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Full text of "The fisheries and fishery industries of the United States"

UNITED STATES COMMISSION OF FISH AND FISHERIES 

K E\ B-A-IRD, COMMISSIONER 



THE FISHERIES 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES 



UNITED STATES 



PREPARED THROUGH THE CO-OPERATION OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES 
AND THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE TENTH CENSUS 



BY 



GEORGE BROWN GOODE 

ASSISTANT SECRETAET OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

AND A STAFF OF ASSOCIATES 



SECTION V 
HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES 

IN TWO VOLUMES, WITH AN ATLAS OF TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FIVE PLATES 

VOLUME II 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1887 



ASSOCIATE AUTHOKS. 



J'>"L A. ALLEN Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge. 

TARI.ETON H. BEAN U. S. National Museum, Washington. 

JAMKS TEMPLE. BROWN U. S. National Museum, Washington. 

A. HOWARD CLARK U. S. National Museum, Washington. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH \V. COLLINS Gloucester, Massachusetts. 

R. EDWARD EARLL U. S. Fish Com mission, Washington. 

HKNIIY \V. ELLIOTT Cleveland, Ohio. 

ERNEST IMJERSOLL - New Haven, Connecticut. 

DAVID S. JORDAN Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. 

LUDWIG KTMLIEN Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

MARSHALL MCDONALD U. S. Fish Commission, Washington. 

FREDERICK MATHER N. Y. Fish Commission, Cold Spring, New York. 

HARNET PHILLIPS Brooklyn, New York. 

RICHARD RATIUU-N U. S. National Museum, Washington. 

JOHN A. RYDEK U. S. Fish Commission, Washington. 

CHARLES W. SMILEY U. S. Fish Commission, Washington. 

SILAS STEARNS Pensacola, Florida. 

FREDERICK W. TRUE U. S. National Museum, Washington. 

WILLIAM A. WILCOX Gloucester, Massachusetts. 

ill 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



VOLUME I. 

Page. 

List of illustrations (see also Atlas of plates) XI 

PART I. THE HALIBUT FISHERIES : 

1. The Fresh-Halibut Fishery. By G. BROWN GOODE and J. W. COLLIXS 3-89 

2. The Salt-Halibut Fishery. By N. P. SCUDDER 90-119 

TART II. THE COD, HADDOCK, AND HAKE FISHERIES: 

1. The Bank Hand-Line Cod Fishery By G. BROWN GOODE and J. W. COLLINS 123-133 

2. The Labrador and Gulf of St. Lawrence Cod Fisheries. By G. BROWN GOODE and J. W. COLLINS. 133-147 

3. The Bank Trawl-Line Cod Fishery. By G. BROWN GOODE and J. W. COLLINS 148-187 

4. The George's Bank Cod Fishery. By G. BROWN GOODE and J. W. COLLINS 187-198 

5. The Cod Fishery of Alaska. By TARLETON H. BEAN 198-224 

G. The Gill-Net Cod Fishery. By J. W. COLLINS 225-233 

7. The Haddock Fishery of New England. By G. BROWN GOODE and J. W. COLLINS 234-241 

8. The Hake Fishery. By G. BROWN GOODE and J. W. COLLINS 241-243 

PART III. THE MACKEREL FISHERY. By G. BROWN GOODE and J. W. COLLINS: 

1. The Mackerel Purse-Seine Fishery 247-272 

2. The Spring Southern Mackerel Fishery 273-275 

3. The Mackerel Hook Fishery 275-294 

4. The Mackerel Gill- Net Fishery 294-298 

5. Early Methods of the Mackerel Fishery 298-300 

6. Legislation for the Protection of Mackerel 301-304 

7. Statistics of the Mackerel Fishery 304-313 

PART IV. THE S WORDFISH FISHERY. By G. BROWN GOODE 315-326 

PAUT V. THE MENHADEN FISHERY. By G. BROWN GOODE and A. HOWARD 

CLAEK 327-415 

PART VI. THE HERRING FISHERY AND THE SARDINE INDUSTRY. By R. 
EDWARD EARLL: 

1. The Herring Fishery of the United States 419-439 

2. The Frozen- Herring Industry 439-458 

3. The Pickled-Herring Trade with Magdaleu Islands, Auticusti, Newfoundland, and Labrador 459-472 

4. The Smoked-Herring Industry 473-488 

5. The Sardine Industry 489-524 

v 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PART VII. THE SHORE FISHERIES OF SOUTHERN DELAWARE. By J. W. 

COLLINS : 

Page. 

1. The Squetoagne or Trout Fishery 527-S33 

2. The Spot Fishery 533-538 

3. The Rock and Perch Fishery 538-540 

4. The Sturgeon Fishery of Delaware Bay 540-541 

PART VIII. THE SPANISH MACKEREL FISHERY. By E. EDWARD EARLL .... 543-552 

PART IX. THE MULLET FISHERY. By R. EDWARD EARLL 553-582 

PART X. THE RED-SNAPPER AND HAVANA MARKET FISHERIES. By SILAS 
STEARNS: 

1. The Red-Snapper Fishery 585-592 

2. The Havana Market Fishery of Key West, Florida 592-594 

PART XL THE POUND-NET FISHERIES OF THE ATLANTIC STATES. By 

FREDERICK W. TRUE 595-cio 

PART XII. THE RIVER FISHERIES OF THE ATLANTIC STATES: 

1. The Rivers of Eastern Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. By MARSHALL MCDONALD 613-625 

2. The Rivers and Sounds of North Carolina. By MARSHALL MCDONALD 625-637 

3. The Fisheries of Chesapeake Bay and its Tributaries. By MARSHALL MCDONALD 637-654 

4. The Fisheries of the Delaware River. By MARSHALL MCDONALD 654-657 

5. The Fisheries of the Hudson River. By MARSHALL MCDONALD : 658-659 

6. The Connecticut and Honsatouic Rivers and Minor Tributaries of Long Island Sound. By MAR- 

SHALL MCDONALD 659-667 

7. Rivers of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. By FREDERICK W. TRUE and W. A. WILCOX 667-673 

8. The River Fisheries of Maine. By C. G. ATKINS 673-728 

PART XIII. THE SALMON FISHING AND CANNING INTERESTS OF THE 

PACIFIC COAST. By D. S. JORDAN aud C. H. GILBERT 729-753 

PART XIV. THE FISHERIES OF THE GREAT LAKES. By LUDWIG KUMLIEN.. 755-769 

Index.. 771-808 



VOLUME II. 

List of illustrations (see also Atlas of plates) six 

PART XV. THE WHALE FISHERY: 

1. History and Present Condition of the Fishery. By A. HOWARD CLARK 3-218 

2. Whalemen, Vessels, Apparatus, and Methods of the Fishery. By JAMES TEMPLEMAN BROWN 218-U9I! 

PART XVI. THE BLACKFISH AND PORPOISE FISHERIES. By A. HOWARD 

CLARK 295-310 

PART XVII. THE PACIFIC WALRUS FISHERY. By A, HOWARD CLARK :m-3ia 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii 
PART XVIII. THE SEAL AND SEA-OTTER INDUSTRIES: 

Page. 

1. The Fur-Seal Industry of the Pribylov Islands, Alaska. By HENRY W. ELLIOTT 320-393 

2. The Fur-Sea,! Industry of Cape Flattery, Washington Territory. By JAMES G. SWAN 393-400 

3. The Antarctic Fur-Seal and Sea-H'ephant Industries. By A. HOWARD CLARK 400-467 

4. The Sea-Liou Hunt. By HENRY W. ELLIOTT 407-474 

5. The North Atlantic Seal Fishery. By A. HOWARD CLARK 474-483 

G. The Sea-Otter Fishery. By HENRY W. ELLIOTT 4H3-491 

PART XIX. THE TURTLE AND TERRAPIN FISHERIES. By FREDERICK W. 

TRUE 493-504 

PART XX. THE OYSTER, SCALLOP, CLAM, MUSSEL, AND AB ALONE INDUS- 
TRIES. By ERNEST INGERSOLL : 

1. The Oyster Industry '. 507-565 

2. The Scallop Fishery 505-581 

3. The Clam Fisheries 581-615 

4. The Mussel Fishery f>l. r j-tyx! 

5. The Abalone Fishery tWi-Gdt; 

PART XXL THE CRAB, LOBSTER, CRAYFISH, ROCK-LOBSTER, SHIUMP, 
AND PRAWN FISHERIES. By RICHARD RATHBUN : 

1. The Crab Fisheries 629-658 

2. The Lobster Fishery 658-794 

3. The Crayfish Fishery 794-797 

4. The Rock-Lobster Fishery 798-799 

5. The Shrimp and Prawn Fisheries 799-M10 

PART XXIL THE LEECH INDUSTRY AND TREPANG FISHERY. By RICHARD 

RATHBUN sn-sic 

PART XXIII. THE SPONGE FISHERY AND TRADE 817-841 

Index. 843-881 



LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. 

* [Engraved by the Photo-Engraving Company of Now York City.] 



(Page references to Volumes I and II of text.) 

THE FRESH HALIBUT FISHERY. 

VoL Page. 

1. Halibut schooner under jib, foresail, and double-reefed mainsail; nests of dories on deck amid- 

ships; rigged for fall and winter fishiug I, 

Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

2. Halibut schooner in summer rig, two topmasts up and all sails spread .. I, 

Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. (Engraved by Photo-Electrotype Company.) 

3. FIG. 1. Sectional plan of halibut schooner. (See page opposite plate for explanation) I, 

FIG. 2. Deck plan of halibut schooner. (See page opposite plate for explanation) 9 

Drawings by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

4. Sectional plan of well-smack employed in the fresh halibut fishery ou George's Bank, 183G to 1845. 

(See page opposite plate for explanation) 

Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

5. FIG. 1. Bait chopper 

FIG. 2. Bait slivering knife 

FIG. 3. Halibut killer and gob stick I, 

FIG. 4. Woolen hand nipper 

FIG. 5. Halibut gaff I, 1' 

FIG. 0. Trawl buoy and black ball I> 

FIG. 7. Canvas skate for section of trawl I> 

FIG. 8. Dory scoop 10 

Drawings by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

6. FIG. 1. Hurdy-gurdy to haul trawls in deep water I, 10,11,10 

FlG. 2. Dory showing mode of attaching and using the hurdy-gurdy I, 10, 11, 10 

FIG. 3. Trawl roller attached to dory gunwale for hauling trawls in shoal water.. I, 10 

Drawings by Capt. .1. \V. Collins. 

7. Cutting bait and baiting trawls on halibut schooner at anchor ou the fishing grounds. . ... I, 12 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

8. Dories and crew ou the way to haul the trawls; the schooner at anchor under riding sail I, 13-10 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. "W. Collins. 

9. Halibut dory and crew hauling the trawl, gaffing and clubbing the halibut I, 10 

Drawing by H. VT. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

10. Dory and crew caught to leeward in a storm while hauling the trawl ; trawl-buoy and line drifted 

astern of the vessel for their rescue I, 10,80 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

11. Halibut schooner at anchor on the Grand Bank in winter, riding out a gale I, 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

12. Halibut schooner "lyiug-to :) in a gale on the Bank, under riding sail and doublti-ivrfrd foresail. I, 

Drawing by El. W. Elliott and Capt. J. \V. Colliua. 

13. Halibut schooner tripped by a hi ;i\ \ si a 

Drawing by H. TV. Elliott and C:ij>t. J. W. Collins. 

14. Halibut schooner in winter, head-reaching under short sail I, 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 



X LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. 

Vol. Page. 

15. Old-atyle halibut schooner, hand-line fishing from deck, 1840 to 1850 I, 29-43 

Drawing by H. \V. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

Hi. Dressing hadibut on deck of schooner for icing in the hold I, 19 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

17. FIG. 1. Halibut cutting knife I, 19 

FIG. 2. Scraping knife to remove muscle and flesh from backbone after cutting I, 19 

FIG. 3. Squillgee for pushing ice iu pen I, 19 

FIG. 4. Oak mallet for breaking ice I, 19 

FIG. 5. Oak broom for scrubbing halibut I, 19 

Drawings by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

18. General view of schooner discharging fare of fresh halibut at Gloucester, Mass I, 21 

Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

19. Hoisting halibut from hold of schooner at Gloucester, Mass I, 21 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

20. Weighing and selling halibut on deck of George's Bank hand-Hue cod schoouer I, 22 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. T. W. Collins. 

21. Handling fresh halibut at Gloucester, Mass.; weighing, unheadiug, and packing in ice for ship- 

ment by rail I, 22 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

22. Packing fresh halibut at Gloucester, Mass.; preparing ice with pick and grinding machine ; nail- 

ing covers on the boxes; use of devil's claw I, 22 

Drawings by H. W. Elliott. 

THE BANK HAND-LINE AND TRAWL COD FISHERIES. 

23. Old style Grand Bank cod schooner ; crew at rails hand-line fishing I, 125,126 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

24. Hand-line dory cod fishing on the Grand Bank I, 126 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

25. Deck plan of schooner Centennial, of Gloucester I, 149 

Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 
20. Dory and crew setting cod trawls on the Bank I, 152, 17G 

Drawing by ff. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

27. Underrunniug cod trawls ; two methods of setting trawl for underrunning I, 177 

Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

28. Newfoundland fishermen catching squid for sale as cod bait to United States vessels I, 152,184 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

29. Dory crew of cod fishermen catching birds for bait I, 152 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

(For illustration of cod schooners discharging cargoes see Section on Preparation of Fishery Prod- 
ucts.) 

THE GEORGE'S BANK COD FISHERY. 

30. Gloucester schooner at anchor on George's Bank in winter ; hand-Hue fishing for cod ; rigged with- 

out topmasts for rough weather I, 190-193 

From painting by Paul E. Collins, Boston, Mass. 

31. Cod hand-line gear I, 192 

FIG. 1. Lead sinker with brass horse and swivels. 
FIG. 2. George's Bank gear with sling-ding, &c. 
FIG. 3. Hand-Hue gear for shoal water. 
Drawings by Capt. J. \V. Collins. 

32. George's Bank crew hand-line fishing, gaffing fish over the rail, cutting out tongues 1, 194 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

33. Dressing cod on deck of fishing schooner I, 156, 180, 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 195 

34. Discharging fare of George's Bank cod at Gloucester wharf. . . I, 195 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1882. 

35. Splitting and washing George's Bank cod at Wonson's wharf, Gloucester, Mass I, 195 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1882. 

THE COD FISHERY OF ALASKA. 

36. Natives in boats fi.shing with hand-lines I, 220 



LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. XI 

THE GILL-NET COD FISHERY. 

VoL Page. 

37. Method of hauging cod gill-nets in Norway. (Explanation with plate) I, 227,228 

From Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, Vol. I. Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

:'.-'. FIG. 1. Method of attaching glass floats to top of nets I, 228 

FIG. 2. Method of fastening sinkers to foot of nets. (Explanation on plate) I, 228 

From Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, Vol. I. Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

:iS). Norwegian method of sotting gill-nets at bottom. (Explanation on plate) I, 228 

From Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, Vol. I. Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collina. 

10. Norwegian methods of setting nets to get position of fish. (Explanation on plate) I, 228 

From Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, Vol. I. Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

41. Norwegian method of attaching stone anchors and huoy lines to end of gangs of nets. (Explana- 

tion on plate) I, 228 

From Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, Vol. I. Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

42. Way in which cod gill-nets are set at the bottom on the east coast of Newfoundland. (Explana- 

tion on plate) I, 230 

From Bulletin TJ. S. Fish Commission, Vol. I. Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

43. The ordinary way in which cod gill-nets are set floating at Newfoundland. (Explanation on 

plate) I, 230 

From Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, Vol. I. Drawing by Capt J. W. Collins. 

44. Way in which cod gill-nets are set for underrunning in Ipswich Bay, Massachusetts. (Explana- 

tion on plate) I, 232 

From Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, Vol. I. Drawing by Capt. J. W. Collins. 

45. Uudeminning cod gill-nets in Ipswich Bay, Massachusetts I, 232 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. ~W. Collins. 

THE INSHORE COD FISHERY. 



46. Block Island boat and crew hand-lining for cod 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

47. Pink stern schooner anil boats hand-line tishing off Cape Ann, Massachusetts 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

THE HADDOCK FISHERY. 

48. Baiting trawls on deck of Gloucester haddock schooner Mystic, Captain McKiuuou I, 237 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

4!'. Baiting trawls at night in hold of haddock schooner I, 237 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1882. 

.">0. Setting haddock trawls from schooner under sail; set at right angles to course of the vessel I, ij: 1 .- 1 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. 3. W. Collins. 

THE HAKE FISHERY. 

51. Fishermen's dories on the rocks at Folly Cove, Cape Ann, Massachusetts I, 241 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

52. Fishermen in dory hauling trawl ; a dogfish caught I, 242 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

53. Overhauling trawls in fish-house at Rockport, Mass I, 242 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

THE MACKEREL PURSE-SEINE FISHERY. 

54. Mackerel schooner under full sail, bound out I, 248 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collina. 
.V>. The cabin of mackerel schooner John D. Long of Gloucester, Mass I, 247 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

~.u'. Deck plan of mackerel schooner. (Explanation on plate) I, 248 

Drawing by (.'apt. J. W. Collins. 

~>7. Seine boat ; purse davit and blocks ; oar-rests; purse weight and purse blocks; bow fittings.... I, 250 

5.- 1 . Seine boats in winter quarters at Gloucester, Mass I, 250 

From photograph by T. \V. Smillie. 

."'.'. FIG. 1. Diagram showing the different, sections of a purse-seine I, 252 

FIG. 2. Diagram showing the form of a purse-seine when spread in the water I, 252 

Drawings by Capt. J. W. Cull in-. 



xii LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. 

Vol. Page. 

60. Mackerel schooner cruising in Massachusetts Bay; lookout at foretop on the watch for schools .. I, 255 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

61. Lookouts aloft on schooner on the watch for mackerel I> 255 

Drawing hy H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

62. Mackerel seine-boat and crew "paying out the seine" - I. 256 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

03. Mackerel seine-boat and crew pursing the seine I, 256 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. "W. Collins. 

04. Mackerel schooner with crew at work bailing mackerel from the purse-seine I, 258 

Drawing hy H. W.Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

65. Mackerel schooner with pocket or spiller shipped at sea . . . , I, 265 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt J. W. Collins. 

66. Mackerel schooner just arrived from cruise ; crew dressing and salting the fish I, 207 

From photograph bv T. W. Smillie. 

67. Culling.and packing mackerel at Portlaud, Me I, 267 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

THE MACKEREL HOOK FISHERY. 

68. Surf-fishing in boats for mackerel I, 275 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 
09. Mackerel jigs and jig molds. (Explanation on plate) I, 278 

70. Jigging mackerel over the vessel's rail I, 284 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt J. W. Collins. 

71. Gaffing mackerel over the vessel's rail I, 279 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

72. FIG. 1. The old method of choppiug mackerel bait I, 279-283 

FIG. 2. The modern mackerel bait-mill I, 279-283 

Drawings by H. "W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

73. Throwing bait to toll mackerel alongside the vessel I, 284 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 
7-1. Deck scene on mackerel hand-line schooner; jigging mackerel, slatting in the barrel, throwing 

toll-bait I, 284 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

75. Mackerel-packing on shipboard I, 2S7 

FIG. 1. Splitting, cleaning, and washing. 
FIG. 2. Pitching, salting, and plowing. 

Drawings by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

THE MACKEREL GILL-NET FISHERY. 

76. Mackerel drag-nets set at night off coast of Maine I, 2D4 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J W. Collins. 

77. Cape Cod mackerel drag-boat lying to at night I, 294 

From sketch by J. S. Ryder. 

78. Dory fishermen picking mackerel gill-nets I, 294 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. " 

THE MACKEREL FISHERY EARLY METHODS. 

79. Old style Chebacco boats drailing for mackerel I, 299 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

80. Angling with poles for mackerel from an old Noank, Conn., sloop I, 299 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt J. W. Collins. 

STATISTICS OF THE MACKEREL FISHERY. 

81. Diagram showing the catch of mackerel by citizens of Massachusetts between the years 1804 and 

1881, inclusive I, 312 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, Part IX, 18S1. 



LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. Xlll 

THE SWORDFISH FISHERY. 

Vol. Page. 

82. Sword fishermen in position for action I, 318 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, Part VIII, 1880. 

83. Methods of swordfish capture in the Mediterranean Sea I, 318 

From Report TJ. S. Fisli Commission, Part VIII, 1880. 

THE MENHADEN FISHERY. 

84. Map illustrating geographical distribution and periodical movements of the menhaden ; also 

the locations of the fishing grounds and oil and guano factories in the year 1878. (No 

factories now in Maine; many in Chesapeake Bay) I, 331,343 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, Part VI, 1878. 

85. Menhaden steamer Joseph Church approaching oil and guano factory at Tiverton, R. I I, 334 

From photograph hy T. W. Smillie. 

86. Menhaden steamer William Floyd cruising for fish I, 334 

From sketch hy Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

87. Lookouts at mast-head of menhaden steamer watching for schools of fish I, 338 

From sketch by J. S. Ryder. 

88. Fleet of menhaden 'steamers en route to fishing grounds on south side of Long Island, N. Y I, 338 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

89. Fleet of menhaden steamers on the fishing grounds ; seining crews at work I, 338 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conkliij. 

90. Crew of menhaden steamer surrounding a school with purse-seine I 337-339 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

1)1. Pursing the seine around a school of menhaden I, 337-331) 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

92. Menhaden crew at work ; pursing of the seine nearly completed I, 33'.) 

From sketch by H. W. Elliott, 1878. 

93. School of menhaden surrounded with purse-seine and fish striking the net I, 339 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

94. Bailing menhaden from purse-seine into steamer's hold I, 337, 340 

From sketch by J. S. Ryder. 

95. Menhaden steamer bailing in the catch I, 340 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

96. Haul-seine fishing for menhaden at Long Island, 1790 to 1850. Setting the seine I, 341, :UK 

371 
From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

97. Haul-seine fishing for menhaden at Long Island, 1790 to 1850. Hauling thes eiue on the heach 

by horse-power I, 341,308, 

371 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

98. Haul-seine fishing for menhaden at Long Island, 1790 to 1850. Taking out the fish I, 341,368, 

371 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

99. Menhaden purse and mate boats and two carry-away hoats starting for the fishing grounds I, 334,368 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

100. Menhaden purse and mate boats I, 334,368 

FIG. 1. Going down to the fish. 
FIG. 2. Working to windward of the fish. 
From sketches by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

101. Purse and mate boats encircling a school of menhaden ; carry away boats in waiting I, 334,368 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

102. Menhaden boats and crew pursing the seine; the fish striking the net I, 334,368 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

103. Menhaden sloops cruising for fish. One of the sloops is for the crew to live on and to tow the 

seine-boats; the others to carry fish to the factory I, 331,368, 

375, 376 
From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

104. Menhaden sloops and steamers in Gardiner's Bay, Long Island I, 399 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

105. Menhaden carry-away sloops bailing in the catch - I, 376,37? 

From sketch by Capt B. F. Conklin. 

106. Menhaden fishermen signaling to shore-crews the approach of a school of fish I, 367 



LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. 

Vol. I'ago. 

107. Crew of menhaden schooner, in old style seine-boat, throwing the purse-seine I, 336,338 

108. Carry-away boat with haul of menhnden on the way to oil factory I, 373 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

109. Meudadeu steamer discharging its catch at oil and guano factory, Tiverton, K. I I, 337 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

110. Gang of Portuguese in hold of menhaden steamer filling the hoisting tubs I, 337 

From photograph by T. "W. Suiillio. 

111. Fish pens on top floor of menhaden factory ; the fish are led through a trough to the cooking 

tanks I, 337 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 
113. Menhaden steamer discharging its catch at oil and guano factory. Incline railway to carry Msh 

to cooking tanks I, 337 

From sketch by Capt. B. F. Conklin. 

113. Menhaden floating factory. An old vessel fitted as an oil factory and moved from place to place 

near the fishing grounds I, 345,378 

Drawing by H. L. Todd. 

114. Slivering menhaden for bait 

From Report TJ. S. Fish Commission, Part V, 1877. 

llii. Menhaden oil and guano factory at Milford, Conn.; steamers unloading fish at the wharf: inclino 
railway to carry fish to cooking tanks on upper floor of factory; oil tanks and storage 
sheds in foreground; platform for dry ing scrap in rear of factory, connected with building 

by elevated railway I, 342 

From a photograph. 
(Interiors of oil factories will be illustrated in Section on Preparation of Fishery Products.) 

THE HERRING FISHERY AND SARDINE INDUSTRY. 

116. Herring schooner bound for Wood Island, Maine ; outfit of salt and barrels on deck I, 426 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

117. Herring pinkey bound for the fishing grounds ; nets hangiug over bowsprit and stern ; net dories 

on deck I, 4'JO 

From photograph by T. W. SmiUie. 

118. Torching at night for spnrliug or small herring in Ipswich Bay, Massachusetts I, 428 

From sketch by J. S. Ryder. 

111). Torching herring at night near East port, Me I, 429 

From photograph by T. W". Smillie. 

120. Fishermen mending lierriug gill-nets at House Island, Casco Bay I, 430 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

121. Irish fishermen of Boston picking their herring nets in Gloucester Harbor. The typical " Irish 

market boat" I, 430 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

122. Cape Ann herriug fishermen landing their gill-nets after a night's fishing I, 430 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

123. Fishermen in quoddy boat hauling herring gill-nets I, 430 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. "W. Collins. 

THE SMOKED HERRING INDUSTRY. 

124. Boat landing; fish houses; herring smoke-house ; fisherman's dwelling and farm I, 470 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

125. Old style herring smoke-house (without roof ventilators) at Lubec, Me I, 476 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

12(>. Herring " horse" loaded with smoked fish on sticks I, 478 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

127. Herring smoke-house at Eastport, Me. ; sinoke ventilators on roof ; sticks of herring inside I, 4&n 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

THE SAKDIXK INDUSTRY. 

128. Shore herring weir near Easlpnit, Me. ; the common form of brush weir I, 501 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

129. Bar herring weir near Eastport, Me. ; escape of fish prevented by receding tide I, 500 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 



LIST Ol' 1 PLATES TO SECTION V. XV 

Vol. Page. 

130. Channel herring weir near Eastport, Me. ; controls channel between islands I, 501 

From photograph by T. W. Sinillie. 

131. Section of ballasted weir near Eastport, Me. ; for rocky bottom I, 502 

From photograph hy T. W. Sinillie. 

132. Fishing a herring weir at low tide, near Eastport, Me I, 503 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

133. General view of sardine cannery at Eastport, Me I, 508 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

134. View of sardine cannery at low tide, showing the employe's at work I, 508 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

135. Herring boat landing fish at a sardine cannery, Eastport, Me I, 50!) 

From photograph hy T. W. Smillie. 
lob'. Sardine steamer for collecting herring and towing weir boats I, 510 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

KIT. Children al sardine cannery cutting oft" the heads and tails and cleaning small herring for can- 
ning I, .MO 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

]''*. Washing, draining, and flaking herring at sardine cannery, Eastport, Me I, 5)'.! 

From photograph by T. \V. Smillie. 

13SI. Spreading herring on flakes for drying in the sun or in an oven I, fill 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

140. Herring drying on flakes in the sun ; landing, cleaning, washing, &c., at sardine cannery, East- 

port. Me '. I, 513 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

141. Fish-drying frames on roof at sardine cannery, Eastport, Me I, 512 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

1 1','. Frying room in sardine cannery, East port, Me. ; herring frying in pans of oil I, ,M4 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

143. Packing room at sardine cannery, Eastport, Me. ; packing herring-sardines in tin boxes I, f>lo 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

144. Soldering room at sardine cannery, Eastport, Me. ; solderers sealing the cans I, 51(i 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

145. Bathing room at sardine cannery, Eastport, Me.; bathing vats at the left ; men at right venting 

cans I, 51? 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

146. Making sard ine cans at Eastport, Me I, 518 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

THE SPANISH MACKEREL FISHERY. 

147. Methods of setting Spanish mackerel gill-nets I, 546 

FIG. 1. " Straight set." 
FIG. 2. Circle set. 
FIG. 3. Crooked set. 
FIG. 4. "Hook set." 
FIG. 5. "Tset." 
FIG. 6. " Square set." 
FIG. 7. "Triangle set," 
FIG. 8. " Harpoon set." 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, Tart VIII, 1880. 

148. Chesapeake Bay Spanish mackerel pound-net I, 548 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, Part VIII, 1880. 

THE MULLET FISHERY. 

1 I'J Camp of mullet fishermen, North Carolina I, 5C2 

From a photograph. 

THE POUND-NET FISHERIES OF THE ATLANTIC STATES. 

150. Diagram of pound-net at Bald Head, Maine. (By Capt. J. W. Collins) I, 598 

151. Diagram of pound-net at, Small Point, Maine. (By Capt. J. W. Collins) I, 598 



LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. 

Vol. Page. 

152. FIG. 1. Diagram of pound-net at Wood's Holl, Mass I, 601 

FIG. 2. Diagram of heart or ponnd net as set in Rhode Island I, 604 

FIG. 3. Diagram of slat weir at East Dennis, Mas8 I, 599 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, Part II, 1872-'73. 

153. FIG. 1. Diagram of pound-net at Waqnoit, Mass I, 601 

FIG. 2. Diagram of heart or pound net at Quissett Harl'-r, Massachusetts I, 601 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, Part II, 1872-73. 

THE RIVER FISHERIES OF THE ATLANTIC STATES. 

154. Fishing with hack and square traps in the Savannah River I, 620 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

155. Shad gill-nets in the Eclisto River, South Carolina I, 623 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

156. Fish-nets in the Pedee River I, 6'J4 

From a photograph. 

157. A sturgeon camp on Wiuyah Bay, South Carolina ; catching sturgeon in gill-nets; the pound for 

keeping fish alive ; unhcading ; saving roe for caviare I, 025 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

158. Drag-net fishing in the Neuse River, North Carolina; " footing up the net " I, 628 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

159. Skim-net fishing for shad in the Nense River, North Carolina I, 629 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

1GO. Haul-seine fishing at Sutton Beach, Albemarle Sound, North Carolina ; boating the seine I, 6o<> 

From a photograph. 

161. Haul-seine fishing at Sutton Beach, Albemarle Sound, North Carolina; a large haul of alewives. I, 636 

From a photograph. 

162. Shad-fishing in Albemarle Sound ; laying out the seine I, 630 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

163. Shad-fishing at night on the Susquehanna River; laying out the gill-net I, 652 

From a photograph. 

104. Diagram of salmon weirs in PenoLscot River, Maine I, 680 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, Part II, 1872-73. 

165. Plan of salmon-net, Peuobscot Bay, Maine I, 682 

From Report CT. S. Fish Commission, Part II, 1872-73. 

166. Ideal perspective of salmon-net in 1'enobscot Bay, Maine I, 682 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, Part II, 1872-73. 

167. Diagram of shad weir, Kennebec River, Maine. (Explanation on page opposite plate) I, 684 

Ki8. Bag-net fishing for smelts uuder the ice, Penobscot River, Maiue. (Full explanation on page 

opposite plate) I, 691 

From sketch by C. G. Atkins. 

THE PACIFIC COAST SALMON FISHERY. 

169. Salmon cannery at Astoria, Oreg. '. I, 745 

From a photograph. 

THE FISHERIES OF THE GREAT LAKES. 

170. Kelley's pound-net near Carpenter's Point, Lake Erie, for capture of whitefisb, herring, &c. 

(For description of parts see plate) I, 758 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

171. Lifting the pot at Kelley's pound-net, Lake Erie I, 760 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

17'J. Green May pound-net oft' Ingersoll's Fishery I, 758 

Drawing by L. Kumlien. 

173. " Driving the pound." Stake-boat and crr\v nil' Marblehead, Lake Eric, driving stakes for pound- 

net. At close of season the other end of the same boat pulls the stakes I, 760 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

174. Deck plan of stake-boat. Stake-puller of Lake Erie. (For description of parts see plate) I, 760 

175. Pouud-uet at Detroit River I, 758 

From sketch liy L. Knmlirn. 

17(>. Bailing out the pot of pound-net at Detroit River I, 758 

From sketch by L. Kumlien. 



LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. 

Vol. Page. 

177. Camp at South Manitou Island, Lake Michigan. Fishing-boats; gill-nets on reel ; shanty for 

cleaning fish .- j ( 762 

From a photograph. 

178. Gill-net drying on reel I, 764 

From a photograph. 

179. Type of fishermen's summer house. Seine shed, tarring-box annexed I, 765 

Drawing by H, W. Elliott, 1882. 

180. Hauling in herring-seine at Herbert's Fishery, Detroit River. Inclosure for keepingtinh alive.. I, 7C6 

Sketch by L. Kumlien. 

181. Pond fishery, Detroit River; inclosure for keeping fish alive I, 766 

Photograph by U. S. Fish Commission. 

182. Overhauling the seine at Grassy Island Fishery, Detroit River . I, 766 

Photograph by U. S. Fish Commission. 

THE WHALE FISHERY. 

183. Map of the world on Mercator's projection, showing the extent and distribution of the present 

and abandoned whaling grounds. (Prepared by A. Howard Clark in 1680) II, 7-23 

184. FIG. 1. The sperm whale (Pltyseter macrocephalus'). 

FIG. 2. The California gray whale (Ehachianectes glaucug). 

FIG. 3. The North Pacific humpback whale (Meyaptera versabilia). 

FIG. 4. The sulphur-bottom whale (SibbaMius sulfureus). 

FIG. 5. The finback or Oregon tinner (Balamoptera velifera). 

FIG. 6. The Pacific right whale (Eubalaiiia cullamach). 

FIG. 7. The bowhead whale (I>al(ea mysticetus). 

From Report U. S. Fish Commission, 1876. Natural History in Section I of this report. 

185. Whaling vessels fitting out at New Bedford wharves II, 232 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

186. Whaling schooner Amelia, of New Bedford, Mass II, 232 

Drawing by C. S. Ealeigh. 

187. Steam whaling-bark Mary & Helen, of New Bedford, Mass, (afterwards the Rodgers, of the Jean- 

nette search expedition) IT, 236 

Drawing by C. S. Ealeigh. 

188. Deck plan and side and interior plan of whaling-schooner Amelia, of New Bedford, Mass. (Ex- 

planation on page opposite plate) II, 234 

Drawings by C. S. Ealeigh. 

189. Deck plan and side and interior plan of whaling-bark Alice Knowles, of New Bedford, Mass. 

(Explanation on page opposite plate) II, 234 

Drawings by C. S. Kaleigb. 

190. Starboard quarter of a whale-ship, showing the manner of transporting the captain's boat and tho 

spare boats. (Explanation on page opposite plate) II, 243,244 

191. Deck view of whale-boat equipped with apparatus of capture and boat gear. (Explanation on 

page opposite plate) II, 241,258 

Drawing by C. S. Kiileigh. 

192. Side and interior plan of wh;ilo-l>oat equipped with npp.arat.iis of capture, &c. (Explanation 

on page opposite plate) II, 241,258 

Drawing by C. S. Ealeigh. 

193. Articles of whale-boat gear '. II, 240,25^ 

FIG. 1. Lantern keg containing matches, bread, &c. 

FIG. 2. Boat compass. 

FIG. 3. Water keg. 

FIG. 4. Piggin for bailing water. 

FIG. 5. Waif for signaling. 

FIG. 6. Tub oar crotch. 

FIG. 7. Double oar-lock. 

FIG. 8. Large line in line-tub. 

FIG. 9. Knife to cut line when fonL 

FIG. 10. Row-lock. 

FIG. 11. Hatchet to cut line when fonl. 

FIG. 12. Grapuel to catch line. 

FIG. 13. Drag or drug to retard whale. 

FIG. 14. Canvas nipper to protect hands from running lina 

SEC. V, VOL. II II 



LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. 

VoL Page. 

194. Whalemen's harpoons II, 250 

FIG. 1. Improved harpoon or toggle-iron now in general use. 

FIGS. 2, 3. First form of toggle-iron made by Lewis Temple. 

FIG. 4. One-flued harpoon with hinged toggle. 

FlO. 5. One-flued harpoou. 

FIG. 6. Two-fined harpoon. 

FIG. 7. Toggle-iron invented by I'rovincctown whaleman; not in use. 

195. English harpoons II, 250 

FIG. 1. Old-style hand-harpoon ; now little used. 
Fio. 2. Hand-harpoon in general use about 1857. 
FIG. 3. Hand-harpoon now in general use on Scotch whalers. 
Drawings by Capt. William Adams, Dundee, Scotland. 

196. FIG. 1. English harpoon-gun and gun-harpoon now in use on Scotch whalers II, 252 

FIG. 2. An early form of English whaliug-guu II, 252 

FIGS. 3, 4,5. Mason and Cunningham mounting boat-gun; a recent invention. (Explanation 

with plate) II, 252 

ICY. FiG. 1. Pierce and Cunningham darting-gun ; a combined harpoon and lance used largely by 

Arctic whalemen. (Explanation with plate) II, 254 

FIQ. 2. Cunningham and Cogan gun ; length, 33 inches; weight, 27 pounds; used by Arctic steam 

whalers with bomb lance II, 253 

FIG. 3. Brand muzzle-loading whaling-gun and bomb lance II, 253,254, 

255 

198. FIGS. 1,2,3,4. Pierce boruh-lance. (Explanation on page opposite plate) II, 254,267 

FIG. 5. Pierce and Eggers breech-loading gun. (Explanation on page opposite plate j II, 253,^67 

199. Whaling rocket. (Explanation on page opposite plate) II, 254 

200. Boat fastened to whale by harpoon and line ; killing the whale with bomb lance II, 262,207 

From painting by J. S. Ryder. 

201. Natives harpooning the beluga, or white whale, at Cook's Inlet, Alaska II, 61 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1883. 

202. Aleuts planting glass, ohsidian, and jade darts in a school of humpback whales at Akoon Island, 

Bering Sea II, 61,62 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1883. 

203. Makah Indians whaling at entrance to Fuca Straits II, 62 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1883. 

204. Cutting in the bowhead and sperm whales. (Explanation on page opposite plate) II, 277,286 

Drawings by Capt. C. M. Scammon and Capt. W. M. Barnes. 

205. FIG. 1. Boat spade to stop running whale II, 204 

FIG. 2. Narrow cutting spado or thin boat spade II. 'J-l 

FiG. 3. Flat or round shank spade II, 281 

FiG. 4. Cutting spade for scarfing blubber II, 281 

FiG. 5. Cutting spade for leaning up II, 21 

FIG. 6. Half-round spade II, 281 

206. Cutting blocks and tackle. (Explanation on page opposite plate) II, 277-281 

207. A ship on the north west coast of America cutting in her last right whale II, 277 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott from a French litho-^rapb designed by B. Russell, of .New r.i-dford. 

208. "Bailing in the case" of a sperm whale II, 277 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott from a French lithograph designed by B. Russell, of New Bedford. 

209. FiG. 1. Blubber mincing-knife. 
FIG. 2. Boarding-knife. 

FIG. 3. Monkey-belt. 
FIG. 4. Wooden toggle. 
FIG. 5. Chain-strap. 
FIG. 6. Throat-chain. 
FIG. 7. Fin toggle. 
FIG. 8. Head-strap. 
FIG. 9. Blubber-hook. 

210. Whale-ships at New Bedford wharf; ship hove down for repairs ; oil-casks II, 289,290 

From photograph by U. S. Fish Commission. 

THE BLACKFISH AND PORPOISE FISHERY. 

211. Capture of a school of blackfish in Cape Cod Bay II, 295,307 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott from a sketch by J. S. Ryder. 



LIST OF TLATES TO SECTION "V. 

VoL Page. 
212. Indian porpoise hunters of Passamaqnoddy Bay. Canoe, rifle, and lance for capture of porpoise. II, 308 

From jihntu^ruph by T. W. Sinillie. 

21H. Psssainaciuoddj Hay Indians lancing and securing a porpoise........... II, 308 

From photograph by T. W. Suiillie. 

THE PACIFIC WALRUS FISHERY. 

214. Innuits of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska, surprising and harpooning a herd of walruses II, 313 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

215. The walrus "coup." Eskimo lancing the exhausted walrus, Saint Lawrence Island, Bering 

Sea. Mahlemut dresses, bidarka, baidar, &c., of Alaska .- II, 313 

Drawing by H. W. Kllioit. 

216. Iiiunits of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska, hoisting a walrus II, 313 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

THE FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY OF ALASKA. 

217. Map of Saint Paul's Island, Pribylov Group II, 322 

Surveyed and drawn, April, 1S73, to July, 1874, by Henry \V. Elliott 

218. Map of Saint George Island, Pribylov Group II, 322 

Surveyed and drawn, April, 1873, to July, 1874, by H. W. Elliott 

-11). Profiles of the east coast of Saint Paul's Island II, 322, IMG 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott 

220. Ordinary attire of nieir on the killing ground and of women and young children in the village. .-II, 320 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

221. The north shore of Saint Paul's Island, looking W.SW. from the summit of Hutchiusou's Hill.. II, 336 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott 

222. The North Rookery, looking west to Starry Ateel, Saint George Island, village of Saint George. II, 348 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

223. Natives selecting a " drive." View overhauling grounds of "holluschickie" or bachelor seals at 

English Bay, looking west from Tolstoi sand-dunes II, 363 

Drawing by II. W. Elliott 

224. Natives driving the "holluschickie. " The drove passing over the lagoon flats to the killing 

grounds, under the village hill, Saint Paul's Island II, 363 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

225. The killing gang at work. Method of slaughtering fur-seals on the grounds near the village, 

Saint Paul's Island II, 365 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott 

226. Preparing fur-seal- ski us for shipment II, 369 

FIG. 1. Interior of salt-house, Saint Paul's Island ; natives salting and assorting the pelts. 
FIG. 2. The flensed carcass of a fur-seal and the skin as taken therefrom. 
FIG. 3. A bundle of skins ready for shipment. 

THE ANTARCTIC SEA-ELEPHANT FISHERY. 

227. Sketch map of Herd's Island. Antarctic Ocean. Lat. 53 10' S., Long. 73 30' E II, 419 

228. Working sea-elephants at northeast point, Herd's Island II, 419, 435 

Drawing by H. "W. Elliott after Capt. H. C. Chester. 

229. Stripping sea-elephant blubber and rolling it in barrels to try-works ; southwest beach, Herd's 

Island II, 419,435 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott after Capt. H. C. Chester. 

THE SEA-LION HUNT ON PRIBYLOV ISLANDS, ALASKA. 

230. Natives capturing the sea-lion ; springing the alarm n, 468 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1873. 

231. Shooting the old males; spearing the surround; the drive II 468,469, 

471 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1872. 

232. Natives corraling sea-lions at the Barrabora, under Cross Hill, northeast point Saint Paul's 

Island II, 469 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott 

233. Oil-pouches of sea-lion stomach; seal meat frame; bidarrah covered with sea-lion skins; 

sealer's houses II, 471,473 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott 



XX LIST OF PLATES TO SECTION V. 

THE SEA-OTTER FISHERY OF ALASKA. 

Vol. Page. 

234. Aleuts sea-otter hunting south of Saanak Island ; the bidarkies waiting for the otter to rise 

again II, 490 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

THE TURTLE FISHERY. 

235. Diving for loggerhead turtle; Morehead City, N. C II, 495 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1883. 

THE OYSTER INDUSTRY. 

236. Oyster dredging steamer at work in Long Island Sound II, 523,535 

237. Chesapeake Bay oyster dredges II, 523 

From specimens iu H. S. National Museum. 

238. Oyster tongs and nippers II, 551 

J.!'.i. FIG. 1. lut-Iosed dock for oyster vessels at Perth Ainboy, N. J II, 546 

FIG. 2. "The Creek" at Key port, N. J., with oyster boats, skiffs, and scows II, 546 

Drawings by Ernest IngersolL 

240. A Lake's Bay shipping-house and " platform " for freshening oysters, Smith's Landing, Lake's 

Bay, New Jersey II, 546 

Drawing by Ernest IngersolL 

241. Oyster-bar*ges at foot of West Tenth street, North River, New York City II, 555 

Drawing by Ernest Ingersoll. 

242. Opening or shucking oysters in Baltimore packing-house II, 560 

From a photograph. 

243. Baltimore oyster-shucking trough. Oyster knives of diverse patterns, used in New England, 

New York, and the Chesapeake region II, 559 

THE CLAM INDUSTRY. 

211. Clam-diggers' boats and shncking-honses at Esses, Mass II, 585 

From photograph by T. "W. Suiiliie. 

245. Opening or shucking clams at Essex, Mass II, 565 

From photograph by T. W. Siuillie. 

THE CRAB FISHERY. 

246. Negroes trawling for crabs on the Virginia and North Carolina coasts II, 633 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott 

THE LOBSTER FISHERY. 

247. Dory fishermen hauling lobster pots off Cape Ann, Massachusetts II, 686, 677, 

773 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

248. Lobster fishing-boats of Bristol, Me II, 669,677, 

759 
Drawing by H. W. Elliott and Capt. J. W. Collins. 

249. Lobster Cove at Lanesville, Cape Ann, Massachusetts, showing fishermen's boat-houses and gear. II, 666, 773 

From photograph by T. W. Smillin. 

jr.O. Summer village of lobster fishermen at No Man's Land, Massachusetts II, 781 

Drawing by H. W. Elliott, 1882. 

251. Lobster fishermen's gear at No Man's Land, Massachusetts. (Explanation on plate) II, 665,672, 

781 
Drawing by H. W. Elliott. 

252. Lobster-boiling apparatus at Portland, Me II, 684 

From photograph by T. W. Smillie. 

THE FLORIDA SPONGE INDUSTRY. 

253. Sponges as lauded by the fishermen at Key West, Fla., and ready for sale II, 826 

From a photograph. 

254. Sponge-loft at Key West, Fla II, 828 

From a photograph. 

255. Sorting, trimming, and baling sponges at Key West, Fla II, 828 



PART XV. 



THE WHALE-FISHERY. 



1. HISTORY AND PRESENT CONDITION OP THE FISHERY. 

By A. HOWARD CLARK. 



1 . General review, 
a. Whaling-grounds. 

3. Early history of boat-whaling in New England. 

4. Boat-whaling during the presmt century. 

5. Development of the sperm-whale li.ihery. 

(i. Development of the North Pacific and Arctic whale- 
fisherv. 



7. History of the American whale-fishery from 1750 to 

1815. 

8. The whale-fishery of Provincetown. 

9. .Statistical review of the American whale-fishery. 

10. List of whaling voyages from 1870 to I860. 

11. Review of whale-fishery by foreign nations. 



2. THE WHALEMEN, VESSELS, APPARATUS, AND METHODS OF THE FISHERY. 



By JAMES TEMPLEMAN BROWN. 



1. The whalemen. 

2. Whaling vessels. 

3. The whale-boat. 

4. Apparatus of capture. 



5. Methods of capture. 

6. The products and their preparation. 

7. Homeward passage and arrival. 

8. The whalemen's share or lay. 



SEO. v, VOL. n- 



THE WHALE-FISHERY 



1. HISTORY AND PRESENT CONDITION OF THE FISHERY 

By A. HOWARD CLARK. 
1. GENERAL EEVIEW. 

THE WHALING FLEET. The American whale-fishery in 1880 employed one hundred and 
seventy -one vessels, aggregating 38,63:;. MS tons, and valued with outfits at $2,891,650. Additional 
capital, aggregating $1,733,000, was invested in wharves, store-houses, and oil refineries. The- 
number of men employed on the vessels was 4,198 and in shore whaling about 250. The largest 
vessel was the steam bark Belvidere. 440.12 tons, and the smallest one employed in ocean whaling 
was the schooner Union, 66.22 tons. Most of the schooners and the smaller vessels of other classes 
were employed in Atlantic Ocean whaling, while the liirgest and best equipped craft were in the 
Pacific and Arctic fleets. The distribution was as follows : Five vessels in Hudson Bay, one hun- 
dred and eleven in the North and South Atlantic, twenty-five in Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean, 
twenty-two in the Pacific Ocean, and eight hauled up at home ports. 

The greater number of vessels belonged in Massachusetts, one hundred and twenty three 
hailing from New Bedford, twenty from Provincetown, seven from Edgartown, six from Boston, 
two from Westport, two from Million, and one from Dartmouth. New London, Conn., owned five 
vessels and five hailed from San Francisco. Cal. The interest of San Francisco in the whale- 
fishery cannot be measured by the number of vessels owned there, for almost the entire North 
Pa. ific and Arctic fleets are accustomed t<> make that place a fitting port and the headquarters 
for reshipment of nil and bone to the Atlantic sea-board. 

The Provincetoun fleet was composed almost entirely of schooners employed in Atlantic 
Ocean whaling. The whaling grounds of Hudson Kay and Davis Strait are favorite resorts for 
New London whalemen, while New Bedford vessels are scattered over all the seas. 

Besides the vessel fishery then- is a boat or shore whaling industry, which at times is quite 
profitable. The principal stations are on the California coast and are manned mostly by Portu- 
guese. On the coasts of Washington Territory and Alaska whales are taken by the Indians and 
Kskimos. The only points on the Atlantic coast where boat-whaling is carried on are at Prov- 
ineetown and one or two places in North C.'aiolina; at Provincetown the business in some years is 
of considerable importance, as in 188(1, when 4S \\hales were taken, yielding 29,925 gallons of oil, 
and 8,750 pounds of bone. The principal species taken at the Atlantic stations is the fin bacfc 



4 HISTOEY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

whale, and on the California coast the gray whale. Neither 6f these species yields bone of great 
value and both furnish but a limited quantity of oil. Humpback, sulphur-bottom, and right 
whales are occasionally captured at the California and Alaskan stations, but seldom on the 
Atlantic coast. 

THE PRODUCTS. The products of the fishery in 1880 were valued at $2,323,943, and included 
37,614 barrels of sperm oil and 34,626 barrels of whale oil ; 458,400 pounds of whalebone, worth 
$907,049, and $5,465 worth of ambergris and walrus ivory. The Pacific-Arctic grounds were the 
most productive, yielding oil and bone worth $1,249,990. From Atlantic Ocean grounds oil and 
bone were taken worth $908,771. 

The principal products of the whale-fishery are oil and bone, the former obtained from the 
blubber and the latter from the jaws of the animal. The minor products are ambergris from sperm 
whales and guano and glue made from bones and other refuse matter. Oil as it conies from the 
animal is classed as sperm oil and whale oil, the former being derived exclusively from sperm 
whales, and the latter from the right whale and other varieties, as also from blackfish and porpoise. 
Walrus oil, taken by the northern fleet, is also generally classed as whale oil. Sperm oil is worth 
about double the value of other whale oil. Northern whale oil is slightly higher than southern 
oil and blackfish higher than either. From sperm oil is made refined oils for lubricating, and 
spermaceti used chiefly for candles. The jaws of blackfish and porpoise yield a very superior 
oil, employed for lubricating watches and clocks. 

Crude or unrefined sperm oil is little used, though about half the entire production of ordinary 
whale oil is used in a crude state in the manufacture of cordage. 

The oil is prepared at the refineries and sent to market under various trade names, as Spring- 
mal-e natural. Spring-make bteached, Natural winter, Bleached winter, and Double-bleached winter. 
These names indicate the grades of oil and the processes of refining. The results of refining 
sperm oil are three or more grades of oil and two qualities of spermaceti. From whale oil are pro- 
duced several grades of oil, whale-foots, which is a tallow-like substance, and oil soap used by 
scourers. 

The refining of whale oils is carried on almost exclusively at New Bedford, which port is 
practically the headquarters 'of the American whaling industry. When the business was 
extensive there were several large refineries in active operation, but for some years past three 
establishments have been enough to care for the entire production.* The process of refining varies 
according to the kind of oil, yet in some essentials the methods are alike for all. 

When landed from the vessels the oil is in wooden casks, varying in size from a few gallons to 
a hogshead or more in capacity. If not sold at once to the refiners it is stored on the wharves or 
in sheds, being covered with seaweed and boards to protect the barrels from leakage by exposure 
to the sun. It sometimes remains in this condition for many months or even years. 

At the refinery the oil is drained into vats and the casks rinsed out with hot oil, recoopered, 
and made ready for another cruise, or sold to be sent to Africa for shipping palm oil. 

In the refining process the oil is first heated, when pieces of blubber and foreign matter settle, 
and the clear oil is again put in casks to be packed in ice pits and subjected to the freezing 
process, which partially congeals or granulates it. The next step in the refining is to strain the 
oil through woolen cloths to separate the foots, and it is then put in cotton bags, and submitted 
to heavy pressure, which further separates the oil from the solid matter, leaving in the bags, if 
sperm oil, spermaceti, which is further heated and refined, or in the case of whale oil leaving 
whale-foots, extens' ;vly used by tanners for softening leather. The various grades of oil are 
obtained by further heating and pressing, and by the admixture of chemicals to clarify or bleach it. 

* Refineries have recently (1885) been established at San Francisco, Cal. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 5 

Sperm oil is used chiefly as a lubricator, for which purpose it is unsurpassed. Whale oil is 
employed in niaiiy industries, but chiefly by tanners iu the preparation of leathers. Blackflsh oil 
is specially good in preparing morocco. Whale oil, mixed with black lead and paraffine oil, is 
used for lubricating car axles and wheels. 

Spermaceti is used in medicine, in laundries, and for other minor purposes, but is used 
chiefly for the manufacture of caudles ; a patent candle of superior quality is made from paraffine 
and spermaceti mixed. 

Whalebone requires comparatively little preparation to fit it for use by whip-makers, dress- 
makers, and numerous other tradesmen. It is received from the vessels in bundles of slabs vary- 
ing from a foot to 15 feet iu length. These slabs are scraped, steamed, cut, and split into suitable 
sizes for use. 

The whalebone workers of the United States recognize five varieties of bone ; (1) Arctic, from 
the Bowhead or Polar whale; this is the largest bone, and is used principally in the manufacture 
of whips and dress bone ; (2) Northwest, which is the heaviest bone, and is used for whips and 
canes; (3) South Sea, which is lint' and short, used for whips and dress bone; (4) Humpback, 
short and black, specially suitable for corsets ; (5) Finback, short and coarse, used for corsets. 
Some slabs of bone have longitudinal streaks of white or light yellow. The white portion is of 
greater value than the black, and is thought by the workers to be caused by disease. 

Ambergris, when pure, is worth more than its weight in gold. It is used in the preparation 
of fine perfumery, having the property of thoroughly and permanently uniting the ingredients. 
It is found in the intestines of the sperm whale, and is a very uncertain article. Many whalers 
have cruised the seas for years and never found an ounce, while fortunate ones hare secured a 
hundred pounds or more of the precious substance iu a single year. It is supposed to be a 
product of a disease in the animal similar to indigestion. This theory of its origin is supported 
by the fact that particles of cuttle-fish, the chief food of the sperm whale, are often found in the 
ambergris, and the location of the substance in the intestines also supports this theory. In 1858 
a New Bedford vessel secured GOO pounds of ambergris, worth $10,500; in 1878 the Adeline Gibbs, 
of New Bedford, brought home 136 pounds that sold for $23,000. The total quantity received 
from the American whaling fleet from 1836 to 1880 was 1,667| pounds. 

A full discussion of ambergris and the manner of obtaining it, is given in the section of this 
report treating of the Preparation of Fishery Products. 

DECLINE OF THE FISHERY. Starbuck, in 1877, thus discussed the causes of the decline of the 
whale-fishery : 

"On the 1st of January, 1877, the entire fleet was reduced to 112 ships and barks, and 51 brigs 
and schooners, having a total capacity of 37,828 tons.* 

" It will be well to see to what causes this decline is attributable. Many circumstances have 
operated to bring this about. The alternate stimulus and rebuff which the fishery received as a 
short supply and good prices led to additions to the fleet and an overstock and decline in values, 
were natural, and in themselves probably formed no positive impediment. The increase in popu- 
lation would have caused an increase in comsumption beyond the power of the fishery to supply, 
for even at the necessarily high prices people would have had light. But other things occurred. 
The expense of procuring oil was yearly increasing, when the oil-wells of Pennsylvania were opened, 
and a source of illumination opened at once plentiful, cheap, and good. Its dangerous qualities 
at first greatly checked its general use, but these removed, it entered into active, relentless com- 
petition with whale oil, and it proved the more powerful of the antagonistic forces. 

* The lowest ebb was reached on the 1st of January, 1875, when the fleet consisted of 119 ships and barks, and 44 
brigs and schooners, with a capacity of 37,733 tons. 



6 lllTOi;V AM) METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

"The length of voyages increased from two years for a cargo of sperm and from nine to fifteen 
mouths for a cargo of whale oil to four years to till the latter, while the former was practically 
abandoned as a separate business* after it became necessary to make voyages of four, five, and 
even six years, and then seldom return \\ith a full cargo. As a matter of necessity the fitting of 
ships became far more expensive, a rivalry in the furnishing adding perhaps considerably to the 
outlay. Vessels were obliged to refit each season at the various islands in the Pacific, usually at 
the port of Honolulu when passing in its vicinity, and the bills drawn upon the owners on these 
occasions were so enormous as to call forth loud and frequent complaints; and in later years the 
only available western fishery was in the North Pacific and Arctic Oceans, where, disasters were 
the rule and immunity from them the exception, thereby incurring, when the vessels were not lost, 
heavy bill for repairs, besides the ordinary ones of refitting. 

Again, during the later days of whaling, more particularly immediately after the discovery 
of the gold mines in California, desertions from the ships were numerous and often causeless, 
generally in such numbers as to seriously cripple the efficiency of the ship. In this way large 
numbers of voyages were broken up and hundreds of thousands of dollars were sunk by the owners. 
During a portion of the time many ships were fired by their refractory and mutinous crews, some 
of them completely destroyed, others damaged in amounts varying from a few hundred to several 
thousand dollars. Crews would apparently ship simply as a cheap manner of reaching the gold 
mines, and a ship's company often embraced among its number desperadoes from various nations, 
fit for any rascality which might best serve them to attain their end. They took no interest in 
the voyage, nor cared aught for the profit or loss that might accrue to the owners. In order to 
recruit, it became necessary, particularly during the ten years next succeeding the opening of the 
gold mines, to offer heavy advance-wages, and too often these were paid to a set of bounty -jumpers, 
as such men were termed in the Army during the late war, who only waited the time when the ship 
made another port to clandestinely dissolve connection with her and hold themselves in readiness 
for the next ship. Unquestionably there were times when men were forced to desert to save their 
lives from the impositions and severity of brutal captains, but such cases were undoubtedly very 
rare. Formerly the crews were composed almost wholly of Americans, but latterly they were 
largely made up of Portuguese shipped at the Azores, a mongrel set shipped anywhere along the 
western coast of South America, and Kanakas shipped at the Pacific islands. There were times, 
when the California fever was at its highest, that the desertions did not stop with the men, but 
officers and even captains seemed to vie with the crew in defrauding the men from whose hands 
they had received the property to hold in charge and increase in value. 

"Another source of loss was, strangely enough, to be found in the course of the consular agents 
sent out by our Government to protect the interests of our whalemen. Many and bitter were the 
complaints at the extortionate charges and percentages demanded by many of these men.t 

"As another important source of the decline in this business must be regarded the scarcity and 
shyness of whales. Prior to the year 1830 a ship with a capacity for 2,000 barrels would cruise 
in the Pacific Ocean and return in two years with a cargo of sperm -oil. The same ship might go 
to Delago or Woolwich Bay and fill with whale-oil in about fifteen mouths, or to the coast of 

* Always excepting, of course, Atlantic whalers. Sperm-whaling in th'e Atlantic has always been pursued by the 
bulk of the Provincetowu vessels and by quite a ileet of schooners ami brigs from other ports. There isan occasional 
revival of this pursuit in larger vessels at intervals of a few years, at present some of the most successful voyages 
being made by ships and barks cruising for sperm whales in this oc< 

tin many cases justice (f) semis to U:i\ v been meted more in accordance -with the requirements of the income of 
our representatives than witb ihose of ab^traet. right, and it lias happened that the case of an arbitrary, cruel cap- 
tain against, Mime unfortunately weak and impecunious sailor has l>rm decided on the time-honored (among barba- 
rians) maxims that "might makes right," and "the king can do no wrong." 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 7 

Brazil and return hi iiine mouths full of the oil peculiar to the whales of those seas; but, as has 
been previously remarked, this has all changed, and the length of the voyage has become entirely 
disproportioned to the quantity of oil returned. 

"Briefly, then, this is the case. Whaling as a business has declined: 1st, from the scarcity 
and shyness of whales, requiring longer and more expensive voyages; 2d, extravagance in fitting 
out and refitting; 3d, the character of the men engaged ; 4th, the introduction of coal oils. 

"Of late years sperm-whaling in the Atlantic Ocean has been revived with some success, but 
the persistency with which any Held is followed up makes its yield at least but temporary. It 
may perhaps be a question worthy of serious consideration whether it is policy for the United 
States Government to introduce the use of coal oils into its light-house and similar departments, 
to replace the sperm oil now furnished from our whaling ports, and thus still further hasten the 
ultimate abandonment of a pursuit upon the resources of which it draws so heavily in the day of 
its trouble,* or whether this market the only aid asked from the Government may still continue 
at the expense of a few dollars more per year."t 

2. WHALING-GROUNDS.:): 

DISTRIBUTION OF WHALES. A whale-ship leaving her home port mans her mast-head as 
soon as she leaves soundings, and from that time is in constant hope of seeing whales. There are 
certain portions of the ocean where whales abound, and many large tracts where vessels rarely 
make a stop; still it is not unusual even in the more barren spaces to hear from aloft the welcome 
cry "there she blows." Many of the grounds where vessels were formerly very successful are now 
entirely abandoned and others are but seldom visited. There are now no sperm whalers from the 
United States on the Indian Ocean or North Pacific grounds, and very few cruising in the West 
Pacific Ocean, but nearly all of the vessels at present engaged in this branch of the fishery resort 
to the grounds in the North and South Atlantic and the eastern part of the South Pacific Oceans. 

At an early period in the development of the whale fishery there was little difficulty in 
securing a cargo in a short time. Whales were abundant near shore and in very many parts of 
the ocean. They were taken in great numbers by the Dutch and by the English at Spitzbergen 
and off the east coast of Greenland, upon grounds that have not been frequented for many 
years. Later they were abundant in Davis Strait, where they were pursued by a considerable 
fleet of vessels. They are still taken there in limited numbers by a fleet of about a dozen Scotch 
steamers. Toward the close of the last century began the discovery of prolific grounds for right 
whales in the South Atlantic, and of the famous South Pacific sperui and right whale grounds. In 
the present century important fields have been discovered in the North Pacific and Arctic Oceans, 

* The London Mercantile Gazette, of October 22, 1852, said: "The number of American ships engaged in the 
Southern whale-fishery alone would of themselves be nearly sufficient to man any ordinary fleet of ships-of-war 
which that country might require to send to sea." Instances are not wanting, indeed, where whalemen have under- 
taken yeoman's service for their country. Thus, in November, 1846, Captain Simmons, of the Magnolia, and Capt. 
John S. Barker, of the Edward, both of New Bedford, hearing that the garrison at San Jos6, Lower California, was 
in imminent danger, landed their crews and marched to its relief. Nor were their good services toward foreign gov- 
ernments in peace less houorable to the country than in war, for when the Government buildings at Honolulu were 
burning some years ago, and entire and disastrous destruction threatened, American whalemen rushed to the rescue 
and quenched the flames, already beyond the control of the natives. During the rebellion, of 5,956 naval officers, 
Massachusetts furnished 1,226, Maine 449, Connecticut 264, New Hampshire 175, Rhode Island 102, and Vermont 81. 

t Report U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries for 1875-'76. 

{Special acknowledgments are duo Capt. H. W. Seabury, of New Bedford, Mass., and Capt. William M. Barnes, 
of Nashua, N. H., for information on this subject. 

$ The east coast of Greenland has recently again become a cruising ground for the whalers of Norway and Scotland. 



8 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

among which are the Japan, Northwest, arid Okhotsk grounds, now well nigh abandoned. The 
Arctic grounds north of Bering Strait were first visited in 1848 by the Superior, under Captain 
Eoys, and these grounds have since been by far the most important for the production of whale, 
bone and a superior quality of whale oil. 

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF VARIOUS GROUNDS. The relative importance of the various 
oceans to the whale-fishery during recent years is shown by the following facts: Of the sperin 
oil taken by the American whaling fleet from 1870 to 1880, 55 per cent, was from the North and 
South Atlantic grounds; 33 per cent, from the Pacific; and 12 per cent, from the Indian Ocean. 
Of the whale oil taken during the same period, 58 per cent, was by the North Pacific fleet from the 
region north of the fiftieth parallel, including the Arctic, Okhotsk, and Bering Seas; 24 per cent, 
by vessels cruising in the North and South Atlantic; 10 per cent, from the Pacific grounds; 5 per 
cent, from the Indian Ocean ; and .'1 per cent, from Hudson Bay, Cumberland Inlet, and Davis Strait. 
Of the whalebone .secured in ihe .same time 88 per cent, was by the North Pacific fleet; 5 percent, 
by the Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet fleet; 4 per cent, from the North and South Atlantic 
grounds ; and 3 per cent, about equally divided between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The num- 
ber o! !'vo\;i ^es commenced by United Star.es vessels from 1870 to 1880 was 810, which includes 
the A\. ;ie whalers annually relit! ing- at San Francisco and other ports. Of these voyages, 382 
were ,-, ;he North and South Atlantic, 254 to the Arctic, Okhotsk, and adjacent grounds, 98 to the 
Pacific, 45 to the Indian Ocean, and 31 to Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet. 

() SPEEM-WHALE GROUNDS. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPERM WHALES. The sperm whale is very widely distrib- 
uted in the oceans of the temperate and the tropical zones. They have been taken as far south as 
56 south latitude iu the Atlantic and in the Pacific, and as far north as 56 12' in the North. 
Pacific. Early authors mention them as numerous on the coast of Greenland, but Beale* says 
that, they are seldom or never seen there by recent navigators. They are generally taken off 
soundings, though they are sometimes abundant in comparatively shallow water, especially along 
the edge of the ocean banks. Within the limits included between 30 north and 30 south latitude 
they are generally of smaller size than in higher latitudes. There are certain cruising-grouuds 
especially frequented by vessels in search of sperm whales, and these will be described in order 
beginning with those in the Atlantic Ocean, proceeding then to the Pacific and Indian Ocean 
grounds. 

The Atlantic grounds, from which more than half the entire production of sperm oil is taken, 
are visited by both large and small vessels, the latter cruising chiefly north of the equator and 
remaining out about nine months, while the former make voyages lasting one, two, or even three 
years, cruising over various parts of the North and South Atlantic and sending oil home from the 
Azores, St. Helena, and other convenient ports. Vessels visiting the Pacific and Indian Oceans 
are usually barks and ships, and fit out for long voyages. 

NORTH ATLANTIC GROUNDS. Profitable sperm whaling has been found in the Caribbean 
Sea, off Chagres, Blauquilla, and in other parts of the sea ; in the Gulf of Mexico, particularly in 
latitude 28 to 29 north, longitude 89 to 90 west ; in various parts of the West India seas, 
especially iu the Mona Passage and off the coasts of Cuba, Porto Rico, and St. Domingo, north of 
the Bahama Islands, in latitude 28 to 29 north, longitude 79 west; on the " Charleston Ground," 
iu latitude 29 to 32 north, longitude 74 to 77 west, and on the " Hatteras Grounds," extend - 

* BKALE, THOMAS: Natural History of the Syerrn Whale, London, 1836, p. 88. He says that sperm whales are 
found from 60 uorth to 60 south latitude. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 9 

ing along the edge of the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras.* Vessels cruise on the more southern 
of the above grounds during the winter mouths and early spring, and work north and east as the 
season advances. Their next resorts, after leaving the Charleston Ground, are in latitude 36 
north, longitude 74 west ; latitude 32 north, longitude 68 west ; latitude 28 to 33 north, 
longitude 48 to 57 west, and from latitude 33 to 45 north, longitude 50 to the east of the 

Azores.t 

Among the favorite resorts in the North Atlantic are the "Two Forties" aud "Two Thirty- 
sixes," the former being in latitude 40 north, longitude 40 west, and the latter in latitude 36 
north, longitude 36 west. Vessels cruise here throughout the summer and fall months and often 
into December. The whales taken are of all sizes. Ships of late years have cruised from lati- 
tude 43 to 46 north, longitude 25 to 32 west, also from latitude 48 to 50 north, longitude 
21 to 24 west; and on the "Commodore Morris Grounds,"}: in latitude 52 to 54 north, longi- 
tude 23 to 25 west. Sperm whales are often seen and taken near the Azores. Good cruising 
places, known as the " Western Grounds," are situated in latitude 28 to 37 north, longitude 40 
to 52 west. Another resort is the " Steen Ground," in latitude 31 to 36 north, longitude 21 C 
to 24 west, where vessels cruise from August to November. Sperm whales are sometimes found 
quite numerous along the southern coast of Portugal and Spain from Cape St. Vincent to the 
Straits of Gibraltar; also near the southern side of the island of Tenerifle; north and west of the 
Cape Verde Islands during the winter months; from latitude 10 to 14 north, longitude 35 to 
to 40 west in March. April, and May, and in latitude 5 to 7 north, longitude 18 to 20 west, 
during the winter season. Good whaling has also been found in the Gulf of Guinea near the 
Island Fernando Po; also on the " Cornell Ground," in latitude 5 to 9 north, longitude 22 to 
27 west. 

SOUTH ATLANTIC GROUNDS. On the west side of the South Atlantic, sperm whale grounds 
were formerly found on and near the Carabellas banks in latitude 17 to 19 south from the coast 
of Brazil to longitude 35 west ; also in about latitude 23 south, longitude 39 to 42 west. The 
smaller class of vessels cruised on these grounds, capturing mostly large bull whales, while large 

* " Iu IS:;?," says Captain Atwood, of Proviucetown, "the 'Edward and Rienzi'was bought for blackfisbing, 
and went on the ground south of the George's Bank and towards Cape Hatteras. No whaling vessels had ever been 
there before, and she found sperm whales abundant, and since that time the ' Hatteras Ground' and the ' Charleston 
Ground ' farther south, have been favorite cruising places for the Provincetovvn fleet." 

t On the northern edge of the Grand Banks and the Gulf Stream where the Labrador current meets the Stream, 
making an eddy and a strong current, sperm whales were reported in the months of September, October, and November. 
The geographical position of this spot, as given by Messrs. Swift & Allen, of New Bedford, is latitude 41 to 48 N., 
and longitude 45 to 50 W. Care should' be taken to keep a medium temperature of water. J. T. BROWN. 

I This ground was first visited by the American fleet about the year 1859 and was then called the Camilla Ground, 
after the bark Camilla. It has been cruised upon by many of the best vessels of the sperm-whale fleet. 

Captain Tripp, of the bark Pioneer, makes the following condensed report of a cruise for sperm whales in 1873 
and 187 1 mainly in the North Atlantic. 

On July 12 he found sperm whales in latitude 38 05' N., longitude 67 45' W., aud on the 30th killed a large 
whale in latitude 35 45' N., longitude 45 50' W. August 4 he again saw sperm whales in latitude 35 '27' N., longi- 
tude 4.V 1C' W. On the 27th took a large one in latitude 34 37' N., longitude 39 41', W., and found them on the 31st 
in latitude 34 37' N. and longitude 39 41' W. On September 12 he killed two whales iu latitude 35 N. and longi- 
tude 39 50' W. He crossed the equator, but again worked to the northward and finished his cruise. 

On March 'J9 he killed two whales in latitude 13 58' N., longitude 37 28' W., and another on April 28 in latitude 
13 20' N. and longitude 44 25' W. Sperm whales were seen on the 1st, 2d, 3d, aud 4th of May in the latitudes of 13 
36', 13 34', 13 28', and 13 22', and in the longitudes of 44 51', 44 34', 44- 24', aud 44 20", respectively, but no catches 
were made ; on the 5th he killed four whales in latitude 13 28', longitude 44 28'; two on the 8th iu latitude 13 18' 
and longitude 44 49'; three on the 10th iu latitude 13 08', longitude 44 'J.V, and four on the 12th in latitude 13 56', 
and longitude 45 22'. On the )3th sperm whales were seen iu latitude 13 08' and longitude 45 14', but none were 
killed. From that time on he had "greasy luck." On the 19th he killed three whales in latitude 13 06', longitude 
46 25'. One was killed July 21 iu latitude 34 and longitude 44 12' ; two on August 1 in latitude 34 45' ; one on the 
10th in latitude 34 13', longitude 40 17' ; two on the 20th in latitude 31 26', longitude 50, and one large one on 
the 25th in latitude 31 and longitude 50. He cruised in this locality fourteen months and obtained 1,100 barrels of 
sperm oil. J. T. BROWN. 



10 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

vessels tbuud good whaling on the '-River La Plate Ground" extending from latitude 30 to 40 
south, and from 30 to 250 miles off-shore. The season here was from September to May, and the 
whales taken were of all sizes. A few vessels continue to cruise on all these grounds, meeting 
with moderate success. Large whales have also been found quite plenty in latitude 45 to 47 
south, longitude 00 to 60 west, where ships cruise from November to May. 

Passing across to the east side of the ocean we find good whaling grounds along the coast 
of Africa, also around the islands of Ascension and St. Helena. The principal resorts are in 
latitudes 4 to 23 south, longitude 9 to 10 west; around St. Helena; latitude 34 south, 
longitude to 7 west ; also a few degre es east of the meridian iu the same latitude; and on the 
"Carroll Ground" iu latitude 32 south, longitude 7 east. The time for cruising on the more 
southern of the above grounds is from September to May, and farther north during the whole 
year. 

SOUTH PACIFIC GROUNDS. Sperm whales are often seen off Cape Horn, and it is the opinion 
of most whalers that they pass from one ocean to the other in their migrations. Captain Seabury 
writes that he has himself on two occasions taken large sperm whales within sight of land off this 
cape. The grounds in the Pacific have been exceedingly profitable. From the time of their dis- 
covery in 1788, by Nan tucket whalemen in an English whale ship, dates the great prosperity of 
the sperm-whale fishery which reached its climax in the year 1837. 

One of the most important and extensive grounds in the South Pacific lies off the coast of Chili, 
extending from latitude 35 to 40 south, and from the coast 200 miles off shore. Within these 
limits there are some specially favorable spots, as around the island of Huafo, near the south end 
of Chiloe Island, off Mocha Island, and off the port of Talcahuano. Around the islands of Juan 
Fernandez and Masafuero, and from these islands to longitude 00 west, are good grounds. Ships 
cruise here and farther south from September to May, and sometimes throughout the year, find- 
ing mostly large whales. 

Passing farther north we come next to the Archer Ground, which lies in latitude 17 to 20' 
south, longitude 84 to 90 west, where ships cruise throughout the year, capturing large whales. 
From the Archer Ground, all along the coast to Panama Bay, in latitude 8 north, from the 
shore to 90 west longitude, many sperm whales have been taken. Along the coast from latitude 
12 to 18 south, also from latitude 10 to 14 south, longitude 80 to 911 west, were formerly 
noted cruising places. The latter is called the "Callao Ground," and is still visited by a few ships 
that cruise throughout the year, taking medium sized bull whales, yielding from 40 to GO barrels 
of oil each. 

One of the most important grounds iu the South Pacific extends from latitude 5 south to 
2 north, and from the coast of Peru to longitude 93 west, embracing the Galapagos Islands. 
" Most of the whales found here," says Captain Seabury, "are cows and calves, though occasionally 
a large bull whale is captured. The large whale is quite often found 3 or 4 miles from the school 

of small ones. After striking > of a school the o;hers sometimes slop around the fast whale. 

which is called 'bringing to' or ' brought to,' when each of the lour boats may fasten to a whale. 
More frequently the rest start off after the first boat strikes and are pursued by the boats,." 

Many ships have cruised on the Offshore Ground, extending from latitude 3 30' to 5 30' 
south, and from longitude 100 to 120 west. The season here lasts during the whole year, and 
the whales taken are of all sizes, though the majority are young bulls. These whales go in schools, 
and the larger the size of whale the, smaller is the number. This ground was discovered in 
the year 1818 by Capt. George, \V. (larduer iu the ship Globe, of Nantucket. The whalers had 
been cruising along the coast of South America when Captain Gardner concluded to find new 



THE WIIALK FISHERY. 11 

fields, and in his search he cruised over the ground extending from latitude 5 to 10 south, and 
from longitude 105 to 125 west, where whales were found in great numbers. This new field 
was christened the li Offshore Ground," and continues to this day a favorite resort of 1'anlic 
whalers. 

On a belt of ocean from latitude 2 north to 2 south and extending across the Pacific from 
the west coast, of South America, large numbers of sperm whales have been taken, especially 
from longitude 110 to 130 west, and also around Jarvis Island and the King's Mill Group. The 
whales taken near the equator are generally of the smaller kind. 

Vessels have cruised with some success around the Marquesas Islands, Low and Societies, 
Navigator's Islands, the Fiji group, and around New Zealand and Australia. The most noted 
part of the New Zealand Ground is 20 miles southeast and southwest from French Rock, which 
lies in about latitude 31 30' south, lougitiule 179 west. Other resorts included on the New Zea- 
land Ground are on the Vasques Ground, iu latitude 36 south, longitude 165 west ; from lati- 
tude 36 to 38 south, longitude 104 to 166 west ; around the Three Kings, in latitude 32 
south, longitude 170 to 175 east; 40 to 80- miles off shore east-northeast from Mouganui and 
east-southeast from Cape Bret; around Stewart's Island, the Snares, and Chatham Islands. 
Sperm whales have sometimes been found abundant all around New Zealand. Large schools of 
great sperm whales abounded here more than on any other whaling ground. Captain Seabury says 
that " several ships often get into a school of these whales at one time, each vessel taking 
one or more whales that yield 100 barrels of oil. The season for cruising at the extreme south is 
in the summer months, or from September to April, and on the northern ground vessels cruise 
throughout the year. Hurricanes are sometimes encountered off the Navigator's Islands and French 
Rock, so that only the best of vessels are sent there." 

Sperm whales were once abundant all the way across from New Zealand to Australia, and 
around Tasmania ; also along the shores of Australia, and near Wreck Reef, around New Ireland, 
the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, Kermadec Islands, New Caledonia, and New Georgia. Banker 
Bay, New Ireland, was a noted place. 

NORTH PACIFIC GROUNDS. The most important ground in the North Pacific for many years 
was off the coast of Japan, first visited by whaling vessels in 1820. Around the Bonin Islands, in 
latitude 27 north, longitude 140 west, was also a noted ground. Vessels cruised all the way 
from latitude 2S to 32 north, and longitude 165 west to 165 east. The Japan Ground 
included the region from the coast of Japan southeast to Bonin Islands, across to 165 west 
longitude. The season was from May to November, during which time great quantities of oil were 
frequently taken. The whales were mostly large bulls, and many of them very old. as was shown 
by their teeth. 

Capt. William M. Barnes, formerly of New Bedford^, writes : ''There is now (1881) not a single 
sperm whaler in the North Pacific Ocean, and in certain parts of.it, as on the old Japan Ground, the 
Arctic cruisers in crossing ha ve lately seen sperm whales in increasing numbers." During the winter 
season in the northern hemisphere the Arctic whalers occasionally spend a few months among the 
islands of the Western Pacific, but otherwise these large grounds are now seldom resorted to by 
whalemen. In many cases the sperm whalers find it difficult to fill their casks with sperm oil, and 
so assist in making up their cargo by spending a few mouths in " humpbackiug." 

Sperm-whaling was formerly carried on with good success around the Ladrone Islands, also 
in the Sooloo or Mindora Seas, and around the East India Islands, where ships continued to cruise 
until within about three years. The whales were generally very small, and mostly cows with 
calves. A great deal of calm weather and strong currents are found around these islands and seas. 



12 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

We corne now to the grounds on the eastern side of the North Pacific. In former years many 
ships cruised around Cape San Lucas,.near the Gulf of California, and along the coast of Lower 
California from 10 to 50 miles off shore. Whales of large size were taken here in the winter months 
by vessels that had spent the summer on the Japan Ground. Around the Maria Islands, near San 
Bias, on the Mexican coast, whales were quite often found ; also in the Bay of Panama from the 
coast to 90 west longitude, and farther west in the ocean from latitude 4 to 8 north, longitude 
100 to 110 west. In the vicinity of Owhyhee and other parts of the Sandwich Islands vessels 
met with fair success. 

INDIAN OCEAN GROUNDS. The principal resorts of vessels in this ocean were off' Port Dauphin 
and around Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel ; around the islands of Mauritius and Bourbon 
and the island of Roderique ; around the Amirante Group, and Seychelle and Comore Islands ; off 
Zanzibar and along the east coast of Africa to the Red Sea; off the island Socotra; along the 
Arabian coast ; around the Laccadive Islands and the island of Ceylon. Other resorts are along 
the west and south coasts of Australia, especially in the vicinity of Cape Leeuwiu and off Shark's 
Bay, on the ground extending from latitude 20 to 23 south, longitude 107 to 110 east. From 
March to July ships cruise several degrees off shore to the west of Australia and from October 
to May near the land. The number of American whaling vessels visiting the Indian Ocean has 
.been gradually diminishing for several years, and in 18SO not a single vessel from the United 
States went there for sperm oil. A fleet of about eleven sail of vessels, belonging at Tasmania, is 
engaged mostly in sperm whaling, and some years they meet with good success. 

SPEEM- WHALE GROUNDS IN 1840. The principal grounds visited by sperm whalers about 
the time of the greatest prosperity in this fishery are thus described by Commander Wilkes, of the 
United States Exploring Expedition : 

" The following embraces all the different grounds in the Pacific visited by our whalers : 

" (1) The on-shore ground; that includes the whole extent of ocean along the coast of Chili and 
Peru from the island of Juan Fernandez to the Galapagos Islands. 

" (2) The off-shore ground ; being the space between latitude 5 and 10 south, longitude 90 
and 120 west. 

" (3) In the neighborhood of the Hawaiian Islands. 

" (4) In the neighborhood of the Society Islands. 

" (5) In the neighborhood of the Samoan Group. 

"(6 In the neighborhood of the Fiji Group. 

" (7) In the neighborhood of the King's Mill Group. 

" (8) Along and to the south of the equator, from the coast of South America to the King's Mill 
Group. 

" (9) Across the South Pacific, between the parallels of 21 and 27 south. 

" (10) Across the North Pacific, between the parallels of 27 and 3.5 north. 

"(11) In the neighborhood of the east coast of New Zealand. 

<; (12) In the middle ground between New Holland and New Zealand. 

" (13) The coast of Japan, and between it and Bonin Islands. 

'(14) The northwest coast of America. 

" (15) Coast of California. 

"These, it will be seen, embrace a large field, and it might be supposed that a ship could 
hardly miss finding the animals. Such, however, is not the case. A vessel may visit all these 
places, and yet return home a ' clean ship,' if she happened to be out of season. It appears from 
experience that whales, in their migrations congregate in the above-named places at certain times 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 13 

of the year, and those who are acquainted with the business endeavor to be early on the cruising 
grounds. I shall now point out the times, according to the best information, at which the whales 
visit the several grounds, and, although not a whaler, I hope to ive such information as may be 
useful to this class of my countrymen. 

" For convenience of description, the cruising-grounds may be considered as included within 
four sections or belts. 

" These belts are from 20 to 25 degrees of latitude iu width. 

" The first of which I speak is that between the equator and the northern tropic ; the second, 
between the tropic and 50 north ; the third, between the equator and the southern tropic and 
latitude 50 south. 

" Within the tropics whales are almost always to be met with. There are, however, particular 
places within this zone where they chiefly congregate. Whales are found iu the first belt on the 
north side of the equator, to the southward of the Sandwich Islands, and thence westward as far 
as the Mulgrave Islands, for the greater part of the year ; but the only spot or space they are 
known to abound in at any particular season, within this belt is to the westward of the Galapa- 
gos; they pass and repass over the rest of this space in their migrations, and may generally be 
found near to or around the small islands. 

" In the second belt they range from the coast of Japan to the northwest coast of America and 
California; this they frequent from May till November. In the month of July they are found off the 
Boniu Islands, and between them and the coast of Japan. They frequent the space lying to the north- 
ward of the Hawaiian Islands, and comprehended between the parallels of 28 and 35 north ; and 
within the meridians of 145 and 156 west, from June to October ; and resort to the northwest 
coast of America in August and September, and to that of California in November and January. 

" The third belt comprises the ocean from the coast of South America to the King's Mill Group, 
including the Marquesas, Society, and Friendly Islands, the Samoan and Fiji Groups. Within 
these are spaces known as the on-shore and off-shore grounds. The latter the whalers frequent 
from November to February, and along this belt they are found until the mouths of July and Au- 
gust, by which time they reach the King's Mill and Fiji Groups. There are, however, stragglers to 
be met with in this space during all seasons. 

"The fourth belt extends from the southern tropic to the latitude of 50 south. The most 
profitable time for cruising within it is in the months of March, April, and May, to the eastward 
of New Zealand. After that date, along and between the parallels of 22 and 28 south, from the 
coast of New Holland to that of South America. The portion of sea between New Holland and 
New Zealand is called the 'middle ground,' and is frequently found very profitable. 

"From an examination of the particular localities iu which whales are found most at certain 
seasons, and connecting these with my own observations on currents, I am induced to believe the 
places of their resort will point more correctly to the neutral points or spaces of no current, than 
any other data that we yet possess. 

"These must necessarily become the rendezvous, or feeding-places, of these animals. The 
determination of these points will, therefore, throw additional light on the systems of currents iu 
the ocean, by pointing out the neutral spaces. The chief resort of whales will be seen on the map 
at one view ; and when these are connected with the currents shown to exist by the observations 
of the expedition and others, they will be found to correspond in a remarkable manner with the 
neutral spaces. 

" I have myself paid much attention to acquiring information in relation to the position of 
these grounds from the masters of whale-ships, but have usually found their reports at variance 



14 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

one with another, and they have sometimes differed as much as 5 degrees in assigning their limits. 
Their position, no doubt, varies much in different years ; but even this will not explain all the 
discrepancies of the statements. t 

" If we examine the seasons of the appearance of whales at certain islands, they will generally 
be found to be between the beginning and the end of the summer of the climate, during which 
time animal life is most prolific, and the food of the whale consequently abounds near the par- 
ticular group. I have frequently been told, and it is generally believed, that whales are partial to 
warmth, and frequent few places outside the tropics. This, if true, would be singular enough; 
but the main reason for their frequenting the summer seas at particular seasons is the procure- 
ment of food, which is there to be found in greater abundance ; and there appears to be little 
doubt that iu migrating these animals move with the currents until they find their food in plenty, 
and then continue in such locality until it is exhausted. 

"A number of instances are known, * * in which, at certain seasons, strong currents have 
been experienced iu places where three months afterward they were found to have ceased altogether, 
or even to have changed their direction. I have now particular reference to the northwest coast. 

"Having pointed out the different belts iu the Pacific, I will now refer to the localities in the 
Atlantic and Indian Oceans where the sperm-whale fishery is most successful. 

" These, in like manner, are found to correspond, and are connected with the obstructions of 
the submarine currents, or the places where, from opposing currents, they become lost. 

" In the Atlantic Ocean : (1) Off the Azores or Western Islands ; (2) off the Cape de Verdes; 
(3) north of Bahama Banks ; (4) Gulf of Mexico; (5) Caribbean Sea; (G) to the eastward of the 
Windward Islands ; (7) north coast of Brazil ; (8) south coast of Brazil ; (9) Carrol Ground, or a 
space of ocean lying between St. Helena and Africa. 

" In the Indian Ocean : (1) Off the south end of Madagascar, and between it and Africa ; (2) 
off the north end of Madagascar; (3) the coast of Arabia; (4) west coast of Java; (5) northwest 
coast of New Holland ; (6) south coast of New Holland, and between it and Van Diemen's Land. 

" The periods of time allotted to these fisheries coincide with the time at which it might be 
expected that the food of the whale would be most plentiful if brought by the polar streams. 

"The Atlantic fishery is, for the most part, carried on in a smaller class of vessels than those 
used iu the Pacific ; the voyages are of less duration, and less capital is therefore required in this 
business than the other. In speaking of the cruisiug-grounds, I shall follow the order in which 
they are visited. 

" The first in point of time is that near the Azores. This ground does not extend more than 
200 miles from these islands, and lies principally to the southwest of them. Here whales are 
found during the summer mouths, and as late as October. These islands, it will be well to 
remark here, lie in the route of the great north polar stream, and form an obstruction to its passage; 
consequently the food is arrested iu its progress, and is accumulated here. 

" The next ground visited is off Cape Blanco and the Cape de Verdes, and it is also searched 
by the outward-bound ships of the Pacific fleet. The whalers of the Atlantic next pass to the north 
coast of Brazil, in the months of October, November, and December, aud thence to the Brazil 
Bank, and off the mouths of the Rio de la Plata, where they fish in January aud February ; after 
this they .seek Saint Helena aud Carrol Ground, which lies from 50 to 200 miles south of that 
island, toward the Cape of Good Hope. On the latter ground they remain during the, mouths of 
.March, April, and May; and thence they pass to the westward along the South American coast, 
to the eastward of the Windward Islands; thence to the Bahama Banks, Cape Hatteras, and 
along the coast of the United States, home. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 15 

"The smaller class of whalers seldom extend their cruising to the south of the line, but after 
they have visited the first two whaling-grounds they usually pass to the westward toward the 
island of Fernando de Noronha, and thence along the South American coast until they reach 
the Windward Islands. They frequent the Caribbean Sea in the months of January and Feb- 
ruary, and farther to the. westward off the peninsula of Yucatan and Cuba in April ; after which 
time they proceed through the Gulf of Mexico to cruise off the Bahama Banks and Cape Hatteras 
in May. Thence they pass northward, on either side of the Gulf Stream, to the eastern side of 
the Grand Banks. 

" In the Indian Ocean, the south part of Madagascar, off Point Dauphin, is visited in March 
and April ; in May, June, and July the ground off the southwest coast of Madagascar, in the 
Mozambique Channel, and upon, both sides of that channel. The whalers usually recruit iu Saint 
Augustine's Bay, where supplies are to be had in abundance, and both wood and water are easily 
procured. After this they usually spend some time off Cape Corrientes. with the cape and head- 
lauds on either side, and visit the Comoro Isles. Sperm whales are frequently found in numbers 
among these islands, and ships usually do well in their vicinity. The African coast, from Mozam- 
bique to Zanzibar, is good ground, and the latter is also a good port for repairing. 

" Some ships extend their cruising during the northeast monsoon, from October to April, to 
the Arabian coast, but the African is generally preferred. The Chagos Archipelago at times 
affords some success, but it is very doubtful ground, and has not often been frequented. The 
proper season is during the southwest monsoon. 

" The most profitable ground iu the Indian Ocean is the west and northwest coast of New 
Holland, as far eastward as the islands of Timor, Lomboch, and Angier, and westward to the 

Keeling Islands, including the coast of Java. 

********** 

" It wilt be perceived how nearly these grounds coincide with the places wherein, according 
to the views already stated, the polar streams are obstructed by land or islands, so as either to 
interrupt their course or create such an impediment as to change it. 

" The Sooloo Sea is the only place that remains to be noticed. American ships, however, have 
seldom gone thither, but English vessels are reported as having met with much success there."* 

(b) EIGHT-WHALE GROUNDS. 

GEOGRAPHICAL, DISTRIBUTION OF RIGHT WHALES. The right whale (Eubalcena) is found 
in various parts of the world as far north as latitude 61 30', at the mouth of Hudson Strait, and 
south to the Antarctic Ocean, though it is rare in the warmest latitudes. This whale, of which 
there are several species in the different oceans, must not be confounded with the bow-head, 
or polar whale, which is called right whale by many whalemen, though quite distinct from it and 
inhabiting much colder waters, the bow-head being an ice whale and the right a temperate whale. 
The principal right-whaling grounds east of America are in the South Atlantic, while in the 
Pacific Ocean they are of about equal importance both north and south of the tropics. 

NORTH ATLANTIC GROUNDS. The North Atlantic grounds for this species are few iu num- 
ber. They are taken during the summer mouths off the southern end of Greenland and to a 
limited extent in the lower part of Davis Strait, near Resolution Island. Along the eastern 
coast of the United States they are occasionally captured by shore, whalemen, especially at the 
whaling stations in North Carolina. During the winter mouths whalers find them on the Hatteras 

" Narrative of Wilkes's U. S. Exploring Expedition, vol. v. 



] 6 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Ground, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in the Caribbean Sea. A few small vessels have cruised with 
indifferent success for right whales along the west coast of Africa, in latitude 15 north, and in 
Center Bay, about latitude 23 north. At no particular place in the North Atlantic are they now 
abundant, though they were formerly taken in great numbers close to the New England shore, 
and eastward of the Newfoundland fishing-banks. 

SOUTH ATLANTIC GROUNDS. The most noted grounds for right whales at the commencement 
of the right- whale fishery iu the last century were off the coasts of Brazil and of Patagonia, on what 
were called the "Brazil," or " Main," and " False Banks," and especially between the thirty-sixth and 
the fifty-fifth parallels from the coast to 30 west longitude. The most important spots were on and 
about the above banks and from latitude 38 to 45 south, and longitude 38 to 45 west. Right 
whales were also quite abundant in the vicinity of the Falkland Islands, which were first visited by 
our whalemen in 1774; near the Tristan Islands, between latitude 28 to 42 south, and from the 
meridian to 20 west longitude, was called the "Tristan Ground," and was a favorite cruising 
place. Good whaling was also found from latitude 34 to 43 south and longitude 24 to 28 
west. Other important grounds were along the west coast of Africa from latitude 22 to 32 
south, or to the Cape of Good Hope. Ships met with great success on the South Atlantic grounds 
for many years, and it was not an uncommon occurrence for vessels of from l/iOO to 2,500 barrels 
capacity to fill up and return home from the South Atlantic in one season, making the voyage in 
from seven to ten months. 

The grounds more particularly visited at the present day in this ocean are around the Tristan 
Islands in latitude 36 to 38 south, longitude 10 to 25 west, from September to January; on 
the east coast of South America in latitude 30 to 35 south, from May to August ; and from 
September to June along the coast of Patagonia in latitude 42 to r<2 south. The whales caught 
are of the regular right-whale species, the bull when full grown yielding from 40 to 60 barrels of 
oil and the cow from 60 to 80 barrels, or about 60 barrels on an average. The whalebone aver- 
ages about 300 pounds to 100 barrels oil in the bull, and 400 to 600 pounds to 100 barrels oil in 
the cow whale. 

INDIAN OCEAN AND SOUTH PACIFIC GROUNDS. We now pass the Cape of Good Hope to 
the right- whale grounds in the Indian Ocean, all of which are at present entirely abandoned by 
the Americans. On many parts of the ocean lying between the parallels of 20 to 50 south, and 
from longitude 18 to 80 east, right whales were found abundant in former years, and a few 
ships continued to cruise there up to 1879, though most of the whales have been killed or driven 
from the ground. The most important places within these limits of latitude and longitude were 
at Delago Bay, in latitude 26 south, longitude 32 east ; east of Cape of Good Hope, in latitude 
35 to 38 south, longitude 30 to 35 east ; around the Crozette Islands, in latitude 45 to 47 
south, and longitude 49 to 52 east ; in the vicinity of St. Paul's Island, in latitude 32 to 38 
south, longitude 70 to 80 east; and near Kerguelen Island, in latitude 48 to 50 south, longi- 
tude 69 to 700 W est. 

The season for cruising in the Indian Ocean is the same as in the South Atlantic. The best 
mouths for whaling offshore are from September to May, and when inshore more whales are 
taken in the winter months, when they can be found around the islands, near the rocks, and 
among the kelp or seaweed. The whales in this ocean are smaller than those taken in the South 
Atlantic, averaging 40 barrels of oil and 240 pounds of bone for the bull, and for the cow whale 
60 barrels of oil and 360 pounds of bone, or 600 pounds of bone to 100 barrels of oil. 

In former years right whales were found quite plenty on the west and south coasts of Australia, 
especially at Cape Leeuwin, Geographe Bay, and King George Sound. They were also taken 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 17 

around Van Diemen's Land, or Tasmania, which place, for the past ten years, has employed a fleet 
of eleven vessels, principally in the sperm-whale fishery in this vicinity. In the year 1872 nineteen 
vessels, measuring 4,017 tons, belonged at Tasmania, and produced 112 barrels of whale oil and 
2,712 barrels of sperm oil. 

The vicinily of New Zealand was once an important right- whaling ground, and is still occa- 
sionally visited by vessels, that meet with moderate success, taking both right and sperm whales. 
The grounds are both inshore and offshore ; the most noted of those offshore, from October to 
March, are from latitude 38 to 48 south, and longitude 154 to 162 east. Commencing the 
season to the north, vessels work south with the whales. Around the Auckland Islands and in 
the vicinity of Stewart's Island, from the laud to 100 miles offshore, are good cruising grounds; 
also from 36 to 45 south latitude, and KJIP east to 160 west longitude. 

Right whales were takeu in abundance off the coast of Chili about forty years ago, and a few 
vessels still cruise in that vicinity, making mixed voyages for sperm and whale oil. The season is 
from September 1 to January 1, on the grounds from latitude 42 to 47 south, and longitude 75 
to 80 west. After the beginning of the year vessels work along shore toward the north as far 
as latitude 35 south, occasionally anchoring in the bays and cruising back and forth between 
the thirty-fifth and the fortieth parallels until 'May. The most noted grounds are Concepcion and 
St. Vincent bays, near the port of Talcahnaua, where they formerly caught their whales and tried 
out their oil while at anchor, sometimes taking 1,000 barrels of oil in a month. Some vessels used 
to winter in these bays, though they were not very successful in the winter months. 

NORTH PACIFIC GROTTNDS. One of the principal cruising places for right whales in this 
ocean is that known as the "Northwest coast right- whale ground," or the "Kadiak ground," 
situated near an island of that name off the Aliaska peninsula, and extending from latitude 50 to 
GO north, and longitude 130 to 160 west. The best portion of this ground lies between 
latitude 55 to 58 north, and longitude 140 to 152 east, and the most profitable cruising season 
is from April to October. The first whaling vessel to cruise here was the ship Ganges, of Nan- 
tucket, commanded by Capt. Barzillar Folger. This was in the year 1835, from which time until 
within a few years past the Kadiak was the most important ground north of the Japan ground. 
The whales taken on this ground average about 125 barrels of oil each, the male or bull making 
from 60 to 100 barrels, and the cow whale from 100 to 250 barrels. The bone will average about 
1,000 pounds to 100 barrels of oil, and is much longer than the South Sea bone. A full-grown 
whale here has about two hundred slabs of bone, varying in length from 1 foot to 11 feet. Some 
ot these whales, though apparently good when taken, prove to be " dry skins," making no oil, and 
many of them sink after being killed. The blubber varies in thickness on different parts of the 
body, being from 5 to 15 inches on a 100-barrel whale, and on a 200-barrel from 5 to 18 inches. 
The lips, from which oil is also taken, sometimes yield from 8 to 10 barrels. 

Right whales are found and have been captured around the Fox Islands and in Bristol Bay 
north of the Aliaska peninsula. In Bering Sea, along the coast of Kamchatka, there is good 
right whaling ; also at the entrance to Okhotsk Sea, and in the southern part of that sea during 
the months of April and Jlay. They are also taken in the Japan and the Yellow Seas. "In 
former years," says Scammou, "the right whales were found on the coast of Oregon, and ocea- 
sionly in large numbers ; the few frequenting the coast of California are supposed to have been 
merely stragglers from their northern haunts. Some, indeed, have, been taken (from February to 
April) as far south as the Bay of San Sebastian Viscaino, and about Cerros Island, both places 
being near tin- parallel of 29 north latitude."* 

* Marine Mammalia, ji. Wi. 

SEC. v, VOL. ii 2 



|g HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHEE1ES. 

(C) BOWHEAD-WHALE GROUNDS. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DisTinr.rrioN OF BOWHEAD WHALES. The bowhead or polar whale is the 
spi-Hes ibnucrly taken in great numbers by the Dutch and English whalers at Spitzbergen, 
Greeuliind. nnd Davis Strait. It is the whale captured by the American fleet in the Arctic Ocean, 
and is the most valuable of the right or whalebone whales both for the quantity and for the quality 
of its oil and for the length and the thickness of its baleen. In the English whale fishery it is 
not distinguished from the right whale, but is not the same us the species commonly known to 
American whalemen under that name, The American right whale lives in more temperate waters, 
while the polar or bowhead whale inhabits only the icy regions of the northern seas. The home 
of the bowhead is in must of 1 he waters north of the sixtieth parallel of north latitude. It is found 
in lower latitudes on the Asiatic than on the Greenland side of America, being taken in the 
Okhotsk Sea as far south as the fifty-fourth parallel and in the Bering Sea as far south as the 
fifty-fifth parallel, which is the southern limit of the winter ice in that sea. In the Greenland 
Arctic the bowhead is not found south of Cape Farewell on the sixtieth parallel. The northern 
limit of this whale is undefined. 

TLe capture of the bowhead whale began at Spitzbergen in the early part of the seventeenth 
century; it soon extended to the east coast of Greenland, and early in the eighteenth century 
they were taken in Davis Strait and adjoining waters. It was not until the year 1848 that the 
whalers pushed their way through Bering Strait and established the very profitable fishery for this 
species in the Pacific-Arctic. 

The principal grounds visited by the whaling vessels of the United States in search of the 
bowhead are as follows: 

ATLANTIC-ARCTIC GROUNDS. Off Cape Farewell, at the southern end of Greenland, from 
June to August; also in Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay, especially in the vicinity of South- 
hampton Island and near Cape Fullerton, that lies in about latitude 64 north, and longitude 86 
west. The vessels are accustomed to work through the ice in Hudson Strait about the middle 
of July, arriving in the bay about August 1, and if intending to return home the same year 
they leave the bay by the 1st of September. Many of them go into winter quarters about Sep- 
tember 15, and spend the winter in the ice, taking advantage of the early and the late appearance 
of the whales, as also occasionally capturing seals or walrus in the winter months. 

In Davis Strait the vessels cruise near Northumberland Inlet in about latitude 65 north, 
and longitude 68 west. Cumberland Inlet has also been a favorite resort for whaling vessels of 
the smaller class, and they frequently winter there. Eesolution Island, at the entrance to Cumber- 
laud Inlet, is a good ground for both bowhead and right whales during April and May. 

The whales taken in these bays and inlets in former years would average about 120 barrels 
of oil each, the bull 100 barrels, and the cow 140 barrels ; but of late years they have been smaller 
and scarcer. The yield of bone is usually about 1,300 pounds to 100 barrels of oil. 

American vessels at present cruise no farther north than the sixty-fifth parallel, though the 
Scotch steam-whalers, that carry their blubber home to be boiled out, frequently take their whales 
as far north as the seventy-fifth parallel. The American vessels formerly went as far as Pond's 
Bay, in about latitude 73 north. 

A further discussion of the movements of the Scotch whalers is given below under the head 
of Foreign Whale Fishery. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth and first part of the nineteenth centuries there were very 
profitable whaling grounds for the bowhead in the vicinity of Spitzbergen and off the east coast 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 19 

of Greenland, where extensive fisheries were curried on by the European nations. These grounds 
were not visited by vessels of the United States until within the past thirty years, and then only 
in a lew instances. The first American whaler sailing for Spitzbergen Sea was the ship Han- 
nibal, Captain Kovee, that left New London May '21, 18.3.3, and returned March 21, 1856, with 
only twenty eight barrels of whale-oil. A second attempt was the, voyage of the bark Tempest, 
Captain Allyn, that left New London May HI, 1857. Captain Allyn states that he had under- 
taken this voyage to the Spitsbergen regions by the advice of Hon. Thomas W. Williams, a 
successful whaling agent, who furnished him with Scoresby's journals and information obtained 
by correspondence with whaling agents in Scotland, setting forth the frequent appearance of 
whales in the region of ocean north of Knssia. During the month of July these seas were cruised 
over by the Tempest, but, "although we sought diligently for whales," says Captain Allyn, "our 
search was totally unsuccessful, and on the 9th of August we concluded to proceed to a more 
congenial climate."* The vessel then cruised clown through the North and South Atlantic 
Oceans, round Cape of Good Hope, on to New Zealand, and thence to the Okhotsk Sea, and 
after cruising with moderate success for two or three seasons in these waters returned to New 
London in 1861. In 1865 a third attempt was made to establish an American fishery in these 
seas, this time at Iceland by the bark Reindeer, of New York, principally for sulphur-bottom 
whales. The first year's work was unsuccessful, and the second season resulted in such little 
profit that the project was abandoned. Tbese three voyages are the only ones, so far as known, 
that have been made by American whaling vessels to the oceans east of Greenland or north ot 
Europe. 

The Eussians and Norwegians carry on profitable whale fisheries, mostly for the fin-back, at 
one or two points along the coasts of Norway and Fiurnark. One of these stations is on an island 
in Varangar Fiord, opposite Wadso, in Fiumark. In recent years a few Norwegian vessels have 
visited Spitzbergeu in search of whales, as in the season of 1873, when six vessels, with fifty-seven 
men, were frozen in the ice at the island, and seventeen of the men perished before assistance 
reached them. 

PACIFIC-ARCTIC GROUNDS. The fleet of whaling vessels cruising north of 50 north latitude in 
the waters between the Asiatic and the American coasts is called the North Pacific fleet. It has 
been the most important branch of the American right-whaling fleet since 1835, when the famous 
Kadiak ground, lying between latitude ,3<P and 60 north, was discovered. Here were taken only 
the right whale, but in 1843 the fleet pushed farther north, and began capturing bowheads on the 
Kamchatka coast. In 1848 a whaling vessel entered the Arctic in pursuit of these large animals 
and met with good success. In 1839 there were only two vessels in the North Pacific fleet. From 
that date to 1880 the total number of voyages m ale to these grounds by American vessels was 
4,300, and the total catch of whale-oil (including oil of the right whale, bowhead, and walrus) was 
3,994,397 barrels, or 60 per cent, of the total production of whale-oil by the American fleet in all 
oceans during the same period. 

The North Pacific right and bowhead whale fishery has always been peculiarly an American 
enterprise, very few foreign vessels having participated in it. The principal grounds were 
discovered by American vessels bet ween the years 183,3 and 1S48. The, most important whaling- 
grounds for the bowhead in this region are the Okhotsk Sea and tiie Arctic Ocean. The former- 
is at present of little importance, but lew vessels having visited it dining the past five or ten 
years, nearly all of the fleet preferring the hazardous, though profitable, whaling in the Arctic. The 

TheOld tJ:i.ilnr'.sSi,.i-.\, l,.\- Cimlm, L. All n 1879, p. 85, 



20 HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

bays iu the Bering Sea are visited by the fleet oil its way to the Arctic, and large numbers of 
whales are sometimes taken in these waters before the ice permits the vessels to pass through the 
Strait. 

The North Pacific whale fishery was at its height in 1846, when 292 ships cruised in the region 
north of the fiftieth parallel, between the Asiatic aud the American shores. In 1868 there were 
but 68 vessels in the fleet, of which number 41 were in the Arctic Ocean, 8 in the Okhotsk Sea, 
and 19 on the Kadiak ground. In the season of 1SSO the fleet was reduced to 19 vessels, all of 
which cruised in the Arctic and captured a total of 2(>f> whales. 

"The principal herding places of the bowheads in the Okhotsk," says Scammou, "were at the 
extremities of this great sheet of water, the most northern being the Northeast Gulf (Gulf of 
Ghijigha), the most southern Tehauter Bay. The whales did not make their appearance in 
Northeast Gulf so soon as iu the bay. Whalers endeavored, as soon as possible, to get to the head 
of Tehauter Bay, where they found the objects of pursuit in the intermediate water, between the 
ice and the shore, long before the main body of the congealed mass was broken up, and before the 
ships could get between the ice aud the shore, even at high tide, the boats being sent forward 
weeks previous to the ships. Soon after the ships' arrival the whales avoided their pursuers by 
going under the main body of ice, situated in the middle of the bay, where they found breathing- 
holes among the floes. The boats cruised about the edge of the barrier, watching for them to 
emerge from their covert, which occasionally they did, when chase was instantly given. Fre- 
quently, in sailing along this ice-field, yon could hear distinctly the sound of whales blowing 
among it, where no water was visible at the point whence the sound came. The first of the season, 
before the ice broke up and disappeared, when there were no whales about, the question was 
frequently asked, 'Where are the whales?' and as often answered, 'They are in the ice'; and, 'When 
do you think they will come out?' was answered by, ' When the ice leaves.' It has been established 
lieyond question that this species pass from the Atlantic to the Pacific, or rather, if we may be 
allowed the expression, from the Atlantic Arctic to the Pacific Arctic, by the north ; and, too, it 
is equally certain that numerous air-holes always exist in the ice that covers the Arctic waters, 
even in the coldest latitudes. These fissures are caused by the rise and fall of the tides, and con- 
traction and expansion of the ice. Storms acting upon the water hundreds of miles distant also 
have their influence in rending asunder the icy fetters of those frozen seas. It appears to us 
not improbable that the bowhead has a feeding and breeding ground iu a polar sea. And as 
they have never been seen during the winter months in any other quarter of the globe, except as 
before mentioned, it would appear that they nmst remain among the rough water and broken ice, 
at the southern edge of the winter barrier, or migrate to some remote sea unknown to man." * 

The whaling vessels enter the Okhotsk as soon as the ice leaves, which is usually about the 
last of May, though sometimes it is as late as July. Having anchored the vessel in a convenient 
bay or inlet, the boats are sent out in search of the whales, and the animals, after being captured, 
are sometimes towed ashore and cut up there, the blubber being rafted off td*"the vessel. This 
mode is made necessary from the fact that the boats may be absent several days or even weeks, 
and be quite a distance from their vessel. The difficulties incident to whaling in the Okhotsk are 
told by Captain Scammon in his history of the whale-fishery. The whales found here during 
recent years have been much smaller than those taken at the beginning of the fishery, when the 
largest sometimes yielded 250 barrels of oil each, and the smallest about 80 barrels. The cow 
whales gave the most oil, averaging about 130 barrels, and the bulls about 90 barrels, the yield of 
bone being about 1,500 pounds to TOO barrels of oil. The M-ason closes in the Okhotsk about the 

.ION : lljiriue Mammalia, y. 59. 



THIO WHALE KISIIKKY. 21 

latter part of October, though vessels sometimes continue musing throughout November at great 
risk from the ice, and they have occasionally wintered in the ice in order to take advantage of the 
late and early seasons. 

Ships that cruise in the Arctic Ocean generally arrive in the Kamchatka and the Anadyr 
Seas about the beginning of May, and continue cruising south of Bering Strait until the ice per- 
mits them to pass through the .Strait into the Arctic, which is usually about the first of June. 
Before entering the Strait a considerable number of whales are sometimes taken in the bays and 
gulfs along the Siberian coast and about St. Lawrence Island. Captain Barnes, in the bark Sea 
Breeze, of New Bedford, in the. season of 1S77, passed the. Aleutian chain on May 4, and three 
days after came up to the ice in latitude f>(P 30' north. Until May -',', the ice was skirted toward 
the westward, and frequent iuell'ectual attempts were made to penetrate it. Laud was sighted on 
the iMth, l-'.JO miles west -sout Invest from Cape Xavarin, and on that day the ice was entered. On 
June 18, whales were seen off Cape Chaplin. The. whales usually pass through the Strait about 
the beginning of June, and are followed up by the vessels that cruise along the western side of the 
Arctic during the, first part of the season, while waiting for the ice to open NO that they may pass 
to the eastward to 1'oint Barrow. This time of waiting usually lasts from the middle of June till 
the 1st of August, and is called the "summer season" or ''between seasons." It is spent princi- 
pally in capturing walrus which herd on the ice floes in immense numbers in the vicinity of Cape 
Serdze-Kameu. During specially favorable 4; summer seasons, 1 ' as that of 1880, many whales are 
taken, and little time is spent in wall-using, but these weeks are usually quiet ones with the fleet, 
the killing of walrus being considered a pastime by the whalemen. 

As soon as the ice will permit, at, the beginning of August, the fleet follows up through the 
openings, capturing whales wherever they can be found. Most of the vessels reach Point Barrow 
by the middle of August, and begin to push farther to the eastward, creeping along the edge of 
the ice or entering the openings in search of their prey. Some of the vessels in the season of 1877 
went as far east as Return Beef, and early in September they had all returned to Point Barrow. 
From this time until the ice begins to close tip the fleet cruises back and forth westward of Point 
Barrow, reaching some seasons as high as the seventy-second parallel, which is about the most 
northern cruising ground in the Arct ic. The period from the middle of August until about October 
1, when the fleer leaves the ocean, is the real Arctic season, and an exciting one it is. 

Ships quite often anchor along the shores in thick weather, as also to " cut in" the whales, or 
to "try out" the oil. Most of the ships leave the sea about the 1st of October, though sometimes 
they stay later, at the risk of being caught in the new ice. "The general breaking up of the ice in 
this region," says Captain Hooper, commences in May or June in the vicinity of Bering Strait, 
and continues until the first part of .September, after which time new ice begins to form, although 
the sea is not entirely close. 1 for some weeks later. The heavy j;ales keep the larger floes in motion, 
and prevent them from unit ing in one mass. After October 1 the water is so chilled that a general 
closing up of the sea is likely to occur at any time. Formerly the whale-ships did not remain in 
the Arctic later than the middle < mber. but as whales grew scarce they prolonged their 

stay each year, until last year (ls7'.h they did not leave until after the middle of October. This 
resulted in the loss of three vessels and two entire crews; a fourth vessel, the bark Helen Mar, 
Captain Bauldry, barely escaped, bringing with her the crew of the bark Mercury, one of the lost 
vessels. Her escape was effected by carrying all sail with a strong, fair wind, and forcing a passage 
through the new ice, which was so t hick that at times her headway was entirely lost until a strong 
puff of wind started her again. In this way the vessel worked on a few miles each day, reaching 
Bering Strait about the 1st of November."* 

* Corwin's Cruise, 1880. 



22 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

(d) nTJMPBACK-TVHAI/E GROUNDS. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OP HUMPBACK WHALES. Humpback whales (Negaptera) 
are found within the parallels of C0 north and 70 south latitude. They are seldom seen far 
from laud, but me generally caught in mild climates, within certain bays and along coasts where 
the water is shallow. 

The most noted places lor taking them in the Atlantic Ocean are in the vicinity of the Island 
of Trinidad and in the Gulf of Para, irom 10 to 11 north latitude, and 01 to 63 west longitude, 
also around Cape Verde Islands during the winter months, and on the coast of Africa from 3 
north to 7 south latitude from June to October. 

" Some, of the Provmcetowu whalers,'' sa\ s Captain Atwood, " prosecute both the humpback 
and the sperm whale fishery. They sail from port about the middle or last of January and go 
direct to the West Indies, where they whale near the shores of these islands for humpbacks. 
Their whaling-ground for this species is from Tobago, latitude 11 20' north, longitude 60 27' 
west, thence northward around the shores of the islands as far as the Island of Mariegulante, in 
latitude 15 52' north, longitude Cl 18' west. These vessels stop there until the latter part of 
April or early in May, when they leave for the Western, Charleston, or Hatteras grounds in pur- 
suit of sperm whales, and usually return home in September. Another favorite ground is around 
the Cape Verde Islands, where these vessels cruise near the shore for the humpback during 
the winter mouths and then go north to the sperm whale grounds." 

In 1879 humpback whales were abundant on the coast of Maine. One of the most successful 
whalers out of Provincetown that season was the Brilliant, an old pink-stern schooner of 17 tons, 
which hunted this species off Deer Isle, Maine. Up to October 1 she had taken four whales, yield- 
ing one hundred and fifty-five barrels. The Brilliant carried but one whale-boat, and tried out the 
oil on shore, towing in the whales as they were killed. Capt. J. W. Collins reports that on May 
17, 1877, when in latitude 44 16' north, longitude 58 59' west, he noticed an unusual number 
of whales and porpoises. " There were more humpback whales than I had even before seen in 
that locality ; appeared to be entirely fearless of the vessel; played around her all day, sometimes 
coming up alongside within 15 or 20 feet, their heads out of water 10 or 12 feet. At other times 
they would lie on top of the water and lash it into snowy foam with their long, flexible fins." 

In the Pacific Ocean humpbacks are taken all along the coast of Ecuador and Colombia, from 
Guayaquil to the Bay of Panama and on reefs around the islands of the Friendly Group, also 
occasionally around the New Hebrides and the Fiji Group. They are also found in considerable 
abundance around the Rosemary Islands, on the northwest coast of Australia, and around Bramp- 
tou Shoals. The liesi -rounds on the South American coast are in the Gulf of Guayaquil, which 
lies in about latitude o south, and from here along the shore to the north as far as 3 north lati- 
tude, off the villages of Tacaroes and Esmaraldas, in Ecuador. Ships occasionally anchor and send 
out their boat for the whales, that must- as a rule be killed in shoal water, as most of them sink and 
must be hauled up. The season for whaling ou this coast is from February to August, beginning 
at Esmaraldas in February, and working along south until, in June, the whales appear at the Gulf 
of Guayaquil, and continue until August. The season ou the Australian coast and around the 
Western Pacific group of islands begins about the 1st of June and continues into November and 
December. 

Humpback whales are taken along the coast of California at the shore-whaling stations, 
especially at Moniei-ey Bay. They are also seen and captured at Magdaleua and Balenas Bays. 
In many bays and around islands in the Alaskan territory and the Aleutian Islands they are 
taken by the Indians atid the Eskimos. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 23 

Captain Scammon records the following observations on this species of whale : " In the years 
is.li! ami 1853 large numbers of humpbacks resorted to the Gulf of Guayaquil, coast of Peru, to 
calve, aud the height of the season was during I lie months of July and August. The same may 
be said of the gulfs aud bays situated near the corresponding latitudes north of the equator; still, 
instances are not infrequent when cows and their calves have been seen at all other seasons of 
the year about the same coast. In the Bay of Valle de llanderas, coast of Mexico (latitude 20 
30'), in the month of December, we saw numbers of humpbacks, with calves but a few days old. 
In May, 1855, at Magdalena. Ray, coast of Lower California (about latitude 24 30'), we found 
them in like numbers, some with very large calves, while others were very small. The season at 
Tongataboo (one of the Friendly Islands, latitude 21 south, longitude 174 west), according to 
Captain Beckermau, includes August and September. Here the females were usually large, 
yielding an average of 40 barrels of oil, including the entrail fat, which amounted to about 6 
barrels. The largest whale taken at this point during the season of 1871 produced 73 barrels, 
and she was adjudged to be 75 feet in length." * 

In the year 1872 humpback whaling was successfully prosecuted at Panama Bay; Harper's 
and Tonga Islands; Chesterfield Shoals; coast of Africa; West Indies; Crozet and Desolation 
Islands. The last two islands have been visited more especially for the capture of right whales 
and sea elephants, though humpback whales were taken here aud in other parts of the Indian 
Ocean. 

(e) FINBACK, SULPHUR-BOTTOM, AND OTHER WHALING GROUNDS. 

SULPHUR-BOTTOM WHALES. The finback and the sulphur-bottom whales are found in most 
parts of the different oceans and in some places are very numerous. The sulphur-bottom is the 
largest whale known, varying from 60 to 100 feet or more. It is, like the finback, exceedingly 
swift in its movements, aud can be captured only by the whalingrocket or the bomb-gun. Captain 
Seabury states that "they sometimes follow the vessel for miles." There can hardly be said to be 
any special grounds where the sulphur-bottom is captured, comparatively few having ever been 
taken. On the coast of California the shore-whalemen have taken a few, and several were taken 
some years since by the schooner Page, of San Francisco, off the port of San Quentin, Lower Cali- 
fornia. An attempt was made about 1865 to establish a fishery for this species at Iceland. " Two 
or three small screw steamers," says Captain Seabury, "were sent there from England to whale in the 
bays, using for the capture a whale-gun and a large line to go through the bottom of the boat. 
They were quite successful in taking the whale, aud followed up the business for two or three years, 
but the expense being greater than the income, it was abandoned. Beyond those taken by this 
expedition off Iceland, there have been but few sulphur-bottoms captured." 

FINBACK WHALES. This whale is taken principally by shore-whalemen, vessels preferring 
more profitable game, as the finback has but little blubber, no valuable bone, and withal is very 
difficult to capture. They are taken by the California boat-whalers, aud for two years past have 
been captured in considerable number along the coast of New England, especially at Proviucetown, 
where forty-eight were secured in the spring of 1880. The shore-whaling stations on the coasts of 
Norway and Fiumark are for the capture of this species. 

GRAY WHALE OR DEVIL-FISH. The California gray whale, also called "devil-fish" and 
"mussel-digger," is found principally on the coast of California, in the bays and gulfs and along 
the shores, in shoal water. The most noted places are Magdalena Bay, in about latitude 25 north, 
and Scammon's Lagoon, in about latitude 30 north. They are also found aud taken in the 



"Marine Mammalia, ji. 4::. 



24 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Okhotsk Sea and the Arctic Ocean. They are not large, and yield on an average only about 30 
barrels of a reddish oil. They are said to be the most dangerous to capture of all whales. The 
bomb-lance or the whaling rocket is generally used in the chase. On the Calit'ornian coast the 
best season for the capture of this species is from November to April or May, after which time 
they move north. They appear in October and November off the coast of Oregon on their return 
south. This whale is known only in northern latitudes, and is not found in the Atlautic Ocean. 
No great number has ever been taken. Captain Scarninon, in 1872, estimated that the whole 
number captured or destroyed since 1846, when bay-whaling commenced, would not exceed 10,800. 
DISTRIBUTION OF BLACKFISH AND PORPOISE. There are several other species of cetacea, 
as the blackfish and the porpoise, that are widely distributed over the oceans, and are often taken 
by whaling vessels, though they are not special objects of pursuit. Those fisheries for these 
species are discussed in the next chapter. The white whale or beluga is found principally in the 
icy waters of the north, and several hundred of them are annually taken by the natives of the 
countries bordering those seas, as also by the Scotch whaling vessels visiting Davis Strait. These 
vessels in 1877 took 935 white whales, and in 187G they captured 700. According to Scammon 
large numbers are captured by the natives of Alaska and of Eastern Siberia, where they ascend 
the rivers for several hundred miles. They are taken in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, and also by 
the Norwegians at Spitzbergen. Nordeuskiold * states that in 1871 vessels from Tromsoe alone 
caught 2,167 of this species in nets. Their value was estimated at about $15 each. Both the 
blubber, hide, aud carcass are utilized, the latter by the guano factories in Norway. They are 
also taken in nets by the Russians and Samoyeds at Chabarova. 

ROUTES TO GROUNDS; SUPPLY STATIONS. 

ROUTES TO WHALING- GROUNDS. Vessels engaged in the Atlautic Ocean fishery are of two 
classes, those of small size on short cruises and those of large capacity that make longer voyages. 
The former cruise principally in the North Atlantic, and are always on the alert for whales, work- 
ing on all the grouuds in this ocean, but especially those near the Azores or on the Hatteras 
ground. They usually leave home in the spring and return in the fall, proceeding first to the more 
southeru and working toward the more northern fields. Some of these small vessels, however, 
remain out for a year or even more, spending the winter mouths on the tropical grounds aud often 
cruising in the South Atlantic, where they obtain a quantity of oil to be transshipped from St. 
Helena to the United States. They will work toward home, .stopping in the principal equatorial 
and northern grounds. The second or larger class of vessels are gone fiom home for from two to 
three years, often cruising on all the grounds in both the North and the South Atlantic. They 
usually go first to the Western Islands and from there work south or north as the abundance or 
the scarcity of whales on the different grounds may suggest. They frequently resort to ports at 
the Azores or Cape Verde Islands, in the north Atlantic, and St. Helena, in the South Atlantic. 

The Hudson Bay or Davis Strait fleet is composed of vessels of all sizes. They make voyages 
lasting from eight mouths to one or two years. Many of them have been accustomed to leave 
home in the spring and to proceed at once to the Straits in time to enter the bays and gulfs at the 
breaking up of the ice. They spend the summer in search of whales, and may return home in the 
early fall, or remain to winter in the ice in ordei- to take advantage of the early movement of 
whales in spring. There are no refitting ports to which they can resort, so that if the vessel be of 
small carrying capacity she will generally prefer to winter at home rather than in the icy regions. 

* Voyage of the Vega, vol. i. 



TILIC WHALE FISUEBY. 25 

The I'acitie-Aretic fleet is aceustomcd to winter in San Francisco or at the Sandwich Isl- 
ands, and upon the opening <>t' spring to proceed at once to the north, there awaiting the open- 
ing of the ice to go through the Strait. They return to winter quarters in the late fall and trans- 
ship their catches by rail or \ New Bedford. Vessels sailing from New Bedford for the 
Arctic leave home in the fall, in order to pass Tape Horn during the summer season. These 
vessels seldom stop on the various grounds in their pathway, but will not refuse a good chance to 
take a whale wherever tlie.s maybe. They are frequently absent from home for several years, 
making annual cruises north from their retifting station. 

Ships and barks that cruised in the Pacific Ocean in former years made their voyages in from 
thirty to forty-eight mouths, or an average of about forty months. At the present time such a 
vessel shipping products home seldom makes a. voyage in less than three years, and sometimes 
they are gone live years. The usual course of sperm and right whale ships when sailing in the 
spring or summer is to look the ground over as far as the Western Islands, touch there and get 
recruits and ship oil, if they have any; then run down and sight the Cape Verde, and sometimes 
touch there for refreshments and ship men if needed, which is quite often done at the Azores or 
Western Islands. They then cross the equator in from 24 to 31 west longitude, and, if bound 
round Cape Horn, run along within a few degrees of the east coast of South America, generally to 
the west of the Falkland Islands, and, passing through the Straits of Le Maire or to the east of 
Stateu Laud, steer for Cape Horu, keeping as near to the cape as possible, to avoid the strong 
westerly gales and easterly current that is usually found off shore. After getting around the 
Horn each ship steers for its chosen ground. In coming home they take a more easterly course, 
after getting into the Atlantic Ocean, than the passage out, so as to strike the southeast trade 
wind in about longitude 28 or 30 west; then make a direct track for home. 

If bound around the East Cape or Cape of Good Hope, after crossing the equator they keep 
by the wind in going through the southeast trades, and when in latitude 28 to 30 south, steer 
to the eastward and double the cape. If bound to New Zealand, they keep in the variable wind 
to the south of latitude 30 south, and pass around Van Diemau's Land. If bound into the 
Indian Ocean, after passing the cape they steer for their several grounds. If sailing late in the 
season, and bound direct for the Pacific or Indian Ocean, ships keep the same course, except that 
they go more to the south and avoid the Western Islands. 

SUPPLY STATIONS. The principal places in the North Atlantic visited by whaling vessels 
for supplies or for transshipment of oil are the Barbadoes, Bermuda Islands, Fayal at the Azores, 
and Port Praya at Cape Verde Islands. In the South Atlantic the most important places are 
Peruambuco, Rio de Janeiro, St. Catherine, and Montevideo, on the east coast of South America. 
On the African coast are St. Helena, Ambrozet, and Cape Town. 

lu the Indian Ocean, Mauritius, on the Isle de France, is about the only port whence oil is 
transshipped aud about the only place for repairs, though there are other places, as Zanzibar. 
Seychelle Islands, Singapore, aud some of the East India islands, that are visited by the vessels. 
On the west coast of New Holland, Shark's Bay, Geographe Bay, and King George's Sound; 
also, Hobart Town, on Van Dieman's Land, and Sydney, on the east coast of Australia, are supply 
stations for vessels cruising on adjacent grounds. 

The principal places visited by whalemen in the South Pacific are Monganui and Bay of 
Islands, on the east coast of New Zealand, Feejee and Navigator's Island, Papeta, on the island of 
Otaheite, and Nookaheva, one of the Marquesas Islands ; and on the west coast of South America 
the ports of Sail Carlos, Talcahuano, Valparaiso, Callao, Payta, and Tumbez. Only two ports are 
much used for transshipping oil; these are Talcahuano, in Chili, and Bay of Islands, in New 



26 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHEEIES. 

Zealand. These, with Payta and Tumbez, in Pern, are the principal ports visited by ships. The 
Galapagos Islands have some good harbors and are occasionally resorted to for the land turtles 
or terrapin that are abundant there. On some islands wood can be obtained, and on the south 
side of Chatham Island good water can be got with safety from November to May. 

In the North Pacific the principal ports visited for the transshipment of oil are San Fran- 
cisco, Panama, Hila, and Honolulu. Tacames, in Ecuador, Acapulco, on the west coast of Mexico. 
Yokohama, Hakadadi, Guam, one of the Ladrone Islands, Hong-Kong, and Manila have all been 
visiting stations. There are also many other places occasionally visited by the whaling fleet. For 
the convenience of the Arctic fleet a supply vessel is sent from San Francisco to meet the vessels 
at Bering Strait or in the Arctic and receive what oil they may wish to send home and supply 
them with fresh provisions. 

3. EARLY HISTORY OF BOAT-WHALING IN NEW ENGLAND. 

r.OAST OF MAINE. 

We find no records to indicate that shore-whaling was ever extensively practiced on the 
coast of Maine, though drift whales may have been frequently cast ashore and cared for by the 
shoremen. The following item, given by Hubbard in his history of New England, shows that 
the people of Maine, in early times, were not versed in the handling of whales: "In 1668 a sperm 
whale fifty-five feet long was taken at Winter Harbor, near Casco Bay. The like hath happened 
in other places of the country, where, for want of skill to improve it, much gain hath slipped out 
of the hands of the finders." 

MASSACHUSETTS NORTH OP CAPE COD. 

There is little in the early records to show what interest the people of Massachusetts, north 
of Cape Cod, had in shore whaling. It is probable that at Salem and vicinity this business was 
carried on in a small way during the eighteenth century. Mr. John Higginsou, in 1700, writes 
that at Salem, u we have a considerable quantity of whale oil and bone for exportation."* He 
writes again in 1706 to a friend in Ipswich as if he were concerned with others in boat whaling. 
Drift whales were frequently found, and claimants notified to prove their rights before courts of 
adininilly in accordance with the laws of the colony. Boston papers of December 12, 1707, mention 
tbc capture by boats of a 40-foot whale near Noddle's Island. It is therefore inferred that whale 
boats and implements for capture were kept in readiness in the vicinity of Boston. 

It is probable that, as in recent years, drift whales were taken at Cape Ann and other points 
farther north along the coast of Massachusetts, though we find no record to show a definite 
business done in boat whaling at places north of Cape Cod. 

BOAT WHALING AT CAPF. COD. 

Starbuck has called attention to the fact that the abundance of whales was one of the main 
arguments for the early settlement of Cape Cod by the English, and has quoted some interesting 
accounts of the manner in which the aborigines hunted the whale two centuries and a half ago. 
In Richard Mather's Journal of his voyage to Massachusetts, iu 1635, he records seeing on the end 
of the Bank of Newfoundland near to New England " mighty fishes rolling and tumbling in the 
waters, twice as long and as big as an ox " and " mighty whales, spewing up water in the air, like 

* FELT : Annals of Salem, II, p. 225. 



TIIK WHALE FISHERY. 27 

tbe smoke of a chimney, anil making tin- sea about them white and hoary, as is said in Job, of 
such incredible bigness that I will never wonder that the body of Jonas could lie in the belly of a 
whale." 

As early as 1W51, Sandwich, Harnstable, Yarmouth, and Kastham were included in a proposition 
regarding the distribution of drift whales, submitted by the general court of Plymouth Colony,* 
and in 1690, the people of Xantucket, finding that the people of Cape Cod had made greater profi- 
ciency in the art of catching whales than themselves, sent tliitlier for an instructor. t 

The Cape Cod whale fishery in. the seventeenth century, and perhaps later, was prosecuted no 
doubt nearly exclusively from the shore, as was also done in Nan tucket, and as to the present day 
the sperm-whale fishery is carried on about the Bermudas. A lookout was kept by watchmen on 
the shore, who gave signals when a whale appeared and indicated his movements from their lofty 
stations. One of these stations was ou Great Island, at the mouth of Wellfleet Harbor, where, tra- 
dition says, there were at one time ten or twelve houses and the first tavern built in Wellfleet. 
Wellfleet was then included in the town of Eastham, and it was doubtless by the people of this 
settlement that the petition was presented in 1706, which states, "all or most of us are concerned in 
fitting out Boats to Catch and take Whales when ye season of ye year Serves; and whereas when we 
have taken any whale or whales, our Custom is to Cutt them up and to take away ye fatt and ye 
Bone of such Whales as are brought in and afterwards to let ye Kest of ye Boikly of ye Lean of 
whales Lye on shear in lowe water to be washt away by ye sea, being of uoe vallue nor worth any 
Thing to us," and begs that Thomas Houghtou or his assigns be permitted to take away this waste. f 

Another of these stations was in what is now the town of Dennis, and is the present site of 
the hotel called the "Bay House." This tract was the joint property of Dennis and Yarmouth, 
and was reserved until March, 1877, when it was sold by the mutual vote of the two towns at the 
yearly town meeting. 

Starbuck relates that in 1724 and 1726, in the prosecution of the wars between the Indians 
and the colonists, some of the friendly Indians from the county of Barnstable were enlisted with 
the express understanding that that they were to be discharged in time to take part in the fall 
and winter whale fishery. 

This would indicate that the boat fishery was still at that time profitable and actively prose- 
cuted. 

In 1737, a paragraph in the Boston News Letter stated, a dozen whaling vessels were fitting in 
Proviucetown, for Davis Strait, and that so many people were going that not over a dozen or 
fourteen men would be left. Eastham also had a vessel in Davis Strait this year, and the Davis 
Strait fleet from Massachusetts alone is estimated by Starbuck to have consisted of from fifty to 
sixty vessels. Four years later Barnstable had at least one, whaling vessel which was captured 
by the Spanish, and in 1770 this port still had two whalers in the Arctic. 

The size of the Arctic fleet of Massachusetts in 1737 would indicate that the shore-fishery was 
falling off in importance. Indeed a statement to this effect occurs in Felt's Annals of Saleui, 
under date of 1748, where it is said, " whales formerly for many successive years set in alongshore 
by Cape Cod. There was good whaling in boats * * * . After some years they left this 
ground and passed farther off upon the banks at some distance from the shore. The whalers 
then used sloops with whale-boats aboard, and this fishery turned to good account. At present 
the whales take their course in deep water, whereupon a peace our whalers design to follow 
them." || 

* STARBUCK : in Rep. U. S. Fish. Com., Part IV, 1875-'76, p. 7. t STARBUCK : 1. -a., p. 17. 

til. MSs. mriTit'mr>, TV, pp. 72-73, quoted l.y Starlmolc, ?. c., p. JW. } J. C., p. 3V I 1 PTARBnCK: I c., p W. 



28 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

This corresponds also with statements gathered by Starbuek from various sources to the 
effect that the years 1737, 1738, and 1739 were very unfortunate ones for the people of Province- 
town, Sandwich, and adjacent ports, insomuch that some of the inhabitants took into serious 
consideration a change of residence. 

The people of Yarmouth preserve a tradition that the early whale fishery of that region had 
for its object the capture of humpbacks and right whales. As has been suggested, the number 
of humpbacks taken must have been very considerable, yet the right whales must also have been 
plenty in early days. 

The Plymouth colonists, according to Thacher,* were inclined at first to settle on Cape Cod, 
because large whales of the best kind for oil and bone came daily alongside, and played about 
the ship, while the master (presumably of the "Mayflower") and his mate, and others experienced- 
in fishing, preferred it to the Greenland fishery. In February, 1738, the Yarmouth whalemen had 
killed but one large whale during the season ; the bone of that being from 8 to 9 feet long. This 
was of course a right whale, and the thing in the occurrence remarkable to the recorder was that 
a great many more had not been taken the same winter. In March, 1736, the boats of Province- 
town took a large whale which produced 100 barrels of oil. Humpbacks rarely yield more 
than 50 barrels, and probably would not have been classed among the numerous '-large whales" 
taken in those years. Another argument in favor of the supposed early abundance of the right 
whale in these waters, was that upon their becoming scarce, a large fleet was forthwith dispatched 
to Davis' Straits, where none but whalebone whales occur. The sperm-whale fishing of Cape Cod 
was not inaugurated until about 1826, or at least not in a permanent way, though Starbnck gives 
nine vessels from "Cape Cod" in 1789, eight of which cruised in the "Straits of Belleisle," six of 
which obtained about 50 barrels each of sperm oil, the other two about 80 barrels each. 

In the early records of the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies are numerous orders 
relating to drift whales, among which we find the following : "At a session of the general court, 
the first of the 8th mouth, 1645," it was ordered as one of the duties of the Auditor-General, 
" that he shall take notice and looke aft r wafes, strayes, goods lost, shipwrecks, whales, &c., or 
any such things of y* like nature, w r y e pticuler owner is not knowne ; and y e country may claiine 
a priviledge in or comon right unto.'H July 4, 1656, it was " ordered by the court that wheras 
the countrey hath receiued great dammage by a defect in the order about the barrell of oyle due for 
euery whale taken on drift or cast on shore as is expressed in the said order by leakquage of 
Caske or otherwise; tho court bane ordered that for the future all such oyle as shalbee due and 
payable as aforsaid shalbee deliuered att Boston, viz, a full barrell of march aiitable oyle for euery 
whale and the fraight therof discharged by those that deliuer it, the said oyle to bee deliuered att 
Boston to such as the Treasurer shall appoint from yeare to year and a receipt taken from such 
as to whome it is deliuered shalbee a discharge to those that deliuer it."} In 1661 it was 
"enacted by the Court and the Authentic therof that whosoeuer taketh any whale on drift att 
sea without those bounds and limites alreddy sett and bring them on shore hee shall have the one 
halfe and the Countrey the other halfej and the Countrey to allow Caske for theirej?te of the oyle. 
That whosoeuer shall find any whale on shore on the Cape or elsewhere that is out of any Townese 
bounds and is on the Countreyes bounds or liinittes shall allow the Countrey two hogsheads of oyle 
cleare and payed to the Countrey ." 

On the 3d of June, 1662, it was resolved that "wheras there hath bine much controversye 
occa tioned for want of a full and cleare settlement of matter relateing into such whales as by Gods 



Quoted by Starbuek, 1. a., p. ;>. t Plymouth Colony Records, XI, p. 20 

tRecords of Massachusetts, II, p. 143. $ Hid., XI. p. 66. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 29 

providence doe fall iiito any pte of this Jurisdiction. This Court doth therfore order for the pre- 
vention of any discontent or controversy for tlir future and for a iinall Issue and settlement soe 
farr as in the Court lyeth about the saint- ; that for all such whales as by Gods providence shalbee 
cast on shore on any pte of this gou r nieiit or shalbee by any cut vp att sea, and brought on shore in 
the Goirment ; there shalbee for every such Uish one full hogshead of Marchantable oyle payed 
into the Count rev delivered alt Boston by such to\vnes or psons as are Interested in the lauds where 
they fall or shall soe cutt vp any tlish att sea; and iucaso that any Ih'sh bee soe considerably torne 
or wasted that a full quarter pte bee gone; the.u to jiay but halfe a hogshead and for such Incon- 
siderable ]iet-ce.s of I'tish as are lesse then halfe they shall pay nothing; and for the resedew of such 
tlish or the produce of them as remaines the Countu-yes pte being discharged. It shalbee freely 
att the dispose of such Townrs when- it falls or for the Uenifef t of such as Cutt them Vp; if taken 
on drift without such bounds as have bine formerly sett; the same being still continewed."* 

On the 4th of November, 1690, it was 

"Ordered, that tor the prevention of contests and suits by whale killers: 

"1. This Court cloth order, that all whales killed or wounded by any man & left at sea, s d 
,vha!e killers that killed or wounded s' 1 whale shall presently repaire to some prudent person 
whome the Court shall appoint, and there give in the wounds of s b whale, the time & place 
when & where killed or wounded; and s' 1 person so appointed shall presently comitt it to record, 
and his record shall be allowed good testimony in law. 

" 2. That all whales brought or cast ou shore shall be viewed by the persons so appointed, or 
his deputy, before they are cut or any way defaced after come or brought on shore, and s d viewer 
shall take a particular record of the wounds of s d whale, & time & place where & when brought 
on shore ; & his record shall be good testimony in law, and s d viewer shall take care for securing 
s d fish for the owner. 

" 3. That whatever person or persons shall cut up or deface any whale fish, by cutting, stab- 
bing, or launcing, after come on shore or at sea, if a drift, unless of necessity to towe it to shore, 
before it hath beeu viewed by the person appointed thereto, and a record taken by him, shall lose 
their right to s d fish, & pay a fine of ten pounds to the county. And s d viewers shall seize s d 
fish for the owners use, on the effects thereof, and s d viewer shall have power to make a deputy or 
deputies under his hand, and to have six shillings for [each] whale so viewed & recorded of the 
owners thereof. 

" 4. That whosoever find, takes, or cuts up any drift whale found on the stream, a mile from 
the shore, not appearing to be killed by any man, shall be thet first sieze and secure them, paying 
an hogshea'd of oyle to y county for every such whale." 

MARTHA'S VINEYARD. 

The inhabitants of this island were early engaged in boat whaling. According to Starbuck 
the earliest mention of whales at this place occurs in November, 1652, when Thomas Daggett and 
William Weeks were appointed "whale cutters for this year." In the following April it was 
" Ordered by the town that the whale is to be cut out freely, four men at one time, and four at 
another, and so every whale, beginning at the east end of the town." In 1690 Mr. Sarson and 
William Vinson were appointed by "the proprietors of the whale" to oversee the cutting and 
sharing of all whales cast on shore within the bounds of Edgartowu, "they to have as much for 
their care as one cutter." 

* Ply. Col. Bee., zi, p. 134. ilbid., vi, p. 252. 



30 HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

"In 1692," says Starbuck, " came the inevitable dispute of proprietorship. A whale was cast 
oil shore at Edgarfown by the proprietors, ' seized by Benjamin Smith and Mr. Joseph Norton in 
their behalf,' which was also claimed by 'John Steel, harpooner, on a whale design, as being killed 
by him.' It was settled by placing the whale in the custody of Richard Sarsou, esq., and Mr. 
Benjamin Smith, as agents of the proprietors, to save by trying out and securing the oil; 'and 
that no distribution be made of the said whale, or effects, till after fifteen days are expired after 
the date hereof, that so such persons who may pretend an interest or claim, in the whale, may 
make their challenge; and in case such challenge appear sufficient to them, then they may deliver 
the said whale or oyl to the challenger; otherwise to give notice to the proprietors, who may do as 
the matter may require. By the inhabitants of Martha's Vineyard, in 1702-'3, there appear to 
have been several whales lulled. The following entry occurs under that date in the court records: 
'The marks of the \\ hales killed by John Butler and Thomas Lothrop. One whale lanced near or 
over the shoulder blade, near the left shoulder blade only ; another killed with an iron forward 
in the left side, marked W; and upon the right side marked with a pocket-knife T. L.; and the 
other had an iron hole over the right shoulder-blade, with two lance holes in the same side, one in 
the belly. These whales were all killed about the middle of February last past; all great whales, 
betwixt (i and 7 and 8-foot bone, which are all gone from us. A true account given by John 
Butler from us, and recorded Per me, Thomas Trapp, clerk.' " 

NANTTJCKET. 

The history of shore-whaling at Nantucket begins with the occupancy of that island by Euro- 
peans, about the year 1640, although prior to that time the Indians were doubtless accustomed to 
occasionally capture a whale. "The very earliest account of a capture," says Mr. C. S. Raleigh, 
"was in the year 1608, when a party of Indians killed a humpback whale which got stranded on 
a part of Nantucket, called Chiton, in the inner harbor." "The first whaling expedition," says 
Macy. "was undertaken by some of the original purchasers of the island; the circumstances of 
which are handed down by tradition, and are as follows: A whale, of the kind called 'scragg,' 
came into the harbor and continued there three days. This excited the curiosity of the people, 
and led them to devise measures to prevent his return out of the harbor. They accordingly 
invented and caused to be wrought for them a harpoon, with which they attacked and killed the 
whale. This first success encouraged them to undertake whaling as a permanent business ; whales 
being at that time numerous in the vicinity of the shores."* 

The islanders were, anxious to rugate in the whaling industry and, according to Starbuck,t 
recorded a memorandum of a proposed agreement with one James Loper, in which it is said that 
the said James "doth Ingage to carrey on a Desigue of Whale Catching on the Island of Nan- 
tucket that is to say James In gages to be a third in all Respects, and som of the Town Ingages 
also to carrey on the other two thirds with him in like manner the town doth also consent that 
first one company shall begin, and afterwards the rest of the freeholders or any of them have 
Liberty to set up another Company provided they make a tender to those freeholders that have 
no share in the first company and if any refuse the rest may go on themselves, and the town doth 
engage that no other Company shall be allowed hereafter ; also, whoever kill any whales, of the 
Company or Companies aforesaid, they are to pay to the Town for every such whale five shillings 
and for the Incoragemeut of the said James Loper the Town doth grant him ten acres of Land in 
surne Couvenaut place that he may chuse in (Wood Laud Except) and also liberty for the com- 
monage of three cows and Twenty sheep and one horse with necessary wood and water for his 
" MACY : Hist. Nantucket, p. 28. t Report U. S. Fish Com., 1875-76. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 31 

use, on Conditions that lie follow (lie trade of whalling ou this Island two years in all seasons 
thereof beginning the first of March next Insuing; also he is to build upon his Land and when 
he leaves Inhabiting upon this Island then he is first to offer his Land to the Town at a valuable, 
price and if the Town do not buy it he may sell it to whom he please ; the commonage is granted 
only for the 1 time of his staying !< '. t the same meeting," continues Starbuck, "John Sav- 

idge had a grant made to him, upon condition that he took up bis residence ou the island for the 
space of three years, and also that he should ; follow his trade of a cooper upon the island, as the 
Town or whale Company ha\e need to employ him.' Loper beyond a doubt never improved this 
opportunity offered him of immortalizing himself', bnt Savidge did, and a, perverse world has, 
against his own will, handed down to posterity the name of Loper, who did not come, while it has 
rather ignored that of Savidge, who did remove to That island." 

In the mean time the people of ( 'ape Cod were becoming more proficient in whaling than those 
of Nantucket, so that the latter sent TO the cape in IG'JO, and "employed a man by the name of 
Ichabod Paddock to instruct them in the manner of killing whales and extracting their oil."* 
From small beginnings The industry increased, and reached its greatest prosperity in 1726, when, 
says Maey, eighty-six were taken, "a greater number than was obtained in any one year, either 
before or since that date. The greatest number ever killed and brought to the shore in one day 
was eleven." Shore whaling at this period was the principal employment of the islanders. "The 
Indians even manifested a disposition for fishing of every kind, readily joined with the whites. in 
this new pursuit, and willingly submitted to any station assigned them. By their assistance, the 
whites were enabled to fit out and man a far greater number of boats than they could have done 
of themselves. Nearly every boat was manned, in part, many almost entirely, by natives ; some 
of the most active, of them were made steersmen, and some were allowed even to head the boats; 
thus encouraged, they soon became experienced whalemen, and capable of conducting any part 
of the business." 

The following incident illustrates their bravery when in danger: 

"It happened once, when there were about thirty boats about six miles from shore, that 
the wind came round to the northward and blew with great violence, attended with snow. The 
men all rowed hard, but made but little headway. In one of the boats were four Indians and 
two white men. An old Indian in the head of the boat, perceiving that the crew began to he- 
disheartened, spake out loud in his own tongue, and said, ' Momadichchator auqua sarshlcee sarrikee 
plncliee eynoo sememoocli'kee cliaquanl's -irihclu'c phirlicc eynoo;' which in English is, 'Pull ahead with 
courage ; do not be disheartened ; we shall not be lost now ; there are too many Englishmen to 
be lost now.' His speaking in this manner gave the crew new courage. They soon perceived 
that they made headway, and after long rowing they all got safe on shore."t 

Whales were abundant close in shore for many years, so that a plentiful supply of oil was 
obtained without going out of sight of land. "The south side of the island," says Hector St. 
John, " was divided into four equal parts, and each part was assigned to a company of six, which, 
though thus separated, still carried on their business in common. In the middle of this distance 
they erected a mast, provided with a sufficient number of rounds, and near it they built a tem- 
porary hut where five of the associates lived, whilst the sixth, from his high station, carefully 
looked toward the sea, in order to observe the spouting of whales." f 

"The process of savin// the whales, " says Macy, "after they had been killed and towed ashore, 
was to use a crab, an instrument similar to a capstan, to heave and turn the blubber off as fast as 

MACY: op. < tM ass. Jlisl. Sue. Coll., iii j>. 175. 

t JLetturs iruui uu Amui-icuu i'urtuer; Hrrtnr St. .lobn ('revem-m ; jmlilislinl l?8i. 



32 HISTORY AOT) METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

it was cut. The blubber was then put iuto their carts and carried to their try -houses, which, at 
that early period, were placed near to their dwelling-houses, where the oil was boiled out and 
fitted for market." * 

Shore- whaling continued till about the middle of the eighteenth century, when whales became 
scarce and were pursued by vessels, when the boat-whaling, as a regular business, was, according 
to Macy, abandoned. "The first sperm-whale known to the islanders was found ashore on the 
southwest part of Nantucket. It caused considerable excitement, some demanding a part of the 
prize under one pretense, some under another, and all were anxious to behold so strange an 
animal. There were so many claimants of the prize, that it was difficult to determine to who it 
should belong. The natives claimed it because they found it ; the whites, to whom the natives 
made known their discovery, claimed it by a right comprehended, as they affirmed, in the pur- 
chase of the island by the original patent. An officer of the crown made his claim, and pretended 
to seize the fish in the name of his majesty, as being property without any particular owner. 
After considerable discussion between these contending parties, it was finally settled that the 
white inhabitants, who first found the whale, should share the prize equally amongst themselves. 
The teeth, which were considered very valuable, had been extracted by a white man and an Indian, 
before any others had any knowledge of the whale. All difficulty being now settled, a company 
was formed, who commenced cutting the whale in pieces convenient for transportation to their try- 
works. The sperm procured from the head was thought to be of great value for medical purposes. 
It was used both as an internal and external application ; and such was the credulity of the people, 
that they considered it a certain cure for all diseases ; it was sought with avidity, and, for awhile, 
was esteemed to be worth its weight in silver. The whole quantity of oil obtained from this 

whale is not known."! 

RHODE ISLAND AND CONNECTICUT. 

In 1731 Rhode Island passed an act for the encouragement of the fisheries, giving " a bounty 
of five shillings for every barrel of whale oil, one penny a pound for bone, and five shillings a 
quintal for codfish, caught by Rhode Island vessels, and brought into this Colony." f 

The fishery had been carried on to some extent in boats from the shore, and whales were taken 
in the waters of Narragansct Bay. 

The first official document to be found connecting the State of Connecticut with the whale 
fishery is a resolve passed at a meeting of the general court held at Hartford, May 25, 1647, which 
says: 

" Yf Mr. Whiting, w th any others shall make tryall and p r secute a designe for the takeing of 
whale w th in these libertyes, and if vppou tryall w th in the terme of two yeares. they shall like to 
goe on, noe others shalbe suffered to interrupt the, for the tearine of seauen yeares." 

It is probable that drift-whales were occasionally taken along the coast of Connecticut in early 
times, but we find no special reference to show that boat-whaling was ever engaged in by the 
inhabitants. 

NEW YORE. 

Long Island, with its long stretch of sandy beaches, was in early times a favorite resort for 
boat whalemen. It was the rival of Cape Cod, and the inhabitants on its eastern end found much 
profit in capturing whales, and shipping oil and bone to London. The following interesting account 
of shore-whaling along those shores is taken entire from Mr. Starbuck's|| report on the whale 
fishery. 

* Hist. Nantucket, p. 31. ilbid., p. :. t ARNOLD : Hist. Rhode Island, ii, p. 103. 

$ Comi. Col. Reu., i, p. 154. 1 U. 8. Fisli Commissioner's Report, Part IV, 1875-76. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 33 

" It is probably safe to assert that the first organized prosecution of the American whale-fishery 
was made along the shores of Long Island. The town of Southampton, which was settled in 1640 
by an offshoot from the Massachusetts Colony at Lynn, was quick to appreciate the value of this 
source of revenue. In March, 1644, the town ordered the town divided into four wards of eleven 
persons to each ward, to attend to the drift-whales cast ashore. When such an event took place 
two persons from each ward (selected by lot) were to be employed to cut it up. 'And every 
Inhabitant with his child or servant that is above sixteen years of age shall have in the Division of 
the other part,' (i. e. what remained after the cutters deducted the double share they were, ex-officio, 
entitled to) 'an equall proportion provided that such person when yt falls into his ward a suffi- 
cient man to be imployed about yt.'* Among the names of those delegated to each ward are 
many whose descendants became prominent in the business as masters or owners of vessels the 
Coopers, the Sayres, Mulfords, Peirsons, Hedges, Howells, Posts, and others. A few years later 
the number of 'squadrons' was increased to six. 

" In February, 1645, the town ordered that if any whale was cast ashore within the limits of 
the town no man should take or carry away any part thereof without order from a magistrate, 
under penalty of twenty shillings. Whoever should find any whale or part of a whale, upon giv- 
ing notice to a magistrate, should have allowed him five shillings, or if the portion found should 
not be worth five shillings the finder should have the whole. ' And yt is further ordered that yf 
any shall finde a whale or any peece thereof upon the Lord's day then the aforesaid shillings shall 
not be due or payable.' t ' This last clause,' says Ho well, ' appears to be a very shrewd thrust at 
"mooning" on the beach on Sundays.' 

"It was customary a few years later to fit out expeditious of several boats each for whaling 
along the coast, the parties engaged camping' out on shore during the night. These expeditions 
were usually gone about one or two weeks. f Indians were usually employed by the English, the 
whites furnishing all the necessary implements, and the Indians receiving a stipulated proportion 
of oil in payment. 

"At Easthampton on the 6th of November, 1651, ' It was Ordered that Rodman Mulford shall 
call out ye Town by succession to loke out for whale.' Easthampton, however, like every other 
town where whales were obtainable, seems to have had its little unpleasantnesses on the subject, 
for in 1653 the town ' Ordered that the share of whale now in controversie between the Widow 
Talmage and Thomas Talmage ' (alas for the old-time Chesterfieldian gallantry) ' shall be divided 
among them as the lot is.'|| In the early deeds of the town the Indian grantors were to be allowed 
the fins and tails of all drift-whales; and in the deed of Montauk Island and Point, the Indians 
and whites were to be equal sharers in these prizes, fl In 1672 the towns of Easthampton, South- 
ampton, and South wold presented a 'memorial to the court at Whitehall ' setting forth that they 
have spent much time and paines, and the greatest part of their estates, in settling the trade of 
whale-fishing in the adjacent seas, having endeavoured it above these twenty yeares, but could not 
bring it to any perfection till within these 2 or 3 yeares last past. And it now being a hopefull 
trade at New Yorke. in America, the Governor and the Dutch there do require ye Petitioners to 
come under their patent, and lay very heavy taxes upon them beyond any of his Ma tieB subjects in 
New England, and will not permit the petitioners to have any deputys in Court,** but being chiefs, 
do impose what Laws they please upon them, and insulting very much over the Petitioners 

* HOWELL : Hist, of Southampton, p. 179. t Ibid., p. 184. t Ibid., p. 183. 

Bicentennial Address at Easthamptoti, 1850, by Henry P. Hedges, p. 8. || Ibid., p. 8. 11 Ibid. 

**Iu this petition is an early assertion oi' the twiuship of taxation and representation, for which Massachusetts 
aud her ofl'shoots WPI-H pver strenuous. 

SEC. T, VOL. II 3 



34 HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

threaten to cut down their timber which is but little they have to Casks for oyle, altho' the Pet 
purchased their landes of the Lord Sterling's deputy, above 30 yeares since, and have till now 
under the Government and Patent of Mr. Winthrop, belonging to Conitycut Patent, which lyeth 
far more convenient for ye Petitioners assistance in the aforesaid Trade.' They desire, therefore, 
either to continue under the Connecticut government, or to be made a free corporation. This peti- 
tion was referred to the ' Council on Foreign Plantations.' 

" This would make the commencement of this industry date back not far from the year 1650. 
In December, 1652, the directors of Dutch West India Company write to Director General Peter 
Stuyvesaut, of New York : ' In regard to the whale-fishery we understand that it might be taken 
in hand during some part of the year. If this could be done with advantage, it would be a very 
desirable matter, and make the trade there flourish and animate many people to try their good 
luck in that branch.' In April (4th), 1656, the council of New York ' received the request of Hans 
Jongh, soldier and tanner, asking for a ton of train-oil or some of the fat of the whale lately cap- 
tured: " 

In 1669 Mr. Maverick writes from New York to Colonel Nichols, as follows : 

" On ye East end of Long Island there were twelve or thirteen whales taken before ye end of 
March, and what since wee heare not ; here are dayly some seen in the very harbour, sometimes 
within Nutt Island. Out of the Pinnace, the other week, they struck two, but lost both, the iron 
broke in one, the other broke the warpe. The Governour hath encouraged some to follow this 
designe. Two shollops made for itt, but as yett wee doe not heare of any they have gotten."* 

" In 1672," continues Starbuck, " the town of Southampton passed an order for the regulation of 
whaling, which, in the latter part of the year, received the following confirmation from Governor 
Lovelace : ' Whereas there was an ordinance made at a Towne-Meeting in South Hampton upon the 
Second Day of May las relating to the Regulation of the Whale ffishing and Employment of the 
Indyans therein, wherein particularly it is mentioned. That whosoever shall Hire an Indyan to 
go a-Whaling, shall not give him for his Hire above one Trucking Cloath Coat, for each whale, 
hee and his Company shall Kill, or halfe the Blubber, without the Whale Bone under a Penalty 
therein exprest: Upon Considerac'on had thereupon, I have thought good to Allow of the said 
Order, And do hereby Confirm the same, until some inconvenience therein shall bee made appeare, 
And do also Order that the like Rule shall bee followed at East Hampton and other Places if 
they shall finde it practicable amongst them. 

" ' Given under my haud in New Yorke, the 28th of Novemb'r, 1672.' 

" Upon the same day that the people of Southamption passed the foregoing order, Governor 
Lovelace also issued and order citing that in consequence of great abuse to his Royal Highness in 
the matter of drift- whales upon Long Island, he had thought fit to appoint Mr. Wm. Osborne and 
Mr. John Smith, of Hempstead, to make strict inquiries of Indians and English in regard to the 
matter.! 

" It was early found to be essential that all important contracts and agreements, especially 
' between the English and Indians, relating to the killing of whales should be entered upon the 
town books, and signed by the parties in presence of the clerk and certified by him. Boat- 
whaling was so generally practiced, and was considered of so much importance by the whole 
community, that every man of sufficient ability in the town was obliged to take his turn in watch- 
ing for whales from some elevated position on the beach, and to sound the alarm on one being 
seen near the coast.'}: Ju April (2d), 1668, an agreement was entered on the records of Easthamp- 

' J >oc. ->t' Col. Hist. New York, III p. 183. t N. Y. Col., MSS., General Entries iv, p. 193, Francis Lovelace. 

t HONVKI.L : Hint.. .Southampton. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 35 

ton, binding certain Indians of Montauket in the sum of 10 sterling to go to sea, whaling, on 
account of Jacobus Skallenger and others, of Easthampton, beginning on the 1st of November and 
ending on the 1st of the ensuing April, they engaging ' to attend dilligently with all opportuuitie 
for ye killing of whales or other fish, for ye sum of three shillings a day for every Indian ; ye sayd 
Jacobus Skalleuger and partners to furnish all necessarie craft and tackling convenient for ye 
designe.' The laws governing these whaling-companies were based on justice rather than selfish- 
ness. Among the provisions was one passed January 4, 1669, whereby a member of one company 
finding a dead whale killed by the other company was obliged to notify the latter. A prudent 
proviso in the order was that the person bringing the tidings should be well rewarded. If the 
whale was found at sea, the killers and finders were to be equal sharers. If irons were found in 
the whale, they were to be restored to the owners.* In 1672, John Cooper desired leave to employ 
some 'strange Indians' to assist him in whaling, which leave was granted ;t but these Indian 
allies required tender handling, and were quite apt to ignore their contracts when a fair excuse 
could be found, especially if their hands had already closed over the financial consideration. Two 
or three petitions relating to cases of this kind are on file at New York. One of them is from 
'Jacob Skallenger, Stephen Hand, James Loper and other adjoined with them in the Whale 
Designe at Easthampton,' and was presented in 1675. It sets forth that they had associated 
together for the purpose of whaling, and agreed to hire twelve Indians and man two boats. 
Having seen the natives yearly employed both by neighbors and those in surrounding towns, 
they thought there could be no objection to their doing likewise. Accordingly, they agreed in 
June with twelve Indians to whale for them during the following season. ' But it, fell out soe that 
foure of the said Indians (competent & experienced men) belonged to Shelter-Island whoe with the 
rest received of your petition in pt. of their hire or wages 25s. a peece in hand at the time of the 
contract, as the Indian Custome is and without which they would not engage themselves to goe to 
Sea as aforesaid for your Peticon.' Soon after this there came an order from the governor requir- 
ing, in consequence of the troubles between the English and the aborigines, that all Indians should 
remain in their own quarters during' the winter. 'And some of the towne of Easthampton wante- 
ing Indians to make up theire erne for whaleing they take advantage of your hon s d Ordre thereby 
to hinder your peticon of the said foure Shelter-Island Indians. One of ye Overseers being of the 
Company that would soe hinder your petition. And Mr. Barker warned yo r peticon not to en- 
tertaine the said foure Indians without licence from your hon r . And although some of your peti- 
coners opposites in this matter of great weight to them seek to prevent yo r peticon from haveing 
those foure Indians under pretence of zeal in fulfilling y r hon order, yet it is more then apparent 
that they endeavor to break yo r peticon Company in y* maner that soe they themselves may have 
opportunity out of the other eight Easthampton Indians to supply theire owne wants.' After rep- 
resenting the loss liable to accrue to them from the failure of their design and the inability to hire 
Easthampton Indians, on account of their being already engaged by other companies, they ask 
relief in the premises,J which Governor Andross, in an order dated November 18, 1675, grants 
them, by allowing them to employ the aforesaid Shelter-Island Indiaus. 

"Another case is that of the widow of one Cooper, who in 1677 petitions Andross to compel 
some Indians who had been hired and paid their advance by her late husband to fulfill to her the 
contract made with him, they having been hiring out to other parties since his decease. || 

" This code was very similar to that afterward adopted in the Massachusetts Bay. 

tN. Y., Col. MSS.; General Entries, iv, p. .':;:.. t N. Y. Col. MSS., xxv, Sir Ed. Audross, p. 41. 

^Warrants, Orders, Passes, &c., K>74-lti79, p. 161. U N. Y. Col. MSS., xxvi, p. 153. 



36 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

"The trade in oil from Long Island early gravitated to Boston and Connecticut, and this was 
always a source of much uneasiness to the authorities at New York. The people inhabiting- East- 
hamptou, Southampton, and vicinity, settling under a patent with different guarantees from those 
allowed under the Duke of York, had little in sympathy with that government, and always turned 
toward Connecticut as their natural ally and Massachusetts as their foster mother. Scarcely had 
what they looked upon as the tyrannies of the New York governors reduced them to a sort of sub- 
jection when they were assailed by a fresh enemy. A sudden turn of the wheel of fortune brought 
them, in 1673, a second time under the control of the Dutch. During this interregnum, which lasted 
from July, 1673, to November, 1674, they were summoned, by their then conquerors, to send dele- 
gates to an assembly to be convened by the temporary rulers. In reply the inhabitants of 
Easthamptou, Southampton, Southokl, Seatoocook, and Huntington returned a memorial setting 
forth that up to 1664 they had lived quietly and prosperously under the government of Connec- 
ticut. Now, however, the Dutch had by force assumed control, and, understanding them to be 
well disposed, the people of those parts proffer a series of ten requests. The ninth is the par. 
ticular one of interest in this connection, and is the only one not granted. In it they ask, ' That 
there be ffree liberty granted ye 5 townes aforesd for ye procuring from any of ye united Collonies 
(without molestation on either side:) warpes, irons, or any other necessaries ffor ye comfortable 
earring on the whale design.' To this reply is made that it 'cannot in this conjunction of time be 
allowed.' ' Why,' says Howell,* "the Council of Governor Colve chose thus to snub the English 
in these five towns in the matter of providing a few whale-irons and necessary tackle for capturing 
the whales that happened along the coast, is inconceivable;" but it must be remembered that the 
English and Dutch had long been rivals in this pursuit, even carrying their rivalry to the extreme 
of personal conflicts. The Dutch assumed to be, and practically were, the factors of Europe in 
this business at this period, and would naturally be, slow to encourage any proficiency in whaling 
by a people upon whom they probably realized that their lease of authority would be brief. 
Hence, although they were willing to grant them every other right in common with those of their 
own nationality, maritime jealousy made this one request impracticable. How the people of Long 
Island enjoyed this state of affairs is easy to infer from their petition of 1672. The oppressions 
alike of New York governors and Dutch conquerors could not fail to increase the alienation that 
difference of habits, associations, interests, and rights had implanted within them. Among other 
arbitrary laws was one compelling them to carry all the oil they desired to export to New York to be 
cleared, a measure which produced so much dissatisfaction and inconvenience that it was beyond 
a doubt "more honored in the breach than in tue observance." At times some captain, more 
scrupulous than the rest, would obey the letter of the law or procure a remission of it. Thus, in 
April, 1678, Benjamin Alford, of Boston, in New England, merchant, petitioned Governor Brock- 
holds for permission to clear with a considerable quantity of oil that he had bought at Southampton 
directly from that port t'> London, he paying all duties required by law. This he desires to do in 
order to avoid the hazard of the voyage to New York and the extra danger of leakage thereby 
incurred. He was accordingly allowed to clear as he desired, t 

"Hist, of Southampton, p. 62. 

t N. Y. Col. MSS., xxvii, pp. 65, 66. Accompanying the order is a blank clearance reading as follows : " Permit!. 
& suffer the good of A. B. Commander, bound for the Port of London in Old England to passe from the 
Harbo r at the North-Sea near South* " at the East End of Long Isl. with her loading of Whale Oyl & Whalebone 
without any manner of Lett Hindrance or Molestation, shee having bernc rlc-aivd by order from the Custom house here 
& given security accordingly. Given under my hand in N. Y. this 20th day of April in the 30th yeare of his Ma tie> 
raigne A Domini 1(578. 

" To all his Ma* 588 Offic whom this may Coucerue." 



THE WHALE KISIIKHY. 37 

" In 168-4 an act for the 'Encouragement of Trade and Navigation' within the province of New 
York was passed, laying a duty of 10 per cent, on all oil and bone exported from New York to 
any other port or place except directly to England, Jamaica, Barbadoes, or some other of the 
Caribbean Islands. 

"In May, IfiSS, the Duke of York instructs his agent, John Leven, to inquire into the number 
of whales killed during the past six years within the province of New York, the produce of oil 
ami bone, and 'about his share.'* To this Leveu makes reply that there has been no record kept, 
and that the oil and bone were shared by the companies killing the fish. To Leven's statement, 
Andross. who is in England defending his colonial government, asserts that all those whales tha 
were driven ashore were killed and claimed by the whalers or Indiaus.f 

" In August, 1088, we find the first record of an intention to obtain sperm oil. Among the 
records in the State archives at Boston is a petition Irom Timotheus Vauderueu, commander of 
the brigautiue Happy Return, of New Yorke, to Governor Audross, praying for 'Licence and Per- 
mission, with one Equipage Consisting in twelve mariners, twelve, whalemen and six Diners 
from this Port, upon a fishing design about the Bohames Islands, And Cap florida, for sperma 
Coeti whales and Racks: And so to returns for this Port.'f Whether this voyage was ever 
undertaken or not we have no means of knowing, but the petition is conclusive evidence that 
there were men in the country familiar even then with some of the haunts of the sperm-whale and 
with his capture. 

*' Francis Nicholson, writing from Fort James, December, 1688, says : l Our whalers have had 
pretty good luck, killing about Graves End three large whales. On the Easte End aboute five or 
six small ones.' During this same year the town of Easthatnptoii being short of money, debtors 
were compelled to pay their obligations in produce, and in order to have some system of exchange 
the trustees of the town 'being Legally met March 6, 1688-9 it was agreed that this year's Towne 
rate should be held to be good pay if it be paid as Follows: 

. s. d. 

Dry merchantable hides att 6 

Indian Corn 3 

Whale Bone 3 feet long and upwards 8. ' 

NOTE. It is estimated by George R. Howells, from papers on tile in the office of the secretary of state of New 
York, that the boat-whalemen of Southampton in 1637 took '2,148 barrels of oil. 

' In July, 1708, Lord Cornbury writes again to the board of trade regarding New York 
affairs.|| In his letter he says : ' The quantity of Train Oyl made in Long Island is very uncer- 
tain, some years they have much more fish than others, for example last year they made four 
thousand Barrils of Oyl, and this last Season they have not made above Six hundred: About 
the middle of October they begin to look out for fish, the Season lasts all November, December, 
January, February, and part of March; a Yearling will make about forty Barils of Oyl, a Stunt 
or Whale two years old will make sometimes fifty, sometimes sixty Barrils of Oyl, and the 
largest whale that I have heard of in these Parts, yielded one hundred and ten barrels of Oyl, 
and twelve hundred Weight of Bone.' 

" In 170!) the fishery had attained such value on Long Island that some parties attempted to 
reduce it, so far as possible, to a monopoly, and grants of land previously made by Governor 
Fletcher and others, in a reckless and somewhat questionable manner were improved for per- 
sonal benefit. Earl Bellomont, in commenting on these irregular practices, writes to the lords of 
trade, under date of July 2 of that year,fl citing, among others, one Colonel Smith, who, he states, 

' \. Y. Col. Records, iii, p. 282. t Ibid., p. 311. t Mass. Col. MSS., Usurpation, vi, p. 126. 

j Ibid., iv, p. 303. || N. Y. Col. Rec., v, p. 60. f Ibid., iv, p. 535. 



38 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

' has got the beach on the sea shore for fourty miles together, after an odd manner as I have been 
told by some of the inhabitants * * * having forced the town of Southampton to take a 
poore 10 for the greatest part of the said beach, which is not a valuable consideration in law, 
for Colonel Smith himself own'd to me that that beach was very profitable to him for whale fish- 
ing, and that one year he cleared 500, by whales taken there.' 

" In 1716, Samuel Mulford, of Easthampton, in a petition to the King, gave a sketch of the 
progress of this industry in that viciuity.* In the recital of the grievances of his neighbors and 
himself, he writes that ' the inhabitants of the said Township and parts adjacent did from the 
first Establishment of the said Colony of New Tork enjoy the Privilege & Benefit of fishing for 
whale & applying ye same to their own use as their undoubted right and property.'! By his 
petition it appears further that in 1664 Governor Nicolls and council directed that drift-whales 
should pay a duty of every sixteenth gallon of oil to the government, ' exempting the whales that 
were killed at Sea by persons who went on that design from any duty or imposition.' Governor 
Dongan also claimed duty on drift-whales, and he also exempted those killed at sea. 'There was 
no pretence,' under Dongau, ' to seize such whales or to exact anything from the fishermen on 
that account, being their ancient right and property. Thus the inhabitants had the right of fish- 
ing preserved to them, and the Crown the benefit of all drift Whales, and everything seemed well 
established between the Crown and the People, who continued chearfully, and with success, to 
carry on the said fishing trade.' This state of affairs continued until 1696, when Lord Corubury 
(afterward Earl of Clarendon) became governor. It was theu announced by those in authority 
that the whale was a 'Royal Fish,' and belonged to the Crown; consequently all whalers must 
be licensed ' for that purpose which he was sure to make them pay for, and also contribute good 
part of the fruit of their labour ; no less that a neat 14th part of the Oyle and Bone, when cut up, 
and to bring the same to New York an 100 miles distant from their habitation, an exaction so 
grievous, that few people did ever comply for it.' \ The result of this policy was to discourage 
the fishery, and its importance was sensibly decreased. In 1711 the New York authorities issued 
a writ to the sheriifs directing- them to seize all whales. This demand created much disturbance, 
but the people, knowing no remedy, submitted with what grace they could to what they felt was 
a grievous wrong, and an infringement upon their rights under the patent under which their 
settlement was founded. Since that time, Mulford continues, a formal prosecution had been 
commenced against him for hiring Indians to assist him in whaling. He concludes his petition 
with the assertion that, unless some relief was aiforded, the fishery must be ruined, since ' the 
person concerned will not be brought to the hardship of waiting out at sea many months, & the 
difficulty of bringing into New York the fish, and at last paying so great a share of their profit.' 

" Mulford, during the latter part of his life, was continually at loggerheads with the govern- 
ment at New York. A sturdy representative of that Puritan opposition to injustice and wrong 
with which the early settlers of Eastern Long Island were so thoroughly imbued, the declining 
years of his life were continual eras of contention against the tyrannies and exactions of governors, 
whose only interest seemed to be to suck the life blood from the bodies of these unfortunate flies 
caught in their spider's-uet, and cast the useless remains remorselessly away. He was one of the 

*N. Y. Col. Kec., v, p. 474. 
These are undoubtedly what the, authorities were pleased to term "Massachusetts notions." 

t It was these outrageously unjust laws that brought the government into the notorious disrepute it attained 
with its outlying dependencies from 1675 to 1720. In March, 1693, the council of Lord Cornbury declared certain 
drift-whales the property of the Crown (which apparently meant a minimum amount to the King and a maximum 
share to the governor), "when the subject can make no just claim of having killed them." One Richard Floyd 
having offered a reward to any parties bringing him information of such whales, the council ordered an inquiry into 
the matter in order to prevent such practices in the future. (Council Minutes, viii, p. 6.) 



\viiALK 1'isiiKKY. :;<.) 

remonstrants against flu- annexation of the eastern towns to the New York government, and irom 
1700 to 17L'0 was the delegate from these towns to tbe assembly. In 1715 the opposition of the 
government to his constituency reached the point of a personal conflict with him. In a speech 
delivered in the assembly in this year he boldly and unsparingly denounced the authorities as 
tyrannical, extravagant, and dishonest. He cited numerous instances of injustices from officers 
of the customs to the traders of and to his section. While grain was selling in Boston at 6s. per 
bushel, and .only commanding one-half of that in New York, his people were compelled by existing 
laws to lose this difference in value. While the government was complaining of poverty and the 
lack of disposition on the part of the people to furnish means for its subsistence, the governor had 
received, says Mulford, during the past three years, three times the combined income of the 
governors of Massachusetts, Ehode Island, and Connecticut. In 1716 the assembly ordered this 
speech to be put into the hands of the speaker, but Mulford, without hesitation, caused it to be 
published and circulated.* From this time forth the war upon him was, so far as the government 
was concerned, a series of persecutions, but Mulford undauntedly braved them all and in the end 
was triumphant. Quite a number of letters passed between the governor and himself, and between 
them both and the lords of trade in London. As an earnest of the feeling his opposition had 
stirred up, the governor commenced a suit against him in the supreme court, the judges of which 
owed their appointment to the executive. Shortly after this, Governor Hunter, in a communi- 
cation to the lords of trade regarding the state of affairs in the province, writes that he is informed 
that Mulford, who 'has continually flown in face of government,' and always disputed with the 
Crown the right of whaling, has gone to London to urge his case.t He states that ' that poor, 
troublesome old man' is the only mutineer in a province otherwise quiet (an assertion that 
evidenced either a reckless disregard for truth, or a want of knowledge of affairs inexcusably 
culpable); that the case he pleads has been brought before the supreme court and decided against 
him, and Mulford is the only man who disputes the Crown's right, and the good governor 
charitably recommends their lordships to ' bluff him.'| Still later, Hunter states that it was the 
custom long before his arrival to take out whaling licenses. Many came voluntarily and did so. 
If whaling is ' decayed,' it was not for want of whalemen, for the number increases yearly ; ' but 
the truth of the matter is, that the Town of Boston is the Port of Trade of the People inhabiting 
that end of Long Island of late years, so that the exportation from hence of that commodity must 
in the Books be less than formerly.' The perquisites arising from the sale of these licenses were of 
no account in themselves, but yielding in this matter would only open a gap for the disputation of 
every perquisite of the goverument. 

* A copy of this speech is bound in an old volume of the Boston News-Letter, in the library of the Boston Athenaum. 

tin the address of H. P. Hedges at the Bi-Centennial celebration at Easthaiupton, iu 1850, he says, whenMulford 
finally repaired to London to present the case to the King, he was obliged to conceal his intention. Leaving South- 
ampton secretly, he landed at Newport, walked to Boston, and from thence embarked for London. Arrived there, he 
" presented his memorial, which it is said attracted much attention, ami was read by him in the House of Commons." 
He returned home in triumph, having obtained the desired end. Atthis time he was seventy-one years old. "Songs 
and rejoicings," says . I. Lyon Gardiner (vide Hedge's Address, p. 21), "took place among the whalemen of Suffolk 
County upon his arrival, on account of his having succeeded in getting ibe King's sharu given np." It is related of 
him (Ibid., p. 68) that while at the court of St. James, being somewhat verdant, he was much annoyed by pickpockets. 
As a palliative, he had a tailor sew several fish-hooks on the inside of his pockets, and soon after one of the fraternity 
was caught. This incident being published at the time won for him an extensive notoriety. He was representative 
from East Hampton from 1715 to 1720, and died in 1725, aged eighty years. 

t N. Y. Col. Eec., v, 460. This assertion must be inexcusably inaccurate, for it was unquestionably on the ground 
of his sturdy defense of their rights that the people of Easthainpton so steadily returned him to the assembly. 

N. Y. Col. Eec., v, p. 484. This admission of Hunter's of the smallness of the revenue is indisputable evidence of 
his incompetence, and of the truth of Mulford's assertion of the ultimate ruin of the whale-fishery under such restric- 
tions. 



40 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

"To this the lords of trade reply :* 'Ton may intimate in your letter to our Secretary of 22d 
November last that the Whale fishery is reserved to the Crown by your Pateuts : as we can find no 
such thing in your Commission, you will explain what you mean by it. ' Mulford is now in London, 
and desires dispatch in the decision in regard to this matter, pending which the lords desire to know 
whether dues have been paid by any one; if so, what amount has been paid, and to what purpose 
this revenue has been applied. They close their letter with the following sentence, which would 
hardly seeui open to any danger of misconstruction : ' Upon thin occasion we must observe to you, 
that ire hopeyou trill give all due incovragement to that Trade.' Evidently the case of Mulford vs. Hunter 
looks badly for the governor. Still, Hunter is loth to yield readily, and the discussion is further 
prolonged. 

"It is now 1718. Governor Hunter, in his answer to the inquiries of their lordships, says 
Commission was issued giving power ' Cognosceudi de Flotsam, Jetsoin, Lagon, Deodandis, &c.,' 
follows ' et de Piscibus Itegalibus Sturgeonibus, Balenis Ccetis Porpetiis Delphinis Eeggis. &<.' 
In regard to the income, he again writes that it is inconsiderable; that only the danger of being 
accused of giving up the Crown's right would have led him to write about it. In amount, it was 
not 20 per annum (corroboratory of Mulford's assertion of its decline), and as the fish had left 
this coast, he should not further trouble them about it. Up to the present time all but Mulford 
had paid and continued to pay. The subject appears to have been finally referred to the attorney- 
general, and the governor says (1719), waiting his opinion, he has surceased all demands till it 
comes. The question must have been left in a state of considerable mistiness, however, for in 1720 
Governor Burnett informs the lords, in a letter which indicates a satisfied feeling of compromise 
between official dignity and the requirements of the trade, that he remits the 5 per centum on the 
whale fishery, but asserts the King's rights by still requiring licenses, though in ' so doing he 
neglects his own profit,' ; and this,' he adds, 'has a good effect on the country.' Under his admin- 
istration the act for the encouragement of the whale fishery was renewed." t 

4. BOAT WHALING IN TSE PRESENT CENTURY. 

Within the present century shore whaling has been prosecuted to some extent at .various 
points on the Atlantic coast, from Maine to South Carolina. The business has been profitable at 
Provincetown, Mass., and at Beaufort, N. C. At the former place during the spring of 1880, forty- 
eight whales, valued at $14,037, were captured; at the latter place the average annual catch is 
four whales, valued at $4,500. The total value of the shore whaling on the entire coast in 1880 
reached about $18,000, which is far above the average year's work. We are indebted to Mr. Earll 
for facts about .this fishery at Maine, and the southern North Carolina coast, and to Captain 
Atwood for an account of the business at Provincetown. 

COAST OF MAINE. 

Shore-whaling in the vicinity of Tremout began about 1840. Mr. Benjamin Beaver and a 
small crew of men caught three or more whales annually for about twenty years, but gave up the 
business in 1860. No more whales were taken from this time till the spring of 1880, when one 
was taken and brought into Bass Harbor, and yielded 1,200 gallons of oil, but no bone of value. 

*N. Y. Col. Eec., v, p. 510. 

t ALEXANDER STARBUCK: Hist. Am. Whale Fishery, in U. S. Fish Com. Report, 1875-76. 



THK WHAL!<; FISHERY. 41 

('apt. .1. r.ickford, a native ol' Winter Harbor, is reported by Mr. C. P. Guptil to have cruised 
off the coast in lSl."i in schooner IIn/,/a, and to have captured eight whales, one of which was a 
finback, the rest humpback whales. This schoouer made only one season's work, but in 1870 Cap- 
tain Hir.kford again tried his luck in a vessel from Prospect Harbor and captured one finback 
whale. 

Mr. Harll states that according to Capt. George A. Clark and Captain Bickford whaling was 
extensively carried on from Prospect Harbor for many years. The fishing began about 1810, 
when Stephen Clark and Mr. L. Ililler, of Rochester, Mass., came to the region, and built try- 
works on the shore, having their lookout station on the top of an adjoining hill. The whales 
usually followed the menhaden to the shore, arriving about the first of June and remaining till 
September. When one was seen the boats, armed with harpoons and lances, immediately put 
out from the land and gave chase. If they succeeded in killing the whale, it was towed to the 
flats of the harbor at high water, where it was secured and left to be cut up at low tide. Ten 
years later they began using small vessels in the fishery, and by this means were enabled to go 
farther from laud. The fishery was at its height about 1835 to 1840, when an average of six or 
seven whales was taken yearly. The largest number taken in any one season was ten. The 
-average yield of oil was 25 to 30 barrels for each whale. The business was discontinued about 
1860, since which date but one or two whales have been taken. 

COAST OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

In the early part of the present century whales were abundant along this coast, and Province- 
town whalers in small boats frequently captured a large number in a season. The Gloucester 
Telegraph of November 6, 1850, says : "A right whale was taken at Provincetown last Thursday 
by a party in three boats. It is estimated to yield GO barrels of oil/' 

In the Barnstable Patriot of November 12, 1861, is the following item : 

' Whale. On Saturday morning the spout of a whale which was discovered playing around 
off Nauset in the midst of a fleet of some 200 mackerel fishermen was suddenly cut short by a 
Nantucket fisherman, the Sam Chase making fast to him. This is the fifth whale taken by Sam 
Chase since July 25, and will make about 25 barrels. The five will have made 125 barrels, worth 
$1,500." 

Whales have from time to time been stranded on the beaches about Cape Ann; several have 
also been found by fishing vessels and towed into Gloucester Harbor. In July, 1833, one 50 feet 
long, and measuring 10 feet through, was towed into the harbor and tried out on Eastern Point. The 
Cape Ann Advertiser of October 21, 1870, records the capture off Eastern Point of a whale 45 feet 
in length. In the. spring of 1880 finback whales were unusually abundant in Ipswich and Massa- 
chusetts Bays, so that fishermen in their dories were in some cases alarmed for their own safety, 
as the whales were darting about in pursuit of schools of herring. Six of this species of whale 
were found dead floating in the bay and towed into Gloucester harbor. They had been killed by 
Provincetown whalers. Three of them were tried out at Gloucester ; the remainder were allowed 
to drift to sea again. 

Captain Atwood writes the following account of the shore-whaling at Provincetown in 1880: 
"Early in March there came into our bay and harbor immense quantities of herring and shrimp. 
They were followed by a great number of finb ack whales, that remained here most of the time in 
greater or less numbers until about the middle of May, when they all left the coast. During the 
time they were here many of them were killed with bomb-lances. They sank when killed, and 



42 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

remained on the bottom some two or three days, when they floated on the surface, and as they 
were liable to come up in the night or during rugged weather, when the whalemen were not on 
hand to take care of them, many drifted out to sea, and were lost or picked up by Gloucester fish- 
ing vessels and towed to that port. A few were brought to Provincetown by these vessels, with 
whom the proceeds for the oil were divided. There were brought in and landed at Jonathan 
Cook's oil works on Long Point 38 whales, from which the blubber was stripped and the oil 
extracted. Two other whales brought in were sold to parties who tcok them away for exhibi- 
tion, one to Boston and the other to New York. 

"Early in June immense quantities of sand-eels (Ammodytes) came n our harbor and bay and 
remained several days. About the 10th of June there appeared plenty of whales feeding on the 
sand-eels. They were again attacked "by our men, when a number of them were killed in a few 
days, and ten were saved and landed at the oil works. Probably as many more that were not killed 
outright received their death wound, went out of the bay, soon after died, and were lost. 

" The forty-eight whales delivered at the oil works yielded about 950 barrels of oil, that sold 
at an average price of 40 cents per gallon. 

" When the first whales were killed it was supposed the whalebone in their mouths was worth- 
less, and it was not saved; but subsequently some was saved and sold at 15 cents per pound. The 
average quantity of bone in each whale is about 250 pounds. Probably the bone of thirty-five 
whales has been saved, making an aggregate of 8,750. 

"No whales have come in of late; our men are still anxiously looking for another school, 
hoping they will come again and give them another benefit. 

" Total for the season's work : 

48 whales, 29,925 gallons of oil, at 40 cents $11,970 00 

1 whale, sold for exhibit in Boston 350 00 

1 whale, sold for exhibit in New York 405 00 

8,750 pounds of whalebone from thirty-five whales, at 15 cents 1, 312 50 



14,037 50 

"Besides the whales saved and taken to Provincetown, many of those lost by our whalers 
were towed into other places ; others have drifted on shore at different points. We hear of four 
being towed into Gloucester, three into Boston, one to Newburyport, one to Cape Porpoise, one 
Portland, one Mount Desert ; two drifted ashore at Scituate, two at Barnstable, one at Brewster, 
one at Orleans, two at Wellfleet, one on the back of Cape Cod ; one was stripped of its blubber 
at sea by a fishing vessel, that sold it in Boston. The entire catch from March to July was 
probably one hundred whales, of which number nearly all were killed by Provincetown whalers. 
Three of these whales were humpbacks ; the rest were of the finback species." 

In the fall of 1S80 a finback whale about 50 feet long was killed in Cape Cod Bay, and towed to 
Boston, where it was sold to an enterprising Yankee, who, after realizing quite a profit by exhibit- 
ing it in Boston, conceived the idea of transporting it to Chicago for exhibition. It was accordingly 
carefully cleaned and loaded upon a large platform car. Salt and ice were freely used for its 
preservation. It reached Chicago, and was shown to the public as one of the wonders of the deep. 
The enterprising exhibitor made several thousand dollars by this venture. 

The following graphic description of whaling in Massachusetts Bay in 1881 was written for a 
Boston newspaper : 

" The denizens of Cape Cod have always been an amphibious population, largely taking their 
living from, and making their fortunes upon, the waters of the oceans of the world. Especially is 
this the case with the people of the lower half of the ' Right Arm,' who are fishers indeed, the 



Till'; \\ IIAU<; nsiiKiiY. 4: l > 

majority of them taking to the water, like ,\ on ng ducks, immediately alter their advent into a sandy 
world, and becoming experts in the navigation of its depths and the capture of its treasures even 
before their school days have fully passed. 

" Pro vincetown occupies the extremity the curling finger of this cape, and its situation is 
in every way peculiar. With the exception of a narrow strip or neck of sand heaps which unites 
it to the main cape, it is surrounded by water the salt water of the Atlantic which rolls 
unchecked between its outer shores and those of Europe. Its outer coast line, beginning at a point 
opposite the narrow neck alluded to, sweeps around in a grand circle almost the entire circuit of 
the compass, its outlines nearly resembling those of a gigantic capital O, as that letter is usually 
found in manuscript. The inclosed water of this circle is the harbor of Provincetown, and the 
town is built along the inner shore, at the bottom of the basin. Outside is the Kace, Wood End, 
and sundry interesting points of light-house, life-saving station, all of vast moment to mariners 
and ship-owners. Inside is one of the singular harbors of the world, deep enough and spacious 
enough to shelter a fleet of hundreds of the largest ships of the world at one time, and with pecu- 
liarities belonging to itself sufficient to make it famous wherever these ships may sail. 

"If there are any kinds of fish, or any methods of taking them, which are not familiar to the 
waters or the people of Provincetowu, their description is now in order. From the fry and minnow 
for pickerel bait up to the 100 barrel right whale, Provincetown watershave witnessed the capture 
of all kinds, and have frequently contributed specimens over which savants have puzzled and 
wondered. ' The beaches of her shores have received as loot mighty carcases of whales and black- 
fish ; shoals of porgies at one time, which all the teams of all the region could hardly remove soon 
enough, so immense was the deposit, while fish-weirs (one of them took 700 barrels of mackerel a 
few mornings since), try-works, and the implements and appliances of various fisheries mark the 
scene in all directions. 

" Now, it has been no unusual thing, at any time since the establishment of this exaggerated 
fish-net yclept Provincetown, for a whale of some variety to be occasionally stranded upon her 
beaches, or captured by her cruisers or boatmen. But it is only within the past three years that 
the systematic pursuit of a leviathan within her waters has been established ; in other words, that 
the home whale-fishery has been a feature of her business operations. A whale in the harbor of 
Provincetown, especially at certain seasons, is almost as common a presence as that of a turtle in 
a mill-pond ; but they are usually representatives of a class disliked and scorned by old-school 
whalemen, and not remunerative to their capturers, unless the latter be men of enthusiasm and 
desperate enterprise. So that, although there are plenty of veteran whalers in the region, it has 
been left to the young Provincetowners of the present generation to inaugurate and establish an 
enterprise which has already shown good results. One young captain, with his crew, last year 
took upward of 250 barrels of oil off Provincetown, and is scoring fair results the present season, 
though the conditions have, so far, been very unfavorable. Some of his whales he captured in the 
harbor; but mainly his game was chased and killed in the water outside and near by. 

"The variety of whale mostly found in Massachusetts Bay waters is the finback, a long, 
clean, perfectly formed creature, growing sometimes to 75 or 80 feet in length, but usually from 
45 to 55 feet. He is the most complete model of craft for speed and easy working in the water 
that can be imagined, and his tail in motion the most perfect development of the screw motor ; 
and, indeed, the finback moves through the water when occasion offers as the most rapid express 
train never does on its tracks on land. It is timid and non-resistant, and it is principally on 
account of its great speed and its habit of immediate fight when stricken that the old whalemen 
detest it. Tour veteran has no relish for being drawn to the bottom, boat and all, by an aqua- 
tic race-horse possessing the traveling qualities of a meteor. 



44 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

"Therefore, as hinted above, the youugsters who are perpetually learning new 'kinks' and 
confounding their progenitors, have stepped into a new order of things. They begin with an 
exact reversal of the old-time processes, which were to harpoon the whale, and then lance him to 
death. The Provincetowner first lances his prey, and immediately after harpoons it, for reasons 
and in pursuance of methods shortly to be given. 

''The finbacks come in numbers early in the spring, following the bait which is their food 
herrings, sand eels, mackerel, and the like, and where this bait is found in reasonable quantities 
the whales will surely be found. Wheu feeding this whale stretches wide open his jaws, moves 
forward among the bait on the surface with velocity until he has pocketed or scooped (in his 
mouth) a quantity (some barrels), when he snaps together his front doors and swallows the catch, 
having no teeth, nor need of any. It is at this feeding season that he is easiest approached and 
fastened to. Wheu not feeding he is usually lazily sleeping, or disporting, and, indeed, the gam- 
bols of this variety of whale seem to form a very necessary part of his existence, to which he pays 
much attention. The antics of a calf in a pasture, or a young puppy in a back yard, are hardly 
more diverting or singular than are those of a pair of whales in their festive moments. They will 
stand on their heads and flourish their tails in the air ; then stand upon their tails and snap their 
jaws in the air. They whirl and roll and swash about, sometimes tearing the water into shreds, 
and again darting about, exhausting every possibility of whale enjoyment. They are as full of 
curiosity as a deer, or as are many of the fish varieties, and this they evidence frequently by play- 
ing about the boats which have come out to capture them, reconuoiteriug and viewing these boats 
from all sides, and sinking a few feet below the surface, following their every motion, while they 
occasionally appear at the surface for an outside observation. 

" When touched or struck their immediate impulse is to dash off like a rocket, and this 
impulse they obey to perfection. To test their marvelous facility of speed, a harpoon was thrown 
into one off the Eace (the extremity of Gape Cod), when he started off across the bay in the direc- 
tion of Boston, and in forty minutes had dragged the boat and its contents of crew and imple- 
ments within full view of Minot's Ledge light-house. All the line was paid out by the boat's crew 
and they <vere finally obliged to slip for their lives. 

" A common fishing schooner is now fitted out for this whale-catching business, carrying a 
whale-boat of the aucient approved construction, with sufficient men to man the boat and leave 
some one or two on board to follow in the vessel when the boat is actually engaged. The captain 
usually handles the lance and harpoon, and pulls a spare oar when not thus engaged. Besides 
himself, four oarsmen and a boat-steerer comprise the crew of the boat of the successful captain 
alluded to above. 

" The bomb-lance is a most destructive weapon. The gun from which the lance is fired is of 
very thick metal, and the breech is made heavy with lead to neutralize the recoil, which is heavy 
with this kind of arm. The length of barrel is about 17 inches. The lance itself is of iron, with a 
chamber 6 or 7 inches in length along the lower center, and solid between the chamber and 
poiut, the latter tapering, and filed or ground to three edges. About the base of the lance are india- 
rubber wings, folded when the lance is inserted iu the gun, and acting as wad to make the lance 
fit the barrel easily, and just rest upon the powder charge of the gun. When fired these rubber 
wings expand, and, like the paper feathers of a boy's dart, preserve the poise of the weapon. The 
chamber of the lance is filled with powder, like a bomb-shell, and a one-second, or thereabout, fuse 
is attached, so that, when the weapon is discharged into the body of a whale, it explodes within, 
inflicting terrible wounds. Care must be taken not to discharge the lance at too short range, as in 
that case it will pass through and through the whale's carcase without exploding, and entail no 



TIIK WHALK FISHERY. 45 

serious injury. About 30 feet distance is the range usually sought for. This implement, in the 
hands of a cool and skillful sailor, works ' like a charm,' and great is its destruction of the life of 
leviathan. To illustrate this, and also the whole matter, an actual day's work of the captain 
foresaid will now be detailed: 

''The present year the season lias been very backward; east and cold winds and rough 
\\rather have prevailed, and the bait was at least two weeks later than usual in the bay. On 
account of these and other unfavorable circumstances the whale catch in Provineetown neighbor- 
hood has thus far been small. At 2 o'clock on a morning in May of last year the crew of the 
schooner was aroused by the captain, the vessel then lying near the wharves in Provineetown 
Harbor. She was got under way, and the spouting or 'blowing' of a whale could be plainly 
heard from her deck. At once the chase began, the experienced captain working in the dark, at 
times with prospects of success, but without its attainment as the hours passed. That there was 
more than one whale in the harbor was evident, and one of them was a humpback, a prize, indeed, 
and much more valuable than a finback, yielding twice as much of oil for the same size of creature. 
As dawn streaked and day opened, one after another various other craft in the harbor became 
awakened to what was going on, and numerous boats' crews put off from the shore to join in a chase 
and possible capture, with the details of which they were perfectly familiar, and the tactics of 
which wen 1 their common practice. 

"The first rays of the sun fell upon an exciting scene. There were a humpback whale and a 
finback coursing about the harbor, the latter fully 65 feet in length. The chasing boats and 
vessels represented a great variety of craft, and a still greater variety of crews and individuals 
engaged. There were tall, short, crooked, lank, old, and young boat-steerers ; fat men puffing at 
paddles, and lean men tugging at long oars. Excitement, emulation, and competition roused all 
these men to prodigious efforts, and, in tlieir anxiety and enthusiasm, they manifested the most 
singular traits and cut the oddest pranks. The finback led them a desperate chase, now here, now 
there, until hours had slipped away, and he was not caught, although the very elite of Cape 
Cod skill in whale capture, aided by experienced veterans of the northern and Pacific fleets, had 
lent a hand. Away over on the east side of the harbor the humpback was finally stricken, a bomb- 
lance entering his huge body, shattering his backbone in the explosion, and the monster died 
instantly. A vigorous and triumphant yell announced the capture, but the finback escaped. The 
schooner then proceeded outside, and followed the shore towards the Race. 

"From the time of leaving the harbor until noon not a whale was sighted. The waters of a 
pond inshore were apparently no more free of the creatures than was Cape Cod Bay at that time. 
About noon it fell flat calm, and the schooner drifted lazily. But as the early afternoon advanced 
the cry of ' Blows !' awoke every man to the knowledge that an immediate change in the status 
might be at hand. The sun was burning hot, and the face of the bay like a mirror. In less time 
after the first cry than it takes to tell the incident no less than fifteen ' blows' were counted, and 
whales were in abundance on every hand. 

"The boat, which had been towing astern, was at once occupied, and the advance, which 
promised the fairest success, was made without delay. The spouting columns appeared at regular 
intervals, and soon the boat was in close proximity. Headway was stopped, the oarsmen 
exchanged their oars for stumpy paddles, like those with which an Indian manages his canoe, 
and every one of them took his seat upon the gunwale of the boat, paddle in hand, ready for 
orders. The captain took his stand forward, gun in hand, ready to discharge the lance at the first 
favorable opportunity. The whales (there were a pair of them, male and female, as it proved) 

sportive, and at once began a reconnaissance of the boat. They would sink about 10 feet below 



46 HISTOEY AND METHODS OF THE FISHEEIES. 

the surface, roll partly upon one side, and cast an eye upward, as if speculating upon the apparition, 
and occasionally come up, blow, and roll lazily under again. Their every motion could be plainly 
seen while they were under water, and their movements anticipated. The captain singled out the 
female, the largest and best animal, and thenceforth all attention was paid to her movements. At 
last she came slowly to the surface, just moved her immense tail with the necessary motion to 
change her direction, and started directly across the bow of the boat, under the very nose of the 
captain. A straightforward bow shot was what he had been waiting for, and in an instant the gun 
was at his shoulder. Up to this moment the men had all been guided by expressive wavings of the 
captain's hand ; and his every motion was watched as men watch for a drop to fall during an 
execution. As the gigantic finback passed she proved to be upwards of 65 feet in length she 
rolled slightly to one side, and threw up the nipper nearest the captain as a man would throw up 
the elbow of his bent arm to a level with the shoulder. Quick as thought the captain fired, the 
lance struck the huge carcass just under the nipper and entirely disappeared, and the empty gun 
was flung along the bottom of the boat. 

" Instantly the captain was standing on the bow deck, harpoon in hand. The whale was 
motionless, apparently with absolute astonishment. In this moment of quiet, which could not be 
prolonged, the boat slightly advanced, the captain's both hands arose high in the air, the harpoon 
descended directly downward, and the whale was transfixed, the iron entering her body near the 
tail. The lance had seemingly hardly left the gun at greater speed than the initial movement of 
that whale when consciousness was aroused. The whale line attached to the harpoon was coiled 
with characteristic care in two tubs nearly amidships, led aft around the loggerhead in the stern 
deck, and then forward through a notch in the extreme bow, out of which it was kept from slip- 
ping by a pin passed through the two upper parts of the crotch. Instantly every man was stand- 
ing along this line, grasping it with hat in hand to preserve it from the intense friction. The 
loggerhead was kept constantly wet, and a man stood over it, hatchet in hand, to cut upon the first 
' foul,' or other indication of extreme danger. And now appeared the wisdom of the movements. 
The lance had entered the vitals of the whale, inflicting, it was well known, a terrible internal 
wound upon its explosion. Had this not been the case, and only the harpoon held the whale, she 
would have finished the race incontinently by obliging the crew to slip the line, or be drawn 
under water. As it was, she must soon come up for further action. To appreciate the situation 
that ensued, you should have seen that boat go through the water ; that is, you should have been 
seated upon one of her thwarts or along her bottom. The whale moved forward and also down- 
ward, and the water was then many fathoms deep. The downward movement, of course, depressed 
the bow of the boat, and the immediate danger was from being drawn under by motion too swift to 
allow the cutting of the surface. At once a great trough was made in the smooth sea by the flying 
craft, the boat occupying the cavity, and from both her sides a sloping bank of water, inclining 
outward and upward, seemed builded about her. To one sitting upon a thwart and looking out- 
ward, the surface of the bay seemed just opposite the line of his eyes, so great was the depression 
of the trough. 

" Now, then, a sheer of the whale and the boat would take water at once over the side. The 
forward movement became too swift, the bow too much depressed. Fathom after fathom was 
allowed to slip around the loggerhead, until 50, 60, SO, 100 fathoms had been paid out, and three 
or four minutes had elapsed. The whale had been struck off the Eace, and had started across 
the bay in the direction of Plymouth. 

"At the end of the time indicated the line began to slack and the whale to move upward from 
the bottom of the bay. Still, however, she tore onward. As fasl us could be the line was hauled 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 47 

upoii, and all possible taken in. And now the whale is upon the surface, and great jets of almost 
pure blood, red and arterial, rise in the air and fall backward upon her head and shoulders. 
That tells the story. The boat rushes forward, and now seems to be floating in blood, so thick 
have the waters become with it, and the smell arising is deadly sickening and almost suffocating 
to the inexperienced. 

" Down again the creature goes, to remain about the same time as at first. The speed hardly 
diminishes. Up again she comes, and now the noise of her spouting is as of huge pipes obstructed, 
and soon great clots of blood and substance fall as before upon the surface of the water. Every 
muscle in every man is as tense as whalebone, and every nerve like steel. Each says to himself, 
Will the end never come ? 

"A breeze is rising on the eastern board, but its outer edge is still far from the schooner. 
The two men left on board the latter have headed her in chase of the boat, but she is soon hull- 
down in the view of the boat's crew. No matter. There are successive risings of the whale at 
more frequent intervals, and now it is largely water that she spouts, and the wonder is if she has 
any more blood left in her carcass. Usually when a finback is killed the body sinks at once, and 
does not rise again for forty-eight hours; and every lance is stamped with its owner's initials, 
that carcasses found may be identified. Other varieties of whale, having more blubber, do not 
sink, at least not so readily. 

"An idea strikes the captain. ' This whale,' he says, 'has lost so much blood that I do not 
believe she will sink, and I will try an experiment.' He means that he will not haul up to the 
animal by the harpoon line and dispatch her with another lance; but that he will follow her till 
she dies of exhaustion and her present wound. 

"Suddenly the whale turns square about, and starts back toward the Race. There is some 
confusion, a slacking and jerking of the line, and all at once the harpoon slips, and whale and 
boat are parted. And now the men growl and lower at the captain, for allowing their hard-earned 
prize thus to escape. But he knows that a shore time must decide the contest and that the whale 
must soon die. 

"She is followed by her frequent spoutings of black blood and matter, and, her speed slack- 
ing, the chase draws upon her. She stops. Will the captain give her another lance? The 
proposal is useless, for her death flurry is begun, and it will soon be seen whether the experiment 
of the captain is to result favorably. 

"And now she leaps full length out of the water, and falls prone upon it with a crash like a 
falling building. The surface is streaked and torn with foam mingled with blood. She stands 
now upon her head, now upon her tail; like lightning she darts hither and thither. She sinks 
and rises, spouts and half rolls over. Every man is iu position to keep clear of her, if in her frenzy 
she blindly comes their way. ' For God's sake, captain, look out!' shouts one ; ' here she comes! ' 
The warning is justified; she is coming full head toward the boat. But momently she staggers, 
ceases effort; her motion slows; she rolls three-quarters over, and lies dead in the middle of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay. 

" The schooner is out of sight. From 3 o'clock until 5 she has been battling for life, and leading 
her capturers such a chase as the world cannot equal under other conditions. The breeze a stiff 
easter has arrived. The whale must be towed home, but it is a serious matter with oars and 
only the boat. Happily she has shut her mouth in dying, and will tow easier in consequence. 
The captain's experiment has worked well, and this was about the only finback captured in these 
waters that season without sinking. 



48 HISTORY AND METHODS OF TE1E FISHERIES. 

"But the breeze brings the schooner, after a somewhat blind chase. Provincetown Harbor 
is reached next morning, and the whale lauded at the try-works. There is no room here for further 
detail or description. The captain is at this very moment cruising for whales oft' Grand Meuan, 
with a better Proviucetown schooner than he had la.st year. But lie has taken 90 barrels iu Mas- 
sachusetts Bay the present season " 

COAST OF RHODE ISLAND AND NEW YORK. 

Whales have frequently been taken by vessels soon after starting on their voyages from New 
Bedford and other ports, and sometimes schools of wLales are seen close inshore. Of late years 
no organized effort has been made to engage in shore whaling, though during the last century the 
coast of Long Island was a favorite place for this fishery. 

The following clippings mention the capture of a right whale at Newport, and the appearance 
of a school of whales at the entrance of Long Island Sound : 

"The whale, which for several days had been sporting in our river, was captured on Monday 
last in fine style by a boat's crew of young men from Newport. Mr. Oliver Potter laid the boat 
alongside as the whale came up. and Mr. Thomas White fastened the harpoon into her side. After 
running the boat some distance she was lanced and carried into Newport. The whale is of the 
right sort, about 44 feet long, and rated at 70 barrels of oil. A number of gentlemen of this town 
have made arrangements to gratify the curiosity of those who may wish to see this creature of 
the deep, and it will be exhibited for several days in a convenient place at Fox Point." 

"A Connecticut paper, dated August 1G, 1873, states that the skipper of the sloop Annie, of 
Saybrook, Conn., reports a large school of whales iu close proximity to home. Monday, while 
midway between Southeast Point, Block Island, and Moutauk, a school of whales, numbering 
probably thirty-five, was seen from the Annie's deck, gamboling near the Block Island shore, 
whence they had been lured, it is supposed, by the prospect of a good feeding-ground. In the 
school very few finbacks or humpbacked whales were to be seen. The majority were large whales, 
some of them being not less than 70 feet iu length. Boatmen report it as a common occurrence 
to see two or three finbacks in company in the race, but the appearance of so many large whales 
is a new experience." 

COAST OF NEW JERSEY. 

The only record we have of shore-whaling on this coast is that furnished by Mr. Earll, who, 
while visiting the coast in 1880, learned that between 1810 and 1820 (Japt. John Sprague, of 
Manahawkiu. with a crew of seven men, followed whaling exclusively for a few years, with fair 
results. They had a camp and try- works on the shore, and were provided with a whale-boat, in 
which they put off from the beach whenever a whale was seen. 

COAST OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The whale-fisheries of Beaufort seem to have been prosecuted continuously for a long period 
of years, and the oldest inhabitants are unable to give any information of their origin. There 
has never been any extensive business, aud the fishing has been confined wholly to small boats 
going out from the shore, with the exception of two vessels run during a few mouths each. The 
first was the Daniel Webster, i'4.15*ons, that fitted out for whaling in the winter of 1874-'75, with 
a crew from Proviucetown, Mass., but after three mouths' cruising she gave it up and returned to 
Proviucetowu, having taken nothing. The next vessel, the Seychille, 47.07 tons, came to Beaufort 
in the winter of 1878-'79, but was lost in the August storm of 1879, having taken nothing. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 49 

The usual plan is for tlie fishermen to establish cainps among the sand hills along the shore 
between Cape Lookout and Little River, where they live from the 1st of February to the last of 
April. When the season arrives tbr whaling, three crews of six men each unite to form a earn]), 
and proceed to build a house out of rushes in some desirable location near the shore, for protection 
against the weather. Their boats, usually three in number, and their implements, an- placed in 
readiness on the beach, and a lookout selected, where one man is stationed, to give the signal if 
the whales come in sight. 

At this season of the year the whales are moving northward, and in their migrations often 
come within a short distance of the shore, where they are pursued and often captured by the. 
fishermen. As soon as the whale is harpooned the "drug" is thrown over, and when he turns to 
tight the fishermen, armed with gnus, shoot him with explosive cartridges, and, after killing him 
with their lances, tow him to the shore, where they try him out. 

The number of crews varies with the season, it formerly averaging but two or three, of 
eighteen men each. In the spring of 1879 four crews were engaged in this fishery, and five 
whales \\ere taken. 

In the spring of 1880 there were six crews of 108 men stationed between Cape Hatteras and 
Bear Inlet, but the season being unusually open, most of the whales had passed before the fisher- 
men came on the shore, and but one was taken, the bone and oil selling for $408. 

The yearly catch of late is about four whales, averaging 1,800 gallons of oil and 550 pounds 
of bone each, giving the catch a value of $4,500. The shares usually range from thirty to forty, 
as follows: Each boat one share, the gun two shares, the gunner an extra share, and each steers- 
man an additional one-half share, the men all receiving one share each. 

The whaling-gun was introduced into the locality by the schooner Daniel Webster, of Prov- 
iucetown, in 1874. 

COAST OF SOUTH CAROLINA AND GEORGIA. 

There are no regular whaling-camps on this coast, but whaling vessels from the north often 
cruise a short distance off Port Royal, S. C., and Brunswick, Ga., sometimes meeting with good 
success. These vessels are of the smaller class, ranging from 53 to 117 tons, and spend the winter 
and early spring months before their departure for the off-shore grounds in capturing whales 
near the bars off this coast. They were formerly in the habit of going to Fernaudina, Fla., every 
fall to ship their oil and bone to the STorth, but owing to the yellow fever at that place some of 
them came to Brunswick, Ga., in 1876, and one of them secured a whale in this vicinity. The 
following year two vessels came in January and remained till the middle of March, getting one 
whale. The third year two whales were caught by the same vessel, and in 1879 four vessels 
visited the locality, aud had taken up to March 1, five whales yielding 226 barrels of oil and 2,750 
pounds of bone. The whaling-ground is on a bar only about 4 miles from the shore. A whale 
after being captured by the whalemen in boats, is towed by the vessel into the sound aud there 
stripped of blubber aud the oil tried out. 

An exciting scene occurred at Charleston in the spring of 1880, which is thus described in the 
Charleston Xews of January S : 

"UNUSUAL SPORT IN CHARLESTON HARBOR. Several days ago the almost unprecedented 
presence of a whale in Charleston Harbor was announced. Whether driven here by stress of 
weather, seeking misanthropic seclusion from his kind, or on an exploring expedition, will never 
be known, but his presence was a huge black verity. Several timid and ineffectual attempts had 
been made to effect his capture or destruction, but all were futile, until a regular hunt was 
SEC. v, VOL. ii 4 



TO HISTORY AND METHi-DS OF THE FISHERIES. 

organized yesterday, Mr. Armstrong Hall, engineer, and Captain Smith, of the tug Eoyal Arch, 
leading it. The attacking force originally consisted of two of Messrs. Bangs & Dolby's row-boats, 
each manned by three oarsmen, an experienced and trustworthy coxswain, and a man in the bow of 
each armed with a harpoon. Other boats with their crews joined in the chase, however, when the 
whale was seen near Fort Sumter at about 9.45 a. m. He had been first met and struck on the 
bar, however, by the boats above mentioned at about 8 o'clock, a harpoon and line being made fast 
in his body near the tail. Pursuit was continued, one of the boats towing after the whale by the 
line, and the other being rowed to within a short distance of him as he would rise to blow, and the 
harpoons being launched at him whenever a favorable opportunity offered. During the chase he 
had been working his way to landward, and soon got in the shoal water near Fort Johnston, on 
James Island. In his struggles he became entangled in the stout line attached to the harpoon, 
and wound himself in it so that it held firmly. He remained in the shoal water during the morn- 
ing, the line having been cut to save the boat during a " flurry,'' and in the afternoon, at about 
1.30 o'clock, an attempt was made to secure him. Four steam tugs the Morgan, the Eepublic, 
the Wade Hampton, and the Eoyal Arch were present, besides probably fifty or sixty row-boats, 
and a few small sailing craft. 

"The news of the capture had spread rapidly, and quite a crowd, including a number of ladies, 
gathered on the battery and watched the struggle that ensued. The line was taken aboard and 
made fast to one of the tugs, which attempted to coax the fish toward the city. But the steamer 
proved to be too unhandy for the delicate manipulation required, and the line was finally snapped, 
a piece of considerable length being left attached to the whale worn en traine. Then ensued a 
series of exciting maneuvers. The tugs would approach him in turn as opportunity offered, and 
those aboard would drive lances and harpoons at him, with more or less effect, or attempt to throw 
great running nooses over the flukes of his tail as they were thrust above the surface in the 
creature's struggles. He indulged in a series of the most extraordinary gymnastic performances, 
turning complete somersaults, and occasionally standing on his head, apparently for several 
moments, with from 2 to 6 feet of his tail projecting above the water. 

"Meantime, many of the small boats were dodging about him, and missiles were hurled at 
him whenever a fair chance was offered. Time and again barbed harpoons and the long keen 
blades of lances were plunged into his sides and back, and time and again did they fail to hold, 
being drawn back by the lines by their owners. He was slowly but surely scuffling and turning 
himself through the mud, which was seen upon his head several times, across the Ashley Eiver 
toward White Point Garden, the center of an ever-varying circle of all sorts of craft, armed with 
all sorts of weapons. In his progress he ran under the bow of the schooner Minnehaha, where 
earnest efforts were made to lasso him, a compliment which he returned by standing on his head 
and thrashing her with his tail until she shook from stem to stern. He struck sevenil blows 
upon her jib-boom, which was damaged somewhat, the rigging thereabout being badly torn. He 
would lash the water with the flukes of his tail, making reports like the discharge of a musket, 
and drenching all in his neighborhood. He came to the surface frequently to blow, which he 
did with a noise resembling that made by the blowing out of steam from an engine, sending a 
fountain from each of his nostrils. At one time he got beneath the bow of one of the tugs, lifting 
it almost clear of the water, and a stroke of his tail wrenched off one of the cabin doors that 
stood open. It is impossible to describe, and almost impossible to imagine, the tremendous force 
of one of these strokes. The great volumes of water that rose after each showed the immense 
strength that was put forth hi them. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 51 

"Two of the tugs ran over him, and the propeller of the Wade Hampton gave him several 
blows, the effects of which were seen upon his bleeding back as he next rose. The line had also 
evidently chafed him considerably, the skin near the tail being perceptibly raw from it. It 
appeared about this time as if he was almost exhausted. He would now and then cease his 
struggles entirely, and lie placidly upon the water with almost his entire body exposed, as it 
resting. Observers could almost imagine that they could see him pant, and hi* snorts came in 
quick succession, and seemed to have a ring of distress or despair in them. His motions, too, 
were slower and more languid, as if he were about to relinquish the unequal struggle and die. 

" All this time the two boats that had originated the chase had steadily followed him up, the 
men in the bows driving their long lances into his body near where their experience taught them 
was a vital point. Suddenly there was a cheer. One of the tugs rather involuntarily had gotten 
so close on him that the remainder of the line hanging to him was secured by a boat-hook, and 
quickly spliced to another line on board. About half an hour of playing him followed, when the 
line, which had been stranded gradually, again parted. Haifa dozen efforts were made to throw a 
noose over his tail from the deck of the Wade Hampton, from which place such trifles as a rifle-bullet 
or so and two or three balls from a large revolver were fired into him without perceptible effect. One 
or two of the efforts to throw the noose over him were very nearly successful, but he seemed to 
dodge beneath the water as it fell about him. 

" Another cheer announced another apparent success. A lance thrust from one of the Bangs 
& Colby boats had evidently struck him deeply, and the men in her yelled exultantly as they rap- 
idly backed away. The blood poured out and dyed the water around, and in a few seconds a 
gigantic plume of crimson spray arose as he came up to blow. As he lifted his side from the water 
and struck another gigantic blow, the blood could be seen pouring forth in a stream like that from 
a small hose. He lay comparatively quiet, and another and stronger line was passed about him 
from the Morgan. With this he was played for another half hour, during which time the small 
boats kept steadily striking him whenever he appeared. He had by this time changed his course 
somewhat, turning toward the center of the harbor, and crossing the stream across the bows of 
the bark Framat, which he narrowly missed striking. 

"The confusion of boats and lines was very great, tugs, bateaus, and row-boats being gath- 
ered about the fish, alternately advancing and backing, amid a chaos of yells, oaths, cries of warn- 
ing, and orders, the confusion being increased when the object of all attention would suddenly 
begin to lash the water or execute some fancy movement, causing a wild scattering of craft on all 
sides. That some one was not drowned or knocked in the head is a subject of general wonder. 

" At last, when just alongside the Wade Hampton, the whale, who had lines enough about him 
almost for a ship's rigging, seemed suddenly to decide to free himself by one mighty effort. In a 
second almost the water for many feet about him became a mass of seething, heaving foam. He 
turned over and over, fairly churned the sea with his tail, threw first his ugly head, and then the 
great black rubber-looking flukes far above the surface, and bent himself almost double, straight- 
ening out again with terrific violence. When the spray and foam were gone and men had an 
opportunity to look, the Morgan's line was found slack and broken. The whale had freed himself 
and disappeared. His track was rapidly followed, the struggle having by this time been brought 
to a point opposite the Southern wharves, which were packed with people. 

" The game appeared once or twice at long intervals, and was finally come up with by the 
pursuers, now greatly diminished in numbers, on the eastern side of Cooper Eiver, near the 
shore. Again the chase became hot, one or two strokes being given, and the Morgan running 
over the whale again. About this time, however, he ran so close in that the tugs were afraid to 



52 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES, 

follow, and stood idly at a distance. Only about seven row-boats were now engaged in he hunt, 
the others having retired from it, among the few which still followed being that laid hands upon 
by the News and Courier deputation.' The fish turned and went down Hog Island Channel, the 
oarsmen pulling steadily and cheerily after him. 

"Talk of sport! What sport is comparable with the rush through the water after such huge 
game as this, when tired muscles forget their weariness and are endowed with fresh life at every 
sight of the great head and every splash of the monster's body? 'Give away! Give away with a 
will!' And with oars going, the gunwales parting the smooth water, which seemed to rush by, and 
every nerve and sinew tense and firm, the chase followed, no one knowing fatigue or stopping to 
measure distances iu such a hunt. At last the boats huddle together, and spread again in a circle, 
as the fish is caught up with. A moment and he appeal's, and in that moment a long-boat shoots 
by his side, and the man in the bow, cool and steady, and with a deliberation that looks cruel, 
plunges his lance into the mountain of flesh, while the oars are backed with a rush and surge, and 
the craft glides away. Again and again this is repeated, the lioats moving in a continual semi- 
circle, hemming the great fish in, and forming a barrier, which he could burst like pack-thread if 
he knew it, to the deep water where his safety and rest lie. Slowly he works out, tacking this 
way and that, and getting the merciless steel upon almost every reappearance. 

"He was evidently weakening this rime. His plunges beneath the water were shorter and 
shorter in duration, and he seemed to gasp for breath as he came up. At last a bare-footed sailor 
in one of the first two boats, the man who struck the first blow in the morning (Garrison, of North 
Carolina), drove his lance home. The boat backed away, but there was no need for it. An inert 
black mass lay upon the surface, moving gently with the motion of the water. Dead at last. 

"Then the boats rushed in and clustered around the dead giant. The Royal Arch came up, 
and from her deck some one fired a rifle-ball into the whale's back. There was something like a 
shudder, a feeble serpentine motion of the body, and then stillness. This was just at sunset, off 
Shem Creek, on the east shore, and cheer after cheer arose, the whistle of the tug joining in the 
triumphal chorus. Lines were quickly made fast about the great body, and it was towed to Sulli- 
van's Island, where it will remain a part of to-day. 

" The fish is a ' right whale.' As well as could be estimated last night his length is from 40 to 
50 feet, and the thickness of his body from 10 to 15 feet. His captors estimate that he will yield 
from $600 to $800 worth of oil. When examined after death the body and sides of the monster 
were found to be thickly seamed and scarred iu every direction with the marks of the lances, 
harpoons, and hooks, showing that the hunters had aimed well." 

COAST OF CALIFORNIA. 

By DAVID S. JORDAN. 

According to Captain Scammon " shore-whaling was commenced at Monterey, in the year 
1851, by Captain Davenport, formerly a whaling-master of much experience and enterprise. The 
whales were pursued in boats from the shore, and when captured were towed to the beach and 
flensed, much iu the same manner, doubtless, as it had been done by our New England whalers 
more than one hundred and fifty years ago. At the point where the. enormous carcass was 
stripped of its fat, arose the whaling-station, where try-pots were set in rude furnaces, formed of 
rocks and clay, and capacious vats were made of plauks, to receive the blubber. Large mincing- 
tubs, with mincing-horses and mincing-knives, cutting-spades, ladles, bailers, skimmers, pikes, and 
gaffs, with other whaling implements, surrounded the try-works; and near by, a low structure, 



TIIK WIIALK F I SHEET. 53 

covered with brushwood, constituted the store-house for oil. A light shanty, with four com- 
partments, served the inupo.xe of wash room, drying-room, store-room, and cooper's shop, and a 
sort of capstans, termed -crabs,' \MTC used in lieu of tin- ship's windlass, whereli.y the falls to the 
heavy cutting-tackles were hove in, when fastened to the blanket-piece, which served to roll the 
massive forms of the captured animals on the beach during the process of flensing." 

"From tins experiment of local whaling," continues Scammou, "sprung up a system of shore 
or coast whaling, which has been prosecuted for over twenty years (1874), and which extends 
from Half-Moon Bay (latitude .'!7 30'), on the north, to Point Abauda (latitude 32 20'), in Lower 
California." In 1874 there were "eleven whaling parties scattered along this belt of coast, 
located at Half-Moon Bay, Pigeon Point, Monterey Bay (two), Carmel Bay, San Simeon, San 
Luis Obispo, Goleta, Portuguese Bend (near San Pedro), San Diego, and Point Abauda. The 
organization of each party is nearly on the same plan as that of the whale-ship's officers and crew, 
all being paid a certain share, or 'lay,' which corresponds to the position or individual services 
rendered by each member. A 'whaling company,' as it is termed, consists of one captain, one 
mate, a cooper, two boat-steerers, and eleven men ; from these, two whale-boats are provided with 
crews of six men each, leaving four hands on shore, who take their turn at the lookout station, to 
watch for whales, and attend to boiling out the blubber when a whale is caught. The stock of 
the company consists of boats, whaling implements, and whaling gear, which is divided into six- 
teen equal shares, and the 'lay' of each member is the same. The captain and mate, however, 
are paid a bonus of $200 or $300 for the term of engagement, which is one year, and they are also 
exempt from all expenses of the company. 

"The whaling year begins on the 1st of April, this being about the time that the California 
gray whales have all passed toward the Arctic Ocean, and the, humpback whales begin their 
noithern passage. The cruisiug limits of the local whalers extend from near the shore line to 10 
miles at sea. At dawn of day the boats may be seen, careening under a press of sail, or pro- 
pelled over the undulating ground-swell by the long measured strokes of oars, until they reach 
the usual whaling-ground, where the day is passed plying to and fro, unless the objects of pursuit 
are met with. Each boat is furnished with Greener's harpoon-gun, mounted at the bow, besides 
tlie bomb gun in general use, which imparts to fhem more of a military appearance than the usual 
aspect of a whaling craft. Generally, whales are first seen from the boats, but occasionally they 
aie discovered by the man on watch at the station, who signals to the boats by means of a flag 
elevated upon a pole, with which he runs toward the quarter where the whales are seen ; or a 
Belies of signals are made from a tall flag staif. 

" The cetaceous animals frequenting the coast, having been so long and constantly pursued, 
are exceedingly wild and difficult to approach, and were it not for the utility of Greener's gun 
the coast fishery would be abandoned, it being now next to impossible to ' strike' with the hand- 
harpoon. At the present time (1874) if the whale can be approached within 30 yards it is con- 
sidered to be in reach of the gun-hai-poon. "When the gunner fires, if he hits his game, the next 
effort made is to haul up near enough to shoot a bomb-lance into a vital part, which, if it explodes, 
completes the capture; but if the first bomb i'ails the second or third one does the fatal work. 
The prize is then towed to the station, and, if it be night, it is secured to one of the buoys, placed for 
the purpose, a little way from the surf, where it remains until daylight, or until such time as it is 
wanted to be stripped of its blubber. The whales generally taken by the shore parties are hump- 
backs and California grays; but occasionally a right whale, a finback, or a sulphur-bottom ia 
captured. 



54 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHEEIES. 

" The localities of several of the stations are quite picturesque. Some of them are nearly 
concealed from seaward view, being inside some rocky reef, or behind a jagged point, with its out- 
lyiug rocks, upon which each successive wave dashes its foam, as if forbidding the approach of 
ship or boat. The one which most interested us is half hidden in a little nook, on the southern 
border of the Bay of Carmel, just south of Point Pinos. Scattered around the foothills, which 
come to the water's edge, are the neatly whitewashed cabins of the whalers, nearly all of whom 
are Portuguese, from the Azores or Western Islands of the Atlantic. They have their families with 
iliem, and keep a pig, sheep, goat, or cow prowling around the premises; these, with a small 
garden-patch, yielding principally corn and pumpkins, make up the general picture of the hamlet, 
which is a paradise to the thrifty clan in comparison with the homes of their childhood. It is a 
pleasant retreat from the rough voyages experienced on board the whale-ship. The surrounding 
natural scenery is broken into majestic spurs and peaks, like their own native isles, with the 
valley of the Rio Carmel a little beyond, expanded into landscape loveliness. 

" Under a precipitous bluff, close to the water's edge, is the station, where, upon a stone-laid 
quay, is erected the whole establishment for cutting-iu and trying-out the blubber of the whales. 
Instead of rolling them upon the beach, as is usually done, the cutting-tackles are suspended from 
an elevated beam, whereby the carcass is rolled over in the water when undergoing the process 
of flensing in a manner similar to that alongside a ship. Near by are the try- works, sending 
forth volumes of thick black smoke from the scrap-fire under the steaming caldrons of boiling oil 
A little to one side is the primitive storehouse, covered with cypress boughs. Boats are hang- 
ing from davits, some resting on the quay, while others, fully equipped, swing at their moorings in 
the bay. Seaward, on the crest of a cone-shaped hill, stands the signal-pole of the lookout station. 
Add to this the cutting at the shapeless and half-putrid mass of a mutilated whale, together with 
the men shouting and heaving on the capstans, the screaming of gulls and other sea fowl, mingled 
with the noise of the surf about the shores, and we have a picture of the general life at a California 
coast-whaling station."* 

In 1879 shore whale-fisheries were, or had lately been, in operation at the following points on 
the coast of California : 

(a) Santo Tomas, in Lower California, about 35 miles south of San Diego. 

(I) Cojo Viejo, in Santa Barbara County, just south of Point Conception and 51 miles west of 
Santa Barbara. 

(c) Port Starford, in San Luis Obispo County. 

(d) San Simeon, in San Luis Obispo County. 

(e) Carmelo Bay, in Monterey County. 
(/) Monterey, in Monterey County. 

There have been whale-fisheries also at the following points : 

(a) Ballast Point, at San Diego. 

(b) Dead Man's Island, in San Pedro Bay, Los Angeles County. 

(c) Portuguese Bend, just north of San Pedro Bay, n Los Angeles County. 

(d) Goleta or Moore's Lauding, 8 miles west of Santa Barbara, in the same county. 

(e) Point Sur, in San Luis Obispo County. 
(/) Pigeon Point, in San Mateo County. 
(g) Half-Moon Bay, in San Mateo County. 

* SCA.MMON : Marine Mammalia, pp. 247-250. 



THK WFIAU-; FISH KEY. 55 

The first shore- whaling camp on the California coast was established by Capt. Joseph Clark 
near Monterey, about the year 1851.* From Monterey Captain Clark went to San Diego and 
thence to Portuguese Bend. He went to San Simeon about 1864. 

Capt. Frank Anderson, who is said to be now the most experienced whaling captain on the 
coast, is a nat ive of the Azores Islands, his Portuguese name having been dropped on naturalization 
in the United States, as is the general custom among the natives of the Azores. He was at first a 
whaler on ships from New Bedford, then came to California in 1866, .and since 1873 he has had 
charge of whaling-camps as captain. He was at San Luis Obsipo until 1874, at Portuguese 
Bend till 1877, and at Pigeon Point till 1879, when he with his entire company removed to Cojo 
Viejo. 

Tho San Diego fishery was established by Captain Clark about 1858. In 1869 the whalers 
were driven off from Ballast Point in January, the laud being taken for Government purposes. 
The company lost the rest of that year; then they went to Santo Tomas, in Mexico, at which point 
a company has been most of the time subsequently, but Captain Anderson is informed that they 
have now suspended. Before the arrival of this party at Santo Touias, another party, under Cap- 
tain Price, had been there in 1864 and 1865. The Mexican Government charged a fee of about 
$50 annually, and the United States customs officers at San Francisco admitted the oil free of duty, 
although shipped from a Mexican port, "in consideration of the fact that they were Americans 
and poor men who worked for their living." This privilege was afterwards refused to certain San 
Francisco capitalists. 

In 1866 a station existed for a short time on Dead Man's Island, a circular rock rising in Sail 
Pedro Bay. 

Portuguese Bend is an unusually good station for winter whaling, although little comes there 
m summer. While there Mr. Anderson used to work only in winters. In the three winters, 
December to April, spent there, 2,166 barrels of oil were obtained. 

Pigeon Point has many summer whales, but the water is too rough in winter. The first year 
1,000 barrels were obtained ; the second year 564. In 1877, in the month of September, a whale 
120 feet long is reported by the New Bedford Standard to have been " towed into Pigeon Point 
for the whaling company, making two whales at anchor at that port." 

Goleta was not a very good station. The camp came about 1870 and broke up in 1878. 
There were three companies there in all, the first of Jamaica negroes. One winter 450 barrels 
were obtained there. 

Whaling was practiced is Los Angeles County for a time, but was discontinued in 1876. 

The following species of whales are found on the Pacific coast: 

(1) Sperm whale, not taken by shore camps. 

(2) Humpback whale, or summer whale. 

(3) Gray whale, or devil fish, so called because it fights harder than the others. 

(4) Bight whale, not often seen. 

(5) Sulphur-bottom whale (Sibbaldius sulfureux Cope). Large, 80 to 110 feet long. Twelve 
of them were taken at Pigeon Point, but none yet at Cojo. They pass by going north in April 
and south in the fall. They are hard to hold or tow, because when dead the under jaw drops 
down. 

(6) Finback. Two struck at Cojo, but lost in deep water. They are very slim, with but 
little blubber, 100 to 120 feet long, and make about 30 barrels of oil. 

* Scauimcm says the nrat caiup was established by Captain Davenport, at Mouterey, in 1851. 



56 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

(7) Bowheacl, seen only in Arctic regions. 

(S) Russian wbale. Scarce and only in Arctic regions. Very large. 

The humpback whale goes north in summer, returning in the fall. Some migrate as far as 
Alaska, but many not beyond Point Concepcion. This is therefore almost the only species taken 
in summer. Four have been taken at Cojo this year. The cows are about 50 feet long, and the bull 
whales about 45. The former produce about 70 barrels of oil, the bulls about half as much. The 
four taken at Cojo produced 14S barrels of oil. This species was formerly much more abundant than 
now. Since 187.3 it has become quite scarce. The whalebone of this species is black, but of little 
value; said to be worth .045 per pound in Japan, but not worth snipping. The oil of this species 
is white and quite thick. The reddish and thinner oil of the gray whale sells more readily, but 
both bring the same price. The oil of the sulphur-bottom whale is like lard, and becomes solid 
iu cold weather. All these oils are chiefly used in rope-making; some of it in leather working. 
The oil made from blabber is more valuable than that taken from the, inside, and is kept sep- 
arate from the latter. The gray whale is usually about 45 feet long, the bulls 35. They gen- 
erally follow the line of the edge of the kelp in going southward. There are usually two or three 
together. " They feed on sardines and shrimps." They go southward from December to February 
to calve in the Gulf of California. Then they return northward from the latter part of February 
to May. The most of February is a "slack time," when few are seen. When they return north- 
ward the cows and calves usually keep well out to sea, the bulls farther toward shore. The 
whalebone of this species is white, scanty, and worthless. A gray cow whale sometimes yields 
about 90 barrels of oil ; a bull less than half as much. 

CAMP AT COJQ VIEJO. The company consists of twenty men in winter and eighteen iu 
summer. Fifteen of these constitute the management, own the property, and share the proceeds 
equally. Captain Anderson is employed by these, receiving $100 in cash and one-seventeenth of 
all receipts (above freights ;md commission). There are two others receiving one thirty-fifth of 
the proceeds, one one-fortieth, and another one fifty-fifth. Two Chinamen also accompany the 
camp, receiving for their services the sinews of the whale, which are shipped to China, supposably 
for soup. These sinews used to sell at 50 cents per pound to the Chinese in San Francisco, then 
at 40 cents, and afterwards there was no market. They are now worth about 25 cents per pound 
in San Francisco, and are said to sell at $1 per pound iu China. There are 20 to 30 pounds of 
sinews in a whale. 

The whole company at Cojo came originally from the Azores, with the exception of two or 
three from the Madeiras. The same persons constituted the company on Pigeon Point. The com- 
pany have built for themselves a large house, in which they eat and sleep, and store their guns 
and harpoons. Beside this, the captain, who is accompanied by his wife, has a separate smaller 
house, and the Chinese another after their fashion. These are on a bluff above the beach. On a 
cliff above is a signal-port, where two men watch for whales. On the beach below are the kettles 
for trying the oil, the barrels, and other things of that sort. In a little laguna are the two whale- 
boats not in use. 

The entire outfit cost about $2,000, exclusive of the houses, &c. The total expenses of the camp 
are $4,000 to $5,000 yearly. There are four whaling-boats, two being iu use each half of the year, 
while the others are being repaired, painted, &c. These were made in New Bedford, where they 
cost $145 each, but cost $200 at San Francisco. The outfit of a boat when ready to attack a 
whale is worth about $600. It consists of eight bomb-lances, two harpoons, one 200-fathoin line, 
two guns, a swivel-gun, worth $200, for the harpoons and large bombs, and a smaller gun, worth 
$55, for the bomb-lances. The smaller bomb-lances are made in Norway, and come twenty-five in 



THE WHALK FISH KRY. 57 

a box, at $94 per box. These are shot at the whale from a short thick gun, held at the shoulder. 
They explode in the flesh of the whale, ''disgusting him," but not usually killing him. Of the 
sixteen gray whales thus far taken at Cojo, there was hut one which did not have scars from 
bomb-lance wounds. The whales are becoming so shy, Ihat these things can rarely be shot closely 
enough to prove effectual. These bomb-lances are a little over a foot long. A much larger bomb- 
lance, holding a pound of powder, invented by Anderson, and made for him in Norway, is used 
by this camp. It is tired from the swivel-gun, and usually kills the whale. They cost $5 each. 

The harpoons are usually much more effectual. The sort used, differing somewhat from any in 
use in the Atlantic, is manufactured in Cambria, in San Luis Obispo County. A rope is fastened 
to this, and it is shot from the large swivel-gun at the whale. These harpoons tired from guns 
have been iu use on the coast since about 1868; the Cambria harpoon by Anderson since about 
1S72. The harpoons cost $9 each. Some of them have been used five times, but occasionally 
one is hopelessly bent, or the rope holding it is broken. The swivel-gun is made in England. It 
is placed in the bow of the boat; sometimes men are killed by the recoil. One man in Ander- 
son's camp was kicked iu the chest by it and died of hemorrhage. The harpoon weighs 7 to 9 
pounds, the rope about 37 pounds. The gnu will not shoot well more than 150 feet, the deflec- 
tion of the projectile preventing it from striking squarely at a greater distance. At a distance of 
more than 90 feet it is necessary to aim above the whale. Unless the whale is held by a line, it is 
likely to sink when dead, and in rough weather it is hard to prevent them from sinking even 
when so held. Harpoons are thrown by hand only when necessary to hold up dead whales. The 
whale-lines are brought from Xew Bedford. 

The company arrived at Cojo from Pigeon Point April 25, 1879, and devoted the following 
summer to getting ready for work. The following are the dates when whales were caught ; hump- 
back whales, October 18 and 24, two on each day ; California gray whales, on December 14,21. 24, 
28, and 29. January 5, 9, 10, 12 (two whales), 14, 17, 21. 22, 25, February 1 ; making a total of 
twenty whales up to February 14. A camp is considered to do well if obtaining fifteen whales 
per year. The reut of the land, with privilege of garden, cow-pasture, and firewood, is usually 
about $100 per year, but is only $1 at Cojo. 

The oil is barreled, and being rolled into the surf is taken on a lighter and transferred to a 
San Francisco steamer and consigned to parties in San Francisco for sale. On January 23 there 
were shipped 3,285 gallons; February 2, 13,534i gallons; now on hand, 315 gallons ; total prod- 
uct, April to February, 17,134i gallons, worth about 45 cents per gallon in San Francisco. The 
bones of the whale are worth about $10 per ton for soap-making in San Francisco, but their 
shipment from Cojo is not considered profitable. 

CARMELO CAMP. At the south end of the Bay of Carmelo is a whaling-camp, consisting of 
seventeen men all told ; all Portuguese, from Azores Islands, commanded by Captain Mariano. 
The outfit is owned by a company of four, of whom Mariano is one, and the rest are outside 
parties. The other sixteen are hired on different lays, averaging one-fiftieth. The captain receives 
one-fifteenth. During the past year they have caught three humpback, one finback, and three 
gray whales, one of the humpback whales iu the spring, which is unusual. Two hundred barrels 
of oil have been obtained, the finback yielding .'ill barrels of a lighter oil, but selling for no more. 
This company runs from October to March only, the men then disbanding and going elsewhere. 
They have two whaling-boats only, and use the harpoons made by (T. W. I'roctor. at Cambria or 
San Marcos, and also sometimes those made by Merritt, in Monterey. Carmelo is a very good 
whaling-station, inferior to Monterey only, but there is not so good a chance for long chases of 
whales. Three right whales were seen this year, but none caught. Last year Mariano's company 



58 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THF FISHERIES. 

was at Point Sor, farther south in Monterey County. There are many whales at Point Sur, but 
the coast is very rugged and the sea runs very high, so that for much of the winter the boats had 
to be hauled out of the water and the men dared not venture out. In 1878-'79 at Point Sur, one 
humpback, three gray, and a right whale were taken, and in 1877-'7#, at Point Sur, one gray and 
one-sulphur bottom. One large man-eater shark (Carcharodon rondeleti) was taken by the whalers 
at Oarmelo last year. 

MONTEKEY WHALING COMPANY. Another whaling-camp is at Monterey. This consists of 
twenty-three men all told, all Portuguese, and all but one from the Azores. This company has 
no captain, but their most efficient man, Mr. Verissimo, is made secretary, having charge of all 
business and receiving no salary. The three boat-headers in the company receive a lay of one 
twenty-third, the cook is hired outright, and the residue of receipts are divided equally among the 
other nineteen who own the outfit. This company, with changing membership, has been in 
Monterey since 1855. Verissimo has been here since 1867. This year fourteen whales have been 
obtained from September to April seven gray whales (three down and four up whales), six hump- 
back whales, and one right whale besides two basking sharks (Cetorhinus ma^imus); in all 500 
barrels of whale-oil and 8 of shark-oil. 

The basking shark is rare here, sometimes not seen for twenty years. This year several were 
seen in Monterey Bay. " When a man is on the lookout for whales he can't see sharks." The 
sharks come to the surface at times, and remain quiet for a while, and their " flukes " and dorsal 
fins may be seen by one who is watching. The shark-oil should be worth 60 to 75 cents a gallon, 
each shark yielding 125 gallons. In 1878-'79 one humpback and three gray whales were taken, 
making 185 barrels of oil, and in 1877-'7S eight whales, making 500 barrels. Years ago this busi- 
ness paid better, for whales were more abundant, and higher prices were paid for the oil. 

This company own three good boats, New Bedford made, and four guns of each kind. Their 
harpoons are mostly made by Merritt, a blacksmith in Monterey. They are thought superior to 
Proctor's, in that they are less likely to slip out of the whale ; the posterior flange of the head is 
wider. With one of them nineteen whales have been shot. They are made of Swiss iron, and 
cost $10 each. 

The Monterey Democrat thus describes the dangers of shore- whaling in that vicinity : " On 
Friday of last week the crew of one of our whale-boats narrowly escaped total destruction. They 
had struck and made fast to a California gray, a species particularly vicious, and were approaching 
him for a shot with the bomb-gun. There were a lot of porpoises around the creature, which sud- 
denly appeared to be ' gallied ' by them, and paused in his race. The boat under sail and running 
swiftly, got, unawares, within the sweep of the leviathan's tail, and when the shot was delivered 
a stroke in response from that tremendous creature crushed like an egg-shell the timbers of its bow. 
The sea rushed in through the fracture, and the boat being weighted down with her crew, an 
anchor, and two heavy guns, sank below the surface. The captain had been struck in the side by 
a fragment of the broken timbers, and was almost paralyzed. In the confusion, for a moment or 
two, no one thought to cut the rope by which the fish was fast, and it had resumed its fight. A 
tragedy was imminent, but luckily the captain recovering himself, ordered the rope to be cut, and 
the immediate and most pressing danger was escaped. The peril was, however, still considerable. 
Two of the crew could not swim, and they were all immersed to their necks in ice-cold water. 
Once or twice the boat rolled over, and they were in that perilous condition for half an hour before 
their consort, which was at some distance, heard their cries, and came to their rescue." 

The following item about whaling at Monterey appeared in the Monterey Calif ornian: 



TIIK WHALE FISHKUY. 59 

"Last week our Portuguese fishermen killed a large female whale of the California gray 
species (Rhackianectes ylni/cits), about GO feet in length, being some 22 feet larger than has ever 
been killed here before the average of females killed being about 42 feet. After cutting off the 
blubber they found inside a nearly full-grown male calf, which measured 18 feet from the end of its 
nose to the tip of its tail, or fluke, as the whalers call it; the circumference of the body at its 
center 9 feet ; the head about 4 feet in length; pectoral tins 3 feet; breadth of tail 3| feet, and it 
had two ridges on the lower jaw. When' brought on shore it still had 3 feet of the umbilical cord 
attached to it. The whalebone on its upper jaw was soft and white; the tongue large and soft; 
the eyes nearly full size, about as large as a cow's, and the skin was of a dark brown, mottled 
white. It had no dorsal fin. The females, when with young, generally keep off shore when on 
their way down south, to bring them forth in the warm waters of the bays of Lower California, 
where they remain all winter and go north in the spring. The females, when with calf, are danger- 
ous, as they often attack the boats of the whalers. The writer once saw a boat cut completely in 
two by the flukes of one of these whales, and it looked as if it had been chopped in two by a dull 
ax ; and several of the men were wounded. The term of gestation is about one year. Formerly 
these marine monsters were so numerous in Monterey Bay that whalers would fill up lying at 
anchor. Oftentimes they would be seen playing in the surf and rolling the barnacles out of their 
sides and backs on the sand beach an odd way of scratching themselves." 

SAN SIMEON WHALING COMPANY. The men in this company are all Portuguese but one, 
and most of them are from the Azores Islands. Captain Clark (nee Machado) is from the Azores, 
whence he shipped as a seaman to the United States. He began whale-fishing at Monterey, where 
an American, Captain Davenport, the first California shore- whale fisher, was engaged before him. 
In 1858 he began whaling at San Diego. In 1864 he was at Portuguese Bend, and in 1805 
started the San Simeon Camp, where he has ever since remained. 

There are twenty men in the camp at San Simeon. They are hired by Captain Clark, who 
owns the entire outfit. The boat-pullers receive one-fiftieth of the lay (i. e., all receipts), ihe 
boat-steerers receive one-fortieth, and the strikers one-sixteenth. 

Thirteen whales have been taken this season (up to February 21). One summer whale or 
humpback, November 15 ; the others all gray whales. No other kinds have ever been secured by 
Clark, and the humpback whale is not taken later than December. 

The last whale southward bound was taken January 29, and a few northward-bound whales 
have been noticed about February IS, the first February 7. 

The following is the record of the number taken each year at San Simeon : 1865 to 1871, 20 
to 25 each year, never less; 1872, 21 ; 1873, 22 ; 1874, 16; 1875, 12; 1876, 7; 1877, 13 ; 1878, 3; 
1879, 14=500 barrels; 1880, 13+. 

It takes about ten or twelve whales per year to pay the expenses of the camp, especially now 
when oil is so low. Four hundred and fifty barrels of oil have been obtained this year and shipped 
to Charles Sealy, of San Francisco, to be sold on commission. Since 1865 the whales have been 
growing more scarce and more shy. When they return from the South they keep out farther than 
when they come down. The sea is often rougher, and the head winds render it difficult to follow 
them. They rarely take more than four return whales. At San Diego only gray whales, and 
rarely a right whale, are taken. 

The camp is provided with four whale-boats made in New Bedford, costing $200, $175, $150, 
and $150 each. Two are in use for whaling and one for towing all the time, the other rests. There 
are also two swivel-guns, made in England, each costing $200; two bomb-guns, made in New 
Haven (T), costing $50; and some bomb-lances, made in Norway. The harpoons are made by G. 



60 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

W. Proctor, formerly of Cambria, now of San Marcos, San Luis Obispo County. Mr. Proctor is a 
blacksmith. He began making harpoons in 1870 or 1871. The first one made was presented 
to Captain Clark, who struck three whales witli it and then put it up to keep for luck. Mr. Proc- 
tor has no patent on the harpoons, and no warerooms or factory. He makes them out of the very 
best iron, better than that used in the English harpoon. They are heavier thau the latter, and 
the posterior part of the head is made thick, instead of thin and sharp. There is also a little con- 
trivance by which the turning of the head in the flesh is made more certain. They are now used by 
nearly all the California whalers, and are considered by them as better and more durable than the 
others. The harpoons are used for making fast to the whale; the bombs for killing. Often flint 
lance-heads and bone harpoons of the Eskimos are found in the whales, and very few of them are 
unscathed. The neighboring Chinamen help when a whale is brought in, receiving the sinews 
for their share. The total outfit is worth $1,000 to $1,500; the houses about $300. 

Whales going down are fatter than when returning. A south-bound whale makes perhaps 
35 barrels of oil, but a north bound only 25 barrels. Mostly bull whales are taken. On the south 
journey the larger cows come nearest shore and first. When they return the cows and calves are 
farthest out, the bulls and dry cows near shore. 

Portuguese Bend was once a good whaling-station, but lacked wood and water. San Diego 
was an excellent station until the only suitable place was taken by the Government. Santo Tomas 
is a good place from the chance of taking sperm whales. 

PORT STAKFOED CAMP. This camp is located on " Whaler's Point," about a mile north of 
the landing at "Port Stafford." This camp consists of 21 men, all but one Portuguese, and mostly 
from the Azores. To the American, Michael Noon, I am indebted for the information obtained, 
Captain Marshall (Marsiali) being away. The property is owned by four or five shareholders, the 
captain being one of them and the others are hired by these, each man receiving a particular lay, 
the oarsmen one sixty-fifth to one-seventieth, the boat-steerers one thirty-fifth to one-fortieth, the 
strikers one-seventeenth to one-twentieth. The station is usually fairly good but this year they 
have had poor luck; only four whales, all gray, having been secured. In 1879 nine, in 1878 
eleven were taken. Most of these were gray; though a few humpbacks were taken in the fall. 
One hundred and fifty barrels of oil have been shipped to San Francisco from this camp. They 
have three whale-boats here made at New Bedford. The other items of outfit are the same as at 
San Simeon. The whole cost about $1,500, and would sell for about half that amount. 

Captain Marshall established the station here, and has been in charge all the time since its 
beginning in 1868 or 1809. The men in this company, as at San Simeon, are discharged in the 
summer, and a new set hired each fall, many of them different. Some of its members are engaged 
in summer in fishing for the market of San Luis Obispo. 

STATISTICAL RECAPITULATION. The aggregate amount of oil taken by the several shore par- 
ties, prior to 1874, is estimated by Scammon at not less than 95,600 barrels; of this amount 75,600 
barrels were obtained from California gray whales, and 20,000 barrels from humpbacks, finbacks, 
and sulphur-bottoms. "The value, of the oil may be placed at about $13 a barrel, which would give 
a gross of about $1,242,800, or an annual product for twenty-two years of $56,490. To obtain this 
oil not less than 2,160 California grays and 800 humpbacks and other whalebone whales were 
robbed of their fatty coverings. If we add to this one-fifth for the number of whales that escaped 
their pursuers, although mortally wounded, or were lost after being killed, either by sinking in 
deep water or through stress of weather, we shall swell the catalogue to 3,552. To this add one- 
eighth for unborn young, and the whole number of animals destroyed would be 3,996, or about 
181 annually. This may be regarded as a low estimate ; doubtless, the number of these creatures 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 61 

destroyed every year by the enterprising California whalemen far exceeds the above estimate."* 
The production of the various whaling-camps in 1ST!) was ii;5 whales, yielding 58,084 gallons of oil, 
valued at si'iU.'lT.SO. The total number of men engaged at the camps was 101, nearly all of whom 

were Portuguese. 

SlIOin'.-WHALINCf BY ESKIMOS AND INDIANS. 

The Eskimos of Alaska capture whales of several species, using their flesh for food and from 
the blubber preparing oil for domestic use. The whalebone is saved and traded with the whaling- 
vessels coming along those shores in the summer season. The beluga or white whale is also an 
object of pursuit. 

Mr. Petroff, in his census report on Alaska, says: "The oil obtained from the beluga and the 
large seal (Maklak) is a vei\ impoiiant article of trade between the lowland people and those of 
the mountains, the latter depending upon it entirely for lighting their semi-subterranean dwell- 
ings during the winter, and to supplement their scanty stores of food. The oil is manufactured 
by a very simple process. Iluge drift-logs are fashioned into troughs, much in the same manner 
as the Thlinket tribes make their wooden canoes. Into these troughs filled with water the blubber 
is thrown in lumps of from 1! to ." pounds in weight; then a large number of smooth cobble-stones 
are thrown into a fire until they are thoroughly heated, when they are picked up with sticks 
fashioned for the purpose, and deposited in the water, which boils up at once. After a few 
minutes these stones must be removed and replaced by fresh ones, this laborious process being 
continued until the oil has been boiled out of the blubber and floats on the surface, when it is 
removed with flat pieces of bone or roughly fashioned ladles, and decanted into bladders or whole 
seal skius."t Mr. Petroff sends us the following graphic description of the hunt: 

" BELUGA HUNTING AT ALASKA. Next day about noon I was invited to participate in a canoe 
excursion in pursuit of some beluga or white grampus, a member of the whale family, but of an aver- 
age length of only 10 or I'D feet. The blubber of this animal is considered a great delicacy by the In- 
dians in this neighborhood, and the Laiada chief wished to get a supply of that greasy staff of life 
before returning home. Accordingly we started off in ten bidarkas, all the Indians being provided 
with various sizes of spears, while I took nothing but my rifle. In half an hour after leaving the 
mouth of the river the proposed hunting-ground was reached and the canoes separated in search 
of the game. For some time we cruised about without seeing a 'blow,' but finally the long expected 
signal shout was heard from one of the canoes, and all assembled immediately around their intended 
victim, which was a female beluga, with a calf following in its wake. First the old one would come 
up and blow, and in a few seconds after the young one would follow suit, throwing up a diminutive 
spout. The calf was attacked first, and as soon as its blood dyed the water,- the dam turned 
around as if in pursuit of the murderer, describing circles around the floating body of its offspring 
and lashing the water into foam with its tail and flukes. While racing around the animal 
received well-aimed spears from the bidarkas, which had formed a circle, and as these weapons 
ate provided with inflated bladders near the head, the beluga was soon buoyed up on the surface 
of the water, being too exhausted to draw under the large number of bladders fastened to its back 
and sides, and in that position was easily killed. Three more were killed in the same manner, and 
the party was preparing to return to the village when I thought I would try another way of secur- 
ing the game, and without givingany notice to the men in the other canoes, as 1 ought to have done, 
I aimed my rifle at a beluga which was showing its huge white back above the water a short dis- 
tance from me. The shot went off and its effect was instantaneous, though not exactly as I had 



' SrAMM<>\ : Marim- M;iimn;ili:i. p. -">!. 

t Alaska, its Population, Imlusin.-.s, anil Resources, by Ivan IVtroff. Tenth CCIISUN Vol. VIII. 



62 HISTOEY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

expected. The shot was well aimed and hit the spine of the animal, inflicting a mortal wound ; 
but while the beluga was floundering about in its death struggles, lashing the water into foam 
dyed with its own red blood, one stroke of the" tail upset one of the canoes, throwing the inmates 
into the water. There was plenty of assistance on hand, however; the canoe was righted, and the 
men crawled into it, very wet to be sure, but not at all in a bad humor. The accident was the sub- 
ject of jokes innumerable on the way home. When the last beluga had been secured, and its body 
fastened to the stern of our canoe, the whole squadron was set in motion. With the tide in our 
favor, we glided along swiftly in spite of the weighty carcasses we had in tow, and as we drew 
near to the village the monotonous boat song was chanted by the men as they plied their paddles. 
On the high bank of the river the old chief was standing ready to receive us, while the squaws 
were sitting in the grass and watching our approach, joining with their shrill voices in the song 
as soon as we were near enough to be heard. On our arrival at the beach the whole village had 
assembled to view and admire the spoils of our day's sport. As soon as the belugas had been 
dragged ashore, knives were drawn on all sides and slices of the blubber cut off and eaten raw, 
apparently with great gusto, by old and young. I tasted a small morsel, and must confess that it 
resembles raw bacon fat more than anything I ever swallowed ; but that is only the case imme- 
diately after the killing; as soon as the blubber is half a day old the rancid, fishy taste is there 
and grows stronger every day. It was dark before all tlie blubber had been cut off and safely 
stored out of reach of the village dogs, but late as it was the chief's house was prepared for a con- 
tinuation of yesterday's feast and games. I was not prepared for a second siege of that kind and 
managed to slip away unobserved, glad to escape an ordeal which would have been more trying 
on a Caucasian's olfactory nerves than that of the day before, on account of the fresh supply of 
blubber and oil. Before I arose next day the visiting party from Laiada had taken their depart- 
ure to set some other village in commotion, while the good people of Chketuk were yet reveling 
in remembrance of the joys just past." 

The Indians of Cape Flattery are said to derive their principal subsistence from fishery 
products, the most important of which are the whale and halibut. Mr. James G. Swan, in a 
report on the Makah Indians, in No. 220 Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 1869, says: 
"Of the former [whales] there are several varieties which are taken at different seasons of the 
year. Some are killed by the Indians; others, including the right whale, drift ashore, having 
been killed either by whalemen, swordfish, or other casualties. The various species of whales 
are: The sperm whale, kots-k(, .which is very rarely seen ; right whale, yakh'-yo-bad-di; blackfish, 
klas-ko-kop-ph ; finback, kaii-wid; sulphur-bottom, kwa-kwau-yak'-t'hle ; California gray, che- 
che-wid or chet'-a-puk; killer, se-hwau. The generic name of whales is chet'-a-puk. The 
California gray is the kiml usually taken by the Indians, the others being but rarely attacked. 

'' Their method of whaling, being both novel and interesting, will require a minute descrip- 
tion not only the implements used, but the mode of attack, and the final disposition of the whale, 
being entirely different from the practice of our own whalemen. 

" From information I obtained, I infer that formerly the Indians were more successful in kill- 
ing whales than they have been of late years. Whether the whales were more numerous, or that 
the Indians, being now able to procure other food from the whites, have become indifferent to the 
pursuit, I cannot say ; but I have not noticed any marked activity among- them, and when they 
do go out they rarely take a prize. They are more successful in their whaling in some seasons 
than in others, and whenever a surplus of oil or blubber is on hand, it is exchanged or traded 
with Indians of other tribes, who appear quite as fond of the luxury as the Makahs. The oil sold 
by these whalers to the white traders is dogfish oil, which is not eaten by this tribe, although 



TI1K WI1ALK K1RIIKKY. 63 

the Clyoquot and Nootkan Indians use it with tlieir food. There is no portion of a whale, except 
the vertebra and offal, which is useless to the Indians. The blubber and flesh serve for food; the 
sinews are prepared and made into ropes, cords, and bowstrings; and the stomach and intestines 
are can-fully sorted and inflated, and when dried are used to hold oil. Whale-oil serves the same 
purpose with these Indians that butter does with civilized people; they dip their dried halibut 
into it while eating, and use it with bread, potatoes, and various kinds of berries. When fresh, 
it is by no means unpalatable; and it is only after being badly boiled, or by long exposure, that 
it becomes rancid and as offensive to a white man's palate as the common lamp-oil of the shops." 

5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPERM-WHALE FISHERY. 

EARLY HISTORY OF WHALING AT NANTTJCKET. The fishery for sperm whales began at a 
much later period than that for right whales, but the exact date of its commencement is 
unknown. The whales taken by the early settlers of New England were mostly the right or whale- 
bone species and the first spermaceti whale known to the people of Nantncket caused great excite- 
ment. It was found dead on the shore, and quite a dispute arose concerning its ownership, "for 
the sperm procured from the head was thought to be of great value for medical purposes." It 
would thus appear that sperm whales had been heard of by these people, but had not been seen by 
them. " The first spermaceti whale taken by the Nantucket whalers," says Macy, " was killed by 
Christopher Hussey. He was cruising near the shore for right whales, and was blown off some dis- 
tance from the land by a strong northerly wind, where he fell in with a school of that species of 
whales, and killed one and brought it home. At what date this adventure took place is not fully 
ascertained, but it is supposed to be not far from 1712. This event gave new life to the business, 
for they immediately began with vessels of about thirty tons to whale out in the ' deep,' as it was 
then called, to distinguish it from shore-whaling. They fitted out for cruises of about six weeks, 
carried a few hogsheads, enough probably to contain the blubbers of one whale, with which, after 
obtaining it, they returned home. The owners then took charge of the blubber, and tried out the 
oil, and immediately sent the vessel out again. In 1715 the number of vessels engaged in the 
whaling business was six, all sloops of from thirty to forty tons burden each, which produced 
1,100 sterling, or $4,888.88." * 

BEALE'S ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN OF THE SPERM-WHALE FISHERY. The history of the sperm- 
whale fishery is accurately given by Thomas Bealo,t in his history of the sperm-whale, in which 
he says : " The origin of the sperm-whale fishery, that is before it became organized as a branch 
of commerce like the origin of other fisheries of the same nature, is involved in such deep 
mystery as almost altogether to defy the searching acumen of the historian. Without looking into 
the ancient, romancing, and classical histories, with which most of the countries of Europe abound, 
and which contain wonderful stories of the appearance, death, or capture of the sperm-whale, or 
other creatures of the same order, it may be sufficient for some of us to know that during the 
early part of the last century a few daring individuals who inhabited the shores of the American 
continent, fitted out their little crafts, furnished with wea,k and almost impotent weapons, to 
attack and destroy in its own element the mighty monarch of the ocean, in order to rob his 
immense carcass of the valuable commodity with which it is surrounded. But even as far back as 
the year 1667 we find a letter, published in the second volume of the Philosophical Transactions, 
from Mr. Richard Norwood, who resided at the Bermudas, which states that the whale-fishery had 



.MAI'Y: Hist. Nantncket, )>|>. :!>,:!<;. 

t The Natural History of I he S).nm-\Vhiilo by Tboiuas I'.rjilr, Surgeon: London, IWlli; 12uio.,pp. 383. 



64 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

been carried on in the bays of those islands for ' two or three years,' evidently meaning the black- 
. whale fishery ; for in smother part he says: ' I hear not that they have found any spermaceti in 
any of those whales;' but subsequently he states in the same letter: 'I have heard from credible 
persons that there is a kind of whale having great teeth, as have the spermaceti, at Elentheria and 
others of the Bermuda Islands. One of this place, John Perinchief, found one there dead, driven 
upon an island, and though I think ignorant of the business, yet got a great quantity of sperma^ 
ceti out of it.' He says again: 'It seems they have not so much oil as ours (meaning the black 
whale), but the oil, I hear, is at first like spermaceti, but they clarify it, I think, by the fire.' 

"But in volume iii, Philosophical Transactions," continues Beale, "in a letter from the 
same place, written a year or two afterwards, we find something like a beginning of the sperm- 
whale fishery threatened by a Mr. Richard Stafford, who informs us that he has killed several 
black whales himself, and who is represented as a very intelligent gentleman. He says : ' Great 
stores of whales make use of our coast ; ' but in another part he states : ' But here have been seen 
spermaceti whales driven upon the shore. These have divers teeth about the bigness of a man's 
wrist. I have been,' says he, 'at the Bahama Islands, and there have seen of this same sort of 
whale, dead on the shore, with spenna all over their bodies. Myself and about twenty others 
have agreed to try whether we can master and kill them, for I could never hear of any of that 
sort that was killed by any man, such is their fierceness and swiftness.' He concludes by remark- 
ing that 'one such whale would be worth many hundred pounds.' A weighty reason for the 
establishment of the fishery, no doubt. The same writer, in another part of his letter, states: 
' There is one island among the Bahamas, which some of our people are settled upon, and more 
are coming thither. It is called New Providence, where many rare things might be discovered, 
if the people were bui. encouraged.' This same New Providence afterwards became so famous as 
a whale-fishing station by the exertions of our American descendants. But even before these 
needy adventurers commenced their career of spermaceti hunting, we have had it proved to us 
that the Indians who inhabited the shores of America used to voyage out to sea and attack this 
animal from their canoes, and pierce him with their lances of wood or other instruments of the 
same material, which were barbed, and which, before they were plunged into his flesh, were 
fastened by a short warp, or piece of rope, to a large block of light wood, which was thrown over 
board the moment the barbed instrument was thrust into its body, which, being repeated at every 
rising of the whale, or when they were so fortunate as to get near enough to do so, in a few 
instances, by a sort of worrying-to-death system, rewarded the enterprising savage with the 
lifeless body of his victim, but which in most cases was that of a very young one ; and even this, 
when towed to the shore, it was impossible for them to turn over, so that they were obliged to 
content themselves with flinching the fat from one side of the body only. 

" But although, as has been before stated, Mr. Richard Stafford had threatened to commence 
the sperm-whale fishery at the Bahama Islands, it appears rather doubtful whether he did so or 
not, when we come to peruse the letter of the Hon. Paul Dudley, F. R. S., published in 17:34, Phil. 
Trans., vol. xxxiii, an extract of which states: 'I very lately received from Mr. Atkins, an inhabit- 
ant of Boston, in New England, who used the whale-fishery for ten or twelve years (black whales), 
and was one of the first that went out a fishing for the spermaceti whales about the year 1720.' 
It also appears in this account that the fishery even then was very little understood, for Mr. 
Atkins himself says 'he never saw, nor certainly heard of a spermaceti female taken in his life,' 
for he states 'the cows of that species of whale, being much more timorous than the males, and 
almost impossible to come at, unless when haply found asleep upon the water, or detained by 
their calves.' In another part of this letter the Hon. Paul Dudley states: ' Our people formerly 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 



65 



used to kill the whale near the shore ; but now they go off to sea in sloops and whale boats in the 
months of May, June, and July, bet wren < 'ape Cod and Bermuda, where they lie by in the night, 
and sail to and again in the day, and seldom miss of them ; they bring- home the blubber in their 
sloops. The true season for taking the right or whalebone whale is from the beginning of .lime 
to the end of May; for the spermaceti whales, from the. beginning of June to the end of August.'" 

CONDITION OF THE FISHERY FROM ITiio TO 1775. About the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tnr.\ the value of oil increased by the opening up of new markets, and the people of New England 
pushed forward with zeal in the whaling- industry. The English, French, and Dutch had been 
very successful in the northern fishery for whalebone whales, but had taken no part in the capture 
of sperm whales, leaving this work for the American fleet which began to grow rapidly in the 
number and size of its vessels. In 1720 the whaling fleet of New England numbered only a few 
sloops of about 30 tons each, making voyages east to Newfoundland and south to the Gulf Stream. 
T.y 1731 the American fleet amounted to 1,300 tons, and the size of the vessels increased so that 
in 1746 schooners and brigs from 100 to 130 tons were employed. Just before the Revolutionary 
war the whaling industry was very prosperous in New England, the fleet was large, and the profits 
considerable. Voyages were made to the north and south for sperm and right whales, but the chief 
object of pursuit was the sperm whale, whose oil was nearly three times the value of that of the 
right whale. The principal grounds visited for the sperm whale were off the coast of Brazil and 
Guiana, various parts of the West Indies, the Cape Verde and Western Islands, and eastward of 
the Banks of Newfoundland. 

Scammon gives the following statistics to show the condition of the business from 1762 to 
1770, inclusive: 



Tear. 


Number of 
vessels. 


Numhrr of 
barrel.-!. 


Value of pro- 
duction. 


1762 


78 


9 440 


$10 9 518 40 


1763* 


60 




100 3 9 4 68 


1704 


7 


11 983 


131 135 38 


1705 


101 


11 512 


125 020 32 


1766 


118 


11 969 


19 '1S3 4 


1767 


108 




179 g52 46 


1768 


125 


15 439 


11)7 CO" 54 


1769 


119 


19 140 


40'' 990 60 


1770 .. . 


125 


14 331 


340 666 89 












900 


119,013 


1, 746, 165 51 



* Scoresby, in his account of the Whale Fishery of the British Colonies iD America, stairs there were eighty vessels employed in the 
American fisheries during the year 1763. 

''About 1774," says Scatnnion, " the fleet was augmented by still larger vessels, some of which 
crossed the equator, and obtained full cargoes upon that noted ground called the ' Brazil Banks,' 
while others cruised around Cape Verde Islands or the West Indies, in the Gulf of Mexico, Carib- 
bean Sea, or upon the coast of the Spanish Main. Soon after they extended their voyages to the 
South Atlantic, around the Falkland Islands, and to the coast of Patagonia, where fur-seal skins 
and sea-elephant oil were sometimes obtained. In such instances these whaling and sealing 
expeditions were called ' mixed voyages.'"* 

"Between the. years 1770 and 1775," says Macy, "the whaling business increased to an extent 
hitherto unparalleled. In 1770 there were a little more than one hundred vessels engaged ; and 
in 177") the number exceeded one hundred and fifty, some of then: large brigs. The employment 



* SCAMMOX: Marine Mammalia and American Whale Fishery, p. 

SEC. v, VOL. ii 5 



66 HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

of so great and such an increasing capital may lead our readers to suppose that a corresponding 
profit was realized ; but a careful examination of the circumstances under which the business was 
carried on will show the fallacy of such a conclusion. Many branches of labor were conducted by 
those who were immediately interested in the voyages. The young men, with few exceptions, 
were brought up to some trade necessary to the business. The rope-maker, the cooper, the black- 
smith, the carpenter, in fine, the workmen, were either the ship-owners or of their household ; so 
were often the officers and men who navigated the vessels and killed the whales. Whilst a ship 
was at sea, the owners at home were busily employed in the mamifactory of casks, iron work, 
cordage, blocks, and other articles for the succeeding voyage. Thus the profits of the labor were 
enjoyed by those interested in the fishery, and voyages were rendered advantageous even when 
the oil obtained was barely sufficient to pay the outfits, estimating the labor as a part thereof. 
This mode of conducting the business was universal, and has continued to a very considerable 
extent to the present day. Experience taught the people how to take advantage of the different 
markets for their oil. Their spermaceti oil was mostly sent to England in its uusepaiated state, 
the head matter being generally mixed with the body oil; for, in the early part of whaling it 
would bring no more when separated than when mixed. The whale oil, which is the kind pro- 
cured from the species called ' right whale,' was shipped to Boston or elsewhere in the colonies, and 
there sold for country consumption!, or sent to the West Indies.' 1 * 

The extraordinary zeal that the Americans took in the whale-fishery at this time called forth 
from Mr. Burke that glowing tribute which has become familiar to every American. " Whether 
this eloquent address," says Beale, " had any effect or not upon the minds of our own merchants 
and ship-owners in stimulating them to fit out ships lor the sperm and other whale-fisheries, 
I am not aware, but it is certain that in the followiug year (1775) the first attempt was made to 
establish the sperm whale fishery from Britain; and we accordingly find, from private state- 
ments on which I can securely rely, that ships of from 100 to 109 tons burden were sent to South 
Greenland, coast of Brazil, Falkland Islands, and the Gulf of Guinea, for the purpose of procuring- 
sperm and other oils. The names of the ships which were thus employed in these distinct expedi- 
tions were the Union, Neptune, Rockingham, America, Abigail, Hanover, Industry, Dennis, 
Beaver, and Sparrow, but the principal places of resort of the spermaceti whale not having been 
yet discovered, the vessels met with very trifling success. 

"BOUNTIES GRANTED. In the following year, 1776, the Government, with a view to stimulate 
all persons engaged in these fisheries, established a principle of reward for those ships which were 
most successsful in their endeavors ; in accordance with which, five different bounties or premiums 
were offered, forming a scale of prizes for those who were so fortunate as to prove the five grada- 
tions of success, the sum of 500 being the maximum, and that of 100 being the minimum prize. 
In 1781 four ships were fitted out for the river St. Lawrence, but after they had been out a 
considerable time they returned with the discouraging announcement of having only procured C 
gallons of sperm oil among them during the whole time of their absence. 

"SPERM WHALES FROM FRANCE. In 17S4, France, which it appears had preceded the other 
nations of Europe in the whale-fishery, but had for many years past, for some cause or other, 
hardly had any share in it, now endeavored to revive it, and with this view Louis XVI fitted out 
six ships from Dunkirk on his own account, which were furnished at a great expense with a 
number of experienced harpooners and able seamen from Nantucket. The adventure was more 
successful than could have been reasonably expected, considering theauspicies under which it was 
carried on. Several private individuals followed the example of His Majesty, according to Mr. 

* MACY : Hist. Nantucket, p. 68. 



THK W!!AIJ<; FISHERY. 67 

M <( 'ullock, ' and in 1790 France bad about forty sbips employed in tbe fishery. The Revolutionary 
war destroyed every vestige of this rising trade. Since the peace the Government has made great 
efforts for its renewal, but hitherto without success ; aud it is singular, that with the exception of 
an American house at Dunkirk, hardly any one has thought of sending out a ship from France.' 

"A PROSPEROUS PERIOD. In the year 1785 the English shipmasters began to discover the 
haunts of the sperm whale, the principal object of pursuit, for we find that after they had been 
out twelve months many vessels returned with from 20 to SO tons of sperm oil each, so that in the 
year 1780 we find 321 tons of sperm oil was brought to this country, and which sold for 43 per 
ton. And the success which attended our whaling expeditious at this time was quite equal to 
that which the American whalers met with. In 1786 the bounties were increased to 700 maxi- 
mum and 300 minimum, which had the effect of increasing the perseverance and activity of our 
whalers, for we now discover them staying out eighteen and even twenty-eight months, and 
bringing home much larger quantities of sperm oil. During the year 1788 the ships that were 
sent out were much increased in size, so that they were frequently of from 150 to 300 tons burden, 
and they still continued, like the Americans, to fish on this side Cape Horn, taking the common 
black, as well as the sperm whale, at such places as the Gulf of Guinea, coast of Brazil, Falkland 
Islands, and, for sperm whales in particular, about the equinoctial line. But if the Americans had 
been the first to establish the fishery ou their own shores, and even throughout the North and 
South Atlantic Oceans, it was the destiny of the mother country to enjoy the honor of opening the 
invaluable sperm fisheries of the two Pacifies, the discovery of which formed an era in the com- 
mercial history of this country. For not only was tbe sperm-whale fishery by this discovery 
prodigiously increased, but other commercial advantages accrued from the whalers who resorted 
to these seas opening a trade with the people who inhabited the extensive shores which bound 
the enormous ocean."* 

"In the year 1789 a gentleman from Cape Cod, who had returned from service in the East 
India Company, having seen sperm whales near Madagascar, communicated the fact to some of 
tbe Nantucket whalemen, who, profiting by the knowledge, in due time dispatched ships to that 
coast, which proved to be a rich whaling grouud."t 

The American whale fishery, just before the Eevolutionary war, employed a total of not less 
than 360 vessels of various kinds, with an aggregate burden of nearly 33,000 tons, and produced 
about 45,000 barrels of spermaceti oil, 8,500 barrels of whale oil, and 75,000 pounds of whalebone 
annually. By the year 1789 this large fleet bad been reduced to about 130 sail of vessels, pro- 
ducing annually scarcely 10,000 barrels of spermaceti oil aud about 15,000 barrels of whale oil, 
with a corresponding proportion of whaleb< 

THE BEGINNING op THE PACIFIC SPERM-WHALE FISHERY. " In 1788," says Beale, "the grand 
mercantile speculation of sending ships round Cape Horn into the Pacific, in order to extend the 
sperm-whale fishery, was reserved for the bold and enterprising mind of Mr. Enderby, a London 
merchant and ship-owner, who fitted out, at a vast expense, the ship Amelia,! Captain Shields, 
which sailed from England on. the 1st of September, 1788, and returned on the 12th of March, 
1790, making an absence of one year and seven months, but bringing home the enormous cargo 
of 139 tons of sperm oil, and likewise having the good fortune to receive 800 more by way of an 
increased bounty in consequence of the peculiar nature of the expedition. The Amelia having 
been the first ship of any country which had entered the Pacific in search of whales, her suc- 

*BEAiE: op. tit., \>p. 144-141!. tSCAMMON': Marine Mammalia, p. 209. 

{The Amelia was an English fitted ship, iiuinuud by the Nantucket colony of whalemen; her first mate, Archelua 
Hammond, of Nantucket, killed the first sperm whale known to have been taken in the Pacific Ocean. 



08 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

cess gave an amazing impulse to all persons engaged in the fisheries, so that several ships, both 
from this country and America, immediately followed in her track, for on her return in 1790 many 
vessels were directly sent off, the crews of which continued the fishery along the coasts of Chili 
and Peru with great advantage; so that in 1791 we had a great addition in the importation of 
sperm oil, amounting this year to 1,1! .X tons, making an increase over the importation in the year 
178C of 9.':H tous. In 1791 the bounties were again altered, but the alteration merely related to 
the time the ships should remain out. The ships which were at this time engaged in the fishery 
carried from twenty-two to thirty men each. This enterprising branch of commerce was carried- 
on year after year with considerable success, subject to but slight variations in the annual and 
gradual increase in the importation of oil, giving employment to a vast number of persons, many 
of whom were enriched to an immense amount by the success which attended their exertions in 
this now profitable pin suit."* 

The new grounds tor sperm whale in the Pacific discovered by American whalemen in 
English vessels, were soon resorted to by vessels from Nautuckef. The first vessels sailed in 
1791, and returned "loaded with oil, and reported that whales were plenty, the coast agreeable to 
eiuise on, and the climate, healthy. Tin's was sufficient encouragement, notwithstanding the 
length of the voyages, for a considerable part of the whaling interest to be directed that way. 
An additional number of vessels was then fitted out, which together made a considerable fleet."! 

Starbnek says that six ships sailed for ihe Pacific fishery in 17!H from Nantueket and one from 
New Bedford. In the mean time ships from Dunkirk, among them the Falkland, Canton, and the 
Harmony, had already performed their voyages, and in February, 1791', arrived at Dunkirk with 
full cargoes. It was the custom in those days to nearly fill with sperm, then return to the 
Atlantic Ocean and complete their load on the coast of Patagonia or on Brazil Banks, com- 
manders preferring to round Cape Horn with a snugly-loaded ship. The names of the six Nan- 
tucket vessels were the Beaver, Washington, Hector, Warren. Kebeeea. and Favorite. "These 
ships," says Scammon, " were only -">() tons burden, dull sailers, having no copper on their bottoms, 
and but scantily fitted with whaling appliances or provisions. The scene of their first exploits was 
upon the coast of Chili. These pioneer voyages, through the persistent daring of the hardy men 
who led them, were eminently successful, which induced the people of the neighboring settle- 
ments of other New England ports to extend their whaling commerce, and but few years passed 
before a numerous fleet were plying over those rough waters. Gradually, however, they extended 
their cruises toward the more distant but smiling regions of the tropics. As early as 1SOO,| 
American whalers were plowing the sparkling waters along the coast of Peru, and their keels 
cut the equatorial line, north and south, in the Pacific. A favorite cruising-ground was from the 
Spanish Main westward around the Galapagos Islands. There a rich harvest rewarded them, where 
(hey labored in a genial climate, with an almost uninterrupted succession of fine breezes and 
pleasant weather. At certain seasons, north of the equator, the northeast trades blew fresh, and 
at the south they would frequently increase to a brisk gale; but these periodical breezes, compared 
with the heavy gales of the Atlantic and the tedious weather about Cape Horn, served only to 
enliven them into renewed activity under the heated rays of a tropical sun, when in pursuit of 
the vast herds of cachalots which were met with, bounding over or through the crested waves. 
During these long voyages it became unavoidably necessary to occasionally go into port, in order 
to 'recruit ship.' When arrived at these places of .supply, good store of fresh meat, water, and 
vegetables was laid in, and the ship's company were allowed to pass, in turn, a few clays of 
liberty on shore. In due time those ports along the coast of Chili and Peru, which were suited 

*BEA_LK: o/i. <H., pp. 146-149. t MACY : Hisl JM:itu<-Kct. p. 141. t N:intiii-Kn IMP i 



TIII-: \\II.\LK KISIIKIIY. 69 

to the requirements of (lie adventurers, became, famous places of resort for American \vhale ships. 

The principal ones were Talralmano and Valparaiso, in Chili, and Payta, Callao, and Tumhe/, in "* 

Peru. At these places usually could be obtained any needed recruits, and the picturesque scenery, 

blended with those sunny climes, together with the charms of the beautiful women, made their 

periodical visits to the coast peculiarly atlractivc, and wrought an entire temporary change from 

the lifeou -blue water/ The abrujn and lofty group of islands, the Galapagos, which extend into 

both latitudes from the equator, and the little island of Cocos, situated in the rainy region ou the 

border of I'anaina Hay, were frequently visited, and became more familiar to the whalemen, in 

many instances, than their Atlantic homes. Every rugged mountain and verdant valley of the 

former were Ira versed in hunting the galapago. or 'elephant terrapin,' which furnished them with 

ample supply of the most delicious meat, and the latter was resorted to for fresh water, which 

was dipped from cascades flowing out of their natural icservoir beyond the wooded bluffs. And 

upon the rocks about the beach of Chatham Bay, rudely chiseled, are the records of those pioneer 

\\lialc fishers, with the dates of the visits of transient vessels, from the pigmy shallops of Drake's 

time to the magnificent national ships of the present century."* 

SPERM WHALING AT NEW ZEALAND AND THE OFFSHORE GROUND. The sperm-whale 
lislicry at Xcw Zea'and began about the year ISO:.', and in LS03, according to Beale, " many vessels 
were plowing the Cliiua Seas, about the Molucca Islands, in search of the sperm whale."t In 
isist ('apt. George Gardner, in the ship Globe, of Nantucket, discovered the famous "offshore 
ground " that was soon visited by scores of sperm whalers. In speaking of this discovery Scammon 
says: "The love of adventure tempted the whalers to turn their prows even from the sunny shores 
of Peru, and, with flowing sheets, they coursed over the Pacific until, in latitude 5 to 10 south 
and longitude 105 to 11'.") west, the objects of pursuit were found in countless numbers, whose 
huge forms blackened the ^avcs and whose spoutiugs clouded the air as far as the eye could dis- 
cern." 

THE JAPAN GROUND. The next important sperm-whale ground to be discovered was the 
Japan Ground. The honor of opening this profitable whaling ground is claimed by both Ameri- 
cans and Englishmen. According to 8tarbuck, "having received word from Captain Winship, 
of Brighton, Mass., who had friends at Nantucket, that on a recent voyage from China to the 
Sandwich Islands he had seen large numbers of sperm whales on that coast, Capt. Joseph Allen, 
in the ship Mars, was dispatched there." The Mars sailed from Nantucket October 2C, 1819, arriv- 
ing home March 10, 1822, with 2,41'.") barrels of sperm oil, and within two or three years a licet of 
thirty sail of vessels were crui.Miigou the new ground. By 1835 there were cruising in the North 
1'acilic, between the coasts of New Albion ou the east and the Japan Islands on the west, near a 
hundred ships. || one-third English, and the others Americans. 

The first English whaling vessel to visit the ne\v lield was the ship Syren, of .7)00 tons burden, 
commanded by Capt. Frederick Cotlin, of Nantucket, and carrying a crew of thirty-six seamen. 
"The Syren,'' says Beale. sailed from England on the 3d of August, 1819, and arrived off the 
coast of Japan on the r>th of April, 1821), where she fell in with immense numbers of the sperma- 
ceti whale, which her crew gave chase to with excellent success; for they returned to their native 
land ou the 21st of April, 1822, after an absence of about two years and eight months, during 
which time they had by their industry, courage, and perseverance, gathered from the confines of 
the North Pacific Ocean no less than the enormous quantity of 34'i tons [2,708 barrels] of sperm 

..MM.IX: op. ait., |.|p. -,MO, -,>11. tliEALi:: up. cit.. ]>. \ \\<. 

} Prnrrrilm.i;- Ainrri,:iii Ant ,i| 11:11 i:i n Society, X<>. 57, ]>. '".'. $Kepon.U. S. Fish Commission, ISTiVTC, p. 96. 

|| MACY: ili>i. N.-nitucket, p. 224. 



70 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

oil, which was brought into the port of London in safety and triumph, showing a success unprec- 
edented in the annals of whaling, and which astonished and .stimulated, to exertion all those 
engaged in the trade throughout Europe and America. The success which attended this expedi- 
tion not only rewarded the seamen and others who composed the crew, but the spirited owner 
who had sent them out also must have felt the solid and weighty considerations which he no 
doubt received in return for the great and successful enterprise to which he had given origin. 
After the return of the Syren the Japan fishery was speedily established, and remains to this day 
[1839] the principal one in both ratifies ; and although it has been so much resorted to by ships 
of different nations ever since, which have carried off immense quantities of sperm oil, yet such is 
the boundless space of ocean throughout which it exists, that the whales scarcely appear to be 
reduced in number. But they are more difficult to get near than they were some years back, on 
account of the frequent harassing they have met with from boats and ships, so that they have 
now become well aware of the reckless nature of their pursuers, and they evince great caution and 
instinctive cunning ia avoiding them."* 

SPERM WHALING IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. "In 1828," says Scammori, "four ships were sent 
from Nantucket to cruise for sperm whales off the coast of Zanzibar, around the Seychelle Islands, 
and about the ujouth of the Bed Sea; and one of the number, with the very appropriate name of Co- 
lumbus, through the skill and energy of the captain, sailed up the Red Sea in quest of the objects 
of pursuit." t The Seychelle Islands had been visited by the English whaler Swan, a vessel of 150 
tons, in 1823, for the purpose of searching for sperm whales, and the captain had been directed to 
prosecute the fishery, it' possible, at the entrance of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. The expedition 
did not prove as successful as was anticipated, though the effect of opening up the new fields was 
of great subsequent advantage, "for although," says Beale, " the Swan did not return until the 27th 
of April, 1825, and had only procured 40 tons of sperm oil during all the time of her absence, yet her 
want of entire success was not owing to the absence of whales at the places to which they were 
sent, for the crew saw immense numbers, but from a series of misfortunes which befel them, and 
which rendered them incapable of prosecuting the fishery with all the energy and entire devotion 
which it requires to bring about a successful termination. The ships which resorted to the Sey- 
chelles after the return of the Swan had good reason to be well satisfied with the success which 
attended their efforts, not only from the number of whales which they found there, but from its 
being so much nearer home than the Japan fishery, by which much time was saved in the outward 
and homeward passages." \ 

CONDITION OF THE FISHERY, 1837 TO 1880. In the year 1837 the sperm-whale fishery was at 
its highest point of prosperity. The production of the American fleet that year was 5,329,138 
gallons of sperm oil, valued at $4,396,538.85. Most of the fleet at this period were scattered over 
the various grounds in the North and South Pacific Oceans, and in the Japan Sea, and cargoes of 
over 3,000 barrels were not uncommon on a three years' cruise. " Most of our whale ships," says 
Macy. in 1835, in his History of Nantucket, " go into the Pacific by the way of Cape Horn ; some by 
the eastern route south of New Holland and Van Dieman's Laud ; others after cruising awhile in 
the Indian Ocean, in the. neighborhood of Madagascar and mouth of the Red Sea, pursue their way 
into the Pacific Ocean through the Straits of Timor, between New Guinea on the south and the 
Pelew Islands on the north, touching at the Ladroue Islands, and then onward to the Japan coast. 
They there meet ships which sailed from home about the same time with themselves and came by 
the way of Cape Horn. Others, too, meet at the same place that came by the route south of New 

* BEALE: op. cit., p. 149. tScAMMON: 07). cit., p. 212. t BEALE: op. cit., p. 152. 



THE WTIAIJ-: KIS1IF.[;\. 71 

Holland. It must appear obvious that our whale ships are exploring in a. more effectual manner 
tliau twenty national ships could every part of the vast Pacific. They liavo discovered many 
islands, reefs, and shoals, which navigators sent out expressly for exploring purposes had passed 
unseen." 

The extraordinary success of the licet of whalers led to a rapid increase in the number of 
vessels engaged, so that in 1839 the' lleet of the United States numbered 555 vessels, whose aggre- 
gate tonnage was ir>!),354 tons. Nearly 500 of these vessels were ships and barks, a large propor- 
tion of which were in the Pacific sperm whale fishery. In 1842 the number was 594, at which 
time, according to Scammon, the foreign whaling fleet amounted to 230 sail, and the combined 
fleet of the world engaged in whaling was si'4 vessels. The fleet from the United States reached 
its highest number in 1841!, when 078 .ships, 34 brigs, and 17 schooners and sloops, a total of 
729 vessels, measuring 230,.'>3(! tons, were engaged in this industry. It is impossible to give the 
exact number of these vessels that were engaged in sperm whaling, but it is probable from a 
careful estimate that nearly one-half of the entire fleet followed this branch of the whale fishery. 
In 1844 the sperm-whale fleet of the United States numbered 315 vessels, of which 242 were ships 
and barks in the Pacific-, and 73 schooners in the Atlantic sperm fishery. At about this time the 
Few Holland branch of the English whale fishery was rapidly growing, the proximity of those 
whaling ports of Australia to some of the most productive cruising-grounds enabling the ships 
fitted out there to perform three voyages while the English and American were performing two. 
The number of whale ships from French, German, and Danish ports at this time, according to 
Cheever, was between CO and 70, and the English fleet, which in 1821 numbered 323 ships, was 
reduced to 85. 

The fleet from the United States began now to decrease, and the receipts of sperm oil became 
less and less, until in 1860 the entire production of sperm oil by American vessels was only 
2,306,934 gallons. The price of this oil, however, had advanced from 82J cents in 1837 to $1.41 
per gallon, and the entire fleet of whaling vessels was reduced to 560 sail. In 1870 the receipts 
of sperm oil had further decreased to 1,738,265 gallons, and the whaling fleet numbered 316 sail, 
of which number 231 were principally sperm whaling and the balance right whaling. These 
sperm whalers were distributed over the various grounds as follows: 125 in the North and South 
Atlantic, 41 in the Indian Ocean, and 65 in the Pacific Ocean. In 1875 the sperm-whale fleet 
numbered 134 sail and the entire whaling fleet 163 vessels, aud the receipts of sperm oil were 
1,342,435 gallons. 

The general decline of the whale-fishery, resulting partly from the scarcity of whales, has led 
to the abandonment of many of the once famous grounds, and cargoes of sperm oil are obtained 
only after the most energetic efforts in scouring the oceans. In the Western Pacific Ocean, the 
Indian Ocean, and the Japan Sea, where once large fleets of vessels cruised, there are now but few. 
The results of this branch of the whale-fishery during the year is; 7 on the different grounds were 
varied. In the North Atlantic Ocean eighty-two vessels took 13,500 barrels, the largest yield 
for many years. Good catches were also taken by the fleet off Chili, on the Off-shore Ground, at 
New Zealand, and the Sooloo Sea. Vessels in the South Atlantic had fair success, while but little 
oil was taken in the Indian Ocean. 

In 18SO the Indian Ocean and Sooloo Sea sperm-whale grounds were abandoned by the Ameri- 
can fleet. 

LENGTH OF VOYAGES. The length of a sperm-whaling voyage in the North Atlantic, where 
it is generally carried on in the smaller class of vessels, is from six to eighteen months, though 
occasionally a vessel may return with a fair cargo in five months, while another vessel of large size 



HISTOEY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 



may remain from home for three years. Voyages to the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean occupy 
from two to four years, depending largely upon the abundance of whales. These vessels are 
principally ships and barks, the schooners and brigs finding employment in the North Atlantic 
fishery. 

The Pacific Ocean whalers remain from home three or four years, or even a greater length of 
time, transshipping their oil from San Francisco, Honolulu, and South American ports, and taking 
sup] dies from time to time at convenient places. 

STATISTICS FOR 1880. The receipts of sperm oil from the American fleet in the year 1880 
were 1,184,841 gallons, the smallest quantity, with the exception of the years 1865 and 1874, received 
since the year 1826. The entire yield of the fleet from 1804 to 1880 was 166,604,496 gallons, and the 
number of sperm whales taken, allowing 25 barrels to each whale and 10 per cent, of those taken 
as lost, was 232,790. The receipts of sperm oil by decades since the year 1810 were as follows : 



Period. 


Quantity. 


1810 to 1820 


Gallons. 
-, y-,9 495 


1820 to 1830 


22 848 336 


1830 to 1840 


41,241 310 


1840tol850 


39, 146 055 


1850 to 1860 


26 260 806 


I860 to 1870 


1C 305 377 


1870 <<> 1880 . 


12,8111 in:: 







The products of the sperm-whale fishery, in addition to the oil from the blubber and head, 
and ivory from the teeth, includes that very valuable substance ambergris, which when pure is 
worth its weight in gold. A full discussion of the manner of obtaining 'ambergris and the value 
of the production is given in the section of this report treating of Preparation of Products. 

CAPT. H. W. SEABUEY ON SPERM WHALES. " The largest sperm whale that I have seen 
taken," says Gapt. H. W. Seabnry, of New Bedford, " was 120 barrels ; though I have heard of one 
that made 148 barrels. The male or bull, when full grown, varies from 70 to 110 barrels, very 
seldom going beyond the latter amount, and is from 50 to 70 feet long. Female or cow sperm 
whales have been caught that made 50 barrels, though they do not often yield more than -35 barrels. 
They vary much in size in different places. In the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and along the 
Gulf Stream through the Atlantic, they run small, and full-grown cows will not average over 15 
barrels. Those caught in the Pacific Ocean near the equator as far as longitude 135 west, average 
about 25 barrels while those caught farther west and in most parts of the Indian Ocean run 
smaller. The cows with their young give from nothing up to 35 barrels, and seem to go in schools 
together, and we frequently see from twenty-five to fifty and sometimes one hundred or more in a 
school, with occasionally a large bull among them, and at times, though seldom, we find all 
sizes together. The male or bull whales seem to separate from the cows and calves when 
about the size of 35 barrels, .is we seldom get them in the schools of the mother and its young to 
make more oil than that, and we find the young bulls in pods or schools beyond that size ; we find 
them in what we call 40-barrel bulls, where they generally go in larger numbers than they do as 
they increase in size ; we find them again in smaller schools of about the size of 50 barrels, and 
again about 60 barrels, where we sometimes see eight or ten together, and 70 barrels four or five, and 
beyond that one, two, and three, except on New Zealand Ground, where the large whales go in larger 
bodies ; many times we raise a large sperm whale alone, or sometimes two within a short distance of 
each other, going their regular course from 3 to 6 miles per hour ; they will make their course as 



Till', \\1IALE FISIIKUY. 7)3 

.straight as we can steer a ship, and make I heir distances very regular during tlie time they are up 
and down: a large whale will usually stay down when not disturbed I'roui forty to lif'ty minutes; have 
kuowu them to stay down otic hour; their time on the top of the water about fifteen minutes spout- 
ing during that time, say forty-live times, or three times to the minute. Schools are quite often seen 
going off their regular course. The small whale does not slay down so long as the large one, and 
is not quire so regular; when feeding they are up and down quite often. The usual way of raising 
or discovering the whale is from the mast heads, where men are stationed all the time in good 
weather during the day ; the spoilt is generally seen first, unless they are breaching or lap-tailing, 
which makes white water and is more easily seen than the spoilt, and can be seen farther off. In a very 
clear day with a moderate bree/.e a spoilt can be seen G miles, and sometimes 7 miles, and a breach 
11' when a large one. A breach is when the whale comes out of water ; he generally comes out head- 
foremost two-thirds of his length and falls over on his side, which throws up a large amount of 
water : the size of the breach is in proportion to the whale. A lap-tail is when the whale throws 
his tail out of water, and when he lets it down it usually throws up a great deal of water, and 
experienced whalemen can tell the different kind of whales very readily shortly after they see them 
spout, or by their breach; the sperm-whale spout is blown out forward and from the forward end 
of the head, and is thick and bushy, while the finback is straight up and thin ; the right is forked 
forming two spouts at the top ; the humpback is lower and thin ; the breach of a sperm whale, when 
made regular, will be like a cone and be much higher than other whales, which are lower, and 
makes more of a splash spreading out; the length of the sperm whale are according to their 
si/.e; the longest I should think would not exceed 70 feet, the head forming about one-third of the 
length, arid making about one-third of the oil. There are some exceptions as to this; the lar.c 
whale will usually make 3S per cent, head, while the smaller one will not make over 30 per cent., 
so that it makes some difference in a cargo that is obtained of large whales or small ones. The case 
of a large whale, which is the top of the head, will yield from 8 to lii barrels pure spermaceti. In 
former years it was the custom to hang the same in the ship's tackles, and bail the oil out in buckets; 
the practice is still in use now in small vessels, but large ones, since the patent gear to the wind- 
lass has been in use, have usually hove the whale head in on deck, first separating the junk from 
the case, and taking the junk first, then the case, and bail the oil out while the same lies on deck: 
(much more is saved in this way than in the old process of bailing them alongside ;) the outside, or 
white horse, as it is termed, is then thrown overboard, the junk is cut up into horse-pieces, as they 
are called by whalemen, and put into casks on deck, or tanks below deck, if the ship is provided 
with one preparatory to bailing out the same. The jaw of a. large sperm whale is about 18 feet 
long, meaning the longest ones, and projects out of the head about 10 feet, and the prongs or pans 
are inside about 8 feet. There are generally about torty-lbur teeth to a jaw. a row being formed on 
each side. On the upper jaw there are no teeth, the teeth to the lower jaw going into sockets in 
the upper when the mouth is dosed. Their food is a fish called squid, at times said to be very large ; 
we often see small ones on the top of the water, and pieces of the larger ones floating about on the 
surface from the size of a bucket to the size of a barrel ; while in the act of killing them they some- 
times throw up pieces of the squid." 

li. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOL'TI.l 1'ACIFIC AND ARCTIC WHALE FISHEKY. 
THE >-(I;TH i-AciKH 1 AND PACIFIC-AUCTIC FISHERY. 

THE BEGINNING OF THE FISHERY. The history of whaling in the Arctic Ocean north of 
Bering Strait, begins in the year 1848, when Captain Boys, of the bark Superior, of Sag Harbor, 
-N. Y.. cruised there and took many large whales. The Honolulu Friend gives the following 



74 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

account by Captain Roys of the opening up of this profitable whaling region: "I entered the 
Arctic Ocean about the middle of July, and cruised from continent to continent, going as high as 
latitude 70, and saw whales wherever I went, cutting in my last whale on the 23d of August, and 
returning, through Bering Strait, on the 28th of the same month. On account of powerful currents, 
thick fogs, the near vicinity of land and ice, combined with the imperfection of charts and want 
of information respecting this region, I found it both difficult and dangerous to get oil, although 
there were plenty of whales. Hereafter, doubtless, many ships will go there, and I think there 
ought to be some provision made to save the lives of those who go there should they be cast 
away." * 

The whales taken by Captain Roys were of the bowhead species, which is peculiar to Arctic 
regions. Vessels had been taking the right whale in the Okhotsk Sea and neighboring waters for 
some years prior to the inauguration of the Bering Strait fishery, but it was not until about this 
time that whalemen began to take notice of the bowhead or Greenland whale that had been looked 
upon as of no more importance than the finback Or sulphur-bottom whales. They were greatly 
surprised when they discovered with what ease the bowhead could be killed, and the great amount 
of oil and bone it yielded. According to Starbnck, the first bowheads were taken in the year 1843 
on the coast of Kamchatka by ships Hercules, Captain Ricketson, and Janus, Captain Turner, 
both of New Bedford. This species of whale was first taken in the Okhotsk Sea about 1847, or, as 
Captain Roys thiuks, in 1848 or 1849.t 

CAPTAIN BARNES ON ARCTIC WHALING IN 1877. The following account of Arctic whaling 
during the season of 1877 is kindly furnished by Capt. William M. Barnes, of bark Sea Breeze, of 
New Bedford. The letter was written to Capt. H. W. Seabury, and published in the New Bedford 
Evening Standard of November 21, 1877. 

"We came yesterday (October 22) through the Aleutian Islands by the 172 west longitude 
pass. Better charts and a greater familiarity with these islands than we formerly possessed have 
deprived them of much of the dread we formerly entertained for them, and I do not think that 
any vessel has lately taken the old route on the down passage to the west of the islands. In going 
.north last spring we passed the chain at the same place on May 4, and three days later came up 
to ice in latitude 56 30' north. From that time till the 23d of the same month we skirted the ice 
to westward, attempting in different places to penetrate it, but ever finding it too compact. On 
May 24 we were in sight of land, 250 miles west-southwest from Cape Navarin, and on that day we 
entered the ice in company with barks Roman and Mount Wollastou. In a week we had worked 
through a belt of ice of some 40 miles in width, and had come into a strip of clear water, inshore 
of the ice, and extending all the way to Cape Navarin. It was the luck of the Sea Breeze to get 
into this water a few hours ahead of the other two vessels, and with a good breeze we soon were 
a long way from them, but before they lost sight of us whales had made their appearance in the 
loose ice around their ships, and each vessel succeeded in taking two large ones. 

"On the 6th of June we were off Cape Navarin, and on the 10th off Plover Bay, not having 
seen a single whale. On the following day, off Cape Chaplin, we saw and chased a whale going 
quick north, and on the same day spoke Captain Redfield, of a trading schooner, who reported the 
eastern part of the sea quite free from ice, and that he had seen quite a number of whales off St. 
Lawrence Island. So we, going by our experience in these last few years, supposed that the 
whales had already gone to the north, and made the best of our way into the Arctic. It proved, 
however, that there was still a large body of whalers somewhere in the southern ice that came up 
through the straits after nearly all the whales had passed through. The several trading vessels 

" Whale and his Captors, p. 105. tSee Scammnn's Marine Mammalia, p. GO, ami Niinrod of the Sea, p. 388. 



TDK WHAM: HSIIKRY. 75 

report seeing many whales, and that quite a number woe taken 1>\ (lie nativesat different places. 
At this time most of the whalers were walrusing, hut a few that were in the line of whales in the 
Arctic took one or more. In two or three days they had all gone past and no more whales were 
seen till the ships were off Point Harrow. 

"From the middle of June till the last of July we were engaged in catching walruses. The 
past season was rather a poor one for this branch of business, as it was later than usual before the 
walruses were found in large numbers. We took 2,000. that yielded 1,200 barrels of oil. There 
does not yet appear any diminution in the number of these animals: still if the ships continue to 
catch them as they have done for the last few years it cannot be long before there will be a great 
decrease. This season a schooner was fitted from San Francisco expressly for walrus catching, 
and doubtless the fair success she met with will prompt the fitting away of others next year, so I 
fear the poor walruses are destined to suffer. 

" Early in August we arrived off Point Barrow. We found a number of whalers already there, 
and some of them boiling. The ice, when we passed np, was some 10 miles offshore, at the Sea 
Horse Islands, and from there to Point Barrow, 70 miles, there was a strip of clear water 20 miles 
wide, but which will almost be closed up if the wind came a few hours from the west. From Cape 
Smith to Point Barrow there was a body of ice aground, and on the western edge of the bank that 
extends to the north from the point there was a wall of ice some 6 miles long and 60 feet or more 
in height, so high that there were only a few places where it was possible from the " crow's nest" 
to look over it. This wall, however, was quite narrow, and probably was formed when a pack 
moving from the west took the ground on this bank, in some 7 fathoms of water, the pressure 
behind piling the succeeding ice upon that which was grounded. We found the ships anchored 
near the end of this wall. To the northeast there was an opening in the ice of several miles of 
greater or less extent, according to the wind, while to the eastward of the point the ice lay in 
huge floes many miles m extent, and but little separated. Only near the point was there much 
small ice, and among this there was much that was so large as to make navigation among it unsafe 
and difficult. The whales were already coming from the east, and would cross the open water 
near the end of the ground ice and bury themselves in the western pack. 

" On August 15 five vessels started to the eastward, and the next day passed out of sight. 
One vessel after another would follow, and by the last of the month the whole fleet was to the east 
of Point Barrow. To the north was an unknown amount of ice, but it was possible, with care 
and with a favoring wind, to thread one's way along the land among the floes of ice. In this diffi- 
cult navigation the Eoman and Milton caine to grief, and returned to the point. Some of the 
vessels report haviug gone as far east as Beturn Eeef. The Sea Breeze went no farther than 
Smith's Bay. The vessels that first went east found whales off Point Tangent, 40 miles from 
Point Barrow, but farther east very few whales were seen fortunately, as it proved as it is 
acknowledged that if whales had been found and the fleet been detained a few days to the east- 
ward Xew Bedford would again have had to deplore the loss of her northern fleet. 

"Early in September the ships were all back to Point Barrow. The weather was now quite 
cold, and the ice encroaching fast on our open space. On the Cth of September, in company with 
bark Mercury, we steered to the southwest and run SO miles between the ice and land, and then 
to the west of Herald Island. We found much open ice over the usual whaling-ground. Septem- 
ber 13 we were in the longitude of Herald Island, but SO miles to the south of it, and the ice 
trending to the southwest, so we turned again to the east. Here we spoke bark Cleone,* Captain 
iNye, who was also working east and reported the Eainbow working up towards Herald Island. 

' Cleone wrecked the same year in R.-iint t,a\vtvrm> Bay, Captain Nye afterwards lost in Mt. Wollaston. 



76 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

In a few days we were back among- the eastern ships, and on the 17th of the mouth learned that 
the Three Brothers had been abandoned in the ice around Point Barrow, and that the ships that 
brought down her crew barely escaped the double danger of being inclosed by the ice and of being 
frozen in. We had now northeast wind, quite cold, and snowy. A few nights after the W. A. 
Farnsworth was lost, her crew barely having time to escape as they stood. 

"At this time there was more young ice than I have ever before seen in the Arctic. On the 
20th of September, in latitude 70 20', the whole ocean appeared to be frozen over, the young ice 
being nearly an inch thick, so that the .ship needed a fresh breeze to force her way through it; and 
a few days later we found ice nearly 2 inches thick still farther south. 

" About the 20th of September several vessels left, some it is reported leaving the sea to look 
for right whales. Others went westward. 

"The northeast wind freshened to a gale, and on the 25th of September we had drifted to south 
of Cape Lisburne, and in company with the Mount Wollaston anchored under the lee of Point 
Hope. Next day took our anchors and steered south to leave, the sea, but before we had reached 
East Cape met a south wind and swung off again for Herald Island. October 1, sighted Herald 
Island, also vessels whaling, and soon after whales. The south wind, with a current running north, 
had carried the ice so Jar that ships were now whaling close to the island in clear water. Learned 
soon atter that there had been many whales here; that the Rainbow had worked up through 80 
miles of ice and found them here about the middle of September, and that all the vessels here had 
been doing well. There were in sight here nine sails; if any more, not immediately around the 
island, and it was thought that all the others had left the sea. The last whales were taken here 
October 10, by barks Cleone and Helen Mar. We took three only, making 330 barrels. For many 
years I have not seen so many or such large whales as about here for the first week iu October. 

" Left Herald Island October 10. On the 12th anchored in Saint Lawrence Bay. Found here 
the Rainbow, 17 whales; Norman, 1-4 whales ; and Mount Wollaston, S whales. Soon after arrived 
there the Pacific 11 whales, the Northern Light 9 whales, the Progress S whales, the Helen Mar 13 
whales, and the Cleone 11 whales. 

" We sailed from Saint Lawrence Bay October 18, leaving five vessels there. Two days later 
we killed and lost a right whale, near Saint Matthew's Island, by the sinking of the whale. And 
now the season seems closed, and nothing remains but to make the best of our way to port. * * * 

" Long before you will receive this, in all probability you have learned all that is to be known 
concerning the vessels abandoned last season. Only two vessels survived the winter. There 
were, I believe, iive men, Hawaiian natives, who made their way over the ice to the Acors Barns, 
the vessel that lay nearest the land, away to the east of Point Barrow. It chanced that in the 
gale that soon came on, after the fleet was abandoned, that this vessel was driven through a break 
in the gnmnd-ice that wal'c.d the northern shore, and these men succeeded in reaching the land 
and Point Barrow soon afler the departure of the vessels that were saved. Three of these men 
were badly frozen and si on died. The two others were kindly cared for by the natives on the point, 
and when I saw them on board Hawaiian brig William H. Allen were fat and hearty. The bark 
Clara Bell was abandoned a few miles south from Cape Smith. She was found lying at her anchor, 
wholly clear from ice, and with no further damage than was dime by the natives, who took what- 
ever was of any use to them, and cut and hacked till they had made a bad looking vessel of her. 
The first few vessels helped themselves to whatever was left of value, and the schooner Newton 
Booth, of San Francisco, took the remaining oil. The Clara Bell lay (here at her anchor till about 
the 20th of September, when she broke adrift and came up with the current and went out of sight- 
in the ice to the northeast. She was last seen off Harrison's Bay. 



THE WHALK FISHERY. 77 

"I cannot learn that any tiling certain is known concerning the other abandoned ships. There 
was a report' that sonic trading vessel understood from the natives, at Point Hope, that during the 
winter a ship made her appearance off the point, among the ice; that they (the natives) hoarded 
her: that they found no one on her; lint on the ice near her the bodies of two men who had 
perished while trying to reach the land. It seems probable to me that in the strong northeast 
gales of the fall the abandoned ships were driven to the southwest, and were drifting around with 
the ice through the winter, and if not sooner broken to pieces, were carried a way in the spring among 
the ice moving north. The Acors P.arus was burned by the natives. 

"The men that spent the winter among the natives report most kind treatment. They say, 
however, that occasionally they had to flee from one house to another, when the inmates of the 
first were ha\ ing a drunken frolic, as at such times they could not be sure of their lives. A few 
years ago these people did not know the use of intoxicating liquors. "What a comment on our 
boasted civilization ami on the genuineness of our Christianity that this little colony of people, in 
this most remote corner of the earth, must suffer and be imbrnted because of us ! It is a grievous 
shame, and one that I hope will soon come to an end." [The Sea freeze arrived at San Francisco 
November 11, having had a long and rough passage down a succession of southerly gales 
with 1,450 baircls oil. 5,000 pounds whalebone, and 0,000 pounds ivory.] 

CAPTAIN PEASE ox ARCTIC WHALING-. Captain Pease, of the ship Champion, of Edgartowu, 
in a letter published in the New lied ford Shipping List, of November 29, 1870, thus describes 
some of the incidents of Arctic whaling : 

' We made and entered the ice on the 17th day of May. about 40 miles south of Cape Xavarin, 
weather thick and snowing; on the 20th the weather cleared up, showing about a dozen ships in 
the ice. The weather having every appearance of a gale. I worked out of the ice. and soon found 
myself surrounded by fifty ships. Saw but one whale in the ice. On the 23d, weather pleasant, 
two or three ships worked a short distance in the ice ; the next day the fleet commenced following 
and in a few hours fifty ships were on a race to Cape Thaddeus ; it was oak against ice, and like 
ail heavy moving bodies which come in collision. the weakest structure always gives way ;' so 
with the ships, they all came out more or less damaged in copper and sheathing the Champion 
four days ahead to Cape, Thaddeus, in clear water. 

"Unfortunately, for the first time since whaling, there were no whales. On the 13th of June 
we lowered for a whale going quick into the ice. Cape Agcheu bearing southwest 00 miles, and 
before getting the boats clear the ice packed around us. From that time until the 2litli, so close 
and heavy was the ice packed around us, that we found it impossible to move the ship. With our 
sails furled, we drifted with the ice about 12 miles per day toward Cape Agchen, the ship lying 
as quiet as in a dock, but on the 22d, when close under the cape, a gale set in from the southward, 
producing a heavy swell and causing the ship to strike heavily against the ice. We saved our 
rudder by hooking our blubber-hooks to it and heaving them well taut with hawsers to our 
quarters. Had the current not taken an easterly shore course, the ship must have gone on shore. 
The wind blowing on shore, which was distant less than half a mile, 5 to (i fathoms of water under 
us, ship rolling and pounding heavily against the ice, weather so thick we could not see 5<i yards. 
made it rather an anxious time. For thirty-six hours I was expecting some sharp pointed rock 
would crash through her sides. On the 24th, finding only 4.\ fathoms water, little current, with 
the larger pieces of ice around, we let go an anchor and held her to a large floe of ice. Here we 
broke our sampson post off in the deck. On the morning of the 25th the weather cleared up. 
showing our position to be at the head of a small bay about 15 miles east of Cape Agchen. Here 
for two days we lay becalmed and ice-bound. On the second day the ice loosened, when we took 



78 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

our anchor and by eighteen hoars' hard work succeeded in kedging about 4 miles seaward ; a 
breeze then springing up from off shore, we spread sail arid passed into clear water. We spent a 
short time in the straits, but saw nothing of the bowhead kind. Passed into the Arctic July , 
and found most of the fleet catching walrus ; about a dozen ships (this one among the number) 
went cruising along the northern ice for bowheads. After prospecting from Icy Cape to near 
Herald Island, and seeing not a whale, I returned to the walrus fleet. The first ship I saw was 
the Yineyard, with one hundred and seventy-five walrus; since then I have not seen or heard 
from her. This walrusing is quite a new business, and ships which had engaged in it the previous 
seaspn and came up prepared were very successful. While at it, we drove business as hard as the 
best of them, but soon became convinced that tlie ship's company (taken collectively) were much 
inferior to many others ; they could not endure the cold and exposure expected of them. I have 
seen boats' crews that were properly rigged, kill and strip a boat load of walrus in the same length 
of time another (not rigged) would be in killing one and hauling him on the ice. We took some 
four hundred, making about 230 barrels. About August 5 all the ships went in pursuit of bow- 
heads (most of them to Point Barrow). When off the Sea Horse Islands we saw a few whales 
working to the westward, just enough to detain us ; we took two making 200 barrels ; the weather 
cold, and a gale all the time. In September I worked up about 70 miles from Point Barrow; saw 
quite a show of small whales in the sea ; took four which made about 100 barrels. As that was a 
fair sample, and not. having the right boys to whale in that ice, where the thermometer stood only 
8- above zero, I went back to the westward. Ships that had from forty to fifty men (clad in skins) 
and officers accustomed to that particular kind of whaling, did well. In going back the fourth 
mate struck a whale which made about 70 barrels. From the 28th of September to the 4th of 
October we saw a good chance to get oil, had the weather been good, and a well, hardy crew. 
We could not cut and whale at the same time. We took four whales which would have made 500 
barrels had we had good weather to boil them. On the 4th of October we put away for the straits, 
in company with the Seneca, John Howland, and John Wells a gale from the northeast, and 
snowing. On the evening of the 7th it blew almost a hurricane ; hove the ship to south of Point 
Hope, with main -topsail furled; lost starboard bow boat, with davits ship covered with ice and 
oil. On the 10th entered the straits in a heavy gale ; when about 8 m iles south of the Diomedes, 
had to heave to under bare poles, blowing furiously, and the heaviest sea I ever saw ; ship making- 
bad weather of it; we had about 125 barrels of oil on deck, and all our fresh water; our blubber 
between decks in horse pieces, and going from the forecastle to the mainmast every time she 
pitched, and impossible to stop it; ship covered with ice and oil ; could only muster four men in 
a watch ; decks flooded with water all the time ; no fire to cook with or to warm by, made it the 
most anxious and miserable time I ever experienced in all my sea service. During the night 
shipped a heavy sea, which took off bow and waist boats, davits, slide-boards, and everything 
attacked, staving about 20 barrels of oil. At daylight on the second day we found ourselves in 17 
fathoms of water, and about 6 miles from the center cape of Saiut Lawrence Island. Fortunately 
the gale moderated a little, so that we got two close-reefed topsails and reefed courses on her, 
and by sundown were clear of the west end of the island. Had it not moderated as soon as it did, 
we should, by 10 a. m., have been shaking hands with our departed friends." 

Another difficulty of North Pacific navigation is mentioned in a letter from Capt. William H. 
Kelley, of the bark James Allen, of New Bedford, to the Hawaiian Gazette, in 1874.* He says : 
" One of the perplexities of the navigator cruising in the Arctic Ocean is the singular effect northerly 
and southerly winds seem to have upon the mariner's compass. Captains have noticed this singu- 

* See New Bedford " Shipping List," January 5, 1876. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 79 

larity for years, and no solution of the matter, as far as I have learned, has yet been arrived at. 
Navigators have noticed that with a north or northeast wind they can tack in eight points, while 
with the wind south or southwest in from fourteen to sixteen points. All navigators know that for 
a square-rigged vessel to lie within four points of the wind is an utter impossibility, the average 
with square-rigged vessels being six points. This peculiar action of the compass renders the navi- 
gation of the Arctic ditlieult and at times dangerous, especially in thick, foggy weather. Naviga- 
tors in these regions have proved to their satisfaction that on the American coast, north and east 
of Point Barrow, to steer a laud course by the compass and allow the variations given by the 
chart, -14 15' east, with the wind at north or northeast, icoidd run the ship axhore, steering either 
cunt or icest. * * Experience, therefore, has obliged navigators to ignore the variations 
marked upon the charts, and lay the ship's course by the compass alone to make a land-course safe in 
thick weather. * * With an east or west wind' the effect on the compass is not so great as 
with other winds. I have said this much to show the working of the compass in the Arctic Ocean 
during different winds, not that I admit that the wind has any effect whatever upon the compass. 
I give the facts as they came under my observation, and corroborative testimony will be borne by 
any shipmaster who has cruised in the Arctic Ocean." 

THE DANGERS OF THE FISHERY. Whaling in the Arctic Ocean is attended with uncertain ty 
iu every particular, both in regard to the condition and movement of the ice, and the movement of 
the whales. The early departure of the animals to inaccessible regions among the ice, and the 
anxious weeks spent in awaiting their return, make this ground one of the most exciting regions 
that whalemen can find, and the surroundings are of more than usual interest. Much has been 
written in the accounts of Arctic expeditions descriptive of the icy regions, and much is said of the 
dangers attending navigation in those seas. Nothing can exceed the daring and pluck of the 
whalemen in their endeavors to search out and capture their prey. Forgetful of surrounding 
dangers, they pursue the spouting animal far up among the ice-floes, and many a vessel has been 
crushed to pieces by the ice as she was tracking out a whale. Anxious to secure full fares, they 
remain amid the freezing waters until early winter stares them in the face, when they plow their 
way homeward. Several disasters have overtaken the fleet in their zeal to catch the whale, as in 
1871, when thirty-two noble craft were left at anchor in sight of certain destruction, the crews, 
after arduous labor, saving themselves in boats. 

The story of the disaster of 1871, as also that of 1876, is told as follows by Starbuck : 

"In the fall of 1871 came news of a terrible disaster to the Arctic fleet, rivaling in its extent 
the depredations of the rebel cruiser. Off Point Belcher thirty-four vessels lay crushed and 
mangled in the ice; in Honolulu were over twelve hundred seamen who by this catastrophe were 
shipwrecked. 

"Early in May the fleet arrived south of Cape Thaddeus, where they found the ice closely 
packed, and the wind blowing strong from the northeast.* This state of affairs continued during 
the most of the month. June came in with light and variable winds and foggy weather; but the 
ice opening somewhat, the ships pushed through in sight of (-'ape Navarin, where they took five 
or six whales, and for a -short time heard many more spouting among the ice. About the middle 
of June the ice opened still more, and the fleet passed on through Anadir Sea, taking a few whales 
as they went. By the 30th of June the vessels had passed through Bering Strait, preceded 
by the whales. Waiting the further 1-reakiug up of the ice, they commenced catching walruses, 
but with comparatively poor success. During the latter part of July, the ice disappearing from, 
the east shore south of Cape Lisburne, the fleet pushed on to the eastward, following the ice, the 

Harprr's \V<-rk]y, Di crniln-r 2, Io71. 



80 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

principal portion of which was in latitude 69 10'. A clear strip of water appearing on the east 
shore, leading along the land to the northeast, they worked along through it to within a few miles 
of Icy Cape. Here some of tin- vessels anchored, unable to proceed farther on account of the ice 
lying on Blossom Shoals. 

"About the Cth of August the ice cm the shoals started, and several ships got under way. 
In a few days most of the fleet was north of the shoals, and, aided by favorable weather, they 
worked to the northeast as far as Wainwright Inlet, eight vessels reaching there on the 7th, 
Here the ships either anchored or made fast to the ice, which was very heavy and densely packed, 
and whaling was carried on briskly for several days, and every encouragement was given for a 
favorable catch. On the lith of August a sadden change of wind set the ice inshore, catching a 
huge number of boats which were cruising for whales in the open ice, and forcing the ships to get 
under way 1o avoid being crushed. The vessels worked inshore under the lee of the ground ice, 
and succeeded, despite the difficulties of the situation, in saving their boats by hauling them for 
long distances over the ice, some of them, however, being badly stoven. On the 13th the ice 
grounded, leaving a narrow strip of water along the laud up to Point Belcher. In this open 
water lay the fleet anchored or fast to the ice, waiting for the expected northeast wind that was 
to relieve them of their icy barrier, whaling constantly being carried on by the boats, though 
necessarily under many adversities. 

"On the 15th of August the wind came around to the westward, driving the ice still closer 
to the shore and compelling the vessels to work close in to the land. The drift of the ice inland 
was so rapid that some of the vessels were compelled to slip their cables, there being no time to 
weigh anchor. By this event the fleet was driven into a narrow strip of water not over a half 
a mile in width at its widest part. Here, scattered along the coast for 20 miles, they lay, the water 
from 14 to 24 feet deep, and ice as far as the lookouts at the mastheads could see. Whaling was 
still carried on with the boats off Sea-Horse Island and Point Franklin, although the men were 
obliged to cut up the whales on the ice and tow the blubber to the ships. 

" On the -5th a strong northeast gale set in and drove the ice to a distance of from 4 to 8 
miles offshore, and renewed attention was given to the pursuit of the whale. Up to this time no 
immediate danger had been anticipated by the captains beyond that incidental to their usual 
sojourn in these seas. The Eskimo, nevertheless, with the utmost friendliness, advised theni to 
get away with all possible speed, as the sea would not again open; but this was contrary to the 
Arctic experience of the whalemen, and they resolved to hold their position. 

"On the 29th began the series of conflicting circumstances resulting in the destruction of the 
fleet. A southwest wind sprang up, light in the morning, but freshening so toward evening that 
the ice returned inshore with such rapidity as to catch some of the ships in the pack. The rest of 
the fleet retreated ahead of the ice, and anchored in from. 3 to 4 fathoms of water, the ice still 
coming in and small ice packing around them. The heavy floe-ice grounded in shoal water and 
between it and the shore lay the ships, with scarcely room to swing at their anchors. 

"On the 2d of September the brig Comet was caught by the heavy ice and completely crushed, 
her crew barely making their escape vo the other vessels. She was pinched until her timbers all 
snapped and the stern was forced out. and hung suspended for three or four days, being in the 
mean time thoroughly wrecked by the other vessels ; then the ice relaxed its iron grip and she 
sunk. Still our hardy whalemen hoped that the looked-for northeasterly gale would come, and 
t'clt greater uneasiness on account of the loss of time .than because of their present peril. Their 
experience could not point io the time when the favoring gale had Tailed to assure their egress. 
Nothing but ice was visible oil' shore, however, the only clear water being where they lay, and 



THE VYIIAU FISIIHHY. Si 

that narrowed to a strip from L'OO yards to liiilf'ii mile in width, and extending from Point lielcher 
in L' or .'! miles south of AVainwright Inlet. The southeast and southwest winds still continued, 
light from the former and fresh from the hitter direction, and every day the ice packed more and 
more closely around the doomed vessels.' 

"On the 7th of September the bark Koman. while cutting in a whale, was caught between 
two immense Hoes of ice oil' Sea Horse Islands, whence she had helplessly drifted, and crushed to 
atoms, the olliccrs and crew escaping over the ice, saving scarcely anything but their lives. 

"The next day beheld the bark Awashonks meet a similar fate, and a third fugitive crew 
was distributed among the remaining ships. The peril was now apparent to all : the season was 
rapidly approaching the end; the ice showed no signs of starting, but on the contrary the little 
clear water that remained was rapidly filling with ice and closing around them. Frequent and 
serious were the consultations held by the captains of the beleaguered vessels. One thing at 
least was evident without discussion; if the vessels could not be extricated, the crews must be 
got away before winter set in, or the scanty stock of provisions they had could only postpone an 
inevitable starvation. As a precautionary measure, pending a decision on the best course to 
adopt, men were set to work to build up the boats, that is, to raise the gunwales so as to enable 
them the better to surmount the waves. Shoes* were also put on them, to prevent, as far as pos- 
sible, injury from the ice. The brig Kohola was lightened in order to get her over the bar at 
"\Yain\viight Inlet, upon which there were only 5 or 6 feet of water. Her oil and stores were 
transferred to the deck of the Charlotte, of San Francisco, but when discharged it was found that 
she still drew 1) feet of water, and the attempt to get her over the shoal water was abandoned.! 
An expedition of three boats, under the command of Capt. D. E. Frazer, was now sent down the 
coast to ascertain how far the ice extended; what chances there were of getting throngh the 
barrier; what vessels,' if any, were outside, and what relief conld be relied upon. Captain 
Frazer returned on the 12th, and leported that it was utterly impracticable to get any of the 
main body of the fleet out ; that the Arctic and another vessel were in clear water below the 
field, which extended to the south of Blossom Shoals, 80 miles from the imprisoned crafts : and 
that five more vessels, then fast in the lower edge of the ice, were likely to get out soon. He also 
reported, what every man then probably took for granted, that these free vessels would lay by to 
aid their distressed comrades. It is a part of the whaleman's creed to stand by his mates. On 
healing this reported, it was decided to abandon the fleet, and make the best of their way, while 
they could, to the rescuing vessels. It was merely a question whether they should leave their 
>hips and save then 1 lives, or stand by their ships and perish with them. 

The morning of the 14th of September came, and a sad day it was to the crews of .the ice- 
bound crafts. At noon the signals, flags at the mast heads, union down, were set, which told 

them the time had come when they must sever themselves from their vessels. f As a stricken family 



"A sheathing in this case copper bring used. 

tThe same experiment, with the same rr.xult, was tried liy Captain Kedlield, of the brig Victoiia. 
t The following protect was written on the lath of September, and signed by all tlie captains on the follow ing day 
.iliaiidoiiing their vessels : 



1'oixT lir.LCHKi:, .in-ll<- /let/in, S< /ilnn/m ]'!, 1871. 

Kim all men by these presents, I hat we, the iindi-t signed, masters of whale ships now lying at Point I'.eh her, 
afiei imldiii". a i ..... -i ing coiieeniing o,;i dreadful -it aai ,on, have all eome to tin? conclusion that our ships cannot be 
lit Uiia year, and there beiog no harboi thai ' els into, and mil lia\ing provisions enough to 

teed our crews to exceed three nmnth^. and being in a iiauvn country, where there is neither food nor fuel to be 
obtained, we feel mirsel\e> under the painful necessity of abandoning our vessels, and trying to work our way south 
with our boats, and. if po~-.il >le. 4,1 on ln.aid of .--hips thai an- -onih of the ice. We think it w mild not be prudent to 
leave a single soul to look after onr vessels, as the first ale will crowd, ile ice ashon and eithei cue-: 

SEC. v, VOL. 11 - 6 



82 HISTORY AOT) METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

feels when the devouring flames destroy the home which was their shelter, and with it the little 
souvenirs and priceless memorials which had been so carefully collected and so earnestly treasured, 
so feels the mariner when compelled to tear himself from the ship, which seems to him at once parent, 
friend, and shelter. In these vessels lay the result of all the toil and danger encountered by them 
since leaving home. Their chests contained those little tokens received from or reserved for friends 
thousands of miles away, and nothing could be taken with them save certain prescribed and 
indispensable articles. With heavy hearts they entered their boats and pulled away, a mournful, 
almost funereal, flotilla, toward where the vessels lay that were to prove their salvation. Tender 
women and children were there, who, by their presence, sought to relieve the tedium of a long 
voyage to their husbands and fathers, and the cold north wind blew pitilessly over the frozen sea, 
chilling to the marrow the unfortunate fugitives. * 

" The first night out the wanderers encamped on the beach behind the sand-hills. A scanty 
supply of fire- wood they had with them and such drift-wood as they could collect sufficed to make 
a fire to protect them somewhat from the chilling frost. The sailors dragged boats over the hills, 
and by turning them bottom upward and covering them with sails, made quite comfortable habi- 
tations for the women and children. The rest made themselves comfortable as best they could. 

" On the second day out," says Captain Preble, " the boats reached Blossom Shoals, and there 
spied the refuge-vessels lying 5 miles out from shore, and behind a tongue of ice that stretched 
like a great peninsula 10 miles farther down the coast, and around the point of which the weary 
crews were obliged to pull before thej could get aboard. The weather here was very bad, the 
wind blowing fresh from the southwest, causing a sea that threatened the little craft with annihi- 
lation. Still the hazardous journey had to be performed, and there was no time to be lost in setting 
about it. * * * All submitted to this new danger with becoming cheerfulness, and the little 
boats started on their almost hopeless voyage, even the women and children smothering their 
apprehensions as best they could. On the voyage along the inside of the icy point of the peninsula 
everything went moderately well ; but on rounding it they encountered the full force of a tremen- 
dous southwest gale and a sea that would have made the stoutest ship tremble. In this fearful 
sea the whale-boats were tossed about like pieces of cork. They shipped quantities of water from 
every wave which struck them, requiring the utmost diligence of all hands at bailing to keep 
them afloat. Everybody's clothing was thoroughly saturated with the freezing brine, while all 
the bread and flour in the boats was completely spoiled. The strength of the gale was such that 
the ship Arctic, after getting her portion of the refugees on board, parted her chain-cable and lost 
her port anchor, but brought up again with her starboard anchor, which held until the little fleet 
was ready to sail. 

"By four o'clock in the afte/noon of the second day all were distributed among the seven 
vessels that formed the remnant of the fleet that sailed for the Arctic Ocean the previous spring. 
Not a person was lost to add to the grief already felt or to increase the gloom of their situation. 

ships or drive them high upon the beach. Three of the fleet have already been crushed, and two are now lyiug hove 
out, which have heen crushed by the ice, and are leaking badly. We have now five wrecked crews distributed among 
us. We have barely room to swing at anchor! paekot'i h. and we are lying iu three fathoms 

of water. Should we be cast on the beach il would be at least eleven mouths before we could look for assistance, and 
in all probability nine out often would die of .starvation or scurvy brfore the opening of spring. 

"Therefore, we have arrived at these conclusions: After the ivtnrn of our expedition under command of Capt. 
D. R. Frazer, of the Florida, he having with whale-boats worked to the southward as far as Blossom Shoals, and 
found that the ice pressed anhoiv the entire di iur position to the shoals, leaving iu several places only 

sufficient water for our boa is t.. IM,,H thiongh, and this liable at any moment to be frozen over during the twenty-four 
hours, which would vm by 111. r had to work through a considerable 

qtia.in M ', I'inm i.c<- during 1] IUKIH, lian 

(Signed h\, the masters.) 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 83 

To the Europa were assigned 280; to the Arctic, 250; to the Progress, 221 ; to the Lagoda, 195; 
to the Daniel Webster, 113; to the Midas, 100; and to the Chance, 60; in all 1,219 souls in addi- 
tion to their regular crews. On tho 24th of October the larger portion of these vessels reached 
Honolulu, and the remaining ones of the seven speedily followed. 

" On the receipt of the news of this disaster, more particularly in New Bedford, great excite- 
ment was occasioned. The value of the wrecked vessels sailing from that port alone exceeded, 
with their cargoes, $ 1,000,000. But the owners of whaling-vessels were not the men to yield 
supinely to a single misfortune, however overpowering it might seem, and the ensuing year twenty- 
seven ships were busy in the Arctic, and in 1873 twenty-nine visited that precarious sea. 

"The names of the beleaguered lleet were: from New Bedford, barks Awashonks, value 
.*.->S,000; Concordia, $75,000; Contest, $40,000; Elizabeth, $60,000; Emily Morgan, $60,000; 
Eugenia, $56,000; Fanny, $58,000; Gay Head, $40,000; George, $40,000; Henry Taber, $52,000; 
John Wells, $40,000; Massachusetts, $46,000; Minerva, $50,000; Navy, $48,000; Oliver Crocker, 
*4S,000; Seneca, $70,000; William Botch, $43,000; ships George Howland, $43,000; Reindeer, 
$40,000 ; Roman, $60,000; Thomas Dickason, $50,000. From New London, bark J. D. Thompson, 
value $45,000 ; and ship Monticello, $45,000. From San Francisco, barks Carlotta, value $52,000 ; 
Florida, $51,000; and Victoria, $30,000. From Edgartown, ships Champion, value $40,000; and 
Mary, $"i7,000. And from Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, barks Paira Kohola, $20,000; Comet, 
$20,000 ; and Victoria 2d and ship Julian, $40.000. The Honolulu vessels had generally Ameri- 
can owners, having been placed under the Hawaiian flag to protect them from rebel cruisers. 

" Capt. William H. Kelley, who commanded the Gay Head, visited the locality the following 
year, and wrote home the condition of such of the vessels as still remained. The Minerva lay at 
the entrance to Waiuwright Inlet, as good in hull as when abandoned. The T. Dickason lay on 
her beam-ends on the bank, bilged and full of water. The Seneca was dragged by the ice up 
the coast some distance; her bowsprit was gone, bulwarks stove, and rudder carried away, and 
she was frozen in solid. The Reindeer sank, and the Florida was ashore on Sea Horse Islands, 
burned to the water's edge. The rest of the fleet were either carried away by the ice, crushed to 
pieces, or burned by the natives. The Gay Head and Concordia were burned where they lay. 
1 The bark Massachusetts went arouud Point Barrow. There was one white man on board her 
who staid up here last winter. He made his escape over the ice this summer, and was five days 
getting back to the ships. He was about used up when they found him this summer. The 
natives set out to kill him, but the women saved him, and afterward the old chief took care of 
him. He saved a large quantity of bone, but the natives took it away from him, except a small 
quantity. He said $150,000 would not tempt him to try another winter in the Arctic. He said 
that four days after we left the ships last year the water froze over and the natives walked off to 
the ships ; and fourteen days after there came on a heavy northeast gale and drove all but the 
ground-ice away (that never moved). Shortly after there blew another northeast gale, and he 
said that of all the butting and smashing lie ever saw, the worst .was among those ships driving 
into each other during those gales. Some were ground to atoms, and what the ice spared the 
natives soon destroyed, after pillaging them of everything they pleased.'" 

In the season of 1S76 the fleet met with another disaster of less pecuniary extent but more 
appalling in its effect on human life. The fleet consisted of eighteen American ships and barks 
and two foreign vessels. Of these, twelve were lost or abandoned in the Arctic. "Much of the 
melancholy story seems a duplicate description of that of 1871. Again the fleet had entered that 
fatal ocean early in August, and again commenced the season's whaling with prospects of fair 



84 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



success; again the ice commenced dosing ;i round them ; again they cherished delusive hopes that 
a strong gale would drive it oil' shore and afford them a means of escape, and again these hopes 
were doomed to a bitter disappointment. Again the masters decided it was necessary to abandon 
their vessels, and again the abandonment was accomplished. Here the parallel ceases. Several 
men perished from exposure in journeying from one beleaguered vessel to another apparently more 
safe, and many died on the toilsome, perilous march and voyage to the rescuing ships. Many 
more preferred to stay by the ships and risk their chances of surviving during the terrible Arctic 
winter to assuming the nearer and, to them, apparently no less dangerous alternative of an imme- 
diate escape."* Three hundred men escaped, and fifty-three remained among the natives. There 
was no feasible way to communicate with them until the summer of 1877. Provisions and fuel were 
reported amply sufficient for them, and with the first clear water of 1877 ready hands and willing 
hearts hastened to their assistance. The experiences of these men during the winter and until 
their rescue in the summer of 1877 are told by Captain Barnes on page 77, above ; only two of 
the abandoned vessels survived the winter: one of these was burned by the natives and the other 
was lost in September, 1877. The names of the lost and abandoned vessels with their approx- 
imate values, not including cargoes, were as follows : (Of these the Arctic was lost ; the others aban- 
doned.) From New Bedford, the Acors Barns, $36,000; Camilla, $36,000; Cornelius Howland, 
$40,000; James Allen, $36,000; Java 2d, $25,001) ; Josephine, $40,000 ; Mareugo, $40,000 ; Mount 
Wollaston, $32,000; Onward, $40,000; and St. George, $36,000. From San Francisco, the Clara 
Bell, $24,000. And from Honolulu, the Arctic, $32,0(10, and Desmond, $24,000. A total loss of 
$442,000. The estimated value of the cargoes was about $375.000 more. 

In 1877 three of the Arctic fleet were lost, in 187<S one, and in 1879 three. The description of 
the class of vessels employed in this fishery is given under the head of vessels and apparatus, 
and the cruising-grounds are discussed under the head of whaling-grounds. 

STATISTICS OF PACIFIC-ARCTIC WHALING 1835 TO 1880. The following statement gives a 
summary of each season's fishing of the North Pacific fleet from 1835 to 1880. The locality 
includes the waters between the Asiatic and American coasts north oi' 50 north latitude. 

Statement showing the number f American vesxvli in tin- \<irt/i Pacific flett each year and their catch of oil and btme. 

[Compiled from Whalemen's Shipping List.] 



Tear. 


No. of 
vessels. 


Average 
barrels 
whale oil. 


Total 

barn-Is 
whale oil. 


Tot;il pounds 
whalebone.1 


Remarks. 


1835 


1 










1R36 


1 










1837 


1 










1838 


1 










1839 


2 


1 400 


2,800 






1840 


3 


587 


1 760 






184] 


20 


1 41'* 


28 200 






1842 


"i 


1 627 


47 00 






1843 


108 


1 349 


i H; snii 






1844 .... 


170 


1 . T._'s 


J.v.l, ;,70 






1845 


263 


953 


250, 600 






1846 


292 


869 





















* History Whale Fishery, iu U. S. Fish Commission lvV|><>rt, 
t Arctic whalolione not recorded separate prior to 1866. 



TI1K \\IIALK KISI1KRY. 



85 



Xtatcmfnt slnmiiui tin' numlii r t>f .tmerii-aii IT.S.V/N in I lie Xortli I'm-ifu: ]!>< I 1 K. li 11, .;; uml ll<i-ir catch, <fc. Continued. 



Y<ai. 


Xo. of 


barrels 

whale oil. 


Cotal 

barrels 
whale oil. 


Tola] pounds 
lioiie.* 


Bnuiuksi 




177 


1 059 


187 443 










1 164 


185 256 








155 


1 334 










144 


1 692 


''43 618 




- 




138 


826 


86, 360 








278 


I 343 


373 450 






1853 


238 


912 


217 056 






1854 


232 


794 


184,063 








''17 


873 


1.X9 579 






1856 


178 


822 


146,41(1 








143 


796 l 


113 900 









196 


r.'MI 


1"! 650 






1859 


178 


535 


94, 160 






1860 


121 


518 


62, 678 




Two of the fleet lost the George and Mary and Paulina. 


1861 


76 


724 


55,024 






1862. ... 
1863 


32 
42 


610 

857 


19, 525 
36, 010 






1864 


68 


522 


35, 490 






1865 


59 


617 


36,415 






186C 


95 


598 


56, 925 






1867 


90 


640 


57, 620 






1808 ... 
1869 


61 
43 


708 
890 


43, 2.10 
38, 275 


027, 500 
525, 000 


Also seven foreign vessels that took 4,370 barrels oil, 66,000 pounds bone. 
Also six foreign vessels that took 6,475 barrels oil, 85,000 pounds bone. 


1870 
1871 


46 
35 


1,069 


49,205 


659, 550 
15, 000 


Also nine foreign vessels that took 8,080 barrels oil, 97,000 pounds bone. 
All but eeven of the fleet were lost, including four foreign vessels. 


1872 


27 


730 


19, 730 


2.-S, '.'(ill 


Also four foreign vessels took 1,900 barrels oil, 29,400 pounds bone. 


1873 


30 


676 


20, 295 


239, 300 


Also four foreign vessels; two of t.bem took 980 barrels oil, 5,300 pounds bone. 


1X74 . 


23 


883 


20, 380 


222, 100 


Also f'mir foreign vessels that took 2,530 barrels oil, 25,000 pounds bone. 


1875 


16 


1,355 


21, 680 


230, 460 


Also four foreign vessels that took 3,450 barrels oil, 36,800 pounds bone. 


1876 


18 




5,250 


35, 200 


All but eight of the fleet lost, also two foreign vessels. 


1877 


19 


1 096 


17,530 


153, 800 


Tlnvr i.f the fleet we.ro lost. One foreign vessel took 300 barrels oil, 3, 000 pounds boue. 


1878 


17 


770 


13, 080 


114,200 


One of the fleet lost. 


1879 


21 




18, 800 


200, 500 


Three of the fleet lost. 


1880t 


19 


1,406 


2l\. 7ll!l 


409, 000 




Total 


4,300 





3, 994, 397 







* A i clio whalebone not ree.orJed separate prior to 1808. 

t Since the above was compiled Ibo reports for subsequent years have been received, as follows : 1881, 23 vessels, 24, 740 barrels of whale 
oil, 387,000 pounds whalebone ; 1S<J. :!_' vessels, 22,975 barrels whale oil, 360,500 pounds whalebone; 1883, 38 vessels, 10,155 barrels whale oil, 
159,400 pounds whalebone; 1884, 39 vessels, 20,450 barrels whale nil, 318,700 pounds whalebone. The fleet in 1880 included two steamers, in 
1884 the number of steamers had iunras. .1 to nine. Another marked change in this fishery is the larger proportion of vessels hailing from 
San Francisco, as is shown on subsequent pages in the details of each year's voyage. 

The cruising grounds of the fleet, prior to 1848, were south of Bering Strait, chiefly on the Northwest Ground. In 1348 a vessel passed 
through the Strait and was very successful. From that date the Arctic fleet increased rapidly in numbers. Since the year 1868 the principal 
i r-ort "f the North Pacific fleet (so cnllr.l) has been the Arctic Ocean north of Bering Strait, as shown on following pages. 



86 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF TIIIO K1SIIER1 KS. 



The details of each voyage to the Xorth Pacific aiid Arctic Oceans since 1868 are given in the 
following lists, compiled from the Whalemen's Shipping List: 

List of rfxurl" comprising the North Pacific whaling fleet of IKitf, with the season's catch of each vessel. 



Kame of vessel. 


Fishing ground. 


Season's catch. 


Name of vessel. 


Fishing ground. 


Season's catch. 


Whale 
oil. 


Bone. 


Whale 
oiL 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFORD. 




Barrels. 
800 
400 
425 
400 
800 
260 
1,000 
280 
1,050 
600 
1,100 
925 
800- 
"00 


Pmmdi. 
17, 000 
4,500 
4,000 
5,000 
13, 000 
3,000 
18, 000 

15, 000 
10, 000 
16, 000 
15, 000 
8,000 


NEW BEDFORD continned. 


Okhotsk 


Barrels. 
1,100 
30 
300 
430 
370 
1,170 
1,050 
100 


Pounds. 
15, 000 
300 
4,000 
4,000 
3,500 
21, 000 
8,000 
2,000 


Adeline 


Okhotsk 




Kadiak 


Alto 




St. George 


Arctic 
Kadiak 




do 


Awashonks 


Arctic 
Okhotsk 




do 


Three Brothers 
Trident 


Arctic 
Kadiak 






Cicero 
Corinthian 


Kadiak 
Arctic 






f>2 ships and harks 




35, 505 


505, 000 


Concordia 


....do 

do 


FAIRHAVEN. 

General Scott 


Arctic 


1,100 


15, 000 


Daniel Webster 


....do 




do 


EDGARTOWN. 

Champion 


Arctic 


500 
325 
1,300 


8,500 
3,000 

22, 500 










500 
600 
150 
600 
1,000 
1,050 
350 
630 
260 

630 

550 

1,300 
400 

800 
1, 175 


5,1100 
4,000 
1,000 
8,000 
18, 000 
19, 000 
3,000 
5,000 
1, 500 
18, 000 
6,000 
8,500 
17,000 
18, 000 

7,000 
15, 000 
9,000 









i sk 






Vineyard 


Aivti,- 


George Howland 


Arctic 


3 ships 




2,125 


34, 000 




do 


MEW LONDON. 




450 
900 

450 


4,500 
16,000 
6,000 




do 




Okhotsk 




do 


Hibernhi. 


Kadiak 
do 


Nile 


Okhotsk 


James Allen 
Java 


Arctic 
Kadiak 


3 ships and b:irkM . . . 




1,800 


26, 500 


SAN FRANCISCO. 




1,700 
1,000 


31, 000 
16, 000 




do 




do 




do 


1 ship and 1 hark 






do 


2,700 


47, 000 




do 


HONOLULU. 


Arctic 


600 
1,100 
700 
900 


12, 000 
18, 000 
15, 000 

7,000 




do 


Midas 


Okhotsk 




do 


Milo 






do 




... do 


1,000 

160 
600 
550 
1,150 
1,300 
1,000 
470 
1, 000 
90 
1,550 


11,000 
1,200 
9,000 
4,500 
20, 000 
25, 000 
16, 000 
4,000 
20, 000 
1, 000 
25, 000 


William Rotch 


Okhotsk 






Norman 


Kadiak 


4 ships and harks 




3,300 


52, 000 


BREMEN. 

Eastle 
Count Bismarck 

2 barks 


Kadiak 
Arctic 


170 
600 


3,000 
9,500 


Ohio 


do 




do 




do 


President 


Kadiak 

Arctic . . 


770 


12, 500 


TAHITI. 


Kadiak 


300 


2,500 




Kadiak 















KECAPITTTLATION. 



Fishing eroHud. 


Ships and 
barks. 


Whale 
oil. 


Bone. 




41 


Barrels. 
35, 005 


Pmmdt. 
575, 200 




8 


4,960 


50,500 


Kadiak 


19 


7,635 


68,800 




18 


47, 600 


684,500 











TIIK WHAM'; K1SIIKI. 

Lit nf rtssfh comprising the Xorth 1'nrnii- ii'lmlinii ft catch uf ,-,icli vessel. 



87 



Name of vessel. 


Fishing gronnd. 


Seac 


Xame of vr 


Fishing ground. 


Season's catch. 


Whale 

oil. 


Boue. 


Whale 
oil. 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFORD. 




Barrel*. 

1,500 
700 

750 

1,300 

I 000 

1,000 

soo 

500 
00 
950 

1,70(1 
1,101) 

650 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
400 
980 
1,000 
1,250 
1,100 


15, 000 

17,000 

i", r,oo 

14, 000 
21,000 
17,000 
11, 600 
13,500 
16,000 
17, 000 

14,000 
15,000 
14, OUO 
13, 000 


i ,,!.-(, RII nuilinui-il. 


Aivtii- 


Barrels. 

900 
750 
1,050 
1,600 

450 


Pound*. 

13, 000 
11, 500 
12, 000 
18, 000 
2,500 


\m ]! 



do 






do 




...do 


ill"* 


Okhotsk 


Triili'iit, 


. . do 






i llulfll 


Okhotsk 




. . do 




33, 605 


462, 900 




do 




Okhotsk 
Arctic 




do 


500 
600 


5,000 
8,500 


















George Howland 


do 


2 ships. 




1,100 


13,500 




do 


NEW LONDON. 




600 
900 
120 
350 


11, 000 
12, 60 




,. 




i 


.1. D. Thompson 


....do 










Monticello 


....do 






Nile 


Okhotsk 


4,000 


Janus 


Okhotsk 


4 ships and barks 




1,970 


27, 600 




Arctic; 


BAN FRANCISCO. 

Florida 


Arctie 


1,600 


21, 000 

15, 000 
15, 000 
25, 000 
15, 000 
15, 000 




do 








do 


HONOLULU. 




1,300 
800 
1,600 
1,200 
1,500 
75 




do 




do 




do 




do 




do 




do 


Count Bismarck 


....do 








do 




do 


Comet 


...do 








do 






6,475 


85, 000 


T 









RECAPITULATION. 



Fishing ground. 


Ships and 
barks. 


Whale 
oil. 


Bone. 




42 


Barrtls. 
41, 575 


Pounds. 
586, 200 


Okhotsk Sea 


6 


2,575 


21, 800 




1 


600 


2,000 










Total . . . 


49 


44,750 


610, 000 











88 HISTORY AND METHODS OF TI1K FI 

TAX! of iii-xxi-h rtiniiirixhiii tin \oi-lli. Tnrifir irlirtlhifl Jld't of 11-70, n-itli the, ai'dmii'n rali-li nf cni-l vessel. 



Name of vessel. 


Fishing ground. 


Season's catch. 


Name of vessel. 


Fishing ground. 


Season's cnich. 


Whale 

oil. 


Bone. 

I'olrinJx. 
18, 000 
10, 000 
15,000 
15, 000 
15, 000 
16, 000 
18, 000 
18, 000 
15, 600 
8,000 
6,000 
20, OOU 
5,000 
19, 650 
20, 000 
16, 000 
4,300 

17,000 
30, 000 
10, COO 
13,01)0 
16, 000 
12, 000 
10, 000 
1,000 
15, 000 
12,000 
23, 000 
19, 000 
16,000 
18, 000 
14, 000 
20, 000 
13, 000 


Whale 
oil. 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFORD. 




Barrels. 
1,050 

740 
1,300 
1,080 
1,400 
1,600 
1,550 
1,200 
1,150 
750 
400 
1,200 
400 
1,100 
1,500 
1,000 
350 
1,500 
1,100 
2,100 
900 
1,070 
1,200 
925 
700 
380 
1,000 
970 
1,650 
1,350 

1,200 
950 
1,800 
1,000 


EDGARTOWN. 


Arctic 


Barrels. 
950 
850 
750 
1,400 


1'uunds. 
12, 000 
11, 000 
10, 000 
20, 000 




do 




.. do 




do 




...do 




do 




...do 




do 


4 ships and barks 




' 


do 


3,950 


S3, 000 






NEW LONDON. 






...do 


700 
1,500 
200 


8,000 
15, 000 
2,000 


Eli/ahH h Swift 


. . do 




...do 




do 




. . do 




Okhotsk.. 




.. do 








Bristol Bay 


2,400 


25,000 


Henry Taber 


Arctic 
... do 


6JO( FEANCI6CO. 




H les 


1,900 
1,050 
800 
190 


30, 000 
7,000 
15, 000 
10, 000 




.-. do 




... do 




... do 






John Wells 


... do 




do 




.-..do 




do 




. do 








... do 


3,940 


62, 000 


Midas 


- do 


HONOLULU. 


Arctic 




do 


850 
400 
1,500 
1,000 
1,500 
650 
500 
800 
880 

8,080 


15, 000 
7,000 
18, 000 
10, 000 
18, 000 
10, 000 
9,000 




do .... 


Norman 


... do . 


Ohio 


... do 




do 




... do 





do 


Onward 


... d 




do 


Roman 


... do 




do 


Sea Breeze 


... do 




do 


Seneca 


... do 





do 


Thomas Dickaeon 


... do 




do 


Trident 


... do 




do 


10, 000 

97, 000 




do 










38, 915 


519, 550 











RECAPITULATION. 



Fishing gronnd. 


Ship and 
barks. 


Whale 
oil. 


Bone. 




53 


Barrels. 
56, 685 


Pounds. 
749, 550 




1 


:oo 


2,000 


Bristol Bay 


1 


400 


5,000 


Total 


55 


57, 285 


756, 550 











In the season of 1871 the Korth Pacific fleet consisted of thirty-five American and four foreign 
vessels, all but seven of which were abandoned in the ice off Wainwright's Inlet, north of Bering 
Strait. The names of the saved vessels were the Buropa, Arctic, Progress, Lagoda, Daniel Web- 
ster, Midas, and Chance. Four of the lost vessels belonged at Honolulu. The following are the 
names of the abandoned vessels and the ports to which they belonged : 



Tin: \VIIALK 



89 



NEW BEDFORD. Barks : A\vashonks, Conrordia, Contest, Elizabeth, Emily Morgan, Eugenia, 
Fanny. (Jay Head. George, llfiiry TalnT. John Wells, Massachusetts, Minerva, Navy, Oliver 
< Yorker, Seneca, William Botch. Ships : George Howland, Reindeer, Eoman, Thomas Dickason. 

NEW LONDON. Bark: ,1. D. Thompson. S'/i //).- Monticello. 

SAN FRANCISCO. Barks : Carlotta, Florida, Victoria. 

EDGARTOWN. Shtys: Champion, Mary. 

HONOLULU. Paira Kohola, Comet, Victoria 2d, Julian. 

The 2forth Pacific whaling fleet 0/1872. 



Name of vessel. 


"Whale oil. 


Bone. 


Name of Teasel. 


Whale oiL 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFOBD. 


Barrels. 
775 


Pounds. 
13 000 


NEW BEDFORD continued. 


Barrels. 
900 


Pounds. 

7 000 




150 


3 000 




70 


1 9 00 










450 






600 


8 000 




360 


4 000 




1 000 


12 000 


Trideut 


1,300 


20 000 




800 


11 000 


Triton 


275 


6 000 


Helen Mar 


1,050 


10, 000 


Total 


18,980 


248 200 


Helen Snow 
Illinois 


40 
1,000 


400 
19 000 


NEW LONDON. 








1 100 


15 000 




750 


10 000 
















1 200 


16 000 


HONOLULU. 












An'lic 


1,000 


12, 000 




500 


-"""< (UK) 


T; W. Wood 


550 


12, 000 


Live- Oak 


1 000 


]" OtlO 


Total 


1,550 


24, 000 














Marengt .... 


1 450 


16 500 


BTDNKT. 












Chance 


200 


3,000 








Faraway 


150 


2,400 








Total 


350 


5 400 















The North Pacific whaling fleet of 1873. 



NVme of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


M am e of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFORD. 

Active . 


Barrels. 
525 
550 
550 
300 
550 
800 
550 
800 
1,000 
180 
150 
1, 150 
1, 151) 
1,100 
1,600 
1, 150 
820 
550 
550 
650 
750 


P(1V 1: 

4,000 
8,000 
6,000 


NEW BEDFORD continued. 


./'*/ rat . 
1,075 
400 
900 
100 


Pounds. 
17, 000 
3,000 
12, 000 


Alaska .. ... 










Triton 




7,000 
8,000 
8,500 
11,600 
9,000 
3, 500 
3,000 
19, 000 
14, 000 
14,000 
13, 500 
11,000 

6, COO 
9,000 
7,000 
4,500 








Total j 

NEW LONDON. 


18, 595 


210, 100 


Ht-lfiiMar 


380 


4,000 


Illinois 




BAN FRANCISCO. 




320 
1,000 


200 
15, 000 


.Tava2d 


Jireh Perry 






Total 




1,320 


15, 000 


Live Oak 


HONOLULU. 

R. W.Wood 


600 
380 


1.000 
4,300 






Midas 


Arctic 


Mount Wollaeton , 


Total - 


980 


6,300 




SYDNEY. 








Ocean Steed 




800 


7,000 

















90 



HI8TOIi\ AND METHODS OF TliE FKSHKKI KS. 



Tin- Xorlh Pacific whaling fleet "/ 1 .-'?(. 



Nafite of Yeaiel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


Name of vessel. 


Whul,. oil 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFORD. 


Barrel*. 
125 


Pounds. 
1 5PO 


NI:W i.oxi'O.v 


Barrels. 

260 


Pounds. 
3,200 






4 fiOn 










140 














10, 000 














Floremt- . 


200 


2,300 








Tii^tii - 


260 


3,000 


















10, 3UO 








Java 


1, 375 


13, 000 


Total 


460 


5,300 




1, 1"!' 


11,000 




=- 


===== 




1,550 












1 4(10 


IS (id) 














Arctic 


950 


10,000 








(>nw:lril 


600 


5, 000 
















800 










Northern Light 


1,100 




Total 


1,550 


15,000 




i ma 













1. Kill 




flYUNl'Y. 






Sea Breeze 


CO 










St George . . 












Triton 




i), 000 








Total 


10 600 


*>13 COO 


Total 


980 


10,001 















The Xorth Pacific whaling fleet of 1-7:.. 



Name of Teasel. 


Whale oil. 




Name of veHfu-1. 


'WTiale oil. 


Boe. 


NEW BEDFORD. 


Barrels. 


POT 
13,450 


XEV. 1 !lll,inm><i. 

St. Geoi ' . . - 


Barrel*. 
1, 750 


1 1, -JSII 




1,880 


24, 200 


Triton 


1, 300 


14. roo 
















1,100 


10, 000 










1 650 












i. r.no 


12, 200 


fAN FRANCISCO. 






Illinois 






Floreno- 


1,20( 


10,000 






15, 000 












16, 430 
















:, 100 


15,000 




800 


6,000 
















750 


7,800 






4,800 
















600 


6,000 






10,000 
















1, 000 


8,000 




1,650 


18, 000 










1 OIMI 


18 600 


Total . . . 


3, 450 


36, 800 


. 













The Xorth Pacific whaling fleet 0/1876. 



Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone 


Name of Teasel. 


Whale oil. 


Bono. 


NEW BEDFORD. 


Barrels. 


Pounds. 


NEW BEDFORD continued. 


Barrel*. 
550 


Pounds. 
10,000 






















1,700 


14, 900 














Illinois ....;... 






Total 


4,550 


33, 800 


James Allen* 












Java 2d* 










































Florence 


700 


1,400 




1,400 


4. 100 










500 




nONOIJT.il. 











































* Lost. 



THE \VIIAI, !; 



91 



The North Panfic irhnling Jt>-> I of 1*77. 



Nome of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


Xiime of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


\ 1 W 1IF.DFOBD. 


Barrels. 


Pounds. 
12 000 


NPW BEPFORD- continued. 


Barrels. 

700 


Pounds. 
4 000 


Fli?a 


700 


1 500 




1 500 


6 500 




1 300 


20 500 




700 


3 000 


i 'i\ i * 






Brothers 


*600 


500 




1,080 


800 








Millon 







RAX PRANOlsrO. 






Mount WollaHtOll 


850 


12,000 








Nomiau 


1, 70(1 












1,600 


16,000 










150 


2 000 








1' ,, 'it'll'. 


1,350 


15, 000 


HONOLULU. 








1 300 


1 000 


William H. Allen 


300 


3,000 




2 300 




Total 


17,830 


156, 800 















' Lost ; catch of whalebone saved. 



The North Pacific whaling fc ft 0/1878. 



Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


KEW BEDFORD. 


Barrels. 
300 


Pounds. 

n 000 


.(KW BEDFORD continued. 
Pacific 


Ban els. 

670 


Pounds. 
5 500 




850 


12, 000 




600 


6,000 




950 


5,000 




1,370 


21,000 




680 


7 500 




1 200 


10 000 




680 


3,500 


Thomas Pope 


870 


5,000 




8GO 


8,000 










950 


6,500 














Florence* 


500 


4,000 




850 


6 000 


Dawn 


800 


5,000 


\ itkeniLi"ht 


850 


3 500 


Total 


13 080 


114 200 


" 













' Lost 300 barrels oil and 3,000 pounds bone saved. 



The North ranfu- whaling fleet 0/1879. 



Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


NF.W ItrciiPOKD. 


Jlarrels. 
1 175 




NKW BEDFORD contiuned. 


Barrels. 

1,150 


Pounds. 
17, 000 


Coral 


1 200 


1"> mil) 




1, 250 


13, 000 




950 


8 500 




1,000 


15, 000 




600 




Viilantt 


400 


6,000 




1,100 


15,000 










1.280 


12, 000 


EDQARTOWN. 








i ir.ii 


15 000 


: Bird . 


450 


4,000 




(i:;. 


9.000 












4, 500 
















500 


3,500 




1, 250 


13, 000 
















850 


4.000 




1, 150 


8,500 














Hidalgo 


120 






900 


10 000 


Total . 


18, 800 


200, 500 















Lost 



tLftst seen In the Arctic Ocean October 10, 1879. 



92 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



The North Pacific wlialiiig fleet of 1880. 



Name of vessel. 


Number 
of whales. 


Barrels 
whale oil. 


Pounds 
whalebone. 


Barrels 
sperm oil. 


Pounds wal- 
rna ivory. 


NEW BKDFOHD. 


14 


1,300 


20, 000 








17 


1,700 


23, 000 




150 




16 


1,600 


23, 000 


56 


1,800 




12 


1, 250 


19, 000 


180 


1,100 




16 


1,450 


25, 000 




100 




19 


1,800 


30, 000 




600 




5 


SOO 


7,500 


40 






27 


2,250 


45, 000 


300 






10J 


1,550 


17, 000 




2,500 


Pacific do... 


Hi 


1,700 


17, 000 


80 


2,500 




17i 


1 900 


28, 000 




800 




24J 


' 2, 150 


38, 000 


80 


150 




17 


1,650 


25, 500 


90 


1,200 




10 


1,100 


15, 000 


40 


900 


EDGARTOWN. 


9 


900 


12, 000 


180 


600 


BAN PRiNCISCO. 


12 


550 


23, 000 






Dawn bark . . 


13 


1,400 


17, 000 




1,300 




61 


1,150 


12, 000 




1,150 




8 


800 


12, 000 




600 
















2G5J 


*26, 700 


409, 000 


1,046 


15, 450 















'Includes 4,000 barrels walrus oil. 



The North Pacific whaling fleet of 1881. 



Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFORD. 


Barrels. 

1 200 


Pounds. 
14 000 


SEW BEDFORD continued. 
Pacific 


Barrels. 
1,200 


Pounds. 
20, 090 




700 


12, 000 




1,500 


25, 000 




1 800 


3' 1 000 




1,650 


30, 000 


Coral 


1 451) 


j| linn 




1,250 


24,000 










350 


7.000 




200 


3,000 










1,050 


12,000 
















1,200 


,7,000 




1,400 


21, 000 
















450 


0,000 




1,900 


30, 000 
















500 


5,000 




1,200 


18, 000 














Sea Breeze 


1,400 


25, 000 


John Rowland 








740 


8,000 




1,200 


11, 000 










1 000 


16 000 


Total 


24, 740 


387, 000 


g 













* Lost July 2. 



t Japan Sea. 



TI1K WIIALK F1S1IKKA. 



93 



The North J'mi/ir irlmlimj tla-t / L882. 



Xamo of vessel. 


Wlmlu oil. 


Bone 


Nainr of vessel. 


AVI, ale ml. 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFORD. 


Barrels. 
850 

660 
750 

3 r rO 

950 
1,250 
200 
BOO 

.sun 
1,400 
MO 
1, 75'.> 
300 
40H 
701) 
1,050 
800 


Pound*. 

8.000 
11,000 

9, < 
6,00(1 
11,000 
19,000 

3,1 nil 
11,000 
11.100 

9.000 

i], no" 
In. 500 

11. son 


NEW IIEDFORD continued. 
Ohi.i'Jcl 


Barrels. 
COO 
1,000 

350 


Pounds. 
8,000 
15.0CO 
3,200 




Rainbow 




Krinilfef * 






11. Ivi il.TP, steuimT. .. 


St:iinlniul 


300 
225 

600 

1, 030 
1,000 
9CO 
350 
700 
1,300 


4,000 
3,800 

. 10,000 

20, 000 
14, 000 
14, 000 
5,000 
8,000 
" 34,500 




Young Pho?nix 




EllGARTOWN. 


n " 


is 


11*1 ' M 


BAM FRANCISCO. 


t 


Jacob A. Howland 


John Howland 




Josephine 








Mabel 










Total 




22, 975 


360, 500 











Japan Sea. 



t Lost July 8. 



{ Lost May 6. 



The North I'nc(fl<; whaling fleet of 1883. 



Xiime of vessel. 


Whale cil. Bone. 


Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFORD. 


Burrtlx. 
COO 
100 
125 
500 
C50 
275 
140 
250 
90 
125 
350 
250 
330 
300 
125 
240 
380 
200 
325 

450 


Pounds. 
6,700 


NEW BEDFOKD continued. 
Eeimleer * 


Barrels. 
400 
50 
300 

100 
100 
950 
240 
380 


Pounds. 
3,500 




Stamboul 




1,300 
8,000 
5,500 
3,900 
5,900 
1,400 
1,400 
1,200 
4, 400 
2,000 
5,500 
5,000 
1,500 
4,500 
4,500 
3,500 
5, 000 
7,000 
7,000 


Tonng Pho?nix 


6,300 

1,500 

4,000 
15, OHO 
3,300 
3.000 




SAN FRANCISCO. 
















onntlin Billow 














100 
375 


1,400 
6,000 




Eliza 














Mabel 




430 
1,300 

150 
125 


6,000 
20, 500 
1. 800 
1,90(1 




Oreo, steamer 








Ohio d 


Total 




10, 155 


159, 400 







* Japan Sea. 



t Lost Jnly 17. 



t Lost. September 22. 



5 Lost Angust . 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



The North Pacific whaling fleet of 1884. 



Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


Name of vessel. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


NEW BEDFORD. 


Barrels. 
WO 
300 
70 
260 
900 


Pounds. 
7,000 
5,000 
1,000 
3,000 
14, 000 


.-AN FRANCISCO. 

Amethyst 


Barrels. 

200 
1,700 
400 
280 
275 


Pounds. 
2,000 
29, 000 
10, 000 
5,000 
3,500 




Baltena, steamer 




Bowhead, steamer t 




Bounding Billow 


Belve ere, 


Coral 








370 

850 
1,000 
380 
100 
240 
200 
270 
650 
750 
00 
950 

90 


5,500 

12, 500 
18, 000 
6,700 
1,700 
4,500 
3,500 
4,500 
11, 500 
12, 000 
5,000 
12, 000 

1,700 


Eliza 


130 
1,075 
100 
100 
275 
1,000 
1,250 
700 
2,100 
325 
300 
1,700 
260 

20, 450 


2,000 
11, 500 
2,000 
4111111 
3,000 
17, 000 
20, 000 
12, 500 
31, 000 
5,500 
3,800 
25, 000 
3,800 


Helen Mar 


Emroa F. Herriman t 


. 








Mabel 


Mary and Helen, steamer 






S 




aiy 
















T" c Ph i-i 




EDGARTOWN. 


Total 


318, 700 


P 





* Okhotsk and Japan Seas. 



tLost. 



DAVIS STRAIT AND HUDSON BAT FISHERY. 

ORIGIN OF THE FISHERY. The whale-fishery had been extensively prosecuted by the Dutch 
at Spitzbergen and on the east coast of Greenland for more than a hundred years before it was 
found necessary to seek other fields. The Dutch were the first to push into iiew waters and cap- 
ture the animals on the west coast of Greenland in Davis Strait. They inaugurated the fishery 
there in the year 1719, and were soon followed by other European nations. Probably the first 
American vessel to visit Davis Strait sailed from New England, under Captain Atkins, in 1732. 
He cruised as far as 66 north. In 1736 several whaling vessels returned to New England from 
those parts, and in 1737 the Davis Strait fleet from Massachusetts alone numbered between fifty 
and sixty vessels, a dozen of which were fitted at Provincetown. 

Douglass, in his History of North America, published in 1760, says " some New England 
men a few years since attempted whaling in the entrance of Davis Strait, but to no advantage; 
they generally arrived there too late, in keeping too near the Labrador shore (they kept within 50 
leagues of the shore, they should have kept 150 leagues to sea); they were embayed and impeded 
by the fields of ice. Last year [1745] Nantucket brought about 10,000 barrels of whale oil to mar- 
ket, this year they do not follow it so much, because of the low price of oil in Europe, notwith- 
standing this year they fit out six or seven vessels for Davis Strait, and sail end of March; they 
sometimes make Cape Farewell in fifteen days, sometimes in not less than six weeks. The 
whaling season in both Greeulands is in May and June; the Dutch set out for Davis Strait 
beginning of March; sometimes they are a month in bearing to weather Cape Farewell; they 
do not arrive in the fishing-grounds until May. Anno 1743, perhaps a medium year, the Dutch 
had in Davis Strait fifty whaling ships (at Spitzbergen or East Greenland they had one hun- 
dred and thirty-seven whalers) and got seventy-six and a half whales." 

The American whale-fishery was very prosperous just before the Revolutionary war, when the 
annual northern fleet fitted out I'nuu Massachusetts numbered one hundred and eighty-three 



THE WHALE FISHEET. 95 

vessels, measuring 13,830 tons. Many of these cruised in Davis Strait, while the remainder pur- 
sued the fishery in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, ;i bout the Straits of Belle Isle, and in other northern 
waters. After the war the business was greatly reduced in extent, and the northern fleet num- 
bered only ninety-one very few of which went as far north as Davis Strait. There was at 
this time, however, a great increase in the northern fisheries from British and French ports, many 
of these foreign vessels being 1 commanded and in some eases manned by American whalemen who 
had settled in England, where they might take advantage of the bounty system. 

The war of JS1L' to 1815 between the United States and England had a very depressing influ- 
ence on the American whale-fishery ; alter the war it revived, but tho northern cruising grounds 
\\cre abandoned for the more profitable southern fields that were less exposed to danger and 
yielded an abundance of sperm and whale oil. 

REVIVAL OF THE FISHERY IN 1846. It was not until the year 1846 that Davis Strait was 
aiiain visited by our whalemen. In that year the ship McLennan, under Captain Slate, sailed from 
New London on the 8th of April, and returned September 17 with about 140 barrels of oil. Part 
of the officers and crews of the vessel were Englishmen experienced in the fishery in those waters. 
Although the first voyage was not as successful as could be desired, yet the McLennan was again 
fitted in the spring of 1847, and sailed March 5, returning October 5 with 1,111 barrels of oil and 
15,000 pounds of bone, besides 845 seal-skins obtained off the Newfoundland coast at the beginning 
of the season. In 1849, 1850, and 1851 other voyages were made, and in 1852 the vessel was lost in 
the Davis Strait, while on her sixth voyage to those waters. The product of her several voyages 
was about 3,500 barrels of whale oil and 51,000 pounds bone, besides a few thousand seal-skins 
and some barrels of seal oil. 

Capt. S. O. Buddington, who sailed on the McClennan on her voyages in 1850 and 1851, gives 
the following account of those and subsequent voyages in which he participated: "On the 7th of 
?>larch, 1850, I sailed on the McClenuan from New London bound for Davis Strait. We were 
fitted for sealing as well as whaling. When we arrived on the coast of Newfoundland we saw 
seals on the ice some 40 miles from land. In cruising along the coast as far as the Straits of Belle 
Isle, we captured about seven hundred seals, saving the skins and blubber. About the middle of 
May we quitted sealing and went whaling off Discoe, Greenland, and in Baffin's Bay. We got 
five whales that season, and arrived home October 22. The next year 1 sailed again in the same 
vessel, leaving New London February 8. While sealing during the spring along Newfoundland 
and south of Davis Strait we got about eleven hundred seals and I wo whales. We did not 
go as far north as Discoe this \ear, but whaled in Cumberland Inlet, where we got a few whales, 
and at the close of the season the vessel left for home, arriving at New London, October 28, with 
L'5.s barrels of oil, 4,900 pounds of bone, 1,100 seal-skins, and some seal oil. The entire crew of 
the McClennan did not return home in her, but myself with a gang of twelve men were left to 
spend the winter in the inlet, for the purpose of trading with the natives and capturing what 
whales and seals we could. We built the frame of a hut from spare stuff left by the vessel, and 
covered it with seal-skins. Here we spent the cold winter, occasionally securing a seal and pur- 
chasing articles of the nati\ es in exchange for knives, powder, &c. We were the first whalemen 
that ever spent a winter in tin's region. At the opening of spring we found whales in considerable 
abundance, and with the aid of the natives secured during the spring and summer months sixteen 
small whales that yielded considerable blubber, and about 16,000 pounds of bone. 

"The. McClenuan left home in tin* spring of isr>i_', but ne\er reached the inlet. It is thought, 
she was lost near the entrance to Davi.- \fterwaiting long enough to be satisfied that 

<mi x.-.^si-.l would not return to lake, us hoi- Lipped our oil. skins, and bone on an English 



9fi HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

vessel, and sailed on her for Hull, England, leaving the inlet October 1, and arriving at Hull 
November 7, when we sold onr oil, whalebone, and seal skins. I started for the United States 
on an English vessel, but she was disabled and returned to port, when I shipped on another 
vessel, and arrived in New Loudou about the middle of January, is ">.''.. 

"On July 13, 1853, I sailed again for Davis Strait on the brig Georgiana. We did not stop 
for seal on the Newfound!; nd coast, but hastened to Cumberland Inlet, where we spent the winter 
with the vessel frozen in the ice. This was the first whaling- vessel to winter in the ice in the 
vicinity of Davis Strait. We had quite a successful time in catching seals and whales at the 
opening of spring, taking advantage of the first movement of the ice when whales were abundant, 
and we secured twelve in two days. During the entire voyage we caught twenty-four whales that 
yielded 890 barrels of oil and 16,0(10 pounds of bone. My trade and capture we got about 1,000 
seal-skins, worth at that time about 75 cents apiece at New London. Arrived home October 8, 
1854. 

" In the year 1855 I sailed again in the same vessel, leaving New London April 11. Some of 
the crew were disabled by scurvy while on our way north. This delayed us, so that when we reached 
Frobisher Bay we were too late in the season for whaling. We wintered in the bay and had a 
terrible hard time of it, losing fourteen men by scurvy- As soon as the ice opened in the spring we 
started for home, but our men were weak and it took us several weeks to make a tew miles. After 
many difficulties we finally reached N\?w Louden September 27, 1856, with no cargo except about 
200 seal-skins obtained during the winter. 

" In 1857 I sailed ou the Georgiana again, and had a very good voyage, leaving New Londoi 
April 11, and arriving home December 20, with 600 barrels of oil, 12,000 pounds of bone, and 
about 200 seal skins. I tried it again in the same vessel in 1858. We sailed June 1, the vessel 
and outfit being valued at $9,000; went to Cumberland Inlet and wintered there, and returned 
home December 9, 1859, with a cargo valued at $21,000. This was an excellent voyage and quite 
a contrast to the terrible hardships of our trip two years before. 

"Ou May 29, 1860, I went north in the bark George Henry, ('apt. C. F. Hall went with us. 
This was his first trip to the Arctic. He has written an account of it iu a book entitled Arctic 
Researches, published in 1S65. Our whaling-ground on this voyage was in Frobisher Bay. where 
we wintered two seasons returning home September 13, 1862, with 564 barrels of oil, 10,100 pounds 
of bone, 450 seal-skins, and 250 walrus-skins. As these were the first quantity of walrus skins 
brought home by any whaling vessel, we did not know whether they were of any merchantable 
value. We had prepared them by salting a little and then drying on the rocks. They sold at 50 
cents each in New London and were used for belting. During the winter months we lived with 
(he natives in their huts. We got short of provisions and moved from place to place, so that we 
were, sometimes a long distance from our vessel. Wherever we went \\e took a whale-boat, and 
gear along with us, rigging the boat on a sled for this purpose. Occasionally we would pull the 
boat to the edge of the. ice and go in search of whales, capturing several in this manner. 

"I sailed in 1863 on a voyage to Cumberland Inlet iu the schooner Franklin. We wintered 
there and arrived home, in 1864. I made two voyages after this, each tolerably successful." 

From 1S46 to 1852 the McCleiinan was the only American vessel fishing in the vicinity of 
Davis Strait. In the latter year this vessel was lost, and in 1853 the Amaret and Georgiana 
were fitted for those waters. In 1855 the George Henry was added to the fleet, and these three 
comprised the entire Davis Strait fleet until 1800, when ten vessels were sent out to those waters 
The vessels that had been sent north prior to 1860 were generally of the older class, and not 
thoroughly equipped for sc\ere battling with the ice, but that year two huge ships were included 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 97 

in tin- list. These were fitted at ;i large cost for the express purpose of pushing farther west 
through Hudson Strait into the bay where il \v;is anticipated abundance of whales could bo 
found, and where no American vessel had ever been. "Without accurate charts, in waters totally 
unknown, among ice and strong currents, in short days and long nights, in fogs and gales of wind, 
with large compass variations, these adventurous navigators pushed their way, and reached the 
longitude of f)<>, spent a winter there, when tho thermometer fell to G0 below zero, obtained 
cargoes worth about s<;o,<)00, and returned to the United States in ISfil."* 

Si-uce 18GO this fishery has been pursued with varying success; the total number of voyages 
lilted since that date has been one hundred and eight, and the largest number sent out in any 
oue year was nineteen vessels in ISG4. About 3 per cent, of the entire catch of whale oil and 
5 per cent, of the whalebone taken by the American fleet from 1870 to 1880 was by the Hudson 
Bay vessels. Most of the whaling has been carried on in Cumberland Inlet and Hudson Bay, no 
Americans having pushed on as far north as do the Scotch steam whalers that cruise up as far 
as the seventy-fourth parallel. The first steam-whaling vessel owned in the United States was 
the steam-bark Pioneer, sent to Davis Strait in 1866. She sailed April 28, and arrived home 
November 14, with 340 barrels of oil and 5,300 pounds of bone. She sailed again in 1867, and 
was lost on the voyage, being sunk by the ice. The best voyage ever made by the Davis Strait 
fleet was by the bark Pioneer that sailed from New London Julie 4, 1864, and after passing the 
season in Hudson Bay returned, September 18, 1865, with 1,391 barrels of oil and 22,650 pounds 
of bone, valued at $150,000. 

The vessels in this northern fleet must be double planked around the bow and along the sides 
near the water line as a. protection against the ice. This planking will last for several years. No 
copper or metal is used on the bottom, and but few sails are needed as the vessel is frozen in the 
ice much of the time. The natives are of great assistance to the whalers, helping them in taking 
whales and also in procuring fresh lisli and meat. On (he Scotch steamers it is the general 
custom to carry the blubber home to be tried, out, but American whalers here, as in other parts of 
the world, prefer to try it out on board the vessels. The Scotchmen cruise about these waters 
during the summer months, and then return home, while many of the American vessels winter in 
the ice. 

Most of the whales taken in these northern waters are of the bowhead or polar species which 
is peculiarly an ice- whale and is the same as taken by the Pacific- Arctic fleet. Whales have been 
taken in the vicinity of Point Barrow, with harpoons in them bearing the marks of vessels that 
had been pursuing the fishery in the vicinity of Davis Strait; hence it seems certain that there 
exists a passage from one ocean to the other. An instance of this kind is given by the Honolulu 
Commercial Advertiser, in December, 1870. It is an account of a harpoon which was found in a 
whale captured by the ship Cornelius Howland, of New Bedford, then cruising in the North 
Pacific Ocean. It is the custom among whalemen to have each iron stamped with initials desig- 
nating the ship to which it belongs. This is done to prevent dispute in case it is necessary to 
waif the whale, or in case boats from two different ships lay claim to one which has been killed. 
While off Point Barrow the Cornelius Howland took a large polar whale, in the blubber of which 
\\as embedded the head of a harpoon marked " A. C5-.,'' the wound made by it having healed over. 
This was presumed to have belonged to the bark Ansel Gibbs, also of New Bedford. But she 
was known to have been pursuing the fishery in Cumberland Inlet and its vicinity for some ten 
or eleven years previously. The obvious inference was that this whale must have found his way 



'ill. K. H. Chapell, f New London, in a ] apt. C. F. Hull, quoted, iu Narrative of the Second Arctic 

Expedition. 

SKC. v, VOL. ii 7 



98 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

from ocean to ocean by some channel unknown to navigators, and that at some seasons of tlie 
year there must be an inter-ocean communication. The Advertiser adds: "We have heard befon 
of instances where whales have been caught at Cumberland Inlet with harpoons in them, with 
which they have been struck in the Arctic Ocean, but we believe this is the first authenticated 
instance of a whale having been caught in the Arctic Ocean with a harpoon in it from the Davis 
Strait side." 

Scarcely any effort lias ever been made by Americans to find whaling-grounds to the east of 
Greenland or at Spitzbergen, where the Dutch and English once found such profitable fishing. 
Two American vessels have been sent to the Spitzbergen seas; one, the Hannibal, of New London, 
a ship of 441 tons that sailed May 21, 1855, and returned March 21, 1850, with 28 barrels of whale 
oil; the other vessel \vas the bark Tempest, also of New London, that sailed May 21, 1857. After 
an unsuccessful cruise near Spitzbergen and the east coast of Greenland, she sailed for the South 
Atlantic and thence to the North Pacific Ocean, where, after several cruises, she obtained a fair 
cargo, and returned to New London in 1861. The four years' cruise of the Tempest was not profit- 
able, but resulted in a loss of $7,000. The owner being asked how he could lose so much by the 
voyage, said: "I will, by way of reply, mention a few items, and the reader may draw his own 
inferences. Cost of vessel; interest on the same; outfits; interest on outfits; provisions for a 
large crew; advance to crew; desertion of men; shipping new hands; repairs on vessel; wear 
and tear; staving boat; clothing for men; new sails; few whales; insurance; commission; 
leakage; gauging; commission; wharfage; port charges; taxes; more leakage; outgoes; freight; 
fog; thunder." 

Another attempt of Americans to whale in the waters north of Europe was made at Iceland 
in the years 1865 and 1866, by Captains Dahl and Royce. They proceeded to Seidis Fjord, in 
latitude 65 18' north, with two vessels, the bark Reindeer, of New "York, under the American flag 
and a little steamer called the Visionary, which was built in Scotland, and sailed under the 
Danish flag. They had two whale-boats fitted for catching the whales that were towed by the 
steamer into the fjord where they were cut in. The first season proved unsuccessful, but in the spring 
of 1866, twenty sulphur-bottom whales were taken yielding about 900 barrels of oil. Extensive 
arrangements had been made to carry on the fishery, steam oil try-works having been built on 
land. In the winter of 1865-'(J6 there was sent to Ireland the Dutch schooner Jan Albert, that 
had been remodeled into a screw steamer and named the Litens. The crew consisted of Ameri- 
cans, Danes, Scotch, Russians, and one Polynesian. They further employed two small iron 
steamers built in Glasgow and Liverpool, and called t lie Vigilant and Stegpideder. By the end 
of September they had taken forty whales that yielded about 2,400 barrels of oil. Although this 
American attempt to establish a whale-fishery at Iceland was partially successful, yet the returns 
as compared witii the expenses of the undertaking did not warrant its continuance, and the fishery 
was abandoned. 

The fishing by Scotch vessels in Davis Strait and east of Greenland, as also the early history of 
the Spitzbergen whale-fishery are discussed below under the head of Whale Fishing by Foreign 
Nations. 

The total number of American vessels that have engaged in whaling in Davis Strait, Hudson 
Bay, and vicinity, since the revival of this fishery in 1846, includes 16 schooners, 7 brigs, 13 barks, 
7 ships, and 1 steamer, a total of 44 vessels, of which 18 were lost on their voyages. The 
entire number of voyages fitted out in the same period was 138. 

RECORD OF VOYAGES 1846 TO 1879. The following table is a record of each voyage made 
b.y the American licet to the region of Davis Strait and Hudson Bay from 1846 to 1879: 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 

Voyages of tin' Hurls xtruil unit Hudson Bay fleet from 1846 to 1879. 



99 



X .iiim "I" v. < 1 


Rig. 


Tons. 


Port. 


Sailed. 


Hemmed. 


Whale 
oil. 


Whale- 
bone. 


Remarks. 


1846-1852. 

Mrl'leiinaii 
1).. 


Ship 
do 


376 
376 


New Lou. 1.. M 
do 


Apr. s.isu; 
" 1847 


Sept. 17, 1846 

Oct. 5, 1SJ7 


Barrels. 
140 
1,111 


Pounds. 
15, 000 




Do 


do 


376 


ilo 


Mill, 3 1819 


Oct. Hi isr.i 


COO 


12, 000 




Dii 


do 


376 


do 


Mar. 7 IfoO 


Oct. "" I860 


450 


7,000 


700 seal-skins 


Do 


do 


376 


do 


1 .-.-i 1 


(ii-i 


258 


4,900 




P.. 
1853. 
Am. 11. '1 .. 


. . . do 

Bri;: 
do 


376 

111 
190 


do 

New London. - 
do 


Mar. _, 1S;V_' 

,Inly 13.1853 
Joly 13. 1853 


Ail-. 29, 1854 
Oct. 9, 1854 


369 
890 


8,000 

16, 000 


Lost in Davis Strait. 


1854. 




91 






\H.r 1<> 1855 


f!lean 






1855. 


Bark 


303 




Max 1 29 I 


] >er (J 1855 


1S4 




in the ice from October, 1854, to July, 
1855. 






190 


do 


Apr i ' 


Sept 16 1856 






lute, of the English expedition in search 
of Franklin. 


1856. 
A m.iivt 


Brig 
B-irk 


91 
303 


New London . . 
do 


May 111,1856 
May 21 1856 


, 1857 
Sept. 17 1857 


190 
418 


2,200 


meu from scurvy. 


1857. 
Ain;irct 


Brig... 
do 


91 

180 


New London 


Sept. 7, 1857 
Apr. 11, 1857 


Sept. 1,1858 
Dec. 20,1857 


267 
443 


5,700 
6,500 


Frozen in the ice eight months ; took the 
first whale July 1, and was full July 22. 




Brie 


190 




Jniie 1, 1858 


Dec. 9, 1859 


847 


15, 000 


Sailed for $9,000; cargo worth $21,000. 


1859. 


Brig 


91 




Apr 13 1859 








Lose iu Cumberland Inlet September 27, 


1860. 

A Msrl (.illtliS 

AnM<>iie 
Black Eagle 
Daniel "Webster 


Ship 
Bark 
...do 
Ship 


319 
340 
311 
336 


Fair Haven - . . 
New Bedford 
do 
do 


\|n 11,1860 
Mar. 15,1860 
May 20,1860 
Mai. L'l 1860 


Nov. 11, 1861 
Oct. 12,1863 
Nov. 3,1861 
Jan. 5 IScr. 


500 

1,500 
1, 122 


9.000 

:4, ooo 

17, 800 
6,500 


1860. The Aroaret wa3 the Rescue of 
Kane's expedition. 

Put in Aberdeen, Scotland, on account of 


George Henry . - . . 
Gforgiana 


Bark 
Brig 
Ship 


303 
190 
441 


New London . . 
do 
do 


May -!>. l:-il.l 
M:u 1,1860 

Mar "1 ]M;I. 


Sept. 13, 1862 
Oct. 7, 1861 


564 

695 


10, 100 
14, 700 
8,000 


MM- reliellimi ; sent home 2, 500 pounds 
Imnr ; I hnvnieii < lied of scurvy in 1862. 

ir.ii .-.eal and 2."ft walrus skins. 
Abandoned in Cumberland InletOctober, 


N'uilliern IJgbt 


...do 
Bark 


513 
235 


Fair Haven... 


-1,1860 
June 1 1860 


Oct. 11,1861 
Oct. 22 1SC1 


1,104 
10 


21,000 


1861. 


;,hn'.-n- 

K61. 

A llh-Iujn' 

Nortln-i M Ll-lit 
1862. 
A n- 1 ( . ilili- 
P.la.-k Eaglit 

.... 


Ship 

Bark 
Ship 

Ship 

Bark 

liiig 
liark 
do 


461 

340 
513 

319 
311 
190 
176 
235 


Fair Haven... 

New Bedford . 
do 

New Bedford . 
do 
New London . 
Xcw Bedford . 


June, 13, 1860 

Oct. 31, L861 

Nov. I 

Apr. 

May :.. 1 :->;_ 

Apr. -J7, 1.-I1L' 
Ma\ ' 


Oct. 11,1861 

Oct. 12,1863 
Oct. 17, 18112 

<"M. 11,1863 

X..v. 3,1863 
(). t. _:,, 1867 
(lit. 13,1863 


665 

1,500 
1,295 

1,000 
,650 
319 
225 
561 


15,700 

24,000 
10, 900 

17, 580 
30 000 
4,700 
3,000 
9,000 


Five men died of scurry. 


A. h,, 


Si I " i 
Bark 


90 
303 


New London - - 
New Bedford 


\|e 


i),-i. 2 
Oi-t. 2 


51 

1 046 


2,150 
17, 150 




\\~, bs& r 
Franklin 


...do 


336 
119 


... dn 


Apr. . 


;, ISIM 

Sept. -, 1M1I 


36 

341 


9,700 
5,800 








303 


do 










Lost in Hudson Bay, 1863. 


Isabella .- 


Brie... 


192 


...do .. 


June 6. 1863 


Oct 4.1864 


502 


7,250 





100 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Voyages of the Davis Strait and Hudson Hay fleets from 1846 to 1879 Continued. 



Name of vessel. 


Rig- 


Tons. 


Port. 


Sailed. 


Ketnrued. 


Whale 
oil. 


Wbale- 
o ne. 


Remarks. 


1863. 

Northern Light 
Pavilion 

Win. Thompson 
1864. 


Ship 
Brig ... 

Ship 

Bark 
do 


513 

150 

495 

311 
265 
197 
188 
165 
190 
262 
108 
95 
81 
254 
356 
305 
176 
130 
235 
101 

303 
336 
188 
119 
192 
356 
101 

303 
311 
265 
148 
177 
105 
128 
108 
238 
134 
91 
228 
212 

105 
101 

77 

277 

188 
119 
192 
216 
212 

303 
217 


New Bedford . 
Fair Haven . . . 

New Bedford 

New Bedford . 
Sag Harbor. . . 
New London . 
do 
do 
do 
New Bedford . 
New London 
do 
do 
New Bedford . 
New London . . 
New Bedford 
do 
Fair Havei, . 
New London . 
do 


Apr. 29,1863 
June 15, 1863 

Mar. 17, 1863 

May 7,1864 
June 3,1864 
May 9,1864 
Aug. 31, 1864 
Juno 4,1864 
Apr. 13, 1864 
June 21, 1864 
June 30, 1864 
June 8, 1864 
May 28, 1864 
Apr. 24,1864 
June 3(1, 1864 
May 14, 1804 
Apr. 9,1864 
f>, 1864 
June 4,1864 
Apr. 19,1804 

Apr. 1, 1805 
May 20, 1865 
May [7 
Apr. 25, 186.', 
Mar. 7,1865 
Apr. 19, 1865 
Oct. 26,1865 

May 1,1866 
Apr. 20, 1860 
Slay 11,1866 
Apr. 18,1866 
Apr. 10, 1866 
Apr. 18, 1866 
July 12,1866 
July 16,1866 
Apr. 18, 1866 
May 8,1866 
May 1, 1866 
Apr. 19, 1866 
Apr. 28, 1866 

June 28, 1866 
June 28, 1866 
June 6, 1866 

May 20,1867 

Apr. 11, 1867 
May 2, 1867 
May .'5,1867 
Apr. 2,1867 
Mar. 20, 1807 

June 3, 1808 
Apr. 20, 1868 


Oct. 24,1864 


Barrels. 
1,270 


Pounds 
20, !IOO 


Crashed in the ice in Hudson Bay ii 
1863 ; seven men lost ; survivors suf- 
fered severely from cold and exposure. 

Value of cargo, $150,000. 

First steam whaler from the United 
States. 

Lost in Cumberland Inlet November 14, 
1867. 

Sunk among the ice in Hudson Strait, 
July 6, 1867. 


Dec. 19,1863 

Oct. 1, 1865 
Oct. 1, 1865 
Oct. 11, 1865 
Sept. 20, 1864 
Oct. 10,1865 
Oct. 10,1865 
Nov. 13, 1865 
Sept, 1 
Oct. 28, 1864 
Sept. 11, 1863 
Oct. 28, 1864 
Sept. 21, ISC.-, 
Oct. 14, 1865 
Oct. 6, 1865 
May 31, 1865 
Sept, 18,1865 
Oct. 5, 1865 

Apr. 25,1806 
Nov. 14, 1866 
Xov. 19, 1866 
Sept. 17, 1866 
Nov. 9,1866 
Nov. 7,1866 
Oct. 9, 1867 

Oct. 9, 1867 
Sept. 24, 1867 
Sept, 13, 1867 
Oct. 31,1867 
Oct. 8, 1867 
Sept. 14, 1867 
Nov. 29, 1867 
Nov. 20, 1867 
Oct. 31,1867 
Oct. 25,1867 
Sept. 22, 1867 
Sept, 12, 1867 
Nov. 14,1866 

Sept. 14, 1868 
Oct. 9, 1866 
Sept. 26, 1866 


100 

781 
70 
300 
Clean. 
180 
766 
328 
Clean. 
Clean. 
287 
2,082 
27] 
1,170 
472 
75 
1,391 
199 

703 
236 
534 
584 
923 
300 

320 
200 
440 
200 
20 
500 
800 
50 
650 
225 
280 

3-10 

362 
249 
Clean. 


1,200 

12, 400 
900 
4,200 




Cornelia 


Schooner 
do 


George and Mary 


Bark .... 

Bli" 


2,800 
15, 250 

5,550 




Sehooner . 
..do 
..do 
...do .... 
Bark 
...do 


Hek-ii F 
Isabel 
Leader 


5,000 
39, 200 
3,900 
17, 900 
7.254 
795 
22, 650 
3,000 

1C, 600 
11,500 
2,900 
8,900 
10,500 
14, 500 
6,000 

6,000 
3,000 
7,300 


Mmiticello 


Orray Taft 


...do 


Pioneer 

S. B. Howes 

1865. 


Bark 
...do 

Bark 
Ship 
Schooner . 
... do 
Brig 
Bark 
Schooner . 

Bark 
do 


New Bedford . 
do 
New London. . 
do 
do 
New Bedford 
New London . . 

New Bedford . 
do 


Daniel Webster 
Eta 


Franklin 
Isabella 
Milwood 
S. B. Howes . 


1866. 

Ansel Gibbs 
Black Eagle 




do 


Sag Harbor. . . 




Schooner 
.. do 




New Bed ford 
New London. . 
do 


200 
10, 000 
16, 000 


George and Mary . . 
tana 
Helen F 
Morning Star 
Orray Taft 


Bark 
Brig 
Schooner . 
Bark 
do 


do 
New Bedford . 
do 
Fair Haven . . . 
New Bed lord . 
New London . . 

do 
do 
.... do 

New Bedford . 

New London . . 
do 
do 
New Bed ford . 
New London. . 


Sag Harbor. . . 


12, 000 
3,000 
8,000 
8,000 
5,300 

6,600 
5,600 


Oxford 


Brig 


Pioneer 
Pioneer 


Bark 
Steamer . . 

Schooner . 
...do 
do 


S.B.Howes 
TJ. D 


1867. 
Andrews 


Bark 

Schooner 
...do 

lirig 
Bark .... 
Steamer . . 

Bark 
...do 




Era 


Aug. 27, 1868 
Sept. 10, 1868 
Sept. 14, 1868 
Nov. 13, 1868 


837 
393 
668 
378 


13, 400 
6,600 
8,700 
3,889 


Franklin 
Isabella 
Milwood 
Pioneer 

1868. 

Ansel Gibbs 
Concordia 


Sept. 20, 1869 
Oct. 7, ]>:i',!l 


650 
200 


10,000 
2,900 



THK WIIALK KISIIKI.'Y. 

of the Hiii-i* xtriiit anil //</>, i:,n/ jln-lx J'lom l*4(\ l<> ISTU Continucil. 



101 



Name of vessel. 








Sidled. 


Returned. 


Whale 
oil. 


SV halo- 
bone. 


Remarks. 


1668. 


Schooner . 
Bark ... 

Brig 

S; llOHII'T 

Brig 
Schooner . 

Schooner . 
..do 
Brig 
Bark 
Si aoone] 

Bnik .... 
.do 
Schooner 

Bark 

Bark 
.do 


MS 
105 

128 
108 

91 
101 

188 
119 
192 
_'16 
105 

303 
105 
101 

303 

J17 
195 
192 
216 

115 




lay -.'0,1868 

>, 18CS 
June 20, 1868 

rnly UO, 1868 

M:..v 1 

May 18,1869 
Apr. 14, I860 
Apr. 6, 1869 
May 18,1869 

JuneSl, 1870 
May 3, 1870 
July 7,1870 

Dec. 13.1871 

Apr. 25,1871 
July 9, 1871 
May 31, 1871 
Sept. 25, 1871 

Ma\ 28,1872 
May 29, 1872 
July 2,1872 

June 26, 1873 

May 12, 1874 

June 15, 1874 
June 9,1874 

June 8,1875 
May 4,1875 

May 23, 1876 

July 17, 1877 
July 11, 1877 
May 30, 1877 
July 11, 1877 

May 8,1878 
May 4,1878 
May 15,1878 
July 
May 14, 1878 
JS, 1878 

Jnne23,1879 

June 15, 187! 
Jun2':, 187! 


:, 1869 

Sept. 1 


Barrels. 
143 
450 


y minds. 
1,765 
8,000 


Lost, in 1868 with entire crew 

Lost, in Cumberland Inlet November 10, 
1876. 

Lost in Cumberland Inlet in 1869. 

Lost in 1870. 

Lost in tho inlet in 1873. 

Lost in Hndson Bay October 19, 1872, 
having 630 barrels oil and 810, 000 pounds 
boneon board; 3, 500 pounds bone were 
saved; 15 of crew died of scurvy. 

Nothing but freight ; broken up in 1873. 
Losf on Biaek T.ead Island. 

Lost in Hndson Bay September 14, 1872. 

The fiist mate and a boat's crew were 
lost in tho ice September 5, 1874. 

Lost in Hndson Bay June 12, 1877; 
value $24,000. 

Lost in Hudson Bay August 16, 1878 

Male froze, to deaib. Brought home re- 
n: i ms of Dr. Irving, of Franklin Expe> 
dition. 


George and Mary.. 
Georgiana 


X* \v London 

.... do 
... do 

fa ir II a\ rn 

NY\v J.' 

>, . v. 1 .ondnii . 
....do 
do 

ill'oid 
"tidon. . 

New !' 
Now London . . 
.... do 

New Bedford . 

New London.. 

New Bed fold . 
Now London. . 

New Bedford . 

New Bedford 
Pioviucetown 
New Bedford 

New London . 

New Bedford 

New London . 
New Bedford 

New London. 
do 

New Bedford 

New Bed ford 
New London. 
do 
do 

t 

New Bedford 
do 
do 
do 




1,450 


13,600 


Oxford 


Nov. C',1869 

Oct. 5, 1870 
Oct. 5, 1870 
Oft. I'', 11-70 
("let. 6,1870 

Oct. (j, 1871' 

Nov. 20, 1871 


Clean. 

533 
47:i 
527 
990 




1869. 
Era 


5,400 
8,418 
6,587 
15, 900 


Kiankliu 
Isabella 




1S7U. 


1,340 
425 


22, 040 
5,000 


George and Mary. . 


1871. 
Ausel Gibbs 

C'oncordia 








Nov. 9, 1871 
Sept. 'JO, 1873 
Oct. 28,1872 






75 


1,600 
228 




Brig 
Bark 




140 

878 
180 


1872. 
A bbie Bradford 


Schooner . 
do 


Sept. 7,1873 
Oct. 8, 1872 


13,131 
:i. 128 




Bark 


134 
192 

115 

293 
259 

192 

293 

219 

197 
134 
89 
293 

115 
160 

197 
77 


1873. 
Isabella 

1874. 
Abbie Bradford 

Nile 
President 

1875. 
Isabella 


Brig 

Schooner. . 

Ship 
Bark 

Bri" 


Sept. 2,1873 

Sept. 24, 1875 

Dec. 9, 1874 
Sept, 16, 1874 

Aug. 27, 1877 
Jan. 11,1876 


Clean. 

650 

800 
500 

400 
380 

200 

243 
20 
LOO 

550 
190 
20 
40 
200 
150 

70 

300 
550 




12,000 

- 000 
K. iiiin 

4,000 
5,000 

4,500 

2,800 

j, null 
8,000 

8,000 
3,000 


Nile 


Ship 
Bark 

Brig 
Schooner. 
.. do 


1876. 
A. Houghton 

1877. 
A J Ross 


Apr. 10, 1878 
Dec. 4,1878 
Nov. 27, 1878 
Dec. 1, 1878 

Aug. 31, 1S79 
Sept. 1,1879 


Era 




Nile 


Bark 

Schooner. 
Brig 
...do 


1878. 

Abbie Bradford . - - 
Al.lM'tt Lawrence. 
A. J. Rosa... 
Franklin 
Isabella 
Mattapoisett 

1879. 
George and Mary . 

Delia HoJgkins... 


Ang. 31, 1879 
Aug. 31, 1879 
Sept. 7,1879 

Sept. 22, 1880 

Nov. 22, 1879 
Nov. 24, 1880 


215 

4,000 
2,000 


Brig 
Bark 

Bark 

Schooner, 
do 


132 
110 

105 

95 

134 


do 
do 

New Bedford 

New London 

do 


8,000 







102 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

7. HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN WHALE FISHERY FROM 1750 TO 1815. 

The Dutch aud English bad carried on the whale-fishery iu the northern seas for several years 
prior to the settlement of New England by Englishmen. Along the shore of Massachusetts whales 
were constantly being driven ashore and were secured by the inhabitants. In the early records 
of the colonies we find numerous references to drift whales, but it was not until about the year 
1712 that vessels were used, and those of but small tonnage, so that they ventured but on short 
voyages. By the year 1730, however, the vessels were of larger class and generally sloop-rigged. 
By the year 1750 there was a large fleet sailing from various ports in New England, which has 
always been the enterprising center for the whale-fishery in this country. 

The following exhaustive review of the American whale-fishery during the period from 1750 to 
1815 is quoted from Starbuek's History of the Whale Fishery printed in the report of the United 
States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for l.S7j-'7G : 

BOUNTY TO ENGLISH WHALERS. " The period from 1750 to 1784 was the most eventful era to 
the whale-fishery that it has ever passed through. For a large proportion of the time the business 
was carried on under imminent risk of capture, first by the Spanish and French and after by the 
English. The colonial Davis Strait fishery seems to have been quite abandoned, and the vessels 
cruised mostly to the eastward of the Grand Banks, along the edge of the Gulf Stream and in the 
vicinity of the Bahama*. In 1748 the English Parliament had passed a second act to encourage 
this fishery. By it the premium on inspection of masts, yards, and bowsprits, tar, pitch, and tur- 
pentine, aud on British-made sail-cloth were to continue, and the duties on foreign-made sail-cloth 
were remitted to vessels engaged in this pursuit. A bounty was also granted on all ships engaged 
in whaling during the then existing war ; harpoouers and others employed in the Greenland fish- 
ery were exempted from impressment. The commissioners of customs were, under the required 
certificate, to pay the second twenty shillings per ton bounty granted by Parliament over the 
first twenty previously granted.* The ships which had sailed during the previous March or April 
were to be equal sharers iu this bounty with those whose sailing had been delayed. All ships 
built or fitted out for this pursuit from the American colonies conforming to this act were to be 
licensed to whale, and iu order to receive the bounties must remain in Davis Straits or vicinity 
from May (sailing about May 1) until the 20th of August, unless sooner full or obliged to return 
by accident. Foreign Protestants serving in this fishery for two years, aud qualifying themselves for 
its prosecution, were to be treated as though they were natives.! The cause of this concession to 
the colonies was a part of Lord Shirley's scheme to rid Acadia of the French. It was his desire 
that George II should cause them to be removed to some other English colony, and settle Nova 
Scotia with Protestants, t and to this end invitations were sent throughout Europe to induce 
Protestants to remove thither. 'The Moravian Brethren were attracted by the promise of exemp- 
tion from oaths and military service. The good will of New England was encouraged by care for 
its fisheries ; and American whalemen, stimulated by the promise of enjoying an equal bounty 
with the British, learned to follow their game among the icebergs of the Greenland seas.' 'The 
New Eiiglanders of this period.' says Bancroft,|| ' were of homogeneous origin, nearly all tracing 
their descent to the English emigrants of the reigns of Charles the First and Charles the Second. 
They were a frugal and industrious race. Along the sea-side, wherever there was a good harbor, 
fishermen, familiar with the ocean, gathered in hamlets ; and each returning season saw them 

"*In sixth year of the ivigu of George II." "t Mass. Col. MSS., Maritime, vi, p. 316." 

" t The carrying out of this srhcnie and the destruction of the colony of Acadian* justly receives execration." 

" Bancroft's Hist. U. S., v, p. 45." " || Ibid., iv, p. 149." 



TIN: \\IIAI.K risiiEi;v. 103 

with an ever-increasing number of mariners ;uul vessels, taking Hie coil and mackerel, and some 
times pursuing the whale into the icy labyrinths of '.he northern seas; yet loving home, and 
dearly attached to their modest freeholds.' 

"Of this period Hiite.hinson says : * 'The increase of the consumption of oil by lamps as well 
as by divers manufactures in Kurope has been no small encouragement to our whale-fishery. The 
flourishing state of the island of Xantucket must be attributed to it. The cod and whale fishery, 
being the principal source of our returns to Great Britain, are therefore worthy not only of 
provincial but national attention.' 

"A continual succession of foreign wars, in which the hardy fishermen and farmers of New 
England were constantly called to the aid of England, coupled with a continual succession of in- 
tolerant measures adopted by the mother country toward the plantations, which, in common with 
the colonists at large, they felt impelled to resist, was gradually preparing America for the event- 
ful struggle which was to end in its independence. By the experience of the wars they learned 
their strength; through the pressure of the tyrannical acts they learned their rights." 

EMBARGO OF 1757. "Pending the expedition for the reduction of Nova Scotia in 1755 an 
embargo was laid upon the Bank fishermen, though the risk of capture was so great that it of 
itself must have quite effectively embargoed many of them. t 

In 1757 the embargo being still continued upon the fishery in these waters a petition 
was presented to the general court of Massachusetts from the people of Martha's Vineyard and 
Xantucket. representing that the memorialists 'being Informed that your Honours think it not 
advisable to Permit the fishermen to Sail on their Voyages until the time limited by the Embargo 
is Expired by lieasou that their fishing banks where they Usually proceed on said Voyages lyes 
Eastward not far from Cape bretou which may be a means of their falling into the hands of the freuch 
which may be of bad Consequence to the Common Cause. Your Memorialists would Humbly observe 
to Your Honours that that is not the Case with the whalemen their procedure on their Voyages is 
Westward of the Cape of Virginia, and southward of that until the mouth of June from which Your 
Memorialists are of the mind their is nothing like the Danger of their falling into the hands of the 
<'ape bretou Privateers as would be If they went Eastward. Your Memorialists would further 
Observe that the whalemen have almost double the Number of hands that the fishermen Carry 
which makes Their Charge almost, Double to that of fishermen and ye first part of the Whale 
,-eason is Always Esteemed the Principal time for their making their Voyages which If they lose 
the greatest part of the People will have nothing to Purchase the Necessaries of life withal they 
h.ivcing no other way which must make them in miserable Situation. Your memorialists would 
therefore beg that y r Honours would take Our Miserable Situation under Consideration and grant 
our Whalemen liberty lo Proceed on Our Voyages from this time If it be Consistent with your 
(ireat wisdom as in duty bound shall every prayj 

" 'JOHN NORTON (for Martha's Vineyard) 
u 'ABISHAI FOLGER (for Nantucket)' 

"In compliance with the foregoing petition the council passed this resolution (April 8, 1758): 
Inasmuch as the Inhabitants of Xantucket most of whom are Quakers are by Law exempted 
from Impresses for military Sen ice. And their Livelihood intirely depends on the Whale fishery 

"Hist, of Massachusetts, ii. p. .1IH'." 

"t A duty was laid upon the eoloni.sts m l?:,i; to support a, frigate on the Banks to defend the fislu 
" t Mass. Col. MSS., M. -nil inn- yi, p. :',71. From this pet it ion p]ie:<r that, having an unfavorable season 

at the soitthwatd, the, whalemen \\ otild stand lor Hi t.o till there. If, however, a \ easel got home early 

from the nut-Hi, t ln-\ frequent ly went mi another voyage 10 the so n Hi and west \\ aril in I lie same year.'' 



104 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Advised that his Escell y give permission for all whaling Vessclls belong 5 to s a Il d to pursue their 
Voyages, taking only the Inh t8 of s d Island in s d Vessells and that upon their taking any other 
persons whatsoever with them they be subject to all the Penalties of the law in like manner as if 
they had proceeded without Leave.'" 

THE GULF OF SAINT LAWKENCE AND STRAITS OF BELLEISLE FISHERY. "In 1761 the 
fishery of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Straits of Bellisle was opened to our whalemen, 
and they speedily availed themselves of its wealth. This was the legitimate result of the conquest 
of Canada and the cession of territory made by France to England at the conclusion of the war, 
a result which the colonists had labored hard and spent lives and treasure unstintedly to attain, 
but of the benefit of which they were destined to be defrauded. A duty was levied on all oil and 
bone carried to England from the colonies, and by another oppressive act of Parliament they 
were not allowed to find for this product any other market. The discrimination between the 
plantations and the mother country was made the more marked .since at this time the residents of 
Great Britain were allowed a bounty from which he provincials were debarred. Against these 
injustices the merchants of New England, and these of London engaged in colonial trade, respect- 
fully petitioned. They represented that 'in the Tear 1701 The Province of Massachusetts Bay, 
fitted out from Boston & other portst Ten Vessels of from Seventy to Ninety Tous Burden for 
this Purpose. That the Success of these was such as to encourage the Sending out of fifty Vessels 
in the Year 1762 for the same trade. That in the Year 17(J3 more than Eighty Vessels were 
imploy'd iu the same niauner.f That they haTe already imported to London upwards of 40 Ton 
of Whale Finn: being the produce of the two first years. That upon Entring of the above Finn, 
a Duty was required and paid upon it, of thirty one Pound ten shillings V Ton. That the 
weight of this Duty was remlei'd much heavier by the great reduction made in the price of Dutch 
Bone since the commencement of this trade from 500 to 330 Ton.' They represent further 
that the reason for the conferring of bounties upon vessels in this pursuit from Great Britain was 
tn rival the Dutch, $ but in spite of this encouragement there was not enough oil and bone 
brought into England by British vessels to supply the demand. They also reasoned that Parlia- 
ment could not intentionally discriminate between the various subjects of the Crown, granting 

M:i.-s. Col. MSS., Maritime, vi, p. 371. Martha's Vineyard appears to be ignored in the order." 

"t As already explained, Boston was the port of entry for many of the Cape towns and its own immediate vicinity." 

" t According to the following doggerel there were seventy-five whaling captains sailing from Nautucket iu ITli:!: 

Whale-List, lij Tlwmas Wcrtli, J/. 1763. 

Out of Nantucket their's Whalemen seventy-five, 
But two poor Worths among thorn doth survive : 
Their is two Ranisdills & their's Woodbury's two, 
Two Ways there is, chnse which one pleaseth you, 
Folgers thirteen, & Barnards there are four 
Bunkers their is three & Jenkinses no more, 
Gardners their is seven, Husseys their are two, 
Pinkhams their is five and a poor Delano, 
Myricks there is three & Coffins there are six, 
Swaius their arc four and one blue gaily Fitch. 
One Chadwick, Cogshall, Colemau their's but one, 
Brown, Baxter, two & Paddacks there is three, 
Wyer, Stanton, Starbuek, Moorse is ftmr you see, 
But if for a Voyage I was to choose a Stauton, 
I would leave Sammy out & choose Ben Stratton. 
And not forget that Eocott is alive, 
And that long-crotch makes up the seventy -five. 
This is answering to the list, you see, 
Made up in seventeen hundred & sixty-three." 

" The Dutch from 1759 to 1768 sent to the Greenland fishery 1,:5'24 ships, which took 3,018 whales, producing 146,419 
barrels of oil and 8,785,140 pounds of bone. (Scoresby.) Great Britain in the same time sent about one-third the 

number <>f ships." 



TlIE WHALE FISIIKIIV. 



105 



to one a bounty and requiring of another a duty for (lie same service. They, however, ask for no 
bounty they are content that Great Britain should alone receive the benefit of that but they 
simply desire that they should not be taxed with ;i duty on these imports."* 

ENGLISH BOUNTY ABOLISHED. "The knowledge that the English fishery, even with its 
bounty, was still unable to fully cope with the Dutch, or even to supply its own home demand, as 
well as the desire of Earl Grenville to forward certain projects in his American policy, notably the 
odious stamp tax, caused some attention to be paid to petitions similar to the foregoing, fortified 
somewhat by the presence of a special agent from Massachusetts to sustain the position and urge 
the claims there made. To various sections various tenders were to be made. 'The boon that 
was to mollify Now England,' says Bancroft,! 'was concerted with Israel Mauclit, acting for bis 
brother, the agent of Massachusetts, and was nothing less than the whale-fishery. Great Britain 
had sought to compete with the Dutch in that branch of industry ; had fostered it by bounties ; 
had relaxed even the act of navigation, so as to invite even the Dutch to engage in it from British 
ports iu British shipping. But it was all in vain. Grenville gave up the unsuccessful attempt, 
and sought a rival for Uolland in British America, which had hitherto lain under the double dis- 
couragement of being excluded from the benefit of a bounty, | and of having the products of its 
whale-fishing taxed unequally. He now adopted the plan of gradually giving up the bounty to 
the British whale fishery, which would be a saving of 30,000 a year to the treasury, and of reliev- 
ing the American fishery from the inequality of the discriminating duty, except the old subsidy, 
which was scarcely 1 per cent. This is the most liberal act of Grenville's administration, of which 
t lie merit is not diminished by the fact that the American whale-fishery was superseding the English 
under every discouragement. It required liberality to accept this result as inevitable, and to 
favor it. It was doue, too, with a distinct conviction that 'the American whale-fishery, freed from 
its burden, would soon totally overpower the British.' So this valuable branch of trade, which 
produced annually 3,000 pounds, and which would give employment to many shipwrights and 
other artificers, and to three thousand seamen, was resigned to America." 

EFFECTS OF WAR. "With the people of Nantacket every foreign war meant a diminution 
of their whaling fleet, for there is scarcely any risk that whalemen have not and will not run in 
pursuit of their prey. During the years 1755 and 1756 six of their vessels had been lost at sea 
and six more were taken by the French and burned, together with their cargoes, while the crews 

' * Ma. Col. MSS., Maritime, vol. vii, p. 243. Tbe coacludiiig portion of this petition, including tbe signatures, is 
missing, a fact, greatly to bo regretted, as it would be extremely interesting to know who tbe prominent oil-merchants 
of tbat time were. The following is the statement of imports of oil ami bone from the colonies into England and 
from Holland to the same country, which accompanied the petition: 

Account of Finim <f- Oil from America to England cf- Duties from Christmas 1758 to Christmas 1763. 



Year 




Fins. 






Whale-oil. 








Duty, America. 


Duty, London. 




Duty, America. 


Duty, London. 


1758 to 1759 . 


T. Owl. Lbs. 
17 17 


. d. 
11 


s. d. 

10 14 


T. H. 0. 
3 245 2 28 


. s. d. 
1 898 13 8 


s. d. 
1 436 3 8 


1760 . 


18 2 9 


28 10 6 


27 10 4 


2 595 1 14 


1 518 5 1 


1 148 8 5 


1761 


27 8 


42 2 6 


40 10 


3 126 3 31 


1 829 4 5 


1 383 12 10 


1762 


335 2 5 


522 3 10 


502 5 


2 483 2 39 


] 452 18 9 


1 090 4 


1763 


1 546 3 13 


2 427 5 3 


2 315 9 4 


5 030 1 


2 942 11 7 


2 225 15 11 
















Total 


1 985 24 


3 Oil 10 1 


2 896 15 2 


16 481 1 16 


9 641 13 


7, 293 1 2 

















t Bancroft's United States, v, p. 184. 

t The bounty of 174b had evidently been legislated out of existence. 



106 HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

were carried away into captivity. In 1760 another vessel was captured by a French privateer of 
twelve guns and released after the commander of the privateer hud put on board of her the crew 
of a sloop they had previously taken nearly full of oil and burned. The captain of the sloop, - 
Luce, had sailed with three others who were expected on the coast. The day after Luce was taken 
the privateer engaged a Bermudian letter of marque and was beaten. During this engagement 
several whalemen in the vicinity made their escape. In the same month (June) another privateer 
of fourteen guns took several whaling vessels, one of which was ransomed for $400, all the prison- 
ers put on board of her, and she landed them at Newport.* In 17G2 another Nautucket sloop was 
taken by a privateer from the French West Indies, under one MODS. Palanqna, while she was 
cruising in the vicinity of the Leeward Islands.'' 

MARTHA'S VINEYARD AND NANTUCKET WHALERS. "At Martha's Vineyard whaling did 
not seem to thrive so well as at the sister island of Nantucket. The very situation of Nantucket 
seemed favorable for the development of this and kindred pursuits; in fact, the situation made 
them necessities. While the Vineyard was quite fertile and of considerable extent, Nautucket 
was comparatively sterile and circumscribed. At the Vineyard a livelihood could be attained 
from tilling the earth, at Nantticket a large portion of that which sustained life must be wrested 
from the ocean. A constant struggle with nature, ami a constant surmounting of those obstacles 
incident to their lo.-ation and surroundings, developed within the Nantucketois a spirit of adventure 
which was carefully trained into channels of enterprise and usefulness. Hence, the early history 
of whaling on Martha's Vineyard was not that ultimate success that it was on Nantucket, and 
while the year 1775 found the latter with a fleet of 150 vessels with a burden of 15,000 tons, the 
former at the same period could count but 12 vessels and an aggregate of 720 tons. 

" In 1752 Mr. John Newman and Timothy Coffin built a vessel of 75 tons, but she was also 
destined to a brief existence. On her second voyage whaling she was captured near the Grand 
Bauks'by the French, and Captain Coffin, her commander, lost his life, his vessel, and his cargo. 
In the same year (1752) John Norton, esq., with others, purchased a vessel of 55 tons for the 
carrying on of this business, and. like her contemporary, she failed to survive her second voyage, 
but was cast away on the coast of Carolina, Capt. Christopher Beetle being at the time in command. 
Mr. Norton immediately chartered a vessel to get his own off, but on their arrival on Carolina, 
his vessel was gone, with her sails, rigging, and appurtenances, and he out of pocket a further 
sum of $500 to the wrecking party. Eight years later (1760), Esquire Norton, with others, built 
the sloop Polly, 65 tons burden. On her third whaling trip to the southward she too was lost, 
and by her destruction perished Nicholas Butler, her captain, and thirteen men. Repeated losses 
had reduced Norton to somewhat straitened circumstances, and, selling what property he had 
left, he removed to Connecticnl, where, he died. 

"It is impossible to separate in the accounts of whaling at this time the share which Boston 
took in it from that taken by other ports. The reports which may be found in the current papers 
rarely gave the name of the port to which entering or clearing vessels belonged. In fact the 
majority of the reports are. merely records of accidents, and it is very rarely indeed that the 
amount cf oil taken by returning whalers is given. 

"lu 1762 a whaling .schooner, commanded by - - Bickford, was totally lost on Seil (?) 
Islands. The crew, fourteen in number, were taken off by a fishing vessel." 

LONG- ISLAND WHALERS. "Of the Long Island fishery the only record accessible is the 
meager one regarding Sag Harbor. Easthampton, Southampton, and (heir more immediate neigh- 
bors seem to have been supplanted by this younger town.t Probably prior to 1760 vessels had 

"* These vessels were from several whaling ports." " t Sag Harbor was Settled in 1730." 



THK WII.\U<; FISHERY. 107 

been fitted for whaling from tliis port : il so, their ident ilical ion is iinpossilile. In 1760, however, 
tlnve sloops were lilted out by Joseph Conkling, John Foster, and others. They were named Good- 
luck, Dolphin, and Success, ami their cruising ground was in the vicinity of 36 north latitude." 

RHODK ISLAND AVII AI.KIIS. "The reports regarding 1,'liode Island are equally meager. 
Occasional reports are to lie [bund of the arrivals of whaling-vessels. Imt no report of where they 
cruised or what success they met with, and no records exist at the custom-house to help clear up 
the historical mist. Warren comes into notice at this period as quite a thriving whaling-port. 
The Boston News Letter of October :_'.'!, 17G(i. says : - Severa.l Vessels employed in the Whale Fish- 
ery, from the industrious Town of Warren in Rhode Island Colony, have lately returned, having 
met with considerable success. One Vessel, which went as far as the Western Islands, brought 
home upwards of 300 Barrels of Uil. Some Vessels from Newport have also been tolerably success- 
ful. This Business, which seems to be. carried on with Spirit, bids fair to be of great Utility to 
that Government." " 

VIRGINIA WHALERS. " Williamsburgh, Va., felt the stimulus caused by success in this busi- 
ness ; and in the early spring of 1751 several gentlemen subscribed a sum of money and fitted out 
a small sloop, called the Experiment, for whaling along the southern coast. On the 9th of May, 
1751, she returned with a valuable whale, This was the first vessel ever fitted for this pursuit 
from Virginia, and whether she continued for any length of time in the business is unknown. The 
encouragement of the first success undoubtedly caused another venture." 

BEGINNING OF WHALING INDUSTRY AT NEW BEDFORD. " In the vicinity of New Bedford 
whaling probably commenced but little prior to 1760. In that year William Wood, of Dartmouth, 
sold to Elnathan Eldredge, of the same town, a certain tract of land, located within the present 
town of Fairhaven, and within three-quarters of a mile of the center of the town, on the banks of 
the Acushnet Eiver, ' Always Excepting and reserving ***** that part of the same 
where the Try house and Oyl shed now stands.' How long these buildings had been standing at 
the date of this deed is unknown, but the fact of their being there then is indisputable, and, as it 
was not the habit in those days to put up useless buildings, they were undoubtedly applied to the 
purpose for which they were built. That they were considered valuable property is evident from 
the fact of their being reserved, lu 1765, four sloops, the Nancy, Polly, Greyhound, and Hannah, 
owned by Joseph Russell, Caleb Russell, and William Talluian, and from 40 to 60 tons burden, 
were employed in the whale fishery.* lu Ricketsou's ' History of New Bedford' is published a 
portion of a log-book of the whaling-sloop Betsey, of Dartmouth, in 1761. The early portion is 
missing, the first date commencing July 27. These small vessels usually sailed in pairs, and, so 
long as they kept in company, the blubber of the captured whales was divided equally between 
them. Hence the reports, in which the captains' names are always given instead of the names of 
the vessels, which rarely occur, often return the vessels in pairs, with fine same quantity of oil to 
each. The following are a few extracts from this journal as published : ' August 2d, 1761. Lat. 
l.Vi4, long. .">.;. .J7 Saw two sperm-whales; killed one. Aug. 6th. Spoke with John Clasbery ; 
he had got 105 bbls.; told us Seth Folger had got 150 bbls. Spoke with two Nantucket men; 

Kic ki-iscui's llisiriry <n' NYw Bedford, p. :>-. Mr. Ricketson .says: 'To Joseph Russell, the founder of New Bed- 
lord, is also attributed the limior of b(ring the pioneer of the whale-fishery of New Bedford. It is well authenticated 
by ihe statements of several rot mporaries, lately deceased, that Joseph Russell had pursued the business as early as 
the year l?r.r>.' From what particular portion of the then town of Dartmouth (which also included what is now known 
as New Bedford, and Fairhaveu) lie titled out his vessels, is uncertain. At that time the land on which stands the 
<-ity of New Bedford was unpopulated by the whites, and not a single house marked the spot where, within less tlian 
a century thereafter, stands the city from which w.is lit red out more whaling-vessels than from all the other American 
ports combined." 



108 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

they had got one whale between them; hey told that Jenkius & Dunham had got four whales 
between them, and Allen & Pease had got 2 whales between them. Lat. 42.57. Sunday, August 
9th. Saw sperm-whales ; struck two, and killed them between us, (naming their escort). August 
10th. Cut up our blubber into casks; tilled 35 hhds. ; our partner filled 33 hhds. Judged our- 
selves to be not far from the Banks. Finished stowing the hold. August 20. Lat. 44 deg. 2 min. 
This morning spoke with Thomas Gibbs ; had got 110 bbls ; told us he had spoke with John Aikin, 
and Ephraim Delano, and Thomas Nye. They had got no oil at all. Sounded ; got no bottom. 
Thomas Gibbs told us we were but two leagues off the Bank.' The Betsey probably arrived home 
about the middle of September. In 1762 she apparently made another voyage, though the jour- 
nal up to the 2d of September is missing. On that date they spoke ' Shubel Bunker and Benja- 
min Paddock.' On the 3d of September they ' Knocked down try- works.'* Ou the 15th they spoke 
Henry Folger and Nathan Coffin." 

RESTRICTIONS TO AMERICANS WHALING IN GULP OF ST. LAWRENCE. "About this time 
a new element entered into antagonism with colonial whaling in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
vicinity. Scarcely had the colonists aided to wrest this fishery from the French, when the English 
governors, in their turn, strove to keep our vessels from enjoying its benefits. lu the News-Letter 
of August 8, 1765, is the following statement : ' Tuesday one of the sloops which has been on the 
Whaling Business returned here. We hear that the Vessels employed in the Whale Fishery from 
this and the neighbouring Maritime Towns,t amounting to near 100 Sail, have beeu very successful 
this Season in the Gulph of St. Lawrence and Streigths of Belle isle; having, tis said, already made 
upwards of 9,000 Barrels of Oil.' But this rosy-colored report was speedily followed by another of 
a more somber hue. In August 22, the same paper says : 'Accounts received from several of our 
Whaling Vessels on the Labrador Coast, are, that they meet with Difficulties in regard to their 
fishiug, in Consequence of Orders from the Commanding Officers on that Station, a Copy of which 
are as follows : 

"'MEMORANDUM: In Pursuance of the Governor's Directions, all masters of Whaling Vessels, 
and others whom it may concern, are hereby most strictly required to observe the following Par- 
ticulars, viz : 

"'1 To carry the useless Parts of such Whales as they may catch to at least Three Leagues 
from the Shore, to prevent the Damage that the neighbouring Fishers for Cod and Seal sustain 
by their being left on the Shore. 

'"2 Not to carry any Passengers from Newfoundland or the Labrador^ Coast to any Part of 
the Plantations. 

" '3 To leave the Coast by the first of November at farthest. 

'"4 Not to fish in any of the Ports or Coasts of Newfoundland lying between Point Richi and 
Cape Bonavista. 

'"5 Not to carry on any Trade or have any Intercourse with the French on any Pretence. 

" * In other words, took them down. From this it is evident that some vessels were prepared for trying out their 
oil on hoard. 

"The News-Letter of July 26, 1764, states that one Jonathan Negers, of Dartmouth, while whaling, was so injured 
by a whale's striking the hoat that he died a few days after." 

" t It is impossible to apportion the vessels among their proper ports. The vessels from Cape Cod and the north- 
ward cleared at Boston ; those from the Vineyard, at Nautucket ; those at Dartmouth, sometimes at Nantiickefc :md 
sometimes at Newport." 



TIIK WIIAI, i: I'ISIIEI;V. 109 

'"6 IH all your Dealings with the Indians to treat Iliem with the greatest Civility: observing 
not to Impose on their Ignorance, or to take Advantage of their Necessities. You arc also ou no 
Account to serve them with spirituous Liquors. 

'"7 Not to iish lor any other than Whale on this Coast. 

'"Dated on hoard His Majesty's sloop Zephyr, at the Isle of Bois, on the Labradore Coast, 
the L'lst July, 17<i:>. 

'"JODN HAMILTON.' 

''The issue of November 18 reports that on account of this proclamation the vessels 'are 
returning halt' loaded.' It was the custom with many early whalemen, especially from the imme- 
diate vicinity nf Koston, to go prepared for either cod or whale fishing, and in the event of the 
failure of the one to have recourse to the otln r. All restrictions which arc sustained by an armed 
force are liable to be made especially obnoxious by the manner of the enforcement, and this was 
no means a contrary case, [t was not at all surprising, then, that the ensuing season's fishing was 
only a repetition of the failure of that of 17(i.">. 'Since our last,' says the News Letter, 'several 
Vessels are ret.urned from the Whaling Business, who have not only had very bad Success, but 
also have been ill-treated by some of the Cruisers ou the Labradore Coast.' Two ships had been 
fitted out from London, the Palliser and the Labradore, for the express purpose of trading, fishing, 
and whaling ou the coast of Labrador and in the straits of Belle Isle. Capt. Charles Penn, who 
came out in them as pilot, left the straits on the 9th of July on his way to Newfoundland. Ou his 
passage he went on board quite a numl:er of whaling-vessels, and reported that they had met with 
very poor success; had got only about twenty whales in the entire fleet. In consequence of this 
failure some of them had, according to the time-honored practice, gone to fishing for cod, but had 
been interrupted by an armed vessel and by the 'company's ships' (the Palliser and Labradore), 
and their catch all taken away from them save what "their actual necessities required. This was 
done under the pretense that the whole coast was patented to 'the company,' and by virtue of 
orders issued by Hugh Palliser, 'governor of Newfoundland, Anticosti, Magdalenes, and Lab- 
radore.' Palliser's proclamation, which bore date of April 3, 1766, specified that all British 
subjects whaling in that vicinity should choose places on shore where they should laud, cut up 
their blubber, and make oil as they arrived, but not to select anyplace which was used in the 
cod-fishery. Whalemen from, the plantation s might take whales on those coasts, but were only 
permitted to land on some unoccupied place within the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to cut up and try 
out their blubber; and it was particularly specified that they were not to make use of any place 
which was used by the British fishermen for the same or a similar purpose. Complaint having 
been made of the provincial whalemen in regard to their waste interfering with the cod fishery, 
they were enjoined that they must carry the carcasses of the whales at least three leagues from 
the shore. No fishermen from the plantations were to be allowed to winter on Labrador. And 
then Capt. John Hamilton, 'of H. M. sloop of war Merlin, Lieut. Gov. of Labradore,' &c., issued 
his proclamation: 'This is to give Notice to all Whalers from the Plantations, that they are 
allowed to fish for Whales only, on the Coast of Labradore, that if they are found to have any 
other Fish on Board, the Fish will be seized, and they excluded the Benefit of Whale-fishery Hi is 
season ; and on no Pretence to trade with the Indians ; whatever they shall purchase will be con 
fiscated, and after this Notice their Vessels liable to be seized,' &c. Captain Hamilton's decree 
bore the date of June. 25, 1766. 

"The result of these arbitrary measures was that the whalemen left those seas and went off 
the Banks. The close of the season witnessed the return of the whaling fleet with bur indifferent 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHEEIES. 

success.* Naturally those interested (and this included the wealthiest merchants and the most 
skillful mechanics, as well as the most indefatigable mariners) felt aggrieved. It seemed scarcely 
in consonance with the colonial ideas of justice, crude as those notions appeared to the English 
nobility, that the beneficial results of a conquest which they almost single-handed had made, and 
for defraying the expense of which England had declined any remuneration, should be diverted 
to the sole benefit of those alone who were residents of the British Isles. Merchants iu London, 
too, whose heaviest and most profitable trade was with the provinces, joined their voices in 
denouncing this wrong. During the early winter the report came that Palliser's regulations were 
suspended until the ministry aud Parliament had time to consider the subject. The matter had 
already, late in the last whaliug season, been brought to the attention of the governor of New- 
foundland, and he issued the following supplementary edict, which appeared in the Boston papers 
of January, 1767: 

" ' By His Excellency Hugh Palliser, Governor and Commander in Chief in and over the Island 
of Newfoundland, the Coast of Labradore and all the Territories dependent thereupon : 

"< "Whereas a great many Vessels from His Majesty's Plantations employed in the Whale- 
Fishery resort to that Part of the Gulph of St. Lawrence and the Coast of Labradore which is 
within this Government : and as I have been informed that some Apprehensions have arisen 
amongst them that by the Eegulatious made by me relating to the different Fisheries in those 
Parts, they are wholly precluded from that Coast : 

'"Notice is hereby given, That the King's officers stationed iu those Parts have always had 
my Orders to protect, assist aud encourage by every Means in their Power, all Vessels from the 
Plantations employed in the Whale-Fishery, coming within this Government; and, pursuant to 
his Majesty's Orders to me, all Vessels from the Plantations will be admitted to that Coast on the 
same Footing as they have ever been admitted in Newfoundland ; the ancient Practices and Cus- 
toms established in Newfoundland respecting the Cod Fishery, under the Act of Parliament 
passed in the 10 and llth Years of William Hid commonly called The Fishing Act, always to be 

observed. t 

' And by my Regulations for the Encouragement of the Whale Fisheries, they are also under 
certain necessary Eestrictions therein prescribed, permitted to land and cut up their Whales in 
Labradore; this is a Liberty that has never been allowed them iu Newfoundland, because of the 
Danger of prejudicing the Cod-Fishery carried on by our adventurer's Ships, and by Boat-Keepers 
from Britain, lawfully qualified with Fishing-Certificates accordiu g to the aforementioned Act, 
who are fitted out at a very great Bisque and Expence in complying with said Act, therefore they 
must not be liable to have their Voyages overthrown, or rendered precarious by any Means, or by 
any other Vessels whatever. And, Whereas great Numbers of the Whaling Crews arriving from 
the Plantations on the Coast of Labradore early in the Spring considering it as a lawless Country 
are guilty of all Sorts of Outrages before the Arrival of the King's Ships, plundering whoever they 

" * The Boston News-Letter mentions the arrival of Capt, Peter Wells at that port from whaling August 18, 1766. 
Under date of October 2, the News- Letter s.iys : ' Since our last a Number of Vessels have arrived from Whaling. They 
have not been successful gem-rally. One "I' them viz: Capt. Clark on Thursday Morning last discovering a Sperma- 
ecl i Whale near George's Banks, manu'd his Uout, and gave Chase to her, & she coming up with her jaws against the 
r-ow of the Boat struck it with such Violence that it threw a Son of the Captain ; (who was forward ready with his 
Lauce) a considerable Height from the ISi.ut. and when he fell the Whale turned with her devouring Jaws opened, 
and caught him. He was heard to scream, when she closed her Jaws, and part of his Body was seen ont of her Mouth, 
\\ hen she turned, and went off.' " 

" t Duties on oil imported iu British ships were remitted, the commander and one-third of each crew being British. 
Duties were also remitted on fat, furs, and tusks of seal, bear, walrus, or other marine animal taken in the Greenland 
seas. By other acts the imported materials to be used in outfitting were made non-dutiable, and bounties were estab- 
lished, amounting in the final aggregate to 40s. per ton." 



THK WIIAU<; H SQERY. Ill 

find on the Const too weak to resist them, obstructing our Ship Adventurers from I'.ritain by sundry 
Ways, banking amongst I heir Boats along tlic (.'oast, which ruins the Coast-Fishery, and is contrary 
to the most ancient and most strictly observed li'ule <>f the Fishery, and must not be suffered on 
Account; also by destroying tbeir Fishing-Works on Shore, stealing their Boats, Tackle and 
t'tensils, firing the Woods all along the Coast, and hunting for and plundering, taking away or 
murdering the poor Indian Natives of the Country ; by these Violences, Barbarities, and other 
notorious Grimes and Enormities, that Coast is in the utmost Confusion, and with respect to the 
Indians is kept in a State of War. For preventing these Practices in future Notice is hereby given, 
That the King's Officers stationed in those Parts, are authorized and strictly directed, to appre- 
hend all such Offenders within this (Joveruinent, and to bring them to me to be tried for the same 
at the General Assizes at this Place: And for the better Government of that Country, for regulat- 
ing the Fisheries, and for protect ing His Majesty's Subjects from Insults from the Indians, I have 
His Majesty's Commands to erred Block-Houses, and establish Guards along that Coast. This 
Notification is to be put in the Harbours in Labradore, within my Government, and through the 
Favour of His Excellency Goveruour Bernard, Copies thereof will be put up in the Ports withiu 
the Province of Massachusetts, where the "Whalers mostly belong for their Information before the 
next Fishing Season. 

" ' Given under my Hand at St. John's in Newfoundland, this First Day of August, 1766. 

" < HUGH PALLISEE. 

" ' By Order of His Excellency, 

'"JN. HOESNAILL.' 

" There can scarcely be a doubt but that the indiscretions of the whalemen were much magni- 
fied (if indeed they really existed) in this pronunciameuto of Governor Palliser, for the sake of 
bolstering up the former one. The whalemen of those days were far from being the set of graceless 
scamps which he represents them to be. Probably there was here and there a renegade. It would 
be quite impossible to fiud iu so large a number of men that all were strict observers of the laws. 
Self-preservation, if no more humane motive existed, militated against the acts of "which he 
complained. The whalemen were accustomed to visit the coast for supplies, in many cases several 
times a year; usually on their arrival iu those parts they stood in for some portion of the coast 
and ' wooded;' and it is hardly credible that they should wantonly destroy the stores they so much 
needed, or make enemies on a coast where they might at any time be compelled to land. The 
colonial governors quite often made the resources under their control a source of revenue for 
themselves, and the fact of the modification of Palliser's first proclamation only under pressure of 
the King and Parliament would seem to indicate personal interest in keeping whalemen from the 
colonies away from the territory under his control. 

"It is quite evident that even with this modification the colonial fishermen did not feel that 
confidence in the Saint Lawrence and Belle Isle fishery that they felt when it was first opened to 
them, for a report from Charleston, S. C., dated June 19, 17C7, states that on 'the 22d ultimo put 
in here a sloop belonging to Rhode Island, from a whaling voyage in 1 he southern latitudes, having 
proved successful about ten clays before. The master informs us that near fifty New England 
vessels have been on the whale fishery in the same latitudes this season by way of experiment.'* 
Over the open sea fortune-seeking governors could exercise no control, and there our seamen 
probably felt they could pursue their game without let or hindrance. Whales at that time 
abounded along the edge of the Gulf Stream, and there they continued to be found for some years, 



1 * UoMon News-Letter." 



112 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

shiftng their ground gradually as their fierce captors encroached more and more upon them to the 
vicinity of the Western and Leeward Islands, the Cape deVerdes, the Brazil Banks, and beyond. 
Some few whalemen, in spite of the restrictions, still visited the newly-opened fishing-ground. 

"The general results of the various voyages were on the whole good, and other places began 
to feel the stimulus of a desire to compete. Providence took part, and early in 1768 several vessels 
were fitted out from that port for this pursuit. New York, too, entered the lists, and Mr. Robert 
Murray and the Messrs. Franklin fitted a sloop for the same purpose, and she sailed on the 19th 
of April of that year.* The town of Newport manifested great activity. 

"It was currently reported in the colonies, during the early part of 1767, that the irksome 
restrictions upon whaling were to be entirely removed; petitions to tbat efl'ect had been presented 
to the home government, and a favorable result was hoped for, and early in 1768 the straits of 
Davis and Belle Isle were again vexed by the keels of our fishermen, as many as fifty or sixty 
anchoring in Canso Harbor in April of that year, a few of them bound for the former locality, but 
the majority of them cruising in the vicinity of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Newfoundland, t 

Two whaling sloops from Nantucket, one commanded by Coleman, and the other by 

Coffin, were lost this season in the Straits of Belle Isle, and the crews were saved by Captain 
Hamilton, of the Merlin sloop of war, who also aided them in saving the sails, rigging, and stores 
from the wrecks. The fisbery in those parts was quite unsuccessful, many vessels, up to the last 
of August, having taken little or no oil.f 

"In 1768 there sailed from Nautucket eighty sail of vessels of an average burden of 75 tons, 
and probably fully as many more from other ports Cape Cod, Dartmouth, Boston, Providence, 
Newport, Warren, Falmouth (Cape Cod), and perhaps other ports being represented and the 
voyages being undertaken to Davis Strait, straits of Belle Isle, Grand Banks, Gulf of Saint Law- 
rence, and Western Islands. Early in the season the Western Island fleet appears to bave done 
little, but by the middle of September they had obtained an average of about 165 barrels. The 
northern fleet probably did nearly as well, as numerous instances occur of vessels spoken late in 
the summer and in the early fall with from 100 to 150 and even as high as 200 barrels. Assuming, 
tbeu, that one hundred and forty vessels returned with an average produce of 150 barrels (which 
was the actual average import at Nantucket), and we have as the result of the season's fishing 
1*1.000 barrels, worth, at 18 per ton, the ruling price, 47,200, or about $236,000." 

PROSPERITY OF WHALE FISHERY, 1770 TO 1775. "'Between the years 1770 and 1775,' 
says Macy, 'the whaling business increased to an extent hitherto unparalleled. In 1770 there 

" * There seems to be no accessible report of this vessel's return, and hence the degree of success or failure of her 
voyage is a matter of doubt. The people of Nantucket were reported to have made 70,000 iu 1767." 

" t From a log-book kept by Isaiah Eldredge, of the sloop Tryall, of Dartmouth, which sailed April 25, 1768, for the 
si i :iits of Belle Isle. She cleared from Nantucket, as Dartmouth was not then a port of entry. On Friday, April 29, 
.sin- was at anchor iu Canso Harbor, with fifty or sixty other whalemen. Saturday, Way 7, left Crow Harbor and at 
night anchored in Man-of- War Cove, Canso Gut, ' with about sixty sail of whalemen.' The vessels were continually 
beset with ice, and on the 23d of May they cleared their decks of snow, which was ' almost over shoes deep.' They 
killed their first whale on the 22d of July. The larger number of vessels were spoken in pairs, which was the usual 
manner of cruising. The sloop returned to Dartmouth on the 5th of November. This log runs to 1775, and commences 
;i<_;;iin in 1783, ending in 1797, with occasional breaks where leaves are cut out." 

" t In October, 1767, a whaling sloop, belonging to Nautucket, arrived at the bar off that port, on board of which 
were four Indians, who had had some dispute at sea and agreed to si'ttlr. it on their return. As the vessel lay at 
anchor the officers and crew except three white men and these ludiaus went ashore. The whites being asleep in 
the cabin, the Indians went on deck, divided into two parties, and, arming themselves with whaling lances, com- 
menced the affray. The two on one side were killed immediately, the other two were unhurt. The white men 
hearing the affray, rushed upon deck, and, seeing what was done, secured the murderers. In November of the same 
year some Newburyport fishermen were astounded at perceiving their vessel hurried through the water at an alarming 
rate without the aid of sails. Upon investigating the cause, it was found that the anchor was fast to a whale (or vice 
versa), and the cable was cut, relieving them of their unsolicited propelling power. (Boston News-Letter.;" 



Tin; \YIIALK FISIIKKY. 113 

\\ere a little more than one hundred vessels engaged ; and in 1775 the number exceeded one 
hundred and fifty, some of them large brigs. The employment of so great and such an increasing 
capital may lead our readers to suppose that a, corresponding profit, was realized, but a careful 
examination of the circumstances under which the business was carried on will sbow the fallacy of 
such a conclusion. Many branches of labor were conducted by those who were immediately 
interested in the voyages. The young men, with few exceptions, were brought up to some trade 
necessary to the business. The rope-maker, the cooper, the blacksmith, the carpenter in flue, 
I lie workmen were either the ship-owners or of their household ; so were often the officers and men 
\\ho navigated the vessels and killed the whales. 'While a ship was at sea, the owners at home 
were busily employed in the manufacture of casks, iron work, cordage, blocks, and other articles 
for the succeeding voyage. Thus the. profits of the labor were enjoyed by those interested in the 
fishery, and voyages were rendered advantageous even when the oil obtained was barely sufficient 
to pay the outfits, estimating the labor as a part thereof. This mode of conducting the business 
was universal, and has continued to a very considerable extent to the present day [1835]. Experi- 
ence taught the people how to take advantage of the different markets for their oil. Their sperma- 
ccti oil was mostly sent to England in its uuseparated state, the head matter being generally 
mixed with the body oil, for in the early part of whaling it would bring no more when separated 
than when mixed. The whale oil, which is the kind procured from the species called ' right whales,' 
was shipped to Boston or elsewhere in the colonies, and there sold for country consumption, or 
sent to the West Indies.'*" 

DEPREDATIONS BY PRIVATEERS AND PIRATES. " The seas continued to be infested with 
French and Spanish privateers and pirates,f and whalemen, especially those frequenting the ocean 
in the vicinity of the Western Islands, were, from the very nature of their employment, constantly 
liable to depredations from these corsairs, whether legalized or lawless. In March, 1771, the sloop 
Neptune, Captain Nixon, arrived in Newport from the Mole, bringing with him portions of the crews 
of three Dartmouth w 7 halemeu, who had been taken on the south side of Hispaniola by a Spanish 
guarda coasta. These vessels were commanded by Capts. Silas Butler, William Roberts, and 
Richard Welding. Another whaling vessel, belonging to Martha's Vineyard, commanded by 
Ephraim Pease, was also taken at about the same time, but released in order to put on board of her 
the remaining prisoners.- At this time Pease had taken 200 barrels of oil, and the Dartmouth ves- 
sels, which were carried into Saint Domingo, 100 barrels. These captures were made on the llth 
of February 4 

" But it did not always happen that whalemen fell so easy a prey to predatory vessels. A 
little strategy sometimes availed them when a forcible resistance would have been outof the ques- 

" "Bancroft says (Hist. U. S., v, p. -.'I ;:>), in 17(i5 the colonists were not allowed to export tbe chief products of their 
industry, such as sugar, tobacco, cotton, wool, indigo, ginger, dyeing-woods, whaleboue, &c., to any place but Great 
liritain not even to Ireland. Save in the matter of salt, wines, victuals, horses, and servants, Great Britain was 
not only the sole market for the products of Amei -ic-a, but the only storehouse for its supplies. 

" This stringency must, however, have been somewhat relaxed as regardu oil, for the Boston News-Letter of Septem- 
ber .-'. 1768, gives the report from London, dated July l:t, that the whale and cod fisheries of New England ' this 
season promised to turn out extrenn : i .igeuiis, many ships fully laden having already been sent to the Medi- 

terranean markets.' Tin- snecess of the Americans seems to have again aroused the jealousy of their English brethren, 
for in this year an effort was made in Parliament to revive, the bounty to English whalemen, with the intent to weaken 
tbe American fishery." 

"t'lhe word pirate ' seems to have been in those days of ;> Minn-wlial ambiguous signification, and was quite as 
likely to mean a privateer as a corsair." 

" { The men who eame home with Captain Nixon were Oli\ er 1'riee, Pardon Slocuui, and 1'hilip Harkins. (Boston 
News-Letter.)" 

SEC. V, VOL,. II 8 



114 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

tion, and it may be easily believed that men to whom danger and hairbreadth escapes were part 
of their every-day life would scarcely submit supinely when there was any chance in their favor. 
A notable instance of this kind occurred in April, 1771. Two ISTantucket whaling sloops, com- 
manded respectively by Isaiah Chadwick and Obed Bunker, were lying at anchor in the harbor of 
Abaco, when a ship appeared off the mouth of the harbor with her signals set for assistance. 
With that readiness to aid distressed shipmates which has ever been a distinguishing trait of 
American whalemen, one of the captains with a boat's crew made np of men from each sloop 
hastened to render such help as was in their power. The vessel's side reached, the captain imme- 
diately boarded her to find what was desired, and much to his surprise had a pistol presented to 
his head by the officer in command with a peremptory demand that he should pilot the ship into 
the harbor. He assured the commander that he was a stranger there, but that there was a man 
in his boat who was acquainted with the port. The man was called and persuaded in the same 
manner in which the captain had been. The argument used to demonstrate the prudence of his 
compliance with the request being so entirely unanswerable the man performed the service, anchor- 
ing the ship where a point of laud lay between her and the sloops. This being done the boat was 
dismissed and the men returned to their vessels. The Nantucket captains now held a consultation 
as to what course should be pursued. Those who had been on board the ship noticed that the 
men seemed to be all armed. They also observed, walking alone in the cabin, a man. The con- 
clusion arrived at was that the ship was in the hands of pirates and the man in the cabin was the 
former captain, and measures were immediately inaugurated to secure the vessel and crew. To 
this end an invitation was extended to the usurping captain, his officers, and passengers to dine on 
board one of the sloops. The courtesy was accepted, and the pirate captain and his boatswain, 
with the displaced captain as representative of the passengers, repaired on board the sloop. After 
a short time he became uneasy, and proposed to return to his own vessel, but he was seized by the 
whalemen and bound fast and his intentions frustrated. The actual captain now explained the 
situation, which was that the ship sailed from Bristol (R. I. !) to the coast of Africa, from thence 
carried a cargo of slaves to the West Indies, and was on her return home with a cargo of sugar 
when the mutiny occurred, it being the intention of the mutineers to become pirates, a business at 
that time quite thrifty and promising. Our fishermen now told the boatswain that if he would go 
on board the ship and bring the former mate, who was in irons, and aid in recapturing the vessel, 
they would endeavor to have him cleared from the penalties of the law, and they prudently inti- 
mated to him that there was a man-of-war within two hours' sail from which they could obtain 
force enough to overpower his associates. As a further act of prudence, they told him they would 
set a certain signal when they had secured help from the ship of war. 

" The boatswain not returning according to the agreement made, one sloop weighed anchor 
and stood toward the pirate ship as though t > pass on one side of her. As she approached, the 
mutineers shifted their guns over to the side which it seemed apparent she would pass and trained 
them so as to sink her as she sailed by. But those who navigated the sloop were fully alive to 
these purposes, and as she neared the ship her course was suddenly changed and she swept by on 
the other side and was out of range of the guns before the buccaneers could recover from their 
surprise and reshift and retrain their cannon. On the sloop stood upon her course till they were 
out of sight of the ship, then tacking, the signal agreed with the boatswain was set and she was 
steered boldly for the corsair. As she hove in sight, the pirates, recognizing the sign, and believ- 
ing an armed force from the man-of-war was on board the whaling vessel, fled precipitately to the 
shore, where they were speedily apprehended on their character being known. Tue whalemen 



THE WHALE Fisni<:i;y. 115 

immediately boarded their prize, released the mate, and carried the ship to New Providence, where 
a bounty of $2,500 was allowed them for the capture and where the chief of the mutineers was 
hanged."* 

SUPERIOR SEAMANSHIP OF AMERICAN WHALEMEN. "About this time Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin, being in London, was questioned, by the merchants there respecting the difference in 
time between the voyages of the merchantmen to Rhode Island and the English packets to New- 
York. The variation, which was something like fourteen days, was a source of much annoyance 
to the English merchants, and believing the place of destination might have something to do with 
it, they seriously contemplated withdrawing the packets from New York and dispatching them to 
Rhode Island. In this dilemma they consulted Dr. Franklin. A Nantucket captain, named Fol- 
ger,t who was a relative of the doctor's, being then in London, Franklin sought his opinion. 
Captain Folger told him that the merchantmen were commanded by men from Rhode Island who 
were acquainted with the Gulf Stream and the effect of its currents, and in the passage to America 
made use of this knowledge. Of this the English captains were ignorant, not from lack of repeated 
warnings, for they had been often told that they were stemming a current which was running at 
the rate of 3 miles an hour, and that if the wind was light the stream would set them back 
faster than the breeze would send them ahead, but they were too wise to be advised by simple 
American fishermen, and so persevered in their own course at a loss of from two to three weeks on 
every trip. By Franklin's request, Captain Folger made a sketch of the stream, with directions 
how to use or avoid its currents, and this sketch, made over a century ago, is substantially the same 
as is found on charts of the present day. ' The Nantucket whalemen,' says Franklin,! ' being 
extremely well acquainted with the Gulph Stream, its course, strength, and extent, by their con- 
stant practice of whaling on the edges of it from their island quite down to the Bahamas, this draft 
of that stream was obtained of one of them, Captain Folger, and caused to be engraved on the old 
chart in London for the benefit of navigators by B. Franklin.' 

"Notwithstanding this information so kindly volunteered to them, and notwithstanding the 
fact that the Falinouth captains were furnished with the new charts, they still persisted in sailing 
their old course. There is a point where perseverance degenerates into something more ignoble ; 
it would seem as though at this date these self-sufficient captains had about attained that point." 

Loss OF AMERICAN WHALING VESSELS. "In 1772 two whaling sloops from Nantucket, 
with 150 barrels of oil each, were captured by a Spanish brig and sloop off Matanzas. In Decem- 
ber of the same year, the brig Leviathan, Lathrop, sailed from Rhode Island for the Brazil Banks 
on a whaling voyage. On the 25th of January they lowered for whales, and in the chase the 
mate's boat (Brotherton Daggett) lost sight of the brig, but the crew were picked up at sea and 
brought home by another vessel. 

"In 1773 quite a fleet of American whalers were on the coast of Africa, no less than fourteen 
being reported as coming from that ground, and probably there were as many more of whom no 

" * Boston News-Letter." 

' ' t Works of Franklin, iii, p. 353. Probably Capt. Timothy Folger, a man -who was prominent for many years in 
the history of Nautucket." 

" t Works of Franklin, iii, p. 364. In a note Franklin says : ' The Nantucket captains, who are acquainted with 
this stream, make their voyages from England to Boston in as short a time generally as others take in going from 
Boston to England, viz, from twenty to thirty days.' Quite a number of Boston packets to and from England were 
at this time and for many years after commanded by Nantucket men." 

" $ In May, 1770, according to the Boston News-Letter, no less than nineteen vessels cleared from Rhode Island, 
whaling. The Post-Boy for October 1-1. 1771, U responsible for the following: 'We learn from Edgartown that a 
vessel lately arrived there from a whaling voyage, and in her voyage, one Marshall Jeukins, with others, being in a 
boat which struck a whale, she turned and hit I he boat in two, took Jenkins in her mouth, and went down with him; 
but on her rising threw him into one part of tho boat, whence he was taken on board the vessel by the crew, being 
much bruised, and in a fon r lie perfectly recovered. This account we have from undoubted authority.'" 



116 



II1STOKY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



report was made. Oue brig- from Boston, while off the coast of Sierra Leone, seut. a boat ashore 
with six men to procure water. The boat was seized and the crew all massacred by the natives. 
lu the spring- of the following year a sloop owned by Gideon Almy, of Tiverton, and another belong- 
ing to Boston, were seized, while watering at Hispaniola, by a French frigate, carried into Port an 
Prince and there condemned.* 

" In 1774 a report came by the way of Fayal that a small American whaling brig was lying in 
the harbor of Rio Janeiro with only her captain and three men on board. It appears that, putting 
in there for refreshments,! in the summer of 1773, a portion of her crew were, 'by fair or foul 
means,' induced to ship on a Portuguese snow f for a three months' whaling voyage. The snow 
was provided with harpoons and other whaling craft, made after the English models, and was 
cruising for sperm whales, a business altogether new to the Portuguese, who had been hitherto 
ignorant of any but the right whale, and had never ventured even in the pursuit of them out of 
sight of laud. The brig still lay there in October, 1773, waiting the return of her meu. " 

CONDITION OF THE FISHERY AT OUTBREAK OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. " In 1774 the 
whale fishery in the' colonies must have been in the full tide of success. There were probably fitted 
out annually at this time no less than 300 vessels of various kinds, with an aggregate bnrdeu of 
nearly 33,000 tons, and employing directly about 4,700 men, and indirectly an immensely greater 
number. Despite the depredations of French and Spanish privateers the fishery continued to 
flourish. The annual production from 1771 to 1775 was probably at least 45,000 barrels of sperma- 
ceti oil and 8,500 barrels of right-whale oil, and of bone nearly or quite 75,000 pounds. || Jn the 

" * Boston News-Letter." 

" t Some vessels never dropped anchor iu a port from the day they sailed until iheir return ; but scurvy was very 
apt to manifest itself where a crew was so long deprived of fresh provisions." 

" t ' A suow is a vessel equipped with two masts resembling the main and foremasts of a Ship, and a third small 
mast, abaft the mainmast, carrying a trysail. These vessels were much used in the merchant service at the time of 
the Revolution.' (Lossing's Field Book, ii, p. *4ii, note.) " 

" Boston Ne-ws-Letter.'' 



"\\Stateof the wliaJe fishery in 



/K, 1771 t<> 17/:>. 



Ports. 


nually lor north- 
em fishery. 


mii'll 
01 

Vo 

JO 

1 


's litlril an- 
\ (''irMHitli- 

1,11110 
2, 000 
120 


<Tii]iloyi'il, 

2, ii-:. 
1,040 

i r.i; 

20 
260 

52 


Sperm oil 
taken an- 
nually. 


Whale oil 
taken an- 
nu.illy. 




60 
1 
12 

15 


4,500 
75 

150 
1.300 
300 
300 


Barrels. 
26,000 

_', -2M 
7, 2M> 

200 
900 
240 
1,800 

400 
400 


1 turrets. 
4,(lllll 
1,250 
i. mil 
100 
300 








Martha's Vim 








5 


7(111 


GOO 


Fakaonii (1 ' ipi CodJ 














183 


13,820 


121 


14, 020 


4,059 


39, 390 


7,650 



"The.-e statistics are from Jefferson's report, and \\civ gallicred fur him 1>\ i;i.\ i-rnur of Massachusetts. 
"According to Pit kin, among the exports of the colonies, including Newfoundland. IJali.-iinas, and Bermudas, were, 
for the year 1770 : 





Great 
Britain. 


Ireland. 


South of 
Europe. 


West 

Illllirs 


Africa. 


Total. 




1 sir. 


450 


14, 1B7 


351.C25 


7,905 


379, 012 




" "0" 


0;. 


175 






5 667 




11 971 










112, SI7I 

















" Value, sterling : Spe.rm caudles, :j:y W8 4s. 6.?. ; whale oil, 83,012 15s. !W. ; bone, 19,121 Is. d." 



\\IIAI.I: KISIIKI;,Y. 117 

. anous sea-port towns 1'ioin which tliis pursuit was carried mi, in Nantuckel, \\ 'ellllccl, Dartmouth, 
ijyiui, Martha's Vineyard, Karnstable, Boston, Falmouth, and Sivanzey, in Mass.ichusctts, in New- 
port, Providence, Warren, and Tiveiton, in Khode Island, in New London, Connecticut, Sag Harbor, 
on Long Island, the merry din of tho'yo heave ho 'of the sailors was heard; the ring of the 
blacksmith's hammer and anvil made, cheery music : the coopers, with their hammers and drivers, 
kept time to the tramp of their feet as round and round the- casks they marched, tightening more 
and more the bands that bound together the vessels \\hieh should hold the precious oil; and the 
creaking of the blocks as the vessels unloaded their freight or the riggers fitted them anew for 
fresh conquests, and the rattle of the hurrying- teams as the> carried oil' the product of the last 
voyage or brought the necessaries for the future one, lent their portion of animation to the scene. 
Everywhere was hurry and bustle; everywhere all were employed; none that thirsted for employ- 
merit went away unsatisfied. If a vessel made a bad voyage, the owners, by no means dispirited, 
again fitted her out, trusting iu the next one to retrieve the loss; if she made a profitable one the 
proceeds were treasured up to offset a possible failure in some future cruise. On all sides were 
thrift and happiness. 

"But a change was near. 'A cloud, at first no bigger than a man's hand,' was beginning to 
overshadow the whole heaven of their commercial prosperity. The colonies, driven to desperation 
by the heartless cruelty of their mother country, prepared to stay further aggression, and resent 
at the mouth of the cannon and the point of the bayonet the insults and injuries that for a decade 
of years had been heaped upon them ; and the English ministry, against the earnest entreaty of 
British merchants on both sides of the Atlantic, prepared also to enforce its desires by a resort to 
arms.* 

"The first industry to feel the shock of the approaching storm was the fisheries. Massachu- 
setts, the center of this pursuit, was to the English ministers the very focus of the insurrectionary 
talk and action, and 'the first step,' says Bancroft, 'toward inspiring terror was to declare Massa- 
chusetts in a state of rebellion, and to pledge the Parliament and the whole force of Great Britain 
to its reduction ; the next, by prohibiting the American fisheries, to starve New England ; the 
next, to excite a servile insurrection.'! 

" Accordingly on the l()th of February, 1775, the ministry introduced into Parliament a bill 
restricting the trade and commerce of Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and 
IMiode Island to Great Britain, Ireland, and the British West Indies, and prohibiting the colonies 
from carrying on any fishery on the Banks of Newfoundland or any other part of the North 
American coast, j ' The best ship-builders iu the world were at Boston, and their yards had been 
closed; the New England fishermen were now to be restrained from a toil in which they excelled 
the world. Thus the joint right to the fisheries was made a part cf the great American struggle.' 
To this bill there was a small but active and determined opposition, both in the House of Lords 
and House of Commons. It was urged on the part of the ministry that the fisheries were the 
property of England, and it was with the English Government to do as they pleased with them. 
To this opinion the minority strenuously demurred. 'God and nature,' said Johnston, ' have 
given that fishery to New England and not to Old.' || It was also argued by the friends of Amer- 
ica that if the American fishery was destroyed the occupation must inevitably fall into the hands 
of the natural rivals of Great Britain. Despite the efforts of the little band the bill was received 

"* The colonial trade had become tn i. :ish. merchants and manufacturers a matter of great importance, and 

the loss of it would be a serious misfortune. One nf the industries which would fee] the deprivation most strongly 
was the manufacture of cordage, of which the Americans \veiv liy i |>nrc!i:isers in the Kn^lir-h marUet.' 1 

" t Bancroft's United states, vii. |.. 222, Februai " t Ei)g. Annual Keg., 1?7.">, p. 78." 

" $ Bancroft's United States, vii, p. WJ." ' \\ lliid." 



] 18 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

by a vote of 261 to 85, and passed through its various stages. As each phase was reached the 
act was fought determinedly but uselessly and hopelessly. The merchants and traders of London 
petitioned against it, and the American merchants secured the services of David Barclay to con- 
duct the examination of those who were called to testify by the friends and opponents of the bill.* 
'It was said that the cruelty of the bill exceeded the examples of hostile rigor with avowed 
enemies ; that in all the violence of our most dangerous wars it was an established rule in the 
marine service to spare the coast-fishing craft of our declared enemies ; always considering that 
we waged war with nations, and not with private individuals.'! 

" It was claimed that by the provisions of the bill much hardship must fall upon many people 
who were already at sea, and who, from the very nature of their occupations, must be innocent. 
' The case of the inhabitants of Nantucket was particularly hard. This extraordinary people, 
amounting to between five and six thousand in number, nine-tenths of whom are Quakers, inhabit 
a barren island, 15 miles long by 3 broad, the products of which were scarcely capable of 
maintaining twenty families. From the only harbor which this sterile island contains, with- 
out natural products of any sort, the inhabitants, by an astonishing industry, keep an 140 vessels 
in constant employment. Of these, eight were employed in the importation of provisions for the 
island and the rest in the whale fishery.' A petition was also presented from the English Quakers 
in behalf of their brethren at Nantucket, in which they stated the innocence of the inhabitants 
of that island, ' their industry, the utility of their labors both to themselves and the community, 
the great hazards that attended their occupation, and the uncertainty of their gains ; and showed 
that if the bill passed into a law, they must in a little time be exposed to all the dreadful miseries 
of famine. The singular state and circumstances of these people, occasioned some attention to be 
paid to them. A gentleman on the side of the administration said, that on a principle of humanity 
he would move that a clause should be added to the bill to prevent the operation from extending 
to any whale ships which sailed before the 1st of March, and were at that time the property of 
the people of Nantucket.' f 

" ' The bill,' says a reviewer of the time, ' was attacked on every ground of policy and govern- 
ment ; and with the greatest strength of language and height of coloring. The minority made 
amends for the smallness of their numbers by their zeal and activity. * * * Evil principles,' 
they contended, ' were prolific; the Boston port bill begot this New England bill 5 this will beget 
a Virginia bill; and that again will become the progenitor of others, until, one by one, Parliament 
has ruined all its colonies, and rooted up all its commerce ; until the statute book becomes nothing 
but a black and bloody role of proscriptions ; a frightful code of rigor and tyranny; a monstrous 
digest of acts of penalty and incapacity and general attainder ; and that wherever it is opened it 
will present a title for destroying some trade or ruining some province.' 

" It was during the debate upon this bill that Burke made that eloquent defense of the colonies 
which has rung in the ears of every boy born or bred in a sea-port town since the day it was uttered. 

" * Among the evidence given was much tending to show the importance of the colonial trade. It appeared that 
in 17G4 New England employed in the fisheries 45,880 tons of shipping and 6,002 men, the product amounting to 
322,220 16. 3<i. sterling in foreign markets; that all the materials used in the building and equipping of vessels, 
excepting salt and lumber, were drawn from England, and the net proceeds were also remitted to that country ; 
that neither the whale nor cod fishery could be carried on so successfully from Newfoundland or Great Britain as 
from North America, for the natural advantages of America could neither be counteracted nor supplied ; that, if the 
fishery was transferred to Nova Scotia or Quebec, Government would have to furnish the capital, for they had neither 
vessels nor men, and these must come from New England ; that it must take time to make the change, and the trade 
would inevitably be lost ; and that American fishermen had such an aversion to the military government of Halifax, 
and ' so invincible an aversion to the loose habits and manners of the people, that nothing could induce them to 
remove thither, even supposing them reduced to the necessity of emigration.' (Eng. Annual Reg.)" 

"tEng. Annual Reg., 1775, p. 80." "iTbid., p. 85." "$Ibid., p 85." 



TIIK \\IIALK K1SIIKUY. 119 

'For some time past, Mr. Speaker, 1 .said Burke, 'lias the Old \Vorld been fed from the New. The 
scarcity which you have felt would have been a desolating famine, if this ehild of your old age 
if America with a true filial piety, with a lloman charity, had iiofc put the full breast of its 
youthful exuberance to the mouth of its exhausted parent. Turning from the agricultural resources 
of the colonies, consider the wealth which they have drawn from the sea by their fisheries. The 
spirit in which that enterprising employment has been exercised ought to raise your esteem and 
admiration. Pray, sir, what in the world is equal to it? Pass by the other parts, and look at 
the manner in which the people of New England have of late carried on the whale fishery. Whilst 
we follow them among the tumbling mountains of ice, and behold them penetrating into the 
deepest frozen recesses of Hudson's Bay and Davis' Straits, whilst we are looking for them 
beneath the Arctic Circle, we hear that they have pierced into the opposite region of polar cold, 
that they are at the antipodes, and engaged under the frozen serpent of the south. Falkland 
Island, which seemed too remote and romantic an object for the grasp of national ambition, is but, 
a slage and resting-place in the progress of their victorious industry.* Nor is the equinoctial 
heat more discouraging to them than the accumulated winter of both the poles. We know that 
whilst some of them draw the line and strike the harpoon on the coast of Africa, others run the 
longitude, and pursue their gigantic game along the coast of Brazil. No sea but what is vexed 
by their fisheries. No climate that is not a witness to their toils. Neither the perseverance of 
Holland, nor the activity of France, nor the dexterous and firm sagacity of English enterprise, 
ever carried this most perilous mode of hardy industry to the extent to which it has been pushed 
by this recent people ; a people who are still, as it were, but in the gristle, and not yet hardened 
into the bone, of manhood. When I contemplate these things ; when I know that the colonies 
in general owe little or nothing to any care of ours, and that they are not squeezed into this happy 
form by the constraints of a watchful and suspicious Government, but that, through a wise and 
salutary neglect, a generous nature has been suffered to take her own way to perfection ; when I 
reflect upon these effects, when I see how profitable they have been to us, I feel all the pride of 
power sink, and all presumption in the wisdom of human contrivances melt, and die away within 
me. My rigor relents. I pardon something to the spirit of liberty.' 

"But eloquence, logic, arguments, facts availed nothing. The bill became a law. In the 
upper house of Parliament, where a minority fought the bill as determinedly as the minor part of 
the Commons, fifteen lords entered a protest against it. The island of Nantucket was, for the 
reasons enumerated, relieved somewhat from its extreinest features, a fact which did not escape 
the surveillance of the provincial authorities, who iu their turn restricted the exportation of pro- 
visions from any portion of the colonies, save the Massachusetts Bay, to that island, and the 
Provincial Congress of Massachusetts further prohibited any exportation from that colony, save 
under certain regulations.! But, like the mother country, the colonies yielded to the behests of 
humanity and relaxed their stringency in regard to this island. 

"At an early day after the formal opening of the issue of battle between England and the 
plantations, the general court of Massachusetts passed a resolve, directing ' that from and after 
the fifteenth Day of August instant, no Ship or Vessell should sail out of any port in this Colony, 
on any whaling Voyage whatever, without leave first had and obtained from the Great and General 

" "At this time the Falkland Islands were the subject of considerable acrimony between the English, Spanish, and 
Brazilian Governments. According to Freeman (Hist. Cape Cod, ii, p. 539, note), the people of Truro were the first 
of our American -whalemen to go to the Falklands. In 1774 Capts. David Smith and Gamaliel Collins, at the sug- 
gestion of Admiral Montague, of the British navy, made voyages there qn that pursuit, in which they were very 
successful." 

"t Mass. Col. JISS., Provincial Congress, i, p. 300." 



120 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Court of this Colony, or I'roin some Committee or committees or persons they shall appoint, to 
grant such leave;' and on the 24th of August, the day for adjournment of the court being near 
at hand, it was further resolved, in view of possible damage liable to aeerue to parties for want of 
these permits, 'that the Major part of the Council for this Colony be, and they accordingly are, 
hereby fully impowered to grant leave for any Vessell or Vessells to sail out of any port in this 
Colony, on any whaling Voyage whatever, as to them shall seem fit & reasonable for the Benefit 
of Individuals, and the Good of the Public, provided there be good & sufficient security given 
that the Oil & Bone, &c., obtained on said Voyage shall be brought into some Port in this Colony, 
except the port of Boston, & such Permits do riot interfere with any Resolve or Recommendations 
of the Continental Congress The power herein given to continue only in the recess of the general 
court.'*" 

THE DEATH-KNELL OF AMERICAN WHALING. "The bells that called the hardy yeomanry 
of New England to the defense of their imperiled liberties on the ever-memorable morning of the 
19th of April rung the death-knell of the whale fishery, save that carried on from Nautucket; the 
rattle of musketry was the funeral volley over its grave. t Save from this solitary island, it was 
doomed to annihilation. A few vessels were fitted out early in the war from other ports, but the 
risk was so great and the necessity so small that the business was soon abandoned. With Nan- 
tucket it was simply a- case of desperation; the business must be carried on, or the island must be 
depopulated; starvation or removal were the only alternatives of inaction. The receipt of the 
news of the battle at Lexington and Concord, glorious as it was to the colonies at large, and 
glorious as it may have been to the islanders whose religious principles were not rigidly opposed 
to war in any form and under any circumstances, was to the majority of the inhabitants the 
announcement of ruined fortunes, annihilated commerce, misery, privation, and suffering. With- 
out the immediate circle of colonial assistance, knowing that they were cut ofl' from aid in case 
they were attacked, open to and defenseless at all sides from the predatory raids of avowed 
enemies and treacherous, pretended friends, the only course left open to them to adopt was to be 
as void of offense as possible and strive to live through the desperate struggle just about to com- 
mence. Some of the people removed to New York and eventually established the whale fishery 
there. Some removed to North Carolina and there formed a community remarkable for thrift and 
hospitality; but the vast majority preferred to link their fortunes with those of their island home, 
and with her sink or swim. Vessels from abroad turned their prows toward home and speeded on 
their way, hoping to attain their port before English armed vessels could intercept them; those 
already arrived were most of them stripped of their sails and rigging and moored to the crowded 
wharves, or run high and dry ashore. 

"The petitions of parties for permission to fit out their vessels for whaling were almost 
invariably complied with by the general court, bonds being given in about 2,000 that the cargo 
should be landed at some port in the colony, excepting Boston or Nautucket.| 

""Mass. Col. MSS. Rev. Council 1'apcrs, series i, vol. ii, p. 17." 

"tThe shipping of Nantueket rendered important ante-revolutionary aid to the colonists in the. importation of 
powder, a service that was continued at intervals during the war. The Earl of Dartmouth, in a letter to Lienteuaut- 
Governor Colden, dated 7th September, 1774, says: ' My Information says that the 1'olly, Capt" I'e.ujamiu Broadhelp, 
bound from Amsterdam to Nantucket, has among other Articles received on board, no le.ss a quantity than tbree 
Hundred thousand pounds weight of Gunpowder, & I have great reason to believe ili.il considerable quantities of 
that commodity, as well as other Military Stores, are introduced into the Colonies from Holland, through the channel 
of St. Eustatia.' (N. Y. Col. Rec., viii, p. 4d7.) St. Eustatia was captured by the English during the colonial war, 
the chief grounds of the capture' being tbe alleged supply to the revolting colonies of contraband goods." 

"t The following is the form of tbe bond : 

' 'Know all men by these presents il.at Nathaniel Macy & Eich d Mitchell Jr both of Sherhurn in the County of 
Nantiieket, are liolden A Maud lirinly hound unto Henry Gardner Esq of Stowe in the County of Middlesex Treasurer 



TIII<; \YII.\U: nsiiKi.-Y. 121 

"In ITTiillic Continental Congress endeavored to induct- France to engage in war against 
Kiighind, lint in tin- proposed negotiations the fisheries on I IK- lianks of Newfoundland and the 
various Cult's and hays of North America were to lie understood as not open to a question of 
division. Spain, too, was applied to. 'The colonies,' says Bancroft, ' were willing to assure to 
Spain freedom from molestation in its territories; they renounced in iavor of France iill eventual 
conquests in the West Indies ; imt they claimed the sole right of acquiring' British continental 
America and all adjacent islands, including the Bermudas, Cape Breton, and Newfoundland. It 
was America and not France which first applied the maxim of monopoly to the fisheries. The 
King of France might retain his exclusive rights on the banks of Newfoundland, as recognized 
by England in the treaty of 170.!, but his subjects were not to fish "in the havens, bays, creeks, 
roads, coasts, or places," which the United States were to win.'" * 

THE ENGLISH WHALE FISHERY ENCOURAGED." In the mean time how was England 
affected by her American policy? The colonial fishery being abolished, it became essential that 
something should be done to replace it, 'and particularly to guard against the ruinous conse- 
quences of the foreign markets, either changing the course of consumption or falling into the 
hands of strangers, and those perhaps inimical to this country. The consumption of fish oil as a 
substitute for tallow was now become so extensive as to render that also an object of great 
national concern ; the city of London alone expending about 300,000 annually in that coin - 
modity.'t The evidence taken on behalf of the ministry in support of their restraining bill, 
tending to show that there already existed sufficient capital in ships, men, and money for the 
immediate and safe transfer of the whale fishery to England, while well enough for partisan pur- 
poses, was not considered so reliable by the parties bringing it forward, and the Government was 
not at all desirous or willing to risk a matter of such extreme importance upon the testimony 
there given. 

' Measures were accordingly taken to give encouragement to this pursuit to the fishermen 
and capitalists of Great Britain and Ireland. | The committee having the subject in charge were 
of the opinion that a bounty should extend to the fisheries to the southward of Greenland and 
Davis Strait, and at the same time that the, duties on oil, blubber, and bone, imported from 
Newfoundland, should be taken off. It was found that the restraining bill worked serious 
damage to the people of Newfoundland, and also to the fisheries from the British islands to that 
coast, as, in order to prevent absolute famine there, it was necessary that several ships should 
return light from that vicinity in order to carry cargoes of provisions from Ireland to the sufferers 
there. 

iif tliu Colony of the Massachusetts Bay or his Successors in s' 1 office in the L;i.\vfnl & Just sum of Two thousand 
pounds to the which payment well & truly to be made wr liiml ourselves i>nr Heirs Exec 7 or Administrators, firmly 
liy these presents sealed w tb our seal Dated Ihis fourteenth 0;i i Anno ]>o:n : 17?."'. 

" ' The Condition of this obligation is such that whereas i he abo\ e-said Nalbauiel Jhicy is about to Adventure to 
sea "ii a \\li.-ile Voya Sooner Dighton Silas Paddaek Master if I hen (lies' 1 Silas Tail-loek oraiiy other person 

who may have I he (' mand of s' 1 sehooner Dighton, during s' 1 Voyage -diall well & truly bring or Cause to be 

brought into some port or harbour of this Colony e.\eept the port of Huston or Nantncket ail the oil & whalo 
M.ine that shall be taken by S' 1 schooner Dightou in the Ci.nrse of s l1 Voyage A: pioihu-e a Certifieate under tho 
hands of the Selectmen of S' 1 Town Adjoining to such port or barlnmr t hat he there Landed ye same then the above 
Obligation to lie. Void A of none Effect, oil in -\\ ;i\ s ro stand and remain in full force it. virtue. 

" -NA'P'- MATY. 

" 'KICI1 1 ' JJITCHELI,, .In. 

' Signed. Sealed. ,t did in presence of us.' 

('. 

'(Mass. Col. MSS. Mis,-., iii. p. |J4.) 

"The colonial papers of March 28, 1770, mention that the English frigate hVnown, on her passage to America, took 
ten sail of American whalemen, wbidi n,<I toavoid the danger of recapture." 

" Bancroft's U. S., ix, ],. 132." " 1 Eng. \m 1 Reg., 177.-,, p. 113." 

"t Speech oflhe Ka rl of Ha reont to the Irish Parliament , (><(, .bei In. 177.,." " * Annual Reg., 177(i, p. 131." 



122 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

" The English fishery, even under the encouragement given, did not, however, answer the 
expectations or hopes of its friends. It was not so easily transferred as had been imagined. A 
few more vessels sailed from Great Britain, employing, of course, a few more men, but the extra 
supply was a mere trifle in comparison to the deficiency that the restraining bill had caused." 

RETALIATION BY THE AMERICAN COLONIES. " The colonies, in turn, passed a bill cutting 
off supplies to the English fleet from the plantations,* a course entirely unforseen by the sage 
adherents of the British bill. As a natural consequence, the fishery, which promised so well on 
paper, and upon which the majority in Parliament had founded so many hopes, failed to yield 
them the solace for the evil done to America that they so fondly anticipated. Many ships, instead 
of bearing to England supplies, only returned there for provisions to relieve the distress they 
found on the coast, both on the sea and the land. Indeed, it was estimated that the colonial 
restraining act caused a loss to England in the fishery in these parts alone of fully half a million 
of pounds sterling.! To add to the calamities caused by man, the very eleiiii-iits seemed combined 
against them, for a terrible storm arose, a"nd the center of its fury was the shores and banks of 
Newfoundland. ' This awful wreck of nature,' says a chronicler of the time, ' was as singular in 
its circumstances as fatal iu its effects. The sea is said to have risen 30 feet almost instanta- 
neously. Above seven hundred boats, with their people, perished, and several ships, with their 
crews. Nor was the mischief much less on the land, the waves overpassing all mounds, and sweep- 
ing everything before them. The shores presented a shocking spectacle for some time after, and 
the fishing-nets were hauled up loaded with human bodies.'! These misfortunes the opposers of 
the bill attributed to the vengeance of an indignant Providence." 

AMERICAN SEAMEN " IMPRESSED." " But Parliament went further than this, and added to 
the atrocity of this measure another none the less barbarous. It was decreed that all those 
prisoners who should be taken on board of American vessels should be compelled, without distinc- 
tion of rank, to serve as common sailors on British ships of war. This proposed measure was 
received with great indignation by those gentlemen iu Parliament whom partisan asperity had not 
blinded to every feeling of justice to or compassion for the colonies. This clause in the bill which 
contained this provision was ' marked by every possible .stigma,' and was described by the lords, 
in their protest, as ' a refinement in tyranny' which, 'in a sentence worse than death, obliges the 
unhappy men who shall be made captives in this predatory war to bear arms against their families, 
kindred, friends, and country ; and after being plundered themselves, to become accomplices in 
plundering their brethren.' And, by the articles of war, these very men were liable to be shot 
for desertion." 

CONDITION OF ENGLISH WHALE-FISHERY IN 1779. " By the action of this measure large 
numbers of Nantucket whaling captains with their crews and a few from other ports were cap- 
tured by the English, and given their choice either to enter the service of the King in a man-of- 
war or sail from an English port in the same pursuit to which they had become accustomed.|| In 
September (13th), 1779, John Adams, writing from Braintreefl to the council of Massachusets, 
says : 

" * The ' Restraining ' bill." " t Eng. Annual Reg. , 1776, p. 49." 

"{English Annual Reg., 1776, p. 43. There was also much distress at the Barbadoes. It was thought at one time 
to draw supplies for beleaguered Boston from these islands, but cut off as they were from supplies from the colonies, 
with 80,000 blacks and 20,000 whites to feed, the project was deemed in the highest degree dangerous." 

" $ Annual Reg., 1776, p.118." 

"II To his captors Capt. Nathan Coffin, of Nantucket, nobly said: ' Hang me, if you will, to the yard-arm of your 
ship, but do not ask me to be a traitor to my country.' (Bancroft, ix, p. 313.)" 

" IT Adams, vii, p. 63. This is almost identical with the letter in Mass. Col. MSS., Resolves, vi, p. 216." 



THE WHAU<: KISIIKKY. 123 

'"May it please your Honours : * While I resided at Paris 1 had an opportunity of procuring 
from London exact Information concerning the British Whale Fishery on the Coast of Brazil, 
which I beg Leave to communicate to your Honours, that if any advantage can be made of it the 
opportunity may not be lost. 

" 'The English, the last year and the year before, carried on this Fishery to very great 
advantage, off of the River Plate, in South America iu the Latitude Thirty-five south and from 
thence to Forty, just on the edge of soundings, off and on, about the Longitude sixty-five, from 
London. They had seventeen vessells in this Fishery, which all sailed from London, iu the 
Mouths of September and October. All the officers and Men are Americans. 

"'The Names of the Captains are, Aaron Sheffield of Newport, - , Goldsmith! and 
Eichard Holmes from Long Island, John Chad wick, Francis May,}: Reuben May, John Meader, 
Jonathan Header, Elisha Clark, Benjamin Clark, William Bay, Paul Pease, Bunker Fitch, 
Reuben Fitch, Zebbeedee Coffin || and another Coffin. - - Delauo,1f Andrew Swain, William 
Ray, all of Nantucket, John Lock, Cape Cod ; ** four or five of. these vessels went to Greenland. 
The fleet sails to Greenland yearly, the last of February or the Beginning of March. There was 
published, the year before last, iu the English Newspapers, and the same Imposture was repeated 
last year, and no doubt will be renewed tbis, a Letter from the Lords of Admiralty to Mr. Dennis 
De Beralt, in Colman street, informing him that a Convoy should be appointed to the Brazil 
Fleet. But this, I had certain Information, was a Forgery calculated mainly to deceive American 
Privateers, and that 110 Convoy was appointed, or did go with that Fleet, either last year, or the 
year before. 

" ' For the Destruction or Captivity of a Fishery so entirely defenceless, for not one of the 
Vessells has any arms, a single Frigate or Privateer of Twenty-four, or even of Twenty guns, 
would be sufficient. The Beginning of December, would be the best Time to proceed from hence, 
because the Frigate would then find tlie Whaling Vessells nearly loaded. The Cargoes of these 
Vessells, consisting of Bone and Oyl, will be very valuable, and at least four hundred and fifty of 
the best kind of seamen would be taken out of the Hands of the English, and might be gained 
into the American service to act against the Enemy. Most of the officers and Men wish well to 
this Country, and would gladly be in its service if they could be delivered, from that they are 
engaged in. Whenever an English Man of war, or Privateer, has taken an American Vessell, 
they have given to the Whalemen among the Crew, by order of Government, their Choice, either 
to go on Board a Man of war, and fight against their Country or go into the Whale Fishery. 
Such Numbers have chosen the latter as have made up the Crews of these seventeen Vessells. 

" ' I thought it my Duty to communicate this Intelligence to your Honours, that if so profit- 
able a Branch of Commerce, and so valuable a Nursery of Seamen, can be taken from the English 
it may be done. This State has a peculiar Right and Interest to undertake the Enterprise, as 
almost the whole fleet belongs to it. I have the Honour to be, with the highest Consideration, 
your Honours most obedient & most humble servant 

"'JOHN ADAMS.' 

" * In 1778 the commissioners (Franklin and Adams) iu Franco wrote to the President of Congress in nearly the 
same words, urging the destruction of tin- F.nglish whale fishery on the coast of Brazil and the release of the Ameri- 
cans there, who were practically prisoners of war, compelled to aid in supporting the enemy. In the letter of the 
commissioners, dated Passy, , 1778, Messrs Franklin and Adams write that three whalemen have been taken 
by French men-of-war and carried into L'Orient. The crews of these whaling vessels are Americans. (Works of 
John Adams, vii, p. 03.)" 

"t William Goldsmith, who sailed from Nantucket for London with a cargo of oil in April, 1775." 

" t Francis Macy." " $ Reuben Macy." "|| Zebdiel Coffin." 

" IT Abisha D elano (probably.)" " * From Nantucket. Twenty names are given in this list." 



124 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

" This letter was referred to a committee, who reported that a ropy of it should be sent to the 
President of the Continental Congress, which report was adopted, and thus Massachusetts let slip 
through her fingers the identical golden opportunity which the General Government had neglected 
the year before. The suggestions of Mr. Adams, who of all our Revolutionary statesmen seems 
most to have understood and appreciated the importance of this industry, were practically disre- 
garded.* It is difficult to calculate how much the American whale fishery was affected by this 
failure to act on this suggestion of Mr. Adams. Many of these captains and men, and others 
catpured at other times during the war, had at its close sailed so long from British ports that the 
extraordinary inducements held out by the English, and the depression in their business in the 
United States, immediately succeeding the close of the war, operated to transfer to that country 
.their skill and, measurably, their capital." 

FORAYS BY ENGLISH NAVAL VESSELS: TREATY OF 1778. "In the years 177S-'79 the 
English navy made se\era.l forays upon the sea-coast towns of New England, destroying much 
property at Warren, R. I., Dartmouth, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket in Massachusetts.! 
Indeed, these predatory raids were frequent throughout the war, and liable to occur at any time, 
consequently the unfortunate inhabitants were kept in a continual ferment. During the same 
I ime the Government of France was continually intriguing for the exclusive possession of the North 
American fisheries. On the (ith of Fein-nary, 1778, a treaty of amity and commerce was arranged 
between France and the United States. Upon this point each side was to retain the exclusive 
right to its own. The Americans conceded to the French the lights reserved by the treaties of 
Utrecht | and Paris, even to the French interpretation of them, which were the right to fish upon 
the Banks, and the exclusive use of one-half the shores of Newfoundland upon which to dry their 
lish.|| In regard to what disposition should be made of that island in case it should be captured, 
nothing was said; the sentiment of New England, however, upon that point was unmistakable. 
Later in the same year Samuel Adams, in a letter from Philadelphia, wrote: 'I hope we shall 
secure to the United Sta'es, Canada, N T ova Scotia, Florida, too, and the fishery, by our arms or by 
treaty.' He writes further, and every year of the past centurv has borne witness to the soundness 
of his views: ' We shall never be on a solid footing till Great Britain cedes to us, or we wrest 
from her, what nature designs we should have.' fl 

"* Au exception to the general ;i|i;ilhy in iliis respect occurred late in the fall or early in tbe winter of 177(i, when 
limits from the Alfred, man-of-war, were sent, ashore, at Canso and destroyed the whaling interest there, burning all 
the materials for that industry, tog,-! her with all the oil stores with their < 

"t 'Return of vessels and stores destroyed on Acnshnet River the .~>th of September, 177'-': 8 sail of large vessels, 
from 200 to 300 tons, most of them pri/.cs: (J armed vessels, carrying from 10 to Hi nuns; a number of sloops and 
sehootiers of inferior si/,e, amouni ing in all to 70, besides whale-boats and other: amongst the prizes were three taken 
by Count D'Estaign's fleet ; vili store houses at Bedford, several at McPherson's Wharf, Crans Mills, and Fairhaven ; 
these were' filled with very grcal quantities of rum, sugar, molasses, eolt'ee, loliacco. cotton, tea, medicines, gunpow- 
der, sail-cloth, cordage. Ac. ; two large rope-walks. 

" 'At Falrnouth, in the Vim -\ ai d Sou ml, the 10th of September. 177> : _' sloops and a schooner taken by the gal- 
leys. 1 loaded with staves ; 1 sloop burnt. 

'' 'In Old Town Harbor, Martha's Vineyard: 1 brig of 150 tons burden, burnt by the Scorpion; 1 schooner ot 70 
tons burden, burnt by ditto; -J.:', whale-boats taken or destroyed ; a quantity of plank taken. 

" 'At I lol mes's Hole, Manila's Vines ard : I vessels, with several boats, taken ordest roved : a salt -work destroyed, 
and a considerable quant ity of salt I alien.' --(1 ticket. son's New Bedford, p. .'SJ. ) 

"At Sag Harbor Long Island, property was taken or destroyed to a large amount : Newport suffered greatly ; Nan- 
tucket lost twelve or fourteen vessels, oil, stores, &c., to the value of 4,000 sterling. Warren, R. I., suffered during 
the war to the extent of l.n;i:i tons of shipping, among them two vessels loaded with oil, and a large amount of other 

property . Sag Harbor also lost one or i c vessels by capture." 

"i April 11, ICii:;." " February 10, 1763." 

"'II Bancroft's U. S., ix, 481. Tho fact must, be kept in mind that whaling and fishing for cod were both carried 
on on nearly the same waters, and often by the same vessels." 

"IT Bancroft's U. S., x, 177." 



T11K \VIIAI, I'; FISI1URY. HT) 

"France also sought the aid of Spain, and that power was give.n to understand that in the linal 
treaty of peace between the United Slates and England, they, too, would necessarily have snnie 
voice. Vergennes, in October (177S), slated, as the only stipulations which France, would require, 
that in the final negotiations Hie treaty of Utrecht must be either wholly continued or entireh 
annulled; that she must lie allowed to restore the harbor of Dunkirk ; and that she must be allowed 
; the coast of Newfoundland, from Cape I.onavistu t;i Cape St. John, with the exclusive fishery 
from Cape Bouavista to Point Uiche.'* By a treaty made, with Spain, April 12, 1779, France 
bound herself to attempt the invasion of Great Britain or Ireland, and to share only with Spain 
the North American fisheries, in case she succeeded in driving the Finnish from Newfoundland. 

"These discussions (as to the terms (o be embraced in the linal treaty of peace) were necessary 
pending the question of an alliance with France aiwl Spain against linn-land. When the subject 
of frontiers was brought up, France, while yielding all claim to the provinces of Canada and Nova 
Scotia, which for years had been hers, joined heartily with Spain in opposing the manifest desire 
of the Americans to secure them. Two States persisted in the right and policy of acquiring them, 
but Congress, as a body, deferred to the French view of the subject . ' With regard to the fisheries, 
of which the interruption formed one of the elements of the war, public law had not yet been 
settled.' By the treaty of Utrecht, France agreed not to fish within JO leagues of the coast of 
Nova Scotia; and by that of Paris, not to fish within 15 leagues of Cape Breton. Moreover. 
New England at the beginning of the. war had, by act of Parliament, been debarred from fishing 
on the banks of Newfoundland. * * ' The fishery on the high seas,' so Vergennes expounded 

the law of nations, 'is as free as the sea, itself, and it is superfluous to discuss the right of the 
Americans to it. But the coast fisheries belong of right to the proprietary of the coast. Therefore 
the fisheries on the coasts of Newfoundland, of Nova Scotia, of Canada, belong exclusively to the 
Knglish ; and the Americans have no pretensions whatever to share in them.'t In vain the 
United States urged that the colonies, almost exclusively, had improved the coast fisheries, and 
considered that immemorial and sole improvement was practical acquisition. In vain they insisted 
that New England men, and New England money, and New England brains had effected the first 
conquest of Cape Breton, and were powerful aids to the subsequent conquest of Nova Scotia and 
Canada, and hence they had acquired at least a perpetual joint propriety. To their arguments 
Vergenues replied that the conquests were made not for the colonies but for the crown, and when 
New England dissolved its allegiance, to that crown she renounced her right to the coast fisheries. 
In the end the United States were, obliged to succumb ; they had asked aid from foreign powers, 
and they must yield, so far as was practicable, to the demands those powers made. These conces- 
sions were a portion of the price of independence. 

"A committee! was appointed by Congress to definitely arrange upon what terms the future 
treaty of peace with England should be finally consummated, and in February, 1779, they reported 
that Spain manifested a disposition to form an alliance with the United States, hence indepen- 
dence was an eventual certainty. On the question of lishing they reported that the right should 
belong properly to the United States, France, and Great Britain in common. This portion of tin- 
report was long under discussion in Congress, and it was finally voted that the common right of 
the United States to fish on the coasts, bays, and banks of Xewfonndland and Gulf of Saint Law- 
rence, the Straits of Labrador, and Belle Isle should in no case be given up.' Under a vote to 



"BancrofVa 1. s . x, p. IM." " t Bancroft's U. S., x, pp. 

'{ (Jimvenifiir Morris, ofNe\1 5Tork; i;iul-, of Xorlli Carolina ; Wil lii-iHpocui, ol'IS'nv ,lcrsi-\ ; Smniirl Adams, "I 
Massachusetts, and Smith, of Virginia. (Bancroft's U. S., x. p. -'13.)" 
"$ Bancroft's U.S..X, p. VJ1:J." 



126 HISTOET AND METHODS OF THE FISEERIES. 

reconsider this subject on the 24th of March, Richard Henry Lee proposed that the United States 
should have the same rights which they enjoyed when subject to Great Britain, which proposition 
was carried by the votes of Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the four New England States, New York 
and the Southern States opposing. New York, under the leadership of Jay and Morris, perempt- 
orily declined to insist on this right by treaty, and Morris moved that independence should be the 
sole condition of peace. This was declared out of order by the votes of the New England States, 
New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, against the unanimous vote of New York, Maryland, and North 
Carolina ; Delaware, Virginia, and South Carolina being equally divided. 

" But France had a vital interest in this matter, and the French minister interposed his 
influence, and on the 27th of May Congress returned to its original resolve, 'that in no case, by 
any treaty of peace, should the common right of fishing be given up.' 

" On the 19th of June the equanimity of the French minister was suddenly and rudely disturbed 
by Elbridge Gerry, who being from Marblehead, was the steady and persistent champion of the 
claims of New England, and who, in the prolonged discussions, always came to the front in defense 
of those rights. Entirely unexpectedly, Gerry, avoiding ' a breach of the rules of Congress by a 
change in form, moved resolutions, that the United States have a common right with the English 
to the fisheries on the banks of Newfoundland, and the other fishing-banks and seas of North 
America. The demand was for no more than Yergennes confessed to belong to them by the law 
of nations ; and Gerry insisted that unless the right received the guarantee of France, on the 
consent of Great Britain, the American minister should not sign any treaty of peace without first 
consulting Congress.'* A most stormy and bitter debate ensued. The friends of France resisted 
strenuously. Four States declared if the resolution was adopted they should secede. The matter, 
however, was somewhat compromised, and the common right of fishing on the Grand Banks 
affirmed ; Congress asking for that right the guarantee of France by means of a supplementary 
article explanatory of former treaties. 

"The French minister became alarmed, and sought an interview with the President of Con- 
gress and two other members known to be equally favorably disposed to the policy he represented. 
The vigor and zeal with which New England had pressed the matter had disposed them to concede 
to the desires of this section. He assured them 'that disunion from the side of New England 
\v.-is not to be feared, for its people carried their love of independence even to delirium,' and con- 
tinued : ' There would seem to be a wish to break the connection of France with Spain ; but I 
think I can say that, if the Americans should have the audacity to force the King of France to 
choose between the two alliances, his decision would not be in favor of the United States ; he will 
not. certainly expose himself to consume the remaining resources of his Kingdom for many years 
only to secure an increase of fortune to a few ship-masters of New England. I shall greatly regret, 
on account of the Americans, should Spain enter into war without a convention with them.' 
Five hours of discussion failed to induce the members to undertake to change the views of Con- 
gress, and a new interview was held on the 12th of July, between Gerard and Congress, in a 
committee of the whole. As a final result the question was left to be settled when a treaty of 
peace was formally arranged with Great Britain.* 

"In the mean time how fared it with the whale fishery? The people of Nantucket, with whom 
alone it was still encouraged, though in the face of the most terrible discouragements, were reduced 
to the severest straits. To live, they must eat; to eat, they must have provisions ; to obtain pro- 
visions, they must give in exchange money or its equivalent; to obtain the exchangeable com- 
modity, some business must be pursued. The whale fishery was the only business available to 

" 'Baucroft's U. 8., x, pp. 216 to 219." 



Tin: WHAM: FISHERY. 127 

them. Long practice had made them familiar with it, and a singleness of pursuit had kept them 
comparatively ignorant of any other occupation. But the great problem was how to carry it on, 
even in the limited way to which, by the destruction of their vessels, they were restricted. If they 
sailed under American protection, the English captured and destroyed their vessels and imprisoned 
their men ; if they cleared with the sanction of English safeguards, the Americans performed for 
them the same kindly offices. Between the upper and the nether millstones of war they were quite 
ground to powder. In their extremity they learned that the English were inclined to be lenient 
toward them in the matter, and they had quite reliable assurance that the leading men of the 
American Government looked compassionately upon the distressed situation of the unfortunate 
islanders. 

"Influenced by these considerations, the inhabitants sent Timothy Folger, esq., to New York, 
to represent the condition they were in, and solicit permission to carry on whaling without danger 
of capture from British cruisers. They asked permits for twenty fishing boats to fish around the 
island, for four vessels to be employed in the whale fishery, for ten small vessels to supply the 
inhabitants with wood, and for one to go to New York for some fe\v supplies not obtainable else- 
where.* Their petition was not so successful as they had wished." 

AMERICAN VESSELS GRANTED PERMITS FOR TVHALING. "In 1781 Admiral Digby succeeded 
Admiral Arbuthnot in the command of the English fleet in these waters, and permission to whale 
was asked of him,t and permits were issued for twenty-four vessels to pursue the business 
unmolested by English armed cruisers.^ 'This privilege,' says Macy, 'seemed to give new life 
to the people. It produced a considerable movement in business, but the resources of the island 
had so diminished that but a small number of vessels could take the benefit of these permits. 
Those who had vessels, and were possessed of the means, fitted them out on short voyages, and, 
had there been no hindrance, it is probable that they would have done well ; for the whales, 

""Maey, ll:i." 

t Mr. Macy gives us to understand that no permits were granted, but this must be an error; for Mr. Rotch (vide 
MS.X who was one of the committee the succeeding year to obtain grants from the English, mentions an accusation 
made by Commodore Affleck, of abuse of confidence in regard to the permits which were granted the year before, and 
that scarcely a vessel could bo found but had one of these documents. To this Mr. Rotch replied: 'Commodore 

Affleck, thou hast been greatly imposed upon in this matter. I dtfy Capt. to make such a declaration to my 

face. Those Permits were put into my hands. I delivered them, taking receipts for each, to be returned to me at 
the cud of the voyage, and an obligation that no transfer should be made or copies given. I received back all the 
Permits except two before I left home, anil should probably have received those two on the day that I sailed. Now 
if any duplicity has been practiced, I am the person who is accountable., and I am hero to take the punishment such 
perfidy deserves.' -Mr. 1,'otch's character as a man ami a merchant stood too high, to be questioned, and the commo- 
dore, whoa moment he!'< % ioleut. became more genial, and replied, 'You deserve favor,' and assisted Mr. 
Rotcli to obtain it. The termination of this dilliculty is but one example of the manner in which all these slanders, 
from both English and Americans, were disposed of when the accused could have an opportunity of confronting the 
accusers or those in authority." 

'(The following is a copy of one of these permits, from Macy, p. 11.".: 

" '[L. s.] By Robert Digby, Esquire, Rear Admiral of the Red, and Commander-in-chief, &c., &c. 
James < "Permission is hereby given to the Dolphin brig, burthen sixty tons, Walter Folger owner, 

ubailiah iv navigated Ivy Gilbert Folger as master and the twelve seamen named in the margin, to leave the 

island of Naiilnc' -ed on a whaling voyage, to commence the first of January, 1782, 

and end i ly of - following, provided that they have on board the necessary whaling 

Fetor 1'oUard ' lllf ' provisions only, and that (he master of said brig is possessed of a certificate from the 

-Andrew Coleman selectmen of the said island. s> ! ting forth that she is bone fide the property of the inhabitants of the 
i iiieil llarnard island, with I he names of i he mauler and seamen in her; and that she shall not be found proceed- 

JonathaD iiiiggs { n ^ with her cargo in anj Other port than Nan tucket or New York. 
'"Dated at Xew York, Lb <'>er, 17-1. 

'ROBERT DIGP.Y. 

" ' To the eommis-siouersof his majesty's ships ami vessels of war, as well as of all privateer. sand letters of marque. 
" ' By command of the Admiral : 

" THOMAS M. PALMER.'" 



128 HISTOTJY AND METHODS OF THE F1SHEKIES. 

having been unmolested for several years, hart become numerous, and were pretty easily caught. 
To carry on the whale fishery under permission of the Government.of Great Britain was a proceed- 
ing somewhat novel, and could not pass unnoticed. Although it was not publicly known, yet it 
was generally believed that some kind of indulgence had been shown by the. enemy to the people 
of Nautucket. This caused some, clamor on the continent; but our Government well knew the 
situation of the place, and its large participation in the calamities of the war, and was, consequently, 
rat her inclined to favor than to eondenm the acceptance of favors from the English. Although 
the Government could not grant an exclusive privilege to any particular part of the Union, yet 
such encouragement was given by the leading men of the nation, in their individual capacity, as 
to warrant the proceeding. Several vessels whaling under these permits were taken by American 
privateers and carried into port, but, in every instance they were soon liberated. Whenever it 
was found that the permits were used for no other purpose, than that for which they had been 
granted, and that the vessels using them had not been engaged in illicit trade, there was no 
hesitation in releasing them.' 

"Nevertheless a great risk attended this mode of proceeding, und the islanders became 
satisfied that to make the business reasonably safe permits must be obtained from both contending 
powers and permission also to make use of each license against the other's vessels of war. Accord- 
ingly, a town meeting was convened on the 25th of September, 1782, and a memorial prepared 
and adopted which was sent to the general court of Massachusetts.* This petition recited the 
unfortunat<* situation the people were in, exposed to the inroads of English and Americans, with 
neither side able or willing to protect them against the other, and powerless, because of the 
defenseless character of the island and the religious convictions of the vast majority of the inhabi- 
tants, to suitably guard their own firesides. They urged that people in continental towns, where 
the broad country opened to them a place for retreat, could have but faint ideas of the suffering 
of those who were constantly liable to hostile, invasion and whose insular position precluded 
all thoughts of escape, and they indignantly resented the calumnies which had been spread broad- 
cast through the State in regard to alleged actions of theirs. Kegarding the prosecution of their 
business, they said: 

" ' We now beg leave to throw a few hints before you respecting the Whalefishery, as a matter 
of great importance to this Commonwealth. This place before the War, was the First in that 
branch of business, & employed more than One Hundred Sail of good Vessels therein, which fur- 
nish'd a support net only for Five Thousand Inhabitants here, but for Thousands elsewhere, no 
place so well adapted for the good of the Community at large as Nautucket, it being destitute of 
every material necessary in the Business, and the Inhabitants might be called Factors for the 
Continent rather than Principals; as the war encreased the Fishery ceased, until necessity obliged 
us to make trial the last Year, with about seventeen sail of Vessels, Two of which were captured 
& carried to New York,t & one was burnt the others made saving voyages. The present Year 
we employed about Twenty Four sail in the same business, which have mostly coinpleated their 
Voyages, but with little success; \ a great loss will ensue; this we apprehend is greatly owing 
to the circumscribed situation of the Fishery ; we are now fully sensible that it can no longer be pur- 
sued by us, unless we have free liberty both from Great Britain & America to fish without inter- 

" *By a very (lisas' runs lire at, Nautiicket, in 1846, the records both of the town iincl custom-house were destroyed, 
hence there arises much dil'lienlty in getting many interesting details. Many uf the custom records of New Bedford 
were destroyed by fire iu IHiJ ; the corresponding documents of Newport, prior to 1779, were carried away by the 
English, and the vessel containing them being sank, they were, when recovered, in a very damaged condition; the 
similar records of Sag Harbor (the older ones) were stored in a damp place, and are mildewed and illegible." 

"t New York, al this lime, \\asiu possession of the English." 



Till': WHALE EISHEKY. 

ruption; As \vt> now linil One of our Vessels is captured & carried to Now York, but without any 
Oil on lioanl, and Two others have lately been taken & carried into Boston & Salem, under pre- 
tense of having double papers on board, (Nevertheless we presume the captors will no! sa.v that 
any of our Whalemen have. gone into New York during the .season as such a charge would have 
no foundation in Truth). And if due attention is not paid to this valuable branch, which if it was 
viewed in all its parts, perhaps would appear the most advantageous, of any possess'd by this 
Government, it will be entirely lost, if the War continues: We view it with regret & mention it 
with concern. & from the gloomy prospect nov, before ns, we apprehend many of the Inhabitants 
must quit the Island, not being able even to provide necessaries for the approaching Winter: some 
will retreat to the Continent & set down in the Western Governments; and the most active in the 
Fishery will most probably go to distant Countries, where they can have every encouragement, 
by Nations who are eagerly wishing to embrace so favourable an opportunity to accomplish their 
desires; which will be a great loss to the Continent in general, but more to this Government in 
particular. We beg leave to impress the consideration of this important subject, not as the judg- 
ment of an insignificant few, but of a Town which a few Years since stood the Third in Bank (if 
we mistake not) in bearing the Burthens of Government; It was then populous and abounded 
with plenty, it is yet populous but is covered with poverty. Your Memorialists have made choice 
of Samuel Starbuck, Josiah Barker, William Botch, Stephen Hnssey and Timothy Folger, as their 
Committee who can speak more fully to the several matters coutaiu'd in this Memorial, or any 
other thing that may concern this County, to whom we desire to refer yon. Signed in behalf of 

the Town by 

'"FREDERICK FOLGER, 

" ' Town Clerk: 

"This memorial was referred to a committee consisting of George Cabot, esq., on behalf of the 
senate, and General Ward and Colonel McCobb on the part of the house, which committee on 
the ^9th of October made the following report: 

'" That altho' the Facts set forth in said Memorial are true and the Memorialists deserve 
Relief in the premises, yet as no adequate Relief can be given them but by the United States in 
Congress assembled, therefore it is the opinion of the Committee that the said Memorial be referr'd 
to the consideration of Congress, and the Delegates of this Commonwealth be required to use 
their Endeavours to impress Congress with just Ideas of the high worth & Importance of the 
Whale fishery to the United States in general, & this State in particular.'* 

"This report was accepted, and it was ordered that the delegates lie furnished with a copy of 
the memorial, and be required to take the action indicated in the report. 

'' In addition to the action of the general court, the town also sent William Itotch and Samuel 
Starbuck to Philadelphia to intercede personally in the matter. After conferring with General 

'Mass. Cul. Mss , Iviitmiis, i, \>\<. rJl-."i-i>-7-iS-'J. A memorandum a> e-onipanie's Ibis, which various cireum- 
st. -HUM'S .sci'in tii iinlii'ate is (In- \vurk of Mr. Kotch, and which sa\s : ' 1 '< -i -li.-i|i.s some of those reports may have origin at IM! 
from this :i Commit tor of our Island in I IK- f'mv part of tin 1 ye-ar 17-1 applied to some of tin- Members of the (!< ueral 
Court and spread before them lh<- pi-< -ulhir e-.iroumstanee-s wherein the Island was involved, one whereof was that 
our Vessels whenever thej passed in or mil were perfectly uuder the controul of the Unions and it was therefore 

neee-s:ir\ that permits si Id lie obtained from them for our Vessels lei preiee-e-el on the- W halt) -fishery since which 

time- si mi e of them have- been tal.e-n by i he> Ainei lean i'l ivaliM-rs I'm having such Permits and \ve are- thereby reduced 
to this difficulty that if\\e carry our Vessels over the- bar wiMiont pe-mm iVom the Ilritish Admiral they are< made 
pri/.e- I, i the- BritOU3 if they have- such permits tln-\ are' ta\en by our eiwn Ciniutn men and mir harbour is there- 
fore completely shut up and all our prospects terminate in pm. rlv anil distress what gives us great cone'crn is that 
our people who understand I lie \Vli;ile- lishery will be driveu lei foreign m-iil ral ( 'mint lies and many years must pass 
away before we- shall again be enabled I" puisne- a branch of business w Ine-h b.i i li been in tiine-s past our snppoYt and 
hath yie-Ieleel sue' It lame a ill - I o 1 1 ie ( 'em i me i -e-e of 1 1 1 i s ( ID m try.'" 

SEC. \, VOL. u 



130 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Lincoln, Samuel Osgood, Nathaniel Gorham, Thomas Fitzsimuious, and James Madison, they 
approached one of the Massachusetts delegation who was a resident of Boston, and who was 
greatly prejudiced against Nantucket. After an interview of about two hours with no apparent 
relaxation of the bitterness of feeling on his part, Mr. Eotch questioned him as to whether the 
whale fishery was 'worth preserving to this country?' He replied, 'Yes.' 'Can it be preserved 
in the present state of things by afly place except Nantucket?' 'No.' 'Can we preserve it unless 
you and the British will both give us permits?' 'No.' 'Then, pray,' continued Mr. Eotch, 'where 
is the difficulty"?' Thus this interview ended. Messrs. Eotch and Starbuck then drew up a 
memorial and presented it to the consideration of the above named gentlemen, desiring them to 
review it, at the same time telling them of the conversation between Mr. Eotch and the delegate 
from Boston. By advice of these friends they waited again upon the member from Massachusetts, 
and he accepted the charge of bringing the subject before Congress, where, after deliberation, it 
was determined to grant permits for thirty-five vessels to sail on whaling voyages, and these were 
accordingly granted and delivered. The very next day a vessel arrived from Europe bringing the 
rumor of the signing of a provisional treaty of peace.* 

' This was early in 1783. t The passage from the provisional to the definitive treaty was long, 
circuitous, and at times dark. One of the chief sources of difference was the settlement of the 
question of the fisheries, England with an apparent feeling of magnanimity conceding favors, and 
America with a sense of justice claiming rights. Against what the United States considered her 
just dues the diplomacy of the English, their late enemies, and the French, their recent allies, was 
arrayed, and nothing but firmness, sagacity, and skill on the part of the American commissioners 
saved the day. The English guarded their assumptions with all possible jealousy ; the French 
sought a loose place in the armor to insert the diplomatic sword, and gain by treaty what they 
had bsen unable to sustain with force. The Americans were ever on the alert to overcome the 
prejudices of a power from whom they had conquered a peace, and to propitiate the supersensi- 
tiveness of a power which had rendered them so valuable assistance. They could not, however, 
depart from certain propositions. The articles which must be inviolate were those guaranteeing 
to America full and unconditional independence, and the withdrawal from the thirteen States of 
all British troops ; the Mississippi as a western, and the Canadian line as it was prior to the Que- 
bec act of 1774, for a northern boundary ; and a freedom in the fishery off Newfoundland and 
elsewhere as it had been enjoyed prior to the commencement of hostilities. In vain Great Britain 
sought to evade the latter clause ; the United States tenaciously, as in a vice, held her to it, and 
she yielded. " 

EFFECTS OF THE EEVOLXTI IONAEY WAR. "But the announcement of peace came to a 
people whose commerce was sadly devastated. Save such of the interest as had been preserved 
by what Mr. Jefferson termed the Nantucketois, the business of whaling was practically ruined 
and required rebuilding. To Nantucket the war had, despite its holy necessity and its glorious 
conclusion, been a heavy burden. Of the little over 150 vessels owned there in 1775, 134 had 
fallen into the hands of the English and 15 more were lost by shipwreck; many of the young men 
had perished through the rigors of war;J in about 800 families on the island there were 202 
widows and 342 orphan children; the direct money loss far exceeded $1,000,000 in times when a 

" 'Memoranda of William Eotch unpublished." 

" t On the 22d of March, 1783, au order was passed in Congress granting 35 licenses to Nautuckot vessels to whale 
ami to secure theui from the penalty attached to double papers. (Madison Papers, p. 405.)" 

" t It is estimated that no less than 1,200 seamen, mostly whalemen, were captured by the English or perished at 
i lien- bauds during the Revolution, from Nan tucket alone! " 



THE WHALE FISHEIiY. 131 

mail's pay was 67 cents per day ; oiie merchant alone lost over $00,000. * And as it was with 
Nautucket, so it was in a degree with all the whaling ports.! With an energy characteristically 
American, they sought, on the return of peace, to retrieve their losses. Scarcely had the echo of 
the hostile guns died away, scarcely had the joyful news of peace reached their ports, when the 
whalemen began to equip anew for their fishery. The Bedford, just returned to Nantucket from a 
voyage, was immediately loaded with oil and dispatched to L6*udon, arriving in the Downs on the 
3d of February. Her appearance was thus chronicled by an English magazine of that day : 'The 
ship Bedford, Captain Mooers,| belonging to the Massachusetts, arrived in the Downs the 3d of 
February, passed Gravesend the 4th, & was reported at the Custom-House the Cth instant. She 
was not allowed regular entry uutil some consultation had taken place between the commissioners 
of the customs & the lords of council, on account of the many acts of parliament yet in force 
against the rebels in America. She is loaded with 487 butts of whale oil; is American built ; 
inauned wholly by American seamen ; wears the rebel colors & belongs to the Island of Nan- 
tucket in Massachusetts. This is the first vessel which displayed the thirteen rebellious stripes of 
America in any British Port. The vessel lies at Horseley down a little below the Tower, and is 
jnteuded immediately to return to New England.'' Immediately after, almost simultaneously with 
her, arrived another ship from Nantucket the Industry, Capt. John Chadwick, while the sloop 
Speedwell, James Whippey, master, was sent to Aux Cayes.|| Those at Nautucket who had 
capital left resumed the whale fishery with as many vessels as they could procure. Long compar- 
ative immunity from capture had caused the whaling-grounds to become repopulated, and the 
whales themselves had become less shy and hence more easily killed. Directly succeeding the 
war the products of the fishery commanded good prices, and soon other ports entered into compe- 
tition. New London, Sag Harbor, Hudson, N. Y., Boston, Hiugham, Wellfleet, Braintree,fl Ply- 
mouth, Bristol, each sent out one or more whale huuters. For a brief time the business promised 
much profit, but the fever was a fitful one. The excessive prices which the commodity commanded 
immediately after the war ** rapidly became reduced ; Great Britain, the only market for the sperm 
oil, had, by an alien duty of 18 sterling per ton, practically precluded its shipment from America. 
Oil which before the war was worth 30, now scarcely brought 17, while to cover expenses and 
leave a reasonable margin for profit, 25 were required.!! The situation was indeed desperate 
almost hopeless." 

ESTABLISHMENT OF BOUNTY SYSTEM BY MASSACHUSETTS. "In the discussion of means for 
relief many of the people of Nantucket expressed the opinion that if the island could be made 
neutral commercial affairs might assume a more healthy tone. A memorial was finally sent to the 
legislature of Massachusetts praying relief, and the agents presenting it were instructed to have 
the subject of neutrality acted upon. As may be readily supposed, however, the invidious legisla- 
tion that Nautucket was uuable to obtain during the war, she would scarcely be likely to get on 
its conclusion, and the subject of neutrality was very properly dismissed. That the depression in 
the whaling business needed some alleviation was, however, too evident to require discussion, and 

" * William Eotch, esq." 

"t Warren, R. I., suffered a loss of 12 vessels (about 1,100 tons), of which at least two were whalemen. (Hist, of 
Warren, p. 101.)" 

"tCapt. William Mooers, who sailed for many years in the employ of Messrs. Kotch & Co. It is related that one 
of the crew of the vessel first showing the American flag in the Thames was hump-backed. Oue day a British sailor 
meeting him clapped his hand upon the American's shoulder, saying, 'Hilloa, Jack, what have you got heref ' 
'Bunker Hill and be d d to you,' replied the Yankee, 'will you mount?'" 

" $ The Bedford was built in 1765, by Ichabod Thomas, at North River. She was built a brig." 

" || Letter of William Rotch. esq." " II One small schooner of 38 tous burden hailed from Braintroe." 

"** Macy's Nantucket, lai." " tt See Mr. Rotch's MS." 



132 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

in 1785 the legislature passed the followiug preamble and resolution: 'Whereas this court, having 
a due seuse of the high worth and importance of the whale fishery, are desirous of its preservation 
nut only to this State, but to the United States in general ; therefore, Resolved, That there be paid, 
out of the treasury of this Commonwealth, the following bounties upon whale oil of the different 
qualities hereafter mentioned, viz : For every ton of white spermaceti oil, five pounds ; for every 
ton of brown or yellow spermaceti eil, sixty shillings; for every ton of whale oil (so called), forty 
shillings, that may be taken or caught by any vessel or vessels that are or may be owned and 
manned wholly by the inhabitants of this Commonwealth, and landed within the same, from and 
after the first day of January next, until the further order of the general court.' The selectmen of 
the various towns were further empowered to appoint sworn inspectors to inspect all oil so landed, 
and mark on the head of cadi cask so inspected the iuitital letters of his name, and a description 
of the oil by the initials W. B., or Y. W. O., and deliver to the selectmen a sworn certificate 
thereof. To obtain the bounty, a certificate from the selectmen must be presented to the governor 
and council,* detailing the kind, quality, and amount of oil, and where landed. To this certifi- 
cate the owners were to make oath or affirmation. 

" But, although the bounty seemed at first beneficial, the ultimate effect was not so good. The 
business became unduly stimulated and an overproduction prevented to a great degree the desired 
advance in profit. The demand was greatly limited. A long suspension in the use of oil had 
accustomed the people in general to the use of tallow candles, and but little oil was required either 
for towns or for light-houses." 

TRANSFER OF WHALING INTERESTS FROM NANTUCKET TO FRANCE AND ENGLAND. "In 
the mean time, seeing no chance for any amelioration in their condition, unable to carry on a 
business at a prospective loss, and accustomed from early childhood only to this pursuit, 
hence unable and unwilling to adventure another, some of the prominent merchants of Nantucket 
resolved to transfer their business to some place where the demand for their products and the 
advantageous bounty offered would make it far more remunerative. Among these was William 
Rotch. On the 4th of July, 1785, Mr. Rotch sailed from Nantucket in the ship Maria, bound for 
London, arriving there on the 37th. -At as early a day as practicable he opened negotiations with 
the chancellor of the exchequer (William Pitt) for a transfer to England of such of the whale fish- 
ery at Nantucket as he could control.t The subject was laid before the privy council, and Mr. 
Rotch waited four months for their summons. Finally, in deference to a request of his that some 
one be appointed to close the matter, he was referred to Lord Hawksbury, a gentleman not very 
favorably disposed toward America. Mr. Rotch gave him his estimate of the sum necessary to 
induce a removal, viz, ' 100 sterling transportation for a family of five persons, and 100 settle- 

"*Macy, 129." 

"t Capt. Alexander Coffin was of those who looked upon the whale fishery as a peculiarly American pursuit, 
aud who denounced any effort looking to a transfer of it to any foreign government. On tlie 8th of June, 1785, he 
addressed from Nantucket a vigorous letter to the Hon. Samuel Adams. He wrote in severe terms agaiust the meas- 
being adopted to remove to England, and says Mr. Rotch ' is now taking on board a double stock of materials, 
such as cedar boards (commonly called boat-boards), of which they have none in England, a large quantity of coop- 
er's stuff for casks, Are. Xeit her does it .stop liere ; the house of Rotch have been endeavoring to engage an acquaint- 
am e <>r mine i m, t,, I'.ennudas to superintend the business at that place.' In a postscript he adds, 'Since writing the 
:|l ><>\ e I 1 1 nve I ice 1 1 favored with the original scheme of establishment of the fishery at Bermudas, copies of which are 
hero inclosed. One of the company is now at Kennebec, contracting with some persons for an annual supply of 
IHH>IIX, stu\ c's, and other lumber necessary for the business.' This letter was laid before the senate of Massachusetts, 
and tin 1 result \vas the passage of an act prohibiting the export to Bermudas of the articles enumerated, and the trans- 
fer in this direction was prevented." 



TIIK \YII.\u: nsilKKY. |;;;; 

.unit; Cl'0,000 fur a hundred families.' Loid llawksbnrv demurred ID this as a la rye. .sum.* 
At a, subsequent interview Mr. Uotcli added ID Iiis previous ])osition the demand to biini; with him 
thirty American ships, which demand also met \vilh remonstrance 1'roiu Loid Hawkshnry, who 
.seemed to be of the ' penny \vise pound foolish ' order of statesmen. Mr. Hotel) finally took leave 
of Lord HawUsbnry without obtaining any satisfaction, and, embarking on board his vessel, sailed 
for France. t Landing at Dunkirk, he drew up proposals to the French <!overnmeiJt and forwarded 
them to Paris. These proposals were eagerly entertained, and the preliminaries were speedily 
arranged for a transfer of (lie interest of Mr. Rotch and his family and friends to Dunkirk, from 
which port, for several years, a. very successful fishery was carried on. Contemporary with the, 
negotiations with Mr. Rotch, a letter was dispatched to the people of Nantucket by Capt. Shubael 
tlardncr, from L - Coffin, who resided at Dunkirk, stating that his sympathy for the people 
of that island had led him to apply to the French Government in their behalf, and with excellent 
success. Every request he had made had been granted, and the unlimited freedom, tflfc abun- 
dance and cheapness of provisions, the absence of custom-houses, the small taxes, the regularity ct 
the town, the manners and industry of the inhabitants, and its situation, rendered it, in his opin- 
ion, l the most eligible place in the universe for the people of Nantucket to remove to.f 



'Ami uli.it,' queried Lord Hawksbnry, 'do you prop use. lo givu us iu return for this outlay of money ?' 'I will 
nive you,' returned Mr. Rotch proudly, 'some of tie best blood of the island of Nun tucket.' At this interview Hawks- 
bury presented his own figures, where, says Mr. Rotch (see MS.), 'he had made hisnice calculation of 87 10. for 
transportation aud settlement of a family,' and, says he, ' Iain about a fishery bill, and I want to come to something 
that I may insert it,' &c. My answer was, ' Thy offer is no object; therefore goon with thy fishery bill without any 
regard to me.' I was then taking leave aud withdrawing. 'Well, Mr. Rotch. you'll call on me again in two or three 
days.' ' I see no necessity for it.' ' But I desire you would.' ' If it is thy desire perhaps I may call.' However, he 
let me rest 1ml one day before he sent for me. He hud the old story over again, but I told him it was unnecessary to 
enter again into the subject. I then iu formed him that I had beard a rumor that Nantncket liad agreed to furnish 
France with a quantity of oil. He stopped to his bureau, took out one of a file of papers, and pretended to read an 
entire contradiction, though I was satisfied there was not a line there on the subject. I said, ' It was only a vague 
report that I had heard, aud I cannot vouch for the truth of it, but we are like drowning men, catching at everv 
straw that passes by; therefore I am now determined to go to France aud see what it is. If there is any such con- 
tract, sufficient to retain us at Nautucket, neither you nor any other nation shall have us, and if it is insufficient, I 
will endeavor to enlarge it.' 'Ah,' says he, 'Quakers go to France?' 'Yes,' I replied, ' but with regret.' I then 
pai-ted with Lord Hawksbury for the last time. (Rotch MS.)" 

" t His lordship sent once more for Mr. Rotch to call on him, but Mr. Rotch returned answer, ' If Lord Hawks- 
bury ib-sires to" see me be will find rue on board my vessel up to the hour when she takes her anchor.' When Mr. 
Rotch was once gone, Hawksbury became alarmed and sent to him by letter, informing him that he had made pro- 
vision in the fishery bill for him, with liberty to bring- forty ships instead of thirty, ' he having forgotten the num- 
ber;' but it was too late. This unexpected ending of his hopes was far from pleasing either to his lordship or tbe 
( "i\ eminent. After tbe interview with the King of France, Mr. Rotch returned to England, and was importuned to 
remove to Great Britain. In his memoranda he says be was waited upon by one of the officials, who told him ho was 
' authorized by Mr. Pitt to tell you that you shall make your own terms.' 'I told him,' continues Mr. Rotch, ' he v*as 
too late. I made very moderate proposals to you, but could obtain nothing worth my notice. I went to France, senl 
forward my proposals, which were doubly advantageous to what I had oifered your Government ; they considered 
them Inn a -hurt tune, and on my arrival in Paris were ready to act. I had a separate interview with all the minis- 
ters ol'state necessary to the subject, five in number, who all agreed to aud granted my demands. This was effected 
iu live hours, when 1 had waited to be called by your privy council more than four months.' All attempts on 
the part of the English Government to reopen the subject were politely but. firmly rejected by Mr. Rotch. 'In the 
beginning of 1793,' the account continues, 'I became fully aware that war hetueeii England aud France would 

- iiakeplaee; therefore it was lime tor me to leave the country iu order to save our vessels if captured by the 

English. 1 proceeded lo England. Two of them were captured, full of oil, and condemned, but we recovered both by 
my being in Knghiud, where I arrived two weeks before the war took place. My going to France to pursue the whale 
fishery so disappointed Lord Hawksbnry that he undertook to be revenged on me for his own folly, and I have no 
doubt ".ave directions to the cruisers lo take an\ of our vessels that they met with going to France. When the 
Ospray was taken by a King's ship, the officer sent on board to examine her papers called to the captain and said, 
"You'll take this vessel in, sir; she belongs to William Rotch." ' Mr. Rotch returned to (he United .stales with 
several of his vessels in 1794, and. after residing in Nantucket about a year, removed to New Bedford, where he lived 
until his death, in May, 1828." 

" t The following is a list of advantages secured to Nantucket, whalemen by Mr. Coffin : 
' ' 1st. An entire lice exercise of their religion or worship within themselves. 



134 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

" What effect this state of affairs may have hail in the arrangement of treaties of commerce 
with Great Britain is somewhat uncertain, but. the attempt to a consummation of this plan was 
intrusted to a man not only thoroughly imbued with New England principles, but of sufficient 
statesmanship to realize of how much national importance this matter was. None knew better 
than John Adams that the secret of the commercial greatness which should be developed lay in 
the codevelopmeut of the fisheries; that herein was the nursery for seamen who would be a source 
of wealth in peace and of power in war. It was desirable, to irake duties and courtesies more 
reciprocal, and one of the first duties intrusted to Mr. Adams on his appointment to the court of 
St. James in 1785 was the arrangement of some treaty which should be mutually satisfactory. 
Naturally, one of the principal points was the importation of the products of our fishermen, since 
that industry, perhaps more than any other, was in danger of serious injury from the existing con- 
dition of things. 

" I* a letter to the Marquis of Carmarthen, dated July 29, 1785, Mr. Adams refers to the 
trouble accruing from the alien duties laid by England in these words : ' The course of commerce 
since the peace, between Great Britain and the United States of America, has been such as to 
have produced many inconveniences to the persons concerned in it on both sides, which become 
every day more and more sensible. The zeal of Americans to make remittances to British 
merchants has been such as to raise the interest of money to double its usual standard, to 
increase the price of bills of exchange to 8 or 10 percentum above par, and to advance the price 
of the produce of the country to almost double the usual rate. Large sums of the circulating 
cash, and as much produce as could be purchased at almost any rate, have been remitted to 

" ' 2d. The concession of a tract of ground to build their houses and stores. 

" '3d. All the privileges, exemptions, and advantages promised by the King's declaration in 1662, confirmed by 
letters patent of 1784, to all strangers who come to establish there, which are the same as those enjoyed by the natif 
subjects of his majisty. 

" '4th. The importation into the Kingdom, free from all duties whatever, of the oil proceeding from their fishery, 
and the same premiums and encouragement granted for the cod and other fisheries to natif subjects. 

"'Sth. A premium per ton ou the burthen of the vessels that will carry on the whale fishery, which shall be 
determined in the course of the negotiation either with Mr. Rotch or with the select men of the island. 

" '6th. All objects of provisions and victuals for their ships shall be exempted from all duties whatever. 

" '7th. An additional and heavier duty shall be laid on all foreign oil, as a further encouragement to them, in 
order to facilitate the sale of their own. 

" ' 8th. The expenses of removing those of the inhabitants who are not capable of defraying themselves shall be 
paid by the Government. 

" ' 9th. A convenient dock shall be built to repair their ships. 

" ' 10th. All trades-people, such as smiths, boat-builders, coopers, and others shall be admitted to the free exer- 
cise of their trade without being liable to the forms and expense usually practiced and paid by the natif subjects for 
their admittance to mastership. 

" ' llth. They shall have liberty to command their own vessels, and have the choice of their own people to navi- 
gate them. 

" '12th. They shall bo free from all military and naval service, as well in war as in peace, in the same manner 
and extent as expressed by the King's ordinance of the 16th of February, 1759.' (Macy, 257, 258.) 

" These were probably essentially the same concessions made to Mr. Rotch in person. How many American 
captains pursued the fishery from the various British and French ports subsequently to the Revolution it would be 
difficult to determine. Nantucket alone furnished eighty-three captains for the French and one hundred and forty- 
nine captains for the English fishery ; probably the bulk of the total number came from this one port, though in the 
course of the prosecution of whaling by these nations, New Bedford furnished a very considerable number. In a 
' Journal of a Voyage to Greenland ' from Dunkirk in the ship Penelope, Capt. Tristram Gardner (a Nantucket man), 
be records, under the head of Friday, June 6, 1788, in latitude 70 north, ' 100 ships in sight.' On the 22d of the same 
month he states, as a mere matter of fact not worthy of extended comment, ' Wind at South ; A Rnged sea ; Plenty 
of Snow. Later Part Saw Ise to ye S. YV. of us a 4 ye wind Shifted to ye Northward, but Still thick weather. Saw 
A Number of ships, but No whale. So ends this 24 hours. Lat. 79.02.' And yet this is within about 175 miles of 
the highest northern point attained by any of our splendidly equipped expeditions undertaken with the express pur- 
pose of pushing as far north as possible in vessels armored and strengthened and equipped in the most complete 
manner, while the whaling voyages were pursued in small, not uncommonly strong ships, not even having the feeble 
protection of coppered bottoms. As early as 1753, a schooner was fitted from Boston for the discovery of the north- 
west passage. She sailed in the spiin^ and returned in October of the same year." 



THE wn ALT: FISHEKY. 135 

['.upland : but much of this produce lies in store here, because it will not letch, by reason of tbo 
duties aud restrictions on it, the price given for it in America. No political arrangements having 
been made, both the British and American merchants expected that the trade -would have 
returned to its old channels, and nearly under the same regulations, found by long experience 
to be beneficial ; but they have been disappointed. The former have made advances, and the 
latter contracted debts, both depending upon remittances in the usual articles, and upon the 
ancient terms, but both have found themselves mistaken, and it is much to be feared that the 
consequences will be numerous failures. Cash and bills have been chiefly remitted; neither 
rice, tobacco, pitch, tar, turpentine, ships, oil, nor many other articles, the great sources of remit- 
tances formerly, can now be sent as heretofore, because of restrictions and imports, which are 
new in this commerce, and destructive of.it ; and the trade with the British West India Islands, 
formerly a vast source of remittance, is at present obstructed. * * * There is a literal impos- 
sibility, my lord, that the commerce between the two countries can continue long to the. advan- 
tage of either upon the present footing.'* He continues, that these evils will increase, and 
asserts that it is the desire of the United States to be on good terms commercially with England, 
and not be driven to other markets with their goods, and he closes by proposing the arrangement 
of a treaty of commerce, between the two countries. 

" It would be interesting, though not necessary in this connection, to follow the negotiations 
through each step ; to see how the English administration felt compelled to cater to those who 
upheld the British navigation laws ; to see how jealousy of our incipient naval power procrasti- 
nated the treaty which it was inevitable must come ; to see how self-confident and secure the 
English felt that our trade must unavoidably come to them ; to see how an attempt was made to 
throw the influence of Ireland against America by ostentatious concessions, and how the attempt 
failed ; to see how, finally, the fear of American reciprocity in restrictions led to English reci- 
procity in concessions ; but those things can be more satisfactorily learned from the diplomatic 
correspondence of the day.t 

" On the 24th of August Mr. Adams had a conference with Mr. Pitt for the first time in this 
connection. Passing by the matter of the interview, so far as it relates to the other portions of 
the proposed treaty, we find that when the treaty of commerce was proposed, Mr. Pitt inquired " 
what were the lowest terms that might be satisfactory to America. Mr. Adams replied that he 
might not think himself competent to decide that question ; that, because of the rapidly increas- 
ing feeling in America, affairs had already culminated in Massachusetts in the passage of an act 
of navigation by that State, showing the tendency of the times, and that the action of England 
would have much to do in arresting that prejudice ; that the five hundred ships employed in the 
commerce of the United States in 1784 might easily be compelled to become the property of 
American citizens and navigated wholly by American seamen ; that the simple passage of an old 
English statute, ' that none of the King's liege people should ship any merchandise out of or into 
the realm, but only in ships of the King's liegance, on pain of forfeiture,' modified to suit the 
American form of government, would effect this; that the nation had the legal right to govern 
its own commerce; that the ability of the Americans to build ships and the abundance of 
material they had for that purpose could not be doubted ; and that whatever laws England might 
make, she would be glad to receive and consume considerable American produce, even though 
imported through France or Holland, and sell us as many of her manufactures as we could pay 
for, through the same channels. The conversation finally introduced the subject of ships and oil, 
and Mr. Pitt said to Mr. Adams the Americans ' could not think hard of the English for encourag- 
ing their own shipwrights, their manufacturers of ships, and their own whale fishery.' To which 
" " Works of John Adams, viii, p. 288." "\Ibid., p. 307." 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Mr. Adams replied, ' By no means, but it appeared unaccountable to the- people of America that 
this country should sacrifice the general interests of the nation to the private interests of a few 
individuals interested iu the manufacture of ships and iu the whale fishery, so far as to refuse 
these remittances from America iu payment of debts, and for manufactures which would employ 
so many more people, augment the revenue so considerably, as well as the national wealth, which 
would, even in other ways, so much augment the shipping and seamen of the nation. It was 
looked upon iu America as reconciling themselves to a diminution of their own shipping and sea- 
men, in a great degree, for the sake of diminishing ours in a small one, besides keeping many of 
their manufacturers out of employ, who would otherwise have enough to do; and besides greatly 
diminish the revenue, and, consequently, contrary to the maxim which he had just acknowledged 
that one nation should not hurt itself for the sake of hurting another, nor take measures to 
deprive another of any advantage without benefiting itself.'* From the questions of compara- 
tive gains or losses to either power, and the relations in which France would stand to both, Mr. 
Pitt led Mr. Adams into a lengthy and useless conversation on the whale fisheries of the three 
countries, referring specially to the efforts of M. de Calonne to introduce this pursuit into France, 
asking suddenly the question ' whether we had taken any measures to find a market for our oil 
anywhere but in France.' To this Mr. Adams replied, 'I believed we had, and I have been told 
that some of our oil had found a good market at Bremen; but there could not be a doubt that 
spermaceti oil might find a market in most of the great cities in Europe which were illuminated 
iu the night, as it is so much better and cheaper than the vegetable oil that is commonly used. 
The fat of the spermaceti whale gives the clearest and most beautiful flame of auy substance that 
is known in nature, and we are all surprised that you prefer darkness, and consequent robberies, 
burglaries, and murders in your streets to the receiving, as a remittance, our spermaceti oil. 
The lamps around Grosveuor Square, I know, and iu Downing street, too, I suppose, are dim by 
midnight, and extinguished by two o'clock ; whereas our oil would burn bright till 9 o'clock in the 
morning, and chase away, before the watchmen, all the villains, and save you the trouble and 
danger of introducing a new police into the city.'t 

" But despite the fact that Mr. Pitt appeared more favorable than was anticipated, Mr. Adams 
did not expect any immediate response to his propositions. The English ministers in their 
individual capacity seemed singularly timorous, and manifested much fear of committing them- 
selves before joint cabinet action. Adams inclined to the opinion that nothing short of the con- 
vincing eloquence of dire necessity would drive the English ministry from the positions they had 
assumed in regard to the navigation act, and that an answer to his propositions, even at a late 
day, was doubtful, without Congress authorized similar acts with the United States, and these 
counter-irritants were actually put in force, to determine on which side the inconvenience was 
greatest. The great cry in the United Kingdom was, ' Shall the United States be our ship- 
carpenters ? Shall we depend upon a foreign nation for our navigation ? In case of a war with 
them, shall we be without ships, or obliged to our enemies for them ?' How much this nightmare 
of inability to cope with their late colonies in anything like a fair field was stimulated by the 
Government is uncertain, but the authorities evidently used no efforts to allay it.f 

"5th Richard, ii, ch. 3." "t Works of Johu Adams, viii, pp. 308-309." 

" { In negotiation with the Portuguese ministers in November, 1875, Mr. Adams asked (viii, p. 340) if they did not 
want our sperm oil. lie replied that they had olives and made oil from them; they had no use lor their own sperm 
oil and sold it to Spain. -They had now,' hi; said, u, very pretty spermaceti -whale fishery, which they had learned 
of the New Euglaiidcrs, and carried on upon the coast of Brazil.' According to the Boston News-Letter of April, 21, 
1774, the method of obtaining their knowledge was somewhat open to objections. In 1805 the Portuguese attempted 
to carry on the whaling business from Mozambique, and Timothy Folger, Francis Paddack, William Hull, and John 
Hillmau, of Nautucket, \vcnf thereto take charge of the fishery; but early in 1810 accounts were received at Nan- 
tucket stating that they had all been taken sick anil died I here." 



Till; \\ IIALK I--1SI1KKY. 137 

" The effort to bring about the desired compromise continued, as Mr. Adams had judged it 

would, all the succeeding fall and winter. In January, 178(i, Bowdoin wrote to Adams, in reply 
to a letter from him, that Hie navigation act of Massachusetts had been so modified as to be only 
operative against Great Britain, and copies of the repealing act had been sent to the executives of 
the other States in order to secure harmony of action upon this point. Ill regard to the effect the 
existing English laws would have upon the interest which is under consideration here, he wrote: 
'It is very true, their encouragement of their whale fishery, by suffering the alien duty on oil to 
depress ours, will increase their shipping iu this branch, increase their seamen, and, in several 
other ways, be advantageous to them. To a person that looks no further, it would appear that this 
was good policy ; and the goodness of it would be inferred from the advantages arising. But when 
he should extend his view, and see how that stoppage of the American whale fishery, by depriving 
the Americans of so much capital a means of paying for the woolen goods they used to take ot 
Britain, must, at the same time, occasion the American demand to cease, or be proportionately 
diminished, not to mention the risk of a change or deviation of the trade from the old channel, he 
will calculate the national profit and loss that arises from that stoppage. 

"'Three thousand tons of oil was the usual annual quantity produced by the whalemen at 
Xantucket, all of which was shipped to Englaud, at an average price of 35 per ton, making about 
105,500. The whole of which went to pay for and purchase a like amount of woolens and other 
British goods ; nine-tenths of the value of which are computed to arise from the labor of the manu- 
facturer, and to be so much clear gain to the nation. The other tenth, therefore, being deducted, 
gives the national gain arising from the industry of the Kautucket whalemen, and the capital 
employed in that business, namely 94,500, without the nation's paying a shilling for the risk of 
insurance, or any other risk whatever. 

'"On the change of trade, pursuant to the new regulations, the British merchants must 
employ a large capital in the whale fishery, whose products we vill suppose equal to that of the 
Nautucket, 105,000. They will have made an exceeding good voyage if the whole of that sum 
should be equal to one-half of the cost of the outfits ; though, from many of the vessels not meeting 
with fish, and from a variety of accidents to which such a voyage is subject, it probably would not 
be a quarter. The whole of the product goes towards payment of the outfits and charges of the 
voyage, and a large sum must be advanced for the second voyage, &c. 

"'Now, although this mode of commerce would be productive of some national benefits, yet, 
considered in a comparative view with the benefits arising from the former mode, they would be 
found of little importance. A like comparison maybe made with other branches of commerce, 
particularly the British West Indian, and the result will be found the same. For the sake, then, 
of gaining pence and farthings, Britain is sacrificing pounds by her new regulations of trade. She 
has a right to see for herself; but, unhappily, resentment and the consequent prejudices have so 
disordered her powers of vision that it requires the skillful hand of a good political optician to 
remove the obstructing films. If she will not permit the application of your couching instruments, 
or, if applied, they can work no effect, the old lady must be left to her fate, and abandoned as 
ncurable.'* 

"* Adams, viii, :!i;:l-4 Iu his reply to Mr. Bowdoin, under dad- of May 9, 1786, Mr. Adams, after expressing 
surprise that such reasoning as his (Bowdoin's) has no effect on the English cabinet, writes: 'Mr. Jenldnson, an old 
friend of the British empire, is still at his labors. He is about establishing a hoimi v upon fifteen ships to the south- 
ward, and upon two to double Cape Horn, for spermaceti whales. Americans are to take an oath that they mean to 
settle in England before they arc- '-miilr,! (,, || H - bounty.' In September, 1781), Mr. Adams wiites to Mr. Jell'ersou 
from London (viii, 414): 'The whalemen, both ;il (In-mlaml and the southward, have been unsuccessful, and the 
\irirc nl' >[u' rn i. -ice) i oil lias risen above ..i' pej inn."' 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

u On the 21st of January, 17SG, Mr. Adams, iu a letter to Secretary Jay, writes : ' It will take 
eighteen months more to settle all matters, exclusive of the treaty of commerce.' 1 * And thus it con- 
tinued. Argument and persuasion had no effect. Convinced in spite of themselves, they still 
clung fondly, obstinately, perhaps foolishly, to their obnoxious laws. As late as November, 1787, 
Mr. Adams writes to Mr. Jay : ' They are at present, both at court and in the nation at large, 
much more respectful to me, and much more tender of the United States, than they ever have 
been before ; but, depend upon it, this will not last ; they will aim at recovering back the west- 
ern lands, at taking away our fisheries, and at the total ruin of our navigation, at least.'t Mr. 
Adams's position at the court of St. James was terminated, by his urgent request, soon after this, 
and the question of commercial relations between the two countries was still unsettled.;}: 

"This state of affairs was scarcely such as would occasion the utmost harmony. The United 
States naturally resented this frigid manner of treating our overtures for friendship. In August, 
1786, Mr. Jefferson, in a letter from Paris to Mr. Carmichael, writes : ' But as to every other nation 
of Europe, I am persuaded Congress will never offer a treaty. If any of them should desire one 
hereafter, I suppose they will make the first overtures.'" || 

THE AMERICAN WHALE FISHERY DECLINING. ' But while America was exerting herself so 
unsuccessfully to be allowed to live on terms of civility with England, the whale fishery carried on 
from within her borders was languishing. 

" Like the effect of the heat of the sun on the iceberg, so was the effect of foreign bounties 
upon the American fishery, dissolving it, breaking off a fragment here and a fragment there. 
Lured by the promise of English bounties, discouraged with the prospect in America, where the 
price for oil would scarcely repay the cost of procuring it, and where there was no market for their 
chief staple, several of the people of Nantucket removed to the vicinity of Halifax, in Nova Scotia. 
There, in 1786 and 1787, they settled, building dwellings, wharves, stores, manufactories for 
sperm candles, and such other structures as were connected with their fishery, and calling their 
new settlement Dartmouth.*} There they carried on the pursuit for several years prosperously, 
and gave promise of considerable commercial importance. But the disintegration which com- 
menced at Nantucket continued at Dartmouth, and just as the settlement seemed about to become 
thrifty and important it began to become divided, pieces again split off, and the village, as a 
whaling port, soon became a thing of the past. Those who were the earliest to remove from Nan- 
tucket soon grew uneasy of their new location, and having greater inducements offered them if 
they removed to England, again migrated, and settled in Milford Haven, from whence for many 
years they carried on the business with very considerable success. The parent died in giving 
birth to the child ; Milford Haven nourished, but at the expense of Dartmouth's existence. 

" "Adams, viii, 363-4, 389." " t Ibid., 463." 

" t Works of Jefferson, ii, 18. See also article on Jefferson, by Parton, in Atlantic Monthly for February, 1873." 

" $ Referring to Russia, Portugal, Spain, France, Sweden, Tuscany, and tbe Netherlands." 

"II Jefferson, ii, 18." 

" U Works of Jefferson, ii, 518. Mr. Jefferson says, referring to a farther hegira of the islanders : 'A vessel was 
already arrived from Halifax to Nantncket, to take off some of those who proposed to remove ; two families had gone 
on board, and others were going, when a letter was received there which had been written by Monsieur le Marquis 
de Lafayette to a gentleman in Boston, and transmitted by him to Nantucket. The purport of the letter was, to dis- 
suade their accepting the British proposals, and to assure them that their friends in France would endeavor to do 
something for them. This instantly suspended their design; not another went on board, and the vessel returned to 
Halifax with only the [two] families.' In 1796 William Rotch &, Son petitioned Congress to remit the excess of duties 
and tonnage charged them on two whale ships by the collector of New Bedford, in i-<pnse(|iirnce of their not being pro- 
vided with United States registers. These were ships which sailed from Nantncket in 1787 and 1789, under registers 
from the State of Massachusetts, and were used in the Dunkirk fishery, returning to the United States in 1794, some 
years after the National Government, had been in operation. The committee which was appointed to consider the 
petition reported favorably upon it, and the prayer was granted. (State Papers, vii, p. 411.)" 



TI1K WIIALK I'M SI I HUT. 139 

" France did not view tliis transfer with indifference. The scheme for the building up of the 
fishery at Dunkirk by emigration from Nantncket having proven only partially successful,* it was 
desirable to inaugurate some other measures to prevent further increase of the business in England. 
A committee of gentlemen -well informed in such matters was instructed to investigate and report 
on the subject of encouragement of a general commerce with the United States. It was evident 
that the American whalemen conld not be induced to leave their native country if they could sup- 
port themselves there. The natural inference was, if a market could be opened to their products 
which would replace the one closed, they would not emigrate. Accordingly upon this point the 
committee reported in favor of an immediate abatement of the duty upon oil and a promise of a 
further abatement after the year 1790. The letter of M. do Calonnes (who was in treaty with the 
Xautucket whalemen) recommending this, was immediately sent to America, and after careful 
investigation of the subject, the arret of the 29th of December, 1787, ratifying the abatement 
and promising a further one if the French King found such a proceeding of mutual benefit, was 
passed. 

" But the measure in this form had a contrary effect from what was intended. 'The English,. 
says Jefferson, t 'had now begun to deluge the markets of France with their whale oils; and they 
were enabled, by the great premiums given by their Government, to undersell the French fisher 1 
man, aided by feebler premiums, and the American, aided by his poverty alone. Nor is it certain 
that these speculations were not made at the risk of the British Government to suppress the 
French and American fishermen in their only market. Some remedy seemed necessary. Perhaps 
it would not have been a bad one to subject, by a general law, the merchandise of every nation 
and of every nature to pay additional duties in the ports of France, exactly equal to the pre- 
miums and drawbacks given on the same merchandise by their own Government. This might 
not only counteract the effect of premiums in the instance of whale oils, but attack the whole 
British system of bounties and drawbacks, by the aid of which they make London the center of 
commerce for the whole -earth. A less general remedy, but an effectual one, was to prohibit the 
oils of all European nations ; the treaty with England requiring only that she should be treated 
as well as the most favored European nation. But the remedy adopted was to prohibit all oils, 
without exception.' J And this on the 20th of September, 1788, only nine months from the passage 
of the former law. 

"Through the exertions of Jefferson this error, political as well as commercial, was remedied, 
and in December, 1788, the abatement of duties on oils was so arranged as to make the American 

" * 'Nine families only, of thirty-three persons in the whole, came to Dunkirk.' (Jefferson, ii, 519.)" 

" t Jefferson, ii, 520." 

" t Jefferson, ii, 521. ' The annual consnmption of France, as stated by a person who has good opportunities of 
knowing it, is as follows : 

Tons. 

'Paris, according to the registers of 1786 1,750 

'Twenty-seven other cities, lighted by M. Sangrain 500 

' Rouen 312$ 

' Bordeaux 375 

'Lyons 187J 

' Other fit i es. tor leather and light 1,875 



5,000'" 

" $ Jefferson states (ii, 523) that before the war Great Britain had less than 100 vessels engaged in whaling, while 
America employed 309. (This doea not take into account Sag Harbor, New York, nor the very important fishery from 
Newport, Providence, and Warren, in Rhode Island, which Mr. Jefferson seems to have overlooked in his report.) In 
1788 these circumstances were reversed, America employing 80, and Great Britain 314." 



140 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

and the French on the same footing, aud cut off all danger of overstocking from European rivals, 
and in January, 1789, this arrangement received its legal ratification.*" 

REVIVAL OF AMERICAN WHALING IN 1789. "The revival of the business in the United 
States, and the growing scarcity of whales in the waters heretofore mostly frequented, made the 
equipping of larger vessels a necessity, and from the sloops and schooners which formerly composed 
the greater portion of the whaling fleet an advance was made to brigs and ships and the field 
.still farther extended.! The sperm whale being of the most value, the effort to encompass his 
capture was greater; and he was pursued, as he fled from his old haunts, till the Pacific Ocean 
was attained-! At Nan tucket the number of vessels soou increased to such an extent that it 
became necessary to go abroad for men to man them, aud some Indians and a large number of 
negroes were brought from the main land to aid in filling the crew-lists. Ups and downs the business 
had then, as it ever has since. A presumed prosperity induced competition, the markets became 
glutted, and oil was sold at less than the cost of production. The price of whalebone became 
reduced to 10 cents per pound and less, instead of commanding a dollar, as it did prior to the Revolu- 
tion. The disturbances beiween England and France, and the internal commotions to which the 
latter country was subjected, effectually aunnled the effect of the French arret of 1789. So dis- 
astrously did these things affect whaling that the quarrels of France and England forced many 
Nantucket men to .sell their vessels, others to dismantle and lay theirs up, while a few still held on, 
some making a little profit, the majority suffering a severe loss." 

TROUBLE WITH FRANCE. "In 179S came the threats of disturbance between France and the 
United States. French privateers, in the excess of their zeal, preyed upon American commerce as 
well as upon that of the powers with whom they were in direct conflict. A large number of vessels 
fell victims to these depredators, and the friendly relations existing some what precariously between 
France and the United States became nearly supplanted by a state of actual warfare. The whal- 
ing interest, as usual, was among the earliest sufferers. Early in 1799 many parties in Nautucket 
sold their ships rather than fit them out at the risk of capture. News began to reach the island 
that vessels were already captured, and the business of the islanders, both in fishing and trading, 
almost, ceased. Instead of fitting out a dozen ships for whaling but two or three were fitted, and 
sadness and gloom shrouded every face. The difficulties were finally adjusted aud business 
resumed its old channels, but the losses which the unfortuuate Nautucketers sustained by the 
unjustifiable, piratical depredations, though settled to the satisfaction of our Government and 
duly receipted for, with others, by the United States, have never been remunerated, while some 
of the unlucky owners, officers, and underwriters, in comfortable circumstances at the commence- 
ment of these troubles, lost their little property, the accumulations of years, and died in poverty. || 

" * Jeft'erson, ii, 539. When the arrct of 29th December, 1787, was drawn up, the first draft was so made as to 
Delude all European oils, but at the very moment of passing it. they struck our 1 he word ' European,' so that our 
oils became involved. ' This, I believ T e,' says he, ' was the effect of a single person in the ministry.' " 

"tSag Harbor re-eutered the business in 1785 : New Bedford in 1787 or 1788." 

" t In the Pacific the Americans had been preceded by the Amelia, Captain Shields, an English-fitted ship, manned 
by the Nantucket colony of whalemen, aud sailing for that ocean from London in 1787, her first mate, Archelus Ham- 
mond, killing the first sperm whale known to have been taken in that ocean. 

" In Jefferson's report he enumerates three qualities of oil : 1, the sperm ; 2, that from the ordinary right whales ; 
3, that from the right whales on the Brazil Banks, which was darker in color and of a more offensive odor when 
burned than from No. 2." 

"The Boston papers of 1796 reported that the Carisford frigate had arrived at the Cape of Good Hope from Eng- 
land with credentials constituting General Graig governor of the colony, the limits of which were to be so arranged 
,as to cut off other nations from part ieipation in the Delago Bay fishery. " 

"1| The subject of the French spoliation is one to which the people of Nantucket have been particularly sensitive. 
Isolated communities are more liable to feel that the injustice done to one is an injusutice to all ; bence, although com- 
paratively few of the islanders suffered from the depredations of the French, or rather from the apparent breach of faith 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 141 

These unauthorized cap lures were not confined exclusively to the French, for in 1800 the Spanish 
authorities at Valparaiso, emulating- the hostility to a power ostensibly at peace with them which 
the French had shown, .seized and condemned tlir whale ships Miautonomah, of Norwich, and 
Tryal, of ISantuekct."* 

THE WAR OF 1812 AND ITS EFFKCTS ON THE WHALE FISHERY. " From this time till the 
opening of the second war with England whaling was pursued with a gradually-augmenting fleet. 
And this in the face of the uncertainties which the increasingly critical state of affairs between 
the United States and England occasioned. In JSOU Xautucket added five ships to her fleet, and 
Xew London sent her first large vessel,t and in 180G the quantity of oil imported into the country 
was considerably in excess of the consumption. 

"The embargo act of 1807 almost suspended the pursuit, not so much by actual proscription 
as because of the impossibility of effecting insurance upon the vessels, but it soon received another 
impetus on account of the prospect of a general peace throughout Europe. 

"The commencement of the war of 1812 found a large portion of the whaling fleet at sea. 
Trusting that the causes of contention between England and America would be removed without 
the necessity of a final appeal to arms, many owners had fitted out their ships. This was particu- 
larly the case at Nautucket, from which port a large proportion of the fleet had sailed for the 
Pacific Ocean on voyages varying from about two years to two years and a halt'.f AVith the recep- 
tion of the news of the declaration of war a large portion of the vessels in the North and South 
Atlantic, and some of those in the Pacific, turned their prows homeward, hoping to make the 
home port before the seas swarmed with letters-of-marque and national vessels of war. Many of 
these vessels from Nantucket, on arriving home sailed thence immediately for Boston, Newport, 
Xew Bedford, or some other fortified port, where they could ride out the storm of war in security. 
After the month of July, 1812, was ushered in, reports of the capture of whaling vessels came 
thick and fast to Nautucket. First came the news of the taking and burning of the schooner 

ou the part of a Government bouud to protect them and their interests, all felt that seeming injustice as a personal 
matter. In a letter to the Hon. George McDuffie, giving an account of the claims of Nantiicket in this behalf, unh- 
lished in the Warder of May 'JO, 1846, the following is described as the actual condition of the claimants and character 
oltho demands: 

" 'Ship Joanna. Coffiu, taken with 2,000 barrels of oil on board ; value of ship and cargo, $40,000 ; one of the origi- 
nal owners still living seventy-five years old and poor ; one of the crew also living, poor ; the master and mate died 
recently, poor; children still surviving; rlnim mrrraold. Ship Minerva, Fitch, 1,500 barrels of oil on board; value, 
$30,000; one of the original owners living sixty-eight year old, 7100)-; master still alive seventy-eight years old. with 
small means and many dependents; one of the crew alive, /mor : claims ni-nr sold. Ship Active, Gardner, 3,000 barn-Is 
of oil on board ; value, .^")0,000; same owners as Minerva witli i aptain ; Captain Gardner died two years ago, at the 
age of eighty-five, leaving a large family and grandchildren; dtiims never soJfl. Ship Arm, Coffin (in merchant serv- 
ice); loss of ship, $10,000 ; the captain left a large family in slender circumstances; one of "the underwriters died a 
few years since in the almshouse, who, at the time of the capture, stood high among Nantucket merchants; claims 
ii i i-ir sold.' 

" Speaking in the interest of the whale fishery, it may be safely asserted that the people of Nantucket view with 
regret and disappointment what they consider the gross injustice showed to them (with others) in putting off, upon 
untenable pretests, the settlement of these demands. The stern logic of poverty and the almshouseis keener than the 
sophistries of politicians. The Fox, of New Bedford, Capt. Coffin Whippey, captured in 1796 with 1,500 whale and 
500 sperm, was another case. In 1853 Captain Whippey captured a second time in 1798 was living, but dependent 
upon charity." 

" * The Miautonomah was a new ship, on her tirsi voyage." 

" t In 1794 the ship Commerce, of East Haddam, was fitted for a whaling voyage, and sailed from New London on 
February (j of that year. In 1770 Capt. Isaiah Kldridge, of the sloop Tryall, of Dartmouth, spoke, among other whale- 
men on the Davis Strait ground, Thomas Wioctmi (Wigginf), of New London." 
See Macy, 161-2-3." 

.1 When war seemed inevitable the ship-owners of Nantucket held a nuetiug to take into consideration the. snli- 
jecr oflmv. to In ^ secure the- fleet from rapture. It was proposed to request the British minister at Washington to 

use his influence with his Government to .ihtain from Iliein in iniiy from capture of whale ships liL-loiiging to tho 

island. This plan was ultimately abandoned, the majority of tLu owners being of tta opinion that 'the prospect of 
success was too faint to warrant the attempt.' (Macy, 165.)" 



142 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Mount Hope, David Cottle master. In quick succession they learned of the capture of the Alli- 
gator, Hope, Manilla, Ocean (brig), Eauger, Fame,* Eose, Kenown,* Sterling, Edward, Gardner, 
Mouticello, Chili, Eebecca, and others, and it may be easily imagined that the prospect for the 
islanders had but little in it that appeared encouraging. New Bedford, too, although at this time 
her interest in this business was far less than that of Nantucket, suffered from the capture of her 
whaling vessels.! 

" Again did war put an effectual stop to the pursuit of whaling from every port of the United 
States save Nantucket, and again were the inhabitants of that town, knowing no business except 
through their shipping, compelled to strive to carry their commercial marine through the tempest 
of fire as free from complete destruction as possible. A new source of danger presented itself. 
Prior to the declaration of war between Great Britain and America our whalemen on the coast of 
Peru}: had often suffered from piratical acts of the Peruvian privateers, being continually plun- 
dered and cut out from Chilian ports, whither they had gone to recruit. The chronic state of 
affairs on this coast beiiig one of war, the Government of the United States had sent the Hon. Joel 
E. Poinsett, of South Carolina, to those parts to see that American commerce was suitably pro- 
tected, but for several mouths his remonstrances had been worse than useless. The declaration of 
war between England and the United States gave the Peruvian corsairs a fresh pretext for the 
exercise of their plundering propensities. They claimed that they were the allies of England, and 
as such were entitled to capture the vessels of any power with which she was at war. An expedi- 
tion was equipped by tbe authorities of Lima and sent on its marauding way. This army suc- 
ceeded in capturing the towns of Conception and Talcahuano. In the latter port was a large num- 
ber of American ships, many of them whalemen, who, having obtained their cargoes of oil, had put 
in to recruit with provisions and water before making the homeward voyage. Among these were 
the ships Criterion, Mary Ann, Monticello, Chili, John and James, Lima, Lion, Sukey, Gardner, 
President, Perseverance, and Atlas, of Nantucket. 

" This was in April, 1813. These vessels were detained in the harbor by the Limian armament, 
which consisted of two men-of-war, with about 1,500 troops. Having found a bag containing about 
$800 on board the President, they carried her captain, Solomon Folger, ashore under a guard and 
imprisoned the remaining officers and crew, excepting the mate, one boat-steerer, and the cook. 

"Learning of this condition of affairs, Poiusett immediately joined the Chilian army and 
directed its movements. On the 15th of May a battle was fought between the, contending forces near 
the town of San Carlos, but when the day had closed neither side could claim the victory. Taking 
advantage of the cover of the night, Poinsett put himself at the head of four hundred picked men, 
with three pieces of light artillery, and, leaving the main body, marched directly to Talcahuano, 
whither the enemy had withdrawn. The town was immediately carried by storm and the detained 
whalemen were released. Some of the ships having had their papers destroyed, Poinsett fur- 
nished them with consular certificates. The friendly regard for the United States which diplo- 

"*The Fame was used in the English lishery, and the Renown, under the name of Adam,' while engaged in the 
same pursuit under the same flag, went ashore on Deal beach and bilged in 1824 or 1825. 

"In 1812 the brig Nauina. Capt. Valentine Barnard, of New York, sailed to the Falkland Islands on a sealing and 
elephant-oil cruise. The British ship Isabella having become wrecked, her crew were rescued by the Nanina, and 
showed their gratitude to Captain Barnard by seizing his vessel and setting him, with Barzillai Pease, Andrew Hunter, 
and E. Pease, of his crew, ashore on New Island, one of the group. A protest signed by the four was published iu the 
Hudson Bee, and also in the supplement of Niles's Register for 1814." 

"tThe ship Sally, Clark master, was captured while homeward bound with 1,200 barrels of sperm oil on board. 
Value of vessel and cargo, $40,000. The Triton also was captured, involving a loss of $16,000." 

" J These vessels belonged almost exclusively to New Bedford and Nautuckot." 

" See Nantucket Inquirer, August 9, 1824 ; also Inquirer and Mirror, September 14, 1672. In the latter paper IN 
au account of the affair written by Capt. Nathaniel Fitzgerald, one of the crew on one of the detained whalers." 



THE WHALE E1SHEUY. J.4J 

inatic address and persuasion had been unable to obtain, were secured iu a much shorter time 
and probably far more efficaciously by force of arms, and Lima yielded to muskets and cannon 
the respect she had been unwilling to concede to the seal of the Department of State. Her dep- 
redations on American commerce did not, however, entirely cease until the advent of Captain 
Porter in those waters.* Soon after this the United States Government, realizing the defenseless 
condition of our commerce in the Pacific, dispatched Porter to that locality to protect our interests, 
Up to the time of the capture of his vessel he had not only done all in his power in this direction, 
but had effectually destroyed the English whale fishery in those seas, and so turned the tables 
upon the enemy who had sent out his whale ships well armed and manned to perform the same 
kindly office toward our whalemen. J 

"Up to the latter part of the year 1813 the people of Nautucket had fished unmolested both 
for codfish and for humpback whales on the shoals at the eastward of the island, and by this 
means eked out a livelihood which was begiuuing to be quite precarious, but this resort was now 
taken from them. An English privateer, during the fall, appeared among the fleet, capturing 
one Nantucket vessel and driving away the remainder. In this dilemma a town meeting was 
assembled and a petition prepared and forwarded to Congress representing the situation there, 
and praying that some arrangement might be entered into l whereby the fisheries may be prose- 
cuted, withcut being subject to losses by war.' But no adequate relief was afforded, and the 
people found the history of their sufferings during the Eevolutiou repeating itself with a distress- 
ing pertinacity and fidelity, and they bade fair to perish of starvation and cold. They eventually 
succeeded in obtaining permission to import provisions, but attempts to get leave to sail on whaling 
voyages, coupled with immunity from capture, were unsuccessful. 

"The return of peace effected for them the protection that all negotiations had failed to secure. 
Early iu February, 1815, news came to ^'autucket that the war was over, and immediately all 
was hurry and bustle. The wharves, lately so deserted, teemed with life ; the ships, lately dis- 
mantled, put on their new dress ; the faces of the people, lately so disconsolate, were radiant with 
hope. In May two ships fitted and sailed on their voyages ; by the last of June this number was 
increased to nine ; by the 1st of August eighteen had gone, and by the 31st of December over 
thirty ships, brigs, schooners, and sloops were pursuing the leviathans in the North and South 

" * The Walker, of New Bedford, was captured by an English armed whale ship, but recaptured by Porter. The 
Barclay, of New Bedford, also was captured by the Peruvians, and recaptured by Porter." 

" t So far as operations in the Paciiic were concerned, the English went out to shear but ' returned shorn.' Wherever . 
our sailors went ashore in foreign ports and met English seamen, a melee was a frequent occurrence. An amusing 
instance is related of the officer of a whaling vessel incurring the displeasure of an English naval officer in one of the 
South American Pacific ports by his zeal in behalf of his country. A challenge was the result. The American being 
the challenged party, had, of course, the right to a choice of weapons, and being most familiar with the harpoon, 
chose that. They met according to the preliminaries and took their positions. For a moment the English officer 
stood before the poised harpoon of our whaleman, then gave iu, and the proposed combat was deferred." 

" November 2(5, 1813. Maey, 177. In an official report Captain Porter gives the following lisl of his captures, 

chiefly vessels, as he says, engaged in the British sperm-whale tibhtr.v : 

Tons. Men. Guns. 

Montezuma .. ... -..- -- - 270 

Policy 175 26 10 

Georgiana '-SO 25 6 

Greenwich 368 25 10 

Atlantic 355 24 

Rose 220 21 

Hector 270 25 11 

Catharine - .- 270 

Seringapatam 357 

Charlton 274 21 10 

NewZealander 

Sir A. Hammond 301 



144 IlISTOliY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Atlantic, the Indian and Pacific Oceans. On the 9th of July, 1815, the first returning whaling 
vessel arrived at Nantucket ; in all probability this was the first arrival at any port in the United 
States after the war. This vessel was the sloop Mason's Daughter, which, after a six weeks' 
voyage, returned with 100 barrels of oil." 

8. WHALE FISHERY OF PROVINCETOWN. 

BY CAPT. N. E. ATWOOD. 

In early days the whale fishery was prosecuted off along the north shore of Cape Cod with 
.small boats, and whales were very plenty in fie fiist part of the present century. In 1820, owing 
to the scarcity of codfish on the Grand Bank, Provincetown ship-owners were casting about for 
new fields of industry to employ their vessels, and five schooners were fitted out to engage in the 
sperm- whale fishery. In most cases experienced whalers were engaged at Wellfleet and elsewhere, 
but one vessel, the Nero, sailed without having on board a man who had ever seen a sperm whale. 
These vessels left Proviucetown about the 1st of April and went directly to the Azores, where they 
cruised for a mouth or two. In June they went to the northwestern ground, as it was called (situ- 
ated from 100 to 200 miles northwest of Cowo and Flores), and staid there through the remainder 
of the cruise, coming home in the fall. These vessels did rather better than the codfishermen. 
In 1821 the codfishery was still low and the whaling fleet was increased to twelve vessels, quarter- 
deck schooners mostly, the largest of which measured 98 tons (about equivalent to 70, new measure. 
ment), and several were over 90 tons. There were the Neptune, the Kero, the Minerva, the President, 
the Mary, the General Jackson, the Charles, the Four Brothers, the Hannah and Eliza, the Vesta, 
the brig Ardent, and the brig Laurel. The fleet went on the same grounds as in the previous year, 
and in August went into the islands to recruit and afterwards cruised about the islands. They 
caine home in September and October, having done a fair business, a little better than the cod fleet. 
The Nero had the best fare, obtaining 260 barrels of sperm oil, valued at $1 a gallon. In 1822 the 
fleet was increased to eighteen vessels, the Fair Lady, the Sophronia, the Olive Branch, the Sev- 
enth Son, and the Betsey being added. They accomplished very little, and all returned in the fall 
except the Laurel, which went to the West Indies, and the Fair Lady to the Gulf of Guinea, In 
1823 the two vessels returned in March from the south, and the brig Ardent went to the Azores, 
obtaining 200 barrels of sperm oil, and was wrecked at sea on her return. The schooner Seventh 
-Son went to Africa, obtaining very little. 

In 1824 no whalers were sent out, nor in succeeding years, until 1830, when the schooner 
Fair Lady and the schooner Vesta went to the old ground about the Azores, the former getting 
300 and the latter 140 barrels. In 1832 the brig Iinogene, 170 tons, was bought in Boston for 
sperm whaling. She went into the ludian Ocean and was absent two years, obtaining 400 
barrels of sperm oil. In 183.5 the Iinogene went another voyage to some of the Western Islands 
and the Gulf of Mexico. In 1836 the schooner Louisa (Flora?) was added to the fleet. They 
went to the West Indies, where they got some humpback whales, then to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and later to the Western Islands ; the Louisa obtaining 175 barrels and the Imogene 560. In 
1837 the Imogene got 450 barrels in fJie Atlantic and the schooner Louisa 100. In 1838 the 
Imogene went to the Gulf of Mexico, getting 400 of sperm and 200 barrels of whale oil. In 
1839 the Imogene cruised in the Atlantic, getting 350 barrels of sperm and 250 of whale oil. In 
1837 the Edward and Eienzi was bought for black fishing and went on the ground south of the 
Georges Banks and toward Cape Hatteras. No whaling vessels had ever been there ln-lbre. and 
she found sperm whales abundant, and since that lime the Hatteras ground and the Charleston 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 145 

ground (the latter farther south) have been favorite cruising grounds for the Provincetown fleet. 
In 1840 the Imogene was condemned and four vessels were added to the fleet, the brigs Franklin, 
Fairy, and Phoenix, and a schooner (probably the Belle Isle). The Phcenix went to the Gulf of 
Mexico (whore she obtained MOO barrels of sperm oil), the others to the Western Islands, where the 
I'hceiiix followed them. From that time the whale fishery began to increase. In 1841 there were 
nine vessels, one schooner, one bark, and seven brigs. In 1842 there were thirteen. In 1869 
the licet had inereased to lift y lour vessels, at which time the whale fishery was larger than ever 
In t'oie or since. Ever since ]8u7 the Hatteras ground has been much visited. At one time many 
vessels went to the eastward of the Grand Banks, principally for black fish. Three or four went 
.\ ear after year. They would be goue from May to October, and sometimes got 250 to 300 barrels. 
During the war the whaling business prospered, but began to fall off from 1869 to 1871 as the 
whales became scarcer. 

9. STATISTICAL EEVIEW OF THE AMERICAN WHALE FISHERY. 

The American whaling fleet was smaller in 1880 than at any time within the past sixty years, 
except in 1875 and 1876. The decrease in the number of vessels has been going on since the year 
1846, when there were seven hundred and twenty-two vessels, measuring 231,406 tons, in the fleet. 
Accurate statistics for the period prior to 1840 are wanting. Just before the Revolutionary war a 
lleet of over three hundred and fifty sail was engaged in this business, but after the war the 
number was very greatly reduced. There was a gradual growth in the fleet from this time until 
the war of 1812, which proved another disaster to whaling commerce. After the war the business 
again revived and there was a steady increase in the size of the fleet. 

On January 1, 1844, the fleet belonging to the United States numbered six hundred and seven- 
teen vessels, valued at $19,430,000 at the time of sailing, and their entire value at that date, includ- 
ing the catchiugs at sea, was estimated at 827,784,000. The annual consumption by the fleet for 
outfits at that time was $3,845,000, and the value of the production of oil and bone in the year 
1844 was $7,875,970. In 1846 the fleet of vessels had increased in number to seven hundred and 
twenty-two, the highest number ever employed in the fishery at one time, and was valued at about 
$21,000,000. The entire capital invested in the industry and its connections at this time was 
$70,000,000, and the number of persons deriving from it their chief support was 70,000. 

After 1846 there was a rapid decrease till 1850, when the tonnage was 171,484 and the number 
of vessels five hundred and thirty-nine ; then an increase till 1854, when there were six hundred 
and fifty-two vessels, measuring 208,399 tons ; from 1854 till the present time ihe decrease has 
been almost constant, the tonnage in 1865 being reduced to 79,696 tons, and the vessels to two 
hundred and seventy-one ; in 1875 the decrease was still greater, when there were only one hundred 
and fifty-two vessels, measuring 37,733 tons, and on the 1st of January, 1880, the fleet numbered 
one hundred and seventy -three vessels, of 39,433 tons measurement. 

The most valuable production of the fleet was in 1854, when the value of the oil and bone 
was $10,766,521.20, against $2,056,069.08 in 1879, which was the lowest since the year 1828, when 
the production yielded $1,995,181.15. The year ending December 31, 1880, was somewhat more 
profitable than 1879 because of the success of the Arctic fleet, the yield this year reaching 
$2,659,725.03. 

The largest fleet in the North Pacific and Arctie Oceans was in 1846, when two hundred and 
ninety-two ships were there, and obtained 253,800 barrels of whale oil, averaging 869 barrels to a 
vessel. The largest quantity of sperm oil was produced in 1837, 5,329,138 gallons, averaging in 
SEC. V, VOL. u 10 



146 HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

price $1.242 per gallon. The largest quantity of whale oil was produced in 1851, 328,483 barrels, 
or 10,347,214 gallons, averaging 45-^- cents per gallon. The largest quantity of whalebone was 
produced in 1853. 5.652.300 pounds, averaging 34J cents (gold) per pound. 

(a) TEA.DE REVIEWS. 

The following extracts, taken from the Whalemen's Shipping List, published at New Bed- 
ford, Mass., showing the yearly condition of the whaling industry from 1*08 to 1880, are kindly 
furnished by Messrs. I. H. Bautlett & Sons. 

The words "imports" and "importations" in these reviews mean the receipts of oil from I lie 
American fleet, a'ad do not mean imports of foreign production, but the catch <>!' American vessels 

in the various oceans. 

Review of tlie tcliale fishery for 1868. The present year has witnessed the return of the usual number of whalers, 
and generally with sal isf'aetory catches, and quite as favorable results as anticipated. The price of sperm oil ruled 
steady through the year, while in whale a generally advancing market wax maintained, and in September (owing to 
telegraphic advices 1'inm the Heel as late as the middle of August, announcing a failure of the fishery up to that date) 
a marked advance was established, and holders of the small stock (17,500 barrels) demanded 1.25 and upwards. 
Whalebone, being similarly affected, sold in the summer as low as 85 cents, currency, but upon the unfavorable news 
advanced to sl.J-J-J, with sales, and a further advance was demanded. A month later more favorable reports can e to 
hand from the fleet in the Arctic, which cast a new feature over the prospects of prices and supply. The season up 
to August 23 was a failure, but a few whales having been taken up to that time, some of the ablest masters having 
taken no oil, and many vessels left for other grounds; those that remained were successful in taking extraordinary 
cuts of oil ; in one instance, the bark John llo\vland, taking 1,000 barrels of oil in four days in the latter part of Sep- 
tember, and many other vessels t"<>k an average of 1,000 barrels in thirty days, the laigest. catches being the ships 
Reindeer, 1,550 barrels, and the Florida, 1,700 barrels. 

Owing to the low prices ruling for whale oil and whalebone, in the early aud middle pai t of the year many of the 
ships returning from the North Pacific were put into the sperm and right whale fishery in the Indian and Southern 
Oceans, which will account in part for the small fleet to go north in 1869, and many ships will return home this spring, 
having completed three or more seasons. So that, as the whale fishery now stands, there will not probably be over 
fifty ships of all nationalities cruising in the North Pacific in 1869, a smaller number than since 1863 ; leaving the rest 
of the whale fleet, about two hundred and thirty-nine ships to pursue sperm whaling in whole or in part in every 
other ocean and sea. 

We have no changes to note of employment of ships in the fishery, but add the port of San Francisco to our list 
as one of the ports of the United States engaged in the fishery. 

The number of vessels from the Atlantic ports engaged in the fishery January 1, 1869, is 220 ships and barks, 23 
brigs and 87 schooners, with 73,105 tonnage, showing an increase of only one vessel as compared with last year, hut a 
falling off of 1,489 tons, of which 878 tons grows out of remeasnrements by the new system, to which we add 6 vessels 
from the port of San Francisco, with 1,414 tonnage, making the total number of vessels from the United States, Janu- 
ary 1, 1869, 336, with a tonnage of 74,519, being within 75 tons of that of 1868. 

The schooner Etta G. Fogg, of Provincetown, and Money Hill, of Boston, are missing, aud are supposed to have 
foundered at sea, the former not having been heard from since sailing, and the latter when only a short time out. 
The brig Georgiana, of New London, with 700 barrels of oil on freight from Cumberland Inlet whalers for New Lon- 
don, has not been heard from since sailing from the inlet in October, 1868, and it is feared is lost. 

The Atlantic whale fishery has been carried on by about as many whalers as in 1867, with quite as favorable 
returns. The vessels from Provincetown and ports eastward, comprising nearly one-half the fleet, averaged about, 
the same quantity of oil as in 1867, but, owing to the increased cost, of the vessels added, and the reduced price of 
sperm oil, the business was not, on the whole, as remunerative. 

The "Commodore Morris Ground" proved a failure, hut whales were found quite plenty on other grounds, though 
very wild, and several vessels were very fortunate ; nine vessels averaging 400 barrels sperm oil. 

The fleet in the Pacific Ocean was nearly as successful as in 1867, those that met with extraordinary luck in that 
year having continued to take large quantities of oil, more especially those cruising in the South Pacific, while some 
of the vessels cruising on the west coast of South America took good cuts of oil. The fleet will be somewhat increased 
the present year, being about sixty American ships, including some of the most successful which are expected to 
return home. 

Panama has proved a convenient port for transshipment of oil home, there having been quite a number of whalers 
there the past year to receive supplies and to ship their oil, amounting to 3,250 barrels of sperm. The reduced price of 
freight to 6 cents, gold, per gallou, with prospects of a further deduction, will probably induce more vessels to visit 
there in future. 

The sperm-whale fleet for 1869 will be distributed about as follows : la the North and South Atlantic about 150 
vessels, the usual number for the past, three years, exclusive of homeward bound vessels. In the Indian Ocean, 35 
vessels, against 31 in 1868. In the Pacific Ocean, 54 vessels, against 46 in 1868. Total, 239 vessels. 



THE WHALE KISHKRY. 147 

Tin' tleet cruising in the Xorih Pacific consisted of 58 vessels, of which 7 were foreign, against 101 vessels in 
1867; 2 vessels were lost, tin- Corinthian and tin- H,i< Hawaii, i ho former having taken 1,050 barrels oil aud 15,000 
pounds bone, which were saved, and the latter, 1,200 barrels oil aud 15, (100 pounds bone, which were lost with the 
\rssel. There were also . I trading vessels that visite.d those waters and returned with 185 barrels oil aud 22,500 
IK in mis bone. 

The Arctic Ocean licet comprised :',7 American and 4 foreign vessels, aud caught 35,005 barrels whale oil and 
:.?.'.. -Jtui pounds bDiie, .-in a\eiage of 834 barrels oil aud 14,030 pounds bouo ; whereas, in 1867, 77 vessels caught 50,115 
banvls whale oil and SH7.SIH) poniuls bone, an average of 651 barrels oil aud 10,492 pounds boue. 

The Oehotsk licet comprised 7 A'licriean ami I foreign vessel, and caught '1,960 barrels whale oil and 50,500 pounds 
bone, an average of (i','0 barrels oil and (i,:!12 pounds bone : whereas, in 1-1.7, 14 vessels caught 9,320 bairels whale oil 
and 117, '(>(> pounds bone, an average of 665 barrels oil and S,:.',',i:j pounds boue. 

The Kodiac and Bristol Bay licet comprised 17 American aud 2 foreign vessels, and caught 7,635 barrels whale oil 
and (18, sun pounds bone; \\hereas, in ls'7, 10 vessels caught 5,465 barrels whale oil aud 47,700 pounds boue, an 
average of 511', barrels oil and 4,770 pouuds bune. 

The entire fleet of 68 vessels caught 47,600 barrels whale oil and 694,500 pouuds bone, an average of 700 barrels 
oil and 10,213 pounds bone, showing a better average than in 1867, when 101 vessels caught an average of 642 barrels 
nil and '.t,u'.i3 pounds bone. 

The Cumberland Inlet fled comprised 12 American vessels, of which 4 returned, bringing 2,250 barrels whale oil 
and :it),OOU pounds bone. The bark Andrews; was totally lost, having no oil on board. The fleet for 1869 will number 
about the same as in I,-M|-I ; 7 vessels are wintering there, aud had taken, up to the latest dates, bur live whales. 

The year opened with sperm oil dull at $2, aud continued about the same for six months, -when it dropped to $1.75 
Si. -ii, at which it stood for nearly three mouths, when it was put to $2, where it remained for a brief period, aud 
when wanted for export in October declined to $1.78 @ $1.75, at which 10,000 barrels were sold. 

Whale oil opened at 65 cents, and steadily improved to 82 cents 1st of August, when, under unfavorable news 
from the northern fleet, rapidly advanced to $1.1", aud, in consequence of the absence of further reports from the 
licet, was still further advanced, with sales at $1.15 $1.25. After the news of the great success was received, in 
October, it was very dull, and closed with sales of 400 barrels at about, $1. 

Whalebone opened at 70 ceuts, gold, steadily declined until July, with sales at 60 cents, gold, when an improve- 
ment was established aud the market, under the, unfavorable reports, rose rapidly to $1.40 $1.42|, at which but few 
sales were made, and later, upon full reports from the fleet, the market became demoralized, aud receded to 75 80 
cents, gold, at which large sales were made at the close of the year. 

The imports in 18G8 were 47,174 barrels sperm, 65,575 barrels whale oil, aud 900,>s~>0 pounds bone, against 43,433 
barrels sperm, 89,289 barrels whale oil and 1.001,397 pounds bone, in 1867, showing an increase of sperm oil, but a 
considerable decrease of whale oil and bone. 

The exports for 18(18 were 18,916 barrels sperm, 9,885 barrels whale oil, and 707,882 pounds whalebone, against 
25,147 barrels sperm, 18,253 barrels whale oil, and 717,796 pounds whalebone in 1867, showiug a marked decrease 
especially of sperm aud whale oil, but it should be stated that about 4,500 barrels sperm oil purchased in December 
for export have not beeu cleared at the New York custom-house. 

The home consumption of sperm oil in 1863 was 19,055 barrels; of whale oil, 72,390 barrels, aud of whalebone, 
246,968 ponuds. In 1867 it was 22,986 barrels sperm ; 58,836 barrels whale oil, and 181,600 pounds whalebone, showing 
a decrease of sperm oil, but a very satisfactory increase of whale oil and -whalebone. 

The stock of oils aud whalebone on hand January 1, 1869, was 13,000 barrels sperm, 16,700 barrels whale oil, and 
and 200,000 pounds bone, against 8,000 pounds sperm, 33,400 barrels whale, and 274,000 pounds bone same time 
1868. 

TRADE I'.EVIEW FOR 1869. 

Review of the whale fishery for 1869. The year 1869 has not proved a satisfactory one to those engaged in the whale . 
fishery. It opened with good prices for oils and bone, which were well sustained through the summer, since which 
time, owing to increased stocks, depression in business everywhere, caused by the New York gold panic iu September, 
and the favorable news from the Arctic Ocean, there has been a general decline to present quotations of $1.55 for 
.-perm, 70 cents for humpback, 85 cents for Arctic oil, and 85 cents, gold, for Arctic bone, equal to about $1 currency, 
tin- decline for the year being about 2.~> per cent. During the summer about 25,000 barrels refined seal oil were 
imported from the provinces ami brought here by our manufacturers, thereby displacing from consumption an equal 
quantity of whale oil, which is now held by our importers, and which acroruts for the excess of the present stock 
over that of a year ago. The seal oil, which is of inferior consistency to whale, is said to have been largely mixed 
with whale aud lard oils, thereby prejudicing { \\,~ reputation of pure whale and lard oils. The increased import of 
whale oil in l.-'69 over l.- J i;- J was mainly owing to the sending home from the Sandwich Islands of oil caught in the 
previous years, only about 3,000 barrels having been carried north by the fleet in 1869, against 14,000 barrels in 1868. 
The generally unprofitable results of voyages terminated during the year, coupled with the low prices now ruling, 
are not favorable to the present fitting of the vessels in port which constitute over one-sixth of our small fleet. 

Of the one hundred aud two whalers that have arrived during the year, only about one quarter may be said to 
have made profitable returns; eveu those, at present prices, would barely have saved their owners from a loss. . 

The new year opens with another reduction in the fleet, both iu number of vessels and tonnage. The whole 
number of American vessels engaged in the whale fishery January 1, 1870, is 218 ships aud barks, 22 brigs, 81 schooners, 



148 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



with 73,137 tons, against 223 ships and barks, 25 brigs, 88 schooners, with 74,519 tons same time in 1869, showing a 
decrease of 15 vessels and 1,362 tons, only 25 of which grows out of remeasurement. As showing the extraordinary 
falling off in ten years, we give the following figures: 





Ships and 
barks. 


Brigs. 


Schooners. 


Tonnage. 


1870 


218 


22 


81 


73, 137 


I860 


508 


19 


42 


176, 842 













This is an apparent difference of 103,705 tons, but owing to loss by remeasurenient, the actual loss in tonnage in 
93,095 tons; showing in the ten years a decrease of 55 per cent. We predict a further deduction in the fleet the 
present year, unless prices materially improve. At present there are eight whalers at this port for sale, and a large 
number of schooners at Provincetown and other ports. 

The Atlantic fishery, taken as a whole, was less successful than in former years, the average catch being 12 per 
cent, less than for three years previous, while the instances of good catches have been largely reduced. 

We give below a statement of the Atlantic sperm fishery for the past four years : 





Number of 
vessels. 


Total catch. 


Average. 


1866 


150 


Barrels. 
20, 594 


Barrels. 
137 


1867 


154 


18, 809 


123 


1868 


150 


18 206 


122 


1869 


158 


17, 672 


112 











About one-fourth of the catch was taken in the South Atlantic. 

The fleet to cruise in the North and South Atlantic will not probably exceed one hundred and twenty-five vessels, 
against an average of three years previously of one hundred and fifty-four vessels; this being brought about by the 
reduced average catch and reduced prices, and is chiefly shown in the Provincetown fleet, where seven have already 
been withdrawn and fifteen others are in port there, a number of which it is contemplated withdrawing. 

The Indian Ocean, New Holland, and Soloo Sea grounds have been visited by the usual number of vessels, but 
only a few have been more than moderately successful. 

The Pacific fleet has been well distributed on New Zealand and the West Coast, but has not been as successful as 
for a few years past ; some have done well but the average has been moderate. Five of the New Zealand fleet changed 
their cruising grounds and went humpbacking, and were successful in taking an average of 750 barrels. A single 
vessel, the bark Camilla, has been cruising on the old Japan ground with fair success. 

The North Pacific fleet of 1869 comprised forty-four American and six foreign ships, fifty in all, the number 
anticipated in our last review, agaiust sixty-eight vessels in 1868. Owing to the scarcity of whales in the Arctic early 
in the season, many gave their attention to the capturing of walrus, and about 4,000 barrels of oil were taken from 
them, and, as in the previous year, it was not until late in August that the whales were found in abundance at Point 
Barrow, where all present got good fares of oil, the only barrier thereto being the extreme cold. The catch was large 
for the small fleet engaged, and gave an average of 990 barrels oil and 14,000 pounds bone. The fall short in bone is 
owing to the walrus oil (which has no bone with it) being included in the whale. Only one vessel went to Bristol 
Bay, where she got 500 barrels whale oil and 2,000 pounds bone, and but six to the Ochotsk Sea, where whales were 
scarce, the entire catch being 2,575 barrels oil and '21,800 pounds bone, the average being smaller than for many pre- 
vious years. The bark Eagle, of New Bedford, was totally lost in the Arctic in September, Laving taken 1,600 barrels 
oil and 25,000 pounds bone, the only serious disaster to the fleet. For a number of years the coast whaling has been 
neglected, but it is expected that several whalers will this winter visit the bays there, which in former years have 
furnished good whaling. The entire fleet visited the Sandwich Islands last fall, except the Florida, which belongs 
at San Francisco. In this connection we would invite attention to the following article from the San Francisco 
Commercial Herald: 

" Of the large whaling fleet engaged in the Ochotsk and Arctic Seas, but a single one visited this port last year, 
all the rest having rendezvoused at the Hawaiian Islands. A good many of them found fault with the treatment 
accorded by the American consul, and expressed a determination to come here next season. At, least twenty-five will 
adopt that course, and it would be good policy to pass some stringent law by which the contracts made with their 
crews could be enforced. The Florida is the only vessel that entered the harbor from the Polar Seas. Her oil sold at 
a high figure, say 65 < 70 cents. The bone was forwarded by rail to New York at a merely nominal rate, say 3 
cents per pound, currency. It is said by returned whalemen who passed through this city for New Bedford overland, 
in December last, that a considerable number of the whaling fleet will in future resort to this harbor for supplies, & c., 
presenting, as it does, advantages of markets and home advices by telegraph, besides monetary exchanges and facili- 
ties that are not elsewhere attainable," 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 149 

The Cumberland and Hinlsim liay fishery was very unsatisfactory, but one fair catch having been made of 650 
barrels, after an absence of nearly eighteen months. Of the six vessels wintering there, five are owned at New 
London, the other at this port. The, brig Oxford, of Fairhaven, was totally lost in the inlet, and the bark Odd Fellow, 
of New London, on her passage to I. be inlet. 

The Desolation sea-elephant lishery has been satisfactory to those who have pursued it, it being a specialty at 
New London. 

The Tristan, Cro/.ettes, and Desolation grounds were visited by several of our whalers last winter, where they 
found few whales and bad weather, and in two instances ouly were good catches* made. 

The fleet the present year will l>e distributed about as follows: In the North and South Atlantic, 125 vessels; 
Indian Ocean. H vessels, and Paeitie Ocean, 65 vessels, making 231 vessels, which are chiefly sperm whaling. In 
Hudson Bay and Cumberland lulei.i'i \eswls; on Desolation, elephanting, 6 vessels; and in the North Pacific, 44 
American and 7 foreign vessels, a total of (W vessels, exclusively right whaling. There are 13 vessels outward bound, 
and 11 homeward bound: and of the number to go north the coining season, 18 vessels will be on the fourth, fifth, 
and siith seasons, sn\ uuusual number, involving a larger outlay than it' fitted at home ports. 

The year opened with a good demand for sperm oil at 1.75, and rose before the close of January to .$2, and the 
market continued steady into June, when the price gradually receded to $1.75, after which there was a steady decline 
to the close of the year, sales being made at $l.5.~> per gallon. 

Whale oil opened at $1 per gallon, and rapidly rose to $1.20, when, upon the spring arrivals with a large supply, 
the price gradually receded t,> $1 and 1.05, for northern, at which price it continued steady until the fall mouths, 
when it further receded to 85 90 cents, which were tho ruling prices at the close. 

Whalebone opened at 75 cents, gold, for new, and 80 cents, gold, for old, Arctic, with considerable sales, and 
promptly advanced from 85 cents to SI, gold, early in March. During the summer months the market remained steady, 
at about $1.30, currency, until October, when sales were made at $1, gold, for Arctic, and 82 83 cents, gold, for 
South Sea. Since then there has been a general decline, closing at 85 cents, gold, for Arctic, and 75 cents, gold, for 
South Sea. 

The English review of their oil market for 1869 is encouraging, as it foreshadows a good demand for our staples. 
At the commencement of the year the stock of sperm oil was 5,300 barrels, and there was in transit from this side 
10,000 barrels, whereas at the opening of this year their stock was but 0,000 barrels and nothing going forward. The 
import into London in 1869 was 7,200 barrels from the colonies and 25,500 barrels from the United States, a total of 
:>-', 700 barrels, all of which was cleared for consumption excepting 700 barrels. The information received here from 
their colonies as well as the Talcahuano Meet (from which they have drawn considerable supply) lead us to believe 
that their increased supply for tho pant two years of colonial oil cannot be relied upon for the future. About 4,500 
barrels whale oil were imported during the year, and the market closed very firm at 39 40 per tun, with but 
little remaining in first hands. We think we can safely anticipate a good demand for sperm oil the present year. 

The imports in 1869 were 47,<j:>ii barrels sperm, 85,011 barrels whale oil, and 603,603 pounds bone, against 47,174 
barrels sperm, 65, 575 barrels whale oil, and 900,850 pounds bone in 1868, showing a marked increase in whale oil, 
owing to the sending home of oil taken in previous years, but a decrease in whalebone of about one-third. 

The exports in 1869 were 18,645 barrels sperm, 3,842 barrels whale oil, and 311,605 pounds bone, against 18,619 
barrels sperm, 9,885 barrels whalo oil, and 707,882 pounds bone in 1868, showing a large decrease in whale oil and 
whalebone. 

The home consumption of sperm oil in 1869 was 17,239 barrels, of whale oil 56,236 barrels, and of whalebone 
197,098 pounds, when in 1868 it iras 19,055 barrels sperm, 72,390 barrels whale oil, and 246,963 pounds whalebone. 
The decrease in the consumption of whale oil was consequent upon the large import (and consumption) of seal oil, 
which we have reason to believe will not be repeated. 

The stock of oil and whalebone on hand January 1, 170, was 25,052 barrels sperm, 41,633 barrels whale oil, and 
294,900 pounds whalebone, against 13,000 barrels sperm, 16,700 barrels whale oil, and 200,000 pounds whalebone same 
time in 1869. 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1870. 

Review of thr. whale fishery for 1870. The year 1870, like its predecessor, has been one of poor returns to those engaged 
in the whale fishery. The prices for our staples, which at the opening were considered uuremunerative, steadily 
declined throughout the year, closing at the lowest quotations of any year since I j t51. The decline in sperm oil was 
owing to the limited consumption of the article, together with a large stock on hand at the beginning of the year, and 
the unexpected large import, being about 10,000 barrels in excess of the estimate for the year, while whale oil and whale- 
bone were similarly effected by the introduction largely of co , foreign market, caused by the 
European war, to which we export largely, especially of bone. We note that while tho importation of seal oil has been 
retricted by a higher tariff, that cotton-seed oil has stepped inio its place, and claims its share of consumption, which 
i- by no means limited, 75. in HI barrels, it is estimated, having been marketed the present year. But few of the returned 
whalers made profitable voyages, whereas most of tho voyages were uuremunerative, and many very much so. 

Because of the poor results and low prices, eombined with the high cost, of outfits, many were deterred from fitting 
out their ships again, and the fleet at home ports on the new year was largely in excess of former years. Oar mer- 
chants do not look upon the future of whaling with enconra- m disposed to distrust it as to its pecu- 
niary results, induced more by extra -.es than inherent, having to add to tho list of competitors lard, petro- 
leum, and seal oil, that of cotton-seed oil, said by its advocates to bo but in its infancy. 



ISO HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

The decline in the number of the fleet foreshadowed a year ago has been realized, and we have not only a smaller 
number now engaged, but of that small number fully one-fourth are at home ports. 

The Atlantic fishery has furnished less sperm oil than in former years, chiefly owing to the small number prose- 
cuting the business there, though, as in former years, some good fares were taken, six vessels in the North Atlantic 
having averaged 350 barrels. The fleet to cruise there the present year will be much reduced from that of last year, 
and will probably not exceed one hundred vessels. 

The whole number of American vessels engaged in the fishery January 1, 1871, is 216 ships and barks, 18 brigs, 54 
schooners, with 69,372 tons, against 218 ships and barks, 22 brigs, 81 shooners, with 73,137 tons same time in 1870, 
showing the large decrease for the past year of 33 vessels, with 3,765 tons, which proceeds from the withdrawal of 
vessels from Newburyport, Wellfleet, Groton, and largely from Provincetown, the entire fleet at the latter port being 
27 vessels against 49 a year ago, and of that number it is thought 7 will not be fitted. 

We fear that a continuation of the present low prices for our staples will deter our merchants from fitting many 
of the whalers in port and to arrive, by which the vessels disengaged throughout the year will be larger than for 
many years past. 

On the various sperm-whaling grounds the cases of marked success in 1870 were few. Whales were very scarce 
upon the grounds around New Zealand, which have been more largely visited the past year because of the previous 
marked success there. Many of the sperm whalers visited the several right- whaling and humpback grounds, and met 
with good success, more particularly in humpbacking. The Tristan and Crozettes grounds were poor, with heavy 
weather, the best cut being 760 barrels on Crozettes, while the average was not probably over 250 barrels. 

The North Pacific fleet of 1870 consisted of forty-eight American and ten foreign vessels, of which two American, 
the Hibernia and Almira, and one foreign, the Japan, of Sidney, New South Whales, were totally lost, the latter sup- 
posed, with all her officers and crew, in the Arctic. As in the two years previous, the whaling was done in August and 
September, and the average catch was larger than for many years. Whales were small but very numerous, and it is 
said were never more abundant. The catch of walrus oil was very large, being nearly 10,000 barrels. 

But one whaler visited the Ochotsk Sea, the Monticello, and took 200 barrels, and Bristol Bay, the George, and 
took 400 barrels. 

Coast whaling seems to have been abandoned. Ten whalers visited San Francisco, the balance of the fleet going to 
Honolulu. A new feature in the transshipment of bone is that of sending it " across the continent " by rail, direct to 
New Bedford, at the small cost of 2 cents per pound, currency. 

At Honolulu three foreign right whalers have been withdrawn, the business n ot proving remunerative, but in 
San Francisco there is a corresponding increase, and a disposition manifested to extend further in this branch of 
whaling. 

The Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet fishery was fair, the Milwood doing the best, having come out with 
1,000 barrels. The schooner Quickstep, of New London, is supposed to have been lost in coming out, with all on 
board. 

The fleet is now distributed about as follows: North and South Atlantic, 51 vessels; Indian Ocean, 41 vessels ; 
Pacific Ocean, 65 vessels, principally sperm whaling ; Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet, 5 vessels; the remaining 
51 vessels comprise the North Pacific fleet, 8 of which are outward and 20 homeward bound. The North Pacific fleet 
for 1871 will comprise about 40 ships of all nationalities. The total number of vessels now at sea is 213. 

The export of sperm oil to foreign countries in 1870 was 22,773 barrels, mostly to London, against 18,645 barn-Is 
in 1869, showing an increase of 4,323 barrels; but the stock on hand at London, 1st instant, was 200 tons in excess of 
the previous year. The foreign consumption of this article lias not increased under low prices, as was anticipated, 
which it would seem was owing to the European war, causing a large falling off in the demand for manufactured 
goods, but which we think an early peace will restore. The home demand has materially increased, and we think will 
be maintained under present prices. 

The year opened with sperm oil at $1.50 $1.55, and advanced in February to *1.(10, whi'ii, becoming in large 
supply, it steadily declined throughout the year to $1.20, closing at if 1.23 1. -'"'. 

Whale oil opened at 70 @ 72i cents, and advanced to 80 cents in February, and in July the price had declined to 
67 68 cents, when it again advanced to 70 cents in August, after which it gradually declined to 65 cents, which was 
the nominal price at the close. 

Whalebone was in good demand early in the year at 85 cents per pound, gold, for Arctic, when in May and June 
large sales were made at 80 cents, gold, aud since July, when war was declared in Europe, the price has gradually 
declined to 65 cents per pound, gold, the decline in price and demand being consequent upon the two large and only 
consumers, Franco aud Germany, being a-t war. The export to July IS, when the war broke out, was 285,000 
pounds, being nearly equal to the entire previous year, and but for this interruption we should have probably had a 
large increased foreign demand, and soon after the declaration of peace we shall expect to see the foreign dealers in 
oils and bone turning their attention to our staples at the attractively low prices ruling here. 

The imports in 1870 were 55,183 barrels sperm, 72,691 barrels whale oil, and 708,365 pounds bone, against 47,936 
barrels sperm, 85,011 barrels whale oil, and 603,603 pounds bone in 1869, showing a large increase in sperm oil and 
whalebone, but a large decrease in whale oil. Of the imports of whale oil, 4,013 barrels, and of whalebone, 66,000 
pounds, were the catch of San Francisco vessels. 

The export in 1870 was 22,773 barrels sperm, 9,872 barrels whale oil, and 347,918 pounds bone, against 18,645 
barrels sperm, 3,842 barrels whale oil, and 311,605 pounds bone in 1869, showing an increase in each article. 



THK WHALE FISHERY. 151 

'flu* home consumption <>l's|>rrm oil in ls;o was .'.-<. s|_> barrels a.ud of whale oil 64,812 barrels, and of whalebono 
-Jii.'JlT pounds, when in 18(>9 it was 17. '.':!!_) barrels sperm, 5b',236 barrels whale oil, and 197,098 pounds bone, showing 
a gratifying increase the past year. 

The sMick of oil and bone on hand .January 1, 1871, was 26,650 barrels sperm, 36,000 barrels wbale oil, and 
400,000 pounds bone. exclusive of ;;.?.'() barrels whale oil and 27,500 pounds bone held in San Francisco, against 
J."i,0.vj barrels sperm, 41,03:5 barrels whale oil, and 294,000 pounds bone same time in 1870. 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1871. 

Keru'w ill' tin- wlitilc Jixlicri/for 1871. We have, to n-cord another year of poor success in the whale fishery, both as 
concerns oil taken and pecuniary results, only about twenty-four vessels out. of ninety-one returned having met with 
good success in taking oil, and scarcely ten of the whole fleet having left their owners any gains in the net results of 
the voyages terminated; the average low prices ruling for oil and bone for the first ten months of the year, when 
most of onr arrivals occurred, tending to this result, and the large advance brought about by the almost total disaster 
to our Arctic fleet coming too late to change such results. Sperm oil from its own weight of heavy stock on hand at 
the opening of the year, and the frequent arrivals during the first half of the year, continued to sag from $1.40 in 
February to $1.22 in July and August, when, under a good foreign demand and some speculative inquiry, it reacted 
in September and advanced in October to f 1.30, and with a good home demand, stimulated by erroneous views of 
consumers in the manufacturing districts, as to the kind of disaster \ve had met with, it was put up to $1.60, where it 
stood at the closing day of the year. An impression gained credence with some consumers in this country and Europe 
that our sperm-whale fishery was the sufferer, and the whaling business severely crippled ; whereas our wharves had 
thiny ships lying at them for sale, and which the loss of ships in the Arctic simply made a partial market for. With 
so great a loss of vessels, we have with us for sale at least ten good ships, the owners not feeling willing to embark in 
new voyages with them. 

The consumption of sperm oil has been rather more than last year, say 56,000 barrels, of which 22,000 barrels were 
exported to Great Britain, more than usual going to Glasgow. The London market received from the colonies 800 
tnus, which was more than for either of the three preceding years. The stock on hand in London, December 31, was 
b'30 tuns, au average of the stocks for the three preceding years, and 200 tuns were also being lauded from New York 
for refiners. The home consumption in 1871 was about 34,000 barrels, against 29,000 ban-els in 1870, showing the 
increased consumption of 1871 over 1870 to have been in this country. 

The import of sperm oil was 8,000 barrels less than was looked for at the beginning of the year, which is due 
rather to the poor whaling, and not to delay of the whalers out in returning home. We have a much smaller stock 
than for 1871 to open the year with, say 14,500 barrels, and can hardly expect as large an import in 1872 as in 1871, as 
the fleet is much smaller, and must so remain for the present, while some few sperm whalers may go to the Aictic 
Ocean and some whalers here may be sent to the same place this year. With the low prices ruling in 1871 for lard, 
cotton-seed, and petroleum oils, it would seem that sperm oil has its own place to till at a fail price, regardless of 
su hsti tines, and better success iu finding sperm oil would no doubt encourage some owners of vessels to fit them again 
at present prices. The sperm oil on board of whalers, already caught, is about 33,000 barrels, against 36,000 barrels 
the year previous. 

There will be an increase in Provincetowu whalers fitted this spring, several of them having been temporarily 
engaged iu the coasting business. 

The destruction of thirty-three Arctic whalers out of forty cruising in the Arctic in 1871 will work a new 
experience to us in the way of importation iu 1872, as but two Arctic whalers will arrive this year, the ships Daniel 
Webster here, and Europa at Edgartown, and the arrival of Arctic oil will be only about 2,300 banels. We can 
hardly hope to import more than 30,000 barrels whale oil from all quarters in 1872, which would unly give a supply 
of 60,000 barrels for the year, against 110,000 in 1871. The market will be cleared before another import of Arctic- 
oil can be caught, unless the extreme views of holders may lead to I he importation of seal oil to bo caught this 
spiiug, and a supply of cotton-seed oil. which shall make up for our lar<;e deficiency. Since the news was received of 
the Arctic disaster wo have fitted and sent to the Arctic six ships, and one from New London, of which four were 
toimerly sperm whalers. Of the eleven whalers fitted aud which sailed for the Arctic previous to the news of the 
loss, live were sperm whalers; three sperm, whalers have been ordered to the Arctic from speim-whale grounds. The 
Faraway, owned in Sydney, New South Wales, has sailed from Honolulu, under command of Captain Herendeen, 
formerly of the Mary, of Edgartowu, for the Arctic. TUe fleet of 1872 will com pn- -ix vessels, of which only 

three Americans and one Hawaiian were there in 1871. San Francisco will probably have no whalers there, under- 
writers in San Francisco declining to insure on them ; their past , ''ing to them almost a fatality, they 
having had to pay for every Arctic whaler that has heretofore fitted from Ihai port. 

Wha'e oil lias been in good demand, both for home use and export, though the market was a declining one, 
Mom 65 cents iu January to 50 54 cents in July, and until the November news of the loss of the Arctic whalers, 
when the maiket was entirely demoralized, more from insurance and other questions pending solution than any 
other pressing want to bay or anxiety to sell at the advance. When the excitement was allayed sales -were made 
of Arctic at 75 @ 80 cents, which is the current price. The consumption has equaled the previous year, G4,000 
barrels being used here, and 18,000 barrels exported to France. 

Seal oil has not interfered with us during the year, ouly one cargo American catch coming to this country. 
Cotton-seed oil has been in the market, but the low juices ha\i: unquestionably discouraged the manufacturers of it, 
with similar results in their experience as by our whaling owners. 



j52 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Whalebone has continued in good demand during the year, although at low prices, the prices ranging from 65 
cents, gold, early in the year, to 79 cents, gold, in October, when the ten months' sales having more than aggregated 
our imports, and the disastrous Arctic news having come to hand, holders being few in number, put their prices to 
$2 per pound. Sales were made of South Sea at $1.70 and Arctic at $1.75 @ $1.85, and the year closed with a stock of 
290,000 pounds, held at $1.90 $2. There can be no import of bone in 1872 except of South Sea and Cumberland, 
and possibly an early arrival of Arctic, all nncaught as yet. 

There has been a large reduction in our email whaling fleet, and of the thirty-fonr vessels now in port half are for 
sale, and some to arrive will probably change hands before being fitted again. Could present prices be assured for three 
years to come probably nearly every vessel would go to sea, but with the uncertainty in prices, partly from substi- 
tutes and low prices of them, only good prices can be hoped for and not counted upon. There were no whalers in 
Ochotsk Sea or on Kodiac last season. The Arctic fleet had done well up to the time of their having been lost ; 
whales were plenty and the prospects good for a large average. The oil abandoned with the ships was about 12,000 
barrels, and about 100,000 pounds of bone. The natives were at work saving the bone when last seen, and it 
is expected that by trading with them that at least 50,000 pounds may be got of them within three years. It is not 
improbable that some of the ships may be found near where abandoned, but not at a time nor in such condition as to 
make it an object to save them. The salvors would hardly expect to save more than half to themselves of the 
property recovered, and good whaling would offer better results. 

The Atlantic fishery has been a fair one to the small fleet cruising there. The weather has been rugged late in the 
season. The best catch was made by the Commodore Morris, of New Bedford, 1,200 barrels sperm oil in nineteen 
months, 550 barrels this season ; others have done well. The South Atlantic fleet have done well sperm whaling and 
humpbacking. The fleet took 3,000 barrels humpback oil on the coast of Africa. The Nautilus, of New Bedford, 
took 800 barrels, the best catch. 

The Indian Ocean and Crozettes have furnished nothing extraordinary ; nor have the Soolo Sea and New Holland 
given their usual share of oil. The New Zealand fleet has done well tperm whaling and humpbacking, nearly 5,000 
barrels of humpback oil having been taken on Brampton Shoals; the Cleone, of New Bedford, having taken 1,000 
barrels. The West Coast whaling has been only fair sperm whaling, while in humpbacking some good cuts have 
been made, aggregating nearly 5,000 barrels. Panama Bay was alive with humpbacks in the season of them, and one 
coast whaler took 1,000 barrels. Margueritta Bay has not been visited, though in former years it furnished great 
attractions to our ArcticTleet between seasons. 

Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet has barely sustained its average, though the Ansel Gibbs, of New Bedford, 
returned with 1,300 barrels of oil and 22.000 pounds of bone the only good catch, and paying one, and perhaps the 
best paying one of the year in its percentage. The Scotch Greenland fishery was very successful ; they report some 
catches of 2,000 barrels to a vessel steamers. 

The Desolation voyages have been a sharer with all the other kinds of whaling in having less oil taken and less 
price received than the owners found profitable. The year in a general view outside the Arctic disaster, which was 
unforeseen and unexpected, has been fully as discouraging as any former, and if extreme prices, caused by our loss, do 
not raise up enemies to our future interest in substitutes, then we may hope for better days to those whose courage 
keeps them in the way of whaling because they believe we shall see a return of prosperity in this branch of creative 
industry. 

The promptness with which the Commercial Mutual Marine and Union Mutual Marine Insurance Companies have 
had their resources reinforced by stock notes, the former by $110,000 and the latter by $300,000, shows that our pres- 
ent and former owners in whaling, who have come to the rescue to replenish the enormous losses by the Arctic disaster, 
believe in a future of whaling, if not as extensive as in the past at least partially as remunerative. 

* 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1872. 

J?erto of the whale fishery for 1872. The year just closed has been but a continuance of the former one in results, 
few prizes and many blanks. With a small and steadily declining fleet, we have been suable to proportionately gain 
in average quantity of oil taken or in reaching more satisfactory results. Those who began the year with the inten- 
tion of selling whalers have seen nothing so encouraging in the business as to induce them to change their minds, 
and though only seven of the fourteen ships then for sale were sold during the year, yet others since arrived have 
been sold, and we have now at home ports some seventeen more good whalewliips known to be for sale, their owners 
not intending to fit them again. The great loss of whalers in the Arctic in 1871 has been followed by the sale of 
twenty and loss of four whalers in 1872, exclusive of ships that have changed hands in the business, aud still we begin 
the year 1873 with about one-third of the whalers at home ports for sale, or about seventeen out of forty-eight vessels. 
The continued purpose to sell whalers after so great a depletion in little more than a year shows the judgment of 
those who have long and successful'y been engaged in the business, viz, that it has become too hazardous, and its 
results too uncertain to continue it, when capital is promised a safer employment and surer rewards- in enterprises 
on the land, and in our own city, where the products of two large cotton mills equal very nearly the aggregate value 
of the imports of the fishery yearly. There are those who think that the Arctic whaling will be given up in a few 
years because of the perils attendant on whaling there, where ice has to be encountered, with extreme cold and severe 
storms, and from which causes shipwrecks and damage to hulls are very common. This view is confirmed by the 
recent action of our insurance companies in charging 3 per cent, extra each season on whalers visiting that ocean, ( 
ttep long contemplated but now felt necessary by the insmance companies. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 153 

The fleet starts to-day with two handred and three vessels in the business, against t\\o hundred and eighteen a 
year ago. and two hundred anil eighty-eight two years ago, showing a decrease of 15 per cent, per annum for two 
years past. Auother installment of 15 PIT ei-ni. in s.ile of ships during 1873 wo tUink would reconcile interested 
parties for tin- time to t ho present condition of the business. Of nine vessels (schooners) added to the flee.t in 1872 
seven had previously been temporarily withdrawn, and two were bought to engage in the South Shetland whaling 
and sealing business, which was revived last, year with considerable, prolit, the skins being the finest fur seals known. 

The 24 whalers sold and lost represented 5,192 tons, while the 9 schooners added show only 706 tons. The fleet 
at sea January 1, 187:i, numbers 155 vessels, against 165 a year ago. We had employed in 1853 571 vessels, with a 
tonnage of 200,286, averaging 350 tons; in 18G3, 357 vessels, with a tonnage of 103,146, averaging 288 tons; in 1873, 
JO;; vessels, with a tonnage of 47,99li, averaging 236 tons. The comparison shows a large reduction iu number of 
vessels, also a reduction in the average size of the ships employed. The largest ileet, in the Arctic Ocean was in 1854, 
when 2:>2 ships were there and obtained 1-4,063 barrels whale oil, averaging 794 barrels. The largest quantity of 
sperm oil was imported in 1853, 103,077 barrels, averaging iu price $1.24. The largest quantity of whale oil was 
imported in 1S.M, :;-Js, isl barrels, averaging 45 cents. The largest quantity of whalebone imported was in 1853, 
5. (',:,_', :;00 pounds, averaging 34 cents, gold. 

These figures serve to show how great a change the whale fishery has undergone at horn e and among consumers. 
Our entire import of sperm and whale oil in 1872 was about three-fourths of our import of sperm in 1853 and about 
one- fourth of our import of whale in 1851 ; and our import of -whalebone in 1872 was about one twenty-eighth of the 
import of 1^53. 

In twenty years the consumption of sperm oil has reduced one-half, at same prices, 103,000 against 45,000 barrels. 
In whale it is reduced five-sixths, at an increased price of 20 per cent., 328,000 barrels against 50,000 barrels; and in 
whalebone it is reduced nine-tenths, with an increased price of 100 per cent., 5,652,300 pounds against 500,000 pounds. 
We do not get oil and whalebone enough in the average to get our money back, and those who get the largest catches 

>mpetitiou prices have failed to make money. And so onr oldest and most successful ship-owners are willing to 
.sell their ships. But there are a few firms who, having fine ships and good and skillful masters, are resolute and deter- 

d not to succumb to the untoward elements in the business until they have tested the matter thoroughly, and to 
such we believe success will come and should come. 

No whaling grounds have been abandoned ; every sea and ocean is at present explored by our whalers. The 
Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet whaling was a failure, some seven vessels being there and obtaining only about 
I , ..no barrels oil. The bark Milwood -was lost there, the crew being saved, also her cargo of 150 barrels oil and 1,600 
pounds of bone. Three whalers are wintering in Hudson Bay and three in Cumberland Inlet. 

The Arctic Ocean was visited by twenty-eight American and four foreign whalers, and though the September 
whaling, which is usually the best, was a failure, still the fleet averaged 700 barrels oil and 10,UOO pounds of bone. 
Xearly 5,000 barrels walrus oil was taken in the Arctic, though some masters, who were disposed to give up walrus- 
ing, abstained from it. The bark Roscoe was totally lost, crew saved. The Helen Snow and Sea Breeze were aban- 
doned : the former was found by the Jireh Perry, and a crew put on board of her, and sent to San Francisco, where 
she has since been sold to the Alaska Sealing Company. The latter ship was recovered again by her crew, and 
continued her whaling. The Live Oak, Joseph Maxwell, and Arnolda were badly stove, but reached port safely. 
The bark Florence went up to the wrecked whalers and secured the Minerva, also 250 barrels sperm, 1,200 barrels 
whale oil, and 15,000 pounds of bone, and brought them all to San Francisco. Other bone was traded for and came 
to San Francisco ; in all about 50,000 pounds. 

Humpbacking has been successfully carried on everywhere. In Panama Bay 10,000 barrels were taken ; at 
Harper's and Tonga Islands and Chesterfield Shoals, 8,000 barrels ; on the coast of Africa, 2,000 barrels ; and around 
the West Indies, 2,000 barrels; in all 22,000 barrels and equal to the entire Arctic catch. Not much was done on 
Crozettes and Desolation. Only two whalers arrived from the Arctic Ocean in 1872, being of the seven saved from 
the fleet of 1871. A fair catch was made sea elephanting and sealing. 

The Arctic fleet for 1873 will number about thirty-two vessels. Two whalers only return home, and one goes to 
New Zealand. Six ships left this port in 1872 to join the Arctic fleet. One or two ships may go to the Ocbotsk Sea 
this year, which has not been visited by whalers since 1870. One firm, who lost all three ships in the Arctic in 1871, 
has sent out three to replace them in the season of 1873. There were no whalers on Kodiac in 1871 or 1872. It is 
possible Margueritta Bay may be visited this winter by one or two of our Arctic fleet. 

Sperm whaling lias been but partially snceessful in the' Atlantic. Several good cuts were obtained, and the 
whaling was very fair, but it was poor in the South Atlantic. In Indian Oceau, on New Zealand, and the west coast 
of South America, wit* few exceptions, the sperm-whale fleet has been largely engaged in hnmpbacking between 
seasons, with good lares, as before stated. As nearly three-fourths of the fleet is sperm whaling, there is a reasonable 
prospect of having a good supply, at least so long as whales can be found : and this branch of onr business promises 
to survive, as substitutes are not so readily found as for whale oil, and the Ileet is well distributed on all the known 
{rounds for sperm whaling. Some good catches have been secured during the year, ami in most eases were needed 
to put their respective vessels in creditable position. 

The stock of sperm oil on board of whalers now is about -J7,OM> barrels, against 33,000 barrels a year ago. 

Last fall twenty-two ont of thirty-two ships from the Arctic came to San Francisco and seven went to Honolulu, 
and two home to Sydney ; fourteen of the San fleet were met there by their agents, comprising some ten of 

our merchants, part of them taking their wives with them. In part owing to difficulties in shipping oil home from 
there, five ships were ordered to Panama to land and ship home their cargoes ; four were ordered direct to Honolulu, 



154 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

ami two, after refitting for the north, sailed to cruise and touch at the islands in the .spring. The high rate offered 
for grain freights absorhed all the available ships. The whaler Minerva, saved from the wreck of 1871, was bought 
by two of our merchants, and loaded with oil for home. Also the Lagoda and Tamerlane took freight for home. 

Sperm oil has been in good demand during the year. The import was 45,000 barrels, 5,000 to 7,000 barrels more 
than was anticipated. We consumed the entire amount, and drew on stock at the commencement of the year foi 
3,000 barrels. Yet there was a falling otf of 7,000 barrels in the consumption as compared with the previous year. 
The price opened high at $1.60, and during the summer declined to 1.35, when in the fall it strengthened to $1.50, 
where it btood at the opening of this year. A few sales were reported at $1.52-J $1.55. The consumption has been 
about equally divided between home and foreign demand, and the fall off has been in this country, probably induced 
by the abundance and low price of lard oil. With the oil caught and at home we have promise of a good supply 
this year. 

Messrs. Bowes, Game & Co.'s Annual Market Report, reports the importation of sperm oil into the United King- 
dom in 1872 at 3,423 tons, against 3,811 tons in 1871. During the demand from January to April the price advanced 
from 91 to 100, and when that fell off it declined in September to 85. The consumption was 3,595 tuns in 1872, 
against 3,823 tuns in 1871. The stock on hand January 1, 1873, was 609 tuns against 849 tuns January 1, 1872. The 
consumption fell off in 1872 228 tuns, and the stock to open the year with was reduced 180 tons. Messrs. Maclean, 
Maris & Co.'s circular shows the imports from the colonies in 1872 to be 722 tuns, being nearly one-half of the import 
of the United States. 

Whale oil has been in moderate demand with small supply. The import was very small, 31,075 barrels, conse- 
quent upon the loss of the Arctie fleet in the fall of 1871. Only two right whalers returned during the year, and the 
import was little more than one-third that of the previous year, when it was 75,000 barrels. The supply was 61,000 
barrels whale, and consumption 45,000 barrels, against 80,000 barrels in 1871. The consumption of whale oil has not 
been reduced by seal oil, for none has come here from the provinces, nor from fish oils, for the catch has been a small 
one, not over two-thirds that of previous years, but rather from lard and petroleum, which have been plenty, good, 
and cheap. 

The year opened at 73 cents for Arctic oil, and eased during the summer to 66 68 cents, when humpback oil 
arrived in large quantities, and was taken in preference, because of its lower cost, say 60 62^ cents. Since the 
Boston fire, in which 8,000 barrels fish oil were lost, causing tanners to buy some of our oil, rather better figures were 
obtained closing at 68 cents for Arctic, and a small stock of 16,500 barrels of all kinds. There was but little whale 
oil exported in 1872, say 1,528 barrels. 

The London circulars call the import of whale oil there 80 tuns, and the stock on hand January 1, 1873, 47 tuns. 
Also, imports of seal oil there 822 tuns, and the stock on hand January 1, 1873, 152 tuns. 

Whalebone was in good supply at the opening of the year, about 285,000 pounds; but with little to come during 
the year, or until the new Arctic arrivals late in the year, and which amounted to 132,000 pounds. Only about 60,00(1 
pounds came from all other sources, including South Sea and Cumberland. Small sales were made early in the year, 
at ^1.90 per pound and then it declined to $1.75 and $1.50 by May, and in June it was sold at $1, gold, to $1.20, cur- 
rency, since which it has been steady at $1.15 $1.20, closing the year at $1.18 for old. The first MX months the 
sales were about 50,000 pounds, but when prices got down to $1, gold, the sales for the remaining s^x months were 
about 200,000 pounds, of which consumption of 250,000 pounds about 180,000 pounds were exported. A circular issued 
by J. A. Sevey, of Boston, a large bone-cutter, shows that he lost by being burnt out in the Boston fire some 10,000 
pounds of bone, but was at work again in twenty-two days cutting bone with tools patented by him, and which he 
claims are a great improvement on the old method of cutting. Some 60,000 pounds of bone were brought into San 
Francisco last fall, which was picked up from the wrecked whalers or traded for with the natives. 

London circulars, aforesaid, report the importations-including the catch of Davis Strait and Greenland whalers, 
as 90 tons, against 101 tons iu 1871. Stock in London, 357 tons, against 56 tons in 1871. Consumption 111 tons, 
against 91 tons in 1871, 107 tons in 1870, and 122 tons iu 1809. The import of humpback bone was 22 tons, and the 
stock on hand January 1, 1873, was 27 tons. 

TKADK KKVIEW FOI! 1S7U 

Review of the whale, fishery for 1873. The opening paragraph of our last year's review might be copied and would 
be equally appropriate in commencing our present, for it has been a year starting with a small fleet, steadily reducing 
through the year by sales and losses of vessels, wflh moderate catches, meager net results, no change of purpose to 
sell whalers now here, and no new signs of encouragement in the business. A proposition for the sale of a whaler in 
more tempting than a proposal to fit one. Of the nineteen whalers in the port of New Bedford January 1, 1873, four 
were sold, live fitted for whaling, and ten still remain iu port; of the seven at New London January 1, 1873, one has 
been sold and broken up, and the remaining six are still for sale. Of the eleven whalers now in this port that arrived 
in l-<7.!, six are. for sale; and of the twenty-one whalers now wintering here not over seven are likely to be fitted. 
Of forty whalers to arrive in 1874 probably about thirty will be sent to sea again. 

The striking features in the business have been the steadiness of prices during the year, except during the, panic, 
the absence of many good catches of oil in sperm and Arctic whaling, the good success in humpbacking in Panama 
Bay and coast of Africa, the loss of three whalers in Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet, and immunity from disas- 
ter in the Arctic Ocean, not a ship being lost or seriously damaged. 

Our present fleet is 171, against 203 a year ago, 218 in 1-C.', and 288 in 1871. The 15 per cent, reduction which 
has been going on for three years, and which a year ago we ventured to think would relieve us of an anxiety to 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 



155 



fiirtlirr sell, lias not been realized ; for <ii' the liity-onc whalers at homo, we now want to sell twenty-live at least, 
\\liirli is still another 15 per cent, discount we would make on our lleet, and unless we get better catches and better 
results in 1874 than in 1873, we can now safely apply lor another reduction in 1875 of nearly 15 per cent. The thirty- 
two whalers withdrawn, &c., represented 6,912 tons, and the one schooner added at Proviucetown was 117 tons. 

The fleet at sea January 1, 1874, was one hundred aud twenty-three vessels, against one hundred and lifty-five a 

year ago. 

FLEET. 



Tear. 


No. of 
vessels. 


No. of 
tons. 


1854 


668 


208, 399 


1864 


304 


88, 785 


1874 


171 


41, 191 









ARCTIC FLEET. 



Tear. 


No. ot 

vessels. 


Oil. 


Average. 


1853 


108 


Barrels. 
146, 800 


Barrels. 
1,349 


1863 


42 


30, 010 


857 


1873 


28 


19, 400 


700 











IMPORTED. 



Tear. 


Sperm oil. 


Whale oil. 


Bone. 


1853 


Barrels. 
103 077 


Barrels. 
260, 114 


Pounds. 
5, 652, 300 


1863 


65 055 


62, 974 


488, 750 


1873 


42, 053 


40, 014 


206,396 











We have given these comparative figures to show the inclined plane down which whaling is at present going. 
Right whaling is not remunerative, and cannot be unless larger catches can be made with smaller expenses attending 
them. 

The Arctic Ocean had in 1873 thirty-two whalers, and the Ochotsk Sea two, and yet the aggregate catch was 
about 21,000 barrels of oil and 250,000 pounds of bone, or an average of 600 barrels of oil aud 7,500 pounds of bone, 
worth about $20,000, one-half of which is used up in drafts, refitting for another season, and the expense of getting 
oil aud houo home. The past season was a poor one for whaling, being open, free from ice, whales very scarce until 
very late in the season, when they were plenty, but the weather became bad; the remaining fleet, after a week of good 
work, came out with a fair catch. Six whalers did not take a whale in the Arctic, aud two got not even a walrus. In 
1854 fifteen whalers out of forty-eight got nothing, and the season was a failure. The Progress found whales outside 
and took seven, making 750 barrels oil; also the Louisa found whales on Kodiac, and got five, making 550 barrels; 
and the Live Oak found whales in Japan Sea, and got nine, making 900 barrels. About 6,000 barrels walrus oil was 
taken in the Arctic in July. Whalers went farther north this season than ever before. Four Arctic whalers will 
return home, and not one has been fitted out during the past year to go to the Arctic, nor will there be during the 
year 1-71. From present appearances, with the present feeling existing about Arctic whaling, we should doubt it 
anv one of the fleet now out, upon their return home, would be tilted again to go there. About one-half of the 
lleet went to San Francisco to refit and the balance to Honolulu, it having become evident that the gains at San 
Francisco are not equivalent for advantages the Sandwich Islands have for getting and keeping crews and freighting 
home catchiugs. In the fall of 187-J live whalers went to Panama to ship their catchings home; owing to unavoid- 
able circumstances the oil was long delayed at the Isthmus, and was, on arrival here, found to have much leaked. 
1'anama Bay has been as good whaling ground I he past year for humpbacks as in previous years, about 10,000 barrels 
bring the catch there, some vessels getting 1, (Mill to 1,400 barrels each. But little has been heard from the sperm 
whalers humpbacking at the shoals and grounds in the Pacific Ocean. On the coast of Africa there were good catches 
of humpbacks, some vessels taking .",00 to TOO barrels each. 

The (.'rozette whaling was good, but two vessels visited the ground, the China and John P. West, taking 750 and 
800 barrels, respectively. Cumberland Inlet and Hudson Bay whaling was disastrous; the schooner Abbie Bradford 
returned with a good catch, and brought news of the loss of the barks Ansel Gibbsaud Orray Tafr, of this port. 
The schooner S. B. Howes, of Xew London, was also lost there. Many seamen died with scurvy. The bark Glacier, 
of this port, returned with only about 70 barrels. South Shetland. seal ing and whaling was very successful, and another 
fleet has gone to complete the work of extirpation. 



156 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Sperm whaling has had hardly a better average result than right whaling, but while its catches are perhaps less 
in value, its expenses of continuing a voyage are also less. In the North Atlantic many good fares were taken, the 
largest being about 300 barrels, whereas in former years 500 to 700 barrels have been reached in a single cruise. In 
the South Atlantic less oil has been taken than formerly, though several good catches were made, one vessel taking 
600 barrels in sis weeks. In the Indian Ocean and on New Holland, with few exceptions, the whaling has been slim ; 
whales were quite plenty early in the year, but the weather was bad ; for the greater part of the year but few whales 
were seen. The New Zealand ground has been dry and deserted by whales, only a few ships having done fairly, while 
one or two have been fortunate in seeing and getting them. The fleet is small there. The West Coast has but few 
sperm cruisers there, and several have done quite well, others poorly. The bark Courser, with 700 barrels of sperm 
oil on board, was run down by an English steamer. 

All around, the sperm-whaling grounds have not been np to former years in takings, and it would seem that a 
small fleet does not increase the chances of a great catch. At present prices for sperm oil, say $1.50, we think sperm 
whaling will outlive all other kinds, though even with a reduced catch we find a reduced consumption. 

The fleet for the coming year will be distributed about as follows : North and South Atlantic, 50 vessels ; Indian 
Ocean, 17 vessels; Pacific Ocean, 31 vessels; Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet, 3 vessels; North Pacific, 27 vessels. 

The demand for sperm oil was good during the year. The import exceeded but very little the highest estimate, 
and by reference to the comparative statement of consumption of oils, it will be seen that the supply was 53,300 barrels, 
against 59,700 barrels in 1872, and that the home consumption was equal to that of the preceding year, while the 
export fell off about 8,000 barrels, a little more than the reported decrease in consumption of this kind of oil in the 
United Kingdom. The price opened at $1.50 and advanced to $1.57 in February, fluctuated between $1.52 and $1.55 
until May, after which it gradually declined until June, when it touched $1.40, and remained steady until the middle 
of August, when it advanced to $1.45 $1.50, remaining at these figures until October 1, when, under the pressure of the 
panic, a small parcel of ordinary oil was sold at $1.31, but upon the return of an easier money market in November sales 
were made at $1.39 <2> $1.42, and in December at $1.50, with a good demand and closing firm at this price. 

The demand for whale oil seems to be affected by the large supply of other cheap oils, such as menhaden, cotton- 
seed, and petroleum which is unprecedeutedly low. The home consumption was about 9,000 barrels less thau in 1872, 
while the average price was lower. There has been very little life to the market, the cheap oils, such as humpback 
and South Sea, seem to bo preferred at the lower prices which they can be bought at, Arctic of good quality being 
neglected in consequence, the rule seeming to be that the poorest oil is sought at'trr In-causo of the low prices. A 
demand sprung up at the close of the year for the cheaper oils, humpback, South Sea, and coast for export, 50 cents 
per gallon being paid for all qualities, in or out of bond, and the same price was offered for the poorest Arctic oil, but 
no sales were made. The year opened at 68 cents for Arctic and cents tor humpback, the market being steady 
until June, when 63 cents per gallon was the quoted pric for Arctic, at about which the market ruled the rest of the 
year. The price for humpback ranged from 55 < 60 cents per gallon during the year for manufacturing. The stock of 
this kind of oil on hand January 1, 1874, was about 2,000 barrels. The export the past year was 2,150 barrels, against 
1,500 in 1872. 

Whalebone opened at $1.15, currency, with a good demand, which continued into February and March, with a 
slight reduction to $1. 10, currency, ruling at this price until May, when the demand was good at $1.08 @ $1.12, currency, 
for Aetic, and 95 cents for South Sea. During the summer months the demand was good, sales reaching in August 
51,000 pounds, when the price advanced from $1.08 to $1.20, currency; for the remainder of the year the demand was 
light, and prices receded to $1.10, currency, for old, and $1 for new Arctic. The home consumption was very good, 
reaching 155,000 pounds, against 74,500 pounds the previous year. The Scotch whalers did very well taking bone the 
last season, and the entire import has been sold, showing the trade in this article in England and on the continent to 
be in a healthy condition. About 25,000 pounds of new unculled bone, including 10,000 pounds Japan Sea bone, was 
sold in San Francisco at 87^ cents, gold, per pound for export. 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1874. 

Review of the whale fishery for 1874. Although the past year has not been one of large profits to our whalemen, we 
are able to state to-day that the business wears a more cheerful aspect, with a promise of a brighter future. 

The number of profitable voyages arriving was not greater than during the previous year, but, with better prices 
prevailing, a more hopeful feeling lias been engendered. 

The decrease of the fleet (about 3,400 tons during the year) is gradually resulting in a better average catch, 
experience showing that any decided increase in the number of vessels engaged in the business must eventually 
bring about lower prices and small average catches. 

Of the twenty-five vessels in the port of New Bedford January 1, 1874. three were sold, fourteen fitted for whal- 
ing, and eight still remain in port, of which five are for sale. Of the seven at New London January 1, 1874, four 
have been sold for whalers and three are still in port. Of the nineteen whaleis now in this port thirteen will prob- 
ably be fitted before the close of spring, and of the thirty-five vessels to arrive in 1875 nearly all will be sent to sea 
again. 

The absence of any unusual features in the business is noticeable. There have been but few losses at sea, and 
vessels in the Arctic regions have been quite free from disasters. 

Our present fleet is 103 vessels, agaiust 171 a year ago, 203 in 1873, and 218 in 1872, and the number at sea January 
1, 1875, was 119 vessels, against 123 a year ago and 155 in 1873. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 157 

The fleet in the Arctic Ocean the past summer met with good success during the latter part of the season, fifteen 
ships taking an aggregate of 17,480 barrels of oil and 189,500 pounds of bone, being an average of 1,165 barrels of 
oil and 12,033 pounds of bone, about double that of the previous year. Three vessels on Kodiak and in Bristol Bay 
took '.2,625 barrels of oil, an average of about 875 barrels each, and 7,667 pounds of bone. 

The (Vhotsk Sra whaling was a failure, nine vessels taking unitedly but 2,805 barrels of oil and 34,600 pounds of 
bone', the whales, lonnerly plenty in that locality, apparently having been exterminated or gone to other parts. 
Although occasionally a season iu the Arctic Ocean is partly a failure, judging from the present and past it would seem 
reasonable that a moderate number of ships could continue to prosecute their voyages in that ocean for many years to 
come, and considering the advancing price of the products obtained, particularly of whalebone, we do not believe our 
merchants will allow this branch of our business, once so remunerative, to be entirely given up. 

Might whaling on Desolation and the Crozottes has been neglected during the past year, and the number of ves- 
sels in Cumberland Inlet and Hudson Bay has been very small, with a moderate catch. 

Iluitipb.-icking has been prosecuted on the coast of South America, in Panama Bay, about the islands of the South 
Pacific Ocean, and on the coast of Africa, with about the usual success. 

Sperm whaling has made rather a better exhibit than for two or three years previous, although good catches 
have been confined rather to certain localities, than general throughout the different oceans. The best account came 
to us from the North Atlantic, where a number of vessels took large fares, while many others on the same or adjacent 
grounds were not fortunate in finding whales, the distribution of catches being quite unequal. On the west coast of 
South America and the oil-shore ground whales seem plentier again and vessels have done well. In the South 
Atlantic and in the Indian Ocean the fleet have met with average success, while on New Holland and the grounds iu 
that vicinity whales have been unusually scarce. New Zealand has yielded but poorly during the past year, and 
but few vessels in that locality are doing well, which leads us to remark that at present there appear to be no whal- 
ing grounds that will support a large fleet for any great length of time; and in this respect our errors in the past 
should be guides for our future. 

The fleet during the coming year will be distributed nearly as follows : North and South Atlantic, 68 vessels ; 
Indian Ocean, 17 vessels; Pacific Ocean and New Zealand, 33 vessels; Cumberland Inlet and Hudson Bay, 4 vessels; 
North Pacific, 18 vessels. 

The demand for oil and whalebone has continued good throughout the year, the markets having been without 
marked fluctuations, and with prices slowly but steadily advancing. With an increased importation of sperm oil 
during the coming year it would be natural to look for a decrease in price, but whale oil, considering the present 
prospects of lard and other oils, seems quite low ; while whalebone, with a constantly reduced importation, ought to 
command good figures. 

The price of sperm oil January 1, 1874, was $1.50, having been depressed by the recent panic. It rapidly recovered, 
however, and in a few weeks advanced to $1.67^ (the highest prices for the year usually prevailing about that time), 
dropping to .$1.60 in April, continuing to decline till June, when it reached $1.50. During the remainder of the year 
its course was gradually upward, standing at $1.57 in August, $1.6'2J in October, and closing the year at $1.70, the 
highest price reached since the mouth of October, 1869, a period of more than five years. 

Whale oil opened the year at 61 cents for Arctic, slightly declining during the summer months, and closed the 
year at li?^ cents, at which price it would be difficult to purchase. 

Humpback and South Sea oil during the year have varied from 54 @ 64 cents, closing at the latter figure. 

Whalebone opened at $1 $1.10, continued firm throughout the year, and advanced during the fall months to 
f 1.25, which price is still maintained. 

It will be seen by our last annual review that our estimate of importations for 1874 approximated to the result, 
except in the quantity of whalebone, caused by shipments overland during the month of December (about 85,000 
pounds), and received here in advance of the usual time. 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1875. 

7iVnric of the whale fishery for 1875. The year just closed has been quite free from disasters to the fleet at sea, and 
no great changes have taken place in the business. Gains and losses have been about equally divided, the arrivals at 
this port during the year showing eighteen voyages that were fairly profitable and sixteen that resulted in quite a 
large average loss, but with a revival of business throughout the country we anticipate better results in the future. 

Of the eighteen vessels iu port at New Bedford January 1, 1875, sixteen have beeu fitted for whaling and two 
are now in port. Of the ten whalers now in this port eight will probably be fitted during the season, and of the 
t wenty-live vessels to arrive here this year nearly all will go to sea again. Some vessels may possibly he added to the 
licet from the merchant service; but as such ventures are attended with so heavy an outlay for repairs, alterations, 
and whaling inventories, it is not probable that many such additions will be made. 

The present whaling fleet is 169 vessels, against 163 January 1, 1875, 171 iu 1874, and 203 in 1873, and the number 
at sea January 1, 187G, was 137 vessels, against 119 a year ago, and 123 in 1874. Any further increase in the fleet must 
necessarily result iu lower prices for oil. 

Right whaling makes a good exhibit for the year, vessels in the Arctic Ocean having been very successful, thirteen 
vessels taking 18,000 barrels whale and walrus oil and 180,030 pounds whalebone, an average of 1,38-1 barrels oil 
and 13,848 pounds of whalebone. Three vessels on Kodiak and Bristol Bay took 3,980 barrels whale oil and 45,430 
pounds whalebone, thus making for the fleet an average of 1,374 barrels whale and walrus oil and 14,091 pounds of 
e, the lar:j> ;e oi'anv season since the j 



158 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

As we stated in our review last year, we do not believe Arctic whaling will be given up, and certainly the whales 
have never been plentier on these grounds (ban during the past season. The fleet have all come out safely, except 
the bark Desmond, which is supposed to have been obliged to winter there. 

A few vessels in Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet have had fair success, while right whaling in the southern 
oceans has been neglected. Humpbacking has been very successful on the coast of South America, while in other 
in other localities the catches have been m derate. 

Sperm whaling has been only moderately successful, there having been but few large catches the past year. 
Vessels have done best on Chili aud the off-shore ground, while elsewhere the average has been moderate. A sum- 
mary is as follows: On Chili and off shore, seventeen vessels cruised, taking 7,010 barrels sperm, an average of 412 
barrels ; on New Zealand, seventeen vessels took 6,095 barrels, making an average to each of 358 barrels; in the Indian 
Ocean and on New Holland there were thirteen vessels, taking 4,335 barrels, an average of 333 barrels, and in the 
North and South Atlantic Oceans, eighty-seven vessels with a catch of 19,405 barrels, averaging 223 barrels, the last 
named being for an average period of about ten months, as many of the fleet winter in port. With any increase of the 
fleet a smaller average catch may be looked for, and it will be already seen by reference to our columns that the 
number of vessels at sea which have obtained 1,000 barrels or more of sperm oil is smaller than for many years. 

The distribution of the whaling fleet for the present year wo estimate as follows: North and South Atlantic. 
77 vessels; Indian Ocean and New Holland, 15 vessels; New Zealand, 13 vessels; Pacific coast aud off-shore ground, 
23 vessels ; North Pacific, 18 vessels ; Cumberland Inlet, 4 vessels. 

The number of vessels estimated to arrive at this port the coming year is twenty-five, of which apparently thirteen 
will be good voyages, while twelve will show a loss, the net results being much the same as for the past few years. 

The demand for oils and bone has been fair throughout the year past. Sperm oil opened in January at $1.70, 
with a very small stock on hand, and was held at $1.80 $1.85 in March, and at $1.90 in April. Few sales could be 
effected at these figures, and the price gradually declined to $1.4? $1.50 in midsummer, remaining at about these 
figures until December, when it advanced to $1.60, closing the year at that price, at which, however, there were more 
sellers than buyers. Whale oil opened the year at 67* cents per gallon for Arctic, advancing to 70 cents in January, 
declining to 63 65 cents in May and June, and in September advancing again to 70 cents, at which price it con- 
tinued to the close of the year. Humpback and South Sea oils have continued at 60 65 cents through the year, 
with little variation. Whalebone opened at about $1.20 per pound for Arctic, and continued firm during the year, 
advancing in the fall months, and finally closing at $1.30. 

By reference to our last year's review it will be seen that onr estimate of importations are not far from the result, 
except in whalebone, caused by shipments overland in advance of the usual time. Onr figures are made after careful 
consideration, and we are not swayed by the interests of either importer or purchaser. 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1876. 

Review of the whale fishery for 1876. During the year but few disasters were reported among whalemen until late 
in the fall, when news reached us of the destruction of a number of the Arctic fleet, and the probable loss of many 
lives, which cast a cloud of sadness over the community. 

Tbe success of the business the past year has been fair, the arrivals at this port showing nineteen profitable voy- 
ages, while fourteen resulted in a loss, this being fully up to the average of late years. 

The building of ships for the whaling service marks a new era in the business, and is an encouraging feature. 
We welcome them as adding to the character of the fleet, which has suffered of late by the adding of worn-out mer- 
chant vessels which obtain insurance at the same rates as new ships just from the stocks. 

The present whaling fleet, after deducting the recent losses in the Arctic Ocean, is 172 vessels, against 169 
January 1, 1876, 163 in 1875, and the number at sea January 1, 1877, was 146 vessels, against 137 a year ago, and 119 
in 1875. Five barks are being built for the business, aud others will follow, while from the merchant service there 
is a prospect of adding a number of vessels, thus making the fleet larger than it has been for years. Should the catch 
be proportionate to the number of vessels in the business, the importation of oil would be in excess of the demand, 
but all our past experience has shown that, with an increase of the fleet, many of the whaling grounds are over- 
crowded, and the result is a smaller average to each. 

The Arctic Ocean has again been a scene of disaster. Of a fleet of twenty vessels, twelve were lost or abandoned 
in the ice, and while the masters with most of the officers and crews were enabled to escape, more than fifty men were 
left behind who were unequal to the exertion necessary to save their lives. But the sad and fatal result of pushing 
too far north will, we hope, be a lesson to our whalemen in future not to venture where there seems hardly a chance 
of escape when opposing circumstances arise. 

The average catch of the vessels not lost,, including two on Kodiak and Bristol Bay, was 656 barrels oil aud 4,225 
pounds whalebone, aggregating to eight vessels 5,250 barrels oil and 33,800 pounds of Done. A few vessels cruised in 
Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet with fair results. Humpbackiug has been neglected the past year, except on the 
African coast, where the catches were unusually good. 

In sperm whaling the success has been varied, vessels having been fortunate in the North Atlantic, on Chili a.nd 
the off-shore ground, while in other quarters the catch has been moderate or quite small. In the North Atlantic 
upwards of 13,000 barrels of sperm oil were taken, a larger yield than for many years. Whales were plenty, and 
many vessels took large fares. On Chili aud the off-shore ground the fleet were very successful, nearly every one 
getting an uuu.sual calch, \vliilc on \e\v Zealand the results have been moderate. On the River Plate a few vessels 
did very well, but the majority took but lit lie oil, aud on the Congo River, with two or three exceptions, the fleet 



TIIE WHALE FISHERY. 159 

has doue poorly, it being a small ground and overcrowded with vessels. In the Indian Ocean we cannot report 
anything better, there being too largo a floet, and consequently tbo catch lias been very small. There is a growing 
tendency of late years for ships to congregate on small grounds, in order to look for the oil which somebody caught 
the previous year, and a persistenee in I his course ruins our best whaling opportunities. The success of the vessels 
in the Pacific Ocean is largely due to their character and appointments. They are the crack ships of the fleet, have 
in m many years in the service, ami cnu>r,[uciitly have vastly superior opportunities for being well commanded, 
officered, and manned. 

For the coming year the whaling Meet will lie distributed about as follows: North Atlantic, 80 vessels; Congo 
Kiver and coast of Africa, 20 vessels; Indian Ocean, 10 vessels; Xe\v Zealand, !."> vessels; Chili and off shore, 20 
vessels; Sooloo Sea, :: vessels ; North Pacific, 20 vessels; Cumberland Inlet and Hudson Bay, 5 vessels. 

The number of vessels expected to arrive at this port the coming year is twenty-two, of which nine will appar- 
ently make good voyages. 

Oil and bone have been in moderate demand. Sperm oil opened the year at $1.60, declined to $1.4-2 in April, $1.30 
in May, $1.25 in the summer mouths, and in the fall advanced to $1.40 per gallon, which was maintained to the close 
of the year. Whale oil opened at 70 cents, declined to 58 cents in the summer and fall months, and in October ad- 
vanced to 70 cents, at which price the year closed. Humpback and South Sea oils have corresponded to the price of 
whale, selling generally at 5 cents less per gallon. Whalebone, from $1.30 in January, advanced to $1.150 in February, 
and $2 in March, at about which figure it continued till news reached us in October of the loss of the Arctic fleet, 
when it advanced to $-2.50 and later to $3.50 per pound, at which price the year closed. 

TRADE RKVIEW FOR 1877. 

Rerieio of the while fishery for 1877. The past year has been free from especial disasters, and there have been no 
changes in the business worthy of note, except the continued additions made to the fleet. 

Ship building has revived, ami twelve whalers were built during the year, it being now apparent that at the 
present prices new vessels can be built cheaper than merchantmen can be altered into whale ships. 

The present whaling fleet is one hundred and eighty-seven vessels, against one hundred and seventy-two January 
1, 1H77, one hundred and sixty-nine in 1876, and one hundred and sixty three in 1875 ; but, although the increase is 
mostly in the sperm-whale fleet, the catch of the past year is not greater than for 1870, on account of some of the 
grounds being overcrowded with vessels. The present tendency being to cruise on those grounds nearest home, so 
that the catchings may bo shipped at the earliest moment, we find in the North and Smith Atlantic Oceans a fleet of 
one hundred vessels, while the more fruitful grounds of the Pacific Ocean, Japan, New Zealand, and Sooloo Sea are 
almost neglected. The constant shipments of sperm oil have been largely instrumental in reducing the price to the 
present, figures, which are the lowest reached for many years, and are innch below the cost of catching oil, excepting 
the vessels that are very fortunate. 

The frequenting of ports in order to ship oil is the cause of a large part of the expenses to which whaling voyages 
are subject, and occasions the loss of officers and crews. In view of these facts and the low prices of sperm oil now 
ruling, we understand several of our merchants have advised their vessels to retain their oil on board when possible, 
and no doubt this example will bo followed by others. 

The North Pacific whaling fleet was very successful the past season. The catch was small until September, when 
whales were found plenty, and large fares were taken. Three vessels were lost, and sixteen vessels came out with an 
average of 1,065 barrels of oil and 8,550 pounds of whalebone. Arctic whaling is now safer, because of caution bor- 
rowed from the experience of the past, and we trust it will be long before we record any unusual losses in that ocean. 

In Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet but few vessels have cruised. In the South Atlantic many sperm whalers, 
on account of the low price of sperm oil, ha\c tried right whaling with good success, the value of the whalebone 
being the chief incentive. About a dozen vessels have cruised for humpback oil, with good success, their total catch 
being 5,500 barrels, 

In sperm whaling the results were varied, the catch in the North Atlantic Ocean being 13,500 barrels by eighty- 
two vessels, the largest fare taken for many years. The vessels that were well pointed were generally successful, but 
the presence of so large a fleet in one locality will result soon in smaller catches, and the experience of ten years ago 
is likely to be repeated. 

The fleet on Chili, the off-shore ground, New Zealand, and in the Sooloo Sea have taken good catches. In the 
South Atlantic vessels have had fair success, the fleet being rather large, and in the Indian Ocean, with too large a 
licet, but little oil has been taken. At the present time not a vessel is cruising in the Western Pacific Ocean and 
Sooloo S,-a, and those excellent grounds bid fair to be entirely neglected. Large catches of sperm oil are becoming 
infrequent, aud it is noticeable that during the past year no vessel has obtained 1,000 barrels, while in previous 
v-ars several vessels have generally exceeded that quantity. 

Oils aud bone have been in fair demand throughout the year. Sperm oil opened in January at $1.40 per gallon, 
declined to $1.31 in February, $1.28 in March, $1.13 in June, $1.12 in August, $1.10 in November, and to $1.03 in 
December, closing the year at $1.03J, the lowest, prices that have ruled for mure than twenty years. Arctic whale oil, 
from Tu cents in January, gradually declined to 60 cents in July, at which price it closed the year. Humpback and 
South Sea oils have ruled at from 5 to 10 cents per gallon less than Arct ic. 

Arctic, whalebone opened the year at s;!..">o per pound, declining to $>.:,(! in August, and to about 2 in October, 
"losing tli, il.oiit the latter figure. South S, .1 halobone lias ~.,ld at from $1.25 to $1.70 per pound. 



160 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1878. 

J/erieif of the whale fisher;/ for 1878. The result of the year's business is far from being satisfactory, the catche* of 
the fleet having been moderate aud the prices of oil low. Of the vessels arriving during the year a majority had taken 
too small a quantity of oil to reimburse their cost even at higher prices, aud those which brought good voyages netted 
but little profit to their owners. The number of disasters to the fleet has not been large, good weather having gen- 
erally prevailed except iu the North Atlantic Ocean, where, during the past few months, storms have been unusually 
severe. The new vessels added recently have improved the general character and average quality of whale ships, 
but it is to be regretted that so many vessels in an unseaworthy condition are sent out upon whaling voyages. 

The whaling fleet at present numbers one hundred and eighty-six vessels, against one hundred and eighty-seven 
a year ago, aud one hundred and seventy-two in 1877. The increase during the past four years has resulted iu losses 
to those engaged in the business, and the average catch on the different grounds has been sensibly diminished, while, 
to add to the existing depression, there has seemed to be almost a rivalry as to whom shall oftenest ship home their 
oil, aud thus assist in reducing prices already too low. 

The results of sperm whaling have not been encouraging. With too largo a fleet on nearly all the grounds, catches 
have everywhere been small, with the exception of a few good fares in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic, and 
off Patagonia on either side of Cape Horn. The total amount of the catch reported during the year is several thou- 
sand barrels less than during 1877, and it is evident that with the continued scarcity of whales there must be a large 
reduction in the fleet to make the business profitable. 

In right whaling, although the amount of oil and bone taken was not large, the result has been better on account 
of the unprecedented high price of whalebone. The Arctic Ocean fleet lost but one vessel, and averaged 856 barrels 
of oil and 7,3*2 pounds of whalebone. Whales were not abundant, but, considering the varied character of the differ- 
ent seasous, it may be presumed that, with occasional fortunate years, whaling in that ocean will continue to be 
profitable. South Sea right whaling is attracting increased attention, and there is no reason why the Antarctic 
grounds should not be compelled to disgorge their valuable stores of whalebone. We expect during the next decade 
to see profitable whaling grounds brought to light in the high latitudes of the south, and success reward those who 
are pioneers in the enterprise. A number of whalers are wintering iu Hudson Bay aud Cumberland Inlet, several 
of which cruised off Greenland for right whales during the summer, but without success. No doubt whales will yet 
be taken in great numbers around Spitsbergen and Nova Zernbla, where the English and Dutch ships took such large 
quantities of oil and bone during the early part of the present century, and the field remains open for those who will 
assume the risk. Many vessels have been humpbacking daring the year on account of the unusually low price of 
sperm oil, aud have met with fair success. 

We are pleased to note an increased traffic between New Bedford aud the Azores, but regret to learn of greater 
stringency at those islands in the enforcement of tobacco regulations. When ships are detected in smuggling it is 
but just they should pay the peualty attached, but it seems a relic of by-gone ages to subject inoffensive vessels to a 
rigid search for tobacco, and to impose heavy fines on such as are found with small quantities in the possession of the 
crew, for which the master cannot bo accountable. If such arbitary measures are persisted in, our whalemen will 
seek other ports for the transshipment of their oil aud the recruiting of their vessels. 

There has been no great change in the consumption of oil, the usual quantities having been consumed in this 
country and in Europe. In San Francisco there appears to be an increased demand, and all the importations through 
that port, both sperm and whale, find a ready sale. 

The demand for sperm oil and whalebone has been good throughout the year, while whale oil seems to be 
neglected. 

Sperm oil opened in January at $1.03J per gallon, declined to 94 cents in April, 86 cents in June, advanced to 90 
cents in July, and 92 cents in August, declined to 86 cents in September, 82 cents in October, and 80 cents in Novem- 
ber, and advanced to 85 cents in December, closing the year with 87 cents offered, with no sellers under 90 cents. The 
price touched in November, viz, 80 cents, was the lowest known for thirty-five years. 

Arctic whale oil opened the year at 60 cents, gradually declining to 39 cents at the close. South Sea and hump- 
back oils have been quoted generally at about 5 cents per gallon less than Arctic. 

The price for whalebone is without precedent. Opening the year at about $2 per pound for Arctic, it declined 
to $1.65 in February, from which figure it steadily advanced, closing in December at $3.25. South Sea whalebone has 
commanded about two-thirds the price of Arctic. 

Referring to our estimate of imports for 1878, it will be seen, especially in sperm oil, that our calculations were 
correct, the predictions of dealers and correspondents in neighboring cities to the contrary notwithstanding. We 
find it more difficult than usual to calculate the importation for 1879, as the expressed determination of many of our 
merchants to retain sperm and whale oil on board their vessels, because of the low price at home, may possibly result 
in reducing the importation below our estimates. At the close of 1878 the quantity of sperm oil landed at the Azores 
and in transit was about the same as a year ago, viz, nearly 4,000 barrels. The import of whale oil for 1879 will be 
lowei' than in any previous year, on account of the sale at San Francisco of about one-half of the catch of the Arctic 
fleet. 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1879. 

Review of the whale fishery for 1879. The past year has not been marked with any unusual features, except the 
low prices of oil that have prevailed. More than the ordinary number of disasters has occurred, bnt no serious 
calamity has overtaken any special pori ion of tin- fleet. Of the arrivals, several have taken good cargoes of oil, bn$ 
the majority have, done poorly. 



THE W I TALK FISHERY. 161 

The continued depression in whaling interests has at length been checked by UK- retirement of a large number of 

\ essels, now lying at, our wharves, assist ed Ivy I hi' general revival of business throughout the country, and it is possi- 
1'lc that \\ ith a. nioilorato number of vessels engaged whaling may again become fairly profitable. 

The business, however, is siilijeel. to many serious drawbacks, some of whieh, if mil, corrected, liid fair In impair 
its success. C'hief among these are the inlliieiiees al those ports where officers ;l nd crews arc constantly leaving ves- 
sels, causing a largo expense in replacing them, and the, frequency with which officers arc so nl, out to join ships during 
their voyages indicates thai tin 1 , control of a whaleship is only to a limited extent in the hands of its owners. Bj 
united action among our merchants it is possible 10 check these disorders, and protect themselves against the' losses 
occasioned by wholesale desertion from whaling vessels, which is too often fostered by those who are in duty bound 
to act otherwise. San Francisco being a port of discharge, tho above would not, apply to the Arctic whalers visiting 
I hat port. 

The present whaling licet consists of one hundred and seventy-eight, vessels, against one hundred and eighty-six a, 
year ago, one hundred and eighty-seven in 1878, and one hundred and seventy-two in 1877, showing a, considerable 
net increase during the past few years. 

Sperm whaling has not been attended with great success, the whales being scarce on nearly every ground, owing 
to the size of the fleet. No very largo catches have been obtained, the best fares, perhaps, having been taken in the 
South Atlantic, oft' the coast of Africa. 

Eight \\haling has yielded better results, the Arctic Heel averaging 951 barn-Is of oil and 1 1,000 pounds of whale- 
bone, the best exhibit for many years. One vessel was lost, and two others are supposed to be frozen in the ice. 
Even should these' vessels be lost no apprehensions are felt for the safety of those on board, as they are commanded 
by experienced Arctic navigators, who are equal to almost any emergency, and the near presence of the exploring 
steamer .leannette is an additional safeguard. In the South Atlantic the fleet met with fair success, as did also some 
of the vessels in Hudson Bay and that, vicinity. Humpbackiiig has been followed with average success, and is at 
present, in better favor on account of the high price of the oil. The price of whalebone has stimulated both northern 
ami southern right whaling, of which many vessels have availed themselves to their advantage during the continued 
scarcity of sperm whale.s. 

The export of sperm oil has fallen off (be past year, principally owing- to the largo purchases the previous year, 
1-T'J opening in England with a stock of 20,000 barrels and about 7,000 barrels then being in transit. Of the 35,000 
barrels estimated to arrive the coming year, it, is probable the greater portion will be needed for home consumption. 
Dining the fall, when the price remained at 71 cents per gallon, our manufacturers purchased freely, it being very 
evident that it must advance in sympathy with other merchandise, and they were rewarded for their enterprise by 
largely increased siles to consumers at, better rales. 

Sperm oil opened the year at ( ,)0 cents per gallon, advanced to 94 cents in February, and from that time gradually 
declined to 70 cents in September, remaining at those figures during that month and through October, advancing in 
November to si and closed the year with oilers at an advance on the latter figure, holders, however, asking from $1.05 
to si. 10. Present prospects point to a gradual advance during the year, and as it has been proved that the oil cannot 
be produced at a l"ss cost than SI. _';"> per gallon, owing to the heavy advance in the cost of oullits, owners of vessels 
arriving will not incline to send them to sea again unless they are confident a paying price can be obtained. 

The present stock, consisting of about Hi, 000 barrels, a portion of which is of inferior quality and unsuitable for 
export, is probably sufficient to supply the demand until the new oil commences arriving in May, being at a period 
rather later than usual. 

Arctic whale oil opened the year at 38 to 40 cents per gallon, at which figures it remained until October, when a 
gradual advance in oils having taken place, quotations gradually rose to f>5 (iO cents at the close of the year, there 
being uo stock on hand except some lots that have remained on our wharves many years. 

South Sea and humpback oil opened in January at, !!5 cents per gallon, declined to 32 cents in June, gradually 
rose to 40 cents in October, to 50 cents in November, and 59 cents iu December, closing the year at the latter figure, 
a. most gratifying fact after the dcpressii f the last two years. 

Arctic whalebone from |3.25 per pound in January, declined to ,s,', in ilareh, f-J.f>0 in June, |2 in .September, and 
to 1.90 in November, advancing iu December to s-J.'25, at which price 1 purchases could not be effected at tho close of 
the year. South Sea whalebone from about $2.50 per pound in January , declined to si .70 in June, $1.50 in September, 
and then advanced, closing the year with sales at 1.110 per pound. 

Referring to our estimate of imports for the past year, our calculations wen- correct as regards sperm and whale 
oil. The importation of whale-bone slightly exceeds our limit, it being difficult to foresee the success of the Arctic 
fleet. 

TRADE REVIMW FOU 1880. 

Hi-rii'ir of lh<- whale Jixlifri/ j'"r l^~o. The year I860 will be long remembered as a remarkable period in tho business 
enterprises of i he country, ami although the wave of prosperity that has swept over the United States has not 
placed whaling interests in a profitable position, we cherish the hope they may yet be benefited. 

The business has been, to a certain extent, changed during the past two or three years by the constant retirement 
of vessels, of which twenty-eight now lie at our wharves and a few others have been sold. Of the number to arrive 
the present, year many will be rclircd, and the fleet bids fair to be much reduced. Right whaling is now the order 
of the day, as its prospects appear better than catching of sperm oil a! present prices, and if the sperm whales are 
neglected for a time, u h, knows but that we shall find them after a while as abundant as a few years since. 

SEC. v, VOL. ii 11 



102 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Largo lares of wbale oil are more easily taken than of sperm, and the business is of a more lively and exciting 
nature, while the usual high price of whalebone makes it more profitable. May success attend the efforts of the many 
vessels who are to follow t bat branch of the fishery during the present and coming years! 

Our present licet numbers 177 vessels at sea and in port, against 178 last year, Iftj in lr<?9, and 1*7 in 1878. 

Sperm whaling lias m>t been a success, vessels in the North Atlantic making a fair average, and those on liiver 
1'late and Tristan doing poorly, \vbile on the coast of Africa catches were good, and some vessels took large fares. 
On New Zealand the fleet met with poor success, excepting one vessel, and on Cbili .sperm whales were not so abun- 
dant as formerly. Near Gallipagos Island and vicinity two vessels did well, and the Indian Ocean and New Holland 
were entirely neglected. Tbe continued low price for sperm oil and the scarcity of whales have discouraged many 
who have long followed this branch, and the success of right whalers induces them to change to that which appears 
more remunerative. 

Eight whaling has yielded good results. In the Arctic Ocean whales were very abundant, and the quantities ol 1 
oil taken were limited by the size of Hie vessels and the number of casks, the fleet averaging ],400 barrels of oil and 
22,000 pounds of whalebone, being tbe handsomest return for many years. No traces were found of the two whalers 
missing the year previous. In the different southern oceans right whaling was prosecuted by a large number of ves- 
sels with varying success, and during the summer large catches of humpback were made on the coasts of South 
America and Africa, the high juice compared with other oils stimulating many in that direction. 

Sperm oil opened the year at. $1 per gallon, advanced to $1.07 in March, declined to 1.02-$ in May, and to 87 
cents iii July ; advanced to 90 cents in August, to 95 cents in September, and to 9-< cents in October, closing the year 
at, the latter figure. Tbe stock of crude oil in hands of importers, manufacturers, and others, both in Europe and this 
country, is much less than at this time last year. The quantity afloat is 4.. Mill barrels less. 

Tbe consumption of sperm oil has been fully equal to that of the past few years, and possibly somewhat increased, 
ami in Europe it is expected the figures when received will show that the consumption there was nearly if not quite 
up to the average of previous years. 

Arctic whale oil opened the year at 60 cents per gallon, declined to 50 cents in April, and to 46 cents in May, 
advanced to fi5 cents in August, and declined to 50 cents at the close of the year. South Sea and humpback oils have 
sold at from 2 to 3 cents less per gallon than Arctic. 

Arctic whalebone was at $2.25 per pound in January, $2 in May, and $2.30 in June, advanced further to $2.50 in 
Angust, but declined in November to $1.30, closing the year at that figure, the heavy catch weakening the market. 
The price of South Sea whalebone has ruled at about 25 cents per pound less than Arctic. 

TRADE REVIEW, 1858 TO 1881. 

The Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, of November 23, 1881, gives the following interesting review 
of the whale fishery in an article entitled "Whale and sperm oils": 

The appearance of large bodies of whales in the Atlantic along the United States coast, during the summer and 
up to a very recent date has suggested the possibility of resuming operations on tbe ground abandoned years ago. The 
reason, perhaps, that the presence of those whales has not attracted more attention is tbat they belong to the hump- 
back [mostly finback] species, which produce no whalebone, and therefore aie not a prolitable catch except in times 
of high prices. The only demount rat ions tbat have been made against them so far liase been the shooting of a few in 
Provincetown Harbor, Massachusetts, and the fitting out of a schooner from that port. This vessel cruised along tbe 
eoast of Maine during the summer and took about 100 or 150 barrels humpback oil. This result was not sufficiently 
alluring to induce others to follow the example of the owners of the schooner, though we- believe a menhaden steamer 
did cruise in tbe neighborhood of Block Island for a time without making a haul. The recent appearance of a large 
school of sperm whales in ihc Middle Atlantic, however, suggests the idea that the whaling industry might be profit- 
ably revived in these waters at no distant day. There are many considerations to be taken into account, before such 
a venture could be made, the most important of which are the prices that can be obtained for the oil. Since the time 
when whale and sperm oils began to be supplanted by cheaper illurninat ing and lubricating oils, the whale fisheries 
have been, naturally, on the decrease, as the result of competition has been to force prices down to a point barely 
covering the cost of catching. The cost of catching sperm oil largely depends, of course, upon the price of labor at 
the port where the vessel is fitted out and the cost of such fitting out, an important article of which is the provision, 
which, for a long voyage, such as is now made, is composed largely of salt pork, beef, and canned goods. The lowest 
prices at which sperm oil can now lie laid down in New Bedford is variously estimated at 90 to 95 cents per gallon, 
which at the best prices at present obtainable for export or home consumption leaves a very small margin of profit to 
I lie whalemen. The. profits in right-whale oil fishing are largely dependent upon a freak of fashion. At tirst sight 
such a statement might seem somewhat ludicrous to the ordinary reader, but nevertheless the change in the mode of 
female attire plays an important part in the market rates of whale oil. If it is the fashion to wear much whalebone 
in articles of dress, then the demand for that article becomes of such importance that the whale-catcher derives a 
sufficient profit from its sale to render the price of oil a matter of secondary importance. But it would require an 
enormous demand for whalebone to do away with the necessity of obtaining something for the oil, and although the 
i.isbiou in dress for a number of sears past has required the annual use of immense, quantities of whalebone, still this 
has not been sufficient to keep t he s\ haling industry from going into a decline, because a sufficient return could not be 
had for the oil. As sperm oil has to depend upon its own merits, the sperm whale. yielding no other valuable product , 
its competition with other oils has seriously detracted from its importance, and at the same time reduced the profits 
of the industry to a point, as we said above, a, little niorp than half tbe cost of catching. * 



Till'] WHALE FISHERY. 1(53 

Tlir annual report ot" the New York Chamber of Commerce for 1838, in commenting upon the condition of the 
\\ li:ilr fisheries during that year, says: 

prospects for the coming year arc far from flattering, but upon the whole, perhaps not less encouraging than 
:ii the commencement of the year thai has now passed. There will, from present appearances, be a further diminu- 
tion nl' vessels employed in the fleet, and with a diminished competition the business may again regain a healthy 
state. Oilier fields of enterprise now opened and opening present better opportunities for investment than are now 
utl'ered ill the \\ hale fishery." 

li \\asalniut this lime that pet i oleum oils for illuminating and lubricating purposes wore beginning to attract 
attention, but they had not yet attained much commercial importance. The same authority quoted above, in its 
i< \ ie\v ot (ho industry for the year 1861, says: 

' The average price of whale oil has been something more than 5 cents per gallon less than the year 1860. This 
has been owing to the introduction of petroleum and kerosene oils, which have in a great measure taken the place of 
\\ hale oil for illuminating purposes." 

The first of hydrocarbon Inbricatiugoils was produced at Mecca, Ohio. It is undoubtedly the best oil of its class 
ever put on the mark. -t ; but, unfortunately, it did not last, and it is now almost forgotten. Small quantities of it are 
still produced by sand pumps, and tii id a read} sale at I he wells at $40 per barrel. It was a natural oil, and when it first 
Appeared on the market was of about v!fi gravity. In 1866 or 1868, West Virginia natural oils first began to attract 
ihe attention of the. oil trade. They were obtained mostly from shallow wells and were from 27 to 28 gravity. Their 
appearance on the market had a very serious effect on the sale of whale oil, for the railroad companies who had pre- 
viously taken the latter for lubricating purposes, owing to the high cost of sperm oil, readily took the mineral oil at 
good prices, one road paying as high as 1 per gallon for it. The result was that whale oil steadily declined from 
si -.'.", per gallon to about 70 cents, and it has never since (with the exception of a short time in 1869) got beyond that 
point. The West Virginia oils have deteriorated somewhat since then, and prices are, of course, much lower. The 
shallow wells are nearly all exhausted, and the oils now produced run from 33 to 40 gravity, though a small percent- 
age of oil of a specific gravity as heavy as 29 degrees is still obtained. From the time of the introduction of the hydro- 
carbon oils.the importance of the products of the whale has steadily declined, and thus one of the largest industries of 
the United States has sunk, comparatively speaking, into insignificance. By the end of 1869 it began to be apparent 
that the business had entirely lost its former prestige, and verj discouraging views of the future were entertained. 
From a review published at the beginning of 1671 we extract the following: 

" The year 1870. like its predecessor, has been one of poor returns to those engaged in the whale fishery. The 
prices of our staples, which at (he opening were considered unremunerative, steadily declined throughout the year, 
closing at the lowest, quotation of any year since 1861. The decline in sperm oil was owing to the limited consump- 
tion of the article, together wit h a large stock on hand at the beginning of the year, and the unexpected large import, 
being about 10,000 barrels in excess of the estimate for the year, while whale oil and whalebone were similarly affected 
by the introduction largely of cotton-seed oil and a closed foreign market, caused by the European war, to which we 
export largely, especially of bone. We note that while the importation of seal oil has been restricted by a higher 
tariff, that cotton-seed oil has stepped into its place, and claims its share of consumption, which is by no means limited, 
7.1,000 barrels, it is estimated, having beeu marketed the present year. * * ' Our merchants do not look upon the 
future of whaling with encouragement, and seem disposed to distrust it as to its pecuniary results, induced more by 
extraneous causes than inherent, having to add to the list of its competitors lard, petroleum, and seal oil, that of cot- 
ton-seed oil, said by its advocates to be but in its infancy." 

The importance of the competition with cotton-seed oil was not overestimated, as has been practically demonstrated 
since. Fish oil also has assumed an important place among the list of competitors. It is not astonishing, in view of 
all the circumstances, that the whale fishery should have ceased to exert an important influence upon the commerce 
of the country; but it has left many evidences of its former glory behind. Along our coast are a number of ports 
once teeming with life and activity, their inhabitants nearly all identified, in one way or another, with what was 
then one of the most remunerative industries of the United States. Now these ports are silent and deserted; their 
once busy wharves arc vacant and fallen into decay ; their streets are grass-grown, and most of their inhabitants 
have long since departed. In place of the numerous harbors affording shelter for the large fleet of whalers, one or 
Iv." ports now sut'liee to shelter them all. 

What possibilities there may be for a revival of the former greatness of Ihe industry remains for the future to 
show ; bur so far as the immediate future is concerned there seems to be no good reason to believe that further depre- 
riai ion in t lie value of whale or sperm oil will occur. Prices have at last touched " rock-bottom," and there are now 
indications of improvement. Foreign consumers manifest a strong prejudice in favor of these staples, and as long as 
they can be obtained at a reasonable price, an export outlet is assured. With regard to the home consumption, it is 
impossible, unless the production of mineral oils should greatly decrease, that it can ever again attaiu the prominence 
it once enjoyed. The h\ ilrocarboii oils, which at tirst seriously interfered with the consumption of whale and sperm, 
now help it. as many of the manufactured mineral lubricating oils contain more or less of these products which are 
used to give body and weight to the lubricants. In this way, also, a certain outlet is assured. * * 

A factor in the whale-oil trade, which promises to attain some prominence in the future, is the shipment of oil by 
rail from San Francisco by tank cars. The project was first made known last fall at the close of the whaling 
season, but did not make much headway. This year it was renewed, but so far has met with little success, apart from 
exerting a depressing influence upon the Eastern markets. So far as we can learn there is not much oil to come that 
way, the bulk of the catch being shipped in the usual manner. It is likely that 5,000 to 8,000 barrels will be 



1(54 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

marketed in San Francisco, and part of this may find its way East by tank cars. Some of this has already been sold, 
but it is impossible to tell how much. On its way to the East its arrival at different points on the route has been 
telegraphed here, and such inforinatiou has usually been taken as indicating a new s;ile. 

The following reviews for 1881, 18S2, 1883, and 1884 are by Messrs. I. H. Bartlett & Sous, of 
New Bedford: 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1881. 

Review of the whale fishery for 1881. The year has been generally free of disasters, only four vessels having been 
lost. Otherwise their has been no special feature of note. Arctic whaling has yielded good returns, while sperm oil 
has not been found abundant. The most of the voyages closed during the year were successful, and the outlook for 
the future would be good if better prices could be obtained, and tbe business relieved of the many clogs and hin- 
drances which have lor many years oppressed United States shipping, and which have been so ably set forth in the 
recent report of the cominil lee appointed by the New York Chamber of Commerce. Promiueut features in that, 
report, were, the payment of time mouths' wages to discharged seamen, now exacted by no other nation, and the 
protection granted to deserters by consular authorities and foreign Governments. 

The piesent whaling Heel, numbers one hundred and sixty-one vessels, against one hundred and seventy-seven a 
year ago. a icduelion of sixteen. 

Sperm whaling continues to droop, and vessels have generally had but moderate MICCT.SS, those on the African 
coast, and on Chili having made the largest catches, while in other quarters (lie year's work has been small. 

li'iglit whaling has beeu successfully prosecuted. The Arctic ileet took good tares of oil and bone, as our tables 
will show, remunerating those who invested their capital and labor in that, direction, but we sadly record the 
evii lei ice indicating there is no hope of finding alive the crews of the two whalers that were ice-bound two years since. 
We however welcome the news of the safety of a part or all of the Jeauuctte's company, and further tidings of them 
is now daily expected. 

The price of sperm oil in January last was nominally 98 cents per gallou, but owing to the immense stock on hand 
sales could not have been effected to any extent at over 8.") to OH cents. The price declined to rtl cents in May and 
June, rose to 82| cents in July, and gradually advanced till it reached '.).", cents in October, at which price it closed 
the year, with some sales in the latter part at a slight advance on that figure. The incubus of stock that has for so 
long a time weighed like a wet blanket on our sperm-whaling interests has now been removed, and no mariner 
returning from a four years' voyage ever hailed with more satisfaction the sight of his home port, than do our mer- 
chants the contemplation of the fact that, the stock of sperm oil for the whole of the present, year will be less in 
quantity than the consumption of the last. 

Whale oil opened the year at 48 cents per gallon for Arctic, dropped temporarily to 45 cents in May, advanced in 
June and July to 55 cents, and continued at about that figure the remainder of the 1 year, closing at 53 cents. Hump- 
back and South Sea oils have ruled at about, 3 cents per gallon less. 

The price of whalebone opened the year at $1.:!U per pound, advancing soon to $1.75 to $1.90, and continuing at 
about these figures until fall, closing the year at, 1.40. South Sea bone has sold for about 20 cents per pound less. 

TRADE REVIEW FOB 1B82. 

Review of the whale fishery for 1882. The year just closed has been without features of special note. Several vessels 
have been lost at sea, mostly in different localities, the only loss of life being the officers and crew of schooner Pilot's 
Bride, of New London. At home, the continued low price of sperm oil has discouraged those engaged in that branch 
of the business, and fast leading to its discontinuance. 

The present whaling fleet numbers one hundred and forty-seven, against, one hundred and sixty-one a year ago, 
of which number one hundred and five are now at sea. Many of those in port are to be withdrawn for merchant 
service, while others have become too dilapidated to warrant repairs. 

Sperm whaling during the past year has continued to droop, only eight vessels having taken in excess of 500 
barrels each, of which four cruised on the coast of Chili, and four in other localities. The owners, tired of small 
catches and ridiculously low prices, are changing their vessels to right whaling or withdrawing them from the busi- 
ness. Indications point to an import of 20,000 barrels for the present year, and a probable reduction in the future. 
As the oil cannot be produced at a less cost than $1.25 per gallon, we cannot blame our merchants for transferring 
their time and capital to other enterprises. 

Right whaling has been prosecuted with fair success. Thirty vessels cruised in the Northern Pacific, averaging 
to each 707 barrels of oil and 11,730 pounds of whalebone, in addition to which they took on their between-season 
cruises an aggregate of 2,800 barrels sperm, 720 barrels whale oil, and 4,0(0 pounds of whalebone. 

Two vessels were lost in the Arctic in the early part of the season by being crushed in the ice. If bad weather 
had not unexpectedly prevailed during the latter part of tbe season, the catch would have been much larger. Many 
additions are to be made to the fleet the coming vear. 

The Southern right whalers were quite fortunate, and fair catches were made on the Tristan grounds and other 
localities. 

The consumption of our different products is an interesting subject, and one that, requires from us some attention. 
It has always been our custom to report as the consumption for the year the amounts clea red from our import, markets 
by tbe refiners and manufacturers, regardless of the stocks the latter were carrying at the close of the year. The 



Till: NVHALE FISHERY. 165 

continuance ut' this ciislnm h-d us in report for the year lss| ;, i>iuisiiiii|il inn nf sperm nil in this cminlry nf 2, r >,S7. r i 
barrels, and iu Kngland c>t'::,lllill Inns or :',0,OIMI barrels, an aggregate of 55,000 barn-Is, when actually the large sfncUs 
in refiners' bauds a. year ago makes it probable that the actual consumption was not much in excess nl' Ki.niin barrels. 
\\V give below a, carcfnlh made statement of the estimated actual consumption i'or 1H82: 

Barrels. 

Crude sperm nil in importers' Lands January 1, 1882 Hi, 275 

Crnde sperm oil in re liners' hands in United States and England 10,300 

Crude sperm oil imported into United States in 1882 29,875 

Crude sperm oil imported into England from the colonies, &c 3,850 



66,300 
Less stock in importers' hands January 1, 1883 20,100 

Less stock in rentiers' hands in United States and importers' and refiners' hands in 
England 6, 000 

26, 100 



Net eonsii nipt inn for the year 40,200 

Whale ml is rapidly absorbed as snon as it arrivesin market, and whalebone has been used during the past year 
In a greater extent than heretofore. 

Sperm oil, from 9.3 cents at the commencement, nf the year, advanced steadily to $1.05 in February, si. 1(1 in April. 
$1 11 in July, and then gradually receded, touching il(> cents at the close of the year. 

Whale nil, from 53 cents in .January, gradually advanced, touching .7.) eentsin September, and declining in Decent- 
IM-I in ~~> cents. 

Whalebone opened the year at $1.40 and steadily advanced, touching :>.'. 25 in October, and closing I he \ear at frj. 

The ipiautity of sperm oil at present on board of the whaling fleet is 5,300 barrels, against 12.IWIO barrels a year 
agn. being the smallest amount known in our experience. 

TRADE REVIEW FOR 1883. 

lieriew uf the u-liale-jidicry for 1883. The past year has been one of loss to those engaged in this business, and ils 
results ha\e been discouraging. The failure of the Arctic season, wiih small catches in other localities, has bronuht. 
lint small remuneration to those who risk their capital in the whale-fishery. 

The fleet now numbers one hundred and twenty MM- vessels of all .-lasses hailing from Atlantic ports, against one. 
hundred and thirty-eight a year ago, and nineteen from San Francisco, as against eight last year. The number of 
vessels engaged in sperm whaling has been considerably decreased, owing to the low prices of oil, while, on account 
nf the value of whalebone, agents are inclined to send most of their vessels to the Arctic Ocean and other right-whale 
regions. Indications point to a steady decrease in the number of vessels sailing from Atlantic .ports, and perhaps a 
small increase in the number sailing from San Francisco for the Arctic Ocean. 

A new feature of the past year arising from the increase of Arctic, whaling a t San Francisco has been the. estab- 
lishment of extensive works at that place for the manufacture and sale of whale and sperm oil, thus enabling the 
owners there located, as well as others who import oils at that place, to find a market without paying the heavy cost 
of shipping tin- same to the Atlantic seaboard. It is understood that the whole Arctic catch of oil, about 10,00i I barrels, 
has been purchased at San Francisco at increased prices. Their works, in addition to large facilities for the manu- 
t'act lire of sperm candles, have a capacity of 150 barrels of oil per day, and arc to be enlarged if the imports at I hat 
place and the sales of their products shall warrant. 

Sperm whaling continues to decline, and no catches of any amount were made during the year except a few in the 
Atlantic Ocean, and two or three ofl' Patagonia. The number of ships and barks now iu that fishery at sea is forty- 
eight, most of which will folio wright whaling during half of the year. The con tinned low price of oil will soon prevent 
the business being followed to any great extent. 

Right whaling has been unfortunate, and the season iu the North Pacific, owing to prevalence of ice and bad 
weather, was a failure. Thirty-eight vessels cruised there, three of which were lost, aud the remaining thirty-live 
averaged 274 barrels nf oil aud 4,350 pounds of whalebone to each. The southern right whalers were not as fort una te- 
as iu the previous year, and their general success was moderate. 

The price of sperm oil from 96 cents per gallon on January 1 rose to $1.05 iu April and May, and from that time 
steadily declined, closing the year at 90 cents. 

Whale oil from 55 ceuts in January continued at about the same price, with the exception of a rise to 594 (cuts 
in April, until December, when on account of the demand at San Francisco it advanced, closing the year at 00 cents 
per gallon asked. 

Whalebone opened the year at $2 per pound for Arctic, and with a few variations steadily advanced, until at tin- 
close of the year it sold at $4.75 per pound. 

The purchases of sperm oil for consumption during the year have amounted to 32,200 barrels; the purchases of 
whale oil to 23,600 barrels, and of whalebone, 376,000 pounds ; all the above being bought at Atlantic ports, besides 
the purchases at San Francisco of all their importations, and quite an amount of oil aud bone belonging to New Bed- 
ford vessels. 

Our figures of imports for 1883 do uot include the oil and bone purchased at Sau Francisco, it being difficult for 
us, at this distance, to obtain the information with accuracy. 



166 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



TRADE REVIEW FOR 1S.-4. 

Hcrieiv of the whale-fishery for 1884. Another year has passed, and its results, like us predecessors, have been 
unsatisfactory and discouraging to those who have coutinu< d to risk their capital in the whale-fishery. With two or 
three exceptions the larger el ass of vessels that arrived during the year made losing voyages, and with the discouraging 
features which still exist it is doubtful if they are soon fitted out agaiu. Of the vessels in port one-half at least are 
known to be for sale, and of those expected to arrive during this year it is now intended that a number will be offered 
for sale. 

The North Atlantic fleet was more fortunate on the whole than during the year previous, the smaller vessel* 
doing the best. Some good catches of sperm oil were made on the west coa,st of South America during the months 
from April to October, seven vessels averaging TOn barrels, one taking l.'.'NH barrels, and three or four vessels did 
quite well on New Holland. 

The season in the Arctic was better than that of 1883, but not fully satisfactory, except to some having steamers 
that penetrated the ice, which the sailing vessels considered unsafe to enter, thereby obtaining good catches. Thirty- 
nine vessels cruised there, and the only loss was the steamer Bowhead, of San Francisco, the first one built by the 
Pacific Whaling Company, and a fine vessel. Her catchings had been previously shipped home. The fleet averaged 
527 barrels whale oil and 8,380 pounds whalebone. 

Three vessels on New Zealand did well right whaling, taking an average of 7110 barrels. 

The total number of vessels ol' all classes engaged in the business is one hundred and thirty-three, of which nine- 
teen hail from San Francisco, and all but one engaged in Arctic whaling. The decrease of the catching p< >W.T during 
the year was 1,912 tons, the greater portion of which had been engaged in sperm whaling. 

The present tonnage of the entire fleet is 31,207, of which 3,432 is at home ports. Of the remaining 27,775 tons, 
about one-half is exclusively engaged in Arctic whaling, one-quarter exclusively sperm whaling, and the remaining 
one-quarter sperm and right whaling; showing the tonnage engaged in sperm whaling to be about 10,400 tons, which 
is about 20 per cent, less than last year. 

The consumption of sperm oil was well maintained, notwithstanding the depressed condition of business all over 
the country during the year. 

The consumption of whale oil was curtailed in consequence of lack of stock, but very little of the Northern catch 
of 1883 having been sent to the Eastern market. 

In consequence of the high price of whalebone, the consumption was not as large' as the previous year. 

The exports were less than previous years, especially of sperm oil, a large stock having been carried over in Lon- 
don January 1, 1884. The consumption in Europe of sperm oil reached 13,0)50 barrels, anil the stock remaining on 
hand January 1, 1885, 426 tons, is about one-ball' of that on January 1, l.<>4. 

Sperm oil began the year at 90 cents, touched 76 cents in November, and closed at 77 cents in December. 

Whale oil began the year at liOU cents, touched 57 cents in November, and closed at 54 cents in Decembn 

Whalebone began the year at $4.75, touched $2 in October, and closed at w2.:;5 in December. 

Our figures of imports include that imported into San Francisco by vessels owned there, which in former years 
were omitted. 

We estimate the import of sperm oil for 1NS5 at 17,000 to 20,000 barrels; that, of whale oil and whalebone will 
depend on the success of the Arctic fleet. 

(6) STATISTICAL TABLES OF PRODUCTS AND VALUES. 

Table showing the receipts from the American fleet, the exports, and the home consumption of sperm and whale oil from 1860 

to 1884. 



Tear. 


Sperm oil. 


Whale oil. 


Tear. 


Sperm nil. 


Wliiile oil. 


S 

"a 

& 


Exports. 


Home cou 
sumption. 


Keceipts. 


Exports. 


H 
if 

o a 
W" 


Receipts. 


Exports. 


gg 

.2 
& 

a 8 

P 

M" 


Receipts. 


Exports. 


Home con- 
sumption. 


I860 
1861 
1862 

1863 


Bbls. 

73, 708 
68, 932 
55, 641 
65, 055 
64, 372 
3.!, 242 
36, 663 
43,433 
47, 174 
47, 930 
55, 183 
41, 534 
45, 201 


Bbls. 
32, 792 
37, 547 
27, 976 
18, 366 
45, 000 
20, 158 
10, 630 
25, 147 
18, 916 
18, 645 
22, 733 
22, 156 
24,344 


Bbls. 
38, 507 
31,091 
27, 759 
32, 527 
30, 190 
27, 606 

in, 1:3 

22, 986 
23, 258 
17, 239 
28, 812 
33, 528 
24, 052 


Bbls. 
140,005 

133,717 
100, 478 
62, 974 
71, 863 
76, 238 
74, 302 
89, 289 
65, 575 
85, Oil 
72, 091 
75, 152 
31,075 


SMs. 
13, 007 
49, 969 
68, 583 
11,297 
13, 000 
1,660 
618 
18, 253 
9,885 
3,842 
9,872 
18,141 
1,528 


Bbls. 
143, 009 
105, 839 
67, 254 
t)5, 352 
62, 528 
64, 107 
69, 534 
58, 836 
72, 390 
56, 236 
68, 452 
63, Oil 
42, 852 


1873 


fbla. 
42, 053 
32, 203 
42,617 
39,811 
41,119 
; ;. 508 
41, 308 
37, 614 
30, 600 
29,884 
24, 595 
22, 099 


Bbls. 

18, 67. r . 
22, HI-J 
23,600 
18,047 

11,843 
13,283 
16,600 
13, 006 
13, 996 
5,143 


SbU. 

21, 1:111 
21,768 
18,45! 
14.4?:i 
31,737 
11, U'4 
23,315 
13,750 
25, 27.', 
13, 053 
17,324 
ir>, 4S1 


Bbls. 
40, 014 
37, 782 
:i4. r.!)4 
33,010 
27, 191 
33, 77* 
23, 334 
34,776 

23,371 

24, 170 
24, 670 


Bbls. 
2,153 
3, 300 
5, 424 
10, 300 
i. 
14,371 
7,374 
4. 395 
(i r.n 
4,421 
4,543 
2,343 


Bbls. 

33, 881 
44, 357 
31, 860 
22, 620 
20, 501 
1-J, r.r.7 
24,885 
23, 858 
32,000 
21,425 
19, 052 
23,777 


1874 


1875 


1876 


1864 


1877 


1865 


1878 


1866 


1879 


1867 


1880 


1868 


1881 


1869 


1882 


1870 


1883 


1871 


1884 


1872 







TIIK \\IIALI; nsiiKi;v. 



1G7 



Table showing tin mri/i/.< //< tin- American fleet, the home consumption, <uul tin- r.rjiin / uf /(/< //<n/. jnnn l.-i;.", in |,-,- 1 





Received. 


Consumed. 


Exported. 


Tear. 


K'i eivril. 


Consumed. 


Exported. 


1865 


Pov 




Pounds. 

ii ii i 


1875 


Pound* 
372 303 


Pou, 
1 !' Ilh7 


J'ounds. 

'()'> 4' 




i ;;:.-, 


4''ll 17"> 


5"! 400 


1876 


150 68 






1867 


1 001 397 


181 631 


717 7Mt> 


1877 


100 


67 80 


70 8( 


1888 




"4G '181; 


704 882 


1878 




MI; .-,','1 


113 4( 


1S69 


603 603 


197 101 


311 605 


1879 


286 280 


i. 


75 71 


1^7(1 




-1 55 347 


347 *>18 


1880 


4lil fl"S 


176 770 


171 ' 7 ^ 


1871 . . 


600 655 


319 856 


387 199 


1SX1 




202 000 


106, 0( 


. 


193 793 


74 141 


177 :i:;-j 


1S82 


J.71 null 


L'll oil) 


175,4' 




206 396 


155. 351 


120 545 


1883 


L'.M 037 


198 423 


175, 61 




345 560 


200, 807 


165 553 


1884 


426 968 


109,144 


1 13, OS 



















Table shotting the value of oil and i>anc lumli d lii/ l/n- .liitiricnii irlmlintj fleet, the value of tli? proportion consumed in the 
I ~ni lid Slates, and the ralue of the proportion is]><-t<-d during the years 1865 to 1880. 



Tear. 


Value of oil and 
buno landed. 


Value of oil and 
bone consumed 
in the United 
States. 


Value of oil and 
bone exported. 


Tear. 


Value of oil and 
bone landed. 


Value of oil and 
boneconsumed 
in the United 
States. 


Value of oil ana 
bone exported. 


1865 


$6, 906, 650 51 
7, 037, 891 23 
6, 356, 772 51 
5 470 157 43 


$5, 564, 786 26 
4,766, 5!>7 B8 
3,189,220 19 
3, 568, 082 30 
3, 013, 426 34 
2,896,883 19 
2, 798, 408 97 
2, 081, 468 87 


$1,88, 399 75 
1,591,727 82 
:i,ll34,9?7 12 
2, 106, 985 72 
1..V.4, 956 25 
1, 1711,864 85 
1,479,153 69 
1, 374, 098 37 


1873 


82, 962, 106 96 
2, 713, 034 51 
3,314,800 24 
2, 639, 463 31 
2, 309, 569 69 
..', 029 55 
2, 056, 069 08 
2, 659, 725 03 


$1, 947, 037 50 
2, 154, 638 63 
1, 700, 823 45 
1, 346, 828 00 
1,113,681 00 
849, 043 12 
1, 345, 582 05 
1, 165, 944 00 


$929, 247 94 
1,179,286 32 
1,494,727 64 
1, 487, 533 00 
'.124, 175 CO 
1,357,162 34 
582, 994 17 
795, 657 78 


1866 


1874 


1867 


1875 


1868 


1876 


1869 


6, 205, 244 32 
4, 529, 126 02 
3, 091, 469 18 
2. 1)54, 783 00 


1877 


1870 


1878 


1871 


1879 


1872 


1880 







Table showing the average prices of sperm and irltttle oil per gallon and whalebone each month from 1868 to 1880. 





1868. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


January : 


$** 00 


$1 S5 




$1 '"Ti 


$1 55 


$1 50 


$1 50 


$1 69J 


$1 60 




$1 04,, 


$0 90 


$1 04,. 




64 


1 10 


69 


65 




66 


61 


66J 


67*. 


$0 70 


55 


35 








1 113 








1 10 






1 15 




1 0~i 


1! Mil 


2 39 


February : 


2 00 




1 5IJ 


1 32 


1 54 


1 53 


1 60 


1 78 


I .'i4 


1 31 


1 Olft 


no 


1 04 


Whale oil 


66 


1 U 


74 


GO 


73 


64 


CO 


65 


65 


70 


52 


37 


57 






1 14 








1 DO 






1 40 




1 69* 


3 00 


2 26 


March : 


2 00 


1 93 


1 54* 


i :M 


1 00 


1 52* 


1 111! 


1 84 


1 50 


I 26 


1 03 


85 


1 06 


Whale oil .... 


70 


1 13 




62 


71 


08 


63 


6G 


62J 


68 


50 


37 


52 






1 28 








1 OG 






1 6 i 




2 10 




2 10 


April: 


2 00 




1 40 


1 28J 


1 56 


1 52 




1 80 


1 43 






81 


1 02 


Whale oil ... 


73 


1 05 


69 


58 


69 


66 


63 


65 


621. 


65 


50 


36 


48 






1 ''I! 








1 10 






1 75 




2 65 


2 82 


2 02 


May: 


2 00 


1 93 


III 


1 "ii 


1 53 


1 48 


1 55 


1 711 


1 ::7 


1 20 


H4 


77 


1 02} 


Whole oil 


77 


1 03 


66} 


55 


69 


62 


60 


65 


55 


63 


45 


35 


47 












1 55 


1 10 










2 50 


L' :.l) 


2 00 


June: 


2 00 


1 85 


1 38 


1 22J 


1 40 


1 42 


1 52 


4 55 


I 35 


1 19 


87* 


75 


93) 


Wbale oil 


80 


1 03 


C3i 


54 


62 


61 


60 


B2 


58 


53 


41 


36 


45 


Whalebone . . 




1 -J5 








1 09 






2 00 




2 40 


2 50 


2 18 



* The followiu^ additional data have been received since the above ws compiled : Average price of sperm oil per gallon in 1881, 
in 1882, $1.00; in 18.-:). !(7 cenls; in 1884, 85 cents. Whale oil in 1881, 48 cents ; in 1882, 58i cents; in!883, 54 cents; in 1884, 56 i-.-uI*. 
bone per pound in 1881, $1.63 j in 1882, $1.71 ; in 1883, $2.87 ; in 1884, $3.55. 



5 cents ; 

U'lialo. 



168 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

.! iihlr showing the </nr<f//f ju'i< i * <>l .syir; in u ml trlmh' <m y..r <i>illini <i ml u-Jmli fnmr t <t< I >,,' ill I'm in 1HIS to 16^4.1 C OH tinned. 



* 


1808. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


187S. 


1879. 


1880. 


July: 


$1 89J 


$l'79 


$1 33 


$1 23 


$1 38 


$1 40 


$1 55 


$1 50 J 


$1 31 


$1 16 


$0 88 


:-' i 7". 


i i - - 


Whale oil 


80 


1 04 


G6i 


55 


61 


62 


58 


i I 




50 






"tLI-J 






1 "8 






1 18 


1 10 






2 00 










August : 


1 80 


1 76 


1 33 


1 24 


1 S8 


1 47 


1 57 


1 40 


1 28 


1 15 


91 A 




90 


"Whale oil 


85$ 


or. 


694 


84 


64 


i;:> 


58 


70 


55 


51 


43 


35 








1 "4 






1 15 


1 15 






2 00 






2 '> 


> qr t 


September: 


1 86 


1 77 


1 "0 


1 24J 


1 35 


1 50 


1 61 


1 IS 


1 '>7i 


1 1 1 


87 ^ 


7| 


94 


"Whale oil 


1 OOj 


1 00 


64 


55 


64 


61 


57i 


67 


55 


51 


39 


37 


5>>i 






1 32 






1 15 


1 1" 






2 15 






(15 


' "". 


i i, tobei . 


1 !l."i 


1 7."> 


1 23 


26 


1 35 


1 4" 


1 M 


1 48 


1 40 


1 ll'l 


8'V- 




98 


"Whale oil 


i i" : ; 


1 00 


OCJ 


661 


r>2 


60 


1 u 


IT 


58 


51 


;;s- 7 










i 35 






1 20 


1 10 






" 5(1 




i <J5 


l OU 


1 75 


November: 


1 80 


1 7" 


1 "3J 


1 50 


1 47 


1 42 


i t;~> 


i :.i 


1 40 


1 08 




1 i'ii 


98 


Wliale oil 


90 


!l" 


63* 




66 








7l) 


.~>1 


37* 




5ll 






1 30 






1 20 












3 00 


11 (Hi 


1 ::u 


December: 


1 75 


1 .VI 


1 2 


1 57 


1 50 


1 50 


i IH 


l 604 


' HI 


1 03 


83A 




i- 


Whale oil 


85 


84 


64 




67 


62 


64 


70 


65 


55 


35 




50 






1 10 






1 18 


1 D2 










:; tit; 


" III! 


1 30 


Yearly avei.i ; 


i 2 


1 78 


1 35 


1 35 


1 45i 


1 48 


1 59 


1 Hi ' 


1 411* 


1 13 


91* 


84 j 


09 


Whale oil 


82 


1 01J 


67i 


60 


65A 


6'' 


60J 


65j 


56 


52 


44 


39 


51 






1 24 




70 


1 L'sj 


1 08 


1 10 


1 l 


1 96 


r.ii 


2 46 


2 34 


2 00 































Tabli xliijiti;i muiiHiJi/ receipts nl' "/' mill irlnili'lioin- from lite whaliiii/ Jlci'l nf tin- ' (i J'nun 1>I>8 to 18^(1. 











1871. 


1S72. 


1873. 


1874. 




1870. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


January : 




" 713 














182 




1 08 "> 


1 ' s 


588 


Whale oil <!< 


396 


201 


U4f, 




73 






4 III 


893 


in 


1 857 


449 


(;-, 




26 73 ' 




47 195 


" l"j 


Tl 4.-1 


60 605 








"1 '144 




'] " s 


i r ;{ 


February: 


1 HII4 






1 086 


595 












> 7Q1 






Whale oil .do 




400 


217 


1 100 


115 


2 037 


1 208 


17 


3 014 


22 


893 


' 815 


3 361 










124 000 


















9 967 


March : 


720 


7118 


1,817 


48G 


1 014 


86 1 


:- 




899 


1 41 


373 


2 Ms 






7 !I97 


2 174 


8,975 


2 980 


1 1S2 


" 507 


l' J 


117 


353 


3 078 


3 095 


350 


1 396 


Whalebone ll<s 


i 


17, sun 


'.14, d'.ic, 


1 ir.ii 




., .,]., 










395 




2 225 


April : 


'.', l"4 


5 11' 


4 730 


o 373 


2 "4 n 


2 791 


960 


'' 179 


o 074 


1 789 


443 


^ "46 


85 


Whale oil <lo 


16 664 


22 610 


5 717 


33 G14 


1 155 


3 788 


11 l Tp 1 


lit (T)S 


L5 li.M 


2 307 


4 ii::7 


1 ->75 


7 S60 


"Whalebone Ibs. . 
May: 
Sperm oil bbls. . 
Whale oil do... 


257, 5i;.". 

4,305 
19, 609 


3, 131 
22, 043 
25 736 


105, 7S5 

13,481 

20, 537 
fiO 170 


319,967 

3,453 
9,407 

37 045 


2,855 

7,007 
5,001 


4,850 

(i, 133 
10,109 

;; *'77 


IS. 7U!) 

1. 303 


2 940 

5,740 
12, 086 


14, M'll 

3,383 
3, 13tl 
300 


2,351 
4,602 
4 189 


2,335 

4,587 
2,872 


4,ii4i; 
1,956 

1 "74 


c. '.!::; 

5, 102 
4,149 

"I U46 


June: 


5 34 


6 301 


7 4')S 


4 9 00 




11 369 


4 ir'4 




'; 4i;s 


3 954 


8 693 


8 31 




- 1 32 


Whale oil do .. 


5, 745 
7 401 


5,684 
19 830 


17, 2o:i 

"" 71 ; 


7, 642 
8 904 


8,839 
4 16 


7,298 
3 59 


7,068 
1 'J30 


1,905 
595 


3,228 
5*il 


4,915 

'n 1 17 


2, 709 
14 384 


1,460 


6, 877 

llj 4118 


July: 
Speiin oil bills. . 
Whale oil do 


2,799 
l 382 


1,930 
8 '36 


7, 732 
4 798 


9,342 
5 414 


4,854 
1 13 


2, 273 
487 


3, 078 
1 4 08 


1"2 


7, 329 
558 


5, 062 
1 310 


6,861 
f 59S 


5, 2114 
809 


3,484 
1 089 


WhalfliKH. ... ...Ibs. 


9.698 


13.000 


250 


10.798 


1. !I51 








1.6SO 


3. 141 


22. 442 


5.018 


4.881 



TIIK \\IIALK KISMKKY. 1C,;) 

In hi ! xii<iii-iiuj monthly receipt* nf nil ninl whalebone from "" //// </./'''<' <>i "" ' 'iitinl ,S7 .'(.>, t'lnm I MIS to 1880 Conl'd. 





1868. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


An^nst: 




























Sperm oil bbls - - 


7,742 


6,620 


4,203 


8,557 


!>, 557 


4,811 




4,599 


5,293 


3,441 


4,409 


2,226 


2,918 


Whale oil do 


ti, iu:> 


'.!, 251.'. 


3, 04 1 


3,862 


5,662 


3,501 


2, 547 


804 


816 


1, 911 


4, 459 


1 '.Hi!! 


1 6 "4 


Whalebone Ibs. . 


21,042 


28, 008 




17, 720 


14, 475 


>. !K>4 






22, 719 


8,334 


1,044 


11.1)27 




September: 




























Sperm oil 1.1. Is. 


0,903 


9,213 


7,012 


4,535 


2,293 


4, 225 


7,001 


8,813 


5,140 


4,017 


5,1 5:1 


3,971 


4, 592 


Whale oil do.. 


4,779 


4,399 


3,841 


4,855 


2, 434 


7, 103 


1,274 


4,499 


1,061 


1,691 


2,147 


2, 427 


1,485 


Whalebone Ibs. . 


29, 006 


20, 365 


4,149 


2, 200 




25,422 


:;, sic.7 


18, 652 




14,011 


350 


13, 549 


5, 19:{ 


Ortnl.i-i- : 




























Sperm oil bbls. . 


6, 690 


3.444 


7,366 


2,017 


5, 1K2 


3,295 


3,646 


3,395 


3, *44 


4,279 


3,520 


3.695 


4. 22K 


Whole oil do 


1,972 


5, 401 


3, 237 


1, 950 


4, 013 


1, 604 


4,383 


1, 858 


L' (is:; 


3 576 


1 555 


210 


3 501 


Whalebone Ibs . . 


2,932 


22, 795 


41. 105 


27, 244 


9,877 




10, 009 




1, 4im 


18,411 


]5, 290 


59, 0511 


19, 150 


November: 




























S|iel [U Oil bills. 


2, 440 


4,717 


961 


1,177 


1,455 




4,318 


79 


3,215 




4,740 


2, H74 


3,519 


Whale oil do 


8GG 


3, 194 


3, 953 


3,589 


704 


1.00 


772 


2,344 


1, 4:;i 


75(1 


1, 982 


5, 308 


605 


Whalebone Ibs.. 


13, 630 


29, 336 


60, 000 


7,696 


2, 092 






28, 295 




': 300 


1 ' ii"'i 


31, 534 


135, lino 


1 '.-ri mber: 












- 
















Sperm oil bMs. 


485 


3, 284 


330 


1,712 


?, 758 


3, 577 




6,739 


2, iii-j 


l',910 


1,345 


6,394 


4, 3*3 


Whale oil do 




1, 413 


524 


33 


684 


1 . 210 


1,270 


344 


377 


739 


1 977 


1, 270 


2, 704 


Whalebone Ibs. . 


112, 000 


5,000 


66, 000 




133, 900 


20, 300 


99, 009 


142, 396 


14,920 


on, 77:: 


59, 633 


105,453 


240,512 































RECAPITULATION. (Total receipts earli year.) 



Sperm oil hbls. . 
Whale oil do 


47, 174 
65 575 


47, 936 
85 Oil 


55, 183 
72 691 


41, 534 

75 152 


45, 201 
31 075 


42, 033 
40 014 


:;; 782 


42, Ci] 7 
34 594 


39,811 
33 010 


41, 11!) 
27 191 


43, 508 
33 778 


41, 308 
23 3'14 


37, 614 
34 770 


W halebone Ibs. . 


900, 850 


603, 603 


708, 365 


600, 055 


193, 793 


2iiii, ::no 


345, 560 


372, HI.:: 


150, 028 


Kill, 2211 


207, 259 


286, 280 


404, c-.'K 



The following statement shows the quantities of oil and bone lauded by the American Heet and 
the total value of the same from 1804 to 1880.* The statistics are compiled from Starbuck's His 
tory of the Whale Fishery nud from the Whalemen's Shipping List. The total \ it-Id >f this fishery 
for the entire period is seen to be 166,604,496 gallons of sperm oil, 270,727,205 gallons of whale oil, 
and 76,386,148 pounds of whalebone, having a total value of 8340,204,873. 

Scammoi) estimates that sperm whales will average 25 and right whales 60 barrels of oil, and 
of the former 10 and of the latter 20 per cent, of those killed are lost. Upon that basis the above 
amounts of oil would represent the slaughter of about 232,790 sperm and 196,0112 right whales. 

*The following additional statistics have lieen received since tins statement \v.is compiled : 



Tear. 


Gallons 
sperm oil. 


Gallons 
whale oil. 


Pouu 

\\ h;il<-l. 


1881 


963 900 


096, 975 


368 


1882 


941 340 


736, 186 


271 


1883 


774 742 


761,355 


254 


1884 . 


096 118 


777, 105 


6 











! 
ir 


Total value. 


00 


$1, 92U, G20 


'.19 


1,801,779 


137 


1,891,716 


168 


2, 542, 614 



170 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



Production of oil nml Imni' Inj the American wliaJini/Jli'it <in<l lulnl r/iliic nf xnmr from 1804 to !"<>. 



Tear. 


Callous 
.1 oil. 


Average 
price 
per gallon. 


Gallons 
whale oil. 


Average 
price 
per gallon. 


Pounds 
whalebone. 


Average 
price 
per pound. 


Total value. 




7 983 110 




IS, 159,836 




841, 940 




$16,941,493 57 


1821 


1,357,618 


67* 


1,213,506 


33 


62, 893 


12 


1,324,396 29 


l.V" ... , 


.1,350 


65 


1,619,951 


32 


50, 799 


12 


1,402,857 70 


1823 - . 


938,351 


43 


1, 697, 440 


32 


103, 404 


13 


1,820,114 25 


1824 


: 1,091,064 


45* 


1, 833, 237 


30 


133, 472 


13 


1, 973, 756 58 


IS^S 


1,0-4,303 


70J 


1, 666, 413 


32 


152, 534 


15 


1, 912, 765 87 


1826 . 


019, 800 


75 


1, 108, 233 


30 


79, 368 


16 


1, 035, 018 78 


1827 


2, 958, 480 


72i 


1,119,037 


30 


106, 255 


18 


2,499,735 00 


1828 


2, 475, 176 


62*. 


1, 591, 790 


26 


137, 323 


25 


1,995,181 15 


1829 


2, 350, 152 


61J 


2, 256, 502 


26 


563, 654 


25 


2, 172, 947 50 


1830 


3, 482, 042 


65J. 


2, 831, 315 


39 


514, 991 


20 


3, 487, 949 56 


1831 


3, 636, 738 


' 71 


3, 609, 774 


30 


279, 279 


17 


4, 139, 790 61 


1832 


2, 299, 563 


85 


5, 703, 894 




442, 881 


13 


3,352,618 17 


1833 


~0, 765 


85 


5, 153, 148 


26 


266, 432 


13 


4, 170, 754 89 


1834 . 


3, 891, 573 


72* 


4,14 


27J 


343, 324 


21 


4,033,317 55 


1835 


5, 181, 523 


84 


3, 950, 289 


39 


965, 192 


21 


6,095,787 :i;i 


1836 


4, 200, 021 


89 


4, 301, 892 


44 


1, 028, 773 


25 


5, 888, 044 42 


1837 


129,138 


82J 


6, 389, 995 


35 


1.753,104 


20 


6,983, ii."i7 '.in 


1838 


4, 076, 100 


86 


7, 204, 365 


32 


1,200,000 


20 


6, 250, 842 80 


1839 


4, 408, 866 


1 05 


7, 040, 975 


36 


2, 00(1, OUO 


18 


7,524,0110 30 


1840 


4.928,017 


1 00 


6, 408, 391 


30 


2, 1100, OCO 


19 


7,230,534 30 


1841 


156,304 


94 


6,459,510 


32 


2, 000, 000 


20 


7, 125, 970 88 


1842 


>G, 105 


73 


4, 876, 232 


34 


2, 500, 000 


23 


4,379,812 03 


1 -4:; 


5, 260, 027 


63 


6,511,900 


34 


1,127,270 


36 


6, 293. 680 21 


1844 


4,239,711 


III!.' 


8, 254, 481 


36,', 


2, 532, 445 


40 


7, 875, 970 38 


1845 


4, 967, 550 


88 


8, 593, 483 


33 


2, 195, 054 


34 


8,283,611 75 


1846 


3, 155, 481 


87J 


6, 589, 737 


33J 


3, 252, 939 


34 


6,203,115 43 


1847 


3, 803, 719 


I 00} 


9,86 


36 


3, 341, 680 


31 


8,419 288 49 


1848 


3,401,274 


1 00 


8, 840, 663 


33 


3, 003, 000 


25 


6, 81? 442 78 


1849 


3, 179, 736 


1 08? 


7, 827, 498 


39}} 


2,281,100 


21] 


7, 069 953 74 


1850 - - 


2, 926, 098 


1 20/5 


(i, 319, 152 


49ft 


2, 869, 200 




7, 564, 124 72 


1851 


3, 137, llti 


1 27i 


10, 347, 214 


45,\ 


2, 916, 500 


344 


10, 031. 744 0.1 


1852 


2, 484. 468 


1 23J 


2, 652, 647 


68J 


1, 259, 900 


50 1 


5,505,4119 i-'J 


1853 


10, 925 


1 24J 


8, 193, 591 


58} 


5, 652, 300 


34A 


10, 760. 521 2(1 


1854 


2, 315, 924 


1 4SJ 


10, 074, 866 


59$ 


3, 445, 200 




]0, S02, 594 'JO 


1855 


2 288,443 


1 77=,- 


5, 796, 472 


71ft 


3, 707, 500 


45i 


9, 413, 14X 93 


1856 


2, 549, 642 


1 62 


6, 233, 535 


79i 


2, 592, 700 


58 


9, 589, 846 36 


1857 


2 470,860 


1 28J 


7, 274, 641 


73J 


2, 058, 850 


90S 


10, 491, 548 90 


1858 


2, 581, 142 


1 21 


:>, 740, 025 


54 


2, 571, 200 


92} 


7, 672, 227 31 


1859 


2 879, 352 


1 36J 


5, 997, 946 


48.'. 


1,9 


68 


8, 525, 108 91 


I860 


> 306, 934 


1 41* 


4, 410, 158 


49} 


1, 337, 650 


80J 


6, 520, 135 12 


1861 . 


2,171,358 


1 31ft 


4,212,085 


441 


1, 038, 45 


6G 


5,415,090 59 


1862 




1 42} 


3, 165, 057 


59J 


763, 500 


88 


5,051,781 64 


1SC3 


2, 049, 232 


1 01 


1, 983, 681 


9",J 


488, 750 


1 53 


5, 936, 507 17 


1SU4 


1 1)27,718 


1 891 


2, 203, 685 


1 28 


760, 450 


i "; 


8,113,922 07 


1805 


1,04-7,123 


2 25ft 


2, 401. 497 


1 4f> 


619, 350 


1 71} 


6,906,650 51 


1866 


1,154,885 


2 55 


2, 340, 513 


1 21 


920, 375 


1 37 


7,037,891 23 


1867 


1,368,139 


2 27 


2, 812, 603 


73J 


1, 001, 397 


i 17; 


6,356,772 51 


1868 


1,485,981 


1 92 


2, 065, 613 


82 


900. 850 


1 02?, 


5, 470, 157 43 


1869 


1,509,984 


1 S1J 


2, 677, 846 


1 01J 


603, 603 


1 23 


6, 205, 2J4 32 


1870 


1,738,265 


1 36} 


2, 289, 767 


67} 


708, 365 


85 


4, 529, 120 02 


1871 


1,308,321 


1 31 


2,367,288 


64 


600, 655 


77 


3,691,469 18 


1872 


1 423.832 


1 4-'iJ 


973, OS4 


05* 




1 28J 


2,954,783 00 


1873 


1 324 6i'i9 


1 47J 


1. 200, 441 


621 




1 OSi 


2. '.ir.2, 10G 96 


1874 


1 014,395 


1 59 


1,190.133 


CO* 


843, 500 


1 10 


2,713,034 51 


1875 


1,342,435 


i I;H\ 


1,089,711 


65i 


372, 30.'! 


1 20 


3,314,800 24 


1876 


1,254,047 


i in'. 


1, 039, 815 


56 




1 96 


2,639 


1877 


1 295,249 


i l:: 


856, 510 


52 


" 100, 220 




2, 3u9. 509 69 


1878 


1, 370, 502 


914 


1, 064, 007 


44 


207,259 


2 40 


2 232. 029 55 


1870 


1, 301, 202 


84J 




39 


286, 280 


2 34 


2,050,060 in 


1880 


1,184,841 


99 


1, 395, 414 


51 


164,028 


2 00 


2,659,725 (i:: 




l> i 004 496 




'70 7"7, 2ll'i 




76, 380, 148 




340, 204, 873 86 



















' Year ended December 31, 18SO 



TIIK \\IIAI, i, 



171 



(c) STATISTICS UK TUB WHALING I LKF.T. 

.\iiHilrrnf irliitliiKj I'tsni'ls lirloiiiiiiii/ In Ilir wri-nil ports of tin 1'nili il >'//< in .laiiunnj I </ nn7i _//) I'rom 1640 to 1880. 

| \Vi-fla liltcil fur Antniviii- fi'.ilini' .in mnittril. They belong mostly al Slimm^t'in .mil NOT I .<i.,li,n ami number I'MOU ton tu twenty in 
each year. Tlio ddtfftla "I' tlio st-almi: flrer art- ^ivin in a subsr.jui'; t rbaptiT nf Ibis volume.] 





L840. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1K41. 


1845. 


1846. 


1847. 


! 1848. 


1849. 


I- iO 


1851. 


1852. 


L853. 


l'.:il nst:i!i!r. Mass 
















1 


1 












I'.atli Mr 








J 






















I'.rv.-rlv, M:ISH 






















1 


2 


3 


3 




1 


2 


' 


5 


3 


1 


3 


1 


\ 






1 






inn r, i '.nin - 


:t 


:i 


3 


3 




;i 




:i 




i 










hi'Miul, R. I 


i; 


r> 


5 


10 


7 


r. 





Q 


1 


1 


















1 






















<Vld Sprint V V 







2 


- 


4 


7 




g 


g 


g 









_ 






;j 


: 


2 


1 


1 


1 


" 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 'or rlirstt'l 1 , Mass _ 


j 


2 


> 
























Duxlilll'V, Mu,ss 








1 


1 


1 


















Eil-aitowu, Mass 
tven, Mass ... . 
F.ilnmtith, Mass 


s 

41 
g 


8 
44 
8 


9 

4:. 
7 


13 

49 

7 


10 
45 
5 


11 

4.-, 
5 


10 

48 

4 


9 
48 
4 


8 
50 


8 
4!l 

:i 


c 

46 


6 
45 
3 


9 

."u 
3 


;i 
49 
3 
































l-'i- < tnwn, Mass 








1 


1 


j 




2 


1 




~ 








iport, \. Y 

- Hcli-, Ma>s 

Hudson, X. Y 


s 


I 
8 


4 
4 
g 


3 

) 


8 
3 

2 


Hi 
3 
I 


11 
4 


11 
4 


11 
3 


10 

a 


HI 
3 


11) 
3 


9 


II 
4 




1 


1 


1 


1 
























1 


3 




2 


-> 


2 


3 


3 


2 


' 


> 


2 


i 


2 


Mattapoisett, Mass 


ii 


8 


s 


5 

i.i 


HI 
8 


'.1 

1" 


in 
is 


11 


11 
15 


in 

16 


11 
11 




10 


13 

10 


15 
9 




81 


78 


s;j 


88 


CO 


77 


71 




71 


60 


62 




5C 




Nr\v Bedford, Mass 


177 
:t 


IT4 

;; 


1711 
2 


211 

2 


J19 
1 


239 

t 


IX 


254 


248 


250 


238 
] 


*i49 


282 


311 


Xew Suffolk, X. Y 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 





2 


2 


1 


1 




1 


1 




New London, Couu 


:;;i 


3 ; 
10 


31 


42 
L2 


46 
12 


61 
11 


70 
11 


7 
9 


5 


48 


44 


4-2 
4 


41 


45 


Xw York, X. Y 


3 


3 




2 


3 


2 


1 


1 














Xrwark, X. J 


1 


1 


1 


J 


1 












































1 


2 


3 


Plymouth, Mass 


:i 


3 


6 


9 


7 


5 


4 


., 


1 


1 










Portland, Me 


1 


1 


1 
























Portsmouth, N. H 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 












Ponghkeepsie, X. Y 


6 


i; 


G 


4 


1 






















g 


3 


j 


g 


R 


9 


<t 


8 


G 


4 


3 


2 


i 


2 


I'rn\ incetown, Mass ... 


1 




13 


1C 

; 


17 


19 


23 


IS 


15 


10 


10 
] 


27 


30 


27 


Iin< In ster, Mass 


15 




























Sag Harlmr X. Y 


3] 


31 


30 


44 


49 


60 


63 


62 


50 


41 


23 


15 


18 


19 




1 i 


14 


1" 


12 


6 


5 


2 


2 


2 


1 










Sandwich, M,i - 


























1 


2 


Sippii/an, Mass 




6 


g 


g 


7 


4 


5 


5 


3 


1 


1 






1 








1 


2 


2 


2 




1 


i 


1 


1 








Stimington, Conn 


11 


8 


:i 


14 


13 


20 


26 


27 


24 


M 


18 


L6 

1 


17 
1 


16 
1 


Wareham, Ma^s 
Warren, R. I 


21 


19 


i - 


"1 


4 
10 


6 

20 


6 

25 


4 




1 


1 
15 


1 
15 


1 
17 


1 
10 




g 


g 


In 


15 


11 


11 


11 


13 


14 


15 


15 


16 


19 


22 


Wilmington, Del 


, 


5 


-, 


3 


3 


1 


















-set, Me 


i 


1 


1 












































1 


1 






































Total 


512 


535 


554 


654 


tU7 


683 


722 


651 


647 


608 


539 


546 


611 


648 

































172 



HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

iniln r /' ii'liitliiii/ ii .::< In l>< luii;/ iiiy to tlie sereral JIOI-/K of l>n t'ni:cil .>', Y.S-, .('-< Con! innril. 





1854. 


1855. 


1856. 


1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


1860. 


1861. 


18G2. 


18iH. 


18G4. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 




5 


5 


4 


2 


2 


3 


3 


9 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


*> 




1 


















5 


3 


3 






Cold Spring N. Y 


7 


7 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


9 


2 














3 


6 


9 


1U 


10 


10 


9 


6 


5 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 




10 


12 


13 


17 


19 


18 


18 


16 


12 


8 


7 


6 


6 


o 




49 


45 


48 


40 


40 


45 


42 


39 


29 


18 


9 


7 


g 


9 




3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 










4 


4 


4 


3 


2 


9 


9 


2 


1 














1 


1 


























Greenport, N. Y . 


10 


10 


11 


9 


7 


4 


2 












































1 




4 


4 


5 


4 


2 


2 


-) 


1 


1 


1 


1 


j 








1 


1 


1 


1 




















































Itattapoisett, Mass 


15 


If. 


15 


18 


19 


19 


19 


18 


9 


5 


3 


2 








9 


11 


7 





5 


4 


4 


9 
















47 


4:. 


1" 


41 


S8 


34 




18 


13 


1.1 


10 


7 


> 


c 


Xcw B.fllc.nl, Mass 




::i-l 


:ni 


329 


M4 


316 


301 


291 


260 


L'l'i i 


197 


175 


164 


181 
2 














1 


1 


1 


1 


1 












46 


4.'. 


44 


54 


51 


45 


36 


"I 


Hi 


13 


1C 


19 


15 


18 




5 


5 




4 


:i 


3 


2 
















XVw York, X. Y 




























1 


Orleans, Mass 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 














1 


1 


1 


1 






















Provincetowu. Mass . 
Sas Ilarbor. N. Y 


87 
20 

] 


18 
19 

1 


20 
16 
1 


22 
18 


28 
20 
1 


26 
20 
1 


26 
19 

1 


;r, 

17 

i 


28 
11 


30 

9 
1 


25 
6 
1 


23 
8 
[ 


33 
8 


4". 

7 


Sandwich, Mass 


2 


2 




1 


1 


] 


I 


i 


1 


1 












2 




9 


3 


5 


6 


(} 


5 


4 


3 


3 


o 


2 




Stmiinjiton, Conn 


15 


14 


16 


6 


5 


4 


4 


1 














































1 




























Warebara, Mass 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 














Warren, R. I ... 
Wt'lltleet, Mass 


17 


1C 


14 


15 


15 


13 


10 


4 


3 


2 


2 


1 






"Westport, Mass . 


22 


21 


21 


19 




20 


L'O 


17 


15 


15 


11 


10 


!) 


9 





Co'-' 


131 


6.'5 


642 


6:16 


lit. 9 


561 


504 


416 


;}02 


301 


271 


25S 


307 






] Mis. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


is;:;. 


1874. 


]K7,-,. 


187C. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1'" * <'l IV, M:I.SS 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


















a 


10 


8 


7 


. 6 


5 ' 


4 


<j 


7 














3 


3 


3 


3 








9 


















7 


7 


6 


4 


3 


1 


9 


2 


3 






6 






13 


12 


XI 


g 


6 






















1 


1 


1 


























4 




6 


5 


9 


3 


3 














NaDtncket, Mass 




7 


8 


8 


6 


3 


1 




















1*1 


178 


176 


176 


143 




113 














XuAvburyport, Mass 




3 


3 


3 






















New London, Conn 




14 


15 


15 


14 


10 


10 


9 












_ 


Xi-w York, N. T 




2 


5 


5 


3 




9 




















53 


54 


49 


97 


16 


















San Harbor, N.Y. 




7 


5 


4 


3 


2 


2 


1 


1 












Salem, Masa 




4 


4 


3 


3 


1 
























5 
























Tisburv, Mass 




1 


1 


1 


1 




















"Wellfleet. Mass 




1 


1 


1 


























10 


10 


9 


9 


















































Total 




33 


31!1 
















' 


_ 





































TIIM \VHALK FISHERY. 



173 



fi i mix i.liilislii'n iij' tin 1 ii-lniliii : i Jlirl for 1880.* 



Port. 


Xumlirr 

lit' Yi'SSi Is. 


Tmina^i'. 


Numlu't 
of crew. 


vessels. 


Value of 

outfit. 




Q 


, . 


131 


$34 000 






20 


l *i:;s "i" 


331 


68 800 






2 


17,'p ;ts 


34 


G 500 








1 446 32 


211 


48 000 


80 000 




r 


8G6.41 


03 




17 000 




'i 


408 3:t 


... 




h, MIHI 




1 


"'H r )0 










,2 


:;i "ics >:; 


;; !20 


M i) 






, 


98 ' i ' 


1 1 f 


, 

















Tut 1 


171 


::s i;;;:; :;s 


I 1MX 


) i in 3i ii 


1,775,330 















*Sinee Hie \ear 1SCO tlio fbct lias been meatl.v rcdnrcd. Aeeonling to an annual review of the \\halr Qsbcry, inililisbed by I. II. Bart- 

li It A Si MI,, pf NY\\- r.idl'iird, I ho lie. t on .Taimaiy 1, 1M-5, numbered '.>:; *hi],s :md bail. H, I) Ini^s, and 114 sell -is, a;:uiei;atin;; ill,'-"" tuin. 

The S.:n I'VaneiM-n lire! lias ineie:iM-il t" 17 M'ssels, this port liavhiL: benmie I be headquarters of must "f I In- Xurlli Pacific fleet. Slalislies 
nl the Xni t h 1'aeilic llei t I r eai h \ ear sim e t hi' tie^iunini; of Hie lislie.lv ale .iiiven en iirei'etliny; pages. 

'i'lic names and other details of each vessel in the fleet are jjiven in Section VI of this report. 
The total capital invested in the whaling fleet, wharves, store-houses, and whale nil relinei ies in 
1880, was $4,(2J,(M. 

Xlittniicitt xlioiriiii/ Ilif liiiiiiili/i- nf n-xsi'tii I'liqilniji'il in tin- 1'iii/ftl Xtn.ti* irini/r ji^/n ri/ I'ruin IT'.M 1 !-- 1. 

[Compiled I'lKin the Report of tbe Commissioner of Navigation for 1884. The years, eseeptiDg 1835 and KS43, wbic-b end September :;(i and 

June 30, respectively, elose witb Deecmber :;l | 



Vra 


Tons. 


Tear. 


Tons. 


Year. 


Tons. 


1794 


4,129 


is'jr. 


;c. 1179 


1856 


1J-9 4111 


179-, 


3 103 


i- ii 


41 984 


1857 


195 842 


1796 


2 364 


1827 


45 992 


1858 


198 594 


1797 


1 104 


1828 


54 801 


1859 


185 728 


1798 


763 


1829 


r>7 ->.4 


I860 


1G6 841 


1799 


5 647 


1830 


39 705 


1861 


145 734 


1800 


3 466 


1831 


82 797 


1862 


117 714 


1.HI1 


3,085 


1832 


73 246 


1863 


99 '28 


1802 


3 201 


1833 


101 630 


18C4 


95 145 


1803 


12 390 


1834 


HIS 4"4 


1865 


90 516 


1804 


12 339 


1835 


97 649 


1866 


Illn 1711 


J805 


6 015 


1836 


146 254 


]H!7 


52 384 


1800 


10, 507 


1837 


1"9 157 


1868 


71 343 


1807 


9 031 


1838 


124 860 


1869 


70 202 


1808 


4, 526 


1839 


13' 1 285 


1 S70 


117 1154 


1809 


3,777 


1840 


lllli c .:'.'7 


1S71 


lil 490 


1810 


3 589 


1841 


157 405 


1872 


51 608 


1811 


5 299 


1842 


15' 1 990 


1873 


44 753 


1812 




1843 


l.V' 517 


1S74 


39 108 


1813 


2 942 


1841 


1C8 014 


1875 


38 229 


1814 


562 


1845 . 


190 903 


1876 


39 116 


1815 


1,230 


1846 .. 


lb 7 420 


1877 


40 593 


1816 


1 168 


1847 . . 


193 859 


1878 


39 700 


1817 


5 224 


1848 


192 613 


1879 


40 028 


1818 


16 750 


1849 


180 186 


1880 


38, 408 


1819 


32 386 


1850 ... ... 


140 017 


1881 .... 


38 551 


18 9 


36 445 


1851 


i.^l r.4l 


1882 


32 802 


1821 


27 995 


185 


193 798 


1883 


32 414 


1822 


48 583 


l*Vi 


193 203 


1884 


27 249 


1823 


40 503 


1854 


I'll '.ml 






1824 


33 346 


1855 


186 848 



















174 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



10. LIST OF WHALING VOYAGES FROM AMERICAN PORTS, 1870 TO 1880. 

The following statement gives the name, rig, and tonnage of each American whaling vessel 
since 1870; also the whaling ground, the date of sailing and returning, and the amount of oil and 
bone secured by each vessel during tbe years 1870 to 1880. The vessels are arranged in alphabeti- 
cal order by ports, and according to the year of their departure on a vovage. Vessels lined Jrom 
Stouingtou and New London for Antarctic fur seal and sea elephant voyages are not included. 

These returns from 1870 to 187C are corrected from the list given by Alexander Starbnck in 
his History of the Whale Fishery, and for later years are compiled from the tiles of the \\haleinen's 
Shipping List and the custom-house records. In the, report of the U. S. Fish Commission for 1877, 
Starbuck gives, as far as practicable, the details of each voyage from American ports since the 
beginning of the fishery, and also information as to the owner and master of each vessel. 

The details of voyages of vessels in the North Pacific and Hudson Bay fleets are also given 
above, on pages 86 to 94 and 99 to 104. 



of rcnx(h xcitt out anniiaUi/ since Isiil. 



Tears. 


Number of 
vessels. 


Tears. 


Xombrr of 
vessels. 




126 


1870 




1861 


75 


]871 


G6 


1862 


14 


1872 . . ... . . 


GO 


1863 


90 


1873 


37 


1864 


98 


1874 


49 


1865 


131 


1875 


75 


1866 


131 


1876 


71 


1867 


139 


1S77 


70 


1868 


113 


1878 


61 


1869 


103 


1879 


54 











From 1870 to 1880 the number of individual vessels that participated in the whale fishery of 
the United States was 326, and the number of vessels lost while on their voyages was G7. From 
1860 to 1880, 1,734 voyages were undertaken: 998 to the North and South Atlantic oceans; 271 to 
the Pacific Ocean; 201 to the Pacific, Arctic, and adjacent waters; 147 to the Indian Ocean ; 117 
to Hudson Bay and Cumberland Inlet. 

From 1870 to 1880 615 vessels sailed from home ports on whaling cruises. Of this number 
385 were fitted for cruising in the Atlantic, 96 in the Pacific, 49 in the Indian Ocean, 52 in the 
North Pacific and Arctic, 18 in Hudson Bay, 12 in Cumberland Inlet, 2 at New Zealand, and 1 in 
Sooloo Sea. None have been fitted for the Indian Ocean since 1877. The largest number of 
vessels fitted in one year during this decade was 75 in 1875, and the smallest number was 37 in 
1873 ; 63 were fitted in 1880. 



TOE WHALE FISHERY. 

tiinriiiiii icluilinii ri'iixi'lx, 1*70 / 1SSD. 



175 





tic 


c 
a 
a 

230 
380 
239 
226 

338 
311 
273 

300 
361 
163 

li 11 
319 

17:; 
356 
327 
412 

258 
280 

Kin 
158 


si 

-2 
u 

.a -' 


of return. 


lie-suit of VO 


Remarks. 


llaiieN sperm 
oil. 


IJavri'ls whale 

oil. 


I'ounds whale'. 
bone. 


1870. 

A', u /.'. i(!'rif, .U./N.-; 

\.l.lis,. 11 


I'.iirk ... 
do 


I'aelll 
Imliao ( le. an J 
. Ocean 

lludsm. 

auilllld 

North Pacific . 
Indian < 


Maj !0 

Si-pi. 1 
0,1. Ill 

June 21 
Dei 

Oct. Ill 
Ocl. 19 
.May 11 

Apr. 27 
July 11) 
Oct. 26 

Oct. 26 
Sept. 29 

Sept. 27 

Ail". 2:i 

July 8 

July 111 
Aug. 6 
Nov. 10 

May 4 
Nov. 7 

An< r 1 


Apr. in, 1x71 

Sept ' 

May 
July 21 

Oct.. 0, 1871 
Felt. l:i, 1X74 


:in 
j (inn 
819 


039 

200 

1,340 
15 




Sent homo l>n 01 i in 55fl !,,.!,, 

S ' ' ' !>I ain ' ' 1. .1 \ I'l.iml died, and ihe '. .! 
1 \\ as elama-e d in a gale. 

Sent home 587 spemi, 1,70(1 hone; sold to 
New Vork 1H73. 

St/nt homo 494 sperm. 
Lost in the Arctic 1871. ' 

J. F. Mandonsa, third mate, dropped eh'aet 
in hi boat while fast to a whale, Ix7o ; 
sent home(i91 sperm, 290 whale, 1,300 hone. 

Sent home 1,215 sperm. 
Sent home 97 sperm ; lost in the Arctic 187 1 . 

Captain Gifford died August 26, 1873, at sea; 
sent home 25 sperm. 

Lost in the Arctic 1871. 
Do. 

\Vilhdrawn 1872. 
Iloliei I, Saulslntry, I'onrth mate, died at Val- 
paraiso, Ma\, 1873; sent home 437 sperm. 

Sent hem.' 278 sperm, in whah'. 
Sc-iil home, ixi sperm . lest in the-. Arctic 1871. 
Sent home 721 spot in 

Added 1870; formeily a freighter; C. W. 
S\\ain, sc'COlnl mate-, drowned by a foul 
line while t'ast to a whale, May 7, 1872; 
-sent In imos7o sperm, B25 whale, 2, 124 bone. 

Transferri'd from \e\v York 1870; se-nt 
homeSfllsperm ; sold toSan Francisco 1873. 

Sent home in spe-mi; stove hv ice in the 
Arctic 1X71. 

Sen! liotne 171 sperm: sold \ Peert .Teller- 
son for lie'i",htiiiL' 

Se nt liomi' 71x sp.i m ; i'e .tie ii -in iie-el al. Malm 
Oe toller, 1872. 

Captain Iteiw.l.n l.-ll .it San Francisco; 
< a). lain 1 :'-h i.i^e. lonnetly of Ct 
took e, .mm. m. 1 ; s.nl llolllc 39,836 bone. 

Mr. (lai I i1\ fourth mate mii'di-reil lev ooe 
etl' the . . w May. 1^7:i: sent home 309 

SjllTIH - ,7 i ' 

Se-n1 home 1 ,V1 S[:I-IMI; lust in the Arctic 

Sclitemhl-l, 1-71 

si-iit holm 470spcmi.319olephant; crashed 

li., iec ill the Are/I ie- August HI, 1X72; had 

XHI) spcl III. 

rairiU'il at se-a. Tilly 21. 1X70; tireel hy the- i . v 

Captain 11 > l.in.l a in. home -,i< k 1871. 
Sent home 242 sperm, .~>s \\hah-. 

Sent home li:ill s]ienn. 372 whale; sold to 
l:an^or, -Me., for the African trade, 1873. 

Added 1870 from Fairhaven ; sent homo 129 
sperm. 

Sent hoi] o .'IIIG sperm, 1,040 "whale. 

Sent, homo 230 sperm, 800 bone; lost off 
Celebes July, i.sri. 

Sent, home 2:10 sperm. 
Added 1X7H; sent home ::il spei 10. 

Sem home in sperm; condemned at Fayal 
Noycmber, 1871. 


Ulred Gibba 
V.nsi ! * Jibbs 


. , . do . . . 

...do ... 

(In 


22, 040 


981 




do 




Sl.iv - 
Bark. .- 

Ship .... 
...do .... 
Bark 


!2, 187 1 
Oct. 24, 187:i 

Slay 24, 1x7:1 


991 

284 

610 


4 
85 




Cicero 

Commodore Mnrria .. 
Contest 




...do 
North Pacific . 
Indian Ocean . 

North Pacific . 
...do 

l':n ill. . 
Atlantic 

Paeilie ( le, .1 II 

Indian Ocean 
North Vac iii. 

' ICC Mil 

... do 

Atlantic .'. . . 

North Pacific, . 

s,,o]o,i Sea 








June 2, 1X74 


954 








Sbip... 
Bark.... 






Itowland 


Jnlj : 
Oct. 2,1871 

July 2, 1X74 

Ocl. 7,1X72 


247 

1,081 
091 


444 
301 
4 


:,, 201 




Srh.x.n, r 
Bark.... 

...do ... 


-John ( 'iii ver . 




...do . . 


Mary ;md Susan 
Niger 

Ocean Steed 


. do .... 

Ship .... 

Hark... 
do 


June 4, 1874 
Aug. If), 1-71 


H7f 

4X1 


6 


















ilo 


Oct. C, 1X7:: 


1,199 






<lscro];i '_M 




Pacific 


do 


n 


Indian Ocean 

Atlantic 

North Paeilie . 
I'aeilie I I. e:m 

North Vacilic. . 

I'.ieitie Ore. an . 


Oct . .-. 
.Inn, 1 
Oct. 1!' 

Oct. ! 

Nov. 1 
Mav 


1 19,1873 
Oct. 11,1X71 
Ma\ ,' 

Sept. 


931 
11! 


70 




Petrel 


Schooner 
liatk 




:; 22.- 

41(1 






do 


Keindeer 
Koscoe 

Ii"ln t Edwards 
-ni 
Stafford 


Ship.:. 

Uark . . . 

Ship . 
Bark.... 
do 










305 
ISO 

141 

(111 

215 
200 

73 
120 
S31 


Pacific o. .-.in 
Indian Ot can 
Atlanti 


Oct. 26 


Ma; ! 

Nov. 4 

Julie 7 

May 12 


May 2,3875 
May 5,1873 

Aim. 11.1871 

Sept. 1 I, 1S72 

il, 1.S7I 


1, mi 

fill 

39 
992 

x: 
109 


650 

141 


1,707 


Starliubt 


Brig.... 

Schoonei 

...do ... 

Sc-ln Ollel 

. .do .... 
Bark... 


... do 

i Ocean . 
.. do 

Atlantic 
do 
. . . do 


HI: 




Vigilant 
Xuntlio 

Fairha-ccn, J/rt.v.v. 


GeiT^'r J. Join 

WiiliiUn :inil Jinny 



176 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Voyages of American u-LnHni/ reselx, 1870 to 1880 Continued. 





ti 

'A 

Srlin.in. 1 

,],, 

I'.alk .. 
. .1.. . 

. . do ... 

.. do 




a 

a 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date ofrctiun. 


Result of voyage. 


Withd 
Seuth 

Sent h 

Sent h 

S, nt 1 
Sent 1 

Withd 

Sent 1 

Sent, 1 

Withd 
Sent h 

Sent 1 

Sailed 

C.u 
spel 

Sold t, 
Lost i 

4001 

Withd 
Addei 
Lost a 
Mensl 
Addei 

Sent h 
Sell! 

bone 

South 
Lost < 

tobe 
bone 
crew 

Al.am 
boa] 

bone 


I 
1 


Barrels wbale 
oil. 


Pounds whale- 
; hene. 


1S7O. 

Marion, 31a.\n. 

William Wilson 

Wrxtpvrt, J/rts*. 


83 

'.1-2 

]'.,: 

In 
Hi] 
(-7 
92 


A t lantie 
. . tio 

I'aeilie Ocean - 
\ t l.inlie 


May 17 
May 17 

Nov. 22 

Tel,. ' 

May 12 
Jan. 11 
Jan. 11 
Dec. '-'I 
Feb. 12 
Jan. 8 
Oct. H 
Jan. 11 


Sept. 24, 1870 
Sept, 23, 1870 

Apr. 15, 1873 

Sept. 9,1870 
Sept. 6,1871 
Sept. 5,1870 
June?7.1S70 

Nov. 23, 1871 
June 21, 1871 
Aug. 2. 1 - 1 , l)-7o 

June 11, ]s7:; 

Sept. 1,11-7.1 


173 
1,231 

39 
206 
11 
10 
149 

148 

111!) 
1(3 


8 






A '1 '_li:i!ii:i 
A nt.ttctir . 


15 
50 
189 

124 
21 
170 
151 

ii 




.. do 
. . do 

ill. 

do 






Kiln -iiliM- GI-ITV . 






do 


.. 


07 

)<I7 


do 
do 


i -.. e II Phillips - 


do 






do 




111" 


do 


.Jan 2il 
Apr. M 

May l(i 

Feb. Lli 

Jan. 4 
Feb. !2 

Jan.. 11 

Apr 21.1 

(Jet. - 

Jan. :{ 

May :; 

July 9 
July 7 

Oct. 7 
Dec. 31 
Dec. 22 


Aug. 25, 1871 

Sept. l(i, Ih71 
S. pi. 25, 1870 
Aug. 9,1871 
Sept. 19, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Aug. 31, 1870 
July 29, 1871 
June 6. 1872 

Oct. 16, 1872 
Oct. 4. 1*7L 
Aug. 22, 1870 

Nov. 20, 1871 
June 1,1871 


123 
135 

73 
12M 
21 
70 
65 
151 
550 

142 

540 
38 






M. E. Simmons .. 


...do. 

. 


105 

Gl 


do 
do 


31 

: 
32t 
180 
131 
50 
229 
60 

310 

40 
6f 

425 

771 




O M Hern in toii 


do . 




... do 


Quickstep - 
Rising Stm 


. do . 
. . do .... 
do 


94 

(JO 
111 


do 
do . ... 

. do ... 




S. A. Paine 
William A. Grozier . . 

Boston, J/nss. 
!' II. Moore 


.. do .. 
.. do.... 

Brig . . . 

.I.. 


131 

l 

107 

1":; 


.. do 

Atl. and Ind .. 

Atlant ie, .... 
. do 




5,000 


Tl.iivei 
A'eW Lninl: n C,in n. 

George and Man . . . 
Peru 


Schoonei 
Batk... 


69 

|n;. 
269 
101 

156 
480 
351. 


do 

Cum. Inlet 
South Atlantic 
f hnlsoii Bay . 

Pacific Ocean . 
... do 


is 


S B. Howes 


Schooner 

Schooner 
Bark.... 
Ship 


San Fraiicixco. Cat. 
C K. Foote 


June 30, 1872 




263 




Cailolta 

Massachusetts . . 
MensMI-.ofi" 










Bark 


LJ 1 .::.;. 


Dec. 10 

Apr. 27 


Aug. 14, 1872 
,1872 


320 






Page 
1871. 

.V. t<> r,:'<[fnfd, .IflV.V.S' 

\ . 1:. Tucker 


Schooner 

Bark ... 
.do ... 


110 

129 
380 
201 

340 
108 
303 

3G5 
305 
299 
328 


. . do 






Indian Ocean . 
Pacific Ocean . 
North Pacific. . 

Pacific Ocean 
Atlantic 
Hudson Ilav 


May 2 
May 1C 
Nov. 11 

June 28 

May l 1 :: 
lire r; 


Oct. 18.1874 
Sept. 21, 1875 


220 
1,450 


2,050 




Active 

Alaska 
Annawan 
Ansel Ciibbs 

liarth. Gosnold 
I'.euj. Cummings .... 
Callao 

Camilla 


...do ... 

. .1,. . 
...do .. 

.- do ... 

. . do .... 
...do... 
do 


Oct 4, 1875 1, 850 
May 16, 1873 40 


1,700 
108 


15, 500 
755 


North Pacific . 
Pacific Ocean 
. . do 
North Pacific 


Nov. 2 
June 20 
July 15 

lire. i; 


Mar. 30, 1876 950 
Sept. 5,1875 1,400 
Sept. 21, 1H75 410 


1,200 


12, 500 


760 













Remarks. 



Sent home 2.~>u sperm, 18 whale. 

Sent 1 ISO speim, ::.~.2 whale 7111) hump. 

Sent home inn 1iale. 

Withdrawn 1871. 

Sent home 220 sperm, 200 whale. 

Sent home 315 sperm ; withdrawn 1871. 



Sent home 2!>r> sperm, 323 whale. 



Sailed ayain soon after, and wa9lostat Aus 
i i s lelniiaty 3, 1873; sent home 4f. 
spetm. I'd \\ bale. 

Sol.l t.. N. w Bedford 1873. 

Do. 
Lost in Cumberland Inlet 1873; went home 



Added 1870; lost in the Arctic Ocean 187J. 
Lost at Seammon's Lagoon February 0, 1871. 
Menshikoff withdrawn 1872. 
Added 1x70 ; withdrawn 1872 ; no report 



Sent borne 305 sperm, 1,070 whale, 22,215, 
bone ; condemned at. Yokohama 1874. 

Sent home 202 sperm ; soldtoFairhaven 1873. 

Lost on Marl.le Island, Hudson Bay, Oc- 
tober 19, 1H7-J ; had 5.10 whale, 10,000 

I ; saved 3,500 bone. Fifteen of the 

el e\\- died of .scut vy. 



'.I in the Arctic 1876; had on 
board 190 sperm, 300 whale. 5,000 bone; 
home 75 sperm, 3,850 whale, 45,778 



TFTK NVI1ALK KtSMKItY. 



177 



l'ltlllll/1'H I'f .lllKI-icilll IT/ i'.lillll (C-i .r<X, I 7H 1,1 1-tSII C'. -.llillllMl. 





u 

g 


i 

= 

1 

314 

2o; 

259 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailinc. 


a 



o 


Kesult, of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 

oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Pounds whale- 
bone. 


1S7I. 

Kew Bedford, Mass 
Continued. 

Charles AV. Morgan .. 
Coi iH'lia 


Bark . . 
..do.. 

do 


Indian Ocean . 
1'acilii 

do 


Sept, 2li 
Oct. 10 

July 19 

July 11 
I'.c 14 
Aug. 21 
July 9 
Sept. 26 
Oct. 17 

Auu'. 2:i 
Sept, 27 
July 25 

Dec. 21 

Sept. '> 
Sept. 2ii 

Oct. 11! 

Jane 21 1 
.Tiini- 17 

Xov. 7 

Apr. 2:. 

Oct. 10 

<lc-t. 4 
July 27 
July 211 
Dec. 31 
May 24 
An- : 
Dec. 4 

Sept. I 

May 9 
Oct. 3 

June 20 

June 13 

May 24 

June 21 
Xov. C 
Apr, Ix 

Oct. 5 

' i i 
Jan. - 


Oct. 31,1X74 


1,340 


242 




Sent home 109 sperm, 1,600 pounds bone. 

Condemned at Paita, March, 1873; sent 
homo 278 sperm, 408 humpback. 

Kun down bv steamship Ttata October 26, 
1873: abandoned with 200 sperm, 350 
whale ; sent home 170 sperm, 3M whale. 

Sent home 415 sperm. 
I'.eloiigs to Dartmouth parties. 
Sent home 572 sperm, 141 whale, 540 bone 
Sold to Wiscasset, Me., 1873. 

Sent home 169 sperm; damaged by ice in 
the Arctic-, August 19, 1872, ani aban- 
doned ; afterward found, taken into San 
Francisco, and sold to pay salvage; sailed 
one voyage from San Francisco then nn 
der Russian flag. 

Sent home 695 sperm ; sold at Albany, New 
Holland, March, 1873. 

Sent. Iiome37 sperm, 4,700 pounds bone. 

Sent home 95 sperm. 

Sent home 230 sperm, 2.302 whale, 29,300 
Rounds bone; sold at San Francisco 1X74 ; 
>st in the Arctic 1876. 

Sold to Edgartowu 1876. 

Sent home 20 sperm ; lost on Black Lead 
Island, November 13, 1871; saved 140 
whale ; built in 1806. 

Sent home 530 sperm, 7,200 whale, 71,318 

1 1, 15,353 ivory. 

Sent home 655 sperm, 465 humpback. 
Sent home 74 sperm. 

Sent home 696 sperm, 208 whale, 1,080 bone. 

Sent home 397 sperm, 1,640 whale, 21,000 
pounds bone ; lost at Panama 1&73. 

Sent home 416 sperm, 7 whale. 

Sailed under Capt. Silas G. Baker, who 
came home 1871. 

Sent home 115 sperm. 

Mr. Crocker, first mate, killed by a whale, 
December 12, 1873. 

Stocked $60,000; $15,000 profit. 





Emma C. Jones 
Etn opa 

George aud Susan . . . 
Glacier 


Ship . . 
...do... 
Bark . . . 

..do -. 
do 


343 
195 

324 

2 1 5 

311 
355 

24(i 

311 

353 
36: 
201 

158 

17.- 

301 

210 

385 

292 

17: 

(i 

128 
321 


....do 
North 1 


Nov. 6.1874 
Apr. 17, 1876 
May 2,1574 
Sept. 26, 1873 
Apr. 15, 1876 


2,137 
50 
647 

340 


3 
4,200 
1,019 

75 






Cum. InM -- 
North Pacific . 
Pacific Ocean 

] ndiilli ( )rr;in 

Pacific Ocean - 
! inli;ni Ocean . 

North Pacific 
Indian Ocean . 

Nni'l h I'iinlir 
Jniliiiii < )n mi 
A tl.im ;r 
North P;u-ilir 

I'.irilic On :m 
l 'inn Inlt-t 

Ninth Pacific. 
Indian Ocean . 

i 1, t ;ni 

Indian < in :m 
Atlantic ... 
....do 
North Pacific 
Indian Ocean - 
North 1'ai itir 


1,600 
i6, 085 




do 


IleivuU'.s 


..do ... 
do 


Aug. 4,1875 
July 14,1875 


1,41(1 
2,700 


965 
1,100 






do 


Jin h IViry 
John P. AVest 


Ship . . . 
Bark . . . 
Ship ... 
Bark . . . 
...do ... 
Ship . . . 

Bark ... 
..do ... 

...do ... 
do 


Apr. 1,1875 
Oct. 3, 1874 
May 22, 1875 
Apr. 30, 1875 
Nov. 3.1x72 

Aug. 25, 1876 


715 
402 
540 

101 


4,550 
1, 752 
4,175 


72, 000 
7,400 
53, 500 




Lacouia 

Mar, ngo 

Maiy Fru?.ier 
Milwood 

Northern Li-lit ... 


1 

1,500 




771 


1,200 


May 17, 1880 

June 15, 1875 
July 13,1874 
May 1, 1874 
S. pt. 1.1872 
Hay 12, 1873 
Hay 10,1875 
Dec, 6,1875 


350 
535 

1,338 

1 
18 
6 
56 


1.15(1 

1,235 
156 
69 
12 
311 
940 









do 


1'etiel . - 


do 


400 




Schoonei 
Bark . 
...do ... 

.. do .. 

do 


Sarah .. 

Sea I'.rcezc 
Sunbeam 
Trident 




8,300 


132 

151 
351 

31E 

8 
M 






\Va\ f 


do 


July 21, 1873 
June 14, 1875 

Apr. 1,1875 

Sept. 17. 1x71 
Sept. 13, 1871 

Sept, 1,1872 
June 25, 1875 
June 6,1874 

Sept. 4,1X7.-. 

Sept. 24, 1x71 
Ang. 30, 1871 


33 
340 

650 

150 
175 

1,60: 

351 
1,041 
10 








Ship . . 
Bark . . 

Schoonei 
do 


1 ml 1. in ( '.'.IN 

Pacific Ocean 

Atl:inl - 
do 


400 
650 


1,001 


Fairhaveii, Mass. 
General Scott 
Marion, jllass. 










Wcttport, Hass. 

Mutta]ioi.sett 
Pl.itina . . 


Bark . . 
do 


111 
21 

ICC 

'-. 

7 




3! 
86! 
26' 




I'.ieitie Ocean 
Indian ( )r< an 

Atlantl 

Allan! i 
) ..do 




a n i-'os 

Edgartnvn 

Pruvi, 


...do... 

Bark . 

Sehooue 
..do ... 




10 
7( 




Arizona 



SEC. v, VOL. ii IL' 



178 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

I'li'ni'/, oj imi-ncan whaling res.sr?x. 187(1 lo 1. U HO Confirmed. 





up 


Tonnage. 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Result of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Pounds whale- 
bone. 


1871. 

rrovincetown,Ha.f!R. 
Continued. 

Atl;i M. Dyer 
B. F. Sparks 
1>. A. Small 


Sri, 1,0111 1 

...do .... 
Brig 
Schooner 
.. do... 
...do ... 

...do ... 

do . 

Brig ... 
Schooner 

Brig . . 
Bark... 


87 
92 
11!) 
67 
82 
60 

94 
69 

108 
96 

143 

217 
192 

116 
128 

115 

291 
367 

258 
408 
107 




Feb. 20 
Jan. - 
Jan. 4 
Feb. 
Feb. 20 
Feb. 17 

Apr. 
Mar. 23 

Nov. 2S 


Sept. 11, 1871 
Sept. 29, 1871 
June 11, 1873 
Sept. 8,1871 
Sept. 7,1871 
Aug. SO, 1871 

Sept. 2,1872 
Nov. 23, 1871 

Apr. 13,1874 
Sept. 11, 1872 

Aug. 14, 1872 

Nov. 9,1871 
Oct. 28,1872 


42 
215 

188 
78 
75 
60 

95 
70 

71 

109 

150 


210 

186 
235 
61 
240 
25 

6 

10 

5 
158 




Sent Innne Hill sperm, 425 whale. 

Towed into Vineyard Haven ; dismantled 
in a gale, August 16. 

Sent home 206 sperm. 
Sent home 505 sperm. 

Sent home 149 sperm. 
Nothing but freight ; broken up, 1873. 

Sent home 430 sperm, 590 whale, 700 pounds 
luine; condemned at Barbadoes, Decem- 
l.< r 14, 1874; Sag Harbor's last whaler. 

No report; lost at Scanimon's Lagoon, 
Lower California. 

Sent Inmi. 41'8 sperm, 1,170 whale, 8,000 
bone; condemned. 

,\ i ru eil at San Francisco. 

Mr. Soverino, second mate, died March, 1875 
Sent home 272 sperm. 

.Added 1871 ; collided with the Mnrengo 
and sunk in the Arctic April 18, 1876; 
sent homo 587 whale, 26,590 bone. 

First mate John X\ Xorton and boat's . lew 
lost 1874, taken down by a whale; aban- 
doned in the Arctic 187G; sent home l"ill 
sperm, 5,100 whale, 79,50] bone; had 
1,600 whale, lii.iino l.one on hoard. 

t':ipt.iin K.llr\ eame home sick 1873: lia<l 
taken at last" report (1877)330 sperm. 3,'JHU 
whale, 32,9r;0 bone ; lost in Arctic 1877. 

odoned MI Mie Arctic 1876; had will 
whale, .'l.lllill In. ne ; sent home 52(1 sperm, 

... I, ije 10 '"Mi bone. 

Sent home 1,203 hale, 24,000 hone; con- 
demned and Bold :it Tfnnol'llii !>. 
2, 1874 


do 
..do .. 
.. do 
... do 
. . . do 

do 
... do 


570 


GI;K ic M. Parker . 
Montezuma 

Quickstep 
Rising Sun 

Boston, Mans. 
Rosa Baker 








do 




Beverly, Mass. 


Atlantic 

Cum. Inlet. . . . 
....do 


May 20 

Apr. 25 
May 31 

July 17. 


New London, Conn. 






Isabella 
Sag Harbor, A' T. 


Brig . . . 
Brig . . . 
Brig . 

Schooner 
Bark .. 


^ - 


228 




San Francisco, CaL 


Pacific Ocean 

Hudson Bay . . 
North Pacific 
Pacific Ocean . 
New Zealand . 
Indian Ocean . 

Pacific Ocean . 


Feb. 4 

May S8 
Jan. 2 
Juno 25 

June 5 

Dec. 4 

May 1 
June 10 
June 18 
May 14 
Jan. 9 

Jan. 3 


Sept. 7,1873 
May 1, 1876 
June 8,1876 
Aug. 17, 1876 


620 
670 
2,600 


878 
1,175 
540 
200 


13, 131 

16, 200 


1873. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
Abbie Bradford 




do 


California 
China 

Coral 


Ship . . . 
Bark . . . 

...do ... 


1,500 


Mar. 5,1877 
May 1,1875 
July 26, 1876 
Aug. 10, 1874 
Aug. 6,1875 


630 
1,390 
2,215 
326 
1,205 


1,320 
459 
185 


12, 000 
1,100 




do ... 


Eliza Adams 
E. H. Adams 


Ship . . 

Brig . . . 
Bark 


Pacific Ocean . 


do 


300 




Ill ' 


do 


111! 
I'll 


Noiih Pacific. 
do 




do 












Ship 
Bark . . . 

do 

. . do ... 
..do ... 

.1.. 

. do 


276 

:;09 

173 
377 
263 


Atlantic 
Nortli Paeilic 

. do 

Indian < Icean 
do 
North Pacific 

V llanlir. 


May 28 
Oct. 3 

Dot. " 

Nov. 26 
June 4 
.lau I.'. 

Jnlv IS 


May 21,1875 


1, 651 


1. I5i 






d ... 

John Dawsoii 
John Howland 
.Joseph Maxwell .... 

Ijii.t ti.. 










Sept. 14,1875 
May 27,1877 


1, HOI 
1, 150 


11 




Au". 18. 1875 1.600 







TIIK \V1IALK KISIIKUY. 



179 



roi/unix <>/ . I mi nV irlialliiii ressrfx, 1S70 to 1880 Continued. 





i 


i 

H 

235 

246 
325 

205 
339 

134 

215 
61 
123 
234 
294 
392 

264 
66 

73 

1?8 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Result of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


3 

ft 

f3 
M 


Pounds whale- 
bone. 


isra. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
Continued. 

Martha 


Bark.... 
do 


Pacific <>rr:m 

New Zealand . 
North Pacific 


Oct. 5 

July 2 
July 9 

May 28 
June 25 

July 2 

Oct. 2 
O'-t. 21 
May 3 
June 3 
May 22 
Juno 4 

Jan. 8 
May 13 

Oct. 9 
May 28 

Maj 22 

Jan. 30 

llif. 4 

May 27 
Aug. 8 

July 23 
June 25 

Jan. 31 
Feb. 22 
Apr. 23 
Jan. 25 
Jan. 25 
Feb. 7 
May 
Apr. 11 

Mar. 10 
Feb. 22 
Jan. 25 

May Lit 

Feb. 29 
Jan. 30 

Sept. 3 










t'.HMlenined at Bay of Islands Novi-mln r 
20, 1874 ; sent home 494 sperm, 365 whale. 

Lost in Arctic 1879; 2,850 whale; 20,000 
bone. 

Abandoned in the Arctic 1876 ; had 1,400 
whale, 14,000 bone; sent home 645 sperm, 
856 whale, 47,200 bone. 

Lost on Marble Island (Hudson Bay) 
September 14, 1872. 

Sent home 540 sperm, 10 blackflsh. 

Abandoned in the Arctic 1876 ; had 1,400, 
whale, 1,800 bone; sent home 295 sperm, 
4,100 whale, 36,390 bone. 

Sent home 278 sperm ; condemned at Bar- 
badoes April, 1873. 

Added 1872. 
Jsold to Fairhaven 1874. 
Sent home 300 sperm. 

E. N. Briggs, first mate, drowned by a foul 
line 1872. 

Withdrawn 1872. 

Sent home 175 sperm. 

Replaced 1872: sailed again in 1872, ar- 
nvr.l SrptrmliiT 16, 1873; lf>7 sperm. 

Returned 1872. 

Formrrh a frci-ljter; added 1872; with- 
drawn 

Sent homr 1">U spt.-lijj, 2TiU \vllal<- 
.-',,!! home 105 whale ; withdrawn 1K74 
Returned 1872. 

SoldatS',, l.Y;,n< '!-. ..(..V.-wTti-dford IW. 


Julie ID, 1876 


1,920 








do 






Ohio 


do 


Oct. 19,1875 


1,600 


60 






do 


Pacific Ocean 
Hudson Bay.. 


Orray Taft 


...do.... 

do 


Sept. 4,1875 
July 22, 1873 
Sept 20. 1874 
July 1,1875 
May 5,1873 


1,350 

409 
1,610 

705 






Petrel 

President, 2d 


Schooner 
Bark . . . 
do 


...do 
.. do 
Pacific Ocean. 
Atlantic 
North Pacific. 

...do 


Clean 
18 









do 






St. G-orc 
Triton . , 


Ship .... 

Bark ... 
Schooner 

Schoonei 
Bri 






June 6, 1876 
Sept. 21, 1872 

Sept. 1,1873 


255 

87 

73 


2,700 


43, 000 


Fairhaven, Mass. 


Atlantic 
do 












Marion, Mass. 


Schooner 
do 


84 

81 


Atlantic 
do J 


Sept. 22, 1873 

Aug. 31, 1872 
Sept. , 1873 

June 15, Ib73 
May 11, 1876 

Sept. 14, 1876 
Oct. IS, li-75 

Sept. 2,1872 
Oct. 7, 1872 
Sept. 14, 1S72 
Sept. 6,1872 
Sept. 13, 1872 
Sept 25, 1872 
U,i:.2s, 1873 
Oct. 5. 1 -7. 

!5,1872 

July 1C, 1872 
:. 1872 
Oct. 

Sr|,t . 
Sept 1 

S,.[,t. 14, 1S72 
Sept 21, 1S72 

, 1874 
May 


24 

260 
158 

22 

1,07(1 

1,760 
1,620 

93 
101 
128 

57 
75 
107 
143 

47 
112 
105 

103 

85 
59 
58 

71 


11 

20 
2 

5 

3,200 

500 

221 
230 
28 
221 
190 
254 
109 








\Vm. Wilson 
Dartmouth, Mass. 
Cape Horn Pigeon. . . 
Westport, Mass. 
A. Hicks 


...do ... 
Bark . . . 

Bark.... 
do 


92 
212 

::M- 
103 

81 
92 

101 

79 
87 
92 
96 

-! 

71 
67 
82 

105 
60 
70 
B1 


.. do 
I'a.-ilic Ocean . 

Atlantic 
Indian Ocean . 

Atlantic 


285 





Provincetown, Mass. 


Schooner 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do ... 
.. do ... 
...do ... 
do .... 

...do ... 
...do .... 
...do ... 
do 

...do ... 
...do.... 
...do .. 
do 


Airy one 

Antarctic 
Arizona 
A.da M. Dyer 
B. F. Sparks 
*.'. L. SjKtrks 
15 H Hat field 


....do 
....do 
....do 
....do 
... do 
....do 
....do 

....do 
....do 
.. do 



. v il.intir. 

do 
.. do 
.. do 











1,438 


Elbvidgc Gerry 
Ellen Rizpah 
M. Parker... 
John At wood 

i ; ion 
Hontezarua 
X. J. Knights 


72 
J14 
323 
180 

156 

" 
15 
80 

HO 
303 








A'cio London, Conn. 

&.rors Barna 
Nile 


Bark.... 
Ship . . . 


291 
27i 


Nnrtli Pacific 
Atlantic 



J80 



HISTOEY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Voyages of American whaling vessels, 1870 to 18^0 Continued. 





fci 
K 


Tonnage. 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Result of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels ppoim 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Pounds whale- 
bone. 


18?3. 

New Bedford, Mass. 


Bark 














Lost near Bermuda July 8, 187i! ; fivo rusn 
lost. 

Sent home 1C2 sperm. 

Sailed again in 1873 or 1874, arrived Sep. 
tember 7, 1875, with 250 sperm. 

Withdrawn 1874. 

Sent liome 63. sperm. 

Sassacus lost at Cape Negro (Nova Scotia), 
August 24, 1873. 

Replaced 1873 ; sent, home 180 sperm. 

Sent home 200 sperm. 
Sent home 151 sperm. 

Condemned at Barkuloes 1874; Beverly's 
List whftler 

Added 187:-. 


Com. Morris 
I), s.l. iiionn 
Edward Everett 
Lagotla 
Mai cells 
Mercury 
Milton 


...do ... 

...do ... 
...do... 
... do 
...do ... 
...<lo ... 
Ship . . 
Bark 


335 
230 
187 
371 
16G 
311 
373 

'''-, 


Atlantic 
...do 
....do 
Pacific Ocean 
Indian Ocean 
....do 
Pacific Ocean 
....do 


July 2!> 
June 3 
July 21 
July 21 
Mov. 11 
May 13 
Oct. 8 
Nov. 13 
Oct. 1 
July 8 
Aug. 5 
June 30 
Ann. 6 
Apr. 10 

July 22 

June lu 
Aug. 28 
June 20 

Feb. 5 

Feb. 20 
Feb. 20 
I-Vli. 'Jit 
Feb. 20 
Dec. 30 

Feb. 20 
Feb. 20 

l'el>. 211 

May 5 
Feb. 20 


Sept. 24, 1876 
Apr. 29, 1876 

Aug. 12, 1875 
Oct. 5, 1877 
.May 2,1876 
Xor. 6,1876 
Oct. 24,1876 
June 28, 1.V7.S 
Nov. 5,1876 
Sept, 20, 1874 
May 2.1X70 
May 24, 1870 
Aug. 5, 1S77 
Sept. 26, 1873 

July 1C, 1877 

Sept. 21, 1874 
Apr. 16,1876 
Aug. 20, 1875 

Sept. 15, 1873 
Sept. 24, 1873 
Sept. 16, 1873 
Sept, 9,1873 
Sept, 26, 1873 
Sept. 13, 1874 

Sept. 10,1873 

Aug. 12, 1873 
Sept. 2,1873 
Sept. 14,1873 
Aug. 20, 1874 
Aug. 30, 1874 


2,930 
1,600 
891 
1,330 
1,051 
1,200 
2,360 
1,910 
1,670 
851 
1,033 
880 
1,450 
170 

820 

337 
1,825 
1,210 

37 
171 
117 
125 
357 

121 
105 
138 
32 
L75 
123 


87. 
23 
2,700 

500 
200 




14, 500 

1,200 
1,363 






do 


341 

oog 


Atlantic 
do 









do 


Sar.ih 

Stafford 


...do... 
.. do... 
do 


128 
156 
^79 


... do 
Indian Ocean . 


780 
230 
300 






2, Ott) 




Schooner 
Bark... 

Bark 


66 
231 

110 
273 
19: 

81 
92 
101 
79 
92 
89 

71 
67 
82 
70 
94 
69 
110 


do 


Dartmouth, J/nijf. 
Matilda Sears 

Tfestport, Mass. 


Pacific Ocean . 

Atlantic 


670 








do 


Indian Ocean . 
...do 






Sen Queen 

Provincetoivn, Mass. 


..do ... 

Schooner 
..do ... 
..do .... 
.do .... 
. do .... 
. -d .. 

..do ... 
. do .... 
..do ... 
. do ... 
. do ... 
...do .... 
do 


80 

86 
158 
45 
258 





Alcyone 
Antarctic 
Arizona 
B. F. Sparks 
B. H. Hatfield 

Elbridge Gerry 
Ellen Rizpah 
Gracie M. Parker . . . 
N. J. Knights 
Quickstep 
Rising Sun 


....do 
....do 
... do 
. . do 
....do 

...do 
...do 
...do 
.. do 
...do 
...do 


191 
207 

202 
210 
22 
245 


1,430 


Wm. A. Grozier 

Boston, Mass. 
T\ H. Moore . . . 


...do .... 
Brig 


117 

107 
123 
96 

143 
192 
245 


. . do 


May 12 

May - 
May 29 
May 14 

May 20 


Aug. 17, 1874 

Aug. 6,1875 
Sept. 24, 1874 

Sept. 17, 1.S74 


487 

C2j 
187 










Heman Smith 
Sarah E. Lewis 

Beverly, Mass. 
Eschol 


. . d" . . . 
Schooner 

Bri" 


..do 
..do 


11 
5 




New London, Conn. 
Isabella 

San Francisco Cat. 
Florence 


Brig.... 
Bark . . 


Cum. Inlet 
Pacific Ocean . 


June 26 

D.','. f!4 


Sept. 2, 1873 
Nov. 12,1874 


80 


Clean 
200 






TIIK \\HAI, K FISHERY. 



181 



1\>i,ii<li;i ()/ Ann fit ni: ir/i<j/M.; vetatl . 1-70 tn IScO Contiuued. 





H 
K 


Tonnage. 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Ke.-uli of voyage. 


Kemarka 


Barrels npenn 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Pounds-whale- 
bone. 


1SJ |. 

-V' u Bedford, J/rts. 


Bark 


12! 




Xov. -Jti 
>l.i> 12 

July 16 
Dec, i- 

May '.< 
Ail.i;. 4 

ilav 'JS 


Oct. 25,1876 

Sept. 14. lS7'i 


800 
CO 






First mate and Imat's crew lust in the ice 
St pi ember 5, 1874. 

Nine hundred sperm to March 5, 1877, when 
she. was condemned at Mahe. 

Alianik'Ued ill the Arctic l!-7<; ; had 1,400 
whale. 8,0111) In, lie ; sent home 600 sperm, 
1,220 whale, 10,000 bone. 

October 26, 1880, had taken 480 sperm, 4,175 
whale, 43,300 bone. 

Bought from Westport 1874. 
Flirty seven pounds ambergris. 
Bought from Westport 1874. 

T. F. Morae, third mate, killed by a whale 
Jane, 1S74. 

r.ou^ht from New London 1874. 

\'ldi il 1K7I ; acnt home 145 sperm. 20 whale; 
.-ailed a-am lt-71 ur 1 ' Si p- 
t.iubei-21, 1875, with 315 sperm, 10 whale. 


Abl'ie Biadt'oid 


Selinmiel 

, 1 1 


llf 
231 

221 

"<ir 


Hudson Bay . 

Indian Ocean . 
... do 


650 


12, 000 






<l.i 


!!, 1878 
6. 1.-7:. 


250 


45 
300 







do 


Coiu. lius Huwliitxl 
Eliza 


Ship . . . 

Hal k 


North Pacific. 
... do . 


Out 1880 










Brig . . . 
Bai k 


107 

341 


Atlantic 


Oct. ) 
S, r t. 17 
( ), I -!) 


If), 1876 
June i 

N,n ! 
June i 
M..\ :;. 1878 
Oil. _4, 1.-77 
June 17. 1-7:- 
Jiine 5, 1S77 
July 3,1876 
May 4. 1S78 
Apr. 2'-', 1877 
May 29 
June I'. 1 . 1>7 
Oil. i'li, 1S7G 
M.i> 20, 1877 
S. pt. 7, 1875 
ScptJ Hi, 1875 

>, pt. . 

May ! 
June .4. 1S7S 
Oct. 5. l.*7ci 

S, ]it. 3, 1874 

Oct. ' 
Apr. 1 : 

Oct. '.I.1I-74 
Sept. IS, i 75 

Oct 12, 1877 

1, 1S74 
Sept. 10 

Oct. ; 

Sept. in. 1*74 
Auj:. 

l.>74 

S, pt. ; 
20, 1-74 
Sept. 13, 1.-74 
Sept. li, 1S74 


330 
1.310 
910 
172 
1,840 
1,000 
1,380 
1,900 

400 
1,640 
1,900 
2,000 

1,050 
125 


10 

1,260 
36 




i;, orge and Susan .. 
Hadley 


do 





do 


ifii 


do 




do 


i'.i 






Jaim - Arnold 


Ship ... 
Bark . . . 
do 


346 
3(M 
320 
"il- 


Pacific Ocean 
Atlantic 
Pacific Oceau 
do 


Aug. li 
.him- ;.-: 
-lul> i 
Aug. 11 
Oct. 14 
July 13 
Aug. 14 
Oct. 17 
Jim -Jl 
Nov. Ill 
July 7 
ilay 
hnir !' 
July 1 
May L'7 

May 1!) 
Nov. 3 
May 10 

Apr. IM 

>. jit. -Jl 

May L"_> 
June 11 

Feb. 12 
Jan. '.'4 

Feb. 28 

, 

Apr. 14 

.Mar. _' 
Mar. 2 


... . 
650 
1,700 


2, 000 
1,400 




Hare 


do 


70 




Mai i and Susan - 
Mattapni.si.-tt 


...do ... 
...do ... 
do 


327 

no 

;-;>> 


...do 
Atlantic 
do 




200 
17 

550 
630 






. . do ... 


277 
41" 


Pacific Ocean 
do 


3,300 




Sbip 




Bark ... 
do 


17': 


Atlantic 
<lo 




Petrel 


.do ... 


257 

(il 
257 
273 
260 

66 

215 
150 

7:i 

.-4 
9J 

150 
02 


Indian Oo-.m . 
Atlantic 


200 


1,629 


Pell. I 


Schoonei 
Bark... 




Hudson Hay . 
Atlantic 


500 

10 
475 


8,000 




...do ... 
. do ... 

Schoonei 
Bark... 


1, KU 

180 
1,410 
750 

85 
170 

188 
185 

810 
134 

100 

148 
10 


St. null. ml 

TjUii'U 


Pacific Oi-i-au . 


Pacifii- Ocean. 
Atlantic 

Atlantic... j 

A tl.mtie J 
.. do j 

A tliiutic .. 


Wave 


. do ... 




Foirliaren, Mass. 


Schooner 

Schooner 

iln ... 

Baik.... 

S. lli.iiliel 

.do 






136 


.... 


llarion, Alois. 
Adnj'l Blake 






William Wilson 
EdgartowH, Jin.**. 
I'.ny 
Frvrinceloicn, J/</.v. 
A "ate 




35 






150 
275 






il., 







do 


101 

711 
92 


do 




i ii 


do 
do 


lit 
140 
8 

HID 
197 
222 
266 


...... 


1!. F. Sparl,- 
Charles Tliomp.-nii 

('. L. Sparks 
Ellen Ui/pah 
OiaiieM.P.ilker .. 
M. E. Simmons 


do 


.do . 

do 

.do ... 
...do... 
...do.... 


,52 

96 
67 

82 

Uij 


..do 

.. do 
.. d.. 
. . du 
.. do 



182 



HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 
Voyages of American irluilini/ vessels, 1870 to 1880 Continued. 





.s 


1 

i 

H 


1 
S 
to 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Result of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Pounds whale- 
bone. 


1874. 

Provincetown, Jfass. 
Continued. 

N. J. Knights 


Schooner 
do .... 


71 




Feb. 12 
Feb. - 

July 28 
May 22 

(June 5 
}Nov. 13 

June 15 
Dec. 22 

Oct. 26 

Apr. 20 
Mar. 27 

Aug. 
Nov. 17 
Nov. 30 

Apr. 'JO 

Apr. 23 
July 1 
Oct 5 


Sept. 9,1874 
Sept. 19, 1874 

July 30, 1876 
May 2,1875 

Oct. 4, 1874 
Sept 21, 1S75 

Dec. 9, 1874 
Out 1878 


92 
140 

450 
270 

56 
320 


83 
210 




Added 1874 from New London. 
| Added 1874. 

Had taken at last report, November 30, 1879, 
475 sperm, 2,025 whale. 

Had at last report, November 4, 1880, 1,080 
sperm, 2,920 whale, 39,000 bone. 

Bought from Fairhaven 1874. 

Bought from New London 1875 ; abandoned 
in the Arctic 1876; sent home 130 spmn. 
1,650 whale, 13,450 bone ; had on board fluo 
bone. 

One hundred and thirtv-two pounds amber- 
gris. 

Lost on the island of Fogo December 20, 
1875. 

Condemned at Mauritius October 27, 1*7 s ; 
had taken 770 sperm. 

Returned to whaling ; fitted ostensibly for 
whaling, but was owned by parties wlm 
dispatched her to Australia, where she 
rescued the Fenian prisoners. 

Lost in a gale five days out. 

Bought from New London 1874. 
Bought from Boston. 

Formerly a schooner ; added from Boston 
and rerigged. 

Had taken at last report, October 30, 1880. at 
San Francisco, 960 sperm, 3.650 whale, 
15,500 bone. 

Captain Dean died of heart disease July 
28, 187(i. 

Abandoned in the Arctic 1876; had 1,400 
whale, 10,000 bonej Bent home 190 sperm. 

Condemned 1879; sent home 670 sperm. 




do 




Boston, Mass. 
E B PLillips 


Bark ... 
Brig .... 

Schoonei 
Ship 
Bark ... 


144 
108 

92 
293 
152 

380 

160 
296 

327 
305 
299 
202 

314 
258 

187 


Atlantic 
... do 

do 




Rosa Baker 


15 




New London, Conn. 
Nile 
New York, N. Y. 
Oak 


Cum. Inlet 
Pacific Ocean . 

Pacific Ocean 

Atlautic 
North Pacific. 


15 
800 


8,000 




1875. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
Abm. Barker 

Abbott Lawrence 


Bark 

Brig.... 
Bark... 

...do.... 
...do ... 
do 


Oct 1880 








Nov. 5,1877 


505 










Adeline Gibbs 
Benj. Cummings 
Callao . 


Apr. 3,1878 


900 


1, 300 




Pacific Oce <u 
Indian Ocean 
Atlantic 

... do 
....do 




...do... 


Aug. 24, 1876 

May 17, 1878 
June 8,1878 


250 

850 
600 






Charles W. Morgan. . 
Draco 

Edward Everett 


...do.... 
...do.... 
...do ... 


90 
1,300 


1,200 


Emma C. Jones 
Falcon 
Gazelle 
General Scott 
George and Mary 


Ship 
Bark . . . 
...do.... 
...do ... 
...do .... 


307 
285 
273 
315 
105 
89 
163 
311 
191 

355 

154 
276 
316 
319 

173 
353 
363 

206 
208 
295 
336 


Pacific Ocean . 
...do 
....do 
Indian Ocean . 


June 1 
Oct. 26 
June 29 
July 7 
May 4 
Dec. 9 
Nov. 30 
Oct. 19 
Nov. 24 

Sept. 29 

Apr. 14 
July 20 
Sept. 27 
June 1 
Nov. 25 
May 4 
Aug. 24 

July 19 
Oct. 11 
June 15 
July 7 


July 21,1879 
Apr. 21, 1879 
Apr. 22, 1879 
May 27,1878 
May 13,1877 
Sept. 29, 1876 
Nov. 11, 1878 
Sept. 17, 1&79 
Nov. 17,1878 

Out 1880 


2,200 
1,400 
1,300 
980 
365 
440 
800 
1,500 
750 






175 
470 
60 




729 




Golden City 
Greyhound 
Hercules 


Schooner 
Bark . . . 
..do.... 
do 


....do 
Indian Ocean . 
... do 


40 
140 




1,000 


1,000 


2,000 


Hunter 


..do... 
do 


Pacific Ocean. 

Atlantic 
..do 
Indian Ocean . 
Pacific Ocean. 

Indian Ocean . 
Pacific Ocean 
North Pacific. 

Indian Ocean . 
. . do 
Atlantic 
...do 


Nov. 4, 1876 
Jan. 1,1877 
July 3, 1879 
May 18,1879 

Aug. 19, 1878 
July 9, 1878 


750 
580 
2,150 
872 

490 
2,250 






Janus 
Jireh Perry 
John Carver 

John Dawsou 
John P. West 
Josephine 

Kathleen 


..do .... 
Ship .... 
Bark... 

...do .... 
. . do . . . 
...do .... 

...do .... 

ilo 


3,200 






65 












May 0,1879 

Sept. 13, 1877 
Oct. 30,1877 


1,560 
920 


70 





Lancer 
Linda Stewart 


..do ... 
...do .... 


1.105 








THE \Y1IALI-; KISIIKUY. 



183 



Voyages of American 



i vessels, \^OtolSSO Continued. 





M 

K 


1 

1 

313 

316 

3C3 

292 

215 
259 
"fK 


"Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Result of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Ponnds whale- 
bone. 


1875. 

New Bedford, J/.sx._ 
Continued. 

Midas 


Bark. .. 


Atlantic 


Oct. 26 










Condemned at Flores October, 18T8; 790 
sperm. 

November 4. 1880; 800 sperm, 5,850 whale, 
52.000 hone. 

Had taken at last report 210 sperm, 370 
whale, 1.80U hone ; lost off Altata March 
8, 1878 ; value, $32,oim. 

Bought from New London 1874. 

Returned leaking. 

At S:tu Francisco October 30, 1880, 445 sperm, 
8,050 whale, 86,000 bone. 

BouRht from Portland, Me., 1874. 

Sold to San Francisco October, 1880 ; had 
taken 530 sperm, 5,975 whale, 49,600 bone. 

Bought from Westport 1874. 

Condemned at St. Michael's November 6, 
1876 ; sent home 380 sperm. 

Lost, in Arctic 1877. Had taken 30 sperni, 
2,213 whale, 14,920 hone, 2 casks ivory; 
value, $40,0110. 

Bought from Marion 1874. 

Sailed anain in 1875: arrived March 31, 
1876, with 80 sperm, 20 whale. 

l;>'t iirned to whaling 1875 
Bought from Xewburvport 1874. 

Resumed 1675; sailed iinain on December 
1.1, and arrived September, 1877; 515 
sperm. 

Bought 1874. 




do 


North Pacific. 

Atlantic 
Pacific Ocean . 


Oct, 9 

July 
July 20 

Nov. 24 
Apr. 15 
Apr. 10 


Out 1880 










do 


Oct. 18,1878 


1,800 








do ... 








do 


June 17, 1879 
Aug. 5, 1878 
June 13, 1877 
Sept, 10, 1876 
Apr. 30,1879 
June 14, 1876 
July 5, 1877 
Out 1880 


1,400 
940 
975 
120 
1,250 
60 
900 


150 


1,200 


Peru 


..do ... 
.do 


... do 
do 


3 




Petrel 


Schooner 
Bark . . . 
..do ... 
do ... 


61 

214 
257 

]0-j 


do 




Platina 


Indian Ocean . 
Atlantic 
do 


Oct. 28 
Nov. 17 
Apr. 29 
Jan. 21 

July 14 
Dec. 1 
Apr. 27 
Oct 2 

June 1 
July 30 
May 12 

Oct. 12 

June 8 
July 8 

May 1 
May 26 
Oct. 25 
Nov. 3 

Mar. 25 
Apr. 10 

Mar. 12 
Mar. 19 

Mar. 11 
Jan. 23 
Mar. 19 
Jan. 8 

Mar. 19 

Mar. 30 

Jan. 23 
Deo. IK 

M.,.. 27 
Mar. 2:1 







President 

rieMil.-iit "d 








do 


351 

305 
263 
183 
323 

Ififi 


North Pacific 








do 


Oct. 7, 1878 
May 14, 1879 
Aug. 22, 1877 
Out, 1880 


7011 
1,490 
680 


910 




Supplio 
Sarah B. Halo 
Sea Breeze 

Sea Fox 


..do ... 
..do .... 

..do ... 

do 


... do 
....do 
Pacific Ocean. 

do 












July 9,1878 
Oct. 22,1876 


1,425 

575 


75 
25 




Seine 


do 


234 
9<u 






do 


do 




do .. 


357 

66 
355 

:- 
84 
195 
183 

81 

9? 


North Pacific. 

Atlantic 
Indian Ocean. 












Schooner 
Ship.... 

Schooner 
Schooner 
Bark 
Bark... 

Schooner 
do 


Sept. 12, 1876 
Oct. 1, 1878 

Nov. 16, 1875 
Oct. 4, 1875 
May 17, 1879 
Sept. 14, 1878 

Aug. 2, 1870 
Oct. 4, 1875 
Oct. 21, 1875 
Sept. 22, 1875 
AUV.. 16, 1876 
Sept. 27, 1875 
Sept. 4, 1870 
S, pt.21, 1875 
Sept. 7,1875 

Sept. 21, 1875 

Sept. 26, 1875 

Sept. 24, 1875 
Sept. 22, li-7ii 

Sept. : 

Any.. 


67 
325 

14 
195 
955 
914 

310 
200 
100 
160 
300 
90 
190 

20 
170 

10( 
ITS 
15! 
(WO 


\ 
900 




Vniiiii;- rhcenix 
Fairhmen, Mass. 
Cohannet 


3,000 


Marion, Mass. 
Admiral Blake 




10 




Westport, Mass. 






ndgartown, Mass. 
Clarice 
'ctwn. Mass. 


Atlantic 


t 

100 








do 




Ant:iretie 

Arizona 
I>. -\.SmaU 


...do ... 
..do 
Brig 
Schooner 
...do ... 
...do ... 

. du 

...do .... 
.. do.... 

...do ... 

. . do .... 
...do .... 


101 
92 

119 
110 
89 
07 
107 

82 
105 

94 

69 

177 


...do 
... do 
.. do 


















i; 11 Ilatlirld 
Ellen Rizpah 
i;..-e H. Phillips ... 

I, "Ilin E. Cook 
M. E. Simmons 

Quickstep 

Rising Sun 
Wm. A. Grozier 


Atlantic 
... do 
....do 

... do 
....do 

..do.. 

i 

...do 
....do 






220 
450 

190 








15 
60 
30 






184 



HISTOEY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Voyages of American whaling vessels, 1870 to 1880 Continued. 





tab 

s 


6 
bC 

g 

a 
o 
H 

107 

122 

108 
9D 

192 
293 

245 

115 
219 

347 
145 
340 
95 
291 
3C5 
202 

367 
226 
3M 

231 

HI 
108 

1(17 
32 
77 
324 

338 

157 

166 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Result of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil- 


Pounds whale- 
bone. 


1875. 

Boston, Mans. 
F. H. Moore 


Brig . . . 
Schooner 

Brig ... 
Schooner 

Brig... 
Ship . . 

Bark 




Oct. 12 


Aug. 19, 1877 

Sept. 23, 1875 
Oct. 4, 1878 

Sept. 14, 1876 
Sept. 22, 187U 

Aug. 27, 1877 
Jan. 11,1876 

Nov. 3, 1875 
Sept. 24, 1877 


690 

160 
290 

450 


19 




iKepIaced 1875. 
Transferred to New Brunswick 1878. 

Lost in Hudson Bay June 12, 1877; value, 
$2-1,000; rebuilt by the Unite.! states dur- 
ing the rebellion; had 200 whale, 4,500 
hone. 

Built at Chelsea 1854; sent home l,!>75speroj, 
175 whale, 4,000 bone. 

Captain Stanton came liitnn- sick 1876; re- 


... do ^ 

... do 
....do 

Cum. Inlet 
....do 

Pacific Ocean. 

Atlantic 
Hudson's Bay. 

Pacific Ocean. 
Atlantic 
...do 
do . . 




Dec. 1 
June 22 
Oct. 11 

June 8 
May 4 

liar. 31 

May 4 

May 23 

June I 
Dec. 12 
July C 
Dec. 27 
Aug. 8 
May '.'I! 
Sept. 13 
Nov. 8 

Sept. I! 

May 23 

July 20 
N.,v. 1 
Sept. C 
Oct. 3 
Sepl. 12 
Aug. '-".I 
July C 

July 10 
May 30 

Aug. 1 












Sarnh E. Lewis 
New London, Conn. 






400 
380 

1,250 


4,000 
5,000 


Nile 




San Francisco, Cat 




1876. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
Abbie Bradford 


Schooner 
B'lik 




750 


10, 000 


Alaska 


do 


May 28, 18SO 
May 10,1870 
Dec. 
July 25, 1S77 
Sept.iC., 1879 
June 27, 1880 
May 21, ISM) 

Nov. 5, 1880 
Nov. 14, 187S 


320 

950 
300 
200 

HIT. 
1,11511 
050 

2, :;sn 

1, 100 


203 


1,217 


A. K. Tucker 
Arnolda 


.do .... 
..do ... 

Schooner 
Bark 


2,450 


15, 254 




Indian Ocean . 


950 
1,000 

170 

140 
500 


7,1)11(1 
4,000 
600 

800 


BartholemewGosnolc 


...do ... 
do 


Paciiie Ocean. 

do 
Atlantic 
North Pacific. 

Atlantic 


California 
Cicero 


Ship . . . 
Bark.... 
do 






do ... 


Aug. 31, 1877 

July 20, 1M<II 

Nov. 13, 1878 

Sept. 13,1878 
Nov. 0, 1873 
June 11, 1878 

Out iw 


Tim 
1,365 
1, 150 
320 
1,032 
150 


1,250 


3,000 


turned to whaling 1870; had taken at 
last report 130 sperm, 900 whale. 12,000 
1 e ; lost in St. Lawrence Bay Ib77. 

Bought from Bostom. 

P,ought from New London. 

Nipvemliri 4, 11-80, had taken 470 sperm, 4,750 
\\hale, (is, uull bone. 

Condemned at Malie, March 7, 1 ?71 ; had 
taken at last report, March 7, 1879, 81b 
sperm, 80 whale. 
Condemned at St. Helena October 15,1879; 
840 spei m. 

Lost in the Arctic October, 1K71I. with 1,000 
oil. 4.0UO ivory, 9,0i,0 bone. 

Five pounds ambergris. 
Sent homo 230 sperm, 40 whale, 2,100 bone. 

Sold on the voyage 17 pounds ambergria ; 
sold to Edgartowu 1SSU. 

September. 1880, had taken 260 sperm, 5,430 

hale, 50,000 bone, 3,000 ivory. 

November 30. 1680, had taken 140 sperm, 
4,800 whale, 58,000 bone. 


E. B Phillips 


...do ... 
Ship . . . 
lirig ... 
Bark 


. . . do 
..do 
...do 

Pacific t > ( ean 






E. H. Adams 






3,079 


23, 684 




Schooner 
I'.ai k 

...do ... 
do 


Helen Mar 
John & Wintlnop 


North Pacific. 

Pacific Ocean 
Indian Ocean 

do 






July 24,1880 


2,000 


230 


1, 650 




do 










Mattapoisett 


...do ... 
do 


110 
311 

241 
372 

243 

20 
8 
61 
25" 
341 

35! 

K, 


Atlantic 
North Pacific 

Indian Ocean 
Pacific Ocean 
..do 

Atlantic 
do 
....do 
. . . do 
North Pacilic 

... do 
Atlantic . . . 


Aug. 7 
Dec. 14 

Nov. 27 
Dec. 28 
July 11 

Hay 9 
Nov. 6 
Nov. 10 
July 2(i 
Dec. 13 

Nov. 16 
J une 20 


May 4, 1878 


960 
40 

1,101 

150 
1,1511 

1,020 
450 
283 
243 


142 
2,000 


jii 031 




do 


Aug. 19, 1880 
June 11, 1880 
June 27, IsTil 

July 8,1878 
Sept. 3.1878 
Sept 15.1877 
Aug. 20. 1879 
Out 1880 


Milton 
"Minnesota 

Ohio 


Ship . . . 
. . do ... 

Bark... 
Schoonei 
.. do... 
Bark. . . 
do 


240 

70 

260 

17 

2E 




600 
1,600 

15C 


Petrel 




Progress 

Sarah... 


...do... 
. do . . 


Out 1H80 






Sent. 3. 1878 


72( 


... 





Till-: \VIIALE FLS1IKUY. 



185 



Voyages of Jmrrimi: whaling vessels, 1*711 / L-SD Oiitiimcd. 



1 


td 




Tonnage. 


1 

5o 
sc 

3 

*n 
ft 

'^ 


Uati- of sailing. 


Hah of return. 


Result, of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Pounds whale 
bone. 


1876. 

Xew Bedford, Mass. 
Continued. 


Baik 




July r. 
Xov. 9 
July 17 

May a 
Apr. IS 
An;;, iv; 

Deo. 7 

Maj -' 

S, pi. 7 
Xuv. 15 

May 21 
Xov. 14 i 

Dec. 1 
Jtaj n 

Mai'. -7 

Oc-t. IS 
June 20 

O;t. "5 

Apr. 20 
Jan. 22 

Jan. 24 
May 11 
Mar. - 
Jan. 24 
May 1 
Jan. 24 
Jan. 22 

Jan. 24 

Apr. ZIP 
Jan. 24 
1'Yli. 21 

Jail. S 
Xov. 11 

!'. I., i- 

M:,v 8 

Dei 
June 24 


Apr. 13, 1879 
Apr. 6,1877 
May 1. 1879 
M:i> 29,1879 
Si-pt. 4, 1873 
Si-pt. 1U, 1SSU 
Out ISfiO 


1,150 
250 
1,210 

1, 280 
1,100 

1, 700 


1,290 


11,000 


Returned to whaling. 

A 1 San FranciscoOotober29, 1880, 230 sperm, 
3, 700 whale, 50,500 pounds lionr. 

nought from Provincetown. 

Sail, d au'iiin in December, and arrived Sep- 
tember 22, 1877; 155 sperm. 

Fifteen pounds ambergris. 

Sailed asain iu December, and arrived June 
78, with 2'.t."> sperm. 




do 


14 


.do 


Stafford 


do 


15R 


.. do 


130 






. do .. 
do 


255 
SR 


. . .do 
.do. 




Triton 
Tlioin.is Pope 

Ti.ipic Biul 
Varnam H. Hill 


..do 

.I,. 

..do .. 
Brig .... 
Bark 

Schooner 
..do... 

Seliniiuel 
. do -- 

Bark .. 

Bark .. 
do 


264 
231 

145 
120 
150 

S3 
73 

84 
0- 

212 

303 


. . do 

North Paiitii- 






Julj :m, 167S 
Si-jit. Ki, 1878 
:n, 1879 

S,pt.22,1876 
Alia. ",, 1878 

Oct. 8, 1876 

S.'pt. 14, 1876 
Oct. 2, 1877 

June 22, 1880 

Srpt. 19, 1878 
Apr. 12, 187'J 

Aug. 20, 1880 

Aug. 2-2, 1877 
Sept. 36, 1876 
Srpt, 15, 1876 
Aug. 30. 1S77 
Sept. 2i>, 1*77 
Srpl. 11, i:-77 
Aug. 20, 1877 
Srpt. 10,1870 
Aug. 29 

July :;u, 1870 
S.-pt 

Srpt. 1 1877 

All!,'. 17, 1877 
Sept. 15, is7f, 
A 111;. 2,), 1870 
5, 1877 
Sept. 12, 1*76 

11,1677 
Oct. 2, 1870 
Sept. 18, 1677 

Xov. 17. 1870 


725 
335 

700 

75 
263 

9(1 
100 

660 

600 
1,701 

800 

460 
115 
80 
310 
3SO 
420 
310 

194 

110 
16a 
241 
7. 
15 
16 
43 
10 

5 
20C 






-- d,, 
...do 

Atlantic ^ 

. . do 






Fairhaccn, Muss. 






Ellen Rodman 
Marion, Mass. 


5 




William Wilami 
Dartmouth, Mass. 
Cape Horn Pigeon . . 
'i>nrt. Mass. 
A. Hu-ks 


.do | 
Fatiiie Occau 

Iiuli;m Orran 
do 


125 

3,050 










Ed'jartown 
Alary Fra/itT 
Provincctown, Mass. 


Bark 

S, Inimi, 1 
do 


301 

92 
101 




1,000 

40 
80 
20 
ISO 


2,200 






do 







do 


70 


...do 


B. F. Sparks 


. . do . 

do 


9L 
116 
152 

ir 


. do 


...do 
...do. 

do 


! Thi.mptmr - 


.. d,, 
do 


20 
200 
180 
9 

201 
200 
221 

200 
200 
125 




Edward Lee 
E. H. Ilatfield. ... 


..do .. 

.. do .. 

..do .. 


IK 

89 

6" 


do 
do 

.. do 






r r iar;e M. Parker . . 
H. M. Simmons 
K. Cook 
M. K. Simmons 
X. J. Knights 

t^luirkstrp 

IliMiiu Sun 
Boston, Mass. 

Heman Smith 
^Yilli.tm Martin .... 
Sauth E. Lewis 

yew London, Conn. 
Nile ... 


. . do ... 
. . do ... 
...do 

.. .In 
...do... 

. do . . . 

..110 .. 

Brig 

Schooni;! 
...do... 

Sbio -.. 


K: 
110 
82 

ID. 
7 
94 
C 

12 
9 
9 

? 


. . do 
....do 
...do 
...do 
. . do 
...do 
.. do 

Atlantic 
.--.do 
....do 

Cum. lulot. . . 




J, ( 
2E 




81 
551 




6.SOC 



186 



HISTOEY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



Voyages of American whaling resseh, 1870 to 1880 Continued. 





.y 


Tonnage. 


Whaling ground. 


ti 

i 

ta 

n 


Date of return. 


Result of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Pounds whale- 
bone. 


1876. 

San Francisco, Cat. 
Clara Bell 


Bark 


196 


North Pacific. 
..do . .. 


Apr. 18 
Mar. 3 

Oct. 2 
July 17 
July 31 

July 2 
Oct. 6 

Apr. 25 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 17 
Dec. 3 
Sept. 18 

Nov. 6 

Juno 27 
Aug. 29 

June 20 
Oct. 16 

June 19 
Sept. 4 
Aug. 7 

Sept. 25 
Sept, 18 
Feb. 20 










Abandoned in the Arctic 1876; had 650 
whale. 

Sailed again November 29, and returned 
October 26, 1877 ; 1,200 whale. 

Withdrawn 1879. 
Sent home !liio sperm, 20 whale. 

Condemned at St. Helena, October, 1879; 
340 sperm, 30 whale. 

October 29, 1880, at San Francisco ; 175 
sperm, 1,900 whale, 22,500 bone. 

September 29, 1880, at St. Helena; 1,140 
sperm, 290 whale. 

Auqusr 27, 1880, at Montevido; 190 sperm, 
2,730 whale. 

Broken up in 1878. 

Junel7, 1880, at Bay of Islands; l,f.70.-perin, 
250 whale. 

September 10, 1880, off Talachuauo ; I.70U 
sperm, 430 whale. 

September 3, 1880, at Valparaiso; 1.770 
sperm, 340 whale. 

November 23, 1879, abandoned at. sea; 900 
whale. 

November 4, 1880, at San iM-anei.-en inn 
sperm, 2,510 whale, 29,000 bone. 

October 27, 1880, at Fayal; 1,420 sperm, 75 
whale. 
August, 1880, atsea; 665 sperm, 400 whale. 

July 29, 1880, at Payta; 1,630 sperm. ;K> 
whale. 
August, 1880, atsea; 1,640 sperm. 

January 30, 1880, at Hobartown ; 4'.'" -pei m, 
80 whale. 
April 25, 1880, at sea; 750 sperm. 

August, 1880, atsea; 1,600 sperm, 65 whale. 

October Tl, 1880. at Tenetifl'e; 800 sperm, 
370 whale. 

Bought from New London 1876; lost ue.r 
MagdalenaBay, California, 1878; had taken 

M) .-.perm, 700 whale. 

Condemned at St. Helena April, 1880; had 
taken 180 sperm, 590 whale. 

August, 1880. atsea; 1,015 sperm 




. do 


Oct. 22,1876 

Oct. 3, 1879 
Apr. 10, 1878 
Sept. 6, 1880 

Sept. 16, 1877 
Aug. 13, 1878 

July 1,1879 
Dec. 12,1880 
Oct. 23,1880 
Aug. 16, 1879 




700 




1877. 

New Bedford, Mass. 


Schooner 
Brig .... 
Bark... 

Schooner 
Bark 


95 

197 
179 

48 
"ft" 




170 


A. J. Koss 
\ttklioro 


Hudson Bay . . 
Atlantic 

do 


243 

40 


2,300 

500 


525 
40 
120 

300 
2,690 
200 
208 






do 


80 

530 

25 


2,400 


Com. Morris 
Daniel Webster .... 
Fanny Brynes 
F. H. Moore 

Fleetwing 

Frs. A. Barstow 
Gay Head 

George and Mary .. 
George and Susan . . . 

Golden City 
Hadley 


...do .. 
. . do ... 
Schooner 
Brig . . 

Bark 

Brig .... 
Bark ... 

...do ... 
...do ... 

Schooner 
Bark .. 
Ship 


338 
327 
66 
107 

328 

128 
265 

105 
343 

80 
163 
349 

355 
348 

154 

276 
384 

385 
371 

295 
236 

312 
188 

327 
337 
277 
173 
257 
61 
228 
123 

357 

37!l 

183 


....do 
....do 
...do 
....do 

North Pacific. 
Atlantic 


Sept. 14, 1878 
Out 1880 


40CI 






....do 

....do 
. . do 

..do 
....do 
Pacific 






May 22, 1879 
Out, 1880 . . 


8t)0 


65 




Sept. 21, 187S 
Aug. 6,1878 
Out 1880 


36 

2111 


40 
10 




J. A. Howland 
James Allen 


Bark. . . 
...do ... 

...do 


...do 
...do 


Out, 1880 








Out, 1880 . . . 








Janus 
John Howland 


...do ... 
...do ... 

..do 


Pacific 
North Pacific. 


Mar. 27 
Deo. 26 
May 1.1 
Dec. 18 

Oct. 23 
Nov. 27 

July 17 
Sept. 18 

AUK. 14 
Apr. 17 
Aug. 7 
May 29 
July 10 

Aug. 15 

Sept. 2.1 

June 12 

Feb. I'll 

Oct. 2 


Oct. 19,1879 


1,070 


75 




June 21, 1880 
Out, 1880 .... 

Out 1880 


800 


3,400 


31,000 


Lagoda 

Lancer 


...do .... 

...do .... 

do 


...do 

...do 
Pacific 


Out 1880 








Lucretia 
Mabel 


.do .... 
do 


...do 


Out, 1880 








Out 1880 










do 


Pacific 
Atlantic 
Pacific 
Atlantic 
Indian 
Atlantic 
. do 
.do 

X.irlll I'a. ilie. 


Out, 1880 .... 
Sept. 3,1880 
Out, 1880 


2,410 


45 


400 


Miuerva 


.. do ... 
. .do 




.do 


Sept, 3,1879 
June 19, 1880 
Oct. 3,1878 
June 15, 1880 
Out, 18SO 


470 
1,850 

870 






Petrel 


do 


i 


27(. 


Petrel 


Schooner 
Bark 
do 

. do 

do 

. . do 
do 


i 
: nt 2d 


60 




Oct. 18,1880 


2, 870 






Roman 
Sarah B. Hale 














do 


May 2.1 
Nov. 21 
Sept, 2.1 


Sept. 14, 1879 
Oat 1880 


280 


350 




Stambonl 
Tamerlane 


..do ... 
..do .. 


260 
372 


Pacific 


Atlantic 


Oct. (i, 1880 


, 300 


200 





THE WHALE 

Voyages of American wlmjing vessels, Ib70 to 1880 Continued. 



187 





ci 



Tonnage. 


Whaling ground. 


bi 

3 
I 



1 

Apr. 6 
May 8 
Apr. 6 
Xov. 7 
Mar. 15 

Feb. 15 
Feb. 15 
Feb. 15 
Oct. 30 
Feb. 15 
Xov. 1 
Feb. 5 
Xov. 12 
Mar. 15 
Mar. 1 

JNov. 12 
Tune 29 
Apr. 16 

July 11 

Juh 11 

Xov. 21 
Dec. 9 

Aug. 2S 

Feb. 27 


Date of relnrn. 


Result of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Pounds whale- 
bone. 


1877. 

Provincetewn, Mass. 


Schoonei 

. .do.... 
...do.... 
...do .. 
Brig . . 
Schooner 
...do.... 
...do .. 
. . .do . . . . 
. do ... 
.. do ... 
..do.... 
...do... 
...do ... 
. . do . . 

Brig . . 
Schoonei 
do... 

Schoouei 
do 


81 
101 
7S 
116 

us 

11C 
67 
82 
116 
82 
105 
70 
94 
117 
09 

123 

122 
90 

134 

89 
292 

84 
92 

231 
66 
149 
176 
260 

115 
160 

7:: 

177 

110 
931 




Sept, 13,1878 
Sept. 14, 1878 
Sept. 11, 1877 
Mar. 31, 1879 
Sept. 17, 1878 
Sept. 12, 1878 
Aug. 13, 1877 
July 25, 1877 
Sept. 14, 1879 
A.ug. 17, 1877 
Sept. 14, 1877 
Sept. 1,1877 
Sept. 21, 1878 
Sept. 18, 1878 
Sept. 17, 1877 

Oct. 0, 1879 
July 17, 1879 

Sept. 18, 1878 

Dec. 4, 1878 
Xi.\. 27,1878 
Dee. 1, 1878 

Sept. 3, 1878 
Sept. 18, 1878 

Out 1880 


120 

340 
130 
480 
630 
380 
125 
175 
400 
125 
160 
55 
241 
500 
100 

150 
340 
430 


100 
100 




Still iu port, 1880. 

Last report September 20,1880; 510 sperm. 
1,050 whale. 

Sail, il ai:ain October 25, 1877; relumed 
October 7. 1878, with 85 sperm. 

\Vrecked in hurricane at Bermuda, Au- 
gust :'!>, l>^ i 

August Hi. 1*78. lost at Rose Welcome, TTml 
son Bay ; 21) barrels whale. 

i Sailed again October 1, 1879; October 22, 1879 
at Miiute\ ill ii u iih lT>ii whale : condemned 
1 at t'api- tiuinl liope March, 1- 

SepteiJiln i 13, I-MI, mast nf Africa; 735 

sperm, 100 whale. 
July 1. 1880. at Auckland: 901) sperm. 


Antarctic 
Aiix.ona 
Carrie W. Clark 
I". A. Small 
Edward Lee 
Ellen Rizpah 
Grade M. Parker .. 
11 M. Simmons 
Lottie E. Cook 
M. E. Simmons 
X. J. Knight 
Quickstep 
\V A . Grozicr 
KUing Sun 

.Boston, Mass. 
Heiuaii Smith 


...do 
do 
... do 
. . do 
... do . 
..do 
. do 
... do 
....do .. 
.....do 
. ..do 
...do 
...do 
... do 













120 
200 
250 
10 
170 
300 
70 
130 














130 






... do 
...do 

Hudson Bay . . 
Cum. Inlet ... 
Hudson Hay 


35 

2? 




Win. Martiu 
\ i " London, Conn. 
Era 






100 
351 


2,000 
8,000 


Kile 


Bark . 

Schoonei 
...do... 

Bark . . . 
Schooner 
Bark . . 
Bark . 
Bark 

Schooner 
Brig.... 
Bark . . 
Brig 

Schooner 

Bark ... 

Schooner 
Bark . 


Marian, Mass. 


225 
90 


\Vrn. AYilson 
Dartmouth, Mass. 
Matilda Sears 


. . . do 
Pacific 








Westport, Mass. 


Oct. 2, 1877 52 


4 
840 
200 
800 

550 
120 


8,000 
3,000 
600 


Edgartown, Mass. 

1'el I y 




Ileiity Trowbiiilge 
San Francixca, Cat. 




Oct. 30 
Dec. 8 

May si 
May 4 

July 2 
May l.'i 

loot! "ij 

Jan. 15 

Jnno 25 

Sent. 12 


May 14, 1-7'.) 
Xov. 15,1878 

Ang. 31, 1X71) 
Sept. 1,1879 
Oct. 21;. 1880 






1S78. 

,\. Bedford, Mass. 

Abbie Bradford . 
Abbott Lawrence ! 
Adeline Gibbs 


Hudson Bay 
...do 
Atlantic 

Atlantic 

...do-. 

.. do 
Pacific.. . 


800 


A. J. Ross 
Astoria 


Sept. 7, 1S7.S 

Ou1 1880... 

S..-PI 23, L879 
Oui 1880 .. 




: < 
230 


3,000 


Bertha 

Caleb Eaton 


Canton . . 



188 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Voyayes of American tclialing vessels, 1870 to 18^0 Continued. 





bb 

5 


I 
& 

314 

112 
361 

258 

91 
107 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Eesnlt of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Poundswhale- 
bone. 


1878. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
Continued. 

Chas. TV. Morgan... 

Chas. W. Morse 
Coral 


Bark . . . 

Schooner 
Bark . . . 

do 


Atlantic 

..do 
North Pacific . 


July 17 

May It 
Mar. 4 


Out* 1880 








September 27, 1880, at Kabcnda; 960 sperm, 
1,350 whale. 

Sailed from San Francisco, where she had 
In en idle tut a \<ar: condemned and re- 
fitted. October 28, IsSO, at San Francisco; 
'.' s.'ia whale, 37,OIJO bone. 

Condemned at St. Helena April 3, 1880; had 
taken 470 spei 10, 590 whale. 

April 15, 1880, at Bay of Islands ; 700 sperm, 

180 whale. 

October 7, is.-n. ai P.iita; 900 sperm. 
July 27, 1880, at sea; 215 sperm, 580 whale. 

.Inly 27, 1880, at sea ; 525 sperm, 1,300 whale. 

October 13, 1880, at Teneriffe ; 430 sperm, 
110 whale. 

Sept. mli, i 29, 1880, at Panama; 300 sperm, 

(ilia whale. 

September 25, 1880, at St. Helena; 735 

sperm, 1.1. :<i whale 

Si pi ember 24, 1880, at Montevideo; 255 
sperm, 835 whale. 

July 15, 18SO, at sea ; 065 sperm, 875 whale. 
October 11, 1880, at Fayal; 1,120 sperm. 

Lost, seven hours out from home ; only three 

men sa\ eii 

Si ptemlter 1!>, ixsd, at Panama; 750 sperm, 
750 whale. 

August 28, 1880, at Mayumba; 495 sperm, 
8.10 whale. 

October Ifi, Isso, at Montevideo; 470 sperm, 

n. lie 

September 30, 1880, at Fayal; 845 sperm, 70 
whale. 

September lii, I-SH, atsea; 1, 280 sperm, 550 

\\ h.lle. 

Had taken, October 5, 1880, 725 sperm. 
Had taken. October 21, 1880, 195 sperm, 1420 
bale, 10,300 bone. 

Lost at sea August, 1879; last report, 300 
spei 111, 40 whale. 


Aug. 23, 1879 


290 


60 


750 










E. B Con well 


Schooner 
Bri- 


...do 
do 


May (i 
Oct. 29 
Xov. 7 
July -J.'. 
Nov. 29 
May 14 
Oct. 8 

Oct. 8 
July !) 
Apr. 1(1 
Oct. 3 

Ma. 28 

Ocl i 
Aug. 1 

An"; 7 

July 1 

Sept. :; 

Nov. Ill 

Oct. 22 
Nov. 12 
Xov. f> 
Oct. - 

Oct. 1 

July 9 
Oct. 15 
Oct. i:. 

Sept. i! 

Oct. 29 
June 4 

Nov. 19 
Nov. 25 

Nov. 7 
Oct. 14 

May :i 


July 28. 1S79 
Sept. 7,1880 
Sept. 12,1880 
Aug. 31,1879 
Mar. 18,1 
:l,1879 
Out 1880 


610 
450 
460 

340 


100 


880 




...do ... 




do . 




Schooner 
...do.... 
Brig . . . 


77 
80 
132 
340 


Hudson Bay . . 
Atlantic 

1 1 1 lit MIU Ba V . 
^acific 


40 
60 
200 


218 
500 
4,000 


Golden City 










Bark 


ill! 


Out, ISHI 
Out 1880 








Louisa 
Lydia 


..do.... 
do 


303 
329 
256 

llll 

238 
322 
41 


Atlantic 
Pacific 








Oct. - 
Out Is 


965 








do 


Atlantic 
Cum. Inlet. . . 






Miittapoisett 
Morning Star 

Xapoleon 


. . do . . 
.do... 

...do ... 


Sept 7 IS79 
Ollti I: -'I 




150 


2,000 




Pacific 
do 


Out, Isso 

(Jilt ].->!' 
















Sept. 21 
Out 1880 . 


411 






Ohio 


Bark 


205 

90 
9 59 








Ohio, 2il 


...do ... 
Schooner 
Bark 


.. do 

... do 
do 


Out 1 








Oct. 12, 1880 
Out 1 


760 








Petrel 


Schooner 
Bark . . 

do 


61 

IV 

160 

235 

53 
326 

126 
303 


. . do 

...do 
Pacific 


Aug. 2", 1879 

Out, ISM i 
Out 1880 


87 






Sarah .. 

Sea Fox 




do . 


Atlantic 

.. do 
Pacific 

Atlantic . . . 

...do 

<ln 










Schooner 
Bark 


Aug. 23, 1870 
Out, 1880 

Out, 1880 
July 20, 1880 

Ollt 1S.-.I 


157 
380 








Tropic Bird 


.do 

Brig ... 
Bark 


VarnnmH. Hill .... 




31arimi. Mass. 
Admiral Blake 


Schooner 
...do... 

Bark . . . 
Brig . . 

Schooner 
do . . 


84 
92 

183 

176 

92 
73 


Atlantic 
... do 

Atlantic 


July 21,1879 
Oct. 2, liO.l 

Out 1880 


40 
120 






Wm. Wilson 
Edga town, Mass. 
Clarice 
Tropic Bird 

I'* u/ uiri'lown, Mass. 







North Pacific 

Atlantic. 
...do 


Out, 1880 ... 
Sept. 1, '879 








17C 


25 






B. F. Sparks 


do . 


'H 


do 


May 1 
Feb. 16 


Sept. 1.1S79 ::-j; 
July 22. 1879 >'?. 






Chas. rliiiiuii.-i'i. . 


...do .. 


15? 


..do . 


40 





THE WHALE FISHERY. 

Voyages of American whaling vessels, 1870 to 1880 Continued. 



189 







i 

95 

82 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Picsult of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
oil. 


Pounds whale- 
bone. 


1S7S. 

Prrwincetown, Maxs. 
i 'onliuued, 

( 'In a L. Sparks .... . 
K II Hat tied 


Scll.ionel 
do 




May 3 
July 6 
Feb. 4 
Mar. 14 
Apr. 25 
Jan. 30 
Mar. 14 
Feb. 4 
Feb. 6 

Feb. 14 

July 17 
May 1 

April 18 

June HI 

\ov. 2 
Nov. 1 

May 2J 
Oct. 13 

.May 14 
Sept. 17 

June :: 
Oct. ::n 
June ^:; 

May M 
Ocl 1 ! 

Dec. 16 

Sept. 1 
June 12 

(id 23 
May II 

June 11 

lid. - 

An..'. 5 

.iuno I 
Sept ; 
Nov. 1 


June 5, 1879 
Sept. 18, 1878 
Sept. 7,1878 
Sept. 10, 1878 
Aug. bO, 1880 
Sept. 12, 1878 
Au^'. 22. 1S7'I 
Sept 14, 1878 
Sept. 16, 1878 
Sept. 1.1878 

Juno 3, 1879 
23, 1878 


200 






Lost in Arctic 1878 ; had taken 650 whale. 

July 12, 1880,- at sea ; 550 sperm, 240 whale. 

October 4, 1S80, at Bermuda, dismasted ; 200 

sperm. 

October 0. I860, at St. Michael's ; 325 sperm, 
310 whale. 

Aunust 17, 1880. at Mayumba; 330 sperm, 
hale. 

September 25, 18811, at St. Helena; 425 
sperm, 100 whale. 

July 27, 1880, at sea ; 450 sperm, 80 whale. 

Sept i tuber, 25, 1880, at Fayal; 25 whale. 

Mate tY,i/e to death while ;:oin for food; 
1,., uuht home remains ot Dr. Irvirin, of 
Sir Jolin Franklin expedition. 

July 2(i, 188(1, at sea; 1!I5 sperm, 35 whale. 

Odi.hrr Hi, 1880 ; 81.", sperm, ,",10 whale. 540 
l.one. 

Seplembd 2, 1880, at Montevideo: 170 

s|>ri in. .'llll \\ hale. 

Septeinlier i. 1880 off St. Helena : 535aperm, 

\..i V, liale. 

Scptcmh.r .1. 18-d, at Panama; 170 sperm, 
4.MI \\ hale. 

i 1,, r In. 1880, at San Francisco ; 205 
speim, 2.350 whale, 43,000 bone. 

s,.|,t. mbi i 30 ' U al Fa; .,1 ; 175 sperm. 

Ti.m h iie.l t'loni I'rovincetown. 

October 13. 1880, at St. Catheti D e's; 750 
spenn, 280 whale. 

.lulx 20, 1880, at sea ; L'nO sperm. 
Lost in ".ale \\lien lew- da\s out; all but 
live lest. 

August 18, [880, at Talcahuano: 220 speim. 
June 15, 1880, nt sea ; 2sn sperm. 285 whale. 
June 15. 1880, at sea : 370 sperm. 


,lo 






Kllcn Ri/pah 


do 




80 
25 
1,000 
90 
390 
100 
90 
70 

385 


17(1 
200 








lil 


do 




<ra e H. Phillips 
!';ti*ker 
L- it lie K Cook. 


do . 
...do... 

do 


100 
81 
82 


.. do 

.. do 
do 




2111 
100 
250 
300 
220 








.. do 


llll 


do 




M O. Cum-n .... 
X. J. Knight ........ 

Boston, Mass. 


...do .. 
. . io ... 

Biig ... 

Schooner 

Bark 


102 

69 

108 
86 

245 

302 

95 
llll 


. .lo 
. . do 

AtHntic 






Sarah E. Lewis 
San Francisco, Col. 


...do 

North Pacific. 

Atlantic 
do 












isrsi. 


Bark.... 

S, 1 in i 

do 


Out, 1880 










Sept. 111. 1880 
Out. 1880 . 


160 


5 






do 




('has. \\". Mnfst- 


do 


112 


do 






Baric 


-' v. 


do 


Hilt 18-, 1 






200 


I] 1'. ('unwell : 


Schooner 


91 

71 


....do 
do 


Sepi. .;. : 380 

All;;. 
Hill, ].- i 

Hut 188,| 


380 
205 


20 


Eliza Adams 

Falcon 

Faimv Iln in s 


Bark.... 
Schooner 
Bark....; 


4U8 

00 
105 

178 
311 

27(1 
316 


..do 

...do 

di. 

Atlantic 

...do 

I'a. ilk: ... 
Atlantic 




Out, 1880 

Sept.".:, 1880 
Hut 181 


- 


70 2.4CO 


Li-ruii^- and iluvy 


]]! ales 

J.IIIHS 


.. do .... 
...do ... 
.. do 


Out. 1880 .. 




Out, 1880 .... 

Out, 18811 . . . 
Hut 18811 










i 


M.ny and Heidi 


-t, amei 
I'.ark .. 


421 
llll 


Norlh 
\ t! i. 


Out, I8i 

1 -HI 





.... 






(Id 
Out, 1-811 . 


300 


9 





. . 
Ma ina ... 


Bark .. 
do .. 

Bark... 
do 


214 
61 

257 

1.1 


I'acilie 
Atlant ic 

.. do 

.... 

Atlantic 
.lo 

do 

- . do ... 


1'et id 










nt 
Sappho 


June 
Out, 1880 

(mi i-.-.i 


't:; 

65 
18 


85 


1,001 


Sea 11. inner 
Sl.illmil 


.. do .. 
...do .... 

...do.. 


Union 



190 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF TEE FISHERIES. 

Voyages of American trlutlimj vessels, 1870 to 1880 Continued. 





M 

S 


C 

t 
a 

215 

150 

303 

86 

108 
86 
90 

95 
134 

81 

inn 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Dato of return. 


Eesnlt of voyage. 


Remarks. 


Barrels sperm 
oil. 


0) 

la 

f o 
1 


Poundswhale. 
bone. 


1879. 

New Bedford, Mass 
Continued. 

Vigilant 


Bark 
do 


North Pacific. 


Jan. 22 

\U' T 'JO 










Lost in Arctic 1879; up to October 10, 1879, 
had taken 400 whale, 6.000 hone, 

October 16. 1880, at. Fayal ; 290 sperm. 

September 25, 1880, at Fayal ; xiio sperm, 
140 whale. 

Had taken, November 6, 1880, 640 sperm, 30 
whale. 

Sailed again November 17, 1879. and re- 
turned September 8, 1880, with 100 sperm, 
12 whale. 

i letciber 9, 1880, at Teneriffe ; 350 sperm. 

Sailed again November 12, 1879, and re- 
turned September 12, 1880 ; C5 sperm, 80 
whale. 

1,200 pounds waluiB ivory. 

October 25, 1880, at Fayal ; 15 sperm. 45 

whale. 

PrevionstoAiiunst 13, 1880, Hudson Strait; 

40 whale. 

August 13, 1880, Hudson Strait 
July 3, 1880, sailed from Bravo. 
I lelnl.er 14, 1880, at sea ; 135 sperm. 

August 27, 1S8D, at. sea, latitude 41, luugi- 
tuile. 56. 

September 13, 1880, at sea ; 100 sperm. 

October 6, 1880. at sea, latitudi ::.v. long) 
tudc 09= 30'. 


Out, 1880 . - . 








Westport, Mass. 
A. Hicks 

Edgartown, Mass, 


Bark.... 

Schooner 

Brig.... 
Schooner 
..do .... 

Schooner 
do ... 


Atlantic 
Atlantic 


June 24 
Nov. 30 

July 30 
Mar. 20 
May 15 

June 15 
June 23 

Feb. 3 
Mar. 20 
July 10 
July 11 
May 7 
Feb. 3 
Feb. 3 
Jan. 14 
Feb. 3 
Feb. 3 
Feb. 4 

Apr. 24 
July 3 

Mar. 28 
Mar. 1C 
Sept. 8 
Apr. 2 

Apr 13 


Out, 1880 .... 
Out, 1881) .. 








Boston, Mass. 
Rosa Baker 




Aug. 18, 1880 
Sept. 3,1879 
Sept. 18, 1879 

Nov. 22, 1879 
Nov. 24, 1880 

Aug. 23, 1879 
Sept. 29, 1879 
Oat, 1880 


350 

50 
150 






...do 






"Win. Martin 
New London, Conn. 


....do 

Cum. Inlet 
Hudson Bay . . 

Atlantic 






300 
550 

260 
120 


8,000 


Era 




Provincetxnon, Mass, 


Schooner 
.do .. 


60 
204 




do . 


Cairii- W.Clark 


..do .... 
do .. 


116 


....do 
.. do 


Sept. 12, 1880 
Oct. 3, 1880 
Aug. 3, 1880 
Aug. 3, 1879 
Sept. 13, 1877 
Sept 7,1879 
Aug. 26, 1879 
Sept. 1,1879 

July 12,1880 
Sept 5,1880 

Deo. 3, 1879 
Nov. 17, 1879 
Nov. 17, 1879 
Nov. 11, 1879 


ICO 
430 
70 
.135 
320 
150 
40 
330 

735 
220 

400 






D. A. Small 


Brig . . 
Schooner 
...do .. 
...do .... 
...do ... 

...do.... 

...do.... 
...do .... 

Schooner 
Bark 


119 
109 
66 
81 
102 
69 
69 

116 
93 

140 

'fin 


.. do 
...do 
...do 
....do 
..do 
..do 
.. dci 

..do 
....do 

North Pacific, 
.do 


40 
190 
180 






Ellen liizpab 
Grai-io M. Parker 
Mar\ G. Curren 
W. J. Knight 
Rising Sun , 

"Win. A. Grozier 
Quickstep 

San Francisco, Col. 




350 
200 
80 

35 

0,000 
850 
500 
120 




4,000 
3,500 




Francis Palmer 
Hidalgo 


. do . . . . 
Brig 


195 


.. do 
do 






1SSO. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
A. R. Tucker.... 

A bbie Bradford . .... 

A Mmi 1 Lawrence 
Adi-Ma Chase 
Alaska 
Atlantic 
\ttl.-boro 


Bark.... 
Schooner 

Brig .... 
Schooner 
Bark.... 
...do.... 
...do.... 
Steamer 

Bark ... 
do 


145 
115 

160 
85 
347 
291 
179 
440 

212 

'.it 






Hudson Bay . . 

....do 
Atlantic 
Pacific 
North Pacific . 
Atlantic 
North Pacific 

Paeiflc 
North Pacific 


May G 

Apr. 6 
Feb. 16 
Sept. 14 
Nov. 2 
Oct. 26 
Aug. 17 

Aug. 24 
Nov. 
Nnv 12 





















Cape Horn Pigeon , _ . 











E.B. Cornwell 

B lam 


Sehonnel 










...do .. 


s. i't 28 












THE WHALE FISHERY. 

Voyages of American whaling vctmcl, 1*70 to Irtrtl Continued. 



191 





bi 




| 
| 

328 
77 
273 


Whaling ground. 


Date of sailing. 


Date of return. 


Result o! i 


Remarks. 


Ban-c-ls sperm 
oil. 


Barrels whale 
Oil. 


Ponnds whale- 
bone. 


1SSO. 

,1 ford, Mass. 
Continued. 

Europa ... 
Franklin 


I'.ai I. 

Sl-llOOIlel 

Bark 


Atlantic 
. . do 
do 


Apr. 7 
June. 14 
May 11 
June 2 

May ::l 

Oct. 7 
May 5 

Feb. 11 

Oct. '.'I 

Nov. 2! 
Xov. 1-J 
Juno 1 










October 24, 18KO, at.Tcnei-iffe; 300apei.ii. 
September 29, l.->n, at St. Michael's. 
Srptemher 27, 1880, at Teneriffc ; 90 sperm. 

Nodate, at sea, latitude 31 O.v, loncitude 
70 34' ; 105 sperm. 

An^u-it 10, 1880, in Hudson Bay. 

I 1. tuber Ti. ISSll, at Fayal ; 130 sperm. 

Septeiiiln-r, 18SO, at Fayal ; 265 sperm. 
Transferred from Provincetown. 

Xi.leJ.oit tu Oct.. In ! I'll, 1880. 

October 25, 1880, at Fayal; 280 sperm. 

S.-pii-nilifi- -JS, 1SHCI, atTcneriffe; 20 sperm. 
September 3, 1880, at Fayal ; 70 sperm. 

Aiinnst. 2(i, ISSIl, at sea, lalilinleSC O.s', lon- 
gitude 55 04'. 

(ictiilioi-.l, 1880, atTeneriffe; 500 sperm. 
N'ovi'inber i!, issil. at sea; 1 sperm whale. 
(1, tolier 2S, 1W. latitude 32 30', lon-ilu.le 
10' j 4 whales. 

(leliib.-i III. ls.-'i. at. Teceriffe; 30 sperm. 

Had taken, August 28, 135 sperm. 

Arrived from yirevious trip Octobers?, 1880, 
\\ il li '.in sperm. 

October il, 1880, had 85 sperm. 
\ovember4, 1880, at sea; 165 sperm. 
Oi tuber 14. 1880. at St. Michael's ; 30 sperm. 

October -'n, ISKu. at Teii.-i itt' ; 2?'i sperm, 
hale 

No report to Deci mber, I860. 
No report to December. 1880. 










Golden City 

Isabella 
John Carver 


Schoonei 

Brig .... 
Bark.... 
do 


85 

132 
319 

SRi 


... do 

1 1 U'l-.MIi r.:ty . 
Atlantic 




































do 


"OR 


do 








Lottie E. Cook 


Schooner 

Bark... 
Schooner 
Bark.... 


82 

3119 
L05 
273 

171 


.. do 
... do .. 

..do 

.. do ... 
do 


Sept. 12. 1380 


G5 


150 




Lylia 


















Mermaid 


















Northern Light 


.. do.. 
do 


385 
173 
215 

257 
228 

234 
53 
1-26 

84 
92 

301 

243 
314 


North Pacific 


Sept. 22 

May 4 
Juno 3 
Oct. in 
Aug. 17 

July 22 
Oct. in 

Sept. 2!l 

May 26 
June '.'4 

June 15 
Nov. 3 
NOT. 18 
Apr. 10 
NOT 30 


















Palmetto 
Petrel 
Pioneer 

Seine 
Surprise 
Varnum H. Hill 

Marion, Mats. 


..do... 
...do.... 
...do.... 

. . do ... 

Schooner 
Brig .... 

Schooner 
...do.... 

Schooner 
Bark . - . 
...do 
..do .. 


...do .... .. 
... do 
. . do 

..do 

.. .1., 
. . do 



















Oct. 12,1*811 170 
Oct. 27,1880 llll 






William Wilson 
Edgartown, Mass. 

E.H. Hatfield 
Mary Frazier 
Minnesota 

li.ibt. Morrison 


do 

Atlantic 
....do 
...do 
. . do 
do 








.... 


Provincetown, Mass. 


Schooner . . 
...do... 92 
...do .... 101 

do li- 




Feh. 6 
Mar. 17 

Apr. 2S 
May :: 


Sept. 13, I860 70 


200 




Alcyone 
A ntai ctie 
]'. !' Sparks 


....do 
....do 
do 




do 96 


do 










Edwaid Lee 
"\I. Parker - . 
H. M. Simmons 

i^pah 


.. do .. 1111 
...do .... .... 
...do . 116 

dri 


....do 
....do 

do 

. . do 


tfov. i 
Jan. 1!) 
Jan. 19 

Feb 1! 
Feb. 1] 
Fell. I'.l 

; 


S.-pt. 17,1880 
Sept 1 

Sept. 


65 
[30 


180 




X. 3. Knight 
M.iry Or. Curren ... . 

Boston, If ass. 

E. F. Herriman 
firm in Smith 


dn . 
.. do ... 

B.nk. . 

r.iiu- . 


10-J 
121 


...do 
. ili. 

Noiili I'.i.-iti.' 




Sll 115 










do 




S jil - 


100 


12 




l.-iian,Ctmn. 

i)i li:l liodlikins 

I'ilnt - Uridc 


. ilo .... 194 




Desolation Apr. 27 














192 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Voyages of American whaling vessels, 1870 to 1880 Continued. 















Eosult of voyage. 










a 
1 


tin 

.9 


B 

3 


1 


,2 




"3 










tt 


"3 





8, 


^ 


fl . 


Remarks. 






& 


tt 


T. 




K 1 ^ P-^ 


a 








rt 


.5 


O 


o 


"S -r O 


'S S 








S 


ed 















ti 


a 

o 
H 




p 


p 


PQ ^ 


S 




1880. 




















New London, Conn. 




















Continued. 




















E 11 K' 


School] ei 


134 


Desolation 


il-iv 11 










Last report Jnno 14, 1880, at Florcs with 35 


- * 








" 










whale. 


Xrinitv 


Bark... 


317 


do 


Jnno 1 










No report to December, 1880. 


"Wanderer 


Schooner 


151 


Atlantic 


Aug. 12 












San Francisco, Col. 




















Alaska 


Schooner 


149 


North Pacific . 


Mar. 13 


Oct. 15,1880 




500 


22, 900 


Also 270 walrus in number, and 2,000 pounds 




















walrus ivory. 


FrnTi -is P-ilmar 


Bark, 


195 


do 


M;ir. 17 


Sept, 25, 1 S'MJ 




1,000 




-* 


Dawn 


. . do .... 


260 


....do 


Mar. 2 


Oct. 27,1880 




1,400 






Hidalgo 


Brig . . . . 


175 


... do 


Mar. i:: 


Oct. 4, 1SSO 





800 







11. REVIEW OF WHALE FISHERY OF FOREIGN NATIONS. 

In 1846 the combined whaling fleet of the world numbered nearly one thousand sail, of which 
number seven hundred and twenty-nine were under the American flag, the others hailing from 
Great Britiau. Germany, France, and other foreign countries. 

In 1880 the entire fleet numbered not more than two hundred and fifty vessels, one hundred and 
seventy-one of which were American. The only foreign country that now has a fleet of large vessels 
in the whale fishery is Scotland, which employs about twenty large steamers in the whale fishery 
of East Greenland and in Davis SI ra it. Norway has a fleet of small-sized steamers and sail vessels 
employed in whaling chiefly along shore. Australia and New Zealand have a few vessels engaged 
in whaling in the vicinity of those countries, and Chili owns a few vessels cruising along the South 
American coast. Canada and Newfoundland also employ a few vessels in whaling, though most of 
their time is spent in sealing. 

It is impossible to tell when and where the fishing for whales originated. In many of the 
ancient records there are references to these great animals and accounts of their capture. Most 
writers on the subject think that the Norwegians were the first to make a business of catching 
whales, and the account of a voyage to Norway by one Othere, a native of Heligoland, is frequently 
quoted to show that before the year 890 they had been captured on the coast of Norway. The 
Norwegians may have been the first to engage in the whale fishery, but they pursued no system- 
atic plan, and their work should be regarded the same as the fishing expeditious of (he Eskimos. 
The Biscayans were probably the first who prosecuted the fishery as a regular commercial pursuit, 
and they carried it on with great vigor in the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries. 

The whales taken by the Biscayans were probably the finback species, which doubtless 
frequented the bays and seas of Europe in pursuit of herring. As they became scarce near home 
they were hunted in other parts, as at Iceland, upon the banks of Newfoundland, and in the Gulf 
of Saint Lawrence. 

The first authentic account of the English people engaging in whaling is in 1594, when 
several vessels were sent to Cape Breton fitted for hunting the walrus and whale. One of these 
vessels, the Grace of Bristol, brought home to England a quantity of whale fins or whalebone, 



TON WHALE FISHERY. 193 

which was found at Saint George's Bay, where it was said to have been left three years before by a 
wrecked Biscayau ship. This whalebone, is supposed to be the first ever imported into England. 
There are no records to show to what extent the fishery was carried on at this early period by 
either the Biscayaus or the English. If the industry had been very important some historical data 
would remain. When this fishery by the French ceased is a matter of doubt, but it was probably 
about the close of the sixteenth century. 

EARLY \\HALING AT- GREENLAND AND SPITSBERGEN. 

The Spitzbergen whale fishery was the first of great importance. It was begun by the English 
in 1611, when two vessels made voyages thereunder the direction of Capt. Jonas Poole, who 
had previously visited the coast. The islaud of Spitzbergen Lad beeu discovered about the year 
1596 by explorers in search of a passage to India, who, though they failed of their main object, made 
known the haunts of the polar whale. Although the English were the first to enter upon the new 
fishery, they were not the most energetic, for the Dutch soon outstripped them in the number of 
vessels engaged and the profits of the voyages. The first effort of the English was to obtain 
supreme control of whaling in the seas about Spitzbergen on the pretext that the islaud had 
beeu discovered by an Englishman. The Muscovy Company, under wliose auspices the first 
English whalers were sent out, obtained a royal charter prohibiting all other nations from fishing 
iu the seas round Spitzbergen. Efforts were made to enforce this charter by force, and several 
encounters took place between the Dutch and English vessels, until it was filially agreed to divide 
the islaud and adjacent waters into districts that were assigned, respectively, to the English, Dutch, 
Hamburgers, French, Danes, &c. 

Whales were so abundant that extra vessels were sent out to bring home the oil and bone, and 
a village was built on the island of Spitzbergen, where the blubber was tried out. "Nothing can 
give a more vivid idea of the extent and importance of the Dutch fishery in the middle of the 
seventeenth century than the fact that they constructed a considerable village, the houses of 
which were all previously prepared in Holland, on the Isle of Amsterdam, on the northern shore 
of Spitzbergen, to which they gave the appropriate name of Smeerenberg (from smeeren, to melt, 
and berg, a mountain). This was the grand rendezvous of the Dutch whale ships, and was amply 
provided with boilers, tanks, and every apparatus required for preparing the oil and bone. But 
this was not all. The whale ships were attended with a number of provision ships, the cargoes of 
which were landed at Smeerenberg, which abounded during the busy season with well furnished 
shops, good inns, &e., so that many of the conveniences and enjoyments of Amsterdam were found 
within about eleven degrees of the pole. It is particularly mentioned that the sailors and others 
were every morning supplied with what a Dutchman regards as a very great luxury, hot rolls for 
breakfast. Batavia and Smeerenberg were founded nearly at the same period, and it was for a 
considerable time doubted whether the latter was not the more important establishment."* 

From 1611 to about 1700 the Spitzbergen fishery was important, and was participated in by 
most of the northern nations of Europe. About 1680 the Dutch whale fishery in those seas was at 
its height and employed some two hundred and sixty ships and fourteen thousand sailors. Whales 
finally became scarce about Spitzbergen and were pursued along the east coast oCGreenland. From 
here it was found more convenient to bring the blubber home and not try it out on land, as they 
had been accustomed to do. As whales became less and less numerous on the old grounds, new 

* De Reste, Histoiro cles Peaches, &c., tome 1, p. 4ii. 
SC. V, VOL. II 13 



194 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



places were coustautly being sought for. About 1719 Dutch whaling vessels first entered Davis 
Strait and established a fishery that continues to this day to employ fleets of Scotch and Amer- 
ican whalers ; the latter began whaling iu this strait about the year 1737. 

Scoresby,* iu his account of the Arctic regions, gives a history of the northern whale fishery 
from its commencement till 1820, and accurately describes the methods employed iu the capture of 
whales. He also gives valuable statistics of the Spitsbergen, Greenland, aud Davis Strait fisheries, 
in which he shows that the Dutch sent 17,331 ships to the northern fisheries between 1669 and 
1778 and captured 64,576 whales. The following statement shows these facts by decades: 

Dutch whale fishery, 1669 to 1769. 







Greenland/ 






Davis Strait. 




Period. 


Number of 
ships. 


Ships lost. 


Whales taken. 


Numhi i "!' 
ships. 


Ships lost. 


Whales taken. 


1669 1678 


993 


83 


6 314 








1679-1688 . . 


1 932 


113 


10 559 








1689 1698 


955 


82 


4 861 








1699-1708 


1 652 


t'." 


8 537 








1709 1718 


1 351 


51 


4 645 








1719-1728 


1 504 


40 


3 439 


748 


20 


1,251 


17 9 9 1738 


858 


13 


2 198 


975 


14 


1,929 


1739-1748 


1 356 


31 


6 193 


368 


10 


1, 162 


1749 1758 


] 339 


30 


4 770 


340 


6 


513 


1759-1768 


1,324 


25 


3,078 


296 


4 


818 


1769-1778 


903 


31 


: 493 


434 


8 


1.313 
















Total 


14, 167 


561 


57, 590 


3,164 


62 


6,986 



* Greenland included Spitzbergen and east coast of Greenland. 

" This fishery, when in its most flourishing condition, was principally carried on iu the seas and 
bays round Spitzbergen, aud there the Hollanders constructed the village of Stneerenberg, where 
they boiled the blubber and prepared the oil and whalebone. The havoc made among the whales, 
and their dispersion to the coasts of Greenland and Davis Strait, put an end to the establishment, 
and with it to the golden age of the whale fishery. In 1842 there was only one vessel engaged iu 
this once flourishing fishery ; in 1853 there were five, aud in 1854 there were three." t 

" The history of the Spitzbergen country," says Nordenskiold, "has not yet been written in a 
satisfactory way, and is in many respects very obscure. It is supposed that after the discovery of 
Spitzbergen in 1596 by Barents, the hunting iu the polar seas began during Bennet's first voyage in 
1603, and that the whale fishing was introduced by Joanu Poole in 1610. But already in the fol- 
lowing year Poole, whose vessel was then wrecked on the west coast of Spitzbergen, found iu Horn 
Sound a ship from Hull, to which he gave charge of saving his cargo, aud two years after the 
English were compelled, in order to keep foreigners from the fishiug field they wished to monopolize, 
to send out sis men-of-war, which found there eight Spanish aud a number of Dutch and French 
vessels (Purchas, iii, pp. 462, 716, &c.). Even in our days the accounts of new sources of wealth do 
not spread so rapidly as in this case, unless, along with the history of the discovery which was written 
by Hakluyt, Purchas, De Veer, &c., there had been an unkuowu history of discovery, and the 
whale fishing, of which it may still be possible to collect some particulars from the archives of San 
Sebastian, Dunkirk, Hull, and other ports. 



Account of the Arctic Regions, &c., Loudon, 1820, 2 vols. 
tEncy. Britannica, vol. xi, 583. 



TIIK YYIIALK KISIIIOUY. 



195 



" However this may be, it is certain that the English and Dutch northeast voyages gave origin 
to a whale fishery in the sea round Spitzbergen, which increased by many millions the national 
wealth of these rich commercial stales. The fishing went mi at lirst immediately along the coasts, 
I'rtmi which, however, the whales \\cre soon driven, so that the whale tishers had to seek new fishing 
grounds, first farther out to sea, between Spitsbergen and Greenland, then in Davis Strait, and 
linally iu the South Polar Sea, or in the sea on both sides of IJehring Strait. 

" Spitsbergen, when the whale fishing ceased iu its neighborhood, was mostly abandoned, 
until the Russians began to settle, there, principally for the. hunting of the mountain fox and the 
reindeer. Of their hunting voyages we know very little, but that they had been widely prosecuted 
is shown by the remains of their dwellings or huts on nearly all the fjords of Spitzbergen. They 
seem to have often wintered, probably because the defective build of their vessels only permitted 
them to sail to and from Spitzbergen during the height of summer, and they could not thus take 
part without wintering in the autumn hunting, during which the fattest reindeer are got; nor 
could the thick and valuable fur of the winter fox be obtained without wintering. But the hunt- 
ing voyages of the Russians to Spitsbergen have also long ceased. The last voyage thither took 
place in 18ol-'52, and had a very unfortunate issue for most of those who took part in it, twelve 
men dying out of twenty. On the other hand, the Norwegian voyages to Spitzbergen for the seal 
and walrus hunting, begun in the end of the last century, still go on."* 

NORWAY. 

About the year 1864 Capt. Svend Foyn, of Tonsberg, established a whaling station on a small 
island in the Varanger Fiord in Finmark. The whales were captured with harpoons thrown from 
a swivel gun expressly constructed for the purpose, and .mounted at the bow of a small steamer. 
This harpoon was charged at the lower end with an explosive ball that burst when the harpoon 
had penetrated the flesh, and killed the animal instantly. From the first this enterprise proved 
successful, and about 25 similar stations have since been started at different places on the 
Finmark coast, east and west of Xorth Cape.t 

* Voyage of the Vega, translated by Alexander Leslie, 1881, vol. i, pp. 291-293. 

t Capt. Niels Juel, in a letter to Prof. S. F. Baird dated Bergen, Norway, September 22, 1884, gives the following 
information about the whale fishery of Norway: 

"The whale fishery began in 18t>4 and was carried on till 1869 by a single company with one steamer, and from 
that date t.ll 1877 by two steamers, belonging to the same company. In 1877 the number of companies increased to 
two, iu 1881 to five, in 1883 to eight, employing twelve steamers, aud in ISSi to fourteen, with twenty-three steamers. 
Of these companies eleven are in Ostfinmarken, east of. Cape North, and three in Vextlinniarken, between Cape North 
and the town of Hammerfest. The catch has been as follows : 



Tear. 


No. of 
whales. 


Tear. 


No. of 
whales. 


Tear. 


No. of 
whales. 







1873 


36 


1880 


145 




1 


1874 


51 


18S1 


279 




30 


1875 


37 


1882 


386 




17 


1876 


42 


1883 


506 




36 


1877 


32 


1884 


416 














1871 


>0 


1878 . . 


130 






187'' 


40 


IST'.l 


123 


Total 


2, 327 















" In 1872, 1877, and 1878, whaling was tried in the Strait of Davis by one vessel, but without success. In 1883 
Mr. Svend Foyu, who is the creator of the Norwegian whale fishery in Finnunken. put up an establishment in Iceland. 
This year he got twenty-two wbalcs tliciv. \Vhal, ; n al o occasionally taken by fishermen, who shoot them with 
arrows. In the waters of Spit/her",en there are taken even, >ear, by vessels line. I out 1'ioin Tromso, from 150 to 250 
so-called v, hue whales (Delphinapierue leuoas Palls >, bj meane of nets, 1,100 to 1,200 meters long with meshes of 0.16 

mete! 



196 HISTOEY AND METHODS OF TBE FISHERIES. 

Prof. G. O. Sars, who visited Captain Foyu's station iu 1874, says that the kind of whale 
captured almost exclusively is the blue whale (Balcenoptera Kibbuldi). A smaller whale (probably 
Balcenoplera laticeps) is also abundant, but, being smaller and less fat than the blue whale, is not 
captured. Two other species of whales are said to come there iu small numbers during the season 
of the herring fisheries, Balcenoptera mmculus and the Megaptera hoops. 

The condition of the whale fisheries of Norway in 1881 is told by United States Consul Gade, of 
Christiania, in a report dated January 7, 1882. He says : " The floating ice iu 1881 extended much 
farther to the south and nearer to the coasts of Norway than usual. It was even found between 
15 and 20 Norwegian miles north of the North Cape. This circumstance was not without its 
influence on the temperature of the year, as the summer was unusually cold, but at the same time 
the opinion has been expressed that it was advantageous to the whaling on the coasts of Finmark, 
which was very considerable. It is supposed that ice drove such a supply of food into the fiords of 
Finmark that whales, fish, and sea birds were drawn there in crowds. During the month of 
March the Varanger Fiord is said to have offered a splendid spectacle ; several thousand whales 
flocked iu and carried on the wildest antics. The sea was covered with columns of spray, and the 
heavy sound of the whales breathing could be heard as far as Vadso. The whale is, however, 
protected during this month, and the fishing could only begin at the end of May, from which time 
it continues through the summer. Two hundred and eighty whales were caught in 1881, the 
largest number ever killed iu one year oil' the Norwegian coasts. Some of the whales were described 
as having a length of 90 feet and a circumference of 40 feet. Such whales are not met with every 
day, but neither are they of exceeding rarity. 

"The whaling business in Norway increases and engages larger capital every year. Whalers 
are now fitted out from several ports in Southern Norway, as well as from ports east and west of 

"The whales taken in Finmarken belong to the two species: Blaahvalen (Balcmopiera Sibbaldi Gray), yielding 
90 hectoliters of oil, and Finhvalen (Balaenopteramusculus), yielding 45 hectoliters; the Knolhval (Megaptera loops 
Fabricius) is also sometimes taken. 

"The steamers used are built of iroD, have a burthen of 32 E. T. nette and an engine of x!."i to '>"> nominal horse- 
power. The length is 22.5 to 26.7 meters, the breadth 4 to 4.3 meters, and the draught 2.5 to 2.8 meters. They are 
rigged as fore and aft schooners. Below deck are ouly the engine, the cabins, and a place for the cordage, as the whales 
are always towed ashore either by the steamer or by a tugboat. The crew consists of nine men, viz, the captain, one 
gunner, three engineers, one steward, and three sailors. The speed is 9 knots. 

"The guns used are muzzle-loaders, of steel, with steel-coils and mounted on swivels. The length 1.2 mcreisand 
caliber 0.078. The charge 0.34 kilograms. They are fired at a distance of 20 to 40 meters. The gunner tries to hit 
the whale between the ribs as near ^he spinal column as possible. 

"The gun-harpoon used was invented by Mr. Svend Foyn about 1860 and patented till 1882, when the patent ran 
out in Norway. It consists of: The shell, 0.104 meters iu diameter, length 0.319, and charge 0.5 kilograms; the barb 
holster, length 0.319; the pole, length 1.307. 

"The shell is screwed to the barb-holster, which contains a glass filled with sulphuric acid. To the pole is 
attached the rope, 0.143 in circumference and 733 meters long, with a ring running on the pole. The weight of the 
rope, which is of hemp, is about 1,450 kilograms. 

"When the harpoon is to be used, the barbs, that are pivoting, are secured to the pole by rope-yarn, and the 
shell screwed on the holster. As the number of barbs are 4, the shell and the holster, that turn in the ring at the 
eud of the pole when they are free, now form with the pole a solid mass. When the harpoon penetrates into Ihe 
whale the rope-yarn slips off, the barbs turn as to make an angle with the holster, crushing the glass tube, and Ihe 
sulphuric acid, that commuuieates with the powder in the shell through a channel in the screw, makes it explode. 

" Most whales sink. When they do not sink, several whalers-are of the opinion that the respiratory organ is tilled 
with coagulated blood, impeding the inhaled air to get out again. Tlic reason for this theory is that there comes very 
little blood through the nostril of a whale that do not sink. No hand-harpoons arc nsi <!. 

"The manner iu which the fishermen kill the whale by means of arrows and cross-bow is the following: When 
a whale enters a bay the passage is barred with a strong net. and the whale shot. They let him go for two or three 
days inside. The arrows contain no poison, but later investigations have led to the discovery of a peculiar bacilla 
that lives ou arrows already used, and which poisons the blood. Old arrows (of iron) arc only esteemed, and now we 
know the reason why. After some days the whale becomes d\ ing. ami is dispatched with knives and harpoous. The 
flesh is eaten, with exception of the parts round I lie \\ouniis, where is formed a tumor. The whale ordinary taken in 
this manner is the Vaagchval (Balcenoptera i-tixtmtii Fahiiuius). The number may amount to 15 to 20 a year." 



THE YYHAl.K KISHKUY. 197 

the "North Cape, and live dill'i-ient companies were in 1881 represented by steamers. The first 
promoter of the whale and seal fishery in Norway, ('apt. Svend Foyn, alone caught last summer 
one hundred and seven whales, and is now building two new steamers for whaling. Another vessel 
caught sixty whales on the same fishing grounds. Though it appears that whales are abundant 
on the shores of Finmark, it must be borne in mind from previous experience that these animals 
must finally be exterminated. 

"The present fishing grounds are circumscribed, and there may come a time when these giant 
animals, who propagate but slowly, may disappear from the waters where they resort while 
devouring the masses of fish they drive in front of them. 

" The value of an ordinary whale has been estimated at about 2,000 crowns [about $536], 
which, for two hundred and eighty whales killed last summer, gives a total sum of over half a 
million crowns [about $150,000]. To draw a comparison, we may state that the eleven steamers 
fitted out this year from Dundee, Scotland, for whale fishing off Greenland, caught forty-eight 
whales, valued at 35,000 or 630,000 crowns [$169,000, or an average of about $3,520 per whale]. 

"The fishermen engaged in the important cod fisheries off the Finmark shores have protested 
strongly against the whale fishing on their usual fishing grounds, and to the south of this country 
we find the same prejudice against whale fishing among the Swedes, who are this winter engaged 
in large herring fisheries. They have lately opposed the approach of a Norwegian whaler in the 
waters where they are engaged. The Norwegian whaler, which had been hired by a Swedish firm, 
was driven off on the plea that it was unlawful in Sweden to shoot where herring are being 
fished."* 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

The British whale fishery dates from about the beginning of the seventeenth century, as 
above stated in the discussion of whaling at Spitsbergen. 

"Greenland was first discovered by the English ; but in this, as in other branches of naviga- 
tion, we long allowed the Dutch to take a lead. It was not till after 1750 that, Government having 
granted a bounty of iOs. a ton on every vessel employed in the whale fishery, a considerable increase 
took place in this branch. In 1750 the vessels employed were only nineteen ; in 1756 they had 
increased to sixty-seven. The war soon caused a decrease of one half ; but at the return of peace, 
in 1763, this fishery revived, and in 1770 the vessels employed amounted to fifty, in 1773 to fifty-five, 
in 1775 to ninety six. The American war again caused a decrease, and in 1782 the vessels so 
employed were only thirty eight. In 1784 they increased to eighty-nine, and in 1785 to one hun- 
dred and forty. After this they exceeded two hundred annually till 1793; but the long continu- 
ance of the late war reduced them below half the number employed previously. In 1852 the whale 
fishery employed ships of the aggregate burden of 16,113 tons."t 

The first whale ship to enter the Pacific Ocean is said to have sailed from England in 1787, 
and was sent by the colony of Nautucket whalemen who had gone to England at the close of the 
Revolutionary war. "('apt. Aichelus Hammond," says ilr. F. G. Sauford, of Nautucket, "was 
first officer of that ship, and struck the first sperm 'whale ever known to be taken in that ocean. 
He afterwards sailed from London in the ship Cyrus, which ship he gave up to Paul West, his 
second officer, in 1801, and West made a fortune in her and left her to join his family in America, 
arriving in 1813. Captain Hammond came home to Nantucket in 1830." 

The British whale fishery reached its greatest prosperity in 1815, when there were one hundred 
and sixty-four whalers on the ocean. About the year 1850 there were twenty-three British vessels in 

' Commercial reports, State Department, No. 16, February, 1862, p. 293. 
t Encyclopaedia Brittanica. 



198 



HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



the southern whale fishery, crnisiug chiefly on the Brazil Bank. lu 1855 there were about fifty 
vessels in the Greenland and Davis Strait fishery. About the year 1865 some thirty- five vessels 
were employed in the northern or Greenland fishery. The southern fishery gradually declined 
until it is now practically abandoned. The northern fishery, however, has continued of impor- 
tance, though the uuuiber of ports from which vessels are fitted has decreased. The vessels are 
now mostly fitted at Dundee and Peterhead. 

The Scotch whale fishery at Greenland and Davis Strait is combined with sealing, and is 
carried on with the most powerful steamers, specially equipped for battling with ice. 

The number of vessels iu this fishery has decreased very much since 1830, as appears from the 
following statement of the size of the fleet in 1830, 1857, and 1808:* 





18 


iO. 


IS 


)7. 


18 


68. 




Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Peterhead 


13 


3 720 


30 


8 397 


1" 


2 948 


Fraserbur^h - 






5 


1 L'4:, 


2 


549 


Aberdeen . . . 


10 


3,035 


6 


1.4H2 


1 


239 


Dundee 


9 


3 033 


4 


1 394 


1" 


4 618 


Kirkr:ilily 


5 


1 597 


3 


1 058 


1 


452 








1 


357 






Hull . . . 


33 


11 009 


11 


2 805 


2 


530 


Whitliv 


2 


686 












3 


1 103 












1 


310 












'> 


642 












4 


1 302 












1 


'80 










Leitli 




J, KG 












1 


316 


























91 


29, 459 


GO 


16, 738 


30 


9,336 



Iii a communication to the State Department, under date of November 10, 1877, United States 
Consul McDougall, at Dundee, Scotland, gives some information concerning the British whale and 
seal fisheries in Davis Strait. He says : " The success of the whaling fleet belonging to this port 
was considerably greater iu 187G than iu 1875. All the vessels, twelve iu number, prosecuted both 
seal and whale fishing in 1S76. The only change in the course usually followed was by one vessel, 
which went to Labrador instead of Greenland with the other ships. The total catch at the seal 
fishing was in 1876, 57,776 seals, yielding 625 tons of seal oil. Seal oil last year was valued at 32 
per ton, and the average price for skins was 6s. Takiug the 025 tons of oil at 32 gives 20,000, 
and 57,776 skins at 6s. each produces the sum of 17,332 16s. ; so that the value of the seal fish- 
ing in 1876 was 37,332.16s. Only one vessel returned clean from the seal fishing. 

"The total catch at the. whale fishing was, in 1876, 04 whales, yielding 824 tons oil and 
45 tons bone. The selling price of whale oil in 1876 was 35 per ton, and although as high as 
1,200 per ton was got for bone, 800 was the average price. The 824 tons of oil produced 
28,840 and the 45 tons of bone 36,000 ; total" for the whale fishing, 64,840; total for the seal 
fishing, 37,332 16*.; total for both fishings, 102,172 16s. Of course from this sum must be 
deducted the expenses of the fleet, which are very heu\y. 

" In 1875 the value of the seal fishing was computed at 27,026 In. 6d. and the whale fishing 
at 50,325; total for both fishings, 77,:!51 7s. 6d. This shows an increase in favor of 1870 iu the 
seal fishing of 10,306 8s. Qd. and in the whale fishing of 14,515; total increase in both fishings 
for 1870, 24,821 s. s -. 

* MORITZ LINDEMAN : Die ai-KliM'lh Pischerei <ler (lcutst.-u.en SeestiiiHe, 1620-1868. 



TIIK \VI1ALK FISHERY. 



109 



"This year two vessels went to the seal fishing in Labrador com pared with one in 1870; and 
iliey were so successful, that the Dundee Seal and Whale Fishing Company have resolved to form 
a branch establishment at Newfoundland, and next spring two of their largest and most powerful 
screw steamers, instead of going to Greenland, will be dispatched to the Newfoundland seal 
fishing. The company has acquired a piece of ground, on which they are erecting the necessary 
buildings for carrying on the work connected with the fishing, including boiling-house, &c. 
There being no docks for the accommodation of the vessels, the company is constructing a wharf 
in close proximity to its premises, so that the steamers will be enabled to discharge their catches 
almost at the doors of the establishment. With the two steamers sent out by another company 
here (those which went this year), this will now make four Dundee vessels that will prosecute 
the Newfoundland seal fishing next spring. The effect of this change will of course be to give the 
remainder of the Dundee vessels going to Greenland a better chance of success, and it is hoped 
the results will prove satisfactory to all concerned. 

" As all the vessels of the Dundee whale fleet have now arrived from Newfoundland and 
Greenland seal and whale fisheries for the year, I am able to give the number of seals caught and 
other particulars. The whole of the vessels (now thirteen in number) went both to the seal and 
whale fishing this year, two going to Newfoundland instead of to Greenland with the other ships. 
The number of seals caught in ^Newfoundland (Labrador) this year was for two vessels 46,600 
seals, yielding 750 tons 6t oil ; last year one vessel, 4,000 seals, yielding 47 tons oil ; increase in 
1S77, 4i',600 seals, 703 tons oil. The number of seal caught in Greenland this year was for eleven 
vessels, 29,400 seals, yielding 342 tons oil ; last year for eleven vessels, 53,776 seals, yielding 578 
tons oil ; decrease in 1877, 27,376 seals, 236 tons oil." 

Statement of the British Davis Strait and Greenland wTiale and seal fishery, 16G"> to 1877.* 



Teara 


Ports. 


Vessels. 


Seals. 


Whales. 


Sr.,1 nil. 


Whale 
oil. 


Whale- 
bone. 


1865 






Number. 
17 291 


5 


Tons. 
195 


Tons. 
71 


Cwt. 




Do 




10 284 




113 


84 










64 041 


.ill 


734 


546 


650 




















Hull 
















Do 






5 




40 


60 








12 219 




156 










1 sailer 












1866 






16 188 


31 


187 


299 






Do 




1C C32 


9 


210 


100 










48 418 


3d 


U74 


333 


373 




Hall 
















Do 






2 




16 


40 








4 571 




02 














9 




100 


100 










16 


160 


151 






Do 






4 




29 












2 


619 


22 


20 




Hull 






2 




26 


40 












I'M 






























107 


199 


856 


944 


1868 


Do 


1 sailor 




1 






5 




Peterhead 




1 i:t, 774 


16 


165 


262 


90 




Do 




IS 038 


4 


228 


23 


17 








3 986 




32 










] 




G 




80 


108 



















Report on Commercial Relations of United Statcn with Foreign Countries for 1877, p. 419. 
t Also 645 white whales. 



200 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Statement of ilir Jliitixli Varis Strait and Greenland whale and sral fisltrry, 1865 to 1877 Continued. 



Tears 


Ports. 


Vessels. 


Seals. 


Whales. 


Seal oil. 


Whale 
oil. 


Whale- 

1 -. 


1868 


Hull 




Number. 
230 


Number. 


Tons. 
3 


Tons. 


Cwt. 


1869 






44 424 


9 


458 


118 


18 








*8 868 


g 


125 


118 


49 




Do 




16 021 


4 


9 56 


25 


25 




















Hull 






1 




5 


5 


187D 






S7 768 


61 


862 


734 


871 




PeterLead 




8 373 


18 


132 


125 


144 




Do 




32 087 




487 


5 
















98 


91 


1871 






64 497 


133 


652 


1 163 


1 313 








17 047 


11 


194 


105 


155 




Do 




34, 837 


8 


481 


80 


7li 


1872 


Dundee 


11 steamers 


40, 391 
1 851 


105 
9 


410 
25 


969 
131 


1,002 

132 




Do 




8 442 


94 


19 


293 


292 


1873 






" r -ISO 


158 


6 


I 303 


1 344 




Do 




4 131 




46 












37 827 


2 


754 


16 


16 




Do 




6 784 


12 


73 


110 


1 15 


1874 






44 087 


J90 


575 


1 419 


I -Til 








8 113 




196* 


95 


91 




Do 


3 sailers 


015 




<> 


148 


153 


1875 






44 44.". 


79 


418 


706 


7"0 








l"7 }'.!- 


6 


355 


113 


77 




Do .. 


2 sailers 




13 




156 


llil 


1876 






57 770 


64 


625 


824 


900 








J4 180 


13 


7"> 





138 




Do . 




371 


5 


5 


69 


94 



















* Also 859 "\vhitn whaler. t Also 360 -white \s link s. ^ Also 700 white wh;i]rs. 

The following additional account of the Dundee whale and seal fishery is from a report to the 
State Department by Uuited States Consul Winter.* of Dundee: 

" Nine steamers left Dundee for the Greenland seal fishiug in 1881 ; their catches were 12,721 
seals, yielding 201 tons of oil. Eight steamers went to this fishing in 1880; their catches were 
29,100 seals, yielding 489 tons of oil, showing for 1881 a decrease of 10,379 seals and 288 tons of 
oil. Six steamers left Dundee for the Newfoundland seal fishiug in 1881 ; their catches were 
139,985 seals, yielding 1,797 tons of oil. Five steamers went to this fishing in 1880; their catches 
were 58,940 seals, yielding 726 tons of oil, showing for 1881 an increase of 81,045 seals and 1,071 
tons of oil. Greenland, 1881, total catch, 12,721 seals, yielding 201 tons of oil. Newfoundland, 
1881, total catch, 139,985 seals, yielding 1,797 tons of oil. 

"At both fishings, 1881, total catch, 152,706 seals, yielding 1.998 tons of oil. 

" At present the value of seal oil is about 29 per ton, while the skins average about 5s. each. 
Taking the 1,998 tons of seal oil got this year at 29 per ton gives 57,942; and the 152,706 
skins at 5s. each gives 38,176 10s. ; so that the total value of the seal fishery for 1881 is 96,118 
10s. For 1880 it was computed at 52,385. There is therefore an incre ise for 1881 of 43,733 10s. 

" Eleven steamers left Dundee for the Greenland whale fishery in 1881 ; their catches were 
48 whales, yielding 514 tons of oil and 24f tons of bone. Twelve steamers went to this fishery in 
1880; their catches were 712 whales (white, 600 ; black, 112), yielding 1,077 tons oil and 46i tons 
of bone, showing for 1881 a decrease of 664 whales and 563 tons oil and 21 tons of bone. 

* Commercial Reports, No. 17. 



Till: WIIALK FISIIKRY. 201 

"The present selling price of whale oil is ;;:> per ton and of bone 720 per ton. The value 
of (lie 514 tons oil got in 1881, at jE::: 1 .. would be 16,092, and of 2l : , 1 tons of hone, at 720 per ton, 
17,820. The total value of the whale fishing for 1881 is .i4,7."W; for 1880 it was computed at 
('.2,706; there is therefore a decrease for 1881 of 27,924. 

"Greenland and Newfoundland seal fishing: Total \alne for M.ssi, 90,118 10s. Greenland 
whale fishing : Total value for 1881, 34,782. Total value of both fishings Cor 1881, 130,900 lO.v. 
(From this sum the heavy expenses of the sealing and whaling licet must be deducted.) Total 
value of both fishings for 1880 was computed at 115,091 ; accordingly then- is an increase for INSI 
of 15,809, which is attributable mainly to the success of the. Newfoundland seal fishery this year. 

" From, the figures I have given it will be seen that the Greenland seal and whnle fishings for 
1881 have proved a failure, due, it is said, to the terrible severe weather that has prevailed in 
Greeeland this season. Dundee is the headquarters of this industry in this country, and l>as 
fourteen excellent screw steamers, whose total tonnage is 0,999, and nominal horse-power 1,008, 
engaged in the fishing. In addition to this there was another vessel (steamer) of ">96 tons, but she 
was lost this season in Davis Strait, but the crew were all saved and distributed amongst the 
other Dundee ships, which brought them home. All accounts concur in representing the weather 
experienced in Greenland this year as being exceptionally stormy, for weeks gale succeeding 
gale, blowing the vessels in upon a body of heavy ice, and some of them have thereby been more 
injured than usual this year. However, there has been no loss of life except from natural causes. 
Seventy to eighty men go to make up a Greenland sealers crew, and one hundred and twenty to 
one hundred and fifty that of a Newfoundland sealer, and fifty for a Greenland whaler. From 
forty to fifty men accompany the vessels from Dundee; others are got in Shetland and at Saint 
John's, Newfoundland. These men are paid in wages about 2 per month and an allowance of so 
much per ton as may be fixed upon for oil money; so that if the voyage does not turn out well, 
as is the case of the Greenland seal and whale fishing this year, the men and their families are 
badly off during the winter. Only two vessels will return anything to their crews in the shape of 
oil money this year. Formerly all the seal-skins that came to Dundee had to go to London to be 
cured or tanned. One large firm engaged in the seal-fishing business here has been erecting com- 
modious and improved premises for carrying on the tanning process themselves, and they have an 
immense stock of skins of their own to commence operations upon. This is a new industry added 
to Dundee. A matter of interest in connection with the whale fishing has been discussed this 
year, viz, the use of steam for propelling the vessels while in the fishing grounds. The noise of 
the propeller scares the fish within a distance of a few miles, and a master of a ship, by ill-judged 
eagerness to approach a whale, may deprive a whole fleet of a rich harvest from the object of their 
common pursuit. An agreement between the captains of the Dundee ships, regulating the use 
of steam to meet the necessities of the case, was drawn out and subscribed by them, and was, 
it appears, fairly adhered to this year. The following is a complete detailed comparative statement 
showing 'the value of the seal and whale fishings to the community of Dundee for twelve years. 
and the yearly average value of same: 



202 



HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISIIT.RIES. 

liinitln- tcliale and setil Jisliirii-s, 1^711 tu 1"1. 



Tear. 


Number of 
lisLing. 


Number of 

-1. ;ui)i?rs 
wbalt? fishing- 


Xuuiber of 
seals canght. 


Numb, r lit' 
\\ halr.s 
-lit. 


Tons i.f seal 
oil. 


Tons of 
whale oil. 


Tons of 
nbalebone. 


ls70 


9 


6 


4.3,450 


01 


870 


760 


431; 


1871 


9 


8 


6.3, 485 


133 


648 


],165 


65J3 


1872 


11 


10 


40, 621 


105 


429 


1,010 




1873 


11 


10 


25, 594 


158 


265 


1, 352 


IN.',, 


Ig74 . . , 


11 


9 


46, 252 


1110 


577 


1,290 


,1", 


1875 


12 


12 


45, 205 


79 


455 


765 


36& 


1876 


12 


12 


57, 776 


04 


025 


824 


45 


1877 


13 


13 


76, 000 


1,016 


1,092 


955 


42* 


1878 


12 


13 


77,411 


(1 


1,106 


114 


6 


1878 


15 


13 


96, 710 




1,168 


729 


38! 


1880 


13 


12 


88, 040 


t712 


1,215 


1,077 


46J 


1881 


15 


11 


152, 706 


48 


1,998 


514 


24J 


















Total 


143 


]29 


817,310 


2,610 


10, 448 


10, 555 


541ft 




11 


10 


68, 111 


220 


870 


879 


J5& 



















' 81 black. 935 TV lute. 



t 112 black, 000 white. 



Tear.' 


Average 

Y:illlf nl' 

si'al nil per 
ton. 


Average 

value' of 
si-al skins, 
each. 


Average 
value of 
wbalo oil per 
ton. 


Av. i 
value i,f 
wliaU'hune 
per ton. 


Total value, of 
i -biug. 


Total valne of 
wbale fishing. 


Total value of 
both seal and 
whale fishing. 



1870 



37 


s. d 
3 


s. d. 
44 


& s. d. 
450 


. s. d. 
39,007 10 


s. d. 
53, 037 10 


s. d. 
92, 045 


1871 


33 


3 6 


37 


500 


3 17 6 


75, 930 


108, 773 17 6 


1872 


40 


4 


42 10 


510 


25,284 4 


70, 006 


95, 290 4 


1873 


40 


3 6 


43 


460 


15,078 19 


89,048 


104,126 19 


1874 


37 


5 


39 


540 


32,912 


89,082 


121,994 


1875 


34 


7 6 


36 


500 


32,455 12 


45,765 


78,220 12 


1876 


32 


6 


35 


800 


37,332 16 


64,840 


102,172 16 


1877 


32 


5 


35 


1,400 


53,944 


92,925 


146,869 


1878 


32 


5 


35 


1,500 


54,744 15 


12,990 


67,734 15 


1879 


30 


5 


33 


1,200 


r.!>, S17 10 


70,377 


129, 594 10 


]880 


25 


5 


28 


700 


52,385 


62,706 


115,091 


1881 


29 


r. o 


33 


720 


96,118 10 


34,782 


130,900 10 


















Total 


401 


57 6 


440 10 


9,280 


531, 324 14 


761, 488 10 


1, 292, 813 4 




33* 


4 9.; 


36 14 2 


773 6 8 


44,277 1 2 


63, 457 7 6 


107, 734 8 8 



















The distribution of the bow-head whale in these regions and the movements of the Scotch 
whalers is discussed as follows by Mr. E. Brown : 

" Whales appear on the coast of Danish Greenland early in May, but are not nearly so plentiful 
as formerly, when the Davis Strait whaler generally pursued his business on this portion of the 
coast ; but they are now so few that they are generally gone north before the arrival of those ships 
which have first proceeded to the Spitzbergen sealing. It is rarely found on the Greenland coast 
south of 65 or north of 73; indeed I have only heard of one instance in which it has been seen 
as far north as the Duck Island near the entrance of Melville Bay, and even for a considerable 
distance south of that it can only be looked upon as an occasional straggler. However, after cross- 
ing to the western shores of Davis Strait, it occasionally wanders as far north as the upper reaches 
of Baffin's Bay. The great body, however, leave the coast of (iieeiiland iu June, crossing by the 
' middle ice,' in the latitude of Svarte Huk (Black Hook), in about latitude 71 30' N. The whaler 
presses with all speed north through Melville Bay to the upper waters of Baffin's Bay, and across 
to the vicinity of Lancaster Sound. If there is land-ice in Baffin's Bay at the time they arrive 
(about the end of July), there are generally some whales up that sound and Barrow's Inlet; but 



THE \VIIALI-; h'lSIIKUY. 203 

the\ accumulate in greatest numbers in (lie ncighboi hood of Pond's Bay, and even up Eclipse 
Sound, the continuation of the so-culled Pond's Bay, which is in reality an extensive, unexplored 
sound opening away into the intricacies of the Arctic Aichipelago. The whales continue 'run- 
ning' here until the end of June, and remain until about the end of August or the beginning of 
September. The whalers think if they can reach I'ondV Bay by the beginning of August they are 
sure for a 'full' ship. The whales now commence going south, and the whalers continue to pursue 
them on their austral migration, halting for that purpose in Home Bay. Scott's Inlet, Clyde, IMver, 
and the vicinity. As the season gets more tempestuous and the nights darker, most of them 
towards the end of September, to avoid the icebeigs dashing- about in this region at that time of 
the year, anchor in a snug cove, or cul He XHC, lying off an extensive unexplored sound, not laid 
down on any map, in the vicinity of Cape. Hooper; others go into a place known by the euphonious 
name of 'Hangman's Cove';* whilst others go south to Kemisoak (Hogarth's Sound of Penny), 
Northumberland Inlet, or other places in the vicinity of Cumberland Sound and the Meta Incog- 
nita of Frobisher localities intimately known to many of these hardy seamen, but by name only 
to geographers. "Whilst the good ship lies secure in these uusurveyed and unauthorized harbors 
(each master mariner according to bis predilection), the boats go outside to watch for whales. If 
they succeed in capturing one, frequently, if possible, the vessel goes out aud assists in securing 
it. Though they are supposed to return to the ship every night, yet at this time the men are often 
subjected to great hardship and danger. This is known as the 'autumn' or 'fall fishing,' and 

this method of pursuing it as ' rock-nosing.' 

******* 
" Where the whale goes in the winter is still unknown. It is said that it leaves Davis Strait 
about the month of November, and produces young in the Saint Lawrence River, between Quebec 
and Camaroa, returning again in the spring to Davis Strait. At all events early in the year they 
are found on the coast of Labrador, where the English whalers occasionally attack them ; but the 
ships arrive generally too late, and the weather at that season is too tempestuous to render the 
' southwest fishing' very attractive. Later in the year the ships enter Cumberland Sound in great 
numbers; and many of them (especially American and Peterhead vessels) now make a regular 
practice of wintering there in order to attack the whales in early spring. It is said that early in 
September they enter Cumberland (Hogarth's) Sound in great numbers and remain until it is com- 
pletely frozen up, which, according to Eskimo account, is not until the mouth of .lanuary. It is 
also affirmed by the natives that when they undertake long journeys over the ice in spring, when 
hunting for young seals_, they see whales in great numbers at the edge of the ice-floe. They enter 
the sound again in the spring and remain until the heat of the summer has entirely melted off the 
land-floes in these comparatively southern latitudes. It thus appears that they winter (and produce 
their young) all along the broken water off the coast of the southern portions of Davis Strait, 
Hudson Strait, and Labrador. The ice remaining longer on the western than on the eastern 
shore of Davis Strait, and thus imped ing their northern progress, they cross to the Greenland coast; 
but as at that season there is little land-ice south of 05 degrees, they arc rarely found south of that 
latitude. They then remain here until the land -floes have broken up, when they cross to the western 
shores of the strait, where \\e find them in July. I am strongly of belief that the whales of the 
Spitsbergen Sea never, as a body, visit Davis Strait, but winter somewhere in the open water at 
the southern edge of the northern ice-fields. The whales are being gradually driven farther north 
aud are now rarely found, even by their traces, so far south as the Island of Jan-Ma;, en (71 degrees 
north latitude), round which they were so numerous in the palmy days of the Dutch whaling trade. 

'From an Eskimo bi-in<r I'miml here linng by an allumtk over :i chft'. 



204 HISTOEY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

I am uot quite sure, after all that has been said ou this subject, that the whale is getting extinct, 
and am beginning to entertain convictions that its supposed scarcity in recent times is a great deal 
owing to its escaping to remote, less known, and less visited localities. It is said to be coming 
back again to the coast of Greenland, now that the hot pursuit of it has slackened in that portion 
of Davis Strait. The varying success of the trade is owing not so much to the want of whales as 
to the ill luck of the vessels in coming across their haunts. Every now and again cargoes equal to 
anything that was obtained in (he best days of the trade are obtained. Only seven years ago I 
came home to England ('shipmates,' as the phrase goes), with no less than thirty 'right whales,' in 
addition to a iniseellaaieous menagerie of Arctic animals, dead and alive, and a motley human crew 
a company so outre that I question if ever naturalist, or even whaler, sailed with the like before."* 
In 1877 the Scotch whaling and sealing vessels began the capture of the bottle-nose whale 
(Hyperoodon roNlrttfus); in 1878 this fleet killed 9; in 1879,8; in 1880,32; in 1881, 111, and in 
iss;.}, 403. These whales are found in Davis Strait and adjacent waters and eastward of Green- 
land from Cape Farewell to Iceland, Jan Mayen, and Bear Island, and as far north as seventy- 
seven degrees north latitude. They are about 30 feet long, and yield an excellent quality of oil.t 

RUSSIA AND RUSSIAN AMERICA. 

In a pamphlet by Dr. Grimm on Enssian fisheries the whale fisheries of that country are 
thus discussed: "The beluga or white whale (I><'J[i1ihifi])tfriiK I m <:*) is from 14 to 25 feet long. 
Beluga fishing is carried on in the White Sea, where the beluga lives all the year round ; also 
in the gulfs of the 1S T . Dvina, Onega, Kondolon and Mezen ; in the Arctic Ocean it is found to the 
east of the White Sea, near the mouth of the Petchora, along the Tiuian coast, chiefly near the 
river Piosha ; near Nova Zenibla, at the mouth of the Obi, and farther on. In chasing fish, it goes 
very high up the rivers, for instance, up the Obi. It is caught in nets, with which it is surrounded, 
drawn to a shallow place and killed in what is called the dvor, or yard ; from four to six boats 
take part in the work. The quantity of oil got from the beluga is various. Sometimes a herd of 
large animals have been killed, each of which yielded about li! poods [432 pounds] of blubber, and 
nt other times one meets belugas that yield only some 4 to 5 poods [144 to 180 pounds]. The 
exact number of beluga caught in a year is not known, as in the statistics of the fisheries the 
beluga is classed with all the walrus, seals, whales, &c. The dolphin (Delphinus delphis and D. 
l>li<-<cnft) is found in considerable numbers in the Black Sea. From this sea, in chasing fish, it 
enters the various gulfs and bays and into the Sea of Azof. The Turks come into the Black Sea 
after the dolphin, chiefly visiting Pischoouda. Our fishermen sometimes catch it, but jrenerally 
content themselves with a stray dolphin that may get in among the fish. Dilpliuuix pltoccena is 
sometimes met with in the Bailie, and even has come up as far as Cronstadt, but very rarely. 

" There are four kinds of whales in the Arctic Ocean: Mc/jrijifera IHH>/>X, IlitlirHojitrni Itiliceps, 
Balcenoptera musculus, andjB. Hihbalilli. The last is the one that whalers chiefly kill, the first three 
being killed no\\ and then. Notwithstanding the efforts of the Jtussian Government to increase 
whaling, it is still in a very primitive condition here. The Laps and Pomors, it is true, use whale- 
blubber, but it is procured from the carcasses of whales that are often driven ashore. They uevei 
kill whales, owing, perhaps, to the false idea that the whale drives the moyva (Mallotus arcticns) 
to the shore, and that therefore whales are useful to the, fisheries, and that they ought not to be 

* Notes on the History and Geographical Relations of the Cetaeea frequenting Davis Strait and Baffin's Bay. By 
Robert Brown, F. R. G. S. Proc. London Zoolog. Soc., 1868. 

tFor a full discussion of this fishery see papers by Mr. Thomas Southwell in London Zoologist, ami iu Transac- 
tions of Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society, vol. iii. Iu 1883 Mr. Southwell reports the Scotch fishery as fallen 
ofl" in consequence of the number of small Norwegian vessels attracted to this new fishery. 



TMK WHALE FISHERY. 205 

exterminated. However, from OIK- hundred and fifty to two hundred whales a year are killed on 
the Mourmau coast by Norwegian whalers, who have their oil-works in Fiiimarken. How profit- 
able whaling is will be seen from (lie fact tliat all the expenses of tlie trade are eo\ ered by the 
sale of the secondary products, such as whalebone, &<., and that, the oil, of whieh each wbak' 
yields some 1,00(1 roubles' [sT.Mi] worth [from ,'!(i,000 to 7:.', 000 pounds of blubber], forms the clear 
inotit of the whaler. At present there is a company with a considerable capital being started in 
St. Petersburg, which intends next year to start whaling along the, Mourman coast. 

" We have no information as to the number of whales in the eastern part of the Arctic and in 
the IJering Straits. Putting aside the products got by the inhabitants of the Arctic coast, which, 
at any rate, is of some consequence, and only counting the products of regn'ar whaling and seal 
fishing, we remark the very extraordinary fact that the wide spreading Arctic Ocean, with its 
many gulfs, and the White Sea, yield a great deal less than the smaller Caspian does by nothing 
but its seals. As there are more animals (even seals) than in the Caspian, this can only be accounted 
for by the thorough way in which the business is carried on. in the Caspian, where it is aided by 
natural conditions, by the comparative ease of killing seals, and by the presence of capital and 
enterprise. In the north, on the contrary, the danger and difficulty of the trade, and the absence 
of a population, counteract the possibility of its yielding as great a quantity of useful products as 
it might well do without destroying the natural abundance. 

"In consequence of this, one cannot help wishing that whaling, &c., would increase in the 
north, and that more care would be taken in seal fishing in the Caspian, where seals may be com- 
pletely exterminated in a considerably short time. We may remark that as many very valuable 
animals, for example, the Greenland whale, Kamtchadal otter, vSce,, are gradually dying out, and 
are in danger of the fate of their cousin, the sea cow (Rhythut Xtcllcri), and as it is next to impossible 
for one state to prevent it, it is very desirable that a committee should be formed for the working 
out of a set of rules for hunting, trapping, &c., which would be binding on all countries."* 

RUSSIAN WHALING AT ALASKA AND THE OKHOTSK SEA. In discii-sing the condition of the 
territory of Alaska prior to its cession to the United States, Mr. Petroff says of the whale fishery : 

The American whalers frequenting the Bering Sea previous to cntciing the Arctic through 
Bering Strait had frequently been the object of complaint to the Russian Government by the 
Russian-American Company. It was claimed that these whalers made a practice of lauding on 
the Aleutian Islands to try out blubber, and that the offensive Mnoke and stench resulting from 
this operation had the effect of driving away the precious sea otter from the coast. In 1842 Chief 
Manager Etholin reported that in his tour of inspection throughout the colonies he had encoun- 
tered several American whalers close inland, but that they refused to answer his questions or to 
obey his orders to leave the Russian waters. Some of the whalers learned that in 1841 fifty ships 
from New Bedford and Boston had been in the vicinity, and that they had succeeded in capturing 
from ten to fifteen whales each. From 1842 these complaints concerning the whalers were renewed 
every year, and during Tebenkof's administration he proposed to the company to go into the whal- 
ing business in the waters of Bering Sea and the North Pacific as the best means of keeping out 
foreigners. Llis plan was to hunt whales in boats from the harbors of Aleutian Islands, and to 
engage at first a number of American harpoouers and steersmen until the Aleutians had been suf- 
ficiently trained to do the work. 

"Under the terms of the treaty with England and America no ve.ssel of either of those two 
nations was allowed to hunt or fish within 3 marine leagues of the shore; but as there was no 
armed Government craft in the colonies the provisions of the treaty were totally disregarded by the 

*Dr. O. GIU.MM: Fishing and Hunting ou Russian Waters; St. Petersburg, 1883. 



206 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHBEIES. 

whalers, until at last the company proposed to the Imperial Government that if a cruiser were sent 
out from Russia to guard the colonial coast against intruders the company would bear the expenses 
of such a vessel. The Emperor agreed to the proposal, and gave orders to the naval authorities to 
prepare estimates as to cost and expenditure. In reply a report was received stating- that the sum 
of 270,000 rubles was required to fit out the ship for the cruise, and 85,000 rubles annually for its 
maintenance. This sum the company found itself unable to pay and the- project fell through. At 
last, in 1850, the corvette OHvitza was ordered to the Sea of Okhotsk, and did some service in 
keeping foreign whalers out of that sea and breaking up their principal station near the Shanta 
Islands. In the mean time Tebenkof's suggestions concerning the fostering of Russian whaling 
interests in the Pacific had borne some fruit; a few of the shareholders of the Russian-American 
Company, together with some ship-owners in Finland, concluded to fit out whaling ships in Fin- 
laud or at Cronstadt and send them around into the waters of Bering Sea and the Arctic beyond 

the straits. 

"A capital of 100,000 rubles was quickly contributed, and active operations began as early 
as 1849. By order of the Emperor a sum of 20,000 rubles was appropriated from the special fund 
of the province of Finland to aid in the construction of the first whaling ship, and a sum of 10,000 
rubles to be paid the company for the construction of each succeeding ship of the same class. The 
company also obtained the privilege of importing, free of duty, all the material necessary for build- 
ing and fitting out the first twelve ships and to carry on the business without payment of duties 
for a period of twelve years. The name of this branch company was ' The Russian-Finland Whal- 
ing Company,' and its charter was approved on the 13th of December, 1850. 

"The first ship, the Suomi, of 500 tons, was built in the port of Abo, Finland, in the year 
1S51. The command of the vessel was intrusted to a German captain, Hagshagen, and a crew 
of thirty-six men was engaged, which consisted principally of foreigners, among them three steers- 
men, three harpooners, and three coopers. The whale boats had been imported from New Bed- 
ford. The cruise of the Suomi in the Okhotsk Sea in the year 1852-'53 was very successful, the 
catch being 1,500 barrels of oil and 21,400 pounds of whalebone ; the cargo was sold in the Sand- 
wich Islands, realizing 88,000 rubles, a sum that covered the price of constructing the vessel and 
fitting it out and left a clear profit of 13,000 rubles. Unfortunately the war with England and 
France broke out about that time and interfered with further operations in this line. 

" The Suomi had sailed for home before the news of the war reached the Sandwich Islands, 
and consequently knew nothing of the circumstances when she made the first port on the English 
coast. The pilot came oft' and, strange to say, warned the captain of his danger, and gave him an 
opportunity to make his escape to Bremen. The presence of French and English cruisers in the 
channel made it necessary to sell the ship at Bremen for the comparatively small sum of 21,000 
rubles. 

"The second whale-ship dispatched by the new company was the Turko, which left for the 
Okhotsk Sea in 1852, having been fitted out altogether at Abo. The captain was a German by 
the name of Schale, and the crew consisted of twenty-five Finlanders, many of whom had served 
on American whaling voyages. A cargo of goods for the Russian-American Company was also 
forwarded in this ship, but by various disasters the vessel was delayed and did not arrive at 
Sitka until late in 1853. Shortly before reaching port a few whales were killed, 150 barrels of oil 
and 650 pounds of bone being secured. 

"Early in the following spring the ship proceeded to sea under command of the first mate, 
Sederblom, the captain being disabled by disease. The voyage was very successful, resulting in 
a catch of 1,700 barrels of oil and 23,000 pounds of whalebone. 



THK WHALE FISIIKUY. 207 

"During tin- sie^e l>y iln> An^lo- French licet tbe Tnrko was in the harbor of Petiopaulovsk, 
but succeeded in making her escape, discharging liri- valuable cargo at Kailiak for safe keeping, 
and liually reached Silka, where slie remained safely unlil I lie end of I lie \vai. 

" Tlie third whale-ship dis])a(elied to tlie Isortli Paeiiie from Finland was tin- Aian. 540 tons. 
She was commanded by a Finlamler. Captain Knderg, and readied the sea of Okhotsk in 1854. 
The eatdi dining the lir>l year \vas not great, and in the spring of 1S55 the naval commander of 
Kamtchatka ordered the captain to land his cargo and to transport tbe families of officers and 
soldiers from I'etropavlovsk to t he Amour, and during this voyage the ship was captured by 
an English frigate and burned. At the end of the war the whaling company discovered tbat, 
though 110 actual loss had been incurred, tbe profits of the business were not what they had 
expected, and the subsequent operations do not seem to have been pushed witb energy or vigor. 

" A few more ships were fitted out, but as soon as tbey returned with tbeir cargoes of oil and 
bone they were sold for whatever price tbey would bring. It was perhaps unfortunate for tbe 
interests of the Eussian whaling industry in tbe North Pacific that the company engaged in the 
business was so closely connected with the Enssiau- American Company, which was then becoming 
more deeply embarrassed every year."* 

WHALE FISHERY OF FRANCE. 

" The whale fishery was established in France in 1784, by means of encouragements held out 
by Louis XVI, who ordered that no duty should be collected on tbe articles exported, and that the 
produce of the fisheries should pay no import duty. He guaranteed the adventurers against loss, 
and ultimately paid, in addition to 12,500, which he advanced without interest, an additional 
Mini of 6,695, being tbe balauce of loss on seventeen voyages ; but notwithstanding these encour- 
agements, tbe whole project was abandoned in 1787. In 1816 the offer of bounties attracted new 
adventurers into this branch of trade. The premium offered by the Government was 50 francs 
(*-.') per man, and two-thirds of the crews were allowed to be foreigners. In 1819 40 francs were 
allowed to foreign vessels having a crew half French, 50 francs when tho captain and one-third 
of tbe crew were French, the premium to be doubled if the vessel passed Cape Horn. In 18'_'9 a 
new ordinance granted 90 francs per ton on vessels wholly equipped by Frenchmen, 40 francs when 
only two-thirds were Frenchmen, and 30 francs if the captain was a foreigner. The premium was 
doubled if tbe vessel passed Cape Horn. A supplementary premium was allowed to vessels fishing 
to the southeast of tlie Cape of Good Hope, and the double premium was given to all vessels fish- 
ing at a higher northern latitude than 60 degrees, and as the fishing is seldom or never prosecuted 
at a lower latitude, this premium of 180 francs per ton (7 4.v.) was invariably paid. The law of 
1832, which regulates the whale fishery of France, established a bounty of 70 francs per ton from 
March, 1832, to March, IS.",:!, if the whole crew were French ; the bounty to be diminished 4 francs 
yearly till it reached 54 francs. If one-third of tbe crew be foreigners, the bounty to be 48 francs 
per ton, to diminish 1' trains yearly till it reached 40 francs per ton. A supplementary bounty to 
be given of 50 francs per ton if the crew be French, decreasing :i francs per juinnin per ton ; and 24 
francs if one-third be foreigners, decreasing ! franc per annum, to be paid to vessels doubling Cape 
Horn, or reaching 62 degrees of south latitude, if returning with less than half a cargo or after an 
absence of sixteen months ; "ino tons to be the minimum for a single whaler. 

"Witb these extraordii. :ry encouragements capital was attracted to this new line of industry, 
and in 1831 three vessels cleared out for the Greenland whale fishery and thirteen for tbe South 

" Report on the Population, Industries, anil . E AlH liy I\:m IVIrnlt', spn-i.-il a^iut I T . S. (' 

Washington. 11. 



208 HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

Sea fishery, which employed 6,412 tons of shipping and were manned by five hundred and fifty- 
one men. Notwithstanding all the bounties given to the whale fishery, France has very few ves- 
.-els rim-aged in it. There were only seventeen ships in the trade in 1849, and seven only re-entered 
French ports. There were but five vessels left Havre in 1853, of a tonnage of 2,045 tons, and with 
a crew of one hundred and twenty-seven men. The return of the products was 112,485 kilograms 
of the whale, 1,589 of the cachalot, and 81,712 kilograms of the whalebone. 

"It was estimated by the minister of commerce, in his report on this subject to the Chamber 
of Deputies more than twenty years ago, that the five hundred and fifty seamen employed in the 
whale fishery do not cost the state less than 1,000,000 francs, at the rate of 72 12s. per man, or 
a month. The wages granted by the budget to seamen employed in ships of war amounted 
to 1 per month, so that the allowance to the seamen employed in the Greenland fishery is six 
times the. ordinary allowance of seamen in the public service. It is remarkable that France was 
granting these extravagant allowances for the encouragement of the whale fishery exactly at the 
time that Great Britain was withdrawing the bounties by which she had formerly endeavored to 
promote this branch of trade as a nursery for seamen. Yet in 1830 the number of vessels that 
cleared out for the fishery in England was one hundred and twenty-three, consisting of 40,166 tons, 
navigated by live thousand and forty-four seamen, being thus about, eight times the quantity of 
tonnage employed by France. The Government of Louis Philippe, alarmed at the large outlay in 
bounty, endeavored to lessen it and to render it transitory and temporary only. M. d'Argout, 
the minister of commerce, insisted that those bounties exhausted the resources of the state, and 
decreasing bounties were after a period adopted, but M. Cuuin Gridaiue, who was minister of com- 
merce, relapsed into the old error by introducing supplemental bounties. The provisional govern- 
ment of 1818 by one decree argumented the bounties, and by a second extended the term of the 
law to December 31, 1851. On the 22d of July, 1851, the National Assembly voted for the con- 
tinuance of the bounties to 1861."* 

AUSTRALIA, TASMANIA, AND NEW ZEALAND. 

Shore whaling has been practiced to a limited extent on the south and west coast of Australia, 
under the direction of Americans who had left their vessels while cruising in that vicinity. One 
of these whaling stations was at Vasse, in Geographe Bay, on the southwest coast of the island, 
and another was at Bunby, some 30 miles farther north. "At certain seasons of the year the 
right and humpback whales resort to various bays ou this coast for the purpose of producing their 
young. A lookout is stationed ou an eminence ashore, and several boats' crews being near at 
hand, at the appearance of a whale the alarm is given and they start in pursuit. At times their 
work is very easy, but if the whale should run out to sea, after being struck, they are obliged to 
tow him to the shears, and frequently a day and night are consumed iu this arduous employment. 
If the whale is attended by a calf they always fasten to the latter first, knowing that the mother, 
in her solicitude for her offspring, is very careful not to use her tremendous flukes, or, if a hurnp- 
l>a. k. her sweeping fins; but woe betide the boat, unless an experienced boat-header directs it, 
that is in the vicinity when she discovers that her calf is dead. She then remains close to the 
lifeless body, striking right and left with flukes and fins to avenge her loss, and, as the slightest 
tap from these formidable weapons would cause destruction, it requires all the boat-header's 
adroitness to avoid them. The officers, boat-steerers, and, if they can by any means be procured, 
two-thirds of the crews are Americans. We have a world wide reputation for skill in this pursuit." t 

* Ency. liritannicu, vol. x, p. -Mli. France has bad no fleet since 1866. 
tW.B.WHlTECAR.jr., : Four years aboard the Whale Ship : Phil., 1860, p. 91. 



TI1K W1IALK KISlll.i;y. 



209 



id( niiirn fhtnt'in;/ tin nunilur, loniiaiji, nntl ITI-IC* "/ I HMI, iiitui imxilx i-iii/uiji-d in Ilir irli,ili- yis/n i-i'r.v ; /si. //if HI- 
/'i-r <(IM/ Itnuunjf nf MIC/J r(,s.si7,s- itittrtil itnun'ih, ami //ii '/^<iii///// /' n//. ,\ c., icliirli lln'if linmt/ltl intOjHtrl. 

ni.stic-s "I' lln- ' -nl"ii\ of T:\smnnia for 1879.] 



Vi-ur. 


Vl-SM-l.- 1 Ul]'l'.\r.l. 


< nl ri , .1 

MllS. 


Black oil. 


'] < Illlll ! 1 I] III! - ll 

S|.fl'IH nil. 


into port. 


No. 


Tnmia^r 


470 
488 
441 
389 
315 
315 
324 
321 
326 


So. 

IS 

12 

IS 
13 

e 

15 
11 
11 

8 




Whalcli'iiK-. 


Valne. 


1870 


15 
19 
IS 
18 
Hi 
13 
13 
12 
11 
11 


::, Hi: 
4, '..17 

4,763 

4, USX 

3,525 

:: 95 

::, l.'.ii 
:;. 150 


< > 

3,070 
4,642 

3,405 
1,628 
3,955 
3, 0.14 
2,733 
2, 317 


i:nir i;>ii:/>it:: 
I 

5 
14 IS 
13 is 


Ti'n::. *.'r(//<r,/.v. 
4 IX 

CM (I 
339 (I 
558 (1 
352 

139 Js 
470 
4'.l rji: 
js.' 
268 126 


Pounds. 


35, 880 
46, 350 
27, 420 
44, 000 
-30, 780 
12, 46.'. 
41,740 
31, 605 
16, 920 
13, 425 


1X71 


HIO 


187:! 


1873 




1874 




1875 






1876 


126 




1X77 




1878 






IST'.I 













1 Not jjivi-n in Hie returns prior to 1871. 

The whale fisheries of New Zealand are discussed as follows in a report to the Department of 
State by IT. S. Consul G. W. Griffin, dated Auckland, New Zealand, May 1C, 1881 : 

" The presence of a fleet of American whaling vessels from New Bedford, Mass., now in the 
waters of New Zealand, has directed my attention to the condition of the whale fisheries of this 
colony. The principal ports of New Zealand for whaling vessels are Russell and Maugonui. 
There appears to be no just reason why these ports should be preferred toothers of the colony, 
unless it is that Russell and Mangonni are small places and do not offer as great inducements for 
the men to desert their ships as the larger cities, and that it is always difficult to supply the loss 
of trained men for whaling purposes. 

"The whale fisheries of New Zealand, like those elsewhere, have declined rapidly during the 
last thirty years, but they now appear to be rallying again. The cause of their decline has doubt- 
less been the substitution of other material for whalebone and the discovery of kerosene and 
other lubricating oils which have taken the place of whale and sperm oil. A large number of 
whaling stations were established along the coast of New Zealand as far back as 1825. The indus- 
try has been a very lucrative one. Few ships that ventured to those shores were unsuccessful in 
obtaining full cargoes of oil and bone. 

''I find that the industry was most successfully pursued by what was known as ' shore parties,' 
who located themselves at eligible points all round the coast of the islands. The method of catch- 
ing whales by shore paities was first started in New Zealand by some of the rough white adven- 
turers from the Australian colonies, who had for many years previously pursued the arduous life 
of catching seals in boats and small crafts along the coasts of the Middle Island and Foveaux 
Si rait. They were encouraged to engage in the pursuit of the whale and to form establishments 
for that purpose on the shores of Cook Strait. Upon hearing of the success of these shore fish- 
eries the people established whaling stations at Wellington. Some also were started at various 
points on the west coast of the North Island, near New 1 My mouth, and a large number at various 
places on flu- east roast of Hie North Island, between Cape Palliser and East Cape. 

"These stations were fitted out for the capture, chielly, of the black or -right' whale (Ha/ii'/iit 
<tii/;i><xlit>ii}, which approached the shores of New Zealand in large numbers during the calving 
season, from May to October, inclusive. Very frequently the sperm whale, the humpback, the pike- 
headed, and other species came near enough also to lie captured by the shore parties. The 
stations were generally established near a projecting headland, close to which there was deep 
SEC. v, VOL. 11 14 



210 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

water, and where, from the lofty summit of the headland, a good view could be had of the offing 
aud of any whales whii'h mighl chance tu sport there. The advantages rendered the site an eligi- 
ble one. The season for which the men engaged themselves began with the mouth of May aud 
lusted until the beginning of October, extending through a period of five mouths, which in New 
Zealaud includes the winter season. Uuriug these mouths the cow whales resort to the coast w th 
their young calves. 

"It required a large sum of money to equip a whaling station. A pair of shears, such as arc 
used for taking out or putting in the masts of ships, had to be erected in order to raise the immense 
carcasses a hove water, so that they could be ni^re conveniently and expeditiously cut up. It was 
also necessary to build 'try-works,' as they were called, being furnaces for melting the blubber. 
Storehouses were erected and well supplied with spirit, cord, and canvas. Three or four well- 
built and well-found boats completed the outfit. All these establishments seem to have been 
'conducted on the same system. The men-employed in the active part of the work received a certain 
per cent, of the oil procured, aud the remainder was the share of the merchant at whose expense 
the station had been lifted up, and who had also the advantage of taking the oil at his own valu- 
ation, which very generally was largely in his favor. In looking over some old records kept at 
one of the stations near the East Cape I find that in one year forty-one whales were caught, which 
yielded 145 tons of oil aud H tons of bone. I have been informed by old whalers here that as 
much as 14 tons of oil had been obtained from one whale. A breeding cow and calf produce about 
1 cwt. of bone to 1 ton of oil, but a small fat whale a much less proportion. 

" The flourishing condition of the fisheries attracted vessels from all parts of the world. In 1843 
as many as twenty whaling vessels were seen at one time in the harbor of C tago, Middle Island. 
At a later period Russell, Bay of Islands, became the favorite resort of the whalers. The fisheries. 
however, began to decline rapidly, notwithstanding the employment of an increased number of 
boats and men. The places which were once the favorite haunts of whales soon became entirely 
deserted by them. The country at that time was without a representative form of government, 
and no laws were enacted to protect the fisheries. The whales frequenting the coast of New Zea- 
land were soon extirpated or driven off to other regions. They were attacked by the shore parties 
the moment they reached the coast, when they had generally by their side a calf too young to 
support itself without being suckled by the mother, and which perished as a natural consequence 
of her loss. Had an act been passed making it unlawful to kill the whale until a later period in 
the season, many of the calves would have been spared to return the following year. 

"In 1858 the legislative assembly of New Zealand, with a vie\\ of improving the condition 
of the whale fisheries, passed an act, which is still in force, requiring the. proprietors of whaling- 
stations to give valid security on future produce of oil and bone. There had been very general 
complaint among the whalers that the merchants would not advance money or goods without legal 
security. The act enabled the merchant to receive a mortgage on the oil and bone which the pro- 
prietors of the whaling stations might obtain dining the ensuing season. The mortgage must be 
in duplicate, and recorded, so that no subsequent sale by the whaler can affect the security. If 
the whaler should refuse to deliver the oil and bone specified therein the owner of the security can 
take possession of the same. 

"This security is made transferable by deed, and by indorsement, and every transferee has 
the same right, title, aud interest as the person in whose name such security was originally taken. 
The security can also be canceled by the registrar at any time at (he request of the owner. The 
act further provides that if fraud should be practiced on the owner lie can recover double the 
amount of the consideration named in the mortgage, and every one found aiding or abetting such 
frauds shall be fined double the amount of the consideration. 



THE WHALE F1SIIEUY. 211 

"The proprietor of one of the whaling stations on the North Island has described to me the 
nu'tliod of catching the whale by the shore parties. Tlie men are enrolled under three classes, 
viz, headsman, boat steerer, and common man. The headsman is the commander of the boat, and 
liis post is at the helm, except during the time of killing the \vhalc, which honor also falls to his 
lot. The boat-steerer pulls the oar nearest to the bow, always steering under the direction of the 
headsman, and fastens the harpoon to the \vhule. The headsman then kills the whale. The com- 
mon men have nothing to do bn't to ply their oars according to orders, except one called the tub- 
oarsman, who sits near the tub containing the \vhale line, and sees that, no entanglement takes place. 

"The wages are the shares of the prolits of the fishery, apportioned to the men according to 
their rank. The headsman gets more than the boat-steerer, and the boat-steerer more than the 
common man. The leader of the party commanding the boat is called the chief headsman. A 
certain code of etiquette or laws exists among the whalers. This code has been handed down 
by tradition, and is in all cases faithfully adhered to. It regulates and settles the various claims 
to the whale. Each station has its own laws and customs. It is a fundamental rule, however, 
among all of them that he who once made fast has the right to the whale even should he be obliged 
to cut his line, provided his harpoon still remains in the whale. Each harpoon has its owner's 
private mark, and there can be no dispute about the ownership of the weapon. The boat mak- 
ing fast to the calf has aright to the cow, because it is well known that the cow will not desert 
her young. A boat demanding assistance from a rival party must share equally with the party 
granting the assistance. These unwritten laws are universally recognized among whalers. A 
dispute seldom occurs as to the ownership of the whale. Should such a dispute arise it is always 
satisfactorily settled according to the code. 

" The whale-boat used by the shore parties differs in size and construction from those used by 
whaling vessels. The former is clinker shaped, sharp at both ends, and is higher out of water at 
the bow and stern than it is amidships. It is usually about 30 feet long and narrow in width, and 
especially adapted for riding on the surf. A platform is erected at the stern, reaching forward 
about feet, even with the gunwales. To this is attached a cylindrical piece of wood used for check- 
ing the whale-line, and it is a custom to cut a notch in this wood for every whale killed by the boat. 

A constant lookout for whales is kept from a site near the station, and when a whale is 
sighted three or four boats arc immediately launched and proceed at racing speed, the spout of 
the whale, like a small column of smoke on the horizon, indicating the direction to be taken. 
When the fastest boat reaches the whale, the boat-steerer drives the harpoon straight into the 
animal. A turn is taken around the loggerhead to check the rapidity with which the line runs 
out, and the boat flies through the water, forming ridges of foam above the sides. The skill of 
the headsman is now shown in steering and watching the course of the whale. Other harpoons 
are thrown into the animal, which, alter diving several times, soon becomes exhausted. The 
headsman then lets fly his lance into the spot where life is said to be. The animal soon afterwards 
spouts thick blood and is a sure prize. This method of catching whales is, however, not so satis- 
factory or profitable as that pursued by whaling vessels, and is principally practiced now by the 
.Maori, or native race. 

' The sperm whale is more frequently met with in the New Zealand waters than any other 
kind of whale. Mr. Eldridge. the first officer of the American bark .Tanus, informed me that during 
last March he saw forty or lifty of these whales near the East Cape. The sperm whale travels at 
the rate of 1 or 5 miles ati hour. Adult females, or those with young in their company evince a 
strong atfeuion for eat-h other, and when one is killed or sustains injury the parents or companions 
hover about, and even render assistance. The whalers take advantage of this trait and kill a 
number before the others make off. When, however, a company of male \\hales are found, and 



212 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

one is attacked, all the others desert their wounded companion. The whale will sometimes lie with 
its mouth wide open, as if waiting for the ' squid,' its principal article, of food, aud will close upon it 
like a trap. Some say that tin- squid is ;it: racted by the pearly teeth of the whale. The sperm 
whale is known by the act of blowing, which is performed with regularity every ten minutes. The 
spout sent up can be seen at a distance of 3 miles. Mr. Eldridge tells me that when one is sighted 
the boats leave the ships very quietly, the men making as little noise as possible with their oars and 
paddles. When struck, the whale generally sounds, or descends to a great depth, taking out the 
lines belonging to the boat. When spent with the loss of blood it becomes unable to sound, but 
passes rapidly along the surface, towing after it the boats. If it does not turn, the men draw in 
the line and dispatch him. When a whale is killed, the boats are fastened to its body and brought 
alongside the ship. A hole is cut back of the head, a hook is inserted, and the fat or blubber is 
cut in long, spiral-shaped strips aud hoisted on deck. The head is then opened and the spermaceti 
taken out. The fat is then boiled 011 board in the furnaces, the scraps serving as fuel. The oil 
is then put in casks. It is generally supposed that it is water which the animal propels through 
its vents, but such is not the case. It propels the vapor of water, just as all animals expire their 
breath, only the vapor on coming iu contact with the cold air immediately condenses, at first in a 
white cloud and afterwards in a small fine rain. The volume of air thrown up along with the 
surrounding moisture and condensed vapor often rises in a great jet. Sperm whales travel the 
seas in great herds, from one hundred to three hundred, and they are said to acknowledge a 
leader, who swims in advance and gives the signal of combat or flight by uttering a peculiar roar. 
It can remain under water for an hour and twenty minutes at a time; sometimes it leaps out of 
water fully 25 feet into the air and shows its entire body. The neck vertebrae of the sperm whale 
are fused together. The upper surface of the broad, shoe-shaped skull has a large, basin-like 
cavity, wherein the spermaceti is lodged. 

"The sperm whale is also remarkable for the ambergris which is sometimes found in it. 
Ambergris is the most precious of all the ingredients used in the manufacture of perfumes. It is 
now very generally acknowledged to be a morbid secretion of the liver of the spermaceti whale. 
It is remarkable that the two most precious products of the sea, ambergris and pearl, are the 
results of disease. Ambergris is found floating on the ocean and is sometimes washed ashore. It 
is a little lighter than water aud bears some resemblance to the bark of a tree. It is described as 
of a waxy ure, streaked with yellow, gray, aud black, aud emitting a peculiar aromatic odor. 
It fuses at 140 and 150 F., aud at a higher temperature, gives out a white smoke, which con- 
denses in a crystalline fatty matter. It varies in size from 1 to 30 pounds, but occasionally pieces 
are found iu whales weighing from 100 to 200 pounds. Its use in the manufacture of perfumes is 
not so much on account of its fragrance as its peculiar property of causing other ingredients to 
throw out their odors. It is compared in this respect to mordant in dyes, without which the color 
would fail to become permanent. Perfumes that contain ambergris are very expensive, aud those 
made without it smell of alcohol. It varies in price from $12 to >OO per ounce. 

"Among the whales peculiar to this colony is the New Zealand Jln-nnlinn. It is a species of 
ziphoid whale. One was captured not long ago off the coast of Canterbury. It was described 
by Dr. Julius Haast as ;!0.\ feet long, of beautiful velvety color, with a grayish belly. The female 
Berardiua gives birth to a single young one in the autumn. They feed chiefly on cuttle-fish. The 
skull is most peculiar iu having two crests at the occiput, of most unequal size and figure, and 
the cheek-bones at the roof of the beak are raised into a pair of huge elevators. The upper jaw is 
toothless, and the. lower jaw has only two or three small teeth. The neck vertebra? are united, and. 
moreover, the stomach is remarkable. c\en aiming ceiaeea, for the number of chamlieis it contains 
there being six or seven divisions. 



TIIK \VI1ALK FI81IUUY. 



213 



"The right whale (Hnlirnii (inti/iinliiiii) is often caught in the New Zealand waters. In this 
animal the baleen plates take the place id' teeth anil hang suspended from the root' of the month. 
Captain (liant, of Horatio, is said to have captured a whale oil' this coast, New Zealand, yielding 
over-' tons of whalebone. The baleen [dates vary in si/e from a few inches to 12 feet in length. 
Their chemical composit ion is aHiuinen, hardened by small particles of the phosphate of lime. In 
their natural state t!ic\ are of a bluish black color, striped with white. They are covered with 
small libers, which are carefully scraped oil'; the plates are then boiled until they are soft enough 
to cut : the color being objectionable-, they are dyed black before being sent to market. The dyeing 
i> generally done during the process of boiling. 

In 1ST*, the number of American whaling vessels which arrived at the various ports of New 
Zealand was thirteen, with an aggregate tonnage of 3,422. In 1879, the number was fifteen, and 
the tonnage .'!.7!>2. Captain Fisher, of the American whaling bark Alaska, now at Uussell, Bay 
of Islands, New Zealand, informs me that he has cruised off the coast of these islands for a period of 
six years, and during that time he has taken over 7,00(1 barrels of sperm oil, which he thinks is 
above the amount taken by any other vessel in the same length of time. He took home with him on 
his last voyage, according to the New Bedford IJepublicau Standard, the most valuable cargo of 
sperm oil ever brought to that place, which is a good deal to say, inasmuch as New Bedford is the 
largest port for whaling vessels iu the world. Captain Fisher writes me at lUissell, Bay of Islands, 
New Zealand, under date of the 13th of May last, 'that he will sail lor New Bedford on the 20th 
instant with 930 barrels of oil (<S(H> sperm and i;!0 whale oil) and about COO pounds of whalebone. 

"I give below a table showing the quantity and value of whalebone, whale oil, and sperm oil 
exported from the various parts of New Zealand for each year since 18G9 to 1880 : 



rar. 


Wh;ilu- 
bone. 


Whale 
oil. 


Sin i in 

oil. 


V.llllr hi 
A nil 1 ll-.lll 
I U1TC11CV. 


l;n 


Pounds. 

5, 1 i:: 


Gallons 


Gallons. 


$1, 525 






18 509 




17 190 








1 640 


5 835 


1870 


5,959 






1 698 










20 095 








29 ',178 




1871 


:, HIT 






1. Jiid 






3 893 




" ma 








40 li"t> 


58 ii'Ti 


1872 


1': 71" 






:; Mm 






40,070 




41.2s:. 
:: ic.i) 


1873 


3,544 






560 






r> 787 














10 


L874 








' "i)ii 






11,790 




9, 650 
10 550 


1875 








l.i 500 


187G 




I :,::ii 




21.470 












1877 






I.', ciil 


160 








Is |.-:: 




1879 




1 i M 




. I'll! 








l.i 717 


Is 7"i 


1880 


3 584 






:; nir. 




















26, 255 













214 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

WHALE FISHERY AT BARBADOES. 

5Ir. Alleyne S. Archer, in an article in The Field, the Country Gentleman's Newspaper, for 
October 22, 1881, thus refers to the whale fishery at Barbadoes : 

"The whale fishery was started by rue some fourteen years ago in this island, and I have 
carried it on every year up to the one last past. I find that the whales have not decreased, nor 
do they appear any wilder or harder to be caught; on the contrary, with the improved weapons 
that have been introduced of late years, and with the experience that has been gained by all who 
engage in it, the catching and killing of them may now be considered as pretty easy, although at 
times a very tiresome work. When first I engaged in it Demerara offered a very remunerative 
price for the oil, which is made from what we call the black or humpback whale. I then readily 
obtained 5s. 6d. per imperial gallon for the oil, which at that time was largely used there for 
lubricating as well as for burning. Tear by year has witnessed its decline in value in every 
market ia the world. A few years after I had first started, Demerara rejected it, and would not 
purchase it at any price, kerosene having superseded it as a burner, and lard oil as a lubricator. 
Trinidad for a year or two then afforded a good market; but from the great influx of oil from 
Grenada, St. Vincent, &c., the market became glutted, and the price has never gone back to any- 
thing like a remunerative figure. The United States was then tried, but the heavy duty of 20 per 
cent, ad valorem on foreign catch entirely hindered any further exportation to those shores. The 
only market now where the oil or bone can be sold to any advantage is the English, that is to say, 
in London. This oil is of much the same value as that procured from the large Tight whale,' 
which sometimes yields 150 barrels of oil, while these humpbacks never give more than 90 to 100 
barrels, 45 being the average. Right whales and sperm whales are never seen in these waters, but 
the latter are often taken amongst the Leeward Islands. The bone obtained from the humpback 
is about from 1 to 3 feet long, while the bone from the right whale is from 6 to 12 feet long, and 
now worth 500 per ton. The carcass of the whale has recently been utilized for the purpose of 
manure manufacture, and all the bones thereof have been used up: and this, with the oil and 
baleen (or bones from the mouth), would make the business profitable, notwithstanding the low 
quotation of oil and bone as given before. 

"The fishery is carried on now in the central part of the island (to leeward). The boiling- 
house, where we try out the blubber, is on the shore, close to the beach; the boats are hung on 
davits on a jetty, which is about 200 feet long, and built in very smooth water. The whale is 
taken to the end of the jetty, where we have a depth of water of 2 fathoms. A large whale is 
generally about from 50 to CO feet in length, and makes from 50 to 60 barrels of oil ; and we rarely 
catch larger. This is cut in in about twenty-four hours, and then boiled out in forty-eight hours. 
Four boats lower every week day ; two go north, and two go south. Each boat has seven men : 
one officer, who sticks and kills the whale; one boat-steerer, who steers and attends to the line 
when the whale is struck; and five men to use the paddles and oars. <Jcc. 

"Whales make their appearance here in January and leave in June, but we do not employ 
men to go after them until March ; we, however, keep the boats ready in January, and if an oppor- 
tunity offers we avail ourselves of it ; and I have many times killed whales in January and Feb- 
ruary. In the month of March they begin to arrive pretty plentifully, and the cows then begin to 
calve, or bring their young calves with them to feed close in shore in smooth water. Whenever 
we see a cow and calf we generally succeed in taking them ; but when the bull is with them our 
chances are not so good, as he seems to keep a first-rate watch, so that' we cannot approach as we 
otherwise should do. However, the way we set to work is this: the boat is provided with 300 
fathoms of mauila whale-line, four toggle-irons (harpoons), three hand-lances with spear-shaped 



TTIH WHAM'; FISHERY. 



215 



heads (the lance being six feet long <ui a wooden pole ,~> feet long), one breech-loading bomb-gun 
and live or six explosive-bomb lances. All the whaling is done under sail when, theie is wind 
enough to propel the boat; otherwise: we use oars and paddles. We endeavor to keep a little 
behind the whale, but on one side or the other, and when, we get a favorable chance to get onto 
it uuperceived, we do so. We always strike the calf first if there is one; if not, strike any whale 
we get near enough to; the otiicer puts two irons in if he gets a chance, if not only one. He then 
directs the men to haul the boat close up to the whale (right on top of it very often), when he shoots 
a bomb into it and darts his hand-lance as near the heart as he can get it, some two or three times, 
when he slacks oil' the boat to allow the whale to kick and tumble about in the agony produced 
by the lances. When the lancing has been effective the whale generally at once spouts blood (but 
not at all times) and soon expires, perhaps in ten minutes; again, perhaps not in twelve hours, as 
I have known them spout thick blood at sunrise, and to get away at sunset, but" such cases are 
now very rare, half an hour being about the average time required to kill it. 

"It i.s very interesting to see the whale at feed in the shallow and clear water, and to notice 
the manner in which the mother protects her offspring and the way it suckles her. A whale on 
being struck darts off with velocity, and the men have to be very careful in their movements, 
otherwise they may lose their lives. I was once taken out of the boat by the line getting round 
me while I was in the act of shooting a large 70-barrel whale, yet I managed to get off safely; but 
such an escape is very rare, as the line takes the man down so quickly that he is at once drowned. 

" Sometimes the boats get knocked to pieces by the flukes of the whale, then the other boat 
comes to the rescue. Six years ago we struck a calf at daylight close in to the shore, and soon 
after we fastened to the cow. She spouted blood in a few minutes, notwithstanding which she 
took us to the windward of Saint Lucia before dark ; she then died after we gave her some sixteen 
bomb lances. I happened to be in the boat that killed her, and directed the whale to be taken 
into Martinique, where we boiled it out, getting 8 tuns of oil. The flesh of the whale is very much 
consumed here by all classes, and is considered to be not unlike beef, and is preferred by many to 
the bad cattle usually slaughtered in the leeward parishes of Barbadoes. I give an abstract of 
the catch for ten years past." 

Abstract ol ' u-lialc nil taken at Vvrliadocs from 1869 to 1878. 
[Tuns whale oil of 2,">2 gallons each.] 



Tear. 


Tuns. 


Ynir. 


Tims. 


1?69 


11) 




65 


1870 














55 


1872 


50 


1*77. .. 


60 








40 



FISIIKTCY OF C1J1I.I. 

There are several whaling stations or shore parlies along the south coast of Chili. A small 
fleet of whaling vessels is owned by some Chilian companies. Their cruising grounds extend from 
Panama Bay to Chiloe, in latitude 47 south, and from the coast as tar seaward as 120 west lon- 
gitude. The sperm oil is chiefly shipped to England and the other oils consumed iii Chili. 

WHALE FISHERY IN THE GULF OF SAINT LAWRENCE. 

The Canadian fisheries yield annually about one thousand white whale or porpoise hides, and 
abont$15,000 worth of whale oil. The skins are prepared as leather, producing an excellent article, 
largely used for sportsmen's boots and for other purposes. 



216 HISTORY AND ME1HODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

In the report of the Commissioner of Fisheries of Canada for the year 1875 is the following 
reference to the whale fishery : 

Whaling expeditions on our coasts began only when the New England loyalists settled on 
the shores of Gaspe, after the peace of 1763. Experienced in whale hunting, which they had prac- 
ticed on the coast of New England, these settlers were not long in discovering what profits could 
be made by following a pursuit which they were well versed in. Such were the beginning of the 
first whaling expeditious. Vessels engaged in them were not at first numerous, being composed 
of small crait, but their number became larger by degrees, and in a short time not less than one 
dozen line large schooners were reckoned as being engaged in that fishery. This was the golden 
time for Gaspe, and the oldest inhabitants, who still remember the enormous profits realized in 
these expeditions, cannot sufficiently condemn the improvidence of whalers who were not prudent 
enough to secuse at that time the wealth and abundance which was pouring on them. The mi in 
ber of schooners engaged in this pursuit has gradually decreased until it is now reduced to three. 

"The waters of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence are frequented by three kinds of whales, but the 
species most sought after is that called the humpbacked, so named from the peculiar formation of 
their backs. Whales had been so eagerly pursued for some years past by Gaspe fishermen that 
they disappeared for the same causes, I presume, which led them to abandon the shores of Europe 
and America. This fishery having become unremunerative was abandoned. Helped by this short 
breathing time whales had an opportunity to reproduce their species, and during the past two 
years they have been noticed in as large quantities as formerly. Whalers engaged in fishing this 
season state they saw thousands of them in the Gulf, but that bad weather prevented the making 
of a large catch. Three vessels fitted out at Gaspe Basiu during the month of June, and had fair 
success the Admiration, Captain Tripp; the Lord Douglass, Captain Baker, and the Violet, 
Captain Suddard. The results of these expeditious were as follows: 

Oil. 



Admiration '-Mil 

220 
120 



Lord Douglass . . 
Violet -. 



"The fishing mostly took place on the coast of Labrador and in the Strait of Belle Isle; the 
cargo of the Violet was secured within a short distance from ( !aspe. This fishery would have been 
twice as productive had not rough weather and floating ice made navigation dangerous during the 
summer and fall. Oil sold for 50 cents a gallon." 

For the season of 1880 the following report is made by Mr. George H. Hall, United States 
consul at Gaspe Basin : 

"Whaling has proved so unremunerative a pursuit for a number of years past that there 
remains but one small vessel employed in that business. The voyage occupies the summer months, 
and generally is in the vicinity of the Strait of Belle Isle. About 0,000 gallons of oil, a few hun- 
dredweight of small whalebone, and a few barrels of whale meat were the product of this sum- 
mer's cruise. Price of oil, -45 cents per gallon ; whalebone (small), $10 per cwt. r 

The condition of the whale fisheries within the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in 1852 is discussed 
by Mr. M. H. Perley, as follows : * 

* Reports on the Sea and River Fisheries of New Brunswick. By Mr. M. H. PERLEY, Fredericlou, 



TIIK \YIIAl.i; K1SI1KUY. 217 

"Tin- extent to which the whale fishery is curried on within the Gull' ol Saint Lawrence by 
\esselsfrom Newfoundland is very little known, nor is its value appreciated. The Jersey bouses 
who have fishing establishments in Gaspe also fit out vessels for this fishery, which cruise about 
Auticosti and the northern shore of the Saint Lawrence. Mr. MacGregoi , in an official repjrt to 
the Hoard of Trade, thus describes this fishery : 

'"The whales caught in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence are those called humpbacks, which yield 
on an average about .. Ions of oil, some having been taken 70 feet long, which produced 8 tons. 
The mode of taking them is somewhat different from that followed by the Greenland fishers ; and 
the Gaspe fishermen first acquired an acquaintance with it from the people of Nantucket. An 
active man, accustomed to boats and schooners, may become fully acquainted with everything 
connected wit h this fishery in one season. The vessels adapted for this purpose are schooners 
from 70 to 80 tons burden, maimed with a crew of eight men, including the master. Each 
schooner requires two boats, about 20 feet long, built narrow and sharp, and with pink-sterns; 
and 220 fathoms of line are necessary to each boat, with spare harpoons and lances. The men 
row towards the whale, and when they are very near use paddles, which make less noise than oars. 
Whales are sometimes taken in fifteen minutes after they are struck with the harpoon. The Gaspe 
fishermen never go out ill quest of them until some of the smaller ones, which enter tie bay 
about the beginning of June, appear ; these swim too fast to be easily harpooned, and are not, 
besides, worth the trouble. The large whales are taken off the entrance of Gaspe Bay, on each 
side of the island of Anticosti, and up the river Saint Lawrence as far as Bic.' 

Mr. I'.ouchette, in his work on Lower Canada, represents the whale fishery of the Gulf as 
meriting the attention of the legislature, and needing encouragement, by which, he says, the 
number of vessels employed would be considerably increased, and this important branch of busi- 
nets would be as effectually carried on by the hardy inhabitants of Gaspe. as to compete, in some 
degree, if not rival, that of the Americans, who were, at the time Mr. Bouclicfte wrote, almost in 
the exclusive enjoyment of it, and carried on their enterprising fisheries in the very mouths of the 
bays and harbors of Lower Canada. 

" Sir Richard Bonuycastle, in his work entitled ' Newfoundland in 1842,' says, ' The coast and 
Gulf whale fishery is now being of much value to Newfoundland.' Sir Richard states that the 
vessels employed are large schooners, with crews of ten men each ; that the fishery is pursued 
during the whole of the summer months along the coast of Labrador, and in and through the 
Straits of Belle Isle, and that whales of all sizes are taken, from the smallest 'tinner' up to the 
largest itii/xtiir-lns, or great common oil whale of the northern ocean, which occasionally visits these 
regions. 

" It is believed that hitherto no attempt has been made by the people of New Brunswick to 
enter into this whale fishery, and it is a very proper subject for inquiry, whether it might not be 
profitably conducted by New Brunswick vessels, and the active and enterprising fishermen of the 
Bay of Chaleur, who aie equally well placed for carrying it on as their hardy comrades on the 
Gaspe side of the bay." 

WHALE FISHERY OF GEKMANI. 

Bremen and some other German ports were lormerly largely interested in the whale fishery. 
An excellent historical review of this industry is given by Dr. Lindemau, in his work entitled 
" Die arktische Fiseherei der deutscheu Seestiidte, 16HO-18CS." 



218 



HISTOBY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 



The whale fishery of Bremen iu 1864 employed five vessels, iu 1805 three vessels, and in 1866 
four vessels. The imports of oil aiid bone into Bremen iu 1865 and 1866 were as follows : 





18 


35. 




56. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




427 050 




386 190 


$59 444 




169 212 


Ill ' I"S 


2:V.' 7^2 


304 349 













Some German vessels have engaged in the North Pacific whale fishery. Among these vessels 
were the ship Comet, cruising from 1861 to 1868 ; the Oregon, from 1864 to 1867, and the Julian, 
from 1865 to 1868. 



2. THE WHALEMEN, VESSELS AND BOATS, APPARATUS, AND 
METHODS OF THE WHALE FISHERY. 

By JAMES TEMPLEMAN BEOWN. 

I. THE WHALEMEN. 

NATIONALITIES. As to the nationality* of the crews now employed in the whale fishery, I 
should say I hat the captains are almost always of American birth, usually residents of the New Eng- 
land States, and rarely a native of the Western Islands. The mates are usually New Euglanders, 
but occasionally Portuguese, or perhaps a half-breed Indian from Gay Head, Mass., or Montauk 
Point, Long Island, may fill the office. As a rule the boat steerers arc foreigners, principally Por- 
tuguese, Indians, or Kanakas. Formerly the crews were composed almost entirely of Americans, 
and were made up, for the most part, of residents of New Bedford or the New England States, 
with an occasional delegate from almost every State iu the Union. Subsequently there seemed to 
be a gigantic .funnel, with its nozzle inserted in New Bedford, through which all classes and 
conditions of men from all parts of the United States found an outlet to the broad ocean. Still 
later, the intelligent American-born citizen withdrew from the forecastle of the whaler, and his 
place was supplied by a foreign element from the various islands and coasts visited by the vessels 
during their voyages. Though the foremost hands are representatives of almost all nations, they 
arc mainly natives of the Azores, or Western Islands, Cape Verde. Annobon, St. Thomas, or some of 
the numerous other little islands on the west coast of Africa, with a sprinkling of Kanakas, Guamies, 
Lascars, New Zealanders or Maories, West Indiaiuen, half-breeds a mixture of Spaniard and 
Indian from the coasts of Peru, Colombia, and other parts of the South American coast, English, 
I ditch, Scotch, Irish, Italian, French, and occasionally an American. A more heterogeneous group 
of men has never assembled in so small a space than is always found in the forecastle of a New 
Bedford sperm whaler. 

In case of death or desertion during the voyage vacancies are filled by some of the above- 
named classes, or by an amalgamated class of comparatively worthless men of different uationali- 

* Of the three thousand eight, hundred and ninety-six men composing the crews of the New Bedford whaling fleet 
in 1860, it is estimated that one-third \vnv Ainrrk-au born, one-third Azoreau and Cape Verde Islands Portuguese, and 
the remainder negroes, Kanakas, and other nationalities. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 219 

ties, known as "seasoncrs,"* "beeeh combers," and slanders." Some oi them may be engaged 
l'..r i In- season, and olliers for (he halaiiee of the voyage; although the terms are speeitied when 
the i>a]iers are signed, they are, seldom respected or observed by this class of men. Upon their 
arrival at ISfew Bedford the crews are not disposed .to ship again as whalemen, preferring to try 

their luck with the coasters in the carrying trade, or perhaps in the, fisheries. But these branches 

* 
of the service rarely suit them, and as I hey are constitutionally opposed to manual labor ashore. 

being accustomed in their native islands to the open sea, many of them are compelled to ship again 
in self defense as wh -ileinen, or to be shipped, nolens volens, by their boarding masters for debt. 
They rarely return to this country, however. No one seems to know or care where this vagabond 
element goes or how it disposes of itself. 

The natives of the Azores, Cape Verde, Anuobon, and St. Thomas, though of the negro element, 
speak a corrupt form of the Portuguese language. The "Cape Verdes," as they call themselves, 
are mulattoes a mixture of negro and Portuguese and more intelligent than the Bravas, Fogoes, 
and Anuobous, who are exceedingly black. Botu classes may mingle freely in business matters, 
but socially the Cape Verdes consider themselves superior. The Kanakas, Maories, Guainies, 
Lascars, Auuobous, West ludiameu. and some of the Portuguese, make good whalemen, but 
indifferent sailors. On their native islands their eyes have been educated in distinguishing remote 
objects on the surface of the sea; hence they are especially desirable at the lookout of a whaling- 
vessel, since they can often detect the slight puff of the sperm whale's breath amid the surface 
mist peculiar to low latitudes. More especially is this true of the Kanakas. They know no fear 
and never hesitate to approach a whale and harpoon it ; but on the vessel they are lazy and Shift- 
less. 

The remnants of the Chilmark Indians (half-breeds) at Gay Head (Martha's Vineyard) and 
.Montauk Point (Long Island) furnish excellent material for the whale-fishery, and upon them New 
Bedford relies more or less for her boat steerers. The mate and two boat-steerers of ship Niger, 
which sailed from New Bedford in October. ISSi', were Indians. In the early days of whaling, and 
indeed alter this industry had established a solid fooling, the white man relied in part upon the 
Indian to man his boats and to perform other duties in this fishery, t 

Few Americans below the rank of mates and captains are to be found on whaling vessels now 
sailing from our ports. Informer days, New England's best sous were trained in this nursery; 
commencing as they did as cabin boys or foremast hands, they worked their way through the 
various gradations of promotion. The sous and other male connections of the commission mer- 

* The "seasoners" are men who may be obtained on any coast to .--hip for the season, but. the term is, in a measure, 
'tiymons, or nearly so, with " beach-combers '' : the principal difference is. that it' there is any respectable element 
at all in cither class it may lie found in the former. Many of them are adventurers, growlers, and deserters from 
whale ships. They prowl about the shores of the various islands in the Atlantic' and I'aritie, and can only be induced 
to aunin enter the service- v, hen necessity drives them to it. It is seldom thev can lie depended upon to discharge 
their d-:!ies, even after they sign the articles. The "beach-combers " may also lie found about the shores. They are 
a lazy, shiftless, degraded class of men who have no respect for the.nselves ami. < < . , receive none from 

othi rs. They embrace different nationalities, many of them nd the majority of them are unreliable. 

They are at times compelled to ship as whalemen !o obtain means of subs. ' several 

"able-bodied meals." and receive supplies of clothing from the "slop chest," they desert at the lirsi opportunity, and 
lice their lays. being m. belief off than before, excepting that they have had a temporary home in the ship and 
leave with bet tei clothing on their hacks. The " are hall'-! lixtnrc o f Spaniard and Indian, frcipicnt- 

ing the coasts of Pern, Chili, and Colombia. They an- Usually engaged for UJM season, and are fair whale-men. 
Formerly masters of well . declined to ship any of I ' Imt at present 

they are compelled to make up their clew from this element when they are short-handed on the voyage. 

tin 167;* the town of Sonthampion, Long Island, p: : der I'm- the regulation of whaling and the employ- 

ment of the ' I inly mis to goa-whaling," in \vhich it is stated t hat an Indian should not n for his Hire above one 

Trucking Cloth Coat, for each Whale bee am'. : my shall Kill. 01 ithont the Whale Bone, 

under a Penalty therein exprcst." ALKXAXHF.I: Si.ua-.txk: Ilisi. Amci. Whale Fishery. 



220 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

chants and ship-owners of Xantucket were not deemed competent as business men until they 
became familiar, by actual experience, with every detail of the fishery ; and. according to " Miriam 
Coffin,'' so strong were the prejudices against any man who was not a whale-fisherman, that the 
daughters of Xantucket formed an organization of "female Freemasons," and refused to marry a 
man who had not first killed his whale.* 

The New England fleet at this time was manned almost exclusively by American-born citizens. 
Crews for the Xew Bedford vessels were made up from neighboring towns. Capt. Isaiah West, 
now eighty-six years of age, tells me that he remembers when he picked his crew within a radius 
of GO miles of Xew Bedford; that oftentimes he was acquainted, either personally or through 
report, with the social standing or business qualificalions of every man on his vessel ; and also 
that he remembers the first foreigner, an Irishman, that shipped with him, the circumstance 
being commented upon at that time as a remarkable one. 

The Provincetown vessels are engaged exclusively in the Atlantic fishery, and consequently 
the natives of the numerous islands of the Pacific Ocean are seldom found in this fleet. The main 
dependence is placed upon Portuguese! from the Cape Verdes and Azores, and a small percentage 
of white men from Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Occasionally an Irishman 
is shipped. Probably about one-fourth of the Provincetown crews is composed of Americans. The 
crews shipped at San Francisco are composed of negroes, Mexicans, Kanakas, and Americans, and, 
rarely, an Indian from Cape Flattery. 

DISCIPLINE ON THE VESSELS. There is a certain kind of relaxed discipline on all whaling- 
vessels; for, as might be expected from the character and morale of the present crews, if the cap- 
tain once " looses his grip on his men," the voyage will result in a failure. Manacles and handcuffs 
are usually (tarried, though seldom used, the captains preferring in all cases to rule and govern 
their men by moral suasion. Occasionally, however, it may be necessary to iron an insubor- 
dinate, pugilistic, or drunken man. lie is then placed in the run of the vessel, or between decks 
in the blubber room, and kept on bread and water until willing to comply with the rules of the 

"The author of Miriam Coffin, in continuation of his remarks iu regard to Freemasonry upon the island of Nan- 
tucket, says: 

" It was never fairly understood what were the secret obligations of these female Mascms ; anil it was even donated 
whether they had any 'secrets worth kn- much as no important operations, either of good or evil tendency, 

were known to he. put in practice in Hie little town of Sherburue [Kantucket]. or to disturb the world at large. This 
much, houc\r], raine afterwards to be di\ nlgcd : an obligation, if not under the solemnity of an oath or affirmation, 
was at least assumed by the novitiate under I he eh irge of the officiating mistress, Hint she would favour the courageous 
whale-fisherman, under every circumstance, in preference to a stranger and a landsman, if the alternative should 
ever occur. The letter and the spirit of I his charge were for a long time pertinaciously adhered to by the unmarried 
members; and some of them were known to carry it so far as to make it a /'< i/in/ nun in permitting the addresses of 
I hen .suitors, that they should have struck their whale, at least, before I he smallest encouragement would be given 
or a l'.-i\ouring smile awarded as the' earnest of preferment. 

"It has been shrewdly suspected that the chivalric ordeal, thus enforced by the fair maidens of the isle, was set on 
foot, by some of the patriotic- whale-fishermen and oil merchants of the place, in order to perpetuate a nursery of 
peculiar seamen; while iu doing SO, thej were Sure to secure valorous hn shards, and a certain < ompeteLcy for their 
ilau".htei>, as well as a mouopoh of the trade to the island. The intermarriage- ot so many whale-fishermen with the 
daughters of whale-fisheruieu, until almost all the inhabitants did, in reality, claim near relationship, and call each 
cousin,' at all events would seem to point that way, and to favour the presumption. Certain it is, that the daughters 
of some of the wealthiest men of the island had already formed a compact not to accept the addre-ses of sighing swain.-, 
much less to enter into the holy bonds of matrimony with any but .such as had been on a voyage, and could produce 
ample proof of successfully striking a whale." Miriam f'oljia, or Tin 1 Whale- Fishermen, pp. . r >7, 58. 

tThe Portuguese are gaining a foothold on some parts of the eastern .cast. Through an increasing importation 
by whaling-vessels, they arc becoming quite numerous in New Bedford, and have quartered themselves in one sec 
I ion ol 1 the city which is known as " f'ayal." .Some of them are property-holders, and make good citizens, and, lil.e 
the true negro, believe in the unfailing powers of conjuratiou. The Cape Cod I'orluguese usually engage in the- cod 
lishcry, and as they iiud this branch of industry remunerative, they rarely ship as whalemen again, unless they do so 
purposely to invite a difficulty with an officer at sea and to seek redress at the end of the voyage, the law ior the pro- 
tection of seamen being very stringent. 



TUT. \YI1A1;K FISIIKIIY. 221 

ship. "Wlii-ii ;i rebellious seaman is guilty ol' a misdemeanor, il lies within the province of the 
captain, so long as he keeps within the bounds of the law, to dele-mine what punishment should be 
eonimeiisurate with the oll'cnse. In early days complaints of harsh treatment were frequently 
entered against overbearing masters ; but such is i-arely the case now. The present captains in 
the Heel are intelligent men with broad and enlightened views, and kindly disposed towards their 
men. I'.y the judicious s\stem of pay which grants each man a certain interest in the proceeds ol' 
the voyage, the men are kept in a better state of subordination than would be the case if they 
received stipulated Sums in compensation tor their services. On the one hand, they have every 
motive to promote the interests <>r the ship; in doin.tr this, they contribute to the success of the 
voyage and put money in their own pockets ; on the other hand, they would naturally feel as a 
wage-earning people, whether they worked early or late, their pay would still go MI, and the suc- 
cessful termination of the voyage would be a matter of indifference to them. 

LIFE ASHORE. One word in regard to the ordinary whaleman's boarding-house. I visited 
several of these institutions, both in the day-time and at night. Those located in the section of 
New Bedford known as Fayal are two-story frame structures with no pretensions whatever to any- 
thing but plainness and simplicity. On an average, they compare favorably with other cheap 
boarding-houses patronized by the laboring classes in almost any section of the country. The fare 
is plain and substantial, and while there are no superfluous articles of domestic furniture, there is 
no lack of such articles as the actual necessities of a boarder require I noticed a marked dif- 
ference between the houses kept by the Cape Verdes and those kept by the Briivas. The former 
were cleaner, better furnished, and more homelike and inviting. The Cape Verdes also are more 
particular as to the kind of men they entertain, while the Bra vas indiscriminately take any one who 
applies for board, provided he is able to pay for it. The price for board and lodging varies from 
s:; to *."> a week. The boarding-house keepers "drum up 1 ' customers in different ways. Some of 
them write letters to their friends or relatives in their native islands, requesting then) to notify the 
whalemen who ship on American vessels that touch at their ports for supplies and men that board 
and lodging can be obtained upon their arrival at such and such a number on a certain street in 
New Bedford. As soon as a whale-ship is reported, the boarding-house keepers and outfitters 
charter a small vessel and board the whaler, usually after she gets into. the harbor. In some cases, 
1 am told, the foreigners arriving in this country for the first time, have letters from parties in 
their native islands addressed to the New Bedford boarding-house kerpeis. In this ease, the 
immigrants gladly avail themselves of their opportunities ; but if they have no letters, they become 
the prey of the " >harks." 

The I'ortuguese have their regular weekly dances on certain nights. Tiie spare moments of 
late arrivals seem to be occupied in sitting idly about the wharves or stores, or in standing in 
little knots or groups about the streets, awaiting the settlement of the voyage. Those who live 
at a distance sometimes take the train, shortly after the arrival of the vessel, for their homes, and 
return within a few days for their lays ; those who have no homes repair to the boarding houses, 
i.nd impatiently wait for their money, and hasten io ship again. The truly unfortunate and indi- 
gent whaleman may find a temporary abode at a charitable institution, the Mariner's Home, until 
he is enabled to shift for himself, provided he does not stay too long. The Seamen's Bethel is 
open for divine .service every Sunday. 

THE PF.nsoNM'.r. <>F A \\IIAI.IXC vr.sst.t.. The personnel of a whaling bark or ship cair.x ing 
four boats consists of the captain, four mates, four boat-sic erers, a cooper, a blacksmith or carpenter, 
a cook, a steward, a cabin boy, and about sixteen or eighteen foieuiiist hands, making all told about 
thirtv one or thirty two men. Some' ii lies an ordinary seaman, or a green hand, may also lie -hipped 



222 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

as a carpenter or blacksmith. Three-boat vessels usually have about twenty-one men, and two- 
boaters about sixteen. A fifth mate is usually shipped on steam whalers to head the starboard 
bow-boat. He is shipped as " tif'th mate aud boat-header," but does not receive as profitable a 
lay as the other mates, although he ranks as an officer. He may sometimes be requited to stand 
watch, more especially it' another officer is sick. The steam whalers usually carry a cabin steward 
and a cabin boy. A whaling vessel does not always leave Xew Bedford with her full complement 
ol men, since she may obtain the balance of her crew at the "Western Islands, where she almost 
always stops for supplies on her way lo the Pacific. 

Tim captain. The captain has of course absolute command of the ship, and is responsible for 
her well-doing and safe return to port. When the wide nature of his functions are taken into 
consideration, it is not surprising that he should be a man above the average ability, and pecu- 
liarly adapted to his profession; for he has sometimes to serve in the capacity of physician, 
surgeon, lawyer, navigator, peace-maker, and paterfamilias* ; besides, he must have good execu- 
tive ability. The captain's is also an office of both dignity and responsibility, aud if he acquits 
himself in it zealously and circumspectly, he may, in the course of time, be enabled to retire to 
private life with all of the honors of his profession. 

Formerly the captain always participated in the capture of whales, but at present, especially 
on large vessels, he remains on board when the boats are down. It was the custom, aud I believe 
it is now practiced on some ships, for the master to lower during the first part of the voyage. The 
captains of the steam barks in the Arctic regions seldom if ever engage in actual capture. There 
seems to be a diversity of opinion as to the. captain's place at such times, but it is generally con- 
ceded that when the boats are down he should remain on his vessel, as the boat-crews have more 
confidence in him as a ship-keeper than they would in a subordinate who takes his place in his 
absence. The master can, of course, take upon himself more responsibility in managing the ship 
and in directing the movements of the boats.t 

The mates. There areas many iiiaUs on a whaling vessel as Ihere are boats for active duty, or, 
to use a technical expression, " on the cranes." The mates are the executive officers of the vessel, 
as is well known, and also the officers in charge of the boats when engaged in the capture, and in 
this capacity they are knowji as "boat-headers." They are, of course, subordinate to the captain 
and act under his orders; but when down for whales they oftentimes exercise their own discre- 
tion and carry out their own plans, subject, however, to the directions ol the master signaled from 
the ship. 

The mates kill the whales, cut oft' the blubber, superintend the " boarding," and have direct 
charge of boiling out the oil and of stowing it away. 

The boat-stetrers. The boat-steerer has several names. His legitimate title is perhaps har- 
pooner; but his comrades, and others intimately connected with the fishery, seldom call him by 
that name. If shipped to enter immediately upon the duties of his office, his name is recorded on 

' Tin- cu[>t;iiu is known to his own crew, behind his back, as the "old 111:111" ; but to the crew of another vessel as 
r;i|it:iin or skipper. A man si ] , in", on om< vessel recognizes his commander as his "old man"; but when he ships on 
another vessel, his pi i becomes tin; "old man" and his former commander the captain. 

tThe rrovim -ctou -n capi : lower with their boats, but usually only on rare occasions, as when they 

strike a large school n|' whale-. Is fast to a vicious whale. If a I'rovincctowti captain lowers In- 

takes charge di'h is own boat, and the ihird mate strikes the whale ; should (he captain decide not to lower, the third 
male heads the captain's lioat, and cither the ship-keeper, steward, or on.' of the foremast hands, usually the former, if 

competent, strikes the whale ; but on three I I vessels the mate usually lowers his boat first and ' takes the lead of 

the whaling." 

If the captains from New - . .ink il, policy io lower for whales, (hey have tin- vessel in charge of a compe- 

tent person, usually the cooper the ol'iici Iieiu ; 'known as ' ship- keeper " who lakes en I in- charge for the time being, 
assisted In- about six men, when all Ih 1 -hip.'' 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 223 

the ship's papers simply as boat-steerer* ; if shipped to take the place of a regular bo;it-steerer, 
who ma,\ be disabled by accident, or whose office may become vacant by death, he is entered as 
spare boat-steerer" or as preventer boat-steerer. ! 'f lie is known in the fishery as lioat-steerer, 
and out of it as harpooner. lie should be. a man of unusual personal courage, and with firm aud 
steady nerves. This class of whalemen has won a name and record which, for bravery and the 
faithful performance of duty, is honored and respected throughout the fleet ; so much so, that the 
expression ' coward harpooner " would seem at once contradictory and out of place. But the har- 
pooners of the fleet have degenerated with the lishery. In the palmy days of whaling the flower of 
^New England's sons won the right to dart the harpoon by that spirit of fearlessness and gallantry f 
which characterized the early American patriot ; but now almost, every harpooner that sails from 
New liedl'ord is the representative of an inferior race. 

The boat-steerers are petty officers and rank next to tbe mates. Their duties are manifold; 
they are required to stand their watches at the mast-head on the lookout for whales, to act as 
oarsmen in approaching whales, to dart the harpoon, to go down upon the whale while : - cutting 
in," to stand before the try- works when "boiling out", and during the intervals they are expected to 
keep the boats and apparatus always ready for the capture. They take great pride in their boats 
and equipments, more especially the harpoons. They are in the liu, of promotion, and if capable 
aud efficient both as whalemen and seamen, the chances for commanding whaling vessels are in 
their favor. Great care is exercised by the captains in ihe selection of their harpoouers. As a 
rule they are picked men, who have made one or more voyages, who are skillful in managing boats, 
aud courageous enough to face death without shrinking. If they become confused or frightened, 
and miss their whales, they may be deposed until they have an opportunity to regain their former 
prestige, provided the captain gives them the chance. This is what might be termed "hard luck," 
but it is one of the cast-iron rules of the fishery. Some, captains may perhaps give their boat- 
steel ers two or three "chances," as they are termed, but if they miss several chances in succes- 
sion, other men are put in their places. The success of the voyage depends in a great measure 
upon the boat-steerers, aud the captains cannot have a personal preference in their appointments. 

The office of harpooucr has always been one of prominence and importance, and the scarcity 
of suitable men or the iucoinpeteucy of incumbents has often occasioned serious drawbacks. 
Both the English and Dutch relied solely upon the Biscayans for their harpoouers when they first 
embarked in the Greenland fishery. England soon found it to the interest of her fleet to pre- 
scribe certain laws in regard to the selection of her harpooners. 

Sroresby says that at the inception of the Greenland fishery the English harpoouers com- 
inandod the whaleboats, harpooned the whales, and killed them with the lances. Also that they 

* It is but natural to suppose from the terms " boat-header" and "boat-steerer" that the position of the former 
was at the head of the boar, and that of the latter at (he stem simply attending to his unties of steering the boat, as 
the- t ei in w on hi i i.pl\ . Such, however, is not I he 1 case \vlieii approaching a whale, and to avoid the confusion of these 
terms I will more fully explain the duties of these t \\ o lurn in a subsequent account of the capture of the whale. 

(Although i In- term "preventer" is more general ly used in the Province! own licet, some of i he vessels hailing from 
.Ni \\ liedl'ord record their extra harpooners as " preventer hoat-stcerers" ; but the crew invariably call them "spare boat- 
steerers. " The ten; 'ami pie\cuter " an d Tor anything held in reserve. 'J'he lerm "boat-steerer" 
owes its origin to the fact that the harpooner. after ^triking the whale, takes the steering oar and so directs t he move- 
ment soft lie boat as to enable the officer to kill the whale. The term " sle \veiy ' a si ang expression, is also somei imes used. 

t In the pi iif i his industry t lie chock- pin," a slender wooden peg for holding the whale-line ill its 

proper place at the head of the boat when fast to a whale, was the bad^e of ihe hai | ncr, the emblem of his office, 

aud attested his filne.ss for tin- p<>Mt io.i he proudly maintained and his skill a ml courage ill striking whales. Mole 
particularly, I am told, was ihis th- When the fortunate boat-steerers returned from successful 

usertedchi upper button-holey of their coats as insignia of rank, todisi inguish them 

from the common foremast hands or dei Hie> walked the streets of their native island, attracting the 

attention of the fair 'Tiickeicrs in their sea-girt home. 



224 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

ranked next to the captain of the vessel, and "had unlimited control of the people of the fishery," 
while the captain acted properly as navigator during a whaling voyage to the Greenland seas.* 

The same author also speaks of the consideration with which the English harpooners were 
treated: "All the harpooners (seven in number) were invited to dine with me. I usually call 
them together on our entrance into fishing stations, to deliver to them such instructions as my own 
views of the business, the success of our exertions, and the liberal treatment of other adventurers 
who may happen to become our competitors, seem to require. On this occasion I urged them to 
activity, perseverance, and unanimity among themselves ; to a benevolent exertion for the assist- 
ance of all ships, of all nations, to whom it might be useful, whenever that assistance could be 
rendered without evident detriment to their own prosperity ; and gave them a code of rules to 
assist their judgment in cases of difficulty or danger.''t 

During the wars bet ween the Dutch and English in the middle part of the seventeenth century, 
Holland endeavored to cripple the British whaling fleet by issuing a proclamation prohibiting, 
among other officers, the Dutch harpoouers from engaging in the whale trade of any foreign country. J 

Oarsmen ; forenmxf hands. In the whaleboat-the foremast hands are the oarsmen. Commenc- 
ing at the bow of the boat, the oarsmen are placed' as follows : (1) the harpoouer, or boat-Steerer. 
who has the extreme forward thwart ; (2) the bowman, who occupies the bow-thwart, pulls the bow- 
oar, assists the boat stoerer in setting the mast and taking it in; makes himself useful in various 
ways to the boat-yteerer, or boat header, as the case may be, and also attends to the line when 
bowing on. Among the oarsmen his is the most important position, as will hereaiter be seen, and 
the best-trained man on the ship is usually selected for the position. (3) The midship oarsmen 
occupies the midship thwart, and pulls the midship oar. (4) The tub oarsmen has the tub-thwart, 
and manipulates the tub-oar, his duties being to " wet line" when the whale is running or sound- 
ing; and (5) the stroke oarsman, who is usually the lightest man in the boat; he, occupies the after 
thwart, and pulls the stroke-oar; he also assists the boat-steerer in coiling the line when recovered 
from the whale, and in disposing of the mast after the whale has been struck ; he also bails the 
boat, keeps the water kegs supplied with fresh water, and assists the boat-steerer in "rigging" 
the. boat. 

* All the early adventurers < n Ihe " hale- fishery, both English and others, were obliged to lie indebted to the 1 '.is 
i avails for their superintendence and help. The- office of harpoouer requiring great experience as well as personal 
courage, was only suited to the liiseayans, who had lout; been Inured to the dangers and difficulties attendant on the 
fishery of the tin-whale. The I'.iscayans were likew ise looked to for coopers, " skillful in setting np the sta vi-d cask." 
At this period, each ship can led two principals: the commander, who was a native, was properly the navigator, as 
hi- chief charge cotisi- ed in conducting the ship to and fioni Greenland; the other, \vho was called by the Dutch 
x]H'i-kxi/nrlcr, or cutter of the fat, as his name implies, was a Hisca.yan, and had the unlimited conttol of the people in 
the fishery; and ind< ed everj operation belonging to it was entirely confided to him. When, however, the fishery 
became belter known, the commander like wisi- assumed the superintendence of the fishery. The office of specksioneer. 
as it is called by Ihe English, was nevertheless continued, and remains to this day, though with a more limited pre- 
rogative. The s|iccksioneer is now considered the principal harpooner, and has the " ordering of Ihe fat," and extract- 
ing or boiling of the oil of the whale: but he serves entirely under the direction of the commander of the vessel. 
Si OKI si;v: vol. _', ::--IU. 

Whence also are derived the terms speciMroiejA ia reccpiade for blubber) and speck-falls (the cutting falls used 
in hoisting in tin 1 blubber), peculiar to English whalemen. J. T. B. 

t Whale ship Hiiffni. of Liverpool, William Scoresby, jr., count ander; on her third voyage to the Greenland whale 
lislh-i \ , in the sptin .; nf 1 .-_',;.- -S< -o i :rsnv : X. Whale Fishery, ls-J:!, p. :i:i. 

{ The Dutch being at war with Kngland in 1053, and having neither men nor ships of war to spare for the protec- 
tion of their whale fishery, this lucrative branch of commerce wa- obliged, for the season, to be suspended. In the 
war of Ki.VJ, as well as in that of li.i;:, and two following years, tin- fishery was also < onditioually prohibit! d. As at 
such I lines Iheir iiucinplo\ cil li.,hing officers might lie induced to engage in the service of foreign nations, and thus 
carry the trade abroad to the disparagement of their own country, a proclamation was issued, prohibiting, under severe 
penalties, all commanders, harpnnuers. hoat-stccrers. Ac., from embarking in the. whale fishery trade in the ships of 
any other nation during the war.- SCORESBY : Arctic I legions. Vol. !, p. '>'>. 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 225 

The foremast hands, besides performing nil kinds of work incident to the life of a common 
seaman, stand watches aloft and below, heave at the windlass when cutting in a whale, assist in 
stowing away the blubber, in preparing il for the try-pots, stowing it down, and scrub decks after 
the fare has been boiled out. 

THK M.VNNKU OF SHIPPING A CREW. The crews at New Bedford are generally furnished by 
a elass of merchants known as "outfitters," assisted by boarding-house keepers. The onliitlers 
keep stores containing different kinds of merchandise, usually ready-made clothing-, men's furnish- 
ing goods, boots, shoes, hats, and the cheaper grades of dry goods, and the latter keep the common 
sailors' boarding-house. Both of these classes are known locally as "sharks." When the agent 
of a ship wants a crew he notifies the outfitters, who draw upon the " shipping masters" in New 
York or Boston, or the boarding-house keepers in New Bedford, for the number of men required. 
The expenses of men coming from a distance are paid as far as New Bedford; the outfitter meets 
them at the depot and conducts them to a boarding-house. If the men go on the voyage, the 
shipping-master receives $10 per capita, which amount, as well as the cost of their outfits, is 
charged to the men individually, and at the end of the voyage deducted from their profits; but 
upon their arrival in New Bedford, if the men refuse to go on the vessel, the shipping-master loses 
the fares to New Bedford, as well as his bonus, and the outfitter may be the loser on account of 
the men's board bill. The men are therefore placed under the closest surveillance, but they some- 
times depart clandestinely with a portion of their outfit at the eleventh hour. An outfitter's 
business is attended with great risk. His profits, however, must be large, to cover deficiencies, 
for all of the men engaged in this business seem to prosper. Some of them also have the patron- 
age of the citizens of the community, keeping, as they do, a general stock of goods. When the 
ship is about to sail, the outfitter, having every confidence in his men, furnishes each with a small 
wooden chest, or "donkey," of clothing, a straw bed, and other necessary articles; but he never 
permits the men to acquire a title of possession until they go aboard the ship; uor does he pay 
the boarding-house keepers the amounts due them until he is satisfied that the men are on board. 
The "outfit" of a whaleman consists of money, board bills, and clothing advanced by the outfitter; 
and the stock and trade of the latter consist of the profits he makes on the supplies, which profits 
are large, the goods being almost invariably charged above the regular prices. The agents may 
select a captain and mate ; but oftentimes it is difficult to find competent officers, and the outfitters, 
taking advantage of this situation of affairs, furnish both officers and men, the profits being 
derived mainly from the. officers. If a four-boater is fitting out, and the, outfitter is granted the 
privilege of furnishing the captain or first mate, time-honored custom gives him the right to ship 
four additioual men, either able-bodied seamen or green hands, and to supply the five with outfits. 
If he furnishes a second mate, he is entitled to outfit three men ; if a third mate, two men; if a 
fourth mate, boat steerer, cook, or steward, one man each. The "outfit" of a foremast hand 
varies from 875 to $125; of a boat-steerer, from $100 to $200; and of a mate, from $100 to $800, 
depending altogether upon the desires or actual necessities of the men, or what they think may 
be their necessities in the future. The "outfit" of each man is charged to his account with the 
vessel, and deducted from his profit at the end of the voyage ; but the outfitters having expended 
both labor and cash in obtaining a crew, or part of a crew, and furnishing them with the necessary 
supplies acts of kindness which are duly appreciated, under the circumstances, by both the 
agents and owners are not compelled to wait until the ship receives its equivalent from the men, 
but settlements are. usually made from thirty days to six months after the departure of the vessel. 
The outfitters therefore look to the agents for their pay, and the agents, in behalf of the owners, 
run the risk of getting their money from the men at the expiration of the voyage. Some of the 
SEC. T, VOL. ii 15 



226 HISTORY AND METHODS OP THE FISHERIES. 

crews, both officers and men, more especially those living at New Bedford or near by, among 
whom may be numbered the thrifty, intelligent, and expert whalemen, purchase their outfit ou 
their owu account, thereby saving about one-half the amount it would cost them if their supplies 
were furnished by an outfitter; but the green hands, owing to their inexperience, must be initiated 
into the mysteries of the whale fishery, and whether they are so disposed or not, they fall into the 
toils of the outfitter, and must pay their fees without grumbling for their first degree. The 
improvideut and reckless whaleman who has just returned from a four years' voyage is almost 
always compelled to ship again, and, although he " knows the ropes " as well as the outfitter does, 
on account of his straightened circumstances, he must, in self-defense, but contrary to his own 
inclination, go to the men who dispense favors. 

So much has been said concerning the character and practices of the "sharks" this term 
should not be so construed as to refer to outfitters only I deem it of sufficient importance to say 
that the former method of dealing with seafaring men at the port of New Bedford and elsewhere 
has been so leavened with the ennobling spirit of civilization and the influence of Christianity that 
the past and present should not be associated. The modern outfitter is simply a sharp, shrewd 
tradesman, who, like many others in this broad land, resorts to every means to induce a liberal 
supply of patronage, and to dispose of the largest stock of goods at the best profit. 

The outfitters are also "iufitters," that is, they furnish the men with such supplies and articles 
of clothing as they may need when the vessel returns. A whaleman purchasing supplies under 
such conditions is merely a customer who requires goods, but has no money to buy. He was also 
a customer when he entered the service, but his vessel, after he had signed the " articles," was 
his surety, and the agent held him as a hostage. The merchant is as anxious to "iufit" as he was 
to " outfit" him, but the man must now bring an order from the agent or owner of the vessel. If 
a poor voyage has been made, or if the man has drawn on the "slop-chest" during a voyage to 
such an extent as to ruin his credit, he becomes bankrupt ashore, and may be obliged to change 
his mind instead of his raiment; for, instead of " infittiug" himself with long togs, consisting of 
ready-made suits, the luxurious white shirt, collars, cuffs, gay-colored neckties, handkerchiefs, 
gloves, scarf-pins, and other jewelry, fine shoes, and fashionable hats, for all the outfitters keep an 
abundant supply of these things, he must " outfit" himself with wearing apparel of coarser ma- 
terials suitable for voyage at sea, and ship for another voyage. 

QUARTERS ON THE VESSELS. The captain, mates, and boat-steerers are quartered in the 
after part of the ship. The former, on large vessels, has a state-room on the starboard side, and 
a private cabin or kind of office in the central portion of the after part of the vessel. Both rooms 
are plainly but comfortably furnished, and the cabin usually contains a bedstead, the only one, by 
the way, on board ship, the balance of the ship's company occupying bunks. The captain is some- 
times accompanied by his wife and children, and his .apartments have a home-like and comfort- 
able appearance. The state-room, or bunk, of the first officer is just forward of the captain's 
quarters on the port side adjacent to the pantry ; forward of the latter are the bunks of the third 
and fourth mates, and just opposite, on the starboard side, is the second mate's cabin. The boat- 
steerers, cooper, and carpenter occupy separate bunks on the port side. The foremast hands are 
confined to the forecastle. Their bunks are arranged in tiers about the forward end and on either 
side of the ship as far aft as the forecastle extends. They are made of ordinary plank, and usually 
painted when the ship is fitting for a voyage, but during the cruise they become well worn and 
greasy enough. The first man on board ship has the first choice of bunks, and writes his name, 
or initials of his name, on tin- side with chalk, or pre-empts the spot by depositing his bed-sack, 
and retains possession during the voyage. The conveniences of living and the accommodations 



THE WHALE FISHERY. 227 


of tbe quarters for both officers and men depend upon the size of the vessel ; in schooners and 

brigs the apartments are necessarily circumscribed, and the domestic felicity is sometimes marred 
liy too intimate association or unfriendly contact, while on barks and .sliips there is much more 
latitude. 

MESSING. The modes of life and customs of whalemen are essentially in keeping- with their 
surroundings, and common to the majority of seafaring men engaged in the mercantile marine 
service in all quarters of the globe. The bills of fare are not varied or comprehensive, since the 
vessels are confined principally to what may be termed out-of-the way places. Seldom touching a 
port, the men are deprived of those things which, though called by landsmen the necessaries of 
life, are regarded by whalemen as luxuries. Although wanting in variety, ample provision is other- 
wise made; for well-cooked, wholesome food, and plenty of it, such as it is, constitutes a bond of 
sympathy between the men and the ship, and while there is a disposition on the part of some men 
to " growl," the majority feel satisfied that the best that can be done under the circumstances is 
being done for their welfare, and so accept it. 

A whaling vessel is furnished with all the large and small conveniences known in the house- 
keeper's economy. Since the improved methods of preserving fish, meats, vegetables, and other 
food stuffs have been introduced, the vessels sailing from New Bedford are provided with all of 
the modern conveniences iu the way of provisions that may be kept in any climate; but the main- 
slay after all is salt beef, salt pork, commonly known as "salt horse," or "salt junk," and ship- 
bread. The last-named article occupies an important place iu the whaleman's dietary. It is better 
known perhaps as "hard tack," to distinguish it from the bread sometimes made on board .ship, 
which is called " soft bread." About 50 barrels of flour produce 100 barrels of bread, which amount 
was usually included in the outfit of a vessel of the largest class; but at present so large a quan- 
tity is seldom taken by one vessel, since fresh bread may be " freighted " by others. 

When fitting the .ship for a voyage several casks of bread, pork, bee!', and other provisions 
"in bulk," are placed in accessible places where they may be opened as required, the remaining 
and larger number being brought to light from time to time during the voyage when stowing down 
the oil or as they may be needed. A careful and closely calculating master will order the entry 
in his log of. every cask of bread, pork, beef, and the like, opened during the voyage. Beef and 
pork for immediate use are oftentimes kept on deck iu a wooden receptacle called a "harness-cask," 
lashed to the deck iu a convenient place for the cook, who draws his daily supplies from it. There 
are two apartments in such a cask ; one for pork and the other for beef; and as fast as their con- 
tents are exhausted, they are replenished from the original packages. Potatoes and other vege- 
tables may iu warm latitudes be kept in a wooden compartment called a " potato pen," a structure 
which is made with a view to a thorough ventilation. 

The cook is an important personage on board a whaler, as he is indeed everywhere. He is 
usually a colored man, and generally known as "Doctor," or perhaps " Skillet." The "cook's 
office," or galley, is furnished with all the modern appliances iu the way of "cooking gear" for 
vessels, which embraces a range, or "caboose," and the accompanying boilers or steamers, usually 
called " coppers." cast-iron baking-pans, and articles of this kind. The captain and the mates mess 
together iu the forward cabin ; their tables are furnished with glassware and chiuaware; the boat- 
si eerers, cooper, and carpenter, mess in the steerage. The foremast hands mess in the forecastle ; 
their meals are cooked iu the galley and served to them on the commonest tinware. They use 
their "donkeys" as tables and keep their pans and dishes in a locker in the after part of the fore- 
castle. They wash their own dishes and clean up everything after meals. 



228 HISTORY AND METHODS OF THE FISHERIES. 

Tin- Imnrs or meals lor all hands are as follows : breakfast, 7 ;:. in.; dinner, 1:? in.; and supper, 
.". p. ID. These arc tin- regular hours, but they may often be changed when the boats are down for 
whales, or when the men are cutting in a whale under stress of weather. The bill of fare also 
varies, but rarely. 

The oljiceis' breakfast is usually salt beef, port, hard bread, soft bread or "lobsconse"* or 
perhaps bread Lash, or if potatoes are plentiful potato hash, coffee, sugar, and butter, when if is to 
be had, and sometimes slapjacks. The boat-steerers' bill of fare embraces about the same, except 
they do not always have sugar and butter, which is served regularly in cabin. The breakfast of 
foremast hands consists mainly of salt beef, salt pork, bard bread, scouse, bread hash, coffee, and 
molasses. 

For dinner in the cabin : salt pork, salt beef, and hard bread. Tea or coffee, and sugar are not 
usually served for dinner; the boat-steerers have about the same as the cabin, and for the fore- 
castle salt junk and hard bread. For supper in the cabin: salt beef and pork, warm soft tack, 
butter, sugar, tea, and sometimes hash, and probably pie. The boat-steerers have the same, and 
the foremast hands, salt beef, pork, and hard tack, and occasionally pie. 

To the above-mentioned fare should be added, when they can be had, the '' raanarolins " of the 
whalemen that is, fresh meat, vegetables, milk, butter, eggs, and fruits, which may be obtained 
when the vessel touches upon a foreign shore, but these are the luxuries of life that cannot always 
be had. Duff t is served generally three times a week for dinner fore and aft, and perhaps "lob 
scouse," "dandy-funk,'' " sea-pie,'' or "dough-boys" (a kind of flour dumpling with the flesh and 
bones of porpoise), but the foremast hands do not usually get as much of these dainties as the 
officers. When a porpoise is caught, all hands are regaled with " sea- pies " and " forced-meat 
balls." 

Captains of all whaling vessels discourage the use of whisky by the crew. Formerly it was 
the custom to include in the outfit of a whaler, about seven or eight barrels of whisky or New 
England rum. This was dealt out from time to time as grog. Some vessels carry whisky now, 
but principally for trade. Liquors are also carried in the medicine chest, but they are under the 
immediate supervision of the captain, who dispenses them as he sees tit. Capt. Isaiah West was the 
first master sailing from the port of Xew Bedford, who refused to carry whisky on his ship. This 
was in 1831, in consequence of continued intoxication of one of his officers on a previous voyage. 
Such a. thing at the time was unheard of; the owners thought that it was impossible to ship a 
crew or to make a voyage, but Captain West adhered to his resolution and carried his point. 
Since that time whisky has not been included as a part of a whaling outfit. 

* Lobscouse is the most common, of the fancy dishes. It is made of hard bread and salt meat, seasoned with 
pepper. Fin- a mess of this kind for all hands, about three buckets of hard bread, seven pounds of pork and beef, 
and about a quarter of a pound of pepper are required. The meat, usually the remnants of a former meal, is cut into 
small pieces and the bread is broken into fragments. Water is added and as the pot boils and simmers, the ingre- 
dients are mixed and stirred together with a large iron spoon; pepper is added, and the dish is served smoking hot in 
a wooden '.lied a " kid," by one of the watch who carries it forward to the foreeastle. Potato-scouse is simi- 

lar to tbe above except that, a smaller quantity of bread is used, potatoes being highly esteemed as a substitute. 

When potatoes are plentiful potato bash or lobscouse is usually made for breakfast; but when the vessel has 
been out for two or three months, bread hash is mainly relied upon. 

t Duff is served to all bauds ; one for i he cabin, one for tbe b,.at -steerers, or steerage, and oue for each watch forward. 
It is the favorite dish, and Sunday is always a " dull 1 day,'' dnft and molasses being served for dinner. Dandy-funk, 
dnndee-fnnk, or dnndee pudding, is made of hard bread. ui'd:)ss.-s. ami a little salt I'a i pork. The bread is broken n)i 
and the pork chopped ami deposited in a copper ; a little water is added, and when 1 lie mixture becomes lukewarm, 
"igh molasses to sweeten it is pomvd iii. It is then stirred until the boiling point is reached, at which time tbe 
copper is removed, and tin- dish is served hot in a kid. About two pounds of fat pork are usually required fora 
mess for all hands. Dnmb-e pudding was also a, favorite, dish with the fishermen of the eastern coast frequenting 
Ceov^es bank in 1- ,1 on fishing vessels now. It was made of hard bread pounded up, 

sweetened wiHi molasses, with enough Hour added to give it adhesiveness. 



TIIK \\11.\LK FISI1KKY. 229 

CIIOIISIM; TIIK WATCH. When fairly mnlrr way the ship's company is told olV in two divis- 
sinus, or parties, which alternately lelievo each other in the performance of (lie dmies connected 
with the vessel during the \o\a-e. in order that one-half of the ere\v may obtain recreation, while 
tin- other half is at work. Kach subdivision is known as I ho. "watch;"' reckoning from 11! in. 
there are seven watches: live of four hours each, and two of two hours each; called dogwatches. 

The divisions of the crew are known as the starboard and larboard watches, commanded 
respectively by the lirM and M'cond mates or the second and third mates, who are known as 
watch-headers." The ollieers select, their own men when the subdivision is made. Those divis- 
ions are again divided into boats' crews. One watch, or half of the crew, is always on deck, 
except at I he bc^immm of the voyage, when both watches are usually employed during the day in 
rigging the boats, besides standing their watches at night. When a ship is mating her pas- 
the crew stand whole watches, or sea watches, four hours on and four off, usually called '-watch 
ami watch." On the whaling ground in the southern fishery, when a ship is hove to in mid- 
ocean they stand ' quarter-watches," one-fourth of the working bauds, or half of each watch being 
on duty, headed by the boat-steerers; but in the Arctic regious when near the shore the usual 
watches are kept. 

In the southern fishery the men in bad weather stand four hours on deck and eight below on 
a three-boat vessel, and four hours on deck and twelve below on a four-boater. 

On three boat vessels they stand " boats' crews'' watches, the time being divided between 
supper and breakfast, when outward bound and sometimes on whaling grounds. When riot engaged 
in whaling the watch may be employed in making sennit of spun yarn, mats for chafing-gear. 
overhauling cutting gear, and in many other duties connected with the vessel. 

The day on a whale ship begins at an early hour; the crew usually get breakfast at sunrise, 
after which sail is set, the decks scrubbed, and men sent aloft to look out for whales. The duties 
of the men at the mast head will be mentioned elsewhere. 

At 4 ]>. in. the decks are swept and washed off; from 4 to 5 being the first hour of the dog 
watch, all the watch, except the men on the lookout for whales and the man at the wheel, engage 
in this work At 5 p. m. the watch has supper, and at 5.30 the men at the mast-heads and the 
wheel are relieved. From 5 to 7 the watch is allowed to loaf, smoke, and spin yarns, the only 
time for such liberties during the day. 

On the whaling ground in the southern fisheries the men are recalled from the mast-heads at 
sunset, and all hands both watches are summoned to shorten sail; the starboard watch takes 
in the main and the mizzen sail and the larboard watch the foremast and head sails. During this 
work the mate has charge of the forward part of the vessel and the second mate the afterpart, and in 
reeling the topsails the boat-steercrs haul out the earings and the foremast hands knot the points. 

S];T.I-:C'TK>X OF BOATS' CHEWS. One of the fir