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Full text of "Fishes"

THE GIFT OF 

FLORENCE V. V. DICKEY 

TO THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
AT LOS ANGELES 



THE DONALD R. DICKEY 

LIBRARY 
OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 




EK 



BS//, ^LOSANCELfx^ JNtUBRARYO/ 



LIBRARY^ 






BRARi 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BUKMA. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. 

EDITED BY W. T. BLASFOKD. 



FISHES. Vol. I. 

BY 

FRANCIS DAY, C.I.E., LL.D V ETC., 

DEPUTY SURGEON- GENERAL MADRAS ARMY (RETIRED). 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

CALCUTTA : BOMBAY : 

THACKEB, 8PIXK, & CO. | THACKER & CO., LIMITED. 

BERLIN : 

R. FRIEDLANDER & BOHN, H CARLSTRASSE. 

1889. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
BED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 




wt 

INTRODUCTION.*' 



THE present work is chiefly an abridgment of the author's 
' Fishes of India/ published in 1876-78. Several additions 
and alterations have been made, most of which were pub- 
lished in 1888, in a Supplement to the work just mentioned. 
The synonymy, having been already quoted in full, has not 
been repeated in these volumes, but under each species will 
be found a reference to the original specific description, and 
to the page in the ' Fishes of India ' where full details are 
given. The illustrations in the present work are, with very 
few exceptions, copies of those in the ' Fishes of India/ 

The state of Dr. Day's health has unfortunately prevented 
him from correcting the proofs of the present publication 
beyond the middle of the first volume, and it is probable 
that some mistakes or omissions may have escaped detection 
in consequence. The manuscript of the work had been 
prepared before the author's health gave way; but some 
additional compression was required, and this the editor 
Las carried out to the best of his ability. 

The limits of the area of which the freshwater fauna is here 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

described have been already defined in the Introduction to 
the volume of Mammals belonging to the same series (' The 
Fauna of British India'), and are those of British India 
and its dependencies, such as Burma, the Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands, Manipur, Nepal, Kashmir, Baluchistan, &c., 
together with Ceylon. The marine fishes included are all 
known to inhabit the seas around British India. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



I. FINS. 

D. Dorsal : the fin or fins along the back. The numerals following the letter 
in this and other fins indicate the number of fin-rays of various kinds. 
Numerals separated by a horizontal line signify variation in the 
number; an oblique line indicates a distinction into two different kinds 
of rays, the anterior being generally spines or unbranched rays, the 
posterior branched rays ; a vertical line implies that the numbers on 
the two sides of it refer to two distinct dorsal fins. The first number 
or numbers refer to anterior fins or rays. 

Thus D. 7-8 | 1/10-12 means that there are two dorsal fins, the first 
consisting of 7 or 8 rays all of one kind (probably spines), the second 
of one ray at the commencement, or anterior end, of the fin of one 
kind (spine), followed by from 10 to 12 rays of another kind (branched 
rays). 

A. Anal : the fin (occasionally, but not often, more than one) along the 
lower border of the body behind the vent. This, like the dorsal, is 
often composed partly of unbranched rays or spines, partly of branched 
rays. 

C. Caudal : the fin at the end of the tail. 

The above are known as vertical fins. 



P. Pectoral fins, one on each side, inserted immediately behind the gill-open- 
ing. They are homologous with the fore limbs in other Vertebrata. 

V. Ventral fins, one on each side, very rarely united, inserted lower on 
the body than the pectoral fins, and known as abdominal if situated 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



behind the pectorals, thoracic if below them, jugular if before them in 
position. The ventrals correspond to the hind limbs of Batrachians, 
Eeptiles, Birds, and Mammals. 

The ventrals and pectorals are called paired or horizontal fins. 



II. OTHER PAETS OF THE BODY. 

B. Branchiostegal rays (see cut of Perch's head on p. vii). Bony rays sup- 
porting the membrane within the gill-cover that serves to close the 
gill-opening. They are attached to the lower portion of the hyoid arch. 

L. 1. Lateral line : a series of perforated scales running along each side in 
most Teleostean fishes, and generally conspicuous. The numeral re- 
presents the number of scales in the lateral line ; two numerals with a 
horizontal line between represent the known extremes of variation: thus 
L. 1. 50-55 means that the number of scales on the lateral line is 
known to vary from fifty to fifty-five. 

L. r. The number of transverse rows of scales between the head and caudal 
fin. When two numerals are given, thus 88/66, the first represents 
the number of scales above the lateral line, the second that below. 
When three numbers are given, as 50/48/45, the second figure enume- 
rates the scales on the lateral line, the first those above, and the third 
those below. 

L. tr. The number of longitudinal rows of scales between the back and 
abdomen, usually counted, unless some other part of the side is specified, 
from the anterior end of the dorsal fin to the ventral. 

Caec. pyl. or C. p. Pyloric caeca or pyloric appendages ; sacs attached to the 
duodenum. They may be seen, on opening a fish, just beyond the 
pyloric end of the stomach. 

Vert. Yertebrae. The first numeral signifies abdominal, the second caudal 
vertebrae. Thus Vert. 10/14 implies 10 abdominal vertebras, 14 caudal. 
The abdominal vertebras are those between the head and the point of 
suspension of the anal fin; the majority support ribs, and in none do the 
parapophyses or processes, one attached low down on each side, unite 
below to form a haemal spine. The caudal vertebrae have a haemal spine 
below corresponding to the neural spine above. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



Vll 



The terms applied to the head-bones are largely used in descriptions of 
Acanthopterygians. The accompanying woodcut, representing the skeleton of 
a Perch's head, and copied from Cuvier and Valenciennes's great work on 
Fishes, shows the position and names of the principal bones affording generic 
and specific characters. 




Skeleton of Head of a Perch. 



/, frontal. 
t, turbinal. 
po, preorbital. 
io, infraorbital ring. 
mx, maxillary. 
pmx, premaxillary. 
m, mandible. 
of, dentary bone. 



pt, posttyrnpanic. 
s, suprascapula. 
o, opercle. 
so, subopercle. 
pr, preopercle. 
iop, interopercle. 
br, branch iostegal rays. 



There are a few other words of frequent use in descriptions of Fishes that 
require explanation. 

Pscudobranchi(g are a series of lamince attached, in many Teleostean fishes, to 
the inside of the gill-cover opposite the gills, and are the remains of a 



Via AIHJBEVIATIONS. 

gill which was functional during embryonic 'life. Whenever present, 
they may be detected by turning back the gill-cover. In Chondroptery- 
gian fishes the pseudobranchiaj are differently situated, within the 
spiracles. 

Gill-rakers. Horny processes on the inside of the branchial arches or bony 
supports to the gills. 

Lower pharyngeal bones. The dwarfed fifth pair of branchial arches ; the 4 
anterior pairs bearing gills. These bones often support teeth. 

hthnms. The small space beneath the throat between the two gill-openings. 

Teeth. There are several kinds of teeth in fishes. Those of the tipper jaw are 
borne by the premaxillarybones.Hhere being no teeth in the maxillaries; 
the lower-jaw teeth are attached to the dentary bone of the mandible. 
Besides these, teeth (watering) are often found on the vomer situated in 
the middle of the roof of the mouth, articulating on each side in front 
with the maxillary bones, and behind on each side with the palatines, 
which aleo bear teeth in many fishes. Teeth likewise occur on other 
bones of the skull or hyoid apparatus, or on the tongue. Villiform 
teeth are very fine conical teeth arranged in a band ; cardiform teeth 
are coarser or mixed with coarser teeth. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Subclass i 




Group Zygee-nina. 
4. Zygaena, Cuv. 




CHONDROPTERYGII . . 




1. blochii, Cuv 
2. malleus, Shaw . . 


22 

99 






3. tudes, Vol. . 




Order PL AGIOSTOM ATA . . 


3 


4. mokarran, Hit pp. . . 


23 


Suborder Selachoidei 


3 


Group Mustelina 









5. Mustelus, Cuv 


?,3 






1. manazo, Sleeker 




Group Carchariina. 




6. Trisenodon, Miill. $ Henle 
1. obtusus, Day . 


24 


1. Carcharias, Mull. # Henk. 
1. laticaudus, Milll. $ 
Henk 


7 
9 


Fam. LAMNTD.S: 

1. Lamna, Cuv. 


25 


2. acutus, Hupp 


10 


1. spallanzanii (Bonap.) . . 


26 


3. walbeehmi, Bkeker . . . . 


10 


2. Odontaspis, Agass 


27 


4. miilleri, MW. $ Henle 
5 acutidens. Rilpp 


11 
11 


1 . tricuspidatus (Day) .... 
3. Alopias, Safin, 


27 
98 


6. macloti, MW. $ Henle 
7. hemiodon,M^/. # Henle 
8 sorrah Miill 8f Henk 


12 
12 
12 


1. yulpes (Gmel.) 
Fam. KHINODONTIDJE 


28 


9. dussumieri, Mull.Sf Henle 


13 


1. Rhinodon, Smith 


90 


10. gangeticus, Mutt, fy 




1. typicus, Smith .... . . 


99 


Henle . . 


13 






11. melanopterus, Quoy 8f 




Fam. NOTIDANID;E .... 


99 


Gaim 


14 










1. Notidanus, Cuv 


99 


12. bleekeri, Dumertl .... 


15 
1 "> 


1 . indicus, Agass 


30 


14. murrayi, Giinther .... 


16 


Fam SCYLLIID^E 


30 


15. memsorrah,Miill.fyHenle 


16 
17 


1 Scyllium, Cuv. . . 


30 


17. temminckii, Miitt. fy 
Henk . ... 


17 


1. marmoratum, Bennett. . 
2. capense,AfM#. SfHenle. . 


31 
31 


2. Hemigaleus, Sleeker 


18 
18 


2. Ginglymostoma, Miitt. 8f 
Henk 




3. Galeocerdo, Miill. $ Henk 
1 rayneri. McDonald & 


19 


1. concolor (Riipp.) 
2 miilleri, Giinther 


32 
S3 




90 


3. Stegostoma, Miitt. $ Henk 


33 


2 tiTinu3 Miltt 8f Henk 


21 


1 tigrinum (Gmel.). . 


33 






b 





SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

4. Chiloscyllium, Mull. $ 

Henle 34 

1. indicuiu (Gmel.) 34 

Suborder Batoidei 35 

Fam. PIUSTIDJE 36 

1. PristiSjJM 37 

1. cuspidatus, Lath 37 

2. perrotteti, Miitt. % Henle 38 

3. zysron, Sleeker 38 

4. pectinatus, Lath 39 

Fam. RHINOBATID,*: 39 

1. Rhyncbobatus, Mull. Sf 

Henle 40 

1. djeddensis (Forth.) .. 40 

2. ancylostomus (Bl. Schn.) 41 

2. Rhinobatus, SI. Schn 42 

1. granulatus, Cuv 42 

2. hakvi (Forsk.) 43 

3. thouini (Lacep.) 44 

4. columnae, Bonap 44 

Fam. TORPKDINID^: 44 

1. Narcine, Henle 45 

1. timlei (SI. Schn.) 45 

2. Astrape, Mull. Sf Henle . . 46 

1. dipterygia (SI. Schn.).. 46 



Fam. 



47 



1. Platyrhina, Mil II. Sf Rente 47 
1. schonleinii, Mull, fy 
Henk .............. 47 



Fam. 



48 

48 
48 



1. Urogymnus, Mull. Sf Henle 

1. asperrimus (Bl. Schn.). . 

2. Trygon, Adanson ........ 49 

1. sephen (Forsk.) ...... 50 

2. beiinetti, Mutt. Sf Henk 52 

3. kuhlii, Miitt. Sf Henle . 62 

4. imbricata (SI. Schn.) . 52 

5. zugei, Mutt. Sf Henle 62 

6. uarnak (Forsk.) ____ 53 

7. marginatus, Blyth . . 54 

8. bleekeri, Blyth ...... 54 

9. walga, MM. $ Henle 55 

3. Teeniura, Miitt. $ Henle 55 

1. melanospilos, Sleeker 56 

4. Pteroplatea, Mull. Sf Henle 56 
1. micrura (Bl. Schn.) ____ 56 

lymna, Forsk ......... 56 



Page 

Fam. MYLIOBATID^; ........ 57 

1. Myliobatis, Cuv ......... 58 

1. nieuhofii (Bl. Schn.) . . 58 

2. maculata, Gray Sf 

Hardw ............. 59 

vespertilio, Sleeker .... 59 

2. Aetobatis, Milll. $ Henle. . 59 

1. narinari (Euphrasen) . . 59 

3. Rhinoptera, Kuhl ........ 60 

1. adspersa, Mull. Henle 61 

2. javanica, Mull Sf Henle 61 

4. Dicerobatis, filainv ....... 61 

1. eregoodoo Cantor ...... 62 

2. kuhlii (MM. Sf Henle) . . 63 

Subclass TELEOSTEI .... 64 

Order PHYSOSTOMI, Mull. 66 

Fam. STHBBAKCHIDJI ...... 67 

Group Amphipnina. 

1. Amphipnous, Mull ....... 68 

1. cuchia (Ham. Such.) . . 69 

Group Symbranchina. 

2. Monopterus, Lacep ....... 70 

1. javanensis, Lacep ..... 70 

3. Symbranchus, Block ...... 71 

1. bengalensis (McCM.) . . 71 

Fam. KfUBJHNma .......... 72 



Group Murcenida Engyschisttc. 

1. Mursena, Artedi .......... 74- 

1. meleagris, Shaiv ...... 76 

2. tile (Ham. Such.) ____ 76 

3. sathete (Ham. Such.) . . 77 

4. punctata (SI. Schn.) . . 77 

5. rueppellii (McClell.) . . 77 

6. reticularis (Sfoch) ____ 78 

7. punctatofasciata (Sleek.) 78 

8. tessellata, Richardson . . 78 

9. fimbriata, Bennett ____ 79 

10. pseudothyrsoidea, Sleek. 79 

11. undulata (Lacep.) ____ 80 

12. flavimarginata, liiipp.. . 80 

13. afra(jKocA) .......... 80 

14. macrura, Sleeker ...... 81 

15. thyrsoidea, .Richardson . 81 
1C., picta, AM ............ 82 

17. zebra (Shaw) ........ 82 

18. nebulosa, Alii ........ 83 

19. polyzona, Richardson . . 83 

20. nigra, Day .......... 84 

2. Gymnomuraena, Lace"p. . . 84 

1. tigrina (Lesson) ...... 84 

2. marmorata, Lacep ..... 85 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Group Mmtmidm Platyschista. 

3. Anguilla, Ouv 86 

1. bengalensis (Gray fy 

Hardw.) 86 

2. bicolor, Mcdett 87 

4. Congromuraena, Kaup .... 88 
1 . anago ( Te mm. $ Schleg.) 88 

o. Uroconger, Kaup 89 

1. lepturus (Richardson). . 89 

(5. Muramesox, McClett 90 

1. talabou (Cuv.) 90 

2. talabonoides (Meeker) . 91 

3. cinereus (Forsk.) 91 

7. Saurenchelys, Peters 92 

1. peterei, Day 92 

8. Mureenichthys^eAer. ... 92 

1. schnitzel, Sleeker 98 

2. vermiforruis (Peters) . . 93 

9. Ophichthys, AM 94 

1. boro (Ham. Buck.) 94 

2. microcephalus, Day .... 95 

3. colubrinus (Boddaert). . 96 

4. orientalis (McClell.) .. 96 

5. ornatissimus (Kaup) . . 97 

10. Moringua, Gray 97 

1. raitaborua (Ham. Such.) 98 

2. macrocephala (Sleeker) 98 



Fam. SILUHID^S 



Group Hypostomatina. 

1. Sisor, Ham. Such 105 

1. rhabdophorus, Ham. 

Such 105 

2. Pseudecheneis, Blyth 100 

1. sulcatus (Medea.) .... 107 

3. Exostoraa, Blyth 108 

1. labiatum (McClett.) . ... 108 

2. blythii, Day 109 

3. berdmorei, Blyth 109 

4. stoliczkaj, Day 110 

Group Chacina. 

4. Chaca, Guv. $ Vol. Ill 

1. lophioides, Cuv. $ Vol. Ill 

Group Plotosina. 

5. Plotosus, Laccp 112 

1. camus, Ham. Such 113 

2. arab (Forsk.) 113 

Group Clariina. 

('). Clarias, Gronovius 114 

1. magur (Ham. Such.) . . 115 



Page 

2. teysiuanni, Sleeker .... 116 

3. dussumieri, Cuv. $ Vol. 117 

4. assamensis, Day 117 

Group Silurina, 

7. Silurus, Artedi 118 

1. wynaadensis, Day .... 119 

2. afghana, Giinther 119 

3. cochinchinensis, Cuv. 8f 

Val 120 

8. Olyra, McdeU 120 

1. longicaudata, McClell. 121 

2. burmauica, Day 121 

3. laticeps, McClell 122 

9. Aniblyceps, Blyth 122 

1. mangois (Ham. Such.) 123 

10. Saccobranchus,Ct;.#Fa. 124 

1. microps, Giinther 126 

2. fossilis (Bloch) 125 

11. Wallago, Sleeker 126 

1. attu (SI. Schn.) 126 

12. Eutropiichthys, Sleeker . . 127 
1. vacha (Ham. Such.) . . 128 

13. Callichrous, Ham. Such. 129 

1. gangeticus (Peters) 130 

2. sindensis, Day 130 

3. bimaculatus (Bloch) . . 131 

4. pabo (Ham. Such.) 132 

5. macroplithalmus (Blyth) 132 

6. malabaricus (Cuv. fy 

Val.) 133 

7. pabda (Ham. Such.) .. 133 

14. Ailia, Gray 134 

1. coila (Ham. Such.). ... 134 

15. Ailiiclithys, Day 135 

1. punctatus, Day 135 

16. Pseudeutropius, Sleeker. . 136 

1. goongwaree (Sykes) .... 137 

2. taakiee (Sykes) 138 

3. acutirostris, Day 139 

4. murius (Ham. Such.) . . 139 

5. sykesii (Jerdon) 140 

6. atherinoides (Bloch) .. 141 

7. garua (Ham. Such.) . . 141 

17. Pangasius, Cuv. $ Val. . . 142 
1. buchanani, Cuv. 8f Val. 142 

18. Silundia, Cuv. 8f Val. . . . . 144 

1 . sykesii, Day 144 

2. gangetica, Cuv. # Val 145 

19. Macrones, Dumeril 146 

1. cbryseus (Day) 148 

2. aor (Ham. Buch.) .... 149 

3. seenghala (Sykes) .... 150 

4. blythii, Day 151 

5. gulio (Ham. Such.) . . 151 

6. punctatus (Jerdon) .... 153 



xii 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

7. corsula (Ham. Such.) . . 153 
8. microphthalmus, Day . . 154 


28. Glyptosternum, McC'lell. 1^5 
1. lonah (Sykes) . . . 196 


9. cavaaius (Ham. Such.) 165 
10. tengara (Ham. Such.) . . 156 
11. oculatus (Cuv. iff Vol.} 156 
12 vittatus (Sloch) 157 


2. trilineatxmi (Slyth) 197 
3. conirostre, Steindachner 198 
4. botium (Ham. Such.) . . 198 
5 telchitta (Ham Such ) 199 


13. leucophasis (Blyth) 158 
14. montanus (Jerdon) .... 159 
15. keletius (Cuv. $ Vol.) . . 160 
16. malabaricus (Jerdon) . . 160 
17. armatus (Day) 161 
18. bleekeri, Day 162 


6. striatum, Me Clef 1. 200 
7. inadraspatanum, Day . . 200 
8. pectinopterum, McClell. 201 
9. cavia (Ham. Such.) . . 202 
29. Euglyptosternum, Sleeker 202 
1. lineatum Day 20 9 


20. Liocassis, Sleeker 162 


30. Erethistes, Miill. $ Trosch ^03 


1. rama (Ham. Such.) ... 163 
2. fluviatilis, Day 164 
21. Rita, Sleeker 164 
1. buchanani, Sleeker . . . 165 


1. hara (Ham. Such.) 204 
2. conta (Ham. Such.) . . 205 
3. jerdoni (Day) 206 
4. elongatus (Day) 207 


2. pavimenta (Fa/.) 167 


31. Gao-ata, Sleeker . . 207 


3 chrysea, Day . . 167 


1 cenia (Ham Such ) y 08 


4. hastata ( Val.) 168 


2. itchkeea (Sykes) ' 209 


22. Arius, Day 169 


3. batasio (Ham Such ) ^09 


1. burmanicus, Day 173 
2. nenga (Ham. Such.) . . 173 


4. tengana(/fam. Such.). . 210 
32. Nangra, Day 210 


3. cfelatus, Cuv. $ Vol. . . 174 
4. acutirostris, Day 175 
5. sumatranus (Sennett) . . 176 
6. venosus, Cuv. $ Vol. . . 176 


1. buchanani, Day 211 
2. punctata, Day 212 
3. vmdescens(Ham.Buch.) 212 

Fam CYPRINID^E ^13 


8. subrostratus, Cuv. $Val. 178 


Subfam. Cobitidinte . . 214 


9. sagor (Ham. Such. ) 178 
10 sona (Ham Such ) 179 


1 Botia, Gray . 215 


11. serratus, Day 180 


1. nebulosa, Slyth 216 


12. thalassinus (Riipp.) 181 
13 buchanani, Day 181 


2. dario (Ham. Such.) . . 216 
3. geto (Ham. Such.) . . 216 


14 falcatus Richardson 182 


4. almorhse, Gray , 217 


15. malabaricus, Day 183 


o. berdmorei (Slyth) 217 


16 platystomus, Day . 183 


6. histrionica, Slyth 218 


17. nelkCCwv.^FO .... 184 
18. macronotacanthus, 
Sleeker 184 
19. gagora (Ham. Such.). . 185 
20. jatius (Ham. Such.) . . 186 


2. Acanthopsis, v. Hasselt .. 218 
1. choerorhynchus, Sleeker 218 
3. Somileptes, Swainsan 219 
1. gongota (Ham. Such.) . 219 
4. Lepidocephalichthys, 
Sleeker . 2'>0 


22 jella Day 187 


1. gun tea (Ham Such ) 20 


23. dussunrieri, Cuv. Sf Val. 188 
23 Ketengus, Sleeker ... . 188 


balgara 221 
2. thermalis (Cuv. fy Val.) . 221 


1. typus, Sleeker 189 
24. Osteogeniosus, Bkeker . . 189 
1. militaris (Linn.) . . 190 


3. berdmorei (Slyth) 221 
5. Acanthophthalmus. v. Has- 
selt .'. .. 22 ; > 


2. sthenocephalus, Day . . 191 
25 Batrachocephalus, Sleeker 191 


1. pangia (Ham. Such.) . . 222 
6. Apua, Blyth . . . ^22 


1 mino (Ham. Such.) . . 192 


1. fusca, Slyth . ... 223 


26. Akysis, Sleeker 192 
1 pictus, Gunther 193 


7. Jerdonia, Day 223 
1. maculata (Day} 223 


27. Bagarius, Sleeker 193 
l.ynne\\n(Ham. Such.).. 194 


8. Nemachilichthvs, Day .. 223 
1 . rueppelli (Sykes) 224 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

9. Nemachilu?, v. Hasselt . . 224 
1.. eyezardi, Day 226 

2. pavonaceus(JfcC'/eW.). . 226 

3. rubidipinnis (Blyth) . . 226 

4. botius (Ham. Buck.) . . 227 

5. monoceros (McClell.) . . 227 
0. pulchellus, Day 228 

7. sinuatus, Day 228 

8. guentheri, Day 228 

9. semiarmatus, Day .... 229 

10. corica (Ham. Buck.} . . 229 

11. rupicola (McClell.) 229 

12. niontanus (Me CM.) . . 2:30 

13. striatus, Day 231 

14. nmltifasciatus, Day 231 

15. denisonii, Day. : 231 

16. notostigma, Meeker 232 

17. zonalternans (Blyth) . . 232 

18. ladacensis, Giinther 232 

19. zonatus (McClell.) 233 

20. cincticauda (Blyth) .... 233 

21. triangularis, Day 234 

22. savona (Ham. Buck.). . 234 

23. beavani, Giinther 234 

24. spilopterus (Cuv.fyFal.) 235 

25. marmoratus (Heckel) . . 235 

26. stoliczkse (Steindachner) 235 

27. blytbii, Day 236 

28. butanensis (McClett.) . . 236 

29. gracilis, Day 237 

30. turio (Ham. Such.) . . 237 

31. guttatus (McClell.) .... 237 

Subfam. Cyprinina 238 

1. Ilomaloptera, v. Hasselt. . 242 

1. brucei (Gray $ Hurdw.) 243 

2. maculata (Gi'uy <$' 

Hardw.) 243 

:}. bilineata, Blyth 244 

2. Psilorhynchus, McClell. . . 244 
1. balitora (Ham. Buch.) . 244 

3. Discognatbus, Heckel 245 

1. lamta (Ham. Buch.) . . 246 

2. jerdoni, Day 247 

:;. inodestus (Day) 247 

4. Oreinus, McClell 248 

1. sinuatus (Heckel) 248 

2. ricbardsonii ( Gray fy 

Hardw.) 250 

3. plagiostomus (Heckel) . . 250 

5. Schizopygopsis, Stcind. . . 251 
1. stoliczkje, Steind 251 

6. Schizothorax, Heckel 252 

1. progastus (McClell.) . . 253 

2. esocinus, Heckel 254 



Page 

7. Ptychobarbus, Steind 254 

I. conirostris, Steind 254 

8. Diptychus, Steind 255 

1. maculatus, Steind 255 

9. Labeo, Cuvier 256 

1. nandina (Ham.Buch.). . 258 

2. firobriatus (Bloch) 258 

3. nigrescens, Day 259 

4. calbasu (Ham. Buch.) . . 259 

5. stoliczkse, Steind 260 

6. gonius (Ham. Buch.) . . 261 

7. dussumieri(C'wv.# Val.) 202 

8. rohita (Ham. Buch.) . . 262 

9. porcellus (Heckel) .... 263 
10. potail (Sykes) 264 

II. kontius (Jerdon) 264 

12. caeruleus, Day 265 

13. diplostoraus (Heckel) . . 265 

14. dyochilus (McClell.) .. 266 

15. pangusia (Ham. Buch.) . 266 

16. angra (Ham. Buch.) . . 267 

17. bata (Ham. Buch.) .... 268 

18. microphthalmus, Day. . 268 
' 19. boggut (Sykes) 269 

20. boga (Ham. Buch.). ... 269 

21. nukta (Sykes) 270 

22. nigripinnis, Day 271 

23. sindensis (Day) 271 

24. ariza (Buchanan) 272 

25. kawrus (Sykes) 272 

10. Osteockilus, Giinther 273 

l.chalybeatus(CHV.#Fa/.) 273 

2. neilli (Day) 274 

3. cephalus (Cm. $ Val.) . 275 

11. Dangila, Cuv. Sf Val 275 

1. burmanica, Day 275 

2. berdmorei, Blyth 276 

12. Cirrbina, Cuvier 277 

1 . cirrhosa (Bloch) 277 

2. mrigala (Ham. Buch.) . 278 

3. latia (Ham. Buch.) 279 

4. reba (Ham. Buch.) 279 

5. fuluugee (Sykes) 280 

13. Semiplotus, Bleeker 281 

1. inodestus, Day 281 

2. mcclellandi, Bkeker . . 281 
Carassius, Nilsson 283 

auratus (Linn.) 283 

14. Scaphiodou, Heckel 283 

1. watsoni, Day 284 

2. irregularis, Day 284 

3. thomassi, Day 285 

4. nasbii (Day) 285 

6. brevidorsalis (Day) 286 

15. Catla, Cuv. Sf Val 287 

1. buchanani, Cuv. $ Val. . 287 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



16. Thynnichthys, Meeker . . 288 
1. sandkhol (Sykes) 289 

17. Amblypharyng<>dou,Z?fce/c. 290 

1. atkinsonii (Blyth) .... 290 

2. inola (Ham. Buch.) . . 291 

3. microlepis (Sleeker) . . 291 

4. melettina (Cuv. Sf Val.) . 292 

18. Matsya, Day 292 

1. argentea (Tickett) 293 

19. Barbus, Cuv. $ Val 293 

a. Barbodes 299 

1. chagunio (Ham. Bmh.) 299 

2. clavatu.s, McClell. 300 

3. sarana (Ham. Buck.) . . 300 

4. chrvsopoma, Cuv. & 

Val. 301 

5. pinnauratus (Day) .... 301 
0. pleurotsema (Bleeker).. 302 

7. goniosoraa (Bleeker) . . 302 

8. roseipinnis, Cue. $ Val 303 

9. dubius (Day) 303 

10. micropogon, Cuv. # Val. 304 

11. chilinoides, McClell. . . 304 

12. carnaticus, Jerdon .... 305 

13. hexagonolepis, McClell. . 305 

14. dukai, Day 306 

15. tor (Ham. Buck.) 307 

16. hexastichus, McClell. . . 308 

17. bovanicus, Day 308 

18. sophore (Ham. Buck.) . 309 

19. stracheyi, Day 309 

20. curmuca (Buchanan) . . 310 

21. lithopidos, Day 310 

22. thomassi, Day 311 

23. spinulosus, McClell. . . 311 

24. pulchellus, Day 311 

25. dobsoni, Day 312 

26. jerdoni, Day 312 

27. 'wynaadensis, Day 313 

28. stevensoni, Day 313 

29. neilli, Day 314 

30. malabaricus, Jerdon .... 314 

31. iimominatus, Day 315 

32. compressus, Day 315 

33. blvthii, Day 315 

34. melanampyx (Day) 316 

b. Capoeta 316 

35. macrolepidotus (Cuv. fy 

Val.) 316 

36. chola (Ham. Buck.) . . 317 

37. parrah (Day) 317 

38. burmanicus, Day 318 

39. tetrarupagus (McClell.) . 318 

40. dorsalis (Jerdon) 319 

41. kolus, Sykes 319 

42. denisonii (Day) 320 



43. melanostigma, Day ____ 

44. arenatus, Day ........ 

45. puckelii (Day) ........ 

46. aniphibius (Cue. # Val.) 

47. arulius (Jerdon) ...... 

48. mahecola (Cuv. Sf Val.). 
c. Puntius ............ 

49. apogon, Cuv. $ Val. . . 

50. anibassis, Day ........ 

51. cor\ckomus(Ham.Buch.) 

52. ticto (Ham. Buch.) ____ 

53. stoliczkanus, Day .... 

54. punctatus (Day) ...... 

55. gelius (Ham. Buch.) . . 

56. phutunio (Ham. Buch.) 

57. cumiugii, Giinther .... 

58. nigrofasciatus, Giinther 

59. guganio (Ham. Buch.) . 

60. stigma (Cuv. $ Val.) . . 

61. chrysopterus (McClell.) . 

62. thernialis (Cuv. $ Val.) 

63. terio (Ham. Buch.) ____ 

64. punjabensis, Day ...... 

60. uniuiaculatus (Blyth) . . 

66. waageni, Day ........ 

67. cosuatis (Ham. Buch.) . 

68. vittatus (Day) ........ 

69. filamentosus (Cuv. 8f 

Val.) .............. 

70. puntio (Ham. Buch.) . . 

20. Nuria, Cuv. $ Val. ...... 

1. danrica (Ham. Buch.). . 

21. Rasbora, Bleeker ........ 

1. elanga (Ham. Buch.) . . 

2. &&mconius(Ham.Buch.) 

3. buchanani, Bleeker ____ 

22. Aspidoparia, Heckel ____ 

1. morar (Ham. Buch.) . . 

2. jaya (Ham. Buch.) ____ 

23. Rohtee, Sykes .......... 

1. bakeri, Day .......... 

2. neilli, Day .......... 

3. cotio (Ham. Buch.) ____ 
alfrediana ........... 

4. vigorsii, Sykes ....... 

5. belangeri (Cuv. $ Val.) 

6. ogilbii, Sykes ....... 

7. cunma (Tickell) ..... 

24. Barilius, Ham. Buch ____ 

1. vagra (Ham. Buch.) . 

2. modestus, Day ..... 

3. radiolatus, Giinther. . . 

4. shacra (Ham. Buch.) . 

5. bendelisis (Ham. Buch.) 

6. barila (Ham. Buch.) . . 

7. bakeri, Day .......... 



Page 

320 
321 
321 
322 
322 
323 
324 
324 
324 
325 
325 
326 
326 
327 
327 
328 
328 
328 
329 
329 
330 
330 
331 
331 
332 
332 
333 

333 
334 
334 
334 
335 
336 
336 
337 
338 
338 
339 
339 
340 
340 
340 
341 
341 
342 
342 
343 
343 
345 
34-"> 
346 
346 
347 
348 
348 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XT 



8. gatensis ( Cup. fy Fa/.) . . 

9. canarensis (Jerdon). . . . 

10. barna (Ham. Buck.) . . 

11. guttatus (Day) 

12. tileo (Ham. Such.} 

13. evezardi, Day 

14. bola (Ham. Buch.) .... 

25. Dauio, Ham. Buck 

1. devario (Ham. Buck.). . 

2. spinosus. Day 

3. malabaricus (Jerdon) . . 

4. flequipinnatus (McClell.) 

5. dangila (Ham. Buck.) . . 

6. durysops (CWv. $ Vol.).. 

7. neilgherriensis (Day) . . 

8. rerio (Ham. Buck.). . . . 

9. albolineatus (Blyth) . . 
10. nigrofasciatus (Day) . . 

26. Perilampus, McClell 

1. atpar (Ham. Buck.) . . 

2. laubuca (Ham. Buck.) . 

3. ceylonensis ( Giinther) . . 

27. Chela, Ham. Buck 

hoalius (Ham. Buck.) . . 
borelio (Ham. Buck.) . . 
solio (Ham. B^^ch.) .... 

jorah, Sykes 

alkootee, Sykes 

1. gora (Ham. Buch.) .... 

2. sladoni, Day 

3. sardinella (Cuv. 8f Val.) 

4. untrahi, Day 

5. argentea, Day 

6. punjabensis, Day 

7. phulo (Ham. Buch.) . . 

8. boopis, Day 

9. clupeoides (Bloch) .... 
10. bacaila (Ham. Buch.) . . 

Fam. CHIROCENTRIDJE .... 

1. Chirocentrus, Cuv 

1. dorab (Forsk.) 



Fam. CLUPEID^: 369 

Group Clupeina. 

1. Clupea, Artedi 370 

1. brachysoma (Bleeker). . 371 

2. atricauda, Gunther .... 372 

3. kunzei (Bleeker) 372 

4. leiogaster (Cuv. $ Val.) 372 

5. longiceps (Cuv. $ Val) . 373 

6. firabriata (Cuv. $ Val.) . 373 

7. sindensis, Day 374 



Page 

349 
350 
350 
351 
351 
352 
352 
353 
354 
355 
355 
356 
356 
357 
357 
358 
358 
359 
359 
359 
360 
361 
361 
361 
361 
361 
361 
362 
362 



364 
364 
365 
365 
366 
366 
367 



8. lile (Cuv. # Val.) .... 374 

9. variegata, Day 375 

10. chapra (Ham. Buch.) . . 375 

11. ilisha (Ham. Buch.) . . 376 

12. kanagurta (Bleeker) . . 377 

13. toll (Cuv. 8f Vol.) 377 

14. melanura (Cuv. # Val.) . 378 

2. Corica, Ham. Buch 378 

1. soborna, Ham. Buch. . . 378 

3. Pellona, Cuv. $ Val 379 

1. filigera, (CMV. $ Val.) . . 380 

2. elongata (Bennett) 380 

3. motius (Ham. Buch.). . 381 

4. indica (Sivains.) 381 

5. ditchela, Cuv. fy Val. . . 381 

6. hoevenii, Bleeker 382 

7. brachysoma, Bleeker . . 382 

8. megaloptera (Swains.) . . 382 

9. sladeni, Day 383 

10. leschenaultii, Ctiv.fy Val. 383 

4. Opisthopterus, Gill 383 

1. tartoor (Citv. $ Val.) . . 384 

5. Raconda, Gray 384 

1 . russelliana, Gray 384 

Group Chatoessina. 

6. Chatoessus, Cuv. $ Val. . . 385 

1. chacunda (Ham. Buch.) 386 

2. modestus, Day 386 

3. manminua (Ham. Buch.) 386 

4. nasus' (Bloch) 387 

7. Engraulis, Cuvier 388 

1. hamiltonii (Gray fy 

Hardw.) 389 

2. malabaricus (Bloch) .... 389 

3. mystax (Bl. Schn.) 390 

4. kammalensis, Bleeker . . 390 

5. baelama (Forsk.) . , 391 

6. setirostiis(Broussonet). . 391 

7. dussumieri, Cuv. $ Val. 391 

8. telara (Ham. Buch.) . . 392 

9. breviceps, Cantor 392 

10. taty, Cuv. Sf Val 393 

11. purava, Cuv. $ Val 393 

12. commersonianus(Zc^p.) 394 

13. indicus, v. Hassett .... 394 

14. tri, Bleeker 395 

8. Coilia, Gray 395 

1. reynaldi, Cuv. $ Val. . . 396 

2. ramcarati (Ham. Buch.) 396 

3. cantoris, Bleeker 396 

4. quadrigesimalis, Cuv. Se 

Val.?. 397 

5. dussumieri, Cuv. Sf Val. 397 

6. borneensis, Bleeker 398 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Group Dussumierina. 

9. Dussumieria, Cuv. $ Val. 398 

1. hasseltii, Blacker 399 

2. acuta, Cuv. $ Val 399 

10. Spratelloidea, Sleeker .... 400 
1. malabaricus, Day .... 400 

Group Albulina. 

11. Albulus, Gronovius 401 

1. conorhynchus, Bl. Schn. 401 

Group Elopina. 

12. Elops, Linn. 401 

1. saurus, Linn 401 

13. Megalops, Commerson .... 402 
1. cyprinoides (Brottssonet) 402 

Group Chanina. 

14. Chanos, Lacep 403 

1. salmoneus (Bl. Schn.). . 403 

Fara. GALAXIDJE 405 

1. Galaxias, Cuvier 405 

1. indicus, Day 405 

Fam. NOTOPTERIDJE 406 

1. Notopterus, Lacep 406 

1. kapirat (Pallas) 406 

2. chitala (Ham. Buck.) . . 407 



Fam. SCOPEUD^E 



408 



1. Saurus, Cuvier 408 



1. indicus, Day 

2. myops (Bl. Schn.) . . 

2. Saurida, Cuv. 8f Val. . . 

1. tumbil (Block) 

2. nebulosa, Cuv. $ Val. 

3. Harpodon, Lesueur 



409 
409 
410 
410 
411 
411 



1. nebereus (Ham. Buch.) 412 

4. Scopelus, Cuvier 413 

1. indicus, Day 413 

Fam. CYPBINODONTID^E .... 414 

1. Cyprinodon, Lacep 414 

1. dispar (RiippeU) 414 

2. Haplochilus, McClell. 415 

1. melanostigma (Me CM.) 415 

2. rubrostigma (Jerdon) . . 416 

3. lineatus (Cuv. $ Val.). . 416 

4. panchax (Ham. Buch.) 417 

Fam. SCOMBRESOCID^ 417 

1. Belone, Cuvier 418 

1. melanostigma, Cuv. <$ 

Val. 418 



2. annulata, Cuv. $ Val. . . 4*19 

3. choram, RiippeU 419 

4. liura, Sleeker 420 

5. cancila (Ham. Buch.) . . 420 

6. strongylura, v. Hasselt. . 421 

2. Hernirhamphus, Cuv 422 

1. longirostris, Cuv 423 

2. leucopterus, Cuv. & Val. 423 

3. cantori, Bleeker / 423 

4. georgii, Cuv. & Val. . . 424 

5. far (Forsk.) 424 

6. reynaldi, Cuv. $ Val. . . 425 

7. xanthopterus, Cuv.cf Vol. 425 

8. unifasciatus, Ranzani . . 426 

9. limbatua, Cuv. 8f Val. . . 426 

10. dispar, Cuv. Sf Val 426 

11. buffonis, Cuv. % Val. . . 427 

12. ectuntio (Ham. Buch.) . . 427 

13. brachynotopterus, Bleek. 428 

3. Exoccetus, Artedi 428 

1. micropterus, Cuv. fy Val. 429 

2. evolans, Linn 429 

3. furcatus, Mitchell 429 

4. pcecilopterus, Cuv. 8f Val. 430 

5. altipinnis, Cuv. fy Val. . . 430 

6. bahiensis, Ranzani .... 431 

7. mento, Cuv. $ Val. 431 

Order ACANTHOPTER YGII 432 



Fam. PERCIDJE 



Group Percina. 

1. Lates, Cuv. $ Val. .. . . 440 
1. calcarifer (Bloch) 440 

Psammoperca 440 

waigiensis 440 

Group Serranina. 

2. Cromileptes, Swains 441 

1. altivelis (Cuv. $ Val.) . . 441 

3. Serranus, Cuv 442 

1. stoliczkse, Day 445 

2. areolatus (Forsk.) 445 

3. coromandelicus, Day . . 445 

4. un(lulosus( Quoi/fyGaim.) 446 

5. gilberti, Richardson 446 

6. hexagonatus (Bl. Schn.) 447 

7. maculatus (Bl.) 447 

8. flavo-cseruleus (Lacep.) . 448 

9. fasciatus (Forsk.) 448 

10. boevenii, Bleeker 449 

11. diacanthus, Cuv. 8f Val. 449 

12. sexfasciatus, Cuv. 8f 

Val... .. 449 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

13. lanceolatus (Block) 450 

14. erytlmirus, Cuv. $ Vol. 450 

15. pantheiinus (Laccp.) . . 451 
10. corallicola, Cuv. # Vol. 451 

17. salmoides (Laccp.) .... 452 

18. semipunctatus, Cuv. $ 

Veil 452 

19. summana (Forsk.) .... 453 

20. dermocliirus, Cuv. $ Vol. 453 

21. morrhua, Cuv. $ Val. . . 453 

22. angularis, Cuv. fy Val. 454 

23. fuscoguttatus (Forsk.). . 454 

24. latifasciatus, Sckleacl . . 455 

25. boenack (Block) 455 

20. polleni (Sleeker) - 450 

27. miniatus (Forsk.) 456 

28. guttatus (Block) 457 

29. leopardus (Laccp.) 457 

30. sonnerati (Laccp.) 457 

31. boelang, Cuv. $ Val. . . 458 

4. Variola, Sivains 459 

1. louti (Forsk.) , 459 

5. Grammistes, Bl. Schn 400 

1. orientalis, Bl. Schn 460 

2. punctatus, Cuv. $ Val. . . 461 
0. Myriodon, Barneville .... 401 

1. waigiensis (Quoy 8f 
Gaim.) 461 

7. Diploprion, Cuv. Sf Val. . . 462 
1. bifasciatum, Cuv. $ Val. 462 

8. Lutjanus, Block 463 

1. sebfe (Cuv. $ Val.) .... 465 

2. niger (Forsk.) 465 

3. malabaricus (Bl. Schn.) 400 

4. annularis (Cuv. $ Val.) 406 

5. dodecacanthus, Bleeker . 467 

6. kasmira (Forsk.) 408 

7. fulvus (Bl. Schn.) 408 

8. biguttatus(CMy. $ Val.) 409 

9. lineolatus (Riipp.) 409 

10. lemniscatus (<??>.# Fa/.) 470 

11. chrysotrenia (Bleeker). . 470 

12. rivulatus (Cuv. $ Val.) 471 

13. argentimaculatus(.For.s&.) 472 

14. roseus, Day 472 

15. sillaoo, Day 473 

10. lioglossus, Bleeker 473 

17. jahngarah, Day 474 

18. cseruleolineatus (Riipp.) 474 

19. lunulatus (Mungo Park} 475 

20. fulviflamma (Forsk.) . . 475 

21. unimaculatus (Quoy Sf 

Gaim.) 476 

22. johnii (Block) 476 

23. gibbus (Forsk.) 477 

24. bohar (Forsk.) 477 



Page 

25. marginatus (Cuv. fy Val.) 478 

26. yapilli (Cuv. % Val.) . . 479 

27. quinquelinearis (Block) 479 

28. vitta (Quoy 8; Gaim.). . 480 

29. madras (Cuv. Sf Val.) . . 480 

30. decussatus (Cuv. $ Val.} 481 

Group Priacanthina. 
9. Priacanthus (Cuv. 8f Val} 481 

1. hamrur (Forsk.) 482 

2. holocentrum, Bleeker . . 482 

Group Apoaom'na. 

10. Ambassis, Cuv. $ Val. . . 483 

1. nama (Ham. Buck.) 484 

2. ranga (Ham. Buck.) . . 485 

3. baculis (Ham. Buck.) . . 485 

4. thomassi, Day 486 

5. nalua (Ham. Buck.) . . 486 

6. intcrrupta, Bleeker 487 

7. dayi, Sleeker 487 

8. comruersoni, Cuv. Sf Val. 488 

9. myops, Giinther 488 

10. gymnocephalus (Lacep.) 489 

11. urotaenia, Bleeker 489 

12. thermalis, Cuv. Sf Vol.. . 490 

11. Apogon, Lacep 490 

1. multitteniatuSjCttB.^FaJ. 491 

2. calosoma, Bleeker 492 

3. nigricans, Day 492 

4. frenatus, Val. 493 

5. taniatus, Cuv. Sf Vol. . . 493 

6. tkurstom, Day 494- 

7. quadrifasciatus, Cuv. & 

Val 494 

8. fasciatus ( White) 494 

9. bandanensis, Bleeker . . 495 

10. wassinki, Bleeker 495 

11. aureus (Lacep.) 496 

12. bifasciatus, Rupp 497 

13. ellioti, Day 497 

14. maculosus, Cuv. Sf Val. 497 

15. nigripinnis, Cuv. Sf Val. 498 

16. glaga, Bleeker 498 

17. auritus, Cuv. $ Val. 499 

18. tickelli, Day 499 

19. lineolatus, Cav. 8? Val.. . 499 

20. sangiensis, Bleeker 600 

21. hyalosoma, Bleeker 500 

22. orbicularis, Cuv. Sf Val. 500 

23. ceramensis, Bleeker .... 501 

12. Chilodiptorus, Cuv. $ Val 501 

1. macrodon (Lacfy.) .... 601 

2. quinquelineatus. Cuv. 8f 

Val. 502 

3. liueatus (Funk.) 502 

c 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Group Grystina. 
13. Dules, Cuv. $ Val 


Page 

503 
503 
504 

504 
505 
505 
506 
507 
507 

508 
508 
509 
510 
510 
510 
511 
511 
512 
512 
513 
513 
514 
514 
515 
516 
516 
517 
517 
518 
518 
519 
519 
519 
520 
521 
521 
522 


4. ghanam (Forsk.) 
5. monogramma, Cuv fy Val 
6. caucellatus ( Cuv. $ Val.) 
7. vosmeri (Bloch) 


Page 

522 
522 
523 
524 
524 
526 
525 
525 
526 
526 
527 
528 
528 

529 
529 
530 
530 
530 
531 
531 
681 
532 
532 
533 
533 
533 

534 
0:J4 
535 
536 
536 
537 
538 
538 
638 
639 
539 
540 
540 


1. niiirginatus, Cuv. 8f Val. 
2. argenteus (Bennett) .... 

Group Theraponina. 


8. leucotaenia (Sleeker) , . 
9. ciliatus (Lacep ) 


20. Dentex, Cuv 


1. puta, Cuv. $ Val 


1. rivulatus, Rilpp 


2. jarbua (Forsk.) 
3. theraps, Cuv. $ Val. . . 
4. quadrilineatus (Bloch) . . 
5. argeuteus (Cuv. $ Fa/.) 

Group Pristipomatina. 
15. Pristipoma, Cuv 


1. stnatus (Cuv. 8? Val.) .. 
2 japonicus (Block). 


3. tolu (Cuv. 8f Val.) 
4. bleekeri, Day 
5. taeniopterus (Cuv. # 
Val) 


2'^ Pentapus Cuv 


1. stridens (Forsk.) 
2. olivaceum Day 


1. aurolineatus (Laccp.) . . 
23. Aphareus, Cuv. # Val 
1 . rutilans, Cuv. $ Val. . . 
24. Smaris, Cuv 
1. balteatus, Cuv. $ Val... 
25. Csesio, Lacep 
1. pinjalo, Bleekcr 
2. cunino- (Block) 


3. nmculatum (Block) .... 
4. furcatum (Bl. Schn.) . . 
5. hasta (Block) .... 


0. argenteum (Forsk.) .... 
7. dussutnieri, Cuv. fy Val. 
8. guoraca, Cuv. fy Val. . . 
9. operculare, Play/air . . 
16. Hapalogenys, Richards. . . 
1. petersi, Day 
17. Diagramina, Cuv 


3. chrysozoua, Cuv. fy Val. 
26. Aprio'n, Cuv. $ Val 
1. pristipoma (Hleeker) . . 

Group Gerrina. 
27 Datnioides Bleekcr 


1. crassispinum, Rilpp. . . 
2. lineatuin (Ginel.) 




4. orientale (Block) 
5. cinctum, Teinm. fy Sckl. 
6. griseum, Cuv. fy Val. . . 
7. pictuni (Thuiib ) 


1. quadrifasciatus (Sevast.) 
28. Gerres, Cuv 
1. setil'er (Ham. Buck.) . . 
2. oblongus, Cuv. Sf Val. . . 
3. tilameutosus, Cuv 


8. punctatum, Cuv. $ Val., 


18. Lobotes, Cuv 


5. abbreviates, JJleeker. . . . 
6. poeti, Cuv. $ Val 
7. Jucidus, Cuv. $ Val. . . 
8. limbatus, Cuv. % Val. . . 
29. Pentapriou, Bleeker .... 


1. surinamensis (Block) . . 
19. Scolopsis, Cuv. $ Val. 
1. biniaculatus, Rilpp 
2. phaeops (Bennett) 


3. biliiieatus (Block) 


1. lougiiiianus (Cantor) . . 



PISCES. 

VERTEBEATE animals . adapted for an aquatic life, having their 
extremities modified into fins ; respiring, almost invariably, solely 
by means of gills * ; possessing a heart with only two (in one 
instance three) cavities, and being cold-blooded. They are scale- 
less, or partially or wholly scaled, the scales being sometimes in 
the form of osseous plates. 

Synopsis of Subclasses occurring in India. 

Skeleton cartilaginous. Skull without cranial sutures. Gills at- 
tached by their outer edges to the skin, with a gill-opening 
intervening between every two gill-laminse. Conus arte- 
riosus contractile. Optic nerves not or only partially de- 
cussating. A spiral valve to intestines. 

I. CHONDROPTERYGII, 

Skeleton osseous. Skull with cranial sutures. Vertebra? com- 
pletely separated, and the posterior extremity of the vertebral 
column bony, or having bony plates. Branchiae free, and the 
water discharged through a single aperture on each side, 
protected by a bony gill-cover or opercle ; branchiostegal rays 
present. A non-contractile bulbus arteriosus, having a pair 
of valves at its commencement. Optic nerves decussating. 

H. TELEOSTEI. 

Skeleton membrano- cartilaginous and notochordal. Skull and 
brain absent. Pulsating sinuses present in place of a heart. 

III. LEPTOCARDII. 



* Certain fish, as the Ldbyrinthici and Ophiocephalida, provided they are 
able to obtain direct access to atmospheric air, can live in water even with a 
bandage fastened round their gill-covers, entirely preventing their gills being 
employed for respiratory purposes. Such a proceeding would, however, be 
fatal to the majority of fishes, thus showing that some forms possess means of 
depurating their blood which are n ot present in all. 

B 



Subclass CHONDROPTERYGIL 

Skeleton cartilaginous ; no cranial sutures. From one to seven 
external gill-openings on each side ; the gills are attached by their 
outer edges to the skin, with a gill-opening intervening between 
each two lamina) ; no gill-cover. Two or more series of valves at 
the conus arteriosus. The optic nerves, although united, do not 
decussate, or do so only slightly. Body with vertical and paired 
fins, the posterior pair abdominal ; caudal fin with an eloDgated 
upper lobe. Intestines with a spiral valve. Male sex with intro- 
mittent organs attached to the ventral fins. Ovaries containing 
large ova, which are fertilized, and sometimes likewise developed 
internally. Embryo with external deciduous gills. No air-bladder. 

This subclass includes the sharks, rays, and chiinaoras, and is 
divided into two orders, the second of which does not appear to 
have representatives in India. Geologically speaking, these fishes 
existed prior to the Teleosteaus. 

Synopsis of Orders. 

Five to seven external gill-openings, 
and no cartilaginous gill-cover. 
Jaws distinct from the skull 1. PLAGIOSTOMATA. 

A single external gill-opening having a 
rudimentary cartilaginous gill- 
cover ; four branchial clefts inside 
the gill-cavity. Palatal and maxil- 
lary apparatus attached to the 
skull 2. 1IOLOGEP1IALA. 



Order I. PLAGIOSTOMATA. 

Syn. Elasniolratwhii. 

Body more or less cylindrical or depressed ; the trunk may or 
may not pass gradually into the tail. From five to seven gill- 
openings, which may be lateral or inferior. Jaws distinct from 
the skull. 

This order has been subdivided as follows : 

A. Trunk gradually passiug into the 

tail. Gill-openings lateral . . SELACIIOIDEI or Sharks, 

13. Gill-openings inferior. Pectoral 
fins largely developed and con- 
stituting a flat disk BATOIDEI or Skates and Bays. 

These fish are employed as food, and portions of them, especially 
the fins, are largely exported from the Indian to the Chinese 
markets. In China Dr. Cantor observed that the fins were not 
exclusively selected from the sharks, SelacJioidei, but equally 
from the rays, Batoidei. Among those examined at Pinang were 
found to be fins taken from fishes belonging to the following 
genera: Carcliarias, Zygcena, Stegostoma, Pristis, JRhinobatus, 
Trygon, and Myliobatis. Gelatine is obtained from the larger fins, 
glue from the smaller. All except the caudal fins are cut from 
the fish at the root, so as to leave as little flesh as possible. The 
root is dipped into wetted lime (Chunam) and then the fins are 
dried in the sun, and according to their value they are divided 
into two kinds, " white " a,nd " black." The white consist exclu- 
sively of the dorsal fins, which are on both sides of a uniform 
light colour, and expected to yield more gelatine than the other 
fins. The pectoral, ventral, and anal fins pass under the denomina- 
tion of black fins ; the colour, however, varies from buff to grey or 
brown, and most of them are of two different colours, the upper 
surface being dark and the lower light. The black fins of course 
are the most numerous, and supposed to yield a comparatively 
small quantity of gelatine. 

Suborder A. SELACHOIDEI. 

Body more or less cylindrical, the trunk gradually passing into 
the tail. Gill-openings lateral. The gills in these fishes are not 
situated in a common cavity but in separate sacs that do not 
communicate one with another. In those which possess five sacs 

BSi 



4 CHONDEOPTEEYGII. SELACHO1DEI. 

the four anterior ones are lined in front with parallel rows of 
adherent gills, whilst in the fifth these processes are found solely 
on its proximal side. Water taken in by the mouth for respiratory 
purposes passes backwards through the pharyngo-branchial slits 
into these sacs, from whence it emerges by the external gill- 
openings or stigmata. The scapular arch, which is suspended to 
the front part of the vertebral column, divides these respiratory 
sacs from the abdominal cavity. Although opercular pieces are 
absent, cartilaginous rings are sometimes present surrounding the 
gill-openings. 

The size to which these fish attain is not an invariable index to 
their character, which is better shown by an examination of the 
teeth with which they are armed. Some powerful forms have 
small teeth, whilst the obtuse teeth of particular genera are more 
calculated for crushing shells and Crustacea than for waging war 
with other fishes. The scales are peculiar, being generally small 
papillae that have a coating of enamel : this, under the designation 
of shagreen, is sometimes employed in certain trades, as for covering 
small boxes or the scabbards of swords, or even for smoothing down 
wood. The tail-fin is flexible and of great power, terminating 
much like the blade of an oar, and giving the bearer great facilities 
in pursuit ; when seizing their prey, if it is large, sharks generally 
turn on one side. 

When breeding, a congress takes place between the sexes, the 
arrangement of the sexual organs being somewhat similar to what 
obtains among the higher vertebrates. The male organs are com- 
pact, placed far forwards in the abdominal cavity, while attached 
to the ventral fins are claspers which have intromittent functions. 
In the females, different parts of the oviduct may be functionally 
modified, for although the ova are fertilized within this oviduct, 
the development of the young is not invariably carried out on the 
same plan, some being perfected prior to extrusion, while in others 
the ovum is encased in a horny covering and so deposited in the 
sea. In such forms as produce their young alive, a modified 
placenta exists. 

Geographical Distribution. Sharks are spread throughout the seas 
and estuaries of cold, temperate, and tropical regions, being most 
numerous in the last ; and some ascend rivers even far beyond the 
influence of the tides *. They are common along the coasts of 
India, and some species have a wide range, although they do not 
appear to descend to any great depth. They seem to scent blood 
or offal from long distances, but their carrying off human prey is 



* Not only sharks but saw-fishes occasionally reside in pieces of fresh water, 
when the communication with the sea has been cut off. Professor Meyer 
(' Nature,' Dec. 30, 1875) remarked on this subject that " an accurate comparison 
(between marine and freshwater forms) showed no difference at all, and 
therefore the changed conditions seem to have had no influence on the external 
features of the species." 



SELACHOIDEI. 5 

not of frequent occurrence. Among the most savage species are 
the ground-sharks of the rivers, as Carcharias yangetiais, which 
seldom loses an opportunity of attacking the bather. The Galea- 
cerdo rayneri is likewise greatly dreaded along the coast or in the 
harbours. Though stationed several years at Cochin, I could only 
ascertain a single instance of a living human being having been 
carried off by these fishes, and Col. Tickeli mentions that while in 
Burma for many years he only heard of one such case. The most 
frequent accidents occurring are after the fish has been hooked 
and lifted into the fisherman's boat, or else while entangled in a 
net when attempts are made to seize it or cut it adrift. Corpses 
are almost immediately eaten by sharks, while it may be said in 
their favour that they devour 'the poisonous sea-snakes (Hydro- 
pJiidce). 

Along the coast of Sind, as at Kurrachee, there are considerable 
shark-fisheries, one form, the Mhor, being harpooned while basking 
on the surface, and Dr. Buist observed in 1850 that this species was 
often captured 40 and sometimes 60 feet in length. The largest 
shark I saw there in 1870 was about 20 feet long, but I was told 
that others up to 30 feet had been recently taken. Here sharks are 
likewise netted, the nets being a quarter of a mile or more in length, 
constructed of strong twine and having a six-inch mesh ; floats of 
light wood are affixed along the upper line, while the lower edge 
of the net is weighted by stones. These nets are sunk in deep 
water (from 80 to 150 feet) and well out to sea, where they remain 
until the following day ; they are set two or three times a week 
according to the weather and local circumstances. Small sharks 
are eaten by the lower classes, and their flesh is considered along 
the Malabar coast as very nourishing food for mothers after child- 
birth, while in Bombay they are largely purchased by the African 
sailors. 

The fins of the sharks are removed and dried in the sun. Strips 
of flesh are also salted as food, and the livers boiled down for the 
oil they contain. Fins of sharks and rays, along with fish-maws 
or fish-sounds, were exported from Kurrachee to Bombay during 
the 5 years ending 1872-73 to the declared annual average value 
of about 7415 ; from Bombay they were re-exported to China. 
Some forms of large sharks, as Galeocerdo, which have the edges of 
their broad teeth sharp or coarsely serrated, cannot be captured by 
nets, as they at once cut their way out. But nets are suitable 
for such species as possess conical teeth ; these last may likewise 
be taken by baited hooks attached to cords composed of many 
strands, through which the teeth penetrate but do not cut. 

Further down the Western coast, as at Calicut, medicinal fish- 
liver oil of an excellent quality was formerly manufactured, a 
small factory for this purpose 'having been constructed at that 
station in 1854, and the livers of sharks and saw-fishes were pur- 
chased from the fishermen. The abundance or paucity of these 
fishes evidently depended to a very great extent upon whether 
sardines were or were not present, for these latter forms of Clu- 



6 CHONDROFTEBYGII. SELACIIOIDEI. 

peidce are very capricious, sometimes forsaking the coast for several 
successive years, and then as suddenly reappearing in countless 
millions (see Clupea lonyiceps). No livers under 40 Ib. weight 
were accepted at the factory, as the larger ones gave propor- 
tionally a greater amount of oil than the smaller ones ; sometimes 
li vers of a great size were purchased. One weighed 290 Ib., and 
another from a female saw-fish 14 feet long 185 Tb. 

The division Selachoidei among the Plagiostomata has been 
further subdivided into nine families, the following only of which 
have as yet been recorded from the seas of India : 

I. A nictitating membrane to eye ; two dorsals and 

an anal fin Carchariidae. 

IT. No nictitating membrane to eye ; two dorsals and 
an anal fin; nostrils not confluent with mouth, 
which last is inferior. Spiracles absent or minute . Lamnidae. 

III. No nictitating membrane to eye ; two dorsals nnd 
an anal fin. Mouth near the extremity of the 

snout. Teeth small and conical Rhinodontidae. 

IV. No nictitating membrane to eye ; only one dorsal 

and an anal fin Notidanida?. 

V. No nictitating membrane to eye ; two dorsals and 
au anal fin. Mouth inferior. Teeth small, several 
rows being generally in use at the same time .... Scylliidae. 



Family I. CAECHARIID^E. 

The snout may be produced longitudinally or laterally. Spiracles 
absent or present. Eye with a nictitating membrane. A small 
pit may or may not exist above the root of the tail, and a groove 
at the angle of the mouth may be present or absent. Mouth 
crescentic, inferior. The teeth may be erect or oblique, with a single 
cusp, having smooth or serrated edges ; or they may be small, 
the cusps being obsolete ; or with one central and one or two 
lateral cusps. The first dorsal fin, destitute of a spine, is placed 
opposite the interspace between the pectoral and ventral; anal 
fin present. 

The most abundant species of this family along the coasts of 
India undoubtedly are such as belong to the genus CarcJiaricw, 
the immature of which are very destructive to herrings and other 
edible fishes. It has been observed that one of the remarkable 
results which has followed the construction of the Suez Canal has 
been the introduction into the Mediterranean sea of sharks, which 
were formerly almost unknown there. 

The number of species of this family found in the Red Sea by 
Klunxinger, as recorded in his ' Synopsis der Fische des Rothen 
Meeres' in 1871, was as follows : Carcharias 6, Loxodon 1, Galeo- 
cerdo 2, Dirrhizodon 1, which does not show that these fishes are a 
large element in the fish-fauna. As, however, the more open Indian 
Ocean is reached, the number of these destructive fishes largely 



CARCHABIIDjE. 7 

increases, and innumerable young swarm along the shores, while 
they are exceedingly numerous off the low coast and muddy seas of 
Burma. In fact I shall have to describe double the number of 
forms given by Klunzinger : Carcliariaa 17, Hemigalew 1, Galeo- 
cerdo 2, 

Synopsis of Genera. 
First group. CAECHABIINA. 

Snout produced longitudinally. Teeth erect or oblique, with a single 
cusp, which has smooth or serrated edges. A pit at the base of 
the caudal fin. 

No spiracles .................................... 1, CABCHARIAS. 

Spiracles small. Distinct labial folds. Teeth ser- 
rated or notched in the upper jaw. Caudal 
fin with a single notch ...................... 2. HEMIG ALETJS. 

Spiracles small. Teeth serrated in both jaws. Caudal 

fin with a double notch ...................... 3. GALEOCEBDO. 



Second group. 

Head produced laterally into the shape of a hammer. Nostrils on front 
edge of head. Teeth oblique, with a single cusp, having sharp 
smooth edges. A pit at the base of the caudal fin. 

Spiracles absent ................................ 4. ZYGUENA. 

Third group. MTJSTELINA. 

Teeth small, obtuse, or having a central and one or two smaller 
lateral cusps. 

Spiracles small; labial folds well developed. Teeth 

obtuse. No pit at base of the caudal fin ........ 5. MUSTELUS. 

No spiracles. A pit at base of the caudal fin ........ 6. TBUENODON. 



First group. CARCHAEIINA. 

1. Genus CARCHARIAS, Muller & Henle. 

Syn. Scoliodon, Aprion or Aprinodon, Physodon, Ilypoprion, Prionodon, 
Muller & Henle ; Priotiace, Cantor ; Eulamia, Isogomphodon, Lamiopsis, 
Platypodon, Jfypopn'onodon, Isoplagiodon, and Cynocephalus, Gill. 

No spiracles. A pit before the root of the caudal fin. Snout 
longitudinally produced. Mouth crescentic or angular ; the labial 
fold or groove rarely extends beyond the angle of the mouth. 
Teeth erect or oblique, with a sharp more or less compressed cusp, 
sometimes triangular, the edges of which may be serrated or 
smooth*. The first dorsal fin, destitute of a spine, is placed 

* In some forms these characters alter considerably with age. 



CHONDEOPTERYGII. SELACHOIDEI. 



opposite the interspace between the pectoral and ventral ; caudal 
with a distinct lower lobe. 

Eespecting the colours in these fishes, I have observed that 
black spots or marks on the fins frequently become fainter in 
examples which have been preserved some time in spirit, more 
especially if they have been removed from the alcohol and per- 
mitted to dry. 

The fishes constituting this large and widely distributed genus 
have been subdivided by some authors into several genera, by 
others into the like number of subgenera or divisions, which latter 
is the course that I have adopted. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Teeth with smooth edges; all oblique 
and without swollen bases. (Scoliodon.) 
Pectoral fin not reaching to below dorsal ; 



length of base of anal nearly equalling 
its distance from the ventral ; second 



dorsal posterior to base of anal. Groove 

at angle of mouth not extending on to 

the upper jaw 1. C. laticaudus, p. 9. 

Pectoral fin reaching to below origin of 

dorsal ; length of base of anal nearly 

equalling half its distance from the 

ventral ; second dorsal over end of base 

of anal. Groove at angle of mouth not 

extending on to the upper jaw 2. C. acutus, p. 10. 

A well-marked groove at the angle of the 

mouth extending a short distance along 

both jaws 3. C. walbeehmi, p. 10. 

B. Teeth with smooth ed^es ; those in the 

centre of the lower jaw smaller than 
those at the side, the latter swollen at 
their bases and having an oblique and 
narrow cusp. Upper teeth flat and 
oblique. (Physodon.} 
Snout elongated ; end of base of first 
dorsal above origin of ventral ; second 
dorsal small and' posterior to the base 
of anal 4. C. miillcri, p. 1 1 . 

C. Teeth with smooth edges ; all narrow and 

standing on a broad base, the upper 
erect or slightly oblique; the lower 
erect. (Aprionodon.) 
Second dorsal as large as the anal and nearly 
equal in size to the first dorsal. Nostril 
with a distinct valve inferiorly. Teeth 



5. C. ncutidem, p. 11. 



D. Teeth with smooth edges, except the 
bases of the upper ones, which are 
serrated. (Hypoprion.) 
Snout pointed. The bases' of the teeth in 
the upper jaw serrated on both sides . . 6. C. madoti, p. 12. 



CARCHABIID^. 9 

Snout rounded. Only the outer sides of the 

bases of the upper teeth serrated .... 7. C. hemiodon, p. 12. 
E. Some or all of the teeth serrated both 



Teeth in both jaws serrated. Second dorsal 

much shorter than anal .............. 8. C. gorrah, p. 12. 

Teeth in both jaws serrated. Second dorsal 

not much smaller than the anal. Fins 

darkish with light edges ............ 9. C. dussumicri, p. 13. 

Snout obtuse. Teeth in both jaws serrated. 10. C. ganyetiaus, p. 13. 
Teeth in both jaws serrated. All the fins 

black-edged ..................... 11. C. melanoptcrus, p. 14. 

Fins, except the first dorsal, with black ex- 

tremities .......................... 12. C. bleekeri, p. 15. 

Teeth coarsely serrated in upper jaw ; awl- 

shaped in lower, some with a basal 

cusp .............................. 13. C. ellioti, p. 15. 

Upper teeth serrated. Second dorsal oppo- 

site to but larger than the anal. A black 

spot on the second dorsal ............ 14. C. murrayi, p. 10. 

Upper teeth serrated. Second dorsal oppo- 

site the anal. A black spot on second 

dorsal ............................ 15. C. menisorrah, p. 10. 

Upper teeth serrated and on rather a broad 

base ; lower more slender. Ends of some 

of the fins black .................... 16. C. limbatus, p. 17. 

Teeth in both jaws slender, and from thirty- 

six to forty in number .............. 17. C. temminckii. p. 17. 

1. (1.) Carcharias laticaudus. (Pig. 1.) 

Carcharias (Scoliodon) laticaudus, Mull. 8? Ifenle, Plagios. p. 28, 

t. viii. 
Carcharias laticaudus, Day, Fish. India, p. 712, pi. clxxxviii, fig. 1 

(see synonymy). 
Dan-da-nee, Sind. ; Nulhan sorrah and Palah sorrah, Tel. 

Length of preoral portion of snout exceeding the width of the 
mouth by one fifth, and equal to or slightly more than the distance 







Fig. 1. Carcharias laticaudus. 

between the eye and the first gill-opening (longer in the imma- 
ture) ; the groove at the angle of the mouth scarcely extends on to 
the upper jaw. Nostrils very much nearer to the mouth than to the 
end of snout. Teeth those in upper jaw rather oblique, not swollen 



10 CHONDROPTBBTGII. 8ELACHOIDEI. 

at their bases : those in the lower jaw very oblique, especially near 
the syraphysis : none are serrated. Fins the length of the base of 
the anal fin is nearly or quite equal to its distance from the ventral : 
the pectoral does not extend so far as to below the origin of the 
dorsal ; its posterior edge is nearly straight, its internal edge one 
third of the length of its outer margin. The length of the caudal 
fin is contained 3f to 4 times in the total length, but is rather 
more in adults than in immature specimens. Colour uniform grey 
superiorly, white beneath : the pectoral of a deep grey, having a 
white outer edge, as have also the ventral and anal ; posterior portion 
of caudal fin dark grey or nearly black. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. This 
species attains to at least two feet in length. 

2. (2.) Carcharias acutus. 

Carcharias acutus, Rilppett, N. W. Fische, p. 65, t. xviii, f. 4 ; Day, 

Fish. India, p. 712, pi. clxxxiv, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Purrooway sorrah, Tarn. ; Parl sorrah, Mai. ; Sem sorrah, Tel. 

Length of preoral portion of snout one fourth longer than the 
gape of the mouth, and equal to or slightly less than the distance 
between the eye and the gill-opening : a groove at the angle of the 
month not, or but slightly, extending on to the upper jaw. 
Nostrils nearer to mouth than to the end of the snout. Teetli 
the upper and lower ones oblique, without swollen bases and none 
serrated. Fins the length of the base of the anal fin is one half 
its distance from the ventral or less : the pectoral extends to at 
least below the origin of the dorsal, its posterior edge is concave, 
and its internal edge about two fifths the length of its outer : 
second dorsal small, situated over the posterior half of the anal. 
Length of caudal fin contained about 3^ to 3| times in the total 
length. Colour grey or bronze above, white below : fins grev, 
the posterior edge of pectoral, outer edges of ventral, anal, and 
posterior half of caudal, white; upper edge of caudal dark, as 
is also its posterior lobe. 

Hob. Eed Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and 
beyond ; said to attain to a considerable size. 

3. (3.) Carcharias walbeehmi. 

Carcharias (Scoliodon) walbeehmi, Bleeker, Nat, Tyds. Ned, Ind. 

x, p. 353. 
Carcharias walbeehmii, Day, Fish. India, p. 712, pi. clxxxv, fig. 2 

(see synon.). 

Ei-dah, Andamanese. 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout exceeding the width 
of the mouth by nearly one third, and equalling the distance 
between the eye and the second gill-opening. A well-marked 
groove at the angle of the mouth extending on to the upper jaw 
and along a portion of the mandible. Nostrils rather nearer to the 






CABCHAEIID^. 11 

mouth than to the end of the snout, the distance between the 
outer edges of the nostrils equal to the extent between them and 
the end of the snout. Teeth oblique and flat in both jaws, 
without any serration. Fins the pectoral extends to nearly 
beneath the middle of the first dorsal fin, it has its posterior edge 
rather concave, and its inner edge equals one third of the length of 
its outer; second dorsal rather small, with its posterior lobe 
produced, it is situated over the last half of the anal. Length of 
the base of the anal equal to two fifths of its distance from the 
base of the ventral : caudal fin 3| times in the total length. 
Colour light brown superiorly, becoming dull white beneath. 
Fins grey and mostly with light outer edges. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and Japan. 

4. (4.) Carcharias miilleri. 

Carcharias miilleri, ( Valenciennes) Mull, fy Ilenle, Plagios. p. 30, t. xix, 
f. 1 (teeth) ; Day, Fish. India, p. 713 (see synon.). 

Snout elongated and pointed. Nostrils nearer to the angle of the 
mouth than to the end of the snout. Mouth nearly as long as 
wide. Fins the end of the base of the first dorsal situated 
opposite the origin of the ventral ; second dorsal very small and 
commencing above the last third of the base of the anal. Pectoral 
extending to below the origin of the first dorsal. Colour brownish, 
becoming lighter beneath ; fins a little darker. 

Hob. Bengal. 

5. (5.) Carcharias acutidens. 

Carcharias acutidens, Riippell, N. W. Fische, p. 65, t. xviii, fig. 3 ; 
Day, Fish. India, p. 713, pi. clxxxix, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

Snout obtuse and rounded, the length of its preoral portion 
equal to two thirds of the width of the mouth and much less than 
the distance between the eye and the first gill-opening. Nostrils 
rather nearer mouth than to the end of the snout. A very short 
groove at the angle of the mouth not extending on to the upper 
jaw. Eye small, Gill-openings much wider than the orbit. 
Teeth |p|- *, those in both jaws rather slender, erect or oblique, 
and with the bases rather swollen ; none serrated. Fins the base 
of the first dorsal situated midway between the inner angle of the 
pectoral and the commencement of the ventral ; second dorsal 
nearly as large as the first, rather larger than the anal and situated 
above it. Caudal fin 4| in the total length. Pectoral falciform, its 
inner edge two sevenths the length of its outer, it reaches to 
beneath the middle of the base of the first dorsal. Colour of a 
dull reddish brown, becoming lightest on the sides and beneath. 

Hal), lied Sea, coasts of Sind and the Indian Ocean, attaining 
at least to six feet in length. 

* Twenty-seven to twenty-nine teeth in each jaw. 



1 2 CHONDEOPTEEYGII. SELACITOIDEI. 

6. (6.) Carcharias macloti, 

Carchariag (Hypoprion) macloti, Mull Sf Ifenle, Plagios. p. 34, t. x. 
Carcharias' macloti, Day, Fish. India, p. 713, pi. clxxxviii, fig. 2 

(see synon.) 
Pala son-ah and Sorrah Kowah, Tel. 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout exceeding the width 
of the mouth by one third, and equalling the distance between the 
eye and the second gill-opening. A short groove at the angle of 
the mouth, not extending on to the upper jaw. Nostrils nearer 
to the opening of the mouth than to the end of the snout. Teeth 
the bases of those in the upper jaw denticulated on both sides ; 
those in the lower jaw erect, with smooth edges and a broad base. 
Fins the length of the base of the anal is equal to about twice its 
distance from the origin of the ventral ; the pectoral extends to 
nearly below the hind edge of the first dorsal, its posterior margin 
is rather concave, its internal equals about one third of the length 
of its outer edge ; caudal 3| to 3g in the total length. Colour 
grey or brown, becoming dull white beneath ; the fins grey, the 
caudal nearly black in its posterior half ; outer half of first dorsal 
dark ; pectoral and ventral with a light edge. 

Hab. Seas of India to New Guinea. 

7. (7.) Carcharias hemiodon. 

Carcharias (Hypoprion) hemiodon, (Vol.} Milll. Sf ITenlc, Plagio*. 

p. 35, t. xix, f . 2 (teeth). 
Carcharias hemiodon, Day, Fish. India, p. 714 (see synon.). 

Ngamdn ngheppyan, Burmese. 

Snout obtusely rounded ; the distance between the end of the 
snout and the mouth equals the interspace between the outer 
angles of the nostrils. No groove at the angle of the mouth. 
Teeth in the upper jaw oblique, with the outer side of their bases 
serrated. Fins the pectoral reaches to below the middle of the 
first dorsal ; the second dorsal commences opposite to or rather 
behind the origin of the base of the anal. Caudal fin 4 3 in the 
total length. Colour grey, becoming lighter beneath. 

Hal). Seas of India, ascending rivers, as the Hooghly at Cal- 
cutta. 

8. (8.) Carcharias sorrah. 

Carcharias (Prionodon) sorrah, (F/.) Milll. $ Hank, Plagios. p. 45, 

t. xvi. 
Carcharias sorrah, Day, Fish. India, p. 714, pi. clxxxv, fig. 1 (see 

synon.). 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout about equal to the 
width of the mouth and nearly equal to the distance between the 
eye and the first gill-opening. No groove at the angle of the 
mouth. Nostrils about midway between end of snout and mouth. 
Gill-openings rather wider than the orbit, Teeth |?, those in the 



CABCHAIIIIDJ5. 13 

upper jaw oblique, serrated, and with a toothed notch on their 
outer edge ; those in lower jaw a little oblique, rather narrow, 
situated on a broad base and serrated. Fins pectoral falciform, 
extending to beneath the hind third of the base of the first dorsal 
fin, its internal margin equalling about one fourth or two sevenths 
of its outer. Origin of first dorsal slightly posterior to the base of 
the pectoral, and not extending to above the ventral. The second 
dorsal smaller than and slightly posterior to the origin of the anal, 
the latter rather nearer the caudal than the ventral. Caudal fin 
34 in the total length. Colour dull brown superiorly, and 
whitish beneath ; fins grey, lower caudal lobe and pectorals with 
black extremities. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

9. (9.) Carcharias dussumieri. 

CarcharicOS (Prionodou) dussumieri, (Valenciennes) Mull, fy Henle, 

Plagios. p. 47, t. xix, f. 8. 
Carcharias dussumieri, Day, Fish. India, p. 714, pi. clxxxvii, tig. 2 

(see synoii.) 

Choti musi, Marathi. 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout very slightly exceed- 
ing the width of the mouth, and equalling the distance between 
the eye and the first gill-opening. A very short groove at the 
angle of the mouth, only slightly extending on to the upper jaw. 
Nostrils nearer the opening of the mouth than to the end of the 
snout. Gill-openings wider than the orbit. Teeth ^, those of 
the upper jaw oblique and serrated, having a notch on the outer 
side ; those in the mandibles smaller, oblique, narrow, serrated, and 
with a broad base. Fins pectoral extends to opposite the hind 
edge of the base of the first dorsal, its posterior margin is slightly 
concave, its internal margin equals two fifths of the length of its 
outer edge. Origin of the first dorsal a very slight distance behind 
the base of the pectoral, and its base not extending to above the 
ventral. The second dorsal slightly smaller than the anal. The 
length of the caudal about 4 in the total length. Colour grey 
or dull brown, becoming white beneath ; fins grey with white 
outer edges ; upper two thirds of second dorsal blackish. 

Hab. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

10. (10.) Carcharias gangeticus. 

Carcharias (Prionodon) gauge ticus, Mutt. 8f Henle, Plagios. p. $), 

t. xiii. 
Carcharias gangeticus, Day, Fish. India, p. 715, pi. clxxxvii, tig. 1 

(see synon.) 
Mundah mayur, Ooriah ; Nga man young wyn, Burmese. 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout only two thirds of 
the width of the mouth, and equalling half of the interspace between 
the eye and the middle gill-opening ; a very slight groove at the 



14 CIIONDROPTEBYGII. SELAOHOIDEI. 

angle of the mouth. Nostrils in the front half of the distance 
between the end of the snout and the mouth. Gill-openings wider 
than the orbit. Teeth twenty-seven to thirty in each jaw, all 
serrated; the upper almost triangular, their outer edge with a 
notch, very distinct in the immature, but becoming almost lost 
with age ; those in the lower jaw narrow, erect, and having broad 
bases. Fins pectoral elongated, falciform, and extending to 
beneath the middle of the first dorsal ; its internal margin % of 
the length of its outer. Origin of the first dorsal slightly posterior 
to the hind edge of the base of the pectoral, its base not extending 
to above the ventral. The second dorsal of about the same size as 
the anal, the latter nearer to the caudal than to the ventral. Length 
of the caudal 3| in the total length. Scales small and with rough 
edges ; they are hardly above half the size of those in C. melanop- 
terus. Colour grey superiorly, becoming dull white beneath. 
Fins grey, the pectoral, ventral, and anal with white edges ; pos- 
terior portion of caudal rather dark. 

Hcib. Seas of India to Japan, ascending rivers to above tidal 
influence. It is the commonest form along the Burmese coasts and 
attains at least nine feet in length. 

This is one of the most ferocious among Indian sharks, and 
frequently attacks bathers even in the Hooghly at Calcutta, where 
it is so dreaded that a reward is offered for its destruction. 

11. (11.) Carcharias melanopterus: 

Carcharias (Prionodon) melanopterus, Quoy Sf Gaimard, Voy. Uranie 

fy Physicienne, Zool. p. 194, pi. 43. 
Carcharias melanopterus, Day, Fish. India, p. 715, pi. clxxxv, fig. 3 

(see synon.) 

Caval sorrah, Nella vekal sorrah, Raman sorrah, Muklian sorrah, Boka 
sorrah, and Ran sorrah, Tel. ; Nydman toungmt, Arracan ; Hitnyur, 
Chittagong. 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout two thirds the width 
of the mouth and considerably less than the distance between the 
eye and the first gill-opening ; a very short groove at the angle of 
the jaws. Nostrils nearer to the extremity of the snout than to 
the end of the mouth. Snout rounded and very obtuse. Teeth 
!^|(|i), the upper broad, flattened, oblique, with a very slight 
notch or rather concavity on the outer side and serrated ; the 
lower much narrower, pointed, on a broad base and also serrated, 
these serrations being generally minute, sometimes only on one 
side of the tooth, and occasionally wanting, especially in the lower 
jaw. Fins pectoral falciform, extending to beneath the middle 
or even hind edge of the base of the dorsal, its outer edge three 
times as long as its inner one. Base of first dorsal a little nearer 
the pectoral than its posterior end is to the ventral. Second 
dorsal opposite and similar to the anal. Length of caudal 3| to 4| 
in the total length. Scales comparatively large, lineated, but with 
almost smooth edges. Colour brown or bluish grey superiorly, 



15 

fading to dull white beneath ; ends of all the fins deep black. Iris 
grey, stained darker superiorly. It may be remarked, as showing 
the size to which this species attains, that the liver of one at the 
Government fish-oil factory at Calicut weighed 270 Ib. 

Hah. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 
This form is very common. 



12. (12.) Carcharias bleekeri. 

Carcharias (Prionodon) bleekeri, Dumtril, Hist. Nat. Poiss. i, p. 3G7. 
Carcharias bleekeri, Day, Fish. India, p. 715 (see synon.). 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout equal to the width of 
the mouth. Nostrils midway between the end of the snout and 
the mouth. Teeth |j, the upper triangular with a slightly notched 
outer border ; the lower nearly erect, narrow, and on a broad base. 
Fins the dorsal commences a short distance behind the angle of 
the pectoral ; second dorsal opposite to, nearly as long as, but lower 
than the anal, and elongated posteriorly. Pectoral with its upper 
edge 4| to 5 times as long as its lower ; caudal one fourth of the 
total length. Colour a deep black spot at the lower edge of the 
end of the pectoral fin ; a second at the end of the inferior lobe of 
the caudal ; no black spot on the first dorsal. 

Hob. East coast of Africa, seas of India. 



13. (13.) Carcharias ellioti. 

Carcharias ellioti, Day, Fish. India, p. 716, pi. clxxxix, tig. 2. 
Puducan or Aduyu-pal sorrah, Tamil ; Pal sorrah, Tel. 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout equal to the width of 
the mouth. A well-developed labial groove along the outer side of 
the maxilla, and a slight one on the mandible. Eyes rather small. 
Nostrils rather nearer to the mouth than to the end of the snout. 
Gill-openings much wider than the orbit. Teeth f^fi the upper 
nearly triangular without any notch or basal enlargement, very 
coarsely serrated on both edges ; those in the mandible obliquely 
erect, awl-shaped, becoming smaller and more triangular at the 
angle of the mouth ; the awl-shaped ones have a cusp at either side 
of the base, below which the outer edge has a few serrations ; the 
external triangular ones are serrated externally. Fins the first 
dorsal commences just behind the root of the pectoral, its base 
being nearer to it than to the ventral ; second dorsal smaller than 
the first, but larger than the anal, before which it commences. 
Pectoral falciform, its internal margin the length of its outer, 
the fin reaches to beneath the end of the base of the dorsal. 
Anal below the last two thirds of the second dorsal. Caudal 
3| in the total length. Colour grey superiorly, becoming nearly 
white beneath. 

Hob. Seas of India. At Kurrachee it is not uncommon. 



16 CHONDBOPTEBYGir. 8ELA.C1IOIDEI. 



14. (14.) Carcharias murrayi. 

Carcharias murrayi, Giinther, A. M. N. II. (5) xi, p. 137 (1883); 
Day, Fish. India, Supplement, 1888, p. 809. 

Snout short and obtuse ; the distance between the mouth and the 
end of the snout being less than that between the inner angles of 
the nostrils. Nostrils nearly midway between the end of the snout 
and the mouth. Teeth in the upper jaw of moderate size, the 
anterior equilateral, rather longer than broad, those on the side 
oblique with the posterior edge concave and both edges finely 
serrated; twenty-nine rows in the lower jaw, lanceolate, their 
edges smooth, with a broad base, two-rooted, and some with an 
additional minute lobe. Fins first dorsal commences opposite 
the axil of the pectoral ; the second only one third the size of the 
first, but conspicuously larger than the anal, which is small. Origin 
of anal behind that of the second dorsal. Pectoral large, exceeding 
the distance between the first gill-opening and the end of the snout ; 
the length of its hind margin only one fourth of that of its outer. 
Caudal of moderate length, rather longer than the distance between 
the two dorsal fins. Colour uniform, top of first dorsal appears 
to have been black. 

Hob. Kurrachee, where an example 6 feet 8 inches long was 
captured. The specimen, which is in the British Museum, is stuffed 
and not in a very good condition; it seems only to differ from 
G. ellioti in the size of the second dorsal and anal fins. 

/-- V f. 1. 

lo. (15.) Carcharias memsorrah. 
Carcharias (Prionodon) menisorrah, (Fa?.) Mull, fy Henle, Plagios. 

p. 46, t. xvii. 
Carcharias menisorrali, Day, Fish. India, p. 710, pi. clxxxiv, fig. 1 

(see synon.) 
Karamoottee sorrah and ('if/a sorrah, Tel.; Nga man nee, Arracan. 

Preoral portion of snout nearly or quite as long as the mouth is 
wide ; the width of the head equals the distance from the angle of 
the mouth to the end of the snout. A very small groove at the 
angle of the mouth extending a short distance on to the upper jaw. 
Teeth twenty-eight in the upper jaw ; they are oblique, triangular, 
notched externally, and serrated in the whole extent of their cusps ; 
lower teeth erect, slender, lanceolate, not serrated, and having broad 
bases. Fins pectoral not so long as head, one fifth longer than 
broad at its extremity, it is scarcely emarginate, its inner margin 
equals about half the length of the outer; base of the second 
dorsal slightly more than half of that of the first dorsal, it is 
opposite, and almost as large as the anal. Posterior end of the 
dorsal fin at the same distance from the ventrals as its anterior 
end is from the root of the pectoral. Upper edge of the caudal 
almost straight, its length being slightly more than the interval 
between its base and the origin of the ventral. Colour grey above, 






17 

white below ; upper half of the second dorsal generally deep 
black. 

llab. Eed Sea to the Malay Archipelago. Attains twelve feet 
or more in length. 

16. (16.) Carcharias limbatus. 
Carcharias (Prionodon) limbatus, Mull, fy Henle, Playios. p. 49, t. xix, 

f. 9 (teeth). 
Carcharia-s limbatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 710, pi. clxxxiv, fig. 2 

(see synon.). 

Length of preoral portion of the snout about equal to the 
width of the mouth, and slightly less than the distance between the 
eye and the first gill-opening ; a short groove at the angle of the 
mouth scarcely extending on to the upper jaw. Eyes small; gill- 
openings about twice the size of the eye. Teeth erect, somewhat 
constricted above the base, which is broad, the upper teeth broader 
than the lower, although all are of somewhat similar shape, and 
serrated, but most distinctly in the upper jaw ; in the young the 
teeth in the mandibles usually appear to have smooth edges, but 
under the microscope the rudiments of serrations are perceptible. 
Fins the length of the base of the anal is equal to about two thirds 
of its distance from the base of the ventral ; the pectoral extends 
to below or even to beyond the hind edge of the dorsal fin ; the 
posterior edge is slightly concave ; the internal edge is y\ to ^ the 
width of the outer. Dorsal commences over the inner angle of the 
base of the pectoral ; second dorsal arises above or slightly pos- 
terior to the origin of the anal, than which it is somewhat smaller. 
Caudal 83 to 3 in the total length. Colour grey superiorly, 
becoming white on the sides and beneath. Pins dark grey; in the 
immature the outer extremity of pectoral, lobe of caudal, and the 
margins of the fins dark black ; ventral and anal white-edged. 
As age advances, the second dorsal becomes black-tipped and the 
anal has a darker edge. 

Hob. This shark is very common along the sea- coasts of India, and 
appears to frequent the tropical parts of the Atlantic, and of the 
Pacific coast of Central America, and to extend throughout the 
Indian Ocean. It attains at least six feet in length. 

17. (17.) Carcharias temminckii. 

Carcharias (Prionodon) temminckii, Milll. $ Henle, Plagios. p. 48, 

t. xviii. 
Carchavias temminckii, Day, Pish. India, p. 717 (see synon.). 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout about four fifths the 
width of the mouth. Nostrils nearer to the mouth than to the end 
of the snout. Teeth !^~^, upper rather narrow with a broad base, 
erect and serrated; the lower erect, entire, awl-shaped ; the teeth 
near the outer angle of the jaws very small. Fins first dorsal 
inserted midway between the roots of the pectoral and ventral fins : 



18 C1IONDEOPTERYUII. SELACIIOIDEI. 

pectoral with its upper edge nearly three times the width of the 
lower. Second dorsal opposite anal, and nearly as large as the 
first. Colour uniform. 
Hab. Seas of India. 



2. Genus HEMIGALEUS, Bleeker. 
Syn. Chccnoyaleus, Gill. 

Spiracles minute and behind the eye. Nictitating membrane 
present. A pit before the root of the caudal fin both above and 
below. Snout longitudinally produced. Moutli crescentic, with 
labial folds. Teeth in the upper jaw denticulated, not so in the 
lower. The first dorsal fin, which is destitute of a spine, is placed 
opposite the interspace between the pectoral and ventral ; caudal 
with a single notch. 

These fishes have been divided from Carcharias on account of 
the existence of a rudimentary spiracle behind the eye, and like- 
wise because the labial folds, which are rare in Carcharias, are 
developed in all known species of the present genus. 

Geographical Distribution. Coromandel coast of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

18. (1.) Hemigaleus balfonri. (Fig. 2.) 
Hemigaleus balfouri, Day, Fish. India, p. 717, pi. cLxxxv, fig. 4. 




Fig. 2. Hcmiyalcus balfuuri, 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout slightly exceeding 
the width of the mouth, and not quite equalling the distance 
between the eye and the first gill-opening. Spiracle minute, situ- 
ated about one half the diameter of the eye posterior to the orbit. 
A groove at the angle of the mouth extending some distance along 
each jaw. Nostrils situated nearer to the mouth than to the end 
of the snout. The distance between the outer angles of the 
nostrils equal to the width of the mouth. Gill-openings at least 
twice the width of the orbit. Teeth g, those in the upper jaw 
smooth, notched externally, or with about three denticulations 
along the outer side of the base ; those in the lower jaw of a 
slightly smaller size, erect and smooth. Finn pectoral falciform, 
extending to below the first third of the base of the dorsal fin, the 




CABCIIABIID.i:. 19 

inner nearly equalling one third of the outer margin. First dorsal 
(with about 24 rays) having its base almost midway between the 
end of the base of the pectoral and the origin of the ventral fins. 
Second dorsal (with about fifteen rays) commencing slightly in 
advance oF the anal; the length of its base equal to rather above 
one half of that of the first dorsal, while it is a little larger than tbe 
anal. Caudal fin equal to about of the total length. Colour 
dark brown ; fins grey, the second dorsal with a dark summit. 
Ilab. Coroinandel coast of India. 



3. Genus GALEOCERDO, Miiiler & Henle. 

Spiracles small. Nictitating membrane present. Mouth cre- 
scentic. Teeth large, flat, triangular, and oblique, serrated on 
both edges, and with a deep notch on the outer margin. The first 
dorsal spineless, placed opposite the interspace between the pec- 
toral and ventral fins ; caudal with a double notch. A pit on the 
tail both above and below, at the base of the caudal fin. 

Sharks of this genus are much dreaded in India, the native 
fishermen distinguishing those forms with long conical teeth 
from others having elongated or triangular cusps with serrated 
edges. The former can be captured by lines and even by nets; 
but the latter immediately cut through nets and sever lines, ren- 
dering it necessary to attach the hooks to chains. Sharks seem to 
prefer their food a little high, and therefore the natives bury the 
bait in the ground for a day or more before using it. It was 
apparently a fish belonging to this genus which was referred 
to in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences 
of Mauritius, vii. 1873. Col. Pike observed of the specimen 
that it was 13 feet 9 inches long, and had " a terrible incident 
connected with it. The men of M.M. steamer 'Emirne' caught it, 
and it was exposed for sale in the bazar. When cut open, a clasp 
knife and belt, with the bone of a man's arm, were found in it. 
This, of course, gave rise to the most horrible surmises, especially 
as it was rumoured that a few days previously a sailor had deserted 
from a vessel in the harbour, and was supposed to have been 
attacked by a shark before he could reach the shore " (p. 27). 

Geoyrcqiliicul Distribution. Seas of the Tropics, also of tempe- 
rate and Arctic regions. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Caudal tin 3 to 4 in the total length. Teeth 

denticulated, and of equal size in both jaws. 1. G. rayneri, p. 20. 
Caudal tin 3 to 3 in the total leu<fth. Teeth 

denticulated, and rather smaller in the 

lower than in the upper jaw 2. G. tiyrinus, p. 21. 



c2 



20 



CH02fDK01TEUYGlJ. SELAC11OIDEI. 



19. (1.) Galeocerdo rayneri. (Fig. 3.) 

Galeocerdo ravneri, McDonald $ liarnnt, P. Z. S. 1868, p. :M5s, 
pi. xxxii. ; Day, Fish. India, p. 718, pi. clxxxvii, fi#. 3 (see synon.). 
Wulluccn sorrah, Tain. ; Kcttulum sorrah f Tel. 




Fig. 3. GrjJeocerdo rayneri. 

Length of preoral portion of the snout much less than the width 
of the mouth. A groove at the angle of the mouth extending 
some distance along the side of the maxilla ; nostrils nearer the 
end of the snout than the mouth. Gill-openings not so wide as 
the orbit. Eyes rather large. Teeth |j, large, of equal size in 
both jaws, compressed and serrated in their whole extent in both 
jaws, as well as notched externally above the base. Fins pectoral 
falciform, extending to beneath the anterior third of the first 
dorsal. Origin of first dorsal a short distance behind the base of 
the pectoral, but nearer to that fin than to the ventral, which latter 
is midway between the hind edge of the first dorsal and the origin 
of the anal. Second dorsal above the anal, the two being of about 
equal size. Length of the caudal 3 to 4 in the total length, 
apparently decreasing in comparative length with age. Colour 
dark grey superiorly, becoming dull white beneath ; cheeks and 
lower surface of the snout yellowish. Body, from a short distance 
behind the gill-openings, with numerous large black spots and 
vertical bare. Fins grey, the first dorsal with irregular vertical 
bands. 

This fish, probably a variety of O. arcticus, attains to a consider- 
able size in the Indian seas, where it is not numerous. Besides 
being exceedingly fierce, Jerdon has remarked that it is very 
cunning and swells itself out so as to appear like a floating mass of 
animal substance, and having thus decoyed its prey it immediately 
attacks it. It eats everything, even sea-snakes. Sir "W. Elliot 
observed that he obtained an example of this voracious shark 12 ft. 
4 in. long; in its stomach were the remains of fish of various sizes 
and several shin-bones of beef partially digested. Another ex- 
ample, 8^ feet long, had the remains of a sea-snake (IJydrojihis 
nigrocincta) and of a siluroid fish. 

Hub. Indian and Australian Seas ; attaining upwards of twelve 
feet in length. 



CARCTTARIID^E. 21 

20. (2.) Galeocerdo tigrinus. 

Galeocerdo tigrinus, MiilL Henle, Plagios. p. 50, t. xxiii ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 718 (see synon.). 

Length of the preoral portion of the snout equal to one half the 
width of the mouth and slightly less than the distance between the 
inner angles of the nostrils. A long labial fold along the edge of 
the upper jaw. Teeth in lower jaw not so large as those in the 
upper, denticulated in both jaws, and the deuticulations at the base 
of each cusp also serrated, more especially in the lower jaw. 
Fins the first dorsal commences above the angle of the pectoral ; 
second dorsal arises slightly in advance of the anal. Length of 
caudal contained 3 to 3| times in the total length, and consider- 
ably (one third) exceeding the length of the interspace between 
the two dorsal fins. Colour grey superiorly, becoming slightly 
lighter on the sides and beneath ; numerous brown or dark grey 
spots over the body. 

Jfal>. Eed Sea, seas of India to Japan, and beyond. 

Second group. ZYG-JENINA. 

4. Genus ZYGJENA, Cuvier. 

Syn. Cestracion, Klein ; Cestrorhinvs, Blainv. ; Sphyrna (Raf.), Miill. 
& Ilenle ; Eusphyrna and Reniceps, Gill. 

Combun sorrah. Tarn. 

The anterior portion of the head is broad, flattened, and laterally 
elongated, with the eyes situated at its lateral extremities and the 
nostrils at its fore border. A nictitating membrane present. 
Spiracles absent. Mouth crescentic. Teeth similar in both jaws, 
oblique and notched. The first dorsal fin spineless, situated above 
the interspace between the pectoral and the ventral ; caudal with 
one notch, and a pit at the commencement of the fin. 

This genus of sharks is reputed to be very dangerous in some 
localities. The young are captured along the shores of India and 
Burma in large numbers. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

\ . \ groove along front edge of head. 

Kuril lateral expansion of the side of the 

head two or three times as long as broad 1. Z. blochii, p. 22. 
The length of the hind edge of each 

lateral expansion of the head nearly or 

quite equal to its width near the eye. ... 2. Z. malleus, p. 22. 
Anterior edge of head curved but not 

continuous with the lateral one ; the 

length of the hind edge of each lateral ex- 
pansion is less than its width near the eyes 3. Z. hides, p. 23. 
B. No groove along front edge of bead. 
Anterior edge of head nearly straight; 

length of hind edge of lateral expansion 

exceeds width 4. Z. mokarran, p. 23, 



ClIONDItOPTERYGII. SELACIIOIDET. 

21. (1.) Zygsena blochii. (Fig. 4.) 

Zygfena bloohii, Citrifr, /.'///'"' -l/tini. ii, p. 127; Tr//. J/t'm. 3/>/s. ix, 
p. 227, pi. i, f. 2 ; J%, .!&/*. 7wftVi, p. 711), pi. clxxxiv, tig. 4 (see 
eynon.). 

Kinrtn sorrah, Tarn.; S;>pa sorrah, Tel.; .%a wzaw &M<*y, Burmese. 
Each lateral expansion of the side of the head from twice to thrice 
ns long as broad, and with a deep groove along the anterior edge, 
reaching externally nearly as far as the orbit. The posterior edge 
of the lateral expansion about as long as its anterior edge, while 
the external edge is nearly straight. Nostril much nearer the 
mouth than the eye. Eyes situated near the upper angle of the 




Fig. 4. Zyffeena blochii. 

external edge of the lobe of the head. Teeth oblique, externally 
notched and smooth in their entire extent. Fins the dorsal 
arises slightly behind the base of the pectoral, extending nearly 
halfway to above the ventral ; second dorsal arising above the 
posterior half of the anal, than which it is much smaller. Colour 
of a deep grey or brownish -grey, becoming lighter beneath ; the 
fins are usually of a slightly deeper colour than the body. 

Unit. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 
Blyth observed that it rarely exceeded 4 feet in length. This is 
the commonest form on the Malabar coast, where the fishermen 
consider it attains to a very large size. 

22. (2.) Zygsena malleus. 
Squalus zygsena, Linn. Syst. Nat,, p. 300. 
Zygrena malleus, Shaw, Nat. Misc. viii, pi. 207 Day, Fish. India, 

p. 719, pi. clxxxvi, fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Nga man thamvoot, Burmese. 

The hind edge of the lateral expansion of the head nearly equals 
its width near the eye, and has a groove along almost its entire 
anterior margin. Nostrils close to the eye. Colour body and 
fins slaty-grey ; under surface white. In a female taken at Pinang, 
( 'union observed 37 living young, of which 20 were males and 17 
females. 

J/nfi. Tropic.-il and temperate sens. 



CARCnARIIDJE. 23 



23. (3.) Zygaena tildes. 

Zyprrena tudes, Val. Mem. Mus. ix, p. 22o, pi. ii, f. 1 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 720, pi. clxxxviii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Koma sorrah, Tel. 

Anterior edge of head curved, but the front margin is not con- 
tinuous with the lateral ; the length of the hind margin less than 
the width near the eye. Eyes situated just below the junction 
of the anterior and outer edges of the snout. Nostril close to the 
eye. A groove running along the anterior edge of the head. 
Teeth oblique, with a notched outer edge. Fins dorsal arises 
above the hind margin of the inner edge of the pectoral fin, its 
height equals the length of the pectoral ; second dorsal over the 
hind half of the anal ; length of the base of the anal extends | of 
the distance to the ventral ; caudal 3 to 3j in the total length. 
Colour grey, becoming lighter beneath ; first dorsal fin very dark, 
the upper portion of the second dorsal and the lower caudal lobe 
deep black in newly captured examples, the colour fading after 
they have been some time in spirit. One example, captured at 
Cochin, Dec. 27, 1872, besides the black marks on the fins men- 
tioned, had the hind edge of the dorsal and the end of the pectorals 
dark. 

Hob. Mediterranean, Indian Ocean and Archipelago, also 
tropical parts of the Atlantic. It attains several feet in length. 

24. (4.) Zygaena mokarran. 

Zj'gnena mokarran, Riippcll, N. W. Fische, p. G6, t. xvii, f. 3 ; Day, 
Fish. India, Supplement, p. 8C9 (see synon.). 

Anterior edge of head nearly straight, forming a more or less right 
angle with the lateral margin. Length of hind edge of one of 
the lobes equal to its width near the eye ; no groove running along 
the anterior edge of the head. Eyes near nostrils. Teeth 
oblique, as broad at their base as long, with an indistinct lateral 
notch, and serrated on both . edges. Colour brownish-grey, 
becoming white beneath. 

Hab. lied Sea to Kurrachee. 



Third group. MUSTELINA. 

5. Genus MUSTELTJS, Cuvier. 

Nictitating membrane present. Small spiracles behind the eyes. 
Mouth crescentic, with long labial folds. Teeth small, numerous, 
similar in both jaws, and pavement-like, obtuse, or with indistinct 
cusps. The first dorsal fin spineless, situated above the interspace 
between the pectoral and ventral ; the second nearly as large as 



24 CHOXDKOPTEEYQII. SELACHOIDEI. 

the first ; caudal without a distinct lower lobe, and no pit at the 
commencement of the fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of tropical and temperate regions*. 

25. (1.) Mustelus manazo. (Fig. 5.) 

Mustelus mannzo, Meeker, Batav. Gen. Verhand. xxvi, Ichtli. Japan, 
p. I2(i ; Day, Fuh. India, p. 720, pi. clxxxvi, fig. 3 (see svnon.). 

Pah sorrah, Tel. 




Fig. 5. Mustelus manazo. 

Snout produced and pointed, the length of its preoral portion 
equalling the width of the mouth (or \ more in the foetus), which 
latter is somewhat angular. A well-developed labial fold at each 
angle of the mouth. Teeth rhombic, and destitute of any distinct 
cusps. Fins the first dorsal arises opposite the posterior end of 
the base of the pectoral, and does not extend to above the anal ; the 
second dorsal smaller than the first, but the length of the bases of 
the two about the same. Pectoral reaches to below centre of first 
dorsal ; anal commences beneath the posterior half of the second 
dorsal and is smaller than it. Caudal -| of the total length, its 
lower lobe moderately developed and notched. Colour reddish 
grey superiorly, becoming dull white beneath. Posterior extremity 
of the caudal of a dark colour. 

Hal). Seas of India to Japan. I obtained at Kurrachee a female 
(16-5 inches in length) which had several young inside. 



6. Genus TRIJENODON, Miiller & Henle. 

No spiracles. Nictitating membrane present. Mouth crescentic, 
with a pit behind its angle. Teeth numerous in both jaws, and 
consisting of one central cusp and a smaller lateral one on each side. 
First dorsal spineless, placed opposite the interspace between the 
pectoral and ventral fins. Lower caudal lobe distinct. A pit at the 
root of the caudal tin. 



* Mustelus vuJgaris and M. la-vis hate both been captured in the Red Sea. 



25 

26. (1.) Trisenodon obtusus*. (Fig. 6.) 
Trisenodon obtusus, Day, Fish. India, p. 720, pi. clxxxix, fig. 3. 

Snout short and rounded, the distance between the mouth 
and the end of the snout about half the width of the mouth. Nos- 
trils nearer end of snout than the mouth, each with a flap. Eye 
of moderate size. Gill-openings rather wider than the orbit. No 
spiracle. Teeth with one central and a small lateral cusp on each 
side. Fins the first dorsal commences behind the inner angle of 




Fig. 6. Triesnodon obtusus. 

the pectoral and the base does not extend to above the ventral. 
Second dorsal not quite half as large as the first and situated above 
the anal. Pectoral reaches to below the middle of the first dorsal ; 
caudal fin nearly | of the total length. Colour dark above, 
becoming lighter beneath. 

Hob. A young male, nineteen inches in length, was obtained at 
Kurrachee. 



Family II. LAMNID^. 

Spiracles, if present, minute. No nictitating membrane. Mouth 
inferior and crescentic. Nostrils not communicating with the 
mouth. First dorsal spineless, and placed opposite the interspace 
between the pectoral and ventral fins ; an anal fin present. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

A keel along the side of the tail .................. 1. LAMNA. 

No keel along the side of the tail. Caudal fin less than 

one third total length ........................ 2. ODONTASPIS. 

No keel. Caudal fin nearly one half total length .... 3. ALOPIAS.] 



* Tri<enodonobesus (Carcharias), Euppell, N.W. Fische, p. f>4, pi. xviii, f. 2. 
Snout very short and obtuse. Nostrils with a short tentacle. Fins first dorsal 
close to the root of the ventral ; the second upwards of half the size of the first and 
opposite the annl. Summits of dorsal and caudal fins white. Hub. Eed S<M : 
east coast of Africa ; New Hebrides ; and probably off India. 



26 CHONDROPTEBTOII. SELACITOIDEI. 

1. Genus LAMNA, Cuvier. 
Syn. O.ryrhina, Agassiz. 

Spiracles, if present, minute. No nictitating membrane. Mouth 
wide. Gill-openings large. Teeth large, awl-shaped, smooth or 
sometimes with a small lateral basal cusp on either side. The first 
dorsal fin spineless, placed opposite the interspace between the 
bases of the pectoral and ventral fins. Lower caudal lobe large. 
A keel along the side of the tail. A pit at the base of the caudal 
fin*. 

27. (1.) Lamna spallanzanii. (Fig. 7.) 

Oxyrrhina spallanzanii, lionap. Faun. Itnl., Peso. t. cxxxvi, fig. 1. 
Lamna spallanzanii, Day, Fish. India, p. 722, pi. clxxxvS, fig. 2 (see 

synon.). 
Ganumu sorrah, Tarn. 




Fig. 7. Lamna spallanzanii. 

Snout pointed, angle of the mouth about midway between the 
nostril and the first gill-opening. Gill-openings very wide. Teeth 
j| on each side, awl-shaped, with sharp but entire lateral edges, 
and destitute of basal cusps ; the third on each side of the synv 
physis of the upper jaw smaller than those on either side of it. 
Fins the base of the first dorsal rather nearer the pectoral than 
the ventral fin. Pectoral falciform, its inner being one fourth of 
the length of its outer margin. Second dorsal and anal small, 
situated opposite one another; the keel on the side of the tail 
commences in front of the bases of these fins. Colour grey, 
becoming lighter beneath. 

Lamna yuntheri, Murray (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist (5) xiii. p. 349), 
obtained at Kurracb.ee, is said to differ, having ^| teeth on either 

* In a specimen of this genus, Lamna comulnca, Pennant, in Wales, observed 
two embryos, and Neill, in 1804, remarked of one six feet long, at Newhaven, 
that "no fewer than thirty young ones appeared, fifteen in each of two bags. 
These were all from 12 to 14 inches in length, fully formed, and apparently 
ready for exclusion." 



LAMNIPJE. 27 

side, and the dorsal being a little further behind the base of the 
pectoral fin. 

II1>. Red Sea and Indian Ocean, also the Atlantic and Medi- 
terranean. This species attains to a very large size. 



2. Genus ODONTASPIS, Agassi/. 
Syn. Triykchis, Miiller & Henle. 

Spiracles minute and above the angle of the mouth. No nicti- 
tating membrane. Mouth wide and crescent-shaped. Teeth large, 
awl-shaped, and with one or two cusps at the base. Gill-openings 
of moderate size. Two spineless dorsal fins, the first opposite the 
interspace between the pectoral and ventral ; the second dorsal 
and the anal not much smaller than the first dorsal. A pit present 
or absent at the root of the caudal fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Temperate and tropical seas. 

28. (1.) Odontaspis tricuspidatns. (Fig. 8.) 
Carcharias tricuspidatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 713, pi. clxxxvi, fig. 1. 
Dundatiee, Sind. 

Length of preoral portion of the snout equal to half the width 
of the mouth, and not equal to half the distance between the eye 
and the first gill-opening; no groove at the angle of the mouth. 




Fig. 8. Odontaspis tricu$pidatus. 

Nostrils nearer to the mouth than to the end of the snout. Gill- 
openings much wider than the orbit. Teeth j*|^*, very large, awl- 
shaped, smooth except at the base, where there exists a small basal 
cusp on either side. The fourth tooth on each side of the sym- 
physi s of the upper jaw very much smaller than those next to it ; 
the central tooth on each side of the symphysis of the mandibles 
slender; the last few lateral rows in both jaws small. Finn 
pector al reaching to below the base of the first dorsal ; the inner 
edge o ne fifth of the length of the outer. First dorsal very slightly- 
larger than the second, its base situated nearer to the ventral than 
to th e pectoral. The second dorsal slightly in advance of and 



28 CTTONDBOPTEKYGTI. SF.LACITTODET. 

about the same size as the anal ; length of base of anal equal to its 
distance from the ventral. Caudal fin 3| in the total length. 
Colour brown superiorly, becoming dull white beneath. 

Hob. Seas of Sind, where they abound attaining at least twenty 
feet; one on board a native craft measured that length. A spe- 
cimen, 10| feet long, from South Australia, is in the British 
Museum ; also several jaws. 

3. Genus ALOPIAS, Kafinesque. 

Mouth crescentic. No nictitating membrane to the eye. Spiracles 
minute, close behind the orbit. Teeth of rather small size, flattened 
and triangular, having smooth edges. Gill-openings of medium 
size. The first dorsal fin spineless, inserted above the interspace 
between the pectoral and ventral fins ; the second dorsal above the 
interspace between the ventral and anal, the latter being very 
small ; caudal very long, with a pit at its commencement. No keel 
on the side of the tail. 



29. (1.) Alopias vulpes. (Fig. 9.) 
J 

synon.). 



Squalus vulpes, Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 1406. 

Alopias vulpes, Day, Fi&h. India, Supplement, 1888, p. 810 (see 




Fig. 9. Alopias vulpes. . 



Body fusiform, gradually decreasing in size to the caudal fin, 
the great length of which is about half the total. Eyes rather 
large. Nostrils beneath and nearer the anterior border of the 
mouth than the end of the snout. Gill-openings of medium size, 
the two last being over the pectoral fin. Teeth about g, the 
third or fourth tooth on either side of the centre of the upper jaw 
being smaller than the others. 

Hob. Both shores of the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean. 
One example from the Cape is in the Paris Museum. Mr. Haly 
(' Taprobanian,' 1886, i. p. 167) recorded one 8 feet 8 inches long 
from Ceylon : it was procured in the Colombo market in Feb. 1884, 
where it was quite unknown to the fishermen. It has also been 
obtained from San Francisco Bav, California, and New Zealand. 



BHIXODONTID.E. NOTIDANID.E. 29 



Family III. EHINODONTID^. 

Spiracles minute. No nictitating membrane. Gill-openings 
wide. Two spineless dorsal fins, the origin of the first opposite 
to the ventral or somewhat in advance of it ; the second small, 
placed nearly opposite the anal ; lower caudal lobe well developed. 
A keel along the side of the tail. A pit at the root of the caudal 
fin. 

1. Genus RHINODON, Smith. 

Definition as in family. Mouth and nostrils near the extremity 
of the snout. Teeth small and conical. Grill-rakers similar to 
those of the Basking Shark of northern seas. 

Geographical Distribution. Ceylon, Seychelles to the Cape of 
Good Hope. This shark has been said to exceed fifty feet in 
length, and some authors even assert seventy. It is a harmless 
form. 

30. (1.) EMnodon typicus. 

Rhinodon typicus, Smith, Illust. Zool. South Africa, Pisces, pl.xxvi; 
Day, Fish. India, Supplement, p. 811 (see synon.) > 

Snout broad, flat and short. Eyes small. Upper jaw with a 
long labial fold. Colour brown, with white dots and narrow 
transverse lines. 

Hah. One example recorded by Haly from the west coast of 
Ceylon. 



Family IV. NOTIDANID^. 

.Spiracles small and on the side of the neck. No nictitating 
membrane. Gill-openings six or seven. A single spineless dorsal 
fin placed nearly opposite to the anal; lower caudal lobe present. 
No pit at the root of the caudal fin. 

1. Genus NOTIDANUS, Cuvier. 

Syn. Hcxanckus and Heptanchus, Rafin. ; Mtmaptprktmu, pt., Blainv. 

Spiracles small and on the side of the neck. No nictitating 
membrane. Mouth crescentic. No labial fold. Gill-openings 
six or seven, and wide. Teeth in the upper jaw consisting of one 
or two pairs that are awl-shaped, followed by six broader ones, 
which have one strong and several smaller casps. In the lower 
jaw six large comb-like teeth on each side, and some smaller lateral 
ones. A single, spineless dorsal fin placed opposite the anal ; 
lower caudal lobe present. No pit at the root of the caudal fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of tropical and temperate regions. 



30 ClION-UliOPTERYGII. SELACHOIDEI. 

31. (1.) Notidanus indicus. (Fig. 10.) 

Notidanus indicus, Ayatwiz, 1'aixx. l<\ms. iii, pp. 1)2, i'17, t. E, f. 1 
(teeth); Day, Fish. lndia,p. 723, pi. clxxxix, fig. 4 (see syuon.). 




Fig. 10. Notidanus indicus. 

Snout rounded and obtuse. Cleft of mouth wider than deep. 
Teeth opposite the symphysis of the upper jaw is a tooth having 
a single cusp, those on either side being stronger and denticulated. 
The central tooth in the lower jaw has no median cusp, but two or 
three lateral cusps on each side. Colour grey, with dark blotches 
and marks. 

Hab. Seas of India and South Africa to California. 



Family V. SCYLLIID.E. 

Spiracles present. Eye without any nictitating membrane. 
Mouth inferior. Teeth small, several rows being generally in use. 
The first dorsal fin spineless, placed above or behind the ventrals ; 
an anal present, which may be in front of, below, or behind the 
second dorsal. 

St/nof>sis of Indian Genera. 

A. Nasal and buccal cavities separate ; upper 

edge of caudal tin smooth 1. SCYLLIUM. 

B. Nasal and buccal cavities confluent. 
Minute spiracle behind each eye; second 

dorsal fin nearly opposite anal ...... 2. GINGLYMOSTOMA. 

Spiracle behind eye and equal to it in 

size. Caudal portion of body and fin 

very long 3. STEGOSTOMA. 

Spiracle below eye and well developed; 

anal fin behind second dorasl 4. CIIILOSCYLLIUM. 



1. Genus SCYLLIUM, Cuvier. 
Syn. Scylliorhinus, Haltclurus, Poroderma, and CephaloscyUium, Gill. 

Spiracles behind the eye. Nasal and buccal cavities distinct. 
Teeth small, in several rows ; usually with a central and one or 
two lateral cusps. Origin of arial fin in advance of that of the 
second dorsal ; upper edge of caudal not serrated. 

These sharks, or " dog fishes," do not attain to any large size, 
but are much dreaded by fishermeu, as they get entangled in their 



SCYLLILD.E. 31 

nets, from which great injury occurs. The eggs are somewhat 
similar to those of the rays. The skins form tine shagreen. 
Geographical Distribution. Tropical and temperate seas. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Nasal valves confluent, with a single transverse 

uninterrupted flap and a well-developed 

labial fold 1. S. marmoratum, p. 31. 

Nasal valves separated from one another by a 

considerable interspace 2. S, capense, p. 31. 

, 32. (1.) Scyllimn marmoratum. (Fig. 11.) 

Scvllium marmoratum, Bennett, Life of Sir S. Raffles, p. 693 j Day, 
'Fish. India, p. 724, pi. cxc, tig. 2 (see synon.). 




Fig. \\..Scyllium marmoratum. 

Length of the snout equals the width of the mouth. Nasal 
valves confluent in the form of a single broad flap, with a free 
posterior edge, and no cirrus. A well-developed labial fold. Gill- 
openings as wide as the orbit. Teeth small. Fins the first dorsal 
commences just behind the ventral; the second dorsal slightly 
larger than the first, and has the anal beneath its anterior one 
half or two thirds. Colour of a tawny brown, becoming lighter 
beneath. Lines of spots, some of which occasionally become con- 
fluent, exist along the body; there may also be bands or ocelli. 

Hob. Seas of India, where it is rare, to the Malay Archipelago. 

33. (2.) Scyllimn capense. 

Scvllium capense (Smith), Muller $ Henle, Plagios. p. 11 ; Day, 
'Fish. India, p. 724, pi. cxc, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

Snout obtuse. Nasal valves distinct, separated from one another 
by a considerable interspace, and having no prominent cirrus. No 
labial fold to the upper jaw, but a short one on the lower. Gill- 
openings narrow, not so wide as the orbit. Teeth minute. Fins 
the first dorsal is inserted rather nearer to the anal than to the 
base of the ventral ; the second dorsal situated entirely behind the 
anal. Colour brown, lightest beneath. Body with light vertical 
bands and some white blotches. 

Hah. An Indian example, about 40 inches in length, is in the 
British Museum. 



32 CnOXDHOPTEKYGII. SELACHOIDEI. 

2. Genus GINGLYMOSTOMA, Miiller & Henle. 
Syn. Nebrius, Riippell. 

A minute spiracle behind the eye, which also is minute. A 
quadrangular flap formed before the mouth by the conjoined nasal 
valves, and which has a free cirrus on either side. A superior and 
an inferior lip, the latter not extending across the syruphysis. 
Nasal and buccal cavities confluent. Teeth either in many rows 
with a strong median and one or two smaller lateral cusps ; or else 
in merely about three rows, of which the foremost only is in use, 
and each tooth with a convex and serrated edge. Fourth and fifth 
gill-openings situated close together. Dorsal fins spineless, the 
first above or behind the ventrals, the second rather in advance of 
or opposite to the anal. 

Geoyrapliical Distribution. Red Sea, Indian Ocean to the Malay 
Archipelago; also tropical parts of the Atlantic. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Teeth in three rows, with one central and four or 

five lateral cusps; second dorsal fin larger 

than the anal 1. G. concolor, p. 32. 

Teeth in many rows, with one central and three 

or four lateral cusps ; second dorsal fin smaller 

than the anal 2. G. miilleri, p. 33. 

34. (1.) Ginglymostoma concolor. (Fig. 12.) 

Nebrius concolor, Itiippelf, A". W. Fischc, p. 02, t. xvii, f. 2. 
Ginglymostoma concolor, Day, Fish. India, Supplement, p. 811 (see 
synon.). 

Snout short. The nasal cirrus nearly reaches the lower lip. Teeth 
in three rows, with one central and four or five lateral cusps, 
having serrated edges. Fins angles of dorsal and of all paired 




Fig. 12. Ginglymostoma concolor. 

fins pointed ; second dorsal much smaller than the first, but larger 
than the anal, and placed nearly opposite to the latter. Caudal 
one third of the total length. 

Hah. Ked Sea, and through the seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 



SCYLLIIDdE. 33 

35. (2.) Ginglymostoma miilleri. 

Ginglymostoma miilleri, Gilnther, Catal. viii, p. 408; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 725 (see synon.). 

Snout very short, its length not equalling the width of the 
mouth. Nasal cirrus short, reaching to the edge of the upper lip. 
Teeth in many rows, each with a large central cusp, and three or 
four lateral cusps on each side. Fins first dorsal opposite the 
ventral, angles of all the paired fins pointed ; second dorsal slightly 
in advance of the anal, but rather smaller than it or than the first 
dorsal. Caudal nearly one third of the total length. 

Hab t Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Said to attain 8J feet in 
length. 

3. Q-enus STEGOSTOMA, Miiller & Henle. 

Spiracles about the size of the small eyes, behind which they are 
situated. Fourth and fifth gill-openings close together. Nasal 
and buccal cavities confluent. Snout obtuse ; upper lip thick, with 
a cirrus on either side. A well-developed labial fold round the 
angle of the mouth. Teeth small, sometimes trilobed, the dental 
plate being almost quadrangular. Two spineless dorsal fins, the 
first above the ventral, the second anterior to the anal, which is 
near the caudal, the latter being very elongate. 

Geographical Distribution. From the Eed Sea and east coast of 
Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and 
Formosa. 

36. (1.) Stegostoma tigrimim. (Fig. 13.) 

Squalus tigrinus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 1493. 

Stegostoma tigrinum, Day, fish. India, p. 725, pi. clxxxvii, fig. 4 
(young) (see synon.). 

Pollee-makum, Konyarasi and Oorookoolti sorrah, also Potrava (when 
young), Tel. ; Corungun sorrah, " monkey-mouthed shark," Tarn. } 
ShawdMj Marathi. 

Head as broad as long. Eye small, with the spiracle just 
behind it. Upper lip very thick, like a quadrangular pad, with a 




Fig. 13. Stegostoma tigrinum. 



barbel on either side. A distinct labial fold round the angle of the 
mouth, which is slightly nearer to the eye than to the end of the 
snout. Teeth small and trilobed. Fins the origin of the first 
dorsal is a little posterior to the base of the ventral, it is about 

D 



34 CHONDIIOPTEETOII. SELACHOIDEI. 

as high in front as its base is long, and larger than the second 
dorsal, which commences a short distance behind it and anterior 
to the anal. Caudal fin very long, being about one half of the 
total length and with a notch below near its extremity. A low 
median, tubercular dorsal ridge, and sometimes a second on either 
side of dorsal fin. Colour (youncf) white or buff, in the form 
of markings, the fish appearing black, with narrow white lines or 
bands, between which are white spots, across the head and body ; 
these markings take on various forms in different examples. Adults 
tawny, or with more or less transverse bands of rounded spots, 
the colour of the fish being brownish. 

Hob. Eed Sea, east coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago, and beyond; attaining to 10 or 15 feet in length. 
This species is common at Madras. Its favourite food consists of 
mollusks and Crustacea. 

4. Genus CHILOSCYLLIUM, Miiller & Henle. 
Syn. Hemiscyttium, Miill. & Henle. 

Spiracle below the eye. Fourth and fifth gill-openings close 
together. Nasal and buccal cavities confluent ; nasal valve with a 
barbel. Lower lip continuous or interrupted in the centre. Teeth 
small, triangular, with or without lateral cusps. Two spineless 
dorsal fins, the first above or behind the ventrals, the second con- 
siderably anterior to the anal, which is near the caudal. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago, and Australia. 

37. (1.) Chiloscyllium indicum. (Fig. 14.) 

Squalus indicus, Gmcl. Syst. Nat. p. 1503. 

Chiloscyllium indicum, Day, Fish. India, p. 726, pi. clxxxviii, tig. 3 
ynon.). 



Sokee-sorrah or Ra-sarrah, Tel. ; Corungun sorrah, Tam. ; Ettee, Mai. ; 
Poos-hee, Belooch. ; Bdlavdla, Marathi ; Nya man ingmyouny, Burmese. 

Head rather depressed and flatter below than above. Eye 
small, with the spiracle (which is of about the same size) below 
and slightly posterior to it. Lips surround the mouth, the lower 




Fig. 14. Chiloscyllium Mimim. 

labial fold being continuous; the mouth at its angle one third 
nearer to the eye than to the end of the snout, which is obtuse. 
Nasal valve with an elongated barbel. Teeth small, triangular 



BATOIDEI. 35 

with lateral cusps. Fins the origin of the first dorsa is just 
posterior to the base of the ventral, the anterior edge of the former 
exceeds the length of its base, which latter distance equals the 
length between the t\vo dorsal fins, both of which have their 
anterior and upper edges rounded; the second fin somewhat 
smaller than the first and ending some distance anterior to the 
origin of the anal. Anal notched, terminating close to the caudal 
fin, which is also notched posteriorly, and is contained about 5 
times in the total length. Erom one to three smooth or tuber- 
cular ridges may exist along the back, or may be entirely absent. 
Colour this varies exceedingly : usually grey with dark, or even 
black, cross-bands, which may or may not include white spots ; 
sometimes the cross-bands break up into spots or bands, having 
dark edges ; or the fish is simply of a reddish-brown colour. 
Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 



Suborder B. BATOIDEI. 

Spiracles present ; gill-openings in five pairs, and on the ventral 
surface of the body. Body depressed, forming, with its largely 
developed pectoral fins, a more or less flat disk, and usually having 
a thin and slender tail. Dorsal fin, when present, in the caudal 
portion of the body ; anal absent. 

Some of these fishes approach the sharks in external form, the 
tail portion not being so sharply contracted behind the trunk as in 
most rays. 

Skates and rays exist in enormous numbers in the Indian seas, 
where they attain to a great size, and some are dreaded by fisher- 
men because of the wounds inflicted by their caudal spines, while 
others cause great injury to the oysters and other mollusks. 
Skates are gregarious, and may suddenly arrive, to the dismay of 
the owner of an oyster-bed, as they appear to remain so long as 
any mollusks are to be obtained. Eays lie concealed in the sand, 
and are reputed to be able to suddenly encircle fish or prey 
swimming above them with their long whip-like tails, and then 
wound them with their serrated tail-spines. They are observed in 
aquaria to cover their victims with their expanded body and sub- 
sequently convey their prey to their mouths by movements of 
their pectoral fins. Their skins were formerly valuable as shagreen, 
being considered superior to those of sharks. Irrespective of this 
use, they are occasionally employed as rasps or sand-paper, to give 
the first surface to wood or horn which it is desired to polish. 
Their fins are exported, along with those of the sharks, to China, 
where they are in request for soups, while from their livers an oil 
is extracted (see pp. 5, 6, ante). 

The thin horny cases, inside which are the foetal rays, are more 
quadrangular in form and comparatively smaller than what are 
observed among the sharks ; such cases have a horn-like projection 
from each corner. 



36 CBONDR01-TEBYOII. BATOIDEl. 

Synopsis of Indian Families. 

I. A flattened snout, having lateral teeth, ren- 
dering it saw-like. Trunk passing gra- 
dually into the tail Pristidae. 

II. Pectoral fins not continued to the snout. 
Trunk gradually passing into the tail, 
which has two dorsals and a caudal fin Rhinobatidae. 

III. Trunk a broad smooth disk. Usually dorsal 

and caudal fins. An electric organ Torpedinidae. 

IV. Trunk a broad and generally a rough disk. 

Pectoral fins extend on to the snout. A 
fold along each side of the tail ; no serrated 

caudal spine. No electric organ : Raiidae. 

V. Pectoral fins extend on to and are confluent at 
the snout. No fold along side of tail, which 
latter is usually armed with a serrated 

spine Trygonidae. 

VI. Pectoral fins do not extend on to the side of 
the head; snout with a detached pair of 
fins ,. Myliobatidae. 



Family I. PRISTID.E. (Saw-fishes.) 

Snout much produced, flattened, and having a saw-like appearance, 
due to the existence of large teeth on its lateral edges. Trunk 
passing gradually into the tail. 

The endoskeleton of a tooth of the saw of one of these fishes 
consists of from three to five hollow tubes, tapering towards their 
extremity, and covered with an osseous deposit which is perforated 
with fine holes. The teeth vary both in size and number in the 
same species, rendering them unsuitable as specific, but admissible 
as individual distinctions. 

Great injuries can be inflicted by these fishes, which strike side- 
ways with their formidable snouts : and although not personally a 
witness to the fact, I have been informed on native authority that 
large ones have been known to cut a bather completely in two. Tbe 
largest example I saw was off tbe coast of Sind (Pristis zysron) ; it 
measured over 16 feet, the rostrum being 4 ft. 2 in. in length. A 
P. cuspidatus, 14 feet long, captured at Calicut, was found to have 
a liver weighing 185 lb., which was taken to the oil-factory when 
I was present. 

At (xwadur, on the Mekran coast, 1 found that the fishermen of 
all religions presented the saws of these fishes at a small temple, 
where they were hung up inside or piled round the outside. The 
priest was expected to pray for success for the fishermen in their 
takes and a safe return to shore. At the Andamaii Islands the 
aborigines wishing to make a suitable offering to their superinten- 
dent, attacked an enormous saw-fish, which they harpooned, and 
eventually secured at the risk of their lives. They presented him 
with the rostrum, which I now possess. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of tropical and temperate regions. 



P1USTIDJE. M7 

1. Genus PRISTIS, Latham. 

Body elongated and depressed. Gill-openings inferior and of 
moderate width. Spiracle wide and posterior to the eye, which 
latter has no nictitating membrane. Nostrils inferior. Teeth 
minute and obtuse. Dorsal fins spineless, the first opposite or 
nearly opposite the ventrals ; front edge of pectoral free. 

Synopsis of Indian Species, 

A. Caudal fin with a distinct lower lobe. 
From 23 to 35 pairs of teeth on the snout; in the 

younp their hinder edge is barbed. Dorsal 

fin arises behind the root of the ventral . . 1. P. cuspidatus, p. 37. 

B. Caudal fin without any distinct lower lobe. 
Prom 17 to 20 pairs of teeth on the rostrum, 

commencing at its base. Dorsal fin almost 

entirely in advance of ventrals 2. P. perrotteti, p. 38. 

From 25 to 32 pairs of teeth on the rostrum, 

commencing near its base. Dorsal fin almost 

entirely posterior to the ventrals 3. P. zysron, p. 38. 

From 24 "to 27 pairs of teeth on the rostrum. 

Dorsal fin opposite ventral 4. P. pectinatus, p. 39. 

38. (l.) Pristis cuspidatus. (Fig. 15.) 

Pristis cuspidatus, Latham, Tr. L. S. 1794, ii, p. 279, pi. 2H, fig. 3 
(rostrum) ; Day, Fish. India, p. 728, pi. cxci, fig. 3 (see synon.). 

Yahla, Tel. ; Vela meen, Tamil. 

Eostrum narrow and of about the same width throughout, 
armed with from twenty-three to thirty-five pairs of broad teeth, 
those on one side (generally the right) often exceeding in number 
those on the other. This dentition is absent in the foetus, while 




Fig. 15. Pristis cus-pidatus. 

in the immature it only exists in the anterior three quarters of 
the snout, and in the adult a considerable portion of the base is 
unarmed. Usually the anterior six pairs of teeth are opposite 
one another, and the posterior teeth in the immature are mostly 
barbed behind. Mouth transverse, with a membranous valve 
(fringed in the young) behind the teeth in the upper jaw, and 
with a deep notch near the symphysis. The pupil is transverse, 
with a semicircular flap above and another below ; these flaps are 
easily raised, depressed, or expanded, according to the stimulus of 
light received, which they can partially or entirely exclude ; lens 
very soft. Spiracles large, nearly transverse, posterior to the eyes, 



38 CHONDROPTEKTOn. BATOIDEI. 

half a diameter of the eye in width. Nostrils situated about one 
and a half transverse lengths from the mouth ; they have long 
triangular narrow valves in their upper, and a hem-like one at 
their lower margins ; their distance asunder posteriorly equals 
their length, and is twice as much anteriorly. Teeth small, 
longer than broad. Fins the first dorsal commences just behind 
the ventral ; the second dorsal midway between the posterior 
extremity of the first dorsal and the base of the caudal. The two 
dorsals are of equal size, their upper margins concave, and the 
posterior lobe of each produced. Posterior margin of the caudal 
deeply excavated so as to form two lobes. A keel passes along the 
tail, dividing the lateral from the abdominal surfaces. Colour 
greyish-yellow above, whitish beneath. Iris golden, with a black 



Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, ascending rivers ; 
attaining 20 feet and upwards in length. The flesh is equally 
esteemed with that of the sharks. The fins are prepared and sent 
to China : oil is extracted from the livers, whilst the skins are 
useful for sword-scabbards or for smoothing down wood. 

39. (2.) Pristis perrotteti. 

Pristis perrotteti, Mutt. $ Henle, Plagios. p. 108 ; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 729, pi. cxci, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

Kundah, Ooriah. 

Rostrum of moderate breadth, rather narrow anteriorly, armed 
with from seventeen to twenty pairs of teeth, mostly about the 
same number on either side, and commencing at the base of the 
snout ; the first four pairs being opposite one another, and the 
breadth of the base of each anteriorly being about equal to one 
third of the interspace. Spiracles placed very obliquely, from 
1 to 1| diameters behind the orbit. Teeth larger than in P. cus- 
pidatus or P. zysron, oval, longer than broad. Fins the first 
dorsal almost entirely in advance of the ventral ; second dorsal 
commences nearly midway between the posterior extremity of the 
first dorsal and the base of the caudal ; these two fins are of 
about equal size ; inferior margin of the caudal with a faint indi- 
cation of a lobe. Colour reddish brown superiorly, becoming 
dull white along the abdominal surface ; iris golden, with a black 



Hob. Tropical seas, entering rivers. In the Mahanadi river, 
Orissa, I observed it at least forty miles from the sea, far beyond 
the influence of the tides, where I obtained several specimens 4 ft. in 
length. In Orissa it is only eaten by the sweepers and the very 
lowest castes. 



40. (3.) Pristis zysron. 

I 
Vetta torrah, Tamil. 



Pristis zysron, Sleeker, Eotav. Gen. Verhand. xxiv, Plagios. p. 55 ; 
Day, Fish. India, p. 729, pi. cxci, fig. 2 (see synon.). 



PRISTLD^E. RHINOBATID2E. 39 

Eostrum intermediate in width between P. cuspidatus and 
P. perrotteti, of about the same breadth throughout, and armed with 
from twenty-five to thirty-two pairs of teeth, of mostly the same 
number on either side ; they commence just in front of the base 
of the snout, the posterior ones are much further apart than the 
anterior. Teeth intermediate in size between P. cuspidatus and 
P. perrotteti. Fins first dorsal almost entirely behind the ven- 
trals ; second dorsal as large as the first, or larger, is situated 
rather near to the root of the caudal, to which its posterior lobe 
almost reaches ; caudal without a lower lobe. Colour sandy- 
brown, becoming lighter beneath. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago ; attaining at 
least 20 ft. in length. This species is perhaps more common in 
the seas of India than P. cuspidatus. It is especially abundant 
along the Mekran and Sind coasts, where it is much dreaded. 



41. (4.) Pristis pectinatns. 

Pristis pectinatus, Latham, Tr. L. S. 1794, ii, p. 278, pi. 26, fig. 2 
(siiout) ; Day, Fish. India, Supplement, p. 811 (see synon.). 

Nga-tat-way, Burmese ; Khurra mach, Chittagong. 

Eostrum nearly twice as wide at its termination as at its base, 
and armed with from twenty-four to twenty-seven pairs of , generally , 
long teeth, not placed opposite one another. Fins first dorsal 
commences opposite ventral, the second dorsal of about equal size 
to the first ; no lower caudal lobe. Colour as in the last. 

Hob. Eed Sea and through the Indian Ocean. One 24 ft. long 
asserted by fishermen to have been taken at Akyab. 



Family II. RHINOBATID^E. 

The disk slightly dilated laterally ; the rayed portion of the 
pectoral fin not continued on to the snout. Trunk gradually 
passing into the tail, which is thickened and has a longitudinal 
fold along each side. Two well-developed dorsals, likewise a 
caudal fin. No electric organs. 

These fishes are very destructive to marine Crustacea and 
mollusks ; and are said to congregate in large droves. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and temperate seas. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

Two dorsal fins, the anterior opposite the ventrals 1. RHYNCHOBATUS. 
Two dorsal fius, the anterior situated far behind 

the ventrals 2. RHINOBATUS. 



40 CHONDHOPTEBTGII. BATOIDET. 

1. Genus RHYNCHOBATUS, Miiller & Henle. 
Syn. Rhina, sp., and Rhinobatiw, sp., Bl. Schn. ; Rhamphobatis, Gill. 
Body depressed and elongated. Gill-openings inferior, narrow, 
and inside the base of the pectoral fin. Spiracles wide and 
behind the eyes, which latter have no nictitating membrane ; 
snout rather elongated and acute ; nostrils inferior, oblique, wide 
slits. Teeth obtuse, ridged ; the dentary plate having an undu- 
lated surface. Dorsal fins spineless, the first opposite the ventrals ; 
front edge of pectoral free, not extending to the head ; caudal 
with a well-marked lower lobe. 

Geographical Distribution. From the Red Sea and east coast of 
Africa through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
China. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Snout elongated ; few tubercles or spines on 

head or body. A black shoulder-spot and 

numerous white spots on upper surface 1. R. djeddensis, p. 40. 
Snout broad, having a semicircular outline. 

Rows of large tubercles and spines on 

head and trunk. Brown 2. R. ancylostomus, p. 41. 

42. (1.) Rhynchobatus djeddensis. (Fig. 16.) 
Raja djiddensis, Forsk. Descrip. Anim. p. 18. 
Rhynchobatus djeddensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 730, pi. cxcii, fig. 1 

(see synon.). 

Walawah Tenkee, Nul Ulavi, or Tipi Ulavi, Tel. ; Rdnja, Marathi ; 
Paluiiga or Parangan, Tarn. 

Snout elongated, the distance between the mouth and end of 
snout equals one fourth to one fifth of the entire length excluding 



Fig. l. Rhynchobatus djeddensis. 
the caudal fin, being shortest in adults. Eyes rather large ; the 
spiracle close behind the orbit. Teeth oval, wider than broad, 
with a horizontal cusp across the centre of each ; ^~& twenty 
to twenty-five vertical rows across the middle of both jaws. Dental 
plate with a central and a smaller lateral elevation ; corresponding 
emarginations exist in the upper jaw. Fins the first dorsal 



EHINOBATID^B. 41 

commences opposite the centre of the base of the ventral. The 
second dorsal is half as far from the base of the caudal as from the 
posterior extremity of the first dorsal; and is smaller than the 
latter fin, but of the same shape. Scales minute, of irregular 
shapes and sizes, keeled; a number of tubercles, directed back- 
wards, exist in rows in some parts of the body ; a supraorbital 
row extends from the anterior margin of each orbit round its upper 
edge to above the spiracle ; a second passes from a central point 
between the termination of the last two and proceeds along the 
back to the base of the first dorsal, the tubercles on it being much 
further apart than hi the other lines ; from slightly behind the 
commencement of the dorsal line of spines is a short diverging 
row on either side, also a row on the shoulder, and two or three 
spines on the scapula. The lateral keel commences a little above 
the termination of the ventrals. Colour the immature are dull 
grey above, whitish, sometimes tinged with red, beneath. A dark 
or black band on the upper eyelid and a dark spot beneath on 
either side of the snout ; also there is usually, but not invariably, 
a black spot at the root of the pectoral, which may have several 
small white spots round it. The body and sometimes the pectoral 
fins are spotted with whitish or light grey. Iris golden. The 
adult is of a dull grey above and lighter on the abdomen. 

ffab. Bed Sea and east coast of Africa, seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago, and beyond. The flesh is considered nourishing 
whether eaten salted or fresh, and oil from the liver is much 
esteemed. The young are captured along the Coromandel coast 
in large numbers about the month of March. This fish grows 
to at least six feet in length. 

43. (2.) Rhynchobatns ancylostonms. 

Rhina ancylostomus, Bl. Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 352, t. Ixxii. 
Rhynchobatus ancylostomus, Day, Fish. India, p. 730, pi. cxciii, fig. 3 

(see synon.). 
Mun ulava, " mud skate," Tarn. ; Nalla dindi, or PottHa sora, Tel. 

Snout very broad with a semicircular outline. A longitudinal 
row of tubercles on each side of the head above the eyes continued 
on to the shoulders, and a median one along the back, with two 
short lateral rows between the last and the pectoral fin ; a few 
tubercles round the front edge of the eye and below the spiracle. 
Teeth ^; twenty-two vertical rows in the centre of the upper 
and twenty-seven in the centre of the lower jaw. The dental 
surface deeply undulated, with one large median and a smaller 
lateral elevation in the lower jaw and with corresponding emar- 
ginations in the upper. The teeth are largest on <the summit 
of each elevation; all are obtusely rounded, with several longi- 
tudinal ridges across each. Colour dull brown, lighter beneath ; 
the body and sometimes the fins covered with whitish spots ; 
occasionally some tortuous black lines. 

Hob. Prom the east coast of Africa through the seas of India 
to the Malay Archipelago and China. One 6 ft. 10 in. long was 
sent by Dr. Jerdon to the British Museum ; in it were found the 



42 CHONDEOPTERYOII. BATOIDEI. 

remains of great numbers of Crustacea of many kinds. The natives 
assert that this ray swims slowly just above the bottom of the 
sea not far from the shore, picking up what it can find. 

2. Genus RHINOBATUS, sp., Bl. Schn. 

Syn. Syrrina, Mull. & Henle. 

Body depressed and elongated. Spiracles wide, behind the eyes. 
Snout elongated, the cranial cartilage produced and the interval 
between it and the pectoral fin filled by a membrane. Nostrils 
oblique and wide ; the anterior nasal valves not confluent. Teeth 
obtuse, ridged. Dorsal fins spineless, both far behind the ventral ; 
no lower caudal lobe. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and subtropical seas. Indi- 
viduals are exceedingly numerous along the coast of India, and prefer 
a sandy to a muddy bottom. Tickell observed that they have the 
singular habit of coming so close to the edge of the water that the 
retiring wave frequently leaves them, exposed to the air, in which 
condition they contentedly remain allowing the surf to cover them 
and desert them alternately. They often select a smooth, sloping, 
sandy beach for this purpose, where they lie with their snouts 
pointed seawards, so that if danger approaches they wriggle sea- 
wards and swim awav with the next wave. 




Fig. 17. Rhinobatus gramdatus. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 
Snout elongated; a row of spines along the 

middle of the back 1 . R, granulatus, p. 42. 

Snout rather obtuse ; a few blunted spines along 

the middle of the back 2. R. halavi, p. 43. 

Nostrils very large, their distance apart at the 

base being less than half their length .... 3. JR. thouini, p. 44. 
Snout rather elongated ; a row of tubercles 

along the middle of the back 4. R. columnce, p. 44. 

44. (1.) Rhinobatus granulatus. (Fig. 17.) 
Rlrinobatus granulatus, Cuv. Rtyn. Anim. ed. 2, ii, p. 396'; Miill. $ 
Henle, Plagios. p. 117, t. xxxviii ; Day, Fish. India, p. 732, 
pi. cxcii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Suttiivarah, Tel. ; Pur-run-gun, Tamil ; Cun-da-ree, Sind. ; Nga-man- 
liaing, or Nga-man-kha, Burmese ; Mattia byllia, Chittagong. 



KHINOBATID^E. 43 

Snout elongate, its length being from 4| to 5| in the total, and 
as a rule being longest in the immature ; the \vidth of the inter- 
orbital space varies from 2| to 3| in the length of the snout. 
Anterior nasal valve with no lateral dilatation. The distance 
between the external angles of the nostrils equals about two thirds 
or three fifths in the preoral portion of the snout ; the two rostral 
ridges narrow and closely approximating in their anterior half or 
two thirds : mouth transverse. Teeth ^, dental plate with a 

t>2* A 

central and lateral elevation in the lower, with corresponding 
depressions in the upper jaw : 20 to 22 vertical rows in the upper 
and 13 in the lower jaw opposite the symphysis. Scales tubercles 
on the back, and a row of compressed spines along its middle, 
which become obsolete with age ; some spines on the edge of the 
orbit and on the shoulder. In the young a row likewise along 
either side of the upper edge of rostral ridge. Colour reddish 
grey superiorly, becoming dull white beneath. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and Australia. 
This ray attains at least seven feet in length. 

45. (2.) Ehinobatus halavi. 

Raja halavi, Forsk. Descr. Anim. p. 19. 

Rhinobatus halavi, Day, Fish. India, p. 731, pi. cxciii, fig. 4 (see 

synon.). 
Pare, if young Padangan, Tarn. 

Snout rather obtuse, its length contained 7 to 8 times in the 
total. The width of the interorbital space 2| to 2% times in the 
length of the snout. Anterior nasal valve not dilated laterally. 
The distance between the outer angles of the nostrils four fifths 
the preoral length of the snout ; the length of the nostrils about 
equals the distance their bases are asunder. Eostral ridges diver- 
gent posteriorly, becoming confluent in their anterior half or two 
thirds. Teeth transversely oval, with a slight ridge along the 
centre, the width of the plate above the symphysis of both jaws 
being one eighth of its length ; -^ rows of teeth, and fifteen 
vertical rows in the median line in either jaw. The dental plate 
almost straight. Fins the two dorsals of about the same size, 
their distance asunder equalling the interspace between the second 
dorsal and the base of the caudal, the latter being 7| to 8^ in 
the total length. Scales somewhat trefoil-shaped and flattened, 
being rather largest along the median line of the back, which, 
however, is not spined, although a few tubercles almost form 
spines. Colour reddish grey superiorly, becoming white beneath ; 
fins and snout with a reddish tinge. Large examples have occasion- 
ally black blotches over them. 

Hab. From the Mediterranean, west coast of Africa and Cape 
of (rood Hope : also from the Red Sea through the seas of India 
to the Malay Archipelago and China. This species attains at least 
aix feet in length. 



44 CHONDROPTEKYGII. BATOIDEI. 

46. (3.) Rbinobatus thouini. 

Raie thouin, Lactptde, H. N. Poiss. i, p. 134, pi. i, figs. 3-5. 
Rhinobatus thouini, Mull. Sf Henle, Plagios. p. 120; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 732, pi. cxc, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Snout of moderate extent, contained 5 or 6 times in the total 
length ; the width of the interorbital space 2| in the length 
of the snout. Anterior nasal valves not dilated laterally. The 
distance between the outer angles of the nostrils equals two thirds 
of the length of the preoral portion of the snout ; the length of 
the nostrils is more than twice the extent their bases are apart. 
Mouth straight. Rostral ridges confluent in almost their entire 
length. Teeth small, upwards of one hundred rows in either jaw. 
Fins the two dorsals of about the same size, high and pointed, 
the first if laid flat nearly reaching the base of the second dorsal ; 
caudal 6 in the total. Scales skin granulated with a row of 
compressed spines along the middle of the back and smaller ones 
over the shoulders and above the eyes. Colour brown, becoming 
yellowish white beneath. 

Hob. From the Red Sea through the seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago. This species attains to 6 feet in length, 
according to Bleeker. 

47. (4.) Rhinobatus columns. 

Rhinobatus columnae, Bonaparte, Faun. Hal. iii, pi. 152 ; Mull. 8f 
Henle, Plagios. p. 113; Day, Fish. India, Supplement, 1888, p. 811 
(see synon.). 

Snout rather elongated, the distance between the outer angles of 
the nostrils is equal to two fifths of the length of the preoral portion 
of the snout. Each anterior nasal valve connected to a fold of 
skin that passes towards the median line and so nearly joins that of 
the opposite side. The upper rostral ridges are convergent in front. 
Back finely granular, with a median row of small tubercles. 
Colour brown ; young examples have a white snout. 
Hob. Mediterranean, the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 

Family III. TORPEDINID^E. 

Trunk broad and disk smooth. Anterior nasal valves confluent 
and forming a quadrangular flap. Body gradually passing into 
the tail, which latter has a rayed dorsal (except in Temerti) and 
caudal fin ; a longitudinal fold along both sides. An electric 
organ situated between the pectoral fin and the head. 

The upper surface of the electric organs in these fishes is positive 
and the lower negative. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical, subtropical, and temperate 
seas. In India the species of this family do not appear to be used 
as food. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

Two dorsal fins ; spiracles immediately behind the eyes .. 1. NAHCINK. 
One dorsal fin 2. ASTRAPE. 



TOEPEDINIDjE. 45 

1. Genus NARCINE, Henle. 

Disk distinct from the tail, which has a lateral fold on each side 
and is longer than the disk. Spiracles close behind the eyes : 
nasal valves confluent, forming a quadrangular flap. Teeth nearly 
flat, with a central point. Two dorsal fins, the anterior behind 
the ventrals and usually smaller than the posterior. An electric 
apparatus present. 

It must be noted that an apparatus exists in fishes of the genus 
Raia which presents the anatomical characters of electric organs, 
and has been known for a long period. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and subtropical seas. 

48. (1.) Narcine timlei. (Fig. 18.) 

Kaja timlei, Bl. Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 359. 

Narcine timlei, Day, Fish. India, p. 733, pi. cxcii, fig. 3 (see synou.). 
Temeree and Nalla Temeree, Tel. 

Outline of disk somewhat rounded, broader than long ; along the 
side of the tail is a broad skinny keel reaching the base of the 
caudal fin. Caudal portion of fish rather longer than the body. 
Nasal valves confluent, forming a quadrangular skinny flap which 
is rather elongated in the middle. Spiracle just behind the orbit 
and not tuberculated on the edge. Teeth flattened anteriorly, 
the internal ones with a small median cusp ; the dental plate only 
embraces the central half of each jaw, the lips being thickened and 
continuous at the angles. The*form of the dental plate varies, 
being either angular in the mandible, the angle pointing downward 



& 



Fig. \9>.Xarcine timlei. 

or similar to what obtains in the upper ja\v. F'uis the first dorsal 
usually commences just behind the ventrals, but occasionally over 
their posterior extremity, it is somewhat smaller than the second ; 
in the young its apex forms an angle, which in the adult becomes 
rounded. The distance between the two dorsals equals that 
between the posterior dorsal and the caudal. The size and shape 
of the two dorsals is similar. Caudal with its hinder edge rounded 



46 CHONDROPTERYGII. BATOIDEI. 

and confluent with its lower edge. Colour body and fins reddish 
brown above, with numerous irregularly sized chocolate-coloured 
spots ; lower surface white. Pupil triangular, apex below. Iris 
golden. In the immature the spots have a white margin. Some 
examples are marked all over with large brown blotches much 
wider than the ground-colours ; in others no spots at all exist. 
These differences in colour do not depend on sex or age. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. This fish attains 
at least eighteen inches in length. 

2. Genus ASTRAPE, Miiller & Henle. 

Tail with a fold on either side. Spiracles close behind the eyes, 
which last are minute. Nasal valves confluent, forming a large 
quadrangular flap. Teeth flattened or with a central elevation, 
the dental plate extending slightly beyond the outer edge of the 
jaws. A single dorsal fin on the tail ; caudal well developed. An 
electric apparatus on the side of the head between it and the pec- 
toral fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago and China, also the Cape of Good Hope and Madagascar. 

49. (1.) Astrape dipterygia. (Fig. 19.) 
Raja dipterygia, SI Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 359. 

Astrape dipterygia, Day, Fisk. India, p. 734, pi. cxcii, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

Zinzina, Marathi ; Timiri tiki, Tel. 

Disk rounded, as wide as long, extending posteriorly to over the 
anterior margins of the ventrals. Tail shorter than the body ; a 




Fig. 19. Astrape dipterygia. 

low keel along the lateral edge of the former. Snout short. Spi- 
racles smooth, close to and much larger than the eyes ; vent slightly 
nearer to the head than to the posterior extremity of the caudal 
fin. Teeth pointed, with tetragonal bases ; they project slightly 
beyond the margin of the jaws. Fins ventrals with their angles 
acute in the young, rounded in the adult. Caudal rounded, its 



RAIIDJE. 47 

upper and lower portions confluent. Colour dull reddish olive 
above, whitish below. A white spot near each side of the posterior 
end of the head, another above the end of the ventral, and generally 
a third at the root of the caudal ; ventral with a white edge. 

Hal. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, China and 
Japan. This species attains at least ten inches in length. 



Family IV. 

Disk broad, rhombic ; tubercules or spines usually present. 
The pectorals extend to the snout. The body passes gradually 
into the tail, which has a longitudinal fold on either side. No 
serrated caudal spine. Electric organs absent *. 

In the year 1815 Colonel Montagu drew attention to a sexual 
character which was observable in some species of these fishes, in 
which the teeth were blunted in the females and pointed in the 
males. Another sexual character is that of spines on the body 
which are temporarily developed during the breeding-season. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of both hemispheres, but more 
numerous in the northern ; it possesses but few representatives 
along the coasts of India, and seems to be absent from the Bed 



1. Genus PLATYRHINA, Miiller & Henle. 

Disk rhombic, with a fold on either side ; tail distinct. Nasal 
valves distinct. Two dorsal fins on the tail ; caudal well developed ; 
ventrals separated one from the other. Body covered with rough 
asperities and spines. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of India to China and 



50. (1.) Platyrhina schonleinii. 

Platyrhina schonleinii, Mull, fy Henlt >, Plagios. p. 125, t. xlv ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 735 (see synon.)- 

Disk subcircular; snout obtuse; tail as long as the disk. Den- 
tal plate undulating; three elevations in the lower and three 
corresponding depressions in the upper jaw. Nostrils wide apart. 
A row of strong spines and also smaller lateral ones along the 
median line of the back and tail ; some more along the edge of the 
orbit and on the shoulder. Colour brown, covered with light 
blotches ; said sometimes to have dark cross bands and large dark 
spots. 

Hab. Coromandel coast of India. A male example, 27 
inches in length, was in the Madras Museum. 

* See remarks to genus Narcine, p. 45, ante. 



48 CHONDKOPTERYGII. BATOTDEI. 



Family V. TRYGONID^E. 

Disk wide ; the pectorals continued to the extremity of the 
snout, where they become confluent. Tail long and slender, without 
any lateral folds. Vertical fins, if present, imperfectly developed, 
or they may be modified into a serrated spine. 

The forms with armed tails, generally termed " sting rays," 
occasion exceedingly dangerous injuries, not merely owing to the 
jagged nature of the caudal spines, but apparently also to the 
presence of some irritating foreign substance, which is carried into 
the wound. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and temperate seas. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

Tail long and spineless. Body densely covered with 

tubercles 1. UROGYMNUS. 

Tail long, armed with a serrated spine. Teeth flattened 2. TRYGON. 

Tail long, armed with a serrated spine, and having a 
broad lower cutaneous fold continued to its termi- 
nation 3. T^ENIURA. 

Body very broad, tail very short and armed with a 
serrated spine. Teeth with from one to three 
cusps 4. PTEROPLATEA. 

1. Genus UROGYMNUS, Miiller & Henle. 
Syn. Anacanthus, Ehren. ; Rhachinotus, Cantor. 

Disk subcircular ; tail long and distinct, destitute of any spine, 
but with a narrow inferior fold ; pectorals united anteriorly. Teeth 
flattened. Body covered with osseous tubercles, amongst which 
are sharp conical spines. 

Geoywipliical Distribution. From the Red Sea and east coast of 
Africa, throughout the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

51. (1.) Urogymmis asperrimus. 

Raja asperrima, Bl. Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 307. 

Urogymnus asperrimus, -Day, Fish. India, p. 730, pi. cxcv, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

Moollan tiriki, Tarn. 

Disk nearly as wide as long ; snout scarcely projecting. Body 
densely covered with small heart-shaped scales, between which are 
numerous thorns which are generally erect, and are continued pos- 
teriorly to the first fifth of the tail, where they cease. On the 
pectoral fins are numerous small conical spines, irrespective of 
those over the body amongst the tubercles. Colour greenish 
above, white beneath. 



TRYGONIDJE. 



49 



Hob. Bed Sea, east coast of Africa, seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago. One, 2 feet across the disk, existed in the 
Madras Museum. This species is said to attain to 4 or 5 feet in 
length. 




Fig. 20. Uroyymnus asperrimus. 



2. Genus TRYGON, Adanson. 

Syn. Himantura, Hcmitrygon, and Hypolophus, Miill. & Henle ; Para- 
tryyon, Duineril. 
Pdkat, Marathi. 

Disk oval or rhomboidal ; tail elongated and tapering. Nasal 
valves coalescent, forming a quadrangular flap. Teeth flattened, 
or with a central point or transverse ridge. Pectoral fins united an- 
teriorly ; tail destitute of a fin, or if with a cutaneous fold, such 
does not extend to its extremity ; it is armed superiorly with one 
or two lanceolate spines that are serrated on both sides. Body 
smooth or with tubercles. 

In this genus the colours in individuals of the same species are 
subject to considerable variation, and this is not invariably due to 
age. The character of the tubercles and their extent have also 
been (as I think erroneously) employed to characterize some 
species : thus one, Trygon chindrnkee (Cuv.), Bleeker, is a form 
without tubercles or spines, except on the tail; T. polylepis, 
Blt-ckcr, has small tubercles in the interorbital space, a narrow 
band along the back with a few indistinct enlarged ones, but none 



50 CIIONDROPTERYOJI. TUTOIDEl. 

on the tail: T. wnlf/a, Miill. & ITenle, has the interorbital space 
and back covered with small tubercles, no larger ones in the median 
line, but a series of short spines between the root of the tail and 
the larger spine. Now all these forms, with every intermediate 
variation, occur, and the smooth body usually confined to the young 
may be persistent in the adult. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Lower dental laminae somewhat pointed, the 
upper being angularly bent for their reception. 
Tail 



Tail with a cutaneous fold. 
A broad fold along lower surface of tail. Upper 

part of bodv covered with tl,-it tubercles .... 1. T. sephen, p. 50. 

B. Dental laminae transverse ; if undulating, 

slightly so. Tail with a cutaneous fold. 

( Tryyon.} 
Snout pointed. Tail three times as long as disk. 

Tubercles few 2. T. bennetti, p. 52. 

Tail half longer than disk. Body nearly smooth. 

Blue ocelli on upper surface 3. T. kuJdii, p. ">"_'. 

Tail scarcely as long as body. Tubercles fuw . . 4. 7'. imlricata, p. 52. 
Snout very pointed and produced. A few 

tubercles in median line of back 5. T, zugei, p. 52. 

C. Dental laminae transverse ; if undulating, 

slightly so; tail without a cutaneous fold. 

(Himantura.) 
Snout rather pointed. Tail very long. One or 

more large tubercles in middle of back. 

Brown or spotted 0. T. uarnal-, p. 53. 

Tail twice as long as disk. A row of pointed 

tubercles on the back, which is spined all 

over 7. T. maw/hiatus, 

Snout very pointed. Tail three to four times [p. 54. 

as long as disk. A central and several 

smaller tubercles on the back 8. T. llcckeri, p. 54. 

Snout pointed. Tail rather longer than disk. 

Tubercles variously disposed 9. T. vtilt/a, p. 55. 

52. (1.) Trygon sephen. (Figs. 21, 22.) 

Raja sephen, Forsk. Descr. An. p. 17. 

Trygon sephen, Day, Fish. India, p. 740, pi. cxcv, fig. 2 (fee synon.). 
Adavalan tiriki, Tamil ; Volugiri tenkee and Wolaa tcnkee, Tel. ; 
Govdl pdkat, Marathi. 

Disk rather broader than long ; the length of the tail three to 
four times that of the body. Snout most obtuse in adults. Teeth 
lower dental laminae somewhat pointed, the upper angularly 
bent for their reception; ^ rows transversely, and ~ vertically 
opposite the symphysis : they are all flattened, those in the centre 
of the upper jaw being the smallest. Fins tail with a broad 
lower cutaneous fold ; there may be one or two serrated spines 



TliVGOXTDJE. 



51 



situated rather behind its anterior third. Scales upper surface 
of the head and body and base of tail covered by thick, concave, or 
flat-headed, several-sided tubercles ; in the scapular region and 




Fig. 2l. Tryyon sephen. 

central line of the back are two large, smooth, approximating 
tubercles in the young, and three in the adult, the middle and 
largest of which is usually oval, the second in size posterior and 
heart-shaped, the anterior or smallest round or heart-shaped. 
Colour the upper surface of the immature is reddish brown : but 
in the adult lead-coloured, becoming black in the posterior two 
thirds of the tail. Some examples have a row of black blotches 
near their outer margin. 




Fig. 22. Teeth of '/'/////<- repJirn. 

ffufi. "Red Sea, through the seas of India to lli 
pelngo, and beyond. This fish grows to ;i \;\r^c 
represented in (lie figure (--) wen- from an exai 



Malay Aivhi- 
i/.e. The j;i\\ s 
>le ."> ft. |() in. 



52 CHO^DROPTERTGII. BATOIDEI. 

across the disk. In its stomach were found Crustacea, mollusks, 
&c. T. sepJten is most common during the south-west monsoon, 
when it approaches the shore. 

53. (2.) Trygon bennetti. 

Trygon bennetti, Mull Sf Henle, Playios. p. 160, t. liii; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 739 (see synon.). 

Disk about as broad as long ; tail about three times as long as 
disk, and with a low cutaneous fold along its inferior surface. 
Snout somewhat pointed. Eyes nearer together than to the 
end of the snout. A tubercle in the middle of the back in adults, 
with some flat ones around it, which extend backwards to the 
caudal spine ; but the young are quite smooth. Colour a pale 
fleshy-red, which becomes almost white in parts, the tail being 
darker near its extremity. 

Hftb. Seas of India to China and beyond. 

54. (3.) Trygon kuhlii. 

Trygon kuhlii, Mutt. Henle, Playios. p. 1C4, pi. li ; Day, Fi*h. 

India, p. 739, pi. cxciii, lig. 2 (see synon.). 
Kunnoo tirike and Shemen tenkee, Tel. 

Disk broader than long ; tail about one half longer than the disk. 
Snout somewhat obtuse, its length equal to or slightly exceeding 
the breadth of the interorbital space. Two appendages on the 
floor of the mouth. Teeth dental plate more undulated in the 
upper than in the lower jaw. Fins a cutaneous fold along the tail 
both above and below, caudal spine well developed. Colour above 
of a dull brown, covered with numerous small black spots and larger 
rounded blue ocelli, each having a rather dark outer edge. 

Hob. East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 
This ray attains to at least 5i inches across the disk at AJadras. 

55. (4.) Trygon imbricata. 

Raja imbricata, Bl. Schn. Si/st. Ich. p. 366. 

Trygon imbricata, Dai/, Fm. India, p. 739 (see synon.). 

Disk as broad as long, snout produced and pointed ; tail scarcely 
as long as the body, with low upper and inferior cutaneous folds. 
Small tubercles on the nape and back, with a row of conical spines 
on the shoulder and back ; while along the tail as far as the 
spine are large tubercles intermixed with smaller ones. 

Hob. Coromandel coast of India. 

56. (5.) Trygon zugei. 

Trygon zugei, Mull, fy Henh, Plaaios. p. 165, t. liv ; Day, Fixlt. 

'India, p. 739, pi. cxc, tig. 3 (see synon.). 
Cfntmbara kah, Tam. 

Disk about as broad as long, with the snout very much produced 



TRYGONIDJS. 53 

and acutely pointed, its length being about 3 that of the disk ; 
tail equal to 1| or twice the length of the disk. Eyes small ; 
interorbital space concave. Teeth dental laminae undulated. Fins 
a distinct cutaneous fold along the lower surface of the tail, com- 
mencing opposite the base of the spine ; there is likewise a fold 
along the upper surface of the tail. A strong and long spine, 
serrated in its last third, is situated at about the commencement of 
the second quarter of the tail, and anterior to it a row of small 
spines ; the body otherwise smooth. In some examples a row of 
tubercles exists along the median line of the back. Colour dull 
brown superiorly, the edge of the fins black. 

Hub. >eas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and Japan. 

57. (6.) Trygon narnak. 
Raja uarnak, Forsk. Descr. Anim. p. 18. 
Trygon uarnak, Miill. $ Henle, Playios. p. 158 $ Day, Fish. India, 

p. 737, pi. cxciv, fig. 1 (see synon.) . 

Sana kah tiriki, Tarn. ; Pulitenke, Tel.; Sankush, Ooriah ; Lek kyouk, 
Burmese ; Hankoos, Chittagong. 

Disk about as broad as long, snout pointed and rather promi- 
nent ; tail from three to four times as long as the body. Iris with 
a well-developed superior flap. Teeth dental laminae undulating. 
Fins no cutaneous folds on the tail, which is armed with a serrated 
spine situated about | the length of the disk from the root of the 
tail. Tubercles vary in different specimens, absent in the very 
young : in those with a disk of about 6 inches across there are two 
or three rows of widely separated oval tubercles on either side of 
the head, internal to the eyes, and meeting on the occiput, from 
thence towards the scapula is a single row of larger and more 
widely separated ones. In the middle of the back three large 
closely approximating scales or tubercles, the centre one heart- 
shaped, the anterior round, and the posterior almost heart-shaped. 
In some specimens, of a large size, there are also numerous 
distant thorns on the tail, which may disappear with age. In 
specimens with a disk of 3 feet across, the head, back, and sides 
are covered with smooth, roundish scales, having intermediate 
smaller ones. Colour varying according to age : up to the period 
when the breadth of the disk is about 9 inches the body is of a 
yellowish brown, darkest along the back, and the abdomen white : 
a short distance beyond the commencement of the tail it is irregu- 
larly annulated with alternate narrow light brown, and broad or 
narrow dark brown rings. With increasing age black spots 
commonly appear on the body, and when it has attained the width 
of 3 feet across its disk it is light brown or greenish olive, covered 
with lighter and in some almost white spots, or reticulated with 
white lines, whilst the anterior extremity of the tail also shows the 
remains of the rings. The adult is uniformly brownish or greenish 
olive. Iris golden. Occasionally there are light spots on the 
posterior portion of the disk. 



54 ClIOXJJUOi'TKHVUll. B.VTOIDEI. 

l/d!>. K"d Sea, si -as and estuaries of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago, and China, also the Cape of Good Hope. The immature 
are frequently captured in the back-waters, and wounds from their 
caudal spines are much dreaded. The species attains a large size ; 
5 feet or more across the disk. The late Sir W. Elliot observed 
that from a female of this species 13 feet long (including the tail 
8 feet 9 in.) a young was removed perfectly formed and of the 
same colour as its mother. In the cold season, as about October, 
these fish are frequently perceived springing out of the water for 
some distance in the same manner as trout do just prior to 
brri'ding. They devour large quantities of small fish, Crustacea, 
mollusks, &c. 

58. (7.) Trygon marginatus. 

Trygon marginatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 18 JO, p. 38; Dai/, 
Fish. India, p. 738 (see synon.). 

Disk slightly broader than long, tail from one half longer than 
the disk to nearly twice as long. The width of the interorbital 
space equals the length of the snout. Tubercles sparsely set all 
over the upper surface, but a little larger along the median line, 
where they appear like small limpets ; an irregular row of pointed 
tubercles on either side of the middle line of the back ; tail tuber- 
culated as far as its spine, but destitute of any fin. Colour grey 
above ; buffy white below, with a dark border, except in front. 

Eah. Hooghly at Calcutta. I examined an example in which 
the disk was 16 inches across and 15 long; Blyth observed one 
specimen which was 52, and another 60, inches across the disk, 
and the tubercles were extended on to the edge of the disk and 
even to its under surface. This would therefore appear to be a 
result of age. 

5U. (8.) Trygon bleekeri. . 

Trygon bleekeri, Blyfh, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 41 ; Day, Fi*h. 

'India, p. 738, pi. cxcv, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Pakat, Marathi ; Seman tirike, Tarn. 

Tail from three to four times as long as the disk. Snout pro- 
longed and pointed. Width of interorbital space equal to i or $ 
the length of the snout anterior to the eye. A large round tubercle 
in the middle of the back, and commonly before it three smaller 
ones triangularly disposed, and three similarly placed behind it. 
Tubercles sometimes present along the upper surface of the tail to 
the caudal spine, from whence, in adults, they are continued to 
its extremity. Colour " Brown above and below, with a narrow 
white median longitudinal patch on the abdomen " (Blyth). Some- 
times this ray is brown above with the margins of the disk dark. 

Hab. Bengal. Blyth observed one 25 inches long to base of tail, 
the tail 72 inches ; another 15 and 56 inches. 






TBYGONLIXE. 55 

60. (9.) Trygon walga. 

Try gi m walga, Milll. $ Henle, Plagios. p. 159, t. li; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 738, pi. cxciv, fig. 3 (see syncm.). 

Isacurrah tenkee, Tenkee shindraki, Tel. 

Disk about as broad as long, with the snout pointed and acutely 
projecting, more so in some examples than in others. Eyes smaller 
in the adult than in the young. Interorbital space concave. 
Teeth small, having a transverse elevated ridge along each. Dental 
laminae undulated. Fiiis no cutaneous folds on the tail, the length 
of which is rather longer than the disk. One or two (sometimes 
more) large serrated spines on the tail at the commencement of its 
second third ; between this and the base of the tail exists a median 
line of about seven short spines. Scales interorbital space, and a 
varying width along the middle of the back and also on the tail 
covered with numerous fine tubercles ; there are usually no larger 
ones, but in some examples there is one larger on the centre of the 
shoulder, in others a few more anterior to it. Neither the number, 
size, character, nor extent of the distribution of the tubercles and 
spines depends on age or sex, adults even may be without any of 
either. In one example (a male) the band of tubercles along the 
back is very narrow, a row of large ones exists in the median line 
of the scapular region, and four along the back of the tail. This 
would be intermediate between T. wcilya and T. polylepis. Another 
example has a row of small spines all along the first third of the 
back of the tail, and a moderately sized, rather compressed median 
scapular spine with six smaller ones anterior to it ; a very wide 
band of tubercles exists along the back. One example has the 
smaller caudal spine very well developed, a very narrow row of 
tubercles along the back, and a central scapular tubercle. Another 
has only a few small tubercles and one central spine in the scapular 
region, some between the eyes, and some fine spines between the 
base of the tail and the two large spines. Young examples are 
often destitute of tubercles or armature except the caudal spines, 
and this immature character may be seen in some adults. Colour 
dull grey or brown superiorly, white beneath. 

Blyth has observed that the males are larger than the females and 
have proportionately longer tails ; very commonly the second caudal 
spine (more especially of the females) does not extend beyond the 
first one. Some have a small lauceolated tubercle on the centre of 
the dorsal surface, others two or more, even to a series of five or 
six along the median line. 

Hob. From the Bed Sea, through the seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

3. Genus TJENIURA, Mull. & Henle. 

Disk oval or rhomboidal ; tail elongated and tapering. Nasal 
valves coalescent, forming a quadrangular flap. Pectoral fins 
united anteriorly ; tail with a broad lower cutaneous fold continued 



56 CHONDliOPTERYGII. BA.TOIDEI. 

to its extremity. Body and tail either smooth or furnished with 
tubercles. 

Geographical Distribution. From the Eed Sea and east coast of 
Africa through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
tropical America. 

61. (1.) Tseniura melanospilos *. 

Tseniura melanospilos, Sleeker, Nat. Tyds. Ned. 2nd. 1853, iv, p. 513 ; 

Day, Fish. India, p. 740 (see synon.J. 
Jtiwja tirike, Tel. 

Disk rather broader than long ; its upper surface smooth. Tail 
very thick at its base, with two strong flattened elongated spiues 
(upper 9, lower 5 inches long) serrated externally. From 
opposite these spines on the lower surface of the tail commences a 
broad cutaneous fold, which is continued to the extremity of the 
tail, and on its upper surface are numerous tubercles of the same 
character as on the tail. The colours have not been noted. 

Two examples were captured in 1853 off the Coromandel coast, 
where they were said by the fishermen to be very rare. One had 
its disk 4 ft. 11 in. long and 5 ft. 11 in. broad ; the other disk was 
4 ft. 1 in. long by 5 ft. 11 in. wide. Inside the stomach of the 
latter were found the remains of some small crabs and a squilla. 
It was, however, expressly stated that the body was smooth, but the 
tail covered with rough tubercles, all of which had a stellated base. 

Hob. Eed Sea and Coromandel coast of India to Batavia. 



4. Genus PTEROPLATEA, Mull. & Heule. 
Syn. JEtoplatea, Mull. & Henle. 

Body at least twice as broad as long ; tail thin, generally shorter 
than the body, with or without a rudimentary iin, but having a 
serrated spine ; spiracles with or without a tentacle ; nasal valves 
confluent, and forming a quadrangular flap. No papilla at bottom 
of the mouth. Teeth with from one to three cusps. Pectoral fins 
united in front. Skin smooth or tubercular. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and temperate seas. 

62. (1.) Pteroplatea micrura. (Fig. 23.) 

Kaja micrura, Bl. Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 360. 

Pteroplatea micrura, Day, Fish. India, p. 741, pi. cxciv, fig. 2. 

* TJSNIUUA LYMMA, Forsk&l. 

Disk rather longer than broad ; a few spines along the middle of the back. 
Two long papillse at the bottom of the mouth. Colour grey, with round blue 
dark-edged spots ; a bluish band along either side of the tail. 

Hab. Eed Sea, coast of Africa to the Malay Archipelago ; this ray con- 
sequently may probably be found off the coast of India. 






MYLIOBATIDJE. 



Peroom tirik, or Tappor kouti tiriki, Tamil ; Tappu cooti and Tenkee 
kunsul, Tel. ; Lek kyouk temenynce, Burmese. 

Disk about twice as wide as long ; tail as long as disk in young, 
but shorter in adults. No tentacle to spiracle. Teeth with a 
single pointed cusp. Fins one or two small spines on caudal fin. 
Skin smooth. Colour reddish brown ; tail annulated with white 
and brown ; superiorly, in the centre of each light ring, there is 
generally a brown spot. The young are covered all over with 
small brown spots. A figure exists amongst Sir Walter Elliot's 
drawings of Madras fish of an example covered with light rouud 




. 

Fig. '23. Pteroplatea micmra. 

Nab. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 
Jerdon obtained one in which the disk was 6 feet across and 
3 feet long. 



Family VI. MYLIOBATID^E. 

Pectoral fins large, developed along the sides of the body, occa- 
sioning the latter to appear very broad ; these fins are not present 
on the sides of the head, but reappear at the end of the snout as 
a pair of detached fins. 

These fish, many of which attain to a large size, are variously 
known as " Devil-fishes," "Sea-devils," "Bat-fishes," "Eagle- 
rays," &c. 



58 CIIONDBOPTEUYUII. BATOIDEI. 



Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

A. Teeth large, flattened, tessellated. 
Fins on head meet in the form of a soft appendage in 
front of snout. Teeth in several series, the 

middle being the broadest 1. MYMOBATIS. 

Only one series of very broid teeth '2. \K ron.vris. 

Fins on either side of snout form a lobe 3. KIIINOPTKBA. 

13. Teeth small ; cephalic fins forming an appandage 

on either side of snout. 
Teeth in both jaws 4. DICKIIOBATIS. 



1. Genus MYLIOBATIS, Cuvier. 

Head distinct from disk ; snout with a soft prolongation, in- 
ternally supported by fin-rays ; nasal valves coalescent, forming a 
quadrangular flap. Teeth hexagonal, flat, the central broader 
than long ; the external rows narrow *. Tail very long and whip- 
like, having a dorsal fin near its base, and usually a serrated spine 
posterior to the fin. Body smooth or tuberculated above. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and temperate seas. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Body smooth. The young with five blue cross 

bands on the upper surface, disappearing 

with age 1. M. nieuhofii, p. 53. 

A row of small tubercles in the median. line of the 

scapular region. Ocelli with brown margins 

in the posterior half of the upper surface of 

disk 2. M. maculata, p. 59. 

63. (1.) Myliobatis nieuhofii. 

llaja uieuhofii, El. Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 304. 
Myliobatis nieuhofii, Day, Fish. India, p. 742 (see synon.). 
Tuppa koollee or Chuppa tirike, Tamil ; Mookarah tenkee, Tel. 

Disk about twice as broad as long ; tail about three times as 
long as disk. Fleshy prolongation of snout short : no horn on 
orbit. Body smooth. Fins dorsal situated at commencement of 
base of tail, opposite the end of the insertion of the ventrals ; no 
spines posterior to it. Colour olive superiorly, tinged externally 
with a reddish hue and a dark outer margin to the disk. The 
young have about seven blue bands across the disk and two more 
between or close to the eyes. As the fish increases in size, first 
the bands on the head disappear and finally those on the body. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and Japan. 



In the young the rows of teeth are of equal size and regularly hexagonal. 



.WVM015ATID.E. 59 

64. (2.) Myliobatis maculata *. 

Myliobatis maculata, Gray Sf ILtrdw. III. In I. Z-jol. ii, pi. 101 ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 742 (.see synon.). 

Disk about twice as wide as long ; tail more than three times as 
long as the disk. Fleshy prolongation of snout short, no horn on 
orbit. Body with a row of small tubercles along the median line 
of the back in the scapular region. Fins dorsal situated at the 
commencement of the base of the tail, behind the end of the 
insertion of the ventrals ; no spine posterior to it. Colour 
greenish brown, with round blue spots in the posterior half of the 
disk. /Tail white with black rings. 

Hal. 8eas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Genus AETOBATIS, Mull. & Henle. 
Syn. Stoasodon, Cantor. 

Head distinct from disk ; snout with a soft prolongation, in- 
tsrnally supported by fin-rays. Nasal valves usually distinct, each 
1'orinini* a long flap, or they may be united into one quadrangular 
flap. Teeth in a single row, hexagonal, broad, flat, with the lower 
dental laminso projecting beyond the upper. Tail very long and 
whip-like ; dorsal fin present near its base, and a serrated spine 
posterior to the fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of the tropics. 

65. (1.) Aetobatis narinari. (Fig. 24.) 

Raja narinari, Euphrasen, Vet.-Ak. Nya Ilandl. 1790, xi, p. 217. 
Aetobatis narinari, Day, Fish. India', p. 743, pi. cxciv, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

Eel-tenkee, Tel ; Currooway tiriki, Tarn. ; Ra-ta-charm-dah, Andam. 

The comparative proportions of this fish vary greatly with age ; 
the distance from the mouth to the anus equals about half the 
width of the disk. Nasal valves in some examples separate, each as 
a long flap ; in other examples the valves unite and form a quad- 
rangular flap the lower edge of which is fringed ; the spiracle 
wider than the orbit. Teeth broad, flat, and in a single row, 
those in the lower jaw may be angularly bent or nearly straight ; 
the lower dental plate projects beyond that in the upper jaw. 
Fins the dorsal arises opposite the base or centre of the ventral, 

* MYLIOBATIS VESPERTILIO, Blecker. 

Disk at least twice as broad as long ; snout somewhat produced ; no horn on 
orbit. No tubercles on back. Fins dorsal begins close to the end of ven- 
trals, beyond which it does not extend. Colour a network of black lines on 
the back and root of the pectoral (in. 

Hub. Kcd Sea and the Malay Archipelago ; therefore probably exists off the 
coast of India. 



60 ClION DBOPTEEYGII. BATOIDEI. 

the latter fin being about three times as long as broad. Tail three 
or four times as long as the body, triangular in shape as far as the 
spine, which is serrated and situated just behind the termination 




Fig. 24. Aetobatis narinari. 

of the dorsal fin ; beyond the spine the tail is compressed ; in this, 
as well as in some other species, there is occasionally a second 
spine on the tail a little behind the root of the first. Body 
smooth. Colour greyish olive, sometimes greenish olive or 
leaden grey above, and usually covered from beyond the occiput 
with numerous dirty-white or bluish spots edged with black ; 
abdominal surface white; tail black. Iris golden green, teeth 
greenish yellow. In the immature the back is of a deep leaden 
colour, and the spots hardlv apparent. 

Hob. Red Sea, seas and estuaries of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago, and beyond. Eaten by the natives. Is captured to 
upwards of 6 feet in width. 

3. Genus RHINOPTERA, Kuhl. 
Syn. Mylorina and Micromesus, Gill. 
Head distinct from the disk, but with a pair of rayed appendages 




Fig. 25. Teeth of Rhiiwptcrajavanica. 
on the lower edge of the snout. Nasal valves confluent, forming 



MYLIOBATlDjE. 01 

a broad flap. Teeth broad, flat, in five or more rows, the central 
being the broadest. Tail whip-like, having a dorsal fin armed 
with a serrated spine. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and contiguous seas. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Nine series of teeth in upper jaw, and seven in the 

lower 1. It. adspersa, p. 61 . 

Seven rows of teeth in each jaw, the three central 

series being much the longest 2. JR. Javanica, p. 61. 

66. (1.) Rhinoptera adspersa. 

Rhinoptera adspersa, Mull, fy Henle } Plagios. p. 183 ; Day, Fish. 

India, p. 744 (see synon.). 
Mutta tiriki or Kurivi tiriki, Tamil. 

Disk about twice as wide as long ; tail about three times as long 
as disk. Notch on snout shallow. Teeth nine rows in the upper 
and seven in the lower jaw, the .teeth in the central row of the 
upper jaw 2| to 3 times wider from side to side than from back to 
front, but not so wide as those in the next row. Fins dorsal, 
situated at the base of the tail, and immediately behind it a strong 
serrated spine. Upper surface of body covered with fine stellate 
tubercles. Colour greenish brown superiorly, becoming lighter 
at tbe edges of the disk. 

JIab. 8eas of India. 

67. (2.) Rhinoptera javanica. (Fig. 25, teeth *.) 

Rhinoptera javanica, Muller Sf Henle, Plagios. p. 182, t. Iviii ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 744, pi. cxcv, fig. 4 (teeth). 

Disk from about If to twice as broad as long; tail nearly twice 
as long as disk. Notch on snout shallow. Teeth seven rows in 
both jaws, those in the central row being four or five times wider 
than long (in the antero-posterior direction), and rather more than 
twice as wide as the row on either side. The outer rows are hexa- 
gonal and narrow ; those in the lower jaw rather narrower than 
those in the upper. Fins dorsal situated at the base of the tail, 
and immediately behind it a serrated spine. Colour greenish 
superiorly, white beneath. 

Jfab. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

4. Genus DICEROBATIS, Blainville. 
Syn. Cephaloptera and Mobula, A. Dume'ril. 

Pectoral fin not extended on to the sides of the head, which 
latter is truncated in front, whilst on either side is a forwardly- 

* Mr. A. S. Woodward (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1888, i. p. 281) has shown 
that the dentition of these fishes may be abnormally altered. 



62 



CHONDBOFTTOTOII. UATOIDKI. 



pointing horn-like projection, \\ Inch is internally supported by fin- 
rays. Nostrils not confluent. Teeth in jaws very small, flat, or 
tuberculated, and in many rows. Tail whip-like, with a dorsal fin 
situated above and between the ventrals, armed with or destitute 
of a serrated spine. 

The designation Sea-devils has been given by some authors to fishes 
belonging to this genus ; it is also frequently applied to several other 
forms of armed rays and fishes which inflict dangerous wounds. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and temperate seas. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 
Teeth numerous in both jaws L I), rrcyoodoo, p. 02. 



Teeth 



D. kuhlii, p. 63. 



68. (1.) Dicerobatis eregoodoo. (Fig. 20.) 

Eregoodoo tenkee, Rtisscll, Fish. Vizay. i, pi. ix. ; Cumer, Kcync 

Anim. ed. 2, 1829, ii, p. 442, note. 
Dicerobatis eregoodoo, Cantor, Cat. Mai. Fish. p. 438 ; Dai/, Fish. 

India, p. 744, pi. cxciii, fig. 1 (see syr.on.). 

Eregoodoo tenkfe, Tel. ; Shiny pdkut, Mavatlii ; Yeliki or Komiin tirikt, 
Tarn. 




MYI.IOIUTIDJE. '"' 

Disk about twice as broad as long ; tail in the young 1| times 
the length of the body, but in adults only a little more than half 
the same length. Body smooth. The horns or cephalic portion 
of the pectoral fin have a convoluted appearance, and " are used 
by the animal to draw its prey into its mouth, which opens like a 
huge cavern between them. The fishermen say they see them 
swimming slowly along with their mouth open and flapping these 
great sails inwards, drawing in the smaller Crustacea on which they 
feed " (Sir W. Elliot, MS.). Teeth small, like flattened, quad- 
rangular tubercles as broad as wide in adults, twice as broad in 
the young, with a backwardly directed point ; |^, in a jaw twelve 
inches across the gape taken from an example upwards of eighteen 
feet across the disk, and ~ vertical rows opposite the symphysis. 
In a pair of jaws four inches across, from an example captured at 
Kurrachee, there are |j. Cantor found in an example thirty inches 
across the disk ^, and six or seven vertical rows. It may therefore 
be supposed that the number increases with age, and perhaps alters 
in shape. The band of teeth reaches nearly to the angle of the 
mouth. Fins no spine on the tail posterior to the dorsal fin. 
Colour of a deep purplish superiorly ; white beneath. 

Nab. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago; attaining to 
1 8 feet and upwards across the disk. 

69. (2.) Dicerohatis kuhlii. 

Cephalopiera kuhlii, Miilkr $ Henle, Pfaf/ios. p. 185, t. lix, fig. 1. 
Uicerobatis kuhlii, Day, Fish. India, p. 745 (see synon.). 

Disk more than twice as wide as long ; tail not so long as the 
disk. Body and tail smooth. Teeth wider than broad; jjJ| 
series, the band ceasing some distance from the angle of the mouth. 
Colour brown or greenish. 

Hob. From the east coast of Africa, through the seas of India 
to the Malay Archipelago. 









Subclass TELEOSTEI. 

Skeleton osseous. Skull with cranial sutures. Vertebrae com- 
pletely separated, and the posterior extremity of the vertebral 
column bony, or having bony plates. Branchiae free, and the 
water discharged through a single aperture on each side, protected 
by a bony gill-cover or opercle ; branchiostegal rays present. A 
non-contractile bulbus arteriosus, having a pair of valves at its 
commencement. Optic nerves decussating. 

The fishes which compose this subclass form the great bulk of 
those existing at the present day, and are popularly known as the 
" true fishes." In geological sequence they appeared subsequently 
to the Chondropterygii, their first traces being found in the Cre- 
taceous period towards the close of the Mesozoic epoch. 

Syncqjsis of Orders * amonyst Indian Teleostei. 

All the fin-rays articulated, with the 
exception of the first in the dor- 
sal and pectoral which sometimes 
are more or less ossified. Ven- 
tral fins, when present, abdomi- 
nal and spineless. Air-bladder, 
if existing, having a pneumatic 
duct (except in Scombresocida>) . 1. PHYSOSTOMI. 

A portion of the dorsal, anal, and 
ventral fins unarliculated, form- 
ing spines f. Air-bladder, when 
present, completely closed in 
adults, not possessing a pneu- 
matic duct 2. ACANTHOPTEEYGII. 

All the rays of the vertical and ven- 
tral fins articulated ; the latter, 
when present, being jugular and 
thoracic 3. ANACANTHINL 

* The above Orders are given in accordance with commonly received views 
or those of Miiller somewhat modified ; but they are of very different values, and 
must be largely altered when the developmental and general anatomy of fishes 
becomes better known. 

t There are some genera in which the fins can hardly be said to possess any 
true spines, aa amongst the Trachinidce, Aulostoma, &c. 



TELE08TEI. 

A dermal segmental skeleton; the 

opercular pieces reduced to a 

single plate. Gill-openings small. 

Gills consisting of small rounded 

tufts, attached to the branchial 

arches. Muscular system very 

slightly developed 4. LOPHOBRANCH11. 

The bones of the head completely 

ossified, those in the remainder 

of the body incompletely. Ver- 
tebrae few. Gill-openings small, 

situated in front of the pectoral 

fins. Gills pectinate. Mouth 

narrow ; the bones of the upper 

jaw mostly united, sometimes 

produced into the form of a beak. 

There may be a single soft-rayed 

dorsal fin, belonging to the caudal 

portion of the vertebral column, 

and situated opposite the anal ; 

in some a rudimental spinous 

dorsal is also present : the ven- 

trals, when existing, have the 

form of spines. Skin either 

smooth, with rough scales, or 

ossified in the form of plates or 

spines. Air-bladder destitute of 

a pneumatic duct 5. PLECTOGNATHI. 



Order I. PHYSOSTOMI, Muller. 

All the fin-rays articulated with the exception of the first in 
the dorsal and pectoral, which are frequently more or less ossified. 
Ventral fins, when present, abdominal and spineless. Air-vessel, 
if existing, having a pneumatic duct (except in the family Scom- 
bresoddce). 

This order contains the largest proportion of the freshwater 
fishes of India. The family Siluridce or sheat-fishes are destitute 
of scales ; the carps, Cyprinidce, have scaled bodies but no teeth in 
the jaws ; while the herrings, Clupeidce, are likewise scaled, and 
have some teeth in the jaws and a carinate abdominal edge. 



Synopsis of Indian Families. 

I. Fishes with eel-like bodies. Margin of upper jaw 

formed of the premaxillaries, the maxillaries 
being internal and parallel to them. Vertical 
fins rudimentary, and no paired fins. Gill-open- 
ings in the form of a single slit. Scales, if present, 
minute. Accessory breathing-organs may be pre- 
sent. No air-bladder. Stomach without a blind 
sac ; no pyloric caeca. Ovaries with oviducts. Symbranchidae. 

II. Fishes with eel-like bodies. Margin of upper 

law formed anteriorly by the premaxillaries and 
laterally by the maxillaries. Pectoral fins 
present or absent; no ventrals. No accessory 
breathing-organs. Stomach with a blind sac; 
no pyloric caeca. Ovaries without oviducts . . Muraenidae. 

III. Subopercle absent. Margin of upper jaw 
formed by the premaxillaries. Skin scaleless and 
smooth, or covered with osseous plates or scat- 
tered tubercles. Adipose dorsal usually present. Siluridae. 

IV. Pseudobranchiae, when present, glandular. Mar- 
gin of the upper jaw formed by the pre- 
maxillaries. Opercular pieces complete. Mouth 
toothless, teeth in lower pharyngeals. Head 
scaleless ; body scaled or scaleless, never covered 

by osseous plates. Air-bladder present or absent. Cyprinidae. 

V. Pseudobranchiae absent. Margin of upper jaw 

formed by the premaxillaries and maxillaries, 
which are toothed. Opercular pieces complete. 
No barbels. Dorsal fin in caudal portion of body. 
Stomach with blind sac; intestinal canal short, 
and furnished with spiral folds. No pyloric caeca. 
An air-bladder Chirocentridae. 

VI. Pseudobranchiae usually well developed. Mar- 
gin of the upper jaw formed by premaxillaries 
and maxillaries. Opercular pieces complete. 



SYMBBANCHID.E. 67 

Abdomen usually keeled. No adipose dorsal. 
Scales on body, none on head. Pyloric append- 
ages numerous Clupeidae. 

VII. No pseudobranchiae. Margin of upper jaw 
mostly formed by premaxillaries, behind and 
parallel to which are the maxillaries. No scales 
or barbels. Abdomen rounded. Dorsal opposite 
anal. No adipose fin. Few pyloric caeca ; large 
air-bladder. The ova fall into the abdominal 

cavity before exclusion Galaxidae. 

VIII. Pseudobranchiae absent. Margin of upper 
jaw formed by premaxillaries and maxillaries. 
Opercular apparatus incomplete ; a parieto-nias- 
toid cavity on either side, leading into the 
interior of the skull. A single rayed dorsal fin ; 
a long anal. Head and body scaled. Two 

pyloric appendages Notopteridae. 

IX. Pseudobranchiae well developed. Margin of 
upper jaw formed by^ premaxillaries. Opercular 

Sieces sometimes incomplete. No oarbels. 
ill -openings very wide. Scales present or 
absent. Adipose dorsal present Scopelidae. 

X. Pseudobranchiae absent. Margin of upper jaw 

formed by premaxillaries. Barbels absent. 
Teeth in both jaws, and in superior and inferior 
pharyngeals. One spineless dorsal in posterior 
half of body. Air-bladder simple Cyprinodontidae. 

XI. Pseudobranchise glandular. Margin of upper 
jaw formed by premaxillaries and maxillaries. 
Lower pharyngeals united. No adipose dorsal. 
Scales present. Air-bladder, when present, des- 
titute of pneumatic duct Scombresocidae. 



Family I. SYMBEANCHID^. 

Gill-openings confluent into a single slit, which is situated on 
the abdominal surface. Gills well developed or rudimentary. Body 
elongated. The humeral arch may or may not be attached to the 
skull. Margin of the upper jaw formed by tbe premaxillaries, the 
maxillaries being internal and parallel to them. Barbels absent. 
Palatine teeth, when present, in a single row or a narrow band. 
Vertical fins rudimentary, in the form of mere folds of skin, and no 
paired fins. Scales, if present, minute. Vent far behind the 
head. An accessory breathing-sac present or absent. Air-bladder 
absent. Ribs present. Stomach destitute of a blind eac. No 
pyloric appendages. Ovaries with oviducts. 

The families Symbranchidw and Murcenidce belong to the Apodcs 
of many authors. The first is fairly represented in the fresh waters 
on the continent of India, whereas the latter is more numerous in 

F2 



68 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 






the seas than in the fresh waters. Among the Apodes the spined 
freshwater eels (RhynchoMellidce) and the NotacantJtidee, Giiuther, 
have been placed. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh and brackish waters of tropical 
Asia and America; also Western Australia and Van Diemen's 
land. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

First group. AMPHIPNINA. 

Humeral arch not attached to the skull ; an accessory breathing- 
apparatus. Scales present. 

Palatine teeth in a single row 1. AMPHIPNOUS. 

Second group. SYMBRANCHINA. 

Humeral arch attached to the skull. No accessory breathing- 
apparatus. Scales absent. 

Gills rudimentary 2. MONOPTEBUS. 

Gills well developed 



First group. AMPHIPNINA. 

1. Genus AMPHIPNOUS, Miiller. 
Syn. Pneumabranchus, McClelland. 

Branchiostegals six. Gill-membranes almost entirely grown to 
the isthmus, and having a single transverse opening. Three bran- 
chial arches with the laminae rudimentary, divided by. narrow slits. 
A respiratory air-sac exists on the neck behind the head and com- 
municates with the gill-cavity. Palatine teeth in a single, well- 
developed row. Scales present and arranged in longitudinal rows. 

This amphibious fish, when kept in an aquarium, may be observed 
constantly rising to the surface for the purpose of respiring atmo- 
spheric air direct. It usually remains with its snout close to the 
surface, and in like manner lies in the grassy sides of ponds and 
stagnant pieces of water, so that without trouble it may obtain 
access to air. 

In Amphipnous cuchia we find that " of all the arches, the second 
alone possesses laminae for the purposes of breathing ; and these 
consist merely of a few long fibrils attached to the middle of the 
arch, and occupying but a very small extent of its surface ; the 
third supports, in the place of laminae, a thick and semi-transparent 
tissue, which in large individuals of the species possesses a fringed 
or denticulated appearance at its edge ; whilst the first and fourth 
are bare, having only the membrane that fills up the space between 



SYMBBANCHIDJE. 69 

the arches reflected over them. The principal organs of respir- 
ation are two small bladders, which the animal has the power of 
filling with air, immediately derived from the atmosphere. They 
are placed behind the head, one on each side of the neck, above the 
superior or vertebral extremities of the branchial arches, and are 
covered over by the common integuments, presenting externally, 
when distended with air, two protuberances of a round shape. .... 
They present, when separated from their surrounding attachments 
and inflated with air, thin, semi-transparent, membranous parietes, 
resembling the posterior portions of the lungs of serpents. . . . 
Of the whole volume of blood contained in the branchial artery, 
one-third passes through the gills and respiratory bladders, whilst 
the otheV two-thirds are conveyed directly from the heart to the 
aorta without being exposed to the action of the air." Taylor^ 
Gleanings in Science, ii, p. 173, and Edinb. Journ. of Sc. v, 1831, 
p. 33 ; Hyrtl, Denk. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 1858, xiv, p. 39, c. tab. 



70. (1.) Amphipnous cnchia. (Fig. 27.) 

Unibranchapertura cuchia. Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 16, 363. 

pi. 10, fig. 4. 
Amphipnous cuchia, Day, Fish. India, p. 656, pi. clxvii, fig. 1 (see 

synon.). 

Cuchia, Ooriah and Beng. ; Nga-sheen, Burmese ; Dondoo paum, Tel. 

Length of head (from gill-opening) contained 6 to 8 times m 
the distance between the snout and the anus ; length of tail 4 to 4| 
in the entire length. Eyes two to three diameters from end of 
snout and situated in the anterior one fourth or one fifth of the length 




Fig. 27.- Amphipnous cuchia and its upper teeth. 

of the head, about midway between the end of the snout and the 
posterior extremity of the jaws ; a valved nostril opens above the 
orbit ; a second, round and patent, in front of the snout. Upper 
jaw slightly the longer ; lips fleshy. Teeth a single row of small 
ones in the premaxillaries, except opposite the symphysis ; a 
single band of large, curved, compressed and backwardly directed 
ones on either palatine; and a single row of moderately large 
ones on either ramus of the mandible. Fitis a rudimentary 
dorsal commences slightly before a vertical line drawn through 
the anus. Scales distinct and longitudinally arranged. Gill- 



70 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMJ. 

openings inferior, the membrane adherent to the isthmus. Ver- 
tebrae 106/65. Colour greenish, or of a chestnut-brown, becom- 
ing lighter on the abdomen ; numerous black spots over the body ; 
occasionally individuals are flesh-coloured. 

" Natives reject it as food and imagine that its bite is fatal to 
cattle, although less powerful on the human kind a supposition 
highly improbable." (Ham. Buck.) 

Hab. Fresh and brackish waters of the Punjab, Bengal, Orissa, 
Assam and Burma ; attaining at least two feet in length. 



Second group. SYMBEANCHINA. 
2. Genus MONOPTERUS, Lacepede. 
Syn. Fluta, Bl. Schn. ; Ophicardia, McClelland ; Apteriyia, Basilewski. 

Branchiostegals five or six. Gill-membranes almost entirely 
attached to the isthmus, having a single transverse opening. Three 
branchial arches separated by moderately wide intermediate slits, 
with the laminae rudimentary or absent. Palatine teeth in a narrow 
band. Scales absent. No accessory breathing-sac. 

Dareste observed a complete absence of branchial lamina? in 
three examples of Monopterus javanensis. 

71. (1.) Monopterus javanensis. (Fig. 28.) 

Monopterus javanensis, Lacfpede, II. N. Poiss. ii, p. 139 ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. G50, pi. clxix, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

Length of head contained 9 to 12 times in the distance between 
the end of the snout and the vent : length of body about four or 
five times that of the tail. Eyes situated about midway between 




Fig. 28. Monopterus javanensis and upper teeth. 

angle of mouth and end of snout, diameter one eighth of length of 
head, 2 diameters from end of snout and 1 to 1| apart. Greatest 
diameter of fish at the occiput. Profile of upper surface of head 
descending somewhat suddenly from above the eyes to the snout, 
which last is pointed and somewhat compressed. Extent of cleft 
of mouth equal to about one third the distance bet\veen end of snout 
and gill-opening. Tail narrow and tapering to a point. Teeth 
conical, and in a band tapering towards the angle of the mouth ; 



STMBRANCIIID^E. 71 

the palatine band resembles that in the jaw. Fins dorsal com- 
mencing above or a little before the vertical from the vent. Colour 
light greenish, with or without dark spots ; or else the whole body 
nearly black. 

" This eel is numerous at Chusan, in streamlets, canals, and 
estuaries. As it is a favourite article of food it is kept by the 
inhabitants of Cbusan in large jars, with fresh water. But it is 
capable of living a considerable time out of water. It is of 
voracious habits, feeding on smaller fishes, and it takes hooks baited 
with earthworms/' (Cantor, I. c.) 

Hab. This fish is confined to the fresh or brackish waters of 
Burmah, the Malay Archipelago, and China. 



3. Genus SYMBRANCHUS, Block 

Syn. Unibranchapertura, Lace"pede ; Pneumabranchus and Ophisternon, 
McClelland ; Tetrabranchus, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals six. Gill -membranes not attached to the isthmus, 
having a single transverse opening. Four branchial arches with 
well-developed gills. Palatine teeth in a band. Scales absent. 
No accessory breathing-sac. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh and brackish waters of India to 
the Malay Archipelago and Australia : also tropical America. 

72. (1.) Symbranchus bengalensis. (Fig. 29.) 

Ophisternon bengalensis, McClelland, Calc. Jour. N. H. v, pp. 197, 

220, pi. xi, tigs. 1, 2. 
Symbranclius bengalensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 657, pi. clxvii, tig. 2 

(see synon.). 

Length of bead contained 9 to 12 times in the distance between 
end of snout and anus. Eyes diameter about one twentieth of 




Fig. 29. Symbranchus bevyalensis and upper teeth. 

length of head. The girth of the body is equal to about three times 
its height. Snout anteriorly rounded, lips fleshy, the upper jaw 
rather the longer; cleft of mouth extending to some distance 
behind the orbits. Teetli in upper jaw fine and pointed, not 
continuous at the symphysis ; those on either side terminating in 



72 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

a triangular patch, with a narrow edentulous interspace ; those in 
the lower jaw rather larger, with a narrow edentulous interspace 
between those of each side, laterally they are in a single row : 
palatine teeth in a band. Fins the dorsal commences before the 
anal, which is situated in the last fourth or fifth of the total 
length, the caudal is hardly conspicuous : all the fins are low. 
Lateral line conspicuous. Colour a dull dirty brownish red in 
estuaries, lightest on the abdomen. In clearer water this fish is 
greenish or blackish green, the abdomen being paler. 

Hab. Estuaries and fresh waters within the influence of the 
tides along the coasts of India and the Malay Archipelago, to the 
Philippines : attaining to several feet in length. Apparently more 
common in Bengal than in Malabar. 



Family II. 

Body elongated, cylindrical, or band-shaped : the humeral arch 
not attached to the skull. The branchial openings in the pharynx 
may be narrow or wide slits. Margin of upper jaw constituted 
anteriorly by the premaxillaries, which are more or less coalescent 
with the vomer and ethmoid, while the sides of the upper jaw are 
formed by the maxillaries, which are furnished with teeth. Ver- 
tical fins, when present, confluent or separated by a projecting 
tail : pectorals present or absent : ventrals absent. Scales, when 
present, rudimentary. The vent may be situated close to the root 
of the pectoral fins, or a long distance posterior to the head. The 
heart may be situated just, or a long distance, behind the gills. 
Stomach with a blind sac. No pyloric appendages. Ovaries 
destitute of oviducts. 

Eels (Anguilla) are not, as sometimes supposed, hermaphrodites, 
but they breed in salt water. Large sterile females are found in 




Fig. 80. The above figure, from Sir W. Elliot's drawing, is a common 
Leptocephalus of some mursenoid form. 

A number of larval fishes have been termed LeptocepJutli, or 
" glass eels " (fig. 30). The development of some of them, it has 
been suggested, may have been arrested at an early age, the fishes 
dying before attaining their perfect state. L. spallanzanii is said 
by Dareste to be a young conger : and Delage in 1886 (Compt. Eend. 



73 

ciii, p. 698) traced the development of one of these fishes into a 
conger; but some cannot be the offspring of mursenoid fishes. 
" Stomiasunculus, Kaup, is the young of Stomias ; Porobronchus, 
Kaup, the young of Fierasfer acus and Esunculus, Kaup, probably 
that of Alepocephalus." (Gunther.*) 

Eels are generally known as Velangoo or Paniboo meen in Tamil 
(snake fish). 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 
First group. MUBJENIDJE ENGYSCHIST.J;. 
A. Branchial openings in the pharynx are narrow slits. 
Pectorals absent; vertical fins well deve- 
' loped. Posterior nostril a round and 

patent opening 1. MURJENA. 

Fins absent, except a rudimentary one round 

end of tail 2. GYMNOMTJR^ENA. 

Second group. MUEJENID^E PLATTSCHISTJE. 
B. Branchial openings in the pharynx are wide slits. 

a. Heart close behind gills. Tail longer or 

scarcely shorter than the trunk. Nostrils 
lateral or superior. Tongue free. Caudal 
fin continued round the end of tail ; pecto- 
rals present or absent. Scales present or 
absent. 
Pectoral fins present ; dorsal commences some 

distance behind the nape. Rudimentary 

scales 3. ANGUILLA. 

Pectoral fins present; dorsal commences above 

gill-opening. Cleft of mouth reaches to 

below middle of eye. Large muciferous 

cavities on skull. Teeth in bands. 

Scaleless 4. CONOR OMUR.&NA. 

Pectoral fins present ; dorsal commences above 

gill-opening. Cleft of mouth reaches to 

behind middle of eye. Maxillary teeth 

biserial ; vomerine uniserial. Scaleless . 5. UROCONGER. 

b. Heart close to gills. Tail not shorter than 

trunk. Nostrils lateral or superior. Tongue 

not free. Caudal fin continued round the 

end of tail; pectorals present or absent. 

Scaleless. 

Pectoral fins present. Canine teeth in jaws 
anteriorly ; strong teeth on vomer. Pos- 
terior nostril opposite upper part ormiddle 

of eye 6. MURJENESOX. 

Pectoral fins absent. Posterior nostril lateral 

and in front of orbit 7. SAURENCHEI.YS. 

c. Heart close to gills. Nostrils labial. Tongue 

not free. Caudal fin continued round the 
end of tail ; pectorals present or absent. 
Scaleless. 

Pectoral fins absent. Body elongated, ver- 
miform . . 8. MURJSNICHTHYS. 



74 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

d. Heart close to gills. Nostrils labial. Tongue 

not free. End of tail free, being without 
fin-rays. Pectorals, when present, rudi- 
mentary. Scaleless. 
Vomerine teeth present 9. OPIIICHTHYS. 

e. Heart placed a long distance bahind the gills. 

Tail shorter than the trunk. Posterior 
nostril in front of the eye. Vertical fins 
little developed ; pectorals, if present, rudi- 
mentary. 
Eyes small. Cleft of mouth narrow. Teeth 

in a single row 10. MORINGUA. 



First group. MUR.ENID.E ENGYSCHIST^. 

1. Genus MUKENA, Artedi. 

Syn. Gymnothorax, Bloch ; Murainophis, Lace"p. ; Echidna, Forst. ; 
ThccrodontiSj Strophidon, and Lycodontis, McClell. ; Sideru, Eurytnyctera, 
Thyrsoidea, Limamureena, Polyuranodon, Pcecilopkis, Gymnomurtena, 
Priodonophis, and Ta-niophis, Kaup ; Pseudomurcena, Johnson. 

Body moderately or exceedingly elongate. Gill-openings narrow. 
A tubular nostril on either side of the upper surface of the snout; 
the posterior nostril a round foramen between the eyes or opposite 
the antero-superior edge of the eye, it may or may not be furnished 
with a tube. Teeth well developed and acute or molariform ; the 
maxillary teeth may be in one or t\vo rows. Dorsal fin elevated 
or not so ; the end of the tail surrounded by fin, which is occasion- 
ally rudimentary. Pectorals absent. 

Geof/rapMcal Distribution. Seas of tropical and temperate regions : 
a few species ascend tidal rivers. 

The dentition in some of these fishes alters considerably with 
age, whilst in others it is not constant in every individual of the 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Teeth pointed. The posterior nostrils not 

tubular. 

a. Tail and trunk of about the same length. 
Teeth biserial. Black, with numerous 

yellow dots 1. M. meleagris, p. 70. 

Teeth biserial. Brownish yellow, with 

fine white spots, streaks, or marks, 

which may be lost in the adult 2. M. tile, p. 70. 

Teeth biserial. Greenish olive, with 

silvery dots along the lateral line 3. M. sathete, p. 77. 

Teeth uniserial. Dark purplish, covered 

with fine white spots 4. M, punctata, p. 77. 

Teeth uniserial. Yellow, with 18 to 20 

dark bands, 3 of which are on the 

head 5. M. rueppettii, p. 77. 



MURjENIDJE. 75 

Teeth uniserial. About 16 dark bands 

encircle body, none being on the head . . 6. M. reticularis, p. 78. 
Teeth uniserial. From 28 to 35 more or 

less complete dark bauds ; head with [p. 78. 

dark marks 7. M. jwnctatofasciata, 

Teeth uniserial. Dark spots on head, 

body, and fins, separated by narrow 

light lines or interspaces 8. M. tessellata, p. 78. 

Teeth uniserial. Olive-brown ; a few 

dark spots on head, and many irre- 
gular spots on body and fins 9. M.fonbriata, p. 79. 

Teeth uniserial. Brown, covered with 

fine spots on head and body, amongst 

jwhich are reticulated yellow lines ; 

a black spot usually at the gill- [p. 79. 

opening , 10. M. pseudothyrsoidea, 

Teeth uniserial. Light brown, covered 

with irregular dark blotches and 

usually reticulated lines, most dis- 
tinct in the posterior half of the 

body 11. M. undulata, p. 80. 

Teeth uniserial ; vomerine band bifur- 
cated in front. Light brown, marbled 

with darker ; gill- open ing in a black 

spot; fins usually with a light outer [p. 80. 

edge 12. M. jlavimarginata, 

Teeth uniserial. Brownish black or 

blotched 13. M. afra, p. 80. 

b. Tail at least twice as long as trunk. 
Teeth biserial. Uniform brown ; the fins 

nearly black 14. M . macriira, p. 81. 

B. Teeth in jaws pointed ; globular on 

vomer. 

Teeth biserial. Light brown, covered 
with closely-set purplish spots and 
light intermediate lines forming a 
network ; anal fin sometimes with 
a light outer edge 15. M, thyrsoidea, p. 81. 

Teeth in jaws uniserial. Grey, with ar- 
borescent black markings and mar- 
bling 16. M. picta, p. 82. 

C. Teeth generally obtuse or molariform. 

Tail one third of the total length. Brown, 

with from 30 to 100 narrow white 

or yellow rings 17. M. sebra, p. 82. 

Tail a little shorter than the trunk. 

Brown, with from 20 to 25 dark 

blotches along the side, with some 

white spots in the centre of each 18. M. nebulosa, p. 88. 

Tail one third longer than the trunk. 

Brown, with from 25 to 30 narrow, 

yellow, whole or half bands 19. M. polyzona, p. 83. 

Tail about as long as trunk. Black 20. M. nigra, p. 84 



76 TELEOSTET. rilYSOSTOMl. 



73. (1.) Mnrsena meleagris. 

Muraena meleagris, Shaw, Nat. Misc. p. 220, and General Zool. iv, 
pt. i, p. 32 ; Day) Fish. India, p. 608 (see synon.). 

Length of head contained 3g to 3f times in the distance between 
the end of the snout and the vent ; tail rather longer than the 
trunk. Eyes small, 2| diameters from the end of the snout ; an- 
terior nasal tubes very short. Length of cleft of mouth 2f in the 
length of the head. The mouth can be completely closed. Gill- 
opening narrow. Teeth in two rows, except on the vomer and 
on the sides of the mandible. Canines rather small. Colour 
brownish black, covered with numerous yellow dots that are smaller 
than the eye. 

ffab. From the east coast of Africa, the Seychelles, and the 
Mauritius throughout the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and the Pacific. This species attains a large size. 



74. (2.) Muraena tile. (Fig. 31.) 

Mursenophis tile, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 18, 3G3. 
Mursena tile, Day, Fish. India, p. G68, pi. clxx, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Length of head 3f to 4| in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; tail rather shorter than the trunk, or about 
the same length. Eyes rather small, about 2 to 2| diameters from 



/If 



Fig. 31. Mitrana- tile and upper teeth. 

end of snout and situated slightly nearer to the angle of the mouth 
than to the end of the snout; length of cleft of mouth about 3g in 
that of the head ; anterior nasal tubes short. Gill-opening about as 
wide as the eye. Teeth in two rows, except at the sides in the 
lower jaw; canines small. Colour brownish yellow or greenish, 
becoming lighter beneath; the body covered with small white spots, 
specks, or marks, which sometimes have a dark border, or they 
may be entirely absent in adults. 

Hab. Bourbon, seas and estuaries of Bengal to the Malay Archi- 
pelago. M. tile ascends tidal rivers and is common in the Hooghly 
at Calcutta, where it attains about 2 feet in length. 



MURYENIDJE. 77 

75. (3.) Muraena sathete. 

Murjenophis sathete, Ham. Huch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 17, 363. 
Mtmeua sathete, Day, Fish. India, p. G68 (see synon.). 

Length of head 4| to 5 in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent : tail rather longer (considerably according to 
McClelland) than the trunk. Eyes small, 2J to 2| diameters from 
the end of the snout, 2 apart, and midway between the angle of the 
mouth and the end of the snout. Length of the cleft of the mouth 
about 3if times in the length of the head ; jaws nearly equal in length 
anteriorly. Teeth the maxillary, anterior vomerine, and anterior 
mandibular teeth biserial, the rest uniserial. Colour Head, body, 
and fins dark greenish olive, becoming of a greenish yellow infe- 
riorly ; silvery dots along the lateral line. 

Hob. Bay of Bengal, Piuang. 

76. (4.) Muraena punctata. 

Gymnothorax punctatus, Bl. Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 526. 

Muraena punctata, Day, Fish. India, p. 669, pi. clxxiii, fig. 1 (see 

synon.). 
Calamaia paum, Tel. 

Length of head 3| in the distance between the end of the snout 
and the vent ; tail rather longer than the trunk. Eyes of moderate 
size, situated midway between the angle of the mouth and end of 
the snout ; anterior nasal tubes about half as long as the orbit. 
Length of cleft of mouth equal to half the length of the head ; the 
mouth can be completely closed. Gill-opening about twice as large 
as the orbit. Teeth in a single row, from 18 to 22 on each side 
of the mandible, the anterior longest. Canines of moderate size. 
Colour purplish black, with black streaks radiating from the eye ; 
the whole of the fish covered with pure white spots each having a 
dark edge, they are largest posteriorly, but nowhere exceed the size 
of the pupil of the eye. 

Hob. Coromandel coast of India. This fish attains to a large 
size. Ilussell observed that it was not eaten, and it was considered 
to be of a poisonous nature, whilst its flesh smelt very rank even 
when it was just captured. 

77. (5.) Muraena rueppellii. 

Dalophis rupelliae, McClelland, Cal. Journ. Nat. Hist, v, p. 213. 
Mureena ruppellii, Day, Fish. India, p. 069 (see synon.). 

Length of head 3J- to 3| in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; tail about one fifth longer than the trunk. 
Eyes rather above half the length of the snout, and situated nearly 
midway between angle of mouth and end of snout ; anterior nasal 
tubes scarcely half the length of the eye. Snout slightly com- 
pressed ; extent of cleft of mouth 2|- in the length of the head. 
Gill-opening about as wide as the eye. Teeth in a single row 
(the young may have one or two extra teeth forming an inner 
maxillary row), from 20 to 23 in each ramus of mandible ; canines 



78 TELEOSTEI. PI1YSOSTOMI. 

of moderate size ; the mouth can be completely closed. Colour 
yellowish, with from 18 to 20 black rings encircling the head and 
body ; they are narrower than the ground-colour ; the first three 
are on the head, the others sometimes become less distinct as age 
increases. 

Hub. Andamans and Malay Archipelago. 

78. (6.) Muraena reticularis. 

Gymnothorax reticularis, Block, Ausl. Fische, t. 416. 
Mursena reticularis, Day, Fish. India, p. GC9 (see synon.). 

Length of head 3j in the distance between the end of the snout 
and the vent ; tail a little longer than the trunk. Eyes diameter 
two thirds of the length of the snout, situated rather nearer angle 
of mouth than end of snout. Anterior nasal tubes very short ; 
snout short and very slightly compressed. Extent of cleft of 
mouth one third of the length of the head. Gill-opening of about 
the same size as the eye. Teeth in a single row, some being 
slightly serrated ; about 13 in each ramus of mandible ; the canines 
small ; the mouth can be completely closed. Colour head and 
back spotted and dotted with brown ; about 16 dark cross bands 
on the body, wider than the ground-colour, and most distinct in 
the lower half of the body and on the dorsal fin ; the first well- 
marked ventral baud is behind the gill-opening. 

Hob. Seas of India to China and Japan. 

79. (7.) Muraena punctatofasciata. 
Gymnothorax punctato-fasciatus, Bleaker, Gymnoth. Intl. Ar<:h. p. 107, 

and Ail. Ich. iv, p. 99, pi. clxxv,. fig. 4. 
Mursena punctato-fasciata, Day, Fish. India, p. GG9, pi. clxix, fig. 4 

(see synon.). 
Kills, Marathi. 

Length of head 3| to 4| in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; tail slightly longer than the trunk. Eyes 
situated midway between the end of the narrow snout and the angle 
of the mouth, two thirds the length of the snout. The mouth can be 
completely closed ; the extent of its cleft equals one third of the 
length of the head. Gill-opening about the same size as the eye. 
Body rather slender. Teeth pointed and in a single row, without 
any basal lobe, occasionally there are 2 or 3 teeth forming an 
inner maxillary row ; canines of moderate size ; 16 to 17 teeth on 
each side of the mandible. Colour reddish brown, darkest along 
the back ; from 28 to 35 dark, more or less complete, rings of an 
irregular character on the body and fins. Head and ground-colour 
between the rings with blotches, spots, and fine lines. 

Hub. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

80. (8.) Muraena tessellata. 

Mursena tessellata, RicJtardsoti, Voy. Sulphur, Ich. p. 109, t. Iv, figs. 

6-8 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 070, pi. clxxi, fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Kyouk nga phayoon. Arracan. 



MUB^ENIIXE. 70 

Length of head to gill-opening 3 to 3| in the distance between 
the end of the smout and the vent ; tail slightly longer or shorter 
than the trunk. Snout compressed. Eyes situated slightly before 
the middle of the distance between the angle of the mouth and the 
end of the snout. Length of cleft of mouth 2 \ to 2^ in the dis- 
tance between the end of the snout and the gill-opening. Anterior 
nasal tubes half as long as eye. Teeth large, compressed, pointed, 
and in the adult in a single row : occasionally in the young there is 
a short internal row in the maxilla. Fins dorsal commences 
above the gill-opening. Colour dark polygonal or rounded spots, 
which are separated by narrow light lines or interspaces on the 
head, body, and fins ; most or all of the spots are wider than the 
intervening areas. 

Hab. Prom the east coast of Africa and the Mauritius, through 
the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and China. 

81. (9.) Muraena fimbriata. 

Murama fimbriata, Bennett, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 168 ; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 670, pi. clxxii, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

Chukapdm, Tel. 

Length of head 3 to 3| in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; tail one third longer than the trunk. Eye 
rather nearer the angle of the mouth than the end of the narrow 
snout, from which last it is distant from If to 2 diameters. Extent 
of cleft of mouth equal to one third of the length of the head. 
Gill-opening smaller than the eye. Teeth pointed, and in a single 
row, without any basal lobe, occasionally there are 2 or 3 teeth 
in a second inner maxillary row. Colour olive-brown, with a 
few black spots on the head, and numerous irregularly formed ones 
on the body, dorsal and anal fins; many of the spots take a 
vertical direction, and a few are larger than the eye. Pins with a 
white* edge. In some examples the spots are in 2 or 3 regular 
longitudinal rows. 

Hab. Madagascar, Coromandel Coast of India, Andaman Islands 
to the Malay Archipelago. 

82. (10.) Mursena pseudothyrsoidea. 

Muraena pseudothyrsoidea, Bleeker, Balavia, Nat. Tijdschr. iii, p. 778, 
and Murom, p. 44 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 070, pi. clxxiii, fig. 3 (see 
synon.). 

Jlesdl, Marathi. 

Length of head 3J to 3 in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; tail a little shorter than the trunk. Eyes 
nearer end of snout than angle of mouth, \\ to 2 diameters in the 
length of the snout, and l- apart. Cleft of mouth 2\ in the length 
of the head. The gill-opening about one third wider than the 
eye. Teeth in a single row, about 18 or 20 on each side of 
the mandible, the 2 anterior being canines and of moderate 
size ; one or two teeth of anterior vomerine scries subulate and 



80 TELEOSTEI. PUYSOSTOMI. 

larger than those in the preraaxillaries. The mouth can be com- 
pletely shut. Colour brownish, covered with fine dark spots on 
the head and body, intermixed with reticulated yellow lines, most 
distinct in the caudal region. Sometimes a white edge to fins. 
Gill-opening usually surrounded by a black spot. 

Hab. Coasts of Sind and India to the Malay Archipelago. 

83. (11.) Mnraena undulata. 

Muraenophis undulata, Lacfyede, H. N. Poiss. v, pp. 629, 644. 
Muraena undulata, Da;/, Fish. India, p. 671, pi. clxxi, fig. 5 (young), 
& pi, clxxiii, fig. 2 (adult) (see synon.). 

Length of head 3^ to 3j in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; tail a little longer than the trunk. Eyes 
If to 2 diameters from the end of the snout, and about midway 
between the angle of the mouth and the end of the snout. Length 
of cleft of mouth 2 to 21 in the length of the head. Gill-opening 
about as wide as the eye. Anterior nasal tube short. The mouth 
cannot be completely shut ; snout pointed. Teeth in a single row, 
occasionally one or two additional, forming an inner row in the 
maxilla ; normally 4 pairs of canines in the mandibles, and 18 to 
20 teeth in either ramus of mandible ; two canines in the maxilla. 
Colour light brownish, covered with irregularly sized blotches, 
and usually with light reticulated lines over the body, most distinct 
posteriorly ; no black spot at gill-opening ; no white edge to fins. 

Hab. Red Sea, east coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago and Pacific Ocean. 

84. (12.) Murasna flavimarginata. 

Muraena flavimarginata, Rilppell, Atl. p. 119, pi. xxx, fig. 3; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 671 (see synon.). 

Length of head 3| to 4 in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent : tail rather shorter than the trunk. Eyes 
small, from 2 to 2| diameters in the length of the snout, and 
situated about midway between the angle of the mouth and the end 
of the snout. Anterior nasal tubes very short: snout rather 
elevated. Length of cleft of mouth 2| in the length of the head. 
The mouth can be completely closed. Gill-opening wider than the 
eye. Teeth in a single row, except the vomerine band, which is 
bifurcated anteriorly; canines of moderate size. Colour light 
brown or yellowish brown, marbled or spotted with darker : the 
head and end of tail nearly black. Gill-opening in a black spot. 
Fins usually with a light edge. 

Hab. lied Sea, Seychelles Archipelago, Bourbon, Mauritius, and 
seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

85. (13.) Muraena afra. 
Gymnotnorax afer, Block, Ausl. Fischc, t. 417. 
Muraena afra, Day, Fish. India, p. 071 (see synon.). 



81 

Length of head 3| in the distance between the end of the snout 
and the vent ; tail slightly longer than the trunk. Eyes diameter 
about half the length of the snout ; situated slightly nearer to angle 
of mouth than to end of snout. Length of cleft of rnouth about 
2| in the length of the head. Snout pointed ; anterior nasal tubes 
about half as long as the orbit. Gill-opening not quite so wide as 
the eye. Teeth in old examples in one row, but in the young 
usually in two rows in both jaws. Coloui a light ground, blotched 
and marked all over with brown, or of a general brownish black. 

Hah. Recorded from Tranquebar (Bl. Schn.), Indian Ocean, 
Australia, and tropical parts of the Atlantic. 

86. (14.) Murama macrura. (Fig. 32.) 

Murnena macrurus, Bleeker, Batavia, Nat. Tijdsch. vii, p. 324 ; Day, 
fish. India, p. 072, pi. clxx, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

Seram pambu, Tamil. 

Length of head from snout to gill-opening one fourth of the 
distance between the end of the snout and the vent ; tail from 1$ 
to twice as long as the trunk. Eyes situated in the front half of 




Fig. 32. Munena, macrura and upper teeth. 

the distance between the angle of the mouth and the end of the 
snout, about 2 diameters from end of snout. Teeth pointed, those 
in the maxilla and mandible in two rows : canines badly developed. 
Fins the dorsal anteriorly is low and densely enveloped in skin ; 
it commences midway between the gape of the mouth and the gill- 
opening. Colour uniform brown, the fins tinged with black. 

The variety Imyisrima, Kaup, has the body comparatively longer 
than in macrura. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. It attains upwards 
of 10 feet in length. 

87. (15.) Muraena thyrsoidea. 

Muraena thyrsoidea, Ilidiardson, Voy. Sulphni; Ich. p. Ill, pi. xlcx, 
tig. 1 ; Day, Fisfi. India, p. 672, pi. clxxii, tig. 3 (see synon.). 



82 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

Length of head 3 in the distance between the end of the snout 
and the vent; tail from one sixth to one third longer than the 
trunk. Eyes lj diameters from end of snout, to which they are 
nearer than to the angle of the mouth. Anterior nasal tubes 
equal in length to two thirds of the vertical diameter of the eye. 
Length of cleft of mouth 3^ in the length of the head. Gill- 
openings rather larger than the eye. Teeth conical and laterally 
biserial on the maxilla; about 23 on each ramus of the mandible; 
vomerine teeth globular and in two rows ; no large canines ; the 
mouth cannot be completely shut. F'ois dorsal more than two 
thirds as high as the body. Colour light brown, covered all over 
with closely-set purplish spots, amongst which are light lines 
forming a network ; gill-opening sometimes with a black mark 
around it ; no white edge to fins. 

Hob. Andamans and Burma to the Malay Archipelago, China 
and the Tonga Islands. 

88. (16.) Muraena picta. 

Mursena picta, AM, De Mur. et Ophich. in TJmnb. Dixs. iii, p. 0, t. ii, 
fig. 2; Day, Fish, fndia, p. 672, pi. clxxii, tig. 4 (see synon.). 

Length of head 3| in the distance between the end of the snout 
and the vent ; tail about as long as the trunk. Eyes small, about 
2 diameters from the end of the snout, and situated over about the 
centre of the cleft of mouth, which latter is about one third of the 
length of the head : the mouth cannot be completely closed. Ante- 
rior nasal tube not quite so long as the vertical diameter of the orbit. 
Gill-opening about as large as the orbit. Teeth maxillary and 
premaxillary teeth in a single row; vomerine ones posteriorly 
rounded and generally anteriorly bifurcated in a row ; the anterior 
2 or 3 vomerine teeth are rather curved, sharp, not subulate, and 
about the same size as those in the premaxillaries. Mandibular teeth 
in one row, except anteriorly where it is double. Colour there are 
many different forms of colour, usually the ground tint is grey or 
greyish yellow covered with black spots, which are connected together 
by a network of dark lines, causing the fish to appear marbled. 

Hob. East coast of Africa, Madagascar, Bourbon, and seas of 
India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 



89. (17.) Muraena zebra. 

Gymnomursena zebra, Shatv, Gen. Zool. iv, p. 31. 
Mura3na zebra, Dai/, Fish. India, p. 673 (see synon.). 

Length of head 6| to 7| in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; tail one third of the total length. Eyes small, 
and rather nearer the end of the snout than to the angle of the 
mouth. Teeth consist of bands of obtuse molars. Colour rich 
dark brown, ornamented with from 30 to 100 narrow white or 
yellow rings, which are sometimes incomplete. 



83 

Hub. Red Sea and east coast of Africa, through the seas of India 
to the Malay Archipelago and the Pacific. This species attains a 
large size. 

90. (18.) MnraBna nebulosa. (Fig. 33.) 

Murnena ne.bulosa, AM, De Mur. et Ophich. p. 5, t. i, fig. 2; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 073, pi. clxxii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Sattlinga Pain, Tel. 

Length of head 4| to 4| in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; tail a little shorter than the trunk. Eyes 
nearly 2 diameters from end of snout and situated midway between 
it and cleft of mouth, which last equals about one third of the 
length of the head. Gill-opening rather smaller than the eye. 
Teeth most of the teeth obtuse or molariform. Fins vertical 
ones rather well developed and commencing a little in front of gill- 
opening. Colour brownish or olive, darkest along the back. A 




, Fig. 33. Mur&na nebulosa aiid upper teeth. 

row of from 20 to 25 black blotches along the upper surface of the 
head and back extending on to the dorsal fin, and nearly as wide 
as the ground-colour ; there are some white spots in the centre of 
each. A similar row of blotches along the abdominal surface. 
Intermediate ground-colour of fish covered with small black stars, 
spots, or vermiculated lines. Vertebra? 65/57. 

Hob. Eed Sea, Madagascar, Bourbon, Seychelles Archipelago, 
through the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is said to attain 5 feet 
in length. 



91. (19.) Murana polyzona. 

Muraena polyzona, Richardson, Voy, Sulphur, Ich. p. 112, pi. Iv, 
figs. 11-14; Day, Fish. India, p. 673, pi. clxix, fig. 5 (erroneously 
marked M. schultzei) (see synon.). 

Budlde pdm, Tarn. 

Length of head one fourth of the distance between the end of 
the snout and the vent; tail about one third longer than body. 
Eyes of moderate size, placed about midway between angle of 
mouth and end of the snout. Length of cleft of mouth 3| in the 
length of the head. Gill-opening small, scarcely so large as the eye. 
Teeth with rounded crowns, their form changing considerably with 

o2 



84 TBLBOSTBI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

age. Fiiis dorsal rudimentary, commencing a little behind the 
vertical from the branchial opening. Colour deep brown, encircled 
with 25-30 fine narrow (yellow) whole or half bands, which 
usually increase in width as they descend. 

Hab. Eed Sea, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and the Pacific. 

92. (20.) Muraena nigra. 

Mursena nigra, Day, I. Z. S. 1870, p. 702, and Fish. India, p. 674, 
pi. clxxi, tig. 3. 

Length of head 4 in the distance between the end of the snout 
and the vent; tail nearly one half of the total length. Eyes 
situated nearer to the snout than to the angle of the mouth, .small, 
diameter half that of the snout ; anterior tubular nostril of moderate 
length. Gill-opening about as wide as the eye. Cleft of mouth 
equals one third of length of the head; the mouth cannot be 
completely closed. Teeth biserial, except in the mandible, where 
there are three rows in some places ; all are obtuse except those of 
the inner maxillary row, which are pointed and finer than the outer 
row; premaxillary and vomerine teeth of equal size and with 
globular heads ; mandible with about 20 teeth on each side. Fim 
dorsal and anal moderately developed ; the former commencing 
just behind a vertical line from the gill-opening, and half as high 
as the body. Colour uniform black, no light edge to the fins. 

Hab. Andamans. The specimen, 16 inches long, was discovered 
alive under a large stone at low water at Port Blair. 

2. Genus GY1INOMURJENA, Lacepede. 

Syu. Muranoblenna, Lace"p. ; Ichthyophis, Lesson ; Uropterygius 
RUpp. ; Channomurcena, Richardson. 

Gill-openings of moderate width or narrow. Two pairs of 
nostrils on the upper surface of the snout, the posterior being a 
round foramen, or with a short tube. Teeth small, pointed, and 
numerous. Fins absent, except a rudimentary one round the end 
of the tail. Scales absent. 

Geographical Distribution. Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 
Tail nearly twice as long as trunk. Brownish, 

with dark blotches 1. G. tigrina, p. 84. 

Tail rather longer than trunk. Grey, marbled 

with arborescent dark lines 2. G. marmorata, p. 85. 

93. (1.) Gymnomuraea tigrina. 

Ichthyophis tigrinus, Lesson, Mem. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, iv, 

p. 399. 
Gymnomurjena tigrina, Day, Fish. India, p. 674 (see synon.). 



85 

Length of head 4% in the distance between the end of the snout 
and the vent ; tail nearly twice as long as the body. Eyes small. 
Posterior nostril slightly tubular in the adult. Extent of cleft of 
mouth 24 in the length of the head. Teeth no distinct canines ; 
the maxillary and anterior mandibular teeth in two rows. Colour 
brownish, with various sized irregularly shaped or rounded black 
spots and blotches. 

Hob. East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago and beyond. An example in the British Museum from the 
Mauritius is 4 feet in length. 

94. (2.) Gynmomnraena marmorata. (Fig. 34.) 

Gymnomimena marmorata, Lacepede, H. N. Poiss. v, pp. 648, 650 ; 
Day, Fish. India, p. 674, pi. clxxii, fig. 5 (see synon.), 

Length of head 4 to 4^ in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; taif rather longer than the trunk. Eyes 
small, about H or 1| diameters from the end of the snout, to 




Fig. 34. Gymnomurcena marmorata. 

which they are nearer than to the angle of the mouth. Extent of 
cleft of mouth from 2| to 2| in the length of the head. The gill- 
opening wider than the eye. Anterior nasal tubes short, the 
posterior nostrils with a raised edge in adults. Teeth pointed, in 
a band in each jaw, the inner row the larger ; no large canines ; 
in a single row in the vomer, the anterior two rather enlarged and 
acicular. Fins the vertical fins only exist round the end of the 
tail, the fin-rays being rudimentary. Colour brownish grey, marbled 
all over with arborescent dark lines. The variety O. xantliapterus 
has the fins yellow. 

Hal>. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 



86 TBLEOSJET. PIIYSOSTOMT. 

Second group. MUBJENIDJE PLATYSCHIST^. 
3. Genus ANGUILLA, G'uvier. 

Syn. Murcena (sp.), Artedi ; Terpolepis (pt.), McClelland ; Panmytiillu, 
Bleeker. 

Gill-openings of moderate extent, situated near the base of the 
pectoral fins. Upper jaw not projecting beyond the lower. 
Teeth small and in bands. The dorsal fin commences at some distance 
behind the nape ; pectorals present. Small scales present, which 
are imbedded in the skin. 

Geographical Distribution. Fishes of this genus appear to be 
distributed in fresh waters throughout the habitable globe, being 
reputed to be only absent in the Arctic regions, and probably in 
cold districts such as Turkestan. 

Numerous species have been recorded and more are almost 
yearly being added to the present mass of synonyms. There 
appear to be two distinct forms in India, but they are subject to 
variation in the relative position of the origin of the dorsal fin to 
the vent ; and likewise, but to a minor extent, in the character of 
the bands of teeth and the position of the eye. The comparative 
size of the bodies of these fish also varies with age and the existence 
of suitable food in the localities they inhabit. 

Eels attain a large size in India, but not the immense length 
(300 feet) attributed to those of the Ganges by Pliny. Being 
seldom eaten except by the lower classes, there is but little demand 
for them. " The natives have an easy way of taking them. They 
leave small-mouthed earthen pots with a bit of sheepskin in each 
over night, and draw them up in the morning, with their fish lying 
coiled up most comfortably in them " (Thomas, ' Tank Angling in 
India,' p. 100). In Java the eel, according to Bleeker, is considered 
by the natives to be a serpent, and they say it attacks small goats 
and even children. It migrates overland from one river to another 
when desirous of change. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Origin of dorsal fin situated about midway 

between the gill-opening and origin of 

anal fin 1. A. bengalensis. p. 80. 

Origin of dorsal fin situated above, rather in 

front of, or slightly behind the vent .... 2. A. bicolor, p. 87. 

95. (1.) Anguilla bengalensis. (Fig. 35.) 
Muraena anguilla, Ham. Bvch. Fish. Gatu/ef;, p. 22. 
Munena bengalensis, Gray fy Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. (from II. S.'s 

MSS.). 
Anguilla bengalensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 659. pi. clxviii, fig. 1 (see 

synon.). 

Ahtr, Marathi ; T'eUangoo, Tamil ; Nya-mce-town/, Arracan ; <SV///,s r,nd 
Cuchia, Ohittagong. 



MUR^ENIDJE. 87 

B. xii. D. 250-305. P. 18. A. 220-250. C. 10-12. 

Length of head 3 to 3^ in the distance between the snout and 
the vent ; length of tail three sevenths more than that of the 
trunk. The distance between the gill-opening and the origin of 
the dorsal fin is one third or one fourth more than the length of 
the head ; that between the origin of dorsal and anal fins equals 




Fig. 35. Anguilla bengalensis and upper teeth. 

the length of the head. Head rather broader than the body; 
snout not broad. Lower jaw prominent. The cleft of the mouth 
is nearly or quite one third as long as the head, and extends 
behind the posterior edge of the orbit ; diameter of latter 2^ in 
the length of the snout. Lips well developed. Teeth the vomerine 
band does not extend posteriorly so far as the maxillary one, the 
mandibular teeth divided by a longitudinal groove. Fins pec- 
toral equals about two sevenths of the length of the head. Colour 
brownish above, becoming yellowish on the sides and beneath ; 
the whole of the upper surface of the body, in some examples, 
covered with black spots and blotches, occasionally continued on 
to the dorsal fin, which has a light edging; anal with a dark mar- 
ginal band and a light outer edging. 

" It is an irritable creature, swelling its head whenever angered ; 
and constantly, when it can, buries itself in putrescent carcases." 
(Ham. SucJi.) 

Hob. Islands in the Indian Ocean, continent of India and 
Burma. This eel is common at the Andaman Islands. It probably 
ranges to the Malay Archipelago, Formosa, and the Pacific. It 
attains four feet and upwards in length, and is much rarer on the 
hills than in the plains. 

96. (2.) Anguilla bicolor. 

Anguilla bicolor, McClelland, Cal. Jottrn. Nat. Hist, v, p. 178, t. 6, 
fig. 1 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 6GO, pi. clxvii, fig. 3, pi. clxviii, fig. 2. 
Jce-fa/i-dah, Andamanese. 

B. xii. D. 220-245. P. 18. A. 200-220. C. 10-12. 
Length of head 3| to 31 in the distance between the snout and 
the vent ; length of tail one fourth to one sixth more than that of 
the trunk. Eyes rather variable in size, usually about 2^ dia- 



88 TEi/EOSTEI. PBTSOSTOMI. 



in the length of the snout. Head very slightly broader thnn 
the body ; snout rather broad ; lower jaw scarcely longer than the 
upper. Extent of cleft of mouth equal to rather above one third 
of the length of the head, and extending to at least one diameter of 
the orbit behind the eye in the adult, to below it in the imma- 
ture. Lips thick. Teeth bands of nearly equal width, the 
vomerine reaching nearly as far backwards as those on the maxilla. 
fins dorsal commences above the vent or slightly before or behind 
it. Colour of a dark olive above, becoming yellowish beneath. 

Hal. Coasts of India to the Andamans and the Malay Archi- 
pelago. 

4. Genus CONGROMUEJENA, Kaup. 

Syn. Gnathophis, Kaup ; Ophisoma and Ariosoma, Swainson. 

Gill-openings wide. Eyes large. Cleft of mouth not extending 
behind the middle of the eye. Bones in fore part of head with 
large mucous canals. Posterior nostril patent and opposite the 
middle of the front edge of the eye; the anterior nostril tubular. 
Teeth small and pointed, forming bands, those in the jaws not con- 
stituting a cutting-edge ; vomerine band elongated and narrow. 
Dorsal fin commencing nearly opposite the gill-opening; the 
pectoral and also the vertical fins (which are continuous round the 
tail) well developed. Scaleless. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and subtropical seas. 

97. (1.) Congronmraena anago. (Fig. 36.) 

Conger anago, Temm. Sf Kcltley. Fauna Japan., Places, p. 259, pi. 11 3, 

fig. 1. 
Congromursena anago, Hay, Fish. India, p. CCO, pi. clxix, fig. 2 (see 

synon.). 

B. viii. P. 14. D. 170-196. A. 122-145. C. 10. 

Length of head 2 to 2| in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent; length of trunk about one third less than that 
of the tail. Cleft of mouth 3 to 3^ in the length of the head, 




Fig. 36. Congromurana anago and upper teeth. 

terminating below the middle of the eye. Eyes large, 1 to 1 j 
diameters in the length of the snout, and two thirds ot a diameter 



apart. Lips rather thick ; upper jaw the longer. Teeth of ahoufc 
equal size ; the voinerine band extending backwards to about half 
the length of the maxillary band. Fins dorsal commences slightly 
behind the gill-opening ; pectoral nearly half as long as the head. 
Colour brownish along the back, becoming dull white beneath. 
Fins yellow, the vertical ones with a narrow black edging. Upper 
half of pectoral occasionally stained with black. 

Hal. Coromandel coast of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

5. Genus UEOCONGER, Kaup. 

Syn. Congerodon, Kaup. 

GihVopemngs rather wide. Muciferous cavities on jaws mode- 
rately developed. Hind nostril in the form of a slit opposite the 
upper third of the orbit ; front nostril not tubular. Eyes rather 
large. Cleft of mouth reaching to rather behind the middle of 
the orbit. Teeth fiue, conical, and subequal in size ; those in the 
jaws biserial ; the vomerine teeth in a single elongated row and 
small. The dorsal fin commences above the root of the pectoral : all 
the fins well developed. Scaleless. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago, China, and the Philippines. 

98. (1.) Uroconger lepturus. (Fig. 37.) 

Congrus lepturus, Richardson, Voy. Sulphur, Ich. p. 106, pi. 56, figs. 

1-6. 
Uroconger lepturus, Day, Fish. India, p. 061, pi. clxx, fig. 1 (see 

synon.). 

Tolaka, Marathi. 

B. ix. P. 10. D. 200-220. C. 10. A. 120-150. 

Length of head 2^ to 2| in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; length of trunk about half that of the tail. 
Cleft of mouth rather oblique, and ceasing below the hind edge of 
the eye ; the extent equals about two fifths of the length of the head. 




Fig. 37. Uroconger leptunis and upper teeth. 

Eyes 2 to 2 1 diameters in the length of the snout, and 1 to 1^ 
diameters apart. Snout depressed, with a row of slit-like openings 
above the edge of the upper lip. Teeth rather large and unequal 



90 TELEOSTEI. PIITSOSTOMI. 

in size ; those in the jaws in two rows, placed a slight distance 
apart, the inner row somewhat the larger ; vomerine teeth in 
a single pointed row about equal in size to the inner maxillary 
row, one of the anterior teeth is sometimes enlarged. Fins the 
dorsal commences above the base of the pectoral, which latter 
equals about one fourth of the length of the head. Colour 
brownish above, becoming dull white beneath : a row of white- 
edged glandular openings along the lateral line. Vertical fins 
edged with black. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China. 

. 6. Genus MURJENESOX, McClelland. 
Syn. Cynoponticus, Costa, and Brachyconger, Bleeker. 

Gill-openings wide, approximating to the abdomen. Snout 
rather elongated, the upper jaw the longer. Two pairs of nostrils, 
the posterior of which are opposite to the upper part or centre of 
the orbit. Teeth in the jaws rather fine, with some canines 
anteriorly; vomer with several rows of teeth, the middle of which 
are large and conical or compressed. Dorsal fin commencing 
above the gill-opening; it, the anal, caudal, and pectoral well 
developed. Vent a long distance from the gill-opening. Scaleless. 

The comparative proportions of the parts in these fishes vary 
considerably with age, season, and food. 
Geographical Distribution. Tropical Seas. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Vomerine teeth large, and without basal lobes. 1. M. talabon, p. 90. 

Vomerine teeth slender, the posterior ones with 
basaj lobes ; the external mandibular row 
directed outwards 2. M. talabonoides, p. 91. 

Vomerine teeth large, and having a basal lobe ; 
external mandibular row not directed out- 
wards 3. M. einerem, p. 91 . 

99. (1.) Mnrsenesox talabon. (Fig. 38.) 

Miiraena talabon, Cucier, Iteyne An. ed. 2, ii, p. 350, note 4. 
Mursenesox talabon, Duy, Fish. India, p. 061, pi. clxviii, fig. 5 
(see synon.). 

Tala-bon and Culim-ponn, Tel. ; Kotah or Kidivi-pambon, Tamil ; Thong- 
bonto, Arracan ; Ky la nmti-hee, Chittagcng ; Nya thembau loick, Burmese. 

B. xvii-xix. P. 15-1(3. D. 270-285. C. 10. A. 195-210. 

Length of head one third of the distance between end of snout 
and vent ; length of trunk about one fourth less than that of the 
tail. Extent of cleft of mouth about half of length of head. Eyes 
diameter one third of length of snout, distance apart 1 diameter. 
Teeth on the vomer consisting of a row of moderately large, lanceo- 



01 

late, widely set ones, without any basal lobes ; mandibular teeth 
much smaller than the vomerine, and those in the external row 
not directed outwards. fins the dorsal commences a short distance 
before the base of the pectoral ; the anal under about the fifty-filth 
dorsal ray, just posterior to the vent. Colour upper surface of 




Fig. 33. Murcenesox tulabon. 

back and head olive, becoming brown posteriorly ; abdomen dull 
white, becoming silvery inferiorly. The throat, cheeks, and gill- 
covers with golden reflections; vertical fins with dark margins. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago ; attaining ten feet 
or more in length. 

100. (2.) Muraenesox talabonoides. 

Conger talabonoides, Sleeker, Bataria, Verhand. Nat. Ver. xxv, Mur. 

p. 20. 
Muroinesox talabcuoides, Day, Fish. India, p. GG2, pi. clxviii, fig. 3 

(see synon.). . . 

B. xviii-xix. P. 15. D. 245-250. C. 10. A. 200-205. 

Length of head one third of the distance between end of snout and 
vent ; length of trunk rather less than that of the tail. Extent of 
the cleft of the mouth about half of the length of the head. Eyes 
diameter 3^ to 3j in the length of the snout, and 1 diameter 
apart. Teeth the anterior on the vomer are straight, slender, 
compressed, and elongated, while the posterior have a small basal 
lobe in front aud behind ; the outer mandibular teeth are directed 
outwards. Fins the dorsal commences in advance of the base of 
the pectoral, the latter fin contained 3f times in the length of the 
head. Colour silvery, becoming white on the abdomen ; vertical 
fins yellowish, with a narrow black outer border. 

Hob. Seas and . estuaries of India to the Malay Archipelago. 
This is the rarest of the three forms of this genus found in India, j 

101. (3.) MuraBnesox cinereus. 

Murana cinerea, Forsk. Dcsc. An Jin. pp. x and 22. 
Mununesox cinereus, Day, Fish. India, p. 002, pi. clxviii, fig. 4 
(see synon.). 

B.xx-xxii. P. 14-10. D. 230-270. C. 10. A. 190-220. 

Length of head 2\ to 21; times in the distance between end of 
snout and vciit ; length of trunk rather less than that of the tail. 
Extent of cl<>ft of mouth equals rather less than half the length of 



92 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

the head. Eyes 2 to 21 diameters in the length of the snout, 
and 1 diameter apart. Teeth the vomerine are straight, com- 
pressed, and with a basal lobe anteriorly and posteriorly : the 
mandibular teeth are very much smaller than the vomerine, and 
those in the external row are not bent outwards (as in M. talabo- 
noides). Fins dorsal commences slightly in advance of the gill- 
opening; pectoral contained 3 times in the length of head. 
Colour silvery, becoming white on the abdomen; vertical tins 
yellowish, with either a narrow or wide outer black edge ; pectoral 
yellow or black. 

Hah. Eed Sea, seas and estuaries of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago and Australia. This is the most common species of the genus 
in the seas of India. 



7. Genus SAURENCHELYS, Peters. 

Gill-openings of a moderate width. Snout much produced. 
Nostrils lateral, the front one near the end of snout, the hind one 
close in front of orbit. Teeth rather small and in several rows. 
Pectoral fins absent ; vertical fins well developed. Air-bladder and 
pyloric appendages absent. Scaleless. 

Geographical Distribution. Coromandel coast of India and the 
Mediterranean. 

102. (1.) Saurenchelys petersi. (Fig. 39.) 
Saurenchelys petersi, Day, Fish. India, p. 663, pi. ckviii, fig. 6. 

Length of head 2| times between end of snout and vent ; length 
of trunk 31 times in that of the tail ; extent of the cleft of the 
mouth half the length of the head. Eyes 3 diameters in the 



Fig. 39. Saurenchelys petersi. 

length of the snout, and one diameter apart. Teeth canines 
present anteriorly ; the vomerine teeth large, compressed, but 
without any basal lobes. Fins the dorsal commences a short dis- 
tance behind the gill-opening; itislowanteriorly,becominggradually 
more developed, and is continuous posteriorly with the anal. Pec- 
torals absent. Colour dorsal fin with a dark edge ; it and the 
anal become almost black in the last one fourth of their extent. 
Hob. The single example was taken from the sea in Orissa. 

8. Genus MUILENICHTHYS, Bleeker. 

Body elongated and cylindrical. Gill-openings narrow. Eyes 
small. Nostrils on the edge of the upper jaw. Dorsal fin low 



93 



or rudimentary, commencing a long distance posterior to the gill- 
opening ; caudal continued round the end of tail. Pectorals absent. 
Scaleless. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Dorsal fiu commences before the vent ...... 1. M. schultzei, p. 93. 

Dorsal fin commences behind the vent ...... 2. M. vermiformis, p. 93. 



103. (1.) Maraenichthys schnitzel. (Fig. 40.) 

Munenichthys schultzei, Sleeker, Batavia, Nat. Tijdsch. xiii, p. 366 ; 
Visch. Batav. p. 506 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 603, pi. clxix, fig. 3 * (see 
synon.). 

Length of head 2| to 3 in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the vent ; length of the trunk three fifths that of the 
tail. Extent of cleft of mouth equals one third of the length of 




Fig. 4Q.Mur(enichthys schultzei and upper teeth. 

the head. Eyes of moderate size, situated midway between the 
angle of the mouth and the end of the snout. Upper jaw some- 
what the longer. Teeth in jaws pointed, in three rows, the inner 
the larger ; the palatine teeth in two rows, with obtuse crowns. 
Fins the dorsal low, commencing in the last sixth of the distance 
between the gill-opening and the vent. Pectorals absent. Colour 
brownish along the back, becoming of a yellowish greea on the 
sides and below. 

Hob. Andaman Islands to the Malay Archipelago. 



104. (2.) Mnraenichthys vermiformis. 

Chilorhinus (Muraenichthys) vermiformis, Peters, MB. Ak. Wiss. 

Berl. 1806, p. 524. 
Muraenichthys vermiformis, Day, Fish. India, p. 663 (see synon.). 

Angle of the mouth slightly posterior to the eye. Teeth in the 
jaws and on the vomer in a single row. The origin of the dorsal 
fin behind the vent. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

* A mistake has been made in the plate quoted. The name given for fig. 3, 
Mur&na polyzona (ante, p. 83), belongs to fig. 5 and vice ven>d. 



94 TELEOSTKI. PHYSOSTOMI. 



9. Genus OPHICHTHYS, Ahl. 

Syn. Ophisurus, Fcccilocephahis, and Gzcilia, Lace"p. ; Cacula, Vahl ; 
Siikar/ebranchus, Bl. Schn. ; Mwtenopsis, Lesueur ; Dalophi*, Kaf. ; Li'p- 
tognafhus, Swainson ; Apterichthys, Dumeril ; Leptorkyncnut, Smith ; 
Ichthi/apus, Bris. de Barneville ; Centrurophis , Pcecilocephalui, Micrndo- 
nop/iis, Coscilopis, Herpetoichthys, Brachysomophia, Elapsopis, Myttriophis, 
Echiophis, Scytalophis, Leptorhinophis, Pisoodunophis, Lamnostoma, Anr/ui- 



Echiophis, Scytalophis, Leptorhinophis, Pisoodunophi 

mtrits, Cirt'himurcena, Callechelys, Ichthyctpus, Opsuraps, i'oaopsx, 

Kaup ; Achirophichthys, Bleeder ;. Mucrodonophis and Urnnichthys, Poey. 



The gill-openings may be close together. Snout greatly or mode- 
rately produced. Cleft of mouth wide or of medium width ; lips 
may or may not be fringed. Teeth in jaws and on vomer, either 
pointed and granular, or small and conical ; in the maxilla they may 
be in from one to four rows or in bands, while in the mandibles they 
may be in one or two rows ; canines present or absent, Dorsal fin, 
when present, commences either in advance of or nearly above the 
gill-opening, or behind the root of the pectoral ; the pectorals, when 
present, may be rudimentary, or only developed in the adult, or else 
of moderate size ; anal present or absent. Extremity of tail 
free. 

This genus has been regarded by some authors as a Family ; 
in all the species the extremity of the tail is free, and there are 
vomerine teeth. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A.. Teeth obtuse or granular. Pectorals present 

or absent. 
Head 3| to 4 times in length of trunk ; body 

nearly two thirds of total length ...... 1. O. boro, p. 94. 

Head 7^ to 8 times in length of trunk ; body 

rather above a third of the total length . . 2. O. inicroccphalus, p. 9o. 
Head 8 to 9 times in length of trunk; body 

about half of total length. Body sur- 

rounded by brown rings, between which 

are sometimes spots .................. 3. O. colubnnus, p. 90. 

B. Teeth pointed and in a single row. Pec- 

torals absent. 
Head 3| to 4 times in length of trunk ; body 

half of total length ................. 4. O. orientalis, p. 90. 

Head 7 in length of trunk ; body about as 

long as tail. 10 to 17 large dark spots 

along the lateral line ................ 5. O. ornati^hnxs, p. 97. 

105. (1.) Ophichthys boro. (Fig. 41.) 

Ophisurus boro, Ham. Bitch. Fish. Gang. p. 20, t. v, fig. 5. 
Ophichthys boro, Day, Fish. India, p. 664, pi. clxxi, fig. 2 (see 
synon.). 

B. xxix-xxxi. D. 320-400. P. 13. A. 250-270. 
Length of head (to gill-opening) from 3| to 4 times in the dis- 



95 

tance between the snout and the vent ; length of trunk nearly two 
thirds of the total. Eyes from 2 to 2| or even 3 diameters from 
end of snout, and slightly nearer angle of mouth than end of snout. 
Upper jaw the longer ; cleft of mouth extending some distance 




Fig. 41. Ophichthys boro and tippet teeth. 

behind the eye. Snout rather depressed in the 'young and obtuse 
in the adult. Teeth granular, in a large patch on maxilla, and in 
several smaller rows on premaxillaries ; large and in several rows 
on the vomer ; two outer granular rows in mandible, with an inner 
pointed row. The form of the teeth is subject to considerable 
variation : thus they are usually conical in the young, which cha- 
racter *iay be retained in the adult age (O.hyald)', or the young in 
some instances have globular-headed teeth ; the number of rows of 
teeth is not constant. Fins dorsal low ; it commences about the 
length of the pectoral behind the posterior margin of that fin, and 
does not quite reach the tip of the tail. Pectoral rounded or 
pointed, its length equals about one fourth of the distance between 
the snout and its base. Anal low, not extending to the tip of 
the tail. Colour greenish olive above, with many minute black 
spots, becoming greenish white below ; the dorsal fin with a dark 
edging. 

The natives in some parts of Bengal imagine that this fish 
proceeds from the ear of a porpoise. Sir Walter Elliot was informed 
that in some parts of Madras those captured in salt-water creeks 
were eaten by the natives as a remedy for weakness or pains in the 
loins. 

When breathing this fish distends its gill-cavities with air taken 
in at the mouth, while it can also respire that contained in the 
water. If its gill-openings are kept firmly closed, it takes in air 
by its mouth ; should its mouth be kept shut it struggles until 
released so as to be able to respire. If the gills are exposed by 
removing the gill-membranes, it slowly. moves its branchiae, and is 
able to respire without taking in air by the mouth. 

Hub. Seas and estuaries of India and Malay Archipelago, 
ascending large rivers to far above tidal reach. It attains to at 
least 24 inches in length. 

106. (2.) Ophichthys microcephalus. 
Ophichthys microcephalus, Day, Fish. India, p. 665 pi. clxx, fig. 2. 

Length of head from 7 3 to 8 in the distance between the end of 
the snout and the vent ; tail nearly twice as long as trunk (1&). 
Eyes of moderate size, situated behind the middle of the distance 



96 TKLEOSTKT. PHYSOSTOMI. 

between the snout and the angle of the mouth. Extent of cleft of 
mouth from end of snout 3^ in the length of the head. Anterior 
tubular nostrils well developed. Teeth obtusely conical and in 
three rows. Fins low, the dorsal commences over the last third 
of the pectoral fin, neither the dorsal nor anal is continued round 
the end of the tail. Pectoral 3^ to 3| in the length of the head. 
Colour olive above, becoming of a dull yellow on the sides and 
beneath ; fins externally stained with black. 

Hob. Three examples, none less than 25 inches in length, were 
captured in Malabar. 

107. (3.) Ophichthys colubrinus. 

Muraona colubrina, Boddaert, Pallas' 's Neue Nord. Beytr. ii, 1781, 

456, pi. 2, fig. 3. 
ichthys colubrinus, Day, Fish. India, p. 065, pi. clxvii, fig. 4 
(see synon.). 

" B. xxv. circ. D. 510, circ. A. 318, circ. P. 10, circ." Bleeker. 

Length of head 8 to 9 times in the distance between the end of 
the snout and the vent ; length of trunk about equal to that of the 
tail ; snout projecting. Extent of cleft of mouth equals about ^ 
to | of the length of the head. Eyes rather small, situated 
behind the middle of the cleft of the mouth. Snout rather pointed. 
Teeth with rounded crowns and in two rows. Fins the dorsal 
fin commences in front of the gill-opening, just behind the nape ; 
it and the anal are rather low ; pectoral rudimentary. Colour 
numerous (25 to 35) brown rings surround the body. In some 
examples a dark round spot exists in the interspace between each 
ring on the body. 

Hob. Eed Sea, Andamans to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 



108. (4.) Ophichthys orientalis. 

Dalophis orientalis, McClelland, Cal Journ. Nat, Hist. 1845, v, p. 213. 
Ophichthys orientalis, Day, Fish. India, p. 665, pi. cbcxi, tig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

Manti-bukaro-paumbu, Tel. 

Length of head 3| to 4 in the distance between the end of the 
snout and the anus ; tail as long as the trunk. Eyes small, placed 
rather behind the middle of the length of the head. The gill- 
openings are longitudinal slits almost parallel one to the other. 
Snout projecting, extending beyond the lower jaw, and the openings 
of the nostrils are on the lower surface. Teeth pointed and in a 
single row. Fins the dorsal commences at a short distance behind 
the gill-openings, it and the anal being low; pectorals absent. 
Colour olive, becoming lightest beneath ; one or two rows of 
round whitish spots across the occiput, having a short line of 
similar spots directed forward on either side. 



97 

" Very common at Madras. The boys catch it at the edge of 
the surf by bruising a crab in their hands and throwing it into the 
water, then walking about over the spot, and when they feel an 
eel about their feet they stoop down and suddenly dash it on to 
the sand with both hands. If thrown on the moist sand they bur- 
row themselves, tail foremost, almost instantaneously." (Jerdon.) 

Hob. Seas and estuaries of Ceylon and up the Bay of Bengal, 
certainly as high as Orissa. It attains at least a foot in length. 



109. (5.) Ophichthys ornatissimus. 

Herpetoichthys ornatissiinus, Kaup, Cat. Apodal Fish. p. 7, fig. 4. 
OpHichthys ornatissimus, Day, Fish, India, p. 660 (see synon.). 

Length of head from snout to gill-opening 7 in the length of 
the trunk ; length of tail rather less than that of the trunk. Head 
depressed. Eyes near end of snout. Jaws of nearly equal length. 
Teeth pointed, those on the maxilla and front of the vomer in a 
double, the remainder in a single row. Fins dorsal low, com- 
mencing behind the end of the pectoral, the latter with 24 rays 
and about one fourth the length of the head. Colour irregular dark 
spots on the head. One transverse and two longitudinal rows of 
white spots on the occiput ; two curved whitish lines between the 
eyes ; sixteen to seventeen large, round, black spots along the 
lateral line, which are separated by another band of spots of dif- 
ferent sizes. Dorsal fin with black marginal spots and stripes. 

Hob. Malabar, whence an example 20-8 inches long was brought 
by Dussumier. 



10. Genus MORINGUA, Gray. 

Syn. Raitaborua, Gray ; Ptyobranchus, McClell. ; Pterurus, Swainson ; 
Apldhalmichthys, Kaup ; Pscudomoringua, Bleeker. 

Body subcylindrical, with the trunk considerably longer than 
the tail. Gill-openings rather narrow and inferior; heart far pos- 
terior to the branchiae. Cleft of mouth narrow. The posterior 
nostril situated in front of the eye. Teeth in a single row. Vertical 
tins limited to the tail ; pectorals, if present, small. Scales absent. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and Japan. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Length of head G to G in that of the trunk ; 

trunk longer than the tail 1. M. raitaborua, p. 98. 

Length of head 6J in that of the trunk ; 

trunk at least f longer than the tail . . 2. M. macrocephala, p. 98. 



93 TELEOSTEI. PITYSOSTOMI. 



110. (1.) Moringna raitaborua. (Fig. 42.) 

Munena raitaborua, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 2o, 364. 
Moringua raitaborua, Day, Fish. India, p. GG6, pi. clxx, fig. 3 (see 
synon.). 

Length of head from snout to gill-opening 6 to 6| in the distance 
from snout to vent ; length of tail from two fifths to three eighths 
of the entire length. Height of body equals one third of length 
of head. Eyes rather high up, and 2 to 3 diameters from end of 
snout ; jaws of equal length in front, or the lower slightly the longer. 




Fig. 42. Morinyua raitaborua and upper teeth. 

Cleft of mouth extends above 1 diameter of the orbit behind its pos- 
terior margin. Gill-opening a slit at the side of the pectoral fin. 
Teeth in a single row directed backwards, pointed. Pirn dorsal 
slightly developed, it commences about the length of the head pos- 
terior to the anus ; the anal arises a short distance behind the 
anus ; both fins are interrupted in the middle, but posteriorly de- 
veloped and join the caudal. Pectoral equals about one sixth of 
its distance from the snout. Lateral line distinct. Colour 
coppery, olive, or even purplish above, becoming silvery under- 
neath ; some black dots. Vertebra) 90 -f 14. 

Hub. Estuaries of the Ganges to the Malay Archipelago ; attain- 
ing at least 22 inches in length. 



111. (2.) Moringna macrocephala. 

Aphthalmichthys macrocephalus, BleeJccr, Atl. Ich. iv, p. 17, t. 147, 

fig. 2. 
Moringua macrocephala, Dai/, Fish. India, p. GOG (see synon.). 

Length of head from snout to gill-openjng 5| in the distance 
from snout to vent ; trunk at least two thirds longer than tail. 
Cleft of mouth about one fifth of the length of the head. Fins a 
few rays at the end of the tail, otherwise the vertical and pectoral 
fins are reduced to mere cutaneous folds. 

Hob. India and the Malay Archipelago. 



99 



Family III. SILUKID.E. 

Margin of the upper jaw formed mainly by the premaxillaries ; 
the maxilla rudimentary, often constituting the base of a barbel ; 
no subopercle. The rayed dorsal fin or the adipose dorsal may be 
present or absent. Skin scaleless, aud either smooth or covered 
with osseous plates, or scattered tubercles. Air-bladder, when 
present, either free in the abdominal cavity or more or less enclosed 
in bone ; it communicates with the organs of hearing by means of 
the auditory bones. Csecal appendages absent. 

The Siluroid, or scaleless, fishes are popularly termed Cat-fishes, 
owing to most of them being provided with feelers or long barbels 
arranged around the mouth. They mostly prefer muddy to clear 
water, and the more developed the barbels, the more these fishes 
appear to be adapted for an inland or muddy freshwater residence. 

The wider and deeper the rivers, the more suited they are for 
the Siluridce, consequently the larger forms are comparatively rare 
in the south of India, whilst they abound in the Indus, Juiniia, and 
Ganges, also in the Irrawaddy and other Burmese rivers. 
. Owing to their usual resort, these fishes appear to employ their 
feelers in moving about in muddy places, and consequently have 
less use for their eyes than forms that reside in clear pieces of 
water. This is one reason why the size of the eye as compared 
with the length of the head is much greater in the young than in 
the adult. The eye in fact atrophies, it does not increase in size 
in proportion with the remainder of the head. In some species, 
the skin of the head passes over the eye without any trace of a 
free orbital margin. 

In the genus Arius and some allied marine forms, the males 
appear to carry the ova in their mouths perhaps until the young 
are produced. 

Many of these fishes are credited with causing poisonous wounds, 
and we frequently find such cases admitted into hospitals. The 
injuries may be divided into two classes, (1) those in which the 
wounds are of a distinctly venomous description, (2) those in which 
the jagged spines occasion intense inflammation often of a dangerous 
character. 

The respiration of these fishes is effected in two ways, and it may 
be appropriate here to refer to the amphibious fishes of India, as 
the Lalnjnntliid and Qphiocephalidai. Kespiration in fishes is 
carried out normally, (1) by their using the air which is in solution 
in the water to oxygenate 'the blood at their gills, (2) by taking in 
atmospheric air direct, which is employed at a special organ, where 
it oxygenates the blood, which can be returned for use into the gen- 
eral circulation without going through the gills. The true amphi- 
bious fishes respire by the latter method. No doubt we observe 
that fishes which normally oxygenate their blood solely at their 
crills, do rise to the surface in very hot weather, when the water is 

H 2 



] 00 TELEOSTEI. PIITSOSTOMI. 

foul, or insufficiently charged with air, and take in air by the mouth ; 
likewise we find that those which mainly take in atmospheric air 
direct by the mouth may, to a certain extent, be able to use their 
gills. If fishes having these two different modes of respiration are 
placed in a globe of water, across which a diaphragm of net is in- 
serted below the surface, so as to prevent their obtaining access to 
the atmosphere, those of the first class which oxygenate their blood 
at the gills are unaffected, whereas those which have accessory 
breathing-organs and take in air direct, or amphibious fishes, die 
from blood-poisoning. 

Amongst the Siluridce, Clarias has a dendritic apparatus attached 
to the branchia} (see fig. 48, p. 114), and Saccobranchus has a long 
air or respiratory sac passing backwards amongst the muscles of 
the back from behind the gill-cavity proper. The blood from the 
heart goes up the bulbus arteriosus, and divides into branches on 
either side, one of which goes to each respiratory air-sac, the 
anterior on the right, the posterior on the left side. The one 
on the right goes along the upper wall of the sac, whilst that 
on the left traverses the lower wall, giving off numerous lateral 
branches. From this respiratory air-sac the purified blood is 
returned by a vessel which conveys it direct to the aorta. 

It is thus evident that blood can be purified at these respiratory 
air-sacs, and these fishes can be kept alive hours, and even days, 
without being in water, thus enabling them to traverse considerable 
distances where aquatic respiration would be impossible. They are 
also able, when in water, to depurate some of the blood at the gills, 
if occasion should render it necessary for them to do so. 

The air- or swim-bladder (not respiratory air-sac) exists in two 
forms amongst the Siluridce. In marine species it is thick and not 
enclosed in bone, likewise in most of the freshwater forms found 
in the waters of the plains ; but as we approach the hills a change 
occurs, and in most of the genera the air-bladder possesses an 
osseous covering. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and subtropical seas and 
rivers. Fishes of this family are very abundant in the fresh 
waters of India, likewise in the estuaries and sea ; they are not so 
common, however, in the clear waters around the Andamans. and 
are nearly absent from the Red Sea. 

Uses. As a rule (excluding Pseudeutropius^ Callichrous, and Ailia), 
the Siluroids are more eaten by the poorer than by the richer 
classes, and for two reasons first, they are forbidden to Jews 
and Mahomedans, and secondly, they are very foul feeders. Sacco- 
brancTius and Clarias, however, are deemed nourishing and often 
prescribed for patients recovering from illness. The air-bladders 
of the marine forms are collected for export to China, as they 
afford a coarse isinglass. 



SILURID^E. 101 



Synopsis of Indian Genera. 
First group. HYPOSTOMATINA. 

Gill-membranes confluent with the skin of the isthmus; gill-openings 
small. The rayed dorsal fin, if present, belongs to the abdominal 
portion of the vertebral column, being in advance of the ventrals. 
Adipose dorsal present. Pectorals and ventrals horizontal. Air- 
bladder partially or wholly enclosed in bone. 



i plates along the back. The adipose fin 
ui the form of a short spine. Upper 

caudal ray very elongate 1. SISOB. 

An adipose fin. An adhesive apparatus form- 
ed of transverse folds of skin situated on 
the chest between the bases of the pec- 
toral fins 2. PSEUDECHENEIS. 

No long caudal ray, osseous dorsal plates, nor 

adhesive apparatus. A low adipose tin. . 3. EXOSTOMA. 

Second group. CHACINA. 

Gill-membranes confluent with the skin of the isthmus ; gill-openings 
small. Rayed dorsal and anal fins consisting each of two portions ; 
a strong serrated spine in front of the first dorsal fin, while the 
posterior portions of both fins are confluent with the caudal. No 
adipose fin. Ventral with six rays. Air-bladder not enclosed in 
bone. 

Mouth very wide. Eyes rudimentary 4. CHACA. 

Third group. PLOTOSIKA. 

Gill-membranes not confluent with the skin of the isthmus ; gill-open- 
ings wide. Rayed dorsal fin in two portions ; the anterior with 
few rays, and armed with a pungent spine, the posterior long and 
confluent with the caudal, as is also the long anal. No adipose 
dorsal. Ventral many (12) rayed. A dendritic post-anal organ. 
Air-bladder not enclosed in bone. 

Teeth on the palate. Pectoral with a spine. 5. PLOTOSUS. 

Fourth group. CLABIINA. 

Gill-membranes not confluent with the skin of the isthmus ; gill-open- 
ings wide. Rayed dorsal fin single, spineless and elongated, pos- 
teriorly neither it nor the anal confluent with the caudal. No adi- 
pose dorsal. A dendritic accessory branchial apparatus attached 
to the convex side of some of the branchial arches, and received 
into a recess above and behind the true gill-cavity. Air-bladder 
transverse, lobed, and enclosed in bone. 

Teeth on the palate. A pectoral spine. Ventral 

with six rays 6. CLARIAS. 

Fifth group. SILURINA. 

Gill-membranes more or less separate from the isthmus, which they 
overlap, their hind edges being freo even if united to ono another. 



L ( )2 TELEOSTEI. 1'H I8OSTO.M I. 

The rayed dorsal fin, if present^, belongs to the abdominal portion 
of the vertebral column, ueing in advance of the veutrals. Adipose 
fin present or absent. 

a. Length of the anal fin nearly equal to that of the caudal portion of 
the vertebral column. Gill-openings wide. 

Teeth on the palate. Barbels four or six. 
Rayed dorsal fin without spine ; no 
adipose fin. Pectoral with a spine. Ven- 
tral with eight or more rays ; anal with 
from sixty to ninety rays. Air- 
bladder free , 7. SILURUS. 

Teeth on the palate. Barbels eight. , Rayed 
dorsal fin with a short spine, an adipose 
fin; j&a pectoral spine. Ventral with 
six, anal with from fifteen to about 

twenty-three rays. Caudal rounded or 

lanceolate. Air-bladder free 8. OLYBA. 

No teeth on the palate. Barbels eight. Dor- 
sal fin with one spine and six rays ; a 
small pectoral spine. Anal rather short 
(eleven to twelve rays). Ventral with 
six rays ; caudal forked. Air-bladder 
enclosed in bone 9. AMBLYCEPS. 

Teeth on the palate. Barbels eight. A short 
spineless dorsal, also an adipose fin ; an 
elongated anal one (sixty to eighty rays). 
A strong pectoral spine. Ventral with 
six rays. An elongated, respiratory air- 
sac, extending backwards amongst the 
muscles of the back on either side of the 
neural spines. Air-bladder enclosed in 
bone 10. SACCOBRANCJU *. 

Cleft of mouth deep, extending to behind 
the eyes. Teeth on the vomer. Barbels 
four. Rayed dorsal fin short, spineless ; 
no adipose fin. A pectoral spine. Ven- 
tral with nine or ten rays ; anal with 
sixty-five to ninety-five rays. Air- 
bladder free " 11. WALLAGO. 

Teeth on the palate. Barbels eight. A short 
dorsal fin with a spine, also an adipose 
fin. A pectoral spine ; an elongated anal 
fin (forty-seven to fifty rays). Ventral 
with six rays. Air-bladder partially 
protected by bone 12. EUTBOPIICHTHY.S. 

Cleft of mouth does not extend to the eye. 
Teeth on the vomer. Barbels two or 
four. Rayed dorsal fin when present 
small ; no adipose fin. A pectoral spine. 
Ventral with ten or less rays ; anal with 
from about forty-five to ninety-five -rayt - 
Air-bladder free .". . 13. GALLIC HBOUS. 

Teeth on the palate. Barbels eight. No 
rayed dorsal, but an adipose fin. Pec- 
toral with a spine ; an elongated anal 
(sixty to seventy-five rays) ; a pectoral 



SILUBID.-E. 

spine. Ventral with six rays. Air- 
bladder partially protected by bone 14. AILIA. 

Similar to Atlia but destitute of ventral tins. . 15. AiLiic 

Teeth present on the palate. Barbels 
eight. Dorsal and pectoral spines. An 
adipose dorsal. Ventral with six or eight 
rays; anal with from about twenty- 
seven to fifty-five rays. Air-bladder free. 16. PSKUDEUTROPIUS. 

Teeth present on the palate. Barbels four. 
Dorsal and pectoral spines ; an adipose 
dorsal. Ventral with six, anal with trora 
about twenty-nine to thirty-nine rays. 
Air-bladder free ". 17. PANOASIUS. 

Teeth on the palate. Barbels two or four. 

A short dorsal having a spine, also an- 

adipose fin ; an elongated anal (forty or 
fifty rays). A pectoral spine. Ven- 
tral with six rays. Air-bladder partially 
protected by bone . . . 18. SLLUNDIA. 

b. Length of the anal fin much less than the caudal portion of the 
vertebral column. 

Gill-openings very wide, the membranes not 
confluent with the skin of the isthmus, 
but overlapping one another, being cleft 
nearly to the chin. Teeth present on the 
palate. Barbels eight. Dorsal and pec- 
toral spines ; an adipose fin. Ventral 
with six, anal with from about eight or 
nine to twenty or more rays. Air- 
bladder free 19. MACHONES. 

Gill-openings very wide, the membranes not 
confluent with the ekin of the isthmus, 
but overlapping one another, being cleft 
nearly to the chin. Teeth present on the 
palate. Barbels six or eight. Dorsal and 
pectoral spines ; an adipose fin. Ventral 
with six, anal with from about fifteen to 
twenty rays. Air-bladder free 20. LIOCASSIS. 

Gill-openings wide, the membranes not con- 
fluent with the skin of the isthmus, and 
scarcely or not notched. Teeth present 
on the palate. Barbels six or eight. 
Strong dorsal and pectoral spines, an 
adipose tin. Ventral with seven or eight 
rays, anal with twelve to thirteen. Air- 
bladder free 21. RITA. 

Gill-openings wide, the membranes not con- 
fluent with the skin of the isthmus, and 
scarcely or not notched. Teeth present 
or absent on the palate. Barbels six. 
Dorsal and pectoral spines ; an adipose 
fin. Ventral with six, anal with from ^ 
about fourteen to at least twenty-four 
fayir~5Ir-bladder free 22. ABICS. 

Gill-openings wide, the membranes not con- 



104 TELEOSTEI. PHISO8TOMI. 

fluent with the skin of the isthmus, and 
not notched. No teeth on the palate. 
Barbels six. Dorsal and pectoral spines ; 
an adipose fin. Ventral with six, anal 
with about twenty rays. Air-bladder 
free 23. KETENGUS. 

Gill-openings very wide, the membranes not 
confluent with the skin of the isthmus, 
but overlapping one another, being 
notched. Teeth on the palate. Barbels, 
one semi-osseous maxillary pair. Dorsal 
and pectoral spines ; an adipose fin. Ven- 
tral with six, anal with from about 
nineteen to twenty-four rays. Air- 
bladder free 24. OSTEOGENIOSUS. 

Gill-openings wide, the membranes not con- 
fluent with the skin of the isthmus, and 
not notched. Teeth present on the palate. 
Barbels two. Dorsal and pectoral spines ; 
an adipose fin. Ventral with six, anal 
with about twenty rays. Air-bladder 
free 25. BATHACIIOCEPIIAI.US. 

Gill-openings of moderate width, not con- 
fluent with the skin of the isthmus. No 
palatine teeth. Barbels eight. Dorsal 
and pectoral spines ; an adipose fin. Ven- 
tral with six, anal with few (8-10) rays . 26. AKYSIS. 

Gill-openings wide, the membranes confluent 
with the skin of the isthmus. No teeth 
on the palate. Barbels eight. Dorsal 
fin with one spine and six rays. A pec- 
toral spine ; an adipose fin ; anal rather 
short. Ventral with six rays. Air- 
bladder enclosed in bone 27. BAGAIUUS. 

Gill-openings wide, the membranes confluent 
with the skin of the isthmus. No teeth 
on the palate. Barbels eight. Dorsal 
fin with one spine and six or seven rays ; 
an adipose fin. A pectoral spine. Anal 
short. Ventral with six rays. An ad- 
hesive apparatus formed of longitudinal 
plaits of skin, situated on the chest 
between the bases of the pectoral fins. 
Air-bladder enclosed in bone 28. GLYPTOSTKRNUM. 

As in last genus but having palatine teeth . . 29. EUGLYPTOSTERNUM. 

Gill-openings narrow, the membranes being 
confluent with the skin of the isthmus. 
Mouth narrow. Occipital, scapular, and 
humeral processes well developed. No 
palatine teeth. Barbels eight. Dorsal 
and pectoral spines present; an adipose 
fin. Ventral with six, anal with about 
ten rays Air-bladder free 30. ERETHISTES. 

Gill-openings rather narrow, the membranes 
being confluent with the skin of the 
isthmus. No teeth on the palate. 



SILUBIDjE. 105 

Barbels six or eight, the two mandibular 
pairs arising on a transverse line. Dorsal 
with one spine and six rays ; an adipose 
fin ; a pectoral spine. Anal rather short. 
Ventral with six rays. Air-bladder en- 
closed in bone 31. GAGATA. 

Gill-niembranes not confluent with the skin 
of the isthmus, or only slightly adherent. 
No palatine teeth. Barbels eight, the 
two mandibular pairs not arising on a 
transverse line. Dorsal fin with one spine 
and six to eight rays; an adipose fin. 
Anal rather short. Ventral with six rays. 
Air-bladder enclosed in bone 32. NANGHA. 



First group. HYPOSTOMATINA. 
1. Genus SISOR, Hamilton Buchanan. 

Branchiostegals four. Gill-openings narrow and mostly lateral, 
the gill-membranes confluent with the skin of the isthmus. Head 
and anterior portion of the trunk broad and depressed. Eyes 
small. Mouth small, transverse, the upper jaw the longer. 
Nostrils round and approximating, but separated by a valve. One 
maxillary pair of barbels with broad bases, and about five mandi- 
bular pairs. Teeth absent. A short dorsal fin destitute of a 
distinct spine ; pectoral with, a strong spine. Ventral having 
seven rays, and situated below the last portion of the dorsal fin. 
Upper portion of body covered with bony plates. Anal with six 
rays. Caudal with its upper ray very prolonged. Air-bladder 
enclosed in a bony capsule. An axillary pore. 

Geographical Distribution. Indus and upper portions of the 
Jumna and Ganges rivers. 

112. (1.) Sisor rhabdophorus. (Fig. 43.) 

Sisor rhabdophorus, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 208, 379 ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 491, pi. cxv, figs. 1, la, \b (see synon.). 

Chennuah, Hind. ; Kir^ri-dee, Sind. 

B. iv. D. 1/6. P. 1/8. V. 7. A. 6 (2/4). C. 11. 

Length of head 5|, of caudal 11, height of body contained 11 
times in the total length, excluding the caudal filament, which in 
some specimens equals the length of the body. Eyes small, 
nearer the gill-opening than the end of the snout, which is rather 
pointed. A median longitudinal groove on the head reaches to the 
base of the occipital process. The greatest width of the head 
equals two thirds of its length. Numerous rough ridges exist on 
the head, which is covered by very thin skin. The basal bone of 
the dorsal fin has an anterior and two lateral processes covered 



106 TELEOSTEI. PHY8OSTOMT. 

with rough ridges. Mouth small, transverse, inferior, the upper 
jaw the longer. Barbels the maxillary reach the pectoral spine, 
and are dilated at their bases. From the lower lip there is a sort 
of flap, having a rather long barbel at either side, which reaches 
the gill-opeuing ; and two more intermediate but shorter ones ; 
between these flaps are several sh'ort "barbels 6ii a transverse line 
across the chin. There are five plates on either side o the base of 




Fig. 43. Sisor rhabdopho 



the dorsal fin, behind which the back has six elevated scale-like 
plates along the median line ; the last forms a spine before the 
Vertical from the anal fin. The last half of the body is covered by 
12 osseous rings, having a sharp edge above and on each side, as 
is seen in the pipe-fishes. The lateral line has also a series of 
smaller rough bony plates. Fins dorsal rather higher than long, 
its first undivided ray weak, and finely serrated anteriorly. 
Pectoral spine compressed, not quite so long as the head, serrated 
on both edges, but in general strongly so externally. The ventrals 
arise u-nder the posterior dorsal rays. The anal commences behind 
the vertical from the spine on the back. Upper caudal ray with a 
long prolongation. Colour blackish above, lighter below. 

Hob. Indus, JSind, Ganges, and Jumna rivers in Northern India, 
Bengal, and Behar : the largest I have seen was about 8 inches long, 
excluding the caudal filament. Not uncommon at Delhi. This 
fish is only eaten by the lowest and poorest classes. It is said to 
lie under stones when young. 



2. Genus PSEUDECHENEIS, Blyth. 

Gill-openings small, not extending on to the lower surface of 
the head, the gill-membranes being attached to a very broad 
isthmus. Body somewhat elongate ; head rather depressed. An 
adhesive apparatus formed of transverse folds of slun situated on 
the thorax between the bases of the pectoral fins. Eyes small, 
subcutaneous, on the upper surface of the head. Mouth trans- 
verse, small, inferior. Nostrils on either side approximating, 
divided by a barbel Barbels eight, the maxillary pair with broad 
bases. Teeth villiform in the jaws, palate edentulous. Dorsal 



SILTHUtt/E. 



107 



lin with one spine and six rays; the adipose of moderate extent. 
Pectoral with its inner third vertical, its lower two thirds horizontal, 
its spine feebly serrated. Ventral horizontal, having six rays, and 
situated- below the dorsal. Caudal einarginate. Air-bladder in 
rounded lateral portions enclosed in bone. 

This genus 1 is evidently adapted for an existence in rapids. 



113. (1.) Pseudecheneis snlcatus. (Fig. 44.) 

Glyptosternon sulcatus, McClelland, Cal Journ. Nat. Hist, ii, p. 587, 

pi. vi. . 

Pseudecheneis sulcatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 500, pi. cxvi, fig. 1 

(see synon.). 

D. 1/6 1 0. P. 1/13. V. 6. A. 11-13 (2-4/7-9). C. 17. 

Length of head 7|, of caudal fin 6, height of body 6 in the total 
length. Eyes small, situated midway between the hind edge of 
the opercle and the nostrils ; the width of the interorbital space 3| 
in the length of the head. Lower surface of the head with 
numerous papillae, especially near the symphysis. The width of 




Fig. -44'. P&eutkch&neis si'Jcattis. 

the head equals its length, Barbels the maxillary pair equal to 
about one third of the length of the head. Fins spine of anterior 
dorsal broad, weak, crenulated posteriorly; base of the adipose dorsal 
as long as the interspace between the two dorsal fins. Pectoral 
large and extending to above the base or first third of the ventral ; 
pectoral spine broad, finely ctenoid externally in its lower half, 
crenulated internally, especially in its posterior soft termination. 



108 TBLEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

In some specimens the under surface of the pectoral spine aud first 
ventral ray are striated. Caudal emarginate, lower lobe the" longer. 
The thoracic sucker has about 14 transverse folds. The free portion 
of the tail about three times as long as deep at its base. Colour 
blackish, with some large, irregular, yellowish blotches. Fins 
yellow, with black bands. 

Hob. Darjeeling and Khasi hills, attaining 7 to 8 inches in 
length. 



3. Genus EXOSTOMA, Blyth. 

Syn. Chimarrichthys, Sauvage. 

Gill-openings narrow, the membranes confluent with the skin of 
a broad isthmus. Head depressed and covered superiorly with soft 
skin. No thoracic adhesive apparatus. Mouth inferior, with the 
lips reflected around the whole or most of its circumference, and 
usually covered with tubercles. Nostrils close together, separated 
by a barbel. Eight barbels. Teeth in the jaws in several rows ; 
palate edentulous. Anterior dorsal fin with a rudimentary spine 
and six rays ; adipose fin long and low. Pectorals vertical in their 
upper, horizontal in their lower half, the spine enclosed in skin. 
Ventral composed of six rays, inserted some distance behind the 
rayed dorsal, shaped like the pectoral. Caudal square, emarginate 
or forked. Air-bladder enclosed in bone. 

This peculiar mountain genus has its lips adapted for a sucker, 
the chest likewise appears to form a flat adhesive surface, bounded 
by the striated rays of the pectoral and ventral fins. 

Geographical Distribution. From the upper waters of the Indus, 
along the Himalayas and the Mishmee Mountains in East Assam, 
to Eastern Tibet on the confines of China ; also in Tenasserim. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Lower labial fold uninterrupted. Anal com- 
mences much nearer the base of the caudal 
than that of the ventral 1. E. labiatum, p. 108. 

Lower labial fold interrupted. Anal com- 
mences in last third of the distance between 
ventral and base of caudal 2. E. blythii, p. 100. 

Snout more pointed. Caudal forked 3. E. berdmwei, p. 10Q.' 

Lower labial fold interrupted. Anal com- 
mences nearer the base of the ventral than 
that of the caudal 4. E. stoliczlxc, p. 110. 



114. (1.) Exostoma labiatum. 

Glyptosternon labiatus, McClell. C. J. N. If. ii, p. 588. 
Exostoma labiatum, Day, Fish. India, p. 501 (see synou.). 



SILUJiID.13. 109 

D. 1/6 I 0. P. 1/11-12. V. 6. A. 1/5. C. 17. 

Length of head 5, of pectoral 5, of caudal fin 5, height of body 
8 in the total length. Eyes small, situated in the posterior two 
fifths of the head. Mouth small, inferior, transverse : jaws in the 
form of a double crescent or c/c-shape. Lips broad, with a median 
and a lateral lobe on either side, having a barbel between. Nasal 
barbels reach the end of the snout : the maxillary extend to the 
pectoral fin. Fins as in the next species. Caudal slightly forked. 
Colow uniform. 

Hab^ Mishmi Mountains, East Assam. 



115. (2.) Exostoma blythii. 

Exostoma blythii, Day, Fish. India, p. 501, pi. cxvii, fig. 2, 
D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/17. V. 6. A. 8 (2/6). C. 13. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 6|, height of body 5 in the total 
length. Eyes small, situated on the upper surface of the head : 
the width of the interorbital space nearly equals the length of the 
snout, which is broad and depressed. Mouth inferior and trans- 
verse, sulcus behind lower lip interrupted. Gill-openings not 
continued on to the lower surface of the head. Barbels the nasal 
about three times as long as the orbit ; a fleshy appendage to the 
maxilla having a rudimentary barbel ; two pairs behind the lower 
lip arising on a transverse line. Teeth none on the palate. 
Fins pectoral subhorizontal, its rays plaited below; base of 
adipose more than twice as long as that of the rayed fin. Dorsal 
arising slightly in advance of the ventrals, its spine weak. Ventrals 
subhorizontal. Caudal with its outer rays slightly produced, 
rendering it almost lunated. Air-bladder small, in two rounded 
lobes, both enclosed in a bony capsule. Colour yellowish brown. 

Hob. Rivers below Darjeeling ; up to at least 3 inches long. 



116. (3.) Exostoma berdmorei. 

Exostoma berdmorei, lilyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, I860, p. 155 ; Day, 
ffish. India, p. 502 (see synon.), 

D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 6. C. 14. 

Maxillary barbels reach the base of the pectoral fin. The snout 
is much more pointed than in the other species. Fins caudal 
rather deeply forked. Colour " dingy olive-brown, with obscure 
dark broad bands, presenting more or less of a clouded appearance : 
the fins mostly darker, below pale." 

Hob. Tenasserim. The typical specimen (4 inches long) in the 
Calcutta Museum is in such a very bad state of preservation that 
I am unable to add to Blyth's description. 



1 1 <.) TELEOSTE1. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

.MIT; (4) Exostoma stoliczkae.. (Fig. 45.)" ." 

Exostoma stoliczkae, Day, P.Z.S. 1870, p. 782, and Fish. India, 
p. 502, pi. cxvii, fig. 3. 

D.l/G | 0. P. 1/12. V. 6. A. 6. 'C. 15. 

Length' of head from 4 in the young to 5| in the adult, of ; 
caudal fin 8, height of body 7 5 in the total length. Eyes minute, 
situated in the middle of the length of the, head : the width of the 
interorbital space equals half the length of the snout, or the distance 
between the eye and the front nostril. Head depressed, as broad 
as long, and obtusely rounded. Mouth inferior : lips thick, and 
studded with small tubercular elevations ; the upper and lower 
lips continuous at the angle of the mouth, but the transverse fold 
across the lower jaw is interrupted in the middle. Nostrils close 
together, the anterior round and patent, the posterior tubular ; a 
barbel divides the two nostrils. Barbels the nasal reach the hind 
edge of the eye ; the maxillary have broad basal attachments, and 
reach the root of the pectoral. Of the mandibular barbels the 
anterior are situated just behind the inner end of the lower labial 
fold ; they are shorter than the outer pair, which latter extend to 
the gill-opening. Gill-opening situated on the side of the head in 
front of and above the base of the pectoral fin. Teetli several 
rows of pointed ones in each jaw, of which the outer are slightly 
the larger, rather wide apart, and with rather obtuse summits. 




~Fig~45.Exosfomastoliczk<e. 

the dorsal arises midway between the snout and the com- 
mencement of the adipose fin ; its greatest height is one third 
more than the length of its base; its spine is rudimentary and 
enveloped in skin. Adipose dorsal very long and low, posteriorly 
in some instances it is free, in others it almost appears to decrease 
in 1 height and join the free portion of the tail. Pectoral nearly as 
long as the head, having the outer half horizontal and the innet 
vertical ; the spine rudimentary, with a broad, striated, cutaneous 



111 

covering. Ventral of a similar form to the pectoral ; its first and 
a portion of its second ray also with a striated cutaneous covering; 
the fin commences on a vertical line falling just behind the base of 
the dorsal fin, is rather nearer the snout than the posterior end 
of the adipose dorsal, and commences midway between the bases 
of the ventral and caudal fins ; it is half higher than long. Caudal 
cut almost square. Free portion of the tail one half higher than 
long. Skin tuberculated from the head along the lower surface 
of the body to nearly as far as the bases of the ventrals. Colour 
of a dull yellowish green, becoming lightest along the abdomen. 
Fins yellowish, with dark edges or bands. 

Hal. Le^ or Ladak, and along the head -waters of the Indus 
it attains to about 7 inches in length. 



Second group. CHACINA. 
4. Genus CHACA, Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

Branchiostegals six to eight. Head large, depressed. Gape of 
mouth very wide ; lower jaw prominent. Gill-openings somewhat 
contracted, the membranes confluent with the skin of the isthmus. 
Barbels six *, one maxillary and two mandibular pairs. Teeth 
villiform in both jaws, palate edentulous. Two rayed dorsal fins, 
the first having one strong spine and three or four rays, the 
second confluent with the caudal. Two rayed anal fins, the first 
with from eight to ten rays, the second somewhat longer and con- 
fluent with the caudal. Ventral with six rays, and situated behind 
the first dorsal. Air-bladder rather large, somewhat cardiform in 
shape, concave anteriorly, lying across the bodies of the anterior 
vertebrae and not enclosed in bone. No axillary pore. 

Geographical Distribution. Large rivers of Bengal, Assam, and 
Burma, and sluggish fresh waters in their vicinity. It extends as 
far as the Malay Archipelago. 

118. (1.) Cnaca lophioides. (Fig. 46.) 

Platystacus chaca, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 140, 374, pi. 28, 

fig. 43. 
Chaca lophioides, Day, Fish. India, p. 481, pi. cxii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Coor-cur-riah, Ooriah ; Pemd, Bhagalpur (Ham. Buch.) ; Godir, 
Marathi. 

B. vi. D. 1/3-4 | 19-25. P. 1/5. V. 6. A. 8-10 | 8-12. C. 11. 
Length of head 3, of caudal fin 6 to 8, height of body 6 in the. 
total length. Eyes small, in the anterior fourth of the head ; the 
width of the interorbital space equals half the length of the head, 
and along it runs a deep central groove. Head strongly depresses, 

* Eight, if there is a nasal pair. 



112 TELEOSTBI. PIITSOSTOMI. 

its width equals its length behind the angle of the mouth. Mouth 
very wide. Head and body in specimens from India having short 
tentacles, with a ring of them round the eyes, and several along 
the edge of the lower jaw, but such were not present in a specimen 
I captured in the Irrawaddy. Fim dorsal spines slightly serrated 
on both sides, pectoral spine serrated internally. A few tentacles 
along the lateral line. Colour brownish, marbled darker. 




Fig. 46. Chaca lophioidcs. 

Ham. Buchanan observed, " Of all the horrid animals of this 
tribe the Chaka of this district is the most disagreeable to behold. 
It has the habit of the fishes called by Lacepede Uranotcopt and 
Cotte, that is, it conceals itself among the mud from which, by its 
lurid appearance, and a number of loose filamentous substances on 
its skin, it is scarcely distinguishable, and with an immense open 
mouth it is ready to seize any small prey that is passing along. 
In order that it may see what is approaching, the eyes are placed 
on the crown of the head. All persons turn away from it with 
loathing." 

Hob. Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Irrawaddy rivers, and tanks in 
connection with them ; also some fresh waters of Bombay. This 
species attains to at least 8 inches in length. 

Third group. PLOTOSINA. 

5. Genus PLOTOSTTS, Lacepede. 
Syn. Platystacus, Bloch ; Cojndoglanis, Giinther. 

Branchiostegals nine to twelve. Gill-openings wide, the mem- 
branes separated by a deep notch, and not being confluent with the 
skin of the isthmus. Head depressed, covered with thin skin. 
Eyes with a free circular margin. Nostrils remote from one 
another. Barbels eight. Teeth conical in the upper, mixed in the 
lower jaw; molariform on the vomer. Two rayed dorsal fins, the 
first with one spine and four or five rays ; the second many-rayed 
and confluent with the caudal, as is also the anal. A pectoral 
spine. Ventral fin many-rayed (12). Air-bladder of moderate 
size, and not enclosed in bone. A dendritic post-anal apparatus. 

Geographical Distribution. From the east coast of Africa through 
the seas and estuaries of India and Buima to Polynesia and 
Australia. 



S1LT7BIDJE. 113 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 1/5, 2 D-f C+A 242-271. Uniform brownish. . 1. P. canius. p. 113. 
D. 1/4-5, 2 D+C+A 109-190. Brown, with two 

longitudinal white bands 2. P. arab, p. 113. 

119. (1.) Plotosns canius. (Fig. 47.) 

Plotosus canius, Hum. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 142, 374, pi. xv, 

fig. 44; Day, Fish. India, p. 482, pi. cxii, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Irung-kellettee, Tamil ; Ndrshingld, Marathi ; Nga khoo Jchyounffj 
Arracau; Khagoon, Chittagong. 

B. xi-xiii. D. 1/5. 2 D + C+A 242-271. P. 1/10-11. 

V. 12. Vert. 15/65. 

Length of head 4| to 5|, height of body 7 to 7| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 10 to 11 in the length of the head, the 
width of the interorhital space 2| to 2| in the length of the head. 
The width of the head equals its length behind the angle of the 
mouth. Barbels the nasal nearly reach the nape, the maxillary 
the end of the opercle or base of the pectoral, whilst the outer 
mandibular pair are slightly longer than the inner. Fins dorsal 




Fig. 47. Plotosus camus. 

spine serrated on both edges, and equal to two fifths of the length 
of the head ; pectoral spine similar and equal to one third the 
length of the head. Colour brown, the vertical fins edged with 
black. 

Bleeker observed that the Malays at Batavia believed the flesh 
of this fish to possess emmenagogue properties. 

Hob. Estuaries of India and Burma to the Malay Archipelago. 
Attains to 3 feet and upwards in length, 

120. (2.) Plotosus arab. 

Siluvus arab, Forsk. Descr. Anim. p. xvi, no. 36. 

Plotosus arab, Day, Fish. India, p. 483, pi. cxii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Moor ghee, Mai. 
B. xi. D. 1/4-5. 2 D + C+A 169-190. P. 1/11. V. 12. 

Vert. 12/35. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 7 to 8 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 5 to 6| in length of head and situated in the 
middle of the same ; the width of the interorbital space equals one 
third of the length of the head. Greatest width of the head 
equal to its length behind the angle of the mouth. Upper ja\v 



1 1 4 TELEOSTBI. PHY8OSTOMI. 

slightly the longer, the width of the gape of the mouth equalling 
two fifths of the length of the head. Barbels the nasal reach the 
hind edge of the eVes, the maxillary one half to two thirds as 
long as the head, the mandibular shorter. Fins dorsal spine 
rather strong, one third as long as the head and serrated on 
both sides. Colour chestnut-brown, with two bluish-white longi- 
tudinal bands, the superior proceeding from above the eye along 
the base of the dorsal fin, the inferior from the maxilla along the 
middle of the side of the body. Bleeker observed that these 
bands entirely disappear in adults. Vertical fins with black edges. 

"Wounds from the pectoral spines of this fish are much dreaded 
by the natives of India and are said to cause severe inflammation 
or even tetanus. 

Hab. From the Eed Sea and east coast of Africa through the 
seas of India to Japan and Polynesia. 

Fourth group. CLAEIINA. 
6. Genus CLAEIAS, Gronovius. 
Syn, Macrofiteronotiis, LactSpede ; Cossyphus and Phagwus, McClelland. 

Branch iostega Is seven to nine. Gill-openings wide, the mem- 
branes not being confluent with the skin of the isthmus, and 
separated by a deep notch. A dendritic accessory branchial ap- 
paratus, attached to the convex side of the second, third, and 
fourth branchial arches, is received into a recess above and behind 
the usual gill-cavity. Head depressed, gape of mouth of moderate 




Fig. 48.' Clarias magur, showing accessory branchial apparatus. 

extent, anterior and transverse. Eyes small, with a free circular 
margin. Barbels eight. Teeth villiform in the jaws and in a 
band across the voiner. Dorsal fin long and spineless, extending 
from the neck to the caudal fin, with which it is continuous : no 
adipose fin. Ventral with six rays. Pectoral with a spine. Air- 
bladder small, transverse, lobed, and enclosed in bone. 



SILURID.E. 115 

Mr. Kitchen Parker, F.R.S. (on the shoulder-girdle, Bay Society, 
1868, p. 29), observed of the air-bladder and its surroundings in 
Clarias : " The remarkable trumpet-shaped cavities belong to the 
atlas and axis vertebrae, and they are strongly attached to the 
post-temporals and clavicles at their point of junction ; they lodge 
the lateral cornua of the three-lobed air-bladder. These cavities 
are very imperfect below ; but this deficiency is largely supple- 
mented by a transverse splint on each side, attached below to the 
anterior edge of the great cylinder of the atlas. There is a smaller 
splint in each cavity, and two smaller splints eke out the mouth of 
each of these trumpets. The large obliquely transverse splints 
(they are sometimes turned backwards) meet within a line and a 
half below the centrum of the atlas, between and behind the splints. 
This and the next centrum are deeply grooved." 

Geographical Distribution. Throughout Africa and "Western Asia 
to India, Ceylon, Burma, Siam, the Malay Archipelago, Hong Kong, 
the Philippines and beyond. These fish being amphibious, live for 
some time after removal from their native element. 

Uses. Considered by the natives of India as exceedingly wholesome 
and invigorating. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 62-70, A. 45-58. Vomerine teeth villiform. 1. C. magur, p. 115. 
1). 70-77, A. 53-63. Vomerine teeth obtuse. 2. C. teysinanni, p. 11G. 
D. C9-70, A. 50-59. Pectoral spine externally 

serrated. Vomerine teeth very obtuse .... 3. C. dussumieri, p. 117. 
D. 64-08, A. 46-50. Vomerine teeth obtuse 

and in two pyriform bands 4. C. assamensis, p. 117. 

Macropteronotus jagur of Hamilton Buchanan, Fish. Ganges, 
pp. 1-15, 374, appears to be a monstrosity of Clarias mayur, in 
which the last few vertebrae have been accidentally lost or removed, 
and the new caudal fin has become continuous with the dorsal fin 
superiorly and the anal inferiorly. 

121. (1.) Clarias magnr. (Figs. 48, 49.) 

Macroptercnotus magur, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 146, 374, 

pi. xxvi, fig. 45. 
Clarias magur, Day, Fish. India, p. 485, pi. cxii, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

Ku(/-(/a, Punj. ; Mah-oiir, Beng. ; Mftyunth, Ooriah ; Nya-khoo, Bur- 
mese and Mugh. ; " Munyri, Patna, and Monghir, II. Buch. " ; Marpoo, 
Tel. 

B. ix. D. 62-76. P. 1/8-11. V. 6. A. 45-58. C. 15-17. 

Length of head to end of gill-covers 5f , of caudal fin 8^, height 
of body 6| to 7| in the total length. Eyes diameter 8 in the 
length of the head, 2 to 2 diameters from the end of the snout, 
the width of the interorbital space equals one half the length of 
the head. The greatest width of the head equals its length. 

i 2 



1 1 6 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

Upper jaw the longer, the width of the gape of the mouth equals 
four ninths of the length of the head. Head shagreeued superiorly 
and covered with fine granules. Two depressions on the head, 
the anterior oblong and situated so that its first fourth is between 
the eyes; the posterior oval and placed midway between the 
posterior extremity of the anterior fossa and the end of the occipital 
process. Occipital process rounded behind, the width of its base 





Pig. 49. Glorias magur. 

rather above twice its length. Barbels the na^al reach the base 
of the occipital process ; the maxillary the base or middle of the 
pectoral fin, the mandibular are shorter. Teeth on the vomer 
villifonn, not so fine as those in the jaws and becoming a little 
blunted with age, they form an uninterrupted band which in its 
centre is as wide as the premaxillary band or rather narrower. 
Fins pectoral fin reaching to below the commencement of the 
dorsal ; pectoral spine finely serrated, but covered with skin. Caudal 
free. Colour dingy green or brownish superiorly, becoming lighter 
beneath ; the vertical fins usually with reddish margins. 

Bab. Fresh and brackish waters of the plains of India, Burma, 
Ceylon, and the Malay Archipelago. This fish lives long after its 
removal from its native element, being amphibious. It attains at 
least a foot and a half in length. As food it is deemed highly 
nourishing. 

122. (2.) Clarias teysmanni. 

Clarias teysmanni, Bleeker, Batavia, Nat. Tijdsch. xiii, p. 344 ; 
Day, Fish. India, p. 484 (see synon.). 

B.ix. D. 70-77. P. 1/7-10. V.6. A.53-63. C.17. Vert. 16/41. 
Length of head to end of opercle 5 to 5|, height of body C| to 7| 
in the total length. Eyes situated in the commencement of the 
second third of the total length of the head to the end of the 
occipital process. The greatest width of the head equals its length 
to hind edge of opercle. Head nearly smooth. Occipital process 
two thirds as long as wide at its base. Barbels the nasal as long 
as the head, the maxillary reach the end of the pectoral fin, the man- 
dibular are shorter. Teeth those on the vomer somewhat obtuse, 
forming a crescentic band which in its centre is about equal in 



SILITRID-S!. 117 

width to the promaxillary band. Fins the pectoral extends 
nearly to below the origin of the dorsal ; spine of pectoral moderately 
strong, more than two thirds the length of the fin, rugose or finely 
serrated along its outer edge, serrated internally. Caudal free. 
Colour brownish. 
Hab. Ceylon and Java. 

123. (3.) Clarias dnssumieri. 

Clarias dussumieri, Cuv. Sf Vol. H. N. Poiss. xv, p. 382 ; Day, I'w/t. 
India, p. 484 (see synon.). 

B. ix. D. 69-70. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 50-59. C. 16. 

Length of head to end of gill-cover 6, of caudal fin 9, height of 
body 8| in the total length. Eyes in the commencement of the 
front third of the distance between the end of the occipital process 
and the snout ; the width of the interorbital space equal to half 
the length of the head. The greatest width of the head equals its 
length ; its upper surface finely shagreened and covered with skin ; 
on it are two depressions the anterior, which is oblong, extends to 
opposite the front margin of the eyes ; the posterior, which is oval, 
is midway between the posterior end of the anterior depression 
and that of the occipital process, which last is scarcely produced 
and 3| times as wide at its base as it is long. Barbels the nasal 
reach the hind edge of the eye, the maxillary the base of the 
pectoral fin, those on the lower jaw are shorter. Teeth those 
on the palate with globular heads and in an uninterrupted curved 
band, which is rather wider than that on the premaxillaries. Fins 
pectoral spine rather strong ; its length equals half the distance 
between the base of the occipital process and the end of the snout ; 
it is rather strongly serrated externally with a few recurved spines 
near its extremity, more feebly internally, whilst the length of the 
fin only equals half the distance between its base and that of the 
ventral, it does not quite reach to below the origin of the dorsal. 
Caudal distinct from the other vertical fins. 

Hab. Malabar and Pondicherry to the Malay Archipelago. 

124. (4.) Clarias assamensis. 
Clarias assamensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 485. 

Mah-yur, Assamese. 
B. ix. D. 64-68. P. 1/8-11. V. 6. A. 46-50. C. 14. 

Length of head to end of opercle 5| to 6, of caudal fin 8, height 
of body 6| to 7 in the total length. Eyes in the commencement 
of the anterior third of the total length of the head, width of the 
interorbital space equal to two fifths of the total length of the head. 
The greatest width of the head equals its length between the 
snout and the hind edge of the opercle ; the width of the gape of 
the mouth equals one third of the total length of the head. Upper 



118 TELEOSTEI. P11YSOSTOMI. 

surface of the head very finely shagreened and covered with thin 
skin ; two depressions on the head the anterior oblong and reaching 
forwards to between the middle of the eyes ; the posterior oval 
and commencing midway between the posterior end of the anterior 
fossa and the end of the occipital process, which latter is rounded, 
and twice as broad at its base as it is long. Barbds the nasal 
reach to the base of the occipital process, the maxillary to the end 
of the pectoral spine, the mandibular are shorter. Teeth those 
on the vomer globular and arranged in two pyrifortn bands, the 
widest end internal and exceeding the width of the premaxillary 
band. Fins pectoral reaches to below the commencement of the 
dorsal fin and halfway to the base of the ventral, its spine strong, 
one third of the total length of the head, rough externally, serrated 
internally. Ventral reaches anal. Vertical fins not confluent 
with the caudal. Colour greenish brown, vertical fins edged with 
red. 

This fish appears to take the place of 0. mayur in Assam, and I 
have procured it from Goalpara and as high as Sadiya. Its teeth 
distinguish this from other species or possibly varieties. 

Hab. Upper and Lower Assam. 



Fifth group. SILUEINA. 

7. Genus SILUBUS, Artedi. 
Syn. Parasilurus, pt., Bleeker. 

Dorsal profile nearly horizontal ; head covered with soft skin. 
Gill-openings wide, the gill-membranes not confluent with the skin 
of the isthmus, and deeply notched. Mouth transverse. Eyes 
without free orbital margins, situated above the level of the angle 
of the transversely placed mouth. Nostrils remote from one 
another. Barbels six (Silurus, Bleeker) ; or four (Parasilurus, 
Bleeker) ; one pair being maxillary, and one or two pairs mandi- 
bular. Teeth cardiforra or villiform in the jaws, in one or two 
transverse bands on the vomer, none on the palatines. One very 
short and spineless first dorsal but no adipose fin ; anal terminates 
close to the caudal, but is not usually continuous with it ; ventrals 
situated posterior to the dorsal, and consisting of eight or more 
rays. Air-bladder not enclosed in bone. 

Geographical Distribution. Eastern Europe, Central and South- 
eastern Asia. In India and Burma this genus is represented in 
the ghats on the Western coast ; along the Himalayas from 
Afghanistan to Darjeeliug, also in the hills above Akyab and the 
Tenasserim provinces, in Cochin China and beyond. These fishes, 
so far as I know, have not been recorded from waters of the plains 
of India. 



SILUKID^E. 110 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. With six barbels. (Stlurus.) 

A. 58-62. Vomerine band of teeth in- 
terrupted. Leaden, shot with purple. 1. S. wifnaadewin, p. 119. 

B. With four barbels. (Parasihtrm.) 

A. 70-78. Voraerine band of teeth un- 
interrupted. Purplish brown 2. S. afyhana, p. 119. 

A. 62-64. Vomerine band of teeth in- 
terrupted. Leaden, shot with purple . 3. S. cochinchinensis, p. 120. 

125. (1.) Silurus wynaadensis. (Fig. 50.) 

Silurus wynaadensis, Dny, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 237 ; and Fish. India, 
p/480, pi. cxi, tig. 6 (see synon.). 

B. xii-xiv. D. 5. P. 1/10. V. 8. A. 58-62 (2/58-60). C. 19. 
Length of head 6 to 7, of caudal fm 10, height of body 8 to 8| 
in the total length. Eyes small, situated just above the angle of 
the mouth, from 2| to 3 diameters from the end of snout, and 5 
apart. The greatest width of the head equals its length behind 




Fig. 60. Silurus wynaadensis. 

the nostrils ; lower jaw slightly the shorter and rather elevated in 
the centre. Width of the gape of the mouth equals the postorbital 
length of the head. A row of large open pores along the lower 
jaw and across the cheeks. Barbels the maxillary nearly twice as 
long as the head, the mandibular pair on each side situated one 
anterior to the other at a distance equalling one diameter of the 
orbit, both extend nearly to the base of the pectoral fin. Teeth 
two oval patches on the vomer divided by a short interspace. 
Fins dorsal small, situated anterior to the origin of the ventral. 
Pectoral with a short but strong spine ending in a soft termina- 
tion. Ventrals reach the origin of the anal, the latter is divided 
from the rounded caudal by a notch. Colour leaden, becoming 
purplish beneath and covered all over with small black points ; 
some specimens have a dark finger-mark on the shoulder. 

Hob. "VVynaad, in a stream about 3000 feet above the level of 
the sea. Said never to exceed 12 inches in length. 



126. (2.) Silurus afghana. 

Silurus afghana, Giinther, CataL v, p. 34; Day, Fish. India, p. 481, 
pi. cxii, tig. 1 (see synon.). 



120 TELEOSTEI. PHYSO8TOMI. 

D. 2. P. 1/13-14. V. 10. A. 70-78. C. 19. 

Length of head 6 to 6, of caudal fin 9 to 12, height of body 9 
to 12 in the total length. Eyes small, situated above and behind 
the angle of the mouth and in the anterior half of the head ; the 
width of the interorbital space rather exceeds half the length of the 
head. Upper jaw slightly the longer. Barbels four, the maxil- 
lary reach the base of the ventral, the single mandibular pair as 
long as the head. A single row of six widely separated open 
glands under the mandible. Teeth in a single uninterrupted 
horseshoe-shaped band on the vomer. Fins the pectoral as long 
as the head behind the eyes, rounded, its spine moderately strong, 
short, entire, and having a soft termination ; dorsal fin rudimentary, 
and in the anterior third of the total length excluding the caudal 
fin ; anal and caudal scarcely united. Colour uniform, purplish 
black or brown. 

Hob. The Himalayas ; Griffith is said to have sent this fish from 
Afghanistan, but some Khasi hill specimens were unfortunately 
mixed with his Afghan collections. I received several specimens 
from Dr. Duka, who obtained them at Darjeeling, and Jerdon pre- 
sented some to the British Museum, the largest of which is about 
7'2 inches in length ; the locality was not stated, but the specimens 
probably came from either the Kashmir or Assam regions. 

127. (3.) Silnrns cocMnchinensis. 

Silurus cochinchinensis, Cuv. 8f Vol. H. N. Poiss. xiv, p. 352 ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 481, pi. cxiii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

B. xiv-xv. D. 4. P. 1/11. V. 10. A. 62-64 (2/60-62). C. 17. 

Length of head 6 to 6|, of caudal fin 7, height of body 6| in 
the total length. Eyes minute, situated in the commencement of 
the anterior half of the head, and above the angle of the mouth. 
Upper jaw slightly the longer. The width of the head equals its 
length behind the nostrils. Barbels the maxillary about twice 
the length of the head, the mandibular pair rather shorter than the 
head. Teeth in two oval spots on the vomer divided by a 
smooth interspace. Fins dorsal arises before the origin of the 
ventral. Pectoral with a short but strong and scarcely serrated 
spine ; ventrals extend to the origin of the anal, which last is 
slightly joined to the caudal, the latter being rounded. Colour 
leaden, purplish below, and covered all over with minute black 
points, which sometimes form an irregular finger-mark on the 
shoulder. Caudal sometimes yellow. 

Hub. The hill-ranges above Akyab, Tenasserim, and Cochin 
China. 

8. Genus OLYRA, McClelland. 
Syn. Branchiotteus, Gill. 

Body elongate and low, the dorsal profile nearly horizontal ; 
head depressed and covered above with soft skin. Gill-openings 



SILUBIDJE. 121 

wide, the gill-membranes not being confluent with the skin of the 
isthmus, but notched nearly to the chin. Mouth terminal and 
transverse ; jaws of about equal length, or the lower the longer. 
Nostrils remote from one another, the posterior provided with a 
barbel. Barbels eight. Eyes small. Villifonn teeth in the jaws 
and on the palate. First dorsal fin without a spine, and with from 
six to eight rays ; adipose dorsal long and low. Anal of moderate 
length (15 to 23 rays); ventrals inserted below the dorsal and 
with five or six rays ; caudal lanceolate or rounded. Air-bladder 
not enclosed in bone. Skin smooth. 

Gill subdivided the genus into those species which have the 
jaws subequal in length, the anal with more than 20 rays, and the 
caudal lanceolate (Olyra) ; and those in which the lower jaw 
projects, the anal has less than 20 rays, and the caudal is rounded 
(Branchiosteits). 

Geographical Distribution. Small fishes from the Khasi hills and 
British Burma. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 7/0, A. 18-23. Jaws of equal length. Cau- 
dal lanceolate 1. O. longicaudata, p. 121. 

D. 8/0, A. 16. Jaws of equal length. Caudal 

lanceolate 2. O. burmanica, p. 121. 

D. 6/0, A. 15. Lower jaw the longer. Caudal 

rounded 3. 0. laticeps, p. 122. 

128. (1.) Olyra longicaudata, 

Olyra longicaudata, McClelland. Calc. Jour. N. H. ii, p. 588, pi. xxi, 
fig. 1 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 475, and Supplement, p. 800 (see synon.), 

B. vi. D. 7/0. P. 1/4. V. 5. A. 18-23. C. 12. 

Length of head 7, height of body 14 in the total length. Eyes 
behind the angle of the mouth and above its level, small, the 
diameter of each equal to half the length of the snout ; they are 
two diameters apart. Barbels eight, the maxillary reaching the 
base of the pectoral fin, the remainder short. Fins rayed dorsal 
as high as the body, the adipose very low. Pectoral spine strong 
and serrated, the fin being as long as the ventral, the latter arises 
below the commencement of the dorsal and nearer the vent than 
the gill-opening. Anal scarcely so high as the body above it. 
Caudal lanceolate, its upper rays being prolonged. 

Hob. A small species obtained from the Khasi hills and Tenas- 
serim. 

129. (2.) Olyra burmanica. (Fig. 51.) 
Olyra burmanica, Day ; Fish. India, p. 475, pi. cxi, fig. 5. 
D. 8/0. P. 1/4. V. 7. A. 16 (3/13). C. 17. 
Length of head 7^, of caudal fin 3, height of body 74 in the total 
length. Eyes small, subcutaneous, and in the anterior half of 



TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 



the head, above the level of the angle of the mouth. Jaws of 
nearly equal length, head depressed. Nostrils patent, wide apart, 
the posterior with a barbel in front of it, the anterior just over the 




Fig. 51. Olyra burmanlca. 

snout, but not in front of it. Gill-openings wide, not confluent 
with the isthmus, and extending laterally to opposite the end of 
the opercle. Barbels eight, not dilated at their bases, the maxil- 
lary the longest, almost extending to the base of the ventral h'n, 
the external mandibular as long as the head. Teeth villiform in 
both jaws, those in the outer row slightly the longest ; in an uninter- 
rupted horseshoe-shaped band across the palate. Lateral line 
present. Skin smooth. Air-bladder large, thin, and in the ab- 
dominal cavity. Fins dorsal without any spine, its first ray the 
shortest, it arises opposite the ventral ; adipose dorsal very low 
and long. Pectoral spine rather strong, slightly serrated externally, 
coarsely so internally, the fin only extends halfway to the ventral. 
The anal rays increase in length to the last. Caudal with its central 
rays strongest and elongated, making the fin one third of the total 
length. Colour dark brown. 
Ifab. Pegu Toma or Mountains. 

130. (3.) Olyra laticeps. 

Olyra laticeps, McClelland, Culc. Jour. N. H. ii, p. 588, pi. xxi, fig. 2 ; 
Day, Fish. India, p. 475 (see synoii.). 

B. xiii. D. 6/0. P. 1/9. V. 7(6?). A. 15. C. 18. 

Eyes small and vertical. Head much depressed at the snout. 
Lower jaw longer than the upper. Six or eight slender barbels. 
Teeth villiform in the jaws, palate edentulous. Fins the anal 
rays gradually increase in length from the commencement of the 
fin. Caudal entire. 

Hob. Khasi hills. 

9. Genus AMBLYCEPS, Blyth. 

Branch iostegals twelve. Gill-openings wide, the gill-membranes 
not confluent with the skin of the isthmus, notched as far forwards 
as the chin. No thoracic adhesive surface. Head covered with 
soft skin. Eyes small, subcutaneous. Mouth anterior ; gape wide. 
Nostrils close together, the posterior having a barbel. Teeth in 
jaws villiform ; palate edentulous. Anterior dorsal fin enveloped 



SILUUID.E. 123 

in skin, having one spine and six rays. Pectoral with a concealed 
spine. Ventral with six rays, inserted behind the vertical from 
the posterior margin of the rayed dorsal. Anal rather short (9 to 
12 rays). Caudal forked. Air-bladder almost entirely enclosed 
in bone. No axillary pore. 

Geographical Distribution. Small fishes inhabiting the fresh 
waters of India and Burma, usually on or near hills. Griffith 
observed (Cal. Journ. N. Hist, ii, p. 564) respecting certain fish 
from the Mydan valley in Afghanistan, " the most remarkable fish 
is a dark-coloured loach-like Silurus, which is not uncommon about 
Julraiz." 

I have a large series of this fish, and they show such diversities 
that it appears to me that all are varieties of one species. 

131. (1.) Amblyceps mangois. (Fig. 52.) 

Pimelodus mangois, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganycs, pp. 199, 379. 
Amblyceps mangois, Day, Fish. India, p. 490, pi. cii, fig. 0, and 
pi. cxvii, tig. 1 (see synon.). 

liilli, " a cat," and Sudani, Punj. 

B. xii. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/7. V. 6. A. 9-12 (2-3/7-9). C. 19. 
Vert. 12/23. 

Length of head 6, of caudal fin 6, height of body 7 to 9 in the 
total length. Eyes small, situated in the anterior two fifths of 
the hend. Mouth wide, lower jaw somewhat the longer. Barbels 
nasal as long as the head, and equalling the internal mandibular 




Fig. 52. Ambtycc, s mangois. 

pair, the maxillary reach the end of the pectoral spine, while the 
outer mandibular are not quite so long. Fins dorsal not so 
high as the body, and situated in the commencement of the second 
fifth of its total length, dorsal spine about half as high as the 
rays ; the latter are partly enveloped in skin, as are also those of the 



124 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

anal. Adipose dorsal low, the length of its base equalling that of 
the rayed fin, and two thirds of the interspace between the two fins. 
Pectoral scarcely extending halfway to the base of the ventral, 
which latter does not reach the anal. Caudal deeply forked, its 
upper lobe the longer. Caudal peduncle as high as long. Lateral 
line absent. Air-bladder has a small rounded lobe on either 
side of the body of the second vertebra, and all but a small portion 
of its front surface enclosed in bone. Colour olive-brown, lightest 
beneath. In some a dark line commences opposite the opercles 
and soon subdivides one branch going to the centre of the base 
of the caudal, the other to the base of the anal. 

Hob. The Himalayas ; found in the Jumna for some considerable 
distance from the hills, also through Burma to Moulmein. This 
fish does not appear to exceed 5 inches in length. When captured 
it bites most viciously, and lives for some time after its removal 
from the water. 



10. Genus SACCOBRANCHUS, Cuvier and Valenciennes. 
Syn. Heteropneustes, Miiller. 

Branchiostegals seven. Gill-openings wide, the membranes not 
being confluent with the skin of the isthmus, and separated by a 
deep notch. Gill-cavity having an accessory posterior sac, which 
extends backwards on either side of the neural spines amongst the 
muscles of the abdominal and part of the caudal region. Head 
depressed, covered with very thin skin ; mouth transverse. Eyes 
with a free circular margin. Barbels eight. Teeth present in the 
jaws and on the vomer. Dorsal fin short and spineless ; ventral 
with six rays situated under the dorsal. Anal long and confluent 
with the caudal or separated from it by a notch. Air-bladder 
placed transversely across the bodies of the anterior vertebra), 
where it is enclosed by bone ; two ducts pass upwards, one from 
either side of the air-vessel, unite, and open into the inferior 
surface of the pharynx. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh waters of India, Ceylon, and 
Burma, extending to Cochin China, but not found in the Malay 
Archipelago. Fishes of this genus can live long after their 
removal from the water. 

Uses. Considered exceedingly wholesome and invigorating by the 
natives of India, but in some places deemed by the Brahmins to be 
impure. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Anal fin united to the caudal D. 8, A. 70. 

Eyes small 1. S. microps, p. 125. 

Anal fin separated' from the caudal by ft notch. 

D. 6-8, A. GO-79 , , 2. S.fossilis, p. 125. 



SILURTDJE. 125 

132 . (1.) Saccobranchus microps. 

Saccobranchus microps, Ounther. Catal. v. p. 31 ; Dai/, Fish. India. 
p. 486. 

D. 8. P. 1/6. A. 70. 

Length of head 7|, height of body 8 in the total length. Eye* 
much smaller than in S. fossilis, and less than one third the length 
of the snout. Barbels the nasal reach the end of the pectoral, 
the maxillary the root of the ventral fin. Teeth the vomerine 
band is interrupted in its centre. Fins origin of the dorsal is 
two sevenths of the length (excluding the caudal fin) from the end 
of the snout. Pectoral spine feebly serrated, two thirds as long as 
head. Ventral fin reaching the anal, which last is united with the 
caudal. Colour brown, 

Hah.' Ceylon, growing to 6 inches in length. 

133. (2.) Saccobranchus fossilis. (Fig. 53.) 

Silurus fossilis, Block, Ich. t. 370, fig. 2. 

Saccobranchus fossilis, Day, Fish, India, p. 486, pi. cxiv, fig. 1 
(see synon.). 

liitchu ka miitchee and Sinai, Hind. ; Stnyee and Shecn-ce, Assam. 
Thay-lee, Tarn. ; Mar-pu, Tel. ; Sinyee, Ooriah, Beng. and N.W. Prov. ; 
Naa-gyee and Nya-khoo, Burmese and Mugh. ; Lahoord (young), Nidlie 
(adult), Punj. ; Kahree-meen, Mai. ; Lo-har, Sind. ; (Kamacha singgi, 
Bhagalpur, H. B.). 

B. vii. D. 6-7. P. 1/7. V. 6. A. 60-79. C. 19. 
Length of head from 5| to 7, of caudal fin from about 9 to 14, 
height of body (greatly depending upon food or season; from 5 to 
8 in the total length. The width of the head equals its length, 
and that of the gape of the mouth is contained 2| to 2| times in 
the length of the head. Eyes from 2 to 3 diameters from end of 
snout. Barbels the maxillary extend to the middle of the pectoral, 




Fig. 53. Saccobranchus fossilis. 

or even the commencement of the ventral fins. Teeth those 
on the vomer in a pyriform patch on either side, converging ante- 
riorly, widely divergent posteriorly. Fins the dorsal commences 
rather before the anterior third of the body ; the ventrals reach to 
the third or fourth anal ray or just to the origin of that fin. 
Pectoral spine serrated internally, it usually has a few ser- 
rations externally at its anterior end; it is from two thirds to 



126 



TEMCOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMT. 



three fourths as long as the head. Anal and caudal separated by 
a more or less distinct notch. Colour leaden, sometimes with 
two longitudinal yellowish bands. The young are occasionally 
reddish. 

- Wounds from the pectoral spine of this fish are dreaded in 
India, as they are reputed to be very poisonous, even occasioning 
tetanus. As soon as captured, the offensive spine is broken off by 
blows with a stake, consequently it is difficult to procure large and 
perfect specimens. Fishermen dread this fish so much that they 
would prefer cutting the meshes of their nets and allowing it to 
escape than endeavour to remove it uninjured. As food the flesh 
is esteemed for its invigorating qualities, and tanks are frequently 
stocked with these fishes during the rainy season. When food is 
plentiful they fatten well ; if the reverse they become lanky, thus 
altering the comparative height of the body to that of its length. 

In a specimen captured at Bezwada, September 12th, 1868, the 
ova were fully developed ; the colour of the eggs was of a pea-green. 
Hob. Fresh waters of Sind, India, Ceylon, Burma, and Cochin 
China; attaining a foot or more in length. 



11. Genus WALLAGO, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals from fifteen to twenty-one. Gill-openings wide, 
the membrane not being confluent with the skin of the isthmus, 
and being rather deeply notched. Body elongated and compressed, 
the dorsal profile being nearly straight. Head covered with soft 
skin. Cleft of mouth deep, extending to below or even behind the 
eyes. Snout rather produced ; lower jaw a little the longer. 
Nostrils some distance apart, the posterior small and patent, the 
anterior slightly tubular. Barbels four, one maxillary and one 
mandibular pair. Eyes above the level of the angle of the mouth, 
and not covered with skin. Teeth numerous and cardiform in 
both jaws, and in an oblique patch on either side of the vomer, 
none on the palatines. A short spineless dorsal, situated above or 
slightly before the ventrals; no adipose fin ; anal long, terminating 
near the caudal, which last consists of two rounded lobes. Ventrals 
with from eight to eleven rays. Air-bladder heart-shaped, situated 
in the abdomen, and attached to the bodies of the second, third, and 
fourth vertebrae. Axillary pore, if present, minute. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh waters of India, Burma, and 
the East Indian Archipelago. 

Uses. Good eating: thrives well in tanks, especially if they 
have grassy margins; but it destroys vast numbers of other fish. 



134. (1.) Wallago atttt. (Fig. 54.) 

Silurus attu, SI. Schn. Si/st. Ich. p. 378, t. 75. 
Wallago attu, Day, Fish. India, p. 479, pi. cxi, fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Wtih-laJi, Mai. and Tarn.; Mid-la and Pi-i-kce and Jrr-i-l-ce, Sind.; 



8ILTJBIIXE. 127 

Jloyrtri, Bong. ; RhivruJa and Part, Mnrathi ; Bcalll, Ooiiah ; Foil, Chitta- 
gong ; Nya bat, Burmese. 

B. xix-xxi. D. 5. P. 1/13-15. V. 8-10. A. 86-93 (4/82-89). 

C. 17. Vert. 13/56. 

Length of head 5 to 5^, of caudal fin 9, height of body 6| in the 
total length. Eyes with free lids, diameter two fifteenths of 
length of head, 2 diameters from end of snout. Width of head 
rather less than its length, and half its height. Snout rather 
produced. Cleft of mouth extending to about 1 diameter behind 
the orbit, the lower jaw being slightly the longer. Barbels the 
maxillary twice as long as the head, mandib :lar as long as the 




Fig. ^A. Wallago attu. 

snout. Teeth generic. Fins the dorsal nearly as long as the 
pectoral, which last equals in length the depth of the cleft of 
the mouth. Pectoral spine finely serrated internally. Anal not 
confluent with the caudal, which last consists of two lobes. 
Air-bladder of moderate size, somewhat heart-shaped, situated 
in the front portion of the abdomen, and attached to the anterior 
vertebrae. Colour uniform, fins sometimes covered with fine dots. 
Hob. Fresh waters throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, and 
sometimes, according to Col. Tickell, within tidal influence. 
Attains at least six feet in length, and is good eating, but is a 
voracious and not very cleanly feeder, said to mostly feed at night, 
time. 

12. Genus EUTROPIICHTHYS, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals eleven. Gill-openings wide, the membranes 
not being confluent with the skin of the isthmus, but separated by 
a deep notch. Body and head compressed. Head covered with 
soft skin. Eyes with broad adipose lids. Cleft of mouth deep, 
extending to below the eyes ; upper jaw slightly the longer. 
Nostrils wide and patent, the anterior and outer one being at the 
side of the snout. Eight barbels. Teeth in jaws sharp ; and in a 
broad band across the vomer and palatines. First dorsal short, 
having one spine and seven rays ; the adipose short. Pectoral 
with a spine. Ventral with six rays, and situated below the rayed 
dorsal. Anal long (47-50 rays). Caudal forked. Air-bladder 
externally protected by bone. No axillary pore. 



128 TELEOSTET. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

135. (1.) Eutropiichthys vacha. (Fig. 55.) 

Pimelodus vacha, Ham. Buck. Fish. Gang. pp. 100, 378, pi. 19, fig. 64. 
Eutropiichthys vacha, Day, Fish. India, p. 490, pi. cxiv, fig. 6 (see 

synon.). 

Butchua and Nandi butchua, Ooriah ; Chel-lee, Sind. ; Nee-much, N.W. 
Prov. ; Vdchd, Beng. ; Nga-myen-kouban, Kfttha-boung, and Nya-myee-yiny, 
Burmese. 

B. xi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/13-16. V. 6. A. 3-4/41-47. C. 17. 
Length of head 5| to 5|, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 to 5| in 
the total length. Eyes with broad adipose lids, diameter 3 to 3 
in the length of the head, 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 
1 to 1^ apart. "Width of the head equals its length behind the 
middle of the eyes. Cleft of mouth rather oblique, its extent 
being one fourth more than the width of the gape ; the angle 
situated under the middle or hind third of the eyes ; snout com- 
pressed and pointed, the upper jaw being slightly the longer. 
Barbels the nasal pair reaching to the hind edge of the head or 
even slightly further ; maxillary ones to the end of preopercle, or 
they may be even as long as the head ; the mandibular ones, which 




Fig. 55. Eutropiichthys vacha. 

arise on a transverse line across the chin, are rather shorter. 
Teeth sharp in the jaws, in a pyriform band on the palatines, the 
latter with those on the vomer forming an uninterrupted band, 
that nearly touches the band on the upper jaw. Fins dorsal 
spine thin, serrated posteriorly, and usually as long as the head, 
excluding the snout. Pectoral fin reaching the base of the ventral ; 
pectoral spine rough externally, serrated internally, and as long as 
that of the dorsal. Ventral situated under the posterior dorsal 
rays, and only extending halfway to the anal. Free portion of 
the tail as high as long. Colour silvery, greyish along the back ; 
pectoral and caudal usually edged with black. 

Variety Eutropiichthys burmannicus has A. 4/55, and its nasal 
barbels almost reach to the dorsal fin, the maxillary to the middle 
of the pectoral spine, whilst all the others are longer than the head. 
The pectoral spine is serrated externally, and reaches the anal fin. 

7/o6. From the Punjab through the large rivers of Sind, Bengal, 
and Orissa, and variety E. burmannicus in Burma. This species 
attains upwards of a foot in length. It is good eating. 



8ILUBID.E. 129 

13. Genus CALLICHROUS, Hamilton Buchanan. 

Syn. Omwk, Lacep. ; Kryptopterus, Kryptopterichthys, Micronema, 
Philacronotus, Hemmlurws, Silurodes, Pseudosilurus, and Stturichthys, 
Bleeker ; Plerocryptis, Peters. 

Branchiostegals twelve to fifteen. G-ill-qpenings wide ; the 
membranes not confluent with the skin of the isthmus, deeply 
notched and overlapping. Head covered with skin. Cleft of mouth 
oblique, not extending so far as the front of the eyes ; the lower 
jaw the longer. Eyes subcutaneous, situated behind and opposite 
the angle of the mouth, lateral or sometimes partially on the lower 
surface of the head. Barbels four or two, one pair maxillary, and 
some distance behind the symphysis a mandibular pair, the latter 
sometimes being rudimentary or even absent. Nostrils remote 
from one another. Teeth villiform in the jaws, in an uninterrupted 
(Silurodes, Bleeker) or interrupted (Callichrous, Bleeker) band on 
the vomer, none on the palatines. Dorsal fin spineless, short, 
rudimentary, or absent, when present anterior to the ventrals ; no 
adipose fin. Pectoral with a spine. Anal long, continuous with 
(Pterocryptis, Peters) or terminating close to the caudal, the latter 
being forked, emarginate or rounded. Ventral with eight to ten 
rays. Air-bladder rather small, attached to the lower surfaces of 
the second to the fourth vertebrae, and not enclosed in bone. No 
axillary pore. 

Geographical Distribution. Sind, India, Ceylon, Burma, through 
Siam, to the Malay Archipelago and China. 

Uses. Although rarely exceeding a foot in length, these fishes are 
usually excellent as food, and from their quality have been termed 
" Butter-fish " by Europeans in Bengal, and are generally known as 
" Puffta," Hind. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Anal fin united to the caudal. 

Teeth on the palate in an uninterrupted 

band. D.2,A.75. Maxillary barbels 

not quite so long as the head 1. C. gangeticus, p. 130. 

Vomerine teeth in two separate patches. 

D. 4, A. 47. Maxillary barbels 

reach middle of pectoral tin 2. C. sindensis, p. 130. 

B. Anal fin distinct from the caudal. 

A. 60-75, V. 8. Maxillary barbels 

reach ventral tin. Pectoral not so long 

as head, spine smooth or serrated . . 3. C. bimaculattis, p. 131. 
A. (50-71, V. 9-10. Maxillary barbels 

shorter than the head. Pectoral 

spine feebly serrated 4. <?. jxibo, p. 132. 

A. 09-73, V. 8. Eyes large. Maxil- 
lary barbels reach middle of fish. 

Pectoral fin reaches fourth or fifth 

anal ray 5. C. macrophthalmus, p. 132. 

K 



130 TELKOSTEI. PUYSOSTOMI. 

A. G1-G9, V. 8. Maxillary barbels 

reach anal fin ; of a purplish-brown 

colour 0. C. malabaricus, p. 133. 

A. 54-60, V. 8. Maxillary barbels 

reach middle or end of pectoral fin. 7. C. pdbda, p. 133. 

136. (1.) Callichrous gangeticus. 
Pterocryptis gangetica, Peters, MB. Ah. Berl 1801, p. 712. 
Callichrous gangeticus, Day, Fish. India, p. 476 (see synon.). 

B. xii. D. 2. P. 1/12. V. 10. A. 75. 

Length of head nearly one seventh, height of body two nineteenths 
of the total length. Maxillary barbels do not quite reach the 
pectorals, whilst the mandibular ones reach the edge of the gill- 
membrane. Vomerine teeth in an uninterrupted baud. Fins 
pectoral spine feebly serrated ; anal united with the caudal. 

Hob. Ganges. 1 have not procured this species in India, my 
nearest approach to it beiug C. sindensis. 

137. (2.) Callichrous sindensis. (Fig. 56.) 
Cdllichrous sindensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 476, pi. ex, fig. 1 . 

B. xii. D. 4. P. 1/12. V. 8. A. 47 (2/45). C. 13. 
Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 7, height of body 4^ in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4| in the length of head, 1 diameter from 
end of snout, and 2 apart. The dorsal profile rather elevated, and 
a little concave over the orbits. The greatest width of the head 
equals its height, or its length excluding the snout. Cleft of mouth 
very oblique, the lower jaw prominent, and the eye situated rather 




Fig. 56. Cattichrous sindcnsis. 

above the angle of the mouth. Barbels the maxillary reach to the 
middle of the pectoral fin ; the mandibular are thin and nearly half 
as long as the head. Teeth in two small oval patches on the vomer 
not confluent in the median line. Fins dorsal narrow at its base. 
Pectoral spine as long as the head behind the middle of the eyes and 
finely serrated internally ; the fin reaches to nearly above the com- 
mencement of the anal. Ventral reaches the first anal ray. Aanl 
united to the caudal. Colour silvery, with a black spot behind 
the gill-opening and above the base of the pectoral fin ; body 
and fins with numerous cloudy dark markings. 
Hdb. Sind from the Indus. 



131 

138. (3.) Callichrous bimaculatus. (Fig. 57.) 

Silurus biniaculatiis, Jiloch, Ich. t. 364. 

Callichrous bimaculatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 476, pi. ex, figs. 4 & 5 
(see synon.). 

Diika-diimti, Tel. ; Godla, Canarese ; Dimmon, Sind. ; Chotnh- or 
Ckcla-wahlah, Tarn. ; Pob-tah, Ooriah ; Pah-boh, Assam.; Pufta, Goonyidxh, 
and Pallu, Punj.; Goon</-wah-ree and Puf-ta, N.W. Provinces; Gugli, 
Mara thi ; Kanee rabda, Beng. ; Nya noothan, Burmese. 

B. xii. D. 4. P. 1/13. V. 8. A. 60-75 (2-3/58-72). C. 17. 

Length of head 5 to 7, of caudal fin 6| to 7, height of body 5| 
to5 in the total length. Eyes situated opposite the angle of the 
mouth ; diameter 4 to 5| in the length of the head, 1 to 1| diameters 
from the end of snout, and 2| to 3| apart. The greatest width of 
the head equals its length behind the angle of the mouth. The 
lower jaw very prominent, the width of the gape of the mouth 
equals the postorbital length of the head or its length to behind 
the middle of the eyes. Barbels the maxillary pair reach the 
middle of the pectoral or the commencement of the anal. Teeth 
in two small oval patches, one on either side of the vomer, and not 
continuous. Fins dorsal arises in the commencement of the 
second two sevenths of the body, it is narrow and two thirds as high 




'. 57. Callichrous bimaculatus. 



as the body. Pectoral as long as the head behind the angle of the 
mouth, its spine of moderate strength, as long as the head behind 
the middle of the eyes, and strongly or feebly serrated on the inner 
side, or even entire. Anal ceases close to, but is not continuous 
with, the forked caudal. Colour silvery shot with purple, a black 
spot on the shoulder behind the gill-opening and above the middle of 
the pectoral fin ; in some specimens this black spot is much better 
defined than in others. Occasionally the caudal fin is tipped with 
black. 

The character of the pectoral spine, whether smooth * or serrated, 
is not a specific distinction. 

Hob. The fresh waters of Sind, and from the Punjab throughout 
India, Ceylon, and Assam to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 
Sometimes observed in Burma, according to Col. Tickell, within 
tidal influence. Attains at least a foot and a half in length. 

* At Trichinopoly I opened eight specimens having entire pectoral spines ; 
all were females, one had 47,844 eggs. 

K2 



132 TELEOSTEI. PHJCSOSTOMI. 

139. (4.) Callichrous pabo. 

Silurus pabo, Ham. Bush. Fish. Ganges, pp. 153, 375, pi. 22, fig. 48. 
Callichrous pabo, -Day, Fish. India, p. 477, pi. ex, fig. G (see synon.). 

B. xii. D. 5. P. 1/14. V. 9-10. A. 66-71 (3/63-66). C. 17. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, of caudal fin 8|, height of body 5 to 5.| 
in the total length. Eyes diameter 4 to 4| in the length of the 
head, 1^ diameters from the end of snout, and 2| apart. The 
greatest width of the head equals its length behind the middle of the 
eyes. The lower jaw slightly in advance of the upper ; the width of 
the gape of the mouth equals half the length of the head. Barbels 
the maxillary reach the hind edge of the eye or a little further ; 
the mandibular are fine and short. Teeth in two short trans- 
verse patches rather distant from one another in the median line. 
Fins the dorsal situated in the commencement of the second third 
of the length of the body. Pectoral fin as long as the head behind the 
angle of the mouth, the spine feebly serrated (entire in Burma) 
and half as long as the head. Ventral with ten rays in India, nine 
in Burma. Colour silvery, with a badly marked shoulder-spot. 

I found in Burma a variety of this fish, clouded all over with 
fine dark spots ; it had black tips to the caudal lobes, and nine 
ventral rays. 

Hab. Jumna and Ganges rivers, also Burma. Ham. Buchanan 
observed that it was- termed at Patna TdmbuKya pdpta, or Callichrous 
resembling a betel-leaf. 

140. (5.) Callichrous macrophthalmus. 

Pseudosilurua macrophthalmos, Bli/th, J. A.S. P. xxix, 1800, p. 1515. 
Callichrous macrophthalmus, Day, Fish. India, p. 478, pi. ex, figs. 2 
& 3 (see synon.). 

B. xv. D. 4. P. 1/12-15. V. 8. A. 69-73 (2-3/66-70). C. 18. 
Length of head 5| to 6, of caudal fin 6 to 7, height of body 5 to 6 
in the total length. Eyes diameter 3f to 4 in the length of head, 
1 to 1 \ diameters from end of snout, and 2 to 2 apart. The 
greatest width of the head equals its length excluding the snout. 
Cleft of the mouth descends to opposite the upper third of the 
eye ; the width of the gape equals one half to four ninths of the 
length of the head. Barbels the maxillary pair reach to opposite 
the eighth or tenth anal ray; the mandibular are nearly one 
half the length of the head. Teeth in a very narrow oblong 
patch on either side of the vomer, and not continuous in the 
median line. Fins the dorsal half as high as the body, narrow 
(especially in Madras specimens), and situated in the commence- 
ment of the second third of the length of the fish excluding 
the snout. Ventrals equal 1| diameters of the eye. Anal not 
united to the caudal, the latter deeply forked. Colour silvery, 
a dark round shoulder-spot over the middle of the pectoral spine ; 



SILURIDJB. 133 

this mark is very indistinct in Madras specimens, but exceedingly 
dark in those from Burma. 

The only objection to uniting the Madras with the Assam and 
Burmese form is that the former has P. 1/12-13, the latter P. 1/15. 
The shoulder-spot is not so well marked, and the dorsal fin not so 
developed in the Madras variety. This fish is closely allied to 
C. bimaculatus, but has a larger eye, a narrow band of palatine 
teeth, much longer pectoral fins and maxillary barbels. The Bur- 
mese form (C. iwtatus) is more elongated. 

Udb. Madras, Assam, and Burma. 

141. (6.) Callichrous malabaricns. 

Silurus malabaricus, Cuv. fy Val. H. N. Poiss. xiv, p. 363. 
Calllchrous malabaricus, Day, Fish. India, p. 478, pi. cxi, fig. 1 (tee 
synon.). 

Kalaywjli, Marfithi j Mungee Wahlah, Mai. 

B. xv. D. 4. P. 1/13-14. V. 8. A. 61-69 (3/58-66). C. 17. 

Length of head 5 to 5^, of caudal fin 7, height of body 6 in the. 
total length. Eyes opposite the angle of the mouth, diameter 5| 
in the length of head, 1| diameters from the end of snout, and 3 
apart. The greatest width of the head equals its length excluding 
the snout. Lower jaw strongly prominent. Barbels the maxil- 
lary reach to above the commencement of the anal fin, the inandi- 
bular are short. Teeth in an interrupted band across the vomer. 
'Fins dorsal narrow. Pectoral rounded, as long as the head ex- 
cluding the snout; the spine strong, nearly one half as long as the 
head, and rather strongly serrated internally. A notch between 
the end of the anal and the base of the caudal, the last being deeply 
forked with the upper lobe the longer. Colour of a deep greyish 
brown shot with purple, fin-membranes densely spotted with 
black. 

Specimens captured to the south of Canara or in the Cochin 
district show the most anal rays, a more elongated body, and 
longer mandibular barbels. 

Hab. Malabar coast of India as high as Canara. These fish reach 
20 inches in length. 

142. (7.) Callichrous pabda. 

Silurus pnbda, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 150, 374, t. xxv, fig. 47. 
Callichrous pabda, Day, Fish. India, p. 479, pi. cxi, figs. 2 & 8 
(see synon.). 

Pattu, Punj. ; Pabda, Beng. 

B.xii-xiv. D.4-5. P. 1/11-13. V.8. A. 54-60 (2/52-58). C.I 8. 

Length of head 5 to 6|, of caudal fin 8, height of body 5 to 5| 

in the total length. Eyes diameter 5 in the length of head, 1 to 

1 1 diameters from end of snout, and 2.] to 3 apart. The greatest 



134 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

width of the head equals its length excluding the snout. The 
width of the gape of the mouth equals half the length of the head. 
Lower jaw very prominent. Barbels the maxillary reach the 
middle or end of the pectoral fin, the mandibular the hind edge of 
the orbit. Teeth vomerine in two small oval patches, not con- 
fluent together. Fins pectoral spine as long as the head behind 
the middle of the eyes, serrated internally, sometimes rather 
strongly, at other times feebly, or entirely smooth. Anal not con- 
fluent with the caudal. Colour this varies considerably, usually 
silvery glossed with gold, having a dark shoulder-spot above the 
middle of the pectoral h'u, and usually another close to the base of 
the tail. In some specimens the body is covered with brownish 
blotches. At Jubbulpore I took specimens having a dark band 
along the upper portion of the back, and a second along the 
lateral line, leaving a light line from the gill-opening to the upper 
portion of the caudal fin. 

Hob. Punjab in the affluents of the Indus and along that river 
to its termination ; at Hard war where the Gauges emerges from 
the Himalayas and along its waters in the Gangetic provinces ; 
also Orissa, Darjeeling, and the Brahmaputra in Assam. 

14. Genus AILIA, Gray. 

Branchiostegals eight. Gill-openings wide, the gill-membranes 
not confluent with the skin of the isthmus. Body elongated and 
strongly compressed. Head covered with thin skin. Eyes nearly 
or quite behind the angle of the mouth, and with adipose lids. 
Upper jaw slightly the longer. Nostrils patent, those on either 
side approximating, the anterior in front of the snout. Eight 
barbels. Villiform teeth in the jaws and in two minute patches 
on the vomer. No anterior dorsal, but a small adipose fin pos- 
teriorly. Pectoral with a spine. Ventral with six rays. Anal 
long (59-75 rays). Caudal forked. Air-bladder tubifcrm, lying 
across the body of an anterior vertebra, and externally protected 
by bone. No axillary pore. 

Geographical Distribution. Sind, the larger rivers of the Punjab, 
N.W. Provinces, Bengal, Assam, and Orissa. 

143. (1.) Ailia coila. (Fig. 58.) 

Malapterurus coila, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 158, 375. 
Ailia coila, Day, Fish. India, p. 488, pi. cxiv, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

PiMuli and JBounse jmtti, " Banihoo leaf," Ooriah ; Mioiyleeahnce, 
Sind. ; Vella kalada, Telugu ; " Kajoli, Rangpur, Busaiiyuti, Gorakpur, 
lidtausi, Bhagulpur," II. Buch. 

B. viii. P. 1/14. V. 6. A. 59-75. C. 19. 

Length of head 6 to 7, of caudal fin 5 to 8, height of body 5^ to 6 
in the total length. Eyes diameter 3| to 3j in the length of the 
head, 1 diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. The 
greatest width of the head equals its length excluding the snout ; 



SILURID^E. 135 

the width of the gape of the mouth equals one third of the length 
of the head. Upper jaw the longer, and rather overhung by the 
snout. Cleft of the mouth reaching halfway to the orbit opposite 
the centre of the eye. Barbels extend to the first one third or 
middle of the length of the fish excluding its caudal fin. Teeth 
generic. Fins pectoral spine slender and about as long as the 




Fig. 58. Ailut coila. 

head. Ventral short. Anal with from 59 to 75 rays in mv 
specimens, and most of the intermediate numbers may be found. 
Caudal forked. In many specimens the neural spines appear just 
above the skin along the back. Colour silvery, some of the fins 
often stained grey at their margins. The caudal, especially in 
Orissa specimens, is commonly orange edged with black. 

The fish is excellent eating and much esteemed as food. 

Hob. From the Kistna and Orissa ; throughout the Indus 
Jumna, and Granges, from the hills to their terminations ; also 
Assam. Attains at least 7 inches in length. 



15. Genus AILIICHTHYS, Day. 
Similar to Ailia except that the ventral fins are absent. 

144. (1.) Ailiichthys punctatns. (Fig. 59.) 
Ailiichthys punctata, Day, P.Z.S. 1871, p. 713; and Fish. India, 

p. 489, pi. cxiv, fig. 5. 
Put-tas-si and Put-tu-ah, Punj. 

P. 1/12. A. 76-90. C. 17. 

Length of head 6 to 7, of caudal fin 6, height of body 5 in the 
total length. Eyes situated more than half below the angle of the 
month, being partly on the lower side of the head, diameter four 
elevenths to one third of length of head, one half to two thirds of 
a diameter from end of snout, 1 diameter apart. Body coin- 
pressed, upper profile of the head slightly concave. Width of 
the head equals its postorbital length. Width of the gape of the 
mouth equals one third of the length of the head. Upper jaw 
somewhat the longer, the cleft of the mouth only extends about 
halfway to the anterior margin of the eye, and to opposite its 



]36 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

centre. Barbels subequnl in length and extend to the middle of 
the length of the fish. Teeth villiform in the jaws. Fins adi- 
pose dorsal minute. Pectoral spine nearly as long as the head ; 




Fig. 59. Ailiichthhys punctatm. 

vcntrals absent. Caudal forked, lower lobe the longer. Colour 
silvery, upper surface of head nearly black, a large black spot 
before the base of the caudal fin. 

Hub. Jumna below Delhi, also from the Indus in Sind, where I 
obtained numerous specimens up to 4 inches in length. 



16. Genus PSEUDEUTROPIUS, Bleeker. 
Syn. Clupisoma, Swainson ; Schilbeichthys, Bleelcer. 

Branchiostegals from six to ten. Gill-openings wide, the mem- 
branes not confluent with the skin of the isthmus and rather 
deeply notched. Body elongated and compressed. Head covered 
with soft skin. Eyes large, with- or without broad adipose lids, 
and situated behind as well as a little below the angle of the 
mouth, being usually partly on the inferior surface of the head. 
Upper jaw, as a rule, the longer. Nostrils patent, the posterior 
ones transverse and as near together as they are to the anterior 
pair. Barbels eight one nasal pair, one maxillary and two man- 
dibular pairs, these last commencing in a transverse line close to 
the hind margin of the lower lip. Teeth villiform on the jaws and 
palate. Dorsal fin short, with one spine and six to eight rays ; a 
very small adipose dorsal which may be absorbed in the adult 
(Schilbeichthys) ; pectoral with a serrated spine ; anal long, ter- 
minating at some distance from a forked caudal. Ventral with 
from 6 to 8 rays. Air-bladder rather small, somewhat heart- 
shaped, with a notch at its anterior edge, and closely attached to 
the front surfaces of the vertebra. An axillary pore generally 
present. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh waters of Sind, India, Ceylon, 
and Burma to the Malay Archipelago, where according to Bleeker 
it appears to have a single representative. 

Uses, These fishes are all excellent as food, but in some localities 
are to be avoided as they consume offal. 



SILURID;E. 137 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. 54. Nasal barbels reach the dorsal, max- 

illary barbels the anal fin ; the mandibular 

are about as long as the head. Cleft of 

mouth to below first third of eye ...... 1. P. goongwaree, p. 137. 

A. 43-52. Maxillary barbels reach middle of 

pectoral fin, the mandibular shorter than 

the head ............................ 2. P. taakree, p. 138. 

A. 42-46. Snout projecting, and covered 

beneath with teeth which are entirely in 

advance of those of the lower jaw. The 

maxillary barbels reach the anal fin, the 

mandibular are as long as the head ---- 3. P. acutt'rostris, p. 139. 
A. 38-43. Maxillary barbels as long as head, 

the others shorter ..................... 4. P. murius, p. 139. 

A . 35-37. Maxillary barbels reach the ventral 

fin, mandibular as long at the head. Teeth 

on the palate in two distinct patches ____ 5. P. sykesii, p. 140. 
A. 33-41. Maxillary barbels reach the anal 

fin, mandibular longer than the head. 

Dark bands along the body, and a spot at 

the base of the caudal ................ 6. P. athcrinoides, p. 141. 

A . 29-36. Maxillary barbels reach the ventral 

fin, mandibular about as long as the head. 

Adipose dorsal absent in adults ........ 7. P. garua, p. 141. 



145. (1.) Psendeutropins goongwaree. (Fig. 60.) 

G 

cix, fig. 3 



Hypophthalnius goongwaree, Sykcs, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 369, pi. G4, fig. 3. 
Paeudeiitropius goongwaree, Day, Fish. India, p. 471, pi. 



(see synou.). 

mycen yeeng, Burmese. 




Fig. 69. Pseiidf.utro'pius goongwaree and upper dentition. 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/13. V. 6. A. 54 (3/51). C. 17. 

Length of head 5, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 in .the total 
length. Eyes with a very broad circular adipose lid, situated 
partially on the lower surface of the head, diameter 2| in the 
length of head, $ to 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 1 
apart. The median longitudinal groove on the head reaches the 
base of the occipital process, which latter is narrow, especially 
at its base. Width of head rather above half its length. Upper 



138 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

jaw the longer ; width of gape of mouth equals the diameter of the 
eye ; cleft extends to below first third of the eye. Barbels the 
nasal pair reach the base of the dorsal fin, the maxillary the anal 
fin, and the mandibular are about as long as the head. Teeth in a 
wide pyriform band, wider than those in the jaws ; the vomerine 
and palatine groups touching, but the two vomerine patches 
having a short interspace between them. Fins dorsal spine 
somewhat slender, nearly as long as the head and very finely 
serrated posteriorly. Pectoral spine slightly longer, stronger, 
and rather strongly denticulated internally. Ventral fin not 
quite half as long as the head, and under the centre of the dorsal 
fin. Caudal forked. Free portion of the tail rather higher at its 
base than it is long. Colour silvery, darkest superiorly. 

Jfb. Eivers of the Deccan, Bengal, and Burma; attaining about 
a foot in length. 

146. (2.) Pseudentropins taakree. 

Hypophthalmus taakree, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 360, pi. 64, fig. 4. 
Pseudeutropius taakree, Day, Fish. India, p. 471, pi. cix, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

Waidi and Vdyadi, Manitlii ; Salava jella, Telugu ; Nga fhan yyik, 
Burmese. 

B. vi. D. ^ 7 | 0. P. 1/10-11. V. 6. A. 43-52 (J=^). C. 17. 

Length of head 6 to 6^, of caudal fin 6, height of body 5 to 6 
in the total length. Eyes situated behind the angle of the mouth 
and partly on the under surface of the head, having broad circular 
adipose lids ; diameter 2| to 3 in the length of the head, f to 1 
diameter from end of snout aud 1 apart. The greatest width 
of the head equals half its length, the width of the gape of the 
mouth two fifths ; the cleft of the mouth extends to opposite the 
middle of the front edge of the eve. Occipital process long and 
slender, scarcely reaching the basal bone of the dorsal fin. Median 
longitudinal groove on the head shallow and reaching to the 
occipital process. Barbels the nasal half as long as the head, the 
maxillaries reach the anal, whilst the mandibular are a little longer 
than the head. Teeth the vomerine and palatine in a distinct 
patch. Fins dorsal spine smooth anteriorly, serrated posteriorly, 
as long as the head without the snout. Pectoral spine stronger, 
serrated internally and almost as long as the head. Ventral rather 
above half as long as the head and reaching the anal. Free portion 
of the tail about as high at its base as it is long. Colour silvery, 
with a gloss of green along the back ; caudal stained with grey at 
its edges. 

I have obtained in Burma, as high as Mandalay, specimens 
which 1 am unable to separate from this species, except that in 
some the pectoral spine is slightly shorter, in others the adipose 
fin is almost or quite absent. 

Hab, Poona, the Deccan, the rivers Kistnaand Jumna. Attains 
upwards of a foot and a half in length, and is good eating. 



S1LURIDJE. 139 

147. (3.) Pseudeutropius acutirostris. 

Pseudeutropius acutirostris, Day, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 618 ; and Fish. 
India, p. 472, pi. cix, fig. 1 (see synon.) 

B. vi. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/7. V. 6. A. 42-46 (2/40-44). C. 17. 

Length of head 4| to 5, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 in 
the total length. Eyes without adipose lids, situated behind the 
cleft of the mouth, diameter one third of the length of the head, 
one diameter from the end of snout, and also apart. The greatest 
width of the head equals half its length. Upper surface of the 
head flat and rugose. Upper jaw elongated, and projecting con- 
siderably beyond the lower. The median longitudinal groove on 
the head reaches the base of the occipital process, which is narrow 
and twp sevenths as wide afe its base as it is long. Barbels the 
nasal rather longer than the head, the maxillary reach the base of 
the anal fin, the mandibular as long as the head. Teeth the 
whole under surface of the snout toothed, the premaxillaries 
being entirely in advance of the lower jaw, in two minute 
patches on the vomer, and of the same character on the palatines, 
the latter not continuous with those on the vomer. Fins 
dorsal spine as long as the head behind the angle of the mouth, 
finely serrated posteriorly. Pectoral spine strong, rough ex- 
ternally, and with about ten strong teeth internally ; it is as long 
as the head excluding the snout. Ventral arising somewhat 
behind the base of the dorsal fin ; caudal deeply forked. Colour 
silvery, a black spot on the occiput, and a black blotch at the base 
of the dorsal fin. 

Hal. The Irrawaddi and other large Burmese rivers. It does 
not appear to attain a large size. 



148. (4.) Psendeutropius murius. 

Pimelodus murius, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 195, 378. 
Pseudeutropius murius, Day, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 306; and Fish. India, 
p. 472, pi. cviii, fig. 6 (see synon.). 

Muri-vacha, Ooriah and Bengali ; Motusi, Beug. ; Butchua, Hind. ; 
Ke-raad, Punj. ; Chhotkd vdchoyd, of the Kusi (H. B.). 

B. v. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 38-43 (3/35-40). 0. 17. 
Length of head 5 to 6, of caudal fin 5| to 6, height of body 5| 
to 6 in the total length. Eyes lateral and very slightly on the 
lower surface of the head ; each with a broad, circular, adipose lid, 
diameter 3 to 3| in the length of head, f of a diameter from 
end of snout, and 1 apart. The greatest width of the head is 
rather above two thirds of its length. Jaws compressed, the 
upper slightly the longer, the cleft reaches nearly or quite to 
below the front edge of the eye ; the width of the gape equals 
one third of the length of the head. The median longitudinal 
groove on the head extends to the end of the occipital process, 



140 TELEOSTEI. PUYSOSTOMI. 

which is narrow, short, half as wide at its base as it is long, 
and with a long interspace between it and the basal bone of the 
dorsal fin. Barbels the nasal reach to a short distance behind 
the posterior edge of the orbit ; the maxillary to the base of the 
pectoral fin, whilst the two mandibular pairs are a little longer 
than the head. Teeili on the vomer and palate form an almost 
uninterrupted semilunar baud. Fins dorsal spine nearly as long 
as the first ray, or as the head excluding the snout, weak, very 
finely serrated in front, more coarsely behind. Pectoral spine 
weak, nearly or quite as long as the head, rough externally, serrated 
internally. Ventral small, one third as long as the head. Caudal 
deeply forked. Caudal peduncle as long as deep at its base. 
Colour silvery, lightest along the sides and below ; dorsal, pectoral, 
and caudal fins darkest at their margins. 

In the form called P. megalops the maxillary barbels extend to 
beyond the origin of the anal fin, but I do not see any other 
difference. 

Hcib. Eivers of Sind, Orissa, the Jumna, and rivers of Bengal 
and Assam. Attaining about 6 or 8 inches in length. 

149. (5.) Pseudentropius sykesii. 

Schilbe sykesii, Jertkm, Mad. Jour. L. Sc. xv, 1849, p. 335. 
Pseudeutropius sykesii, Day, Fish. India, p. 473, pi. cix, iig. 5 (see 
synon.). 

Nah-kelletee, Tarn. 
B.viii-ix. D.l/7|0. P. 1/9. Y.6. A . 35-37 (3/32-34). C. 17. 

Length of head 6, of caudal fin 6, height of body 6 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3^ in length of head, 1 diameter 
from end of snout, and lj apart. Head rather higher than wide, 
its greatest width equals its length excluding the snout. The 
angle of the mouth is on a level with the lower edge of the orbit. 
Upper jaw slightly the longer; posteriorly it reaches two thirds of 
the distance between the snout and front edge of the orbit. The 
median longitudinal groove on the upper surface of the head 
reaches to the base of the occipital process, which is narrow. 
Barbels the nasal pair reach to the front edge of the orbit, the 
maxillary pair to the end of the pectoral or middle of the ventral ; 
the mandibular are as long as, or a little longer than the head. 
Teeth those on the palate in two distinct patches. Fins- 
dorsal spine slender, as long as the head excluding the snout, and 
finely serrated posteriorly ; adipose fin small. Pectoral spine 
stronger and slightly longer than that of the dorsal, smooth 
externally, denticulated internally with about twenty-two teeth. 
Ventral commences just behind the vertical from the last dorsal 
ray ; caudal forked, lower lobe slightly the longer. Colour bluish 
silvery along the back, becoming silvery white on the sides and 
below. Dorsal and caudal grey, the other fins white. 

Hob. Western coast of India in fresh water ; attaining about 6 
inches in length. 



BILUBLDJE. 141 

150. (6.) Pseudeutropius atherinoides. 

Siluru.3 atherinoides, Block, Ich. t. 371, fig. 1. 

Pseudeutropius atheriuoides, Day, Fish. India, p. 473 ; pi. cix, fig. 2 
(see synon.). 

Put-tul, and Che.l-lee, Punj. ; Ah-hee, Sind. ; Put-tah-re, N.W. Prov. ; 
Akku-jella, Tel. ; Battuli and Bi-potam, Ooriah ; Boh-du-ah (Pdtdsi, and 
Dot/a, H. B.), Assam. 

B. vi. D. 1/5-6 | 0. P. 1/7. V. 6. A. 33-41 (3/30-38). C. 17. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, of caudal fin o, height of body 4| to 5| in 
the total length. Eyes with free orbital margins, no adipose lids, 
situated partially on the lower surface of the head ; diameter 2 
to 3 iu the length of head, and about half a diameter from end 
of snout. The greatest width of the head equals two thirds of its 
length. Upper jaw a little the longer. The median longitudinal 
groove on the head broad, shallow, and reaching to the base of the 
occipital process, which is four times as long as broad at its base 
and extends to the basal bone of the dorsal fin. Barbels the 
nasal slightly longer than the head, the maxillary reach the base of 
the anal (in some Madras specimens only to the ventral) fin, the 
niaudibular pair are rather longer than the head. Teeth in the 
preinaxillaries usually anterior to those in the mandibles ; in a 
narrow, uninterrupted, crescentic band across the palate. Fins 
dorsal spine two thirds as long as the head, anteriorly rugose, 
finely serrated posteriorly. Pectoral spine rather longer and 
stronger than that of the dorsal, with about ten denticulations 
internally. Ventral half as long as the head. Caudal deeply 
forked. Colour silvery, greenish along the back, and with three 
or four bands along the sides formed by black spots. Occiput and 
anterior portion of dorsal fin dark-coloured. 

Hob. Throughout Sind, India (excluding the western coast), and 
Assam ; rarely attaining to above 4 or 5 inches in length. The form 
called P. uruais said to come from rivers and ponds in the northern 
parts of Bengal. 

151. (7.) Pseudeutropius garua. 

Silurus garua, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 156, 375, pi. 21, fig. 60. 
Pseudeutropius garua, Day, Fish. India, p. 474, pi. cix, fig. 6 (see 
synon.). 

Punia bucliua, Ooriah ; Puttosi, Beng. ; Buchua, Hind. ; Dfion-ya-nu, 
Sind.; (Kocha, H. B.). 

D. vi. D. 1/7. P. 1/11. V. 6. A. 29-36 (3/26-33). C. 17. 
Length of head 5 to 6|, of caudal fin 4, height of body 5 to 7 
in the total length. Eyes situated partly on the lower surface of 
the head, having a broad, circular, adipose lid ; diameter 3^ to 4 in 
the length of the head, 1| diameters from the end of snout, and 2$ 
apart. The greatest width of the head equals its length excluding 



142 TELEOSTEI. PHYBOSTOMI. 

the snout. Upper jaw the longer, the width of the gape of the 
mouth is two fifths the length of the head. Occipital process 
about four times as long as it is wide at its base, and not quite 
reaching the basal bone. Barbels nasal from one third to one 
half as long as the head ; the maxillary extend to the middle or end 
of the ventral fin, the two mandibular pairs are about as long as 
the head. Teeth in a semilunar band across the palate, those of 
the vomer contiguous to those of the palatines, and each patch 
being semicircular internally : sometimes the two voraerine 
patches have an interspace between them. Fins dorsal spine 
rather slender, rugose anteriorly and feebly serrated posteriorly, 
as long as the head behind the nostrils, while the pectoral is of 
equal length or a little longer, stronger, and denticulated internally. 
The adipose dorsal generally only exists in the immature, and 
becomes almost imperceptible in the adult : as its non-existence 
forms the chief distinction of the genus ScJiilbeichthyg from that of 
Pseudeutropius, whilst its absence is merely the result of age, I 
have not adopted the former designation. Lower caudal lobe the 
longer. Air-bladder small, somewhat heart-shaped, and closely 
attached to the anterior surface of the front vertebrae. Colour 
silvery, fins stained with grey. 

Hal. Found generally throughout the larger rivers of Sind, 
India, Assam, and Burma. Attains upwards of two feet in length. 

17. Genus PANGASIUS, Cuvier and Valenciennes. 
Syn. Pseudopangasius and Helicophagus, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals from about seven to twelve. Gill-openings 
wide, the membranes not confluent with the skin of the isthmus 
and rather deeply notched. Upper jaw the longer. Eye with 
free orbital margin. Nostrils at some distance apart, both patent, 
the anterior situated in front, or on the upper edge, of the snout. 
Four slender barbels, one pair maxillary and a pair behind the 
chin. Teeth villiform, intermixed with conical ones in the jaws ; 
those in the vomer, if present, distinct from those on the palatines. 
Dorsal fin inserted in front of ventral and with one spine and 
seven rays ; adipose fin short. Ventral with six rays. Pectoral 
with a spine. Anal rather elongate (29 to 39 rays), not confluent 
with the caudal. Air-bladder in the abdominal cavity, and not 
enclosed in bone. One or more axillary pores. 

Geographical Distribution. Large rivers and estuaries of India 
and Burma to the Malay Archipelago. 

152. (1.) Pangasins buchanani. (Fig. 61.) 
Pimelodus pangasius, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 103, 376, pi. 33, 

tig. 52. 
Pangasius buchanani, Cuv. 8? Vol. H. N. Poiss. xv, p. 45, pi. 426; 

Day, Fish. India, p. 470, pi. cviii, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

Jettum, Ooriah ; Coola KeUette, Tamil ; Nga, dan, Burmese. 



S1LVIUD.E. 143 

B.ix-x. D.l/7|0. P. 1/12. V.6. A. 31-34 (4-5/27-29). C. 19. 
Length of head 5| to 6, of caudal fin 5 to 5|, height of body 4 
to 5 in the total length. Eyes partly on the lower surface of the 
head, and rather nearer the snout than the occiput, the width of 
the interorbital space equalling the length of the head excluding 
the snout. The greatest width of the head equals its length 
behind the angle of the mouth. Upper jaw the longer; width of 
the gape of the mouth equals three sevenths of the length of the 
head, its cleft reaches to below the hind nostril, and is opposite 
the centre of the front edge of the eye. Upper surface of the 
head smooth in small specimens, rather lineated in large ones, 
especially along the occipital process, which is from 2| to 3 




^p "^ 

Fig. Gl.Panffasitis buchanani and upper dentition. 

times as long as wide at its base. Barbels the maxillary reach 
the base of the pectoral fin ; the mandibular are half as long as the 
head. Teeth on the palate in a crescentic row, the vomerine 
patches being either distinct from or just confluent with those on 
the palate. Fins dorsal spine of moderate strength, as long as 
the head behind the angle of the mouth, slightly serrabed anteriorly, 
in its entire length posteriorly. Pectoral spine rather stronger 
than that of the dorsal, in some specimens of the same length ; in 
others as long as the head, denticulated internally. Caudal deeply 
forked. Colour silvery, darkest along the back and glossed with 
purple on the sides ; cheeks and under surface of the head shot 
with gold. Air-bladder large, its anterior portion occupies about 
half the length of the abdominal cavitv, and is then divided by a 
constriction from the second portion, which is narrowed and 
divides into two small continuations, one of which extends on 
either side amongst the muscles covering the haemal spines, as far 
as to above the middle of the anal fin. The anterior portion of 
the air-bladder has a large pyramidal and cellular cavity, the base 
of which is anterior; on either side of this cellular cavity is a 
pyriform smooth chamber, the two communicating anteriorly. 
The remainder of the air-bladder is cellular or, rather, furnished 
with valvular-formed folds. 

//aft. Large rivers and estuaries of India, Assam, Burma, and 
perhaps the Malay Archipelago. This species attains upwards 
of four feet in length, and is a foul feeder. 



144 TELEOSTEI. PllTSOSTOMI. 

18. G-etms SILUNDIA, Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

Branchiostegals eleven to twelve. -Gill-openings wide, the gill- 
membranes overlapping, but not confluent with the skin of the 
isthmus. Body elongated and compressed. Head covered with 
soft skin. Eyes lateral, with narrow adipose lids. Mouth rather 
wide, not cleft to so far as the eyes ; lower jaw the longer. 
Nostrils, those on either side approximating, the anterior pair in 
front of the snout and a little external to the posterior pair. 
A pair of maxillary and sometimes also a pair of mandibular 
barbels. Villiforrn teeth in the jaws, and in an uninterrupted 
band on the palate. First dorsal fin with one spine and seven 
rays ; the adipose short. Anal long (40-50 rays). Ventral with 
six rays, placed below or just behind the adipose dorsal. Air- 
bladder kidney-shaped, convex anteriorly, lying across the body of 
an anterior vertebra, from which it is separated by the aorta, 
having its lateral margins protected by bone. An axillary pore. 

Geographical Distribution. Throughout the larger rivers of India 
and Burma. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. 44-50. Maxillary and mandibular barbels .... \. S. sykesii, p. 144. 
A. 40-46. A pair of short maxillary barbels only. 2. S. gaiiyetica, p. 14-5. 



153. (1.) Silundia sykesii. 

Silundia sykesii, Day, Jour. L. S. Zool. xii, p. 509; and Fish. India, 

p. 487, pi. cxiv, tig. 2 (see synon.). 

Wal-la-lte kel-le-tee (slippery siluroid) and Poo-nat-tce, Tarn. ; Wan-joii, 
Tel. 

B.xii. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/12. V.6. A. 44-50 (2-3/42-47). C. 19. 

Length of head 5|, of caudal fin 4|, height of body 5f in the total 
length. Eyes with a narrow, free, adipose lid ; diameter 3g in the 
length of the head, 1 diameter from the end of snout, and lj apart. 
The greatest width of the head equals its length behind the middle 
of the eyes ; lower jaw the longer, curved upwards in the middle ; 
snout rather broad; the width of the gape of the mouth equals four 
elevenths of the length of the head. Barbels the maxillary pair 
reach the opercle or even the base of the pectoral fin ; the mandi- 
bular pair equal one diameter of the eye in length. Teeth 
villiform in the jaws, in a cresceutic band across the palate. 
Fins dorsal spine weak, roughened anteriorly, finely serrated 
posteriorly and as long as the head excluding the snout ; pectoral 
spine stronger, as long as the head behind the angle of the mouth, 
and reaching to above the ventral. Ventral arising behind 
the vertical from the last dorsal ray, and reaching to the anal. 
Caudal forked, the lower lobe rather the longer. Free portion 
of the tail nearly as high as long. Colour bluish superiorly, 



SILUKIDjE. 140 

becoming white on the sides and beneath, the fiiis stained exter- 
nally with grey. 

Sykes says his Ageneiosus childreni is termed Purree, Mahr., and 
Sillun in the Decean, that it is without cirri, and also that the first 
bony ray is " serrated on the anterior edge," this being also shown 
in the figure. The long maxillary barbels of this species serve to 
distinguish it from S. ganyetica. 

Hab. Kivers of the Decean and the Kistna and Godavery to 
their terminations. 



154 (2.) Silundia gangetica. (Fig. 02.) 

Piuielodus silondia, Hum. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 1GO, 375, pi. 7, 

fig, 50. 
Silundia gangetica, Cuv. $ Val. H. N. Poiss. xv, p. 49, pi. 426 ; Day, 

Fish. India, p. 488, pi. cxiv, fig. 3 (see synon.). 

Silotid, Punj. ; Ji-luny and Silond, Ooriah and Bengali ; Wanjou, Telugu ; 
Poontttte or Wallake keUetti (" slippery siluroid "), Tamil ; Nga mrany, 
Arracan ; Basa or Bacha, Chittagong ; Nga mee nyeeng, Burm. 

B. xi-xii. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/11-13. V. 6. A. 40-46(4/36-44). C. 17. 

Length of head 5J, of caudal fin 5| to 6, height of body 5 to 5| 
in the total length. Eyes with narrow anterior and posterior 
adipose lids; diameter 4 to 4 in the length of head, 3^ to 1| 
diameters from the end of snout, and 2 apart. The width of the 
head equals its length excluding the snout, whilst its height is 
rather less. Lower jaw the longer, snout rather broad, the width 
of the gape of the mouth exceeding half the length of the head. 
Barbels a pair of minute maxillary, but no mandibular ones. 
Teeth in the jaws villiform, and in a crescentic band across the 





Fig. 62.-- Silundia gangetica. 

palafe. Fins dorsal spine rather weak, as long as the head 
behind the middle of the eye, anteriorly smooth or rugose, pos- 
teriorly finely serrated in its upper portion. Pectoral spine 
stronger, as long as head without the snout, and serrated in- 
ternally. Ventral fin arising under the posterior dorsal rays, and 
nearly reaching the anal. Air-bladder small, with its lateral 
edges protected by a short osseous process from either side of the 
vertebra, but it cannot be said to be enclosed in bone. The air- 
bladder itself, when opened, is found to consist of two oval chambers, 

L 



] 46 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

having a comraunicating canai, and in the young is almost sur- 
rounded by high osseous sides. Colour bluish along the back, 
becoming silvery on the sides, fins stained with grey. 

.Hal. Estuaries of India and Burma, ascending the larger rivers 
nearly to their sources. S. f/anyetica attains 6 feet or more in 
length, and is called " a shark " by the natives. It is very voracious. 

19. Genus MACRONES, Dumcril. 

Syn. Bagrw, pt., Cuv. & Val. ; Hypselobayrus, Hemibagnts, Pseitdo- 
bagrus, and Asjridobayrus, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals from six to twelve. Mouth terminal, transverse. 
Upper jaw generally the longer. Gill-openings wide, the gill-mem- 
branes overlapping the isthmus and being separate to the chin. 
Eyes with free circular lids. Barbels eight one nasal, one maxil- 
lary, and two mandibular pairs. A distinct and separate interneural 
shield on the nape, closely connected to the basal bone of the 
dorsal tin ; or no such shield. Villiform teeth in the jaws, and in 
a more or less uninterrupted curved band across the palate, Rayed 
dorsal fin with one spine and seven rays ; adipose dorsal of varying 
length ; pectoral with a strong serrated spine ; anal short or of 
moderate length ; ventral with six rays ; caudal forked. Air- 
bladder of moderate or large size, attached to the under surface of the 
bodies of the anterior vertebrae. An axillary pore generally present. 

The ova of these fishes are small, consequently very different to 
those of their marine relatives, Arius and its allied genera. 

Geographical Distribution. These fishes extend through most 
parts of Asia, and are numerous in the fresh waters of India and 
Ceylon, one species (M. yulio) often being captured in the sea. 

Uses. Employed as food by the poorer natives, but of inferior 
quality and rather insipid. 

Synopttt of Indian Species. 

A. 26-28. Golden, with a large black 

shoulder-spot 1. M. chryseus, p. 148. 

A. 12-13. Maxillary barbels reach cau- 
dal fin. A black spot on adipose 
dorsal fin 2. M. aor, p. 149. 

A. 11-12. Maxillary barbels reach hind 

edge of first dorsal fin 3. M. seenyhala, p. 150. 

A. 12. Maxillary barbels reach front 
edge of eye. A dark shoulder-spot, 
another on the adipose dorsal j body 
with indistinct cross bands '. 4. M. blythii, p. 151. 

A. 12-15. Occipital process half longer 
than wide at its base, a long inter- 
space between it and basal bone of 
dorsal fin. Length of base of adipose 
dorsal equal to half that of the inter- 
space between the two dorsal fins. . 5. M. gullo, p. 151. 



147 



A. 11-13. Upper surface of the head 
almost smooth. Occipital process 
very narrow, a long 1 interspace be- 
tween it and basal bone. Brown, 
with some black spots along the 
sides 

A. 11-13. Upper surface of the head 
roughened. Occipital process short, 
with a long interspace between it 
and the basal bone. Brown with 
some black spots along the sides . . 

A. 12. Occipital process short, with a 
long interspace between it and the 
basal bone. Dorsal spine smooth, 
weak, articulated in its .upper three 
fourths 

A. 1 1-13. Occipital process reaches 
basal bone. Maxillary barbels reach 
caudal tin. Adipose dorsal long, 
commencing just behind the rayed 
fin. Dorsal spine entire. Silvery, 
often with a olack spot at base of 
dorsal spine, and fins stained with 
dark 9. 

A. 11-13. Median groove on head 
reaches base of occipital process, 
which latter reaches the basal bone. 
Golden, with a black shoulder-spot 
and about five longitudinal dark 
bands 10. 

A. 11-13. Eye 3 to 3 in length of 
head ; occipital process reaches basal 
bone. Maxillary barbels reach 
middle of anal fin. Base of adipose 
dorsal as long as that of the rayed 
fin. Dark spot anteriorly at base of 
dorsal fin- ' 11. 

A. 9-12. Median groove on head does 
not reach the base of the occipital 
process, which latter reaches the 
basal bone 12. 

A. 11-12. Maxillary barbels reach anal 
fin. Purplish black, with some 
white spots 

A. 12. Head 5 in the total length. 
Median groove on head does not 
reach occipital process, which last 
extends to the basal bone. Mexil- 
lary barbels reach anal fin. A dark 
shoulder-mark, a light band along 
the body, and dark spot at base of 
caudal 

A. 9-10. Head 4 in the total length. 
Median groove on head does not 
micli occipital process, which last 
does not quite reach the basal bone. 



M. punctatus, p. 153. 



7. M. cwsula, p. 153. 



8. M. rmcrophlhalmtig, p. 154. 



M. crn-nsius, p. 155. 
M. tengara, p. 156. 

M. oculatus, p. 156. 

M. vtt-tatus, p. 157. 
M. Iciicophasis, p. 168. 



ia 



14. M. montamis, p. 159. 



L2 



148 TELEOSTEI. P1IY.8OSTOM1. 

Maxillary barbels reach middle of 

anal fin. A large pre-anal papilla. 

A dark shoulder-mark lo. M. kclcttun, p. 1GO. 

A. 10-11. Head 4f to 5* in the total 

length. Median groove on the 

head does not reach base of 

occipital process, which last has a 

long interspace between it and the 

basal bone. Maxillary barbels reach 

middle or end of ventral fin. A 

dark shoulder-spot, another at base 

of caudal fin 16. M. malaburicus, p. 100. 

A. 11. Head 5 in the total length. 

Median groove on the head almost 

reaches the base of the occipital 

process, which last reaches the basal 

bone. Maxillary barbels reach end 

of ventral fin. A dark blotch at 

base of caudal fin 17. M. annatus, p. 161. 

A. 9-10. Head 5 to 5 in the total 

length. Median groove on the head 

reaches the base of the occipital 

process, which last reaches the basal 

bone. Maxillary barbels reach the 

anal fin. Two light longitudinal 

bands, and sometimes a dark shoul- 
der-spot 18. M. blcekeri, p. 102. 



155. (1.) Macrones chryseus. (Fig. 63.) 

185, pi. 
xcix, fig 3. 



Pseudobagrus chryseus, Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 185, pi. xiii, fig. 2. 

Macrones chryseus, Day, Fish. India, p. 443, pi. xcix, fig 3. 
Mnngil yata, Mai. ; Neela katurnee, Hind. 

B. x. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/6. V. 6. A. 26-28. C. 17-19. 
Length of head 4^ to 4, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 in the 




Fig. 63. Ifacrones chryseus. 

total length. Eyes diameter 4 lo 5 in the length of head, 1 1 dia- 
meters from the end of snout, and 2 to 2| apart. Greatest width 
of the head equals four fifths of its length. Upper jaw slightly 
the longer. Width of gape of mouth nearly equal to half the length 



8ILTJKIDJE. 149 

of the head. Upper surface of head, opercles, and humeral process 
with smooth ridges. Occipital process twice as long as wide at its 
hase, no interspace between it and the basal bone. The superior lon- 
gitudinal groove on the head shallow, reaching to opposite the hind 
edge of the eye. Barbels the nasal rather above half the length 
of the head, the maxillary slightly longer, the external mandibular 
reach the, base of the pectoral fin, the internal pair are one fourth 
shorter. Teeth in a narrow uninterrupted semilunar band across 
the palate. Fins dorsal spine as long as the head behind the 
middle of the eyes, strong, with about ten denticulations posteriorly, 
and three or four anteriorly near its summit ; it ends in a soft 
prolongation; adipose fin short, commencing over the last fourth 
of the anal. Pectoral reaches the ventral ; pectoral spine stronger 
than that of the dorsal and as long as the head excluding the snout, 
serrated' externally and with 16 or 18 strong teeth internally. 
Ventral rather above half as long as the pectoral and reaching the 
anal; base of anal equal to the length of the head; the fin is 
highest anteriorly. Caudal slightly or deeply lunated or even 
forked. I'ree portion of tail rather higher than long. Colour 
back greenish yellow, sides golden ; a large round black mark on 
the shoulder surrounded by a light yellow ring. Dorsal and anal 
fins yellowish orange, stained with darker at their margins. Caudal 
yellow, with a black base and dark edges. 

Hob. Rivers in Canara and Malabar, preferring the deepest 
pools. Longest specimen obtained 8 inches, but double that size is 
said to be attained. "Wounds from the spines of this fish are deemed 
venomous by the natives. 

156. (2.) Macrones aor. 

Pimelodus aor, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 205, 379, pi. 20, fig. 68. 
Macrones aor, Day, Fish. India, p. 444. 

Mvkul-jellah, Tel. ; Cumboo kelletce, Tarn. ; Nga-jotmg and Nga tify, 
Burm. ; Seengala and Sang-go-ah, Punj. j Sinyhdree, Sind. ; Alii or 
Addi, Ooriah. 

B. xii. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9-10. V. 6. A. 12-13 (3-4/9). C. 17. 

Length of head 4 to 5, of caudal fin 4, height of body 6 in the 
total length. Eyes transversely oval, diameter 5 to 8 in the length 
of the head, 2| to 3 diameters from the end of snout, and 1 f to 2 
apart. Snout broad, depressed, the width of the gape being equal 
to from two fifths to three sevenths of the length of the head, while 
the cleft does not extend halfway to the orbit. The upper 
jaw the longer. Width of the head three fifths of its length, 
its upper surface rugose in tuberculated ridges. Occipital process 
not extending halfway to the basal bone of the dorsal, while an 
intermediate interneural shield exists, which is usually wider 
than the occipital process. The width of this bone is subject to 
great variation : thus in some old specimens it is only twice as long 
as broad, whilst in others and in some immature it is four times 



150 TELEOSTKT. MIYSOSTOMI. 






as long as wide. The longitudinal furrow on the head extends to 
the base of the occipital process. Barbels the maxillary extend 
to, or even beyond, the base of the caudal fin ; the nasal halfway 
to the orbit; the outer mandibularto the base of the pectoral, and 
the inner two-thirds of that distance. Teeth in an uninterrupted 
semilunar band across the palate. Fins dorsal spine rather weak, 
nearly or quite as long as the head (in the young occasionally 
shorter), finely serrated posteriorly. Pectoral as long as the head 
excluding the snout, and reaching four sevenths of the distance to 
the ventral ; pectoral spine stronger -than dorsal but shorter, being 
from one half to three fifths of the length of the head, it is rugose 
or finely serrated externally and denticulated internally. The 
adipose dorsal commences above the last third or end of the ven- 
tral, and its base equals about that of the rayed fin or even a little 
more, whilst the extent of the interspace between the two fins 
equals half the length of that of the rayed dorsal fin. Ventral 
does not reach the anal. Caudal with deeply pointed lobes, the 
three outer rays in the upper lobe being produced. Air-bladder 
large and pyrit'orm. Colour bluish leaden superiorly, becoming 
white beneath ; fins yellowish, stained with dark externally in both 
the dorsal and caudal. A black spot about equal to the diameter 
of the eye on the posterior and inferior portion of the soft dorsal. 
Hob. Throughout Sind and India to Burma. Said to attain 
feet ; a specimen in Calcutta is 3 feet long. 



157. (3.) Macrones seenghala. 

Platystoma seenghala, Sykcs, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 371, pi. Go, fig. 2. 
Macrones seenghala, Day, Fish. India, p. 444, pi. xcix, fig. 1 (see 

synon.). 

Teng-ga-ra, Punj. ; Muti-jellah, Seenghala, and Shengal, Telugu. 
B. xii. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 11-12 (3/8-9). C. 19-21. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 4|, height of body 7| to 8 in 
the total length. Eyes diameter 7 to 8 in the length of head, 2 to 
2 1 diameters from the end of snout, and 1 j to 2 apart. The greatest 
width of the head equals one half to four ninths of its length ; 
snout spatulate ; upper jaw rather the longer ; the width of the 
gape equals one third of the length of the head, the cleft shallow. 
Upper surface of the head granulated in ridges, its median longi- 
tudinal groove reaches the base of the occipital process, which is 
twice as long as wide at its base, between its posterior extremity 
and the basal bone of the dorsal fin is a separate interneural shield 
from four times as long as broad in the young, to twice as long 
in the adult. Barbels the maxillary extend to the middle or just 
beyond the hind margin of the dorsal fin, the nasal to opposite the 
middle of the orbit, the external mandibular to the base of the 
pectoral, whilst the internal are one third shorter. Teeth on the 
palate in an uninterrupted cresceutic baud. Fins dorsal one 



SILUEIDJF. 151 



third to one half higher than .the body,*its spine rather 
anteriorly rugose, indistinctly seriated posteriorly, and as long as 
the head excluding the snout ; the length of the base of the 
adipose dorsal equals or exceeds that of the rayed fin, while the 
intermediate distance is of the same length. Pectoral extends 
rather above halfway to the ventral ; pectoral spine is stronger 
than dorsal and half as long as the head, roughened externally, 
denticulated internally. Ventral extending two thirds of the dis- 
tance to the anal. Caudal deeply forked, upper lobe the longer. 
Air-bladder large, pear-shaped, and not enclosed in bone. Colour 
brownish along the back, silvery on the sides and beneath, a 
round black spot at the posterior end of the base of the adipose 
dorsal fin. 

Very closely allied to. J/. aor, and chiefly distinguished by its 
much shorter maxillary barbels. 

Ilab. The Indus, salt-ranges of the Punjab, Jumna, and Ganges 
certainly as low as Delhi, also the Deccan, Kistna river to its 
termination, and Assam. This species attains a considerable size. 

158. (4.) Macrones blythii. 

Batasio affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, I860, p. 150 (not Bagrus 

affinis, Jerdon, 1849). 
Macrones blythii, Day, Fish. India, p. 445 (see synon.). 

D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/7. V. 6. A. 12 (3/9). C. 17. 

Length of head nearly 5, of pectoral fin 6, of caudal 6, height of 
body 5 in the total length. Eyes diameter 3| in the length of 
head, 1 diameter from end of snout and 1| apart. Snout projecting. 
Median longitudinal groove on head indistinct, but reaching the 
base of the occipital process, which is narrow, twice as long as wide 
at its base, and separated from the basal bone of the dorsal fin by 
an interneural shield. Barbels the maxillary, which are the 
longest, only reach the anterior margin of the orbit. Teeth in an 
uninterrupted crescentic band across the palate. Fins dorsal 
spine moderately strong, slightly serrated posteriorly in its upper 
fourth, and rather above half the length of the head. Pectoral 
spine slightly longer and stronger than that of the dorsal, and 
denticulated internally. Adipose dorsal commencing not far from 
the hind edge of the first dorsal, while the base is a little longer 
than that of the anal. Caudal forked, the lobes of nearly equal 
length. Colour a dark spot on the shoulder, a second on the 
base of the adipose dorsal fin ; body with indistinct cross bands. 

Hob. Tenasserim provim.es, whence one specimen 3'5 inches 
long was sent to the Calcutta Museum. 

159. (5.) Macrones gnlio. (Fig. 64.) 

Pimelodus gulio, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 201, 379, pi. 23, 

%. GO. 

Marione.s gulio, Day, Fish. India, p. 44o, pi. xcix, fig. 2 (see synon.). 
JVw tt-ni/ijara, Beng. ; Nyajeruny, Arracan. 



152 TELEOSTEI. PIIT8OSTOMI. 

B.ix. D.l/7|0. P. 1/8-9. V.G. A. 12-15 (3-4/9-11). C. 17. 

Length of head 4 to 4|, of caudal fin 4 1,. height of body 5 to 5| 
in the total length. Eyes diameter 5 to 6 in the length of head, 
1 diameters from the end of suout, and 2 diameters apart. 
Snout broad and slightly depressed, upper jaw somewhat the 
longer. Greatest width of head equal to its length excluding the 
Bnout, and one fourth broader than high. Upper surface of the 
head granulated, its median longitudinal groove lanceolate, ex- 
tending to opposite the hind edge of the orbit. Occipital process 
rounded posteriorly and half longer than wide at its base, a con- 
siderable interspace between it and the basal bone of the dorsal h'n. 




Fig. 64. Macroncs gulio. 

Barbels nasal shorter than the head, the maxillary reach to the 
middle or nearly the end of the ventral fin, the external niandi- 
bular are longer than the head or than the internal pair. Teeth 
in a narrow, uninterrupted, crescentic band across the palate. 
Fins dorsal spine half as long as the head, strong, anteriorly with 
one or two teeth at its upper extremity, seri-ated posteriorly. 
Anterior rays longer than the spine. Adipose dorsal with a short 
base equalling about half of the interspace between the two fins. 
Pectoral spine as long as the head excluding the snout, strong, 
and denticulated internally. The ventral fin. does not reach the 
anal. Upper caudal lobe the longer, inferior sometimes rounded. 
Air-bladder heart-shaped, divided along its centre by a strong 
partition, having a communicating orifice in its upper back part, 
while the whole has many subdivisions internally. Colour lurid 
bluish brown on the back, becoming dull white beneath ; fins, 
especially on their outer halves, usually black ; maxillary barbels 
mostly black, fish from fresh waters sometimes have them whitish 
or white-tipped. 

As in the rest of the genus Macrones, the ova in this species are 
small. Some specimens from the Hooghly have 11 branched anal 
rays, and the maxillary barbels only reach the end of the pectoral 
fin. 



153 

Hab. Seas, estuaries, and tidal waters from Sind and Bombay, 
throughout India and Burma to the Malay Archipelago. There 
are stuffed specimens in the Calcutta Museum 18 inches in length. 

160. (6.) Macrones punctatus. 

Bagrus punctatus, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. Sc. xv, 1849, p. 339. 
Macrones punctatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 445, pi. c, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Sholamj kellett, Tam. 
B. xi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/7. V. 6. A. 11-13 (3-4/8-9). C. 17. 

Length of head 4| in the young to 5, of caudal fin 5|, height of 
body 6^ in the total length. Eyes diameter 6 to 7 in the length 
of head, 2 diameters from end of snout, and 2 apart. Greatest 
width of head equals its' length behind the nostrils ; width of the 
gape of mouth equals two fifths of length of head. Upper jaw 
slightly the longer. Interorbital space rather convex and equal to 
the length of the snout ; upper surface of the head and shoulder- 
bones furrowed, but without any tuberculated ridges. Median 
longitudinal groove very indistinct, lanceolate, and extending almost 
to the base of the occipital process, which is narrow and has an in- 
terval equal to twice its length between it and the basal bone. 
Barbels the nasal reach the hinder edge of the orbit, the maxillary 
the base or middle of the ventral fin, the external mandibular the 
base of the pectoral, the internal are one third shorter. Teeth 
on the palate in an uninterrupted crescentic band. Fins dorsal 
spine of moderate strength, serrated posteriorly in its upper third, 
it is one half as long as the head but shorter than the first ray ; 
adipose dorsal with a short base, equalling half the distance of the 
interspace between it and the first dorsal fin. Pectoral spine 
longer and stronger than that of the dorsal, equal in length to the 
head excluding the snout, rugose externally, denticulated internally. 
The ventrals arise on a vertical line just posterior to the last dorsal 
ray. Upper caudal lobe the longer. Colour head and back 
dark greyish olive, becoming yellow on the abdomen ; about ten 
black, rounded spots along the lateral line ; fins dusky, except the 
ventrals, which are yellowish. 

This fish is closely allied to M. corsula, but its head is much 
shorter in the adult, its upper surface is almost smooth, and its 
snout is not so flat. 

Hab. Bhavani river at base of Nilgiri hills ; attaining at least 
18 inches in length. 

161. (7.) Macrones corsula. 

Pimelodus corsula, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pi. i, fig 1 . 72. 
Macrones corsula. Day, Fish. India, p. 446, pi. c, fig. 5 (see synon.). 
Piinjah-yaynh. Ooriah ; Kala shcnyal, Marathi. 
B. x. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 11-13 (3-5/8). C. 17. 
Length of head 4 to 4^, of caudal fin 5 to 6, height of body 6 in 



154 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 






the total length. Eyes diameter 5^ to 7 in the length of head, 
2 diameters from the end of snout, and 2 to 2.V apart ; interorbital 
space nearly flat. The greatest width of the head equals its length 
excluding the snout. Upper jaw the longer. Median longitudinal 
groove on the head extending to the base of the occipital process 
in the young, not so far in the adult. Occipital process very long 
and narrow, the width of its base being hardly equal to one fifth 
of its length ; but in old specimens the anterior portion of this bone 
becomes concealed by skin, and appears to be very short, a very 
slight interspace exists between it und the basal bone of the dorsal 
fin. Extent of gape of the mouth equals three eighths of length of 
head. Upper surface of the head, opercles, and shoulder-bone 
roughened by the presence of tubercular ridges. Barrels the nasal 
extend to below the middle of the orbit ; the maxillary to nearly 
or quite the base of the anal ; the external mandibular to the base 
of the pectoral, and the internal to opposite the posterior extremity 
of the preopercle. Teeth in an uninterrupted semilunar band 
across the palate. Fins dorsal spine slender, serrated posteriorly 
in its upper half, half as long as the head ; base of adipose dorsal 
varying in length, usually as long as, or longer than, that of the 
rayed fin. Pectoral spine strong, compressed, rugose externally, 
denticulated along its whole extent internally ; it is as long as the 
head excluding the snout, and slightly longer than that of th" e dorsal. 
Ventral half as long as the head, and not reaching the anal ; in 
some specimens the upper caudal lobe is prolonged. Free portion 
of the tail rather longer than high. Colour above greyish brown, 
below dull white. Fins greyish, stained with black. Several 
vertical black spots along the anterior portion of the lateral line. 

Blyth observed that this is " a very mucous fish, and those 
brought to the ba/aar are commonly much clotted over with an 
adhesive clayey mud, as if they had burrowed into it, and they are 
mostly brought many together, appearing as if dug out from the 
mud of ponds more or less dried up." 

Hob. Prom Orissa through Bengal and Assam ; attaining a foot 
or more in length. 

162. (8.) Macrones microphthalnms. 

Macrones microphthalnuis, Dai/, Fish. India, p. 446, pi. c, fig. 4. 
, Nga-ike, Burmese. 

B. x. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 12 (3/9). C. 17. 

Length of head 4, of caudal fin 5^, height of body 6f in the total 
length (excluding the filamentous prolongation of the caudal fin). 
Eyes diameter 6 in the length of head, 2 diameters from the end 
of snout, and 2| apart. The greatest width of the head equals its 
length excluding the snout. Upper jaw the longer, snout spatulate. 
Median longitudinal groove on the head reaching nearly to the 
base of the occipital process, which is pointed, scarcely longer than 
wide at its base, and with a long interspace between it and the 



SJLURIDjE. 155 

basal bone of the dorsal fin. Upper surface of the head nearly 
smooth, the few ridges not being tuberculated. Barbels nasal 
reaching the hinder third of the eye, maxillary the base of the caudal, 
external mandibular the first third of the pectoral, while the inner 
pair are shorter. Tedh in an uninterrupted semiluuar band 
across the palate. Fins dorsal as high as the body, its spine very 
slender, only osseous at its basy and articulated in its upper two 
thirds ; length of base of adipose dorsal equal to that of the rayed 
fin, whilst the interspace between the two fins is of the same length. 
Pectoral as long as the postorbital portion of the head, the spine 
moderately strong and one half as long as the head, denticulated 
internally. Ventral nearly one half as long as head and just ex- 
tending to the anal. Upper caudal lobe with a filamentous pro- 
longation. Free portion of tail one half longer than high. Colour 
of af light brown, shot with purple ; fins darkest externally. 

Possibly all these three last forms are local races of one species. 

Hab. Burma, along the valley of the Irrawaddi. 

163. (9.) Macrones cavasius. 

Pimelodus cavasius, Ham. Bach. Fish. Ganges, pp. 203, 379, pi. xi, 

tig. 67. 
Macrones cavasius, Day, Fish. India, p. 447, pi. c, tig. 1 (see synon.). 

Vella Mletee and Cutta, Tarn. ; Nahra jella, Tel. ; Gutitea, Ooriah ; 
Kavasi tengara, Beug. ; Nya-zin-zine, Burmese ; Shinyti and Shingata, 
Marathi. 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 11-13 (4/7-9). C. 16. 

Length of head 6 to 6 j, of caudal fin 6, height of body 5 in the 
total length. Eyes diameter 3| to 3 in the length of head, 1 to 
14 diameters from the end of snout, and 1| apart. The greatest 
width of the head equal to its length excluding the snout. Snout 
rather obtuse, upper jaw a little the longer ; width of the gape 
equal to two fifths of the length of the head; the cleft extends 
halfway to below the orbit. Upper surface of the head slightly 
roughened, its median longitudinal groove rather wide and extending 
to the base of the occipital process, which last is narrow and three 
or four times as long as wide at its base, and with a shallow groove 
along its last half or two thirds ; no interspace between its pos- 
terior extremity and the basal bone of the* dorsal fin. Barbels 
the nasal nearly or quite as long as the head, the maxillary ex- 
tending to beyond the base of the caudal fin, the external mandi- 
bular almost to the base of the ventral, while the internal are as 
long as the head. Teeth on the palate in an uninterrupted cres- 
centic band, fins dorsal spine weak, entire, and nearly or quite 
as long as the head excluding the snout, the tin is rather higher 
than the body and pointed; the adipose dorsal commences just 
behind the rayed one, and the length of its base is three times 
as long. Pectoral spine as long as, but stronger than, the dorsal, 
smooth externally, denticulated internally. Ventral arising just 



156 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

posterior to the vertical from the last dorsal ray. Caudal pointed, 
upper lobe the longer. Colour leaden superiorly, becoming yel- 
lowish along the abdomen and cheeks. Maxillary barbels, dorsal 
and caudal fins dusky ; pectoral, ventral, and anal dull white. 
There is usually a black spot covering the basal bone of the dorsal 
fin. Occasionally there is a bluish band along the lateral line. 

Hab. From Sind, throughout India, Assam, and Burma : at- 
taining at least 18 inches in length. 

164. (10.) Macrones tengara. 

Pimelodus tengara, Ham. Buck. Fish. Gaiiges, pp. 183, 377, and Pime- 
lodus batasius, pi. 23, fig. GO. 

Macrones tengara, Day, Fish. India, p. 447, pl.ci, fig. 5 (see synon.). 
Kuttahrah, Hind.; Ting-ya-rah, Assam and Punj.; Karaal, Punj.; 
Bikuntia, Ooriah. 

B. x. D. 1/7 I 0. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 11-13 (2-3/9-10). C. 19. 
Length of head 4g, of caudal fin 4g, height of body 4g in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| in the length of the head, | to 1 diameter 
from the end of snout, and 1^ apart. Greatest width of the head 
equal to its length excluding the snout. Gape of mouth equal to 
two fifths of the length of the head. Upper jaw slightly the 
longer. Median longitudinal groove extending to the base of the 
occipital process, which latter (as well as the upper surface of the 
head) is corrugated and about thrice as long as it is wide at its 
base, it reaches the basal bone of the dorsal fin. .Barbels the 
nasal are nearly as long as the head, the maxillary reach the base 
of the ventral, the external mandibular the base of the pectoral, 
while the internal are shorter. Teeth in a narrow uninterrupted 
band across the palate. Fins dorsal spine as long as the head 
excluding the snout, slightly serrated anteriorly in its upper third, 
and posteriorly in its whole extent ; the length of the base of the 
adipose dorsal one third less than that of the rayed fin, and equal 
to one half the length of the interspace between the two fins ; in 
some specimens it is much longer. Pectoral spine nearly as long 
as the head, stronger than that of the dorsal, smooth externally, and 
with about 13 denticulations internally. Ventrals arising on a 
vertical line just behind the last dorsal ray. Caudal forked, upper 
lobe the longer. Colour brilliant yellow, with a black shoulder- 
spot and about five black longitudinal lines. In some specimens 
the mandibular barbels are white with a black streak. 

Hab. Northern India, the Punjab and Assam ; attaining 3 to 4 
inches in length. 

165. (11.) Macrones oculatus. 

Bagrus oculatus, Cuv. fy Vol. H. N. Poiss. xiv, p. 424. 
Macrones oculatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 448, pi. xcviii, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

B. x. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/6. V. 6. A. 11-13 (3-4/8-9). C. 15. 



SILUKID.E. 157 

Length of head 5 J, of caudal fin 4, height of body 5 in the total 
leugth. Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in the length of head, about one 
diameter from end oE snout and also apart. Profile from snout to 
dorsal fin rather elevated. Greatest width of the head equal to 
its length excluding the snout; upper jaw slightly the longer. 
Summit of the head rough ; median longitudinal groove extending 
nearly to the base of the occipital process, which last is three times 
as long as wide at its base, whilst there is no interspace between 
it and the basal bone of the dorsal fin. Barbels the nasal half as 
long as the head, the maxillary reach the middle of the anal fin, the 
outer maudibular the middle of the pectoral, whilst the inner are 
rather shorter. Teeth in an uninterrupted crescentic baud across 
the palate. Fins dorsal spine of moderate strength, as long as 
the head excluding the snout, two or three teeth anteriorly, serrated 
posteriorly ; the length of the base of the adipose dorsal equal to 
that of the rayed fin, but about one fourth less than the interspace 
between the two fins. Pectoral spine stronger than the dorsal, as 
long as the head behind the angle of the mouth, and with about 
ten very strong teeth internally. Caudal deeply forked, the upper 
lobe being the longer. Colour silvery, lightest beneath, a dark spot 
at the commencement of the base of the dorsal fin, which is also 
black-tipped, a darkish band along the middle of the fin. 

Hob. Malabar coast and the Coimbatore district. This species 
attains 5 or 6 inches in length. 

166. (12.) Macrones vittatus. 

Silurus vittatus, Block, Ich. t. 371, fig. 2. 

Macrones vittatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 448, pi. xcviii, fig. 3 & 

pi. xcix, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Chirana, Marathi ; Tengra, Beng. ; Kwjgur, Hind. ; Kel-le-tee, Tain. ; 
Siikvjellah, Tel. ; Kuntia, Ooriah ; Mulleer and Knygur, Sind. ; Sin-go- 
rah, Assam ; Nga-sa-ring, Mugh. ; Nya-zin-yine, Burmese. 

B. x. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 9-12 (2-3/7-9). C. 17. 

Length of head 4| to 5, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 5 in the 
total length. Eyes diameter 4 to 6 in the length of head, 1 to 
2 diameters from end of snout, and 1| to 2 apart. The greatest 
width of the head equal to its length excluding the snout or behind 
the angle of the mouth, and very little more than its height ; in 
some specimens there is a considerable rise to base of the first 
dorsal fin. Upper surface of the head roughened in tubercles 
hardly forming lines, median longitudinal groove reaching to mid- 
way behind the hind edge of the eye and the base of the occipital 
process, which is rough, three times as long as wide at its base, and 
a short (if any) interspace exists between it and the basal bone of 
the dorsal fin ; radiating rough lines on the opercle ; shoulder-bone 
with its triangular portion a little longer than wide at its base, and 
roughened in raised lines. Barbels the maxillary reach the ven- 
trals, the nasal the opercle, the external mandibular the first third 
of the pectoral spine, whilst the internal are shorter. Teeth iu 



I f>8 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

an uninterrupted semilunar band across the palate. Fins dorsal 
two thirds as high as the body, its spine bait' as long as the head, 
with two or three teeth anteriorly in the young, while it is finely 
serrated posteriorly ; length of the base of the adipose dorsal 
variable, in some specimens it is equal to that of the inter>pace 
between the two fins, and a little more than the length of the rayed 
fin. Pectoral spine strong, as long as the head excluding the snout, 
denticulated internally with about 10 coarse teeth. Ventral reach- 
ing from half to two thirds of the distance to the base of the anal. 
Upper caudal lobe the longer. Coloui silvery or golden ; old 
specimens at Madras have a light bluish band along the middle of 
the side, and a narrow light one above and below it, a dark shoulder- 
spot, and sometimes another near the base of the caudal fin. More 
to the eastward, as in Orissa and Bengal, the colours are more vivid, 
usually of a golden hue, with a black shoulder-spot, a narrow black 
band along either side of the lateral line, a lighter parallel one 
below, and two wider ones above. Sometimes these fish appear 
to be dark, with five longitudinal silvery bands. Tips of fins 
usually dark. 

This fish is termed " the fiddler " in Mysore ; I touched one 
which was on the wet ground, at which it appeared to become very 
irate, erecting its dorsal fin and making a noise resembling the 
buzzing of a bee, evidently a sign of auger. When I put some 
small carp into an aquarium containing one of these fishes it 
rushed at a small example, seized it by the middle of its back and 
shook it like a dog killing a rat ; at this time the barbels of the 
Macrones were stiffened out laterally like a cat's whiskers. 

Hub. Throughout Sind, the continent of India, Assam, Burma, 
Siam, also Ceylon ; attaining 7 or 8 inches in length. 

167. (13.) Macrones leucophasis. 

Bagrus leucophasis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 148. 
Macrones leucophasis, Day, Fish. India, p. 449, pi. c, fig. 2 (see 
synon.). 

Nf/a-}Kt-lek and Nffa-nottk-thatca, Burmese (signifies " topsy-turvy," as 
the tish is believed to swim in that position). Also Nga puUcy or pa-Uy 
at Moulinein. 

B. xi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/8-10. V. 6. A. 11-12 (3/8-9). C. 17. 

Length of head 4^ to 5, of caudal fin 3 to 4|, height of body 41 in 

the tola! length. Eyes diameter 4 to 5 in the length of the head, 

II to 2 diameters from the end of snout, and 1 to 1^ apart. The 
greatest width of the head equal to its length behind the nostrils. 
Snout rounded, the upper jaw slightly the longer. Median longi- 
tudinal groove on the head does not quite reach the base of the 
occipital process, which last is twice as long as wide at its 'base, 
while between it and the basal bone of the dorsal fin is a pyriform 
bone about twice as long as wide. Upper surface of the head 
rather rugose. Barbels the nasal reach to the front edge or the 
middle of the eye, the maxillary to the anal fin, the external man- 






SILUUID2E. 



159 



dibular to the middle of the pectoral, and the internal to the gill- 
openings. Teeth in an uninterrupted creseentic band across the 
palate. Fins dorsal spine moderately strong, as long as the head 
posterior to the nostrils or angle of the mouth, finely serrated 

nteriorly in the upper fourth ; the adipose tin. commences just 
ind the first dorsal, and the length of the base is from twice 
to two and a half times that of the base of the first dorsal. Pectoral 
spine much stronger than that of the dorsal, a little shorter, and 
denticulated internally. Caudal deeply forked, the lobes having 
filamentous prolongations. Air-bladdei large. Colour when 
alive the lower surface is olive-green or yellow and the head white, 
but after death it becomes purplish black over the body and fins ; 
some white dots exist on the body. 

Hob. Itivers of Burma ; attaining a foot or more in length. 
> 

168. (14.) Macrones montanus. 

Bagrus inontanus, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. Sc. xv, 1849, p. 337. 
Macroues moiitanus, Day, Fish. India, p. 449, pi. ci, fig. 4. 

B. x. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/6. V. 6. A. 12 (3/9). C. 19. 

Length of head 5, of caudal fin 5, height of body 6 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3^ to 4 in the 'length of the head, rather 
above 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 11 apart. A very 
slight rise in the profile from snout to base of first dorsal fin. 
Greatest width of the head equal to its length behind the angle of 
the mouth. Upper jaw slightly the longer; the width of the 
mouth equal to two fifths of the length of the head. Upper surface 
of the head roughened in granulated lines which extend on to the 
occipital process. Median longitudinal groove extending to mid- 
way between the eye and the base of the occipital process, which 
is narrow, about four times as long as wide at its base, and reach- 
ing the basal bone of the dorsal fin ; opercle with roughened 
radiating lines ; shoulder-bone rather longer than deep at its base 
and with roughened lines. Barbels the nasal extend to rather 
behind the hinder edge of the eye, the maxillary to the anal fin, 
the external mandibular to the end of the pectoral, the internal 
are shorter. Teeth in an uninterrupted creseentic band across 
the palate. Fins dorsal nearly as high as the body, its spine 
rather weak, half as long as the head and posteriorly serrated ; 
length of base of adipose dorsal one third more than that of rayed 
fin, which equals that of the interspace. Pectoral spine strong, as 
long as the head excluding the snout, and with about 16 strong 
denticulations internally. Ventral does not reach anal ; upper 
caudal lobe the longer. Colour silvery superiorly, with a tinge 
of yellow on the under surface of the head and along the abdomen, 
a bluish shoulder-spot, and a silverv line along the side ending in 
a dark spot at the base of the caudal fin, one or two light bands 
alonp the side above the lateral line ; fins tinged with green. 
J/dl>. Wynaad range of hills and Manantoddy. 



160 TELEOSTEI. PH YSOSTc )M I . 

169. (15.) Macrones keletius. 

Ikgrus keletius, Cuv. $ Val If. N. Poiss. xiv, p. 411. 
Macrones keletius, Day, Fish. India, p. 449, pi. xcviii, iig. 5 (see 
synon.). 

Tengali, Marathi. 
B. x. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 9-10 (2-3/7-8). C. 17. 

Length of head 4f , of caudal fin 5 to 5| , height of body 6 to 6 
in the total length. Eyes diameter 4^ in the length of the head, 
] | diameters from the end of snout, and 2 apart. The greatest 
width of the head equal to its length excluding the snout. Upper 
jaw slightly the longer. The upper surface of the head roughened 
in closely set tubercular lines continued on to the occipital process, 
opercle likewise striated with similar lines. Median longitudinal 
groove rather constricted in its centre, it reaches to opposite the 
hind border of the preopercle. Occipital process narrow, three 
times as long as wide at its base, and not quite reaching the basal 
bone. Barbels the nasal reach the opercle, the maxillary the 
middle of the anal fin, the external maudibular the end of the 
pectoral spine, while the internal are shorter. Humeral process 
rather short and pointed. Teeth, in an uninterrupted crescentic 
band across the palate. Fins dorsal as high as body, its spine 
with two or three teeth anteriorly near its summit and serrated 
posteriorly, it equals three sevenths of the length of the head ; 
length of the base of the adipose dorsal equal to that of the rayed 
fin or of the interspace between the two. Pectoral reaching two 
thirds of the way to the ventral ; pectoral spine stronger than that 
of the dorsal, and equal to the length of the head excluding the 
snout. The ventral does not reach the anal. Upper caudal lobe 
the longer. A well-marked pre-anal papilla. Colour silvery 
along the back, becoming dull white beneath. A dark shoulder- 
spot, a light band along the lateral line, and a silvery one above 
and another below it ; dorsal and caudal black-tipped, anterior half 
of anal dark. 

Hob. Madras to Pondicherry and inland to Coirabatore, also 
Ceylon ; attaining about 4 inches in length. Jerdon observed that 
this species is also found in Mysore. 

170. (16.) Macrones malabaricus. 

Bagrus malabaricus, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. Sc. xv, 1849, p. 338. 
Macrones malabaricus, Day, Fish. India, p. 450, pi. ci, fig. 2 (see 
synon.). 

B. x. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 10-11 (2-3/8). C. 18. 
Length of head 4| in a Wynaad specimen to 5|, of pectoral 6 
to 7, of caudal fin 5 to 6, height of body 6 to 7 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4 to 4| in the length of head, 1^ diameters 
from the end of snout, and 1| apart. Scarcely any rise in the 
dorsal profile from the snout to the base of the dorsal fin. 



SILURIDJE. 161 

Greatest width of the head equal to its length behind the angle of 
the mouth. Upper surface of the head nearly smooth. Median 
longitudinal groove extending to midway between hind edge of 
the eye and the base of the occipital process, which last is about 
twice as long as wide, whilst there exists a considerable interspace 
between it and the basal bone of the dorsal fin. The triangular 
portion of the shoulder-bone curves rather upwards, and is one 
fourth longer than deep at its base. Barbels the nasal reach to 
a little behind the orbit, the maxillary to the middle or end of the 
ventral fin, the external mandibular to the end of the pectoral, 
while the internal are a little shorter. Teeth in an uninterrupted 
cre&centic band across the palate. Fins dorsal nearly as high as 
the body ; the spine weak, finely serrated or almost entire pos- 
teriorly, with one denticulation anteriorly near the summit, the 
length 'of the spine equal to that of the postorbital portion of the 
head ; length of base of adipose dorsal one third more than that of 
the rayed fin, or of the interspace between the two fins. Pectoral 
spine strong and equal to the length of the head excluding the 
snout, internally with about eight or ten strong denticulations, 
roughened externally. Upper caudal lobe the longer. Colour 
deep leaden, usually with a dark blotch on the shoulder surrounded 
by a lighter edge, another at the base of the caudal fin ; a dark 
band along the lateral line ; abdomen of a dull white. Fins with 
minute dark spots, making the upper portion of the dorsal and 
the lower third of the anal blaqkish. 

Hub. Malabar coast of India and the "Wynaad ; attaining up- 
wards of 6 inches in length. 

171. (17.) Macrones armatus. 
Ilypselobagrus armatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 289. 
Macrones armatus, Dai/, Nsh. India, p. 450, pi. ci, fig. 3. 

Cuaree, Mai. 

B. x. D. 1/7 j 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 11 (3/8). C. 17. 

Length of head 5|, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 5| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 5 in the length of the head, 1| from end 
of snout, and 2 apart. A considerable rise from the snout to the 
base of the dorsal fin. The greatest width of the head equals its 
height or its length excluding the snout. Upper surface of the 
head roughened, the median longitudinal groove almost reaching 
the base of the occipital process, which last is about three times as 
long as wide, and reaches the basal bone of the dorsal fin ; shoulder- 
bone roughened in lines and half longer than deep at its base. 
Barbels the nasal nearly reach the opercle, the maxillary the end 
of ventral fin, the outer mandibular the end of pectoral spine, 
while the internal are shorter. Teeth in an uninterrupted cre- 
scentic band across the palate. Fins dorsal as high as the body 
below it, its spine very finely serrated posteriorly, or entire, and 
four ninths of the length of the head ; length of base of adipose 
dorsal exceeding that of the rayed fin, or of the interspace between 



162 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

the two. Pectoral spine strong, as long as the head excluding the 
snout, and having from ten to fourteen strong denticulations in- 
ternallv. Upper caudal lobe the longer. An anal papilla before 
the fin. Colour leaden or brown superiorly, lighter beneath, 
with or without a brown band along the side, and a dark blotch at 
the base of the caudal fin. Upper halt' of dorsal fin darkish, and a 
dark band along the anal. 

Hub. Malabar and the "Wynaad range of hills. 

172. (18.) Macrones bleekeri. 

Bagrus keletius, Bleeder, Batav. Genootsch. Vcrhand. xxv, Ich. Beny. 

p. 115 (not Cuv. 8f Veil.}. 
Macrones bleekeri, Day, Fish. India, p. 451, pi. ci, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

B. x. D. 1/7 ] 0. P. 1/9-10. V. 6. A. 9-10 (3/6-7). C. 17. 

Length of head 5^ to 5|, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 5 in 
the total length. Eyes diameter 4^ in length of head, nearly 2 
diameters from end of snout, and lg apart. The greatest width 
of the head equals its length behind the hind nostril. Snout some- 
what obtuse. Width of the gape of the mouth nearly equals 
half the length of the head. Upper surface of head, opercles, 
occipital bone, and humeral process granulated. Median longi- 
tudinal groove on the head shallow, and reaching to the base of 
the occipital process, which is twice as long as broad at its base, 
and reaches the basal bone of the, dorsal fin. Occipital process 
not grooved, but with ridged lines. Barbels nasal reaching the 
hind edge of the eye, maxillary the anal fin, external mandibular 
the base of the pectoral, internal a little shorter. Teeth on the 
palate in an uninterrupted semilunar band. Fins dorsal fin 
rounded, not so high as the body, the spine smooth and equal to 
half the length of the head (in Sind specimens the spine is slightly 
serrated posteriorly, and I once saw a specimen that had eight 
branched dorsal rays) ; adipose dorsal commencing just behind the 
rayed fin, and having its base twice the length of the head. Pec- 
toral spine stronger than that of the dorsal, and as long as the 
head excluding the snout ; denticulated internally. Caudal with 
pointed lobes, the upper being the longer. Colour brownish- 
grey, with two light longitudinal bands, one above the other, below 
the lateral line ; some specimens have a dark shoulder-spot and a 
dark band along the middle of the anal fin. The fins are mostly 
darkest at their edges. In a specimen from Burma there is a dark 
spot at the end of the lateral line and light longitudinal body-bands. 

Hob. Sind, Jumna, upper waters of the Ganges, and Burma, 
not attaining to a large size. It descends the rivers as low as 
Bengal. 

20. Genus LIOCASSIS, Bleeker. 
Syn. Kama, Meeker; Macrones, pt., Giinther. 
Branchiostegals six. Gill-openings very wide, the membrane 



163 

not being confluent with the skin of the isthmus, and notched as 
far as the chin. Mouth of moderate size, anterior, the upper jaw 
the longer. Nostrils distant one from the other. Barbels con- 
sisting of a short maxillary pair, and either two pairs or none on 
the mandible. Teeth villiform in both jaws, and in an uninter- 
rupted band across the palate. One spine and six rays in the first 
dorsal; adipose h'n present, it and the anal of moderate length. 
Ventral with six rays, situated behind the base of the dorsal ; 
caudal forked. Air-bladder not enclosed in bone. 

GeoyrapJiical Distribution. Eastern Bengal, Assam and Burma, 
to the Malay Archipelago. 



* Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. 16. A dark shoulder-mark. Body with short 

vertical dark marks. 3 pairs of barbels. ... 1. L. rama, p. 163. 
A. 11. Two black blotches on the lateral line. A 

pair of maxillury barbels only 2. L.flnviatilis, p. 164. 

173. (1.) Liocassis rama. (Fig. 65.) 

Pimelodus rama, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 176, 377, pi. 3, 

fig. 55. 
Leiocassis rama, Day, Fish. India, p. 451, pi. cxv, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/9.' V. 6. A. 16 (3/13). C. 18. 
Length of head 4 to 4, of caudal fin 4|, height of body 4| to 5 
in the total length. Eyes subcutaneous, diameter 3 to 3| in the 
length of the head, 1 diameter from the end of the snout, and also 
apart. The greatest width of the head equal to its length excluding 
the snout. There is a considerable rise in the dorsal profile to the 
base of the rayed fin. Upper jaw the longer. Upper surface of 




Fig. 65. Liocassis rama, 

the head covered with skin ; a rather wide median longitudinal 
groove extends up the first third of the occipilal process, which 
is twice as longns \\kle at its base, and a distinct oval interneural 

M2 



1 G4 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

shield exists between the process and the basal bone of the dorsa 
fin. Scapular process well developed ; humero-cubital process 
rather longer than high at its base. Barbels a short maxillary 
pair, two pairs behind the syraphysis o f the lower jaw. Teeth in 
an uninterrupted, semicircular villiform band across the palate. 
Colour dull yellow, with short, vertical, brown marks and a dark 
shoulder-spot. 

Hub. Eastern Bengal and Assam. This fish appears not to 
exceed 2 or 3 inches in length. The figure is twice the natural 



174. (2.) Liocassis fluviatilis. 
Liocassis fluviatilis, Day, Fishes of India, Supplement, 1888, p. 805. 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/7. V. 6. A. 11. C. 18. 

Length of head 4^, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 5 in the 
total length. Eyes rather small, high up and in the anterior half 
of the head. The greatest width of the head equal to two thirds 
of its length. There is a moderate rise from the snout to the base 
of the dorsal fin. Upper jaw the longer ; upper surface of head 
smooth. Barbels a maxillary pair reaching to the posterior edge 
of the orbit, no others were detected. Tenth in an uninterrupted 
villiform band across the palate. Fins dorsal spine smooth and 
nearly as long as the fourth ray, which is four fifths as high as the 
body below it. Adipose dorsal rather long, commencing a short 
distance behind the base of the rayed fin. Pectoral spine denticu- 
lated internally. Colour yellowish horny, with darker shades of 
olive-brown on the snout and along the back, also some cloudy 
markings. A large black blotch on the lateral line above the anal 
fin, another between the pectoral and first dorsal. Tip of dorsal 
and ends of both caudal lobes black. 

Hob. Col. Tickell obtained four examples, the largest 3| inches 
long, from the Anin, a stream rising near Weywoon, Wagroo, in 
the Tenasserim Provinces. 



21. Genus RITA, Bleeker. 
Syn. Gogrius, Day. 

Branchiostegals eight. Gill-openings with a free posterior edge 
and not confluent with the skin of the isthmus. Mouth transverse, 
upper jaw the longer ; nostrils on either side subcontiguous, but 
the pair on one side widely separated from that on the other. 
Eyes subcutaneous, without free circular margins. Barbels six, a 
minute pair at the posterior nostrils, a maxillary and a mandibular 
pair. Teeth villiform in both jaws or mixed with molariform ones 
in the mandibles, molariform on the palate. One strong spine and 
six rays in first dorsal fin, the adipose and the anal of moderate 
length. Ventral posterior to the base of the dorsal, and having 



SILUBIDjE. 165 

seven or eight rays ; caudal forked. Air-bladder not enclosed in 
bone, with or without a posterior prolongation. The ova are much 
larger than in Macrones, but very much smaller than in Arius and 
its allies. A strong cubito-humeral process protects the pectoral 
spine when it is flexed along the side of the body. 

Geographical Distribution. Large rivers of Sind, India (except 
its southern portions), and Burma far above Mandalay. 

Uses. Food for the lower classes. These fishes retain life long 
after their removal from water, and can be conveyed fresh for long 
distances. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Some of the posterior teeth in the lower 

jaw* molariform. 

Eye 8 to 10 diameters in length of head. 
Patches of teeth in palate wide apart. 
Dorsal spine in the adult as long as 
the head or longer, entire anteriorly . . 1. R. buchanani, p. 165. 

Eye 5 1 to G diameters in length cf head. 
Patches of teeth in palate close to- 
gether. Dorsal spine as long as head 
excluding the snout, entire anteriorly 2. R. pavimentata, p. 167. 

Eye 4 diameters in the length of head. 
"Patches of teeth in palate close to- 
gether in their front halves. Dorsal 
spine longer than the head, coarsely 
serrated anteriorly in its whole extent 3. R. chrysca, p. 167. 

B. Teeth in lower jaw villifbrm or cardi- 

form. 

Eye 4.7 to 5 diameters in length of head. 
Patches of teeth in palate wide apart. 
Dorsal spine as long as the head or 
longer, serrated anteriorly in its lower 
third 4. R. hastata, p. 168. 



175. (1.) Eita buchanani. (Fig. 66.) 

Pimelodus rita, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 165, 376 pi. xxiv, fig. 53. 

Rita buchanani, Sleeker, Batav. Gcnootsch. Vcrhand. xxv, Ich. lieny. 
p. 123, t. 3, fig. 1 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 454, pi. ciii, fig. 1 (semi- 
adult), fig. 2 (immature), and pi. civ, fig. 2 (young) (see synon.). 

Nya-htivay, Burmese. 

B. viii. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 8. A. 12-13 (4-5/9). C. 19. 
Length of head 4 to 4^, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5i to 6 
in the total length. Eyes diameter 8 to 10 in the length of head, 
.'3 diameters from the end of snout and 41 apart. The greatest 
width of the head equal to its length behind the nostrils, whilst 
its height is a little less. Upper surface of the head covered with 
skin except a strip anterior to the base of the occipital process, 
that bone, the scapular and cubito-humeral processes granulated ; 



166 TELEOSTEI. P1IYSOSTOMI. 

the occipital process nearly as long as wide at its base, notched 
anteriorly to receive the basal bone of the dorsal fin, which is nearly 
as long as the occipital process. Upper jaw the longer ; width of 
the mouth nearly equal to half the length of the head. Cubito- 
humeral process more pointed in young than in adult specimens 
and about three fourths the length of the head. Barbels the nasal 
short ; the maxillary nearly reaching the end of the head, and the 
mandibular almost as far. Teeth villiform in the upper jaw, also 
in the anterior portion of the mandible, and in an outer row along 
either ramus, while internally are two or three rows of rounded 
teeth, the posterior of which are the largest ; two elliptical patches 
of rounded teeth on the palate, which are wide asunder along the 
median line but coalesce anteriorly. Fins dorsal spine very 
strong, and slightly serrated posteriorly in its upper portion ; its 
length varies, being shortest in the immature, it is generally as 
long as the head (except in the young) or even one third longer in 
adults, especially in those from the Indus ; base of adipose fin 
half or two thirds that of the rayed fin, or of the interspace between 
the two fins. Pectoral spine (except in the very young) somewhat 
shorter than that of the dorsal and denticulated on both edges. 
Ventrals arising just behind the vertical from the last dorsal ray. 




Fig. 66. Rita buchanani. 

Anal one half higher than its base is long. Colour lurid green, 
lightest below, and the hind edge of the dorsal sometimes blackish. 
Air-bladder with a thick outer covering, and of an almost quad- 
rangular form, whilst posteriorly it is continued into two horn-like 
prolongations nearly as long as the abdominal cavity, the right one 
generally passing over to the left side and curving across the com- 
mencement of its fellow, whereas the left one passes backwards, 
and is then as a rule recurved on itself. On the inferior wall 
being removed a longitudinal median partition is seen in the 
posterior half, dividing it into two lateral chambers which anteriorly 
communicate together, while posteriorly they are continued down 
the two horn-like processes. 

Hob. Indus and affluent rivers, Jumna and Ganges, also the 
Irrawaddy ; attaining at least 4 feet in length. This fish is 
esteemed as food by the natives, but is a very foul feeder. 



8ILURID.E. 167 

176. (2.) Rita pavimentata. 

Arius pavinientatu*, Vul. Jacquemont, Voy. 2nd.. Atlas, 2; Poiss. 

jUT^fe*, 

Rita pavimentata, Day, Fish. India, p. 455, pi. ciii, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Sanki yeddu, Tel. ; Pilah-gokttndu, Hind. ; G/ioffra, Marathi. 

B viii. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 8. A. 12-13 (4/8-9). C. 17. 

Length of head 3| to 4, of caudal fin 6, height of body 6 in the 
total length. Eyes covered by skin which, however, forms a rather 
free margin along their lower edges ; diameter 5| to 6 in the length 
of head, 2 to 2^ diameters from the end of snout and 2 apart. 
Greatest width of the head equal to its length behind the angle of 
the mouth. Upper jaw the longer, the width of the mouth equal 
to three^tenths of the length of the head. Upper surface of the 
head and occipital process smooth, covered by skin. Occipital 
process rather more than twice as long as wide at its base, it is 
notched anteriorly to receive the V-shaped basal bone. Scapular 
process short, the cubito-humeral one pointed, as long as the head 
behind the middle of the eyes, or even a little longer, and rough- 
ened in lines. Barbels the maxillary do not quite reach the poste- 
rior end of the head, the mandibular pair extend a little further ; the 
nasal are very short. Teeth in villiform or cardiforin rows in both 
jaws ; the posterior rows in the lower jaw, commencing behind the 
symphysis, with rounded crowns, their size augmenting laterally. 
Those in the palate in two semi-elliptical patches of rounded ones, 
which are almost continuous along the median line, the posterior 
being much the largest. Fins dorsal spine of moderate strength, as 
long as the head excluding the snout, and finely serrated posteriorly 
in almost its entire extent ; length of the base of the adipose three 
fourths of that of the rayed fin and nearly equal to the extent of the 
interspace between the two fins. Pectoral spine stronger and a little 
longer than that of the dorsal, denticulated on both edges, not 
reaching so far as the ventral fin. Anal rays appear to be sometimes 
deficient in number. Colour of a dull yellowish colour, with dark 
or even black fins. 

A drawing and description of this species exists amongst 
Sir W. Elliot's collection ; the locality is not given, but was probably 
the Kistna ; the fish is termed " Ghogra." 

Hob. From Poona and the rivers in the Deccan and affluents of 
the Kistna. 

177. (3.) Rita chrysea. 

Rita chrysea, Day, Fish. India, p. 455, pi. civ, fig. 1. 
B. viii. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 8. A. 12 (2/10). C. 18. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 4^, height of body 6 in the total 
length. Eyes covered by the skin, which, however, is a little 
reflected along its lower edge, diameter 4 in the length of the head, 
1| diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. The greatest 



168 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

width of the head equals its length excluding the snout, its height 
is slightly less. Upper jaw the longer, the width of the mouth 
equals four thirteenths of the length of the head. Upper surface 
of the head mesially and posteriorly, also the occipital and scapular 
processes, rough. Occipital process as wide at its base as it is long, 
notched anteriorly to receive the basal bone. Cubito-humeral 
process as long as the head excluding the snout. Barbels nasal 
short, the maxillary reach the base of the pectoral fin, the man- 
dibular slightly shorter. Teeth villiform in both jaws, and two or 
three of the inner rows in the mandibles with globular crowns ; 
two patches of globular-headed teeth on the palate converge an- 
teriorly so as to touch one another in their front half. Fins 
dorsal spine strong, reaching to about the middle of the adipose fin 
and nearly one half longer than the head, coarsely serrated an- 
teriorly in its whole extent, and very finely serrated posteriorly. 
Pectoral spine rather longer than the head, and denticulated on 
both sides. Caudal deeply forked. Colour yellowish, the ends 
of the fins stained greyish. 

Hah. Orissa, where a single specimen was captured. 



178. (4.) Rita hastata. 

Arius hastatus, Vol. Jacquemont, Voy. Ind., Atlas, Potss. pi. 18, fig. 2. 
Rita hastata, Day, Fish. India, p. 450, pi. ciii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Kurdu, Marathi ; Mussayahri, Ooriah. 
B. viii. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 7-8. A. 13-14 (5/8-9). C. 17. 

Length of head 4| to 4f , of caudal fin 5 to 6, height of body 6 in 
the total length. Eyes covered with skin, pupil oval, diameter 4| 
to 5 in the length of head, lj diameters from the end of snout, 
and 1 apart. Greatest width of the head equal to its length 
behind the angle of the mouth ; upper jaw the longer ; the width 
of the mouth three eighths of the length of the head. Upper sur- 
face of the head (except just anterior to the occipital process) 
covered with skin, the portion in front of the occipital process and 
the process itself with roughened lines, the latter half longer than 
wide at its base, anteriorly emarginate to receive the basal bone of 
the dorsal fin. Scapular process rough but not elongated. Cubito- 
humeral process as long as the head, sharply pointed posteriorly, 
and rugose in lines. Barbels the maxillary reaching the base of 
the pectoral fin, the mandibular to below the hind edge of the eye ; 
the nasal short. Teeth in villiform or cardiform rows in both 
jaws ; in two elliptical patches on the palate, converging anteriorly, 
and widely asunder along the median line, they consist of pointed 
ones anteriorly and more granular ones behind. Fins dorsal 
spine of moderate strength, as long as, or even longer than, the 
head, finely serrated posteriorly in its upper portion, and also 
anteriorly along its lower third ; length of the base of the adipose 
dorsal two thirds of that of the rayed fin ; pectoral spine stronger 



SILUBID.E. 169 

and a little longer than that of the dorsal, denticulated on both 
edges ; caudal forked. Colour brownish along the back, silvery 
on the sides. 

Hob. Deccan, Poona, Tungabhadra and Kistna rivers. 



22. Genus AEIUS, Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

Syn. Sciades, sp., and Ariofos, Miill. & Trosch. ; ffe.vanemattchthys, 
Guiritinga, Hemiarius, Cephalocassis, Netuma, and Paeudarius, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals from five to six. Gill-inembranes not confluent 
with the skin of the isthmus, and scarcely or not notched. Head 
osseous superiorly, or covered with very thin skin. Eyes with free 
orbital* margins. Mouth anterior ; upper jaw generally the longer. 
Anterior and posterior nostrils placed close together, the latter 
being provided with a valve. Barbels six one maxillary, and two 
mandibular pairs. Teeth in the jaws villiform ; there are nearly 
always palatine, and sometimes vomerine teeth, these may be villi- 
forui or granular. First dorsal with one spine and seven rays ; 
the adipose of moderate length or short ; pectoral spine strong and 
serrated ; ventral fin with six rays, situated behind the vertical 
from the posterior margin of the rayed dorsal fin ; caudal forked 
or emarginate. An axillary pore. Air-bladder not enclosed in 
bone. 

Considerable stress has been laid in this genus upon the charac- 
ter of the teeth, and whether they are villiform or granular forms 
a good method of division. Further subdivisions, dependent upon 
the groups being continuous or not, appear unadvisable, because 
in some species the size of the patches of palatine teeth increases 
with age, thus altering their original conformation, and causing 
one patch to impinge on its neighbour. 

There is likewise another question regarding the palatine teeth 
in these fishes ; in Ariusjatius there are usually two small patches 
of palatine teeth widely separated along the median line, but in 
some specimens they are entirely absent as was stated by Hamilton 
Buchanan, but subsequently denied by others. Consequently the 
genus Hemipimelodus, Bleeker, has representatives in India, but 
they are abnormal specimens in which either the palatine teeth 
were absent from birth, or else have become lost through age. Such 
species would appear to be amongst those having globular teeth. 

The air-bladder is not enclosed in bone, is large, heart-shaped, 
and internally subdivided into five chambers, which communicate 
together anteriorly : the front one, which is the largest, occupies the 
anterior portion ; behind this a median septum divides the bladder 
down the centre, and lateral partitions subdivide the posterior 
chambers into four. (See A. gayora, p. 185.) 

The breeding of these fishes is peculiar and deserves attention. 
The eggs of Arius are largo, averaging about 0'5 to 0-6 of an inch 
in diameter, and I have found many males of the genus, and also 



170 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

of Oxteoyeniosus, with from 15 to 20 eggs in their mouths. Some 
of these eggs were in an early stage of development, others nearly 
ready to be hatched ; while in the mouth of one specimen was a 
hatched fry having the yolk-bag still adherent. The eggs filled the 
cavity of the mouth and extended far back to the branchiae. 

In the female organs of generation the eggs seemed to come to 
maturity in batches of perhaps 50 at a time. On examining the 
conformation of the ventral fins, those of the females appeared to 
be larger than those of the males ; the rays were thickened by a 
deposit of fat, whilst the innermost one had a large pad attached 
to its posterior edge. These fins can be expanded into a cup-like 
surface, the use of which may be to receive the eggs as extruded, 
which may be vivified there by the male. 

Whether the male carries about these eggs in his mouth until 
hatched or only removes them when danger is imminent from some 
spot where he is guarding them is questionable, but in none of the 
specimens which I examined did I find a trace of food in the 
intestines of the males which had been engaged in this interesting 
occupation. 

This has been observed likewise elsewhere by Mr. Boake in 
Ceylon, and Dr. Hensel has recorded the same of a Brazil species, 
A. commersonii ; Dr. Gunther of Arias fissus from Cayenne ; and 
the same facts have been remarked in other Siluroid fishes. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas and estuaries of tropical regions, 
ascending to within tidal influence or even entering fresh waters. 
Arius appears to be almost as unknown in the lied Sea as the 
Sciceiiidce, and probably from the same cause. 

Uses. As food of an inferior quality. On the western coast of 
India species of this genus are largely salted and a considerable 
amount of coarse isinglass is procured for export to China by 
drying their air-bladders. 



/Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Villiform teeth on the palate. 

A. 19-22. Head 3| to 3 in total length. 

Eye 7 to 8| in length of head. Mouth 

spatulate. One patch of teeth not as 

large as eye on either side of palate .... 1. A. burmanicus, p. 173. 
A. 19. Head 4 in total. Eye 6 in length 

of head. Maxillary barbels reach last 

third of pectoral fin. Two triangular 

patches of teeth approximating superi- 

orly.' Dorsal spine as long as head. 

Dull yellow, fins blackish ............ 2. A. ne>u/a, p. 173. 



9 in length of Lead. Maxillary barbels 
reach middle of pectoral fin. Two some- 
what triangularpatches of teeth, approxi- 
mating anteriorly. Dorsal spine about 
as long as head .................... 3. A. ccelatus, p. 174. 



SILUJIID.E. 171 

A. U>. Head 3 in total. Eye 7 iu length 
of head. Snout much produced. Max- 
illary barbels reach hind edge of eye. 
Teeth iu two obliquely ovate diverging 
patches. Dorsal spine half as long as 

head 4. A. acutiroati'is, p. 17o. 

A. 18-19. Head 4 to 4 in total. Eye 
5 in length of head. Maxillary barbels 
reach eud of head. Palatine teeth in 
two triangular patches diverging poste- 
riorly. Dorsal spine not so long as head 5. A. sumatratuts, p. 17(3. 
A. 18-19. Head 5 in total. Eye 4| in 
length of head. Maxillary barbels reach 
base of pectoral fin. Teeth on palate in 
triangular patches as large as the eye, as 
broad as long. Dorsal" spine as long as 

the "head behind the angle of the nijuth. 6. A. cenostts, p. 176. 
A. 19. Head 4 in total. Eye of in length 
of head. Maxillary barbels reanh the 
end of the pectoral fin. Palatine teeth in 
two pear-shaped patches, the small ends 
forwards and converging, widely diverg- 
ing posteriorly. Dorsal spine nearly as 

long as the head 7. A. parvininnis, p. 177. 

A. 17-20. Head 3^ to 4 in total. Eye 5 
to 6 in length of head, and 2^ to 3 dia- 
meters from end of snout. Maxillary 
barbels do not quite reach the eye. Teeth 
on the palate in a patch on either side 
not longer than the eye, and wide asunder. 
Dorsal spine rather above half as long 

as head 8. A. subrostratus, p. 178. 

A. 17-19. Head 4 to 4| in total. Eye 
G to 7 in length of head. Head very 
broad ; basal bone of dorsal fin large and 
butterfly-shaped. Maxillary barbels reach 
middle or end of pectoral spine. Teeth 
in two confluent patches on either side 
meeting anteriorly. Dorsal spine as long 

as the head excluding the snout 9. A. sagor, p. 178. 

A. 17. Head 4 in total. Eye 7 to 9 in 
length of head. Maxillary barbels reach 

end of head. Palatine teeth on either 

side in a large triangular patch, emargi- 

nate posteriorly, and anteriorly conjoined 

by a small vomerine patch. Dorsal spine 

as long as head excluding snout 10. A. sona, p. 179. 

A. 16. Head 5| in total. Eye 4 in 

length of head. Maxillary barbels reach 

middle of pectoral fin. Teeth on vomer 

and palatines in three patches on either 

side converging in median line anteriorly. 

Dorsal spine as long as head behind 

middle of eyes 11. A. serratus, p. ISO. 

A. 15-17. Head 4\ to 5 in total. Eye 5 

in length of head. Maxillary barbels 

reach base of pectoral tin. Teeth on 



172 TELKOSTEI. PIIl'SOSTOMI. 



vomer and palatines in three patches on 
either side joining anteriorly in the median 
line. Dorsal spine nearly or quite as 
long as the head 12. A. thalassinus, p. 181. 

B. Globular teeth on the palate. 
A. 22. Head 4f in total. Eye 7 to 8 | in 

length of head. Maxillary barbels reach 

first third of pectoral spine. Teeth on 

palate in two oval patches placed far 

back. Dorsal spine as long as head be- 
hind angle of mouth 13. A. buclianani, p. 181. 

A. 18-20. Head 4 to 5 in total. Eye 5 

to 6 in length of head. Maxillary barbels 

reach end of head. Teeth on palate in 

two semi-triangular patches, parallel 

along median line. Dorsal spine as long 

as head excluding snout 14. A.falcarius, p. 182. 

A. 20. Head 4 in total. Eye 6| in length 

of head. Gape of mouth two fifths of 

length of head. Maxillary barbels as long 

as head. Teeth on palate in two oval 

patches well forwards and slightly con- 
vergent anteriorly. Dorsal spine as long 

as head behind angle of mouth 15. A. malabaricus, p. 183. 

A. 19. Head 4 in total. Eye 7 in length 

of head. Width of gape of mouth four 

sevenths of length of head. Maxillary 

barbels reach j ust beyondbase of pectoral. 

Teeth on palate in a pyriform band, 

placed well forward, slightly converging 

anteriorly. Dorsal spine as long as head 

excluding snout 16. A. pfatofawtu, p. 183. 

A. 19. Eyes small, in front half of head . 17. A. nella, p. 184. 
A. 18-19. Head 4 to 4 in total. Eye 5 

to 6 in length of head. Maxillary barbels 

reach middle of pectoral spine. Teeth 

on palate in a pyriform band, placed w T ell 

forwards, and widely divergent poste- 
riorly. Dorsal spine as long as head [p. 184. 

ehind nostrils 18. A. macronotacanthus, 

A. 18. Head 4 to 4 in total. Eye 7 to 8 

in length of head. Maxillary barbels not 

quite so long as head. Teeth on palate 

in a large semi-ovate patch on either side. 

Dorsal spine as long as the post-orbital 

portion of the head 19. A. gayora, p. 18o. 

A. 18. ^ Head 4 in total length. Eye 4| 

to 5 in length of head. Maxillary barbels 

shorter than head. Teeth in a small 

ovate patch posteriorly on either side or 

else absent. Dorsal spine as long as head 

excluding snout 20. A. jatiut, p. 186. 

A. J 8. Head 3 in total. Eye 7 in length 

of head. Maxillary barbels as long as 

head. Teeth on palate absent (? two 

pear-shaped globular patches normally). 21. A. tcnuispinisj p. 187. 






SILUBID.*:. 173 

A. 17-18. Head 4f in total. Eye in 

length of head. Maxillary barbels nearly 

as long as head. Teeth on palate in two 

convex, oblong ovate patches, rather 

convergent behind. Dorsal spine as long 

as head excluding snout 22. A.jella, p. 187 

A. 14-16. Head 4 to 4 1 in total. Eye 6| 

in length of head. Maxillary barbels 

rather longer than head. Teeth on 

palate in two patches on each side. 

Dorsal spine as long as head excluding 

snout 23. A. dussumieri, p. 188. 

179. (1.) Arms burmanicus. 

Arms burmanicus, Day, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 618, and Fish. India, 
p. 458, pi. cv, fig. 4. 

Nga-kyouny, Burmese. 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. Y. 6. A. 19-22 (4-6/15-16). C. 15. 

Length of head 3| to 3f , of caudal fin 5, height of body 7 in the 
total length. Eyes without free orbital edges, diameter 7 to 8| 
in the length of head, 2| to 3 diameters from the end of snout, 
and 1 \ to 2 apart. Head depressed, snout spatulate, upper jaw 
the longer; the greatest width of head equals two fifths of its 
length, while its height is less. The median longitudinal groove 
on the head narrow and not extending so far as to the base of the 
occipital process, which is keeled and rather wider at its base than 
it is long, while superiorly it reaches a Y-shaped basal bone. 
Upper surface of the head with roughened lines, which are closest 
together at the posterior end of the median groove and on the 
occipital process. Barbels short, the maxillary do not quite 
reach the base of the pectoral fin, the outer maudibular are nearly 
as long. Teeth those on the palate villiform in two small, oval, 
obliquely set patches (not so large as the eye) diverging poste- 
riorly. Fins the dorsal half as high again as the body, its spine 
strong, half as long as the head, and serrated anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly ; base of adipose dorsal about as long as that of the rayed 
fin. Pectoral spine of the same length as the dorsal, stronger, 
serrated on both edges. Yentral nearly reaching the anal. Colour 
purplish, dashed with copper, becoming dull white on the sides 
and beneatb. Both dorsal fins externally stained with black. 

Hab. Tidal rivers of Burma ; attaining at least a foot in length. 

180. (2.) Arius nenga. (Fig. 67.) 

Pimelodus nenga, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 171, 376. 

Arius nenga, Day, Fish. India, p. 458, pi. civ, fig. 3 (see synon.). 

Shiiiydlpetdda, Marathi. 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 19 (6/13). C. 17. 
Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 in the total 






174 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 



length. Eyes diameter 6 in the length of head, 2| diameters 
from the end of snout, and 3 apart. The greatest width of the 
head exceeds its height by one third, and is one sixth less than its 
length. Upper jaw the longer, the width of the gape of the month 




Fig. 07. Arius nenga. 

equal to half the length of the head. The median longitudinal 
groove on the head is shallow anteriorly, but becomes narrow pos- 
teriorly and does not quite extend to the base of the occipital 
process, which is keeled, nearly as broad at its base as it is long ; 
basal bone of dorsal tin narrow and crescent-shaped. Upper 
surface of the head, almost as far forward as the eyes, and the 
occipital process studded with coarse granules. Barbels the 
maxillary pair reach the posterior third of the pectoral fin, whilst 
the outer mandibular pair are as long as the head. Teeth on the 
palate villif orm in two triangular patches, approximating superiorly 
and parallel along the median line. Fins dorsal much higher 
than the body, the dorsal spine strong, as long as the head, and 
having an elongated soft prolongation, it is granulated anteriorly 
in its lower half, serrated in its upper, and also posteriorly ; base 
of adipose dorsal nearly as long as that of the rayed fin. Pectoral 
fin almost reaching the ventral ; pectoral spine nearly as long as the 
head, rough, granulated externally and denticulated internally. 
Upper caudal lobe the longer. Colour dull yellow, the fins being 
externally stained with black. 

This species is closely allied to A. ccelatus, its maxillary barbel is 
longer, the dorsal spine more produced, and the colours different. 
It may be only a variety. 

Ilab. Hooghly at Calcutta. Blyth says this fish attains 12 or 
13 inches in length. 

181. (3.) Arius caelatus. 

Arius cselatus, Ouv. fy Vol. If. N. Poiss. xv, p. 66; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 459, pi. cv, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 19 (5-6/13-14). C. 15. 

Length of head 4j to 4|, of caudal fin 5 to 6, height of body 6| 

in the total length. Eyes diameter 6 to 9 in the length of the 



SILURID.E. 175 

head, 2 to 2 diameters from the end of snout, nnd from 3 to 4 
apart. Head broader than high, its greatest width being equal to 
its length behind the nostrils, the width of the mouth equals the 
postorbital length of the head or a little more. Upper jaw the 
longer, the angle of the mouth does not extend so far posteriorly 
as to below the orbit. Upper surface of the head and occipital 
process strongly granulated, the median longitudinal groove nar- 
row and deep posteriorly and not quite reaching the base of the 
occipital process, which is a little keeled, as broad at its base as it 
is long or slightly broader, its anterior extremity slightly concave 
and extending to the basal bone, which is V-shaped and rather 
narrow. Barbels the maxillary reach the middle of the pectoral 
fin, whilst the external mandibular pair are one fifth shorter. 
Teeth villiform in two- somewhat widely separated triangular 
patches/the vomerine being confluent with the palatine. Fins 
dorsal spine very strong especially in its lower half, which is 
granulated both laterally and anteriorly, serrated in its upper 
portion, also posteriorly in its whole extent, it is nearly or quite 
as long as the head and has a sofb prolongation ; base of adipose 
dorsal shorter than that of the rayed fin, and equal to about half 
the extent of the interspace between the two fins. Pectoral spine 
as strong as, but rather shorter than, that of the dorsal, granu- 
lated externally, serrated internally. Ventral not reaching the 
anal. Upper caudal lobe sometimes the longer. Colour bluish 
along the back and sides, becoming white beneath. Adipose dorsal 
black, with its inferior and posterior margins yellow. Superior 
portion of dorsal, the end of the pectoral and ventrals black, as is 
also the anterior part of the anal. 

Hub. From Bombay through the Indian Seas to the Malay 
Archipelago, not uncommon at Calcutta; attaining to a consider- 
able size. 



182. (4.) Arras acutirostris. 
Arius acutirostri?, Day, Fish. India, p. 459, pi. cvii, fig. 1. 

B. v. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 19 (5/14). C. 17. 

Length of head 3|, of caudal fin 6, height of body 7 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 7 in the length of head, 3 diameters 
from the end of snout, and 2 apart. The greatest width of the 
head equals about half its length, and is one sixth more than its 
height. Snout fleshy and elongated, extending some distance 
beyond the mouth ; mouth inferior, the extent of its gape equalling 
one third of the length of the head. Upper surface of the head 
granulated, or with roughened lines. Median longitudinal groove on 
head not extending to the base of the occipital process, which is slightly 
keeled, is rather longer than wide at its base, and reaches the 
narrow V-shaped basal bone of the dorsal fin. Barbels short, 
the maxillary reach beyond the hind edge of the eye; the outer 
mandibular are about one third of the length of the head ; the 



176 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 






inner are shorter. Teeth the villiform band in the premax- 
illaries is about one third as deep as wide ; those on the palate 
likewise villiform in two somewhat obliquely oval patches diverg- 
ing anteriorly. Fins dorsal spine rather strong, half as long as 
the head and serrated on both sides ; the base of the adipose fin 
is two thirds as long as that of the rayed fin. Pectoral spine of 
about the same length as the dorsal and serrated on both edges ; 
the fin reaches two thirds of the distance to the ventral ; the 
latter does not extend to the anal. Colour upper portion of 
rayed and upper two thirds of adipose dorsal black ; pectoral, 
ventral, and anal stained grey. 

Hob. The Sal ween river at Mouhnein in Burma. Tickell ob- 
served that this species was one of the commonest fishes in the 
Moulmein bazaar. It attains a foot or more in length. 

183. (5.) Arius sumatranus. 

Bagrus sumatranus, liennett. Life of Sir S. Raffles, p. 691. 

Arius sumatranus, -Day, Fish. India, p. 4GO, pi. cvii, fig. G (see 

synon.). 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. G. A. 18-19 (5/13-14). G. 17. 

Length of head 4% to 4|, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 5^ in 
the total length. Eyes diameter 5 in the length of head, 1| dia- 
meters from the end of snout, and 2 apart. The greatest width of 
the head exceeds its height and equals its length behind the angle 
of the mouth. Upper surface of the head with scattered granu- 
lations, which are more lineated on the occipital process. Median 
longitudinal groove narrow posteriori)', nearly reaching the base 
of the occipital process, the edges in the last portion of the groove 
are raised. Occipital process slightly keeled, as broad at its base 
as it is long ; basal bone crescent-shaped and narrow. Barbels 
the maxillary reach end of head, the outer mandibular the base of 
the pectoral fin. Teeth in palate villiform, in two triangular 
patches diverging posteriorly. Fins dorsal spine as long as the 
head behind the angle of the mouth, and serrated on both edges ; 
base of adipose dorsal two thirds of that of the rayed fin. Pectoral 
spine as long as the head excluding the snout, externally roughened 
in the lower, serrated in the upper portion, internally denticulated, 
not reaching the ventral. Ventral extending two thirds of the way 
to the anal. Colour bluish green above, becoming lighter on the 
sides and beneath ; edges of fins stained grey, very little black on 
adipose dorsal. 

Hub. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 

184. (6.) Arms venosus. 

Arius venosus, Cuv. fy Vol. H. N. Pom. xv, p. 09 ; Day, Fish. India, 

p. 400, pi. cvi, %. 2 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 18-19 (5-6/13). C. 17. 

Length of head 5^, of caudal fin 5, height of body 6 in the total 

length. Eyes diameter 4| in the length of head, 1^ diameters 



177 

from the end of snout, and 2 apart. Snout rather obtuse, and the 
upper jaw the longer ; the width of the gape of the mouth equal 
to one half the length of the head. The greatest width of the 
head equal to its length excluding the snout, and slightly exceeding 
its height. Upper surface of the head with scattered granulations, 
which are more numerous on the occipital process. Median longi- 
tudinal groove on the head shallow except in its posterior portion, 
which is narrow and deep as far as the base of the occipital process, 
this is keeled and as broad at its base as it is long. Basal bone 
V-shaped, and laterally narrow. Barbels the maxillary extend to 
the base of the pectoral fin, the outer mandibular are shorter. 
Teeth villiform on the palate, in two triangular patches, the 
points of which are directed backwards, the patches are about as 
large as the eye, as broad as long, and approximate somewhat 
anteriorly. Fins the dorsal as high as the body, its spine rather 
strong and as long as the head behind the angle of the mouth ; an- 
teriorly the spine is serrated in its upper, granulated in its lower 
half, posteriorly it is serrated ; base of adipose dorsal equal to half 
that of the rayed fin. Pectoral spine as long as that of the dorsal, 
granulated and serrated externally, denticulated internally. The 
ventral reaches the anal ; upper caudal lobe the longer. Colour 
bluish. 

Hob. From Burma to the Malay Archipelago. 

185. (7.) Arius parvipinnis. 

Arius parvipinnis, Day, Fish. India, p. 460, pi. cxiii, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

Chintajella, Tel. 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 19 (5/14). C. 18. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 4|, height of body 6 in the total 
length. Eyes in anterior half of the head, diameter 5| in the 
length of the head, If diameters from the end of snout, and 3 
apart. Greatest width of the head equal to its length behind the 
nostrils, and exceeding its height by one fourth. Upper jaw 
somewhat the longer ; the width of the gape of the mouth equal to 
that of the postorbital length of the head. Upper surface of the 
head and occipital process studded with coarse granulations. 
Median longitudinal groove on head well marked, lanceolate, its 
last portion deep and not extending so far as the base of the 
occipital process, which has a granulated keel along its centre, is 
as long as wide, arid reaches a narrow crescentic basal bone. 
Barbels the maxillary reach the end of the pectoral fin. Teeth 
villiform in two pear-shaped crescentic patches placed well for- 
wards, diverging, and their small end anterior. Fin* dorsal 
spine strong, laterally roughened, serrated anteriorly in its upper 
half, also posteriorly, as long as the head behind the angle of the 
mouth. Pectoral spine stronger than the dorsal, of the same length, 
and serrated on both edges, it reaches two thirds of the distance to 



178 TELEOSTET. PHTSOSTOMI. 






the ventral ; the latter is very small, a little above half as long as 
the pectoral, and does not reach the anal. Caudal deeply lobed, 
with its upper lobe rather produced. Colour on the upper surface 
dull leaden, sides and abdomen whitish, adipose dorsal with a black 
blotch ; pectoral, ventral, and outer half of anal dark. 
Hob. Coromandel coast of India. 

186. (8.) Arins subrostratus. 

Arius subrostratus, Cuv. $ Vol. If. N. Poiss. xv, p. 62 ; -Day, Fish. 
India, p. 461, pi. cvi, fig. 6 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 17-20 (5-6/12-14). C. .17. 
Length of head 3| to 4, of caudal fin 6 to 7, height of body 5 in 
the total length. Eyes diameter 5 to 6 in length of head, 2-J to 3 
diameters from the end of snout, and 2 to 2 apart. The greatest 
width of the head rather exceeds its height and equals four sevenths 
of its length. Snout elongated and a little depressed, the upper 

i'aw the longer, the width of the gape equals two sevenths of the 
ength of the head, cleft short, extending one third of the distance 
to the orbit ; median longitudinal groove on the head shallow, an- 
teriorly becoming narrow, and posteriorly deep, extending nearly 
to the base of the occipital process. Upper surface of the head 
behind the middle of the orbit granulated, as is also the occipital 
process, which is rather wider at its base than it is long, has nearly 
straight lateral edges, and reaches the narrow basal bone of the 
dorsal fin. Barbels short, the maxillary pair do not quite reach 
the eye, the outer raandibular are still shorter, and the internal the 
shortest. Teeth those on the palate villiform, in two small 
patches wide asunder, one on either side of the palate, not longer 
than the diameter of the eye. Fins dorsal one fourth higher 
than the body, its spine not very strong, rather above half as long 
as the head, rugose anteriorly, serrated posteriorly ; length of the 
base of the adipose dorsal equal to two thirds of that of the rayed 
fin. Pectoral scarcely reaching the ventral ; pectoral spine as long 
as that of the dorsal, or a little longer, serrated internally. 
Ventral reaching the anal ; caudal forked. Colour silvery leaden 
along the back when fresh, a series of about fifteen minutely spotted 
vertical bands seen on the body. Fins stained with grey. 
Hab. Malabar coast of India ; attaining to a foot in length. 

187. (9.) Arius sagor. 

Pimelodus sagor, Ham. Bitch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 169, 376. 
Arius sagor, Day, Fish. India, p. 461, pi. cv, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/7 I 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 17-19 (3-4/14-15). C. 15. 
Length of head 4| to 4|, of caudal fin 5 to 6, height of body 5 
in the total length. Eyes diameter. 6i to 7 in the length of head, 
2 diameters from end of snout, and 3| apart. Head depressed, 
much broader than high, its width equal to its length or a little 



SILURIDJ;. 179 

less. Upper jaw the longer, the width of the gape of the mouth 
half the length of the head. The median longitudinal groove on 
the head shallow, extending to a little behind the posterior edge of 
the eye. Upper surface of the head granulated in radiating lines. 
Occipital process one half wider at its base than it is long, its 
posterior extremity rounded where it meets the basal bone of the 
dorsal fin, which is large and somewhat butterfly-shaped. Barbels 
the maxillary reach to the middle or end of the pectoral spine, the 
outer mandibular to its base or middle. Teeth ou the palate in 
two confluent villiform patches on either side, meeting in the 
mesial line, each of these patches has a convex inner edge. Fins 
dorsal higher than the body, the spine strong and as long as the 
head excluding the snout, granulated or serrated anteriorly, serrated 
posteriorly ; the base of the adipose nearly as long as that of the 
rayed fin. Pectoral spine stronger than that of the dorsal and 
equally long, serrated externally along its outer fourth and denticu- 
lated internally, its outer ray often prolonged. Ventral nearly 
reaching the anal. Upper caudal lobe the longer. Colour greenish 
brown, becoming lighter on the abdomen ; some specimens have 
narrow vertical bands of spots on the body. Fins tinged with 
dark. 

Hub. From Bombay through the seas and estuaries of India to 
the Malay Archipelago. Said to be very common at Batavia, 
where it is largely consumed. This species attains to at least 3 
feet in length. 

188. (10.) Arms sona. 

Pimelodus sona, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 172, 376. 
Arius sona, Day, Fish. India, p. 462, pi. cv, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/12. V. 6. A. 17 (6/11). C. 17. 

Length of head 4, of caudal fin 5 to 6, height of body 6 in the 
total length. Eyes diameter 7 to 9 in the length of head, 2| to 
3 diameters from end of snout, and 3| to 4| apart. Head one 
half broader than high, and almost as wide as long. Upper jaw 
the longer ; the extent of the gape of the mouth equal to two 
thirds of the length of the head. Median longitudinal groove on 
the head wide, but not extending so far as the base of the occipital 
process ; the latter keeled, convex at its posterior extremity where 
it reaches the basal bone of the dorsal fin which is somewhat narrow, 
especially in its centre, while each side is slightly bent into an S- 
shaped form. The occipital process is as wide at its base as it is 
long or rather wider ; it and also the crown of the head from behind 
the eyes are granulated, these granulations have somewhat of a 
radiating direction. Barbels the maxillary reach to the end of 
the head, the outer mandibular are shorter. Teeth on palate 
villiform, those on each palatine in a large somewhat triangular 
patch which is emarginate posteriorly, anteriorly two small patches 
on the vomer connect the two palatine ones together. Fins 
dorsal spine strong, granulated anteriorly, serrated posteriorly, and 
as long as the head excluding the snout, but not so high as the 

N2 



180 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 



rays, which are higher than the body ; length of the base of the 
adipose dorsal equal to that of the rayed fin. Pectoral spine 
stronger and usually slightly shorter than that of the dorsal, rough 
externally, sometimes even with a few serrations near its tip, 
serrated internally. Ventrals not reaching the anal. Caudal 
forked. Colour brownish above, bluish on the sides where it is 
glossed with gold, and of a dull white beneath. Fins with a bluish- 
black tinge. Young specimens are of a brownish colour, superiorly 
glossed with purplish and yellow, the fins nearly black. 

Hob. From Bombay through the seas of India, entering estuaries 
and tidal rivers ; attaining at least 3 feet in length. 

189. (11.) Arius serratns. 
Arius serratus, Day, Fish. India, p. 462, pi. cv, fig. 3. 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 16 (5/11). C. 17. 

Length of head 5|, of caudal fin 4|, height of body o| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4| in the length of head, 1| diameters 
from end of snout, and 2 apart. The greatest width of the head 
equals its length behind the angle of the mouth. Upper jaw the 
longer, the width of the gape of the mouth equal to half the length 
of the head. Upper surface of the head granulated or with rough 
lines, most distinct on the occipital process. The median longi- 
tudinal groove on the head does not quite reach posteriorly to 
above the hind edge of the opercle ; from the groove commences a 
serrated ridge, which is continued along the occipital process. 
Occipital process with a serrated keel, a little longer than wide at 
its base. Basal bone narrow and crescent-shaped. Barbels the 
maxillary reach to the middle of the pectoral fin, the outer man- 
dibular to the gill-opening. Teeth in the palate villiform in three 
distinct patches on either side, the two vomerine patches round, 
small, and with an interspace between them, outside each there is 
another rather longer oval patch ; the third or posterior patch is 
parallel to the one on the opposite side. Fins dorsal higher than 
the body ; its spine, which is serrated on both edges, is as long as 
the head behind the middle of the eyes, and has a soft termination ; 
the length of the base of the adipose half that of the rayed fin. 
Pectoral reaching rather above halfway to the ventral; pectoral 
spine stronger than that of the dorsal, but not quite so long ; 
externally the former is rough in its lower, serrated in its outer 
half, internally it is denticulated. The ventral does not reach the 
anal. Upper caudal lobe the longer. Colour upper surface of 
the head copper-coloured shot with gold, sides silvery. Fins 
yellowish, rayed dorsal stained with dark in its outer half; adipose 
fin with a black spot ; a dark band, edged with white, along the 
outer half of the anal ; both caudal lobes dark at their extremities. 

This fish is nearly allied to A. tJtalaxsimts, but has much shorter 
pectoral fins and longer maxillary barbels. "Whether the serrations 
along the occipital ridge are merely due to the specimen being 
young is questionable. 

Hob. Sind. 






STLTJRID2E. 181 

190. (12.) Arms thalassinns. 

Bagrus thalassinus, Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 75, t, 20, fig. 2. 
Anus thalassinus, Day, Fish. India, p. 408, pi. civ, fig. 4, and pi. cvi, 
fig. 1 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/12. V. 6. A. 15-17 (3-5/12-13). C. 17. 

Length of head 4| to 5, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5| to 6 
in the total length. Eyes longest diameter obliquely transverse, 
5 in the length of the head, 1| to If diameters from end of snout, 
and 2| to 3 apart. Width of head equal to its length behind the 
angle of the mouth, breadth exceeding the height. Upper surface 
of the head granulated ; the median longitudinal groove, which is 
narrow posteriorly, extends to opposite the hind edge of the opercle. 
The occipital process is granulated, keeled, rather longer than wide 
at its base, and extends to the basal bone of the dorsal fin, which 
is small and crescentic in shape. Barbels the maxillary extend 
nearly or quite to the base of the pectoral fin, the outer mandibular 
are a little shorter. Teeth on the palate villiform, those of each 
side forming a triangle composed of three patches, two in front and 
a larger one behind. Fins dorsal spine as long as the head without 
the snout, or even a little longer, granulated anteriorly (with some 
serrations in the young), serrated posteriorly ; base of adipose dorsal 
two fifths of that of the rayed fin. Pectoral spine strong, but a little 
shorter than the dorsal, rough externally, feebly serrated internally ; 
caudal with the upper lobe usually the longer. Colour silvery, 
darkest superiorly ; the upper half of the adipose dorsal black. In 
some specimens the dorsal surface is of a rich brown, and each of 
the granules on the head appears to be tipped with gold. 

Hob. From the Eed Sea, through the seas of Africa and India to 
the Malay Archipelago and beyond, entering tidal rivers. Attains 
a large size. 

191. (13.) Arms buchanani. 

Pimelodus arius, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 170, 376. 

pl. 



Arius buchanani, Day, Fish. India, p. 463, pl. cv, 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 22 (6/16). C. 17. 
Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 5| in the 
total length. Eyes diameter 5| in the length of head, If diameters 
from end of snout, and 2 apart. Greatest width of the head 
equal to its length behind the angle of the mouth. Upper jaw the 
longer, width of gape of mouth three eighths of the length of the 
head. Median longitudinal groove on the head rather shallow, and 
not reaching the base of the occipital process. Upper surface of 
the head lineated in roughened lines, which are rather close together 
on the occipital process ; the latter is scarcely keeled, and as wide 
at its base as it is long. Opercle higher than wide. Barbels tlie 
maxillary extend to the first third of the pectoral fin, the outer 
mandibular almost to its base. Teeth on the palate in two oval 
patches, one on either side, each as large as the eye, placed far 
back and parallel to one another, the teeth have large globular 



182 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 






heads. Fins dorsal higher than the body, its spine as long as the 
head behind the angle of the mouth, anteriorly roughened in its 
lower two thirds, and serrated in its upper, posteriorly very feebly 
serrated; base of the adipose dorsal three fourths of that of the 
rayed fin. Pectoral reaching the base of the ventral, the spine 
stronger than that of the dorsal but of equal length, serrated on 
both sides. Ventral almost reaching the anal ; upper caudal lobe 
the longer. Colour silvery along the back, lighter on the sides 
and below, pectoral and dorsal edged posteriorly with blackish ; 
adipose dorsal with a well-defined black spot. 
Hob. Hooghly at Calcutta ; also in Burma. 

192. (14.) Arms falcarius. 

Arius falcarius, Richardson, Voy. Sulphur, Ich. p. 134, pi. Ixii. 
figs. 7-9; Day, Fish. India, p. 463, pi. cvi, fig. o (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 18-20 (5-6/13-14). C. 17. 

Length of head 4 to 5, of caudal fin 6, height of body 5| to 6 in 
the total length. Eyes diameter 5i to 6 in the length of head, 
2 diameters from end of snout, and" 3 to 3^ apart. The greatest 
width of the head equals its length behind the angle of the mouth, 
and exceeds its height by about one sixth. Upper jaw the longer, 
the width of the gape of the mouth equal to three sevenths of the 
length of the head. The median longitudinal groove on the head, 
which is wide anteriorly, becomes suddenly narrow midway between 
the front edge of the eye and the hind edge of the opercle, and 
does not quite reach the base of the occipital process, which is 
keeled, rather longer than wide at its base, and reaches the basal 
bone of the dorsal fin, which is V-shaped, narrow 1 , and short. 
Upper surface of the head behind the eyes (except in the groove) 
strongly granulated, as is also the occipital process. Barbels the 
maxillary pair, which are black, reach to the hind edge of the head, 
the outer mandibular to the gill-opening, while the inner are 
shorter. Teeth the villiforrn band in the premaxillaries four times 
as long as wide ; those on the palate granular anteriorly, becoming 
globular posteriorly, in two elongated subtriangular patches, longer 
than wide, parallel to one another along the median line, their 
external edge is convex, anteriorly they nearly reach the pre- 
maxillary teeth. Fins dorsal higher than the body, its spine 
usually ending in a soft point, it equals the length of the head 
excluding the snout, anteriorly it is serrated in its upper, rough 
in its lower half, and serrated posteriorly ; the base of the adipose 
fin equals three sevenths of that of the rayed fin. Pectoral spine 
a little longer than the dorsal, serrated externally in its outer half, 
rough in its lower; externally it is denticulated; it nearly reaches 
the ventral, whilst the latter extends to the anal or even to as far 
as the third ray of that fin. Colour bluish grey above, becoming 
dull white beneath ; fins greyish, dorsal black-tipped ; a black blotch 
on the adipose dorsal, and sometimes one on the anal. 

Hob. Calcutta, and seas of India, to China. Very numerous 
along the Malabar coast. 



SILUBID<E. 183 

193. (15.) Arius malabaricus. 

Arius malabaricus, Day, Fish. India, p. 464, pi. cvii, fig. 4. 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 20 (6/14). C. 17. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 51, height of body 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 6- in the length of head, 2^ diameters 
from the end of snout, and 3^ apart. The greatest width of the 
head equals its length behind the nostrils, it is rather wider than 
high. Upper jaw the longer, the width of the gape of the mouth 
equals two fifths of the length of the head. Upper surface of the 
head sparingly granulated. The median longitudinal groove on the 
head commences opposite the hind edge of the eyes, it is very narrow 
and deep, and is continued nearly to the base of the occipital process, 
which latter is slightly keeled and granulated, as broad at its base 
as it is long, and emarginate posteriorly to receive the V-shaped 
basal bone of the dorsal fin. Barbels the maxillary pair black 
and as long as the head, the outer mandibular pair rather shorter. 
Teeth in the' upper jaw one fourth as wide as long, those on the 
palate granular and in two elongated oval patches which reach far 
forwards, and are slightly convergent anteriorly, they extend some 
distance posteriorly. Fins dorsal spine of moderate strength, as 
long as the head behind the angle of the mouth, anteriorly granu- 
lated in its lower, serrated in its upper portion, posteriorly serrated ; 
base of soft dorsal rather short. Pectoral spine nearly as long as 
the head, denticulated internally, and extending to below the last 
dorsal ray. Ventral not quite reaching the anal. Colour silvery, 
glossed with gold below ; adipose dorsal with a black spot in its 
upper half. 

Hob. Canara. 

194. (18.) Arius platystomus. 

Arius platystomus, Day, Fish. India, p. 464, pi. cvii, fig. 3. 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 19 (5/14). C. 17. 

Length of head 4, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 7 in the length of head, 2 diameters from 
the end of snout, and 4 apart. The greatest widtli of the head 
exceeds its height by one third, and is as long as the head without 
the snout. Upper jaw the longer ; the width of the gape of the 
mouth equal to four sevenths of the length of the head. Median 
longitudinal groove on head becoming narrow posteriorly, where it 
just reaches the base of the occipital process, which is strongly 
keeled, rather longer than wide at its base, with straight lateral 
edges, and extending to the basal bone of the dorsal fin, which is 
rather narrow and S-shaped. A very few scattered granulations over 
the posterior half of the head and the occipital process. Barbels 
the maxillary reach just beyond the base of the pectoral, the outer 



184 TELEOSTEI. PITYSOSTOMT. 

mandibular are not quite so long. Teeth the villiform band in 
the premaxillaries is six times longer than wide ; obtusely conical 
in the palate in two pyriform patches, rather longer than broad, each 
placed well forward, and largest anteriorly where the two slightly 
converge, the interspace equal to two thirds of the diameter of the 
eye. Fins the dorsal about as high as the body, its spine as long 
as the head excluding the snout, anteriorly its upper half is serrated, 
its lower roughened, the whole is serrated posteriorly : the length 
of the base of the adipose dorsal nearly equals that of the rayed 
fin. Pectoral spine rather shorter than the dorsal, externally 
serrated in its anterior, rough in its posterior half, internally ib is 
denticulated, it reaches three fourths of the distance to the ventral. 
The ventral just reaches the anal. Colour bluish along the back, 
becoming lighter on the sides and beneath ; dorsal, pectoral, and 
ventral with a slight tinge of grey. No black mark upon the 
adipose dorsal. 
Jfab. Canara. 

195. (17.) Arms nella. 

Pimelodus (?) nella, Cuv. $ Val H. N. Poiss. xv, p. 162. 
Arius nella, Day, Fish. India, p. 465 (see synon.). 

Nallahjellah, Tel. 

D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 19. C. 19. 

Head broad, depressed. Eyes small, in front half of the head. 
Teeth on palate, globular. Barbels the maxillary reach to the 
middle of pectoral fin. Fins caudal sublunate. Colour head 
and back bluish leaden ; belly, throat, and hinder part of the tail 
a dull white. The whole trunk strewed with small, obscure, dusky 
dots. Dorsal, ventral, and anal with blackish margins. Pectoral 
and caudal glossy with a faint yellowish tinge. 

This fish has been placed by Cuvier and Valenciennes amongst 
those having no teeth in the palate, in consequence of their having 
misunderstood Eussell's description. 

Hob. Corouiandel coast ; growing to 9| inches in length. 

196. (18.) Arius macronotacanthus. 

Arius macronotacanthus, Bleeker, Ail. Ich. ii, p. 32, t. 55 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 465, pi. cxiii, tig. 1 (see synon.)- 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 18-19 (6-7/12-13). C. 15. 
Length of head 4 to 4, of caudal fin 6^, height of body 5| in 
the total length. Eyes diameter 5| to 6 in the length of head, 
1 diameters from end of snout, and 2| apart. The width of the 
head exceeds its height, and equals its length excluding the snout. 
Extent of the gape of the mouth equal to four ninths of the length 
of the head. The median longitudinal groove is wide between the 
eyes, becomes pointed both anteriorly and posteriorly, and does not 



STLURIDjE. 185 

reach so far as the base of the occipital process, which latter is as 
wide at its base as it is long, and reaches a narrow V-shaped basal 
bone. Upper surface of the head granulated in groups, the occipital 
process densely so in lines. Barbels the maxillary reach the middle 
of the pectoral spine, the outer mandibular its base. Teeth on the 
palate obtusely conical or granular, placed in two pear-shaped patches, 
each as long as the eye, the large ends posterior and divergent, the 
anterior terminating near the band on the pretnaxillaries. Fins 
dorsal spine strong, very rugose laterally, as long as the head behind 
the nostrils, and serrated both anteriorly and posteriorly, it has a soft 
termination ; the length of the base of the adipose equals two thirds 
of that of the rayed fin. Pectoral spine as long as the head excluding 
the snout, roughened and serrated externally, denticulated internally, 
it reaches two thirds the distance to the ventral, which does not 
reach ftie anal. Colour base of dorsal darkish, a large black 
blotch on the adipose fin. 

Hob. India to Java, Sumatra, and Pinang. 



197. (19.) Arins gagora. 

Pimelodus gagora, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 167, 376, pi. 10, 

fig. 54. 
Arius gagora, -Day, Fish India, p. 4G5,"pl. cvii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Nffct-youn, Burmese. 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 18 (5-6/13-12). C. 17. 

Length of head 4 to 4^, of caudal fin 5| to 5|, height of body 6| 
in the total length. Eyes diameter 7 to 8 in the length of head, 
2 diameters from the end of snout, and 3 to 3| apart. Head 
one fourth wider than high, its width equal to its length excluding 
the snout. Upper jaw the longer, the width of the gape of the 
mouth four elevenths of the length of the head. Most of the 
occiput and the whole of the occipital process granulated. Median 
longitudinal groove on the head narrow, rather deep, and reaching 
nearly to the base of the occipital process, which is keeled, very 
slightly longer than wide at its base and extending to a narrow V-- 
shaped basal bone. Opercle higher than wide. Barbels the maxil- 
lary not quite so long as the head, the outer mandibular reach the 
gill-opening. Teeth those on the palate with globular heads, in large 
semi-ovate patches : considerable variation in size and direction of 
these patches of teeth exists, as it not unfrequently happens that 
some are wanting. Fins dorsal rather higher than the body, the 
spine of moderate strength, anteriorly serrated in its upper, rough 
in its lower half, posteriorly serrated^ it is as long as the postorbital 
portion of the head ; length of the base of the adipose dorsal two 
thirds of that of the rayed fin. Pectoral reaching two thirds of the 
distance to the ventral ; pectoral spine rather stronger than the 
dorsal, which it equals in length, externally it is serrated, internally 
denticulated. The ventral does not extend so far as the anal. 



186 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

Upper caudal lobe the longer. Colour purplish superiorly, 
becoming dull white beneath ; fins externally stained with grey or 
black, and a blackish spot on the adipose dorsal. Air-bladder 
large and somewhat heart-shaped. On removing its lower wall a 
longitudinal septum is seen in its posterior half but not anteriorly. 
It has three transverse subdivisions, forming it into five chambers, 
the anterior of which is nearly half the size of the entire organ, 
and has no longitudinal septum. The four lateral chambers com- 
municate freely with each other on both sides, also anteriorly with 
the large chamber. 

Hob. Seas, estuaries, and tidal rivers of Orissa and Bengal to 
Siam. It attains \\ feet (or according to Hamilton Buchanan 
3 feet) or more in length ; it is commonly seen about 8 or 10 inches 
long. 



198. (20.) Ariusjatms. 

P. 1 

4 (see synon.). 



Pimelodus jatius, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganyes, pp. 171, 370. 
Arius jatius, Day, Fish. India, p. 400, pi. cvi, tig. 



Nga-youn and Nya-yeh, Burmese. 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 18 (5/13). C. 17. 

Length of head 4| , of caudal fin 5, height of body 5| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4| to 5 in the length of head, 1| diameters 
from the end of snout, and 1 J to 2 apart. Height of head nearly 
equal to its width, the latter equal to its length excluding 
the snout. Upper ja\v the longer ; the extent of the gape 
of the mouth equals one third of the length of the head. 
Summit of the posterior portion of the head sparingly granulated, 
the occipital process more thickly so. The median longitudinal 
groove on the head narrow, and continued almost to the base of the 
occipital process, which latter is keeled, as wide at its base as long, 
and reaches the narrow V-shaped basal bone of the dorsal fin. 
Opercle wider than high. Barbels short, the maxillary pair 
shorter than the head, the outer mandibular pair just reach the 
gill-opening. Teeth villiform, in a band six times as long as wide 
in the premaxillaries ; on the palate globular,' in a small oval patch 
posteriorly, scarcely exceeding half the diameter of the eye ; they 
may be entirely absent. Fins dorsal as high as the body ; dorsal 
spine strong, as long as the head excluding the snout, serrated on 
both sides ; the base of the adipose dorsal four fifths of that of the 
rayed fin. Pectoral spine as long as that of the dorsal, serrated 
externally, denticulated internally, reaching as far as the ventral 
fin. The latter extends to the anal. Colmir dark bluish along 
the back, becoming lighter on the sides and beneath. Fins yellowish, 
lower half of dorsal stained with grey. Upper edge deep black. 
A deep black spot on the upper half of the adipose fin; caudal' 
edged with black, and anal with a dark spot on its edge near the 
middle. 

Hab, Estuaries and rivers of Bengal and Burma, ascending far 
above tidal reach, and attaining a foot or more in length. 



1 87 



199. (21.) Arius tennispinis. 

Arius tenuispinis, Day, Fish. India, p. 40C, pi. cvii, fig. 5 (see synon.), 
B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 18 (5/13). C. 17. 

Length of head 3|, of caudal fin 4, height of body 5| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 7 in the length of head, 2| diameters from 
end of snout, and 3| apart. The greatest width of the head equals 
its length excluding the snout. The extent of the gape of the 
mouth equal to one third of the length of the head. Median 
longitudinal groove on the head narrow, and not quite reaching 
the base of the occipital process, which has a slight keel, is a little 
longer than wide at its base, and rather convex posteriorly, where 
it reaches the narrow and V-shaped basal bone of the dorsal fin. A 
few granulations on the top of the head, also along the middle of the 
occipital process. Barbels the maxillary reach the end of the head, 
the outer mandibular are one third shorter. Teeth none on palate. 
Fins dorsal spine very weak and thin, nearly as long as the head 
excluding the snout, serrated posteriorly ; base of the adipose equal 
to half that of the rayed dorsal fin. Pectoral spine as long as the 
dorsal, but slightly stronger, roughened externally, serrated inter- 
nally. Caudal forked. Colour silvery along the back, becoming 
lighter on the sides and beneath. 

Hob. Bombay, and perhaps Ceylon. 

200. (22.) Arias jella. 

Arius jella, Day, Fish. India, p. 467, pi. cvi, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Deddijellah, Tel. 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 17-18 (4-5/13). C. 19. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 5|, height of dorsal fin 5j, of 
body 6| in the total length. Eyes diameter 6 in the length of head, 
2 to 2 diameters from the end of snout, and 3 apart. Greatest 
width of the head one sixth more than its height, and equal to its 
length behind the nostrils. Upper jaw the longer, the extent of 
the gape of the mouth three eighths of the length of the head. 
The median longitudinal groove becomes narrow and deep pos- 
teriorly, and reaches nearly to the base of the occipital process, 
which is slightly keeled, has nearly straight sides and is slightly 
longer than broad, posteriorly it is a little emarginate and reaches 
the narrow basal bone of the dorsal fin. Most of the occiput and the 
occipital process are closely granulated. Barbeh the maxillary 
are nearly as long as the head, the outer mandibular almost reach 
the gill-opening, the inner are shorter. Teeth globular on the 
palate in two convex, oblong-ovate patches, which are slightly 
convergent behind; none on the vorner. Fins dorsal spine of 
moderate strength, as long as the head excluding the snout, some- 
times with a very long soft termination, slightly serrated anteriorly, 
or merely rough in large specimens, strongly serrated posteriorly. 



1 88 TELEOSTKT. PH Y SO8TOM I . 

Pectoral spine stronger than dorsal and rather longer, roughened 
and slightly serrated externally, denticulated internally. Base of 
adipose dorsal slightly shorter than that of the rayed fin. Ventral 
scarcely reaching the anal. Upper caudal lobe the longer. Colour 
greyish silvery, becoming white on the sides and below. Fins 
stained grey, with a white outer edge to the anal. Adipose dorsal 
with a dark blotch. 
Hob. Coasts of India. 

201. (23.) Arius dussumieri. 

Arius dussumieri, Citv. fy Val. H. N. Poiss. xv, p. 84 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 467, pi. cvii. fig. 7 (see synon.). 

B.vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/12. V. 6. A. 14-16(4-5/10-11). C. 17. 

Length of head 4 to 4|, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 in the 
total length. Eyes diameter 6| in the length of head, 2 5 dia- 
meters from the end of snout, and 4 apart. Head one fourth wider 
than high, its width equals its length excluding the snout, or even 
behind the angle of the mouth. Upper jaw the longer, the width 
of the gape of the mouth equals four ninths of the length of the 
head. Median longitudinal groove shallow, becoming most distinct 
posteriorly, where it reaches the base of the occipital process, 
which is strongly keeled and nearly (or quite) as wide at its base as 
it is long, its lateral edges are nearly straight, and it extends to 
the basal bone, which is narrow and S-shaped. A few scattered 
granulations on the posterior portion of the head and over the 
base of the occipital process. Barbels the maxillary reach just 
beyond the base of the pectoral, the external mandibular are not 
quite so long. Teeth obtusely conical on the palate, in four 
widely separated patches, those on either side of the vomer being 
smaller than the palatine patches. Fins the dorsal as high as the 
body, its spine as long as the head excluding the snout, anteriorly 
in the upper half serrated, in the lower roughened, posteriorly 
serrated throughout ; the length of the base of the adipose dorsal 
equals half of that of the rayed fin. Pectoral spine rather shorter 
than that of the dorsal, externally it is serrated in its anterior 
half, rough in its posterior, internally it is serrated ; it reaches 
two thirds of the way to the ventral. Ventral just reaching 
the anal. Colour bluish along the back, becoming lighter on the 
sides and below, fins blackish externally. 

Hob. Malabar coast of India and Ceylon. 

23. Genus KETENGUS, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals five. Gill-membranes united, not confluent 
with the isthmus, but having a free posterior edge, which is 
notched. Upper surface of head osseous. Eyelids with a free 
circular margin. Cleft of mouth deep ; upper jaw the longer. 
Barbels six, small, no nasal ones. Nostrils approximating, the 



SILTTBIDjE. 189 

posterior provided with a valve. A single row of compressed teeth, 
which are subtruncated or almost tricuspid in the jaws ; palate 
edentulous. Dorsal fin with one spine and seven rays, inserted 
nearer the snout than the ventrals are ; adipose fin short ; anal of 
moderate length and not continuous with the caudal, which latter 
is forked. Ventral with six rays. Air-bladder not enclosed in 
bone. An axillary pore. 

Geographical Distribution. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 

202. (1.) Ketengns typus. (Pig. 68.) 

Ketengus typus, Sleeker, Atl. Ich. ii, p. 44, t. 82, fig. 1 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 468, pi. cviii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

B. v. ^D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/7-8. V. 6. " A. 19-20 (5-6/14). C. 15. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 5| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 5| in the length of head, 1| diameters 
from end of snout, and 2| apart. The greatest width of the head 
equals its length excluding the snout. Upper surface of the head, 
occipital process, and basal bone of the dorsal fin densely granulated. 




Fig. &. Ketengus typus. 

The width of the gape of the mouth equals the length of the head 
excluding the snout. Longitudinal groove along the upper surface 
of the head deep but narrow, commencing on the snout it is not 
continued so far as to the base of the occipital process which is as 
long as wide at its base. Teeth as defined in the genus. Fins 
dorsal spine as long as the head and serrated on both edges ; base 
of the adipose nearly as long as that of the rayed fin. Pectoral 
spine a little shorter than that of the dorsal and serrated on both 
edges. Colour silvery. 

Hob. The Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 



24. Genus OSTEOGENIOSUS, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals five. Gill-membranes united at the throat, 
einarginate and overlapping the isthmus but not confluent with it; 
upper surface of the head covered with very thin skin ; mouth 
anterior ; upper jaw the longer. Nostrils approximating, the 
posterior provided with a valve. Barbels, a single semi-osseous 
maxillary pair. Teeth in the jaws villiform ; obtusely conical on 



1 90 TELEOSTEI . PHTSOSTOMI. 

the palate, where they form two widely separated patches. Dorsal 
with one spine and seven rays, inserted anteriorly to the ventrals ; 
adipose fin short. Anal of moderate length, not united with the 
caudal, which is forked. Ventral with six rays. Air-bladder not 
enclosed in bone. An axillary pore. 

Geographical Distribution. Seas and estuaries of India to the 
Malay Archipelago, sometimes entering rivers. 

Uses. Eaten by the poorer classes. A coarse isinglass is made 
from the air-bladder. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. 19-22. Length of head 4J to 4| in the 
total length. Greatest width of head 
equals its length behind the angle of the 
mouth \. O. militaris, p. 190. 

A. 20. Length of head 4f in the total length. 

Greatest width of head equals half its 

length 2. O. sthenoceji/talus, p. 191 . 

203. (1.) Osteogeniosus militaris. (Fig. 69.) 

Silurus militaris, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 503. 

Osteogeniosus militaris, Day, Fish. Indii, p. 4(59, pi. cviii, tig. 4 (see 

synon.). 
Pon6 keliti, Tarn. 

B. v. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/10-11. V. 6. A. 19-22 (4-5/15-17). 

C. 17. Vert, 18-29. 

Length of head 4| to 4, of caudal fin 7|, height of body 5| to 
6| in the total length. Eyes diameter 7 in the length of head, 2 
diameters from the end of snout, and 4 apart. The greatest width 
of the' head equals its length behind the angle of the mouth ; its 
height*|two thirds of its length ; the width of the gape of the 




Fig. 69. Osteogenwsus militaris. 

mouth equals half the length of the head. Occipital process 2| 
times as long as wide at its base, and its length equals one third of 
that of the head. Median longitudinal groove of moderate width, 
not extending so far as the base of the occipital process. Upper 
surface of the head almost or quite smooth, a few granulations 
generally present between the posterior end of the median longi- 
tudinal groove and the base of the occipital process, which last is 
roughened in ridges which are sometimes granular ; there also 



8ILUUID.X. 191 

usually exists a patch of granulations above the upper edge of the 
opercle on the head. Barbels rather longer than the head. 
Teeth on the palate in two somewhat cresceritic patches con- 
verging anteriorly. Fins dorsal spine as long as the head 
excluding the snout, serrated in the upper portion anteriorly and 
in the whole extent posteriorly. Pectoral spine somewhat stronger 
than that of the dorsal, the fin reaches about halfway to the 
ventral. Anal highest anteriorly, where its height is equal to half 
the length of the head. Colour silvery, darkish superiorly, fins 
tinged with red. 

Hub. Seas, estuaries, and tidal rivers of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. A specimen in the Calcutta Museum is 14 inches 
long. 
t 

204. (2.) Osteogeniosus sthenocephalns. 

Osteogeniosus sthenocephalus, Day, Fish. India, p. 469, pi. cviii, 
fig. 3. 

B. v. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 20 (5/15). C. 17. 

Length of head 4f , of caudal fin 5|, height of body 1\ in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 6i in the length of bead, 2 diameters 
from the end of snout, and 3 apart. The greatest width of the 
head equals half its length ; the width of the gape of the mouth 
equals half the length of the head. Occipital process three times 
as long as wide at its base, its length equals one third of that of the 
head. Median longitudinal groove rather wide and does not 
extend quite to the base of the occipital process. Upper surface 
of the head with a few granulations between the posterior end of 
the median grooA'e and the base of the occipital process, which last 
is roughened in ridges. Barbels as long as the head. Fins as 
in the last species, except that the anterior portion of the anal fin 
is as deep as the head (excluding the snout) is long. Colour 
silvery, darkest superiorly. 

Hob. A single specimen captured at Moulmein. 



25. Genus BATRACHOCEPHALUS, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals five. Gill-membranes united at the throat, 
without a notch, not confluent with the skin of the isthmus. Cleft 
of mouth wide ; lower jaw the longer. Eyes with a free circular 
margin. Nostrils approximating, the posterior provided with a 
valve. Barbels two, rudimentary, and inserted at the chin. Teeth 
obtusely conical in either jaw, with an interspace between the 
outer and the inner rows, in a broad longitudinal band on the 
palate ; none on the vomer. Dorsal fin with one spine and seven 
rays, inserted in advance of the ventrals ; adipose fin short. Anal 
of moderate length, not confluent with the caudal, which is forked. 
Ventral with six rays. Air-bladder not enclosed by bone. An 
axillary pore. 



192 TELEOSTEI. PUYSOSTOMI. 

Geographical Distribution. From Beluchistan through the seas, 
estuaries, and tidal rivers of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

205. (1.) Batrachocephalus mino. (Fig. 70.) 

Ageneiosus mino, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganycs, pp. 159, 375. 
Batrachocephalus mino, Day, Fish. India, p. 408, pi. cviii, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

B. v. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/7. V. 6. A. 20 (5/15). C. 15. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 5, height of body 6 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4 in the length of head, ^ a diameter from 
the end of snout, and 1| apart. The greatest width of the head 
equals its length behind the middle of the eyes. Gape of mouth 
wide, the cleft of the mouth reaches to below the centre of the orbit. 
Occipital process rather longer than wide at its base, and lineated 




Fig. 70. --Batrachocephalus mino, 

in roughened lines. Basal bone crescentic and narrow. Barbels 
minute. Teeth in a broad longitudinal band on the palate. Fins 
dorsal spine of moderate strength, as long as the head behind the 
middle of the eyes ; base of the adipose dorsal equal to half that of 
the rayed fin. Dorsal and pectoral spices serrated on both edges. 
Upper caudal lobe a little the longer. Colour silvery, darkest 
along the back and upper lobe of the caudal fin. 

Hob. Seas, estuaries, and tidal rivers of India and Burma to the 
Malay Archipelago. Not common, and held in no esteem as food. 

26. Genus AKYSIS. 

Body somewhat elongated; head broad and covered with soft 
skin. Gill-openings of moderate width, the membrane stretching 
across the isthmus and being slightly notched posteriorly. Mouth 
terminal, the upper jaw slightly the longer. Anterior nostrils 
tubular and widely separated from one another and from the pos- 
terior nostrils. Barbels eight. Eyes small. Villiform teeth in the 
jaws, none on the palate. A short dorsal fin with one spine and 
five rays ; pectorals horizontal, ventral with six rays, caudal ernar- 
ginate or forked. Lateral line present. Skin tubercular. 

Geographical Distribution. These small freshwater forms extend 
from the Tenasserim Provinces to the Malay Archipelago. 



193 

206. (1.) Akysis pictus. 

Akysispictus, Giinther,A. M. N. H. (5) xi. 1883, p. 138; Day, Fish. 
India, Supplement, 1888, p. 806. 

D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/7. V. 6. A. 9. 

Head broader than deep. Eyes twice as far from the gill-opening 
as from the end of the snout. The distance of the anterior nostrils 
apart equals about half the length of the snout, while the interspace 
between the anterior and posterior nostril equals half that between 
the front pair. Barbels nasal half as long as the head, maxillary 
reaching to the origin of the dorsal fin, the outer mandibular to 
the axil of the pectoral, the inner are shorter. Fins dorsal com- 
mencing midway between -the snout and the adipose fin, its spine 
comparatively strong. Anal arising nearer to the root of the caudal 
than to that of the pectoral. Caudal emarginate ; pectoral extend- 
ing a little beyond the origin of the dorsal, its spine strong and 
entire ; ventrals reaching the vent. Colour head greyish, with 
minute black spots ; body anteriorly black ; this colour is contracted 
behind into an irregular band that runs along the middle of the 
posterior part of the body and tail. Dorsal fin with a black band 
covering all but its front corner and upper edge; caudal and 
pectoral banded. 

Hob. Tenasserim ; growing to 45 millim. long (1*8 inches). 

27. Genus BAGARIUS, Bleeker. 

Brauchiostegals twelve. Gill-inembranes not confluent with the 
skin of the isthmus, having a free posterior edge and notched half- 
way to the chin. Head depressed, its upper surface osseous. 
Mouth anterior; upper jaw the longer. Eyes with free orbital 
margins. Nostrils approximating, the posterior provided with a 
barbel. Barbels eight one nasal, one maxillary, and two man- 
dibular pairs. Teeth in jaws pointed and of unequal size ; palate 
edentulous. Thorax destitute of any adhesive apparatus. First 
dorsal fin in advance of the ventrals, having one spine and six 
ravs ; adipose fin present. Ventral with six rays. Anal of moderate 
length. Caudal deeply forked. Air-bladder small, consisting of 
two rounded portions enclosed in bone. An axillary pore. 

The air- or swim-bladder of this fish is present, but small. Taylor 
(' Gleanings in Science/ ii, p. 1 72) remarks that the P. bayharia 
(Bayarius yarrellii) " has also two air-bladders, which closely 
resemble the former (Saccobranchus, &c.) in the argentine tendinous 
texture of the external coat, and in having no communication with 
each other or with the alimentary canal. They are situated one on 
each side of the body, in a deep groove or furrow of the con- 
solidated transverse processes of the cervical vertebra), and are 
extremely small in proportion to the bulk of the fish ; each of them, 
in an individual weighing 10 Ibs., not exceeding a large garden-pea 



194 TELE08TEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

iu size ; they are placed iu the middle of the grooves at about an 
equal distance from the common integuments (immediately behind 
the pectoral fins) and the vertebral column : the space between each 
of them and the former being filled up with adipose substance, 
whilst that next to the spine is occupied by the malleus." 

Geographical Distribution. Throughout the course of the larger 
rivers of the Punjab, India, and Burma, and extending to the 
Malay Archipelago. 

207. (1.) Bagarius yarrellii. (Fig. 71.) 

Pimelodus bagarius, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 186, 378, pi. 7, 

fig. 02. 

Bagrus yarrellii, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 370, pi. 65, fig. 1. 
Bagarius yarrellii, Day, Fish. Indict, p. 4!5, pi. cxv, tig. 3 (see 

synon.). 

Boonch or Goonch, Hind. (N. W. P.); Goreufi, Assam: Rahti jcllah 
Tel. ; Sfih-lun, Ooriah ; Mutmula and T/iarof.ti, Mavathi. 




w 

Fig. 71. JJayarius yarrellii. 

13. xii. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/12. V. 6. A. 13-15 (3/10-12). C. 17. 

Length of head 3f , of caudal fin 4|, height of body 5 in the total 
length excluding the prolonged caudal ray. Eyes small, situated 
in the middle of the length of the head. The greatest width of 
the head equals from two thirds of its length in the young to its 
entire length in the adult, its upper surface is rugose in irregular 
bands and lines. Upper jaw the longer, the extent of the gape 
of the mouth equal to four sevenths of the length of the head. 
Barbels the maxillary with broad bases and rather longer than the 
head ; the nasal pair short. Teeth sharp, and of unequal size in 
the jaws, an outer widely separated row of larger ones in the man- 
dibles. Fins dorsal spine smooth, with an elongated soft termi- 
nation, the osseous portion as long as the head excluding the 
snout ; length of the base of the adipose dorsal as long as that of 
the rayed fin. Pectoral spine stronger than that of the dorsal and 
equally long, serrated internally, and having a soft prolongation. 
Caudal deeply forked, its upper lobe prolonged. Skin somewhat 
scabrous over the summit of the head, and slightly so on the body. 
Colour body grey or yellowish, with large, irregular, brown or 
black markings and cross bands. A black base to all the fins, and 
generally also a dark band across each. 

Hob. Large rivers of India and Java, descending to the estuaries. 



, 



8ILUBDXE. 1 195 

It attains 6 feet or more in length, and is often termed a " fresh- 
water shark," parti)' on account of its voracity, and partly because 
of its underhung mouth and general ugliness. 

This fish takes a live-bait, but is difficult to kill ; it is sluggish, 
goes to the bottom, and it generally escapes by destroying the 
tackle. Mr. Van Cortland, at the end of 1875, angling at the Okla 
weir, a few miles below Delhi, killed one which was 5 feet long 
and weighed 136 Ibs. 

28. Genus GLYPTOSTERNUM, McClelland. 
Syn. Glyptothorax, Blyth. 

Branchiostegals from six to about ten. Gill-openings rather 
wide; gill-membranes confluent with the skin of the isthmus, but 
with thefr posterior margin remaining free. Head rather depressed 
and covered with soft skin. Eyes small, subcutaneous. Mouth 
inferior, transverse, with the upper jaw the longer. Nostrils close 
together, separated by a barbel. Barbels eight one nasal, one 
maxillary, and two maudibular pairs, the maxillary with broad 
bases. Villiform teeth in the jaws ; palate edentulous. Dorsal fin 
with a spine and six or seven rays ; an adipose fin present. Pectoral 
horizontal, with a strong spine, some of its rays being occasionallv 
plaited inferiorly. An adhesive apparatus, composed of longitu- 
dinal plaits, exists between the bases of the two pectoral fins on 
the chest. Ventral with six rays, situated posterior to the dorsal. 
Anal with a moderate (9-12) number of rays. Caudal forked. 
Air-bladder in two lateral portions more or less enclosed in 
bone. 

Geographical Distribution. These fishes are found along the 
Himalayas and the rivers at their bases from Afghanistan to the 
extreme east of Assam, also in the Malay Archipelago. They are 
also present in some rivers in the plains of India, but usually not 
far removed from hills. They appear especially adapted for strong 
streams and those of hilly districts. 

It is open to question whether some of the following might not 
more properly be termed varieties than species. Roughness of the 
external edge of the pectoral spine may exist in species in which 
the spine is normally smooth. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. 11-13. Length of head 5 to 5} in the 

total. Maxillary barbels reach pec- 
toral fin. Pectoral spine rough or 

smooth externally. Dorsal spine 

smooth. Brown, with black marks. 1. G. lonah, p. 196. 
A. 13. Length of head in the total. 

Maxillary barbels reach the pectoral 

fin. Ciiestnut-browu, with two 

light longitudinal bands 2. (Jr. trilineattim, p. 197. 

02 



} 96 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

A. 11-12. Width of head two thirds of 
its length. Adhesive apparatus 
rather elongated and narrow. Max- 
illary barbels reacb middle of pec- 
toral fin 3. G. conirostre, p. 198. 

A. 11-12. Pupil of eyes transversely 
oval. Maxillary barbels reach to 
below the hind edge of the eye. Skin 
roughened with small spinate tube- 
rosities 4. G. botium, p. 198. 

A. 11. Pupil of eyes circular. Maxil- 
lary barbels reach to below the hind 
edge of the eyes. Skin looks as if 
it had scales imbedded in it o. G. tekhitta, p. 199. 

A. 11. Head 4f in the total length. 
Maxillary barbels reach first third of 
the pectorals 6. G. striatum, p. 200. 

A. 10-11. Maxillary barbels reach base 
of pectoral fin. Dorsal spine with 
serrations on both edges 7. G. madraspatamnn, p. 200. 

A. 0-11. Width of head nearly equals 
its length. Maxillary barbels reach 
base of pectoral spine. Adhesive 
apparatus wider than long 8. G. pectinopterum, p. 201 . 

A. 0. Upper surface of head with ele- 
vated spots. Maxillary barbels as 
long as the head 9. G. cavia, p. 202. 



208. (1.) Glyptosternum lonah. (Fig. 72.) 

Bagrus lonah, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 371. 

Glyptosternum lonah, Day, Fish, India, p. 49(5, pi. cxiii, fig. 5 (st-e 
syuon.). 

D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 11-13 (3-4/8-10). C. 15-17. 

Length of head 5 to 5^, of caudal fin 5, height of body 7 in the 
total length. Ej/es slightly behind the middle of the length of 
the head, the width of the interorbital space equals one third to 
two sevenths of the length of the head. Width of head nearly or 
quite equals its length; upper surface rough. Width of gape of 
mouth 2| to 3 in the length of the head. Lips not fringed. 
Occipital process nearly or quite four times as long as broad. 
Thoracic adhesive apparatus rather elongated, reaching to the 
first third of the pectoral spine, its plaits are scarcely branched. 
Barbels the nasal reach halfway to the orbit, the maxillary extend 
to the base or first third of the pectoral, the outer mandibular 

air to the gill-opening, the inner are shorter. Fins dorsal 
igher than the body, its spine rather slender, enveloped in skin, 
If to 2| in the length of the head ; adipose dorsal with its base 
longer than that of the first dorsal, and equal to half the interspace 
between the two fins. Pectoral spine moderately broad, internally 
strongly denticulated, externally roughened in some specimens, 
smooth in others, the fin does not nearly reach the ventral. 



SILUBIDvE. 197 

Caudal forked. Caudal peduncle twice as long as high in the 
young, two thirds in the adult. Colour yellowish brown, banded 
with blackish; fins yellow; dorsal, caudal, and anal with black 
bands. 




Fig. 12. Glyptosternum onah. 

Hal. Deccan, attaining at least 6 inches in length. I have 
taken this species at Poona, and also in the head-waters of the 
Jumna. 



209. (2.) Glyptosternum trilineatnm.. 

Glyptothorax trilineatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 154. 
Glyptosternum trilineatum, Day, Fish. India, p. 497, pi. cxvi, fig. 3 
(see synon.). 

D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 13 (3/10). C. 19. 
Length of head 6, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 6 in the total 
length. Eyes small, behind or in the middle of the length of 
the head. Head about as long as broad and covered with soft skin, 
snout obtuse. Lips not fringed. Occipital process nearly three 
times as long as broad. Barbels the maxillary reach to the end 
of the head ; nasal barbels nearly to the orbit ; the external man- 
dibular pair longer than the internal, and reaching to the base of 
the pectoral fin. Thoracic adhesive apparatus rather large. Teeth 
villiform in the jaws, none on the palate. Fins dorsal fin as high 
as the body, its spine weak, slightly serrated posteriorly, and its 
bony portion rather above half the length of the head; adipose 
dorsal of moderate height, its base being equal to more than that 
of the first dorsal, and to about half the distance between the two 
fius. Pectoral spine rather broad, denticulated internally, smooth 
externally, reaching two thirds of the distance to the base of the 
ventral. Caudal deeply forked. Skin smooth. Caudal peduncle 



198 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

twice as long as high. Colour chestnut-brown, with a light streak 
along the back, another along the lateral lino, and a third near the 
abdominal margin. 

ffab. Burma, Tenasserim, and Nepal; attaining 12 inches or 
more in length. 

210. (3.) Glyptosternum conirostre. 

Glyptosternum conirostre, Steindachner, Sitzunysb. Ak. Wiss. IVien, 
Iv, 1" Abth. 1867, p. 532, pis. v, vi, figs. 2 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 497, 
pi. cxvi, fig. 5. 

D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/9. V. G. A. 11-12 (2/9-10). C. 17. 

Length of head 5|, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5| in the 
total length. Eyes slightly behind the middle of the length of 
the head, the width of the interorbital space equals one fourth of 
the length of the head. The width of the head equals two thirds 
of its length. Upper jaw the longer ; the width of the gape of the 
mouth equals half of the length of the head. Lips not fringed. 
Occipital process three times as long as wide. Barbels the 
maxillary have broad bases and extend to the middle of the pectoral 
fin ; the nasal, which have a very wide fringe, reach the hinder 
edge of the eye ; the outer mandibular, which are also broad, to 
the gill-openings ; the inner are shorter. Teeth generic. Fins 
dorsal as high as the body or rather higher, its spine strong, as long 
as the head behind the nostrils and smooth, serrated posteriorly in 
some specimens ; length of the base of the adipose dorsal exceeding 
that of the rayed fin, and equal to two thirds of the extent of the 
interspace between the two fins. Pectoral reaching nearly to the 
ventral, the spine strong, as long as that of the dorsal, not striated 
inferiorly, and having about 13 denticulations internally. Ventral 
does hot quite reach the anal. Caudal forked. Adhesive apparatus 
in the chest rather broad, horseshoe-shaped, convex in front, with 
a large smooth space inside. Caudal peduncle about as high at 
its base as it is long. Colour brownish, fins yellow, stained with 
black. 

This fish has a considerable similarity to G. pectinopterum, but 
possesses a wider mouth, a narrower head, broader barbels, a 
higher caudal peduncle, and a more elongated adhesive apparatus. 

Hob. Himalayan streams. Specimens from Kangra have the 
pectoral spine serrated externally. 

211. (4.) Glyptosternum botram. 

Pimelodus botius, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 192, 378. 
Glyptosternum botia, Day, Fish. India, p. 497, pi. cxiii, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 11-12 (2/9-10). C. 18. 
Length of head 5J, of caudal fin 4|, height of body 6| in the 
total length. Eyes pupils transversely oval, small, situated in 
the commencement of the front half of the head ; the width of the 
interorbital space, which is convex, equal to one third of the length 



SILURID.E. 199 

of the head. The greatest width of the head equals its length 
excluding the snout. Upper jaw the longer; the width of the 
mouth equals one third of the length of the head. Barbels eight, 
the maxillary reach to below the hind edge of the eyes, the nasal 
halfway to the orbibs, the mandibular pairs are short. Teeth 
villiform in the jaws. Fins dorsal spine smooth, as long as the 
head excluding the snout; length of the base of the adipose 
fin equal to one third of the interspace between the two fins. 
Pectoral reaching two thirds of the distance to the ventral, the 
spine strong, as long as the head excluding the snout, and with 
about twenty strong teeth internally. Ventral reaching the anal. 
Caudal deeply lobed, lobes of equal length. Adhesive apparatus 
well-marked. Skin roughened with small spiny tuberosities 
arranged in longitudinal rows all over the body. Free portion of 
the tail twice as long as high at its base. Colour brownish, 
intermixed with yellow, and blotched with blackish. Pins yellow 
with black marks and spots. 

This fish very closely resembles G. telcliitta, but has a more 
roughened skin, whilst the profile of the eye is transversely oval. 
Hamilton Buchanan (MSS.) observes of this species in the Eangpur 
district, " the Eliot Mayur of the Dharka if possible is still uglier 
(than the Eretliistes conta). The people of Bhutan are said to be 
remarkably fond of it, from whence its name is derived. The people 
of Behar will not eat it." 

Hob. It is common at Delhi. Hamilton Buchanan observed 
that it was from the northern rivers of Bengal, and attained 
6 inches in length. 

212. (5.) Glyptosternum telchitta. 

Pimelodus telchitta, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 185, 378. 

Glyptosternum telchitta, Day, Fish. India, p. 498, pi. cxvi, fig. 2 

(see synon,). 
Gooacherah, Beng. ; TeUiah, Hind. (N. W. P.). 

B. vi. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 11 (2/9). C. 17. 
Length of head 5-| to 5|, of caudal fin 5|, height of body 7| to 8 in 
the total length. Eyes small, with a circular pupil situated in the 
middle of the length or in the commencement 'of the posterior half 
of the head ; interorbital space flat, its width 3| to 4 in the length of 
the head. The greatest width of the head equals three fourths of 
its length. Upper jaw the longer, the width of the gape of the 
mouth equals one third of the length of the head ; lips not fringed. 
Opercle ends posteriorly in an elongated pointed termination ; 
occipital process three times as long as wide at its base. Barbels 
the nasal very short, the maxillary reach to rather behind the 
posterior edge of the orbit : the outer mandibular pair reach the 
gill-opening, the internal are shorter. Teeth generic. Fins 
dorsal nearly as high as the body, the spine, which is four sevenths 
as long as the head, has a soft continuation, is slightly enveloped 
in skin and entire ; adipose dorsal of moderate height, the extent 



200 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

of its base equal to that of the rayed fin, or half that of the inter- 
space between the two fins. Pectoral spine broad, reaching two 
thirds of the distance to the base of the ventral, smooth externally, 
bearing from 13 to 14 teeth internally, and not plaited below. 
Caudal deeply forked. Thoracic adhesive apparatus rather large, 
its plaits nearly longitudinal. Skin everywhere covered with small 
longitudinal elevations, like scales, imbedded in it. Free portion 
of the tail twice as long as high at its base. Colour blackish- 
brown, fins yellow with black bands; caudal blackish, with a yellow 



Hah. Punjab, N.W. Provinces, Bengal, and Behar. This species 
attains 5 or 6 inches in length. 

213. (6.) Glyptosternum striatnm. 

Glyptosternum striatum, McClelland, Calc. Jour. N. II. ii, p. 587 ; 
JUay, Fish. India, p. 498 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/11. V. 6. A. 11 (2/9). C. 15. 

Length of head 4f , of caudal 5, height of body 6 in the total 
length. Eyes situated in about the middle of the length of the 
head, the width of the interorbital space equal to one third of the 
length of the head. Head nearly as broad as long. Upper jaw 
the longer, the width of the gape of the mouth equals half the 
length of the head. Lips not fringed. Occipital process three 
times as long as wide at its base. Barbels the maxillary reach 
beyond the base of the pectoral fin. Fins dorsal higher than the 
body, its spine slender, half as long as the head and enveloped in 
skin ; length of the base of the adipose dorsal two thirds of that 
of the interspace between the two fins. Pectoral spine much 
stronger than that of the dorsal, with about twenty fine denticu- 
lations internally and striated along the under surface. Free 
portion of the tail twice as long as high at its base. Colour 
uniform brown. 

Hob. Khasi hills in Assam ; attaining at least 8| inches in 
length. 

214. (7.) Glyptosternum madraspatannm. 
Glyptostemum madraspatanum, Day, Jour. L. S. xi, p. 520 ; Fish. 
India, p. 498, pi. cxvi, fig. 4. 

B. vi. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 10-11 (2-3/8-9). C. 17. 
Length of head 5 to 5|, of caudal 4 to 4f, height of body 6| 
in the total length. Eyes small, situated in the middle or the 
commencement of the posterior half of the head, the distance 
between the eyes equals two sevenths of the length of the head. 
The greatest width of the head equals its length behind the front 
nostrils. Upper surface of the head rather rough, upper jaw the 
longer ; the width of the mouth equals two fifths of the length of 
the head ; lips not fringed. Occipital process very narrow, four 
times as long as wide at its base. Barbels the maxillary reach 
the base of the pectoral, the nasal two thirds to three fourths of 
the distance to the orbit ; the outer mandibular to the gill- 



SILUHID2E. 201 

openings, whilst the internal are a little shorter. Teeth generic. 
Fins dorsal spine rather strong, not enveloped in skin, serrated 
posteriorly, and in some specimens anteriorly in its upper third. 
It is as long as the head behind the angle of the mouth ; base of 
adipose rather longer than that of the rayed dorsal fin. Pectoral 
almost reaches the ventral, pectoral spine not plaited, moderately 
strong and three fourths as long as the head. Caudal peduncle 
half as high as long. Skin smooth. Colour yellowish, with 
dark bands; fins also yellow, with black bands. Air-bladder 
apparently absent. 

Hal. Bhavani river at the foot of the Nilgiri hills, where I 
obtained 16 specimens up to 5 inches in length. 

f 215. (8.) Glyptosternum. pectinoptemm. 

Glyptostemum pectinopterum, McClelland, Calc. Jour. N. H. ii, 
p. 587 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 499, pi. cxvi,fig. 6 (see synon.). 



hf Punjabi (at Chuniba) ; Nttng-grare, Punj. in Beas R., if small, 
Ktu/yar, if large ; No-woo, Punj. at Kangra. 

B.x. D. | 0. P. 1/8-9. V.6. A. 9-11 (J=|). C. 17. Vert. 15-17. 

Length of head 4| to 5, of caudal 5| to 6. height of body 6 in 
the total length. Eyes in the middle of the length of the head, 
the width of the interorbital space equals 3f in the length of the 
head. The width of the head nearly or quite equals its length. 
Upper jaw the longer, the width of the gape of the mouth 2| to 3 
in the length of the head. Lips not fringed. Occipital process 
three times as long as wide at its base. Barbels the maxillary 
extend nearly to the middle of the pectoral fin ; the nasal reach 
the orbit ; the outer mandibular to the base of the pectoral, whilst 
the inner are rather shorter. Teeth generic. Fins dorsal 
nearly as high as the body, the spine rather slender, and more 
than half as long as the head ; in many specimens up to three or 
four inches in length the soft termination of the spine is continuous 
with it, and on bending it appears as if there were numerous 
points anteriorly, this appearance is usually lost in the adult fish : 
base of the adipose dorsal rather longer than that of the rayed fin 
and equal to four fifths of the interspace between the two fins. 
Pectoral extends three fifths of the distance to the ventral; 
pectoral spine flattened, strong, as long as the head excluding the 
snout, and having coarse denticulations internally. The outer 
rays of the ventral and pectoral are plaited inferiorly; this 
appearance is usually lost in specimens preserved in spirit unless 
the alcohol was very strong at the commencement. Caudal 
peduncle one third to twice as long as high at its base. Adhesive 
apparatus well marked. Colour uniform brown, with a yellowish 
mark along the back ; fins yellow, stained with black. Air-bladder 
in two lateral portions, partially enclosed in bony capsules formed 
by a trumpet-shaped process from the anterior vertebra. 

Hal. Himalayas throughout the Punjab, and at Kangra, Simla, 
and Darjeeling. 



202 TELEOSTBI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

216. (9.) Glyptosternum cavia. 

Pimelodus cavia, Ham. Buch. Fish Ganges, pp. 188, 378. 
Glyptosternum cavia, Day, Fish. India, p. 499 (see synon.). 

Kanya tenggara, Hind. 

D. 1/6 [ 0. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 9 (3/6). C. 17. 

" It is flattened before, conical behind, and all its upper parts 
are scabrous from elevated spots." " Head very large, a good 
deal flattened, blunt, and covered above with bony plates, forming 
various ridges.'' Upper jaw the longer. Barbel? nasal very 
short, the maxillary as long as the head, the two mandibular pairs 
shorter. Teeth none 011 the palate. Fins dorsal spine blunt, 
rough, but not serrated on the anterior surface ; adipose fin small 
and rough ; pectoral spine serrated on both edges ; lower caudal 
lobe the longer. Colour " lurid, and the back is variegated with 
brown dots, collected into cloud-like marks, while the sides have a 
gloss like silver, changing into the hue of copper. The abdomen 
is of a dirty livid appearance. Across the tail are two transverse 
bars, and on the tail-fin a third, all of which have fewer clots than 
the adjacent parts. The eyes are white." 

Hab. Rivers of Northern Bengal, where this fish attains about 
6 inches in length. 

29. Genus EUGLYPTOSTERNUM, Bleeker. 

Syn. Aclyptostenon, Bleeker. 

Dorsal profile nearly horizontal; head covered with soft skin. 
Gill-openings rather wide ; the gill-membranes confluent with the 
skin of the isthmus, but with a free posterior margin. Mouth 
transverse, upper jaw the longer. Eyes small, subcutaneous. 
Nostrils close together, separated by a barbel. Barbels eight. 
Teeth villiform in the jaws and on the palate. Dorsal fin with a 
spine and six rays ; an adipose dorsal present. Pectorals hori- 
zontal, with an adhesive apparatus on the chest formed by 
longitudinal plaits of skin. Anal short (11 to 13 rays), not 
continuous with the caudal, which is forked. Ventrals situated 
behind the dorsal, and consisting of six rays. Air-bladder in two 
lateral portions, enclosed in bone. 

Geoyrapliiccd Distribution, lliver Coic near Aleppo, Upper 
Assam, and the Jumna river. 

217. (1.) Euglyptosternum lineatum. (Fig. 73.) 

Euglyptosternum lineatum, Day, Fish. India, p. 600, pi. cxvi, fig. 7. 

D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/10. V. 6. A. 12-13 (3/9-10). C. 17. 

Length of head 4, of caudal 5| to 6, height of body 6 to 7 in 

the total length. Eyes small, situated about 2 diameters behind 

or else in the middle of the length of the head, the width of the 

interorbital space one fourth of the length of the head. Head 



KTLTJBIDJB. 



203 



rather flattened, its greatest width equals its length behind the 
nostrils. Upper jaw the longer, the width of the gape of the 
mouth equals half the length of the head. Lips smooth. Occi- 
pital process three times as long as wide at its base. Barbels 
the nasal nearly reach to the orbit ; the maxillary pair are as long 
as the head, the outer mandibular reach the gill-opening, the inner 
are shorter. Teeth villiform in the jaws, and in one large patch 




Fig. IS.Eiifflypfostcrnum lineatnm. 

extending across the palate, and so closely approximating to the 
premaxillary teeth that they appear like a single large band. 
Adhesive apparatus on the thorax distinct. Fins the dorsal as 
high as the body; its spine strong, entire, and about half the 
length of the head; adipose dorsal of moderate height, the length 
of its base equalling that of the rayed fin, or half the interspace 
between the two fins. Pectoral spine very strong, smooth ex- 
ternally, denticulated internally with about 9 or 10 teeth, and 
reaching two thirds of the distance to the base of the ventral. 
Caudal deeply forked. Skin smooth. Caudal peduncle twice as long 
as high. Colour brown, with a narrow light band along the side. 
Hah. The Jumna river, and also near Sadiya in Upper Assam ; 
growing to 12-5 inches in length. 

30. Genus ERETHISTES*, MUller and Troschel. 
Syn. Hara, Blyth. 
Head osseous above, somewhat depressed. Mouth small, sub- 



* See P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 122, " On the identity of the Siluroid Genera 
rcthisteK and Hara," by Francis Day. 






204 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 



inferior ; besides the occipital and humero-cubital processes there is 
a strong scapular one, none of the processes are covered by skin. 
Gill-openings narrow, the membranes being confluent with the 
skin of the isthmus. Eyes small, without a free orbital edge. 
Nostrils close together, separated by a small barbel. Barbels 
eight, the maxillary with broad bases. Villiform teeth in the jaws ; 
palate edentulous. First dorsal fin arising slightly in front of the 
ventrals, having a serrated spine and- five or six branched rays : 
adipose dorsal present. Ventral with six rays. Pectoral with a 
serrated spine. Air-bladder not enclosed in bone. 

Geographical Distribution. From the Mahanadi river in the 
West to the Salween in British Burma. This genus extends inland 
to the Mor river at Beerbhoom in Bengal, to Assam (where in the 
Brahmaputra and waters in its vicinity the finest specimens are 
procured), and also as high as Mandalay in Upper Burma. It has 
been reported from Chusan by McClelland. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Blunt spiny ossicles in the skin. Serrations on 

outer edge of pectoral spine, directed alter- 
nately forwards and backwards. No elongate 

caudal ray 1. E. ham, p. 204. 

Skin tuberculate. Serrations on outer edge of 

pectoral spine directed backwards. Upper 

caudal ray elongate 2. E. conta, p. 205. 

Skin smooth. Serrations on outer edge of pectoral 

spine directed b.ickwards. Spine elongated. 

No prolonged caudal ray 3. E.jerdoni, p. 200. 

Skin tuberculate. Head 6| in the total length. 

Dorsal spine serrated on both edges. Both 

caudal lobes elongated 4. E. elongatns, p. 207. 

218. (1.) Erethistes hara. (Fig. 74.) 

Pimelodus Lara, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 190, 378. 

Erethistes hara, Day, Fish. India, p. 452, pi. cii, fig 1 (adult), fig. 2 

(half-grown) (see synon.). 
Nga-kyouk-pah, Burmese. 

D. 1/6 \ 0. P. 1/6. V. 6. A. 10-11 (3/7-8). C. 15. 

Length of head 4 to 4|, of caudal 5, height of body 4| to 5 in 
the total length. Eyes diameter about 10 in the length of head, 
situated in the commencement of the hind half of the head, 3 
diameters apart. The greatest width of the head equals its length, 
and one third or a fourth more than its height. Upper jaw 
slightly the longer, the width of the mouth equal to oue third of 
the length of the head. A semilunar subcutaneous bone surrounds 
the anterior and lower margins of the nasal orifices, which are close 
together but divided by a barbel. Median longitudinal groove on 
the head shallow and reaching to opposite the hind edge of the eye 
Occipital process from twice in the adult to about three times in 



SJLTTRIDJB. 205 

the young as long as it is wide at its base ; humero-cubital process 
elongated and rugose, having two rounded osseous projections 
posteriorly; between the humero-cubital and occipital processes 
is a third intermediate one, the scapular, directed somewhat down- 
wards ; the basal bone of the dorsal fin considerably dilated 
externally. Barbels the nasal short, the maxillary reach the base 
of the pectoral fin, the' mandibular arise on a transverse line, the 
external reach the gill-openings, whilst the internal are shorter. 
Teeth none on the palate. Fins dorsal spine stout, from three 
fourths to nearly as long as the head (in the adult comparatively 
longest, as is also the pectoral spine), serrated posteriorly, and 
sometimes rugose anteriorly ; length of the base of the adipose 
dorsal four sevenths of that of the rayed fin, and equal to the length 
of the interspace between the two fins : the adipose fin is one third 
longer than high. Pectoral spine from as long as, to one fourth 




Fig. 11. Erethistes hara. 

longer than, the head, strong, flattened, denticulated internally and 
serrated externally, each alternate tooth (in many, especially small 
specimens) being directed anteriorly or posteriorly ; the pectoral fin 
reaches the ventral, and the latter the anal, this last being highest 
anteriorly. Caudal forked. Skin covered with small, pointed 
elevations, which in the posterior part of the body are arranged in 
parallel lines, they are also seen on the cheeks. When the fish is 
captured the secretion from each of these orifices forms over it 
a rounded incrustation, causing the skin to appear tuberculated. 
Air-bladder large and not enclosed in bone. Colour yellowish 
brown, banded or blotched darker ; fins with black bands or mark- 
ings; all the barbels annulated with black. 

Jfab. Rivers and contiguous pieces of water, from Orissa, through 
Bengal, Assam, and Burma ; attaining at least 5| inches in length. 
Specimens from the Naga hills are more deeply coloured, and the 
under surface of the chest is covered with the orifices of numerous 
glands. 

219. (2.) Erethistes conta. 

Pimelodus conta, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 191, 378. 
Erethistes conta, Day, Fish. India, p. 453, pi. cii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Nga-that-to (Upper Burma) ; Nga-kouk-thwa (Ba&sein), Burmese. 



206 TELEOSTEI.- -PHYSOSTOMI. 

IX 1/6 | 0. P. 1/6. V.6. A. 11(3/8). C. 17. 

Length of head 5, of caudal 4|, height of body 4 iu the total 
length (excluding the filamentous prolongation of the upper lobe of 
the caudal fin). Eyes situated slightly behind the middle of the 
length of the head, diameter 8 in the length of the head, and 2| 
diameters apart. The greatest width of the head rather less than its 
length. Upper jaw slightly the longer, median longitudinal groove 
on the head rather deep and extending to the base of the occipital pro- 
cess, which latter is three times as long as wide at its base ; humero- 
cubital process elongated, rough, and with two rounded osseous 
projections posteriorly ; between the humero-cubital and occipital 
process is a third intermediate one, the scapular, directed some- 
what downwards ; basal bone of the dorsal fin not dilated externally. 
Barbels the nasal short, the maxillary as long as the head, the 
mandibular, which arise on a transverse line, shorter. Fins 
dorsal spine strong, nearly as long as the head, rugose anteriorly, 
denticulated posteriorly ; length of the base of the adipose dorsal 
equal to that of the first dorsal fin, or the interspace between the 
two fins ; the adipose fin is one third as high as long. Pectoral 
spine rather shorter than the head, denticulated internal!}', and 
with backwardly directed serrations externally. Caudal forked, 
its upper lobe having a filamentous prolongation. Skin covered 
with smooth tubercles, most of which are on a rounded base. 
Colour as in E. Jiara, except that the mandibular barbels do not 
appear ever to be annulated with black, and sometimes even the 
maxillary pair are destitute of colour. 

Hob. Eastern Bengal, Assam, Burma as far as the Tenasserim 
provinces, whence Major Berdmore sent 5 or 6 specimens to the 
Calcutta Museum. This species is found as high up the Irrawaddy 
as Prome, and I have also taken it at Bassein. 

220. (3.) Erethistes jerdoni. 

Kara jerdoni, Day, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 39. 

Erethistes jerdoni, Day, Fish. India, p. 453, pi. cii, tig. 3 (see synon.). 

D. 1/5 j 0. P. 1/6. V. 6. A. 10. C. 12. 

Length of head 3f, of caudal 6, height of body 4 in the total 
length. Eyes in the anterior half of the head, 3 diameters from 
end of snout. Head one half wider than high opposite the opercles. 
Median longitudinal groove extends nearly to the base of the 
occipital process, where it terminates in a small depression. Oc- 
cipital procees half longer than wide at its base ; cubito-humeral 
process of an elongated triangular shape, having two prominent 
ossicles posterior to it ; between these two processes is a third. 
Barbels the maxillary reach the gill-opening, the others are 
shorter. Fins dorsal spine half as long as the head, serrated 
posteriorly ; the length of the base of the adipose dorsal is two 
thirds of that of the rayed fin. Pectoral spine flattened and rather 
longer than the distance between the snout and the base of the 



207 

dorsal fin; when laid flat it reaches as far as the posterior end of 
the ventrals, it has 12 strong denticulations internally, 26 smaller 
ones, directed backwards, externally. All the caudal rays elongate, 
outer rays not produced. Skin smooth. Colour brownish, irre- 
gularly banded, barbels annulated with black. 

Hab. Sylhet district, growing to at least 1-5 inches in length. 



221. (4.) Erethistes elongatus. 

Hara elongata, Day, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 704. 

Erethistes elongata, Day, Fish. India, p. 453, pi. cii fig. 5. 

D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/6. Y. 6. A. 10 (3/7). C. 17. 

Length of head 6|, of caudal 4, height of body 7 in the total 
length^ Eyes small, situated in the posterior half of the head. 
Occipital process three times as long as it is wide at its base. The 
scapular and cubito-humeral processes well developed, the last 
having an oval ossicle posterior to it. Fins dorsal spine stout, 
as long as the head, anteriorly strongly denticulated, the teeth 
being directed downwards, also slightly serrated posteriorly. 
Pectoral spine one fourth longer than that of the dorsal and 
serrated on both edges, most strongly internally. Yentral ex- 
tending two thirds of the distance to the anal ; caudal deeply 
forked, its outer rays being prolonged. Skin covered with 
tubular pores. Colour brownish, banded with darker; fins yellow 
with black bands. 

Hab. Naga Hills, whence a single specimen was procured. 



31. Genus GAGATA, Bleeker. 
Syn. Batasio, pt., Blyth ; Callomystcuv, Giinther. 

Branchiostegals five to seven. Gill-openings rather narrow, the 
gill-membranes being confluent with the skin of the isthmus. 
Thorax smooth. Upper surface of the head with sharp longitu- 
dinal ridges, and covered by thin skin. Eyes subcutaneous. 
Snout overhanging the mouth. Nostrils close together, the 
anterior rounded, the posterior provided with a valve and usually 
with a barbel. Barbels eight, one pair nasal (sometimes rudi- 
mentary), one maxillary, and two mandibular pairs arising on a 
transverse line behind the chin, and usually with stiff bases. 
Yilliform teeth in jaws ; palate edentulous. First dorsal with one 
spine and six or seven rays ; adipose of moderate length. Pectoral 
spine strong. Yeutral with six rays and situated farther back 
than the dorsal fin. Anal with a moderate (11-16) number of 
rays. Caudal forked. Air-bladder in two rounded portions, each 
of which is enclosed in an osseous cup. 

Geographical Distribution. Itivers of Hind, India (except Madras), 
and Burma. 






208 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. {, A. 14-16. Six barbels and a rudimentary 

nasal pair. Copper coloured, with dark 

blotches and banded fins in the young ; dull 

grey, with black fins in the adult 1. G. cenia, p. 208. 

D. i, A. 12-14. Eight barbels. Copper 

coloured with dark blotches 2. G. itchkeea, p. 209. 

D. 4, A. 1C. Eight barbels. Body with two 

dotted stripes 3. G. batasio, p. 209. 

D. }, A. 14. Eight barbels. A dark blotch 

above the pectoral fin, another on the crown 

of the head. Dorsal and caudal dotted, 

edges nearly black 4. G. tenyana, p. 210. 

222. (1.) Gagata cenia. (Fig. 75.) 

Pirnelodus gagata, Ham. Buck . Fish . Ganges, pp. 197, 379, pi. 39, fig. G5. 

Pimelodus cenia, Ham. Buck. 1. c. p. 174, pi. 31, fig. 57. 

Gagata cenia, Day, Fish. India, p. 492, pi. cxv, tigs. 4 (adult), 5 

(young) (see synoii.). 

Junyla, Bengali ; Cenia, Sind ; Nga-nan-jouny ', Burmese ; Puttah 
chettah, Ooriah. 

B. v-vi. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 14-10 (3-4/11-12). C. 19. 
Length of head 4| to 5, of caudal 4| to 5, height of body 5 to 7 
in the total length. Eyes diameter 4 to 4| in the length of 
head (3 in the young), 1 to 1| diameters from the end of snout, 
and 1 apart. Head one fourth higher than wide ; snout some- 




Fig. 75. (j ay 'at a cenia. 

what compressed, overhanging the mouth. The median longitu- 
dinal groove on the head deep, and extending to the posterior end 
of the occipital process, which is narrow and almost touches the 
basal bone of the dorsal fin. Barbels nasal rudimentary ; the 
maxillary pair reach to the base of the pectoral spine, or a little 
more ; the two mandibular pairs arise on a transverse line across 
the chin, the outer are half as long as the head. Fins the dorsal 
higher than the body, its first two rays being the longest, spine 
moderately strong, as long as, to one fourth longer than, the head ; 
it is serrated anteriorly in its upper fourth in the young. Pectoral 
reaches to above the ventral ; the spine is stronger, longer or 



209 

shorter than that of the dorsal, strongly denticulated internally, 
serrated externally in its outer fourth. Base of the adipose dorsal 
as long as that of the rayed tin. Air-bladder in two lateral portions, 
enclosed in bony capsules. Colour dull grey, the outer two 
thirds of the pectoral, the outer halves of both dorsals, ventral and 
anal black ; caudal whitish. The young are of a yellowish-bronze 
colour, becoming silvery on the abdomen; they have three dark 
bands over the head, and four more over the back, descending as 
low as the lateral line. Caudal with a semilunar black band, or a 
black blotch on each lobe ; a dark mark across the dorsal fin. 

Uab. Eivers of Bengal and Orissa, the Jumna, Ganges, and 
Indus, also Burma; attaining a foot in length. 

223. (2.) Gagata itchkeea. 

Phractocephalus itchkeea, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 373, t. 67, fig. 1. 
Gagata itchkeea, Day, Fish. India, p. 492, pi. cxv, fig. 6 (see 
synon.). 

D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 12-14 (3-4/9-10). 0. 19. 

Length of head 5, of caudal fin 4J, height of body 6 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 in the length of head, 1 diameter from 
the end of snout, and the same apart. Snout overhanging the 
mouth. Median longitudinal groove on the head reaching to the 
base of the occipital process ; a lateral process proceeds from the 
occiput, curving rather outwards and downwards ; the process at 
the shoulder pointed, and as long as the head excluding the snout. 
Barbels the nasal reach to the front third of the eye, the maxil- 
lary to the middle of the pectoral spine, whilst the two mandibular 
pairs (which arise on a transverse line behind the lower lip) are 
longer than the head. Teeth villiform in jaws; none on the 
palate. Fins dorsal spine smooth, as long as the head posterior 
to the nostrils ; pectoral spine equally long and denticulated inter- 
nally. Air-bladder in a lobe on either side, bounded superiorly 
and partly laterally by the auditory ossicles. Colour yellowish 
bronze, becoming silvery on the sides and abdomen ; some dark 
blotches along the back descending to halfway down the sides. 
A black blotch on either lobe of the caudal, and another on the 
dorsal fin. 

Hob. Eivers of the Deccan. This appears to be a small species. 



224. (3.) Gagata batasio. 

Pimelodus batasio, Ham. Buch. Fish. Gani/es, pp. 179, 377. 
Gagata batasio, Day, Fish. India, p. 493, pi. xcix, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

D. 1/7 | 0. P. I/?. V. 6. A. 16. C. 20. 
Head small, as is also the mouth. Eyes small and high up. 
Barbels eight, shorter than the head. Fins dorsal spine strong, 



210 TELEOSTEI. PHT.8OSTOMI. 

entire; pectoral spine strong and serrated internally; caudal 
lobed. Colour body diaphanous, having along either side two 
stripes spotted with black. 

Judging from the mandibular barbels and general structure of 
this fish, it would appear to be a Gagata, whilst it is observed 
" there is no slit under the throat." 

Hab. Eiver Teesta : attaining 3 inches in length. 

225. (4.) Gagata tengana. 

Pimelodus tengana, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 176, 377, pi. xxxix, 

fig. 58. 
Gagata tengana, Day, Fish. India, p. 493 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 1/7 | 0. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 14 (4/10). C. 15. 

Length of head 4, of caudal fin 4, and height of body 4 in the 
total length. Eyes of moderate size, situated nearer to the snout 
than to the posterior end of the opercle. Back rather prominent. 
Width of the head equal to its height, or to its length excluding 
the snout. Mouth small, upper jaw slightly the longer. Median 
longitudinal groove on the head lanceolate and extending to the 
base of the occipital process, which is twice as long as it is wide at 
the base, and reaches the basal bone of the dorsal fin. Barbels 
the nasal reach the hind edge of the orbit, and all the remainder 
are shorter than the head. Fins the first dorsal cut obliquely, 
its spine smooth. Pectoral spine serrated internally. Colour 
body diaphanous, having a gloss of gold on the sides. On the back 
are many black dots which are collected into a blotch above the 
pectoral fin, and another blotch exists on the crown of the head. 
Dorsal and caudal fins dotted, edges nearly black. 

This fish, which is found in Assam, agrees with O. cenia except 
that the nasal barbels are described and shown as being much 
longer, and the colour differs. 

Hab. Brahmaputra river ; attaining to about 3 inches in length. 



32. Genus NANGEA, Day. 

Branchiostegals five or six. Grill-openings rather wide, and not 
adherent or only slightly adherent to the skin of the isthmus. 
Thorax smooth. Upper surface of the head with sharp longitu- 
dinal ridges and covered by thin skin. Eyes subcutaneous. Snout 
overhanging the mouth, which is transverse. Nostrils close to- 
gether, the anterior rounded, the posterior with a barbel. Barbels 
eight one pair nasal (which may be rudimentary), one maxillary 
and two mandibular pairs, the inner of which last are anterior to 
the external pair. Villiform teeth in jaws ; palate edentulous. 
First dorsal fin with one spine and six to eight rays ; adipose of 
moderate length. A pectoral spine. Ventral with six rays situ- 
ated farther back than the dorsal. Anal with a moderate number 



211 

of rays (10-12). Caudal forked. Air-bladder in two rounded 
portions each of which is enclosed in bone. 

Geographical Distribution. Small fishes found in the Indus, 
Jumna, Ganges, and Bengal rivers. 

This genus differs from Gagata in its barbels not being placed 
in a transverse line behind the chin ; and in its gill-membranes 
not being confluent with a broad isthmus but rather deeply notched. 
It is allied in some respects to Macrones, but has no teeth on the 
palate, whilst its air-bladder is enclosed in bone. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. , A. 10-11. Muddy colour 1. N. buchanani, p. 211. 

D. i, A. 11-12. Coppery, glossed with gold 

and; having black blotches 2. N. punctata, p. 212. 

D. I, A. 11. Two greenish bands descend 

from the back 3. 2V. viridescens, p. 212. 

226. (1.) Nangra buchanani. 

Pimelodus nangra, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 193, 378, pi. xi, 

tig. 63. 
Naugra buchanani, Day, Fish. India, p. 494, pi. cxiii, fig. 3 (see 

synon.). 

D. 1/8 | 0. P. 1/9. V. 6. A. 10-11 (2-3/8-9). C. 17. 

Length of head and caudal fin from 4| to 5, height of body 6 in 
the total length. Eyes rather high up, in the anterior half of 
the head and covered with skin, 1| diameters from the end of 
snout. The greatest width of the head equals its length excluding 
the snout. Upper jaw considerably the longer, snout rather de- 
pressed, mouth wide. Median longitudinal groove deep, ex- 
tending to the occipital process up which it is continued; the 
occipital process three times longer than wide at its base and 
extending to the basal bone of the dorsal fin. Barbels the nasal 
longer than the head, the maxillary reach the vent, or even the end 
of the anal fin, the outer maudibular the base of the ventral 
and the inner (which arise farther forward than the outer pair) 
the base of the pectoral. Teeth none on the palate. Fins 
dorsal spine weak and entire, half as long as the head in the 
very young, longer in larger specimens ; the length of the base of 
the adipose dorsal equals that of the anal, or the interspace 
between the commencement of the adipose and the end of the base 
of the rayed fin; pectoral spine moderately strong, with nine 
coarse denticulations internally, and as long as the head without 
the snout ; caudal deeply forked, lobes of equal length and pointed. 
Air-bladder in two oval portions, each of which is enclosed in a 
thin bony capsule which has a round orifice on the outer side. 
Colour muddy, with three indistinct vertical greenish half- 
bands. 

Uab. Ganges, Jumna, and ludus ; attaining two inches in length. 

p2 



212 TELEOSTEJ. PHYSOSTOJII. 

227. (2.) Nangra punctata. (Fig. 7(5.) 
Nangra punctata, Day, Fish. India, p. 494, pi. cxv, fig. 8. 
B. v. D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 11-12 (3-4/8). C. 18. 
Length of head 4, of caudal 5|, height of body (>| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4| in the length of head, 1 diameters 
from the end of snout, and 1^ apart. The greatest width of the 
head is equal to its length behind the angle of the mouth. Snout 
compressed, overhanging the mouth, which is transverse. Gill- 




Fig. 76. Nangra punctata. 

openings rather wide, the skin not confluent with that of the 
isthmus. The median longitudinal groove on the head deep, with 
raised sides, extending to the base of occipital process, which is 
four times as long as wide, and almost reaches the basal bone. 
Osseous processes from back of skull and above base of pectoral 
tin well developed. Barbels the maxillary reach the base of the 
pectoral spine ; the mandibular are shorter than the head, the 
internal pair placed anterior to the external pair. The nasal 
pair are rudimentary or wanting Teeth those in the upper jaw 
placed in front of those in the lower jaw. Fins dorsal spine 
strong, smooth, half as long as the head. Pectoral spine very 
strong, as long as the head behind the angle of the mouth, and 
with about twelve denticulations internally ; it is roughened in its 
lower half externally. Colour coppery, glossed with gold on the 
sides ; a black blotch on the occiput, and three or four along the 
back descending halfway down the sides. A black band on the 
dorsal, and some black markings on the caudal. 

This fish in appearance is very similar to the young of Gagata 
cenia, but may be at once recognized by the position of the barbels 
and the broader head. 

Uab. The Sone river at Beerbhoom, in Bengal. 

228. (3.) Nangra viridescens. 

Pimelodus viridescens, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 173, 377 

pi. xi, fig. 66. 
Nangra viridescens, Day, Fish. India, p. 494, pi. cxv, fig. 7 (see 

synon.). 
Huddah, Hind. 

D. 1/6 | 0. P. 1/8. V. 6. A. 11 (2/9). C. 21. 
Length of head 4 to 4|, of caudal 5, height of body 6 in the 



CYPKINID.E. 213 

total length. Eyes diameter 4 in the length of the head, ] 
diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. The greatest width 
of the head equals its length behind the angle of the mouth. 
Snout overhanging the mouth, which is transverse. Gill-openings 
wide, the membranes being notched. Median longitudinal groove 
on the head deep, having raised edges, and reaching the base of the 
occipital process, which latter is three times as long as wide, and 
does not quite reach the basal bone. Osseous processes from 
occiput and over base of pectoral fin well developed. Barbels 
the maxillary reach the root of the pectoral spine ; the inner 
maudibular pair are anterior to the external pair. Teeth none 
on the palate. Fins dorsal spine strong, smooth, and half as long 
as the head. Pectoral spine strong, externally rough in its lower 
half, denticulated internally. Colour glossy gr"eehieh brown on 
the batk, with two very light green bands, passing one from the 
base of each dorsal fin to the middle of the depth of the body. A 
dark band on the dorsal fin, and spots on either lobe of the caudal. 
JJab. Rivers of Northern Bengal, not uncommon in the Jumna 
at Delhi, and also found at Poona'in the Deccan. 



Family IV. CYPRINID^. 

Branchiostegals three ; pseudobranchise generally present. Body 
oblong or elongate ; abdomen usually rounded, but, if compressed 
and cutting, destitute of ossicles. Margin of the upper jaw 
formed by the premaxillaries. Opercles in four pieces. Mouth 
toothless, but from one to three rows of teeth in the inferior 
pharyngeal bones, which latter are strong, free, and parallel to the 
branchial arches. A single, rayed dorsal fin. Head scaleless; 
body scaled or scaleless, never covered by osseous plates. No 
" cul-de-sac " to the stomach, nor pyloric appendages. Air-bladder, 
if present, large > it may be divided into two lateral portions 
partially or entirely enclosed in a bony capsule (Cobitidince) ; or 
by a constriction into an anterior and posterior portion, neither of 
which is enclosed by bone (Cyprinintx). 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh- waters of the Old World and 
North America. 

Carps (Cyprinidce) are well represented in the fresh waters and 
estuaries of India, Ceylon, and Burma, as they and the Siluridce 
compose the great mass of fish residing there, especially if we omit 
the migratory Clupeidce. "Wh'ereas Siluroids, as a rule, appear to 
prefer muddy water, carps thrive best in those which are clear ; still 
many species of this family obtain their subsistence in dirty waters, 
for which purpose their barbels may prove of considerable assistance. 
There are few members of this family which are such foul feeders 
as the Siluroids, consequently carps may be deemed more whole- 
some and would be greatly preferable as food were it not for the 



214 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 






numerous bones with which they are provided. Natives, however, 
do not seem to object much to this, and as these fish are very 
abundant in places, they enter largely into the diet of the 
indigenous population. 

Indian carps do not appear to restrict themselves so much to a 
vegetable diet as do those in Europe. Those which prey upon 
their neighbours, as might be anticipated, are largely represented ; 
whilst those small forms that were apparently produced to be 
preyed upon are the most prolific. 

Synopsis of Indian Subfamilies. 

Air-bladder enclosed partially or entirely in a bony 

capsule Cobitidina;. 

Air-bladder not enclosed in bone, and sometimes 

absent Cyprinince. 



A. Subfamily COBITIDINA. 

Pseudobranchire absent. Body elongate, oblong, compressed, or 
cylindrical, but never depressed. Snout and lips fleshy. Mouth 
small, inferior, and furnished with from six to twelve barbels. 
Pbaryngeal teeth few, and in one row. Vertical fins spineless. 
Dorsal fin with a varying number of rays (8-30) ; anal with few 
(7-8) ; ventrals present or absent. Scales small and cycloid when 
present, and usually immersed in mucus ; rarely present on the 
head*. Lateral line single. Air-bladder entirely or partially 
enclosed in a bony capsule. 

Geographical Distribution. Loaches are found in tanks and rivers 
throughout the hills and plains of India and Burma, but apparently 
are absent from the Andaman Islands. These fish are mostly 
taken by baling out tanks commencing to dry up, but as they move 
about in the mud, they are usually difficult to capture. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

A. An erectile spine near the orbit. 

Barbels 6 to 8 ; 4 rostral, 2 maxillary, and 
sometimes 2 mandibular. Spine 
euborbital. Dorsal fin (10 to 15 
rays) commencing before the ven- 
tral ; caudal forked 1. BOTIA. 

Barbels 8; 2 maudibular. Spine before 
the orbit. Dorsal fin (12 rays) oppo- 
site the ventrals ; caudal forked .... 2. ACANTHOPSIS. 



* Lepidoccphalichthys has scales upon its sub- and post-orbital regions, us 
well as on the upper portion of the opercles. 



CYPBINID-E. COBITIDIN^I. 215 

Barbels 6 ; none on mandibles. Eyes pro- 
minent. Spine suborbital. Dorsal 
fin (10 rays) commences slightly 
behind the ventrals ; caudal entire . . 3. SOMILEPTES. 

Barbels 8 or more ; 4 rostral, 2 maxillary, 
the rest mandibular. Spine sub- 
orbital. Dorsal h'n short, commenc- 
ing nearly opposite the ventrals; 
caudal entire or slightly emarginate. 
Scales on the head 4. LEPIDOCEPHALIOHTHYS. 

Barbels 0; 1 rostral and 2 maxillary 
pairs. Spine suborbital. Dorsal fin 
short, in the last third of the body, 
but before the anal; ventrals present. 5. ACANTHOPHTHALMUS. 

Barbels 8 ; 1 rostral, 2 maxillary, and 1 
mandibular pairs. Spine suborbital. 
Dorsal fin short (8 rays'), in the last 
third of the body, but before the 
anal ; no ventrals 6. APUA. 

Barbels 8, 2 being mandibular. Spine 
suborbital. Dorsal fin long (30 rays), 
commencing before the ventral .... 7. JEBDONIA. 

B. No erectile spine near the orbit. 

Barbels 6 ; 2 pairs rostral, 1 maxillary. 

Snout elongate. Eyes elevated. 

Dorsal fin of moderate length (13 

rays), above the ventrals; caudal 

forked 8. NEMACHILICHTHYS. 

Barbels ; 2 pairs rostral, 1 maxillary. 

Dorsal of moderate length or short 

(8 to 17 rays), commencing opposite 

the ventrals . . . . 9. NEMACHiLrs. 



1. Genus BOTIA, Gray. 

Syn. Hymenophysa and Schistura, McClelland ; Diacanthw, Swainson ; 
Syncrossus, Blyth. 

Body oblong, compressed, with the dorsal profile more or less 
elevated. Eye with a free, circular eyelid. Barbels six to eight ; 
four on the snout united at their bases, two on the upper jaw ; 
when there are eight the extra pair are on the mandibles. A bifid, 
erectile, suborbital spine present. Dorsal fin commencing before 
the root of the ventral ; caudal forked. No scales on the head. Air- 
bladder in two divisions, the anterior partially enclosed in a bony 
capsule, whilst the posterior portion is free in the abdominal cavity. 

Geographical Distribution. Found throughout the valley of the 
Ganges, the Sind hills, the Himalayas, Assam, and Burma to the 
Malay Archipelago. 



216 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 15. A. 7. Barbels 6 . 1. B. nebulosa, p. 216. 

1). 12-13. A. 7-8. Barbels 8 2. B. dario, p. 216. 

I). 12. A. 7. Barbels 8 3. B. geto, p. 21G. 

1). 1 1-12. A. 7-8. Barbels 8 4. B. almorhec, p. 217. 

I . 1 :5-ir>. A. 7. Barbels 8 5. B. btrdmorei, p. 217. 

L>. 10. A. 7. Barbels 8 0. B. histrionica, p. 218. 



229. (1.) Botia nebulosa. 

Botia nebulosa, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 165; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 606 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 15 (3/12). P. 13. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 

Length of head 5, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 in the total 
length. Eyes in middle of length of head, 2 diameters from end 
of snout and the same apart. Barbels two rostral pairs extending 
to the anterior margin of the orbit; the maxillary are slightly 
longer. Fins caudal lobes slightly rounded. Scales small. 
Colour brownish, with a leaden band along the side. Dorsal and 
caudal barred in spots. An ocellus at the upper margin of the 
base of the caudal fin. 

Hab. Darjeeling. 

230. (2.) Botia dario. 

Cobitis dario, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 354, 394, pi. xxix, fig. 95. 
Botia dario, Day, Fish. India, p. 60(3, pi. cliv, fig. 1 (see syuon.). 

Sahinga, Punj. ; Bucktea, Hind. 

B. iii. D. 12-13 (3/9-10). P. 14. V. 8. A. 7-8 (2/5-6). C. 1.9. 

Length of head 4| to 5, of caudal fin 5, height of body 4 to 5 in 
the total length. Eyes in about the middle of length of head, 
5 diameters in the length of the head, 2 to 2| diameters from the 
end of snout, and 2 apart. Suborbital spine reaching to ,below 
the hind edge of the eye. Barbels eight. Scales very in- 
distinct. Colour seven or eight oblique bands descend from the 
back to the abdomen, and two or three, or even more, cross the 
lobes of the caudal fin. 

Hab. Bengal, N.W. Provinces, Assam, and Cachar. 



231. (3.) Botia geto. (Fig. 77.) 

Cobitis geto, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 355, 394, pi. xi, fig. 96. 
Botia geto, Day, Fish. India, p. 606, pi. cliv, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Shec-nharo, Sind. 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 14. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
Length of head 5j, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 to 5^ in the 
total length. Eyes diameter 7 in the length of head, 4 diameters 






CYPBINID.E. COBITIDIN^:. 21 

from end of snout. Barrels eight. Fins the cnudal has sharp 
lobes. Colour body in the adult with irregular and partly 




Fig. 11. Botia gcto. 

confluent brown cross bands, which enclose variously sized round 
yellowish or bluish spots. Ventral fin with two, the other fins 
and each lobe of the caudal with three black cross bands. In 
the youncj the bands on the body form arches, four or live in 
number, passing over a dark vertical band or mark. 

Hah. From Sind, through the Punjab, Himalayas, valley of the 
Ganges, Jumna, and Sone rivers to Assam. 

232. (4.) Botia almorhae. 

Botia almorhae, Gray, Zool. Misc. -1831, p. 8; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 607, pi. cliv, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

B.iii. D. 11-12(2/9-10). P. 14. V. 8. A. 7-8 (2/5-6). C. 19. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 to 5 in the 
total length. Eyes rather behind the middle of the length of the 
head. Barbels eight. Colour body reticulated with grey oh a 
yellow ground; fins yellow; the dorsal, pectoral, and anal with 
four transverse dark bands, the pectoral and each caudal lobe with 
five. Sometimes examples are vertically banded, each band being 
reticulated. 

Hob. Kashmir, Almora, and Khasi hills; attaining 6 inches 
in length. 



233. (5.) Botia berdmorei. 

860, . 166. 

(see 



Syiicrossus berdmorei, Blyth, J. A. S. E. xxix, 1860, p. 166. 
Botia berdmorei, Day, Fish. India, p. 607, pi. cliv, fig. 3 



synon.). 
Nga-tha-lay-doh and Shoay-zagay, Burmese. 

B. iii. D. 13-15(2/11-13). P. 13. V. 8. A. 7(2/5). C. 17. 
Length of head 4| to 5, of caudal fin 5, height of body 5 to 5| in 
the total length. Eyes in about the middle of the length of the 
head. Barbels eight, the four rostral united at the base. Colour 
buff, with 10 or 11 vertical darkish bands, extending from the back 



218 TELEOSTEI. PIT YSO8TOMI. 

to the abdomen. Head likewise banded, and a dark line from the 
eye to the snout. Numerous oblong blotches over the body, 
sometimes commencing opposite the orbit and ceasing about the 
end of the pectoral fin, in other examples continued all over the 
body. Dorsal fin with three or four rows of spots, and some- 
times a large one at the base of the last three or four rays ; caudal 
with five or six ; anal with two. 

Hdb, The Irrawaddy river in Burma, and waters in its vicinity, 
certainly as high as Mandalay ; also Tenasserim. 

234. (6.) Botia Mstrionica. 

Botia histrionica, Blyth, J. A. S. . xxix, 1800, p. 106 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 007, pi. cliv, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10(2/8). P. 15. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5, of caudal fin 5, height of body 4| in the total 
length. Eyes small, diameter one sixth of length of head, 2^ 
diameters from end of snout, 2 diameters apart. Barbels eight. 
Fins caudal deeply forked. Colour olive, with five dark vertical 
bands on the body, and two on the head. All the fins with two 
broad brown bars. 

Hob. Burma. 

2. Genus ACANTHOPSIS, v. Hasselt. 
Syn. Prostheacanthus, Blyth. 

Body very elongate, snout long and compressed. Barbels 
eight, two being mandibular. A small, bifid, erectile spine, 
situated in advance of the orbit. Dorsal fin opposite to the 
ventrals ; caudal forked. 

Geographical Distribution. Burma to the Malay Archipelago. 

235. (1.) Acanthopsis chcerorhynclras. (Fig. 78.) 

Cobitis choirorhynchos, Sleeker, Batavia, Nat. Tijdsch. vii, p. 95. 
Acanthopsis choirorrhynchus, Day, Fish. India, p. 608, pi. civ, 

fig. 1 (see synon.). 
Naa-tha-lay-doh, Burmese. 

B. iii. D. 11 (2/9). P. 11. V. 7. A. 8(3/5). C. 11. 
Length of head 5, of caudal 6, height of body 9 in the total 







Fig. 78. Acanthopsis chcerorhynchus. 

length. Eyes diameter one sixth of the length of head, 4 dia- 
meters from the end of snout. Barbels eight, all short. Fins 



CYPRINID.E. COBITIDIN^!. 219 

dorsal commences slightly in advance of the ventral. Caudal 
lobed, the lower slightly the longer. Colout brownish, with 12 
bands across the back, and the same number of blotches along the 
lateral line; two rows of blotches along the dorsal, and three 
across the anal fin. 

Hob. Burma, and the eastern portion of Sumatra. Col. Tickell 
says it attains a foot in length in the hill-streams of Burma. 



3. Genus SOMILEPTES (Swainson), Bleeker. 

Body elongate and compressed, dorsal profile nearly horizontal ; 
snout elongate. Eyes prominent. Six barbels four on the 
snout, and two on the upper jaw. A small erectile, bifid, sub- 
orbital ^pine. Dorsal fin inserted slightly behind the ventral ; 
caudal entire. 

Geographical Distribution. From 'Orissa through Bengal to Assam . 

236. (1.) Somileptes gongota. (Fig. 79.) 

Cobitis gongota, Ham. Buch. Fish. Gang. pp. 351, 394. 
Somileptes gongota, Day, Fish. India, p. 608, pi. civ, fig. 2 (see 
synon.). 

Assam. 



B. iii. D. 10(2/8). P, 10. V. 7. A. 7(2/5). C. 16. 

Length of head 5| in the total length. Eyes rather behind 

the middle of the length of the head. Snout with its upper edge 

rather concave, it and the rest of the head covered with tine warty 

excrescences. Barbels rather short, extending nearly halfway to 




Fig. 79. Somileptes gongota. 

below the eyes. Fins caudal entire. Colour an undulating 
band along the side of the body, giving off vertical bars towards 
the back, or else oblique blotches with light edges descending from 
the back or placed irregularly on the body. Dorsal and caudal 
fins with transverse rows of blackish dots. 
Hob. Beerbhoom, Assam, and Khasi hills. 



L'1_ J (I TKLKOSTK1. PHYSOSTOMJ. 

4. Genus LEPIDOCEPHALICHTHYS, Bleeker. 
Syn. Platacanthus, Day ; Misgurnus, sp., Giinther. 

Body elongate and moderately compressed, back not elevated. 
Six or eight barbels, four of which belong to the mandibles. A 
large, erectile, bifid, suborbital spine. The sub- and post-orbital 
regions, and also the upper part of the opercle scaled. Dorsal fin 
short, commencing opposite, or nearly so, to the ventral ; the 
internal ray of the pectoral fin may be modified into a flat osseous 
spine; caudal truncate or slightly emarginate. 

This genus is separated from CoUtis not only by the mandibular 
flap being provided with barbels, but also by the existence of scales 
on the head, in the sub- arid post-opercular regions. * 

Geographical Distribution. India, Burma, Ceylon r and the Malay 
Archipelago. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

25 to 30 rows of scales between the base 

of the anal fin and back 1. L. guntea, p. 220. 

30 to 40 rows of scales between base of anal 

fin and back 2. L. (hennalis, p. 221. 

About 40 rows of scales between base of anal 

fin and back 3. L. berdmorci, p. 221. 



237. (1.) Lepidocephalichtliys gnntea. (Fig. 80.) 

Cobitis guntea, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 353, 394. 
Lepidocephalichthys guntea, Day, Fish. India, p. (50U, pi. civ, fig. 4 

(see synon.). 
Kondaturi and Jupkari, Ooriah. 

B. iii. D. 8-9 (2/6-7). P. 8. V.7-8. A. 7 (2/5). C.16. L.I. ca. 115. 

Length of head 6| to 6|, height of body 5| to 6| in the total 

length. Eyes diameter one fifth of length of head, 1| diameters 




Fig. 80. Lepidoccphaliehthys guntea. 

from end of snout, and 1 diameter apart. Barbels two rosfral 
and one maxillary pair, all longer than -the orbit. Fins caudal 



. COBITIDIX.H. 221 

generally entire, its median , rays, however, may be somewhat 
shortened or even lengthened. Inner pectoral ray sometimes 
modified into a flat spine having a branched termination. Scales 
25 to 30 rows between the base of the anal fin and the back. 
Colour generally dirty yellowish, with a light band extending 
from the centre of the snout, and ending in a black ocellus above 
the middle of the base of the caudal fin ; below this band are a 
series of dark blotches festooned interiorly, whilst the back is simi- 
larly marked. Dorsal and caudal with numerous rows of dark 
spots, but only about four on the caudal in Deccan examples, aud 
often two rows on the anal fin. 

The variety, L. balgara (Fishes of India, pi. clvi, fig. 12), 
(Jubbi cowri, Ooriah), closely resembles the above, but has its body 
a little more elongated, and its caudal fin is sometimes cut rather 
more square ; in a few examples the ventral fin is slightly in 
advance of the dorsal, but not so in others. 

Hab. Punjab, throughout India (except Mysore and south of 
the Kistna, and also the Malabar coast). I have specimens from 
Darjeeling, and several localities on the Himalayas. 



238. (2.) Lepidocephalichthys thermalis. 

Cobitis thermalis, Cuv. $ Val. H. N. Poiss. xviii, p. 78. 
Lepidocephalichthys thermalis, Day, Fish. India, p. 010, pi. civ, 

ng. 3 (see synon.). 

Assaree, Tarn. ; Jubbi coiori, Ooriah ; Bdlu, Hind. ; Chickani and 
Mtira, Marathi. 

B. iii. D. 8 (2/6). P. 7. Y. 7. A. 7 (2/5). C. 16. 

Length of head 5| in the total length. Eyes almost entirely 
in the anterior half of the head. Barbels eight, the longest ex- 
tending to below the anterior margin of the orbit. Fins caudal 
slightly emarginate. The inner pectoral ray is modified in some 
adult males into a flat osseous spine which is used for diving down 
into the mud. Scales distinct, about 30 rows between the base 
of the anal fin and the- back. Colour sandy, with irregular 
blotches on the lateral line, and others along the back ; a black 
spot generally exists at the base of the upper half of the caudal fin. 
Dorsal fin with black spots or bars, caudal with four bands. A 
dark streak often extends from the eye to the end of the snout. 

Hub. Southern India, the Malabar coast, the Wynaad, and 
Ceylon. 



239. (3.) Lepidocephalichthys berdmorei. 

Acanthopsis berdmorei, Blyth, J. A. S. li. xxix, 1860, p. 168. 
Lepidocephalichthys berdmorei, Day, Fish. India, p. 610, pi. cliii, 

li#. -'5 (see pynon.), 
Xya-tha-lay-doh, Burmese. 



222 TELKOSTKI. I'll YSOSTOMJ. 

B.iii. D. 8(2/6). P. 10. V. 8. A. 7-8 (2/5-6). C. 17. 

Length of head 6 to 6| in the total length. Eyes situated just 
before the middle of the length of head. Barbels two pairs of 
rostral and a maxillary pair extending to below the hind edge of 
the orbit. Fins the caudal is slightly emarginate. The pectoral 
does not reach quite halfway to the ventral. Scales small, about 
40 rows between the anal fin and the back ; several rows (about 
12) along the suborbital ring of bones. Colour of a rich yellow- 
ish brown, with a dark line along the body composed of spots, 
upper surface of body covered with fine markings ; a black spot at 
the base of the caudal fin. Dorsal and caudal fins lineated with 
tine spots ; some also on the outer portions of pectoral, ventral, 
and anal. 

Hib. Moulmein in Burma, where it is common. 



5. Genus ACANTHOPHTHALMUS, v. Hasselt. 
Syn. Panyio, Blyth. 

Body elongate and strongly compressed. An erectile, bifid, 
suborbital spine. Six barbels, one rostral and two maxillary pairs. 
Dorsal fin situated in the posterior third of the body, anterior to 
the anal, buir posterior to the ventrals. 

240. (1.) Acanthophthalmus pangia. (Fig. 81.) 

Cobitis pangia, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganyes, pp. 355, 394. 
Acanthophthalmus pangia, Day, Fish. India, p. 010, pi. civ, fig. o 
(see syuon.). 

Panyya, Beng. ; Nga-tha-lay-doh, Burmese. 

.B. iii. D. 8 (2/6). P. 10. V. 6-7. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 
Length of head 7g to 8 in the total length. Eyes minute. 
Barbels six, the longest about two fifths of the length of the head. 
Fins caudal entire. Scales distinct. Colour light cinnamon. 




Fig. 81. Acanthophthalmus pa 



Hob. North-east Bengal, the northern portions of Pegu and 
Upper Burma. 

6. Genus APUA, Blyth. 

Body elongate and compressed. A small, erectile, bifid, sub- 
orbital spine. Eight barbels one rostral pair, one maxillary pair, 
and two mandibular pairs. Dorsal fin in the posterior third of the 
body, but anterior to the anal. Ventral fins absent. 



223 



241. (1.) Apuafusca. 



Apua fusca, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 169; Dai/, Fish. India, 
p. 611, pi. civ, tig. 6 (sea synon.). 

B. iii. D. 8(2/6). P. 11. A. 8(2/6). C. 16. 

Length of head 7| to 8 in the total length. Eyes small. 
Barbels six, the longest one third the length of the head. Fins 
caudal rounded. Scales minute. Colour brownish, with a 
longitudinal darker band. 

Hab. Pegu in Burma ; attaining at least 2| inches in length. 



7. Genus JERDONIA, Day. 
Syn. Platacanthus, sp., Day. 

Body elongate and moderately compressed. Eight barbels, 
two of which are maudibular. A free, erectile, bifid, suborbital 
spine. Dorsal lin long (twenty-seven branched rays), commencing 
before the ventrals ; the internal ray of the pectoral fin modified 
into a flat osseous spine ; caudal slightly emargiuate. 

242. (1.) Jerdonia maculata, (Fig. 82.) 

Tlatacanthus maculatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 941. 
Jerdonia maculata, Day, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 700, note ; id. Fish. India, 
p. 611, pi. cliv, fig. 6. 

B. iii. D. 30(3/27). P. 5/1. V. 8. A. 9 (3/6). C. 21. 
Length of head two elevenths of the total length. Eyes 
diameter one sixth of length of head, 2 diameters from end of 




Fig. 82. Jerdonia maculata. 

snout. Scales small, but distinct. Colour greyish, becoming 
dirty white along the abdomen. A dark lateral band extends 
from the eye to the tail ; along its first half are three black spots, 
whilst the whole extent of the back is irregularly lineated. Ems 
yellow. Dorsal with four black bands. Caudal with three 
bands and a dark margin. A black mark at the base of the tail, 
with a smaller one above and another below it. 
Uab. Madras. 



8. Genus NEMACHILICHTHYS, Day. 

Body elongate. Dorsal profile not elevated. Snout rather 
compressed and elongate. Eyes rather prominent. Barbels six, 



224 TELEOSTEI. PUYSOSTOMI. 

two rostral and one maxillary pairs. . No spine on the head. 
Dorsal fin of moderate length, commencing somewhat in advance 
of the ventrals. Caudal forked. 

The appearance of this form is very similar to Acanthopsis, 
except that there is no spine on the head. 

243. (1.) Nemachiliclithys rueppelli. (Fig. 83.) 

Cobitis riippelli, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 3GG, pi. 64, fig. 1. 
Nemachilichthys riippelli, Day, Fish. India, p. 612, pi. civ, fig. 7 
(see synon.). 

B.iii. D. 13(2/11). P. 13. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). 0.19. 
Length of head 5| in the total length. Eyes slightly behind 
the middle of the length of the head. Barbels two well-developed 
rostral pairs, also a maxillary pair. Scales moderately developed. 




Fig. 83. Nemachilichtkys rueppelli. 

Colour greenish yellow except on the abdomen, which is white ; 
short brown bars along the lateral line, and the rays of the dorsal 
and anal barred. Caudal with four posteriorly directed V-shaped 
brown bars. A black spot at the base of the upper caudal lobe. 
Hab. Deccan. 

9. Genus NEMACHILUS, van Hasselt. 

Syn. Aconra and Acourus, Swains. ; Acanthocobitis, Peters ; Orcias, 
Sauvage ; Diplophysa, Kessler. 

Body elongate. Dorsal profile nearly horizontal. Barbels 
eight or six, when the former number is present, the extra pair 
belongs to the posterior nostrils ; none on the mandibles. No 
spine on the head. Dorsal fin of moderate length, or short, situated 
opposite the ventrals. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh waters of Europe and Asia ; 
inhabiting India, Ceylon, Burma, and the Malay Archipelago. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Barbels 8. 

D. 9. Greenish, with small dark blotches. 1. N. evezardi, p. 226. 

B. Barbels 6. 

D. 16-20. Body barred; caudal slightly 

notched 2. N. pavonaceus, p. 226. 



CTPRINID^;. COBITIDINJE. 225 

D. 15-16. Body with 12 to 15 bands. 

Caudal emarginate 3, N. rubidipinnia, p. 226. 

D. 11-14. Body irregularly blotched. 

Caudal entire or slightly emarginate . . 4. N. botius, p. 227. 
D. 12. Caudal and dorsal fins barred. 

Caudal rounded 5. N. monocero*. p. 227. 

D. 12. Caudal forked. Yellow blotches 

on body. Fins barred G. N. pulchellus, p. 228. 

D. 10-11. Caudal cut square. Vertical 

brown bands, with shorter intermediate 

ones. Dorsal and caudal barred 7. N. sinuatus, p. 228. 

D. 10-11. Reticulated with brown. 

Caudal forked 8. N. guentheri, p. 228. 

D. 10-11. Irregular spots and bars on the 

body and fins. Caudal forked 9. N. semiarmatus, p. 229. 

D. 10.* About 13 blotches along the side. 

Caudal forked 10. N. corica, p. 229. 

D. 9-11. Eleven to 17 brown bands on 

the body, as wide as the ground-colour 

or wider. Dorsal and caudal banded or 

spotted. Caudal forked 11. N. rupieola, p. 229. 

D. 9-10. Eleven or 12 vertical bands. 

Caudal emarginate 12. N. montanus, p. 230. 

D. 10-12. Sixteen to 20 vertical bands, 

wider than the ground-colour. Caudal 

emarginate 13. N. striatus, p. 230. 

D. 10. Snout compressed, eye small ; nu- 
merous vertical bands, widest in last half 

of body. Caudal lobed 14. N.multifasciatus,p.23l. 

D. 10. Mouth of moderate width. Nine 

to 12 vertical bands wider than the 

ground-colour. Caudal lobed 15. N. denisonii, p. 231. 

D. 10. Snout compressed; eve of mode- 
rate size. Ten to 14 vertical bands wider 

than the ground-colour. Caudal lobed. 16. N. notostigma, p. 232. 
D. 11. Ten or 11 vertical bands, with 

intermediate ones superiorly. Dorsal 

and caudal spotted. Caudal entire .... 17. N. zonalternans, p. 232. 
D. 10. Sixteen to 18 interrupted and 

sinuous bands. Caudal lobed or emar- 
ginate 18. N. ladacensis, p. 232. 

D. 9. Eleven to 15 dark zones encircle the 

body, which are not half the width of 

the ground-colour. Caudal forked 19. N. zonatus, p. 233. 

D. 1 0. Ten brown zones encircle the body, 

usually wider than the ground-colour. 

Caudal slightly forked 20. N. cincticavda, p. 233. 

D. 10. Seven black-edged angular bands 

on the body. Caudal emarginate 21. JV. triangular^, p. 234. 

D. 10-11. fen to 12 very narrow white 

bands. Caudal slightly emarginate 22. 2V. savona, p. 234. 

D. 10. Dark bands, wider than the inter- 
spaces. Caudal forked 23. N. beavani, p. 234. 

D. 9-10. Eleven to 15 irregular bands. 

Caudal slightly emarginate 24. N. spilopterus, p. 235. 

D. 9. Mottled with brown. Caudal 

entire 25. N. mannorattu, p. 235. 

Q 



220 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

D. 9. Marbled with brownish black. 

Caudal emarginate 26. N. stoliczka, p. 235. 

D. 9. Brownish. Caudal forked 27. N. Uythii, p. 23G. 

D. 9. Caudal rounded 28. N. Imtanensis, p. 236. 

D. 9. Brownish. Caudal emarginate. ... 29. N. gracilis, p. 237. 
D.8(10?). Spotted and blotched. Caudal 

emarginate 30. N. turio, p. 237. 

D. 8. Dark blotches. Caudal entire 31. N. auttatus, p. 237. 

244. (l.) Nemachilus evezardi. 

Nemacheilus evezardi, Day, Fish. India, p. 613, pi. cliii, fig. 11. 
B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 12. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 

Length of head 5| in the total length. Eyes just before the 
middle of the length of the head and rather minute. Barbels 
well developed, one pair nasal, reaching to opposite hind edge of 
the eye ; two pair rostral, and one maxillary pair. Fins upper 
edge of dorsal fin slightly convex. Caudal rounded. Colour 
greenish, with small dark blotches having a vertical direction, a 
dark spot at the base of the caudal fin, which has four V-shaped 
bands ; some spots on dorsal fin ; outer half of pectoral dark. 

Hob. Poona. 

245. (2.) Nemachilus pavonaceus. 

Cobitis pavonacea, McClelland, As. Res. xix, pt. 2, 2nd. Cyp. pp. 305, 

437, pi. 52, fig. 1. 
Nemacheilus pavonaceus, Day, Fifh. India, p. 613, pi. cliii, fig. 12 

(see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 16-20 (2-3/14-18). V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5f- in the total length. Eyes in the middle of 
the length of the head. In some specimens the preorbital forms 
a blunt spine. Fins dorsal commences nearer to the snout than 
to the base of the caudal, which latter is slightly emarginate. 
Colour body crossed by about twenty half-bars of a darkish grey ; 
a dark ocellus surrounded by a light margin exists upon the upper 
portion of the base of the caudal fin. Dorsal and caudal barred. 

Hob. Assam. 

246. (3.) NemacMlns mbidipinnis. 

Cobitis rubidipinnis, lilyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 170. 
Nemacheilus rubidipinnis, Day, Fish. India, p. 614, pi. cliii, fig. 4 
(see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 15-16 (2/18-14). P. 14. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
Length of head 5^ in the total length. Eyes in the middle of 
the length of the head. Barbels the two rostral pairs reach to 
below the front edge of the eye. The maxillary pair are of about 
the same length. Fins dorsal commences rather nearer to the 
snout than to the base of the caudal fin. Scales 15 rows between 
the lateral line and base of the ventral fin. Caudal nearly entire. 



. COBITIDIN.S:. 227 

Colour reddish brown, with 12 to 16 irregular darkish bands 
descending from the back and ending in dark spots below the 
lateral line; 4 to 6 oblique bauds on the dorsal fin; 6 to 8 
irregular vertical bars on the caudal, which has a black ocellus on 
the upper half of its base. 
Hob. Tenasseriin. 

247. (4.) Nemachilus botius. 

Cobitis botia, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 350, 394. 
Nemacheilus botia, Day, Fish. India, p. 614, pi. clvi, fig 1 . 5 (see synon.). 
Sil-turi and Balli-potiah, Assam ; Soon-da-lee, Punj. ; Teli-mura, 
Manithi. 

B.iii. D. 12-14 (2/10-12). P. 11. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 

Length of head 4| to 5-g- in the total length. Eyes diameter 
3| to 4 in the length of head, 1^ to 1| diameters from end of 
snout and 1| apart. The preorbital has in some specimens 
a projection, which is movable, below the orbit (N. botius), whilst 
in others it is entirely concealed by the skin (N. bilturio). Barbels 
long, the maxillary pair reaching to below the posterior edge of 
the eye. Fins dorsal commences rather nearer to the snout than 
to the base of the caudal fin, its upper edge nearly straight ; caudal 
slightly notched. Scales distinct. Lateral line complete, 12 
rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin. Colour 
greyish, with from 10 to 14 short bars on the lateral line, and a 
number of irregular blotches above it, sometimes forming bands 
over the back. Dorsal fin orange and with rows of black spots ; 
caudal with about seven irregular bars bent at an angle, and a 
black ocellus on the upper portion of the base of the fin. 

Variety Nemachilus aureus, Fishes of India, p. 614, pi. clvi, fig. 4. 
D. 1 1-12 (2/9-10). Dorsal fin of much less extent than in N. botius. 
Lateral line ceases opposite the posterior end of the dorsal fin. 

Hob. Sind, Punjab, and throughout India (except the Malabar 
coast and south of the Eiver Kistna) and Ceylon ; common in 
Assam. Although the variety N. aureus is found in Assam, it is 
more abundant than N. botius in the upper portion of the Ganges 
and Jumna. It is also the form in the Nerbudda, and throughout 
the Deccan, where the N. botius is likewise to be obtained. 

248. (5.) Nemachilus monoceros. 

Colitis raonocera, McClell. Ind. Cyp. pp. 305, 438, pi. 52, fig. 2. 
Nemacheilus monoceros, Day, Fish. India, p. 015 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 12. P. 12. V. 8. A. 6. C. 18. 

Length of head one fourth of the total without the caudal fin. 
Eyes situated behind the middle of the length of the head. 
/ Y V//.v caudal rounded. Colour body greenish yellow with a 
silvery lustre; opercles tinged with green. Caudal and dorsal 
streaked with numerous small brown bars. 

Hab. Assam. 

Q2 



228 TELEOSTEI.- PHTSOSTOMI. 

249. (6.) Nemachilus pulchellns. 

Nemacheilus pulchellus, Day, Journ. L. S. xi, p. 528 ; Fish. India, 

p. 615, pi. clvi, fig. 7. 
B. in. D. 12 (2/10). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 21. 

Length of head 5| in the total length. Eyes rather small, in 
the middle of the length of the head. Barbels six, the rostral 
thicker than the maxillary pair. Fins. dorsal equals the 
height of the body below it. Colour this beautiful little loach is 
of greyish colour, becoming whitish below; there are along the 
side between the head and middle of the dorsal fin two rows of 
large, vertical, canary-yellow spots, having deep black margins; 
posterior to the dorsal they become wide vertical bands two thirds 
as wide as the ground-colour. Caudal with three or four oblique 
black bands, and a deep black spot at the centre of its base. 
Dorsal yellowish orange at its upper anterior portion, two wide 
black bars along its centre, and one across the anal. 

Hob. Bhavani Eiver ; growing to 2| inches in length. 

250. (7.) Nemachilus sinnatus. 

Nemacheilus sinuatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 371 ; Fish. India, p. 615, 
pi. clvi, fig. 3. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2/8-9). P. 12. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 18. 

Length of head 5 in the total length. Eyes situated slightly 
before the middle of the length of the head. Barbels long and 
thin. Fiiis dorsal arising slightly in advance of the ventrals; 
caudal cut square. Scales distinct ; 10 rows between the lateral 
line and the base of the ventral fin. Lateral line ceases opposite 
the middle or end of the dorsal fin. Colour olive, with irregular 
vertical brown bands, having shorter intermediate ones. A black 
ocellus at the upper portion of the base of the caudal fin. Dorsal 
yellow, with three or four rows of black spots. Caudal orange, 
with four angulate bars, the angle in each of which is directed 
backwards. 

Hob. Wynaad. 

251. (8.) Nemachilus gnentheri. 

Nemacheilus sruentheri, Day, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 285; Fish. India. 
p. 615, pi. dfvi, fig. 10. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2/7-8). P. 11. V. 7. A. 7(2/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5| in the total length. Ei/es situated just 
before the middle of the length of the head. Fins the dorsal fin 
commences about midway between the end of the snout and the 
base of the caudal, which is lobed. Scales small, but distinct. 
Lateral line incomplete. Colour pinkish, coarsely reticulated 
with olive-brown markings, leaving three rows of large spots along 
the side ; a black band at the. base of the caudal fin, which has two 
indistinct dark bands across both lobes, the extremities of which are 



(3YPRINIDJE. COBITIDINJE. 229 

stained. Two rows of fine black dots along. the dorsal fin, and one 
across the anal. 

Jfab. Elvers along the lower slopes and base of the Nilgiri 
hills. 

252. (9.) Nemachilns semiarmatus. 

Nemacheilus semiarmatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 286 ; Fish. India, 
p. 616, pi. clvi, fig. 11 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 12. V. 7. A. 7 (2/5). C. 18. 

Length of head 5^ in the total length. Eyes diameter 4| in 
the length of head, 1 diameters from end of snout, 1 diameter 
apart. The greatest width of the head equals its length excluding 
the snout. Fins origin of dorsal midway between the snout 
and the base of the caudal. Caudal lobed in its last half. Lateral 
line complete. Colour light brown, with numerous irregularly 
shaped spots and bars proceeding from the back towards the lateral 
line ; head brownish, with a dark line from the snout through the 
orbit. Dorsal fin with about three rows of dark "spots; caudal 
irregularly barred ; a dark line runs along the centre of the back. 

'Hob. Bbavani and Sigur rivers along the base of the Nilgiri 
hills ; also imported into tanks on those mountains. 

253. (10.) Nemachilus corica. 

Cobitis corica, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 359, 395. 
Nemacheilus corica, Day, Fish. India, p. 616, pi. clvi, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

Klwrika, Beng. 

B. iii. D. 10(2/8). P. 13. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 

Length of head 5^ in the total length. Eyes in the middle of 
the length of the head. Barbels thin, the external rostral pair 
longer than the orbit. Fins the dorsal commences anterior to 
the ventral and nearer to the snout than to the base of the caudal, 
which last is lobed in its posterior half. Scales^ visible in the 
posterior half of the body. Colour bluish, with about thirteen 
black blotches along the middle of the side, and smaller ones above 
and descending to between them ; usually a silvery band along the 
middle of the side. 

Hab. N.E. Bengal, Punjab, and Assam. 



254. (11.) Nemachilus rupicola. 

148, pi. 55, 

9> 



Schistura rupecula, McCclland, J. A. S. B. vii, p. 948, pi. 65, %. 3. 
Nemacheilus rupicola, Day, Fish. India, p. 616, pi. cliii, fig. 

synon.). 
Saant-al, 1'unj. 

B. iii. D. 9-11 (2-3/7-8). P. 10. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 18. 
Length of head 51 in the total length. Eyes in the middle of 



230 TELE08TEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

the length of the head. Fins dorsal commences midway between 
the nostrils and the base of the caudal fin. Caudal emarginate. 
Scales absent, or minute in the posterior half of the body. Lateral 
line complete. Colour yellowish, with 12 to 17 vertical brown 
bands, much narrower than the intermediate ground-colour, and 
decreasing in width below the lateral line, they are sometimes 
incomplete ; a wide dark band across the base of the caudal, which 
fin as well as the dorsal has several rows of spots forming bands ; 
a dark mark at the base of the anterior dorsal rays, sometimes 
another at the base of the middle ones. 

Hob. Himalayas and ? Tibet at 16,000 feet above the sea. 

255. (12.) Nemachilus montanus. 

Schistura monlaua, McCelland, As. Res. xix, pt. 2; Ind. Ci/p. pp. 307, 

440, t. 67, fig. 1. 
Nemacheilus montauus, Day, Fish. India, p. 016, pi. cliii, fig. 6 

(see synonl). 
Saant-al, Punj. 

B. iii. D. 9-10 (2/7-8). P. 10. V. 7. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5| to 5| in the total length. Eyes small, 
situated before the middle of the length of the head. The pre- 
orbital is in the form of an obtuse movable projection, which is 
sometimes covered by skin. Barbels short, but stout. Fins 
dorsal commences midway between the posterior margin of the 
orbit and the base of the caudal fin. Caudal lobed. Scales 
minute. Colour eleven or twelve vertical brown bands, each from 
nearly as wide to three times as broad as the buff interspaces. 
Caudal with a black band at its base and a bar across each lobe. 
Dorsal with a black base and a black mark at the base of its two 
first rays, and a dark bar across its centre. 

Hab. Himalayas ; attaining at least 4| inches in length. 

256. (13.) Nemachilus striatus. 

Nemacheilus striatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 347 ; Fish. India, p. 017, 

pi. cliii, fig. 8 (see synon.). 
Cul-irum and Kul-nnkura, Tamil. 

B.iii. D. 11-12 (2/9-10). P. 11. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 

Length of head 5 1 to 7 in the total length. Eyes in the middle 
of the length of the head. Barbels well developed. Fins dorsal 
arises slightly in advance of the ventrals ; caudal slightly lobed. 
Scales 15 rows between the lateral line and the base of the ventral 
fin. Lateral line well marked. Colour light reddish brown, with 
narrow vertical bands darker than the ground-colour, and most 
distinct in the posterior portion of the body, where there are from 12 
to 16 behind the commencement of the dorsal fin, and several more 
between that and the head, which last is marked all over with black 



CYPKINID.E. COBITIDINjE. 231 

lines and spots. A black band at the base of the caudal fin. 
Dorsal brilliant orange, with a black edge having a light external 
margin and a dark base ; or else one or two rows of spots. Anal 
orange, with some dull black spots ; caudal likewise yellow and 
spotted in two rows. 

Hob. Wynaad at 3000 feet elevation; it attains 2| inches in 
length. 

257. (14.) Nemachilus multifasciatus. 

Nemacheilus multifasciatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 617, pi. cliii, fig. 7 
(see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 11. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 18. 

Length of head 5^ in the total length. Eyes situated partly 
before the middle of the length of the head. Barbels the max- 
illary pair rather longer than the eye, the two rostral pairs slightly 
shorter. Fins caudal lobed in its last fourth. Pectoral reaches 
halfway to the ventral. Scales small. Lateral line complete. 
Colour vertical bands, as wide as the ground-colour, pass from the 
back to the lower surface of the abdomen ; those between the head 
and the dorsal fin are numerous, whilst there are about five pos- 
terior to the latter ; in some examples the anterior bands coalesce. 
A dark band at the base of the caudal and dark marks on the head 
radiating from the eye. Fins yellow, the dorsal with four bands 
of spots and an equal number or more on the caudal. Ventral and 
anal with two bands each. 

Hah. Darjeeling and Assam. 



258. (15.) Nemachilns denisonii. 

Nemacheilus denisonii, Day, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 287 ; Fish. India, p. 617, 
pi. cliii, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 11. V. 7. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 

Length of head 5 to 5| in the total length. Eyes situated in 
the anterior half of the head. Barbels the maxillary extend to 
the opercle, the rostral pairs are shorter. Fins dorsal commences 
midway between end of 'snout and base of caudal, which last is 
lobed. Pectoral extends rather above one half the distance to the 
ventrals. Scales minute. Lateral line complete. Colour 
reddish brown, having from nine to twelve dark vertical zones, 
those anterior to the dorsal fin sometimes coalescing rather irre- 
gularly across the back. Dorsal fin with three rows of fine black 
spots and a black base. Caudal irregularly spotted in bands. 
Some dull spots on the ventral and anal fins. Most of the head 
marbled with black dots. 

Hab. Nilgiri and Coorg hills, and rivers at their bases ; Mysore 
and the Deccau. 



232 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOM1. 

259. (16.) Nemachilus notostigma. 

Nemachilus notostigma, Sleeker, Verh. Hull. Maattch. Hawl. 1864, 
Cobit. et Cyp. Ceylon, p. 5, t. i, fig. 2 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 618 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). V. 7. P. 13. A. 7-8 (2-3/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5 3 to 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter 5 
in length of head, 2 diametera from end of snout, 1| apart. 
Barbels all rather longer than the eye. Fins dorsal arises a 
little in advance of the ventrals ; it is not quite so high as the 
body below it. Pectoral nearly as long as the head. Caudal lobed 
in its posterior third. Scales indistinct. Colour ten to four- 
teen vertical bands on the body, broader than the interspaces. A 
dark mark at the base of the caudal, which is banded. A black 
spot at the base of the anterior dorsal rays, and a bar across the 
lower portion of the fin in its last half, a single band across its 
centre. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

260. (17.) Nemachilus zonalternans. 

Cobitis zonalternans, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 172. 
Nemacheilus zonalternans, -Day, Fish. India, p. 618 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11 (2/9). P. 11. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

Eyes of moderate size, rather above one diameter from end of 
snout. Fins dorsal arises anterior to the insertion of the ventral ; 
caudal entire. Scales distinct. Colour ten or eleven bars 
descend down the lower two thirds of the body to the abdomen, 
with intermediate half-bands superiorly between them. Dorsal 
and caudal fins spotted in bands. 

Hob. Tenasserim Provinces. 

261. (18.) Nemachilus ladacensis. 

Nemacheilus ladacen sis, Giinther, Catal. vii, p. 356; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 618- (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). V. 9. A. 8 (2/6). C. 19. 

Length of head 5 in the total length. Eyes diameter 5 to 5| 
in length of head, 2^ diameters from end of snout and 2 apart. 
Barbels of moderate length. Fins dorsal commences halfway 
between the front edge of the eye and the root of the caudal, 
which latter is emarginate. Pectoral extends rather above half- 
way to the base of the ventral. Scales. absent. Colour of a 
light fawn, with 16 or 18 interrupted darker and sinuous bands 
passing from the back down the sides; a silvery lateral band. 
Dorsal and caudal finely spotted in lines ; a darkish band on pec- 
toral, ventral, and anal fins. 

Hob. Tibet, whence two specimens were procured. 



OTPBINID^. COBITIDINjE. 2W 

262. (19.) Nemachilus zonatus. 

Schiatura zonata, McClell. As. Res. xix, pt. 2; 2nd. Cyp. pp. 308, 

441, pi. 63, fig. 1. 
Nemacheilus zonatus, Day, Fish. India, p. G18, pi. clvi, fig. 2 (see 

synon.). 

Mugah, Beng. 
B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 11. V. 8. A. 7-8 (2/5-6). C. 17. L. 1. 110. 

Length of head 5 in the total length. Eyes diameter one fifth 
of length of head, 2 diameters from end of snout, 1| diameters 
apart. Barbels all about as long as the eye. Fins dorsal arises 
midway between snout and base of caudal, its upper margin is 
straight ; pectorals extend a little above halfway to the base of 
ventrals; caudal forked. Scales small, but distinct. Lateral 
line commences by two roots, which soon coalesce ; it is continued 
to the base of the caudal. Colour yellowish, with a green tinge ; 
about fifteen brown bands, one third as wide as the groundcolour, 
pass across the back and descend on either side below the lateral 
line ; a few near the head, and some in the posterior third of the body 
are interrupted. ' Upper surface of head marbled with black. Fins 
immaculate, but the first two anal rays are black anteriorly, and 
there are also slight black marks near the end of the ventrals and 
on the outer side of the pectorals. Rostral barbels orange. The 
young have a wide silvery band along the side, ending in a dark 
mark at the base of the caudal fin. 

Hob. Throughout the Jumna and Granges rivers and their 
affluents, Beerbhoom, Assam, and Orissa ; attaining at least two 
inches in length. 

263. (20.) Nemachilus cincticauda. 

Cobitis cincticauda, Blyth, J. A. 8. S. xxix, 1860, p. 172. 
Nemacheilus cincticauda, Day, Fish. India, p. 619, pi. clvi, fig. 6 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10(2/8). P. 11. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5| in the total length. Eyes situated in the 
middle of the length of the head. Barbels well developed. Fins-^ 
dorsal arises nearer to the snout than to the base of the caudal, which 
last is slightly forked with pointed lobes. Scales minute. Colour 
yellowish, with ten regular brown zones encircling the body, and 
sometimes but riot always broader than the ground-colour, or the 
bands may be broken up and irregular ; a dark bar at the base of 
the caudal and a dark band between the eye and the snout ; occa- 
sionally a dark mark on the opercle. Dorsal with some black 
spots. 

Hab. Burma, 



234 TELEOSTBI. PlIYSOSTOMI. 



264. (31.) NemacMlus triangularis. 

Nemacheilus triangularis. Day. P. Z. S. 1805, p. 295. and Fish, India. 
p. 619, pi. cliii, tig. 10. 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 11. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5g in the total leugth. Eyes diameter 4| iii 
length of head, 2 diameters from end of snout and 1 apart. 
Barbels of moderate length. Fins dorsal commences midway 
between the end of the snout and the base of the caudal, which 
latter is emarginate. Scales small but distinct in the last portion 
of the body. Lateral line complete. Colour yellowish, with 
about seven black-edged bands on the body and head, each bent 
angularly at the lateral line. Dorsal with three irregular rows of 
black spots. Pectoral, ventral, and anal unspotted, but stained 
at their margins. Several oblique bars across each lobe of the 
caudal, which has a black mark at its base. 

Hob. Travancore hills. 

265. (22.) NemacMlus savona. 

Cobitis savona, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 357, 394. 
Nernacheilus savona, Day, Fish. India, p. 019, pi. civ, tig. 8. 
Savon-khorka, Beng. ; Mura, Marathi. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 10. V. 7. A. 7 (2/5). C. 18. 

Length of head 4| to 4- in the total length. Eyes rather large, 
rather behind the middle of the length of the head. Barbels 
long. Fins dorsal arises before the origin of the ventrals. Caudal 
very slightly emarginate, its lobes being rounded. Lateral line 
incomplete. Scales small. Colour purplish, becoming lighter 
on the abdomen, with from ten to twelve very narrow vertical 
white bands, not above one eighth to one sixth as wide as the ground- 
colour ; a black band at the root of the caudal tin ; a black blotch 
at the base of the first few dorsal rays, on to which the white body- 
bands are continued, and four or five rows of dark spots on the tin. 
Caudal with narrow bands of dark spots ; two bands also on the 
ventral and anal fins. 

Hab. Bengal and N.W. Provinces. 

266. (23.) NemacMlus beavani. 

Nemachilus beavani, Giinther, Catal. vii, p. 3oO ; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 020, pi. clvi, fig. 8. 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 11. V. 7. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5 in the total length. Eyes small, just before 

the middle of the length of the head. Barbels six. Fi-ns dorsal 

arises slightly nearer end of snout than base of caudal. Caudal 

lobed. Scales minute. Colour body with nine dark cross bands, 



CTPRINID^E. COBITIDIN-S:. 



broader than the lighter interspaces, a black streak across the root 
of the caudal. Dorsal and caudal rays with blackish dots. The 
bands appear to be absent in some specimens. 

Hob. Bhavani river in Madras and Mysore, also Orissa. 



267. (24.) Nemacbilus spilopterus. 

Cobitis spiloptera, Cuo. $ Val H. N. Poiss. xviii, p. 27, pi. 522. 
Neiuacheilus spilopterus, Day, Fish. India, p. 020, pi. clvi, fig. 9 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 9-10 (2/7-8). P. 15. V. 7. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5-| to 6 in the total length. Eyes near the 
summit ojE the head and in or rather before the middle of its length. 
Barbels short. Fins dorsal commences midway between end of 
snout and root of caudal. Caudal slightly emarginate. Scales 
absent. Colour greenish yellow, with from eleven to fifteen irre- 
gular bands crossing the back, and a black band across the root of 
the caudal fin. A black blotch at the base of the first three dorsal 
rays, two bauds along the fin, another along its base, and three on 
caudal. 

Hob. Himalayas, Assam, and Cochin China. 



268. (25.) NemacMlus marmoratus. 

Cobitis marmorata, Heckel, Fisch. Caschmir, p. 76, t. 12, figs. 1, 2. 
Nemacheilus marnioratus, Day, Fish. India, p. 620, pi. civ, fig. 9 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 11. V. 7. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 

Length of head 4-| to 5 in the total length. Eyes situated in the 
middle of the length of the head. Fins dorsal commencing mid- 
way between the end of the snout and the root of the caudal, which 
latter is somewhat convex or cut square at its extremity. Scales 
absent. Colow marbled or irregularly blotched and mottled with. 
brown. Tins more or less spotted. In some specimens a dark 
band exists along the body and some bars over the back of the 
tail. 

JIab. Kashmir Lake. 



269. (26.) Nemachilus stoliczkae. (Fig. 84.) 

Cobitis stoliczkai, Steindachner, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, 1866, p. 793. ' 
Nemacheilus stoliczkoe, Day, Fish. India, p. 620, pi. civ, fig. 10 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 13. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 15. 

Length of head 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter 8 in 
length of the head, 3 diameters from end of snout and 2 apart. 






236 



TELEOSTEI . PH YSOSTOM I . 



Barbels the maxillary are the longest, and reach to below the hinder 
edge of the eye. Fins origin of dorsal nearer root of caudal 
than end of snout. Caudal slightly emargiuate. Scales absent. 




Fig. 84.Nemackilus stoliczka. 



Colour greyish along the back, becoming lighter beneath, marbled 
all over with dark green or black spots or bands. Dorsal, caudal, 
and sometimes outer pectoral rays barred. 

Hob. Leh or Ladak and waters going directly into the Indus 
near its source, and Tibet; also Tarkand where the streams go 
into the Tarkand river. 



270. (27.) Nemacbilus blythii. 

Nemacheilus blythii, Day, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 552, and Fish. India, 
p. 621. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

Length of head 5, of caudal 5, height of body 6| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter two ninths of length of head, 1 diameter 
from end of snout, 1| apart. Barbels longer than the orbit. Fins 
dorsal commences midway between snout and base of caudal h'n, 
which latter has sharp lobes. Scales minute. Colour brownish, 
becoming lighter on the abdomen ; a dark band at the base of the 
caudal. 

Hab. Doubtful. Two specimens, 3 inches long, exist in. the 
Calcutta Museum. 

271. (28.) Nemachilns butanensis. 

Cobitis boutanensis, McClell. Calc. Jour. N. H. ii, p. 586. 
Nemacheilus butanensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 621 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 9. V. 7. A. 7. 

Length of head 5^, of caudal 5-i in the total length. Eyes 
small, in the middle of the length of the head. Fins dorsal com- 
mences nearer to end of snout than to root of caudal, which latter 
is rounded. Scales distinct. Colour doubtful. 



CYPBINIDJE. COBITIDIN^. 237 

flab. Bhutan, where it attains 5 inches in length. McClelland's 
type in the British Museum is in a bad state. 

272.. (29.) Nemachilus gracilis. 

Nemacheilus gracilis, Day, P.Z. S. 1876, p. 798; Yark. Miss, Fish, 
pi. iv, tig. 5, and Fish. India, p. 621 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 13. V. 8. A. 8 (2/6). C. 17. 

Length of head 5, of caudal 63 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 11 in length of head, 4 diameters from end of snout, 
and 2^ apart. Barbels the maxillary about twice as long as the; 
eye, the outer rostral pair reach the hind nostril, the inner are 
shorter. Fins dorsal commences midway between eye and base 
of cauda} fin. Caudal slightly emarginate. Scales absent. Colour 
brownish along the back, becoming yellowish beneath; dorsal 
and caudal with dull spots. 

llab. Basgo, on the head-waters of the Indus. 

3 
273. (30.) Nemachilus turio. 

Cobitia turio, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganyes, pp. 358, 395. 
Nemacheilus turio, Day, Fish. India, p. 621 (see synon.). 
Turi, Assam. 

B. iii. D. 8 (10?). P. 12. V. 8. A. 7. C. 19. 

Length of head about ^ of the total length. Eyes of moderate 
size. Back elevated. Fins dorsal commences midway betweeri 
the end of the snout and the base of the caudal fin; pectoral 
nearly reaches the ventral. Caudal emarginate. Colour- body 
irregularly spotted and blotched. 

Hab. Assam, said to have been taken at Goalpara. 

274. (31.) Nemachilus guttatus. 

Cobitis guttata, McClell. As. Res. xix, pt. 2 j Ind. Cyp. pp. 305, 438, 

pi. 52, figs. 5, 6. 
Nemacheilus guttatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 622 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 8. 

This species is said to have only four barbels. Colour light 
green with dark blotches. 

llab. Jorhat in Upper Assam. 



238 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

B. Subfamily CYPRININ^E. 

Air-bladder when present (it is absent in Homalopterd) not 
enclosed in bone. 

In the subfamily Cyprinince, as existing in Asia, considerable 
difficulty arises in dividing the genera into groups. 

In forming such, a very distinctive characteristic may be found 
by observing whether the scaled edge or margin of the abdomen is 
rounded or cutting, for in the majority of the Indian Cyprinince 
the abdominal edge is rounded or smooth, even when somewhat 
compressed ; whilst in a few genera the abdominal edge posterior 
to the ventral fin is compressed, cutting, and may even be cariuated 
as in the Clupeidce : this trenchant edge is in some continued in 
front of the ventral fins along the thorax. 

The mouth is variously formed ; it may be transverse and inferior, 
with or without a sucker ; the latter, if present, may occur either on 
the lower lip or on both ; it may be narrow, of medium size, or 
wide : anterior, and either antero-lateral or oblique. The lower jaw 
again may be prominent, sharp or rounded, shorter than the upper, or 
sometimes provided with a knob at the symphysis ; a movable 
articulation may exist there, or there may be lateral prominences on 
the mandibles. 

The lips may be exceedingly, moderately, or but slightly developed, 
sometimes absent from one of the jaws, or closely investing both, or 
reflected from off one, or either. There may be an uninterrupted 
labial fold across the mandible, or portions of the lip may be much 
developed, fringed, or crenulated. In some genera a horny or 
cartilaginous covering to one or both lips is invariably or generally 
present, especially in forms from the bills. 

The existence of a transverse groove across the snout can 
scarcely be distinctive of a species, much less of a genus. Thus 
in Discognathus lamia we find examples with rounded and smooth 
snouts, and all intermediate forms to those with very deep trans- 
verse grooves. The same may be seen in Labeo nukta and several 
fishes of that genus, and even in some species of Barbus, as B. 
dorsalis. The nearer the hills the more is the groove developed. 

The number of barbels, though not in itself character enough 
for defining a genus, is frequently sufficient to distinguish sub- 
genera : good examples of this may be seen in the genus Barbus, 
or Barilius. On the other hand, in some species these appen- 
dage smay be abnormally absent, as in Danio ; consequently sub- 
divisions of the genus founded solely on this character would 
lead to erroneous results. 

Groups founded on the position of the fins have for convenience' 
sake been adopted in the following synopsis. 

The last undivided dorsal ray is variously formed, being articu- 
lated or osseous, and in the latter case may be smooth or den- 
ticulated; but all these varieties are present in a single genus, as 
Barbus. The anal fin sometimes shows peculiarities, as in the 
Barbus apogon, C. & V., where the undivided rays are spiny. 



CYPKIXIDJ3. CTPEININJE. 239 

The size of scales cannot by itself be depended upon for dis- 
tinguishing genera, because large, moderate, and small-sized scales 
are all occasionally found represented in a single genus. But 
certain modifications may exist, as in the mountain barbels, ScJiizo- 
ihorax and its allies, where a row of tile-like scales encloses the 
excretory outlets and the base of the anal fin ; or portions of the 
body may be naturally left scaleless. 

The pharyngeal teeth are in from one to three series, but 
these numbers alone do not always suffice for the definition even 
of genera : thus in Chela some species have teeth in two and 
others in three rows. Even the form of the teeth is not invariably 
similar in all the species of the same genus : thus in the Kohtee 
microlepis, Blyth, the teeth have serrations on their edges, and the 
two largest of the anterior row are molariform, whereas crooked 
and pointed teeth are the rule in the genus. Likewise the teeth 
are deciduous, being constantly shed and replaced ; they may be- 
come blunted with age, although they had at first been sharp and 
pointed. 

I have not retained the subfamily Homalopterince, or carps des- 
titute of an air-bladder, because Psilorhynclius links it very naturally 
with Discognathus. The principal distinctive characters consist of 
the single row of pharyngeal teeth and the absence of the air- 
bladder. In many families these are deemed insufficient even to 
characterize genera. Homaloptera leads very naturally from some 
of the mountain siluroids to the true carps on the one hand, and to 
the loaches on the other. 

Bleeker observed that the subfamily of ffomalopterince is well dis- 
tinguished from other cyprinoids by the central position of the 
mouth on the lower surface of the head, and the character of the 
pectoral ray. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

A. Abdomen rounded, not cutting. 

a. Dorsal fin 'commencing nearly opposite 

the ventrals. And short (5 to 7 

branched rays). 
Anterior portion of body depressed; 

snout .spatulate ; mouth on lower sur- 
face of head ; 6 barbels. Pharyngeal 

teeth in one row. Outer pectoral rays 

unbranched or simply bifurcated. 

Scales small 1. HOMALOPTERA. 

Anterior portion of body somewhat de- 
pressed; snout rather spatulate. Mouth 

inferior ; no barbels. Outer pectoral 

rays unbranched. Scales of moderate 

size 2. PSILOEHYNCHUS. 

Mouth inferior, with a suctorial disk on 

the chin ; 4 barbels. Pharyngeal teeth 

in 3 rows. Scales of moderate size. 

Pectoral fins subhorizontal 3. DISCOGNATHUS. 



240 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

Mouth inferior, with the mandibles loosely 
joined together; a suctorial disk on 
the chin ; 4 barbels. Pharyngeal teeth 
in 3 rows. Scales small, with the vent 
and base of anal fin enclosed by a tile- 
like row. Last undivided dorsal ray 
osseous, sometimes serrated 4. OREINUS. 

Mouth inferior ; mandibles with a sharp 
horny covering. No barbels. Pharyn- 
geal teeth in 2 rows. A serrated 
dorsal ray. Scales present in scapular 
region, a tile-like row enclosing vent 
and base of anal fin 5. SCHIZOPYGOPSIS. 

Mouth antero-inferior ; 4 barbels. 
Pharyngeal teeth in 3 rows. A 
serrated dorsal ray. Scales small. 
Vent and base of anal fin enclosed in a 
tile-like row 6. SCHIZOTHORAX. 

Mouth anterior or inferior; 2 barbels. 
Pharyngeal teeth in 2 rows. Dorsal 
with or without a feeble osseous ray, 
which is sometimes serrated. Scales 
small ; vent and base of anal fin en- 
closed in a tile-like row 7. PTYCHOBARBUS. 

Mouth inferior ; lower jaw with a horny 
covering ; 2 barbels. Pharyngeal teeth 
in 2 rows. Dorsal fin without any 
osseous ray. Scales small, not im- 
bricated ; a sheath to vent and base of 
anal fin . 8. DIPTYCHUS. 

Mouth anterior or inferior; lips thick, 
those of the two jaws continu- 
ous at the angle, and one or both 
with an inner fold ; sometimes a lateral 
lobe to the snout ; barbels 4, 2, or none. 
Pharyngeal teeth in 3 rows. Dorsal 
fin rather or very elongated and with- 
out any osseous ray. Scales large, of 
moderate size, or small 9. LABEO. 

Differs from Labeo in its lips being re- 
flected from off the mandible, leaving 
it uncovered as a sharp, hard, trans- 
verse prominence 10. OSTEOCHILUS. 

Snout somewhat depressed ; mouth more 
or less inferior; upper lip fringed; 
lower jaw sharp, covered by a thin 
lip, and with a tubercle above the 
symphysis ; barbels 4- or 2.- Pharyn- 
geal teeth in 3 rows. Dorsal fin elon- 
gated and without any osseous ray. 
Scales large, of moderate size, or 
small 11. DANGILA 

Mouth transverse ; snout somewhat de- 
pressed; lips thin, those of the two 
jaws not continuous, a small tubercle 
above the symphysis of the lower jaw. 
Barbels 4, 2, or none. Pharyngeal teeth 



CYPRINID;E. CTPEININ^;. 241 

in 3 rows. Dorsal fin short or of mo- 
derate length, without any oaseous ray. 

Scales large, of moderate size, or small. 12. CIIIIIHINA. 
Snout thick ; mouth inferior, with a 

knob at the symphysis ; no barbels. 

Pharyngeal teeth in 3 rows. Dorsal 

fin long, with a strong osseous ray that 

is serrated or entire. Scales large 13. SRMIPLOTUS. 

Snout rounded ; mouth transverse, in- 
ferior ; a horny layer inside lower jaw 

which is not covered by lit) ; 4, 2, or no 

barbels. Pharyngeal teeth in 3 rows. 

Dorsal fin of moderate extent, with its 

last undivided ray articulated, or else 

osseous and serrated, or entire. Scales 

of varying size 14. SCAPITIODON. 

Head broad ; snout with thin integu- 
ments; lower lip with a continuous 

transverse fold ; lower jaw with a 

movable articulation at the sym- 
physis ; gill-rakers long ; no barbels. 

Pharyngeal teeth in 3 rows. Dorsal 

rather long, without any osseous ray. 

Scales of moderate size 15. CATLA. 

Upper lip absent ; mouth antero-lateral ; 

no barbels. Pharyngeal teeth molari- 

form, compressed, and in 3 rows. 

Dorsal fin without any osseous ray and 

inserted opposite the ventral. Scales 

small. Lateral line complete 1C. TIIYNNICIITIIYS. 

Differs from Thynnichthys in having the 

crowns of its pharyngeal teeth flat or 

concave; the dorsal fin extending to 

nearly or quite above the anal; and 

the lateral line incomplete 17. AMBLYPITABYNGOPON. 

Mouth inferior; jaws closely invested by 

lips ; no barbels. Dorsal fin short, its 

last undivided ray osseous and serrated ; 

a forwardly directed spine at the base 

of. tho fin. Scales of moderate size. 

Lateral line complete 18. MATSYA. 

Mouth anterior or inferior ; jaws closely 

invested by lips, which may or may not 

have leathery lobes. Pharyngeal teeth 

in 3 rows. Dorsal fin short. Scales 

of large, moderate, or small size. 

Lateral line complete or incomplete . . 19. BAUBUS. 

l>. Dorsal fin commencing very distinctly 
posterior to the ventrals, but not ex- 
tending to above the anal, which last 
is short or of moderate length (5 to 
11 branched rays). 

Mouth narrow, directed obliquely up- 
wards; 4 barbels, the maxillary pair 
ver}' long. Pharyngeal teeth in 1 row. 
Dorsal fin without osseous ray. Scales 
of moderate size 20. NuniA. 



242 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

Mouth oblique, lower jaw wilh 1 central 

and on either side a lateral prominence 

fittinginto corresponding emarginations 

in the upper jaw ; a pair of rostral 

barbels or none. Pharyngeal teeth in 

3 rows. Dorsal fin without any osseous 

ray. Scales large or of moderate size. 21. RASBOHA. 
Mouth small, inferior; lower jaw with a 

sharp crescentic edge but no 'lip ; no bar- 
bels. Pharyngeal teeth iu 2 or 3 rows. 

Dorsal fin without osseous ray. Scales 

of moderate size 22. ASPIDOPAIUA. 

c. Dorsal fin commencing above the inter- 
space between the ventral and the anal, 
generally extending to over the latter, 
which is of moderate length or elon- 
gated (7 to 33 branched rays). 

Mouth anterior ; lips thin. Pharyngeal 
teeth in 3 rows. Dorsal fin with 
an osseous serrated ray ; anal elongated. 
Scales small 23. ROHTKK. 

Mouth anterior or oblique, with a deep 
cleft; jaws compressed. Pharyngeal 
teeth in 2 or 3 rows. Dorsal fin with- 
out osseous ray. Scales of moderate or 
of small size. Lateral line concave . . 24. BAUILTUS. 

Mouth directed obliquely upwards ; cleft 
shallow ; mandibles rather broad. 
Pharyngeal teeth in 3 rows. Dorsal 
fin without osseous ray and extending 
to above a long anal. Scales of 
moderate size. Lateral line concave .. 25. DANTO. 

B. A portion or the whole of the abdominal 
edge cutting. 

Mouth directed obliquely upwards ; no 

barbels. Pharyngeal teeth in 3 rows. 

Dorsal fin without osseous ray, inserted 

over the anterior anal rays. Scales of 

moderate size. Lateral line concave. . 26. PERILAMPUS. 
Mouth directed upwards with a knob 

above the symphysis of the lower jaw ; 

no barbels. Pharyngeal teeth in 2 or 

3 rows. Dorsal tin without osseous 

ray, a portion or the whole situated 

above the anal ; pectorals long. Scales 

of moderate or small size. Lateral line 

concave 27. CHELA. 

1. Genus HOMALOPTERA, v. Hasselt. 
Syn. Balitora, Gray ; Platycara, McClelland ; Octonema, Martens. 

Head and anterior part of body depressed ; snout more or less 
spatulate. Mouth small, inferior, with two pairs of rostral barbels, 
and one or two at either angle of the mouth. Pharyngeal teeth 






CYPBITTIDjE. CYPIUXIN^. 243 



small, from 5 to 16, in one row. Pectoral and veiitra fins with 
many rays, the outer of which are simple. Dorsal short, situated 
opposite to the ventrals ; anal likewise short. 

Geographical Distribution. Through some of the hilly districts of 
the Himalayas to the Wynaad and Bhavani river in the Madras 
Presidency ; also found in the fresh waters of Java and Sumatra. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 70. Lower caudal lobe 

the longer. Brown, blotched with a darker 

tinge ................................ 1. H. bmcei, p. 243. 

D. 10, A. 2/5, L. 1. 78 ...................... 2. H. maculata, p. 243. 

D. 9, A. 6. Horizontal bands .............. 3. H. bilineata, p. 244. 

, 275. (1.) Homaloptera brucei. (Fig. 85.) 

Balitora brucei, Gray and Hardw. III. 2nd. Zool. i, pi. 88, fig..l. 
Homaloptera brucei, Day, Fish. India, p. 520, pi. cxxii, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

( 'ul-cundee, Tamil, "Stone Carp." 

B.iii. D. 11(3/8). P. 21. V.ll. A. 7(2/5). C. 17. L.I. 70. 
L. tr. 10/7. 

Length of head 6| in the total length. Eyes 2| diameters 
from end of snout, 1 diameter from end of opercle. Snout broad 
and depressed, with sharp margins ; rostral and maxillary barbels 
small. Teeth pharyngeal, conical, 15 in one row. Fins 



Fig. 8o.Hvmaloptera brucei. 

pectoral nearly reaches the ventral, its anterior nine rays are 
unbranched, as are also the first two of the ventral. Lower caudal 
lobe much the longer. Scales absent from chest and abdomen as 
far back as the posterior margin of the base of the ventrals. Colour 
dark brown with darker blotches ; caudal banded. 

Hob. Wynaad and Bhavani river in Madras, Himalayas from 
about Darjeeling through Bhutan, Assam, and the Khasi Hills. 

276. (2.) Homaloptera maculata. 

Balitora maculata, Gray and Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 88, fig. 2. 
Homaloptera maculata, Day, Fish. India, p. 520, pi. cxxii, tig. 2 
(see synon.). 

B.iii. D. 10(2/8). P. 19. V.9. A. 7(2/5). C. 17. L. 1. 70. 
Length of head 5^ to 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter one 

H2 



244 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 






fifth of length of head, 3 diameters from end of snout, 2 diameters 
apart. Lips fringed. Rostral barbels short, the pair at the angles 
of the mouth thicker and slightly longer. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, in 
one row. Fins dorsal arising rather nearer end of snout than 
base of caudal. Pectoral nearly reaching the ventral, its outer 8 
rays unbranched. Two outer ventral rays simple. Caudal lobed 
in its posterior third, lobes equal. Scales cycloid. Lateral line 
complete. Colour dull olive, becoming yellowish beneath. Large 
brown blotches on the body. Dorsal fin with three rows of dull 
spots; pectoral and ventral with three or four, anal with two, 
caudal with three irregular bands, and black tips. 

Hob. Wynaad, the Bhavani river, also the Himalayas. 

277. (3.) Homaloptera bilineata. 

Homaloptera bilineata, Elyih, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 172 ; Day, 
^> ^ Fish. India, p. 526, pi. cxxi, fig. 8 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. L. 1. 64. 
L. tr. 12/17. 

Length of head one fifth of the total length. Eyes small, 
behind the middle of the length of the head. Snout pointed. 
Barbels short, six in number. Fins dorsal arises slightly in 
advance of the ventrals. Pectoral has its five outer rays un- 
branched ; it reaches two thirds of the distance to the ventral, 
and the latter above halfway to the anal. Caudal deeply emar- 
ginate, its lobes pointed. Lateral line complete. Air-bladder 
absent. Colour brownish, with a wide dark chestnut band 
passing from the snout through the orbit to the base of the dorsal 
fin, which last has a black centre. Caudal deep brown with white 
margins. A black bar across the base of the ventrals. 

Hob. Northern Bengal and the Tenasserim provinces. 

2. Genus PSILORHYNCHUS, McClelland. 

Back somewhat elevated, head moderately depressed ; snout 
more or less spatulate. Mouth small, transverse, inferior. Lips 
entire, not continuous, reflected from off both jaws, and studded 
with glands. Barbels absent. Dorsal fin with few rays, commencing 
opposite the ventrals. Pectorals horizontal, with their outer rays 
unbranched. Anal short. Scales of moderate size, none on the 
chest. Lateral line complete, continued direct to the centre of the 
base of the caudal fin. Air-bladder present. 



278. (1.) Psilorhynclms balitora. (Fig. 86.) 

Cyprinus balitora, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 348, 394. 
Psilorhyncbus balitora, -Day, Fish. India, p. 527, pi. cxxi, fig. 7, and 
pi. cxxii, fig. 3 (see synon.). 

B. iii: D. 9-10 (2/7-8). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 18. 
L. 1. 35. L. tr. 4/4|. 



CTPHINIDJE. CYPEININJE. 245 

Length of head 5| in the total length. Eyes diameter 4$ in 
the length of head, 1 \ diameters from end of snout, and also apart. 
Head somewhat depressed. Edges of lips covered with round 
hard pores. Some fine pores also on the cheeks and snout. 
Fins dorsal commences in advance of the ventrals; pectorals and 
ventrals nearly horizontal, the outer seven rays of the former and 




/ Fig. 8Q.PsiZorhynchus balitora. 

two of the latter unbranched; caudal forked. Scales 2| rows 
between the lateral line and base of the ventral fin. Air-bladder- 
rather large, divided by a constriction into an anterior and 
posterior portion, and not enclosed by bone. Colour reddish 
brown, with irregular black blotches forming badly-defined bands, 
in places passing over the back. Three bars on the caudal and 
some black on the anterior half of the dorsal. 

Hob. Hill-streams and rapids in N.E. Bengal and Assam. 

3. Genus DISCOGNATHUS, Heckel. 

Syn. Garra, Ham. Buch. ; Platycara^ McClelland ; Discognathichtiiys 
et Lissorltynchus, Bleeker; Mayoa, Day. 

Body elongated, subcylindrical. Mouth transverse, semi- 
circular, and inferior ; upper and lower lips continuous ; no lateral 
lobes to snout, which projects beyond the mouth. A suctorial 
disk on the chin, formed on the lower lip ; upper lip fringed. 
Barbels four (Garra, Ham. Buch.), or one pair only at each angle 
of the mouth (Discognathus, Heckel). Pharyngeal teeth uncinate 
and in three closely approximating rows, 2, 4, 5/5, 4, 2, or 5, 3, 1/1, 
3, 5. Dorsal fin with few rays, commencing slightly in advance 
of the ventrals, its base scaleless; pectoral horizontal; anal short. 
Scales of moderate size, no enlarged anal row. Lateral line 
continued to the centre of the base of the caudal fin. Gill-rakers 
few, short, and widely-set. Air-bladder small. 

Geographical Distribution. Rivers, more especially mountain- 
streams, of Asia and Abyssinia; extending throughout India, 
Ceylon, and the Tenasserim Provinces. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 11, A. 7, L. 1. 33-30. 4 barbels. Inter- 
orbital space convex. Head 4 to 5 in 
the total length. A black spot behind ^ill- 
opening and generally a band along the side. 1. D. lamia, p. 246. 



246 TELEOSTEI. PHISOSTOMI. 

D. 10, A. 7, L. 1. 30. 4 barbels. Interorbital 

space concave. Head 6 to 6| in the total 

length 2. D.jerdoni, p. 247. 

D. 10, A. 6, L. .1. 35. 4 barbels. Interorbital 

space flat ; 5 outer pectoral rays unbrauched 3. D. modestus, p. 247. 

279. (1.) Discognathus lamta. (Fig. 87.) 
Cyprinus lamta, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 343, 393. 
Discognathus lamta, Day, Fish. India, p. 527, pi. cxxii, tig. 4, and 

pi. cxxiii, tig. 1 (see synon.). 

Kul korava, Tarn. ; " The stone Ophiocephalus, Pandi-pakkee, Can." ; 
Koraji-kaoli,Ilin&. (Mysore); Putter-chettah, Hind. (N.W. Provinces); 
Choak-si, Beng. ; Dhoyuru and Khooka, Ptmj. ; Malavya, Marathi. 
B. iii. D. 11 (3-2/8-9). P. 15. V. 9. V. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 

L. 1. 32-36. L. tr. 4-41/5. Vert. 18-14. 
Length of head 5 to 5| in the total length. Eyes situated in 
the commencement of the last half of the head, more rarely in its 
centre ; diameter 5 to 8 in the length of head, 2| to 3 diameters 
apart. Interorbital space convex. Snout very diversified, either 
smooth or covered with pores, and having or not having a deep 




Fig. 87. Discognathus lai/i'a. 

transverse depression : iu some specimens, as from the Salt Range 
in the Punjab, or from the Chumba State, there is a regular 
spiny covering to a gland on either side of the snout ; in some all 
the glands are thus constructed. Fins the dorsal arises anteriorly 
to the origin of the ventral, and is usually less in height than the 
body. The pectoral shorter than the head. In some forms, and 
those mostly from rapid streams, the five outer pectoral rays are 
thickened by a wide layer of skin, the ray itself being either 
undivided or branched out just at its outer extremity or near to it ; 
caudal slightly lobed. Air-bladder small, its posterior portion 
minute. Ova small, numerous. Colour greenish, with a bluish- 
green band along the centre of the body, and extending along the 
middle of the caudal fin. Generally a dark spot behind the gill- 
opening. Abdomen yellowish green. Fins yellowish, stained 
darker at their margins. In some specimens a black spot exists at 
the base of each dorsal ray, and all the fins are occasionally tipped 
with black. In Malabar and Canara some have a dark band along 
the side, with an orange one above and another below it. 



CYl'lUNID.E. CYPHINIITZ. . 247 

Hab. From Syria throughout India and Ceylon to the Tenas- 
serira Provinces, and likewise found in Abyssinia and at Aden. It 
attains at least 8 inches in length. 

280. (2.) Discognathus jerdoni. 

Discognathus jerdoni, Day, Fish. India, p. 523, pi. cxxii, fig. (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 16. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C.17. L. 1. 36. 
L. tr. 4|/2. 

Length of head 6| to 6| in the total length. Eyes diameter 
3| to 4 iii the length of the head, 1 diameter from end of snout, 
and 2 diameters apart. Interorbital space rather deeply concave. 
Snout in the young smooth, but in larger specimens it has a 
depression across it and some pores. Barbels two pairs. Fins 
dorsal arising about midway between the end of snout and com- 
mencement of the origin of the anal fin. The pectoral is rather 
longer than the head, but does not quite reach the ventral, which 
is equally long. Anal does not quite reach the caudal, which is 
deeply forked. Colour olivaceous, becoming yellowish on the 
sides and beneath. A black spot behind the gill-opening. Pectoral 
and ventral tins yellowish, with the outer portion dark grey 
margined with orange. Dorsal, anal, and caudal yellowish, with 
grey markings ; the lower caudal lobe grey, with a light outer edge. 

Hab. Bhavani river at foot of Nilgiris in the Madras Presidency, 
also the Wynaad. 

'281. (3.) Discognatlms modestus. 



Mayoa modesta, Day, P. Z. S. I860, p. 553. 
Discognathus modestus, Day, Fish. 2nd. 



India, p. 528, pi. cxxii, tig. 5. 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 6 (1/5). C. 19. L. 1. 35. 

L. tr. 4J/3|. 

Length of head 5^ in the total length. Eyes near the upper 
surface of the head, diameter one fourth of length of head, 2 dia- 
meters from end of snout, 2 diameters apart. Head broad, depressed. 
Tnterorbital space flat. Lower surface of head and chest flat. The 
snout overhangs the mouth, which is rather small, transverse, and 
nearly semilunar in shape. The lips are reflected from off both 
jaws, and have a tuberculated surface. Barbels four. Teeth 
pharyngeal, uncinate, 5, 3, 1/1, 3, 5. Fins pectorals and ventrals 
horizontal, the former extending to the latter, which reaches the 
anal. First five outer pectoral rays simple. Dorsal arises in 
advance of the ventral. Caudal slightly forked. Scale? none on 
the chest. Colour greenish brown, with no marks except a dark 
blotch under the dorsal fin and a mark at the base of the caudal. 

1 l<i>>. Probably Northern India; two specimens exist in the 
Calcutta Museum, the longest measuring 3^ inches. 



248 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

4. Genus OREINUS, McClelland. 

Schisothorax, Sect. A, and BtcHtopyye, sp., Heckel. 

Abdomen rounded. Snout rounded ; mouth inferior and trans- 
verse, mandibles short, broad, and flat, loosely joined together at 
the symphysis ; margin of the lower jaw having a hard, horny 
covering, thickest internally, and a thick fringed lower lip with a 
free posterior edge, forming a sucker. Barbels four. Dorsal fin 
rather short and arising opposite the ventrals, its last undivided 
ray osseous or articulated, serrated or entire ; anal short. Scales 
very small ; the vent and base of the anal fin in a sheath covered 
by an enlarged imbricate row of scales. Lateral line passing to the 
centre of the base of the caudal fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Eivers and some lakes in the Hima- 
layan and sub-Him.alayan region, extending to the confines of 
China. These fishes are rarely found in the rivers of the plains at 
any distance from the base of the mountain-ranges. 

The present and the four succeeding genera, Schizopyyopsis, 
ScJiizothoraA\ Ptycobarbus, and Diptychus, consist of carps scale- 
less or more or less covered with minute scales. A membranous 
slit exists anterior to the anal fin, which is laterally bounded by a 
row of vertically-placed scales, like eave-tiles, continued along the 
base of the anal fin. These genera form the Schizothoracince of 
McClelland. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

]). 4/7, A. 3/5. Anal scales about half as 

large as orbit. Black spots on body 1. O. sinuatus, p. 248. 

D. 3/8, A. 3/5. Anal scales two thirds as large 

as orbit. Colours uniform 2. 0. richardsonii, p. 200. 

D. 3/8, A. 3/5. Anal scales about as large as 

orbit. Osseous dorsal ray weak. Colours 

uniform 3. O.plagiostomus^.-2'jO. 

282. (1.) Oreinus sinuatus. (Fig. 88.) 

Schizothorax sinuatus, HccM, Fisch. Caschmir, p. 21, t. 2. 
Oreinus sinuatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 629, pi. cxxiv, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

Gool-goolli and Saul, Punj. ; Jis, Cash. 

B. iii. D. 3-4/8. P. 17. V. 10. A. 2-3/5. C. 19. L. 1. 105. 
Vert. 24/23. 

Length of head 5| to 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter 
two ninths to one sixth of length of head, 2 to 2 diameters apart, 
and almost entirely situated in the front half of the head. Inter- 
orbital space rather convex ; snout rounded, with a very slight 
appearance of pores. Mouth inferior, transverse ; lower lip well 
developed, rugose, entire, having a free posterior edge, and forming 
an adhesive sucker. The posterior edge may be concave or 
slightly lobed in the middle or even straight. Inner side of lower 



CYPBINIDJE. CYPBININ.E. . 249 

lip covered with cartilage, which is extended on to the inferior 
surface, where, however, it is not so horny. Barbels of about 





Fig. 88. Oreinus sinuatus. 

equal length, aud not quite so long as the eye. Preopercle with 
an emarginate posterior border. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 
5, crooked, pointed. Fins dorsal commences a little before the 
ventrals, and slightly nearer to the snout than to the base of the 
caudal fin; its spine is rather strong, moderately serrated, and 
rather longer than the head without the snout ; the fin is rather 
higher than the body below it. Pectoral four fifths as long as the 
head, and extending above halfway to the ventral, which last 
reaches two thirds of the distance to the anal, its last ray divided 
to its base. The anal has a narrow base and its length slightly 
varies, reaching, when laid flat, the whole or only three fourths of 
the distance to the base of the caudal, which is lobed in its 
posterior half. Free portion of tail slightly longer than deep. 
Scales rows above the lateral line about equal in size to those of 
the pierced row, rather smaller below it : about 16 to 20 rows 
between the lateral line and base of ventral fin, and 21 to 25 
between it and base of dorsal ; tile-like row to vent minute, each 
scale in it being from one third to half the diameter of the orbit. 
In May (at Chumba) the ova of these fish inhabiting the main 
stream were almost fully developed, being numerous and of a 
large size. Colour greyish, becoming white below, preopercle 
dashed with golden ; lower fins tinged red. After death two or 
three rows of dark grey blotches appear above the lateral line. 
Some have scattered black and occasionally red spots, and these 
have been termed Trout. 

I fab. Afghanistan, Himalayan rivers, but not extending in the 
plains to far from the base of the mountains. This fish adheres to 
rocks by means of its sucker, and is thus enabled to reside in 
mountain rapids. It attains at least 2 feet in length, is pretty 
good eating, but bony ; it is too rich for some people, but does not 
deleteriously affect those used to it. 



250 TELEOSTEJ. VHY9OSTOMI. 

283. (2.) Oreinus richardsonii. 

Cyprinus richardsonii, Gray $ Hardw. III. Iwl. Zool. i, p!. i)l, fig. -2. 
Oreinus richardsonii, Day, Fish. India, p. 530, pi. cxxv, lig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

" Kemaon Trout," Asia, Nepaul. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 17. V. 10. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 98-100. L. r. 140. 

Length of head 4 to 6 in the total length. Eyes in the middle 
or rather before the middle of the length of the head, diameter 5 
to 6 in the length of head ; width of interorbital space in adults 
almost flat, and nearly equal to one half length of head. A well- 
developed lower lip, which has its posterior free edge straight or 
convex. Barbels about one half as long as eye. Teeth pharyn- 
geal, 4, 4, 2/2, 4, 4, crooked, pointed. Fins dorsal commencing 
about midway between the snout and base of the caudal, its spine 
moderately strong, toothed, becoming nearly smo>th in large 
specimens, and as long as the head excluding the snout. Pectoral 
four fifths as long as the head. Ventral not reaching anal, nor the 
latter the caudal. Scales 24 rows between the lateral line and 
base of the dorsal fin, and 19 between lateral line and ventral ; the 
scales of the tile-like row equal two thirds of the diameter of the 
eye in the young, and are as high as the diameter of orbit in adults. 
Free portion of tbe tail as long as deep. Colour bluish along the 
back, becoming silvery shot with gold on the sides and beneath. 
Head likewise glossed with purple and gold. In some specimens 
there are black spots on tbe sides and head. 

Hob. Nepal, Bhutan, and the sub-Himalayan range. 

284. (3.) Oreinus plagiostomus. 

Schizothorax plagiostomus, Heckel, Finch. Caschmir, p. 16, pi. 1. 
Oreinus plagiostomus, Day, Fish. India, p. 630 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 17. V. 11. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 110. L. r. 170. 

Length of head 5| to 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter 4| 
to 8 in the length of head, and in or rather before the middle of 
the length of the head. Interorbital space nearly flat, and 
equalling about one half length of head ; lower lip with a nearly 
straight and free posterior margin, and studded with glands ; some 
specimens have glands on the snout. Barbels not so long as the 
eye. Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, pointed, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins 
dorsal osseous ray weak, its stiff portion as long as the head 
without the snout, its serrature feeble, almost absent in adults ; 
the fin is not so high as the body, it commences midway between 
the end of the snout and the root of the caudal ; anal when laid 
flat reaches the base of the caudal ; the scales along its base well 
developed, the largest being about the size of the orbit in the 
young, exceeding it in the adult. Colour uniform silvery, or 
with black spots. 

Hub. Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Bhutan. 



CYPBINUJJ5. CIPHININ.E. 



251 



5. Genus SCHIZOPYGOPSIS, Steindaehner. 

Abdomen rounded. Snout obtusely conical. Mouth transverse, 
inferior, with a slight cleft ; mandible with a sharp anterior edge, 
having a horny covering, and the upper lip continuous with a short 
lateral one. Barbels absent. Pharyngetil teeth compressed, 4 or 
3, 3/3, 3 or 4. Dorsal fin short, with a serrated ray, and situated 
nearly opposite to the ventrals ; anal short. Scales small, few, 
and only present in the scapular region, except a scaled sheath to 
the vent and along the base of the anal fin. Lateral line continued 
to the centre of the base of the caudal. Ova comparatively large. 

285. (1.) Schizopygopsis stoliczkaB. (Fig. 89.) 

Sehizopygopsis stoliczkae, Steind. Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, 1866, 
p. 786 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 531, pi. cxxiv, fig. 2. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (3-4/7-8). P. 13. V. 11. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
Length of head 5 to 5| in the total length. Eyes diameter 4 
to 5 in the length of the head, 1 to lg diameters from the end of 
the snout, and 1| to 2 apart. The greatest width of the head 
equals its length behind the middle of the eyes, and its height 
equals its length excluding the snout. The maxilla reaches to 
below the front edge of the eye. An anterior, sharp, horny edge 




Fig. 89. Schizopygopsis stoliczkce. 

to the mandible. Fins the dorsal as high as the body, it com- 
mences about midway between the end of the snout and the root 
of the caudal tin, its last undivided ray osseous and finely serrated. 
Pectoral not quite so long as the head, and reaching rather above 
halfway to the ventral, which latter arises below the middle of the 
dorsal and does not reach the anal. Anal rather above twice as 
high as its base is long, it extends to the caudal when laid flat. 
Caudal deeply forked. Colour olive superiorly, becoming white 
on the sides and beneath, the whole covered with irregular blackish 
spots. 

Hal. Leh and head-waters of Indus, also tributaries of the 
Yarkand and Oxus rivers. 



2,52 TELEOSTEI. MIY8OSTOMI. 



6. Genus SCHIZOTHORAX, Heckel*. 

Syn. Schizopyge, sp., Heckel ; Racoma, sp., McClell. ; Opistocheilus, pt., 
Bleeker. 

Abdomen rounded. Snout conically rounded, and laterally 
somewhat compressed, with the mouth arched and antero-inferior ; 
mandible neither broad, flattened, nor with a sharp margin, its 
edge sometimes having a thin, deciduous horny covering. Barbels 
four. Pharyngeal teeth pointed, hooked, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Dorsal 
h'n rather short, with a strong, osseous, serrated ray, and arising 
opposite the ventrals ; anal short. Scales very small, the vent and 
base of the anal fin in a sheath, covered by an enlarged row ar- 
ranged like tiles. Lateral line passing to the centre of the base of 
the caudal fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Mountain-streams and rivers of the 
Himalayan region, also Afghanistan and Turkestan. 



* The following species of this genus hare also been recorded : 
A. Lower labial fold uninterrupted. 

a. Dorsal spine strong, serrated. 

1. SchizotJiorax larbatus, McClelland, Calc. Jour. N. H. ii, p. 580. Afghan- 
istan. 

b. Dorsal spine feeble, serrated. 

2. 8. ritckcana, McClelland, 1. c. p. 580. Afghanistan. 

3. 8. cdeniana, McClelland, 1. c. p. 579. Cabul river. 

33. Lower labial fold interrupted. Dorsal spine strong, serrated. 

4. & niger, Heckel, Fische aus Caschmir, p. 29, pi. v. Kashmir. 

5. 8. punctatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 785. Kashmir. 

0. 8. micropogon, Heckel, 1. c. p. 41, t. viii, fig. 1. Kashmir. 

7. 8. planifrons, Heckel, I. c. p. 44, t. viii, fig. 2. Kashmir. 

8. S. huegclii, Heckel, I. c. p. 36, pi. vii. Kashmir. 

9. 8. curvifrons, Heckel, 1. c. p. 25, pi. iii. Kashmir. 

10. 8. intermedia, McClelland, I. c. p. 579 ; Day, I. c. p. 786, pi. cxxiv, fig. 1. 
Afghanistan and Turkestan. 

11. S. nasus, Heckel, I. c. p. 32, pi. vi. Tvashmir. 

12. 8. microcephalus, Day, 1. c. p. 787, pi. cxxv, fig. 2. From a tributary of 
the Oxus Panja. 

13. S. longipinnis, Heckel, I. c. p. 27, t. iv. Kashmir. 

14. S. chrysochlorus, Day, I. c. p. 784 ; Racoma chrysochlora, McClelland, 
1. c. p. 577, t. xv, fig. 3 ; -S. biddulphi, Giinther, A. M. N. H. ser. 4, xvii, 1876, 
p. 400. Afghanistan and Turkestan. 

15. S. nobilis; Racoma nobilis, McClelland, I. c. p. 577, t. xv, fig. 4. Afghan- 
istan. 

16. 8. labiatus, McClelland, 1. c. p. 578, t. xv, fig. 1. Afghanistan. 

17. S. gobioides ; Racoma gobioides, McClelland, I. c. p. 576, t. xv, fig. 3. Af- 
ghanistan. 

18. 8. brcvis ; Racoma brevis, McClelland, 1. c. p. 578. Afghanistan. 
Amongst the foregoing 18 species it is most probable that several will turn 

out to be synonyms ; some of those described by McClelland may belong to the 
genus Oreinus. 



CYPRINIDJE. CTPEININJE. 253 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 11-12, A. 7, L. 1. 150. Snout elongate. 

Lower lip with a free posterior edge 1. S. progastus, p. 253. 

D. 12, A. 7. Lower labial fold interrupted. ... 2. S. esocinus, p. 254. 

286. (1.) ScMzotiiorax progastus. (Fig. 90.) 

Oreinus progastus, McClell, As. Res, xix, pt. 2 ; 2nd, Cyp. pp. 274, 

343, pi. 40, fig. 4. 
Schizotkorax progastus, Uay, Fish. India, p. 532, pi. cxxii, fig. 7 

(see synon.). 

Dinnawah, N. W. Prov. ; Adoee and Loh-one, Assamese. 

B. iii. D. 11-12 (3/5-9). P. 19. V. 11. A. 2/5. C. 19. 

L. 1. 150-160. 

Length of head 5| to 5| in the total length. Eyes from 4| 
to 6 diameters in the length of the head and situated in its middle. 
Snout pointed. Depth of cleft of mouth equals the width of the 
gape. Upper jaw projecting ; lip thick and fleshy, having a free 
posterior edge in its whole circumference, upper lip elevated in the 
centre, lower with a central lobe and a lateral one on either side. 
Lips internally covered with a thin, deciduous, cartilaginous layer. 
Barbels four, the rostral about as long as the orbit, the maxillary 
pair rather shorter. Fins dorsal commences midway between 




Fig. 90. Schizothorax progastus. 

end of snout and root of caudal fin, its osseous ray strong, coarsely 
serrated, and as long as the head behind the angle of the mouth. 
The pectoral does not reach the ventral, nor the latter the anal. 
Anal when laid flat nearly reaches the base of the caudal, which is 
deeply forked. Scales in tile-like rows but little developed, the 
largest not being half as broad 'as the orbit. About 18 rows 
between the lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour uniform 
silvery, sometimes having a few fine spots; fins with darkish 
edges. 

Ifab. Himalayas, from the head-waters of the Ganges to Sadiya 
in Upper Assam. Common at Hardwar, where the Ganges de- 
bouches into the plains. It attains at least 20 inches in length. 



254 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

287. (2.) Schizothorax esocinus. 

Schizothornx esocinus, Ilcckel, Finch. Caschmir, p. 48, t. ix ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 533, pi. cxxiii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 12 (4/8).". P. 20. V. 10. A. 7 (2/5). C. 20. 

Length of head 4| to 4| in the total length. Eyes diameter 
6| in the length of head, 2 diameters from the end of snout, and 
also apart. The upper jaw the longer ; the maxilla reaches to 
nearly below the front edge of the eye. Lower labial fold inter- 
rupted in the middle. A horny covering to inside of the lower 
jaw. Barbels the rostral more than halt' longer than the eye, the 
maxillary a little shorter. Fins the dorsal as high as the body, 
commencing slightly nearer to the base of the caudal than to the 
end of the snout ; its last undivided ray osseous, coarsely serrated 
posteriorly, whilst its bony portion is as long as the head excluding 
the snout. The pectoral does not quite reach the ventral ; the 
latter, which arises beneath the second or third undivided dorsal 
ray, extends two thirds of the distance to the anal. Length of base 
of anal about three sevenths of its height, when laid flat the anal 
reaches the caudal, which is deeply forked, Free portion of the 
tail as high at its base as it is long. Colour silvery, with nume- 
rous black spots, most distinct in the upper half of the body. 

Hob. Leh or Ladak and head-waters of the .Indus, also Kashmir 
and Afghanistan. 

7. Genus PTYCHOBARBTJS, Steindacbner. 
Abdomen rounded; snout conical; mouth arched, anterior or 
inferior. Two maxillary barbels. Pharyngeal teeth compressed 
4. 3/3, 4. Dorsal fin situated opposite the veutrals, without or 
with a feeble osseous ray, which is smooth or serrated ; anal short. 
Scales small, covering the body, and forming a sheath at the base 
of the vent and anal fin. Lateral line continued to the centre of 
the base of the caudal. 

Geographical Distribution. Head-waters of the Indus, Tibet and 
Kashgar. 

288. (1.) Ptychobarbus conirostris. (Fig. 91.) 

Ptychobarbus conirostris, Steind. Verli. z.-b. Ges. Wien, 18C6, p. 790, 
pi. 17, fig. 4 ; Day, Full. India, p. 533, pi. cxxv, fig. 3. 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 22. V. 10. A. 7-8. 0. 19. 

L. 1. 95. L. tr. 24/ . 

Length of head 4| to 5 in total length. Eyes diameter from 
4| to 5| in the length of head, 2 diameters from the eud of snout, 
and l;j apart. Mouth rather overhung by the snout ; the maxilla 
reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Lower labial fold 
very broad, uninterrupted. Barbels a maxillary pair, which in 
the adult reach to the hind edge of the preopercle. Fins the 
dorsal, situated midway between the snout and the base of the 



CYPRINIDJS. CYPBININ.E. 255 

caudal fin, has no osseous ray, and is as high as the body below it. 
The pectoral is as long as the head behind the nostril, and does not 
quite reach the ventral, which latter arises beneath the last few 
dorsal rays, and extends two thirds of the distance to the base of. 
the anal. Anal when laid flat reaches the base of the caudal, its 




Fig. 91. Ptyckobarbits conirostris. 

base is 2g in its height. Scales the tile-like row small, not one 
third the diameter of the eye. Colour -silvery, darkest on the 
back and upper half of the body, where most of the scales have 
dark edges. Upper surface of the head spotted with black. Some 
dark spots on the dorsal fin, and sometimes a few light ones on 
the caudal. 

Hub. Head-waters of the Indus and Tibet. 

8. Genus DIPTYCHUS, Steindachner. 

Abdomen rounded ; snout obtuse ; mouth inferior, transverse, 
curved ; lower jaw sharp, with an internal horny covering ; lips 
continuous and having an uninterrupted labial fold across the 
mandible. Two maxillary barbels. Gill-opening narrow. Pha- 
ryngeal teeth compressed 4, 3/3, 4. Dorsal fin without osseous ray, 
commencing anterior to the ventrals : anal short ; caudal forked. 
Scales small, not imbricate but scattered along the upper two 
thirds of the body, the thoracic region, the sides and the tail, also 
a scaly sheath to the vent and base of the anal fin. Lateral line 
continued to the centre of the base of the caudal. 

289. (1.) Diptychus maculatus. (Fig. 92.) 

Diptychusmaculatus, Steind. Verh. z.3>. Ges. Wien, 1866, p. 788, 1. 13, 
lig. 5; -Day, Fish. India, p. 534, pi. cxxiv, fig. 3 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8-9). P. 19. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). 

C. 19. L. 1. 80-90. 

Length of head 5 to 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter 4^ 
iu the young to 6 in the adult in the length of the head, \\ to 2 
diameters from the end of the snout, and 1^ apart. Lower labial 
fold interrupted in the middle. Barbels a pair on the maxilla 
hardly so long as the eye. Fins dorsal as high as the body, 



250 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

arising rather nearer the snout than the base of the caudal fin, the 
last undivided ray articulated. Pectoral not quite so long as the 
head and reaching rather above halfway to the ventral, which 
latter commencing below the last dorsal ray extends halfway to 




Fig. 92. Dipfychus maculatus. 

the anal. Height of anal nearly three times the length of its base, 
laid flat the anal reaches the caudal. Settles scattered over the 
upper two thirds of the body and pectoral region. Tile-like row 
well developed. Free portion of tail one half longer than high at 
its base. Colour bluish, lightest inferiorly, indistinctly blotched 
and spotted in the upper half of the body ; often a narrow dull 
band along the lateral line, and a second below it. In some spe- 
cimens the dorsal and caudal fins are much spotted. 

Hob. Head-waters of the Indus, Tibet, Nepal, and affluents of 
the Yarkand river. 

9. Genus LABEO, Cuvier. 

Syn. Bangana, pt., Ham. Buch. ; Rohita, pt., Cuv. and Val. ; Tylognathus, 
Heckel ; Nandina, Gray ; Ifypselobarbus, Diplocheihis, Dijtlocheilic/tfJiys, 
LobocheihtSjIiohitichthys, Murulius, SchismatorJiynchus, and Gobionichtkys, 
Bleeker ; Gobiobarbtis, IJybowski ; Paralytoynathus, Sauvage. 

Body moderately elongated, abdomen rounded; mouth sometimes 
anterior but mostly inferior, transverse, and semi-oval. Lips thick, 
covering the jaws, continuous at the angle of the mouth, and one 
or both having an inner transverse fold. A soft and movable 
horny covering, with a sharp margin on the inner side of one or 
both lips. Snout rounded, generally projecting beyond the mouth, 
mostly covered with tubercles, and sometimes having a lateral 
lobe or projection. Barbels, when present, four or two ; if there is 
only one pair they are on the maxilla, the second being on the 
snout. Pharyngeal teeth hooked and in three rows, generally 5, 
4, 2/2, 4, 5. Dorsal fin of moderate length or elongate, destitute 
of any osseous ray, and arising anterior to the commencement of 
the ventral. Anal short. Scales of large, moderate, or small size. 
Lateral line running along the middle of the side of the tail. Gill- 
rakers usually short. 



CYPK1NID.E. CYPllINIffjE. 257 



The horny layer, which is so common inside of the lips of the 
Schizothoracince., is still perceptible in the fishes of this genus, but 
in many of those of the plains takes on the character more of a thin 
cartilaginous than of a horny covering. The snout has sometimes a 
deep depression across it as observed in Discor/nathus. The fins 
frequently increase in height and length more rapidly than do the 
proportions of the body ; in adults the upper edge of the dorsal fin is 
often more concave than in the young. The largest species are found 
near the coldest hills, pointing to their probable. Palaearctic origin. 
In some species having the least number of dorsal rays, the lips are 
much thinner than in the typical Labeos ; should such have only 
t\vo barbels these are maxillary, whereas in Cirrhina they would 
be rostral. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical Africa, 83^1, throughout the 
fresh writers of India, Ceylon, and Burma, to the Malay Archi- 
pelago, &c. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 24-20, L. 1. 42-44, L. tr. 6-7/8. 4 bar- 

bels ............................ 1. L. nandina, p. 258. 

D. 19-22, L. 1. 44-47, L. tr. 9-10/8-9. 4 

barbels .......................... 2. L.fimhriatm, p. 258. 

D. 17-18, L. 1. 36, L. tr. 6/7. 4 barbels. 

Nearly black ...................... 3. L. nigrescens, p. 259. 

D. 16-18, L. 1. 40-44, L. tr. 7|/8. 4 bar- 

bels. Slate-colour ................ 4. L. calbasu, p. 259. 

D. 17, L. 1. 46^7. 2 maxillary barbels. 

Dark grey ........................ 5. L. stoliczkcs, p. 260. 

D. 15-17, L. 1. 71-84, L. tr. 16/17. 4 

barbels .......................... 6. L. gonius, p. 261 . 

D. 15-16, L. 1. 53-55, L. tr. 8-9/9. 4 

barbels .......................... 7. L. dussumieri, p. 262. 

D. 15-16, L. 1. 40-42, L. tr. 6|/9. 4 bar- 

bels ............................ 8. L. rohita, p. 262. 

D. 15-16, L. 1. 39, L. tr. 7/8. 4 barbels . . 9. L. porcellus, p. 263. 
D. 14, L. 1. 39-40, L. tr. 8/7. A pair of 

maxillary barbels .................. 10. L. potail, p. 264. 

D. 15-16, L."L 38-41, L. tr. 7/8. 4 bar- 

bels ............................ 11. L. kontitis, p. 264. 

D. 14, I,. 1. 40, L. tr. 6/11. 2 barbels. ... 12. L. cceruleus, p. 266. 

D. 13, L. 1. 41-44, L. tr. 8/9. JMouthwjda. 

2 barbels ........................ 13. L. diplostomus, p. 265. 

D. 13, L. 1. 43, L. tr. 8|/7. 2 barbels . . 14. L. dyochilus, p. 266. 
D. 13, L. 1. 40-42, L. tr. 7^/8. 2 barbels . 15. L. pangusia, p. 266. 
D. 12-13, L. 1. 42, L. tr. 7/8. 2 or 4 bar- 

bels ............................ 16. L. angra, p. 267. 

D. 11-12, L. 1. 37-40, L. tr. 7/7. 2 bar- 

bels ........................ 17. L. bata, p. 268. 

D. 12-13, L. 1. 41-43, L. tr. 8/9. 2 bar- 

bels .............................. 18. L. microphthalmus,]). 268. 

D. 12, L. 1. 60, L. tr. 12-14. One pair of 

maxillary barbels .................. 19. L. boggtit, p. 269. 

!). 11-12, L.'l. 37-39, L. tr. 7/7. One pair 

of small maxillary barbels. Silvery . . 20. L. boga, p. 269. 



258 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

D. 11, L. 1. 38, L. tr. 8/9. One pair of 

maxillary barbels; a deep groove 

across snout 21. L. nukta, p. 270. 

1). 11, L.I. 40-42, L. tr. 8/8. 2 barbels. . 22. L. niffripmnit, p. 271. 

D. 12-13, L. 1. 43, L. tr. 8/9. 2 barbels. . 23. L. simlensis, p. 271. 

1). 11, L. 1. 38, L. tr. 7/8. 2 barbels 24. L. atiza, p. 272. 

D. 11, L. 1. 38, L. tr. 6/6. 2 barbels .... 25. L. kawrus, p. 272. 

290. (1.) Labeo nandina. 

Cyprinus nandina, Ham. Bucli. Fish. Ganges, pp. 300, 388, pi. viii, 

tig. 84. 
Labeo nandina, Day, Fish. India, p. 535, pi. cxxvi, figs. 1 & 2 

(variety macronotus) (see synou.). 

Nandin, Beng. ; Nya-ohn-don, Nya-net-pyah, Nya-yin-pounsa, and 
Nya-thyn, Burmese. 

B. iii. D. 24-26 (2-3/22-24). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 42-44. L. tr. 6-7/8. 

Length of head 4| to 5, of caudal fin 4| to 4|, height of body 4 
in the total length. Eyes diameter 4| to 5 in length of head, 1^ 
diameters from end of snout, and 2J- apart. Dorsal profile rather 
concave above the eyes ; interorbital space flat ; the width of the 
mouth one third of the length of the head. Snout obtuse, slightly 
projecting beyond the jaws, no lateral lobe ; a few fine pores on snout. 
Lips thick and fringed, with a distinct inner fold above and below. 
Barbels four, short. Phis the dorsal commences midway be- 
tween the snout and the end of the base of the anal fin ; its 
upper edge is somewhat convex. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 
five rows between the lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour 
dark greenish above, becoming lighter on the sides and beneath ; 
a few cloudy blotches along the sides ; the centre of many of the 
scales reddish. 

Hub. Bengal, Assam, and Burma. I have obtained this species 
as high up the Irrawaddy as Mandalay. Said to attain 3 feet in 
length, and 30 or 40 pounds in weight. 

291. (2.) Labeo fimbriatus. 

Cyprinus fimbriatus, Block, Ich. xii, p. 50, pi. 409 ; Bl. Schn. Syst. 

Ich. p. 441. 
Labeo tinibriatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 536, pi. cxxvi, fig. 3 (see 

synon.). 

S/iaal, Tain. ; Ruchu and. Gandumenu, Tel. ; Bahrum, Ooriah ; Tambra, 
Marathi. 

B. iii. D. 19-22 (3-4/15-18). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

L. 1. 44-47. L. tr. 9-10/8. 

Length of head 6^ to 6| in the total length. Eyes diameter 
3| to 4| in length of head, 1| to H diameters from end of snout, 
and 2 apart. Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen. 
The mouth slightly overhung by the snout, which is obtuse, rather 
swollen, aud studded with minute pores, but destitute of u lateral 



CYPRINIDJE. CYPRININJE. 259 

lobe. Lips thick, continuous, and having an inner fold above and 
below, both fringed. Barbels rostral and maxillary pairs short. 
Teeth phaiyngeal, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins dorsal commences some- 
what nearer to the snout than to the base of the caudal, it is two 
thirds as high as the body, its upper edge concave. Pectoral nearly 
as long as the head, it' does not reach the ventral. The ventral 
nearly extends to the anal, and the latter to the caudal. Caudal 
deeply forked. Scales 6 or 7 rows between the lateral line 
and the base of the ventral fin. Colour silvery along the back, 
becoming lighter on the sides and beneath. Pins, more especially 
the ventral, anal, and lower caudal lobe, stained with black. 
Sometimes a diffused dark blotch, almost invariably present in 
the young, at the base of the caudal. 

Hab. Sind, Punjab, the Deccan, and probably N.E. Bengal; 
also Southern India at least to Orissa, not recorded from Malabar 
or Canara. Attains a foot and a half in length, and is good eating, 
but bony. 

292. (3.) Labeo nigrescens. 
Labeo nigrescens, Day, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 371 ; Fish. India, p. 536, 

pi. cxxvii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 
Mul-vel and Kurri-minu, Canarese. 

B. iii. D. 17-18 (2-3/14-15). P. 19. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19-21. 
L. 1. 36. L. tr. 6/7. 

Length of head 5 in the total length. Eyes diameter 4 to 5 
in the length of head, 2 diameters from the end of snout and 
also apart. Snout rather swollen and rounded, and somewhat 
projecting over the lower jaw ; a small lateral lobe ; glands over 
the whole of the snout. A very distinct labial fold both above 
and below ; a deep transverse groove across the chin ; lower lip 
deeply fringed. Barbels maxillary as long as the orbit, rostral 
rather shorter. Fins dorsal commences midway between front 
end of snout and posterior end of base of anal fin. The pectoral 
reaches to above the ventral ; the latter, which is inserted beneath 
the fourth dorsal ray, reaches to the anal. Anal rather elongated 
anteriorly, being three fifths higher than its base is long ; if 
laid backwards it reaches the base of the caudal, which latter fin is 
deeply forked. Scales 4}j rows between the lateral line and base 
of the ventral fin. Colour deep brown, each scale with a black 
spot at its base. Fins black. 

Hub. Mangalore and South Canara ; said to attain 18 inches in 
length. 

293. (4.) Labeo calbasu. (Fig. 93.) 

Cyprians calbasu, Ham. Buck. Fish. Gang. pp. 297, 387, pi. ii, 

"fig. S3. 
Labeo calbasu, Day, Fish. India, p. 636, pi. cxxvi, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

urmenUfToluga ; Kiilbasu and Kund/ia, Jieiig., and Cuggera 
; Multlee, Assam; Kula-beinse, Ouriali and lliiid. ; Di, 1'unj. ; 

s2 



200 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

Dl-hee, Sind. ; K'inoihi, Mavathi ; Dai, ditch; Kurri-minu, Canarese ; 
Nya-nek-pya, Nya-noo-than, Nya-ony-tony, and Nja-yyeen-boo, Burmese. 

B. iii. D. 16-18 (3/13-15). P. 19. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 40-44. L. tr. 7 1/8. 

Length of head 5 to 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter 4 to 
5 in the length of the head, \\ to 2 diameters from end of snout, 
and 2^ apart. Mouth rather narrow ; snout obtuse and depressed, 
destitute of a lateral lobe but with pores. Lips thick, fringed 
(more especially the lower one), and each having a distinct inner 
fold. Barbels four, the rostral slightly the longer, and about 
equal in length to the diameter of the orbit. Teeth pharyngeal, 
crooked, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins dorsal commences in advance of the 




Fig. 93. Labeo calbasu. 

ventrals, and midway between the snout and the base of the caudal, 
its upper margin somewhat concave. Ventral commences below 
the fourth or fifth dorsal ray. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 
51 to 6 rows between the lateral line and the base of the ventral 
fin. In some districts, adults have very elongated fins, the first 
few dorsal rays reach even to the base of the caudal, the ventral 
extends to the end of the base of the anal, whilst the anal when 
laid flat reaches the middle of the caudal. Colour blackish ; some- 
times, especially in examples from clear streams, many of the scales 
have a scarlet centre. Fins black, occasionally the end of the upper 
lobe of the caudal white. 

Hal. Punjab, Sind, Cutch, Deccan, Southern India and Malabar, 
from the Kistna through Orissa, Bengal, and Burma. It grows to 
3 feet in length ; were it not for its numerous bones, it would be 
excellent eating. 

294. (5.) Labeo stoliczkae. 

Labeo &\x>\\czkte,Stemt1achnei',Sit.ztmg8b. k.k.Akad. JfVrw,lxi, Abth. 1, 
1870, p. 634 : Day, Fish. India, p. 637, pi. cxxxv, fig-. 1 (see synon.). 

i Burm. 



CYPRINID.E. CYPRiyiyJE. 261 

B. iii. D. 15-16 (3/12-13). P. 19. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. J. 44. L. tr. 9/13. 

Length of head 4^ in the total length. Eyes diameter 3 to 
4 in the length of head, about 1 diameter from end of snout, and 
2 apart. Snout not swollen, destitute of a lateral lobe, and not 
overhanging the upper jaw. A deep groove across the chin, with 
a distinct labial fold. Lower lip very finely fringed. Pores on the 
snout. Barbels a very short maxillary pair concealed in the 
labial fold. Fins upper edge of dorsal fin concave, the fin com- 
mences midway between the end of the snout and the posterior 
extremity of the base of the anal fin ; it is two thirds as high as the 
body below it, and the length of its base equals its greatest height. 
Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout ; ventral inserted 
below the fifth dorsal ray. Anal laid flat does not reach the caudal, 
which is forked. Lateral line 7 to 8 rows of scales between it 
and the base of the ventral fin. Colour of a deep leaden silvery 
along the upper half of the body, white shot with gold beneath. 
A black mark behind the gill-openings, and in the young another 
on the side of the tail. 

Hah. Irrawaddy river, and also Moulmein. 



295. (6.) Labeo gonius, 

Cyprinus gonius, Ham. Buck. Fishes of Ganges, pp. 292, 387. 
Labeo gonius, Day, Fish. India, p. 537, pi. cxxvii, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

Mosoo, Tel. ; Cursua, Ooriah ; EurcM and Goni, Beng. ; Cursa and 
Colloose, Hind. ; Cowrie and Bahtoor, Assam ; Cir-re-oh, Sind ; Nga-dane 
and Nya-hoo, Burmese ; Nga-pay, Tenasseiim. 

B. iii. D. 15-17 (2-3/13-14). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). 
C. 19. L.I. 71-84. L. tr. 16/17. 

Length of head 5 to 5| in the total length. Eyes diameter 4| 
to 5 in the length of the head, 1| diameters from the end of snout, 
2 apart. Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen. 
Mouth rather narrow, its width equalling 3J in the length of the 
head ; no lateral lobe, but numerous pores on the snout. Lips 
thick, and with a distinct inner fold in their entire circumference, 
both fringed. Barbels rostral and maxillary present but short. 
Teeth pharyngeal, plough- shaped, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins the 
dorsal commences much nearer the snout than the base of the 
caudal fin ; it is two thirds as high as the body, and its upper edge 
is concave. Pectoral nearly or quite as long as the head. Ventral 
commences under the middle of the dorsal. Caudal deeply forked. 
Scales from 9 to 13 rows between the lateral line and the base 
of the ventral fin. Colour greenish along the back, becoming 
lighter on the sides ; scales darkest at their margins, many having 
red lunules on them. 

This fish is extensively used for the purpose of stocking tankf. 



262 TELEOSTEI. 1'IIYSOSTOMI. 

At Calcutta the form L. yonius is most common with D. 2/13, but 
I luive seen two specimens with D. 2/14 from the locality. In 
Orissa and Ganjam the rows of scales along the lateral line are 
about 74, with only about 9 rows of scales between the lateral line 
and base of the ventral fin. To the north, as at Saharanpur, the 
scales along the lateral line only number 71, while there are 10 
or 11 rows between it and the base of the ventral fin. In the 
Brahmaputra the form L. gonius is found as high as Gauhati, 
where it mostly has D. 2/14 ; with it is another variety (L. cursis} 
with D. 2/14, a rather higher body than is normal, the scales 
in rather irregular rows, some red spots on the sides, and about 
15 rows of scales bet.weeu the lateral line and base of the ventral 
fin. 

Hob. Indus in Sind, through the N.W. Provinces, Bengal, and 
Orissa to Ganjam, as low as the Kistna ; Assam and Burma. This 
species attains nearly 5 feet in length. 

296. (7.) Labeo dussumieri 

Rohita dussumieri, Cuv. fy Vol. H. N. Poiss. xvi, p. 258, pi. 475. 
Labeo dussumieri, Day, Fish. India, p. 538, pi. cxxvi, tig. 5 (see 
synon.). 

Toolee, Mai. 

B. iii. D. 15-16 (3/12-13). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). 
C. 19. L. 1. 53-00. L. tr. 8-9/9. 

Length of head 5|- to 7 in the total length. Eyes diameter 4 
to 4-| in length of head, 1^ diameters from end of snout, and 3 
apart. Body elongated and compressed, the abdominal profile 
rather more convex than the dorsal. Mouth of moderate width 
and somewhat inferior, surrounded by fleshy, fringed lips, having 
a distinct inner fold above and below, but no lateral lobe. Some- 
times numerous pores on the snout, extending posteriorly as far as 
the orbits, and below the nostrils. Barbels four, minute. Fins 
dorsal commences midway between the end of the snout and end 
of base of anal fin ; its upper edge concave. Caudal very deeply 
forked. Scales 5 or 5 rows between the lateral line and the 
base of the ventral fin. Colour greyish, lightest beneath ; scales 
with a reddish centre, edged with a darker shade. Usually a dull 
diffused dark spot on either side of the tail. Pins dusky. 

Hob. Rivers of South Malabar, Ceylon, and perhaps Bombav ; 
attaining at least 13 inches in length. " 

297. (8.) Labeo rohita. 

Cyprinus roLita, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 301, 388, pi. 30, fig. 85. 
Labeo rohita, Day, Fish. India, p. 538, pi. cxsvii. tig. 4 (see syuon.). 
Ruhu, Ooriah ; Kuce, Beng. ; Nya-myit-chhi, Ni/a-myit-tsan-nee, and 
Nya-thyn, Burmese ; Dum-bra, Sind. 

B. iii. D. 15-16 (3/12-13). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 40-42. L. tr. 6^/9. 



CTPRINID^. CTPRININ^. 203 

Length of head 4.4 to 5 in the total length. Eyes diameter 4 
to 6 in the length of the head, 1-J to 2 diameters from end of snout, 
and 3 apart. Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdo- 
men, somewhat concave over the orbit. Snout obtuse, depressed, 
not or scarcely swollen, but projecting beyond the jaws ; no lateral 
lobe ; lips rather thick, fringed, and with a distinct inner fold 
above and below. Barbels a short and thin maxillary pair ; a 
rostral pair said to be sometimes present. Teeth pharyngeal, 
plough-shaped, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. Fim the dorsal arises about 
midway between the snout and the base of the caudal fin ; it is not 
quite so high as the body, and its upper edge is moderately 
concave. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout. 
Ventral inserted below the third or fourth dorsal ray. Caudal 
deeply forked. Scales 6 to 6|- rows between lateral line and base 
of ventral fin. Colour bluish or brownish along the back, be- 
coming silvery on the sides and beneath ; sometimes there is a red 
mark on each scale. In some specimens the fins are black. 

Hdb. Fresh waters of Sind, and from the Punjab through India 
and Assam to Burma. Not found in Madras nor on the Western 
coast. This fish attains 3 feet or more in length. It is esteemed 
excellent as food, and propagated with care in ponds in Bengal. 



298. (9.) Labeo porcellns. 

Tylognathus porcellus, Heckd, in Hiigel\<* Kashmir, iv, p. 385. 
Labeo porcellus, Day, Fish. India, p. 639, pi. cxxviii, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 15-16 (2/13-14). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 39. L. tr. 7/8. 

Length of head 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter 5 in the 
length of head, 2 diameters from the end of snout and also apart. 
Dorsal profile rather more convex than that of the abdomen. 
Snout rather projecting. Lips thick, with a distinct inner fold to 
both jaws, which have each a thin cartilaginous internal covering. 
Gill-rakers small and rather closely set. Barbels four, the 
maxillary rather longer than the rostral pair. Fins dorsal not 
quite so high as the body ; it commences midway between the snout 
and the posterior end of the base of the anal fin, its upper edge is 
rather concave. Pectoral as long as the head; ventral rather 
shorter. Scales 5 rows between the lateral line and the base of 
the ventral fin. Colour greyish superiorly, becoming dull white 
on the sides and beneath ; most of the scales darkest at their edges. 
A dark spot usually present at the base of the caudal fin. Be- 
hind the centre of the opercle is a bluish spot, which may be 
continued on to the shoulder. Fins greyish, darkest along their 
centres. 

Hab. Poona and Bombay. Found also in Ceylon (Haly). 



264 TELEOSTET. P1IYSO8TOMI. 

299. (10.) Labeo potail. 

Cyprinus potail, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 354. 

Labeo potail, Day, Fish. India, p. 539, pi. cxxvii, fig. 3 (see synon.). 

Dotondi, Mahr. 

B. iii. D. 13-14 (2/11-12). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L.I. 39-40. L. tr. 8/7. 

Length of head 51 in the total length. Eyes situated in the 
commencement of the posterior half of the head, from 4 to 6 
diameters in the length of the head. Dorsal profile rather more 
convex than that of the abdomen. Mouth narrow. Snout over- 
hanging the mouth, with a slightly produced lateral lobe ; lower 
labial fold entire, a deep groove existing across the chin. Snout 
smooth, or with fine pores. A cartilaginous layer to inner side 
of both jaws. Barbels a maxillary pair. Fins dorsal commences 
rather nearer the snout than the base of caudal fin, its upper 
margin is a little concave ; the height of the fin two thirds that of 
the body. Pectoral nearly as long as the head, and equal to the 
ventral in length. Anal much highest anteriorly ; caudal deeply 
forked, upper lobe the longer. Scales 5^ rows between lateral 
line and base of ventral. Colour greyish, each scale with a red 
lunule ; fins stained grey along their edges, and dorsal along its 
centre. 

Hob. Deccan, from Poona to Tungabhadra river. 

300. (11.) Labeo kontius. 

Cyprinus kontius, Jerdon, Maff. Jour. L. S. xv, p. 302 (1849). 
Labeo kontius, Day, Fish. India, p. 539, pi. cxxvii, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

Currumunnee condee and Curoo-moolee-candee, Tarn. 

B. iii. D. 15-16 (3-4/12-13). P. 15. V. 10. A. 7 (2/5). 
C. 19. L.I. 38-41. L. tr. 7/8. 

Length of head 6 to 7 in the total length. Eyes in the imma- 
ture usually in the middle of the length of the head, in the adult 
in the commencement of its last half, diameter 4% to 5 in the 
length of the head. Profile above the eyes rather concave. Dorsal 
profile more convex than the abdominal. Muzzle blunt truncated, 
covered with pores, and having a short fleshy lateral prolongation. 
Width of mouth 2j in the length of the head. Lips thick, with a 
distinct inner fold below ; the lower one is fringed. Snout over- 
hanging the mouth. Barbels four, short. Teeth pharyngeal, 
plough-shaped, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins dorsal commences midway 
between snout and hind end of base of anal, its upper margin is 
concave. Pectoral reaches to nearly above the ventral ; the latter 
does not reach the anal. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 5 rows 
between lateral line and base of ventral. Colour a general 
reddish or fleshy tinge, darkest along the back. In most of the 



CTPEINID^E. CYPRINIXJE. 265 

specimens obtained from the Coleroon river, each scale had a red 
centre. 

Hah. Eivers along the base of the Nilgiris, and the Cauvery and 
Coleroon in all their branches down to the coast. Grows to two 
feet in length. 

301, (12.) Labeo caBruleus. 
Labeo cseruleus, Day, Fish. India, p. 540, pi. cxxix, fig. 3. 

B. iii. D. 14 (2/12). P. 18. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 40. L. tr. 6/11. 

Length of head 4f in the total length. Eyes 4 diameters in the 
length of head, 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 2 apart. Mouth 
narrow, its width equalling two sevenths of the length of the head. 
Snout overhanging the mouth ; no lateral lobe. Lips continuous, 
and having a distinct inner fold in their entire circumference ; both 
lips fringed. A horny inner covering to either lip. Barbels a, 
short pair to the maxilla. Fins dorsal arises anteriorly to the 
ventral, and slightly nearer to the end of the snout than to the 
base of the caudal fin, in front it is two thirds as high as the body, 
its upper edge concave. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the 
snout, it docs not reach the vantral nor the latter the anal. Anal 
when laid flat reaches the base of the* caudal, which is deeply 
forked. Scales 6 rows between lateral line and base of ventral 
fin. Colour bluish, with a yellowish tinge on the sides and be- 
neath. Outer half of anal nearly black, and a blackish lunule on 
the caudal. 

Hub. Biver at the base of the Sind Hills. 

302. (13.) Labeo diplostomus. 

Varicorhinus diplostomus, Heckel, Fisch. Caschmir, p. 07, pi. xi. 
Labeo diplostomus, Day, Fish. India, p. 540, pi. cxxix, fag. 2 (see 

synon.). 

Nepura, Assam ; Kul-ka-batta, Beng. ; Gid and Giddah, Punj. ; 
Muhaylee, Hind. (Hurdwar), and Gaywah, Saharanpur. 

B. iii. D. 12-13 (2-3/9-10). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 41-44. L. tr. 8/9. 

Length of head 5 to Q\ in the total length. Eyes situated 
either in or (in the voung) rather before the middle of the length 
of the head, diameter 5 to 6^ in the total length of head, and 2^- 
to 3 diameters apart. Dorsarprofile more convex than that of the 
abdomen. Mouth rather narrow; snout overhanging the jaws, 
generally with a groove across it, and covered with pores ; no 
lateral lobe. Lips thick and continuous, but the fold across the 
lower jaw is interruped. A cartilaginous layer on inside of both 
lips. Gill -rakers closely set, about one third as long as the eye. 
a small maxillary pair. Tetth pharyngeal, plough-shaped, 



206 TKI/KOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins dorsal arises midway between the front of 
the snout and the end of the bass of the anal fin ; its upper edge is 
slightly concave in the young, becoming deeply so in the adult. 
The pectoral does not extend to the ventral, nor the latter to the 
anal. Caudal deeply forked, the upper lobe the longer. Scales 
six or seven rows between lateral line and base of ventral fin. 
Colour greyish, darkest along the back, each scale tinged with 
red ; a darkish band along the side, or short grey bars passing to 
the lateral line. Fins with a faint reddish hue. Outer edge of 
dorsal rather stained. 

Hub. Along the ISincl hills and Himalayas, also in the Brahma- 
putra in Assam. 

303. (14.) Labeo dyochilus. 

Cyprinus dyocheilus, McClelland, As. lies, xix, pt. 2 ; Ind. Cyp. 

pp. 268, 330, pi. 37, fig. 1. 
Labeo dyocheilus, Day, Fish. India, p. 540, pi. cxxx, fig. 1 (see 

synon.). 
Boalla, Hind. ; Heel-yorya, Assamese; Nu-ga-dee, Sind. 

B. iii. D. 13 (2/11). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 43. L. tr. 8l/7i 

Length of head 5 to 5| in the total length. Eyes situated in 
the commencement of the posterior half of the head in the young, 
still further back in the adult; diameter from 6 to 9 in the length 
of the head, and from 31 to 5 apart. Width of head equals two 
thirds of its length ; its lower surface being very broad and flat. 
Snout conical, projecting, and with a distinct lateral lobe. Mouth 
wide, its gape equal to one half to two fifths the length of the head, 
it is directed downwards when the upper jaw is protruded. Lips 
of both jaws continuous, the fold across the lower jaw interrupted. 
A horny inner covering to both lips. Pores on snout. Bat-Ids 
one short maxillary pair. Teeth pharyngeal, plough-shaped, 
5, 4, 3/3, 4. 5. fins dorsal commences midway between end of 
snout and posterior end of base of anal fin ; its upper margin con- 
cave, especially in the adult. The pectoral reaches the ventral, 
and the latter the base of the anal. Caudal deeply forked, its 
inner rays about one third of the length of the outer. Scales 
five rows between lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour 
dull green, darkest above; fins darkest in the centre. 

Hob. Sind hills and along the Himalayas to Sikkim and Assam. 
Common in Assam. Attains at least 3 feet in length. 

304. (15.) Labeo pangusia. 

Cyprinus pangusia, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 285, 386. 
Labeo pangusia, Day, Fish. India, p. 541, pi. cxxxi, fig. 1 (see 
syuon.). 

Loannee, Beng. 



CYPRINID.E. CYPRININ^:. 267 

B. iii. D. 13 (2/11). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 40-42. L. tr. 7|/8. 

Length of head 5| to 6, of caudal 4^ to 5, height of body 4^ in 
the total length. Eyes in or rather behind the middle of the 
length of the head; diameter 4 to 5^ in the length of the head. 
Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen. The greatest 
width of the head equals two thirds of its length. Suborbital ring 
of bones narrow, about one fifth the diameter of the eye. Mouth 
narrow, its width 3^ in the length of the head. Snout obtuse, 
projecting over the jaws, and having a very distinct lateral lobe. 
Lips not fringed, but thick, with a distinct inner fold, which is 
not continued across the lower jaw. Snout covered with large 
pores. A cartilaginous covering to inner surface of both lips. 
Barbels a, short maxillary pair, concealed in the labial fold. Teeth 
pharyngeal, plough-shaped, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. Fins dorsal com- 
mences nearer the snout than the base of the caudal ; it is nearly 
or quite as high as the body, and in the adult its upper edge is 
concave. The pectoral does not quite reach the ventral, nor the 
latter the anal. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 5-1- to 6 rows 
between lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour of a dull 
green, becoming lighter on the sides and beneath, sometimes the 
base of each scale has a dark mark. 

Hub. Himalayan range and generally throughout Sind, the 
Deccan, and N.W. Provinces, to Bengal, Cachar, and Assam. 

305. (16.) Labeo angra. 

Cyprinus angra, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 331, 391. 
Labeo angra, Day, Fish. India, p. 541, pi. cxxviii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 
Nga-loo, Burmese ; (Khdrsd, Hind, at Purneah ; Mochhna on the Ma- 
hanadi, II.B.'s MSS.). 

B. iii. D. 12-13 (2-3/10). P. 16. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 42. L. tr. 7/8. 

Length of head 5-J in the total length. Eyes diameter 3 to 
4-| in the length of the head, 1| to 1$ diameters from the end of 
the snout, and 2 to 2^ apart. Dorsal profile a little more convex 
than that of the abdomen. Snout overhanging the jaws, having a 
distinct lateral lobe on either side, and studded with pores. Mouth 
rather narrow, the lips continuous and with a deep groove across 
the chin ; both lips fimbriated. Barbels a short maxillary pair. 
Fins dorsal as high as the body, arising rather nearer the snout 
than the base of the caudal fin, its upper edge concave. Pectoral 
nearly as long as the head. Ventral inserted beneath the first 
third of the dorsal. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 5| rows 
between lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour brownish 
along the back, with a black or bluish stripe passing from the eyes 
to the base of the caudal fin, where it ends in a black blotch. In 
Burmese examples the black lateral band is wanting, but the blotch 



2C8 TET/EOSTET. PHTSOSTOMT. 

at the side of the tail is present, and some have a second blotch at 
the commencement of the lateral line. Instead of a maxillary 
barbel there exists a fleshy flap inside the groove. 

Hub. Assam, Bengal, and Orissa. Also Mandalay in Upper, 
and Sittoung in Lower Burma. 

306. (17.) Labeo bata. 

Cyprinus bata, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 283, 386. 
Labeo bata, Day, Fish. India, p. 542, pi. cxxix, fig. 5 (see synon.). 
Dunyuda-porah, Ooriah ; Dommarci-batta, Beng. ; Gootellah, Hind.; 
Bango, N.W. Prov. ; Chirri, Cutch ; Royddi and Tambte, Marathi. 

B. iii. D. 11-12(2-3/9-10). P. 18. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 37-40. L. tr. 7/6-7. 

Length of head 5 to 5f in the total length. Eyes diameter 4 
to 4j in the length of head, 1| to lj diameters from the end of 
snout, 2 to 2L apart. The dorsal profile more convex than that of 
the abdomon. The width of the mouth 3^ in the length of the 
head, and in the adult about three times the depth of the cleft ; 
snout slightly in advance of the jaws in theyoung, but hardly so in 
the adult, in which it is often covered with pores. Lips thin, con- 
tinuous, the lower reflected from off the mandible, and with a 
shallow groove along its hind edge. No horny covering inside 
jaws. Barbels a very short maxillary pair. Teeth pharyngeal, 
plough-shaped or molariform, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins the dorsal as 
high as the head is long, and with a concave upper edge ; it com- 
mences slightly nearer the end of the snout than the base of the 
caudal fin. Pectoral about as long as the head and reaching the 
ventral, which is rather shorter. Scales 51 rows between lateral 
line and base of ventral fin. Colour varying wilh the age of the 
fish ; generally silvery, darkest along the back, and with the lower 
fins stained orange; fine black dots on all the fins. In specimens 
about four inches long there are three or four small black spots 
on the fifth and sixth scales of the lateral line, which gradually 
and almosb entirely fade as age advances. 

Hub. From the Kistna and Godavari rivers through Orissa, 
Lower Bengal, and Assam. This fish (which attains nearly two 
feet in length) is extensively used for stocking tauks. 

307. (18.) Labeo microphthalmus. 

Labeo microphthalmus, Day, Fish. India, p. 542, pi. cxxxii, fig. 4 
(see synon.) 

B. iii. D. 13 (3/10). P. 18. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 41-43. L. tr. 8/9. 

Length of head 6 in the total lergtb. Eyes diameter 5^ in 
length of head, 2 diameters from end of snout, and ^\ apart. 
Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen. Sr.out 



. CYPBININ.E. 209 

overhanging the mouth, but not swollen, having a very indistinct 
lateral loba ; some spacimsns have a few small pores oa the snout.- 
Lips continuous ; the groove across the lower jaw interrupted ; 
mouth transverse, inferior ; a cartilaginous or horny covering to 
inside of the lower jaw. The suborbital ring of bones compara- 
tively wide, being two thirds the width of the orbit. Barbds a 
shorb maxillary pair. TVeZ/i pharyngeal, plough-shaped, 5, 4, 2/2, 
4, 5. fins the height of the dorsal equals or exceeds the length 
of the head, its upper edge is very concave, it arises midway 
between the end of the snout and the posterior extremity of the 
base of the anal fin. The pectoral does not reach the ventral. 
Scales 6L rows between lateral line and base of ventral fin. The 
scales covering the thorax are very small. Colour silvery, darkest 
in the upper half of the body ; sometimes the scales are marked 
with red. 

Hob. Himalayas, from the Punjab, Murree, and Kangra, also 
Kashmir. 

308. (19.) Labeo boggut. 

Chondrostoma boggut, Sykes, Tr. Z. 8. ii, p. 359. 

Labeo boggut, Day, Fish. India, p. 542, pi. cxxviii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Sande and Kolees, Mahr. ; Lot, Cutch. 

B. iii. D. 11-12 (3/8-9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 60-65. L. tr. 11-12/14. 

Length of head 5^ to 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter 
4^ to 5 in length of head, 1^ to If diameters from end of snout, 
and 2 apart. Dorsal profile rather more convex than that of the 
abdomen. Snout thick, somewhat projecting beyond the jaws, but 
without any lateral lobe. A few pores ou the snout. Lower labial 
fold complete ; lower lip fimbriated ; a horny covering to the inside 
of the lower lip. Barbels a short maxillary pair, fins the 
dorsal commences nearer to the .snout than to the root of the caudal, 
it is as high as the body, its upper edge concave. The pectoral is 
nearly as long as the head and does not reach the ventral ; the latter 
is inserted under the middle dorsal rays. The ventral does not 
extend to the anal, nor the latter to the caudal, which is deeply 
forked. Scales 8 or 9 rows between lateral line and base of 
ventral fin. Colour silvery, darkest superiorly. Fins orange. 
In some specimens a few light lines run along the sides, or a bluish 
band along the body. A dark spot usually present near the base 
of the caudal, and sometimes a smaller one on the lateral line above 
the last third of the pectoral fin. 

Hob. Bengal, the Punjab, Central Provinces, Bombay, the Deccan, 
common at Jubbulpore and in Cutch, also found at Madras. It 
attains at least 7 inches in length. 



fig. 4 (see synon.). 



(20.) Labeo boga. 

k. Fish. Ganges, pp. 
India, p. 543, pi. cxxviii, fig. 3, and pi. cxxxi, 



Cypriuus boga, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 28(3, 380, pi. 28, fig. 80. 
Labjo boga, Day, Fish. 



270 TELEOSTEI. P1IYSOSTOMI. 

Kimla-mcen, and Coal-rtn'iiza-candee, Tarn. ; Arisa, Tel. ; Kata-battali, 
Ooriah; liangum-batta, Beng. ; Month, Punj.; Kyouk-nya-loo,]$\\.rm. 

B. iii. D. 11-13(2-3/9-10). P. 16. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1.37-39. L. tr. 6|-7/7. Vert, 17-15. 

Length of head 5| to 5^ in the total length. Eyes somewhat 
before the middle of the head, 3f- to 4 diameters in length of head. 
Dorsal profile rather more convex than that of the abdomen. Mouth 
rather narrow, its width equalling one third of the length of the 
head. Snout projecting moderately beyond the jaws, no lateral lobe. 
Lips rather thick. A thin layer of cartilage to inner surface of 
lower lip. Snout occasionally covered with large pores. Barbels 
a minute maxillary pair. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5, plough- 
shaped. Fins origin of dorsal commences nearer the snout than 
the base of the caudal, upper margin concave ; caudal deeply forked, 
lobes of equal length. Scales 5 rows between lateral line and base 
of ventral fin. Colour orange, with the fins of a reddish tinge ; 
sometimes a dark spot on the shoulder. 

Hob. [Rivers of Gangetic Provinces, Madras, and Burma ; said 
to attain a foot in length. PL cxxviii, fig. 3, ' Fishes of India,' is 
from a Uurmese specimen, and PI. cxxxi, fig. 4, is from an example 
from the Jumna. 



310. (21.) Labeo nukta. 
Cyprinus nukta, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 355. 
Labeo nukta, -Day, Fish. India, p. 543, pi. cxxviii, n'g. 5 (see synoa.). 

NaTita and Nanktashendva, Marathi. 

B. iii. B. 11 (2/9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

L.I. 37-38. L. tr. 6/9. 

Length of head 5 to 6| in the total length. Eyes diameter 6 
in the length of the head, 2^ diameters from the end of snout, and 
also apart. Snout projecting over the mouth, and having a deep 
groove passing from one orbit to the opposite one, thus presenting 
the appearance of a blunt com pressed knob between and before the 
orbits. Mouth of moderate width ; the snout with a well-developed 
lateral lobe and a distinct inner fold to the lips at the angle of the 
mouth, extending across the outer third of the lower jaw, from 
which the lip is reflected and studded with pores, but neither lip 
is fringed. Both lips with a thin deciduous horny layer internally. 
Some large pores on snout, on forehead, and in the rostral groove. 
Barlels a rudimentary maxillary pair. Lateral line badly marked, 
41 rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin. Fins 
dorsal arises midway between the snout and the posterior extremity 
of the base of the anal fin, its anterior three rays are much elevated 
and higher than the body, the last besides being divided to its root 
is also somewhat prolonged, making the upper margin of the fin 
concave : the ventral arises under the middle of the dorsal and 
scarcely reaches the anal, which fin is much higher anteriorly. 



CYPJMJUDjE. CYPHlNINjE. 271 

Pectoral as long as the head. Caudal deeply forked. A row of 
scales along the base of the dorsal. Colour silvery, wifch some red 
marks on the scales. Fins reddish, caudal edged with grey. 

Hob. Poona and rivers of the Deccan ; attaining at least 12 
inches in length. 

311. (22.) Labeo nigripinnis. 
Labeo nigripinnis, Day, Fish. India, p. 544, pi. cxxxii, fig. 3. 

B. iii. D. 11 (2/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 40-42. L. tr. 8/8. 

Length of head 5 to 5| in the total length. Eyes situated in 
the middle of the length of the head in the young, rather before 
it in the adult, diameter 4g in the length of the head. Dorsal 
profile Somewhat elevated, abdominal nearly straight. Snout pro- 
jecting over the mouth, which is inferior, and the width of which 
equals one third of the length of the head ; the lips continuous at 
the angle of the mouth ; the lower lip thin and reflected from off 
the mandible, which has a thin cartilaginous covering. Large pores 
on the snout, which in some specimens has a groove across it. 
Barbels a minute maxillary pair. Fins dorsal commences mid- 
way between the end of the snout and the posterior extremity of 
the base of the anal fin ; it is as high as the body and has a concave 
upper edge. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout, or 
even a little more. Ventral commences below the first third of the 
dorsal. Caudal deeply forked. Scales from 5 to 5g rows between 
the lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour bluish along the 
back, becoming dull white on the sides and beneath. In some 
specimens the bases of the scales are dark coloured, some have a 
dull band along the side. Fins black in tbe adult, not always so 
in the young. 

JJab. Sind hills and rivers at their bases. 

312. (23.) Labeo sindensis. 

Cirrhina sindensis, Day, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 1872, p. 319. 
Labeo sindensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 544, pi. cxxxii, n'g. 2. 

B. iii. D. 12-13 (2-3/10). P. 18. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 43. L. tr. 8/9. 

Length of head 6J in the total length. Eyes rather nearer to 
snout than to hind edge of opercles, diameter 5^ in the length of 
the head, 2 diameters from the end of snout, and 2^ apart. Dorsal 
profile rather more convex than that of the aSdomen. Snout 
rather overhanging the mouth. No lateral lobe to snout, which in 
some specimens has a deep groove across it, and is covered with 
glands. Lips continuous at the angle of the mouth ; the lower lip 
thin with a smooth edge, and reflected from off the mandible, which 
lias a thin cartilaginous covering. Barbels a short maxillary pair. 
Fins dorsal commences midway between the end of the snout and 
the posterior extremity of the base of the anal, it is rather higher 



272 TEWOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 



than the body, its upper edge concave. Pectoral as long as the 
head excluding the snout. Ventral inserted under the middle of 
the dorsal fin. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 61 to 7 rows between 
the lateral line and the base of the ventral fin. Colour silvery, 
with a reddish tinge, the bases of the scales darkest; fins reddish. 
JJ((b. Sind, the Punjab (at Lahore and Hardwar), also the Dec- 
can at Poona. This species attains at least 8 inches in length. 

313. (24.) Labeo ariza. 

Cyprinus ariza, Buchanan, Journey Mysore, iii, p. 344, pi. 31. 
Labeo ariza, JJay, Pish. India, p. 544, pi. cxxxii, fig. 5 (see ayiioii.). 

Kavdasha, Marathi ; and Coal, Tamil. 

B. iii. D. 11 (2/9). P. 18. V. 9. A. 7-8 (2-3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 38. L. tr. 6-7/8. 

Length of head 65 to 5| in the total length. Eyes rather 
nearer snout than hind edge of opercle, diameter 51 in the length 
of the head, 2 diameters from the end of snout, and 2\ apart. 
Dorsal profile slightly more convex than that of the abdomen. 
The width of the mouth equals one third of the length of the head. 
Lips smooth, .with a thin cartilaginous covering inside the lower 
jaw. A few pores on snout. Barbels a very short maxillary pair. 
Fiiis dorsal commences slightly nearer the snout than the base of 
the caudal fin, it is three fourths as high as the body, and has a 
concave upper margin. Pectoral nearly as long as the head. Ventral 
inserted below anterior third of dorsal fin, and not so long as the 
pectoral. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 5^ rows between the 
lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour leaden grey above, 
becoming silvery on the sides and beneath. 

Jfab. Wynaad, the Bhavani river at the foot of the Kilgiri hills 
in Madras, and the Cauvery river. This fish attains to about 9| 
i iches in length, 

314. (25.) Labeo kawrus. 

Chendrostoma kawrus, Sykcs, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 358, pi. Ixii, fig. 2. 
Labeo kawrus, Day, Fish. India, p. 545, pi. cxxxi, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11 (2/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L.I. 38. L. tr. 6/6. 

Length of head 5^ to 6 in the total length. Eyes diameter 3 
to 3f in the length of the head, 1 diameter from the end of snout, 
and li apart. Dorsal and abdominal profiles about equally convex. 
Snout very obtuse and not overhanging the jaws. Lips continuous 
at the angle of the mouth, the lower one very thin and reflected off 
the mandible, which is rounded and has a thin cartilaginous covering; 
edges of lips smooth. Barbels a minute maxillary pair. Teeth 
pharyngeal, plough-shaped, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. Fins dorsal commences 
midway between end of snout and posterior extremity of base of 
anal fin ; it is rather higher than the head is long. its upper edge is 



CYPRINID.T;. CYPRINIWJE. 273 

concave. Pectoral nearly as long as the head. Caudal deeply 
forked. Scales 4| rows between lateral line and base of ventral 
fin. Colour silvery, dorsal and caudal fins externally stained with 
grey ; sometimes a dark blotch on the scales near the commence- 
ment of the lateral line. 

Hob. Poona and the Deccan. 



10. Genus OSTEOCHILUS, Giinther. 
Syn. Rohita, sp., Cuv. & Val. 

Abdomen rounded. Mouth of moderate width, directed more 
or less downwards ; lips thickened, continuous, fringed or crenu- 
lated, the lower being reflected from off the mandible, leaving it 
uncovered in the form of a sharp and hard, transverse, prominence. 
No tubercle at syrnphysis. Snout obtusely rounded. Barbels 
four or two. Pharyngeal teeth usually 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Dorsal fin 
without osseous ray, with a moderate number of branched rays 
(10 to about 20), commencing in advance of the ventrals. Anal 
with few rays. Scales of moderate or small size ; no tile-like row 
at base of anal fin. Lateral line passing to the centre of the base 
of the caudal fin. Gill-rakers short. 

Geographical Distribution. Burma and the Malay Archipelago. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 2/18, A. 3/5, L. 1. 64. Four barbels. 

Colours uniform 1. O. chalybcattis, p. 273. 

D. 2-3/15-16, A. 2/5, L. 1. 34. Four barbels. 

A darkish band near commencement of 

lateral line, and a dark mark before base 

of caudal fin 2. O. neilli, p. 274. 

D. 3/13, A. 3/6, L. 1. 40. Two barbels. 

Colours uniform 3. O. cephalns, p. 275. 

315. (1.) Osteochilus chalybeatus. 

Rohita chalybeata, Cuv. # Val. H. N. Poiss. xvi, p. 271. 
Osteochilus chalybeatus, Day, Wsh. India, p. 545, pi. cxxix, fig. 1 

(see synon.). 
Nya-leh, Burmese. 
B.iii. D. 20(2/18). P. 18. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C.I!). 

L. 1. 54. L. tr. 8/10. 

Length of head 5, height of body 4| in total length. Eyes 
diameter 4 in length of head, \\ diameters from end of snout, and 
2 apart. Snout overhanging the jaws and without any lateral 
lobe. Mouth rather narrow, its width being about one third of 
length of head. Lips thick and fringed, with an inner fold above 
and below. Barbels the maxillary pair half as long as the orbit, 
the rostral shorter. Fins the dorsal commences midway between 

T 



274 TELEOSTEI. - PIIYSOSTOMI. 

the end of the snout and the posterior margin of the base of the 
anal fin, its upper edge is straight. Pectoral rather longer lhau 
the head excluding the snout ; it does not reach the ventral, nor the 
latter the anal. Anal laid flat just reaches the caudal, which is 
moderately forked. Scales six rows between the lateral line and 
base of the ventral fin. Colour grey, becoming lighter below, 
narrow dark lines along the body ; fins black. 
Hub. Irrawaddy and Salween rivers in Burma. 

316. (2.) Osteochilus neilli. (Fig. 94.) 

Labeo neilli, Day, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 99. 

Osteochilus neilli, Day, Fish. India, p. 545, pi. cxxx, fig. 2. 

B. hi. D. 17-18 (2-3/15-16). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). 
C. 19. L. 1. 34. L. tr. 



Length of head 5|, height of body 3| in total length. Eyes 
diameter 3| in length of head, lg diameters from end of snout, 
and 2 apart. Snout rounded and smooth, it scarcely overlaps (lie 
mouth, which is of moderate width ; no lateral lobe. Both lips 
fringed with two, three, or more rows of well-developed papilla) 
internally; groove across the mandible not complete; a cart i la- 




Fig. W. Osteochilus neilli. 

ginous covering internally to the lower jaw. Barbels the rostral 
do not reach the orbit, the maxillary extend to beneath its centre. 
Teeth pharyngeal, plough-shaped, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. Fins the 
dorsal commences before the ventral, and much nearer to the snout 
than to the base of the caudal, its upper border is somewhat con- 
cave ; caudal deeply forked. Scales 4 rows between lateral line 
and base of ventral fin. Colour greyish yellow, deepest supe- 
riorly, every scale being darkest at its base. A dull spot near the 
root of the caudal fin, and another ill-defined one near the com- 
mencement of the lateral line. Fins yellowish orange, dorsal 
darkest at its basal half. 



CYPBINID.E. CTPEININ^E. 275 

Uab. Sittoung, Billing, and Rangoon in Burma. The largest 
specimen, out of seven, measured six inches in length. 

317. (3.) Osteochilus cephalus. 

Labeo cephalus, Cuv. $ Val. H. N. Pom. xvi, p. 347, pi. 487. 
Osteochilus cephalus, Day, Fish. India, p. 546. 

B. iii. D. 16 (3/13). P. 20. V. 9. A. 9 (3/6). C. 19. 
L. 1. 40. L. tr. 7/7. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 4 in the total length. Eyes 
one fifth of length of head, two diameters from end of snout. The 
snout projects beyond the jaws, it is rather swollen and has many 
pores opening on its surface ; the mandible has a transverse free 
edge, with thick lip, both the upper and lower lips fringed. 
Barbels yone short maxillary pair. Fins the dorsal commences 
midway between the snout and base of caudal, and in advance of 
the ventrals, its upper border is concave. The anal laid flat 
reaches the caudal. Scales 4| rows between the lateral line and 
base of ventral fin. Colour greenish, with the base of each scale 
darkest. 

Ilal>. Pegu, attaining one foot in length. 

11. Genus DANGILA, Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
Syn. Cyrene, sp.. Heckel. 

Abdomen rounded. Snout moderately depressed and obtusely 
rounded. Mouth transverse, more or less inferior. Lower jaw 
sharp, covered with a thin lip, and having a tubercle above the 
symphysis ; upper lip fringed. Barbels small, one maxillary and 
one mandibular pair. Pharyngeal teeth, 5, 4 or 3, 3 or 2/2 or 3, 
3 or 4, 5. Dorsal fin rather long, without any osseous ray, and 
commencing in advance of the ventrals. Anal short, without a 
tile-like row of scales. Scales of large, small, or moderate size. 
Lateral line continuous, passing to the centre of the base of the 
caudal fin. Grill-rakers short. 

This genus, which differs from CirrJiina in possessing a few 
more rays in the dorsal fin, does not appear to extend into ludia 
proper. 

Geographical Distribution. Burma to the Malay Archipelago. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 26-38, L. 1. 39-40, L. tr. 7/9 1. D. litrmanica, p. 275. 

1). -2(J, L. 1. 31, L. tr. G/ ? 2. D. berdmorei, p. 276. 

318. (1.) Dangila burmanica. (Fig. 95.) 

Dangila bumianica, Day, Fish. India, p. 546, pi. cxxxi, fig. 2 (see 

synon.). 

B. iii. D. 26-28 (2-3/24-25). P. 16. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). 
C. 19. L. 1. 39-40. L. tr. 7/9. 

T2 



270 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 



Length of head 7, height of body 4 to 5 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, 
and 1| apart. Mouth transverse, with the snout slightly depressed 
and rounded ; upper lip fringed ; a small tubercle inside the lower 
jaw above the symphysis. Barbels the maxillary pair as long as 




Fig. 95. Dangila burmanica. 

the eye, the rostral pair shorter. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. 
Fins dorsal commences above the ninth scale of the lateral line, 
its upper edge concave, and its highest rays four fifths of the height 
of the body. Pectoral nearly as long as the head, not reaching the 
ventral. Upper caudal lobe the longer. Scales five rows between 
lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour silvery, some of the 
scales with dark spots at their bases forming rows or horizontal 
bands. Pins orange, the edges of the caudal stained. 

Hub. Moulmein and Tavoy (where it does not seem to be un- 
common) ; several specimens obtained measured up to 10 inches in 
length. 

319. (2.) Dangila berdmorei. 

Dangila berdmorei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 162 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 546. 

B. iii. D. 20 (3/23). V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). L. 1. 31. L. tr. O/? 

Length of head 5, height of body 4 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter two fifths of length of head, three fourths of a diameter 
from end of snout. Pores on front of snout large. A distinct 
tubercle above symphysis. Lower lip rather thick, not fringed. 
Barbels rostral equal to the length of the orbit. Fins dorsal 
arises in commencement of second third of total length ; the 
pectoral does not quite reach the ventral. Caudal deeply forked. 
Scales 3| rows between lateral line and base of ventral fin. 
Colour uniform in spirit. According to Blyth's description each 
scale is tipped by a black spot. 

Halt. Tenasserim Provinces of British Burma. 



ClTltlNID.t. CYPRINJ tiJE. 277 



12. Genus CIRRHINA, Cuvier. 

Syn. Vanyana, pt., Ham. IJuch. ; Danyila, sp., Guv. & Val. ; Cyrene, 
sp., Heckel ; Mriyala, sp., Bleeker ; \Crossochilus, pt., Giinther. ^ l^^,^ >-, / 

Abdomen rouuded. Snout depressed and obtusely rounded, 
with the soft coverings extremely thin. Mouth broad, transverse. 
Upper lip fringed or entire, and not continuous with the lower lip. 
Lower jaw rather sharp, without any lip or with a thin one, 
generally destitute of any horny covering, but having a small 
tubercle above the mandibular symphysis. Barbels small, four, 
two, or none. Dorsal fin rather short or of moderate length, 
without any osseous ray, and commencing in advance of the ven- 
tral s. Ajial fin short, without a row of tile-like scales. Scales of 
large, small, or moderate size. Lateral line continuous, passing to 
the centre of the base of the caudal fin. Gill-rakers short. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh waters of Baluchistan, Sind, 
India, generally throughout Burma, and the East Indian Archi- 



Bynopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 17-19, L. 1. 42-44. Four barbels. Upper lip 

entire 1. C. cirrhosa, p. 277. 

D. 15-16, L. 1. 40-45. Two barbels. Upper lip 

entire 2. C. mrigala, p. 278. 

D. 10-11, L. 1. 38-40. Four barbels. Upper lip 

fringed 3. C. latia, p. 279. 

D. 10-11, L. 1. 35-38. One pair of short rostral 

barbels. Upper lip indistinctly fringed or 

entire 4. C. relm, p. 279. 

D. 10, L. 1. 48. Two barbels 5. C.fulungee, p. 280. 



320. (1.) Cirrhina cirrhosa. 

Oyprinus cirrhosus. Block, Ich. xii, p. 52, t. 411 ; Block Schn. Syst. 

Ick. p. 450. 
Cirrhina cirrhosa, Day, Fish. India, p. 547, pi. cxxxi, fig. 3 (see 

synon.). 

Ven-candi, Tarn, j Aruzii, Tel. 

B. iii. D. 17-19 (3-4/14-15). P. 19. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). 
C. 19. L. 1. 42-44. L. tr. 8/9. Vert. 21/17. 

Length of head 5| to 6, height of body 4 to 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| in the length of the head, 1 diameter 
from end of snout, and 1^ apart. Dorsal profile more convex than 
that of the abdomen. Width of mouth equals one third of the 



278 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

length of the head. Usually some fine pores on the snout, which 
does not project beyond the jaws. Barbels the maxillary are 
about one third as long as the eye, the rostral pair are rather longer. 
Teeth pharyngeal, plough-shaped and with the sides of the 
outer ones roughened, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. Fins the dorsal as high as 
the body, it arises considerably in advance of the ventrals, and mid- 
way between the snout and the posterior portion of the base of the 
anal fin, its upper margin concave ; in some large specimens the 
first few rays are very elongated. Caudal deeply forked or 
lunated. Scales 5| to 6| rows between lateral line and base of 
ventral fin. Colour silvery, every scale having a red centre, 
except along the abdomen, where they are of a dull yellowish white. 
Dorsal and caudal stained with grey, also the outer end of the 
anal and pectoral. 

Nab. Godavari, Kistna, and Cauvery rivers, and generally in 
Southern India. Grows to 1| feet in length. Is a very active fish 
and fair eating but bony. 



321. (2.) Cirrhina mrigala. 

Cyprinus mrigala, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 279, 38G, pi. 6, fig. 79. 
Cirrhina mrigala, Day, Fish. India, p. 347, pi. cxxix, tig. 4 (see synon.). 

Mirrgah, Ooriah ; Mrigala, Beng. and Hind. ; Nairn, Hind. (N. "W. P.) > 
Nga-kyin and Nga-yyein, Burm. ; Mor-ah-kee, Sind and Cutch. 

B. iii. D. 15-16 (3/12-13). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 15. 
L. 1. 40-45. L. tr. 



Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 4 to 5^ in the total 
length. Eyes in the anterior half of the head, diameter 3L to 4 
in the length of the head, 1 to 1 \ diameters from the end of snout, 
and 2 apart. Width of the mouth equals two fifths of the length 
of the head. Pores present or absent on the snout. Teeth 
pharyngeal, plough-shaped, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins dorsal nearly 
as high as the body, it arises rather nearer to the snout than to 
the base of the caudal fin, and opposite the twelfth scale of the 
lateral line; upper margin of fin slightly concave, in Sind examples 
deeply so. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout, not 
reaching the ventral. Caudal with sharp and deeply forked lobes, 
which have convex edges internally. Scales 51 to 6 rows between 
lateral line and base of ventral. Colour silvery, dark grey along 
the back, sometimes having a coppery tinge ; the pectoral, ventral, 
and anal orange stained with black. Eyes golden. 

Hab. Elvers and tanks in Bengal, Deccan, N.W. Provinces, 
Punjab, Siud, Cutch, and Burma, growing to 3 feet in length. It 
is an excellent species for stocking tanks with. I have taken it in 
Bangoon 18 pounds in weight. 



CYPIMNIDvE. CYPRININ.-E. 279 

322. (3.) Cirrhina latia. 

Cyprinus latins, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 345, 393. 

Cirrhina latia, Day, Fish. India, p. 548, pi. cxxx, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Kctla-batta, Bengali and Ooriah ; Behrah and Tellarrec, Punj. ; Curru, 

Sind. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (3/7-8). P. 15. Y. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 38-40. L. tr. 6/6. Vert. 15/17. 

Length of head 6 to 6, height of body 5i to 7 iu the total 
length. Eyes rather behind the middle of the head in the adult; 
diameter 3^ to 5 in the length of the head, about 2 diameters from 
end of snout, and also apart. Upper surface of the head rather 
broad ; snout overhanging the jaws and having a small lateral lobe. 
Upper lip deeply indented on the edge, and each indentation (in 
some specimens) having a tricuspid termination ; this is most seen 
in examples from Calcutta and Orissa. least so in those from Sind, 
the Punjab, and Central Provinces ; the surface rough as in Dis- 
coynaihus. Lower lip with a strong sharp horny covering, the lip 
at the angle having a sort of pendulous lobe ; the under surface of 
the jaw with a round, callous, and rather elevated spot, which in 
the adult has a free anterior edge. Barbels a rostral pair and 
sometimes a short maxillary pair. Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, 5, 
4, 2 2, 4, 5. Fins dorsal commences about midway between the 
end of the snout and base of the caudal h'n in the young, but rather 
nearer the snout in the adult. Pectoral as long as the head, its 
outer three or four rays rather thickened. Caudal deeply forked, 
upper lobe sometimes the longer. Scales 3 to 4^ rows between 
lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour brownish olive, 
irregularly spotted with black marks. Dorsal and caudal fins 
yellowish, stained with grey, the others orange. 

This fish has much the character of a loach or of a Disco ynathiu, 
adhering to stones in the beds of rivers. 

Jfab. Sind, Orissa, Bengal, N.W. Provinces, Punjab, Deccan, 
and along the Himalayas ; attaining 8 inches in length. 

323. (4.) Cirrhina reba. (Fig. 96.) 

Cyprinus reba, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 280, 380. 

Cirrhina reba, Day, Fish. India, p. 549, pi. cxxx, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Eekmose and CJiittahri, Tel. ; Pil aringam, Tamil ; Chetchua-porah, 
Ooriah; Batta, Bengali ; Rewah, Hind. ; Soonnee, Punj . and Sind ; Lasseem, 
Assam. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8-9). P. 16. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 

L. 1. 35-38. L. tr. 7/9. 

Length of head 6 to 6|, height of body 4 to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4 in the length of head, 1 to 1 ^ diameters 
from the end of snout, and nearly 2 apart. Snout slightly pro- 
jecting, more distinctly in the immature. Upper lip fringed in the 
young, sometimes entire in the adult. A thin cartilaginous layer 



280 TELEOSTKI. rilYBOKTOMI. 

covering inside of lower jaw. Pores on snout present or absent 
Barbels a short rostral pair, which may be absent ; none on the 
maxilla. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 4, 1/1, 4, 5. Fins dorsal com- 
mences anteriorly to the ventral, upper margin of the fin concave. 
Pectoral nearly as long as head. Caudal with deep, sharp lobes. 




Fig. $$. Cirrhina retxi. 

Scales hexagonal ; five or six rows between lateral line and base 
of ventral fin. Colour silvery, scales generally darkest at 
their edges, forming bluish longitudinal bands above the lateral 
line. The young have sometimes a leaden-coloured baud along the 
side, or even a black tip to the dorsal fin. 

Hub. Throughout India, attaining a foot in length. 

324. (5.) Cirrhina fulungee. 

Choudrostouia fulungee, Si/kes, Tr. '/,. S. ii, p. 358. 
Cirrhina fulungee, Day, Fish. India, p. 540, pi. cxxxii, tig. 1 (see 
synon.), also Supplement, p. 807. 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 44-48. L. tr. 8/9. 

Length of head 5, height of body 5| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 in the length of head, two thirds of a diameter 
from the end of snout, and 1 to 1^ apart. Snout slightly over- 
hanging the mouth. The upper lip scarcely fimbriated, the two 
lips not continuous ; the lower is reflected from off the mandible, 
which is transverse, sharp, having a tubercle above the symphysis, 
but no cartilaginous covering. Barbels a very short rostral pair ; 
none on the maxilla. Fins the dorsal nearly as high as the 
body, its upper edge concave, it commences midway between the 
end of the snout and the posterior end of the base of the anal fin. 
Pectoral almost as long as the head, ventral of equal length. 
Caudal deeply forked. Scales 6^ rows between lateral line and 
base of ventral fin. Colour brownish along the back, divided by 
a light bluish band from a silvery abdomen ; dorsal and caudal 
stained with grey. 

llab. Poona and the Deccan. 



CYPB1NID.4;. CYmiNlN^E. 281 



13. Genus SEMIPLOTUS, Bleeker. 

Abdomen rounded. Snout thick and prominent. Mouth wide, 
trausverse, inferior, with a knob at the symphysis. No barbels. 
Pharyngeal teeth plough-shaped, 4, 3, 2/2, 3, 4. Dorsal fin long, 
its last undivided ray strong, osseous, and either serrated or 
entire. Anal rather short. Scales large ; no tile-like row at the 
base of the anal fin. Lateral line passing to the centre of the base 
of the caudal fin. Grill-rakers short. 

Geographical Distribution. Assam and Chittagong Hill-ranges, as 
well as Burma. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 24, A. 9-10, L. 1. 32^34. Last undivided 

dofsal ray serrated .................... 1. & modest us, p. 281 . 

D. 27-28, A. 9, L. 1. 27. Last undivided dorsal 

ray entire ............................ 2. & macclellandi, p. 281. 

325. (1.) Semiplotus modestus. 

Semiplotus modestus, Day, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 101 j and Fish. India, 
p. 550, pi. cxxxiii, fig. 1. 

B. iii. D. 24 (4/20). P. 15. V. 9. A. 9-10 (3/6-7). C. 19. 
L. 1. 32-34. L. tr. 7/7. 

Length of head 5| to 5^, height of body nearly 3 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3 in the length of head, 1 diameter 
from end of snout, 1^ diameters apart. Snout broad, obtuse, 
overhanging the mouth ; several open pores on either side. Mouth 
inferior, transverse, a thin cartilaginous covering to the lower jaw. 
A small knob at the symphysis. The posterior extremity of the 
maxilla extends to beneath the middle of the orbit. Barbels 
absent. Fins dorsal commences anteriorly to the origin of the 
ventral, and extends to above the anal ; its last undivided ray is 
osseous, serrated, and as long as the head excluding the snout. 
The pectoral reaches the ventral and the latter the anal. Caudal 
forked. Scales 3* rows between lateral line and base of ventral fin. 
Colour silvery, darkest in the upper half of the body. Ventrals 
and anal tipped with orange. 

Hab. Hill-ranges near Akyab ; two specimens obtained, up to 5 
inches in length. 

326. (2.) Semiplotus macclellandi. (Fig. 97.) 

Cyprinus Semiplotus, McClell. As. Res. xix, pt. 2 ; 2nd. Cyp. pp. 274, 

346, pi. xxxvii, fig. 2. 
Semiplotus macclellandi, Sleeker, Ail. Ich. iii, Cyp. p. 25; -Day, Fish. 

India, p. 550, pi. cxxxiii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Sundaree, Sentorec, and Lah-bo-e, Assam. 

B. iii. D. 27-28 (3/24-25). P. 16. V. 10. A. 9 (2/7). C. 19. 
L. 1. 27-33. L. tr. 6/6. 



282 TKLEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOM I . 

Length of head 5>- to 6, height of body 3J- in the total length. 
Eyes in the middle of the length of the head, diameter from 4 to 
6 in the length of head, the width of the interorbital space equalling 
rather above half the length of the head. Snout obtuse and 
thickened, with a row of about 6 open pores passing across it and 
towards the orbit. A horny covering to lower jaw. Barbels 





Fig. 97. Scmiplotus macclellcmdi. 

absent. Fins dorsal commences midway between the end of the 
snout and the end of the base of the anal fin, its height slightly 
exceeding half of that of the body ; its last undivided ray strong, 
osseous, entire, and rather longer than the head excluding the 
snout. Pectoral nearly as long as the head ; it reaches to above 
the ventral, which is inserted below the fourth or fifth dorsal ray. 
Anal laid flat nearly reaches the base of the caudal, which latter is 
deeply forked. Lateral line nearly straight, 3^- rows of scales 
between it and the base of the ventral fin. Colour leaden silver, 
darkest superiorly ; the pectoral, ventral, and anal orange. 

Griffith observes that the smaller examples are usually found 
near rapids, the larger in deeper water, where of an evening they 
are seen rising, but refuse all baits. McClelland states that this 
fish is reckoned the most delicious in Assam. I can, however, 
record from personal observation that it is rich and very liable to 
set up intestinal irritation. 

Hob. Rivers in Assam, especially in the upper portions of that 
district, but found as low as Goalpara : also Burma. This species 
is often termed Rajah-mas, or " kings' fish," in Upper Assam, as it 
is asserted that when captured it had to be taken to the Rajahs for 
their own consumption. As it is very common, this explanation 
is improbable. More likely a tax was levied on its capture. It 
attains at least two feet in length, 



CSTRINID.E. CTPRININ^. 283 

14. Genus SCAPHIODON*, Heckel. 

Syn. Capoeta, sp., and C/tondrostotna, sp., Cuv. & Val. ; Dillonia, Gymno- 
stomus, sp., Heckel. 

Abdomen rounded. Snout rounded. Mouth transverse, in- 
ferior, with the mandibular edge nearly straight and sharp ; without 
any knob above the symphysis. The mandibles angularly bent 
inwards. A horny layer inside the lower jaw, which is not 
covered by lip. No lower labial fold. Barbals four, two, or 
absent. Pharyngeal teeth plough-shaped, 5 or 4, 3, 2/2, 3, 4 or 5. 
Dorsal fin of moderate extent, its last undivided ray being osseous 
and serrated or entire, or else articulated. Anal rather short. 
Scales large, of moderate or small size, and sometimes irregularly 
disposed. Lateral line passing to the centre of the base of the 
caudal fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Rivers of Western Asia extending 
from those of Eastern Arabia to those in Sitid and along the 
Western Grhats, as low as the Nilgiri hills and rivers at their base. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. A pair of maxillary barbels. Last undivided 

dorsal ray osseous, serrated. 

D. 13, L. 1. 33, L. tr. 6/6 1. S. toatsoni, p. 284. 

D. 13, L. 1. 36, L. tr. 9/9 2. S. irreyularis, p. 284. 

B. Barbels absent. 

D. 14-15, L. 1. 39. Last undivided dorsal ray 

articulated. Silvery 3. & thomassi, p. 285. 



* Genus CAEASSIUS, Nilsson. 

Abdomen rounded. Snout obtuse and rounded. Mouth anterior, arched, 
and rather narrow ; lips thin. No barbels. Pharyngeal teeth compressed and 
. in a single series, 4/4. Dorsal fin long, commencing opposite the ventrals, and 
having its last undivided ray osseous and serrated ; last undivided anal ray 
osseous and normally serrated. Scales of moderate size. Lateral line complete. 

Geographical Distribution. Temperate portions of Europe and Asia. 

CARASSIUS AURATUS. 

Cyprinus auratus, Linn. Syst. Rat. vol. i, p. 527. 
Carassius auratus, Day, Fish. India, p. 552 (see synon.). 
B. iii. D. 19-21 (3/16-18). P. 17. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). 0. 19. L. 1. 27-29. 

L. tr. 6/10. Vert. 18/13. 

The gold carp is too well known to require any detailed description. 
Domesticated forms exhibit almost endless variation. 

Mr. Masters is said to have sent three adult specimens from Bombay to the 
British Museum. Dr. J. Anderson brought examples from high up in Upper 
Burma, or rather within the borders of China. I doubt whether this fish haa 
ever been found wild in India or Burma. 

i 



284 TKLEOSTEI. 1'HYSOSTOMI. 

D. 14-15, L. 1. 40-43. Last undivided dorsal 

ray articulated. A black band aloug the side ; 

fins with black marks 4. S. nashii, p. 285. 

D. 14, L. 1. 40. Last undivided dorsal ray 

osseous, entire. Silvery 5. S.brevidorsalis,^. 286. 

327. (1.) Scaphiodon watsoni. 

Scaphiodon watsoni, Day, J. A. S. S. xli, pt. 2, 1872, p. 324 ; Fish. 
India, p. 551, pi. cxxxv, fig. 2 (sue synon.). 

B.iii. 0.13(3/10). P. 15. V.8. A. 9 (2/7). C. 19. L.I. 33. 
L. tr. 0/6. 

Length of head one fifth, height of body two ninths of the tolal 
length. Eyes situated in the last part of the anterior half of the 
head, diameter two ninths of length of head, lg diameters from 
end of snout. Interorbital space rather convex. Snout rounded, 
rather overhanging the mouth, and covered with glands; mouth 
transverse, inferior; mandibles sharp, not enveloped by lip, and 
having a horny layer inside. Barbels a maxillary pair as long as 
the eye. Teeth pharyngeal, plough-shaped, 4, 3, 2/2, 3, 4. Fins 
dorsal commences rather in front of the ventrals, its last undivided 
ray strong, osseous, serrated, as long as the head without the snout, 
and nearly as long as the branched rays, which are two thirds 
as high as the body. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the 
snout, but not reaching the ventrals. Caudal forked. Lateral 
line very slightly curved, 3| rows of scales between it aud \cnlrul 
fin. Colour silvery, dashed with gold; lightest on the abdomen. 
Various and very irregular black spots on the body. 

Hob. Eivers on Sind hills and Salt Eange of the Punjab. 

328. (2.) Scaphiodon irregularis. 

Scaphiodon irregularis, Day, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 324; Fish. 
India, p. 551, pi. cxxxv, fig. 3: also Suppl p. 807. 

B. iii. D. 13 (3/10). P. 17. V. 8. A. 2/7. C. 19. L. 1. 36. 
L. tr. 9/9. 

Length of head one 6fth, height of body one fifth of the total 
length. Eyes situated rather before the middle of the length of 
head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and also apart. Inter- 
orbital space nearly fiat. Snout somewhat rounded, covered with 
glands and having a depression across it from eye to eye. Mouth 
transverse; upper jaw slightly the longer. Barbels a maxillary 
pair nearly as long as the eye. Fins dorsal commences rather 
before the ventrals : its third undivided ray is osseous, weak, and 
serrated, nearly half as long as the head, whilst the fin is three 
fourths as high as the body. Pectoral nearly as long as the head 
Caudal forked, its lower lobe the longer. Scales two or three 
rows above the lateral line are of a large oblong form, above these 
are numerous little irregular ones continued forwards to the head ; 






CYPKINIDvE. CYPRININ.E. 285 

4| rows between the lateral line and the base of the ventral fin. 
Colour olive, shot with gold. 
Hob. Sind hills to 3500 feet elevation. 



329. (3.) Scaphiodon thomassi. 
Scaphiodon thomassi, Day, Fish. India, p. 551. pi. cxxxiv, fig. 1. 

B. iii. D. 14-15 (3/11-12). P. 16. V. 9. A. 8 (2/6). C. 19. 
L. 1. 39. L. tr. 7/7. 

Length of head 5 to 6, height of body 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4^ in the length of the head, 2 to 2| diameters 
from the end of snout, and 2 apart. Height of head almost equals 
its length ; its width is much less. Snout obtuse, overhanging the 
mouth, which is transverse ; its width equalling that of the head 
behind the middle of the eyes. Mandible anteriorly with a horny 
covering. Lips not continuous ; the upper one fringed. Large 
pores on the snout and upper lip, and a line of them continued to 
under the eye. Barbels absent. Fins dorsal arises slightly 
nearer to the snout than to the base of the caudal ; it is three 
fourths as high as the body, its last undivided ray weak, articulated. 
Pectoral as long as the head. Ventral arises under the fourth or 
fifth dorsal ray ; it does not quite reach the anal ; the latter when 
.laid flat extends to the caudal, which is deeply forked. Scales 
4 rows between the lateral line and the base of the ventral fin. 
Colour of a dull silvery colour along the back, with an indistinct 
silvery band along the side, and of a dull white beneath. A dark 
band along the dorsal fin, and caudal with a dark outer edge. 

f/(ff>. South Canara. 

330. (4.) Scaphiodon nashii. 

Hsu-bus nashii, Day, P. Z. S. 1808, p. 584. 

Scaphiodon nashii, Day, Fish. India, p. 552, pi. cxxxiii, fig. 3. 

13. iii. D. 14-15 (2-3/11-12). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 20. 

L. 1. 40-43. L. tr. 7/7. 

Length of head 5| to 6, height of body 4 to 5 in the total length. 
KIJCK diameter 3 to 4 in the length of the head, 1 to 1^ diameters 
from the end of snout, and 1-^- to 1 apart. Mouth broad, inferior, 
transverse, and overhung by the snout. In the young the jaws 
are compressed, each with a cartilaginous covering; the lips at the 
angle are thick and continuous, not continued across the chin. 
As age increases the mouth widens, the cartilaginous covering 
becomes more horny, and the colours of the fish alter. Lips thin, 
\\i1hout any transverse fold across the lower one. Snout in the 
adult covered by papillae. A thick horny covering inside the lower 
jaw in adults. Barbels absent. Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, 
sharp, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. Fins dorsal commences nearer to the snout 
1 han to the base of the caudal ; it is three fourths as high as tho body, 
its upper edge concave; no osseous ray. IVctoral alxmi MS long as 



286 TET.EOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMT. 

the head. Ventral arises below the middle of the dorsal fin, and 
does not quite reach the anal, nor the latter the caudal, which is 
deeply forked. Scales 4\ rows between lateral line and base of 
ventral fin. Colour reddish brown along the back ; abdomen 
silvery. A black band passes from the eye to the centre of the 
caudal fin. A dark band along, the middle third of the dorsal, 
which is edged above by scarlet; a dark band on anal having a 
light anterior edge ; a dark edging to the caudal. The young are 
silvery grey along the back, becoming silvery on the sides ; the 
lateral band terminates in a black blotch at the base of the 
caudal fin. 

Hob. Coorg, hill-streams of South Canara, and the Wynaad. 



331. (5.) Scaphiodon brevidorsalis. (Fig. 98.) 

Semiplotus brevidorsalis, Day, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 239. 

Scaphiodon brevidoi sails, Uuy, Fiali. India, p. 552, pi. cxxxiii, fig. 2. 

Mean-candee, Tamil. 
B. iii. D. 14 (3/11). V. 9. A. 7. L. 1. 39-40. L. tr. 7-8/9. 

Length of head 6, height of body 3.V in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 3 to 4 in tbe length of head, and situated in or rather 
before tbe middle of its length, and 2-i- diameters apart. Dorsal 
profile much more convex than that of the abdomen. Snout 




Fig. 98. Scaphiodon brevidorsalis. 

swollen, overhanging the jaws ; mouth inferior, transverse ; three 
rows of large pores across the snout, and extending on to the pre- 
orbital bone ; knob at symphysis badly developed : a thin car- 
tilaginous covering to both jaws. Upper lip crenulated. Barbels 
absent. Fins last undivided dorsal ray osseous, very strong, 
entire, longer than the head by a distance equal to one diameter of 
the orbit. Dorsal fin commences midway between the snout and the 



CYPIUNTU.T:. CYPKIXIX.T. 287 

base of the caudal ; the fin two thirds as high as the body below it. 
Pectoral falciform, extending to over the ventral, which last is long, 
reaching to the anal ; caudal deeply forked. Settles 4^ rows 
between lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour silvery, 
darkest along the back, tins stained with grey. 

Hab. Rivers below the Nilgiri hilis in the Madras Presidency. 



15. Genus CATLA, Cuvier and Valenciennes. 
Syn. Gibelion, Ileckel ; Hypselobarbus, Bleeker. 

Head broad ; snout with very thin integuments, upper lip 
absent, the lower moderately thick, having a continuous and free 
posterior margin. The lower jaw with a movable articulation at 
the symphysis, but destitute of any prominent tubercle. No 
barbels. Gill-rakers long, fine, and closely set. Eyes with free 
orbital margins. Pharyugeal teeth plough-shaped, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. 
Dorsal fin rather long, without osseous ray, commencing somewhat 
in advance of the ventrals ; anal short ; caudal forked. Scales of 
moderate size, no tile-like row along the base of the anal fin. 
Lateral line continuous to the centre of the base of the caudal fin. 



332. (1.) Catla buchanani. (Fig. 99.) 

Cyprinus catla, Ham. Buck. Fi*h. Ganges, pp. 287, 387, pi. 13, fig. 81. 
Catla buchanani, Cuv. fy Val. xvii, p. 411, pi. 515; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 553, pi. cxxxiv, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

Bolchee, Telugu ; Catla, Bengal, Hind, and Punj. ; Barkur, Ooriah ; 
iktmtff, Burmese; Tamlra, Iliud. in Bombav; Boaasa, Hind, in 
.. Provinces; Tay-lee, Siud. 

B. iii. D. 17-19 (3-4/14-16). P. 21. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1.40-43. L. tr. 7|/9. Vert. 17/18. 

Length of head 4 to 4|, height of body 3 to 3| in the total 
length. Eyes iu the anterior half of the length of the head, 
diameter 6 to 7 in the length of the head, 2 diameters from the 
end of the snout, and 3 apart. Mouth wide, lower jaw prominent; 
in large specimens some pores on the snout. Fins dorsal com- 
mences in advance of the ventrals, is two thirds as high as the body, 
and has a concave upper edge. Pectoral extends to the ventral, and 
the latter, in males, to the anal. Anal laid flat reaches to beyond 
the commencement of the caudal. The fins in some specimens are 
much elongated. Seal's from 5| to 6| rows between lateral line 
and base of ventral tin. Colour gre\ ish above, becoming silvery 
on the sides and beneath. Fins dark-coloured, in some specimens 
nearly black. 

This fish is largely employed for stocking tanks. Iu May 1875, 
Mr. Mitchell had a tank, 65 x 58 feet and 13 feet deep, dug upon 
his ground at Gurdm Ixrurh. near Calcutta; into it were put some 



288 TEr-EOSTEI. PIITSOSTOMI. 

fry of this species, from ^ to 1 inch or less in length. Sep- 
tember 22nd the tank was netted, and several dozens captured, 
one of the largest weighing 14 oz. and measuring 11 inches in 
length ; the others were 1 or 2 oz. lighter. (' Nature,' Dec. Oth, 
1875, xiii, p. 107.) 







Fig. 99. Cutla bitchanani. 



Hob. Sind, Punjab, throughout India to the Kistna, and east- 
wards through Bengal, and Burma to Siam ; not known to occur 
in India south of the Kistna, nor in Tenasserim. This fish attains 
at least 6 feet in length, and is much esteemed as food when not 
exceeding 2 feet, larger ones are coarse. It resides in fresh or 
brackish water, being found within tidal influence. "It is a very 
strong active animal, and often leaps over the seine of the fisher- 
men, on which account, when fishing for the Catla, they usually 
follow the net in canoes, and make a noise by shouting and 
splashing with their paddles " {Ham. Buchanan). 



16. Genus THYNNICHTHYS, Bleeker. 
Syn. Mola, pt., Blyth. 

Pseudobranchiae present. Abdomen rounded. Head somewhat 
compressed ; integuments over snout thin ; upper lip absent ; only 
a short labial fold on the side of the mandible. Mouth rather 
wide, antero-lateral, with the lower jaw somewhat prominent. 
No barbels. Gill-rakers short or absent. Eyes in the middle of 
the depth of the head, and without any adipose lid. Pharyngeal 
teeth molariform, compressed, close together, 5, 3 or 4, 2 or 3/3 
or 2, 4 or 3, 5. Dorsal fin, short, without osseous ray ; ventral 



289 

commencing below the dorsal ; anal short and entirely posterior 
to the dorsal. Scales small. Lateral line complete, running to the 
centre of the base of the caudal fin or a little below. Intestinal 
tract narrow, and with numerous convolutions. 

Geographical Distribution. The Kistna and Godavari rivers from 
the Deccan to their terminations ; also the Malay Archipelago. 



333. (1.) Thynnichthys sandkhol. (Fig. 100.) 

Leuciscus sandkhol, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 363. 

Thynnichthys sandkhol, Day, Fish. India, p. 554, pi. cxxxiv, fig. 2 

(see synon.). 
Kala-tala and Akhu-chappah, Tel. ; Bareing, Ooriah. 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 19. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 

L. r. 120. L. tr. 25-30/25. 

Length of bead 4 to 41, height of body 3| to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 5 in the length of the head, 1 to lj 
diameters from the end of snout, and 1^ to 2^ apart. The width 
of the head equals one half, and the height four fifths, of its length. 
Teeth pharyngeal 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. Fins dorsal three fourths as high 




Fig. 100. Thynnichthys sandkhol. 

as the body, its upper edge concave, its origin slightly in advance of 
that of the ventral, and about midway between the snout and the base 
of the caudal fin, which latter is deeply lobed, the lower lobe being 
the longer. Anal at some distance behind the vertical from the pos- 
terior end of the dorsal. Scales 17 to 19 rows between lateral line 
and base of ventral fin. Colour silvery ; head purplish. 

Hob. Godavari and Kistna rivers, also the adjacent tanks; 
attaining above 18 inches in length. 



290 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

17. Genus AMBLYPHARYNGODON, Bleeker. 
Syn. Mola, Heckel and Blyth ; Bracliyyramma, Day. 

Pseudobranchiae present. Abdomen rounded. Head somewhat 
compressed; integuments over snout thin; upper lip absent ; only 
a short labial fold on the side of the mandible. Mouth rather 
wide, antero -lateral, with the lower jaw prominent. No barbels. 
Gill-rakers short or absent. Eyes in the middle of the depth of 
the head, and without any adipose membrane. Pharyngeal teeth 
molariform, with the crowns flat or concave, 3, 2, 1/1, 2, 3. 
Dorsal fin short, without osseous ray, and extending to nearly or 
quite above the commencement of the anal ; ventral in advance of 
the dorsal. Scales small. Lateral line incomplete. 

Geographical Distribution. From Sind throughout the plains of 
India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 9-10, L. 1. 55-65. 9 or 10 rows of scales 

between lateral line and base of ventral 

fin. Height of body 3| in the total length 1. A. atkinsonii, p. 290. 
D. 9, L. I. 05-75. 9 or 10 rows of scales 

between lateral line and base of ventral 

fin. Height of body 4 to 4| in the total 

length 2. A. mola, p. 291. 

D. 9, L. 1. 55-00. Five rows of scales between 

lateral line and base of ventral fin. Height 

of body 4f to 5 in the total length 3. A. microlejns, p. 91. 

D. 9-10, L. 1. 50-57. Four rows of scales 

between lateral line and base of ventral tin. 

Height of body 5 to 5^ in the total length. 4. A. melettinus, p. 292. 

334. (1.) Amfclypharyngodon atkinsonii. 

Mola atkinsonii, Blyth, J. A. S. II. xxix, 1860, p. 164. 
Amblypharyngodon atkinsonii, Day, Fish. India, p. 555, pi. cxxxiv, 

fig.4(seesynon.). 
Nga-pan-ma, Burmese. 

B. iii. D. 9-10 (2-3/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (2/6). C. 19. 
L. 1. 55-65. L. tr. 14/12. 

Length of head 4 to 4|, height of body 3j in the total length. 
Eyes in the front half of the head, 4 to 4| diameters in the length 
of the head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1^ apart. Abdo- 
minal and dorsal profiles about equally convex. Fins dorsal two 
thirds as high as the body, its upper edge concave, it commences 
slightly behind the origin of the ventral. Anal arising on the vertical 
just posterior to the end of the dorsal. Lateral line ceases after 
19 scales; there are 9 or 10 rows between it and the base of the 
ventral fin. Colour silvery, with a golden gloss about the head. 

Hob. Throughout Burma ; attaining at least 6 inches in length. 



CTPRINIDA CTPB1N1NI. 291 

335. (2.) Amblypharyngodon mola. (Fig. 101.) 

Cyprinus mola, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 334, C92, pi. 38, fig. 92. 
Amblypharvngodon mola, Lay, Fish. India, p. 555, pi. cxxxv, 

fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Talla-maya, Tel. ; Morant, Ooriab ; Moah, Assam ; Miikni, Punj. ; 
Nya-leh-byoo and Nya-zen-zap, Burmese. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

L. 1. 65-75. L. tr. 12/12. 

Length of head about 5, height of body 4 to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3^ to 4 in length of head. | to 1 dia- 
meter from end of snout," and 1^ apart. Dorsal profile more 
convex than that of the abdomen. Fins origin of dorsal behind 




Fig. 101. Amblypharyngodon mola. 

the insertion of the ventral, upper edge concave. Caudal deeply 
forked. Lateral line extends along about 15 scales, and there 
are 9 or 10 rows between it and the base of the ventral fin. 
Colour a silvery lateral band, and usually dark markings on the 
dorsal, caudal, and anal fins. 

Hub. From Sind throughout India (except the Malabar coast), 
Assam and Burma. 

336. (3.) Amblypharyngodon microlepis. 

Leuciscus microlepis, Bleeker, Batav. Genootsch. Verhand. xxv, Seng 

en Hind. p. 141. 
Amblypharyngodon microlepis, Day, Fish. India, p. 555, pi. cxxxv, 

fig. "6 (see synon.). 
B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 14. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. L. 1. 55-60. 

L. tr. 11/8. 

Length of head 4f to 5, height of body 4f to 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3f to 4 in length of head, less than 1 dia- 
meter from end of snout. Dorsal profile rather more convex than 
that of the abdomen. Fins origin of dorsal slightly behind the 
origin of the ventral, its upper edge concave, its last ray divided 
to its base ; caudal forked, lower lobe the longer. Lateral line 
ceases after a few scales, 5 rows between it and base of ventral 
fin. Colour a rather broad silvery lateral band. 

JI<il>. From the Hooghly through Orissa and down the Coro- 
mandcl coast to Madras. 

u2 



292 



TET.EOSTFJ. PH YsOSTOM T . 



337. (4.) Amblypharyngodon melettina. 

Leuciscus melettina, Cue. # Veil. II. N. Pimn. xvii, p. 804, pi. 501. 
Amblypharyngodon melettinus, Day, Fish. India, p. 555, pi. cxxxiv, 

fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Wuniboo, Mai. ; Oolaree, Tarn. ; Kali-Twritfi, Hind. ; Paraya, Can. 

B. iii. D. 9-10 (2-3/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7-8 (2-3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 50-57. L. tr. 10/8. 

Length of Lead 5 to 5|, height of body 5 to 5| in the total 
length. Eyes 4 diameters in the length of the head, 1 diameter 
from end of snout, and lj apart. Teeth pharyngeal, with rather 
concave summits. Fins origin of dorsal behind the insertion of 
the ventral, its upper edge concave ; caudal rather deeply forked. 
Lateral line extends along 15 to 20 rows of scales, 4 rows 
between it and the base of the ventral fin. Coloui greenish along 
the back, becoming silvery on the sides and beneath ; a bright 
greenish-yellow band divides the colours of the back from a silvery 
line passing along the side. 

Hub. (Bombay, according to Cuv. and Val.) Malabar coast, and 
Southern India, from the Nilgiris to Madras, also Ceylon. 

18. Genus MATSYA, gen. nov. 

Syn. Acanthonotus, Tickell, nee Bloch & Schneider. 

Mouth arched, anterior; barbels absent, eyes without adipose 
lids. Dorsal fin rather short, commencing slightly in front of the 
root of the ventral, its osseous ray strong, serrated and preceded 




Fig. 102. Matsya arycntea. 

at its base by a small forwardly directed spine; anal short. Scales 
large, no enlarged row at base of anal fin. Lateral line complete 
and continued to opposite the centre of the base of the caudal. 



CYPUINIDJS. CYPRIXIN 1. 293 

338. (1.) Matsya argentea. (Fig. 102.) 

Acanthonotus argenteus, Tickcll, MSS. ; Dai/, Fish. India, SUJIJM- 
ment, p. 807. 

D. 9 (1/8). P. 14. V. 8. A. 7. C. 18. L. 1. 30. 

Length of head as delineated 6, height of body 3J in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3^ in the length of the head, 1 diameter 
from the end of the snout. Snout blunt, rather overhanging the 
mouth, body compressed ; profile with a considerable rise from snout 
to base of dorsal fin. F'uis dorsal spine strong and posteriorly 
serrated, caudal deeply forked, its lobes acutely pointed. A small 
hori/.ontal spine in front of the dorsal fin pointing forwards and 
scarcely prof ruding from beneath the skin. Lateral line complete. 
Colour brilliant silvery,- with lilac and blue shades and a tinge of 
olive-yellow on the back. Dorsal fin orange-scarlet, superiorly 
bordered with black except on the last tsvo rays, the other fins 
lemon-yellow. Dorsal ridge black in its upper portion. 

Hub. Very common in the streams of the interior of the 
Tenasserim district, the largest obtained being about 5 - 4 inches in 
length. 

19. Genus BABBITS, Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

Syn. Puntius, pt., Ham. Buch. ; Labeobarbu*, Varicorhinus, pt., Riipp. ; 
Systomus, pt., McClell. ; Cajweta, sp., Cuv. & Val. ; Pseudubarbus, Bielz. ; 
Lttciobarbusi Heckel ; Clicilubarbus, sp., Smith ; Balantiocheilus, Heini- 
barbus, CycIuchcilicJithys, Siaja, Anematichfhys, Hypselobnrbm, Gono/irok- 
topterus, Gnuthopoyon, Ifampala, sp., Bleeker ; Enteromhis, sp., Cope. 

Mouth arched, and anterior or inferior ; jaws closely invested 
by the lips, which may have leathery lobes, but no horny covering *. 
Barbels four (Barbodes, Bleeker); or two (Capoeta, Cuv. & Val.); 
or none (Puntius, H. Buch.). Eyes without adipose lids. Pharyn- 
geal teeth 5 or 4, 3 or 4, 2 or 3/3 or 2, 3 or 4, 4 or 5. Dorsal'fin 
rather short, commencing nearly opposite the root of the ventral; 
its last undivided ray either ossified and serrated or entire, or 
articulated and not osseous ; anal rather short, in some species its 
second ray ossified, or its last undivided ray may even be serrated 
(B. prodozyson, Bleeker). Scales large, of moderate or small size ; 
anal scales not enlarged. Lateral line complete or incomplete t, 
when complete it is continued to opposite the centre of the base 
of the caudal fin. 

Barbus mahecola, C. V., which has two barbels, is very similar to 



* Barbus lithopidos is an exception. 

t The number of rows of scales between the lateral line and insertion of the 
ventral fin, in species in which the former is incomplete, is counted from the 
row of scales on which the lateral line would have existed had it been 
complete. 



294 TELBOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

B.Jilameiitosus, C. V., with none. If a number of examples are 
examined, it will be found that in some these appendages are 
minute, the barbels being as a rule smallest in specimens obtained 
furthest from the hills. In South Oanara, the Wynaad, and base 
of the Nilgiris, where the barbels are large, the B. mahecola abounds ; 
towards Cochin and up the Coromandel coast as far as Madras that 
species is small or absent, and the B. filamentosus is the type. 
Here, undoubtedly, the question must force itself on one's notice, 
Are we dealing with two distinct species, or one in a state of 
transition? The adults of Barbus punctatus and B. pliutunio are 
often exactly similar, but in the immature form the first retains its 
original colour, not so the second. Barbus chola and B. tetrarupurjus 
are similar, except as to the presence of a black spot behind the 
opercle in the latter ; whilst Barbus ticto shows considerable 
variations. Great changes evidently occur in some species if they 
are removed to another locality : thus Barbus conchonius, which has 
been imported from the plains and introduced into the Naini Tal 
lake, is evidently losing the serrature of its dorsal spine ; in time, 
if this change goes on, the species will become more like B. torio 
than the original form. 

The majority of those species which constitute the subgenus 
Barbodes (4 barbels), provided they are soberly coloured, attain a 
large size ; the brilliantly coloured forms are mostly residents in clear 
and rapid mountain-streams or rivers contiguous to hills and are 
generally small. A strong dorsal spine is usually (if not invariably) 
a sign that the species lives in the vicinity of high mountains, up 
the streams of which it ascends to breed ; an exception, however, 
has to be made of those forms having serrated dorsal spines, and 
which are usually residents of waters of the plains. Considerable 
individual variations exist as to the comparative length and size of 
the dorsal spine ; as a rule it increases in strength in the adult. 

Species of the subgenus Capoela (2 barbels) never attain the size 
reached by many of the Barbodes ; some, more especially when 
residing in mountain-streams, have vivid colours. The species of 
the subgenus Puntius are mostly of small size ; a few are brilliantly 
coloured. 

Geographical Distribution. Europe, and throughout Asia and 
Africa. Eepresentatives of this genus exist in most, if not all, 
Indian and Burmese rivers and tanks, the larger species being 
generally termed Mahseers. Some attain an enormous size, as 
much as 90 Ib. and upwards ; these are more frequently residents 
in rivers along the bases of hills or in large rapids, but a few have 
a more extended range. The number of species appears to di- 
minish as the Malay Archipelago is approached, whilst those forms 
having 4 barbels and also an osseous and serrated dorsal ray increase 
largely in proportion to the others. 



295 



Syno2>sis of Indian Species. 
A. With four barbels. (Barbodes.) 

a. Last undivided dorsal ray osseous and 

serrated. 
D. 3/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 44-47. Pores on 

snout and head. Colour uniform . . 1. D. chayunio, p. 299. 
D. a/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 42. Pores on 

snout. Colour uniform .......... 2. B. cluvatus, p. 300. 

D. 3-4/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 32-34. Colour 

uniform ; in Burma the caudal has 

a dark inner edge ................ 3. B. sarana, p. 300. 

D. 4/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 28-30. A dark 

lateral blotch .................. 4. B. chrysopoma, p. 301. 

D. 3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 29-30. A black 

lateral blotch, fins orange ........ 5. B. pinnauratus, p. 301. 

D. 3*/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 28. A black band 

from eye to middle of tail ........ 0. B. pleurot&nia, p. 302. 

D. 3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 24. Serrated 

dorsal ray weak. Colour uniform . . 7. B. yoniosoma, p. 302. 
D. 3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 22. Caudal, anal, 

and ventrals red ..... ..... ...... 8. B. roseipiunis, p. 303. 

b. Last undivided dorsal ray osseous and 

entire. 
1). 4/9, A. 2/5, L. 1. 42. No pores on 

snout. 5 scales between I. 1. and 

ventral. Dorsal spine strong, nearly 

as long as head ................ 9. B. dubius, p. 303. 

D. 4/9, A. 2-3/5, L. 1. 39-41. Dorsal 

spine strong, a little longer than 

head, 3 scales between 1. 1. and 

ventral ........................ 10. B. micropoyon, p. 304. 

D. 3/7-8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 32-35. Lower 

lip with a continuous transverse fold. 

Dorsal spine strong. 3 scales be- 

tween 1. 1. and ventral .......... 11. B. chilinoules, p. 304. 

D. 4/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 30-32. Lower 

labial fold interrupted. Dorsal 

spine strong. 3^ scales between 1. 

1. and ventral .................. 12. B. atrnaticus, p. 305. 

D. 3/9, A. 2/5, L. 1. 28-31. Lower 

labial fold interrupted. Dorsal 

spine strong, as long as the head 

excluding the snout. 2| scales be- 

tween 1. 1. and ventral .......... 13. B. hexaqonolepis, p. 305. 

D. 4/9, A. 2/5, L. 1. 28-29. Lower 

labial fold interrupted. Large pores 

on cheeks. Dorsal spine strong, as 

long as head excluding the snout. 

2 scales between 1. 1. and ventral 14. B. dukai, p. 306. 
D. 3/9, A. 2/5, L. 1. 25-27. Dorsal 

spine strong, as long as the head 

excluding the snout. Upper jaw 

the longer, lips lobed. 2 scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral .......... 15. B. tor, p. 307. 



296 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

D. 3-4/9, A. 2/5-6, L. 1. 25-20. Dorsal 
spine strong. 2| scales between 1. 1. 

and ventral 16. B. hexasiichus, p. 308. 

D. 3/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 24-26. Lower 
labial fold entire. Dorsal spine of 
moderate strength and as long as the 
head excluding the snout. 2| scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral 17. -B. bovanicus, p. 303. 

D. 3/9, A. 2/5, L. 1. 2-5. Dorsal spine 
weak, 2\ scales between 1. 1. and 

ventral 18. B. sophore, p. 309. 

D. 2/9, A. 2/5, L. 1. 23. Dor sal spine 
strong. 2| scales between 1. 1. and 

ventral 19. B. xtracheyi, p. 309. 

c. Last undivided ray articulated, or if 

osseous very weak. 

D. 3/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 41. 3| scales be- 
tween 1. 1. and ventral 20. B. curmuca, p. 310. 

D. 3/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 38-39. 4 seal es 
between 1. 1. and ventral. Of a slate 

colour 21. B. lithopidos, p. 310. 

D. 3-4/9, A. 3/5, L. 31/34. 2 scales 
between 1. 1. and ventral. Each 
scale with a red mark ; dorsal and 

caudal fins lake colour 22. B. thomasgi, p. 311. 

D. 3/9, A. 3/7 23. B. spinulosus, p. 311. 

D. 3/9, A. 2/5, L. 1. 30-32. 3i scales 
between 1. 1. and ventral. Upper- 
half of body dark; a light band 

from eye to tail 24. B. jmlchellus, p. 311. 

D. 3-4/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 30-32. Length 
of head 6 in total. 3| scales between 

1. 1. and ventral 25. B. dobsoni, p. 312. 

D. 3/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 27-28. Length 
of head 6 to 5 in total. 2| to 3 

scales between 1. 1. and ventral .... 20. B. ferdoni, p. 312. 
D. 4/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 26-28. 2 to 3 

scales between 1. 1. and ventral .... 27. B. wynaadensis, p. 313 
D. 3/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 27. 2 scales be- 
tween 1. 1. and ventral 28. B. stevemonii, p. 313. 

I). 4/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 24-26. 3| scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral 29. It. neilli, p. 314. 

D. 3-4/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 24. 1 scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral 30. B. malabaricus, p. 314. 

D. 3/9, A. 2/5, L. 1. 24. 3 scales be- 
tween 1. 1. and ventral 31. B. innominatus, p. 315. 

D. 3/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 22. 3| scales be- 
tween 1. 1. and ventral 32. B. compressus, p. 315. 

D. 3/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 22. 2 scales be- 
tween 1. 1. and ventral 33. B. blythii. p. 315. 

D. 3/8 A. 2/5, L. 1. 20. 2 scales be- 
tween 1. 1. and ventral. Red, with 
three vertical black bands 34. B. melanampy.r, p. 316. 



CTPBINID.E. CYPRIflTNJE. 297 

li. With two barbels. (Capoeta.) 

a. Last undivided dorsal ray osseous, 

serrated. 

D. 4/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 26. 2J scales 
between 1. 1. and ventral 35. B. macrolepidotus, p. 316. 

b. Last undivided dorsal ray osseous, 

entire. 
D. 3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 26-28. Narrow 

suborbitals. 3 to 3| scales between 

1. 1. and ventral. A lateral blotch, 

and two bands on dorsal tin 36. B. chola, p. 317. 

D. 3/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 25. Wide sub- 
orbitals. 3J scales between 1. 1. and 

ventral. A dark lateral blotch. ... 37. B. parrah, p. 317. 
D. 4/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 26. 2 scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral 38. B. bunnanicus, p. 318. 

D' 2-3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 24-26. 3J 

scales between 1. 1. and ventral. A 

black spot behind gill-opening, a 

second near base of caudal fin; a 

band on dorsal fin 39. B. tetrarupayus, p. 318. 

D. 3-4/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 24-25 2| 

scales between 1. 1. and ventral. A 

black spot at end of base of dorsal fin. 40. B. dorsalis, p. 319. 

c. Last undivided dorsal ray articulated, 

or if osseous very weak. 
D. 3-4/9, A. 3/5, L. 1. 40-43. 4 to 5 

scales between 1. 1. and ventral 41. B. kolus, p. 319. 

D. 2-3/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 28. 2 scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral. Body 

longitudinally banded 42. B. denisonii, p. 320. 

D. 2/8, A. 2/5. 3 scales between 1. 1. 

and ventral. A light band along the 

side ; a deep black lateral blotch . . 43. B. melatwstiyma. p. 320. 
D. 2/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 26. 3| scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral 44. B. arenatus, p. 321. 

D. 2/7, A. 3/5, L. 1. 24. 2\ scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral. A black 

mark along base of dorsal. A dark 

lateral blotch sometimes present . . 45. B. puckelli. p. 321. 
D. 2-3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 23-24. 2 scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral. A dark 

lateral blotch sometimes present . . 46. B. amphibius, p. 322. 
D. 3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 23. 2| scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral. Body 

vertically banded 47. B. arulius, p. 322. 

D. 3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 21. 2 scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral. A deep 

lateral blotch 48. B. mahecola, p. 323. 

C. Without barbels. (Puntius.) 

a. Last undivided dorsal ray osseous, 

serrated. 
D. 4/8, L. 1. 36, complete. 5 scales 

between 1. 1. and ventral. Each 

scale with a dark base 49. B. apoyon. p. 324. 

D. 3/8, L. 1. 36, incomplete. 6 scales 



298 TELEOSTEI. 1'HTSOSTOMI. 

between 1. 1. and ventral. A black 
lateral blotch, another at base of 

anterior dorsal rays 50. B. umbassis, p. 324. 

D. 3/8, L. 1. 2(5, incomplete. 4| scales 
between 1. 1. and ventral. A black 

spot on side over anal tin 51. B. conchonius, p. 325. 

D. 3/8, L. 1. 23-26, incomplete. Two 

black spots, one at commencement 
of 1. L, another at side of tail .... 52. B. ticto, p. 325. 
D. 2-3/8, L. 1. 25, complete. Two black 

marks on lateral line 53. B. sto'iczkanus, p. 320. 

D. 3/8, L. 1. 23, complete. Two black 

apots, one below commencement of 

1. 1., the other near its termination. . 54. B. punctatus, p. 326. 
D. 2-3/8, L. 1. 23-24, incomplete. A 

black band over tail, a black spot 

across the bases of the first six dorsal 

rays, and another over base of anal . 55. B. gelius, p. 327. 
D. 2-3/8, L. 1. 20-23, incomplete. 

Four vertical black bands on a brown 

body, and a dark one down the 

centre of the, dorsal fin 56. B. phutunw, p. 327. 

D. 3/8, A. 3/5, L. 1. 21, incomplete. 

3 scales between 1. 1. and ventral. 

Two dark vertical bands. ...'.... 57. B. cumint/ii, p. 328. 
D. 3/8, L. 1. 20, complete. Three ver- 
tical black bands on body 58. B. nif/rofasciatus, p. 328. 

D. 2/8, L. 1. incomplete 59. B. yuyanio, p. 328. 

6. Last undivided dorsal ray osseous, entire. 
D. 3/8, L. 1. 23-26, complete. A dark 

mark near posterior extremity of 

1. 1., another across base of middle 

dorsal rays 60. B. stigma, p. 329. 

D. 3/8, L. L 23-25, complete. Fins 

black-tipped 61. B. chrysopt.erus, p. 329. 

D. 3/8, A. 3/5, L. 24, incomplete. 3| 

scales between 1. 1. and ventral. A 

dark mark at side of base of tail . 62. B. thennalis, p. 330. 
1). 3/8, L. 1. 22-23, incomplete. A 

black mark on side above anal, some- 
times continued by a band to the 

caudal, a second indistinct one under 

posterior end of dorsal 63. B. terio, p. 330. 

c. Last undivided dorsal ray articulated, 

or if osseous very weak. 
D. 3/8, L. 1. 43, incomplete. A silvery 

band along side, a black spot at base of 

caudal, and two first dorsal rays black. 64. JB.punjabensis, p. 331. 
D. 3/8, L. 1. 24, incomplete. A black 

mark at base of each dorsal ray. . . . 65. B. unimaculatus, p. 331. 
D. 2-3/8, A. 2/5, L. 1. 23, incomplete. 

A lateral blotch 66. B. waa</cnii, p. 332. 

D. 3/8, L. 1. 22, incomplete. Uniform, 

a dark spot across middle of anterior 

dorsal rays 67. B. cosuatis, p. 332. 

D. 2/8, L. T. 20-22, incomplete. Four 

black spots on side, and a black streak 

down dorsal fin 68. B. vlttatm, ]\ 333. 






Ci'PHINIJXE. 



299 



D. 38, L. 1. 21, complete. Branched 

dorsal rays elongated. A black mark 

near posterior end of 1. 1., and each 

caudal lobe with a black extremity. 69. B.filamentosus, p. 333. 
D. 3/8, L. 1. 23, incomplete. A black 

band encircles the free portion of the 

tail 70. B. puntio, p. 334. 



A. With four barbels (Bcrbodes). 
339. (1.) Barbus chagunio. (Fig. 103.) 

Cyprinus chagunio, Ham. Bitch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 295, 387. 
Barbus clmgunio, Day, Fish. India, p. 559, pi. cxxxvi, fig. 1 (variety 

spilo/tholus), and pi. cxl, tig. '2 (see synon.). 
Jerruah, Bang. ; Chaguni, Behar. ; Pootee keintah, Assam. 

B.'iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 

L. 1. 44-47. L. tr. 11/9. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 4 to 4| in the total 
length. Eye* diameter 5 to 6^ in length of head, 2 to 3 diameters 
from end of snout, 1 diameters apart. Suborbital region, cheeks, 
and anterior upper margin of the orbit usually covered with 
numerous pores. Barbels both pairs rather longer than the 
orbit. Fins dorsal commences midway between the end of the 
snout and the base of the caudal fin, its last undivided ray is 
osseous, strong, with coarse teeth : some of the last few anal rays 
in large specimens may be elongated (B. spilophilus), but more 




Fig. 103. Barbus chagunio. 



frequently are not so. Lateral line complete, with from 5J to 6| 
rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral ; 15 rows 
before the dorsal fin. Free portion of the tail as high as long. 
Colour uniform silvery, with a pinkish tinge, the scales towards 
the back sometimes being darkest at their bases ; fins reddish with 
light outer edges, the summit of the dorsal fin sometimes black. 
The young have a silvery band along the side. 



300 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

Hob. From Orissa, throughout Bengal, Assam, Behar, and the 
N.W. Provinces to the Punjab, but not recorded from Sind, the 
Deccan, Western coast, Mysore, Madras, or Burma. This species 
attains at least 18 inches in length. 

340. (2.) Barbus clavatus. 

Barbus clavatus, McClelland, Cal. Journ. N. H. v, 1845, p. 280, 
pi. 21, fig. 2 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 5(30 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 16. V. 10. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 42. L. tr. G/4. 

Height of the body oue fourth of the length excluding the caudal 
fin. Eyes large and in the middle of the length of the head. 
Snout covered with small thorny tubercles. Barbels two well- 
developed pairs. Fins last undivided dorsal ray osseous, strong, 
serrated, and as long as the body is high. Scales 11| rows in an 
oblique line from the base of the ventral to the dorsal. The figure 
shows 4| rows between the lateral line and base of the ventral, 
which would give 6| above the lateral line. Colour blue superiorly, 
becoming white beneath : the fins pale bluish white. 

Hab. A single specimen (7 inches long) was obtained from a 
river at the base of the Sikhim mountains in Bengal. 

341. (3.) Barbus sarana. 

Cyprinus sarana, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 307, 388. 
Barbus saranus, Day, Fish. India, p. 560, pi. cxxxvi, fig. '2 ^see 
synon.). 

Punyella, Tarn. ; Giddi-kaoli, Durhie and Potah, Hind. ; Gid-pakk>>, 
Can. ; Kannaku, Tel. ; Sarana, Ooriah and Beng. ; Jundoori, Punj. ; Knilali 
and Pitule, Marathi ; Poppree and Kuh-nah-nee, Sind. ; Sen-nee, Assam ; 
Nga-khon-mah-gyee and Nya-chong, Burmese. 

B.iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. L.I. 32-34. 

L. tr. 51-6/6. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 3] to 3| in the total 
length, Eyes diameter 4 to 4| in the length of head, 1 to lj 
diameters from the end of snout, and 2 diameters apart. No pores 
on the snout. Barbels the rostral pair about as long as the 
orbit, the maxillary pair longer, sometimes equalling li diameters 
of the orbit. Fins dorsal commences slightly nearer to the 
snout than to the base of the caudal fin, and opposite the insertion 
of the ventral ; its last undivided ray osseous, strong in the adult, 
finely serrated posteriorly, and with its stiff portion two thirds as 
long as the head, the fin is one half to two thirds as high as the 
body, with its upper edge concave. Lateral line complete, from 
3| to 4 rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin : 
10 to 11 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, darkest 
superiorly, opercles shot with gold ; the young have occasionally a 
dull blotch on the lateral line before the base of the caudal fin. 



CYPRTNIDvE. CYPBININ^. 301 

Mostly some dark spots behind the opercle. When the fish is 
fresh there are sometimes horizontal bands along the rows of scales 
in the upper half of the body. Fins whitish or yellowish white, 
and externally stained with grey. 

Hob. Sind and the Punjab, throughout India, Assam, and Burma, 
in which latter country the caudal tin has sometimes a black upper 
and lower edge and a dark mark at the base of each scale. This 
fish attains at least a foot in length. 

342. (4.) Barbus chrysopoma. 

Barbus chrysoporaa, Cuv. $ Veil. H. N. Poiss. xvi, p. 165, pi. 466 ; 
Day, Fish. India, p. 561 (see synon.). 

Munduttee, Mai. ; Pungela, Tamil. 

B.iii. 1). 12(4/8). P. 17. V.9. A. 8 (3/5). C.19. L.I. 28-30. 
L. tr. 6/6. 

Length of head 4^ to 5, height of body 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| to 3| in the length of the head (in a specimen 2-6 
inches in length the eve is at least 2^ in the length of the head), 1 
diameter from the end of snout, and 1 to lj apart. Barbels the 
rostral very thin, not so long as the eye ; the maxillary as long as the 
orbit. Fins dorsal commences midway between the front edge of 
the eye and the base of the caudal fin and opposite the insertion of 
the ventral ; its last undivided ray osseous, of moderate strength, 
finely serrated posteriorly, and with its stiff portion as long as the 
head excluding the snout; the height of the fin is two thirds to 
three fourths that of the body below it, the upper edge concave. 
Lateral line complete, and a little more concave than in the next 
species, whilst it is sometimes sinuous in the last part of its 
course ; 4 rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral 
fin ; 12 rows before the base of the dorsal fin. Colour dark 
silvery, lightest beneath, opercles shot with purple and gold. A 
dark vertical band behind the opercles and a dull spot on the 
lateral line just anterior to the base of the caudal fin. Upper and 
lower margins of the caudal greyish ; the other fins golden. 

The eyes in this species are larger than in B. sarana, and not so 
far apart. 

Hob. Eresh waters along the coasts of India from Cutch to 
Bengal, also the Deccan, Mysore, and Madras. I have likewise 
received this species from Darjeeling. 

343. (5.) Barbus pinnauratus. 

Puntius pinnauratus, Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 209, pi. xv, tig. 2. 
Barbus pinnauratus, Day, Fish. India, p. 561, pi. cxxxix, tig. 3 (fee 
synon.). 

B.iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 17. V.8. A. 7 (2/5). C.19. L.I. 29-30. 

L.tr. 5|-6/6. 
Length of head 5 to 5^, height of body 3^ to 3| in the total 



302 TELEOSTEI. PHT8O8TOMI. 

length. Eyes diameter 3| in the length of head, nearly or 
quite 1 diameter from the end of snout, and \\ to If apart. Body 
compressed. Barbels the maxillary pair are one half longer than 
the orbit, the rostral pair a little shorter. Fins dorsal commences 
slightly in advance of the insertion of the ventral, and two thirds 
as high as the body, having its upper edge concave, its last undi- 
vided ray osseous (weak in the young, but strengthening with age), 
as long as the head excluding the snout, and posteriorly serrated. 
Lateral line complete, 3| or 4 rows of scales between it and the 
base of the ventral fin ; 10 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour 
silvery along the back and upper half of the body, becoming white 
shot with gold beneath ; most of the scales with black bases. A 
dark band behind the opercles and a black blotch on the lateral 
line, commencing about the twenty-fourth scale. Opercles and 
fins orange, caudal with a black superior and inferior edge. 

Hob. From fresh waters at Cocanada down the East coast of 
India to Ceylon, and inland as far as the Nilgiris, also along the 
"Western ghats and rivers at their bases. The largest example 
obtained was 10| inches in length. 

344. (6.) Barbus pleurotaenia. 

Puntius (Barbodes) pleurotaenia, Bleeker, Cubit, et Cyjn-. Ceylon, in 
Haarlem, Nat. Verh. Holland. Maatsch. xx, 18C4, p. 13, t. 3, fig. 2. 
Barbus pleurotaenia, Day, Fish. India, p. 562 (see synon.). 

B.iii. D.I 1(3/8). P. 14. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. L.I. 27-29. 
L. tr. 5/4|. 

Length of head about 5|, height of body 4 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter two sevenths of length of head, 1 to 1| diameters 
from end of snout, and slightly more apart. Barbels both pairs 
somewhat longer than the orbit. Fins dorsal commences over 
the ventral, and midway between the end of the snout and the base 
of the caudal ; its last undivided ray is osseous, very strong, ser- 
rated posteriorly, and as long as the head, the upper margin of the 
fin concave ; caudal forked. Lateral line complete, 2^ rows of 
scales between it and the root of the ventral ; 10 rows before the 
dorsal fin. Colour a black band extends from the eye to the ter- 
mination of the central caudal rays. 

Hub. Ceylon. 

345. (7.) Barbus goniosoma. 

Puntius (Barbodes) goniosoma, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. iii, p. 105, t. 31, 

fig. 1. 

Barbus gcniosoma, Day, Fish. India, p. 502, pi. cxxxvii, fig. 2 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. L. 1. 24. 

L. tr. 4|/4|. 
Length of head about 5, height of body 3| in the total length. 



303 

Eyes diameter two sevenths of length of head, 1 diameter from 
end of snout, and 1| apart. Body elevated to the base of dorsal 
fin, whilst it is strongly compressed. Eostral barbels extend to 
below the middle of the eye ; maxillai-y to opposite the posterior 
margin of the orbit. Fins origin of dorsal slightly posterior to 
the insertion of the ventrals ; dorsal spine osseous, strong, as long 
as the head without the snout, and finely serrated posteriorly in 
its whole extent ; the fin is one half as high as the body. Caudal 
forked, the lower lobe the longer. Scales 2| rows between lateral 
line and base of ventral fin ; 9 rows before dorsal. Colour silvery, 
fins orange. 

Hob. Mergui to Sumatra, growing to 6 inches in length. 

346. (8.) Barbus roseipinnis. 

Barbus roseipinnis, Cuv. $ Vol. If. N. Poiss. xvi, p. 169 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 562 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). A. 7(2/5). C. 20. L. 1. 22. 

Dorsal profile elevated. Eyes large. Barbels four, thin and 
long. Fins dorsal with its last undivided ray osseous, of moderate 
strength and serrated. Colour silvery ; ventral, anal, and caudal 
fins reddish, the lower border of the last tinged with black. 

Hob. Pondicherry, whence M. Belanger brought specimens 4| 
inches in length. 

347. (9.) Barbus dubius. 

Puntius (Barbodes) dubius, Day, P. Z. S. 1807, p. 291. 
Barbus dubius, Day, Fish. India, p. 662, pi. cxxxvii, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

Collee-anngean candee, Tarn. 

B. iii. D. 13 (4/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). L. 1. 42-45. 

L. tr. 9/8. 

Length of head 5|, height of body 4| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 4| in length of head, lj diameters apart, and also from end 
of snout. Barbels rather short, the rostral pair being about equal 
to half the diameter of the orbit, whilst the maxillary are a little 
longer. Snout somewhat elevated. Fitis doi'sal spine osseous, 
smooth, and strong ; it is nearly as long as the head, the fin com- 
mences somewhat nearer to the end of the snout than to the base 
of the caudal, and a little in advance of the insertion of the ventral. 
Lateral line complete, 4| to 5 rows of scales between it and the 
base of the ventral fin ; 14 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour 
uniform silvery, with the bases of the scales darkest. 

Hal). Bhavani river at the foot of the Nilgiris. 



304 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

348. (10.) Barbus micropogon. 

Barbus micropogon, Guv. fy Vol. If. N. Poiss. xvi, p. 188 ; Day 
Fish, India, p. 668, pi. cxxxvi, fig. 3, and pi. cxxxviii, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

Coatee candee, Tamil. 

B. iii. D. 13 (4/9). P. 17. V. 10. A. 7-8 (2-3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 39-41. L. tr. 6-7/7. 

Length of head 4| to 5|, height of body 4 to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes in the middle of the length of the head, diameter 
3| to 4| in length of head, 1| diameters apart and also from end 
of snout. Snout conically pointed, and adults have pores on the 
preorbital, and even all across the snout. Cleft of mouth extend- 
ing about half the distance to below the anterior margin of the 
orbit. Barbels the rostral extend to below the anterior third of 
the orbit, the maxillary to below its posterior margin. Teeth 
pharyngeal, crooked, pointed, 4, 3, 2/2, 3, 4. Fins dorsal com- 
mences slightly before insertion of ventrals, and midway between 
end of the snout and base of caudal fin ; its osseous ray is strong, 
smooth, and somewhat compressed, the stiff portion being slightly 
longer than the head. Pectoral three fourths as long as the head. 
Caudal deeply forked. Lateral line complete, but becomes lost 
in old specimens ; 3 to 3| rows of scales between it and the ventral 
fin; 15 rows anterior to the dorsal fin. Colour cheeks golden, 
body with a greenish tinge superiorly, becoming white tinged with 
gold below the lateral line, the base of each scale somewhat the 
darkest. Fins darkest along their centres. 

Hob. Rivers around the base of the Nilgiris, and "Wynaad and 
South Canara range of hills, also Mysore, attaining a large size. 
Some were introduced by myself into the Ootacamund lake. The 
example figured in ' The Fishes of India,' on plate cxxxvi (7'5 inches 
in length), was from the Wynaad ; the specimen on plate cxxxviii 
(life size) was from the Bhavani. 

349. (11.) Barbus cMlinoides. 

Barbus cheilynoides, McClelland, As. Res. xix, pt. 2, 2nd. Cyp. 

pp. 271, 340, pi. 57, fig. 5. 
Barbua chilinoides, Day, Fish, India, p. 503, pi. cxxxix, fig. 5 (see 

synon.). 
Chit-rah-too, Punj. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (3/7-8). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

L.I. 32-35. L. tr. 5|/6. 

Length of head 5, height of body 5| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 4 to 5 in the length of head, 1 1 diameters from end of 
snout, and 2 diameters apart. The snout overhangs the mouth. 
Some examples have a depression across the snout; numerous fine 
glands over the cheeks and opercles ; lips moderately thick, the 
lower without a lobe, but with a continuous transverse fold. 



CYPBINID^E. CYPBININ^E. 305 

the rostral and maxillary pairs of about the same length, 
equal to 1| diameters of the orb't. Fins dorsal commences about 
midway between end of snout and base of caudal fin ; its last un- 
divided ray is osseous, very strong, entire, the stiff portion being 
about three fifths of the length of the head. Anal laid flat reaches 
the base of the caudal, which is deeply forked. Lateral line 
complete; there are 3 rows of scales between it and the base of the 
caudal fin. Colour golden above, becoming silvery beneath, the 
margins of the scales with numerous fine black dots ; a black mark 
behind the opercle. Fins reddish. 

Hah. Himalayas, as far to the east as Assam ; also found in the 
Granges. This fish attains 21 feet in length. 



> 350. '(12.) Barbus carnations. 

Barbus carnaticus, Jerdon, Mad. Jdur. L. S. xv, 1849, p. 311 ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 503, pi. cxxxvii, fig. 3 (see synon.). 

Poaree candee, Saal candee, Shellee, Tamil; Giddi-kaoK, Hind.; Gid- 
pakke, Can. 

B. iii. D. 12 (4/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. L. 1. 32. 
L. tr. 5/6. 

Length of head 5|, height of body 3 to 4 in total length. Eyes 
diameter 3 to 4 in length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, 
and ! to 2 apart. Teeth pharyngeal, pointed, curved, 5, 3, 2/2, 
3, 5. Barbels thin, both pairs shorter than the eye. Fins the 
dorsal three fourths as high as the body, with a concave upper edge ; 
it commences in front of the insertion of the ventral, and midway 
between the snout and the base of the caudal fin ; its last undivided 
ray is a strong, broad, smooth spine, nearly as long as the head in 
the immature, and sometimes longer in the adult, especially in 
specimens from Canara. Pectoral as long as the head or rather 
longer. Anal laid flat reaches the caudal. Lateral line com- 
plete, 3| rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 
12 rows anterior to the dorsal fin. Colour greenish brown along 
the back, becoming dull white glossed with gold on the sides and 
beneath. Fins greyish. Eyes golden. 

Hab. llivers aloiig the bases of the Nilgiris, Wynaad, and South 
Canara hills, attaining at least 25 Ibs. in weight. Some have been 
introduced into the Ootacamund lake. 



351. (13.) Barbus hexagonolepis. 

Bnrbus hexagonolepis, McClelland, As. Res. xix, pt. "2, Ind. Cyp. 
pp. 270, 336, pi. 41, fig. 3; Day, Fish. India, p. f>G4, pi. cxxxvii, 
fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Bokar and Boolooah, Assam. 

B.iii. D. 12(3/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 28-31. L. tr. 4/4|. 

x 



306 TELEOSTET. P1IYSOSTOMT. 

Length of head 5 to 5, height of body 5 to 5^ in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 5 to 6 in the length of the head, 1| to 2 
diameters from the end of the snout, and 2^ apart. Lower labial 
fold interrupted. Sometimes pores on the "cheeks. Barbels the 
maxillary reach nearly to below the hind edge of the preopercle, 
the rostral are shorter. Fins dorsal two thirds as high as the 
body, it commences somewhat in front of the insertion of the 
ventral; its last undivided ray is strong, osseous, smooth, with its 
stiff portion as long as the head excluding the snout. Pectoral as 
long as the head excluding the snout, and not reaching the ventral. 
Anal laid flat does not extend to the base of the caudal, which is 
deeply forked. Lateral line complete, 2 to 2L rows of scales 
between it and the ventral; 10 to 31 rows before the dorsal. Ex- 
posed portion of scales somewhat hexagonal. Colour deep bluish 
grey, fins darker. 

Hab. Assam in the larger rivers, and in those from the Hima- 
layas. This fish attains upwards of 2 feet in length, and takes a 
fly or bait freely. McClelland considered Cyprinus putitora. Ham. 
Buch., a variety of this species; it is said to attain 9 feet in 
length. 



352. (14.) Barbus dukai. 
Barbus dukai, Day, Fish. India, p. 5G4, pi. cxliii, fig. 3. 

B. iii. D. 13 (4/9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 28-29. L. tr. 4/4. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 4| to 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in the length of the head, 1| 
diameters from the end of snout and lg apart. Sides of snoufc 
and area below the eye with large open tubercles. Barbels the 
rostral pair are slightly longer than the orbit, the maxillary almost 
reach the angle of the preopercle. Fins the dorsal commences a 
little in advance of the insertion of the ventral ; its last undivided 
ray is strong, osseous, with its stiff portion as long as the head ex- 
cluding the snout ; the fin is three fourths as high as the body 
below it, having its upper edge very concave. Lateral line com- 
plete, 2| rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 
9 rows before the dorsal fin. The scales covered with numerous 
horizontal striae. Colmr of a leaden tinge along the upper por- 
tion of the body, becoming dull white shot with gold on the sides 
and beneath, edges of scales darkest. Fins yellow, with a dark 
band having a lighter outer edge along the upper and lower edge 
of the caudal fin. 

Hab. Teesta river, Darjeeling, whence Dr. Duka sent me several 
examples. 



CYPRINID.il. CTPEININ-I!. 3.07 



353. (15.) Barbus tor. (Fig. 104.) 

Cyprinus tor, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, p. 305. 
Barbus tor, Day, Fish. India, p. 564 ; pi. cxxxvi, fig. 5, and pi. cxl, 
fig. 1 (see synon.). 

Burapatra, Assam ; Poo-meen-candee, Tarn. ; Naharm, Hind. ; Kukhiah, 
Pun.].; Joon-gah, Petiah, and Eurreah, Sind; Khadchi and Mdsta, Ma- 
rathi ; Cooriah, Layl-cooriah or Leld, Ceylon. 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 19. V. 9. A. 7-8 (2-3/5). L. 1. 25-27. 
L. tr. 4/4. 

Length of head 4 to 5, height of body 4 3 to 5| in tbe total 
length. Eyes diameter 6| to 7| in the length of the head in 
moderately sized specimens, but much larger in the young (in 
specimens 3-5 inches long being 3^ in the length of the head ; in 
those 5 inches long 4|), 2 to 2| diameters from the end of snout, 
and 2 apart. Lips thick, with an uninterrupted fold across the 
lower jaw, and with both the upper and lower lips in some spe- 
cimens produced in the mesial line. Barbels the maxillary pair 




Fig. 104. Barbus tor. 

longer than the rostral, and extending to below the last third of 
the eye. Fins the dorsal arises opposite the ventral, and is three 
fourths as high as the body; its last undivided ray is smooth, 
osseous, strong, and of varying length and thickness. Himalayan, 
Bengal, and Central Indian specimens generally have the spine 
strong, and from one half to two thirds the length of the head, it 
rarely exceeds this extent. In Canara, Malabar, and Southern 
India, where the lips are largely developed, the spine is very much 
stronger and as long as the head excluding the snout. Pectoral as 
long as the head excluding the snout ; it reaches the ventral, which 
is little shorter. Anal laid flat does not reach the base of the 
caudal, which is deeply forked. Lateral line complete, 2 to 2| 
rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 9 rows 
before the dorsal. Colour silvery or greenish along the upper 
half of the body, becoming silvery shot with gold on the sides and 
beneath. Lower fins reddish ellow. 



308 TELEOSTEI. P1IYS08TOMI. 

This fish is the celebrated " Maha seer " (or Mahseer) of sportsmen 
in India. The various large barbels in Assam are termed 
"Petiah," with a specific name prefixed to denote the species 
alluded to. 

llab. Generally throughout India, but found of the largest size 
and iu the greatest abundance in mountain-streams or those which 
are rocky ; also found in Ceylon. 

354. (16.) Barbus hexastichus. 

Barbus hexasticlius, McClelland, A*. Res. xix, pt. 2; Inil. Cyp. 
pp. 209, 333, pi. 39, tig. 2 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 505, pi. cxxxvi, 
tig. 4 (see synon.). 

Lobura, Assam. 

B. iii. D. ] 2-13 (3- 4/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 25-26. L. tr. 4/5. 

Length of head 5 to 6, height of body 4| to 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter one fifth of length of head, 1| diameters 
from end of snout, 2 diameters apart. Lips moderately thick, the 
lower one without or with a badly developed lobe, but having a 
shallow and continuous transverse fold. Sometimes pores on the 
cheeks. Barbels longer than the eye. Fins dorsal fin with its 
osseous ray strong, smooth, and from half as long as the head to 
as long as the head without the snout, it commences somewhat 
nearer the snout than the base of the caudal, the latter being 
deeply forked, with the lower lobe the longer. Pectoral as long as 
the head excluding the snout. Lateral line complete, 2 to 2| rows 
of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin; 10 rows before 
the dorsal fin. Colour brownish, tinged with green along the 
upper edge of the body, becoming dull white shot with yellow on 
the sides and below ; caudal and anal reddish. The fry have a 
black spot before the base of the caudal fin. 

Hob. Eivers on and around Himalayas, Kashmir, Sikhim, and 
Assam ; growing to 3 feet in length. Specimens from the plains 
appear to have the head comparatively longer than those from the 
hills. 

355. (17.) Barbus bovanicus. 
Barbus bovanicus, Day, Fish. India, p. 566, pi. cxxxviii, fig. 1 . 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 

L. 1. 24-26. L. tr. 4^/4^. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| in the length of the head, 1 to 1| diameters 
from the end of snout, and If apart. Dorsal profile somewhat 
more convex than that of the abdomen. Lower labial fold in the 
adult complete, with a moderately developed median lobe, which 
is not apparent in the young. Barbels rostral pair extend to 
beneath the first third of the eye, the maxillary pair to the posterior 
edge of the preopercle. Fins dorsal two thirds as high as the 






CYPHINIDJ:. CYPHININ^. 309 



body, with a concave upper edge, it commences in front of the 
ventrals ; its last undivided ray is osseous, of moderate strength, 
its stiff portion being as long as the head excluding the snout. 
Pectoral as long as the head posterior to the nostrils and longer 
than the ventral. Anal laid flat reaches the caudal. Lateral line 
complete, 2 rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral 
fin; 10 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour greenish, with a 
golden tinge, darkest along the back. 

Hob. Bhavaui (Bowany) river, at base of Nilgiri hills in Madras. 
The largest specimen obtained was 5 inches in length. 



356. (18.) Barbus sophore. 

Cyprinus sophore, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 310, 389 (part), 

'(pi. 19, fig. 86 is not the same species). 
Barbus sophore, Day, Fish. India, p. 566, pi. cxliii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

B. iii D. 12 (3/9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). 
L. 1. 25. L. tr. 3i/4|. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 3| in the total length. 
Eyes 3 to 3| in the length of the head, nearly 1 diameter from 
end of snout, and also apart. Barbels long and thin, the maxillary 
pair one half longer than the eye ; the rostral pair slightly shorter. 
Fins dorsal ray weak, osseous, entire, and as long as the head 
without the snout ; the fin arises slightly before the ventral, and 
midway between the end of the snout and the root of the caudal. 
Lateral line complete, 2| rows between it and the base of the 
ventral; 9 rows before the dorsal fin. Scales with numerous 
longitudinal striae. Colour silvery, with a lateral blotch. 

Hab. Assam and Khasi hills. 



357. (19.) Barbus stracheyi. 

Barbus (Barbodes) stracheyi, Day, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 307. 
Barbus stracheyi, Day, Fish. India, p. 566, pi. cxxxix, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11 (2/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 
L.I. 23. L. tr.3i/5. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 4| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 5 in length of head, 1| diameters from end of 
snout, 2| diameters apart. Mouth without enlarged lips : lower 
labial fold interrupted. Barbels long, the rostral pair reaching 
to below the centre of the orbit, and the maxillary pair to beneath 
its posterior margin. Fins dorsal osseous ray strong, smooth, 
and as long as the head without the snout, the fin commences mid- 
wav between the end of the snout and the base of the caudal fin. 
Lateral line complete, 2| rows of scales between it and the base 
of the ventral fins. Colour uniform silvery. 

//<(!>. Akyab and Moulmein. 






310 TELEOSTEI. 1'llYSOSTOMI. 

358. (20.) Barbus curmuca. 

Cyprinus curmuca, Buchanan's Journey in Mysore, iii,p. 344, pi. xxx. 
Barbus curmuca, Day, Fish. India, -p. 500, pi. cxli, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 16. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 18. 
L.I. 41. L. tr. 8/7. 

Length of head 5, height of body 5 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 4| in the length of the head, 1^ diameters from the end 
of the snout, and also apart. Snout conical, head compressed, 
interorbital space transversely concave. Dorsal profile more convex 
than that of the abdomen. In adults there is a band of open pores 
from the preorbital along the cheek. Barbels two maxillary pairs, 
the lower as long as the eye, the upper half as long. Fins dorsal 
as high as the body, its upper edge concave, it arises in front of 
the insertion of the ventral, its last undivided ray weak and 
articulated. Lateral line complete, 3| rows of scales between it 
and the base of the ventral fin ; 10 rows anterior to the dorsal 
fin. Caudal deeply forked, its lobes pointed. Colour silvery, 
lightest on the sides and beneath ; tips of the caudal blackish. In 
the young the middle third of the caudal is orange, and it is tipped 
with black. 

Hab. Western Ghats of India; attaining to at least 4 feet in 
length. 

359. (21.) Barbus lithopidos. 

Barbus (Barbodes) lithopidos, Day, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 708. 
Barbus lithopidos, Day, Fish. India, p. 507, pi. cxxxviii, fijr. 

Kuri meen, Canarese. 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 15. V. 10. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 38-39. L. tr. 7/7. 

Length of head 5| to 65, height of body 4| in the total length. 
Eyes 3| to 4| diameters in length of head, 1 to 1| diameters 
from end of snout, and lg apart. Body compressed, dorsal and 
abdominal profiles equally and moderately convex. Lower labial 
fold interrupted ; a thin cartilaginous covering internally to either 
jaw. Large examples have pores on the preorbital. Barbels 
both pairs thin, and about as long as the orbit. Fins dorsal high 
in front, equalling the height of the body, its upper edge concave, 
its origin anterior to the insertion of the ventral, its last undivided 
ray weak and articulated. Pectoral and ventral of equal length, 
and as long as the head. Caudal very deeply forked. Lateral 
line complete, 4 rows of scales between it and base of ventral fin ; 
14 rows before the dorsal. Free portion of the tail as high at its 
base as it is long. Colour slaty, as are the fins, having their 
outer rays whitish. Pectoral yellowish, tail greenish. Adults are 
more yellow, with a grey band behind the opercle, and some of the 
scales scarlet. 

Hab. South Canara, where it is not uncommon in the rivers, 
and attains 2 feet in length. 



CYPRINIDJE. CYPKININ/E. 311 

360. (22.) Barbus thomassi. 

Barbus (Barbodes) thomassi, Day, P. Z. S.1873, p. 707. 

Barbus thomassi, Day, Fish. India, p. 567, pi. cxxxvii, fig. 5 (see 

synon.). 

Kem-pu-per-ru-wid, Canarese (Red Mahaseer). 

B. iii. D. 12-13 (3-4/9). P. 17. V. 10. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 31-34. L. tr. 6/6. 

Length of head 5| to 6|, height of body 4 to 4^ in the total 
length. Eyes high up, diameter 3^ to 4 in length of head, 1^ 
diameters from end of snout, and also apart. Dorsal profile about 
equally convex with that of the abdomen. Lower labial fold 
interrupted. Barbels thin, the maxillary not so long as the eye, 
the rostral pair shorter. Fins dorsal high anteriorly, equalling 
the height of the body ; its origin is anterior to the insertion of 
the ventral ; its upper edge very concave, and its last undivided 
ray weak and articulated. Pectoral and ventral of equal length, 
and four fifths as long as the head ; caudal deeply forked, the 
upper lobe the longer. Lateral line complete, 2i rows of scales 
between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 12 rows anterior to the 
dorsal. Colour silvery along the back, each scale with a red 
lunule ; dorsal and caudal fins lake-colour, the last being usually 
edged with black. Ventral and anal also lake-colour, stained with 
greyish-black. Most of the scales with a dark base. 

Hob. South Canara; attaining at least 3 feet in length. 

361. (23.) Barbus spinulosus. 

Barbus spimilosus, McClelland, Cal Journ. N. H. v, p. 280, pi. 21, 
fig. 3 j Day, Fish. India, p. 567 (see synon.). 

B.iii. D. 12(3/9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 10 (3/7). C. 19. L. 1. 32. 

Length of head 5, height of body 41 in the total length. Back 
a little elevated. Eyes before the middle of the length of the 
head. Dorsal profile but slightly arched. Snout short. Fins 
dorsal without osseous ray, commencing midway between the end 
of the snout and the base of the caudal. Colour greenish above, 
white below ; fins pale. 

Nab. Sikhim, w : hence a single specimen, 7 inches long, was 
obtained by McClelland. 

362. (24.) Barbus pulchellus. 

Barbus (Barbodes) pulchellus, Day, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 372. 
Barbus pulchellus, Day. Fish. India, p. 5C8, pi. cxl, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Khatladi, Canarese ; Tulu, Mai. ; Ehudia, Marathi. 
B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L.I. 30-32. L. tr. 5-fi -V,. 

Length of head 6 to 6-1, height of body 4 to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, 1| diameters from 
the end of the snout, and 1 j apait. Pores on the snout. Barbels 
four, the maxillary pair being the longest, equalling one third of 



312 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

the length of the head. Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, pointed, 
4, 3, 2/2, 3, 4. Fins dorsal arises slightly before the ventral; 
its upper border is concave, it is two thirds the height of the body, 
having its last undivided ray weak, smooth, and articulated. 
Caudal deeply forked. Scales 3^ rows between the lateral line 
and the base of the ventral fin. Colour all the scales above a line 
going direct from the eye to centre of the caudal fin are deep grey, 
with dark bases ; below all are silvery grey ; fins with dark edges. 

Hob. South Canara, frequenting the inland streams, attaining at 
least 174r inches in length. 

363. (25.) Barbus dobsoni. 

Barbus (Barbodes) dobsoni, Day, Jour. L. S., Zool. xii, 1876, p. 574. 
Barbus dobsoni, Day, Fish. India, p. 5C8, pi. cxxxix, fig. 6. 

B. iii. D. 12-13 (3-4/9). P. 14. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 30-32. L. tr. 5$-6/5|. 

Length of head 6, height of body 3 to 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3j in the length of the head, nearly 1 diameter 
from end of snout, and 1^ apart. Snout a little obtuse. Mouth 
narrow. Lower labial fold interrupted. Barbels thin, the 
maxillary as long as the eye, the rostral somewhat shorter. 
Teeth pharyngeal, crooked and pointed, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins 
dorsal commences somewhat in advance of the insertion of the 
ventral ; it is about two thirds as high as the body, its last un- 
divided ray articulated and smooth. Pectoral as long as the head. 
Lateral line complete, 3 rows of scales between it and the 
ventral fin ; 12 rows anterior to the dorsal. Colour bluish above, 
becoming lighter on the sides and beneath ; fins edged with grey, 
upper corner of dorsal and ends of caudal blackish. 

ffab. Deccan. 



364. (26.) Barbus jerdoni. 

Barbus (Barbodes) jerdoni, Day, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 372. 

Barbus jerdoni, Day, Fish. India, p. 508, pi. cxxxvSii, fig. 5. 
Say-meen, Can. ; Cha-meen, Tel. ; Ta-mecn, Mai. 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 

L. 1. 27-28. L. tr. 6/4. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 4 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 to 31 in length of head, 1 to 11 diameters from 
end of snout, and H apart. A considerable rise to the com- 
mencement of the dorsal fin. Mouth narrow. Lower labial fold 
interrupted. Barbels thin, the maxillary as long as the orbit, the 
rostral slightly shorter. Fins last undivided dorsal ray arti- 
culated, weak and not enlarged ; the fin, which is four fifths as 
high as the body below it, commences midway between the snout 
and the base of the caudal. Pectoral as long as the head 
and nearly reaching the ventral, which is of the same length. 



CYPBINIDjE. CYPRININJE. 313 

Anal laid flat reaches somewhat beyond the root of the caudal fin, 
which is deeply forked. Lateral line complete, rather concave : 
2- to 3| rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral ; 12 
rows before the dorsal fin. Colour silvery; the fins have an 
orange tint, tipped with black. 

Hab. Rivers in Canara below the Ghats, attaining at least 18 
inches in length. 

365. (27.) Barbus wynaadensis. 

Barbns (Barbodes) wynaadensis, Day, Jour. L. S., Zool. xi, 1873, 

p. 528. 
Barbus wynaadensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 568, pi. cxxxviii, fig. 3, and 

pi. cxxxix, fig. 2. 

B. iii. D. 13 (4/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L.'l. 26-28. L. tr. 4/6. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 4| to 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 5 in length of head, 1 to 2 diameters 
from end of snout, and 1| apart. Snout conical. Lower labial 
fold interrupted. Barbels the maxillary pair as long as the orbit 
or longer, the rostral one fourth shorter. Fins the dorsal two 
thirds as high as the body, its origin a little anterior to the 
insertion of the ventral ; its last undivided ray weak, osseous, with 
an articulated extremity. Lateral line complete, 2^ to 3 rows of 
scales between it and the base of the ventral fin : 10 rows before 
the dorsal fin. Colour leaden silvery along the back, with a dark 
band running from behind the eye to the middle of the base of the 
caudal fin, where it sometimes ends in a round black blotch. 
Abdomen of a Jight orange colour. Fins stained with grey at 
their edges. 

Hab. Vithry in the Wynaad, where it is common in the larger 
streams, attaining at least 8 inches in length. 

366. (28.) Barbus stevensonii. 

Barbus (Barbodes) stevensonii, Day, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 100. 
Barbus stevensonii, Day, Fish. India, p. 569, pi. cxxxv, fig. 6. 

B. iii. D. 12(3/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. L. 1. 27. 
L. tr. 4|/5. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 4| in the total length. 
Kyes diameter t\vo sevenths of length of head, 1 diameter from 
end of snout and apart. Body elongated and compressed. Lower 
labial fold interrupted. Barbels the maxillary extend to below 
the posterior extremity of the orbit; the rostral are shorter. 
Fins dorsal with a smooth, weak, osseous ray, as long as the 
head excluding the snout ; its height is rather less than that of the 
body, and it arises slightly in advance of the ventrals. Lateral 
i; n , complete, 2| rows of scales between it and the base of the 
ventral fin, and 9 before the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, upper por- 
tion of body darker ; numerous black specks along the side ; a black 
spot at the base of the caudal, and a dark band along the dorsal fin. 

J/ab. Hills near Akyab. 



314 TELE08TEI. PH Vs-OSTOM 1. 

367. (29.) Barbns neUli. 

Barbus neilli, Day, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 581; and Fis/t. India, p. .1<5!>, 
pi. cxl, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

B.iii. D.13(4/9). P. 15. V.10. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. L. 1. 24-26. 
L. tr. 4i/4. 

Length o head 4| to 5, height of body 3 to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4| to 5 in length of head, 1 diameters 
from end of snout and also apart. Dorsal and abdominal profiles 
about equally convex. Snout conical. Lower labial fold con- 
tinuous. Barbels the rostral pair reach the front edge of the eye, 
the maxillary pair equal 1| diameters of the orbit. Teeth 
pharyngeal, curved, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins origin of dorsal 
anterior to the insertion of the ventral ; the fin is two thirds as 
high as the body, its upper edge concave, its last undivided ray 
osseous, entire, and very weak. Pectoral as long as the head 
excluding the snout, and longer than the ventral. Anal laid flat 
reaches the base of the caudal, which is forked. Lateral line 
complete, 3| rows of scales between it and the ventral fin ; 9 rows 
anterior to the dorsal. Colour silvery above the lateral line, with 
a tinge of yellow below it. .Fins with a bluish tinge in some 
specimens, reddish in others. The young have a dark spot at the 
base of the caudal fin. Eyes golden. 

Hub. Kurnool on the Tungabhadra river. The largest specimen 
seen by myself was 38 Ibs. in weight, but this species is said to 
attain to 50 or 60 Ibs. 

368. (30.) Barbns malabaricus. 

Barbus malabaricus, Jerdon, Mad, Jour. L. S. xv, 1849, p. .'!!:>: 
Day, fish. India, p. 569, pi. cxxxviii, fig. 6. 

B. iii. D. 12-13 (3-4/9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L.I. 24. L. tr. 4/4. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 4| to 4f in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 5 in length of head, 1| diameters from 
end of snout, and 2 apart. Dorsal and abdominal profiles about 
equally and moderately convex : lower labial fold complete, and 
with a median lobe. Barbels the maxillary pair reach to below 
hind edge of eye; the rostral pair are shorter. Fins dorsal 
two thirds as high as the body : its origin is anterior to the 
insertion of the ventral ; its upper edge concave, its last undivided 
ray osseous, weak, with its bony portion equalling the postorbital 
length of the head. Lateral line complete, 1| rows of scales 
between it and the ventral fin ; 9 rows anterior to the dorsal. 
Colour bluish, becoming white on the abdomen. Fins usually 
blue. Eyes red. Sometimes the fish is brown ; and the dorsal, 
pectoral, and ventral red ; or the front edge of the dorsal and 
anal and upper and lower borders of the caudal may be dark. 

Hab. From South Cauara down the Western Ghats to the 
Travancore hills ; attaining at least 18 inches in length. 



CYI'HIMD-E. CYPRINlNjE. 315 



369. (31.) Barbus innominatus. 

Barbus (Barbodes) innominatus, Dai/, P. Z. S. 18C9, p. 556. 
Barbus innominatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 570 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. L. 1. 24. 
L. tr. 4|/4i. 

Length of head 3|, height of body 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| in length of head, 1 diameter from end of 
snout and also apart. Barbels the rostral nearly reach the orbit, 
the maxillary pair are shorter. Fins dorsal commences midway 
between the snout and the base of the caudal ; its last undivided 
ray osseous, weak, and entire. Caudal forked. Scales 3 rows 
between lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour a black spot 
at the base of the caudal fin ; none now apparent on the dorsal. 

Hub. ,Ceylon, whence Mr. Blyth received specimens up to I'l 
inches in length. 



370. (32.) Barbus compressus. 

Barbus (Barbodes) compressus, Dai/, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 555. 
Barbus compressus, Day, Fish. Indiaf'p. 570. 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 17. L. 1. 22. 
L. tr. 4/5. 

Length of head 5, height of body 4 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter two ninths of length of head, 1 diameters from end of 
snout, and also apart. Head much compressed : the whole of the 
cheeks covered with pores. Barbels the rostral reaches to 
beneath the centre of the orbit, the maxillary to the angle of the 
propercle. Fins dorsal half as high as the body ; it arises midway 
between the snout and the base of the caudal, commencing slightly 
in advance of the ventrals ; its last undivided ray is osseous, not 
enlarged, and entire. Upper caudal lobe the longer. Lateral 
line complete, 3|- rows of scales between it and the base of the 
ventral fin. Colour silvery, fins stained darker. 

Hob. The native country of the type specimen is uncertain, but 
the fish was found in a bottle in the Calcutta Museum with an 
Oreinus labelled as from Kashmir. 

371. (33.) Barbus blythii. 

Barbus (Barbodes) blythii, Day, P. Z. S. 1869, p. .V,.->. 
Barbus blythii, Day, "Fish. India, p. 570 (see syuon.). 

B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 17. L. 1. 22. 

L. tr. 4/5. 

Length of head 4, height of body 3i in the total length. 
Eyes diameter two fifths of length of head, three fourths of a 
diameter from the end of snout, and also apart. Preorbital 
covered with pores. Barbek well developed, the rostral reaching 
the eye, and the maxillary to below the centre of the orbit. 



316 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 






Fins dorsal arises midway between the snout and the base of the 
caudal, its last undivided ray articulated : it commences slightly in 
advance of the ventrals. Caudal deeply forked. Lateral line 
complete, 2i rows between it and the base of the ventral fin. 
Colour uniform silvery in spirit. 
Hob. Tenasserim provinces. Specimen 2 inches long. 

372. (34.) Barbus melanampyx. 

Labeo melanampyx, Day, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 298. 
Barbus melanampyx, Day, Fish. India, p. 570, pi. cxxxix, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11(3/8). P. 15. V.8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 15. L.I. 20. 
L. tr. 3|/3|. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 3 to 3^ in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in the length of head, from | to 1 diam- 
eter from end of snout, 1 diameter apart. Numerous pores on the 
snout. Lower labial fold interrupted. Barbels rostral short, the 
maxillary equal in length to one diameter of the orbit. Teeth 
pharyngeal, in three rows, curved, sharp, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Pirn 
dorsal scarcely higher than long, no osseous ray; it commences 
midway between the end of the snout and the base of the caudal 
fin, which latter is deeply forked. Lateral line complete, 2 
rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 7 
rows before the dorsal fin. Colour of a deep dull red, with three 
black cross bands, the first from below the whole of the base of the 
dorsal to just beneath the lateral line, the second commences four 
scales beyond the posterior extremity of the base of the dorsal and 
descends to one scale below the lateral line, whilst the last is just 
before the base of the caudal and often wanting. Fins pinkish, 
edged with black. 

Hob. The "Wynaad, Nilgiri and Travancore ranges of hills and 
streams along their bases ; also the Cauvery river. This fish 
rarely attains 3 inches in length. 

B. With two barbels (Gapoeta). 

373. (35.) Barbus macrolepidotus. 

Capoeta macrolepidota, Cuv. 8f Vol. H. N. Poiss. xvi, p. 280, pi. 477. 
Barbus macrolepidotus, Day, Fish. India, p. 571, pi. cxlii, fig. 1 (see 
synou.). 

B. iii. D. 12 (4/8). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7(2/5). C. 19. L.I. 26. 

L. tr. 5/5. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 4| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 5 to 5^ in length of head, 1| diameters from end of 
snout and also apart. Snout pointed, without pores ; head com- 
pressed. Barbels the maxillary as long as the orbit. Fins 
dorsal commences slightly nearer the snout than the base of the 
caudal, and opposite the insertion of the ventrals, its last undivided 



CYPJUNIDJE. CYPBININjE. 317 

ray is weak (scarcely osseous), and finely serrated in nearly its 
whole extent. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 2| rows between 
lateral line and base of ventral fin ; 1.0 rows before the dorsal fin. 
Colour silvery, lightest on the sides and below ; fins orange, 
anterior edge of the dorsal and outer margins of the caudal black. 
A badly developed darkish baud from the dorsal to the ventral fin. 
Hab. Tavoy to the Malay Peninsula. 

374. (36.) Barbus chola. 

Cyprinus chola, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 312, 389. 
Barbus chola, Day, Fish. India, p. 571, pi. cxlii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Koroon, Tain. ; Kerrundi, Beng. ; Nya-khon-ma and Nya-loivah, 
Burmese ; Pittha-kerrundi, " bitter carp," Ooriah ; Chadda paddaka, Tel. ; 
Katcha karawa, Hind. 

B. lii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 26-28. L. tr. 5J/5. 

Length of head 4| to 4f, height of body 3| to 3| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in the length of the head, | to 1 
diameter from end of snout, and 1| apart. Suborbital ring of 
bones narrow, their depth not being one third of that of the 
uncovered portion of the cheek. Barbels a single maxillary pair 
not so long as one diameter of the orbit. Fins dorsal three 
fifths as high as the body, it commences opposite the ventrals and 
midway between the end of the snout and the base of the caudal 
fin, its last undivided ray is osseous and smooth, with the stiff 
portion moderately strong and as long as the bead excluding the 
snout. Lateral line complete, from 3 to 3| rows of scales 
between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 10 to 12 rows before 
the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, opercles shot with purple and 
gold. A dark blotch is usually present on the side of the free 
portion of the tail from the 23rd to the 25th scales of: the lateral 
line; in some Malabar examples this blotch is intensely black. A 
dark mark along the base of the anterior dorsal ray, and a row of 
dark spots along its centre. Occasionally there is a dark mark 
behind the gill-opening, especially in Bengal and Assam examples. 

Hab. From Malabar and the Wynaad, through Madras, Orissa, 
the Punjab, Bengal, and Gaugetic Provinces, the Central 
Provinces, Assam, also Akyab and Burma to Mergui. This fish 
grows to about 5 inches in length. As food it is bitter ; in some 
localities in Burma oil is obtained from it during the breeding- 
season. 

375. (37.) Barbus parrah. 

Puntius parrah, Day, P. Z. S. 18Go, p. 301. 

Bavbus parrah, Day, Fish. India, p. 572, pi. cxlii, fig. 3 (see synoii.). 
Parrah perlee, Mai. ; Kutcha karawa, Hind. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8(3/5). C. J9. 
L. 1. 25-26. L. tr. 5/5. 

Length of head 5, height of body 3| to 4 in the total length. 



318 TELEOSTEI . PH YSOSTOM T . 

Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in the length of the head, | to 1 diameter 
from end of snout, 1 \ diameters apart. The third suborbital bone 
two thirds as deep as the uncovered portion of the cheek below it. 
Barbels fine, and equal to two thirds of the length of the orbit. 
Fins dorsal commences midway between the end of the snout and 
the base of the caudal fin ; its last undivided ray is osseous, weak 
in the young but strengthening with age, and as long as the head 
without the snout ; height of fin two thirds of that of the bodv. 
Lateral line complete, 3^ rows of scales between it and the base 
of the ventral fin ; 8 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour back 
greenish, divided from the silvery abdomen bv a dark bluish line. 
Cheeks golden red. Pectoral, ventral, and anal tinged with 
yellow ; dorsal and caudal dusky. A diffused black spot on the 
lateral line extending from the twentieth to the twenty-second 
scales. Eyes golden. 

Nab. Malabar, Mysore, and Madras ; attaining at least 6 inches 
iu length. 

376. (38.) Barbus burmanicus. 

Barb us burmanicus, Day, Fish. India, p. 572, pi. cxli, fig. 4. 

B. iii. D. 12(4/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 17. 
L.I. 26. L. tr. 4/4. 

Length of head 41 to 5, height of body 3^ in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3-j to 3^- in the length of the head, 1 diameter 
from the end of snout, and 1| apart. A considerable rise from the 
snout to the base of the dorsal tin. Snout pointed. Lower labial 
fold interrupted. Barbels a very short maxillary pair. Fins 
dorsal two thirds as high as the body, it commences opposite the 
insertion of the ventral, its last undivided ray is osseous, strong, 
entire, and about as long as the head. Scales 2 rows between 
lateral line and base of ventral fin; 10 rows before dorsal fin. 
Colour silvery along the back, becoming lighter on the sides and 
beneath ; a dull blotch before the base of the caudal fin. Fins 
silvery, with a dull band down the centre of the dorsal. 

Hob. Burma. 

377. (39.) Barbus tetrarupagus. 

Systoinus tetrarupagus, McCkll. As. Res. xix, pt. 2; Ind. Cyp. 

pp. 285, 381, pi. 44, tig. 3. 
Barbus tetrarupagus, Day, Fish. India, p. 572, pi. cxlii, fig. 6 (see 

synon.). 
Tit -pungti, Bengali ; Borajalee, Assamese ; Pet-toh-ee, Sind. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 17. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

L. 1. 24-26. L. tr. 5-51/5. 

Length of head 4 to 4|, height of body 3 to 3| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter f of length of head, 1 diameter from end 
of snout, and lj apart. Dorsal profile considerably elevated. 
Barbels a maxillary pair, thin, and equal to two thirds of the 



CYPRTNJD.*:. CYPRINIX.T:. 319 

length of the orbit. Fins dorsal two thirds as high as the body, 
it commences opposite the insertion of the ventral ; osseous dorsal 
ray of moderate strength, and the stiff portion as long as the head 
excluding the snout. Lateral line complete, 3| rows of scales 
between it and the base of the ventral; 8 to 10 rows before the 
dorsal fin. Colour a round black spot on the lateral line behind 
the gill-openings, and a second midway between end of anal and 
base of caudal tin, and rather more forward than in B. chola, being 
on the 18th to 20th scales of the lateral line. Dorsal and anal 
tipped with black, sometimes the upper half of the former stained 
darkish, and a black band along its centre, most distinct anteriorly, 
and more so in Assam than in Bengal specimens. 

Ifab. Orissa, Bengal, Assam, N.W. Provinces, Punjab and Sind, 
also the Deccan ; attaining nearly 5 inches in length. 

378. (40.) Barbus dorsalis. 

Systomus dorsalis, Jet-don, Mad. Jour. L. Sc. xv, 1849, p. 314. 
Barbus dorsalis, l)ay, Fish. India, p. 573, pi. cxlii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Lambi kaoli, Ilin. ; Saal candee, Tarn. ; Mar-paJcke, Can. 

B. iii. D. 11-12 (3-4/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 24-25. L. tr. 4|/4. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 4 to 4| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4 to4| in length of head, from 1| to H diameters 
from end of snout, 1| diameters apart. Third suborbital bone as 
wide as the cheek below it. Snout pointed. Lower labial fold 
interrupted. Barbels a maxillary pair two thirds as long as the 
eye. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins dorsal commences 
rather in front of ventral, and nearly midway between the end of 
the snout and base of the caudal fin ; its last undivided ray is osseous, 
smooth, moderately strong, and the stiff portion of the ray as long 
as, or a little longer than, the head without the snout. Caudal 
forked. Lateral line complete. Scales 8 or 9 rows between 
occiput and base of dorsal fin ; 2| rows between lateral line and 
base of ventrals. Colour uniform silvery, frequently the scales 
iu the upper two thirds of the body with dark bases. A black 
spot at the posterior portion of the base of the dorsal, which dis- 
appears more or less in spirit. 

Nab. Kurnool, Mysore, throughout Madras as low as the 
Cauvery and Coleroon rivers, and Ceylon. This species does not 
attain a large size. 

379. (41.) Barbus kolus. 

Barbus kolu.9, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, p. 357, pi. 62, fig. 1 ; Dai/, Fish. 
India, p. 573, pi. cxli, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Niluju, Telugu ; Roll's and Kolashi, Marathi. 
B. iii. D. 12-13 (3-4/9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 40-43. L. tr. 10/8. 

Length of head 5| to 5|, height of body 4 to 4| in the total 



320 



TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 



length. Eyes upper margin near the profile, diameter 3| to 4 in 
the length of the head, 1 \ diameters from end of snout and also 
apart. Body compressed, a considerable rise in the profile from 
the occiput to the dorsal fin. Barbels extend rather beyond the 
middle of the eye. Teeth pharyngeal, pointed, uncinate, 5, 3, 
2/2, 3, 5. Fins the dorsal three fourths as high as the body, 
inserted in advance of the ventral. Caudal deeply forked. Lateral 
line complete, 4 or 5 rows of scales between it and the base of 
the ventral fin. Colour silvery, with a tinge of yellow ; dorsal, 
caudal, and anal tipped with grey. 

Hob. Central Provinces, Deccan, and throughout the Kistna, 
Tungabhadra, and Godavari rivers ; attaining upwards of a foot 
in length. 

380. (42.) Barbus denisonii. 

Labeo denisonii, Day, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 299. 

Barbus denisonii, Day, Fish. India, p. 573, pi. cxliii, fig. 2 (see 
synon.X 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 28. L. tr. 4|/4|. 

Length of head 6, height of body 5 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 3| in the length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, 
and 1| apart. Dorsal and abdominal profiles slightly and about 
equally convex. Snout obtuse. Barbels a maxillary pair one 
third longer than the orbit. Teeth pharyngeal, pointed and 
curved at their extremities, 4, 3, 2/2, 3, 4. Fins dorsal arises 
rather before the ventrals, none of its rays osseous. Caudal deeply 
forked. Lateral line complete, 2| rows of scales between it and 
ventral fin ; 9 rows before dorsal fin. Colour silvery, with a black 
band, above which runs a horizontal scarlet stripe passing from the 
snout to the centre of the base of the caudal fin. Caudal with an 
oblique black band crossing the posterior third of each lobe. 

Hah. Mundikyum in the Travancore hill-ranges. This fish 
attains 6 inches in length. 



381. (43.) Barbus melanostigma. 

Barbus melanostigma, Day, Fish. India, p. 573, pi. cxliii, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L.I. 26. L. tr. 5/4. 

Length of head 4| to 48, height of body 3| to 3| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| in length of head, 1 diameter from 
end of snout, and 1| apart. Mouth narrow ; lower labial fold 
interrupted. Third suborbital bone as deep as the uncovered 
portion of the cheek below it or rather deeper. Barbels a 
maxillary pair about half as long as the orbit. Fins dorsal three 
fourths as high as the body, having a concave upper edge, com- 
mencing rather in advance of the insertion of the ventral; last 



CYPKINIDJE. CYPRININ^B. 321 

undivided dorsal ray very weak, osseous interiorly, and articulated 
in its upper half. Caudal deeply forked. Lateral line complete, 
very slightly concave ; 3 rows of scales between it and the base of 
the ventral fin ; 8 rows before the dorsal. Colour silvery above, 
becoming white on the sides and beneath, a light band along the 
side ; a deep black blotch on the side of the tail, commencing on 
the twenty-first or twenty-second scale ; dorsal and caudal stained 
with grey, sometimes a dark band along the side. 

Hab. Wynaad bills in Malabar. Jerdon also obtained specimens 
in the Bhavani river and from the Cauvery. 



382. (44.) Barbus arenatus. 

Bar feus arenatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 574, pi. cxlii, fig. 7. 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 26. L. tr. 4/6. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 4 in the total length. _%es- 
diameter 4| to 5 in the length of the head, 1| diameters from end 
of snout, and 2 apart. Suborbital ring of bones very narrow 
Body thick, its width equalling four sevenths of its height. 
Barbels a single maxillary pair whicli reaches to beneath the first 
third of the eye. No pores on the head. Fins last undivided 
dorsal ray fine, smooth, osseous inferiorly, becoming articulated 
superiorly ; the fin commences before the insertion of the ventral. 
Lateral line complete, 3| rows of scales between it and the base 
of the ventral fin; 11 rows anterior to the dorsal fin. Colour 
silvery, without any markings. In some examples a darkish band 
along the dorsal fin. 

Hab. Madras. 

383. (45.) Barbus puckelli. 

Puntius (Capoeta) puckelli, Day, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 197. 
Barbus puckelli, Day, Fish. India, p. 574, pi. cxliii, fig. 5. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). 0. 19. 
L. 1. 24. L. tr. 4/5. 

Length of head 5|, height of body 4| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| in the length of head, two thirds of a diameter 
from end of snout, and 1| diameters apart. No pores on the 
head, its summit rather convex. Barbels a thick maxillary pair, 
reaching to beneath the anterior edge of the eye. Teeth pharyn- 
geal, plough-shaped, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins last undivided dorsal 
ray weak and cartilaginous, the fin commences before the ventral. 
Lateral line complete, 2| rows of scales between it and the base 
of the ventral fin ; 10 rows before the base of the dorsal fin. 
Colour greenish yellow along the back, with a red mark on the 
opercle, and a scarlet stripe extending along the middle of the 
side. A deep black mark on the dorsal fin from the base of the 

T 



322 TELEOSTET. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

third to that of the sixth branched ray. Very fine dark spots over 
the scales, especially at their bases. An indistinct black mark on 
the lateral line from the nineteenth to the twenty-first scale. 
Hal. Bangalore, where it is said to be common. 

384. (46.) Bar bus amphibius. 

Capoeta amphibia, Cuv. $ Val. H. N. Pom. xvi, p. 282, pi. 478. 
Barbus amphibius, Day, Fish. India, p. 574, pi. cxlii, fig. 8 (see 
synon.). 

Oolee pcrlce, Mai. ; Bhondgi, Mardthi. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 23-24. L. tr. 5/4. 

Length of head 4| to 5; height of body 4| to 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3^ in the length of head, 1 diameter from 
end of snout, and 1| apart. Barbels a thin maxillary pair reaching 
to below the centre of the eye. Fins the dorsal two thirds as 
high as the body, with its osseous ray feeble, smooth, and half as 
long as the head ; the fin arises somewhat in advance of the ventrals. 
Caudal fin deeply forked. Lateral line complete, 2 rows of scales 
between it and the base of the ventral fin; 8 rows before the 
dorsal. Colour upper half of body steel-blue, becoming white 
tinged with golden on the sides and beneath. Sometimes a dark 
band along the side, and a black spot on either side of the tail 
anterior to the caudal fin, this becomes indistinct after specimens 
have been long macerated, but is very apparent in fresh ones, 
especially those from the Malabar coast ; it is not well-marked, and 
often absent, in those taken in Bombay. Fins yellowish, upper 
edge of dorsal usually stained with black. In the monsoon time a 
crimson band along the sides is sometimes present. 

Hob. Central India, Deccan, Bombay, and the Western coast of 
India, Madras and up the coast as high as Orissa ; attaining to 
at least 6 inches in length. 

385. (47.) Barbus arulms. 

Systomus arulius, Jcrdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xv, 1849, p. 317. 
Barbus arulius, Day, Fish. India, p. 575, pi. cxlii, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 18. 
L. 1. 21-23. L. tr. 4|/4|. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 3| to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| in the length of the head, 1 diameter 
from end of snout and also apart. Barbels a long maxillary 
pair. Teetli pharyngeal, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5, sharp and curved at 
their extremities. Fins no osseous dorsal ray ; the fin, which is 
two thirds as high as the body, commences midway between the 
end of the snout and the base of the caudal, which last is deeply 
emarginate. Lateral line complete, 2| rows of scales between 
it and the base of the ventral fin ; 9 rows before the base of the 
dorsal fin. Colovr olive-green on the back, becoming silvery 



CTPHINIDJE. CYPRIN1NJE. 323 

white clashed with reddish green over the abdomen. A black 
blotch, about two scales in width, passes from below tbe origin of 
the dorsal fin as low as the lateral line ; a second from just below 
the posterior extremity of the dorsal to the base of the anal ; and 
a third across the free portion of the tail before the caudal fin. 
Dorsal, caudal, and anal pinkish with a black bar across the summit 
of the first, whilst the caudal is stained at its edges. 

Hob. Wynaad and Kilgiri range of hills and the rivers at their 
bases, and at least as far south as Kotayam in Travancore ; also in the 
Cauvery, from whence this fish has been procured at Seringapatam, 
where it is termed Aruli. It attains 4 inches or more in length. 

386. (48.) Barbns mahecola. (Fig. 105.) 

Leuoiscus mahecola, Ctiv. fy Val. H.' N. Poiss. xvii, p. 305, pi. 502 

(barbels omitted). 

Barbusmahecola, -Day, Fish. India, p 575, pi. cxl, fig. 5 (see synon.). 
B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

L. 1. 21. L. tr. 5/4. ' 

Length of head 4f to 5, height of body 3% to 3| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 in the length of head, 1 diameter from 
end of snout, 1 1 diameters apart. In some specimens the snout is 
covered with large pores. Barbels a thin maxillary pair extending 




Fig. 105. Barbus mahecola. 

to below the centre of the orbit in some specimens, very minute 
in others (see remarks, p. 294). Fim last undivided dorsal ray 
articulated, smooth, feeble ; the branched rays are elongate in the 
adult ; the fin commences midway between the snout and the base 
of the caudal fin. Caudal deeply lobed. Lciteral line complete, 
2 rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral. Colour 
silvery white, with a deep black oval mark on the lateral line from 
about the fourteenth to the eighteenth scale. A dark band along 
the dorsal fin. Caudal red, tipped with black. 

Holt. Prom Canara down the Western coast and along the base 
of the Nilgiris, and Travancore hills, also Ceylon ; attaining at 
least 6 inches in length. 



324 TELEOSTEF. PHYSOSTOMI. 



C. Without barbels (Puntius). 

387. (49.) Barbus apogon. 

Barbus apogou, (KuM) Cnv. $ Vol. H. N. Poiss. xvi, p. 392 ; Day, 

Fish. India, p. 575, pi. cxli, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Nga-ta-zee and Nga-lay-toun, J3urmese. 

B. iii. D. 12 (4/8). P. 17. V. 10. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L.I. 36-37. L. tr. 7^/7. 

Length of head 5%, height of body 3^ in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 3^ to 4 in the length of the head, 1 to 1^ diameters 
from the end of snout and also apart. Body strongly compressed, 
and rising abruptly from the nape to the base of the dorsal fin. 
Fiiis dorsal arises rather behind the insertion of the ventral, its 
last undivided ray strong, serrated, and the stiff portion rather 
shorter than the bead. First three anal rays rather stiff. Caudal 
deeply forked. Lateral line complete, 5| (4 in some specimens) 
rows of scales between it and the ventral fin; 15 rows of scales 
before the base of the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, each scale with 
a dark spot at its base. 

Hob. Tenasserim and throughout Burma (certainly as high as 
Mandalay) to the Malay Archipelago ; attaining at least 8 inches in 
length. 

388. (50.) Barbus ambassis. 

Barbus ambassis, Day, P. Z, S. 1808, p. 683, and Fish. India, p. 576, 

pl.cxlv, fig. 1. 
Eunkuai, Ooriab. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 11. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L.I. 36. L. tr. 6/8. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter nearly two fifths of length of head, | diameter 
from end of snout, 1 diameter apart. Teeth pharyngeal, sharp, 
crooked, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins dorsal spine osseous, strong, and 
posteriorly serrated, having about 15 teeth ; the fin commences 
slightly before the ventral, and midway between the end of the 
snout and the base of the caudal, which last is deeply lobed. 
Scales small and deciduous. Lateral line incomplete, becoming 
indistinct in the posterior two thirds of the body, 6 rows of scales 
between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 15 rows before the 
dorsal fin. Colour light greenish, with a silvery baud along the 
side. A small black spot at the base of the anterior dorsal rays, 
and a black blotch at the side of the tail. 

Hob. Madras, Orissa, Bengal, and Assam at least as high as 
Sadiya; attaining about 3 inches in length. 



CYPBINID.E. CYPKININ.E. 325 

389. (51.) Barbus conchonius. 

Cyprinus conchonius, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 317, 389. 
Barbus conchonius, Day, Pith. India, p. 576, pi. cxliii, fig. 7 (see 

synon.). 
Kunchon pungti, Bengali. 

B. iii. D. 11(3/8). P. 11. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 24-26. L. tr. 5|/6|. 

Length of head 5, height of body 2| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter one third of length of head, nearly 1 diameter from end 
of snout, and 1| apart. Fins the dorsal three fifths as high as 
the body, its last undivided ray osseous, moderately strong and 
serrated, as long as the head without the snout ; the fin commences 
rather before the insertion of the ventral. Lateral line incomplete, 
ceasing after 8 or 10 scales ; 4 to 4| rows of scales between it and 
the base of the ventral fin ; 9 rows before dorsal fin. Colour a, 
large round black spot on the middle of the side above the 
posterior portion of the anal fin ; opercles lake-colour. Tins orange, 
dorsal with its upper half blackish. 

Nairn Tal specimens have the dorsal spine much less coarsely 
serrated than those from the plains, from whence they were 
introduced not many years since ; they have also a darkish band 
along the side. 

Hal. Assam, Lower Bengal, Orissa, Behar, N.W. Provinces, 
Punjab, and the Deccan ; attaining at least 5 inches in length. 

390. (52.) Barbus ticto. 

Cyprinus ticto, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 314, 889, pi. 8, fig. 87. 
Barbus ticto, Day, Fish. India, p. 576,' pi. cxliv, fig. 7 (see synon.). 
Kaoli and Kotree, Hind. ; Kah-nee potiah, Assam ; Wennatte, Tamil ; 
Kudyi-kerundi, Ooriah. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1.23-26. L. tr. 5-6/6. 

Length of head 5, height of body 3 to 3 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, f of a diameter from end of 
snout, 1 diameter apart. Teetli pharyngeal, crooked, pointed, 
5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins osseous dorsal ray strong and serrated, 
three quarters as long as the head, fin half as high as the body. 
Caudal forked. Lateral line incomplete, -ceasing after 6 or 8 
scales ; 4 or 5 rows of scales between it and base of the ventral fin, 
and 11 before the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, sometimes stained 
with red, a black spot on the side of the tail before the base of the 
caudal fin and immediately behind the anal ; a smaller one (fre- 
quently absent) at the commencement of the lateral line. Fins 
often black, sometimes orange. 

Hob. Sind, throughout India and Ceylon. This fish rarely 
exceeds 4 inches in length. 



326 TELEOSTEI. 1'IIYSOSTOMI. 

391. (53.) Barbus stoliczkanus. 

J 'mi-bus (Puntius) stoliczkanus, Day, J. A. S. It. xl, 1871 , pt. 2, p. 328. 
Barbus stoliczkanus, Day, Fish. India, p. 577, pi. cxliv, fig. 8 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 14. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 25. L. tr. 5/6. 

Length of head one sixth, height of body one third of the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, | to | of a diameter 
from end of snout, 1| apart. Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, 5, 3, 
2/2, 3, 5. Fins osseous dorsal ray nearly as long as the head ex- 
cluding the snout, serrated, but less strongly than in B. ticto, the 
serratures are likewise rather irregular ; thelin commences midway 
between the snout and the base of the caudal, which latter is 
forked. Lateral line complete, there are 3| rows of scales 
between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 9 rows before the 
dorsal fin. Colour silvery, an oblong black mark on the lateral 
l.ne about the third scale, and a deep black mark, yellow anteriorly, 
extending upwards almost to the back, above and a little behind 
the posterior extremity of the anal fin on the 18th and 19th scales. 
Pins orange. 

Hob, Eastern Burma, where this species supersedes B. ticto. 
It attains 4 inches in length. 

392. (54.) Barbus punctatus. 

Puntius punctatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 302. 

Barbus punctatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 577, pi. cxliv, fig. 5 (see 
synon.). 

Putter perlee, Mai. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 18. 
L. 1. 23-24. L. tr. 5/5. 

Length of head 5|, height of body 3 to 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 2| in the length of head, | diameter from end of 
snout, and 1 diameter apart. Fins dorsal fin commences over 
ventral and midway between end of snout and base of caudal, its 
upper border is slightly concave, its last undivided ray osseous, 
strong, serrated, and about as long as the head; the fin two thirds 
as high as the body. Caudal forked. Lateral line complete, 
3 rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin, 8 rows 
before the dorsal fin. Colour olive-green superiorly, becoming 
white on the abdomen. A diffused black spot on the 20lh and 
21st scales of the lateral line. The anterior half of the third or 
fourth scale from the opercle, in the row next below the lateral 
line, black. Fins yellowish, dorsal and anal tipped with orange. 
Dorsal with two rows of black spots, and in Malabar examples a 
short intermediate one anteriorly. In some specimens there is a 
light edge round the caudal blotch, and a silvery band along the 
sides. 






CYi'lilNID.E. - CrPllININJi:. 327 



1 1 <i ft. Malabar and Coromaudel coast. This species does not 
appear to exceed 3 inches in length. 

393. (55.) Barbus gelius. 

Cyprinus gelius, Ham. Buck. Fish. Gang. pp. 320, 890. 

Barbus gelius, Giinther, Catal. vii, p. 154; Day, Fish. India, p. 577, 

pi. cxlv, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Cutturpoh, Ooriah ; Gili punyti, Beng. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 23-24. L. tr. 4/5. 

Length of head 4| to 4|, height of body 3 to 3| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 2 in the length of head, | diameter from 
end of snout, 1 diameter apart. Third suborbital bone broad. 
Fins dorsal arises slightly in advance of ventrals, its osseous ray 
is strong, rather coarsely serrated, and as long as the head 
excluding the snout, the fin two thirds as high as the body ; caudal 
deeply forked. Lateral line incomplete, ceasing after 5 or 6 scales ; 
3 rows of scales between lateral line and base of ventral fin, 8 rows 
before the dorsal fin. Colour reddish brown, with a black band 
over the tail a little before the base of the caudal fin, and another 
loss distinct close to the base of that fin. A silvery band along 
the side. The peritoneum being black appears like an irregular 
dark blotch. A black spot passes across the base of the anterior 
half of the dorsal, extending one third the distance up the rays. A 
black band over the base of the anal, highest in front. Occiput 
also black. 

Hab. Ganjam, Orissa, Bengal, and Assam, attaining at least 
2 inches in length. 

394. (56.) Barbus phutunio. 

Cyprinus phutunio, Ham. Buch. Fish. Gattges, pp. 319, 390. 
Barbus phutunio, Day, Fish. India, p. 578, pi. cxlv, fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Kudji-kerundi, Ooriah ; Phutuni punyti, Beng. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5) C. 19. 

L. 1. 20-23. L. tr. 8-10. 

Length of head 4 to 4|, height of body 3 to 3^ in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 2| in length of head, | to diameter 
from end of snout, 1 diameter apart. Fins dorsal osseous ray 
serrated, the serratures often becoming indistinct in the adult ; the 
fin commences opposite the ventrals. Lateral line incomplete, 
only extending along three or four scales ; from it to the base of 
the ventral are 3 rows ; 9 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour 
reddish brown, with a black band passing from the back to opposite 
the middle of the pectoral fin ; a second from the back to the 
posterior end of the base of the anal ; two other lighter bands pass 
do\vm\ ards, one from the anterior, the other from the posterior 
extremity of the dorsal. A dark baud down the centre of the 
dorsal, another at the base of the caudal. The adult in its colours 



328 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

becomes very similar to B. punctatus, the pectoral band decreases 
in size, whilst that on the dorsal fin breaks up into spots. 

Hob. Ganjam, Orissa and throughout Bengal and Burma; 
attaining 3 inches in length. 

395. (57.) Barbus cumingii. 

Barbus cumingii, Giinther, Catal. vii, p. 155; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 578 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. L. 1. 21. 
L. tr. 3|/3|. 

Length of head 5, height of body 3 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 2| in the length of head, f diameter from the end 
of snout, and 1 apart. Suborbital bones very deep. Fins 
the dorsal commences opposite the insertion of the ventral, 
its last undivided ray is rather weak, osseous, and finely serrated. 
Pectoral reaches the ventral. Anal rather small. Caudal deeply 
forked. Lateral line incomplete, ceasing after 4 scales ; 3 rows 
of scales between the lateral Jine and base of the ventral fin, and 
9 before the base of the dorsal. Colour two dark vertical bands, 
one descending to the pectoral fin : the second across the free 
portion of the tail. Each scale with a silvery vertical streak 
( ? a post-mortem appearance). 

Hob. Ceylon ; attaining to at least 2 inches in length. 

396. (58. ) Barbus nigrofasciatus. 

Barbus nigrofasciatus, Giinther. Catal. vii. p. 155: Day. Fish. India, 
p. 578, pi. cxliv, fig. 6. 

B.iii. D. 11(3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. L.I. 20-21. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 2f in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in the length of head, 1 diameter from end 
of snout and also apart. Fins dorsal lower than the body ; it 
commences opposite the ventrals, its osseous ray is strong and 
finely serrated. Caudal deeply forked. Lateral line complete, 
3 rows of scales beween it and the base of the ventrals. Colour 
reddish, with a black band passing from eye to eye : body with 
three vertical black bands, the first from the back to the middle of 
the pectoral fin, the second from the base of the dorsal to behind 
the base of the ventral, and the third across the free portion of the 
tail. Dorsal, anterior portion of ventral and outer edge of anal 
black. The bands are not in exactly the same position in all 
specimens. 

Hob. Southern Ceylon. 

397. (59.; Barbus guganio. 

Cyprinus guganio, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 338, 392. 
Barbus guganio, Day, Fish. India, p. 679. 

Guyani, Beng. 



CYPIHNID.E. CYPRININ.S;. o29 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 12. V. 9. A. 7. 

" Head oval, small, blunt and dotted. Mouth small. The jaws 
protrude in opening, the upper is the longest. . . . The eyes are 
far forwards on the sides of the head and large." Fins the 
dorsal is near the middle, its osseous ray is strong and serrated. 
Scales large and firmly adherent. Lateral line incomplete. 
Colour the back dotted. 

Ilab. Gangetic provinces and Assam, scarcely exceeding an inch 
and a half in length. This species is evidently allied to Barbus 
ambassis, p. 324. 

398. (60.) Barbus stigma. 

Leuciscus stigma, Cuv. $ Vul. H. N. Pom. xvii, p. 93, pi. 489. 
Barbus stigma, Day, Fish. India, p. 579, pi. cxli, fig. 5 (see synon.). 
Chadu-periyi, Tel. ; Patia-feruiidi, Ooriah ; Katcha-karaiva and Pottiah, 
Hind. ; Katch-karaiva, Can. ; Kudnle, Marathi; Nya-khoon-ma, Burm. 

B. iii. D. 11-12 (3/8-9). P. 17. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 23-26. L. tr. 4|-5/5. Vert. 15/14. 

Length of head 5, height of body 3| to 3f in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in length of head, | to 1 diameter from 
end of snout, 1| to 2 diameters apart. Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, 
5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins dorsal half to two thirds as high as the 
body ; its last undivided ray osseous, rather weak or of moderate 
strength, entire, as long as the head without the snout, or even 
less ; the fin commences rather in advance of the insertion of the 
ventral, and midway between the end of the snout and the base of 
the caudal. Lateral line complete, 3 to 3| rows of scales between 
it and the base of the ventral fin, 8 to 9 rows before the dorsal fin. 
Occasionally in the N.W. Provinces and Bengal specimens occur 
with 1. 1. 27. Colour silvery, with a scarlet lateral band at some 
seasons, and a dark mark across the base of the middle dorsal rays, 
this last being occasionally absent. A round black blotch, more or 
less distinct, at the root of the caudal fin. 

Hab. Sind, throughout ludia and Burma as high as Mandalay. 
As food this fish is bitter. In January 1868 I found 1850 
developed ova in one female fish at Madras. It attains at least 
5 inches in length. 

399. (61.) Barbus chrysopterus. 

Systomus chrysopterus, Me C'lttt. As. Res. xix, pt. 2 ; Ind. Cyp. 

p. 285. 
Barbus chrysopterus, Day, Fish. India, p. 579, pi. cxliii, fig. 6 

(see synon.). 

Pottiah, Punj. ; Durru, Sind. 

B.iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 17. V.9. A. 7 (2/5). 0.19. L.I. 23-25. 
L. tr. 5/5. 

Length of head 5, height of body 3 in the total length. 



330 TEJjEOSTEI. 1'JIA'SOSTOMI. 

Eyes diameter 3 to 3.| in length of the head, to 1 diameter 
from end of snout. Body compressed. Third suborbital bone 
very narrow. Fins dorsal arises over the ventral or slightly in 
advance of it, and midway between the end of the snout and 
the base of the caudal ; its smooth osseous ray is not strong 
and is as long as the head without the snout ; upper margin of the 
dorsal fin slightly concave ; the height is only slightly above one 
half of that of the body. The pectoral extends to the ventral, 
and the latter to the anal. Lower caudal lobe slightly the longer. 
Lateral line complete, 3| rows of scales between it and the base 
of the ventral fin ; 9 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour dull 
silvery, darkest along the back, each scale having a dark base 
formed by fine black dots. Dorsal, ventral, and anal fins generally 
stained with black spots at their extremities, but in some specimens 
only the anal. A. dark mark at the base of third to seventh 
divided dorsal rays, sometimes a dark mark at base of the tail. 
Hob. Assam, Bengal, JNYW. Provinces, and Punjab and Sind. 

400. (62.) Barbus thermalis. 

Leuciscus thermalis, Cuv. $ Vol. H. N. Poiss. xvii, p. 94, pi. 490. 
Barbus thermalis, Dai/, Fish. India, p. 580 (see synou.). 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). C. 19. L. 1. 24. 
L. tr. 5|/5|. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 3^ in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| in length of head, 1 diameter from end of 
snout. Dorsal profile more convex than the abdominal. Body 
very compressed. Fins dorsal commences nearer to end of snout 
than to base of caudal fin ; it is only two thirds as high as the body, 
its osseous ray moderately strong, rather longer than the head 
without the snout. Lateral line incomplete, ceasing after eight 
scales. Colour silvery, a round black finger-mark on either side 
of the free portion of the tail anterior to the base of the caudal fin, 
and a second at the base of the first few dorsal rays. 

Hub. From a hot spring in Ceylon ; attaining at least 3 inches 
in length. 

401 . (63.) Barbus terio. 

Cyprinus terio, Ham. Suck. Fish. Ganij. pp. 313, 389. 

Barbus terio, Day, Fish. India, p. 580, pi. cxliv, tig. 3 (see synon.). 

Kakachia-kenindi, Ooriah ; Teri-pungti, Beng. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 

L.I. 22-23. L. tr. 5/5. 

Length of head 4 to 4|, height of body 3 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 2| to 3 in length of head, f to 1 diameter 
from end of snout, 1^ diameters apart. Body compressed. 
Fins dorsal arises slightly in advance of the ventrals, its last 
undivided ray is osseous, entire, moderately or very strong, and 
nearly as long as the head ; the fin is almost as high as the body 



CYPKINID^E. CY.PUININ.E. 331 

below it. Lateral line incomplete, ceasing after 3 or 4 scales; 
3 rows between the lateral line and base of the ventral fin, 9 rows 
in front of the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, greenish along the 
back, each scale having a number of fine black spots, most numerous 
at the anterior margin. A large black blotch in the middle of 
the side over the posterior extremity of the anal, sometimes 
extended in the median line as far as the tail. A very indistinct 
black blotch (most apparent in the immature) exists under the 
posterior extremity of the dorsal, passing downwards to the middle 
of the fish. Fins yellowish, their margins stained with black, the 
dorsal having a median band. In some specimens there is a dark 
mark at the bases of the scales. 

Hob. Orissa, Bengal to the Punjab ; attaining 3 or 4 inches in 
length. 
/ 

402. (64.) Barbus punjabensis. 

Barbus (Puntius) punjaubeusis, Day, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, pt. 2, p. 334. 

Barbus punjaubensis, -Day, Fish. India, p. 580, pi. cxlv, fig. 2. 
B.iii. D.I 1(3/8). V.9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. L. 1. 43. L.tr.8/?. 
Length of head 5|, height of body 3] in the total length. 
Eyes rather large, situated in the anterior half of the head, 
one third of a diameter from end of snout. Fins dorsal two thirds 
as high as the body below it, arising midway between the snout and 
the base of the caudal fin; its last undivided ray weak and 
articulated. Caudal deeply forked, with pointed lobes. Lateral 
line incomplete, 14 rows of scales before the base of the dorsal fin. 
Colour silvery, with a burnished silvery stripe along the side, and 
a black spot at the base of the caudal fin. Two first dorsal rays 
and intermediate membrane deep black. 

Hob. Sind, Eavi river at Lahore; also Jubbulpore. A small 
species, attaining about 2 inches in length. 



403. (65.) Barbus unimaculatus. 

Systomus (?) unimaculatus, Elytli, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 159. 
Barbus unimaculatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 581, pi. cxlv, fig. 5. 

B.iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 11. V. 8. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 24-25. L. tr. 



Length of head 3^, heigh b of body 3 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 3 in the length of head, 1 diameter from the end of snout 
and also apart. Fins dorsal with the last undivided ray osseous, 
entire, weak, and nearly as long as the head ; the fin commences mid - 
way between the snout and the base of the caudal fin. Lateral 
line incomplete, becoming lost opposite the posterior extremity 
of the dorsal fin, 3 rows of scales between it and the base of the 
ventral fin ; 9 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, a black 
mark at the base of each dorsal ray. 

Hob. A number of fry up tp l T 8 ff inches in length from the 



332 TELEOSTEI. PHY8OSTOMI. 

Sitang river in Burma are in the Calcutta Museum ; what they 
would be, when adults, it is difficult to determine, but as the 
lateral line is incomplete, they probably never would grow to large 
fish. The species is very similar to Barbus thermalis, C. V., but 
its head is a little longer, and the latter species is from Ceylon. 

404. (66.) Barbus waageni. 

Barbus (Puntius) waageni, Day, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, pt. 2, p. 325. 
Barbus waageni, Day, Fish. India, p. 581, pi. cxliv, fig. 4. 

B. iii. D. 10-11 (2-3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). 
C. 20. L. 1. 23. L. tr. 4/7. 

Length of head 4, height of body 3 to 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in the length of the head, j to 1 diameter 
from end of snout, and \\ apart. Fins dorsal one half as high as 
the body below it ; it commences nearer to the base of the caudal fin 
than to the front end of the snout, its upper edge is straight ; last 
undivided ray articulated. Pectoral as long as the head excluding 
the snout. Caudal forked. Lateral line incomplete, ceasing 
about the seventh scale ; 4^ rows between it and the base of the 
ventral fin, 12 rows anterior to the dorsal fin. Caudal peduncle 
as high at its base as it is long. Colour silvery, darkest superiorly ; 
a dark blotch on the side of the tail on about the seventeenth and 
eighteenth rows of scales. 

Hob. Choya Saidan Shah in the Punjab salt-range. 

405. (67.) Barbus cosuatis. 

Cyprinus cosuatis, Ham. Buck. Fish. Gang. pp. 338, 392. 
Barbus cosuatus, Dai/, Fish. India, p. 581, pi. cxliv, fig. 1 (see synon.). 
Koswati, Beng. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 13. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L.I. 22. L. tr. 3/3. 

Length of head 4 to 4-J, height of body 3^ in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 2^ to 2| in length of head, | diameter from 
end of snout, 1 diameter apart. Fins dorsal without any osseous 
ray; it commences midway between the end of the snout and the 
base of the caudal fin, its upper edge is oblique and its height exceeds 
that of the body below it. Lateral line incomplete, the row of 
scales on which it is situated is larger than the others, 2 rows 
between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 8 or 9 rows before the 
base of the dorsal. Colour silvery, the scales having dark bases ; 
a black band along the top of the dorsal, another across its middle, 
another on the anterior anal rays. 

Hob. Bengal, through the N.W. Provinces, the Deccan and 
Bombay, and down the Western coast as low as Kotayam in 
Travancore. This species attains 2 or 3 inches in length. 



OYPBINID.S. CTPEININ2E. 333 

406. (68.) Barbus vittatus. 

Puntius vittatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 303. 

Barbus vittatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 682, pi. cxliv, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

EooK, Hind. 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 12. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 20. 
L. 1. 20-22. L. tr. 3/4. 

Length of head 4 to 4, height of body 3L in the total length. 
Eyes diameter from 2 to 3 in the adult in the length of the head, 
| of a diameter from end of snout, 1 diameters apart. Fins 
last undivided dorsal ray articulated, weak, and entire; the fin 
commences somewhat in advance of the ventrals. Lateral line 
incomplete, ceasing after about 5 scales ; 3 rows between it and 
the base of the ventral fin, 8 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour 
silvery, generally with four black spots in the adult, one just 
before the dorsal, one below its posterior margin, another at the 
base of the caudal, and a fourth at the base of the anal. The 
dorsal has a vertical black streak, and a black tip with orange 
markings. In the immature the colours vary : when the fish is 
about eight tenths of an inch long, a vertical stripe begins to show 
itself in the posterior third of the dorsal fin, the summit of which 
also becomes edged with black, whilst there are some irregular 
orange markings ; in very young specimens the line of demarcation 
between the green of the back and the silvery abdomen appears 
like a white band running from the eye to the middle of the tail. 
In some specimens one or more of the spots are absent. 

Hob. Mysore, Madras, "Wynaad, Malabar, Ceylon, and Cutch ; 
attaining 1 inches in length. 

407. (69.) Barbus filamentosus. 

Leucisdus filamentosus, Cuv. # Vol. H. N. Poiss. xvii, p. 96, pL 492. 
Barbus filamentosus, Day, Fish. India, p. 582 (see synon.). 
Chewllt, Tamil. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 21. L. tr. 4/4. 

Length of head 5, height of body 3 to 3^ in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3J- in the length of the head, ^ to 1 diameter from 
end of snout, If apart. Generally large pores over the snout. 
Fins dorsal arises slightly nearer to suout than to base of caudal 
fin ; its last undivided ray is osseous, smooth, and feeble, whilst the 
divided ones are all more or less elongate in the adult. Lateral 
line complete, 2 rows of scales between it and the base of the 
ventral ; 7 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, each 
scale having a metallic green edging ; a more or less distinct black 
blotch exists on the lateral line, on the fourteenth and fifteenth 



334 TELEOSTEl. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

scales, and before the base of the caudal fin. A very curious 
change occurs in this fish immediately after death, the whole of 
its body becoming scarlet. Caudal red, tipped with black and 
edged with white ; dorsal and ventral nearly black. 

Hab. Western coast and Southern India ; attaining 6 inches in 
length. This form is similar to B. mahecola except in wanting 
barbels. 

408. (70.) Barbus puntio. 

Cyprinus puntio, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 318, 389. 

Barbus puntio, Day, Fish. India, p. 582, pi. cxlv, fig. 6 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 11(3/8). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7(2/5). C. 21. 
L. 1. 23. L. tr. 5/4. 

Length of head 4 to 4^, height of body 3 to 3% in the total 
length. Eyes diameter two fifths of length of head, i to of a 
diameter from end of snout, 1 diameter apart. Fins last undivided 
dorsal ray osseous and entire, the fin commences rather in advance 
of the ventrals. Lateral line only extending distinctly for a few 
scales, but very indistinctly to the base of the caudal fin ; 2-1- rows 
between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 8 rows before the 
dorsal fin. Colour silvery, a wide black band encircles the free 
portion of the tail, and includes the tip of the anal fin. Dorsal 
orange, tipped with black. 

Hab. Bengal and Burma, attaining about 3 inches in length. 



20. Genus NUEIA, Cuv. & Val. 
Syn. Esomus, Swainson. 

Abdomen rounded. Pseudobranchiao present. Mouth narrow, 
directed obliquely upwards ; suborbitals broad. Barbels four, the 
rostral shorter than the maxillary pair ; pharyngeal teeth crooked, 
pointed, 5/5. Dorsal fin without osseous ray, and with but few 
branched ones ; it is inserted behind the ventral, but does not 
extend to over the anal ; the latter has but few branched rays or a 
moderate number. Scales of moderate size. Lateral line, when 
present, passing to the lower half of the base of the caudal fin. Gill- 
rakers short. 

409. (1.) Nuria danrica. (Fig. 106.) 

Cyprinus danrica, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 325, 390, pi. xvi, 

fig. 88. 
Nuria danrica, Day, Fish. India, p. 583, pi. cxlv, fig. 7 (var. mala- 

barica) and fig. 8 (var. alto) (see synon.). 

Danrica and Jow/ja, Berg. ; Kurriah dahwiee, Hind. ; Purroovoo, Tamil ; 
Soomarah, Hind. '(N.W. Prov.) ; Chid-diil-lu, Punjabi ; Kati, Mahr. ; 
Mola and Mah-wa, N.W. Prov. ; Nya-zin-byoon, Burmese. 



335 



B. iii. D. 8 (2/6). P. 15. V. 9. A. 8 (3/5). 
L. 1. 30-34. L. tr. 5-6/3. 



Length of head 5| to 5 in the total length. Eyes diameter 
3| to 3 in the length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout and 
apart. Barbels the rostral not so long as the head, the maxillary 
extend to the base of the ventral or even to that of the caudal 
fin. Fins dorsal commences nearer to the base of the caudal than 



Fig. 106. Nuria danrica, var. cdta. 

to the head ; pectoral varies with age, being generally proportion- 
ately longer in the immature ; sometimes the anal fin is higher than 
the dorsal, especially in the immature. Lateral line usually 
present, entire ; 2 rows of scales between it and the base of the 
ventral, 18 before the dorsal fin. Colour a broad black lateral 
band, sometimes absent. 

The variety Nuria alia, Blyth, is a Burmese form, which differs 
in the height of its body, being 4| (instead of 5^) in the total 
length, and its anal fin is a little lower. 

Hob. India, Ceylon, Burma, and the Nicobars. Dr. Cumberland 
found this fish in a hot stream of 112 Fahr. at Pooree, M. Regnaud 
in a hot stream at Cannia in Ceylon ; it attains 5 inches in length. 



21. Genus RASBORA, Bleeker. 
Syn. Leuciscus, sp., Cuv. & Val. ; Mcgarasbora, Giinther. 

Abdomen rounded. Pseudobranchia) present. Cleft of mouth 
oblique, lower jaw slightly prominent, having one central and two 
lateral prominences, one on each side, fitting into corresponding 
emarginations in the upper jaw. Barbels two (rostral), or none. 
Eyes with free lids. Pharyngeal teeth 5, 3 or 4, 2/2, 3 or 4, 5. 
Dorsal fin without any osseous ray and few branched ones, inserted 
behind the origin of the ventral but not extending to above the 
anal, which is short. Scales large or of moderate size. Lateral 
line concave, continued to the middle or lower half of the caudal 
fin. Gill-rakers short and lanceolate. 

Geographical Distribution. Africa, Indin, Ceylon, Burma, to 
the Malay Archipelago. 



TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Barbels present (Megarasbora). 

D. 2/7, A. 2/5, L. 1. 40-44 1. R. elanga, p. 336. 

b. Barbels absent (JRasbora). 

D. 2/7, A. 2-3/5, L. 1. 31-34. Generally a 

black lateral stripe 2. -R. daniconius, p. 330. 

D. 2/7, A. 2/5-6, L. 1. 26-29. Caudal black- 
edged 3. R. hichanani, p. 337. 

410. (1.) Kasbora elanga. 

Cyprinus elanga, Ham. Bmh. Fish. Gang. pp. 281, 386. 

Rasbora elanga, Day, Fisk. India, p. 584, pi. cxlvi, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

Dahwiee, Hind.; Elany, Assam. 

B. iii. D. 9(2/7). P. 15. V. 8-9. A. 7(2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 40-44. L. tr. 7-8/6. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of hody 4| to 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter from 3 to 4 in the length of head, 1 dia- 
meter from end of snout, lg diameters apart. Jaws of equal 
length, prominences and emarginations well-defined. Barbels 
one short rostral pair. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins 
dorsal commences midway between the posterior margin of the 
orbit and the base of the caudal fin. The pector.il, which is 
nearly as long as the head, does not reach the ventral. Caudal 
forked. Scales 1^ to 2 rows between lateral line and base of 
ventral fin ; 14 rows before base of dorsal fin. Colour silvery, 
with sometimes a leaden-coloured band along the upper portion 
of the side. 

Hob. Bengal, Assam, and Burma ; attaining at least 8 inches 
in length. 

411. (2.) Rasbora daniconius. 

Cyprinus daniconius. Ham. Srich. Fish. Gang. pp. 327, 391, pi. xv, 

tig. 89. 
Rasbora daniconius, Day, Fish. India, p. 584, pi. cxlvi, fig. 2, and 

fig. 3 (var. It. nilffhernensis) (see synon.). 

Mile-lo-ah,N.W. Prov. ; Chin-do-lah, Raan-kaal-le and Charl, Punj.; 
Neddean jubbu, Canarese ; Ovaree candec and Purroovoo candce, Tamil; 
Kokanut'chee, Mai. ; Jilo, Ooriah ; Dam'konian([Anf/jani,T$en;. ; Duhni- 
ko-nah, Assam ; N(/a-douny-zee and Nya-nauch-youn, Burm. ; Jonir, 
Cutch ; Ddndvan. Marathi. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7 (2/5). C. 19. 
L. 1. 31-34. L. tr. 4|/5. Vert. 18/14. 

Length of head 4g to 5, height of body 4| to 5| or even 6 in the 
total length. Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in the length of head, 1 dia- 
meter from end of snout and also apart. Prominences and emar- 
ginations on jaws well-defined. Cleft of mouth extends to beneath 



CIPRINID.E. CYPEIJttN^:. 337 

anterior margin of orbit. Teeth pharyngeal, curved, sharp, 5, 3, 
2/2, 3, 5. Fins dorsal commences rather nearer to origin of the 
ventral than to that of anal in some examples, at an equal distance 
from both in others. Lateral line descends very gradually for 
the depth of 2 rows of scales ; 2 rows between it and ventral fin, 
14 rows in front of dorsal fin. Colour a black band, more or less 
distinct, passes from the eye to the base of the caudal. Sometimes 
this band only exists just at its termination and thus forms a 
spot at the side of the base of the tail ; or in some young specimens 
a bright silvery band edged above with yellow is seen along the 
sides. Caudal occasionally with its lobes tipped with grey. 

Hob. Continent of India, Ceylon, Burma, Malay Archipelago, 
and Zanzibar ; attaining 8 inches in length. Much more common 
than R. buchanani. 

f 

412. (3.) Rasbora buchanani. (Fig. 107.) 

Cyprinusrasbora, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 329, 391, pi. 2, fig. 90. 
Rasbora buchanani, Sleeker, Prod. Gyp. p. 451 ; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 584, pi. cxlv, fig. 10 (see synou.). 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 7-8 (2/o-6). C. 19. 
L. 1. 20-29. L. tr. 41/3. 

Length of head 5, height of body 4 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 3| in length of head, about 1 diameter from end of 
snout, and rather more apart. Prominences on jaws well-deve- 
loped. Fins dorsal commences nearer to the base of the caudal 
than to the snout. Lateral line concave, 2 rows of scales between 




Fig. 107. Rusbora, buchuitaiti. 

it and the base of the ventral fin ; 12 rows anterior to the base of 
the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, a faint streak along the sides ; 
caudal usually tipped with black, especially in Burmese examples. 

Hob. Continent of India, Assam, Burma, and Pinang; in Inbia 
most common in the valley of the Ganges and along the Coromandel 
coast. This species attains 4 or 5 inches in length. 



338 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 



22. Genus ASPIDOPARIA (Heckel), Bleeker. 
Syn. Morara, Bleeker. 

Abdomen rounded. Mouth small, inferior, the lower jaw having 
a sharp crescentic edge destitute of lip. Barbels absent. Sub- 
orbital ring of bones of moderate width or broad. Dorsal fin 
without osseous and with rather few branched rays, commencing 
opposite to or behind the origin of the ventrals, but not extending 
to above the anal, which latter has a moderate number of rays 
(10 to 12). Scales of moderate size. Lateral line concave, and 
passing along the lower half of the base of the caudal fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Throughout Bengal, Assam, Bombay, 
and Orissa as far as the Kistna river, also Burma. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 9-10, A. 10-12, L. 1. 38-42 1. A. morar, p. 338. 

D. 9, A. 9, L. 1. 62-60 2. A.jaya, p. 339. 

413. (1.) Aspidoparia morar. (Fig. 108.) 

Cyprinus morar, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 264, 384, pi. 31, fig. 75. 
Aspidoparia niorar, Day, Fish. India, p. 585, pi. cxlvi, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

Bayi, Ooriah ; Morari and Morar, Beng. ; Pa-o-char and Chilwa, 
Punj. ; Ka-reer-re, Sind. ; Amlee, Deccan ; Chippuah, Chelluah, Hind. 
(N.W. Prov.) ; Mou-ah and Boreala, Assam ; Nga-hpyen-boo and Ytn- 
bounff-za, Burmese. 

B. iii. D. 9-10 (2-3/7-8). P. 15. V. 8. A. 10-12 (2/8-10). 

C. 19. L. 1. 38-42. L. tr. 5|/5. Vert. 14/21. 
Length of head 5 to 5f , height of body 4 to 5| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3f in length of head, to 1 diameter 
from end of snout, and 1 apart. Snout very obtuse. Upper jaw 




Fig. 108. Aspidoparia 

overlapping the lower. A broad suborbital ring of bones. Teeth 
pharyngeal, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5, plough-shaped, the outer row much 



CYPKINID.E. CYPRININ.E. 339 

larger than the inner ones. Fins dorsal higher than long, with a 
concave superior margin ; it arises midway between the posterior 
margin of the orbit and the base of the caudal ; pectoral as long as 
the head. Scales 2| to 3 rows between lateral line and base of 
ventral fin ; 20 rows before base of dorsal fin. Colour back light 
brown, divided from the silvery side by a burnished streak. 

Hob. Sind, Punjab, Continent of India (except the Western 
coast, and localities south of the Kistna river), also Assam and 
Burma ; attaining at least 7 inches in length. 

414. (2.) Aspidoparia jaya. 

Cyprinus jaya, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 333, 392. 
Aspidoparia jaya, Day, Fish. India, p. 585, pi. cxlv. fig. 9 (see 



Chola, Assam ; Pahruah, Hind. (N.W. Prov.). 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 8. A. 9 (2/7). C. 21. 
L. 1. 52-60. L. tr. 7/10. 

Length of head 5? to 5|, height of body 5 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| in length of head, | to 1 diameter from end of 
snout, 1| diameters apart. Mouth considerably overhung by the 
snout. Both the preorbital and first suborbital bones touch the 
upper lip ; only about half the cheek is covered by the suborbital 
ring of bones. Teeth pharyngeal, 4, 3/3, 4, the outer row 
plough-shaped and compressed, the inner consisting of very minute 
teeth. Fins dorsal commences midway between the snout and 
the base of the caudal, and opposite the insertion of the ventral. 
Scales deciduous. Lateral line curving at its termination on to 
the lower half of the caudal fin ; 4| rows of scales between it and 
the base of the ventral fin. Colour silvery, back darkest. 

Hob. Hardwar on the Ganges and Assam. 

23. Genus ROHTEE, Sykes. 

Syn. Osteobrama, Heckel ; Smiliogaster, Bleeker. 

Abdomen rounded. Pseudobranchise present. Mouth anterior, 
lips thin. Barbels present or absent, sometimes quite rudimentary. 
Pharyugeal teeth, 6 or 5 or 4, 4 or 3, 2 or 3/3 or 2, 3 or 4, 4 or 5 
or 6. Dorsal fin short, having an osseous serrated spine, and 
commencing opposite the interspace between the bases of the ven- 
tral and anal fins, the latter of which has many rays. Scales 
small. Lateral line passing nearly to the centre of the base of the 
caudal fin. Gill-rakers short. 

Geographical Distribution. India generally and Burma. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. With four barbels. 

I). 11, A. 14, L. L 44 1. R. bakcri, p. 340. 

\).}2, A. 20, L. 1. 5!) 2. R. neilli, p. 340. 

Z2 






340 TELEOSTEl. PHYSOS1OMI. 

B. Without any, or with only rudimentary barbels. 

D. 11-12. A. 29-30, L. 1. 55-70 3. R. cotio, p. 340. 

D. 11, A. 25-28, L. 1. 75-80 4. R. vi<jorsii, p. 341. 

D. 11-12, A. 20-21, L. 1. 08-73 5. R. belant/eri, p. 342. 

D. 11, A. 10, L. 1. 65 0. R. oqilbii, p. 342. 

D. 12, A. 30, L. 1. 44 7. -R. cunma, p. 343. 

415. (1.) Rohtee bakeri. 

Rohtee bakeri, Day, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 240 ; Fish. India, p. 580, 
pi. cxlvii, fig. 1. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 13. V. 10. A. 14 (3/11). 
L. 1. 44. L. tr. 8/7. 

Length of head from 5 to 6, height of body from 4 to 4 in the 
total length. Eyes diameter two fifths of length of head, two 
thirds of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Profile over 
nape rather concave, a considerable rise to the base of the dorsal 
fin. Upper jaw the longer. Barbels four, all very short. Fins 
dorsal rather higher than the body, its spine weak, as long as the 
head or rather longer, and serrated posteriorly in almost its whole 
extent. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 5| rows between the 
lateral line and the base of the ventral fin ; 15~rows before the base 
of the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, caudal and dorsal edged with 
black. 

Hab. Kotayam in Travancore, whence I received specimens up 
to 4| inches in length. 

416. (2.) Rohtee neilU. 

Rohtee neilli, Day, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 239; Fish. India, p. o0. 
pi. cxlvi, fig. 5. 

B. iii. D. 12 (4/8). P. 13. V. 10. A. 20 (3/17). C. 19. 
L. 1. 59. L. tr. 12/18. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 3| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 2| in the length of the head, of a diameter from 
end of snout and also apart. Profile over nape concave, from 
thence a considerable rise to the base of the dorsal fin. Upper 
jaw somewhat the longer. Barbels two pairs, all about as long 
as the eye. Fins dorsal three fourths as high as the body, its 
last undivided ray osseous, A r ery strong, serrated, and as long as 
the head excluding the snout. Pectoral nearly as long as the head. 
Caudal deeply forked. Lateral line strongly marked in its first 
few scales, the rows of scales nearly regular ; 8 rows between the 
lateral line and base of ventral fin. Free portion of the tail as 
long as high. Colour silvery, opercles golden. 

Hob. Bhavani river at base of the Nilgiri hills. 

417. (3.) Rohtee cotio. (Fig. 109.) 

Cyprinus cotio, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 339, 393, pi. 39, fig. 93. 
Rohtee cotio, Dai/, Fish. India, p. 587 j pi. cli, fig. 1, pi. cxlvii, fig. 2 
(var. R. alfrediana) (see synon.). 



CYPRINID.E. CYPBININ.E. 341 

Eoti and Goonta, Eeng. ; Goordah, Chen-da-lah and Muck-nee, Hind. 
(N. W. Prov.) ; Puttoo and Duh-riee, Sind ; Nga-hpan-ma, Burm. ; Gud- 
ddni, Marathi ; Gunda, Ooriah. 

B. iii. D. 11-12(3-4/8). P. 13. V. 10. A. 29-36 (2-3/27-33). 

C. 19. L. 1. 55-70. L. tr. 9-15/14-21. 

Length of head 5 to 6, height of body 3 to 3^ in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 2| to 3 in the length of head, one half a 
diameter from the end of the snout, and 1 to 1 apart. Profile 
over nape concave, from thence a great rise to the base of the 
dorsal fin. Upper jaw slightly the longer. Barbels absent or very 




Fig. 109. Bohtee cotio, var. alfrediatia. 

rudimentary. Fins dorsal with its osseous ray weak and serrated. 
Pectoral reaches to over ventral and the latter to the anal. 
Caudal lobed. Scales vary in number along the lateral line, 
whilst in some specimens (var. cotio) the rows are very irregular in 
the last three fourths of the body below the lateral line. The 
number of rows between the lateral line and base of the ventral 
fin also varies, being most in the variety E. cotio (12-13), whereas 
in the variety E. alfrediana there are rarely more than 7 or 8 ; 24 
rows of scales before the base of the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, 
darkest along the back and sometimes with a silvery lateral band. 
Some have a black blotch before the base of the dorsal fin, and 
another on the nape. 

Hob. From Sind throughout India (except the Malabar coast 
and south of the Kistna) and Burma ; attaining at least 6 inches in 
length. 

418. (4.) Rohtee vigorsii. 

Eohtee vigorsii, Sykes, Tr. Z. 8. ii, 1841, p. 3(54, pi. 63, fig. 3 ; Day, 

Fish. India, p. 687, pi. cxlvii, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Gollund, Ooriah ; Khira, Tel. ; Phek, Mnrathi. 



342 TELEOSTET. PHTSOSTOMI. 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 19. V. 10. A. 25-28 (2-3/23-26). 
C. 19. L. 1. 75-80. L. tr. 16-18/21. 

Length of head 5, height of body 3 to 4 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in the length of head, 1 diameter from 
end of snout and also apart. Dorsal profile elevated, a concavity 
from the snout to over the nape. The lower jaw somewhat 
longer than the upper, whilst posteriorly the cleft of the mouth 
extends to below the anterior margin of the orbit. Preorbital 
nearly as high as broad, suborbitals very narrow. Barbels absent ; 
or a very rudimentary maxillary pair. Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, 
5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins dorsal spine strong and deeply denticulated, 
its osseous portion not so long as the head. Pectoral as long as 
the head excluding the snout. Caudal deeply forked. Lateral line 
most strongly developed in the first few scales ; 11 rows between 
it and base of ventral fin ; 34 rows before base of dorsal fin. 
Colour greenish superiorly, silvery beneath ; snout black ; the 
caudal fin slightly stained with grey. The young have a silvery 
band along the side. 

Hob. Deccan, Kistna and Godavari rivers to their terminations. 
It attains at least 9 inches in length. 



419. (5.) Rohtee belangeri. 

Leuciscus belangeri, Cuv. # Vol. H. N. Poiss. xvii, p. OD. 

Rohtee belangeri, Day, Fish. India, p. 587, pi. cxlvii, fig. 4 (see 

synon.) 
Nga-hpeh-oung, Nga-net-hya, and Nga-p'hama, Burm. 

B. iii. D. 11-12 (3-4/8). P. 17. V. 9. A. 20-21 (3/17-18). 
C. 17. L. 1. 68-73. L. tr. 18/22. 

Length of head 5| to 6, height of body 3 to 3 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3 in length of head, | of a 
diameter from end of snout, 1 diameters apart. Lower jaw 
slightly the shorter. Teeth pharyngeal, 4, 3, 2/2, 3, 4, with the 
outer one in each row serrated on its edges. Fins dorsal osseous 
ray strong and serrated posteriorly, the bony portion being as long 
as the head. Caudal deeply lobed. Scales 14 rows between 
lateral line and base of ventral fin ; 25 rows before base of dorsal 
fin. Colour silvery, back greyish, and the Indian variety is 
partially banded in the young. Sometimes a dark streak from the 
shoulder to the base of the pectoral fin. The very young have a 
black band over the free portion of the tail. 

Hob. The Godavari river, and throughout Burma, but the 
specimens from the latter locality are darker in colour and want 
the vertical bands. This species attains 15 inches and more in 
length. 

420. (6.) Rohtee ogilbii. 

Rohtee ogilbii, Sykes, Tr. Z. S. ii, 1841, p, 364, pi. Ixiii, fig. 2; Day, 
Fish. Lidia, p. 583, pi. cxlvii, fig. 5 (sea synon.). 



CYPR1NIDJE. CTPEININJE. 343 

B. iii. D. 11 (3/8). P. 15. V. 10. A. 16 (3/13). C. 20. 
L. 1. 55. L. tp. 13/11. 

Length of head 5 to 6, height of body 3 to 3^ in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 2f to 3| in length of head, f to 1 
diameter from end of snout, 1| diameters apart. Dorsai profile 
rather more convex than that of the abdomen. Lower jaw the 
shorter. Barbels absent. Teeth pharyngeal, curved, pointed, 
5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins dorsal osseous ray strong and coarsely 
serrated. Caudal lobed in its last two thirds. Scales nine or 
ten rows between lateral line and base of ventral fin. Colour 
purplish silvery along the back, becoming silvery white from about 
four rows of scales above the lateral line. The young sometimes 
have a dark spot at the base of the caudal fin, and four or five 
narrow black bands descending from the back to the middle of the 
side. ' 

Hab. Deccan, the Kistna and Godavari rivers ; attaining 6 inches 
or more in length. 

421. (7.) Rohtee cunma. 

Abramis cunma, Tickell, MSS. 

Roh tee cunma, Day, Fish. India, Suppl. p. 807. 

Nga-koon-ma, Burmese. 
B. iii. D. 12 (3/9). P. 13. V. 10. A. 30. C. 18. L. 1. 44. 

Length of head 5|, height of body 3 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 3 in the length of the head, 1 diameter from the end of 
the snout and also apart. Profile over nape slightly concave, a 
considerable rise from snout to base of dorsal fin ; snout somewhat 
obtuse, upper jaw the longer. Fins dorsal anteriorly two thirds 
as high as the body below it, commencing somewhat nearer to the 
snout than to the base of the caudal fin, its spine weak and longer 
than the head, not serrated. Caudal deeply forked, lower lobe 
somewhat the longer. Lateral line strongly marked in its first 
four scales. Colour olive above, becoming silvery on the sides 
and below ; a brassy tinge along the lateral line and over the 
cheeks and gill-covers. Fins amber; dorsal and caudal with a 
narrow black edge. 

Hab. Colonel Tickell procured this species at Moulmein, where 
he found it to be common. His figure is 5| inches long. 

24. G-enus BARILIUS, Hamilton Buchanan. 

Syn. Opsarius, sp., McClelland ; Pachystomw, Heckel ; Chedrus, 
Swains. ; Shacra, Bleeker ; Opsaridium, Peters ; Pteropsarion and Bola 
(not H. B.), Giinther. 

Abdomen rounded. Pseudobranchiae present. Mouth anterior, 
sometimes oblique, having a moderate or deep cleft. Jaws com- 
pressed, the lower usually with a knob above the symphysis, and an 
emargination to receive it in the upper jaw. Suborbital ring of 
bones generally broad, more especially the third, which may even 



344 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 






be entirely behind the vertical from the posterior margin of the 
orbit. Barbels four (Pachystomus, "Heckel," Bleeker), or two 
(Bendilisis, Bleeker), or none (Barilius, Hara. Buch.); occasionally 
very rudimentary ones are present. Pharyngeal teeth in two or 
three rows, hooked, 5, 3 or 4, 2 or 1/1 or 2, 4 or 3, 5 ; or else 5, 2 or 3, 
4/4, 3 or 2, 5. Dorsal fin without osseous ray, of moderate 
length, inserted posteriorly to the ventrals, sometimes extending 
to above the anal, which latter is somewhat elongated. Scales of 
moderate or small size. Lateral line concave, continued on to the 
middle or lower half of the caudal, or incomplete, or absent. 
Gill-rakers very short or absent. 

The genera Barilius and Danio are somewhat difficult to diagnose 
apart ; the former, however, has the snout compressed, the mouth 
anterior, and usually spots or vertical bars on the body. In Danio 
the upper jaw is rather broad, the mouth directed obliquely 
upwards, the apex of the lower jaw being nearly or quite on a 
level with the dorsal profile ; the body with longitudinal bands. 
Adult specimens of Barilius have usually open pores or glands on 
the snout and jaws. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh waters of India, Ceylon, and 
Burma, extending to the Malay Archipelago ; also found in the 
Nile and East Africa. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. With four barbels. (Pachystomus.) 
D. 9, A. 13-15, L. 1. 42-44, 10 vertical 

bars 1. ft. vaara. p. 345. 

D. 9, A. 12-13, I,. 1. 43. Back dark, sides 

silvery 2. B. modestus, p. 345. 

D. 9, A. 12, L. 1. 56-62. Silvery 3. B. radiolatm, p. 346. 

D. 9, A. 10, L. 1. 60-70. Twelve vertical 

bars 4. B. shacra, p. 346. 

D. 9, A. 9-10, L. 1. 40-43. Short vertical 

bars; each scale with a black spot in 

adults 5. B. bendelisis, p. 347. 

B With two barbels. (Bendilisis.') 

D. 9, A. 13-14, L. 1. 43-46. With 14 or 

15 vertical bars 6. B. barila, p. 348. 

C. Without or with only rudimentary barbels. 

(Barilius.) 
D. 13, A. 16-17, L. 1. 38. A row of large 

spots 7. B. bakeri. p. 348. 

D. 10-12, A. 15-17, L. 1. 40. 15 vertical 

bars 8. B. gatensis, p. 349. 

D. 2-13, A. 14-16, L. 1. 38. Two rows 

of spots 9. B. canarensis. p. 350. 

D. 9, A. 13-14, L. 1. 39-42. Nine vertical 

bands 10. B. barna, p. 350. 

D. 9, A. 14, L. 1. 44-48. Two rows of 

spots 11. B. guttatus, p. 351. 



345 



D. 9, A. 13, L. 1. 70-75. Two rows of 

spots .............................. 12. B. tileo, p. 351. 

D. 9, A. 14-15, L. 1. 40. Silvery ........ 13. .B. eoezardi, p. 352. 

D. 10-11, A. 13, L. 1. 88-94. Two rows 

of blotches ........................ 14. B. bola, p. 352. 



422. (1.) Barilius vagra. 

Cyprinus vagra, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 269, 385. 
Barilius vagra, Day, Fish. India, p. 589, pi. cxlviii, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Lo-har-ree and Charl, Punj. ; Mon-e-o-ree, Assam. 

B. iii. D. 9(2/7). P. 16. V.9. A. 13-15 (2-3/11-12). C. 19. 
L. 1. 42-44. L. tr. 7-8/4. Vert. 16-23. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 5 to 6 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3^ to 4 in length of head, 1 diameter 
from end of snout and 1| apart. The posterior extremity of the 
maxilla extends to beneath the middle of the orbit; lower jaw 
slightly the longer. Third suborbital bone twice as deep as the 
uncovered portion of the cheek below it. Jaws of equal length 
anteriorly, the upper sometimes a little notched, the lower covered 
with large pores in the adult. Axillary process very short. 
Barbels rostral nearly half as long as the head, maxillary pair 
very short. Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins 
dorsal commencing midway between the posterior edge of the 
orbit and the root of the caudal, its last two rays being over the 
anal ; pectoral not quite so long as the head ; caudal deeply forked. 
Scales 2 to 2-| rows between lateral line and base of ventral fin ; 
20 rows before base of dorsal. Colour silvery, 10 to 14 dark bands 
(sometimes indistinct) descend from the back to the lateral line ; 
fins yellowish, the edge of the caudal stained greyish. 

Hob. Sind hills, rivers in the Himalayas and Sub-Himalayan 
range, Jumna and Ganges, also the Punjab, Assam, and Ceylon. 
This species attains above 5 inches in length. 

423. (2.) Barilius modestus. 

Barilius (Pachystomus) modestus, Day, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 4. 
Barilius modestus, Day, Fish. India, p. 589, pi. cli, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Laccya, Arabi. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 12-13 (2/10-11). C. 19. 

L. 1. 43. L. tr. 6/4. 

Length of head 5i, height of body 5| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 4 in the length of head and situated in its anterior 
half, 1 diameter from end of snout and also apart. Suborbital 
ring of bones wide, the third nearly touching the preopercular 
ridge. Upper jaw slightly the longer, and notched at its end in 
large examples. The posterior extremity of the maxilla reaches to 
below the middle of the orbit, Barbels rostral extend to beneath 



346 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

the front margin of the eyes, maxillary pair minute. Axillary 
process short. Fins dorsal commencing midway between the 
middle of the caudal lobes and the snout ; it is entirely, or all but 
the last ray, in advance of the anal. Pectoral nearly as long as 
the head, but not reaching the ventrals, which last extend halfway 
to the base of the anal. Lateral line very slightly concave, two 
and a half rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral 
fin ; 19 rows before the base of the dorsal fin. Colour back 
brownish, strongly defined from the silvery sides ; caudal edged 
with dark ; the other fins yellow ; a dark band along the dorsal. 

Hab. The Indus in Sind, and the Eavi river at Lahore ; attaining 
4 or 5 inches in length. 

424. (3.) Barilius radiolatus. 

Barilius radiolatus, Giinther, Cat. vii, p. 287 ; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 690. 

B. iii. D. 10 (2/8). P. 17. V. 9. A. 12 (2/10). C. 19. 
L. 1. 56-62. L. tr. 9-10/6. 

Length of head'4^ to 4|, height of body 4| in the total length, 
excluding the caudal fin. Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, 
| to 1 diameter from end of snout, and rather more apart. The 
posterior extremity of the maxilla extends to a little behind the 
front edge of the orbit ; the lower jaw projects slightly when the 
mouth is closed. The third suborbital bone nearly reaches the 
preopercular ridge. Axillary process short. Barbels two short 
pairs. Fins the dorsal higher than long, commencing midway 
between the eye and the root of the caudal fin, its last ray not 
extending so far as to above the anal. The pectoral does not reach 
the ventral nor the latter the anal. Caudal apparently deeply 
forked. Scales two rows between lateral line and base of ventral 
fin ; 24 rows before base of dorsal. The specimens in the British 
Museum are in a very bad state. 
Hab. Central India. 



425. (4.) Barilius shacra. 

71. 

cxlviii, fig. 5 (see 



Cyprinus shacra, Ham. Buck. Fish. Gang. pp. 271, 385. 
Barilius shacra, Day, Fish. India, p. 590, pi. 



synon.). 
Gurha, Punj. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 8. A. 10 (2/8). C. 19. 

L. 1. 60-70. L. tr. 10-11/9. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 5 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in length of head, 1 diameter from end of 
snout and also apart. Jaws of about equal length in front. 
Third suborbital bone two thirds as wide as the uncovered portion 
of the cheek below it. Barbels the maxillary pair as long as the 
eye, the rostral slightly longer. Axillary process extends to rather 
behind origin of pectoral fin. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 3/3, 5, crooked. 



CYPRINID*!. CYPBININjE. 347 

Fins last dorsal ray over the first anal. The six outer pectoral 
rays strong, more especially in the adult. Caudal deeply forked. 
Lateral line goes to the centre of the base of the caudal fin, about 
7 rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin; 25 
before the dorsal fin. Colour back olive, rest of the body pinkish 
silvery ; about twelve incomplete bars from the back downwards 
towards the lateral line, a dark bar along the upper third of the 
dorsal fin. The lower two thirds of the vertical fins stained in 
some examples. 

Hub. From Hurdwar down the valley of the Ganges, the N.W. 
Provinces, and Assam. The species is said to attain 5 inches in 
length. 

426. (5.) Barilins bendelisis. 

Cyprimis bendelisis, Ham. Such. Journ. Mysore, in, p. 345, pi. 32. 
Barilius bendelisis, Day, Fish. India, p. 590, pi. cxlviii, fags. 7, 8, 
and 9 (see synon.). 

Khoksa, Beng. ; Pak-tah, Kun-nul, Dah-rah, Burreah, and Puck-wah- 
ree, Punj. ; Johra, Mahr. ; Aguskitti&nd Marritan candee, Tarn. ; Bahgra 
bahri, Ooriah ; Nga gyd, Burm. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 9-10 (2-3/7-8). C. 18. 
L. 1. 40-43. L. tr. 7-8/5. 

Length of head 4| to 5|, of caudal 5 to 5, height of body 4| 
(to 5| in the young) in the total length. Eyes diameter 4| to 
4| in length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 1| apart. 
The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. The 
third suborbital bone varies in depth from being equal to twice as 
high as the uncovered portion of the cheek below it. Open pores 
on the snout and lower jaw in the adult or even in the young in 
examples from hilly districts, sometimes pores on preorbital. 
Axillary process broad, lancet-shaped, and longer in some examples 
than in others. Barbels four, generally short, the rostral pair 
occasionally absent. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins 
dorsal higher than its base is long, it commences nearer to the base 
of the caudal fin than to the snout, and does not extend to over the 
anal. Pectoral may or may not reach the ventral ; its outer six 
rays are thickened and very stiff in some examples, especially males 
from the hills. The ventral in some does, in others does not reach 
the vent. Caudal forked, lower lobe usually slightly the longer. 
Scales 2| to 3| rows between lateral line and base of ventral fin; 
20 rows before base of dorsal. Colour silvery, shot with purple ; 
back of a slaty grey, descending in bars towards the lateral line, 
most distinct in immature specimens. In adults these bars become 
indistinct and sometimes lost. Each scale in adults with a black 
spot at its base, and two on each scale forming the lateral line, but 
no spots in the young. Fins whitish, tinged with orange. A grey 
margin to the dorsal and caudal, the lower lobe of which is some- 
times stained black. Shoulder-process black-edged. 



348 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

This fish shows considerable alterations in colour and form as it 
gets older, there are likewise individual variations that have been 
considered species. 

Variety cocsa (Cyprinus cocsa, Ham. Buch.) shows rather a deep 
third suborbital bone, the eyes a little larger ; the dorsal, pectoral, 
and ventral not so developed as in the next variety. The size of 
the axillary process and the presence or absence of bars on the 
back are subject to individual variation. 

Variety chedra (C. chedra, Ham. Buch.) has the third suborbital 
less deep than in the preceding form, the dorsal, pectoral, and 
ventral more developed, and the axillary process larger. The outer 
pectoral rays are very stiff. 

The ova of this species are large ; I found the fish breeding at 
Cuttack, in the month of November. 

Hob. Assam and Himalayas, through the continent of India as 
far as the Western Ghats, not recorded from the coast of Malabar 
or Canara nor from Sind. Found also in Ceylon, whence Dr. 
Kelaart brought some specimens to the museum of the East-India 
Company. The species attains at least 6 inches in length. 

427. (6.) Barilius barila. 
Cyprinus barila, Ham. Such. Fish. Gang. pp. 267, 384. 

Barilius barila, Day, Fish. India, p. 591, pi. cxlviii, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

Gilland and Caedra, Beng. ; Persee, Hind. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 13. V. 9. A. 13-14 (3/10-11). C. 19. 
L. 1. 43-46. L. tr. 7/5. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 5| to 5| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in length of head, f to 1 
diameter from end of snout and also apart. The posterior 
extremity of the maxilla reaches to below the anterior third of 
the orbit. Third suborbital bone wide and nearly touching the 
preopercular ridge. Barbels a small rostral pair. Teeth pharyn- 
geal, crooked, pointed, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. Fins dorsal almost entirely 
in advance of anal. The pectoral is nearly as long as the head, but 
does not quite reach the ventral. Scales 1| to 2 rows between 
lateral line and base of ventral ; 1 8 rows before the dorsal. 
Colour silvery, with 14 or 15 vertical blue bands in the middle 
third of the side of the fish. 

Hab. Delhi, N.W. and Central Provinces, Bengal, Orissa, and 
Lower Assam. Grows to 4 inches in length. 

428. (7.) Barilius bakeri. 

Barilius bakeri, Day, P.Z.S. 1865, p. 305; Fish. India, p. 591, 
pi. cli, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 13 (3/10). P. 15. V. 9. A. 16-17 (2-3/14). C. 17. 
L. 1. 38. L. tr. 9/4. 



CrPHINID.fi. CIPKININJG. 349 

Length of head 4| to 4f , height of body 3| to 3| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4 in length of head, 1 diameter from end 
of snout, 1| diameter apart. Lower jaw the longer, with a knob 
above the symphysis. The posterior extremity of the maxilla 
extends to nearly below the centre of the orbit. Suborbital ring 
of bones wide, the third almost entirely covering the cheek. 
Some pores exist along the margin of the lower lip, on the snout, 
and on the anterior edge of the preorbital. Barbels absent. 
Teeth pharyngeal, curved and pointed, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins 
dorsal extending to above the fourth anal ray ; caudal forked. 
Scales 2 rows between lateral line and base of ventral fin. 
Colour greyish, becoming white on the abdomen. A row of large 
bluish spots along the side. Dorsal, anal, and pectoral fins 
margined with white,. and having dark grey bases. Caudal grey 
in the centre. 

Hob. Hill-ranges of Travancore. Attaining 6 inches in length. 



429. (8.) Barilius gatensis. 

Leuciscus gatensis, Cuv. 8f Val. H. N. Poiss. xvii, p. 309, pi. 503. 
Barilius gatensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 592, pi. cxlix, fig. 2 (see 
synon.). 

Choaree (at Coonoor) and Aart-candee (Bhavani), Tarn. u River 
carp." 

B. iii. D. 10-12 (2-3/8-9). P. 15. V. 9. A. 15-17 (3/12-14). 
C. 18. L. 1. 39-40. L. tr. 8/5. 

Length of head 4j to 4|, height of body 4 to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 4^ in the length of head, 1 to lg 
diameters from end of snout, 1| diameters apart. Cleft of mouth 
extending to below the centre of the orbit. The third suborbital 
is about three times as broad as the uncovered portion of the cheek 
below it. The anterior portion of the snout and the sides of the 
jaws covered with large glands ; there are likewise some on the 
lower jaw. Barbels two very minute pairs, which appear to be 
sometimes wanting. Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, pointed, 5, 3 or 
4, 2/2, 4 or 3, 5. Fins dorsal commences midway between end 
of snout and middle of caudal fin, extending to above the third 
anal ray. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout, its 
outer ray stiff. Caudal moderately lobed. Scales 2| rows 
between lateral line aud base of ventral. Colour silvery grey, 
with about 1 5 vertical bars descending from the back, and becoming 
more or less broken up in the adult. Dorsal and anal with dark 
bases and light margins. The females aud young generally have 
smooth scales, whereas most of the adult males have one or more 
rough spots on each. 

Hob. Western Ghats of Malabar and Nilgiri hills, up to about 
5000 feet above the level of the sea ; attaining at least 6 inches in 
length. 



350 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 






430. (9.) Barilius canarensis. 

Opsarius canarensis, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xv, 1849, p. 329. 
Barilius canarensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 592, pi. cxlix, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

B. iii. D. 12-13 (2/10-11). P. 15. V. 9. A. 14-16(2/12-14). 
C. 21. L.I. 38. L. tr. 9/4. 

Length of head 4| to 4|, height of body 3^ to 3| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| in length of head, 1 diameter from 
end of snout and also apart. Suborbitals nearly cover the cheek. 
The posterior extremity of the maxilla reaches to below the 
anterior third of the orbit. Barbels absent. Fins dorsal com- 
mences midway between snout and base of caudal. Scales 2% 
rows between lateral line and base of ventral ; 15 rows before 
dorsal. Gill-rakers distinct. Colour greenish above, golden 011 
the sides, a single or double row of large vertical green spots along 
the body. Fins grey, with broad white margins. 

Hcib. Canara and Malabar on the western coast ; attaining 
6 inches in length. 



431. (10.) Barilins barna. 

Cyprinus barna, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 268, 384. 
Barilius barna, Day, Fish. India, p. 592, pi. cxlviii, fig. 1 young, 
and fig. 2 adult (see synon.;. 

Bahri, Ooriah ; Balisundree and Oz-o-la, Assam. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 13-14 (3/10-11). C. 19. 
L. 1. 39-42. L. tr. 8-9/6. 

Length of head 4| to 5^, height of body 3| to 4 iu the total 
length. Eyes diameter 2| to 3| in the length of the bead, two 
thirds to one diameter from the end of snout, and 1 apart. 
Third suborbital bone thrice as deep as the uncovered portion of 
the cheek below it. The maxilla reaches to beneath the first third 
of the orbit ; the adult has open pores on both jaws and snout. 
Axillary process reaches to above base of pectoral fin. Barbels 
absent. Fins dorsal varies considerably, commencing midway 
between the eje and the base of the caudal fin, it is elevated in 
some specimens but not in others, while the last ray may extend 
(especially in the young) almost to the base of the caudal fin. The 
pectoral reaches to above the ventral, and in the young has its 
outer rays thickened. The ventral does not extend to the anal in 
the young, its inner rays are very thick. Anal commences under 
the middle or end of the dorsal fin. Scales 2 rows between 
lateral line and base of ventral fin; 16 rows before base of dorsal. 
Colour dull green in the adult, with from 9 to 11 vertical dark 
bands on the body ; dorsal and caudal fins edged with black. The 
young have the back grey, the sides silvery shot with gold, and 



CYPRINID-ffi. OIPEININjE. 351 



from 7 to 9 narrow deep blue vertical bands. Fins yellow, the 
dorsal and caudal stained externally with black. 

Hob. Assam, the Granges and its branches, Bengal and Orissa ; 
attaining 5 inches or more in length. 

432. (11.) Barilius gnttatus. 



Opsarius guttatu*, Day, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 620. 
Barilius guttatus, Dai/, Fish. India, p. 593, 



. ,. . . 593, pi. cxlix, fig. 3 (t 

synon.). 
Nga-la-wah, Burin. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 15. V. 9. A. 14 (3/11). C. 17. 
L. 1. 44-48. L. tr. 9/5. 

Length of head 4L to 4|, height of body 5 L to 6 in the total 
length*. Eyes diameter 4 to 5 in the length of the head, 1 to 1] 
diameters from the end of the snout and apart. Cleft of mouth 
deep, extending nearly 1 diameter behind the orbit. Upper jaw 
the longer ; a well-developed knob above symphysis of lower jaw. 
Suborbitals very broad, especially the hindermost, which is nearly 
behind the vertical from the posterior margin of the orbit, and 
almost covers the cheek. Barbels a rudimentary rostral or max- 
illary pair may be present. Fins dorsal commences midway 
between posterior extremity of orbit and base of caudal, being 
opposite the interspace between the ventral and anal fins. Caudal 
forked, lower lobe slightly the longer. Lateral line complete, 2 
rows of scales between it and the ventral fin ; 23 rows before the 
base of the dorsal fin. Colour silvery shot with purple, one or 
two rows of blue spots along the side. Lower caudal lobe orange, 
upper lobe with a dark edging, and a dark band along the upper 
half of the lower lobe. 

Hab. Irrawaddi from Proine to Mandalay ; attaining at least 
7 inches in length. 

433. (12.) Barilius tileo. 

Cyprinus tileo, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, p. 276. 
Barilius tileo, Day, Fish. India, p. 593, pi. cxlix, fig. 5 (see synon.). 
Tilei, Sel-len, Boolla, and Sund-u-a-rie, Assam. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 34. V. 9. A. 13 (3/10). C. 20. 

L. 1. 70-75. L. tr. 14/7. 

Length of head 4| to 5|, height of body 4| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4 to 4^ in length of head, 1 to 1^ diameters from 
end of snout, and 1^ apart. Abdominal profile more convex than 
the dorsal. Head compressed, snout pointed. Upper jaw slightly 
the longer when the mouth is closed ; symphysial knob not de- 
veloped. The posterior extremity of the maxilla reaches to 
beneath the middle of the eye. Suborbital ring of bones broad, 
the third being about equal to twice the extent of the uncovered 
portion of the cheek below it. Axillary process well-developed, 



352 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOSII. 

having a soft scaled prolongation. Barbels rudimentary or 
entirely absent. Fins dorsal commences midway between the 
hind edge of the eye and the base of the caudal fin, the anal being 
behind the vertical from the last dorsal ray. Pectoral as long as 
the head excluding the snout. Caudal deeply forked. Scales 3 
to 4^ rows between lateral line and base of ventral ; 30 rows 
before base of dorsal. Colour bluish along the back, becoming 
silvery on the sides and beneath ; two or more rows of blue spots 
and blotches, having a vertical character, along the sides. Dorsal 
and caudal fins dark grey, with a light pinkish edge ; the other 
tins yellowish. 

Hob. Bengal and Assam ; attaining at least 5 inches in length. 

434. (13.) Barilius evezardi. 

Barilius evezardi, Day, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, pt. ii, p. 326 ; Fish. 
India, p. 593, pi. cxlviii, tig. 6 (see synoii.). 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 13. V. 9. A. 14-15 (2/12-13). C. 19. 
L. 1. 40. L. tr. 6-7/4. 

Length of head 5-i-, height of body 5 to 5^ in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 in the length of the head, | of a diameter 
from end of snout, and 1 apart. Snout compressed ; lower jaw 
slightly the longer and with a well-developed knob at the sym- 
physis ; the maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the eye. 
Suborbital ring of bones rather wide, the third being more than 
twice as deep as the uncovered portion of the cheek below it. 
Barbels absent. Teeth pharyngeal, curved, pointed, 5, 3/3, 5. 
Fins the dorsal commences about midway between the hind edge 
of the orbit and the posterior end of the caudal fin, the last half 
being above the anal. Pectoral as long as the head. Caudal 
forked. Scales 2 rows between lateral line and base of ventral. 
Colour silvery, of a brown tint along the back, and a lateral 
burnished silvery band. Dorsal, caudal, and anal fins orange, the 
first two edged with black. 

Hob. Poona; up to 4^ inches in length. 

435. (14.) Barilius bola. (Fig. 110.) 

Cyprinus bola, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 274, 285. 
Barilius bola, Day, Fish. India, p. 594, pi. cxlix, fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Buyguah, Ooriah ; Korang, Assam ; Bola, Beng. ; Buggarah, Hind. 
B. iii. D. 10-11 (3/7-8). P. 13. V. 9. A. 13 (3/10). C. 19. 

L. 1. 88-94. L. tr. 12-15/9-11. 

Length of head 4 to 4|, height of body 5 to 6 in the total 
length. Eyes before the middle of the length of the head, 
diameter 4| to 7 in the length of head, lj to 2 diameters from 
end of snout and apart. Snout pointed, a well-developed knob 
above symphysis of the lower jaw. Suborbital ring of bones wide, 
especially the third, which is wider than the opercle, the width of 
which equals one third of the distance between the middle of the 



CYPEINID.E. CYPBININ.E. 353 

eye and the hind edge of the operele. Mouth deeply cleft, the 
posterior extremity of the maxilla extending nearly one diameter 
of the orbit behind the posterior margin of the eye. Barbels 




^ Fig. 110. Barilius bola. 

absent. Fins dorsal fin one third higher than long ; it com- 
mences midway between the angle of the preopercle and the base 
of the caudal, its last ray being scarcely over the first of the anal. 
Caudal lobed. Scales 4| to 5 rows between lateral line and base 
of ventral ; 40 rows before base of dorsal. Colour silvery, with 
two or more rows of vertical bluish blotches along the sides, the upper 
row with twelve to twenty blotches, and the lower intermediate ; 
some spots also on the head. Lower half of the dorsal fin slightly 
grey. Caudal orange, stained with grey and black. Pectoral, ven- 
tral, and anal orange, the colours being somewhat similar to those 
of a trout ; it often goes by that name amongst Europeans. 

Hob. Orissa, Bengal, N.W. Provinces, Assam, and Burma ; attain- 
ing at least a foot in length ; one killed in Assam by Mr. Hannny 
is stated to have weighed 5 Ib. A very game fish, takes the fly 
well, and is one of those termed Rajah mas, or " chief of the fishes," 
in the Assam rivers *. 



25. Genus DANIO, Hamilton Buchanan. 
Syn. Perilampus, sp., McClell. ; Paradanio and Devario, Bleeker. 

Body compressed, abdomen rounded. Pseudobranchise present. 
Cleft of mouth shallow, directed obliquely upwards, the end of the 
lower jaw usually forming a portion of the dorsal profile. Sub- 
orbitals broad. Barbels four, or two, or none. Pharyngeal teeth 
hooked, generally 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Dorsal fin moderately elongated, 
its posterior rays being opposite the anal, which is long. Scales of 
moderate size. Lateral line concave, passing to the lower half of 
the tail. Gill-rakers short. 

Geographical Distribution. These prettily marked little fish are 
found throughout India, Burma, and Ceylon. 

* Tinea vulgaris, Cuvier, the Tench, has been introduced into the waters of 
the Nilgiri hills and is thriving around Ootacamund. 

2A 



354 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 18-19, A. 18-19, L. 1. 41-48. No bar- 
bels 1. D. devario, p. 354. 

D. 15-16, A. 19-20, L. 1. 55-65. No 
barbels, or a short rostral pair. One 
or two spines on the margin of the 
orbit 2. D, spinosus, p. 355. 

D. 12-15, A. 15-19, L. 1. 35-37. Ros- 
tral and sometimes rudimentary max- 
illary barbels 3. D. malabaricus, p. 355. 

IX 12-14, A. 14-16, L. 1. 32-34. Rostral 

and maxillary barbels 4. D. ccquipinnatus, p. 356. 

D. 11-13, A. 17-18. Two pairs of long 

barbels 5. _D. dangtta, p. 350. 

D. 13, A. 18. No barbels 6. D. chryscps, p. 357. 

D. 12-14, A. 13-14, L. 1. 35-37. Rostral 

and sometimes maxillary barbels 1. D. neilgherriensis, p. 357. 

D. 9, A. 15-16, L. 1. 26-28. Long ros- 
tral and usually maxillary barbels. 
Blue bands 8. D. rerio, p ; 358. 

D. 9, A. 13-15, L. 1. 31-33. Two pairs 
of long barbels. A scarlet horizontal 
band 9. -D. albolmeatits, p. 358. 

D. 9, A. 13, L. 1. 30-32. Maxillary barbels 

only. Blue bands 10. D- nigrofwidatus, p. 359. 



436. (1.) Danio devario. 

Cyprinus devario, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 341, 393, pi. 6, fig. 94. 
Danio devario, Day, Fish. India, p. 595, pi. el, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Bonkuaso, Ooriah ; Dcbari, Beng. ; Da-bah and Duth-ri-e, N.W. Pro- 
vinces; IDian-ye, Maal-le and Pur-ran-dah, Punj. ; Chay-la-rec, Sind. 

B. iii. D. 18-19. A. 18-19. C. 19. L. 1, 41-48. L. tr. 11/5. 

Length of head 5 to 5%, height of body 3^ to 3| (or even 4) in 
the total length. Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, ^ of a 
diameter from end of snout, 1| diameters apart. Posterior extremity 
of maxilla extends beneath anterior margin of the orbit; lower jaw 
the longer. Third suborbital bone broad. Barbels absent. Fins 
dorsal commences midway between the anterior margin of the orbit 
and the base of caudal. Caudal lunate. Scales 2| rows between 
lateral line and base of ventral fin ; 16 rows before base of dorsal. 
Colour greenish above, silvery white below. The anterior part of 
the body is reticulated in its centre by steel-blue lines, divided from 
one another by narrow vertical yellow bands. Three bluish lines, 
divided by yellow ones, are continued backwards to the caudal fin, 
where the two lower amalgamate, and, passing upwards, become lost 
on the superior half of the fin. 

Hub. Sind, Orissa, Bengal, N.W. Provinces, Deccan, Punjab, and 
Assam ; attaining 4 inches in length. 



m\ 



CYPItlNID.E. CYPllIXjy.E. 355 



437. (2.) Danio spinosus. 

Dunio spinosus, Day, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 021 ; id. Fish. India, p. 595, 
pi. cl, fig. 6. 

13. iii. D. 15-16. A. 19-20. C. 19. L. 1. 55-65. L. tr. 12-14/4. 

Length of head 5 to 5, height of body 3 to 3 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in length of head, 1 diameter from 
end of snout and also apart. Body strongly compressed. Lower 
jaw prominent. Third suborbital bone wide aud touching the 
preopercular ridge. In the adult there is a sharp spine directed 
forwards above the anterior upper margin of the orbit, and a 
second, broader and blunter before the centre of the eye, on the 
preorbital. In immature examples these spines are equally sharp. 
Barbels-t-a, small rostral pair. Fins the first five or six dorsal rays 
are in advance of the anal. Pectoral as long as the head. Caudal 
lunate. Scales 3| rows between lateral line and base of ventral. 
Colour silvery, with an ill-defined lateral band, and some vertical 
yellow lines in the anterior half of the body. Dorsal and anal 
greyish, with reddish margins anteriorly. In the immature there 
is a dark humeral spot, and a steel-blue lateral baud goes to the 
centre of the caudal fin, \vhich has a scarlet stripe along the 
last half of its centre. Some examples have a wide blue central 
band and two narrow parallel ones superiorly, and the same 
number inferiorly ; they are divided by yellow ground-colour. 

Hab. Burma ; attaining at least 4 inches in length. 

438. (3.) Danio malabaricus. 

Perilarnpus malabaricus, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xv, 1849, p. 325. ' v < 

Uanio malabaricus, Day, Fish. India, p. 695, pi. cl, fig. 7 (see synon.). * *,+*** 

Nooltoo and Chela purroovoo, Tamil. 
B. iii. D. 12-15. A. 15-19. C. 19. L.l.35-37. L.tr. 7^-8/3. 

Length of heed 5 to 5, height of body 3| to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in length of head, 1 diameter 
from end of snout, and 1^ apart. The third suborbital bone 
nearly touches the preopercular ridge. Barbels rostral half as 
long as the orbit, maxillary very short ; in some specimens the 
latter are entirely absent. Fins the dorsal arises midway between 
the base of the candal fin and the posterior edge of the eye ; its 
anterior half is in advance of the anal. Colour back steel-blue, 
some irregular vertical yellow lines on the lore part of the body, 
and three or four blue bands along the sides, the central ones 
coalescing so as to form a broad bluish band along the middle of 
the caudal fin. 

Hab. Western coast of India and Ceylon ; attaining 6 inches in 
length. 

2A2 



356 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 



439. (4.) Danio sequipinnatns. (Fig. 111.) 

Perilampus sequipinnatus, McClelland, As. Res. xix, pt. 2 ; Ind. Cyp. 

p. 393, pi. 60, fig. 1. 
Danio aequipinnatus, Day, Fish. India, p. o96, pi. cl, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 12-14. A. 14-16. C. 19. L. 1. 32-34. L. tr. 6-7/3. 

Length of head 5, height of body 4 to 4| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in length of head, 1 diameter from end of 
snout, and 1| apart. The third suborbital bone nearly touches 
the preopercular ridge. Cleft of mouth oblique and extending to 




Fig. 111. Danio cequipinnatus. 

under the anterior margin of the orbit ; a bluntish knob at the 
syuipbysis. Barbels rostral half as long as the orbit ; maxillary 
minute. Fins the dorsal arises midway between the centre of 
the orbit and the base of the caudal fin, extending to over the 
anterior anal rays ; it is two thirds as high as the body. Pectoral 
as long as the head without the snout, nearly reaching the ventral, 
which last does not extend as far as the anal. Caudal forked, 
but not deeply so. Scales 1| rows between lateral line and 
base of ventral fin; 13 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour 
yellowish white : a wide bluish band extends along the body from 
the eye to the centre of the base of the caudal fin ; in its course 
are sometimes several round silvery spots: below it is another 
narrow band (which occasionally joins the central one anteriorly) ; 
there are two other lighter bands above the central one. The 
intermediate ground-colour is yellow. Fins yellowish. Dorsal 
and anal fins each with a broad bluish band along their outer half. 
In some specimens there is a dark mark behind the gill-opening. 

Hob. Himalayas at Darjeeling and the whole of the Assam 
district as high as Sadiya, the Naga and Garo hills, Tenasserim 
and the Deccan. 

440. (5.) Danio dangila. 

Cyprinus dangila, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 321, 390. 
Danio dangila, Day, Fish. India, p. 596, pi. cl, fig. 3 (see synon.). 



CYPRINIDvE. CYPRININJE. 357 

B. iii. D. 11-13. A. 17-18. C. 20. L. 1. 38. L. tr. 7/4|. 

Length of head 5, height of body 3| to 4 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, | of a diameter from 
end of snout. Lower jaw the longer, with a knob at the sym- 
physis. Barbels rostral a little shorter than the head ; maxillary 
pair slightly longer. Fins the posterior dorsal rays are above 
the anterior anal. Caudal slightly emarginate. Scales 2| rows 
between lateral line and base of ventral : 18 rows before dorsal 
fin. Colour back olive, abdomen silvery, sides with several 
narrow blue lines, which in the anterior half or two thirds of the 
body form a beautiful network: a dark spot behind gill-covers. 
Anal fin with two or three blue stripes. 

Hub. Bengal, Behar, Himalayas at Darjeeling, also the hills 
above .Akyab ; grows to 5 or 6 inches in length. 

441. (6.) Danio chrysops. 

Leuciscus chrysops, Cttv. Sr Val. H. N. Poiss. xvii, p. 308. 
Danio chrysops, Day, Fish. India, p. 596 (see synon.). 

B.iii. D. 13 (3/10). A. 18 (3/15). C. 19. L. 1. 45. L. tr. 8/4. 

Length of head 4f, height of body 4 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 2f in length of head, | a diameter from end of 
snout, and 1 apart. Snout obtuse ; upper jaw slightly the longer. 
Third suborbital bone nearly as wide as the uncovered portion of 
the cheek below it. Dorsal profile rather more convex than that 
of the abdomen. Fins the dorsal commences midway between 
the middle of the eye and base of the caudal fin ; it is entirely in 
advance of the anal, and two thirds as high as the body below it. 
Lateral line curves downwards in the pectoral region, whence it 
proceeds direct to the centre of the base of the caudal. Colour 
silvery, the upper two thirds of the body darker than the lower. 

Hob. Bengal. 

442. (7.) Danio neilgherriensis. 

Paradanio neilgherriensis, Day, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 296. 
Danio neilgherriensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 697, pi. cl, fig. 2 (see 
synon.). 

CawKe, Tamil. 

B.iii. D. 12-14 (3/9-11). P. 15. V. 7. A. 13-14 (2/11-12). 
C. 19. L. 1. 35-37. L. tr. 6-7/4. Vert. 12/20. 

Length of head 4^ to 5, height of body 4 to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in the length of head, f of a 
diameter from end of snout, 1^ diameters apart. Abdominal 
profile more convex than the dorsal. The maxilla reaches to 
below the front edge of the eye. Lower jaw anterior, with a 



358 TELEOSTEI. PDYSOSTOMI. 

slight knob at its extremity. The third suborbital bone almost 
touches the preopercular ridge. Barbels a short rostral pair, 
and sometimes rudimentary maxillary ones. Teeth pharyngeal, 
crooked, pointed, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins the dorsal extends to 
above the fourth or fifth anal ray. Caudal forked. Scales 
15 rows before the base of the dorsal fin. Colour back greenish, 
sides silvery, with a purplish tinge along the abdomen; a badly- 
marked broad, steel-blue stripe, bounded above and below by a 
narrow yellow edging, extends from behind the eye to the caudal 
fin. The youny usually have light horizontal bands. 

Hob. Rivers on the Nilgiri (Neilgherry) Hills ; attaining 3| 
inches in length. 



443. (8.) Danio rerio. 

32;, 

4 (see synon.). 



Cyprinus rerio, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 323, 3',;0. 
Danio rerio, Day, Fish. India, p. 597, pi. cli, fig. 



Poncha-geraldi, Ooriah. 
B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). A. 15-16 (2-3/12-13). C. 19. L. 1. 26-2S. L. tr. 6. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 4| to 5 in the toial 
length. Ayes diameter about 3 in length of head, f a diameter 
from end of snout, and 1 diameter apart. Lower jaw the longer. 
Barbels rostral short, maxillary reaching end of opercle. Tettli 
pharyngeal, crooked, pointed, 5, 3, 1/1, 3, 5. Fins dorsal com- 
mencing opposite the anal, and situated in the middle of the total 
length : it and the anal highest anteriorly ; caudal deeply forked. 
Lateral line absent. Colour four metallic blue lines along the 
sides (separated by three narrow silvery ones), and forming three 
bands on the caudal fin. Dorsal with a blue edging. Anal with 
three longitudinal blue bands. 

Hob. Bengal, and as low down the Coromandel coast as 
Masulipatam. It attains to about 2 inches in length. 

444. (9.) Danio albolineatns. 

Nuria albolineata, Bh/th, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 103. 

Danio albolineata, Day, Fish. India, p. 597, pi. cl, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). A. 13-15 (2/11-13). C. 19. L. 1. 31-33. L. tr. 5|/3. 

Length of head 4|, height of body from 4 to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 2| to 3 in the length ot head, f of a 
diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Body moderatelv 
compressed. Lower jaw anterior ; the maxilla extends to below 
the front edge of the orbit. Barbels maxillary reach beyond 
the base of the pectoral fin; rostral ones to. the posterior 
margin of the orbit. Teeth pharyngeal 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins 
dorsal commences slightly in advance of the anal. Caudal fin 
emarginate. Lateral line incomplete, 1| rows of scales between 
it and the base of the ventral fin ; 16 rows before the base of the 
dorsal fin. Colour greenish superiorly: a scarlet band with a 



CTPEINID^. CYPfUNINjE. 359 

dark lower edge commences from below the base of the dorsal 
fin, gradually widens, and is continued to the centre of the base of 
the caudal. Dorsal margined with red. Anal with a yellow 
stripe along its centre. 

Hub. Moulmein in tanks and streams; attaining 2 inches in 
length. 

445. (10.) Danio nigrofasciatus. 

Barilius nigrofasciatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 020. 
Dauio nigrofasciatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 597. 

B.iii. D. 9(2/7). P.15. V.7. A.13(2/ll). C.19. L.l.30-32. L.tr.7. 

Length of head 5|, height of body 3| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter nearly ^ of length of head, | of a diameter from end of 
snout, 1' diameter apart. Barbels rostral absent; the maxillary 
pair extend to below the orbit. Fins dorsal situated over 
the first portion of the anal, and midway between the posterior 
extremity of the orbit and the base of the caudal, which is 
lunate. Lateral line absent. Colour ^a dark baud passing along 
the side of the body, and a second dotted line below it. Dorsal 
and anal spotted with black in lines. In some specimens the 
body is intensely blue. 

Jfab. Pegu and Moulmein ; not exceeding an inch in length. 



26. Genus PERILAMPUS, McClelland. 

Syn. Chela, Swainson; Laubuca, Bleeker; Cachius and Eustira, 
Giinther. 

Pseudobranchise present. Body oblong, compressed, with a 
cutting abdominal edge. Mouth directed obliquely upward. 
Barbels absent. Pharyngeal teeth in three rows, 5, 4 or 3, 2 or 1/1 
or 2, 3 or 4, 5, uncinate. Dorsal fin rather short, without any 
osseous ray, and commencing opposite or behind the origin of the 
anal, which last has many rays. Outer ventral ray elongate. 
Scales of moderate size. Lateral line concave, passing to the 
lower half of the base of the caudal fin. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh waters of India, Ceylon, and 
Burma. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

D. 9, A. 22-24, L. 1. 55-65 1. P. atpar, p. 359. 

D. 10-11, A. 19-23, L. 1. 34-37 2. P. laubuca, p. 300. 

1). 12, A. 17, L. 1. 35 3. P. ceyknensis, p. 301. 

4-16. (1.) Perilampus atpar. 

Cyprinus atpar, Ham. Bach. Fish. Ganges, pp. 259, 384. 
Perilampus atpar, Day, Fish. India, p. 598, pi. cli, n'g. 6 (see synon.). 



360 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

Bonkiiaso, Ooriah ; Nga-man-dan, and I'a~jMW-nga and Nr/a-pfiyin- 
yyan, Burmese; Kachhi, Beng. ; Mor-ri-ah, Punj.; lii-duh, Sind. 

B.iii. D.9(2/7). A. 22-24 (2-3/18-21). L.I. 55-65. L.tr. 10-13/4. 

Length of head 5| to 6, height of body 4 to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 4 in length of head, | of a diameter 
from end of snout, 1| diameters apart. Cleft of mouth ob- 
lique, extending to nearly beneath the margin of orbit. Teeth 
pharyngeal, 5, 4, 1/1, 4, 5, crooked, pointed. Fins dorsal 
commences opposite the beginning of the second third of the 
anal. Pectoral elongate. Ventral with an elongated outer ray 
extending to the middle or even end of the caudal fin. Caudal 
forked. Scales 4 rows between lateral line and base of ventral. 
Colour silvery, with a burnished lateral band. Dorsal and 
caudal fins yellow. 

Hab. Sind, throughout India and Burma ; attaining 4 inches in 
length. 

447. (2.) Perilampus laubuca. (Fig. 112.) 

Cyprinus laubuca, Ham. Bitch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 260, 384. 
Perilampus laubuca, Day, Fish. India, p. 598, pi. cli, fig. 5 (see 

synon.). 

Bankoe, Ooriah ; Nga-me-loung, Burmese ; Layubuka and Dankena, 
Beng. ; Dannahrah, Hind. ; Moh-do-nee-konah and Her-bag-gi, Assam ; 
Coon-che-li-e, N.W. Prov. 

B.iii. D.10-11. P. 13. A. 19-23. C. 19. L. 1.34-37. L.tr. 6-7/5. 

Length of head 5 to 6, height of body 3i to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3^ in the length of head, to 
1 diameter from end of snout, 1 diameters apart. Teeth 
pharyngeal, 5, 4, 1/1, 4, 5. Fins dorsal arises slightly behind 
the origin of the anal. Pectoral reaching aual. Caudal deeply 




Fig. 112. Perilampus laubitca. 

forked. Lateral line curved downwards, 3| rows of scales 
between it and the base of the ventral fin. Colour silvery, with 
some golden vertical stripes during life. Fine dots over the body 
and a black mark, shot with green, above the base of the pectoral 



CTPRINIDJE. CYPBININ^. 361 

fin, and another at the base of the caudal ; the last third of each 
lobe of the caudal fin in some, especially Burmese specimens, is 
tipped with black. The black spot on the side of the tail is absent 
in some examples. 

Hab. Ganjain, Orissa, Bengal, Central India, Assam and Burma ; 
attaining at least 3| inches in length. 

448. (3.) Perilampus ceylonensis. 

Eustira ceylonensis, Gilnther, Catul. vii, p. 331. 
Perilampus ceylonensis, Day, Fish. India, p. 599. 

B. iii. p. 12(2/10). A. 17 (2/15). C. 19. . L. 1. 35. L. tr. 7J/2. 

Length of head 4, height of body 4 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 3 in length of head, f of a diameter from end 'of snout. 
Posterior extremity of maxilla extends to below the anterior 
margin of the orbit ; lower jaw the longer. Fins origin of 
dorsal opposite commencement of anal. Pectoral reaching the 
ventral. Colour uniform silvery. 

Hab. Ceylon ; attaining to nearly 2 inches in length. 



27. Genus CHELA*, Hamilton Buchanan. 

Syn. Oxygaster, v. Hass. ; Leuciscus, sp., Cuv. & Val. ; Salmophasia, 
Swainson ; Macrochirichthys and Paralaubuca, Bleeker. 

Body rather elongate and compressed ; abdominal edge cutting. 
Pseudobranchiae present. Mouth directed somewhat upwards, 
with the lower jaw prominent, and generally with a knob above 
the symphysis. Barbels absent. Pharyngeal teeth hooked and 
slender, in two or three rows. Dorsal tin short, without any 
osseous ray, situated principally or entirely opposite the anal, which 
latter has an elongated base. Pectorals long. Caudal forked. 
Scales of moderate or small size. Lateral line concave. 

Geographical Distribution. India (including the Punjab and 
Sind), Burma, and the Malay Archipelago. 

* Descriptions have been published by Hamilton Buchanan and Sykes of 
some small fishes belonging to this genus and to Barilius. As I am unable to 
recognize them with certainty, I place them in this note : 



1. Cyprinus hoalius, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 336,392; Leuciscus 
IOO/HM, Bleeker, Beng. p. (58. D. 9, V. 9, A. 10. Much compressed. Green 
ibove, silvery below. Northern Bengal ; growing to 5 inches in length. 



2. Cyprinus borelio, Ham. Buch. /. c. pp. 330, 392 ; Leuciscus borelio, Bleeker, 
Beng. p. 66. D. 9, V. 8, A. 11, C. 18. Long and compressed. Silvery above 
tinged with green ; deep yellow below. Eyes silvery. Gangetic Provinces, 
growing to 4 inches. This may belong to genus Barilius, and be the young 
of B. bendclisis. 

3. Cyprinus solio, II. Buch. /. c. pp. 337, 392 ; Leuciscus solio, Bleeker, Beng. 
p. 68. -D. 9, V. 8, A. 11. Only differs from last in colour of belly. Kosi 
fiver. This and the last are probably the same. 

4. Chela jorah, Sykes, T. Z. S. ii, p. 361 ; Leuciscus jorah, Bleeker, Beng. 






362 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Bones of forearm support the edge of thorax 

(Oxy gaiter). 
D. 9-10, A. 15-16, L. 1. 140-100, L. tr. 

18-20/18 1. C. gora, p. 3G2. 

B. Bones of forearm do not support the edge 

of thorax (Seeuri&dd). 



D. 10, A. 20-21, L. 1. 65-68, L. tr. 10/8 . . 2. C. sladoni, p. 

D. 9, A. 21, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 7i/4 3. C. tardinella, 

D. 9, A. 17-19, L. 1. 55-65, L. tr. 7-9/5 . . 4. C. untrahi, p. 364. 



D. 9-10, A. 17-19, L. 1. 43-45, L. tr. 6f-7/3 5. C. aryentea, p. 364. 

D. 9, A. 16-17, L. 1. 90-110, L. tr. 12/9 . . 6. C. pimjabensis, p. 365. 

D. 9, A. 18-20, L. 1. 80-87, L. tr. 12-15/6. 7. C. phulo, p. 3Q5. 
1). 9-10, A. 14-15, L. 1. 38-^0, L. tr. 6- 

OJ/3 '. 8. a booing, p. 366. 

D. 9, A. 13-15, L. 1. 80-93, L. tr. 12-15/6. 9. C. c-lupeoides, p. 366. 

D. 9, A. 13-15, L. 1. 86-110, L. tr. 17-19/6. 10. C. bacaila, p. 367. 

449. (1.) Chela gora. 

Cyprinus gora, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 263, 384. 
Chela gora, Day, Fish. India, p. 600, pi. cli, tig. 8 (see synon.). 

Hum-catchari t Ooriah ; Ohora chela, Beng. ; Chel-hul, Hind. ; Bovn- 
chi and Kundul, Punj. 

B. iii. D. 9-10. A. 15-16. L. 1. 140-160. L. tr. 18-20/18. Vert. 46. 

Length of head 5 to 5, of caudal 6 to 61, height of body 6 in 
the total length. Eyes diameter i of length of head, 1| 
diameters from end of snout, 1| diameters apart. The bones of 
the forearm support the thoracic edge, the keeled portion of the 
abdominal profile commences behind the ventral fin. Suborbital 
ring of bones broader than the diameter of the eye, but only cover- 
ing two thirds of the cheek. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 3, 1/1, 3, 5. 
(Grill-rakers very short, 8 in the lower branch of the outer branchial 
arch. Fins dorsal commences slightly in advance of the anal, 
and in the last third of the distance between the hind edge of 
the preopercle and the base of the caudal fin. Pectoral one third 
longer than the head. Scales extend forwards on the head to 
above the nostrils. Colour silvery. 

Hob. Sind, Punjab, N.W. Provinces, Bengal, Orissa, and Assam ; 
attaining at least 9 inches in length. 



p. 68; Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. Sc. 1849, p. 323. D. 10, P. 12, V. 8, A. 11, 
0. 18. Compressed fish. Back dark, with purplish shade, sides and abdomen 
silvery. Beeina river, near Pairgaon in the Deccan. 

5. Chela alkootee, Sykes, 1. c. p. 362 ; Leuciscus alkootee, Bleeker, Beng. 
p. 66; Jerdon, I. c. p. 324.-D. 10, P.^10, V. 7, A. 10. Sides slightly com- 
pressed, back and belly rounded (?); back straight. Scales very minute. 
Lateral line quite straight (?). Silvery, with a black circle round the eye. 
Deccan, attaining to 1 inch in length. 



CYPRINID7E. CYPHININ7E. 363 

(2.) Chela sladoni. (Fig. 113.) 

Chela sladoni, Dai/, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 622 ; Fish. India, p. 600, pi. clii, 
fig. 3. 

B.iii. D.10(2/8). A. 20-21(2/18-19). C.21. L.I. 65-68. L.tr.10/8. 
Length of head 6 to 6^, height of body 5 to 5| in the total 
length. Ayes diameter 3| to 3| in the length of head, | 
of a diameter from end of snout. Suborbital ring of bones 
half as deep as the diameter of the orbit, and two thirds wider 
than the uncovered portion of the cheek below it. The serrated 




Fig. 113. Chela sladoni. 

abdominal margin commences opposite the base of the pectoral fin. 
Teeth pharyngeal, crooked, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins dorsal com- 
mences opposite anal. Pectoral as long as the head, but does not 
reach the ventral ; lower caudal lobe the longer. Colour silvery, 
caudal black-edged. 

Hdb. Irrawaddy in Burma, extending northwards as far as 
Mandalay. 

451. (3.) Chela sardinella. 

Leuciscus sardinella, Cuv. $ Vol. H. N. Poiss. xvii, p. 344. 
Chela sardiuella, Day, Fish. India, p. 600, pi. clii, fig. 1 (see synon.). 
Nya-kooon-nyat, Burm. 
B.iii. D.9(2/7). P. 13. V.8. A. 21 (2/19). L.I. 48. L.tr.7|/4. 

Length of head 6, height of body 5| to 6 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in the length of head, 1 diameter from, end 
of snout, nearly 1 diameter apart. The maxilla extends to below 
the front edge of the eye. The keeled portion of the abdominal 
edge commences opposite the pectoral fin. Suborbital ring of 
bones broad, but does not touch the preopercular ridge. Teeth 
pharyngeal, 5, 4, 3/3, 4, 5. Fins dorsal commences above or 
slightly behind the origin of the anal. The pectoral does not 
reach the ventral, nor the latter the anah Caudal deeply forked, 
the lower lobe the longer. Colour silvery. 

Hal. Irrawaddy river at Rangoon, also the Sahveen at Moul- 
mein ; attaining to at least 6 inches in length. 



364 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

452. (4) Chela untrahi. 

Chela untrahi, Day, P.Z.S. 1869, p. 381; id. Fish. India, p. G01, 

pi. cli, %. 7. 
Untrahi, Ooriah. 
B.iii. D.9. P. 13. V.7. A. 17-19. C. 17. L.I. 55-65. L.tr. 7-9/5. 

Length of head 5 to 6 ; height of body 5 J to 6 in the total 
length. Eyes upper margin near the profile, diameter 3 to 3^ in 
the length of head, of a diameter from end of snout, nearly 
1 diameter apart. Dorsal profile nearly horizontal ; abdominal 
profile with a cutting-edge from opposite the base of the pectoral 
fin. Mouth very oblique, knob on symphysis minute. Lower jaw 
in advance of the upper, the maxilla extending to below the anterior 
margin of first third of the orbit. Suborbital ring of bones wide, 
but they do not touch the preopercular ridge. Fins pectorals 
one third longer than the head, reaching ventrals. Dorsal arises 
midway between the posterior margin of the orbit and the pos- 
terior extremity of the caudal fin ; anal commences below the 
middle of the dorsal. Caudal lobed. Scales deciduous, extending 
forwards on the nape to opposite the middle of the orbit. Lateral 
line curves downwards, 1 row of scales between it and base of 
ventral fin; 47 rows before the base of the dorsal fin. Colour 
silvery. 

Hob. Mahanadi river in Orissa; also the Cauvery and Cole- 
roon in Southern India ; attaining at least 8 inches in length. 

453. (5.) Chela argentea. 

Leuciscus acinaces, Cuv. $ Vol. H. N. Poiss. xvii, pi. 509 (not descrip. 

p. 347). 
Chela argentea, Day, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 301 ; Fish. India, p. C01, pi. clii, 

fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Chaya-vellache or Vellachee-cundee, Tarn, (the White Carp). 
B.iii. D. 9-10. P. 15. A. 17-19. C.19. L.I. 43-45. L.tr.6i-7/3. 

Length of head 5^ to 5|, height of body 5 to 5^ in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3^ in length of head, 1 diameter from end 
of snout and also apart. Cleft of mouth extending to below the 
anterior third of the orbit, a knob above symphysis of the lower 
jaw. Suborbital ring of bones broad and nearly covering the cheek, 
the third almost touching the preopercular ridge. Teeth pharyn- 
geal, curved, pointed, 5, 3, 2/2, 3, 5. Fins dorsal situated over 
the commencement of the anal. Pectoral reaches the ventral. 
Caudal deeply lobed. Lateral line descends gently for the first 
twelve scales, finally attaining the centre of the candal ; 11 rows of 
scales between it and the base of the ventral fin ; 27 to 30 rows 
anterior to the dorsal fin. Free portion of tail one half longer than 
high at its base. Colow silvery, with a lateral band which fades 
after death ; caudal dark-edged, as is also occasionally the anal. 

Hob. Bhavani river at the base of the Nilgiris, Cauvery river and 
Mysore ; attaining 6 inches in length. 



365 



454. (6.) Chela punjabensis. 

Chela punjabjnsis, Day, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, 1872, p. 25; id. Fish. 
India, p. 601, pi. cli'ii, fig. 2. 

Took, Punj. 
B.iii. D. 9(2/7). P. 11. A. 16-17. C. 19. L.I. 90-110. L.tr. 12/9. 

Length of head 6, height of body 4^ to 5 in the total length. 
Eijes -diameter 2^ to 2| in length of head, | a diameter from 
end of snout. The posterior extremity of the maxilla extends to 
nearly beneath the anterior margin of the orbit. The suborbital 
ring of bones broad, and the third three times as deep as the un- 
covered portion of the cheek below it. Dorsal profile nearly 
horizontal ; abdominal edge cutting from opposite the base of the 
pectoral" fin. Fins dorsal arises midway between the posterior 
margin of the opercle and the posterior extremity of the lobes of 
the caudal. Pectoral longer than the head, but does not quite 
reach the base of the ventral, which last fin only extends half the 
distance to the anal ; the latter commences opposite the origin of 
the caudal. Lower lobe of caudal the longer. Scales moderately 
deciduous ; they extend forwards to opposite the suborbital ring of 
bones ; there is a slight elevation along the centre of each; 5|- rows 
between the lateral line and the base of the ventral fin. Colour 
silvery, with a burnished silvery band along the side. Cheeks tinged 
with pink. 

Hob. Lahore, in the Eavi river, also the Indus in Sind ; attaining 
at least 2^ inches in length. 

455. (7.) Chela phulo. 

Cyprinus phulo, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 262, 384. 

Chela phulo, Day, Fish. India, p. 602, pi. cliii, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

.Phul chela, Beng. ; Dunnahree, Hind. ; Took and Bunff-ka-charl, 
Punj.; Muk-ka, Sind ; Sel-konah, Assam. 

B. iii. D. 9 (2/7). P. 13. A. 18-20. C. 19. L. 1. 80-87. L. tr. 12-15/6. 

Length of head 5J, height of body 41 to 5 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| in the length of head, | a diameter from end 
of snout, 1 diameter apart. Abdominal profile cutting behind the 
base of the pectoral fin. Third suborbital bone nearly as deep as the 
uncovered portion of the cheek below it. The maxilla extends to 
under the front margin of the orbit. Fins dorsal commences 
opposite the origin of the anal. Caudal deeply forked, lower lobe 
the longer. Lateral line curves gently downwards. Colour 
silvery, with a bright silvery lateral band. 

Hob. Assam, Bengal, Orissa, Central India, and the Dec-can as 
far southwards as the Tuugabhadra and.Kistna rivers; attaining 
5 inches or more in length. 



366 TELEOSTEI. I'll VSOSTOMI. 

456. (8.) Chela boopis. 

Chelu boopis, Day, P. Z.8. 1873, p. 708; id. W*h. India, p. C,(Y2, 
pi. clii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Sampftf, Canar. 
B.iii. D.9-10. P.15. V.9. A. 14-15. C.21. L. 1.38-40. L.tr.6-61/3. 

Length of head 5| to 51. height of body 5 to 5| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 2jL to 3 in the length of the head, f of a 
diameter from the end of snout and also apart. Cleft of the mouth 
extends to beneath the front edge of the orbit. Suborbital ring of 
bones almost covers the cheek. Fins dorsal commences slightly 
in advance of the anal, but extends to over it. Caudal deeply forked. 
Scales 2 to 2^ rows between lateral line and base of ventral ; 
22 to 24 rows before the dorsal fin. Colour silvery, with a 
burnished lateral band ; dorsal, caudal, and anal edged with black. 

Hob. South Canara and ? Mysore ; attaining at least 5 inches in 
length. 

457. (9.) Chela clupeoides. 

Cyprinus clupeoides, Block, Ich. xii, p. 49, t. 408, fig. 2. 
Chela clupeoides, Day, Fish. India, p. 602 (see sytion.). 
Vdlachee candee and Netteli, Tarn ; Alkut, Marathi. 
B.iii. D. 9. P.13. V.9. A. 13-15. C. 19. L.I. 80-93. L.tr. 12-15/6. 

Length of head 5| to 5|, height of body 5-J-* in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4 in length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, 
of a diameter apart. A well-developed knob on symphysis ; 
suborbital ring of bones wide, the third four fifths as deep as the 
uncovered portion of the cheek below it. The thorax, which has 
a smooth edge, is not supported by any dilated bones of the fore- 
arm. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 4, 2/2, 4, 5. Fins dorsal, situated 
in the posterior two fifths of the body, and one half in advance of 
the anal. Pectoral one fourth longer than the head, but does not 
reach the ventral. Caudal lobed, the lower lobe the longer. Scales 
deciduous and placed in sinuous rows ; those on upper surface of 
the head extend forwards to opposite the hind edge of the orbit. 
Scales 2 rows between lateral line and base of ventral. Colour 
silvery. 

This species or variety is closely allit d to (7. bacaila, from which 
it is chiefly divided by the number of scales. In Cutch I found 
A. (2/11-13), L. 1. 83-92, L. tr. 13-14/6 ; at Jubbulpore, on the 
Nerbudda, A. (2/12-13), L. 1. 80-90, L. tr. 14-15/6; in the 
Deccan, A. (2/13-15), L. 1. 84-93, L. tr. 13/6; at Madras, 

* In some badly nourished example s I have seen the height of the body only 
equal to 7 in the total length. Such are common at Madras in the dirty Coom 
river. 



. CYPttlNTN^E. 367 

A. (2/11-13), L. 1. 80-87, L. tr. 12-15/6 ; to the south of Madras, 
at the Cauvery river, A. (2/12-13), L. 1. 80-91, L. tr. 14-15/6. 

flab, ditch, Jubbulpore, Mysore, the Deccan, Madras Presi- 
dency, and Burma. This species attains at least 6 inches in length, 
and is very good eating. 



458. (10.) Chela bacaila. 

Cyprinus bacaila, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 2(35, 384, pi. 8, 

fig. 76. 
Chela bacaila, Day, Fish. India, p. 603, pi. clii, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

JeUahri, Ooriah ; Chelliah, Hind, j Ddntdl, Marathi. 
B. iii. D. 9. A. 13-15. C. 19. L. 1. 86-110. L. tr. 17-19/6. 

Length of head 5* to 6 ; height of body 5| to 6 in the total 
length. Eyes 3% to 3f in length of head, snout slightly longer 
than the eye ; eyes 1 diameter apart. Cleft of mouth reaches to 
below the first fourth of the eye. Suborbital ring of bones broad, 
nearly covering the cheek. Teeth pharyngeal, 5, 4, or 3, 2/2, 3, 
or 4, 5. Fins first anal ray is below the middle of the dorsal fin ; 
pectoral nearly reaches the ventral, whilst the latter does not quite 
extend to the anal. Scales extend forwards on the head to 
nearly opposite the posterior margin of the orbit. Colour uniform 
silvery. 

This species or variety is restricted more to the Valley of the 
Ganges and its affluent streams, also to the Punjab and down the 
Indus. It is distinguished by the large number of ils scales, which 
I have found as follows : Assam, A. 2/13-14, L. 1. 102-108, L. tr. 
18/6; Soneriver,A. 2/12, L. 1.98,L.tr. 18/6; Orissa, A. 2/13-14, 
L. 1. 86-98, L. tr. 14-18/6 (some of these appeared to be intermediate 
forms between this species and the last); Calcutta, A. 2/11-13, 
L. 1. 90-110, L. tr. 17-19/6; Seharunpore, A. 2/11-12, L. 1. 95- 
100, L. tr. 18-19/6; Sind, A. 2/11-12, L. 1. 92-96, L. tr. 17- 
19/6. One specimen from Bezwarah bad A. 2/15, L. 1. 95, L. tr. 
12/6. 

Hob. Throughout India, except Malabar, Mysore, and Madras, 
and parts of the Deccan ; attaining at least 7 inches in length. 



368 TELEOSTEI. PHYSOSTOMI. 



Family V. CHIROCENTRID^. 

Pseudobranchije absent. Body much elongated and compressed. 
Margin of upper jaw formed by the premaxillaries mesially, and 
the maxillaries laterally. Opercular apparatus complete. Barbels 
absent. A single rayed dorsal fin belonging to the caudal portion 
of the vertebral column. Stomach with a blind sac : intestinal 
canal short and furnished internally with spiral folds. No pyloric 
appendages. Air-bladder present. 

Only one genus is known of the Ghirocentridce, which extends 
through the Ked Sea and the seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago. 

1. Genus CHIROCENTRUS, Cuvier. 

Branchiostegals eight. Abdomen with a sharp but not serrated 
margin. Gill-membranes united for a short distance ; gill-opening 
wide. Eyes subcutaneous. Cleft of mouth oblique and deep : the 
lower jaw the longer. A row of canines in the mandible, and a 
horizontal pair in the premaxillaries ; minute teeth on the palatines, 
pterygoids, and tongue. A single short dorsal tin placed far back- 
wards opposite to a long anal ; an elongated osseous appendage in 
the axilla ; ventrals very small. Scales thin, small, and deciduous. 
Air-bladder cellular. 

459. (1.) Chirocentrus dorab. (Fig. 114.) 

Clupea dorab, Forsk. Descr. Anim. p. 72, no. 108. 

Chirocentrus dorab, Day, Fish. India, p. 652, pi. clxvi, fig. 3 (see 

syiion.). 

Mooloo-alley and Kiru-ivahlak, Tarn. ; Wahlah, Tel. ; Kunda, Ooriah ; 
Pussunt, Baluchistan. 

B. viii. D. 16-17. P. 14-15. V. 6-7. A. 31-36. C. 19. 

Length of head 6| to 7^, height of body 6| to 9 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4^ in length of head. Along the whole 




Fig. 114. Chirocentrus dorab. 

extent of the lower margin of the abdomen are short hair-like rays. 
Colour bluish green along the back; silvery on the sides and 
abdomen. 

Hub. Eed Sea, through the seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago and beyond : attaining at least 12 feet in length. When 
captured this fish bites at everything near it. 



369 



Family VI. CLUPEIU^E. 

Grill-openings usually very wide : psetidobrauchiaD, when present, 
well developed. Abdomen mostly compressed, generally into a 
sharp edge, and usually serrated. Opercular pieces four. Margin 
of the upper jaw formed mesially by the premaxillaries, laterally by 
the maxillaries, which are composed of three pieces not ossified 
together. Barbels absent. A single dorsal with a few or a 
moderate number of weak rays; anal sometimes many-rayed. 
Scales on the body; as a rule none on the head. Lateral line 
mostly absent. Stomach with a " cul-de-sac." Air-bladder more 
or less simple. Pyloric appendages, when present, numerous. 

The Herrings are well represented in the seas of India, and are 
largely consumed by the native population. As a rule, they are 
much more abundant along the Malabar than on the Coromandel 
coast. 

Geographical Distribution. Found in most seas, and many species 
enter fresh waters. 



Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

First group. CLUPEINA. 

Upper jaw not projecting. Eyes with free adipose lids. Abdomen 
serrated. 

A. Anal moderate, with less than 30 rays. 
Abdominal serration commencing from thorax 

or pectorals 1. CLUPEA. 

Abdominal serration commencing behind pec- 
torals 2. CORICA. 

B. Anal elongate, with more than 30 rays. 

Dorsal and ventral fins present 3. PELLONA. 

Dorsal present, no ventrals 4. OPISTHOPTERUS. 

Neither dorsal nor ventrals 5. RACONDA. 

Second group. CHATOESSINA. 

Mouth transverse, narrow, nearly or quite inferior; upper jaw projecting 
over lower. Eyes with free adipose lids. Abdomen serrated. 

Fourth branchial arch with an accessory organ , . 0. CHATOESSUS. 

Third group. ENGRAULINA. 

Upper jaw prominent. Mouth deep. Eyes covered by skin. 
Abdomen serrated. 

No pectoral filaments 7. ENGBAULIS. 

Upper pectoral rays produced into free filaments. . 8. COILIA. 



370 TELEOSTEI. PHI8OSTOMI. 

Fourth group. DUSSUMIEBINA. 

Mouth antero-lateral, the upper jaw not projecting. Eyes with free 
adipose lids. No osseous gular plates. Abdominal edge smooth. 

Teeth small, but not deciduous 9. DUSSUMIERIA. 

Teeth, if present, deciduous 10. SPRATELLOIDES. 

Fifth group. ALBULINA. 

Mouth inferior and of moderate width ; upper jaw projecting. 
Teeth in jaws. Abdomen rounded and smooth. 

Eyes with free adipose lids 11. ALBULA. 

Sixth group. ELOPINA. 

Mouth antero-lateral ; lower jaw the longer. An osseous gular plate. 
Abdomen rounded and smooth. 

Pseudobranchiae well developed. Scales small .. 12. ELOPS. 
Pseudobranchise rudimentary or absent. Scales 
large 13. MEGALOPS. 

Seventh group. CHANINA. 

Mouth anterior, transverse, small. Eyes subcutaneous. Teeth absent. 
Gill-membranes entirely united. Abdomen rounded and smooth. 

Scales small . . .14. CHANGS. 



First group. CLUPEINA. 

1. Genus CLTJPEA, sp., Artedi. 

Syn. Clupanodon, Lace"p. (pt.) ; Ilarengula, Rogenia, Spratella, Sar- 
dindla, Clupeonia, Kowala, Meletta, and Alausa, Cuv. & Val. ; Clupalosa, 
Amtilyg aster, and Clupeotdes, Bleeker; Opisthonema, Brevoortia, and 
Alausella, Gill. 

Body compressed ; the serration of the abdomen extending into 
the thoracic region ; upper jaw not projecting beyond the lower. 
Eyes usually with broad adipose lids. Teeth, when present, rudi- 
mentary and deciduous. Dorsal fin situated opposite the ventrals ; 
anal with less than 30 rays ; caudal forked. Pseudobranchife well 
developed. Six branchiostegals in all Indian species. 

It is necessary to remember, while investigating species of 
Clupea, that the teeth are deciduous, and the dentition is liable to 
vary. 

Geographical Distribution. World-wide. 



CLUPEID^!. 371 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Teeth in lower jaw*. 

a. Teeth on tongue, palatines, pterygoids, 

but none on the vomer. [p. 371. 

D. 19, A. 20-22, L. 1. 45 1. C. brachysoma; 

D. 18, A. 17-19, L. 1. 44-45. Caudal 

black-tipped 2. C. atricauda, p. 372. 

D. 17-18, A. 17-18, L. 1. 45 3. C. kunzei, p. 372. 

D. 17-18, A. 18-20, L. 1. 40 4. C. leiogaster, p. 372. 

D. 16-17, A. 14-10, L. 1. 45-48 5. C. longiceps, p. 373. 

b. Teeth on tongue and palatines, none on 

pterygoid or vomer. 
D. 18-19, A. 19-20, L. 1. 45-48 6. C.fimbriata, p. 373. 

c. Teeth on tongue ; none on palatines, 

pterygoids, or vomer. 
D. 16-17, A. 18-19, L. 1. 41^4, L. tr. 11. 7. C. sindensis, p. 374. 

B. No teeth in the jaws. 

a. Teeth on pterygoids and on the tongue ; 

none on vomer or palatines. 
D. 14-15, A. 17-20, L. 1. 38-40 8. C. lile, p. 374. 

b. No teeth inside mouth. 

D. 15-18, A. 24-29, L. 1. 90. Back trans- 
versely barred 9. C. variegata. p. 375. 

D. 14-16, A. 21-24, L. 1. 80-110. Back 

not barred 10. C. chapra, p. 375. 

D. 18-19, A. 19-22, L. 1. 46-49, L. tr. 17-19. 11. C. ilisha, p. 376. 

D. 17, A. 20-21, L. 1. 42^5, L. tr. 13-14. 
Length of head 4 in total 12. C. kanagurta, p. 377. 

D. 16-17, A. 19-20, L. 1. 39-40, L. tr. 13-14. 

Length of head 5 to 5 in total 13. C. toll, p. 377. 

D. 15-16, A. 18-19, L. 1. 38-40, L. tr. 10-11. 
Length of head 5 in total 14. C. melanura, p. 378. 

460. (1.) Clupea brachysoma. 

Sardinella brachysoma, Bleeker, Batav. Genootsch. Verhand. xxiv, 

Haring. p. 19. 
Clupea brachysoma, Dai/, Fish. India, p. 635, pi. clxiii, fig. 3 (see 

synon.). 

Cumtdden toaddy, Mai. 
D.19. P. 17. V.8. A. 20-22. C.20. L. 1. 45. L.tr. 11-12. 

Length of head 5, height of body 3j to 3| iii the total length. 
Eyes diameter about 3 in length of head, and nearly 1 ilium, from 
end of snout and i diarn. apart. Lower jaw rather prominent. 
Fins ventral inserted beneath the centre of the dorsal. Last 
two anal rays rather prolonged. Scales regularly arranged, their 
edges crenulated. Scutes well developed, 18 before and 1 2 behind 
the base of the ventral fin. Colour greenish above, the bases of 
the scales being a little dark ; caudal tin dark-tipped. 

Hal>. East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago ; rare in India. 

* In some instances these are lost, occasionally they are very minute or even 
nut developed. 

2n2 



372 TELKOSTEI. 1'JIYSOSTOiU. 






461. (2.) Clupea atricauda. 

Clupea atricauda, Giinther, C'atal. vii, p. 420; Day, Fish. India, 

p. 636, pi. clxiv, fig. 5 (see synon.). 
D.18. P. 17. V.8. A. 17-19. C.20. L. 1. 44-45. L.tr. 11. 

Length of head 4-|, height of body 4| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 3| to 4 in the length of the head, about 1 diam. from end 
of snout and $ diam. apart. Lower jaw projecting beyond the 
upper. Fiiis ventral inserted beneath the middle of the dorsal 
fin. Last two anal rays thickened and slightly elongated. Lower 
caudal lobe sometimes slightly the longer. Gill-rakers numerous, 
closely set, and about one third as long as the eye. Scales regu- 
larly arranged, with crenulated outer margins : scutes small ante- 
riorly, becoming stronger under the middle of the base of the pectoral 
fin ; 13 behind the base of the ventral. Colour dark steel-blue 
along the back and upper third of the body, divided by a yellowish 
line from the silvery sides and abdomen, which are glossed with 
blue and purple. Caudal with its extremity deep brown or black. 

ffab. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 



462. (3.) Clupea kunzei. 

Harengula kunzei, Sleeker, Batavia Nat. Tijdsch. xii, p. 209. 
Clupea klunzei, Day, Fish. India, p. 636, pi. clxiii, fig. 1 (see 
synon.). 

D. 17-18. P. 16. V. 8. A. 17-18. C.20. L.1.45. L.tr. 11-12. 

Length of head 4| to 4|, height of body 4| to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in length of the head, 1 diam. from 
end of snout and f diam. apart. Lower jaw prominent. Fins 
ventral inserted below the middle of the dorsal fin. Last two anal 
rays rather thickened and slightly elongated. Gill-rakers fine, 
about one third as long as the eye, about 38 in the outer branch of 
lower branchial arch. Scales in regular rows, with the edges 
roughened. Thirty badly developed scutes, about 13 behind the 
base of the ventral fin. Colour bluish along the back, becoming 
silvery white shot with purple on the sides and below. 

Hob. Ceylon, Andaraans, and Nicobars to the Malay Archipelago. 



463. (4.) Clupea leiogaster. 

Sardinella leiogaster, Cuv. $ Vol. H. N. Poiss. xx, p. 270. 
Clupea leiogaster, Day, Fish. India, p. 636 (see synon.). 

B. vi. D. 17-18. P. 17. A. 18-20. C. 17. L. 1. 40. L. tr. 11-12. 

Length of head 5 to 5^, height of body 5 to 6 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3j to 4 in the length of the head, 1 diam. from end 
of snout and -f to 4- diam. apart. Fins ventral inserted beneath 
the second fourth of the dorsal. Scales with indistinct transverse 



CLUPEID^E. 373 

striae and rough edges : scutes badly developed, about 32 in number. 
Colour bluish green above, becoming silvery white on the sides and 
beneath : sometimes a brownish mark on the shoulder. A longi- 
tudinal band along the body, with from 13 to 20 intensely blue 
spots. 

Hob. Ceylon, to the Malay Archipelago. 



464. (5.) Clupea longiceps. 

Sardinella longiceps, Cuv. $ Val. H. N. Pom. xx, p. 273. 
Clupea longiceps, Day, Fish. India, p. G37, pi. clxi, fig. 2 (see 
synon.). 

Lee-gur, Baluch. ; Louar, Sind ; Mutthi, Canarese and North Malabar ; 
Char/ay, South Malabar ; ".Oil Sardine." 

D. 16-17. P. 17. V.9. A. 14-16. C. 17. L.I. 45-48. L.tr. 13. 

Length of head 3 to 4, height of body 5 to 5| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4| to 5 in length of head, 1| diam. apart and 1 to 
1^ from end of snout. Lower jaw slightly the longer. Fins 
dorsal commences nearer to snout than to base of caudal ; ventral 
inserted in a line rather behind the middle of the dorsal. Anal 
low ; its last two rays thickened and rather elongated. Scales 
indistinctly crenulated and regularly arranged ; about 18 badly 
developed scutes before and 13 or 14 behind the base of the ventral 
fin. Gill-rakers very numerous, about one half longer than the eye. 
Colour bluish along the back, with golden reflexions ; abdomen 
silvery shot with purple ; sometimes a golden line divides the colour 
of the back from that of the sides : a large greenish-gold spot on 
the upper margin of the opercle and preopercle ; dorsal greenish ; 
caudal stained with green, the other fins transparent. 

Hob. Sind, down the Western coast of India, mere rarely on the 
Eastern, Ceylon, the Andarnans to the Malay Archipelago. These 
fish attain about 8 inches in length, and large quantities of oil are 
made from them in Malabar ; l)ut along the Coromandel coast they 
never appear to arrive in sufficient quantities, while those that come 
are rarely fat as in Malabar. Abundant in some years, they occa- 
sionally forsake their haunts for several consecutive seasons, 
returning again in enormous quantities. 



465. (6.) Clupea fimbriata. 

Spratella fimbriata, Cuv. $ Val. H. N. Poiss. xx, p. 359, t. 600. 
Clupea fimbriata, Day, Fish. India, p. 637, pi. clxi, fig. 3 (see 

synon.). 

Kich-uk-louar, Sind ; Cuttay-charlay, Malabar ; Poonduringa, Tani. ; 
Chai-ree-addee, Hind. ; Kowal, Tel. 

D. 18-19. P. 15. V.8. A. 19-20. C. 20. L. 1. 45-48. L.tr. 11-12. 

Length of head 5 to 5^, height of body 4 to 4| or even 5 in the 
total length. Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, nearly 1 diam. 



374 TELEOSTEI. PIITSOSTOMI. 

from end of snout and also apart. Lower jaw slightlv prominent. 
Fins ventral inserted under the middle of the dorsal. Last two 
anal rays thickened and a little prolonged. Scales regularly ar- 
ranged, with their free edges jagged. Scutes moderately developed, 
14 or 15 posterior to the ventral fin, and 10 or 17 before it. Colour 
bluish green, the sides silvery. Dorsal fin with numerous line 
black dots, and a black mark at the base of its anterior rays. 
Caudal with bluish reflexions and tipped with dark. 

Hab. Eed Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. This 
species abounds in certain years off the Malabar coast. 



466. (7.) Clupea sindensis. 

Clupea sindensis, Dai/, Fish. India, p. 638,' pi. clxiii, fig. 2 (see 
synon.). 

D. 16-17. P. 15. V.8. A. 18-19. C. 21. L.I. 41-44. L.tr. 11. 

Length of head 4|- to 5, height of body 4| to 4 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4| in the length of head, 1| diarn. from end of 
snout, and 1 apart. Lower jaw prominent. Preorbital with a raised 
and branched ridge. Fins ventral inserted below the middle of 
the dorsal. Scales with their edges a little rough (especially in 
large examples) and having some vertical lines. Scutes not well 
developed, 13 to 14 behind the base of the ventral fin. Gill-rakers 
closely set, nearly as long as the eye. Colour back deep blue ; 
sides golden, shot with purple and blue. Pins yellowish, a black 
spot at base of dorsal anteriorly, and its upper edge dark ; the end 
of the caudal lobes sometimes dark. There are also lines along 
the rows of scales in the upper two thirds of the body ; a small 
dark shoulder-mark, which is more or less lost in the adult. 

Hob. Seas of the Seychelles, Sind and Bombay ; attaining at 
least 8 inches in length. 



467. (8.) Clupea lile. 

Meletta lile, Cuv. $ Val. H. N. Poiss. xx, p. 378. 

Clupea lile, Day, Fish. India, p. 638, pi. cixii, fig. 1 (see synon.). 

D. 14-15. P. 13. V. 8. A. 17-20. C.21. L.I. 38-40. L. tr. 9-10. 

Length of head 5 to 5, height of body 3| to 3f in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to b| in the length of head, f diam. from 
end of snout and apart. Dorsal profile nearly horizontal, abdo- 
minal very convex. Lower jaw slightly the longer. Fins ventral 
inserted under the anterior dorsal rays. Gill-raiders closely set and 
half as long as the eye : pseudobranchiae well developed. Scales 
rather adherent and in regular rows ; their edges smooth. Scutes 
strong, from 16 to 18 anterior, and 11 to 12 posterior to the base 
of the ventral fin. Pree portion of tail as deep as long. Colour 
golden shot with purple, a brilliant silvery baud along the side, as 



CLUPEID*:. 37o 

deep as one scale. Caudal dark-tipped, shot with blue. A brilliant 
bronze-coloured spot on occiput. 

Hab. Seas of India and Burma, to the Malay Archipelago; 
attaining to about 4 inches in length. Found in vast numbers 
along the Western coast of India. 

468. (9.) Clupea variegata. 

Clupea variegata, Day, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 623 ; Fish. India, p. 630, 
pi. clxi, fig. 4. 

D. 15-18. P. 17. V. 8. A. 24-29. C. 17. L. 1. 90. L.tr.35. 

Length of head 4| to 4f , height of body 3 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4 to 4| in length of head, | diam. from end of 
snout, above 1 apart. Abdominal profile more convex than dorsal. 
Jaws of about equal length. Fins ventrals situated below the 
first third of the dorsal fin. Scales regularly arranged behind a 
line from the opercles to the base of the anal fin, anterior to which 
they are very irregular. Serrated scales commence under the middle 
of the pectoral ; 10 are posterior to the ventral fin, and about 10 
anterior to it. Colour silvery, glossed with gold and bronze. A 
dark humeral spot. A row of about 18 bars passes across the 
back and descends a short way over the sides. Dorsal fin with a 
basal black band in its posterior half. End of tail tipped with 
black. 

Hab. Irrawaddy and its branches. Many specimens procured up 
to 7 inches in length. 

469. (1Q.) Clnpea chapra. 

Clupanodon chapra, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 248, 383. 
Clupea chapra, Day, Fish. India, p. 39, pi. clki, fig. 1 (see synon.). 
Coon, Bengali ; Gudua, Ooriah. 

D. 14-16. P. 13. V. 8. A. 21-24. C. 17. L. 1. 80-110. L. tr. 33-35. 

Length of head 4j to 4| (4 in the young), height of body 3 to 
4 in the total length. Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in the length of 
head, diam. from end of snout, and 1 to 1-J- apart. Abdominal 
profile more convex than, dorsal, fins origin of dorsal opposite 
or slightly before that of the ventral ; anal highest in front. Gill- 
rakers closely set, very numerous and rather shorter than the eye. 
Scales smooth ; 18 to 19 scutes anterior and 9 to 10 posterior to 
the ventral fin. Colour silvery, shot with gold ; back rather dark, 
and edge of caudal stained darkest ; a dark spot, which is some- 
times absent, on the shoulder. 

Hab. IVesh waters of rivers and tanks in Sind and throughout 
India as far south as the Kistna River; absent from the Malabar 
coast and Madras. This fish attains to at least 8 inches in 
length. 



376 TELEOSTEI. I'HYSOSTOM I. 

470. (ll.) Clupea ilisha. (Fig. 115.) 

Clupanodon ilisha, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganyes, pp. 243, 382, pi. 19, 

fig. 73. 

Clupea ilisha, Day, Fish. India, p. 040, pi. clxii, fig. 3. 
" Sable fish " and " Ililsa " of Europeans ; Palasah, Tel. ; Pitlla, Sind ; 
Oolum, Tamil ; Nya-tha-louk, Burmese ; Hilsa, Beng. ; Ilisha, Ooriah. 

D. 18-19. P. 15. V. 9. A. 19-22. C. 19. L. 1. 46-49. L. tr. 17-19. 

Length of head 4| to 4|, height of body 3| to 3| in the total 
length. Eyes situated some distance before the middle of the length 
of the head, 1 to 1 g diam. from end of snout, and 1| apart. The pos- 
terior extremity of the maxilla reaches to below the middle or even 




Fig. 115. Clupea ilisha. 

hind edge of the orbit ; lower jaw not projecting beyond the upper. 
Width of opercle equals about two thirds its height. Fins ventral 
inserted beneath the anterior halt" of the dorsal. Caudal peduncle 
as deep as long. 'Grill-rakers numerous and as long as the eye. 
Scales in regular rows ; 16 to 17 scutes before and 14 to 15 behind 
the insertion of the ventral fin. Colour silvery, shot with gold 
and purple ; no spots in the adult, but a row of them along the 
upper third of the body in the immature, the most distinct of which 
is behind the upper third of the opercle. 

C. ilisha swarms up all the larger rivers of India and Burma, 
generally as soon as the mousoon commences ; but the rapidity af 
the current affects the time of migration. Amongst such rivers as 
I have examined, the following appear to be the periods when these 
fish commonly ascend. In the Cauvery and Coleroon they appear 
about the first or second week of June, and continue for the suc- 
ceeding four months, but in smaller quantities. In the Kistua, 
which is very rapid, a few fish arrive at the end of September, 
when the strength of the current is subsiding ; but it is in the middle 
of October and in the two following months that the main body 
ascends. In the neighbouring river, the Godavari, which has a less 
rapid current, the fish ascend earlier, being most numerous from 
July to September. In the Hooghly they continue their ascent 
throughout the south-west monsoon to nearly the end of the year. 



377 

In the Indus they ascend in March and April, when the river is 
swollen by the melting of Himalayan snow. They have been 
observed in the Irravvaddy in Burma as high as Mandalay, in 
October. They are excellent as food until they have deposited their 
ova, when they become thin and unwholesome. Weirs in India are 
destitute of fish-passes, and migratory fishes will probably soon be 
exterminated in rivers spanned by these obstacles. 

Hob. Persian Gulf (ascending the Tigris), the coasts of Sind, 
India, and Burma, passing up the large rivers to breed ; also the 
Malay Archipelago. I have taken this fish as high as Delhi, and 
Hamilton Buchanan records it from Agra and Cawnpore. 

471. (12.) Clupea kanagurta. 

Alosa kanagurta, Sleeker, Batav. Genootsch. Verhand. xxiv, Haring. 

'p. 34. 
Clupea kauagurta, Day, Fish. India, p. 640, pi. clxii, fig. 4 (see 

synon.). 
Keelee, Tel. 
D.17. P. 16. V.8. A. 20-21. C. 19. L.I. 42-45. L.tr. 13-14. 

Length oT body 4^, height of body 3| to 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4 in length of head, 1 diam. from end of snout, and 
about 1 apart. Abdominal profile more convex than that of the 
back. Width of opercle about | its height. Lower jaw scarcely 
projects beyond the upper. The maxilla extends posteriorly to 
below the hinder third of the orbit. Fins ventral situated rather 
behind the middle of the dorsal. Scales regularly arranged : 
scutes 27; 11 behind the base of the ventral fin. CoLur bluish 
green above, gold dotted with purple on the sides and beneath. 
Generally a row of about six or eight oval spots pass in a line from 
behind the upper edge of the opercle along the side. Upper edge 
of dorsal with a dark mark. 

Hab. East coast of Africa ; Sind, coasts of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

472. (13.) Clupea toll. 

Alausa toli, Cut: 8f Val. H. N. Poiss. xx, p. 435. 

Clupea toli, Day, Fish. India, p. 041, pi. clxii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Oolum, Tamil ; Doung danna, Arracan ; Nur hilisha, Chittagong. 
D. 16-17. P. 14. V.9. A. 19-20. C, 24. L. 1. 39-40. L.tr. 13-14. 

Length of head 5 to 5, height of body 3| to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4| in length of head, 1 diam. from end of 
snout and also apart. Lower jaw rather projecting beyond the upper, 
which latter is notched at its extremity. Width of opercle to | 
its height. Fins ventral inserted under the commencement of 
the last half of the dorsal fin. Caudal lobes longer than the head, 
especially in adult examples. Scales regularly arranged, striated, 
and \\ith erenulated edges. Scutes well developed, 17 to 18 before, 



378 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

and 12 to 13 behind the base of the ventral fin. Pseudobranchue 
well developed. Colour silvery, shot with yellow and purple ; a 
dark shoulder-spot in the young. 

Hub. From Bombay through the seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago and China. This species attains at least 3 feet in 
length. It does not appear to ascend rivers to breed, but is some- 
times found at their mouths. 

473. (14.) Clupea melanura. 

Alausa melanura, Cuv. < Vol. li. N. Poiss. xx, p. 441. 
Clupea melauura, -Day, Fish. Iniia, p. G41 (see synon.). 

D. 15-16. P. 13. V.8. A. 18-19. C.19. L.I. 38-40. L. tr. 10-11. 

Length of head 5, height of body 4 to 5 in the total length. 
Eyes with very narrow adipose lids, diameter 3 to 3| in length 
of bead, 1 diam. from end of snout, apart. Lower jaw rather 
longer than the upper. Fins dorsal commences opposite to or 
slightly in front of ventral. Scales in regular horizontal rows, 
with two or three raised lines along their base, 25 serrated scales 
along the abdominal edge. Colour back blue shot with purple, 
a fine yellow line dividing it from the silvery sides and abdomen ; 
a blue spot on the opercle ; outer third of caudal lobes black. 

Hob. Seas of India and the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Genus COKICA, Hamilton Buchanan. 
Syn. Clupeoides and Clupeichthys, Bleeker. 

Body oblong, compressed. Lower jaw the longer. Teeth, when 
present, rudimentary and deciduous. Anal fin of moderate extent. 
Caudal forked. Scales of medium size. Abdomen serrated ; 
serration usually commencing behind the pectoral fins. 

Geographical Distribution. India to the Malay Archipelago. 

474. (1.) Corica soborna. (Fig. 116.) 

Corica soborna, Ham. Buck, Fish. Gang. pp. 253, 383; Day, Fish. 

India, p. 642, pi. clxii, fig. 5 (see synon.). 
Cutwaal Alise and God-haee, Ooriah. 



Fig. 116. Corica soborna. 

B. vi. D. 15-16. A. 14-15 + ii. C.19. L. 1. 40-42. L. tr. 10. 
Length of head 5% to 5|, height of body 5 to 5| in the total 



CLTJPEIDJ5. 379 

length. Eyes diameter f- of length of head. Body strongly 
compressed. Fins dorsal arises rather nearer to base of caudal 
than to snout, and rather behind the origin of the ventrals ; the 
anal has its last two rays detached. Lower lobe of caudal the 
longer. Scales anterior to the ventral fin there are 10 or 11 ser- 
rated scales, and 7 or 8 posterior to it. Colour silvery, with a 
light band. 

Hub. Orissa and Bengal. Rarely attaining above 2 inches in 
length . 



3. Genus PELLONA, Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
Syn. IHsha, Gray ; Platygaster, Swainson. 

Brartchiostegals six. Body strongly compressed, the thoracic 
and abdominal edges serrated. Mouth of moderate size. Upper 
jaw generally emarginate, and shorter than the lower. Fine sharp 
teeth in the jaws, palatines, aud pterygoid bones, also on the 
tongue, but none on the vomer. Dorsal fin small, median. Veii- 
trals small, inserted more in front than the dorsal ; anal elongate. 
Scales large or of moderate size, rarely small. 

Owing to individual variation, species of this genus are difficult 
to distinguish. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical parts of the Atlantic and 
Indian Oceans, and some Indian rivers. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Dorsal fin almost or entirely in advance 

of the anal. 

. Occipital ridges subparallel behind. 
L. tr. 15-16. Height of body 3 to 4 

in total 1. P.filigera, p. 380. 

L. tr. 16. Height of body 4J to 4 in 

total 2. P. elongata, p. 380. 

L. tr. 12-13. Head 5, height of body 4 

to 4J in total 3. P. motius, p. 381. ' 

L, tr. 13-14. Head 4$, height of body 

31 to 3 in total 4. P. indica, p. 381. 

b. Occipital ridges converging behind. 
L. tr. 14. Head 4|, height of body 4J 

in total. Scutes 23 before ventrals. . 6. P. ditchela, p. 381. 
Scutes 13 before ventrals 6. P. Jioevenii, p. 382. 

B. Dorsal fin situated entirely or partially 

over the anal. 

L. 1. 43-44, L. tr. 14-15 7. P. brachysoma, p. 382. 

L. 1. 48-50, L. tr. 14-15 8. P. megaloptera, p. 382. 

L. 1. 48, L. tr. 10 9. P. sladeni, p. 383. 

L. 1. 70 10. P. leschenaultit, p. 383. 



380 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

475. (1.) Pellona filigera. 

Pellona filigera, Cuv. $ VaL II. N. Poiss. xx, p. 322 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 643, pi. clxv, fig. 4 (see syuon.). 

D. 18-19. P. 17. V.8. A. 46-50. C. 19. L. 1. 50. L. tr. 15-16. 

Length of head 5|, height of body 3| to 4 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, | diam. from end of snout, 
and 5 apart. Abdominal profile much more convex than that of the 
back. The posterior portions of the ridges on the occiput are 
parallel. Fins ventral fins very short. Length of base of anal 
fin 2| in total length excluding caudal. Caudal lobes elongated. 
Scutes well developed, 22 to 23 before, and 10 or 12 posterior to 
base of ventral fin. Colou'i a coppery tinge along the back ; sides 
silvery, with mother-of-pearl reflexions. Dorsal and pectoral fins 
black-tipped. 

Hab. Bombay; growing to 1 foot in length. 

476. (2.) Pellona elongata. (Fig. 117.) 

Alosa elongata, Bennett, Life of Sir S. Raffles, p. 691. 

Pellona elongata, Day, Fish. India, p. 043, pi. clxiv, fig. 3, and pi. 

clxv, fig. I (see synon.). 

Nga thyngye and Khebowk thyn, Arracan ; Ram Ganha, Chittagong ; 
Ngapya, Burmese. 

D. 15-17. P. 15. V.7. A. 40-49. C.I 7. L. 1. 46-56. L.tr.14-16. 

Length of head 4| to 5|, height of body 4| to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in length of head, 1 diam. from 
end of snout, arid | apart. Abdominal profile more convex than 
that of the back. The posterior halves of the ridges on the occiput 




Fig. 117. Pellona elongata. 

are nearly parallel. Ventral minute. Length of base of anal 3 to 
3| in total length excluding caudal. Scales abdominal scutes well 
developed, 20 to 24 anterior, and 8 or 10 posterior to the base of 
the ventral fin. Colour silvery, shot with mother-of-pearl. 
Fins yellowish, edge of dorsal black-tipped. 

Hab. Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago, China, and Japan. 



CLUPEIDJS. 381 

477. (3.) Pellona motius. 

Clupanodon motius, Ham. Buck. Fish. Ganges, pp. 251, 383. 
Pellona motius, Day, Fish. India, p. 643, pi. clxv, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Ursi or Alise, Ooriah. 
D. 16-17. P. 15. V. 7. A. 40-41. L. 1. 43-45. L.tr. 12-13. 

Length of head 5, height of body 4 to 4 1 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, | diain. from end of snout, and 
| apart. Abdominal profile more convex than that of the back. 
The posterior halves of the ridges on the summit of the head are 
nearly parallel. Teeth on jaws, tongue, and palate. Fins length 
of base of anal 3 of total excluding caudal ; ventral fin nearly as 
long as the eye. Scales 7 or 8 scutes posterior to base of ventral, 
and 15 or 16 anterior to it. Colour silvery, with mother-of-pearl 
reflexions ; a burnished lateral band. Some fine dots on the fins 
and along the edges of some of the scales. Caudal fin with a dark 
outer edge ; a dark band along the middle of the dorsal. 

Hab. Assam, Bengal, and Orissa, descending as low as the coast. 
This fish does not appear to exceed about 4 inches in length. 

478. (4.) Pellona indica. 

Platygaster indicus, Swainson, Lardner's Cab. Cycl., Fishes, fyc. ii. 

p. 294. 

Pellona indica, Day, Fish. India, p. 644, pi. clxiv, fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Poo-na-no-dah, Andamanese ; Ditchoee, TeL 

D. 17. P. 16. V. 7. A. 39-40. C. 17. L. 1. 44. L. tr. 13-14. 

Length of head 4^, height of body 3| to 3| in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 2| to 3 in length of head, diam. from end of 
snout, and \ apart. Abdominal profile more convex than dorsal. 
The posterior halves of the ridges on the occiput are parallel. 

Teeth in the jaws, tongue, palatine, and pterygoid bones. Fins 

length of base of anal 2| to 3 in total excluding caudal. Ventral 
small, shorter than the eye. Scales with the edges rather rough- 
ened ; 25 or 26 scutes, 18 between the throat and base of ventral 
fin. Colour greenish along the back, becoming silvery shot with 
purple and gold on the sides and below ; dorsal fin often tipped 
black. 

Hab. East coast of Africa ; seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago. 

479. (5.) Pellona ditchela. 

Pellona ditchela, Cuv. $ Vol. H. N. Poiss. xx, p. 314 ; Day, Fish. 

India, p. 644, pi. clxv, fig. 5 (see synon.). 
Ditchfllee, Tel. 

D. 18. P. 16. V. 6. A. 36-40. C. 19. L. 1. 40-44. L. tr. 14. 
Length of head 4, height of body 4^ in the total length. Eyes 



382 TELEOSTEI. WIYSOSTOMI. 

diameter about ^ of length of head, nearly 1 diam. from end of 
suout, and apart. Abdominal profile rather more convex than 
dorsal. The posterior halves of the ridges on the occiput converge. 
Teeth in jaws, tongue, and palate. Fins ventral nearly as -long 
as the eye. Length of base of anal 3| in total excluding caudal. 
Scales scutes well developed, 23 anterior and 10 posterior to base 
of ventral fin. Colour silvery, with a burnished lateral band, the 
upper edge of the dorsal fin rather dark. 
Hob. Coromandel coast of India. 



480. (6.) Pellona hoevenii. 

Pellona hoevenii, Sleeker, Satav. Genootsch. Verhand. xxiv, Hariny. 
p. 21 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 644, pi. clxv, tig. 6 (see synon.). 

D. 18. P. 17. V. 7. A. 36. L. 1. 43. L. tr. 13. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 3| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 2| to 3 in the length of the head, | diam. from end of 
snout, and 1 apart. Abdominal profile rather more convex than 
dorsal. The posterior halves of the ridges on the occiput meet 
posteriorly. Teeth on the jaws, tongue, palatine, and pterygoid 
bones ; also along a small accessory bone between the premaxilla- 
ries and the superior maxillary. Fins length of base of anal 3j 
in total excluding caudal. Ventral small, shorter than the eye. 
Scales with the edges almost smooth ; 22 scutes, 13 anterior to 
base of ventral. Colow greenish "along the back, becoming silvery 
with mother-of-pearl reflexions on the sides and beneath. 

ffab. Coromandel coast of India (where this fish abounds) to the 
Malay Archipelago. 

481. (7.) Pellona brachysoma. 

Pellona brachysoma, Sleeker, Satav. Genootsch. Verhand. xxiv, Hariny. 

p. 22 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 645, pi. clxiv, fig. 2 (see synon.). 
Paunia jmiee, Ooriah. 
D. 16-17. P. 16. V. 7. A. 46-51. C. 17. L. 1. 43-44. L. tr. 14-15. 

Length of head 41 to 4|, height of body 3| to 31 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 in the length of bead, -| diam. from end 
of snout, and | apart. Abdominal profile more convex than dorsal. 
The posterior halves of the ridges on the occiput are nearly 
parallel. ' Fins last few dorsal rays extend over anal. Ventral 
small. Length of base of anal 2^ to 2| in total excluding caudal. 
Scales 18 scutes anterior to ventral fin, and 8 posterior to it. 
Colour golden glossed with purple. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

482. (8.) Pellona megaloptera. 

Platygaster uiega'opterus, Stcainson, Lardm-r's Cub. Cycl., Fishes, 4*c. 
ii. p. 294. 



CLUl'EID.E. 383 

Pellona megaloptera, Day, Pish. India, p. 045, pi. clxv, tig. 2 (see 

synon.). 
Jangaiioo, Tel. 

D. 17-18. P. 17. V.7. A. 43-50. C. 17. L. 1. 48-50. L.tr. 14-15. 

Length of head 4| to 4f , height of body 3| to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 2| to 3 in the length of the head, diatn. 
from end of snout, and \ apart. Abdominal profile slightly more 
convex than dorsal. The posterior Halves of the occipital ridges are 
parallel. Fins last few dorsal rays are above the commencement 
of the anal. Pectoral reaches to above the ventral, which last is 
not half so long as the eye, and is sometimes entirely absent. 
Length of base of anal nearly 3 of total excluding caudal. Scales 

22 scutes anterior, and 8 posterior to the ventral tin. 
Hal}. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

483. (9.) Pellona sladeni. 

Pellona sladeni, Day, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 623 ; Fish. India, p. 045, 
pi. clxiv, fig. 1. 

D. 13. P. 11. V. 7. A. 44. C. 21. L. 1. 48. L. tr. 10. 

Length of head 5, height of body 5| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 4 in length of head, 1 diam. from end of snout. Badges 
on the occiput slightly diverge behind. Fins first two dorsal rays 
in advance of anal, the remainder of the former fin over the latter. 
Pectoral reaches to nearly the end of the ventral, which is small. 

23 spiny scales on the abdominal profile anterior to the ventral 
fins, and 10 posterior to them. Colour silvery, opercles golden ; 
caudal edged with black. 

Hob. Irrawaddy, as high as Mandalay. 

484. (10.) PeUona leschenaultii. 

Pellona leschenaultii, Cuv. $ Val. H. N. Poiss. xx, p. 31] ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 646 (see synon.). 

D. 21. P. 17. V. 8. A. 42. C. 27. L. 1. 70. 

Height of body nearly 4 in the total length. Teeth very distinct 
in premaxillaries and mandibles. Fins pectoral large and rounded 
towards its extremity, and extending beyond the insertion of he 
ventrals, which are small, and arise about eight or nine rows of 
scales nearer the head than the origin of the dorsal. Anal elon- 
gated. Colour silvery. 

Hob. A single dried example (20 inches long) was brought from 
Pondicherry. 

4. Genus OPISTHOPTERUS, Gill. 
Syn. Fristiy aster, sp., Cuv. 
Branchiostegals six. Body oblong, compressed. The lower jaw 



384 TELEOSTEI. PUY8OSTOM1. 

projecting. Small sharp teeth in the jaws, palatines, pterygoids, 
and tongue ; none on the vomer. Dorsal fin situated above the 
anal, which has many rays ; ventrals absent. Scales of moderate 
or small size, very deciduous. Abdominal serration well developed. 

This genus is closely allied to the last, the chief difference being 
absence of ventral fins. Occasionally examples of Pellona are seen 
in which these fins are deficient. 

485. (1.) Opisthopterus tartoor. (Fig. 118.) 

Pristigaster tartoor, Cvv. $ Val. H. N. Poiss. xx, p. 328. 
Opisthopterua tartoor, Day, Fish. India, p. 646, pi. clxiii, tig. 5 (see 
synon.). 

D. 15-17. P. 14. A. 56-63. C. 17. L. 1. 50. L. tr. 12. 

Length of head 5| to 5f , height of body 3| to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 2f to 3 in length of head. Fins the 
pectoral, somewhat longer than the head, reaches to over the first 
anal ray ; caudal forked. Scales 28 to 32 spines along the lower 




Fig. 118. Opisthopterus tartoor. 

profile. Gill-rakers about 28, and nearly as long as the eye. 
Pseudobranchiae well developed. Colour silvery. 

Hab. From Gwadur in Baluchistan and Sind, through the seas 
of India to the Malay Archipelago ; attaining at least 9 inches in 
length. 

5. Genus EACONDA, Gray. 

Syn. Apteryyia, Gray. 

This genus differs from the last in having no dorsal fin. The 
only species is more abundant along the coast of India than in the 
Malay Archipelago. 

486. (1.) Raconda rasselliana. (Fig. 119.) 

Raconda russeliana, Gray, Zuol. Misc. p. 9 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 646, 

pi. clxiii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 
Nga thendoony, Burmese. 



CLUPEIDjE. 385 

P. 13. A. 92. C. 19. L. 1. 64. L. tr. 12. 

Length of head 6^ to 7, height of body 4| to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3 to 3| in length of head. The end of 
lower jaw forms a portion of the dorsal profile, which is concave 
above the orbit, whilst the anterior portion of the abdominal pro- 
file is very convex. Fins upper pectoral ray enlarged ; caudal 
deeply forked, the lower lobe the longer. Scales bom. 31 to 38 




Fig. 119. Baconda russelliana. 

weak scutes along the abdominal edge. PseudobranchiaB well 
developed. Colour a narrow dark bluish band along the back, 
succeeded by a light bronze line, which is divided by a lighter and 
wider band from a broad silvery one passing from the head to the 
caudal fin. A deep brown or black spot on the shoulder. The 
young are purple with a silvery band along the side. 

Hob. Bay of Bengal to the Malay Archipelago. The young are 
common in the Sundarbans. 



Second group. CHATOESSLNA. 

6. Genus CHATOESSUS, Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

Syn. Dorosoma, Rafinesque ; Gonostoma, v. Hasselt ; Anodontostoma, 
Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals from four to six (six in Indian species). Body 
oval, short, deep, and moderately compressed ; with a sharp, ser- 
rated abdominal edge. Snout overhanging a rather narrow trans- 
verse mouth. Teeth absent from jaws. Anal fin commencinp- 
behind the dorsal ; caudal forked. Air-bladder large, rounded 
anteriorly, pointed posteriorly. Ca3cal pylori numerous. Pseudo- 
branchia3 well developed. 

Geographical Distribution. Coasts and rivers of India, Burma, 
Malayasia, and North and Central America. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Last dorsal ray not prolonged. 

L. 1. 40-42, L. tr. 13-14 1. C. chacimda, p. 386. 

L. 1. 47, L. tr. 17 2. C. modesty p. 386. 

L. 1. 58-03, L. tr. 22-24 3. C. manmitwa, p. 386. 

B. Last dorsal ray prolonged 4. C. nasus, p. 387. 

2c 



386 TELEOSTEI. PR YSOSTOM I. 






487. (1.) Chatoessus chacunda. 

Clupanodon chacunda, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 240, 383. 
Chatoessns cliacunda, Day, Fish. India, p. 632, pi. clx, %. 3 (see 

synon.). 

Muddeeru, Tel. ; Kore-paiy-dah, Andauiancse ; Nev, Marathi ; Nya- 
tcy-mee, Arracan. 

D. 17-19. P. 15. V. 8. A. 19-20. C. 19. L. 1. 40-42. L. tr. 13-14. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 2| to 2 in the total 
length. Fins dorsal without elongated ray. Ventral inserted 
below the middle of the dorsal fin. Scales with smooth edges, 
regularly arranged ; 28 spines along the abdominal and thoracic 
edge, 16 or 17 of which are anterior to the ventral fin. Colour- 
golden shot with purple, lines formed of spots along the rows of 
scales in the upper third of the body ; a black spot on the 
shoulder. 

Hob. Seas and estuaries of India and Burma to the Malay Archi- 
pelago ; attaining at least 8 inches in length. 

488. (2.) Chatoessus inodestus. 

Chatoessus modestus, Day, P. Z. S. I860, p. 022 ; FlsTi. India, p. (533, 
pi. clx, fig. 1. 

D. 14-16. P. 16. V. 8. A. 27-28. C. 21. L. 1. 47. L. tr. 17. 

Length of head 5 to 5^, height of body 2| to 3 in the total 
length. Profile above the nape slightly concave, then a great rise 
to the base of the dorsal fin ; abdominal profile equally convex with 
dorsal. Fins ventral insei'ted somewhat in advance of the origin 
of the dorsal. Scales regularly arranged, with smooth edges, 17 
or 18 serrations anterior to the ventral fin, and 11 to 12 posterior 
to it. Colour yellowish shot with purple. 

Hub. Along the Bassein liiverashigh as the Een-gay-gyee Lake, 
also the Sal ween at Moulmein. Many specimens were taken up 
to 5 g inches in length. 

489. (3.) Chatoessus manminna. 

Clupanodon manmSnim, Ham. Buck. Fish, Ganges, pp. 247, 383. 
Chatoessus manminna, Day, Fish. India, p. 033, pi. clx, n'g. 2 (see 

synon.). 

Mackundi, Ooriah. 
D. 14-15. P. 15. V. 8. A. 22-24. L. 1. 58-63. L. tr. 22-24. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 3| to 3 in the total 
length. Fins dorsal commences slightly in advance of the origin 
of the ventral, its last ray is .slightly prolonged. Caudal deeply 
forked, lower lobe the longer. Scales irregularly arranged ; 
scutes strong, 17 between throat and base of ventral fin, and 13 
behind it. Coloui silvery glossed with gold ; cheeks purplish ; 



CLUPEID.E. 387 

back with a bluish-green tint, and usually a black spot on the 
shoulder. Fins yellowish, the dorsal and caudal with dark outer 
edges. 

Hob. Fresh waters of Sind, and the districts watered by the 
Indus and its branches, also the affluents and main streams of the 
Ganges, Jumna, Brahmaputra, and Mahanadi. This fish attains 
at least 11 inches in length. 

490. (4). Chatoessus nasus. (Fig. 120.) 

Clupea nasus, Block, Ich. t. 429, fig. 1. 

Chatoessus nasus, I)ay, Fish. India, p. 634, pi. clx, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

Noonah, Mai. ; Mitddu candai, Tarn. ; Kome, Tel. and Ooriali. 
D. 15-17. A. 22-24.' C. 19. L. 1. 46-50. L. tr. 18-19. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 3| to 3 in the total 
length. Fins last dorsal ray elongated, in some examples reach- 
ing to the base of the caudal fin. Ventral inserted under the 
anterior dorsal rays. ' Scales with serrated edges, regular ; 28 
scutes along the abdominal and thoracic edge, about 15 of which 
are anterior to the ventral fin. Colour back greyish green, the 




Fig. 120. Chatoessus nasus. 

centre of each scale in the first seven rows the darkest, thus form- 
ing horizontal lines, the lower of which do not extend to the 
caudal. Abdomen whitish, shot with gold. A bluish spot (some- 
times absent) on the shoulder. Preopercle of a brilliant golden 
tint. Dorsal greenish yellow, the posterior margin stained blackish. 
Pectoral, ventral, anal, and caudal yellowish, the last with a dark 
extremity. 

Hab. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and Philippine 
Islands. This species is good eating, but bony. 



2c2 



388 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

Third group. ENGKAULINA. 

7. Genus ENGRAULIS, Cuvier. 

Syn. Stolephorus, Lace"pede : Thi-i/ssa and Telara, Cuvier ; Sctipinna, 
Swainson ; Pterengraulis, Lycenyraulis, Lycothrisaa, and HetentkrittUf 
Gunther. 

Branchiostegals short and rather numerous. Gill-openings wide, 
the membrane connecting the two sides short, thus leaving the 
isthmus uncovered. Body oblong or elongated, compressed, and 
serrated along the abdominal edge. Cleft of mouth deep, oblique ; 
snout conical ; the upper jaw generally the longer ; maxillaries of 
varying length, but always long, having a membranous attachment 
to the cheeks. Teeth small, sometimes of unequal size, usually 
present on the jaws, vomer, palatine and pterygoid bones. Scales 
large or of moderate size. 

Geographical Distribution. Temperate and tropical seas and 
rivers. 

Synopsis of Indian Species, 
a. Dorsal fin in advance of anal. 

A. 40-41, L. 1. 44, L. tr. 11-12. Snout 
slightly projecting. Maxilla nearly 

reaches base of pectoral fin 1. E. hamiltonii. p. 389. 

A. 40-43, L. 1. 39-40, L. tr. 11-12. Height 
of body 3f in total. Maxilla reaches 

gill-opening 2. E. malalaricus, p. 389. 

A. 35-38, L. 1. 45, L. tr. 12. Maxilla 

reaches base of pectoral fin 3. E. mystax, p. 390. 

A. 34-38, L. 1. 36-38, L. tr. 9-10. Maxilla 

reaches gill-opening 4. E. kammalcnsis, p. 390. 

A. 29-32, L. 1. 41, L. tr. 8 '. 5. E. beelama, p. 391. 

A. 34-38, L. 1. 36-44, L. tr. 11. Maxilla 

reaches end of ventral fin 6. E. setirosfris, p. 391. 

A. 34-36, L. 1. 40-42, L. tr. 9-10. Maxilla 

reaches to origin of ventral fin 7. E. ditssvmieri, p. 39 L 

V j Dorsal fin partly or entirely above anal. 
a'. Upper pectoral ray elongate. 

A. 70-80, L. 1. 52, L. tr. 14. Snout 

slightly projecting 8. E. tclara, p. 392. 

A. 60-64, L. 1. 54-56, L. tr. 14. Lower 

jaw slightly prominent 9. E. breviccps, p. 392. 

A. 51-57, L. 1. 42-46, L. tr. 12. Snout 

slightly projecting 10. E. taty, p. 393. 

V. Upper pectoral ray not elongate; abroad 
silvery lateral band. 

A. 45-47 11. E. purava, p. 393. 

P. 15-16, A. 19-21. Maxilla reaches 

gill-opening 12. E. commersmiiamts, 

A. 19. Maxilla enlarged and truncated [p. 394. 

opposite mandibular joint 13. E. indicus, p. 394. 

P. 13. A. 20-22. Maxilla reaches gill- 
opening 14. E. tri, p. 395. 



CLUPEID.E. 389 

491. (1.) Engraulis hamiltonii. 

Thryssa hamiltonii, Gray Sf Ilanlw. III. Intl. Zool. ii, pi. 92, fig. 3. 
Engraulis hamiltonii, Day, Fish. India, p. G25, pi. clvii, fig. 4 (see 
synon.). 

Poorawah, Tel. 
B.xii. D.I + 13. P. 12. V.7. A. 40-41. C. 19. L.I. 44. L. tr. 11-12. 

Length of head 5| to 5, height of body 4| in the total length. 
Eyes 4 diameters in length of head, -3- diam. from end of snout, 
and 1 apart. Snout slightly in advance of the end of the lower 
jaw ; the maxilla nearly reaches the base of the pectoral fin. Fins 
pectoral reaches to above the middle of the small ventral. Anal 
commences behind the vertical from the last dorsal ray. Scales 
scutes strong, 16 anterior to the ventral, and 10 posterior. Pseudo- 
branchi* rudimentary. Colour bronze along the back, divided in 
the fresh state by a silvery band from the purple-and-gold tinted 
abdomen. Black venules on the shoulder behind the upper half of 
the opercle. Fins yellow, dorsal sometimes edged with black. 

Hab. Sind, through seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 



492. (2.) Engraulis malabaricns. (Fig. 121.) 

Clupea malabarica, Bloch, Ich. pi. 432. 

Engraulis malabaricus, Day, Fish. India, p. G25, pi. clvii, fig. 5 (see 
synon.). 

Monanyoo, Mai. ; Poor-relan, Tarn. ; Poorwa, Tel. 
B. xii. D. 1 + 14-15. P. 14. A. 40-43. C. 20. L. 1. 39-40. L. tr.l 1-12. 

Length of head 5> height of body 3| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 4| in length of head, f diain. from end of snout, and H 




Fig. 121. Engraulis malabaricus. 

apart. Snout slightly in advance of the lower jaw. Maxilla ex- 
pands posteriorly to the gill-opening. Fins anal commences 
behind the vertical from the last dorsal ray. Pectoral reaches the 



390 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMf. 

base of the ventral. Scales regularly arranged ; 17 scutes before 
and 9 or 10 behind the base of the ventral fin. Pseudobrauchite 
rudimentary. Colour silvery shot with gold and purple ; black 
venules on the shoulders. Fins yellow ; dorsal and end of caudal 
edged with dark ; pectoral sometimes, but not usually, black. 
Hcib. Coasts of Sind and through the seas of India. 



49.3. (3.) Engraulis mystax. 

Clupea mystax, 2ft. Schn. St/st. Ich. p. 426, t. 83. 

Engraulis mystax, Day, Fish. India, p. 025, pi. civil, fig. 3 (see 

synon.). 
Ram pyshia, Chittagong. 

B. xii-xiv. D. 1 + 13-15. P. 12. V.7. A. 35-38. C. 19. L.I. 45. L.tr.12. 

Length of head 5, height of body 4 to 4f in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4J in length of head, 1 diam. from end of snout, 
and 1^ apart. The maxilla extends backwards to opposite the base 
of the pectoral fin. Fins anal commences just posterior to the 
last dorsal ray ; pectoral extends to the last third of the small 
ventral. Scales 9 strong scutes behind the ventral fin and 16 
or 17 weaker before it. Pseudobranchise rudimentary. Colour 
black venules over the scapular region ; the xlorsal and caudal 
yellow, the latter having a black upper and posterior end, at least 
in the young. 

Nab* Seas and estuaries of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
China. 

494. (4.) Engraulis kainmalensis. 

Engraulis kammalensis, Sleeker, Batav. Genootsch. Verhand. xxii, 
Madura, p. 13 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 026, pi. clvii, fig. 1 (see synon.J. 

B.x.-xi. D.I + 13-14. P.12. A.34-38. C.19. L.l.36-38. L.tr.9-10. 

Length of head 4^, height of body 4 in the total* length. Eyes 
diameter 4 in length of head, 1 diam. from end of snout and 
also apart. Maxilla extending backwards to opposite the gill- 
opening. Fins pectoral reaches to base of small ventral, which is 
inserted rather in advance of dorsal ; anal commences a short dis- 
tance behind the last dorsal ray. Scales 14 scutes before and 
8 behind the base of the ventral fin. Pseudobranchirc rudimen- 
tary. Colour silvery, tinged with gold ; the upper portion of 
the head, dorsal, and caudal fins yellowish, with numerous fine 
black dots. Dark venules on the shoulder, extending indistinctly 
over the back. 

Hob. Ceylon, Bay of Bengal to the Malay Archipelago ; attaining 
about 6 inches in length. 



CLUPEID-E. 39 L 



495. (5.) Engraulis baelama. 

Ulupea bnolama, Forsk. Descr. Anim. p. 72. 

Engr.uilia boelami, Day, Fish. India, p. G2G, pi. clviii, fig. 7 (see 
synon.). 

B. xi. D. 14-16. P. 13. V. 7. A. 29-32. C. 20. L. 1. 41. L. tr. 8. 

Length of head 4J, height of body 5 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 4 in length of head, nearly 1 diam. from end of snout, 
and 1 apart. Snout pointed, and projecting considerably beyond 
the end of the jaws. Maxilla reaching slightly beyond the mandi- 
bular joint. Fins anal commences a short distance behind the 
last dorsal ray. Pectoral nearly reaches the ventral, which is in- 
serted below the anterior dorsal rays. Scales regularly arranged ; 
scutes very indistinct, not- extending above halfway between bas3 
of the p'ectoral and ventral fins, 4 or 5 being before and 8 or 9 
behind the base of the latter. Colou) bluish above, becoming silvery 
on the sides and beneath ; head glossed with gold. 

flab. Prom the Ked Sea and coast of Zanzibar, through the seas 
of India to the Andamans ; also recorded by GKitither from Mysol 
and Manado. 



496. (6.) Engraulis setirostris. 

Clupea setirostris, JBrottssonct, Ich. dec. i. tab. 
Engraulis setiroatris, Dai/, Fish. India, p. 626 (see synon.). 
Yeka-pooraioah, Tel. 

B.x-xi.D.l + 14-16.P.14.V.6.A.34-38.C.17.L.1.36-44.L.tr.ll. 

Length of head 5f to 6|, height of body 4| to 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| to 4 in length of head, | diam. from 
end of snout, and 1 apart. Snout hardly projecting. The maxil- 
lary very prolonged, extending to the posterior end of the -ventral 
h'u or even beyond. Fins the anal commences just posterior to 
the last dorsal ray. Abdominal edge spiny; 17 spines before 
and 9 behind the insertion of the ventral fin. Colour greenish 
along the back, becoming silvery on the sides and beneath. Black 
venules in the region of the scapula. 

Hab. From the Eed Sea through the seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

497. (7.) Engraulis dussumieri. 

Engraulis dussumieri, Cuv. $ Val H. N. Poiss. xxi, p. 69 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 027, pi. clviii, fig. 4 (see synon.). 

B.xii. D.I 4-13-15. P.12. V.7. A.34-36. C.17. L.l.40-42. L.tr.9-10. 

Length of head 4% to 4|, height of body 4| to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4 in length of head, if diam. from end of 
snout, and 1 apart. The snout projects considerably over the 



392 TELEOSTBI. PHYSOSTOMI. 

mouth. The maxilla elongated posteriorly and almost or quite 
reaching the ventral fin. Fins dorsal situated entirely in advance 
of anal. Pectoral as long as head without the snout. Ventral in- 
serted slightly in advance of the vertical from the origin of the 
dorsal. Lower caudal lobe the longer. 7 or 8 strong spines 
behind the ventral fin, and 13 or 14 anterior to it. Pseudo- 
branchiae rudimentary. Colour coppery, becoming silvery below, 
a large black shoulder-spot passing over the back. Caudal straw- 
coloured, with a dark extremity. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

498. (8.) Engraulis telara. 

Clupea telara, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 241, 332, pl.ii, fig. 72. 

Engraulis telara, Day, Fish. India, p. 027, pi. clviii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Tampara, Ooriah ; Nga pyd, Nya tannSt, and Nga out pha, Burmese. 

B.xii-xiii.D.l + 14-15. P.15.V.7. A. 70-80. C.19. L.I. 52. L.tr.14. 

Length of head 6 to 7, height of body 4*- in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4 in length of head, f diam. from end of snout, 
and 11 apart. The maxilla extends to opposite the gill-opening. 
Fins origin of dorsal slightly posterior to that of anal, much 
nearer to snout than to base of caudal fin. Pectoral with its upper 
ray elongated to opposite the centre of anal fin (in some examples 
this ray is only slightly produced), whilst the fin itself extends to 
opposite the posterior end of the ventral ; lower caudal lobe the 
longer, the upper truncated ; base of the anal fin considerablv more 
than half the total length without the caudal fin. Scales 7 spiny 
scales behind the ventral and 15 or 16 before it. Pseudob ranch ia? 
rudimentary. Colour greenish along back, becoming silvery dashed 
with gold along the abdomen ; dorsal and caudal yellow, the upper 
lobe of the caudal and the upper margin of the dorsal stained black ; 
pectoral in the young yellowish, but in the adult of a deep blue- 
black, except the elongated ray, which is usually uncoloured in its 
posterior three fourths ; ventral and anal uncoloured. 

Hub. Orissa, Bengal, Cachar, and Burma, in which latter country 
I have taken it as high up as Mandalay. This fish attains at least 
16 inches in length. 

499. (9.) Engraulis breviceps. 

Engraulis breviceps, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 1288 ; Catal. Mai. 
Fish. p. 306 ; Day, Fi*h. India, p. 628 (see synon.). 

B. xvi-xix. D. 1 + 17. P.14. V. 7. A. 60-64. C. 17. L.l.54-56. L.tr. 14. 

Length of head 7 to 7, height of body 4 to 4| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 5^ to 6 in length of head, ^ diam. from 
end of snout, and 1 to 1-L apart. Lower jaw slightly the longer ; 
maxilla truncated opposite the mandibular joint. Fins pectoral 



CLUPEID^E. 393 

with its upper ray prolonged. Anal commences somewhat in ad- 
vance of the dorsal, the length of its base being equal to half the 
total length excluding the caudal fin. Scales the whole of the 
abdominal edge serrated. Colour greenish yellow on the back, 
becoming silvery on the sides and beneath ; the body with som3 
dark blotches in its upper half. Fins yellow, the dorsal, caudal, 
and last half of the anal having dark margins. 
Hab. Bay of Bangal to the Malay Archipelago. 

500. (10.) Engraulis taty. 

Engraulis taty, Ouv. 8? Val. II. N. Poiss. xxi, p. 60 ; Day, Fish. India, 
p. 628, pi. clviii, fig. 5 (see synon.J. 

B. xi-xii. D. 1 + 13-15. A. 51-57. C. 19. L.I. 42-40. L.tr. 12. 

Length of head 6 to 6| (5| in the very young), height of body 
33. to 4 in the total length. Eyes diameter 4 in length of head, 
^ to | diam. from end of snout, and \\ apart. The maxilla extends 
backwards beyond the mandibular joint, posteriorly it is truncated. 
Fins the anal is nearly half as long as the total length excluding 
the caudal fin ; it begins belo\v the middle of the dorsal; first pec- 
toral ray having (but not invariably) a long filamentous ending. 
Caudal lobed, the lower the longer. Scales 12 scutes posterior 
to the base of the ventral fin, and about 23 anterior to it. Colour 
upper surface of head and back green or greenish yellow, 
sparingly dotted with black ; sides, abdomen, cheeks, and opercles 
silvery ; dorsal, caudal, and anal yellow, some black dots on dorsal. 
Ventrals and pectorals yellowish, the latter sometimes dark. The 
edges and posterior margins of the caudal blackish. 

Hab. Seas and estuaries of India and the Malay Archipelago. 
This fish attains at least 6 inches in length, and is eaten either 
fresh or salted. 

501. (11.) Engraulis purava. 

Engraulis purava, CUD. fy Val. H. N. Poiss. xxi, p. 65 j Day, Fish. 
India, p. 628, pi. clvii, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

Ptissai, Ooriah ; Nga bah and Showk-a-thin, Arracan ; Feddah-poor- 
awah, Tel. 

B.xii. D.I + 13. P. 15. V.6. A.4.3-47. L. 1. 46. L. tr. 12. 

Length of head 5| to 6, height of body 4^ to 4^- in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4| to 5 in length of head, diam. from 
end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches nearly to the base 
of the pectoral tin. Fins pectoral reaches the ventral, which does 
not extend halfway to the base of the anal. Anal commences be- 
neath the posterior dorsal rays. Scales in regular horizontal 
lines, with a fine row at the base of the dorsal and anal fins ; there 
are 15 or 16 spiny scales between the throat and the base of the 
ventral fin, and 10 or 11 between the ventral and the base of the 



394 TELEOSTBI. P1IYSOSTOMI. 

anal. Colour silvery, steel-blue along the back, and with a 
golden tinge about the head. Dorsal and caudal fins yellowish ; 
the others uncoloured. 

ffab. Seas and estuaries of Sind and both sides of India, also the 
Malay Archipelago; attaining at least 12 inches iu length. 



502. (12.) Engraulis coinmersoniamis. 

Stolephorus commersonianus, Laytpede, H. N. Poiss. v, p. 332, t. xii, 

fig. 1. 
Engraulis commersouianus, Day, Fish. India, p. 629, pi. clviii, fig. 1 

(see synon.). 

B.xi-xiii. D.14-16. P.15-16. A.19-21. C.19. L. 1.38-40. L.tr.8-9. 

Length of head 5 to 5^, height of body 51 to 5| in total length. 
Ey?s 3| diameters in length of head, | to | diam. from end of 
snout, and nearly 1 apart. Snout projecting considerably beyond 
ana overhanging the mouth. The maxilla continued to the gill- 
opening. Fins dorsal commences behind ventrals. Anal com- 
mences below middle of dorsal. PseudobranchiaD well developed. 
Colour silvery, greenish above ; opercles shining silvery shot with 
gold. A large black spot, sometimes indistinct, just behind the 
occiput. A broad silvery band passes from the centre of the gill- 
opening to the tail, becoming wider behind. Abdomen light buff- 
colour. Fins yellowish, with minute black dots. Eyes silvery ; 
orbital margin dark. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. This attains to 
about 8 inches in length, and is much esteemed for eating. It is 
known as "Whitebait" amongst Europeans, and is captured in 
India in great numbers. In the Straits Cantor states that large 
quantities are preserved for exportation to China and India. 



503. (13.) Engraulis indicns. 

Engraulis indlcus, V. Hasselt, Algem. Konst.-Letterb. 1823, p. 329; 

Day, Fish. India, p. 629, pi. clviii, fig. 3 (see synon.). 
Nattoo, Tel. ; NetteUee, Tarn. ; Zoo-roo-cartrdah, Andam. 
B. xi-xiii. D. 15-16. P. 15. V. 7. A. 19. C. 19. L.I. 40. L.tr. 8-9. 

Length of head 4f to 5, height of body 6 to 6| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| in length of head, f to f diam. from 
end of snout, and 1 apart. Maxilla truncated opposite the man- 
dibular joint. Fins first half of dorsal in advance of the origin 
of the anal. Scales very deciduous ; 4 scutes before the base of 
the ventral fin. Pseudobranchiae present. Colour silvery, dashed 
with green along the back, and sometimes some dark spots behind 
the occiput. A brilliant silvery band passes from opposite the 
upper edge of the eye to the middle of the caudal fin. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, ascending tidal 



CLUPEIDJE. 395 

504. (14.) Engraulis tri. 

Eograulis tri, Blether, Baton. Oenootsch. Verhand. xxiv, Haritiy. 
p. 40 ; Day, Fish. India, p. 630, pi. clviii, fig. 6 (see synon.). 

B. xi. D. 1 + 14-15. P. 13. V. 7. A. 20-22. 0. 17. L. 1. 38. L. tr. 8. 

Length of head 5 to 5|, height of body 5 to 5| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3- in length of head, % to f diam. from 
end of snout, and 1 apart. Snout projecting considerably beyond 
the jaws. Maxilla reaching to the gill-opening. Fins ventrals in- 
serted on a lino anterior to origin of dorsal. Anal commences under 
middle of dorsal. Soaks regularly arranged and not very decidu- 
ous. Four long slender scutes before ventral fin. Colour silvery 
shot with purple. A silvery baud passes from opposite the eye to 
the base of the caudal fin ; a dark spot behind occiput. 

Sab' From Bombay through the seas and estuaries of India to 
the Malay Archipelago. This fish ascends the Hooghly as high as 
Calcutta. It attains about 4 inches in length. 



8. Genus COILIA, Gray. 

Syn. Afystus, Lacep. ; Trichosoma, Swains. ; Chcetomus, McClelland ; 
Collia, Schleg. ; Leptonurus, Bleaker. 

Branchiostegals nine to eleven. Body elongated, compressed, and 
tapering to a pointed tail ; abdomen trenchant and serrated. Snout 
pointed and projecting. Mouth cleft to behind the eye ; the 
maxilla produced behind. Teeth on the jaws, vomer, palatine, and 
pterygoid bones, also on the tongue. A single rather short dorsal 
fin placed in the anterior portion of the back ; anal elongated and 
confluent with the caudal; some of the upper pectoral rays pro- 
duced into moderately thick filaments. Scales of moderate or 
small size. 

Geographical Distribution. Indian and Chinese seas and estuaries. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. The maxilla does not extend behind the 

head. 

P. 5-6+xii, A. 116, L. 1. 55 1. C. reynaUi, p. 39C>. 

P. 6+vi, A. 1)5-110, L. 1. 70 2. C. ramearati, p. 396. 

P. 6+vi, A. 75, L. 1. 58 3. C. cantoris, p. 3915. 

P. 6+vi, A. 42 4. C. quadrigesimalis, p. 397. 

B. The maxilla extends behind the head. 
P. 9+v-vi, A. 105. Two or three rows 

of rftund yellow spots 5. C. dussumieri, p. 397. 

p. 6+ix-xii, A. 77-95. No spots 0. C. borneensis, p. 393. 



396 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOM1. 

505. (1.) Coilia reynaldi. 

Cuilia reynaldi, CUD. Sf Val. H. N. Puiss. xxi, p. 81 ; Dai/, Fish. India, 
p. 030' (see synon.). 

B.ix. D.l + 14. P.5-6 + xii. V.6. A.116. C.10. L.1.55. L.tr.10-11. 

Length of head 7, height of body 6 in the total length. E>/es 
diameter 4 in length of head, 1 diam. from end of snout, and 1| 
apart. The maxilla extends nearly to the end of the opercles~. 
Finn the dorsal commences in the first fourth of the total 
length ; the anal under the dorsal or slightly behind its posterior 
margin ; a spine just before the dorsal. Pectoral short, the 
upper rays prolonged nearly to the middle of the body. Anal 
more than two thirds the total length. Scales 12 sharp spines 
along the abdominal edge, which is serrated in front of the ventrals. 
Colour silvery white, with pinkish reflexions. 

Hab. The Hoogbly at Calcutta. 

506. (2.) Coilia ramcarati. 

Mystus ramcarati, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 233, 382. 

Coilia ramcarati, Day, Fish. India, p. 631, pi. clix, fig. 2 (see synon.). 

B.xi. D.l + 14. P.O + vi. V.12. A. 95-110. L.I. 70. L.tr.9-10. 

Length of head 6, height of body 5| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 5 in length of head, -|- diam. from end of snout, and 1 
apart. Maxilla dilated above the mandibular joint, behind which 
it is truncated. The distance between the snout and dorsal fin is 
one fourth of the total length. Fins the six lower pectoral rays 
are very short and almost concealed in a scaly sheath ; the free 
ones reach to about the middle of the length of the fish. Ventral 
inserted slightly before the front edge of the dorsal. The length 
of the anal is about two thirds of the distance between the gill- 
opening and base of the caudal fin, the upper ray of the latter fin 
being the longest. Scales 5 spiny before and 10 or 11 behind 
base of ventral fin. Pseudobranchia? present. Colour generally 
golden, with a darkish stain behind the gill-opening. The last 
half of the anal and the whole of the caudal blackish. 

Hob. Eivers and estuaries of Bengal. 

507. (3.) Coilia cantoris. 

Coilia cantoris, Sleeker, Batav. Genootsch. Vet-hand, xxv, Beng. pp. 74, 

148; Day, Fish. India, p. 631. 
Nga kyang ut, Burmese. 
B.ix. D. 14-13. P.6 + vi. V.7. A. 75. C. 10. L: 1. 58. 

Length of head 6, height of body 63 in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 4 in length of head, | diam. from end of snout. The 
maxilla not extending to the branchial aperture. Fins dorsal 
commencing in the second fourth of the length of the body. 



CLUPEID.S. 397 

Pectoral rays short, the free ones not reaching so far as to the 
anal fin. Length of base of anal rather above one half the total 
length. Scales 5 spines on the abdominal edge before the ventral 
h'n and 10 behind it. Colour without marks. 

Hab. One young example, nearly 4 inches long, was captured 
in the Hooghly. The above description is from the type. 



508. (4.) Coilia qnadrigesimalis. 

Coilia quadragesimalis, Cuv. 8f Val. H. N. Poiss. xxi, p. 83 ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 631 (see synon.). 

B. x. D. 15. P. 6 + vi. V. 8. A. 42. C. 25. 

Height of body 4| in the total length. Eyes small. Mouth 
obtuse*, the maxilla does not extend posteriorly behind the angle 
of the jaw. Fins dorsal inserted at the posterior end of the 
first third of the body. Pectoral short, its six free rays equal to 
one half the total length. The anal commences a little before the 
middle of the total length. Colour silvery shot with gold, and 
having nacreous reflexions ; fins yellowish. 

Hab. One example, 6 (French) inches long, from the Ganges. 



509. (5.) Coilia dussumieri. (Fig. 122.) 

Coilia dussumieri, Cuv. $ Val. It. N. Poiss. xxi, p. 81, pi. 610 ; Day, 
Fish. India, p. 631, pi. clviii, fig. 8 (see synon.). 

Oorialli, Ooriah ; Mdndeli, Marathi. 
B. xi. D. 1+13-14. P.9 + v-vi. V. 7. A. 105. C. 12. L. 1. 80. L. tr. 9. 

Length of head 6 to 6J, height of body 5 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 4 to 4| in length of head, f diam. from end of 
snout, and 1| apart. Maxilla extending posteriorly to the gill- 



Fig. 122. Coilia dttssumieri. 

opening. Snout projecting beyond the mouth. The distance be- 
tween the snout and the first dorsal ray is one fourth of the total 
length. Fins 6 upper pectoral rays produced to about the middle 
of the length of the fish. Ventral inserted below middle of dorsal 
fin. Length of base of anal nearly equal to three fourths of dis- 
tance between gill-opening and base of caudal fin, the upper ray of 



398 TELEOSTEI. PHY8OSTOMI. 

which is the longest. /Scales 5 or 6 spiny before ventral fin, and 
8 behind it ; they commence just behind the insertion of the pec- 
toral fin. Pseudobranchise absent. Colour golden, with two or 
three rows of round burnished golden spots along the lower half 
of the side. 

Hob. Seas and estuaries of India to the Malay Archipelago ; 
very numerous at Bombay. Attaining at least 7 inches in 
length. 

510. (6.) Coilia borneensis. 

Coilia borneensis, Bleeker, Batav. Genootsch. Verhand. xxiv, Hariny. 
p. 45 ; Day, Fish, India, p. 032, pi. clix, fig. 1 (see synou.). 

B. x. D. 1 + 14. P. G + ix-xii. V. 7. A. 77-95. L. 1. 76. L. tr. 9. 

Length of head 5| to 6|, height of body 5 to 5^ in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 5 to 5| in length of head, 1 diam. from 
end of snout, and 1| apart. Maxilla continued backwards as far 
as the gill-opening. The distance between the snout and the 
dorsal h'n is one fourth of the total length. Fins the 6 lower 
pectoral rays short ; the 12 upper ones extend almost to the middle 
of the length of the fish. The base of the anal equals two fifths 
of the distance between the snout and the base of the caudal. 
Scales 4 or 5 fine spines along the abdominal edge between the 
bases of the pectoral and ventral fins; 5* behind the latter. 
Colour golden ; fins yellowish, without any black marks. 

Hob. Madras, Burma (where it is common in the Irrawaddy 
river), also the Malay Archipelago. 



Fourth group. DUSSUMIEEINA. 
9. Genus DTJSSUMIEKIA, Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

Branchiostegals numerous; pseudobranchiae well developed. 
Gill-membranes entirely separate. Body somewhat elongate, 
compressed ; abdomen rounded, not serrated. Snout pointed ; 
upper jaw not projecting ; cleft of mouth moderate. Eyes with 
broad adipose lids. Small fixed teeth in the jaws, and villiform 
teeth on the palatines, pterygoids, and the tongue, but absent from 
the vomer. Dorsal fin opposite to the ventral ; anal of moderate 
length. Scales of medium or rather small size, very deciduous. 
Pyloric appendages numerous. 

Geographical Distribution. From Sind throughout the seas of 
India to the Malay Archipelago and China. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

L. 1. 52-5G 1. D. Jiasscltii. p. 309. 

1,. 1. 40-42 2. D. actita, p. 31)9. 



511. CL) 
kai 

OOTCp.13; 

D. 17-2. P. 15. A. 15-1S. G. IS. L. L 52-38L I*, te. 12. 
Length of k^d 4| to 5, fceipfct of bodjSf to 6| m tte 
iMgtf,: 2^^-din^cr41b 
i^rtadtei^aih the krtlolf of UK 
.iiriya^tfe kge 
MUdanthekrarl 

"77-- ^--- -' 

tkas acain slvay one dot ^iflfc p^k OnU sta* mtth |!R, 

j " -pr 

gOOCL L p>pcr MBBMBB Ol JMM1 UH. tCTt 




wUcfc has m fittfe Uark on it. 
mil jji i ni li Ey*s wtitte. 
FromOuiakajiid tlbe 

nd Ctea. ITbe 
:.-:;. .:-.> jye.-.rs 



(-) 
J%& 1<^ ]v ^, ]& dlra, %. 

L14-17. C.2L LL4iMt. L.*r,ll-li. 




of head 5 to 



t fcwly 5 to 5| tfe trttal 







II 



400 TELEOSTBI. PHT8O8TOM1 . 

termed a Sardine by the inhabitants and residents in Malabar, 
where it is very common and is excellent eating. 

Hob. From Sind through the seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago ; attaining at least 7 inches in length. 






10. Genus SPRATELLOIDES, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals six ; pseudobranchiae well developed. Gill- 
membranes entirely separated. Body elongated, moderately com- 
pressed or subcylindrical ; abdomen rounded. Snout compressed ; 



the upper jaw not overlapping the lower. Eyes without adipose 
lids. Teeth small and deciduous, but sometimes present on the 
jaws, vomer, pterygoids, and tongue. Dorsal fin placed opposite 
the ventrals ; anal of moderate length or short. Scales of medium 
size, rather deciduous. 

Geographical Distribution. Western coast of India, Malay Archi- 
pelago to Australia, also the North Pacific. 



513. (1.) Spratelloides malabaricus. (Fig. 124.) 

Spratelloides malabaricu8, Day, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 240 j Fish. India, 
p. 648,. pi. clxi, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

D. 13-14. P. 13. V. 8. A. 18-19. C. 19. L. 1. 38. L. tr. 9. 

Length of head (propoi'tion increases with age) 4j to of, height 
of body 5 1 in the total length. Eyes diameter one third of 
length of head. Fins dorsal commences slightly in front of the 




Fig. 124. Spratelloides malabaricus. 

origin of the ventral ; caudal deeply forked. Colour light 
yellowish green above, a silvery stripe along the side, abdomen 
silvery ; upper caudal lobe with a bluish posterior edge ; some fine 
black points along the back ; upper edge of eye dark green. 

Hob. "Western coast of India, in rivers and estuaries, attaining 
3 inches in length, and not uncommon. 



CLUPEID.E. 401 

Fifth group. ALBULINA. 
11. Genus ALBULA, Gronovius. 

Syn. Butyrinus, Lace"p. ; Glossodus (Guv.), Agassiz ; Conorhytichus 
(Nozeman), Bleeker, Atl. Ich. 

Gill-membranes entirely separated. Body oblong or elongate. 
Abdominal edge rounded and not keeled. Snout pointed, project- 
ing beyond the mouth. Eyes with a broad annular adipose mem- 
brane. Villiform teeth on the jaws, vomer, and palatine bones ; 
granular on the tongue, pterygoid and sphenoid bones. Dorsal fin 
situated opposite to the ventrals ; the anal shorter than the dorsal. 
Scales rather small, not deciduous ; lateral line present. Pseudo- 
branchiao well developed. 

514. (1.) Albula conorhynclms. 

Albula conorhynchus, SI. Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 432, t. 86 ; Day, Fish. 
India, p. 648 (see synon.). 

B. xiv-xvi. D. 17-19. A. 9. L. 1. 75-80. L.tr. 9-8/11-9. Vert. 41/26. 
Caec. pyl. 22. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 5| to 6| in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4 to 5 in the length of the head, 1 to lj 
diam. apart. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the 
eye. Fins the ventral inserted beneath the last half of the dorsal. 
Colour silvery. 

Hub. Coasts of India and all tropical and subtropical seas. 

Sixth group. ELOPINA. 
12. Genus ELOFS, Linnaeus. 

Branchiostegals numerous ; pseudobranchiae. Gill-membranes 
entirely separated. Body rather elongate and compressed. An 
osseous gular plate is attached to the symphysis of the mandibles 
and covers the intermediate area. Mouth wide, anterior ; lower 
jaw slightly the longer. Villiform teeth in the jaws, vomer, pala- 
tine and pterygoid bones, also on the tongue and base of the skull. 
Ventrals opposite to the dorsal, which has a few rays more than 
the anal. Scales small. Lateral line distinct. Pyloric appendages 
numerous. 

515. (1.) Elops saurus. (Fig. 125.) 

Elops saurus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 518 ; Day, Fi*h. India, p. 640, 

pi. clxvi, fig. 1 (see synon.). 
JaUuyu and Jinnagow, Tel. ; Ullahti, Tarn. ; Shonas, Marathi. 

B. xxix-xxxv. D. 22-24. A. 15-17. C. 19. L. 1. 95-100. L. tr. 12/14. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4^ to 5 in length of bead, | to 1 

2 D 



402 TELEOSTEI. PlIl'SOSTOMI. 

diam. from eiul of snout, and the same apart. Cleft of mouth 
oblique ; the maxilla extends to rather behind the posterior margin 







Fig. 125. Etopa saurus. 

of the orbit. Fins anal rather more concave than the dorsal ; 
caudal deeply lobed. Scales a few fine rows form a sort of sheath 
to dorsal and anal fins, also some over the root of caudal. Colout 
silvery; fins yellowish, with a greenish tinge. 

Hob. Tropical and subtropical seas ; attaining a considerable 
length. 

13. Genus MEGALOPS, Commerson. 

Branchiostegals numerous : pseudobranchise absent. Gill-mem- 
branes entirely separated. Body oblong and compressed. Mouth 
anterior, lower jaw prominent. A narrow bony plate adherent to 
the symphysis of the mandibles, and covering the space inter- 
mediate between the two bones. Villiform teeth in the jaws, vomer, 
palatine and pterygoid bones, also on the base of skull and on the 
tongue. 

Geographical Distribution. All tropical seas and many fresh 
waters. 

516. (1.) Megalops cyprinoides. (Fig. 126.) 

Clupea cyprinoides, Broussonet, Ich. t. ix. 

Megalops cyprinoides, Day, Fish. India, p. 650, pi. clix, fig. 3 (see 
synon.). 

Kimdittga, Tel. ; Punnikowu and NaJutrm, Ooriah ; Cunnay, Mai. ; 
Moran cundai, Tamil ; Nya-tan-youet and Nya Koonya, Burmese. 

B.xxiv-xxvi. D. 19-21. A. 24-27. C. 19. L. 1. 37-42. L.tr. 5-6/6. 
Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 4| to 5 in the total length. 
Eyes with narrow adipose lids, diameter 3| to 3 in the length of 
head, about | a diameter from end of snout and also apart ; the size 
of the eye in large specimens is frequently comparatively larger than 
in small ones. Fins dorsal commences opposite the ventral, and 
is two thirds as high as the body below it, its upper edge concave, and 
its last ray prolonged. Caudal deeply lobed. Colour back bluish 
green in the adult, lighter in the immature. Abdomen silvery, 



CLUPEID/E. 403 

with bluish reflexions. The margins of the scales of a brilliant 
silver, as are also the lateral line and the sides of the head. The 




126. Megalops cyprinoides. 



centre of the ja\vs black. Dorsal and caudal greyish, minutely 
dotted with black, and the margins blackish, as is also the last 
elongated dorsal ray. Pectoral, ventral, and anal diaphanous, with 
some black dots, the last anal ray dark. The pupils are oval, 
pointing downwards. 

Hal. Indian and Pacific Oceans, waters and estuaries of India, 
Ceylon, <fcc. ; occasionally captured in rivers, but much more 
commonly found in tanks. 

Sixth group. CHANINA. 
14. Genus CHANGS, Lacepede. 
Syn. Lutodeira (Kuhl), Riippell. 

Branchiostegals four ; pseudobranchias present. Gill-membranes 
entirely united below and not attached to the isthmus. Body 
moderately elongate and compressed ; abdomen rounded. An 
accessory branchial organ in a recess behind the true gill-cavity. 
Mouth small. Teeth absent. Ventral fin opposite the dorsal, 
which has more rays than the anal. Caudal deeply cleft. Scales 
rather small. Lateral line distinct. Air-bladder with a constric- 
tion. Pyloric appendages numerous. 

Geographical Distribution. Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

517. (1.) Chanos salmoneus. (Fig. 127.) 

Mugil chanos, Forsk. Descr. Anim. p. 74, no. 110. 

Mugil salmoneus, Bl. Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 121. 

Chanos salmoneus, Day, Fish. India, p. 651, pi. clxvi, fig. 2 (see 

synon.). 

Tulu candal, Tarn. ; Palah bontah, Tel. j Hu-meen, Canar. ; Pu-meen, 
Tulu. 

D. 13-16. P. 16. A. 9-10. L.I. 80-90. L. tr. 12/15. Vert. 19/26. 
Length of head 5^ to 5|, height of body 4 to 5% in the 






404 TELEOSTEI. PlIi'SOSTOMI. 

total length. Eye* diameter 3| to 3| ia the length of head, 

Lto 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 1^- apart. Fins 
rsal fin with its upper margin concave, and along its base 
are two rows of scales ; ventral inserted under the middle of the 
dorsal. Anal very small ; the lower margin of the fin concave, 
with two rows of scales along its base. Soaks some rows en- 
larged over the nape. Colout summit of head and back brilliant 
glossy blue, fading into silvery on the abdomen ; snout light brown. 
Dorsal and caudal rays greyish, and, as well as the membranes, 
dotted with light brown, both the fins are margined with black. 
The caudal semi-lunar lamina) of scales pale slate-colour, the 
pectorals and ventrals white, with the anterior halves of their 
external surface minutely dotted with dark brown, their elongated 
appendages bright silvery. The anal white, with the anterior half 
dotted with black. Iris silvery, orbital half pale brownish. 

Hob. Indian and Pacific Oceans ; attaining 3 feet and more in 
length. It is the milk fish or white mullet of Europeans in Western 
India. 



Fig. 127. Chanos salmoneus. 

In the Condapur tank in South Canara this fish has been accli- 
matized, and lives in slightly brackish water, where it grows to 
20 Ib. or 30 Ib. weight. There is a popular tradition that Ilyder 
AH introduced it from the sea into this piece of water, where it is 
strictly preserved. Mr. H. S. Thomas conjectures, with more pro- 
bability, that some fry were introduced through a breached sluice 
from the adjoining estuary. These fish are not to be caught 
with a rod and line, and Mr. V. Lewis gives an interesting account 
of how they were captured during the cold season of 1887-8 by 
means of a semicircle of boats, each consisting of two canoes lashed 
together. The boats were connected by a stout rope supporting a 
net, and the most curious circumstance was that not a fish was 
caught in the net, all leaped over it, and many over the boats too, 
those alone being captured that were knocked down by sticks and 
fell in the canoes*. 

* This work being limited to the indigenous fishes of India, the family of 
Salmonidce is omitted, as the Hindu Rush is the nearest locality to Hindu- 
stan where a species (Sulmo orientalis, McClelland, or S. oxianus* Kessler) is 
found. But as Sal mo fario var. levcnensis and the cyprinoid tench (Tincu 
vulgaris) have been introduced into the waters of the Nilgiri hills, it is 
necessary to mention them. 



OALAXID.Tv. 405 



Family VII. GALAXID^. 

Body more or less elongate; abdomen rounded. Pseudo- 
branch i.-c absent. Edge of upper jaw mainly formed by the pre- 
maxillaries. Dorsal fin opposite to the anal, no adipose fin. Air- 
bladder large and simple. Pyloric appendages few. The ova pass 
into the abdominal cavity before exclusion. 



1. Genus GALAXIAS, Cuvier. 
Syn. 'Mcsitcs, Jenyns. 

Definition as in family. Conical teeth in both jaws, vomer and 
palatine bones, and large teeth on the tongue. 

Geographical Distribution. Southern portion of South America, 
Australia, New Zealand, where it has been observed to be 
restricted to fresh waters ; this Indian form was from the coast. 



518. (1.) Galaxias indicus. (Fig. 128.) 
Galaxias indicus, Day, Fish. India, Suppl 1888, p. 806. 

B. ix. D. 13. P. 10. V. 8. A. 18. C. 15. 
Length of head 8|, height of body 11 in the total length. 
Eyes 3| diameters in length of head and 1^ from end of snout. 
Body elongated and flattened, with a rounded abdomen. Fins 
ventral well developed and arising midway between the hind edge 
of the eye and the posterior extremity of the base of the anal fin. 




Fig. 128. Galaxias indicus. 

Dorsal fin commences opposite the origin of the anal, and in about 
the commencement of the last third of the total length, it is highest 
in front. Caudal forked. 

Hob. Coasts of Bengal and Madras, probably entering estuaries ; 
attaining about 2 inches in length. 

Among the drawings of the late Sir Walter Elliot is one of a 
small fish, a little over 1 inch in length, and a magnified copy 
nearly four times that size. The fish was taken at Waltair, 
April 8th, 1853. Its form is deeper than the foregoing, and it 



406 TELEOSTEI. PIITSOSTOMI. 

has D. 17, A. 24. No ventral fins are shown, and the vent is 
placed in the centre of the length of the body. Dorsal fin com- 
mences slightly in advance of the anal and in the commencement 
of last third of the total length ; caudal forked. Colour a row of 
black spots along the edge of the abdomen. Sufficient details are 
not given to enable one to decide on the position it should hold. 
In the absence of ventral fins, which may have been overlooked, 
it somewhat approaches the Leucopsarion petersii of Hilgendorf . 

'* 



Family VIII. NOTOPTERID.E. 

Pseudobranchia3 absent. Body compressed. Tail prolonged, 
tapering. Margin of the upper jaw formed by the premaxillaries 
mesially and the maxillaries laterally. No subopercle. A parieto- 
mastoid cavity on either side of the head connected with the 
interior of the skull. Barbels absent. Dorsal fin, if present, 
single, and belonging to the caudal portion of the vertebral column ; 
ventrals rudimentary or absent; anal fin with numerous rays and 
confluent with the caudal. Head and body with small scales. 
Lateral line present. Abdominal edge serrated in front of the 
ventral fins. Stomach without any blind sac. Two pyloric appen- 
dages. Air-bladder present, and subdivided internally. The ova 
fall into the cavity of the abdomen before exclusion. 



1. Genus NOTOPTERUS, Lacopede. 
Syn. Mystus, sp., Ham. Buch. ; Xenomystus, Giinther. 

Branchiostegals from 3 to 9. Gill-membranes partly united. 
Snout obtuse, convex. Muciferous channels on head well 
developed. Preopercle and occasionally some of the other bones 
of the head serrated. Teeth in jaws, vomer, palatine and sphenoid 
bones, also on the tongue. Intestines short. Csecal pylori long. 

Geographical Distribution. Fresh and brackish waters of West 
Africa, also of the continent of India and the Malay Archipelago. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Maxilla not extending beyond hind edge of orbit . . 1. N. kapirat, p. 406. 
Maxilla extending far beyond hind edge of orbit . . 2. N. chitala, p. 407. 

519. (1.) Notopterus kapirat. (Fig. 129.) 

Gymnotus notopterus, Pallas, Spic. Zool. vii. p. 40, t. vi, fig. 2. 
Notopterus kapirat, Lacep. H. N. Poiss. ii. p. 190 ; Dai/, Fish. India. 
p. (353, pi. clix, tig. 4 (see synon.). 



NOTOPTEBIDjE. 407 

Moh, But, and Ptirri, Tunj. ; Moh, N.W. Prov. ; Pholo, Bengv ; 
Anibutan-icaMah, or ' Barber's knife,' and Chota wahlah,T&m.; Walluk- 
tdtlali, Mysore; PulK, or ' a slice,' Ooriah ; Kan-doo-lee, Assam; Nya- 
phe, Burin. ; Chdlat and Chamlaree, Marathi. 

B. viii. D. 7-8. V. 5-6. A. 100-110. 0. 19. L. r. 225. Vert. 15/54. 

Length of head 5 to 5, height of body 3 to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4| to 5 in the length of head. Dorsal 
profile not so convex as that of the abdomen. The maxilla reaches 




Fig. 129.Notopterus kapirat. 

to below the middle of the orbit. Preorbital serrated. Fins 
dorsal commences nearly midway between the snout and the end of 
the caudal fin. Settles those on the cheeks much larger than 
those on the body ; about 28 serrations along the abdominal edge 
between the throat and the insertion of the vtntral fin. Colour 
silvery, darkest on the back; some gloss of yellow about the head. 
Numerous fine greyish spots everywhere. Upper surface of dorsal 
whitish. Eyes golden. 

Hal. Fresh and brackish waters of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago. Grow to 2 feet or more in length. 

520. (2.) Notopterus chitala. 

Mystus chitala, Ham. Such. Fish. Ganges, pp. 236, 382. 
Notopterua chitala, Day, Fish. India, p. 654, pi. clix, fig. 5 (see 
synon.). 

Chitul, Ooriah ; See-tul, Assam. ; Gundun, Sind. ; Chitala, Beng. 
B. viii-ix. D. 9-10. A.I 10-125(135). C. 12-14. L. 1. 180. Cajc. pyl. 2. 

Length of head 4| to 5, height of body 3| to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 7 to 8 in the length of the head. Dorsal 
profile very convex, abdominal nearly straight. Upper profile of head 
deeply concave. Snout rather prominent; the maxilla extends 
posteriorly to about the diameter of the eye behind the hind edge of 
the orbit. Preorbital entire. Fins dorsal much nearer to tail 
than to snout. Scales those on the head not much larger than 
those on the body. There are about 51 serrations along the 



408 TELEOSTEI. PJIYSOSTOM1. 

abdominal edge between the throat and the insertion of the ventral 
fin. Colour coppery brown above, with about 15 transverse silvery 
bars joining over the back ; sides silvery ; fins stained with 
greyish spots, which are like black stars in the caudal region, 
placed in a single or double row close to the anal fin and some- 
times extending the whole length of its base. 

Hob. Fresh waters of Sind, Lower Bengal, Orissa, Assam, 
Burma, and Siam to the Malay Archipelago; attaining at least 
4 feet in length. 



Family IX. SCOPELID.E. 

Branchiostegals as a rule numerous. Pseudobranchia3 well de- 
veloped. Gill-openings very wide. Opercular pieces sometimes 
incomplete. Margin of the upper jaw formed by the premaxillaries. 
Barbels absent. Two dorsal fins, the posterior adipose. Scales 
present or absent. Ova enclosed in sacs in the ovaries and ex- 
cluded by oviducts. Intestinal canal short. Pyloric appendages, 
when present, few in number. Air-bladder small or absent. 

Geographical Distribution. Throughout tropical, subtropical, 
and temperate seas. These fishes in many respects are allied to 
the Siluroids. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

Caudal forked. V. 8, the inner rays much the longest . . 1. SAUHTTS. 
Caudal forked. V. 9, inner rays scarcely longer than outer 2. SA UIUDA. 

Bones of head soft. V. 9. Caudal trilobed 3. HAIIPODON. 

Bones of head ossified. Caudal forked. Luminous spots 

along the body 4. SCOPELUS. 



1. Genus SAURUS, Cuvier. 
Syn. Synodus, pt., Gronovius; Laurida, pt. (Aristotle), Swainson. 

Branchiostegals 8-17. Gill-membranes not attached to the 
isthmus. Body elongate, subcylindrical. Gape of mouth wide, 
cleft very deep ; edge of the upper jaw entirely formed by long 
and thin premaxillaries ; the maxillary likewise elongate, thin, and 
adherent to the premaxillaries. Teeth numerous, pointed, some 
are elongate, slender, and can be laid downwards and inwards ; 
they exist on the jaws, tongue, and palatine bones, a single band 
on the palate and usually none or only a few on the vomer. First 
dorsal situated nearly in the middle of the length of the fish ; 
adipose fin small. Ventral with eight rays, the inner the longest : 
it is inserted further in front than the origin of the dorsal and not 
far behind the pectorals, which are short ; anal of moderate length 
or short. Caudal forked. Scales of moderate size. Lateral line 
entire. Pyloric appendages free. 






409 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical portions of the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans ; Mediterranean. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. 9. Head pointed 1. 8. indicus, p. 405). 

A. 16-17. Snout obtuse 2. S. myops, p. 409. 

521. (1.) Saurus indicus. 
Saurus indicus, Day, Fish. India, p. 503, pi. cxvii, fig. 4. 

B. xv. D. 13. P. 14. V. 8. A. 9. C. 19. L. 1. 55-57. L. tr. 3|/7. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 7 to 8 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 5| in length of head, rather more than 1 diam. 
from efid of snout, and nearly 1 apart ; the width of the snout at 
its base equals its length. Interorbital space somewhat concave. 
Upper jaw slightly the longer. Cleft of mouth extending to far 
behind the eyes. Teeth inner row in the jaws the longest, some 
in the mandible barbed. Five rows of large teeth on the tongue. 
A single band on the palatines of which the inner row is much 
the largest. Fins dorsal about as long as high. Inner ventral 
rays the longest, the fin reaches nearly halfway to the base of the 
anal. Colour brownish in the upper two thirds, dirty white 
beneath. Numerous bluish irregular spots or blotches along the 
back and sides, in places almost forming horizontal bands. Dorsal 
and caudal white, with greyish spots, forming irregular horizontal 
bands. 

Hob. Madras ; growing to 7 inches in length. 

522. (2.) Saurus myops. (Fig. 130.) 

Salmo myops (Foret.), Bl Schn. Syst. Ich. p. 421. 

Saurus myops, Day, Fish. India, p. 504, pi. cxvii, fig. 5 (see synon.). 

B.xvi. D. 12-13. A. 16-17. C. 17-19. L.I. 52-56. L.tr.3J/7. 
Length of head 4|, height of body 6 in the total length. Eyes 




Fig. 130. Saurus myops. 

diameter 6 in length of head, \ to | diam. apart, and also 
from the end of snout. Dorsal profile nearly horizontal. Cleft 



410 TELEOSTEI. PHTSOSTOMI. 

of mouth extending to at least two diameters behind the orbit ; 
jaws of about equal length. Interorbital space deeply concave. 
Teeth pointed, two rows in the upper, three in the lower jaw, 
the inner the longest. A single two-rowed band on the palate. 
Tongue likewise toothed. Fins first dorsal commences midway 
between the snout and the second dorsal ; second dorsal very small. 
Caudal with its lower lobe the longer. Lateral line slightly raised 
in single tubes, with a small elevation on either side. Colour 
upper half of body golden, with four longitudinal blue lines having 
black edges, and nearly as wide as the ground-colour. A black 
spot at shoulder. Abdominal surface silvery. Dorsal fin with 
three rows of yellow spots ; a yellow band along the middle of the 
pectoral ; outer half of anal yellow. 

Hob. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and the tropical 
portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The species attains 
to 16 inches at least in length. 



2. Genus SAURIDA, Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
Syn. Synodus, pt., Gronovius ; Laurida, pt. (Artedi), Swainson. 

Differs from Saums as follows : Teeth cardiform, the inner 
the longest and slender, all can be laid downwards and inwards ; 
teeth exist on the jaws, tongue, and palatine bones ; those on the 
palate are in two parallel bands on either side, the inner the 
shorter. Ventral fin with nine rays, the inner not much longer 
than the outer. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. 10-11. L. 1.53-64. L. tr. 4i/7 1. S. tumbil, p. 410. 

A. 9. L. 1. 60-62. L. tr. 3J/7 2. & nebulosa, p. 411. 

523. (1.) Saurida tumbil. (Fig. 131.) 

Salmo tumbil. Block, Ich. t. 430. 

Saurida tumbil, Duy, Fih. India, p. 504, pi. cxvii, fig. 6 (see synon.). 
Arranna, Mai. ; Oolowvay and Cul-nahmacunda, Tamil ; Chorbombil, 
Maratlri ; Badi mottah, Tel. 

B. xiii-xvi. D. 11-13/0. A. 10-11. L. 1. 53-64. L. tr. 4/7. Vert. 53. 

Length of head 4| to 5|, height of body 1\ to 8 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 5 in length of head, 1| diam. from end 
of snout, and the same apart. Fins first dorsal in the centre of 
the body ; the adipose dorsal is situated over the last two anal 
rays. Caudal deeply forked. Colour brownish grey along the 
back, becoming white beneath, the whole having yellow reflexions. 
In some the dorsal arid upper half of the caudal fins are barred in 
spots. In others there are no spots, and the middle of the pectoral 
and ventral are sometimes almost black. 






SCOPELIDJE. 411 

7/o6. From the Eed Sea through the seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago, China and Japan. As food this fish is rather dry 
and insipid. It attains at least a foot in length. 




Fig. ISl.Sattrida fumbil. 

524. (2.) Sanrida nebulosa. 

Saurida nebulosa (Solandtr), Cuv. $ Val. H. N. Pom. xxii, p. 506 ; 
Day, Fish. India, p. 505 (see synon.). 

B. xii-xiii. D. 10-11/0. P. 12-13. A. 9-10. L. 1. 50-52. L. tr. 3^/6. 

Length of head 4f to 5J , height of body 6 to 9 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 4 to 5^ in the length of the head, rather 
above 1 diameter from end of snout, and | to 1 diameter apart. 
Fins dorsal higher than long. Pectoral reaches to the ninth 
scale of the lateral line. Ventral as long as the head excluding 
the snout. Scales forming a slight ridge in the last portion of 
the lateral line. Colour brownish, becoming lighter below; a 
series of bars or blotches along the middle of the sides ; fins 
barred. 

JJab. From the Red Sea, Madagascar, Zanzibar, and Mauritius, 
through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 



3. Genus HARPODON, Lesueur. 

Syn. Triurus, Swainson ; Sauridichthys, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals 2325. Gill-openings wide. Bodv elongate 
and compressed. Eyes small. Snout short, bones of head soft 
and partly modified into wide muciferous channels. Cleft of mouth 
deep ; margin of upper jaw formed by the premaxillaries, which 
are thin and tapering ; maxillaries absent. Teeth cardiform, re- 
curved, and of unequal size, the largest being on the mandibles and 
barbed. Teeth on the preinaxillaries, mandibles, palatines, tin.; 
tongue and hyoid bone, those on the palatines are large and can 
be laid downwards. Dorsal fin in the middle of the body; adipose 
fin small. Anal of moderate length. Caudal trilobed. Scales 
thin and deciduous, none on the anterior portion of the body. 
Air-bladder absent. Pyloric appendages 16. 



412 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMT. 



525. (1.) Harpodon nehereus. (Fig. 132.) 

Osraerus ? nehereus, Ham. finch. Fish. Ganc/e*, pp. 209, 380. 
Harpodon nehereus, Day, Fish. India, p. 505, pi. cxviii, fig. 1 (see 

synon.). 

Bummaloh or " Bombay duck," Cucah sawahri, or Coco motf.ah, Wanah 
monah, Tel. ; Bonibil, Marathi ; Barcya, Arracan ; Luftia muchcc, Chitta- 
gong ; Nga hnat, Burmese. 

D. 12-13 | 0. P. 11-12. V. 9. A. 13-15. C. 19. Vert. 38. 

Length of head 5| to 6, height of body 6| to 7 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter -^ of the length of the head, 2 diameters 
from end of snout, and 4 apart. Lower jaw the longer. Oper- 
cular pieces diaphanous and apparently more or less blended 
together. Fins ventral opposite the dorsal; the adipose dorsal 
opposite the posterior third of the anal; ventral reaches to the 
middle of the anal; caudal divided into three pointed lobes, of 
which the median is rather the shortest. Scales commence op- 
posite the origin of the dorsal fin, all are diaphanous, and can but 




Fig. 132. Harpodon nehereus. 

with difficulty be distinguished in the fresh fish. Lateral line 
slightly keeled, with about forty fine rectangular membranous 
pieces, covered with scales like the rest of the body. Colour 
head, back, and sides semitransparent like gelatine, light greyish, 
with minute black or brownish dots ; anterior part of the abdomen 
pale, silvery bluish ; rest greyish white ; fins transparent, closely 
dotted, in some specimens black. Iris golden. 

Hob. From Zanzibar to China, throughout the seas and estuaries 
of India, most common at Bombay, but decreasing in numbers 
down the Malabar coast. It is not very common at Madras, but 
augments in numbers up the Coromandel coast, being very abun- 
dant in the rivers and estuaries of Bengal and Burmah. 

This fish is highly esteemed as food, whether fresh or salted ; 
in the latter form it is extensively employed as a relish with 
curries, and is known as the " Bombay duck." It attains at least 
] 6 inches in length. 



SC'OPELID.E. 413 

4. Genus SCOPELUS, Cuvier. 

Syn. Myctophum (Nyctophus}, Lampanyctus, Cocco ; Alysia, Lowe ; 
Neoscopelus, Johnson ; Ceratoscopelus, Dasyscopelus, Giinther. 

Branchiostegals 8-10. Gill-openings very wide. Body oblong 
and compressed. Eyes large ; sometimes a supraorbital spine. 
Snout short. Bones of head thin, but osseous. Cleft of mouth 
very deep ; premaxillaries long and tapering ; maxillaries well 
developed. Teeth villiform in both jaws, on the palatines, ptery- 
goids, and on the tongue ; usually absent from the vomer except 
in some large specimens. Eayed dorsal fin in about the middle of 
the length of the body ; a small adipose fin likewise present. 
Pectoral well developed, also the ventral, which has eight rays. 
Anal rather long. Caudal forked. Scales large, smooth, or with 
rough edges, or even minute spines. Air-bladder small. Pyloric 
appendages few. 

These fishes have a row of luminous spots along the lower 
portion of the body ; sometimes similar spots are also present on 
the head, snout, and back of tail, or a few may occur on the sides. 

Geographical Distribution. Temperate and tropical seas. 

526. (l.) Scopelus indicns. (Fig. 133.) 
Scopelus indicus, Day, Fish. India, p. 507, pi. cxviii, fig. 2. 
D. 10/0. P. 14. V. 8. A. 18. L. 1. 43. L. tr. 3J/5. 

Length of head 5, height of body 4| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 2| in the length of head, | diam. from end of snout 
and also apart. No spine above the orbit. Fins dorsal not quite 
so high as the body below it. Pectoral reaches the middle of the 
ventral, whilst the ventral nearly extends to the anal. Scales 
smooth, the row beneath the lateral line much larger than the 




Fig. 133. Scopelus indicitit. 

others. Colour deep metallic blue in the upper portion of the 
body, becoming lighter on the sides and beneath. A line of round 
golden spots along the lower edge of the abdomen, and a few 
larger ones scattered over the sides. 

Halt. A single specimen, now in a bad state, was collected by 
Sir Walter Elliot at Vi/agapatam. 



414 TKLEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 



Family X. CYPRINODONTID^l. 

Pseudobranchia) absent. Eyes lateral. Margin of the upper 
ja\v formed solely by the premaxillaries. Barbels absent. Teeth 
in both jaws, also in the superior and inferior pharyngeal bones. 
A single spineless dorsal fin situated in the posterior half of the 
body. Scales on head and body. Stomach without any blind sac. 
No pyloric appendages. Air-bladder simple, and destitute of a 
pneumatic duct. 

This family has been subdivided into: Gyprinodontidie carni- 
vore, having united mandibles and short intestines ; and C. limno- 
phagae, having separated mandibles and long intestines. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

Dorsal tin nearer head than anal 1. CYPHINODON. 

Dorsal fin further from head than the elongate anal . . 2. HAPLOCHILUS. 



1. Genus C yPRINODON, Lacepede. 
Syn. Lebias, Cuvier ; Aphanius, Nardo ; Micromtiyil, Gulia. 

Gape of mouth small ; mandibles short and united at the sym- 
physis. Teeth of moderate size, in a single compressed row, and 
notched at their summits. Origin of dorsal fin anterior to that of 
the anal, and largest in the male sex. Scales rather large. The 
colour of the sexes often different. Intestines of moderate length 
or rather short. 

Geographical Distribution. Southern Europe, North Africa, 
Syria, Persia, along the shores of the Eed Sea and Arabian Gulf to 
Cutch. 

527. (1.) Cyprinodon dispar. (Fig. 134.) 

Lebias dispar, Rilppell, Atl. Fische, p. 66, 1. 18, fig. 1 (male), 2 (female). 
Cyprinodon dispar, Day, Fish. India, p. 521, pi. cxxi, fig. 1 (male), 

"2 (female) (see synon.). 
B.iii. D. 9. P. 17. V. 7. A. 10. C. 15. L. 1. 25-27. L. tr. 8. 

Length of head 3| to 4, height of body 3f to 4 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3| in the length of the head, nearly 
1 cliam. from end of snout, and 1| apart. The maxilla does not 
reach to below the front edge of the eye. Fins ventrals elon- 
gate in the males but not in the females. Caudal lunate. 
Colour Male : greenish yellow reticulated darker, a small dark 
shoulder-spot. Dorsal fin spotted, anal more sparingly so. Caudal 
yellowish, with a wide crescentic black band, having a white edge 



Cl'PlilNODONTID.E. 415 

in its last half ; another narrow black band between it and the root 
of the caudal which is also dark. Female : silvery, with from seven 




Fig. 134. Cyprinodon dispar, male. 

to nine narrow vertical bands. Ova very large, almost equalling 
the diameter of the eye. 

Hab. Abyssinia, Palestine, shores of the Eed Sea, and Arabian 
Gulf. Common in Cutch. 



2. Genus HAPLOCHILUS, McClelland. 

Syn. Aplocheilus, McClelland ; Panchax, Cuv. & Val. ; Zygonectes, 
Micristius, Gill. 



Body somewhat elongate and compressed. Upper surface of 
head and nape broad and depressed. Mandibular bones united at 
the symphysis. Teeth villiform in the jaws, present or absent on 
the palate. Dorsal fin short, commencing behind the origin of the 
anal, which latter has an elongate base. Scales cycloid and of 
medium size. Lateral line absent. Intestinal canal of moderate 
length. 

Geographical Distribution. India to the Malay Archipelago arid 
beyond, Tropical Africa, Madagascar and Islands in the Indian 
Ocean, also temperate and tropical America. In India these fishes 
are mostly found in the neighbourhood of the sea or tidal rivers, 
more rarely very far inland*. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. 20-24. No prolonged ventral ray 1. H. melastigma, p. 415. 

A prolonged ventral ray. Spotted with red. . 2. H. rubrostigma, p. 416. 
A prolonged ventral ray. Vertical black bands 3. H. lineatus, p. 416. 

A. 15-17. No prolonged ventral ray 4. H. panchax, p. 417. 

;/ *** ,, f /WJ 
528. (1.) Haplochilns melanostigma. 

Aplocheilus melastigmus, McClelland, As. Res. xix, Ind. Cyp. 

pp. 301, 427, pi. 42, tig. 3 (from H. . MSS.}. 
Haplochilus melastigma, Day, Fish. India, p. 522, pi. cxxi, fig. 4 

(see synon.). 



* These fishes are termed Kud-di-an in Canarese ; a white occipital spot is 
almost invariably present. 



416 TELEOSTEI. P1IYSOSTOMI. 

B. iv. D. 6-7. A. 20-24. C. 15. L. 1. 27. L. tr. 9-11. 

Length of head 4^, height of body 3f to 4 in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3 in length of head, 1 diam. from end of snout 
and also apart. Teeth minute, none on the palate. Fins ventral 
small, without any prolonged ray. Anal with in some (not all) 
examples its rays prolonged in a filiform mannerT>ey6nd the mem- 
brane. Caudal rounded. Colour dull green along the back, 
becoming dull white on the abdomen, outer portion of anal rays 
white-edged. A narrow dark line along the middle of the side, 
terminating iu a dull spot at the centre of the base of the caudal 
fin. 

Hab. Wynaad, and Madras Presidency, Orissa, Lower Bengal 
and Burma; attaining about 1| inches in length. 

529. (2.) Haplochilus rubrostigma. 

Aplocheilus rubrostigma, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xv. 1849, 

p. 331. 
Haplochilus rubrostigma, Day, Fish. India, p. 522, pi. cxxi, fig. 5 

(see synon.). 

B. v. D. 8. P. 15. V. 6. A. 17-18. C. 15. L. 1. 33. L. tr. 9. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 5| in the total length. Eyes 
diameter 3| in the length of head, l| diam. from end of snout, 
and 1| apart. Teeth on vomer. Fins ventral with its second 
ray elongate and reaching to the middle of the anal. Anal much 
lower in front and increasing in length to the last ray. Central 
caudal rays rather prolonged. Colour a silver occipital spot. 
Body reddish brown above, becoming yellowish on the sides and 
beneath. Each scale along the side with a central red spot. A 
row, sometimes two, of red spots along the base of the anal fin, 
some on the dorsal, and a few dark spots on the caudal. 

Hub. Malabar coast of India, and the lower portion of the Coro- 
rnandel coast ; attaining to at least 3 inches in length. 

530. (3.) Haplochilus lineatns. (Fig. 135.) 

Panchax lineatum, Cuv. $ Vol. H. N. Poiss. xviii, p. 381. 
Haplochilus lineatus, Day, Fish. India, p. 522, pi. cxxi, fig. 6 (see 
synon.). 

B. v-vi. D. 8-9. A. 15-17. C. 19. L. 1. 32-34. L. tr. 9. 

Length of head 4|, height of body 5 to 5^ in the total length. 
Eyes diameter 3| in the length of head, lj diam. from end of 
snout, and 1| apart. Teeth a single row across the palate. Fins 
second ventral ray elongate, reaching to nearly the middle of the 
anal fin ; anal high, the last rays about the same length as the 
first ; central caudal rays rather prolonged. Colour varying with 
the seasons and sex ; greenish with a gloss of purple on the cheek 
and along the abdominal surface. A golden green spot in the 



CRYPRINODONTlD.i:. 417 

centre of each scale. Eight to ten vertical black bands pass down 
the sides to the abdomen. lu a Ceylon specimen in the British 




Fig. 135. Haplochilus lineatus. 

Museum there are dark blotches and not distinct bars as seen in 
Malabar examples. 

Hab. This species is found in Coorg and the Wynaad, down the 
Malabar coast and in Ceylon. It attains 4 inches in length. 

531. (4.) Haplochilus panchax. 

Esox panchax, Ham. Bitch. Fish. Ganyes, pp. 211, 380, pi. iii, fig. 69. 
Haplochilus panchax, Day, Fish. India, p. 523, pi. cxxi, fig. 3 (see 
synou.). 

Pang-chax, Beng. ; Kanakuri and Bor-ro-guddi, Ooriah ; Nya-saki, 
Mugh ; Cho-to-dah, Andainanese. 

B.v-vi. D.7-11. A. 15-17. C. 13. L. 1. 31-34. L. tr. 9-10. 

Length of head 4 to 4^, height of body 4| to 5 in the total 
length. Eyes diameter 3j in the length of head, 1 diam. from 
end of snout, and 1| apart. Teeth in a broad band on the vomer. 
Fins ventral small and without any elongated ray. .Anal nearly 
square. Caudal rounded. Colour a white occipital spot. Upper 
surface greenish, becoming dull white on the sides and beneath. 
Fins yellowish, lower third of dorsal covered with a large black 
spot. Dorsal, caudal, and anal margined with orange. 

A variety exists on the Sind hills, and in Cutch, which has less 
scales (28) along the lateral line, numerous silvery spots along the 
sides, and a black spot behind the eye, the dorsal and anal fins are 
likewise more elongate. 

Hab. From Orissa, through the lower province of Bengal, Burma, 
Siam to the Malay Archipelago, also the Andamans. (? Also Siud 
hills.) This species attains at least 3 inches in length. 



Family XI. SCOMBRESOCIMl. 

Syn. Fharynaognathi malacopterygii, Miiller. 

Pseudobrauchiflo concealed, glandular. Margin of the upper ja\v 
formed mesially by the premaxillaries, laterally by the maxilhiries. 
Barbels present or absent. Lower pharyngeals united into a single 

2E 



418 TELEOSTEI. PIIYSOSTOMI. 

bone. Dorsal fin rayed, sometimes with finlets posterior to it, 
situated opposite the anal, arid in the caudal portion of the ver- 
tebral column ; no adipose dorsal. Scales present, frequently a 
keeled row along either side of the free portion of the tail. Air- 
bladder generally present, sometimes cellular, and destitute of a 
pneumatic duct. Stomach and intestines in one straight undivided 
tube. Pyloric appendages absent. 

Geographical Distribution. Tropical and temperate seas, some 
of the species being resident in fresh water. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

Both jaws elongated into a beak. No finlets .... 1. BELOXE. 
Upper jaw short, the lower elongated into a beak . 2. HEMIRHAMPHFS. 
Jaws short ; pectoral fins elongated into organs for 
flying 3. EXOCCETUS. 

1. Genus BELONE, Cuvier. 

Syn. Mnstacembelus (Klein), Bleeker ; Rhamphistoma, Eaf.; Tylo- 
surus, Cocco ; Potamorrhaphis, Giinther. 

Branchiostegals rather numerous. Gill-openings wide. Body 
elongate, subcylindrical or compressed. Eyes lateral. The jaws 
prolonged into a beak, the upper formed by the premaxillaries. 
Fine rugosities in both jaws, and a single row of long, widely-