Ifland of Penguin, 
which is very full of rockes and ftones, whereon they went and founde it 
full of great foules white and gray, as bigge as geefe, and they fawe infinite 
nombers of their egges. They draue a great nomber of the foules into their 
boates vpon their failes, and tooke vp many of their egges, the foule they 
flead and their Ikinnes were like hony combes full of holes being flead off: 
they drefTed and eate them, and found them to be very good and nouriftiing 
meate. They fawe alfo ftore of beares both blacke and white, of whome 
they killed fome, and tooke them for no badde foode. 

M[after] Oliuer Dawbeney, which (as it is before mentioned) was in this 
voyage, and in the Minion, tolde M\ajler'\ Richard Hakluyt of the middle 
Temple thefe things following: to wit. That after their arriuall in A'hty&wnrf 
land, and hauing bene there certaine dayes at ancre, and not hauing yet 
feene any of the naturall people of the Countrey, the fame Daiubeny walk- 
ing one day on the hatches fpied a boate with Sauages of thofe partes, 
rowing downe the bay towarde them, to gafe vpon the fhippe and our people, 
and taking viewe of their comming aloofe, hee called to fuch as were vnder 
hatches, and willed them to come vp if they would fee the naturall people 
of the Countrey, that they had fo long and fo muchdefired to fee: Where- 
upon they came vp and tooke view of the Sauages rowing toward them and 
their ftiippe, and vpon the viewe they manned out a fliipboote to meete 
them and to take them. But they fpying our fliipboote making towards 
them, returned with niaine force, and fled into an Ifland that layevpinthe 
bay or riuer there, and our men purfued them into the Ifland, and the 
Sauages fledde and efcaped: but our men founde a fire, and the fide of a 
beare on a wodden fpit left at the fame by the Sauages that were fledde. 

There in the fame place they founde a boot of leather garniflied on the 
vtter fide of the calfe in certain braue trailes, as it were of rawe filke, and 
alfo founde a certaine great warme mitten : And thefe carried with them, 
they returned to their fliippe, not finding the Sauages, nor feeing any thing 
elfe befides the foyle, and the things growing in the fame, which chiefly 
were ftore of fire and pine trees. 

And further, the faid M. Dawbeny told him, that lying there they grewe 
into great want of victuals, and that there they found fmall reliefe, more then 
that they had from the neft of an Ofprey, that brought hourely to her yong 
great plentie of diuers forts of fifhes. But fuch was the famine that increated 
amongft them from day to day, that they were forced to feeke to relieue 
themfelues of rawe herbes and rootes that they fought on the maine : but 
the famine increafing and the reliefe of herbes being to little purpofe to 
fatifhe their infatiable hunger, in the fieldes and defertes here and there, the 
fellowe killed his mate while hee ftouped to take vp a roote for his reliefe, 
and cutting out pieces of his body whome hee had murthered, broyled the 
fame on the coles, and greedily deuoured them. 

By this meane the company decreafed, and the officers knewe not what 
was become of them ; and it fortuned that one of the company driuen 
with hunger to feeke abroade for reliefe, founde out in the fields the fauour 
of broyled flefh, and fell out with one that hee would fuffer him and his 
fellowes to fterue, enioying plentie as he thought : And this matter growing 
to cruel fpeaches, he that had the broyled meate, burft out into thefe wordes, 
If thou wouldeft needes knowe, the broyled meate that I had, was a piece 
of fuch a mans buttocke. The report of this brought to the (hip, the 
Captaine found what became of thofe that were miffing, and was perfwaded 
that fome of them were neither deuoured with wilde beaftes, nor yet deftroyed 
with the Sauages ; And hereupon he ftcod vp and made a notable Oration, 
containing, How much thefe dealings offended the Almightie, and vouched 
the Scriptures from firft to laft what God had in cafes of diftreffe done for 
them that called vpon him, and told them that the power of the Almightie 
was then no leffe, then in al former time it bene. And added, that if 
it had not pleafed God to haue holpen them in that diftreffe, that yet it had 
been better to be puniflied in body, and to haue lined euerlaftingly, then 
to haue relieued for a poore time their mortal bodies, and to bee con- 
demned euerlastingly both body and foule to the vnqucnchable fire of hel. 



And thus hauing ended to that effect, he began to exhort to repentance, and 
befought all the company to pray, that it might pleafe God to looke vpon 
their miferable prefent (late, and for his owne mercie to relieue the fame. 
And fuch was the mercie of God, that the fame night there arriued a 
French fhippe in that port, well fumillied with vittaile, and fuch was the 
policie of the Englifh, that they become mafters of the fame ; and changing 
{hipz and vitayling them, they fet faile to come into England. 

In their ioumey they were fo farre Northwards, that they fawe mightie 
Iflands of yce in the fummer feafon, on which were haukes and other 
foules to reft themfelues, being wearie of flying ouer farre from the 
maine. They fawe alfo certaine great white foules with redde bils and 
redde legs, fomewhat bigger then Herons, which they fuppofed to be ftorkes. 
They arriued at Slaiiti]. lues in Cornewall about the ende of October. 
From thence they departed to a certaine Caftle belonging to sir /u/in 
Luttrcl, where M\_ajler\ Thomas Bids ■axiA M\ajler\ KaJlaUajiA other gentle- 
men of the voyage were very friendly intertained : after that they came to 
the Earle of Bathe at Bathe, and thence to Brijloll, and fo to London. 
A/[a/ler] Buts was fo changed in the voyage with hunger and miferie, that 
sir William his father and my Lady his mother knewe him not to be their 
fonne, vntill they found a certaine fecret marke which was a wart vpon one 
of his knees, as he tolde me Richard Hakluyt ofOxforde himfelfe, to whome 
I rode 200. miles onely to leame the whole trueth of this voyage from his 
owne mouth, as being the onely man now aliue \i.e. in or about 1589] that 
was in this difcouerie. 

Certaine moneths after, thofe Frenchmen came into England, and made 
complaint to king Henry the 8 : the King caufing the matter to be exa- 
mined, and finding the great diftreffe of his fubiects, and the caufes of 
the dealing fo with the French, was fo moued with pitie, that hee punifhed 
not his fubiects, but of his owne purfe made full and royal recompenfe vnto 
the French. 

In this diftrefTe of famine, the Englifh fomewhat relieue their vital! 
fpirits by drinking at the fprings the frelh water out of certaine wooden 
cups, out of which they had drunke their Aqua compofUa. before. — Hakluyt, 
Voyages, pp. 5 1 7-5 '9. E.d. 15S9. 

12, These are all the oceanic voyages performed by the 
English in the reign of Henry VIII. which we have been 
able to trace. It was under Edvtfard, that our sailors first began 
to creep down the African coast. The special significance of 
these voyages lay in the then accredited proprietorship (through 
the Papal Bull, reprinted at //. 201-204) of the Portugese to 
the entire continent of Africa; and in the intentional and studied 
ignorance of its coast line, in which the World was kept by that 
nation. Every P^nglish voyage to its west coast was therefore 
at once an act of revolt against the Papacy, and a challenge to 
the pretensions of Portugal. 

The Levant trade was open to all who would dare to run 
the gauntlet of the Turks. The Spaniards recognised the claim 
of the English discovery, by the Cabots, of Baccalaos ; and had 
not yet worked up northward to it. But the African sea coast, 
so honourably and so patiently discovered, was (by all laws, 
human and divine, hitherto accepted) the possession of its brave 
discoverers. It was therefore a new impulse, that made our 
English ships, passing the familiar Straits of Gibraltar on their 
left hand, to go forward southward, first to Barbary, and then 
to Guinea ; cost what it might. 

Discoveries are made by successive steps, one after another ; 
and the passage of English ships around the world and to the 
Eastern seas was but the succession and development of these 
first attempts to Marocco. All that we know of these Barbary 
voyages is preserved to us by Hakluyt, who collected his 
information forty to fifty years after the event, and has thus 
transmitted it to us. 

The First Voyage to Barbary in 1551, described by James 
Alday, Servant to Sebastian Cabot. 

The original! of the firft voyage for traffique into the kingdom of Marocco 
in Barbaric, begun in the yeere 1551, with a tall (hip called the Lion of 
London, whereof went as captaine Matter Thomas Windham, as appeareth 
by this extract of a letter of lames Aldaie, to the worthipfull mafter Michael 
Locke, which Aldaie profeffeth himfelfe to haue bene the firfl inuenter of 
this trade. 

Orfhipfull Sir, hauing lately bene acquainted with your intent 
to profecute the olde intermitted difcouerie for Catai, if 
therein with my knowledge, trauell or induftrie I may doe 
you feruice, I am readie to doe it, and therein to aduenture 
my life to the vttermoft point. Trueth it is, that I haue bene 
by fome men (not my friends) euill fpoken of at London, faying that 
although I be a man of knowledge in the Arte of Nauigation and Cofmo- 
graphie, and that I haue bene the inuenter of fome voyages that be now 
growen to great effect ; yet fay they malicioufly and without iuft caufe, that I 
haue not bene willing at any feafon to proceed in thofe voyages that I haue 
taken in hand, taking example efpecially of two voyages. The one was 
when I was mafter in the great Barke Aucher ]whiih left Gravesend on 
lyh November 1550] for the I^euant, in which voyage I went not, but the 
caufes they did not know of my let from the fame, nor of the other. But 
firft the very trueth is, that I was from the fame voyage letted by the 
Princes letters, which my Mafter Sebajlian Cabota had ubatined for that 
purpofe, to my great griefe. 

And as touching the fecond voyage which I inuented for the trade of 
Barbaric, the liuing God knoweth that I fay moft true, that when the great 
fweate was YThe sweating sickness began in London on i)th Jiily 1551, «W 
continued till the following Septetnber} (whereon the chiefe of thofe with 
whom I ioyned in that voyage died, that is to fay, Sir John Lutterell, lohn 
Fletcher, Henry OJlrich and others), I my felfe was alfo taken with the 
fame fweate in London, and after it, whe.her with euill diet in keeping, or 
how I know not, I was caft into fuch an extreame feuer, as I was neither 
able to ride nor goe ; and the (hippe being at Tort/mouth, Thomas Wind- 
ham had her away from thence before I was able to ftand vpon my legges, 
by whom I loft at that inftant fourefcore pound [ = ;^8oo of the present day}. 
Befides I was appointed by them that died (if they had lined) to haue had 
the whole gouemment both of (hippe and goods, becaufe I was to them' 
the fole inuenter of tliat trade. 

In the firft voyage to Barbary there were two Moores, being noble men, 
whereof one was of the Kings blood, conueyed by the faid Mafter Thomas 
Windham into their countrey out of England. 

Yours humble at your commandement, James Alday. 

The Second Voyage to Barbary in 1552, described by 
Master James Thomas. 

The fecond voyage to Barbary in the yeere 1552. Set foorth by the right 
worlhipful Sir John Vorke, Sir William Ger[r]ard, Sir Thomas Wroth, 
Mafter Trances Lambert, Mafter Cole, and others. Written by the relation 
of Mafter James Thomas, then Page to Mafter Thomas Windham, chiefe 
Captaine of this voyage. 

He (liippes that went on this voyage were three, whereof two 
were of the Riuer of Thames, That is to fay, the Lyon of 
London, whereof Mafter Thomas Windham was Captaine 
and part owner, of about an hundred and fiftie tunnes : The 
other was the Buttolfe \Botolph\ about fourefcore tunnes, and 
a Portugall Carauel, bought of certaine Porlugals in Neiuport in Wales, and 
fraighted for this voyage, of fumme fixtie tunnes. The number of men in 
the Fleete were an hundred and twentie. The Mafter of the Lyon was 
one John Kerry of Mynh^a\i in Somerfetftiire, his Mate was Dauid 
Landman. The chiefe Captaine of this fmall Fleete was Mafter Thomas 
Windham a Norfolke gentleman borne, but dwelling at Marjlijield-parke in 

This Fleete departed out of King\s\-rode neere Brijloll about the begin- 
ning of May 1552. being on a Monday in the morning {^The 2d and <jth oj 


P R E 1' A C E. 

May 1552, were Mondays], and the Monday fortnight next enfuing in the 
eueninjj came to an anclier at their firft part in the roade Za/ia or A/aft on 
the coaft of Barbarie, ftanding in 32. degrees of latitude, and there put on 
land part of our marchandife to be conueid by land to the citie of Morocco : 
which being done, and haue refrelhed our felues with victuals and water, 
we went to the fecond port called Santa Cruz, where we difcharged the 
reft of our goods, being good quantitie of linnen and woollen cloth, corall, 
amber, let, and diuers other things well accepted of the Moores. In which 
road we found a French (hip, which not knowing whether it were warre or 
peace between England and France, drewe her felfe as neere vnder the 
towne wals as fhe could polTible, crauing aide of the towne for her defence, 
if need were, which in deed feeing vs drawe neere, (hot at us a piece from 
the wals, which came ouer the Lion our Admiral!, between the maine 
made and foremad. Whereupon we comming to an anker, prefently came 
a pinnes aboord vs to know what we were, who vnderdanding that we 
had bene there the yere before [ This confirms Aldny's statement], and came 
with good leaue of their king in merchant wife, were fully fatif(ied, and 
gaue vs good leaue to bring our goods peaceably on fliore, where the Viceroy, 
whofe name was Sibill Manache, within ihort time after came to vifite vs, 
and vfed vs with all curtefie. By diuers occafions we fpent here very neere 
three moneths before we could get in our lading, which was Sugar, Dates, 
Almonds, and Malaffos or fugar Syrrope. And for all our being here in 
the heate of the Sommer, yet none of our company periflied by fickneffe. 

Our (hips being laden, wee drew into the Sea for a Wefterne wind for 
England. But being at fea, a great leake fell vpon the Lion, fo that we 
were driuen to Lancerota and Forteitentura, where, betweene the two 
Hands, we came to a road, whence we put on land out ol our fayd (liip 70. 
cheftes of Sugar vpon Lanca'ota with fome dozen or fixteene of our com- 
pany, where the inhabitants fuppofing we had made a wrongful! prize of 
our carauell, (uddenly came with force vpon our people, among whom I 
my felfe was one, tooke vs prifoners, and fpoiled the fugars : which thing 
being perceiued from our (liips, they manned out three boates, thinking to 
refcue vs, and draue the Spaniards to flight, whereof they flewe eighteene, 
and took their gouernour of the Hand prifoner, who was a very aged gentle- 

man about 70. yeeres of age. But chafing the enemie fo farre for our 
recouerie, as ponder and arrowes wanted, the Spaniardes perceiuing this, 
returned, and in our mens retire [retreat] they (lewe fix of them. Then a 
Parle[y] grew, in the which it was agreed, that we the prifoners (hould be 
by them reftored, and they receiue their old goueniour, giuing vs a tefti- 
monie vnder his and their hands what damages wee had there receiued ; 
the which damages were there reftored, and made good by the King of 
Spaine his marchantes on our retume into England. 

After we had fearched and mended our eake, being returned aboord, 
we came vnder faile, and as wee were going to the fea on the one fide of 
the Hand, the Cacafuego and other (hips of the King of Portugals Armada 
entered at the other, and came to anker in the road from whence we were 
but newly departed, and (hot o(f their great ordinance in our hearing. And 
here by the way it is to bee vnderftood that the Portugals were much 
olfended with this our new trade into Barbarie, and both in our voiage the 
yeere before, as alfo in this they gaue out in England by their marchants, 
that if they tooke vs in thofe partes, they would vfe vs as their mortall 
enemies, with great threats and menaces. But by God and good proui- 
dence wee efcaped their handes. 

From this Hand (haping our courfe for England, we were feuen or eight 
weekes before we could reach the coafl of England. The firft port wee 
entered into was the hauen of Plimmouth, from whence within (hort time 
wee came into the Tliames, and landett our merchandife at London, about 
the ende of the moneth of October l<,<^z. —Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol, II., 
Part II., //. 7-9, Ed. 1599. 

13. All these English Voyages, therefore, had been planned 
and carried out before either of the two following Works, trans- 
lated &c. by Eden, had come from the press. As he has 
given no account of them ; it has been all the more necessary 
to say thus much here, in order to shew that in these very 
early days of oceanic discovery, our forefathers were not 
altogether idle. 


Unique, imperfect, copy of A nnt> interlude 
and a mery of the nature of the . iiif. elementes, 
dr'C, written in the reign of Henry VIII., and 
probably printed [ ? by John Rastel] about 
1 5 19, is in the Garrick Collection of Plays, 
in the British Museum (Press mark, C. 39, 
b. 17). 
This interlude contains [at C /'.] the following reference 

to the New World, in a dialogue between Experyence and 

Study ous desire: — 

Ex. C Syr this ys ynglande lyenge here 

And this is skotlande yat loyneth him nere 

Compassyd a boute euery where 

With the occian see rownde 

C And next from them westwardly 

Here by hym selfe alone doth ly. 

Irelande that holsome grounde 

C Here than is the narowe seey 

To Calyce and Boleyne the next wey 

And flaunders in this parte 

Here lyeth fraunce next hym ioynynge 

And spayn southwarde from thens standynge 

And portyngale in this quart 

This contrey is called Italye 

Beholde where Rome in ye myddes doth ly 

And Naples here be yonde 

And this lytell See that here is 

Is callyd the Gulfe of Venys 

And here venys doth stande 

C As for almayne lyeth this way 

Here lyeth denmarke and norway 

And northwarde on this syde 

There lyeth Iselonde when men do fyshe 

But be yonde that so colde it is 

No man may there abyde 

C This See is called the great Occyan 

So great it is that never man 

Coude tell it sith the worlde began 

Tyll nowe within this. xx. yere 

Westwarde be founde new landes 

That we neuer harde tell of before this 

By wrytynge nor other meanys 

Yet many nowe haue ben there 

C And that contrey is so large of rome 

Muche lenger than all cristendome 

Without fable or gyle 

For dyuers maryners haue it tryed 

And sayled streyght by the coste syde 

Aboue. v. thousand myle 

C But what commodytes be within 

No man can tell nor well Imagin 

But yet not longe a go 

Some men of this contrey went 

By the kynges noble consent 

It for to serche to that entent 

And coude not be brought therto 

C But they that were the ventere[r]s 



Haue cause to curse their niaryners 

Fals of promys and dissemblers 

That falsly them betrayed 

Which wold take no paine to saile farther 

Than their owne lyst and pleasure 

Wherfore that vyage and dyuers other 

Suche kaytyffes haue distroyed 

C O what thynge a had be than 

Yf that they that be englyshe men 

Myght haue ben the furst of all 

That there shulde haue take possessyon 

And made furst buyldynge and habytacion 

A memory perpetuall 

And also what an honorable thynge 

Bothe to the realme and to the kynge 

To haue had his domynyon extendynge 

There into so farre a grounde 

Whiche the noble kynge of late memory 

The most wyse prynce the. vij. He[n]rry 

Causyd furst for to be founde 

C And what a great meritoryouse dede 

It were to haue the people instructed 

To lyue more verluously 

And to lerne to knowe of men the maner 

And also to knowe god theyr maker 

Whiche as yet lyue all be[a]stly 

For they nother knowe god nor the deuell 

Nor neuer harde tell of heuyn nor hell 

Wrytynge nor other scripture 

But yet in the stede of god almyght 

The[y] honour the sone for his great ly^[h]t 

For that doth them great pleasure 

C Buyldynge nor house they haue non[e] at all 

But wodes / cotes / and cauys small 

No merueyle though it be so 

For they vse no maner of yron 

Nother in to[o]le nor other wepon 

That shulde helpe them therto 

C Copper they haue which is founde 

In dyuers places aboue the grounde 

Yet they dyg not therfore 

For as I sayd they haue non[e] yryn 

Wherby they shuld in the yerth myne 

To serche for any wore 

C Great haboundaunce of woddes ther be 

Moste parte vyr and pyne aple tre 

Great ryches myght come therby 

Both py[t]che and tarre and sope asshys 

As they make in the eest landes 

By brynnyng therof only 

C Fyshe they haue so great plente 

That in hauyns take and slayne they be 

With stauys withouten fayle 

Nowe frenchemen and other haue founden the trade 

That yerely of fyshe there they lade 

A boue an. C. \^hundyeif\ sayle 

C But in the south parte of that contrey 

The people there go nakyd alway 

The lande is of so great hete 

And in the north parte all the clothes 

That they were / is but be[a]stes skynnes 

They haue no nother fete [feat] 

But howe the people furst began 

In that contrey or whens they cam 

For clerkes it is a questyon[.] 

Other thynges mo I haue in store 

That I coude tel therof but now no more 

Tyll a nother season 

Siu. C Than at your pleasure shew some other thinge 
Yt lyketh me so wel your commyninge 
Ye can not talke a mys 

£x. C Than wyl I tome a gayne to my matter 
Of Cosmogryfy where I was err [ere] 
Beholde take hede to this 
C Loo estwarde beyonde ye great occyan 
Here entereth the see callyd mediterran | 

Of. ii. M. [two thousand] myle of lengthe 
The Soudans contrey lyeth here by 
The great Turke on ye north syde doth ly 
A man of merueylous strengthe 
C This sayde north parte is callyd europa 
And this south parte callyd affrica 
This eest parte is callyd ynde 
But this newe landes founde lately 
Ben callyd america by cause only 
Americus dyd furst them fynde 
C Loo Iherusalem lyeth in this contrey 
And this be yonde is the red see 
That moyses maketh of mencyon 
This quarter is India minor 
And this quarter India maior 
The lande of prester lohn 
C But northwarde this way as ye see. 
Many other straunge regions ther be 
And people that we not knowe 
But estwarde on the see syde 
A prynce there is that ruleth wyde 
Called the Cane of catowe ^ 
C And this is called the great eest see 
Which goth all a longe this wey 
Towardes the new landis agayne 
But whether that see go thyther dyrectly 
Or if any wyldernes bytwene them do ly 
No man knoweth for certeyne 
But these newe landes by all cosmografye 
Frome the cane of catous lande can not lye 
Lytell paste a thousand myle 
But from those new landes men may sayle playne 
Estwarde and cum to englande againe 
Where we began ere whyle 
C Lo all this parte of the yerth which I 
Haue here discryuyd openly 
The north parte we do it call 
But the south parte on the other syde 
Ys as large as this full and as wyde 
Whiche we knowe nothynge at all 
C Nor whether ye most parte be lande or see 
Nor whetlier the people that there be 
Be be[a]styall or connynge 
Nor whether they knowe good or no 
Nor howe they beleue nor what they do 
Of this we knowe nothynge 

The Voyage referred to, clearly took place in Henry VIII.'s 
reign. It was probably the Bristol expedition sent out by N. 
Thome's father and Hugh Eliot, which discovered Newfound- 
land ; of which Thome tells us, at/, xvi, " There is no doubt, 
as now plainly appeareth, if the marriners would then haue 
been ruled and folowed their pilots mind, the lands of the 
West Indies, from whence all the gold commeth, had beene 

1 Khan oj Cathay. 

C 2 

XXI 1 



HE special purpose of this Preface has now 
been carried out. It has been to shew 
what our forefathers actually accomplished, 
ere Eden set about the following Trans- 
lations, or during the time he was actually 
engaged upon them : and so to supplement 
the other accounts of Oceanic Discovery 
contained in the volume. 

We have, in conclusion, only space briefly to touch upon one 
other point, and that is but a simple act of justice. 

Most notable is Eden's position as a Man of Science in the 
Tudor Age. He had the true modest scientific spirit; as 
when he wrote in 1562, to Sir W. Cecil, "Syth only the 
respecte of suche vertues as it hathe pleased you to thinke 
commendable in me, hath moved your Honour not only in 
maner to seeme carefull for me howe I maye hereafter with 
quietnesse spende my tyme in studie (as is my most desire)," 
/. xliii.; and likewise when, in 1574, he thus dwelt at large 
upon what he did not know, a list of disqualifications that 
must not be pressed too literally, " For yf there be any thing in 
me, wherein I maye by good reason please my selfe, it is 
cheefely this, that I haue euer loued and honoured men of 

singular vertue or qnalitie, in what so euer laudable Art or 
Science, euen of those whereof mee selfe have litle know- 
ledge, as are Geometric, Astronomic, Architecture, Musicke, 
Payntyng, feates of Armes, inuentions of Ingens, and suche 
lyke," p. xlvi. 

But whatever may have been his knowledge or his ignorance, 
actual or relative; Eden had already grasped the Inductive 
Method. His life overlapped that of Lord Bacon. May he 
not be regarded as a near Herald and Forerunner of the 
Father of Scientific Enquiry, when he uses such language as 
this ; of which his whole life was but the fuller expression ? 

"Experience, the teacher and mestres of all sciences, for 
lacke of whose ayde (experience I meane) lyke as many greate 
wittes haue fallen into great errours, so by her ayde, many 
base and common wittes haue attayned to the knowledge and 
practise of such wonderfuU effectes, as could hardely be 
comprehended by the discourse of reason 

" Nought els to say, but that experience to be most certayn 
which is ioyned with reason or speculacion, and that reason to 
be most sure which is confirmed with experience." /. 9. 

And thus, from henceforth will the reputation of Richard 
Eden continue to increase, both as a Scholar and a Scientist. 


[The First English book on America. 

C i©£ the miot lanXft^ mitf ol jje projpXt 

(©£ p0pe Koftn Jinlr fti-s Xacntrt^ antr of 
tfte co^trtg feegtjS anlr toonlr^re molo 
irgtg that in that ImxXft i^J 


[A Note on 
Jan van Doesborch, 

a printer at Antwerp, between 1 508-1 530 a.d. 

jjNything that concerns the printer of the 
first English Work relating to America, 
must henceforth be of increasing interest. 
There does not appear to be in exist- 
ence, any typographical history of Ant- 
werp for the period during which the 
first Text in this volume was produced. 
The learned and most courteous 
Librarian of the Royal Library at the Hague, Dr M. F. A. 
G. Campbell, the author of the well-known Annaks de la 
Typographie nkrlandaise au XVe Steele, La Haye, 1874-8, 
8vo, thus writes, on the 21st April 1885. 

How glad should I have been if I had been able to give you full 
information aliout Jan van Doesborch, the Antwerp printer in the first 
half of the sixteenth century. But, alas, the History of Printing in 
that century has been, without any sound reason, neglected to that 
point that even sixteenth-century books are now-a-days more rare than 
their predecessors of the fifteenth. If Jan van Doesborch had had only 
one foot in the fifteenth century, I should have been able to give you 
matter enough to compose his history : because I, and my predecessor 
as Librarian of this Liljrary (Mr Holtrop), have devoted the better part 
of our lives to the study of the typography and typographers before the 
year 1500. Now John of Doesborch did not print till after 1508, 
because in that year, he entered the Guild of St Lucas at Antwerp, as 
vcrlichlcre, "miniature painter." 

When such an authority as Dr Campbell writes thus, 
the present Editor may be excused of his ignorance on this 
subject. Nevertheless the following is offered as a mere 
beginning of this study. 

2. Doesburg is a Dutch town, about ten miles to the east 
of Amheim. 

Jan van Doesborch, Doesborcke, Doesburgh, or as he 
styles himself in (/) \h.e.xw. tokens, lohan fro doesborch, may 
have succeeded to the printing business of Roeland van der 
Dorpe, at Antwerp. He was contemporary with our 
Wynkyn de Worde and Richard Pynson : and occupies a 
similar position in Antwerp typography, to that filled by 
those two English printers at Westminster and London. 

He seems to have printed in three different houses. His 
earliest books were printed at the sign of Aen dijsere wage, 
"the Iron balance." Those produced about 1518, are 
printed " besides the Canter parte." His latest books, 
finished about 1530, are at die Lombaerde veste, "the Lom- 
bard fortress." 

It is very remarkable that Doesborch should, at such an 
early date, have printed the English books that he did ; 

especially such an important work as Arnold's Chronicle. 
He was probably employed in this work by some 
of the merchants of the English House at Antwerp. He 
stands in the same relation to our Literature at this time, 
that Hans Luft of Marburg did fifteen or twenty years later. 
No books are so scarce as the early English books printed 
by foreign printers on the Continent ; of which the following 
Text is one of the earliest. 

3. The first book attributed to this printer, by P. C. 
van der Meersch, in his Recherches sur la vie et les iravatix 
des tmprimeurs Beiges et Neerlandais etablls (t Vetranger, i. 
131, Gand 1856, is — 

(a) Die dcstructU van Troyen, "the destruction of Troy." Antwerp, 
folio, no date. 

The late eminent bookseller of Amsterdam, Mr Frederick 
Muller, issued, in 1872, a Catalogue of Books, Maps, Plates 
on America; and of a remarkable Collection of Early Voy- 
ages, offered by him for sale. At /. 6, he states that he 
acquired, in 1871, at the sale of an insignificant library at 
Antwerp, a volume containing four pieces, " all printed 
there in the first ten years of the i6th century." 

One of these was — 

(i) Va7i der nienwcr werelt oft landtscap nieuwtlur ghenoden vaden 
doorluch tighen conn, van Porlugael door den alderbeste pyloet ofte zeeken- 
edr d'werelt, " Of the new world or landscape, newly found for the 
illustrious King of Portugal by the best pilot or mariner in the world." 
This is a translation from the Italian (through the Latin) into Dutch, 
of the Third Letter of Amerigo Vespucci. The colophon runs, 
Gheprent T/ianiwerpen aen Dyseren waghe. Bi Jan van Doesborch, 
" Printed at Antwerp, at the ironbalance, by Jan van Doesborch." 

It consists of eight unnumbered leaves, [with] 6 woodcuts. The verso 
of the last leaf is filled up by a wood engraving. On the recto of the 
first leaf [is the identical cornerwise engraving that is described here- 
after at p. xxix., col. 2] ; on the verso of leaf i, Jonas thrown into the 
mouth of the whale ; recto of leaf 3, four female aborigines [see p. 
xxviii.] ; verso of leaf 4, fighting Indians [see p. xxix.] ; verso of leaf 6, 
repeated from the recto of leaf I ; and verso of the last leaf, repeated 
from the recto of leaf 3. 

Mr Muller states — 

The book bears no date, but it is out of question, that it has been 
printed in the period 1506-9, the time when all the separate editions of 
Vcspuccius were published. It is one of the first productions of the 
famous printer, Jan van Doesborgh, at Antwerp ; whose publications 
(principally romances of chivalry with woodcuts, curious popular books, 
&c.) rank among the rarest of the Antwerp printers. Just the kind 
of publications that makes it easy to understand that they have dis- 
appeared, as it were, under the hands of the reading public. 

xxvi [^ Note on ycin van Doesborch, a printey at Antioerp, between 1508- 1530 a.d.] 

Another text in this precious volume is thus described, at 
/. 277, by Mr Muller — 

(f) Van tie luonjerluhetie m costelUhen van Pape lans landendes, 
" Of the wonders and precious things of Pope John's lands. " 

The remainder of the first page tilled with four curious woodcuts, 
representing 1°, a wild man with a beast's head bearing a fish [see /. 
XXXV.]; 2°, an elephant [see/, xxxii.]; 3°, a griffon with a man in his 
paws [see f. xxxiv.]; and 4°, three men fighting against three birds 
[see/, xxxiii.] 

Recto of the last leaf, Ghiprint Tlianhverpen. Aen dijsere wage by 
my Jan. van Doesborch. " Printed at Antwerp at the iron balance by 
me, Jan van Doesborch." 

Eleven different woodcuts in the text, four of them repeated from 
the recto of leaf I. On the 5th leaf, a woodcut of the bird Phoenix in 
flames [see^ xxxiv.] The verso ol the last leaf filled with two wood 
engravings, one representing the Virgin with the Child, the other the 
printer's mark of Roeland van der Dorpe, used in 1497, &c. [a herald 
with his attributes, holding a trumpet]. 

It is therefore perfectly clear that the First English book 
on America is mainly a translated compilation from these 
two early Dutch tracts ; and that most of the woodcuts 
of the English text had already appeared in its Dutch 

We therefore place next — 

[d) Of the new landes, &'e. 

Clearly, the latest date that can be assigned to this tract 
is 1511. Had it been written later, the information con- 
tained in it would not have been so crude. See the pro- 
gress of knowledge as shewn in the English Interlude of 
1519, quoted at /. xx. It would seem to have been 
translated by a priest in the Low Countries, who had but an 
imperfect acquaintance with English ; for he uses /lem/s for 
heavens ; drycantyche, for three-cornered, ferswy?imygnes, 
ketters, &c. 

The Catalogue of the Grenville Collection, in describing 
the unique copy here reprinted (Press mark, G. 7106), 
states — 

"From mentioning Emanuel, King of Portugal, and exclaiming 
against Luther, the present tract may be about 1521 or 1 522, when 
Kng Emmanuel died, and Luther was burned in effigy." 

There is not a word about Luther in the tract ; and it is 
typographically evident from the above, that the tract can 
hardly be later than 15 11. 

4. It is quite impossible, at present, to give a chrono- 
logical list of books produced by Jan van Doesborch. A 
few only can be cited. 

(«) [The compilation by R. Arnold, known as AntoWs Chronicle.^ 
In this booke is conteyned the names of ye bayliffo of the cite of Lon- 
don from the tyme of king richard the furst, and also th[e] artycles of 
the Chartur and libarties of the same Cyte, 5:c. No date or place of 
printing. British Museum (Press mark, zi, a. 10). 

This is attributed to Doesborch's press, and was a very 
large work to be undertaken by him, in what was probably 
a foreign language to him. It contains the original text of 
the poem of The Nut-brown Maid. 

In the British Museum (Press mark, C. 25, e. 29) there is 
an imperfect copy of a tract on the Fifteen tokens of the 
Day of Doom. It wants the title page. The colophon is 
as follows : — 

(/) "A lytill treatyse that whiche is called //<« jrz". tokens which been 
ate translated out of frenshe in to Englishe. 

* Emprinted by me lohan fro doesborch dwellinge at Anwerpe by 
the Iron ballaunce, &c. 

These six texts are probablyamong the earliest productions 
of Doesborch's press. 

5. We now come to the middle period of his life's work. 

In the British Museum (Press mark, 1073, b. 32) there is 
a Dutch life of the fabulous necromancer of the Middle 
Ages, Virgilius. 

( g ) Virgilius f[ Van zijn leuen doot / ende vauten, &c. No date or 
place of printing. 

This tract is probably the original of the rare English 
Virgilius among the Douce books at the Bodleian, which 
has been reprinted by Mr Utterson, and also by Mr Thorns, 
in Jiis Early English Prose Romaiues, Vol. 2, Ed. 1858. 

(//) The title runs thus : 

The lyfe of Virgilius and of his deth and many marvayles that he dyd 
in his lyfe tyme by whychcrafte and nygramancye thorowgh the helpe 
of the devyls of hell. 

The colophon is 

Thus endcthe the lyfe of Virgilius with many dyuers con- 
saytes that he dyd. Emprynted in the cytie of Anwarpe By me 
lohnn Doesborcke dwellynge at the camer porte. 

Mr W. C. Hazlitt, in his Handbook of Popular Lite- 
rature, &'c.,p. 381, Ed. 1867, quotes the following title of a 
Work apparently at present in an English private library. 

(«■) Here begynneth a lytell story that was of a trewthe done in the 
land of Gelders, of a mayde that was named Mary of Nemegen that was 
the dyuils paramoure by the space of vij yere longe. 

Imi)rinted at Anwarpe by me lohn Duisbrowghe dwellynge besyde 
the camer porte. 

Dr Campbell states that in the Royal Library at the Hague, 
is a copy of the following Work, printed by Doesborch. 

(/) Den oostpronck oiiser Solic/ieyt. Printed at Antwerp on 31 May 
1517. With woodcuts and printer's mark. 

Also, a Work, sometimes erroneouslyattributed to Jan van Naeldwyck, 
(k) Die alder excellenlste Cronyke va Brabant 1518. With woodcuts 
and printer's mark. 

Of this work, there is a copy of an earlier edition printed 
in October 1512 in the British Museum (Press mark, G. 405, 
f.) This may also have been printed by Doesborch. 

The next Work that we can quote is, for the time it was 
produced, a wonderful book. It is a pictorial representa- 
tion of all the birds, beasts, and fishes, real and imaginary, 
of the time. It is in three Parts. 

{/) Der dieren palleys en die vgaileringe vanden beesten. The colo- 
phon is Ghcprent bi my Jan van doesborch Thantiuerpen Lit iaer ons 
heeren M.CCCCC. ende. XX. den vijfsten dach in Meye. [5 May 1520.] 

Copies are in the British Museum, the Royal Library at 
the Hague, and elsewhere. 

Mr Hazlitt, Handbook, &c., /. 8, gives the following 
account of Lawrence Andrewe's translation of this work. 

(/«) The noble lyfe and natures of man, of beestes, serpentys, fowles, 
and fysshes, that be made known. 

Andwarpe by John of Doesborowe, n.d. fol. 

In the prologue, Andrewe, the translator, says, " In the name of oure 
Saviour criste lesu maker and redemour of al mankynd, I Laurens 
andrewe of the towne of Calis haue translated for lohnes doesborrowe 
book prenter in the cite of Andwarpe this present volume dcuyded in 
thre partes which was neuer before in no matcrnall langage preutyd till 
now. " 

6. One other Work will complete our present provisional 
list of this printer's productions. 

(«) Van Brabant die excellente Cronike. Of which the colophon runs, 
Cheprent tot Antwerpen op die Lombaerde veste, bimijan van Doesborch, 
int iaer ons heren M.CCCCC.XXX, in luino. 

Copies of this work are in the British Museum, the Royal 
Library at the Hague, and elsewhere. 

7. This is all we have been able to learn, so far, of the 
printer of the First English book on America. Much 
more, no doubt, remains to reward the researches of tiie 


C ©£ the netoe Xanlress mxXf ol ge people 
fottnlrt 6j) the me^sJenaerss of tfte Rjin 
ge 0£ portyngcile nametr <!tnmnitel* 

©£ tite* V* I'atterg nacgonss cijjiSteiTelr^ 

#£ pope Kohn atnlr Jti^ lanlres? anlr of 
tfte cosJteXg Itegess antr tooitlfer^ molo 
aye^ that iix that lanlre (6. 

AN'^^vAN^AVAV^V V/W>' 

re aforetymes in the yere of our Lorde god. M.CCCC.xcvi. [1496] and fo be/ we 
with fhyppes of Lufleboene fayled oute of Portyngale thorough the commaunde- 
nient of the Kynge Emanuel So haue we had our vyage/ For by fortune 
ylandes ouer the great fee with great charge and daunger fo haue we at the lafle 
founde oon lordfliyp where we fayled well. ix. C. [900] mylee[s] by the coofle of 
Selandes there we at ye lafle went a lande but that lande is not nowe knowen 
for there haue no maflers wryten therof nor it knowethe and it is named 
Armenica/ there we fawe meny wonders of beefles and fowles yat we haue neuer 
feen before/ the people of this lande haue no kynge nor lorde nor theyr god 
But all thinges is comune/ this people goeth all naked But the men and women 
haue on theyr heed/ necke/ Annes/ Knees/ and fete all with feders bounden for 
there bewtynes and fayrenes. Thefe folke lyuen lyke without any refon- 
ablenes and the wymen be alfo as comon. And the men hath conuerfacyon 
with the wymen/ who that they ben or who they fyrft. mete/ is Ihe his fyfter/ 
his mother/ his daughter/ or any other kyndred. And the wymen be very 
hoote and dypofed to lecherdnes. And they etealfo on[e] a nother The man 
etethe his wyfe his chylderne/ as we alfo haue feen and they hange alfo the bodyes or perfons fleeftie in the fmoke/ as men 
do with vs fwynes flefhe. And that lande is ryght full of folke/ for they lyue commonly, iii. C. [300] yere and more as with 
fykeneffe they dye nat/ they take much fyfflie for they can goen vnder the water and fe[t]che fo the fyfflies out of the water, 
and they werre alfo on[e] vpon a nother/ for the olde men brynge the yonge men therto/ that they gather a great company therto 
of towe partyes/ and come the o;:[e] ayene the other to the felde or bateyll/ and flee on[e] the other with great hepes. And nowe 
holdeth the fylde/ they take the other pryfoners And they brynge them to deth and ete them/ and as the deed is eten then 
fley they the reft. And they been than eten alfo/ or otherwyfe lyue they longer tymes and many yeres more than other people for 
they haue coftely fpyces and rotes/ where they them felle recyuer with/ and hele them as they be feke. 

xxviii \ThefirJl Englijh book containing the word America {Armenica), &c?^ 

[{Here follows a woodcut of the Natives of) GENNEA] 

Of the blacke Mores. 

T the fyrfle cam we in the lande of Canarien/ 
whyche is. C. and. 1. [150] myles from Lyfle- 
bone. And ther betwyn been. ij. ylandes. 
In yat one is well made people and men 
make there moche cheefe of great wylde 
gootes. alfo is ther fifflie and suykere good 
cheep. That other yland is not enhabite I 
tlier be lytell people therin/ and they be all a frayde and 
wylde/ alfo ther ayeen lyeth the lande of Barbera/ and is from 
them in to ye Gennea. CC.l. [250] myles. and that is the 
blackes mores land, and ayen ye begynnyng of this lande is 
oon aforemontayen and booth caput viride/ and thereby is ye 
towne Bitfagitfch. v. C. [500] myles from Luffebonen there by 
be many w[h]alefyfflies and flyinge fyfflies on the on fyde of 
Bifagitfche. ij. C. and 1. [250] myles fayle men vnder yat fone 
fo ferre/ that men the northe fayle flerre or pollumarticum/ or 
the waghen called/ no more may be feen/ but poUum ante 
articum or yat fowth layd flerre fawe we fourth with[.] the 
forfayde Morelande is M. iiij. €.[1400] myles great/ there 
ye people goeth all naked with golden rynges on handes 
and fete. 

[(Here comes a woodcut of Natives) IN " ALLAGO] 

ilHat lande of AUago is. v. C. [500] myles 
greater And gothe ayenfle the begynnynge 
of Arabien and there is that kyngdom 
Safale[.] in this lande Allago is the people 
clothed as aboue is marked/ the[y] were 
and bere for there clothes fkynnes of wylde 
belles. The men bere clokes made of barkes 
of trees and ledder to kyuer theyr members with. And the 
women kyuer theym with (kynnes of belles, and take vpon 
there heddes for kerchers Ikynnes of oxen or other be(les[.] 
alfo py[t]che the[y] theyr mennes forhed lyke as men pytche the 
fhyppes/ and there dwellynge is vnder the erthe. There is 
many cowes. oxen/ great fhepe and other fayre belles. This 
is on fayre and lufly lande of good water and fwete herbes. 
This people bathe a fwyfte hafly fpeche. There is no money 
but of yrou [? />'<?«] and that euery body take it for there ware 
they bere whyte (laues there wepyns is lange pykes and Hones 
ther they cafte myghtly with. That I>ande is fo full of fande 
yat they mufle goo vpon brode trenchers that they falle not 
and fynke. After that cometh men into the lande of arabyen. 

[(Here is another woodcut representing Natives) IN: ARABIA] 


Omyng in Arabia fawe we ye people clothed 
lyke as here is figured (lande. and out [of] 
this kyngdome hath be oon of the three holy 
kyngys. Item ther bynde they ther oxe fon 
with Arable gold about ther homes/ and 
erys. And alfo goldyn rynges aboute th[e]yr 
legges. And for gold take they of mar- 
chaundes fylkyng kerchers and lynen clothe. Item ther after 
fe we now. v. ylandes. the fyrR yland named Momfabith. 
fixty myles from Safalen. is leeid ye towne Quiola that was 
founde of the kynges folke of portyngal And they flewe 
there moche people and robbed the towne. And there without 
had there kynge edyfyed on caftell that is named feynt lacobis 
caRell there in lyeth a, C. [100] bolde and hardy men that 
lyeth and kepeth it 

[Here is a striking woodcut representing, with great life and action, a 
spirited attack on the gate of some European town ; which has evi- 
dently been borrowed by John of Desborough from some other printed 
book, chronicle, or other work, printed by himself or other printer.] 

He[n] feuente myles from Quiola lyeth the 
towne Bombaffa that they alfo bymed and 
robbed that alfo there they gatte moche 
goodes. From thens nowe. xxiiij. myle[s] 
lyeth the great towne Meli[n]da and they 
be frendes/ and there be many floueynes 
and fell people out of Geneen From 
Melinda it is. iiij. fcore and. x. myles to on Perfia there gowe 
they ouer the fee. For by the towne Megha into the ylande. 
Auxendia There is alfo one that hath be of ye three holy 
kynges of the eefl. C. [100] myles into the Kyngdome of 
Canenor and there begyn the fpyces to growe and from thens 
fare they forthe in to the great lande of great Indyen. 

C Of great Indyen. 

[(Here follows a woodcut of the Inhabitants of) M A I O R : INDIA] 

Hey gowe from Cananor into great Indyen 
there the people goo all naked but yat 
the[y] kyuer there members with lynen 
cloth and they be brounde blacke/ with 
longe here and of tho women is not wryten 
but on kaute the fee fawe men manye mer- 
ueloufe people of manereren the women 
i bere there chyldren and theyr houfeholde fluffe. Here fynde 
I men gynger/ peper/ comeyn/ and all manere of fpyces/ and 

{A JJiort defcription of Africa and India: written after 1509 A.D.] xxix 

collely flones for lytell moneye. There be alfo many maner 
of frute fygges of good fauyour. vij. ynches longe and. iij. 
ynches brode. There be bulfeldes and coyes but the coyes 
flepe they not/ there groweth good wyne/ muche honeye/ ryfe/ 
coflely come whyte as wete mele/ Ther by flandeth the 
towne of Banderana and it is. vij myles into Callienten 
from thens is. xl. myles there men goo for all maner of 
fpyces that men were wonte to caray and conuey ouer the 
redde fee thorowgh Alexander but nowe is there one newe 
way founden ouer the the fee[.] in Calacuten is many folke out 
of feynt thomas lande yat alfo be cryftened/ and folke of other 
landes and nacyons they goo ouer into that kyngdome Kyng- 
rjche Gutfchyn as hereafter Ilandes wry ten. 

C Of Gut f chin that Kyngedome. 

[Here is a woodcut representing two Natives fighting, see/, xxv.] 

ilNd than cam we in the kyngdome of Gut- 
fchyn and ther hath the kynge of portyngale 
do make. ij. CaReyles from here was the thre 
holy kynges. there groeth much peper and 
the propereft (lapell therof That kyngdom 
Colen is. xxiiij. myles from there/ and there 
been many kryftened men/ we fynde alfo 
great Olyfantes and many dyuers maner and wonders befles and 
other thynges that men cannot wryghte all. gardeynes frutes is 
there muche gretter than in our landes of Europa. That ylande 
Melaqua is from thens. viij. C. [800] myles/ There alfo is 
moche coflely fpyces. There is nowe. ij. ylandes the on is 
Bandan and therin groweth the cloues. That other Tanagora 
or Narnaria and there groeth not no other wodde than whyte 
and red fandelen wodde/ This is fortuned that for a bell of a 
glaffe men may haue one handfull of peerles. In Gutfchin 
bere fome tymes there kynge but that do the people of his 
courte and holde obedyance vnder theyni one with a nother 
They doo all there thynges all fleyghtly For as as they be 
affembled in one gatherynge/ than cryeth the capitayne I will 
fowe/ and as the fubiectes here theyr capitayne cr)'e fowe than 
take they parte of/ the fede and no man fayth the contrary and 
letteth the other lye and that takethe the lorde with out any 
body contrary fayngc/ and fo do they in all merchaundyfe. 
Forthe by that kyngdome Gutfliyn/ Colum/ Bandan/ and 
Nagaria. xxx. [thirty] niyles[.] in Arlinia there hath the kynge. 
xij. kynges vnder hyni/ and there lyetli buryed feynt Thomas 

[Here is a woodcut of a tree apparently intended to represent a fig-tree. 
It might do equally well for many other kinds of trees.] 

N fome of thefe aforfayde wrytten landes ben 
great and fayre frutes and they be greater 
than in thefe our landes of Europa In Ifla 
mandra be great hygh trees for the people of 
yat contrey hewe great lleppes aboute to 
clyme vp in to the tree to gather the frutes 
that groweth there on for whan they be a 
thrufl. to take there of. In Arfmia is great brode fygge Trees 
with great fygges well. vij. ynches longe and. iij. ynches brode 
and the Fygge tre is fo brode of braunche and leues that. xl. 
[forty] men may be hydde vnder the forefayd braunches and 
leues for the hete of the fonne/ and there for to refle all to 
gather at theyr one pleafure. 

[Here are two woodcuts comerwise, one representing two Indians, the 
other two men and a woman of Europe, see/, xxv.] 

E haue in this vyage fayled aboute the forth 
parte of the worlde for to reken from Luf- 
fyngboren whiche is ferre equinoccyall fcher 
linien. xxxix. [thirty-nine]grades and on halfe 
fo haue we fayled ouer ye linie equinocciall. 
1. [fifty] grades that maketh xc. [ninety] 
grades therfore they of Luffbone is vnder yat 
forfayde linie. xxxix. grade and one halfe in the hygh hed of the 
hemels is the breyde of weftes/ fo is them of Luffbone to thefe 
folke to fene the. 1. [fifty] grades is ouer the felfe lyne foth 
cornerwyfe. v. grades in perpendiculer linia whiche linie as we 
flande ryght of yat poynt the hemls hange vpon our hed and 
thefe folke in theyr fydes or rybbes and woort fet in the maner 
of on tryanghel or on drycantyche cornard. therfore it muftnedes 
be yat the fowth landes be tempered with fwete erthe for the 
northe wyndes can nat there blowe. 

[Here, across the middle leaf of the tract, is an excellent representation o. 
the King of Cochin seated on a kind of tressel, carried by four men, sur- 
rounded with armed attendants : and with an umbrella borne by one 
man, and not a canopy borne by four men, as stated below in the text. 
The woodcut extends across about two-thirds of the folio, in the margin 
of which occurs the following note.] 

Fter this maner of fourme is the Kynge of 
Gutfchym borne with the noblefle of his 
lande/ And before hym is borne many 
inflrumentes of mufyke as trompettes and 
other and. iiij. of the noblefle bereth the 
canapie ouer his hed left, that the foon 
fluild bume hym/ and this kynge is beloued 
of all his eft.ates and common people. 

XXX STJiefiyJl EngliJJt book containing the word America {Armenica), &c?^ 

[This fresh tract is headed by a woodcut representing angels bearing the pyx.] 


T is to knowe that 
y e people of cry (l- 
and ben in. x. 
Nacyons. That 
is to vnder- 
Grekes/ Indien/ 
Aimenes/ georg- 
ianes/ Surianes/ 
is kettersand kyt 
of/ of the holy 
Romes chyrche. 

C The fyrjle nacyon. 

[Two woodcuts, evidently talcen from some Martyrology, come in here. 
One represents an angel standing by the cross, the other a female 
saint with a sword sticking in her breast.] 

nirde nacyon is the T,atynes and they haue to 
tlieyr lorde the Emperour of Almayne and 
many Kynges/ as the kynge of cadyly an 
of Aragon/ of portyngale/ of nauaryen/ and 
thefe kynges is for fpaynnes nacyon. In 
yat nacion of the frenche lande is one kynge 
of Fraunce and many dukes and Erles. In 
the nacion of Italian is the kynge of Cicylian/ the kynge of 
Naples and many dukes and Erles and there is alfo many lord- 
(hyppes as Veneyfe Florence feuen lenuen \} Siaitia, Genoa]. 

N the nacyon of Gemnanien is nowe many 
kynges with out the emperoure/ as the Kynge 
of Englande/ of Scotlande/ of Vngerien/ of 
Bohemen/of Polen/of Denmarke/ of fweden/ 
of Northvvegen/ of Dalmacyen/ and there is 
many Dukes and Erles &c. In that ylande 
of Sypers [? Cyprus] is the kynge of Sypers/ 

All thcfe a fore wryten is vnder the obeyifaunce or \) of] the 

chyrche of Rome. 

C The feconde nacyon. 

He Grekes haue fpyrytually the Patriarcke of 
byffhops/ and abbottes. And in ye tem- 
peralte haue they one Emperour and many 
dukes and erles/ and there is but fewe of 
them that be cryRened/ For the Agarenen 
and Turkes hath nowe the mood parte of 
Grekes/ and is not obedient to the chyrch of Rome. And they 
haue a great erre for they faye that the holy ghofl cam not of 
the fone but alone of the fader. And they fay alfo that there 
is no purgatory/ that is all a yenfle our belefe. 

C The thyrde nacyon. 

[Here follows a woodcut representing St. Thomas kneeling to our Saviour.] 

Hey of Indyen hath one prynce and that is 
pope lohn whofemyghtynes and rychedome 
amounteth aboue all prynces of the world 
for he hath vnder hym. Ixxij. [feuenty-two] 
kynges and as pope lohn dayely rydeth he 
bere a fore hym one croflfe of wode for to 
thynke on at all tymes and remember vpon 
the paffion of I[es]hu and to the batayle doth he bere. xij. 
croffes of golde made and fet with precyoufe flones for his 
baners/ in this lande is the body of feynt Thomas. 

C The fourth nacyon. 

Acobyten named alfo of on ketter lacob and 
was be one dyflyple of the Patryarche of 
Alexandryne/ and this helde the one great 
land in Oryenten and Afyen and is named 
that lande of Mambrone and it is by Egyp- 
ten and gothe to Ethyopen and into Indien 
to/ and hathe vnder hym well. xl. [forty] 
kynges rychedom/ thefe be kytte and chryRened with a byrn- 
ynge yren for they branne the token of the holy croffe in theyr 
forehed/ vpon the breRe/ vpon the arme/ they confeife them to 
God alone and none preRes/ and they fay that in chriRo is alone 
the godhed without the manhod/ and fome of them fpeketh 
Caldefche fome Arabier/ fome other fpe[e]ches after theyr lang- 
age of the lande/ and thefe been condemned of the holy 
chyrche in that counfayll of Ceden. 

[0/ the ten divers chrijlian nations?)^ 


C Thefyth nacyon. 

Here be alfo NeRorijnen named of the ketter 
Neflorinus that was one byffliope of the 
byffhops of Conflantynenoplen and they 
fett ij. perfones in chriflo that is the Godhed 
and ye perfones/ and they forfake that 
maria is the moder of god/ but they beleue 
well of I[es]hu. and theyr wrytynge is in 
caldenfflier fpeche and they make the facrament in broune 
brede and there be great multytude of theym and they dwell 
in Tartarien and in great Indyen/ and theyr lande is as great 
as a thoufande of Italy/ and thefe ketters be condamned in that 
thyrde counfayll of Ephefyn and is departed of the holy Romes 
chyrche and abyde in theyr opynion. 

C The fyxfe nacyon. 

Y the ketter Moren they be named Moroniten 
they fay alone in chriflo is one vnderflande 
and one wyll and thofe dwell by Lybien in 
the lande of Phenicen and there be great 
multitude and they be bolde and hardey 
men. and great warryars with the bowe/ 
And they haue theyr byflhops clothed as 
the Latynes with the biffhops myter on his had/ and with the 
croyfers flaffe and rynges/ Thefe hath ben fome tyme vnder 
the obeyiffaunce of the chyrche of Rome whan Innocentius 
was pope/ but afterwarde came they ayen in theyr opynion 
and there abyde in theyr opynyon. 

C The feuenth nacyon. 

pRmennyten is alfo named for that they dwell 
in the lande of Armeneten nere vnto Anthi- 
ochyen and there is whrythyn feruyce of the 
mafles. and theyr other tydes is all in theyr 
one comon fpeche fo that they all mey 
vnderflande it what they fynge or rede/ and 
they haue theyr hed or fader to whome they 
do reuerence as we do the pope. And they fade the lenton 
with greatter deuocyon than we doo/ for they ete in the lenton 
no fyfflie/ nor they drynke no wyne/ but they ete flefflie vpon 

[Here is a woodcut representing a squadron of English knights, with St. 
George's flag, armed cap cL pie, and galloping in battle. It has nothing 
whatever to do with the text.] 

C The eyght nacyon. 

His nacyon is named Georgidni of feynt 
George for they haue hym in theyr batelles 
for theyr patrone/ and they dwell in the 
lande of Oryenten/ and they be fayer/ lufly/ 
and Rronge pepyll/ and they be fore a drad 
of the Medon perflen Affiryen there they 
aboute dwelle And they haue theyr fcryp- 






ture in ye Greekes fpeche and they haue theyr facramentes as 
the Grekes/ and the clarkes haue rounde crownes/ and they 
leke the holy graue to Iherufalem with open or fpred baners. 
And they gyue the farafons no trybute for the farafons fereth 
thofe folke very fore/ there women bere harneyfe lyke the 
men and they haue alfo beardes as ye men and they bere 
vpon theyr heddes and vpon hye cubettes hye hattes and 
as the[y] wryte to the Sodan than gyueth he them that they 

C The Nynthe nacion. 

He Surianen is named after theyr to^^'ne Surie 
that is the grettefl. in all Suryen or Affyryen 
theyr fcrypture and feruyce of god in ye 
Grekes fpeche but they fpeke farafons 
fpeche and they holde the manere of ye 
grekes/ and haue byfflioppes that in all 
thynges be obedyent and they make theym 
facrament of browne brede and they haue the opynyon of the 
Grekes ayen the Latynes there be fome cryRened that in the 
holy lande is namyd Samerytanes that were conuerted in the 
tyme that the apoflels preched but they vnderRande them not 
well in the cryRen beleue. 

C The tenthe nacyon. 

Ororaben fo called affter the laten for they holde 
and vfe the maner of the cryRen of Ar[a]bien/ 
and of thefe were wonte to be manye people 
in Afrijken and in Spaengnien but nowe is 
there lytell in the tellyng/ They haue in 
theyr feruyce of god lateyne as we do/ And 
they be vnder the obeyifaunce of the chyrche 
of Rome. And the latynes prelates but in many thynges ben 
they dyuerfe departed for alfo the day hath xxiiij. houres/ Alfo 
many tymes hymnes and pfalmes and other orafouns haue they 
and very longe/ And that that ye Latyns rede in the begyn- 
nyng of theyr feruice that rede they in the mydle or in the 
laRe ende. And that facrament of the auter breketh fome of 
them in. vij. partes and fome in. x. partyes/ and thefe people 
be very deuoute and they mareye but ones in tlieyr lyfe and as 
the women hath loRe theyr fyrR hufbond fo dothe they meddle 
no more with no man/ but abyde fro thenffourth in chaRyte. 

Or. ij. caufes cometh the departynge of ye 
cryRen nacyons. The fyrRe caufe is that 
men in olde tyme myght the cryRen haue 
only haue generall confilium/ Therfore 
as the ketters Rode vp ayen the cryRen 
belefe fo was there no body turned nor 
faught counfayll there ayen. The other 
caufe was the ferfwynmyngnes of ye oppreR pope of ye fchole 
of Rome that no meffengere nor lerned Riulde to the kryRen 
thow that were come in feche lodyng/ for had they do that 
they Riulde haue be conuerted to the ryght belefe. ThorowRh 
whiche ryght belefe brynge vs to the hygheR glorye the fader 
the fone the holy ghoRe thre perfones and one god. Amen. 


xxxii. \7'he fiyjl Englijh book containing the ivord America {^Armenica), &c.\ 

[An Abridgment of the Medieval Legend of Prester John]. 

[This third Tract has a very large initial letter I, containing what appears to be a representation of Prester John, and of a Roman Catholic monk or 

pilgrim kneeling beneath him.] 

Pope lohn by ye 
grace of god the 
moofle myghtylle 
kynge a boue all 
kyngys of ye 
worlde gyue lal- 
uyte the Emperour 
of Rome, and alfo 
Oure wel be- 
louyd frynde We 
late you vnder- 
flande and knowe 
of our lande And 
the maner of oure lyuinge and of our people beefles and fowles. 
C And you faye that we beleue not in god and praye not 
to hym as you do. So late we you vnderftande that we be- 
leue in god the father, in god the fonne. and in god the holy 
goofle. The whyche be vnpartyble and one very god. and is 
all thynge myghty. 

And alfo certefye yow with oure lettres fealed and doo you 
knowelege of oure folke or people and of our lande. And yf 
there be ony thynge yat we kan doo for you. fende vs worde 
and we fhall it doo with good herte and wyll. And yf it pleafe 
ony of you to come in oure lande we fhall gyue theym gold 
and fyluer to th[e]yr neceffitie/ and make them great lordis. and 
gyue to them alfo lande and good[s] to lyue on. and do to [t]hem 
worfhyp and honor. For the goodnes that we haue herde fay 
of you. And we do you knowledge that we haue the richefle 
crowne of the worlde as of golde and syluer and of precyous 
Hones in great multitude And we haue alfo vnder vs mighty, 
xlij. kingdomes and al good criflen people, and we kepe alfo 
the poure people with our almes alle that cometh be it flrenger 
or of oure owne people thorough the loue of almyghty god 
oure lorde Ihefu Crifle. 

fj Item Oure lande is parted in. iiij. For the landes of 
Indien/ there be two. and in that grettefl Indien is the body 
of feynt Thomas. And this fame Indien is partiner of ye code 

of orient for it lyeth befyde a toure ye whych is caalled babel/ 
and it id [? is\ not ferre fro Babilonyen. And alfo that other 
parte of Indien is aboute Septentryon. and there is great 
plenty of wyne/ bredde and all maner of vytayle. 

<[ Item alfo in our lande be gryffbns/ and it is a great byrde 
and a myghty. for he wyll well cary in his nefle an oxe/ or an 
horfe for his yonge byrdes to ete. Alfo in Saxen is a townc 
whych is called Grounzwyk ther is one of the clawes yat which 
is well as great as an horn of an oxe. 

[Here comes, in the original, at the side of the page, a woodcut of an 
elephant with a castle on its back.] 

fl In our lande be olyphantes/ dromedaries/ wylde oxes 
the whyche haue. vij. homes, alfo Beeres and Lyons of dyuers 
colours/ as ye redd/ grene/ blacke/ and whitte 

^ Item and also be wylde affes the whych haue longe eeres/ 
and haue twoo fmale homes. &c. 

N our lande be alfo fowles ye whyche that 
haue the mayflery of all birdes of the worlde/ 
and haue a colour lyke ye fyer/ and his 
wingis kyt ^cuf\ lyke a rafour. and this byrdes 
ben called Ilerion. and in alle the worlde is 
no more than two. and they lyuen. iij. fkore 
yere and thenne they laye eggis and fytte vpon theym. xl. 
dayes and as fone as they haue yonges they flee awaye/ fader 
and moder to the zee and ther they drowne theym felf. and 
alle tho byrdes yat come ayenft them do them company to the 
zee. and as fone as the[y] be drowned all the other byrdes 
tourne ayen to the nefle there they yonge byrdes ben lefte/ 
and gyue them mete and drinke to the tyme that the[y] can 
flee and nurter them felfe. &c. 

f[ Yet ben there other byrdes the whyche ben called 
Tygris/ and they be fo flronge that they wyll here or cary in 
theyr nefle a man fytting vpon an horfe all armyd fro the hede 
to ye fote. 

\The Mediceval Legend of Prejler yohn?[ 


[Here, at the side of the page, is the representation of a naked man with 
one eye in his forehead, and bearing a club. ] 

C Item In our lande is alfo a grete deferte or forefl. theiin 
dweleth people bothe men andwymmenthewhychehauenomore 
than one eye afore, and behinde they haue. iij. or. iiij. eyen 

C Yet is in oure lande an other maner of people the whiche 
ete none other than rawe flefhe. and they care not yf it were 
of man or woman or of beeflis and alfo the[y] care not of ther 
owne deth. and as fone as there one of them dyeth the[y] ete 
theym all rawe/ both there one [? owri\ fader or moeder. And 
they faye yat mans fleyfhe is good and natur[a]ly to ete rawe/ 
for they faye that they doe it for parte of penaunce for there 
fynnes. And they be alfo curfed of god/ and they be called 
Gog and Magog And of them be no more than one maner 
of people of this worlde and they (hall be dyflributed or parted 
thorough all the world whan Antechryfl fliall come, and thefe 
fame were the people or folke the whych they hadde put in 
pryfone or in holde the great kynge Alexander of Macedonien. 
But for all that he wente his way And of this people fhalbe 
no iugement at the dredefuU day of dome lyke the prophete 
fayeth. |[ Nefcio qtiis. &'C. 

But neuertheles thonder and lytenynge (hall come fro heuen 
and bourne theym all in po[w]der And whan that we haue 
ony enemyes thanne gyue we theym lycence to put theym 
downe and ete them that be ayenffe vs and then make we 
them to toume ageyne into there owne lande. For if they 
fliolde abyde longe with vs they fliuld vndo vs all and ete vs 
lyke as they do there owne propre folke. 

[Here, also at the side, is the pictorial representation of the creature 
descriljed in the next paragraph.] 

C And yet is there another manere of people/ the whyche 
hath rownde fete lyke an horfe/ and alfo they haue. iiij. fharpe 
clawes behynde/ at there Heles. Wherewith they (Irongely 
fyght that there is no manere thyng can flonde ayenfte them/ 
nether harnayfe/ yrone/ nor flele they pafle all thorowth/ and 
this people gyue vnto vs great trybute. and they be alfo with- 
out dowte great labourers. 

fl Yet is there a nother fmale lande in a parte of that fame 
foreft. aforefayde/ and it is. xlij. [forty-two] dayes lourneyes longe. 
And it is called Feminie the great And in that fame lande 
there be thre Quenes without all other landes/ thowe that 
holden there been of thefe quenes forcfayde And whan thefe 
quenes ihall goo to felde/ then eche of them hath. iij. hondered. 
M. [300,000] wynien and all in harneyfe/ with out all the 
other women the whych that caray vytayle with carte horfe 
and alfo with olyfauntes. And thefe women be very manly 
in fytynge and hardy. C And in this fame lande may come 

Edeh. 1 

no men but. ix. dayes in the yere and no lenger/ and than 
they haue conuerfacion and felyflhyp with the men and nomore 
of the hole yere. For if the men there wolde abyde the 
women fhulde them flee all. 

C And this fame lande is clofed all aboute with a water 
called Cyphon comynge out of paradyfe And in this fame 
lande may come no man without a great (hyp or a great barke. 

C Of the people named Pygnies. 

[Here is a woodcut representing the battle of the Pigmies and the storks.] 

Nd yet is there a nother fmale lande and alfo 
another Ryuer called Pyconye that is. x. 
dayes ioumeye longe/ and. vij. brode and 
this people of this forfayde lande be not 
great/ but they be lyke chyldren of. vij. 
yere of age and they haue horfeys as great 
as a great dogge and they be good cryRened folke and they 
haue no warre ayenfle noman/ But they haue warre ayenftt 
the fowles euery yere/ whan they fhall haue in there frute and 
come And than the kynge putteth on his harneyfe. and than 
they fyght ayenfle the byrdes. And than there be flayn on 
bothe partyes many on/ and alfo they be great labourers/ and 
whan the fylde is don than the byrdes flee a waye fro them. 

[Here, at the side, is a circular woodcut of Sagittarius, evidently one 
of the signs of the Zodiac taken from some illustrated almanac] 

C Alfo in our lande been ye Sagittary. the whyche ben fro 
the myddel vpward lyke men/ and fro ye myddell donwarde 
ben they lyke the halfe neder parte of an horfe. and they bere 
bowes and arowes. And the[y] (hute (Ironger than ony other 
nacyon of people. 

C And in our lande be alfo vnicomes and they been of the 
tnanere with blacke and grene/ and thefe vnicomes (lee many 
Lyons, and the Lyon fleeth the vnicome with fubtylnes. 
Whan the Vnicome hath put hym to red at a tree/ and than 
Cometh the Lyon and ronnyth aboute the tree and after hym 
than ronnyth the vnycome and wolde fayne (ley hym/ and than 
he ronnyth hym felfe into the tree with his home fo harde that 
he cannot pull it out a geyne. than commeth the Lyon and 
hath the maftery vpon the vnicome. 

C Item there is a nother parte of a forell therin dwelleth 
another maner of folke and this people ben. xx. Cubettes of 
heythe. But they were in tyme pafte to be of the heytli of. 
xl. Cubettes. And they haue nat the pore to come out of that 
deferte or forefte and all i; thorowe the niyghte of almyghty 
god. For if they (holde come out by there (Irength and 
hardyneflfe lhe[y] wolde conquere all the worlde. 

XXXI V \The firjl EngUJJt book containing the word Ameyica\Armenicd), &c^ 

[Here, at the side, is a curious cut representing the Phoenix burning.] 
C Here begynnith of ye birde the whyche is called Fenix. 

C In oure lande is alfo a byrde ye whyche is called Phenix 
and is ye fayrefl byrde of all ye world and there is nomore 
than one in all ye cours of nature, and he lyueth C. [loo] yere. 
and thenne flyeth he fo hyghe that the fonne fett the fyre in his 
wynges/ and thenne cometh he don ayen to his nefl and there 
he burneth to p[o]udre and of the affhes comyth a worme/and 
within. C [loo] dayes after growyth there out another byrde 
as fayre as euer that other was. 

C Item Alfo in our lande is plenty of wyne bredde/ flelhe. 
All that is neceflary for mannys body 

f[ Item In our lande maye come none venyn beetle on that 
one fyde 

C Item Betwene oure lande and the Turkes lande is a ryuer 
ronnynge and is called Sydon it commeth out of paradyfe of 
the erthe/ and is full of precyous flones. 

fl And alfo in oure lande ben ronnynge many fmale riuers 
the whyche that come out of this forfayde riuer. and they alfo 
ben fulle of precyous flones. As Yfmaraddus lafpis Saphyrus 
Scobaffus Dyamant Topafius/ Carbonkel. Rubin, and yet more 
other they whyche I not all can reherce. 

f[ Alfo in oure lande groweth on herbe and is called Par- 
manabel/ and that fame herbe is fo myghty euer foo who that 
fame herbe beryth a boute hym he may coniure the deuyll of 
helle and do hym faye what fo euer he wyl axe of hym and 
therfore the deuyll dare not come in to our lande. 

Item alfo in our lande growith pepper in forellis full of 
fnakes and other venym beefles. and whan it is rype than fende 
we for our folke and they put that fyre ther in/ and than they 
venym beeflys flee awaye. than we gadder it and carj-ed to 
oure houfes and waffhed in two or. iij. waters/ and than we 
drey it ayen/ and alfo it waxed black and good 

f[ Item aboute this paflage is a fonteyne or a conduyte/ fo 
who of this watere drinked. iij. tymes he fhall waxe yonge/ 
and alfo yf a man haue had a fykenes. xxx. yere and drynked 
of thys fame water he fhall therof be hole and fonde. And 
alfo as a man therof drinked hym femeth that he had occu- 
pyed the belle mete and drinke of the worlde. and this fame 
fonteyne is full of the grace of the holy goofl. and who fo we 
in this fame water wafflied his body he fhall become yonge of. 
XXX. yere. 

And ye (hall knowe that I am haloweth in my moder wombe/ 
and I am old. v. C.lxij. [562] yere. and I haue me wefllied. vi. 
tymes in that fame water. 

[Here, at the side, is a woodcut of a flying griffon carrying a man.] 

C Item In our lande is alfo a zee very peruulyous/ and 
there can we haue noo paffage with noo maner of fliyppyng 
and than do we vs cary there ouer with our gryffons. 

C Item at that one fyde of this zee ronnyth a fmale r}'uere 
and therin be many precyous flones. and alfo ther growyth a 
certen herbe that is good to all maner of medycyne. 

C Alfo ye fliall vnderflande that betwene vs and the lewes 
ronnyth a great ryuer that is full of precyous flones and it is 
fo flronge in here ronnyng yat noman ther ouer can paffe/ 
excepte ye faterdaye/ and than parted fhehere and toke with 
here all that fhe fyndeth in here waye. And this fame lande 
mofle we flrongely kepe for oure ennemyes. an[d] vp thefe 
cofles haue we. xlij. [42] flronge caflels none flronger in ye 
world, and ben well kepte of people. To vndeRande. x. M. 
[10,000] knyghtes on horfbacke. vi. M. [6000] CrofTe bowes. 
XV. M. [15,000] longe bowes. and. xl. M. [40,000] othere men 
on horfbacke well armed, ye whyche thefe Caflels haue in 
kyping by caufe that the great kynge of Ifrahel fhall not ther- 
paffe with his people. For he is twyes as flronge as I am. 
And his lande is twyes as grete as all Cryflente and turkey. 
For he hath in his kepynge the feconde parte of the worlde. 
And the great kynge of Ifrahel hath vnder hym iij.C [300] 
kynges. iiij.M. [4000] princes, duces, erles. barons knyghtes/ 
fquyers without nombre. and all thefe be fubgette to the great 
kynge of Ifrahel. But yf he myght paffe ouer this forfayde 
ryuer with his people they fholde flee both cryflen and turkes. 
And ye fhall knowe that we all faterdaye late paffe. viij. C. or. 
M. [800 or a 1000] men for beye fuche manere good[s] or mar- 
chaundyfe as they wyll haue. but we late them not come with 
in ye wallis of thys caflels. for they bye it without ye walles 
of thys fortreffes. and they paye ther marchaundyfes with 
platis of fyluer or of gold for they haue none other money, 
and whan they haue don ther befynes they tourne home ayen 
in theyr owne lande. and thefe forfayde caflels be fete to gyder 
within a bowe fhotte. And ye fhall vnderflande that within a 
myle of thefe caflels is a great Cite and a fayre and it is the 
flrongefl of all the worlde. the whyche cite is in our kepyng of 
one of our kyngis. and he receyueth tribute of the great kyng 
of Ifrahel. And alfo gyueth vs euery yere. ij. C. [200] horfes 
laden with golde/ fyluer/ and precyous flones. Except alle 
charges and cofles that men doth in the cyte and in thyfe 
forefayde caflels. And whan that we haue warre ayenfl them/ 
than flee we them alle and late noman alyue. and therfore 
they wyll kepe no warre ayenRe vs. and the wymmen of the 
lewes be very fayre none fayrer in erth nowe a dayes lyuinge. 
And by this foriayJe ryuer is a zee ther noman may paffe/ but 

[ The Mediceval Legend of Prejier yohni\ 


M-han the wynde blowythe fro benethe flrongely than parted fhe 
here/ and tlianne the[y] paffe with great hail, and than they 
take with hym all maner of precious flones. but they may 
felle none therof [be]for[e] that wee haue taken therof our chofe. 

C In a parte of our lande is an hylle there noman may 
dwelle for hete of the fonne/ and there bee wormes many on 
without fyre can not lyue. And by this fame hylle we kepe. 
xl. M. [40,000] people that no thyngeells but make fyre/ and 
whan this wormes feele the fyre than thei come oute of the 
erthe and goo in too that fyre. and there they fpynne lyke the 
wormes yat the fylke fpynneth And of that fame fpynnyng 
we make our clot[h]ynge that we were on fefte dayes. and 
whan they be foule/ than they be cafl in to ye fyer and they 
becom as fayre as euer they were afore 

And ye fhall vnderflande that faint Thomas doeth more 
myracles/ than ony feynt in heuen For he comyth bod[i]ly 
euery yere in his chirche and doth a fermon/ and alfo in a 
palays there ye here after of hym fhall here. 

[Here, at the side, is the representation of the creature described in the 
next paragraph.] 

£ And ye fhall alfo knowe that there be dyuers of people 
of fafon in our lande/ alfo there be people that haue the body 
of a man and the hede lyke a dogge and they be good takers 
of fyffhe. and they be good to vnderflande of theyre fpeeche. 
and they wyll goo in to the zee a hole daye longe to the tyme 
that they haue taken fuche as they wolde haue/ and than ye 
\t/icy] come ayen charged with fyffhe. and bere them in to ye 
houfes for they haue there dwellinge places vnder erthe. and 
thenne take we part of there fyffhes that vs befle lyketh. and 
they do great harme among our bee thow yat be wylde. and 
they fyghte alfo ayenfle our archers. &c. 

C In oure londe is alfo one manere of byrdes and laye ther 
eggis in the zee. xxi. and ther out growen yonge byrdes. and 
than the[y] flee away and we take fomtyme of theym for they 
bee good for to ete whan they be yonge For yf theyr were 
ony man that hathe loft his nature and ete of this fame byrde 
he fholl it gete ayen and becom as llronge as euer he was 

[Here is a woodcut of a tree dropping oil, guarded by a dragon, as described 
in the next paragraph. 

C Alfo In our lande is that fame tree/ ther yat holy creften- 
dom or olye [? oyle] out ronnith. and this tree is dreye/ and 
ther is a great ferpent which yat tree hath in kepynge all the 
hole yere nyght and daye but alone vp[on] feynt lohns daye 
and night and than flepyth the ferpent or dragon, and than 
goo we to the tree and take yat crifma. and of this fame is 
nomore than iij. po[u]nd. and than toume we ayen fecretely 

with great drede and fere yat he vs not fee/ for ells he wyll 
flee vs. and this fame tree is a dayes iourney fro ye paradys of 
ye erthe. but whan this ferpent is a waked than maked he 
great mone and forow. and this dragon hath. ix. hedes and. ij. 
wynges. and is as great as twoo horfes. But for all yat it 
followeth vs ftylle tyl we ben come to the zee ayen. and than 
tourned it ayen. and thenne bere we that crifma. to ye patriarch 
of feynt thomas and he haloweth it/ and ther with they make 
vs al cryften. and ye remenaunt fende we to ye patriarche of 
Iherufalem. and he fende it forth to the Pope of rome. and he 
puth therto olye tof lyfe [? oyle of lyfe\ and than halowyth it/ 
and then he fendeth all cryftente through 

f[ Alfo ye (hall vnderftande whan we fhall goo towarre than 
doo we afore vs bere with, xiiij. [14] kynges. xiiij. [14] cofers 
with golde and fyluer really wroght with precious Hones, and 
the other kynges come after vs with grete ftremers and baners 
of fylke and fyndale very rychely wrought. Ye (hall knowe 
alfo that afore vs gone. xl. M [40,000] clerkis and alfo many 
knyghtis. and men afote there be ij. C. M. [200,000] without 
cariers and cariers that go with the oljrphantes and cary our 
barneys and vitales. 

<[ Ye (hall vnderftande alfo as we goo to fylde than put we 
oure lande in the kepyng of the Patriarche of feynt thomas. 
And whan we pecefably ryde than do we bere afore vs a crofle 
of wodde in worfhyp of oure lorde Ihefu Cryfte. Alfo in the 
incomynge of euery cyte ftande. iij. croffes made of wodde/ for 
to remembre ye paffion of oure lord Ihefu cryfte. And whan 
we ryde pecefably than do we alfo bere afor vs a bafyn full of 
erthe to remembre yat we be come of erthe and that we fliall 
waxe erth ayen. and we do alfo bere for vs another bafyn full 
of fyne gold to a token that we be the noblefte and myghtyeft 
kyngis of all the worlde. 

f[ There is alfo in our lande noman fo hardy that dare breke 
his wedloke. but yf he dyde he fholde be incontynent be 
burnyd. For our lorde hym felfe hath ordeyned wedlok ther- 
fore it fhold be kept by reafon yf that we louyd oure lorde 
Ihefu Cryfte. For it is one of the facramentes of the holy 

f[ Alfo there dare noman make a lye in oure lande. for of 
he dyde he fliolde incontynent bee fleyn and we be feythful in 
oure faying and doying. 

f[ Alfo ye fhall vnderftand that we euery yere goo vyfite 
the holy body of the prophete danyel in oure foreft/ and we 
take with vs. x M. [10,000] clerkis and as many knyghtys. 
and. CC. [200] caftels. made vpon Olyphantes fore to kepe vs 
from ye dragons ye whyche haue. vij. hedes. the whych that 
haue theyr dwellynge in that foreft. 

C And there bee alfo in that fame place dates ye winter 
and fomer hange on the trees fayr and grene. And ye forefte 
is great a. C. and xxx. [130] dayes journey, and ye. ij. 

xxxvi \The firjt Englijh book containing the word America {Armenica), &c?^ 

patriarches ben before vs at table for they haue the myght of the 
pope of rome. And we haue twyes as many abbotes in cure 
lande as there be dayes in the yere. [and] xv. more And euerich 
one of them cometh ones in ye yere and faythe maffe vpon 
faint Thomas auter. And I my felf feye alfo maffe in the grete 
feflis of ye yere. and ther for I am called pope lohn. For I 
[am] prifle after the outfhewyng of facrificie of the auters. and 
kinge after oiitfhewing of luflice. f[ And I pope lohn was 
halowid afore T was borne, for oure lorde fende his angell to my 
fader and fayde to hym make a pallays the whyche (hall be of 
the grace of god and a chamber of that paradyfe for your fonne 
comynge For hi fhall be the grettefl. kynge of the worlde. and 
he Ihalle a longe tyme lyue. So who that in this pallays 
comyth he fhall haue no hongre or thryfle. and he fhall not 
deye and as fone as my fader was a wakyd he was very mery/ 
and incontynent he began to make thys pallays lyke ye fhall 
here. At fyrfl of ye incomynge of thys pallays is made of 
criflall and the couerynge of it is of precious flones and with 
in realy wrought with flerres lyke yf it were ye heuen. and 
that pauing is alfo of criflall and within this fame pallays 
be none wyndowes. and within this fame pallays be. 
xxiiij. [24] pyllers of fyne gold and of precyous flones of all 
maner fortes, and ther am I at great fefle dayes of the yere 
and feynt Thomas prechyth in middell of this pallays to the 

people. And whithin this fame pallays is a conduyte or a fon- 
teyne is lyke wyne in drynkynge/ fo who thereof drincketh he 
defyred none other mete nor drinke and noman can telle fro 
whens it cometh or whyther it gothe. Alfo ther is another 
great merueyll in this fame pallays whan we fhall goo to our 
dyner/ fo is there no maner of mete made redy for vs/ nor 
there is no manner of inflrumentes to make mete redy with 
all. but there comith before vs all maner of delycious mete 
that comyth there thoroughe the holy goofL And it is 
not wel pofTyble to wrytte all maner of goodnes they [haue] 
whiche yat be in oure lande. And ye fhall vnderflande that 
we wntte nothinge to you but trewe is. For if we fholde wryte 
lyes to you/ god and feynt thomas fholde punyfihe vs/ for we 
fholde lefe all our dignyte and oure worfhyp. 
And we praye you that ye wyl writte vs ayen with the berer 
of this lettre. and fende to vs ayen a good knyght of ye genera- 
cyon of fraunce. ~" 

And we praye the kynge of Fraunce that he wyll vs recom- 
maunde to the myghty kyng of Englande. and alfo to all other 
kynges the whyche yat dwelle be yonde the zee thow that ben 
cryflened and we praye god that he you wyl gyue the grace of 
the holy goofl Amen. 

Written in oure holy pallays in the byrth of my felfe. v. 
[five] hondred. and feuen. 

ffimprentEtJb 6fi mc Iol)n of Botsborotot: 

XXXV 11 


Life and Labours 


Richard Eden, 

Scholar, and Man of Science. 

p 1521]— 1576. 

• Probable or approximate dates. 
The best Life of our Author hitherto, is in Cooper's Alhetice Cantabrig'unses, ii., 2, Ed. i86t. 


15C9. Apr. 22. |l|cnrB Viii. tomes to tjc tf)vonc. 

1521. * The year of our Author's birth has not yet been ascer- 

tained, but it cannot be much later than 1521. He 
would therefore be of nearly the same age as Sir 
William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, who was bom on 13th September 1520. 
He stated in 1573 {see under thai year) that 'he was of a respectable 
family in Hertfordshire ; where he, in that year, had a sister still living.' 
He is well educated as a boy. ' When I was a yonge 
scoler, I haue read in the Poet Hesiodus.'^p. xli. col. 2. 
Pietro Martire of Anghiera dies. 
The printing of the Sumario de la natural y general 
istoria de las Indias, written by Gonyalo Fernandez de 
Oviedo y Valdes, is finished at Toledo. 

Sir Thomas Smith lb. 28th March 1514 at Saffron 
Walden], being then B.A., is elected Fellow of Queen's 
College, Cambridge. 

The printing of the Third edition of Pietro Martire's 
Latin Decades is finished at Basle. It is undoubtedly 
the text from which Eden translated //. 63-200 of 
this present work. 
Sir T. Smith is resident at Cambridge. 
Vaunuccio Biringuccio's Pyroteclinia is first printed ; 
at Venice. 

Eden studies at Cambridge for ten years {see under 
' 573)- What he states there, he confirms elsewhere, see 
/. 1. col. I, ' that the ryght worfliypfull and of Angular 






Jan. 25. 


Aug. 31. 






leamynge in all fciences, Syr Thomas Smyth, in my tyme the floure of 
the Vniuerfitie of Cambridge, and sometyme my tutor.' He does not, how- 
ever, seem to have taken any degree, while up at the University. 
1539-1541. Sir T. Smith is travelling abroad. 

1542. A folio edition of Chaucer's works is published, re- 

markable for being an early instance of joint enterprise 
amongEnglish printers, 'each having his own name alone 
as printer, in the colophon of so many copies as were his proper share.' — 
Herbert's Typographical Antiquities, p. 557, Ed. 1785-90. The joint 
partners in this edition were W. Bonham, F. Petit, R. Kele, and R. Toy. 
1842-1547. Sir T. Smith is again resident at Cambridge. It 

■was probably during this period, that he taught Eden : 
who had, for his fellow pupils under Sir T. Smith, 
Edward Vere, aftervvards the Earl of Oxford and a most exquisite poet; 
and John Ponet, afterwards Bishop of Winchester. 

1544-1546. Eden comes to Court, and holds a position in thi 

Treasury, for about two years ; which is his first appoint- 
ment in the Civil Service. 
1545. Oct The First edition of Thomas Geminus' important 

' Epitome of The Fabric of the Human Body, by A. 
Vesalius,' is published in Latin in London, in folio size; 
illustrated with remarkable engravings, 'all drawen out, and graven 
in braffe, and fo impriented by my own labour.' The dedication to 
Henry VIII. is dated London, 4 Kal. Oct. [28th September] 1545. 

Geminus, in his next edition of 1553, states that King Henry very mnch 
wished that this anatomical work should be widely published abroad : and 
that he himself had subsequently heard that it had been ' notably well 


The Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 

accepted, and hath doen muche good in Italye, Fraunce, Spaine, and 
Germaine, and other foren parties. ' 

1547. Eden is destined to the office of the Distillery ; when 

the King dies : see p. xlv. 

1547. Jan. 28. Etjbiav'b Mf. succcE'ba to tlje Crotam. 

1547. The Lord Protector, however, gives the Distillery to 
one, who held it down to, at least, so late as 1573. 

1547.* Eden marries; and has by his wife twelve children in 

the next fourteen years : who all apparently grow up to 
manhood ; else the argument and appeal then used by 
him in 1573, would seem to be faulty. 

1548. Sept. Master William Cecil, a;t. 28, is appointed Secretary 

to the Lord Protector Somerset. 

1549. Oct. 10. In the political revohition, occasioned by the advent 

to power of the Earl of Warwick, afterwards the Duke 
of Northumberland — to whom Eden, in 1553, dedicated 
his Treatyfe of the newe /«rf/a^Master W. Cecil is 
Nov. confined to his house (Oct. lo) ; and in November is 

sent to the Tower ; from whence he is set free on the 25th 

1550. Jan. 25. January following. 

The First edition of Girolamo Cardano's work, De 
Subtilitate, is printed at Nuremberg in folio. It was written in eight 
months ; but under constant correction for thiee years before it appeared. 
Eden thought very highly of it. 

1550. May. The First edition, of the First Volume only, of Navi- 

gationi e Via^gi [collected by J. B. Ramusio] is printed 
at Venice. It was probably this First impression ; and 

not the Second edition of the same Volume printed in March 1554, that 

Eden made use of in his Compilation. 

Sept. 5. Master W. Cecil is appointed one of the Secretaries 
of State and a Privy Councillor. 

1551. July 3. The sweating sickness, which had begun on isth 

April at Shrewsbury, begins in London ; where 500 
persons die in the first week. At this time, the first 

English ship that ever went to Barbary, leaves Portsmouth ; under the 

command of T. Windham (see /. xix). 

Oct. 11. Sir W. Cecil is knighted. 

1552. Spring. Eden writes thus, at p. 355, about the middle of 1555, 

' And wheras as concemynge the knowleage of metals, 
I was once mynded to haue trandated into Englyfhe 
the hoole worke of Pyrotechnia, wherof I fynyfflied. xxii. chapitures now 
more then three yeares fence, and lefte the copie therof in the handes of 
one of whome I coulde neuer get it ageyne (omyttynge to fpeake of other 
ingratitudes) I was therby difcouraged to proceade any further in that 
woorke.' From this, it is evident that, by this time, Eden was a good 
Italian scholar. His translation of the first three chapters will be found at 
PP- 356-368. 

1552. About this date, Eden was, I believe, acting as private 

secretary to Sir W. Cecil. I have, however, lost the 

reference to the authority for this. 

1552. April 22. Sir W. Cecil is made Chancellor of the Order of the 


May 2 or 9. The second English voyage sets out for Barbary, 

p. xix. 
June 3. Girolamo Cardano, on his way from Italy, reaches 
London ; and after a rest of three days, travels in 
twenty-three days to Edinburgh: where he somewhat 
successfully prescribes for Cardinal Beaton. After a 
stay of seventy-five days there ; he leaves Edinburgh on 
Sept. 12. 1 2th September, on his return towards Italy. 
See further respecting this famous Italian magician or physician — this 
considerable genius — this prolific author (he wrote in all 222 treatises, large 
and small) — this most impudent liar and profligate liver, in Professor 
Morley's Life of Jerome Cardan, 1856. It is quite possible that Eden saw 
Cardano — whose works, he quotes as of the highest authority — while he 
was staying in London. 

1552. July 20. Geminus, in the Dedication prefixed to the Second 
edition of his "Epitome of Vesalius' Anatomy &'c." 

(with the explanations to the plates, greatly augmented and in English), 
which is dated " At Windfore, the. xx. July 1552," (the engraved 
title is, however, dated 1553) goes on to state, after what we have already 
quoted above, under 1 545, as follows : — ' And now of late by the informa- 
cion of fundiye frendes and alfo of diuerfe furgeons, I haue ben borne 
in hande, that the fame worke beeyng fet foorth in the Englirti tounge 
might greatly auaile to ye knowledge of the vnlatined Surgeons, 
and by meane of them, fhould bee muche more beneficial!, then in latin 
it is to an infinite nombre of people in thys your Maiedies Royalme of 
Englande. Wherefore myndyng to rendre vnto this Countrey, in which 
by your graces proteccion and bounteous liberalitie I Hue, as muche 
fruite as my poore induftrie and continuall trauaile may pofiibly bee hable 
to yelde, I haue earneflly applyed my felfe to make common and familiar 
to all Englilhe people that which hath ben found profitable among fo 
many foren nacions. Whereunto forafmuch as I am not my felfe fo 
perfeict and experte in the Engliflie tonge that I dare warraunt or truft 
myne owne dooynges, I haue vfed the ftudious pcines of Nicholas Vdall 
[the author of Roister Doister, our earliest known English comedy] and 
certain other learned men whofe exercife in trandaccions and pennyng in 
this tounge hath ben (as I vnderflande) not without fome fruite to the 
common weale.' Eden edited the next edition in 1559. 

1552. Dec. 2. The printing of the first edition of Francisco Lopez de 

Gomaia's Istoria de las Indias y conquiila de Mexico, is 
finished at Saragossa. 

1553. May 9. The date of the Ordinances &c. for the English fleet 

going for the discovery of Cathay by the North-East ; 
given by Sebastian Cabot, as ' Gouernour of the myfterie 
and companie of the Marchants aduenturers for the difcouerie of Regions, 
Dominions, Hands, and places vnknown;' who were not, however, incor- 
porated by royal charter, until 6th February 1555 (i and 2 Philip and Mary). 
For these Ordinances, see Hakluyt's Voyages, &'(., p. 259, ed. 1589. 
1553. May 20. The first English fleet, consisting of the Bona Espe- 
ranza, 120 tons. Captain Sir Hugh Willoughby, General 
of the whole fleet ; the Edward Bonaventure, 160 tons. 
Captain Richard Chancellor, Pilot Major, with Stephen Burrough (or as 
Eden calls him at p. xli. col. 2, Steuen a Burrough), for Master ; and the 
Bona Confidentia, 90 tons, Cornelius Deerfoorth, Master : leave RatclitT 
on their voyage, and get as far as Deptford. 

May 21. About 2 p.m. they leave Deptford. Then occurred 
the scene thus vividly described to us by Clement 
Adams : of which it is almost certain that Eden was 
an eye-witness. 
' The greater (hippes were towed downe with boates, and oares, and 
the mariners being all apparelled in watchet or flvie coloured clothe, 
rowed a maine, and made way with diligence. And being come neere to 
Greeneivich (where the Court then laye) prefently vpon the newes thereof 
the Courtiers came running out, and the common people flockt together, 
Handing very thicke vpon the flioare : the priuie Counfell, they lookt out 
at the windowes of the Court, and the reft ranne vp to the toppes of the 
towers : the fliippes hereupon difcharge the Ordinance, and flioote off their 
pieces after the maner of warre, and of the fea, infomuch that the tops of 
the hilles founded therewith, the valleys, and the waters gaue an Eccho, 
and the mariners they fliouted in fuch fort, that the flcie rang againe 
with the noyfe thereof. One ftoode in the poope of the fliippe, and by 
this gefture biddes farewell to his friends in the beft manner he coulde. 
Another walkes vpon the hatches, another climbes the nirow[d]es, another 
ftandes vpon the maine yarde, and another in the topjie of the fliippe. 
To bee ftiort, it was a very triumphe (after a fort) in all refpects to the 
beholders. But (alas) the good King Edwarde (in refpect of whome 
principally all this was prepared) hee only by reafon of his fickneflie was 
abfent from this fliewe, and not long after the departure of thefe fhips, 
the lamentable and moft forowfull accident of his death followed.' — 
Hakluyt, Voyages, p. 282, Ed. 1589. 

May This voyage seems to have aroused a general interest 

in cosmography. People began to think of the great 
unknown world outside and beyond England. Some 
one printed a tract or single sheet, entitled Of the new found lands, which 
Eden derides at/. 5- This publication stirred him up to a rapid trans- 
lation of a part of tlie Fifth book of Mucnster's colossal Cofmography. 

The Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 


June.* Thus appeared Richard Eden's first literary work, 

(see title at /. 3), printed by Edward Sutton. He 
dedicates it to John Dudley, Duke of Northumber- 
land, the then all-powerful Protector. The Dedication is important 
in relation to the controverted life of Sebastian Cabot. It is to be noticed 
that in it Eden boasts of having already read the Decades. To this month 
and year is therefore also to be assigned the composition of his address 
'To the Reader' at //. 7-1 1 ; in which he so manfully strives to uproot 
the general ignorance and timidity of his time. 

1553. July 6. fSavp's rrign commtiutK. 

1553. Aug. 12. The first English voyage to Guinea leaves Ports- 

mouth, see p. 375. 
Aug. 20. The printing of the second edition of Lopez de 

Gomara's Historia is finished at Medina del Campo. 
Aug. 22. John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland (to whom, 

Eden had dedicated, within less than three months before, 

his first work), is beheaded at the Tower ; with Sir T. 

Gates, and Sir T. Palmer. 

1554. Summer.* Richard Chancellor's ship, the Edward Bonaventure, 

returns to England ; but is robl>ed on the way home, by 
some Flemings. The crews of the other two .ships, 
Spring.* under Sir Hugh Willoughby, to the number of seventy 
persons, are frozen to death ; while wintering at Arzina fiord, for ' want 
of experience to have made caues or stoues.' It appears from a will 
found in one of the ships, that Sir Hugh Willoughby and most of his 
company, were alive in January 1554. 

1554. July 25. Queen Mary is married to Philip, Prince of Spain, at 

Winchester. ' Shortly after King Philip and Queene 

Mary remooued from Winchester to Basing, [and] from 

Aug. 5. thence to Windsor, where, on the fifth of August, the 

King was stalled in the noble order of the garter, where.he kept a great 

feast, and at that time the Earle of Sussex was made knight of the garter.' 

— Stcrw, p. 1057, Ed. 1600. 

Aug. 17. ' The King and Quene remooued to Richmond, from 

thence by water to Southwarke, accompanied with the 

noble men and ladies, the King in one barge, the Queen 

in another, and landed at the Bishop of Winchesters staires neere to S. 

Maries Queries church, and so passed through that place and park into 

Suffblke place, where they rested that night.' — Stmv, idem. 

Aug. 18. 'And the next day, being the 18 of August, they rode 
through Southwarke ouer the bridge, and so through 
London, where they were with great prouision received of 
the citizens, pageants in places accustomed, tlie crosse in Cheape new gilt, 
&c., and passing througli Paules churchyard, a man came sliding, as it were 
(lying upon a rope, from Paules steeple down tothe deans wall.' — Stna, idem. 
As Eden tells us, at p. 46, intoxicated by the shows, the triumphs, and 
universal acclamations that greeted the gorgeous royal procession through 
the City, he was led first to debate within himself as to whether he could 
by any original publication perpetuate to future Ages, not so much the 
glorious reception, as its worthiness and significance : but thinking of 
nothing sufiiciently worthy, he was led to consider the marvellous 
discoveries, conquests, and empire of the Spanairds ; all of which bade 
fair to become (should the royal pair have issue) the joint heritage of 
England. Hence his great Compilation is distinctly the result of the 
Marriage Procession of this day. 

Within the following twelve months (working incessantly, and for 
nothing), Eden translated or wrote all that is reprinled in this volume, 
between //. 43 and 398. Inasmuch as the work was one of great bulk 
(though, at the time, of national importance), several printers combined 
together for its risk of its publication : while the printing of it was 
wholly intrusted to William Powell. There are copies extant with the 
colophons of Robert Toy, Richard Jugge, Edward .Sutton, and also, as 
Herbert states at /. 738, William Seres, and perhaps others. These are 
the "parteners" to whom Eden refers at/. 330. — See 1542 above. 

Leonhardus Gorecius, a Polish knight, writes a congratulatory Latin 
Oration to the people and nobles of England on the royal marriage, which 
was printed by William Powell, who was also, at the same time, busily 
engaged on Eden's Compilation. Eden refers to this Oration at/. 47. 

1554. Oct. 2. 'There came to the Tower in twenty carts made for the 
show, accompanied with certain Spaniards of the King's 
Guard, ninety-seven little chests, of a yard long and four 
inches broad, of silver, which will make by estimation fifty thousand 
pounde' [equivalent to ^£^750,000 of the present day]: Harl. MS. 194 
[which is a ' Pocket Diary of a resident in the Tower between July 1553 
and October 1554'] reprinted by the Camden Society under the title of 
The Chronicle of Queen Jane, 1850. John Foxe, in his Actes and Motmmentes, 
iSfc., Ed. 1563, states that the silver was 'matted about with mats, and 
mayled in little handles, about two feet long and almoft half a foot thick, and 
in euery cart fixe of thofe bundles.' I presume this is what Eden refers 
to at /. 56, as the l8,ooo pounds ' weyght of fyluer which was coyned 
to the Kynges vfe in the towre of London where neuer fo much hath 
byn feene at once as fuche as haue byn owlde officers in the mynte doo 
affirme.' It was brought there from Peru and Rio de la Plata, by the 
celebrated Spanish historian Augustin de Zarate ; whose Historia del 
descuhrimiento y com/uista del Peru was published at Antwerp in the 
next year. 

It was probably after the formation of this acquaintanceship with Zarate, 
and while his great Collection, here reprinted, (itself an honour to the 
Spanish rmtion) was in the press ; that by the favour of certain Spanish 
nobles, Eden obtained a place in the English Treasury of the Prince of 

1554. Oct. 11. The second expedition to Guinea leaves the River 
Thames, see/. 379. 
Oct. 12. The third edition of Gomara's Historia is finished at 
1554. Nov. 28. The Council of State announce by letter, at Dr. Ched- 
sey's sermon at Paul's Cross, that the Queen is enceinte. 

1554. Nov. 11. \ Parliament sits at Westminster. 

1555. Jan. 16. ) Among other Acts passed by it, was the following 
short one. now known as I & 2 Philip and Mary, 
c. 6 — entulcd An Acte for renueng of three Eftatutes 
made for the punijliement of Herefiei: — " For th[e]exchuing and 
avoiding of Errouvs and Herefies which of late haue ryfen growen 
and much encreafed within this Realme, for that th[e]ordinaries 
haue wanted aucthoritee to procede agaynfte thos that were infected 
therwithe : Be it therfore ordeined and enacted by th[e]aucthorite 
of this prefente Parliament, That the Statute made in the fifthe yere of 
the Reigne of King Richarde the Seconde, concerning th[e]arre(ling and 
apprehencion of erronious and hereticall Preachers, And one other Statute 
made in the feconde yere of the Reigne of King Henrye the Fourlhe 
concerning the reprefling of Herefies and punifliment of Heretikes, And 
alfo one other Eftatute made in the feconde yere of the Reigne of King 
Henrye the Fiflhe, concerning the fuppreffion of Herefie and Lollardye, 
and euery Article, Branche and Sentence contained in the fame three 
feuerall Actes and every of them, fliall from the xxth day of lanuarj'e next 
coming [1555] be revived and beiin full force ftrengthe and effecte to all 
Intentes conftruccions and purpofes for ever." — Statutes of the Realm, 
iv. 244, ed. 1819. 

1555. Jan. 1. The date of John Elder's letter describing the mar- 

riage of the King and Queen in the previous July ; which 
letter was immediately printed. 
Jan. 20. The burning of Protestants becomes lawful on and 

after this day, by the above Act of Parliament. 
Feb. 4. John Rogers, the first of the Marian martyrs, is burnt 

at Smithficld. 
Feb. 6. The Moscovy Company is incoriJorated by Royat 
Charter: having for its Executive ; Sebastian Cabot, 
Governor ; four Consuls ; and twenty-four Assistants. 
Eden mast have watched the proceedings of this Company with the deepest 
interest. Indeed, it is probable that the entire section, Of Moscovie and 
Cathay (which has nothing whatever to do with the title-page or original 
plan of his Compilation ; at which he must have been working hard, all 
through this winter) was suggested by the return of Richard Chancellor 
and the subsequent Incorporation of this Company ; and put forth by him, 
as a goodwill ofiering towards their success and information. 
1555. Feb. 8. Laurence Saunders is burnt at Coventry; and so the 
legalized religious massacre goes on. 


The Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 

May 21. Is the latest actual date in Eden's Compilation, and 
therefore in the three Works here reprinted. It will 
be found towards the bottom of /. 382. On this day 
the English ships, returning on their way home from 
Guinea, were in 39° 30' N. At their rate of progress 
they could hardly have reached England before the end 

July.* ofjuly. 

Aug.* Therefore Section VII. of Eden's Compilation was 

written and printed in August ; and, at the earliest, 
his newly printed Compilation and the printing of the 
entire book could hardly have been finished before 

Sept.* September. 

Immediately after which ; Thomas Watson, Bishop of 

Lincoln,— the fellow-student of Roger Aschxun ; by 

whom his Latin play of Absalom [? if the MS. is 

now at Wilton House] is exceedingly praised in his Schoolmaster, 1570 

— accuses Eden before Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, for heresy ; of 

which his newly printed Compilation would afford ample evidence. 

Oct. 24. Bishop Gardiner, however, dies ; and Eden somehow 
escapes punishment, with simply the loss of his ofSce : 
and then seems, for the next three years to be living in 
retirement ; his family steadily increasing all the while. 

1556. Jan. 10. The printing of Martin Cortes' Breve compendw de la 

sphera y de la arte de nauegar is finished at Seville. 
Nov. 7. Richard Chancellor, in the wreck of his ship the Philip 
and Mary in Pettislego Bay, Scotland, is drowned — while 
endeavouring in a boat to save the Russian Ambas- 
sador's life ; in accomplishing which, he loses his own. 

1557. Feb. 27-28. Eden probably witnessed the splendid reception 

by the Moscovy Company, of Osep Gregorevitch 
Napea, the first Russian Ambassador, on his arrival 
in London, for the frods verbal of which, see Hakluyt, Voyages, &'c., 
p. 321, Ed. 1589. From the omission in this notarial document of all 
allusion to Sebastian Cabot ; it is evident that he was but recently dead. 
For Eden's account of his death — the only one extant — see/, xlvii., col. 2. 
It probably occurred about this date : for when Eden, about the Summer 
of 155s, wrote the heading at p. 283, ' that woorthy owlde man Sebaflian 
Cabote, yet liuynge in Englande,' was still 'Gouernour of the coompany 
of the marchantes of Cathay.' 

1558. Nov. 17. iEli)a%ct!) Burcrrlis to tfjc tljvonf. 

We now come to the two earliest printed notices of Eden. His reputa- 
tion had travelled over the Continent to the English Protestant exiles 
in Switzerland ; and two of them thus vaguely and incorrectly refer to his 
literary labours, but give him the wrong Christian name. 

1558. Lawrence Humphrey (who died Dean of Winchester, 
on I Feb. 1590), in his three books of Interpretatio 
linguarum, the Dedication of which is dated, Basiliae, 

Feb. 3, 1559, thus refers to our Editor-Author, at/. 520. ' Petrum quoque 
Martyrem Arglerienscm Joannes Eden, Cosmographus et Alchumista uertit 
De insulis nuper invent is. ' 

1558. Ep. Bale, at/. 1 10 of his Supplement (written in 1558), 
to his Scriptorium illustrium, &■(. the printing of which 
was finished in Feb. 1559, 's a little more explicit ; but 

still follows Humphrey closely. "Johannes Eden, Cosmographus et 
alchumista ut k quibusdam [i.e. L. Humphrey] narratur, ingeniosus ac 
peritissimus, inter alia scripsit £>e nauigaiionibus Portugalensium, Lib. I. 
[This is evidently Eden's first publication. Of the newe Indta."] Transtulit 
Petrum Martyrem Angleriensem. De insulis nuper imunlis. Lib. I. [or 
rather the Decades'], Aliaque fecit multa. Clariut anno Domini. 1556." 

1559. Sept. The printingof the Third editionofGeminus'^n<j/(;//y, 

iSr'c., ' enlarged, amplified, and fo corrected and diligently 

perufed, that it maye seeme a newe worke, and rather an 

other than it was before,' is finished. Richard Eden is, this time, the English 

reviser ; and the fresh Dedication to the new Queen Is evidently written by 

him for Geminus, as its smooth connected style abundantly demonstrates. 

1561. Eden's next literary work seems to have been the 

translation (and probably also, in part, the devising of 

the numerous, and, for that time, difficult woodcuts of 

this work of Martin Cortes' Arte de Navigar, at the expense of certain 
members of the Moscovy Company : towards which, Eden appears, at this 
time, to have stood in the same relation as Hakluyt did, fifty years later, to 
our East India Company. This work is remarkable not only for the num- 
ber of the wood engravings (some of them moveable) of different mathe- 
matical instruments ; but also for a small outline map of The Ninue IVorlde, 
or more properly of the North Atlantic basin. This is probably the 
earliest printed map of America ever produced in England : and is 
evidently copied from the original in Cortes' Compendio. 

To this translation, Eden prefixed the following excellent Preface : 
in respect to which, it is significant to notice that Sebastian Cabot's name 
is omitted from the inscription. 

To the ryght worjhypfull fyr VVyllyam Garrerd Knyght, and 
Majltr Thomas Lodge, Aldermen of the Cilie of London, and 
Couernours of the honorable felmo/hyp or focietie, afwell ofcerteine 
of tlu Nobilitie, as of Marchauntes aduenturers,for the difcouery 
of La/tdes, Territories, Ilandes, and Seignories vnknowen, and not 
before their firfl aduenture or enterprife by Seas or Nauigalions 
commonly frequented : 

And to the right -worfhypfuU the Confulles, Affflentes, and com- 
minaltie of the fame focietie, Richarde Edett wyf/heth health and 

Hat foeuer he was (ryght honorable and worfhypfuU) that 
fyrfte beleued that the frame and coaptacion of the bodye 
of man, with the functions, offices, and duities of the partes 
and members of the fame, knytte together in a certen 
vnitie to a common minlftration, dyd reprefent a lyuely 
Image and fimilitude of a ];erfecte common wealth : I thynke that he was 
a man of no vulgare iudgement or abiecte mynde, but rather of finguler 
wyfdome and prudence in the contemplacion of Diuine and humane 
thynges. For he fawe, that as in the fmall natiue feede of all growyng or 
lyuing thinges, is conteyned the fourme that bryngeth them to theyr 
perfection : fo in certeyne fmall and obfcure members of the common 
wealth, confifteth no fmall increafe to the perfection of the whole. 
He fawe lykewyfe that herein, as in the bodye of man reprefentyng 
the partes and members of the worlde (as I haue fayde) are dyuers partes 
of dyuers and fundrye actions and motions, greatly dyfferyng in fourme, 
number, and quantitie, yet all the fame to be fo knytte together, and fo 
to confent in one vniformitle to the common profyte of the whole, 
that a greater Concorde and harmonye can not be imagined, then is 
proportioned by the frendly vnitie of dyuers and contrarye. He fawe lyke- 
\vyfe in the fame, fuch a mutuall compaffion of parte to parte, and member 
to member, by one common fence exiftent in them all, that no one part or 
member can feele eyther ioye or payne, but that in maner all the other 
are parttakers therof more or leffe, yf they be lyuely members, and not 
wythered or otherwyfe vnfenfate by reafon of dead flefhe, which onely 
by cuttyng and burning ought to be deuyded from the founde and 
whole. But as in man (whom Plato calleth the leffe world) the 
vigour and agilitie of the immortall foule and mynde, neuer ceaffeth 
from continuall mouyng, but is euer exercyfed in excogitacions and inuen- 
tions of great thinges (herein refemblyng God, whofe caracte it beareth) 
by prouidence forefeing, and by intelligence vnderftandyng and deuyfyng 
what is to be done, and what to be efchewed, Joth immediatly moue and 
rayfe vp the faculties, powres, and members of the body to execute the 
fame : Euen fo in the greater worlde, the prouidence of God, and vniuerf- 
all counfayle and confent of men, hath elected and appoynted certen prin- 
cipall men, to beare lyke rule and auctorllie in the bodye of the common 
wealth, as hath the intellecliue foule in the members of our bodye to moue 
and commaunde the fame. To Princes therefore counfaylours, rulers, 
gouemours and maglftrates, as to the mod intellectiue and fenfitiue partes 
of the focietie of men, hath God and nature geuen preeminence and gouem- 
aunce of the common wealth, that by theyr prouidence, wyfdome, and ayde, 
it may vniuerfally florylh, not onely by iufte adminiftration of good lawes, 
with due correction of malefactours, but alfo by lyberall rewardyng of 
fuche as haue well deferued : and efpecially by maintenaunce of fuche artes 
and fciences, as the common wealth can not well be without. And to 
draw nearer to the applyinge of my fimilitude : I faye, that whatfoeuer 
vertue, whatfoeuer arte, or the ingenious induftry of men hath to this day 
I inuented, all the Came is to be imputed to the beneuolence and liberalitie 

The Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 


of fuche as haue honourablye maintayned and freelye rewarded the trauay- 
les, paynes, and charges of them that haue fpente theyr lyues, goodes, and 
wyttes (as many haue done) in the inuentions of neceffarye and profytable 
artes and fciences. For euen as holfome and temperate ayre with feafon- 
able wether and fauorable influence of the heauens and pianettes, caufeth 
fruitefulnes on the earth, and contrary wyfe, barenneffe by thecontrarye : Euen 
fo the fauour of Princes and Magiftrates norytheth, augmenteth, and amp- 
lyfyeth all artes and fciences by liberalitie, and extynguylheth the fame 
by miferable couetoufnes and parcimonie. And althoughe in fome men of 
rare and noljle nature, the defyre of honour and fame onely for vertues 
fake, and ftudy toward theyr countrye and common wealth, hath moued 
them in maner to theyr owne vndoyng through theyr greate loffe and 
hynderaunce, to fette foorth and inuent diuers thynges for the commoditie 
of the common wealth and other, rather then for theyr owne : yet vndoubt- 
edly, who fo wel confidereth and indifferently wayeth that I haue fayde, 
fhal fynde and fee by daylye experience, that in maner onely munificence, 
liberalitie, and rewarde, or the hope thereof, geueth fpurres to them that 
attempte great and vertuous enterprifes, as I coulde more largely proue by 
fo many teftimonies of Hyftories, both holy and prophane, that the rehear- 
fall therof fhoulde be but tedious and not greatelye necefiarye for my 
purpofe, efpecially wrytyng vnto your honoures and worihyps, of whofe 
munificence and li1)eralitie, I haue had great experience, bothe in my felfe 
and others, who by your ayde and mainteynaunce haue attempted and per- 
fourmed many goodly inuentions, viages, nauigations and difcoueries of 
landes and Seas heretofore vnknowen. Wherein, what great charges you 
haue fufleyned, and howe lyberall and conflant you haue ben in furtherynge 
the fame, doth well declare that hyther to you are rather lofers than gayners 
therby. The whiche thyng doubtelelTe is the more to your commendation, 
in that it maye hereby appeare that you haue attempted the fame rather 
for knowledge and vertues fake, then for couetoufnes of gaynes : as is 
furthermore well knowen by your fyrfle viages of difcouerye attempted to 
Cathaye by the Northeafl feas, vpon certen loffe and detriment, for vncer- 
teyne hope eyther of gaynes, or of any fuch way to be founde, otherwyfe 
then by certen lykely coniectures : not much vnlyke to the (hynyng flowres 
• of Marchafites, which outwardly appearyng in minerall mountaynes, are 
fignes and token wherby is coniectured what metal is conteyned therein, 
and whether the fame is to be folowed or not. And although it fometyme 
fo chaance that fuch fignes are fayleable, ihewyng more in appearaunce 
then they conteyne in fubflaunce : yet are not fuch fignes tokens, or (hewes 
to be contemned, but rather eameftly to be folowed, forafmuch as it hath 
ben often proued and founde by experience, that by folowyng the fame, 
haue ben founde great and riche mynes of metalles : as Ceorgius Agricola 
in his bookes De rebus melallicis, doth largely declare and proue by manye 
examples. But to wryte at large what greate thynges haue proccaded of 
fmall and obfcure begynninges, and in maner mere coniectures : it woulde 
fo farre exceade the meafure of an Epiftle or Preface, that it woulde rather 
increafe to the iuft quantitie of a booke. For in maner all the late dif- 
coueries both of the Spanyardes and Portugales, had theyr begynnyng of 
fuch fmall coniectures, with vncerteyne hope (as it were prefer fpem fub fpe) 
vntyll God and good happe, by the conflant trauayle and valiaunt mynde 
of fuch as fyrfl attempted the fame, gaue them to enioye that they hoped 
for. But whatfoeucr they haue obteyned and do enioy, this may I boldly 
fay in your behalf (right honorable and worfltipfull) that there hath not 
lacked in you eyther the lyke or greater promptnefle of mynde, forwardnes 
in attemptyng, magnificence in expences, and liberall in rewardes. For 
befyde the great charges and loffes that you haue ben at otherwyfe, what 
ihould I fpeake of the great gyftes that you haue fente to the Emperour of 
Ruflia? What of your laft chargeable vyage of difcouerye among the 
innumerable Rockes, Ilandes, and moueable mountaynes of Ice in the 
frofen fea, by innumerable landes and Ilandes vnknowen to the Antiques, 
euen vnder and farre within and beyonde the circle Artike, where they 
thought that no lyuynge creature coulde drawe breath or Hue for extreme 
colde : wheras neuerthelefle the fame hath ben by you difcouered euen vnto 
the myghtyc ryuer of Ob, that falleth into the Scithian Ocean, or Oceanus 
Hyperborcm, not farr from the mountaynes called Hyperborei, fo named 
becaufe they are fituate almofl vnder the North pole, and thought therfore 
to be inaccelfable. A vyage doubtlefle of fuch difficultie and in maner 
impoffibilitie, that confyderyng the infinite daungiours therof (as I haue 
learned by th[c]information of Steuen a Burrough, that was then the chiefe 

Pilote of the fame vyage) it may feme impoffible that they (lioulde euer 
haue efcaped, excepte the myghtye hande of God, by the experte Ikylful- 
neffe of fo excellent a Pilot, had delyuered them from thofe daungers. 
And although in dede (as religion byndeth vs) it is conuenient in all 
thynges to geue all honour, glorye and thankes to God, yet are we not 
thereby reftrayned to be thankfuU to fuch men, as by theyr arte, ingeniouf- 
nes, trauayle, and diligence, haue deferued both iufte commendation and 
large rewarde. And therfore referryng the rewarde to you (ryght honorable 
and worlhypfull, to whom it apperteyneth) yf I Ihould not here geue hym 
at the leafte fuche commendation, as in my iudgement he hath well deferued, 
I myght feme both to defraude hym of his worthye defertes, and alfo to 
forgette the frendffiyp and good wyll I beare hym, onely for his vertues 
and excellencie in his profeffion. For certeynly when I confider how 
indigent and deftitute this Realm is of excellent and expert Pilottes, I can 
do no leffe of confcience, then in refpect of your owne commoditie, yea 
rather for the commoditie of the Queenes Maieftie and the whole Realme, 
to exhort you and put you in remembraunce (although I may herein feme 
to put the fpurres to a nmnyng horfe, as faith the Prouerbe) fo to regard 
hym and efleme hym and his faythfuU, true, and painefull feruice towarde 
you, that he maye thereby be further encouraged, and not difcouragefl, 
eyther for lacke of maintenaunce, or other wyfe by the iniurious affaultes 
of fuch his enemies, as onely his vertues and excellencie haue moued to 
beare hym difpleafure, as enuye doth euer folowe vertue, as faith the 
Latine Prouerbe, Virtuti comes inuidia. And howe true a fentence this is, 
is well verified by the faying of a certayne Philofopher (whofe name I do 
not remember) who hearynge one vaynely reioyce that he had no enemies, 
aunfwered that that was a token he hadde done lyttle good : Meanyng 
thereby (as dayly experience proueth) that yf he had excelled in any vertue, 
he coulde not haue lacked fome enemies. And hauyng here touched to 
fpeake of enuye, I remember that when I was a yonge fcoler, I haue read 
in the Poet Hefiodus of two kyndes of enuye, whereof the one is called 
Inuidia, and the other Aemulatio, which is more tollerable then the fyrfte, 
for that it is ioyned with fome vertue, and enuyeth that anye (houlde excell 
hym in any excellent qualitie that he profelTeth. But forafmuch as this 
enuy of emulation proceadeth of fome finguler vertue of them that are fo 
maliced, they maye herein reioyce, that they (hall euer haue a hundreth 
frendes for one enemie : yea and although they hadde none, yet is vertue 
a rewarde to it felfe, and to be embrafed for it felfe onelye, as the Philo- 
fophers affirme. What then (hall we fay to fuch, as forgettyng this rewarde 
of vertue, do not onely [not] fauour, but rather hynder the preferment and 
mayntenaunce of fuch experte men, more edemyng certayne Fydiermen 
that go a trawlyng for fy(he in Catches or mongers, and dradgies for Oyftere 
about the fandes, betwene the South furlande and Wyntcrton neflfe, and the 
fandes about Temmes mouth, then they do fuche excellent Pylotes as are 
able without any Rutter or Carde of Nauigation, not onlye to attempte 
longe and farre viages, but alfo to difcouer vnknowen landes and Ilandes, 
as haue doone of late yeares many excellent men, to the great honour and 
enrychyng of their Prynce and countrye. But as touching Steuen A Bur- 
rough, the chiefe Pylote of your viagies of difcouery, it may hereby well 
appeare yat he is neyther malicious nor enuious of his arte and fcience, in 
that he defireth ye fame for the common profite to be commen to al men : 
And for the fame intent was the fyrfl that moued certen worfliypfull of your 
company, as Syr William Garrerd, Maifter William Mericke, Maifter Blafe 
Sanders, and Maifter Edwarde Caftlen, to haue this worke trandated into 
the Englilh tongue. Who of their own good nature fauouryng al vertuous 
ftudies and the profefiburs of the fame, did fone incline to his honeft requeft 
herein : and therewith not only defired me, but alfo with liberall rewarde 
enterteined me, to take in hande the trandation. Whiche being nowe 
finiflied as well as my poore leamyng may perfourme, I defyre your honours 
and worlhyppes, to accepte in as good parte as I haue ment herein to 
gratifie you, and doe fuche feruice as my abilitie may fuffice. Nowe ther- 
fore this worke of the art of Nauigation, beyng publyfiied in our vulgar 
tongue, you may be affured to haue more ftore of (kylful Pilotes. Pilotes 
(I faie) not Pirottes, Rulers, not Rouers, but fuche as by their honeft 
behauour and conditions ioyned with arte and experience, may doe you 
honeft and true feruice : whiche is not to be looked for of fuche as beynge 
deftitute as well of the feare of God as of all moral vertues, fuperbounde in 
all notorious vyces, accoumpting defperatnelfe for boklneffe, raflinelTe for 

hardinede, impudencie for ftoutnefie, and crueltie for nianhod. What other 



The Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 

thyng (I faye) is to bee looked for of fuche, then of fuche trees fuch fruites, 
E,t mali corui malum ouum. But for as muche as thefe haue no place 
appointed them in the bodie of our common wealth, whiche we haue here 
before compared to the members of the bodie of man : therefore are they 
no otherwyfe to be eftemed then as excrementes of the bodye, to whom 
nature hath appointed no place in the fame, but laboureth continuallye to 
cad them forth dyuers wayes, leafte by theyr filthyneffe they (hould infecte 
the other members, euen as the pompe of the (hyppe if it be not auoyded, 
is noyous to the fhippe and all that are therein. But the wyfe and honed 
Pylot, fyrft hauyng before his eyes the feare of God, and puttynjj his chief 
truft in hym, (hall fecondarely truft to his arte and fcience, without any 
fuche vayne obferuations as the fuperftitious Horofcopers (Aftrologiers I 
meane, and not Aftronomers) are accuftomed to vfe in the elections of 
houres, tymes, and dayes, by conftellations and afpectes of the Starres and 
Planetes, as many fonde menne haue doone, thynkynge thereby to haue 
efcaped fuche daungers, as they haue thereby the rather fallen into, throughe 
contempte of arte and fcience by folyflie confidence in fuperftitious Aftro- 
logie : which for the vanitie and vncertaintie thereof, the ryght wordiyp- 
full and of fmgular leamynge in all fciences, Syr Thomas Smyth, in my 
tyme the floure of the Vniuerfitie of Cambridge, and fometyme my Tutor, 
was accuftomed to call In^enioJiJ/imam artem mentiendi. (That is) the mofte 
ingenious arte of lyinge. Omitting therefore the fuperftitious and phanta- 
fticall obferuations of the iudicials of Aftrologie, it (halbe better and more 
neceffary for all Pylotes that defyre to excelle in theyr profeflTion, to leame 
and obferue the principles of thys booke, whereby they may haue fuche 
knowledge of the Sphere, as may inftructe them the makynge and vfe of 
dyuers goodly Aftronomicall inftrumentes perteyninge to the arte of Naui- 
gation, by knowledge of the mouynges of the Sunne and Moone in their 
Spheres, and the other Planetes and fixte Starres : thereby to attayne to 
the true knowledge of houres, tymes and tydes, with the variation of the 
Compafle, and many other goodly naturall obferuations of weathers, 
tempeftes, and calmes, by certain infaileable fygnes and tokens of the fame, 
very neceffary to be obferued. And this by the true principles ofAftro- 
nomie and not of Aftrologie. And this is the true Aftronomie wherof 
the Diuine Philofopher Plato hathe wrytten fo diuine a fentcnce, that 
I haue thoughte the fame here worthy to be alleaged, that by the auctho- 
ritie of fo famous an aucthour, we maye knowe what is true Aftronomie, 
with the vfe and commoditie therof. Therfore in his booke intituled 
Timeus vel De Nutura, thefe are his wordes. Rerum autem optimarum 
cognitioncm, nobis oculi attiikiunt. Nam hac qua: de mundo difpuiantur, 
nuiujuam inucnta fuijfent, fi ueque fydira, ncque Sol, neque Calum fuffici 
potuijfct. Coipt'Uio vero did ac noctis, ab oculis orta, fecit vt dimenftone quadem, 
me7ifium annorumque ambitus metiremur, iempus cogitofcerepnus, ac vniuerftc 
natura: ordinan fcrutaremur. Quibus ex rebus, philofophiam adefti fumus. 
Tliat is to faye. Our eyes haue brought vnto vs the knowledge of mofte 
excellent thinges. For what fo euer is difputed of the worlde, had neuer 
bene inuented, yf neither the Starres, neither the Sunne, neither heauen, 
coulde haue bene feene. For the knowledge of the daye and nyght, 
taksTig beginning at ye eyes, caufed vs as it were by certen limites and 
boundes to meafure the circuites of monethes and yeares, wherby we came 
to the knowledge of tymes and the order of vniuerfall nature. And hereby 
alfo we obteyned the knowledge of Philofophie. &c. And thus by the 
aucthoritie of Diuine Plato (whome for hys excellencie Cicero called Deuni 
Philofophorum (that is) the God of Philofophers) we maye vnderftande that 
the true Aftronomie, is the perfecte knowledge of the miraculous mouinges 
of ye Planetes, Starres, and heauens (and efpecially of the Sunne and 
Moone) whereby is caufed the varietie of times and dyuerfitie of all natu- 
rall thynges, by naturall caufes : as by the qualities of Elementes, as hoate, 
colde, moyfte and drye, whyche are augmented or dymynyftied by the more 
or lefle influence of thefe twoo Luminaries, as they comme nearer vnto vs 
at fome tymes, or depart further from vs at other tymes, with diuers motions 
in diuers climates whiche caufeth not onely varietie of tymes in fundry 
climates, but alfo the varietie of diuers complexions, formes, and difpofi- 
tions of all creatures vnder the face of heauen, none other accidentall con- 
tyngent, voluntarie or violent caufe to the contrarie notwithftandinge. 
And this is it that Plato meaneth by thofe wordes. Vt iempus cognofceremus 
ac vniuerj'a naturce ordincm, S^c. That is, to knowe the tymes and vniuer- 
fall order of nature. And doubtleffe, who fo well confidereth the maruei- 
lous effcctes that are caufed, efpecially by the variable mouing of the Sunne 

in the Zodiac, muft needes acknowledge it to be the chiefe inftrument and 
meane that God vfeth in the generation, perferuation, and alteration of all 
creatures that are conteyned in the worlde of generation and corruption. 
And for this confideration, certen of the auncient Philofophers called it the 
foule of the worlde : Other the eye, and other alfo the heart of the worlde. 
Plato alfo affirmeth that the foule of the worlde is in the Sunne : And that 
all other lining thynges, receyue lyfe from hence. And hereof commeth 
the fayinge of the Philofopher, Sol et homo generant hominem : (that is) the 
Sunne and man, begette man. And therefore (as wryteth Marcilius 
Ficinus) of all Idolaters they are moft toUerable that honour the Sunne for 
God. The whiche although it bee not, yet vndoubtedlye are his eflectes 
fo greate and wonderfuU in this inferiour worlde, that it may feme in maner 
to be Gods Viceregent, Lieftenant and Viceroy in al the woorkes of nature, 
excepte where and when it pleafeth hym in any thyng myraculouflye, 
otherwyfe then by the common order and courfe of nature, to commaunde 
the contrarie. 

And yf it may not be tedious vnto you (ryght honorable and worftiypfull) 
it (halbe a pleafure vnto me, for the better declaracion hereof, to make a 
briefe difcourfe of the marueilous and ftraunge elTectes that are caufed by 
the Sunne : whiche perhappes fewe haue done, otherwyfe then difpearfedlj 
here and there, as occafion hath ferued. Fyrft therfore let vs confider whit 
it hath done ouer the Equinoctiall line, and vnder both the poles at one 
inftant, yet diuerfely and contrarely the one to the other. Yox fo hath the 
infinite wyfedome of the greate God of nature, the fupreme Architecture of 
the vniuerfall worlde, difpofed all thynges in fuch perfecte order, that to 
them that are vnder the Equinoctiall, and haue theyr Horizon palTyng by 
the two Poles, the daye is of xii. houres and the nyght as much, and theyr 
yeare alfo is deuyded into. xii. monethes : But they that dwell iuft and 
perpendiculerly vnder our pole, and that haue their Horizon paflfyng ouer 
the fayde line, haue the daye of fyxe monethes. That is to faye : begyn- 
nyng from the tenth daye of Marche, when the Sunne commeth ouer the 
fayde Horizon, whyle it retume to palTe vnder the fame at the tenth of 
September. And contrarywyfe one nyght of fyxe monethes haue th[e] 
inhabitauntes vnder the Pole Antartyke : whofe yeare (that is to faye, all 
the courfe that the Sunne maketh by the. xii. fignes of the Zodiac) is 
accomplyfflied in one daye and one nyght. A thyng doubtlelTe mofte 
wonderfuU and marueylous. I.ykewyfe, when we haue Somraer, they that 
are vnder our Pole haue the daye of fyxe monethes, and they of the 
oppofite or contrary Pole, haue theyr nyght of the fame length. Agayne, 
when it is wynter with vs, then vnder our Pole is the nyght of the fayde 
fyxe monethes : and vnder the oppofite Pole, is the day of the fame length. 
So that as it were courfe by courfe, when we haue the night, they haue 
the day : And contrarywyfe, when we haue the day, they haue the night. 
The which although it be fo longe and of fo great fpace of tyme, yet is it 
not continuallye obfcured with darkeneffe. For the Sunne maketh his 
courfe in fuch order, that th[e]inhabitauntes of that parte, lyue not durynge 
that tyme altogether in darkenelTes, as Moles lyue vnder the grounde, but 
as other creatures that lyue vpon the globe and face of the earth, they h.aue 
fuche lyght as maye fuffice to fuftayne and mayntayne theyr lyfe. For the 
bodye of the Sunne declineth no more eyther beneath the Equinoctiall line, 
eyther aboue the fame line (which is the Horizon to both the Poles) than. 
23. degrees : That is to faye, no lower or hygher then the Tropikes, whiche 
are no more then 23. degrees or there about from the fayde Equinoctiall 
that is theyr Horizon, as is aforefayde. And yet in thefe 23. degrees he 
maketh not his courfe by the oppofite Diameter, but goeth continually 
rounde. about in circuite : fo that his beames reuerberatyng heauen, n-pre- 
fente fuche a maner of lyght, as we haue in Sommer two houres before the 
Sunne ryfe. And this example which we haue taken of the diuerfitie of 
the Horizons of the Equinoctiall and vnder the two Poles, is to demonftrate 
the marueylous efliecte that the Sunne maketh departyng (from the. xii. 
houres of the Equinoctiall (that is to fay, from Anes to Libra) and commyng 
by lyttle and lyttle, illuminatyng the globe of the earth, and fo reduceyng the 
yere of. xii. monethes, into one onely day and one nyght, as is fayde before. 
Vnder the infinite varietie of the which courfe, fometyme with long daycs 
and fometyme with (horte, all the inhabitauntes of the worlde are (ourmctl 
and difpofed of fuche complexion and ftrength of body, that euery of them 
are proportionate to the Climate alTigned vnto them, be it hotte or ciJde : 
And maydwel and abyde there, as in theyr natural place and temperament, 
not lamentyng or defyiyng to dwell elfwhere, fo grete a loue refteih in 

The Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 


them to their natiue fituation. But not to departe from the vyage whiche 
the Sunne maketh in one whole yeare, as fometyme approchyng neare vnto 
vs, and fometyme departyng from vs. I faye that at one felfe fame tyme 
in dyuers partes vpon the rounde globe of the earth, it caufeth the Spryng, 
Sommer, Autumne, and Wynter. And neuerthelefle at the fame inftant 
and punct of time it maketh day and high noone in one place, and nyght and 
mydnyght on the oppofite part. The which varietie although it appeare 
incomprehenfible to the flendemelTe of our wyttes, yet beholdynge the fame 
with the eyes of vnderftandyng, and therwith confideryng the vneftimable 
mouyng that the Sunne maketh continually, we fliall fynde it to be true, 
hauyng refpecte to the dyuers fituations of the earth, as it is continuallye 
illuminate more or leffe by the Sunne. And this varietie is made with fuch 
a I larmonye and confonancie, and fuch a lawe perpetuall and immutable, 
that yf any poynt or pricke therof (lioulde fayle, it is to be doubted leaft the 
elementes (liould be confounded together, and returne to their fyrfl Chaos. 
And to haue fayde thus muche of the wonderfull effectes of the courfe of 
the Sunne, it maye fuffice for an example to proue howe neceflary a thyng 
it is, not onlye for all Pilottes and Sea men to haue the knowledge hereof, 
but alfo for all other such as Ihall attempt great and farre viagies in vnknowen 
landes and ftraunge countryes, as dyd of late mailer Jenkynfon a worthye 
gentleman, fette foorth by you and mainteyned at your charges, more lyke 
an Ambaffatoure fente from anye Prince or Emperour, then from a com- 
panye of marchaunt men. Wherein, what commendation you haue defer- 
ued, to the encreafe of your perpetual fame and honour, I referre it to that 
I haue fayde before. And as touching mafler lenkynfon, what trauayles, 
paynes, and daungers he hath fufteyned, and hardely efcaped, and what 
diligence and arte he hath vfed in the fearching of ftraunge countryes, and 
in the defcription of thofe his viages, it were but in vayne for me to wryte 
much vnto you, vnto whom the fame is better knowen then to me. And 
therfore to conclude, with rendring iufl commendations both vnto you 
and him, I can fay no more, but as Plato wryteth in his booke De Legibus. 
Deceits e/l eos dues laudibus ornare, qui corporis vel animi vinbus, res arduas 
preclarafque gefserunt, et legibus libenter paruerunt. That is to fay : It is 
decent to commende thofe Citifens that by theyr induftry of bodye or 
mynde, haue done greate affayres, and haue willingly obeyed good lawes. 
And thus eftfonesdefyryng your Honours and Worfhyppes to accept 
in good parte whatfoeuer I haue faide of good wyll and affection 
towarde you and your proceadynges, and with your (hielde 
of luflice and auctoritie, to defende me agaynfle the 
aflaultes of fuch as are enemies to vertue, and cap- 
tious of othermens doinges: Irelle at yourcom- 
maundement to the vttermofl of my powre, 
to do you what feruice I maye. 

1562. March 1. John Taisnier, Doctor of Laws \b. at Ath, in Brabant], 
a writer in astrology and chiromancy, publishes at 
Cologne a tract, De natura viagiietis et ejus effectibus. 

Graesse, in his Trhor, states that it is a gross plagiary from Pellegrine 

de Maricourt's De Magnete, printed in August 1558. 

1562, The Civil Wars in France begin by the unpremeditated 

massacre of Hugenots at Vassy by the Duke of Guise. 

1562. Eden's wife is apparently dead, and he himself 

residing in the house of a friend ; when the following 

Aug. 1. letter was written. It is manifestly addressed to Sir W. 

Cecil, who was brother-in-law to Sir John Cheke. Both 

the writer and the Secretary of State were now about forty-two years of age. 

Apparently Eden was to receive £20 \_=£,iyi «oi»] as an earnest penny 

for a translation of Pliny into English. 

illE only fearcher of mens hartes the etemall god I take to 
wytneffe (right Honorable) that neuer thegreefesofaduerfe 
fortune ( whcrof I haue had my parte), dyd fo muche prollrate 
my mynde and pearce my harte with forowes, as the vnder- 
ftonding of your honours fauour and goodneffe towarde me in 
your lately emeft travaile in my behalfe (as I was informed by the Mafler of 
Savie) hathe reioifed me and revived my Difcouragied fpirites, heretofore no 
leffe languyflhed for lacke of fuche a Patrone, then nowe encoaragied by the 
fauoure of fuche a Ma:cenas, as I haue iufl caufe to name your honoure, fyth 
only the refpecte of fuche vertues as it hathe pleafed you to thinke commend 
able in me, hath moved your Honour not only in maner to feemc carefull for 

me howe I maye hereafter with quietnede fpende my tyme in fludie (as is my 
mod defire) but alfo to be more ernefl in folowing the fame, then I might 
without prefumption demaunde, and muche lefTe without defertes dequire. 
As touchinge the which matter (right Honorable) as it was no parte of my 
diuife, but fuche as the Mailer of Savoy had then in hande as I fuppofe no 
lefie to pleafure hym felfe and his frende then for xx'i therof to be lotted 
to me for an eameft penye to begynne the booke (as he faith), Even fo 
am I right forie that for fo fmaule a matter, and not fo favorable a fute as 
I wolde have wyflhed, not only your Honour hathe taken fuche paynes, 
but that alfo fuche contention is ryfen therof betwene the Mailer of Sauoy 
and Mailer Baptifl of the privie chamber, that by reafon therof the pardon 
being lleyed be your Honour, the younge gentleman his kynfman (as he 
hathe informed me) is in Daungiour of his lyfe. But vnder your honours 
fauour to fpeake playnelye as I thinke, I fuppofe that here Aliquid laid 
quod lion apparel, ffor as this fute for dyuers confyderations at the firll 
dyd not greatly like me, yet perceauing his emeftnelTe therin for the fafe- 
garde of his kinfmans life and gratifying his frendes, I no lelTe willing 
therin to do hym pleafure alfo, was well contented to affent to his requeft, 
and to llande to his appoyntment, not fufpecting his frendelliippe, but 
rather commending his wyfdome, fo to doo for his frende as therwith not 
to forget hym felfe, quia nihil fapit quifibi nonfapit. But if at that tyme, 
I might fo boldelye haue prefumed vppon your honours fauour, as by your 
erneftnelfe in my behalfe I nowe perceaue I might haue doonne, I wolde 
haue moued your Honour of an honefter fute (for a leafe to be had at the 
queenes liandes) wherof I made hym priuie, and was longe fenfe fo mynded 
to haue doonne, but that he Deterred me frome the fame, alleaging certen 
commifTionars to haue the Doinges therof, and that therfore no fuche thing 
might be had at her Maieflies handes : Albeit, I haue fythens hard of 
Dyvers that haue obteyned the like. Notwithftonding (as in my former 
letters I wrotte to your Honour) my meaning is, fo to move your Honour 
hereof, as neyther to be an importunate futer ; or otherwyfe to thinke the 
fame to be folowed, then (hall feeme good vnto your Honour, vnto whof[e] 
will I fubmitte my felfe in all thinges: Only putting your Honour in re- 
memberaunce of the commodious place and tyme that I nowe enioye for that 
purpofe : for the contynuance wherof, I was a futer vnto your Honour for 
your letters vnto the gentleman my frende in whofe house I yet remayne, 
Who alfo being one that fauoureth leaminge, and my greate frende, and no 
lelTe gladde to further fo good a purpofe, is well willing the rather to my 
vfe, to departe frome a piece of his commoditie, in fuche forte as appeareth 
by the byll herein inclofed. Wherof, further to aduertyfe your Honour if 
you (hall fo thinke it convenient, he will hym felfe repayre vnto your Honour 
to giue you perfecte informacon of all thinges as touching the fame. 

And wheras the Matter of Savoye tolde me that your Honour fum- 
what Doubted that the booke coulde not be tranflated into the Englyfdie 
toonge, I alfure you Honour that this I Dare faye without arrogancie, that 
to trandate the variable hiflorie of Plinie into our toonge, I wolde be 
alhamed to borowe fo muche of the Latine as he Dothe of the Greke, 
althowgh the Latine toonge be accompted ryche, and the Englyflhe indigent 
and barbarous, as it hathe byn in tyme pall, muche more then it nowe is, 
before it was enriched and amplyfied by fundry bookes in manner of all 
artes tranflated owt of Latine and other toonges into Englyfflie. And it 
is not vnknowen vnto your Honour that the Latins receaving bothe the 
fcience of philosophic and phifike of the Grekes, Do flill for the mofl parte 
in all ther tranflacions vfe the Greke names, in fo muche that for the 
better vnderflondyng of them, one Otto Brtimfelfms, a learned man, hathe 
writen a large booke Intiteled Onomajlicon medicince, where he hathe thefe 
woordes. Res ipfas, atque artiumvocabula, /cite, appofite, defignatceque efferre, 
atque ad Polycleti regulam (quod aiunt) exprimere, res ejl noii minus difficilis 
quam gloriofa. Quo, nullum Jludii genus, inaiori conjlat molejlia. Id quod 
in caufa effe reor, quod hodie tarn pauci in ta palccjlra fefe exerceant etc. 
Agen, it is not vnknowen vnto your Honour that ons all toonges were 
barbarous and needle, before the knowleage of thinges browght in plentie 
of woordes and names. Wherby it maye well appeare that men in the 
firfl age of the worlde, had a fhorte language, conliflingt; of fewe woordes : 
which eucr after increafed by the knowleage and inuention of thinges. 
Exercife alfo maketh fuche woordes familier, which at the firfl were 
Difficulte to be vnderflode. ffor children at the firfl (as faithe Ariflotle) 
caule all men fathers. But fhortely after by exercife, caule them by there 
names. And I haue learned by experience, that the maryncrs vfe manye 



The Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 

Englyfflic woordes which were as vnknowen vnto me as the Chaldean 
toonge before I was conuerfant with them. It maye therfore fuftice that 
the woordes and termes of artes and fciences be knowen to the profefTours 
therof, as partely by experience, and partely by the helpe of dictionaries 
defcribing them. Per proprium, genus, et dtffercntiam, as the logitians 
teaclie, and as Georgius Agrkola vfeth to do iu the Germanye toonge : 
which as well in that parte of philofoj^hie as in all other, was barbarous 
and indigent before it was by longe experience browght to perfection. 
But not to trouble your Honour any longer with this matter, one thinge 
remayneth wherof I wolde gladlye haue certified your Honour at my laft 
being at the courte at Grenewich, if I might haue had conuenient accefie 
vnto you. And this is. That perceauinge your Honour to take pleafure 
in the wonderful woorkes of arte and nature (wherin doubtlelTe (hyneth the 
fparke of the diuine Spirite that god hathe gyuen you) I was then mynded 
to ha[ue] delyuered vnto your Honour this philofophicall booke, whe[r]in 
is defcribed (as appeareth in folio, ii.) fo excellent and precious an experi- 
ment, wrought by arte to the fimilitude of the vniuerfall frame of the worlde 
made by the omnipotent and greate God of nature, that I beleue the like 
was neuer doonne fynfe the creacion of the worlde. And maye therfore in 
my iudgement, more woorthely be cauled Michrocofmos, then eyther man 
or any other creature that euer was made of corporall fubftance. Angelus 
PcUtianus in his epiflells, defcribeth an inftrument cauled Automaton made 
in his tyme in the citie of Fflorence, obferuing the exacte mouing oi Priinunt 
Mobile and Octaua Sphara, with alfo the mouinges of the ^ planetes in there 
fpheres, in all poyntes agreable to there mouing in the heauen. Of the 
like inftrument alfo, our Roger Bacon wrotte longe before in his booke Oe 
Mirabili potejlate artis et natura, where he writeth in this maner. Maius 
omnium Jigurationum et rerum figuratarum ejl vt Celejlia defcriberentur 
fecundum fuas longitudines et latitudines in figura corporali, qua mouentur 
corporaliter motu diurno. Et hac valeret Regnum homini fapienti etc. The 
which inftrumente doubtlelTe, althowgh it be of a diuine inuention : yet 
dothe this Michrocofmos fo far furmount it, as nature paffeth arte, and as 
Motus animalis pafleth Motus violentiis, for as the other is moued only by 
waight or wynde inclofed (as is feene in clockes and organs) fo is this 
moued by the fame Spirite of life wherby not only the heauen, but alfo all 
nature is moued : whofe mover is god hym felfe as faith S. Paule : Ip/us 
eft in quo vivimus, mouemur, etfumus. As alfo Ariftotle, Plato, and Philo, 
in there bookes De Mundo, do affirme. And efpecially Marcus ManiUus 
in AJlronomicis ad Auguftum Cir/arem, writing thus : 

Hoc opus immenfi conjlructum corpore Mundi, 
Membraque natures diuer/a condita Jorma, 
ALris atque ignis. Terra:, felagique iacentis. 
Vis animce diuina regit : Sacroque vieatu 
Confpirat Deus, et tacita ratione gubernat, etc. 
Aire libratum vacuo, qui/ujlinet orbcm. Item Lucanus 

Totius pars rnagnus louts. 
And wheras the autoure that defcribeth this Michrocofmos affirmeth that 
the Chaos therof, is Materia Lapidis Philofophorum (which is alfo Chaos, vel 
Ouum, vel prima Materia Mundi maioris) it feemeth to agre with that 
Cornelius Agtippa hathe written in his feconde booke De Occulta philo- 
fophia, in Scala Vnitatis, where he wryteth thus : Lapis philofophorum ejl 
vnum fubiectum et inflrumentum omnium virtutum naturalium et tranf- 
tiaturalium etc. And that this greate and diuine fecreate of this Michro- 
cofmos maye not feeme incredible vnto your Honour, I affure you that I 
that am Minimus Philofophorum, dyd long fenfe (as I haue to wytnelfe Mr 
Thomas Whalley, th[e]elder foonne of Mr Richard Whalley) woorke a 
fecreate practife fumwhat like vnto this, in maner as foloweth. I diffolued 
two fubftances in two waters. Then I put the waters togyther in a glalTe, 
fuffering them fo to reinayne for a tyme. Then I flilled of[f] the water 
frome the maffe or Chaos lefte of them bothe. And put it on ageyn. And fo 
dyd dyuers tymes. In fine, the mafle being diffolued in the water, I let it 
refl all night in a coulde place. In the morning, I founde fwymming on 
the water and in the myddeft therof, a little rounde Hand as brode as [a] 
riall or fumwhat more, with at the leaft a hundreth fyluer trees abowt an 
ynche high, fo perfectly formed with trunkes, ftalkes, and leaves, all of 
moft pure and glyftering fyluer, that I fuppofe no lymne[r] or paynter is 
able to conterfecte the like. Then fhaking the glafle, all fell in pieces into 
the water, and fille[d] it with glyftering fparkes, as the firmament (hyneth 
w[ith] flarres in a cleare wynter nyght. Then putting the glade to a fofte 

fyre vppon warme affhes, all turned agen into cleare water, which agen 
being put in a colde place all night, made an Hand with the like t ees as 
before. What this wolde haue byn in fine, god knoweth, and not I. But 
of this I am fure, that if the floure of learning of our tyme and fumtyme 
Tutor and brother in lawe vnto your Honour Mr [i.e., Sirjohi] Cheeke> 
had feene any of thefe two fecreates, he wolde greatly haue reioyfed : As I 
knowe the diuine fparke of knowleagc that is in your Honour partely reccaved 
of hym, will move you to doo the like, fythe to a philofophicall and vertuous 
man, there is nothing fo delectable as to beholde the infinite poure and 
wyfdome of God in his creatures, in the which, his deitie is not only vifible, 
but in maner palpable, as fum philofophers haue written. And as touching 
thefe matters, I haue red a maruelous fentence in an olde written booke 
where thefe woordes are written : Qui potefl fatei-e Mediam naturam, potefl 
creare Mundos nouos. But to difcourfe of this oracle, or to interprete the 
fame, it were to muche to moleft your Honour therewith : and an argument 
muche meeter for a feconde Socrates then for me. And of thefe fecreates, 
writeth Roger Bacon in his booke before alleaged, where he hathe thefe 
woordes : Alulta funl archana cutmiranda in operibus artis et natures: Qisce 
licet multam vtilitatetn non habeant (habent vcro maxim\ani\ vt fapientibus 
cognitum efl) tamen fpectaculum incffabile fapicntiie prtcbcnt et pofjiint 
applicari ad probationem omnium occultorum quibus vulgus inexpertuin 
contradicit, et indicat fieri per opera Dicmoniorum, etc. 

And thus mod humbly defyring your Honour to pardon my boldnefle in 
writing vnto you, and according vnto your accuftomed clemencie to accept 
in good parte this my prefumptuous attempte which only the loue I beare 
to your vertues hath moued me vnto, my truft is that thefe thinges (hall 
not be all togyther vnpleafaunt vnto your Honour otherwyfe occupied in 
greate affayres bothe in the courte and common wealthe, as was Plato with 
King Dyoniftus, Ariftotle with greate Alexander, and Cicero Senator and 
Conful of Rome. The eternall God and immortall mover of the greate 
worlde and the lelTe, preferue your Honour in healthe and profperitie. 

Ffrome the ffolde byfyde Barnet. The firft of Auguft. 1562. 
Moft. bownde to your Honour. 


Ttta Dominationi addktus, alios non qiuero pienates. 
Sententia Hippocratis. — Infccretis et occultis,fecretus et occultus ejh. 
Endorsed — Primo Auguftl 1562. Richard Eden. 

Lands. MS. loi, art. 5. 
The advancement which Eden sought, came almost immediately after he 
wrote this letter : but it is sad to know, that it ultimately ruined him both 
in health and fortune, and brought him to a premature grave. 

We must now introduce a celebrated historical personage, with whose 
wanderings and trials Eden's life was for the next ten years indissolubly 
identified ; and in the narration of which, we shall be telling the story of 
our Author's life during the period he was on the Continent. In doing 
which, we thankfully acknowledge our obligations to the Vie de yean de 
Ferriires, Vidame de Chartres, Seigneur de Afaligtty, by a Member [Count 
L. de Bastard] of the Historical and Natural Science Society of the 
Yonne. 170 copies only of which, were printed at Auxerre in 1858. 

A Vidame was originally the principal lay officer of a bishop. In 
France, however, only five bishops had such an officer, viz., those of 
Rheims, Amiens, Mans, Laon, and Chartres ; together with certain 
Abbeys. In process of time, however, it became a mere hereditary title ; 
dependent for its renown on the person who held it and the wealth where- 
of he was possessed. 

Jean de Ferriires, disinherited by his father, Franjois de Ferriires, 
in 1540; became Seigneur de Maligny in 1544; went to Rome in the 
embassy of M. de Urfe in 1549 ; accompanied the then Vidame, Franfois 
de Vendome, to the relief of the Siege of Metz in 1553 ; and went to 
Piedmont in 1557. Francois de Vendome having died on 22d December 
1 560 : the Seigneur of Maligny then became Vidame of Chartres ; and 
thereby immensely rich, if he could have enjoyed his own in peace. But 
not daring to administer to his vast estate in person, for fear of attracting 
the attention of his enemies to it : his sister Beraude, by secret agreement 
with him, presented herself as the sole heir to Francois de Vendome. 

On the breaking out of the Civil Wars, Conde sent the new Vidame 
(whose riches gave him great influence among the Protestant party) over to 
England, with the Seigneur de Saint Aubin, to induce Elizabeth to join 

The Life and Labours of Richard Eden, 


in so holy and just a quarrel. Being joined by La Haye, they finally 
arrived in England about 15th August 1562 ; and after many secret con- 
ferences, the Treaty of Hampton Court was signed by them, on 20th Sep- 
tember following. Colt. MS. Cat. E. v. f. 113, is a copy of this Treaty 
bearing the signature of the Vidame. 

At this moment, Eden, who was an excellent linguist, entered the service 
of the Vidame. Time pressed. 3000 men under Sir Adrian Poynings, and 
with them the Vidame and Eden, left Portsmouth on 2d October, and 
wore in Havre on the 4th : the majority of them to be killed, or die of 
the plague by the 29th of July following, when Havre was surrendered to 
the French. Such as survived brought with them to England, the plague 
which they had there caught. 

In the meantime, the Civil Wars had been stopped by the Edict of the 
Pacification of Ambois on 19th March 1563. 

All the goods of the Vidame were pronounced confiscated, under 
pretence that he had brought the English into Havre. The French Court, 
while in progress after the Pacification, reached Troyes on the 23d March 
1564 ; when the Vidame [and Eden] joined on the 8th April the Prince de 
Conde there, and received a simulated welcome from Charles IX. and 
Catherine de Medecis. Leaving the Court at Vitry on 27th April, he 
rejoined Conde, at Paris ; where he appears to have chiefly resided for 
the next two or three years. 

Eden states below, and at p. xlvii., that he had been in Germany, and, among 
other places, at Strasburg. He probably accompanied the Vidame there. 
A fresh rising of the Protestants occurred on 27th September 1 567, when 
they nearly captured by a coup de main the entire French Court. Then 
came the Battle of St. Denis on loth November, and the Pacification of 
Longjumeau on the 23d March 1568. 

The Vidame and his newly married wife (Francoise Joubert, widow of 
Ch. Ghabot) and suite [including, it is presumed, Eden] arrived on the 
Cornish coast, on 28th April 1569 ; and after some delay, were allowed to 
come to London. The Vidame was received by the Queen, on i8th July, 
at Greenwich. On the 23d September 1569, he was burnt in effigy, for 
the second time within a year, on the Place de Crhie, at Paris, by an arret 
of the French Parliament. 

In consequence of the Peace of St. Germain ; the Vidame, after about a 
year's stay in England, returned in October 1570, by Dieppe, to Paris : 
where some of his servants being attacked in the street, he retires to Boubige, 
in Poitou. In February 1572, he was at La Ferte, on private affairs. 

Soon afterwards he returned to Paris ; where he found all the chiefs of 
the Huguenot party lulled into a belief of perfect safety, through their trust 
in the King's word. He, however, did not trust the Court, and would not 
reside in the city, but in the Faubourg of St. Germain. When questioned for 
the reason of this ; he replied 'that the air of the Faubourgs was better than 
that of the City, and that of the fields better than that of the Faubourgs.' 
Maurevert, the assassin of the Count de Mouy, attempted the assassination 
of Admiral Coligny ; but fails to kill him. Charles IX. had hardly left the 
wounded Huguenot chief; when the Vidame called on him, and let loose 
his indignation at the dastard cowardice of the act. 

On the next day, Saturday, 23d August, at a meeting of the Protestant 
chiefs at Coligny 's house, the Vidame urged that the Admiral should be 
conveyed out of Paris ; and that the Protestants should quit the city : but 
he was overruled. 

That night, occurred the M.\SSACRE of St. Bartholomew, com- 
mencing on the right bank of the Seine. The Vidame, his brother-in-law 
Jean de la Fin, and ten others [including probably Eden], who were living 
on the left bank of the river — warned by the firing — escaped for their lives, 
riding first to La Ferte. Hearing, however, that the Duke de Guise had 
sent the Sieur de St. Leger to take them : they hurriedly left the Chateau, 
and — after some wandering up and down the country — managed to reach 
the coast ; where they found a ship, which carried them safely to England. 
The Vidame arrived in London on 7th September 1573. 
1573. Sept. The Vidame, in a very flowery letter, solicits of the 

Queen, that Richard Eden, who had given him good 
and faithful companionship for the space of ten years, 
may be admitted one of the poor knights of Windsor. He also refers to 
his erudition, and the experience he had acquired in the secrets of Nature. 
He further encloses the three following autographic memoranda ; by the 
side of which, we have put an English translation : — 

Siplaceat suae Maieslaticoncedere 
Richardo Eden proximam vocation- 
em Militum illorum, qui Winsori 
Milites Oratorij vocantur, i Rege 
Henrico 8° fundati. 

If it may please Her Majesty to 
grant to Richard Eden the next 
vacant place among the Knights, 
who are called the Knights of the 
Oratory of Windsor, founded by 
King Henry VIII. 


Richardus Eden natione Anglus, 
ex honesta familia natus in agro 
Herfordensi, ubi adhucsororem habet 
viventem, sua; Maiestati bene cogni- 
tam, nempe uxorem equestris ordinis 
viri lohannis Butleri de Lamer : A 
pueritia educatus in bonis Uteris, 
studuit in Achademia Cantabrigiensi 
decern annis sub tutore doctissimo 
viro, domino Thoma Smyth, nunc 
Secretario sure Maiestati, qui de eius 
eruditione et morum integritate satis 
testari potest. 

Deinde a serenissimo Rege Hen- 
rico Octavo ab achademia vocatus, 
ipsius Regis mandato, in ^rario 
officium obtinuit, ubi usque ad 
mortem Regis, hoc est duobas annis, 
permansit ; qui etiam moriens illius 
non immemor assignavit illi domus 
distillatorii officium. Quod tamen 
Rege mortuo Sumerseti Dux illi 
concessit qui nunc fruitur. 

Postea uxorem duxit, ex qua in 
xiiij. annis xij. infantes generavit, ut 
vel hac ratione videatur de patria 
bene meritus. 

Qui etiam tempore aliquot Rei- 
publicje utiles libros ex sermone 
Latino Italico Hispanico traduxit, 
qui typis impressi extant, ut Decades 
de Novo Orbe, liber iusti voluminus, 
vizt. 600 foliorum ; ac deinde librum 
de Arte Navigandi a Martino Cor- 
tesio in lingua Hispanica ad Carolum 
V. scriptum ; insuper ex Pyrotechnia 
Italica multa de rebus metallicis, qua; 
antea in nostra lingua extitere. 

Tempore vero Marire Regina; His- 
panorum quorundam nobilium fauore, 
denuo in Regis Philippi ^rarium 
electus : hereseos apud Wintoniense 
Episcopum accusatus a Watsone Lin- 
colinensi Episcopo, officio privatus 

Mortua vero uxore, illius fama ad 
illustrissimi Domini Vidami aures 
pervenit. Cum quo, quomodo his x. 
annis et amplius in Germania et 
Gallia vixerit in utraque fortuna, nee 
mercenarius nee desertor, et semper 
illi charissimus, ipsemet Dominus 
Vidamus pro sua humanitate, veri- 
tate testimonium feret. A quo etiam 
multis amplissimis muneribus dona- 
tus, si tamen non ditatus nulla pro- 
fecto illustrissimi Domini incuria vel 

Richard Eden, an Englishman, 
born of a respectable family in Here- 
fordshire, — where he still has a sister 
living, well known to Her Majesty, 
being the wife of a knight, John 
Butler of Lamer, — was well educated 
as a boy, studied at Cambridge for 
ten years under that most learned 
man. Sir Thomas Smyth, now Her 
Majesty's Secretary [of State], who 
can testify to his erudition and blame- 
less character. 

Afterwards, being summoned from 
the University by the most serene 
King Henry VIII., he held, by his 
order, an office in the Treasury, 
where he remained for two years 
until the King's death ; who, when 
dying, did not forget him, but as- 
signed to him the office of the distil- 
lery. After the King's death, the 
Duke of Somerset granted the ofiico 
to the present holder. 

Afterwards he married, and in 
fourteen years begot twelve child- 
ren, so that for this reason also he 
seems to deserve well of his country. 

At this time he translated from the 
Latin, Italian, and Spanish several 
books useful to the State, which are 
still in print, as Decades de Novo Orbe, 
a book of good size, viz. six hundred 
folios; zxiiahooV De Arte Navigandi, 
written by Martin Cortes to Charles 
V. in Spanish ; and in addition many 
portions of Pyrotechnia Italica con- 
cerning metals ; which did not exist 
before in our language. 

In the time of Queen Mary, he 
was again placed in the Treasury 
of King Phillip, through the favour 
of certain Spanish nobles : but being 
accused of heresy before [Gardiner] 
the Bishop of Winchester by Watson, 
Bishop of Lincoln ; he was deprived 
of his office. 

After the death of his wife, his 
repute came to the ears of the most 
illustrious Lord the Vidame. How 
he lived [with him] for ten years 
and more in Germany and France, 
with varying fortune, neither a mer- 
cenary nor a deserter, and always 
most dear to him ; the Lord Vidame 
himself will kindly bear witness. 
From whom also he received many 
large gifts. And assuredly it is not 
through carele!;sneos or oblivion on 



The Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 

oblivio in causa fuit, sed sola volu- 
bilis et nouercae fortuna culpa. 

Nunc vero, senio affectus, et cor- 
porisinfirmitate, cogitur peregrinandi 
finem facere ; nihil magis habens in 
votis quam ut suje Maiestatis gratia 
et favore, possit tandem in patria 
honestis studiis et Reipublicie utili- 
busvitam finire. Nulla vero magna- 
rum divitiarum, aut honoris ambitione 
flagrans solam vitam tranquillam et 
studiis commodam exoptat. 

Deus optiraus maximus suam Csel- 
situdinem semper seruet incolumen. 

the part of his illustrious Lord, but 
only in consequence of changeful and 
adverse fortune ; that he was not 

Now affected by age and bodily 
infirmity, he is obliged to make an 
end of wandering ; desiring nothing 
more than, by Her Majesty's favour, 
to end his life in his own country, 
in honourable studies, and useful to 
the State. He no ambition 
for great riches or honour ; but only 
desires a quiet life, suitable for study. 

May God ever preserve Her Ma- 


Quandoquidem maxima parshomi- 
num non est semper melior pars, sed 
reperiuntur quamplures Ardeliones 
quibus nihil est magis gratum quam 
ex quauis leuissima occasione bonos 
viros calumniari. Ideoque ut agni a 
luporum fauciljus in tuto vivant, ne- 
cessum erit ut leonis animalium regis, 
hoc est, Regia autoritate tueantur. 

Quis enim nunc in Anglia potest 
Paracelsi admiranda medicamenta ex 
metallis et mineralibus componere 
(quae cum Alchimiaaliquomodosym- 
bolizantur) nisi statim ab ignaris et 
calumniatoribus Alchimise legibus 
prohibitae infamiam et periculum in- 
currat. Cui malo obuiando Principis 
diplomats opus erit. Nee dubito 
quin quum Brocardo multisque aliis 
peregrinis libere permittitur exercere. 
Idem mihi a;quiori iuditio Principis 
autoritate concedatur. 

Since, indeed, the greater part of 
mankind is not always the better 
part, but many busybodies are found 
who have no greater pleasure than 
in calumniating good men on the 
most trifling occasions ; therefore 
that lambs may live safe from the 
jaws of wolves, they must be pro- 
tected by the lion, the king of beasts 
— that is, protected by royal autho- 

Who can at this present time, in 
England, compound the admirable 
medicaments of Paracelsus from 
metals and minerals (which are sym- 
bolized by an alchymical method), 
without immediately incurring from 
ignorant calumniators the infamy 
and peril of practising alchmy, 
which is prohibited by the laws. 
To obviate this evil, a royal license 
is needed. Neither do I doubt that 
since it is permitted to Brocardus 
and many other foreigners freely to 
practise [the art] ; that the same will, 
with more justice, be granted to me 
by the royal authority. — State Papers, 
Dom. Eliz., Vol. 92, No. 32. 

There were thirteen poor knights of Windsor, whose annual allowance 
was paid by the Dean of Windsor. It consisted of jf 18 : 5s. in money ; 
a gown or coat of red cloth ; and a blue or purple cloth mantle with 
the badge of St. George embroidered on the left sleeve. Eden's application 
does not appear to have been successful. — See Tighe and Davis, Annals 
of Windsor, i. 223. Ed. 1858. 

1573. Sir W. Winter is knighted this year. — See Sylvanus 
MotgaviS Sphere 0/ Gentry, Book 3,/. 14, Ed. 1661. 

1574. "Win- Eden writes the following dedication to SirW. Winter 
tertide. of his translation of John Taisner's book De nalura 

magnetis, &'c., which he designed as a complement 
to a new edition of his previous translation of Martin Cortes' Arte de 
Navigar. Though written at this time, it did not appear in print for four 
or five years afterwards, in consequence of the successive deaths of Eden, 
Richard Jugge the printer, and his son John Jugge. 

The most important allusion in it is the account of Sebastian Cabot's 
death, the only one on record. 

A very neceflarie and profitable Booke concerninge Nauigation, 
compiled in Latin by loannes Taifnierus, a publike profeffor in 
Rome, Ferraria, and other Vniuerfities in Italic of the Mathema- 
ticalles, named a treatife Of coniinuall motions. Tranflated into 
Englilhe, by Richarde Eden. 

Imprinted at London by Richarde Jugge. 


To the ryght woorfliipfull Syr Wylliatn Wynter, Knyght, Maiflcr 
of the Ordinaunce of the Queenes Maiefiies Shippes, and Stir- 
ucyor of the fayd Shippes, Richarde Eden wyfluth health and 

T is nowe about twelue yecres pafte (gentle Maifter Wynter) 
fince the curtefie and fauour which long before I founde at 
your hande, mooued me no lelfe for the good wyll that I 
haue euer borne you and your vertues, to excogitate or 
deuife fomethyng, within the compalTe of my poore abilitie, 
that myght be a « itnefle, and as it were a feale, to teftifie both that I haue 
not forgotten your gentlenefle, and alfo how defyrous I am to pay the 
debtes of frendelliyp which then I promifed you, and alfo attempted to 
perfourme : But beyng at that tyme preuented, by meanes of my fodayne 
departyng out of Englande, with my good Lorde the Vidanu, with whom I 
remayned for the fpace of ten yeeres, vntyll the calamities of that miferable 
countrey, with lolTe of goods, and danger of lyfe, hath dryuen me home 
agayne into my natiue countrey : Where fyndyng my felfe at fome leyfure, 
and defyrous to pafle foorth parte of my tyme in fome honeft exercife, 
which myght be profytablc to many, domagable to none, and a meanes to 
geat me newe freendes, the olde in my fo long abfence, in maner vtterly 
wafted : I chaunced in the meane tyme, to meete with my olde acquayn- 
tance and freend, Richard lugge. Printer to the Queenes Maieftie, who 
had many yeeres before, printed the Booke of Marten Curtes, of the Art of 
Nauigation, by me tranflated out of Spanyflie tongue. Whereof, hauyng 
with him fome conference, he declared that he woulde prynt that booke 
agayne, yf I woulde take the paynes to deuife fome addition touchyng the 
fame matter, that myght be ioyned thereto. At whiche tyme, hauyng with 
me in the Latine tongue, thefe books here folowyng printed, whiche I brought 
with me out of Fraunce, I foone agreed to his honeft requeft, to tranflate 
them into Englyflie : Whiche beyng accomplyflied, this onely remayned, 
accordyng to the common cuftorae, to confecrate and dedicate the fame to 
fome worthie perfonage, whofe fame, auc[t]horitie, and dignitie, myght 
defende them from the euyll tongues of fuch as are more redie rather to 
reprooue other mens dooynges, then to doo any good them felues. And 
therfore (gentle Maifter Wynter) knowing your aucthoritie and fame in 
well deferuyng, and honorable feruice vnto your Prince and Countrey, to 
be fuche as all men thynke fo well of, and fo greatlye efteeme, to whom 
(rather then to you) may I dedicate this booke of Nauigation ? In con- 
fyderation v/hereof, and the hope that I haue in your approoued curtefie, 
fauourably to accept this dedication, as procee[d]yng from one that defyreth 
nothyng more then to doo you feruice, and rem.iyne in your grace, I fliall 
thynke my trauayle wel beftowed, and fufficiently recompenced, yf it fliall 
pleafe you to accept the fame as thankfully, as I wyllyngly ofi"er it vnto 

For yf there be any thyng in me, wherein I maye by good reafon 
pleafe my felfe, it is cheefely this, that I haue euer loued and honoured 
men of finguler vertue or qualitie, in what fo euer laudable Art or Science, 
euen of thofe whereof I mee felfe haue litle knowledge, as are Geometric, 
Aftronomie, Architecture, Muficke, Payntyng, feates of Armes, inuentions 
of Ingens, and fuche lyke : Of the whiche, this our age maye feeme not 
onely to contende with the Auncientes, but alfo in many goodly inuentions 
of Art and wyt, farre to exceede them. For (not to fpeake agaynftall the 
marueylous inuentions of our tyme) what of theirs is to be compared to the 
Artes of Printyng, makyng of Gunnes, Fyre woorkes, of fundry kyndes of 
artificial Fyres, of fuche marueylous force, that mountaynes of mofte harde 
rockes and ftones, are not able to refyft their violence, but are by them 
broken in peeces, and throwen into the ayre with fuche violence, that 
neyther the fpirite of Demogorgon, or the thunderboltes of infernal Pluto 
can doo the lyke. What fhoulde I here fpeake of the woonderfuU inuen- 
tions of Fartalio, in his booke De Arte maiori ? or of many other, whereof 
Vannucius Beringocius wryteth in his booke, entituled, Pyrotechnia. As 
touchyng which terrible inuentions, and the lyke, although fome men be of 
opinion that they were inuented by the inftigation of the deuyll, for the 
deftruction of mankynde : yet other weyghyng the matter more indifferently 
thynke that the inuention of Gunnes hath ben the fauyng of many mens 
lyues, becaufe before the vfe of them, men were not woont fo long tyme to 
lye batteryng in the befiegyng of Townes or Fortrefles, but in ftiort fpace 
to come to hande ftrokes, and to foughten feeldes, to the great flaughter of 
great multitudes. And feeyng that nowe our cnimies the Turkcs, and 

TiiK Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 


VI 1 

other Infidels, haue the vfe of thefe deuylyihe inuentions (as they name 
them) it may be thought requifite for vs, agaynft fuche deuylles to vfe alfo 
the lyke deuylydie inuentions, lefl refufyng the fame, and geuyng place to 
euyl, we flioulde wyllyngly fuffer the kyngdome of the deuyll to triumphe 
ouer vs, not otherwyfe able to refyft, and much leffe to ouercome fo puilTant 
and horrible enimies (except befyde al hope) myght aryfe in our defence 
fome newe Moyfes, or Elias, or the Prieftes of lericho, whiche onely with 
the noyfe and founde of Homes or Trumpettes ouerthrewe the walles of 
the towne. Neyther wyl the example of Dauid and Goliath, or of Samfon 
and tlie Philiflines, ferue our tume at this tyme, although I beleeue that 
the arme of the Lorde is not weakened, yf there lacked not a Moyfes with 
his rodde, and woorthie Aff -lentes, which myght helpe to holde vp his 
weerye arme. 

But to retume to fpeake of ingens, and ingenious inuentions, whiche 
inuented and vfed to the glorie of God, and defence of his people, 
againft the furie and tyrannic of Infidelles, they may as woorthyly be 
called the gyftes of God, as were the inuentions and Art of them that 
buykled eyther the Temple of Hicrufalem, or the Arke of God : And 
F.xod XXXV y^' '^ '' there wrytten of thofe Artificers, that God gaue 
Kezaleel and them the fpirite of knowledge and cunnyng in fuche Artes. 

'^ And therefore I thynke it may alfo be fayde without offence, 

that the knowledge of Archimedes, and other men in fuche commendable 
inuentions, are the gyftes of God, for as muche as the gyftes of God are 
free, and not bounde to any nation or perfon. 

And yf it may be graunted that the fpirites of men, or the fpirite of 
God in men, may be diuided (as was the fpirite of Moyfes to twelue other) 
or otherwyfe that the fpirites of dead men may reuiue in other (after 
the opinion and tranfanimation of Pythagoras) we may thynke that the 
foule of Archimedes was reuiued in Beffon, that excellent Geometer of 
our tyme, whom I knewe in Fraunce the Maifter of the engins to the 
Frenche kyng, Charles the nienth, vnder whom that lamentable flaughter 
at Paris was committed, in the whiche were flayne fo many noble men. 
Whiche crueltie the fayde Be/son abhorryng, fled hythei into England, 
and here dyed, in the yeere. 1573- and left in witneffe of his excellencie 
in that Art, a booke in prynt, conteynyng the fourmes or portractes of 
fyxtie engins of marueylous ftrange and profytable deuice, for diuers 
commodious and neceffary vfes. Of the whiche, for as muche as 
three of them, that is to meane, the 54. 57. and 60. be engines cheefely 
parteyning vnto Shyppes, it Ihall not be from my purpofe here to make a 
breefe rehearfal of them. 

The. 54. therefore (as he wryteth) is an engin not vnlyke vnto that 
whiche in auncient tyme Archimedes inuented for the Syrcuu/ians, where- 
with a man with the ftrength of onely one hande, by helpe of the 
inftrument called Trifpajlon (which in our tongue fome cal an endlelTe 
Scrue), brought a Shyp of marueylous greatneffe from the lande into 
the fea, in the fyght of kynge Hieron, and an infinite multitude, whiche 
with all their force coulde not doo the fame. &c. Of the which alfo, our 
countrey man, Roger Bacon, a great Philofopher (and no Nicromancer, as 
that ignorant age (laundered him) feemed to haue had fome knowledge : 
For in his booke of the marueylous power of Art and Nature, he maketh 

_, . . . mention of an Inflrument (as farre as I remember) no bygger 

Of this instru- , , , . , , , 

mcnt reade, the then a mans hande, wherey/ith one man myght drawe to 

iiesSi*'"' "^ '^y™ "'^ ftrength of three hundred men. And I well re- 
member, that at my beyng in Fraunce, I hearde credible 
reporte, that the Earle of Rocumdolfe, an Almaine, made an engin, where- 
with the fayde kyng Charles when he was but. xvi. yeeres of age, lyfted 
from the grounde a weyght, whiche the ftrongeft man in the courte was not 
able to remooue. Almofle the lyke deuice we vfe in the bendyng of a 
Croffebowe. Alfo at my being in Germanic in the citie of Strofburge, a 
woorthy and learned Gentleman, Monfieur de Saleno, tolde me that in that 
citie one had inuented an engin of iron, no bygger then a mans hande, 
wherevnto faflenyng a rope, with a hooke of iron, and caftyng the hooke 
vpon a wal, tree, or other place, where it myght take holde, he coulde with 
that engin lyft hym felfe vp to the wal, or other place. But to retume to 
the other two engines of Beffon, parteynyng to our purpofe. Therefore 
the. 60. fygure (as he there wryteth) is the inuention of an engin, fcarfely 
credible, wherewith by ballance and eafie motion, beyond the order of 
nature, a Shyp may be fo framed and gouemed, that in the calme fea it 
fhall mooue forewarde, and in litle wynde haften the couife.and in too much 

wynde temper and moderate the fame : A thyng woorth tl.e knowledge to 
a kyng, as he fayeth. Of the thyrd engin, which is the. 57- fygure of his 
booke, he wryteth thus. An Artifice not yet diuulgate or fet forth, whiche 
placed in the pompe of a Shyp, whyther the water hath recourfe, and 
mooued by the motion of the Shyp, with wheelcs and weyghtes, dooth 
exactly fliewe what fpace the Shyp hath gone. &c. By whiche defcrip- 
tion, fome doo vnderftand that the knowledge of the longitude myght fo be 
founde, a thyng doubtlelTe greatly to be defyred, and hytherto not certaynely 
knowen, although Sebajlian Cabot on his death bed told me that he had the 
knowledge thereof by diuine reuelation, yet fo, that he myght not teache 
any man. But I thinke that the good olde man, in that extreme age, fome- 
what doted, and had not yet euen in the article of death, vtterly (liakcn of 
all worldlye vayne glorie. 

As touchyng whiche knowledge of the longitude, to rehearfe the faying 
of that excellent learned man, Johannes Fernelitis, in his incomparable 
booke De abditis rerum caujis, where in the Preface to King Hcnrie of 
Fraunce, he writeth in this maner. We haue put our helpyng hande 
to the Arte of Nauigation and Geographic : forby obferuation of the houres 
of the Equinoctialles, we haue inuented howe, in what fo euer region or 
place of the worlde a man (halbe, he may knowe in what longitude it is : 
which certaynly we haue not taken of the fountaynes of the ancientes, but 
fyrfle, of all other (as I thynke) haue drawen it of our ryuers, as our owne 
inuention. &c. So that (faith he) whiche way fo euer you tume your eyes, 
you may fe that the pofteritie hath not ryotoufly wafted the inheritance of 
Artes and sciences, left them by their predeceffors, but haue greatly en- 
creafed the fame, and inuented other : For certaynely, the multitude of 
thinges incomprehenfible, is infinite, and fo therfore inuentions muft 
needes alfo be infinite, and without ende. And therefore, as touchyng this 
thing (fayth he) to fpeake freely what I thynke, they feeme to me to offende 
as muche, whiche contende that the auncientes haue inuented and compre- 
hended al thynges, as doo they whiche attribute not vnto them the fyrfl 
inuentions, fo depryuyng them of theyr right poffeffion. For whereas nowe by 
the benefite of almightie God (who hath geuen vs his Chrifte, and with hym 
all good thynges) the lyght of trueth (hyneth in our vnderftandyng by godly 
infpiration, there is no iuft caufe why we (houlde in fuche thynges thinke vs 
inferior to the auncientes . Of which Argument, who lyfteth may reade more 
in the fayde Epiftle of Fernelius. 

And for as much as I haue made mention of fuch inuentions, it Ihal not 
be from the purpofe, to defcribe the goodly inftrument wherof 
Angelus Policianus in the fourth booke of Epiftles to Fran- ;„ motion agree- 
cifus Cafa, wryteth in this manner, I haue receyued your yng with the 
Epiftle, wherein you fignifie vnto me, that you haue hearde heauen. 
of the flrange engine or inftrument Automaton inuented, and Anno Domo. 
made of late by one Laurence a Florentine : in the which is 
expreffed the courfe and motions of the Pianettes, conformable and 
agreeyng with the motions of heauen : And that (for as muche as the 
reporte thereof is hardly beleeued) you greatly defyre that I fhould wryte 
vnto you, what certayne knowledge I haue of that thing, wherein I am 
redie to obey your requeft. And although nowe it be long fmce I fawe 
it, yet as farre as I beare in memorie, I wyll breefely declare the fourme, 
reafon, and vfe thereof. And yf the defcription of it flial feeme vnto 
you fomewhat obfcure, you fliall not afcribe it altogeather to my declara- 
tion, but partly to the fubtiltie and nouiltie of the thyng. It is in fourme 
of a fquare pyllet, ftiarpe towarde the top, in maner of a Pryamis, of 
the height of almoft three cubites : ouer and aboue it, in maner of a 
couer, is a fiat or playne rounde plate of gylted copper, garnylhed 
with fundry colours, on whofe other part is expreffed the whole courfe of 
the Planets, and whofe dimention or meafurc is fomewhat (horter then a 
cubite, and is within turned or moued with certayne litle denticle wheeles, 
an immouable circle comprehendyng the hygheft border or margcnt, and 
diuided with the fpaces of xxiiii. houres within it, in the hygheft turnyng 
rundel, the twelue fignes are difcerned by three degrees. Further, within are 
feene eyght rundels, in maner all of one greatneffe. Of thefe, two obteyne the 
myddle poynt, the one faftened in the other, fo that the loweft beyng fome- 
what bygger, reprefenteth the Sunne, and the hygher the Moone. From the 
Sunne a beame commyng to the circle, ftieweth in it the houres : and in the 
Zodiacke, the monethes, dayes and number of degrees, and alfo the true 
and halfe motion of the Sunne. From the Moone alfo procedeth a pynne, 
or wyre, whiche beneathe or downwarde in the border or margent of the 



The Life and Labours of Richard Eden. 

greateft nmdell, (liewcth the honres : and pafling by the center of the Epi- 
cicle of the Moone, and extendyng to the Zodiacke, (lioweth the halfe 
motion of his Planet. Another alfo ryfyng from thence, and cuttyng the 
border of the center of the Moone (that is of the Epicicle) fheweth her true 
place, whereby are feene the flownefle. fwyftnefle, al motions and courfes, 
coniunctions alfo, and ful Moones. About thefe are fyxe other rundels : 
of the whiche, one, whom they calle the head and tayle of the Dragon, 
flieweth the Eclipfes both of the Sunne and Moone. The other are attri- 
buted to the Planets : from euery of whiche, proceede two poyntes, align- 
ing the motions (as we haue fayd) of the Moone : but they alfo goe back- 
wardc, whiche chaunceth not in the Moone, whofe Eclypfe is mooued 
contrarywyfe. And thus the reafon of coniunctions, departynges, and lati- 
tudes, is manifeft in all. There is alfo an other border lyke vnto a Zodi- 
acke, cutting or diuidyng vpwarde or aboue, thofe fyxe litle rundels (whereof 
we haue fpoken) being the rundels of the Pianettes : whereby appeareth 
the degrees of the Eaft fignes, and the fpaces of the dayes (that is to fay) 
at what houre the Sunne rifeth, by the whiche, e\iery of the Pianettes are 
carried in their rundels or circles by courfe, in the day tyme to the Eaft, 
and in the nyght to the Weft. Agayne contrarywyfe, the greateft rundel 
of al, draweth with it al the Pianettes, in the nyght to the Eaft, and in the 
day to the Weft, in the fpace of. 24. houres. Az which, to agree with the 
motions of heauen, both reafon and experience doo confyrme. And ther- 
forc ought ye not to marueyle, yf thefe thynges feeme incredible to many. 
For (as fayth the wyfe Prouerbe) fayth is flowlye geuen to great thynges, 
for euen we fcaifely beleeue our owne eyes, when we fee fuche thynges. 
And therefore, whereas in tyme paft 1 read, that fuche a lyke inftrument 
was made by ArcJiiinedeSy my faith yet fayled me to geue credite to fo great 
an Aucthour, which thyng neuertheleffe this our Florentine hath perfourmed. 
The worke doubtlefle beyng of fuch excellence, that all prayfe is inferior to 
it, and can not therfore for the woorthyneffe thereof be otherwyfe praifed, 
then to fay that it paffeth all prayfe. The Artificer him felfe alfo being a 
man of fuch integritie of maners, that the funne is nothing inferior to the 
excellencie of his wyt : in fo much that he may feeme a man fent from 
heauen, where he learned the makyng of this heauen, by the example of the 
other. Hylherto Polidanus. Of the lyke inftrument, Roger Bacon alfo 
maketh mention in his fayde booke, of the maruellous power of Art and 
Nature, affyrmyng the fame to be woorth a kyngdome to a wyfe man. 

But for as muche as the fubiect whiche I haue nowe in hande, is cheefely 
touchyng inuentions parteinyng to Shyppes, and the Art of Nauigation, I 
thynke good to fpeake fomewhat of the inuention of a certayne Italian 

wryter, named Leonardo Fiorauan/i, who in his booke, entitled 
"' * ' Spfcchio de fcientia vniuerfale, doeth greatly glory in the in- 
uention of Shyppes, whiche can not perylhe eyther on the fea, or the lande, 
affyrmyng that the lyke was neuer inuented fince the creation of the worlde. 
But I feare me, left vayne glorie of difcourfyng in the Italian tongue, hath 
caufed him more then needes, to commende his owne inuention, as for the 

mofte parte is the maner of the Italian writers. Therfore 
ofa Shj'p ^ committing the iudgeraent hereof to men of greater experi- 
which can not ence and knowledge in thefe thynges, I wyl onely tranllate 

his woordes, whereby in the booke before named, he 
defcribeth the fayde Shyppe in this maner. Take beames of Fyre, or 
Pyne tree, which of their owne nature can neuer goe downe, or fyncke, or 
abyde vnder the water, and with thefe beames forme an engine (Mac/iina, 
yf I may fo call it) of the length of three fcore foote, and of the breadth of 
twentie foote, and of the heyght of fyxe foote, laying the fyrfte ranke in 
length, and the other trauerfe, or ouerthwarte, and the thyrde againe in 
length, fafliionyng the fore parte lyke vnto other Shyppes, and in lyke 
manner, bryngyng the poupe or hynder parte to good forme : then with 
fuch irons as apparteyne, bynde it, and ftrengthen it in fuche maner that it 
can not breake. And vpon this frame or fundation buylde your Shyppe, 
of fuche fafliion as you thynke beft. &c. It were here too long to rehearfe 
with what proude woordes and oftentation he magnifieth this inuention. 
But whether this frame or engine (houlde be bylden vpon the keele or 
bottome of the Shyp, or othenvyfe, I commit it to them of better iudge- 
roent, as I haue fayde. 

But wheras it may for this tyme fuffife to haue wrytten thus muche 

of thefe thynges, I wyll make an ende with onely a breefe rehearfal of 

the inuention and encreafe of the Art of Nauigation. After that the Art 

of Nauigation was founde, euery man began to chalenge vnto hym the 


dominion of the fea, and there to dwel and kepe waiTe euen as on the land. 
Minos (as wryteth Strabo) was the fyrft that ruled on the fea, whiche 
neuertheleffe, other afcribe to Ncptunus, who fyrft founde the Art of Naui- 
gation, and was therefore (as wryteth Diodorus) appoynted by Salurnus to 
be Admiral of the fyrfte Nauie : and thereby the pofteritic afterwarde 
afcribed to him the gouernaunce of the fea, and named him the God 
thereof. After whom the Creleti/es euer were efteemed moft expert in the 
Art of Nauigation. But (as wryteth Plinie) boates were fyrft inuented, 
and with them was the fyrfte faylyng in the Ilandes of the redde fea, vnder 
kyng Erythra, as alfo witnelfeth Quinlilian, faying, If none had proceeded 
further then the inuentions of our predecelfors, we had had nothyng in the 
Poets aboue Andronicus, and nothing in hiftories aboue the Annates or 
Cronicles of Byffhoppes, and had yet haue fayled in troughes or in boates. 
Other haue afcribed this inuention to diuers other nations and perfons, as 
to the Troians and Myfians in Hellefponto, and alfo that the ancient Britanes 
made boates of leather or hydes, and fayled with them in the Ocean fea. 
Plinie wryteth, that Danaus was the fyrft that brought a Shyppe out of 
Grece into Egypt. Some alfo geue the fime to Alinerua. But moft ryght- 
fully, the inuention both of the Shyp, and Art of Nauigation, is afcribed to 
Noe, who (as wryteth Eu/ebus) was longe before Neptune or Danaus. 
For doubtlelfe (fayth he) the Arke of Noe was none other then a Shyp, and 
the fyrfte and onely exemplar of the buyldyng of all other Shyppes or 
velfelles of faylyng. Alfo the mofte ancient wryter Bero/us the Chaldean 
(as wryteth lofeplius) calleth the Arke of Noe, a Shyp. The fame Jo/ephus 
alfo fayth, that the Nephues of Noe, departyng to inhabite diuers partes of 
the worlde, vfed many Shyppes. &c. Long after Noe, the Tyrians were 
counted moft expert in the Arte ol Nauigation : and after them, diuers 
other nations. For whereas no Art is fo perfect, but may receaue encreafe, 
hereof doth it folowe, that this Art alfo hath been greatly augmented, and 
brought to further perfection by witty inuentions of the pofteritie, euen 
vnto our age : whereof, who fo lyfteth to know further more particulerly 
who inuented all other partes and inftrumentes parteyning to al fortes of 
Shyppes, and Art of Nauigation, may read ye thyrde booke of Polidor 
Virgil, Cap. xv. De Inuentoril). Rer. and Bayfiiis, de re nauati. 

Thus gentle Maifter Wynter, befeechyng your woorfhyp to t.ike 

in good part this teftimonie of my thankfuU hart (fuche as it 

is) I befeeche the immortall God to profper all your doo- 

inges to his honor, and the benefite of your Countrey. 

1576. The last work which it was permitted to Eden to 

undertake, w.-is an English translation from a Latin 
version of Ludovico Barthema's Travels in the Eajt in 

1503, which was posthumously printed by R. Willes, the next year. 

He was also endeavouring to collect the Reports of the Agents of the 

Moscovy Company, which form so important a part of Hakluyt's Collection ; 

when death exchanged his earthly life of troubles and labours, for, we can 

but think, the blessed peace of heavenly rest. 

I am indebted to my friend the late Mr. C. Bridger, Hon. Mem. of the 
Soc. of Ant. of Newcastle, for the following note : 

1576. July 20. Letters of Administration were granted, in the Pre- 

rogative Court of Canterbury, to the estate of Richard 

Eden, of the parish of St Dunstan's in the East, (the same 

parish in which Sir John Hawkins lived), in favour of Alban Eden, his son. 

1577. Summer. R. Willis published a second and altered edition of 

the Third Work here reprinted, under the title of The 
History oj Trauayle in the West and East Indies, Ss'c. 
1586. April. It would appear from T. A. D'Aubigne's Histoire Uni- 

versdle, iii. book i. c. 3, /. 15, Ed. 1620, that the Vidame, 
after many wanderings, was captured by one Captain 
Carles: who (not crediting that a member of so good a 
family was unable to pay his ransom) suffered this distinguished Nobleman, 
whom the King of Navarre had called his Uncle, and who was now about 
sixty-six years ; to die like a dog, while bound to the m-igazine at the bottom 
of the hold of his galley. A prisoner so placed would be situated immedi- 
ately below the planking of the passage which extended between the two 
rows of galley slaves from the prow to the stern of the galley : and there- 
fore, when the galley was in motion, would ceaselessly suffer from all the 
noise of the sixty or eighty rowers ; from whom he would be separated, only 
by the thickness of the planking above his head. 

Richard Eden's 

Contributions to our Literature, 

during the reigns of 

Edward VI. and Mary. 

I553-I555 A.D, 

[The Second English book on America.] 

C ^ tVtnt^it 0f tftt nth^t India, 

toitfi 0titer neiu founlre lanlrts^ 

anlr Hatnlrr^, aftortl eatiSttoarlrt a^S 

toes^tiuatrlrt, a^ titeg are fenotow 

ani founlr i\\ tftete oure iragt^, 

after tfte ires^cripcwn of ^e6as- 

tian ^vax^itx (n Itis^ Softe of \mxv 

tterf all CoCmograpItie : tolterin tfte 

Irilifltnt reatrer mag ^tt the goolr 

SuaefCe anlr retoartre tA noile 

anlr ftont^te enterprgfes?, 

l» rgrfteiS are aBtagiretr, 

6ut aWir (ilffTr (i^ 3101-= 

(ft>tr, antr tfte €ftrt= 

sltian fagtft («= 


f:ran!ilateTr ffut wf Eatitt inta i^fnalt^fte. aSg 

1^" Prater spem sub spe. 


THE Duke of Northumberlande, 

HYS grace. 

Reade in auncient writers (mod noble prince) how 
that mightie kyng and conquerour of the world, 
Alexander the great, at fuch tyme as he beheld ye 
tombe of fearfe Achilles, and therewith called to his 
remembraunce howe excellently the Poet Homere 
had fet forth his heroical factes, which notwithfland- 
ing he thoughte to be muche inferiour vnto his, he 
fighed and fayde : Oh the moft fortunate, which hafte 
founde fuche a trompe to magnifi thi doinges, mean- 
ing hereby, that the fame of Achilles was no leffe 
notable to hys pofteritie by homers writing, then 
it was in hys lyfe tyme by hys owne marciaJ 
afifayres. Wherby we maye perceue fuch magna- 
nimitie to haue ben in our prediceffours, men of 
noble and flout courage, yat they thought it not fufficiente in their life time to deferue prayfe 
and honour, except the fame might alfo redounde to theyr pofteritie, yat they mighte therby 
bee encouraged to do the like. Whyche thing truely hath ben ye caufe, yat in al ages 
noble enterprifes haue ben commended, and fuch as haue attempted ye fame, haue 
bene honoured. Wherfore if honeft commendacions be a iuft reward dew to noble 
enterprifes, fo much do they robbe and fpoyle from ye dignitie therof, which in any 
poynt diminifhe the fame : no leffe confoundinge the order of thinges, than he whiche 
cloteth an ape in purple, and a king in fackecloth. This I fpeake ye rather, beecaufe 
there chaunfed of late to come to my handes, a fhiete of printed paper, (more worthy fo to 
bee called then a boke) entytuled of the newe founde landes. The whyche tytle when I 
readde, as one not vtterlye ignoraunt hereof, hauynge before in my tyme readde Decades, 
and alfo the nauigations de nouo orbe, there feemed too me no leffe inequalitye betwene the 
tytle and the booke, then if a man woulde profeffe to wryte of Englande, and 
entreated onelye of Trumpington a vyllage wythin a myle of Cambrydge. Wherefore 
partelye moued [by] the good affeccion, whyche I haue euer borne to the fcience of 
Cofmographie, whyche entreately of the defcripcion of the worlde, whereof the newe 
founde landes are no fmal part, and much more by ye good wyll, whych of duetie I 
beare to my natyue countrey and countreymen, which haue of late to their great praife 
(whatfoeuer fuccede) attempted with new viages to ferche ye feas and newe found 
landes, I thought it worthy my trauayle, to their better comfort, (as one not otherwife 
able to further theyr enterprife) to tranflate this boke oute of latin into Engliftie. 
The which, albeit it do not fo largely or particulerlye entreate of euery part, region or 
commoditie of ye fayd new found landes, as the worthines of the thing might requyre : 
yet fure I am that afwel they which fet forth or take vpon them this viage, as alfo 
they which fhal hereafter attempt ye lyke, may in this fmal boke as in a little glaffe, 
fee fome cleare light, not only how to learne by the example, dammage, good <'ucceffe, 



[Deification to the Duke of Northumberland^ 

and aduentures of other, how to behaue them felues and direct theyr viage to their 
mofl commoditie, but alfo if dew fucceffe herein fhoulde not chaunce according vnto 
theyr hope and expectation (as oftentimes chanceth in great affaires,) yet not for one 
foyle or fal, fo to be difmayd as with fhame and difhonor to leaue wyth loffe, but 
rather to the death to perfift in a godly, honefte, and lawful purpofe, knowing that 
whereas one death is dewe to nature, the fame is m.ore honourably fpent in fuch 
attemptes as may be to the glorye of God and commoditie of our countrey, then in 
foft beddes at home, among the teares and weping of women. Which manlye 
courage (like vnto that which hath ben feen and proued in your grace, afwell in forene 
realmes, as alfo in this oure countrey) yf it had not been wanting in other in thefe 
our dayes, at fuche time as our fouereigne Lord of noble memorie Kinge Henry the. 
viij. about the fame yere of his raygne, furnifhed and fent forth certen fhippes vnder 
the gouernaunce of Sebaftian Cabot yet lining, and one fyr Thomas Perte, whofe 
faynt heart was the caufe that that viage toke none effect, yf (I fay) fuch manly 
courage whereof we haue fpoken, had not at that tyme bene wanting, it myghte 
happelye haue comen to paffe, that that riche treafurye called Perularta, (which is now 
in Spayne in the citie of Ciuile, and fo named, for that in it is kepte the infinite ryches 
brought thither from the newe found land of Peru,) myght longe fince haue bene in 
the towre of London, to the kinges great honoure and welth of this his realme. 
What riches the Emperoure hath gotten oute of all the newe founde landes, it 
may wel appeare, wheras onlye in the Ilandes of Hifpaiia or Hifpaniola and Cuba 
and other Ilandes there aboute, were gathered in two monethes twelue thoufand 
poundes weyght of gold as youre grace maye reade in this boke, in the defcripcion of 
the Ilandes. Yet fpeake I here nothynge of perles, precious ftones, and fpices. 
Neyther yet of the greate aboundaunce of golde, whiche is engendred almofl in al 
regions neare vnto the Equinoctial line. And whereas I am aduertifed yat youre 
grace haue bene a greate fortherer of thys viage, (as you haue bene euer fludious for 
the commoditie of your countrey,) I thought my trauayl herein coulde no wayes be 
more worthely beflowed, then to dedicate the fame vnto your grace : Mofl humbly 
defiringe youre honoure fo to accepte mine intente herein, as one whofe good will 
hath not wanted to gratifie your grace with a better thing if mine abilitie were 
greater. Thus Almighty God preferue your grace in health and honour long to 

C Your graces poore o- 
ratour Rychard Eden. 

C Rycharde Eden to the reader. 

Hereas in this Booke (welbeloued Reader) thou mayeft. 
reade many llraunge thinges, and in maner incredible, except 
the fame were proued mod certayn by dayly experience, and 
approued auctoritie, (as (hall hereafter appeare) I thought it 
good for thy better inRruction to make this Preface, wherby 
thou mightefl more playnly and fenfibly comprehend the reafons 
and caufes, yf not of al, yet of fome of the chiefefl thinges, 
which are conteyned in the fame. Therfore wheras thou fhalt 
reade of the great abundaunce of gold, precious flones and 
fpices, which the Spaniardes and Portugales haue brought from 
the South partes of the worlde, as from the newe founde landes 
and Ilandes, the fodeyn flraungenes or greatnes of the thing 
fhal not fo much aniafe thy wittes, and gender in thee 
incrudelitie, yf thou confider the faying of wyfe Salomon, who 
affyrmeth yat there is no new thing vnder the Sunne, and that 
the thing that hath been, cometh to paffe again : which laying 
doeth greatly confyrme the trueth, of fuch thinges as are fpoken 
of in this Boke, wheras the fame perhappes to fome men might otherwyfe feme in maner incredible, 
yf the lyke had not been fene in tyme pafle, and approued by auctoritie of mofle holy fcripture, which 
declaring the great wyfdom, ryches, and noble viages of King Salomon, fayth that God gaue him wifdom 
and vnderflanding exceding muche, and a large heart, and that he prepared a nauie of fliippes, in the 
porte of Azion Gaber, by the brinke of the redde fea, which fayled to Ophir, and brought from thence. 
xxL fcore hundreth (which is. xlii.M. [forty-two thousand]) weyght of golde. Agayne, that the weyghte of 
golde which was broughte to Salomon in one yere, was. vi. hundreth, thre fcore and. vi. talentes of gold, 
wheras the Hebrue talente, called Talenie Hcebraicum fanduarij, was of our flerling money 500. pounde, 
and Taletit Habraicutn uulgare, was halfe fo much Lykewyfe yat filuer was nothing worth in the dayes of 
Salomon, and yat he made filuer and gold in Hierufalem as plentious as flones Agayn, that he ouerlayd 
the houfe of the Lord with precious flones beautifully, and the gold wherwith he couered it, was golde of 
Paruaim. Alfo that the kinges nauie of fliippes v/ent once in thre yere to Tharfis, and brought Gold, 
Siluer, Apes, Peacockes, and Elephantes teeth. Which wordes furely feme fo to confirme fuch thinges as are 
fpoken of in the nauigacions wherof this boke entreateth, that nothinge can make more for the truth of the 
lame : and briefely to fpeake of the places whether Salomons Ihippes fayled for Gold, as Tharfis and Ophir. 
This ought to be confydered for a general rule, that nearefl vnto the fouth partes of the world betwene the 
two Tropikes vnder ye Equinoflial or burning lyne, where the funne is of greatefl forfe, is the chiefefl place 
where gold is engendred, although it be fometymes founde in colde regions as in Scotland, in Crayford 
more, likewyfe in Hungary, yet nether pure of it felf, nor in great quantitie : the reafon whereof is largely 
declared in the Bookes of George Agric, and Albertus Magnus. And wheras it is written in ye Boke of 
Kinges in the Actes of Salomon that he prepared his fhippes in Azion Gaber, beyng by the brinke of the 
readde fea, and fayled from thence to Ophir for Golde, it is apparaunt, that (howfoeuer the names of thinges 
haue altered and periffhed in tyme) he fayled from thence fouthwarde towarde the Equinoctial lyne, for 
afmuche as there is none other paflage oute of the narowneffe of the readde fea, but onely into the mayne 
South fea, by the which the Portugales euen at this daye make theyr viage to Calicut, Samolra, Madagafcar, 
and fuch other Ilandes in the South ead partes of the worlde, where Golde, Spyces, Apes, and Elephantes 
are nowe founde in lyke manner. But as for Tharfis beynge a cytye of Cilicia in Afia the lefle and the 
natiue countreye of S. Paule the Apoflle, and fituate muche more toward the North, then is ludea, and in 
maner directlye ouer againfle ludea on the otherfyde of the fea called Mare Mediteraneum, and in the 
fame clime, in the which (landeth the Ilande of Sicilia, and the cytie of Ciuile in Spayne, it hardelye agreeth 
with the principles of Philofophie and common experience, that golde fhould be there engendred in lyke 
abundaunce as in Regions more towarde the fouth, much leffe Elephantes and Apes, which are no where 
engendred farre from the Equinoflial lyne, or beyonde the two Tropikes, nor yet wil engendre j^ they be 

Nothine new 
vnder the Sunne. 

3- «•-■.'• 4 
3- Keg. 9 

3. Re. 10. 

2. Par. 1 
1 Par. 3. 
Golde Apes 

Where Gold is 

3- R=S- 9 
Azion Gaber. 

The Equinoc'ial 

Thnrsis in 


Ciuile in Spayne. 


\Epistle to the Reader.^ 


Orange tree. 

E:ist India. 

Solomon boughte 
golde of 

The south and 

Mat. 12. 
3 Reg. X 
X. Par. 9 

The quene of 
Saba, the quene 
of the south. 

2 par. 9 

3 Reg- » 

Saba in Ethiopia 
viider EgipL 

Saba in Arabia. 

Trie quene of 
Saba came from 
the Hand of 

From Rome to 

The viage of our 
men to catliay 

Norway, Lappia, 

Globes and 



The strayghtes of 
The Ilandes of 
Passage by the 
north sea mto 
the East. 

Pitts secuncins. 
lib. I. Capit ii. 
Note wel the 
passage by ye 
North sea. 

The warres of ye 
M icedcuiaiu 

broughte into thofe partes of the world. The lyke is to be vnderflande of Popingiayes and fpyces, and 
dyuers other beades, fmites, and trees, which are engendered in certayne climes of the worlde, and 
wyll not profpere in other places : the reafon wherof were here to longe [to] declare. For lyke as pepper 
wyll not growe in Spayne, no more wyll the Orange tree bringe foorth fruite in Englande. Wherefore, it 
may feme by good reafon, that the Golde, Apes, and Elephantes teeth which were broughte from Tharfis (yf it 
were Tharfis of Cilicia) were not engendered there, but rather brought thether by merchauntes from the fouth partes 
of the world, out of Mauritania, Marmarica, Ethiopia, Libia, and Arabia, or otherwife by lande, from the Eaft. 
India, lyke as at this daye, the greate multitude of Spyces, Golde, Precious flones, Sylke, and luerye, whyche is at 
Calicut and Cambaia, growe not al in the regions there about, but are brought thether from dyuers other countreys, 
as doeth more largely appeare in this Boke. And that Salomons factours for exchaunge of other marchaundyfe, 
bought the fame in Tharfis, beyng brought thether from other countreyes, as it is written in the thyrde Boke 
of the Kinges, that Salomon had great plentie of Gold of Marchauntes and Apothecaries. So that to 
conclude, I would rather thinke (fauing reformacion of other better learned) that this Tharfis (and not 
Tharfis of Cilicia,) from whence Salomon had fo great plentie of Gold and luerie, were rather fome other 
countrey in the fouth partes of the world, then this Tharfis of Cilicia. For, not onely olde and newe 
Hiftories, dayly experience, and the principles of natural Philofophie doe agree, yat the places mod apte to 
bring forth gold, fpices, and precious flones, are the South and Southeafl partes of the world, but alfo cur 
Sauiour Chrifl approueth the fame, declaring that the Quene of the South (meaning the Quene of Saba) 
came from the vtmofle partes of the worlde to heare the wyfdom of Salomon. And lyke as by the auctoritie 
of thefe woordes it is playne from what partes of the world fhe came, the fame to a philofophical head is 
apparent by fuche ryches and prefentes as fhe broughte with her. For albeit that in the Chronacles of 
Salomon it is not written by expreffed wordes that fhe came from the Southe, yet is it wTytten that flie came 
to Hierufalem with a very great trayne, with camels laden with fpyces, fwete odours, and exceading much 
gold and precious flones, which defcripcion doeth well agree, both with the fituation of the cytie of Saba in 
Ethiopia vnder Egipt : and alfo with the countrey of Saba, being in the middel of Arabia, inuironned about 
with great rockes wherein is a great wood of Precious trees, fome of Cinomome and CalTia, and fome bring- 
ing forth frankencenfe and myrre, as writeth Plinius lib. 12. and Theophrafiiis It. 9. de Hifi. Plant. Wherefore 
the Quene of Saba myghte worthely be called the quene of the South, forafmuch as bothe Saba (or rather 
Sabat) in Ethiopia, whiche lofephus thinketh to be the Hand oi Mcroe, now called Elfaba, beinge in the ryuer 
of Nilus, and that the quene came from thence, and alfo Saba in Arabia, are fituate farre Southwarde from 
Hierufalem, euen in maner in the middefl of the lyne, called Tropicus Caricri, and the Equino^ial lyne, where 
the Pole Artike is eleuate not paffmg. 13. degrees or thereabout (as in MerocB) where as the fame pole is eleuate 
at Hienifalem. 32. degrees : whereby it may appeare yat the quene of Saba (whom Chrifte calleth the quene 
of ye fouth,) came from the fouth partes about, xi. hundreth and. xl. miles from Hierufalem for the fame 
diftaunce is from Saba in Mcroe to Hierufalem, as betwene Rome and England. But as touching this 
matter, it fhall fuffyfe to haue fayde thus muche. Nowe therefore to returne home from thefe farre countreys, 
and to fpeake fomewhat of this viage which oure countreymenne, haue attempted to fayle into the Eafte 
partes, by the coafles of Norway, Lappia, and Finmarchia, and fo by the narrowe tracte of the Sea by the 
coafles of Grouelande, into the frofen fea, called Mare Congelatum, and fo forth to Cathay (yf any fuche 
paffage may be found) whiche onely doubte doeth at this daye difcorage many faynte hearted men, fpeciallye 
beecaufe in the mode parte of Globes and Mappes they fee the continente or fyrme land, extended euen to 
the North Pole without any fuch paffage. Which thing ought to moue no man greatly, forafmuch as the 
mod parte of Globes and mappes are made after Ptolomeus Tables : Who, albeit he was an excellent man, 
yet were there many thinges hyd from his knowledge, as not fufficientelye tryed or fearched at thofe dales, as 
manifedly appeareth in that he knew nothing of America with the hole fyrme lande adherent thereunto, 
which is nowe found to be the fourth parte of the earth. Neyther yet knew he any thinge of the paifage by 
the Wede into the Fade, by the drayghtes of Magellanus as you fhal reade in this Boke. Neyther of the 
Ilandes in the Wede Ocean Sea, nor of the Ilandes of Molucca fituate in the mayne Fade Indian Sea. And 
as touchinge this paffage, albeit, it were not knowen in Ptolomeus dayes yet other auctors of later time, who 
perhappes haue hadde further experience of the thing (as good reafon is) doe wryte not onely that there is 
a paffage by the Northe Sea into the mayne Fade Sea, but doe alfo further declare, howe certayne fliippes 
haue fafely fayled throughe the fame, as Pius fecundus (otherwyfe called ALneas Siluius) an excellente 
auctour defcrybeth in his Boke of Cofmographie, where he hath thefe wordes folowing. Of the North Ocean 
Sea, whether it may be fayled aboute or not, the contencion is greater, yet is it apparaunte that the greatede 
parte thereof aboute Germanic, hath been fearched by the commaundemente of Augudus th[e]emperour, euen 
vnto the promontorie or landes ende of the people, called Cimbri. The feas alfo and coades of Cafpia were 
fo fearched during the warres of the Macedonians vnder the dominion of Seleuctis and Anthiocns, that al 

\Episile to the Reader^ 


mofl all the Noilh on euery fyde was fayled about. Plinie rehearfeth the teflimonie of Cornelius Nepos, who 
wryteth that the King of Sueuia (or Swethelande) gaue to Metellus ce/er, proconfuU or leauetenaunte of 
Fraunce, certayne Indians or menne of Inde, whiche faylinge out of India for marchaundyfe, were by 
tempefl drieuen into Germanic. We alfo reade in Otho, that vnder th[e]empyre of the Germaynes, there was 
a fhippe of Indians taken in the North fea of Germanie, and drieuen thether by contrary wynd from the 
Eaft. partes: which thing coulde by no meanes haue comen to paffe, yf (as many menne thinke) the North 
fea were not nauigable by reafon of extreme cold and Ife. And thefe be the very wordes of Fius Seatndus, 
whereunto I adde, that thys, notwithflandinge, yf it fhould fo chaunce, that ether there can no fuch paf- 
fage be found, or the fame fo daungerous, or otherwyfe that the very cutte thereof by which onely perhappes 
any fliippes might paffe, could not be founde, yea, or to cade the worfle, yf they (houlde perifhe in this viage, yet 
I woulde wifhe all men to be of fuch corage and conftancie in thefe affayres, as are valiaunt capitaynes 
in the warres : who, yf by miffortune they take a foyle, doe rather fludie how by fome other wayes to recouer 
theyr honour and reputacion diminifl".ed by the fame, then with fliame, loffe, and difhonour, euer afterwarde 
to geue place to theyr enemyes, or forfweare the warres. Wherefore, to conclude, yf no good can be done this 
way, it were worthy the aduenture to attempt, yf thp fame viage may bee broughte to paffe, another waye, as 
by the (Irayght called Fretum trium fratrum, weflward and by North from England, whiche viage is fufficiently 
knowen to fuche as haue any fkyll in Geographie. As for other landes and Ilandes in the wefl fea, where 
the Eagle (yet not in euery place) hath fo fpled his winges, that other poore byrdes may not without offence 
feke theyr praye within the compaflfe of the fame, I wyll fpeake nothing hereof, bycaufe I wold be loth to lay 
an egge, wherof other men might hatche a ferpent Wherfore to let this paffe, and to entre into another 
matter. Forafmuch as in thefe our dales hath chaunced fo great a fecret to be found, as the like hath neuer 
been knowen or heard before, (what foeuer God meant to kepe this miRery hyd fo long) I thoughte it good 
to fpeake fomwhat hereof; trufling yat the pleafaunt contemplacion of the thing it felfe, fhal make the length 
of this preface leffe tedious, efpecially yf it find a reader whofe foule delyteth to prayfe God in his workes. 
The thing therfore is this, how the hole globe of the world (of the earth and water I meane) hath been fayled 
aboute, by the Weft, into the Eaft, as doth more largely appeare in this boke in the nauigacions of Magdlatms, 
who from Spayne fayled Weftward to the Ilandes of Molucca being in the Eafl fea, farre beyond ye furtheft 
partes of Eaft. India : and the portugales came to the fame Ilandes from Spayne fayling Eaflward by the 
coaftes of Aphrica, Arabia, and the vttermoft. India beyond the ryuer of Ganges where, in yat Indian fea the 
fayd Ilandes of Molucca are fituate. A thing furely moft wonderful, and in maner incredible, but that the 
fame is proued moft certayne by experience, the teacher and meftres of all fciences, for lacke of whofe ayde 
(experience I meane) lyke as many greate wittes haue fallen into great errours, fo by her ayde, many bafe 
and common wittes haue attayned to the knowledge and practife of fuch wonderfull effectes, as could hardely 
be comprehended by the difcourfe of reafon. Which thing or other lyke, I fuppofe was the caufe why the 
noble Philofopher Ariftoteles fayde : Quod nihil ejl in inUllectu quod noii fuit prius in fetifu^ that is, that 
nothinge is in vnderftandinge, but the fame was fyrft in fenfe, that is to faye subiect to ye fenfes. Yet would 
I not that any raftie witte (houlde hereby take holde, as thoughe eyther Ariftotle or I, meant that fence 
were more excellent then reafon, but rather that reafon vfing fenfe, taketh his principles and fyrft fedes of 
thinges fenfyble, and afterwarde by his owne difcourfe and fearching of caufes, encreafeth the fame from a 
feede to a tree, as from an acome to an oke. Nought els to fay, but that experience to be moft certayn 
which is ioyned with reafon or fpeculacion, and that reafon to be moft fure which is confirmed with 
experience, accordinge as the Phificians determen in theyr fcience, that neyther practyfe is fafe without 
fpeculacion, nor fpeculacion without practyfe. Wherfore, whereas men of great knowledge and experience, 
are to great affaires, theyr attemptes haue for the mofte parte good fucceffe, as doeth mofte playnly appeare 
in all hiftories : notwithftanding that fome ignoraunt men wyl alledge that certayn rafhe aduentures haue 
profpered well : which fayinge proueth no more then yf a man ftiould fay, that twife or thrife a man vnarmed 
flew a man armed (as dyd fometyme the wyld Irilhmen at bullen) Ergo, it were better to fight vnarmed 
then armed. And wheras I haue here fpoken of knowledge ioyned with experience, I meane by knowledge 
yat which we commonly call learning, whether it be gotten out of bokes (which are the writinges of wyfe 
and expert men) or othervvyfe by conference and educacion with fuch as are lemed : meaning nought els by 
learning, but ye gathering of many mens wittes into one mans head, and the experience of many yerer, 
and many mens lyues, to the lyfe of one, whom we call a learned, wyfe, and expert man. The which 
defynicion and effect of learning, the noble and learned cortier Baltaffar Caftaglione (the auctour of the boke 
called in the Italian tongue il cortegio>to,) diligently confideringe, doeth greatlye blame and reproue the 
frenfhmen in that they thinke yat the knowledge of letters doeth hinder the affayres of warre, ye which 
perfwafion he proueth by many reafons and examples to be moft falfe. But as conceminge the matter 
whereof this boke entreateth the greate Philofopher Albertus Magnus, onelye by learninge, wythoute 


Cornelitts Nepos. 
Siteuitiy called 
Snecia nere vnto 
eolhland and 

A ship of Indians 
driuen from the 
East into the N orth 

The viage to 


Westwarde and 
by north. 

The earth 
compassed about 

The viage of 
The Ilandes of 

Experience, yc 
teaclier of al 

Sense and 

A sentence of 

Experience ioined 
with specuhitiuii 

A perticnier 
proueth no 

What is 
knowledge and 

A false 

?crswasion of ye 

A Ibfrius Magnus 


\Epistle to the Reader^ 

Tempcnit re^nons 
vnder ye 
EqutHOCtial line. 

An error of S. 
Augustine and 
A niipodes. 


The roundnes of 

ye earth. 

S. augustync 


The apostles, 
Antipodes ih^ 
one againste 

The spanyardes 
and the Indians 
are Autipoiies. 

S. augustine of 
the heresie of 
S. augustines 
boke of retractes. 

Mountaynes, let 
not ye ruundnus 
of the earth. 

A .Sentence of S. 

Commendacton of 
s. augustin 


experyence, affyrmed that habitable or temperate Regions myghte be vnder the Equinoctial or buminge 
lyne, as appeareth in hys Boke de Natura locorum, contrarye to the opinion of other wryters whyche were before 
hys tyme, and yet is nowe proued by experience to bee mode true, albeit not in all places vnder the fayde 
lyne, the cauft whereof were here to longe to declare. And lyke as Albertus Magnus by knowledge of 
Aftronomye (wherein he excelled) came to the vnderflandinge hereof, euen fo that greate Gierke (but better 
dyuyne then Phylofopher) Sayncte Auguflyne and alfo Lactantius, for lacke of lyke knowledge in that fcience, 
fell into a chyldifhe erroure, denyinge that there is anye people, called Antipodes, of whom the greate 
Aflronomer of our tyme, Apianus wryteth in thys maner. Antipodes are they, whyche walke wyth theyr fete 
dyrectelye contrarye agaynlle cures, and haue the heauen dyrectelye ouer theyr heades as we haue. Yet haue 
we nothinge common wyth them, but all thinges contrarye : for when the Sunne caufeth Sommer wyth vs, 
then is it Myddewynter wyth them : and when it is day wyth vs, it is nyghte wyth them : And when the daye 
is longefte wyth vs, then is the longefle nyghte wyth them, and the fhortefle daye. Whiche, Lactantius, a 
manne otherwyfe well learned, in his thyrde Booke, Capittulo foure and tvventye, childiffhelye erringe, wyth 
hys lyghte and opinionate argumentes, denyeth that there is anye fuche, and mocketh the Aflronomers, 
beecaufe they aifyrme the earth to bee rounde, whiche neuertheleffe they proue wyth mofle certayne and 
apparente demonflracions of Geometrye, and vnfayleable experymentes. Whome, Sayncte Auguflyne 
folowing, in his fixtenth Booke. de Ciuitat. Dei. Capittu. ix. wryteth after thys forte. Suche as fable that 
there is Antipodes, that is to faye, menne of the contrarye parte, where the funne ryfeth when it falleth to vs, 
and to haue theyr feete agaynlle oures, we oughte by no reafon to beeleue. Thofe bee the woordes of 
Sayncte Auguflyne. Nothwithftandinge (fayeth Apianus) putte thou no double Gentle Reader, that the 
Apoflles of Chrifle were Antipodes the one to the other, and flode feete to feete the one agaynfle the 
other, when lames th[e]elder and brother to lohn the Euangelifle, the fonne of Zebedeus, was in Spayne in 
Galitia, and Thomas the Apodle in the hygher India, they were moofte certaynelye Antipodes, walking feete 
to feete one agaynfle the other, almofl as directly as a diametrical lyne. For the Spanyardes are Antipodes 
to the Indians, and the Indians in lyke maner to the Spanyardes. Which thinge alfo the excellente and 
aunciente Auctour Strabo confyrmeth to bee true, and likewife Plinius Nat. Hijl. lib. 2. Cap. 67. Dolateranus 
alfo, and all other Cofmographers and Aflronomers. Hetherto Apianus : and to declare my opinion in fewe 
woordes, I thinke it no greate marueyle that Saincte Auguflyne (houlde fall into an erroure in the fcience 
of Aflronomie in whiche he trauayled but as a flraunger, forafmuche as he erred in many thinges in diuinitie 
which was his chief profeffion : and was longe of the herefye of Manicheus beefore he was conuerted by 
Saincte Ambrofe : and wrytte alfo at the lengthe a Booke of retractes, in whych he correcteth hys owne 
errours. And I beleue playnely that, that excellent witte of hys, could not haue remayned in yat errour yf 
he had been wel exercyfed in Aflronomy, or had knowen any fuche experyence as is fpoken of here beefore, 
howe the Spanyardes by the Wefle and the Portugales by the Eafle compaffed aboute the earth, whiche 
coulde neuer haue come to paffe yf the earthe were not rounde (Quantum ad maximas fui partes) as they call 
it For, as for hylles and Mountaynes, though they be neuer fo greate, yet in refpecte to the byggenes of the 
earth, they doe no more lette the roundneffe hereof, then doe the lyttle knobbes of the berrye, which we call 
a galle, lette the roundneffe of the fame. Wherefore I am certaynely perfwaded, that yf Sayncte Auguflyne 
had continued hys fludye in Aftronomye (as it hadde been pytye he fhoulde) or were alyue at thys daye, he 
woulde alfo haue retracted this erroure. But yf here anye fuperfticious head fhall thinke it a heynous matter 
in any poynte to contrary Sainct Auguftyne, lette hym hearken howe Auguftine h)'m felfe fayeth : that 
he wyll neyther hys writynges or other mennes, of howe greate name or fame foeuer they be, otherwife 
to be beleued then the fame fhall, by reafon bee approued to be true : Neque quorumlibet difputaciones, &>€. 
And lyke as the greate Philofopher Ariftotel, when he WTyte agaynfte hys mayfter Plato of the queftion 
de Idais, and agaynfle Socrates who by the oracle of Apollo was proued to be moft wyfe, and certayne 
of hys frendes afked hym why he durfte be fo boulde, he aunfwered that Plato was hys frende, and 
fo was Socrates : but trueth hys frende more then they bothe, euen fo I thinke it no iniurye nor 
contumelye to Saynct Auguftyne, yf the fame were fayde of hym alfo geuynge hym otherwyfe hys dewe 
commendacions, as he was furelye an excellente man, of dyuyne witte, and knowledge, and fo trauayled in 
fettynge foorth Chriftes true Relygion in thofe turmoylous dayes, in perpetual combatte, agaynfte learned 
heretykes and Prynces of the worlde, that he is worthelye called a Doctour and Pyller of Chriftes Churche. 
And as for Lactantius, the intente of whofe wrytinges was chiefelye to thys ende, to dyminifhe th[e]eftimacion 
of Philofophye, (as at thofe dayes it was neceffarie to doe amonge the Gentyles) and to aduaunce Goddes 
woorde, (whyche they contemned for the fimplicitie of the fame,) albeit, he attempted as farre as hys leam- 
inge woulde feme hym, to make all thynges in Philo[fo]phie vncertayne, yet are hys argumentes fo flender, 
that vnleffe G O D by the fecrete working of hys fpyryte, hadde called the Gentyles to the true Faythe, I feare 
me leafte fewe or none of them, (fpecyallye of the greate wyttes) woulde haue been conuerted by Lactantius 

\Episth to the Reader-I 


argumentes. Howe he dalyeth in denyinge the yearth to bee rounde, and that it is poffyble that it 
myghte bee longe and rounde, (lyke an Egge,) or otherwyfe longe and holowe lyke a bote, (meanynge I 
fuppofe that the Sea myghte bee conteyned in the holowneffe of the iame, wyth fuche other opinyons 
grounded of no reafon, it were to longe to rehearfe. Yet, forafmuche as he was a learned manne, and 
for the better fatifiyinge of fuche wyttes as are defyreous to know fome apperaunce of truth by naturall 
reafon and demonflracions, lette vs admytte that the earth were rounde after anye of thofe faflhions whiche 
he defcrybeth : yet can it not bee denyed, but that it is conteyned wythin the holoweneffe (yf I maye 
fo call it) of the ayre, hauynge the heauen in euerye place dyrectelye ouer euery parte of the lame, as fayeth 
the Poete and Philofopher Virgill, Ccelum undique furfum : Excepte perhappes Lactantius fhoulde thinke 
that it honge by fome thynge, or were otherwyfe borne vppe wyth pyllers as the Poetes Fable, that the 
Gyaunte Atlas beareth the worlde on hys fhoulders, whereby they meane that a manne of valiente mynde 
mufl. floutelye beare the chaunces of the worlde. Of whyche hangeinge or bearynge of the earth, I reade 
a better and more true fayinge in the holye Scripture, where it is written, Fert 07imia uerbo oris fui, that 
is, that God fuflayneth and beareth all thinges with the woorde of hys mouth. 

Holye lob alfo fayeth, that the LORD flretcheth oute the Northe ouer the emptye, and hangeth the 
earth vpon nothynge : Meaninge by nothinge, the ayre, becaufe to oure fenfes it appeareth in maner as 
nothynge : Or otherwyfe that it is not dependynge of anye other fubflaunce, but to bee fuflayned onelye by 
the power of G O D who hath appoynted the Elementes theyr places and lymittes, and caufeth the heuye to 
flande fade : as wytnefleth Moyfes in hys fonge, fayinge : By the wynde of thy noflrels the waters gathered 
together, the flouddes floode llyll as an heape, and the deepe water congeled togeather in the heart of the Sea. 
Wherefore yf the heauen be rounde (whiche no manne can reafonably denye that euer fawe the Sunne and 
flerres moue.) And yf the earth bee the center of the worlde dependinge as we haue fayde beefore, then 
mufle it needes folowe, that they whiche inhabiting the Northvvefle partes of the earth, haue the Pole Artike 
eleuate thyrtye degrees, mud needes bee Antipodes to them whiche inhabitinge the Southeafle partes of the 
earth, haue the Pole Antartike eleuate in the fame degree, and fo the lyke to bee vnderfland of all other 
eleuacions and degrees. And yf here anye wyll obiect, that eyther the earth or firme land is not fo large, or 
fo farre extended, or other wyfe not inhabited althoughe it were fo large, or that the fea is greater then the 
lande, to thys I aunfwere, that no man knoweth further hereof then is tryed and founde by experience, as 
we haue fayde beefore. And albeit that the fea were larger then the firme lande, yet forafmuche as there are 
Ilandes founde in all places of the mayne Sea, and in maner all inhabited, there is no reafon to the con- 
trarye, but that the people of thofe Ilandes maye be Antipodes to fuch as dwel on the fyrme lande, on the 
contrary parte, whether the earth bee round and longe, yea or fquare, (yf you wyll) notwj'thftandynge. But 
wyth what certayne demonRracions the Aflronomers and Geometricians, proue the earth to bee rounde, and 
the Sphericall or rounde forme to bee moofle perfecte, it were to longe to declare. I wyll therefore make 
an ende of thys matter wyth the fayinge of Sayncte Paule in hys Oracion, to the menne of Athens. That 
GOD made of one bloudde, all nacions of menne, to dwell vpon the hole face of the earth. 

C I hadde entended here (well beeloued Reader) to haue fpoken fomewhat of fuche flraunge thynges 
and Monflers, whereof mencion is made in thys Booke, to th[e]ende that fuche as by the narownes of theyr 
vnderflandinge are not of capacitie to conceaue the caufes and natures of thynges, myghte partely haue been 
fatiffyed wyth fome fenfyble reafons. But beynge at thys tyme otherwyfe hindered, it Ihall fuffife al good 
and honed wittes, that whatfoeuer the Lorde hath pleafed, that hath he done in heauen and in earth, and in 
the Sea, and in all depe places. 

n Ecclefiadicus. Capit. i. 
€[ The eye is not fatiffyed withfyght, and ilte eare is not fylted with hearinge. 

Of the rounden^* 
of ye earth. 

The earth hangeth 
in ye aire 

The fable of 

The word of God 
beareth vppe the 

lob. 26. 

The elementes. 

£xa J 

The eleuation of 
the pole. 

The larecnes of 

the earth. 


Astronomers and 

Act xvij 

PS.-1. J3S 


C The Table. 

C Of the Ilande of laua. 

Of the Ilande of Madagafcar. 

Of the Ilande of Zanzibar. 

Of the two Ilandes in the which men and women dwell a funder. 

Of the mightie Empyre of Cathay, fubiect vnder the dominion of the great Cham or Cane, 

Emperour of Tartaria. 
Of certayn Prouinces fubiect vnder the dominion of the great Cham. 
Of the Prouince of Mangi. 
Of the Region of Tangut. 

Of the newe Ilandes, howe, when, and by whom they were founde. 
Of the two Ilandes lohanna and Hifpana. 
Of the Canibales, which eate mens flefhe. 
Of the maners of the inhabitantes of Hifpana. 
How Chriftophorus Columbus, after that he had founde the newe Ilandes, returned to Spayne : 

and preparing a new nauie, failed agayn to ye Canibales. 
How Columbus the Admiral, paffed many Ilandes and what chaunced to hym and his in that viage. 
Of the newe India, as it is founde and knowen in thefe oure dayes. 
Of the Adamant flone, otherwife called the Diamant. 
Of the Kingdoms and cities of Narfmga and Canonor 
Howe the Elephantes in India are prepared to the warres. 
Of the beafle called Rhinoceros. 

Of Cahcut, the mofle famous markette towne of India. 
Of the maners of the Indians in Calicut 

Of Pepper and other fpyces which growe in the Region of CaUcut 

Of the byrdes and beades which are found in the Region of Calicut : and of the wyne of the tree. 
From whence all kyndes of fpyces are brought to the cytie of Calicut 
Of the Hand of zaylon, and of the cinomome tree. 
Of the cytie of Tamafferi, and of the maners of the cytezyns. 
Of the excellent cytie and Kingdom of Pego. 
Of the Ilande of Sumatra, or Taprobana. 
Of the Ilande of BomeL 
Of the Ilande of Giaua. 

Howe the Spanyardes abufed the fubmiflion and frendfliip of the inhabitauntes of the Ilandes. 
Howe the Portugales foughte newe Ilandes in the Eaft. partes, and howe they came to Calicut 
Howe Magellanus by a ftrayght or narow arme of the Sea, fayled by the Wefte into the Eafte 

to dyuers Ilandes, where alfo he was flayne. 
Howe the Spanyardes came to the Ilandes of Molucca, and of the people with great hanging eares. 
The third nauigacion of Chriftophorus Columbus. 
[How Petrus Alonfus foughte newe Ilandes. 
How Pinzonus companion to the Admiral, fought newe Ilandes. 
The foure nauigacions of Americus Vefputius to the newe Ilandes. 
The fyrfle viage of Vefputius. 
The fecond viage of Vefputius. 
The thyrde viage of Vefputius. 
The fourth viage of Vefputius. 

Howe the Kyng of Portugale fubdued certayne places in India, and of the ryche cytie of Malacha. 
Of the Ilande of Medera, and the fortunate Ilandes, otherwyfe called the Ilandes of Canaria. 
[Whether vnder the .^Equinoctial circle or buminge lyne (called Torrida Zona) be habitable Regions. 

























































































€ F 

1 n IS. 


1 Of the newe India, 

as it is knowen and found in thefe our dayes. 

In the yeare of oure Lorde. M.D.LI 1 1. 

After the defcripcion of Sebaftian Munfler in 

his Booke of the vniuerfall Cofmographie. 

Lihr. V. De terris Asi(2 Maioris. 

And tranflated into Englifhe 

by Richard Eden. 

Here are two viages or nauigacions made oute of Europa into 
India. The one foutheafl from fpayne, by the coafles of 
Aphrica and Ethiopia, euen vnto Arabia to the citie called 
Aden. And from thence to the Ilande of Ormus, and from 
Ormus to the citie of Cambaia, and from thence euen vnto the 
citie of Calicut Cambaia is fituate nere vnto the floudde Indus. 
This citie is of great powre, riche, and abundaunt in al kyndes of 
grayne and come. The foyle hereof bringeth forth fondry 
kyndes of fwete oyntmentes, and cotten which groweth on certain 
trees called Gofsampini, this cotton, is otherwyfe called Bombage 
or fylke of the trees. The Kynge of Portugall fubdued this 
cytie, and bylded hard by the fame a ftrong fortreffe : with 
which thing the Turke beeing fore greued, commaunded a greate 
nauie of fhippes with greate fumptuoufnes to bee furniflied in 
the goulfe called Siiius Arabiais: to the ende that he might 
dryue the Portugalles out of India, and the better to acconi- 
plifhe this his purpofe, he appointed one Soliman a noble man of 
warre (beyng alfo the Captayne of Alcayre,) to be the admiral general, or gouemour of his nauie, hauing in his 
retenue. xx. thoufand fouldiers beefyde mariners and gonners, whiche were in numbre foure thoufand. This 
nauie was appointed in the hauen Suezio, beeinge a port of the redde fea, in the yeare of Chrifl. 1538. And 
arryued fyrfle at the citie Aden : where laying anker, the gouemour of the nauie fent letters to the king of 
Aden, certifying him that he woulde take his viage into India, from thence to expell the King of Portugall. 
The Kinge of Aden whiche was then tributarye to the King of Portugall, receyued the Turkes letters thanke- 
fuUy, offering him felfe and all that he might make, to fo mightie an Emperoure, defyringe the gouemoure to 
come forth of the fhip, and to beholde the cytie obedient and readye at his commaundemente, in the which alfo 
accordinge vnto his digniue and office, he fhould be worthely interteyned : but the gouemour agayne allured and 
entyfed hym to come out of his citie, and fo by crafte circumuented him, that he toke him priefoner, and com- 
maunded him to be hanged on the fayle yarde of the fhyp, and with hym foure other of the rulers of the citie of 
Aden, affyrming that he was commaunded of the Turke fo to handel them, becaufe the cytiezins of Aden had 
not only made a leage with the Portugales, but had alfo payde them tribute : whiche nacion the Turke playnely 
entended to drieue out of India. And thus after the Kynges death, that mod riche and beautiful cytie, was euer 
a praye to theues, fpoylers, and murtherers without refyflaunce. Then the gouemoure departing from thence, lefte 
there behynde him a garrifon of two thoufand men of warre, and faylyng forwarde on hys viage, he came to the 
citie called Diutn, whiche the Portugales held : and his armie was greatly encreafed by the waye, as wel by land 
as by fea, by reafon of the great confluence of the Turkes which on euery fide reforted to him, fo that in a fliort 
fpace they rowled before them a bulwarke or countremure of earth, in maner as bigge as a mountayne, which 
by little and litle they moued neare vnto the trenche or ditche of the caftell, fo that they might fafely fland 
Dehynde the bulwarke, (thus rayfing a mount,) they befieged the caflell on euery fyde, and battered the walks 
and towres thereof very fore : yet that notwithllanding, were at the length, enforfed to departe, not withoute 
greate loffe and flaughter of theyr fouldiers : for this Dium, is the flrongefl citie that is vnder the dominion of 

The — 
ther is 

The citie of 


Bombage or 
cotton of the trties. 

The turkes nauie 
agaynste the 
king of Portu^.alc. 

The cytie of Aden. 

The kinge of 
Aden is nangcd. 

The destruction 
of the citie of 

The turke 
besiegeth the 
cytie of D U-n. 

The turke is 


\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & fontid, &c^^ 

The excetlencie 
of the cilie of 

Lncha is gumme 
of a tree, and is 
vsed in dying of 

The Kyngdom of 

The Kyngdom of 

The diamonde 

The stone 

The hardnes of 
the diamond. 

How the diamand 
is made sufte. 

The montayne of 

The citie of 

The kinge of 

Cambaia : but the cytie of Cambaia, is fituate in the goulfe called Guzerat, and is well inhabited, and in maner 
mod excellent of all the cities of India, and is therefore called Cayrus, or Akayr, or Babilon of India. It is 
enuironned with a walk, and hath in it very fayre byldinges. Ye Soldan or chefe ruler hereof, is of Mahumets 
fecte as are ye Turkes. Lacha groweth there more plentifully then in any other countre. The inhabitauntes, 
for the mofle parte goe naked, couering only theyr priuie partes : they bynd theyr heades about with a clothe 
of purple color. The Soldan or prince of this citie, hath in a redines for the warres. xx. thoufand horfemen, 
he hath alfo a mightye and magnifical court. When he waketh in ye morning there is heard a great noyfe of 
cimbals, drumflades, timbrelles, fhames, pipes, flutes, trumpettes, and diuerfe other mufical inflrumentes, hereby 
fignifying that the king lyueth and is in health and merye : in lyke maner doe they whyle he is at dyner. To 
the kyngdom of Cambaia, is the Kingdom of loga nexte adioyning, which reacheth farre on euerye fide. In this 
kingdom, by reafon of the greate heate of the fonne, the bodyes of men begin to waxe blacke and to be fcorched: 
the people of thys countreye haue ringes hanging at their eares and colers aboute theyr neckes of fundry fortes, 
al befet and (hyninge with precious Hones. The foyle hereof is not very fruitful, this region is rough with 
mountaynes, the byldinge[s] are defpicable, and euyl to dwel in : there is beyonde this, another Kingdom 
called Decha)t : this cytie is very beautiful to behold, and fruitful in maner of al thinges : the king hereof vfeth 
great pride, and folemnitie : his pompes and triumphes are in maner incredible, they that wayt vpon the kinge, 
weare on the vpper partes of theyr Ihoes certayne fliyning precious flones, as Piropi (whiche are a kind of 
Rubies or Carbuncles) with Diamandes and fuch other. But what maner of lewelles they vfe in ye (lede of 
collers, eareringes, and ringes, you may well confyder, whereas they geue fuche honour to theyr fete. In this 
kingdom is faid to be a mountayne, out of the which Diamandes are digged. 

C Of the Diamande Jlone, called in Latine Adamas, 

He Diamande is engendred in the mynes of India, Ethiopia, Arabia, Macedonia, and Cyprus, 
and in the golde mynes of the fame countries. That of India excelleth all other in beautie 
and clearenes : that which is of the coloure of yron, is called Sideriies, it is often tymes found 
in colour like vnto criflal, and though it be fometimes lyke thereto in whytnes, yet doth it 
differ from criflall in hardnes, in fo much that if it be layd vpon an anuil and flrongly llriken 
with a hammer, the anuyl and hammer fhall foner be wounded and leape away, then the Hone 
perifhed or diminifhed : it doth not onelye refufe the forfe of Iron, but alfo refifleth the power 
of fyre, whofe heate is fo farre vnable to melte it, that it can not fo muche as heate it, if we geue credit 
to Plinie, and is alfo rather made purer therby, then anye wayes defyled or corrupted: neuertheles, the 
fmguler and excellent hardnes of this flone, is made fo fofte with ye hoate blood of a Goate or a Lyon, 
that it may be broken : and if it be put with molten lead in hoate fomaces, it waxeth fo hoate that it wylbe 
diffolued : yet are not all Diamandes of fuch hardnefle, for that of Cyprus, and alfo that of the coloure of 
Iron called Siderites, may be broken with hammers and perced with another Diamand: his vertue is to 
bewray poifons, and to fruflrate th[e]opperacion therof, and beeing therefore greatly ellemed of Kinges and 
Princes, it hath euer been of great price. The mountaine of India out of the which the Diamandes are 
digged, is compaffed with a waUe on euery fyde, and kepte with a flrong defence. 

C Of the kingdoms and cities of Narfmga and Canonor. 

He King of Narfmga, in riches and dominion excelleth all other Kinges in thofe partes. The 
chiefe cytie where the King is refident, is in fituacion and fynenes, much lyke vnto the cytie 
of Milayne, but that it flandeth in a place fomewhat declyning and leffe equalL This king 
hath euer in a redines manye thoufandes of men of armes, as one that is euer at warre with 
other countreys, borderers nere aboute him. He is geuen to mode vile Idolatrie, and 
honoureth the deuyll, euen as doth the king of Calicut. The maners and fafhions of the 
inhabitantes, are after this forte. The gentlemen or fuch as are of greatefl. reuenewes, vfe to 
weare an inward cote or peticote, not very long : hauing theyr heades bounde aboute with and rowles of 
fundry coloures after the maner of the Turkes. The common people, couer onli their priuie parts and are 
befyde all together naked. The Kynge weareth on his head a (lately cap made of the riche cloth of Afia, 
beyng two handfuUes in length. When he goeth to ye warres, he weareth a veflure of ye filke called Goffampine, 
which he couereth with a cloke adorned with plates of gold : ye hemme or edge of his cloke is befet with all 
maner of ouches and lewelles. Hys horfe is iudged to be of fuch valure if you refpect ye price, as is one of 

\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & found, &c^ 


our cities. And this is by the meanes of ye innumerable multitude and fundrie kindes of precious ilones, and 
perles wherewith ye trappers, barbes, and other furnitures of his horfe are couered, with an incredible pompe and 
glori. The foyle of Narfinga, beareth nether wheate nor grapes, and is in maner without al kinde of fruites, 
except citrons and gourdes : the inhabitantes eate no bread, but ryce, fifhe and flelhe, and alfo walnuttes, which 
that countrey beareth, there begin fpyces to be found, as ginger, pepper, mirabolanes, Cardamome, Caffia, and 
dyuers other kyndes of fpyces. 

Cananu, is a very excellente cytie, fayre and beautifuU in all thinges, fauing that the Kinge thereof is an 
Idolater. This citie hath a hauen whether the horfes of Perfia are brought, but theyr tribute or cuRome, is 
excedinge great: the inhabitantes lyue with ryce, fleffhe, and fyfhe as do they of Narfmga: in the warres they vfe 
the fweorde, the round target, fpeares and bowes, and haue nowe alfo the vfe of gonnes, they are all naked 
fauing their prieuie partes, and go beare headed, except when they goe to the warres, for then they couer theyr 
heades with a redde hatte which thei folde double, and bind it fafl with a lyd or bande. In the warres they 
vfe neither horfe, mule, or afle, neither that kynde of camels which we commonly call dromedaries : but 
vfe onely Elephantes. There is alfo in the kingdom of Narfinga another godly citie called Bifinagar : it is 
compaffed aboute with a walle, and fituate on the fide of a hyll, beeyng. viij. myles in circuite hauinge alfo in it 
a famous market place. The foyle is very fruitful, there are all delicate thinges to be found that may encreafe 
the pleafures of this lyfe. There maye no where be found more pleafaunt feldes and woddes for hauking and 
huntinge, a man woulde thinke it were a very Paradyfe of pleafure. The king of this citie is of great power, he 
keepeth dayly many thoufandes of men at armes, vfinge Elephantes in the llede of horfes. And hath euer foure 
hundreth Elephantes prepared for the warres. 

C How the Elephantes in India are prepared to warre. 

,He Elephant is a beafl. very docible and apte to be taught, and litde inferiour from humaine 
fenfe, excellinge all other beaftes in fortitude and flrength. Therfore ye Indians, when they 
prepare them to the warres, put great packfaddels vpon them, which they bind fafl with two 
chaines of Iron,comming vnder theyr belyes. Vpon the packfaddels, they haue on euery fide 
a little houfe or towre, or cage (if you lid fo to call it) made of wood. Thefe towres ar made 
fafl to the necke of the bealle with certayne fawed hordes of the thickenes of halfe a hande 
breath. Euery towre receyueth thre men. And betwene both the towres, vpon the back of 
the beafl fytteth an Indian, a man of that countrey which fpeaketh vnto the beade. For this beade hath 
marueylous vnderdanding of the language of hys natyue countrey, and doth wonderfulli beare in memorie 
benefytes fhewed vnto him. It is alfo mode certayne that none other bead draweth fo nere to the excellence 
of huraayne fenfe or reafon as doeth this bead, as maye mod playnly appeare, yf we confidre, how he is geuen to 
loue and glory, to a certeyn frendly gentlenes and honed maners, ioyned with a marueylous difcrecion, to know 
good from euil, more redy to recompence benefites then reuenge iniuries, which excellent properties are not to 
be found in other brute beades. Therfore when the Elephantes go forward to ye warres, feuen armed men 
are appoynted to be caried vpon one Elephant, bearing witJi them, bowes, iauelins, fweordes and targettes : 
alfo the longe fnout of the Elephant (which thei cal his hand) is armed with a fweorde of two cubites in length, 
and in bredth and thickenes a handfuU, flandinge righte forth, tyed fade to the fnowte of the bead, and thus 
beeing furnifhed, they procede to the battaile: and whereas occafion requyreth to go forward or backwarde, 
the ruler of the bead geueth him waminge, whofe voyce he vnderdandeth and obeyeth : dryke hym, fayth the 
ruler, forbeare hym, be fearfe agaynd thefe, abdayne from thefe, the beade obeyeth hym in all thinges, as 
though he had humayn reafon, but yf it fo chaunce that being made afrayd with fire (which thinge they feare 
aboue all other) they beginne to flye, they can by no meanes bee allured to doppe theyr courfe, or retoume 
agayne, for the people of that nacion, can with many fubtyl deuifes as often as them lideth, raife vp fires to make 
thofe beades afrayde. There be fome men which thincke that Elephantes haue no ioyntes in theyr legges, 
which opinion other affirme to be vntrue, for they haue ioyntes as haue other beades, but that they are very low 
and almod at their fete. Tlie females are of greater fierceneffe then the males, and of much greater drength 
to beare burdens : they are fometime taken with madnes, declaring the fame by theyr furious running. An 
Elephant excedeth in greatnes thre wilde oxen called Bubali, and is much lyke of heare, and eyed lyke a fwine, 
hauing a long fnout, hanging downward, with the which he putteth into his mouth whatfoeuer he eateth or 
drinketh, for his mouth is vnder his throte, not muche vnlyke the mouth of a fwyne : his fnowte hath holes in it, 
and is holowe within, with this they ouerthrow ye dumpes of trees : and that of fuche bignes, that the forfe of 
xxiiij. men is not able to do the fame. The two great tufkes which they haue comming farre oute of theyr 

The richc trapping 
of the lunges 

Spices of 

The cytie of 

The vse of 
Elephantes in the 
The cytie 

Hauking and 
The kinge of 

The Elephantes 


vnderstandeth the 
language of theyr 

Seuen armed 
men vpon one 

The ruler 
speaketh to the 

The Elephantes 

The bignes and 
shape of the 


The painters erre 

Vndcrstande the 
handebredth with 
the thumbe 
stretched forth. 
The Elephantes 

The Elephante is 
vexed with flyes. 

How the Elephant 
kylleth flyes. 

[0/ the ne-ive India, as it is knowen & found, &c\ 

mouth, or placed in the vpper iawe, hauinge on euerye fyde lappes hanging downe of the bignes of two hand 
brea[d]th. Theyr fete are round like vnto a flat trene difhe, hauing fyue toes like hoeues vndeuided, of the bignes 
of great oyllerfhelles. Theyr tayles are lyke vnto the tayles of wide oxen, thre handful in length, hauing but 
few heares. The males are hygher then the females. They are of fundry bignes : fome are of xiij. handfulle* 
hye, fome of xiiij. and fome. xvi. Their pafe in goyng, is fomewhat flowe and walowinge, by reafon whereof, 
fome whiche ryde on them and haue not been accuflomed thereto, are prouoked to vomitte, euen as they were 
tofled on the fea. Yet it is great plefure to ride on the yong Elephantes, for they goe as foftely as ambeling 
moiles. When you attempt to geat vp, to ryde on them, they bow downe toward you, as though they would 
eafe you with a llerope, that you may the eafelier geat vp, which neuertheles cannot wel be done without 
helpe. They are all vnbrideled hauinge neither withe nor coller aboute theyr neckes, but goe with theyr heades 
al together lofe. And becaufe they are not couered with brillels or bigge heares, they haue not fo muche as in 
theyr tayle anye helpe to dryue awaye flyes. For euen this greate beafle alfo (fayeth Plinie) is troubled with 
this lyttle vermyne. Theyr fkinne is very rowghe, and full of chappes, and riftes, like the barke of a tree, being 
fomwhat filthye and full of fwette, whiche by heate refolued into vapoure, by fauour draweth flyes vnto it : there- 
fore when any flyes or other creping vermen are entered into the fayde riftes of theyr fkinnes, fodeynly bending 
and drawing together their flcinne, they hold them fafl and kyl them, and this is to them in the ftede of a tayle, 
a mane, or rough and briHeled heare. 

C Of the beafie called Rhinoceros. 

Enmitie betwene 
the Elephant and 

The Rhinoceros 
ii horncs 

The fight betwene 
H hinoceros and 
the Elephant 

naturally armed. 

Rhinoceros sene 
in Portugale. 

onercometh the 

Hinoceros is comonly found in the fame countrey, where Elephantes are engendred, and 
is borne an enemy to the Elephant (as faith Plinie) no lefle feking his dedruction then doth 
the dragon : wherfore the Romaynes confidering the natures of thefe, were wont to 
put them together vpon the theater or flage, for a fpectacle, therby to declare the natures of 
enemies. This Rhinoceros hath two homes, whereof the one is of notable bignes, growing 
oute of his nofethrilles, and is of flatte forme, and as harde as Iron. The other groweth aboue 
in his necke, and is but a little one, but wonderful fl.rong : when this bead attempteth to 
inuade the Elephant, he fyleth and whetteth his home on a and fl.ryketh at the belly of the Elephant, 
which place he knoweth to be mofl open to his fl.ripes, and eafyefl. to receaue hurt, becaufe of the foftenes thereof, 
which he cutteth with his home as with a fweord. Some auctours write that Rhinoceros is vnequall in bignes to 
the Elephante : but lultus Solinus faith, that he is as long as the Elephante, but hath fliorter legges : when 
Rhinoceros therfore and the Elephant ioyne together in fighte, they vfe theyr naturall weapons : the Rhinoceros 
his home, and the Elephante his tuflces, wherewith he fo violentlye beateth and teareth the flcinne oi Rhinoceros 
being as harde as home or fliell, and fcarcelye able to be pearfed with a dart, that he neuertheles enforfeth him 
to fall downe. Rhinoceros agayne on the other partie fo woundeth the belye of the Elephante with the home of 
hys nofethrilles, yf he doe not preuente hys ftrokes, yat he fainteth with bleding. In the yere of Chrifl.. 15 13. 
the "firfl, day of Maye, was broughte oute of India to Emanuel the king of Portugale Rhinoceros alyue, of the 
coloure of boxe, fomwhat variable and as it wer chekered, couered with fhelles lyke fcales, or rather lyke fhieldes. 
This beafl, was in bignes equall to an Elephante, but had fhorter legges, and was armed on euery parte. He 
had a fl.ronge and fliarpe home in his nofethrilles, the whiche (as I haue fayde) he fyleth, when he prepareth 
him to fight All this great hatered betwene thefe two beafles, is for ye befl paflures which one fl.riueth to take 
from the other as fome wryters faye. In the yeare of Chrifle. 15 15. King Emanuel fet forth a fpectacle in the 
citie of Liflona, in which was a combat betwene the Elephant and Rhinoceros. A fight doubtleffe worthy great 
admiracion. But in this fight, the Elephant had the ouerthrowe. 

e O/" Calicut, the mofl faniotis market towne of India. 

Lowe and simple 

He cytie of Calicut is in the continente or nlayne lande. And the houfes therof adioyning to 
the fea. It is not walled about, but conteyneth in circuite. vi. thoufand houfes, not adherent 
together as the maner of bylding is with vs, but one being diflant from another, a further 
fpace. It is extended in length a thoufand pafes. The houfes thereof, are but fimple and very 
lowe, not paflinge the heygth of a manne on horfebacke from the grounde. In the ftede 
of a roofe, they are couered with bowes of trees, harde and thicke couched together, the caufe 
hereof is, that yf the earth there be in anye place digged fyue handfull depth, the water 

\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & found, <S'c.] 


fpringeth forth, by reafon wherof they can lay no depe foundacions for theyr houfes, fufficiente to beare anye 
heauye roofe. The Kinge of thys citie is geuen to Idolatrie, and honoureth the deuyll himfelf Yet he denieth 
not but that there is a God which made heauen and earth. And the fame to be the chiefe auctour and fyrfte 
caufe of all thinges. But fayth that he hath committed the rule and iudgemente of the world, to the deuil, to 
whom he hath geuen power to rewarde men with good or bad according to their defertes. This deuil they cal 
Detimo, but the mightie God and maker of the world, they cal lamerani. The king hath in his Chappell the 
Image of this deuyl Detimi, fytting with a diademe or crowne on his head, much lyke vnto the myter which the 
Romayne Biflioppes weare, faue that this deuils myter hath foure notable homes. He fytteth gapinge and hath 
a greate wyde mouthe, with foure teeth and a deformed nofe, lowringe eyes, a grimme, terrible, and threatening 
countenaunce, with hooked handes lyke flefhehookes, and feete not much vnlyke the feete of a cocke. Al fuch 
as behold this horrible monfter, are fodeynly aflonied. For it is furely a thing mofl vyle to beholde, and no 
leffe terrible. The chappel is on euery fyde ful of painted deuyls : and in euery comer thereof fytteth a deuyll 
made of copper, and that fo workemanly handeled, that he femeth like flaming fire, miferably confuming the 
foules of men. This deuyl with his righte hande, putteth a foule to his mouth, and with his lefte hand, he 
taketh another from a place beneth. Euery morning their Priefles (called Bramint) waflie the Image of the 
deuyll with rofe water, or fuch other fwete liquoure, and perfume hym with dyuerfe fwete fauours, kneling on 
theyr knees and praying vnto him. Euerye feuenth day, thei take the bloud of a cocke and put it in a filuer 
veffel, ful of burning coales : addinge thereunto innumerable odoriferous gummes and pouders to make a fwete 
fmoke or fumigacion. Then the Priefte taketh his fenfer with burning coles, putting therto frankencenfe, and 
thus maketh his oblacion to Sathan, during which tyme of facrifice, a lyttle fyluer bell, is ronge continuallye. 
The king fytteth not downe to his meate, vntyU foure of his chaplains haue ofifred parte of the fame meate to 
the deuyl. And when the Kynge goeth to dyner, he fytteth on the grounde withoute eyther carpet or table 
cloth. And as he fytteth at diner, foure of the prielles wayte vpon him (landing : not approchinge nere vnto 
hym by the diflaunce of foure pafes, geuing reuerent attendaunce vnto the kinges talke. When he hath dyned, 
the Priefles take the meate that is left, and geue it to the crowes to eate : which byrdes they haue in fuch 
eftimacion, yat it is not lawful to hurt them. When the king fhal marie a wife, he goeth not to bed wth 
her, vntil (he be defloured of ye high Pried, whom the king for his paines rewardeth with. v. C. [five hundred] 
pieces of golde. 

C Of the maners of the Indians in Calicut. 

Ext after the King, ye priefles which ferae ye Idols, are had in chiefe reuerence. Nexte vnto 
them, the Magiflrates, called Nerl, are no leffe eflemed then amonge vs Senatoures or Lordes 
of the counfayl. When thefe goe abroade, they cary with them fwordes, targettes, bowes and 
iauelins. Such as are counted of the thyrde order, are in like place with them, as are Arti- 
ficers with vs. They of the fourth order, lyue by fi(hinge. And to them of the fyfthe order, 
perteyneth the gathering of pepper, wyne, and walnuttes. The bafeft and poorefl fort, are 
they which fowe and gather ryce, beyng contemned both of the priedes and Senatours. The 
Kinge, the Quene, and the inhabitantes of the cytie, haue almod no apparel, couering onely theyr fylthy partes 
with cotton of the tree called Goffampine, and not with filke : and are befide altogether naked. They goe 
barefoted and bareheaded. When the King is dead, yf there remayne alyue any heyres, males, either children 
or brethren, or brethers children, they fuccede not in the kingdome : for by cudome of the countreye, the 
fyders fonnes are inheritours to ye crown : but yf there bee no fuche lyuinge, he fuccedeth in the kingdom 
which is neared of bloud to ye king, of whiche codume, the reafon is (as they faye) becaufe the Priedes defloure 
the Quenes. When the King taketh any farre ioumey, or rydeth a hunting, the Priedes wayte vpon the Quene 
at home, and kepe her company : for nothinge can be more thankefull to the kynge, then to haue the Quene 
thus accudomed in adulterye with the Priedes, by whiche common proditucion of the quene, he maye well iudge 
that the chyldren bome of her, are not to be edemed as his owne : and therfore affigneth the right of his inheri- 
taunce to his fyders children, as to the nered of his blonde, becaufe his brothers children (as is fayd before) may 
not fuccede him in the kingdome by the cudome of the countrey. The noble men and marchauntes vfe this 
fa(hion among themfelues. Such as haue wyues, do often tymes chaunge theyr wyues, one frende with an other 
for th[e]encreafe of further frendfliip. At which exchaunging of wyues, one of them fpeaketh to another after this 
manner. Forafmuch as you are my veri frend, let vs chaunge wyues : on fuch condicion, that I maye haue 
yours and you myne. The other aflceth him yf he fpeake in eamede. He fweareth yea : let vs goe then (fayth 
his felow) to my houfe: when they are come thether, the good man calleth forth his wife, faying vnto her: 

Eden. F „ 

The ktne honoreth 
the deuU. 

The Image of the 


The bisshop of 

Romes vicar at 


The deuil eateth 

The deuiles 


Sacrifice to the 

The chapleins 
offer to the deuyL 

The priestes wait 
on the kyng. 

Crowes had in 
The priestes 
defloure ye 



The succession of 
the kingdom. 

As are ye priestes, 
such is ye people. 
The priestes kepe 
the quene. 

of wyues. 


\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & found, &c?^ 

Obedience i 


One woman 
maried to seuen 

The punishment 
of murther. 

Sinne redemed 
for money. 




Woman, come hether and folow this man: for he fliall from henceforth be thy hufbanA She alketh him yf he 
fpeake in eamefl : he anfwereth, in good eamefl. Then fayth the woman : I wil folowe him gladly. He taketh 
her away with him, and in lyke maner fendeth his wyfe to his frende. And this is the cullome which thei vfe 
in chaunging of wyues. But the children remaine with theyr fyrfte father. Other of thefe Idolaters vfe dyuerfe 
other cuflomes. For among fome of them, one woman is maried to feuen hufbandes, which lie with her by 
courfe one after another. And when (he hath broughte forth a child, fhe fendeth it to whiche of her feuen huf- 
bandes fhe lift : who maye in no cafe refufe it When they eate, they lye along on the grounde, and haue theyr 
meate in great diflhes, or treys of copper. In the flede of fpones, they vfe leaues of trees. Their meate, is ryce, 
fifhe, fpyces, and fruites of the common forte. Yf any man committe murther, and bee apprehended, he is 
puniflied after this maner. 

They haue a kynde of gallowes made, with a pofte of the lengthe of foure pafes : On the whyche, not farre 
from the toppe, are faftened two flaues with fharpe endes, ye one lying ouer the other after the maner of 
a croffe : then the body of ye offender is thruft through vpon one of ye ftaues. And fo the miferable wretche 
hangeth vntyll he haue geuen vppe the ghoft. But yf any man wound another, or beate hym with a ftaffe, 
he redemeth th[e]offence, payinge to the king a certayn of golde. When they pray, they go fyrft before the 
ryfmg of the funne, to fome ryuer or flandinge water, wherein they plunge themfelues, to th[e]intent to waflie them 
cleane : And fo beeinge wafhed, they touche nothing vntyll they haue at home at theyr houfes, poured forth 
theyr prayers before theyr Idols. When they laye them felues down on the grounde, fecretely to praye, they 
make certayne deuyliflie geftures lyke vnto madde men, ftaring with theyr eyes, and turning them inward 
after a ftraunge forte, wyth no leffe deforminge their coimtenaunce, very monftrous to beholde. When the 
king prepareth him to ye warres he hath in a readyneffe a hundreth thoufand fotemen. For of horfemen they 
haue no vfe, but only of fuch as fyght on Elephantes. Al that are of the Kinges bande, have a filken 
fyllet of fcarlet colour, tied about their heades. When thei go to the warres they vfe round fweordes, targets, 
iauelin8,and bowes. 

Of Pepper and other f pices which growe in the region of Calicut. 

Howe pepper 

Fruitful grounde 
without tillage 


A rote for a fede. 

Fruytes vnknowen 
to us. 


Epper groweth in ye fuburbes of the citie of Calicut. There is fome alfo gathered within the 
citie. The ftalke of pepper is veri weake: fo that it can not ftande vpryghte, without a ftake 
or proppe to fuflein it, as haue ye vynes. It is not much vnlike vnto luie : and in like maner 
crepeth and ftretcheth forth it felf embrafing and ouerfpreading fuch trees as grow nere vnto 
it. This tree (or rather ftirubbe) is deuided into many braunches, of the lengthe of two or 
thre hand bredth. The leaues are lyke the leaues of an Orenge tree: fauinge that thefe are 
fomewhat groffer and fatter, with fmall vaynes running betwene on the contrarye fide. On 
euery twigge ther hangeth fixe thicke clufters of beries, a hand breadth in length, and of the colour of wild 
grapes. They are gathered in the monethes of October and Nouember: Inclininge yet to a grene colour, andfo 
laying them on mattes or couerlettes, they fet them in the funne to be dried: where, within the fpace of 
thre dayes, it waxedi black, euen as it is brought hether. They vfe neyther cutting nor digging, or other tillage, 
but onely the fimple and pure fniitfulnes and encreafe of the earth. Plinie fayth that the trees of pepper are lyke 
TOto oure iuniper trees. And that in his time, fome affyrmed yat they were brought foorth only in the front of ye 
mount Caucafus on the fouthfyde toward the fonne. But the Portugals, whiche in this our daies fayle into the 
Eaft partes, haue found it otherwife. The region of Calicut, beareth alfo Ginger: which doubtles is a roote, and 
is often tymes founde of the weighte of xii. vnces : but al are not of lyke bignes. This roote entreth no deper 
into ye ground, then. iii. or. iiiL handbredth, like vnto the rede. When ginger is digged out of ye ground, they 
leaue the knotte or ioynte of the roote, in the pytte out of which they digged the ginger: couering ye fame with 
earth as a fede, agaynft the next yeare to encreafe and bring forth more ginger. It is found in playn ground of 
a redde erth, as ar Mirabalanes. Ther groweth alfo diuers other frutes and (hrubbes vnknowen to vs, as laceri, 
graccara, amba, Carocapel, Comolanga, and fuch other of which fome haue the tafte and fauoure of quinces, fome 
of peaches, fome of damaflce prunes, fome of melones, and fome of figges, eta Aloe groweth alfo in that region : 
and is a certayn gumme, gathered from a lide tree, which is faftened in the earth, onely with one roote after ye 
maner of a ftaffe, pytched in the grounde. The bodie of the tree, is tender and redde, of ftrong fauour and 
bitter taft. It fomtyme putteth forth droppes of gumme withoute anye cuttinge. And this of India, is muche 
better then that which groweth in Iiidca. 

[O/" the newe India, as it is knowen & found, &c?[ 


C Of byrdes and beafles which are found in the region <?/" Calicut: and 
of the wyne of the merueylous tree. 

Here is found in Calicut, diuers and fundry kyndes of foure footed beafles and foules. As lions, 
wilde boores, hartes, hyndes, wolues, kyne, wylde oxen, goates, and Elephantes : whych neuer- 
theles are not engendred there, but brought thether. There bee alfo grene popingiays, and 
fome [of] white fethers of variable colours, lying Hke fcoutchins. Some alfo of purple coloure. 
Of thefe there is fuch plentie, that they are fayne to appoint men to kepe them from the rice 
which groweth there in the feldes. They are merueilous chatteringe and of fmall price. 
There are alfo birdes called Sarau, fomwhat leffe then popingiayes, but make a much fweter 
noyfe. There are alfo manye other kyndes of byrdes vnlyke vnto oures : Of which, euerye morning and euening 
is hearde fuche a harmonic and fo fwete a noyfe, that nothing can be more delectable : In fo little mouthes 
confifleth in maner al muficke, and therfore the inhabitauntes lyue in greate pleafure, as though they were in an 
earthly paradife, where floures are euer fpringing, and trees continue grene al the hole yeare. The heauen is 
beneficiall vnto them, and the ayre moft. temperate continually. So that thei are nether bytten with colde in 
winter nor burnt with heate in fomer, but lyue as it were in continual fpringe tyme. The fame region bringeth 
forth alfo Marmafets and Munkeys, whiche are great hinderaunce to ye men of the countrey : and fpecially to the 
poore forte, beecaufe they clyme the walnut trees, and fpylle the fweete liquoure of the fruyte thereof, of which 
the Indians make mofl pleafaunt wyne. For thefe Indians haue a tree mofl excellent aboue all other trees of 
the world, which bringeth foorth dates lyke vnto the Palme tree. This tree ferueth them for firewood : and 
beareth a kynde of walnuttes mofl. delicate to be eaten : Alfo a kind of cordes, fofte cloth, wine, oyle, and 
fuger. But chiefly it bringeth foorth this excellent kynde of nuttes like vnto dates. From thefe they take awaye 
the fyrfle rynde or barke and cafl. it in the fire. The other fruite is not muche vnlyke Goffampine cotton, or fylke. 
Of the floures they make cloth lyke filke : the flaxe whiche is lefte, they fpinne agayne, and make therof fmal 
roopes or cordes. The lafl barke or rinde, conteineth the nutte, whofe thickenefle is no more then the lyttle 
fynger of a mans hande. Furthermore the fweete liquoure or wjoie, is engendered with the nutte, fo that as the 
nutte groweth, the liquoure alfo encreafeth : In fo much that when the nut is full growen, the lyquoure fyllethe 
the inne warde partes of the fame. And thys liquoure or wyne, is mofl. cleare, not muche vnlyke vnto rofe- 
water : Of which neuertheles is made a very fatte oile. They cut alfo the trunke or ftocke of the tree in ye 
morning and euening : by whiche meanes they gather a mofl excellent liquour, which they feeth on the fyre, 
and make thereof fo merueylous a drinke, that if a man drinke thereof beyond meafure, he is drieuen into furie 
and madnes. This liquour is vfed there in the flede of wyne. But let vs nowe retume to the beafles which are 
found in Caliaii. Serpentes growe there vnto fuch houdge greatneffe, that they are in maner as bigge as fwyne. 
They haue heades muche larger then bores heades. Thei are foure foted, foure cubites in length, engendered 
and conuerfaunte in fennie and marrifhe groundes. The men of that countrei faye that thefe beafles are without 
poyfon. There are alfo found other kyndes of ferpentes : of the whiche one kynde hath fo mortall venime, that 
yf they drawe neuer fo lyttle blud, it caufeth prefent death. There are other ferpentes which in quantite 
reprefent the ferpent called Afpis. Again, otherfome are much higher of whiche there are greate plentie. 
The men of the countrey thinke yat they are fpirites fallen from heauen : and therfore haue them in great 
reuerence. Thei haue conceaued this opinion of them, becaufe that in maner with touching, they bringe 
prefent death. And this is the caufe whi there is fo great abundaunc[e] of ferpentes, that by the kinges 
commaundement it is not lawful to hurt them : and therefore they wander fafelye where them lifleth, and 
are eflemed of them as thinges that bring good fortune. For whereas the men of yat countrey, goe abroade 
aboute anye bufines, thei take it for good luck to mete any of them by the waye. The popingiayes of India 
are for the mofl part, of grene colour befyde ye head, which is ether redde or yelowe like golde. They haue 
a great and large toung, and are therfore of a louder voyce, and fpeake more plainly. They leame the 
fyrfl and fecond yeare fuch thinges as are taughte them. And beare them longer in memory. They drinke 
wyne, and vfe theyr fete in the flede of handes when they feede. 

Papingiayes of 
dyuers kyndes. 

Sweete singinge 
of birdes 

Earthly paradise 
Temperate ayre. 
Continual spring. 

A tree of sundrye 

Silke of trees. 

Ropes of trees. 
Wyne of tree* 

Oyle of water 

Serpents as bigge 
as swine 

Serpents without 

Serpentes counted 
for neauenly 




\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & found, &c.'\ 










Precious stones. 

The Equinoctial 

Weapons of redes 


The beast whiche 
beareth the furrc 
called Sables. 

Foules of 
ineruelous bignes. 

C Of the fuiidrye kindes of Slices, which are founde in Calicut, and from 

whence they are brought thyther. 

Inger groweth in Calicut, yet is there much broughte thether from the cytie of Canonor. 

Cinamome commeth from the Ilande oi Zaylon, whyche is fyftye leages beeyonde Calicut 

Pepper groweth in Calicut : but muche more is broughte thether from Corimucol, whiche 
is. xij. leages beyonde Calicut. 

Cloues are gathered in a place, called Meluza, certayn leages diflant from Caliait. 
Nutmegges and Mace, growe in Molucha, beyng diflante from Calicut hundreth and thre 
fcore leages, and fomewhat more. 

Mufke and Cafloreum, is brought from the region of Pego, whiche is from Calicut, almofte hundreth 
and fyftye leages. 

Pearles of the biggeft forte, are gathered neare vnto the Hand and cytie of Ormus, fituate in the goulfe 
called Sinus Perficus: And are fente from thence to Calicut, as to the generall market towne of all the Eaft partes. 
Spikenarde, and Mirabalanes, are brought from Cambaia to Calicut. 
Frankencenfe, and Myrre, come from Arabia. 

Aloe, and Camphyre, are brought from Kyui, or Chiua. 1. [fifty] leages from Calicut. 
Long pepper cometh from Samotor. Cardamome ye greater, is brought from Canonor. 
Prefilium, or brafyll, cometh from Darnafseri, otherwyfe called Tarmafferi, almoft. CC. [two hundred] 
leages from Calicut. 

C Of the Hand of ZdcyXon, and of Cinomome found there. 

^Aylon is a very large region, and bringeth foorth chefelye Elephantes in greate plentie. It hath 
alfo Mountaynes of memeylous length : at the rootes wherof are found Rubines, Hiacinthes, 
Saphyres, Topafes, and fuche other precious flones. In this Hand groweth the Cinomome 
tree, not much vnlyke ye bayetree, fpecially in the leaues. It bringeth forth graynes much lyke 
vnto baye beries, but fomwhat leiTe and whytifhe. That which we commonly call Cinomome, 
is nothinge els but the barke or rynde of a tree, which is gathered after this maner. Euery 
thyrde yeare they cut of the braunches of the trees, and take of the barke or rynde thereof, 
which is our Cinomome. They cut not the body of the tree, but only the branches. When it is firfl gathered, 
it is grene, and not perfectly fwete vntyll it be kept a moneth. This Hand is fituate vnder the Equinoctial line, 
where is continuall fpringe all the yeare. The inhabitauntes weare clokes, with one arme oute vncouered, 
and haue clothe made of Goffampine cotton, or of filke. A rede is to them in the flede of fworde, rapyre, 
and iauelyne. And are therefore feldome flayne in the warres. 

C Of the cytie <7/"Tarnafseri, and the maner of the cytezins there. 

He cytie of Tamafferi, is diflaunte from the Kingdome of Narfinga. xiiij. dayes feyling 
Edward, and hath a king of great puyflaunce and marueylous riche. The foyle of this citie, 
bringeth forth wheate, cotton of Gofsampine trees, and plentie of filke. The fieldes bringe 
foorthe all kindes of fruites ; quinces alfo and oranges. It is replenifhed with manye and 
fundrye kyndes of bealles afwell wyld as tame, as kyne, fhepe, gotes, fwyne, hartes, hyndes, 
wolues and lyons. There are alfo feene thofe kyndes of cattes which beare the riche furres 
called Zibellini, which we call Sables. In all the fieldes and woodes of this region are founde 
many Peacockes, Faulcons, and moft. fayre Popingiayes of white colour intermingled with feuen variable coloures. 
There is alfo maruelous plentye of hares and partryches. There are manye of other ftraunge kyndes of foules : 
and fpecially fuch as lyue by praye, whiche are muche higher then Eagles : whofe vpper beakes arc of fuche 
bignes and hardnes, that handles for fweordes are made thereof Alfo the cockes and hennes of thys region are 

\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & found, &c^ 


muche hygher and bigger then ours. When the people of the countreye goe to theyr meate, they lye downe on 
the grounde withoute carpet or cloth : Yet vfe they woodden veffelles, workemanlye made. Theyr drinke 
is water myxte with fuger : but the poorer forte, drinke onelye water. Their beddes are made of Goflampine 
cotton, wyth couerlettes alfo of cotton or fylke. They goe all in generall barefooted excepte the The 
Kynge of this cytye, doeth not commytte his wife to the to bee defloured, as doth the king of Caliait, 
but to whyte men, as are the chriftians and Turkes. For this office is not committed to the Idoloters. But 
after that the new maried quene hath been thus defloured the fyrfl night, yf euer after (he doe diflionour 
the Kyng her hufband, by violating the faith made to him, from thencefoorth neuer to knowe any other 
man carnally, her punifhment is death incontinently. When the Kynges or the Priefles dye, their bodies are 
laid on a great fyre, and the afhes thereof referued in erthen pottes, putting thereto a porcion of falte petre, 
and buryinge the fame in theyr owne houfes. While the bodies are burning, they caft. into the fyre al 
kyndes of fwete fauouring gummes, and fpices : as Aloe, Frankencenfe, Myrre, Storax, Coralle, fandalles, 
and fuche other innumerable : In the meane tyme blowing trumpets and fhawmes, after the maner of them which 
amonge the gentiles were canonized into ye numbre of the goddes. And within xv. dayes after ye hufbandes 
death, the wyfe calleth to her all her kinffblkes, bidding them to a banket : and fo being decked with al her 
iewels, flie procedeth with them to tlie place where her hufbande was buried, where a graue is redye digged for 
her, inclofed about with filken cloth, hauinge in it a fyre made of fweete wood. When the woman hath 
thus feafled her kynffolkes, flie eateth much of the herbe called Betola, wherby fhe is driuen into a madnes. In 
thys meane whyle, innumerable trumpetters (wearing fuch veflures as they vfe in the deuyls feruice) go as it were 
on proceffion aboute the graue, while the woman runneth vp and down, daunfing continually like a frantike 
bodie. And thus when the ceremonies are fynifhed, fhe cafteth her felfe headlong into the fyre and graue : 
and that with no lefle cherefulnes then yf fhe (hould be receaued into heauen. And vnlefle the woman fliould 
performe thys cuflome, (he fhould incurre moft vyle infamie, and be a mocking (locke to all her nacion, as one 
that loued not her hufband. But the common people vfe not thys cuflome : but only the rulers and 
princes. And therfore the king him felfe is often tymes prefente at thefe folemnities. 

C Of fhe kingdoms and cities of Pego and Bangella. 

ilRom the cytie of Tantafferi, to the cytie of Bangalla, is. xi. dayes faylinge. This cytie hath a 
kynge : and the countrey is very fruyteful with great plentie of wheat, flefhe, fuger, ginger, and 
goflampine cotton : and hath therfore very rich marchantes. There yearely paffeth from this 
citie fyftie (hyppes frayghted wyth goffampine cotton, and filke clothes : which are caried from 
thence to the Turkes, Syrians, Arabians, Perfians, Ethiopians, and Indians. Here are alfo 
founde certayne Chriflian merchaunt men, which come out of Th[e]empire of the great Cham 
of Cathay : bringing with them Aloe, Caftoreum and the fwete gumme called Laferpitium, with 
other fwete fauours. In this cytie, the men fpinne and carde and make clothe, and not the womenne. From 
this cytie Eaftwarde, is another great citie called Pego, beyng fituate by a verye fayre ryuer. The Kinge of 
thys cytie, is an Idolater, and hathe innumerable menne of warre, both horfemenne and footemenne. The 
foyle beareth wheate plentifullye : and bringeth foorth in maner all kyndes of beafles, and hath therfore great 
abundaunce of flelhe, yet are there but fewe Elephants : But of other beafles and foules, great plentie as is at 
Calicut: and fpeciallye of popingiayes, whiche are of louder voice then in any other place. There is litrie 
trafficque or marchaundife in this region, except iewels and precious flones, and fpeciallye Rubies, called Pyropi, 
whiche are broughte thether from the cytie of Capelan. Thefe precious flones fhyne fo brighte in the darke 
nyghte, as thoughe it were the fonne beames. The countrey adioyning, bringeth forth Lacha, Sandalum, called 
(aunders : Alfo brafile, goffampine cotton and fylke. From Pego to the cytie of Malaccha (whiche fome call 
Melaqua) is eygh[t]e dayes faylinge: where on the other fyde is fene a great Hand called Sumatra, otherwife 
Samotra, and was in time pafle called Taprobana. This Malaccha, hath a goodly and commodious hauen : by 
reafon wherof, moe (hippes arriue there then in any other place: bringinge with them fpyces and other 
marchaundife in great abundance. The region is not generally fruytful, yet hath it wheat and flefhe: but 
greate fcarceneffe of wood. The foules wander in the feldes as they doe in the region of Calicut. But the 
popingiayes are here much fayrer. It bringeth foorth alfo fpices, faunders, tinne, elephantes, horfes, (hepe, 
wilde oxen, pecokes, and fuch other kyndes of beafles. It is not lawfull there to bye and fell, except you bye 
fpices and fylke. It is alfo there very daungerous to walke in the citie in the nighte feafon, beecaufe of the theft 
and cruelnes of the inhabitantes, which kil one another like dogges. And therfore the marchaund ftraungers 
lodge not out of their fliippes. How the Portugales fubdued Malaccha, flialbe faid hereafter in the defcripcion 
of the newe llandes. 

F2 n 

Beddes of silke. 

The quene 
defloured of white 

Adulter! punished 
with death 
Howe the kinge 
is buried. 


ITie quene dyeth 

The herbe Bctola. 

What crcdulitie 
maye doe in false 

Honour dcrc 

The king and 
citie of Bangella 


Christian men of 

The citie of Pega 

Rubies shyning by 


Lacha, Lacca, or 

Lacta, is ye 

gumme of a tree_ 

wherewith silke is 






\pf the newe India^ as it is knowen & founds &c?^ 

The Hand of 


Men of a hundreth 
yeres of age. 

Shelles of fishes 
for houses. 

Great pearles. 
Coyned golde and 
siluer for moneye. 

Fishes of 


Pepper solde by 



The Hand of 

rhe nutmeg tree. 


The Hand of 



Charles Waine. 
Pole Antartike- 



C Of the greate and ryche Ilande of Sumatra, or Samotra, sometyme 

called Taprobana. 

Ome thinke this Sumatra, to be that Hand which of the old writers is called Taprobana. It is 
verye great and riche : and hath in it foure Kinges crowned wth Diademes. They are 
Idolaters: in religion, maner of lyuinge, and apparell, not muche vnlyke the Kinge of 
Tarnafseri. They exceade all other men in bigneffe of bodie. They haue greye or blewe 
eyes, and are of cruell countenaunce, and terrible voyce. They are long lyued and lyue euen 
vntyl an hundreth yeares of age. The fea in certaine chanels is of fuch heigth and depth, that 
no anker may come to the bottome therof The inhabitantes are great fyfliers on the fea, and 
haue great pleafure to take the ihelle fyflie, called the Tortoyfe of the fea : of whiche, fome are of fuche houdge 
bignes, that the ftielle of one of them may fuffife to make a houfe well able to receaue a hole famelie. For 
fome of them beare fhelles of xv. cubites in length ; and are therefore apt for that purpofe. The mofl part of 
this Ilande is bumte with heate, and hath in it many defolate places and wildemelTes. There are founde many 
and greate Pearles. For theyr money, they vfe coyned golde, fyluer and tynne. The golden coyne, hath on 
the one fyde a deuils head grauen, and on the other fyde a chariot which Elephantes draw. This region 
bringeth foorth more plentie of Elephantes, of greater flature, and a better broede, then are found in any other 
place. In the fea about this Ilande, are often tymes fene the great monflrous fyfhes, and kynde of Whales, 
called Balene, which bring many incommodities to the inhabitantes. They are of fuch monflrous bignes, that 
when they approche to the Sea bankes, they feeme lyke vnto hylles : they haue rough backes full of (harpe 
prickes. And except men walke very warely by the fea bankes, they are in daunger to be fodeynly fwalowed 
vp of thefe monflers. Some of them haue fo greate and wyde mouthes, that they fometymes fwallowe whole 
fhippes with the men. This countrey bringeth foorthe Lacha, Lacca, or Lada, which fteyneth filke and cloth 
in high redde or crimifon coloure. It is engendred in a tree, not much vnlyke vnto our walnut trees. Ther is 
alfo great plenty of pepper, higher then is founde in other places. In their mother tonge pepper is called 
Malaga. It is folde there by meafure, as wheat is with vs, and not by weight. There is fo great plentie hereof, 
that there are yearely certayne fhippes laden therwith to Cathay, where ye aire is colder. From Sumetra to 
the Hand of Banda, which is but rude and barren, and of playne and lowe grounde, whofe inhabitantes are 
barbarous, and little differinge from beafles, hauing lowe houfes, and no apparell but fhertes, barefoted and 
bareheaded, with long heare, of defpicable flature, dulle witted, of no ftrength, and Idolaters. The foyle of 
this countrey, bringeth forth nothing but nutmegges, and a few other fruites. The ftalke or bodi of ye nutmeg- 
tree, is not much vnlike ye (lalke of a peache tree, bringing forth lyke braunches and leaues, but fomewhat 
narower. Before thefe nutts be rype, ye mace crepeth on the tree, lyke a florifliing rofe. And when the nutte 
waxeth rype, the mace embrafeth it round about. And fo they gather both together in commune, at a tyme 
appointed : for they vfe no diftribucion thereof, but he that gathereth mofl, hath mofl. This tree bringeth 
forth his fruyte plentifully without any arte of hufbandrye or tyllage. They are gathered at fuch time as we 
gather cheftnuttes. From this Hand within fixe dayes fayling, is the Hand of Monoch, in the which cloues are 
founde, as alfo in other Ilandes, therto adioyninge. The tree whiche beareth cloues, hath his ftalke not much 
vnlike vnto the boxe tree, with leaues lyke the Cinomome tree, but fomewhat rounder. And when the cloues 
beginne to waxe rype, they beate the trees with redes, fpreding fyrft couerlettes or mattes vnder ye fame. The 
grounde where thefe trees grow, is of ye colour of cleye or fand. This region is fituate fo low, that ye feuen 
flarres called Septentriones (being not farre from Vrfa maior, called charles wayne) can not there be fene, 
becaufe ye fouth pole (called pole Antartike) appeareth aboue the earth. 

C Of the Ilande of Bornei. 

He Hand of Bornei (which fome call Pome) is diftant from Monoch fiftie leages. The inhabi- 
tantes are Idolaters, very quick witted, and of maner of liuing not greatly to be difcommended. 
Thei vfe not al one kynde of apparell. Some weare ftiertes of goffampine cotton, fome 
beafles fkinnes, and fome high cappes lyke myters, of redde colour. This Hand bringeth 
forth yearely great plentie of Camphora, called camphyre, whiche they afiirme to be the 
gumme of a certayn tree. Of this Ilande I wil fpeake more hereafter in the nauigacions 
toward the Eafl partes. 

\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & found, &c.] 


C 0/ the Hand of Giaua. 

He Hand of Gyaua, is diflant from Bornei. v. dayes fayling towarde the fouth. This Hand is 
fo great, yat it conteineth in it many kingdoms : ye inhabitantes ar geuen to idolatri. It 
bringeth forth filke, which of it felfe groweth there plentifullye in the wooddes. The precyous 
flone called Smaragdus (which is ye true Emerode) is found there more excellent, then in any 
other place of the worlde. It hath abundaunce of golde and copper of the befl kynd. The 
foyle beareth wheat and other come, with al kindes of fruites in great plentie. When the 
men of this countrie goe to the fea, theyr weapons are bowes, and arrowes of redes. They 
vfe alfo to infect theyr arrowes with venime, and to blowe them oute of a trunke as we doe pellets of claye : 
with the which yf they drawe neuer fo little bloud, prefente death foloweth immedia[t]lye. They haue alfo this 
cuflome, that when they fee theyr parentes by reafon of age to be vnprofitable, they bring them to the market 
towne, and there fell them to the people called Anthropophagi, which eat mens flefhe, of whom they are incon- 
tinently flayne, and eaten. The fame doe they with the yonger forte alfo, yf they fall into any defperate difeafe. 

C Of the Hand of laua. 

Here are two Ilandes of thys name, as laua the more and laua the leffe. The biggefl. 
reacheth forth toward the South, and is fayd to haue in it many kingdoms. The 
inhabitantes are Idolaters and haue a peculier language. In this Hand is greate plentie 
of pepper, Nuttemegges, Spikenarde, Galangale, and other fpices. Mani marchauntes of 
other countreies are wont to reforte thether, and geat great riches by ye fpices which 
they carie from thenfe. In this Hand alfo are people called Anthropoph<^i, which are 
wont to eate mens fleflie. 

C Of the Hand of Madagafcar, 

His Hand is counted to be one of the greatefl and rychelle Ilandes of the worlde. The 
inhabitantes are of Mahumets fecte as are the Turkes. It bringeth forth many Elephantes, 
by reafon wherof there is greate plentie of luerye which is the Elephantes tothe. For it 
is thought that there is no greater plentie of luerie, then in this Hand and in the Hand of 
Cuzibet. They eate the flefhe of none other, but onely of Camels, becaufe the Ilande 
is full thereof, and alfo that it is founde to be more holefome for the people of that 
countrey then any other fleflie. There are alfo in this Hand many woddes that bringe 
foorth redde fanders, for the which many marchauntes refort thether. In the fea about this Hand, great 
whales are taken, out of the which amber is gathered. There are lions, leopardes, hartes, hyndes, goates, and 
many other beaftes and foules, by reafon whereof, they vfe muche haukinge and huntinge. 

C Of the Hand of Zanzibar. 

He Ilande of Zanzibar, hath a peculier Kinge and language. The inhabitantes are idolaters, 
and are of grofle and fliorte ftature : but yf theyr heygth dydde aunfwere to theyr thickenefle 
and breadth, they mighte feme to be giauntes. They are all blacke, and goe naked, 
onely couering theyr pryuie partes. The heare of theyr heades, is merueylouflye corlde. 
They haue greate mouthes, nofethrilles flyrtting vpwarde and wyde, with great eares 
and cruell eyes. Theyr women are deformed by reafon of theyr greate eyes, greate mouthes, 
and greate nofethrilles. They Hue with milke, flefflie, ryce, and dates. They lacke ^vyne : 

yet they make a pleafaunt drinke of ryce, fuger, and other fpices. Many marchauntes reforte thether for yuerie 

and Amber, for there is greate plentye of Elephantes and greate whales. 

Silke groweth in 


The smaragde or 


Go'de and copper 

Arrowes of redes. 

Arrowes infected 
with venime. 
A strange 

Anthi opophagi. 





The Hand of 


Camels fleshc 


Woddes of redde 




Lions, and 


Bigge men of 
low stature. 

People deformed 

Ryce and Dates. 
Drinke of spices. 


\0f tPie newe India, as it is knowen & found, &c?[ 

The Hand of men. 

The Hand of 


The great Cham 
of U'artari 

Famous cities 
vnder the greate 

Manye wyues. 
What naturall 
affection may doe 

A strange 

The people of 


Money of paper 

C Of the two Ilandes, in one of the which dwell onely men, and in the 

other onely women. 

jlN the mayne fea, there are two Ilandes, diflante the one from the other aboute. viiij. or. ix. 
leages toward the fouth, fituate betwene the cytie of Aden and Calicut. In one of the which 
dwel onely men without the company of women, and is called the Ilande of men. And in 
the other dwell onely women, without men, and is called the Ilande of women. They 
are Chriflians and contract niatrimonie. The women neuer come to the Ilande of men, but 
the men are accuflomed to vyfyte the women once in the yeare, and tarye with them 
thre monethes continually, euery man with his owne wife in his owne houfe : after which time 
they returne agayn to [t]her owne Ilande, where they remayne all the yere after. The women kepe the 
men children with them vntyll they bee xv. yeares of age, and then fend them to theyr fathers. The 
women haue nought els to do, but to take charge of their children, and to gather certayne fruites. But 
the men labour and haue care how they may fynde theyr wyfe and chyldren. They are exercyfed in 
fylhmg, and fell fylhes both newe taken and olde dryed, to marchaunte llraungers, whereby they receaue 
great commodities. 

C Of the greate Empyre of Cathay, being under the dominion of the great 
Cham (whiche fome call the great Can) Emperoure of Tartaria, in 

olde tyme called Scythia, 

He fuperiour or high India, whiche is nowe called Cathay, is a region excedinge large and 
of greate power, whofe Emperour is ye great Cham of Tartaria, hauinge vnder him many 
Prouinces, people and Princes, and innumerable Ilandes in the great Eafl fea, called 
the greate Ocean. He hath vnder his dominion great and famous cities, as are thefe : 
Cambalu, Quenquinafu, Mien, Cacaufu, Canglu, Tadinfn, Tingui, and dyuers other. Among 
the people of this countrey, one man hath manye wyues, whiche declare theyr loue to 
their hufbandes after this fort. When the hufband is dead, euery one of his wiues 
pleade their caufe before a iudge, to proue which of them was mofl louing to her hufband and befle beloued of 
him : fo yat fhe which by the fentence of the iudges is found to haue been mofl faythful and diligente, decketh 
her felfe mode gorgioufly in all her fumptuous araye, and procedeth like a Virago floutly and cherefully to the 
fire, where the corps of her hufbande was bumte, caftinge her feUe into the fame fyre, embrafmg and kiffing the 
dead bodi of her hufband, vntyll flie alfo be confumed by the f)Te, whiche flie reputeth for an honourable 
fepulture : whereas his other wyues are eflemed to lyue in iTiame and infamie. They ioyne in manage, neyther 
in refpect of riches or nobilite, but onlye for loue and beautie : and rather for ye encreafe of pofleritie, then for 
pleafure. There is alfo another flraunge cuflome among thefe Indians : and yat is, that whereas the 
poorer fort are not able to geue any dowry with theyr doughters to mariage, they bringe them forth, euen in ye 
floure of their age to ye market place, with trumpettes and fuch other inflmmentes as they vfe in the warres. 
Where, the multitude beynge called together, the maydes fyrfle of all, difcouere theyr backe partes, euen vp to 
the fhoulders, and afterward theyr forepartes in lyke maners. And vpon this declaring their pouertie and 
nakednes, are maried to fuch as lyke them bed. This people of Cathay, are of the nacion of them 
which in tyme part, were called Scythians, a kind of men (as faith Haitho) of fubtill wyt : affyrming that 
onely they fee with two eies, and that all other men befyde them are blind of the one eye. Theyr quickenes or 
witte is great, but their boafling is more. The hole nacion is perfwaded that they greatly excel all other men 
in fubteltie of wit and knowledge. The 'inhabitantes are whyte men, with fmall eyes, withoute beardes, 
and vtterly voyde of all godly knowledge. For fome of them pray to the funne, fome to the mone, 
fome to Images, fome to an oxe, and fome to other monflers of theyr phantaflicall fuperflicion. They haue no 
law written, and are of no faith. And albeit that in workemanfhip and artes they are marueylous wyttie, 
yet haue they no knowledge of dyuine or godly thinges. It is a timorous kynde of men, and greatly fearinge 
death. And are therefore in theyr warres, more politike then valient. In the warres, they vfe arrowes, and 
certayne other kyndes of weapons vnknowen to men of other countreis. The monie which they vfe, is made of 
a certayne paper, beeinge foure fquare, with ye Kinges ymage printed theroa Theyr houfliolde Huft'e is 

\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & found, &c^^ 

of golde and fyluer and other metals. They haue greate fcarcenes of oyle. The great Emperour of Cathay, 
keepeth his courte in the riche and mightie cytie called Catnbalu, being the chefeft citie of all the Empyre, and 
of fuch greatnefle that it conteyneth in circuite fixe leages. This citie is foure fquare, fo that euery quadrature 
or fyde of the wall, hath in it thre principal portes or gates. Alfo in all the comers of the walks, are veri faire 
palaces, in which the artillery or armure of the cytie is referued. The flretes are made very flreyght and right 
forth : fo that from any one gate to the other beinge directly ouer againfl the fame, a man may fe plainly 
through the cytie, hauing ye houfes on euery fyde lyke palaces, placed in goodly ordre, mod beautifull to 
behold. Without the cytie, there are twelue great fuburbes, adherent to the. xii. gates of ye cytie, whether the 
marchauntes and llraungers, haue their continual recourfe as to ye burfe or flrete. It can not be fpoken what 
great abundaunce of marchaundife and riches is brought to [t]his citie : a man wold thinke that it were fufficient 
to feme all the worlde. Precious flones, pearles, filke, and fpices of dyuers kindes are brought thether, 
from India and Matigi, and other regions. There paffeth not a daye in the yeare in which there are not about a 
thoufand waynes laden with filke which are brought to this citie by flraunge marchauntes. What greate pompCj 
glory, and fomiture of all thinges, is obferued in the Emperours courte, it can not be fpoken. He hath 
in his courte twelue thoufand horfemen, whiche haue the cuflodie of his body : and diflribute their 
waytinge dayes after this order, yat whereas one of ye captaynes of this garifon with his thre thoufand fouldiers 
hath wayted vpon the kinges perfonne, three dayes, another captayne in lyke order wyth as manye 
menne fuccedeth in hys rowme for other three dayes, and lykewyfe an other after hym, executethe the 
fame offyce. When the Emperoure maketh anye bankette, it cannot be faid what great pompe is 
obferued. He hath fytting at his lefte hand his chefefl quene whom he mod eflemeth : and at his 
right hand hys fonnes, and fuche as are of the kinges bloud : but thei fyt fomwhat lower and further of 
The other noble men which wayte not, fytte in a place yet fomewhat lower. All fuch as in the court fyt 
at meat, vfe none other drinking cuppes then of gold. The Princes whiche wayte on the Emperoure at 
hys meate, haue all theyr mouthes couered with fyne filken clothes, lead in any cafe they lliould blow or 
breath on the kinges meate or drinke. And when the Emperour lifteth vp his cup to drinke, al the muficions 
and minflrels that fland about him, playe on theyr inflrumentes, while in the meane time all fuche as wayte on 
hym, floupe downe and make lowe curtefie. How great honoure is exhibited to this Emperour, and howe many 
precious and riche prefentes are offred vnto him by his Princes, Dukes, Leauetenauntes and prefydentes 
of prouinces, and rulers of cities, no man is able to exprefle, forafmuche as he hath vnder him in maner 
innumerable Kingdomes, Prouinces, Nacions and Dominions, which are on euery fyde about Cathay, and 
acknoweledge him to be theyr onelye Lorde and King, whom they honoure and reuerence as a great God 
and mighti Mahumet In what pompe and triumphant magnificence he fheweth him felf when he goeth 
to hauke or hunt, and how many tentes he pitcheth in the felde, which being fene afarre of, a man 
would thinke to be a greate cytie, he that defyreth to knowe, let him reade Paulus Ve)ietus, in the fecond 
boke of hys nauigacions into India, where he fhal find thinges to marueyl at. In Cathay they make a pleafaunt 
drinke of ryce and certayne fpyces, which in drinking excelleth the fwetenes of wine. In many places they haue 
great lacke of wood : In the flede wherof, they digge out of the mountaynes a certayn kinde of blacke flone 
whiche burne in the fyre like coles, and continue fo long, that yf they be kyndled ouer night, they kepe 
fyre vnto the morning. 

C Of certaine Prouinces and regions fubiect vnder the dominion of the 
greate Cham Emperour of Cathay. 

Here paffeth through the kingdom of Cathay, a certayne greate ryuer called Pulifachnites, which 
emptieth it felfe in the great Ocean Sea, by the whiche ryuer, fliyppes haue their paffage 
into that lande. Ouer this ryuer is a very fayre bridge of marble, beyng in length three 
hundreth pafes, and in breadth, eyghte pafes, with, xxiii. arches, and grauen Lions on euery 
fyde, adouming the rayles or highefl margentes of the fame. From hence it is not farre to 
the fayre and greate kingdom of Tainfu, in the which are many goodli vynes. For in the 
kingdom of Cathay there groweth no wyne, but is brought thether from this region. In this 
kingdome is greate vfe of marchaundyfe, and hath plentie of conning artificers, fo that al the armure which the 
great Chim vfeth in his warres, is made there. Toward the region of Mangi, is fituate the ryuer Caromoram, 
whiche fi)r the greate breadth and depth, hath no bridge. In this region is greate abundaunce of Ginger, filke, 
bjrdes, and fpeciallye Phefantes. Somewhat beyonde this, is the great cytie of Qiienquinafu, beynge the chief 
cytie of the fame kingdome. In this region are founde many mufjcecattes. This beaft. in this countreye, is 


Golde and Sylucr. 

The cytie of 


Precious stones 
and spyces. 

The Icing of 
Cathay his court 

The Quene. 

Golden plate. 
Worldly glory. 

A liuing Idol. 

Paulus Venetus- 

Drinke of rice and 

Digged cole- 

A greate bridge ol 

The kingdome of 

Connyng artificers 

The muske catte. 


\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & found, &ci\ 

but lyttle and fayre, aboute the bigneffe of a meane catte, with groffe heare lyke a harte, hauinge blunte clawes 
on his fete, with two longe teeth in the vpper iawe, and two in the nether iawe : and hath nere vnto the nauell 
si«et or muske. a bladder full of a certayne matter like vnto bloud, being of wonderful fragrant fauoure, and is the true 

C Of the Prouitice ^Mangi, and merueylous cyties conteyned in the fame. 




Qoch of golde. 


VL M [six 
thousand] bridges 
of stone. 

The great citie of 


xij. M. [twelve 

thousand] bridges 

of stone. 


banketinge houses. 

A good prouysion 

againste fyre. 

Flesh of horses 


A prouision 

against rebellion. 


Hennes hauinge 
heare in the stede 
of fethers. 

The way from 
Persia to Cathay. 

The cytie of Loj . 

The iomey by j : 

BUter wateis. 

He Prouince of Mangi, hath in it many notable and great cities, in the whiche is great exercyfe 
of marchaundyfe: and fpecially in the citie of Coni^angui, is folde great plentie of fait In 
the cytie of Panchi, there is great fale of filke. In the cytie of Sianfu, is made great plentie 
of clothes of golde and filke. In the cytie Singui is a famous market, where great abundance 
of marchaundife is brought by the ryuer. Nere vnto the citie of Caigui, groweth plentie of 
blade and ryce, that it is caried from thence to the court of the greate Cham. In ye citie of 
Singui, are numbred to be about fixe thoufande bridges of flone, hauinge fo highe arches, that 
greate fhippes maye paffe vnder the fame without bo\ving down of the maft. There is another citie called 
Quinfai, which is fo fayre and great, that there is thought to be no bigger in al the worlde. It conteyneth in 
circuite, a hundreth Italien miles, which make. xxv. leages. It hath twelue thoufande bridges of Hone, and thofe 
fo highe that greate fhippes with the made flanding vp right, maye paffe vnder. This cytie is fituate in a marififhe 
ground, muche lyke vnto venes. Therfore if they (hould lack bridges, they could not paffe ouer from the one 
fyde of the (Ireete to the other. It hath innumerable artificers and many marchauntes. The cytezins lyue 
pleafantly, and fpecially the women, which are fayrer then in other partes of India. Toward the South fyde of 
the cytye, there is a great lake or poole within ye walles of the cytie, whiche conteyneth in circuite about, viii. 
leages, hauinge about the bankes therof many noble mens houfes, very fayre both without and within. In the 
middefte of this lake, there are two litle Ilandes and in euery of them a goodly palace, in ye which are referued 
al fuche omamentes and veffels as they vfe for theyr manages and folemne feaftes, for whereas any of the 
cytezins entende to make any great banket, or feafl, they bring theyr geftes to one of thefe palaces, where they 
are honorably enterteined. In the flretes of ye citie, are certaine comon towres, into ye which, al fuch as 
dwell neare therto, carie theyr goodes and (luffe, yf it fo chaunce, yat fyre be in the citie. The inhabitantes 
are Idoloters : and eate the flefhe of horfes and camels, and of other vnclene beafles. The great Cham hath in 
this cytie a myghtie garifon to the intente to auoyde rebellion, thefte and murther. For on euery bridge there 
wayteth dayly and nightlye. x. watchmen for the fame purpofe : and becaufe the Prouince of Mangi is exceding 
large, the great Cham hath deuyded it into nyne Kingdomes, affigninge vnto euery one a peculier Kynge : 
whiche are al of greate powre, and yet fubiecte to the greate Cham. One of them dwelleth in the citie of 
Quinfai. In thys Prouince of Mangi, is an other Kyngdomme, called Fugui, in whiche the people eate mannes 
fleffhe, fo that they dye not of any difeafe. They drinke the bloud and eate the flefhe of fuch as are flayne in 
ye warres. There are hennes found in this region, which in the (lede of fethers, haue heare much lyke cattes 
heare of blacke colour: And laye very goode egges. 

C Of the region of Tangut, and of the great desertes, andvoyces of deuylles 
hearde in the same, and of the Salamandra. 

Rom the Kingdome of Perfia, there are two ioumeyes to the region of Cathay. For 
either the fouth fide muft be obferued towarde India, or elles to paffe by the prouinces 
of Carcham, Cotam, and Peim, Northeaffwarde to the citie of lop, beynge the greatefl 
and mod notable cytie in all that region, lying betwene the Eaff and the North at the 
entraunce at the great defert. In this cytie, al fuche marchauntes, as entende to paffe 
the defertes, make preparacion for all thinges neceffarye for their youmeye : And reft in the 
fame, vntill they are well prouided of ftrong affes and camels to carye there vitayles. 
And when in ye defert their vitayles begin to fayle them, they kyl their affes or leaue them there in the 
wyldemes, becaufe they can no longer prouide them of pafture, vntyll they haue paffed ouer the deferte. 
But they preferue theyr camelles, beecaufe they are fufteyned wyth leffe meate, and beare greater burthens. 
In this deferte are often tymes founde bytter waters : but more often freflhe and fweete waters : fo that 
in maner euerye daye for the fpace of thyrtye dayes, a man maye fynde freflhe water, but that in fo 
lyttle quantitie that it doeth not fuffice al the marchauntes whiche paffe that waye together. That 

\0f the newe India, as it is knowen & fotmd, &c?^ 


deferte is verye full of mountaynes. And when you are come to the lowe and playn ground, the refidue 
of the iourney is all together by the fandes : it is throughout baren and faluage, fo that it is not able to nourifhe 
any beaftes for lacke of paflure. In this wildernes are often tymes heard and fene, as well by daye as by night, 
fundrie illufions of euyl fpirites. And therefore fuche as trauayle throughe the fame, haue nede to take great 
hede lead they diffeuer or depart farre in fundre, or leafle any Unger behynde his companie, afwel for that he 
may hereby lofe the fight of them by reafon of mountaynes or hilles, lyinge beetwene, as alfo becaufe 
there are heard voyces of deuyls, calling them that wander alone, by theyr proper names, conterfeyting 
the voyces of theyr companie that goeth beefore, by this meanes withdrawing them from the right waye, 
and bringinge them to dellruccion. There is often tymes heard in the ayre, as it were a noyfe of muficall 
inflrumentes : but more often like the founde of drumflades or timbrels. This great defert being paifed ouer, 
they come to the cytie called Sachion, which is fituate in the enteraunceof the greate Prouince of Tangut, where 
amonge certayne Mahumetifles, are found a fewe Chriflian men called Nejloriani of the fecte of Nejlorius. 
There are alfo manye Idoloters, hauinge theyr monafleries confecrated to dyuers Idols, to which they 
ofTre many facrifices and attribute greate honor to deuyls. And when a man hath a fonne borne, he 
forthwith commendeth him to fome Idol, in whofe honoure he nourifheth a ramme al that yeare, which 
after that his fonne be twelue monethes olde, at the nexte feafle of the fame Idoll, he and his fonne 
offre with many ceremonies. When this oblacion is finiflied, thei bringe the facrificed flefhe to a place 
appoynted, where al his kinffolkes being gathered together, they eate that flefhe with great religion, and 
kepe the bones reuerently in a certayn veflell : but in the funeralles of the dead they vfe thefe ceremonies and 
fuperilicions. Al the neighbors of the dead, prouyde that the dead corps be burned : which cuftome all 
the people of the Eaft partes do obferue. Yet fome of them kepe ye dead bodye by them certayne 
dayes beefore they bume it : As fome, feuen daies : fome for the fpace of a moneth and fome fixe 
monethes, preparing for the fame a clofe chefle, fo inuoluinge with cereclothe, and pouderinge with fpyces the 
bodye therein inclofed, that no euyll fauoure maye paffe foorth. Thys done, they paynte the chefle very 
curiouflye, and couer it with a precious clothe, placinge theyr dyninge table harde by the fame, where they 
dyne continually as long as the dead bodie is thus referued at home. And in the dyner tyme for the 
fpace of one hole houre, they fette wyne and meat vpon the chefle, fuppofing the foule of the dead bodye 
to be partaker of the fame. The Region of Tangut, is verye large, and conteyneth in it many priuate 
Prouinces, as the Prouince of Catnul, of Cinchital, and Suchur, wyth dyuerfe fayre Cyties, whiche are all 
Subiecte and obeye to the great Cham of Cathay. Some of the inhabitantes beleue in Mahumet : fome 
acknowledge Chrifle after the herefye of Nejlorius. In the land of Chinchital, is a Mountayne oute of the whyche 
is dygged the myne of flele and Audanicl There is alfo founde the Serpente called Salamandra, which 
lyueth in the fyre wythoute any hurte. Of the heare of this ferpent, is made a certayne cloth, which 
being call in the fyre when it is foule, is thereby made cleane and very white if it remaine there for ye fpace of 
an houre. Such other innumerable and marueilous thinges, writeth Paulus uenetus that he hath fene and 
founde in his nauigacions into thefe partes : of whom alfo I haue gathered thus muche, lettinge paffe 
manye other thinges whereof he fpeaketh more at large. 

C Here endeth the defcripdon of the Nauigacions 

from Spayne to the newe India Eafiward, 

and foloweth 

Of tJie newe Ilandes and India found in the Wejl Ocean fea, 

from Spayne Wejhvard and Southwejle. 

Illusions of euyl 

Voices of deuyls. 

Straunge noises 
in the ayre. 

The citie of 



of the heresie 

of Nestorius. 

Monasteries of 


A strange custome 

Ceremonies in 

A grosse and 
vayne pcrswasion 

The region of 



Paulus Venetus 


tt Of the newe India, 

and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea, 

how, when, and by whom they 

were found. 


Great enterprises 
have euer ben 

The fyrst viage 
of Chrtsiophffnts 

The Ilandes 
called GacUs. 
The Ilandes of 

^Hrijlophorus Columbus, a Gentleman of Italia, and borne in the 
citie of Genua, when he had been longe conuerlaunt in the Kyng 
of Spaynes courte, he applyed hys mynde to fearche vnknowen 
partes of the worlde. And for his better furtheraunce herein, 
made humble peticion to the kinge, to ayde him in this his 
enterpryfe, which doubtleffe fhoulde redownde to his great 
honour, and no little commoditie to all the hole countreye of 
Spayne, yf by his helpe and charges, he might fynde new regions. 
But the Kinge and Quene laughed him to fcorne, faying : that 
his yniaginacion was but vayne and phantaflicall. At the length, 
eyght yeares beynge passed cuer, and Columbus ftyll perfiftinge 
in his purpofe and fute, the Kyng began to geue eare to his 
talke, and after muche reafoninge and debating of the matter, 
determined to trie the witte of the manne. And there vpon 
commaunded a foyfl, and two brigantines to be furnifhed with 
all kynde of ordinaunce and vitalyes : which being pre- 
pared, the fyrft. of September, in the yere of Chrift 1492, Columbus departed from the coaftes of Spayne, and 
wente forwarde in his viage longe defyred. And when he had paffed the Ilandes called Gades, he diuerted 
toward the fortunate Ilandes called Infula Fortunata, which are now called CanaricB, becaufe they are full of 
dogges. They were in time pad called Fortunate, for the excellente temperatenes of the ayre, and greate 
fruytefulnes. Columbus departinge from henfe, fayled towarde the Wefle, and at the length founde certayne 
Ilandes, of the whiche two were very greate, wherof the one he called Hifpana, and the other Johanna. 


Hispana or 

Gold for earth 
and glasse. 

The king of the 

Bylding without 
the vse of Iron. 

C Of the two Ilandes lohanna and Hifpana. 

j]S Columbus came to the Ilande whiche he called lohanna, he hearde a memeylous fweete noyfe 
of innumerable byrdes, and efpeciallyeof Nightingaleswhiche wandred in the thicke wooddes 
in the Moneth of Nouembre. He founde alfo mooRe fayre Ryuers, fwete to drinke, and many 
goodly hauens. And as he fayled by the cofles of the Ilande SouthweRe warde, and coulde 
fynd no ende, he thought it had been the mayne land, and therfore determyned to drawe 
backe, being partly enforfed by roughnes of the fea : and thus returning fome what Eaflward, 
he came to an Hand whiche heafterwarde caWtA Hifpana, where arriuing to the land, he and 
his companye was fene of the Inhabitantes of the Hand, which fodeinly fled into the thicke woodes: whom the 
Spanyardes purfewinge, toke a womaime whome they brought to theyr fliippe, entreatinge her verye gentillye, 
fyllinge her with delicate meates and wyne, and clothing her in fayre apparel, and fo let her depart : for thei goe 
naked, and are not vfed to delicates. And as this womanne returned to her companie, fome beyng moued by 
the lyberalitie declared vnto her, came by greate multitudes to the fea bankes, bringinge golde with them, which 
they chaunged for earthen pottes, and drinkinge glaffes. Thus a further frendfhip by this meanes contradled, 
the Spanyardes begonne more diligently to fearche theyr maner of lyuinge and maners, and fo vnderilode that 
they had a king. And therefore entering further into the Hand, they were honorably receyued of the king. Thei 
vewyde their houfes, and memeyled to fee them fo bylded without the vfe of Iron, which they are vtterly without: 
in the flede whereof they vfe a certeyn flone, whenvith the cut and fawe theyr timbre. 

[0/ the newe India, and Ilandes in the IVest Ocean Sea, &c?^ 


C Of the people cat/ed Canihsdes or Anthropophagi, which are accujlomed 

to eate mans flejhe. 

jHeras the people of the forenamed Ilandes, fled at the fight of our menne, the caufe thereof 
was, that they fufpected them to haue been Canibals, that cruel and fearfe people which eate 
mans flefhe, which nacion our men had ouerpaffed, leauinge them on the fouthfyde. But 
after they had knowledge of the contrary, they made greuous complaynt to our men, of the 
beaRly and fearfe maners of thefe Canibales, which were no leffe cruel agaynft them, then 
the Tyger or the Lyon agaynfle tame beafles. Declaring furthermore, yat when foeuer they 
take any of them vnder the age of xiiij. yeares, they vfe to gelde them, and francke them 
vntyll they be very fat, as we are wont to doe with capons or hennes ; and as for fuche as drawe towarde. xx. 
yeare olde, to kyll them forthwith and pull out theyr guttes, and eate the fame frefhe and newe, wyth other 
extreme partes of the bodye, pondering the refidue with falte, or keping it in a certayne pickle as we do iegottes 
or fanfages. Yet eate they not the women, but referue them to encreafe, as we doe hennes to lay egges. And 
if thei take any old women, they kepe them for drudges. And therfore when the Canibales make incurfion, the 
people of thefe Ilandes flye with all fpede. For albeit they vfe arrowes, yet are they not able to refyfle theyr 

C Of the maners of the inhabit antes of the Hand ^ Hifpana and of fuche 

thynges as are found there. 

He inhabitantes of this Ilande, vfe in ye flede of bread, certayne rotes Hke vnto nauie rotes, 
hauing the tad of foft and grene cheflnuttes. Gold with them is in eflimacion, for they hange 
certayne peces therof at their eares : they go not out of ye hmities of their own contrie, nor 
exercife any niarchandife with (Irangers : thei gather gold in ye fandes of a certen riuer which 
fpringeth out of veri high montaines They gather it with great laboure and melte it and 
cafle it, fyrfle into maifes or wedges, and afterwarde into brode plates. They haue no foure 
foted beaftes, except connies : they haue ferpentes of monftrous greatnes, but without hurte 
or venime. They haue alfo wylde turtle doues and duckes, muche greater then ours, and gefe whyter then 
fwannes, fauing yat they haue redde heades. Thei haue alfo many popingiayes : fome grene, fome yelowe, 
and fome not muche vnlyke them of India, with redde circles about their neckes. This Hand bringeth forth 
alfo Majlix, Aloe, and fuche other gummes: and efpecially certayne redde graynes, which are fliarper 
then pepper. 

C How Columbus, after he had found new Ilandes, returned agayne to 
Spayne, where preparinge a newe nauie, he take his viage to 

ye Canibales. 

Olumbus, not a Uttle ioyeful of the landes newly found, the fpring tyme drawing nere, he 
determined to retume to his countrey : leaning with the king of the Hand. 38. men which 
fhould diligently fearche the fituacion of the Ilande, the maners of the people, and the 
natures of trees and fruites. But he, hoyfeninge vp his fayles, directed hys viage towarde 
Spayne, bringing with him tenne menne of the fayd Ilande, to th[e]ende that they mighte 
leame the Spaniflie tonge, which they might eafely doe, becaufe al the wordes of theyr 
language may well be written with our letters. Columbus, after thys his retume, and fortunate 
fucceffe in his fyrfte viage, was honorablye receyued of the Kynge and Queue, and greatlye magnified with 
innumerable glorious tittles : willinge that he (hould no more thenceforth be called Columbus, but the Admiral 
of the great Ocean Sea: and prepared for him towarde his fecond viage. xvij. foiiles and. xij. brigantines, wel 
fumifhed with al kynd of artillerye and plentie of vitayles, and in them twelue hundreth men wel appoynted : 



The fe.irsenes of 
the Canibales. 

Mans fleshe 

Rootes in ye 
slede of bread 
Gold in estimacion. 

Howe golde is 

Serpents wythowt 


Spices and 

The Indian tonfi 

Columbus, at his 
retume, is made 
Admiral of the 
Ocean sea. 

The second viagr 
of Columbus 


[0/ the newe India, and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea, &c?\ 


The Ilandes of 


The Hand of 

Insula Cntcis, 

Houses of trees. 

Young men stalled 
to be uiadc fatte. 

Fine cokerye. 

CanihaUs allured 
wyth lyberalite. 

Matinina An 
Hand of women 

The names of 
sundrye Ilandes. 

Arrowes infected 
with venime. 


Come alfo to fowe, and al kindes of feedes and plantes. For, excepte pine apple trees and date trees, there 
growe none in thefe Ilandes that are knowen to vs. The Admirall toke alfo with him al fortes of Iron tooles 
to th[e]intent to byld townes and fortreffes where his men might lye in fafegarde. Therfore the firfl day of 
September departing from the Ilandes called Gades, with a profperous wind he arryued at the Iland of Canaria 
the fyrft daye of October: from whenfe directing his viage towarde the lefte hande, he fayled toward ye South, 
and at ye length came to the Ilandes of the Canibals. And becaufe he came thether on the Sundaye called the 
Dominical day, he called the Iland where he arryued, Dominica : which when he perceyued to be but feluage 
and rude, he fayled on further : and in twentie dayes fayling, came to another Iland replenilhed with al kindes 
of trees, from which came a marueylous fragrant fauour : By reafon whereof, fome being allured by the pleafant- 
nes of the place, went aland, where they fawe no kynde of lyuinge beafles, fauinge lyfertes of wonderful houdge 
greatnes. This Ilande he called Injula Crucis, whiche was alfo an Ilande of the Canibales, as afterward they 
proued in dede. For as they fayled about the Iland, they founde certayne lowe cotages made of trees, lyke 
vnto (lagies. For they fet trees vpright in order round about, faflening in them croffe ouer, where vnto 
the trees cleaue faft,e, fo that by this meanes they cannot fall. They frame the roofes of thefe cotages, with 
fliarpe toppes after the maner of rownde tentes. And lafl, of al, they inclofe and couer thefe trees thus fet in 
order, wyth the leaues of date trees, and certen other trees, to th[e]intent to make them a flronger defence 
agaynft wynd and wether. And within the cotage, they tye the pofles together with ropes of bombage cotton, 
and a certayne longe roote. They haue couches made, one aboue another, the flowres whereof they fljawe 
wyth heye and cotton. And as foone as they hadde fpied our men, they fled incontinente. And when oure 
men came into theyr houfes, they found in theym certayne young men bound to pofles, and kept to be made 
fatte, and lykewyfe many olde womenne whiche thefe Canibales kepte to be their drudges. They founde there 
alfo earthen veflelles of all fortes, in which they fodde mens fleflie with popingiayes, geefe, and duckes fleflie, al 
together in one veflell. They rofled alfo mans fleflie vpon fpyttes, referuing the bones of the armes and legges, 
whiche they vfe in the flede of Iron, to piece and typpe theyr arrowes. For they are vtterlye without Iron. 
The[y] found alfo the head of a yong man, yet bleding and faftened to a pofte. But certayne womenne whiche 
had fledde from the Canibales to oure menne, the Admiral commaunded to be gorgioufly decked after the 
maner of our women, and with manye rewardes to be fent agayne to theyr owne companye. By meanes 
whereof, the Canibales beynge aflured by the lyberalitie and gyftes of our men, hoping that they alfo flioulde 
be lykewyfe rewarded, came running toward our men: but when they drew fomwhat nere vnto them, they 
fled immediatly into the nexte wooddes. And thus our men departing from thence, returned to the Ilande 
of Hifpana. 

C How the Admirall pajfed manye Ilandes, and what thynges chaunced 
to hym and his companie in that viage. 

S the Admirall departed from the Iland of the Canibales, and went foreward on his viage, 
he pafled by many Ilandes : among the whiche was one called Matinina, in whyche 
dwell only women, after the maner of them, called Amazones, as he learned of the men 
of the Ilandes which he brought with him into Spayne at his fyrile viage, and faued 
them from the fearfenes of the Canibales. He pafled alfo innumerable other Ilandes of 
which to fome he gaue names, as Mons Farratus, SanHa Maria rotunda, Sanlla Martinus, 
Sanila Maria antiqua, and Sanila Crux. Into the which oure men entering to th[e]intent to 
fetche freflie water, found foure Canibales, which had taken foure yonge women : who, as foone as thei 
had fpied our men, wringed theyr handes, feming therby to defyre ayde of oure men : at whofe coming 
to delyuer them, the men fled into the woodes and left the women. Shortly after, our men faw a bote coming on 
the fea with. viij. men and as many women : with whom oure men bickeringe lofl. one of theyr companions, 
by reafon that thefe barbariens are accuftomed to infecte theyr arrowes with venime : yet oure men preuayled 
and flewe parte of them, and broughte the refydue by forfe to the Admyrall. As they departed from 
hence, they found many other Ilandes, but fuch as they could not come to for the roughnes of the fea 
and multitude of rockes. But fome of the fmallefl brigantines which drewe no great depth, went fomewhat 
nearer, and noumbred aboue feuen and fortie Ilandes, and called the place Archipelagus. Sayling from hence, 
they found another Iland called Buchema, into the whiche ye Canibales make fundry incuriions, by reafon 
wherof the inhabitantes are at continual warre with them. Thus at the length, the Admiral with his hole nauie 
ret'imed to the Iland of Hifpana : but in an euyl tyme. For they which he hadde lefte there for a 

\0f the newe India, and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea, &c^ 


garrifon, were all dead : as were alfo they whiche he toke with him from the fame Ilande into Spayne to 
vfe them for intrepretours. Of whiche feuen dyed by chaunge of the ayre. One of them was permitted of the 
Admirall to departe, when the nauie came neare to hys countrey. The refidue flole awaye priuelye, and 
fwamme to lande : but the Admirall doubting whether all his men were dead or no, whiche he lefte in 
the Hand, commaunded certayne ordinaunce to be fliot of, that by the noyfe thereof they myghte haue 
warning to come forth, yf any laye lurkinge in comers : but none appeared, whofe fatall dayes had 
fynifflied theyr lyfe. At the length, the kyng of the Ilande beyng therto enforfed, declared the hole 
matter to the Admyrall as well as he coulde by interpretours : affyrming that there were in the Hand 
other Kynges befyde him : and of greater power then he, which were fore offended that the Spaniardes 
hadde fubdued the Ilandes : and in reuenge therof, came to the town where the Spaniardes lay, which 
they ouercame and burnt, and flew al the men therin : and that he alfo at the fame conflicte, taking part 
with our men, was fore wounded with an arrow on the arme, for the better tryall whereof he bore hys 
arme in a towell, becaufe it was not yet hole of that wounde. But fliortelye after they had knowledge, 
that the King fayned this tale : fo that he hardely efcaped the handes of the Admiral, who was determyned 
wyth fome kynd of punifhment to haue examined him further. But he fufpecting the matter, fled into ye 
inner partes of the Hand, declaring therby, that he was the deftruction of our men : whom, certayn of 
our companie, purfuinge, founde manye marueylous thinges : and efpeciallye ryuers in whiche is founde muche 
golde, and a mountayne, whofe fande is fparkeled with gold. In this place, the Admiral bylded a citie, which 
he compaffed about with a walle. And departing from hence, he fearched almofl all the Hand : in ye 
inner partes wherof he bylded a towre, and named it S. Thomas towre, whiche he made to th[e]intent that 
he might the more fafely fearche out the fecretes of fo plentifuU a region, and efpecially the gold mines of the 
iame : and thus leauinge a garrifon there, he departed, takinge with him three foyftes, wherwith he fayled to 
feke newe Ilandes, and came firft. to the Ilande of Cuba, and from thence to lamaica, being greater then SicUia, 
very fruytfuU and wel inhabited. Which, when he had vewed, he departed from thence, and fayled about the 
fea where he fawe innumerable other fmall Ilandes, llandinge fo thicke, that the fliip was in maner 
borne a lande : and was therfore enforfed to returne home, the lame way which he came. 

C How the Spaniardes abufed the fubmij/ion and frendejhippe of the 

inhabitantes of the Ilandes. 

N this meane tyme, the Spaniardes which the admiral had left in the Hand of Hifpana, 
had euyll entreated the inhabitauntes : fo that for wante of vitayles and foode, they begonne 
to famyne : imputinge the fault hereof vnto the Chriflian men, which had digged vp al the 
rootes wherwith thei were accuft,omed to make theyr bread. And whereas they yet per. 
ceaued, that ye Chriflien men entended to continue there, thei fent an ambafiadour to the 
admiral to defyre him to reflrayne the outragioufnes and crueltie of his men, at whofe handes 
they fuftained fuch iniuries and violence, as they fcarcely loked for at the handes of mortal 
enemies. Declaringe further, that vnder the pretence of feking for gold they committed innumerable wronges 
and mifchieuous actes, fpoyling in maner all the hole region : and that for the auoyding of fuch enormities and 
oppreflions, they hadde rather paye tribute, then to be thus dayly vexed with incuriions, and neuer to be at 
quiete. Vpon this complaynte it was agreed, that they fhoulde paye yearely tribute to the Chriflian king and 
that they fliould applie them felues to gather and encreafe theyr rotes, whiche were to them in the ftede 
of flowre and wheat, and fo confumed that with great labour they coulde fcarcelyJynde any in the wooddes. 
They payde therefore for their tribute, euery thre monethes, certayn pound weyghtes of gold : but fuche as had 
no gold, payde fpyces, and goflampine cotton. In the meane time the Spaniardes, who fliould haue been 
occupied in digging for golde, gaue them felues to play, wantonnes and idlenes, contemning, and falling 
into hatered with their gouemour, by which theyr licentioufnes, the people of the Hand beyng prouoked, became 
more difobedient and wyld, degeneratinge from al kind of honeflie and faithfulnes : yea ye fpaniardes alfo 
became fo negligent in feking for gold, yat fometyme the charges exceaded the gaynes. Neuerthelefle in the 
yere of Chrift, 1501. they gathered within ye fpace of two monethes twelue thoufand poundes weyght of golde. 
But the Admirall appoyntinge his brother Bartholomeus Columbus, to be gouemour of the Hand, he in the 
yeare. 1495. determined to retume to Spayne, to certifye the kyng of al thefe matters. In which viage, 
he manfullye defended him felf in battayl againfl the rebelles of certayne other Ilandes which had confpyred 
agaynft the Spanyardes. 

Chaunge of ayre 
is daungerous. 

The kine 
dissembleth with 
the AdmyralL 

Goldefound in 
riuers and 

The Ilandes 
of Cuba and 

A multitude of 

The crueliie of the 
Christian men 

Crueltie of 

Bread of rotes 

The tribute of 
the barbarians 

foloweth Idlenes 




\0f the newe India, and Ilandes in the IVest Ocean Sea, &c.] 

The bishop of 
rome deuideth ye 

Hesperides or 
Caput -ueride. 
How the 
Spanyardes and 
ye Portugales 
deuided the world 
betwene them. 

Gold and Pearles 

The EgmfMctial 


The ryiier of 





The great cytie 

of Malaccha. 

The region of 


The Ilandes of 


Sayling into the 

East by the west 

The roundnes of 


The finne land 


The viage from 
the West vnto 
the EasCe. 


The firme land. 


Terra Florida. 

The king of 
spayne sendeth 
foorth shippes. 

The viage of 

Magellanus by 

the west into ye 


The Ilandes of 


The Ilandes of 

Pronwtorium S. 



The eleuadon of 
the south pole. 46 

TTie Region of 

C How the Portugals fought new Ilandes in the Eajl partes, and how 

they came to Calicut. 

N this meane tyme that ye Spanyardes foughte newe and vnknowen landes m the Wed 
partes, the Portugales attempted to doe the fame in the Eafte partes. And leafl one of 
them fhould be a lette or hinderaunce to the other, they deuyded the world betwene them 
by the aucthoritie of the Bifhop of Rome, Alexander the. vi. of that name. And that on 
this condicion, that from the Ilandes called Hefperides (whiche are now called Caput ueride) 
the one (hould fayle Weflwarde, and the other towarde the South pole, thus deuyding the 
world betwene them in two equal partes. So that whatfoeuer vnknowen landes (houlde be 
difcouered in the Eafte partes, the fame to be dewe to the Portugales : And all fuche as (houlde be founde in 
the Wefte partes, to appertayne to the Spanyardes. Whereby it came to paffe, that the Spaniardes, euer by the 
South, fayled into the Wefte, where they founde a large mayne land, with Ilandes great and litle innumerable, 
hauing in them great plentie of golde and pearles, and other great riches. But the Portugales, by the Southe, 
and coftes of the Ilandes called Hefperides, and EquinoHial lyne, and Tropicus Capricorni, came into ye Eaft, 
by the goulfe called Sinus Perficus, euen vnto the coftes of India, within the riuer of Ganges, whereas is now the 
great market towne, and kingedom of Calicut. And from thence to the Hand of Taprobana, (now called Sumetra, 
Zamara or Satnotra) and fo forth to Aurea C/ierfonefus, whereas is nowe the great cytie of Malaccha, beyng one 
of ye moft famous market townes of al ye Eaft partes. From Malaccha, they entered into a great goulfe, 
by which they came to the region of Sinarum. Not farre from Malaccha, are the Ilandes called Moluccce, 
in which al kyndes of fpyces growe and are brought to the cytie of Malcucha. But the Spanyardes hauing 
knowledge what greate coramoditie the Portugales had receyued by the Ilandes oi Molucca attem[p]ted to 
proue yf they alfo might find the fame Ilandes in fayling fo farre Weftward that they mighte at the length by 
Weft and fouthweft come into the Eaft, as by good reafon they prefuppofed the roundneffe of the earth would 
permitte, if they were not otherwyfe lette by the fyrme or mayne land lyinge in the waye and ftoppinge theyr 
paffage, whereof as yet was no certeyntie knowen. And this dydde they to th[e]intent that by this meanes they 
myghte more eafelye and wyth leffe charge bringe fpyces from thence into Spayne. Therefore, tlie maner of 
this viage was, that they fhould fayle from the Wefte, vnder the loweft hemifpherye or halfe compaffe of the 
earth, and fo to come into the E^ft, A thinge furelye that myghte feeme verye harde to attempte, beecaufe it 
was vncertaine whether that, moft prudente and beneficiall nature, (who worketh al thinges with moft 
high prouidence) had not fo deuided and feperated the Eaft from the Weft, partely by fea, and partely 
by land, that there might by this way haue been no paflage into the Eaft, For it was not yet knowen, whether 
that great region of America, (whiche they call the fynne or mayne lande) dyd feperate the Wefte fea from the 
Eaft ; But it was founde that that fyrme lande extended from the Weft to the South. And that alfo towarde 
the North partes were found two other regions, whereof the one is called Regio Baccalearum, and the other 
Terra Florida : which, if they were adherent to the fayde fyrme land, there could be no paflage by the Wefte feas 
into the Eaft India, forafmuch as dier was not yet founde any ftrayghte of the fea, wherby any enteraunce 
mighte be open into the Eaft. In this meane while, the kyng of Spayne beynge elected Emperoure, prepared 
a nauie of fyue fhippes, ouer the whiche he appointed one Magellanus to be captayne, commaundinge him that 
he (hould fayle towarde the coaftes of the fayd fyrme land, dyrectinge his viage by the fouth partes thereof, untyl 
he had eyther found the ende of the fame, or elles fome ftreyghte wherby he mighte pafle to thofe odoriferous 
Ilandes of Molucca, fo famoufly fpoken of for the great abundaunce of fwete fauours and fpices founde therein. 
The fhippes therefore, beyng well furniffhed with all thinges neceflarie, Magellanus departinge from Ciuile in 
Spayne, the tenth day of Auguft, in the yeare of Chrift. 1519. came fyrft to ye Ilandes of Canaria, and 
from thence to ye Ilandes called Hefperides: from whiche dyrectinge hys courfe betwene the Weft and 
the Eaft toward the fayd fyrme land, in few dayes with profperous fayling, he difcouered a corner or poynt of 
the fayd mayne land, called Promontorium S. Maria, where the people dwell, called Canibales, whiche are 
accuftomed to eate mans fleflie. From hence he fayled on fouthwarde by the long tracte of this firme 
land, which reacheth fo farre into ye fouth and extendeth fo many degrees beyond ye circle called Tropicus 
Capricorni, yat the fouth pole (called pole Antartike) is there eleuated fortie and fyxe degrees. And 
thus beyng brought into the Eaft, they faw certayn Indians gatheringe ftiel fyflies by the fea bankes : 
beyng men of very high ftature, clothed with beaftes flcinnes. To whom, whereas certayne of the Spaniardes 
went aland, and fhewed them belles and paynted papers, they begon to daunce and leape aboute the 
Spaniardes, with a rude and murmuring fonge. At the length there came three other, as thoughe they 

\0f the iiewe India, and Ilandes in the PFest Ocean Sea, &c^ 

were ambafladours, whiche by certayn fignes defyred ye Spaniardes to go with them further into the land, 
making a countenaunce as though thei wold intertayn them wel, where vpon, ye captayne Magellanus fent with 
them. viL men well inllructed, to th[e]intent to fearche ye region and maners of the people. And thus 
they went with them into ye defertes, wher they came to a low cotage couered with wylde beafles 
fkinnes, hauing in it two manfions, in one of ye which were women and children and in the other only 
men. They interteined their after a barbaros and beaftly maner, whiche neuertheles femed to 
them princelike : for they killed a beafl, not much vnlike a wylde affe, whofe fleffhe (but halfe rofted) they fet 
before our men, without any other kind of meate or drinke. Here were our men of neceffitie conflrained 
to lye al night vnder thefe fkinnes, by reafon of the great abundaunce of fnowe and wynde. And when it was 
day, our men were very eamell with them, and would in maner haue enforfed them to goe with them to 
the fhippe : which thing thei perceauing, couered them felues from the head to the foote with certayn horrible 
beafles flcinnes, and paynted theyr faces with fundrye colours. Thus taking their bowes and arrowes, and 
bringing with them other of theyr companie, of much greater flature and terrible afpect, then they were, they 
(hewed them felues to oure men in araye, as thoughe they were ready to fight. But the Spanyardes, whiche 
thoughte that the matter would haue comen to hand flrokes, commaunded a piece of ordinaunce to be fhotte of 
The which although it dyd no hurte, yet thefe hardy giauntes, which a little before femed to be as bold 
as though they durft haue made warre againft. lupiter, were by the noyfe thereof put in fuche feare, that 
they foorthwith beganne to entreate for peace. Our men entended to haue brought fome of thefe Gyauntes 
wyth them into Spayne for the flraungenes of the thinge : but they all efcaped oute of theyr handes. 
Magellanus therfore vnderflandinge that it were vnprofy table to tarie there any longer, and that alfo the fea was 
very rough, and the wether flormie and boyfte[r]ous, and that furthermore the firme lande extended further 
toward the fouth, in fo muche, that the further they fayled that waye, they fhould fynde it fo much ye colder, 
he deferred hys proceding vnto [in?] the moneth of may, at whiche tyme, ye fliarpenes of winter, exceadeth with 
them, when as with vs, fommer is begon. He found there greate plentie of wood. The fea alfo miniflred 
vnto them great abundaunce of fhelfifhe, befyde other fyfhes of fundrie kyndes. He found lykewyfe 
many fpringes of frefhe and holefome waters: and vfed huntinge and taking of foules. Only bread and 
wyne, was lackinge in the fliippe. The fouth pole was there eleuated fortie degrees. 

C How Magellanus by a Jlrayght or narrow arme of the fea, fayled by the 
weft into the Eafi to dy tiers Ilandes: where alfo he was flayne. 

He wynter now being pafl, the. xxiiij. day of Augufle, Magellanus departed from the place 
aforelayde, and flyll folowed the tracte of the firme land toward the fouth, vntyl at the length, 
the. xxvi. day of Nouember, he found in that firme land, certayn open places lyke vnto 
ftrayghtes or narrow feas. Into the which entring with his nauie, he commaunded that 
certayn fliippes fliould fearche the goulfes on euerye fyde, yf anye way or paffage might be 
found into the Eaft. At the length, they found a certayn depe flraight, by the which they 
were perfwaded yat there was enteraunce into fome other mayne fea, infomuch that Magel- 
lanus attempted to fearche ye fame. This flraight was found to be fomtime of ye bredth of thre Italian myles, 
fometyme *" two, and fometime of tenne, and reached fomwhat toward the Weft. The altitude or eleuacion of 
the fouth poiO in this place, was founde to be. lii. degrees. They coulde fee no people ftering in the coftes of 
this entraunce Therfore Magellanus feing thys lande to be rough and faluage, and vnpleafaunt to abide in, 
by reafon of extreme cold, he thought it not worthye the trauayle, to fpend any time in ferching the fame. 
Therfore failing forward in his viage thus attempted by ye faid flrayghte, (which is now called the ftrayght of 
Magellattus) he was therby brought into another mayn fea, verye greate and large. The length of this ftrayght 
or narrow fea, is eftemed to be a hundreth fpaniflie miles. The land which he had on his right hande, he 
doubted not to be mayne lande : and that on the left hand, he fuppofed to bee Ilandes. Magellanus lawe 
lykewyfe the fyrme lande to be extended directly toward ye North : wherefore letting palTe that great lande, he 
fayled by that greate and large fea betwene the Weft and the North : and that for this intente, that at the length 
he might by the Weft come into the Eaft, and agayne vnder the burning lyne called Zona Torrida, beynge well 
affured that the Ilandes of Molucca (which he foughte) were in the Eafte, and not farre from the EquinoHial lyne. 
When they hadde thus fayled fortie dayes, and came now agayne vnder the line or circle called Tropicus Capri- 
corni, they founde two lyttle Ilandes inhabyted, but very barren, and therfore called them infortunate Ilandes. 
Departinge from thence they failed on for a great fpace, and found a certayne Ilande which ye inhabitantes called 

Edsn. _ M 


Cotages couered 

with beastcs 


Abundaunce of 
snowe and w>'nda 

The Giauntes are 
putte to flyght. 

Extreme winter 
in maye. 

The south pole 
eleuat&xl. degrees 

The strayght of 

The altitude of _^ ■ 
the south pole. lii. 

The main sea 
beyond the 

The fyrme land. 

The burning lino 
Torrida Zona. 
The Ilandes of 


\0f the newe India, and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea, S'c] 

The IlanJ of 
The Ilandes of 
Codes called 
Cales Males. 
A rckipellagtu. 


Bread of the 

trunke of trees. 

Drinke of the 

dropping of date 


Golde and Ginger 

Magellanus is 

The new 
captaine Serrantts 
is betraied of his 

The king of 
Subuth conspyreth 
agaynst the 

The captayne 
Serranus is taken 

The Ilandes of 
Gibetk and Ponu 

Peace and Idlene; 

Bread of Rice 


Pearles as bigge 
as turtle doues 

A manielous big 


Men with 
banging earcs. 

Jnuagana, where ye eleuacion of the Northe pole, (called pole Artike) was. xij. degrees : And the length from the 
Ilandes called Gades, by the Wefle, was iudged to bee. c.lviii. [one hundred and fifty-eight] degrees. Thus preceding, 
they faw dyuers other Ilandes, and that fo manye, that they fuppofed they had been brought into a great fea lyke vnto 
that called Archipelagus, where with fygnes and poyntinges (as the dumme are wont to fpeake with the dumme) 
they aflced of thefe Indians, the names of the Ilandes, whereby they learned that thei were in Acatan, and not 
farre from the Ilande called Selani, wel inhabited and replenifhed with abundaunce of al thinges neceflarie for 
the commodities of this life. Sayling therfore toward the Ilande of Selani, thei were with a contrary wind 
drieuen on the Hand oi Maffaiia, from whenfe they came to the greate Hand of Subuth, where ye Spanyardes 
were wel enterteyned of the Kinge of the Hand, who brought them into a certayn cotage, and fet before them 
fuch delicates as he hadde. Theyr bread, was of the trunke of a certen tree, cut in pieces, and fried with oyle. 
Theyr drinke was of the humoure or ioyfe which droppeth out of the braunches of the date trees, when they are 
cutte. Theyr meate was fuche as they toke by fouUnge, with fuch fruites as the contrei brought forth. This 
Ilande was very riche of gold and ginger. In thefe partes Magdlanus made warre agaynfte the inhabi- 
tauntes of certayne other Ilandes : In whiche conflicte, the fpaniardes hauing the ouerthrow Magellanus was 
flayne with feuen of hys men. When the Spaniardes hadde thus lod theyr captayne, they elected a new 
gouemoure of theyr nauie, appointing one Johannes Serranus to that office. Magellanus had alfo a bondman 
borne in the Ilandes of Molucca, whom he had bought in the citie of Malacclia. This bondman vnderftode the 
Spanifhe tonge : and where as the captayn Serranus could do nothing without him, who now lay ficke by 
reafon of the woundes which he had receaued in the faid conflicte, fo that he was fayne to fpeake fharpely to 
him and threaten to beate him or he could geat him out of the fhyppe, he here vpon conceaued fo great hatered 
and indignacion agaynfte the Spanyardes, that he wente immediately to the Kinge of Subuth, declaring the 
couetoufnes of the Spaniardes to be vnfaciable, and yat thei wold fhortely vfe crueltie againft him alfo, and 
bring him into fubiection and feruitude. The barbarous king beleued his wordes, and therwith pryuelye with 
the ayde of the other Ilandes, confpired againft the Spanyardes, and toke or flew as many of them as came to 
a banket whereunto they were bidden vnder pretence of frendfhip. Among the which alfo, Serranus the 
Captaine was taken priefoner. But the refydue of the Spanyardes which remayned in the fhippes, beyng taught 
and warned by the euyll chaunce which befell to theyr companions, and fearing greater deceytes and confpira- 
cies, lyft vp their ankers and gaue wind to their fayles. In the meane tyme was Serranus brought bound to 
the fea bankes, defiring his companions to delyuer or redeme him from that horrible captiuitie of hys enemies. 
Eut the Spaniardes, albeit they toke it for a diflionour, to leaue or forfake theyr Captayne, yet fearing fraude or 
funher diffimulacion, they fayled afyde from that Hand, and came to the Ilandes of Gibeth and Porne. In this 
mayne fea, were two great Ilandes, wherof the one was called Siloli, and the other Porne the lefle, where our 
men were wel entreated. The inhabitantes oi Porne honoure the funne and the mone: they keepe alfo a certayn 
ciuile iuftice and frendly loue one to another. And aboue all thinges, defyre peace and ydlenes. Therfore 
their chiefe imdie is, in no cafe to molefte their neyghboures or ftraungers, or to be iniurious to anye man. 
They haue lyttle houfes, made of earth and wood, and couered partely with rubbiflie, and partly with ye bowes 
of date trees. They take as manye wyues as they are able to kepe. Theyr comon meat, is fuch as they take 
by foulinge or fifftiinge. They make bread of ryce : and drinke, of the liquor whiche droppeth from the 
braunches of date trees, cutte. Some vfe marchaundyfe in the Ilandes nere about them : fome applie them- 
felues to huntinge and fyffhing, and fome to hufbandry. Theyr apparell, is of Goflampine cotton. They haue 
greate abundaunce of camphyre, ginger and cinomome. 

C How the spaniardes came to the Ilandes of Molucca, and of the 
people with great hanging eares. 

He Spaniardes takinge theyr leaue of the king of Porne, departed : dyrecting theyr viage 
towarde the Ilandes of Molucca, whiche were fhewed vnto them by the fame King. They 
came fyrft to the coftes of the Ilande called Solo, where are found Pearles as bygge as 
turtle doues egges : but they are gathered in the depth of the fea. The inhabitantes 
of this Ilande, at fuche tyme as the Spanyardes came thether, toke a ftielfyflhe of fuche 
houdge bignes yat the fleflie therof wayed. xlvij. pound weyght. WTierby it is apparaunt yat 
great pearles fliould be found there forafmuch as pearles are the byrth of certayn flielfiflies. 
From hence thei came to the Hand of Gilona, in which are certayn people hauing hanging eares of 
fuch length, that they hang downe to theyr flioulders. Wherat as the Spaniardes marueyled, the men 

\0f the newe India, and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea, &c?[ 

of the Hand tolde them, that not farre from thence was another Hand in which were a kind of men, not onely 
with hanging eares, but alfo with eares of fuche breadth and length, that with one of them they myghte couer 
thejT hole head. But the Spanyardes, who foughte for gold and fpyces, and not for monflers, fayled dyrectly to 
the Ilandes ot Molucca, where they arryued, the eyghte rroneth after the death of their gouernour MagcUama. 
Thefe Ilandes are fyue in noumbre, the names wherof are thefe Tharant, Muthil, TJicdori, Mare, and Atathien. 
Some of them are fytuate on thys fyde the EquinoBiall lyne, fome vnder it, and fome beyonde it. Some 
beare clones, fome Nutmegges, and fome Cinomome. They are not farre didaunt the one from the other. 
They are but little and narowe. The inhabitantes are very poore, becaufe ther is no encreafe of anye 
other thinge fauing onely of fpyces. They lyue with bread and fyfhe, and fometime popingiayes. They 
lurke in lowe cotages : And in fyne, all thinges with them are defpicable and vile, befide peace, idlenes, 
and fpyces. In lliedori is great plentie of cloues, as alfo in Tarante and Mathiai. The trees which bringe 
forth cloues, growe not, but on rockes and broken cliffes, which fometime they grow fo thicke, that they 
appeare lyke a lyttle woode or groue. This tree, bothe in leaues, biggenes, and heyght, is much lyke vnto the 
baye tree. It beareth the fruite in ye toppes of euery braunche. The budde fpringeth out fyrfl, and then in 
it the floure, not much vnlike the floure of an orange tree. The clone is fyrfl. redde : but after beyng fcorched 
by the heate of the fonne, it is made blacke. The inhabitauntes deuide the groues of thefe trees betwene them, 
as we doe the vynes. The Hand of Muthil, bringeth forth cinomome. This tree, is ful of fmall braunches and 
baren, befl lyking in a drye foyle, and is very like vnto the tree, that beareth the pomgranate. The barke of 
this tree, by reafon of the great heate of the fonne, ryfing from the braunches, or bodie of the fame, is gathered 
and dried at the fonne, and is fo made perfecte cinomome. Neare vnto this, is another Hand, called 
Beda, greater and larger, then anye of the Ilandes of Molucca. In this Hand groweth the Nutmegge, whofe tree 
is bigge and highe, and much lyke vnto the walnutte tree, for as is the walnutte, fo is this fruite defended with 
a double couering, as fyrft.e with a grene hufke, vnder the whiche is a thinne (kinne or rimme like a 
nette, encompaffmg the fhell of the nutte : which fkinne we call the flowTe of the nutmegge, but of the 
Spanyardes, it is called mace, an excellent and holefome fpyce. The other couering, is the fhell of the nutte, 
within the which is the fruite it felfe, which we call ye nutmegge. Ginger groweth here and there in all 
the Ilandes of this Archipelagus, or mayne fea. Of the whiche, fome is fowen, and fome groweth of it 
felfe. But that which is fowen, is the better. The herbe of this, is lyke vnto that which beareth faffrane 
and hath hys roote, (which is Ginger,) much lyke vnto the fame. In this meane time came two other fhyppes 
out of Spayne : whereof the one fayled directely to the poynte ol Aphrica, called Proniontorium bonce f pel: And 
the other by the greate mayne South fea, to the coafles of that continent or fyrme land whereof we haue fpoken 
here beefore. It fhall fuffyfe that we haue hetherto declared of the nauigacions whiche the Spanyardes attempted by 
the Welle to fayle into the Eafle, by the llrayghte of Magellanus, where the paffage by Sea is open into the Eafl.e, 
by the continente or fyrme lande of the newe worlde, called America. Nowe therefore lette vs retoume to the 
other Nauigacions of Columbus, otherwyfe called the Admyrall, who longe beefore was the fyrfl. fynder of 
the newe Ilandes, and of the fayde mayne or fyrme land, and yet founde not that fl.rayght or narow fea, by the 
which Magellanus fayled from the Weft into the Eaft, 

C The thyrde naiugacion ^Chriflophorus Columbus. 

iJN the yeare of Chrift. 1498. Columbus the Admyral departed from Spayne with eyght foifles, 
and arryued fyrft at the Ilandes of Medera, where he deuyded hys nauie into two partes. 
For. V. of thefe fliippes he directed to the Hand of Hifpana : and with the refidue, he failed 
towarde the fouth, entendinge to paffe ouer the ^quinoBial line, and from thenfe to turne 
towarde the Wefte, to fearche fuche landes as were hetherto vnknowen to the Chriflian men. 
Coming therfore to Caput ueride, he failed to the burning line, called Torrida zona where he 
found fo great heate, that he was in daunger of death : but returninge his fliyppes towarde 
the Weft, he found a more holefome ayre and (as God woulde) came at the length to a lande well inhabyted, 
where there came agaynft him and his, a bote with, xxiiij. young men, armed with bowes, arrowes, and fhieldes, 
couering only theyr priuie members with a clothe of Goffampine cotton, hauing alfo very longe heare. The 
admirall, (as well as he could by fignes) allured them to communicacion. But they trufled not our men, fearing 
fome deceate. The Admirall perceauing that he could nought preuayle, by fignes and tokens, he determined 
with Mufical inftrumentes to appeafe their wildneffe. As the minflrelles therefore blewe theyr fliaulmes, 
the barbarous people drew neare, fufpecting that noyfe to bee a token of warre, whereupon they made ready 
theyr bowes and arrowes. But the Spaniardes drawinge nearer vnto them, cafte certayne .apparell into theyr 



The spanyardes 
arriue at the 
Ilandes of 

The tree that 
beareth cloues. 

The cinomone 

The nutmeg tree 


The nutinegg-i 


Prom on ioriutn 
bonee spei 

Columbus the 

admyral, first 
finder of the new 

The Ilandes of 
Hispana or 
H ispanioux 

Greate heate vndei 
the burning lyne. 

Sigjies and 


[0/ the newe India, and Ilmides in the West Ocean Sea, &c.] 

The faire region 

of P arias. 

Gold and Pearles 

Fearse beastes. 

The Spanyardes 
refuse to obey the 

Pearles for belles 
and nedles 


The Region of 
The region of 


Naked people. 
Gold for belles. 

A conflict betwene 

the wild men and 

the Spanyardes 

The Region of 


Woodes of 


The tree yat 

bcareth Cassia 


A monsterous 


bote, willing by this token of frendfhippe to concile them, although all were in vayne. For they fled all awaye. 
Wherefore the Admyrall departing from thence, came to a region called Farias, wel inhabited and ful of ciuile 
people, declaring muche humanitie toward flraungers. They (hewed our men Pearles and Gold, and fuch other 
richeS; defyring them to come a land, where they gentelly entreated them. When our men afked them where 
they had fuche plentie of golde : they (with home poynting was in the flede of (peech) declared by fignes and 
tokens, that thei had it in certayne mountaines, and that thei could not without great daunger refort thether, by 
reafon of certaine fearfe in thofe partes, and alfo becaufe of the cruell people called Canibaks, whiche 
inhabite thofe mountaynes. But the Admiral, becaufe his wheate fayled, was enforfed to departe thence. 
Dyrectinge therfore his viage toward ye North eafl.e, he came to the Hand of Hifpana, where he found 
all thinges confounded and out of ordre. For the Spanyardes which were lefte in the Ilandes, refufed to obeye 
the Admirall and his brother, mopinge greuous complayntes agaynfle them before the King of Spaine, and at 
the length fente them thether boftnd. 

C Howe Petrus Alonfus foiighte newe Ilandes. 

i Fter that the Admyrall hadde incurred the indignacion of the Kynge, manye of his companions, 
fuche as hadde been broughte vppe with him, and were experte Sea menne, decreede to 
fearche other partes of the worlde yet vnknowen. Among which number was Petrus Alonfus, 
who with a (hippe wel fumifhed, fayled to Farias, and from thence to Curtana, where he 
begon to exercyfe merchaundife with the inhabitantes, receauinge Pearles for belles and 
nedles. Entring alfo into the land, he was honourably entertayned. In their woodes, he 
faw innumerable Peacockes, nothinge vnlyke vnto oures, fauing that the males differ litle 
from the females. In this region are great plentie of Phefantes. Alonfus departinge from henfe, failed to the 
region of Canchietes, beynge fixe dayes fayling from Curtana, toward the Weft. In this region is great abun- 
daunce of golde, Popingiayes, Goflampine cotton, and mofte temperate ayre. From hence he fayled into 
another fruiteful region, but inhabited with wilde menne, which could by no gentilnes be allured to frendfhippe. 
Departinge therefore from thence, he came to the region of Ciniafia, whereas pearles are found in great plentie: 
but before he came there, he chaunced to come amonge the Canibaks: agajTift whom, difchargeing a piece of 
ordinaunce, he droue them eafely to flight But Alonfus laden with pearles, returned home into Spayne. 

C Howe Pinzonus, companion to the Admirall, fotight newe Ilandes. 

Incentius, otherwife called Pinzonus in the yeare of Chrifte. 1499. prepared foure brigantines, 
and failed fyrft to the Ilandes of Canaria, and from thence to Caput ueride. From whence 
directinge his viage toward the fouth farre beyonde the Eguinoflial lyne, he found men in a 
certayne Hand, but fuch as he could by no meanes concyle vnto him. Therefore leauinge 
them, he came to another lande, in whiche were innumerable naked people, diffimuling that 
thei defired to ioyne frendfliip with the Spaniardes. And whereas one of our men cafte a 
bell amonge them oute of the fliippe, they againe caft to the Spanyardes a maffe or piece of 
golde : which, one of oure companye fomewhat to bolde, attemptinge to take vp, they fodeynlye toke him and 
caried him awaye with merueylous fwiftenes : but our men leauing their fliippes, made haft to help their fellowe, 
in fo muche that the matter came to handftrokes. This conflict was fo fliarpe, that our men hadde much a doe 
to efcape wyth theyr lyues, by reafon of the fearfenes of the barbarians. Departing therefore from thence, they 
fayled toward the Northeafte, and came to the region of Payra, and to the Ilandes neare aboute the fame in 
the whiche are woodes of fanders wherewith the marchauntes lade theyr fliippes, and carie it into other coun- 
treys. In this Region alfo growe the trees, whiche beare Cafsia fiflula of the befl« kynd. There is alfo founde 
a foure foted beaft of monftrous fhape, whofe former parte is lyke vnto a wolfe, fauing that the feete are lyke 
vnto the fete of a man, with eares like an owle : Hauinge alfo beneath his comon belye, an other belye lyke 
vnto a purfe or bagge, in which he kepeth his yonge whelpes fo longe, vntyll they be able fafely to wander 
abrode alone, and to geat theyr meate withoute the helpe of theyr parents. The whelpes while they are very 
yong, neuer come out of this bagge but when they fucke. This portentous beaft with her three whelpes, was 
broughte to Ciuile in Spaine, and from thence to Granata. 

\Pf the newe India, and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea, &c.\ 


€1 Of the foure nauigacions r/Americus Vefputius to the newe Ilandes. 

Mericus Vefputius, beyng fent with Chrijlophorus Columbus, in the yeare of Chrifl. M.cccc.xcij. 
at the commaundement of Ferdinando King of Caflile, to feke vnknowen landes, and wel 
inftructed in fayling on the fea, after a fewe yeares, fet forward foure viages of hys owne 
proper charges. That is to witte, two vnder the fayd King Ferdinando, and two other vnder 
Emanuel, king of Portugale, of the which he himfelfe wiyteth after this maner. 

C Thefyrjle viage of Avatncxxs Vefputius. 

N the yere of Chrifl, M.ccccxcvij. the. xx. daye of Maye, we came with foure (hippes, to 
the fortunate Ilandes, called Infulce fortuiiatce, where the North pole hath his eleuacion. 
xxvij. degrees, and. xL minutes. And from thence within the fpace of. xxvii. dayes, 
we came to a land more Weilwarde then the fortunate Ilandes, where the North pole 
was eleuate. xvL degrees : where alfo we founde a nacion of naked people, of innumerable 
multitude, whiche as fone as they fawe vs, fled to the next mountayne. From hence 
within two dayes fayling, we came to a fafe port wher we founde manye men, which 
with much adoe, we could fcarcely allure to communicacion, although we profered them belles, lokinge 
glaffes, criflallyne cuppes, and fuche other iewelles. But at the length perceauing our good wyll and 
liberalitie towarde them, they came to vs by heapes, and ioyned frendlhyp with vs without all feare. They 
goe all as naked as they came forth of their mothers wombe. They fuffre no heare on their bodie fauing 
only on theyr head, in fo much that they pulo[f]ye heares of their browes. They are all fo perfectelye 
exercyfed in fwimminge, that they can continue therein, for the fpace of two leages without any thinge to beare 
them vp and efpeciallye the women. Theyr weapons are bowes and arrowes. They arme theyr arrowes with 
ye teeth of beafles and fyflies, bycaufe they lacke Iron and other metals. They kepe warre againft. their 
borderers whiche are of flraunge language. They fyght not for the enlargeing of theyr dominion, forafmuche 
as they haue no Magiflrates : nor yet for th[e]increafe of riches, becaufe thei are contente with their owne com- 
modities : but onely to reuenge the death of theyr prediceflburs. At theyr meate, they vfe rude and barberous 
fafhions, lying on the ground without any table clothe, or couerlet They flepe in certayne greate nettes made 
of Goflampine cotton and hanged a lofte in the ayre beetwene trees. Theyr bodies are verye fmothe and clene 
by reafon of theyr often wafliinge. They are in other thinges fylthy and withoute fhame. Thei vfe no lawful 
coniunction of mariage, but euery one hath as many women as him lifteth, and leaueth them agayn at his 
pleafure The women are very fruiteful, and refufe no laboure al the whyle they are with childe. They 
trauayle in maner withoute payne, fo that the nexte day they are cherefull and able to walke. Neyther 
haue they theyr bellies wrimpeled, or loofe, and hanginge pappes, by reafon of bearinge manye children. ThejT 
houfes and cabbens, are all in common. Theyr houfes are fafhyoned lyke vnto belles : are made of greate trees 
faflened together, couered wyth the leaues of date trees, and made very flronge againft. wind and tempefles. 
They are alfo in fome places fo great, that in one of them fixe hundreth perfons may lodge. Thei vfe euery 
feuenth or eyght yeare, to remoue and chaunge theyr dwelling places, becaufe that by theyr longe continuaunce 
in one place, the ayre (houlde bee infected. They vfe no kynd of marchaundife or bying and felling, beyng 
content onely with that which nature hath lefte them. As for Golde, Pearles, precious (lones, iewelles, 
and fuche other thinges, which we in Europa efleme as pleafures and delicates, they fette noughte by. They 
haue no kynde of come. Theyr common fedinge, is a certayne roote whiche they drye and beate and make 
floure or rrieale therof They eate no kynd of flefhe except mans flefhe : for they eate all fuche as they kyll in 
theyr warres, or o[t]herwife take by chaunce When we had thus vewed the countreye, and confydered the 
maners of the people, we determyned to fayle further, downe by the landes fyde, and came after a few daies, to 
a certayn hauen, where we fawe about twentie greate houfes, rayfed vppe muche after the fafhion of belles. 
There came vnto vs a great multitude of men vnder pretenfe of frendefhip. Some fwimminge, and forae in 
botes. Who, as fone as thei drew neare vnto vs, fodeynly bent theyr bowes againft, vs, where we defended oure 
felues manfully. In this bickeringe, we flewe of them about twentie, beefyde manye that were wounded : But 
of our men, were onlye fyue hurte, whiche were all perfectelye healed. Thus departinge from this hauen, we 
fayled on, and came to anotlier nacion, in conuerfacion and tongue vtterlye differing from the fyrfL For 

Edhk. G 3 31 

Ferdinando kinge 
of castUe. 

tnsuhg fortunatct. 

Naked menne. 

Wylde men 
allured with 

People expert in 

Cabcns hanging 
betweene trees. 

Women in 

Women very 
stronge and 

Houses made of 

Houses of 
maruelous bignes. 

Ryches and 

Bread of a certain 


Mans flesh eaten 

A conflict 


\0f the newe India, and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea, &c?\ 

A gentle nacion 

Fruites vnlikc 
vnto ourcs. 

Gold everywhere. 


An expedicion 
agaynst ye 

The Equinoctial 


Fyue hundrcth 
pearles for one belL 
Wine of the iuyse 
of frutes 

An Hand wythout 
fresh water. 

firoad leaucs. 

The land of 


A hundreth and 
XXX. pearles in one 

comming oute of our fliippe, we were very frendly entreated of them, where we continued for the fpace of nyne 
dayes. This region is verye fayre, and fruitefull, hauinge manye pleafaunt woodes, which continue grene all the 
yeare longe. They haue fruites innumerable, vtterlye vnlyke vnto oures. The Region is fituate dyrectelye vnder 
the lyne, called Tropicus Calieri. The inhabitantes them felues, call it Farias. Saylinge farre beyond this 
Region, and ouerpaffinge manye countreyes and nacions, fyndinge Gold euery where, (but in no great 
quantitie) we came to another nacion full of gentleneflfe and humanitie, where we refled. xxxvij. dayes. Thefe 
people made greuous complaynte vnto vs, that there was not farre from them, a certayne fearfe and cruell 
nacion, whiche vexed them fore, and made incurfion into theyr countreye at a certayne tyme of the yeare, 
kyllinge them and violentlye carying them awaye, to th[e]intent to eate them, in fo muche that they were not 
able to defend them felues againfle theyr fearfenefle. Whiche thinge when they hadde fo lamentablye declared 
vnto vs, and we hadde made them promyfe that we woulde reuenge theyr fo manye iniuries, they ioyned vnto 
oure company feuen of theyr men. Thus we wente forward : and after feuen dayes, came to an Ilande, called 
Ity: where thefe fearfe people dwelte. Who, as fone as they hadde efpyed vs, came armed agaynfte vs. 
We ioyned with them in battaile, which contynued for the fpace of twoo houres. At the length we 
droue them to flyghte, and flewe and wounded a greate numbre of them, and toke. xxv. captiues. But of our 
men was onely one flayne, and. xxi. wounded, and fhortely after reflored to health. We gaue to thofe feuen 
men which went with vs, thre menne of oure prifouners and foure women, whom with greate reioyfmge 
they caried with them into theyr countreye : and we retuminge home toward Spaine, with many captiues came 
fyrfle to a porte of Spayne called Calicium, where we folde oure priefoners, and were ioyefullye receaued : In 
the yeare of Chrift. M.ccccxcix. the. xv. daye of Octobre. 

C The feconde viage (?/"Vefputius. 

N the moneth of May folowing Vefputius attempted another viage and came by Ilandes of 
Canaria, euen vnto the burninge lyne, called Torrida zona, and founde a lande beeyonde the 
EquinoHial ^ine, toward the South, where the South pole is eleuate fyue degrees. And wheras 
he coulde fynde no apte enteraunce into the land, and fayled vp and down alonge by the 
fame, he efpyed a bote in which was aboute twentie men : who, as fone as they faw the Span- 
yardes, lepte into the Sea and efcaped all, excepte two, which they toke. In theyr bote which 
they forfoke, were founde foure young men which they had by force taken oute of another 
countrey, hauinge theyr priuie members newelye cutte of. Thefe, Vefputius toke into his fhippes and learned by 
theyr fignes and tokens, that they hadde been taken of the Canibaks, and fhould fliortly haue been eatea But 
departinge from thefe cofles, and faylinge on forward, they came to a commodious hauen, where they founde 
muche people, with whom they ioyned frendfliyp, and fell to chaungeinge of ware, receauinge for one bell, fyue 
hundreth Pearles. In this lande they drinke a certayne kynde of wyne, made of the iuyfe of fruites and fedes, 
being lyke whyte and redde fydar. Departinge from hence, and faylinge yet further, they founde a certayne 
Ilande in which was a beaflly kind of people, and fimple, yet very gentle. In this Ilande is no frefhe water : 
but they gather the dew which in the night feafon falleth vpon certayne leaues muche lyke vnto the eare of an 
Affe. They lyue for the mofle parte, by fea fifhe. They haue no cotages or houfes : but haue certayne broade 
leaues, wherewith they defende them felues from the heate of the Sunne, but not from (howres : but it is verye 
lykely, that it rayneth but lyttle in that Hand. Vefputius wyth his companye departinge from hence, fayled 
vnto another Ilande : into the whiche when he hadde entered, he founde certayne cotages, and in them two old 
women, and three young wenches, whiche were of fo greate flature, that they marueyled thereat And whereas 
our menne (Iryued with them to bringe them to the fhyppe, to th[e]intente to haue caiyed them into Spayne, 
they efpyed cominge toward them fyxe and thyrtie men, yet of muche greater flature then were the women, 
bearing with them bowes, arrowes, and great flakes lyke vnto clubbes : at the fyghte of whome, oure menne 
beinge afrayd, made hafte to theyr fhyppes. But thefe Gyauntes folowinge them euen to the Seafyde, bended 
theyr arrowes towardes the Spanyardes, vntyll they difcharged two pieces of ordinaunces, wyth the horryble 
founde whereof, they were immediatly drieuen to flight. Oure menne therefore departinge from thence, called 
that Ilande, the Ilande of Giauntes. And came to another nacion, which frendlye entreated them, and offered 
them many Pearles : in fo muche that they boughte. xix. markes weyghte of pearles, for a fmal price. They 
gaue vs alfo certayne (helfyflies, of the whiche. fome conteyned in them a hundreth and thyrtie Pearles, 
and fome fewer. Departinge from thence they came to the Ilande of Antiglia, which Columbus had difcouered 
a few yeares before. I.eauinge this, they fayled directely to Calicium, a porte of Spayne, where they were 
honourablye receaued. 



Y^f the newe India ^ and llandes in the West Ocean Sea, &c^ 


C The thyrde viage of Vefputius. 

Efpiitius beyng called from Caflile to feme Emanuel the King of Portugale, in the yeare 
of Chrifle. M. ccccc. ij. the tenth daye of May, departed from the hauen of lifburne, and 
fayled downe by the coaftes of the fea Atlantike, vntil he came vnder the Equitw^ial lyne. 
And the. xvij. daye of Augufle, they arryued at a certayne lande where they found a kind of 
beaflly people. This land is fituate toward the South, fyue degrees beyonde the EquinoHial 
lyne. A gieate multitude of the inhabitantes wer gathered together, and as wel as they coulde 
by fignes and poyntinges, defired oure men to come alande and to fee theyr countrey. There 
were two in the fhippe, which toke vpon them to vewe the lande, and leame what fpyces and other commodities 
might be had therein. They were appoynted to returne within the fpace of fiue daies at the vttermofl. But 
when eyght dayes were now pafle, they whiche remayned in the fhippes, heard yet nothing of theyr returne : 
wheras in the meane time great multitudes of other people of the fame lande reforted to the Sea fyde, but could 
by no meanes be allured to communicacion. Yet at the length they broughte certayne women, which (hewed 
them felues familier towarde the Spaniardes : Wherupon they fent forth a young man, beyng very (Irong and 
quicke, at whom as the women wondered, and (lode gafinge on him and feling his apparell : there came fodeynly 
a woman downe from a mountayne, bringing with her fecretely a great (lake, with which (he gaue him fuch a 
(Iroke behynde, that he fell dead on the earth. The other womenne foorthwith toke him by the legges, and 
drewe him to the mountayne, whyle in the mean tyme the men of the countreye came foorth with bowes and 
arrowes, and (hot at oure men. But the Spaniardes difchargeing foure pieces of ordinaunce agaynd them, 
droue them to flighte. The women alfo which had llayne the yong man, cut him in pieces euen in the fight of 
the Spaniardes, fhewinge them the pieces, and rofling them at a greate fyre. The men alfo made certayn tokens, 
wherby they declared that not pad. viii. daies be(ore, they had in lyke maner ferued other chriftian men. 
Wherfore ye Spaniardes hauinge thus fudayned fo greuous iniuries vnreuenged, departed with euyl wil : fayling 
therfore further toward ye fouth, they found a nacion of great multitude, and of much genteler condicions, with 
whom thei remained, viij. dayes, bartering and changeing ware with them. Sayling on yet farther, they went 
beyond ye line called Tropicus Capricorni, yiher^ the fouth pole is eleuate. 32. degrees: and wheras in thofe 
parts thei found no great riches, they failed yet further fouthward vntill ye pole was eleuate. lij. degrees: where 
thei came into fuch a tempede, that they were enforfed to gather vppe theyr fayles, and to rowe only with the 
made, directinge theyr viage toward the codes of Ethiopia, from whence they returned againe to liifbume 
in Portugale. 

C The fottrth viage of Vefputius. 

His nauigation was attempted in the yeare of Chrid. M. ccccc. iij. but was not brought to the 
cnde hoped for, by reafon of a miffortune which chaunced in the goulfe of the fea Atlantike. 
Vefputius entended in this viage to fayle to the Ilande of Melcha, beyng in the Ead, in 
which is fayde to be great ryches, and the dacion of redinge place of all (hippes comming 
from the goulfe Gangeticus, and from the Indian Sea. This Melcha, is fituate more toward 
the Wed, and Calicut more enclininge towarde the fouth. Vefputius came fyrd to ye grene 
llandes, called Infulce uerides: and fayled from them to Serraliona, beynge in the Southe 
partes of Ethiopia : from whence faylinge on yet further, he fawe in the midded of the fea an Hand, high and 
merueylous: where alfo the M[asder]. Pilate of this nauie, lod his (hippe by running vpon a rocke: but all the 
mariners efcaped. This (hippe was of thre hundreth tunne, and had in it al the power of the nauie. When 
Vefputius had entered into the Hand, he found it rude and vnhabited : yet was it full of byrdes : but had no 
beades except Lifertes with forked tayles, and Serpentes. Thus makinge prouifion for neceflaries, he was 
enforced to returne to portugale, failing of his purpofe. 

The SM Atlantike. 

Three of the 
Spanyardes slayne 
and e-iten. 

Fearse and cniele 

A ciuile people. 

The south pole 
eleuate. lij*degrcejL 


The Hand of 

Insula net ides 

A shi'ppe wrackfc 

Lisertes and 


[0/ the newe India^ and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea^ &C\\ 

The Portugales 
bild fortes in the 
Kaste partes. 

A ipJwttsits 

A urea 

The great and 
ryche cytie of 
Maiac/ia besieged 
The king fighteth 
on an elephant 

Plenty of copper. 



The cytie of Goa- 

The Ambassadors 
make a league 
wyih Alphoftsus 

The west Ilandes 


Cozujfiel or 
Sancta Crtix. 

Sugcr presses. 

The wood called 

Medera or 

Sawe milles. 
Fayre tree 

C How the king of Portugale fubdued cert ay n places in India: 
and of the ryche Cytie of Malacha. 

Orafmuche as therefore in the yeares folowinge, there were more often nauigacions made from 
the Wefl by the fouth into the Eafl, and the Portugales had now founde a fafe paffage by 
ye fea, they thought it expedient for theyr better fafetie, to make certaine fortifications and 
places of refuge in the Eafte. The which theyr intent the better to accomplilhe, King 
Emanuel appoynted one Alphonfus an experte man on the fea, to be captayne of this viage. 
Who, defyring to reuenge the loffes and iniuries which the Portugales had before fuflained, 
fayled directly to Aurea Cherfonefus, now called Malacha, a merueylous great and riche 
citie, wliofe king is an infydel of the fecte of the Moores : for euen thus farre was the fecte of Mahumet extended. 
Alphonfus therfore at his coming thether, befieged the cytie, and made warre agaynfl the Saracens whiche helde 
the fame. In this conflict a greate noumber of theyr enemies beynge flayne, the Portugales entred into the 
citie by forfe and kept the fame, permitting free libertie to theyr fouldiers to fpoyle, kyll, and bume. The 
king himfelfe, fyghting vpon an Elephante, and beyng fore wounded, fledde with the refydue of his companye. 
A greate numbre of the Moores were flaine with the lofle of a fewe Portugales : manye were taken, and great 
fpoyle called awaye, in the whiche were feuen Elephantes, and all kyndes of ordinaunces perteyning to the 
warres, made of copper, to the noumbre of two thoufande pieces. The cytye beinge thus taken and facked, 
and the enemyes drieuen to flyghte, Alphonfus the Capitayne the better to prouyde for the fauegarde of the 
Chriflians, buylded a (Irong forte at the mouth or entraunce of the riuer which runneth through ye citie. At 
this time, that ia to witte, in the yeare of Chrifl. M. ccccc. xij. there were in Malacha many flraungers and mar- 
chauntes of dyuerfe nacions, whereby the cytie was repleniflied with great ryches and abundaunce of fpyces. 
They of theyr owne mocion, defyred to make a leage with Alphonfus, and were of him gently receaued : So 
that for theyr better fafetie, he permitted them to dwell in the houfes neare about the forte. And by this 
meanes, this markette towne was reedified and broughte to muche better flate than euer it was before. Thefe 
thinges thus happely atchiued, and al thinges in Malacha fet in good order, Alphonfus leaning in the forte a 
garrifon of vi. hundreth valiante fouldiours, returned into India, where he befieged the chiefe caflell of the 
cytie of Goa, which (he) a fewe yeares beefore, hadde with no fmal daunger of our men, and great flaughter of 
their enemies, fubdued vnder the dominion of Emanuel kynge of Portugale, and was now poflefled of the mores, 
he manfully recouered agayne, and enforfed them to render vp the fame. Alfo the ambaffadours of the Kinge 
of Narfinga, the Kinge of Cambaia, and the King of Grofapha with the legates of dyuers other kinges and 
Princes, offered them felues to be at a leage wyth Alphonfus, and thereupon broughte theyr prefentes vnto hym. 
No leffe power and dominion obtayned the king of Spayne in the Ilandes of the Wefte partes : In fo muche 
that at his commaundement, were buylded fixe townes in the Ilande of Cuba. Lykewyfe in the Ilande of 
lucataiia, was buylded a greate cytie •n7th fayre houfes. The Ilande of Cozumella, the Spanyardes called 
Sancta Crux, beecaufe they came fyrfle thether in Maye, on the daye of the Inuencion of the Croffe. In the 
Ilande oi Hfpatta or Hfpaniola, were erected. 28. fuger preiTes, to preffe ye fugre whiche groweth plentifully 
in certaine canes or redes of the lame countrey. From hence alfo is brought the wood of Guaiacum, other- 
wyfe called, Lignum Sanctum, wherewith dyuerfe difeafes are healed by the order of the newe dyete. 

C Of the Hand of Medera, and the forttmate Ilandes, otherwyfe 
called the Ilandes of Canaria. 

Etwene Spaine and the Ilandes of Canaria, is the Ilande of Medera, which the Spaniardes in 
our time founde vnhabited and faluage. But perceauinge that the foyle thereof, was very 
fruitefuU, they burnt the woodes, and made the ground apt to bringe foorth corne, and 
buylded many houfes, and fo tilled the fame, that at this day is no where founde a more 
fruiteful lande. It hath in it many fpringes of frefflie water and goodly ryuers, vpon the 
which are bylded manye fawe mylles, wherewith manye fayre trees, lyke vnto Ceder and 
Cypreffe trees, are fawed and cut in funder, whereof are made mod fayre tables, coberdes, 
coferS; and chayres, and fuch other curious workes made of wood. Thefe trees are of redde colour, and fwete 

[0/ the itewe India, and Ilandes in the IVest Ocean Sea, &c.] 


feuour, the bodies and braunches whereof are broughte into Spayne in great plentie. The Kynge of Portugale 
thought it goode to plante in this Hand, that kynde of redes in which fuger groweth : wherein he was not 
deceaued in his opinion : For they growe there mofle fruitefully, and beare fuger which excelleth the fugre of 
Candye or Sicilia. There were alfo vynes broughte out of Candye and planted in this Ilande, where they 
profper fo wel, that for ye mofle parte they bring forth more grapes then leaues, and thofe very great. In this 
Hand is alfo great plentie of Partriches, wyld doues, and Peacockes, wild bores, and diners kindes of other 
beaftes, which onely poiTeffed the Hand before men dyd inhabite the fame. Alfo the Ilandes called Infulce 
fortunatcB, (whiche are now called Canaria, for the multitude of dogges which are in them) are fayd to be no 
leffe fruytefuU. Thefe Ilandes are tenne in noumbre, of the which feuen are inhabited, and thre remaine 
defolate. They which are inhabited, are called by thefe names : Fra^a laucea. Magna fors, Grancanaria, 
Teneriffiz, Ginera, Palma, and Ferrum. At Columbus firft comming thether, the inhabitantes went naked, 
without fhame, religion, or knowledge of God. But in fuccefle of time, foure of the greatefl Ilandes embrafed 
the Chriflian faith : They haue eche of them a priuate language. Tmeriffa and Grancanaria, are bigger then 
the other. Teneriffa may be fene afarre of, to the diflaunce of fiftie leages, in a fayre and clere daye. The 
reafon whereof is, that in the middefl of the Hand, ryfeth a marueylous great and flrong rock, which is thought 
to be. XV. leages high, and cafleth foorth continuallye greate flames of fyre and pieces of brimftone, as doth the 
mount Etna in the Hand of Sicilia. The people of thefe Ilandes, lyue with barlye bread, flefflie, and mylke. 
They haue alfo greate plentie of Goates, wylde Afles, and Fygges. They lacke wyne and wheate. 

C Whether vnder the yEquinodlial circle or burninge lyne 
{called Torrida zona) be habitable Regions. 

jj/w fecundus (otherwife called Eneas Siluius,) of this quedion, wryteth in this maner. 
It hath been muche doubted whether habitable regions maye be founde vnder the Equi- 
noHial lyne. Eratojlhmes is of th[e]oppinion, that the ayre is there verye temperate. So 
thinketh Polybius alfo, affirming that the earth is there verye highe, and watered with 
many fliowers. Fofsidonius fuppofed that there is no Mountaynes vnder the EguinoHial 
Some thoughte that the Equinoflial lyne was extended beyond the earth ouer the mayne 
Ocean fea : whiche thinge the Poete Homere femeth to infmuate, where he faineth 
that the horfes which drawe the chariote of [the] funne, drinke of the Ocean fea, and the funne it felfe to take 
his norifhement of the lame. Whiche fentence Macrobius alfo foloweth. Neither was Albertus Magnus farre 
from this opinion, who fuppofeth yat the funne draweth vp fo much moyflure vnder the EquinoHial circle, as 
engendreth the cloudes vnder the poles, where by reafon of th[e]excedinge coldnefTe, ayre is continualli turned 
into water. But Ptolomeus thinketh the earth to bee extended beyonde the EquinoHial, whereas he placeth a 
part of the Hand of Taprobana, vnder the EquinoHial, and alfo many nacions of the Ethiopians. Many 
haue thought that th[e]earthly Paradyfe was fette vnder that lyne : which opinion is contrary to th[e]auctoritie of 
the holy fcripture which witnefleth the two famous fluddes Tigris and Euphrates to fpringe oute of Paradife : 
whiche neuertheleffe we know from the North partes to fal into the goulfe called Sinus Ferfims : but as 
concerninge the heate vnder the EquinoBial lyne, the nearenefle of the funne, or the directe beames of the fame, 
are no fufficiente caufes why vnder that line fliould be no habitable regions, if we confider how thofe places are 
otherwyfe Ihadowed, and tempered \vith the moyflenes and dewes of the nightes, which are all the yeare 
throughe of equal length with the dayes. Yet wyl no man denye, but that vnder the Equinofiial throughoute 
all the burninge lyne there are manye wildemefles and defolate places, lacking water, and incommodious for the 
lyfe of man : Albeit euen in Ethiopia, people dwell neare to the ryuers and woodes. Plinie alfo fayth that one 
Dalion, and Arijlocleon, and Bion, and Baftlides, went Southward beyonde Meroa whiche is almofte vnder the 
Equinofiial. And that Simonides who writte the defcripcion of Ethiopia, dwelte fyue yeres in Meroce : whiche 
Ilande, (beeynge in the fymie lande and compaffed aboute wyth the Ryuer of Nilus) he affyrmed to bee fituate. 
972. thoufande pafes beeyonde Syenes of Egypte, as the fearchers of Nero declared. But at Sienes the 
ARronomers appoynte the fommer conuerfion of the funne : and that there the burninge lyne beginneth, being 
diflaunte from the ^Equinofiial foure and twentie degrees, that is twelue thoufande furlonges. Wherby we maye 
perceaue that Meroa is fituate fome what beeyonde the myddeft betwene the Equinodlial and Sienes. 
Ptolomeus alfo defcrybeth the Region of Agifimba to bee inhabited beeyonde the Equinofiial. Lykewyfe the 
Mountaynes of the Mone, called Montes Luna, out of the which, the fennes or marifes of the riuer Nilus haue 
their fpring and originalL He addeth hereunto that there are certayne Ethiopians called Anthropophagi, 



ITie Ilandes of 


A mount of 

LUrr. i. Caftt. n 




The Equittocttai 


The poet Homere 

Aibertus Magttus. 


Tigris and 
Sinus Persicus. 
The nearenes of 
the sunne. 

vnder the 

Torrida xona. 


The Hand of 

Syenes in Egipte. 
The conucrsion 
of the sunne. 
Of the furlonges 
of Italie viiL doe 
make one Italicn 
myle, conteyning 
a . m. [thousandj 
Montes Luna. 
Patujtdes Nili. 


[0/ the newe India, and Ilandes in the West Ocean Sea, &c?^ 

Habitable regions 
how farre 

that is, fuch as eate mans fleflie, which inhabite regions beyond the EquinoSlial about the fpace of. xvi 
degrees. And thus the inhabitacion of men is found to be extended, x. hundreth thoufand pafes beyonde the 
Equi7wllicU lyne. Whiche fpace conteyneth no lefle then two clymes of earth. And a clyme is a porcion 
of the worlde betwene South and North, wherein is variacion in length of the daye, the fpace of halfe an 

C Finis. 

C Thus endeth the fyfth boke of Sebajiian Munjler, 

of the landes of Afia the greater, and of the 

newefounde landes, and Ilandes. 


€ Imprinted at London, in Lom- 

barde Strete, By Edward 


C To al adttenturers, andfiiche as take in hande greate enterpryfes. 

Who hath not of fowrenes felte the bitter tad, 
Is not worthy of fwetenes to take his repafl. 
To cracke the nutte, he muft take the payne. 
The which would eate the camell fayne. 
Who that of bees feareth the flinge, 
Shal ueucr by hony liaue great wonninge. 
As the fwete Rofe bringeth forth the thome, 
So is man truely to ioye and payne borne. 
The byrde vpon hope byldeth her nefte, 
Where oftentymes (he hath but euyll refle, 
Yet is fhe not therby drieuen to fuche feare, 
But yat fhe performeth the fame the nexte yeare. 
Much cafling of periles doth noble corage fwage 
Yet do not I commende rafhenes or outrage. 
What foles do fable, take thou no hede at all. 
For what they know not, they cal phantaRical. 
Nought venter nought haue, is a faying of old. 
Better it is to blow the cole, then to fyt a cold. 
Fortes fortuna adiuuat, the Latin prouerbe faith. 
But fayleth to fuch as faynt and lacke fayth. 
God giueth al thinges, but not ye bul by ye home 
The plowman by trauaile encreafeth his come. 
As fortune fauereth thou mayft be riche or poore, 
As Creftis or Irus that beggeth at the dore. 

C Omnis iaHafit alca. 

[The Third English book on America.] 

t \ L ^*^ »>! 



tftU tithe isamltitap 

£ottte^n$tts tlic naiusatiDns ant) conoineilcs 

oft})C!g>panpiicl}e0,toUl) tlieptutidnlac Dci 

fcciptiottof ti;e moae c;7cl)c anti lacge laitJics 

auo llanDcs lacelp fotmtie m tljc h)ta)6r>ccatt 

pectepn^ns to tijc inljcntntmcc of tl^s bm^cs 

of )g>paFn(« 3in ti)e toijiclj tljeDiUgsttt ciafisc 

raagnotottlpcottfptjcc VoOatcommotifticnin^ 

Ijcttb^ cijatince to ttje bole cijiiaian too^lb m 

tj^mctocomc. but airotcacKcnianp recreates 

toncbpnse tlje lant)e,t()e rMsand tljc Qarces, 

i)ccp tuccITai'te to bt lusobe to nl fuel) as UM 

attcmpte anpnattisattonSjO} otijcttoifc 

tjauc Deltte to bcl)ol9e ttje Qun^t 

ma loDonDccf isli booj&cs o£ 

jSoU fittD JtatHte* 

Jb9}pttctt ttt tijcJIactttc touitge lip {d(tct; 

^actp? oEattfilcciii, anb tcanfc 

iatta into ^nsiinlijc ig 



lilicdibus Guillieltm PoWelU 
AH NO. 2 5^55, 


C The table of the contentes of this booke. 


C Of the landes and Ilandes lately founde. , . Folio. 149. 
The popes bulla and donation . . . 167. and. 171. 

The hyflorie of the Wefte Indies, wrytten by Gonzaliis 


The ordinarie nauigation from Spayne to the Wefte Indies. 
Of two notable thynges as touchynge the Weft Indies: 
and of the greate ryches brought from thenfe into Spaine. 
Of the golde mines and maner of woorkynge in them. . 

The maner of fyfdiynge for pearles 

The familiaritie that the Indians haue with the deuyl. . 
Of temperate and habitable regions vnder the Equinoc- 

tiall line. &c. . 

Of dyuers particular thynges, as woormes, ferpentes, 
beaftes, foules. &c, 


174. [/. 208.] 

175. [/. 210.] 

176. \j). 211.] 

177. [/. 211.] 

180. [/. 213.] 

181. 0.215.] 

184. [A 217] 

Befyde the Decades {the table of whofe conientes yow may reade in the evde of the booke [see pp. 391-397.]) arc conteyned 

furthermore in this boooke ihefe thynges foUowynge. 

: 186.] The hyftorie of Paulus louius of the ambalTade of great 
201.] Bafilius Prince of Mofcouia to pope Clement the feuenth. 278. [/. 308.] 
Other notable thynges as concemynge Mofcouia, gathered 
owt of the bookes of Sigifmundus Liberus. . . . 289, [/>. 318.] 
The defcription of the regions and people lyinge North 
and Eafte from Mofcouia to the ryuer Petzora and the pro- 
uince of lugaria and the ryuer Obi. &c. . . . 294. [;». 322.] 

Of the famous ryuer of Tanais 297. [/. 324.] 

More directly from Mofcouia to Cathay. . . . 298. [/>. 325.] 

Of the Tartars. 299 . [p. 327.] The nauigation by the frofen fea. 303. Ifi. 330.] 

The letters mifiiue which kynge Edwarde the. vi. fent to the 

kynges, princes, and other potentates inhabitynge the north 

eaft partes of theworlde towardethe Empire of Cathay. 306. and. 308.O.333.] 

The letters of the prince of Mofcouia fente to kynge 

Edwarde. 319. [ TAese are not included in the wori.] 

Other notable thynges as touchynge the Indies : and of 

the foreknowles^e that the poet Seneca had of the fynd- 

ynge of the newe worlde and other regions not then knowen. 31a [/. 337.] 

Of the greate Ilande whiche Plato cauled Atlantica or Atlan- 

tide. 310. 0.337.] Of the coloure of the Indians. 311. [>• 

Why they were cauled Indians 3 1 1 . [/, 

The fyrft difcouerynge of the Weft Indies. . . . 312. [/>• 
What maner of man Chriftopher Colon was, and howe he 
came fyrft to the knowleage of the Indies. . . . 313. O- 34°] 
What laboure and trauaile he tooke in attemptynge his 

firfte vyage to the Indies 

Of newe Spaine cauled Nona Hifpania or Mexico. 

OfPeru.316. 0.343.] Of the great ryuer cauled Riode!aPlataT3"i6."0. 

Of the hygher or fuperior India cauled India Tercera 

or Terciera. . 

Ageyne of the landes of Laborador and Baccalaos. 
The difcouerynge of the lande of Florida. 
An opinion that Europe, Africa, and Afia, are Ilandes : 
and of certeyne Nauigations abowt the fame. . . 320. [p. 346.] 

That the Spanyardes haue fayled to the Antipodes whiche 
inhabite the vndermoft halfe of the baule of the earth, con- 
trary to th[e]opinions of the owlde wryters. . . . 321. O- 347-] 
Who fyrft founde the nedle of the compaHe and the vfe there- 
of. 322. O- 348] The fituation and byggenelTe of the earth. 323. [p. 

What degrees are. 324. O- 

A demonftration of the roundeneffe of the earth. . . 324. [/. 
What credit owght to be gyuen to wryters as touchynge 

the woorkes of nature. 325. O- 

The preface to the booke of metals. .... 326. O- 
Of the generation of metalles and theyr mines, with the 

maner of fyndynge the fame. 327. [/. 

Of the mine of golde and the qualitie therof. . . 334. [fi. 

Of the myne of fyluer 340. [/. 

The maner of woorkynge in the golde mines of Egypte 

in oulde tyme 342. [p. 369.] 

The difcription of the two vyages made owt of Englande 

to Guinea in Afrike 343. O- 

A briefe defcription of Afrike 344. [p. 

The fyrfte vyage to Guinea. ...... 345. [p. 

The feconde vyage to guynea 350. [/. 

The maner of fyndynge the Longitude of regions by 

dyuers wayes. . 360. [p. 

A newe maner of fyndynge the Longitudes of regions. . 361. O 

185. O- 218.1 

Oftrees,fruites,andplantes,&c. 194.0-225.] [Of Reedes orCanes.196. /. 227.] 
Of the venemous apples wherwith the Canibales inueneme 
theyrarrowes.199.0.229.] Of fyflhes&theyrmanerof fyflhynge. 201. O.230.] 
Of the ryfynge and faulynge of owre Ocean fea and the 

fouth fea called the fea of Sur 

Of the ftreight of lande beinge betwene the north and 
fouth fea. ......... 

Howe thynges of one kynde, dyffer by the nature of the 
place : and of the beaftes cauled Tygers. 
Of the maners and cuftomes of the Indians of the firme 
lande and of theyr women. ...... 

Of the Ilandes Hifpaniola and Cuba. .... 

Of the Ilande of Cuba and other. ..... 

Of the lande of Baccallaos. ...... 

Other notable thynges gathered owt of dyuers autours : 
and of the vniuerfall carde and newe worlde. 
A difcourfe of the raaruelous vyage made by the Span- 
yardes rounde about the worlde. ..... 

The order of the flarres abowt the pole Antartike. 

The prices of precious ftones and fpices with their weightes 

and meafures as they are foulde bothe of the Moores and 


Of the weightes of Portugale and India, and howe they agree. 
Of the dooues of the Ilande of Madera. 
Of the Ilande of faynt Thomas vnder the Equinoctial line. 
The debate and ftrife betwene the Spanyardes and Portu- 
gales for the diuifion of the Indies and the trade of fpyces. 
Of the pole Antartike and the ftarres about the 'ante: 
and of the qualitie of the regions and difpofition of the 
elementes abowt the Equinoctiall line : Alfo of certeyne 
fecreates touchynge the arte of faylynge. 
A difcourfe of dyuers vyages and wayes by the which 
fpices, precious ftones, and golde were brought in owlde 
tyme from India into Europe and other partes of the worlde. 
Alfo of the vyage to Cathay and Eafte India by the northe 
lea : And of the viages of Sebaftian Cabot. . 
Of the vyages to Mofcouia and Cathay. 

A breefe defcription of Mofcouia 

The defcription of the north regions : and how they are 

habitable, contrary to th[e]opinion of the owlde wryters. 

Scondia. 267. [p. 298.] Gronlande. 268. [p. 299.] Iflande. 269. [p. 306.] 

Laponia. 270. [A 30i-] Norway. 273. [p. 303.] 

Suetia or Suethlande. 275. O- 30S-1 Gothia or Gothlande. 276. [p. 306.] 

Finlande and Eningia. 276. [p. 306.] Bothnia. 275. [p. 305.] 

The dyfference of regions and caufes of great cities. . 277.0.307.] 

204. 0-233-] 

205. 0-234] 

206. 0-.23S-1 

208. [p. 237.] 

210. [p. 239.] 

213. [A 241.] 

213. Ip. 242.] 

214. O- 245] 

215. O- 246] 

222. O- 2S3-] 

233- O- 263-] 
239. [A 269.] 

239. O- 270] 

240. 0-27O.] 

240. [A 271.] 

245. O- 277-] 

249. [p. 283.] 
249. O- 283.] 

259- O- 291.] 

264. 0-29S] 

313- O- 
315- O- 

317. O- 

318. [p. 
319- o. 





350- ] 



A briefe rehearfall of the contentes of the bookes of the Decades,&c. O- 




C The interpret acion of certeyne woordes. 

C Contincnte (that is) the firme lande not inclofed 

with water, or no Ilande. 
A Carauel or Camel, a kynde of fhyppes. 
Hemi/pherium, the halfe globe of the earth and 

Pejus, a ducate and a halfe. 

Equinoctial, the line that diuideth the heauen and 
the earthe in the myddeft betwene the two poles, 
in the which when the fonne commeth, the days 
and nyghtes are of equal length 

Clime, is a portion of the worlde betwene north 
and fouth. 

The Indian language. 

C Canoa, a boate or barke. 
Ccuit/ui, kynges or gouernouis. 
Zemes an Idole. 
Tuyra, the deuyll. 

Machana, a fworde. 
Areitos, fonges or balades, 
Tona, the moone. 
Tonatico, the foonne. 

Quines, preftes. 
Chiuy, a man. 
Ira, a woman. 
Boa, a houfe. 

Paralleles, are lines whereby the fonne paffynge 

caufeth variation of tyme. 
Gaili Mammoni, Monkeys. 
Schoenus, is a fpace of. xl. furlongis. 
Werjl, is an Italian [? Rujfian\ mile. 
Colonie, an habitacion. 

Cauni, golde. 
Mayani, nothyrtge. &C. 

C Note that the Ilande of Hifpaniola, is nowe cauled San Domingo by reafon of the chiefe city fo named. 

cauled lancti lohannis, or Burichena, is otherwyfe cauled Boriquen. 

Alfo faynte lohns Ilande 




Dei gratia Regi ac Reginae, Anglias, Franciae, Neapolis, lerufalem, et 

Hiberniae : Fidei defenforibus, Principibus Hifpaniarum et Sicilias, 

Archiducibus Auftriae, Ducibus Mediolani, Burgundiae, et 

Brabantiae, comitibus Hafpurgi, Flandriae, et Tirolis, 

Richardus Edenus perpetuam optat foelicitatem. 

^VM IN PRIMO VESTRO Ingreffu in hanc cele- 
berimam Londini vrbem (illuftrifsimi Principes) 
cernerem quanto omnium applaufu, populi con- 
curfu, ac ciuium frequentia, quanto infuper 
fpectaculorum nitore, nobilium virorum fplendore, 
equorum multitudine.tubarum clangore, caeterifque 
magnificis pompis ac triumphis, pro dignitate 
veftra accepti eflis dum omnes quod fui eft officij 
facere fatagebant, vbi in tanta hominum turba vix 
vnus reperiatur qui non aliquid agendo aduentum 
veftrum gratulabatur, coepi et ego quoque aliorum 
exemplo (propius prefertimad meaccedentibus Cel- 
fitudinibus veftris) tanto animi ardore ad aliquid 
agendum accendi ne folus in tanta hominum corona 
otiofus viderer, quod vix me continebam quin in aliquam extemporariam orationem 
temere erupuiffem, nifi et prsefentise veftrse maieftas, et mea me obfcuritas a tam audaci 
facinore deterruiffent. Verum, cum poftea penitius de hac re mecum cogitaffem, con- 
fyderaffemque quam haec omnia alioqui per fe laude digna, veftris tamen mentis ac 
regise dignitatis eminentise comparata, plebeia ac ludicra videantur, coepi denuo cum 
animo meo reputare qua in re ita cum immortali rerum memoria foelicifsimum veftrum 
aduentum gratularer, vt inde nominis veftri fama et fplendor, non vllis fpe6laculorum 
temporarijs oftentis, fed rerum geftarum gloria, ad pofteros perpetuo emanaret. Excutio 
ftatim diuitias meas. Perfcrutor fi quid ex penu meo depromere poflum quod me ad 
aliquid agendum veftris heroicis virtutibus dignum excitet. Sed cum penes me nihil tale 
reperio, agnofco nuditatem meam, atque ad vos confugio. Patrum, auorum, proauorum, 
atque atauorum vitas et fafta recolo. Syluam rerum geftarum video, totque precla- 
rifsimorum principum propagines, vt merito ab ipfis heroibus, Saturno videlicet, loue, ac 
Hercule, caeterifque theanthropis, originem duxiffe videantur. Quod cum ita fit, non 
aliunde profe6lo quam ex hac i"ylua materies mihi petenda erit quo in ment'bus 
hominum et aeterna rerum memoria, perpetua fpe6lacula rerum a vobis et progenitoribus 
veftris praeclare geftarum, in mundi theatro ab omnibus cum fumma nominis veftri fama 
ac veneratione cernantur. Cum itaque inter caetera a maioribus veftris praeclare gefta, 
nihil fit admirabilius aut maiori laude dignum, quam quod incredibili fiducia et plus quam 
Herculeis laboribus fuperato Ocean o, foelicifsimo tandem euentu, Indiae Occidental is 

The Epijlle. 


ditifsimas Insulas atque Contlnentis amplifsimas regiones, mortalium primi inuenerunt, 
in quibus infinitas incolarum myriades ad fidem Chrifti conuerterunt (quo nihil auguflius 
aut Chriftianis principibus magis dignum excogitari poteft) vifus fum mihi quod non alia 
in re magis poffem foelicitati veftree merito gratulari, quam fi noftris quoque hominibus 
quibus haec ha6lenus nihil aut parum cognita funt, innotefcere faciam, vt perfpe6lis 
illorum fimul et veftrorum amplifsimis imperijs non fine diuina prouidentia (vt credere 
par eft) ad ipfos vfque Antipodes et PLVS VLTRA terminatis, omnes boni, ipfa rerum 
magnitudine in admirationem du6li, vos ament et venerentur : Malis vero et improbis, 
OS obftruatur fi quam in maledicendo voluptatem capiunt. Haec dum cogito, venit mihi 
in mentem quod olim adolefcens perlegi Decades de Nouo Orbe a Petro Martyre ab 
Angleria, illuftrifsimi Ferdinandi regis Catholici, ac tui (Serenifsime rex) proaui oratore, 
Latine confcriptas, atque facrae Ccefariae maieftati patri tuo dedicatas. Tanti itaque 
autoris fide et eruditione motus, eum prae caeteris in noftram linguam traducendum fufcepi, 
quod non folum vt hiftoricus res Indicas cum fumma fide fcriptis mandauit, fed etiam vt 
philofophus (quod in caeteris fcriptoribus defyderatur) naturalium rerum occultas caufas 
reddit, ac admirabilium naturae operum (quibus haec veftra India plena eft) rationes 
inueftigat. Atque vt huius Indise pofterior ftatus cognofcatur, quantufque thefaurus auri, 
gemmarum, aromatum, aliarumque ditifsimarum mercium ac annui cenfus inde quotannis 
in Hifpaniam aduehitur, adiunxi dodlifsimi viri Gonzali Ferdinandi Ouiedi libellum 
quem ille Indicae hiftoriae generalis Summarij titulo infcripfit, eiufdemque illuftrifsimi 
Caroli Imperatoris patris tui nomini confecrauit : Caeteraque plurima ex recentioribus 
fcriptoribus excerpfi, quae mihi in tam immenfa rerum memorabilium bibliotheca, praecipue 
adnotanda videbantur. Quae, quanta et qualia funt, quantifque parafangis, omnium 
heroum ac Argonautarum res geftas toto terrarum orbe tantopere celebratas fuperent, 
haec mea fequens praefacio vulgari fermone ad huius hiftoriae lectores populumque 
Anglicum confcripta, fatis prolixa oratione indicabit, adeo vt idem hie repetere fuperua- 
caneum fit, minimeque neceffarium, quandoquidem Anglica lingua tibi Serenifsima 
Regina vernacula eft, idemque illuftrifsimo Regi quod tibi fcriptum aut di6tum exiftimen, 
non folum quod diuino vinculo vnum fitis in carne vna, fed etiam quod eadem animi 
lenitate, humanitate, affabilitate, cseterifque virtutibus, non minus animi moribus quam 
carnis vinculo vnum fitis. Sed neque hie opus eft vt ego Latino fermone veftras 
virtutes, animi moderationem, clementiam, religionem, pietatem, educationem, caftitatem 
fcelicitatem, fortunas, opes, munificentiam, victorias, imperia, ftemmata, caeteraque huiuf- 
modi multa enumerem, cum praefertim vir nobilis et doctus Leonhardus Goretius Polonus 
de his omnibus deque foelicifsimo veftro matrimonio, orationae fatis fufa tra6lauit, in qua 
nihil pretermifit quod ad Celfitudinis veftrae et progenitorum veftrorum gloriam virtute 
partam, pertineat. Caeterum cum regiae veftrae virtutes nominifque fplendor ac regnorum 
amplitudo alias per vniuerfa Chriftiani orbis imperia fatis nota fint, nifi forte ibi minime 
vbi maxime nota effe deberent, nempe in hoc Angliae regno, ideo opere praecium et rem 
omnibus bonis gratam, quodque mei eft officij erga Celfitudines veftras me fafturum 
exiftimaui, fi haec noftris (vt dixi) hominibus, noftraque lingua ob oculos contemplanda 
propofuero. Quod quam foeliciter aut dextre a me factum fit, aliorum efto iudicium 
Quam vero fidelitur, fyncere, ac animo in Maieftatis veftras propenfo hoc idem aggreffus 
fum, teftis eft mihi confcientia mea in confpectu illius qui hominum corda et renes 
fcrutatur. Macte igitur virtutis iftius animi veftri eftote Serenifsimi Principes, atque Diuino 
auxilio freti, pergite ea qua coepiftis fiducia, huius deploratae ac collapfae reipublicae noftrae 
ftatum, priftino decori reftituere, id quod omnes a vobis expedlant atque efflagitant, 



The Epijlle, 

pollicentes infuper vobis in eo negotio fuam operam in nullo defuturam. Ne terreat vos 
quorundam canum latratus qui bonis omnibus oblatrant, et . tunc defment latrare cum 
definent viuere. Vulgatifsimum femper fuit improbos homines viris probis vel propter 
inuidiam vel propter difsimilitudinem, folere latrare. Et tamen ille probus femper habitus 
eft, quem peruerfi maxime improbauerint. Non eft igitur curandum quid de nobis 
homunculi, fed quid viri boni loquantur. Cogitate (Serenifsimi Principes) quod mag- 
nanimitate ac maiorum infignijs, aquilis et leonibus fimiles eftis. Aquilse natura 
eft, alta petere, et aduerfus folis radios in altum volare. Leonis proprium eft parcere 
fubieflis et debellare fuperbos. Generofus equus per plateas incedens, canes vt 
animalcula imbella praeterit non perturbatus. Virtus non exercita (inquit Seneca ad 
Neronem) paruam laudem meretur. Non admodum magnificum fuerit mediocrem 
fortunam probe adminiftrare : Sed tanta rerum omnium licentia non abuti, hoc vero 
admirabile eft : Multo autem admirabilius in iuuenili ac lubrica setate cui accedat aetas 
magiftra : hijs praefertim qui contumelia lacefcuntur, quae alioqui homines vel placidifsi- 
mos folet de gradu dejicere. Sed (vt fupra dixi) non eft hie mei propofiti (Serenifsimi 
Principes) veftras laudes pro meritis decantare, aut exprimere quo modo in fummo rerum 
faftigio vos humiles praebuiftis, de quare fufius in praefacione ad lectores tra6laui. lam 
itaque vt huic epiftolae dedicatoriae finem imponam, rogo Serenifsimas Maieftates veftras 
vt has meas lucubrationes in hijs autoribus vertendis, (quas veftro nomini confecraui) ea 
humanitate ac fauore fufcipiatis, quibus omnes beneuolo animo ad vos accedentes, facile 
admittitis ac neminem rejicitis. Quem admodum enim qui pomarium aut vineam 
plantauit ac maturos inde fructus collegit, illi merito primitias foluit a quo prima femina 
primafque arborum infitiones habuit, ita et ego qui a maiorum veftrorum rebus geftis 
primis fumptis feminibus, hos qualefcumque fru6lus aedidi, videor profe6lo mihi, debito 
veftro honore vos defraudaffe, nifi eofdem veftro nomini ac numini obtuliffem. 
Deus. Opt Max. Celfitudines veftras perpetuo feruat incolumes, 
faxitque vt foecunda fobolis propagine, fummaque pace 
?c tranquillitate, huius regni habenas ad Diuini 
nominis gloriam, diu gubernetis. 



Rycharde Eden to the reader. 

He mofte famous oratoure and learned Phylofopher Marcus TulHus 
Cicero, wryteth, that in all confultations as touchynge owre 
behauoure and order of lyuynge amonge men, it behoueth 
vs euer to beare in mynde howe farre the dignitie of mans 
nature, excelleth the condition of brute beafles. For they, 
beinge ruled altogether by fence, delyte in nothynge but beaflely 
appetites, whereunto they runne headlonge as to theyr onely 
felicitie. But the mynde of man, beinge of more noble nature, 
is nuryffhed with knowleage, and taketh pleafure in diuifynge 
or excogitatynge fume honed thynge, whereby it not onely 
leaueth amonge men a memorie of his immortall nature, but alfo 
engendereth the lyke affection in other that delyte to fee and 
heare fuch thinges as are commendable in theyr prediceflburs. 
And this furely thynke I to bee the caufe that eyther the famous 
factes of woorthy men, or ingenious inuentions of experte arti- 
ficers, haue not onely nobilitate the autours and diuifers of the 
fame, or fuch to whom they haue byn dedicate, but alfo that parte 
of theyr commendations haue redounded to all fuche as haue fpcnte theyr tyrae and taken peynes in 
illuflratynge and fettynge furthe theyr doynges. For who fhulde at this daye haue knowen Maufolus 
the kynge of Caria, with his wyfe Artemifia, or thefe famous artificers, Scopa, Bryaces, Timotheus, 
Leochares, or Pythis, if the wonderfull and fumptuous woorke of the fepulcher whiche Artemifia made for kynge 
Maufolus her hufband (beinge of fuch woorkemanfhyppe that it was accompted for one of the marueyls of the 
worlde) had not geuen vnto all thefe immortall fame, whereas neuertheleffe it coulde not defende it felfe ageynfl 
th[e]iniurie of tyme confumynge all thynges. There remayneth at this daye no token of the laborious Tabernacle 
whiche Moifes buylded, or of the renoumed and marueilous Temple that was buylded in Hierufalem by Salomon 
and renewed by Efdras. Yet fhall the name of the excellente artificers Ooliab and Befelchel, and Hyram the 
kynge of Tyrus, lyue for euer in the memory of men. Furthermore alfo, Salomon hym felfe, although he were 
many other wayes famous, yet gaue he a greate parte of his glory to that princely buyldynge. But certeynely 
the mod trewe and permanent glory, procedeth of fuch monumentes as brynge fume great and notable commoditie 
and profite to the lyfe of men, rather then of the hugious heapes of dones of the Pyramides of Egypt, wherin is 
nought els to fee but the fonde and barbarous odentation of fuperfluous riches : Or of the Mazes cauled Labyrinthi, 
or of horryble great Images cauled ColofTi, of knottes inexplicable, of brafen caudrons of mondrous byggeneffe, 
of hauens with echo feuen tymes reboundynge, and dyuers fuche other portentous inuentions, the which as they 
do delite vs in confiderynge the maruelous arte and witte of fuche artificers as diuifed and made the fame, fo 
are they otherwyfe vnprofitable : And brynge rather a fame to theyr inuentoures, then trewe glorye. Perillus was 
famous by diuifynge his brafen bulle : yet fo, that it had byn better for hym to haue byn obfcure and vnknowen. 
They haue therefore deferued more trewe commendation whiche in buyldynge of cities, townes, fortrefTes, bridges, 
cundites, hauens, fliyppes, and fuche other, haue fo ioyned magnificence with profecte, that bothe may remaine 
for an eternal tedimonie of abfolute glory, whofe perfection extendeth to the gratifyinge of vniuerfal mankind as 
farre as mans mortalitie wyll pennit. The whiche thinge whyle I confider, and caule to memorie howe Cicero 
defineth trewe glory to bee a fame of many and greate defertes eyther towarde owre citizens, owtc countrey, or 
towarde all man kynde, and the fame to bee of fuch excellencie that the owlde poetes for fume effecte fayned it 
to bee the fweete Ambrofia and Nectar whenvith the goddes are fedde, and that of fuch force that who fo may 
drynke therof, (hal alfo become a god, (that is to fay immortall and happy) mee thynke verely that (yf man maye 
be a god to men as holy fcripture fpeaketh of Moifes and other) the kynges of Spayne of late dayes (if I may 
fpeake it without offence of other) may fo much the more for theyr iud defertes and good fortune be compared 
to thofe goddes made of men (whom the antiquitie cauled Heroes and for theyr manyfolde benefites to man 
kynde honoured theym with diuine honoure) as theyr famous factes fo farre excell al other, as I dare not fpeake 
to fuch as haue not yet harde or redde of the fame, lead the greatneffe therof fhulde at the fird brunte fo muche 
adonyflie the reader that he myght geue the lefl'e credite to the autoure of this booke, who neuertheleffe hath 
mode faythfuUy wrytten this hydorye of fuche thynges wherof he hath feene a greate parte him felfe (as being by 

,H 49 


of noble factes. 



The Tabernacle 
of Moises. 
The Temple of 

Trewe glory. 

Great and 
sumptuotis works 

Fame diflereth 
from true glory. 

At)SoIute glory. 

What is true 

The kynges of 



The certentic of 
this hystory 


The Preface to the Reader. 

The house of the 
contractes of 

The counsayl for 
the Indies 
The heroicall 
factes of the 

Great Alexander. 

The Spanyardes 
warrcs in the 

The henefites thai 
the Indians haue 
receaued by the 

The Canibales, 

Feareful idlenessc 

Isai. 65. 

The warrcs of 

The Indians 
subdued to the 
Isai- 43. 

The contemplation 
of gods workes. 

The Christian 
Empire enlarged 

The conuersion of 
the gentyles. 


the mode catholyke and puifTaunt kynge Ferdinando appoynted a commiffionarie in th[e]affayres of India) and 

gathered the refidewe partly by information and partly out of the WTytinges of fuch as haue byn (as Vyrgyll 

wryteth of Eneas, Et quorum pars magjia fui) that is, doers and parte of fuch thynges as are conteyned in the 

hyftorie: as Gouemours, Lieuetenauntes, Capitaynes, Admirals, and Pylottes, who by theyr paineful trauayles 

and prowes, haue not onely fubdued thefe landes and feas, but haue alfo with lyke diliger ce commytted th[e]order 

therof to wrytinge : And not this onely, but for the better tryall of the trewth herein, haue and yet doo in maner 

dayly fende from thenfe into Spayne fuch monumentes as are mofl certeyne teflimonies of theyr doynge, as yow 

may reade in dyuers places in this boke. This newe worlde is nowe fo much frequented, the Ocean nowe fo 

well knowen, and the commodities fo greate, that the kynge erected a houfe in the citie of Siuile (cauled the 

houfe of the contractes of India) perteynynge onely to th[e]affayres of the Ocean, to the which al fuch reforte for 

neceflaries as attempte anye vyage to this newe worlde, and lykewyfe at theyr returne make thejT accompte to 

the counfayle for the Indies for the golde and fuche other thynges as they brynge from thenfe. It is therefore 

apparent that the heroical factes of the Spaniardes of thefe days, deferue fo greate prayfe that th[e]autour of this 

booke (beinge no Spanyarde) doth woorthely extolle theyr doynge aboue the famous actes of Hercules and 

Satumus and fuch other which for theyr glorious and vertuous enterpryfes were accoumpted as goddes amonge 

men. And furely if great Alexander and the Romans which haue rather obteyned then deferued immortall fame 

amonge men for theyr bluddye victories onely for theyr owne glory and amplifyinge theyr empire obteyned by 

flawghter of innocentes and kepte by violence, haue byn magnified for theyr doinges, howe much more then flial 

we thynke thefe men woorthy iufl commendations which in theyr mercyfull warres ageynfl thefe naked people 

haue fo vfed them felues towarde them in exchaungynge of benefites for victorie, that greater commoditie hath 

therof enfewed to the vanquiffhed then the victourers. They haue taken nothynge from them but fuch as they 

them felues were wel wyllynge to departe with, and accoumpted as fuperfluities, as golde, perles, precious (lones 

and fuch other: for the which they recompenfed theym with fuche thynges as they muche more eflemed. But 

fum wyll fay, they poffeffe and inhabyte theyr regions and vfe theym as bondemen and tributaries, where before 

they were free. They inhabite theyr regions indeede : Yet fo, that by theyr diligence and better manurynge the 

fame, they maye nowe better fuReyne both, then one before. Theyr bondage is fuche as is much rather to be 

defired then theyr former libertie which was to the cruell Canibales rather a horrible licencioufneffe then a 

libertie, and to the innocent fo terrible a bondage, that in the myddefl of theyr ferefuU idlenefle, they were euer 

in daunger to be a pray to thofe manhuntynge woolues. But nowe thanked be God, by the manhodde and 

poUicie of the Spanyardes, this deuelyffhe generation is fo confumed, partely by the flaughter of fuche as coulde 

by no meanes be brought to ciuilitie, and partly by referuynge fuch as were ouercome in the warres, and con- 

uertynge them to a better mynde, that the prophecie may herein bee fulfylled that the woolfe and the lanibe 

(hall feede together, and the wylde fieldes with the vale of Achor, (halbe the folde of the heard of gods peojjle. 

Moifes as the minifler of the lavve of ^vrath and bondage geuen in fyer and tempefles, was commaunded in his warres 

to faue neyther man, woman, nor chylde, and yet brought no commoditie to the nations whom he ouercame and 

poffeffed theyr landes. But the Spaniardes as the myniflers of grace and libertie, browght vnto thefe newe gentyles 

the victorie of Chryftes death wherby they beinge fubdued with the worldely fworde, are nowe made free from the 

bondage of Sathans tyrannie, by the myghty poure of this triumphante victourer, whom (as fayth the prophet) god 

hath ordeyned to be a lyght to the gentyles, to open the eyes of the blynde, and to delyuer the bounde owt of 

pryfon and captiuitie. What other men do phantafie herein, I can not tell : but fuer I am, that lyke as the flowe 

and brutyffhe wyttes, for the felenderneffe of theyr capacitie and eifeminate hartes, do neuer or feldome lyfte vp 

theyr myndes to the contemplation of goddes workes and maieflie of nature, but lyke brute beafles lookynge 

euer downewarde, thynke the worlde to be in maner no bygger then theyr owne dungehylles or cagies, 

lyttle pafTynge whether the Chryflian fayth do fpreade through the worlde, or bee dryuen to one comer : 

Euen fo al good wyttes and honefl natures (I double not) wyl not onely reioyce to fee the kyngedome 

of God to bee fo farre enlarged vppon the face of the earthe, to the confufion of the deuyll and the 

Turkyffhe Antichryfle, but alfo do the - vttermofl of theyr poure to further the fame. For furely, as 

Gonfalus Ouiedus wryteth to the Emperours maieflie in his hyflorie of the Wefle Indies, that he thynketh 

hym no trewe Spanyarde whiche reioyceth not in the good fortune of theyr kynges by whofe ayde and 

godly zeale this myghtie portion of the worlde hath byn added to the flocke of Chryfles congregation, 

Euen fo do I thinke them no trewe Chryflian men that do not reioyce with the Angels of heauen for the 

deliuerie of thefe owre brootherne, owre fleffhe, and owre bones, from the handes of owre commune enemie the 

oulde ferpente who hath fo longe had them in hys poflefTion, vntyll the fulnefle of the gentyles be accomplyfllied 

accordynge to the time prefinite by hym, who vnto the yeare after his incarnation. M. CCCC. l.xxxxii. hath 

fuffered the greate ferpente of the fea Leuiathan, to haue fuche dominion in the Ocean and to cafte fuch 

my Res in the eyes of men, that fence the creation of the worlde vntyll the yeare before named, there 

hath byn no paflage from owr knowen partes of the world to thefe newe landes, whereas nowe the fame 

The Preface to the Reader. 


are niofle certeynely knowen to be not pad. xxx dayes faylynge from Spayne. Neyther yet had the 
church of Europe any knowleage of the myghtie Chryflian Empire of Preciofus Johannes, otherwyfe cauled 
Prefbyter Johannes, Emperour of many Chryflian nations in Ethiope, vntyll the yeare of Chryfte. 
M. CCCC. xxxiii. as largely appeareth in the nauigations of the Portugales, and efpecially in the booke of 
Damianus a Goes, wrytten to the byffhop of Rome, Paule the thyrde of that name, of the fayth and 
religion of the Ethiopians which they haue hadde fence the tyme of the Apoftles. A thynge certes mofl. 
woonderfull, and fuche, that yf the fame were not hydde hetherto by gods vnfercheable prouidence, I can 
not but thynke much negligence or ignorance in owr forefathers and predicefTours vntyll the dayes of the 
ryght noble, prudent, and Catholike kynge of Aragon Don Ferdinando grandfather to Th[e]emperours 
maieftie by his eldell dowghter, and to the queenes hyghneffe by his feconde dowghter the mod veftuous 
lady queene Catherine her graces moother : A prince doubtelefle of fuche nobilitie, prowes, magnificence, 
and all other vertues commendable in a prince, that who fo fhall indifferentely way all his doinges and 
good fucceffe in all his affayres, comparinge the fame to th[e]enterpryfes and doinges atchyued by fuche 
famous princes in whome the Greekes and Romans haue fo greately gloryed, maye with one eye perceaue 
not onely howe farre his noble factes do furmount theyrs, but alfo wel confyder what noble braunches 
of iflhewe were lyke to fprynge owt of fo woorthy a flocke. And fuerly if fence the begynning of the 
worlde, the fauour of god toward men hath byn knowen by fuch benefites and bleflynges as he hath 
geuen to men, it feemeth to me that in maner (onely Chryfle excepted) there neuer lyued man to whom 
god hath geuen greater benefites and fliewed more fauoure. Great doubtlefle was the fauour and mercie 
that god fhewed vnto Noe, by whom he faued the remanent of mankynde beinge but fewe in number. 
But much greater was the grace which he fhewed to kynge Ferdinando vnder whom and by whofe meanes 
he faued not onely the bodies but alfo the foules of innumerable millions of men inhabytynge a great 
part of the worlde heretofore vnknowen and drowned in the deluge of erroure. What fhulde I here 
fpeake of Abraham the father of fayth whofe promyfes were great, and he cauled the frende of god : Dyd 
he or his polleritie fee Ifraell increafe to fuch multitudes and nations as kyng Ferdinandos pofleritie may 
fee th[e]increafe of this fpirituall Ifraell vnto whome as a feconde Abraham he was the father of fayth? 
Moifes was fo great in the fyght of god that he difclofed vnto hym his fecreate name, and miraculoufly 
caufed a comer of the fea to open at his prayer. But howe greater a myracle was it that he opened 
vnto the nauie of Don Ferdinando the greate Ocean thowght before that tyme to bee without ende, 
where neuerthelefle he and his pofleritie the kynges of Spayne haue nowe planted a newe Ifraell muche 
greater then that whiche Moifes ledde throughe the red fea. It were here fuperfluous to fpeake of Dauid 
whom Godde founde a man accordynge to his hartes defyre : and yet maye it be doubted whether his 
plages and fcourges were greater then his benefites? His fonne Salomon for al his inconflant and 
wauerynge wyfedome and his great ryches obteyned by his nauigations to Ophir, yet was there at this 
tyme no knowleage of Antipodes, neyther dydde any of his fliyppes fayle abowt the hole worlde, perce 
the Ocean, and trauerfe the Equinoctial line to th[e]inferiour hemifpherie or halfe globe of the earthe and fea 
as dyd the famous fhyppe Victoria fent furth by Th[e]emperours maieftie. A thyng doubtlefle fo (Irange 
and marueylous that as the lyke was neuer done before, fo is it perhaps neuer lyke to be done ageyne : 
fo farre haue the nauigations of the Spanyardes excelled the vyage of lafon and the Argonautm to the 
region of Colchos, or all that euer were before. And although in the booke of kynges and Paralipomenon it 
bee hyperborically wrytten that in the dayes of Salomon golde and fyluer were in Hierufalem in maner 
as plentiful as (lones, and that his feruantes brought from Ophir foure hundreth and fiftie talentes of gold, yet 
do we not reade that any of his fliyppes were fo laden with golde that they foonke, as dyd a fhyppe of 
kynge Ferdinandos as yow maye reade in the lafl booke of the fyrfte Decade. Neyther was the dominion of 
Salomon extended from the ryuer of Euphrates to the lande of the Philiftians and th[e]extreme confines 
of Egypte to be compared with the large Empire whiche the kynges of Spayne haue in the wefl Indies : 
Nor his rjxhes of golde to be thought much in refpect of that which hath byn browght from thenfe into 
Spayne as fliall playnely appere to al fuche as wyll feeke to knowe the truth hereof But to let pafle to 
fpeake any further of the myracles which god hath wrought by the handes of this noble prince in this 
newe world among thefe newe gentyles. Is it not well knowen to all the world what a defence and 
brafen wall he hath byn to all Chryflendome in that he hath quite dryuen out of Spayne the Moores 
or Sarafens and lewes which fo many hundreth yeares poflefled a greate parte of Spayne to no fmaule 
daungioure of the hole Chriflian Empire, and yet coulde neuer before bee cleane vanquyfllied vntyll 
the dayes of this noble and Catholyke prince fo named for his warres ageynfle the infidelles, whom God 
rayfed for a Capitayne of his people as an other Gedion vnder whofe banner they myght ouercome theyr 
enemies and pourge his vineyarde from fuche wycked weedes. The which thynge doubtelefle may feeme 
fo much the greater and more difficulte, forafmuch as in the myddell of the chiefe heate of his chargeable 

Prcster lohn 
the Christian 
Emperour of 

Don Ferdinando 
kynge uf Aragon. 

The fauonr ftf god 
knowen by hi:> 


What god hath 
wrought by kynge 

Spirituall Israeli 





The nauigation 
rounde a&)Ut the 

The dominion 
of Salomon. 
Paral, 9. 

The Indies. 

The warres of 
kynge Ferdinando 
ageynst the 


The Preface to the Reader. 

The conqueste of 
the Indies 

The conqueste 

of Naples. 

warres ageynfte the Moores of Granada, he euen then and at the fame tyme fente furth fhyppes for the 
conqueflynge of the Indies, as thowgh he and the nation of the Spanyardes had byn appoynted by god 
eyther to fubdue the enemies of the fayth or to bringe theym to Chrifles religion. The felfe fame kynge 
Ferdinando alfo abowte the yeare of Chryfl. 1503. fente a nauie of (hyppes into Italy, where they vanquyffhed, 
chafed, and flewe the Frenchemen, and recouered the kyngedome of Naples with all the dominions belongynge 
thereunto. By which noble victory, his fucceffion and pofleritie as the[e]mperours maiellie and nowe his fonne 
the kynge owre maRer and foueraigne lorde haue euer fence enioyed th[e]inheritaunce of the fame as of 
antiquitie by iuft and ryght tytle dewe to them and theyr prediceflburs. And as it is the nature of god 
not only to fhewe his loue and fauour to fuch as haue pleafed hym, but alfo to poure furth the plentie 
of his grace vppon theyr fucceflion from generation to generation, fo hath he with lyke felicitie profpered 
the reigne of Th[e]emperours maieftie who by his wifdome and prowes hath not onely pollitikly gouemed, 
but alfo augmented and inlarged fuch dominions as fel to hym by difcente of inheritaunce. What fliuld I 
fpeake of his warres and conquefles in India, in Aphrike, in Italia, in Fraunce, in Germanic, and in Flaunders : 
all the which to be declared accordyngely wolde rather require hole volumes then fewe (heetes of paper. Yet 
hath one in fewe woordes effectually expreffed his dominions and conquefles in thefe verfes folowynge, 

The Empcrours 

Gen. 17. 

The kinges 

Apostrophe to 

Isai. X. 

Impiger expauit rapidas tranfire per vndas 

Oceani Alcides : continuiique graduni. 
Maximus at Cafar, PL VS VL TRA icndere curfum 

Aiifus, et ignoiis eft dare iura locis. 
Et domita aurifera nutic viHor gente reuerfus, 

Catcra fub fceptro ponat vt ipfefuo. 
Nam pater omnipotens vt famam terminct ajlrii 

lufsit, et imperium fineat Oceano. 

f[ An other alfo breefely hath declared the fame in thefe verfes. 

Confortem Imperij voluit quia luppiter orbis, 
AJlra Deo ccduiit, Carole terra tibi. 

And certes who fo well confidereth the progenie of kynges that in fo fhorte a time haue linially defcended from 

Don Ferdinando, and howe many kyngedomes they poffefle, may fee that God hath fulfylled in hym alfo the 

promifes and bleflynges of Abraham, as to make hym the father of many nations, and his feede to growe great 

vpon the earth : Alfo that many kynges (hulde come fuyth of his loynes, and to make a perpetuall league and 

conuenaunt with hym and his pofleritie to bee theyr god for euer. And here to omytte to fpeake of other : Was 

there euer better hope or more likenes then now, that thefe bleffynges and promyfes of god fhulde continewe in 

this princely progenie, fyth the vertues and felicitie of them al doo fo fhyne and floriffhe in owt noble and gratious 

prince kynge Phylyppe, to whom euen in his youth his father (occupied in the warres of Italye and Aphrike) 

commytted the hole gouemaunce of the kyngedomes of Spayne and the Indies. Of his behauour in Englande, 

his enemies (which canker, vertue neuer lacked) They I fay (if any fuch yet remaine) haue greatefl. caufe to 

reporte well : ye fo well, that yf his naturall clemencie were not greater then was theyr vnnaturall indignation 

they knowe them felues what myght haue folowed. The properties of fooles and wyfe men are declared in 

thefe owld verfes. 

Quid Jlulti proprium f Non poffe et velle nocere. 

Quid fapientis opus : Non velle et poffe nocere. 

That is to fay : \Vhat is the propertie of a foole ? To wyl to doo hurte and can not. AVhat is the woorke of a 
wyfe man ? Not to wyll to hurte though he may. But whether he hath lacked poure or wyll, it is knowen to 
barbers and blere eyde men. Who lamented theyr folly more then he ? Who more humbly admytted theyr 
fates and fupplications ? Ye who obteyned theyr pardon but he ? Beynge a Lion he behaued hym felfe as a 
lambe, and flrooke not his enemie hauynge the fwoorde in his hande. Stoope Englande floope, and leame to 
knowe thy lorde and mafler, as horfes and other brute beafles are taught to doo. Be not indocible lyke Tygers 
and dragons, and fuch other monflers noyous to man kynde. God by the mouth of Ifaias the prophet reproueth 
the Ifraelites that they knewe not fo well theyr dewtie towarde hym as dyd the brute beafles the mangiers of 
theyr maflers. The oxe and the aife (fayth he) knoweth the mangier of theyr maRer, but Ifraell knoweth not 
me. For fhame let vs not be woorfe then oxen and affes, and lyke vnto horfes and mules in whom is no vnder- 
flandynge. But O vnthankefuU Englande and voyde of honefl fhame ? Who hath geuen the the face of a hoore 
and toonge of a ferpent withowt fhame to fpeake venemous woordes in fecreates ageynfl the annoynted of god. 
O paynted hoore that hafl Chryfle in thy mouth and the deuyl in thy harte. Hathe not the pocke of thy 
licentioufneffe brufle furth in maner to thyne owne deflruction. Howe longe wylt thou nuryflhe in thy boofome 

The Preface to the Reader. 


that ferpente whofe nature is to deuoure her moother? Take a vomyte in tyme lead thy difeafe become 
vncurable. What neede I rthearfe vnto the thy manyfolde infirmities and deformities whiche thou arte faulen 
into by thyne owne ovvtragiouiheiTe? If the greefes of them bee to thee vnfenfible by reafon of thy feeblenefle 
and longe fickenes, take vnto the that glaffe wherin thou gloryefl with the lewe and thynkefl that thou feed al 
thynges and canll iudge all myfleries : Looke I fay in that pure glaffe and beholde thy owne deformities, which 
thou canfle not or wylte not feele. I feare greatly that if thou looke therein diligently and looke euen throughe 
thy felfe, thou wylte abhorre thy felfe to fee howe many monflers lye hid in the vnder the fhape of man. There 
is euen no we great talke of the in the mouth as of all men that thou had, of late yeares brought furthe many 
monders and draunge byrthes, wherof dyuers men make dyuers interpretacions more mondrous then the 
monders theim felues. But fliall I breefely and fimply declare vnto thee the fignification of thy monders ? Fyrd 
then confyder that they are monders of mankynde and not of other beades. Secundarily marke well that in 
them al, the headde is perfect, fo that the mondrofitie groweth owt of the body, although not owt of the hole 
body but certeyne partes therof. But not to go to farre. Confyder ageyne that diforder of the partes is a 
deformitie to the hole. One hath well interpreted that fuch mondrous byrthes fignifie the mondrous and 
deformed myndes of the people myffhapened with phantadical opinions, diffolute lyuynge, licentious talke, and 
fuch other vicious behauoures which mondroufly deforme the myndes of men in the fyght of god who by fuche 
fignes dooth certifie vs in what fimilitude we appere before hym, and thereby gyueth vs admonition to amende 
before the day of his wrath and vengeance. What deformed beades are more mondrous then lyinge, rebellion, 
drife, contention, priuie malice, flaunderynge, mutterynge, confpiraces, and fuch other deuilyfflie imaginations. 
But O Englande whyle tyme is gyuen thee, circumcife thy harte. Put to onely thy good wyll, and thou mayde 
fynde grace and fauoure to recouer thyne aunciente bewtie whiche hath fo longe been defaced. Thou hade 
nowe a kynge and queene that defyre thee to remember thy dewtie, and holde theyr armes abrode to embrafe 
thee yf thou wylt drawe nere vnto them. They are fory to occupie the whyppe yf thou mighted otherwyfe bee 
brought to obedience. But yf thou take pleafure to perfid in frowarde doobbemeffe, knowe thou that they are 
Lions whelpes and conquerours of monders whereof thou had had fuche experience, that proudely trudynge in 
thyne owne drengthe, and attemptynge lyke an other Nemroth to buylde a newe towre of confufion, the 
woorkes of thy giantes were miraculoufly ouerthrowne by a woman who dehuered thee from that captiuitie, 
whereby thou oughtede to knowe the daungiour thou wad in, and bee thankefuU to thy deliuerer. Beware 
therefore leade whyle thou contemne the peaceable princes that god hath fent the, thou bee lyke vnto Ifopes 
frogges to whom for theyr vnquietnefTe, lupiter fent a hearon to picke them in the hedes. Confider what bene- 
fites thou mayd receaue at theyr handes if thou doo thy dewtie towarde them. Confyder ageyne that as they 
are able, fo may thy gentelnefle make them wyllynge to recompenfe the fame. Stoppe thyne eares from vayne 
fables as from the inchauntynge Mermaydes. For as manye fpeake of Robbyn Hoode and of his bowe that 
neuer fhot therin, fo doo fooles prate of fuch thynges as they knowe not. But O god ? what phantafies are 
nowe in the heades of men ? Howe redy they are to inuent lyes and tales ? and of howe fmaul fparkes they 
kyndle great flames ? Summe are fo curious to fynde faute in other, that for lacke of iud matter woorthy reproche 
in them whom they defyre to depraue, they fpeake euyll of theyr parentes and kynred of whom they knowe as lyttle. 
And not fo fatiffyed they difpife and with lyinge difprayfe thejT hole nation and countrey. Ye fum take fuch 
pleafure herein, that if they can fynde noughte els to difprayfe, they wyll fynde faute in fuche as they fauour 
not, bycaufe they weare not theyr apparell as they doo, or perhappes are not fo effeminate as they, or eate not 
as they eate, or fight not as they fyght, fo parciall is the iudgement of fooles in theyr owne rudeneffe, thynkyng 
them felues the better for difprayfynge of other. Spayne is a beggerly countrey fayth one : Th[e]emperour is 
but poore fayth an other : He is deade fayth an other : The Indies haue rebelled fayth an other, and eyther 
there commeth no more golde from thenfe, or there is no more founde nowe : with fuche other falfe and licentious 
talke diuifed by vnquiet braines in whofe heades the hammers of fedition feafe not to forge ingens of iniquitie. 
If I fhulde here anfwere to all thefe querels particularly and as the woorthyneffe of the thynge requireth, I 
myght fynde matter fufficient to make a volume of iude quantitie and perhappes be tedious to fumme. Yet not 
to pafle ouer fo great a matter vntouched, and partely to doppe the mouthes of fuche impudente lyers, I haue 
thought good to fpeake fumwhat hereof. Fyrd therfore to fpeake of Spayne, and by the tedimonie of oulde 
autours to declare the commodities therof: Plinie a graue and faythful autour, in the lad boke and lad chapiture of 
his natural hidory greatly commendynge Italy aboue al other contreys, giueth the fecond prayfe vnto Spaine, 
afwel for al fuch thynges as in maner the heuen can geue and the earth brynge furth for the commoditie of this 
lyfe as alfo for the excellente wittes of men and Ciuile gouemaunce. AKb Diodorus Siculus in the fixt booke of 
his Bibliotheca fpeakynge of Spayne (cauled of the Greekes Iberia) writeth that when in the mountaines named 
Pyrinei th[e]inhabitantes bumte vp the wooddes, there ranne owt of the mountaynes as it were dyuers dreames of 
pure fyluer molten by the heate of the fyre. But the edimation and price of fyluer beinge at thofe dayes to 
them vnknowen, the Phenician marchauntes bought the fame of them for thynges of fmaule value : And caryinge 

Eont. H 3 53 


The significations 
of monstnis 

The deformity 
of monstrous 

The Icyng and 

How curious 
summe are to 
fynde faute in 

Lyes Imagined. 

of Spain 

Ryche syluer 
myncs in Spayno. 


The Preface to the Reader. 

The Romans 
inriched by the 
syluer of Spayne. 

inriched by the 
hyluer of bpain. 

The commodities 
of Spain 

The sygne of 
the steeple. 

it into Grecia, Afia, and other countreys, got great rycheffe therby. For the defyre of gaynes (fayth he) fo greatly 
moued the marchauntes, that when more fyluer remayned then myght lade theyr fhyppes, they tooke the leade 
frome theyr ankers, and put fyluer in the place therof The Phenices by thefe ga)aies beinge made very rychc, 
dyd afligne many colonies both in Sicilie and the Ilandes there abowt, and alfo in Libya, Sardinia, and Iberia. 
But after many yeares when the Iberians (that is the Spaniardes) knewe the price of fyluer, and applyed them 
felues to the feekynge of metals and founde great plentie of fyluer, they obteyned greate ryches therby forafmuch 
as in maner al that earth of the mountaynes is fo replenyflhed with fyluer that it is a marueylous thynge to con- 
fyder the nature of the region and the continual laboure of the woorkemen in thofe mynes. Lykewyfe when 
afterwarde the Romans fubdued the Iberians, the Italians which for the defyre of gaynes fearched thofe metals, 
gotte great rycheffe by the fame. For they deputed to that laboure a multitude of bowghte feruauntes, whiche 
fearchynge the vaynes of metals in dyuers places, and percyng the earth dyuers wayes for the fpace of many 
farlonges, browght furthe great plentie of golde and fyluer. But the rycheffe of thefe mynes was fyrft founde at 
fuch tyme as the Carthaginenfes (the enemies of the Romane Empire) had the Iberians in fubiection : which 
was the caufe that theyr poure afterwarde increafed. For, with monye hyringe the befl and mode experte 
fouldiers, they kepte greuous warres ageynfl. theyr enemies. And not vfynge the ayde eyther of theyr owne 
fouldiers or theyr affociates, they were a terrour to the Romanes, Sicilians, and Libyans, whom they browght 
into great daungiour by reafon they paffed them al in abundaunce of golde and fyluer. With better fortune 
therefore, and greater hope of gayne are ryche metals fought in Spayne, the goodneffe of whofe foyle yeldeth 
cloddes of earth conteynynge much golde and fyluer. And thefe be the very wordes of Diodorus Siculus, which 
the later wryters doo alfo confirme. For lulius Solinus in his PolyhiRor, compareth Spayne to the bed contreys 
in plentie of grayne, vyttayles, oyle, fyluer, golde, and Iron. Likewyfe Strabo, Statins, and Claudius, do no leffe 
commende it It were to longe here to fpeake of the greate plentie of fine wooUes lyttle inferiour vnto owrs : 
alfo abundaunce of fugar, vines, pomegranates, Hmondes, and orangies in fuch plentie that they fufRce not only 
Spayne, but alfo in maner all Europe : whereas the apples and crabbes of Englande are fcarfely able to feme it felfe. 
And althowghe here fumme wyll obiecte, that they lacke corne, woodde, and certeyne other thynges, yet are theyr 
commodities fo greate otherwyfe, that al fuch thynges are browght them owt of other countreys for theyr wares : 
and that in fuch plentie, that they are there better chepe then euer they were in Englande fence the figne of the 
(leeple the poore mans Inne was pulled downe in all places. Summe for lacke of other matter, fynde greate 
faute that in trauaylynge in Spayne, men (halbe ferued with halfe a henne, and go to the cookes for theyr meate 
and to the taueme for theyr drynke. And what then I praye yow? What inconuenience enfeweth hereof? Is it 
not better fo to doo then to pay thryfe for one thinge as is the maner to doo in fumme of owre Innes and in 
tauernes where all that eate roRe meate are beaten with the fpitte, as where they that of late in Barthelmewe 
fayre payde fortie penfe for a pygge, where the good man of the houfe was not a fhamed to make his vaunte that 
he had made foure Ihyllynges of a pygge, and had in one day taken foure pounde for pygges. But if I fhuld 
here particularly and at large declare howe Englande is in fewe yeares decayed and impoueryfflied, and howe 
on the contrary parte Spayne is inryched, I fliulde perhappes difpleafe more in defcrybyng the myferie of the 
one, then pleafe other in expreffynge the floryffhynge flate of the other, which by all reafon is lyke dayly to 
increafe, afwell for the great rycheffe that are yearely browght thyther from the Indies, as alfo for the ryche fyluer 
mynes that are founde of late in Spayne in the countrey of Afturia as I was credably informed by the woorthy 
and lerned gentelman Auguftinus de Ceratta, Contador (that is) the auditour of the kynges myntes who had 
longe before byn furueyoure of the golde mynes of Peru, and browght from thenfe and from Rio de Plata, xiii. 
thoufand pounde weyght of fyluer which was coyned to the kinges vfe in the towre of London where neuer fo 
much hath byn feene at once as fuche as haue byn owlde officers in the mynte doo afiirme. What fhulde I 
heare fpeake of the golde which th[e]emperours maieffie receaueth frome all the Indies, whereas onely in the two 
meltynge fhoppes of the gold mines of the Ilande of Hifpaniola, is molten yearely three hundreth thoufande 
pounde weyght of. viii. vnces to the pound, wherof the fyfte parte is dewe vnto hym, whiche amounteth to three 
fcore thoufande weyght yearely. Yet doo I not here fpeake of the golde mines of the other Ilandes and the 
finne lande reachynge. viii. thoufande myles from the north to the fouth: Neyther of the ryche Ilandes of the 
fouth fea cauled Mare del Sur, where the kynge of one lyttle Ilande named Tacarequi, Margaritea, or de las 
Perlas, lying in the goulfe of Saynt Michael, payeth yearely for his tribute a hundreth pounde weight of perles: 
Neyther yet of the fyfte parte of other thynges, as precious (lones, brafile, goffampine cotton, fpices, and dyuers 
other thynges, wheras alfo the ryche Ilandes cauled the Maluchas perteyne to the inheritaunce of Caftile, 
althowgh the kynge of Portugale enioy them for certeyne yeares by compofition. But the Indies haue rebelled 
(iay they) and there commeth no more golde from thenfe. But what if fumme of them haue rebelled ? dooth it 
therby folowe that there commeth no more gold from the other that lyue vnder obedience ? But if thou wylte fay 
that they haue al rebelled at once, thou muff proue that thou layeff eyther by hyfforie or wytneffe of fuch as 
know the truth herof, as I (hauing made diligent fearche for the fame) am able to proue the contrarie, and that 

Spayne inriched. 

Siluer mines 
founde of late 
in Spayne. 

Syluer brought 
frome Peru into 

reiienues from 
the Indies. 

The Ilandes of 
the Southe sea. 

The Tlandes of 

The Preface to the Reader. 


fuche talke is onely imagined by bufie headdes. Ageyne : what if they haue rebelled in fumme prouinces ? 
dooth it folowe that they maye not ageyne be browght vnder fubiection as were oftentymes the prouinces of the 
Romanes and as were in owre dayes dyuers countreys of Englande whiche haue byn fore afflicted with that 
plage. But whether the fandes of the ryuers and the mountaynes of the Indies bee fo emptied with golde that 
no more can be founde there, I thinke it here fuperfluous to anfwere to this obiection, forafmuch as it is here- 
after confuted in the booke of metals where yow (hall fynde by experience that metals growe and increafe, and 
that after certeyne yeares. fuche owlde caues of the mynes as haue byn dygged, are ageyne replenyffhed with vre : 
Alfo that the fprynges of fuche mountaynes tumynge theyr courfe and breakynge furth in other places, brynge 
with them greate plentie of fuch golden- fande as is founde in the ryuers into the which they faule. What 
impudencie is it therfore with woordes of reproche to caule hym poore whofe poure is fo greate, his treafure fo 
infinite, and his doinges fo chargeable, that I beleeue that when fo euer it pleafe almyghtie God to caule hym 
frome this lyfe to the greate domage of all Chryflendome, it flialbe harde to fynde an other that (hall in all poyntes 
bee fo well able to fupplye that roome and maynteyne th[e]imperiall dignitie. Let al honefl. natures therfore leame 
to fpeake well of princes accordynge to the fentence De Principibus nil nifi bonum, forafmuch as they are the 
minifters of god who hath theyr hartes in his hande and ruleth the fame as feemeth befle vnto hym. For there 
is no poure neyther good nor badde, but of god : and he that refyfteth or fpeaketh euyll of the poure, refifleth 
and fpeaketh euyll of god. Thou flialt not fpeake euyll of the prince or ruler of thy people faith faint Paule. 

But wheras nowe by the poure of Neptunus (I wot nere with what wynde) I haue byn dryuen thus farre 
from my nauigations, I haue thought good to tume my fayles and to folowe the ordinarie courfe which I beganne, 
and by th[e]exemple of this woorthy capitayne kynge Ferdinando, encourage al other to theyr poure to attempte 
the lyke vyages : As touchynge the which in fewe woordes to declare my opynyon, if any man fhulde afke me 
what I thynke thefe thinges wyll growe to in tyme, I wyll anfwere as dooth the autoure of this booke, 
that when I confyder howe farre o>vre pofleritie fhall fee the ChriRian religion enlarged, I am not able 
with tounge or penne to expreffe what I conceaue hereof in my mynd. Yet one thyng I fee which enforceth 
me to fpeake and lament, that the haruefl is fo great and the workemen fo few. The Spanyardes haue (hewed a 
good exemple to all Chryflian nations to folowe. But as god is great and woonderfull in all his woorkes, 
fo befyde the portion of lande perteynyng to the Spanyardes (beinge eyght tymes bygger then Italye as 
yowe maye reade in the lafle booke of the feconde Decade) and befide that which perteineth to the Portugales, 
there yet remayneth an other portion of that mayne lande reachynge towarde the northeafl, thought to be 
as large as the other, and not yet knowen but only by the fea coaftes, neyther inhabyted by any ChriRian men : 
whereas neuertheleffe (as wryteth Gemma Phrifius) in this lande there are many fayre and frutefull regions, 
hygh mountaynes, and fayre ryuers, with abundaunce of golde and dyuers kyndes of beaRes. Alfo cities 
and towres fo wel buylded and people of fuch ciuilitie, that this parte of the worlde feemeth lyttle inferiour 
to owre Europe, if th[ejinhabitauntes had receaued owre religion. They are wyttie people and refufe not 
barterynge with Rraungers. Thefe regions are cauled Terra Florida and Regio Baccalearum or Bacchallaos 
of the which yow may reade fumwhat in this booke in the vj'age of the woorthy owlde man yet lyuing 
SebaRiane Cabote, in the. vi. booke of the thyrde Decade. But Cabote touched only in the north comer 
and moR barbarous parte hereof, from whenfe he was repulfed with Ife in the moneth of luly. Neuertheleffe, 
the weR and fouth partes of thefe regions haue fence byn better fearched by other, and founde to bee 
as we haue fayde before. The chiefs citie in the fouthweR partes of thefe regions, is cauled Temixtetan, 
or Mexico in maner vnder the circle cauled Tropicus Cancri, and Rrongely defended by the nature of 
the place. For it Randeth in a very great lake hauynge abowt it innumerable bridges, and buyldynges 
to be compared to the woorkes of Dedalus. Th[e]inhabitauntes alfo can wryte and reade. Summe wryters 
connecte this lande to the firme lande of Afia : But the truth hereof is not yet knowen. And althoughe 
the Spanyaides haue certeyne colonies in that part of this lande that is nowe cauled Noua Hifpania, yet are 
the people for the moRe parte Idolatours. Howe much therfore is it to be lamented, and howe greatly 
dooth it founde to the reproche of all ChriRendome, and efpecially to fuch as dwell nereR to thefe landes 
(as we doo) beinge muche nearer vnto the fame then are the Spanyardes (as within, xxv. dayes faylinge 
and lefle) howe muche I faye (hall this founde vnto owre reproche and inexcufable flothfulneffe and 
negligence bothe before god and the worlde, that fo large dominions of fuch tractable people and pure 
gentiles, not beinge hytherto corrupted with any other falfe religion (and therefore the eafyer to bee allured 
to embrafe owres) are nowe knowen vnto vs, and that we haue no refpecte neyther for goddes caufe nor 
for owTe owne commoditie to attempte fumme vyages into thefe coaRes, to doo for owr partes as the 
Spaniardes haue doone for theyrs, and not euer lyke (heepe to haunte one trade, and to doo nothynge 
woorthy memorie amonge men or thankes before god, who maye herein woorthely accufe vs for the 
flackenelTe of owre dewtie towarde hym. Saynt Paule the doctoure of the gentiles (to whofe ApoRclfliippe 
alfo thefe newe gentiles doo pcrteinc) was of fuch zeale toward the lewes whom god had reiected, that 

The nauigations 
of the Spanyardes 

Itali is. 1020 myles 
in lengthe and. 
126. in breadthe. 

The lande cauled 
Terra finrida, and 
regio baccalearum. 

Looke the last - 
booke, thirde 
This region is 
now cauled Noua 
Hispania. Sum 
thinke that this 
citie is Quinsai of 
Marcus Pau!us. 
Looke the last 
booke of the 3. 
decade, and tne 
beginning of the 
booke of the 
landes lately 

The godlye zeale 
of S. Paule. 


The Preface to the Reader. 

IsoL 66. 

Gregorie the First 

ThWoffice of 

converted to the 
faith of chrisu 

This vnifride was 
named Boncface. 

Whether any may 
bee compelled to 
the faythe. 

The tyme of 

Miracles of late 

Howe Israeli 
possessed the 
lande of 

Ksdra. 7. 

he wyflhed hym felfe to bee accurfed of god for theyr fakes. He went from Damafcus to Arabic, preached 
the gofpell in Grecia, came prifoner to Rome, was fcourged and (loned, and fuffered thryfe ihypwracke, 
what then thinke yow he wold do if he were now aliue ? Is it to be thought that he wolde not aduenture. 
XXV. dayes faylynge to come to fuch a marte of foules in fuch redineffe to bee eafely obteyned ? I beleue 
verely that neyther death, nor the deuyll, nor Leuiathan, nor the worlde, (hulde let hym but that he wolde geue 
th[e]onfet ageynfl them all in hope of victorie by hym by whom he fayth he can doc all thynges. He was not 
negligent in his office nor ignorant of his rewarde, but trufled to the promefle of him that fayde by the 
mouth of the prophet Ifai : Of them that fhalbe faued, I wyl fende fum to the gentyles in the fea, into 
Aphrike and Libia, Italic, and Grecia, and into the Ilandes a farre of, to them that haue not harde of me, 
and haue not feene my glorie. The like zeale that Paule had, and proceadynge of the fame fpirite, hath 
eucr fence Chryfles tyme, moucd not only the Apoftles, but alfo many other famous and godly men (as 
fuperuifours of his teflamente) to fendc owte preachers into dyuers partes of the worlde to ftiewe furth the 
gladdc tydynge of the gofpell. By this zeale dyd Gregoryc byfflioppe of Rome and fyrfte of that name, 
when he fawe Englyflhc mens chyldrcn in Rome and afked what nation they were, when anfwere was 
made hym in the laten tounge that they were Angli, (that is, Englyffhe men) he fayd (alludyng to the 
fimilitude of the worde) that they myght wel be cauled Angeli, that is. Angels : Meanyng therby that 
lyke as god had done his part in geuyng them bodies of natural bewtie and comelyneffe, fo it apperteyned 
to his office bcinge the cheefe pafloure of goddcs flocke, to prouyde that theyr foules might be made 
woorthy to inhabite fuch bodies and the hole nation confecrated vnto god by baptifme. For he fayde 
furthermore : It is meete that vnto thefe alfo, the gofpell of life bee preached : And hereuppon immediatly 
fent preachers into Englande whereby the hole nation was in (horte tyme conuerted to ChriRes faith, 
although fum had receaued the gofpell long before euen from Chryfles tyme by the preachyng of lofeph 
of Arimathia who aflced the body of Chryfte of Pilote, and buryed it rcucrently. I wolde to god that 
there were now many mo fuch Gregorics in the worlde : And that there might lyke zeale and gentclncflTc 
bee founde in vs Englyflhc men towarde other nations, as wc haue founde in other towarde vs. Owre 
prediceflbures were not vtterlye vnmyndefull of thefe benefites, but applyed them felues lykewife to fpreade 
the gofpell in other nations. For Vadianus in his booke De tribus terra partibus, wryteth, that more then 
feuen hundrethe yeares after the death of Chryfte, one Vnefride an Englyflhc man and byffhoppe of Mogunce, 
(nowe cauled Menfe) was the fyrfte that tawght the fayth of Chryfte amonge the Germaynes, at fuch tyme 
as the Frankes and Almaynes had paffed ouer the ryuers of Rhcnc and Danubius, and by puttynge the 
garryfons of the Romans to flight, had pofleffed a great parte of theyr nioft notable prouinces. For albeit 
that thefe rude and barbarous nations then accuftomed onely to warre and robberic did hardly admittc 
that holfome doctrine at the beginning. Yet by the pollicic and wifedome of the Frankes, it came fo to 
paffe that in maner through owt all Germanic, greatc increafe of the Chriftian religion folowed there moftc 
ample victories, as the lyke fuccefle is alfo feene in thefe barbarous nations fubdued by the Spanyardes. 
Whereby it is apparent, that although fum holde opinion that none owght to bee compelled to the faythe, 
yet we fee by experience that withowt difputynge of opinions (Icfte the pacientes fhulde dye before the 
phifitians agree of the remedie) thefe entreprifes haue taken good effect to the great glory of god who cauleth 
men vnto hym by dyuers meanes and at dyuers ages of the declinynge worlde, other\vyfe nowc then in 
the tyme of Chryfte and his Apo'lles when the pourc of miracles was giuen vnto men to confirme the 
newe fayth which had yet preuaiicd i.o where in the worlde. Albeit, I beleue verely, that if we wolde take 
the matter in hande accordyngly, god wolde not forget to ayde vs with miracles if it fhuld fo be requifite, 
as yowe may reade in this booke ho^vc he wTOUght miracles by the fayth of a Ample mariner euen in 
th[e]infancie of faythe. And fucrlye, lyke as there is no caufe why wc fhulde anye thynge double of goddcs 
goodnefle in this behalfe if the faut be not in owre felues. Euen fo, if we wolde fyrfte fette owre handes 
to the plowe, we ought to hope that he wolde giue encreafe and woorke with vs as he hath doone with 
other, by whofe profpcrous fucceffe we may plainely fee that it was his wyll that fuche thynges fhulde 
go forwarde. For euen Ifraell to whom promefle was made by flgnes and miracles that they fhulde poffefle the 
lande to th[e]inheritaunce whcrof, the fea opened it felfe to giue them free paffagc, yet were they commaunded by 
the pourc of the fwoorde to make way, with greatc loffe and flaughter of men and by force of armes to obteyne 
the lande promyfed to theyr fathers, whiche neucrtheleffe fewc of them pofleffed that firft fought for the fame, 
but lefte theyr carkefes in the wilderneffc. Is it not alfo written of the luwcs which repayred the walles 
of the citie of Hierufalem after theyr captiuitic in Babilon, that Nehemias theyr capitaine fet the people in 
order with fwoordes, fpeares, and bowes to defende the woorkemen ? And that alfo euen the Princes of luda 
wrought vppon the walles and caried burdens ? lykewyfe that they wrought with one hande and held theyr 
fwoordes in the other ? And if it were lawful for Ifraell accordynge to the fleffhe, to vfe all meanes and 
pollicies to buylde vp the walles of earthly Hierufalem, howe muche more then ought the fpirituall Ifraelites to 


The Preface to the Reader. 


vfe all pofTible ineanes to buylde vp the walks and temples of fpirituall Hierufalem, whofe fundation is Chrifle, 
wyllynge all thtr nations of the worlde to be buylded vppon the fame. It is the propertie of a wyfe buylder to 
vfe fuch tooles as the woorke requireth. And not at all tymes or in all woorkes to vfe one toole. For that 
that ferueth in fofte tymber, wyll not feme in knottie pieces, nor yet for (lones. Th[e]expert phifitian vfeth 
vehement remedies for defperate difeafes : And cunninge furgians vfe bumynge and cuttynge if the cafe fo 
require, as in cuttynge of the fynger to faue the hande, or in cuttyng of the hand to faue the hole body. Ye it 
hath fumtymes fo chaunfed that wheras men haue entended hurt, there hath good proceaded therof in fine : As 
he that wolde haue flaine Prometheus, wounded his wenne with his fwoorde, whereby he was healed of that 
difeafe. So is god able to tume euyll into good, and to make thynges that are not, as thynges that are. Euen 
fo although fumme wyll obiecte that the defyre of golde was the chiefe caufe that moued the Spanyardes and 
Portugales to fearche the newe founde landes, trewly albeit we fhulde admitte it to bee the chiefe caufe, yet dooth 
it not folowe that it was the only caufe, forafmuch as nothyng letteth but that a man may bee a warrier or a 
marchaunte, and alfo a Chriflian. Therefore what fo euer owre chiefe intente bee, eyther to obteyne worldely 
fame or rycheffe, (althoughe the zeale to encreafe Chriflian religion ought chiefly to moue vs) I wolde to god we 
wolde fyrfl attempte the matter: And then I doubte not but that it wolde fo comme to pafle with vs as it dyd 
with them who of longe time after the beginning of the worlde before menne were accuflomed to eate fleffhe, 
thought it firfl fufficient fo to vfe them felues amonge beafles that they were not hurte of them : but fhortly after, 
vfed them for theyr commoditie : Then begunne to weare theyr fkinnes : And in fine, fell to eatynge of theyr 
fleffhe, and to vfe certeine partes of them for remedies ageinfl difeafes. Euen fo may thefe barbarians by the 
only conuerfation with the Chriflians, (although they were enforced therto) be brought to fuch familiaritie with 
ciuilitie and vertue, that not onely we maye take greate commoditie thereby, but they may alfo herewith imbibe 
trewe religion as a thing accidental although neyther they nor we fhulde feeke the fame. For lyke as they that 
goo much in the foonne, are coloured therewith although they go not for that purpofe. So may the conuerfation 
of the Chriflians with the gentyles induce theym to owre religion, where there is no greater caufe of contrarye 
to refyfle as is in the luwes and Turkes who are alredy drowned in theyr confirmed erroure. But thefe fimple 
gentiles l)-uinge only after the lawe of nature, may well bee lykened to a fmoothe and bare table vnpainted, or 
a white paper vnwritten, vpon the which yow may at the fyrfl. paynte or wryte what yow lyfte, as yow can not 
vppon tables alredy paynted, vnleffe yow rafe or blot owt the fyrfte formes. They may alfo th[e]enyer bee allured to 
the Chriflian fayth, for that it is more agreable to the lawe of nature then eyther the cerimonious lawe of Moifes, 
or portentous fables of Mahometes Alcharon. If we were therfore as defyrous to enlarge the fayth of Chryfle 
as to feeke worldly gooddes, why do we deferre to aduenture that wherin we may doo bothe. We mufle not 
nowe looke for a newe Paule or doctoure of the gentiles to bee conuerted by heauenly reuelations : Or for a 
newe Moifes to leade men through the fea : Or for an Angel to cary men in the ayer from one place to an other 
as Habacucke the prophete was caryed by the heare of his heade from ludea to Babilon ; Or as Phylippe 
th[e]appotlle was caryed by the fpirite from Gaza to Azotus : but mufle (as fayth the prophete Ifaias) euery man 
exhorte his neyghboure, and bid his broother be of good chere : That the mafon and carpenter may buylde 
togyther, and fay to the glewe or cemente, it is good and fafle byndynge. What negligence and flackeneffe hath 
hytherto byn in Chriflian men in this kynde of buyldynge of goddes lyuely temple, the greate clerke Erafmus 
hath declared in his booke intiteled EcclefTiafles, whofe woordes for the woorthynefTe of the autoure, I haue here 
thowght good to rehearfe as they are wrytten by hym in the laten tounge in the fyrfte booke of the fayde woorke. 
He wryteth therfore as foloweth. 

Audimus quotidianas queremonias deplorantiuin coUapfam Chrijlianam religionem, eamque dit'wnem qum quondam 
complexa ejl vniuerfum terrarum orbem, in has angujlias effe contraBam. Hoc igitur quibus ex animodolct, eos decet 
ardentibus afsiduifque votis flagitare a Chrijlo vt operartos digndur mittere in meffem fuam, aut (vt melius dicam) 
feminatores mittere in fcgctem fuam. Deum immortalem, quantum in orbe patet agrorum in quibus aut non dum 
iaflum ejl femen Euangeliaim, aut ita iaHum ejl, vt plus fit zizaniarum quam iriiici. Orbis minima pars ejl 
Europa: Omnium florentifsima pars ejl Gracia et Afia minor in quam magna fucceffu primum a ludcea demigrauit 
Euangelium. At hcec fere tota, nonne tenetur a Mahumetanis et ijs qui Chrifli nomen habmt imcifum 1 lam in 
Afia maiore qua latifsime patet, quid obfecro nofirum efll quum ipfa Paleflina vnde primo effluxit lux Euangelica, 
feruiat Allophylisi In Aphrica vera quid nofirum eflt Nee dubitandum efl quin in tanta vaflitate regionum fint 
populi rudes et fimplices qui facile poffent ad Chriflum alici,fi mitterentur qui facer ent bonam fementem. Quid quod 
quotidie regiones haHenus incognitce reperiuntur, ferunturque fupereffe quo nullus adh uc noflratium peruenit. Omitto 
nunc infinitam ludcBorum vim nobis admixtam : omitto plurimos qui titulo Chrifli tegunt Ethnicos: omitto tantas 
fchifmaticorum et hcsreticorum phalanges. Quantus in his effet prouentus Chriflo, ft gnaui ac fideles mitterentur 
operarij qui iaciant femen bonum, qui reuellant zizaniam, qui planteiit plantulas bonas, malas extcrpcnt, qui extruant 
domum Dei, demoliaiitur flruHuras non innitmtes petrx Chriflo, denique qui metant maturam fcgetem, fed Chri/lo 

The buylding 
of spirituall 

The conuersion of 
the gentiles. 

The christian 

IsaL 4S. 

August ia 




The Preface to the Reader. 

Aetliiopia rex. 









Bamianus a Goes 

To the christian 

The sheepe of 

The doctourc 
of diuinitie 

An admonition 
to riche men. 

Tile marchant 

me tant nonfibi, et animas Domino colligant, non opes fibi. Niiper Aethiopia: rex quem vulgtis appellat Prejleian, 
per oratoran fuum fubmifit fe fedi Romance, non nihil expojlulans cum pontifice quod ea gais quum a fide C/irt/lt 
non fit aliena, tam diu fuerit a tocius orbis pafiore ncg/cda. Quidam viri botti, et propagatidce religionis fiudiofi, 
queruntur Pilapios ScythicE feptentrionalis populum mirefunpliccm acrudem, a nefcio quibits principibus Chri/lianis 
teneri ditione, fed ita duro premi iugo hufiiano, vt eis non imponatur fuaue iuguin Chrifii, atque i/a fpoliari bonis 
externis, vt non ditentur opibus euangelicis. Pnlcherrimum, Deoque gratijsimum erat dare potius quatn accipere ijs 
quos findemus Chriflo lucrifaccre, ac fie cos in ditionem noflram recipere vt gaudeant fe fubicflos effe principibus fub 
quorum imperio commodius degant quam ante degebant. Nouimus cicurare bcfiias feras et horribi/es, vel ad volup- 
talem, vel ad vfum vulgarem: et non nouimus manfuefacere homines vt feruiant Chriflo 1 Afonarchce alunt qui 
doceant elephantos ad faltandum, qui doment leones ad lufum, qui doment lynces et leopardos ad venatum : et 
monarcha ecclefice non inuenit quo homines alliciat ad amabile Chrifli feruicium J Scio vix vllam reperiri beluam 
domitu difficiliorem quam eft ludcEus obftinatus, et obduratus hareticus : quanqiiam nullum eft animal tam immite 
quod non cicureiur beneficeutia et fuauitate. E repertis regionibus aiehitur aurum et gemmce : Sed triumpho dignius 
erat illuc inuehere Chriftianam fapientiam auro preciofiorcm, ac margaritum aiangciiaim quod omnibus diuenditis 
hence comparatur. Dominus iubetfuis rogare dominum mefsis vt extrudat operarios quod mefsis effet ampla, operarij 
pauci. Noti minus opus eft nunc rogare dcum vt in tam late patentes agros ejiciat operarios, Scd excufant omnes, 
alius aliud. Atqui Christiana ditio tot habet myriadas Francifcanorum in quibus probabile eft quamplurimos 
effe qui vere fiagrant igni feraphico : nee pauciores funt myriades Dominicanorum, et in his confeutanaim eft 
permultos effe Cherubici fpiritus. Ex his cohort ibus cligantur virt, mtindo vere mortui, Chrifto viui, qui fyncere 
apud barbaras gentes doceant verbtim Dei. Excufatur lingua imperitia. Atqui principcs ob humanas legationes 
inucniunt qui varias linguas perdifcant : Et Themiftocles Athaiicnfes vno anno fie didicit fcrmonem Afiatiaim 
vt abfque interprete aim rege loqui poffet : An idem non ftudebimus in tam fublimi negocio ? Inter barbaras 
et ignotas nationes Apostoli inuenerunt vifliim et amiHum : et Dais polHcitus eft nihil defuturum qucerenti- 
bus regnum Dei. Nee miracula quidem dcfiitura funt ft res poftulct, modo ad fit fyncera fides cum feraphica 
charitate, dt^c. 

Furthermore Damianus a Goes, wryteth in his booke De dcploratione LappiancB gaitis, that he was the 

fyrft that moued Erafmus to fpeake fumwhat hereof: And that he (Erafmus I meane) was determined to 

write a iufl volume of this matter yf he had not byn preuented by death. Albeit (fayth Damianus) in 

his booke entiteled EcclefiaRes, he dyd not keepe filence of fo wicked an vngodlynefle, whiche furely is 

fuche, that it may in maner make all Chriflian men (and efpeciallye fuch vnto whom god hath gyuen 

poure and knowleage) giltie of fo heyghnous a crime, that he may take vengeance of them in the day of 

iudgement before the iufle iudge Chryft. Nowe therfore (fayth he) let the Chriflian Monarches take heede 

what accoumpte they fhall make before the tribunal of Chryfle at the laRe daye, when neyther fauoure, 

nor pardon, or flatterie can take place to bee any excufe for the loffe of fo manye foules. And thefe be 

the very woordes of the woorfliipful and lemed man Damianus a Goes, wiytten to the byfifhoppe of Rome 

Paule the thyrde of that name, whom he further chargeth to looke diligently hereunto, as a thynge mofle 

chiefely perteynynge to the office of Chriflian prelates. Mee thynke verely that the fheepe of Europe 

(hulde by this tyme be fo well fedde, that they fhulde by good reafon be fo flronge and mightie in Chriftes 

religion (excepte they be infected with the dyfeafe which the phificians caule Cachexia, beinge an euyl 

difpofition of the body whereby the more they are fed the worfe they lyke) that many fheppardes myght 

well bee fpared to bee fent to other fheepe which ought to be of the fame foulde. For this purpofe the 

doctoure of diuinitie when he commenfeth, hath his fcapular cafl ouer his headde in token that he hathe 

forfaken the worlde for Chrifles fake : And his bootes on his legges in token that he fhall euer bee in a 

redineffe to go forwarde in preachynge the gofpell, as I doubte not there bee many in Englande wolde 

gladly doo euen amonge thefe newe gentyles if they were therto mainteyned by the ayde of the fecular 

poure as in this cafe it fhalbe requifite for the furniture of neceffaries hereunto apperteynynge, I mufl 

nowe therfore appele vnto yow, yow riche men and rulers of the worlde, to whom god hath giuen gooddes 

as thynges neyther good nor badde of them felues, but onely as they are vfed wel or euil. If yowe vfe 

them well, they are the gyftes of god wherwith yow may doo many thynges acceptable both to god and men. 

And if yow vfe them otherwyfe, yowe poffefTe not them, but they poffeffe yow, and theyr canker and rufle 

(as faythe the Apoflle) fhalbe a teflimonie ageinfl. yow in the day of the great audit. Thinke not therfore 

that this thynge perteyneth not vnto yowe, if yowe perteyne vnto Chrifle and looke to haue any parte 

with hym. Confyder with yowre felues if it were onely to get worldely ryches, howe redye and greedy 

yowe wolde bee to venture a greate deale to get a thyrde part, withowt caflynge of any perell by lande or 

by fea, as the wyttie poet Horafe hath in fewe wordcs defcrybed the marchauntes defyre and aduenture' 

to obteyne rycheife. 

The Preface to the Reader. 


Impiger extreyiios currit mercatcr ad Indos, 
ter ftiare pauper iem fugiens, per faxa, per igrits. 

The which yerfes are tlius much to fay in effecte. 

The marchaunt in hope greate rychefle to fynde, 
By fyer and by water pafleth to Inde, 
By the bumte Hne or Equinoctiall, 
To flye from pouertie and hafarde all. 

As the poet hath in thefe verfes, by the marchaunt declared the defyre Aat couetous men haue to 
obteyne flippery riches, the lyke affection to obteyne worldly fame and honour, maye we fee in valiant 
and noble capitaynes in the warres where they contende to put them felues forwarde to the mofle daungerous 
aduenture as to haue the forewarde of the battayle : a token furely of much nobilitie and manly corage. 
But oh immortall god ? Is it not to bee lamented that men can be fo valient, (lowte, and in maner defperate in 
theyr owne priuate matters, perteynyng onely to theyr bodies, and yet fo coulde, negligent, and fearefull 
in goddes raufe and thynges touchynge the health of theyr foules ? If there were neyther deuyll nor lawe 
to accufe men before god in this cafe, (hall not theyr owne confciences bee a lawe of condemnation ageynfte 
theym in that they haue not fliewed that loue to mankynde, which the very lawe of nature moueth brute 
beafles to fhewe one to an other in theyr generations ? But what hope is there (excepte god wolde in 
maner by myracle conuerte the hartes of fuch men) what hope is there I fay, that they wyll depart with 
any of theyr gooddes, muche lelTe aduenture theyr bodies, to the furtheraunce of Chrifles religion in thefe 
regions beinge fo farre from them, wheras many (hewe lyttle loue, charitie, or liberalrtie (if not rather crueltie, 
tyrannic, and oppreffion) to theyr poore neighbours and brootheme dwelling euen at home at theyr owne 
elbowes. But as this couetoufneffe is to bee reproued, fo is the liberalitie of fuch to be commended as haue 
byn at greate coafle and charges in fettynge Ibrwarde fuche viages : wherein not onely the marchauntes 
of London, but alfo diuers noble men and gentelmen afwell of the counfayle as other, which bothe with 
theyr money and furtheraunce otherwyfe haue fumyffhed and fent furth certeyne fhyppes for the difcouerynge 
of fuche landes and regions as were heretofore vnknowen, haue herein deferued immortall fame, for as 
much as in fuch attemptes and daungerous vyages, they haue fhewed no fmaule liberalitie vppon vncerteyne 
hope of gayne : wherein they haue deferued fo much the greater prayfe as theyr intent feemed to bee rather 
to further honefl enterprifes then for refpecte of vantage. And here certeynely in the mention of thefe 
viages I myght feeme vngratefull if I fhulde omitte to giue dewe commendations to the two chiefe capitaynes 
of the fame as the woorthy knyght fyr Hugh Wylloby and the excellent pilotte Rycharde Chaunceler who 
haue therein aduentured theyr lyues for the commoditie of theyr countrey : Men doubtleffe woorthye for theyr 
noble attemptes to bee made knightes of the Ocean or otherwyfe preferred if euer god fende them home 
ageyne although they fayle of theyr purpofe. For as fuche haue obteyned abfolute glory that haue browght 
great thynges to paffe, fo haue they deferued immortall fame which haue only attempted the fame : forafmuch 
as fortune (who fumtymes fauoureth the vnworthyefl) is not in the poure of man. Xerfes obteyned glorie 
in makynge a bridge ouer the fea Hellefpontus ioynynge Europe to Afia, and Darius ouer Bofphorus when 
he paffed with his armye towarde the Scythians. No leffe fame and commendation (although not lyke 
glory) deferued Demetrius, Cefar, Calligula, and Seleucus Nicanor, whiche attempted to cutte in fundre 
certeyne places cauled Iflhmi, (beinge narrowe portions of lande fo diuidynge twoo feas, that there is no 
paflage from the one to the other) and yet neuer finiffhed that they tooke in hande, beinge hyndered 
eyther by deathe, warres, or other chaunces. The auncient Romans and Greekes gaue fuch glorye vnto 
them that had eyther well deferued of the common welthe, or otherwyfe attempted fuch great enterprifes 
as might bee profitable for mankynde, that after theyr death they caufed Images of golde, fyluer, braffe, 
luery, and marble to bee made to theyr lykeneffe, and the fame to be placed in theyr folemne hauies, 
palaices, or temples, with certeyne verfes made to the commendation of them whom the Images reprefented. 
And this no leife to prouoke and encorage other forwarde natures to th[e]emulation of their vertues, then 
alfo to geue them the due honoure of theyr iufl defertes. And furely if euer fence the begynnynge of the 
worlde any enterpryfe haue deferued greate prayfe as a thynge atchyued by men of heroicall vertue, 
doubtleffe there was neuer any more woorthy commendation and admiration then is that whiche owre 
nation haue attempted by the north feas to difcouer the mightie and riche empire of Cathay, by which 
vyage not only golde, fyluer, precious (lones, and fpices, may be browght hether by a fafer and fhorter 
way, but alfo much greater matters may hereof enfewe in tyme if it fhall pleafe God to gyue vnto Chriftian 
men fuch paffage into thofe regions, whereby fuch familiaritie may further growe betwene the Chriftian princes 

The defiyre of 
wordely fame. 

Men are sloth(\iU 
ia g*4des cauM:. 

Vyages from 

Syr Hugh 
Wylloby and 

Glory and fame. 

The rewarde of 
noble enterprisci^ 

The vyage to 
Cathay by the 
north seas. 


The Preface to the Reader. 

Societie betwene 
the Tartars and 
the Christians 
The Turke. 
The Sophie. 


of Europe and the greate emperoure of Cathay, that (as wryteth Haytho De focietaie Chrijiiatwrum et 
Tartaroruni) there can nothynge be imagined more effectuall for the confufion of the Turke if the great 
Cham of Cathay and the Sophie of Perfia on the one fyde, and the Chriflian Princes on the other fyde, 
fliulde with one confent inuade his dominions, as dyd Tamburlanes Th[e]emperoure of the Tartars who abowte 
the yeare of Chrifle. M. CCC. Ixxxxviii. toke prifoner Baiafetes Ottomanus Th[e]emperoure of the Turkes and 
flewe. XX. thoufande of his men in one battayle befyde many other great victories, as yowe may further 
reade in this booke in the hyftorie of Paulus louius. And to haue fayde thus muche in maner of a preface it 
may fuffice. 


[The Third English book on America, 

Which is also 

The First English Collection of Voyages, Traffics, & Discoveries. 

Cfte ©ecalres of the netoe tooiilrt or iue^t Kntrta, etc 


Pietro Martire. 

The First Decade, . Of the Ocean. 

First printed in 1511 

The Second Decade, . Of the supposed Continent. 

The Third Decade, 

\T^he discovery of the Pacific by 
Vasco 'Nunez de Balboa ^on the 
i^th September 15 13. The 
voyages of Pedro Arias ^ and 
Sebastian Cabot ^ 

The Second and Third Decades were first printed in 1516. 

Of the new found islands (i.e. Yucatan and Mexico.) 

First printed in 1521.] 

The epistle of Peter Martyr. 


[This eloquent Dedication first appeared in the Second and enlarjjed Edition of the Decades, the printing of which was finished at 
Alcala on 9th November 1516. Nearly the whole of the following First Dccas (//. 65-105) had, however, been previously 
printed in 1511, and was for the most part luritten even earlier than that year.] 


Peter Martyr of Angleria wysheth 
perpetuall felicitie. 

He diuine prouidence, frome the tyme that he fyrfte 
created the worlde, hathe referued vnto this day the 
knowleage of the great and large Ocean fea : In the 
which tyme he hath opened the fame, chiefely vnto 
yowe (mofle mightie Prince) by the good fortune 
and happie fucceffe of yowr grandfather by yowr 
mothers fyde. The fame prouidence (I knowe not 
by what deftenie) hath brought me owt of my natiue 
countrey of Milane, and owt of the citie of Rome 
(where I continued almoft. x. yeares) into Spaine, 
that I myght particularlye collecte, thefe marueylous 
and newe thynges, which fhoulde otherwyfe per- 
happes haue hne drowned in the whirlepoole of 
obHuion : forasmuch as the Spanyardes (men 
woorthy [of] greate commendation) had onely care to the generall inuentions of thefe 
thynges. Notwithftandinge, I doo not chalenge vnto me only, the thankes of the trauaile 
beflowed herein, wheras the chiefe rewarde therof is due to Afcanius vicounte Cardinal, 
who perceauynge that I was wyllyng to departe owt of the citie to be prefent at the warres 
of Granatum, diffuaded me from my purpofe. But feing that I was fully refolued to 
departe, exhorted and required me to wryte vnto hym fuch newes as were famous in Spayne 
and woorthy to be noted. I tooke therfore my iorney into Spaine chiefely for the defyre I 
had to fee th[e]expedition whiche was prepared ageynft the enemies of the fayth : 
forafmuche as in Italye, by reafon of the diffention among the Princes, I coulde fynde 
nothynge wherewith I myght feede my wytte, beinge a younge man defyrous of knowleage 
and experience of thynges. I was therefore prefente at the warres : from whenfe I writte 
to Cardinal Afcanius, and by fundry epiftels certifyed hym of fuch thynges as I thought 
mofle woorthye to be put in memorie. But when I perceaued that his fortune was turned 
from a natural moother to a fteppedame, I ceafed from wrytynge. Yet after I fawe, that 
by th[e]ouerthrowe of the enemies of owre faythe, Spayne was pourged of the Moores as 
of an euyll weede plucked vp by the rootes, Leafle I fhulde beflowe my flippery yeares 
in vnprofitable Idleneffe I was mynded to returne to Italie. But the fmguler benignitie 
of bothe the Catholyke Kynge and queene nowe departed, and theyr large promifes 
towarde me vppon my returne from my legacie of Babilon, deteyned me frome my 
purpofe. Yet dooth it not repent me that I drewe backe my foote : Afwel for that I 
fee in no other place of the worlde at this time the lyke woorthy thinges to bee done : 
As alfo that in maner throwgh owt all Italy, by reafon of the difcorde of the Chriflian 

The largenes of 
the Ocean 
vnknowen to this 

Cardinal Ascaniub. 

The warres of 
Granatum ageyns^ 
the Moores. 

The autour was 
sent ambassidour 
to the Soltane of 
Alcayr in Egypte. 

Italy disquieted 
with warres. 


The epistle of Peter Martyr. 

The sequeles of 

Kyn;;e Frederike. 

Leo the tenth, 
byshoppe of Rome. 

Spayne subdued 
from the Moores. 

The kyn[g]dome of 

Note, frome the 
begynnyng of the 

TTie temperatness 
of the Equinoctial 
vnknowen to the 
owlde wryters. 

Continente or firme 
iande as bygge as 
thre Europes 

Ryches are the 
instnimentcs of 

Princes, I perceaued all thynges to runne headelonge into ruine, the countreys to be 
deftroyed and made fatte with human bliidde : The cities facked, virgines and matrones 
with theyr gooddes and poffeffions caned away as captiues and miferable innocentes 
without offence to be flayne vnarmed within theyr owne houfes. Of the which 
calamities, I dyd not onely heare the lamentable owtcryes, but dyd alfo feele the fame. 
For euen the bludde of mine owne kinffolkes and frendes, was not free from that crueltie. 
As I was therfore mufynge with my felfe of thefe thynges, the Cardinal of Arragonie, 
after that he had feene the two fyrfle bookes of my Decades wrytten to Afcanius, 
required me in the name of kynge Frederike his vncle, to put foorth the other eyght 
epiftell bookes. In the meane tyme alfo, while I was voyde of all care as touchy nge the 
matters of the Ocean, the Apoftolicall meffengers of the byffhoppe of Rome Leo the 
tenth, (by whofe holfome counfayle and autoritie we trufte the calamities of Italy fhalbe 
fynyffhed) rayfed me as it were frome fleape, and encoraged me to proceade as I had 
begunne. To his holyneffe I writte two Decades compryfed in fhort bokes after the 
maner of epiftels, and added them to the fyrfl, which was printed withowt myne aduife, 
as fhall further appeare by the preface folowynge. 

But nowe I returne to yow (mofl noble Prince) from whom I haue fumwhat 

digreffed. Therfore wheras yowr graundefathers by your moothers fyde, haue fubdued 

all Spayne vnder yowr dominion except onely one corner of the fame, and haue alfo lefte 

yowe the kyngedome of Naples with the frutefull Ilandes of owr feas, it is fuerly a greate 

thynge and woorthy to be noted in owre cronacles. But not offendynge the reuerence due 

to owre prediceffors, what fo euer frome the begynnynge of the worlde hath byn doone 

or wrytten to this day, to my iudgement feemeth but little, if wee confyder what newe 

landes and countreys, what newe feas, what fundry nations and tounges, what golde 

mynes, what treafuries of perles they haue lefte vnto yowre hyghneffe, befyde other 

reuenues. The whiche, what they are and howe greate, thefe three Decades fhall declare. 

Come therfore mofle noble Prince elected of God, and enioy that hyghe eftate of 

thynges not yet vnderftode to men. We offer vnto yowe the Equinoctiall line hetherto 

vnknowen and burnte by the furious heate of the foonne and vnhabitable after the opinion 

of the owlde wryters a fewe excepted : But nowe founde to bee moft repleniffhed with 

people, faire, frutefull, and mofte fortunate, with athowfande Ilandes crowned with golde 

and bewtifull perles, befyde that greate portion of earth fuppofed to bee parte of the firme 

Iande, excedynge in quantitie three Europes. Come therfore and embrafe this newe worlde, 

and fuffer vs no longer to confume in defyre of yowr prefence. From henfe, 

from henfe I faye (moft noble younge Prince) fhall inftrumentes 

be prepared for yow, whereby al the worlde fhalbe 

vnder yowr obeyfaunce. 

And thus I byd yowr maieftie farewell : To whofe tafte if I fhal 

perceaue the fruites of this my tyllage to be delectable, I wyll 

hereafter doo my endeuoure that yowe maye receaue the 

fame more abundauntly. From Madrid. The 

day before the Calendes of October, 

In the yeare of Chryfte. 

M. D. X V I. 





Angleria, Milenoes, counfiler to the kyng of Spayne and 

Protonotarie Apoftolicall, To Afcanius 

Sphorcia, vicount Cardinall. etc. 

HE REVERENDE AND thanckefull antiquite was accuftomed 
to efleme thofe men as goddes, by whofe induRrie and mag- 
nanimitie fuche Landes and Regions were difcouered, as were 
vnknowen to theyr prediceffoures. But vnto vs hauynge onely 
one god whom we honour in triplicitie of perfon, this refleth, 
that albeit we do not woorihip that kind of men with diuine 
honoure, yet do we reuerence them, and woorthely maniell 
at theyr noble actes and enterprifes. Vnto kynges and princes 
we gyue due obeyfaunce, by whofe gouernaunce and further- 
aunce they haue bin ayded, to perfurme theyr attemptes. We 
commende bothe, and for theyr iufl defertes worthely extoll 
them. Wherfore, as concernyng the Ilandes of the weft. Ocean, 
lately difcouered, and of the auctours of the fame, (whiche 
thynge you defyre by your letters to knowe) I wyll begynne at 
the fyrfl. auctoure therof, left.e I be iniurious to any man. Take 
it therfore as foloweth. 

^ Chrijlophorus Colonus (other wife called Columbus) A gen- 
tilman of Italy, borne in the citie of Genua, perfwaded Fernando and Elyzabeth, catholike prynces, that he 
doubted not to fynde certayne Ilandes of India, nere vnto owre Occean fea, if they wolde furnyffhe hym with 
fhyppes and other thynges apperteynynge. Affyrminge that therby not onely the Chriftian rehgion myght be 
enlarged, but Spayne alfo enryched by the great plentie of golde, pearles, precious flones, and fpices, whiche 
might be founde there. At the lengthe three fhyppes were appoynted hym at the kinges charges : of the which 
one was a great caracte with deckes : and the other twoo were light marchaunte fhyppes without deckes, v/hiche 
the Spaniardes call Carauelas. Thus he departed from the coftes of Spaine about the calendes of September, 
in the yere of Chrift 1492. and fet forward on his viage, being accompanied with. CC. xx. [two hundred and twenty] 
Spanyardes. The fortunate Ilandes (as manye thinke them to be, whiche the Spaniardes call Canarim, found but 
of late dayes) are diflaunte from the Ilandes of Gades, a thoufande and twoo hundreth myles, accordyng to theyr 
accompte : for they fay they are diftant three hundreth leaques : wh'eras fuch as are expert fea men, affyrme that 
euery leaque conteyneth foure myles, after theyr fupputations. Thefe Ilandes were called fortunate, for the tem- 
perate ayre whiche is in them. For neyther the coldeneffe of wynter is fharpe vnto them, nor the heate of fommer 
intollerable. Yet fome men are of opinion, that thofe were in olde tyme called the fortunate Ilandes, whiche 
the Portugales call Capo Verde. Colonus therfore fayledi fyrfle to the Ilandes of Canaria, to the intente there 
to refrefhe his fhyppes with frefhe water and fuell, before he committed him felfe to thys fo laborious a vyage. 
And bycaufe I haue here made mention of the Ilandes of Canaria: It (hall not be muche from my purpofe to 
declare howe of vnknowen they became knowen, and of faluage and wilde, better manured. For by the longe 
courfe of manye yeres, they were forgotten, and remayned as vnknowen. 

Thefe feuen Ilandes (therfore) called the Canaries, were founde by chaunce by a frenche man, called 
Betanchor, by the permiffion of queene Katharine, protectrixe of kyng lohn her fon, while he was yet in his 
nonage, about the yere of Chrifte. M. CCCC. V. This Betanchor inuaded twoo of thefe Ilandes called Lance- 
lotus and Fortifuentiira, whiche he inhabited and brought to better culture. He beinge deade, his fon and 
heire folde bothe the fayde Ilandes to certayne Spaniardes. 

After this, Fernandus Peraria and his wyfe, inuaded Ferrea and Gomera. The other three were fubdued 
in our tyme. Grancanaria, by Petrus de Vera, citezen of the noble citie of Xakium, and Michaell of Moxica. 

Eden. I Ss . 

The reward of 

The Ilandes of 
the weste Ocean. 



The fyrst viage 
of Colonus. 

The Ilandes of 


Gades or 

Cals mals. 

A leaque, wh.-it it 

conteyneth by sei. 

The fortunate 



The seuen Ilandes 
of Canarie. 
Betanchor A 
frenche man 
subdued the 
ilandes of Canarie 


The fyrjl Decade. 

Alphonsus Lugo. 

Colonus men rebel 
against hym. 

Faire wordes and 


^yrge in 

The Ilande of 

The ilandes of 

A shypwrack 

The people of 
the ilande. 
Naked people. 

Expert swimmers. 
Gold for erth and 
Many kinges 

Rclygious and 
humaine people. 



They haue no 

Canibalcs or 

The crue!tie of 
the Canibales. 

Palma and Tenerifen, by Alphonfus Lugo, at the kynges charges. Gomera and Ferrea were eafely fubdued : But the 
matter wente harde with Alphonfus Lugo. For that naked and \vylde nation, fyghtinge onely with flones and clubbes, 
droue his armie to flighte at the fyrfle affaulte, and flewe about foure hundreth of his men. But at the length he 
ouercame them. And thus all the Ilandes of Canarice were added to the dominion of Spayne. From thefe 
Ilandes Colonus directynge his viage towarde the wefle, folowinge the fallinge of the fonne, but declining fomirhat 
towarde the left hande, fayled on forwarde. xxxiii. dayes continually, hauynge onely the fruition of the heauen 
and the water. Then the Spanyardes whiche were accompanied with hym, beganne fyrfle to murmure fecretely 
among them felues : and fhortly after \vith wordes of reproche fpake euyll of Colonus theyr gouemoure, and con- 
fulted with them felues, eyther to rydde hym out of the waye, orelles to cad hym into the fea : Ragyng that they 
were deceyued of a flraunger, an outlandifhe man, a Ligurian, a Genues, and brought into fuche daungerous places, 
that they myght neuer returne ageyne. And after, xxx. days were pafte, they furioufely cryed out againfle him, and 
threatned him that he fhulde paffe no further. But he euer with ientyll wordes and large promyfes, appeafed 
theyr furie, and prolonged day after day, fome tyme defyring them to beare with hym yet a whyle, and forae 
time putting them in remembrance that if they fhulde attempte any thinge agaynfl him, or other wife difobey 
hym, it wolde be reputed for treafon. Thus after a fewe dayes, with cherefuU hartes they efpied the lande longe 
looked for. In this fyrft. nauigation, he difcouered. vi. Ilandes, wherof twoo were exceding great : Of whiche, 
the one he called Hifpaniola, and the other Lohanna. But at that tyme he knewe not perfectely that Lohanna 
(other wyfe called Cuba,) was an Ilande. As they coafled alonge by the fliore of certayne of thefe Ilandes, they 
harde nyghtingales fynge in the thycke woodes in the month of Nouember. They found alfo great riuers 
of freflie water, and naturall hauens, of capacitie to harborowe greate nauies of fhippes. Saylinge by the coaftes 
of Lohanna, from the northe poynte to the wefl, he rode lyttell leife then eyght hundreth miles (for they call it a 
hundreth and foure fcore leaques) fuppofyng that it had byn the continent or fyrme land, bicaufe he coulde 
nother fynd the landes ende, nor any token of the ende, as farre as he coulde iudge with his eye : wherfore 
he determined to returne backe agayne, beyng therto partly enforced by the roughneffe of the fea. For the fea 
banckes of the Ilande of Lohanna, by fondrye wyndinges and turnynges, bende them felues fo muche towarde 
the Northe, that the northnortheafle wynde roughely toffed the (hyppes by reafon of the wynter. Tumynge 
therfore the ftemmes of his (hyppes towarde the Eafle, he affyrmed that he had founde the Ilande of Ophir, 
whyther Salomons fhyppes fayled for golde. But the defcription of the Cofmographers well confidered, it 
feemeth that bothe thefe, and the other Ilandes adioynyng, are the Ilandes of Antilia. This Ilande he called 
LLifpaniola : on whofe northe fyde as he approched nere to the lande, the keele or bottome of the biggefte 
veffell ranne vpon a blynde rocke couered with water, and cloue in funder. But the playneneffe of the 
rocke was a helpe to them that they were not drowned. Makynge halle therfore with the other two fhips 
to helpe them, they brought awaye al the men without hurte. Here comming fyrfl. a land, they fawe certayne 
men of the Ilande : who perceauynge an vnknowen nation comminge towarde them, flocked together and ranne 
al into the thycke wooddes, as it hadde byn hares courced with grehoundes. Owre men purfuing them, tooke 
onely one woman, whom they brought to the fhyppes : where fyllinge her with meate and wyne, and 
apparelinge her, they let her departe to her company. Shortly after a greate multitude of them came runnynge 
to the (hore to beholde this newe nation, whom they thought to haue difcended from heauen. They cad them 
felues by heapes into the fea, and came fwimminge to the fhyppes, bryngyng golde with them, which they 
chaunged with owre men for erthen pottes, drinking glaffes, poyntes, pynnes, hawkes belles, lokinge glafles, 
and fuche other trifles. Thus growing to further familiaritie, owre men were honorably enterteyned of the 
kynge of that parte of the Ilande, whofe name was Guatcanarillus : for it hath many kynges, as when 
Eneas arriued in Italy, he founde Latium diuided into many kyngedomes and prouinces, as Latium, Mezeutium, 
Turnum, and Tarchoniem, which were feperated with narow boundes, as fhall more largely appere hereafter. 
At the euen tyde about the faulyng of the fonne, when owre men went to praier, and kneled on their 
knees after the maner of the Chriflians, they dyd the lyke alfo. And after what maner fo euer they fawe them 
praye to the croife, they folowed them in all poyntes as well as they coulde. They fhewed much humanitie 
towardes owre men : and helped them with theyr lighters or fmall boates (whiche they call Canoas) to vnlade 
theyr broken fhyppe : And that with fuche celeritie and cherefulneffe, that no frende for frende, or kynfeman for 
kynfeman, in fuche cafe moued with pitie, coulde do more. Theyr boates are made only of one tree, 
made holow with a certain fharpe flone (for they haue no yron.) And are very longe and narowe. Many affirme 
that they haue fene fome of them with fortie ores. The wylde and myfcheuous people called Canibales or 
Caribcs, whiche were accuftomed to eate mannes fleflhe (and called of the olde writers, Anthropophagi) moled them 
excedyngly, inuadynge theyr countrey, takynge them captiue, kyllyng and eatyng them. As owre men fayled 
to the Ilandes of thefe meke and humayne people, they lefte the Ilandes of the Canibales, in maner in 
the midded of theyr viage towarde the fouth. They complayned that theyr Ilandes were no leffe vexed with 
the incurfions of thefe manhuntyng Canibales when they go forth a rouynge to feeke theyr praye : then are 

The fyrjl Decade. 


other tame beaftes, of Lyons and Tigers. Such chyldren as they take, they geld to make them fat as we 
doo cocke chikyns and younge hogges, and eate them when they are wel fedde : of fuche as they eate, they fyrfl 
eate the intralles and extreme partes, as handes, feete, armes, necke, and heade. The other mode fleffhy partes, 
they pouder for ftore, as we do peflelles of porke and gammondes of bakon. Yet do -they abfleyne from 
eatynge of women and counte it vyle. Therfore fuche younge women as they take, they keepe for increace, as 
we doo hennes to leye egges. The olde women, they make thejT drudges. They of the Ilandes (which 
we may nowe caul owres) bothe the men and the women when they perceaue the Canibales coming, haue none 
other fliyfte but onely to flie : for althoughe they vfe very fharpe arrowes made of reedes, yet are they of fmall 
force to repreffe the furie of the Canibales: for euen they them felues confeffe, that tenne of the Canibals 
are able to ouercome a hundreth of them if they encountre with them. Theyr meate is a certeyne roote which 
they cal Ages: muche lyke a nauew roote in fourme and greatneffe: but of fweete tafle, muche lyke a 
greene cheflnutte. They haue alfo an other kynde of rootes, whiche they call lucca, wherof they make 
breade in lyke maner. They vfe Ages more often rolled or fodden, then to make breade therof. But 
they neuer eate lucca, excepte it be firfle fliced and preffed, (for it is ful of lycoure) and then baked or 
fodden. But this is to be marueled at, that the iuyce of this roote is a poyfon as (Irong as Aconitum, fo 
that if it be dronke it caufeth prefent death, and yet the breade made of the maffe therof, is of good tafle 
and holfome, as all they haue proued. They make alfo an other kynde of breade of a certayne pulfe, called 
Panicum, muche lyke vnto wheate, wherof is great plentie in the dukedome of Mylane, Spayne, and Granatum. 
But that of this countrey is longer by a fpanne, fomewhat fharpe towarde the ende, and as bygge as a mannes 
arme in the brawne: The graynes wherof are fette in a maruelous order, and are in fourme fomwhat 
lyke a peafe. While they be foure and vnripe, they are white : but when they are ripe they be very blacke. 
When they are broken, they be whyter then fnowe. This kynde of grayne, they call Maiziiini. Golde is 
of fome eflimation among them: for fome of them hange certain fmall pieces therof at theyr eares and 
nofethrilles. A lyttell beyonde this place, our men wente a lande for frefflie water, where they chaunced vpon 
a Ryuer whofe fande was myxed with muche golde. They founde there no kindes of foure foted beafles excepte 
three kyndes of lyttell conyes. Thefe Ilandes alfo nourifhe ferpentes : but fuch as are without hurt. Lykewife 
wylde geefe, turtle doues, and duckes, much greater then ours, and as whyte as fwannes, with heades of purple 
coloure. Alfo Popiniaies, of the whiche fome are greene, fome yelowe, and fome lyke them of India, 
with yelowe rynges about theyT neckes, as Plinie defcribeth them. Of thefe they broughte fortie with 
them, of mode liuely and delectable coloures, hauyng theyr fethers entermengled with greene, yelowe, 
and purple, whiche varietie, deliteth the fenfe not a litle. Thus muche thought I good to fpeake of Popingiaies, 
(ryghte noble Prynce) fpecially to this intente, that albeit the opinion of Chriflophorus Colonus (who affirmeth 
thefe Ilandes to be parte of Jndid) dothe not in all poyntes agree with the iudgement of auncient wryters 
as touchynge the bigneffe of the Sphere and compaffe of the Globe as concemynge the nauigable portion 
of the fame beynge vnder vs, yet the Popingiaies and many other thynges brought from thence, doo 
declare that thefe Ilandes fauoure fomwhat of India, eyther beynge nere vnto it, or elles of the fame nature : 
forafmuche as Ariflotle alfo, about the ende of his booke De Ccelo d Mundo, and likewife Seneca, with diuerfe 
other authours not ignorant in Cofmography, do affirme that India is no longe tracte by fea, diflante 
from Spayne by the wefle Ocean, for the foyle of thefe Ilandes, bryngeth forthe Maflix, Aloes, and fundrye 
other fweete gummes and fpyces as doth India. Cotton alfo of the goffampine tree, as in India in the 
countrey of the people called Seres. 

C The languages of all the nations of thefe Ilandes, maye well be written with our Latine letters. For 
they cal heauen Turei. A houfe. Boa. Golde, Cauni. A good man, Taino. Nothing, Mayani. All other 
wordes of theyr language, they pronounce as playnely as we doo the Latine tongue. In thefe Ilandes they 
founde no trees knowen vnto them, but pyne app[l]e trees, and date trees : And thofe of maruelous heyght and 
exceding harde, by reafon of the greate moyflneffe and fatnefle of the grounde, with continuall and temperate 
heate of the fonne, whiche endureth fo all the hole yere. They playnely affyrme the Ilande of Hifpaniola to 
be the mofl fruiteful lande that the heauen compaffeth aboute, as (hall more largely appere hereafter in the 
particular defcription of the fame, whiche we intende to fette foorthe when we fhall be better inflructed. 

Thus makynge a leage of frendfhyppe with the kynge, and leauynge with hym. xxxviii. men to fearche the 
Ilande, he departed to Spayne takynge with hym. x. of the inhabitauntes to lerne the Spanifhe tongue, to the 
intent to vfe them afterwarde for interpretours. Colonus therfore at his retume, was honorably receaued of the 
kyng and queene : who caufed him to fytte in theyr prefence, whiche is a token of great loue and honoure 
amonge the Spaniardes. He was alfo made Admirall of the Ocean : and his brother goue[r]noure of the Hand. 

Towarde the fecond viage, he was furnifhed with. x[v]ii. ftiippes: wherof three were great caractes of a 
thoufand tunne : xii. were of that forte, whiche the Spaniardes call Carauelas : without deckes : and twoo other 
of the lame forte fomewhat bygger, and more apte to beare deckes, by reafon of the gretneffe of theyr mafles. 


Rootes in the 

steede of meate. 


Breade of rootes. 

An herbe of a 
straunge nature. 


Golde in 

Golde in the 
sandcs of ryuei^ 
Serpentes without 
Turtle doues 

These Ilandes are 
parte of India. 
The Indians are 
Antipodes to the 

India not far 
from Spaine 



cotton or bombasc. 

The language of 
these Indians- 
Trees and frutes 
vnknowen to vs. 
Fat and moyste 
Heate continuall 
and temperate. 
The fruitfulnes of 

The seconde viaj^r 
of Colonus. 


The fyrjl Decade. 

He had alfo a thoufand and two hundreth armed footemen well appoynted: Amonge whiche were many 
artificers, as fmythes, carpenters, myners, and fuche other: Certayne horfemen alfo, wel armed: Likewife 
mares, ihiepe, heyghfers, and fuch other of bothe kindes for incrafe. Lykewife all kynde of pulfe or grayne 
and come, as wheate, barlye, rye, beanes and peafe, and fuche other, as well for food as to fowe: Befyde 
vynes, plantes and feedes, of fuche trees, fruites, and herbes, as thofe countreyes lacke. And (not to be for- 
gotten) fundry kindes of artillery and iron tooles, as bowes, arrowes, croffebowes, bylles, hargabufes, brode 
fwoordes, large targettes, pikes, mattockes, fhoouelles, hammers, nayles, fawes, axes, and fuche other. Thus 
beynge fumifhed accordyngely, they fet forwarde from the Ilandes of Gades, (nowe called Cals,) the. vii. day 
before the calendes of October, in the yere of Chrille. 1493. and arriued at the Ilandes of Canarie, at the 
calendes of October. Of thefe Ilandes, the lafle is called Ferrea, in whiche there is no other water that maye 
be drunke, but onely that is gathered of the dewe whiche continually diftilleth from one onely tree growynge 
on the highefl backe of the Ilande, and falleth into a rounde trenche made with mannes hande. We were 
infourmed of thefe thynges within fewe dayes after his departure. What flial fuccede, we wyl certifie yowe 
hereafter. Thus fare ye well, from the courte, at the Ides of Nouember. 1493. 

Come and sedes 
to sowe. 

Tooles and 

Water droppyng 
from a tree 

C The seconde booke of the fyrste Decade 
to Afcanius Phorcia, vicotmte Cardinally etc. 

Mcthymna Campi. 
Castella Vetus. 


The Hand of 

Hands of the 

The Hand of 


viii. hundreth and 

XX. leaques in. xxi. 



The Ilande of 

The Hand of 

Vilages of xx or. 
XXX. houses 
The building of 
theyr houses. 

Owe repete (ryghte honorable Prynce) that yowe are defirous to knowe what newes we haue in 
Spayne from the newe worlde : and that thofe thynges haue greatly delyted you which I wrote 
vnto yowre highneife of the fyrfle nauigation. Yowe (hal now therefore receaue what hath fuc- 
ceded. Meihyvina Campi, is a famous towne in high Spayne in the refpecte frome yowe, and is 
in that parte of Spayne whiche is called Cajlella Vetus: beynge dillante from Gades about. xL 
myles. Here the courte remayned, when aboute the. ix. of the kalendes of Aprell in this yere 
of nynetie and foure, there were pofles fente to the kynge and queene, certifyinge them that 
there were. xii. fhippes come from the newe Ilandes and arryued at Gades. But the gouernoure of the fhyppes 
fente worde to the kynge and quene that he had none other matter to certifie them of by the, but onely 
that the Admiral with fiue (hippes and. iiii. fcore and tenne men remayned flyll in Hifpaniola, to fearche the fecretes 
of the Ilande. And that as touching other matters, he hym felfe wolde fliortly make relation in theyr prefence, by 
worde of mouthe. Therfore the daye before the nones of Aprel, he came to the courte him felfe. What I learned 
of him and other faythefull and credible men whiche came with hym from the Admirall, I wyl reherfe vnto yowe 
in fuch order as they declared the fame to me when I demaunded them. Take it therfore as foloweth. The 
thyrde daye of the Ides of October, departynge from Ferrea, the lafl.e of the Ilandes of Canaria, and from the 
cofles of Spayne with a nauie of xviL Ihippes, they fayled. xxi. dayes before they came to any Ilande: inclyning 
of purpofe more towarde the lefte hand then at the fyrfl viage, folowyng the northnortheaft wynde : and arriued 
fyril at the Ilandes of the Canibales, or Caribes of which, onely the fame was knowen to our men. Amonge 
thefe, they chaunfed fyrfl,e vpon one, fo befet with trees, that they coulde not fe fo muche as an elle fpace 
of bare earthe or flony grounde. This they called Dominica, bicaufe they found it on the funday. They taried 
here no tyme, bycaufe they fawe it to be deferte. In the fpace of thefe. xxi. dayes, they thynke that they fayled 
viii. hundreth and. xx. leaques, the Northenortheaft wynde was fo full with them, and fo freffhely folowed the 
fl,eme of theyr fhyppes. After they hadde fayled a lyttell further, they efpied dyuerfe Ilandes replenyflhed 
with fundrye kyndes of trees, from the whiche came fragrant fauours of fpyces and fweete gummes. Here they 
fawe neyther man nor beafle, except certayne lifartes of huge bigneffe, as they reported whiche went alande to 
viewe the countrey. This Hand they cauled Galana, or Galanta. From the cape or poynt of this Hand, 
efpying a mountayne a farre of, they fayled thyther. Aboute. xxx. myles from this mountayne, they fawe a 
ryuer difcending whiche feemed to be a token of fome great and large fludde. This is the fyrlle lande whiche 
they founde inhabited from the Ilandes of Canaria, and is an Ilande of the Canibales, as they lemed by the 
interpretours whiche they tooke with them from Hifpaniola into Spayne at theyr fyrft,e viage. Serchynge the 
Ilande, they founde innumerable villages of xx. houfes or. xxx. at the moofl.e, fette rounde abowte in order, 
makynge the flreete in coompafle lyke a markette place. And forafmuch as I haue made mention of theyr 
houfes, it fhal not be greately from my purpofe to defcribe in what maner they are buylded. They are made 
rounde lyke belles or rounde pauylions. Theyr frame is rayfed of excedynge hyghe trees, fette clofe together 
and fall rampaired in the grounde, fo ftandyng a flope and bending inward that the toppes of the trees ioyne 


The fyrjl Decade. 


together and beare one agaynRe an other, hauynge alfo within the houfe, certayne (Ironge and fliorte props or 
pofles whiche fufleyne the trees from fallynge. They coiier them with the leaues of date trees and other trees 
(Irongly compact and hardened, wherewith they make them clofe from wynde and wether. At the fliort pofles 
or proppes within the houfe, they tie ropes of the cotton of goffampine trees, or other ropes made of certayne 
long and toughe rotes much lyke vnto the (hrubbe called Spartum, wherof in olde tyme they vfed to make 
bondes for vynes and cabuls and ropes for (hyppes. Thefe they tye ouerthwarte the houfe from pofte to polle. 
On thefe they ley as it were certa3me mattreffes made of the cotton of the goffampine trees, whiche growe 
plentifully in thefe Ilandes. This cotton the Spaniardes call Algodon, and the Italians Boinbafine. And thus 
they fleepe in hangynge beddes. At the enteraunce of one of theyr houfes, they fawe two Images of woodde 
lyke vnto ferpentes, whiche they thoughte had b)Ti fuch idoles as they honour. But they lemed afterwarde that 
they were fette there onely for coomlyneffe. For they knowe none other god then the Sunne and Moone, 
althoughe they make certaine Images of goffampine cotton to the fimilitude of fuch phantafies as they fay 
appere to them in the nyghte. Our men found in theyr houfes, all kyndes of erthen veffels, not muche vnlyke 
vnto oures. They founde alfo in theyr kichens, mannes fleflhe, duckes fleffhe, and goofe fleffhe, al in one pot : 
and other on the fpittes redye to be layde to the fire. Entrynge into theyr inner lodgynges, they founde 
faggottes of the bones of mennes armes and legges, which they referae to make heades for theyr arrowes, 
bycaufe they lacke iron. The other bones they cade awaye when they haue eaten the fleffhe. They founde 
Ukewife the heade of a yonge man faflened to a pofle and yet bledinge. They haue in fome villages, one great 
haule or pallaice, aboute the whiche theyr common houfes are placed. To this they refort, as often as they 
come together to playe. When they perceaued the commynge of our men, they fledde, in theyr houfes they 
founde alfo about, xxx. chyldren and women captiues which were referued to be eaten, but our men tooke them 
awaye to vfe them for interpretoures. Searchyng more diligently th[e]ynner partes of the Ilande, they founde. 
vii. other ryuers, bygger then this whiche we fpake of before, runnyng throughe the Ilande, with fruitefull and 
pleafante banckes, delectable to beholde. This Ilande, they called Guadalupea, for the fimilitude that it hath 
to the mounte Guadalupus in Spayne, where the Image of the virgin MARIE is religioufly honored. But the 
inhabitauntes caul it Carucueria, or Queraquiera. It is the chiefe habitation of the Canibales. They brought 
from this Hand. vii. Popingayes, bygger then phefantes, muche differynge from other in coloure : hauynge theyr 
backes, brefle.s, and bealies of purple coloure, and theyr wynges of other variable coloures. In al thefe Ilandes 
is no leffe plentie of popingiayes then with vs of fparrowes or flarlinges. As we brynge vp capons and hennes 
to francke or make them fatte, fo do they thefe bigger kyndes of popyngaies for the fame purpofe. After that 
they hadde thus fearched the Ilande and dryuen thefe Canibales to flyghte, (whiche ranne awaye at theyr fyrfl 
approche as fone as they had efpied them) they cauled theyr company together. And as foone as they had 
broken the Canibah boates or lyghters (whiche they call Canoas) they lowfed theyr ankers the daye before the 
Ides of Nouember, and departed from Guadalupea. Colonus the admirall, for the defyre he hadde to fe his 
companions, whiche at his fyrfl vyage he lefte the yere before in Hifpaniola to fearche the countrey, lette paffe 
many Ilandes bothe on his righte hande and lefte hande, and fayled directly thyther. By the waye, there 
appeared from the Northe. A great Ilande which the captiues that were taken in Hifpaniola^ cauled Madanino, 
or Matinino : Affirmynge it to be inhabited only with women : To whom the Canibales haue acceffe at certen 
tymes of the yeare, as in owlde tyme the Thracians had to the Amazones in the Ilande of Lefbos. The men 
children, they fende to theyr fathers. But the women theye kepe with them felues. They haue greate and 
flronge caues or dennes in the ground, to the which they flye for fafegarde if any men reforte vnto them at any 
other tyme then is appoynted. And there defende them felues with bowes and arrowes, agenfl the violence of 
fuche as attempte to enuade them. They coulde not at this tyme approche to this Ilande, by reafon of the 
Northenortheafl wynde which blewe foo vehemently from the fame, wheras they nowe folowed the Eaflefouth- 
eafle. After they departed frome Madanino, and fayled by the fpace of xl. myles, they pafled not farre frome 
an other Ilande which the captyues fayde to bee verye peopulous, and replenyfhed with all thynges neceffarie 
for the life of man. This they cauled Mons Serratus, bycaufe it was ful of mountaynes. The captyues 
further declared that the Canibales, are wonte at fome tyme to goo frome theyr owne coafles aboue a 
thoufande myle to hunte for men. The daye folowynge, they fawe an other Ilande the whiche, bycaufe it was 
rownde, they cauled Sancla Maria Rotunda. The nexte daye, theye founde an other, which they cauled S. 
Martini. Which they lette paffe alfo bycaufe they had no leafure to tarye. Lykewyfe the thirde daye they 
efpyed an other, whofe Diametral fyde extendynge frome the Eafle to the wefle, they iudged to bee a hundreth 
and fyftie myle. Theye affirme all thefe Ilandes to be maruelous fayre and frutefull. This lafle, they cauled 
Sanda Maria Antigua. Saylyng yet forwarde, and leauynge many other Ilandes, after they had fayled aboute fortie 
myle, they chaunced vpon an other muche bygger then any of the refle, which th[e]inhabitan[t]s caule Ay Ay, but 
they named it Infula crucis. Heare they call anker to fetche freffhe water. The Admiral alfo commaunded. 
XXX. men to go a lande out of his owne fhyp, and to fearch the Ilande Here they founde fowre dogges on the 

12 69 


Hanginge beddes. 


Fyne cookery 

Arrowe beds of 

The mount 


bygger then 

l*he Canibales 
dryuen to flyght 

Matinino an 
Ilande of women. 

The Ilandes of 
Mons Serratus. 

Himtinge for men 

Sancta Maria 
Sanctus Martinus. 

Sancta Maria 

Insula crucis 
An Ilande of the 


Thefyrjl Decade. 

The Canibales are 
expert archere- 
Arrowes infected 
with veneme. 

A conflict with the 

The fiercenes 
and terrible 
countenaunce of 
the Canibales. 

Methymna Campi. 


rhe mynes of 
>letales and 
precious stones. 

The sea cauled 
Insula. S. 
lohannes or 

Death for deathe 

The mountaynes 
are couider then 
the playncs. 

From Dominica 
to HLspaniola fyue 
hundreth leaques 

The Spanyardes 
lefte in the Hand 
are slayne. 


Two images of 

Libertie and 

A happy kind of 

fliore. The Inhabitants are Canibales, and mamelous experte in fliutinge, as well women as men : And vfe to 
infecte theyr arrowes with poyfon : when they had taryed there two dayes, they fawe a farre of, a Canoa, in the 
whiche were eight men and as manye women hauynge with them bowes and arrowes. They fearfly aflayled 
owre men withoute all feare, and hurte fum of them with theyr venemous arrowes. Amonge thefe there was a 
certen woman to whome the other gaue reuerence and obeyde as though fhe were theyr queene. Her fonne 
wayted vppon her, beinge a younge man, (Irongly made, of terrible and frownynge countenaunce and a lyons 
face. Owre men leafle they (holde Uke the more hurte by beinge wounded a farre of, thowght it befle to ioyne 
with them. Therfore with all fpede fettinge forewarde with their ores the brigantine in whiche they were fette 
alande, they ouertumed their Canoa with a great violence, which beinge ouer^vhelmed, tliey notwithftondinge, 
as well the women as the men fwymminge, cade theyr dartes at owre men, thicke and threefowlde. At the 
lengthe, gatherynge them felues together vpon a rocke couered with the water, they fowght manfully vntyll they 
were ouercome and taken, one being flayne, and the queenes fonne fore wounded. When they were browght 
into the Admirals fhippe, they dyd no more put of their fiemes and cruell countenances, then do the Lyons of 
Libia when theye perceaue them felues to be bownde in chaynes. There is no man able to behowlde them, 
but he fhall feele his bowelles grate with a certen horroure, nature hath endewed them with foo terrible 
menacynge, and cruell afpecte. This coniecture I make of my felfe and other which often tymes wente with me 
to fee them at Methymna Campi. But nowe to retume to the viage. Proceadinge thus further and further, 
more then fine hundrethe myles, firfte towardes the Weflefouthewefle, then towarde the Southwell, and at the 
lengthe towarde the Wefle northe wefte, they entered into a mayne large fea hauinge in it innumerable 
Ilandes, maruelouflye differinge one frome an other, for fum of them were verye frutefull and full of herbes and 
trees. Other fum, very drye, barren, and rowgh with high rockye mountaynes of flone, wherof fum were 
of bright blewe or afurine coloure, and other glylleringe white : wherfore they fuppofed them by good reafon to 
bee the mynes of metalles and precious Hones. But the rowghnes of the fea, and multitude of Ilandes 
ftandinge fo thicke togyther, hindered them foo, that they cowlde calle no anker leafte the bigger veffelles 
Ihulde runne vppon the rockes. Therefore they deferred the fearchinge of thefe Ilandes vntyl an other tyme 
They were fo manye and (loode fo thicke, that they coulde not number them. Yet the fmauler veffelles which 
drewe no greate depthe, entered emonge them and numbered fortie and fyxe Ilandes. But the bigger veffelles, 
kepte aloofe in the mayne fea for feare of the rockes. They caule the fea where this multitude of Ilandes are 
fituate, Archipelagus. Frome this tracte proceadinge forrewarde, in the mydde waye there lyeth an Hand which 
th[e]inhabitantes caule Burichena, or Buchma. But they named it Infula S. lohannis. Dyuers of theym 
whome we had delyuered frome the Canibales, fayde that they were borne in this Ilande : affirminge it to be 
very peopulous and frutefull, hauinge alfo manye fayre wooddes and hauens. There is deadly hatred and 
continual battayle betwene them and the Canibales. They haue no boates to paffe from their owne coafles to 
the Canibales. But if it bee their chaunce to ouercome them, when they make incurfion into theyr countreye 
to feke their praye (as it fumtyme happeneth, the fortune of warre beinge vncerteyne) they feme them 
with like faufe, requitinge deathe for deathe. For one of theym mangeleth an other in pieces, and rofle them 
and eate them euen before their eyes. They taryed not in this Ilande. Yet in the wefle angle therof, a fewe 
of them went a lande for freffhe water, and fownd a greate and high howfe after the maner of their buylding, 
hauinge. xii. other of their vulgare cotages placed abowte the fame : but were all lefte defolate, whether it were 
that they reforted to the mountaynes by refon of the heate which was that tyme of the yeare, and to retume to 
the playne when the ayre waxeth cowlder, or els for feare of the Canibales which make incurfion into the Ilande 
at certen feafons. In all this Ilande is only one kinge. The fouth fyde hereof extendeth abowte two hundrethe 
myles. Shortlye after, they came to the Ilande oiHifpaniola, beinge diffante frome the firffe Ilande of the 
Canibales, fyue hundrethe leaques. Here they fownde all thynges out of order, and theyr felowes flayne which 
they lefte here at their fyrfle vyage. In the beginninge of Hifpaniola, (hauinge in it many regions and 
kyngedomes as we haue fayde) is the region of Xamana whofe kinge is named Guaccanarillus. This 
Guaccanarillus ioyned frendefhippe with owre men at the fyrfle viage, and made a league with them: But 
in the abfence of the Admirall, he rebelled, and was the caufe of owre mens deftruction, althowgh he diffmiuled 
the fame, and pretended frendfhip at the Admirales retume. As owre men fayled on yet a litle further, they 
efpied a longe Canoa with many ores, in which was the brother of Guaccanarillus with only one man waytinge on 
hym. He browght with hym two Images of goulde, which he gaue the Admirall in the name of his brother. 
And towlde a tale in his language as conceminge the deathe of owre men, as they proued afterwarde, but at 
this tyme had no regarde to his communication for lacke of interpretours, which were eyther all deade, or 
efcaped or (loulne awaye when they drewe nere the Ilandes. But of the. x. [ten.] vii. [seuen] dyed by change of 
ayre and dyet The inhabitantes of thefe Ilandes haue byn euer foo vfed to Hue at libertie, in playe and paftyme, 
that they can hardely away with the yoke of feruitude which they attempte to fhake of by all meanes they maye. 
And furely if they had receaued owre religion, I wolde thinke their life moile happye of all men, if they might 

The fyrjt Decade. 


therwith enioye their aunciente libertie. A fewe thinges contente them, hauinge no dehte in fuche fuperfluites, 
for the which in other places men take infinite paynes and commit manie vnlawfull actes, and yet are neuer 
fatiffied, wheras many haue to muche, and none inowgh. But emonge thefe fimple fowles, a fewe clothes feme 
the naked : weightes and meafures are not needefuU to fuch as can not flcyll of crafte and deceyte and haue not 
the vfe of pefliferous monye, the feede of innumerable myfcheues. So that if we fhall not be afliamed to 
confeffe the truthe, they feeme to lyue in that goulden worlde of the whiche owlde wryters fpeake fo much : 
wherin men lyued fimplye and innocentlye without inforcement of lawes, without quarrellinge ludges and 
libelles, contente onely to fatiffie nature, without further vexation for knowelege of thinges to come. Yet thefe 
naked people alfo are tormented with ambition for the defyre they haue to enlarge their dominions: by reafon 
wherof they kepe warre and dellroy one an other: from the which plage I fuppofe the golden world was not 
free. For euen then alfo. Cede, non cedam, that is, gyue place, and I wyll not giue place, had entred emonge 
men. But nowe to returne to the matter from which we haue digreffed. The admiral defyrous to knowe 
further of the death of his men, fent for Guaccanarillus to come to him to his fhip, diffimulinge that he knew 
any thinge of the matter. After that he came aboord Ihyp, faluting the Admiral and his company gyuing alfo 
certen golde to the Capetaynes and offycers, turned him to the women captiues which not longe before our 
men had deliuered from the Canibaks. And emeflly beholding one of them whome owre men cauled Catharyne, he 
fpake gentelly vnto her. And thus when he had feene and marueyled at the horfes and fuche other thinges as 
were in the fhyppe, vnknowen to them, and had with a good grace and merelye afked leaue of the Admirall, he 
departed. Yet fum there were which counfeyled the Admirall to kepe hym (lyll : that if they might by any 
meanes proue that he was confentinge to the deathe of owre men, he might bee punifhed accordinglie. But 
the Admirall confidering that it was yet no tyme to incenfe th[e]inhabitantes myndes to wrathe, dyfmyfled 
hym. The next daye folowing, the kinges brother refortyng to the (hyppes, eyther in his owne name or in his 
brothers, feduced the women. For on the next nyght about mydnight, this Katherine afwell to recouer her 
owne libertie as alfo her felowes, being fubomed therto eyther by the kinge or his brothers promifes attempted 
a much more difhculte and daungerous aduenture then dyd Cloelia of Rome, which beinge in hoflage with other 
maydes to the kynge Porcena, deceaued her kepers, and rode ouer the r)aier Tiber, with the other virgins 
which were pledges with her. For wheras they fwamme ouer the ryuer on horfebacke. This Katharyne with 
feuen other women, truflynge onlye to the (Irengthe of theyr owne armes, fwamme aboue three longe myles : 
and that alfo, at fuche tyme as the fea was fumwhat rowghe. For euen foo farre of frome the fhore, lay the 
fhippes at rode, as nigh as they could coniecture But owre men folowinge them with the fliippeboates, by the fame 
light feene on the (hore wherby the women were ledde, tooke three of them : fuppofinge that Katharyne with 
the other foure, went to Guaccanarillus. For in the fpringe of the mominge, certen meffengers beinge fente to 
hym by the Admirall, had intelligence that he was fledde with all his familie and lluife, and the women alfo. 
which thinge miniflred further fufpection that he was confentinge to the death of owre men. Wherfore the 
Admirall fente forthe an armye of three hundrethe men, ouer the which he appoynted one Melchior to be 
capitayne, wylling him to make diligent fearche to fynde owte Guaccanarillus. Melchior therfore with the 
fmaulefle veffels enteringe into the countreye by the ryuers and fcouringe the (hores, chaunced into certen 
croked goulfes defended with, v lyttle and fliepe hilles, fuppofinge that it had byn the mouth of fum greate 
ryuer. He founde here alfo a verye commodious and fafe hauen, and therefore named it Partus Pegalis. 
They faye that the enteraunce of this is fo crooked and bendinge, that after the fhippes are once within the 
lame, whether they tume them to the lefte hand, or to the ryght, they can not perceaue where they came in 
vntyll they returne to the mouth of the ryuer : Although it be there fo brode that three of the byggelle veffels 
may fayle together on a firoont. The fharpe and high hilles on the one fyde and on the other, fo brake the 
wynde, that they were vncerten howe to rule theyr fayles. In the myddle gulfe of the ryuer, there is a 
promontorie or point of the lande with a pleafaunte groue full of Popingayes and other byrdes which breede 
therein and finge verye fweetlye. They perceaued alfo that two ryuers of no fmaule largenes fell into the hauen. 
Whyle they thus fearched the lande betwene bothe, Melchior efpied a high houfe a farre of, where fuppofinge 
that Guaccanarillus had lyne hyd, he made towarde it. And as he was goynge, there mette hym a man with a 
frownynge countenaunce and a grymme looke, with a hundreth men folowynge hym, armed with bowes and 
arrowes, and long and fharpe flaues like iauelynnes, made harde at the endes with fyre. Who approchyng 
towardes owre men, fpake owte alowde with a terryble voyce, fayenge that they were Taini, (that is) noble men, 
and not Canibaks. But when owre men had gyuen them fignes of peace, they lefte bothe theyr weapons and 
fiercenes. Thus geuynge eche of them certen haukes belles, they tooke it for fo greate a rewarde, that they 
defyred to enter bondes of nere frendelhyppe with vs, and feared not immediatly to fubmitte them felues vnder 
owre power, and reforted to our fhyps with theyr prefentes. They that meafured the houfe (beinge made in 
rounde forme) fownde it to be from fyde to fyde. xxxii. greate paces, compafed abowte with. xxx. other vulgare 
houfes, hauinge in them many beames croffe ouer, and couered with reedes of fundry colours, ^vrethed and as it 


Many haue to 
much and none 

The goulden 

Naked men 
troubled with 

Gyue place. 

The Admiral 
sendeth for the 

No horses in 
the llandes 

A tyme for all 

A desperate 
aduenture of a 

Cloelia of Rome. 

is sought. 

Popingiiycs and 


Haukes belles. 
-\ large hous 


The fyrji Decade. 

Reedes of 
sundry colours. 


Hoiedus and 

Golde in ryuers 
faulinge from 

The maner of 
gathering golde. 
Graynes of golde. 

A masse of rude 
golde weighinge. 
IX ounces. 

Caunaboa, kynge 
of the house of 

Holsome water 
and plentie of 

The day and nyght 
of equal length 
in December. 
Byrdes breed in 
The eleuation 
of the pole 
The starres are 
cauled gardens 
of the pole. \Q 

The Equinoctial 

A chapel and 


The Cynamome 

Xiloaloes or 
lignum Aloes. 

were weaued with maruelous art When owre men a(ked fum of them where they myght fynde Guaccanarillus. 
They aunfwered that that Region was none of his. But theyr kynges beynge there prefente. Yet they fayde 
they fuppofed that Guaccanarillus was gone from the playne to the mountaynes. Makynge therfore a brotherly 
league with this Caccicus, (that is to faye a kynge) they retourned to the Admyrall to make relation what they 
hadde feene and harde : whervppon he fent forth dyuers other Centurians with their hundrethes to fearche the 
countrey yet further. Emonge the which were Hoiedus and Gorualanus, noble younge gentlemen and of great 
courage. And as they went towarde the mountaines to feeke Guaccanarillus, dyuidinge the mountaynes betwene 
them, one of them fownde on the one fyde therof foure ryuers faulynge frome the fame mountaynes : and the 
other founde. iii. on the other fyde. In the fandes of all thefe ryuers is fownd great plentye of goulde, which 
th[e]inhabitantes of the fame Ilande which were with vs, gathered in this maner. Making holes in the fande 
with theyr handes, a Cubette deape, and takynge vp fande with their lefte handes from the botome of the fame, 
they picked out graynes of goulde with their ryght handes withowte any more arte or cunnynge. And fo 
deliuered it to owre men : who affirme that many of them thus gathered, were as bygge as tares or fytchis. 
And I my felfe lawe a maffe of rude goulde, (that is to fay, fuch as was neuer molten) lyke vnto fuche flones as 
are founde in the bottomes of ryuers, weighinge n)me ownces, which Hoieda him felfe fownde. Beinge contented 
with thefe fignes, they returned to the Admirall to certifie him hereof For the Admirall had commaunded 
vnder payne of punyfhement that they fliuld meddle no further then their commifTion : which was only to 
fearche the places with their fignes. For the fame went that there was a certa3Tie kynge of the mountaynes 
from whenfe thofe ryuers had their faule, whom they caule Cacicus Caunaboa that is, the lord of the houfe of 
golde. For they caule a houfe Boa, goulde, Cauni : and a kynge or Lorde, Caciats, as we haue fayde before. 
They affirme that there can noo where be found better fyffhe, nor of more pleafant tafl, or more holfome then in 
thefe ryuers : alfo the waters of the fame to be moft. holfom to drynke. Melchior hym felfe towld me, that in the 
moneth of December, the days and nyghtes bee of equal length among the Canibales. But the fphere or circles 
of the heauen, agreeth not thervnto. Albeit that in the fame moneth, fume byrdes make their nefles, and fume 
haue alredy hatched their egges by reafon of the heate beinge rather continuall then extreme. He towlde me 
alfo when I queliioned with hym as concemynge the eleuation of the pole from the horizontal lyne, that 
al the flerres cauled Plajlrum or charles wayne, are hydde vnder the Northe pole to the Canibales. And 
furely there returned none from thenfe at this viage, to whome there is more credit to be gyuen, then 
to this man. But if he had byn (kilfull in Aftronomye, he Ihulde haue fayde that the day was almolle 
equall with the night. For in no place towarde the flay of the fonne (cauled Soljliciuni) can the night 
be equall with the day. And as for them, they neuer came vnder the Equinoctiall, for afmuch as they 
had euer the northe pole theyr guyde, and euer eleuate in fight aboue the Horizontal. Thus haue I 
briefely written vnto yowre honoure, as muche as I thought fufficiente at this tyme. And fhall fhortly hereafter 
(by Gods fauoure) wryte vnto you more largely of fuche matters as fhalbe dayly better knowen. For the 
admirall hym felfe (whome I vfe famylyerly as my verye frende) hathe promyfed me by his letters, that he wyl 
gyue me knowlege of al fuch thynges as fhall chaunce. He hath nowe chofen a flronge place where he may 
buyld a Citie nere vnto a comodious hauen. And hath alredy buylded many houfes and a chapell in the 
whiche (as in a newe worlde heretofore voyde of all religion) god is dayly ferued with. xiii. preefles accordinge 
to the maner of owre churches. When the tyme nowe approched when he promyfed to fende to the kynge and 
queene, and hauynge profperous wynde for that purpofe, fent backe the. xii. Carauelles wherof we made mencion 
before it was no fmaul hynderance and greefe, vnto hym : Efpecially confyderynge the death of his men whom 
he lefte in the Ilande at the fyrfl vyage, wherby we are yet ignorant of many places and other fecretes wherof 
we might otherwyfe haue had further knowleage. But as tyme fhall reueale them ageyne, fo wyll I aduertyfe 
yowe of the fame. And that you may the better knowe by conference had with the Apothecaries and marchaunt 
flrangers Sirophenicians, what thefe Regions beare, and howe hotte theyr ground is, I haue fent you all kyndes 
of graynes, with the barke and inner partes of that tree whiche they fuppofe to bee the Cinamome tree. And 
yf it be your pleafure to tafle eyther of the graynes, or'cf the fmaule feedes the which you fhoulde perceaue to 
haue fawlen from thefe graynes, or of the wodde it felfe, touch them firfle foftely mouinge them to your lyppes. 
For although they bee not hurtefull, yet for theyr exceffe of heate, they are fharpe and byte the tongue, yf they 
remayne any whyle theron. But if the tongue be blyflered by taflynge of them, the fame is taken away by 
drynkynge of water. Of the come alfo wherof they make theyr breade, this brynger fhall delyuer fume graynes 
to your Lordefhyppe bothe whyte and blacke : And therwith alfo, a Trunke of the tree of Aloes The which if 
you cutte in peeces, you fhall feele a fweete fauoine to proceade from the fame. Thus fare you hartely 
wel. From the courte of Methimna Campi. The thyrde day before the Calendes of May. Anno. Domini, 

The fyrjl Decade. 


C The thyrde boke of the fyrst Decade, 
to Lodouike Cardinall of Aragonye and Neuie to the kyttge. 

Owe defyre that folyflie Phaeton fliulde ageine rule the Chariotes of the Sunne: And contende 
to drawe fweete lycoures out of the harde flynte, wheras you requyre me to dyffcribe vnto 
you the newe worlde, fownde in the wefle by the good fortune and gouemaunce of the 
CathoHke Princes Ferdinandus and HeHfabeth, your Vncle and Aunte : fhewyng me alfo 
the letters of kynge Frederike your vncle, wrytten to me in the fame behalfe. But fythe 
you haue layde this burden on my backe, in whofe power it is to commaunde me to take 
vppon me more then I am wel able. Ye bothe flial receaue this precious (lone, rudely 
clofed in leade after my maner of workemanfliyppe. Wherfore when you fhall perceaue the lemed forte frend- 
elye : The malicious, enuioufly : And the backebyters, furioufly, to bende theyr fclaunderous dartes ageynft 
owre fayre Nimphes of the Ocean, you fliall freely protefle in howe fliort tyme, and in the myddefte of what 
troubles and calamities, you haue enforced me to wryte of the fame. Thus fare you well frome Granata the 
ninthe day before the Calendes of May. 

f[ We haue declared in the boke here before, howe the Admirall pafTed by the coafles of the Canibaks to 
the Ilande of Hifpaniola with his whole nauie. But nowe we entende further to fhewe what he fownde as 
concernynge the nature of this Ilande, after that he had better fearched the feacreates of the fame: Likewyfe 
of the Ilande of Cuba nere vnto it which he yet fuppofed to bee the firme lande. Hifpaniola therfore 
(which he affirmeth to bee Ophir, wherof we reade in the thyrde boke of the kynges) is of latitude, fyue fouthe 
degrees: hauynge the northe pole eleuate on the northe fyde. xxvii. degrees: And on the Southe fyde (as they 
faye) xxii. degrees. It reacheth in length from the Eafle to the Wefle, feuen hundrethe and foure fcore myles. 
It is diftant from the Ilandes of Gades (cauled Caks) xlix. degrees, and more as fum faye. The forme of the 
Ilande, refembleth the leafe of a chefnutte tree. Vppon a high hyll on the North fyde of the Ilande, he 
buylded .a citie, bycaufe this place was mofl apte for that purpofe by reafon of a myne of flones which was 
nere vnto the fame, feruynge well bothe to buylde with, and alfo to make lyme. At the bottome of this hyll, 
is there a great playne of three fcore myles in lengthe : and in bredth fumwhere. xii. fumwhere. xx. myles where 
it is brodefl, and. vi. myles where it is narowefl Through this playne runne dyuers fayre ryuers of holfome 
waters. But the greatefl of them which is nauigable, fauleth into the hauen of the citie for the fpace of halfe a 
furlonge. Howe fertile and fruitfuU this valley is, you fhal vnderfland by thefe thynges which folowe. On the 
fhore of this ryuer, they haue lymyted and enclofed certeyne grounde to make ^ardeynes and orchiardes, in the 
which al kyndes of bygger herbes, as radyfhe, letufe, colewortes, borage, and fuch other, waxe rype within, xvi, 
dayes after the feede is fowen. Lykewyfe Melones, Goiirdes, Cucumers, and fuche other, within the fpace of 
xxxvl dayes. Thefe garden herbes, they haue freffhe and greene all the whole yeare. Alfo the rootes of the 
canes or reedes, of the lycour wherof, fuger is made, growe a cubette high within the fpace of xv. dayes : but 
the lycoure is not yet hardened. The lyke they affirme of plantes or fhrouddes of younge vines : And that 
they haue the fecond yeare gathered ripe and fweete grapes of the fame. But by reafon of to muche rankenes, 
they beare but fewe cluflers. Furthermore, a man of the countrey fowed a lyttle wheat about the Calendes of 
February, and brought with hym to the citie a handefull of the rype eares of the fame the thyrde day before 
the calendes of Aprell : which was that yeare the vigile of the Refurrection of owre Lorde. Alfo, al kyndes of 
pulfe, as beanes, peafon, fytches, tares, and fuche other, are rype twyfe in the yeare, as all they which come 
from thenfe, affirme with one voyce : Yet that the grounde is not vniuerfally apte to beare wheate. In the 
meane t)rme whyle thefe thynges were doinge, the Admirall fent owte a companye of xxx. men to fearche the 
Region of Cipanga, otherwyfe cauled Cibana This Region is full of mountaynes and rockes : And the myddle 
backe of the hole Ilande in the whiche is greate plentie of goulde. When they that went to fearche the Region, 
were returned they reported maruelous thynges as touchinge the great ryches of this Region. Frome thefe 
mountaynes, defcende foure greate ryuers, which by the maruelous induflrye of nature, deuided the hole Ilande 
into foure partes, in maner equall, ouerfpreadinge and wateringe the hole Ilande with their branches. Of thefe 
foure ryuers, the one reacheth towarde the Eafle. This the inhabitantes caule lunna : An other, towarde the 
Wefle, and is cauled Attibunicus. The thirde towarde the Northe, named lachem : the lafle reacheth into the 
Southe, and is cauled Naiba. The daye before the Ides of Marche, the Admiral him felfe with al his horfe 
men and foure hundreth footemen, marched directly towarde the South fyde of the goulden Region. Thus 
paffinge ouer the ryuer, the plaine and the mountayne which enuironed the other fyde of the playne, he 
chaunced vpon an other vale the which a ryuer muche bygger then the fyrfle, and many other meane ryuers 


The fable of 


Ferdinandus and 
queene Helizabeth 

He meaneth 
the Ilandes. 



Ophir whether 
Salomons ships 
sayled for golde. 


A playne of 
threescore myles 
of lengthe. 

A token of 

Herbes grene al 
the hole yeare. 
Suger reeds 
plantes and vines. 

Come and grayne 
rype twise a yeare 

The Region of 
Cipanga or 

Foure greate 

The golden 
region of Cibana 


The fyrjl Decade. 

Vales and 

The vale of 

Goldc for haukes 

Graynes and 
pipple stones of 

They passe not 
for golde, in that 
it is golde onely 
but etc. 

Stones of golde as 
byg as the headc 
of a chylde. 


Wylde vines of 
pteasaunte taste. 


Golde in the 
sandes of ryuere 
faulinge from the 
LiberUe and 

The mountaynes 
are coulde. 

The Ilande of 

Least any other 
prince, &c 

betweene the 
Portugales and 

The Ilandes of 
Cobouerde or 


The Portugalci 

ninne throwgh. When he had alfo conueighed his armye ouer the ryuer and paffed the feconde vale whiche 
was in no part inferiour to the firfle, he made away through the thirde mountayne, where was no paflage before, 
and defcended into an other vale which was nowe the beginninge of Cibana. Through this alfo runne many 
fluddes, and ryuers, out of euery hyll, and in the fandes of theym all, is fownde great plentie of goulde. And 
when he had nowe entered three fcore and twelue myles into the goulden region from the citie he entended 
to buylde a fortreffe vppon the toppe of a hyll, Handing by the fhore of a certeyne great ryuer, that he might 
the better and more fafelye fearche the fecreates of the inner partes of the Region. This he cauled the fortreffe 
of faynte Thomas. The which in the meane tyme whyle he was buyldynge, th[e]inhabitantes beinge defirous 
of haukes belles and other of owre thinges, reforted dayly thyther. To whom the Admirall declared, that 
if they wolde brynge goulde, they fhulde haue what fo euer they wolde afke, Forthwith tumynge theyr 
backes and runnynge to the (hore of the next ryuer, they returned in a (hort tyme, brynginge with them 
their handes full of goulde. Amongefl. al other, there came a owld man bringynge with him two pybble Hones 
of goulde weighinge an vnce, defyrynge them to gyue him a bell for the fame who when he fawe oure men 
maruell at the byggenes therof, he made fignes that they were but fmaule and of no value in refpecte of fume 
that he had feene. And takynge in his hande foure flones the leafl wherof was as bygge as a walnut, and the 
byggeft. as bygge as an orange, he fayde that there was fownde peeces of goulde foo bygge in his countrey, 
beynge but halfe a dayes ioumey from thenfe, and that they had no regarde to the gatheringe therof. Wherby 
we perceaue that they pafle not muche for goulde in afmuch as it is goulde only, but fo farre efleeme it, as the 
hande of the artificer hathe fafliioned it in any coomely fourme. For who doth greatly elleeme rowgh marble 
or vnwrought luerye. But if they be wrought with the cunninge hande of Phidias or Praxiteles, and (haped to 
the fimilitude of the fayre nimphes or fayeres of the fea (cauled Nereiades) or the fayres of the wods, (cauled 
Hamadriades) they fhal neuer lacke byers. Befyde this owld man, there came alfo dyuers other, brynginge with 
them pypple flones of gold weighing, x. or. xii. drammes : And feared not to confeffe, that in the place where they 
gathered that golde, there were found fumtyme Hones of gold as bygge as the heade of a chyld When he had 
taryed heare a fewe dayes, he fent one Luxanus, a noble younge gentylman with a fewe armed men to fearche 
all the partes of this Region. Who at his retume, reported that th[e]inhabitantes fliewed him greater thinges 
then we haue fpoken of here before. But he dyd openly declare nothynge therof: which they thought was 
doone by the Admirales commaundement They haue wooddes full of certeyne fpyces : but not fuche as we 
commonly vfe. Thefe they gather euen as they do golde : that is as much as wyl feme for theyr purpofe, euery 
man for hym felfe, to exchange the fame with the inhabitantes of other countreys adioyninge to them, for fuch 
thinges as they lacke, as dyffhes, pottes, flooles, and fuche other neceffaries. As Luxanus returned to the 
Admiral, (which was about the Ides of Marche) he fownde in the wooddes, certeyne wylde vines, rype and of 
pleafaunt tafle. But th[e]inhabitantes paffe not on them. This Region though it bee full of (lones and rockes 
(and is therfore cauled Cibana, whiche is as muche to faye as a Hone) yet it is well replenyfhed wth trees and 
paHures. Ye they inflantly affirme, that if the graffe of thefe mountaynes bee cutte, it groweth ageyne within 
the fpace of foure dayes, higher then wheate. And for as muche as many fhowers of rayne doo faule in this 
Region, whereof the ryuers and fluddes haue "their increafe, in euery of the which, golde is fownde myxte with 
fande in all places, they iudge that the golde is dryuen from the mountaynes, by the vehement courfe of the 
Hreames which faule from the fame, and runne into the ryuers. The people of this Region are gyuen to 
Idelnes and playe. For fuche as inhabyte the mountaynes, fyt quakynge for coulde in the wynter feafon, and 
had rather foo wander vppe and downe Idelly, then take the peines to make them apparell, wheras they haue 
wooddes full of goITampine cotton. But fuch as dwel in the vales or plaines feele no coulde in wynter. When 
the Admirall had thus fearched the beginninge of the region of Cibana, he repayred to Ifabella (for fo he named 
the citie) where, leauinge the gouemance of the Ilande with his deputies, he prepared hym felfe to fearch further 
the lymettes of the Ilande of Cuba or Johanna, which he yet doubted to bee the firme lande, and diHant from 
Hifpaniola, onely three fcore and ten myles. This dyd he with more fpeedy expedicion, caulyng to remem- 
braunce the kinges commaundement, who wylled hym fyril with all celeritie to ouer runne the coaHes of the 
newe Ilandes, leaHe any other prince fhulde in the meane tyme attempte to inuade the fame. For the Kynge 
of Portugale affirmed that it perteyned only to hym to difcouer thefe vnknowen landes. But the byfhop of 
Rome Alexander the. vi. to auoyd the caufe of this difcention, graunted to the Kynge of Spayne by th[e]auc- 
toritie of his leaden buUes, that no other prince fhulde bee fo boulde as to make any viages to any of thofe 
vnknowen regions, lyenge without the precinct of a directe lyne drawen from the North to the Southe a 
hundreth leaques weHwarde without the paralelles of the Ilandes cauled Capud Viride. or Caboiterde, which we 
thynke to bee thofe that in owlde t)'me were cauled Hefperides. Thefe perteyne to the kynge of Portugale. 
And firome thefe, his pylottes whiche doo yearely fearche newe coaHes and regions, directe their courfe to the 
EaHe, faylynge euer towarde the lefte hande by the backe of Aphrike and the feas of the Ethiopians : Neyther 
to this day had the Portugales at any tyme fayled Southwarde, or WeHewarde from the Ilandes of Cabouerde. 

The fyrjl Decade. 


Preparyng therfore three fhippes, he made hade towarde the Ilande of lohanna or Cuba whyther he came in 
fhorte fpace, and named the poynt therof where he fyrfl arryued, Alpha and O : that is, the fyrfle and the lafle : 
for he fuppofed that there had byn th[e]end of owre Eafle bycaufe the fonne fauleth there : And of the wefle, 
bycaufe it ryfeth there. For it is apparente, that weflwarde, it is the beginninge of India beyonde the ryuer of 
Ganges : And Eaftewarde, the furthefl ende of the fame : which thinge is not contrary to reafon forafmuche as 
the Cofmographers haue lefte the lymites of I/idia beyonde Ganges vndetermyned : where as alfo fume were of 
opinion that India was not farre from the coafles of Spaine as we haue fayde before. Within the profpecte of 
the begynnynge of Cuda, he founde a commodious hauen in the extreme angle of the Ilande of Hifpaniola. 
For in this part, the Hand receaueth a greate goulfe. This hauen, he named faynt Nycolas porte, beinge 
fcarfely. xx. leaques from Cuba. As he departed from henfe and fayled weflwarde by the fouth fyde of Cuba, 
the further that he went, fo muche the more the fea feemed to bee extended in breadth and to bende towarde 
the fouth. On the fouth fyde of Cuba, he fownde an Ilande which th[e]inhabitantes caule lamaica. This he 
affirmeth to bee longer and broder then the Hand of Sicilie : hauyng in it only one mountayne, which on euery 
parte begynninge from the fea, ryfeth by little and Uttle into the myddeft. of the Ilande : And that foo playnely 
without rowghnes, that fuche as goo vp to the toppe of the fame, can fcarfely perceaue that they afcende. This 
Ilande he affirmed to bee very fruitfuU and full of people as well in th[e]inner partes of the fame as by the fhore : 
And that th[e]inhabitantes are of quicker wytte then in the other Ilandes, and more experte artificers and 
warrelyke men. For in many places where he woulde haue arryued, they came armed ageynfl him and 
forbodde him with threatening wordes. But beinge ouercome, they made a league of frendefliip with hym. 
Thus departynge from lamaica, he fayled towarde the Wefle with a profperous wynde for the fpace of threefcore 
and tenne dayes : thinkinge that he had paffed fo farre by the compaffe of the earth being vnderneth vs, that he 
had byn nere vnto Aurea Cherfonefus (nowe cauled Malaccha,) in owre Eafle India beyonde the beginninge of 
Perfides, For he playnely beleued that he had lefte onely two of the twelue ho^vres of the fonne, which were 
vnknowen to vs, for the owlde wryters haue lefte halfe the courfe of the fonne vntouched, where as they haue but 
onely difcufled that fuperficiall parte of the earth which lyeth betwene the Ilandes of Gades and the ryuer of Ganges : 
or at the vttermolle, to Aurea Cherfonefus. In this nauigation, he chaunced on many furious feas, running with 
a faule as it had byn the flreames of fluddes : Alfo many whorlepooles, and Ihelfes, with many other daungers, 
and flreyghtes by reafon of the multy tude of Ilandes, which ley on euery fyde. But not regardinge all thefe perelles, 
he determyned to proceade vntyl he had certaine knowledge whether Cuba were an Ilande or firme lande. Thus 
he fayled forward coaflinge euer by the fliore towarde the welle for the fpace of CC. xxii. [two hundred and 
twenty-two] leaques, that is, abowte a thoufande and three hundreth myles]: And gaue names to feuen hundreth 
Ilandes by the waye : Leauynge alfo on the lefte hande (as he feared not to reporte) three thoufande here and 
there. But let vs nowe retume to fuche thinges as he fownde worthy to be noted in this nauigatioa Saylinge 
therfore by the fyde of Cuba, and fearchinge the nature of the places, he efpied not farre from Alpha and O, a 
large hauen of capacitie to harborowe manye fhippes : whofe enteraunce is bendinge, beinge inclofed on bothe 
fydes with capes or poyntes which receaue the water. This hauen is large within, and of exceadinge depthe. 
Saylinge by the fhore of this porte, he fawe not farre frome the fame, two cotages couered with reedes, and in 
many places fyer kyndeled. Here he fente certeyne armed men owte of the fhippes to the cotages : where they 
fownde nother man nor woman, but roflemeate enowgh. For they fownde certeyne fpyttes of woodde lyenge 
at the fyre, hauinge fyfhe on theym abowt a hundreth pownde weight, and two ferpentes of. viii. foote longe a 
piece, wherat marueylinge, and lokynge abowt if they coulde efpye any of th[e]inhabitantes, and that none 
appeared in fyght (for they fledde all to the mountaynes at the comminge of owre men) they fell to theyr meate, 
and eate the fyfhe taken with other mens trauayle : But they abfleyned from the ferpentes, which they affirme to 
differ nothinge from Crocodiles of Egypt, but onely in byggenes. For (as Plinie fayth) Crocodiles haue fumetymes 
byn fownde of. xviii. cubettes long. But of thefe the byggefl were but of viii. fote. Thus beinge well refreffhed, 
they entered into the next woodde where they fownde many of the fame kynde of ferpentes hangynge vppon 
bowghes of trees : of the which, fume had theyr mouthes tyed with flrynges, and fume theyr teethe taken owte. 
And as they fearched the places nere vnto the hauen, they fawe abowte. Ixx. men in the toppe of a hyghe rocke, 
whiche fledde as foone as they had efpied owre men. Who by fignes and tokens of peace, caulinge them ageyne, 
there was one which came nere them and floode on the toppe of a rocke, feemynge as thowgh he were yet 
ferefuU. But the Admiral fent one Didacus to hym, a man of the fame countrey, whom he had at his fyrfle 
vyage taken in the Ilande of Guanahaini, beinge nere vnto Cuba : wyllinge hym to come nere and not to bee 
afrayde. Wlien he harde Didacus fpeke to him in his owne tonge he came bowldly to hym : and fhortly after 
reforted to his company, perfuadinge them to come without all feare. After this meffage was doone, there 
defcended frome the rockes to the fhippes, abowt three fcore and ten of th[e]inhabitantes, proferinge frende- 
fhippe and gentelnes to owre men : whiche the Admirall accepted thankefuUy, and gaue them dyuers rewardes : 
And that the rather, for that he had intelligence by Didacus th[e]enterpretoure, that they were the kynges 


Alpha and O 

The ende of the 
Easte and west. 


India not far 
from Spayne. 

Saynt Nycolas 

The Hand of 

QuickC wytted 

The compaseinge 
of the earth. 

Chersonesus, or 
A secreate of 

The ryuer of 

streightes by 
reason of many 

The Admiral gaue 
names to seuen 
hundrethe Ilandes 
Thre thousand 

A large hauen 

Rostcd fysshe and 
serpents of. viii. 
foote longe. 


Crocodiles of 


The tynges 


The fyrjl Decade. 

esteemed for 
delicate meat 

Blossomes and 
fruites bothe at 
one tyme. 

Trees which 
beare gourds 

A multitude of 

Hotte water. 

A straunge kynde 
of fysshynge. 
A huntynge 

Abundance of 
tortoyses. , _ 

Fyssher men. 

The fysshe 

Humaine people. 

A mountaine 
fruiteful! and well 

Dogges of strange 
shape and dumme. 

fyflhers, fent of theyr lorde to take fyffhe ageynfl a folemne feafle which he prepared for an other kynge. And 
wheras the Admirales men had eaten the fyffhe whiche they lefte at the fyre, they were the gladder therof, 
bycaufe they had lefte the ferpentes. For there is nothinge amonge theyr delicate dyffhes, that they efteeme fo 
muche as thefe ferpentes : In foo muche that it is no more lawfull for the common people to eate of them, then 
peacockes or phefantes amonge vs. As for the fyflhes, they doubted not to take as many more the fame nyght 
Beynge alked why they fyrft rofted the fyllhe which they entended to beare to their kynge. They anfwered, that 
they might bee the freffher and vncorrupted. Thus ioyninge handes for a token of further frendefhip, euery 
man reforted to his owne. The Admirall went forwarde as he had appoynted, folowing the faulinge of the 
fonne from the beginninge of Cuba cauled Alpha and O. The fhores or fea bankes euen vnto this hauen, albeit 
they be ful of trees, yet are they rowgh with mountains. Of thefe trees, fume were ful of bloflbomes and 
flowres, and other laden with fruites. Beyonde the hauen the lande is more fertile and peopulous, whofe inhabi- 
tantes are more gentyll and more defyrous of owTe thinges. For as fone as they had efpied owre fhippes, they 
flocked all to the fhore, brynginge with them fuche breade as they are accuftomed to eate, and gourdes full of 
water, offeringe theym vnto owre men, and further defyringe them to coome alande. In all thefe Ilandes is a 
certeyne kynde of trees as bygge as elmes, whiche beare gourdes in the fteade of fruites. Thefe they vfe only 
for drinkynge pottes, and to fetche water in, but not for meate, for the inner fubflance of them, is fowrer then 
gaule, and the barke as harde as any fhelle. At the Ides of Maye, the watche men lokinge owte of the toppe 
caflell of the fhyppe towarde the Southe, fawe a multitude of Ilandes ftandinge thicke together, beynge all well 
repleni(hed with trees, graffe, and herbes, and wel inhabyted. In the fliore of the continent, he chaunced into 
a nauigable ryuer whofe water was foo hotte, that no man myght endure to abyde his hande therein any tyme. 
The day folowinge, efpying a farre off a Canoa of fyfher men of th[e]inhabitantes, fearinge leafl they fhulde flye 
at the fyght of owre men, he commaunded certeyne to affayle them pryuily with the fhyppe boates. But they 
fearinge nothinge, taryed the comminge of owre men. Nowe fhal you heare a newe kind of fyfhinge. Lyke 
as we with greyhoundes doo hunte hares, in the playne fieldes. So doo they as it were with a huntyng fyffhe, 
take other fyffhes. This fyffhe was of fhape or fourme vnknowen vnto vs : but the body therof, not muche 
vnlyke a greate yele : hauinge on the hynder parte of the heade, a very towgh fkynne, lyke vnto a greate bagge 
or purfe. This fyffhe is tyed by the fyde of the boate with a corde lette downe foo farre into the water, that the 
fyffhe maye lye clofe hyd by the keele or bottome of the fame, for fhee may in no cafe abyde the fight of the . 
ayer. Thus when they efpie any greate fyffhe, or tortoyfe (wherof there is great abundance bygger then great 
targettes) they let the corde at lengthe. But when fhe feeleth her felfe loofed, fhee enuadeth the fyflhe or 
tortoyfe as fwiftly as an arrowe. And where fhe hath once faflened her howld fhee cafleth the purfe of fkynne 
wherof we fpake before : And by drawyng the fame togyther, fo grafpeleth her pray, that no mans flrength is 
fufficient to vnloofe the fame, excepte by lyttle and lyttle drawinge the lyne, fhee bee lyfted fumwhat aboue the 
brymme of the water. For then, as fone as fhe feeth the brightnes of the ayer, fhee lettethe goo her howlde. 
The praye therfore, beinge nowe drawen nere to the brymme of the water, there leapeth foodenly owte of the 
boate into the fea foo manye fyffhers, as maye fuffice to holde fafle the praye, vntyll the refle of the coompany 
haue taken it into the boate. Which thinge doone, they loofe fo muche of the cord, that the hunting fyffhe, 
may ageyne retume to her place within the water : where by an other corde, they let downe to her a piece of 
the praye, as we vfe to rewarde greyhoundes after they haue kylled theyr game. This fyffhe, they caule 
Guaicanum, But owre men caule it Reuerfum. They gaue owre men foure tortoyfes taken by this meanes : 
And thofe of fuch byggenes that they almofle fylled theyr fyflhinge boate. For thefe fyffhes are efleemed 
amonge them for delicate meate. Owre men recompenfed them age)me with other rewardes, and foo lette them 
departe. Beinge afked of the coompafTe of that lande, they aunfwered that it had no ende weflewarde. Moll 
inflantly defyringe the Admirall to coome alande : or in his name to fende one with them to falute their 
Cazicus, (that is) their kinge : Affirmynge that he wolde gyue owre men many prefentes, yf they wolde goo to 
hym. But the Admiral, leafle he fhulde bee hyndered of the vyage which he had begunne, refufed to goo with 
them. Then they defyred to knowe his name, and towld owre men lykewyfe the name of theyr kyng. Thus 
fayling on yet further euer toward the Wefl, within fewe dayes he came nere vnto a certeyne exceding high 
mountayne, wel inhabyted by reafon of the great fertilitie of the fame. Th[e]inhabitauntes of this mountayne, 
browght to owre fhippe, breade, goffampine cotton, cunnies, and fundry kyndes of wyldfowle : demaundynge 
relygioufly of th[e]interpretoures, if this nation defcended not from heauen. The kynge of this people, and 
dyuers other fage men that lloode by hym, informed hym that that lande was no Ilande. Shortly after, 
enteringe into one of the Ilandes beinge on the lefte hande of this lande, they fownde no body therin : for they 
fledde al at the commyng of owre men. Yet fownde they there fowre dogges of maruelous deformed fhape, 
and fuche as coulde not barke. This kynd of dogges, they eate as we do goates. Here is great plentie of geefe, 
duckes, and hearons. Betwene thefe Ilandes and the continente, he entered into foo narowe flreyghtes, that 
he coulde fcarfely tume backe the fhippes : And thefe alfo fo fhalowe, that the keele of the fhyps fumtyme rafed 

The fyrjl Decade. 


on the Cindes The water of thefe llreyghtes, for the fpace of fortie myles, was white and thycke lyke vnto 
mylke, and as thowgh male had byn fparkeled throwgh owte al that fea. And when they had at the lengthe 
efcaped thefe flrayghtes, and were nowe coome into a mayne and large fea, and had fayled theron for the fpace 
of foure fcore myles, they efpyed an other excedinge hygh mountayne, whyther the Admirall reforted to flore 
his fhyppes with freffhe water and fuel. Heare amonge certeyne wooddes of date trees, and pyneable trees of 
excedyng height he fownd two natiue fprynges of freffhe water. In the meane tyme whyle the woodde was 
cuttynge and the barrelles fyllyng, one of owre archers went into the wood to hunt : where he efpyed a certeyne 
man with a whyte veflure, foo lyke a fryer of th[e]order of faynt Marye of Mercedis, that at the fyrfle fight he 
fuppofed it had byn the Admiralles preefle which he browght with hym, beyng a man of the fame order. But 
two other folowed hym immediatlye owte of the fame wooddes, fhortly after, he fawe a farre of a hole coompany 
of men clothed in apparel, beinge abowte. xxx. in nomber. Then turning his backe and cryinge owte to his 
felowes, he made hafle to the fhyppes with all that he myght dryue. Thefe apparelled men, made fignes and 
tokens to hym to tary and not to bee afrayde. But that notwithftandinge, he ceafed not to flye. The Admirall 
beinge aduertifed hereof, and not a lyttle reioyfynge that he had fownde a ciuile people, incontinently fent 
forth armed men, with commaundement, that yf neede fhould foo requyre, they (hulde enter fortie myles into 
the Ilande, vntyl they myght fynde eyther thofe apparelled men, or other inhabitantes of that countrey. When 
they hadde paCfed ouer the woodde, they came into a greate playne full of graffe and herbes, in which appeared 
no token of any pathe way. Here attemptinge to goo throwgh the graffe and herbes, they were foo entangled 
and bewrapte therin, that they were fcarfely able to paffe a myle, the graffe beinge there lyttle lower then owre 
rype come. Beinge therfore weryed, they were enforced to returne ageyne, fyndyng no pathe way. The day 
folowing he fent foorth. xxv. armed men an other way: Commaunding them to make diligent fearche and 
inquifition what maner of people inhabited the land. Who departinge, when they had fownde not farre from 
the fea fyde certeyne fleppes of wylde beafles, of the which they fufpected fum to bee of Lyons feete being 
flriken with feare, returned backe ageyne. As they came they fownde a woodde in the which were many 
natiue vines here and there crepinge abowte highe trees, with many other trees bearinge aromaticall fruites and 
fpyces. Of thefe vines they browght with them into Spaine many cluflers of grapes very ponderous and full of 
lycoure. But of the other fruites, they browght none bycaufe they putrified by the waye in the fhippe, and were 
cade into the fea. They faye alfo that in the laundes or medowes of thofe wooddes, they fawe flockes of greate 
cranes twyfe as bygge as owres. As he went forward and turned his fayles towarde certeyne other raountaines, 
he efpied two cotages on the (hore, in the whiche he fawe onely one man : who beinge browght to the fliyppe, 
fignified with heade, fyngers, and by al other fignes, that he coulde deuife that the lande which lay beyonde 
thofe mountaynes, was very full of people. And as the Admirall drewe nere the fhore of the fame, there mette 
hym certeyne Canoas hauinge in them many people of the countrey, who made fignes and tokens of peace and 
frendefhyp. But here Didaais th[e]interpretour whiche vnderftoode the language of th[e]inhabitantes of the 
beginning of Cuba, vnderflode not them one whytte, wherby they confydred that in fundry prouinces of Cuba, 
were fundry languages He had alfo intelligence, that in the inlande of this Region, was a kynge of greate 
power, and accuflomed to weare apparell. He fayth that all the tracte of this fliore, was drowned with water 
and full of mudde, befette with many trees, after the maner of owre maryffhes, yet whereas in this place they 
wente alande for freffhe water, they fownde many of the fhel fyffhes in the whiche pearles are gathered. But 
that coulde not caufe the Admirall to tracte the tyme there, entendinge at this viage, only to proue howe many 
landes and feas he coulde difcouer accordinge to the kynges commaundement. As they yet proceded forwarde, 
they fawe here and there al the waye alonge by the fhore, a great fmoke ryfmge, vntyll they came to an other 
mountayne foure fcore myles diflant. There was no rocke or hyll that coulde be feene, but the fame was all 
of a fmoke. But whether thefe fyers were made by th[e]inhabitantes for their neceffary bufynes, or as we are 
wont to fette beacons on fyre when we fufpecte th[e]approche of owre enemies, thereby to gyue waminge to 
theyr neyghbours to bee in a redines, and gather togyther if perhappes owre men fhulde attempte any thinge 
ageynil them, or otherwyfe as feemethe mofl lykely, to caule them togyther as to a wonder to behould owre 
(hippes, they knewe yet no certentie. In this tracte, the fliores bended fumetyme towarde the Southe, and 
fumetyme towarde the Wefte and weflefouthwefl ; And the fea was euery where entangeled with Ilandes : by 
reafon whereof, the keeles of the (hippes often tymes rafed the fandes for (halownes of the water: So that the 
fhyppes beinge very fore brufed and appayred, the fayles, cables, and other tackelinges, in maner rotten, and 
the vytayles, (efpecially the byfkette breade) corrupted by takynge water at the riftes euyll clofed, the Admirall 
was enforced to tume backe ageyne. This lafle poynte where he touched of Cuba (not yet beinge knowen to 
be an Ilande) he cauled Euangelijla. Thus turning his fayles toward other Ilandes lyinge not farre from the 
fuppofed continente, he chaunced into a mayne fea where was fuche a multitude of greate tortoyfes, that 
fumtyme they flayed the fhyppes. Not longe after, he entered into a gulfe of whyte water, lyke vnto that 
wherof we fpake before. At the length fearing the fhelfes of the Hands, he returned to the fhore of Cuba by 

Whyte and thicke 

Wooddes of date 

Men appareled 
like white fryers. 


Grasse almost as 
hyghe as corne. 

Steppes of wyld 
beastes feete. 

Natiue vines 

Trees bearinge 
spyces and sweete 
Greate Cranes. 

Dyuers language? 
in the Ilande of 

Pearles in 

The sea entangeled 
with Ilandes 


A multitude of 
great tortoyses 


The fyrjl Decade. 

A goufe of whyte 

Humaine people. 

Stock doues of 
more pleasaunt 
tast then 


The humanitie of 
a reuerende owlde 

An oration of the 
naked gouernour. 

Theyr opinion of 
the soul of man. 

DesjTe of golde 
founde that 
which religion 
coulde not fynde. 
Virtus ^si 
nummos. ^t'C. 

The Hand as 
common as the 
sunne and water. 

The golden 

Prxniision without 

Simple diete 


The Tland of 

The Canibales. 

the fame way which he came. Here a multitude of th[e]inhabitantes, as well women as men, reforted to hym' 
with cheerefull countenaunce and without feare: bringynge with them popingayes, breade, water, and cunnyes: 
But efpecially flocke doues much bygger then owres : which he affirmeth, in fauour and tafle, to bee muche 
more plealaunt then owre partryches. Wherfore where as in eatinge of them he perceaued a certeyne fauoure 
of fpyce to proceade from them, he commaunded the croppe to bee opened of fuche as were newely kylled, and 
fownde the fame full of fweete fpyces, whiche he argued to bee the caufe of theyr llrange tafle. For it flandeth 
with good reafon, that the fleffhe of beaftes, fhulde drawe the nature and qualitie of theyr accuftomed nuryfhemente. 
As the Admirall harde maffe on the fliore, there came towarde hym a certeyne gouemoure, a man of four fcore 
yeares of age, and of great grauitie, althowgh he were naked fauinge his pryuie partes. He had a great trayne of 
menne waytinge on hym. All the whyle the preefle was at maffe, he fhewed hym felfe verye humble and gaue 
reuerente attendaunce with graue and demure countenaunce. When the maffe was ended, he prefented to the 
Admirall, a bafkette of the fruites of his countrey, delyueringe the fame with his owne handes. When the 
Admirall had gentelly interteyned hym, defyringe leaue to fpeake, he made an oration in the prefence of 
Didacus th[e]interpretoure, in this effecte. I haue byn aduertifed (mofle mighty prince) that you haue of late 
with greate power fubdued many landes and Regions hytherto vnknowen to you : and haue browght no little 
feare vppon all the people and inhabitantes of the fame. The which your good fortune, you fhal beare with 
leffe infolencie, if you remember that the foules of men haue two ioumeyes after they are departed from this 
bodye. The one fowle and darke, prepared for fuche as are iniurious and cruell to mankynde : The other 
pleafaunt and delectable, ordeyned for them which in theyr lyfe tyme, loued peace and quietnes. If therefore 
you acknowleage your felfe to bee mortall, and confyder that euery man fhall receaue condigne rewarde or 
punyfhement for fuch thinges as he hath done in this life, you wyl wrongefully hurte no man. When he had 
fayde thefe wordes and other lyke, which were declared to the Admirall by th[e]interpretoure, he marueylinge 
at the iudgemente of the naked owlde man, anfwered, that he was gladde to heare his opinion as touchinge the 
fundry iourneys and rewardes of fowles departed from theyr bodyes : Suppofinge that nother he, or any other 
of th[e]inhabitantes of thofe Regions, had had any knowleage thereof. Declaringe further that the chiefe caufe 
of his comminge thyther was to inflructe them in fuch godly knowleage and trewe religion : And that he was 
fente into thofe countreys by the Chriflian kyngfe of Spayne (his lorde and maifter) for the fame purpofe : And 
fpecially to fubdue and puniffhe the Canibales and fuch other mifcheuous people : And to defende innocentes 
ageynfl the violence of fuch euyl doers wyllynge hym and all other fuch as embrafed vertue, in no cafe to bee 
afrayde : But rather to open his mynde vnto him, if eyther he, or any other fuche quiete men as he was, hadde 
fufteyned any wronge of theyr neyghbours : and that he wold fee the fame reuenged. Thefe comfortable 
wordes of the Admirall foo pleafed the owlde man, that notwithflandyng his extreeme age, he woulde gladly 
haue gone with the Admiral as he had doone in deede, if his wyfe and chyldren had not hyndered hym of his 
purpofe. But he marueyled not a lyttle, that the Admirall was vnder the dominion of an other: And muche more, 
when th[e]interpretour towlde hym of the glorye, magnificence, pompes, greate powre, and fumymentes of 
warre of owre kynges, and of the multitudes of cities and townes which were vnder theyr dominions. 
Intendyng therfore to haue gonne with the Admirall, his wyfe and children fell proflrate at his feete, with teares 
defyrynge hym not to forfake them and leaue them defolate. At whofe pytifull requefles, the worthy owlde man 
beinge moued, rema)fned at home to the comfort of his people and famylie, fatiffyenge rather them then hym 
felfe. For not yet ceafinge to woonder, and of heauy countenaunce bycaufe he myght not departe, he demaunded 
oftentymes if that lande were not heauen, which browght foorth fuche a kynde of men. For it is certeyne, that 
amonge them, the lande is as common as the fonne and water : And that Myne and Thyne (the feedes of all 
myfcheefe) haue no place with them. They are contente with foo lyttle, that in foo large a countrey, they haue 
rather fuperfluitie then fcarfenes. Soo that (as wee haue fayde before) they feeme to lyue in the goulden worlde, 
without toyle, lyuinge in open gardens, not intrenched with dykes, dyuyded with hedges, or defended with 
waules. They deale trevvely one with another, without lawes, without bookes, and without Judges. They take 
hym for an euyll and myfcheuous man, which taketh pleafure in doinge hurte to other. And albeit that they 
delyte not in fuperfluities, yet make they prouifion for th[e]increafe of fuche rootes, wherof they make theyr 
breade, as Maizium, lucca, and Ages, contented with fuche fimple dyet, wherby health is preferaed, and 
dyfeafes auoyded. The Admirall therfore departinge from thenfe, and myndinge to retume ageyne (hortly after, 
chaunced to coome ageyne to the Ilande of Jamaica beinge on the fowthe fyde therof : and coafted all alonge 
by the fhore of the fame, from the Wefle to the Fade. From whofe laft comer on the Eaft fyde, when he fawe 
towarde the North on his lefte hand, certeyn high mountains he knewe at the length that it was the fowthe fyde 
of the Ilande of Hifpaniola, which he had not yet paffed by. Wherfore at the Calendes of September, enter- 
inge into the hauen of the fame Ilande, cauled faynt Nycolas hauen, he repayred his fhippes to th[e]intent that 
he myght ageyne waft and fpoyle the Ilandes of the Canibales, and bume all theyr Canoas, that thofe raueninge 
wolues myght no longer perfecute and deuoure the innocent fheepe. But he was at this tyme hyndered of his 


The fyrji Decade. 


purpofe by reafon of a dyfeafe which he had gotten with to muche watchinge. Thus beinge feeble and weake, 
he was ledde of the maryners to the citie of Ifabella, where, with his two brytherne which were there, and other 
his famiUers, he recouered his heaUh in fhorte fpace. Yet coulde he not at this tyme aflayle the Canibales, by 
reafon of fedicion that was ryfen of late amonge the Spanyardes which he had lefte in Hif^aniola^ wherof we 
wyll fpeake more heareafter. Thus fare ye weL ' 

C The fourth booke of the fyrst decade 
to Lodouike Cardinall of Aragonie, 

Olonus the Admirall of the Ocean, returning (as he fuppofed) from the continent or firme 
lande of Eall India, had aduertifement that his brother Boilus and one Peter Margarita, an 
owld familier of the kinges, and a noble man, with diuers other of thofe to whom he had 
left the gouemement of the Hand, were of corrupted mynde ageynfl him, departed into Spayne. 
Wherfore as wel to purge him of fuch crimes as they fhuld ley to his charge, as alfo to make 
a fupply of other men in the place of them which were returned, and efpecially to prouyde 
for vitailes, as wheat, wyne, oyle, and fuch other which the Spanyardes are accuftomed to 
eate, bycaufe they coulde not yet well agree with fuch meates as they fownde in the Ilandes, determined (hortly 
to take his vyage into Spayne. But what he dyd before his departure, I wyll brefely rehearfe. 

The kynges of the Ilandes which had hytherto lyued quietly and content with theyr lyttle whiche they 
thowght abundante, wheras they nowe perceaued that owre men began to fallen foote within theyr Regions and 
to beare rule amonge them, tooke the matter fo greuoufly, that they thowght nothynge elles but by what meanes 
they myght vtterly deflroy them, and for euer abolyffhe the memory of theyr name. For that kynde of men 
(the Spanyardes I meane which folowed the Admirall in that nauigation,) was for the mofl parte vnruly, 
regardynge nothinge but Idlenes, playe, and libertie: And wolde by no meanes abfleyne from iniuries: 
Rauyfhynge the women of the Ilandes before the faces of their hufbandes, fathers, and brethrene : By which 
theyr abhomynable myfdemaynour, they difquieted the mjmdes of all th[e]inhabitantes : In fo much that where fo 
euer they fownde any of owre men vnprepared, they flewe them with fuche fyercenes and gladnes, as thowgh 
they had offered facryfyce to God. Intendynge therefore to pacific their troubled myndes, and to punyflie them 
that flew his men before he departed from thenfe, he fent for the kynge of that vale, which in the booke before, 
we defcrybed to bee at the foote of the mountaynes of the Region of Cibaua. This kynges name was Guarionexius : 
who, the more flreyghtly to concyle vnto hym the frendefhyppe of the Admirall, gaue hys fyfler to wyfe to 
Didacus, a man from his chyldes age browght vp with the Admiral, whom he vfed for his interpretoure in the 
prouinces of Cuba. After this, he fent for Caunaboa, cauled the lorde of the howfe of goulde : that is, of the 
mountaynes of Cibaua. For this Caunaboa, he fente one capitayne Hoicda, whom the ditionaries of Caunaboa 
had enforced to keepe his howlde byfiegeinge for the fpace of. xxx. dayes, the fortreffe of faynte Thomas, in the 
which Hoieda with his fyftie fouldiers, floode at theyr defence, vntyll the comminge of the Admirall. Whyle 
Hoieda remayned with Caunaboa, many ambaffadours of the kynges of dyuers Regions were fent to Caunaboa, 
perfuadinge hym in no condicion to permitte the Chriflians to inhabite the Ilande, except he had rather ferue then 
rule. On the other parte, Hoieda aduertifed Caunaboa to goo to the Admirall, and to make a league of frendefhip 
with hym. But the ambaffadours on the contrary part, threatened hym, that yf he wolde foo doo, the other kynges 
wolde inuade his Region. But Hoieda aunfwered theym ageyne, that wheras they confpired to maynteyne their 
libertie, they fhuld by that meanes be browght to feruitude and dellruction if they entended to refill or keepe 
warre ageinfl the Chriflians. Thus Caunaboa on the one fyde and the other, beinge troubeled as it were a 
rocke in the fea, beaten with contrary fluddes, and much more vexed with the flormes of his gyltie confcience 
for that he had priuilie flaine. xx. of owre men vnder pretence of peace feared to coome to the Admirall. But 
at the length, hauing excogitated this deceyte, to haue flayne the Admirall and his coompany vnder the colour 
of frendfhippe if oportunitie wold foo haue ferude, he repayred to the Admiral with his hole famiKe and many 
other wayting on hym, armed after theyr maner. Beinge demaunded why he browght foo greate a rout of men 
with hym, he aunfwered that it was not decente for foo great a prince as he was, to goo foorth of his howfe 
without fuche a bande of men. But the thinge chaunced much otherwyfe then he looked for. For he fell into 
the fhares which he had prepared for other. For wheras by the way he began to repente hym that he came 
foorthe of his howfe, Hoieda with many fayre wordes and promyfes, browght hym to the Admirall : At whofe 
commaundement, he was immediatly taken and put in prifon : So that the fowles of owre men were not longe 

Sickenesof to 
much watchinge. 

Easte India. 

The Spanyardes 
rebelle in the 
Admirals absence. 

The kynges of the 
Uande rebell. 

The Spaniardes 

Guarionexius the 
kynge of the 
great vale 
Didacus the 
Caunaboa, the 
kynge of the 
house of golde. 

Capitayne Hoicda 


Kynge Caunaboa, 
had slain the 

conspireth the 
Admiralles death. 

Fayre words 
make fooles fayne> 


The fyrjl Decade. 

Famine in thr 
Ilande of 

The hunger of 
golde causeth 
great famine. 

The towre of 

A masse of gold 
weighinge. xx. 

from their bodies vnreuenged. Thus Caunaboa with all his familie beinge taken, the Admirall was determined 
to runne ouer the Ilande. But he was certified that there was fuch famine amonge th[e]inhabitantes, that there 
was alredye fyftie thoufande menne deade therof : And that they dyed yet dayly as it were rotton fheepe : The 
caufe wherof was wel knowen to bee theyr owne obllinacie and frowardnes. For where as they fawe that owre 
men entended to choofe them a dwelling place in the Ilande, fuppofinge that they myght haue driuen them from 
thence if the vytailes of the Ilande ihoulde fayle, they determyned with them felues, not only to leaue fowing and 
plantyng, but alfo to deftroy and plucke vp by the rootes euery man in his owne region, that whiche they had 
alredye fowen of both kyndes of breade wherof we made mencion in the fyrfl booke. But efpecially amonge 
the mountaynes of Cibaua, otherwyfe cauled Cipanga, for as muche as they hadde knoweleage that the golde 
which abundeth in that Region, was the cheefe caufe that deteyned owre men in the Ilande. In the meane tyme, 
he fent foorth a Capitayne with a bande of men to fearche the fowthe fyde of the Ilande. Who at his retume, 
reported that throwghe out all the Regions that he trauayled, there was fuche fcarfenes of breade, that for the 
fpace of. xvi. dayes he eate nowght elles but the rootes of herbes, and of younge date trees, or the fruites of 
other wylde trees. But Guarionexius, the kynge of the vale lyinge beneth the mountaynes of Cibaua, whofe 
kyngedoome was not foo wafted as the other, gaue owre menne certeyne vytayles. 

Within a fewe dayes after, bothe that the ioumeys myght bee the (horter, and alfo that owre men myght haue 
more fafe places of refuge, if the inhabitantes (huld hereafter rebell in lyke maner, he buylded an other fort[r]e(re 
(whiche he cauled the towre of Conception) betwene the citie of Ifabella and faint Thomas fortreffe, in the 
marches of the kyngdome of this Guarionexius within the precincte of Cibaua vpon the fyde of a hyll, hauynge 
a fayre ryuer of holfome water runnynge hard by the fame. Thus when the inhabitantes fawe newe buyldynges 
to bee dayly erected, and o\vre fliippes lying in the hauen rotten and halfe broken, they beganne to defpayre of 
any hope of libertie, and wandered vp and downe with heuie chere. From the towre of Conception, fearchynge 
diligently the inner partes of the mountaynes of Cibaua, there was a certeine kyng whiche gaue them a maffe 
of rude golde, as bygge as a mans fyft, weighing, xx. vnces. This golde was not fownde in the banke of that 
ryuer, but in a heape of drye earthe : and was lyke vnto the ftone cauled To/us, whiche is foone refolued into 
fande. This maffe of golde, I my felfe fawe in Caftile, in the famous citie of Methymna Campi, where the 
courte lay all that wynter. I fawe alfo a great piece of pure Eleilrum : of the whiche belles and apothecaries 
morters, and many fuche other veffels and inflmmentes maye bee made, as were in owlde tyme of copper of the 
citie of Corinthus. This piece of EkSlrum, was of fuch weight, that I was not onely with both my handes 
vnable to lifte it from the grownde, but alfo not of flrengthe to remoue it eyther one waye or an other. They 
affyrmed that it wayde more then three hundreth pownde weight, after, viii. vnces to the pownde. It was 
fownde in the howfe of a certen prynce, and lefte hym by his predeceffours. And albeit that in the dayes of 
th[e]inhabitantes yet liuynge, Ekdlrum was no where digged, yet knewe they where the myne therof was : but 
owre men with muche adoo, coulde hardely caufe them to fhewe them the place, they bore them fuche priuie 
hatred. Yet at the length, they browght theym to the myne, beyng nowe ruinate and ftopped with ftones and 
rubbiffhe. It is muche eafier to dygge then is the iren myne : and myght bee reftored agein, if myners and 
other woorkemen fkylfuU therin, were appoynted therto. Not farre from the towre of Conception, in the fame 
mountaynes, is fownd great plentie of Amber : and owte of certen rockes of the fame diftilleth a fubflance of 
the yelowe coloure whiche the paynters vfe. Not farre from thefe mountaynes are many greate wooddes, in the 
which are none other trees then brafile, whiche the Italians caule Verzino. But here perhappes (right noble 
prynce) yowe wolde alke what (houlde be the caufe, that where as the Spanyardes haue brought owte of thefe 
Ilandes certen fliyppes laden with brafile, fumwhat of goffampine cotton, a quantitie of amber, a lyttel golde, and fum 
fpices, why they haue not broughte fuche plentie of golde and fuche other ryche marchaundies as the fruitfulneffe 
of thefe regions feeme to promiffe. To this I anfwere, that when Colonus the admirall was lykewife demaunded 
the caufe hereof, he made anfwere that the Spanyardes whiche he tooke with him into thefe regions, were gyuen 
rather to flepe, pley, and ydleneffe, then to laboure: And were more ftudious of fedition and newes, then 
defyrous of peace and quietneffe : Alfo that beynge gyuen to lycencioufnes, they rebelled and forfooke hym, 
fyndynge matter of falfe accufations agaynft hym, bycaufe he went aboute to repreffe theyr owtragioufenes. By 
reafon wherof he was not yet able to breake the power of the inhabytantes, and freely to poffeffe the full 
dominion of the Ilande. And thefe hynderaunces to be the caufe that hitherto the gaynes haue fcarfely 
counteruayled the charges. Albeit, euen this yere whyle I WTyte thefe thynges at yowre requefte, they gathered 
in twoo moonethes the fumme of a thoufande and twoo hundreth poundes weight of golde. But bycaufe we 
intende to fpeake more largely of thefe thynges in theyr place, we wyll nowe retourne from whenfe we haue 
digreffed. When the inhabitantes perceaued that they could by no meanes (hake the yoke from their neckes, they 
made humble fupplication to the Admirall that they myght ftande to theyr tribute, and apply them felues to reincreafe 
the fruites of theyr countrey, beinge nowe almofte wafted. He graunted them theyr requefte : and appoynted 
fuch order that euery Region fliulde paye their tribute, with the commodities of theyr countreys, accordinge to 


Electrum is a 
metall naturally 
mixt of one portion 
of golde and an 
other of siluer 
beinge of propertie 
to bewray poyson, 
and was 20 

therfore in 
owlde tyme in 
greater estimation 
then golde. 

The myne of 

An other kynde of 
amber is taken out 
of greate whale 

Orpement or oker. 
Wooddes of 
brasile trees. 

Causes of 

Licenciusnes of 
to much libertie 

And this only 
^thered and not 
digged out of the 
bodi of the mine 

The peoi>le make 
supplication to 
stand to their 


The fyrjt Decade. 


theyr portion, and at fuche tyme as they were agreed vppon. But the violent famine dyd fruftrate all thefe 
appoyntmentes. For all the trauayles of theyr bodyes, were fcarfely able to fuffice to fynde them meate in the 
wooddes, whereby to fufleyne theyr lyues, beinge of long tyme contented with rootes and the fruites of wylde 
trees. Yet manye of the kynges with theyr people, euen in this extreme necefTitie, browght parte of theyr 
tribute : Mofle humbly defyringe the Admirall to haue compaffion of theyr calamities, and to beare with them 
yet a whyle, \ntyll the Hand were reflored to the owlde (late. Promyfmge farther, that that which was nowe 
wantinge, fliulde then bee dowble recompenfed. But fewe of the inhabitantes of the mountaynes of Cibaua, 
kepte theyr promyfe, bycaufe they were forer oppreiTed with famine then any of the other. They faye, that the 
inhabitantes of thefe mountaynes, differ no lelfe in maners and language from them which dwel in the playnes, 
then amonge vs, the rufticalles of the countrey from gentylmen of the courte : wheras notwithftandinge, they lyue 
bothe as it were vnder one portion of heuen, and in many thinges, much after one faffhion, as in nakednes, and 
rude fimplicitie. But nowe lette vs returne to Caimaboa, the kynge of the howfe of golde, beinge in captiuitie. 
When he perceaued him felfe to be cade in pryfon, fretinge and gratinge his teethe as it had bin a lyon oi Libia, and 
dayely and nightlye deuifinge with hym felfe howe he myght bee delyuered, beganne to perfuade the Admirall, that 
for as muche as he had nowe taken vnto his dominion the Region of Cipanga or Cibaua (wherof he was king) it 
(hulde bee expedient to fende thyther a garryfon of Chriflian men, to defende the fame from the incurfions of his 
owld enemy es and borderers. For he fayde, that it was fignyfied vnto hym, that the countreye was wafled and fpoyled 
with fuche incurfions. By this crafty deuife, he thought to haue browght to paffe, that his brother whiche was in 
that regyon, and the other his kynfefolkes and frendes with their adherentes, fhoulde haue taken, eyther by 
fleyghte or force, as many of owre men, as myght haue redeemed hym. But the Admyrall vnderflandynge his 
crafty meanynge, fente Hoieda with fuche a coompany of men; as might vanquifhe the Cibauians, if they fliulde 
moue warre ageynfle them. Owre men had fcarfely entered into the Region, but the brother of Caunaioa 
came agenfle them with an armie of fyue thoufande naked menne, armed after theyr maner with clubbes, 
arrowes typte with bones, and fpeares made harde at the endes with fyre. He flole vpon owre men beyng in 
one of theyr howfes : and encamped rownde about the fame on euery fyde. This Cibauian, as a man not 
ignorant in the difciplyne of warre, abowte the diflance of a furlonge from the houfe, diuided his armye into 
fyue batayles, appoyntinge to euery of them a circuite by equal diuifion : And placed the froont of his owne 
batayle, directlye ageynft owre men. When he had thus fet his batayles in good array, he gaue certeyne 
fignes that the hole army fliulde mirche forwarde in order with equal paces, and with a larome freffhly aflayle 
theyr enemies, in fuch fort that none might efcape. But owre men iudginge it better to encounter with one of 
the batayles, then to abyde the brunt of the hole army, gaue onfet on the mayne batayle aranged in the playne, 
bycaufe that place was mofl commodious for the horfemen. ^Vhen the horfemen therfore hadde gyuen the 
charge, they ouerthrewe them with the brefles of theyr horfes, and flewe as many as abode th[e]ende of the 
fyght. The refidue beinge flryken with feare, difparcled, and fledde to the mountaynes and rockes: from 
whenfe they made a pytifull houlynge to owre men, defyringe them to fpare them : proteflinge that they wolde 
neuer more rebelle, but doo what fo euer they woulde commaunde them, if they wolde fuffer theim to lyue in 
theyr owne countrey. Thus the brother of Caunaboa beinge taken, the Admirall hcenced the people to reforte 
euery man to his owne. Thefe thinges thus fortunately atchiued this Region was pacified. Amonge thofe 
mountaynes, the vale which Caimaboa inhabited, is cauled Magona, and is excedynge fruitfull: hauinge in it 
many goodly fpringes : and ryuers, in the fande wherof, is fo^vnde great plentie of golde. The fame yeare in 
the mooneth of lune, they faye there rofe fuche a boyfl[r]ous tempefle of wynde from the fowtheafle, as hath not 
lyghtly ben harde of: The violence hereof was fuch that it plucked vppe by the roots what fo euer greate trees 
were within the reache of the force therof When this whirle wynde came to the hauen of the citie, it beate 
downe to the bottome of the fea, three fhippes which lay at anker, and broke the cables in fundre : and that 
(which is the greater maruail) without any (lorme or rowghnes of the fea, onely turnynge them three or foure 
tymes abowte. The inhabitantes alfo affirme, that the fame yeare, the fea extended it felfe further in to the 
lande, and rofe higher then euer it dyd before by the memory of man, by the fpace of a cubet. The people 
therfore, muttered amonge them felues, that owre nation hadde trowbled the elementes, and caufed fuch 
portentous fignes. Thefe tempefles of the ayer (which the Grecians caule Tiphones, that is, whyrle wyndes) 
they caule, Furacanes: which they fay, doo often tymes chaunce in this Ilande: But that neyther they nor 
theyr great grandfathers euer fawe fuche violent and furious Furacanes, that plucked vppe greate trees by the 
rootes : Neyther yet fuche furges and vehement motions on the fea, that foo wafled the lande. As in deede it 
may appeare, for as muche as, where fo euer the fea bankes are nere to any plaine there are in maner euery 
where, florifhing medowes reachinge euen vnto the fhore. But nowe let vs returne to Caunaboa. As kynge 
Caunaboa therefore and his brother fhoulde haue binne browght into Spayne, they dyed by the waye for verye 
penfyuenes and anguyfhe of mynde. The Admiral, whofe fhippes were drowned in the forfayde tempefle, 
perceauinge him felfe to bee nowe enclofed, commaunded foorthwith two other fhippes (which the Spaniardes 

Eden. K 8i 


The nature of the 
Region disposeth 
the maner of the 

Kynge Caunaboa 
in captiuitie. 

The persuasion 
of Caunaboa. 


Caunaboa his 
brother rebelleth. 

A conflict betwene 
the Cibauians and 
the Spanyardes. 

The Cibauians 
haue the 

A great tempest 
in the moneth 
of lune. 

Three ships 
drowned lyingc 
at anker 

Whyrle wyndes 

The death of 
kynge Caunaboa 

and nis brother. 


The fyrjl Decade. 

Colonus the 
search eth the 
golde mines. 


The eolde mynes 
of Salomon. 

Golde in the 
superficiaU partes 
of the earth. 

The Admiral 
taketh his viage 
to spaine 

The golden towre. 

Lacke of vytayles. 




Vytayles browght 
from Spayne. 

Saynt Dominikes 

Groues of 
date trees. 



caiile Caraiielas) to bee made. For he had with hym, all maner of artificers perteyninge therunto. Whyle thefe 
thinges were dooinge, he fent foorth BartJiolomeus Colonus his brother, beinge leauetenaunt of the Ilande, 
with an army of men to fearche the golde mynes beinge dyflant three fcore leaques from the citie of Jfahdla, 
which were fownde by the conducte of certeyne people of the Ilande, beefore the mynes of Cipanga or Cibaua 
were knowen. In thefe mynes, they fownde certeyne deepe pittes which had byn digged in owlde tyme, owte 
of thefe pyttes, the Admirall (who affirmeth this Ilande of Hifpaniola to bee Ophir, as we haue layde before) 
fuppofeth that Salomon the kynge of Hierufalem had his greate ryches of golde wherof we reede in the owlde 
teftamente : And that his fliippes fayled to this Ophir by the goulfe of Perfia cauled Sinus Perficus. But 
whether it bee foo or not, it lyeth not in me to iudge, but in my opinion it is farre of. As the myners dygged 
the fuperficiall or vppermofl parte of the earthe of the mynes, durynge for the fpace of vi miles, and in dyuers 
places fyfted the fame on the drye lande, they fownde fuch plentie of golde, that euery hyred labourer could 
eafely fynde euery day, the weyght of three drammes. Thefe mynes beinge thus fearched and fownde, the 
Lieuetenaunte certifyed the Admirall hereof by his letters. The which when he had receaued the. v. daye of the 
Ides of Marche. Anno. 1495. he entered into his newe fliippes, and tooke his viage directly to Spayne to aduertife 
the kynge of all his affayres, leauinge the hole regiment of the Hand with his brother the Lieuetenaunte, 

il The fyfte booke of the fyrst decade, 
to Lodouike Cardinall of Kx2,<gom&. 

ilFter the Admyralles departyng into Spain his Brother the Lieuetenaunte, buylded a fort[r]effe 
in the golde mynes, as he had commaunded hym. This he cauled the golden towre, 
bycaufe the labourers fownde golde in the earth and flone wherof they made the waules of 
the fortreffe. He confumed three monethes in makynge the inflrumentes wherwith the 
golde fhulde bee gathered, wafhed, tryed, and molten. Yet was he at this tyme by reafon 
of wante of vitayles, enforced to leaue all thynges imperfecte, and to goo feeke for meate. 
Thus as he with a bande of armed men, had entered three fcore myles further within the 
lande, the people of the countrey here and there refortynge to hym, gaue hym a certen portion of theyr breade 
in exchange for other of owre thynges. But he coulde not long tary here, bicaufe they lacked meate in the 
fortreffe, whyther he hailed with fuch as he had now gotten. Leauyng therfore in the fortreffe a garryfon of 
tenne men, with that portion of the Ilande breade whiche yet remayned, leauynge alfo with them a hownde 
to take thofe kyndes of lyttle beaftes which they caule Vfias, not muche vnlyke owre conyes, he returned to 
the fortreffe of Conception. This alfo, was the moonthe wherin the kynge Guarionexius, and alfo 
Manicautexius, bortherer vnto hym, fliulde haue brought in theyr tributes. Remaynynge there the hole 
moonthe of lune, he exacted the hole tribute of thefe twoo kinges, and vj'tayles neceffary for hym 
and fuche as he brought with hym, whiche were abowt foure hundreth in number. Shortely after, abowte 
the calendes of lulye, there came three Caraueles from Spajme, bringynge with them fundry kyndes of 
vitayles, as wheate, oyle, wyne, bacon, and marckelmas beafe : whiche were dyuyded to euery man accord- 
ynge as neede required. Sum alfo was lofl. in the cariage for lacke of good lookyng too. At the arryuall 
of thefe fhyppes, the lieuetenaunte receaued commaundment from the kynge and the Admyrall his brother, that 
he with his men fliulde remoue theyr habitation to the fowthe fyde of the Ilande, bycaufe it was nerer to the 
golde mynes : Alfo that he flioulde make dilygent fearche for thofe kynges whiche had flayne the Chriftian men, 
and to fende them with theyr confederates, bownd into Spayne. At the nexte vyage therfore, he fent three 
hundreth captiues with tkree Kinges : And when he had diligently fearched the of the fouth fyde, he 
tranfported his habitation, and buylded a fortreffe there, vpon the toppe of a hyll, neere vnto a fure hauen. 

This fortreffe, he cauled faynt Dominikes towre. Into this hauen, runneth a ryuer of holfome water, replenyftied 
with fundrye kyndes of good fyflhes. They affyrme this ryuer to haue many benefytes of nature. For, where 
fo euer it runneth all thynges are excedynge pleafaunte and fruitfull: hauynge on euery fyde, groues of date 
trees, and dyuers other of the Ilande frutes fo plentyfully, that as they fayled alonge by the fliore, often tymes 
the branches therof laden with flowres and fruites, hunge foo ouer theyr heades, that they mi^.ite plucke them 
with theyr handes. Alfo that the frutefulnes of this grownde, is eyther equall with the loyle of Ifabella, or 
better. In Ifabella, he lefte only certeyne ficke men and fhippe wrightes, whom he had appointed to make 
certeyne carauels The refidue of his men, he conueighed to the fowth, to faint Dominickes to^vre. After he 
had buylded this fortreffe, leauinge therin a garryfon of. xx. men, he with the remanent of his fouldiers, prepared 

The fyrjl Decade. 


them felues to fearche the inner partes of the Wefle fyde of the Ilande, hytherto knowen onely by name. 
Therfore abowte. xxx. leaques, (that is) foure fcore and tenne myles from the fortreffe, he chaunced on the 
ryuer Naiba, whiche we fayde to defcende from the mountaynes of Cibaua, ryght towarde the fowth, by the 
myddefl of the Hand. When he had ouerpaffed this ryuer with a coompanye of armed men diuided into. xxv. 
decurions, that is, tenne in a company with theyr capitaynes, he fent two decurions to the regions of thofe 
kinges in whofe landes were the great woods of brafile trees. Inclyninge towarde the lefte hande, they fownde 
the woodes, entered into them, and felled the hygh and precious trees, which were to that day, vntouched. 
Eche of the decurions fylled certeyne of the Ilande howfes with the trunkes of brafile, there to be referued 
vntyll the (hyppes came which Ihulde cary them away. But the Lieuetenaunt directinge his ioumey towarde 
the ryght hande, not farre from the bankes of the ryuer of Naiba, fownde a certeyne kynge whofe name was 
Beuchius Anacauchoa, encamped ageynft. th[e]inhabitantes of the prouince of Naiba, to fubdue them vnder his 
dominion, as he had doone manye other kynges of the Ilande, bortherers vnto hym : The palaice of this great 
kynge, is cauled Xaragua : and is fituate towarde the Wefle ende of the Ilande, diftante from the ryuer of 
Naiba. xxx. leaques. All the prynces which dwell betwene the Welle ende and his palaice, are ditionaries 
vnto hym. All that Region from Naiba, to the furthelle marches of the wefle, is vtterly withowte golde, 
althowgh it bee full of mountaynes. When the kynge had efpied owre men, layinge a parte his weapons, and 
gyuinge fignes of peace, he fpake gentelly to them, (incerteyne whether it were of humanitie or feare) and 
demaunded of them what they woolde haue. The Lieuetenaunte aunfwered : That he Ihulde paye tribute to 
the Admirall his brother, in the name of the Chriflian kynge of Spayne. To whom he fayde : Howe can yowe 
requyre that of me, whereas neuer a Region vnder my dominion bringeth foorth golde. For he had harde, 
that there was a flrange nation entered into the Ilande, whiche made greate fearche for golde. But he fuppofed 
that they defyred none other thynge. The leauetenaunt anfwered ageyne : God forbydde that we fhulde enioyne 
any man to pay fuch tribute as he myght not eafely forbeare, or fuch as were not engendered or growinge in the 
Region : But we vnderfland that your Regions brynge foorth great plentie of Goffampine cotton, and hempe, 
with fuche other, whereof we defyre yowe to gyue vs parte. When he harde thefe woordes, he promyfed with 
cherefuU countenaunce, to gyue hym as muche of thefe thynges as he wolde requyre. Thus difmifTmge his 
army, and fendynge meffengers beefore, he hym felfe accoompanyed the Leauetenaunte and browght hym to 
his palaice, beinge dyflante (as we haue fayde). xxx. leaques. In al this tracte, they paffed throwgh the luris- 
diction of other princes beinge vnder his dominion : Of the whiche, fume gaue them hempe, of no lefTe goodnes 
to make tackelinges for fhippes then owre woodde. Other fume, browght breade, and fum goffampyne cotton : 
And foo euery of them payde tribute with fuche commodities as theyr countreys browght foorth. At the lengthe 
they came to the kinges manfion place of Xaragua. Before they entered into the palaice, a greate multitude 
of the kynges feruauntes and fubiectes reforted to the courte, honorably (after their maner) to receaue theyr 
kyng Beuchius Anacauchoa, with the flrangers which he browght with hym to fe the magnificence of his courte. 
But nowe fhall yowe heare howe they were interteyned. Amonge other tryumphes and fyghtes, two are 
efpecially to bee noted. Fyrfle there mette them a company of xxx. women, beinge al the kynges wyues and 
concubines, bearinge in theyr handes branches of date trees, finginge and daunfinge : They were all naked, 
fauynge that theyr pryuie partes were couered with breeches of goffampine cotton. But the virgins, hauynge 
theyr heare hangynge downe abowte their fhulders, tyed abowte the foreheade with a fyllet, were vtterly naked. 
They afRrme that the)T faces, brefles, pappes, handes, and other partes of theyr bodyes, were excedynge fmoothe, 
and well proportioned : but fumwhat inclyning to a louely brown. They fuppofed that they had feene thofe 
mofl beawtyfull Dryades, or the natyue nymphes or fayres of the fontaynes wherof the antiquites fpeake fo 
muche. The branches of date trees which they bore in theyr right handes when they daunced, they delyuered 
to the Leauetenaunt with lowe curtefy and fmylynge countenaunce. Thus enteringe into the kynges howfe, 
they fownde a delycate fupper prepared for them after theyr maner. When they were well refrefhed with 
meate, the nyght drawinge on, they were browght by the kynges officers, euery man to his lodginge, accordyng 
to his degree, in certeyne of theyr howfes abowte the palaice, where they refled them in hangynge beddes 
after the maner of the countrey, wherof we haue fpoken more largely in an other place. 

C The daye folowyng they browght owre men to their common haule, into the whiche they coome together 
as often as they make any notable games or triumphes, as we haue faid before. Here, after many daunfynges, 
fynginges, mafkinges, runnynges, wrefllynges, and other tryinge of maflryes, foodenly there appered in a large 
plaine nere vnto the haule. ii. greate armies of men of warre, whiche the kynge for his paflyme had caufed to bee 
prepared, as the Spaniardes vfe the playe with reedes whiche they caule luga de Camas. As the armies drewe 
neere together, they affayled the one the other as fierfely, as if mortal ennemies with theyr baners fpleade, fhulde 
fight for theyr goodes, theyr landes, theyr lyues, their libertie, -theyr countrey, theyr wyues and theyr chyldren. Soo 
that within the momente of an howre, foure men were flayne, and many wounded. The battayle alfo fhoulde haue 
contynued longer, if the kynge had not at the requefl of owre men, caufed them to ceafe. The thyrde day, the 

The ryuer of 


Wooddcs of 
brasile trees. 

Kinge Beuchius 
The palaice 
of xaragua- 

without gold 


The woolfe 
entreateth the 

Hempe and 
gossampine cotton 

Howe the 
Lieuetenant was 
receaued at the 
kynges palaice. 

The kynges wyuei. 

Well fauered 



A delicate supper. 
Hanginge beddes. 
A common haule- 

A prede pastyme- 

Foure men slaine 
in sport 


The fyrji Decade. 

Prouision for 
diseased men 

The castels or 
towres of 

The golden 
of Cibaua. 


The kynges 

capitaine of 
the conspiracie. 

An anny of xv. 




The kynges are 
taken prisoaers. 

is pardoned. 

Lacke of vy tayle 

Anacauchoa, the 
kyngc of Xaragua. 

Lieuetenant confelynge the kynge to fowe more plentie of goflampine vppon the bankes nere vnto the waters 
fyde, that they niyghte the better paye theyr tribute priuately accordynge to the multitude of theyr howfes, he 
repayred to Jfabella to vyfite the ficke men whiche he had lefte there, and alfo to fee howe his woorkes wente for- 
warde. In the tyme of his abfence. xxx. of his men were confumed with diuerfe difeafes. Wherfore beinge fore 
trowbled in his mynde, and in maner at his wyttes ende what he were beft to doo, for as muche as he wanted al 
thynges neceflarie as well to reflore them to healthe whiche were yet acrafed, as alfo vitayles to mayntaine the 
hole multitude, where as there was yet no fliippe coome from Spaine, as at the length he determyned to fende 
abrode the ficke men here and there to mndrye Regions of the Ilande, and to the caflelles which they had 
erected in the fame. For directly from the citie of Ifabella to faynt Dominikes towre, that is, from the north to 
the fouth, throwgh the Hand, they had buylded thus many caflelles. Fyrfle. xxxvi. myles diflante from Ifabella, 
they buylded the caflell of Sperantia, from Sperantia. xxv. myles, was the caftell of faynte Catharine, from faynte 
Catharines, xx. myles, was faynt lames towre. Other, xx. miles from faynte lames towre, was a flronger 
fortreffe then any of the other, which they cauled the towre of Conception : which he made the flronger bicaufe it 
was fituate at the rootes of the golden mountaynes of Cibaua, in the greate and large playne foo fruitefull and 
well inhabited as we haue before defcribed. He buylded alfo an other in the mydde waye betwene the towre 
of Conception and faynt Dominikes towre. The which alfo was flronger then the towre of Conception, bycaufe 
it was within the lymittes of a great kynge, hauinge vnder his dominion fiue thowfande men : whofe chiefe Citie 
and heade of the Realme, beynge cauled Bonauum, he wylled that the caflell fliulde alfo bee cauled after the 
fame name. Therfore leauynge the ficke men in thefe caflels and other of the Ilande howfes nere vnto the fame, 
he hym felfe repayred to faynte Dominikes, exactinge tributes of all the kynges whiche were in his waye. When 
he had taryed there a fewe dayes, there was a rumor fpredde, that all the kynges abowte the borders of the 
towre of Conception, had confpyred with defperate myndes to rebell agenfle the Spaniardes. When the 
Lieuetenaunte was certified hereof, he tooke his iomeye towarde them immediately, not beyng difcoraged eyther 
by the lengthe of the waye, or feebleneffe of his fouldyers, beynge in maner forweried with trauayle. As he 
drewe nere vnto them, he had aduertifement that kynge Guarionexius was chofen by the other prynces to bee 
the Capitayne of this rebellion : And that he was enforfed therto halfe vnwilling, beynge feduced by theyr 
perfwafions and prouocations. The whiche is more lykely to be trewe, for that he had before had experience of 
the power and policie of owre men. They came together at a daye appoynted, accoompanied with. xv. 
thoufande men, armed after their maner, once agen to proue the fortune of warre. Here the Lieuetenaunte 
confultynge with the Capitayne of the fortreffe and the other fouldiers of whom he had the conducte, determyned 
to fette vpon them vnwares in their owne howfes before they coulde prepare theyr army. He fent foorthe 
therfore to euery kynge, a Centurian, that is, a capitaine of a hundreth, which were commaunded vppon a fudden 
to inuade theyr howfes in the night, and to take them fleepinge, beefore the people (beinge fcattered here and 
there) might affemble togyther. Thus fecreatly enteringe into their vylages, not fortified with waules, trenches, or 
bulwarkes, they broke in vppon them, tooke them, bounde them, and led away euery man his prifoner according 
as they were commaunded. The Lieuetenaunt hym felfe with his hundreth men, affayled kynge Guarionexius 
as the woorthier perfonage, whom he tooke pryfoner as dyd the other capitaynes theyr kynges, and at the fame 
howTe appoynted. Foureteene of theym were browght the fame nyght to the towre of Conception. Shortlye after, 
when he had put to death two of the kynges which were the chiefe autours of this newe reuolte, and had fubomed 
Guarionexius and the other kynges to attempte the fame: leafl the people for forowe of theyr kynges fhulde 
neglecte or forfake their countrey, whiche thinge myght haue byn greate incommoditie to owre men, who by 
th[e]increafe of theyr feedes and fruites were oftentymes ayded, he freely pardoned and difmiffed Guarionexius 
and the other kynges. The people in the meane tyme flocked togyther abowte the towre, to the nomber 
of fyue thowfande withowte weapons, with pytiful houhng for the delyueraunce of theyr kynges: The ayer 
thundered, and the earth trembeled throwgh the vehemencie of theyr owtcry The Lieuetenaunt warned 
Guarionexius and the other kynges, with threatenynges, with rewardes, and with promyfes, neuer hereafter to 
attempte any fuche thynge. Then Guarionexius made an oration to the people of the great power of owre men, 
of theyr clemencie towarde offenders, and liberaUtie to fuche as remayne faithfull : defyringe them to quiet theyr 
myndes : and from henfefoorth nother in deede nor thowght to interpryfe any thynge ageynfl the Chriflians, but 
to obeye and ferue them, excepte they wolde dayly brynge them felues into further calamyties. When the 
oration was fynyfhed, they tooke hym vp and fet hym on theyr fhulders, and foo caryed hym home to his owne 
palaice. And by this meanes, this Region was pacified for a whyle. But owre men, with heauy countenaunce, 
wandered vppe and downe, as defolate in a flrange countrey, lackinge vytailes, and worne owte of apparell, 
whereas, xv. moonethes were nowe paffed fence the Admirals departure : duringe which tyme, they coulde heare 
nothynge owte of Spayne. The Leauetenaunt comforted them all that he coulde with fayre wordes and promyfes. 
In the meane tyme, Beuchius Anacauchoa, the kynge of the Wefle partes of the Region of Xaragua (of whom 
we fpake before) fente meffengers to the Lieuetenaunt to fignifye vnto hym, that he hadde in a redynes the 

Thefyrji Decade. 


goflampine cotton and fuche other thinges as he wylled hym to prepare for the paymente of his trybute. 
Whervppon the Lieuetenaunt tooke his iorney thyther, and was honorably receaued of the kynge and his fyfter, 
fumtyme the wyfe of Caunaboa the kynge of Cibaiia, bearing no leffe rule in the 'gouernaunce of her brothers 
kyngedome, then he hym felfe. For they affirme her to bee a wyfe woman, of good maners, and pleafaunt in 
company. Shee emeflly perfuaded her brother by th[e]example of her hufbande, to loue and obeye the 
Chriflians. This woman was cauled Anacaona. He fo^vnde in the palaice of Beuchius Atiacauchoa. xxxii. 
kynges whiche hadde browght theyr tributes with them, and abode his comminge. They browght with them 
alfo befyde theyr tr)'bute affigned them, further to demerite the fauour of owre men, great plentie of vytayles : 
as bothe kyndes of breade, cunnyes, and fyfflies, alredy dryed bycaufe they fhulde not putrifie : Serpentes alfo 
of that kynd which wee fayd to bee efteemed amonge them as mofl delicate meate, and lyke vnto Crocodiles 
fauing in byggenes. Thefe ferpentes they caule luannas, which owre men learned fumewhat to late to haue byn 
engendred in the Ilande. For vnto that day, none of them durfle aduenture to tafle of them by reafon 
of theyr horrible deformitie and lothefumnes. Yet the Lieuetenaunt beinge entyfed by the pleafantnes 
of the kynges fyfter, determined to tafte of the ferpentes. But when he felte the fleflie therof to bee fo 
delicate to his tonge, he fel too, amayne without al feare. The which thinge his coompanyons perceauinge, 
were not behynde hym in greedines: In foo muche that they hadde nowe none other talke then of the 
fweetenes of thefe ferpentes: which theyaffyrme to bee of more pleafaunte tafte, then eyther owre phefauntes 
or pertriches. But they lofe theyr tafte, excepte they bee prepared after a certeyne faffhion : as doo peacockes 
and phefauntes except they bee interlarded beefore they bee rofted. They prepare them therefore after this 
maner. Fyrft takynge owte theyr bowels euen from the throte to the thyghes, they waflie and rubbe theyr 
bodies very cleane bothe within and withowte. Then rouling them togyther on a cyrcle, inuolued after the 
maner of a flepynge fnake, they thrufte them into a potte of no bygger capacitie then to houlde them only. 
This doone, puttinge a lyttle water vnto them with a portion of the Ilande pepper, they feethe them with a 
foft fyer of fweete woodde, and fuche as maketh no greate fmoke. Of the fat of them beinge thus fodde, is made 
an excedinge pleafaunte brothe or potage. They fay alfo, that there is no meate to bee compared to the egges 
of thefe ferpentes, which they vfe to feethe by them felues. They are good to bee eaten as fone as they are 
fodde : And may alfo bee referued many dayes after. But hauinge fayde thus muche of theyr intertaynement 
and daintie fare, let vs nowe fpeake of other matters. When the Lieuetenaunt had fylled one of the Ilande 
howfes with the gofTampine cotton which he hadde receaued for trybute, the kynges promyfed furthermore to 
gyue hym as muche of theyr breade, as he wolde demaunde. He gaue them hartie thankes and gentely 
accepted theyr freendly profer. In the meane time whyle this breade was gatheringe in fundry Regions to bee 
browght to the palaice of Beuchius Anacauchoa kynge of Xaragua, he fent meffengers to Ifabella for one of the 
two carauelles which were lately made there : intendinge to fende the fame thyther ageyne laden with breade. 
The maryners gladde of thefe tydynges, layled abowte the Ilande, and in ftiort fpace browght the fliippe to the 
coaftes of Xaragua. The fyfter of kynge Beuchius Anacauchoa, that wyfe and pleafaunt woman Anacaona, (the 
wyfe fumtyme of Caunaboa the kynge of the golden howfe of the mountaynes of Cibaua, whose hufbande dyed in 
the way when he fhulde haue byn caryed into Spayne,) when thee harde faye that owre fhyppe was arryued on 
the fliore of her natiue countrey, perfuaded the kynge her brother that they bothe myght goo togyther to fee it. 
For the place where the fhyppe lay, was not pafte. vi. myles diflante from Xaragua. They refted all night, in 
the mydde way, in a certeyne vyllage in the which was the treafurye or iewell howfe of Aiiacaona. Her 
treafure was nother goulde, fyluer, or precious ftones, but only thynges neceffary to bee vfed, as cheyars, 
ftooles, fettels, dyfflies, potingers, pottes, pannes, bafons, treyes, and fuche other howfholde ftuffe and inftru- 
mentes, workemanly made of a certeyne blacke and harde ftiyninge woodde which that excellent lerned phifition 
lohn baptifte Elifius, affirmeth to bee hebene. What fo euer portion of vi^tte nature hath gyuen to the inhabi- 
tantes of thefe Ilandes, the fame doth moft appeare in thefe kynde of woorkes, in whiche they fhewe great arte 
and cunnyng. But thofe which this woman had, were made in the Hand of Guanabba, fituate in the mouth of 
the wefte fyde of Hifpaniola. In thefe they graue the lyuely Images of fuch phantafies as they fuppofe they 
fee walke by night which the Antiquitie cauled Lemures. Alfo the Images of men, ferpents, beaftes, and what 
foo euer other thyng they haue once feene. What wolde yowe thinke (moft noble Prynce) that they coulde 
doo, if they had the vfe of Iren and fteele ? For they onely fyrfte make thefe fofte in the fyre, and afterwarde 
make them holowe and came them with a certeyne ftone which they fynde in the ryuers. Of ftooles and 
chayers, fhee gaue the Lieuetenaunt. xiiii. And of veffelles perteynynge to the table and kychen, fhee gaue hym 
three fcore, fum of wood and fume of earthe. Alfo of goflampine cotton ready fpunne foure great bottomes of 
excedinge weight. The day folowing when they came to the fea fyde, where was an other vylage of the kynges, 
the Lieuetenaunt commaunded the fhyppe boat to bee browght to the fhore. The kyng alfo had prepared two 
canoas, paynted after theyr maner : one for hym felfe and certeyne of his gentelmen : an other for his fyfter 
Anacaona and her waytinge women. But Anacaona defyred to bee caried in the fhyppe boate with the 

K 2 85 

Queene Anacaon.i, 
the wife of kynge 

xxxii. kynges. 

Serpentes eaten. 


The dressing of 
serpentes to be 

egges eaten 



Queene Anacaona 

The treasurie of 
Queene Anacaona 

Hebene woode. 

The Ilande of 


A stone in the 
steede of Iren 


The fyrjl Decade. 



Ignorance causeth 



The intemperancie 

and malice of a 

seruile witte 



Maiobanexitis, the 
great kynge of 
the mountaynes 

The inhabytantes 
of the mountaynes. 

rebelleth ageyne. 

Xeminus rebelleth. 


in libeitic 

Hercules pyllers 
A violentc 

Lieuetenaunte. When they nowe approched nere vnto the fliyppe, certeyne great pieces of ordinaunce were 
difcharged of purpofe. The fea was fylled with thunder, and the ayer with fmooke. They trembled and 
quaked for feare, fuppofinge that the frame of the world had byn in danger of fauling. But when they fawe 
the Lieuetenaunte lawgh, and looke cherefully on them, they cauled ageyne theyr fpirites. And when 
they yet drewe nerer to the fliippe, and harde the noyfe of the fluites, flialmes, and drummes, they 
were wonderfully aflonyed at the fweete harmony therof Enterynge into the fhyppe and beholdinge the fore- 
fhippe and the flerne, the toppe caflel, the mafle, the hatches, the cabens, the keele, and the tackelinges, the 
brother fixinge his eyes on the fyfler, and the fyfler on the brother, they were bothe as it were dumme and 
amafed, and wyfle not what to faye for too muche wonderynge. Whyle beholdinge thefe thinges they wandered 
vp and downe the fhippe, the Lieuetenaunt commaunded the ankers to bee loofed, and the failes to be hoyfed 
vp. Then were they further aflonyfhed, when they fawe foo greate a mole, to moue as it were by it felfe, 
without ores and without the force of man. For there arofe from the earth fuche a wynde as a man wolde haue 
wyfhed for of purpofe. Yet furthermore, when they perceaued the fliyppe to moue fumtyme forwarde and 
fumtyme backewarde : fumtyme towarde the ryght hande and fumtyme towarde the lefte, and that with one 
wynde and in maner at one inflante, they were at theyr wyttes ende for to muche admiracion. Thefe thyuges 
fyniflied and the fliyppes beinge laden with breade and fuche other rewardes, they beinge alfo recompenfed 
with other of owre thynges, he difmifled not onely the kynge Beuchius Anacauchoa, and his fyfler, but lykewife 
all theyr feruauntes and women replenyflied with ioye and woonderinge. After this, he hym felfe tooke his 
iomey by foote with his fouldiers to the citie of Ifabella: where he was aduertifed that one Roldanus Ximenus, 
a nawghty felowe, (whom before beinge his feraante, he had preferred to bee capitayne of the myners and 
labourers, and after made hym a ludge in caufes of controuerfie) had vfed hym felfe owtragioufly and was 
malycioufly mynded ageinfl hym, and further, the caufe of muche mifchiefe in his abfence. For kynge 
Guarionexius (who a whyle before was pardoned of his former rebellion, and perfuaded the people to obeye the 
Spanyardes) was by his nawghty vfage, and fuche other as were confethered with hym, fo accenfed to reuenge 
the iniuries which they fufleyned at his handes, byfyde the abhominable actes which they folowynge onely the 
lawe 01 nature, abhorred to admytte, that he with his famelie, famylyers, and ditionaries, of defperate mynde 
fledde to the mountaynes beinge diflant from Ifabella onely tenne leaques Weflwarde, towarde the north fyde 
of the fea. Thefe mountaynes, and alfo the inhabitantes of the fame they caule by one name Ciguaios. The 
greate kyng of al the kynges and regions of thefe mountayne[s], is cauled Maiobanexius: and his courte or 
palaice is named Capronus. The mountaynes are rowgh, hygh, and fuche as no man can paffe to the toppes 
therof They are alfo bendynge : and haue theyr comers reachinge downe to the fea. Betwene bothe the 
comers of the mountaynes, is there a greate playne, by the which many riuers faule from the mountaynes into 
the fea. The people are verye fierfe and warlyke men, hauing theyr original of the Canybales. For when they 
defcende from the mountaynes to the playnes to keepe warre with theyr bortherers, they eate all fuche as they 
kyll. Guarionexius therfore, flyinge to this kyng of thefe mountaynes, gaue hym many prefentes of fuche 
thynges as are wantinge in his countrey : therwith declaringe howe vylely, vylaynoufly, and violently, he had 
byn vfed of owre men : with whom he could nothinge preuayle nother by fayre meanes, nor by foule : nother 
by humilytie nor by ft.outnes. And that to bee the caufe of his refortinge to hym at that tyme : mofle humbly 
defyring hym to bee his defence ageynll th[e]oppreflions of fuche myfcheuous people. Maiobanexius here 
vppon, made hym promefle to ayde and helpe hym ageynft, the Chriflians al that he myght The Lieuetenaunt 
therfore made haft, to the fortreffe of Conception ; whyther as foone as he was coome, he fent for Roldanus 
Xeminus, who with fuche as folowed hym, lay in certeyne of the Ilande vylages, twelue miles diftant from the 
fortres. At his comminge, the Leauetenaunt afked h3Tn what al thefe flurres and tumultes ment He anfwered 
without abafliement : Yowre brother the Admirall hath to do ther^vith, and ftiall anfwere for the fame before the 
kynge. For we perceaue that the kynge hath foo put hym in traft.e, that he hath hadde no regarde to vs. 
Here we peryflie for hunger whyle we folowe yowe : and are dryuen to feeke owre vnhappy foode in the defertes. 
Yowre brother alfo, affigned me afliftant with yowe in goueminge the Ilande. Wherfore fyth yowe haue no 
more refpecte vnto vs, we are determyned noo longer to bee vnder yo\vre obedience. When Roldanus had 
fpoken thefe wordes and fuche other, the Lieuetenaunte wolde haue layde handes on hym : but he efcaped 
his fyngers, and fledde to the wefle partes of the Region of Xaragua, hauinge with hym a trayne of 
threefcore and tenne men whiche were of his confetheracie. Here this fylthy fynke of rebels thus confpired, 
played their vages and lyued with loofe brydels in al kyndes of myfchefe, robbynge the people, fpoylinge the 
countrey, and rauyftiinge bothe wyues and virgines. Whyle thefe thynges were doing in the Ilande, the Admirall 
hadde eyght fliyppes appoynted hym by the kinge: Of the whiche he fent two laden with vitayles, from Cales or 
Cades of Hercules pyllers, directly to the Lieuetenaunt his brother. Thefe fliyppes by chaunce arryued fyrfl. on 
that fyde of the Ilande where Rolandus Xeminus ranged with his coompanyons. Rolandus in fliorte tyme hadde 
feduced them : promyfinge them in the ft.eade of mattockes, wenches pappes : for laboiu-e, pleafure : for hunger, 


The fyrjl Decade. 


abundance : and for weaiynes and watchinge, fleepe and quietnes. Guarionexius in the meane tyme, aflemblynge 
a power of his freendes and confetherates, came oftentymes downe into the playne, and flewe as many of the 
Chriflian men, as he coulde meete conuenientlye, and alfo of the Ilande menne whiche were the)T: freendes : 
waflynge theyr grounde, dellroyinge theyr feedes, and fpoyUnge theyr vylages. But Roldanus and his adherentes, 
albeit they had knowleage that the Admiral wolde fhortly coome, yet feared they nothynge bycaufe they had feduced 
the newe menne whiche came in the fyrfte (hippes. Whyle the Lieuetenaunt was thus tofled in the middeft of 
thefe (lormes, in the meane tyme his brother the Admyrall fet forwarde from the coafles of Spayne : But not 
directly to Hifpaniola : For he turned more towarde the fouthe. In the which vyage, what he dyd, what coafles 
bothe of the lande and fea he coompafed, and what newe regions he difcouered, wee wyl fyrfl declare. For to 
what ende and conclufion the fayde tumultes and feditions came, wee wyll expreffe in th[e]ende of the booke 
folowynge. Thus fare ye weU. 

C The syxte booke of the fyrste decade, 
^0 Lodouike Cardina// 0/ Avagome. 

O/onus the Admyral, the thyrde day of the Calendes of lune, in the yeare of Chrifle. 1498. 
hoyfed vp his fayles in the hauen of the towne Barramedabas, not farre diflante from Cales : 
and fet forwarde on his wage with eyght fliippes laden with vytayles and other neceffaries. 
He diuerted from his accuRomed rafe which was by the Ilandes of Canarie, by reafon of 
certeyne frenchemen pirates and rouers on the fea, whiche laye in the ryght way to meete 
with hym. In the way from Cales to the Ilandes of Canarie, abowte foure fcore and ten 
myles towarde the lefte hande, is the Ilande of Madera, more fouthwarde then the citie of 
Ciuile by foure degrees. For the pole artyke is eleuate to Ciuile, xxxvi. degrees : But to this Hand (as the 
mariners faye) only xxxii. He fayled therfore fyrfle to Madera. And fendinge from thenfe directly to 
Hifpaniola, the refydue of the fhippes laden with vytayles and other neceflaries, he hym felfe with one (hyppe 
with deckes, and two marchaunt carauelles coafled towarde the fouthe to coome to the Equinoctial lyne, and 
fo furth to folowe the tracte of the fame towarde the Wefl, to th[e]intent to fearche the natures of fuche places 
as he coulde fynde vnder or nere vnto the fame, leauinge Hifpaniola on the north fyde on his ryght hande. In 
the myddle of his rafe, lye. xiii. Ilandes of the Portugales, whiche were in owlde tyme cauled Hefperides : And 
are now cauled Caput Viride, or Cabouerde. Thefe are fituate in the fea, ryght ouer ageynfl the inner partes of 
Ethiope, Weflwarde two dayes faylinge. One of thefe the Portugales caule Bonauifla. With the fnayles, or rather 
tortoyfes of this Ilande, many leprous men are healed and clenfed of the3T leprofitie. Departing fodainly from henfe 
by reafon of the contagioufnes of the ayre, he fayled. CCCCLXXX. [four hundred and eighty] myles towarde the 
Welle fouthwefl, which is the myddefl betwene the wefte and the fouthe. There was he fo vexed with maladies and 
heate (for it was the moneth of lune) that his fliyppes were almofte fette on fyre. The hoopes of his barrels cracked 
and brake, and the frefflie water ranne owte. The men alfo complayned that they were not able to abyde that 
extremitie of heate. Here the northe pole was eleuate only. v. degrees from the Horizontall. For the fpace of. 
viii. dayes in the which he fuffered thefe extremites, only the fyrll day was fayre : but all the other, clowdy and 
rayny: yet neuertheleffe feruent hotte. Wherefore it oftentymes repented hym not a little that euer he tooke 
that way. Beinge toffed in thefe dangiours and vexations eyght contynuall dayes, at the lengthe an Eaflfoutheafte 
wynde arofe, and gaue a profperous blafle to his fayles. Which wynde folowinge directly towarde the wefle, he 
fownde the llarres ouer that paralelle, placed in other order, and an other kynde of ayer, as the Admirall hym felfe 
towlde me. And they al affirme, that within three dayes faylinge, they fownde mofle temperate and pleafaunte 
ayre. The Admirall alfo affirmeth, that from the clime of the great heate and vnholfome ayer, he euer afcended 
by the backe of the fea, as it were by a hygh mountayne towarde heauen. Yet in all this tyme, coulde he not 
once fee any lande. But at the length, the day before the Calendes of luly, the watcheman lookynge foorth of 
the toppecaflell of the greateft. Ihyppe, cryed owte alowde for ioy that he efpyed three excedynge hyghe 
mountaynes : Exhortinge his felowes to bee of good cheere, and put away all penfiuenes. For they were very 
heauy and forowfuU, as well for the greefe which they fufteyned by reafon of th[e]intollerable heate, as alfo that 
their frelhe water fayled them, which ranne owte at the ryftes of the barels, caufed by extreme heate as we haue 
fayde. Thus beinge wel conforted, they drewe to the lande. Yet at theyr fyrfl, approche, they coulde not arryue by 
reafon of the (halownes of the fea nere the Ihore. Yet lookyng owte of theyr fhyppes, they might wel perceaue 
that the Region was inhabyted and well cultured. For they fawe very fayre gardens, and pleafaunte medowes : 

The furie of 

The thyrde vyage 
of Colonus the 

Frenche mcu 

The Hand of 

The Admiral 
[sjaj^leth to the 

xiii. Ilandes of 
Hesperides, no\v 
cauled Cabouerde 

Healynge of the 

Contagious ayre 
and extreenie heate 

The pole eleuate. 
V degrees. 


The starres placed 

in other order. 

A sea rysyng lyke 
a mountayne. 

Heate ciuseth the 
barrets to brekc. 


The fyrjl Decade. 

Swete sauours 
frome the lande. 


People of feoodjly 
corporature and 
longe heare nere 
the EquinoctialL 

The higher the 

betwene people of 
one cUme. 

Note the cause of 



The violent course 
of the water from 
the Easte to the 

The goulfe cauled 
Os Draconls. 
A conflict betwene 
the freshe water 
and the salte. 

A sea of fresh 

Mannasets and 

frome the trees and herbes wherof, when the momynge dewes beganne to ryfe, there proceaded manye fweete 
feuoures. Twentie myles diflant from henfe, they chaunced into a hauen, verye apte to harborowe (hippes, but 
it had no ryuer runninge into it. Saylinge on yet fumwhat further, he fownde at the lengthe a commodious 
hauen wherin he might repayre his fliippes and make prouifion of freffhe water and fuell. Arenalis cauleth 
this lande Puta. They fownd no houfes nere vnto the hauen : but innumerable (leppes of certein wilde 
feete, of the which they fownde one deade much lyke a goate. The day folowynge, they fawe a Canoa 
commynge a farre of, hauinge in it. xxiiii. younge men of godly corporature and high flature, al armed with 
targets, bowes and arowes The heare of theyr beds, was longe and plaine, and cutte on the forheade much 
after the maner of the Spanyardes. Theyr priuie partes were couered with fillettes of goflampyne cotton, of 
fundry coloures enterlaced ; And were befyde al ouer naked. Here the Admirall confideringe with hym felfe 
the corporature of this people and nature of the lande, he beleaued the fame to bee foo much the nerer heauen 
then other Regions of the fame paralelle, and further remoued from the groffe vapours of the vales and maryffhes, 
howe muche the hyghefte toppes of the byggefl mountaynes are diflante from the deepe vales. For he emeftly 
affirmeth, that in all that nauigation, he neuer wente owte of the paralelles of Ethiope : So greate difference is 
there betwene the nature of th[e]inhabitantes and of the foyles of dyuers Regions all vnder one clyme or 
paralelle: as is to fee betwene the people and regions being in the firme lande of Ethiope, and theym of the 
Ilandes vnder the fame clime, hauinge the pole ftarre eleuate in the fame degree. For the Ethiopians are all 
blacke, hauinge theyr heare curld more lyke wulle then heare. But thefe people of the Hand of Puta (beinge 
as I haue fayde vnder the clyme of Ethiope) are whyte, with longe heare, and of yelowe colour. Wherfore it is 
apparente, the caufe of this foo greate difference, to bee rather by the difpofition of the earthe, then conftitucion 
of heauen. For wee knowe, that fnowe fauleth on the mountaynes of the Equinoctiall or bumte lyne, and the 
fame to endure there continually: We knowe lykewyfe that th[e]inhabitantes of the Regions farre diflante frome 
that lyne towarde the northe, are molefted with greate heate. 

^i; The Admiral that he myght allure the younge men to him with gentelnes, fhewed them lokynge glaCfes, 
fayre and bright veffelles of copper, haukes belles, and fuche other thynges vnknowen to them. But the more 
they were cauled, fo much the more they fufpected crafte and deceate, and fledde backewarde. Yet dyd they 
with greate admiracion beholde owre men and theyr thynges, but flyll hauinge their ores in theyr handes redy 
to flye. When the Admirall fawe that he coulde by no meanes allure them by gyftes, he thought to proue what 
he coulde do with muficall inflrumentes : and therefore commaunded that they which were in the greatefl (hippe, 
(hulde play on theyr drummes and ftialmes. But the younge men fuppofmge this to bee a token of battayle, 
lefte theyr ores, and in the twyn[k]lynge of an eye hadde put theyr arrowes in theyr bowes and theyr targettes 
on theyr armes : And thus directinge theyr arrowes towarde owre men, ftoode in expectacion to knowe what 
this noyfe myght meane. Owre men lykewife preparinge theyr bowes and arrowes, approched toward them by 
lyttle and lyttle. But they departinge from the Admirals fhippe, and truftinge to the dexteritie of theyr ores 
came foo neare one of the leffe fhippes, that one of theym plucked the cloke from the gouernour of that fhippe, 
and as wel as they coulde by fignes, requyred hym to coome alande, promyfmge feyth that they wolde common 
with hym of peace. But when they fawe hym goo to the Admirals fhippe whether he went to aflce leaue that 
he might common with them, fufpectinge heareby fume further deceate, they lept immediatly into the Canoa, 
and fledde as ftvyft as the wynde. So that to conclude, they coulde by no meanes be allured to famiUaritie. 
Wherfore the Admirall thowght it not conuenient to beftowe any longe tyme there, at this vyage. No greate 
fpace frome this Ilande, euer towarde the wefle, the Admirall faith he fownde fo owteragious a faule of water, 
runninge with fuch a violence from the Eafle to the Wefle, that it was nothynge inferioure to a myghty flreame 
faul)Tige from hyghe mountaynes. He alfo confeffed, that fince the fyrfl daye that euer he knewe what the fea 
mente, he was neuer in fuche feare. Proceadinge yet fumwhat further in this daungerous vyage, he fownde 
certeyne goulfes of viii. myles, as it had byn the[e]nteraunce of fume greate hauen, into the which, the fayde 
violent flreames dyd faule. Thefe goulfes or flreyghtes, he cauled Os Dracotiis, that is, the dragons mouth. 
And the Hand directly ouer ageynfle the fame, he named Margarita. Owte of thefe flreyghtes, iffliewed no 
leffe force of frefihe water : whiche encounteringe with the faulte, dyd flryue to pafTe foorth : Soo that betwene 
bothe the waters, was no fmaule conflict But enteringe into the goulfe, at the lengthe he fownde the water 
therof very freffhe and good to drynke. The Admyrall hym felfe, and they which were his companions in this 
vyage, beinge men of good credit, and perceauinge my diligence in fearchinge for thefe matters, towlde me yet 
of a greater thynge. That is, that for the fpace of xxvL leaques, amountynge to a hundreth and foure myles, he 
fayled euer by frefhe water : In fo muche, that the further he proceaded, efpecially towarde the wefl, he affirm- 
eth the water to bee the frefflier. After this, he came to a highe mountayne, inhabited onely with moonkeys or 
marmafits on that part towarde the Eafl. For that fyde was rowgh with rockye and flony mountains : And ther- 
fore not inhabyted with men. Yet they that went alande to fearche the countrey, fownde nere vnto the fea, 
many fayre fieldes well tylled and fowen : But noo people, nor yet houfes or cotages. Parhappes they were 

The fyrjl Decade. 


gone further into the countrey to fowe theyr come and applye theyr hufbandry, as wee often fee owre hufbande 
men to leaue theyr flations and vylages for the fame purpofe. In the wefle fyde of that mountayne, they 
efpyed a large playne, whither they made hafle, and cafl anker in the brode ryuer. As foone as the inhabi- 
tantes had knowleage that a flrange nation was arryued in theyr coafles, they came flockinge withowte all feare 
to fee owre men. We vnderflode by theyr fygnes and poyntynges, that this Region was cauled Paria : and 
that it was very large : In fo muche that the further it reacheth towarde the wefle, to be fo muche the better 
inhabited and replenifhed with people. The Admiral therfore, takynge into his fhyppe foure of the men of 
that lande, fearched the wefte partes of the fame. By the temperatenes of the ayer, the pleafauntnes of the 
grownde, and the multytude of people which they faw dayly more and more as they fayled, they coniectured 
that thefe thynges portended fum great matter : As in deede their opinion fayled them not, as we wyll 
further declare in his place. The foonne not yet ryfen, but beginninge euen now to ryfe, beinge one day allured 
by the pleafauntnes of the place and fweete fauours which breathed from the land to the fhippes, they went 
alande. Here they fownde a greater multytude of people then in any other place. As owre men approched 
towarde them, there came certeine meffengers from their Ctuid, that is, the kynges of the countrey, to defyre 
the Admirall in the name of theyr princes to coome to theyr palayces withowte feare, and that they and al 
theyrs ftiulde bee at his commaundement. When the Admirall had thanked them and made his excufe for 
that tyme, there came innumerable people with theyr boates to the fhippes : hauyng for the moft. parte cheynes 
abowte theyr neckes, garlandes on theyr heades, and brafelettes on theyr armes of pearles of India : And that 
fo commonlye, that owre women in playes and tryumphes haue not greater plentie of (lones of glaffe and cryflall 
in theyr garlandes, crownes, gerdels, and fuche other tyrementes. Beinge afked where they gathered them, 
they poynted to the next Ihore by the fea bankes. They fignified alfo by certeyne fcorneful gieflures which 
they made with theyr mouthes and handes, that they nothyng efleemed perles. Taking alfo bafkettes in theyr 
handes, they made fignes that the fame might bee fylled with them in (horte fpace. But bycaufe the corne 
wherwith his fliyppes were laden to bee caryed into Hifpaniola, had taken hurt by reafon of the falte water, he 
determined to deferre this marte to a more conuenient tyme. Yet he fent to lande two of the (hippe boates 
laden with men, to th[e]intent to fetch fum garlandes of perles for exchange of our thynges, and alfo fumwhat 
to fearche the nature of the Region and difpofition of the people. They enterteyned owr men gentelly : and 
came flockynge to them by heapes, as it hadde byn to beholde fume (Iraunge monfters. Fyrfle there came to 
meete owre men, two men of grauitie, whome the multitude folowed. One of thefe was well in age, and the 
other but younge. They thinke it was the father with his foonne whiche fhulde fuccede hym. When the one 
had faluted and embrafed the other, they browght owre men into a certeyne rownde howfe, nere vnto the 
whiche, was a greate courte. Hether were browght many chayers and flooles made of a certeyne blacke woodde, 
and very coonningely wrowght. After that owre men, and theyr Princes were fette, theyr wayting men came in 
laden, fume with fundry delicate dyffhes, and fume with wyne. But theyr meate, was only fruites : and thofe 
of dyuers kyndes and vtterly vnknowen to vs. Theyr wyne was both whyte and redde : not made of grapes, 
but of the lycour of dyuers fruites, and very pleafaunte in drynkynge. After this banquette made in the owlde 
mans howfe, the younge man browght them to his tabernacle or mancion place, where was a greate coorapany 
bothe of men and women, but they ftoode deceauered the one from the other. They are whyte, euen as owre 
men are, fauynge fuche as are much conuerfant in the fonne. They are alfo very gentyll, and full of humanitie 
towarde (Irangiers. They coouer theyr pryuie partes with goffampine cotton wrowght with fundry coloures: 
and are befyde all naked. There was fewe or none, that had not eyther a coUer, a cheyne, or a brafelette of 
golde and pearles, and many had all. Beinge alked where they had that golde, they poynted to certeyne 
mountaynes, feemynge with theyr countenaunce to diffuade owre men from goinge thyther. For puttinge theyr 
armes in theyr mouthes, and grynninge as thowgh they bytte the fame, flylle poyntinge to the mountaynes, they 
feemed to infmuate that men were eaten there : But whether they mente by the Canibales, or wylde beafles 
owre men cowlde not well perceaue. They tooke it excedinge greeuouflye, that they coulde nother vnderflande 
owre men, nor owre men them. When they which were fente to lande, were returned to the fhippes abowte 
three of the clocke at after noone the fame daye, bringinge with them certeyne garlandes and collers of pearles, 
they loofed theyr ankers to departe, myndinge to coome ageyne fhortly, when all thynges were fette in good 
order in Hifpaniola. But he was preuented by an other, which defeated hym of the rewarde of his trauayle. 
He was alfo hyndered at this tyme by reafon of the fhalownes of the fea and violent courfe of the water, which 
with continual tofling, broofed the greatefl, (hip as often as any great gale of wynde arofe. To auoyde the 
daungiours of fuche fhalowe places, and fhelfes, he euer fent one of the fmaulefl carauelles before, to try the 
way with foundinge: and the byggeft fhyppes folowed behynde. The Regions beinge in the large prouince of 
Paria for the fpace of CCXXX. [two hundred and thirty] myles, are cauled of th[e]inhabitantes, Cumana, and 
Manacapana: from thefe regions diflant three fcore leaques, is there an other Region cauled Ctiriaiia. When 
he had thus pafled ouer this long tract of fea, fuppofmg flyll that it had byn an Ilande, and doutinge that he 

The fayre and 
iar^e region of 

Temperate ayer 
and frutful 

Swete sauours 
froine the lande. 

Humayne people. 

Cheynes and 
garlandes of gold 
and perles 


Baskettes ful of 
pearles, I kiiowc 
who had bags ful. 

Howe the 
Admirals men 
were enterteyned. 

Cheyers and 
stoles of hebene. 

Fruites and wyne. 

Wyne of the 
lycour of fruites. 

Whyte men nere 

the Equinoctial 

Mountaynes arc 
the matrices of 


Shalownes of the 

The vse of 
careuelles or 

Cumana and 
regions of the 
prouince of P.iria. 


The fyrjl Decade. 

A r>'uer of 
maruelous depth 
and bredth. 

A sea of weedes. 



The eleuation of 
the pole at Paria. 

Note a secreate 
as concerning the 
pole starre. 

An experience 

A maruelous 

That the earth is 
not perfectly 

Paradise is in the 

mountaynes of 


Looke the ninth 

booke seconde 


Paria is part of 

the firme lande of 


Tyme reuealeth a1 


Paria more 
southewarde then 

The spanyardcs 
rebell in the 
.\dmirals absence 

might paffe by the Welle to the Northe directlye to Hifpaniola, he chaunced into a ryuer of. xxx. cubettes 
depthe, and of fuch breadth as hath not lyghtly byn harde of. For he affirmeth it to bee. xxviii. leaques. A 
lyttle further toward the Wefle, yet fumwhat more fowthwarde as the bending of the fhore requyred, he entered 
into a fea full of herbes or weedes. The feede of the herbes whiche fwymme on the water, are muche lyke the 
berryes of the tree cauled Leniifcus, which beareth the fweete gumme cauled Mqftix. They grewe foo thicke, 
that they fumetyme in maner flayed the fhippes. The Admirall reported, that here there is not one daye 
thorowghe owte all the yeare muche longer or fhorter then an other : And that the Northe pole is here eleaute 
onely fyue degrees as at Paria, in whofe tracte all thefe coafles lye. Hee alfo declared certeyne thynges as 
concerninge the variete of the northe pole : The which becaufe they feeme contrarye to th[e]oppinions of all the 
Aflronomers, I wyll louche them but with a drye foote as fayth the prouerbe. But it is wel knowen (mode 
noble prince) that the flarre which we caule the pole flarre, or northe (larre, (cauled of the Italians Tramontana) 
is not the very poynte of the pole Artyke vppon the whiche the axes or extremities of heauens are turned abowte. 
The which thynge may well be proued, if when the flarres fyrfl appeare, yowe beeholde the pole flarre throwgh 
any narowe hole. For foo, applyinge yowre inftrument therto in the morninge fumwhat before the day 
fpringe haue blemyfhed theyr lyght, yf then yowe looke throwgh the fame hole, yowe fhall perceaue it to bee 
moued from the place where yowe fawe it fyrfl. But howe it commeth to paffe, that at the beginnynge of the euenyng 
twilight, it is eleuate in that Region only fyue degrees in the moneth of lune, and in the morninge twylight to 
bee eleuate. xv. degrees by the fame quaadrante, I doo not vnderflande. Nor yet doo the reafons which he 
bringeth, in any poynt fatyffye me. For he fayth, that he hereby coniectured, that the earth is not perfectlye 
rownde : But that when it was created, there was a certeyne heape reyfed theron, much hygher then the other 
partes of the fame. So that (as he faith) it is not rownde after the forme of an apple or a bal (as other thynke) 
but rather lyke a peare as it hangeth on the tree : And that Paria is the Region which pofTeffeth the fuper- 
eminente or hyghefl parte thereof nerefle vnto heauen. In foo muche that he emeflly contendeth, the earthly 
Paradyfe to bee fituate in the toppes of thofe three hylles, which wee fayde beefore, that the watche man fawe 
owte of the toppe caflell of the fhippe: And that the outragious flreames of the firefhe waters whiche foo 
violentlye iffhewe owte of the fayde goulfes and flryue foo with the falte water, faule headlonge from the toppes 
of the fayde mountaynes. But of this matter, it fhall fuflfice to haue fayde thus muche. Lette vs nowe therfore 
returne to the hiflorye from which we haue dygreffed. When he perceaued hym felfe to bee thus inwrapped in 
foo greate a goulfe beyonde his expectacion, foo that he had now no hope to fynde any paflage towarde the 
northe whereby he myght fayle directly to Hifpaniola, he was enforfed to tume backe the fame way by the 
which he came, and directed his viage to Hifpaniola by the northe of that lande lyinge towarde the Eafle. 
They which afterwarde fearched this lande more curiouflye, wyll it to bee parte of the continente or firme lande 
of India, and not of Cuba as the Admiral fuppofed. For there are many which affirme that they haue fayled 
rownd abowt Cuba. But whether it bee fo or not, or whether enuyinge the good fortune of this man, they feeke 
occafions of querelinge ageynfle hym, I can not iudge : But tyme fhall fpeake, which in tyme appoynted, 
reuealeth both truth and falfehod. But whether Paria be Continent or not, the Admirall dothe not muche 
contende. But he fuppofeth it to bee Continente. He alfo affirmeth that Paria is more fouthewarde then 
Hifpaniola, by eyght hundreth fourefcore and two myles. At the length he came to Hifpaniola (to fee his 
fouldiers which he left with his brethren) the thyrde day of the calendes of September: In the yeare 1498. 
But (as often tymes chaunceth in humayne thynges,) amonge his foo many profperous, pleafaunte, and luckye 
affayres, fortune mengeled fume feedes of wormewoodde, and corrupted his pure come with the malicious 
weedes of coccle. 

The seventh booke of the fyrst decade, 
to the fame Lodouike Cardinall. etc. 

[Hen the Admirall was nowe coome to the Ilande of Hifpaniola, he fownde all thynges 
confounded and owte of order. For Roldanus (of whom wee fpake beefore) refufed in his 
abfence to obey his brother, truflinge to the multitude of fuch as were confethered with him. 
And not onely behaued hym felfe proudely ageynfl the Admiralles brother and Lieuetenaunt 
fumtyme his maifter, but alfo fe.nte letters to his reproche to the kynge of Spayne, therin 
accufinge bothe the brethren, leying heynous matters to theyr charges. But the Admirall 
ageyne, fent meCfengers to the kynge, which myght informe hym of theyr rebellion : Inflantly 
defyringe his grace, to fende hym a newe fupplye of men, wherby he myght fuppreffe theyr licentioufnes and 

The fyrjt Decade. 


punyfhe them for theyr mifcheuous actes. They accufed the Admirall and his brother to bee vniufl men, cruel 
enemies and fheaders of the Spanyfhe bludde : declarynge that vppon euery lyght occafion, they wolde racke 
them, hange them, and heade them : And that they tooke pleafure therin. And that they departed from them 
as from cruell tyrantes and wylde beafles reioyfinge in bludde, alfo the kynges enemyes. Affyrminge lykewyfe 
that they well perceaued theyr intente to bee none other then to vfurpe Th[e]empire of the Ilandes : whiche 
thynge (they fayde) they fufpected by a thoufand coniectures. And efpecially in that they wolde permitte none 
to reforte to the golde mynes, but only fuche a^s were theyr familiers. The Admirall on the contrary parte, 
when he defyred ayde of the kynge to infringe theyr infolencie, auouched that al thofe his accufers, which had 
deuifed fuche lyes ageynfle hym, were nowghtye felowes, abhominable knaues and vylaynes, theues and baudes, 
ruffians aduouterers and rauifhers of women, faulfe periured vagabundes, and fuche as had byn eyther conuict in 
pryfons, or fledde for feare of Judgment: foo efcaping punyfhement, but not leauinge vice wherin they (lyll 
contynued and browght the fame with them to the Ilande, lyuinge there in lyke maner as before, in thefte, 
lechery, and all kyndes of myfcheefe : And foo gyuen to Idlenes and fleepe, that wheras they were browght 
thyther for myners, labourers, and fcullyans, they wolde not nowe goo one furlonge from theyr houfes except 
they were borne on mens backes, lyke vnto them whiche in owlde tyme were cauled Ediks Curules. For, to 
this office, they put the miferable Ilande men, whom they handeled mofle cruelly. For leafle theyr handes 
fhulde difcontinewe from (headinge of bludde, and the better to trye theyr flrength and manhod, they vfed nowe 
and then for theyr paftyme to flryue amonge them felues and proue who coulde mofl. cleanely wth his fwoorde 
at one flroke (Iryke of the heade of an innocente. Soo that he which coulde with mofle agilitie make the 
heade of one of thofe poore wretches to flye quyte and cleane from the body to the grounde at one flroke, he 
was the bed man and counted mode honorable. Thefe thynges and many fuche other, the one of them layde 
to the others charge beefore the kynge. Whyle thefe thynges were doinge, the Admirall fente his brother the 
lieuetenaunt with an army of foure fcore and tenne footemen, and a fewe horfemen, (with three thoufande of 
the Ilande men which were mortall enemies to the Ciguauians) to meete the people of Ciguaua, with Kynge 
Guarionexius theyr graunde capitayne, who had doone muche myfcheefe to owre men and fuche as fauoured 
theym. Therefore when the Lieuetenaunt had conducted his army to the bankes of a certeyne greate ryuer 
runnynge by the playne which we fayd before to lye betwene the comers of the mountaynes of Ciguaua and 
the fea, he fownde two fcoutes of his enemyes lurkinge in certeyne buffhes : wherof the one, caflynge hym felfe 
head longe into the fea, efcaped : and by the mouthe of the ryuer fwamme ouer to his coompanyons. The other 
beinge taken, declared that in the woodde on the other fide the ryuer, there lay in campe fyxe thoufande 
Cyguauians redy, vnwares to affayle owre men paflynge bye. Wherfore the Lieuetenaunte fyndyng a fhalowe 
place where he myght paffe ouer, he with his hole army entered into the ryuer. The which thyng when the 
Ciguauians had efpyed, they came runnynge owte of the wooddes with a terrible crye and mofle horrible afpect, 
much lyke vnto the people cauled Agathyrfi of whom the poete virgile fpeaketh. For they were all paynted 
and fpotted with fundry coloures, and efpeciall with blacke and redde whiche they make of certeyne fruites 
nooryfhed for the fame purpofe in theyr gardens, with the ioyce wherof they paynt them felues from the for- 
heade, euen to the knees : hauing theyr heare (whiche by arte they make longe and blacke if nature deny it 
them) wrethed and rowled after a thoufande faffliions. A man wold thinke them to bee deuylles incarnate newly 
broke owte of hell, they are foo lyke vnto helhoundes. As owre men waded ouer the ryuer, they fhotte at 
them and hurled dartes foo thicke, that it almofle tooke the lyght of the fonne from owre men. In fo much 
that if they had not borne of the force therof with theyr targettes, the matter hadde gonne wronge with them. 
Yet at the length, many beinge wounded, they paffed ouer the ryuer, which thynge when the enemies fawe, they 
fledde : whome owre men perfuinge, flewe fume in the chafe : but not many, by reafon of theyr fwyftenes of 
foote. Thus beinge in the wooddes, they fhotte at owre men more fafely. For they being accuflomed to the 
wooddes and naked without any lette, paffed throwgh the buffhes and (hrubbes as it had byn wylde bores or 
hartes : wheras owre men were hyndered by reafon of theyr apparell, targettes, longe iauelens, and ignorance of 
the place. Wherfore, when he had refled there all that nyght in vayne, and the daye folowynge fawe none 
lleringe in the wooddes, he went (by the councel and conducte of the other Ilande men which were in his 
armye) immediatly from thenfe, to the montaynes in the which king Maiobanexius had his cheefe manfion 
place in the vylage cauled Capronum, by the which name alfo, the kynges palaice was cauled, beinge in the 
fame vylage. Thus marchinge forwarde with his army, abowte twelue myle of, he encamped in the vylage of 
an other kynge, which th[e]inhabitantes had forfaken for feare of owre men. Yet makynge dyligent fearch, 
they fownde two, by whom they had knowleage that there was tenne kynges with Maiobanexius in his palaice 
of Capronum, with an army of eight thoufand Ciguauians. At the Lieuetenantes fyrfl approche, he durft not 
gyue them battayle vntyll he had fumwhat better fearched the Region : Yet did he in the meane tyme flcyrmyffhe 
with them twyfe. The nexte nyght abowte mydnyght, he fent furth fcoutes, and with them guydes of the Ilande 
men which knewe the countrey. Whom the Ciguauians efpyenge from the mountaynes, prepared them felues 


The Spanyardcs 
accuse the 

The Admirales 

idelnes of Hberiie. 

These had the 
custodies of the 

A cruel and 



Guarionexius is 
capitaine of. vi. 

PicH Agathyrsi. 

Naked men 

painted with the 

loyce of certen 


Hesre made long 

and black by arte. 

The vsc of 


The Ciguauians 

are dryuen to 




An army of viiL 




The fyrjl Decade. 

A Larome. 

The Cigiiauians 
put to nyght 

The Lteuetenaunt 
his ambnssage 
to kynge 


Maiobanexius his 

Natural hatred 
of vyce. 

gentelnes toward 


A rare faythfulnes 
in a barbarous 

messengers are 

Al the kirges are 
dryuen to flyght. 

to the battayle with a terrible crye or alarome after their maner: but yet durft. not coome owte of the wooddes, 
fuppofing that the Lieuetenaunt with his mayne army had byn euen at hande. The day folowynge, when he 
brought his army to the place where they encamped, leaping owt of the wooddes, they tvvyfe attempted the 
fortune of warre, fiercely aflayling owre men with a mayne force, and woundinge manye before they coulde 
coouer them with theyr targettes. Yet owre men put them to flyght, flewe many, and tooke many. The 
refydewe fledde to the wooddes, where they kept them (lyll as in their mofle fafe houlde. Of them which were 
taken, he fent one, and wyth hym an other of the Ilande men which was of his parte to Maiobanexius with 
commaundement in this effect. The Lieuetenaunt brought not hether his army (O Maiobatiexius) to kepe 
warre eyther ageynft. yowe or yowre people : For he greately defyreth yowre frendelhippe. But his entent is, 
that Guarionexius who hath perfuaded yowe to bee his ayde ageynfle hym to the greate deftruction of yowre 
people and vndoynge of yowre countrey, may haue dewe correction afwell for his difobedience towarde him, as 
alfo for rayfmg tumultes amonge the people. Wherfore, he requyreth yowe and exorteth yowe, to delyuer 
Guarionexius into his handes. The which thynge yf yowe fhall performe, the Admirall his brother wyll not 
only gladly admitte yowe to his frendefliyppe, but alfo enlarge and defende yowre dominion. And if herein 
yowe refufe to accomplyffhe his requefle, it wyll folowe, that yowe fhall fliortelye repent yowe therof. For 
yowre kyngedome fhall be walled with fwoorde and fyer, and yowe fhall abyde the fortune of warre wherof 
yowe haue had experience with fauour, as you fhall further know here after to yowre payne, yf with flobemes 
yowe prouoke hym to fhewe the vttermofle of his poure. When the meffenger had thus doone his errante, 
Maiobanexius anfwered, that Guarionexius was a good man, indued with many vertues as all men knewe : And 
therfore he thought hym worthy his ayde : efpecially in as muche as he fledde to hym for fuccoure, and that he 
had made him fuch promeffe, whom alfo he had proued to bee his faithfull frende. Ageyne, that they were 
nawghty men, violent and cruell, defyringe other mens gooddes, and fuche as fpared not to fheede innocentes 
bludde : In fyne, that he wolde not haue to doo with fuche myfcheuous men, nor yet enter into frendefhippe 
with them. When thefe thynges came to the Lieuetenauntes eare, he commaunded the vylage to be bumte 
where he hym felfe encamped, with many other vylages there abowte. And when he drewe nere to the place 
where Maiobanexius lay, he fent meffengers to him ageyne, to common the matter with hym, and to wyll hym, 
to fende fume one of his mofle feythful frendes to entreate with hym of peace. Where vppon the kynge fent 
vnto hym one of his cheefe gentelmen, and with hym two other to wayte on hym. When he came to the 
Lieuetenauntes prefence, he frendly requyred hym to perfuade his lord and mafler in his name, and emeflly 
to admonyfflie hym, not to fuffer his florylhinge kyngedome to bee fpoyled, or hym felfe to abyde the hafarde 
of warre for Guarionexius fake : And further to exhorte hym to delyuer hym, excepte he wolde procure the 
deflruction bothe of hym felfe, his people, and his countrey. When the meffenger was returned, Maiobanexius 
affembled the people, declaring vnto them what was doone, but they cried owte on hym to delyuer Guarionexius: 
And beganne to curie the daye that euer they had receaued hym, thus to diflurbe theyr quietnes. Maiobanexius 
anfwered them, that Guarionexius was a good man, and had well deferued of him, giuinge hym many princely 
prefentes : And had alfo tawght both his wyfe and hym to fynge and daunce, whiche thynge he dyd not lyttle 
efleeme. And was therfore fully refolued in no cafe to forfake hym, or ageynfle all humanitie to betraye his 
frende whiche fledde to hym for fuccoure : but rather to abyde al extremities with him, then to minifler occafion 
of obloquye to flaunderes to reporte that he had betrayed his gefle whom he tooke into his houfe with warran- 
ties. Thus difmiffmge the people fighinge and with forowfull hartes, he cauled Guarionexius before hym, 
promyfinge hym ageyne, that he wolde bee partaker of his fortune whyle lyfe lafled. In fo muche that he 
thowght it not belle to fende any further woorde to the Lieuetenaunt : but appoynted hym whome before he 
fent to hym, to keepe the way with a garryfon of men, to th[e]intent that if any meffengers fliulde be fent from 
the Lieuetenaunt, to fleye them by the way, and admitte none to communication or further entretie of peace. 
In the meane tyme, the Lieuetenaunt fent twoo, wherof the one was a captiue Ciguauian, and the other an 
Ilande man of them which were frendes to owre men : They were bothe taken and flayne. The Lieuetenaunt 
folowed them onely with ten footemen and foure horfemen. Fyndinge his meffengers deade in the waye, he 
was further prouoked to wrathe, and determyned more extremely to deale with Maiobanexius. And therefore 
wente forwarde incontinently with his hole army to his cheefe palaice of Capronum where he yet laye in campe. 
At his approche, all the kynges fledde, euery man his way, and forfooke theyr capitayne Maiobanexius: who 
alfo with all his famelye, fledde to the rowgh mountaynes. Sum of the Ciguauians, fowght for Guarionexius to 
fley hym, for that he was the caufe of all thefe troubles. But his feete faued his lyfe. For he fledde in tyme 
to the mountaynes where he lurked in maner alone amonge the defolate rockes. 

Whereas nowe the Lieuetenauntes fouldiers . were forweryed with longe warre, with watchinge, laboure, 
and hunger, (for it was nowe three moonethes fence the warres beganne) many defyred leaue to departe to 
the towre of Conception, where they had graneges and exercifed tyllage. He gaue them theyr paffeportes 
with alowance of ■vytayles, foo that only thyrtie remayned with hym. Thefe three moonethes warre, they 

The fyrji Decade. 


contynued very paynefuU and myferablye : Soo that duryng al that tyme, they had none other meate but only 
Cazibi: that is, fuche rootes whereof they make theyr breade, and that but fyldome to theyr fyll: Alfo Vfias, 
that is, lyttle beafles lyke Conyes, if by chaunce now and then, they tooke fume with theyr houndes. Their 
drinke was none other then water, fuch as they fownde, fumtyme fweete, and fumtyme muddy faueringe of the 
maryffhes. Emonge thefe deUcates, that lyttle fleepe that they had, was euer for the mofle parte abrode vnder 
the firmamente: And that not without watchemen, and in contynual remoouinge as the nature of warre 
requyreth. With thefe fewe therfore, the Lieuetenaunt determined to fearche the mountaynes, dennes, and 
caues, if he coulde in any place fynde the (leppes of Maiobanexius or Guarionexiiis. In the meane tyme certeyne 
of his menne (whom hunger enforced to goo a huntinge to proue if they coulde take any conies) chaunced 
vppon twoo of Maiobanexius familyers, whiche were fent to certeyne vylages of his, to make prouifion of breade. 
Thefe he enforced to declare where theyr lord lay hydde. And vfed the fame alfo for guides to bringe owre 
men to the place. Twelue of owre men tooke this enterpryfe in hand, painting them felues after the maner of 
the Ciguauians. Soo that by this flratageme or policie, they came fodenly vppon Maiobanexius, and tooke 
hym prifoner with his wyfe, children, and familie, and conueighed them to the towre of Conception to the 
Lieuetenaunt. Within a fewe dayes after, hunger compelled Guarionexius to coome owte of the dennes : 
whome, certeine of the people fearinge the Lieuetenaunt, bewrayde to owre hunters. The Lieuetenaunt beinge 
certified hereof, fent furthe a bande of foote men, commaunding them to lye in ambuflie vntyll fuche tyme as 
Guarionexius wente from the playnes to the mountaynes, and then foodenly to intrappe hym. They went as 
they were commaunded, tooke hym, and browght hym awaye with them. And by this meanes were 
all the Regions nere abowte, pacified and quyeted. A certeyne noble woman of nere kynred to 
Maiobanexius, and wyfe to an other kynge whofe dominion was yet vntouched, folowed hym in al thefe 
aduerfities. They affirme this woman to bee the fayrefl and mofle bewetifull that euer nature browght foorthe 
in the Ilande. Whom, when the kynge her hufbande who looued her mode ardently (as her bewetie deferued) 
harde faye that fhee was taken prifoner he wandered vppe and downe the defertes lyke a man owte of his 
wytte, not knowinge what to doo or faye. But at the lengthe, he came to the Lieuetenaunte, promyfinge mofle 
faythfully that he wold fubmitte hym felfe and all that he coulde make, vnder his poure, foo that he wolde 
reftore hym his wyfe. The Lieuetenant accepted the condition and reflored him his wife, with certeyne other 
rulers and gentelmen which he had taken prifoners before : Charginge them, and byndinge them with an othe, 
to bee euer redye at his commaundement. Shortly after, this kynge, of his owne free motion, came ageyne to 
the Lieuetenaunt, bringyng with hym fyue thoufande men without weapons, fauynge onely fuche inflrumentes 
as they vfe in tyllage of theyr grownde. He brought with hym alfo, feedes to fowe : wherwith at his owne 
charge, he caufed fuche plentie of theyr come and fruites to growe in fundry places of the large vale whereof 
wee fpake before, that fhortely after, were feene manye fayre and fruitefuU fieldes that came therof. And for 
his gentelnes beinge rewarded of the Lieuetenaunte with certeyne of owre thynges, he departed ioyfuUy. When 
the report hereof came to the Ciguauians, it mooued the myndes of the kynges to hope of clemencie. Where 
vppon they came togyther to the Lieuetenaunt with humble fubmiffion and faythful promefTe euer after to bee 
vnder his obedience : defyring hym to reflore vnto them theyr kynge, with his famylie. At theyr requefle, the 
kynges wyfe and his houfeholde was fette at Libertie, but he kepte flyll as a prifoner. Thefe thynges dyd the 
Lieuetenaunt in the Ilande, not yet knowinge what his aduerfaries and accufers had layde to his charge before 
the kynge of Spayne : who beinge difquyeted with theyr querelinges and accuiacions, and efpecially for that by 
reafon of theyr difcention, of foo greate abundaunce of golde and other thynges, there was as yet but lyttle 
browght into Spayne, appointed a newe gouernour which fhuld fee a redrefle in thefe thinges : And eyther to 
punyfhe fuche as were fautie, or elles to fende them to hym. What was fownde ageynfle the Admirall and his 
brother, or ageynd his aduerfaries whiche accufed hym, I doo not wel knowe. But this I am fure of, that both 
the brethrene are taken, browght, and call in prifon, with their goodes confifcate. But as foone as the kynge 
vnderfloode that they were browght bounde to Cales, he fent meifengers in pofle, with commaundemente that 
they fhulde bee loofed and coome freely to his prefence : wherby he declared that he tooke theyr troubles 
greeuouflye. It is alfo fayde, that the newe gouemoure fent letters to the kynge, wrytten with the Admiralles 
hande in flraunge and vnknowen fypheringes, to his brother the Lieuetenaunt beinge abfente, wyllynge hym to 
bee in a redynes with a poure of armed men to coome and ayde hym if the Gouemoure fhulde profer hym any 
violence. Wherof the gouemour hauinge knowleage (as he faythe) beinge alfo aduertifed that the Leauetenaunt 
was gonne to his brother before the men which he had prepared were in a redines, apprehended them bofhe 
vnwares, before the multitude came togyther. What wyl folowe, tyme, the mofle trewe and prudent Judge, wyll 
declare. Thus fare ye well. 

The Spanyardes 
are peinful in the 

A desperate 
aduenture with 
XXX. men 

A poUc[i]e. 

is taken. 

Guarionexius is 


A BewtifuU 

A kynge sendeth 
the lieuetenaunt 
fyue thousand men 
to ty 11 the grownde. 

The kynges submit 
tliemselues to the 

A newe gouemour 
of the ilande. 

An vnwoorthy 
rewarde for soo 
greate paynes. 


The fyrjl Decade. 

The Ocean sea 



Shipmasters vnder 
the Admiral. 

The iiftr. pcrtion 
dewe to the kynge. 


The nau^ation of 
Petrus Alphonsus. 




Perles for tryfels. 

Great plentie of 
Huroaync people. 

Shel fyshes in 
which perles are 
Beastes and 

Hunters and 

Theyr maner of 
barge ning 

The vse of pynntjs. 

Haukes bels in 
great estimation. 

Roringe of wyld 

C The eyghth booke of the fyrste Decade, 

to Cardinall Lodouike. 

He greate, ryche, and plentifull Ocean fea, heretofore vnknowen, and nowe fownde by Chrijlo- 
phorus Colonus the Admyrall, by th[e]autoritie and furtherance of the Catholyke kynge, I 
haue prefented vnto yowre honoure (ryght noble Prince) lyke a golden cheyne vnwoorkmanly 
wrought. But yowe (hall nowe receaue a precious iewell to bee appendaunt therto. Therfore 
emonge fuche as were pylottes or gouemoures vnder the Admyrall, and had dylygently 
marked the courfes and differences of the wyndes, many had licences graunted them of the 
kynge to feeke further of theyr owne charges, vppon condicion to pay hym faithfully his 
portion, which is the fyft parte. But bycaufe emonge all other, one Petrus Alphonfus (cauled Nigmts by his 
fumame) fayled towarde the Southe with more profperous fortune then any of the other, I thinke it bed firll to 
fpeake fumwhat of his vyage. He therfore, with only one fliippe, well furnyfhed at his owne charges, after that 
he had his paffeporte with commaundement in no cafe to cade anker pafle fyftie leaques diflante from any 
place where the Admyrall hadde touched, fayled fyrfle to Paria where the Admyrall fownde bothe the men and 
women foo laden with cheynes, garlandes, and brafelettes of pearles, as wee haue fayde before. Coaftynge 
therfore alonge by the fame fhore accordinge to the kynges commaundement, (yet leauinge behynde hym the 
Regions of Cumana and Manacapana) he came to the Region which th[e]inhabitantes thereof, caule Curiana : 
where he fownd a hauen (as he faythe) muche lyke the porte of Gades or Cales. In to the which enteringe, he 
fawe a farre of certeyne howfes on the fhore, and perceaued when he drewe nere, that it was a vylage of onely 
eyght howfes. Proceadynge yet further for the fpace of three myles, he efpyed an other vylage well replenyfhed 
with people, where there met hym fyftie naked men on a coompany hauinge with them a certeyne ruler, who 
defyred Alphonfus to coome to theyr coafles. He browght with hym at this tyme, many haukes belles, pynnes, 
nedels, brafelettes, cheynes, garlandes, and rynges with counterfet flones and glaffes, and fuch other tryfelles, 
the which within the momente of an houre, he hadde exchaunged for. xv. vnces of theyr pearles which they 
wore abowte theyr neckes and armes. Then they yet more emeflly defyred him to fayle to theyr coafles : 
Promyfynge hym that he fhulde there haue as many pearles as he wolde defyre. He conde[f Jcended to their 
requefle : And the daye folowynge, came to the place where they appoynted h)fm : Lyinge there at anker, a 
great multytude of people reforted to hym, inflantely requyringe hym to coome alande. But when he confydered 
the innumerable multytude of people which was there affembled, and that he had only, xxxiii. men in his coom- 
pany, he durfle not commyt hym felfe to theyr handes, but gaue them to vnderftand by fignes and tokens that 
they fhulde coome to the fhyppe with theyr canoas. For theyr boates (which the men of the Hand caule 
Canoas) are made only of one hole peece of woodde as in the Ilandes : yet more rude, and not foo artificially 
as theyrs are. Thefe they caule Galliias : They fwarmed therefore to the fhyp as fafle as they myght, brynginge 
with them great plentie of pearles (which they caule Tenoras) exchaunginge the fame for owre marchaundies. 
He fownde this people to bee of gentyl nature, fimple and innocente, beinge conuerfant with them in theyr 
houfes, for the fpace of. xx. dayes. Theyr houfes are made of woodde, coouered with the leaues of date trees. 
Theyr meate for the mofle parte, is the fhelfyffhes in the whiche pearles are engendred, wherof theyr fea coafles 
are fuL They haue alfo greate plentie of wylde beafles, as hartes, wylde bores, and coonys lyke vnto hares, 
both in colour and byggenes. Stocke doues alfo, and turtle doues. Lykewyfe geefe and duckes which they 
nooryfhe in theyr houfes as wee doo. Peacockes flye abowte in maner in euerye woodde and groue : but they 
are not diflinct with fundry coloures as ours are : for the cockes are lyke vnto the hennes. Thefe people of 
Curiana, are craftie hunters and exceding cunning archers, foo that they wyll not lyghtly myffe any beafl or 
byrde that they fhoote at. Owre men confumed certeyne dayes here very plefauntely. Durynge which tyme, 
who foo euer brought them a peacocke, had for the fame, foure pynnes. He that brought a pheafaunt, had 
twoo: And for a flocke doue or turtle doue, one: And for a goofe, a fmaul lookyng glaffe or a lyttle flone of 
glafTe. Thus they bought and foulde with proferynge and byddynge, denyinge and refufmge as it had byn in 
a greate market. When pynnes were profered them, they afked what they fhulde doo with them, beinge naked. 
But owre men fatiffied them with a craftie anfwere, declaring by tokens that they were very necellary to picke 
theyr teeth and to pul thomes owte of theyr flefThe. . But aboue al thynges haukes belles were mofl efleemed 
amonge them, for theyr founde and faire coloure : And wolde therfore gyue much for one of them. Owre men 
lodginge in theyr houfes, harde in the nyght feafon horryble noyfes and rorynges of wylde beafles in the 
wooddes which are full of exceadinge greate and hygh trees of fundry kyndes. But the beafles of thefe 

The fyrjl Decade. 


wooddes, are not noyfome to men. For the people of the countrey goo dayly a hunting, naked, with theyr 
bowes and arrowes : Yet hath it not byn harde of, that any man hath byn flayne of any wylde beafte. As many 
hartes or wylde bores as owre men woolde defyre them to brynge, they woolde kyll in the wooddes with their 
bowes and arrowes, and not fayle to brynge theim. They lacke kyne, goates, and flieepe. Theyr breade is 
made of rootes, as is theyrs of the Ilandes. This nation, hath blacke heare, groffe and fumwhat curlde, yet 
longe alfo. They keepe theyr teeth very whyte : And for that purpofe vfe to cary a certeine herbe betwene 
theyr lyppes for the moft. parte of the day, and to waffhe theyr mouthes when they caft. it away. The women 
doo all theyr bufynes at home in theyr howfes, and haue alfo the cure of tyllage of the grounde. But the men 
apply them felues to the warres and huntynge, to playe, fmgynge and daunfmg. They haue fundry kyndes of 
water pottes, iugges, and drinckinge cuppes made of earthe in other places abowt theym and brought thether 
for exchaunge of other thynges: For they vfe fayres and markettes for the fame purpofe: and are gretly 
defyrous of fuch thynges, as are not brought forth or made in theyr countrey, as nature hath gyuen a difpofition 
to al men to defyre and bee delyted with newe and flrange thynges. Many of them, had hangynge at theyr 
pearles, the Images of certeine beafles and birdes very artificioufly made of golde, but not pure. Thefe alfo 
are brought them from other places for exchange of other thynges. The golde wherof they are made, is natiue, 
and of much lyke finenes to that wherof the florenes are coyned. The men of this countrey, inclofe theyr 
priuie members in a gourde, cutte after the fafhion of a coddepiece : or els, coouer the fame with the ihelle of 
a tortoyfe, tyed abowte theyr loynes with laces of goflampine cotton. In other places of that tract, they thrufl 
the fynew within the (heethe therof, and bynde the fkinne faft with a ftringe. The greate wylde bealles wherof 
wee fpake before, and many other thynges whiche are not founde in any of the Ilandes, tellifie that this region 
is part of the continent or firme land. But the chiefefl coniecture wherby they argue the fame, is, that by the 
coaftes of that lande, from Paria towarde the welle, they fayled aboute three thoufande myles, fyndynge no 
figne or token of any ende. Thefe people of Curiana (whiche fum caule Curtand) beinge demaunded where 
they hadde fuche plentie of golde, fignified that it was brought them from a Region cauled Canchieia or Cauchieta, 
being diflant from them fyxe foonnes, that is, fyxe dayes ioumey weflwarde : And that theyr Images of goulde, 
were made in the lame Region. Where vppon owre men directed th(:)T: vyage thyther immediatly : and 
arryued there at the calendes of Nouember, in the yeare of Chrifl a thoufande and fyue hundreth. The people 
of the countrey reforted to them withoute feare, bryngynge with them of the golde which we fayde to bee natyue 
in that Region. This people had alfo collers of pearles abowte theyr neckes, whiche were brought them frome 
Curiana for exchange of theyr marchandies. None of them wolde exchaunge any of thofe thinges which they 
had owte of other countreys : as nother the Curians golde, nor the Canchietans pearles. Yet amonge the 
Canchietans, they fownde but little gold redy gathered. They toke with them from thenfe, certen very fayre 
marmafets or munkeys, and many popingayes of fundry coloures. In the monethe of Nouember, the ayer was 
there mod temperate, and nothyng coulde. The guardens of the north pole, were owte of fyght to bothe thefe 
people, they are foo nere to the Equinoctiall. Of the degrees of the pole, they can gyue none other accoumpte. 
Thefe people, are wel difpofed men, of honeft. condicions, and nothinge fufpicious. For all mod all the nyght 
longe, they reforted to the (hippe with theyr boates, and went aboorde fliap withowte feare, as dyd the Curians. 
They caule pearles, Corixas. They are fumwhat ielyous. For, when any ftraungers coome emonge them, 
they euer place theyr women behynd them. In this Region of Canchida, the goflampine trees growe of them 
felues commonly in many places, as doo with vs elmes, wyllowes, and falowes. And therfore they vfe to make 
breeches of cotton, wherwith they coouer theyr pryuie partes in many other Regions there aboute. When 
they had yet fayled on forwarde by the fame coaftes, there came foorth ageynfte them abowte twoo thoufande 
men, armed after theyr maner, forbydding them to coome aland. Thefe people were foo rude and faluage, 
that owre men coulde by no meanes allure them to familiaritie. Owre men therfore, contented only with their 
pearles, returned backe the fame way they came : where they remayned with the Curians continually for the 
fpace of twentie dayes, and fylled theyr bellyes wel with good meate. And here it feemeth to me, not farre 
from my purpofe, to declare what chaunced vnto theim in theyr retume, when they came nowe within the 
fyght of the coafte of Paria. They happened therefore in the way, at Os Draconis and the goulfes of Paria, 
(wherof wee fpake before) to meete with a nauie of xviii. Canoas of Canfljiales which went a rouyng to hunt 
for men. Who as foone as they had efpyed owr men, aflailed theyr (hippe fiercely and without feare enclofed 
the fame, difturbing owre men on euery fyde with theyr arrowes. But owre men fo feared them with theyr 
gunnes, that they fledde immediatly, whom owre menne folowinge with the fliippe boate, tooke one of theyr 
Canoas, and in it, only one Canibal (for the other had efcaped) and with hjin, an other man bownde: Who, 
with teares runninge downe his cheekes, and with giefture of his handes, eyes, and heade, fignified that fyxe of 
his coompanyons had byn cruelly cutte in pieces and eaten of that myfcheuous nation : and that he (hulde 
haue byn lykewyfe handeled the day folowynge. Wherfore they gaue hym poure ouer the Canyball, to doo 
with hym what he wolde. Then with the Canibales owne clubbe, he layde on hym al that he might dryue with 

Hartes and wyld 


Blacke and curlde 


White teethe. 

Earthen vessels. 


Base golde. 

A strange maner 
of couennge theyi 

Tokens of the 
continent or firme 

The golden 
Region of 

Temperate ayer 
in Nouember. 

The Equinoctial 


Humane people 

Gossampine trees- 
Chorlyshe people 

retumeth to Parii. 

Canibales in the 
goulfes of Paria. 


Death for death. 


The fyrji Decade. 

hande and foote, grinninge and fretinge as it had byn a wylde bore : Thinkynge that he had not yet fufficiently 
reuenged the death of his companyons, when he had beaten owte his braynes and guttes. ^Vhen he was 
demaunded after what forte the Canibales were woont to inuade other contreys, he anfwered that they euer 
vfed to carye with them in theyr Canoas, a greate multitude of clubbes : The whiche, where foo euer they 
lande, they pitche in the grownde, and encampe them felues within the coompafle of the fame, to lye the more 
fafely in the nyght feafon. In Curiana, they fownde the head of a capitaine of the Canibales, nailed ouer the 
doore of a certeyne gouemoure, for a token of victorie, as it hadde byn the llanderde or helmette taken from 
the enemye in battayle. In thefe coafles of Faria, is a Region cauled ffaraia, in the whiche, greate 
plentie of falte is gathered after a flrange forte. For the fea beinge there tofTed with the poure of the 
wyndes, dryueth the falte waters into a large playne by the fea fyde: where: afterward when the fea 
waxeth caulme, and the foonne begynnethe to fliyne, the water is congeled into mofle pure and whyte falte, 
wherewith innumerable fhyppes might bee laden, if men doo reforte thether for the fame beefore there faule 
any rayne. For the rayne meltethe it, and caufeth it to fynke into the fande, and foo by the pores of the earthe, 
to retume to the place from whenfe it was dryuen. Other fay, that the playne is not fylled from the fea, but 
of certeine fpringes whofe water is more fharpe and felt then the water of the fea. Th[e]inhabitantes doo 
greatlye efleeme this bay of falte. Which they vfe, not only for theyr owne commoditie, but alfo woorkinge 
the fame into a fquare forme lyke vnto brickes, they fell it to flrangers for exchaunge of other th)Tiges whiche 
they lacke. In this Region, they flretche and drye the deade bodies of theyr kinges and noble men, layinge 
the fame vpon a certeyne frame of woodde much lyke vnto a hurdle or grediren, with a gentell fyre vnder the 
fame, thus by lyttle and lyttle confuminge the fleffhe and keepinge the fkynne hole with the bones inclofed 
therein. Thefe dryed carcafes, they haue in greate reuerence, and honour them for theyr houfeholde and 
famylier goddes. They fay that in this place they fawe a man, and in an other place a woman, thus dryed and 
referued. When they departed from Curiana, the. viii. day of the Ides of February to retume to Spayne, they 
had three fcore and. xvi. poundes weight (after, viii. vnces to the pownde) of perles, which they bought for 
exchange of owre thynges, amountinge to the value of fyue fliyllinges. Departinge therfore, they confumed 
three fcore dayes in theyr ioumey (althowgh it were (horter then frome Hifpaniold) by reafon of the contynuall 
courfe of the fea into the wefle, whiche dyd not only greately fley the fhippe, but alfo fumtymes dryue it backe. 
But at the length they came home foo laden with perles, that they were with euery maryner, in maner as com- 
mon as chaffe. But the mafter of the fliyppe, Petrus Alphonftis, beinge accufed of his coompanyons that he 
had ftowlen a great multitude of precious perles, and defrauded the kynge of his portion which was the fyueth 
parte, was taken of Fernando de Vega, a man of greate leminge and experience and gouemour of Galkcia, 
where they arryued, and was there kepte in pryfon a longe tyme. But he flyll denyethe that euer he deteyned 
anye parte of the perles. Many of thefe perles were as bygge as hafell nuttes, and oriente, (as we caule it) that 
is, lyke vnto them of the Eafle partes. Yet not of foo greate price, by reafon that the holes therof are not foo 
perfecte. When I my felfe was prefente with the ryght honorable duke of Methyna, and was bidden to dyner 
with hym, in the citie of Ciuile, they browght to hym aboue a hundreth and twentie vnces of perles to be 
foulde : which furely did greatly delyte me with their fayrenes and brightnes. Sum faye, that Alphonfus hadde 
not thefe perles in Curiana being diflante from Os Dracotiis more then a hundreth and twentie leaques, but 
that he had them in the Regions of Cumana and Manacapana, nere vnto Os Draconis and the Ilande of 
Margarita. For they deny that there is any perles fownde in Curiana. But fithe the matter is yet in con- 
trouerfie, we wyll pafTe to other matters. Thus muche yowe haue whereby yowe maye coniecture what 
commoditie in tyme to coome may bee looked for from thefe newe landes of the well Ocean, whereas at the 
fyrile difcoueringe, they (hewe fuch tokens of greate ryches. Thus fare ye well. 

Howe the 
canibales fortifie 
theyr campe 


Salte engendred 
of the water of 
the sea. 

Sprynges of salt 

The bodies of 
princes dryed and 

Threescore and 
xvi. poundes 
weight of perles 
for. V. shillynges. 
The course of the 
sea toward the 

Perles as common 
as chaffe 
Petnis Alphonsiis 
in prison. 

Orient perles as 
bygge as hasel 


0.1 Draconis. 

Ths Hand of 

C The. IX. BOOKE of the fyrst Decade 
to Cardynall Lodouike. 

The nauigation il 
Vincentius and 
Aries Pinzonus 

Licence and 

Incentiagnes Pinzonus, and alfo Aries Finzonus, liis neuie, by his brothers fyde, which accom- 
panyed the Admiral Colonus in his fyrde vyage, and were by him appoynted to bee maflers 
of twoo of the fmaule fhippes which the Spaniardes caule Carauelas, beinge mooutxi by the 
greate ryches and amplytude of the new landes, fumyfhed of theyr owne charges, foure 
carauels in the hauen of theyr owne countrey which the Spanyardes caule Falos, bortheringe 
on the wefle Ocean. Hauynge therfore the kynges licence and paffeporte to departe, they 
loofed from the hauen, abowte the Calendes of December, in the yeare 1499. This hauen 

The fyrji Decade. 


of Palos is three fcore and twelue myles diftant from Gades, commonly cauled Cales : and three fcore and foure 
myles from Ciuile. All th[e]inhabitantes of this towne, not one excepted, are greately gyuen to fearchinge of 
the fea, and continually exercyfed in fayling. They alfo directed theyr vyage fyrft to the Ilandes of Canarie by 
the Ilandes of Hefperides, nowe cauled Cabouerde, which fum caule Gorgodes Medudas. Saylinge therfore 
directly towarde the fouthe frome that Hand of the Hefperides which the Portugales (being poffeffers of the 
fame) caule Sanfli lacobi, and departinge frome thenfe at the Ides of lanuary, they folowed the fouthweft wynde, 
beinge in the myddeft betwene the fouth and the wefle. When they fuppofed that they had fayled aboute three 
hundrethe leagues by the fame wynde, they fay that they lofle the fyght of the Northe flarre ; and were fhortelye 
after, tofled with excedinge tempefles bothe of wynde and fea, and vexed with intollerable heate. Yet fayled 
they on further (not without greate daunger) for the fpace of twoo hundrethe and fortie leaques, folowing yet 
the fame wynde by the lofl pole. Wherfore, whether habitable Regions bee vnder the Equinoctiall lyne or not, 
let thefe men and the owlde wryters, afwel Philofophers as poetes and cofmographers difcufle. For thefe men, 
affirme it to bee habitable, and marueloufly replenilhed \vith people : and they, that it is vnhabitable by reafon 
of the foone beames dependinge perpendicularly or directlye ouer the fame. Yet were there many of the oulde 
wryters, whiche attempted to proue it habitable. Thefe maryners beinge demaunded, if they fawe the fouth 
pole, they anfwered that they knewe no flarre there lyke vnto this pole, that myght be decerned aboute the 
poynte. But that they fawe an other order of llarres, and a certeyne thicke myfl ryfynge from the horizontal! 
lyne, which greatly hyndered theyr fyght They contende alfo, that there is a great heape or ryfynge in the 
myddeft of the earth, which taketh away the fyght of the fouthe pole, vntyll they haue vtterly paffed ouer the 
fame. But they verely beleue that they fawe other images of flarres, muche differinge from the fituation of the 
(larres of o\vre hemifpherie or halfe circle of heauen. Howe foo euer the matter bee, as they informe vs, wee 
certifie yowe. At the lengthe, the feuenth day of the calendes of Februarye, they efpied lande a farre of. And 
feinge the water of the fea to bee troubelous, foundinge with theyr plummet, they founde it to bee. xvi. fathames 
deepe. Goinge a lande, and tarienge there for the fpace of twoo dayes, they departed bycaufe they faw no 
people fteringe, althowghe they fownde certeyne fleppes of men by the fea fyde. Thus grauinge on the trees 
and the (lones nere vnto the fhore, the kynges name and theyrs, and the tyme of theyr comming thether, they 
departed. Not farre from this flation, folowynge the fyers on the lande by nyght, they founde a nation lyinge 
vnder the open f3aTnamente after the maner of warre. Owre men thought it not befle to trowble them vntyll 
the mominge. Therefore, at the ryfmge of the foone, fortie of owre men well armed,vwente toward them : 
ageynft. whom came furth. xxxii. of them, with bowes, flinges and dartes, euen redy to the feyght. The other 
coompanye folowed them, armed after the fame maner. Owr men affirme that they were of hygher flature then 
eyther the Almaynes or Pannonians. They behelde owre men with frownynge and threatenynge countenaunce. 
But owre men thought it not good to faule to bickeringe with them, vncerteyne whether it were for feare, or 
bycaufe they wolde not dryue them to flight. Wherfore they went aboute to allure them by faire meanes and 
rewardes. But they refufed all kynde of gentelnes, and floode euer in a redines to feight, declaringe the fame 
by fignes and tokens. Thus owr men reforted to theyr fhippes, and they to the place from whence they came, 
without any further bufynes. The fame nyght abowte mydnyght, they fledde, and left the place voyde where 
they lay in campe. Owre men fuppofe them to bee a vagabunde and wanderinge nacion lyke vnto the 
Scythians, withowte houfes or certeyne dweUinge places, lyuinge onely with the fruites of the earth, hauing 
theyr wyues and chyldren folowinge them. Such as meafured their footefleppes in the fande, afiirme with 
greate othes, that one of theyr feete is almofl as longe as twoo feete of owre men of the meane forte. Saylinge 
on yet further, they founde an other ryuer, but not of deapth fufficient to beare the carauels. They fent 
therfore the foure fhippe boates to lande, ful of armed men to fearch the countrey. They efpyed vppon a 
hyghe hyll nere vnto the fea fyde, a greate multitude of people, to whom owre coompany fent furthe one man 
with certeyne of owre thynges to allure them to exchaunge. And when he had cafl a haukes bell towarde 
them, they cafl downe a wedge of golde a cubette longe. The which as he flouped to take vppe, they foodenly 
inclofed hym, and caryed hym awaye. But he was fhortly after refcued by his coompanyons, to fum of their 
paynes : for they flewe eyght of owre men, and wounded many a farre of, with theyr arrowes, and dartes made 
of wood hardened at the endes with fyre. After this, they encoompafed owre fhippe boates within the ryuer, 
and came raffhelye within the reache of owre men, layinge houlde on the boates fydes, where they were thrufl 
throwgh and hewen in peeces as it had byn fheepe, by reafon they were naked. Yet wolde they not for al 
this, gyue ouer: but tooke from owre men one of their boates, hauing noo men in it. For the gouemour 
therof being flayne with an arrowe, the other fledde and efcaped. And thus they lefte this fierce and warlyke 
people, faylinge towarde the northwefle alonge by the fame coafles, with forowfuU hartes for the death of theyr 
coompanyons. [When they had fayled abowte. xl. leaques, they chaunced into a fea of fuche frefflie water, 
that they fylled theyr barelles and hogges heades therwith. Searching the caufe hereof, they vnderstoode that a 
vehement courfe of ryuers difcended with great violence from the toppes of certeyne greate hylles. They fay 

Eden. L - 97 

Oiles. Ciuile. 

The Ilandes of 


S. lames Ilande. 

The North pole 
owte of syght 

Habitable Regions 
vnder the 
Equinoctial lyne. 

An other order of 


A thycke mist 

A rysinge in the 

myddest of the 



People of hygh 

A vagabunde 
kynde of men 






A sea of freshe 


The fyrji Decade. 

Many fruitefuU 
Humane people. 



Regions of Paria. 
Golde and perles. 
Os Draconis. 
The hole earth 
largely taken, 
maye bee cauled 
an Ilande. 

a ryuer 
of cxceadinge 
breadth and full 
of Hands looke 
decade ii. liber, ix. 


Boriostomea, and 
mouthes of the 
ryuer of Danubius. 

The commodities 
of the Regions 
and Ilandes about 

Mani fruitiul 
Ilandes lefte 

Trees of Cassia 

Trees of maruelous 
A monstrous 

Alteracion of ayer 
and change of 

Cathay in India 
beyonde the 
ryner of Ganges 
A shipwrake 
by tempest 

alfo that there lyeth within the fea, many fortunate and fruitful! Ilandes, and well inhabyted: And that th[e]in- 
habitantes of this tracte are men of meeke nature and fuche as doo not refufe ftrangers: Yet lyttle profy table 
to them, bycaufe they had noo marchandyes for their purpofe, as golde or precyous (lones. For lacke wherof, 
they brought frome thenfe thyrtie captiues to fell for flaues. Th[e]inhabitantes caule this Region Mariatambal. 
The Region of the eafle parte of that ryuer, is cauled Camomorus: And that of the wefte parte, Paricora: in 
the mid lande wherof, th[e]inhabitantes fignified that there is greate plentie of golde. For, folowynge this 
ryuer directly toward the Northe (as the bendynge of the (hore requyred) they recouered ageyne the fyght of 
the north pole. All the coafte of this tracte, perteyneth to Paria, the which (as we fayd before) was fyril 
founde by Colonus hym felfe, and hath in maner in euery place, greate abundaunce of pearles. They faye that 
thefe coafles are adioynynge vnto, and all one \vith Os Draconis, and alfo bortherynge vppon the Regions of 
Cumana, Manacapana, Curiana, Cauchieta, and Cuchibachoa. Wherfore they thought it to bee parte of the 
firme lande of India beyonde the ryuer of Ganges. For the greate and large coompaffe therof, dothe not 
permit that it Ihulde bee an Ilande. Albeit, the hole earth vncouered with water, largely taken, may bee 
cauled an Ilande. From the poynte of that land where they loft, the fight of the north pole, laylynge by a 
continual! tracke abowte three hundreth leaques towarde the wefte fyde of Paria, they fay that almofl.e in the 
mydde way, they chaunced into a ryuer cauled Maragtwnum, which they affirme to bee of fuch excedinge 
breadth, that it myght feeme incredible, if the antiquitie dyd not make mention of the lyke. Beinge 
demaunded of me if it were not falte water where it diuided the lande, they anfwered, that the water therof 
was very freffhe and fweete : And that the further it ranne, to bee foo muche the freffher : Alfo full of Ilandes 
and holfome fyfhe. They dare auouche the breadth therof, to bee more then thirtie leaques. Yet if wee well 
weighe and confyder the largenes and wydenes of Boriojlomea and Spiriojlomea, the mouthes of the famous 
ryuer of IJler (nowe cauled Danubius^ and howe farre they violate or corrupte the falte water with their freflienes, 
wee ftiall ceafe to marueile, althowgh this other ryuer bee greater. For, who can diminyfflie the poure of 
nature, but that it may make this bigger then the other, and an other bygger then this. And I fuppofe this to 
bee the ryuer wherof Colonus the Admiral! made mention in the difcription of his vyage in thefe coaftes. But 
wee fliall hereafter haue further knowleage hereof Let vs nowe therfore retume to the commodities of thefe 
Regions. They fownde in many Ilandes abowte Paria, great wooddes of brafile trees : And brought awaye 
with them, three thoufande poundes weight thereof. They fay that the brafile of Hifpaniola, is muche better 
then this, to dye clothe with a more fayre and durable colour. From henfe, folowynge the wynde (whiche the 
Spanyardes caule Norduejl, and the Itahans Grceco) they paffed by many Ilandes very fruitefull, yet lefte 
defolate and wafted by reafon of the crueltie of the Canibales. For they went alande in many places, and 
fownde the ruines of many deftroyed howfes. Yet in fum places, they founde men, but thofe exceadinge 
fearefull, flyinge to the mountaynes, rockes, and wooddes at the fight of euery ftraunger or fhippe, and wan- 
deringe without houfes or certeyne abydinge places, for feare of the Caniballes layinge wayte and huntinge after 
them. Here they founde thofe great trees which of them felues in dyuers places bringe furth the fruite or fpice 
whiche the Apothecaries caule Caffia fijlula : And that of noo leffe goodnes then that which the phifitians to fuch as bee difeafed with the ague. But it was not ripe at theyr beinge there. They affirme that 
there are trees of fuche byggenes, that. xvi. men ioyninge handes togyther and flandinge in coompaffe, can 
fcarfely embrafe fum of them. Emonge thefe trees is fownde that monftrous beafte with a ihowte lyke a foxe, 
a tayle lyke a marmafette, eares lyke a batte, handes lyke a man, and feete lyke an ape, bearing her whelpes 
abowte with her in an owtwarde bellye much lyke vnto a greate bagge or purfe. The deade carkas of this 
beaft, you fawe with me, and turned it ouer and ouer with yowre owne handes, marueylynge at that newe belly 
and wonderfuU prouifion of nature. They fay it is knowen by experience, that fliee neuer letteth her whelpes 
goo owte of that purfe, except it bee eyther to play, or to fucke, vntyl fuche tyme that they bee able to gette 
theyr lyuing by them felues. They tooke this beafte with her whelpes : But the whelpes dyed fhortely after in 
the (hyppes. Yet the damme lined certeyne moonethes : But at the length, not beinge able to abyde foo greate 
alteration of ayer, and chaunge of meate, fhee dyed alfo in the way. But of this beafte, wee haue fayde enowgh. 
Let vs now therfore retume to the autoures of thefe thynges. Thefe twoo Pinzoni, the vncle and the neuie, 
fufteyned manye great trowbles and horrible tempeftes and perilles in this nauigation. For when they had nowe 
fayled by the coades of Paria abowte. vL hundreth leaques, and (as they fuppofed) beyonde the citie of Cathay 
and the coaftes of Eafte India beyonde the ryuer of Ganges, there rofe foodenly foo fierce a tempefte in the 
mooneth of luly, that, of the foure carauels which they had with them, twoo were drowned euen beefore theyr 
eyes : and the thyrde lyenge at anker, with lyke foodennes caryed owte of theyr fyght throwgh the violence of 
the tempefte : The fourth alfo lyinge at anker, was foo (haken and broofed, that al the feames therof were almoft 
loofed. Yet came they to lande owt of this lafte ftiyppe, but vtterlye defpayrynge of the fliyppe. Wherfore 
confultynge with them felues what was beft to bee doone in foo extreeme a cafe, and how to prouide them a 
fafe dwellinge place in thofe Regions beinge owt of al hope how to departe from thenfe, they determined 


The fyrjl Decade. 


to fley all the inhabitantes of the contrey nere abowte them, leafle they with the other fliulde confpire togyther 
to kyl them, but theyr fortune was better. For the carauell which the tempefle had caryed away, was coome 
to them ageyne. This had in it. xviii. men ; And the other that remayned, was faued and repayred. With 
thefe two therfore, they tooke theyr vyage directly to Spaine And thus beinge toffed with tempefles and vexed 
with aduerfities, they returned to theyr natiue contrey of Palos, to theyr wyues and children, the day before 
the Calendes of October, with the lofle of many of theyr dere frendes and neighbours. They browght with 
them Cinamome and gynger: but not very good, bycaufe they were not there fully feafoned with the heate of 
the foone before they brought them from thenfe. They browght alfo, certeyne precious ftones, whiche Baptijla 
Elyfius, that excellent philofopher and yowre lordefhippes phifitian, affirmeth to bee trewe Topafes. After 
thefe mens retume, other of theyr neighbours beinge moued thereto by a certeyne emulation, to proue yf theyr 
fortune wolde bee anye better, lyke men of good corage, beinge nothing difcomforted by the harde fortune of 
theyr neighboures, knowinge that it often tymes chaunceth that that which is one mans vndoinge is an other 
mans makynge, attempted a newe vyage towarde the fowthe by the of Paria, folowynge the fl.eppes of 
Colonus the Admiral, who had fyrft. difcouered the fame. They alfo browght with them greate plentie of Caffia 
fijlula : And fownde that precious medicine cauled of the Spanyardes, AnimcB album, whofe perfume is of moft. 
excellent effect to heale the reumes, murres, and heauines of the heade. As touchinge this vyage, as yet I 
knowe noo other newes that I thought worthy to certifie yowe of. Wherfore, I wyl nowe make an ende of this 
booke, bycaufe yow put me fo often in rememberance of your departure. Yet to accomplyfflie the Decade, I 
wyll declare fumwhat of the fuperftitions of Hifpaniola. Yowe (hall nowe therfore vnderftand the illufions 
wherwith the people of the Ilande haue byn feduced after the errours of the owlde gentilitie, and wandered in 
the ignorance and blyndenes of humane nature corrupted by the difobedience of owr fyrft, parentes, which hath 
remayned in all nations vpon the face of the earth, except where it hath pleafed god by the lyght of his fpirite 
by his woorde, to poure vppon his electe the grace of renouation, by the lyght wherof the naturall darkenes 
receaueth fume clearenes as in a glaffe, vntyll imperfection fhalbe abolyfhed. Owre men therefore, were longe 
in the Ilande of Hifpaniola, before they knewe that the people thereof honorede any other thynge then the 
lyghtes of heauen, or had any other Religion. But when theye had byne nowe longe conuerfante with them, 
and by vnderflandyng their language, drewe to a further familiaritie, they had knowleage that they vfed dyuers 
rytes and fuperftitions. I haue therfore gathered thefe fewe thynges folowynge, owte of a booke wrytten by 
one Ramonus an heremyte, whom Colonus had lefte with certeyne kynges of the Ilande to inftruct them in the 
Chriftian fayth. And bycaufe in maner their hole religion is none other thing then Idolatry, I wyll begynne 
at theyr Idoles. It is therfore apparente by the Images which they honour openly and commonly, that there 
appere vnto them in the nyghte feafons certeyne phantafies and illufions of euyll fpirites, feducinge them into 
many fonde and folyflie errours. For they make certeyne Images of goffampine cotton foulded or wrethed 
after theyr maner, and harde ftopped within. Thefe Images they make fytting, much lyke vnto the pictures of 
fprites and deuelles which owr paynters are accuftomed to paint vppon waules. But forafmuch as I my felfe 
fent yowe foure of thefe Images, yowe may better prefently fignifie vnto the kynge yowre vncle, what maner of 
thynges they are, and howe lyke vnto paynted deuelles, then I can expreffe the fame by wrytynge. Thefe 
Images, th[e]inhabitantes caule Zemes : wherof the leafte, made to the lykenes of younge deuels, they bind to 
theyr forheades when they goo to the warres ageynft their enemies : And for that purpofe haue they thofe 
ftrynges hangynge at them which yowe fee. Of thefe, they beleue to obteyne rayne if rayne be lackyng, and 
lykewyfe fayre wether. For they thinke that thefe Zemes are the mediatours and meffengers of the greate god, 
whom they acknowleage to be only one, eternall, withowte ende, omnipotent and inuifible. Thus euery kynge 
hath his particuler Zemes which he honoureth. They caule the eternall god, by thefe twoo names, locauna, 
and Guamaonocon, as theyr prediceffours tawght them. Affirminge that he hath a father cauled by thefe fyue 
names: that is, Attabeira, Mamona, Gitacarapita, Liella, Guimazoa. Nowe fliall yowe heare what they 
fable on the earth as touchinge the originall of man. There is in the Ilande a Region cauled Caunana, 
wher they fayne that mankynde came fyrft owte of twoo caues of a mountayne: and that the byggeft 
forte of men, came furth of the mouth of the byggeft caue, and the leaft forte owte of the leafte 
caue. The rocke in the which thefe caues are, they caule Cauta. The greateft denne, they name 
Cazibaxagua, and the leffe Amaiauna. They fay, that before it was lawful for men to come foorth of 
the caue, the mouth of the caue was kepte and watched nyghtly by a man whofe name was Machochael. This 
Machochael, departinge fumwhat farre from the caue to th[e]intente to fee what thynges were abrode, was 
foodenly taken of the foonne (whofe fight he was forbydden) and was turned into a ftone. They fayne the lyke 
of dyuers other, that whereas they went foorthe in the nyghte feafon a fyffhynge, fo farre from the caue that they 
coulde not retume before the lyfynge of the foone (the which it was not lawful for them to behold) they were 
tranfformed into myrobalane trees, which of them felues growe plentifully in the Ilande. They faye further- 
more, that a certeyne ruler cauled Vagoniona, fent one furth of the caue to goo a fyfftiynge, who by lyke chaunce 

Extreme remedie 
in a desperat 



Cinamome and 


Men of noble 

A nother vyage 
Animm album 

The superstitions 
of hispaniola. 
The errours of the 
owlde gentilitie. 

The grace of 

Ramonus an 
Idolatry and 

Illusions of euyl 
Images of 
gossampine cotton 


Younge deuyls. 


Only one god 


The names of god. 

The father of god. 

The originall of 
mar kynde 

Fables much lyke 
Guide his 


The original of 
Mirobalane trees 


The fyrjl Decade. 

The nightingale. 

The Ilaiid of 


Children turned 
into frogges. 

A speciall grace. 

Holy rcliques 

Women are 
slippery cattayle. 
Al wisedome goeth 
not by age. 

Here nedeth sum 




Preachers for the 

A vengeable 
greate gourd. 

The originall of 
the sea. 


The originall of 

A holy caue. 


The originall of 
the soone and 


Walkynge sprytes. 

A remedye 
ageynst walkyng 

was turned into a nyghtyngale bycaufe the foonne was ryfen beefore he came ageyne to the caue : And that 
yearelye abowte the fame tyme that he was turned into a byrde, he dothe in the nyght with a moomynge fonge 
bewayle his myffortune, and caule for the helpe of his maifter Vagoniona. And this they thynke to bee the 
caufe why that byrde fmgeth in the night feafon. But Vagoniona, beinge fore troubled in his mynd for the 
loffe of his familier frende whom he loued foo intierly, leauinge the men in the caue, brought foorth onely the 
women with theyr fuckynge chyldren, leauinge the women in one of the Ilandes of that tracte, cauled Mathinino, 
and caryed the chyldren awaye with hym : which poore wretches oppreffed with famine, fainted and remained 
on the banke of a certeine ryuer where they were turned into frogges, and cryed toa, toa, that is, mama, mama, 
as chyldren are wont to crye for the mothers pappe. And hereof they fay it commeth that frogges vfe to cry fo 
pytifuUy in the fprynge tyme of the yeare : And that men were fcattered abrode in the caues of Hifpaniola 
withowte the companye of women. They fay alfo, that whereas Vagoniona hym felfe, was accuftomed to 
wander in dyuers places, and yet by a fpeciall grace, neuer tranfformed, defcended to a certeyne fayre woman 
whom he fawe in the bottome of the fea, and receaued of her certeyne pibple ftones of marble (whiche they 
caule Cibas) and alfo certeine yelowe and bright plates of laton, whiche they caule Guaninos. Thefe thynges 
to this day are had in greate ellimation amonge the kynges, as goodly iewels and mod holy reliques. Thefe 
men whiche we fayde before were lefte in the caues wthowte women, went furth in the nyght (as they fay) to 
waffhe them felues in a ponde of raine water and fawe a farre of by the way a greate multitude of certeine in fliape fumwhat lyke vnto women, creping as thicke as antes aboute the myrobalane trees : And that 
as they attempted to take thefe beafles, they flypped owte of their handes as they had byn yeles. Where vppon 
they confulted, and determyned by th[ejaduice of the elders, that al fuche fhulde bee fowght foorthe amonge 
them, as were fcabbyd and leprous, to th[e]intente that with theyr rowghe and harde handes, they myght th[e]- 
efelyer take holde of them. Thefe men, they caule Caracaracoles : And fente them foorthe a huntinge to take 
thefe beafles. But of many which they tooke, they coulde keepe but only foure : The whiche as they wolde 
haue vfed for women, they fownde that they lacked womans priuities. AVherefore caulinge th[e]elders ageyne to 
counfayle, to confult what were beft.e to bee done in this cafe, theyr aduice was that the byrde which wee caule 
the Pye, (huld bee admitted with his byll to open a place for that purpofe, whyle in the meane tyme thefe men 
cauled Caracaracoles, (hulde hould fafl the womens thighes abrode with theyr rowgh handes. Full wyfely ther- 
fore was the pye put to this office, and opened the womens priuities, and hereof the women of the Ilande haue 
theyr original and offpringe. But nowe doo I ceafe to marueyle that the owlde Grekes dyd fable and wryte fo 
manye bookes of the people cauled Myrmidones, which they fayned to bee engendred of antes or piffemeres. 
Thefe and fuche lyke, the fageft. and wyfeft. of the people, preache continually to the fimple forte, and reherfe 
the lame as mode holy oracles. But it is yet more chyldyffhe that they fable as touchinge th[e]originall of the 
fea. For they faye that there was once in the Ilande, a man of greate power, whofe name was lata : whofe only 
foonne being dead, he buryed hym within a greate gourde. This laia, greuouflye takyng the death of his 
foonne, after a fewe moonthes, came ageyne to the gourde : The which when he had opened, there iflhewed 
foorth many great whales and other monfters of the fea : where vppon he declared to fuche as dwelt abowte 
hym, that the fea was enclofed in that gourde. By which report, foure brethren (borne of one woman 
who dyed in her trauail) beinge moued, came to the gourde in hope to haue many fyflhes. The whiche 
when they had taken in theyr handes, and efpied laia comming, (who oftentymes reforted to the gourd 
to vifet the boones of his foonne) fearing lead he fhulde fufpecte them of thefte and facrileage, fodaynely let 
the gourde faule owte of theyr handes : which beinge broken in the faule the fea furthwith brake owte at the 
ryftes therof, and fo fylled the vales, and ouerflowed the playnes, that only the mountaynes were vncouered, 
whiche nowe conteyne the Ilandes which are feene in thofe coaft,es. And this is the oppinion of theyr wyfe 
men as concernynge th[e]originall of the fea. But nowe (mofl. noble prince) you fhall heare a more pleafaunt 
fable. There is a certeyne caue cauled louanaboina, in the territorye of a certeyne kynge whofe name is 
Machinnech. This caue they honour more religioufly then dyd the Grekes in tyme pafte, Corinth, Cyrrha, or 
Nyfa: And haue adoumed it with pictures of a thoufand fafftiions. In th[e]enterance of this caue they haue 
twoo grauen Zemes, wherof the one is cauled Binthaitel, and the other Marobu. Beinge demaunded why they 
had this caue in foo greate reuerence, they anfwered emeftly, bycaufe the Soonne and the Moone came fyrfl. 
owt of the fame to gyue lyght to the worlde. They haue religious concourfe to thefe caues, as wee are 
accuftomed to goo on Pylgramage to Rome or Vaticane, Compoftele, or Hierufalem, and moft holye and heade 
places of owre Religion. They are alfo fubiect to an other kynde of fuperftition. For they thinke that deade 
folkes walke in the nyght, and eate of the fruite cauled Guannaba, vnknowen vnto vs, and fumwhat lyke vnto a 
quynfe. Affirmynge alfo that they are conuerfant with lyuing people, euen in theyr beddes, and to deceaue 
women in takynge vpon them the fliape of men, (hewynge them felues as thowgh they wolde haue to doo with 
them : But when the matter commeth to actual deede, foodenly to vanyfflie away. If any doo fufpecte that a 
deade body lyeth by hym when he feeleth anye (Iraimge thynge in the bedde, they fay hee flialbe owt of dout 

The fyrjl Decade.- 


by feelynge of the belly therof : affirmyng that the fpirites of deade men may take vppon them al the members 
of mans body, fauinge only the nauell. If therfore by lacke of the nauell he doo perceaue that a deade body 
lyeth by hym, the feelynge is immediatly refolued. They beleue verely, that in the nyght, and often tymes in 
theyr ioumeys, and efpecially in common and hygh wayes, deade men doo nieete with the lyuynge. Ageynfle 
whome, if any man bee ftoute and owte of feare, the phantafye vanyffheth incontinentely. But yf anye feare, 
the phantafy or vyfion doth foo affaute hym and flryke hym with further feare, that manye are thereby aflonyffhed 
and haue the lymmes of theyr bodyes taken. Th[e]iiihabytantes beinge demaunded of whom they had thofe 
vayne fuperfticions, they anfwered that they were lefte them of theyr forefathers as by difcent of inheritance : 
And that they haue had the fame (before the memory of man) compofed in certeine rymes and fonges, which 
it was lawful for none to lerne but onely the kynges foonnes, who commytted the fame to memorye, bycaufe 
they hadde neuer any knoweleage of letters. Thefe they fynge beefore the people on certeyne folemne and 
fefliuall dayes, as moft. religious ceremonies : whyle in the meane tyme they play on a certeyne inflmmente 
made of one hole peece of woodde fumwhat holowe lyke a tymbrell. Their preefles and diuines (whom they 
caule Boitios) inflructe them in thefe fuperflitions. Thefe preefles, are alfo phifitians, diuifinge a thoufande 
craftes and fubtylties howe to deceaue the fimple people which haue them in greate reuerence. For they 
perfuade them that the Zemes vfe to fpeak with theym familierlye, and tel them of thynges to come. And if any 
haue bin ficke and are recouered, they make them beleue that they obteyned theyr healthe of the 2^mes. Thefe 
Boitii, bynde them felues to muche faflinge and owtewarde clenlynes and pourgeinges : Efpecially when they 
take vppon them the cure of any Prince. For then they drynke the pouder of a certeyne herbe, by whofe 
qualitie they are dryuen into a furye : At whiche tyme (as they fay) they lerne many thynges by reuelation of 
the Zemes. Then, puttinge fecreatly in theyr mouthes, eyther a Hone, or a bone, or a piece of fleflie, they 
coomme to the ficke perfon, commaundinge al to departe owte of that place, excepte one or twoo, whom it fhall 
pleafe the ficke man to appoynt. This doone, they goo about hym three or foure tymes, greatly deforminge 
theyr faces, lyppes, and nofethrils with fundry fylthy gieftures : blowynge, breathinge, and fuckyng the forheade, 
temples, and necke of the pacient, wherby (they faye) they drawe the euyll ayer from hym, and fucke the difeafe 
owt of his veynes. Then rubbinge hym about the flioulders, thyghes, and legges, and drawynge downe theyr 
handes clofe by his feete, holdinge them yet fafle togyther, they runne to the dore beinge open, where they 
vnclofe and fhake theyr handes, affirminge that they haue dryuen away the difeafe, and that the pacient (hall 
fhortely bee perfectly reflored to health. After this, commynge behynde hym, he conueygheth the piece of 
flefhe owte of his owne mouth like a iuggeler, and fheweth it to the ficke man, fayinge, behoulde what you haue 
eaten to muche : you fhall nowe bee hole, bycaufe I haue taken this from you. But if he intende yet further to 
deceaue the pacient, he perfuadeth hym that his Zemes is angry, eyther bycaufe he hath not buylded hym a chapell, 
or not honored hym religioufly, or not dedicated vnto him a groue or garden. And if it foo chaunce that the 
ficke perfon dye, his kinffolkes by wytchecrafte enforce the deade to confeffe whether he dyed by naturall deflenye, 
or by the neglygence of the Boitius, in that he had not fafled as he fliulde haue doone, or not myniftred a 
conuenient medicine for the difeafe. Soo that yf this phifitian bee founde fautie, they take reuenge of hym. Of 
the Hones or bones which thefe Boitii carye in theyr mouthes, yf the women can coome by them, they keepe 
them religioufly beleauinge them to bee greatly effectuall to helpe women whiche trauayle with chylde : And 
therfore honoure them as they doo theyr Zemes. For dyuers of th[e]inhabitantes, honour Zemes of dyuers 
faffhions. Sume make theim of woodde, as they were admonylhed by certeyne vifions apperinge vnto them in 
the wooddes. Others, whiche haue receaued anfwere of them amonge the rockes, make them of flone and 
marble. Sum they make of rootes to the fimilitude of fuche as appeare to them when they are gathering the 
rootes cauled Ages, wherof they make theyr breade, as we haue fayde before. Thefe Zemes, they beleue to fend 
jilentie and frutefulnes of thofe rootes, as the antlquitie beleued fuche fayries or fpirites as they cauled Dryades, 
Hamadryades, Satyros, Panes, and Nereides, to haue the cure and prouidence of the fea, wooddes, and fprynges 
and fountaynes, afligninge to euery thynge, theyr peculier goddes. Euen foo doo th[e]inhabitantes of this 
Ilande attribute a Zemes to euery thynge, fuppofinge the fame to gyue eare to theyr inuocations. Wherfore, as 
often as the kynges afke counfaile of their Zemes as concerning their warres, increafe of fruites or fcarfnes, or 
health and fickenes, they enter into the houfe dedicate to theyr Zemes, where, fnuffinge vp into theyr nofethryls 
the pouder of the herbe cauled Cohobba (wherwith the Boitii are dryuen into a furye) they fay that immediatly 
they fee the houfes turne topfy turuye, and men to walke with theyr heeles vpwarde : of fuche force is this 
pouder vtterly to take away all fenfe. As foone as this maddenes ceafeth, he embrafeth his knees with his armes, 
holdynge downe his heade. And when he hath remayned thus a whyle aflonyfihed, he lyfteth vp his heade as 
one that came newe owt of fleepe : And thus loking vp towarde heauen, Fyrfl he fumbeleth certeyne confounded 
woordes with hym felfe. Then certeyne of the nobilitie or chiefe gentelmen that are about him (for none of the 
common people are admytted to thefe myfleries) with lowde voyces gyue tokens of reioyfing that he is returned 
to them from the fpeache of the Zemes, demaundynge of hym what he hathe feene. Then hee openinge his 

L 3 loi 

proceadynge of 

Al is not good that 
is owlde 

Syngynge and 

Preestes and 
Ignorance is 
noryshed with 

Fastynge and 
outward clenlynes. 

A pouder of 
maruelous eifecte. 


A strange maner 
of curing 


Angery gods 

They make the 
deade to speake. 

Diucrs Idols of 
sundry shape. 

Fayries or spirites 
of the gentylcs. 

Peculier goddes. 

I'hey aske 
consaile of Idols 

The pouder of the 
herbe Cohobba. 

Secreate niistcries. 


The fyrjl Decade. 


The spirite of 
The SibiUcs 

I haue harde the 
Ivke of other in 

Hungery and 
lecherous gods. 

Children with two 




A woman zemes 
of great poure. 

Fyuc dayes 

A maruelous 
illusion of the 
The deuyll 
sumtyme telleth 

The Idols 

mouthe, doateth that the Zemes fpake to hym duryng the tyme of his traunce : declaring that he had reuelations 
eyther concerninge victorye or deflruction : famyne or plentie : health or fyckenes, or what foo euer happeneth 
fyrfl on his toonge. Nowe (mode noble Prince) what neede you hereafter to marueyle of the fpirite of Apollo 
foo fhakynge his Sibylles with extreme furie? Yowe had thowght that the fuperflitious antiquitie hadde 
peryfhed. But nowe wheras I haue declared thus much of the Zemes in generall, I thowght it not good to lette 
paffe what is fayde of them in particular. They faye therefore, that a certeyne kynge cauled Guamaretus, had 
a Zemes whofe name was Corochotum : who (they fay) was often tymes woonte to defcende from the hyghefte 
place of the houfe where Guamaretus kepte hym fade bounde. They affirme, that the caufe of this his 
breakynge of his bandes and departure, was eyther to hyde hym felfe, or to goo feeke for meate, or els for the 
acte of generation : And that fumtymes beinge offended, that the kynge Gttamaretus had byn negligent and 
flacke in honouringe hym, he was woont to lye hyd for certeyne dayes. They lay alfo that in the kynges vylage 
there are fumtyme chyldren borne hauing twoo crownes which they fuppofe to bee the children of Corochotum 
the Zemes. They fayne lykewyfe, that Guamaretus beinge ouercome of his enemies in the battayle, and his 
vylage with the palaice confumed with fyer, Coroc/wtus brake his bandes and was afterwarde founde a furlonge of, 
fafe and withowte hurte. He hath alfo an other Zemes cauled Epileguanita, made of woodde, in fhape lyke a foure 
footed beafle : who alfo is fayde, often tymes to haue gonne from the place where he is honoured, into the wooddes. 
As foone as they perceaue him to bee gonne, a great multitude of them gather togyther to feeke hym with deuoute 
prayers : And when they haue fownde hym, brynge hym home religioufly on theyr fhulders to the chapell dedicated 
vnto hym. But they coomplayne that fence the commynge of the Chriflian men into the Ilande, he fledde for all 
togyther, and coulde neuer fence bee founde, wherby they diuined the deflruction of theyr countrey. They honoured 
an other Zemes in the lykenes of a woman, on whom wayted twoo other lyke men, as they were miniflers to 
her. One of thefe, executed th[e]office of a mediatour to the other Zetnes which are vnder the power and 
commaundement of this woman, to rayfe wyndes, cloudes, and rayne. The other is alfo at her commaunde- 
mente a meffenger to the other Zemes whiche are ioyned with her in gouemaunce, to gather togyther the waters 
■whiche faule from the hygh hylles to the valleys, that beinge loofed, they may with force burft owte into greate 
fluddes and ouerflowe the countrey if the people doo not gyue due honoure to her Image. There remayneth 
yet one thynge woorthy to bee noted, wherwith we wyll make an ende of this booke. It is a thynge well 
knowen, and yet freffhe in memory amonge the inhabitantes of the Ilande, that there was fumetyme twoo 
kynges (of the which one was the father of Guarionexius of whom we made mention before) which were woont 
to abfteyne fyue dayes togyther continually from meate and drinke, to knowe fumwhat of theyr Zemes of thynges 
to coome : And that for this faflynge beinge acceptable to theyr Zemes, they receaued anfwere of them, that 
within fewe yeares, there fhuld coome to the Ilande a nation of men couered with apparell, which fhulde 
deftroye al the cuflomes and cerymonyes of the Hand, and eyther fley all theyr chyldren, or brynge them into 
feruitude. The common fort of the people, vnderiloode this oracle to bee mente of the Canibales. And 
therefore when they had any knowleage of theyr commyng, they euer fledde, and were fully determyned neuer 
more [to] aduenture the battayle with them. But when they fawe that the Spanyardes had entered into the 
Ilande, confultinge amonge them felues of the matter, they concluded that this was the nation which was ment 
by th[e]oracle. Wherin, theyr opinion deceaued them not For they are nowe all fubiecte to the Chriflians, 
all fuche beinge flayne as (loobemely refilled. Nor yet remayneth there anye memory of theyr Zemes: for 
they are al brought into Spayne, that we myght bee certified of theyr illufions of euyl fpirites and Idoles, the 
which yowe yowre felfe (mofl noble Prince) haue feene and felte when I was prefente with yowe. I let pafle 
many thynges bycaufe yow put me in remembrance that to morowe yowe take yowre iorney towarde yowre 
countrey, to brynge home the queene yowre aunte, whom yowe accoompanyed hether at the commaundemente 
of kynge Frederyke yowre vncle. Wherfore I byd yowe farewel for this tyme, defyrynge yowe to remember 
yowre Martyr, whome yowe haue compelled in the name of the kynge yowre vncle, to gather thefe fewe 
thynges owte of a large feelde of hylloryes. 

The fyrjl Decade. 


€[ The tenth and laste booke of the fyrst decade, 

as a conclufton of the fovnter booke s: 

Wrytten /i? Inacus lopez Mendocius, countie ^Tendilla, and viceroy e ^^/Granata. 

T the fyril begynnynge and newe attempte, when Colonus had taken vppon hym th[e]enter- 
pryfe to fearch the Ocean fea, I was emeftly moued and requyred by the letters of certeyne 
of my frendes and noble men of Rome to wryte fuche thynges as fhoulde happen. For they 
whyfpered with greate admiracion, that where as there were many newe landes founde, and 
nations which lined naked and after the lawe of nature, they coulde here noo certentie 
therof, beinge greately defyrous of the fame. In this meane tyme had fortune ouerthrowne 
Afcanius (his brother Lodouike beinge call owt of Mylayne by the frenchmen) whofe 
autoritie wold not fuffer me to bee idle, but euer to haue my pen in hande. To hym I ^vryte the twoo fyrll 
bookes of this decade, befyde many other of my hyd commentaries whiche yowe (hall fee fhortely. Fortune 
dyd noo leffe withdrawe my mynde frome wrytynge, then diflurbe Afcanius from power. As he was toffed with 
contrary flormes and ceafed to perfuade me, euen foo flacked my feruentnes to enquyre any further, vntyl the 
yeare of Chrifle. 1500. When the court remayned at Granata where yowe are viceroye: At which time 
Lodouike the Cardinall of Aragonie, neuie to kynge Frederike by his brothers fyde (beinge at Granata with 
the queene Parthenopea the fyfler of owre catholike kynge) browght me kynge Frederikes letters, wherby he 
exhorted me to fynyflie the other bookes whiche folowed the twoo epyflell bookes, which I wryte to Afcanius. 
For they both acknowleaged that they hadde the copie of all that I wryte to cardinall Afcanius. And albeit 
that euen then I was ficke (as yowe knowe) yet tooke I the burden vppon me, and applyed my felfe to wrytynge. 
I haue therfore chofen thefe fewe thynges, owte of a greate heape of fuche as feemed to me moll woorthy to 
bee noted amonge the large wrytynges of the autoures and fearchers of the fame. Wherfore, forafmuch as yowe 
haue endeuoured to wrede owt of my handes the hole exemple of al my woorkes, to adde the fame to the 
innumerable volumes of yowre librarie, I thowght it good nowe to make a breefe reherfall of thofe thynges 
which were done from that yeare of a thowfande and fyue hundreth, euen vnto this yeare which is the tenth 
from that. For I entende to wryte more largelye of thefe thynges hereafter, if god graunte me lyfe. I hadde 
wrytten a hole booke by it felfe of the fuperllitions of the people of the Ilande, fuppofinge therwith to haue 
accomplyfhed the hole Decade confiflynge of tenne bookes. But I haue added this to the tenthe as a per- 
pendiculer lyne, and as it were a backe guyde or rerewarde to the other: So that yowe may knytte the fyrft 
tenthe, to the nynthe, and impute this to occupie the place of the tenthe to fyll vp the Decade. This order 
haue I appoynted, left I fhulde bee compelled often times to wryte ouer the hole woorke, or fende yowe the 
fame defaced with blottes and interlynynge. But nowe let vs coome to owre purpofe. The fhippe mafters 
and maryners ranne ouer many coaftes durynge thefe tenne yeares : But euer folowed fuche as were fyrfte 
fownde by Colonus. For rafmge continually alonge by the tracte of Paria, which they beleue to bee parte of 
the firme lande or continent of eafte India, fume of theym chaunced vppon certeyne newe landes towarde the 
eafte, and fume towarde the wefte, in which they fownde bothe goulde and frankenfence. For they browght 
from thenfe many iewels and ouches of golde, and greate plentie of frankenfence, whiche they had of the 
people of thofe countreys, partely for exchange of fume of owre thynges, and partely by force, ouercommynge 
them by warre. Yet in fume places, althowgh they bee naked, they ouercame owre men, and flewe hole 
armyes. For they are excedinge fierce, and vfe venemous arrowes, and longe ftaues lyke iauelens, made harde 
at the ende with fyer. They fownde many beaftes, both creepinge and foure footed, muche differinge from 
owres, variable and of fundrye fliapes innumerable : yet not hurtfuU, excepte Lyons, Tygers, and Crocodiles. 
This I meane in fundry Regions of that greate lande of Paria : but not in the Ilandes : Noo not foo much as 
one. For all the beaftes of the Ilandes, are meeke and withowte hurte, except men which (as wee haue fayde) 
are in many Ilandes deuourers of mans flefflie. There are alfo dyuers kyndes of foules. And in many places 
battes of fuch bygnes, that they are equall with turtle doues. Thefe battes, haue often tymes affauted men in 
the nyght in theyr fleepe, and foo bytten them with theyr venemous teethe, that they haue byn therby almofte 
dryuen to madnes, in foo much that they haue byn compelled to flye from fuch places, as from rauenous harpies. 
In an other place, where certeyne of them flepte in the nyght feafon on the fandes by the fea fyde, a monfter 
commynge owte of the fea, came vppon one of them fecreatly and caryed hym away by the myddefte owte of 
the fight of his felowes to whome he cryed in vayne for helpe vntyll the beafte lepte into the fea with her praye. 

The Lawe of 

Milayne in ihe 
hands of the 


Epistel books 

The historye 
conteyneth the 
actes often yeare 

Paria, part of the 
firme I?.nd of East 

Golde and 

The fiercenes of 
the naked people. 
beastes vnlyke 
vnto owres. 

Nothing hurlfull 
in the Ilandes. 

Battes as byggc 
as turtle doucs. 

A nian deuoured 
of a monster of 
the sea 


The fyrjl Decade. 

The Spanyardes 
prefer them selues 
to subdue the 
newe landes. 

Note the largenes 
of the newe landes. 

Commendacion of 

the Spaniardes. 



The autotirs 


The nature of the 
place, altereth 
the formes and 
qualities of 


Mcntie of beastes 
and foule. 

Cuba, is an 

The description 
of Cuba. 

The Hand of 
Burichema or 
S. lohannis. 
Golde myncs 

The order of 
woorkynge in the 
golde mynes. 
The kynges 
brynge theyr 
to woorke in 
the golde mynes. 



They abhorre 


They are docible. 

The kynges 

It was the kynges pleafure that they fliulde remayne in thefe landes, and buylde townes and fortrefles. Where 
vnto they were foo wel wyllynge, that dyuers profered them felues to take vppon them the fubduing of the 
lande, makyng great fute to the kynge that they might bee appoynted therto. The coafte of this tracte is 
exceadynge greate and large: and the Regions and landes therof extende maruelous farre: Soo that they 
affirme the continent of thefe Regions with the Ilandes abowte the fame, to bee thryfe as bygge as al Europe, 
befyde thofe landes that the Portugales haue fownde fouthwarde, whiche are alfo exceadynge large. Therfore 
doubtlefle Spayne hathe deferued greate prayfe in thefe owre dayes, in that it hath made knowen vnto us foo 
many thowfandes of Antipodes which leye hyd before and vnknowen to owre forefathers : And hath thereby 
mynyflred fo large matter to wryte of, to fuche lerned wyttes as are defyrous to fette furthe knowleage to the 
commoditie of men : to whom I opened a way when I gathered thefe thynges rudely to gyther as yowe fee : 
The which, neuertheleffe I trufl yowe wyll take in good parte, afwell for that I can not adoume my rudenes 
with better vedure, as alfo that I neuer tooke penne in hande to wryte lyke an hiRoriographer, but only by 
epiftels fcribeled in hafle, to fatiffie theym, from whofe commaundementes I myght not drawe backe my foote. 
But now I haue digreffed enowghe. Let vs nowe therefore returne to Hifpaniola. Owre men haue founde by 
experience, that the breade of the Hand is of fniaule ftrength to fuch as haue byn vfed to owt breade made of 
wheate : And that theyr fl,ren[g]thes were much decayed by vfynge of the fame. AVherfore the king hath of late 
commaunded that wheate fhulde bee fowen there in diuers places and at fundry tymes of the yeare. It groweth 
into holowe reedes, with fewe eares, but thofe verye bygge and frutefull. They fynde the lyke foftenes or delicatenes 
to bee in herbes, which growe there to the height of come. Neat or cattail, becoome of bygger flature and 
exceadynge fat, but theyr flefflie is more vnfauery, and theyr bones (as they fay) eyther withowte marye, or the 
fame to bee verye wateryffhe. But of hogges and fwyne, they affirme the contrarye, that they are more holfoome 
and of better tafle, by reafon of certeyne wylde frutes whiche they eate, beinge of muche better nooryfhement 
then mafle. There is almofl none other kynd of fleffhe commonly foulde in the market The multitude of hogges, 
are excedingly encreafed, and becoome wylde as foone as they are owte of the fwyneheardes keepynge. They 
haue fuche plentie of beafles and foules, that they fhall heareafter haue noo neede, to haue any brought from 
other places. Th[e]increafe of all beafles, growe bygger then the broode they came of, by reafon of the rankenes 
of the paflure, althowgh theyr feadynge bee only of grafle, withowte eyther barley or other grayne. But wee 
haue fayde enowgh of Hifpaniola. They haue nowe fownde that Cuba, (which of longe tyme they thowght to 
haue byn firme lande for the greate length therof) is an llande. Yet is it noo maruell that th[e]inhabitantes them 
felues towlde owre men when they fearched the length therof, that it was withowte ende. For this nacion being 
naked and contente with a lyttle, and with the limittes of theyr owne contrey, is not greatly curyous to know 
what theyr neyghbours doo, or the largenes of theyr dominion. Nor yet knewe they if there were any other 
thinge vnder heauen, befyde that whiche they walked on with theyr feete. Cuba, is frome the Eafle into the 
Wefle, muche longer then Hifpaniola : And in breadthe from the Northe to the Southe, much leffe then they 
fuppofed at the fyrfl : for it is very narowe in refpecte to the length : And is for the mode parte, very frutefull 
and pleafaunt, Eaflwarde not farre from Hifpaniola, there lyethe an llande, leffe then Hfpaniola more then by 
the halfe, which owre men cauled SanBi loliannis, beinge in maner fquare. In this they founde excedynge r)'che 
golde mynes. But beinge nowe occupied in the golde mynes of Hifpaniola, they haue not yet fent labourers into 
that Hand. But the plentie and reuenewe of golde of al other Regions, gyue place to Hifpaniola, where they 
gyue theim felues in maner to none other thynge then to gather golde, of which woorke this order is appoynted. 
To euery fuch wyttie and (kylfuU man as is put in trufte to bee a furuoier or ouerfeer of thefe woorkes, there is 
affigned one or more kynges of the llande with theyr fubiectes. Thefe kynges accordyng to theyr league, coome 
with theyr people at certeyne tymes of the yeare, and reforte euery of them to the golde myne to the which he is 
affigned: where they haue all maner of dygginge or myninge tooles deUuered them: And euery kynge with his 
men, haue a certeyne rewarde alowed them for theyr labour. For when they departe from the mynes to fowynge 
of come, and other tyllage (whemnto they are addict at certeyne other tymes, leafle theyr foode fliulde fayle 
them) they receaue for theyr laboure, one a ierken, or a dublet, an other a flierte, an other a cloke or a cappe. 
For they nowe take pleafure in thefe thynges, and goo no more naked as they were wont too doo. And thus 
they vfe the helpe and laboure of the inhabitantes both for the tyllage of theyr ground, and in theyr gold mines 
as thowghe they were theyr femauntes or bondemen. They beare this yoke of feraitude >vith an euyll wyll : but 
yet they beare it. They caule thefe hyred labourers, Anaborias. Yet the kynge doth not fuffer that they fliulde 
bee vfed as bondemen : And onely at his pleafure they are fette at libertie or appoynted to woorke. At fuche 
tyme as they are cauled together of theyr kynges to woorke (as fouldiers or pioners are affembled of theyr 
centurians) many of them dele away to the mountaynes and wooddes, where they lye lurkynge, beinge content 
for that tyme to lyue with wyld fmtes, rather then to take the paynes to laboure. They are docible and apte to 
leme, and haue nowe vtterly forgotten theyr owlde fuperflicions. They beleue godly, and beare wel in memory 
fuche thynges as they haue lerned of o^vre faith. Theyr kynges children are brought vp with the chiefeft of owre 


The fyrjl Decade. 


men, and are inflructed in letters and good maners. When they are growen to mans age, they fende them home 
to theyr countreys to bee exemple to other, and efpecially to goueme the people if theyr fathers bee dead that 
they maye the better fet foorthe the Chriftian Religion, and keepe theyr fubiectes in loue and obedience. By 
reafon whereof, they coome nowe by fayre meanes and gentell perfuafions to the mynes which lye in twoo 
Regions of the Ilande aboute thirtie myles diflante frome the citie of Dominica : wherof the one is cauled SanHi 
Chrijlophori: And the other being diflante aboute foure fcore and tenne myles, is cauled Cibaua, not farre from 
the cheefe hauen cauled Partus Regalis. Thefe regions are very large : In the which in many places here and 
there, are fownd fumtyme euen in the vpper crufl of the earth and fumtyme amonge the flones, certeyne rounde 
pieces or plates of golde, fumtyme of fmaule quantitie, and in fum places of great weyght : In fo muche that there 
hath byn found rounde pieces of three hundreth pounde weyght, and one of three thoufande, three hundreth 
and tenne pounde weyght : The whiche (as yowe harde) was fente hole to the kynge in that fhyppe in the which 
the gouemour Boadilla was comming home into Spayne, the (hyppe with all the men beinge drowned by the 
way, by reafon it was ouer laden with the weight of golde and multytude of men. Albeit, there were moo then 
a thowefande perfons whiche fawe and handeled the piece of golde. And wheras here I fpeake of a pounde, 
I doo not meane the common pounde, but the fumme of the ducate of golde, with the coyne cauled Trims, 
which is the thyrde parte of a pounde, whiche they caule Pejus. The fum of the weyght hereof, the Spanyardes 
caule Cajlellanum Auraim. Al the golde that is dygged in the mountaynes of Cibaua and Porte Regale, is 
caiyed to the towre of Conception, where flioppes with al thynges apperteyninge are redy furnyffhed to fyne it, 
melte it, and cafle it into wedges. That doone, they take the kynges portion therof, whiche is the fyfte parte, 
and foo reflore to euery man his owne whiche he gotte with his labour. But the golde whiche is fownde in 
faynt Chriflophers myne and the Region there aboute, is caryed to the (hoppes whiche are in the vylage cauled 
Bonauentura. In thefe twoo fhoppes, is molten yerely, aboue three hundreth thoufand pounde weight of golde. 
If any man bee knowen deceatefully to keepe backe any portion of golde, whereof he hathe not made the kynges 
officers pryuie, he forfiteth the fame for a fyne. There chaunce amonge them often tymes many contentions 
and controuerfies, the whiche onleffe the magiflrates of the Ilande doo fynyflhe, the cafe is remoued by appellation 
to the hyghe counfayle of the courte, from whofe fentence it is not lawfull to appele in all the dominions of 
Caflyle. But lette vs nowe returne to the newe landes frome whenfe we haue digreffed. They are innumerable, 
dyuers, and exceadynge fortunate. Wherfore the Spanyardes in thefe owre dayes, and theyr noble enterpryfes, 
doo not gyue place eyther to the factes of Saturnus, or Hercules, or any other of the ancient princes of famous 
memorie which were canonized amonge the goddes cauled Heroes for theyr fearchinge of newe landes and 
regions, and bringinge the lame to better culture and ciuiHtie. Oh God : howe large and farre Ihal owre 
pofleritie fee the Chriftian Religion extended? Howe large a campe haue they nowe to wander in, whiche by 
the trewe nobihtie that is in theym, or mooued by vertue, wyll attempte eyther to deferue lyke prayfe amonge 
men, or reputacion of well doinge before god. What I conceaue in my mynde of thefe thynges, I am not able 
to expreffe with penne or tonge. I wyll nowe therfore foo make an ende of this perpendiculer conclufion of the 
hole Decade, as myndinge hereafter to fearche and gather euery thynge particulerlye, that I maye at further 
leafure wryte the fame more at large. For Colonus the Admiral with foure fhyppes, and a hundreth threefcore 
and tenne men appoynted by the kynge, difcouered in the yeare of Chrifte. 1502. the lande ouer ageynfte the 
wefte comer of Cuba, diftant from the lame aboute a hundreth and thirtie leaques : In the myddeft of which 
tracte, lyeth an Ilande cauled Guanaffa. From henfe he directed his vyage backewarde towarde the Eafte 
by the Ihore of that coaft, fuppofmge that he Ihulde haue founde the coaftes of Paria: but it chaunced 
otherwyfe. It is fayd alfo that Vincejitius Agnes (of whom we haue fpoken before) and one lohannes Diaz 
(with dyuers other of whofe vyages I haue as yet no certeyne knowleage) haue ouer runne thofe coalles. 
But if God graunt me life, I truft to know the truthe hereof and to aduertife yowe of the fame. Thus fare 
ye well 

C The feconde Decade foloweth. 

The two chiefe 
golde mynes of 

Golde founde in 
the vpper part of 
the earth. 

A piece of golde 

weighinge three 

thousande three 

hundreth and ten 


A coastly ship 



The fynyiige and 
distribution of 

Three hundreth 
thousand weyght 
of gold molten 
yerely in 


The newe landes. 

The Spanyardes 
noble enterpryses. 
are not inferiour 
to the actes of 
Hercules or 
Satmnus. etc. 
Enlarging of the 
Christian Religion. 
The originall of 
trewe nobilitie. 


The Ilande of 

The vyage of 
lohannes Diaz. 



West Antipodes. 

The increase of 
the Christian 



Of landes distante 

from the 

Equinoctiall from 

fyue degrees to 


The death of 


Agenerall lycence. 

The nauigation of 
Alphonsus Fogeda. 



The Region of 
People of goodly 

Apples whiche 
tume into 


Of the fuppofed Continent or firme lande. 

ENSE the tyme that Galeatius Butrigarius of Bononie,and Johannes 
Curfnis of Florence (mode holye father) came to the catholyke 
kynge of Spayne, the one, of yowre holynes ambafage, and 
th[e]other for th[e]affaires of his common welth, I was euer for 
the mofle parte in theyr coompanie, and for theyr vertues and 
wyfedoome, had theym in greate reuerence. And wheras they 
were greatly gyuen to (ludye, and continuall reuoluinge of 
dyuers autours, they chaunced vppon certeyne bookes negli- 
gently let flyppe owte of my handes, entreatinge of the large 
landes and Regions hetherto lyinge hyd, and almofl weft. 
Antipodes, fownde of late by the Spanyardes. Yet beinge 
allured and delited with the newenes and ft.rangenes of the 
matter althowgh rudely adourned, they commended the iame : 
Therwith erneflely defyringe me in theyr owne names, and 
requyring me in the name of yowr holynes, to adde here 
vnto all fuche thynges as were fownde after that tyme, and to gyue 
them a copie thereof to fende to yowre holynes, that yowe myght 
therby vnderflande, bothe howe greate commoditie is chaunced 
to the progenye of mankynde, as alfo increafe of the militante congregation in thefe owre dayes, by the fortunate 
enterpryfes of the kjmges of Spayne. For lyke as rafed or vnpaynted tables, are apte to receaue what 
formes foo euer are fyrft. drawen theron by the hande of the paynter, euen foo thefe naked and fimple 
people, doo foone receaue the cufl.omes of owre Religion, and by conuerfation with owre men, (hake of 
theyr fierce and natiue barbaroufnes. I haue thowght it good therfore to fatiffie the requeft of thefe 
wyfe men, efpecially vfinge th[e]autoritie of yowre name, wherunto not to haue obeyed, I fliulde 
eft-eeme my felfe to haue commytted a heynous offence. Wherefore I wyl nowe brefely reherfe in order, what 
hyd coaftes the Spanyardes ouerranne, who were the autours therof, where they reft.ed, what further hope they 
browght, and fynallye what great thynges thofe tractes of landes doo promeffe in tyme to coome. In the 
declaration of my decade of the Ocean, which is nowe printed and difperfed throwghowte Chriftendome 
vnwares to me, I defcribed howe Chrijlophorus Colonus fownde thofe Ilandes wherof we haue fpoken, and that 
turnynge from thenfe towarde the lefte hande fouthwarde, he chaunced into greate regions of landes, and large 
feas, diftant from the Equinoctial lyne, onely from fyue degrees to tenne : where he founde brode ryuers and 
exceadinge hygh mountaynes couered with fiiowe and harde by the fea bankes, where were many commodious 
and quyet hauens. But Colonus being now departed owte of this lyfe, the k)Tige beganne to take care, howe 
thofe landes myght be inhabited with Chrifl,ian men to th[e]increafe of owre fayth: Where vppon he gaue 
licence by his letters patentes to al fuch as wolde take the matter in hand, and efpecially to twoo, wherof Diego 
Nicuefa was one, and the other was Alphonfus Fogeda. \Vherfore about the Ides of December, Alphonfus 
departinge fyrfl with three hundreth fouldiers from the Ilande of Hifpaniola (in the which wee fayde the Span- 
yardes had builded a citie, and planted theyr habitacion) and faylynge in maner full fouthe, he came to one of 
the hauens founde before whiche Colonus named Partus Carthaginis, bothe bycaufe of the Ilande ftandynge 
ageynfl.e the courfe of the flreame, and alfo that by reafon of the largenes of the place and bendynge fydes, it 
is muche lyke to the hauen of Spaine cauled Carthago. Th[e]inhabitantes caule the Ilande Codego, as the 
Spanyardes caule the Ilande of theyr hauen, Scombria. This Region is cauled of the inhabitantes Caramairi: 
In the which they aifirme bothe the men and women to bee of goodly ftature, but naked. The men haue 
theyr heare cutte rownde by theyr eares, but the women were it longe. Bothe the men and women are very 
good archers. Owre men fownde certen trees in this prouince, which bore greate plentie of fweete apples, but 
hurteful, for they tume into wormes when they are eaten. Efpecially the (hadowe of the tree, is contagious, 

The feconde Decade. 


for fuche as fleepe vnder it any tyme, haue theyr headdes fwolne and lofe theyr fight. But if they fleepe but a 
whyle, theyr fyght commeth ageyne after a fewe dayes. This porte is dyflant foure hundreth fyftie and fyxe 
myles from that parte of Hifpaniola which the Spanyardes caule Beata, in the which alfo they furnyffhe them 
felues when they prepare anye vyage to feeke other newe landes. When Fogeda had entered into the hauen, 
he inuaded, flewe, and fpoyled the people, whome he founde naked and fcattered. For they were gyuen hym 
for a praye, by the kynges letters patentes bycaufe they hadde bin before tyme cruel ageynfl the Chriftians, and 
coulde neuer bee allured to permytte them quietly to coome within theyr dominions. Here they founde gold, 
but in no greate quantitie, nor yet that pure. They make of it, certeyne bred plates and brooches, which they 
weare for coomelynes. But Fogeda not content with thefe fpoyles, vfinge certeyne captiues whiche he had 
taken before, for guydes, entered into a vyllage twelue myles diflante frome the fea fyde further into the lande, 
into the whiche they were fledde whom he fyrft. inuaded. Here he founde a naked people, but apte to warre. 
For they were armed with targettes, (hieldes, longe fwoordes made of wood, and bowes with arrowes typte with 
bone, or hardened with fyer. As foone as they had efpyed owre men, they with their geftes whom they had 
receaued, alTayled them with defperate myndes, beinge therto more emeflly prouoked, beholding the calamitie 
of thefe whiche fledde vnto theym, by the violence doone to theyr women and chyldren, in the fpoyle and 
flawghter. In this conflicte owre men had the ouerthrowe : In the which, one Johannes de Lacoffa (beinge in 
autoritie nexte vnto Fogeda the capitayne, and alfo the fyrile that gathered golde in the fandes of Vraba) was 
flayne with fyftie fouldiers. For thefe people infecte theyr arrowes with the deadly poyfon of a certeyne herbe. 
The other with theyr capitayne Fogeda beinge difcomfited, fledde to the fhyppes. Whyle they remayned thus 
in the hauen of Carthago forowfuU and penfyue for the loffe of their companions, the other capitayne F>iego 
Nicuefa, (whom they lefte in Hifpaniola, preparyng hym felfe towarde the vyage in the hauen Beata) came to 
theim with fyue fhippes and feuen hundrethe foure fcore and fyfteene menne. For the greater number of 
fouldyers, folowed Niaiefa, both bycaufe free libertie was gyuen them to choofe which of the capytaynes them 
lyfl, and alfo that by reafon of his age, he was of greater autoritie : But efpecially bycaufe the rumoure was that 
Beragua beinge by the kynges commiflion appoynted to Nicuefa, was rycher in golde then Vraba affigned to 
Alphonfus Fogeda. Therfore, at the arryuall of Nicuefa, they confulted what was befle to bee doone : And 
determyned fyrfle to reuenge the deathe of their felowes. Where vppon, fettynge theyr battayle in arraye, they 
marched in the nyght towarde them whiche flewe Coffa with his coompanyons. Thus flealynge on them 
vnwares in the la(l watche of the nyght, and encoompafmge the vyllage where they laye, confiflynge of a 
hundreth howfes and more, hau)mge alfo in it thryfe as many of theyr neyghbours as of them felues, they fet 
it on fyer, with diligent watche that none myght efcape. And thus in fhorte tyme they browght theym and 
theyr howfes to afflies, and made them pay the raunfome of bludde with bludde. For of a greate multitude of 
men and women, they fpared onely fyxe chyldren, al other being deflroyed with fyer or fword except fewe 
which efcaped priuilye. They lemed by the referued chyldren, that Coffa and his felowes were cutte in 
pieces and eaten of them that flewe them. By reafon wherof, they fuppofe that thefe people of Caramairi 
tooke theyr originall of the Caribes otherwyfe cauled Canibales. Here they founde fume golde amonge the 
afflies. For the hunger of golde, dyd noo lefle encorage owr men to aduenture thefe perels and labours 
then dyd the pofleflynge of the landes. Thefe thynges thus fynyffhed, and the death of Coffa and his felowes 
reuenged, they returned to the hauen. After this, Fogeda whiche came fyrfl, fyrfl. lykewyfe departinge with his 
army to feeke Vraba, commytted to his gouernaunce, fayled by an Ilande cauled Fortis, lyinge in the mydwaye 
betwene Vraba and the hauen of Carthago. In to the which defcendinge, he fownde it to bee an Ilande of the 
Canybales, brynginge with hym frome thenfe two men and feuen women : for the refidue efcaped. Here he 
fownde in the cotages of them that fledde, a hundrethe foure fcore and tenne drammes of golde, cart,e and 
wrought in dyuers formes. Saylynge forwarde from henfe, he came to the Eafle of Vraba, whiche 
th[e]inhabitantes caule Caribana, from whenfe the Caribes or Canibales of the Ilandes are fayde to haue theyr 
name and originall. Here he beganne to buylde a fortrefle, and a vyllage nere vnto the fame, therein intendynge 
to place theyr fyrft habitacion. Shortly after, beinge infl.ructed by certeyne captyues that there was aboute 
twelue myles further within the lande, a certeyne vyllage cauled Tirufi, hauinge in it a ryche golde myne, he 
determyned to defl.roye the vylage. To the which when he came, he fownde th[e]inhabitantes redye to defende 
theyr ryght: And that foo floutly, that encounteryng with them, he was repulfed with (hame and domage. For 
thefe people alfo, vfe bowes and venemous arrowes. Within a fewe dayes after, beinge enforfed for lacke of 
vytayles to inuade an other vyllage, he hym felfe was flryken in the thyghe with an arrowe. Sume of his felowes 
fay, that he was thus wounded of one of th[e]inhabytantes whofe wyfe he had ledde awaye captiue before. 
They fay alfo that he had firft, frendly comoned with Fogeda for redemynge of his wyfe, and had appoynted a 
day to brynge a portion of golde for her raunfome : And that he came at the daye afligned, not laden with golde, 
but armed with bowes and arrowes, with eyght other confetherate with hym, whiche had bin before partetakers 
of the iniuries doone to them firft. at the hauen of Carthago, and afterward at the burnyng of the vyllage. In 

A tree whose 
shadowe is 

Fogeda his 
autoritie confirmed 
by the kynges 
letters patents. 

Warlyke people. 

The Spanyardes 
haue the 

Arrowes infected 
with poyson. 

The nauigatlon of 
Diego Nicuesa. 

The regions of 
Vraba and 

The Spanyardes 
reuenge the 
death of theyr 

A greate 


The hunger of 


The Ilande Fortis 

Wrought gold 


A gold myne. 

The Spanyardes 
are repulsed. 

Fogeda is 

Ransom e. 


The feconde Decade. 

Fogeda consumeth 
by force of the 

Beragua and 



The goulfe Coiba. 
Dyuers languages. 

Rergantynes or 

Bamardino de 



Fogeda returneth 
to hispaniola. 


A brigantlne 
drowned with the 
stroke of a fyshe. 

The Ilande Fortis. 

A ttcisus. 
The Region of 
Boium gattL 

couered with 

Serra Neuatiu 
Of Draconis. 

reuenge wherof they had defperatly confecrated them felues to death. But the matter beinge knowen, the 
captayne of this confpiracie was flayne of Fogeda his coompanyons, and his wyfe deteyned in captiuitie. Fogeda 
alfo throwgh the mahcioufnes of the veneme, confumed and was dryed vp by lyttle and lyttle. Whyle thefe 
thynges chaunced thus, they efpyed Nicuefa the other capitayne to whom Beragua the region of the wefle fyde 
of Vraba, was afligned to inhabite. He gaue wynde to his fayles to take his vyage towarde Beragua, the day 
after that Fogeda departed owte of the hauen of Carthago. He with his army which he browght with hym, 
coafled euer alonge by the (hore vntyll he came to the goulfe Coiba, whofe kynges name is Careta. Here he 
founde theyr language to bee in maner nothynge lyke vnto that Qi Hifpaniola or of the hauen of Cartlmgo: 
wherby he perceaued that in this tracte there are many languages differinge from theyr owne bortherers. Niaiefa 
departinge frome Coiba, wente to the prouince or Lieuetenauntfhippe of Fogeda his companion. Within a fewe 
dayes after he hym felfe enteringe into one of thofe ma'rchaunt fhippes whiche the Spanyardes caule Carauelas, 
commaunded that the bygger veffels, fhulde folowe farre behynde. He tooke with hym twoo fmaule fhyppes 
commenly cauled bergantines or brygantynes. I haue thowght it good in all the difcourfe of thefe bookes, to 
vfe the common names of thinges, bicaufe I had rather bee playne then curious : efpecially forafmuche as there 
doo dayly aryfe manye newe thynges vnknowen to the antiquitie, wherof they haue lefte noo trewe names. 
After the departure oi Nicuefa, there came a (hyppe from Hifpaniola to Fogeda, the capitayne wherof, was one 
Bamardino de Calauera, who had floulne the fame from Hifpaniola with three fcore men, withowte leaue or 
aduice of the Admirall and the other gouemours. With the vytayles whiche this fhippe browght they refrefflied 
theym felues and fumewhat recouered theyr flrengthes muche weakened for lacke of meate, Fogeda his 
companyons whyfpered and muttered ageynfte hym daylye more and more, that he fedde them furthe with 
vayne hope. For he had towlde them that he left Ancifus in Hifpaniola (whom he chofe by the kynges 
commifTion to bee a ludge in caufes, bycaufe he was lerned in the lawe) to coome fhortly after him with a (hippe 
laden with vytayles : And that he marueyled that he was not coome many dayes fenfe. And herein he faid 
nothinge but trewth. For when he departed, he lefte Ancifus halfe redy to folowe hym. But his 
felowes fuppofinge that all that he fayde of Ancifus had byn fayned, fume of them determyned 
priuilie to lleale away the twoo brigantynes frome Fogeda, and to retume to Hifpaniola. But Fogeda 
hauing knowleage hereof, preuented theyr diuife. For leauynge the cuflodie of the fortreffe with a 
certeyne noble gentelman cauled Francifco Pizarro, he hym felfe thus wounded, with a fewe other in his 
companie, entered into the fhyppe wherof we fpake before, and fayled directly to Hifpaniola, both to heale the 
wound of his thygh if any remedy myght bee found, and alfo to knowe what was the caufe of Ancifus taryinge : 
Leauing hope with his felowes (which were nowe browght from three hundreth to three fcore, partly by famyne 
and partly by warre) that he wolde retume within the fpace of xv. dayes : prefcribyng alfo a condition to 
Fizarro and his companions, that it (hulde not bee imputed to them for treafon to departe from thenfe if he 
came not ageyne at the day appoynted with vytayles and a newe fupply of men. Thefe. xv. dayes beinge nowe 
pafte, whereas they coulde yet heare nothynge of Fogeda, and were dayly more and more oppreffed with fharpe 
hunger, they entered into the twoo brigantynes which were lefte, and departed from that land. And as they 
were nowe faylynge on the mayne fea towarde Hifpaniola, a tempefte foodeynly aryfynge, fwalowed one of the 
brygantynes with all that were therein. Sum of theyr felowes affirme that they playnely fawe a fyflie of houge 
greatenes fwymmyng abowte the brygantyne (for thofe feas brynge furthe greate monflers) and that with a 
flroke of her tayle, (he broke the rudder of the fhyppe in peeces : which fayl)mge, the brigantine beinge dryuen 
abowt by force of the temped, was drowned not farre from the Ilande cauled Fortis, lyinge betwene the coaftes 
of the hauen Carthago and Vraba. As they of the other brygantyne wolde haue landed in the Ilande, they 
were dryuen backe with the bowes and arrowes of the fierce barbarians. Proceadynge therfore on theyr vyage, 
they mette by chaunce with Ancifus betweene the hauen of Carthago, and the Region of Cuchibacoa in the 
mouthe of the ryuer whiche the Spanyardes cauled Boium gatti, that is, the houfe of the catte, bycaufe 
they fawe a catte firfl in that place : and Boium, in the toonge of Hifpaniola, is a houfe. Ancifus came wy th 
a fhyppe laden with all thynges neceflarye, bothe for meate and drynke, and apparell, bryngynge alfo 
with hym an other brigantine. This is he for whofe comming the capitayne Fogeda looked for foo longe. 
He loofed anker from Hifpaniola in the Ides of September : And the fourth day after his departure, he efpyed 
certeyne hyghe mountaynes, the whiche for the abundance of fnowe which lyeth continually in the toppes therof, 
the Spanyardes cauled Serra Neuata, when Colonus the fyrft fynder of thofe Regions paffed by the fame. The 
fyfte daye, he fayled by Os Draconis. They whiche were in the brygantyne, towlde Ancifus that Fogeda 
was returned to Hifpaniola. But Ancifus fuppofmg that they had fayned that tale, commaunded them by 
th[e]authoritie of his commiflion to tume backe ageyne. The brigantiners obeyed and folowed hym : yet made 
they humble fute vnto hym that he woolde graunte them that with his fauour they myght eyther goo ageyne to 
Hifpaniola, or that he hym felfe woolde brynge theim to Niatefa : And that they woolde for his gentelnes 
declared towarde them in this behalfe, rewarde hym with twoo thoufande drammes of golde. For they were 


The feconde Decade. 


ryche in golde, but poore in breade. But Ancifus affented to neyther of theyr requefles : affirmynge that he 
myght by no meanes goo anye other way then to Vraba the prouince affigned to Fogeda. Where vppon, by 
theyr conduct, he tooke his vyage directly toward Vraba. But nowe let it not feme tedious to yowre holynes 
to heare of one thyng worthy to bee remembred, which chaunced to this Lieuetenaunt Ancifus as he came 
thether. For he alfo call anker in the coaftes of the region of Caramairi whiche wee fayde to bee famous by 
reafon of the hauen of Carthago : and of the goodly flature, flrength, and beawty of both men and women beinge 
in the fame. Here he fent certeyne to goo alande on the fliore, both to fetche frefflie water, and alfo to 
repaire the fhippe boate which was fore broofed. In "this meane tyme a greate multitude of the people of the 
countrey armed after theyr maner, came aboute owre men as they were occupied abowte theyr bufynes, and 
floode in a redynes to feight, for the fpace of three dayes contynually : durynge whiche tyme, neyther durft. they 
fet vppon owre men, nor owre men affayle them. Thus bothe parties keepynge theyr arraye, floode flyl three 
hole dayes the one gafynge on the other. Yet all this tyme owre men applyed theyr woorke, placinge the 
fhippewrightes in the myddefle of theyr armye. As they floode thus amafed, twoo of owre coompanye wente 
to fyll theyr water pottes at the mouthe of the ryuer nere vnto them both, where foodenly there came furthe 
ageynde them a capitayne of the barbarians with ten armed men which inclofed them, and with terrible 
countenaunce bent theyr arrowes ageynfle them, but fliotte theym not of One of owre men fledde : but the 
other remayned, caulynge his felowe ageyne and rebukynge hym for his fearefulnes. Then he fpake to the 
barbarians in their owne language which he had lerned beinge conuerfant with the captiues that were caryed 
from thenfe longe before. They marueylynge to here a (Iraunger fpeake in their natiue tonge, put of theyr 
fiercenes and fell to frendly communication, demaundinge who were the capitaynes of that coompanie whiche 
were arryued in theyr lande. He anfwered that they were flrangers paflyng by : And that he marueyled why 
they wold attempte to dryue them from theyr coaftes and difturbe theyr fliyppes : arguinge theim of foUye and 
crueltie, and further threatinge their ruine and deftmction, except they woold vfe them felues more frendely 
towarde them. For hee aduertifed them that there wolde Ihortly coome into theyr lande armed men, in nomber 
lyke to the fandes of the fea: And that to theyr vtter deftruction, not only if they refyfted them not, but alfo 
excepte they receaued them and enterteyned them honorably. In the meane tyme Ancifus was enformed that 
his men were deteyned. Wherefore fufpectinge fume deceate, he browght furth al his target men for feare of 
theyr venemous arrowes : And fettinge them in battell arraye, he marched forwarde towarde them which fleyed his 
men. But he which communed with the barbarians, gyuinge him a figne with his hande to procede noo further, 
he fteyed. And cauling to hym the other, he knewe that all was fafe. For the barbarians profered him peace, 
bycaufe they were not they whom they fufpected them to haue byn : meanynge by Fogeda and Niatefa, who had 
fpoyled the vyllage ftandinge there by the fea fyde, and caryed away many captiues, and alfo bumte an other 
vyllage further within the lande. And therefore (as they fayde) the caufe of theyr comminge thether, was to 
reuenge thofe iniuries, if by any meanes they coulde. Yet that they woolde not exercyfe theyr weapons ageynfte 
the innocente. For they fayde it was vngodly to feyght ageynft any, not beinge prouoked. Layinge a parte 
therefore theyr bowes and arrowes, they enterteyned owre men gentelly, and gaue them great plentie of faked 
fyffhe and breade of theyr contrey : And fylled theyr veffels with fyder made of theyr contrey frutes and feedes, 
not inferiour to wyne in goodnes. Thus Ancifus hauinge entered into frendfhyp and made a league of peace with 
th[e]inhabitantes of Caramairi whiche were before fore prouoked by other capitaynes, he lanched from that 
lande, and directed his courfe to Vraba by the Ilande Fortis, hauinge in his (hippe a hundreth and fyftie frefftie 
men whiche were fubftitute in the place of fuche as were deade. Alfo twelue mares, and manye fwine, and other 
beaftes both males and females for increafe. Lykewyfe, fyftie pieces of ordinaunce, with a greate multytude of 
targettes, fwoordes, iauelyns, and fuche other weapons for the warres. But all this with euyl fpeede and in an 
euyll houre. For as they were euen nowe enteringe into the hauen, the gouemour of the fhippe which fatte at 
the helme, ftroke the fliyppe vppon the fandes, where it was foo fafl enclofed, and beaten with the wanes of the 
fea, that it opened in the myddefte, and al loft that was therin. A thynge furely miferable to beholde. For 
of all the vytayles that they had, they faued onely twelue barels of meale, with a fewe chiefes, and a lyttle byfket 
breade. For al the beaftes were drowned : And they them felues fcaped hardly and halfe naked by helpe of the 
brigantine and fhip boate, caryeng with them only a fewe weapons. Thus they fell from one calamitie into an 
other, beinge nowe more carefull fo rtheyr lyues then for golde. Yet beinge browght alyue and in health to that 
land which they foo greatly defyred, they coulde doo noo leffe then to prouide for the fufteynynge of theyr bodyes, 
bycaufe they coulde not lyue onely by ayer. And wheras theyr owne fayled, they muft needes lyue by other 
mens. Yet amonge thefe foo many adueriities, one good chaunce offered it felfe vnto them. For they founde, 
not farre from the fea fyde, a groue of date trees, amonge the which, and alfo amonge the reke or weedes of the 
maryfhes, they efpyed a multitude of wylde bores, with whofe flefhe they fed them felues wel certeine dayes. 
Thefe they fay to bee leffe then owres : And with foo fhorte tayles, that they thought they had byn cutte of 
They dyffer alfo from owres in theyr feete : for theyr hynder feete are hole vndiuided, and alfo withowte any 

Riche in frold and 
pore in breade. 

The Region of 

Feare on both 

Ship wryghtes. 


The vse of 
targettes agenst 
venemous arrowes. 

The barbarians 
haue respect to 

Salted fishe. 

Wyne of fruites 
and seedes. 



Ancisus ship 

Meale, cheeses, 
and bysket. 

A groue of date 

Wylde bores. 


The feconde Decade. 


Apples of a 
strange kynd 

Ceders of Libane. 

Sorbes are cauled 
in french Cormier 
they grow not in 
The frute cauled 
zizipha or luiuba 


Men of desperat 

The goulfe of 

The great ryuer 
of Darien, fauleth 
into the goulfe of 

Prayer and vowes. 

The souldiers 

make an othe. 

The barbarians 
are dryuen to 



The ryuer of 
Darien, but viii. 
degrees from the 

Golde founde in a 
thicket of reedes. 

houfe. But they affirme that they haue proued by experience theyr flefftie to bee of better tafte and more 
holfoome then owres. Durynge this tyme, they fedde alfo of dates and the rotes of younge date trees, which 
they eate likewyfe in Ciuile and Gra?iata where they caule them Pahnitos, of the leaues wherof they make 
biefomes in Rome. Sumetymes alfo, they eate of the appels of that Region, whiche haue the tafte of prunes, 
and haue alfo ftones in them, and are but lyttle and of redde coloure. I fuppofe them to bee of that kynde 
wherof I eate in the citie of Alexandria in Egypt in the moneth of Aprell : The trees wherof, the lewes that 
dwel there, beinge lemed in the lawe of Moyfes, affirme to bee the Ceders of Libane, which beare owlde fruites 
and newe all the yeare as dothe the orange tree. Thefe apples are good to bee eaten, and haue a certeyne 
fweetnes myxte with a gentell fharpnes, as haue the frutes cauled Sorbes. Th[e]inhabitantes plant thefe trees 
in theyr orchyardes and garedens, and noorylhe theym with greate diligence as wee doo cheries, peaches, and 
quynfes. This tree in leaues, heyght, and trunke, is verye lyke vnto the tree that beareth the frute cauled 
Zizipha., which the Apothecaries caule luiuba. But wheras now the wylde bores beganne to faile them, they 
were ageyne enforced to confulte and prouyde for the tyme to coome. Where vppon with theyr hole army, they 
entered further into the land. The Canibales of this prouince, are mofte experte archers. Ancifus had in his 
coompany, a hundreth men. They mette by the way with only three men of th[e]inhabitantes, naked, and armed 
with bowes and venemous arrowes, who without al feare, affayled owr men fiercely, wounded manye, and flewe 
manye : And when they had emptied theyr quyuers, fledde as fwyftely as the wynde : For (as we haue fayde) 
they are excedynge fwyfte of foote by reafon of theyr loofe goinge frome theyr chyldes age They affirme that 
they lette flyppe no arrowe owte of theyr bowes in vayne. Owre men therfore returned the fame waye that they 
came, much more infortunate then they were before and confulted amonge them felues to leaue that lande : 
efpecyally becaufe th[e]inhabitantes had ouerthrowne the fortreffe which Fogeda buylded, and had bumte 
thirtie houfes of the vyllage, as soone as Pizarrus and his company lefte of Fogeda, had forfaken the 
lande. By this occafion therefore, beinge dryuen to feeke further, they had intelligence that the wefte 
fyde of that goulfe of Vraba, was more frutefuU and better to inhabite. Wherfore, they fent the one halfe of 
theyr men thither with the brigantine, and lefte the other nere to the fea fyde on the eafte part. This goulfe, 
is. xxiiii. myles in bredth : And howe muche the further it entereth into the firme lande, it is foo muche the 
narower. Into the goulfe of Vraba, there faule many ryuers : but one (as they fay) more fortunate then the 
ryuer of Nilus in Egypte. This ryuer is cauled Darieti, vppon the bankes whereof, beinge verye frutefull of 
trees and graffe, they entended to playnte their newe colonic or habitacion. But th[e]inhabitantes maruelynge 
at the brygantine beinge bygger then theyr canoas, and fpecially at the fayles therof, fyrft fente away theyr 
chyldren and weakefte forte of theyr people with theyr baggage and houlholde ftuflfe, and affembled all fuche 
togyther bothe men and women, as were meete for the warres : Thus beinge armed with weapons and defperate 
myndes, they ftoode in a redynes to feight, and taryed the comminge of owre men vppon a lyttle hyl, as it were 
to take th[e]aduantage of the grounde. Owre men iudged them to bee aboute fyue hundreth in nomber. Then 
Ancifus the capitayne of owre men, and Lieuetenaunt in the fteede of Fogeda, fettinge his men in order of 
battayle array, and with his hole coompany kneelinge on his knees, they al made humble prayers to god for 
the victorie, and a vowe to the Image of the bleffed virgin whiche is honoured in Ciuile, by the name of Sanlia 
Maria Antiqua, promyfinge to fende her manye golden gyftes and a ftraunger of that contrey : alfo to name 
the vyllage Sanda Maria Atitiqua after her name : lykewyfe to erecte a temple cauled by the fame name : or 
at the leafte to dedicate the king of that prouince his palaice to that vfe, if it fhulde pleafe her to affifte them 
in this daungerous enterpryfe. This doone, al the fouldiers tooke an othe, that noo man fliulde tume his backe 
to his enemies. Then the capytayne commaundinge them to bee in a redines with theyr targets and iauelens, 
and the trumpyter to blowe the battayle, they fiercely affayled theyr enemyes with a larome. But the naked 
barbarians, not longe able to abyde the force of owre men, were putte to flyght, with theyr kynge and capitayne 
Cemaccus. Owre men entered into the vyllage, where they fownde plentie of meate fuche as the people of the 
contrey vfe, fufficiente to affuage theyr prefent hunger, as breade made of rootes, with certeine fruites vnlyke 
vnto owres, whiche they referue for ftore as wee doo cheftnuttes. Of thefe people, the men are vtterly naked : 
but the women from the nauell downewarde, are couered with a fyne clothe made of goffampine cotton. This 
Region is vtterly withowte any fharpenes of wynter. For the mouthe of this ryuer of Darien, is onlye eyght 
degrees diftante from the Equinoctiall lyne : So that the commone forte of owre men, fcarfely perceaue anye 
difference in lengthe betwene the day and nyght all the hole yeare. But bycaufe they are ignorant in aftrono- 
mie, they can perceaue noo fmaule difference. Therfore wee neede not much paffe if the degree do differ fum 
what fi-om theyr opinion, for afmuche as the difference can not bee greate. The day after that they arryued at 
the lande, they fayled alonge by the ryuer, where they founde a greate thicket of reedes continuinge for the 
fpace of a myle in length fuppofing (as it chaunced in deede) that the bortherers there aboute which had fledde, 
had eyther lyne lurkynge there, or els to haue hyd theyr (luffe amonge thofe reedes : ^Vhcre vppon, armynge 
them felues with theyr targettes, for feare of the people lyinge in ambuffhe. they fearched the thicket dilygently, 

The feconde Decade. 


and founde it withowte men, but replenyfhed with houfeholde fluffe and golde. They fownde alfo a great 
multitude of (heetes, made of the fylke or cotton of the goffampine tree. Lykewyfe dyuers kyndes of veflels 
and tooles made of woodde, and many of earth : Alfo many brefle plates of gold and ouches wrought after theyr 
maner, to the fum of a hundreth and twoo pounde weight. For they alfo take pleafure in the bewtie of gold, 
and worke it very artificially, although it bee not the price of thynges amonge them as with vs. They haue it 
owte of other Regions for exchaunge of fuch thynges as theyr contrey bringeth furthe. For fuche Regions as 
haue plentie of breade and goffampine, lacke golde : And fuche as brynge furth golde, are for the mofl parte 
rowght with montaynes and rockes, and therfore baren. And thus they exercife marchandies withowte the vfe 
of money. Reioyfmg therfore with double gladdenes, afwell in that they fawe greate lykenes of golde, as alfo 
that fortune hadde offered them foo fayre and frutefull a contrey, they fent for theyr felowes whom they hadde 
lefte before in the eafle fyde of the goulfe of Vraba. Yet fume faye that the ayer is there vnholfome, bycaufe 
that parte of the Region lyethe in a lowe valley enuironed with mountaynes and maryffhes. 

€1 The seconde booke of the seconde decade, 
Of the fuppofed continente. 

Haue defcribed to yowre holynes where Fogeda with his coompany (to whome the large 
tractes of Vraba was affigned to inhabite) intended to fallen there foote. Lette vs nowe 
therfore leaue them of Vraba for a whyle, and retume ageyne to Niaiefa to whom the gouer- 
naunce and Lieuetenauntefhippe of the mofle large prouince of Beragua (beinge the wefle 
fyde of the goulfe of Vraba) was appoynted. We haue declared howe Nicuefa departinge 
with one carauell and twoo brigantines frome Vraba the iurifdiction of his frende and com- 
panyon Fogeda, directed his courfe weflwarde to Beragua, leauinge the bygger fhippes 
fumewhat behynde hym, to folowe hym a farre of. But he tooke this diuife in an euyll howre. For he bothe 
lofle his felowes in the nyght, and went part, the mouth of the ryuer of Beragua, which he chiefely fowght. One 
Lupus Olanus a Cantabrian, and gouemoure of one of the greate fhippes, had the conducte of one of the 
brigantines. He commynge behynde, lerned of th[e]inhabitantes which was the waye Eaflewarde to the goulfe 
of Beragua ouer paffed and lefte behynde of Nicuefa. Olanus therfore directinge his courfe towarde the Eafle, 
mette with the other brigantine which had alfo wandered owte of the way by reafon of the darkenes of the 
nyght. The gouernour of this brigantine, was one Petrus de Vmbria. ' Thus bothe beinge gladde of theyr 
meetinge, they confulted what was beft. to bee doone, and which way they coulde coniecture their gouernour 
had taken his vyage. After deliberation, they iudged that Nicuefa could no more lacke fum to put him in 
rememberaunce of Beragua, then they them felues were myndful therof, hopynge alfo to fynde hym there. 
They fayled therefore towarde Beragua : where they founde within, xvi. myles dyflant, a ryuer which Colonus 
named Lagartos, bycaufe it nooryfhethe greate lyfardes whiche in the Spanyffhe toonge are cauled Lagartos. 
Thefe lyfertes are hurtfull bothe to man and beafle, and in fhape muche lyke vnto the Crocodiles of the ryuer 
of Nilus in Egypte. In this ryuer, they founde theyr companyons and felowes of theyr erroure lyinge at anker 
with the greate fhippes which folowed behynde by the gouemours commaundement. Here the hole afrembl[i]e 
beinge carefuU and difquieted by reafon of the gouemours erroure, after confultacion, by th[e]aduife of the 
capitaynes of the brigantines, who had rafed nere vnto the coafles of Beragua, they fayled directly thether. 
Beragua, in the language of th[e]inhabitantes of the fame prouince, is as much to faye, as the golden ryuer. 
The region it felfe is alfo cauled by the fame name, takynge name of the ryuer. In the mouth of this ryuer, the 
greatefl veflels cafl anker, and conueighed al theyr vytailes and other neceifaries to lande with theyr fhippe 
boates: and elected Lupus Olanus to bee theyr gouernour in the fleede oi Nicuefa whom they had lofle. By 
th[e]aduice therfore of Olanus and the other vnder capitaynes, that all hope of departure myght bee taken from 
the fouldiers which they had nowe browght thether, and to make them the more wyllinge to inhabite that land, 
they vtterly forfooke and eafle of thofe fhyppes beinge nowe rotten for age, and fuffered them to bee fhaken 
and broofed of the furges of the fea. Yet of theyr foundefle plankes, with other newe, made of the trees of that 
Region (which they fay to be excedinge bygge and hygh) they framed a newe carauel fhortly after, whiche they 
myght vfe to feme for theyr neceffitie. But Beragua was founde by the vnfortunate deflenie of Petrus de Vmbria. 
For he, beinge a man of prompt wytte and apt forwardenes to attempte thynges (in whiche fumetyme fortune 
wyll beare a flroke notwithflandinge owre prouidence) tooke vpon hym th[e]aduenture to fearche the fhore to 
th[e]intent to find a waye for his felowes where they myght befle coome alande. For this purpofe, he chofe 

Sheetcs of 

Breste plates of 

The golden 
Regions, are for 
the moste parte 

Foged.i, the 
Lieuetenaunt of 

Nicuesa the 
Lieuetenaunt of 

Nicuesa loste his 
felowes in the 

Lupus Olaitus 

Petrus de vmbria 

The capitaynes 
consulte where to 
find theyr lost 

The ryuer 


The golden ryuei 
of Beragua. 

The enterprise 
and death of 
Petrus de Vmbria. 


The feconde Decade. 

The daungerous 
place of Scilla in 
the sea of Cicilie. 


The fyssher boate 
of Nicuesa his 

The miserable 
case of Nicuesa. 


The Region of 
Gratia Dei or 
The ryuer of 
Sancti Matthei. 

The rigorousnes 
of Nicuesa. 

Corne waxeth 
rype euery foiirth 

The commendation 
of a younge man 
browght vp with 

Partus Belltts. 

Weakenes of 

C«/, Af armor. 

hym twelue maryners, and wente aboorde the (hippe boate whiche ferued the greatefle fliyppes. The flowinge 
of the fea, raged and rored there, with a horrible whurlinge as wee reede of the daungerous place of Scylla in the 
fea of Scicilie, by reafon of the houge and ragged rockes reachyng into the fea, from which the waues rebounding 
with violence, make a greate noyfe and rowghnes on the water, whiche rowghnes or reflowinge, the Spanyardes 
caule Refacca. In thefe daungers wretched Vmbria -nTefteled a while. But in (horte fpace, a waue of the fea 
almofle as bygge as a mountayne, reboundinge from the rockes, ouerwhelmed the boate and deuoured the fame 
with the men, euen in the fight of theyr felowes : So that of them all, onely one efcaped by reafon he was 
experte in fwymmynge. For gettinge holde of the comer of a rocke, and fufteynynge the rage of the fea vntyll 
the nexte daye when it wexed caulme, and the (hore was drye by the faule of the water, he efcaped and reforted 
to his coompanye. But Vmbria with the other eleuen, were vtterlye cafle away. The refydue of the coompany, 
durfl not commite them felues to the fhippe boates, but went alande with theyr brigantines. Where remaynynge 
a fewe dayes, and fayUnge alonge by the ryuer, they founde certeyne vyllages of th[e]inhabitantes, which they 
caule Mumu. Here they beganne to build a fortreflfe, and to fowe feedes after the maner of theyr countrey, in 
a certeyne vale of frutefull grownde, bicaufe in other places the region is baren. As thefe thynges were thus 
dooinge in Beragua, one of their coompanye flandynge vppon the toppe of a hyghe rocke of efpeciall, and 
lyftynge his eyes towarde the Wefle, beganne to crye, Lynnyn fayles, lynnyn fayles. And the nerer it drewe 
towarde hym, he perceaued it to bee a fhyppe boate comminge with a lyttle fayle. Yet receaued they it with 
muche reioyfmge : for it was the fyffher boate of Nicuefa his carauele, and of capacitie to carye onely fyue men, 
and had nowe but three in it, which had floulne it from Nicuefa bycaufe he refufed to gyue credit to theim that 
he had paffed Beragua, and lefte it behynde hym Eaflwarde. For they feinge Nicuefa and his felowes to 
confume dayely by famynne, thowght they woolde proue fortune with that boate, if their chaunce myght bee to 
fynde Beragua, as in deede it was. Debatinge therefore with theyr felowes, of thefe matters, they declared 
howe Nicuefa erred and lofle the carauele by tempefl, and that he was nowe wanderinge amonge the maryffhes 
of vnknowen coafles, full of myferie and in extreeme penurie of all thynges, hauinge nowe lyued for the fpace 
of three fcore and tenne dayes, only \vith herbes and rootes, and fyldoome with frutes of the countrey, contented 
to drinke water, and yet that often tymes faylynge, bycaufe he was inflant to trauayle weftwarde by foote, fuppofmg 
by that meanes to come to Beragua. Colonus the fyrfle fynder of this mayne lande, had coafted alonge by this tracte, 
and named it Gratia Dei: but the inhabitantes caule it Cerabaro. Throwghe this Region, there runneth a ryuer 
which owre men named SanHi Matthei, diflante from the wefle fyde of Beragua aboute a hundrethe and thirtie 
myles. Here I lette pafie the name of this ryuer, and of manye other places by the names which th[e]inhabitantes 
vfe, bycaufe owre men are ignorant thereof. Thus Lupus Olanus the conductor of one of the (hippes of Nicuefa, 
and nowe alfo vice Leauetenaunt in his fleede, after that he hadde receaued this information of the maryners, 
fente thether a brigantine vnder theyr guydynge, thefe maryners therfore, which came in the fyffher boate, 
founde Nicuefa, and browght hym to the place where Olanus laye, whome at his commynge he cafle in pryfon, 
and accufed hym of treafon bycaufe he vfurped th[e]autoritie of the Lieuetenauntfliippe, and that for the defyre 
he had to beare rule and bee in autoritie, he tooke no care of his errours : alfo that he behaued hym felfe 
negligently : demaundinge further more of hym, what was the caufe of his foo longe delay. Lykewyfe he fpake 
to al the vnder officers fharplye and mth a troubled mynde : And within fewe dayes after commaunded them 
to truffe vp theyr packes, and make them redye to departe. They defyred hym to quyet hym felfe, and to 
forbeare them a while vntyl they had reaped the come that they had fowne, which wolde fliortly bee rype. For 
all kynd of come waxeth rype there euery fourth moonethe after it is fowne. But he vtterly denyed to tarye 
any whytte : but that he woolde foorthwith departe from that vnfortunate lande : And plucked vp by the rootes 
al that euer was browght into the goulfe of Beragua, and commaunded them to directe theyr courfe towarde 
the Eafle. After they had fayled aboute the fpace of. xvi. myles, a certeyne younge man whofe name was 
Gregorie, a Genues bome, and of a chylde browght vp with Colonus, cauled to rememberance that there was a 
hauen not farre frome thenfe : And to proue his fayinge trewe, he gaue his felowes thefe tokens : that is, that 
they (hulde fynde vppon the (hore, an anker of a lofle (hyppe halfe couered with fande : And vnder a tree nexte 
vnto the hauen, a fprynge of cleere water. They came to the lande : founde the anker and the fprynge, and 
commended the wytte and memorye of the younge man, that he only amonge many of the maryne[r]s whiche 
had fearched thofe coafles with Colonus, bore the thynge foo well in mynde. This hauen, Colonus cauled 
Portus Bellus. Wheras in this vyage for lacke of vytayles they were fumetymes enforced to goo alande, they 
were euel entreated of the inhabitantes. By reafon wherof, theyr flrengthes were foo wekened with hunger, 
that they were not able to keepe warre ageynfl naked men, or fcarfely to beare theyr hames on their backes. 
And therfore owre men lofle twentie of theyr coompanie, which were flayne with venemous arrowes. They 
confulted to leaue the one halfe of theyr felowes iii the hauen of Portus Bellus : And the other parte Nicuefa 
tooke with hym towarde the Eafle : where abowte twentie and eyght myles from Portus Bellus, he intended to 
buylde a fortreffe harde by the fea fyde vppon the poynte or cape which in tyme pafle Colonus named Marmor. 

The feconde Decade. 


But they were foo feeble by reafon of longe hunger, that theyr ftrength ferued them not to fufleyne fuche 
laboure. Yet he erected a lyttle towre able to refyfl the fyrfl aflaute of the inhabitantes. This towre he 
cauled Noinen Dei. From the tyme that he left Beragua, what in the iomey amonge the fandie playnes, then 
alfo for hunger whyle he buylded the towre, of the fewe which remayned a lyue, he lode twoo hundreth. And 
thus by lyttle and lyttle, the multitude of feuen hundreth foure fcore and fyue men, was nowe browght to 
fcarfely one hundreth. AVhyle Niaiefa lyued with thefe few miferable men, there arofe a contention amonge 
them of Vraba, as conceminge the Lieuetenantlhippe. For one Vafchus Nunnez, by the iudgemente of all 
men, truflynge more to his flrengthe then wytte, floured vp certeyne lyght felowes ageynft Ancifus, fayinge that 
And/us had not the kynges letters patentes for that office : And that it was not fufficient that he was autorifed 
by Fogeda, And therfore forbodde that he fhulde execute the office of the Lieuetenauntefhippe : And wylled 
theym to chufe certeyne of theyr owne coompanye, by whofe counfayle and authoritie they myght bee 

Thus beinge diuided into factions by reafon that Fogeda, their capitayne came not ageyne, whom they 
fuppofed to bee nowe deade of his venemous wounde, they contended whether it were befte to fubflitute Niaiefa 
in his place. The wyfefte forte fuche as were famylier with Nimefa, and coulde not beare th[e]infolencie of 
Vafchus Nunmz, thowght it good that Niaiefa (huld bee fowght owt throwgh owt all thofe coafles. For they 
had knoweledge that he departed from Beragua bycaufe of the barennes of the grounde: And that by 
th[e]exemple of Ancifus, and fuche other as had made fhippewracke, it were poffible that he might wander in 
fume fecreate place : And that they coulde not be quiete in theire myndes vntyll they knewe the certentie, 
whether he with his felowes were alyue or deade. But Vafchus Nunnez, fearinge leafle at the commyng of 
Nicuefa he (hulde not bee had in autoritie emonge his felowes, fayde they were mad men to thinke that Nicuefa 
lyued : And althowgh he were alyue, yet that they hadde noo neade of his helpe. For he auouched that there 
was none of his felowes, that were not as meete to rule as Nicuefa. While they were thus reafonynge too and 
froo, one Roderiais Colmenaris arryued in thofe coafles with two greate fhippes hauinge in theym three fcore 
frefflie men, with greate plentie of vitailes and apparel. Of the navigation of this Colmenaris, I intende to fpeake 
fumewhat more. He therfore departed from the hauen of Hifpaniola cauled Beata (where they prepare and 
fumyflhe theym felues whiche make any viage into thefe landes) aboute the Ides of October in the yeare. 
1 5 10: And landed the. ix. of Nouember in a Region in the large prouince oi Paria founde by Colonus betwene 
the hauen Carthago and the Region of Cuchibachoa. In this viage what by the rowghnes of the fea and fiercenes 
of the barbarians, he fuffered many incommodities. For when his freffhe water fayled, he fayled to the mouthe 
of a certeyne riuer which th[e]inhabitantes caule Gaira, beinge apte to receaue fliippes. This ryuer had his 
courfe from the toppe of an exceadinge hyghe mountayne couered with fnowe, hygher then the which, all the 
coompanyons of this capitayne Rodericus, faye that they neuer fawe. And that by good reafon, yf it were 
couered wyth fnowe in that Region which is not pafl ten degrees diflante from the Equinoctial lyne. As they 
beganne to drawe water owt of their (hippeboate, a certeyne Kynge made towarde theym appareled with vellures 
of goflampine cotton, hauinge twentie noble men in his coompanye appareled alfo : Whyche thinge feemed 
(Iraunge to owre men, and not feene before in thofe parties. The Kinges apparell, hunge loofe from his 
fhoulders to his elbowes : And from the gerdle downewarde, it was muche like a womans kertle, reachinge euen 
to his heeles. As he drewe neere towarde owre men, he feemed frendly to admonyflhe theym to take none of 
the water of that ryuer, affirminge it to bee vnholfome for men ; And Ihewed theym that not farre from thenfe, 
there was a ryuer of good water. They came to the ryuer. And endeuouringe to coome nere the fliore, they 
were dryuen backe by tempelle. Alfo the burbulinge of the fande, declared the fea to bee but Ihalowe there. 
They were therefore enforced to retume to the fyrfte ryuer where they myght fafely cade anker. This Kinge 
layde wayte for owre men. For as they were fyllinge theire barrelles, he fet on theym with abowt feuen 
hundreth men (as owre men iudged) armed after theire maner, althowgh they were naked. For only the 
kynge and his noble men were appareled. They tooke away the fhippeboate, and brooke it in maner to chips : 
foo fiercely aflaylynge owre menne with theyr venemous arrowes, that they flewe of them fortie and feuen beefore 
they coulde couer them felues with theyr targettes. For that poyfon is of fuch force, that albeit the woundes 
were not great, yet they dyed therof immediatly. For they yet knewe noo remedie ageynfte this kynde of poyfon, 
as they after lemed of th[e]inhabitantes of Hifpaniola. For this Ilande bringeth foorth an herbe which 
quencheth and mortifieth the violent poyfon of the herbe wherewith theyr arrowes are infected, foo that it bee 
miniftred in tyme. Yet of owre coompany whiche went for water, feuen efcaped that conflicte, and hyd them 
felues in a hollowe tree, lurkynge there vntyll nyght Yet efcaped they not the handes of theyr enemyes. For 
the fhippe departed from thenfe in the nyght feafon and lefte them there, fuppofmge that they had byn flayne. 
Thus by manye fuche perels and daungers (which I lyghtly ouerpaffe bicaufe I wyl not bee tedious to yowre 
holynes) he arryued at the length at the hauen of Vraba, and cafl anker at the eafte fyde therof, from whenfe not 
longe before, o^vTe men departed to the weft fyde by reafon of the barennes of that foyle. When he had 

Eden. M 113 

Nomen Dei. 
Nicuesa his men 

about the 
of Vraba. 
Vaschus Nunnez 
nioueth sedition. 
lieuetenaunt for 



The nauigation 
of Rodericus 


The ryuer Gaira. 

An cxceding hyi;h 
couered with 

Appareled men. 

Seuen and forty 

Spanyardes are 

slaine with 

venemous airowea. 


A remedy agenste 

venemous arrows 

Seuen men left 

The hauen of 


The feconde Decade. 

contynued a whyle in the hauen, and fawe noo man (lourynge, marueylinge at the filence of the places 
(for he fuppofed there to haue fownde his felowes) he coulde not coniecture what this fhulde meane: 
and there vppon beganne to fufpecte that eyther they were deade, or that they had chaunged the place 
61 of theyr habitacion. To knowe the certentie hereof, he commaunded all the greate ordinaunce and other fmaule 
gunnes which he had in his (liippes, to bee charged : And fyers to bee made in the nyght vppon the toppes of 
the rockes. Thus the fyers beinge kyndeled, he commaunded all the gunnes to bee fliotte of at one inflante: 
by the horrible noyfe whereof, the goulfe of Vraba was ftiaken, althowghe it were, xxiiii. myles dillante : for foo 
brode is the goulfe. This noyfe was harde of theyr felowes in Dariena : And they aunfwered them ageyne 
with mutual fyers. Wherfore, by the folowynge of thefe fyers, Colmenaris browght his fhippes to the Weft fyde. 
Here thofe wretched and miferable men of Dariena which nowe thorowgh famen and feeblenes helde theyr wery 
fowles in theyr teethe redy to departe from theyr bodies by reafon of the calamities which beefell vnto them 
after Ancifus fhippewracke, lyftinge vp theyr handes to heauen, with the teares runnynge downe theyr cheekes 
bothe for ioye and forowe, embrafed Rodericus and his felowes with fuch kynde of reioyfmge as their prefente 
neceffitie feemed to requyre. For whereas they were before his comminge, withowte vytayles and almofte naked, 
he brought them abundance of meate, drynke, and apparell. It reftethe nowe (mofte holy father) to declare 
what came of the dilTention amonge them of Vraba, as concernynge the gouemaunce after the lofTe of theyr 

The goulfe of 




What became of 
the contencion of 

C The thyrde booke of the seconde Decade 
Of the fuppofed continent. 


Nicuesa is sought 

Nicuesa is founde 
in a miserable 

Insolencie of to 
much felicuie. 


Nicuesa fauleth 
from one mtserie 
into an other. 

LI the chiefe officers in Beragua, and fuch as were moft politike in counfayle, determyned that 
Nicuefa fhulde bee fowght owte if by any meanes he coulde bee founde. Where vppon they 
tooke from Ancifus the gouernoure refufmge the commynge of Nicuefa, a brygantyne whiche 
he made of his owne charges : And agreed, ageynft bothe the ivyll of Ancifus, and the mafter 
of fence Vafchus Nunnez, that Nicuefa (hulde bee fowght foorthe to take away the ftryfe as 
touchinge the gouemement They elected therfore Cobnenaris (of whom we fpake before) 
to take this matter in hande: wyllynge hym to make diligent fearch for Nicuefa in thofe 
coaftes where they fuppofed he erred. For they harde that he had forfaken Beragua, the region of an vnfrute- 
full grounde. They gaue hym therfore commaundement to brynge Nicuefa with hym, and further to declare 
vnto hym that he fhulde doo ryght good feruice to coome thether, in takyng away th[e]occafion of ihtyt 
feditions. Cobnenaris tooke the thynge vppon hym the more gladly bycaufe Nicuefa was his very frende : 
Suppofmge that his commynge with vytayles (hulde bee noo lefle thankefuU to Nicuefa and his coompanie, 
then it was to them of Vraba. Fumyffliynge therefore one of his owne (hippes whiche he browght with hym 
and alfo the brigantyne taken frome Ancifus, he frayghted the fame with part of the vytayles and other 
neceflaries which he browght with hym before from Hifpaniola to Vraba. Thus courfynge alonge by all the 
coaftes and goulfes nere there abowte, at the length at the poynte called Marmor, he founde Nimefa, of all 
lyuynge men moft infortunate, in maner dryed vppe with extreeme hunger, fylthye and horrible to beholde, 
with onely three fcore men in his company, lefte alyue of feuen hundreth. They al feemed to hym foo 
miferable, that he noo leffe lamented theyr cafe, then yf he had founde them deade. But Cobnaiaris conforted 
his frende Nicuefa : and embrafmge hym with teares and cherefull woordes, relyued his fpirites, and further 
encoraged hym with greate hope of better fortune : declarynge alfo that his commynge was looked for and 
greatelye defyred of al the good men of Vraba, for that they hoped that by his autoritie, theyr difcorde and 
contention fhulde bee fynyfthed. Nicuefa thanked his frende Cobnenaris after fuch forte as his calamitie 
requyred. Thus they tooke fhyppe to gyther, and fayled directly to Vraba. But fo variable and vnconflant 
is the nature of man, that he foone groweth owte of vfe, becommeth infolente and vnmyndful of benefites after 
to much felicitie. For Nicuefa, after thus many teares and weepynges, after dyuers bewayUnges of his infortu- 
nate defteny, after fo many thankes geuynge, ye after that he had faulen downe to the grounde and kyffed the 
feete of Cobnenaris his fauioure, he beganne to quarel >vith hym before he came yet at Vraba, reprouinge hym 
and them all for th[e]alteracion of the ftate of thynges in Vraba, and for the gatheringe of golde : Affirming 
that none of them owght to haue layde hande of any golde with owte the aduice of hym or of Fogeda his coom- 
panion. When thefe fayinges and fuche lyke, came to the eares of theym of Vraba, they foo ftoured vp the 
myndes of Ancifus Lieuetenaunte for Fogeda, and alfo of Vafchus Nunnez, of the contrary parte, ageinfte Nimefa, 

The feconde Decade. 


that fhortely after his arryuall with his three fcore men, they commaunded hym with threatenynge to departe 
from thenfe. But this pleafed not the better fort. Yet fearynge lead tumult fliulde bee amonge the people 
whom Vafchus Nunnez had ftered to factions, the beft. parte was fayne to giue place to the greateft.. This 
>vretched man therfore Nicuefa thus drowned in miferies, was thrufle into the brigantyne whiche he hym felfe 
browght: and with hym only feuentene men, of his three fcore which remayned alyue. He tooke (hyppe in 
the Calendes of Marche in the yeare. 1511. intendynge to goo to Hifpaniola to coomplayne of the rafflienes of 
Vafchus Nunnez, and of the violence doone to hym by Ancifus. But he entered into the brigantine in an 
vnfortunate houre : for he was neuer feene after. They" fuppofe that the brigantine was drowned with all the 
men therin. And thus vnhappie Nicuefa faulynge headlonge owte of one miferye into an other, ended his lyfe 
more myferablye then he lyued. Nicuefa beinge thus vylely reiected, and al theyr vytayles confumed which 
Colmenaris browght them, faulynge in maner madde for hunger, they were enforced lyke raueninge woolues 
feakynge theyr praye, to inuade fuche as dwelte abowte theyr confynes. Vafchus Nunnez therefore, theyr newe 
capitayne of theyr owne election, affembling togyther a hundreth and thirtie men, and fettinge them in order of 
battell after his fwoordeplayers faffliion, puffed vppe with pryde, placed his fouldiers as pleafed hym in the 
forwarde and rereward, and fume as pertifens abowt his owne perfon. Thus affociatinge with hym Colmenaris, 
he wente to fpoyle the kynges which were bortherers there abowte, and came fyrfl to a Region abowte that 
coafte, cauled Coiba, (wher of we made mencion before) imperioufly and with cruel countenaunce commaund- 
inge the kynge of the region whofe name was Careta, {pi whome they were neuer troubled as often as they 
paffed by his dominions) to gyue them vytayles. But Careta denyed that he coulde gyue them any at that 
tyme : alleagyng that he had oftentymes ayded the Chriflians as they paffed by thofe coafles : by reafon wherof 
his flore was nowe confumed : Alfo that by the meanes of the contynuall warre which he kepte euer from his 
chyldes age with a kyng whofe name is Poncha, bortheringe vppon his dominion, he and his famelie were in 
greate fcarfenes of all thynges. But Vafchus woolde admytte none of thefe excufes: And thervppon tooke 
Careta prifoner, fpoyled his vyilage, and browght hym bownd with his twoo W3aies and chyldren and all his 
famelie to Dariena. With this kynge Careta, they founde three of the felowes of Nicuefa, the whiche when 
Nicuefa paffed by thofe coafles to feeke Beragua, fearynge punyffliement for theyr euyll defertes floule away 
from the Ihyppes lyinge at anker: And when the nauie departed, commytted them felues to the mercie of 
Careta, who enterteyned them very frendely. They had nowe bynne there, xviii. moonethes, and were there- 
fore as vtterly naked as the people of the contrey. Duringe this tyme, the meate of th[e]inhabitantes feemed 
vnto them delicate diffhes and princely fare : efpecially bycaufe they enioyed the fame withowte any flryfe for 
myne and thyne, which twoo thynges moue and enforce men to fuch harde fhyftes and miferies, that in lyuing 
they feeme not to lyue. Yet defyred they to returne to theyr owlde cares, of fuche force is education and 
natural effection towarde them with whom we haue byn browght vp. The vytayles whiche Vafchus browght 
frome the vyilage of Careta to his felowes lefte in Dariena, was rather fumewhat to affuage theyr prefent hunger, 
then vtterly to take away theyr neceffitie. But as touchinge Ancifus beinge Lieuetenaunt for Fogeda, whether 
it were before thefe thynges or after, I knowe not. But this I am fure of, that after the reiectinge of Nicuefa, 
many occafions were fought agenfl Ancifus by Vafcus and his factionaries. Howe foo euer it was, Ancifus was 
taken, and call in pryfon, and his goodes confifcate. The caufe hereof was, (as Vafchus alleaged) that Ancifus 
hadde his commiffion of the Lieuetenauntfhippe, of Fogeda onely whome they fayde to bee nowe deade, 
and not of the kynge. Sayinge that he woolde not obey any man that was not put in office by the 
kyng hym felfe by his- letters patentes. Yet at the requefl. of the grauefle forte, he was fumwhat pacified, 
and delt more gentelly with hym, hauinge fum compaffion of his calamities. And thervppon commaunded 
hym to bee loofed. Ancifus beinge at libertie, tooke fhyppe to departe from thenfe to Hifpaniola. But beefore 
he had hoyfed vppe his fayle, all the wyfefl forte reforted to hym, humbly defyringe hym to returne ageyne : 
promyfynge that they wolde doo theyr diligence, that Vafchus beinge reconciled, he myght bee reflored to his 
full autoritie of the Lieuetenauntfhippe. But Ancifus refufed to confent to theyr requefl and foo departed. 
Yet fume there were that murmured that god and his angels fliewed this reuenge vpon Ancifus, bycaufe Nicuefa 
was reiected throwgh his counfayle. Howe foo euer it bee, the fearchers of the newe landes, faule headlonge 
into ruine by theyr owne follye, confuminge them felues with ciuile difcorde, not weighinge foo greate a matter, 
nor employinge theyr befle endeuoure aboute the fame as the woorthynes of the thynge requyreth. In this 
meane tyme, they determyned all with one agreemente, to fende meffengers into Hifpaniola to the younge 
Admirall and viceroy, fonne and heyre to Chriflophorus Colo7ius the fynder of thefe landes, and to the other 
gouemoures of the Ilande (from whom the newe landes receaue theyr ayde and lawes) to fignifie vnto them 
what flate they floode in, and in what neceffitie they lyued : alfo what they had founde, and in what hope they 
were of greater thinges if they were fumyfhed with plentie of vytayles and other neceffaries. For this purpofe 
they elected at the affignement of Vafcus, one Valdiuia, beinge one of his faction, and inflructed by hym ageinfl 
Ancifus. And to bee affiflant with hym, they appoynted one Zamudius a Cantabrian : So that commaunde- 

The greatest part 
ouercommeth the 

The death of 

Famen enforseth 
them to faule to 

Vaschus vsurpeth 
th[e]autoritieof the 

Careta, kinge of 

Kynge Careta is 
taken and spoyled. 

Hunger is the best 


Myne and thine 

the seedes of al 


lieuetenaunt for 
Fogeda is cast in 

Ancisus taket 
his vyage to 


The reueng[t T 

inconueniences uf 

The Sonne m I 
heyre of Lj!'Hii 
is Admiral) aiiu 
Viceroy of 



The feconde Decade. 

Zamudius and 
Ancisus, take their 
vyage to Spayne. 

Kinge Poncha. 

Swoordes of 

Kynge Careta 

conspireth with 
the Spanyardes 
agensi kynge 

Wrought gold 

The region of 
ComoCTa, distant 
frome Dariena. 
XXX leaques. 

Kynge Comogrus. 

The kynges 


Wync and syder 

Blacke wine. 

The bodyes of 
deade kynges 


The carcases of 
men dryed 

The kynges Sonne 
a yonge man of 
excellent wytte. 

Foure thousande 
vnces of wrought 

ment was gyuen to Valdiuia to returne from Hifpaniola with vytayles: And Zatnudiiis was appoynted to take 
his vyage into Spayne to the kynge. They tooke fliippe togjther with Ancifus, hauinge in mynde to certifie the 
kynge howe thynges were handeled there, muche otherwyfe then Zamudius information. I my felfe fpake with 
both Ancifus and Zamudius at their commynge to the courte. Whyle they were occupied aboute thefe matters, 
thofe wTetched men of Dariena loofed Careta the kynge of Coiba vppon condicion that he fliulde ayde theym in 
theyr warres ageynfl. his enemy and theyrs, kynge Poncha bortheringe vpon his dominions. Careta made a league 
with them, promyfinge that as they paffed by his kyngedome, he woolde gyue them all thynges neceflarie, and 
meete them with an armie of men, to goo forwarde with them to the battaile agenft Poncha. Theyr weapons 
are nother bowes nor venemed arrowes, as we fayde th[e]inhabitantes to haue which dwel eaflwarde beyonde 
the goulfe. They feight therefore at hande, with longe fwordes (which they caule Macanas) made of wood 
bycaufe they haue noo Iren. They vfe alfo longe flaues lyke iauelens hardened at the endes with fyer, or typte with 
bone. Alfo certeyne flynges and dartes. Thus after the league made with Careta, bothe he and owtc men had 
certeyne dayes appoynted them to tyll theyr grounde and fowe theyr feedes. This doone, by the ayde of 
Careta and by his conduction, they marched towarde the palaice of Poncha, who fledde at theyr commynge. 
They fpoyled his vyllage and mytigated theyr hunger with fuch vytayles as they founde there. Yet coulde they 
not helpe their felowes therwith by reafon of the farre diflance of the place, althowghe they had greate plentie. 
For the vyllage of Poncha, was more then a hundreth myles diftant from Dariena : wheras was alfo none other 
remedy but that the fame fliulde haue byn caryed on mens backes to the fea fyde beinge farre of, where they 
left theyr fliyppes in the which they came to the vyllage of Careta. Here they founde certeyne powndes 
weyght of gold, grauen and wrought into fundrye ouches. After the facking of this vyllage they reforted 
toward the Ihips intendyng to leaue the kinges of the inland vntouched at this tyme, and to inuade onely them 
which dwelt by the fea coaftes. Not farre from Coiba, in the fame tracte, there is a Region named Comogra, 
and the Kinge thereof, cauled Comogrus after the fame name. To this Kinge they came fyrfl next after the 
fubvertion oi Poncha: And founde his palaice fituate in a frutefull playne of twelue leaques in bredthe, at the 
rootes of the further fyde of the nexte mountaynes. Comogrus had in his courte a certeyne noble man of nere 
confauguinitie to Kynge Careta, whiche had fledde to Comogrus by reafon of certeyne diflention whiche was 
betwene Careta and hym. Thefe noble men, they caule lura. This lura therfore of Coiba, mette owre men 
by the way, and conciled Comogrus to them, bycaufe he was well knowen to owr men from the time that 
Nicuefa pafled fyrfl by thofe coaftes. Owre men therefore went quietlye to the palaice of Comogrus beinge 
diflante from Dariena thirtie leaques by a plaine waye abowte the mountaynes, This Kynge Como^us, had 
feuen fonnes, younge men of comelye forme and flature, whiche he had by fundry wyues. His palaice was 
framed of pofles or proppes made of trees faflened togeyther after a flraunge forte, and of foo llronge bylding, 
that it is of no leffe flrength then waules of (lone. They which meafured the length of the floure thereof, 
founde it to bee a hundreth and fyftie pafes, and in breadthe, foure fcore foote : beinge roofed and paued with 
maruelous arte. They founde his flore houfe, fumyfflied with abundance of delicate vitailes after the maner of 
theyr countrey : And his wyne celler repleniflied with great veffelles of earth and alfo of woodde fylled \vith 
theyr kynde of wyne and fyder. For they haue noo grapes. But lyke as they make theyr breade of thofe 
three kyndes of rootes cauled lucca, agis, and Maizium, (whereof we fpake in the fyrfte decade) Soo make they 
theyr wyne of the frutes of date trees, and fyder of other frutes and feedes, as doo the Almaynes, Flemynges, 
Englyfftie men, and owTe Spanyardes whych inhabite the mountaynes, as the Vafcons and Afturians : likewife 
in the mountaynes of tlie Alpes, the Noricians, Sueuians, and Heluetians, make certeyne drynkes of barley, wheat, 
hoppes, and apples. They lay alfo that with Comogrus, they droonk wynes of fundry tafles, both whyte and 
blacke. But nowe yow fliall heare of a thynge more monfljous too behoulde. Enterynge therfor into the 
inner partes of the palaice, they were browght into a chamber hanged aboute with the carkefes of men, tyed 
Avith ropes of goflampine cotton. Beinge demaunded what they ment by that fuperilition, they anfwered that 
thofe were the carkefes of the father, graundefather, and great graundfather with the other aunceftours of theyr 
Kyng Comogrus. Declaringe that they had the fame in greate reuerence, and that they tooke it for a godly 
thynge to honoure them religioufly : And therfore appareled euery of the fame fumptuouflye with golde and 
precious ftones accordynge vnto theyr eflate. After this forte dyd the antiquitie honoure theyr Penates, whyche 
they thowght had the gouemaunce of their lyues. Howe they drye thefe carkefes vppon certeine inflrumentes 
made of wood, hke vnto hurdels, with a fofte fyer vnder the fame, fo that onely the fkynne remayneth to houlde 
the bones together, we haue defcribed in the former decade. Of Comogrus his feuen fonnes, the elded had an 
excellente naturall wytte. He therfore thowght it good to flatter and pleafe thys wandrynge kynde of men 
(owr men I meane) lyuynge onely by fliiftes and fpoyle, leaft beinge offended and feekynge occafions ageynile 
h)Tn and his familie, they fliuld handle hym as they dyd other whiche fowght noo meanes howe to gratifie theym. 
Wherefore, he gaue Vqfchus and Colmenaris foure thoufande ounces of golde artificially wrought, and alfo fyftie 
flaues whyche he had taken in the warres. For fuche, eyther they fell for exchaunce of other thinges, or 


The feconde Decade. 


otherwife vfe them as theym lyfteth : For they haue not the vfe of money. This golde with as muche more 
which they had in an other place, o\vre men wayed in the porche of Comogrus his palaice to feparate the fyfte 
parte thereof, whiche portion is due to the Kynges efcheker. For it is decreed that the fyft parte of both goldei 
perles, and precious (lones, fhulde be affigned to the Kinges treafourers: And the refydue, to bee diuided 
emoonge theym felues by compofition. Here as brabblynge and contention arofe emonge owr men abowt the 
diuidinge of gold, this eldefle foonne of Kynge Comogrus beinge prefente, whome we prayfed for his ^vyfedome, 
commynge fume what wyth an angery countenaunce towarde hym whiche helde the balences, he flrooke theym 
wyth his fyfte, and fcatered all the golde that was therein, abowte the porche, fharpely rebukynge theym with 
woordes in this effecte. What is the matter yowe Chriftian men, that yow foo greatly efteme foo litle a portion 
of golde more then yowr owne quietnes, whiche neuertheleffe yow entend to deface from thefe fayre ouches 
and to melte the fame into a rude maffe. If yowre hunger of goulde bee foo infatiable that onely for the defyre 
yowe haue therto, yowe difquiete foo many nations, and yow yowre felues alfo fufteyne foo many calamit[i]es and 
incommodities, lyuing like banifhed men owte of yowre owne countrey, I wyll fhewe yowe a Region floweinge 
with goulde, where yowe may fatiffie yowr raueninge appetites. But yowe mufte attempte the thynge 
with a greater poure: For it ftandeth yow in hande by force of amies to ouercome kynges of greate 
puiflaunce, and rigorous defenders of theyr dominions. For befyde other, the greate kinge Tnmanatna 
will coome foorthe ageynfte yowe, whofe kengdome is mofte ryche with golde, and diftante from henfe 
onely fyx foonnes: that is, fyx dayes: for they number the dayes by the fonne. Furthermore, or euer 
yowe canne coome thether, yow muft pafle ouer the mountaynes inhabited of the cruell Canybales 
a fierce kynde of men, deuourers of mans fiefflie, lyuing withowte lawes, wanderinge, and withowte empire. 
For they alfo, beinge defyrous of golde, haue fubdewed them vnder theyr dominion whiche before inhabited 
the golde mynes of the mountaynes, and vfe them lyke bondemen, vfyng their laboure in dygginge and work- 
ynge theyr golde in plates and fundry Images lyke vnto thefe whiche yowe fee here. For we doo no more 
efteeme rude golde vnwrought, then we doo cloddes of earthe, before it bee formed by the hande of the worke- 
man to the fimilitude eyther of fume veffell neceffarie for owre vfe, or fume ouche bewetifull to be wome. 
Thefe thynges doo wee receaue of theim for exchaunge of other of owre thynges, as of prifoners taken in warre, 
whiche they bye to eate, or for fheetes and other thynges perteynynge to the fumyture of houfeholde, fuche as 
they lacke which inhabite the mountaynes : And efpecially for vitayles wherof they flande in greate neede by 
reafon of the barrennes of the mountaynes. This iomey therfore, mufl bee made open by force of men. And 
when yowe are paffinge ouer thefe mountaynes (poyntinge with his fynger towarde the fouthe mountaynes) yowe 
fhal fee an other fea, where they fayle with fhyppes as bygge as yowres (meanynge the caraueles) vfmge both 
fayles and ores as yowe doo, althowghe the men bee naked as wee are. All the waye that the water runnethe 
frome the mountaynes, and all that fyde lyinge towarde the Sou the, bryngeth foorth golde abundantly. As he 
fayde thefe woordes, he poynted to the veffelles in whiche they vfe to feme theyr meate, affirmynge that kynge 
Tumanama, and all the other kynges beyonde the mountaynes, had fuche and al their other houfeholde ftuffe of 
golde : And that there was noo lefle plentie of golde amonge thofe people of the Southe, then of Iren with 
vs. For he knewe by relation of owre men, wherof owre fwoordes and other weapons were made. Owre 
capitaynes mameylyng at the oration of the naked younge man (for they had for interpretours thofe three men 
whiche had byn before a yere and a halfe conuerfant in the court of kynge Careta) pondered in theyr myndes, 
and emeftly confidered his fayinges. Soo that his raffhenes in fcatteringe the golde owte of the balances, they 
turned to myrth and vrbanitie, commendynge his dooinge and fayinge therin. Then they afked hym frendely, 
vppon what certeyne knoweleage he fpake thofe thynges : Or what he thowght befte herein to bee doone yf 
they fliulde brynge a greater fupplye of men. To this, younge Comogrus, ftayinge a whyle with hym felfe as it 
were an oratour preparinge him felfe to fpeake of fume graue matter, and difpofynge his bodye to a giefture 
meete to perfuade, fpake thus in his mother tonge. Gyue eare vnto me o yowe Chryftians. Albeit that the 
gredie hunger of golde hathe not yet vexed vs naked men, yet doo we deftroy one an other by reafon of ambi- 
tion and defyre to rule. Hereof fpringeth mortall hatred amonge vs, and hereof commethe owre deftruction. 
Owre prediceffours kepte warres, and foo dyd Comogrus my father with princes beinge bortherers abowte hym. 
In the which warres, as wee haue ouercoome, fo haue wee byn ouercoome, as dothe appere by the number of 
bondemen amonge vs, which we tooke by the ouerthrowe of owre enemyes, of the whiche I haue gyuen yowe 
fiftie. Lykewyfe at an other tyme, owre aduerfaries hauinge th[e]upper hande agenfte vs, ledde away manye 
of vs captiue. For fuche is the chaunce of warre. Alfo, amonge owre familiers (wherof a great number haue 
byn captiues with them) beholde here is one whiche of longe tyme ledde a paynefuU lyfe in bondage vnder the 
yoke of that kynge beyonde the mountaynes, in whofe kyngdome is fuche abundance of golde. Of hym, and 
fuche other innumerable, and lykewyfe by the refort of free men on theyr fyde comminge to vs, and ageyne of 
owre men refortinge to theim by fafe conduct, thefe thynges haue byn euer as well knowen vnto vs, as owre 
owne poffeffions. But that yowe maye bee the better affured hereof, and bee owte of all fufpection that yowe 

M 3 117 

The distribution 
of golde. 

Young Comogrus 
his oration. 

The hunger of 

A region flowinge 
wyth golde. 




The golde mynes 
of the mobntaynes. 

Vnwrought golde 
not estemed. 


Abundance of 

HousehoMe stuffe 
of gold 

Naked people 
tormented with 

A vehement 


The feconde Decade. 

(hal not bee deceaued, make me the guyde of this viage, byndynge me fad and keepyng me in lafe cuflodie to 
bee hanged on the next tree, yf yowe fynde my fayinges in any point vntrewe. Folowe my counfayle therfore, 
and fend for a thoufande ChriRian men apte for the warres, by whofe power we may with alfo the men of 
warre of Comogriis my father armed after owre maner, inuade the dominions of owre enemyes : where, bothe 
yowe may bee fatiffyed with golde, and we for owre conductinge and aydynge yowe in this enterpryfe, (hall 
thynke owre felues abundantly rewarded, in that yowe (hall helpe to delyuer vs from the iniuries and perpetuall 
66 feare of owre enemies. After thefe woordes, this prudente younge Comogrus helde his peace. And owre men 
A token of hunger moucd With greatc hope and hunger of golde, beganne ageine to fwalowe downe theyr fpettle. 

C The fovrth booke of the seconde Decade, 
Of the fuppofed Continent. - 

Kynge Comognis 
is baptised with 
his famely. 

from hispaniola. 

Horrible thunder 
and Hghtnynge in 
the moneth of 

Bread of Maizius 
and hobba 


strengthened by 
owtwarde colde. 


A newe supply of 
a thousande 



A thousande and 
fyue hundreth 
pounds weyght 
of wrought gold 


Fter that they had taryed here a fewe dayes and baptifed Comogrus with all his famelie, and 
named hym by the name of Charles after the kynge of Spayne, they returned to theyr 
felowes in Dariena leauinge with hym the hope of tlie thoufande fouldyers, which his fonne 
requyred to paffe ouer thofe mountaynes towarde the South fea. Thus enteringe into the 
vyllage which they had chofen to inhabite, they had knowleage that Valdiuia was returned, 
within fyxe moonethes after his departure : but with noo great plentie of vytayles, bycaufe 
he browght but a fmaule fliippe : yet with hope that (hortely after, there fliulde bee fent 
them abundance of vytayles with a newe fupply of men. For younge Colonus, the Admiral and viceroy of 
Hifpaniola, and the other gouemours of the Ilande, acknowleaged that hetherto they had noo refpecte to theym 
of Dariciia, bycaufe they fuppofed that Ancifus the Lieuetenant had fafely arryued there with his fhippe laden 
with vatayles : wyllynge them from henfefoorth to bee of good cheere, and that they fhulde lacke nothynge 
hereafter : But that at this prefent tyme, they had noo bygger fhippe wherby they myght fende them greater 
plentie of neceffaries by Valdiuia. The vytayles therfore which he browght, ferued rather fumwhat to mytigate 
theyr prefent neceffitie, then to fatiffye theyr lacke. Wherfore within a fewe dayes after Valdiuia his retume, 
they fel ageine into lyke fcarfnes : efpecially for afmuch as a great florme and temped whiche came from the 
hyghe mountaynes with horrible thunder and lyghtnynge in the mooneth of Nouember, browght with it fuche 
a fludde, that it partely caryed away and partly drowned all the come and feedes whiche they had fowne in the 
moonethe of September in a frutefull grounde before they went to kyng Comogrus. The feedes which they of 
Hifpaniola caule Maizium, and they of Vraba caule Hobba : Wherof they make theyr breade, which alfo wee 
fayde to bee rype thryfe euery yeare, bycaufe thofe Regions are not bytten with the fliarpnes of ^vynter by 
reafon of theyr nerenes to the Equinoctial lyne. It is alfo agreable to the principles of naturall philofophie, 
that this breade made of Maizius or Hobba, fhulde bee more holfome for th[e]inhabitantes of thofe contreys 
then breade made of wheate, by reafon that it is of eafyer digeflion. For wheras coulde is wantinge, the 
naturall heate is not dryuen frome the owtewarde partes into the inwarde partes and precordials, whereby 
digeflion is much flrengthened. Beinge therfore thus fruftrate of the increafe of theyr feedes, and the kynges 
nere abowte them fpoyled of both vytayles and golde, they were enforced to feeke theyr meate further of: And 
therwitii to fignifie to the gouemours of Hifpaniola with what great neceffitie they were oppreffed : And what 
they had lemed of Comogrus as concemynge the Regions towarde the Southe : wyllynge them in confideration 
therof to aduertyfe the kynge to fende them a thoufande fouldiers, by whofe helpe they myght by force make 
waye throwghe the mountaynes diuidynge the fea on bothe fydes, if they coulde not brynge the fame to paffe 
quyetly. The fame Valdiuia was alfo fent on this meffage, caryinge with hym to the kynges treafourers (hauinge 
theyr office of recepte in Hifpaniola) three hundreth poundes weyght of golde after eyght ounces to the pounde, 
for the fyfte portion dewe to the kynges efcheker. This pounde of viii. vnces, the Spanyardes caule Marcha, 
whiche in weyght amounteth to fyftie pieces of golde cauled Caflellani. But the Caflilians, caule a pound 
Pefum. We conclude therfore, that the fume hereof, was. xv. thoufande of thofe peeces of golde cauled 
Caflellani. And thus is it apparente by this accompte, that they receaued of the barbarous kynges, a thoufande 
and fyue hundreth poundes of eyght ounces to the pounde. All the whiche tliey founde redy wrought in fundry 
kyndes of ouches, as cheynes, brafelets, tablets, and plates, bothe to hange before theyr breftes, and alfo at 
theyr eares, and nofethryls. Valdiuia therefore tooke fliyppinge in the fame carauell in the whiche he came 
laft, and retumed alfo beefore the thyrde day of the Ides of lanuary, in the yeare of Chrifl M. D. XI. What 
chaunced to hym in this vyage, we wyll decldre in place conuenient. But let vs nowe retume to them which 


The feconde Decade. 


remayned in Vraba. After the difmiffinge of Valditiia, beinge pricked forwarde with owtragious hunger, they 
determined to fearche the inner partes of that goulfe in fundry places. The extreme angle or poynt of the 
lame goulfe is diflant from the enterance therof, aboute foure fcore myles. This angle or comer, the Span- 
yardes caule Culata. Vafchus hym felfe came to this poynte with a hundreth men, coaftynge alonge by the 
goulfe with one brygantine and certeyne of the boates of thofe regions, which the Vrabians caule Vru, lyke 
vnto them whiche th[e]inhabitantes of Hifpaniola caule Canoas. From this poynt, there fauleth a ryuer from 
the Eafl into the goulfe, ten tymes bygger then the ryuer of Dariena which alfo fauleth into the fame. Saylyng 
alonge by the ryuer about the fpace of thirtie myles (for they caule it nyne leaques) and fumwhat inclynynge 
towarde the ryght hande fouthwarde, they founde cS'teyne vyllages of th[e]inhabitantes, the Kynge whereof, 
was cauled Dabaiba. Owre men alfo were certifyed before, that Cemacchus the kynge of Dariena whom they 
put to flyght in the battayle, fledde to this Dabaiba. But at the commynge of owre men, Dabaiba alfo fledde. 
It is thowght that he was admonyfflied by Cemacchus, that he fliulde not abyde the bmnte of owre men. He 
folowed his counfayle : forfooke his vyllages, and lefte all thynges defolate. Yet o^vre men founde heapes of 
bowes and arrowes : Alfo much houfehold ftuffe and many fyffhyng boates. But thofe maryfhe groundes were 
neyther apte for fowinge of feedes or planting of trees. By reafon wherof, they founde there fewe fuche thynges 
as they defyred : that is, plentie of vytayles. For th[e]inhabitantes of this Region, haue noo breade but fuch as 
they get in other contreys nere abowte them by exchaunge for theyr fyffhe, only to feme theyr owne neceffitie. 
Yet founde they in the houfes of them that fledde, golde wrought and grauen, amountynge to the fume of feuen 
thoufande of thofe pieces whiche we fayde to bee cauled Cajlellani : Alfo certeyne canoas : of the which they 
brought away twoo with them, and great plentie of theyr houfholde fluffe, with certeyne bundels of bowes and 
arrowes. They faye, that from the maryffhes of that ryuer, there coome certeyne battes in the nyght feafon, as 
bygge as turtle dooues, inuadyng men and bytinge them with a deadly wounde, as fume of them teflifie whiche 
haue byn bytten of the fame. I my felfe communing with Ancifus the Lieuetenant whom they reiected, and 
amonge other thynges afkynge him of the venemous bytinge of thefe battes, he toulde me that he hym felfe was 
bytten by one of them on the heele, his foote lyinge vncouered in the nyght by reafon of the heate in fommer 
feafon : But that it hurt hym noo more, then yf he hadde byn bytten by any other beafle not venemous. Other 
faye, that the bytynge of fume of them is venemous : Yet that the fame is healed incontinently, if it be wafihed 
with water of the fea. Ancifus toulde me alfo, that the' venemous woundes made by the Canibales arrowes 
infected with poyfon, are healed by waflhynge with water of the fea, and alfo by cauterifmg with hotte Irens : 
And that he had experience thereof in the region of Caribana, where many of his men were fo wounded. 
They departed therfore, from the poynte of the goulfe of Vraba, not well contented bycaufe they were not laden 
with vitailes. In this their returne, there arofe foo greate a temped in that wyde goulfe, that they were enforced 
to cade into the fea, all the houfeholde (luflfe whiche they tooke from the poore wretches whiche lyued onely by 
fiflhinge. The fea alfo fwalowed vpp the two boates that they tooke from theym, wherewyth the men were 
likewife drowned. The fame tyme that Vafchus JVunnez attempted to fearche the poynte of the goulfe towarde 
the fouthe, euen then by agremente, dyd Rodericus Colmenaris take his viage towarde the mountaynes by the 
ealle, with thre fcor[e] men, by the ryuer of the other goulfe. Aboute fortie miles diftante from the mouthe of 
the ryuer, (for they caule it twelue leaques) he founde certeyne vilages fituate vppon the bankes of the ryuer, 
whofe Chiui, (that is,) kinge, they caule Tumi. With this kinge dyd Colmenaris yet remayne when Vafchus 
after his returne to Dariena, fayling by the fame ryuer, came to hym. Here refreffhinge theyr hole coompany 
with the vitailes of this Turui, they departed from thenfe togyther. Other fortie myles from henfe, the ryuer 
encoompafeth an Hand inhabited with fyfiher men. In this, bycaufe they fawe greate plentie of the trees which 
beare Caffia fiflula, they named the Hand Cannafiflula. They found in it, threefcore villages of tenne cotages 
apiece. On the right fyde of the Hand there runneth an other ryuer, whofe chanell is of depth fufficiente to 
beare brigantines. This ryuer they cauled Riuum Nigrum : from the mouthe wherof about, xv. myles diftante 
they founde a towne of fyue hundreth houfes feuered: whofe Chebi, (that is,) kinge, was cauled Abenamachei. 
They all forfooke theyr houfes as foone as they harde of owre mennes commyng. But when they fawe that 
owre men purfued them, they turned ageyne and ranne vppon them with defperate mindes, as men driuen from 
their owne poffeflions. Theyr wepons, are fwordes of wod, and long ftaues like iauelens, hardened at the ende 
with fyer: But they vfe neyther bowes nor arrowes: nor any other of th[e]inhabitantes of the wefte fyde of the 
goulfe. The pore naked wretches were eafely dryuen to flight with owre weapons. As owre men folowed theym 
in the chafe, they tooke the kinge Abenamachei and certeine of his noble men. A common fouldier of owres 
whom the kynge had wounded, coomminge to hym when he was taken, cutte of his arme at one ftroke with his 
fwoorde. But this was doone vnwares to the capitaynes. The number of the Chriilian men which were here, 
was aboute a hundrethe and fiftie : the one halfe whereof, the capytaynes lefte here, and they with the refydue, 
rowed vpp the ryuer ageyne with twelue of the boates of thofe Regions, whiche they caul. Vru, as they of 
Hifpaniola caule them Canoas, as we haue fayde. From the ryuer of Riuus Niger and the Hand of Cannafiflula, 

The goulfe of 


Vaschus searcheth 

the goulfe of 


A maruelous great 

ryuer, faulyng 

into the goulfe of 


Kynge Dabaiba 
and Chemacchus, 
are dryuen to 

Marysshe grounde 

Wrought gold 
vii. thousand 

Battes as bygge as 
turtle doues. 

Ancisus bytten 
of a batte 

Remedies ageynst 
venemous arrows 

A tempest. 

Colmenaris taketh 
his vyage towarde 
the montains 

Kynge TuruL 

The Hand of 


The ryuer of 
Riuus Niger. 
A towne of v. 
hundreth houses. 

Th [e]inhabitantes 
of the west syde 
of the goulfe. 

Abenamachei, is 
taken and his 
arme cut of. 


The fecofide Decade. 

Many other 
ryuers fauling 
into Riuus Niger. 

Kyng abibeiba 
dwellethe in a 

Abundance of 
moyster and heat 
is cause of 

The rysynge of 
the Ocean sea. 

Trees of maruclous 


Frutefull grounde. 

Cellers in the 

Abibeiba, the 
kynge of the tree, 
yeldethe to 


Gold no more 
estemed then 


Kyng Abraiba 

for the fpace of threefcore and ten myles, leauing both on the right hande and on the lefte many riuers faulinge 
into it bigger then it felfe, they entred into one by the conductynge of one of the naked inhabitantes, beinge 
appoynted a guyde for that purpofe. Vppon the banke of this ryuer next vnto the mouthe of the fame, there 
was a kynge cauled Abibeiba: who, bycaufe the Region was full of maryfflies, had his palaice buylded in the 
toppe of a highe tree, a newe kynde of byldynge and feldome feene. But that lande beareth trees of fuche 
exceding heig[h]th, that emonge theyr branches, a man may frame large houfes : As wee reede the Uke in diuers 
autoures howe in many Regions where the ocean fea ryfethe and ouerflowethe the lande, the people were 
accuftomed to flye to the high trees, and after the faule of the water, to take the fyfflie lefte on the lande. This 
maner of buyldinge, is to laye beames croffe ouer the branches of the trees, fade bownde togyther, and there 
vppon to rayfe theyr frame, (Irongly made ageynfle wynde and wether. Owre men fuppofe that they buylde 
theyr houfes in trees, by reafon of the greate fluddes and ouerflowinge of ryuers whiche often tymes chaunce in 
thofe Regions. Thefe trees are of fuche heighth, that the ilrength of no manes arme is able to hurle a flone to 
the houfes buylded therein. And therfore doo I gyue the better credit to Plinie and other autours whiche wrytte 
that the trees in fume places in India are foo high by reafon of the frutefulnes of the grounde, abundance of 
water, and heate of the Region, that noo man is able to fhute ouer theym with an arrowe. And by iudgemente 
of all men, it is thowght that there is noo frutfuUer ground vnder the foonne, then this is whereof wee nowe 
cntreate. Owr men meafuringe manye of thefe trees, founde theym to bee of fuche biggnes, that feuen men, 
ye fumetymes eight, holdinge hande in hande with theyr amies flreached furthe, were fcarfely able too fathame 
them aboute. Yet haue they theyr cellers in the grounde, well replenyfflied with fuch wynes wherof wee haue 
fpoken beefore. For albeit that the vehemencie of the Avynde, is not of poure to cade downe thofe houfes, or 
to breeke the branches of the trees, yet are they toffed therewith, and fwaye fumwhat from fyde to fyde, by 
reafon wherof, the wyne fhulde bee muche troubeled with moouinge. All other neceffayre thinges, they haue 
with theym in the trees. When the kynge or any other of the noble men, dyne or fuppe in thefe trees, theyr 
wynes are browght theym from the celleres by theyr femantes, whyche by meanes of exercife, are accuftomed 
with noo leffe celeritie to runne vppe and downe the fteares adherente to the tree, then doo owre waytynge 
boyes vppon the playne grounde, fetche vs what wee caule for from the cobbarde byfyde owr dyninge table. 
Owre men therfore, came to the tree of kinge Abibeiba, and by th[e]interpretoures cauled hym foorthe to 
communication, gyuinge hym fignes of peace, and there vppon willinge hym to coomme downe. But he denyed 
that he woolde coomme owte of his houfe : Defyringe them to fuffer hym to lyue after his faflhion. But owtc 
men fell from fayre woordes to threateninge, that excepte he wolde defcende with all his famehe, they wolde 
eyther ouerthrowe the tree, or elles fet it on fyer. When he had denied them ageyne, they fell to hewinge the 
tree with theyr axes. Abibeiba feeinge the chippes faule from the tree on euery fyde, chaunged his purpofe, and 
came downe with only two of his foones. Thus after they had entreated of peace, they communed of gatheringe 
of golde. Abibeiba anfwered that he had noo golde, and that he neuer had any neede therof, nor yet regarded 
it any more then ftones. But when they were inftante vppon hym, he fayde vnto them. If yowe foo greatly 
defyre golde, I will feeke for fume in the nexte mountaynes, and bringe it vnto yowe. For it is plentifully 
engendred in thofe mountaynes. Then he a^ pointed a day when he wold bringe this golde. But Abibeiba 
came neyther at the day, nor after the daye appoynted. They departed therfore from thenfe well refreflhed with 
his vitailes and wyne, but not with goulde as they hoped. Yet were they enformed the like by Abibeiba and his 
ditionaries as conceminge the golde mynes and the Canibales, as they harde before of kinge Comogrus. 
Saylinge yet further aboute thirtie myles, they chaunced vppon certeyne cotages of the Canibales : But vtterly 
voyde with owte men or ftuffe. For when they had knowleage that owre men wandered in the prouinces nere 
aboute theym they reforted to the mountaynes, caryinge al theyr goodes and ftuffe wyth them. 

C The fyfte booke of the seconde Decade 
Of the fuppofed continent. 

N the meane tyme whyle thefe thynges were doone alonge by the fhores or bankes of the 
ryuer, a certeyne Decurian, that is a capytayne ouer tenne, of the coompanye of thofe which 
Vafciis and Colmenaris had lefte for a garryfon in Riuo Nigra in the dominion of kynge 
Abiimmachei, whether it were that he was compelled tlirowgh hunger, or that his fataule dayes 
was nowe coome, he attempted with his fouldiers to fearche the countreys nere there about, 
and entered into the vyllage of a king cauled Abraiba. This capitaynes name was Raia : 
whom Abraiba flewe, with twoo of his felowes : but the refydue fledde. Within a fewe dayes 

The feconde Decade. 


after, Abraiba hauinge compaffion of the calamitie of his kynfeman and neyghbour Abenamacheius being dryuen 
from his owne poffefllons (whofe arme alfo we fayd before that one of the fouldiers cut of at the riuer of Rim 
Nigra and nowe remaynynge with Abraiba to whome he fledde by llehh after he was taken, went to Abibeiba 
th[e]inhabitour of the tree, who had nowe lykewyfe forfaken his contrey for feare of owre men, and wandered 
in the defolate mountaynes and wooddes. When he had therfore founde him, he fpake to him in this effecte. 
What thynge is this Oh vnfortunate Abibeiba : or what nation is this that foo tormenteth vs that wee can not 
enioye owre quyet lybertie? Howe longe, ho we longe I fay fhall wee fuffer theyr crueltie? were it not much 
better for vs to die, then to abide fuch iniuries and oppreffions as yow, as Abinamac/ieius owre kynfeman, as 
Cemacchus, as Careia, as Poncha, as I and other princes of owr order doo fufteyne ? Canne any thinge bee more 
intoUerable then to fee owre wyues, owre chyldren, and owre fubiectes, to bee ledde awaye captiues, and owre 
goodes to be fpoyled euen before owre faces. 

I take the goddes to wytnes, that I fpeake not foo much for myne owne part as I doo for yowe whofe cafe 
I lament. For albeit they haue not yet touched me, neuertheleffe, by the example of other, I owght to thynke 
that my deftruction is not farre of. Let vs therfore (yf wee bee men) trye owre flrengthe and proue owre 
fortune ageynfl them whiche haue delte thus cruelly with Abenamacheius, and dryuen hym owte of his contrey. 
Let vs fet on them with all owre poure, and vtterly deftroy them And yf wee can not fleye them al, yet fhall 
wee make them afrayde eyther to affayle vs ageyne, or at the leafl dimynyfflie theyr poure. For what foo euer 
(hall befaule, nothynge can chaunce woorfe vnto vs then that which we now fuffer. When Abibeiba harde thefe 
wordes and fuch other like, he conde[f]cended to doo in al thinges as Abraiba wolde requyre : Where vppon 
they appoynted a day to brynge theyr confpiracie to pafTe. But the thynge chaunced not accordynge to their 
defyre. For of thofe whiche wee fayde to haue palfed to the Canibales, there returned by chaunce to Riuus 
Niger the nyght before the day appoynted to woorke theyr feate, thirtie men to the ayde of theym whiche were 
lefte there yf anye fedition fhulde ryfe as they fufpected. Therfore at the daunyng of the day, the confetherate 
kynges with fyue hundreth of theyr ditionaries armed after theyr maner, befeaged the vyllage with a terrible 
alarome, knowynge nothynge of the newe menne which came thether the fame nyght. Here owre target men 
came foorth ageynfl them, and fyrfl affayled them a farre of with theyr arrowes, then with theyr pykes, and lafle 
with theyr fwoordes : But the naked feely fowles, perceauinge a greater number of theyr aduerfaries then they 
looked for, were foone dryuen to flyght, and flayne for the mofl parte lyke fcaterynge fheepe. The kynges 
efcaped, they flewe manye, and tooke many captiues whiche they fente to Dariena where they vfe them for 
labourers to tyU and fowe they grounde. Thefe thynges thus happely atchyued, and that prouince quyeted, 
they returned by the ryuer to Dariena, leauinge theyr thyrtie men for a garryfon vnder the gouernance of one 
Furatado a capitayne. This Furatado therfore, fente from Riuo Nigra where he was appoynted gouernoure, 
twentie of his felowes and one woman, with, xxiiii. captiues to Vafchus and his company, in one of the byggefl 
Canaas of that prouince. As they rowed downe by the ryuer, there came foorth foodenly ouerthwarte the 
ryuer ageynfl them, foure greate Canaas, which ouerthrew theyr boate and flewe as many of them as they coulde 
coome by, bycaufe they were vnprepared fufpecting noo fuch thinge. Owre men were all drowned and flayne 
excepte twoo, which hyd them felues amonge certeyne fagottes that fwamme on the water, in the whiche they 
laye lurkynge, and foo efcaped to theyr felowes in Dariena : who by them beinge aduertyfed hereof, beganne 
to cafle theyr wyttes what this thyng might meane : beinge no leffe felicitate for them felues, then meditatynge 
in what daunger theyr felowes had byn in Riuo Nigra, excepte by good fortune, thofe thirtie newe men which 
were fente to them, had coome to the vyllage the nyght before the confpiracie fliulde haue byn wrought. Con- 
fultinge therefore what was beft. to bee doone herein, at the lengthe with dylygent fearchynge they had 
intelligence that fyue kynges, that is to wytte, Abibeiba the inhabitoure of the tree, and Cemacchus dryuen from 
his vyllage whiche owre menne nowe poffefTed, Abraiba alfo and Abenamacheius, kynfemen, with Dabaiba the 
king of the fyfher men inhabytinge the comer of the goulfe whiche we cauled Culata, were all affembled to 
confpire the Chriflian mens deflruction at a day afTigned. Which thynge had furely coome to pafTe, if it had 
not byn otherwyfe hyndered by gods prouidence. It is therfore afcrybed to a myracle: And trewly not 
vnwoorthely if wee weye howe chaunce detected and bewrayed the counfayle of thefe kynges. And bycaufe it 
is worthy to bee harde, I wyll declare it in fewe woordes. Vafchus Nunnez therfore, who rather by poure then 
by election, vfurped the gouernaunce in Dariena, beinge a mafler of fence, and rather a raffhe royfler then 
politike capitayne (althowgh fortune fumtyme fauoureth fooles) amonge many women which in dyuers of thefe 
regions he had taken captyue, had one whiche in fauoure and bewtie excelled all other. To this woman her 
owne brother often tymes reforted, who was alfo dryuen owte of his contrey with kynge Cemacchus, with whom 
he was very familier and one of his chiefe gentelmen. Amonge other communication which he had with his 
fyfler whom he loued entierly, he vttered thefe woordes. My deare and welbeloued fyfler, gyue eare to my 
Xayinges, and keepe mofle fecreatelye that whiche I wyll declare vnto yowe, yf yowe defyre yowre owne wealth 
and myne, and the nrofperitie of owre contrey and kynfefolkes. The infolencie and crueltie of thefe menne 

Abraiba causeth 
the kynges to 

Men good 
enowgh yf they 
had iren 

The kynges are 
are dryuen to 



A garyson of xxx, 

xviiL Span yard es 
slayne and 

The kinges which 
conspired the 
death of the 

A strange chaunce. 

Women can keepc 
no counsayle. 



The feconde Decade. 

An army of C 
[hundred] canoas 
and fyue. M. 
[thousand] men. 
Tryumphe before 

corrupteth trew 


The conspiracie 
of the kynges is 

Kyng Cemacchus, 
conspyreth the 
deth of Vaschus. 

whiche haue dryuen vs owte of owre poflefTions, is foo intollerable, that the princes of the lande are determyned 
noo longer to fufleyne theyr opprefTions. 

By the conductinge therfore of fyue kinges (which he named in order) they haue prepared a hundreth 
greate Canoas, with fyue thoufande men of warre by lande and by fea, with vitailes alfo in the village of Tichiri, 
fufficient to maintayne fuch an army. Declaringe further, that the kinges by agremente, had diuided emonge 
theym the goodes and headdes of owre men : And therfore admonyflied her, at the daye appoynted by fume 
occafion to conueigh her felfe owte of the way, lefle fliee (huld bee flayne in the confufion of the bataile. For 
the fouldier victourer, is not woonte to fpare any that commethe in his rafe. And thus fhewinge his fyfler the 
daye affigned to the flawghter, he departed. But the younge woman (for it is the fwoord that women feare and 
obferue more then the grauitie of Cato^ whether it were for the loue or feare that fliee had to Vafchus, for- 
gettinge her parentes, her kynffolkes, her countrey and all her frendes, ye and all the kinges into whofe throtes 
Vafchus, had thrufle his fwoorde ftiee opened all the matter vnto hym, and conceled none of thofe thinges 
whiche her vndifcrete broother had declared to her. When Vafchus therfore had hard the matter, he caufed 
Fultiia, (for foo had they named her) to fende for her brother, who came to her immediatly, was taken, and 
enforced to tell the hole circumftances of the matter. Where vppon, he playnely confeffed that kinge Canaahus 
hys lorde and mafler, fente thofe foure canoas to the deflruction of owre men, and that thefe newe confpiracies 
were attempted by his confaile. Likewife that Cemacchus fowght the deflruction of Vaschus hym felfe when he 
fent hym fortie men vnder pretence of frendfhippe to tyll and fowe his grownd after the maner of the contrey, 
gyuinge them in commaundement to fleye Vafchus at Marris, whyther he reforted to comforte his laboures as 
the maner is of all good hufbandes. Yet durfle they at noo tyme execute theyr lordes commaundemente vppon 
hym, bycaufe Vafchus came neuer emonge them afoote or vnarmed, but was accuflomed to ryde to theym in 
harnes with a iauelen in his hande and a fwoorde by his fyde. Wherfore Cemacchus beinge frullrate of his 
particuler confaile, tooke this lafle thing in hande to his owne deflruction and his neighbours. For the 
confpiracie beinge detected, Vafchus cauled threefcore and tenne fouldiers, commaundinge them to folowe him, 
but declared nothing vnto them whether hee wente or what hee entended to do. He wente forwarde therfore 
fyrlle towarde Cemacchus which ley from hym, onely tenne myles. But he had knowleage that he was fledde to 
Dabaiba the kinge of the mariflies of Culata. Yet fearchinge his village, he founde a noble man a ruler vnder 
hym and alfo his kinlfeman, whome he tooke prifoner with many other of his familiers and frendes both men 
and women. The fame houre that he fette fonvarde to feeke for Cemacchus, Rodericus Colmmaris rowed vp the 
ryuer with foure of theyr byggefle Canoas and threefcore men by the conduction of the maydes brother who 
browght hym to the village of Tichiri, in the which we fayd all their vitailes to remayne whiche were prepared 
for theyr armye. Colmenaris therfore, facked the village, and pofTefled all their vitayles and wyne of fundry 
colours : likewife tooke the gouemoure diereof prifoner, and hanged hym on the tree in whiche he dwelte hym 
felfe, commaundinge hym too bee (liotte throwgh with arrowes in the fight of th[e]inhabitantes, and with hym 
foure other rulers to bee hanged on iebbettes to the exemple of other rebelles. This punyflhmente thus 
executed vppon the confpiratours, flrooke the hartes of all th[e]inhabitantes of the prouince wyth fuche feare, 
that there is not nowe a man that dare floore his finger ageynfl the wrathe of owre men. They lyue nowe 
therefore quietly : And the other kinges by theyr exemple doo the gladlyer liue in fubiection, with leffe offence 
bearinge the yoke whyche they can by noo meanes fliake of. 

Vaschus purseweth 
the kynges with 
three score and 

sacketh the 
vyllage of Tichiri. 

Fyue rulers 
hanged and shot 
throwgh with 

The syxte booke of the seconde decade 
Of the fuppofed continente. 

The goldeii 
regions on the 
south side the 

The death of 
Valdiuia and 

Hefe thynges, thus fynyflhed, affemblinge all their company togither they determined with one 
confente, that a meffynger fhulde foorth with bee fente to Hifpaniola (from whenfe they haue 
their lawes and ayde) to declare the hole order of all thefe affayres, fyrfte to the admirall and 
gouemoure of the Hande, and afterwarde to the Kinge of Spayne, and to perfuade hym to 
fende thofe thoufand men which younge Comognts faid to bee expediente to paffe ouer the 
mountaynes lying betwene them and the golden regions towarde the Southe. Vafchus him 
felfe dyd greatly affecte this embafage: But neyther woolde the refydewe of his felowes 
electe hym therto, nor his factionaries fuffer hym to departe : Afwell for that therby they thought they fhulde 
bee left defolate, as alfo that they murmured that if Vafchus fliulde once goo from theym, he wolde neuer returne 
to fuche turmoyles and calamities, by th[e]example of Valdiuia and Zamudius, who had byn now abfente fence 

The fecoiide Decade. 


Quicedus is sent 
to Spain 


Chaunge of the 
ayeris daungerous. 

assistant with 

the mooneth of January, in foo muche that they thowght they woolde neuer coomme ageine. But the matter 
was otherwife then they tooke it, as I wyl fliewe in his place. For they were periflhed. At the lengeth after 
many fcrutinies, they elected one lohn Quicedus, a graue man well in yeares, and treafourer of the kings efcheker 
in thofe prouinces. They had conceaued a good opinion of this Quicedus that all thynges fhulde bee well 
browght to paffe by his meanes, afwell for his wyfdome, as alfo that they were in good hop[e] of his returne, bycaufe 
he had brought his wifTe with hym to thofe regions, whome he lefte with his felowes for a pledge of his comminge 
ageyne. When they had thus elected Quicedus, they were ageyne of diuers opinions whome they might ioyne 
with hym for affiflance : AfRrminge that it were a daungerous thinge to committe foo weightye a matter to one 
mans handes. Not that they miflrufled Quicedus, but bycaufe the life of man is frayle, and the chaunge of the 
ayer perelous, efpecially to theym hauynge nowe of longe tyme byn accuftomed to the temperature nere vnto 
the Equinoctiall, if they (hulde bee compelled to returne to the North \vith alteration of ayer and dyet. They 
thowght it therfore good to appoynt a companion to Quicedus, that if by chance the one fliuld fayl the other 
might remayne : And that if they both efcaped, the king (huld gyue the better credit to the relation of both : 
After longe confultation therfore, they chofe Rodericus Colmenaris a man of good experience, of whom we haue 
often tymes made mencion. For from his youth, he had trauayled ouer al Europe by land and by fea, and was 
prefent at the doinges of all thynges in Italy ageynll the Frenchemen : Of whofe returne alfo, they had noo 
fmaule hope bycaufe he had many fermes and hadde tylled and fowne much grounde in Dariena, by th[e]in- 
creafe wherofhe might get much gold by fellyng the fame to his felows. He lefte therfore the charge of al his 
affayres in Dariena, with his partener Alphonftis Nuniiez, a ludge of the lawe, who alfo was lyke to haue byn 
chofen procuratoure of this vyage before Colmenaris if one had not put theim in remembraunce that he had a 
wyfe at Matritis: fearyng leafl beinge ouercoome with her teares, he woolde no more returne. Colmenaris 
therefore, a free man and at libertie being affociate affiflant with Quicedus they tooke fhyppyng togyther in a 
brigantine, the fourth day of the Calendes of Nouember, in the yeare of Chrifl. 15 12. In this vyage, beinge 
tolled with fundry tempefles, they were by the violence of the wynde, cad vppon the Welle coalles of that large 
Ilande whiche in the fyrlle Decade we cauled Cuba, fuppofed to haue byn fyrme lande. They were fore 
opprefled with hunger. For it was nowe three moonethes fence they departed from theyr felowes. By reafon 
whereof, they were enforced to take lande to proue what ayde they coulde gette amonge the inhabitantes. 
Theyr chaunce therefore, was to arryue in that part of the Ilande, where Valdiuia was dryuen alande by tempell. 
But oh yowe wretched men of Darienal Tary for Valdiuia whom yowe fent to prouide to helpe yowre 
neceffities ? Prouyde for yowre felues rather and trull not to them whofe fortune yowe knowe not. For when 
he arryued in Cuba, th[e]inhabitantes flewe him with al his felowes, and lefte the carauell wherin they were 
caried, tome in pieces and halfe couered with fande on the Ihore : where Quicedus and Colmenaris fyndyng the 
fragmentes therof, bewayled their felowes myffortune. But they founde none of theyr carkefes ; fuppofmge 
that they were eyther drowned, or deuoured of the Canibals, which oftentymes make incurfions into that Ilande 
to hunte for men. But at the length, by twoo of the Ilande men which they had taken, they had knowleage of 
Valdiuia his dellruction : And that th[e]inhabitantes the more greedely attempted the fame, for that they had 
harde by the bablynge of one of his felowes that he had great plentie of gold. For they alfo take pleafure in 
the bewtie of gold, which they forme artificially into fundry ouches. Thus owre men llryken with penfyuenes 
for the cruell dellenie of theyr felowes, and in vayne feekynge reuenge for theyr iniuries, determyned to forfake 
that vnfortunate lande, departynge from thofe couetous naked barbarians with more forowe and neceffitie then 
they were in before. Or euer they had pafled the South fyde of Cuba, they fel into a thoufande mylfortunes ; 
and had intellygence that Fogeda arryued thereaboute, leadynge a myferable lyfe, tolTed and turmoyled with 
tempelles and vexed with a thoufand perplexities : Soo that departing from thenfe almofl alone, his felowes 
bemge for the moll parte all confumed with maladies and famyn, he came with much difficultie to Hifpaniola, 
where he dyed by force of the poyfon of his venemous wound which he had receaued in Vraba as we haue faid 
before. But Ancifus elected Lieuetenaunt, fayled by all thofe coalles with much better fortune. For as he 
hym felfe toulde me, he founde profperous wjmdes in thofe parties, and was well enterteyned of th[e]inhabi- 
tantes of Cuba. But this fpecially in the dominion of a certeyne kynge whofe name was Commendator. 
For wheras he defyred of the ChriHian men whiche pafled by, to bee baptifed, demaundynge the 
name of the gouernour of the Ilande next vnto Hifpaniola, beinge a noble man and a knyght of 
th[e]order of Calatraua of which order al are cauled Commendatores, this kynges defyre was to bee named 
after hym. Kynge Commendator therfore, frendely receaued Ancifus, and gaue hym greate abundance 
of al thynges necelfarie. But what Ancifus lemed of theyr religion durynge the tyme of his remaynynge 
there, I haue thowght good to aduertyfe yowre holynes. Yowe fhall therefore vnderflande, that certeyne 
of owre men faylinge by the coafles of Cuba, lefte with kynge Commendator a certeyne poore maryner 
beinge difeafed. Who in Ihorte fpace recoueringe his health, and hauynge nowe fumwhat lemed theyr language, 
beganne to growe into great ellimation with the kynge and his fubiectes, in foo muche that he was oftentymes 


A wyfe is a 


Three moonethes 
from Dariena to 
Cuba, by reason 
of tempests 

The death of 

Hurt of lauyshenes 
of the tonge. 

The calamitie and 
death of Fogeda- 

Maladies and 

The prosperous 
vyage of Ancisus. 

A kyng of Cuba 
baptised by the 
name of 



A maruelous 
historic howe God 
wrought mirades 
by the simple fayth 
of a maryner. 


The feconde Decade. 

Be not rashe in 


A chapel builded 
to the picture of 
the virgin Mary 

God respecteth 
the infancie of 
faithe for zeles 

One Religion 

turned into an 
other, holdeth styl 
many thinges of 
the ^rst. 

A strange fantasie. 

The effect of 
godly zeale. 

A miracle in the 
tyme of the 

The virgin Mary, 
is present at the 


A maruelus 
experience of 

Muche lykc vnto 
this, is redde iii. 
Keg. xviii. 

the kynges Lieuetenaunt in his warres ageynfl other princes his bortherers. This mans fortune was foo good, 
that all thynges profpered well that he tooke in hande. And albeit that he were not lemed, yet was he a 
vertuous and well meanynge man accordynge to his knowleage, and dyd rehgioufly honoure the blefled virgin, 
bearynge euer about with hym her picture fayre paynted vpon paper and fowd in his apparell nere vnto his brelle : 
Signifyinge vnto the kyng, that this holynes was the caufe of al his victories : perfuadynge hym to doo the lyke, 
and to cafl away all his Za/ies which were none other then the fymilitudes of euyll fpirites, molle cruell enemyes 
and deuourers of owre fowles: And to take vnto hym the holy virgin and moother of god to bee his patroneffe 
if he defyred all his affayres afwell in warre as in peace to fucceed profperoufly. Alfo that the blefled virgyn 
woolde at noo tyme fayle hym, but bee euer redy to helpe him and his, if they woolde with deuoute hartes caule 
vppon her name. The maryner had foone perfuaded the naked" nation: And there vppon gaue the kynge (who 
demaunded the fame) his pycture of the virgin, to whom he buylded and dedicate a chapell and an altare, euer 
after contemnynge and reiectynge his Zemes. Of thefe Ztmes made of goflampine cotton to the fimilitudes of 
fprytes walkynge in the nyght which they oftentymes fee, and fpeake with them familierly, wee haue fpoken 
fufficiently in the nynth booke of the fyrfte Decade. Furthermore, accordynge to the inflitution of this maryner, 
when the foonne draweth towarde the faule, this kynge Commendator with all his famely bothe men and women, 
reforte daylye to the fayde chapell of the virgin Marie, where kneelyng on theyr knees and reuerently bowyng 
downe theyr heades, holdynge theyr handes ioyned togyther, they falute th[e]image of the virgin with thefe 
woordes : Aue Maria, Aue Maria. For fewe of them can rehearfe any more woordes of this prayer. At 
Ancifus his beinge there, they tooke hym and his felowes by the handes, and ledde them to this chapell with 
reioyfmge, fayinge that they woolde fhewe theym maruelous thynges. When they were entered, they poynted 
with theyr fyngers to the Image of the virgin al to befet and hanged abowte with ouches and iewels and many 
earthen pottes, fylled fum with fundry meates, and fume with water, rownde aboute all the tabernacle. For 
thefe thynges they offer to the image in the fleede of facrifice, accordyng to theyr owlde fuperflicion towarde 
theyr Zemes. Beinge demaunded why they dyd thus, they anfwered, leafle the image fhulde lacke meate if 
perhaps it (huld be a hungerd. For they mofl. certenly beleue that images may hunger, and that they doo eate 
and drynke. But what ayde and helpe they confefle that they haue had of the godly poure of this image, that 
is of the bleffed virgin, it is a thynge woorthy to be harde, and mofl affuredly to bee taken for a truthe. For 
by the report of owre men, there is fuch feruent godly loue and zeale in thefe fimple men toward the holy virgin, 
that to them beinge in the daungers of warre ageynfl theyr enemies, they doo in maner (yf I may foo terme it) 
compel her to defcende from heauen to helpe them in theyr neceflities : For fuch is the goodnes of god, that 
he hath lefte vnto men in maner a pryce wherby wee may purchafe hym with his holy angels, and fayntes, that 
is to wytte, bumyng loue, charitie and zeale. Howe therfore can the blefled virgin at any time be abfent from 
them which cal for her helpe with pure faith and feruent loue? Commendator him felfe, with al his noble men 
and gentelmen, doo teflifie with one voyce, that in a fought battayle in the which this maryner was capitayne, 
bearyng with hym this picture of the virgin Marie, the Zemes of theyr enemies turned their backes and trembeled 
in the prefence of the virgins Image and in the fyght of them all. For euery of them brynge theyr Zemes to the 
battayle, hopynge by theyr helpe to obteyne the victorie. Ye they fay further, that duryng the tyme of the 
battayle, they fawe not only an Image, but a liuely woman clothed in fayre and whyte apparel, aydynge them 
ageinfl theyr enemies: whiche thynge alfo the enemyes them felues acknowleaged, confeflynge that on the 
contrarye parte fhee appeared to them, fhakynge a fepter in her hande with threatenynge countenaunce, whiche 
caufed theyr hartes to fliake and faynt for feare. But after that this maryner departed from them, beinge taken 
into a fliyppe of certeyne Chriflians paflynge by thofe coafles, Commendator declared that he with all his 
fubiectes, continually obferued his inflitucions : In foo muche that beinge at contention with another prince, 
which of theyr Zetnes were mofl,e holy and of greatefle poure, the matter grewe to fuche extremitie that they 
tryed it with hande (Irokes : And that in all thefe attemptes, the blefled virgin neuer fayled hym, but was euer 
prefente in the brunte of the battayle, and gaue hym eafye victorie with a fmaule poure of men, ageynfl. a mayne 
armye of his enemies. Beinge demaunded with what woordes they cryed vppon the virgin Mary when they 
affayled theyr enemies, they anfwered that they had lemed noo other woordes of the mariners doctrine, but 
Sanfla Maria adittua nos, Sanfla Maria adiuua nos : That is, holy Mary helpe vs, holy Marye helpe vs : And 
this alfo in the Spanyfflie tonge. For he had lefte thefe woordes in the mouthes of all men. Whyle they 
murthered and deflroyed them felues thus on bothe fydes, they fell to entreatie of peace and agreed to trye the 
matter, not hande to hande by combatte of certeyne chofen for bothe parties as the maner was amonge the 
Romaynes and dyuers other nations in the owlde tyme, or by any flyght or policie, but that twoo younge men 
fliulde bee chofen, for eche partie one, Avith theyr handes bounde fafl, behynde them in the playne fielde, bothe 
parties beinge fwome to acknowleage that Zemes to bee the better, which fyrfl loofed the bandes of the younge 
man whiche floode bounde for the tryall of his religion. Thus diuidinge them felues, and placeinge the 
fayde younge men before them in the fyght of them al, with theyr handes fafl. bounde by theyr enemyes, the 

The feconde Decade. 


contrary parte cauled fyrft. on theyr Zemes (that is, the deuyll to whofe fimilitude theyr Images are made) who 
immediatly appered in his lykenes aboute the younge man that floode bounde in the defence of Sathans 

But as foone as Commendator with his coompanye cryed Sanfla Maria adiuua tios, SanBa Maria adiuua 
nos, forthwith there appeared a fayre virgin clothed in whyte, at whofe prefence the deuell vanquiffhed immediatly. 
But the virgin hauinge a longe rod in her hande, and putting the fame on the bandes of the younge man that 
floode for Commendator, his handes were loofed immediatly in the fyght of them all, and his bandes founde 
about the handes of hym that floode for the other partie,^ in fomuch that they them felues fownde hym dowble 
bounde. But for all this, were not the enemies fatiffyed : querelinge that this thynge was doone by fum flyght 
or diuife of man, and not by the poure of the better Zemes. And there vppon requyred for th[e]aduoydynge 
of all fufpection, that there myght bee eyght graue and fage men appoynted, for eche fyde foure, whiche Ihulde 
bynde the men in the fyght of theim all, and alfo gyue iudgemente whether the thynge were doone withowte 
crafte or gyle. Oh pure fimplicitie and conflant fayth : Oh golden and bleffed confidence. Commendator and 
his famiUers, doubted not to graunte theyr enemies theyr requefle with lyke faythe wherwith the difeafed woman 
obteyned healthe of the fluxe of her bludde, and wherby Peter feared not to walke on the fea at the fyght of 
his mafler Chrifle. Thefe younge men therfore were bounde in the prefence of thefe eight graue men, and 
were placed within theyr lyfles in the fyght of bothe parties. Thus vppon a figne gyuen, when they cauled 
vppon theyr Zemes, there appered in the fyght of them all, a deuyll with a longe tayle, a wyde mouthe, greate 
teeth, and homes, refemblyng the fimilitude of the Image which the kyng being enemye to Commendator, 
honoured for his Ze7nes. As this deuyl attempted to loofe the bandes of his cliente, the bleffed virgin was 
immediatly prefente as before at the caule of Commendator and his fubiectes, and with her rodde loofed the 
bandes of her fuppliant, which were ageyne lykewyfe founde fafl tyed aboute the handes of hym that floode for 
the contrarye parte. The enemies therefore of Commendator, beinge flryken with greate feare and amafed by 
reafon of this greate miracle, confeffed that the Zemes of the virgin was better then their Zemes. For the better 
profe wherof, thefe pagans beinge bortherers to Commendator, which had euer before byn at continuall warre 
and enmitie with hym, when they had knowleage that Ancifus was arryued in thofe, they fente ambafa- 
doures vnto hym, to defyre hym to fend them preefles of whom they might bee baptifed : Where vppon he fent 
them twoo which hee had with hym there at that prefent. They baptifed in one day a hundreth and thirtie of 
th[e]inhabitantes, fumtyme enemyes to Commendator, but now his frendes and ioyned with him in aliance. All 
fuche as came to bee baptifed, gaue the preefles of theyr owne liberalitie, eyther a cocke or a henne. But no 
capons : for they can not yet fkyl how to came theyr cocke chykens to make them capons. Alfo certeyne 
failed fyffhes, and newe fyne cakes made of theyr breade : likewife certeyne foules franked and made fatte. 
When the preefles reforted to the fhippes, fyxe of thefe newe baptyfed men accoompanied theym laden with 
vitailes, wherwith they ledde a ioyfull Eafler. For on the Sunday two dayes before faynte Lazarus day, they 
departed from Dariena, and touched at that tyme, onely to the cape or angle of Cuba nere vnto the Eafte fyde 
of Hifpaniola. At the requefle of Commendator, Ancifus lefte with hym one of his coompanie, to th[e]intente 
too teache hym and his fubiectes wyth other his bortherers, the falutacion of the angell whiche we caule the Aue 
Maria. For they thinke them felues to be foo much the more beloued of the bleffed virgin, as they can 
reherfe the more woordes of that prayer. Thus Ancifus takinge his leaue of kynge Commendator, directed his 
courfe to Hifpaniola, from whiche he was not farre. Shortely after, he tooke his viage to Spayne, and came to 
Valladoleto to the kynge, to whom he made greuous complaint of the infolencie of Vafchus Nunnez, in fo muche 
that by his procuremente, the Kynge gaue fentence ageynfle hym. Thus muche haue I thowght good (mofle 
holy father) wherof to aduertyfe yo^vr holynes as concemyng the religion of thefe nations, not only as I haue 
byn inftmcted of Ancifus (wyth whom I was dayly conuerfante in the court and vfed hym familiarlye) but alfo 
as I was enformed of dyuers other men of greate autoritie, to th[e]intente that yowre excellencie may v:i ler- 
flande howe docible this kynde of men is, and wyth what facilitie they may bee allured to embrafe owr 
religion. But this can not bee doone foodenlye. Yet we haue greate caufe to hope that in fhorte tyme they 
wilbe all drawen by litle and litle to the euangelicall lawe of Chrifle, to the great encreafe of his flocke. But 
let vs nowe returne to the meffengers or procuratours as concerniynge the affayres of Dariena. 

The deuil 
appeareth in his 

An other miracle. 

Math. 14. 

The deuyl 
appereth agein. 

The virgin Mary 
ouercommeth the 

Infidels conuerted 
by miracle, and 


The preestes 

A ue Maria. 

Ancisus vyage to 


cijinplayneth of 
V ischus. 

The haruest Is 
great, but the 
labourers are fewe. 



The feconde Decade. 

C The seventh booke of the seconde decade 
Of the fiippofed continente. 

From Dariena to 
Hispaniola viii. 
dayes saylyng. 

The procuratours 
of Dariena, are 
receaued at the 

Their complexion 
is altered 

Of whom the 
autour had 


The greate master 
of the kynges ships 

Petrus arias is 
elected gouemour 
of Dariena, 

Th[c] oracion of 
the byshop. of 
Burges in the 
defence of Petrus 

The warres of 

Rom Dariena to Hifpaniola is eyghte dayes failinge and funitymes leffe with a profperous 
vvynde. Yet Qiiiccdus and Colmmaris the procuratours of Dariena, by reafon of tempefles 
and contrary wyndes, could fcarfely faile it in a hundrethe dayes. When they had 
taryed a fewe dayes in Hifpaniola, and had declared the caufe of the comminge to the 
admirall and the other gouernours, they tooke fhippinge in two marchante fhippes beinge 
redye fumyffhed, which were alfo accuflomed to faile too and froo betwene Spayne and the 
Ilande of Hifpaniola. They departed from Dariena (as we fayde before) the fourthe day 
of the calendes of nouember in the yeare of Chrifl. 151 2, .and came not to the courte before the calendes of 
May in the yeare folowinge beinge the yeare of Chrifle. 15 13. At th[e]yr commynge to the courte, Johannes 
Fonfeca (to whom at the begynnynge the charge of thefe affayres was committed, whom alfo for hys faithful 
feruice towarde the kinge, yowre holynes created generall commiflarie in the warres ageynfle the moores) 
receaued them honorably, as men comminge from the newe world, from naked nations, and landes vnknowen 
to other menne. 

C By the prefermente therefore of the byfihope of Burges, Quicedus and Colmmaris were brought before 
the king, and declared theyr legacie in his prefence. Suche newes and prefentes as they brought, were 
delectable to the kinge and his noble men, for the newnes and ftraungnes therof. They alfo fuiomed with me 
often tymes. Theyr countenaunces doo declare the intemperatenes of the ayer and region of Dariena. For 
they are yelowe lyke vnto them that haue the yelowe gaundies : And alfo fwolne. But they afcrybe the caufe 
hereof, to the hunger which they fufleyned in tyme pafl. I haue byn aduertifed of th[e]affayres of this newe 
woorlde, not onely by thefe procuratours of Dariena, and Ancifus, and Zamudius, but alfo by conference with 
Baccia the lawier, who ranne ouer a greate parte of thofe Likewyfe by relation of Vincentius Annez 
the patrone of the fliippes, and Alfonfus Nignus, both being men of greate experience and wel trauayled in 
thofe parties, befide many other, of whom wee haue made mention in other places. For there came neuer any 
from thenfe to the court, but tooke greate pleafure to certifie mee of al thynges eyther by woorde of mouth or by 
wrytynge. Of many thynges therfore which I lemed of them, I haue gathered fuche as to my Judgement feeme 
niofte worthy to fatiffie them that take delyte in hyftories. But let vs nowe declare what folowed after the 
comminge of the procuratours of Dariena. Therfore, before theyr arryuall there was a rumoure fpreade in the 
courte, that the chiefe gouernoures and Lieuetenauntes Nicuefa and Fogeda, alfo Johannes De la Coffa (a man of 
fuch reputacion that by the kinges letters patentes he was named the greate of the kynges fhyppes) were 
all peryfhed by mifchaunce : And that thofe fewe which yet remayned alyue in Darima, were at contencion and 
difcorde amonge them felues : So that they neyther endeuoured theyr diligence to allure thofe fmiple nations to 
owre faythe, nor yet had regarde to fearche the natures of thofe Regions. In confideration wherof, the kynge 
was determyned to fende a newe capitayne thyther whiche fliulde reftore and fet all thynges in good order, and 
put them owte of autoritie whiche hadde vfurped th[e]empire of thofe prouinces withowte the kynges fpeciall 
commaundement. To this office, was one Petrus Arias affigned, a man of greate prowes and a citifen oi Segouia. 
But when the procuratours of Dariena had publiflied in the courte howe greate a matter it was, and of what 
moment, many laboured erneftly to the kyng, to take the office owte of his handes. But the byffhop of Burges 
beinge the kinges chiefe chaplayne, and one of the commiffioners appoynted by hym in thefe matters, beinge 
aduertifed hereof, came immediatly to the kynge, and fpake to hym in this eflfect May it pleafe yowre hyghnes 
to vnderftand (mofle catholyke Prince) that wheras Petrus Arias a man of vaUente corage and greate feruice, 
hath offered hym felfe to aduenture his lyfe in yowre maieflies affayres, vnder vncerteyue hope of gayne and 
mofte certeyne perels, yet that notwithflandynge fum other haue ambicioufly mahced his feHcitie and preferment 
labouringe for th[e]office whereto he is elected : It maye pleafe yowre grace herein foo to fhewe hym yowr fauour 
and permit hym to enioye his fayde office, as yowre maieftie doo knowe hym to bee a woorthy and meete man 
for the fame, hauyng in tyme pafle had greate experience of his prowefle and valiantneffe, afwell in behauinge 
hym felfe as orderinge his fouldiers, as yowr hyghnes may the better confyder if it fhal pleafe yowe to caule to 
remembrance his doinges in the warres of Aphrica, where he fhewed hym felfe bothe a wyfe Capitayne, and 
valient fouldier. As conceminge his maners and vfages other wayes, they are not vnknowen to yowre maieflie, 
vnder whofe wynge he hath of a chylde byn browght vp in the courte, and euer founde faythfuU towarde yowre 
hyghnefle. Wherfore, to declare my opinion vnder yowre graces fauour (whom it hath pleafed to appojTit me a 

The fecotide Decade. 


commiffioner in thefe affayres) I think it were vngodly that he fliuld bee put from his office at the fute of any 
other, efpecially beinge thereto moued by ambition and couetoufnes : who perchaunce woold proue them felues 
to be the fame men in the office if they fhuld obteyne it, as they nowe ffiewe them felues in the ambitious 
defirynge of the fame. When the byfffioppe hade fayde thefe woordes, the kynge confirmed the election of 
Pdrus Arias in more ample maner then before : wyllynge the byfhoppe to appoynt hym a thoufande and twoo 
hundreth fouldiers at his charges, makynge hym a warrante to th[e]officers of his efcheker to delyuer hym 
money in prefle for the fame purpofe. Fetnis Arias therfore beinge thus put in office and authoryfed by the 
kynges letters patentes vnder his brode feale, chofe a greate number of his fouldiers in the court, and foo departed 
frome Valladokto aboute the calendes of October in the yeare 1513 : And fayled fyrft. to Ciuile beinge a verye 
ryche citie and well replenyfhed with people : where by the kinges magiftrates he was fumyfhed with men and 
vytayles and other neceffaries perteynynge to foo greate a matter. For the king hath in this citie erected a 
houfe feruinge only for th[ejaffayres of the Ocean, to the which al they that goo or coome from the newe landes 
and Ilandes, reforte to gyue accomptes afwell what they cary thyther as what they brynge from thenfe, that the 
kynge may bee truly anfwered of his cuRome of the fyfte part bothe of golde and other thynges as wee haue 
fayde before. This houfe, they caule the houfe of the Contractes of hidi. Petrus Arias founde in Ciuile 
aboue twoo thoufand younge men which made great fute to goo with hym : lykewyfe noo fmall number of 
couetous owlde men : of the whiche, many offered them felues to goo with him of theyr owne charges withowt 
the kynges flipende. But lefle the fhippes fliulde bee peflered with to great a multitude, or leafl. vytayles (hulde 
fayle them, the libertie of free paffage was reflraynt. It was alfo decreed that noo llranger might pafle withowt 
the kynges licence. Wherfore I doo not a lyttle maruaile at Aloifius Cadamujlus a Venetian and wryter of the 
Portugales vyages, that he was not a fliamed to wryte thus of the Spanyardes nauigations : we went : we fawe : 
we dyd. Wheras he neuer went, nor any Venetian fawe. But he floule certeyne annotacions owte of the three 
firfl bookes of my fyrfl Decade wrytten to Cardinal Afcanius and Arcimboldus, fuppofmge that I woolde neuer 
haue publyfffied the fame. It myght alfo happen that he came by the copie therof at the hande of fum 
ambafadoure of Venice. For I haue graunted the copie to many of them, and was not daungerous to forbyd 
them to communicate the fame to other. Howe fo euer it bee, this honefle man Aloifius Cadamujlus feared 
not to chalenge vnto hym the frute of an other mans laboure. Of the inuentions of the Portugales (which furely 
• are woonderfull) whether he haue wrytten that whiche he hath feene (as he fayth) or lykewife bereaued other 
men of the iufte commendations of theyr trauayles, I wyll not iudge, but am content to let hym lyue after his 
maner. Emonge the company of thefe fouldiers, there were none embarked but fuche as were licenced by the 
kynge, except a fewe Italians, Genues, who by frendfliippe and fute were admitted for the Admirals fake 
younge Coloims, fonne and heyre to Chrijlophorus Colonus the fyril fynder of thofe landes. Petrus Arias 
therfore tooke fhippyng in the ryuer Betis (nowe cauled Guadalqueuir) runnyng by the citie of Ciuile, aboute the 
beginnynge of the yeare of Chrifle. 15 14. But he loofed anker in an euyll houre. For fuche a tempefle folowed 
fhortly after his departure, that it rent in pieces two of his ffiippes, and foo tofled the other that they were 
enforced to heaue ouer boorde parte of theyr vytayles to lyghten them. All fuch as efcaped, fayled backe 
ageyne to the of Spayne : where, beinge newely furnyffied and refreffied, by the kynges officers, they 
went forwarde on theyr viage. The mafl,er pylot of the gouernoures fhyppe, was lohaimes Vefputiiis a Florentine, 
the neuie of Americus Vefputius, who left hym as it were by difcente of inheritance, th[e]experience of the 
mariners facultie, and knowleage of the fea, carde and compaffe. But wee were aduertifed of late by certeyne 
which came from Hifpaniola, that they had pafled the Ocean with more profperous wynde. For this marchaunt 
fliyppe commynge from Hifpaniola founde them landinge at certeyne Ilandes nere there aboute. But in the 
meane tyme whyle my importunate caulers on, Galeaceus Butrigarius and Johannes Curfius, men ftudious by al 
meanes to gratifie yowre holynes, ceafed not to put me in rememberance that they had one in a redines to depart 
into Italy, and taryed onely to cary with hym vnto yowre holynes thefe my iajiQ Nereides althowgh rudely decked, 
leafle I (hulde beftow muche tyme in vayne, I haue let pafle many thynges, and wyll reherfe onely fuch as feeme 
in my iudgement mofle woorthye memory, althowgh fumwhat difordered as occafion hath ferued. So it is 
therfore that this Petrus Arias hath a wyfe named Helifabeth a Boadilla, beinge niefe by the broothers fyde to 
the marques of Boadilla, which rendered the citie of Segouia to Fernando and Helifabeth princes of Spayne at 
fuch tyme as the Portugales inuaded the kingdome of Caflile : by reafon wherof they were encoraged fyrfte 
to refyfle, and then with open warre to aflayle and expulfe the Portugales for the greate trefure which kynge 
Henry brother to queene Helifabeth hadde gathered togyther there. This marquefle whyle fliee lyued, dyd euer 
ffiewe a manly and floute mynde, bothe in peace and warre, fo that by her counfayle manye noble thynges were 
browght to good effecte in Caflile ; vnto this noble woman, the wyfe of Petrus Arias was niefe by her brothers 
fyde. Shee folowyng the magnanimitie of her aunt, perceauinge her hufbande nowe furnyffiyng hym felfe to 
depart to the vnknowen coaftes of the newe woorlde, and thofe large tractes of lande and fea, fpake thefe wordes 
vnto hym. My mofle deare and welbeloued hufbande, we owght not nowe to forget that from owre younge 

Petrus Arias 
Lieuctenante of 

Petnis Anus hatli 
a thousand and 
twoo hundreth 
men appoynted at 
the kynges 

A house in Ciuile 
appointed to the 
affayres of India. 



Many prefer 
them selues to go 
of theyr owne 
Cadamustiis is 

The Portugales 

The nauigatlon of 
Petnis Arias. 

A shipwrackc 

A merit'us 

A notable exeraple 
of a valient woman. 

Kynge Henry. 

The wyfe of 
Petnis Arias 


The feconde Decade. 

yeares we haue byn ioyned togyther with the yoke of holy matrimonie to th[e]intente that wee (hulde foo lyne 
togyther and not a funder durynge the tyme of owre naturall lyfe. Wherefore for my parte to declare my affection 
herein, yowe fliall vnderflande, that whyther fo euer yowre fatal deflenye fhall dryue yowe, eyther by the furious 
wanes of the greate Ocean, or by the manyfoulde and horrible daungers of the lande, I wyll furely beare yowe 
78 coompany. There can no perell chaunce to me fo terrible, nor any kynde of death fo cruell, that fhal not bee 
much eafyer for me to abyde, then to Hue fo farre feperate from yowe. It were muche better for me to dye, and 
eyther to bee cafl. into the fea to bee deuoured of the fyffhes, or on the lande to the Canibales, then with 
continuall mournynge and bewaylinge, to lyue in deathe and dye lyuinge, whyle I confume in lookyng rather 
for my hufbandes letters then for hym felfe. This is my full determinacion, not rafhely nor prefentely excogitate, 
nor conceaued by the lyght phantafie of womans brayne, but with longe deliberation and good aduifement. 
Nowe therfore choofe to whether of thefe twoo yowe wyll afiente : Eyther to thrufle yowre fwoorde in my throte, 
or to graunte me my requefle. As for the chyldren which god hath giuen vs as pledges of owr infeperable loue, 
(for they had foure fonnes and as many dowghters) (hal not flay me a moment. Let vs leaue vnto them fuche 
gooddes and poffeffions as haue byn left vs by owre parentes and frendes wherby they may lyue amonge the 
woorfhipful of theyr order. For other thynges I take no care. When this noble matrone of manly vertue had 
fyniflhed thefe woordes, her hufbande feinge the conflant mynde of his wyfe, and her in a redynes to doo 
accordynge to her woordes, had no hart to denye her louinge peticion : but embrafmge her in his armes, com- 
mended her intente and confented to her requeft,e. Shee folowed hym therfore as dyd Ipficratea her Mithridates 
with her heare hangeinge loofe aboute her fhulders. For fliee loueth her hufbande as dyd Halicarnaffea of Carta, 
hers beinge deade, and as dyd Arteniifia her Maufolus: We haue alfo had aduertifement fence their departure 
that fhe (being browght vp as it were amonge foft fethers) hath with no lefle ftoute corage fufl.eyned the roringes 
and rages of the Ocean, then dyd eyther her hufband or any of the maryners brought vp euen amonge the 
fourges of the fea. But to haue fayde thus much hereof, this fhal fuffice. Let vs nowe fpeake of other thynges 
no lefTe woorthy memorie. Therfore, whereas in the fyrfle Decade we haue made mencion of Vinceiitius Annez 
Pinzonus, ye fhal vnderflande that he accoompanyed Chrijlofhorus Colonus the Admirall in his fjrrfl vyage, and 
afterwarde made an other vyage of his owne charges with onely one fhyppe. Ageyne, the fyrfle yeare after the 
departinge of the Capitaynes Nicuefa and Fogeda, he ran ouer thofe coaftes of Hifpaniola, and fearched all the 
fouthe fyde of Cuba from the Eafle to the wefte, and fayled rownde about that Ilande which to that day for the 
greate length thereof, was thowght to haue bin part of the continent or firme land, althowgh fume other fay 
that they dyd the lyke. Vincentius Annez therfore, knowyng nowe by experience that Cuba was an Ilande, fayled 
on further, and found other landes wefl.ward from Cuba, but fuch as the Admirall had fyrft touched. Wherfore, 
beinge in maner encompafed with this newe lande, tuminge his courfe towarde the lefte hande, and rafmg the 
coafles of that lande by the Eafl, ouerpaflinge alfo the mouthes of the goulfes of Beragua, Vraba, and Cuchi- 
bachoa, he arryued at the Region which in the fyrfl. Decade we cauled Paria and Os Draconis : And entered 
into the greate goulfe of freffhe water, which Colonus difcouered, beinge replenifhed with great abundance of 
fyffhe, and famous by reafon of the multitude of Ilandes lyinge in the fame, beinge diflant Eaft.warde from Curiana 
aboute a hundreth and thirtie myles, in the which tract are the Regions of Cumana and Manacapana, whiche 
alfo in the fyxte booke of the fyrfl. Decade we fayde to bee Regions of the large prouince of Paria, where many 
affirme to bee the gretefte plentie of the befte pearles, and not in Curiana. The kinges of thefe regions (whom 
they caul Chiacones, as they of Hifpaniola caule theym Cacici) beinge certified of the comminge of owre men, 
fente certeyne fpyes to enquire what newe nation was arryued in theyr coafles, what they browght, and what 
they woolde haue : and in the meane tyme fumyffhed a number of theyr Canoas (whiche they caule Chichos) 
with men armed after their maner. For they were not a lyde afloniffhed to beholde owre fhippes with the fayles 
fpreade, wheras they vfe no fayles, nor can vfe but fmaule ons if they woolde, by reafon of the narownes of theyr 
canoas. Swarmynge therfore aboute the fhippe with theyr canoas (which we may well caule Morwxyla, bycaufe 
they are made of one hole tree,) they feared not to fhute at owr men beinge yet within their fhips and keepinge 
theym felues vnder the hatches as fafely as yf they had byn defended with flone waules. But when owre men 
had fhotte of certeyne pieces of ordinance ageynfl theym they were foo difcomfited with the noyfe and flawghter 
therof that they droue them felues to flight. Beinge thus difparcled, owr men chafed them with the fhippe bote, 
tooke many, and flewe many. When the kynges harde the noyfe of the gunnes, and were certyfied of the lofTe 
of their men, they fent ambafadours to Vincentius Agnes to entreate of peace, fearinge the fpoyle of theyr goodes 
and deflruction of theyr people, if owre men fhulde coomme alande in theyr wrathe and furye. They defyred 
peace therfore, as could bee coniectured by their fignes and poyntinges. For owre men vnderfloode not one 
woorde of theyr language. And for the better proofe that they defired peace, they prefented owre men with three 
thoufand of thofeweights of gold that theSpanyardes caule CaJlellanumAureum, which they commonly caule Pefum. 
Alfo a greate barell of woodde full of mofte excellente mafculine firankenfence, weighing about two thoufande 
and fyxe hundreth poundes weight after eight ounces to the pounde : Whereby they knewe that that lande 

The thyrde 
n.iuigation of 






Os DraconU 




Plentie of Pearles. 


The Barbarians 

assayle owre men 

beinge in theyr 


The vse of gunnes. 


Great abundance 
of gold and 

The feconde Decade. 


browght furthe greate plentie of frankenfence. For there is noo entercourfe of marchaundies betwene th[e]inhabi- 
tantes of Paria and the fabeans beinge foo farre difl,ante,wheras alfo the[y] of Paria knowe nothynge withowte 
theyr owne coafles. With the golde and frankenfence whiche the[y] prefented to owre men, they gaue them alfo a 
greate multitude of theyr peacockes, bothe cockes and hennes, deade and alyue, afwell to fatiffie theyr prefent 
neceffitie, as alfo to cary with theyra into Spayne for encreafe. Lykewyfe certeyne carpettes, coouerlettes, table 
clothes and hanginges made of goifampine filke fynelye wrought after a flraunge diuife with plefante and variable 
colours, hauing golden belles and fuche other fpangles and pendauntes as the Italians caule Sonaglios, and the 
Spanyardes Cafcaueles, hanging at the purfles therof They gaue theym furthermore fpeakinge popingiais of 
fundry colours as many as they woolde afke. For in Paria, there is no leffe plentie of popingiais, then with vs 
of dooues or fparous. Th[e]inhabitantes of thefe Regions both men and women are appareled with veflures made 
of goffampine cotton, the men to the knees, and the women too the calfe of the legge. The faffhion of theyr 
apparell, is fymple and playne muche like vnto the Turkes. But the mens, is double and quilted like that 
whiche the Turkes vfe in the warres. The princes oi Paria, are rulers but for one yeare : But their autoritie is noo 
leffe emonge the people both in peace and warre, then is th[e]autoritie of other kynges in thofe Regions. 
Theyr villages are buylded in coompaffe, along by the bankes of all that greate goulfe. Fyue of theyr princes 
came to owre men wyth theyr prefentes, whofe names I thowght worthy to bee put in this hiftorie in remembe- 
rance of foo notable a thinge Chiaconus Chiatcaccha, (that is the prince of Chiauaccha, for they caule princes or 
kinge? Chiaconos) Chiaconus Pintiguanus, Chiaconus Chamailaba, Chiaconus Polomus, and Chiaconus Potto. The 
goulfe beinge fyrfte founde of the admirall Colonus, they caule, Baia Natiuitatis, bycaufe he entered into the 
fame in the day of the natiuitie of Chrifte : But at that tyme he only paffed by it withowte anye further fearching, 
and Baia in the Spanyffhe tong, fignifieth a goulfe. When Vincentius had thus made a league with thefe Princes, 
folowinge his appoynted courfe, he founde many regions towarde the Eafl, defolate by reafon of diuers fluddes 
and ouerflowynges of waters : alfo many llandynge pooles in dyuers places, and thofe of excedynge largenes. 
He ceafed not to folowe this tracte vntyll he came to the poynte or cape of that mofle longe lande. This 
poynte femethe as though it woolde inuade the monte Atlas in Aphrica. For it profpectethe towarde that parte of 
Aphrike, whiche the portugales caule Caput Bonx Sperantice. The poyntes or capes of the mount Atlas, are 
rough and faluage nere vnto the fea. The cape of Bona Speranza, gatherethe thirtie and foure degrees of the 
Southe pole, cauled the pole antartike : But that poynte, onely feuen degrees. I fuppofe this lande to bee that, 
whiche I fynde in owlde wryters of Cofmographie to bee cauled the greate Hand Atlantike, withowt any further 
declaringe eyther of the fytuation, or of the nature therof. 

C The eight booke of the seconde decade 
Of the fuppofed continente. 

I Hen lohan the king of portugale lyued which was prediceflbure to hym that nowe reigneth, 
there arofe a great contention betwene the Callilians and Portugales as concerninge the 
dominion of thefe newe founde landes. The Portugales, bycaufe they were the firfle that durfl 
attempte to fearche the Ocean fea fence the memorie of man, affirmed that all the nauigations 
of the Ocean, owght to perteyne to theym onely. The Caflilians argued on the contrarie 
parte, that what fo euer god by the miniflration of nature hath created on the earth, was at 
the begynnynge common emong men : And that it is therfore lawful! to euery man to poffefe 
fuche landes as are voyd of Chriftian inhabitours. Whyle the matter was thus vncerteynly debated, bothe 
parties agreed that the controuerfie fhulde bee decerned by the byfftiope of Rome, and plighted faithe to ftande 
to his arbitrimente. The kyngedome of Caflile was at that tyme gouemed by that great Queene Helifabeth with 
her hufbande : for the roialme of Caflile was her dowerye. Shee alfo and the kynge of Portugale, were cofyn 
germaynes of two fyflers : by reafon wherof the diffention was more eafely pacified. By th[e]a(rent therfore of 
both parties, Alexander the byflhop [of] Rome, the. vi. of that name, by th[e]autoritie of his leaden bull, drewe a 
right line from the North to the South a hundreth leaques weftwarde withowte the paralelles of thofe Ilandes 
whiche are cauled Caput Viride or Cabouerde, Within the compafe of this lyne (althowgh foomme denye it) 
faulethe the poynte of this lande wherof we haue fpoken, which they caule Caput SanBi Augujlini, otherwyfe 
cauled Promontorium SanHi Augujlini, that is, faynt Auguflines cape or poynte. And therfore it is not lawful 
for the Caftilians to fallen foote in the beginnynge of that lande. Vincentius Antiez therfore, departed from 
thenfe, beinge aduertifed of th[e]inhabitantes, that on the other fyde of the hyghe mountaynes towarde the 

£d£N. N 129 

Sabea, is a contrcy 
in Arabic, which 
bringeth forth 

Peacockes which 
wee caule Turkye 
Carpets and 
couerlettes fynely 


Th[e]appareII of 
the inhabitants 
of paria 

Rulers for one 

The greate goulfe 
of Paria. 

Baia Natiuitatis 
the gret goulfe of 

Vincentius maketh 
a league with v. 
princes, of Paria. 

Motint Atlas in 

The great Hand 

betwene the 
Castiiians and 
Portugales for the 
newe landes 


The bysshop of 
Rome diuideth 
the land 

Cabouerde loktf- 
decade i. lib. iii 


The feconde Decade. 

The golden region 
of Ciamba. 

The Hand of S. 

Fyue byshoppcs 
of the IIand[s] 
made by the 
bysshop of Rome. 

The Canibales of 
the Hand of 
Sancta Crux. 


Beragua and 

The ryuers of 

South, lyinge before his eyes, there was a Region cauled Ciamba, which browght foorth greate plentie of golde. 
Of certeyne captiues whiche he tooke in the goulfe of Paria (which certenly perteyneth to the dominion of 
Caftile) he browght fume with hym to Hifpaniola, and lefte them with the younge Admirall to lerne owre 
language. But he hym felfe, repayred to the courte to make erneft. fute to the kynge that by his fauoure, he 
myght bee gouemour of the Hand of SanBi loliannis (otherwyfe cauled Burkhena, beinge diflante from 
Hifpaniola onely. xxv. leaques) bycaufe he was the fyrfl fynder of golde in that Ilande. Before Vincentius 
made fute for this office, one Don Chriflopher a Portugale, the foone of the countie of Camigna, was gouernoure 
of the Ilande: whom the Canibales of the other Ilandes fie we, with all the Chriflian men that were in the fame, 
excepte the byfhop and his familiers, which fledde and fliyfted for them felues, forfakynge the church and all 
the ornamentes thereof. For yowre holynes hath confecrated fyue byffhoppes in thefe Ilandes at the requeft 
of the mod catholyke kynge. In Sanilo Dominico being the chiefe citie of Hifpaniola, Garfia de Padilla, a 
reguler fryer of the order of faynt Fraunces, is byffhop. In the towne of Conception, doctor Petrus Xuarez of 
Deza: And in the Ilande of faynte lohn or Burichena, Alfoiifus Manfus a Ucenciate, beinge bothe obferuantes 
of th[e]inflitucion of faynt Peter. The fourth, is fryer Bamarde of Mefa, a man of noble parentage, borne in 
Toledo, a preacher, and byffhop of the Ilande of Cuba. The fyfte is lohannes Cabedus, a fryer preacher, whom 
yowre holynes annoynted myniller of Chrifl, to teache the Chriftian faithe amonge the inhabitantes of Dariena. 
The Canibales Ihall fhortely repent them, and the bludde of owre men fhalbe reuenged : And that the fooner, 
bycaufe that (hortly after they had committed this abhominable flaughter of owre men, they came ageyne from 
theyr owne Ilande of SanHa Crux (otherwyfe cauled Ay Ay) to the Ilande of SanHi lohannis. and flewe a kynge 
whiche was a frende to owre men, and eate hym and all his famely, vtterly fubuertinge his vyllage, vppon this 
occafion that violatinge the lawe of hoflage, he had llayne feuen Canibales whiche were lefte with hym by 
compofition to make certeyne canoas, bicaufe the Hand of San^i Johannis beareth greater trees and apter for 
that purpofe, then doth the Ilande of San6li Crux the chiefe habitacion of the Canibales. Thefe Canibales yet 
remaynynge in the Ilande, certeine of owre men fayling from Hifpaniola, chaunced vppon them. The thynge 
being vnderftode by th[e]interpretoures, owre men quarelynge with theym and caulynge them to accompte for 
that mifcheuous deede, they immediatly directed theyr bowes and venemous arrowes ageynfl. them, and with 
cruell countenaunces threatened them to bee quyet, leafl it fhulde repent them of theyr commyng thyther. 
Owre men fearynge theyr venemous arrowes (for they were not prepared to fyght) gaue them fignes of peace. 
Being demaunded why they deflroyed the vyllage, and where the kynge was with his famelye, they anfwered 
that they rafed the vyllage and cutte the kynge with his famelie in peeces and eate them in the reuenge of theyr 
feuen workemen : And that they had made faggottes of theyr bones to cary theim to the wyues and chyldren of 
theyr flayne woorkemen, in wytneffe that the bodyes of theyr hufbandes and parentes lay not vnreuenged : and 
therewith fhewed the faggottes of bones to owre men : who beinge allonyfhed at theyr fiercenes and crueltie, 
were enforced to diffimble the matter and houlde theyr peace, quarelynge noo further with them at that tyme. 
Thefe and fuche other thynges doo dayly chaunce, the which I doo let paffe lead I fhulde offende the eares of 
yowr holynes with fuche bluddy narrations. Thus haue wee fufficiently digrefled from the regions of Beragua 
and Vraba beinge the chiefefle foundations of owre purpofe. Wee wyll nowe therefore entreate fumewhat of 
the largenes and depthe of the ryuers of Vraba : Alfo declare bothe what they and the landes whiche they 
runne through doo brynge foorth ; lykewife of the greatnes of the lande from the Eafle to the Weft, and of the 
bredth therof from the Southe to the North, and what theyr opinion and hope is of thynges yet vnknowen in 
the fame. Wee wyll therfore beginne at the newe names wherwith the Spanyardes haue named thefe prouiuces 
fence they were vnder the dominions of the Chriftians. 

€[ The nynth booke of the seconde Decade, 
Of the fuppofed Continent. 

Beragua, cauled 
Castella aurifera, 
and Vraba, 
Andaluzia noua. 
Sum caule Peru, 
Noua Castilia. 
Beragua and 
Vraba, regions of 

The frutefuhies 
of Vraba 

Eragua therfore, they cauled Caflella Aurea, that is golden CaRile : And Vraba they named 
Andaluzia Noua, that is, newe Andalufia. And lyke as of many Ilandes which they fubdued, 
they choofe Hifpaniola for the chiefe place of theyr habitacion, foo in the large tract of Faria, 
they appoynted theyr colonic or bydyng place in the t\voo regions Vraba and Beragua, that 
all fuche as attempte any vyages in thofe coaftes, may reforte to them as to fafe portes to bee 
refrefhed when they are wery or dryuen to necefTitie. All owre feedes, and plantes, do nowe 
marueloufly encreafe in Vraba. Lykewyfe blades, fettes, flippes, grades, fuger canes, and 

The feconde Decade. 


fuche other as are brought from other places to thofe regions, as alfo and foules as we haue fayde before., 
O maruelous frutefulnes. Twentie dayes after the feede is fowne, they gather rype cucumers, and fuch lyke, 
But colwortes, beetes, Letufe, Borage are rype within the fpace of ten dayes. Gourdes, melones, and pom- 
pones, within the fpace of xxviii. dayes. Dariena hathe many natiue trees and frutes of dyuers kyndes with 
fundry, and holfome for the vfe of men : of the which I haue thowght it good to defcrybe certeyne of the 
beft.. They nooryfihe a tree which they caule Guaiana, that beareth a frute much refemblynge the kynde of 
citrons which are commonly cauled limones, of tafl.e fumwhat fharpe myxt with fwetenes. They haue alfo 
abundance of nuttes of pynetrees, and great plentie of date trees, whiche beare frutes bygger then the dates 
that are knowen to vs : but they are not apte to bee eaten for theyr to much fowernes. Wylde and baren date 
trees, growe of them felues in fundry places, the branches wherof they vfe for biefommes, and eate alfo the 
buddes of the fame. Guarauana, being higher and bygger then the orange tree, bringeth furth a great frute 
as bygge as pome citrons. 

Ther is an other tree much lyke to a chefl.nut tree whofe frute is lyke to the bygger fort of fygs, beinge 
holfome and of plefant tafl.e. Mameis, is an other tree that bringeth foorthe frute as bygge as an orange, in 
tafle nothynge inferioure to the befl.e kyndes of melones. Guananala, Ijeareth a frute leffe then any of the 
other, but of fweete fauoure lyke fpice, and of delectable taft.e. Horns, is an other tree whofe frute bothe in 
fliape and tafte, is much lyke to prunes, but fumwhat bygger. They are furely perfuaded that this is the 
Myrobalane tree. Thefe growe foo abundantely in Hifpaniola, that the hogges are fedde with the frute therof 
as with maft.e amonge vs. The hogges lyke this kynde of feadynge foo well, that when thefe frutes wax rype, 
the fwyneherdes can by no meanes keepe them owte of the wooddes of thefe trees : by reafon wherof, a greate 
multytude of them are becoome wylde. They alfo affirme, that in Hifpariiola, fwynes flefflie is of much better 
tafl.e and more holfome then mutton. For it is not to bee doubted, but that dyuers kyndes of meates do 
engender fundry and qualities in fuche as are noryfhed therwith. The mofte puiffaunte prince Ferdi- 
nandus, declared that he had eaten of an other frute browght from thofe landes, beinge full of fcales with keyes 
much lyke a pine apple in forme and coloure, but in tendernes equal to melopepones, and in tafte excedyng all 
garden frutes. For it is noo tre, but an herbe much lyke vnto an archichoke, or Acantho. The kynge hym 
felfe, gaue the cheefeft commendation to this. I haue eaten none of thefe frutes. For of a great number 
which they browght from thenfe, only one remayned vncorrupted, the other being putrified by reafon of the 
longe vyage. All fuche as haue eaten of theym newely gathered in theyr natyue foyle, doo marueloufly com- 
mende theyr fwetenes and pleafaunt tafte. They dygge alfo owte of the ground certeyne rootes growynge of 
theim felues, whiche they caule Batatas, much lyke vnto the nauie rootes of Mylayne, or the greate puffes or 
mulheroms of the earth. Howe foo euer they bee dreffed, eyther fiyed or fodde, they gyue place to noo fuch 
kynde of meate in pleafant tendernes. The fkyn is fumwhat towgher then eyther of nauies or muffheroms, and 
of earthy coloure : But the inner meate therof, is verye whyte. Thefe are nooryffhed in gardens, as we fayde 
of lucca in the fyrfte Decade. They are alfo eaten rawe, and haue the tafte of rawe cheftnuttes, but are 
fumwhat fweeter. Wee haue fpoken fufficiently of trees, herbes, and frutes. We wyll nowe therefore entreate 
of thynges fencitiue. The laundes and defolate paftures of thefe regions, are inhabited and deuoured of wild 
and terrible beaftes, as Lions, Tygers, and fuch other monfters as we nowe knowe, and haue byn defcrybed of 
owlde autoures in tyme paft. But there is efpecially one beaft engendered here, in which nature hath 
endeuoured to fliewe her cunnyng. This beafte is as bygge as an oxe, armed with a longe fnoute lyke an 
Elephant, and yet no Elephant Of the colour of an oxe and yet noo oxe. With the houfe of a horfe, and 
yet noo horfe. With eares alfo much lyke vnto an Elephant, but not foo open nor foo much hangyng downe : 
yet much wyder then the eares of any other beafte. Of the beaft which beareth her whelpes about with her in 
her feconde belly as in a purfe (beinge knowen to none of the owlde wryters) I haue fpoken in the fyrft Decade 
which I doubte not to haue coome to the handes of yowre holynes. Let vs nowe therfore declare what refteth 
of the fluddes and ryuers of Vraba. The ryuer of Dariena fauleth into the goulfe of Vraba with a narowe 
Chanel, fcarily able to beare the canoas or lyghters of that prouince, and runneth by the vyllage where they 
chofe theyr dwellynge place. But the ryuer in the comer of the goulfe which we fayde that Vafchus paffed by, 
they found to bee. xxiiii. furlonges in bredth (which they caule a league) and of exceadynge depthe, as of twoo 
hundreth cubettes, faulynge into the goulfe by dyuers mouthes. They fay that this ryuer fauleth into the goulfe 
of Vraba, lyke as the ryuer IJler (otherwyfe cauled Danubius, and Danowe) fauleth into the fea Pontike, and 
Mlus into the fea of Egypte : wherfore they named it Grandis, that is great : whiche alfo they afRrme to nooryihe 
many and great Crocodyles, as the owld vnyters teftifie of Nilus, and efpecially as I haue lerned by experience, 
hauinge fayled vp and downe the ryuer of Niliis when I was fent ambafadoure to the Soldane of Alcayr at the 
commaundement of the mofte catholyke Kynge. What I may therfore gather owte of the wrytynges of fo many 
lemed autours as concerninge the ryuer of Nilus, I knowe not. For they fay that nature hath gyuen two 
riuers of that name to water the lande, whether they wyll them to fprynge owte of the mountaynes of the moone 

The_ frutefulnes of 

Dyuers holsomy 
frutes of trees. 


Pine trees. 
Date trees. 





Hogges fed with 
Swynes fiesshe of 
better tast and 
more holsum then 


Frutes putrifyed 
on the sea. 


Lions and Tygers. 
A straunge beast. 

The ryuers of 


The ryuer of 

Darien fauleth 

into the goulfe of 


A league ts xxiiii. 


Grandis or Rio 
A crocodile is 
much lyke an 
ente, but of 
excedyng bignes. 
The autoure of 
this booke was in 


The feconde Decade. 

The riuer Nilus 
in Egypte 
Monies Luna. 

The Portugales 

The ryiier Senega, 
another ch.-inneU 
of the ryuer of 
The thyrde and 
fourth Nilus. 
Delagat ios. 


The ryuers 
springe owt of the 

engendred on 
other ryuers 
besyde Nilus in 
Byrdes and foules. 


A philosophical 
discourse as 
th[e]original of 
springes and 

The breadth of 
the lande at 
Vraba, from the 
North Ocean to 
the South sea. 

A ryuer of 
byggenes lolte the 
first decade the 
ix. boke. 

The great ryuer 
Maragnonus. liber. 
iv. decade, i. 

Loke. VI, boke 
fyrst decade. 

The sea. 

The land enclosed 
with two seas. 

or the foonne, or owte of the toppes of the rowgh mountaines of Ethiopia: Affirming one of the fame to faule 
into the goulfe of Egypte toward the Northe, and the other into the South Ocean fea. What fhall wee faye in 
this place? Of that Nilus in Egypte, there is noo doubte. The Portugales alfo whiche fayle by the coaftes of 
the Ethiopians cauled Nigritce, and by the kyngedome of Mclinda paffinge vnder the Equinoctial! IjTie, amonge 
theyr maruelous inuentions haue founde an other towarde the South, and erneftly affirme the fame to bee alfo 
deriued from the mountaynes of the moone : And that it is an other chanell of Nilus, bycaufe it bryngeth foorth 
Crocodyles, whereas it hathe not byn reade before tyme that any other ryuer nooryfflied Crocodyles fauinge 
onely Nilus. This ryuer, the Portugales caule Senega. It runneth throwgh the Region of the Nigrifas, beinge 
very fmtefull towarde the north fhore • but on the fouthe fyde fandie and rowghe. Crocodiles are alfo engendred 
herein. What Ihall wee then fay of this thyrde : ye I may wel fay the fourth. For I fuppofe them alfo to bee 
Crocodiles which Colonus with his coompany founde armed \vith fcales as harde as (helles in the ryuer cauled 
Delagartos wherof wee haue made mention before. Shall wee fay that thefe ryuers alfo of Darien and Vraba, 
haue theyr originall frome the mountaynes of the moone, wheras they fprynge owte of the nexte mountaynes, 
and can by noo meanes haue the fame originall with Nilus in Egypte, or that in Nigrita, or els that in the 
kyngedome of Melinda, from whenfe foo euer they are deryued. Whereas thefe other (as we haue fayde) fpringe 
owt of the next mountaines whiche deuyde an other fouthe fea with noo greate diftaunce from the North Ocean. 
Wherfore it appeareth by experience of fuch as liaue trauayled the worlde in owre time, that other waters befyde 
the ryuer of Nilus in Egypte, maye lykewyfe brynge foorth Crocodiles. In the maryffhes alfo and fennes of the 
Regions of Dariena, are founde greate plentie of Phefauntes and peacockes, (but not of variable coloures) with 
many other kyndes of byrdes and foules vnlyke vnto owres, as well apte to bee eaten, as alfo to delite the eares 
of menne with pleafaunt noyfe. But owre Spanyardes, bycaufe they are ignorant in foulynge, take but fewe. 
Alfo innumerable popingayes of fundry kindes are found chattering in the groues of thofe fenny places. Of 
thefe there are fume equall to Capons in byggenes, and fume as lyttle as fparowes. But of the diuerfitie of 
popingayes, we haue fpoken fufficientely in the fyrfl Decade. For in the rafe of this large lande, Colonus hym 
felfe browght and fent to the courte a greate number of euery kynde, the which it was lawfuU for all the people 
to beholde, and are yet dayly browght in lyke maner. There remayneth yet one thynge mofle woorthy to bee 
put in hyftorye ; The which I had rather to haue chaunced into the handes of Cicero or Liuie, then into myne. 
For the thynge is foo marueylous in my eflimation, that I fynde my wytte more entangeled in the defcription 
hereof, then is fayde of the henne when (hee feeth her younge chekyn inwrapped in towe or flaxe. The breadth 
of that lande from the North Ocean to the fouth fea is only fyxe dayes ioumey by relation of th[e]inhabitantes. 
The multitude therfore and greatnes of the ryuers on the one fide and on the other fyde the narowenes of the 
lande, brynge me into fuche doubte howe it can coome to paffe, that in foo little a fpace of three dayes ioumey, 
meafurynge from the hygh toppes of thofe mountaynes, I doo not vnderflande howe foo many and foo great ryuers, 
may haue recourfe into this north fea. For it is to bee thought that as many doo flowe towarde th[e]inhabitantes 
of the fouthe. Thefe ryuers of Vraba are but fmaule, in comparifon of many other in thofe coaftes. For the 
Spanyardes fay, that in the tyme of Colonus, they founde and paffed by an other ryuer after this, whofe goulfe 
faulynge into the fea, they affirme to bee lyttle lefle then a hundreth myles in the fyrfte coaftes of Paria, as wee 
haue fayde elfewhere. For they faye that it fauleth from the toppes of hyghe mountaynes with foo fwyfte and 
furious a courfe, that by the violence and greatnes therof, it dryueth backe the fea althowgh it bee rowghe and 
enforced with a contrary wynde. They all affirme lykewyfe, that in all the large tracte therof, they felt noo 
fower or falte water, but that all the water was freffhe, fweete, and apte to bee dronke. Th[e]inhabitantes caule 
this ryuer Maragtwnum: And the regions adiacent to the fame, Mariatambal, Camamorus, and Paricora. 
Befyde thofe ryuers whiche I haue named before, as Darien, Grandis, Dabaiba, Beragua, Sanfli Mathei, Boius 
gatti, Delagartos, and Gaira, they which of late haue fearched thofe coaftes, haue founde many other. 
Dehberatinge therefore with my felfe, from whenfe thefe mountaynes beinge foo narowe and nere vnto the fea on 
bothe fydes, haue fuch great holowe caues or dennes of fuche capacitie, and from whenfe they are fylled to caft 
foorth fuch abundance of water, hereof alfo afkynge them the opinions of the inhabitantes, they affirme them to 
bee of dyuers iudgementes herein : Alleagynge fyrft the greatnes of the mountaynes to bee the caufe, whiche 
they fay to bee very hygh, which thynge alfo Colonus the firft fynder therof affirmeth to bee trewe : Adding there 
vnto that the Paradife of pleafure is in the toppes of thofe mountaines whiche appeare from the goulfe of Paria 
and Os Draconis, as he is fully perfuaded. They agree therfore that there is greate caues within thefe 
mountaynes : but it refteth to confyder from whenfe they are fylled. If therefore all the ryuers of frefflie waters 
by th[e]oppinion of manye, do foo flowe owte of the fea as dryuen and compelled throwghe the paffages or pores 
of the earth by the ponderous weyght of the fea it felfe, as wee fee them breake furth of the fprynges and directe 
their courfe to the fea ageyne, then the thynge is leflfe to bee marueyled at here then in other places. For wee 
haue not redde that in any other place twoo fuch feas haue enuironed any lande with foo narowe lymittes. 
For it hath on the right fyde, the great Ocean where the fonne goeth downe on the lefte hande : And an other 

The feconde Decade. 


on the other fyde where the fonne ryfeth, nothynge inferioure to the fyrfl in greatenes, for they fuppofe it to bee 
myxte and ioyned as all one with the fea of Eafl. India. 

This lande therefore being burdened with fo great a weight on the one fyde and on the other (yf this 
opinion bee of anye value) is enforced to fwalowe vp fuch deuoured waters, and ageyne to cafl foorth the fame 
in open fpringes and llreames. But if wee fhall denye that the earth draweth humours of the fea, and agree 
that all fountaynes or fprynges are engendered of the conuerfion or tumynge of ayer into water diflilling within 
the holowe places of the montaynes (as the mofl part thinke) we wyll gyue place rather to th[e]autoritie of 
them whiche flycke to thofe reafons, then that owre fenfe is fatifiyed of the full truth therof. Yet doo I not 
repugne that in fume caues of mountaynes, water is turned into ayer. For I my felfe haue feene, howe in the 
caues of manye mountaynes in Spayne, in maner (howers of rayne doo faule continually: And that 'he water 
gathered by this meanes, doth fend furth certeyne ryuers by the fydes of the mountaynes, wherwith al fuche 
trees as are planted on the fliepe or foote of the mountaynes, as vines, Oliue trees, and fuche other, are watered. 
And this efpecially in one place : As the ryght honorable Lodouike the Cardinall of Aragonie mode obfequious 
to yowre holynes, and twoo other byfhoppes of Italy, wherof the one is Siluius Pandonus, and the other an 
Archebyffliop (whofe name and tytle I doo not remember) can beare me wytnes. For when wee were togyther 
at Granata, lately delyuered from the dominion of the Moores, and walked for owre paflyme to certeine 
pleafaunte hylles (by the whiche there ranne a fayre ryuer) Whyle Cardinall Lodouike occupied hym felfe in 
fhutynge at byrdes whiche were in the buflies nere vnto the ryuer, I and the other twoo byffhops determined to 
clime the mountaynes to fearche th[e]originall and fpringe of the ryuer: for wee were not farre from the toppes 
thereof. Folowynge therefore the courfe of the ryuer, wee founde a greate caue in which was a continuall faule 
of water as it had byn a fhoure of rayne : the water wherof, faulyng into a trenche made with mans hand, 
encreafeth to a ryuer, and runneth downe by the fydes of the mountaynes. The lyke is alfo feene in this 
famous towne of Valladokto (where we nowe fuiome) in a certeyne greene clofe, not part, a furlonge diftant from 
the waules of the towne. I graunte therfore that in certeyne places by conuerfion of the ayrie dewe into water 
within the caues of fuche mountaynes, many fprynges and ryuers are engendred. But I fuppofe that nature was 
not foUicitate to brynge furthe fuche greate fluds by this fo fmaule induflry. Twoo reafons therfore, do found 
belle to my iudgement : whereof the one is, the often faule of rayne : The other, the continuall autumne or 
fprynge tyme which is in thofe regions beinge foo nere vnto the Equinoctial that the common people can 
perceaue no difference betwene the length of the day and the night throwgh owt al the yeare whereas thefe two 
feafons are more apte to engender abundance of rayne then eyther extreme wynter or feruent fummer An 
other reafon in effect much lyke vnto the fyrfl, is this : If the fea bee full of pores, and that by the pores therof 
beinge opened by the Southe windes, wee fhal confent that vapours are lyfted vp wherof the watery cloudes are 
engendred, this lande mufl needes bee moyfled with moo fhoures then anye other, yf it bee as narowe as they 
faye, and enuironed with twoo mayne feas collaterally beatinge on the fame. Howe fo euer it be : I can not 
but gyue credit to the report of fuch worthy men as haue recourfe to thofe regions : And can noo leffe then 
declare the fame albeit it may feeme incredible to fume ignorant perfons not knowynge the poure of nature to 
whome Plinie was perfuaded that nothynge was impoffible. Wee haue therfore thought it good to make this 
difcourfe by the way of argument, leafl on the one fyde, men of good lernyng and iudgement, and on the other 
fyde, fuche as are fludious to fynde occafions of quarelynge in other mens wrytynges, fhulde iudge vs to bee fo 
vndefcreete lyghtly to gyue creditte to euery tale not beinge confonant to reafon. But of the force and greate 
violence of thofe freffhe waters, which repulfmge the fea make fo greate a goulfe (as wee haue fayde) I thinke the 
caufe therof to bee the greate multitude of fluddes and ryuers, whiche beinge gathered togither, make fo great a 
poole ; and not one ryuer as they fuppofe. And for as muche as the mountaynes are excedynge hyghe and 
lliepe, I thinke the violence of the faule of the waters to be of fuch force, that this conflicte betwene the waters, 
is caufed by th[e]impulfion of the poole that the falte water can not enter into the goulfe. But here perhappes 
fume wyll marueyle at me why I ftiulde marueyle foo muche hereat, fpeakynge vnto me fcornefully after this maner. 
Why dothe he foo marueyle at the greate ryuers of thefe Regions? Hathe not Italye his Eridanus, named the 
kynge of ryuers of the owlde wryters ? Haue not other regions alfo the lyke ? as wee reede of Tanais, Ganges, 
and Danubius, which are fayde foo to ouercoome the fea, that frefhe water may be drawne fortie myles within 
the fame. Thefe menne I woolde fatiffie with this anfwere. The famous ryuer of Padtts, in Italye (whiche 
they nowe caule Po, and was of the Greekes cauled Eridanus) hath the greate mountaynes cauled Alpes 
diuidinge Fraunce, Germanie, and Pannonie from Italye, lyinge at the backe therof as it were bulwarges full 
of moyfture : And with a longe tracte receauinge Ticiimm with innumerable other great ryuers, fauleth into the 
fea Adriatike. The lyke is alfo to bee vnderllode of the other. But thefe ryuers (as owre men were enformed 
by the kynges) faul into the Ocean fea with larger and fuller chanels nere hand. And fume there are which 
affirme this lande to bee very large in other places althowgh it bee but narowe here. There commeth alfo to 
my remembranc