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Full text of "The fishes of India; being a natural history of the fishes known to inhabit the seas and fresh waters of India, Burma, and Ceylon"

v< S. National Vuv.u 



Division of Fishes, 
S, 



THE 



FISHES OF INDIA; 



BEING 



A NATURAL HISTORY 



OF 



THE FISHES 

KNOWN TO INHABIT THE SEAS AND FRESH WATERS 



OF 



INDIA, BURMA, AND CEYLON. 



BY 



FRANCIS DAY, F.L.S., & F.Z.S., &c, 

»•• 

SURGEON-MAJOR MADRAS ARMY, AND INSBE^oVofifti^RAL OF FISHERIES IN INDIA AND BURMA. 







LONDON: 
PUBLISHED BY BERNARD QUABITCH, 15 PICCADILLY. 

1876. 



47* 






THE PISHES OE INDIA. 



CLASS PISCES. 

Vertebrate animals which are, as a rule, exclusively adapted for an aquatic life, and have their 
extremities modified into fins. Respiring, almost invariably, solely by means of gills :* possessing a heart 
with only two cavities, and being cold-blooded. They are scaleless, partially or wholly scaled, the scales being 
sometimes in the form of osseous plates. 

SYNOPSIS OP SUB-CLASSES. 

I. Teleostei or Eletjtheeobeanchii. Skeleton osseous. Brain distinct. Skull possessing cranial bones. 
Vertebras completely separated, and the posterior extremity of the vertebral column bony, or having bony plates. 
Branchias free, and the water discharged through a single aperture on either side, protected by a bony gill-cover 
or opercle : branchiostegal rays present. A non-contractile bulbus arteriosus, having a pair of valves at its 
commencement. 

II. Chondropteetgii or Elashobeanchii. Skeleton cartilaginous. Brain distinct. Skull -without 
cranial sutures. Gills pouch-like, and attached by their outer edge to the skin, whilst an intervening gill-opening 
exists between each. No gill-cover. Bulbus arteriosus contractile, and having three rows of valves at its com- 
mencement. 

SYNOPSIS OP ORDERS AMONGST THE TELEOSTEI. 

I. Acanthoptebygii. A portion of the dorsal, anal, and ventral fins unarticulated, forming spines.f Air- 
vessel, when present, completely closed, not possessing a pneumatic duct. 

II. Anacanthini. AH the rays of the vertical and ventral fins articulated ; the latter, when present, being 
jugular and thoracic. 

III. Phtsostomi. All the fin rays articulated, with the exception of the first in the dorsal and pectoral 
which sometimes are more or less ossified. Ventral fins, when present, abdominal and spineless. Air-vessel, if 
existing, having a pneumatic duct (except in Scombresocidce). 

IV. Lophobeanchii. Pishes possessing a dermal segmental skeleton, with the opercular pieces reduced 
to a single plate. Gill-openings small. Gills consisting of small rounded tufts, attached to the branchial arches. ' 
Muscular system very slightly developed. Snout produced : mouth terminal, but small. Teeth absent. Air- 
vessel stated to be destitute of a pneumatic duct. 

V. Plectognatht. Fishes with the bones of the head completely ossified, whilst those in the remainder 
of the body are incompletely so : vertebras few. Gill-openings small, situated in front of the pectoral fins. Gills 
pectinate. Head generally large. Mouth narrow : the bones of the upper jaw mostly united, sometimes produced 
into the form of a beak. Teeth in the jaws absent or present. There may be a single soft-rayed dorsal fin, 
belonging to the caudal portion of the vertebral column, and situated opposite the anal : in some a rudimental 
spinous dorsal is also present : ventrals when existing, have the form of spines. Skin either smooth, with rough 
scales, or ossified in the form of plates or spines. Air-vessel destitute of a pneumatic duct. 

Geographical distribution. The Acanthopterygian Pishes do not exist in any numbers in the inland 
fresh- waters of India, being mostly confined to either within, or but a short distance removed from tidal 

* Certain fish as the Ldbyrintlvici and OphiocepJialidoi can live in water even with a bandage fastened ronnd their gills, entirely 
preventing their nse for respiratory purposes, provided they can obtain direct access to atmospheric air. Such a proceeding would however 
be fatal to the majority of fishes, thus showing that some forms possess means of depurating their blood which are not present to all. 

f There are some genera in which the fins can hardly be said to possess any true spines as amongst the Trachinidce, Aulostoma- 
tid/z, Tmchinidce, &c. 

B 



2 TELEOSTEI. 

influence, or above the sea level. The larger the river, the greater is the probability of their extending then- 
range up it. The hard rayed fishes captured in the fresh waters, mostly belong to one of the following genera. 
Lates, Ambassis, Nanihis, Baclis, Pristolepis, Scicena, JEquula, Gobius and allied genera, Mwjil, members of the 
Labyrinthiform and Opldocephaloid families, as well as the spined eels, and the Etropli. 

SYNOPSIS OF FAMILIES AMONGST THE ACANTHOPTERYGIL* 

First Group — Perciformes. 

Body elevated or oblong, not elongate. No superbranchial organ. Spinous dorsal well developed, the 
soft dorsal similar to the soft anal : ventrals thoracic, 1/4 or 1/5. t Vent remote from the end of the tail, and 
posterior to the ventral fins. No prominent anal papilla. 

1. Perciclce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Neither molars nor cutting teeth. Vertical 
fins generally scaleless. Lateral line almost invariably present and uninterrupted. J 

2. Squamipinnes. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Body mostly elevated and compressed. 
Neither molars nor cutting teeth, setiform ones may exist in the jaws, or villiform ones on the palate. Vertical 
fins scaled. Lateral line uninterrupted. 

3. Mullidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Teeth feeble, jaws and palate variously armed 
or edentulous. Two long and stiff barbels below the chin. 

4. Nandidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Teeth feeble, but dentition more or less 
complete. Lateral line interrupted or absent. 

5. Sparidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Either rows of cutting or conical teeth in the 
front of the jaws, or a lateral row of molars, or both conjoined. 

6. Girrlvitidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Neither cutting nor molar teeth. Lower 
pectoral rays unbranched. 

7. Scorpcenidce. Preopercle articulated with the orbit. Some of the bones of the head armed. 

8. Teuthididce. Each ventral fin having two sjsines and three intermediate soft rays. 

Second group — Beryciformes. 

Body oblong or elevated. Head with large, subcutaneous, muciferous cavities. Ventral fins thoracic, 
each with a spine, and less or more than five soft rays. Vent remote from the end of the tail, and posterior to 
the ventral fins. 

9. Berycidce as defined for the group. 

Third group — Kurtiformes. 

Body strongly compressed. A single dorsal fin, much less developed than the anal. Vent remote from 
the end of the tail, and posterior to the ventral fins. 

10. Kuiiidce as defined for the group. 

Fourth group — Polynemiformes. 

Mouth on the lower side of a prominent snout : muciferous system on the head well developed. Two 
rather short dorsal fins : several free and articulated filaments below each pectoral. Scales more or less 
covering the vertical fins. Vent remote from the end of the tail, and posterior to the ventral fins. 

11. PolynemidcB as defined for the group. 

Fifth group — Sciseniformes. 
Muciferous system on the head well developed. The second dorsal fin much more developed than the 
first, or the anal : no pectoral filaments. Vent remote from the end of the tail, and posterior to the ventral 
fins. 

12. Scicenidce as defined for the group. 

Sixth group— Xiphii formes. 

The upper jaw produced into a long, sword-like process. Vent remote from the end of the tail, and 
posterior to the ventral fins. 

13. XipMidce as defined for the group. 

* This synopsis of the Families of Acauthopterygian fishes existing in India, is taken, with as slight alterations as possible, from 
the elaborate one in the British Museum Catalogue of fish, Vol. iii, Appendix. By adhering to this, it has been considered, that 
reference to the specimens in the national collection would be facilitated. 

■j- There are exceptions; thus in some genera amongst the Scorpomidce, the rays are rudimentary, and in TeutMdida the ventral 
fra has 2/3. 

{ For exceptions, see Genus Ambassis, also Poey has recorded from Cuba a Genus nearly allied to Liitimus, but which, 
amongst other things, is distinguished by having an interrupted lateral line. 



DSI 



FAMILIES OF ACANTHOPTERYGII. 3 

Seventh group — Trichiuriformes. 

Body band-like and compressed. Cleft of mouth deep. Teeth in jaws and palate, several being strong 
and conical. Dorsal and anal fins many rayed : ventrals, when present, in the form of a pair of scales : 
caudal absent or forked. Vent remote from the end of the tail, and posterior to the ventral fins when such 
are present. 

14. Trichiurklm, as defined for the group. 

Eighth group— Cotto-scombriformes. 

Dorsal fins placed close together or continuous, having fewer spines than rays, or the spinous portion 
may be modified into tentacles, detached spines, or a suctorial disk : anal similar to the soft dorsal, sometimes 
both fins are modified posteriorly into finlets: ventrals, when present, jugular or thoracic, never forming a 
sucker. No prominent anal papilla. Vent remote from the end of the tail, and posterior to the ventral fins, 
when such are present. 

15. Acanthuridce. A single dorsal fin with less spines than rays. One or more bony spines on either 
side of the tail in the adult. 

16. Carangidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Body oblong, elevated, or subcylindrical 
and compressed. Teeth, when present, villiform or conical. Spinous portion of the dorsal fin sometimes rudi- 
mentary : the posterior rays of the dorsal and anal, may consist of detached finlets : ventrals, when present, 
thoracic. Vertebra? 10/14 (Naucrates 10/16). 

17. Stromateidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Body oblong, and compressed. Barbed 
teeth extend into the oesophagus. One long dorsal fin without any distinct spinous portion. Vertebras exceed 
10/14. 

18. Coryphcenidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Body oblong or elevated, and compressed. 
No teeth in the oesophagus. One long dorsal fin without any distinct spinous portion. Vertebrae exceed 10/14. 

19. Nomeidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Body oblong, more or less compressed. Two 
dorsal fins, the spinous sometimes continuous with the soft portion, finlets occasionally present : anal spines 
mostly indistinct : caudal forked. Scales cycloid, of moderate or small size. Vertebras exceed 10/14. 

20. Scombridce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Body oblong, or slightly elongated and 
compressed. Two dorsal fins, the first being sometimes modified into free spines, or an adhesive disk, whilst the 
posterior dors&l and anal rays may be in the form of finlets. Scales, if present, small. 

21. Trachinidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Body low and more or less elongated. 
One or two dorsal fins. Vertebra? exceed 10/14. 

22. Batrachidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Body low, and more or less elongated. 
First dorsal fin consisting of a few free spines : ventrals jugular 1/2. 

23. Pediculati. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. The spinous dorsal, when present, composed 
of a few isolated spines which may be modified into tentacles : carpal bones forming a sort of arm for the 
pectoral fin : ventrals, when present, jugular, having four or five rays. 

24. Cottidce. Preopercle articulated with the orbit. Body more or less elongated. Some of the bones 
of the head usually armed. Pectoral fins with, or without filamentous appendages : ventrals thoracic. Body 
scaleless, scaled, or with a single row of plate-like scales. 

25. Gataphracti. Preopercle articulated with the orbit. Head and body, more or less angular, 
cuirassed with plates, or keeled scales covering the body. 

Ninth group — Gobiiformes. 

Spinous dorsal short and composed of flexible spines, the soft dorsal and anal being of equal extent : 
ventrals when present, thoracic or jugular, having 1/5 or 1/4. A prominent anal papilla. Vent remote from 
the end of the tail, and posterior to the ventral fins when such are present. 

26. Gobiidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Ventrals either united so as to form a disk, 
or else placed close together : anal spines may be absent. 

27. Gallionymidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Two dorsal fins, the first with from four 
to six flexible spines : ventrals wide apart. 

Tenth group — Bleniiformes. 

Body elongated and more or less cylindrical. Spinous portion of dorsal fin when distinct, may be as 
fully or even more developed than the soft part : anal more or less elongated : ventrals. if present, thoracic 
or jugular : caudal, when present, sometimes sub-truncated or rounded. Vent remote from the end of the 
tail, and posterior to the ventral fins when such are present. 

28. Blenniidce. Preopercle not articulated with the orbit. Ventral fins when present, jugular : anal 
spines few, or absent. Often a pro mi nent anal papilla. 

29. RJiynchobdellidce. Body eel-like. Anterior portion of the dorsal fin consisting of numerous free 
spines : ventrals absent. No prominent anal papilla. 

b 2 



4 TELEOSTEI. 

Eleventh group — Mugiliformes. 

Two distinct dorsal fins, the anterior short, or similar to the posterior : ventrals well developed, abdo- 
minal, 1/5. Vent remote from the end of the tail and posterior to the ventral fins. 

30. Sphyrceniclce. Body elongate, sub-cylindrical. Teeth large and cutting. Vertebras 24. 

31. Aiherinidce. Body more or less elongated, and somewhat sub-cylindrical. Dentition feeble, or 
moderate. Vertebras usually exceeding 10/14. 

32. Mugilidce. Body more or less elongated, and somewhat sub-cylindrical. Dentition feeble. First 
dorsal fin consisting of four stiff spines. Vertebras 24. 

Twelfth group — Gasterosteiformes. 

The spinous dorsal, when present, short or formed of isolated spines : ventrals abdominal* sometimes 
imperfectly developed. Vent remote from the end of the tail, and posterior to the ventral fins, when they are 
present. 

33. Aulostomateidce. Anterior bones of the head forming a tube having a small mouth at its extremity. 
Ventral fins with six rays. 

34. Centriscidce. Anterior bones of the head forming a tube having a small mouth at its extremity. 
Two dorsal fins, the first short, the soft and the anal of moderate extent : ventrals imperfectly developed. 

Thirteenth group — Channiformes. 

Body elongate. No labyrinthiform superbranchial organ, but a bony prominence on the epitympanic 
bone. Dorsal and anal fins long, all destitute of spines. Vent remote from the end of the tail, and posterior 
to the ventral fins, when such are present. 

35. Ophiocephalidce. Ventral fins present, or absent. 

Fourteenth group — Labyrinthibranchii. 

Body compressed, oblong or elevated. A labyrinthiform superbranchial organ arising from the bran- 
chial arches, and employed for respiratory purposes. Vent remote from the end of the tail, and posterior to 
the ventral fins. 

36. Labyrinthici. Dorsal and anal spines present, and often numerous. 

Fifteenth group — Trachypteriformes. 

Body elongate and strongly compressed. Skeleton soft. Dentition feeble. Anal fin absent: caudal 
not in the longitudinal axis of the fish, or else rudimentary : ventrals thoracic. 

37. Trachypteridce as defined for the group. 

Sixteenth group — Labriformes. 
Body oblong, elongated, or elevated and compressed. The lower pharyngeal bones coalesced along the 
median line, and with or without a median longitudinal suture. A single dorsal fin, the number of spines 
and rays being nearly equal : soft anal similar to the soft dorsal : ventrals 1/5, thoracic. 

38. Pomacentridce. Bones of the head may be armed, or smooth. Scales ctenoid. 

39. Ldbridce. Scales cycloid. 

* Dr. Giintber observes that in the Aulostomatei/los " the ventrals have an abdominal position in consequence of the prolongation 
of the pubic bones, which are attached to the humeral arch." In the Centriscidce, on the contrary, we find the "ventral fins truly 
abdominal, imperfectly developed." 



GENERA OF PERCIDCE. 



Family, I— PERCIDJE. 

Percoidei, pi, Scicenoidei, pi, et Mcenides, pt., Cuv. : Percidce, pi, Theraponidce, pt., Hcemulonidce, pt, 
Richardson : Percidce, pt., et Pristipomatidne, pt., Giinther, Catal., and Percidce, Fisehe d. Sudsee : Ambassoidei, 
pt. Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals from five to seven : pseudobranchiae present. Form of body generally oblong, and not 
elongated. Muciferous system of head rudimentary, or but slightly developed. Eyes lateral. No super- 
branchial organ. Preopercle entire or serrated : cheeks not cuirassed. Mouth in front of snout, having a 
lateral cleft, occasionally on the lower side : moderately or in some cases very protractile. Teeth in the jaws 
villiform, with or without canines, present or absent on the vomer, and palatines. Anterior portion of the 
dorsal fin spinous : ventrals thoracic, 1/5 or sometimes 1/4. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Lateral line when 
present continuous, (except in some species of Ambassis.) Air-vessel usually present and more or less simple. 
Pyloric appendages in varying numbers. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIAN GENERA. 

First group — Percina. 

Form of body oblong. Opercles strongly denticulated or armed. Cleft of mouth rather oblique. Two 
dorsal fins : three anal spines. Scales of moderate size, usually ctenoid. Pyloric appendages few. 

1. Lates. Branchiostegals seven. Preorbital and opercle serrated, the latter denticulated at its angle. 
Villiform teeth, on jaws, vomer, and palate. 

Second group — Serranina. 

Form of body oblong, sometimes elevated. Opercles serrated or armed. Cleft of mouth rather oblique. 
One, or more rarely two dorsal fins. 

2. Cromileptes. Branchiostegals seven. Opercles armed. Fine teeth in jaws, vomer, and palate, without 
canines. A single elevated dorsal fin : three anal spines. Scales small, cycloid. 

3. Serranus. Branchiostegals seven. Opercles armed. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, and palate : 
canines present. A single dorsal fin : three anal spines. Scales small, cycloid or ctenoid. 

4. Variola. Branchiostegals seven. Opercles armed. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, and palate : 
canines present : lateral conical teeth in lower jaw. A single dorsal fin : three anal spines : caudal deeply 
forked. Scales small, ctenoid. 

5. Anthias. Branchiostegals seven. Opercles armed. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, and palate : 
canines present. A single dorsal fin : three anal spines : caudal deeply forked. Scales of moderate size. 

6. Grammistes. Branchiostegals seven. Opercle spinate. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, and palate. 
Two dorsal fins : no anal spines. Scales minute. 

7. Diploprion. Branchiostegals seven. Opercle spinate : preopercle with a double denticulated limb. 
Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, and palate. Two dorsal fins : anal with two spines. Scales small, adherent. 

8. Lutianus. Branchiostegals seven. Opercle scarcely spinate : preopercle serrated, and its vertical 
border may be notched to receive an interopercular spinate knob, which is sometimes present. Vi lli form teeth 
in jaws, vomer, and palate, generally canines in both jaws, and an outer row of conical lateral ones. A single 
dorsal fin : anal with three spines. Caudal more or less emarginate. Ctenoid scales of moderate or small size. 

Third group — Priacanthina. 
Lower jaw prominent. Cleft of mouth almost vertical. Scales ctenoid, small. Caecal pylori few. 

9. Priacantlms as defined in group. 

Fourth group — Apogonina. 
Form of body more or less elevated and compressed. Opercles mostly denticulated or armed. Cleft of 
mouth oblique or even nearly vertical. One or two dorsal fins. 

10. Ambassis. Branchiostegals six. Horizontal lim b of preopercle with a double serrated border : 
opercle without a prominent spine. Villiform teeth on the jaws and palate. A recumbent spine anterior to 
the first dorsal fin : three anal spines. Scales of moderate or small size, deciduous. 

11. Apogon. Branchiostegals seven. Preopercle with a double border : serrated or entire. Opercle 
spinate. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, and palate. Two anal spines. Scales large, deciduous. 

12. Gheilodipterus. Branchiostegals seven. Preopercle with an inner ridge, and sometimes with a 
double serratore : opercle not spinate. Canines, also villiform teeth in the jaws and palatines. Two anal spines. 
Scales large, deciduous. 

Fifth group — Grystina. 

Body oblong or elevated. Opercles entire, or variously serrated. Cleft of mouth more or less oblique. 
One or two dorsal fins. 



6 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

13. Dules. Brancliiostegals six. Preopercle serrated : opercle spinate. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, 
and palate. A single dorsal fin, deeply notched between the ninth and tenth spines : three anal spines. Scales 
ctenoid and of moderate size. 

Sixth group — Theraponina. 

Branchiostegals six. Opercle spinate : preopercle serrated. Cleft of mouth somewhat oblique. Dorsal 
fin single, but more or less notched : three anal spines. Air-vessel divided by a constriction into an anterior 
and posterior portion. 

14. Therapon. Teeth villiform in jaws, deciduous on vomer and palate. 

15. Dahlia. Teeth villiform in jaws, palate edentulous. Snout rather produced. 

16. Helotes. Palate edentulous, teeth in the outer row in the jaws having a small lobe on either side. 

Seventh group — Pristipomatina. 

Branchiostegals from five to seven. Preopercle serrated or entire. Mouth moderately protractile. 
Teeth in the jaws. Three anal spines. Air-vessel destitute of any constriction. 

17. Pristipoma. Branchiostegals seven. Opercle with indistinct points : preopercle serrated. Cleft 
of mouth horizontal : a median groove along the under surface of the lower jaw. Dorsal fin single, but often 
with a deep cleft between the last two spines. 

18. Hapalogenys. Branchiostegals six or seven. Preopercle serrated : opercle with short points : 
barbel-like papdlse on the mandible. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, and palate, with an outer enlarged row in 
the former. Spinous dorsal low, and deeply cleft : anal with three spines. Fins covered with fine scales. 

19. Diagramma. Branchiostegals six or seven. Preopercle serrated. Mouth small : lips thick : pores 
on the under surface of the lower jaw, but no median groove. A single dorsal fin. 

20. Lobotes. Branchiostegals six. Upper profile of the head concave. Preopercle serrated. Lower 
jaw the longer. A single dorsal fin. 

21. Scolopsides. Branchiostegals five. Preopercle serrated. A backwardly-directed spine on the 
infraorbital ring of bones : opercle with a weak spine. A single dorsal fin. 

22. JDentex. Branchiostegals six. Preorbital high. Preopercle entire. Generally strong canines. 
More than three rows of scales on the preojsercle. A single dorsal fin. Air-vessel notched posteriorly. 

23. Synagris. Branchiostegals six. Preorbital high. Preopercle serrated, or entire. Canines, not 
very strong, at least in the upper jaw. Three rows of scales on the preopercle. A single dorsal fin. 

24. Pentapus. Branchiostegals six. Preorbital low. Preopercle entire. Generally strong canines. 
Three or more rows of scales on preopercle. A single dorsal fin. 

25. Smaris. Branchiostegals six. Preopercle entire. Vomer edentulous. Mouth protractile. A single 
dorsal fin. 

26. Odontonectes. Branchiostegals six. Preopercle serrated. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, and 
palatines. A single dorsal fin. 

27. Caisio. Branchiostegals six or seven. Preopercle entire or finely serrated. Palate edentulous. 
A single dorsal fin. 

Eighth group— Gerrina. 

Branchiostegals six. Body elevated or oblong. Preopercle serrated or entire. Mouth very protractile. 
Villiform teeth in the jaws. A single dorsal fin : three anal spines. Air-vessel simple. 

28. Datnioides, Preopercle serrated : opercle with short spines. A deeply notched dorsal fin : caudal 
rounded. 

29. Gerres. Preopercle mostly entire. Inferior pharyngeal bones united by a suture. Dorsal fin with 
a scaly sheath. Caudal forked. 

Geographical distribution. The Indian PEECiniE are almost entirely marine fishes, if we are to judge 
from the localities where they breed, and the places in which they are most abundant. It is by no means 
uncommon to capture specimens of hates long distances above tidal influence, but it is unusual to find any of the 
genera Serranus, Lutianus, Therapon, Pristipoma, Lobotes, Datnioides, or Gerres, many miles beyond the reach of 
the tides. The remainder of the genera (excluding Ainbassis) are almost entirely marine. Amongst this last 
genus, which is considered by several excellent ichthyologists as forming a distinct family, some are confined to 
salt water, but the majority are spread through the larger rivers and tanks of the plains. 

The colours and tints in fishes vary in different waters, if for instance the latter is opaque or muddy, its 
finny inhabitants will be found darker ; whilst, on the other hand, in clear water they are brighter, and generally 
lighter.* Age and season likewise exercise an influence in this respect. Thus the Lutianus marginatus has a 
black lateral blotch in the young which generally, but not invariably, disappears in the adult ; the same is seen in 
Chastodon lunula, Utroplus Suratensis and many other fishes. In some of the Serrani, and sometimes in 

* Dr. Stark (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 88) observed that the effect of keeping living fish in fresh water contained in vessels of 
different colours, created a tendency to their assuming the colour of the vessel in which they were kept. In marine forms it has been 
suggested that the depths of the ocean at which some reside may have an effect upon their colours. 



FAMILY, I— PERCIL\E. 7 

Pristipoma, Caranx, Osphromenus, &c, vertical bands are found, as a sign that the fish is immature. Lateral 
longitudinal broad bands are frequently modified, two narrow ones taking the place of a single wider one, as seen 
in Cheilodipterus, Diagranvma, &c. Likewise in stuffed examples, or in those which have been long macerated in 
spirit, marks which were distinct in the fresh specimen, become more or less obliterated. Irrespective of the 
foregoing, the period intervening between capture and examination, has a considerable bearing upon their 
fugitive colours, as well as whether they have been sodden in water, or kept dry by their captors : for instance, 
if a dark coloured fish is placed in a dry situation, and strips of moist cloth laid over it and kept wet, the portions 
of the body which have not been allowed to dry will be found to be of a lighter tint than those not so treated, 
and this banded appearance which can be so easily produced is indelible. It is by no means uncommon for the 
caudal fin to be white in the young, but black in the adult as in Diagranvma nigrum. 

The foregoing brief remarks on the colours of fishes will explain how it is that the descriptions in this 
-w r ork do not always agree with those of other observers. Such discrepancies indeed often merely mean, that 
the colours of the same species of fish may differ in different districts. 

First group — Percina. 

Form of body oblong. Opercles strongly denticulated or armed. Cleft of mouth rather oblique. Two 
dorsal fins : three anal spines. Scales of moderate size. Pyloric appendages few. 

Genus, 1 — Lates, Guv. and Vol. 

Branchiostegals seven: pseudobranchim. Body oblong and someivhat compressed. Preorbital, and shoulder 
bone serrated : preopercle with strong spines at its angle, and denticulated along its horizontal limb : opercle spinate. 
Teeth villiform on jaws, vomer, and palatine bones, tongue smooth. Two dorsal fins united at their bases, the first 
with seven or eight spines, the anal with three : caudal rounded. Scales finely ctenoid, and of moderate size. Ccecal 
pylori few. 

Geographical distribution. Mouths of the Nile : from the coasts of Sind throughout the seas of India to 
the Malay Archipelago, China, and Australia. 

Uses. Besides being in most places excellent as food, their air-vessels or sounds are dried, and appear in 
commerce as rough isinglass, much of which is exported from India to China, and some to Europe. Cantor 
observes that this fish " yields isinglass in the Straits, but little is collected, partly on account of the comparative 
scarcity of the fish, and partly owing to the thinness of the air-vessel. That of a large sized fish when dried 
weighs upwards of one ounce." 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES.* 

1. Lates calcarifer D 7 — Sj-n^T^i A. ■$%, L. 1. 60. Colour greyish. Seas of India, China, and Australia. 

1. Lates calcarifer, Plate I, fig. 1. 

Holocentrus calcarifer, Bloch, t. 244. 

Perca calcar, Bl. Schn. p. 89. 

Perca pandoomenoo, Russell, Fish. Vizag., ii, p. 23, f. 131. 

Holocentrus heptadactylus, Lacep. iv, pp. 344, 391. 

Coius vacti, Ham. Buch. Fish. Granges, pp. 86, 369, pi. 16, f. 28. 

Lates nobilis, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 96, f. 13 ; Richardson, Ich. China, p. 222 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 27 ; Cantor, 
Catal. Mai. Fish. p. 1 ; Hageman, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind. 1851, p. 348. 

Lates calcarifer, Giinther, Catal. Fish, i, p. 68 & P.Z.S. 1870, p. 824; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 2. 

Plectropoma calcarifer, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xlv, fig. 3. 

Dangara, Sind. ; Nuddee-meen or Nair-meen, Mai. ; Painnee-meen or Koduiva, Tam. ; Pandu Jcopah or 
Pandu menu, Tel. ; Durruah and Beklcut, Ooriah ; Begti, Beng. ; Nga-tha-dyh, Arrac ; Koral, or if large Baor, 
Chittagong ; Todah, Andam. ; Gocli-up of Europeans. 

B. vii, D. 7—Qj^—, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. ¥ 3 ¥ , C. 17, L. 1. 52—60, L. tr. 6—7/13, Ceec. pyl. 3. 

Length of head from 3/11 to 1/4, of caudal 1/5 to 1/6, height of body 3/10 to 3/11 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 1/5 to 1/6 of the length of the head, from 1 to \\ diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 of a dia- 
meter apart. In the immature the eye is comparatively larger. The maxilla extends to below the posterior 
edge of the orbit. Preorbital and preopercle finely serrated, the latter with an obtuse angle, having a large tooth 
directed backwards, and three smaller but strong denticnlations along its lower edge : opercular spine weak. 
Shoulder bone serrated. Teeth — villiform on jaws, vomer, and palatines. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the third 
the highest, equalling about the length of the post-orbital portion of the head, from it they decrease : third anal 
spine longest and strongest, their proportionate lengths varying according to age, thus at four inches long the 

* Although only one species of this Genus has been described from India, it will be necessary here to indicate the mode which 
will be pursued in this work as to the position of each individual in Genera which possess more than one. An excellent method is to 
begin with that form which is most typical : a second plan is to commence with those having the greatest affinity to the preceding Genns 
and finish with those closely allied to the following one, in which case the most typical forms are in the middle: the third and least scien- 
tific is what I propose adopting in order to facilitate reference, it is to place first those possessing the largest number of spines, rays and 
scales, and continuing this plan throughout the Genus. Colour will not be adopted for reasons advanced under the next Genus. 
(See page 9.) 



ACANTHOPTEKYGII. 



second spine is 3/4 as long as the third, but at 20 inches it is not above 1/4 so long : pectoral shorter than 
ventral, and rounded : caudal fan-shaped. Air vessel — thin, but furnishes a good isinglass. Colours — grey, with 
a dash of green along the back, and sdvery on the abdonien : during the monsoon time it has a tinge of purple. 
The immature are usually darker than the adults. 

Having examined Bloch's typical specimen still at Berlin, I find that it has as he states D. 7/ T l . 

Deformities in this fish are by no means rare. In one case the last few dorsal rays were deflected to the 
left side of the free portion of the tail, and had there become continuous at their bases with the anal spines, 
which were likewise inserted along the same portion of the fish, whflst the anal rays were in their natural position. 

It is very remarkable how in fishes which have died and stiffened with their mouths open, and the opercles 
and branchial rays distended, the appearance of the head becomes much changed, whilst it is difficult, or impos- 
sible to subsequently bring them back to then- normal shape. Thus the profile of the head becomes more 
horizontal, whilst the posterior extremity of the maxilla does not reach so far back as when the mouth had been 
naturally closed. 

Habitat. — Seas, backwaters, and mouths of tidal rivers in the East, up which last it often ascends long 
distances to prey upon its weaker neighbours. It is excellent eating when from the vicinity of large rivers. It 
salts well, and from it some of the best ' Tamarind-fish' is prepared.* 

Second group — Serranina.t 

Form of body oblong, sometimes elevated. Opercles serrated or armed. Cleft of mouth rather oblique. 
One, or more rarely two, dorsal fins. 

Genus, 2 — Ckomileptes, Swains. 

Serranichtliys, Bleeker : Lioperca, Gill. 

Branclviostegals seven : jpseudobranehice. Body oblong, compressed. Eyes lateral, of moderate size. Preopercle 
with its vertical limb finely serrated, its horizontal one entire. Opercle wiili two or three spines. Teeth fine in the 
javis, vomer, and palate, no canines; internal row in maxilla not fixed. Dorsal fin elevated, having ten or eleven 
spines, anal with three ; caudal rounded. Scales small, cycloid. 



OF 



SYNOPSIS 

1. Gromileptes altivelis, D. xS-Ixl-, A. - 
widely separated, black, white-edged spots. Seas of India to China and beyond 



INDIVIDUAL SPECIES, 

L. r. W . Upper profile of head concave. 



Covered with 




The above fish apparently belongs to the group Percina and may be a Lates. It is from a figure amongst the beautiful 
collection of coloured drawings made on the Coromandel coast of India by native artists, under the immediate supervision of Sir Walter 
Elliot, K.S.I, of the Madras Civil Service, who has most liberally placed the whole of them at my disposal for the purpose of this work. 
I have had it engraved in order to direct the attention of inquirers in India to it. 

t Bleeker (Eevis. des espec. Ind-Arch. du groupe des Epinephelini, 1873) divides the Epinephelini (Serranini, pt.) as follows: — 
I. Dorsal fin single or but slightly notched. Jaws and opercles scaled. Caudal fin with 15 divided rays. 

A. Forehead, snout and suborbitals scaleless. Jaws with canines, which in the mandibles are both 
anterior and lateral. 

1. Paraserranus, Blkr. Mandible scaleless. Inner row of teeth immoveable. Preopercle with a spine directed backwards. 
Dorsal with 10 spines ; dorsal and anal scaleless. Scales of moderate size, ctenoid. 

2. Variola, Swains.=Psei«Zoserraiius, Klunz. Mandible scaleless. Inner row of teeth moveable. Preopercle feebly serrated, 
without any spine. Dorsal with 9 spines : dorsal and anal scaled. Scales very small, ctenoid. 

3. Paracanthistius, Gill=Plectropoma, Gill (Cuv. and Val. ex. parte). Mandible scaled. Inner row of teeth moveable. 
Preopercle with its lower edge denticulated, the denticulations directed anteriorly. Dorsal with from 6 to 13 spines: dorsal and anal fins 
with scaly bases. Scales very small, ctenoid in the immature. 

B. Forehead and lower jaw scaled. Inner row of teeth in the jaws moveable : mandibles without lateral 
canines. Dorsal and anal fins scaled. Scales small. 

1. Epineplielus, ~Bloch=Cephaloplwlis, Bl.Schn.; Labroperca, Mycteroperca,Bodianus, Enneacentrus, Petrometopon, Promicrops, 
Schistorus, and Menephorus, Gill ; Prospinus, Poey; Priacanthichthys, Day. Teeth on vomer, and palate : canines in the premaxillaries. 
Dorsal with 9 to 1 1 spines. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. 

2. Cromipeltes, Sv/ams.^SerranicMhys, Blkr. ; TAopetca, Gill. Teeth on vomer, and palate: no canines in the jaws. Dorsal 
with 10 or 11 spines. Prolile anteriorly concave. Scales cycloid. 

3. Anyperodon, Glinther— Cema, Bp. ? Palate edentulous: no canines in the mandibles. Dorsal with 11 spines. Scales 
ctenoid. 



FAMILY, I— PERCIDJE. 9 

1. Cromileptes altivelis, Plate I, fig. 2. 

Serranus altivelis, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 324, pi. 35 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 230 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 33 ; 
Cantor, Catal. p. 10 ; Griinther, Catal. i, p. 152 ; Kner, Denks. Ak. Wiss. Wien. xxiv. t. i, f. 1. 

Cromileptes altivelis, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 201 ; Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. 44, f . 3 & Epinephelini, p. 26. 

B. vii, D. ifrH, P. 18, Y. 1/5, A. t l, c. 17, L. r. Wm>, L- ^. 36/—. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal about 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter from 
1/5 to 2/11 of the length of head, rather above 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. 
Upper profile of head concave. Mouth elongated and pointed, with the lower jaw much the longer. The 
maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated ; its lower limb, also sub- 
and inter-opercles entire. Opercular spines not well developed. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, the outer row in 
the maxilla, and inner in mandibles rather larger than the rest. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, the last 
being slightly longer than those preceding it, but only 2/3 or 3/4 as high as the highest dorsal ray ; soft portions 
of dorsal and anal fins angularly rounded, and much elevated : pectoral as long as the head : ventrals reach 
the anus : second anal spine stronger than but not quite so long as the third : caudal fan-shaped. Scales — cycloid, 
about 22 rows between the base of the sixth dorsal spine, and the lateral-line. Colours — head and body greyish 
becoming lighter on the abdomen : fins grey : everywhere covered with round, black, white-edged spots, those 
on the body, dorsal, and caudal fins being the largest. Bleeker observes that the magnitude, and number of the 
spots varies with the size of the specimen. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China. The specimen figured was taken at the 
Nlcobars by the late Dr. Stoliczka. It is about 9 inches in length. Cuv. and Yal. type skin has only 10 spines 
as in this case exists in my specimen. 

Genus 3 — Seeeahtjs,* Cuv. 

Epinephelus, sp. Bloch : Cephalopholis, sp. Bl. Schn. : Paraserranus and Serfanichthys, Blkr. : Labroperca, 
Mycteroperca, Bodianus, Enneacentrus, Petrometopon, Pronvicrops, Schistorus, and Menephorus, Gill : Prospinus, 
Poey : Priacanthichthys,-f Day. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchiai. Eyes lateral, of moderate size. Preopercle with its vertical limb 
more or less serrated, its horizontal one generally entire, operate ivith two or three flat spines. Teeth villiform in tlie 
iavjs, vomer, and palate : canines present. Tongue smooth. Dorsal fin single, having from eight to twelve spines : 
anal with three : caudal cut square, obliquely, emarginate, or rounded. Scales small, ctenoid or cycloid. Pyloric 
appendages many, in moderate numbers, or few. 

" Cavolini and Cuvier have, after repeated examinations, described the smooth Serranus (S. cabrilla), and 
some other species of this genus as true hermaphrodites, one portion of each lobe of roe consisting of true ova, 
the other part having all the appearance of a perfect milt, and both advancing to maturity simultaneously. A 
structure of a different kind which must be considered as accidental, has been observed by others in the perch, 
mackerel, carp, cod, whiting, and sole. This occasional malformation, to speak in a popular phrase, consists of a 
lobe of hard female roe on one side, and of soft male roe on the other side of the same fish."J 

The colour of these fishes, which varies so extensively in the same species, can hardly be accepted as a 
trustworthy guide for grouping. The form of the preopercle is not invariably identical in every specimen 
of the same species, or even on the opposite sides of a fish : whilst a spine is occasionally present at its angle 
in the immature, becoming more or less absorbed in the adult. The sub- and inter-opercles may be serrated or 
smooth in the same species as observed in Serranus boenack. The fins also alter with age, owing to the spines 
not increasing in leng-th so rapidly as the rays, consequently they may be comparatively shorter in the adult 
than in the young. Even the rays in the mature fish are found less in their proportionate height to the entire 
length of the specimen, than they are in the immature. The same thing occurs in respect to the anal spines, 
the second is sometimes the longest in the immature but becomes shorter than the third, in the mature, and this 
appears to be most frequent when the second spine is the strongest, augmenting in thickness whilst the third 
increases in length. Occasionally there is an excess of one spine and a deficiency of a ray in the dorsal fin, the 
first of the rays having apparently taken on a spinous character, as is seen more distinctly in some of the 
Spaeim:. The numbers of rows of scales is very important amongst these fishes, as so ably pointed out by 
Bleeker, and many a mistake in identification would have been saved, had his plan been adopted, which is to 
give the numbers of transverse rows going to the lateral-line from both above and below. As an example I 
would point to the Serranus Sonnerati, so easily distinguished when this plan is followed, but apparently so 
difficult where it is not attended to. 

Geographical distribution. — The seas of temperate and tropical regions. The members of this genus in 
India may be considered as entirely marine, a few, it is true, ascend rivers, not for breeding but predaeeous 
purposes, restricting their range, however, to within tidal influence. 

* Pishes of this genus are termed Cullawali, Tarn. 

t In the Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 193, 1 described PriacanthicWiys Hademspatensis as the type of a new genns having a long 
serrated spine at the angle of the preopercle, and also a serrated ventral one, D. -J-i, A. f, L. 1. 70, L. r. above 100. Dark violet, with 
two light blue longitudinal bands. Dr. Gunther suggests that it is the young of Serranus latifasciatus, Temm. & Schleg. which is by 
no means improbable, my largest specimen having been under two inches in length. 

% Yarrell, British Fishes, i, p. 11. 

C 



10 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Uses. Good as food, but coarse when very large. Isinglass is obtained from their air-vessels, but the 
amount is not very great. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

1. Sen-anus StoUczkce, D. ^-§-, A. T ? ¥ , L. r. ^|§-, L. tr. 14/40. Preopercle emarginate, and its vertical 
border serrated. Caudal rounded. Reddish, with four vertical bands on the body : head and anterior half of 
body spotted with red, or reddish yellow. Coasts of Sind and Aden. 

2. Serranus areolatus, D. -it-Vb; A. -g-, L. r. 105, L. tr. 19/47. Preopercle slightly emarginate : vertical 
limb serrated, having coarser teeth at its angle. Caudal emarginate. Reddish-brown, with hexagonal markings 
over the head, body, and fins, which latter have dark margins edged with white. From Aden throughout the 
seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

3. Serranus Wacmdersi, D. ±±, A. -§-, L. r. -iff, L. tr. 25/56. Upper two thirds of body, dorsal fin, and 
upper third of caudal covered with hexagonal or rounded blotches. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

4. Serranus lineatus, D. T y-x¥> -A- "b-o"; L. r. aaj, L. tr. 28/48. Cage. pyl. above 50. Preopercle 'with 
several denticulations at the angle, rather well developed. Caudal rounded. Brown, with four, five, or more 
blue longitudinal bands. India and China, attaining at least four feet in length. 

5. Serranus merra, D. Te-Vr; A. f, L. r. f-g-, L. tr. 16/32. Preopercle rounded, its vertical margin 
serrated, most coarsely at its angle. Pectoral fin as long as the head : caudal rounded. Reddish-brown 
everywhere covered with large brown spots. 

6. Serranus liexagonatus, D. T-gJrr, A. -§-, L. r. 1 -^f, Xj. tr. 13/16. Case. pyl. 32. Preopercle with strongest 
serrations at the angle. Caudal rounded. Brown, covered with large hexagonal, or rounded spots. Red Sea, 
East coast of Africa, seas of India, Malay Archipelago to the Pacific. 

7. Serranus maculatus, D. ii, A. £, L. r. yy, L. tr. 20/45. Preopercle rounded, vertical limb serrated, 
and most coarsely at its rather produced angle. Second, and third dorsal spines as long as the post-orbital 
portion of the head, and longer than the rays. Deep grey with round black spots on the head and some of the 
fins, becoming oval in the anterior half of the body, and rather sinuous on its posterior half. Coromandel coast 
of India, and the Andaman islands. 

8. Serranus flavo-cceruleus, D. y-j-Yy, A. f, L. r. Aff , L. tr. 22/. Serrations on preopercle weak, strongest 
at its angle. Caudal slightly emarginate. Purplish-blue, tail and fins gamboge-yellow, ventral and anal with 
black tips. From the East coast of Africa throughout the seas of India. 

9. Serranus fasciatus, D. \±, A. f, L. r. f-f. Preopercle rather strongly serrated, most so at its angle. 
Caudal rounded. Reddish or yellowish with indistinct vertical bands : dorsal, and caudal fins may be black 
edged. From the Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

10. Serranus tumilabris, D. ^i, A. -§-, L. r. ■§-§-> L. tr. 21/. Preopercle serrated. Caudal rounded. 
Greyish-olive, darkest along the back. Body, and head covered with irregularly-sized pearly- white spots, whilst 
a black line exists on the maxilla. Fins dark grey, externally nearly black ; the margins of the pectoral, 
ventral, soft dorsal, and caudal have a very narrow white border. The whole of the dorsal fin with white spots, 
as on the body. East coast of Africa, seas of India, and Burma, to the Malay Archipelago. 

11. Serranus cliacanthus, D. yil-rf, A. -gl T , L. r. *^°, L. tr. 20/45. Case. pyl. 11. Preopercle with strong 
teeth at its angle. Pinkish-brown on the back, rose coloured on the abdomen. Six vertical dark bands, the first 
on the head. Fins with dark margins. Found throughout the seas of India to Java. Is very common in Sind, 
and specimens reach 18 inches or more in length. 

12. Serranus sexfasciatus, D. -j-|-, A. -§-. Two spinate teeth at the angle of the preopercle. Brownish, 
with six vertical bands, and some irregular spots on the body. Dorsal, caudal, and anal yellow with black spots. 
Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

13. Serranus lamceolatus, D. t^Jts, A. f, L. r. y„ , L. tr. 20/52. Caacal pylori numerous, but very 
short. When young it is gamboge yellow, with five blackish-blue cross bands. Fins yellow with black bands, 
and spots. As it becomes adult the bands become broken up into irregular markings, and the yellow colour 
disappears, except from the fins, in which the black becomes also broken up into black spots. East coast of 
Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. Very numerous at Kurrachee : it attains a large size. 

14. Serranus erythrurus, D. aa, A. -§-. Preopercular border rounded, and finely serrated in its vertical 
portion. Fins rounded. Head, and back greenish shot with red ; under surface of the body silvery. Dorsal 
greenish ; pectorals, ventrals, and anal yellowish ; tail, and free portion of caudal reddish. Specimen 8 inches 
in length, but said to attain 4 feet. Malabar. 

15. Serranus Malabariaus, D. ti\r> -A-- f, L. r. yy, L - tr. 19/50. Caac. pyl. 50-60. Vertical limb of 
preopercle serrated, strongest at the angle. Fins rounded. Brownish, with about eight cross bands, the first 
over the head, the second over the nape. Head, and body covered with large round yellow spots, that usually 
become brown in dead specimens ; yellow spots also on the dorsal fin, which sometimes coalesce and form bands. 
East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Philippines. It attains a very large size. 

16. Serranus corallicola, D. -j-5-Vtj -A- f> -L. r. -f^. Greyish-brown with black spots. Madras to the 
Malay Archipelago. 

17. Serranus salmoides, D. xi-ks^ A. f, L. r. \/y, L. tr. 24/50. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated, 
with three or four coarse teeth at the angle. Fins rounded. Brownish yellow : body, and fins entirely covered 
with black, or yellow spots. From the Red Sea, through the seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 11 

18. Sen-anus semipunatatus, D. ±±, A. ■§-. The serrations on the preopercle are fine. Caudal rounded. 
Body with six, or seven broad cross bands ; head, and fins only are spotted. Pondicherry, to 1 foot in length. 

19. Serranus summana, D. i J-Vg-) A. -J. Canine teeth small. Preopercle serrated, with a shallow notch 
above its angle. Second anal spine longest and strongest : caudal rounded. Brown, body, and vertical fins 
covered with small, round, white dots. Scarcely any spots on the head : a black streak above the maxilla. 
Red Sea, East coast of Africa, and Andaman Islands, where it is very common. 

20. Serranus dermochirus, D. -fi-, A. f , appears to be a variety of the last species. Malabar. 

21. Serranus morrhua, D. \\, A. -§-, L. r. J-3-f-, L. tr. 21/46. Preopercle with three strong teeth at its 
angle. Caudal rounded. Greenish-olive, becoming dull yellow on the abdomen ; several irregular bluish- white 
bands radiate from the orbit, or exist on the head, whilst others are seen on the body. Red Sea, seas of Tndia 
to Japan. 

22. Serranus angularis, D. x^-Vg"' A. -§-, Csec. pyl. 13-14. Three strong denticulations at the angle of 
preopercle. Caudal lunate. Greyish, head and body, covered with large closely-set yellow spots. Fins spotted, 
all, except the pectoral, with black white-edged margins. An damans. 

23. Serranus fuscoguttatus, D. t^-Vi-j A. f, L. r. i^ , L. tr. 22/56. Canine teeth feeble in the upper and 
not apparent in the lower jaw. Vertical limb of preopercle rather strongly serrated, but more coarsely at its 
angle : third anal spine longest, but not so strong as the second : caudal rounded. Greyish, with brown spots 
of a larger or smaller size irregularly disposed. East coast of Africa : Andaman Islands. 

24. Serranus grammicus, D. \\, A. ■§■, L. r. \%^, L. tr. 17/44. Preojoercle serrated, more coarsely at its 
angle. Caudal fin cut nearly square. Greyish, with three narrow black bands ; the superior passes from the 
upper edge of the orbit to the last dorsal spine ; the second from the upper third of the orbit over the superior 
opercular spine to the base of the sixth dorsal ray ; and the third from the lower edge of the orbit to below the 
middle opercular spine, and on to the upper third of the caudal fin, where it takes the form of rounded blotches. 
Dorsal fin with a row of black spots along its centre, and edged with black ; anal, and caudal edged with black, 
the latter with numerous black spots. Madras, to at least 15 inches in length. 

25. Serranus boenack, D. t6"-t~s> -A- ~s-"9i •'-'■ r - 95, L. tr. 22/43. Preopercle most coarsely serrated at its 
angle. Caudal rounded. Yellowish-brown : snout pale blue : lips, and throat spotted with a dai'ker blue : and 
about five fillets of the same colour diverge from the orbit and cross the opercles. Tortuous blue lines along 
the body. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and China. 

26. Serranus miniatus, D. xs-Te' A. -g-.^-Q, L. r. 1 -££, L. tr. 14/40, Ca?c. pyl. 12 (Madras) to 16 (Andamans). 
Sub- and inter-opercles serrated, as is also the vertical limb of the preopercle : opercle, with three spines, the 
upper the shortest. Caudal rounded. Scarlet : body, cheeks, dorsal, caudal, and anal fins covered with large 
blue spots. Two dark streaks from the orbit along the snout : fins darkest at their outer edges. Two rows of 
large blue spots along the hard dorsal, and six or eight over the soft, and the anal. Madras, Andamans, to the 
Malay Archipelago. 

27. Serranus guttatus, D. -j-j?^, A. -g? ¥ , L. r. \%^, L. tr. 21/43, Case. pyl. 8. Preopercle not emarginate : 
edge very slightly if at all serrated. Brownish-black, head, body, and all the fins with round blue black-edged 
spots, caudal, anal, and the posterior half of the dorsal with a white edge. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago, China, and Australia. 

28. Serranus leopardus, D. jj'yy, A. -g-a, L. r. -§-§, L. tr. 10/26. Reddish or yellowish : body spotted : 
a dark band from the eye to the opercle : one or two more over the free portion of the tail, and an oblique black 
band across either caudal lobe. Red Sea, through the seas of India to China. 

29. Serranus Sonnerati, D. ^ A. ■§-, L. r. iff, L. tr. 27/40, Case. pyl. 11 or 12. Vertical limb of pre- 
opercle finely serrated : caudal rounded. A dull lake colour, the head, and jaws covered with reticulated 
bright blue lines. Some very indistinct spots over the whole of the body. Fins lake colour, darkest at the 
edges. Soft dorsal, anal, and caudal sometimes with lightish badly-marked spots. East coast of Africa, seas of 
India to Sumatra, and the Louisiade Archipelago. 

30. Serranus Boelang, D. 3^, A. -^-g, L. r. -§-§•, L. tr. 18/36. Preopercle rounded, and its vertical border 
finely serrated. Purplish, with eight or nine vertical bands on the body. East coast of Africa, Andamans to 
the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Serranus Stoliczkse, Plate I, fig. 3. 

B. vii, D. ii P. 17, V. 1/5, A. T 3 ¥ , C. 17, L. r. ±%%, L. tr. 14/40. 

Length of head, 3/11 to 2/7, of caudal 2/11 to 1/6, height of body 2/7 to 1/4 of the total length. -Eyes- 
diameter 1/4 to 2/9 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout and also apart. The maxilla extends to 
below the posterior 1/3 or hind edge of the eye. Vertical border of the preopercle emarginate, rather coarsely 
serrated most so at its angle, its lower limb, sub- and inter-opercles entire. Teeth — canines in both jaws, the 
outer row in the maxilla and the inner in the mandible larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines, 
excluding the two first, of about equal length, and from two-fifths to half the height of the body : pectoral as 
long as the head behind the middle of the orbit, and much longer than the ventral which reaches the vent : 
second anal spine strongest, the third somewhat the longest, equalling the third of the dorsal fin : caudal 
rounded. Scales — cycloid, extended over snout, suborbitals and hind half of maxilla. Colours — light brownish- 
red, becoming hyacinth-red on the sides and below, barred with four vertical darker bands, the anterior 
proceeding from the whole base of the spinous dorsal, these bands become indistinct in large specimens, 

C 2 



12 ACANTHOPTERTGII. 

Head, and body, as far as the base of the soft dorsal, and anal, spotted with reddish-orange or gall-stone yellow, 
which on the head, and sometimes as far as the base of the pectoral fin, are in hexagonal blotches, divided by 
light lines. Base of pectoral white having a black crescentic band. Under surface of the throat and chest 
with large black marks sometimes enclosing lighter spaces. Dorsal fin with chestnut-brown spots : some white 
ones on the caudal, and anal. 

I have dedicated this fish to the memory of my friend, and fellow worker in zoology, Dr. Ferdinand 
Stoliczka, whose untimely death, due to excess of zeal in the cause of Natural History, is referred to in the 
preface. 

Habitat. — Coast of Sind, very common at Aden : it attains at least 12 inches in length, the specimen 
figured is 6 inches long. 

2. Serranus areolatus, Plate I, fig. 4. 

Perca areolata, Forsk. p. 42. 

Perca tauvina, Geoff. Descr. de l'Eg. pi. 20, fig. 1. 

Serranus taiwinus, Geoff. Poiss. d'Eg. p. 201. 

Serramis areolatus (Japonicus), Temm. Schleg. Fauna Japon. p. 8; Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 350 ; Richards., 
Ich. China, p. 232 ; Peters, Wieg. Arch. 1855, p. 235 ; Giintker, Catal. i, p. 149 ; Klunzinger, Verh. z. b. Ges. 
Wien, 1870, p. 675. 

Serranus chlorostigma, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 352 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 151. 

B. vii, D. ^J^, P. 15, 1/5, A. I, C. 19, L. r. 105, L. tr. 19/47. 

Length of head 3/10 to 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/5 to 
1/6 of length of head, If diameters from the end of snout and 1 apart. Lower jaw the longer : the maxilla 
reaches to below the posterior edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle oblique, serrated, and with much 
coarser teeth at its somewhat produced angle : sub- and inter-opercles entire. Central opercular spine the most 
developed. Teeth — small canines in both jaws, the outer row in the maxilla, and the inner in the mandible, rather 
larger than the villiform bands. Fins — the third to the fifth dorsal spines the longest, and equal to the highest 
rays : pectoral as long as the head behind the middle of the eyes : third anal spine 1J diameters of the orbit 
m length, not quite so strong, but longer than the second : caudal emarginate : in some specimens the outer 
rays are slightly produced, and the intermediate portion of the fin is cut square. Scales — slightly ctenoid. 
Colours — reddish-brown, with hexagonal markings, formed by fine bluish- white lines, which exist over the head, 
body, and fins, the last have dark margins edged with white. In Madras and Andaman specimens, the markings 
an the fins are not always so distinct, whilst there is generally a white upper half to the last third of the caudal 
fin. Sometimes the pectorals are of an uniform yellow and not marked. 

The S. chlorostigma appears to be this species, with slightly stronger teeth at the angle of its preopercle 
than seen in typical S. areolatus, the markings are the same but lighter. 

Habitat. — Coasts of India, from the Red Sea to the Malay Archipelago, attaining a considerable size. 
Largest specimen obtained 21 inches in length, the one figured is 9 inches. 

3. Serranus Waandersi, Plate VIII, fig. 1. 

Epinephelus Waandersi, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xi, f. 3, and Epinephelini, p. 68. 

B. vii, D. H, P- 18, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. r. «£■*«> L. tr. 25/56. 

Length of head 3/11, of caudal nearly 1/6, height of body 4/15 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/9 (in a specimen 10 inches long) to 2/11 (in a specimen 20 inches long) of length of head, 1| diameters from ■ 
end of snout, and from 2/3 to nearly 1 apart. The posterior extremity of the maxilla reaches to below the middle 
of the orbit. Vertical limb of the preopercle rather strongly serrated, more especially at its angle, which is not ' 
produced, its lower limb, as well as sub- and inter-opercles entire : three distinct opercular spines, the central 
one being the most developed. Teeth — villiform, with an outer enlarged row in the upper and an inner in 
the lower jaw : small canines in both jaws : a narrow band along the centre of the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines 
of moderate length, increasing to the fourth which equals from 2/5 in the young to 1/3 in the height of the body 
below it, rays rather higher than the spines, soft portion of the fin and also of the anal rounded : pectoral 
longer than the ventral, and equalling the head behind the middle of the eye : anal spines rather strong, the 
third the longest, and equal to four-fifths that of the highest in the dorsal fin : caudal cut square in the young, 
but slightly emarginate in the adult, owing to the prolongation of the outer rays. Scales — rather strongly 
ctenoid, and thickly covering the snout, and suborbital ring of bones, as well as the posterior half of the maxilla. 
Colours — dark purplish, lightest on the abdomen, the whole of the head and body as low as the pectoral fin, the 
dorsal and upper third of the caudal, covered with large closely approximating rather dark edged blotches of 
yellow, which are rounded or hexagonal, those on the head being the smallest. Fins a little darker than the 
body, and stained with black at their edges : dorsal with a white margin : pectoral orange, upper half of caudal 
lighter than the lower (Male). 

I first observed this species in the Madras Museum in 1867, where it was labelled S. salmonoides. ■ I find 
it amongst Sir Walter Elliot's drawings. Jerdon (Madr. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 129) remarks under the head of 
S. suillus, " In one specimen, of which I possess a drawing, only the upper half of the caudal is spotted." 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 2 feet in length, the specimen 
figured is 10 inches long. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 13 

4. Serranus undulosus, Plate II, fig. 1. 

Bodianus undulosus, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Freycinet, Poiss. p. 310 (not Serranus undulosus, Cuv. and 

Val.). 

Serranus lineatus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 312 ; Jerdon, M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 129 ; Giinther, Catal. i, 

p. 156. 

Serranus Amboinensis, Bleeker, Amb. and Ceram. p. 258 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 156. 
Epinephelus undulosus, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 65, and Atl. Ich. t. 228, Perc. t. 10, £. 3. 

B. vii, D. yJ V9, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. ¥ 3 7 , C. 17, L. 1. ca. 90, L. r. iff, L. tr. 20/48, Csec. pyl. above 50. 

Length of head from 2/7 to 3/11, of candal 1/6, height of body 3/11 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/4 to 1/5 of length of head, from 1 to 1J diameters from the end of snout, and from 1/2 to 3/4 of a diameter 
apart. The maxilla reaches to below the last third or even the hind edge of the orbit. Preopercle serrated along 
its vertical edge, and with from two to four strong denticulations at its angle which is rather produced, especially 
in the adult : sub- and inter-opercles entire. Opercular spines distinct, the central one the most developed. 
In the fry a distinct spine exists at the angle of the preopercle. Teeth — one or two rather small canines on both 
sides of the symphysis in either jaw, those in the upper the larger : outer row of teeth in maxilla, and inner in 
the mandible larger than the vnliform bands. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the third to the 
fifth the longest, equal to the distance between the hind edge of the orbit and the upper opercular spine, and 
nearly as high as the rays : pectoral and ventral of about the same size, and equal to the postorbital length of the 
head : second anal spine the strongest and nearly as long as the third, which equals one and a third diameters of 
the orbit in length. Soft portions of dorsal and anal fins somewhat rounded : caudal cut square in the adult, but 
rather rounded in the young. Scales — ctenoid. Colours — reddish-grey, becoming lighter on the abdomen: 
numerous oblique narrow brown (blue ?) bands of varying length, and usually somewhat sinuous above the lateral- 
line not following the course of the scales, whilst they are more or less horizontal below it : dots and yellow 
lines on the head : fins rather dark, and stained at their edges. 

I place this species as S. undulosus, in accordance with Bleeker's observations. There is no doubt but 
that it is identical with S. lineatus C.V, the type specimen of which (a skin) exists in Paris. 

Amongst Sir Walter Elliot's drawings is one of this fish, termed Seela panni, October, 1848. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China. It is not uncommon at Madras where the 
young are numerous during the cold season. The longest specimen obtained was 12 inches. 

5. Serranus merra, Plate II, fig. 2. 

? Peraa tauvina, Forsk. p. 39 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1316. 
Epinephelus merra, Bloch, t. 329; Bl. Schn. p. 300 (not Bleeker). 
? Holocentrus tauvina, Bl. Schn. p. 321. 

Serranus Gfilberti, Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1842, p. 19, and Ich. China, p. 230 ; Giinther, Catal. i, 
p. 148. 

Serranus megachir, Richards. Ich. China, p. 230. 

Serranus pardalis, Bleeker, Perc. p. 37. 

Serranus Quoyanus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 153 ; (? Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 519). 

Epinephelus pardalis, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 232. 

Serranus tauvina, Klunz. Fisch. d. Roth. Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 683. 

Epinephelus Gilberti, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 91. 

B. vii, D. riJrr, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. &, C. 17, L. r. ff, L. tr. 16/32. 

Length of head 2/7 to 3/11, of caudal 2/9, height of body 3/11 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 
1/4 to 2/9 of the total length, 3/4 of a diameter from the end of snout, and also apart. Snout obtuse. The 
maxilla reaches to below the hind edge of the orbit. Preopercle rounded, its vertical border coarsely but evenly 
serrated, its lower edge and also the sub- and inter-opercles entire. Central opercular spine well developed. 
Teeth — small canines in both jaws, the outer row of teeth in maxilla, and inner in mandible, slightly larger than 
the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, the fourth somewhat the highest, equalling two-fifths 
of the length of the head, but not so long as the rays, from it they decrease to the last : soft portion of dorsal, and 
anal fins somewhat angularly rounded : pectoral large, as long as the head, and longer than the ventral : second 
anal spine strongest, and about as long as the third which slightly exceeds the second of the dorsal fin : caudal 
fan-shaped. Scales — ctenoid. Colours — reddish-brown, covered with large brown spots, except on the pectoral 
fin, on the head they appear to be usually somewhat hexagonal, with a light intervening reticulation : the 
marks on the body are larger, and also are usually hexagonal : pectoral with a dark semilunar mark over its 
base divided by a light band from the dark grey of the rest of the fin, which, as well as the ventral, and anal, has 
a black margin. A fine specimen in the Berlin Museum has a light edge to the pectoral fin. 

Bloch's type specimen of Epinephelus merra (pi. 329) is 8| inches in length, and still in Berlin amongst 
his fishes. 

S. Quoyanus, apud Giinther has its scales thus : L. r. ff, L. tr. 16/, and appears to me to be closely allied 
if not identical with S. merra, whilst it does not disagree with Valenciennes diagnosis, whose type specimen, 
however, I have not examined. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China. The specimen figured is 
8^%- inches long, and was captured at the Andaman Islands. 



14 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

6. Serranus hexagonatus, Plate II, fig. 3. 

Perca hexagonata, Porster, Desc. An. p. 189. 

Holocentrus hexagonatus, Bl. Schn. p. 323. 

Holocentrus merra, Lacep. pp. 342, 384. 

Serranus merra etfaveahis, Cuv. & Val. ii, pp. 325, 329. 

Serranus hexagonatus, Cuv. & Val. ii, p. 330 ; Guerin, Icon. Poiss. pi. 4, fig. 1 ; Richards. Voyage Sulphur, 
p. 82, pi. 38, fig. 1 ; Cantor. Catal. p. 7 ; Bleeker, Nat. T. Ned. Ind. vi, p. 191 ; Peters, Monat. Ak. Wiss. 1865 : 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 141 & Pische d. Sudsee, p. 7, t. vii ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 25 ; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. 
Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 683. 

Serranus confertus, Benn. Life Raffles, Pish. Sumatra, p. 686. 

Serranus nigriceps, Cuv. & Val. vi, p. 517. 

Fpinephelus hexagonatus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. 23, fig. 2. 

Epinephelus merra, Bleeker, Bpinephelini, p. 88 (not Bloch). 

Naambu, Bel. .: Pulli-cullawah, ' Spotted Perch' Tarn, 

B. vii, D. -5^ l,, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. a C. 17, L. r. u=?> L. tr. 13/36, Case. pyl. 32, (24 Kner). 

Length of head from 3/10 to 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/4 to 2/9 of the length of head, 1 to lj diameters from the end of snout, and from 1/3 to 1 apart. 
The maxilla reaches to below the hind edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle finely serrated in its 
upper two-thirds, more coarsely so in its lower third, especially at its angle, which, though usually rounded, is 
sometimes slightly produced and armed with one or two strong teeth, its lower limb and also the sub- and inter- 
opercles entire : the central opercular spine the most developed. Teeth — canines in the upper jaw stronger than 
those in the lower, the outer row of teeth in the maxilla and the inner in the mandibles stronger than the villiform 
bands. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the fourth the longest, from whence they slightly decrease 
to the last, which is not so high as the first ray : soft portion of the dorsal and anal fins angularly rounded : 
pectoral a little longer than the ventral and equal to the length of the head behind the middle of the eye : 
second anal spine strongest and slightly the longest : caudal obtusely rounded. Scales — ctenoid. Colours — 
reddish brown with a light reticulation causing the body, and also the pectoral, soft dorsal, and caudal fins to be 
covered with hexagonal, or sometimes rounded markings. In some specimens the dark blotches become more 
confluent, the light reticulations being indistinct. 

Although Blood's figure (t. 329) more resembles S. Jiexagonatus than the species under which I here 
place it, my reason for doing so is that Professor Peters has shown me the type specimen which unquestionably 
belongs to this species. 

Serranus eylindricus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 151, in some respects very closely resembles this species, its scales 
are L. r. y T °, L. tr. 13/, the diameter of its eye 4f in the length of the head, and 1 diameter from the end of 
the snout. Although the body is more elongated, it is wider than normal. I almost think that it will turn out 
to be a variety of this species. 

In Cuv. & Val. it is suggested that Trachinus Adscensionis, Osbeck, ii, p. 96 belongs to this species, he 
observes " the body is somewhat compressed and not quite round." 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, Malay Archipelago to the Pacific. The specimen 
figured was taken at the Andaman Islands and is a little over 8 inches in length. 

7. Serranus maculatus, Plate II, fig- 4. 

Holocentrus maculatus, Bl. t. 242, fig. 3 (young) ; Bl. Schn. p. 315. 

Holocentrus albofuscus, Lacep. iv, p. 384. 

Serranus Oaimardi, Cuv. & Val. vi, p. 520 ; Quoy & Gaim. Voy. Astrol. Poiss. p. 656, pi. 3, fig. 3 ; 
Bleeker, Batav. p. 455 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 150 ; Playfair, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 847. 

Serranus Seba, Bleeker, Amb. p. 488 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 137- 

Serranus maculatus, Bleeker, Boeroe, p. 398. 

Serranus albofuscus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 108. 

Serranus longispinis, Kner, Voy. Novara, Poiss. p. 27, t. ii, f. 2 : Playfair, Pish. Zanz. p. 10. 

Epinephelus Gaimardi, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. vii, fig. 1. 

Epinephelus albofuscus, Bleeker, 1. c. Perc. xxvi, fig. 2. 

Epinephelus maculatus, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 75, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. viii, fig. 3, & xi, fig. 2. 

B. vii, D. JU P. 18, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. r. V¥, L. tr. 20/45. 

Length of head 3/10 to 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body nearly 1/4 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 
from 2/9 to 1/5 of the length of head, rather above 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla, 
which is rather wide posteriorly, reaches (in the young) to below the last third of the orbit, and in the adult 
to beneath its hind edge. Preopercle rounded, with its vertical border strongly but pretty evenly serrated, 
whilst its angle is a little produced and has about eight coarse denticulations. Opercle with the central spine 
well developed. Teeth — small canines in either jaw : the outer row in the maxilla, and the inner in the mandible 
larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength : they increase to the third, which 
equals half the length of the head, and is one half longer than the rays : from thence they decrease, but the last is 
nearly as long as the rays ; the soft portions of the dorsal and anal are somewhat angular : pectorals longer than 
the ventrals and equal to the length of the head from behind the middle of the orbit: second anal spine strongest 
but not so long as the third, which is nearly one third of the length of the head : caudal cut square but with 



FAMILY, I— PERCIILE. 15 

rounded angles. Scales — ctenoid. Colours — deep grey, with round Hack spots somewhat distantly placed on 
the head, pectoral, and ventral fins : oval spots, having their longest diameter vertical, exist in the anterior half 
of the body, becoming more like short thick sinuous lines on the last half. A black edge along the top of the 
spinous dorsal, and some cloudy interspinous marks : the soft dorsal, anal, and caudal with a black edge and 
white margin. 

Bleeker, in his excellent revision of the Epinephelini, observes that he possesses a beautiful series of 
specimens of this species showing the successive transitions in colour, which certainly varies very considerably. 
The young (maculatus), according to Bloch's figure, appears to have a light ground colour with a dark band over 
the head : a second, from the second to the fifth dorsal spine, passing downwards, encloses the pectoral, and 
ventral fins : a third from the soft dorsal passes down to the whole of the anal : one more exists over the free 
portion of the tail, and two on the caudal fin ; a dark horizontal band appears to connect the others along the 
middle of the body. 

The specimen figured (7 inches in length) from the Andaman Islands agrees with Kner's S. longispmis. 
The type specimens of S. Gaimardi in the Paris Museum have a much higher body comparatively, whilst the 
longest dorsal spine scarcely exceeds the length of the rays. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India, Andamans to the Malay Archipelago, and China. 

8. Serranus flavo-cssruleus, Plate III, fig. 1. 

Holocentrus flavo-cawuleus, Lacep. iv, pp. 331, 367. 
Holocentrus gymnosus, Lacep. iii, pi. 27, fig. 2, and iv, pp. 335, 372. 
Bodianus macrocephalus, Lacep. iii, pi. xx, f. 2, and iv, pp. 281, 293, 295. 
Perea flava-purpurea, Benn. Fish. Ceylon, p. 19, pi. 19. 

Serranus Borbonicus, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Uranie, Poiss. p. 313, pi. 57, f. 2. 

Seiranus flavo-cairuleus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 297; Peters, Wieg. Arch. 1855, p. 236; Gunther, Catal. i, 
p. 145. 

Cynichtliys flcwo-purpuratus, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 202, f. 42, c. (head).. 
Hpineplielus flavo-cceruleus, Bleeker, Fish. Madagascar, p. 17. 
Mungil cullaivah, Tarn. : Kaha-laweyah, Cingalese. 

B. vii, D. ^ Vy, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. T %, C. 17, L. r. m, L- tr. 22/-. 

Length of head 3/10, of caudal about 1/5, height of body 3/10 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/9 to 2/11 of the length of head, 1| diameters from the end of snout and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below 
the hind edge of the orbit. Preopercle with its vertical limb finely serrated, more coarsely so at its angle, 
where occasionally they are almost spinate :* lower limb, sub- and inter-opercles entire. Central opercular spine 
rather strong. Teeth — small canines in either jaw, the outer row in the maxilla and the inner in the mandible, 
larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, increasing in length to the third which 
equals about 3/8 of the height of the body, and is rather longer than the soft portion of the fin which, as well as 
that of the anal, is rounded : pectoral as long as the head behind the middle of the eye : ventral reaches three- 
fourths of the distance to the vent : second anal spine not quite so long as the third : caudal emarginate. Scales 
— ctenoid on the body, thickly covering the snout, pre- and sub-orbitals, likewise the posterior hah? of the 
maxilla : about 18 rows between the lateral-line and the sixth dorsal spine : those on the chest and abdomen very 
small, about 65 rows between the lateral-line and the median line of the abdomen. Colours — head and body of 
a deep purplish blue : free portion of the tail and all the fins gamboge yellow : some yellow on the snout, maxilla, 
chest, and opercular spines : an indistinct darkish baud along the base of the spinous and first third of the rayed 
portion of the dorsal fin : ventral, and caudal with fine black tips. 

Jerdon says (M. J. L. and Sc. 1851), p. 129, " Serrawus flavo-purpureus, Bennett. This very beautiful 
fish is very rare at Madras. I never saw but one specimen. I procured, the very young at the Sacrifice rocks on 
the Malabar Coast, it looked like a living sapphire." Bennett observes that it is scarce on the southern coast of 
Ceylon, in the course of two years having met but with one specimen. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the West coast of Africa. The specimen figured was from the Andaman 
islands, and is nearly 10§ inches in length. 

9. Serranus fasciatus, Plate III, fig. 2. 

Perca fasciata, Forsk. p. 40 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1316. 

Epinephelus marginalis, Bl. t. 328, fig. 1 ; Bl. Schn. p. 300. 

Holocentrus erythrceus, Bl. Schn. p. 320. 

Holocentrus oceanicus, marginatus, Forskalii et rosmarus, Lacep. Poiss. iv, pp. 377, 384, 389, and 392, t. 7, 
fig. 2 and 3. 

Serranus marginalis, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 302 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 233 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 34 ; Peters, 
Fish. Mossamb. p. 235, and Monats. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, 1865, p. 109 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 135 ; Kner, Novara 
Fische, p. 24 ; Playfair, Fish. Zanzibar, p. 7. 

Serranus variolosus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 354 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 139 (not syn.) 

* On the right side of one specimen there are two almost spinate teeth at the angle, as described by Bleeker, they are not thus 
present on the left side, where however the serrations are somewhat coarse. 



16 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Sen-aims oceanicus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 302 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 109. 

Sen-anus fasciatus, Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. G81 ; Giintlier, Fische d. 
Sudsee, p. 6, t, 6. 

Epinephelus fasciatus, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 119. 

B. vii, D. ^.Vt, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. T %, C. 17, L. r. ff . 

Length of head from 3/10 to 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 1/4 to 2/9 of the length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. The 
maxilla extends to below the hind edge of the orbit. Preopercle rather strongly serrated along its vertical 
border, rather more coarsely so at its angle, above "which it is somewhat emarginate, its lower limb entire. Sub- 
and inter-opercles either entire, or with a very few fine serrations. Central opercular spine the most developed. 
Teeth — canines in both jaws, the outer row of teeth in the maxilla, and the inner in the mandible larger than the 
villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines from the third of about the same length, but not so high as the rays, the 
last are equal to two-fifths of the height of the body : pectoral slightly longer than the ventral, and equal to the 
length of the head behind the middle of the eye : ventral not reaching the vent : second anal spine the strongest, 
a little longer than the third which nearly equals the last in the dorsal fin : caudal rounded. Scales — on the 
body ctenoid : from 12 to 14 rows between the lateral-line and the base of the sixth dorsal spine. Colours — in 
S. fasciatus reddish or yellowish, with five dark vertical bands, a fine black edge along the whole of the dorsal 
fin. In S. oceanicus the cross bands may be absent. In S. marginalis brownish or yellowish, the dorsal, and 
caudal fins being black edged. In S. variolosus brownish, with spots over the head, body, and soft dorsal fins. 

Sir J. Richardson directed attention to the S. tsirimenara of the ' Fauna Japonica ' being distinguished 
from this fish, owing to its possessing a row of five or six irregular whitish and indistinct spots on the flanks. 
Bleeker observes that these spots are in two rows above, and below the lateral-line, irrespective of which on 
comparing specimens of the two species of the same length together, he found that in the S. tsirimenara the body 
is less rounded, the head more pointed, and the rows of scales above and below the lateral line are xTo-iri-- 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea through those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen 
figured was taken at the Andaman islands, and is 7 inches in length. 

10. Serranus tumilabris, Plate III, fig. 3. 

Serranus sumana, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 344 ; Rupp. N. W. Fische, p. 102 and Atl. p. 104 ; Lefeb. Voy. 
Abyss. Zool. p. 229, pi. 5, f. 1 ; Klunzinger. Fische d. Roth. Meer, Verh. z. b. Ges. in Wien. 1870, p. 685 
(not Forskal). 

Serranus tumilabris, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 346 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 138 ; Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 8, pi. ii, 
f. 2. 

Serranus Hoevenii, Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. 1849, and Perc. p. 36 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 138 ; Playfair, 
Fish. Zanz. p. 9, pi. ii, f. 3. 

Serranus Kunhaiiii, Bleeker, Sumatra, p. 169. 

Epinephelus Hoevenii, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. iv, f. l,t. viii, f. 4, & t. xii, f. 4, and Epinephelini, p. 110. 

B. vii, D. ii, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 19, L. r. f|, L. tr. 21/—. 

Length of head from 1/3 to 2/7, of caudal about 1/6, height of body from 2/7 to 1/4 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter varies considerably, the following shows proportions in ten specimens in spirit. Four as S. 
tumilabris being as follows : — 

1. Length of specimen 5 T 2 inches : diameter of eye 2/9 of length of head : third dorsal spine rather 
above 1/2 as long as head behind front edge of orbit. 

2. Length of specimen 6| inches : diameter of eye 2/9 of length of head : third dorsal spine 1/2 as long 
as head behind the middle of the orbit. 

3. Length of specimen 8 inches : diameter of eye 2/9 of length of head : third dorsal spine not quite 1/2 
as long as head behind the front edge of orbit. 

4. Length of specimen 9 inches : diameter of eye 1/5 of length of head : third dorsal spine 1/2 the length 
of the head behind the posterior nostril. 

In No. 1, 2, and 3 the eye is 1 diameter from end of snout : in No. 4, 1| diameters. 
Six marked as S. Hoevenii are as follows : — 

1. Length of specimen 2^ inches : diameter of eye 1/3 of length of head : third dorsal spine as long as 
the post-orbital portion of the head. 

2. Length of specimen 6 inches : diameter of eye 2/9 of length of head : third dorsal spine 1/2 the 
length of the head behind the middle of the orbit. 

3. Length of specimen 6^ inches : diameter of eye l/4-i- (6/25) of length of head : third dorsal spine 
1/2 the length of the head behind the first 1/3 of the orbit. 

4. Length of specimen 6j%- inches : diameter of eye l/4j (4/17) of length of head : third dorsal spine 
1/2 the length of the head behind the first 1/3 of the orbit. 

5. Length of specimen ll^ inches : diameter of eye 1/5| (3/16) of length of head : third dorsal spine 
half the length of the head behind the first 1/3 of the orbit. 

6. Length of specimen 20 inches : diameter of eye 1/6 of length of head : third dorsal spine 1/3 the 
length of the head behind the front edge of the orbit. 



FAMILY, I— PERCIDJ3. 17 

In numbers 1, 2, 3, the eye is 1 diameter from the end of the snout : in number 4, 3/4 of a diameter : in 
number 5, lj diameters : and in number 6, 1| diameters from the end of the snout. 

The maxilla reaches to nearly or quite below the hind edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle 
slightly emarginate, with the angle rounded, the whole being finely serrated, most coarsely so at its angle : sub- 
and inter- op ercles entire. In small specimens, e. g. 2\ inches long, this species has a spine at its preopercular 
angle, which becomes absorbed as age advances : in some specimens some rather large denticulations are seen 
at this place, due to this absorption not having been so rapid as usual. Teeth — canines in both jaws, the outer 
row in the maxilla, and the inner in the mandible, rather larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines 
from the third continue of about the same length, from 2/5 to 1/3 of the height of the body : the pectoral longer 
than the ventral, and equalling the length of the head behind the middle of the orbit : second anal spine the 
strongest, equal to or not quite so long as the third : caudal rounded. Scales — ctenoid, about 14 rows between the 
lateral-bine and the base of the sixth dorsal spine. Colours — greyish olive, darkest along the back. Body and 
head covered with irregularly sized pearly -white spots, whilst a black line exists on the maxilla. Fins dark grey, 
externally nearly black, the pectoral, ventral, soft dorsal, and anal with a narrow white border : the whole of the 
dorsal fin white spotted. The colours vary much with age. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. The specimen figured 
is 6 inches long. 

11. Serranus diacanthus, Plate III, fig. 4. 

Cuv. & Val. ii, p. 319 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 110 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 20. 
Serranus sexfasciatus, Day, Fish. Malabar, (not Cuv. and Val.) 
Damba, Sind : Chaandcha, Belooch. 

B. vii, D. iizif, P- 18, V. 1/5, A. ¥ s_, C. 17, L. r. W. L - tr - 19-21/45, Ca3c. pyl. 11. 

Length of head 1/3 to 3/10, of caudal 1/5 to 2/9, height of body 1/4 to 1/5 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/4 to 2/9 of the length of head, 1 diameter from the end of snout, and also apart. The maxilla 
reaches to below the hind edge of the orbit : lower jaw the longer. Vertical limb of preopercle strongly 
serrated, with two or three coarse teeth at its angle, its lower limb entire : sub- and inter-opercles entire. Three 
spines on the opercle, the centre of which is the largest. In a young specimen (3 inches long) the serratures at 
the angle of the preopercle are scarcely enlarged, but at 3| inches in length they commence to become coarser 
than those along the vertical border. Teeth — one or two canines on either side of each jaw, those in the man- 
dible being the smaller : outer row in the upper jaw rather stronger than the villiform bands ; inner row in the 
mandible a little the largest. Fins — dorsal spines rather weak, and being of nearly equal length from the third, 
which equals two-fifths of the length of the head : pectoral rather longer than the ventral : second anal spine 
rather longer than the third, and equal to the second of the dorsal fin : caudal rounded. Scales — ctenoid on 
body, and in about 20 rows between the first dorsal spine and the lateral-line. Ccecal pylori — eleven long ones. 
Colours — brownish, with a tinge of pink on the back, becoming rose-coloured on the abdomen. Six dark vertical 
bands, the first crossing the head : the second from the fourth to the sixth dorsal spines passing over the pectoral 
to the base of the anal : the remaining three take the same direction, the last crossing the free portion of the 
tail. A dark band passes from the orbit to the angle of the preopercle. Fins darkest at their margins. 
Occasionally the bands are continued on to the dorsal fin. A specimen in the British Museum has a white edge 
to the dorsal, caudal, and anal fins. 

Dr. Jerdon, M. J. L. & Science, 1851, p. 129, observes of S. nebulosus, Cuv. & Val. " I procured one 
specimen of this at Madras and one at Tellicherry." The latter, a copy of the figure of which exists amongst 
Sir Walter Elliot's drawings, is the fish above described. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago : at Kurrachee I took them 18 inches in length. 

12. Serranus sexfasciatus. 

(Kuhl & v. Hass.) Cuv. & Val. ii, p. 360 : Bleeker, Perc. p. 38 : Giinther, Catal. i, p. 108. 
Epinephelus sexfasciatus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. t. 281, Perc. t. iii, fig. 2 & Epinephelini, p. 103. 
B. vii, D. -B-, p. 17, v. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 85. 

Length of head 3/11, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/9 of 
length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to below the 
hind edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle rather coarsely serrated, with two large spinous teeth at its 
angle, the inferior of which is directed somewhat downwards. Opercular spines well developed. Teeth — small 
canines in both jaws, the inner row of teeth in the lower jaw, and outer one in the maxilla, longer than the 
villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, increasing in length to the fourth and fifth, which equal 
nearly half the length of the head, but are not quite so high as the rays : soft portion of fin, also of the anal, 
and the caudal rounded ■ pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout : second anal spine stronger but not 
quite so long as the third. Scales — ctenoid. Colours — brownish, with about six vertical darker bands, about as 
wide as the ground colour : a few irregular dark spots about the body : dorsal, caudal, and anal yellow, with 
numerous round black spots, those at the hind edge of the caudal almost forming a black band with a white 
outer edge : pectoral and ventral greyish. 

I examined two specimens of this species from Japan in the Berlin Museum, the largest being about 
7 inches in length. This species I have not captured in India, the form I termed S. sexfasciatus being the 

D 



18 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

/S. diacanthus as was pointed out to me by Professor Peters, who also showed me one of Yal. typical specimens 
in the Berlin Museum. 

13. Serranus lanceolatus, Plate IV, fig. 1. 

Holocentrus lanceolatus, Bl. t. 242, f. 1 ; Bl. Schn. p. 315 ; Lacep. iv, pp. 380, 383. 

Perca suggalathoo bontoo, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 23, pi. 130. 

Serranus lanceolatus, Cuv. & Val. ii, p. 316 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 35 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 8 ; Giinther, Catal. i, 
p. 107 & Zool. Record 1869, p. 128 ; Blyth, Proc. Asiatic Soc. of Beng. xxix, p. Ill ; Day, Pishes of Malabar, 
p. 4, pi. 1, fig. 1 & 2, & Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 512 & 1871, p. 635 ; Playfair, Fishes of Zanzibar, p. 4. 

Serranus horridus, Cantor, Catal. p. 9 (not Cuv. & Val.) 

Fpinephelus lanceolatus, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 73. 

Kurrupu, Mai. : Gommaaree, if young Wutla-callawah or 'perch with a sore head,' Tarn. : Gussir, Sind. : 
Bole, Chittagong : Nga-towktoo-shweydoo, Arrak. 

B. vii, D. ^Ve. P- 19> V. 1/5, A. T ? T , C. 15, L. r. yJ>, L. tr. 20/52, Ceec. pyl. many. 

Length of head 4/13 to 2/7, of caudal 1/5 to 1/6, height of body 2/7 to 1/4 of the total length. Fyes— 
diameter 1/6 to 1/8 in the length of the head, i to \\ diameters from the end of snout, and from 1 in the young 
to \\ in the adult apart. The maxilla reaches to a little beyond the vertical from the hind edge of the orbit. 
Preopercle with its vertical edge having a shallow emargination above the angle, and finely serrated, becoming 
somewhat coarsely so at the angle : its lower edge, and also the sub- and inter-opercles entire. Opercle with 
the central spine most distinct. In the fry there is a well-developed spine at the angle of the preopercle. 
Teeth — a small canine on either side of upper jaw, and a still smaller one in the lower jaw: no enlarged row in 
the upper jaw, but the inner row in the mandible, especially posteriorly, much the largest. Fins — dorsal spines* 
not so high as the rays, its soft portion and also that of the anal rounded : pectoral longer than the ventral, and 
equal to the postorbital portion of the head : second anal spine stronger but shorter than the third : caudal 
rounded. Scales — cycloid, but usually with raised circular lines upon them, especially in the forepart of the 
body, about 15 rows between the 6th dorsal spine and the lateral-line. Gwcal-piylori — very short, consequently 
in the young appear almost like a gland. Colours — vary with age, the very young being of a fine citron or 
sulphur ground-colour, having irregular vertical bands and markings, which become more distinct as the age of 
the fish advances. About to a foot or even eighteen inches in length, the ground colour continues to be bright 
yellow, with five vertical, blackish-blue bands, the first passing from the orbit downwards over the preopercle -; 
the second from the nape to the opercle joins the first band in its posterior margin, and coalesces with the third 
behind or above the pectoral fin: the third proceeding from the bases of seven dorsal spines (3-10), passes 
downwards to the abdomen : the fourth passes from the fifth to the last dorsal ray, and descends to the base of 
the anal fin : the last surrounds the free portion of the tail. Fins — yellow with black spots or blotches, forming 
confluent bars at their bases, which on the pectoral are disposed in three or four undulating arched bands. In 
the adult the black bands disappear, the ground colour becomes greyish-brown, the whole being reticulated with 
greyish-black lines. The fins retain most of their original yellow colour but the amount of the black decreases. 
Amongst Sir Walter Elliot's drawings are two of the adult of this fish, termed Panni mm and Pilli punni, 
having a remark attached " younger with transverse bars." 

In " Fishes of Malabar," I considered, as Cantor had previously done, that.S. horridjis was the adult of 
this species. Dr. Bleeker, however, who appears to have inspected the specimen at Leyden, states it to be 
Serranus fuscoguttatus. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa and seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, attaining a large size. The 
specimen figured is about 15 inches long, and intermediate between the two figured in the " Fishes of Malabar," 
it is not included in the five referred to in the note. Respecting this fish, Cantor observes that " in one, 
the weight of which exceeded loOlbs., the stomach contained remains of Stromateus, Sphyma JBlochii, and of a 
Limulus." 

14-. Serranus erythrurus. 

Cuv. & Val. ii, p. 320. 

B. vii, D. 11/16, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. 3/9, C. 17. 

Vertical border of preopercle finely serrated, its horizontal limb entire. Fins— rounded. Colours — on 
the back and upper surface of the head greenish, variegated with red, silvery- white below : dorsal greenish : 
ventral, anal, and pectoral yellowish : tail reddish. 



* To show how the comparative length of the doraal spines vary, not only with age, but with specimens, I subjoin the measure- 
ments of five in my collection : 

of 4th dorsal spine equal to 3^- of the entire length of the fish. 

2' » >) "TO I! 

3. „ ,,.13 „ 

**• » » 13 „ 

5- „ „ 22 

The late Mr. Blyth having examined pi. 1, in the Fishes of Malabwr, suggested my asserting on his authority, that they represented 
the identical species he referred to in the Pro. of the Asi. Soc. and were the young and old of one sort. 



25 

, i 

1 3 

. 1 
1 &■ 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 19 

Habitat. — Malabar to 3 feet in length. I have not seen this species that I am aware of, unless it is a 
Lutianus. It may probably be Russell's Rangoo. 

15. Serranus Malabaricus, Plate IV, fig. 2. 

Holocentrus Malabaricus, Bl. Schn. p. 319, pi. 63. 

Holocentrus pantherinus, Lacep. Poiss. iii, t. 27, f. 3 andiv, pp. 389 and 392. 

Perca bontoo and P. madinawa bontoo, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, pp. 20, 21, pi. 127 and 128. 

Bola ? coioides, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 82, 369. 

Serranus bontoo, Cuv. and Val. ii, pp. 334, vi, p. 523 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 11 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 138 ; Day, 
Fish. Malabar, p. 3. 

Serranus suillus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 335 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxii, p. 9 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 127 ; 
Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 5. 

Serranus maculosus et pantherinus, Cuv. and Val. ii, pp. 332 and 333. 

Serranus crapao, Cuv. and Val. hi, p. 494; Rich. An. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, ix, p. 25; Bleeker, Verh. 
Bat. Gen. xxii, Perc. p. 37 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 137. 

Serranus diacopeformis, Benn. Life Raffles, Fish. Sumatra, p. 686. 

Serranus nebulosus et schihpan, Richards. Ich. China, pp. 231, 232. 

Serranus coioides, Cantor, Catal. p. 11. 

Epinephelus crapao, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. viii, f. 1. 

Epinephelus pantherinus, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 78. 

Punni-calaivah, Tarn. : Bontoo, Tel. : Bool, Chittagong : Nga-towhtoo, Arrak. : Kyouk-theyga-]cakadit,~BuTm. : 
Bdb-na-dah and O-ro-tam-dali, Andamanese. 

Variety, S. bontoo, Madinawah bontoo, Tel. : Roiv-je-dah, Andam. 

B. vii, D. -H:|f, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. r i T , C. 15, L. 1. 90, L. r. yV. L. tr. 19/50, Cffic. pyl. 50-60. 

Length of head 31 to 3f , of caudal 1/5 to 1/6, height of body 2/7 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/5 to 1/6 of length of head, 1 to 1| diameters from the end of snout, and the same apart. Literorbital 
space flat : the prasniaxillary reaching to opposite the front edges of the orbit. The maxilla extends to below 
the posterior edges of the orbit, or even behind it in large specimens. Vertical limb of preopercle slightly 
emarginate, finely serrated, becoming more coarsely so at its rather square angle, where there exist from four to 
seven coarse teeth, its lower margin entire, as are also the sub- and inter-opercles, occasionally there are two or 
three serrations on the inter-opercle. Opercle with three spines, the central one being the longest. The fry has 
no spine at the angle of the preopercle. Teeth — one or two canines in either jaw, those in the upper usually the 
longer : the outer row 'of teeth in the upper jaw, and the inner in the lower, are the largest. Fins — the dorsal 
spines from the third are of about the same height, and equal to one-half the length of the post-orbital portion 
of the head, but not so high as the rays : the pectoral is longer than the ventral, and about equal the post-orbital 
portion of the head in length, soft portions of dorsal and anal fins rounded : the second anal spine in most estuary 
specimens equal the length of the third, but in marine ones it is often slightly shorter : caudal rounded. Scales — 
ctenoid, and in about 15 rows between the 6th dorsal spine and the lateral line. Caical pylori — from 50 to 60, 
but two or more open into a single basal tube. Colours — brownish, fading to grey or dirty white on the abdomen : 
the whole of the fish, even over to the branchiostegal rays covered with bright yellow or orange spots, which often 
become brown after death : three large blotches on the inter-opercle appear to be present in all varieties of this 
fish. In the S. Malabaricus Bloch, some brown spots are often during life intermingled with the orange ones, 
and it is vertically banded usually as follows ; one passes from the first four dorsal spines to the pectoral fin : 
another from between the second and ninth to the abdomen : two more descend from the soft dorsal fin, and a 
fifth encircles the free portion of the tail : pectoral reddish spotted with yellow, sometimes the caudal, pectoral 
and ventral fins are unspotted but marked with darker shades, or the bands are continued on to them. This 
variety is the commonest, mostly marine, and the bands are unusually well marked in the young. In the variety 
S. bontoo, the bands when present bifurcate inferiorly, and the spots are all black ; this is a marine and the 
rarest form,, never appearing to attain to a large size. In the variety 'S. coioides, H. B. = S. suillus, C. V. 
the bands are absent, or else indistinctly visible ; this is mostly taken in estuaries or large rivers, as the Hooghly 
at Calcutta. 

Russell observed that the plate 128 (S. bontoo) may perhaps " be merely a variety" of plate 127 
(S. coioides). Hamilton Buchanan, p. 82, remarked of his coioides, "this fish agrees so well with the description 
of the medinaiva bontoo of Dr. Russell (Indian Fishes, vol. ii, no. 128) that I do not think them different 
species," p. 82. Cuvier considered Russell's species distinct : Playfair, " Fishes of Zanzibar," doubted if they 
might not be identical. 

Russell records one taken at Vizagapatam in January 1786, which measured 7 feet in length, 5 in girth, 
and weighed upwards of three hundred pounds. Amongst Sir Walter Elliot's drawings is a figure of the banded 
variety S. Malabaricus, marked Serranus suillus and Kullawaee : a foot and a half in length is given as the size of 
the specimen. 

The fish figured, pi. iv, fig. 2, is the variety coioides, the specimen being about 21 inches in length, and 
taken at Calcutta. 

In one specimen of the variety S. bontoo 8^ inches long, not only has it 12 dorsal spines, but the sixth 
has also two separate spinate terminations. 

Habitat.— Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, China, and beyond, attaining to a very large size. 

D 2 



20 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

1 6. Serranus corallicola. 

(Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 336. 

Serranus altivelioides, Bleeker, Perc. p. 38; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 127; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 23. 

Epinephelus altivelioides, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxx, f. 1. 

Epinephelus corallicola, Bleeker, Epineplielini, p. 83. 

B. to, D. T&T, P- 18 > V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. r. ^-hs (Cbbc. pyl. 9, Kner.) 

Length of head from 3f to 3|, height of body 2/7 to nearly 1/4 of total length. Eyes — diameter from 
4^ to 1/5 in the length of the head, and from 1/2 to 1 diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to below the hind 
edge of the orbit. Vertical edge of the preopercle serrated, its lower limb and also the sub- and inter-opercles 
entire : central opercular spine the most developed. Teeth — canines in both jaws. Fins — dorsal spines increase 
to the third or fourth which are about 2/5 of the height of the body, and 1/5 lower than the rays : pectoral as 
long as the head without the snout : second anal spine the strongest, a little longer than the third and equal in 
length to the last in the dorsal fin : caudal rounded. Scales — ctenoid on the body, about 14 rows between the 
lateral line and the base of the sixth dorsal spine. Colours — greyish-brown covered all over with black spots, 
soft dorsal, anal, pectoral, and caudal with a light edge. 

Habitat — stated (Kner) to have been taken at Madras, found in the Malay Archipelago. 

17. Serranus salmoides, Plate IV, fig. 3. 
Holocentrus salmoides, Lacep. iii, pi. 34, fig. 3, iv, p. 346. 
Serranus salmoides, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 343. 
? Serranus polypodophilus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 37. 

Serranus salmonoides, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 128 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 682. 
? Epinephelus polyphodophilus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. v. fig. 1, and Epinephelini, p. 101. 

B. to, D. ri_^, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. r. V°o 5 , L. tor. 24/50. 

Length of head 3/10 to 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 4/15 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 2/13 of length of head, 1| to 2 diameters from the end of snout, and lir apart. The interorbital 
space rather convex : the posterior end of the prasmaxillary extends to behind the level of the front edge of the 
orbit. The maxilla reaches to rather beyond the posterior edge of the orbit. Preopercle slightly emarginate, 
serrated along its vertical margin, with five or six denticulations at its angle, lower limb entire, as are also the 
sub- and inter-opercles. Central opercular spine moderately distinct, the others indistinct. Teeth — small 
canines in both jaws : an outer enlarged row in the maxilla, and an inner in the mandible larger than the 
villiform bands. Fins — third dorsal spine one third of the length of the head, they gradually decrease to the 
last but none are so long as the rays : soft portions of the dorsal and anal fins rounded. Pectoral longer 
than the ventral, equalling the length of the postorbital portion of the head, it hardly reaches 2/3 of the 
distance to above the anal spines : second anal spine the strongest, but not so long as the third, which equals . 
one-fourth to one-fifth of the length of the head : caudal rounded. Scales — cycloid on the head, ctenoid on the 
body. Colours — dark reddish-brown, having round black spots over the head, body, and fins, those on the head 
and jaws small. Large blotches or ill-defined bands on the body. In one of Val. specimens, these bands are 
well marked. 

The specimen figured was captured at the Andaman islands, it is about 12 inches in length. 

Habitat — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. It is not common in India. 

1 8. Serranus semipunctatus. 

Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 341 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 114. 

B. vii, D. ii, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17. 

Length of head 3/10, of caudal 4/21, height of body 4/17 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/6 of 
length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 1| apart. Upper surface of head broad and flat. The 
maxilla reaches to below the hind edge of the orbit. Serrations on preopercle strong, having three coarse 
teeth at its angle, but not spinate as in S. sexfasciatus. Teeth — moderately sized canines in both jaws, an outer 
enlarged row in the maxilla, and several irregularly pointed teeth mixed with the villiform ones in the 
mandible. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, increasing in length to the fifth, which equals half the 
postorbital length of the head, and is not quite so high as the rays : the soft portion of the fin, and also of the 
anal rather angular : pectoral as long as the postorbital portion of the head, and extending to nearly over the 
anal spines : ventral not quite so long : third anal spine a little the longest, and equalling the third of the dorsal, 
the second spine a little the strongest : caudal large, fan-shaped, and equal to the pectoral in size. Colours — 
body reddish-brown, with six or seven broad darker vertical cross bands : head and first portion of the body, as 
well as the free portion of the tail, with some small well-marked spots : dorsal and anal yellow, and likewise 
spotted : ventral grey. 

It has been suggested that Perca septemfasciate, Thunb. (Nov. Ac. Stock. 1793, pi. i, f. 1) is this species ; 
the specimen figured was obtained in Japan, and Professor Peters was good enough to show me one of Temm. 
and Schlegel's types of Plectropoma susuhi from Japan, the two being compared appeared to entirely agree, whereas 
the P. susuhi is evidently distinct from the S. semipunctatus. 

Habitat — Pondicherry, attaining at least 12 inches in length. 



FAMILY, I— PERCIDJE. 21 

19. Serranus summana, Plate IV, fig. 4. 
Perca surnmana, Forsk. p. 42; Gmel. Linn. p. 1317. 
Bodianus summana, Bl. Schn. p. 334. 
Fomacentrus summana, Lacep. iii, p. 511. 

Serranus poly stigma, Bleeker, Sumatra, ii, p. 2 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 129. 
Serranus summana, Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 8, pi. ii, fig. 1 (not Cuv. and Val. &c). 
Epinephelus summana, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 105. 

B. to, D. JL P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. r. *&», L- tr. 21/48. 

Length of head from 3/10 to 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body from 3/10 to 2/7 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter from 1/4 to 1/5 of the length of head, 1| diameters from the end of snout, and also apart. The 
maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. Preopercle with a very shallow emargination above its 
angle, its vertical border finely serrated, its lower as well as the sub- and inter-opercles entire. Central opercular 
spine the most developed. Teeth — moderate sized canines in both jaws, the outer row of teeth in the maxilla and 
the inner in the mandible rather larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the 
third to the fifth being the longest, equalling 2f in the height of the body, and slightly decreasing to the last : the 
soft portion of the fin higher than the spinous, somewhat angular, as is also that of the anal : pectoral longer 
than the ventral, and equalling the length of the head, excluding the snout : second anal spine the strongest, rather 
longer than the third, and equalling the highest in the dorsal fin : caudal rounded. Scales — ctenoid on the body, 
about 13 rows between the lateral-line and the base of the sixth dorsal spine. Colours — brownish, the body and 
vertical fins covered with small round white dots, which are minute on the head or even absent, a black spot 
above the maxillary : soft portions of dorsal and anal fins with dark edges, having white margins. 

Klunzinger observes that some specimens of S. leucostigma, C.V. are the young form of S. summana, 
C.V.=S. tumilabris, C.V. Peters has shown that Holocentrus cceruleopunctatus, Bloch=;S. alboguttatus, C.V.=iS'. 
leucostigma, C.V. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. It is very common at 
the Andamans, where the specimen figured, (10 inches long) was captured. 

20. Serranus dermochirus. 
Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 513. 
B. to, D. a, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17. 

Length of head 4/13, of caudal 2/9, height of body 4/13 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 2/9 of length 
of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to somewhat behind the hind 
edge of the orbit. Preopercle, with its vertical margin finely serrated, three well developed opercular spines, the 
central one being the longest. Teeth — a pair of canines on either side of both jaws, an outer enlarged row along 
the sides of the upper jaw, and an inner one in the lower. Fins — dorsal spines strong, increasing in length to 
the fourth, which equals two diameters of the orbit : pectoral longer than the ventral, and equal to the length of 
the head behind the front edge of the orbit. Although, doubtless, the skin covering the fins is thick, it does not 
appear to be remarkably so. Colours — the specimen appears to be covered with fine white spots along each 
row of scales. It much resembles and is probably identical with S. summana. 

Habitat. — Malabar. The specimen is over 12 inches in length. 

21. Serranus morrhua, Plate V, fig. 1. 

Cuv. and Val. ix, p. 434; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 154; Klunz. Verb. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 678. 

Serranus pcecilinotus, Temm. Schleg. Fauna Japon. Poiss. pi. iv, A. f. 1 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 233 ; 
Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Gen. xxvi, p. 61 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 155. 

Serranus radiatus, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 699. 

B. vii, D. riJ^, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. f , C. 17, L. r. iff, L. tr. 21/46. 

Length of head nearly 1/3, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of 
length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1/2 a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to below the hind 
edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle sHghtly oblique, serrated, and with three or four strong denticula- 
tions at its angle, its horizontal edge as well as the sub- and inter-opercles entire : opercle with three spines, the 
central one the longest. Teeth — canines in both jaws, the outer row of teeth in the maxilla, and the inner in the 
mandible, larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, increasing in length to the 
third which equals two-fifths of the height of the body, and is nearly as high as the rays : third anal spine 
the strongest, the second of nearly similar length and about equal to the third of the dorsal fin : pectoral as 
long as the head behind the middle of the eye : ventral nearly reaching the vent : caudal rounded. Scales — on 
body ctenoid, 14 rows between the lateral-line and the base of the sixth dorsal spine : none on the preorbital nor 
on the maxilla in the young. Colours — (in the young) greenish-olive, becoming dull yellow on the abdomen. A 
broad irregular-shaped bluish-white band passes from the posterior edge of the occiput to meet a s imil ar one 
from the opposite side : two more descend from the lower and posterior edge of the orbit to the base of the 
pectoral fin : another proceeds from the upper margin of the preopercle, at first backwards, and opposite the 
posterior third of the pectoral it curves upwards to the middle of the spinous dorsal on to which it is continued. 









22 ACArTTHOPTERYGII. 

A small patch of similar colour exists in front of the base of the dorsal. Another band goes from the hind edge 
of the pectoral to the front of the soft dorsal : two more similar bands cross the base of the tail, and several 
shorter marks exist over the body. Spinous dorsal nearly black, soft dorsal and other fins yellow. Eyes 
golden. 

A young specimen exists in the Paris Museum, in which there are dark spots along the lines which bound 
the light spaces. 

Adults are brownish, with about four curved longitudinal bands along the body, and four or five oblique 
•bands on the head, radiating from the eye. 

Amongst Sir Walter Elliot's drawings is a figure of this species, 3^% inches long, also of the young, 
l^g- inches, with the remark " taken at Waltair, March 9th, 1853." 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea through those of India to Japan : the specimen figured (life size) was 
captured at Madras in 1867. 

22. Serranus angularis, Plate V, fig. 2. 

Serranus angularis, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 353 ; Giinther, Catal. i, jd. 126. 

Serranus Celebicus, Bleeker, Celebes, i, p. 117; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 139; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 
1870, p. 676. 

Serranus areolatus, Playfair (not Cuv. and VaL) Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 848. 

Serranus glaucus, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 678. 

Eirinephelus Celebicus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. xi, fig. 3, and Epinephelini, p. 69. 

B. vii, D. yJJn-, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f , C. 17, L. 1. 70, L. r. 105, L. tr. 23/40, Cfec. pyl. 13-14. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body 2/7 to 4/15 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 to 
1/5 of the length of head, 1 j diameters from the end of snout, and 3/4 to 1 diameter apart. The maxilla reaches 
to below the last third of the orbit. Preopercle serrated, angle slightly produced, having two or three strong 
denticulations (more developed in some specimens than in others), the inferior of which sometimes is directed 
downwards : occasionally there are a few denticulations upon the sub- and inter-opercles. Opercular spines well 
developed, the central one the longest. Teeth — canines in both jaws, largest in the upper : outer row of teeth in 
maxilla and inner in mandible larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, increasing in 
length to the third which equals 3/7 of the height of the body, and is rather more than that of the rays : pectoral 
as long as the head, excluding the snout, and longer than the ventral : second anal spine strongest but not 
quite so long as the third, which equals one and a quarter diameters of the orbit : caudal emarginate. Scales — 
ctenoid. Colours — greyish, becoming dirty white along the abdomen : head and body studded rather closely 
with yellow spots, which become brown in preserved specimens : pectoral, dorsal, anal, and caudal also spotted, 
which spots sometimes form lines or bands, and all the fins with a black margin edged with white. 

Eabitat. — Seas of India and Ceylon to the Malay Archipelago, attaining two feet or more in length ; 
the specimen figured is 7 inches long. 

23. Serranus fuscoguttatus, Plate V, fig. 3. 

Perca summana, var. fuscoguttata, Eorsk. p. 42 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1317. 

Serranus fuscoguttatus, Riipp. Atl. Fische, p. 108, t. 27, fig. 2; Peters, Wieg. Arch. 1855, p. 235; Giinther, 
Catal. i, p. 127; Kner, Voy. Novara, Poiss. p. 22; Playfair, Fish. Zanzibar, p. 5; Klunz. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. 
in Wien, 1870, p. 684. 

Serranus horrid/us (Kuhl. and V. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 321 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 36 ; Giinther, Catal. 
p. 136. 

Serranus geograpMcus, (Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 322 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 150. 

Serranus clispar, Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 6, pi. i, fig. 2 and 3 ; Giinther, Fische d. Sudsee, Heft i, p. 9. 

Epinephelus horridus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Pere. t. xxix, f. 3. 

Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 93. 

B. vii, yJJ^, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. T ? T , C. 17, L. r. V^ , L. tr. 22/56 (Case. pyl. 24, Kner). 

Length of head from 1/3 to 4/13, of caudal 1/6, height of body 4/13 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 2/9 to 1/6 of the length of head, 1 \ diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches 
to beyond the vertical from the hind edge of the orbit. Preopercle usually convex, but in some specimens with 
a very shallow emargination above its rounded angle, serrated in its whole extent, most coarsely so at its angle, 
lower limb and also the sub- and inter-opercles entire. Opercle with rather badly developed spines, the central 
one the most conspicuous. Teeth — small canines in both jaws, the outer row in the maxilla and the inner in 
the mandible, larger than the villiform bands. Fins — -dorsal spines rather strong, from the third of about equal 
length and not so long as the rays, the third equals about 2/7 of the length of the head : pectoral longer than 
the ventral, and as long as the postorbital portion of the head : third anal spine equal in length to the third 
dorsal one, and though longer, not so strong as the second : caudal rounded. Scales — cycloid. Colours — 
greyish, with brown spots of a larger or smaller size irregularly disposed, they are sometimes hexagonal on the 
head : pectoral and caudal may be banded : sometimes three or four narrow white lines cross the lower jaw. 
There are some larger blotches on the head and body, and one across the free portion of the tail. In some 
specimens only the large cloudy blotchings or markings are present on the body. 



FAMILY, I— PERCIDiE. 23 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen 
figured is 9^ inches in length and from the coast of Sind. 

24. Serranus grammicus, Plate V, fig. 4. 
Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 700. 

B. vii, D. ii P. 19, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 85, L. r. yV 6 , L. tr. 17/44. 

Length of head about 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 of the entire length. Eyes — diameter 1/5 
of length of head, 1^- diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below the posterior 
edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle oblique, finely serrated in its upper two-thirds, becoming coarser 
lower down, and having several large denticulations at its angle, which is slightly produced : its lower lim b 
entire as are also the sub- and inter-opercles. Opercle with three spines, the central one the strongest. Teeth — 
a small canine on either side of the upper jaw : a slightly enlarged outer row in the maxilla, and an inner one in 
the mandible. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the fourth slightly the longest, and equal to one and a 
third diameters of the orbit in. length, but not so long as the rays : pectoral as long as the postorbital portion of 
the head, and longer than the ventral, which latter only reaches half way to the vent : second anal spine the 
strongest, the third one-fourth longer, and equal to the second in the dorsal fin : soft portions of the dorsal and 
anal somewhat rounded : caudal very slightly rounded. Scales — cycloid, with raised roughened irregularly 
disposed lines upon them, those between the pectoral fin and the lateral-line being the largest. Snout and 
suborbital ring of bones scaled, very few on preorbital or maxilla. Colours — greyish with a golden gloss about 
the head. A narrow black line runs from the upper margin of the orbit to the last dorsal spine : a second passes 
from the upper third of the orbit to the superior opercular spine and on to the base of the sixth dorsal ray : a 
third from the lower edge of the orbit to below the central opercular spine and on to the upper third of the 
caudal fin, where it assumes the form of rounded blotches : an intermediate band exists on the head between 
the second and third. Dorsal fin with a row of black spots along its centre and tipped with black : caudal 
yellow, with numerous black spots, and the extremities of its rays black, anal with a black edge. Eyes golden. 

Dr. Jerdon, in the Madras Journ. Lit. and Sc. 1851, p. 130, remarks : " I possess a drawing of another 
Serranus of a reddish-fawn-colour, brownish on the back, with three longitudinal brown lines," otherwise as 
described above. The figure he alludes to is amongst Sir Walter Elliot's illustrations. 

Habitat. — Madras, where the above single male specimen, 15 inches in length, was taken in 1867- 

25. Serranus boenack, Plate VI, fig. 1. 

Boclianus boenach, Bloch, iv, p. 44, t. 226 ; Bl. Schn. p. 330. 
- Perca rahtee bontoo, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 22, pi. 129. 
Sciama formosa, Shaw, Zool. Misc. p. 23, t. 1007. 

Serranus formosus, Cuv. & Val. ii, p. 311; Richards. Ich. China, p. 233; Bleeker, Perc. p. 31; Ghnther, 
Catal. i, p. 154 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 7 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 26. 
Serranus boenach, Cuv. & Val. ii, p. 362. 

Serranus boenacJc, Peters, Monats. d. Akad. Berlin, 1865, p. 105. 
Epinephelus formosus, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 59. 
Epinephelus boenach, Bleeker, Fish. Madagascar, p. 8. 
Verri-cullawah, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. y^, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. 5 J M , C. 17, L. 1. 90-95, L. tr. 22/43. 

Length of head 2/7 to 3/8, of caudal 1/5 to 1/6, height of body 1/3 to 3/10 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 1/5 to 2/11 of length of head, rather above 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/5 of a diameter apart. 
The maxilla reaches to below the last third or hind margin of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle rather 
convex, and a little emarginate above its angle in the adult but not in the young, its upper two-thirds finely 
serrated, more coarsely so at its angle, where the serrations are rather irregularly disposed : lower limb entire, 
as are also the sub- and inter-opercles (in one specimen both sub- and inter-opercles are serrated). Three strong 
opercular spines, the central being the most developed. Teeth — one or two strong canines or either side of both 
jaws, the upper being generally somewhat the larger : the outer row in the upper jaw, and the inner in the lower, 
being larger than the others. Fins — dorsal spines from the third are of about the same length, the longest being 
3/4 the length of the longest ray : soft portions of the dorsal and anal obtusely angular : second anal spine the 
strongest, equal in length to the third in the adult or even longer in the young : caudal rounded. Scales — 
ctenoid, covering the forehead and preorbital but none on maxilla. Colours — when alive very brilliant, but fading 
after death. Generally yellowish-brown, snout pale blue, lips and throat spotted with a deeper blue, whilst 
about five fillets of the same colour diverge from the orbit and cross the opercles and branchial membranes. 
Blue and rather tortuous horizontal lines pass from the head towards the tail below the lateral line, whilst above 
it are about eight more directed backwards, upwards, and continued on to the dorsal fin throughout its whole 
extent ; these blue lines are likewise continued on to the other fins, except (occasionally on) the ventrals, which 
however become nearly black at their extremities. Some blue spots exist anterior to the base of the ventral 
fin (male), also occasionally on the jaws. 

There are three figures of this fish amongst Sir W. Elliot's drawings, termed Noma panni, Keela panni, 
and Panama kullawaie ; one was captured at Waltair, March 24th, 1853. 



24 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

The specimen termed Serranus formosus, " adult : stuffed Isle de France," in the British Museum Catalogue 
1. c. is, as Dr. Bleeker suggests (Fish. Madagascar, p. 20), identical with Epinephelus Polleni, Bleeker, 1. c. p. 19 : 
the caudal is cut nearly square instead of being rounded as in S. boenach. A beautiful specimen exists in the 
Paris Museum received from M. Lienard, of the Mauritius, but the description I am unable to recognise in his 
papers. 

Habitat. — Seas of India and Malay Archipelago to China. 

26. Serranus miniatus, Plate VI, fig. 2. 

Perca miniata, Forsk. p. 41 ; Linn. Gmel. p. 1317. 
Bodianus miniatus, Bl. Schn. p. 332. 

Serranus miniatus, Riipp. Atl. Fische, p. 106, t. xxvi, f. 3 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 118, and in Garretts. 
Fische d. Sudsee, Heft, i, p. 5, pi. v ; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. yerh. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 679. 
Serranus guttatus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 357. 
Diacope miniata, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 433. 
Cromileptes miniatus, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 201. 

Serranus cyanostigmatoides, Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxii, Perc. p. 31 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 117. 
Epinephelus cyanostigmatoides, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 232, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. v, f. 3. 
Epinephelus argus, Bleeker, Waigiou. p. 296. 
Epinephelus miniatus, Bleeker Epinephelini, p. 53. 

B. vii, D. -^tj, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 90, L. r. W 6 > L. tr. 14-16/40, Case. pyl. 12 (Madras)— 
16 (Andamans). 

Length of head from 4/13 to 2/7, of caudal 1/7, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
from 1/5 to 1/6 of length of head, 1 to 1| diameters from the end of snout, and f of a diameter apart. The 
maxilla reaches to below the posterior third or hind edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle usually 
somewhat emarginate above its angle, the whole being finely and evenly serrated, as are also the sub- and inter- 
opercles. Opercular spines well developed, the central one being the largest. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, 
the fourth or fifth somewhat the longest, and equal to one-third the height of the body, the last nearly as high 
as the first ray : pectoral as long as the head, exclusive of the snout, and longer than the ventral, which reaches 
three-fourths of the way to the vent : caudal rounded. Scales — ctenoid. Colours — uniform scarlet : body, 
cheeks, opercles, dorsal, caudal, and anal fins covered with large blue spots, the size of which equals the extent 
of from 2 to 5 scales : two blue spots opposite the base of the pectoral. Two dark streaks from the orbit along 
the snout. The fins darkest at their margins : two rows of large blue spots along the spinous portion of the 
dorsal, and six or eight over the soft dorsal and the anal : one or two spots near the base of the pectoral, which 
fin is sometimes spotted all over. 

Peters (Wieg. Arch. 1855, p. 235) considered S. cyanostigma as identical with this species. Bleeker 
(Epinephelini), p. 56, observes that though closely allied they appear to be distinct, as the colour is constantly 
different : the scaling of the snout is not identical, and it has D. ^l P. 16-17, C. 19. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen figured is 9 
inches in length. 

27. Serranus guttatus, Plate VI, fig. 3. 

Bodianus guttatus, Bl. t. 224 ; Bl. Schn. p. 330 ; Lacep. iv, p. 296. 

Epinephelus argus, Bl. Schn. p. 301. 

Cephalopholis argus, Bl. Schn. p. 311, pi. 61. 

Serranus hemistictus, Riipp. Atl. p. 109, t. xxvii, f. 3 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 119 ; Klunzinger, Verh. z. b. 
Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 680. 

Serranus myriaster, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 365 ; Riipp. Atl. p. 107, t. xxvii, f. 1 ; Richards. Ich. China, 
p. 233 ; Less. Voy. Coq. Poiss. pi. 37 ; Bleeker, Nat Tyds. Ned. Ind. vi, p. 192. 

Serranus argus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 360 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 115 ; Peters, Berlin. Monats. 1865, p. 103. 

Serranus guttatus, Peters, Wieg Arch. 1855, p. 235 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 119, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 5, 
t. iv ; Kjuer, Voy. Novara, p. 22 ; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. 1. c. p. 686. 

Epinephelus argus, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 57. 

B. vii, D. t,?^, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. ¥ V, C. 17, L. r. i§f, L. tr. 21/43, Ca^c. pyl. 8. 

Length of head 1/3 to 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/3 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
from 1/5 to 2/13 of the length of head, If diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches 
to beyond the vertical from the hind edge of the orbit. Preopercle, its vertical limb rounded and finely serrated, 
lower limb entire : a few serrations on the interopercle. Three well developed opercular spines, the central one 
being the longest. Teeth — rather small canines in both jaws, the outer row of teeth in the maxilla and the 
inner in the mandible are larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, increasing in 
length to the fourth and fifth, which equal about one-third the height of the body : pectoral rather longer than 
the ventral : second anal spine strongest and slightly longer than the third : soft portions of the dorsal and 
anal fins angularly rounded : caudal rounded. Scales — ctenoid. Colours — usually reddish-brown and mostly 
with darker vertical bands ; head, body, and all the fins (except occasionally the pectoral and ventral) covered 
with numerous small blue spots : dorsal, anal, and caudal with a fine white border. 

In the variety figured, S. hemistictus, the cross bands are not seen : the spots on the upper half of the 
body are very few, and the pectoral has a broad yellow edge. 



FAMILY, I— PERCLTLE. 25 

Habitat.-— Red Sea', East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, China, Australia, and 
beyond. The specimen figured is 9 inches in length. 

28. Serranus leopardus, Plate VI, fig. 4. 
Labrus leopardus, Lacep. iii, p. 517, t. 30, f. 1. 

Sen-anus leopardus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 336; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 123 and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 4, t. 3, 
f. B. (excl. synonym, pt.) 

Serranus spilurus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 433 ; Bleeker, Flores, p. 322. 
Serranus Homfrayi, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 678. 
Epinephelus zanana, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. x, fig. 2. 
Epinephelus leopardus, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 61. 

B. vii, D. .fe, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. ¥ ? ¥ , C. 17, L. r. («)«, L. tr. 10/26. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — high up, diameter 
largest in the immature, from 1/5 to 1/6 of the length of the head in the adult, from 1 to \\ diameters from end 
of snout in the adult and nearly 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below the hind edge of the orbit. Vertical 
limb of preopercle rounded and very finely serrated ; the serrations extending along its angle but not to the 
lower limb : interopercle usually with a few fine serrations along its posterior half. Teeth — canines in both jaws, 
the outer row in the maxilla, and the inner in mandible larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines 
strong, the fifth the longest but not equalling the length of the rays : soft dorsal and anal rounded : pectoral as 
long as the head exclusive of the snout : second anal spine the strongest and slightly the longest : caudal 
rounded. Scales — rather strongly ctenoid on the body, 8 rows between the lateral-line and the sixth dorsal 
spine, they cover the snout, preorbital and suborbital ring of bones and the posterior half of the maxilla. A 
badly marked line, very similar to the lateral-line, passes along the scales near the bases of the dorsal and anal 
fins. Colours — vary, red or yellow predominating. The body may be whitish covered with round or oval red 
spots which are extended over the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. A dark band passes from the eye to above the 
upper opercular spine behind which it terminates in a black spot : one or two black bands with or without a 
white edging may be present over the free portion of the tail : caudal with a white or blue spot at either of its 
outer angles, and a triangular black band across its last third. This band may be broken up into an oblique 
mark across either side of the tail, or may even be seen quite white as in the lower one of the figure. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea through those of India to China ; the one figured life size, was taken at 
the Andaman Islands. 

29. Serranus Sonnerati, Plate VII, fig. 1. 
Ferca rubra, Sonnerat. 

Serranus Sonnerati, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 299 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 122 ; Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 3, (exc. 
pi. iii, fig. 1.) 

Serranus pachycentron, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 295. 

Serranus erythrceus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 516 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 116 ; Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 2, pi. i, f, 1. 

Serranus p achy centrum, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 116. 

Epinephelus nigripinnis, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. vi, f. 2 ; and Epinephelini, p. 39 ; {? Serranus nigripinnis, 
Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 339). 

Siggapu cullawah, Tain. 

B. vii, D. t^, P. 18-19, V. 1/5, A. T ? T , C. 17, Ceec. pyl. 11-12, L. r. \1%1\%% , L. tr. 27/40. 

Length of head 3/10 to 2/7, of caudal, 2/13 to 1/7, height of body, 4/13 to 2/7 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 2/11 to 2/13 of the total length, \\ to 1| diameters, from the end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter 
apart. Profile from the snout to above the eyes rather concave. The maxilla reaches to a slight distance 
beyond the hind edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle sometimes slightly oblique above its angle, it is 
very finely serrated in its whole extent : lower limb with irregular notches, and serrated, occasionally coarsely 
so : sub- and inter-opercles finely serrated : the two upper opercular spines more developed than the lower. 
Teeth — one or two well developed canines on either side of both jaws, largest in the lower : the outer row of teeth 
in the maxilla and the inner in the mandibles larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines moderately 
strong, increasing in length to the third from whence they continue to very slightly augment in height to the 
last which equals 2/7 of that of the body, the inter-spinous membrane is slightly emarginate and not lobed, the 
rayed portion is about one-fourth higher than the spinous, it and the soft part of the anal rounded : pectoral as 
long as the head behind the front edge or middle of the eye, and rather longer than the ventral : second anal 
spine the strongest but not quite so long as the third, which nearly equals the third of the dorsal : caudal 
rounded. Scales — cycloid on the head, ctenoid on the body, fine ones are continued for some distance up the bases 
of the soft dorsal, anal, and caudal fins : fine ones over the snout, sub-orbital and the anterior and lower portion 
of the preorbital : the hind half of the maxilla sometimes has very fine ones, at other times it is destitute of any. 
There are 14 or 15 rows of scales between the sixth dorsal spine and the lateral line at its highest point which 
is below it. There exists a badly marked line, much simdar to the lateral line, running along the scales near the 
bases of the dorsal and anal fins. Colours — of a dull lake, with the head and to below the first half of the 
spinous dorsal fin covered with a net-work of blue lines enclosing spots from one-sixth the diameter of the eye, 
to spaces larger than it. Some indistinct spots over the whole of the body. Fins of rather darker colour than 
the liody.j .especially at their edges : caudal with some dull blue or white spots. 

E 



26 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

The specimen of Serranus erytTvrceus, figured in the " Fishes of Zanzibar" is identical with this species as 
suggested by Bleeker ; also Kelaart's skin a, p. 116 of S. pachycentrum* which has L. r. \-\%, L. fcr. 22/ — , and 
is the same as the large specimens of S. leopardus in the British Museum. S. Sonnerati, Playfair, Fish. 
Zanzibar, p. 3, pi. hi, fig. 1, has L. r. *■££ and 9 rows of scales between the lateral line and the base of the sixth 
dorsal spine, it appears to.be identical, as already suggested by Bleeker with his Epiuephelus (Serranus) 
miltostigma. 

Amongst Sir Walter Elliot's drawings are three of this species showing variations of colour. Jerdon 
(M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 129) observes that " the intensity of the red varies a good deal, and it is sometimes 
marked with white spots." 

Habitat — East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. The specimen 
figured is that of a female 13 inches long captured in February, 1859, at Madras, where it is not uncommon and 
attains at least 3 feet in length. 

30. Serranus boelang, Plate VII, fig. 2. 

Serranus boelang, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 308, vii, p. 504 ; Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astrol. p. 657, pi. 3, fig. 4 ; 
Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 2. 

Serranus nigrofasciatus, Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. Pol. Sud. Poissons, p. 36, t. 2, f. 1. 

? Merous unicolor, Lienard, Nat. Hist. Soc. Maur. 1839, p. 31. 

Serranus microprion, Bleeker, Amb. ii, p. 552 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 116. 

Serranus stigmapomius, Rich. Ich. China, p. 232. 

Serranus boenach, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 112 (not Bloch) ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 21. 

Epinephelus boelang, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 49. 

Epinephelus microprion, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. ii, fig. 1, and Epinephelini, p. 47 (? variety). 

B. vii, D. ttj-^, P. 15, V.l/5, A. &, C. 17, L. r. ff, L. tr. 18/36 (Case. pyl. 6-7, Kner). 

Length of head 4/13 to 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body nearly 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/5 of length of head, 1J diameters from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. The maxilla 
reaches to some distance behind the posterior edge of the orbit. Preopercle with its vertical limb finely serrated, 
the serrations being continued along its angle and a short distance on to its horizontal border : fine serrations 
upon the sub- and inter-opercles. Opercular spines strong especially the central one. Teeth — small canines in 
both jaws, the outer row of teeth in the maxilla, and the inner in the mandible larger than the villiform bands 
which are comparatively of small size. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong and from the third are about equal in 
length but not so long as the rays : pectoral a little longer than the ventral and equalling the length of the head 
excluding the snout : second anal spine much the strongest and also the longest, being equal to two-fifths of the 
height of the body : soft portions of the dorsal and anal angularly rounded : caudal rounded. Scales — ctenoid 
on the body, ten rows between the lateral line and the base of the sixth dorsal spine. Colours — purplish, with 
from eight to nine vertical bands on the body not so wide as the ground colour : when freshly captured, the one 
over the free portion of the tail is very dark : a dark mark behind the two upper opercular spines, and a blackish 
edge to the dorsal, which in the soft portion of the anal and the caudal is margined with white. 

S. microprion, Bleeker, which may be a variety of this species has blue spots over the head and shoulders. 

Habitat — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. It does 
not appear to attain a large size. The one figured, life-size, came from the Andaman Islands. 

Genus, 4 — Vakiola, Siuains. 

Pseudoserranus, Klunz. 

Branchiostegals seven ; pseudobranchice. Body oblong, compressed. Eyes lateral of moderate size. Preopercle 
with its vertical limb feebly serrated, its horizontal one entire. Opercle with three spines. Teeth villiform in the jaws, 
vomer and palate : canines present, and the inner roiv of teeth in both jaws moveable : some conical teeth along the rami 
of the mandibles. Dorsal fin single toith nine spines : anal with three : caudal deeply emarginate. Scales small, 
ctenoid, none on the snout, suborbitals, or maxilla. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Variola louti, D. t-A-6> -A- f > I Ji r w Vertical limb of preopercle slightly emarginate and finely 
serrated. Caudal deeply emarginate. Red, with small darker spots on the body and most of the fins, some of 
which last are edged with yellow. East coast of Africa, Ceylon. 

1. Variola louti, Plate VII, fig. 3. 

Perca louti, Forsk. p. 40. 

Bodianus louti, Bl. Schn. p. 332 ; Lacep. iv, p. 286. 

* Valenciennes observes that he had only seen one specimen and that was in the Leyden Museum, 7 French inches long. His 
especial reason for considering it a new species appears to he the character of the scales which were small and ctenoid. Those on the sides 
being slightly keeled, forming about 20 horizontal rows. This appearance is more seen in some specimens than in others, and is not 
peculiar to this species. In 1867, a Serranus diacanthus about 18| inches long, which was not quite fresh, was brought to me at Madras. 
I had it preserved as a skin and dried rather too rapidly, the result being that all the rows of scales on the body show a well developed 
keel. I have also seen this appearance caused in fish which have been immersed, from the first, in spirit of too great a strength. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 27 

Labrus punctatus, Lacep. iii, p. 431, pi. 17, f. 2. 

Serramis loiiti, Riipp. Atl. p. 106, pi. 26, f. 2 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 101, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 2, t. i, 
(not Cut. and Val.) 

Serranus punctulatus, Cnv. and Val. ii, p. 367, ix, p. 435 ; Bleeker, Sumatra, i. p. 570; Quoy and Gaim. 
Voy. Astrol. Poissons, p. 654, pi. 3, f. 2. 

Serranus phcenistomtis, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 201. 

Variola longipinna, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 202. 

Pseudoserranus louti, Klimz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 687. 

Variola louti, Bleeker, Epinephelini, p. 11. 

B. vii, D. .5^,, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. f , C. 17, L. r. Ui, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head from 2/7 to 1/4, of caudal 2/9, height of body 2/9 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/9 to 1/5 in the length of head, upwards of 1| diameters from the end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. 
Lower jaw prominent, the maxilla reaches to below the hind edge of the eye. Vertical limb of preopercle with 
some feeble serrations at its angle, its lower limb, sub- and inter-opercles entire. Teeth — strong canines in the 
upper, and weaker ones in the lower jaw : outer row of teeth in the maxilla, shorter and thicker than the 
villiform band : some large teeth also present amongst the villiform ones in the mandible. Fins — dorsal spines 
rather weak, the soft portion of the fin, also of the anal, elongated and pointed : pectoral as long as the head 
without the snout : ventral one-third longer : second anal spine not quite so long as the third ; caudal deeply 
emarginate and with pointed angles. Scales — ctenoid about 14 rows between the lateral-line and the base of the 
first dorsal spine. Colours — red with small darker spots everywhere : all the fins red, outer edge of pectoral and 
soft dorsal yellowish, as is also snout and abdomen. A yellow line along the inner edge of the two lobes of the 
caudal fin. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. The specimen figured 
is from the collection in the British Museum. 

Genus, 5 — Anthias, (Bl. Schi.) Cuv. 8f Val. 

Caprodon, Temm. and Schleg. : Aylopon, Gallanthias, Paranthias, and Elastoma, Guichemot : Holanthias, 
Giinther. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchios. Body oblong, rather elongated, and compressed : preorbital of 
moderate height, entire. Preopercle serrated. Opercle with ttuo spines. Villiform teeth in both jaios, ivith canines 
anteriorly, and an outer row of canine-like ones laterally : also villiform on the vomer and palate : if present on the 
tongue, minute. B/orsal fin single, with from nine to eleven spines: anal with three : pectorals pointed : caudal rather 
deeply forked : one, or more of the fins, as a rule, having elongated rays. Scales of moderate size, an enlarged row 
over the nape. Pyloric appendages few. * 

Geographical distribution, most of the seas of temperate and tropical regions. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Anthias multidens, D. -La, A. f , L. 1. 52. Rosy, with lateral golden bands on the body, and two on the 
head. Andamans. 

1. Anthias multidens, Plate VII, fig. 4. 

Mesoprion multidens, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 680. 

B. vii, D. i£, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. &, C. 16, L. 1. 52, L. r. ff, L. tr. 7/17, Ca3c. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 4/15, of caudal 1/4, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, lj diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. The distance between the eye and the angle of the 
mouth equals three-fourths of the diameter of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the first-third of the 
orbit. Vertical and horizontal limbs of preopercle finely serrated, most coarsely so x at its rounded and somewhat 
produced angle. Opercle with two well developed spines. Seven rows of scales between the eye and the angle 
of the preopercle. Teetlv — villiform in the jaws, with a large canine on either side of the premaxillary, and an 
outer lateral row of canine-like ones in the maxilla : likewise an outer row of canine-like teeth in the lower 
jaw : villiform ones on the vomer and palate. Fins — dorsal spines slender, the fifth the longest, and nearly equal 
to half the height of the body below it, the last spine upwards of two-thirds of the length of the fifth : pectoral 
as long as the head, and reaching to above the end of the base of the anal : last dorsal, and anal rays elongated to 
nearly twice as long as the one preceding each : second anal spine the strongest, the third the longest, and nearly 
equal to one-third of the length of the head : caudal deeply forked, the upper lobe slightly the longer. Colours — 
rosy, with about six longitudinal yellow bands along the body, and a golden one from the inferior angle of the 
eye to the snout, and another across the forehead. 

Habitat. — Andamans, where it is common, attaining a large size : although the number of spines, rays, 
scales, and cascal pylori are the same as in Anthias oculatus, Cuv. and Val. the form of the dorsal fin differs, as 
in this species the spines do not decrease to the last. 

Genus, 6 — Grammistes (Artedi) Cuvier. 
Pogonoperca, Giinther. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchiae. Body oblong and compressed. Snout short. Opercle and preopercle 
unserrated, but spinate. Eyes lateral. Teeth villiform in the jaws, vomer, and palatines, no canines : tongue smooth. 

E 2 



28 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

A barbel of a more, or less, rudimentary character on the chin. Two dorsal fins, the first with seven spines : anal 
spineless. Scales minute, adherent, and enveloped in the epidermis. Pyloric appendages feiv. 

Geographical distribution — Red Sea, throughout those of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Grammistes Orientalis, Bl. Schn. D. 7/ T 1 ¥ , A. 9-11. Three spinate denticulations on preoperele. Caudal 
rounded. Deep brown, with from three to seven narrow white longitudinal bands, which anteriorly are continued 
on to the head. Red Sea, seas of India, Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 

1. Grammistes Orientalis. Plate IX, f. 1. 

Grammistes Orientalis, Bl. Schn. p. 189 : Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 203, pi. 27 : Bleeker, Amboina, iv, p. 105 ; 
Gdnther, Catal. i. p. 171 ; Klunz. Fische. Roth. Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 707 ; Bleeker, Epinephelini, 
p. 129. 

Perca bilineata, Thunb. Nov. Act. Hoi. xiii, p. 142, t. 5. 

Bodianus sex-lineatus, Lacep. iv, pp. 285, 302. 

Scicena vittata, Lacep. iv, p. 323. 

Perca triacanthus et pentacanthus, Lacep. iv, pp. 398, 424. 

Centropomus sex-lineatus, Lacep. v, pp. 688, 689. 

B. vii, D. 7 | i^, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. 9-11, C. 17. 

Length of head 2/7 to 1/3, of pectoral 2/11, of caudal 1/5, height of body nearly 1/3 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 2/7 to 1/4 of the length of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Body 
oblong and elongated, sometimes with a slight concavity in the profile above the orbit : lower jaw the longer. 
The maxilla extends to below the hind edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preoperele with three spinate 
denticulations on its border, the upper being the smallest ; some indistinct ones along the lower limb. Three 
spines on opercle. A rudimentary barbel on the lower jaw, which in a fresh specimen, nearly 4 inches long, 
equalled half the length of the orbit. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — -third dorsal spine 
the longest equalling one-third of the height of the body below it : soft dorsal, anal, and caudal rounded. 
Scales — imbedded in epidermis and usually covered with mucus. Colours — of a deep chestnut brown, with three 
milk-white longitudinal bands, from the head along the body, the inferior ceasing opposite the posterior end of 
the base of the anal fin. A white median band from the snout to the base of the dorsal fin. 

In some specimens there are six or more white longitudinal lines along either side of the body. 

Seba figures this fish as Grammistes, pi. 27, f. 5. 

Habitat — Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond, attaining only a few inches in length. 
The one figured is from the Andamans, and life size. 

Genus, 7 — Diplopeion, (Kuhl. and v. Mass.) Ouv. and Val. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchim. Body oblong, compressed. Eyes lateral. Opercle spinate : preoperele 
with a double edge, the outer of which is denticulated. Teeth villiform in jaws, vomer, and palatines, no canines : 
tongue smooth. Two dorsal fins, the first with eight spines : anal with two. Scales . small, adherent. Pyloric 
appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Prom the seas of India to China and Japan. This fish I have not personally 
captured in India, nor found it in local Indian collections ; those taken have been probably mere stragglers. 
Dr. Jerdon remarks, " this pretty fish is rare at Madras." — (Madr. Journ. Lit. and Science, 1851, No. 39, 
p. 129.) 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Biploprion bifasciatum, D. 8 | 15, A. ~\. Yellow with two black vertical bands. Indian seas, Malay 
Archipelago to Japan. 

1. Diploprion bifasciatum, Plate IX, f. 2. 

(Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 137, pi. 21 : Tern, and Schleg. Fauna Japon. p. 2, pi. 2, f. A. : 
Richards. Ich. China, p. 221 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxvi, p. 59 and Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind. vi, 1854, p. 207 
and Epinephelini, p. 124; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 174; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 29. 

Anoovah meen, Tam. 

B. vii, D. 8 | 14-15, A. ^^ C. 17, L. r. ^L-hr, L. tr. 12/-. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 1/4 length of 
head, 1J diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of 
the orbit. Preoperele having a double edge the outer of which is serrated, the inner ridge is also stated to be 
sometimes serrated. Approximating portions of sub- and inter-opercles serrated. Opercle with its two upper 
spines large, followed interiorly by several smaller ones. Teeth — generic. Fins — third and fourth dorsal 
spines the highest, and nearly equal to the length of the head behind the front edge of the orbit ; they decrease 
in length to the last which is very short : anal spines also very short : caudal rounded. Colours — Gamboge 
yellow with two broad black cross bands. 

Habitat — Seas of India, to China and Japan. 

Sir John Richardson remarks, " specimens exist in every collection of Chinese fishes, and small ones 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 29 

are common in the insect boxes sold at Canton." The one figured is from a stuffed specimen in the Liverpool 
Free Museum, kindly lent me for this purpose by its curator, Mr. Moore. 

Genus, 8 — Lutianus, Block. 

Diacope and Mesoprion, Cuv. and Val. : Genyoroge, Cantor : Macolor, Bleeker : Proamblys, Hypoplites, 
PJiomboplites, Ocyurus, Evoplites, and Tropidinius, Gill. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchim. Body oblong, compressed : snout elongated, with the preorbital rather 
high and entire. Preopercle serrated, tvith or without a notch on its vertical border to receive a knob, which is sometimes 
developed on the interopercle. Opercle rarely with one, more generally with two or three indistinct points. Villiform 
teeth in both jaws : canines in the upper, with smaller ones in the anterior portion of the lower jaw, awl laterally 
a row of canine-like teeth : villiform teeth likewise on the vomer, and palate : when present on the tongue minute. 
Dorsal fin single, with from nine to thirteen spines : anal with three : pectorals pointed : caudal rounded, truncated or 
emarginate. Scales ctenoid, of moderate or rather small size, one or two enlarged rows over the nape. Pyloric appendages 
few or absent. Air-vessel simple. 

Geographical distribution. — -From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa through the seas of India, the 
Malay Archipelago, and to the Pacific. 

Uses. — As a rule all these fishes are good as food, though some are insipid : a few attain a large size. 
They are extensively salted and dried in many localities. 

Amongst the Lutiani exist variations which require notice. Thus in some, when immature (as observed 
in a few Serrani), a spine exists at the angle of the preopercle : as age advances it is gradually absorbed, although 
occasionally in the adult coarse serrations may indicate its prior existence. Instead of one there may be several 
spinate denticulations at this spot in the fry, which also disappear, as in the case of the single spine. The 
interopercular knob, in those species which possess one (=Genus Diacope, Cuv. and Val., or Genyoroge, Cantor.) 
appears in two distinct modes — either as well formed from birth with a notch in the vertical border of the 
preopercle — or else the knob is gradually formed, and as it increases in size it presses against the vertical border 
of the preopercle causing absorption at the spot above it and thus creates a notch. Respecting the dorsal spines, 
it has been remarked of the Serrani that one ray may occasionally assume the form of a spine, thus changing the 
specific number (by the addition of one spine and the diminution of one ray) but this seems to be rather rare 
amongst the Indian Lutiani in which, although the spines may be increased, the rays are not usually diminished 
in number : an increase in the number of the rays is, however, of more frequent occurrence than in the spines. 

In colouring there is one subject that requires further examination, and that is the lateral blotch : in 
those species in which it is present, it is sometimes most decided in the young, but whether it frequently exists 
in some specimens and is absent in others remains to be solved. That it disappears if the fresh specimen is 
left soaking in water is evident : that it sometimes is all but lost in those kept in spirit is also apparent, but the 
similarity of Lutianus marginatus without a lateral blotch to specimens in which it is present is so great, that I 
cannot separate them into distinct species ; the same fact has been observed by Bleeker, in L. Bengalensis 
and Amboinensis. It is not a little remarkable that this mark is of a deep black colour on the Malabar 
coast, in L. marginatus ; but much less apparent in specimens captured on the Coromandel coast, where 
also those of an identical size without any such blotch are numerous. Age then cannot be the sole cause, which 
may be sought for in locality and sex (provided they are the same species). 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Lutianus Sebce, D. ri-irgi -A-. -b-tt, L. r. ff, L. tr. 9/22. Interopercular knob present, no lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique rows. Reddish* with three curved black bands. Red Sea, seas of India, to the Malay 
Archipelago, and beyond. 

2. Lutianus Halabaricus, D. ff , A. f , L. r. f f, L. tr. 9/23. No interopercular 'knob. No lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique rows above the lateral line. A violet-purple band on the back, along the base of the dorsal 
fin. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

3. Lutianus erythropterus, D. xf-f^, A. f , L. r. ff , L. tr. 11-12/25. No interopercular knob. No lingual 
teeth. Scales in oblique rows. Red with marks varying with age. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago, and beyond. 

4. Lutianus dodecacanthus, D. yf-fi-, A. f , L. r. ff, L. tr. 8/23. No interopercular knob. No lingual 
teeth. Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Scarlet. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

5. Lutianus Bengalensis, D. t^tt> A. f , L. r. fflff , L. tr. 7-8/18. An interopercular knob. No lingual 
teeth. Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line, superiorly reaching to above the front edge of the eye. 
Four blue bands from the eye along the sides. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

6. Lutianus fulvus, D. ff, A. §, L. r. ff-, L. tr. 9/21. An interopercular knob. No lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Yellowish-red. Andamans, Otaheite. 

7. Latianus biguttatus, D. -if-V?; A. f , L. r. f| , L. tr. 6/15. A small interopercular knob. Lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Olive with two milk-white spots on the back. Seas of India, 
to the Malay Archipelago. 

* It is curious that from this as well as from some other species of red Imtiani, as L. erythropterus. L. dodecatanthus, and even 
O&ontoneetes pinjalo, the body colour has stained the cloth in which my specimens were enveloped whilst in spirit coming from India. In 
some white carps on the other hand, as Barhus filamentosus, and B. arulius the fish turns of a bright red after death, whether placed in 
spirit or skinned and stuffed, this colour being persistent except to incipient putrefaction, soaking in water or weak, spirit and bleaching. 



30 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

8. Lutianus lineolatus, D. tj-Vs, A. -g-? ¥ , L. r. ■£-§-, L. tr. 6-7/14. No interopercular knob. Lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique sinuous rows above the lateral-line. Body horizontally banded. Red Sea, seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago. 

9. Lutianus lemniscatus, D. if, A. §, L. 1. 56, L. tr. 8/21. A badly developed interopercular knob. Two 
wide dark horizontal bands from the eye to the caudal fin. Ceylon to the Malay Archipelago. 

10. Lutianus chrysotosnia, D. if, A. f, L. r. -f§, L. tr. 8/22. No interopercular knob. Lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Oblique bands from the eye, posteriorly. Nicobars to the Malay 

__ Archipelago. 

11. Lutianus rivulatus, D. if, A. -gl^, L. r. ff, L. tr. 8/19. An interopercular knob. No lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Brownish, spotted with blue : a black blotch, having a white 
front edge on the lateral-line. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago, and 
beyond. 

12. Lutianus argentimaculatus, D. tJ-tts, A. §, L. r. f§Cf4s E. tr. 7-8/16. A very slight interopercular 
knob. Lingual teeth. Scales mostly in horizontal rows above lateral-line. Cherry-red, the young with narrow, 
white, vertical bands. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

13. Lutianus roseics, D. if, A. f , L. r. -§-£, L. tr. 7/18. No interopercular knob. Lingual teeth. Scales 
in horizontal rows. Caudal fin rounded. Reddish-brown. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

14. Lutianus sillaoo, D. if, A. -g-Jj-, L. r. -f-f, L. tr. 6/15. No interopercular knob. Lingual teeth. Scales 
in oblique rows above lateral-line. Reddish with varying colours. Seas of India. 

15. Lutianus lioglossus, D. -j-j-tt, A. • g -?- g -, L. r. |f , L. tr. 6-7/15. A very slight interopercular knob. No 
lingual teeth. Scales in oblique rows above lateral-line. Roseate shot with gold : a black lateral blotch. Red 
Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

16. Lutianus jalmgarah, D. -ifJrg-, A. f, L. r. ff, L. tr. 6/13. No interopercular knob. No lingual teeth. 
Scales in horizontal rows. Reddish with varying colours. Seas of India. 

17. Lutianus quinquelineatus, D. •j-3- ! rT> -A- ¥-9"! -k- r - loi -k- tr. 8/21. No interopercular knob. Lingual 
teeth. Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. About six blue bands from the eye along the body : a 
black lateral blotch. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

18. Lutianus lunulatus, D. x^-^ti -A- 8"-"o> I J - r - 5~f> L. tr. 7/21. No interopercular knob. Lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Reddish-crimson, a lunated black band on the caudal fin. Coast 
of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

19. Lutianus fulviflamma, D. T^.y^, A. f , L. r. ff, L. tr. 7-8/16. No interopercular knob. Lingual 
teeth. Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Golden with a black lateral blotch ; and in the variety 
Mussellii also oblique golden bands from the eye along the body. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India 
to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

20. Lutianus Johnii, D. yf f-*, A. -g? ¥ , L. r. ff , L. tr. 7/13. A very indistinct interopercular tuberosity. 
Lingual teeth. Scales in horizontal rows. Golden with a black lateral blotch. Seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago and beyond. 

21. Lutianus gibbus, D. if, A. -g-?^-, L. r. |f , L. tr. 8/23. A strong interopercular knob. No lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Crimson in the adult. In the young a black band covers the end 
of the dorsal fin, the last half of the free portion of the tail, and the whole of the caudal. Red Sea, Andamans 
to the Malay Archipelago. 

22. Lutianus bohar, D. if, A. f , L. r. If, L. tr. 7/18. A small interopercular knob. Lingual teeth. 
Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Brownish with two milk-white spots, one below the spinous, the 
other below the soft portion, of the dorsal fin. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

23. Lutianus marginatus, D. xff-j, A. f , L. r. ff-, L. tr. 6-7/15. A strong interopercular knob. No 
lingual teeth. Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Purplish-yellow, fins darker, edged with white. 
A black lateral blotch may be present, or absent. East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipielago. 

24. Lutianus yapilli, D. -^f , A. §, L. r. ff, L. tr. 6/14. No interopercular knob. Scales in horizontal 
rows. Caudal fin rounded. Silvery-grey, with yellow bands. Coromandel coast of India. 

25. Lutianus quinquelinearis, D. JS-j, A. -g-!-^, L. r. f§, L. tr. 8/19. A strong interopercular knob. No 
lingual teeth. Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Eive blue bands from the eye along the body : a 
black lateral blotch. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

26. Lutianus vitta, D. if, A. §, L. r. ff:-§f , L. tr. 8/12. No interopercular knob. Lingual teeth.' Scales 
in oblique sinuous rows above the lateral-line. Yellowish-red with olive stripes. Seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

27. Lutianus Madras, D. -j-i.fi, A. -^ T , L. r. ff , L. tr. 6/16. No interopercular knob. Lingual teeth. 
Scales in. oblique rows above the lateral-line. Roseate with olive or reddish lines following the rows of scales. 
East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

28. Lutianus decussatus, D. yf.^r, A. f, L. r. 5 | = | , L. tr. 6-7/17. A slight interopercular swelling. No 
lingual teeth. Scales in oblique rows above the lateral-line. Six blackish longitudinal bands, and six more 
vertical ones cross them from the back. A black blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Lutianus Sebse, Plate IX, fig. 3. 
Perca, Seba, iii, pi. 27, f. 2. 
Sparus botlavoo champah, Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 77, pi. 99. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 31 

Diacope Sebce, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 411 ; Klunz. Fische Roth. Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 692. 
Diacope Siamensis, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 524. 

Mesoprion Sebce, Bleeker, Perc. p. 45 ; Kner. Novara Fische. p. 30. 
Genyoroge sebce, Giinther, Catal. p. 176. 
Lutjanus Sebce, Bleeker, Siam. p. 173, and Lutjani, p. 53. 
Veri-cut-ta-lay, or Nai-herruchi, " smelling like a dog," Tarn. 

B. vii, D. t J_l_, p. 17, v. 1/5, A. ^ C. 17, L. 1. 50-55, L. r. #f, L. tr. 9/22 : Case, pyl. 4-5, 
Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 4/13 to 2/7, of candal 1/5, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 
of length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. The distance from the eye to the 
upper edge of the maxilla equals one-fourth of the diameter of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the middle 
of the eye. Both the vertical and horizontal limbs of the preopercle serrated, the formter having a deep emargination 
in the adult to receive a well developed interopercular knob which in the young is not so distinct. Teeth — 
canines in the premaxillaries, an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in the jaws : villiform in a A-shape hi the 
vomer, and in a band on the palate, none on the tongue. Fins — third dorsal spine the longest, rather above half 
the length of the head, from thence they decrease to the last but one : soft portion of the fin and also of the 
anal, elevated and pointed, much higher than long at its base. Pectoral nearly as long as the head. Third anal 
spine somewhat the longest and nearly equal to the post-orbital portion of the head. Scales — in oblique rows 
above the lateral-line and horizontal ones below it : superiorly they reach to above the hind edge of the orbit : 
caudal emarginate. Colours — reddish, a black band passes from before the dorsal fin, through the eye to the 
shout : a second from the second to the sixth dorsal spines to the ventral fin : a third from the soft dorsal, 
curving downwards to the lower half of the caudal : ventrals and lower half of anal black. 

Bleeker observes that he possesses a very young specimen (35'" long) in which the soft dorsal and anal 
are more rounded, and in colour it appears as if it were brownish, traversed by two narrow white bands. 

Habitat. — From the Bed Sea, and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. Longest specimen captured at Madras 8 inches. 

2. Lutianus Malabaricus, Plate IX, fig. 4. 

Sparus Malabaricus, Bl. Schn. p. 278. 

Mesoprion Malabaricus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 480. 

Mesoprion Malabaricus, Bleeker, Sumatra, iii, p. 3, and Giinther, Catal. i, p. 204 (not synonym.) 

Itutjanus Malabaricus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xv, fig. 1, and Lutjani, p. 50 (not synonym.) 

B. vii, D. H. P- 17, V. 1/5, A. a C. 17, L. 1. 55, L. r. ff, L. tr. 9/23. 

Length of head 2/7,»of caudal nearly 1/6, height of body 4/11 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 
of length of head, li diameters from the end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Form of the body not so 
compressed as in L.. erythropterns, its width being equal to two-fifths its height : a slight concavity over the 
orbits : lower jaw the longer : height of preorbital equals 4/5 of diameter of eye. The maxilla reaches to below 
the first third of the orbit. Preopercle with a very shallow emargination on its vertical border which is finely 
serrated ; at its angle the serrations become larger, whilst four or five of diminished size exist along the 
posterior half of the lower limb. Teeth — two or three rather strong curved canines on either side of the 
premaxillaries ; an outer row of curved conical canine-like teeth in either jaw : villiform ones in a ^\ -shape on 
the vomer, a broad band on the palatines, none on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, from the 
third they are of about equal length but shorter than the rays, the third spine equals about one-third of the length 
of the head; the last spine equals one diameter of the orbit : the seventh or eighth ray is the longest, and equals 
four-fifths of the extent of the base of the fin, soft dorsal and anal both somewhat angularly rounded and of the 
same height. Pectoral longer than the ventral, almost as long as the head and reach in g to above the anal 
spines : second and third anal spines of about equal strength, the latter slightly the longer and nearly equalling 
the third of the dorsal fin : the fourth ray is the longest, slightly exceeding the highest in the dorsal fin : caudal 
slightly emarginate. Scales — rows not tortuous, those above the lateral-line oblique, as are also those below it 
above the level of the lower edge of the orbit, below which they are horizontal : two broad rows over the nape, 
and eight across the cheek : they extend along the back as far as to a level with the hind edge of the eye. 
Colours — having a roseate tinge in life with narrow oblique yellow streaks above the lateral-line, and longitudinal 
ones below it : a longitudinal violet-purple band passes from behind the eye along the base of the dorsal fin 
opposite the end of which it is interrupted by a light band over the commencement of the tail, subsequently it 
reappears in a lighter form across the middle of the free portion of the tail. Fins reddish, the dorsal and caudal 
with a fine black edge : anal spines dark grey, those of ventrals white. 

Schneider's type specimen is still in good preservation at Berlin, and identical with the one figured which 
I took (a little over 8 inches in length) off the Meckran coast. It is closely allied to L. erythropterits ; but the 
dorsal spines are much lower, the eye and the colours &c. differ. 

Valenciennes remarks that as Bloch received his specimen from the Coromandel coast of India it is 
difficult to perceive why Schneider gave to it the term Malabaricus. The reason is that Tranquebar (from 
whence it came) and the southern portions of the Coromandel coast were then termed ' Malabar,' and to this 
day the natives of Madras call those residing to the south ' Malabars,' 

Habitat. — Coasts of Sind and India. 



32 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

3. Lutianus erythropterus, Plate X, figs. 1 (young), 2 (adult). 

Lutianus erythropterus, Bl. t. 249 ; Bl. Schn. p. 325 (not Bleeker). 

Sparus chirtah, Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 74, pi. 93. 

Diacope annularis, Rupp. Atl. p. 91, and N. W. Fische, p. 74, pi. 93 ; Klunz. Fische Roth. Meer. Verb, 
z. b. Ges. in Wien. 1870, p. 697. 

? Diacope erytlirina, Rupp. 1ST. W. Fische, p. 92, t. 25, f. 3; Klunz. Fische Roth. Meer. Verb. z. b. Ges. in 
Wien. 1870, p. 702. 

Diacope sanguinea, (Ehren.) Cut. and Val. ii, p. 437 (adult). 

Mesoprion rubellus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 475. 

Mesoprion erythropterus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 478. 

Mesoprion annularis, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 488, and iii, p. 497 : Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astr. p. 666, pi. 5, 
fig. 4 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 229 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 67 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 14 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 204 ; 
Kner. Novara Fische, p. 33. 

Diacope metallicus, (Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Bleeker, Batav. p. 525. 

Mesoprion sanguineus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 48. ,. 

Mesoprion erythrinus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 192 ; Playfair, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 849. 

Mesoprion chirtah, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 150, and 1869, p. 297. 

Lutjanus annularis, Bleeker, Obi. p. 240. 

Lutjanus chirtah, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxiii, fig. 1, and Lutjani, p. 42. 

Soosta, Ooriah. 

B. vii, D. t^Vst, P- l* 7 , V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 52-55, L. r. |£, L. tr. 11-12/25, Case. pyl. 5-6, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 3f to 3f , of caudal 1/5 to 1/6, height of body from 2| to 3J in the total length. Eyes — ■ 
diameter 1/5 to 1/6 of the length of the head in the adult, but much larger in the young,* 1| to 2 diameters from 
end of snout, and If to 1| apart. Body compressed, dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen, and 
slightly concave about the orbit. The maxilla, in the adult, scarcely reaches to below the front edge of the 
orbit. Preopercle with a very shallow emargination on its vertical limb which is finely and evenly serrated to 
above its angle where the serrations become coarser, they extend for a short distance along its horizontal border : 
sometimes a very small interopercular knob exists. Teeth — one or two canines on either side of the premaxillary, 
an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in either jaw, villiform ones in a triangular patch on the vomer, and in 
a rather narrow band on the palatines : none on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength increasing 
in length to the fourth which equals two-fifths to one-third of the height of the body, from it to the 
last they are slightly lower and sub-equal in length, the soft portion of the fin more angular in the adult 
than in the young, the seventh to the tenth rays being the highest, half as long again as the fourth spine, and 
their height equalling the length of the base of the soft portion of the fin. Pectoral reaching as far as the 
ventral, and equalling the length of the head behind the posterior nostril : ventral spine as long as the fourth of 
the dorsal fin : second anal spine somewhat the strongest, but not quite so long as the third which equals the 
third of the dorsal fin : caudal slightly emarginate or cut square in the young. Scales — in somewhat tortuous 
rows going in a direction upwards and backwards, they extend over the base of the dorsal fin reaching highest 
on the rays, they are equally developed over the bases of the caudal and anal. Colours — crimson with orange 
reflections : a broad blackish band passes from the eye to the commencement of the dorsal spines, and is 
sometimes slightly apparent along the whole base of the fin : eight to twelve narrow and nearly horizontal black 
.lines exist below the lateral-line, and several more above it, some being the continuations of those which 
commence below the lateral-line. A black band crosses the back over the free portion of the tail, having a white 
.one before it, and a narrow pink one posterior to it. Pectoral flesh-coloured : ventral either black or stained 
black in its outer half or two-thirds : dorsal dark grey in some specimens with a nearly black base and a black 
edge : caudal pink with a narrow black border : anal darkest anteriorly. In adults (12 inches) the black lines 
disappear, and each row of scales has a golden line : a trace exists of the band from the eye to the dorsal fin : 
whilst that over the free portion of the tail is somewhat indistinct. 

Amongst Bloch's typical collection in the Berlin Museum, Professor Peters showed me two of this species, 
one being young with the distinct colours of the annularis.; the other more adult. Bleeker considers the 
erythropterus of Bloch to be identical with L. lineolatus, and certainly the body and fins in the figure appear more 
to resemble that species than the present : the head, (especially the eyes,) differs considerably from the lineolatus. 
The type specimens have their original names upon them. 

Although Ruppell's figure of Diacope erytlirina very closely resembles an adult of this species, he states 
it to have only 10 dorsal spines. Col. Playfair obtained a " fine specimen" now in the British Museum, termed 
erythrinus, which is the adult of this species, but it has 11 dorsal spines, it is nearly 18 inches long, and the eye 
is 5| in the length of the head. 

In the Berlin Museum is a fine specimen (21 inches in length) of Diacope sanguinea, (Ehren.) Cuv. and 

* The following are the measurements as to the size of the eye compared with the length of the head in specimens of various ages: 
At 6 inches in length, 3J in the length of the head. 
» °'3 a >f » ^2 j» » » '? 

3» l - » )> Jl u 2 >! M 31 yt 

J) *° )* )l J» "2 >> )1 J» >» 

J) *1 )» )! » I/" !» )» )J J> 



FAMILY, I— PERCIDiE. 33 

Yal. type of the species. It appears identical with this fish. Length of head \, of caudal -|-, height of body 
nearly A of the total length. Byes — diameter 5§ in the length of the head, 2 diameters from end of snout, and 
If apart. Fins — fourth and fifth dorsal spines of equal height, and 2| in the length of the head. 

The type specimen of Mesoprion rubellus, C. V., in the Paris Museum is a skin from Pondicherry of this 
species, its scales are L. r. 67, L. tr. 12/25. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. It is 
captured all the year round at Madras, but is most abundant during the cold months when its fry are also about. 
Fig. 1 is from a specimen 6 inches in length, and represents the immature fish : Fig. 2, or the mature fish is 
from a specimen a little over 12 inches long. Both are from Madras. 

4. Lutianus dodecacanthus, Plate X, Fig. 3., 

Mesoprion Malabaricus, Bleeker, Sumatra, v, p. 497 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 204 (not Bloch, Schn.) 

Butjanus dodecacanthus, Bleeker, Amb. ii, p. 278 and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxiv, f. 2. 

Mesoprion dodecacanthus, Gunther, Catal. i, p. 206. 

Lutjanus Malabaricus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. lxxv, fig. 1 and Lutjani, p. 50 (in part). 

B. vii, D. i-^TT, P- 17, V- 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 52, L. r. -ff, L. tr. 8/23. 

Length of head 3^, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3| of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of length 
of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. Body compressed, profile above the orbit some- 
what concave : the distance between the eye and the upper edge of the maxilla equals a little more than one 
diameter of the orbit. The maxilla extends to beneath the front edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle 
having a shallow emargination, the whole being finely serrated superiorly, but more coarsely so at its angle : 
lower limb finely serrated in its anterior half. A small interopercular knob. Teeth — a pair of moderately sized, 
curved canines in the premaxillaries, and having two smaller intermediate ones : an outer row of curved, canine- 
like teeth in both jaws, largest in the mandible, especially about its centre : none on the tongue. Villiform 
ones in a A-form on the vomer, and in a band on the palatines. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the 
fourth and fifth the longest, and equal to 3J in the height of the body, they gradually decrease to the last, 
which is only two-thirds as long as the fourth : the soft portion of the dorsal angular, and one-fifth higher 
than its base is long. Pectoral reaches to above the anal spines, and is as long as the head : ventral just 
reaches the vent. Second anal spine not quite so long as the third, which equals the longest in the dorsal fin : 
its soft portion angular, one-fourth higher than the length of its entire base : caudal slightly emarginate. 
Scales — in oblique, straight (not sinuous) rows above the lateral line, and also as low as a level with the eye, 
below which all are horizontal : twelve rows between the occiput and base of the dorsal fin, and six across 
the cheeks. Colours — u n iform scarlet, with a golden line along each row of scales and a nacreous spot across 
the free portion of the tail just behind the base of the dorsal fin. A' narrow black edge to the dorsal, caudal, 
and anal fins. 

This species seems to be identical with Bleeker's : he observes that three of his specimens have twelve 
dorsal spines, but which appears to be due to the transformation of the first ray into a weak spine. 

There are two fine specimens in the British Museum, one about 16 inches in length, wherein the eye is 
2 diameters from the end of the snout : the other is 15 inches long, the diameter of the eye 1/4 of the length 
of the head, and If diameters from the end of the snout. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. The specimen figured is 14f inches in length and 
from Madras. 

5. Lutianus Bengalensis, Plate X, Fig. 4. 

? Sciama kasmira, Forsk. p. 46. 

Holocentrus Bengalensis, Bloch, t. 246, fig. 2 ; Bl. Schn. p. 316 ; Lacep. iv, p. 330. 
Perca polyzonias, Forst. Mss. p. 225. 

Biacope octolineata, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 418, vi, p. 526 (in part) ; Riippell, Atl. p. 75 ; Tern. & Schleg. 
Fauna Japon. p. 12, t. vi, f. 2 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 229. 
Biacope octovittata, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 528. 

Mesoprion pomacanthus, Bleeker, Amb. p. 407 (in part) ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 210. 
Genyoroge Bengalensis, Gunther, Catal. i, p. 178 (in part.) 
Genyoroge octovittata, Gunther, Catal. i, p. 180. 

Evoplites pomacanthus, Gill, Cuban Fish, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil. 1862, p. 234. 
Genyoroge Amboinensis, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 679. 
Biacope kasmira, Klunz. Fische d. R. M.-Yerh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 695. 
Lutjanus Bengalensis, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxiv, f. 3 and Lutjani, p. 34. 
Veri-keechan, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. T-iVr,* P- 16, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. r. f|:ff, L. tr. 7-8/18, Ceec. pyl. 0. 

Length of head from 2/7 to 4/15, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Byes — diameter 
from 1/4 to 2/9 of the length of head, 1| diameters from the end of snout, and 3/4 apart. The distance from 
the eye to the upper border of the maxilla equals half the diameter of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below 
the middle of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle with a moderately deep notch above its rounded angle, 

* Bleeker has found the following amongst specimens of this species : D. xs-ta or 1° I tt-tt or y^-Vr or 11 | ts-TT- 



34 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

superiorly it is finely serrated, but very coarsely so at its angle, some serrations are also continued along its 
lower limb. Interopercular knob distinct. Teeth — moderate-sized canines in the premaxillaries, an outer row 
of curved conical teeth in either jaw : villiform ones in a ^-form on the vomer, in a band on the palatines, but 
none on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, the fourth the longest and one-fourth higher than the 
rays : soft portion of the fin rounded, half as high as its base is long. Pectoral as long as the head and reaching 
to above the anal spines : ventral does not reach the vent. Second anal spine stronger and usually rather longer 
than the third (it is sometimes slightly shorter), which equals the length of the postorbital portion of the head, 
anterior rays the highest and as long as the entire base of the fin, its lower edge slightly convex : caudal 
emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows above the lateral-line and in horizontal ones below it : sis or eight rows 
across the cheeks, whilst superiorly they extend as far forwards as to above the front edge of the e} r e : none 
on the preorbital, except in large specimens, but I possess one nine inches long that has several rows there. 
Co lours— yellowish-brown superiorly becoming yellowish- white inferiorly. Four bright blue black-edged and 
slightly sinuous bands pass from the orbit across the opercles, the superior to about the ninth dorsal spine, the 
second to the fourth dorsal ray, the third to behind the last dorsal ray, and the fourth to rather below the 
centre of the base of the caudal. Pins yellowish, the dorsal with a dark edge and a light outer margin. 

Bleeker observes that three species have the upper surface of the head scaled, the vomerine teeth in a 
A-form, a deep preopercular emargination and an edentulous tongue. They are as follows, and may be thus 
divided for convenience sake : — 

Lutianus Bengalensis, D. £§•:-££, L. r - ii'-H., L - tr. 8-9/20-21, Caec. pyl. 0. 

Lutianus quinguelinearis, D. ^i-Tai li- r - tf-io'j L. tr. 6-7/18-19, Case. pyl. 5. 

Lutianus Amboinensis, D. xf : Ti> Ii. r. |-f, L. tr. 7-8/17-18, Ceec. pyl. ?. 

Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 182, briefly describes a fish as Biacope spilura, from Ceylon : D. \\, A. f . 
Five parallel red lines on either side ; the second and third go from the eye, the fourth from the axilla, the fifth 
from the angle of the mouth : a large black spot before the base of the caudal fin ■ spinous portion of the 
dorsal with a black base and outer edge. It is stated to be affined to D. octolineata. 

Specimens under the name of Genyoroge notata, in the British Museum, have D. ±±, A. §, L. r. Bf ££°, 
L. tr. 9/. Eyes — diameter 3^ in the length of the head, 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter 
apart. Scales over suborbital, and a few on preorbital. The second anal spine equals half the length of the 
head. They are coloured as in this species. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond ; it attains at least 10 inches in 
length. 

6. Lutianus fulvus, Plate X, fig. 5. 

Perca fulva, Forst. Mss. p. 193. 
Holocentncs fidvus, Bl. Schn. p. 318. 
Biacope fulva, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 435. 
Genyoroge fulva, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 184. 

B. to, D. H, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 51, L. r. ft, L. tr. 9/21. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body 3/10 of the total length. Eyes — -diameter 3§ 
of the length of head, 1J diameters from the end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. A considerable rise 
from the snout to the commencement of the dorsal fin : abdominal profile not so convex as that of the back : 
thickness of body equal to 4/7 of its height. The maxilla reaches to below the front fourth of the orbit. 
Vertical limb of preopercle with a very deep emargination and a produced rounded angle, above the notch the 
limb is serrated, on the angle it becomes almost spinate, whilst a few fine serrations exist on the lower limb. 
Interopercular knob very well developed in a pyramidal form. Teeth — small curved canines in the upper jaw, 
an outer rather numerous row of canine-like curved teeth in either jaw, villiform ones in a triangular spot on 
the vomer, in a band on the palatines, none on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines strong, increasing in length to 
the fourth, which equals that of the postorbital portion of the head, or 2| in the height of body, from it they 
decrease to the last, which is scarcely above two-thirds as high : the soft portion of the fin rounded, the height 
of the rays being equal to about two-thirds of the highest spine. Pectoral as long as the head, reaching to 
above the anal spines. Second anal spine much the strongest, third slightly the longest, equalling the second of 
the dorsal fin, height of the longest rays a little more than that of its entire base : caudal emarginate. Scales — 
in oblique rows above the lateral-line and in horizontal ones below it. Colours — uniform yellowish-red with a 
dark spot in the axil : fins yellow : the upper third of the dorsal black with a white margin : caudal also with 
a black edge and white margin : a dark black mark across the middle of the first third of the anal. 

Habitat. — Audamans, Otaheiti. The specimen figured is upwards of 10 inches in length. 

7. Lutianus Mguttatus, Plate X, fig. 6. 

Serranus Mguttatus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 507 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 155. 
Mesoprion lineolatus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 46 (not Ruppell.) 
Mesoprion Bleekeri, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 208. 
Lutjanus Bleelceri, Bleeker, Halmah. i, p. 155. 
Lutjanus biguttatus, Bleeker, Lutjani, p. 32. 

B. vii, D. T i_\ 15 , P. 16, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. r. f± L. tr. 6/15. 



FAMILY, I— PERCIDiE. 35 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/7, height of body 1/4 to 2/9 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3/10 
to 2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Body elongated, its 
dorsal and abdominal profiles nearly horizontal. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit : 
interorbital space fiat. Vertical limb of preopercle with a moderately deep emargination to receive a very 
badly developed interopercular knob, its angle rounded, the whole limb finely serrated, and the lower limb 
almost entire. Two small sharp points on the opercle. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, with a large canine on 
either side of the premaxillary, between which are two smaller curved canine-like teeth in the outer row, and 
several more similar ones along the upper jaw : in the lower jaw exists an outer row of curved, canine-like 
teeth, becoming larger posteriorly : in a triangular spot of villiform ones on the vomer, the base being behind, 
and from the centre of which a narrow band passes a short way backwards : those on the palatines in a narrow 
line : an oblong patch on the tongue. Fins — spines weak, those of the dorsal increase in length to the third 
and fourth, which are half as long as the head, from these they decrease to the last : soft portion of the fin, (as 
is also that of the anal,) rounded and not half so high as the spines, the longest ray equalling two-thirds the 
length of the base of the fin. Pectoral extends rather beyond the ventral, but hardly to above the anal, it is two- 
thirds as long as the head : third anal spine rather the longest, equal to the diameter of the orbit but not so long 
as the rays, anterior anal rays one-third higher than those of the dorsal, last anal ray as short as the spine, lower 
edge of fin straight : caudal slightly emarginate. Scales — in parallel rows below and oblique ones above the lateral 
line. Colours — yellowish-grey superiorly, becoming yellowish-white on the sides and abdomen, a broad black 
band passes from the eye to the middle of the caudal fin, dividing the dark back from the light sides, and a 
second band is continued from below the jaws to above the posterior end of the base of the anal, where it 
becomes indistinct. A white pearly spot exists on the back under the middle of the spinous dorsal, and a 
second under the commencement of the rayed portion of the fin. 

Professor Peters showed me one of this species, nearly 4 inches in length, received from Paris as 
Serranus biguttatus, and I subsequently saw several more of the types in the Paris Museum. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. The type specimen of Cuv. and Val. came from 
Ceylon, the one figured (7| inches in length) I procured at the Andaman islands. 

8. Lutianus lineolatus, Plate XI, fig. 1 and 2. 

Perca harooi, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 19, pi. 125. 

Diacope lineolata, Riipp. Atl. Fische, p. 76, t. 19, f. 3 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. in Wien. 1870, p. 698. 
Serranus nouleny, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 247; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 12G. 
Mesoprion caroui, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 489 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 16. 
Mesoprion xanthopterygius, Bleeker, Perc. p. 46. 

Mesoprion lineolata, Bleeker, Perc. p. 46 (not syn.) ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 205 ; Kner. Novara Fische, 
p. 36 ; Playfair, Zanz. p. 17. 

Mesoprion erythropterus, Bleeker, Perc. 47; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 205 (not Bloch.) 
Mesoprion dodecathanthoides, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 206 (not Bleeker.) 

Lutjanus erythropterus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xx, fig. 2, and Lutjani, p. 29 (not Bloch.) 
Nooleni, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. ^Va, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. £ T , C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. r. f|, L. tr. 6-7/14, Crec. pyl. 4. 

Length of head 2/7 to 3/11, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 to 4/15 of the total length, ^yes- 
diameter 1/3 to 2/7 of length of head 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout and also apart. The depth of the 
cheek from the eye to the maxillary bone equals two-thirds of that of the maxillary bone. The maxilla reaches 
to below the middle of the orbit. Vertical limb of the preopercle with a slightly produced angle and almost 
horizontal lower limb, its vertical limb finely serrated, more coarsely so at its angle, the serrations being 
continued along the posterior half of its lower limb : opercle with two points, the lower being the most distinct. 
No interopercular knob. Teeth — canines in the premaxillaries and an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in 
both jaws : villiform ones in a triangular patch, having a posterior median elongation in the vomer, and in a 
narrow band on the palatines ; an oblong patch widest anteriorly of very fine teeth on the tongue. Fins — dorsal 
spines moderately strong, the third to the fifth being the longest and nearly equal to half the length of the head, 
from thence they decrease to the last which is about two-thirds of their height and equal to that of the rays. 
Pectoral pointed, nearly as long as the head, and reaching to above the anal spines : second anal spine the 
strongest and nearly equal to the length of the third or to the postorbital portion of the head, anal rays one-fourth 
higher than those of the dorsal fin. Scales — in oblique sinuous rows above the lateral-line to opposite the end 
of the soft dorsal fin where they become horizontal, as are also those below the lateral-line : on the 
summit of the head the scales extend forwards to above the anterior third of the eye. Colours — purplish-red 
along the back, becoming more yellow below the lateral-line. In the upper third of the body there are oblique 
and in places sinuous golden lines along each row of scales, whilst below the lateral-line there are bands of dark 
pink, one passes along the first-third of the lateral-line and for the depth of half a scale below it : next is a golden 
band, one scale deep, ending on the lateral-line beneath the middle of the soft dorsal : below this is a rather 
wider reddish band passing from the eye to the lateral-line below the end of the soft dorsal : next follows a 
yellow band one scale deep going to the middle of the tail. Below this the fish is longitudinally banded with 
pink and yellow alternately. Fins yellow, with a light band, along the centre of the dorsal. 

Jerdon observed, (M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 129) " I am inclined to think that Russell's figure (125 

F 2 



36 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

nouleni) is intended for this fish and not for a species of Mesoprion (? Serranus) to which Cuvier refers it "without 
however having seen a specimen. His account of the colour corresponds exactly with that of the nouleni of 
Madras. It is a very beautiful fish but one of very soft and flabby texture." The figure of nfruleni is 
amongst Sir W. Elliot's drawings (No. 15), and to it Jerdon has attached the name of Serranus nouleni. 
Irrespective of this he sent a specimen to the British Museum where it still exists, and is placed in the catalogue 
(i, p. 206) as Mesojprion dodecacanthoides, a. Half-grown ; not good state. Madras. Presented by J. C. 
Jerdon, Esq. 

In the unrivalled Paris collection, Cuv. and Val.'s two specimens of Serranus nouleni, C. V. still exist 
and are, as suggested by Jerdon, identical with the species described above. 

Bleeker first pointed out that the lineolata Riippell and Russell's karooi are identical. I have figured both 
varieties owing to the great difference I observed in their colouration, the size of the eye, &c. Pig. 1 is from 
the coast of Sind (7| inches in length) and its tints resemble those shown by Riippell : fig. 2 is from Madras 
(7 inches long) and its colours are as described by Russell. 

In the 'Fishes of Zanzibar,' three varieties are recorded, (1) yellow with pale blue streaks above the 
lateral-line, and about seven below it : (2) olive-brown with the lines darker blue : (3) violet above, muzzle 
rosy, the oblique and longitudinal lines yellow. The form, however, with blue streaks has a well-developed 
interopercnlar knob, and can hardly be considered as a mere variety of this species. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. It is very common off 
Madras. 

9. Lutianus lemniscatus. 

Serranus lemniscatus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 240; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 155. 

Lictjanus melanotaznia, Bleeker, Obi, p. 245, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. vii, fig. 2, and Lutjani, p. 66. 

B. vii, D. -J-f, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 56, L. tr. 8/21. 

Length of head 3/10, of caudal 4/21, height of body 4/13 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of 
length of head, 1J diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Dorsal profile more convex than 
that of the abdomen, and slightly concave between the snout and the eye. The maxilla reaches to below the 
front edge of the eye. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated and with a shallow emargination : interopercle 
with a badly develojied knob. Teeth — canines large in the upper jaw. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, 
increasing in length to the fourth which equals the postorbital length of the head, and a little higher than the 
rays : pectoral not quite so long as the head : the second and third anal spines of about the same length and 
equal to the third of the dorsal fin : caudal emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows above the lateral-line, and 
horizontal ones below it. Colours — appear to have been dark red or yellow, with a wide brown or black band 
going from the eye to the centre of the caudal fin, and another less defined and narrow one below it but 
parallel to it. The above description is from Valenciennes specimen in the Paris Museum, which is in a good 
state of preservation. It was obtained from Ceylon. 

Habitat. — Ceylon to the Malay Archipelago. 

10. Lutianus chrysotasnia, Plate XI, fig. 3. 

Mesoprion chrysotmnia, Bleeker, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind. h, 1851, p. 170, and Act. Soc. Ned. Ind. Manado, 
i, p. 40 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 192 ; Kner. Novara Fische, p. 34. 

Lutjanus chrysotmnia, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 233, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxiv, fig. 4, and Lutjani, p. 22. ' 

B. vii, D. if, p. 16, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 52, L. r. ff, L. tr. 8/22. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 4/13 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 4/15 
of length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Abdominal profile nearly horizontal, that of the 
dorsal more convex, but from the orbit to the nape it is straight, or slightly concave : snout pointed : jaws of 
nearly equal length anteriorly : preorbital under the front third of the eye equals three-fourths of the diameter 
of the orbit in height. The maxilla reaches to below the anterior third of the orbit. Vertical limb of 
preopercle having a very shallow emargination, its angle rounded but not produced, both limbs finely serrated. 
No interopercular knob. Opercular points indistinct. Teeth — a pair of large curved canines in the premaxillaries, 
an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in the upper jaw more closely set but smaller than one which is present 
in the lower jaw : villiform teeth on vomer in a T-form (or a lanceolate patch, Bleeker) : in a band on the palate : 
and in an oblong patch, rather largest anteriorly, on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines weak, increasing in length 
to the third which equals that of the postorbital portion of the head, from thence they decrease to the last, which 
is two-thirds in the same distance : soft portion of the fin rounded, the highest ray equals two-fifths of the length 
of its base and is much lower than the spinous portion. Pectoral pointed, as long as the head, posterior to the 
hind nostril and reaching to nearly above the anal spines : ventral reaches two- thirds of the distance at the anal : 
second anal spine strongest but scarcely so long as the third which equals ljdiameters of the orbit in length, its 
first rays highest and are as long as the base of the entire fin, its lower edge rounded, caudal emarginate. Scales 
— in oblique rows above the lateral-line, and in horizontal ones below it : nine to ten rows across the cheek. 
Colours — olive-green with a dark band passing from the upper edge of the eye to the end of the spinous dorsal : 
a second through the upper fourth of the eye to the last few dorsal rays, and a third from the centre of the eye 
to the upper half of the base of the caudal fin and having a golden band below it, inferior to which is another dark 



FAMILY, I— PERCIDiB. 37 

horizontal band, and the abdomen beneath it golden : a deep black spot in the axil of the pectoral. Fins golden, 
a light edge along the upper margin of the spinous dorsal and first five or six rays : caudal with a darkish edsre. 
Bleeker gives the colour of the body as greenish, with eight or more yellow shining bands somewhat oblique 
above the lateral-line and horizontal below it, also some yellow spots on the head. 

The specimen I have figured is very different in colouration from Dr. Bleeker's type, but the proportions 
of the fish are the same, as well as the direction of the bands, which however are darker in colour, and wider. 
The description I have given is that of my specimen. 

In the British Museum there is a very interesting specimen, 4 inches long, taken at Amboina, and received 
from Mr. Franks, as Mesoprion chrysotoenia, young. It is of the same colour as the one I have figured, except that 
it has a black blotch on the lateral-line from the 22nd to the 32nd scale. The proportions are much the same, 
allowing for size, but lingual teeth are not well discernible, and its scales are as follows, L. r. -§-§, L. tr. 9/20. 

Habitat. — Nicobars, from whence the late Dr. Stoliczka brought the specimen figured (7h inches long), 
to the Malay Archipelago. 

11. Lutianus rivulatus, Plate XI, fig. 4. 

Sparus kallee maee, Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 75, pi. 96. 

Diaaope rivulata, cairuleopunctata, et alboguttata, Cuv. and Val. ii, pp. 414, 424, 445, pi. 38. 

Mesoprion myriaster, Lienard, Nat. Hist. Soc. Mauritius, 1839, p. 32. 

Mesoprion cozruleopunctatus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 169. 

I/utja/rms cosruleopunctatus, Bleeker, Amb. p. 278. 

Genyoroge rivulata et cceruleopunctata, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 182 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, pp. 7, 9. 

Diacope rivulata, Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. in Wien. 1870, p. 694. 

Lutjanus rivulatus, Bleeker, Lutjani, p. 81. 

Cuhtu pirium, Tain. 

B. vii, D. if, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. J,, C. 17, L. 1. 45-50, L. r. J-& L. tr. 8/19, Case. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 3/10 to 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/9 
of length of head, 1| diameter from the end of snout, and rather above 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below 
the anterior edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle finely serrated even in the well-developed notch that 
is above its angle to receive the interopercular knob : horizontal limb of preopercle more coarsely serrated in 
its posterior portion than it is on its vertical border. Sub- and inter-opercles entire, the latter have a large 
triangular tuberosity directed a little upwards and backwards and received into the preopercular notch. Opercle 
with two flattened points, the lower the larger. In the very young the preopercular notch is badly formed, but 
as the interopercular knob increases in size, it by pressure causes absorption above it and thus forms a notch in 
the preopercular border. Teeth — one or two curved canines on either side of the premaxillaries, and an external 
row of curved canine-like teeth in either jaw, villiform ones in a triangular spot on the vomer, a narrow band 
on the palate, but none on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines strong increasing in length to the third, fourth, and 
fifth, which are equal to about one-third of the height of the body, but not quite so long as the highest of the 
dorsal rays, they decrease in length to the last which equals two-thirds the height of the longest one : soft 
portion of the fin angularly rounded, the ninth to the eleventh rays being the longest. Pectoral as long as the 
head : ventral reaches the anus. Anal spines strong, especially the second which is slightly longer than the 
third and equals the highest of the dorsal fin : soft portion of the fin angular and one-third more than that of 
the dorsal : caudal slightly emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows above the lateral-line, and in horizontal ones 
below it, a strongly serrated shoulder scale, and two rows of broad scales over the nape. Colours — (in the 
immature) back olive, with a slate coloured spot in the centre of each scale, thus forming lines passing upwards 
and backwards ; abdomen greyish with horizontal golden lines crossing the centre of each scale, and vertical 
dark ones along their bases. Several bright blue lines pass downwards and backwards over the preopercle and 
opercle, and two larger ones along the snout. A large white blotch on the lateral-line opposite the third to the fifth 
soft ray, having a wide black edge anteriorly and posteriorly in its upper third. This white mark covers four 
scales transversely, is one below and three above the lateral-line. Dorsal, slate coloured, superiorly reddish with 
a narrow white edge : pectoral reddish : ventrals slaty with a dark edge : caudal bluish, tipped with red. 
Generally vertical bands are more or less distinct. (In the adult) as about 15 inches in length, the mark on the 
lateral-line becomes indistinct, the golden shade is wanting, but the blue spots remain. The white edge to the 
fins is also usually absent. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 

12. Lutianus argentimaculatus, Plate XI, fig. 5. 

Scicena argentimaculata, Forsk. p. 47. 

Scioena argentata, Gmel. Linn. p. 1300. 

Perca argentata, Bl. Schn. p. 86. 

Alphestes gembra et sambra, Bl. Schn. p. 236, t. 51. 

Labrus argentatus, Lacep. iii, pp. 426, 467. 

Spams rangoo, Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 74, pi. 94. 



38 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Diacope argentimaculata, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 432 ; Riipp. Atl. Fischo, p. 71, t. 10, f. 1 ; Klunz. Verb. z. 
b. Ges. in Wien. 1870, p. 699. 

Mesoprion rangus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 482 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 10 ; Kner. Novara Fische, p. 34. 

Mesoprion geinbra, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 485; Cantor, Catal. p. 15; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 193; Bleeker, 
Sumatra, iv, p. 246. ' • 

Mesoprion toeniops, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 543. 

Mesoprion immaculatus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 45 (not C.V.) 

Mesoprion argentimaculatus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 192. 

Imtjanus sambra, Bleeker, Ceram. ii, p. 187. 

Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Bleeker, Lutjani, p. 84. 

Mesoprion sambra, Peters, Monats. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, 1865, p. 111. 

Eangoo, Tel. : To-go-re-dah, Andain. 

B. vii, D. JL P. 16, V 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 45-50, L. r. f£ff, L. tr. 7-8/16, Ca3c. pyl. 4. 

Length of head 3\ to 2/7, of caudal 1/6 to 2/11, height of body 1/3 to 2/7 of the total length. .Eyes- 
diameter 1/3 to 1/5 of the length of head, 1 to 1J diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 to 1 diameter apart. 
The distance from the eye to the upper edge of the maxilla, equals from a little more to a little less than one 
diameter of the orbit in height. The maxilla reaches to below the first third or middle of the eye. Vertical 
limb of preopercle 'with a very shallow emargination, a rounded angle, and an oblique lower limb, the vertical 
border very finely serrated, most coarsely so at its angle and especially along its lower limb. A slight swelling 
on the interopercle. Opercle with two blunt points. Teeth — large canines in the premaxillaries ; an outer row 
of canine-like ones in either jaw, those in the mandible being much the largest. Villiform teeth in a lanceolate 
or A-form, which sometimes has a central posterior projection, also in a band on the palate, and in the adult, a 
large scabrous patch along the centre of the tongue with small ones anterior to it : in the very young the tongue 
may be found destitute of teeth. Fins — dorsal spines not very strong, increasing in length to the third, fourth, 
and fifth, which are from one-third to two-fifths of the height of the body, from thence they decrease to the 
last which is two-thirds their height : soft portion of the fin rather angular, its longest ray equalling three-fourths 
of the length of its base. Pectoral nearly as long as the head, and reaching to a"bove the anal spines : ventral 
nearly reaches the vent. Second anal spine the strongest and about equal in length to the third or nearly to the 
sixth of the dorsal : its soft portion angular, one fourth longer than its entire base : caudal emarginate, in some 
specimens rather deeply lunated. Scales — in horizontal rows above the lateral-line, in some specimens (especially 
young) they are a little sinuous but do not become regularly oblique until under the soft portion of the fin : 
below the lateral-line they are horizontal. Colours — cherry-red, darkest at the bases of the scales. The front 
edge of the anal fin pinkish- white as is also the first ventral ray. Upper margin of spinous dorsal orange. In 
some specimens there are dark spots on the dorsal, caudal, and anal fins. The very young have from six to nine 
narrow, vertical, silvery-white bands, which become more or less lost as age increases. 

This species more especially differs from L. roseus by the latter having a rounded caudal fin, and from 
L. siUaoo in. the latter having a higher spinous dorsal, and the rows of scales above the lateral-line being 
oblique in their direction. It appears questionable however whether the last is not merely a variety. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and beyond. It attains upwards of two feet in length and is good eating. 

13. Lutianiis roseus, Plate XI, fig. 6. 
Mesoprion rangus, Cantor, Catal. p. 14 (not C. V.) 
B. vii, D. if, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. r. fi L. tr. 7/18. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/7, height of body 4/13 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/9 to 1/4 
of length of head, lj diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Height of preorbital equals three-fourths of 
the length of the eye. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle 
emarginate, and having an oblique lower limb, the whole being finely serrated, but most coarsely at its angle 
and along the lower limb. No tuberosity on the interopercle : sub- and inter-opercles entire : opercle with two 
obtuse points. Teeth — one or two rather large and curved canines on either side of the premaxillaries : an 
outer row of slightly curved canine-like teeth in both . jaws, largest in the lower : a triangular patch of 
villiform ones on the vomer, without any posterior prolongation, a very narrow band on the palate, and an 
elongated band of minute ones on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, the fourth the highest, and 
equal to the length of the postorbital portion of the head ; from it they decrease to the last, which is three- 
fourths as high as the second, the soft portion of the fin rather rounded, as high as four-fifths of the length of 
its base and equal to the fourth spine. Pectoral as long as the head behind the posterior nostril : ventral 
reaching nearly two-thirds of the distance to the anal : second anal spine stronger and rather longer than the 
third and equal to the length of the sixth of the dorsal fin, soft portion of the fin one-fifth higher than that of 
the dorsal : caudal rounded. Scales — =in horizontal rows below the lateral-line, and also above it so far as to 
below the middle of the dorsal spines, where they commence going obliquely to the base of the soft dorsal, but 
becoming horizontal beyond the base of that fin : 15 rows between the occiput and base of the first dorsal 
spine. Colours — dark reddish-brown, becoming dull cherry-red below the lateral-line : fins with dark edges. 

This fish is so like the L. argentimaculatus, that had I not seen many specimens, I should have hesitated 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 39 

separating them further than varieties. It differs in its rounded instead of emarginate tail : in its vomerine teeth : 
its second anal spine and slightly in its scaling, &c. Cantor's specimen appears to be identical -with it. He 
observes : " according to Russell this fish is not much esteemed. At Pinang and Singapore, where single 
individuals occur at all seasons, it is of excellent flavour and considered a great acquisition for the table. At 
Malacca it is plentiful, and in our settlements and in the Straits it is known under the denomination of ' red 
rock cod.' " He gives D. ^l, and as growing to 20 inches in length. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. The specimen figured (8 inches long) is from Madras. 

14. Lutianus sillaoo, Plate XII, fig. 2. 

? Sparus silaoo. Russell, Fish Yizag. i, p. 78, pi. 100. 

Mesoprion rubellus, Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 2, pi. 2, fig. 2 (not C. V.) 

B. vii, D. 10 ^i l} , P. 16, V. 1/5, A. T ? T , C. 17, L. 1. 44, L. r. ff, L. tr. 6/15. 

Length of head 3j, of caudal 2/11, height of body 3j of the total length. Ftjes — diameter 4f in length 
of head, 1\ diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Upper profile of head slightly concave : the distance 
from the eye to the maxilla equals rather more than one diameter of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below 
the first third of the eye. Vertical limb of preopercle with scarcely any trace of an emargination, angle 
rounded, and lower limb very oblique : the whole of the vertical limb is very finely serrated with a few coarser 
serrations at its angle. No trace of an interopercular knob. Opercular points blunt. Teeth — a pair of large 
curved canines in the premaxillaries, an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in both jaws : villiform ones in a 
\-shape on the vomer and in a band on the palate. A long oval patch of teeth along the centre of the tongue, 
with two more small ones side by side near its tip. Fins — dorsal spines weak, the third and fourth of about 
the same length, nearly as long as the postorbital portion of the head, and two-fifths the height of the body, 
from thence they decrease to the last, which is only a little above half the height of the fourth : soft portion of 
the fin angular, and nearly as high as the spines, its longest ray equalling two-thirds of the length of its base. 
Pectoral as long as the head behind the first nostril, and reaching to above the last anal spine : ventral extending 
to the vent : second anal spine stronger but not so long as the third, which equals that of the seventh of the 
dorsal : its soft portion angular, its longest ray equalling the length of the entire base of the fin. Caudal 
slightly emarginate. Scales — the rows above the lateral-line first go rather obliquely towards the dorsal fin, 
more so under its soft portion : below the lateral-line they are horizontal. There are twelve rows anterior to 
the dorsal fin, and seven across the cheeks. Colours — back greyish-brown, chest orange, abdomen and sides of 
a light violet, each scale having a white edge. Spinous portion of dorsal ' greyish, but the soft with a more 
yellow tinge : pectoral reddish : caudal red with a black edge. 

Russell gives 11 dorsal spines, otherwise the fish resembles either this species or the L. jalmgarah. My 
reason for considering that I wrongly identified them in the " Fishes of Malabar" is that I find that it is this 
species which has lingual teeth, and the L. jalmgarah in which they are deficient, as observed by Russell. 

This fish is evidently very closely allied if not a mere variety of, L. rangus, but its dorsal spines 
appear higher, the rows of scales on its back more oblique, its colours differ, and before referring it to that 
species, further investigations are required. A figure is given for the purpose of drawing attention to it. 

Habitat. ^Seas of India, attaining at least four feet in length. 

15. Lutianus lioglossus, Plate XII, fig. 1. 

Lutjanus monostigma, Bleeker, Halmaheira, Ned. T, Dierk. I, p. 155 (not Cuv. and Val.)* 
Biacope monostigma, Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 702. 
Mesoprion monostigma, Giinther, Fishe d. Sudsee, p. 14, t. xvi. 
Lutjanus lioglossus, Bleeker, Lutjani, p. 74. 

B. vii, D. -r^, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. &, C. 17, L. r. f£, L. tr. 6-7/15. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/13, height of body 3f to 1/4 in the total length. Ei/es — diameter 2/7 
to 2/9 of length of head, 1| to 2 diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. The distance from 
the eye to the maxilla equals one diameter of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the eye. 
Vertical limb of preopercle with a very shallow emargination, and serrated in its whole extent : a very obscure 
interopercular knob. Teeth — strong curved canines in the premaxillaries, an outer row of curved canine-like 
teeth in both jaws, largest in the lower : villiform teeth in a _^-form in the vomer and a band on the palatines : 
no lingual teeth. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, increasing in length to the fourth, which equals 
from two-fifths to one-third in the height of the body, the last spine is one-third shorter : soft portion of the 
fin somewhat rounded and its height rather less than half its length. Pectoral about as long as the head : 
ventral reaching rather above half the distance to the anal. Anal spines rather short, the third slightly the 
longest, and equal to three-fourths of the diameter of the orbit in length, soft portion of the fin highest in 
front, equalling about the length of its base, lower edge straight : caudal emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows 
above the lateral-line and in horizontal ones below it : 12 rows of scales between occiput and first dorsal spine •" 
six or seven rows across the cheeks. Colours — roseate, lightest below, with a black blotch on the lateral-line 
below the first portion of the soft dorsal fin. 

* Mesoprion 'monostigma, C. and V.=Lutianus fulvijlamrna, see p. 41. Kelaart's specimen of Mesoprion rangiis, from Ceylon, 
has the rows above the L. 1. oblique, and L. r. £f j L. tr. 8/. 



40 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

The small eye, short anal spines, and edentulous tongue divide this species from fahtiflwmma, which t 
much resembles, whilst its scales L. r. •§-§■ likewise show that it cannot be L. jahngarah having L. r. ■}#. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago ; attaining at least 18 inches in length. 

16. Lutianus jahngarah. 

Spams erythrinus, ? Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 72, Jahngarah, pi. 90. 
Mesoprion sillaao, Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 12, pi. 11. fig. 1 (not C. V.) 
Furnnva, Ooriah. 

B. vii, D. iJty, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 46, L. r. f-f, L- tr. 6/17. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/5 of length 
of head, If diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen. 
The distance between the eye" and the upper edge of the maxilla equals one diameter of the orbit. The maxilla 
reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle with a shallow emargination above its 
rounded angle, which appears continuous with its oblique lower limb ; the whole of its vertical limb is finely 
serrated, but about the angle they increase in size, and along the lower limb are more widely apart. A distinct 
though small interopercular knob. Opercular points blunt. Teeth — a pair of large slightly curved canines in 
the premaxillaries, an outer row of curved, conical, canine-like teeth in both jaws, those in the lower being the 
largest : villiform ones in a A-shape in the vomer, in a band on the palate but none on the tongue. Fins — 
dorsal spines moderately strong, the third the longest and nearly equal to one-third the height of the body, 
from it they decrease to the last, which is only half its height ; soft portion of the fin rather rounded, not so 
high as the spinous, and its highest ray equal to two-thirds the length of its base. Pectoral as long as the 
head behind the front nostril, and not reaching to above the anal spines, the ventral reaches a little above half 
way to the anal fin. Second anal spine stronger but shorter than the third, which equals the length of the 
seventh dorsal spine or one diameter of the orbit, soft portion of the fin angulai'ly rounded, central rays the 
highest and equal the length of its entire base : caudal ernarginate, being lobed in its last fourth, the upper 
being slightly the longer. Seales — in almost parallel rows to the dorsal profile both above and below the 
lateral-line, but becoming a little irregular below the soft dorsal, where they ascend obliquely upwards and 
backwards, but become horizontal again beyond the end of the fin : seven rows across the cheeks : 11 rows 
between the occiput and base of dorsal fin, Colours — -back brownish-red, the base of each scale being darkest, 
whilst below the lateral-line it becomes of a lake-colour, having a tinge of orange along the lower surface of 
the body. A blue zig-zag line crosses the preorbital. Spinous portion of dorsal and anal greyish, the soft 
scarlet tinged with orange : pectorals scarlet : front edge of anal whitish. 

This species is evidently closely allied to L. rangus, it differs greatly in colours, in wanting lingual teeth, 
in the number of its scales, the length of its spines, and the size of its eye. L. lioglossus, Bleeker, has no lingual 
teeth, but its scales are oblique above the lateral-line, and much more numerous, being L. r. -f§. This species 
differs from L. sillaoo in having a small interopercular knob, its lower spinous dorsal, the direction of its scales 
above £he lateral-line, &c. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, attaining two feet or more in length. It is esteemed good eating, 

17. Lutianus quinquelineatus, Plate XII, fig. 3. 

Jlolocentrus quinquelineatus, Bloch, iv, p. 84 : Lacep. iv, p. 329. 

Spams mungi mapudi, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 8, pi. 110. 

Mesoprion quinquelineatus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p, 445 : Giinther, Catal. i, p, 209. 

Biaeope cceruleolineata, Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 93, t. 24, f. 3 : Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges, in Wien, 1870, p. 701. 

B. vii, D. ^l, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. &> C. 17, L. 1. 51, L. r. ff, L. tr. 8/21. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body 2/7 of the total length, Eyes — diameter 2/9 of 
length of head, 1| diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Body rather strongly compressed, 
dorsal profile having a considerable rise from the snout and being somewhat concave above the orbit. The 
maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Height of preorbital below the first third of the eye equals 
three-fourths of the diameter of the orbit, Preopercle with a shallow emargination above its angle, the whole 
of its vertical limb finely serrated, most coarsely so at its angle, lower limb entire : no interopercular knob : 
opercle with two very blunt points. Teeth — an exceedingly strong curved canine on either side of the premaxillary, 
and two intermediate small ones, an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in both jaws, largest in the lower : 
villiform ones in a A-shape 0I1 the vomer, in a narrow band on the palatines and in an oblong patch along the 
centre of the tongue. Fins — -dorsal spines moderately strong, increasing in height to the fourth, which equals 
the length of the postorbital portion of the head ; they subsequently gradually decrease to the last, which is 
two-thirds the height of the longest ; soft portion of the fin rounded, as high as the spinous, and its longest ray 
equal to two-thirds of the length of its base. Pectoral equals the length of the head behind the posterior 
nostril : the ventral does not quite reach the anal spines. Second anal spine stronger but not so long as the 
third, which equals the length of the last dorsal spine, soft portion of the fin one-third higher in front than the 
last ray, its lower edge rounded : caudal lunated. Scales — in oblique rows above the lateral-line and horizontal 
ones below it : they extend forwards on the back to above the hind edge of the eye : seven rows on the cheeks. 
Colours — a blue band goes from the eye to the base of the last dorsal spine : two from the posterior- superior 



FAMILY, I— PERCHLE. 41 

angle of the eye coalesce under the sixth dorsal spine and proceed to the middle of the base of the soft dorsal : 
the fourth, also arising from the eye, goes along the lateral-line and opposite the sixth dorsal spine curves 
upwards, going to the end of the base of the soft dorsal : the fifth band, which is the broadest, commences just 
above the middle of the hind edge of the eye and goes to the upper half of the base of the caudal fin : the sixth 
from the lower edge of the eye to the middle of the base of the caudal. A dark mark exists at the base of the 
pectoral, a black blotch on the lateral-Line below the commencement of the soft dorsal fin. 

In the ' Fishes of Zanzibar' it is observed : " Diacope cceruleo-lineata. Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 93, t. 24, f. 3 
[not M. quinquelineatus* Cuv. and Val.]." Bleeker, Lutjani, p. 40, observes: M. quinquelineatus, C. V. is 
described from the Mungi mapidi, Russell, and has blue lines which superiorly are parallel to the profile of the 
back and are continued to the base of the caudal. He doubts if Riippell's fish with the lines going obliquely 
to the back is the same species. ■ 

The specimen of Bloch's, Lutianus quinquelineatus, 9 inches long, No. 229, is undoubtedly this species, 
and differs widely from the figured quinquelinearis, the type of which is likewise in existence, both being in a 
good state of preservation at Berlin. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India : the specimen figured is 6 inches in length and 
from the Andaman Islands. 

18. Lutianus lunulatus, Plate XII, fig. 4. 

Perca lunulata, Mungo Park, Trans. Linn. Soc. iii, p. 35, pi. 6. 

Lutjanus lunulatus, Lacep. iv, p. 213 ; Bl. Schn. p. 329 ; Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xvh. f. 1, and Lutjani, p. 64. 

Mesoprion lunulatus, Cuv. and Val. ii. p. 477 ; Bleeker, Sumatra, p. 75. 

B. vii, D. ^Jhr, P- 1^, V. 1/5, A. ^ C. 19, L. 1. 55, L. r. f|, L. tr. 7/21. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/3 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of 
length of head, If diameters from end of snout, and nearly one apart. The distance from the eye to the upper 
edge of the maxilla equals three-fourths of the diameter of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the first 
third of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle with a shallow emargination and an oblique lower limb, its 
vertical limb is finely, its angle more coarsely serrated, lower limb entire. No interopercular knob. Teeth — 
large curved canines in the intermaxillaries, an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in both jaws, largest in 
the lower : villiform ones in a ^-shaped band on the vomer, a narrow one on the palatines, and a small patch 
near the anterior end of the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines weak, the fourth the longest and nearly equalling the 
length of the postorbital portion of the head, from it they decrease to the last which is about two-thirds its 
height : soft portion of the fin rounded, its highest ray equalling one-half the length of its base but not so high 
as the fourth spine. Pectoral much longer than the ventral, being nearly as long as the head : ventral reach i ng 
two-thirds of the distance to the anal. Second anal spine longer and stronger than the third : the anterior 
rays the highest, equalling the length of the base of the entire fin, its lower edge straight, caudal emarginate. 
Scales — in oblique rows above the lateral-line and in horizontal ones below it : superiorly they extend forwards 
to nearly above the hind edge of the orbit. Colours — reddish-crimson superiorly becoming silvery -white on the 
abdomen : golden lines along each row of scales : dorsal, caudal, and anal with a black outer edge and an 
external white margin : a lunated black band at the base of the caudal fin extending along its outer edges to 
the end of the fin : pectoral and ventrals yellow. 

Bleeker places Diacope biketnata, C. V. as a synonym of this species, but the type specimen in the Paris 
Museum has a distinct and rather well-developed interopercular knob, although the emargination of the preopercle 
is not very deep. The specimen however is not an adult. 

Habitat. — Coast of Sind (where the specimen figured, 10 inches long, was captured) to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

19. Lutianus fulviflamma, Plate XII, fig. 5 and 6. 

Scicena fulviflamma, Forsk. p. 45 ; Gmel. Lin. p. 1299. 

Perca fulviflamma, Bl. Schn. p. 90. 

? Lutjanus notatus, Bl. Schn. p. 325 (not Bloch). 

Centropomus hober, Lacep. iv, p. 255. 

Sparus antiha doondiawah, Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 76, pi. 98. 

Diacope fulviflamma, Riipp. Atl. Fische, p. 72, 1. 19, f. 2, and X. W. Fische, p. 94; Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 423; 
Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 700. 

Mesoprion^imimaculatus, Quoy and Gaim. Zool. Freyc. p. 304 ; Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 441 ; Bleeker, Perc. 
p. 42 ; Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astrol. p. 665, pi. 5, f. 3. 

Mesoprion aurolineatus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 496 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 14, pi. iii. 

Mesoprion Russellii, Bleeker,Verh. Bat. Gen. xxii, Perc. p. 41 ; Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1S67, p. 701. 

Lutjanus notatus, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 233. 

Genyoroge notata, Cantor, Catal. p. 12 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 8 (not C. V.) 

Mesoprion fulviflammia, Bleeker, Amb. ii, p. 532 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 201 ; Day, Fish. Mai. p. 13 ; Kner, 
Xovara Fische, p. 35. 

* The specimen probably referred to is thus marked in the Catalogue, " a. Adult, sine patria. D. xS, A. f , L. 1. SO," and which 
(omitting the black blotch, which is now imperceptible) I would suggest is L. chrysotcenia : is such a modification of this species ? 

G 



42 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Lutjanus Russellii, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxii. f. 2, and Lutjani, p. 76. 
Lutjamis unimaoulatus, Vaillant, Soc. Phil. Paris, May 23rd, 1874. 
Lutjanus fidviflamma, Bleeker, Halmah. p. 155, Lutjani, p. 61. 
Vella-chembolay, Mai. ; Shemhara and Currumay, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. JL P. 16, V. 1/5, A. I-, C. 17, L. 1. 50-54, L. r. ■^.% T , L. tr. 7-8/16, Ckc. pyl. 4-6. 

Length of liead 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/3 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 to 
1/4 of length of head, 3/4 to 1|- diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Snout rather 
pointed, the maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit : height from the eye to the upper edge of the 
maxilla equal to two-thirds of the diameter of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle with a shallow emargi- 
nation, its angle rather produced, and its lower limb oblique, the whole being finely serrated, most coarsely so at 
its angle, whilst the serrations are continued half way along the vertical limb. No interopercular knob : two 
opercular points. Teeth — strong curved canines in the premaxillaries, an outer row of curved, conical, canine- 
like teeth in both jaws, largest in the lower : villiform teeth in a A-shape or T-shape on the vomer, in a band 
on the palatines, and an oblong patch on the tongue (in the adult) which is widest anteriorly. Fins — dorsal 
spines not very strong, the third of nearly the same height as the fourth and fifth, from whence they gradually 
decrease, the third is one-third higher than the rays and from two-fifths to half as long as the head : rayed, 
portion rounded, two-thirds as high as its base is long. Pectoral as long as the head behind the front nostril : 
ventral not reaching the vent. Third anal spine about equal in strength but slightly shorter than the second, 
which equals one diameter and a quarter of the eye in length, and is of equal length with the first ray, which 
is twice as long as the last, lower edge of the fin concave : caudal slightly emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows 
above the lateral-line and horizontal ones below it : from six to eight rows on the cheeks : superiorly they 
extend forwards to above the hind edge of the eye. Colours — yellow or rosy along the back, with three or four, 
in the variety L. Russellii* narrow and brilliant golden bands passing obliquely upwards and backwards from 
the lateral-line, and three or four similar golden bands below it, the first of which goes from the posterior edge 
of the orbit to the finger mark : the second from the middle of the opercle to opposite the end of the soft 
dorsal, where it becomes lost on the lateral-line : the third from below the orbit to the base of the caudal fin : 
and the fourth from below the base of the pectoral to the base of the anal. A large black blotch exists on the 
lateral-line opposite the commencement of the soft dorsal fin from the 22nd to the 28th or 31st scales, most of 
it being below the line and only reaching to one or two scales above it : in the variety L. Russellii, however, this 
mark is mostly above the lateral-line. 

The type specimen of Mesoprion monostigma at Paris is 3y-Q inches in length. The eye is a little less 
than 1/3 of the length of the head, and 1 diameter from the end of the snout. The second anal spine is of 
nearly the same length as the third and equal to 2| in the length of the head.f 

The Lutianus fidviflamma is found in two very distinct varieties : in one there are the yellow lines such 
as I have described and also figured (in pi. xii, fig. 6), and in this form, L. Russellii, the distance from the eye 
to the snout and the size of the lateral blotch is a little more than we perceive it to be in the typical L. fulvi- 
flamma, of which I have also given a figure (pi. xii, fig. 5.) The two specimens were 7\ and 10 inches 
respectively in length, and, examined together, certainly appear to be distinct species : but in comparing a large 
number of specimens, every intermediate variety in form and colour (except the yellow fillets of the L. Russellii) 
are to be seen. 

Habitat. — Bed Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 

20. Lutianus Johnii, Plate XIII, fig. 1. 

AntMas Johnii, Bloch, t. 318 ; Bloch, Schneid. p: 303. 

Lutjanus Johnii, Lacep. iv, p. 235; Bleeker, Lutjani, p. 20; Vaillant, Soc. Phil, de Paris, May, 1874. 

Sparus doondiaivah, Russell, i, p. 76, pi. 97. 

Coius catus, Ham. Buch. pp. 90, 369, pi. 38, f. 30. 

Sparus Malabaricus, Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 471. 

Serranus pavoninus, (young) Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 443 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 126. 

* In a specimen of this fish (var. Russellii) at l^y inches long, not only are the vertical and horizontal limbs of the preopercle 
serrated, but the bone has the appearance of a double edge as seen in Ambassis and Apogon, having a few serrations upon it. The 
interopercle is likewise serrated in its last half. 

t The following lengths of the 3rd anal spine have been carefully made from 10 specimens: 

Inches. 
L. fulviflamma (Russellii), Length of specimen 5£ : Length of anal spine 

33 33 » 33 "* » >, 

33 33 ') » " 33 33 

33 33 33 33 10 „ „ 

33 33 33 33 'D n „ 

33 • 33 ;3 ' a* 33 » 

33 • 33 33 ° 33 J» 

3> " 3) 33 12 „ „ 

33 • „ „ 13 „ „ 

»» ' 33 33 15 „ ,, 



2\ in 


the len 


gth of head. 


2i 


») 


)! 


3* 


„ 


n 


2| 


u 


)> 


4* 


jj 


jj 


3| 


it 


3) 


4^ 


)) 


3J 


H 


;) 


» 


** 


)» 


3) 


4tV 


)» 


» 



FAMILY, I— PERCnXffi. 43 

Mesoprion Johiii, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 443 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 13 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 200 ; Day, Fish. 
Malabar, p. 11 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 35. 

Mesoprion flavipinnis, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 475. 

Mesoprion uniinaculatns, Richardson, Ich. China, p. 222 (not Quoy and Gaim.) 

Chemiolay, Mai. : Nya-pd-nee, Burm. 

B. vii, D. TJfi-j, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. T ? T , C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. r. |f, L. tr. 7/13, Caec. pyl. (4 Kner.) 

Length 'of head 4/13 to 2/7, of caudal 1/5 to 2/11, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 1/4 to 1/5 or even 1/6 in large specimens of the length of head, 1| to 1| diameters from the end of 
snout, and from 3/4 to 1 apart. Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen. Preorbital equals three- 
fourths of the diameter of the orbit in height. The maxilla reaches to below the first third or middle of the 
orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle finely serrated, becoming more coarsely so at its angle, which is somewhat 
produced and rounded, its lower limb with a few serrations and crenulations. A very indistinct tuberosity on 
the interopercle is sometimes present : opercle with two flat points the lower being the longer. The fry up to 
about If inches in length have a spine at the angle of the preopercle, which becomes absorbed as age advances, 
the lower limb of the preopercle is also strongly serrated : in a specimen 2\ inches long the spine remains only 
in the form of a strong denticulation, whilst there are seven more strong serrations along the lower limb. 
Teeth — curved canines of moderate strength in the premaxillaries, an outer curved row of canine-like teeth in 
both jaws : villiform ones in a triangular patch or elongated ^-form on the vomer, in a band on the palatines, 
and in an elongated patch on the tongue hi the adult. Fins — dorsal spines strong, increasing in length to the 
fourth, which is two-fifths of the height of the body, from this spine they decrease to the last, which is about 
one-fourth shorter, the soft portion of the fin somewhat rounded, its longest rays equal to five-sixths of the 
length of its base and exceed that of the highest spine. Pectoral nearly as long as the head : ventral reaches 
the vent : second anal spine usually slightly the longest and strongest, it equals the height of the third spine of 
the dorsal, the rayed portion rounded and rather higher than that of the dorsal : caudal slightly emarginate. 
Scales — the rows above the lateral-line are parallel with the profile of the back, whilst those below it are 
horizontal. Scales on the dorsal profile only extend forwards to a level with the hind edge of the orbit. 
Colours— yellowish, lightest on the abdomen, with a large black finger mark, of varying depths of colour, on 
the lateral-line between the 22nd and 31st scales ; age, season, and locality all exercise an influence on this 
blotch : a dark line is almost invariably present along each row of scales. Fins yellow dashed with red : anal 
with a light front edge. 

In the young the ocellus on the side is larger, in a specimen 2| inches long it commences on the 19th 
scale, and is surrounded by a light ring, thus constituting Serranus pavoninus, Val., whose single specimen was 
a little over an inch in length : the observation of its having a strong spine at the angle of the " opercle" is 
evidently a misprint'for "preopercle." 

Hamilton Buchanan points out the affinity of Coius eatus with the Doondiaivah of Russell as well as 
with his Mungi rmtpudee (No. 110), also that Antkias Johiii, Bloch, is nearly allied. It is readily distinguished 
from all allied species of Lutianus, with lateral blotches, recorded from the seas of India, by its having no 
oblique rows of scales on the body, all those above the lateral-line being parallel to the back and those below it 
being horizontal. 

The type specimen of Mesoprion flavipinnis, C. V. (a skin) belongs to this species, the lateral blotch has 
been omitted from the short description. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining a foot or more in length. The 
specimen figured is 6| inches long and from Madras. 

21. Lutianus gibbus, Plate XIII, fig. 2 (adult) : 3 (young). 

Scimna gibba, Forsk. p. 46. 

Holocentrus boutonensis, Lacep. iv, pp. 331, 367. 
Lutjanus gibbiis, Bl. Schn. p. 326. 

Diacope coccinea, (Ehren.) Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 437 ; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 91, t. 23, f. 3. 
Diacope gibba,, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 438 ; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. Verb. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, 
p. 693. 

Diacope buttonensis, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 434, and vi, p. 535. 

Diacope borensis, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 532. 

Diacope tica, Less. Voy. Duperr. Poiss. p. 231, pi. 23. 

Mesoprion bottonensis, Bleeker, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind. ii, p. 170; Kner, Nov. Fische, p. 32, f. 6. 

Mesoprion janthinus, Bleeker, 1. c. vi, p. 52. 

Genyoroge gibba, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 180. 

Genyoroge bottonensis, Giinther, 1. c. p. 181. 

Gengoroge melanura, Giinther, 1. c. p. 183. 

Mesoprion borensis, Giinther, 1. c. p. 199. 

Mesoprion gibbus, Giinther, Fische d. Sudsee, p. 12, t. xii, and xhi, f. A. 

B. vii, D. i%, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. T ? T , C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. r. |f , L. tr. 8/23, Case. pyl. 4-5. 

Length of head 3/11, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3/10 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 

G 2 



44 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

4J (in the adult) to 3J (in the young) in length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Body 
compressed, profile above the eyes concave : the distance from the eye to the upper edge of the maxilla equals 
If diam'eters of the orbit in height. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Vertical limb 
of preopercle with a very deep emargination succeeded by a broad and deep angle, its height forming half of that 
of the vertical limb, above the notch the serrations are very fine, on the rounded, produced angle they are coarse, 
and a few are continued along its oblique lower limb. Interopercular knob well developed. Teeth — large canines 
in the premaxillaries, an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in both jaws, the most posterior of those in the 
upper jaw being directed slightly forwards : villiform teeth in a A-form m * ne vomer, and in a band on the 
palatines, none on the tongue. Fins — the third to the fifth dorsal spines the longest and equal to two-sevenths 
of the height of the body, posteriorly they gradually decrease, the last being three-fourths of their height : soft 
portion of the fin rounded in the young, more pointed in the adult, the length of the highest ray being three- 
fifths of that of its base. Pectoral reaches to nearly above the anal, and is as long as the head behind the 
posterior nostril : ventral reaches the vent. Second anal spine strongest and slightly the longest, it equals the 
highest in the dorsal fin : soft portion of the fin angular, the middle rays rather longer than its entire base.. 
Caudal slightly notched in the young, more emarginate in the adult, the upper portion being the longer. 
Scales — go in oblique rows, directly upwards and backwards, above the lateral-line, and in sinuously oblique ones, 
taking the same course, below the lateral-line : six rows on cheeks : superiorly they extend forwards to above 
the hind edge of the eye. Free portion of the tail rather higher than long. Colours — uniform crimson, dorsal 
and anal fins having a black edge with a white external margin, and a white tip to the caudal lobes : a dark 
band along the base of the dorsal and anal fins : pectorals and ventrals yellow, the latter with a dark tip : caudal 
dark purple. In the young — body crimson, with a black band commencing at the end of the dorsal fin, and 
covering a pai-t of the hind end of the free portion of the tail and the caudal fin, except that it has a white 
outer edge. 

Bleeker suggests whether Biacope axillaris, C.V. vi, p. 532, may not be this species, but Cuv. and Yal. 
observe that perhaps it is merely a variety of the marginata. 

Habitat — Red Sea, Andaman islands to the South Sea, the largest specimen obtained (11| inches) is 
figured as the adult, one of the smaller ones is given (fig. 3) life-size. This fish attains at least 16 inches in . 
length. 

22. Lutianus bokar, Plate XIII, fig. 4. 

Scimna bohar, Forsk. p. 46, No. 47. 

Sparus lepisurus, Lacep. iii, t. 15, f. 2. 

Lutjanus bohar, Bl. Schn. p. 325 ; Bleeker, Lntjani, p. 57. 

Biacope bohar, Cuv. and Yal. ii, p. 433 ; Riipp. Atl. Fische, p. 73, and N. W. Fische, p. 103 ; Klunz. 
Yerh. z. b. Ges Wien, 1870, p. 699. 

Biacope quadriguttata, Cuv. and Yal. ii, p. 427, vi, p. 533. 

Mesoprion quaclriguttatus, Bleeker, Banda, p. 233. 

Mesoprion bohar, Giintker, Catal. i, p. 190, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 13, t. xv. 

B. vii, D. if, P. 17, Y. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. r. |f, L. tr. 7/18. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/9, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Byes— diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, If diameter from end of snout, and also apart. The distance from the eye to the upper edge of the 
maxilla equals two-thirds of the diameter of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the eye. 
Vertical margin of the preopercle with a shallow notch, the whole of it serrated, most strongly so at its rounded 
and slightly produced angle, its lower limb oblique and likewise serrated : interopercle with a very small knob. 
Teeth — a pair of large canines in the premaxillaries, an outer row of conical canine-like teeth in either jaw : 
villiform ones in a A-shape on the vomer, in a band on the palatines, and in one or two long patches on the 
tongue. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the fourth the longest and equalling the length of the post- 
orbital portion of the head, last dorsal spine slightly exceeding one diameter of the orbit in length : soft portion 
of the fin rounded, the highest ray equalling two-thirds of the length of its base. Pectoral reaching to nearly 
above the anal spines, the ventrals scarcely so far : second anal spine strongest and somewhat the longest, 
equalling the third of the dorsal : soft portion of the fin rounded and the height of the rays equalling the length 
of the entire base of the fin, its lower edge straight : caudal somewhat deeply emarginate. Scales — in oblique 
rows above the lateral-line and in horizontal ones below it : on the upper surface of the body they reach to above 
the hind edge of the orbit. Colours- — brownish along the back becoming whiter on the sides and below : two 
milk-white spots along the base of the dorsal fin, the first below the sixth to the eighth spines, the second below 
the last third of the soft dorsal : first dorsal deep blackish-brown, which is continued along the upper edge of the 
first half of the soft dorsal : outer edges of caudal and front edge of anal blackish, the latter fin having a 
narrow white anterior margin : ventral black, with a white outer edge. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea through those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen 
figured is 6 inches in length. 

23. Lutianus marginatus, Plate XIII, fig. 5. 
Biacope marginata, Cuv. and Yal. ii, p. 425 ; Peters, Wieg. Arch. 1855, p. 238. 
Biacope xanthopus, Cuv. and Yal. iii, p. 495. 



FAMILY, I— PERCHLE. 45 

Biacope axillaris, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 532. 

Mesoprion marginatus, Bleeker, Amboina, 1852, ii, p. 554 ; Kner, Novara Fischc, p. 31 ; Glinther. Fische 
d. Sudsee, p. 13, t. xiv. 

Mesoprion Gaimardi, Bleeker, Act. Soc. Sc. Ind. Neerl. vi, Enum. Pise. p. 23. 
Genyoroge margmata, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 181. 
Lutjanus marginatus, Bleeker, Halmali, p. 155, and Lutjani, p. 72. 
Sungarah, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. yJa-y, p. 16, V. 1/5, A..f, C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. r. fi, L. tr. 6-7/15, Cebc. pyl. (7 Kner.) 

Length of head 2/7 to 1/4, of candal 1/5, height of body 1/3 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 of length of head, 1J- diameters from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. The height of the 
preorbital equals two-thirds of the length of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the 
orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle finely serrated above its emargination, which is deep and situated in its lower 
third, angle rounded where the serratures are coarsest, whilst some are continued along its horizontal edge : snb- 
and inter-opercles entire, the latter having a large tuberosity directed upwards and slightly outwards and which 
is received into the preopercular notch : opercle with two small points. Teeth — moderately strong canines in 
the premaxillaries, an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in both jaws, a narrow villiform j^-shaped series in 
the vomer, and a narrow palatine band : none on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the fourth the longest 
and equal to two-fifths the height of the body, from it they gradually decrease in length to the last which equals 
the length of the orbit, the soft portion of the fin rounded, three-fourths as high as the fourth spine, and its 
height equal to half the length of its base. Pectoral nearly as long as the head and reaching to above the first 
anal spine : ventral reaches the vent. Second anal spine the strongest and equal to or rather longer than the 
third, and as long as the highest in the dorsal fin : soft portion of the fin one-third higher than that of the 
dorsal : caudal emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows above the lateral-line to opposite the end of the dorsal fin 
where they become horizontal, as they likewise are below the lateral-line ; they extend forwards on the back to 
above the hind edge of the eye. Colours — purplish-yellow above the lateral-line and golden below it.. Generally 
no lateral blotch. The colours of the back are continued on to the lower third of the dorsal fin and cease at a 
dark grey longitudinal band which has a lighter one above it, edged superiorly with black and margined with 
white : caudal dark purplish-red having a white edge : pectoral, ventral and anal flesh-coloured having a 
yellowish tint. 

On the Malabar coast of India specimens are frequently taken that have a black lateral-blotch : also on 
the Coromandel coast some few have the lateral-mark faintly developed, but it is more commonly absent. 
This does not depend upon size or season, but may upon sex or locality : in specimens preserved in spirit the 
mark is liable to disappear. The one figured is 7 inches long, and from Madras. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 16 inches in length. 

24. Lutianus yapilli, Plate XIII, fig. 6. 

Sparus yapilli, Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 75, pi. 95. 
llesoprion yapilli, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 483. 

B. vii, D. \i, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 47, L. r. |f, L. tr. 6/14.. 

Length of head nearly 1/4, of caudal 1/8, height of body 3/11 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/6' 
of length of head, 2 diameters from end of snout, and 1J apart. The distance from the eye to the upper edge 
of the maxilla equals one diameter and a quarter the length of the orbit : lower jaw the longer. The maxilla 
reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle with a very shallow emargination 
above its rounded angle, the whole of the limb being finely serrated, the serrations becoming a little more coarse 
and widely separated at its angle and along its horizontal border. Sub- and inter-opercles entire. So 
interopercular knob. Teeth — large canines in the premaxillaries, an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in 
either jaw : villiform ones in a A-form on the vomer, and in a band on the palate. The specimen having had 
the tongue removed the existence or not of lingual teeth cannot be ascertained. Russell also omits to mention 
whether it is rough or smooth, a subject which he generally notices. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the third being 
three-quarters the height of the fourth which is nearly half the height of the body, they decrease to the ninth 
which is only 4/11 of that of the fourth spine : soft portion of the dorsal rounded, its height being rather more 
than half the length of its base. Pectoral nearly as long as the head : the ventral does not reach half the way to the 
anal fin. Second anal spine the strongest but not quite so long as the third, which equals the length of the head 
anterior to the orbits : its soft portion a little higher than long at its base, lower edge rounded. Scales — in 
rows parallel to the back above the lateral-line, and horizontal below it : 7 rows on the cheeks, none on the 
preorbital: superiorly they extend to above the hind edge of the eye, ten rows between the occiput and the 
first dorsal spine. Colours — silvery-grey on the back becoming yellowish white on the abdomen : longitudinal 
yellowish bands along each row of scales, which in the dry specimen appear sometimes in the form of occasional 
black spots : cheeks dashed with purple. Fins yellowish, dorsal, anal, and caudal edged with orange. 

The foregoing description is from a single specimen 26| inches long, stuffed, and in the British Museum, 
it came from Madras where I was not so fortunate as to meet with the species. Jerdon remarks, in 
Ichthyological Gleanings in Madras (M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 130) " Telia Jcadisay, Tarn. Russell, pi. 95. 
Not very common, of soft texture." A figure of it exists amongst Sir W. Elliot's drawings. 

Habitat. — Coromandel coast of India. 



46 ACAXTHOPTERYGII. 

25. Lutianus quinquelinearis, Plate XIV, fig. 1. 

Holocentrus quinquelinearis, Bl. iv, p. 84, t. 239. 

Graministes quinquevittatus, Bl. Schn. p. 187. 

Diacope octolineata, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 418 and vi, p. 526, (in part) ; Richardson, Icli. China, p. 229. 

Mesoprion etaapee, Less. Voy. Coq. ii, p. 229. 

Diacope decemlineata, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 528. 

Mesoprion octolineatus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 40. 

Mesoprion pomaeanthus, Bleeker, Arnb. p. 407 (in part). 

Genyoroge Bengalensis, Giintlier, Catal. i,p. 178 (in part). 

Oenyoroge granvmica, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 679 (not Bleeker). 

Mesoprion Bengalensis, Kner, Novara Fisclie, p. 31. 

Lutjanus quinquelineatus, Bleeker, Lntjani, p. 37. 

B. vii, riJfr, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. ^ C. 17, L. 1. 56, L. r. f£, L. tr. 8/19, Cffic. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 3/10 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3/10 to 
1/3 of the length of head, about 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Dorsal profile more 
convex than that of the abdomen, which is nearly horizontal : lower jaw slightly the longer : distance from the 
eye to the upper edge of the maxilla equals a little more than half the diameter of the orbit. The maxilla reaches 
to below the first third of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle with a very deep emargination and a rounded 
angle, the whole being serrated, the serrations at the lower angle being coarse, lower limb also serrated. A 
strong interopercular knob : opercular points indistinct. Teeth — a pair of moderate sized curved canines in the 
premaxillaries, an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in either jaw, those in the upper being the largest : villi- 
form ones in a^-form in the vomer, a band on the palatines, but none on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate 
strength, increasing in length to the fourth which equals 2| in the height of the body, from it they slightly 
decrease to the last which equals one diameter of the orbit in length, the soft portion of the fin rounded, the 
highest ray equal to half the length of its base. Pectoral not quite so long as the head, second anal sjoine rather 
longest and strongest, it equals half the height of the body, the rayed portion highest anteriorly where its 
rays equal the length of its base, its lower edge rounded : caudal emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows above the 
lateral-line, and in horizontal ones below it, superiorly they extend forward to above the anterior third of the eye : 
the suborbital ring of bones is more or less scaled, and in adults some are even present on the preorbital. Colours 
— olive-yellow, with a deep black finger-mark on the lateral-line below the last few dorsal spines and the first few 
rays : some lines above the nape formed bj T a dark spot on each scale. Pive blue bands pass from the eye, the first 
three from above it to the dorsal fin or its termination, the two next from the middle and lower edge of the eye 
join on the end of the opercle and pass direct to the middle of the base of the tail : the lowest from the 
snout is continued past the pectoral fin to the end of the base of the soft anal : fins yellow : caudal with a light 
tip. 

Neither Bloch's specimen* or figure shows any lateral blotch, which according to Bleeker is sometimes 
absent, all my specimens possess it, and in all that I examined I found 5 esecal appendages, whereas the Benga- 
lensis has none. 

Genyoroge notata Giinther, has D i-§-, and 9 rows of scales between the lateral-line and the first dorsal 
spine, otherwise it resembles the fish described above, and of which I consider it is a variety. 

Eabitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. The specimen figured (6 inches long) is from the 
Andaman islands, but the species is common at Madras. 

26. Lutianus vitta, Plate XIV, fig. 2. 

Serranus vitta, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Frey. p. 315, pi. 58, f. 3 ; Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 239, vi, p. 505 ; 
Richards. Ich. China, p. 234. 

Diacope vitta, Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. p. 13, t. 6, fig. 1. 

Mesoprion enneacantlms, Bleeker, Perc. p. 40 (D. -jSj) : Giinther, Catal. i, p. 209. 

Mesoprion phaiotamiatus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 43. 

Mesoprion vitta, Bleeker, Perc. p. 44 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 207 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 37. 

Mesoprion oplmysenii, Bleeker, Sumatra, p. 74. 

Lutjanus vitta, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 233 and Lutjani, p. 25/ 

B. vii, D. if, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. r. U-i%> ^- **• 8/12. 

Length of head from 2/7 to 3/11, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 to 1/4 of length of head, ly to 1-| diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. Body somewhat 
compressed, dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen, but above the eyes it is somewhat concave. 
Lower jaw slightly the longer : the maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Suborbital ring of 
bones below the front third of the orbit equalling three-fourths of the diameter of the eye in depth. Vertical 
limb of preopercle with a shallow emargination, its angle slightly rounded but not produced, its lower edge rather 
oblique, it is finely serrated along both limbs, most coarsely so at its angle : opercle with two small and flat 

* Bloch's specimen is 8^ inches long, and in good preservation at Berlin, it is marked thus by -Valenciennes, Holocentrus 
quinquevittatus, Bl. t. 239 ; Diacope decemlineata, C.V. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^. 47 

points. Sometimes there is a very indistinct interopercular swelling. Teeth — large canines in the premaxillaries, 
an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in either jaw, villiform ones in a triangular spot on the vomer, which 
patch may he produced posteriorly in the median line, a similar narrow band on the palatines, and in a band 
pointed behind rounded anteriorly on the tongue (in a specimen 11 inches long). Fins — dorsal spines of moderate 
strength, the fourth being the longest, and equal to two-thirds of the length of the head, from it they gradually 
decrease to the last which is two-thirds as high as the first ray, whilst the soft portion is slightly lower than 
the third spine : pectoral nearly as long as the head : second anal spine a little the strongest, but not quite so 
long as the third which equals the length of the eye : caudal lunated. Scales — in oblique and sinuous rows above 
the lateral-line as far as the end of the dorsal fin, beyond which as well as below the lateral-line they are 
horizontal. Colours — yellowish-red along the back, becoming rosy below the lateral-line : olive stripes follow 
each row of scales above the lateral-line and brilliant yellow ones those below it. Fins orange, dorsal, anal, and 
tips of caudal margined with white. Sometimes, but not invariably (especially at Madras), a broad black band 
passes from the eye to above the centre of the caudal fin, and in such specimens the olive stripes in the upper 
third of the body are nearly black. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. The specimen figured is 7 inches in 
length. 

27, Lutianus Madras, Plate XIV, fig. 3. 

Lutianus lutianus, Bl. t. 245 ; Bl. Schn. p. 324; Bleeker, Lutjani, p. 27, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxxvi, f. 3. 
Lutjanus Blochii, Lacep. iv, pp. 178, 210.* 

Mesoprion lutjanus, Ouv. and Val. ii, p. 479 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 37. 

Mesoprion Madras, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 446 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 44 ; Guntker, Catal. i, p. 200 ; Day, Fish. 
Malabar, p. 14. 

? Lutjanus rangus, Bleeker, Bali, p. 154, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxi, fig. 3, Lutjani, p. 59. 

B. vii, D. ^l, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. ¥ ?s, C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. r. |f, L. tr. 6/16. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/3 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 to 
2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. The depth of the preorbital 
equals about half the length of the eye : dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen. The maxilla 
reaches to below the front third of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle not emarginate, its angle slightly pro- 
duced and rounded having an oblique lower limb, the whole being serrated, most coarsely so at its angle : no 
interopercular knob : opercle with two points, the lower most distinct. Teeth — rather large curved canines in 
the upper jaw, and an outer row of curved canine-like teeth in either jaw : villiform ones on the palate either in 
a lanceolate patch or else in a triangular spot prolonged posteriorly in the median line : in a band on the 
palatines, also a patch on the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, increasing in length to the fourth, 
which equals that of the postorbital portion of the head, they subsequently decrease to the last which is rather 
above half the same length : soft portion of the fin rotmded, its height being equal to one-third of the length of 
its base, and being much lower than the spinous. Pectoral pointed, nearly as long as the head but not reaching 
to above the anal spines : ventral reaches two-thirds of the distance to the anal spines, the second of which is as 
strong as the third but slightly shorter, its length not being quite equal to the diameter of the eye ; soft portion 
of the fin as high in front as it is long at its base, its last ray half the height of its first, lower edge of the fin 
straight : caudal emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows above and horizontal ones below the lateral-line, they 
extend forwards to between the centre of the orbits. Colours — roseate, with oblique line above the lateral-line,, 
but which to below the first four dorsal spines are sinuous, below the lateral-line the sides and abdomen are 
yellow, with narrow red horizontal bands. One specimen captured December 1869, had a lateral band as seen 
in L. vitta. 

Bleeker's figure of L. rangus appears to resemble this fish, but the upper surface of the head is said to 
be scaleless. 

Habitat. — From the Seychelles through the Indian seas to the Malay Archipelago, attaining about a foot 
in length. 

28. Lutianus decussatus, Plate XIV, fig. 4. 

Mesoprion decussatus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 487 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 43; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 210; Kner, 
Novara Fische, p. 34. 

Mesoprion therapon, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 514. 
Lutjanus decussatus, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 233, and Lutjani, p. 79. 

B. vii, D. -i-i^, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. §, C. 17, L. 1. 50-54, L. r. S H», L. tr. 6-7/17, Case. pyl. 3. 

Length of head 4/15 to 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/3 to 2/7 of the total length. Byes — diameter 
1/4 to " 2/9 of length of head, 1^ diameter from end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. Snout pointed, lips rather 
thick : depth below the orbit to edge of the upper jaw equal to 1 diameter of the eye.. The maxilla reaches 

* Laeepede describes his fish, p. 178, as having D. -fV, and the general colour white: the back yellowish, and above the lateral- 
line blue transverse bands, &c, he subsequently, p. 210, considers his fish identical with Bloch's. 



48 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

to below the front edge of tlie orbit ; jaws of equal length in front. Vertical limb of preopercle with a shallow 
emargination, having fine: serrations which are lost at the angle : a slight intcropereular knob. Teeth — one or 
two large curved canines in the premaxillaries, and an external row of curved canine-like teeth in the upper jaw, 
rather larger ones, less curved and wider apart in the lower jaw : villiform ones in a ^-shaped band in the vomer, 
an elongated one on the palatines, but none on the tongue. Fins — third to fifth dorsal spines the longest, nearly 
equal to the length of the postorbital portion of the head and two-fifths the height of the body, posteriorly they 
decrease to the last : soft portion of the fin rounded and lower than the spinous, its longest ray equal to one half 
the length of its base. Pectoral as long as the head behind the anterior nostril, or even longer in some specimens : 
ventral reaches two-thirds of the distance to the anal. Second anal spine the strongest, usually not quite so long 
as the third which equals one diameter and a quarter of the eye in length, its first rays highest, its lower margin 
rounded : caudal forked, upper lobe the longer. Scales — in oblique rows above the lateral-line, and in horizontal 
ones below it : they extend forwards to above the hind edge of the orbit : seven or eight rows across the cheeks. 
Colours — whitish, with six longitudinal black bands along the body, and six badly marked short vertical ones in 
its upper third, descending from the base of the dorsal fin, the crossing of these two sets of bands leaves large 
uncovered whitish spots of ground colour ; a deep black spot at the root of the caudal fin. A white band across 
the occiput, which is continued on to the preopercle. Pins greyish, anal with a white front edge. 

Edbitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. The one figured (9| inches long) is from 
;the . Andamans, where it is a very common species and readily captured with a bait. 

Third group — Priacanthina. 
Lower jaw prominent. Cleft of mouth almost vertical. Scales ctenoid, small. Csecal appendages few. 

Genus, 9 — Priacanthus, Cuv. and Val. 

BrancMostegals six : pseudobranclme. Body oolong and somewhat elevated. Byes large. Lower jaw 
prominent. Preopercle serrated on both limbs as well as on the angle which is produced into a flattened spine-like 
point: operate with a point. Teeth villiform in the jaws, vomer, and palate, none on the tongue. A single dorsal fin, 
with nine to ten spines ; anal with three. Scales small and ctenoid, extended on to the snout. 

Geographical distribution. — Tropical seas. They do not appear to be very common in India, none 
have been seen by me in the fresh state : Russell does not figure any. Amongst Sir Walter Elliot's drawings 
named by Jerdon are two of this Genus : the first appears to be P. Blochii.: the second termed Priacanthtis 
Tie-waie has D. -^a, A. ^-, and is of the same shape but of a much lighter colour : the ventral fin is spotted with 
brown, whilst there are two or more large blackish-brown blotches between the inner rays and the body : the 
length of the longest figure is 4| inches. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Priacanthus Blochii. D. £§-, A. -^. Light lake red, the vertical and ventral fins with a narrow black 
edge. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Priacanthus Blochii, Plate VIII, fig. 2. 

Anthias macrophthalmns, Bl. vi, p. 115, t. 319 ; Bl. Schn. p. 304. 

Priacanthus Blochii, Bleeker, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind. iv, p. 456 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 218.. 

B. vi,D. yJ.a^, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. &, G. 17, L. r. 110-120. 

Length of head 3/11, of caudal 2/13, height of body 3/11 of the total length. Eyes — large, in the middle 
of the length of the head, 1/2 a diameter from the end of snout and the same distance from the posterior end of 
the opercle. Lower jaw strongly prominent. The angle of the preopercle provided with a strong spinate 
point, it and the vertical as well as the horizontal edges of the preopercle serrated : preorbital also serrated along 
both its upper and lower borders. The maxilla reaches to almost below the first third of the orbit. Teeth — 
villiform in the jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, increasing in length to the 
last, which however is not quite so long as the rays ; the first few are roughened anteriorly. Pectoral short, 
equalling two-fifths of the height of the body: ventral spine serrated on both edges: anal spines serrated 
anteriorly, the third being the longest : caudal cut square. Colours — of a light lake-red, all the vertical as well 
as the ventral fins having a narrow black border. 

Amongst Sir W. Elliot's drawings is one named Priacanthus ? Pasooioa which appears to be this species 
from Madras : it wants however the black edge to the fins, which also is very slightly apparent in Bloch's 
specimen. Jerdon remarks, (M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 131.) " Priacanthus. I possess drawings of apparently 
two species of this genus. The one is entirely of a fine red colour, and was named Pasuwa, Tarn. The other is 
reddish above, white on the sides, and the ventral fins spotted with dusky : D. -L2-, A. -3^-, it was named Kewai." 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago. The figure is from a 
specimen in the British Museum collection, 8\ inches in length. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 49 

Fourth Group — Apogonina.* 

Form of body more or less elevated and compressed. Opercles mostly denticulated or armed. Cleft of 
mouth oblique or even nearly vertical. One or two dorsal fins. 

Genus, 10 — AMBASsis,t (Comm.) Guv. and Vol. 

Ghanda, pt. Ham. Bucli. : Samiltonia et Ambassus, Swains. : Bogoda, Parambassis, et Pseudambassis, 
Bleeker.J 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchim well developed. Body compressed,, more or less diaphanous. ILovier limb 
of preopercle with a double serrated edge : opercle without prominent spine. Villiform teeth on jaws, vomer, and. 
palate, sometimes on the tongue : canines rarely present. Two dorsal fins, the first with seven spines, the anal with 
three: aforwardly directed recumbent spine in front of the base of the dorsal fin. Scales cycloid, of moderate or 
small size, frequently deciduous. Lateral-line complete, interrupted, incomplete or absent. 

Geographical distribution. — From the Red Sea, and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India and 
Malay Archipelago to North Australia and even beyond. Some are exclusively found in fresh water. 

Uses. — Although this genus consists of little bony fishes, which rarely exceed six inches in length, and 
are generally far less, still they have then* economic uses. The poorer classes eat them, they are extensively 
consumed by the larger fishes, forming much of their sustenance during the dry months of the year, whilst owing 
to their formation they are easily dried without the employment of salt. Buchanan observes of his genus 
Ghamda, which is mostly composed of species of Ambassis, that they " are very small, and of little value, although 
in many places abundant and used in considerable quantities : but as food they are insipid, and filled with small 
bones, for which defect their size does not compensate." Cantor remarks that the " species of Apogon and 
Ghanda are of little value as articles of food. At Pinang, they, as well as numerous other small fishes, the daily 
residue of the market, are used as manure." 

Some difficulty exists in ascertaining the species of this genus to which a specimen belongs, and for the 
following reasons. The comparative length of the second or third dorsal spine to that of the body often differs 
in accordance with the size of the specimen : and local variations on this point seem to exist. The number of 
the soft rays is not constant. Scales are distinctly apparent in the adult of species in which they are hardly 
visible in the very young. The lateral-line is subject to variation. Colours likewise are not constant, but the 
character least subject to change appears to be the serrations on the sub- and inter-opercles, the preorbital, and 
around the orbit, but those on the vertical border of the preopercle are inconstant in some species. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Ambassis nama. D. 7/ TS 1 TT , A. xt- 3 tt- Blunt serrations along horizontal limb of preopercle and on pre- 
orbital. Large curved canines in lower jaw. Yellowish-olive with a dark shoulder mark. Fresh waters of India, 
Assam, and Burma. 

2. Ambassis ranga. D. 7/ yt-ttj -A- TT-irei -k- r - 60-70. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated or entire, 
both edges of its lower limb and preorbital serrated. Golden with vertical bands and black margins to the fins 
in the young. Fresh waters of India and Burma. 

3. Ambassis baculis. D. 7 /-jig-, A. -^, L. r. 80. Double lower edge of the preopercle serrated, also the 
preorbital and upper edge of the orbit. No canines. Tellowish-olive with a golden occipital spot. Fresh 
waters of Bengal to the Punjab and Orissa. 

4. Ambassis Thomassi. D. 7/yi-i-j-g-, A. g-_Vo, L. 1. 35-41. Vertical limb and double lower edge of pre- 
opercle and posterior half of interopercle serrated : preorbital also serrated. Silvery, spotted. Malabar coast in 
fresh water. 

5. Ambassis Commersonii. D. 7/^!^, A. -g--xo, Ij- 1- 30-33. Double lower edge of preopercle 
serrated, interopercle entire : preorbital also serrated. Silvery. Seas of India. 

6. Ambassis nalua. D. 7/ T ^- n L , A. -g-Voj ^- 1. 26-27. Double lower edge of preopercle and posterior half 
of interopercle serrated : preorbital also serrated. Silvery. Fresh waters of India near the coast. 

7. Ambassis interrupta. D. 7/ Tg i TT , A. -g^rri ^i- 1- 28. Double lower edge of preopercle serrated : inter- 
opercle with a few denticulations at its angle : preorbital serrated. Second dorsal spine high. Lateral line in- 
terrupted. A dark band along either caudal lobe. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 

8. Ambassis Dayi. D. 7/ygiyy-, A. ^, L. 1. 30. Snout pointed. Vertical limb of preopercle minutely 
serrated : its double lower border more coarsely so, also the posterior half of the interopercle and the preorbital. 
Malabar. 

* Bleeker places the Ambassmi or Bogodini distract from this group of Apogonini : Klunzinger has a Family Anibassoidei with 
a group of Apogonini, which together equal the above " fourth group." 
f Gu-nas-si, Mugh. 
{ Bleeker's genera of his Bogodini are as follows : — 

1. Ambassis. Preorbital serrated : teeth small : scales 30-46 : dorsal and anal rays, 8-11. 

2. Paro/mbassis. Preorbital serrated : outer row of teeth in premaxillary enlarged, rather widely separated, and almost de- 
veloping canines : scales of medium or small size : dorsal and anal rays 9-11. 

3. Pseudambassis. Strong teeth in premaxillary, dorsal fin 12-14 rays, anal 14-17. 

4. Bogoda. Preorbital entire. Strong teeth in jaws, but more obtuse and conical, with a slight outward direction : dorsal and 
anal fins many rayed : scales small. 

H 



50 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

9. Ambassis gymnocephalus. D. 7/-g-_Vo) A. -g-Vo! L. 1. 27-29. Double lower edge of preopercle serrated : 
interopercle entire : preorbital serrated : two rows of scales on suborbitals. Lateral-line interrupted. Silvery, 
with, a burnished lateral band. Seas of India, ascending estuaries and rivers. 

10. Ambassis urotcenia. D. 7/V-toj -A- 9'-Vo"> -L. 1. 27-28. Double lower edge of preopercle serrated : 
interopercle entire : preorbital serrated : one row of scales on the suborbitals. Lateral-line entire. Silvery, with 
a burnished lateral band. Seychelles, Andamans, to the Malay Archipelago. 

Amongst the preceding 10 Indian species, the interopercle is serrated in A. Thomassi, L. 1. 35-41 ; A. 
nalua, L. 1. 27-28 ; A. interrupta, L. 1. 28 and an interrupted lateral-line, and A. Dayi, L. 1.-30. The six which 
have the interopercle entire are, A. nama with curved canines : A. ranga, L. 1. 60-70 : A. baculis, L. 1. 80 : A. 
Commersonii, L. 1. 30-33 : A. gymnoceplialus, L. 1. 27-29, and an interrupted lateral-line, and A. urotcenia, L. 1. 28. 

1. Ambassis nama, Plate XIV, fig. 5. 

Ghanda nama, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 109, 371, pi. 39, f. 37. 
Ghanda phula et bogoda, Ham. Buch. 1. c. pp. Ill, 371. 

Ambassis nama, phula et bogoda, Cuv. and Val. ii, pp. 185, 186, 187 ; Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 298. 
Ambassis oblonga, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 185 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 228. 
? Ambassis Indica, McClell. Cal. Journ. Nat. Hist, ii, p. 585. 
Bogoda nama, Bleeker, Beng. en Hind. p. 89. 
Ambassis bogoda, Gunther, Catal. i, p. 228. 

Mucknee and Ghed-du-ah, Punj. : Son-dah, Assam. : Pud-da and Pid-to-lah, Sind. : Ak-ku-rati, Tel. : 
Buck-ra and Pom-pi-ah, N. W. Prov. : Gart-kana and Goa-chappi, Ooriah. 

B. vi, D. 7 | ^Irr, P. 13, V. 1/5, A. „*_ C. 17. 

Length of head 1/4 to 2/9, of caudal 1/4 to 2/9, height of body from 4/11 to 1/3 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter about 1/3 of length of head, 2/3 to 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Body 
compressed, the dorsal and abdominal profiles equally convex, a considerable rise from the occiput to the base of 
the first dorsal fin. Lower jaw much longer than the upper. The maxilla reaches to below the anterior third 
of the orbit. Preorbital with three denticulations along its posterior-superior margin : also a denticulation 
behind them at the middle of the front edge of the orbit, and another at its posterior-superior angle. Vertical 
limb of preopercle entire, except near its angle, where there are two or three denticulations which become 
blunted with age : the double border, very slightly denticulated at its lower edge in the young, often entire. 
Sub- and inter-opercles entire. Teeth — two or three large and crooked canines directed forwards on either side 
of the symphysis of the lower jaw : an outer and an inner enlarged row in both jaws : fine ones on the vomer 
and palatines. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, a recumbent one anterior to the fin, the second spine 
the longest (in a few specimens the third) and equal in length to the head behind the anterior edge or middle of 
the eye, or to about half the height of the body below it, the seventh dorsal spine somewhat longer than the sixth : 
the spine of the second dorsal as long as the first ray, the rays gradually decrease in height : ventral reaches a 
little beyond the anus but not so far as the anal fin : the third anal spine the longest and strongest equalling the 
height of the longest in the dorsal fin : caudal deeply forked, the lobes of equal length. Scales — minute, 
scarcely visible on the head ; in young specimens captured from stagnant pieces of water, the mucous often causes . 
the scales to be overlooked. Lateral-line — is always indistinct, in some specimens it is entire, in others it ceases 
after proceeding a short way, or it may even be absent. Pseudobranchiai — well developed. Colours — yellowish- 
olive covered all over with minute black dots which on the shoulder are collected into an oblong patch, having 
its longest diameter vertical : summit of the head and top of the eyes black. Fins orange, the upper half of the 
first dorsal deep black : a dark tipper edge to the second dorsal : caudal dark with a light outer margin : anal 
with a black mark over the bases of the spines. In some specimens taken at Hurdah, in Bombay, the caudal 
was black tipped. 

This fish shows considerable local variations, which have caused its being described under more than one 
name. Buchanan observed of the phula, that it is " devoid of scales," " strongly resembles the nama, but 
seldom exceeds two inches;" " nor indeed, except in the number of the rays which support the fins, is there any 
considerable difference between the two species." In nama, D. 7/-jV, A. ^ : in phula, D. 7/^-, A. -fy,, are the 
numbers he records. 

As regards the bogoda, he observes it has 16 soft rays in the dorsal and 17 in the anal fin, and " a long 
transparent body devoid of scales," " but that it differs in nothing remarkable from the two former {nama 
and phula) except in the number of soft rays contained in the back and vent fins, and in that contained in the 
pectorals, each of which has twelve." 

Amongst Buchanan's MSS. drawings in Calcutta, is one l^ inches long, termed Centropomus- 
plmlchanda, which his notes show to be the phula, and a second 2^ inches long of the bogoda. 

Having brought together upwards of thirty specimens from different localities of India and Burma, I find 
that this species is subject to variation, but some points remain the same in all. Although the comparative 
length of the longest dorsal spine varies, it retains its proportion to the third of the anal, which appears to be 
invariably the longest in that fin : the last dorsal and anal rays are divided to their bases, (counting each as 1) 
and the following numbers exist in my specimens, D. 7 '/ts-tV-tg-ttj -^- tt-Ts-A-ttj certainly the most co mm on is 
D. 7/ T V, A. -^ : but of course if we count the last dorsal and anal rays divided to their bases as two, which 



FAMILY, I— PERCLTLE. 



51 



Buchanan frequently did, it would cause my figures to stand thus D. 7— -T^a-TT-Ts' -^- tt-Tb-tt-Ts- ^ n Cuv. and 
Val. it is observed that the A. oblong a has D. 7/-^, A. -j^, and the black dots and the shoulder mark appear to 
have been absent, but these dots often disappear in specimens which have been long kept, that on the base of the 
anal is generally first lost, and subsequently the others. The variation in the number of rays has been already 
referred to. McClelland observes A. Indica has D. -^ an evident misprint ; he also mentions the depth of the 
body equal to its length. 

Habitat. — Throughout the fresh waters of India, Assam, and Burma, attaining three or four inches in 
length. 

2. Ambassis ranga, Plate XP7, fig. 6. f 

GJianda ranga, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 113, 371j_pl.- Hy;~fr38; 

Chanda lala, Ham. Buch. 1. c. pp. 114, 371, pi. 2#^fT39 ; Bleeker, Beng. en Hind. p. 88, and Verh. Bat. 
Gen. xxv, t. i, f. 1. 

Ambassis ranga et lala, Cuv. and Val. ii, pp. 183, 184. 

Ambassis Barlovi,* Sykes, Fishes of Dukkun. Trans. Zool. Soc. i, p. 350, pi. 60, f. 1. 

Ambassis alta, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 183 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 227. 

Ambassis lala, McClelland, Cal. Journ. Nat. Hist, v, p. 150, t. 4, fig. 1. 

Ambassis lala, Blyth. Proc. Asi. Soc. Beng. 1860, p. 138. 

Chandee, Beng. and N.W. Prov. : Pee-dah, Sind. : Laal-chandee, Ooriah. 

B. vi, D. 7/^^, P. 11, V. 1/5, A. ^^ C. 17, L. r. 60-70, L. tr. 13/—. 

In the adult, length of head 4/13 to 1/4, of caudal 1/4 to 2/9, height of body 2/5 to 3/7 of the total 
length. Eyes- — diameter 2/5. of length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart-. 
Dorsal and abdom in al profiles both very convex, but the profile over the eyes is slightly concave. The maxilla 
reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle sometimes entire, more commonly finely 
serrated, but in some specimens, especially on the Bombay side of India, and in Burma, rather coarsely so : the 
double margin of horizontal limb of the preopercle serrated : sub- and inter-opercles entire. Preorbital with about 
six denticulations on its inferior edge, and a strong one on its anterior superior angle directed towards the eye 
and about five more along the upper edge of that bone. Another spine at the middle of the posterior edge of 
the orbit, with five more, but decreasing in size along its upper half. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, vomer, and 
palate, none on the tongue. Fins — second spine of the dorsal equals the distance from the middle of the orbit 
to the posterior end of the head, and is generally as long although sometimes shorter than the third : the 
ventral almost reaches to the commencement of the anal : second anal spine of equal strength but slightly 
shorter than the third which equals two-fifths of the height of the body above it : caudal deeply forked. In 
Burma the second anal spine is comparatively shorter than in Indian specimens. Colours — olive, having a dark 
mark composed of spots on the shoulder, being the remains of a band present in the young. The margins of 
the vertical fins are usually somewhat dark. 

In the young, termed by Buchanan lala, the fish is of a bright yellow or orange colour, with four or five 
dark vertical bands which are formed of fine black dots. The first dorsal is nearly black, the second and the 
anal as well as occasionally the ventral have deep black edges. Buchanan mentions yellow spots as sometimes 
present. 

This species appears to be subject to greater variations in accordance with age than is seen in any other 
species of Ambassis. In examining the highest dorsal spine in comparison with the length of the fish, in 8 
specimens, I found it to be as follows : 



inches. 
No. 1, total length 1-JL. 
body excluding the caudal fin. 



of body 



No. 2 „ 


1^- 


No. 3 „ 


1-S- 


No. 4 „ 


» x l 


No. 5 „ 


2-3- 


No. 6 „ 


9 * 


No. 7 „ 


9 o 


No. 8 „ 


3 



inch. 






inches. 








1 : 


height of dorsal 


spine 


3/10 or 


3| 


in the 


length, of the 


1A 


s) >> 


?> 


3/10 „ 


02 


33 


u )) 


1t%: 


75 )> 


ss 


3/10 „ 


1/4 


33 


is 33 


1_§L_. 

1 10' 


>> 51 


5) 


3/10 „ 


1/4 


33 


>) ?) 


1-L- 


)> >) 


!> 


4/10 „ 


*i 


33 


33 3) 


2 : 


T) )> 


;» 


4/10 „ 


1/5 


33 


3) 33 


2 : 


)> >J 


j) 


4/10 „ 


1.5 


33 


33 33 


9 3 . 


1» n 


5> 


9/20 „ 


1/5 


33 


33 33 



Irrespective of the above, demonstrating how the average proportional length of the dorsal spines to that 
of the body decreases with age, it is remarkable that in all under li inches in length the second anal spine is 
the longest : as their size increases the second and third become of equal length : but in the adult the third is 
almost invariably the longer. 

Habitat. — Throughout India and Burma, to a few inches in length. 

3. Ambassis baculis, Plate XV, fig. 1. 
Chanda baculis, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 112, 371. 
Ambassis baculis, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 187. 

* I find on Sykes' original drawing, Gandreechee, given as the native name of this species, and Chanda ranga, Buch. for 
which Ambassis Barlovni was subsequently substituted. 

H 2 



52 ACANTHOPTERTGII. 

Amlassis notatus, Blytk, Proc. Asi. Soc. of Beng. 1860, p. 138. 

Kung-gi, Punj. : Nga-koun-ma, or Nga-zin-zat, Burm. 

B. vi, D. 7^s, P. 12, V. 1/5, A. &, C. 17, L. r. 80. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/4, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, 1/2 to 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Body compressed : lower jaw 
rather shorter than the upper. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Preorbital strongly 
serrated along its lower edge and having a sharp spine directed towards the orbit at its anterior-superior angle 
followed by several more along its upper edge. The whole of the upper edge of the orbit serrated. Vertical 
limb of preopercle entire, the whole of the lower edge of the horizontal limb strongly serrated, and a few 
serrations near the angle of its upper edge : sub- and inter-opercles entire. Teeth — viliiform in jaws, vomer, 
and palate. Fins — second spine of the first dorsal fin the highest and equal to the length of the head 
behind the hind edge of the orbit, and rather more than half the height of the body below it ; the seventh 
spine rather longer than the sixth. Ventral reaches three-quarters of the distance to the anal. Third anal 
spine slightly the longest : caudal forked, lower lobe slightly the longer. Lateral-line — complete, it becomes 
straight opposite the first-third of the second dorsal fin. Colours — yellowish-olive : a golden spot on the occiput : 
black along the top of the first dorsal fin : second dorsal and anal darkest externally : front of each anal ray 
blackish : caudal dark along its base and also with blackish tips to each lobe. 

Buchanan observes that it has " the body short and transparent, and devoid of scales and with a yellow 
mark on the nape." It is said to resemble the bogoda in colour, and the ranga in shape. A figure of it exists 
amongst his MSS. drawings 1^ inches in length and marked Gentropomus ? bahrul. 

The Ambassis baciilis principally differs from the A, nama in its form being higher, its lower jaw the 
shorter and not crooked to one side, its vertical limb of the preopercle being strongly serrated, and its possessing 
no canine or enlarged teeth in its jaws. 

Habitat. — Fresh waters of Orissa, Bengal, and as far north as the Punjab : also in Burma. The figure is 
taken from a specimen 1 T 7 5 inches in length, captured at Lahore. 

4. Ambassis Thomassi, Plate XV, fig. 2. 

Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 369. 

Mullu-cheru, Mai. : Mullu-tharu, Tel. : Midhc-jubbu, Canarese. 

B. vi, D. 7/to^, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. ¥ l, C. 15, L. 1. 35-41, L. tr. 7/17. 

Length of head 3| to 2/7, of caudal 4/17 to 1/4, height of body 1/4 to 1/3 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter from 1/3 to 3| of length of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1/2 a diameter apart. 
The younger specimens are rather more oval than the adults : lower jaw the longer : a slight concavity over 
the orbits, owing to a rise from the nape to the base of the dorsal fin. The maxilla reaches to below the middle 
of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle finely serrated, its lower double edge more coarsely so especially at 
the angle : posterior half of lower edge of interopercle strongly serrated. Lower edge of preorbital with about 
nine denticulations, sometimes becoming more numerous (up to 15) and smaller with age, and a raised usually 
serrated edge along its upper third, which sometimes ' becomes blunted with age. One spine at the posterior- 
superior angle of the orbit (becoming bifurcated with age,) and the lower two-thirds of its margin serrated 
(these becoming blunted with age). Teeth — in viliiform bands in jaws, vomer, and palate, an outer rather 
enlarged row in both jaws, none on tongue. Fins — second dorsal spine strong and nearly as long as the head 
without the snout : the ventral reaches as far as the anal spines : second anal spine equals that of the third and 
half the length of the head: caudal deeply forked. Lateral-line — continuous. Pseudobranchiai — well developed. 
Colours — greyish, spotted with silvery, there are also brownish basal spots on many of the scales, more especially 
along the back. 

Habitat. — The coasts of Canara as low as Cochin : it is found some distance inland even in elevated 
localities : it attains to at least 6^ inches in length. 

5. Ambassis Commersonii, Plate XV, fig. 3. 

? Scicena safgha, Porsk. Desc. Anim. p. 53. 

? Perca safgha, Bl. Schn. p. 86. 

Centropomus ambassis, Lacep. iv, p. 273. 

Ambassis Commersonii, Cuv. and Val, ii, p. 176, pi. 25 ; Puiipp. N. W. Fische, p. 89 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 30, 
and Ambassis, p. 95 : Giinther, Catal. i, p. 223 ; Day, Pishes of Malabar, p. 15. 

Ambassis macracanthus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 30; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 227; Day, Fishes of Andamans, 
P. Z. S. 1870, p. 681 (not synonym.) 

B. vi, D. 7/ ¥ _Vt, P- 13, V. 1/5, A. T i_, C. 15, L. 1. 30-33, L. tr. 4/9, Vert. 9/15. 

Length of head about 1/4, of caudal 2/9, height of body 3| to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/3 to 2/7 of length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Dorsal and anal profiles about 
equally convex : lower jaw the longer, its cleft very oblique, so that when closed it forms a portion of the 
anterior profile. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Preorbital rather strongly serrated, 
the serratures being directed downwards and slightly backwards. Vertical limb of preopercle entire, its inferior 



FAMILY, I— PERCID.F3. 53 

having its double edge serrated, two or three coarser teeth being at the angle : lower margin of interopercle 
entire. Two or three small and very blunt denticulations at the posterior superior angle of the orbit and in a 
line between it and the posterior-superior angle of the opercle. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, in a single 
^-shaped row in the vomer, and also present on the palatines : tongue usually with a narrow band along its 
centre. Fins — dorsal spines strong, transversely lineated, giving a serrated appearance to the second, which is the 
longest, and equal to the length of the head behind the front margin of the orbit, or even slightly longer : the 
ventral does not extend to the anal : second anal spine the strongest and nearly as long as the third, which 
almost equals the third of the dorsal : caudal deeply forked, upper lobe usually the longer. Lateral-line — con- 
tinuous. Pseudobranohue — well developed. Colours — silvery, with purplish reflections : a bright silvery line from 
the eye to the caudal fin : interspinous membrane between the second and third dorsal spines dark. 

In examining six specimens of this fish, the following were the proportions of the highest dorsal spine 
as compared with the length of the body. 

No 1, total length 3^% inches : without candal fin 2^ inches : dorsal spine -^ inches or 3f of length of body. 



1 o 



9. 3_s_ 

3 3 9 

4, )! 5, 4 

5 4- 6 - 

6, „ „ 5 



9_7 . _7_ °JL 

10* *■* 
2-8- 

3- 1 - 



4* 



,5 ,5 "10' » ', "10 55 

The specimens in the British Museum, marked A. Batjanensis, Bleeker, have the preorbital serrated and 
not entire as stated in the Catalogue (Vol. i, p. 225), and otherwise closely resemble this species. 

Habitat. — This common species extends from the Red Sea through those of India to North Australia : 
it ascends rivers and estuaries, attaining to six inches in length. 

6. Ambassis nalua, Plate XV, fig. 4. 

Ghanda nalua, Ham. Buch. Fish. Granges, pp. 107, 371, pi. 6, f. 36 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 6. ? 
Ambassis nalua, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 182 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 29, and Ambassis, p. 94 ; Gunther, Catal. i, 
p. 225. 

Ambassis Commersonii, Kner, Novara Fische, p. 41. 
Kyoung-ma-sah, Burm. 

B. vi, D. 7/t-Jtt* P- 15, V. 1/5, A. ? l C. 15, L. 1. 26-28, L. tr. 3/12. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/4, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 of length 
of head, nearly 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. A great rise in the dorsal profile from the snout 
to the commencement of the dorsal fin, but with a concavity over the eyes : lower jaw the longer : cleft of 
mouth very oblique. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Preorbital rather strongly serrated 
on both its inferior and superior borders : two short spines directed backwards at the posterior superior angle 
of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle entire, except a few serrations just above the angle, its double edge 
on its horizontal border strongly serrated, also the posterior half of the lower border of the interopercle. Teeth — 
villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate, a narrow band of teeth along the middle of the tongue. Fins — dorsal 
spines strong, the second the longest and equal to the length of the head behind the front edge of the orbit : 
the ventral does not quite reach to the anal : the pectoral extends to above the anal spines, the second and third 
of the latter of the same length, and almost equal to the third of the dorsal fin : caudal deeply forked. Lateral- 
line — continuous. Pseudobranchice — present. Colours — silvery, with a burnished lateral band : interspinous 
membrane dark between the second and third dorsal spines : a dark longitudinal band along either caudal lobe. 

Cantor remarks, as observed by M. M. Cuvier and Valenciennes, that this species differs from Lutjanus 
gymnocephalus, Lacep. (syn. Sciaina safgha, Forsk. ? Gentropomus ambassis, Lacep. Ambassis Commersonii, Cnv. 
and Val.) by its comparatively shorter head, blunter muzzle and greater depth of the body (p. 6). Also in 
this species the interopercle is serrated, whilst it is entire in the Ambassis Commersonii.* 

Habitat. — Calcutta in fresh and brackish water : Malabar coast and Andamans to the- Malay Archi- 
pelago. 

7. Ambassis interrupta, Plate XV, fig. 5. 

Bleeker, Ceram, ii, p. 696, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. lxx, f. 5, and Ambassis, p. 97 : Gunther, Catal. i, p. 226. 
Ambassis macracanthus, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 681. 

B. vi, D. 7/^Vo, P- 13, V. 1/5, A. t l., C. 18, L. 1. 28, L. tr. 6/8. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/7, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 of length 
of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Lower jaw the longer : cleft of mouth 
oblique. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Preorbital with both its upper and 
lower edges serrated. Anterior edge of orbit serrated and two spines at its posterior-superior angle. Vertical 
limb of preopercle entire, the double edge of its horizontal limb serrated : interopercle vnth four denticulations 
at its angle. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer and palate. Fins — second dorsal spine nearly half the length of 
the body in the adult ; the ventral does not extend to the anal fin : third anal spine slightly the longest : 

* In some rare cases the posterior inferior angle of the interopercle has 2 or 3 very badly marked serrations in A. Commersonii. 



Total leng 


th 


9 7_ 

w 10 


inches : 


of 


body 


2 inches 


5? 




3 


n ■ 




)» 


2 

2- 2 - 


•>■) 




n ■ 




)5 


^10 5? 


>■ 




Q 2 

°To 


5) 




5) 


2yo » 


)» 




9 2 

°To 


II 




5) 


9 3 



54 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

caudal forked. Scales — -a row along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins : two rows on the suborbitals. Lateral- 
line — interrupted. Colours — silvery with a narrow lateral band : second spine of the dorsal bright orange, the 
membrane between it and the third black : a dark longitudinal band along either caudal lobe. 

As in other species of this genus, the comparative length of the highest dorsal spine varies with age, 
and in examining the 5 specimens in the British Museum, I find the following proportions exist. 

highest dorsal spine 7/10 of an inch or nearly 1/3 of length of body. 

II II O/IU ,, ,, ,, Zg ,, ,, 

ii ii O/IU ,, ,, ,, Zi-g „ ,, 

ii ii y/iu ,. ,, ,, Z3 ,, ,, 

II II O/IU ,, ,, ,, &■£ „ ,, 

But the comparative length of the same spine in my specimen from the Andamans is still greater : 

Total length 1 T % inches : of body 1-jSy inches : highest dorsal spine -j%- or nearly 1/2 of body. 
Habitat. — Sea at the Andamans and Batavia : the specimen which is figured was taken at the Andamans, 
and is nearly 2 inches in length. 

8. Ambassis Dayi, Plate XV, fig. 7. 

? Ambassis Malabaricus, (C. & V.) Jerdon, Madr. Journ. Lit. & Science, 1849, No. xv, p. 140. 

Ambassis nalua, Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 15, (not H. Buch.) 

Ambassis Dayi, Bleeker, Nat. Verb. d. Holland. Maats. d. Weten. 3de Verz. Deel II, No. 2, 1874, p. 95. 

B. vi, D.^xt, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. T %, C. 16, L. 1. 30, L. tr. 4/—. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal about 4/17, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 to 
2/9 of length of head, 3/4 to 1 diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Snout pointed, lower jaw the longer, 
cleft not very oblique. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Preorbital serrated along its lower 
border, and one spine at its anterior-superior angle. Vertical limb of preopercle with some very minute 
serrations in the largest specimen, its lower limb serrated along both edges : interopercle serrated in its posterior 
half : subopercle entire. One spine at the posterior- superior angle of the orbit. Teeth — villiform, with a rather 
stronger outer row in the upper jaw. Fins — the following is the comparative height of the second dorsal spine 
to that of the body in two specimens : — 

No. 1, total length, l-j% inches : without caudal fin 1^ inches: dorsal spine ^ inches or 3f in length of body. 
9 *7 t; t i 2 41 

I) ^i ii II ' II II II II y io Ii ii ii x l(l II II ^-2 II * II II 

The ventral reaches two-thirds of the distance to the base of the anal : the second and third anal spines 
of about equal length even in the young, but the second is the stronger : caudal deeply forked. Lateral-line — 
continuous. Colours — silvery glossed with purple, a broad lateral burnished band : interspinous membrane 
between the second and third dorsal spines dark : second dorsal, anal, and caudal stained dark at their edges. 

The serrated interopercle and pointed snout at once show its distinction from A. Commersonii and 
A. nalua. 

This may be Jerdon's A. Malabaricus (C. V.) of which he observes — " Height not a third of its length. 
Fin rays D. 7j^, A. f &c. 5 inches long ;" but as this short definition is equally applicable to three or four other 
species found in Malabar, and the type appears to have been lost, it becomes impossible to be certain. Bleeker 
I.e. observed on this species differing from A. nalua. 

Habitat, — Malabar coast of India, attaining at least 7 inches in length. 

9. Ambassis gymnocephalus, Plate XV, fig. 6. 

Indjanus gymnocephalus, Lacep. iii, t. 23, f. 3, and iv, p. 216. 

Priopis argyrozona, (K. & v. H.) Cuv. & Val. vi, p. 503. 

Ambassis Dussumieri, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 181, vi, p. 503, and ix, p. 431 ; Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
Poiss. p. 651, pi. i, f . 3 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 30 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 225 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 16 ; Kner, 
Novara Fische, p. 41. 

Chanda Dussumieri, Cantor, Catal. p. 6. 

Ambassis Vachelli, Peters, Mom ber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 1868, p. 255, (not Richards.) 

Ambassis gymnocephalus, Bleeker, Ambassis, p. 99. 

Chandee, Ooriah. 

B. vi, D. 7/-g_Vo, P- 15, V. 1/5, A. T .a_. C. 17, L. 1. 27-29, L. tr. 3/8. 

Length of head 2/9 to 1/4, of caudal 2/7 to 1/4, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
dependant on age, in the young 2/5, in the adult nearly 1/3 of the length of the head, 1/2 a diameter from the end 
of snout, and also apart. Lower jaw the longer. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. 
Preorbital with six or seven denticulations directed downwards and backwards on anterior-inferior edge, and a 
few serrations on its posterior : the double edge on the inferior limb of the preopercle finely serrated, its vertical 
limb entire. Sub- and inter-opercles entire. Two or three strong spines directed backwards at the posterior- 
superior angle of the orbit, and another rather larger posterior to them, occasionally a small spine on the 
shoulder just before the commencement of the lateral line. Teeth — a single row of fine ones in jaws, vomer, and 
palate : a band along the centre of the tongue. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the second being nearly or quite as 
high as the third, or in a few cases a little longer, the longest is generally two- thirds the height of the body below 
it, and the second is very minutely striated on its posterior edge, as is also the spine of the second dorsal, the other 
spines are striated all across •: the ventral reaches about two-thirds of the distance to the anal : the third anal 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 



spine is longer but not quite so strong as the second, its length equals that of the fourth of the dorsal fin : caudal 
deeply forked, its upper lobe slightly the longer. Scales — two rows on the suborbital ring of bones, the lower of 
which is much the deeper. Lateral-line — interrupted after about from the eighth to the twelfth scale, in some 
specimens it ceases entirely. Pseudobrancliice — well developed. Colours — silvery with a bright longitudinal 
lateral band, some brown spots on the upper third of the body in its front half : blackish between its second and 
third dorsal spines, also a black edge to the caudal. 

In examining a large number of these fish the first thing that strikes one's attention is the variation in the 
length of the second and third dorsal spines, sometimes one, sometimes the other being the longer. Not only 
do they vary between themselves, but likewise as regards their comparative length to that of the remainder of 
the body. The undermentioned specimens are taken at random from upwards of fifty in my collection. 

inches. inch. inch. 

No. 1. total length 1^, exclusive of tail 1 : height of dorsal spine 3/10 : or 3j in length of body, excluding the 

caudal fin. 



2. 


11 ) 


2 


55 MO 


3." 




2-L 


1-9- 

55 i 10 


33 > 


^10 11 


4. 




9_§_ 


1- S 

55 ^10 


33 3 


1 -10 " 


5. 


33 J 


9^_ 

' "10 11 


1-S- 

55 i 10 


6. 


JJ J 


, 2 A „ 


55 ^lO 


7. 


3? 3 


9_s_ 

5 -10 55 


55 ^10 


8. 




9_s_ 


2- 2 - 

55 ^10 


33 3 


5 -10 55 


9. 




0_8_ 


2-&- 


3? J 


5 -io •>•> 


55 J 10 


0. 


33 J 


, 3 


2-3- 

55 '10 



4/10 


33 


3f 


4/10 


33 


1/4 


4/10 




4| 


4/10 


33 


4| 


4/10 


33 


4 


5/10 


33 


44- 


5/10 


33 


4* 


5/10 


33 


4f 


4/10 


33 


H 



The foregoing distinctly shows how the comparative length of the dorsal spines to that of the remainder 
of the body decreases with age, and renders it probable that Ambassis Buruensis, Bleeker (Boeroe, p. 396), is very 
closely allied to this species. 

Habitat — East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China: it attains at least 
4 inches in length. Although generally captured in the sea or saline backwaters, I obtained a specimen from 
the fresh water in the Cochin State several miles inland. 

10 Ambassis urotssnia, Plate XV, fig. 8. 

Bleeker, Amb. and Ceram, p. 257 ; Griinther, Catal. i, p. 224. 

? Ambassis denticulata, Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. in Wien, 1870, p. 719. 

B. vi, D. 7^.^05 P- 13, V. 1/5, A. T .Vo, C. 18, L. 1. 27-28, L. tr. 3-4/10. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/4, height of body 4/13 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 of length of 
head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 apart. Lower jaw the longer : cleft of mouth very oblique. The 
maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Preorbital with seven sharp teeth along its inferior edge : a 
spine at the posterior-superior angle of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle entire except two serrations just above 
its angle : its horizontal double edge serrated, the lower the most coarsely so : sub- and inter-opercles entire. 
Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate : a small central band at the root of the tongue. Fins — second spine 
of the dorsal longest and equal to one quarter or two-ninths of the total length, and rather above half the height 
of the body below it : ventral reaches two-thirds of the way to the anal fin : third anal spine usually slightly the 
longest but not equalUng the longest of the dorsal. Scales — a single row along the suborbital ring of bones. 
Lateral-line — curves downwards under the middle of the soft dorsal, but in an interrupted or semi-interrupted 
manner. Colours — Silvery with a burnished lateral band : the interspinous membrane between the second and 
third dorsal spines black : a dark longitudinal band along either lobe of the caudal. 

Dr. Gunther observes, P.Z.S. 1871, p. 655, that Ambassis miops, Giinther, differs from A. urotcriiia. 
Bleeker, by the smaller size of the eye, and by the lateral-line being continuous. The diameter of the eye in 
A. wrotceniab is equal to the length of the postorbital portion of the head. In A. miops the lateral-line forms a 
distinct and continuous curve from opposite the end of the dorsal fins, whilst there are two rows of scales along 
the suborbitals. 

Habitat. — Seychelles, Andamans, and the Malay Archipelago. It closely resembles the A. gymnocephalus, 
but its lateral-line is entire : it has only one row of scales along the suborbitals and the comparative height of its 
body differs. It appears to be common at the Andamans.* 



* Bogota infuscata. 

Blyth, J.A.S. of Bengal, 1860, p. 139 ; Dav, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 515. 

D. 10/ T V, V. 1/5, A. 3/8, C. 17. 

Preopercle strongly serrated with large teeth at its angle. A spine directed backwards, apparently on the subopercle. A long 
spine on the opercle. Preorbital entire. Lower jaw the longer. Teeth — in jaws yilliform. Fins — second anal spine the longest. 
Scales — none now visible. Colowrs — brownish-black, except! the fins, which are of a dirty yellowish white. 

The specimen is half an inch long and in a very bad condition. The occiput is broken across : in fact it is now too damaged to 
admit of a complete description. One thing is evident, that it does not belong to the genus Ambassis, it may be the fry of a species of 
Priacanihus. For these reasons I refer to it in a note. 

Blyth described it thus : "a minute species (if adult) T \ in. long by 1-J- in. depth, rmwas the fins : with the tail much less forked 



56 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Genus, 11 — Apogon, Laccp. 

Amia, Gronovius : Apogonichtlvys, Bleeker: Monoprion, Poey : Mionorus, Krefft : Archamia, Lepidamia, 
and Glossamia, Gill. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchim present, usually well developed. Operele not spinate. Preopercle with 
a double edge, either or both of which may be serrated, crenulated, or entire. Teeth- villiform in the jaws, vomer, and 
palatines, without canines: tongue smooth. Two separate dorsal fins, the first with six or seven spines: the anal with 
two. Lateral-line distinct and entire. Scales ctenoid, as a rule large and deciduous, but occasionally they are rather 
small. Coical appendages when present few. 

Geographical distribution. — Froin the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India and 
Malay Archipelago to Australia, and even beyond. These small fishes are marine, and are numerous in sheltered 
spots as inside harbours, and some have been captured at the mouth or even a short distance up tidal rivers and 
backwaters. In the Indian region they are most numerous off the Sind and Bombay coasts, and Andaman 
islands. 

Uses. — Although small, they are eaten fresh, dried, or salted, by the natives of India. 

The fishes of this Genus, after having been primarily divided in accordance with the number of spines in 
the first dorsal fin, have undergone various subdivisions, the most popular of which seems to be as regards their 
colours. The longitudinally or transversely banded ones, those which possess or are deficient in the caudal 
blotch, have been separated on several plans, and although such may possess advantages they appear to be 
counterbalanced by marks sometimes disappearing or perhaps never having existed in the specimen. Conse- 
quently colour will still be omitted from indicating the position of any species, and the number of spines, rays, 
and scales employed for this purpose. It seems also questionable whether any considerable value can be placed 
upon the serrations about the bones of the head, especially of the orbits, as such ajspear to be more distinct in some 
specimens than in others, and may vary with age. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

1. Apogon multitceniatus, D. 7/$-, A. f, L. 1. 38. Outer edge only of preopercle serrated. Pinkish, with 
violet lines, along the body : fins scarlet, the vertical ones having black borders. Red Sea, coasts of India. 

2. Apogon halosoma, D. 7/§-, A. ■§-, L. 1. 35-36. Outer edge only of preopercle serrated. Reddish, with a 
dark band from the snout to the end of the centre of the caudal fin : another above it : a black spot at the base 
of the tail : a dark mark on first dorsal fin, a band along the base of the second dorsal. Seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago. 

3. Apogon nigricans, D. 7/f-, A. -g? ¥ , L. 1. 25-26. Outer edge of preopercle and shoulder serrated. 
Greyish, with dark vertical bands and spots on the head. Madras. 

4. Apogon frenatus, D. 7/±, A. f, L. 1. 27-28. Both edges of preopercle serrated, also the lower edge of 
the orbit. Three or four longitudinal bands along the body : a black spot sometimes present at the base of the 
caudal fin : a basal band along both soft dorsal and anal. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

5. Apogon tmniatus, D. 7/i, A. f , L. 1. 27. Outer edge of preopercle and shoulder bone serrated. 
Reddish brown : two vertical dark bands and a dark mark at the base of caudal fin. Red Sea to Madras. 

6. Apogon endekatmnia, D. 7/-|, A. -§-, L. 1. 26. Outer edge of preopercle, lower edge of orbit and 
shoulder serrated. A dark median and four or five lateral bands, a dark spot at the base of the caudal fin. Seas 
of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

7. Apogon quadrifasciatus, D. 7/i, A. -§-, L. 1. 26. Outer edge of preopercle and lower edge of orbit 
serrated. No median band : two along either side of the body. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

8. Apogon fasciatus, D. 7/|-, A. f, L. 1. 25. Outer edge of preopercle and shoulder serrated. Pour longi- 
tudinal bands along the body, one along soft dorsal and anal fins. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

9. Apogon Savayensis, D. 7/£, A. f, L. 1. 26. Outer edge of preopercle serrated. Olive, with 4 or 5 narrow 
vertical bands on the anterior half of the body : a dark band over the upper half of the free portion of the tail : 
a streak from the eye to the angle of the preopercle : numerous brown spots on the head. Coasts of Africa, 
India, and beyond. 

10. Apogon nigripinnis, D. 1\\, A. f , L. 1. 26. Outer edge of preopercle and shoulder bone serrated. 
Greyish, with vertical bands over the body and free portion of the tail. Neither spots nor streaks on the head. 
Vertical fins black, except the caudal which is yellow, with a dark edge. Seas of India. 

11. Apogon Wassinhi, D. 7/£, A. f, L. 1. 25-26. Outer edge of preopercle serrated. Golden, with a 
black head, four white longitudinal bands : fins orange. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 

12. Apogon aureus, D. 7/£, A. f , L. 1. 25-26. Outer edge of preopercle serrated. Pinkish, with a broad 
black band over the free portion of the tail : vertical fins reddish, with a narrow black border. Red Sea, seas 
of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

than in B. nama (B.H.) Bleeker ; and of a dusky or infnscated hne, having silvery gill-covers and a greenish silvery stripe on each 
side : fins paler than the bodv, with a blackish tinge on the anterior half of the first dorsal. 

D. 10—1-10 ?— A. 3-8 ? 
One specimen only from the Mutla. Presented by Major W. S. Sherwill." 



FAMILY, L— PERCID2E. 57 

13. Apogon bifasciatus, D. 7/£, A. f, L. 1. 25. Outer edge of preopercle serrated. Grey, "with two dark 
vertical bands : a black spot at the root of the caudal : fins dark. Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay 
Archipelago, and beyond. 

14. Apogon glaga, D. 7/|-, A. f , L. 1. 24. Lower limb of preopercle crenulated. Yellowish-green above, 
becoming redder on the abdomen : scales dotted at their edges, with a pearly spot in their centres forming three 
light stripes : a dark interorbital band : upper half of first dorsal and edges of second dorsal and caudal black. 
Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

15. Apogon auritus, D. 7j\, A. f-, L. 1. 23. Preopercle entire. Spotted and marbled with brown: a 
circular black spot on the opercle surrounded by a narrow white ring. Red Sea, through seas of India. 

16. Apogon Elliott, D. 7/|-, A. ■§, L. 1. 26. Outer edge of preopercle and lower edge of orbit serrated. 
Golden : upper half of first dorsal black, a similar coloured band along the centre of the second dorsal and anal : 
soft dorsal and anal with black edges. East coast of Africa, seas of India to Japan. 

17. Apogon maculosus, D. 7/-§-, A. f-. Brown, with four rows of darker spots along either side : fins 
brown, dotted with black. Seas of India. 

18. Apogon inacropterus, D. 6/5-, A. t¥?ttj L. 1. 22-26. Outer edge of preopercle serrated. White, with 
pinkish reflections : a black spot at the root of the tail. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

19. Apogoii Sangiensis, D. 6/~, A. f-, L. 1. 25. Outer edge of preopercle serrated. Golden tinged 
with red : a wide band from the snout through the eye to a little below the shoulder : a spot on the side of the 
free portion of the tail. Upper half of first dorsal black. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 

20. Apogon hyalosoma, D. 6/£, A. -f, L. 1. 24-25. Outer edge of preopercle serrated. Olive, with a 
spot on either side of the tail : fins grey, blackish between the second and third dorsal spines. Seas of India 
to the Malay Archipelago. _ 

21. Apogon orbicularis, D. 6/-|-, A. -§-, L. 1. 22. Outer edge of preopercle and shoulder bone serrated. 
Olive-brown, a dark zone round the body from in front of the dorsal fin to behind the ventrals : head with black 
spots : ventrals nearly black. Andamans, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

22. Apogon Geramensis, D. 6/£, A. f-, L. 1. 21. Outer edge of preopercle serrated. Greenish-brown, 
with some dark spots on the head : a dark band from the eye to the root of the caudal fin, where it ends in a 
black spot. Black between the second and third dorsal spines. Nicobars to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Apogon multitaaniatus, Plate XVT, fig. 1. 

Apogon multitamxatus, (Ehren.) Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 159 ; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meeres, Verh. z. b. Ges. 
Wien, 1870, p. 45, (not Bleeker). 

B. vii, D. 7/1 P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 37-38, L. tr. 3|/12. 

Length of head 3/10, of caudal 2/11, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of 
length of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 4/5 of a diameter apart. Jaws of about equal length, 
the maxilla reaches to rather behind the middle of the orbit. The outer edge of both the vertical and horizontal 
limbs of the preopercle finely and nearly evenly serrated : shoulder bone and edges of orbit entire : a small 
flat opercular spine. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines stout, the third and 
fourth are the highest, and equal in length to the postorbital portion of the head, or 2J in the height of the 
body ; second dorsal nearly two-thirds as high as the body, its upper edge nearly straight : pectoral rounded, 
reaching to above the anal spines : ventral not reaching the anal, the rayed portion of which latter fin equals in 
height that of the second dorsal : caudal slightly emarginate. Lateral-line — tubes very arborescent. Pseudo- 
branchice — well developed. Free portion of tail about as high at its base as it is long. Colours — of a slaty tinge 
along the back, becoming reddish on the head, sides, and abdomen : violet lines along the body, narrower than 
the ground colour, between the rows of scales, but which are most apparent after death. Fins, dorsal scarlet, 
black along its base, between the last two spines, and in its upper three-fourths : second dorsal scarlet, with a 
light edge and black tip : caudal scarlet, also with a light edge and black tip : pectoral and ventral scarlet : 
anal as second dorsal. Eyes scarlet in their anterior halves, with some black markings. 

Dr. Bleeker having been good enough to compare my figure of this species with A. Noordzieki, observes 
that it appears to be distinct. The latter has the head more pointed, the profile from the snout to the dorsal a 
little concave, the rostro-ventral one less concave, and the cleft of the mouth less oblique. 

Habitat. — One specimen 5f inches in length was obtained in Madras, April 3rd, 1867 : and two more in 
Bombay, April, 1874, one of which latter is figured. This is the species of which Jerdon remarks (M. J. L. and 
S. 1851, p. 129) : " Gheilodipterus, a species apparently belonging to this genus was once brought me without a 
name — its colours were reddish, with longitudinal brown lines, fins bright pink, edged with blackish. D. 6, 1-9. 
A. 2-8." A figure exists amongst Sir W. Elliot's drawings. 

2. Apogon kalosoma, Plate XVI, fig. 2. 
Bleeker, Banka, p. 448 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 240. 
Lepidamia kalosoma, Gill, Catal. Fish. Nat. Hist. Soc. Phil. 1863, p. 81. 
Amia kalosoma, Bleeker, Apogonini, p. 16. 

B. vii, D. 7/i, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 35-36, L. tr. 3/13. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2J to 2f in 

i 



58 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

tlie length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Jaws of about equal length, or the lower 
slightly the longer : the maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Preopercle having both its vertical 
and horizontal limbs finely and evenly serrated along their outer edges : no serrations on the shoulder bones. 
Teeth— villiform in the jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the two first short, 
the third and fourth of nearly the same height and equal to half the length of the head, first spine of second 
dorsal two-thirds as high as the rays, and equalling the longest in the first dorsal fin : the pectoral reaches to 
over the anal spines : the caudal slightly emarginate. Lateral-line — tubes well developed, with small lateral 
branches. Colours — reddish, more especially over the head : a dark band proceeds from above the eye and 
passes to the upper edge of the free portion of the tail : a second from the snout goes through the eye to the 
base of the caudal fin where there exists a large black spot, it is subsequently continued along the middle of the 
caudal fin : a third band passes from the lower edge of the eye to the end of the base of the anal fin. Fins 
reddish, the front half of the first dorsal and the upper portion of its last half black, the remainder scarlet. A 
black band along the base of the second dorsal and anal : second dorsal, anal, and caudal, scarlet with black tips. 
Habitat. — Madras to the Malay Archipelago. The specimen figured was captured at Madras, April 3rd, 
1867. 

3. Apogon nigricans, Plate XVI, fig. 3. 
B. vii, D. 7/i, P. 13, V. 1/5, A. &, C. 17, L. 1. 25-26, L. tr. 2/7. 

Length of head 3j, of caudal 1/4 to 2/9, height of body 3j in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Dorsal profile more convex than 
that of the abdomen. Lower jaw slightly the longer : the maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. 
Both the vertical and horizontal limbs of the preopercle finely serrated on their outer edges, shoulder also serrated, 
orbit entire. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines rather weak, the first two short, 
the third nearly as long as the fourth, which is rather more than half as long as the head. The spine of the 
second dorsal much higher than the third of the first dorsal and the rays much more elevated than the spine, 
being equal to 4/5 of the height of the body : pectoral and ventral both reach as far as the anal, the spine of 
which is half as high as the body, and the rays as long as those of the dorsal : caudal notched. Free portion 
of tail longer than it is high at its base. Lateral-line — nearly straight, tubes laterally expanded at their bases. 
Colours — greyish shot with yellow, several badly marked vertical dark bands narrower than the ground colour 
exist on the body and over the free portion of the tail. Head covered with dark brown spots, some of which have a' 
light centre : opercles with purplish reflections : no streaks on the jaws or head. The whole of the body finely 
spotted with brown. Vertical fins black : pectoral with a dark base. 

Habitat. — Madras. 

4. Apogon frenatus, Plate XVI, fig. 4. 

Val. Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 1832, p. 57, pi. iv, f. 4 : Bleeker, Amboina, p. 25 , Gunther, Catal. i, 
p. 241, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 19, pi. xix, f. A. 

Apogon vittiger, Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 32. 

Apogon melanorhynehos, Bleeker, Amb. and Ceram. p. 255, and 1. c. p. 26 (ex parte.) 

Amia frenata, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. lxiv, fig. 2, and Apogonini, p. 42. 

B. vii, D: 7/|, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 27-28, L. tr. 2/7. 

Length of head 3/10, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Jaws of about equal 
length. The maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. The outer edge of the vertical and horizontal 
limbs of the preopercle serrated, its intramarginal crest likewise more or less serrated, also some serrations 
along the lower edge of the orbit : none on the shoulder : a small opercular spine. Teeth — villiform in jaws, 
vomer, and palate. Fins — first and second dorsal sjfines short, the third nearly as long as the fourth which is 
the highest in the fin, and equals the length of the postorbital portion of the head. Pectoral nearly as long as 
the head excluding the snout : the ventral reaches two-thirds of the distance to the anal : caudal notched, upper 
lobe slightly the longer. Lateral-line — with well developed tubes having a small enlargement on either side near 
the base of each tube, which becomes arborescent in the adult. Free portion of the tail longer than it is high at 
its commencement. Colours — reddish, a dark band passes from the eye to the middle of the caudal fin : a 
narrower one from the upper edge of the orbit to the upper part of the caudal on which it is lost near its base : 
a third from below the eye to the lower portion of the caudal. A black band along the bases of the second 
dorsal and anal : dorsal, caudal, ventral, and anal black tipped. A black spot may be present at the base of the 
caudal fin. 

Some specimens of this last variety were shown to me at the British Museum, as A. quadrifasciatus, but 
they are not identical with Cuv. and Val. species ; the type specimen of this latter fish (3^ inches long), from. 
Pondicherry, has only the free border of the preopercle serrated, its intramarginal crest being smooth. 
Two other specimens are marked by Valenciennes as A. quadrifasciatus from Bourbon, and are similar to the 
Pondicherry one. 

Fristiapogon frenatus, (CV.) Klunz. Fische R. M. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 715, is considered by 
Gunther to be this species ; by Bleeker to be Amia or Apogon melanorhynchus, Blkr. (ex parte), being 



FAMILY, I— PEPCIDS. 59 

distinguished from A. frenatus by its higher body (3f to 1/4 in the total length) a serrated shoulder bone, a 
smooth intramarginal edge to the preopercle, and a black spot at the base of the caudal fin, &c. 
Habitat. — Mauritius, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

5. Apogon tseniatus, Plate VIII, fig. 4. 

? Apogon tmniatus, (Ehrenb.) Cut. and Val. ii, p. 159; Riipp. Atl. p. 48, and N. W. Fische, p. 87 ; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 234. 

Apogon tmniatus, Klunz. Fische R. M. Verh. z. b. G-es. Wien, 1870, p. 44. 

B. vii, D. 7/i, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 27, L. tr. 2/8. 

Length of head 3j, of caudal 2/9, height of body 3y in the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of 
length of head, nearly one diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Jaws of equal length : the 
maxilla reaches to below the last third of the eye. The outer edge of both the vertical and horizontal limbs of the 
preopercle, and the shoulder bone serrated ; orbit entire. A fiat opercular spine. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, 
and palate. Fins — first dorsal spines rather strong, the fourth being the longest and equal to 2j in the height 
of the body : soft dorsal much higher than the spinous, being equal to 3/5 of the height of the body, its upper 
edge as well as the outer one of the anal slightly rounded : last dorsal and anal rays divided to their bases. 
Pectoral as long as the head behind the middle of the eye : ventral slightly longer and reaching the anal : 
caudal forked. Lateral-line — tubes arborescent, most distinctly so anteriorly. Free portion of tail rather 
longer than it is high at its base. Colours — reddish-brown shot with gold, having a black band from the bases 
of the first three dorsal spines to the axil of the pectoral fin : a second from the middle of the second dorsal to 
the commencement of the anal fin : a small black spot near the end of the lateral-line : inner third of 
ventral nearly black : a narrow dark band across the soft dorsal fin. 

This species is evidently closely allied to A. nigricans. 

The British Museum has received a specimen of this fish determined as above by Dr. Klunzinger. In 
Cuv. and Val. it is stated to be brownish, with five longitudinal bands. Dr. Klunzinger considers it a variety 
of bifasciatus, but the difference between the first dorsal fins in the two has led me to rather leave them as 
distinct species. 

Habitat. — Red Sea and Madras, from whence the specimen figured (life size) was obtained. 

6. Apogon endekatsBnia, Plate XVI, fig. 7. 

Apogon endehatcenia, Bleeker, Banka, p. 449. 

Apogon novemfasciatus, Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. Poiss. p. 2, t. ii, f. 2. 
Apogon Schlegeli, Bleeker, Japan, p. 55. 

Apogon fasciatus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 241 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 43 ; Klunz. Fische R. M. Verh. z. b. 
Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 713. 

Ainia endekatcenia, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxxii, f. 2, and Apogonini, p. 31. 

B. vii, D. 7/i P. 13, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 26, L. tr. 2/7. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 of 
length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. The jaws equal in front : the maxilla reaches 
to below the last third of the orbit. Outer edges only of the vertical and horizontal limbs of the preopercle 
serrated : edges of orbit smooth : shoulder bone serrated. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — 
first and second dorsal spines short, the third equal to two-thirds the height of the body below it. Pectoral 
equals the length of the head behind the middle of the eye : the ventral scarcely reaches so far as the anal : 
caudal slightly notched. Lateral-line — tubes distinct, those in the first half of the body with lateral arborescent 
branches. Colour — of a reddish-brown tinge, with a dark band from the upper edge of the orbit to the end of 
the second dorsal and continued along the upper margin of the free portion of the tail and caudal fin : the 
second passes below it to the base of the upper half of the tail, and then curves downwards : the third from the 
head along the body below the lateral-line to the tail : the fourth along the upper part of the lower jaw through 
the eye to the base of the pectoral fin. Sometimes intermediate, narrower and short dark bands are present 
between those described. A black spot at the base of the tail. First dorsal fin black in its front half, a black 
band along the centre of the second dorsal, a similar one along the base of the anal and continued to its last ray : 
dorsal, caudal, and anal fins with darkish edges. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea through those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

7. Apogon quadrifasciatus. 

Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 153 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 28 : Cantor, Catal. p. 3 ; Peters, Wieg. Arch. 1855, p. 234 ; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 239 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 43, 

Ainia qitadrifasciata, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. lviij f. 1, and Apogonini, p. 39. 

B. vii, D. 7/i P. 14, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 26, L. tr. 2/6. 

Length of head 3 J, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3f to 3| in the total length. Eyes — diameter 
3j in the length of the head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Lower jaw slightly the 
longer : the width of the head equals half its length. The maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. 
Some serrations along the lower edge of the orbit : the shoulder entire. The outer ed?e of the vertical and 

i 2 



GO ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

horizontal limbs of tlie preopercle rather strongly serrated, its intramarginal crest entire. Teeth— villiform in 
jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the first very short, the second scarcely above 
one-third of the length of the third, which is about the same height as the fourth and fifth, being equal to half 
the height of the body and two-thirds of the rays : soft portion of the fin with its upper edge cut square or slightly 
emarginate. Pectoral as long as the head behind the middle of the eye : the ventral reaches the anal. Second 
anal spine 2/5 of the height of the body : caudal emarginate. Lateral-line — tubes well developed with a basal 
enlargement which in some appears to be slightly arborescent. Colours — a broad brown band passes from the 
snout through the eye and is continued to the end of the caudal fin : another from the upper edge of the eye to 
above the free portion of the tail and continued to the base of the caudal fin. No median band from the eye 
to the base of the dorsal fin. A badly developed basal band along the soft dorsal and another on the anal fin : 
no black spot at the base of the caudal. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

8. Apogon fasciatus. 

Mullus fasciatus, White, N". S. Wales, p. 268, fig. 1.. 

Apogon novemfasciatus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 154 ; Bleeker, Timor, i, p. 163 ; Peters, Wieg. Arch. 1855, 
p. 234 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 43. 

Apogon Balinensis, Bleeker, Perc. p. 28, and Verh. Bat. Gen. xxii. Bali, p. 5. 

Apogon Aroubiensis, Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud. Poiss. p. 31, pi. i, fig. 1. 

Apogon fasciatus, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Preyc. p. 344; Giinther, Fische d. Sudsee, p. 19, t. xx. fig. 
A and B. 

Amia fasciata, Gill, Proc. Nat. Soc. Phil. 1863 ; Bleeker, Atl. Ich. t. xlviii, fig. 4, and Apogonini, p. 36. 

B. vii, D. 7/ i P. 13, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 25, L. tr. 2/6. 

Length of head 3§, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3^ to 3^ in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of length 
of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and the same apart. The width of the head equals two-thirds of its 
length : jaws of about equal length. The maxilla reaches to below the hind edge of the orbit. Outer edge of 
preopercle serrated along both limbs, its intramarginal crest entire. Edges of orbit smooth or sometimes a little 
roughened : shoulder serrated. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines rather stout, 
the first short, the second about half as high as the third which is the longest and equal to two-thirds of the height 
of the body, and nearly as high as the rays : soft portion of the fin with its upper edge oblique. Pectoral as long 
as the head behind the middle of the eye : the ventral does not reach the anal: caudal emarginate. Lateral- 
line — tubes distinct, with arborescent lateral projections. Colours — reddish-brown with four lateral longi- 
tudinal bands, the third of which commencing at the snout passes through the eye to the centre of the base of 
the caudal fin, along which it is sometimes continued to its termination, this band is usually edged below by a 
narrow white one commencing at the pupil of the eye. The second and fourth bands may either end at the 
upper and lower edges of the base of the caudal fin, or be continued along it in a converging direction forming 
an arch near the end of the fin. A dark band runs along the first dorsal fin, and is continued as a black band 
along the middle or base of the second dorsal : the anal has also a basal band. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Arclnpelago and beyond. 

9. Apogon Savayensis, Plate XVI, fig. 5. 
Apogon savayensis. Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 656, and Pische Sudsee, p. 21, t. xix, fig. B. 
B. vii, D. 7/i, P. 12, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 26, L. tr. 2/6. 

Length of head 3j, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3^ to 3^ in the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 of 
length of head, 1/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1/2 a diameter apart. The head is very slightly longer 
than high : lower jaw rather the longer. The rise from the snout to the dorsal fin is not considerable. The maxilla 
reaches to below the last fourth of the orbit. Vertical and horizontal limbs of preopercle serrated in their outer 
edges. Shoulder bone crenulated or entire : edges of orbit smooth. Teeth — in villiform bands in jaws, vomer, 
and palate. Fins — dorsal spines weak, the first very short, the second short, and the third not so high as the 
fourth, which equals the length of the post-orbital portion of the head and nearly half the height of the body 
below it. The pectoral reaches the anal, as does also the ventral : caudal slightly notched. Lateral-line — tubes 
well developed but rather short and having a slight lateral enlargement, it forms a moderate curve becoming 
straight below the end of the second dorsal. Colours — olive, with four or five narrow dark vertical bands from 
the first dorsal and first half of the second dorsal descending to the abdomen : a dark band, three scales wide, 
over the free portion of the tail and only reaching to half a scale below the lateral-line. A black streak from 
the lower edge of the eye to the angle of the preopercle ; numerous small brown spots on the head and also on 
the body, more especially above the lateral-line. Fins grey, the anterior half of the first dorsal black : caudal 
with a dark edge externally margined with white. 

Habitat. — Coast of Africa, seas of India and beyond, attaining to at least 3 inches in length. 

10. Apogon nigripinnis, Plate XVI, fig. 6. 

Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 152 : Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. Poissons, p. 3 ; Richardson, Ich. China, 
p. 221 (not Ganther). 



FAMILY, I— PERCLTLE. CI 

Amia nigripinnis, Bleeker, A]:ogonini, p. 64. 

B. vii, D. 7/i, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 26, L. tr. 2^/6^-. 

Length, of head 1/3 to 3i, of caudal 2/11 to 1/5, height of body 1/3 to 3| in the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 1/3 to 3^ in length of head, 1/2 to 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. 
No very considerable rise from the snout to the base of the dorsal fin : snout rather elevated. Lower jaw- 
slightly the longer : the maxilla reaches to below the last third or even hind edge of the orbit. Vertical and 
horizontal limbs of preopercle strongly and evenly serrated along their outer edges : shoulder-bone serrated. 
Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate, an outer slightly enlarged row in each jaw. Fins — dorsal spines 
strong, the two first short, and the third not so high as the fourth which equals the length of the postorbital 
portion of the head and half the height of the body below it. The pectoral does not reach the anal, but 
the ventral does : second anal spine 1-| diameters of the eye in length : caudal rounded. Lateral-line — very slightly 
curved : tubes distinct, having a low lateral enlargement. Colours — greyish, with a dark vertical band from in 
front of the base of the first dorsal which passes backwards and downwards, increasing in width, and is lost 
below the whole length of the pectoral fin : a second goes from the base of the second dorsal to the lateral-line, 
and a third over the free portion of the tail. No black spots or streaks on the head, vertical fins black except the 
caudal, which is yellow and has a dark edge. 

Cuv. and Val. type specimen is in excellent preservation in Paris, and identical with the above. 

Habitat. — Madras, where it is common ; it grows to at least 3^% inches in length. The figure is life-size. 

11. Apogon Wassinki. 

Bleeker, Timor, p. 258. 

Apogon chrysotmnia ?, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 682. 

Amia Wassinki. Bleeker, Apogonini, p. 38. 

E. vii, D. 7/i, P. 14, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 25-26, L. tr. 2/7. 

Length of head 3f to 3-J-, of caudal 4-jl to 4f , height of body 3-|- in the total length. Eyes — diameter 2f 
to 2f in the length of head, 1/2 a diameter from the end of snout, and also apart. The width of the head at the 
opercles equals If in the height of the body, the greatest height of the head equals its length excluding the 
snout. Lower jaw slightly the longer, the maxilla reaches to below the middle of the eye. Vertical and 
horizontal limbs of preopercle serrated in their outer edges, other bones of the head and shoulder entire. Teeth — 
villiform bands in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — first dorsal spine short, the second half the length of the 
third and fourth, which are the longest, and equal to 1-| in the height of the body, and 1/5 less than the longest 
ray, the spine of the second dorsal is a little shorter than the highest in the first dorsal fin : upper edge of first 
dorsal slightly emarginate. Pectoral 4/5 as long as the body is high. Ventral nearly reaching the anal. Second 
anal spine equal to half the height of the body, the rays similar to those of the soft dorsal. Caudal Iobed. Lateral- 
line — makes a gradual curve, tubes well developed and having rather distinct lateral expansions, especially in 
the anterior portion of the body. Colours — brilliant golden with a black head. A silvery- white median band 
exists along the top of the head, it divides, one branch proceeding along the back on either side to the 
upper half of the tail : a second goes from above the orbit to the middle of the tail : a third through the orbit 
to the lower half of the tail : and a fourth from the angle of the mouth to below the base of the pectoral. Fins 
orange. 

As my largest specimen is only If inches in length it is not improbable that it is the young of some 
species which in the more adult stage has another name. It appears to agree with Bleeker's A. Wassinki. of 
which he procured one specimen 69'" in length. 

This fish is very common amongst the coral-reefs on the Andaman islands. As soon as the water is 
splashed they all crowd into the coral, concealing themselves amongst its sticks, apparently afraid that the 
splash has been occasioned by some large carnivorous fish. 

Habitat. — Andamans and Nicobars. 

12. Apogon aureus, Plate XVI, fig. 8. 

Ostorhinchus Flenrieu, Lacep. iv, p. 24, iii, t. 32, f. 2. 

Bipterodon hexacanthus, Lacep. iv, pp. 166, 168, iii. t. 30, f. 2. 

Centropomus aureus, Lacep. iv, pp. 253, 273. 

Apogon annularis, Riippell, Atl. p. 48, and N. W. Fische, p. 85 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 239 ; Klunz. Fisch. 
Roth. M. p. 713. 

Apogon roseipinnis, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 490, vi, p. 553 ; Bleeker, Amb. and Ceram. p. 253 ; Quoy and 
Gaim. Voy. Astrol. Poissons, p. 649, pi. i, f. 5 ; Peters, Wieg. Arch. 1855, p. 234. 

Apogon aureus, Bleeker, Enum. pise. p. 6. 

Amia aurea, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. lix, f. 1, and Apogonini, p. 48. 

Cul-sillandan, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. 7/i P. 14, V. 1/5, A. -f, C. 17, L. 1. 25-26, L. tr. 2|/6, Case, pyl. 4. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/9, height of body 1/3 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 2/5 to 
2| in length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 apart. The lower jaw slightly the longer : the 



62 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle with its outer edge minutely 
serrated in its upper half, becoming more coarsely so at the angle and along the outer edge of its horizontal 
limb : edges of orbit and shoulder-bone entire. Teeth — villiform, in a single row on vomer and palate. Fins- — 
dorsal spines rather slender, the first two short, the third not quite so long as the fourth, which equals half the 
length of the head and nearly half the height of the body below it ; soft portion of the fin highest, and cut 
square or even slightly emarginate, especially in large specimens : pectoral reaches to above the anal : ventral reaches 
the anus : caudal emarginate. Lateral-line — tubes distinct, with numerous short lateral branches. Pseudobranchue 
— well developed. Colours — body pinkish shot with gold, a rather broad, black band at the root of the caudal 
fin over the free portion of the tail : some minute black spots around the jaws, on the upper portions of the 
opercles, and on the crown of the head. Fins reddish, first dorsal black tipped ; ventral spine and outer ray 
black, and a narrow black edge to second dorsal, anal, and caudal. Variety A. roseipinnis has a violet band 
along the base of the anal fin. 

In a female specimen 4 inches long, captured at Madras, January 9th, 1868, a black band passes through 
the eye to the opercle, which also has a vertical band of dots upon it : the ring round the free portion of the 
tail ends one row of scales below the lateral-line. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. Very 
common at Madras up to 5 or 6 inches in length, in June and July they are usually abundant. Specimen 
figured life-size. 

13. Apogon bifasciatus, Plate XVI, fig. 9. 

RiippeU, N. W. Fische, p. 86, t. 22, f. 2 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 238 ;* Kner, Novara Fische, p. 42; Klunz. 
Fische d. Rothen Meeres, p. 711. 

Apogon trimaculatus, Richardson, Ich. China, p. 221 (not C. V.) 

? Amia tainiata, Bleeker, Nat. Verh. d. Holl. Maats. d. Weten. 3de Verz. DeeL ii, No. i, 1874, p. 24, and 
Apogonini, p. 24. 

B. vii, D. 7/a P. 15, V. 1/5, A. -f, C. 17, L. 1. 25, L. tr. 2/7|, Ccec. pyl. 3 (4 Kner.) 

Length of head 3j to 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body 4/11 in the total length. Eyes — diameter 4/11 
of length of head, 1/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 apart. A considerable rise from the snout to 
the dorsal fin. The maxilla reaches to below the posterior third of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle finely 
serrated in its outer edge, rather more coarsely so at its angle, becoming very indistinct along the lower limb, 
the inner edge entire. Shoulder-bone serrated in the young, becoming nearly entire in the adult. Teeth — 
villiform in jaws, and in a band on the vomer and palatines. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the two first short, 
the third and fourth of about the same height and equal to two-thirds of the length of the head in the adult 
(proportionately higher in the young), or half the height of the body beneath: the spine of the second dorsal 
strong, and equal to half the length of the head. The pectoral reaches to above the anal spines : caudal 
emarginate in the adult, more rounded in the young. Lateral-line — forms a curve in the first part of its extent, 
which becomes straight opposite the end of the base of the anal fin : the tubes anteriorly are very arborescent 
laterally, but less so in the posterior half of the body. Colours — slaty-grey with bronze reflections : a dark 
vertical band from the first half of the dorsal fin passing down the side to below the pectoral fin, and a shorter 
but similar band from the first half of the second dorsal : a black spot at the root of the caudal. Fins, except 
the pectoral, blackish, or with black edges, due to fine black points, which are also spread over the jaws, head, 
and very finely over the body. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, through the seas of India, to' the Malay Archipelago and China. Very common at 
Madras up to 6 inches in length. It is very closely allied to A. tceniatus, which latter, however, has a much 
lower first dorsal fin. 

14. Apogon glaga, Plate XVI, fig. 10. 

Apogon glaga, Bleeker, Perc. p. 29. 

Apogonichthys glaga, Bleeker, Japan, p. 57, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxxiii, fig. 1 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 247. 

Amia glaga, Bleeker, Apogonini, p. 66. 

B. vii, D. 7/i P. 16, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 24-25, L. tr. 2/7. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Lower jaw the longer : the maxilla reaches to below 
the last third of the orbit. Both limbs of preopercle entire, but the outer edge of the horizontal limb somewhat 
crenulated, its outline being sinuous : the other bones of the head entire, except the lower border of the orbit 
which is roughened. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, the outer row in the maxilla rather enlarged, and a few 
canine-like ones in the mandible : those in the vomer and palate in a single row of rather larger-sized ones than 
exist in the jaws. Fins — dorsal spines weak, the first short, the fourth the highest, equal to the length of the 
postorbital portion of the head, and nearly one-fourth higher than the spine of the second dorsal ; soft dorsal 
fin considerably higher than the spinous. Pectoral reaches to above the anal spines. Caudal rounded. Lateral- 
line — tubes distinct, having a lateral basal enlargement. Colours — yellowish-green superiorly, becoming more 
roseate along the abdomen : a dark band between the hind fourth of the orbits. The approximating edges of 

* Dr. Giinther observes that A. bifasciatus has both the margins of the preopercle strongly serrated, the denticulations on the 
inner ridge being coarse, and gradually becoming more so at the angle : vomerine teeth in a single row. 



FAMILY, I— PEECID^l. 



63 



the scales having minute black dots, forming horizontal lines, which are most distinct along the back : the 
scales in the second and third rows having a pearly white spot at the base of each. Upper half of the first 
dorsal black : second dorsal and caudal with black edges. A moderately wide band along the middle of the 
second dorsal, which appears to be sometimes spotted with blue. 

Habitat. — Madras to 3f inches in length, as far as the Malay Archipelago. 

15. Apogon auritus, Plate XVII, fig. 2. 

Apogon auritus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 443 ; Giinther, Fische d. Sudsee, p. 23. 

Apogon punctulatus, Riippell, N.W. Fische, p. 88, t. xxii, f. 4 ; Bleeker, Ceram. p. 696. 

Apogonichthys polystigma, Bleeker, Amboina, p. 484, and Ternate, p. 372; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 24G. 

Apogonichthys punctulatus, Bleeker, Arou, p. 36. 

Apogonichthys auritus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 246 ; Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 682. 

Amia polystigma, Bleeker, Apogonini, p. 67. 

B. vii, D. 7/i P. 12, V. 1/5, A. T ? ¥ , C. 17, L. 1. 23-24, L. tr. 2/6. 

Length of head 1/3, of caudal 2/9, height of body 2/7 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 1/3 to 2/7 
of the length of head, 1/2 to 1/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Jaws of about equal length : 
the maxilla reaches to slightly behind the posterior edge of the orbit. Edges of preopercle, also of the other 
bones of the head and shoulder entire. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — first dorsal spine 
very short, the third and fourth the highest, eqnal to the length of the postorbital portion of the head, and 
three-fourths as high as the rayed fin. Pectoral as long as the postorbital portion of the head. Ventral 
reaches two-thirds of the way to the anal, the second spine of which last fin is equal to two-fifths of the height 
of the body. Caudal rounded or cut rather square. Lateral-line — either ceases under the middle of the soft 
dorsal fin, or reappears lower down going direct to the centre of the base of the caudal fin : tubes distinct, 
generally with a basal swelling. Colours — body and head spotted and marbled all over with brown. A circular 
black spot on the opercle enclosed by a narrow white ring, which is present even in the fry. 

Bleeker observes that he formerly considered this species as identical with A. punctulatus, Riippell= 
A. auritus, C. V. the interrupted lateral line and the distribution of colours being much the same. He now 
divides them, as Ruppell's fish appears to have a higher body, 4 longitudinal yellow bands over the preopercle, and 
only 20 rows of scales. 

Having examined specimens taken in the Red Sea and elsewhere, I have not found less than 23 scales 
along the lateral-line, and in two specimens from Zanzibar the lateral-line is continuous. 

Specimen from Suez, 14 inches long : height of body 3^ in the total length. 
l-£- 
„ Andamans, If- 
„ Massuah, 1-jL 

li 
„ Andamans, 2 
,, Zanzibar, 2^ 

„ Andamans, 3 
„ Zanzibar, 2>\ 

The foregoing measurements lead me to doubt the specific difference between A. auritus from the Red 
Sea, and my species from the Andamans which=J.. polystigma, Bleeker. 

Rahitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

16. Apogon Ellioti, Plate XVII, fig. 1. 

Apogon nigripinnis, Jerdon, M.J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 128, and Giinther, Catal. i, p. 235, and Fische cL 
Sudsee, p. 21, (not Cuv. and Val.) 

B. vii, D. 7/i, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 16, L. 1. 26, L. tr. 2/6J. 

Length of head 3j, of caudal 2/11, height of body 2'7 in the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Lower jaw very slightly the longer : the maxilla reaches 
to below the posterior edge of the orbit.* Vertical limb of preopercle entire, or very finely serrated on its lower 
half and outer edge, more distinctly round its angle and on the outer edge of its horizontal limb, there may also 
be a few serrations likewise along its inner angle : lower edge of orbit roughened : shoulder entire. Teeth — fine 
in jaws, vomer, and palate. Ems — spinous much lower than the soft dorsal, its third, fourth and fifth spines the 
highest, and equal to two-fifths of that of the body : the second dorsal three-fourths as high as the body, its 
upper edge and also that of the anal being rounded. Pectoral as long as the ventral, which does not reach the 
anal : caudal rounded. Pseudobranchice — present. Free portion of tail rather longer than high at its base. 
Lateral-line — at first arborescent, but posteriorly with a lateral plate-like prolongation on either side of the base 
of each tube. Colours — golden, upper surface of head and jaws, also upper portion of opercle with black spots : 



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* In examining some immature specimens of this fish in the British Museum, I found that at 1-fe inches in length, the 
diameter of the eye was 2/5 of the length of the head, and the maxilla reached to nearly below its centre. At 2 inches in length, the 
diameter of the eye was 1/3 of the length of the head, and the maxilla reached to below the last third of the orbit. 



64 ACANTHOPTERTGn. 

a greyish band along the side, terminating in the young in an indistinct lateral blotch by the side of the free 
portion of the tail. First dorsal white, "with its upper half deep black : second dorsal yellow, having a black 
band along its centre, and a black outer edge : anal likewise with a black median band : caudal grey, with a white 
band margined with black, and an external white edge. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India to China and Japan. Madras two specimens to 4 inches 
in length. Amongst Sir W. Elliot's drawings is one of this fish named A. nigripinnis by Jerdon. 

17. Apogon maculosus. 
Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 493 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 236. 
B. vii, D. 7/i, V. 1/5, A. f. 

Colours — brown, darkest anteriorly, having four rows of brown spots along either side, but none on the 
head. Fins brown, spotted with black. 

Habitat. — This fish is said to have come from the seas of India, from whence M. de Ketlitz, a Russian 
naturalist, brought figures (? specimens), and from whom Cuv. and Val. obtained their information. 

It is stated to attain three inches in length. 

18. Apogon macropterus, Plate XVII, fig. 3. 

(K. and v. H.) Cuv. and Val. ii, pp. 160 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 168 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 244. 

? Apogon Zeylonicns, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 492 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 232. 

Apogon argenteus, Val. Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 1832, p. 60. ^ 

Apogon fucatiis, Cantor, Catal. p. 4; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 244. 

Apogon macropteroides, Bleeker, Banka, p. 724 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 245 ; Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 20. 

Apogon Bleekeri, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 245. 

Archamia Bleekeri, Gill, Nat. Hist. Soc. Phil. 1863, p. 81. 

Amia macropteroides, Bleeker, Amb. p. 280. 

Apogon notata, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 936. 

Amia macropterus, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 233, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. lxviii, f. 2, and Apogonini, p. 72. 

B. vii, D. 6/i P. 13, V. 1/5, A. l7r (tW,, C. 17, L. r. 22-26 (Ceec. pyl. 0, Cantor.). 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 3| to 3| in the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 
to 1/3 of length of head, 1/2 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Body rather elongated in 
shape and compressed. Lower jaw slightly the longer. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the 
orbit. Angle of the preopercle rounded, the outer edge of vertical and horizontal limbs finely serrated, the 
other bones of the head entire. Teeth — villiforrn in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines weak, the 
third the highest and equal in length to the postorbital portion of the head, or behind the middle of the eye. 
The pectoral reaches to above the third or fourth anal ray : caudal forked. Colours — whitish, having a pink 
tinge, fins pinkish : a round black spot on the side close to the base of the caudal fin. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. It does not appear to attain more 
than 3 or 4 inches in length in India, and is very common at Madras. 

19. Apogon Sangiensis, Plate XVII, fig. 4. 

Bleeker, Sangi, p. 375 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 235, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 20. 
Amia sangiensis, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xli, f. 4, and Apogonini, p. 56. 

B. vii, D. 6/a P. 13, V. 1/5, A. -fa, C. 17, L. 1. 24-25, L. tr. If/7. 

Length of head 1/3 to 3f", of caudal 4j to 4±-, height of body 1/3 to 3| in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/3 of length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Jaws of about equal length. 
The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Outer edge of both vertical and horizontal limbs of pre- 
opercle very finely serrated, orbital edge rough, the other bones of the head and shoulder entire. Teeth — villi- 
form. Fins — dorsal spines very weak, the third generally the longest and If in the height of the body. Ventral 
almost reaches the anal : caudal notched. Lateral-line — tubes distinct, having a lateral basal enlargement. 
Colours — golden tinged with red : a wide brown band passes from the snout, through the eye, ending on the 
posterior edge of the opercle, or else in a black spot a little below the shoulder : a round black spot on the side 
of the free portion of the tail close to the base of the caudal fin : a minute black spot on the back, close behind 
the base of the last dorsal ray. Upper half of first dorsal black. The anal fin is said to be sparingly spotted 
with blue in specimens from the Malay Archipelago. 

Habitat. — Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 

20. Apogon hyalosoma, Plate XVII, fig. 5. 
Apogon thermalis, Bleeker, Perc. p. 27, (not Cuv. and Val.) • 

Apogon hyalosoma, Bleeker, Singapore, p. 63, and Amboina, iv, p. 329 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 321 ; Kner, 
Novara Fische, p. 42. 

Amia hyalosoma, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. xxxi, f. 1, and Apogonini, p. 57. 
B. vii, D. 6/i P. 12-14, V. 1/5, A. f , C. 17, L. 1. 24-25, L. tr. 2|/8|. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^. 65 

Length of Lead 1/3 to 3y, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 to 
3| in length of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Snout rather elevated. Lower jaw slightly 
the longer : the maxilla reaches to below the hind edge of the orbit. Both limbs of preopercle serrated along 
their outer edges, most slightly so on the vertical one : the other bones of the head and shoulder entire. Teeth — 
fine in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the second and third of about the 
same length, and equal to 2| in the height of the body, but not so high as the soft dorsal. Pectoral rather 
longer than the ventral, which latter reaches two-thirds of the distance to the base of the anal fin : soft anal as 
high as the soft dorsal : caudal lobed. Lateral-line — tubes distinct, some having a slightly arborescent base. 
Colours — olive, with a darkish blotch on the side at the base of the caudal fin : blackish between the second and 
third dorsal spine ; fins grey. 

Habitat. — Seas of India and Malay Archipelago, attaining at least six inches in length. 

21. Apogon orbicularis, Plate XVII, fig. 7. 

Apogon orbicularis, (Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 155, and vi, p. 495 ; Quoy and Gaim. Voy. 
Astrol. Poiss. p. 648, pi. i, fig. 4 ; Bleeker, Amb. & Ceram. p. 254, and Act. Soc. Ned. i, Amboina, p. 28 ; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 233, and Fiscke d. Sudsee, p. 22, pi. xx, fig. D. 

Amia orbicularis, Bleeker, Ceram. p. 188, and Nat. Verh. Holl. Maats. Weten. 3de Verz. Deel. II, No. i, 
1874, p. 19. 

B. vii, D. 6/sV, P- 12, V. 1/5, A. &, 0. 17, L. 1. 24-26, L. tr. 2|/7. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/4, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2| to 2f in the 
length of head, 1/2 to 2/3 of a diameter from the end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Lower jaw the 
longer : the maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. The outer edges of both limbs of the preopercle 
serrated, as is also the shoulder-bone, the other bones of the head entire. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, vomer, 
and palate. Fins — second and third dorsal spines slightly higher than the fourth, two-thirds the height of the 
body and in length about equal to the rays in the second dorsal fin. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the 
snout. Ventrals reach the anal fin, the second spine of which last is two-fifths the height of the body, whilst 
the rays are similar to those of the soft dorsal. Caudal forked, its three outer rays on either side rather spinate 
and projecting. Lateral-line— tubes well-developed. Free portion of the tail slightly longer than high at 
its commencement. Colours — olive-brown, a dark zone round the body from in front of the first dorsal fin, and 
passing to behind the ventral. Head spotted with black. A cloudy band below the second dorsal fin : free 
portion of the tail with some black spots and blotches. First dorsal with some dark spots : ventral nearly black. 

Habitat. — Andamans, Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen figured (life-size) is from the 
Andamans. 

22. Apogon Ceramensis, Plate XVII, fig. 6. 

Bleeker, Amb. and Ceram. p. 256 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 235. 

Amia Ceramensis, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. lviii, f. 1, and Apogonini, p. 45. 

B. vii, D. 6/i P. 14, V. 1/5, A |, C. 17, L. 1. 23-25, L. tr. 2/7. 

Length of head 3f, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3| in the total length. Eyes — 3J diameters in length 
of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. Dorsal profile rather concave over 
the eyes. Upper jaw slightly the longer : the maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. Both limbs 
of the preopercle serrated along their outer edges, the other bones of the head and shoulder entire. Teeth — 
villiform. Fins — third dorsal spine is slightly the highest, and as long as the head behind the middle of the 
eye. The ventral does not reach the anal. Caudal notched. Lateral-line — tubes well developed, having lateral 
basal enlargements. Colours — greenish-brown with some dark spots on the head : a narrow blackish-brown 
band passes from the head to the root of the caudal fin, where it ends in a round black blotch : in its anterior 
half it is margined on either side by a bluish-white streak, which gradually decreases in width : there is a 
brownish blotch on the shoulder. The interspinous membrane between the second and third dorsal spines is 
black. 

Habitat. — Nicobars, from whence Dr. Stoliczka brought the specimen which is figured : it is found in 
the Malay Archipelago.* 

Genus, 12 — Cheilodipterus, (Lacep.) Cuv. 8f Val. 

Paramia, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals seven: pseudobranchice well developed. Operates spineless ; preopercle with a double edge, both 

* Apogon quinquevittatus. 
Blyth. P. A. S. of Bengal, 1858, p. 272. 
D. 13/10, P. 15, A. f, V. 5, L. 1. 24, L. tr. 3/10. 

Eyes — diameter 2/5 of the vertical height of the head. Form compressed : month small. Fins — pectoral reaching beyond 
the second lateral band : the posterior dorsal and anal fins projecting similarly as far as the base of the tail fin. Colours — four vertical 
black bands, a fifth at the base of tail, and the occipital region also of this colour. 

Habitat. — Andamans, about 1 inch in length. Unless some typographical error has occurred, this fish having three anal spines, 
&c, cannot be referred to Apogon. 

K 



66 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

of which, or the outer only, may he serrated. Villiform teeth in the jaius, vomer, and palate : canines present generally 
in bothjaivs and lateral canine-like ones. Two dorsal fins separated by an interspace, the first with six spines ; the 
anal with two. Scales ctenoid,* large and deciduous. Lateral-line distinct. 

Geographical distribution. — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India and 
the Malay Archipelago to the Pacific. Along the coasts of India they appear to be most abundant off Sind, 
and in the Andamans and Nicobars. The specimen of this genus recorded from the Coromandel coast of India, 
by Dr. Jerdon, in the 'Madras Journal Literature and Science' (1851, No. 39, p. 129) was, as I have already 
observed (p. 57), Apogon multitamiatus. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Cheilodipterus lineatus, D. 6/j-, A. •§-, L. 1. 26. Silvery-red with from seven to sixteen narrow black 
longitudinal bands, and a dark spot at the base of the caudal fin : first dorsal black between the second and 
third spines. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, and Sind. 

2. Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus, D. 6/£, A. f , L. 1. 25. Similar to the last with five bands. Red Sea, 
Nicobars to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Cheilodipterus lineatus, Plate XVIII, fig. 8 and 9 (var. Arabicus). 

Perca lineata, Forsk. Desc. Anim. p. 42, No. 43 ; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 89. 
Perca Arabica, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1312. 

Cheilodipterus lineatus, Lacep. iii, p. 543, pi. xxxiv, fig. 1 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 248 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. 
Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 717. 

Centropomus macrodon, Lacep. iv, p. 273. 

Cheilodipterus octovittatus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 163; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 717. 

Cheilodipterus Arabicus, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 165, pi. 23. 

Cheilodipterus heptazona, Bleeker, Perc. p. 29. 

Paramia octolineata, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxvii, fig. 2, and Apogonini, p. 75. 

B. vii, D. 6/i P. 13, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. I. 26-27, L. tr. 3|/7|. 

Length of head nearly 1/3, of caudal 4| to 1/5, height of body 1/4 in the total length. Eyes — diameter 
from 4^ to 1/4 in length of head, 1 to \\ diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 to 1 diameter apart. The 
maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle very finely serrated in its 
outer edge, as is also that of the horizontal limb, where however the serrations are coarser and blunter ; the 
other bones of the head entire. Teeth — canines in both jaws, and lateral canine-like ones. Fins — dorsal spines 
weak, the second and third of the same height and equal to two-thirds of that of the body. Pectoral reaches to 
above the anal spines : ventral two-thirds of the distance to the anal. Caudal forked. Colours — silvery-red, 
with horizontal bands along the head and body, the number of which appears to increase with age. In Sind 
some specimens had only seven, others as many as sixteen. One black band commencing above the snout 
proceeds to the base of the first dorsal fin : a second arising on the snout in common with that of the opposite 
side just anterior to the upper one and passes along the back above the lateral-line to the upper side of the 
caudal fin : the third commences on the side of the snout and passes through the eye, from the hind edge of 
which about four bands arise and are continued along the body : there are also generally two more from below 
the eye. A black spot exists at the base of the caudal fin, which is surrounded by a light edge. Fins red, the 
first dorsal black between the second and third spines. In adults intermediate bands appear between those 
described as existing in the young. 

In the variety (fig. 9) which=(7. Arabicus, C.V. it is bright yellow around the caudal blotch. The 
specimen came from Gwadar. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, Andamans to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

2. Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus. 

Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 167 ; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 89 ; Lesson. Zool. Voy. Duperr. ii, p. 237 ; Bleeker, 
Mol. p. 252 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 716. 

Apogon novemstriatus, Riippell, N. W. Fische, p. 85, t. 22, f. 1. 

Chilodipterus quinquelineatus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 248. 

Paramia quinquelineata, Bleeker, Bouro, p. 147, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xlviii, fig. 2, and Apogonini, p. 76. 

B. vii, D. 6/i, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 25, L. tr. 2/7. 

Length of head about 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/9 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated along 
its outer edge. Teeth — generic. Fins — dorsal spines weak, second and third of the same height, and about 
eq;ual to half of that of the body. Caudal forked. Colours — with a reddish tinge having five black bands 

* Bleeker has separated those species in which (although their dentition is similar) the scales are smaller and cycloid, and the 
caudal fin convex instead of emarginate, into a distinct genus, Pseudamia. 



FAMILY, I— PERCIDJE. 67 

along the side : and a black spot surrounded by a yellow ocellus at the root of the caudal fin. It otherwise 
resembles the last species, of which it might be considered a variety. 

Fifth group — Grystina. 

Body oblong or elevated. Opercles entire or variously serrated. Cleft of mouth more or less oblique. 
One or two dorsal fins. 

Genus, 13 — Duxes, Guv. and Val. 

Moronophis & Plectroplites, Gill : Paradules, pt. Bleeker. 

BrancMostegals six : pseudobranchim. Eyes of moderate size. Chin moderately prominent. Preopercle 
serrated. Opercle with spines, but destitute of any membranous lobe. Villiform teeth in the jaws, vomer, and 
palatines, no canines. A single dorsal fin with ten spines, having a deep notch between the two last : anal with three 
spines. Scales ctenoid and of moderate size. 

Geographical distribution. — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa through the seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond, being found in most intertropical seas, some being said to enter fresh waters.* 
Uses. — Owing to their small size, these fishes are of but little economic value. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Bules marginatus, D. \%, A. T s , L. 1. 42. An oblique wide greyish band with an outer white margin 
across either caudal lobe : another along the top of the soft dorsal. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

2. Bules argenteus, D. -g-lxoi A. to'tti L. 1. 52. A central black band on caudal fin and two oblique 
yellowish-black ones across either lobe : soft dorsal with a grey band along its upper edge, having a white 
outer margin. East coast of Africa, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Dules marginatus, Plate XVIII, fig. 1. 

Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 116, pi. 52, and vii, p. 474 ; D'Urville, Voy. Pole Sud. Poissons, p. 41, pi. iii, f. 3 ; 
Bleeker, Sumatra, i, p. 573 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 268, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 24. 

Bules malo, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 479; D'Urville, 1. c. pi. iii, f. 4; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 270. 

Bules mato, Less. Voy. Coq. Zool. ii, p. 223. 

Bules leuciscus, Jenyns, Voy. Beagle, Fishes, p. 17. 

Kuhlia ciliata, Gill, Nat. Hist. Soc. Phil. 1861, p. 48. 

Moronopsis ciliatus, Bleek. Arch. Neerl. 1872, p. 376, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxxviii, f. 1, and 1. c. t. xlvi, f. 2. 

Paradules marginatus, Bleeker, Ceram. p. 257. 

B. vi, D. fa p. 15, V. 1/5, A. T \, C. 17, L. 1. 42, L. fr. 5/8. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/5, height of body 4/13 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of 
length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout and also apart. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the 
orbit. Preorbital very finely serrated along its lower margin, most distinctly so in the young. Horizontal limb 
of preopercle serrated. Opercle with two spines of which the lower is the longer. Teeth — villiform in jaws, 
vomer, and palatines. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, the fifth the highest and equal in length to the 
postorbital portion of the head, the tenth is longer than the ninth : third anal spine the longest : caudal 
moderately forked. Colours — greyish along the back, becoming silvery- white on the sides and abdomen; a 
greyish band, having a white tip, across the posterior third of the caudal fin : a similar but darker band, 
having a white upper edge, along the top of the soft dorsal : the other fins tinged externally with grey and edged 
with white. 

Perca ciliata, (K. v. H.) Cuv. & Vn\.=Percichthys ciliata, (C. V.) Giinther=this species according to Bleeker. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining at least eight inches in length. 

2. Dules argenteus, Plate XVIII, fig. 2. 
Perca argentea, Bennett, Fish. Ceylon, p. 22, pi. 22. 

Bules tceniurus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 114 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 49 : Giinther, Catal. i, p. 267 ; Elner, Novara 
Fische, p. 47. 

? Bules Guamensis, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 474 ; D'TTrville, 1. c. p. 42, pi. 3, f. 1 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 269. 

Bules Bennetti, Bleeker, Bengal, p. 36 ; Peters, Wiegm. Arch. 1855, p. 238 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 270. 

Bules argenteus, Klunzinger, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 730 ; Giinther, Fische d. Sudsee, p. 25, 
t. xix, f. C. 

Moronopsis tceniurus, (Gill) Bleeker, Arch. Neer. Sc. 1872, p. 374. 

Paradules tceniurus, Bleeker, China, p. 139. 

B. vi, D. JJL P. 15, V. 1/5, A. T1 fi IT , C. 17, L. 1. 52, L. tr. 6/12. 

Length of head nearly 1/4, of caudal nearly 1/5, height of body 4/15 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 2/5 of length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart.. The maxilla 
reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Preorbital very finely" serrated along its lower edge. Horizontal 

* According to Mr. Garrett's observations in the Fische d. Sudsee, p. 24, these fishes appear sometimes to prefer fresh water 
to saline. 

K 2 



68 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

limb of preopercle regularly and evenly Serrated. Operele with, two spines, the lower somewhat the longer. 
Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines not very strong, the fifth and sixth the highest, 
and equal to half the length of the head : second anal spine slightly shorter but stronger than the third : caudal 
forked. Colours — bluish, becoming silvery- white on the sides and abdomen, soft dorsal greyish-black along its 
upper third and having a white outer margin : caudal milk-white, with two oblique yellowish-black bands and 
a narrow central black longitudinal one. 

Young — in a specimen \\ inches in length, taken at the Andamans, the colour differs from that of 
the adult ; — body blue, with a narrow black longitudinal band passing from the upper edge of the orbit along 
the back, nearer to the base of the dorsal fin than the lateral-line, and ending in the lower of the two bands 
crossing the upper lobe of the caudal fin : a narrow black band runs along the bases of both dorsal fins, whilst 
each have black tips : the anal has a black mark on the front of its highest portion : caudal with one central 
band, and two oblique ones across either lobe. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond : it attains six inches 
or more in length. 

Sixth group — Theraponina. 

Branchiostegals six. Operele spinate : preopercle serrated. Cleft of mouth somewhat oblique. Dorsal 
fin single, but more or less notched : three anal spines. Air-vessel divided by a constriction into an anterior 
and posterior portion. 

Genus, 14 — Therapon,* Cuv. 

P elates, sp. Cuv.f 

Branchiostegals six ; piseudobranchice. Eyes of moderate size. Operele with spines. Preopercle and sometimes 
preorbital serrated. Teeth villiform in both jaws, the outer row being sometimes the larger :- deciduous ones on the 
vomer and palatines. Dorsal Jin single, but more or less notched, having from eleven to thirteen spines : anal with 
three. Scales of moderate or small size. Air-vessel divided by a, constriction. Pyloric appendages few or in 
moderate numbers. 

Geographical distribtdion. — Erom the Red Sea and East coast of Africa through the seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and Australia. These fishes in India are almost strictly marine, but some are occasionally 
found in brackish water within tidal influence ; and having entered during very high tides, or in the monsoon 
season, their return to salt water may be cut off, when they live in the brackish or even fresh water ponds until 
the return of the next spring tide or the succeeding year's monsoon. The T. jarbua is frequently captured in the 
Hooghly as high as Calcutta. 

Z7.ses. — Not esteemed as food, as they are reputed to feed on carrion, but they are eaten by the poorest 
class of natives. 

The colour of these fish is usually silvery, with longitudinal bands, but in some species cross bands are 
present in the immature. This may especially be noticed in the T. quadrilineatus, whilst in the adult the only 
remnant existing of such is the black blotch on the shoulder, which originally formed a portion of the first 
body-band. As might be expected, the serrations and spines about the head vary with age : but it is worthy of 
special notice, that the sub- and inter-opercles may be serrated in some specimens and yet be entire in others, 
and this is most apparent in the T. jarbua. The existence of teeth on the vomer and palate appears to be often 
confined to the immature. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

1. Therapon puta, D. 1 Vo 2 > A. -g? 9 , L. 1. 90-100. Large teeth at preopercular angle. Four straight, 
longitudinal blackish-brown bands along the body : a dark blotch on the spinous dorsal, and two oblique bands 
across either caudal lobe. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Therapon jarbua, D. V xs> A. ¥ ?g-, L. 1. 80-90. Serrations at preopercular angle strong, but pretty 
even. Three longitudinal, convex, reddish-brown bands along the body : a dark blotch on the spinous dorsal : 
two oblique bands across either caudal lobe. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, to the Malay 
Archipelago and beyond. 

3. Therapon quadrilineatus, D. 1 \^. 2 ,.A. ^, L..1. 70. Serrations at preopercular angle strong, but pretty 
even. Four or five horizontal blackish bands along the body : a black blotch on the spinous dorsal, another on 
the shoulder : no bands on the caudal. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China. 

4. Therapon theraps, D. 'M^r^, A. f, L. 1. 50-55. Evenly serrated on its preopercular angle. Three or 
four horizontal blackish-brown bands along the body : two across either caudal lobe. East coast of Africa, seas 
of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Therapon puta, Plate XVIII, fig. 3. 

Perca heelputa, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 19, pi. 126. 

Therapon puta, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 131, Reg. Anim. El. Poissons, pi. xii, fig. 2 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 50. 

* Sabah-za, Mngh. 

f Bleeker divides thia genus by adopting the following, with reference to their dentition, as sub-genera : 

1. Datnia; teeth in jaws conical, entire, and in many rows. 

2. Pelates ; teeth in jaws conical, entire, in 3 rows in the upper and 2 in the lower jaw. 

3. Helotes; teeth in the jaws in many rows, and tricuspidate. 



FAMILY, I— PERCHLE. C9 

Thereupon ghebul, (Ehren.) Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 133 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 51 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 281 ; 
Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 728. 

Therapon trivittatus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 280; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 17; Kner, Novara Fische, p. '45 : 
Bleeker, Therapons, 1872, p. 375. 

Kove heetchan, Tam. (Madras) : Keelputa, Tel. : Keetchan, Tarn, and Mai. 

' B. vi, D. i^T 2 . P. 15, V. 1/5, A. -fa, C. 17, L. 1. 90-100, L. tr. 13-14/24, Ceec. pyl. 7, Vert.. 10/13. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4§, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/4 in the total length. Fyes — diameter 3J to 3f 
in length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to below the 
anterior edge of the orbit. Preopercle with five or six strong denticulations on its vertical limb, the second 
above the lowest being generally the largest, whilst the two inferior are larger than the superior ones, the 
serrations are also continued along its horizontal limb. Sub- and inter-opercles entire.. Opercle with two 
spines, the inferior the longest and strongest, and about equal to the largest of those on the preopercle. 
Shoulder-bone serrated (or crenulated), as is also the one in the axilla but more strongly so. Teeth — villiform in 
the jaws with an outer enlarged row, rudimentary ones present on the vomer and palate in the young, but lost as 
age advances. Fins — dorsal spines rather slender, the fourth to the sixth about equal and the longest, higher 
than the rays and equal to about 3/5 of the height of the body, from whence they decrease to the last but one, 
the last being a little higher. Pectoral as long as the head behind the middle of the eye. Second anal spine a 
little shorter than the third, which equals from 1/2 to 4/9 the height of the body : caudal emarginate. Colours — 
greyish, with three or four longitudinal straight blackish-brown bands : spinous portion of dorsal in its upper 
three quarters blackish between the third or fourth and seventh or eighth spines. Two oblique bands pass 
across the upper caudal lobe, and one, sometimes two, across its lower one. The young are similar to the adult, 
except that they look as if light spots were present along the interspace between the first three horizontal bands, 
giving the appearance of sinuous oblique dark bands. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago.. 

2. Therapon jarbua, Plate XVIII, fig. 4. 

Scimna jarbua, Forsk. Desc. Anim. p. 50; Gm. Linn. p. 1303; Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 541.. 

Holocentrus servus, Bloch, t. 238, f. 1. 

Holocentrus jarbua, Lacep. iv, pp. 348, 355. 

Grammistes servus, Bl. Schn. p. 185. 

Coins trivittatus, Ham. Buch. Fish. Granges, pp. 92, 370. 

Therapon Timoriensis, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Uran. Poiss. p. 341. 

Therapon servus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 125, and vii, p. 479 ; Riippell, N. W. Fische,. p. 95 ; Bleeker, Perc. 
p. 50, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxxiv, f. 2 ; Richards. Ann., and Mag. Nat. Hist, ix, p. 125 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 278, 
and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 26 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 18 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 45. 

Pterapon trivittatus, Gray and Hardw. Ind. Zool. (from H. B. Mss.) 

Therapon trivittatus, Cantor. Catal. p. 19. 

Therapon jarbua, Klunzinger, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 729. 

Therapon (Batnia) jarbua, Bleeker, Therapons, 1872, p. 377. 

Palin keetchan, Tam. : Gahnu, Ooriah : Nga-sabasa-sa, ' Paddy eating fish,' Arrac. : Boorgooni and Jeerpye, 
Beng-Chitt. 

B. vi, D. VW, P- 13, V. 1/5, A. ,&. C - 17> L - L 80 - 90 > L - fr- 15 / 30 > Yert - 10 / 15 - 

Length of head from 3/11 to 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3| to 3§ in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 3^ to 1/4 in length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and also apart. The maxilla reaches to 
below the first third of the orbit. Preorbital moderately serrated in the last two-thirds of its lower edge. 
Vertical limb of preopercle with from 12 to 14 serrations, the two at its rounded angle being much the strongest, 
along the lower limb are about eight weaker ones. Sub- and inter-opercles with fine serrations at their 
approximating edges, which may or may not be blunted with age, those from the Malabar coast appear to be 
the most strongly serrated. Upper opercular spine small, the lower large and strong, and its length equal to 
about two-thirds of the diameter of the orbit. Shoulder-bone, also the one in the axilla, serrated, very strongly 
so in the young. Teeth — an outer somewhat enlarged row in the jaws, fine ones likewise generally present on 
the vomer and palatines, more especially in the young. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, the third and 
fourth the longest, of about the same height and equal to half that of the body below them : second anal spine 
usually the strongest, and slightly shorter than the third : caudal forked. Colours — back bluish-grey, becoming 
white on the abdomen, with a tinge of gold along the cheeks and snout. Three longitudinal reddish-brown 
bands, having a slight convexity downwards, pass along the body : the upper from in front of the dorsal spines 
to the eighth or ninth : the second from the occiput to the end of the soft dorsal having reached the lateral-line 
in its concave course : the third from the back of the head to the lower opercular spine, and continued in a 
curved direction to the centre of the caudal fin. Sometimes a fourth band is present along the abdomen. 
Ventral and anal with a yellow tinge along their centres. Dorsal interspinous membrane milk-white, with a 
black mark in its upper two-thirds between the third and sixth spines : a second commences at the eighth 
spine, and is continued along the whole base of the soft dorsal : upper edge of first three dorsal rays tipped 
with black : caudal with two oblique bands across each lobe : eye yellowish-red. 



70 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

In the young there are two strong spines at the preopercular angle. 

Dr. Klunzinger, I.e. observes upon having only found 10 spines in the fh-st dorsal fin. Dr. Giinther, 
' Fische d. Sudsee,' p. 26, in answer to this, remarks that during a London fog he has found 11. I may complete 
the discussion by stating that in my collection I have specimens representing both numbers. 

Col. Tickell, MS. remarks that this fish is termed the Paddy or rice eater in Arracan, in consequence of 
the young being so frequently found in the inundated rice or paddy-fields. 

Habitat — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa through the seas and estuaries of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and north coast of Australia. It is a common fish, attaining 12 or 13 inches in length. 
Hamilton Buchanan left an excellent figure of this fish illustrative of his Coins trivittatiis : it is labelled 
Holocentrus katkaya, and was reproduced by General Hardwicke. The species is not uncommon at Calcutta in 
the tidal Hooghly, whilst the T. puta, to which Buchanan's description has been referred, does not appear to 
ascend so high, although I have taken it, along with other marine fishes, in the Sunderbunds. 

3. Therapon quadrilineatus, Plate XVIII, fig. 5. 

Holocentrus quadrilineatus, Bloch, t. 238, fig. 2. 

Pristipoma sexlineatum, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Freyc. Poiss. p. 320. 

Therapon quadrilineatus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 134 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 239 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 51 ; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 282 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 46. 

Therapon xanthurus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 135. 

Pelates sexlineatus, quadrilineatus, et quinquelmieatus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 146, pi. 55 ; Less. Voy. Coq. ii, 
p. 223 ; Cuv. Reg. An. Illus. Poiss. pi. xii, fig. 1 ; Griff. An. King. Fish. t. xii, fig. 1. 

Helotes polytcenia, Bleeker, Halmah, p. 53 and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxvi, f. 1. 

Therapon Cuvieri, Bleeker, Timor, p. 211 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 282. 

Therapon sexlineatus, Steindach. Fischf. Port Jackson, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. liii, p. 429. 

Therapon (Pelates) quadrilineatus, Bleeker, Therapons, 1872, p. 389. 

B. vi, D. 1 V B ia , P- 15, V. 1/5, A. ■&, C. 17, L. 1. 70, L. tr. 13/26, Crec. pyl. 18. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of length 
of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of 
the orbit. Preorbital slightly serrated on its lower border. Preopercle serrated along both limbs, coarsest at 
its rounded angle, becoming indistinct along its horizontal limb. Sub- and inter-opercles entire. Opercle 
with two rather weak spines. Shoulder-bone entire, that in the axilla serrated. Teeth — villiform in 3 rows in 
the upper and two in the lower jaw, and having the external row in the maxilla enlarged. Fins — dorsal spines 
moderately strong, becoming highest about the fifth, which equals half the height of the body below it : second 
anal spine strongest, the third the longest : caudal emarginate. Pyloric appendages — very short. Colours — 
silvery, with five horizontal black bands, the first to the anterior portion of the soft dorsal : the second to the 
end of its base : the third to the upper third of the base of the caudal : the fourth to its lower third : the fifth 
(sometimes absent) to the end of the base of the anal. A large black blotch on the shoulder. Dorsal fin with 
a black blotch between its third and seventh spines, a black mark along the middle of the soft dorsal, and a 
black tip. Pectoral canary colour, as is also the ventral and anal, the last of which is darkest externally, and 
has a dark basal band : caudal yellowish with a dark edge but no bands. 

The young have six light vertical cross bands, four times as wide as the ground colour, passing from the 
back to the fourth horizontal band ; they are distinct in the specimens up to 3f inches in length. The black 
shoulder blotch in the adult is the upper portion of the first body band. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China ; attaining at least 6 inches in length. 

4. Therapon theraps, Plate XVIII, fig. 6. 

Therapon theraps, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 129, pi. 53 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 50, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xliii, fig. 1 ; 
Richards. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1842, p. 126; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 95; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 274, and Fische d. 
Sudsee, p. 26 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 19 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 44 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, 
p. 728. 

Therapon obscurus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 135; Cantor, Catal. p. 20; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 275. 

Therapon squalidus, Cuv. and Val hi, p. 136 (Ca3C. pyl. 13 ?) ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 275. 

Therapon transversus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 136 (Case. pyl. 11 ?) 

Therapon cinereus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 138 (Case. pyl. 10 ?) ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 276. 

? Datnia virgata, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 480. 

? Therapon rubricatus, Richards. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1842, p. 127. 

? Therapon virgatus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 276. 

Therapon (Datnia) theraps, Bleeker, Therapons, 1872, p. 379. 
. Kutta keetchan, Tarn. 

B. vi, D. ( $>-Hh P. 15, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 50-55, L. r. WM, L. tr. 11/16, Vert. 10/15, Ceec. pyl. 
(7 Kner.) 

_ Length of head 1/4, of caudal 2/11 to 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3£ 
to 3| in length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and also apart. The maxilla reaches to below the first 



FAMILY, I— PERCnm 71 

third of the orbit. Preorbital very finely serrated on its lower edge in the adult but more distinctly in the 
young. Preopercle nearly evenly serrated, most coarsely at its angle : sub- and inter-opereles entire, in 
some of the youug they are rough or even serrated at their approximating edges. Lower opercular spine the 
longer, about 2/3 as long as the orbit, but not equalling the length of T. jarbua. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, 
with an outer somewhat enlarged row : deciduous ones present in the young on the vomer and said also to 
exist on the palate. Shoulder-bone serrated, and two or three strong spines on the bone at the axilla. Fins — 
dorsal spines moderately strong, the fourth slightly the longest and equal to half the height of the body below 
it, their length decreases to the last but one, which is only two-thirds or three-fourths as high as the last : 
second anal spine the strongest, but rather shorter than the third : caudal emarginate. Scales — above the 
lateral-line a little smaller than those below it. ' Colours — silvery, with four horizontal blackish-brown lines, 
the first from the second to the last dorsal spine leaving a narrow yellow intervening space between them : the 
second from the nape to the last few dorsal rays, and ending by being continued on to the fin as well as joining 
the line below it : the third (which is often the last) from the snout to upper part of the tail : the lowest (often 
absent) from the base of the pectoral to the lower caudal lobe. Dorsal fin with a black blotch between its 
third and its seventh spines, and a dark band along the upper portion of the rays. An horizontal black band 
along the first half of the anal fin. Caudal with two oblique bands across its lower lobe, and two also across 
its upper, the superior of which is interrupted in the adult, the lobe has likewise a black tip. 

In the young the colours are much darker, and due to innumerable fine brown spots they appear as if 
they were dark with two light bands only half the width of the darker ones. The anal fin has two large black 
spots, one on the interspinous membrane and continued on to the first three rays : the second is confined to the 
last three rays. A large black shoulder spot is sometimes visible. There are teeth on the vomer. 

Variety. — In a small specimen from Madras, 2-L inches long, there are D. y, the two first spines 
apparently being absent, it is otherwise identical with the young of this species. 

Thereupon cinereus (Cuv. and Val.) Giinther in the British Museum is this species, in which the bands, 
though very faint, may still be traced : as the condition of the specimen is good, either it must have been 
somewhat of an albino variety, or else it has been kept in such a light that etiolation has resulted. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India, through the Malay Archipelago to China, attaining at least 
six inches in length. 

Genus, 15 — Datnia, Cuv. and Vol. 

Mesopristis, sp. Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchim. Body elevated, with a somewhat rectangular or concave profile : snout 
pointed and somewhat produced. Eyes of moderate size. Opercle with spines : preopercle serrated. Teeth villiform 
in both jaios : palate edentulous. Dorsal fin single, bid slightly notched, spines strong (12-13) and occupying a 
considerable amount of the length of the fin: anal with three spines. Scales of moderate size. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Datnia argentea, D. ~^, A. f, L. I. 56. Second anal spine strong. Seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

Datnia argentea, Plate XVIII, fig. 7. 

Bahiia argentea. Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 139, pi. 54 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 52. 

Mesopristis macr -acanthus, Bleeker, fiatavia, p. 523. 

Datnia cancelloides, Bleeker, Sumatra, p. 247 (young). 

Therapon argentews, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 283. 

Thereupon (Datnia) argenteus, Bleeker, Therapons, 1872, p. 382 (not Kner.) 

B. vi, D. \%, P. 14, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 56, L. tr. 30-35, Case, pyl. 11. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/3 to 3j in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of 
length of head, lj diameters from end of snout, and 4/5 of a diameter apart. The maxilla does not quite 
extend to beneath the anterior edge of the orbit. Snout pointed. Preorbital serrated along the last half of 
its lower edge. Preopercle serrated along its vertical margin. Teeth — villiform in jaws, none on the palate. 
Fins — fourth and fifth dorsal spines the longest and rather more than half the height of the body : second anal 
spine very strong, longer than the third, and exceeding the length of the longest in the dorsal fin : caudal 
notched. Colours — silvery, darkest along the back : a narrow black outer edge to the dorsal fin : a band along 
the middle of the anal, which also has a dark margin. 

The young appear to have longitudinal bands. 

As Cuvier observes, this fish has a more elevated body than in the typical Tlierajwns, a somewhat concave 
profile, and pointed snout, the dorsal spines being stronger and their bases occupying a comparatively greater 
extent of the back than the rays, and there being a very slight notch between the last two. In fact it is his 
first species of Datnia, a genus which some Ichthyologists consider ought not to be retained. 

Habitat. — Cape seas, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. I never obtained it in India, 
saw it in a local collection there, or observed any figure of it amongst drawings of Indian fishes, but as it is 
found in the Malay Archipelago, stray ones may very possibly be occasionally captured on the coast of India. 



72 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Genus, 16 — Helotes, Guv. 

Branchiostegals six. Eyes of moderate size. Cleft of mouth ratlier small, jaws nearly equal in front. 
Preopercle serrated : operele with iveah spines. The order row of teeth in the jaios having a small lobe on each side : 
palate edentulous. Dorsal fin single, not deeply notched, having twelve spines ; anal with three. Scales small, ctenoid. 
Air-vessel divided by a constriction into cm anterior and posterior portion. Pyloric appendages in moderate numbers. 

Geographical distribution.— Cejlon* ? to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

Sixth group — Pristipomatidse. 

Branchiostegals from five to seven. Preopercle serrated or entire. Mouth moderately protractile. 
Teeth in the jaws. Three anal spines. Air-vessel destitute of any constriction. 

Genus, 17 — Pristipoma, Guv. 

Genytremus, Genyatremus, Anisotremus and Pristocantharus, Gill : BZmmulopsis, Steind. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchice. Body oblong, compressed. Eyes of moderate size. Cleft of mouth 
horizontal: gape not very wide: premaxillaries moderately protusible; jaws of nearly equal length: a central 
longitudinal and deep groove below the symphysis of the lower jaw, and two small open pares under the chin : no 
barbels. Preopercle serrated; operele with indistinct points. Teeth in the jaivs villifm'm without canines : palate 
edentulous. Dorsal with from eleven to fourteen spines, and sometimes having a deep notch between the last two : 
anal with three spines. Vertical fins scaleless or only so along their bases. Scales ctenoid and of moderate or small 
size, present on the head, including the preorbital and lower jaw. Air-vessel simple, destitute of any constriction. 
Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — All tropical seas and likewise found in the Mediterranean: the young of the 
Indian species are often taken in backwaters. 

Uses. — Fair as food but not much esteemed : the air-vessel in some places collected as isinglass. Many 
breed about April or May. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

1. Pristipoma stridens, D. t3-tt, -^- t' •'-'■ r - 9 sts-W- Purplish on the back, becoming white on the 
abdomen. Three golden bands along the body and a dark mark on the upper third of the operele. Red Sea, 
along the Meckran coast to Sind. 

2. Pristipoma olivaceum, D. |4, A. ^-, L. r. ff. Olive-grey, the head glossed with purple : a black 
mark on the operele. Beloochistan and Sind. 

3.. Pristipoma furcatum, D. 1 f^ 3 , A. g-? T , L. 1. 55-60, Silvery, with sis sinuous blackish-brown bands, 
three of which are above the lateral-line : a dark mark on the operele : spinous dorsal with three rows of brown 
spots and a dark edge : upper half of dorsal dark, and a band along the anal. Seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

4. Pristipoma hasta, D. t-j-ttj &■• t-t> -k- ^ 45-50. Four or five lines of dark grey along the sides, 
sometimes coalescing and forming bands : two or three rows of spots along the dorsal fin. Red Sea, East coast 
of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

5.. Pristipoma Commersonii, D. \%, A. -f, L. 1. 50.. Sinuous rows of black dots over upper two-thirds of 
body, and several rows along the dorsal fin. Madras. 

6. Pristipoma maeulatum, D. (jtj-tii -A-- f> -'-'• ^ 52-56. Greyish, becoming white beneath : a black 
band over the nape, and six black blotches along the side, three above and three below the lateral-line, not 
forming bands but placed like squares on a chess board. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, through the seas of 
India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

7. Pristipoma Dussumieri, D. -£f, A. f , L. L 50-54, Greyish, becoming lighter below : two golden 
lateral bands : fins with dark edges. Seas of India. 

8. Pristipoma guordka, D. yf:-j-|, A. y ?g-, L. 1. 45-47. Silvery, an olive spot on the operele. Seas of 
India to the Malay Archipelago. 

9. Pristipoma operculare, D. \±, A. f , L. 1. 57. Silvery, with a black blotch at the posterior-superior 
angle of the operele : upper half of the body with numerous black spots, sometimes forming undulating bands : 
a dark spot at the base of each dorsal spine and ray. East coast of Africa to Sind, 

1. Pristipoma stridens, Plate XVIII, fig. 8. 

Sciaina stridens, Forsk. p. 50. 
Perca stridens, Bl. Schn. p. 87. 
Pristipoma simmena, Cuv. and VaL v, p. 260. 

Pristipoma stridens, Riippell, N. W. Fische, p. 122, t. 31, £ 1 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 300 ; Klnnzinger, 
Fische Roth. Meeres, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, p. 732. 

* In the list of the Acanthopterygian fishes of Ceylon, prepared by Dr. Giinther (Sir E. Tennent's Nat. Hist, of Ceylon, 1861, 
p. 360), is Helotes polytcenia Bleeker, as that species = Therapon qua&rilrineatus, I conclude that Dr. G'unther's species, which I have 
not seen, may be identical. 



FAMILY, I— VERCIDM. 73 

B. vii, D. TJlfr, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. r. VSW> L - tr - 8 " 9 / 18 > Ca8C - PF 1 - 5 " 6 - 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 to 1/4 
of length of head, 1 to 1J diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Upper profile of head somewhat 
rounded : jaws of about equal length. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge or first third of the orbit. 
Vertical margin of preopercle oblique, angle rounded, serrated in its whole extent, its two or three lowest 
serrations the strongest : horizontal limb entire, as are also the sub- and inter-opercles. Shoulder-bone serrated. 
Teeth — villiform in jaws, the outer row being slightly the largest. Fins — dorsal interspinous membrane 
moderately notched, the spines slender, the fifth the highest and half as long as the head. Pectoral as long as 
the head without the snout. Second anal spine stronger than, but not quite so long as the third, which equals 
4/11 of the height of the body : caudal forked in its last third. Colours — they much resemble those of a Thereupon, 
purplish on the back becoming dirty white on the abdomen, a golden band from the occiput to the end of the 
base of the soft dorsal : a second from the shoulder passes along the lateral-line to be lost on the summit of the 
free portion of the tail : a third from the eye to the middle of the caudal fin : a dark mark at the upper third 
of the opercle : dorsal interspinous membrane covered with fine black spots, outer edge and also that of the 
caudal and anal stained grey : many fine dots over the head and body. 

Variety. — At Aden I procured a variety of this species, which was nearly black, from the numerous dark 
spots all over it. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, along the Meckran coast, and very common at Kurrachee in Sind : attaining at least 
6 inches in length. 

2. Pristipoma olivaceum, Plate XIX, fig. 1. 

B. vii, D. if, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. tV, C. 17, L. 1. 55, L. r. ff, L. tr. 9/15, Ceec. pyl. 6. 

Length of head 4/15 to 1/4, of caudal 2/11 to 1/6, height of body 3/10 to 1/3 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 2/7 to 1/4 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and lj apart. Dorsal profile more convex 
than that of the abdomen : body compressed. The maxilla reaches to below the posterior nostrd or even 
front edge of the eye. Vertical Kmb of preopercle emarginate, its angle rounded, and the whole strongly 
serrated : a deep groove below and behind the symphysis of the lower jaw and two open pores. Teeth — villiform 
in both jaws : the outer row rather the largest. Fins — dorsal spines, the fourth the highest and equal to half 
the length of the head, the interspinous membrane notched. Pectoral pointed and nearly as long as the head : 
second anal spine the strongest, and nearly as long as the third which equals the eighth of the dorsal fin. 
Caudal emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows above and horizontal ones below the lateral-line. Ccecal 
appendages — six which are rather long and enlarged at their extremities. Colours — olive-grey, the head glossed 
with purple, a large black blotch bordered in front with yellow at the upper angle of the opercle : pectoral 
yellow, as is also the ventral in its front half, whilst its posterior portion is black with a white edge : the other 
fins stained with blackish and having fine deep brown dots. Eyes golden. 

Habitat. — Coasts of Beloochistan and Sind, attaining at least a foot in length (the specimen figured is a 
little over 8 inches long). It appears to be common during the cold months. 

3. Pristipoma furcatum, Plate XIX, fig. 2. 
Grammistes furcatus, Bl. Schn. p. 187, t. 43. 

Perca paikeeli, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 16, pi. 121. 

Pristipoma paikeeli, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 259 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 74 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Seism. 
p. 20 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 292. 

Pristipoma furcatum, Bleeker, Revis. Pristipoma, 1873, p. 304, (not Agass). 
Paikeeli, Tel. : Kullu-korahe, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. '«', P. 17, V. 1/5, A. ¥ ! ¥ , C. 17, L. 1. 55-60, L. tr. 7/18. 

Length of head from 1/4 to 4/17, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 
from 3| to 4j in length of head, from 1 to If diameters from end of snout and also apart. A deep groove under the 
symphysis of the lower jaw and two open pores. The maxilla reaches to below the anterior nostril. Preopercle 
serrated, most strongly so at its somewhat produced angle. Teeth — in villiform rows, with an outer enlarged one 
in the upper jaw, and a slightly enlarged one in the lower jaw. Fins — third or fourth dorsal spine the highest 
and equal in length to the head behind the middle of the eye, or 2f in the height of the body, every alternate 
one being broader. Pectoral a little longer than the head : ventral does not reach the anal. Second anal spine 
much the strongest and also the longest, being higher than the fourth of the dorsal fin and about 1/2 as high as 
the body : caudal notched. Colours — sdvery with six horizontal brownish-black bands, darkest externally, three 
of which are above the lateral-line : spinous portion of the dorsal fin with three rows of brown spots and a dark 
edge : upper half of soft dorsal dark : a dark band along the anal. 

Bloch Schneider's specimen, a little over 7 inches in length, is still preserved in the Berlin Museum, 
leaving no doubt as to its identity with the paikeeli of Russell. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. The specimen figured is 6 inches long and from Madras, 
there is a stuffed one from the same locality in the India Museum, 11 inches in length. 

4. Pristipoma hasta, Plate XIX, fig. 3, and 4 (young f ). 
Lutjanus hasta, Bl. t. 246, f. 1. 



74 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Coius gvdgutia, Ham. Buck, p. 94, 370. 

Pristipoma Jcaahan, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 244 ; Riippell, N. W. Fische, p. 123. 
Pristipoma Commersonii, Cantor, Catal. p. 72. 

Pristipoma hasta, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 247 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 289 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 20 ; 
Khinzin. Verb. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 733 ; Bleeker, Revis. Pristip. 1873, p. 308. 
Pristipoma chrysobalion, (K. and v. H.) Cuv. and Val. v, p. 248. 
Mesoprion gutgwtia, (Cuv. and Val.) Blyth, Proc. A. S. of Bengal, 1860, p. 111. 
Polotus nitidus, Blyth, Proc. A. S. of Beng. 1858, p. 283, & 1860, p. 111. 
Goroua and Corahe, Tain. : Coompoo, Bel. 

B. vii, D. t^Jl p. 17, y. 1/5, A. T ! ¥ , C. 17, L. 1. 45-50, L. tr. 7/10, Case. pyl. 6-7. 

Length of head 1/3 to 2/7, of caudal 1/5 to 1/6, height of body 1/3 to 3/10 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter from 1/3 to 1/5 of length of head, from 2/3 to 1§ diameters from end of snout and also apart. The 
maxilla reaches to beneath the anterior edge or even first third of the orbit. Preopercle emarginate posteriorly, 
its angle rounded and produced, serrated in its whole extent, very coarsely so at its angle, and most distinctly 
so in the immature. Opercle with two rounded points. Shoulder bone serrated. Teeth — villiform, outer row 
somewhat the largest. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the third or fourth the longest and equal to 1/2 the height 
of the body, from it they decrease to the 11th which equals 2/3 the height of the second, whilst the 12th is 
almost 1/3 longer. Pectoral nearly as long as the head : ventral reaches 2/3 of the way to the anal. Second anal 
spine longest and strongest, equalling 1/2 of the height of the body and longitudinally fluted, the 3rd thinner and 
1/4 shorter. Caudal emarginate. Colours — four or five interrupted lines of grey along the sides, three or four 
being above the lateral-line : sometimes they coalesce and form bands. Two or three rows of spots along the 
dorsal fin, and in the adult a single row of dull blotches at the base of the fin. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, Malay Archipelago to North Australia, attaining 
1| feet or more in length. 

The specimen from which fig. 3 is taken is 7 inches long, whilst fig. 4 of one of the young is twice the 
natural size, it shows how with age the length of the last dorsal spines comparatively decrease to the size of the 
fish. 

5. Pristipoma argenteum, Plate VIII, fig. 3.* 

Sciama argentea, Forsk. p. 51. 

? Afithias lineatus, Bl. t. 326, f. 1. 

? Labrus Commersonii, Lacep. iii, pp. 431, 477, t. xxiii, fig. 1 : Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 493. 

? Lutjanus microstoma, Lacep. iv, pp. 181, 216, and iii, t. xxxiv, f. 2. 

? Pristipoma Commersonii, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 252. 

Pomadasis argenteus, Lacep. iv, p. 516. 

Pristipoma argenteum, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 249 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 291. 

B. vii, D. if, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 5/13. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/13, height of body 3/10 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3| in the 
length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to below the 
front edge of the eye. Preopercle serrated along its vertical limb and angle. Shoulder bone serrated, the one in 
the axilla entire. A deep groove under the symphysis of the lower jaw, and two small open pores anterior to it. 
Teeth — villiform, with the external row enlarged, most distinctly so in the upper jaw. Fins — dorsal spines 
of moderate strength, each alternate one thicker on one side, first short, second nearly twice its height but only 
half of the third which equals 3/7 of the height of the body, the fourth is nearly as high and the rest gradually 
decrease to the eleventh which equals the height of the second, the twelfth is a very little longer but 
more than 1/2 the height of the rays. Pectoral as long as the head : ventral almost reaches the anal. First 
anal spine short, the second moderately strong, having a raised keel along its anterior surface, and being nearly 
1/2 as high as the body : third spine much weaker, and a little more than 1/3 shorter. Lateral-line— tubes 
expand posteriorly into a wedge-shape. Free portion of tail about as long as high. Colours — silvery, covered 
with black spots in the upper two-thirds of the body forming sinuous lines : a dark spot on the opercle. A row 
of basal spots along the dorsal fin,' two more above it in the spinous portion, and a dark line along the soft fin. 

This species has a less deeply cleft dorsal fin than is seen in P. hasta (except in the very young) ; irre- 
spective of which it also differs from it or P. nageb, in its more obtuse snout, &c. 

Habitat. — Red Sea and seas of India. 

6. Pristipoma maculatum, Plate XIX, fig. 5. 

Anthias maculatus, Bloch, t. 326, f. 2 ; Bl. Schn. p. 306. 

Lutjanus maculatus, Lacep. iv, p. 233. 

Perca caripe, Russell, Fishes Vizag, ii, p. 18, pi. 124. 

Pristipoma caripa, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 261 ; Riipp. N". W. Fische, p. 124 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 75 ; Bleeker, 
Scisen. p. 21. 

Pristipoma maculatum, Gunther, Catal. i, p. 293 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 21 ; Kner, Novara Fische, 
p. 52 ; Klunzinger, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 735 ; Bleeker, Rev. Pristip. 1873, p. 306. 

* Marked Pristipoma Commersonii, on the plate. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 75 

Caripe, Tel. : Erruttum corah, Mai. : Currutche, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. p^Snr, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 52-56, L. tr. 8/12, Csec. pyl. 6. 

Length of head 2/7," of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/3 to nearly 4/13 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/ 7 to 1/4 of length of head, 1 J diameters from end of snout, and also apart. Maxilla extends to nearly or quite 
below the anterior edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle slightly, emarginate and finely serrated, 
angle rounded and having two or three very small serrations ; inferior limb crenulated or entire. Shoulder- 
bone entire. Teeth — vill3brm in the jaws, the outer row slightly the largest. Fins — fourth dorsal spine the 
highest, equalling the length of the postorbital portion of the head. Pectoral as long as the head : ventral 
does not reach the anal. Second anal spine a little longer and much stronger than the third, it equals 1/3 the 
height of the body : caudal emarginate. Scales — in oblique rows above the lateral-line and horizontal ones 
below it. Colours — greyish, becoming white beneath, and having a purplish tinge about the head : a blackish 
band over the snout : a second from the occiput touches the posterior edge of the orbit, and descends over the 
opercles. A vertical black band, about eight scales wide, rjasses oyer the nape and terminates about three 
scales below the lateral-line : posterior to this are six black blotches, three or four above, and two or three 
below the lateral-line, not forming bands, but placed like squares on a chess board. Spinous dorsal with a 
large black mark between its fourth and seventh or even eighth spines : soft dorsal with a dark band along its 
centre, and both dorsals with their edges stained black, as is also the caudal. 

In young specimens, as 2 T 2 inches in length, the preopercle is strongly serrated along its vertical border : 
at 3| the serrations are still strong : at 4| there is but slight difference, whilst at G\ they are even less apparent. 

Abnormal development. — In one specimen an extra spine is developed on one side of the second spine of 
the dorsal fin. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and New Guinea : it attains at least 16 inches in length : the specimen figured is 9 inches long. 

7. Pristipoma Dussumieri, Plate XIX, fig. 6. 
Cuv. and Val. v, p. 259 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 291. 
Pristipoma Neilli* Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 936. 
Cut-tali-lee, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. if, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. a C. 19, L. 1. 50, L. r. f±, L. tr. 6|/15. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body rather more than 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/3 of length of head, nearly 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Jaws of 
about equal length anteriorly. The maxilla extends to nearly beneath the front edge of the orbit. Preopercle 
having its vertical limb slightly emarginate, its rounded angle being a little prodticed, and the whole serrated 
but most coarsely so at the angle, its horizontal limb with a few serrations along its posterior portion. Teeth — 
villiform in the jaws. Fins — dorsal spines strong, every alternate one being broader, interspinous membrane 
slightly notched, the fourth spine the longest and equal to two-fifths of the height of the body : pectoral as long 
as the head : ventral does not reach the anal, its first ray with a filamentous prolongation : second anal spine 
strong, one-fourth longer than the third, and equal to two-thirds the length of the head : caudal emarginate, 
being deeply lunated. Colours — greyish, becoming white on the abdomen : a brilliant golden band passes from 
the eye to the base of the caudal fin, a second above it runs along a few rows of scales. Fins silvery dashed 
with gold, a dark band along the base of the dorsal and its spinous portion with a black margin : upper portions 
of soft dorsal and the last half of spinous dorsal dark grey. Stuffed specimens lose their golden bands and 
appear uniform. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, more common on the East than on the West coast, but nowhere numerous. 
Jerdon only ■obtained it on the Malabar coast (Madr. Journ. Lit. and Science, 1851, p. 132.) 

8. Pristipoma guoraka, Plate XX, fig. 1. 

? Perca grunniens, Forst. p. 294. 

? Anthias grunniens, Bl. Schn. p. 308. 

Perca guoraka, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 24, pi. 132. 

Pristipoma guoraka, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 256 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 73 ; Bleeker, Seism, p. 23, and Revis. 
Prist. 1873, p. 315, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xlv, fig. 1 ; Day, Fishes Malabar, p. 22 ; Kner, Xovara Fische, p. 53. 

Pristipoma argyreum, Cuv. and Val. ix, p. 485 ; Bleeker, Scisen. p. 22, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xlii, fig. 4, 
and Revis. Prist. 1873, p. 313 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 292 ; Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 683. 

B. vii, D. ifiif, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. T 3 s, L. 1. 45-47, L. tr. 6/12, Case. pyl. 5 (Kner). 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body a little above 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 

' 3| to 3f in length of head, 1 to If diameters from end of snout and also apart. A considerable rise from the 

snout to the base of the first dorsal. The maxilla hardly reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Vertical 

limb of preopercle coarsely serrated, as is also its produced and rounded angle, where the serrations are wide 

apart, along the horizontal limb they are much blunter. Shoulder-bone serrated. Teeth — -villiform, with the 

* In the Zoological Record for 1867, p. 159, Dr. Giinther obserres : "Pristipoma guoraka (Cuv. and Val.) is described as 
Pristipoma Neilli (sp. n.) by Day." The type specimen is therefore figured, it is 6^q inches in length. 



76 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

outer row in the upper jaw somewhat enlarged. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, the third and fourth the 
longest, and equal to half the height of the body below, but rather less in the young, interspinous membrane 
rather deeply notched, the last dorsal spine rather longer than the one preceding it. Pectoral equals the 
length of the head : second anal spine the longest,* and in the adult a fourth longer than the fifth of the 
dorsal, it is striated in grooves along its front edge : caudal cut square or slightly emarginate. Colours — 
silvery, darkest along the back, and in the young with an indistinct darkish band along the middle of the body : 
a dark spot, having steel blue reflections, exists on the opercle : snout dark : a dark streak along the dorsal 
fin most distinct in the immature. In a specimen 3-|- inches long the snout is dark, and there is a large 
black blotch covering 2/3 of the opercle. 

Bleeker considers that P. argyreum is distinct from P. guoraka, the former being distinguished by a 
more obtuse and more convex profile, by the eyes being considerably larger, and by the second anal spine 
being weaker and shorter. 

In examining a series of specimens of these fishes, it appears to me that one can hardly separate one 
species from the other, the difference being probably due to age and perhaps sex. In the young the eye is 1/3 
the length of the head and only 1/2 a diameter from the end of the snout, and the second anal spine generally 
only equals the length of the postorbital portion of the head. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, said to have been captured in fresh water. Russell 
observed that his fish was 2 feet in length, if it was this species, his specimen must have been a most 
extraordinarily large one. 

9. Pristipoma operculare, Plate XX, fig. 2. 

Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 24, pi. iv, f. 1. 

B. vii, D. ii P. 19, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 57, L. r. ff, L. tr. 9/19, Ca3C. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/11 to 1/6, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/5 
to 2/11 of length of head, If diameters from end of snout, and 1J apart. Snout pointed and somewhat 
compressed : jaws of equal length. The maxilla reaches to below the posterior nostril. Preopercle emarginate, 
finely serrated, most coarsely so at its rounded angle. Teeth — in jaws villiform, the outer row being scarcely 
enlarged. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the fourth the highest, equal to the length of the postorbital portion 
of the head and higher than the rays. Pectoral as long as the head reaching to above the anal fin : the 
ventral does not reach to the anal : second anal spine the strongest and longest equal to the third of the 
dorsal : caudal emarginate. Coecal appendages — very long. Colours — silvery, with a black blotch at the posterior- 
superior corner of the opercle : upper half of body with numerous black spots, which in some do, in others do 
not, form undulating bands : a black spot at the base of each dorsal spine and ray : dorsal and caudal dark 
edged : anal blackish in its front half. 

The young are silvery, with the opercular spot distinct, a black mark in the axilla, and a few dark spots 
over the base of the pectoral fin : dark spots on the dorsal almost form bands along its upper and lower 
thirds : a dark band is likewise present along the centre of the soft portion : last half of caudal dark grey. 

The form of this species is very similar to P. nageb, Riippell, which, however, has D. -ri-\sj L. 1. 42-43, 
and the eye 1/6 of length of head. The second anal spine comparatively longer. In the specimen in Berlin, 
16 inches long, the spots are sprinkled over one side of the body, but in bands as shown in Riippell's figure 
on the other. A specimen of P. suillum, C.V. at Berlin from the Cape of Good Hope makes it doubtful whether 
P. operculare may not prove to be a variety of that species. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa to Sind, where it is common : attaining at least 15 inches in length. 

Genus, 18 — Hapalogekts, Richards. 

Pogonias, sp. Tern, and Schleg. 

Branchiostegals six or seven : pseudobranchim. Body rather elevated and compressed. Eyes of moderate size. 
Cleft of mouth horizontal : the anterior and under surfaces of the lower jaiv and the lips covered with fine barbel-form 
papillm. Preopercle serrated: opercle with short spiines. Villiform teeth in the jaws, vomer, and palatines : an outer 
row of conical but somewhat obtuse teeth in either jaio, but no canines : tongue smooth. A deepily notched dorsal fin 
having eleven spines : anal with three : caudal convex or slightly notched. Scales ctenoid, of moderate or small size, 
and extended over the fins. Air-vessel simple. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of Sind to China and Japan. 

The specimen captured off Sind differs from the usual definition of the Genus,f and I am indebted to the 
kind services of Professor Peters for suggesting its present position. 

* In six specimens in my collection the following are the comparative lengths as regards the second anal spine : 
1. Total length 3j% inches: of body without caudal fin 2^ inches : 

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t The single species recorded here has seven (not six) branchiostegal rays : its spinous dorsal is very low, and divided by a 
notch from the soft portion of the fin, making one almost doubt the propriety of including it in this Genus. On the other hand the 
general form of the body, the dentition, &c. being the same, it is placed as an aberrant form of Hwpalogenys. 



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FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 77 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Hapalogenys Petersi, D. ft, A. £., L. 1. 100. Colours dark slatey, with the fins nearly black. Sind. 

1. Hapalogenys Petersi, Plate XX, fig. 3. 

B. vii, D. ft, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. t V, C. 17, L. 1. ca. 100. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal nearly 1/6, height of body 4/13 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 2/7 of 
length of head, rather above 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Dorsal profile much 
more convex than that of the abdomen, a considerable rise from snout to the base of the dorsal fin, with a shallow 
concavity over the forehead. Lower jaw somewhat the longer, the maxilla reaches to below the hind third of the 
orbit. _ Vertical limb of preopercle somewhat emarginate and finely serrated in its whole extent, but the 
serrations are concealed by the scales : preorbital, sub- and inter-opercles entire. Two very obtuse spines on 
opercle. Lips thick, they, the chin, and under surface of lower jaw with innumerable closely-set fine papilla, 
having barbel-like prolongations, but without any groove or deep pores. Teeth — villiform ones in jaws, vomer, and 
palate, the upper jaw with an outer row of from twenty to thirty conical ones, of no great size, and a similar row 
but of lesser number in the lower jaw. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, very low in proportion to the 
rays, they increase in height to the third which equals three-fourths of the diameter of the eye in length, those 
posterior to it gradually decrease in length to the last but one, the last being higher and its length equal to 
three-fourths of that of the third spine : interspinous membrane deeply notched : soft portion of the fin highest 
anteriorly where the rays equal the length of the postorbital portion of the head, whereas the last only equals the 
height of the third dorsal spine : the pectoral equals the length of the head excluding the snout : the ventral 
reaches a little more than hah way to the base of the anal : third anal spine much longer and stronger than the 
second, its length equal to the highest in the dorsal fin, soft portion of the fin similar to that of the soft dorsal : 
caudal emarginate. Scales — small, finely ctenoid, and covering all the fins. Colours — blackish-grey with the 
fins darker. 

Habitat. — Sind and Meckran coast, being termed Bah-ri, at Grwadur. Although the species was not 
uncommon the specimens were so large, I was unable to bring away more than the skin of the smallest one. 
18 inches in length, which was preserved in spirit, and from which the figure was taken. 

Genus, 19 — Diagrahma, Guv. 
Plectorhynchus, pt. Lacep. 

Branchiostegals six or seven : pseudobranchire. Body oblong, compressed, vrith tlie upper profile of the head 
parabolic. Eyes _ of moderate size. Mouth small, slightly protractile : lips thick and folded bach. Preopercle 
serrated : sub-orbitals entire. Four or six open pores on the under surf ace of the lower jaw but no median groove. 
Teeth in jaws villiform, without canines : palate edentulous. One dorsal fin more or less receivable into a groove along 
its base, having from nine to fourteen spines : anal with three. Caudal not forked. Scales ctenoid, usually small, 
but of a moderate size in some species, present on the head excluding the lower jaw, and usually continued on to the soft 
dorsal and anal fins. Air-vessel simple, destitute of amj constriction. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. These fishes are much more abundant off Sind and as far as Bombay, than they 
are down the Malabar or Coromandel coasts of India. In fact Russell does not figure one of the genus. 

Uses — generally not in much esteem as food, but some are good eating. 

The species forming this genus are subject to considerable variations in the number of the dorsal rays, 
whilst a spine* more or less may exist. Irrespective of the differences observable in the dorsal fin, the colour 
varies almost as widely as amongst the Serrani (see page 9, ante). The ground colour is usually white or yellow 
in those which are striped longitudinally : there are, as a rule, component parts of two very distinct bands, the 
upper commencing above the eye by a wide base including the second dorsal spine and ending in a wedge- 
shaped form along the soft dorsal, both the roots of this band and its terminal extremities may be composed 
of several narrow ones which coalesce : next there is a central broad one going from the eye to the middle of 
the caudal fin, also terminating in a wedge-shaped form, this broad band may be made up of two parallel narrow 
ones, _ separated by an interspace : below this central band may be a lower or third one, either single or 
constituted of one or more narrow ones. If this is the correct solution of the composition of the ornamental 
colouring of these fishes, it seems by no means unlikely that some of those now recognised as species, will have 
to be considered as varieties. The form of the caudal fin often varies considerably in the same species, and this 
does not appear to be simply due to a^e. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Biagramma crassispinum, D. -^J^g, A. f. Black, tail and edges of dorsal and anal fins white in the 
immature. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

2. Bia/jramma lineatum, D. £-§■:■§•*, A. f-. Yellowish- white with about six longitudinal chestnut bands, 
which may be reduced by amalgamation into three broad ones : anterior dorsal spines not much higher than the 
others. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

* Regarding the dorsal spines "in fact the height of these spines appear to vary very much, and I rally believe that D. 
balteatum is a variety of D. pictv/m."— Gunther, Catal. i, p. 328. If therefore the number of spines and rays likewise vary, and the 
colours are subject to considerable modifications, great caution becomes necessary to prevent falling into the error of considering a 
variety as a distinct species. 



78 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

3. Diagramma Orientate, D. ty-Vsj -A- f- Yellowish-white, with four or five complete or interrupted 
chestnut bands. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

4. Diagramma cinctum, D. -j-|-tt, A. -f-. Slatey-grey, covered with large black blotches which also exist 
on the fins. Sind, China, and Japan. 

5. Diagramma griseum, D. xil-g-f-, -A- t-t- Grey : fins blackish. East coast of Africa, seas of India. 

6. Diagramma pictum, D. zf-Hi -A-. -f. Front portion of spinous dorsal elevated. Caudal rounded. 
Longitudinally banded. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

7. Diagramma punctatum, D. 2?I|-J , A. -§•. Front portion of spinous dorsal not elevated : caudal notched, 
spotted and blotched with yellow. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

8. Diagrannma picoides, D. ^f, A. f. Four large light blotches. Indian seas. 

1. Diagramma crassispinum, Plate XX, fig. 4. 

Diagramma crassispimim, Rilppell, X. W. Fische, p. 125, t. 30, f. 4 ; Bleeker, Scisen. p. 26 ; Giinther, 
Catal. i, p. 319 ; FJunz. Verb. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 738. 

Pristipoma nigrum, Cantor, Catal. p. 74 ; ? Cuv. and Val. v, p. 258 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 289. 

Diagramma affine, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 319 ;* Playfair, Fishes of Zanzibar, p. 26. 

Diagramma nigrum, Day, Malabar Fishes, p. 23. 

Diagramma altum, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 514 (young). 

Plectorhynchus crassispina, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 232 and Rev. Plec. 1873, p. 277. 

B. vii, D. yJJnr, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 50-60, L. r. f£:ff, L. tr. 10/17, Case. pyl. 6. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body in the adult 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
in the adult 2/9 of length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and more than one apart. The maxilla 
does not reach so far in the adult as to below the front edge of the orbit. Open pores but no groove below 
the mandible. Vertical limb of jsreopercle finely serrated in the adult, more coarsely so in the young, and its 
angle rounded, posterior half of its horizontal limb serrated. Teeth — villiform in the jaws. Fins — dorsal 
spines strong, the alternate ones thicker on one side, the fourth the highest, nearly equalling the length of the 
head without the snout : pectoral rather longer than the highest dorsal spine, it reaches to rather beyond the 
ventral, which latter extends three-fourths of the way to the anus. Second anal spine much stronger than the 
third, it equals the highest of the dorsal fin. Free portion of tail rather longer than high at its commencement. 
Colours — greyish, or slatey-grey, with a violet tinge over the head, and a brassy one on the body : fins nearly 
black. A few irregular coppery spots on the body, and a tinge of the same colour over the spinous dorsal : the 
other fins of a violet slate-colour, lightest along their centres. In the young the caudal is yellowish-white, and 
in one specimen having a dark caudal, which I kept a few years in spirit I now find the fin nearly white, 
the colouring matter having disappeared. 

This fish appears to alter considerably with age. The height of the body is at first equal to nearly 
half of the total length. In some the maxilla extends to below the first third of the orbit, in others to beneath 
the posterior nostril ; whilst the size of the eye varies in individual specimens. 

The specimen marked Diagramma crassispinum in the British Museum, received from Zanzibar, is a skin 
under 10 inches in length, and not in a good state ; the spines are a little shorter than in a Malabar specimen 
of the same size, irrespective of which it has several narrow black bands passing backwards and downwards 
from the base of the dorsal fin over the body. 

Jerdon, M. J. L. and S. 1851, observes of Scolopsides ; " a fourth species is also found, of which, however, 
I only saw one specimen. Its colours were inky black, with the edges of the soft dorsal white, and the caudal 
pale yellowish- white. It was called Tawooloo pinnel." The figure is amongst Sir W. Elliot's collection named 
as above by Jerdon, and is this species. 

Halitat. — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. It attains two feet or more in 
length and is good eating. 

2. Diagramma lineatum, Plate XX, fig. 5. 

Scicena lineata, Linn. Mus, Ad, Frid. t. xxxi, f. 4. 

Perca diagramma et lineata, Gmel. Linn. p. 1319, 

Grammistes lineatus, Bl. Schn, p. 186. 

Diagramma lineatum, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 309 : Bleeker, Amboina, iv, p. 112 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 330 ; 
Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 735. 

Diagramma Lessonii, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 313 ; Less. Voy. Coq. Zool. ii, p. 119, pi. 24 ; Bleeker, Bat. 
p. 463 : Giinther, Catal. i, p. 329, and Fische d, Sudsee, p. 28, t. xxiii. 

Diagramma albovittatum, Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 125, t. xxxi, fig. 2 ; Bleeker, Makass. p. 46 ; Giinther, 
Catal. i, p. 330 ; Klunz. 1. c. p. 736. 

Plectorhynchus lineatus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxviii, f. 4, Ternate, p. 232 and Revis. Plector. p. 286. 

Plectorhynchus Lessoni, Bleeker, Atl. Ich, Perc, t. xxxix, fig. 3 and Revis. Plector. p. 288. 

Plectorhynchus albovittatus, Bleeker, Revis. Plector. p. 280. 

* References to the plates and figures cited in the British Museum Catalogue are omitted as misleading, for such hare not 
been published, and the figures do not now exist. 



FAMILY, I— PERCHLE. 79 

B. vi, D. |f:«, P- 19., V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 59, L. r. ££, L. far. 13/24. 

Length of head about 1/4, of caudal 1/6, height of body from 4/13 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter from 1/3 to 2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. Dorsal profile 
much more convex than that of the abdomen, profile of head parabolic. The maxilla reaches to below the 
front third of the orbit. The depth of the preorbital nearly equals the diameter of the eye. Vertical limb of 
preopercle very slightly emarginate, its angle rounded, and the whole finely and evenly serrated. Teeth — fine. 
Fins —dorsal spines strong, every alternate one broadest on one side, they increase in height to the fourth, 
which equals two-fifths or one-third of that of the body, the last being about one-fifth shorter, soft portion of 
the fin gradually increasing in height, its middle third being higher than the spinous. Pectoral as long as the 
head without the snout : ventral reaching three-fourths of the distance to the anal, the second spine of which 
latter fin is stronger and slightly longer than the third, equalling the length of the head behind the middle of 
the orbit : caudal rounded, or cut rather square. Colours — D. lineatum, yellowish- white superiorly, becoming 
white along the sides and on the abdomen : about six chestnut-coloured bands, the upper being wider than the 
ground colour, extend from the head along the body, the two first below the soft dorsal fin, coalescing and 
being continued along its centre as far as its termination in a wedge-shaped form : the third passes through 
the upper third of the eye along the side to a little above the centre of the caudal fin, and in its course 
touches the lower edge of the soft dorsal : the fourth arises by one or two roots below the eye, and goes to 
the lower third of the caudal, and joining with the last band, is continued in a pointed manner to its 
termination : the fifth proceeds from the angle of the mouth to the lower edge of the base of the caudal, and 
the sixth from below it to the lower edge of the soft portion of the anal : fins yellow, with sometimes one or , 
more dark blotches : dorsal with a dark edge, which may be confined to its soft portion : three oblique bands 
across either caudal lobe, which are occasionally broken up into blotches : a band along the middle of the 
anal fin. 

Variety. — Diagrarnma albovittatum, silvery- white above, becoming yellowish-white below, a dark chestnut 
median band commences on the occiput opposite the middle of the eye, and goes to the anterior dorsal spine, 
being continued first along the bases of the spines, but attaining their middle posteriorly, it joins the 
second band : the second chestnut band commences on the snout and passes above the eye, and gradually 
increasing in width posteriorly, arrives at the base of the soft dorsal, and is continued along its middle as 
far as its termination in a wedge-shaped form : the third band, which may be considered the coalescence of 
the two in D. lineatum, extends from the snout through the eye, becomes the widest, and arriving at the 
centre of the base of the tail, diminishes in width, and is continued in a wedge-shape to the termination of 
the fin. Fins yellow, a narrow dark edge to the spinous dorsal, which increases in width over the soft portion : 
two oblique dark bands across the upper caudal lobe and one along the lower : a darkish edge to ventrals, 
and the outer half of anal with a dark band. 

In some specimens a wide chestnut coloured band appears to extend from below the eye, covering the 
abdomen, and leaving only a very narrow interspace of whitish ground colour between it and the band 
immediately above it; in such specimens the colour of the body appears to be chestnut, with three narrow 
white or light longitudinal bands. It must, however, be evident that other points being identical, this fomi 
is merely the I), lineatum* with three instead of six longitudinal body bands, which, due to their decrease in 
number, show an increase in width. 

Bleeker (Revis. Plector. p. 282) observes that albovittatum has no dark border to the spinous dorsal, 
nor spots on the paired fins, whilst the dorsal spines are of about equal length. A frontal profile little or 
not at all convex, L. r. •§-§■• The specimen I have figured has L. r. ff, and appears to so connect the two 
species that it is difiicult to say to which it belongs, the colours and form of the spinous dorsal being such as 
refers it more to lineatum than albovittatum, but the number of scales, absence of spots on the paired fins, and 
a black edge to the spinous dorsal, being such as have been pointed out as characteristic of albovittatum. 

In the Catalogue of Fishes of the British Museum, i, p. 830, Bodian Cuvier, Bennett Fish. Ceylon, p. 13, 
fig. 13 is referred to Diagrarnma lineatum.f In the "Fishes of Zanzibar," p. 28, under the head of Diagrarnma 
Cuvieri, is Seba,'iii, 27, 19, Bodian Cuvier, Bennett, and Diagrarnma Seba, Bleeker, whilst D. Lessonii 
(I. e.) is recorded as a distinct species. In the "Fische d. Sudsee," p. 28, the synonyms for D. Lessonii are 
D. seba, Bleeker, but Bennett's fish is not referred to. Bleeker in his revision of these fishes (pp. 288-9) 
observes that Lessonii is very near lineatus, and may represent its adult age, the formula of the scales and 
rays being identical. 

Turning to Bleeker's figure of D. Sebce, = D. Lessonii, Giinther, the anterior dorsal spines in the former 
appear to be more elevated. If the two longitudinal bands from the eye in the figure referred to were 
amalgamated, and the fin marks reduced to blotches or spots so frequently the case in large specimens, 

* Klunzinger (Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien. 1870, p. 736) observes that D. Blochii differs from D. albovittatum in having 10 dorsal 
spines, &c, and places D. lineatum (1. c. p. 735) as a variety of B. pwictatum. 

■f It is also a subject worthy of consideration whether Plectorhynchus polytmnia = P. polytamiaides, Bleeker, L. r. *jy>, is 
not identical with P. GoUmani, = P. hcematocldr, L. 1. VV°> tQe former having a blnish instead of a yellowish-white ground colour, 
and the bands being light brown instead of dark chestnut, whilst the deficiency of colouring matter accounts for the absence of spots 
on the fins of the former but present in the latter. The colouring of P. Goldmani again approaches very nearly that of P. or 
Diagrarnma Seba, Bleeker, L. 1. Yq°> "which, as observed, is considered by Dr. Giinther as identical with D. Lessonii, which is a variety 
of D. UneoMm. 



SO ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

tlieeolours would considerably resemble those of Imeatum; the three upper bands would only have to be conjoined 
and continued on to the dorsal fin, when albomttatum would be reproduced. But Bleeker observes that the 
scales are L. r. yy, and more than are found in Imeatum or Lessonii : were it not for that fact, one would 
almost feel inclined to agree with Dr. Gimtker, and place it as another synonym of Imeatum. 

It is very desirable that some one residing where these fishes are to be obtained in quantities, as Sind 
or the Andamans, would bring together a large number, of all sizes, at different seasons of the year, carefully 
examine the sexes, and the number of their CEecal appendages whilst they are in a fresh state, making a comparison 
between all the differently coloured ones, the result I anticipate would be, as in the Sen-ami, that a conclusion 
must be arrived at, that there are many varieties but comparatively few species. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen figured was 
given me by Dr. Shortt, Inspector General of Vaccination for the Madras Presidency, who received it whilst 
fresh at Cuddalore in 1867. Personally I never obtained a specimen of this genus along the Coromandel coast. 

3. Diagramma Orientale, Plate XX, fig. 6. 

Aniliias Orientalis, Bloch. t. 326, fig. 3 ; Bl. Schn. p. 306. 

Lutjanus aurantius, Lacep. iv, p. 239. 

Serranus Orientalis, Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 318. 

Diagramma pica, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 297; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 326, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 27, 
t. xxii, fig. A. 

Diagramma Orientale, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 299, pi. 124 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Sciam. p. 23 ; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 326 and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 28, taf. xxii, fig. B and C. 

Diagramma Sibbaldii, Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 182. 

Pledorliynclms Orientalis, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 218 ; Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxviii, fig. 3, and Revis. 
Plectorh. p. 295. 

B. vi, D. ^Jb, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. r. W, &■ <*■ 13/25. 

Length of head from 3/13 to 2/9, of caudal 1/6 to 1/7, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter from 1/3 to 2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from the end of snout. Dorsal profile much more convex 
than the abdominal : profile of head parabolic. The maxilla reaches to below the front third of the orbit : the 
depth of the preorbital nearly equals the diameter of the eye. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated, its angle 
not produced. Teeth — generic. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate' strength, every alternate one strongest on one 
side, the second nearly as high as the third which is the longest in the fin and equals from half to two-fifths of 
the height of the body, the last being from one-third to one-half shorter : soft portion of the fin gradually 
increasing in height, its middle third being higher than the spinous. Pectoral as long as the head without the 
snout : ventral reaching three-fourths of the distance to the anal, the second spine of which latter fin is 
stronger and longer than the third, equalling the length of the head posterior to the middle of the eye : caudal 
rounded or cut rather square. Colours — yellowish superiorly, becoming white on the sides and beneath, the body 
with several chestnut bands nearly or quite as wide as the ground-colour. There may be four or five complete 
or interrupted horizontal bands along the snout and head, which form three or four on the body : the highest 
going to the base of the spinous dorsal : the second, usually interrupted, to the first two-thirds of the base of the soft 
dorsal : the third bifurcating beyond the end of the pectoral fin divides into two, the superior, often interrupted, 
going to the upper portion of the caudal fin, and the inferior to its lower portion, on the caudal these two bands 
gradually approximate or even coalesce, and are so continued to the centre of the fins termination : the lowest 
body band goes from below the pectoral fin to the end of the base of the anal. Spinous dorsal with a narrow 
dark upper edge : a dark angular band along its base, which is anteriorly two-thirds as high as the spines, but 
ending in a point at the base of the last spine : a similar wedge-shaped band exists on the soft dorsal, its base 
being along the origin of the first ten or twelve rays and its apex at the upper termination of the same rays. 
Pectoral yellowish, with a dark blotch covering all but its margin : a black band along the middle of the 
anal and an oblique one across either lobe of the caudal, the lower being sometimes divided into two, or having 
a light spot in its centre. 

The Orientale figured in Bloch, Cuv. and Val., and in Garrett's Fische d. Sudsee shows much of the 
colouring of D. pica : — a band passes vertically from the upper surface of the head behind the eye to the angle of 
the mouth, and from it proceeds a wide single horizontal one along the body which is more or less interrupted 
but eventually constitutes a central caudal band : from this lateral band one may proceed directly upwards and 
form the basal blotch on the spinous dorsal, or it may be interrupted in this course ; a second band proceeds 
upwards and forms the blotch on the soft dorsal : a lower band likewise proceeds from the base of the pectoral 
to the end of the anal joining the band on that fin : the marks on the fins are as in the first variety. 

That this species is very closely related to D. lineatum is apparent : its colouring is evidently a 
modification of identical bands somewhat differently disposed. The dorsal spines however differ, and to judge 
by this question solely would cause Bennett's figure of Bodian Cuvier, p. 13, fig. 13, to be a Diagramma with 
much the form of Orientale and the colouring of D. lineatum. Cantor indeed observes of it, " in the absence 
of a detailed description * * the species cannot be determined." 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 



FAMILY, I— PERCIM!. 81 

4. Diagramma cinctum, Plate XXI, fig. 1. 

Diagramma cinctum, Temin. and Schleg. Fauna Japonica, Poiss. p. 61, pi. 26, f. 1 ; Richardson, Ich. 
China, p. 226 ; Gihither, Catal. i, p. 325. 

B. to, D. tj.+t, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 56, L. r. ffiff, L. tr. 14/20. 

Length of head 3/11, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 4j in length 
of head, lj diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. A considerable rise from the snout to the base of the 
dorsal fin : upper jaw slightly the longer. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Vertical 
margin of preopercle also shoulder-bone serrated. Teeth — villiform in the jaws. Fins — dorsal spines strong, 
increasing in length to the fourth and fifth, which are equal in height to nearly half that of the body, from 
the fifth they decrease in length : soft portions of dorsal and anal rounded. Pectoral half as long as the body 
is high, it does not reach so far as the ventral, which last extends three-fourths of the way to the anal : second 
anal spine much stronger and longer than the third, it equals nearly 1/3 the height of the body and the length 
of the postorbital portion of the head : caudal cut square. Colours — slaty-grey, the upper half of the anterior 
and the whole of the posterior portion of the body covered with large black blotches. Two rows of black 
blotches and an outer black margin to the dorsal fin, usually an additional row on the soft portion : caudal 
and soft portion of the anal likewise with black blotches and a black margin : ventral nearly black : pectoral 
yellow. The bands on the body alluded to in the ' Fauna Japonica' and shown in the plate do not exist in my 
Indian specimens. 

Habitat. — Sind, where it is not uncommon, attaining to two feet in length ; also in China and Japan. In 
the British Museum is a specimen marked "g. adult: skin. Nepal? Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq." 
(Catal. vol. i, p. 326.) ; this marine fish, it is almost unnecessary to observe, could not have been captured in 
such a locality, but was probably obtained from the mouth of the Hooghly along with several other sea fish, 
which are likewise recorded as from Nepal and sent by Mr. Hodgson. 

5. Diagramma griseum, Plate XXI, fig. 2. 

Cuv. and Val. v, p. 306 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 321 ; Playfair, Fishes of Zanzibar, p. 26, pi. iv, fig. 3, 
var. b. and Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 851.* 

B. to, D. iiiif, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. T ? T , C. 17, L. 1. 63, L. r. f|:ff, L. tr. 13/26, Case, pyl. 9. 

Length of head 3/11 to 1/4, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter from 
2/7 in the young to 1/4 of length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. The profile from the 
snout to occiput more obtuse in adults than in the young. The maxilla reaches to below the posterior nostril. 
Vertical limb of preopercle rather strongly and evenly serrated, angle rounded and also serrated. Shoulder- 
bone serrated. Teeth — villiform in the jaws. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the third or fourth 
the highest and equal to the length of the postorbital portion of the head, from thence they gradually decrease 
to the last ; height of soft dorsal scarcely exceeds that of one-third of the body. Pectoral as long as head without 
the snout and of about equal length to the ventral : second anal spine strongest and longest, equalling the 
distance between the middle of the orbit and the end of the head in the young or merely the postorbital portion 
in the adult : caudal slightly emarginate. Free portion of tail as deep at its commencemeut as it is long. 
Scales — in oblique rows above the lateral-line, some are present on the preorbital. Colours — uniform grey or 
olive-grey with the fins nearly or quite black. In the young the general colour is olive, with some sinuous 
and narrow light blue lines over the snout and cheeks, but which usually fade shortly after death. There are 
also several sinuous blue lines taking an oblique direction from the head upwards, and which extend to nearly 
the length of the body. Also a black mark over the posterior end of. the free portion of the tail. 

Variety. — " Colour grey above, white below, with four whitish curved cross bands ; the first crosses the 
forehead and terminates at the angles of the operculum and preoperculum : the second proceeds from the 
second dorsal spine, in the direction of the root of the ventrals : the third runs parallel to the last from the 
seventh and eighth dorsal spines ; and the last, also parallel, runs from the first anal ray to the posterior of 
anal. Fins blackish, immaculate. Length 4f- to 17 inches." (" Fishes of Zanzibar," p. 26.) 

■Diagramma sordidum, Klunz. (Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 67) = ? Saicena schotaf, Forsk. (p. 51) has 
the sixth dorsal spine the highest and slightly longer than in B. griseum, D. if, A. f . The above is from one 
of the type specimens which closely resembles D. griseum. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, Beloochistan and seas of India, attaining at least 18 inches in length. 
It is very common in Sind and Bombay. Specimen figured 6 inches long. 

6. Diagramma pictum, Plate XXI, fig. 3, 

Fercaficta, Thunb. Nya Hand! xiii, 1792, p. 142, pi. v, fig. 1. 
Scimna abu mgaterin, Forsk. p. 51. 

* Col. Playfair observes that " several specimens of this fish were caught in a mountain-torrent in Seychelles, which loses 
itself in a sand-bank without reaching the sea. The only direct communication between the two is after unusually heavy floods, so 
that it would appear that this salt water species not only visits, but habitually lives in fresh water." This conclusion requires modification, 
the species perhaps, as is common with many other marine forms in the East, entered the river with the rain floods, and owing to a 
sudden subsidence, return to the ocean became cut off, and those which did not die were waiting for the next rains to allow them to 
escape to the sea (sea page 68 ante). 

M 



82 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Anthias diagramma, Bloch, t. 320 (var. Blochii). 

Grammistes pictus, Bl. Sell. pp. 184, 190. 

Holocentrus radjabou, Lacep. iv, pp. 335, 374. 

Lutjanus pictus, Lacep. v, pp. 687, 688. 

Diagramma Blochii, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 312 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 329. 

? Diagramma pcecilopterum, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 314 ; Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. Poiss. p. 61 ; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 329. 

Diagramma pictum, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 315 ; Tern, and Schleg. Fauna Japon. p. 62 ; Richardson, Ich. 
China, p. 227; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 327. 

Diagramma balteatum, (Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. v, p. 316. 

Plectorhynchus Blochii, Cantor, Catal. p. 77. 

Plectorhynchus balteatus, Cantor, Catal. p. 78. 

Plectorhynchus punctatus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. xxii, fig. 1, Ceram, p. 187, and Revis. Plector. p. 298. 

B. vi, D. Jilts, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, L. r. Ǥ, L. tr. 15/26. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 2/13, height of body 4/15 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 (in the 
young) to 2/9 of the length of head, lj to 2 diameters from the end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. The maxilla 
reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Teeth — generic. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the 
first short, the third usually the highest and equalling about one half the depth of the body, the second and 
fourth spines are of nearly the same height but variations are constantly found, the last dorsal spine is about 
one fourth of the height of the body, and the rays a little higher than the anterior or most elevated portion of 
the spines. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout : the second and third anal spines of about the 
same length and equal to about half the length of the head or the height of the sixth dorsal spine : caudal cut 
nearly square, or with rounded angles. Colours — This fish having been divided into several species due to 
variations in colour, I propose describing such in accordance with what appears to me to be that most readily 
explained. Diagramma Blochii (variety) orange yellow or white, with chestnut brown or black longitudinal 
bands, the upper three of which commence between the eye and the base of the first dorsal spine, the superior 
narrow runs along the base of the spinous dorsal and joins the one on the dorsal fin: the second and third are 
broader and coalesce above the middle of the pectoral fin, becomiug lost below the base of the soft dorsal and 
on the upper edge of the free portion of the tail : the fourth and fifth proceed from the snout, through the eye, 
and go direct to the centre of the base of the caudal, where they join and are continued to the end of the fin 
in a wedge-shaped form : below these bands are one or two more, the upper of which goes to the lower edge of 
the free portion of the tail. Dorsal fin with a narrow black margin, a broad dark band runs from the upper 
two-thirds of its second spine backwards and downwards to the base of the fin, leaving the lower third of the 
second and third spines uncovered, this band is sometimes interrupted (as shown by Bloch), causing a black 
spot to exist between its third and fourth spines ; if continuous (as in PI. xxi, fig. 3), it coalesces with the 
upper body band, and is continued in a wedge-shaped form to the posterior-superior angle of the soft dorsal 
fin. Caudal with a central wedge-shaped dark band, and a cross-band over its upper and lower angles, these 
are frequently broken up into spots : the lower half of the anal and the end of the ventral black.* 

A very interesting form of colouring exists in a specimen with D. —^ from Madras, presented by Dr. 
Jerdon to the British Museum, it is the intermediate form of ornamental colouring between D. Blochii and 
D. pictum, the two bands which pass backwards from the eye to the caudal fin become merged into one below 
the middle of the soft dorsal. 

Diagramma pictum has the same ground colour as D. Blochii with fewer but wider longitudinal bands : 
the first, second, and third bands coalesce much sooner, the upper two below the middle or end of the 
spinous dorsal, and the second and third on the nape : whilst the two bands which pass backwards from 
the eye to the caudal fin, and which coalesce in Dr. Jerdon's specimen below the middle of the soft dorsal, in 
the typical pictum form a single broad one by the amalgamation of them in their whole length from the eye to 
the tail. The fins are coloured as described for D. Blochii, in short the immature appear to be generally 
coloured as hi the typical D. pictum. 

Bleeker's figure of Plectorhynchus punctatus is this species, the ornamental colouring being increased 
by the addition of some extra intermediate bands which are broken up into spots : the ventral and anal are 
likewise darker, due to the existence of additional colour. 

In a bad skin in the British Museum, marked D. Blochii with D. -i-f-, all the longitudinal bands are 
broken up into a series of elongated spots or blotches. 

Having remarked how the wide bands in the typical D. pictum are liable to be varied by the existence 
of more numerous but narrower ones in D. Blochii it remains to be observed that they may be further 
modified by being broken up into rows of oblong blotches or spots ; or when narrow bands exist they may be 
alternately complete or interrupted as in D. pcecilopterum. 

* Col. Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 28, apparently on the authority of a single skin, asserts " the colour of the adult is dark 
grey, with darker longitudinal lines and series of spots ; fins blackish, except pectorals, which are grey." But as specimens with 
the colouring of the typical Blochii exist as large as the grey lineated one, I think it would be preferable to consider such as haying 
a peculiar form of colouring. However, a doubt is raised as to whether Diagramma Blochii, Cuv. and Val., is Anthias diagramma. 
Bloch, as he remarks "the younger specimen agrees perfectly with the Anthias diagramma of Bloch, although it is doubtful whether it 
is the same as the D. Blochii of Cuvier and Valenciennes, winch is only known from a figure taken at Trincomalee." 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 83 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago arid beyond. The 
specimen is figured life-size. 

7. Diagramma punctatum, Plate XXI, fig. 4. 

(Ehren.) Cuv. and Val. v, p. 302 ; Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. p. 60, pi. xxvi, A ; Riipp. Atl. 
Fische, p. 126, t. 32, f. 2, and N. W. Fische, p. 125 ; Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astrol. Poiss. p. 699, pi. xii, fig. 2 ; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 323 ; Kner, Novara, Fische, p. 54; Klunzing. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 734 (part;. 

Diagramma cinerascens, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 307 ; Rupp. Atl. p. 127. 

? Diagramma centurio, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 308; Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 27. 

Flectorhynchus punctatus, Bleeker, Ceram. p. 187 and. Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxii, f. 1. 

B. vii, D. yfi^a, P. 17, V 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. r. W=W. L - tr - 15 / 20 - 

Length of head from 4/17 to 2/9, of caudal from 1/8 to 1/9, height of body 2/7 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter from 2/9 to 1/4 of length of head, If to 2 diameters from end of snout, and about 1 apart. 
Dorsal profile much more convex than that of the abdomen. The maxilla reaches to below the hind nostril. 
Vertical border of preopercle serrated, as is also its rounded angle. Shoulder-bone serrated. Teeth — ■ 
villiform. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, the second and third being the longest and equal to two- 
frfths of the length of the head : second anal spine slightly the strongest but the third a little the longest : 
caudal lunated : the distance the ventral fins extend varies considerably with the age of the fish, becoming 
comparatively very much shorter in the larger specimens. Colours — greyish, several rows of large brilliant 
golden spots along the upper half of the body : three short bluish bands pass from the eye across the 
opercle, and two more in the same direction between the eye and the angle of the mouth, these bands are 
continued on to the body between the rows of spots. Two rows of brownish spots dashed with yellow 
exist on the hard dorsal as well as a light longitudinal band : soft dorsal with similar spots much wider than the 
ground colour : caudal the same : anal and ventral likewise spotted, the latter being greyish externally : pectoral 
golden. 

In a specimen 27| inches in length the colouring varied, it being of an uniform greyish-brown, some small 
ill-defined spots on the soft dorsal : the caudal covered with small circular brown marks as well as the outer half 
of the anal : ventral externally greyish. 

Bleeker (Revis. Plector. p. 301) considers D. pictum and D. punctatum as the young and adult of one 
species, the colours and the form of the dorsal changing with age. My specimens however show D. picbwm 
(figured life-size) with L. r. JLg-g, and D. punctatum (at 10 inches in length, PL xxi, fig. 4), with L. r. 1 §-§-, and a 
specimen 2 1\ inches with L. r. 1 -§-§. But Dr. Bleeker having, as he observes, 43 specimens which show the 
gradations, make one very doubtful whether this species may not be the adult of pictum. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

8. Diagramma picoides. 
Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1866, p. 94. 
B. vii, D. if, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 100, L. r. fHb L. tr. 16-17/31-32. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal nearly 1/7, height of body 4/17 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/9 of length of head, If diameters from end of snout, and If apart. Fins — the spines of the dorsal are of 
moderate height, the third being a little more than 1/3 of the height of the body : ventral spine longer than the 
third of the dorsal fin : the second anal spine is slightly longer and much stronger than the third, and one-third 
longer than the highest in the dorsal fin. Colours — upper 1/2 of body black with four large light blotches, one 
being over the snout : a second across the nape : a third under the commencement of the dorsal rays, and the 
last over the free portion of the tail. The white colour of the abdomen is divided in a zig-zag or wavy line 
from the black of the back. On the tail where there is a row of black spots, the white colour merges into the 
upper spot. Dorsal fin with a black base and upper edge, and having a white median longitudinal band. The 
anal and caudal with irregular black spots. 

Habitat. — A dried example nearly 12 inches long was obtained by Lamare Pigout, most probably in the 
East Indies, but it might have come from the Mauritius, or even the Cape of Good Hope. 

Genus, 20 — Lobotes, Cuv. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchice. Body and fins somewhat elevated : upper profile of head concave. 
Eyes rather small. Mouth moderately protractile, its cleft oblique, lower jaw the longer. Opercle with obtuse points : 
preopercle serrated. Villiform teeth in the jaws having an external enlarged and somewhat conical row, but without 
canines : palate edentulous. One dorsal fin with twelve stout splines : anal with three : caudal rounded. Scales 
ctenoid, of moderate size, extended over the head. Air-vessel simple, without any constriction. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of India, China, and Atlantic coasts of America. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Lobotes Surinamensis, Bloch, D. yj-y-g-, A. tt-T3> ^- 1- 48. Brassy-brown blotched with darker. East 
coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

n 2 



84 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Lobotes Surinamensis, Plate XXI, fig. 5. 

Holocentrus Surinamensis, Bloch, t. 243 ; Bl. Schn. p. 316. 

Lobotes Surinamensis, Cuv. and Val. v, 319 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 24. 

Lolotes erate, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 322 ; Bleeker, Scieen. p. 26, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxiii, fig. 4 ; Cantor, 
Catal. p. 80. 

Lobotes Farkharii et somnolentus, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 324. 

Lobotes auctorum, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 338. 

Parrandee, Mai. : Musalli, Tarn. : Ghota bekkut, Ooriah. 

B. vi, D. JL p. i 5 .i7, V . 1/5, A. „!„, C. 17, L. r. ||:|-f, L. tr. 9-11/22, Caec. pyl. 4 (3), 
Vert. 13/11. 

Length of head from 3| to 3f , of caudal 1/6, height of body 2| to 1/3 in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/6 to 1/7 of the length of head, 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 1| to 2 apart. A concavity in 
the dorsal profile over the eyes. The maxilla reaches to below the anterior third of the orbit. Vertical limb of 
preopercle denticulated, with spinate teeth at its rounded and slightly produced angle : horizontal limb entire. 
Shoulder-bone and one in axilla denticulated. Teeth — fine. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the fourth to the seventh 
of about the same height and the longest equal to half the length of the head ; soft portion of the fin higher than 
the spinous. Pectoral rounded, half as long as the head : third anal spine longer than the second, and equal to 1/4 
or 2/9 of height of body : soft portions of dorsal and anal rather angular : caudal rounded. Air-vessel — large, 
thin, and lanceolate in shape. Colours — brassy-brown blotched with darker, and having the extremity of the 
caudal and the pectoral of a dirty yellowish-white : the other fins are of a slate colour. 

This fish varies considerably with age ; and Dr. Giinther, under the designation of Lobotes auctorum, gives 
as its range, " Atlantic coasts of America from New York to the coast of Surinam ; Carribean sea ; Ceylon, 
Bay of Bengal, Sunda, Molucca, and Chinese seas." — Catal. i, p. 338. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining at least 2f 
feet in length. It is excellent as food. 

Genus, 21 — Scolopsis, Cuv. anal Val. 

Scolopsides, Cuv. 

Branchiostegals five : pseudobranchiai. Body oblong. Eyes of moderate or large size. Mouth moderately 
protractile: jaws of nearly equal length anteriorly : cleft of mouth horizontal. Infraorbital arch with a spine directed 
backwards : preopercle as a rule serrated, and often the suborbital ring : opercle with a weak spine. A single dorsal 
fin with ten spines : anal with three : caudal emarginate or forked. Scales ctenoid. Air-vessel without any 
constriction, simple. Pyloric appendages fevj. 

Geographical distribution. — From the Red Sea, and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. The largest numbers and greatest varieties of species in this Genus are taken 
off the coasts of Sind and Bombay, also at the Andamans and Nicobars. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Scolopsis bimaculatus, D. y, A. f, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 4|/14. Greyish, a broad white opercular band : two 
black blotches on the lateral-line, the first from the eleventh to the twenty-second scale : the second behind the 
end of the dorsal fin. Red Sea, seas of India to China. 

2. Scolopsis phceops, D. u>, A. f, L. 1. 46-48, L. tr. 5/16. A light band along the base of the dorsal fin: 
a blue band from the eye to the upper jaw ; a second to the axilla where it ends in a blue spot. East coast of 
Africa, and seas of India. 

3. Scolopsis bilineatus, D. u>, A. f, L. 1. 46, L. tr. 4/14. A white band from snout to base of dorsal 
spines : a second from above the orbit to a little way below the last dorsal spine : a third from the upper edge of 
the eye to the lateral-line. A wide yellow, black-edged band from the mouth to the soft dorsal. A large yellow 
blotch below the last half of the soft dorsal, which latter is anteriorly edged with black : anal with its front half 
black. Andamans and Malay Archipelago. 

4. Scolopsis glianam, D. 1 J ) A. f, L. 1. 46, L. tr. 4/14. A light band from the snout to the base of the 
dorsal spines : a second from above the eye to the end of the dorsal fin : a third from the eye to the shoulder 
where it divides into two and is continued backwards : a black spot in the axilla. Red Sea and Andamans. 

5. Scolopsis monogramma, D. r -£, A. -f, L. 1. 44, L. tr. 5/14. A deep black band from the eye to above the 
base of the caudal fin. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 

6. Scolopsis cancellatus, D. y, A. f, L. 1. 44, L. tr. 3|/14. A white streak from snout to first dorsal 
spine : a second from over orbit to the end of the base of the dorsal : a third from the upper third of the eye to 
opposite the end of the pectoral : a fourth from the middle of the eye to the upper third of the caudal. Several 
irregular and wide vertical body bands. A black spot between first and third dorsal spines. Andamans to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

7. Scolopsis Vosmeri, D. y>, A. f , L. 1. 42-44, L. tr. 3^-4/14. Serrations on preopercle directed backwards 
in the immature, outwards in the adult. A light band over the opercles, and a longitudinal light line along the 
body. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

8. Scolopsis leucotaznia, D. u>, A. f, L. 1. 39, L. tr. 3|/13. A light band edged with dark above and below, 
going from the eye to the upper half of the caudal fin : usually a dark spot on the dorsal fin. Bombay to the 
Malay Archipelago. 



FAMILY, I-PERCID^E. 85 

9. Scolopsis ciliatus, D. y, A. f, L. I. 40, L. tr. 4/15. A silvery line from between the lateral-line and 
the back, from near the head to the commencement of the soft dorsal : most of the scales below the lateral-line 
with a golden spot. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Scolopsis bimaculatus, Plate XXII, fig. 1. 

Riippell, Atl. Fische, p. 8, t. ii, f. 2, and N. W. Fische, p. 126 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 357; Klunz. Verb. z. 
b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 740 ; Bleeker, Revis. Scolop. p. 367. 
Scolopsides bimaculatus, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 340. 

Scolopsides inermis, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 340 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 236, (not Tern, and Schleg.) 
Scolopsides monogramma, Bleeker, Sciam. p. 29, (ex parte.) 

B. v, D. V°, P- 18, V. 1/5, A. f, 0. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. if/14, 

Length of head about 1/4, of caudal 1/6, height of body 4/13 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/3 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 apart. The maxilla reaches to nearly beneath the 
front edge of the orbit. Preorbital 1/2 as high as the diameter of the orbit, having a strong spine, with four or 
five denticulations along the posterior margin of its plate. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated, most strongly so 
at the angle. Teeth — fine. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the fourth the highest being rather longer than the post- 
orbital portion of the head. Pectoral nearly as long as the head. Second anal spine stronger but shorter than 
the third, which equals one-third the length of the head : caudal lunated. Colours — greyish, becoming dull 
white on the abdomen : a broad light opercular band. Branchiostegal membranes blood-red. A brownish band 
over the snout, and one or two blotches on the lateral-line, the first large, being from the eleventh to the twenty- 
second scales, the second smaller and behind the posterior extremity of the dorsal fin, or the two may be 
conjoined. Fins orange, becoming reddish externally. Eyes silvery. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India and China. The specimen which is figured was captured at Madras in 
June, 1867, and is nearly 8f inches in length. Instead of having a long single blotch on the side, it has taken the 
form of two distinct ones. 

2. Scolopsis pkeops, Plate XXII, fig. 2. 

Scolopsides phceops, Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, i, p. 165. 

Scolopsis phceops, Giinter, Catal. i, p. 358. 

Scolopsis nototcenia, Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. '29, pi. v, fig. 2. 

B. v,D. V°, P- 16, V. 1/5, A. a C. 17, L. 1. 46-48, L. tr. 5/16. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4J, of caudal nearly 1/5, height of body 3| to 3J in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 2/9 of length of head, If diameters from end of snout, and If apart. Interorbital space rather convex 
transversely. Cleft of mouth somewhat oblique, the maxilla reaching to below the' front edge of the orbit. 
Preorbital spine of moderate size, with a strong denticulation on the posterior- inferior edge of the plate. 
Vertical limb of preopercle slightly emarginate, the angle being rounded and somewhat produced : on the vertical 
limb the serrations are strongest, superiorly decreasing in strength to above the angle where they become almost 
spinate. Teeth — in the jaws fine. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, increasing in length to the fourth 
which equals 1/3 of the height of the body. Pectoral equals the length of the head excluding the snout : third 
anal spine longer but not quite so strong as the second, and equalling 2/7 of the height of the body : caudal 
forked, upper lobe somewhat 'the longer. Colours — greenish-olive above the lateral-line, becoming yellowish- 
white below it : a narrow light band runs along the back close to the base of the dorsal fin. A wide bright blue 
band passes from the eye over the preorbital and upper maxillary bone ceasing a short distance between the 
centre of the upper jaw and the angle of the mouth : a second goes from the posterior edge of the eye to the axilla 
where it ends in a blue spot : fins reddish. 

In the dried skin shown me in the British Museum of S. nototcenia, Playfair, and as I understood the type, 
the anal spines are correctly described as " the two last spines are nearly equal in length, but the second is the 
stronger, they are about one-third of the length of the head :" (Fish. Zanz. p. 30,) but they have evidently been 
injured and grown again in an irregular manner. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India. Xot uncommon off Sind. The specimen figured is 
9-1- inches in length. 

3. Scolopsis bilineatus, Plate XXII, fig. 3. 

Anthias bilineatus, Bloch, t. 325, fig. 1 ; Bl. Schn. p. 306. 

Lutjanus ellipticus, Lacep. iv, p. 213. 

Scolopsides bilineatus, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 336 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Scisen. p. 28. 

Scolopsides lineatus, Bleeker, Solor. p. 73, (not Riipp.) 

Scolopsis bilineatus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 357 ; Bleeker, Revis. Scolop. p. 359. 

Scolopsis Bleeheri, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 361. 

B. v, D. V°, P- 16, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 46, L. tr. 4/14, Ca3C. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 1/4 or a little less, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
4/11 to 2/5 of length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below 
the front edge of the orbit or even to its first third in the adult. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated, and its angle 



S6 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

rather produced and rounded. A strong preorbital spine, with three teeth below it along the edge of the plate. 
Opercular spine distinct. Teeth — villiform. Fins — dorsal spines not strong, increasing in height to the fourth 
which equals 3/7 of the height of the body. Pectoral extends nearly to above the anal spines, the second of 
which is very strong, longer than the third, and equal to rather more than half of the height of the body : soft 
dorsal and anal angularly rounded ; caudal forked. Colours — a white band from the snout to the base of the 
dorsal spines : a second from above the orbit to a little way below the last dorsal spine : a third from the upper 
edge of the eye to the lateral-line. A wide yellow, black-margined band passes from the mouth to the commence- 
ment of the soft dorsal fin. A large yellow blotch exists below the last half of the soft dorsal, which latter fin 
is anteriorly edged with black : anal black in its front half and white posteriorly. 

In the young, 8. Bleeheri, Giinther, the light band bordered with black is nearly straight, and terminates 
where the white spot exists in the adult, near the end of the base of the soft dorsal : another light band proceeds 
from the upper edge of the eye to the base of the spinous portion of the dorsal fin ; whilst a third median one 
goes from the snout to the base of the first dorsal spine. 

Habitat. — Andamans and Malay Archipelago. The specimen is figured life-size. 

4. Scolopsis ghanam, Plate XXII, fig. 4. 

Scicena ghanam, Forsk. p. 50, No. 56. 

Holocentrus ghanam, Lacep. iv, p. 347. 

Scolopsis lineatus, Riipp. Atl. Fische, p. 7, pi. 2, fig. 1, and N. W. Fische, p. 126. 

Scolopsides ghanam, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 348. 

Scolopsis ghanam, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 362 ; Klunzinger, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 739. 

B. v, D. V°, P- 17, V. 1/5, A. f, L. 1. 46, L. tr. 4/14, Cjec. pyl. 6 (4). 

Length of head 1/4 to 4|, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3i to 3f in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 
of length of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Scaleless portion of the head covered 
with numerous small pores. The maxilla reaches to below the first fourth of the orbit. Preorbital sjDine strong, 
the plate denticulated on the edge beneath it : lower edge of suborbital ring of bones serrated. Vertical limb of 
preopercle strongly serrated, most coarsely so upon its produced angle. Opercular spine well developed. 
Shoulder-bone serrated. Teeth — fine. Fins— the dorsal spines which are rather weak increase in length to the 
fifth, the height of which nearly equals half the length of the head. Pectoral not quite so long as the head : 
anal spines of equal strength, the longest equalling the extent of the postorbital portion of the head : caudal 
deeply forked. Lateral-line — curves to opposite the end of the dorsal fin, from whence it proceeds direct to the 
centre of the caudal. Colours — back olive, a yellowish- white band goes from the snout to the base of the dorsal 
spines : a second from above the orbit to the end of the base of the dorsal fin : a third from the snout, where it 
arises in common with the one for the opposite side, passes through the upper portion of the eye and at the 
shoulder divides into two, one being above the lateral-line and becoming lost on the back of the tail, the other 
going below the lateral-line being lost on the last fourth of the body : a fourth goes along the preorbital and 
suborbital ring of bones being lost above the base of the pectoral fin which has a black spot in its axil. Most 
of the scales below the lateral-line in the anterior two-thirds of the body have a black spot at their bases. A 
violet mark is present at the base of either lobe of the caudal fin. 

Habitat. — Red Sea and Andaman islands, where it is very common. Specimen figured is 6 1 z p inches in 
length. 

5. Scolopsis monogramma, Plate XXII, fig. 5. 

Scolopsicles monogramma. (Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. v, p. 338. 
Scolopsis monogramma, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 358 ; Bleeker, Revis. Scolop. p. 369. 

B. v, D. V°, P- 17, V 1/5, A. a c. 17, L. 1. 44, L. tr. 5/14. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 4/15 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of length 
of head, nearly 1 diameter from end of snout and also apart. Upper surface of the head flat, and the scales 
extend forwards nearly to the nostrils. Preorbital bone with one flat spine having three small teeth at the 
anterior-inferior edge of the plate, the depth of which equals half the diameter of the orbit : infraorbital ring 
of bones finely serrated. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle 
almost evenly serrated as well as its rounded and somewhat produced angle. Shoulder-bone serrated. Teeth — 
villiform. Fins — dorsal spines slender, increasing in length to the fourth which equals 3/7 of the height of the 
body. Second anal spine stronger but not so long as the third which equals 3/10 of the height of the body : 
caudal forked. Lateral-line — makes a very gradual curve to below the end of the soft dorsal fin. Colours^ — 
olive with a deep black band, one scale wide, passing from the snout through the eye to above the base of the 
caudal fin, until it arrives below the end of the dorsal fin it is inferior to the lateral-line : fins immaculate. 

Habitat. — Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. Specimen figured is 5 inches long. 

6. Scolopsis cancellatus, Plate XXII, fig. 6. 
Scolopsides cancellatus, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 351 ;* Bleeker, Sciasn. p. 28. 

* It is suggested by Cut. and Val. that Scolopsis lineatus Quoy and Gaim. Voy. de M. Freyeinet, Zool. pi. 60, f. 3, may be this 
species badly delineated. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 67 

Scolopsis cancellatus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 361, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 30; Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. 
t. xxxi, fig. 2, and Revis. Scolop. p. 355. 

Scolopsis Bleekeri, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xvi, fig. 1, (not Giintlier.) 

B. v, D. V°, P- 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 44, L. tr. 3|/14. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 2/9, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 of length 
of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 apart. Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen. 
Interorbital space flat. Scaleless portion of the head studded with fine open pores. The maxilla reaches to 
below the front edge of the orbit. Preorbital spine of moderate length and strength, fluted and with one or 
two denticulations along the inferior edge of the plate. Some serrations on the suborbital ring of bones. 
Vertical limb of preopercle serrated, most coarsely so superiorly and at its slightly produced and rounded angle. 
Teeth — fine. Fins — dorsal spines weak, increasing in length to the fifth which is more than half as long as the 
head : pectoral as long as the head behind the front edge of the orbit : second anal spine stronger but a little 
shorter than the third which equals half the length of the head, Lateral-line — curves to opposite the end of 
the dorsal fin, from whence it proceeds direct to the centre of the caudal. Colours — greyish above and whitish 
below the lateral-line : a white streak goes from the snout to the base of the first dorsal spine : a second from 
over the orbit to the end of the base of the dorsal fin : a third from the upper third of the eye to opposite the 
end of the pectoral : a fourth from the middle of the eye to the upper third of the caudal. Several wide but 
irregular vertical bands pass from the back to the middle of the body. A black spot between the first and third 
dorsal spines in their lower half. Bleeker observes that the longitudinal bands are more distinct and regular in 
the young than in the adult, whilst the black spot on the spinous dorsal usually disappears with age. 

Habitat. — Andamans, to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. The specimen is figured life-size. 

7. Scolopsis Vosmeri, Plate XXIII, fig 1 (young) : 2 (semi-adult) : 3 (adult). 

Anthias Vosmeri, Bloch, t. 321. 
Anthias Vosmari, Bl. Schn. p. 304. 
Anthias Japonicus, Bloch, t. 325, f. 2 ; Bl. Schn. p. 307. 
Perca aurata, Mungo Park, Trans. Linn. Soc. iii, p. 35. 
Lutjanus Japonicus, Lacep. iv, p. 31. 
Lutjanus Vosmeri, Lacep. iv, p. 213. 
Lntjamiji aureovittatus, Lacep. iv, p. 216. 
Pomacentrus enneadactylus, Lacep. iv, pp. 505, 508. 
Lutjanus auratus, Bl. Schn. p. 328. 
Spams kurite, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 5, pi. 106. 
Scolopsides kurite, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 331.* 
Scolopsis kurite, Riipp. Atl. Fische, p. 9, t. 2, f. 3. 
Scolopsis kate, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 329. 

Scolopsides Puilppellii, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 332f ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 236. 
Scolopsides vosmeri, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 333$ ; Bleek. Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Sciajn. p. 27. 
Scolopsides torquatus, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 335 ; Bleeker, 1. c. p. 28. 

Scolopsis torquatus, Giintlier, Catal. i, p. 356 ; Kner, Novara, Fische, p. 59 ; Bleeker, Revis. Scolopsis, p. 363. 
Scolopsides aurata, Cantor, Catal. i, p. 81. 

Scolopsis Japonicus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 354 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 25 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. in 
Wien, 1870, p. 740. 

Scolopsis auratus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 355. 
Scolopsis Vosmaeri, Bleeker, Revis. Scolop. p. 361. 
Kundul, Tam. 

B. v, D. V°, P- 17, V. 1/5, A. f , C. 17, L. 1. 42-44, L. tr. 3|-4/13-14, Caac. pyl. (3 Kner.) 

Length of head 1/4 to 3/14, of caudal 4/21 to 2/9, height of body 1/3 to 2/5 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 2/5 to 1/3 (in the adult) of length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 to 1 apart. 
The maxilla reaches to below the anterior fourth or in the adult to beneath the front edge of the orbit. 
Preorbital with rather a deep plate, armed superiorly with one strong fluted spine projecting backwards and 
from about three to seven or eight denticulations below it : above this spine the suborbital plate is armed with 
another directed both forwards and backwards, in some specimens these are very small, especially the anterior one. 
In one specimen this anterior projection of the suborbital spine is imperceptible, so it is probable that Sir John 
Richardson's statement of " two suborbital teeth pointing backwards, one under the other and more slender, 
none pointing forwards," may have been quite correct : it is scarcely necessary to observe that he considered the 
preorbital spine as a suborbital one. Preopercle with its vertical limb slightly emarginate, due to its projecting 

* Cnv. and Val. remark upon Russell's figure showing 10 soft rays in the dorsal fin, and his description giving 11, consequently 
a new name was bestowed on the species, which however only possesses 9 rays. 

f Cuv. and Val. bestowed this designation on Riippell's fish because the vertical limb of the preopercle is not shown so 
emarginate as figured by Russell and as existing in nature. 

% Scolopsis argyrosomus, Kuhl and v. Hass. MSS. apud Cuv. and Val. 



88 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

and rounded angle : it is serrated in its whole extent, but the character of these serrations alters considerably 
with age. In the young, 8. torquatus, the serrations are moderately coarse and directed backwards, sometimes 
a small cusp exists at the base of some, at other times it does not, the vertical limb and rounded angle may be 
said to be serrated, the serrations being directed backwards. As the size of the specimen augments, 8. Ja/porrims, 
we find that these basal cusps begin to be more distinctly developed, and a blunt one as a rule is present at the 
base of every serration, in some specimens the posteriorly directed teeth now begin to disappear. As the adult, 
8. auratus, is reached the appearance becomes remarkable, the posteriorly directed serrations on the vertical 
limb (not on the angle) have become absorbed, and the cusps at their bases have augmented in size and 
consequently the serrations project outwards instead of backwards. Opercle with a moderately developed spine. 
Teeth — generic. Fins — dorsal spines strong, each alternate one being broader, they increase in length to the 
fourth or fifth, from whence they continue of about the same height, or equal to about half the length of the 
head, whilst the rays are of about the same height. Pectoral equal to the length of the head posterior to the 
nostrils : ventral almost reaching the anus. Anal spines strong, the third nearly equal to the highest in the 
dorsal fin but one-fourth shorter than the second in a specimen 8f inches in length ; in younger specimens the 
difference in length is sometimes not so great, in such cases the second spine is generally the longer, as will be 
alluded to : caudal forked. Colours — adult of a pale dull-red, usually having a whitish band round the 
opercles, from the upper edge of which bone a longitudinal wide line of the same colour passes backwards 
below the lateral-line, being lost beneath the end of the base of the dorsal fin. Every scale on the body has 
generally a dark basal mark. In the medium size fish, S. Japonicus, the ground colour is often the same as 
given for the adult, but in others it is of an ashy grey : the opercular band is generally distinct and of a cream- 
yellow colour. A deep arterial blood-red spot exists behind the opercular spine, and the fins are of a pale 
yellow. In the young, 8. torquatus, the band of the opercles is very distinct and of a light lemon-yellow colour, 
whilst the blood-red spot behind the opercular spine is very well marked : the inside of the mouth is likewise red. 
If we divide this fish into three distinct species merely in accordance with the colours observed, the 
difficulty arises amongst specimens from India, of ability to discover any very young 8. auratus or S. Japonicus, 
unless the 8. torquatus is admitted to be such. Of course, however, it is by no means improbable that some im- 
mature might from the first adopt the livery seen in the adult, but such a mere anomaly would be insufficient to 
constitute a valid species. In Cuvier and Valenciennes, it is observed that Ruppell's figure of 8. Jcit/rite, does not 
show such an emargination of the preopercle as is exhibited in Russell's, this however appears to have been 
merely an accident. The question of the direction of the preopercular serrations deserves however more 
consideration, and it was not until I had collected a large number of specimens of all ages and examined those 
in the British and Madras Museums, that I arrived at the conviction that such were merely due to maturity or 
the reverse of the specimen. In the young, although the serrations project backwards, they have a small cusp 
at their base, which, did it grow, would project outwards : in middle age this outer projection increases in 
development whilst the posterior one shows signs of atrophy : in the adult stage the change is completed, the 
earliest serrations have become almost or entirely absorbed, the original basal cusp has developed into an 
outwardly directed serration, having sometimes the original ones in the form of a backwardly projecting cusp at 
the base of each. 

Bleeker, I. e. places 8. torquatus as nearly allied but distinct from 8. Vosmeri, being distinguished from it 
by a more convex profile, a larger head, larger eyes and a lower anal fin. In colours by an absence of the light 
lateral band and a purple triangular spot at the base of the pectoral fin. He gives in 8. torquatus length of head 
4 to 4|-, height of body 2§ to 3 in the total length ; eyes, diameter 2 to 2^ in the length of head : in the S. 
Vosmeri, length of head 4j to 4f , height of body 2| to 3 in the total length ; eyes, diameter 2f to 3 in the 
length of head. 

PL xxiii, fig. 1, represents a specimen of 8. torquatus, life-size, no longitudinal band exists and the pectoral 
blotch is distinct, but the comparative length of the second anal spine is as great as in any specimen of the 
typical 8. Vosmeri, which I have seen. In four other specimens 6, 6^, 6^, and 7 inches respectively in length, 
the second anal spine is only 1/2 the length of the head. Therefore variations do exist, and to prove such I 
have figured (PI. xxiii, fig. 2) an intermediate form, 6i inches in length, which agrees with Bleeker's torquatus. 
Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining 
at least 12 inches in length. 

8. Scolopsis leucotaenia, Plate XXIII, fig. 4. 

Scolopsides leucotamia, Bleeker, Banka, p. 451, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xvi, fig. 4, and Revis. Scolop. p. 351 ; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 363. 

Scolopsides leucotcenioides, Bleeker, Celebes, p. 439 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 363. 

B. v, D. y>, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, L. 1. 39, L. tr. 31/13. 

Length of head equals one fourth less than the height of the body. Eyes — diameter 2/5 of length of head, 
1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Interorbital space flat: dorsal profile more convex than that of 
the abdomen. Cleft of mouth somewhat oblique : the maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. 
Preorbital one-third as high as the diameter of the eye, its spine weak, and the hind edge of the plate with a 
few indistinct serrations : suborbital ring of bones serrated. Vertical Umb of preopercle slightly emarginate, 
serrated along its whole extent but most coarsely so at its rounded angle. Shoulder-bone serrated. Teeth— fine. 






FAMILY, I— PERCIDJ3. 89 

Fins — dorsal spines strong, increasing in length to the fourth which equals half the length of the head : pectoral 
equals the length of the head without the snout : the ventral nearly reaches the anal : second anal spine much 
the strongest and considerably the longest, equalling the length of the head behind the middle of the eye. 
Colours — a broad yellowish- white streak from above the eye to the upper edge of the free portion of the tail, 
it is margined both above and below with a dark purple stripe : above it the body is reddish-brown, below it 
yellowish : a dark purplish vertical band extends down the opercle. Fins reddish, the dorsal with a fine black 
upper edge and a dark band along the centre of its spinous portion. 

In the typical S. leucotamia, no black mark exists on the dorsal fin, and the second anal spine is longer 
and stronger than the third. 

In S. leucotanioides a black blotch exists between the first and fourth dorsal spines, and the second and 
third anal spines are of about equal length and strength. 

In the specimen figured, a dark band passes along the spinous dorsal and the anal spines are as in 
S. leucotcenia. 

Habitat. — Bombay to the Malay Archipelago. 

My single specimen having its tail injured must be the excuse for the way in which I have given the 
proportions, but Bleeker observes, length of head 1/4, height of body 2/7 to 1/4 of the total length. 

9. Scolopsis ciliatus, Plate XXIII, fig. 5. 

Holocentrus ciliatus, Lacep. iv, pp. 333, 371. 

Scolopsides lycogenis, Cuv. and Val. v,* p. 346, pi. 127 ; Bleeker, Sciam. p. 27. 

Scolopsis ciliatus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 355. 

B. v, D. V°, P- 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 44, L. tr. 3f-4/15, Ceec. pyl. 5, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4|, of caudal nearly 1/5, height of body 3| to 3| in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 2/5 to 3/8 of length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. A prominent ridge 
having a serrated edge exists on the maxilla, and that bone extends to below the front margin of the orbit. 
Preorbital with a strong spine directed backwards, two smaller ones on the plate below it and a few serrations 
beneath. Vertical edge of preopercle serrated, most strongly so at its angle which is not produced. A con- 
spicuous spine on the opercle : shoulder-bone serrated. Teeth — villiform. Fins — dorsal spines slender, increasing 
in length to the fifth, the height of which nearly equals half the length of the head : anal spines not strong, the 
third weaker but longer than the second, and nearly equalling the longest in the dorsal fin : caudal forked. 
Colours — greenish-olive above, becoming lighter on the abdomen : a silvery white band extends between the 
lateral-line and the back, from near the head to opposite the commencement of the soft dorsal : the position of 
this white line Bleeker observes is liable to change with age : the scales below the lateral-line have a golden spot. 
Fins reddish. 

Habitat. — Andamans, Malay Archipelago, &c. The specimen figured is 7 inches in length and from the 
Andaman islands. 

Genus, 22 — Dentex, Cuv. 

Gymnocranius, pt. Klunz. : Paradentex, pt. Blkr. : Synagris, (Klein) Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals six or seven : pseudobranchia?. Body oblong, rather elongate, and a little elevated. Fyes of 
medium or rather large size. Mouth moderately protractile, its cleft more or less horizontal : jaws of about equal 
length. Preopercle entire or feebly serrated : opercle without any or with a not very prominent spine : the distance 
between the eye and the angle of the mouth considerable. Generally strong canines from 4 to 6 in number in both jaws, 
almost invariably present in the upper : a conical outer lateral row in either jaw : vomer, palate, and tongue edentu- 
lous. One scaleless dorsal fin having from 10 to 13 spines, anal with three and nine to eleven rays : the spines 
generally weak, and being more or less provided with a scaly groove: caudal forJced. Scales ctenoid, of moderate size, 
more than three rows between the eye and the angle of the preopercle, none on the front of the snout, jaws, or preorbital. 
Air-vessel not constricted but notched posteriorly. Pyloric appendages fevo. 

This Genus has been subdivided from Synagris, mostly owing to the existence of upwards of three rows 
of scales across the preopercle. Even thus restricted it has been further subdivided and Gymnocranius, KIunz.= 
Paradentex, Bleeker, consists of those species in which the scales do not extend forward on the upper surface of 
the head so far as the eye : none on the outer limb of the preopercle : the upper jaw is rather more protractile, 
and the canines are weaker. 

Geographical distribution. — The fishes of this Genus have a wide range, being found in the Mediterranean, 
Atlantic, Red Sea, and through those of India to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Btentex rivulata, D. \%, A. -j^-. Canines in both jaws. Sinuous blue lines on the sides of the head. 
Red Sea, Ceylon. 

* Lycogenis wrgyrosoma, Kuhl. and v. Hass. Mss. apud Cuv. and Val. 



90 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

1. Dentex rivulatus. 

Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 116, t. 29, fig. 2 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 372. 
Gymnocranius rivulatus, Khinz. Verb. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 765. 

D. fa P. 15, V. 1/5, A. T %, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 7/20. 

Length of head 4/17, of caudal 2/11, height of body 3/10 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3/11 of 
the length of head, If diameters from the end of snout, and 1J apart. The depth of the preorbital rather exceeds 
the length of the diameter of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the front nostril. Hind limb of preoperele 
almost vertical and entire, a few serrations exist along its rounded angle. Teeth — an outer row of strong' canines 
in the upper jaw, and a strong lateral row of conical ones : lower jaw with six canines hi front and a lateral 
conical row which posteriorly become rather obtuse. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, increasing in length 
to the fourth from whence they decrease to the last, the height of the fourth equals the distance from the eye to 
the end of the preorbital bone, the last dorsal spine equals the length of the third and is slightly longer than the 
ninth : second anal spine two-thirds as long as the third which equals the length of the post-orbital portion of 
the head : caudal deeply forked. Scales — five rows on the cheeks : superiorly they do not extend so far as to 
opposite the posterior edge of the orbit. Colours — greenish, glossed with golden on the sides : wavey blue lines 
along the snout and over the preorbital. 

Habitat. — Red Sea and Ceylon. 

Genus, 23 — Synagris (Klein) Giinther. 

Dentex, pt. Cuv. and Val : Nemipterus, Swains. : Spondyliosoma, sp. Cantor : Heterognathon, pt. Steind. : 
Dentex (C. V.) Bleeker.* 

Branchiostegals five or six : pseudobranchice. Body oblong, rather elongate and a little elevated. Eyes of 
medium or rather large size. Mouth moderately protractile, its cleft more or less horizontal : jaws of about equal 
length. Preoperele entire or feebly serrated : opercle without any or with a not very prominent spine: the distance 
between the eye and the angle of the mouth considerable.^ Moderately sized curved canines in the upper and generally 
feeble ones in the front of the lower jaw : an inner villiform band in either jaw and usually an outer conical row: 
vomer, palate, and tongue edentulous. One scaleless dorsal fin having ten spines and nine rays : anal also scaleless 
having three spines arid seven rays : all the spines weak : caudal forked. Scales ctenoid, of moderate size, three rows 
on the preoperele none along its outer border, on the snout, preorbital, or jaws. Air-vessel not constricted but notched 
posteriorly. Pyloric appendages few. 

Swainson's genus Nemipterus is founded on Dentex filamentosus, C. and V. = D. striatus = Synagris, 
Giinther, and consequently might perhaps (to prevent further confusion) be employed instead of Synagris. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Synagris striatus, D. V"; A. f-, L. 1. 48. Preoperele serrated : only 2 rows of teeth in the lower jaw, 
no conical ones. Two first dorsal rays and upper lobe of caudal prolonged. Silvery, with purplish bands. Seas 
of India to Surinam. 

2. Synagris tolu, ~D. l -f, A. -f-, L. 1. 48. Preoperele entire. Lateral conical teeth in either jaw. Dorsal 
spines elongated and interspinous membrane deeply notched. Roseate, with yellow longitudinal bands. Seas 
of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

3. Synagris Bleekeri, D. y, A. f-, L. 1. 48. Preoperele entire. No outer conical row in the upper jaw, 
a single conical lateral row in the mandible. No elongated spines or rays : interspinous membrane slightly 
notched. A spot on the opercle. Seas of India. 

4. Synagris filamentosus, D. y, A. f, L. 1. 48. Preoperele serrated. A lateral outer row of small conical 
teeth in the upper jaw only. Upper caudal lobe prolonged : interspinous membrane slightly notched. Yellowish- 
red, with roseate longitudinal bands. Seas of India. 

5. Synagris notatus, D. y, A. f, L. 1. 47. Preoperele entire. An outer row of small conical teeth in 
the upper jaw, also a similar row in the mandible, but becoming very small in the last fourth of the jaw. No 
elongated spines or rays ; interspinous membrane slightly notched. A brilliant spot on the first 5 scales below 
the lateral-line. Andamans. 

1. Synagris striatus, Plate VIII, fig. 5. J 

? Coryphama striata, Bl. Mss. 

? Goryphaina lutea, Bl. Schn. p. 297, t. Iviii. 

Dentex striatus, (? Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 252) ; Jerdon, M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 134. 

* Genus Synagris (Klein) Bleeker = Dentex (C. V.) Giinther in part, and is not similar to Synagris, Giinther. 

t The preorbital in the following species of this genus is high and consists of two pieces, the posterior of which ends in a 
point at its posterior-superior angle, but this point, which is of varying extent, does not form a spine as in the genus Scolopsis. The 
posterior border of this preorbital plate is free, the skin covering it not passing directly on to the cheeks, but being first reflected on to 
the posterior surface of the plate. 

J Marked Synagris luteus on the plate. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID.^. 91 

Dentex filamentosus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 244, pi. 155 (not Val. Isles Canar. nor Cantharus filamentosus, 
Eiipp.) 

Nemipterus filamentosus, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 223. 
? Synagris luteus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 380. 
Synagris macronemus, Gimther, Catal. i, p. 380. 

B. vi, D. LP, P- 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 31/10. 

Length of head 4^, of caudal (without its prolongation) 4|, height of body one-fourth of the total length 
(excluding the prolonged caudal ray). Eyes — diameter 3j in length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, 
and 2/3 of a diameter apart. The height of the head equals its length exclusive of the opercle : lower jaw 
slightly the longer : the maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Height of preorbital equals 2/3 
of the diameter of the eye, it terminates posteriorly in a point below the last third of the eye. Vertical lirnb 
of preopercle finely and evenly serrated in its middle third, its angle rounded and entire. Opercle without any 
distinct spine. Teeth — villiform along the whole of the upper jaw, with 4 canine-like ones anteriorly in either 
premaxillary, laterally the outer row is composed of about 30 closely set conical ones : the inner ones in the 
mandible are villiform just above the symphysis, whilst laterally they are in two rows of which the inner is 
slightly the larger. Fins — dorsal spines rather weak, the two first elongated, the second reaching to the base 
of the caudal fin : interspinous membrane very slightly notched, the height of the last eight spines gradually 
increases, the last equalling rather more than the length of the postorbital portion of the head but is not so 
high as the rays. Pectoral as long as the head. Ventral reaches the anal. Third anal spine the longest, and 
equalling 1/3 of the length of the head. Caudal forked, upper lobe with a filamentous prolongation. Scales — 
extend forwards superiorly to between the eyes. Lateral-line — the tubes divide posteriorly into two branches. 
Colours — silvery, with pinkish longitudinal bands : fins pinkish stained with yellow. 

The specimen described and figured is from Sir W. Elliot's Madras collection, the coloured figure is 
named Dentex striatus C. V. by Jerdon, and is alluded to in M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 134. 

This species, a specimen of which, from Vizagapatam, has been given me by Sir Walter Elliot, cannot be 
Spondyliosoma guliminda (C. V.) Cantor,* Catal. p. 50, which is not Russell's Sparus lama guliminda=Synagri$ 
tolu, of which 1 have both male and female specimens. It is very simfiar to S. Japonicus, but (irrespective of 
the spines being weaker and longer, it has only 9 instead of 10 rows of scales between the lateral-line and the 
base of the anal fin). I have a male of that species which has no prolongation of the dorsal fin. There are two 
of Block's specimens marked Dentex luteus at Berlin, one evidently the skin from which Bl. Schn.'s figure has 
been taken, the artist not having reversed it, whilst he has delineated the eye too small, and the (?) elongated 
dorsal spines are broken. On the second specimen, which has no elongated dorsal spine, is Val.'s label, " C'est 
le vrai G. lutea, Bl. Schn." Bloch's may be this species, but it has several rows of villiform teeth in the 
mandibles of about the same size and very similar to S. Japonicus, which it appears to resemble. This 
(Synagris striatus) is certainly Jerdon's Dentex striatus. 

Bl. Schn.'s figure is probably coloured from a description in which it was said to have been striated or 
banded, and instead of placing such longitudinally he has given them as vertical. 

Habitat. — Coromandel coast of India : the specimen figured was captured November 25th, 1852. Dentex 
filamentosus, C.V., came from Surinam. 

2. Synagris tolu, Plate XXIII, fig. 6. 

Sparus lama guliminda, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 6, pi. cvii. 

Dentex tolu, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 249 ; Bleeker, Spar. p. 13, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxvii, fig. i, and Revis. 
Dentex. p. 20 (not Klunz.) 

Cantharus guliminda, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 344 (not Spondyliosoma guliminda, Cantor.) 
Cund.il, Tarn. 

B. vi, D. V°, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 3/10, Csjc. pyl. 10-11. 

Length of head 2/9, of pectoral 1/6, of caudal 2/9 to 1/4, height of body 2/9 to 1/4 of the total length. 
Eyes — transversely oval, diameter 1/3 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 apart. Jaws of 
equal length, the maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. The lower edge of the preorbital 
obliquely convex in its posterior half, its height equals half the diameter of the orbit. Preopercle entire. 
Opercle with a small flattened spine. Teeth — vdliform along the whole of the upper jaw, with from 4 to 6 
canine-like ones anteriorly in either premaxillary, laterally the outer row is composed of about 16 closely set 
pointed ones : the inner ones in the mandible also villiform, opposite the symphysis in several rows, laterally in 
a single one, the outer row in front of the lower jaw is rather larger than the villiform ones, but not so large as 
the outer lateral row which equals those in the side of the upper jaw. Fins — dorsal spines very slender and 
flexible, the interspinous membrane deeply notched. The spines increase in length to the sixth, seventh, and 
eighth, which equal two-thirds the height of the body, the last spine equals two-fifths of the height of the body 
and is of the same length as the last ray : pectoral fin as long as the head excluding the snout : ventral with its 
outer ray elongated, scarcely reaches so far as the anus : second anal spine of equal strength to but not so long 

* In Cantor's fish the dentition is slightly different, it has villiform teeth in both jaws, with 5 or 6 small curved canines in the 
front of the upper jaw, whilst laterally its outer row is slightly enlarged : the canines in front of the lower jaw are very small, whilst 
laterally the outer row is scarcely larger than the villiform teeth. 

N 2 



92 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

as tlie tliird which equals one third of the height of the body : caudal deeply forked the upper lobe the longer. 
As regards sexes the dorsal spines are equally prolonged in males and females : the pectoral is a little longer in 
the males, extending to the anus, but the caudal lobes are the same. Colours — rosy, with four or five yellowish 
longitudinal bands between the rows of scales from immediately above the base of the pectoral fin. Fins 
pinkish : tips of dorsal spines orange. 

Russell's figure, although defective, is sufficient to distinguish the species by : it is the most common 
kind in Madras from October to March, and may be at once recognised from the other recorded forms by its 
long and flexible dorsal spines and deeply emarginate interspinous membrane. The caudal fins of some males 
examined in October had no filamentous prolongations. 

Cuv. and Val. specimens are in good preservation at Paris and coincide with the above described, but 
not with Spondyliosoma guliminda, Cantor, whose type is in the British Museum. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

3. Synagris Bleekeri, Plate XXIV, fig. 1. 
B. vi, D. V°, P- 17, V. 1/5, A. f-, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 3|/11. 

Length of head one-fourth to 2/9, of caudal 4§, height of body 4J in the total length. Eyes — transversely 
oval, diameter 3f in the length of head, lj diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Interorbital space flat. 
The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Preorbital three-fourths as high as the length of the 
transverse diameter of the orbit, its posterior margin oblique gradually passing into the inferior one. Preopercle 
entire. A small flat spine on the opercle. Teeth — in villiform bands in the upper jaw, four small canines in the 
front of each premaxillary, no enlarged lateral row : villiform teeth above the symphysis in the lower jaw, but 
continued a very short distance laterally, and canine-like teeth in front of the lower jaw, and a single row of 
conical ones in the last two-thirds of the mandible. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength with the 
interspinous membrane scarcely notched, the spines increase in length to the last, the height of which equals the 
length of the post-orbital portion of the head or two-fifths of the height of the body, the last rays somewhat 
elongated and equal to half the height of the body. Pectoral nearly as long as the head : ventral with its outer 
ray elongated and nearly reaching the anal spines : anal spines of equal strength, the second not so long as the 
third which is rather longer than the diameter of the orbit : caudal deeply forked, the upper lobe the longer, 
but no filamentous prolongation was observed in Madras specimens. Colours — reddish superiorly, becoming 
silvery along the sides and beneath, where yellow bands exist : a bluish spot on the opercle : fins reddish, dorsal 
edged with orange and having a golden band along its base. 

This species is closely allied to 8. notatus, from which it differs both in its dentition and colouring. 

Habitat. — Seas of India. The specimen figured is from Madras, and 8 inches in length. 

4. Synagris Japonicus, Plate XXTV, fig. 2. 

Sparus Japonicus, Bl. t. 277, f. 1 (not Synagris Japonicus, Giinther). 

Cantharus filamentosus, Riipp. Atl. p. 50, t. xii, f. 3 (not Dentex filamentosus, C. V.). 

Dentex tambulus, Cuv. and Val. vi, pp. 249, 558 (? Rtippell, not Bleeker). 

? Dentex bipunctatus, (Ehren.) Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 247. 

Synagris filamentosus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 378. 

Synagris grammicus, Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 26, pi. iv. 

Changarah, Tarn. 

B. vi, D. V°, P- 17, V. 1/5, A. -i, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 3|/10. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 2/9, height of body 1/4 of the total length excluding the filamentous 
prolongation of the upper caudal lobe. Eyes — diameter 3j to 3J in length of head, 1\ to If diameters from end 
of snout, and nearly 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Vertical limb of 
preopercle finely and evenly serrated in its lower half : its angle rounded and entire. Opercle without any 
distinct spine. Teeth — in villiform bands in both jaws, from four to six small curved canines in the front of 
either premaxillary, whilst the outer row is a very little the largest : in the mandible the last six or eight teeth 
only are conical and a little enlarged. Fins — dorsal spines rather weak with the interspinous membrane scarcely 
notched, the height of the spines increase to the last which equals the length of the postorbital portion of the 
head ; the last ray equals half the length of the head. Pectoral reaches to above the anal spines. Ventral, 
having its first ray prolonged, reaches as far as the anal fin. Tliird anal spine slightly weaker than the second but 
longer, equalling one-third the length of the head. Caudal deeply forked, having a filamentous prolongation. 
(This may be peculiar to the males, but I have reason to believe it is present in the females. In a specimen 
captured at Madras, 9-1- inches in length to the end of the caudal lobes, the upper one is produced beyond this 
2 T ^5- inches in addition.) Colours — yellowish-red, having longitudinal reddish lines along each row of scales. 
Dorsal and anal fins with a yellow streak along their centres, a grey base and pinkish edge. 

Dentex Blochii, Bleeker (Sciasn. p. 176, and Revis. Dentex, p. 27)=Synagris Japonicus, Giinther (Catal. i, 
p. 378) is not synonymous with the above, its preopercular limb being entire. The statement in Cuv. and Val. 
of the preopercular edge being entire is erroneous, as I have convinced myself by examining the type specimen 
at Berlin, and Val.'s identification of it with Sparus Japonicus was perfectly correct. 

S. grammicus appears to be a variety of this fish, its preorbital being considerably higher than is seen in 



FAMILY, I— PERCID.^. 93 

specimens from the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, in the former the height equalling almost 1 diameter of 
the orbit ; in the latter 1/2 or 2/3 of a diameter. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, and seas of India. 

5. Synagris notatus, Plate XXIV, fig. 3. 

? Bentex furcosus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 244. 
Synagris furcosus, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 373. 
Synagris notatus, Day, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. G84. 

B. vi, D. V°, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 47, L. tr. 3|/10. 

Length of head 3| to one-fourth, of caudal 2/9 to one-fifth, height of body one-fourth of the total 
length. Eyes — diameter 3| to 1/4 in the length of head, If diameters from the end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. 
Height of the head nearly equals its length. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Preorbital 
under the commencement of the eye is nearly as high as the transverse diameter of the orbit, whilst its hind 
edge is more angular than in S. Bleekeri. Preopercle entire. Opercle with a small flat spine. Teeth — viHiform 
in the upper jaw with four large curved canines in either premaxillary, and laterally an outer conical row which 
are not very large : villiform ones in the front third of the lower jaw with six well-developed anterior canine- 
like ones, laterally a row of conical teeth which become small in the last fourth of the jaw. Fins — dorsal spines 
weak, interspinous membrane very slightly emarginate, the spines increase in length to the fifth from whence they 
continue of about the same height or 1/3 of the length of the head to the last which is a little longer being 2f 
in the same distance : the length of the last rays equal that of the postorbital portion of the head. Pectoral 
equals 3/4 of the height of the body. Caudal forked, upper lobe the longer. Colours — rosy with a brilliant 
spot on the first five scales below the lateral-line, the upper half red, the lower yellow. Five or six longitudinal 
yellow bands are present below the lateral-line, and three silvery- white ones : fins pinkish, with a yellow band 
along the bases of the dorsal and anal. 

This appears to be a slight variety of S. furcosus, Giinther, in which latter the dorsal spines increase in 
length to the third from whence they slightly decrease to the last which equals the length of the head behind 
the eye. 

Dentex furcosus, C. V. has an elongated body and the caudal lobes very prolonged. 

Habitat. — Seas of India. 

Genus, 24 — Pentapus, Cuv. 

Leiopsis, Bennett : Gnathodentex, pt. Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchice. Body oblong. Byes of medium size. Cleft of mouth more or less 
horizontal and not deep: jaws of about equal length: a serrated ridge may extend along the upper jaw. Preopercle 
entire: opercle without any or with a very feeble spine: preorbital narrow, entire, the distance between the eye and 
the mouth small. Villiform teeth in the jaws with canines, palate edentulous. One scaleless dorsal fin receivable into 
a groove at its base, having ten spines and from, eight to ten rays : anal with three spines and from eight to ten 
rays : caudal forked. Scales ctenoid, of moderate or small size, with three or more rows on the preopercle. Air-vessel 
simple. Pyloric appendages few. 

Dr. Bleeker separates Gnathodentex from Pentapus due to its possessing a serrated longitudinal ridge on 
the upper jaw, &c. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of India to Australia. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Pentapus aurolineatus, D. \%, A. -^3^, L, 1. 74-78. Golden bands along the body, a white spot on the 
back behind the last dorsal ray. Ceylon to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Pentapus aurolineatus. 

Sparus aurolineatus, Lacep. iv, p. 132. 
Bentex lycogenis, Benn. Proc. Zool. Soc. i, p. 127. 

Pentapus aurolineatus, Cuv. and Val. vi, pp. 269, 559, pi. 157 ; Bleeker, Halma. p. 55 ; Giinther, Catal. i, 
pp. 381, 507, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 33, t. xxv, f. B. 

Gnathodentex aurolineatus, Bleeker, Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xl, fig. 3, and Revis. Dentex, p. 49. 

B. vi, D. i%, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. ^, C. 17, L. 1. 74-78, L. tr. 6/20. 

Length of head 4J to one-fourth, of caudal nearly one-fifth, height of body two-sevenths of the total ■ 
length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 of length of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla 
reaches to below the front nostril, a serrated ridge extends along the centre of the upper two-thirds of its outer 
surface. Teeth — about six canines in the front of the upper jaw, and an equal number in front of the lower, the 
outer of which is enlarged. Fins — dorsal spines rather weak, increasing in length to the fourth which is two- 
fifths of the height of the body below it, the hind ones are a little shorter, the rays are rather higher than the 
spines, interspinous membrane slightly notched : pectoral nearly as long as the head : ventral nearly reaches the 
anal, the spines of the latter are not strong, the third the longest but not quite equal to the fourth of the dorsal : 



94 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

caudal deeply forked. Colours — silvery, with four or five horizontal golden bands along the sides, and a silvery 
mark on the back behind the last dorsal ray : fins rosy, the dorsal, caudal, and anal being margined with red. 

Habitat. — Mauritius, Ceylon to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. This species exists in the Netley 
Hospital Museum, it was received from Ceylon. 

Genus, 25— Smaeis, Cuv. 

Branohiostegals six : pseudobrancldce. Body oblong or cylindrical. Eyes of medium or large size, mouth 
very protractile. Preopercle entire. Teeth in the jaws, none on the vomer. A single, sometimes deeply notched 
scaleless dorsal fin, with from nine to fifteen feeble spines ; anal with three. Scales ctenoid, rather small. Air-vessel 
not constricted, but generally forked posteriorly. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Mediterranean and Atlantic ocean, one species from Ceylon. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Smaris balteatus, D. \%, A. -j%. A silvery band from the eye to the tail. 

1. Smaris balteatus. 

Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 424 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 389. 

B. vi, D. fa P. 17, V. 1/5, A. ^. 

Length of head 4j, of caudal 5|, height of body one-fourth in the total length. Eyes — diameter 2f in 
the length of the head, 2/3 of a diameter from the end of snout. Body cylindrical and somewhat elongated : 
mouth protractile : the maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Teeth — fine. Fins — division 
between the spinous and soft portions of the dorsal well marked. Colours — reddish-brown along the back, dotted 
with small brilliant silvery spots : the coloured part of the back streaked with the brilliant silver of the sides, 
whilst below this coloured portion is a wide silvery longitudinal band, which passes from the superciliary region 
across the opercle, and proceeds to the tail. Fins pale coloured. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, to 4 inches in length. 

Genus, 26— C^isio, (Comm.) Cum. 
Ccesio, sp. Cuv. and Val. : Paraccesio, Bleeker ; Odontonectes, Giinther. 

Branohiostegals six or seven : pseudobranchice. Body oblong, sometimes somewhat elevated. Mouth moderately 
protractile, its cleft obligue, lower jaw sometimes the longer. Preopercle entire or minutely serrated. Fine teeth in 
the jaws, sometimes deciduous ones on the vomer or palate. A single dorsal fin, more or less scaled (rarely scaleless) 
with the anterior portion the higher and having from nine to thirteen feeble spines:* anal with three. Scales very 
finely ctenoid, of moderate or small size, and as a rule extended over the bases of the vertical fins. Air-vessel not 
constricted. 

Bleeker (Fish. Madag. p. 38) has instituted a Genus Paraccesio for the reception of those species in which 
the dorsal fin is scaleless. 

Geographical distribution. — From the Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Ccesio pinjcdo, D. ii, A. ^%, L. 1. 50-55, L. tr. 9/18. Roseate and yellow : dorsal and caudal edged 
with black. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Ccesio cuning, D. -^a, A. T 3 T , L. 1. 53. Bluish-green above, rosy below. Seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

3. Ccesio chrysozona, D. \~, A. xt-ts- A golden longitudinal band : a black spot -in the axil and a 
black band along the middle of either caudal lobe. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Csesio pinjalo, Plate XXIV, fig. 4. 
Pinjalo typius, Bleeker, Bydr. Topog. Batav. p. 521 and Revis. Cffisio, p. 25. 

Ccesio pinjalo, Bleeker, Mamid. p. 10, Java, i, p. 102, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xiv, fig. 3; Giinther, Catal. i, 
p. 391. 

Mesoprion Mitchelli, Giinther, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, xix, 1867, p. 257, pi. ix. 

B. vii, D. ii, P. 21, V. 1/5, A. T %, C. 17, L. 1. 50-55, L. r. ' *£% 5 , L. tr. 9/18. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 to 1/4 of length 
of head, 3/4 to 1 diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Body oval and compressed. Lower jaw the longer. 
The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Height of preorbital equal to half the diameter of 
the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated, most coarsely so at its angle which is considerably produced. 
Opercle with a weak, flat spine. Teeth — villiform, with one or two, sometimes three, small conical ones on either 

* Referring to C. ccerulaureus, Dr. Giinther remarks that " from the extremely delicate structure of the fin-rays, it is very 
difficult to count them and to give the correct numbers, but which is the more necessary, as we do not yet know to what extent they 
vary in the species of this genus." — Catal. i, p. 372. 



FAMILY, I— PERCIDiE. 95 

side of the middle of the upper jaw, in a narrow band in a A-form on * ne vomer, and also on the palatines, 
occasionally absent from the latter bone, and in some specimens from the former. Fins — dorsal spines weak, 
the fourth and fifth the highest and equal to rather more than the length of the postorbital portion of the head, 
from thence they slightly decrease to the last which nearly equals the height of the first ray, these latter being shorter 
than the longest spine : pectoral slightly longer than the head, pointed, and reaching to below the first dorsal 
ray. Second anal spine* of equal length to, or slightly shorter than the third : caudal lunated. Colours — 
yellowish -red along the back, becoming rosy below the lateral-line : dark olivaceous stripes along the rows of 
scales above the lateral-line, but having a more yellow-tinge below it : pectoral, ventral, and anal orange, dorsal 
and caudal j T ellowish edged with black. 

A coloured figure, eight inches long, exists in Sir Walter Elliot's collection, labelled Mette mirrei, Ccesio ? 

Habitat. — Coromandel coast of India, Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 16 inches in length. The 
specimen figured is 9 inches long. 

2. Csesio cuning. 

Spams cuning, Bloch, t. 203, f. 1 ; Lacep. iv, p. 115. 
Cichla cuning, Bl. Schn. p. 336. 

Casio erytlirog aster, (Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 442, pi. 166 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, 
Maanid. p. 9, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxxiv, f. 3, and Revis. Cassio, p. 8 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 64. 
Casio cuning, Cuv. and VaL vi, p. 444 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 390. 
Odontonectes erythrogaster, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 265. 

B. vi, D. ff, P. 20, A. ^ C. 17, L. 1. 53, L. tr. 7/13, Vert. 10/14, Ceec. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 4/19 to 1/5, of caudal 1/4, height of body 4/15 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 
1/4 of length of head, and 3/4 to 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1| apart. The upper maxilla reaches to 
slightly behind the vertical from the front edge of the orbit. Preopercular angle rounded and finely serrated. 
Teeth — villiform in jaws, small ones on vomer, and mostly some deciduous ones on the palatine bones. Wins — 
dorsal spines slender and flexible, the fourth the longest. Second and third anal spines of nearly the same 
height, and equal to 1/3 of the length of the head : caudal deeply forked. Colours — bluish-green superiorly 
becoming rosy along the abdomen. 

Dr. Jerdon observes, " I once procured a specimen 18 inches long of this handsome fish, which the 
fishermen called Cul hilchi, Tarn., but which did not appear well known to them, D. \±, A. ■^ s ." Madr. J. L. and 
Science, 1851, p. 133. The late Col. Tickell also considered he obtained it in Burma. It is very probable that 
it is found in the seas of India, although I have not obtained sjiecimens from thence. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

3. Csesio chrysozona, Plate XXIV, fig. 5, (var. aurolineatus.) 

(Kuhl. and v. Hass) Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 440 ; Bleeker, Masnid. p. 9, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxix, f. 2, 
and Revis. Cassio, p. 19 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 392 ; Kner. Novara Fische, p. 65. 
Ccesio striatus, Bleeker, Batav. p. 521. 
Pristipomatoides aurolineatus, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 937 (variety). 

B. vi, D. yJ.a^, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. TT ? TT , C. 15, L. 1. 72, L. tr. 8/16. 

Length of head 4j, of caudal 2/9, height of body 4| in the total length. Eyes — upper margin close to the 
profile, diameter 2| in the young to 3| in the adult in length of head, 3/4 of a diameter apart, 1/2 to 1 diameter 
from end of snout. Body rather elongated and compressed. Lower jaw the longer ; the maxilla extends to 
below the anterior third of the orbit. Preorbital long, narrow, and at least three times as long as wide, and with 
elevated strise upon it. Preopercle wide, its horizontal wider than its vertical limb ; both striated at their edges, 
and irregularly serrated, in the adult the angle is rather produced. Opercle with a moderately developed spine. 
Fins — dorsal spines weak, third and fourth the longest, and equal to half the height of the body : interspinous 
membrane very slightly emarginate : rays of about equal length. Pectoral reaching to opposite the anus. First 
anal spine one-quarter the length of the second, which is of equal strength but slightly shorter than the third, 
which equals the height of the second in the dorsal fin. Caudal deeply lobed, the lower being the largest and 
longest. Scales — ctenoid, a few rows of scales along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins. Colours — bluish with 
a golden band along the lateral-line and a black one on either lobe of the caudal : a black spot in the axilla. In 
C. aurolineatus, above the lateral-line it is of a light lake colour : from the eye to the base of the caudal below 
the lateral-line exists a shining golden band, three scales deep anteriorly, decreasing to one posteriorly : below 
this band pinkish- white : caudal lobes tipped with black. 

A figure nearly five inches in length exists amongst Sir W. Elliot's drawings, labelled, Nat. size, Peroom 
kilcM and Woongooni ? 

The colours of C. chrysozona, K. v. H. given in Bleeker's Atl. Ich. Perc. xxix, fig. 2, are blue instead 
of a lake colour, and it has a narrow yellow band along the back close to the base of the dorsal fin, D. "J 1 , 
A. T %-, L. 1. 65. In a fine specimen in the British Museum the height of the body is 2/9 of the total length, 

* The proportionate strength of the second anal spine to that of the thirl, varies:— out of six specimens in my collection from 
6 to 10 inches in length, in two the former is the stronger. 



96 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

the first anal spine is very short, the general colour is steel blue with a golden lateral band two scales wide : 
the caudal lobes are of equal length. 

Bleeker observes that Ccesio chrysozona is closely allied to C. ccerulaureus, but the body is more elongated 
iu the former than in the latter. The temporal band of scales is largest in the O. ccerulaureus, which has its 
golden lateral band above instead of below the lateral line. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India. 

Eighth group — Gerrina. 

Branchiostegals six. Body elevated or oblong. Preopercle serrated or entire. Mouth very protractile. 
Villiform teeth in the jaws. A single dorsal fin : three anal spines. Air-vessel simple. 

Genus, 28 — Datnioides, Bleeher. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchire. Body elevated. Eyes of moderate size. Premaxillaries very protractile. 
Preopercle serrated. Villiform teeth in the jaws without canines ; vomer, palate, and tongue edentulous. A single 
dorsal fin having twelve stout spines : anal with three : caudal rounded. Scales ctenoid. Air-vessel simple. Pyloric 
appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Mouths of large rivers from the Hooghly throughout Burma to the Malay 
Archipelago. Rarely found beyond tidal reach although it frequently ascends into fresh water. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Datnioides polota, D. yj.\^, A. g? T , L. 1. 48. Brown with several cross bands. Estuaries of the 
Ganges to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Datnioides polota, Plate XXIV, fig. 6. 

Coius polota, Ham. Buch. pp. 95, 370, pi. 38, f. 31; Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. Poiss. p. 17; 
Richards. Ich. Sulphur, p. 83. 

Coius binotatus, Gray and Hard. Ind. Zool. ; Temm. and Schel. 1. c. p. 17 ; Richards. 1. c. p. 83. 

Datnia polota, Cantor, Catal. p. 16. 

Lobotes hexagona, Bleeker, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind. i, p. 9, and ii, p. 165. 

Datnioides polota, Bleeker, 1. c. v, p. 441, and Atl. Ich. Perc. t. xxvii, f. 1 ; Guntker, Catal. i, p. 339. 

Nya-hya and Nga-wet-ma, Burm. ; Nga-pree-gryn and Nga-thak-how, Arrac. 

B. vi, D. t^, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. J ? , C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. r. U, L- *r- 12/25, Case. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 2/7 to 1/3, of caudal 2/11 to 1/6, height of body 2/5 to 1/3 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 1/5 of length of head, L| diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. The posterior processes of the 
premaxillaries reach to behind the orbit. The maxilla extends to below the middle of the orbit. Preopercle 
serrated along both limbs : both shoulder-bone and the one in the axilla serrated. Teeth — fine in the jaws, 
with the outer row slightly enlarged. Fins — dorsal spines strong, every alternate one being thickened on one 
side, the fifth and sixth the longest and equal to two-fifths of the height of the body or half of the length of 
the bead : second anal spine the strongest and longest, equalling the highest in the dorsal fin : caudal rounded. 
Colours — brownish, glossed with copper, having six or seven narrow brown vertical bands on the body and 
similar ones radiating from the orbit. 

Habitat. — Estuaries and within tidal influence of the Ganges and rivers of Burma to the Malay 
Archipelago, attaining at least 1 foot in length : though not esteemed as food it is eaten by the poorer classes. 
The specimen figured (6f inches in length) is from Calcutta. 

Genus, 29 — Geeees, Cum. 

Diapterus, Ranz. : Chanda, sp. Ham. Buch. : Catochcenum, Cantor : Synistius, Gill : Eucinostomus, Baird, Gir. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchke. Body elevated or oblong, and compressed. Mouth very protractile and 
descending when produced. Preopercle as a rule entire, rarely serrated. Eyes comparatively large. Villiform 
teeth in the jaws. Inferior pharyngeal bones firmly united by a suture. Length of the bases of the spinous and soft 
portions of the doisal fin of nearly equal extent, and having a scaly sheath into which it can be wholly or partially 
received : the spines numbering nine or ten, the rays ten or eleven : anal with three spines : caudal forked. Scales of 
moderate size, when ctenoid very slightly so. Air-vessel simple. Pyloric appendages few. 

Gill places the Gerrini as a distinct family. 

Geographical distribution. — All the tropical seas, entering estuaries. Some apparently being mostly 
confined to the latter situations, and ascending into brackish or fresh waters as high as tidal influence extends. 

Uses. — As food these fishes are mostly eaten by the indigent classes, being little esteemed whilst fresh 
on account of their numerous bones and deficiency in flavour. As they salt and dry well, large numbers are 
.extensively prepared in this manner for future use or as a matter of export trade. 

The species comprising this genus are somewhat difficult of determination unless a good collection is 
brought together, but even then some important considerations have to be borne in mind prior to deciding 
whether the specimen belongs to a known or an unknown species. The eye, certainly in some, increases in 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 



•j 7 



comparative size with the liead as age advances, as occurs in Megalops cyprmoides, &c. The first few dorsal 
spines may be compressed or rounded : and the second and third slightly or very elongate, but this elongation 
often varies considerably, as seen in G. filamentosus, in which it may be only two-thirds the height of the body 
or even extending so far as the base of the caudal fin, and though this difference is generally, it is not always 
due to age, but in the young it is mostly shorter than in the adult. Even in the anal spines the second may be 
equal in length to the third or a little longer or shorter in the same species. As regards colour the young are 
generally vertically banded, and these bands may be indistinct or even entirely absent in the adult. In those 
with longitudinal bands they sometimes become interrupted in large specimens, showing rows of long oval 
blotches or marks placed one over the other, the reason usually being that these marks are apparent in the 
adult where the vertical bands existed in the immature. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Gerres setifer, D. \%, A. ■§-, L. 1 38, L. tr. 5/10. Preopercle serrated along its lower limb. Highest 
dorsal spine 2/5 of that of body. Silvery, a narrow dark edge to spinous dorsal, and a brown spot on the 
middle of each ray. Hooghly. 

2. Gerres ohlongus, D. -j^-, A. f, L. 1. 48-50. Highest dorsal spine 3/4 of that of the body. Silvery. 
Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

3. Gerres filamentosus, D. -f^, A. f-, L. 1. 45-48. Highest dorsal spine elongated sometimes reaching the 
caudal fin. Silvery, with rows of short, oblong, horizontal, bluish spots along the upper half of the body : a spot 
at the base or centre of each dorsal spine and ray. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

4. Gerres oyena, D. j%-, A. f-, L. 1. 38-40, L. tr. 5/10. Highest dorsal spine as long as head excluding the 
snout. Red Sea, through those of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

5. Gerres lucidus, D. j%, A. -f, L. 1. 41, L. tr. 5/10. Highest dorsal spine two-fifths as high as the body. 
Dorsal fin with a black blotch, a dark spot on each spine and ray just above the sheath. Seas of India. 

6. Gen-es abbreviatus, D. ^ A. f, L. 1. 37-40, L. tr. 6/11. Highest dorsal spine almost as long as the 
head : pectoral long. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

7. Gerres poeti, D. -f^, A. f, L. 1. 40, L. tr. 6/11. Highest dorsal spine as long as the head excluding the 
snout. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

■ 8. Gerres Iwibatus, D. T B T , A. f, L. 1. 35, L. tr. 4/10. Highest dorsal spine as long as the head behind 
the middle of the orbit. Seas of India. 



1. Gerres setifer, Plate XXV, fig 

Chanda (?) setifer* Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 105, 370. 
Gerres altispinis, Giinther, Catal. iv, p. 258. 



1. 





Chanda, (?) setifer, (H. Buchanan's MSS. figure). 

B. vi, D. A£, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 19, L. 1. 38, L. tr. 5/10. 

Length of head 4/17 to 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, nearly 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The groove for the posterior process of the 
premaxillary reaches to opposite the first third of the orbit, it is posteriorly rounded and scaleless. The maxilla 

* Buchanan observes of his Cenus, Chanda. or "Silvery fishes," that "the first (Chanda setifer) has the strongest affinity to 
the Zeus insidiator, so that all of them no doubt belong to the same genus with that fish, although I cannot help thinking that, to 
include them in the same genus with Zeus ciliaris and Zeus faber is an unnatural arrangement" (Buchanan 1. c. p. 103), "as in the 
genera already described there are, as it were, certain intermediate species, so in this the two first (Clianda setifer and C. ruconius) 
* * * have but little of the transparency, which forms part of the generic character" (1. c. p. 104). 





98 ACAXTHOPTERYGII. 

reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Lower margin of preopercle serrated in its last half, in the 
British Museum specimen these serrations are less apparent than in mine. Teeth — fine. Fins — dorsal spines of 
moderate strength, the second not quite so high as the third and fourth which are equal to two-fifths the height 
of the body : last dorsal spine rather longer than the one preceding it, and one third shorter than the third or 
fourth. Pectoral reaches to nearly above the anal : ventral three-fourths of the distance to the anal : anal spines 
of about equal length or the second slightly the longer : caudal deeply forked. Scales — the sheath to the dorsal 
and anal fins high. Free portion of the tail as wide at its commencement as it is long. Colours — silvery, with a 
narrow dark edge to the dorsal interspinous membrane and a brown spot at the middle of each dorsal ray just 
above the sheath. 

Hamilton Buchanan states that Chanda setifer has ten prickles in its dorsal fin, the first of which is very 
short ; but irrespective of his description he has left a drawing of it, labelled katchanda, whilst amongst the 
collection of fishes received by the British Museum from Mr. Waterhouse exists one, the type of GeiTes altispinis, 
Giinther, having ten dorsal spines, not nine as stated in the Catalogue. It is closely allied to G. lucidus, but 
possesses one more dorsal spine, a more or less serrated border along the horizontal edge of the preopercle, and 
one more row of scales between the lateral-line and the base of the dorsal fin. Bleeker in his " Pisces 
Hindostan, &c." gives " p. 38, Scolopsides (?) setifer, Blkr. Chanda (?) setifer, Buchan." 

Habitat. — River Hooghly at Calcutta, where i£ is common, attaining to 4 inches in length. 

2. Gerres oblongus, Plate XXV, fig. 2. 

Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 479 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 354, and iv, p. 264. 

Gerres gigas, Giinther, Catal. iv, p. 262, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 30, pi. xxiv, fig. A. 

B. vi, D. JL, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. a C. 17, L. 1. 48-50, L. tr. %J. 

Length of head 3/13, of caudal 2/9, height of body nearly 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 
of length of head, 3/4 (in the young 1) of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Snout rather elevated. 
The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Preopercle entire. The groove for the posterior 
process of the premaxillary reaches to opposite the middle of the eye, it is rounded behind and scaleless: 
Teeth — fine. Fins — dorsal spines not very strong, compressed, the second curved and much the highest, being 
almost as long as the head, and three-fourths of that of the body below it : pectoral long, reaching to above the 
anal spines : anal spines weak, the third rather the longest and equalling the length of the post-orbital portion 
of the head : caudal deeply forked, with some fine scales upon it. Scales — 5f rows between the lateral-line and 
the base of the dorsal fin. The scaly sheath of both dorsal and anal fins moderately developed. Free portion 
of the tail as high at its commencement as it is long. Colours — silvery, eye golden. The young are considerably 
darker above the lateral-line, and show indistinct bands. 

Habitat. — It would seem to extend throughout the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 
The young are sometimes captured at Madras, and I have also taken this fish at the Andaman islands, where I 
procured the specimen figured, which is a little over nine inches in length. 

3. Gerres filamentosus, Plate XXV, fig. 3. 

Zeus wodawahah, Russell, i, p. 52, pi. 67. 

Gerres filamentosus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 482 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 345, and iv, p. 261 ; Day, Fishes of 
Malabar, p. 159; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 56 (not C.V.) ; Klunz. Verb., z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 773. 

Gerres punctatus, C. V. vi, p. 480 ; Bleeker, Batav. p. 521 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 346, and iv, p. 260 ; 
Day, Fish. Malab. p. 159. 

Catochcenum filamentosum Cantor, Catal. p. 56. 

Diapterus filamentosus, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 231, and Revis. Gerrini, p. 5. 

Diapterus punctatus, Bleekei 1 , Revis. Gerr. p. 9. 

Jaggari, Tel. (Ganjam) : Oodan. Tarn. : Nga-ivet-sat, Arrak. 

B. vi, D. JL p. 15, v. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 45-48, L. tr. 6/14, Csec. pyl. 3. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4/17, of caudal 2/9, height of body rather above 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/3 of length of head, 4/5 to 1 diameter from the end of snout and also apart. The maxilla extends 
to below the front edge or first fourth of the orbit. Preopercle entire, its angle rounded. Opercle with two 
blunt points. Teeth — fine in the jaws. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the second prolonged, 
sometimes, especially in the adult, extending to the caudal fin, in others as in the immature, it is not so high 
as the body : last four or five dorsal spines shorter than the rays : pectoral rather longer than the head : ventral 
reaching three-fourths of the way to the anal : second anal spine stronger but not quite so long as the third 
which equals half the length of the head : caudal deeply forked. Free portion of the tail as high at its commence- 
ment as it is long. Scales — the sheath along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins well developed, five or six fine 
rows of scales between the lateral-line and the base of the dorsal sheath. Go lours — silvery in the adult, with 
rows of short oblong horizontal bluish spots along the upper half of the body, on the scales being rubbed off 
they are found to be continuous, forming lines : snout black : a blackish spot anteriorly on the base of each 
dorsal spine and ray just above the scaly sheath, and usually a dark edge to the soft dorsal : caudal greyish 
externally : the other fins yellow with numerous fine dots on the fin membrane. 



FAMILY, I— PERCID^E. 99 

The young have vertical bands, the alternate ones being the shortest. 

Habitai. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining 8 inches or more in length. 

4. Gerres oyena, Plate XXV, fig. 4. 

Lahrus oyena, Forsk. p. 35 ; Bl. Schn. p. 245 ; Lacep. iii, p. 463. 
Labrus longirostris, Lacep. iii, p. 467, pi. 19, fig. 1. 
Sparus brvtannus, Lacep. iv, pp. 132, 134. 
Smarts oyena, Riipp. Atl. p. 11, t. 3, f. 2. 

Gerres oyena, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 472 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii. Msenid. p. 12 ; Giinther, Catal. i, 
p. 353, and iv, p. 261 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 772. 

Gerres equula, Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. p. 76, pi. 40, fig. 1.* 
Diapterus filamentosus, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 232, and Revis. Gerr. p. 20. 

B. vi, D. £., P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 19, L. 1. 38-40, L. tr. 5/10, Ca3c. pyl. 3. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 2/9, height of body 4/11 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, 1 diameter from end of snout and also apart. The groove for the posterior processes of the premaxil- 
laries reaches to opposite the middle of the orbit. The maxilla extends to below the first third of the orbit. 
Preopercle roughened along its vertical limb but not serrated. Teeth — fine. Fins — dorsal spines pretty strong, 
the anterior ones somewhat compressed and a little arched, the second longest and equal to nearly the length of 
the head without the snout ; the last spine nearly as high as the rays and rather longer than the postorbital 
length of the head : pectoral longer than the head and reaching to beyond the anal spines : ventral almost 
touching the anal. Second anal spine strongest but shorter than the third, which equals half the length of the 
head ; caudal forked. Scales — fine ones covering the caudal fin : sheath to the dorsal and anal fins high : four 
rows of scales between the lateral-line and the base of the sheath opposite the fourth dorsal spine. Free portion 
of the tail as high at its commencement as it is long. Colours — silvery, dorsal fin black edged, and a dark spot 
on each spine and ray at about half their height : a darkish mark may exist over the free portion of the tail : a 
narrow black posterior edge to the middle of the caudal : the fins yellow. 

Habitat. — Bed Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The 
specimen figured was taken at Mangalore and is 7J inches in length, its second anal spine is rather abnormally 
strong, and the lower caudal lobe is a little shortened, as is so frequently the case with littoral and estuary- 
fishes. 

5. Gerres lucidus, Plate XXV, fig. 5. 
Gerres lueidus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 477. 

B. vi, D. &, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 40, L. tr. 5/10, Case. pyl. 3. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 2/9, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 
of length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The groove for the posterior 
process of the premaxillary is ovate, scaleless, and reaches to nearly opposite the first third of the 
orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Preopercle entire, in a few specimens 
it is a little roughened along its horizontal edge, but not serrated. Teeth — fine. Fins — dorsal spines of 
moderate strength and not curved, the first very short, the third slightly longer than the second and 
equal to two-fifths of the height of the body, or the length of the head posterior to the middle of the orbit : 
pectoral longer than the head and reaching to above the anal spines : ventrals reach two- thirds of the way to 
the anal : second anal spine strongerf but generally not quite so long as the third which is a little longer than 
the third of the dorsal : caudal forked. Free portion of the tail as high at its commencement as it is long. 
Scales — the sheath for the dorsal fin is rather more developed than that for the anal : a few scales over the 
caudal : four rows between the lateral-line and the base of the fourth dorsal spine. Colours — silvery, with an 
indistinct vertical dark band over the nape, a second from below the dorsal spines, and two more below the soft 
portion of the dorsal fin : snout black : fins canary-yellow, the upper half of the membrane between the second 
and fifth dorsal spines deep black, J the rest of the fin dark edged with a black margin : a row of dark spots 
along the dorsal spines and rays at half their height : caudal grey-edged, the inferior caudal lobe with a very 
narrow white lower edge and a white tip. 

As this fish increases in length the height of the body becomes proportionately a little less, thus at 
5 inches in length it is 4/13 of the total : and the eye 3/4 of a diameter from the end of the snout. 

This species is closely allied to G. setifer, but the latter appears to be confined to the tidal Hooghly, 
whereas this is a marine form having one dorsal spine less, &c, as already pointed out (see p. 98). 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China : it is the most common Indian species, visiting 
the coasts in enormous numbers. 

6. Gerres abbreviatus, Plate XXV, fig. 6. 

? Sparus erythrurus, Bloch, t. 261. 

* The type specimen is still in good preservation in the Leyden Museum, the artist has given his figure too elongated a shape, 
in fact resembling G. oblongus. 

f The second anal spine is much stronger in this species than in specimens of G. Japonicus, which however it very strongly 
resembles. 

% This deep black colour of the dorsal interspinous membrane, is liable to be diminished in specimens which have been kept 
long in spirit, especially if their condition at first had not been very good or the liquor tainted. 

o 2 



100 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

? Cichla erythrura, Bl. Sclin. p. 336. 

Gerres abbreviatus, Bleeker, Java, i, p. 103, and Mcenicl. p. 11; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 345, and iv, j>. 257; 
Kncr, Novara Fische, p. 56, t. iii, f. 3a (Pharyngeal teeth.) . 
Diapterus abbreviatus, Bleeker, Revis. Gerr. p. 16. 

B. vi, D. ft, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 37-40, L. tr. 6/11. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 2/9, height of body 2/5 to 3/8 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 to 1/3 of 
length of head, 2/3 to 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Snout somewhat spatnlate : the posterior 
process of the premaxillary reaches to opposite the first third of the orbit. Preopercle entire or finely serrated along 
its vertical limb.* Teeth — fine. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the second rather longer than the third, and almost 
equal to the length of the head, both rather curved. Pectoral reaching to opposite the middle of the base of the 
anal and longer than the head : second anal spine the strongest, the third slightly the longest, equalling the 
distance from the posterior edge of the orbit to the end of the snout : caudal deeply forked, upper lobe slightly 
the longer. Free portion of the tail higher at its commencement than long. Scales — five rows between the 
lateral-line and the base of the fifth dorsal spine : scaly sheaths to dorsal and anal fins well developed. Colours — 
silvery- white, darkest along the back, each scale with a rather indistinct spot, but forming longitudinal bands : 
fins yellowish, dorsal with a blackish edge and a spot on each spine and ray just above the sheath. 

Longest specimen obtained 7ft inches m length. 

Bloch's specimen of a Gerres is still in a good state of preservation in the Berlin Museum, it is about 9 
inches long, and as the height of the body is 3^- inches, it is difficult to understand how Val. could have 
considered it identical with G. oyena, having the height of the body equal to about 1/4 of the total length. It is 
so unlike the figure of Sparus erythrurus that I consider.it better to leave the fish under Bleeker's name. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

7. Gerres poeti, Plate XXVI, fig. 1. 

Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 468 ; Bleeker, Mcenid. p. 11 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 341, and iv, p. 256 ; Kner, Novara 
Fische, p. 55. 

Diapterus poeti, Bleeker, Saparoua, p. 360, and Revis. Gerr. p. 18. 

B. vi, D. ft, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 40, L. tr. 6/11. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 2/11, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/5 of length 
of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The groove for the premaxillary reaches to opposite 
the middle of the eye : the maxilla to below the first third of the orbit. Teeth — fine. Fins — dorsal spines not 
very strong, the second and third compressed and somewhat arched, the second being slightly the longer, and 
equal to the length of the head excluding the snout, the last spine nearly as high as the rays and equal to the 
postorbital portion of the head. Pectoral as long as the head and reaching to above the anal spines : the 
ventral extends three-fourths of the distance to the anal : second anal spine the strongest, stouter than any in 
the dorsal fin, and slightly longer or of the same length as the third which equals three-fourths of the height of 
the second of the dorsal fin : caudal forked. Scales — the sheath to the dorsal fin moderately developed : no 
scales on the caudal : five rows between the highest point of the lateral-line and the base of the dorsal fin. 
Free portion of the tail higher at its commencement than it is long. Colours — silvery, with a dark edge to the 
dorsal fin, and the outer edge of the caudal greyish : spots along the base of each dorsal spine and ray, and 
more or less distinct lines along the rows of scales on the body. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, Malay Archipelago, and beyond. My longest 
specimen is 7 inches. 

8. Gerres limhatus. 

Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 476; Giinther, Catal. iv, p. 259; Day, Fishes Malabar, p. 160. 
Catochcenum limbatum, Cantor, Catal. p. 55. 
Diapterus limbatus, Bleeker, Revis. Gerr. p. 17. 

B. vi, D. ft, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 35, L. tr. 4/10. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 3/13, height of body 4/13 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below the first third 
of the eye. Fins — dorsal spines not very strong, the second and third of about equal length, compressed and 
somewhat arched, the third being- slightly the longer and equal to the length of the head behind the middle of 
the orbit, the last spine nearly equal to half the height of the rays and almost as long as the postorbital portion 
of the head : pectoral as long as the head and reaching to nearly above the anal spines : ventral extends three- 
fourths of the distance to the anal : second anal spine much the strongest, also stronger than those in the dorsal 
fin but slightly shorter than the third which nearly equals the second of the dorsal fin : caudal deeply forked. 
Scales — the sheath of the dorsal fin moderately developed : numerous fine scales over the caudal : three rows 
between the summit of the lateral-line and the base of the dorsal fin. Free portion of the tail as high at its 

* In a specimen from the Malabar coast, which has 40 scales along its lateral-line, the second dorsal spine is only eqnal to 
three-fourths of the length of the head, and the second of the anal is slightly shorter in proportion than in my Andamanese specimens 
v>hicli latter however have the spines not quite so strong. The Andamanese specimens have the angle and lower limb of the preopercle 
cienulated but not serrated : others from the Malay Archipelago have neither serrations nor crenulations. 



FAMILY, I— PERCHLE. 101 

commencement as it is long. Colours — silvery, with a dark margin to the dorsal and anal fins, and a spot on 
each spine and ray of the dorsal fin about its middle. 

Habitat. — Seas of India. The type specimen at Paris is 4f inches in length, and from it the above 
description has been taken. I obtained a specimen 5 inches in length at Madras. It much resembles G. litcidus 
but is destitute of the dark blotch on the dorsal fin. 

Genus, 30 — Pentaprion, Bleeker. 

Clafa, Gill. 

This Genus differs from Gerres in having the inferior pharyngeal tones separate: 14 to 15 rays in the dorsal 
fin : 5 anal spines, and 13 or 14 rays. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Pentaprion longimanus, D. -fi^, A. -f^. 

1. Pentaprion longimanus, Plate LII, fig. 6. 

Hquula longimanus, Cantor, Catal. p. 152 ; Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 505. 

Pentaprion gerroides, Bleeker, Masnid. p. 13, Java, p. 104, and Revis. Pentaprion, p. 22 ; Giinther, Catal. 
i, p. 396. 

B. vi, D. &0&, P. 15, V. 1/5, A A, C. 17, L. 1. 40. 

Length of head 4J, of caudal 4J, height of body 3f in the total length. Eyes — diameter 2| in the 
length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Body of a long oval shape : dorsal and anal 
profiles equally convex. Snout slightly swollen. The posterior process of the premaxillary reaches to opposite the 
first third of the eye. No spines or serrations around the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge 
of the eye. Mandible not concave inferiorly. Lower preopercular edge serrated. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, 
vomer and palate edentulous. Fins — dorsal spines weak, the first very short, the second one-third the height of 
the third which equals 4/7 of the length of the head. Pectoral equals the height of the body. Ventral reaches 
two-thirds of the distance to the anal. Second anal spine the longest and equal to 1/3 of the height of the body : 
caudal forked, upper lobe the longer. Free portion of tail rather higher than it is long. Scales very deciduous, 
they extend forwards over the back to opposite the middle of the eyes. Colours — silvery, with a silvery stripe 
from the eye to the base of the caudal fin. 

Cantor erroneously gave 4 spines instead of 5 to the anal fin, in this he appears to have been copied by 
Dr. Giinther. The specimen is much mutilated but 5 spines are still visible. 

On mentioning this fish to Dr. Bleeker he at once showed me his types of Pentaprion gerroides, 
which are identical. 

Habitat. — Madras, where I procured several specimens, to the Malay Archipelago. Cantor observes that 
"in the Straits of Malacca this species is very abundant at all seasons, and quantities, both fresh and dried, are 
consumed by the natives." 

ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. 

Page 18. Serranus lanceolatus. 

After this portion of my work had been printed I went over to Leyden to examine the types of S. Jwrridus 
and S. geographicus. 8. horridus (K. and v. H.) Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 321 is 9^ inches in length ; S. geographicus 
(K. and v. H.) Cuv. and Val. ii, p. 322 is much larger; both are stuffed, painted and varnished, and I consider 
are forms of S. lanceolatus, Bloch, and not of S. fuscoguttatus, under which they are placed at p. 22. 

Page 57. Apogon taeniatus. 

" (Not Bleeker)" has to be omitted, and the following reference to be added : — 

Apogon Noordziehi, Bleeker, Java, p. 336. 

Amia Noordziehi, Bleeker, Revis. Apogonini, p. 15. 

Page 59. Apogon tasniatus. 

Having seen Valenciennes types I have no doubt but that they represent this species as stated by 
Klunzinger. One specimen still shows traces of longitudinal bands. 

Page 60. Apogon Savayensis. 

This fish is identical with A. Bankanensis, Bleeker, whose name has the priority. Dr. Bleeker showed 
me specimens of his fish with the markings as well seen as in Dr. Giinther's specimen and figure. The follow- 
ing references have to be added : — 

Apogon Bankanensis, Bleeker, Banda, p. 95 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 238, 

Amia Bankanensis, Bleeker, Bouro, p. 147, and Revis. Apogonini, p. 27. 



102 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 



Family, II— SQUAMIPINNES, Cuv. 

Chcetodontidce, pt. Richardson. 

Branchiostegals six or seven (Zanclus four) : pseudobranchise well developed. Body elevated and 
compressed. Eyes lateral and of moderate size. Mouth generally small, with a lateral cleft, and situated in 
front of snout. Teeth villiform or setiform, neither incisors nor canines : in most of the genera the palate is 
edentulous, soft portion of the dorsal fin of greater extent than the spinous, sometimes considerably more, 
rarely slightly so : anal with three or four spines, its soft portion similar to that of the dorsal : lower pectoral 
rays branched : ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five rays. Scales cycloid, or very finely ctenoid, 
extending to a greater or less extent over the vertical fins, but occasionally absent from the spinous portion. 
Air-vessel present, generally simple. Intestines usually much convoluted ; stomach cascal. Pyloric appen- 
dages in moderate numbers. 

Geographical distribution. — These fishes are, as a rule, marine, and although some have been recorded as 
taken in rivers and estuaries, they are rarely captured above tidal reach. 

The Squamipinnes have been divided by Dr. Giinther into three groups : — First, those which have the 
palate edentulous (Ghcetodontina) : secondly, those which have teeth on the palate, but the dorsal fin is situated 
in the posterior half of the length of the back (Toxotina) : and thirdly, some Australian forms wherein there 
are palatine teeth, and the dorsal fin occupies the middle of the length of the back, (Scorpidina) . 

In some species a prolongation of the dorsal fin, owing to sex, may be present as in Holacanthus imperator, 
H. annularis, &c. 

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA. 

First group — Chsetodontina. 
No palatine or vomerine teeth : no concealed spine in front of the base of the dorsal fin in the adult. 

1. Chcetodon. Snout of moderate length or short : no preopercular spine : a single un-notched dorsal 
fin without an elongated spine : anal with 3 or 4 spines. 

2. Clielmo. Snout much produced : no preopercular spine : 9 to 13 dorsal spines none of which are 
elongated. 

3. Heniochus. Snout of moderate length : no preopercular spine : 11 to 13 dorsal spines, the fourth being 
much elongated. 

4. Zanclus. Snout of moderate length : no preopercular spine : 7 dorsal spines, the third being much 
elongated. 

5. Holacanthus. Snout of moderate length : a strong preopercular spine : 11 to 15 dorsal spines, none 
of which are elongate. 

6. Scatopharjus. Snout of moderate length : no preopercular spine : dorsal fin notched and no scales on 
the spinous portion : anal with 4 spines. 

7. Ephippus. Snout short : no preopercular spine ; dorsal fin deeply notched, with 8 or 9 spines several 
of which are elongated and flexible. 

8. Drepane. Snout short : no preopercular spine : dorsal fin deeply notched, with 8 or 9 spines, none of 
which are elongated. 

Second group — Toxotina. 

Vomerine and palatine teeth : no concealed spine in front of the base of the dorsal fin which is 
situated in the last half of the back. 

9. Toxotes. Snout somewhat produced. Dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines. 

The young fishes in some of the above genera of the first group show considerable enlargement of the 
bones of the head which more or less disappear in the adult,* in a few a concealed spine pointing forwards may 
be present in the immature in front of the base of the dorsal fin. 

* Genus — Tholichthts, Giinther. 
Dr. Giinther (Annals and Mag. of Nat. History, 1868, p. 457) described and figured a very small fish, 11 millims. long, as a 
new Cyttoid Genus, which he termed TholicMhys. I obtained several (I think thirteen) larger ones at Madras lyV inches long, which I 
described (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 687,) as T. osseus, but drew attention to their belonging to the Family Squamipinnes, giving it a 
strong resemblance to Heniochus or Ch&todon. I personally deposited my largest specimen in the British Museum, but as it has been 
mislaid I have figured my next largest at twice the natural size ; it is unfortunately dried, all my specimens in spirit, irrespective of the 
one previously mentioned, having become spoiled during their transit from India. 



FAMILY, II— SQUAMIPINNES. 103 

First group — Cheetodontina. 
No palatine or vomerine teeth : no concealed spine in front of the base of the dorsal fin in the adult. 

Genus, 1 — Ch^todon, Cum. 

Pabdophorus and Microcanthus, Swains. ; Megraprotoclon, Guieh. ; Sarothodus, Gill. 

Branchiostegals six. Body elevated and strongly compressed. Snout of moderate length, or short. Pre- 
opercle entire, or slightly serrated, but destitute of any spine at the angle. Palate edentulous. Spinous and, soft 
portions of the dorsal fin not separated by a notch, the rays of slightly or considerably larger number them the spiines, 
none of the latter elongated : anal with tlvree or four spines. Scales of large, moderate, or small size. Lateral line 
continuous, sometimes incomplete. Air-vessel may be constricted or with horns. Intestines much convoluted^ 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

A. With four anal spines. 

1. Chatodon plebeius. D. x3-tt, A. tjVoj L. 1. 50. A black ocular band witb white edges : a black 
white-edged ocellus at the base of the caudal fin. Andamans to the South Seas. 

B. With three anal spines. 

2. Chcetodon xanthocephalus. D. \f, A. 2 3 T , L. 1. 38. A small dark blotch above the orbit : body with 
five indistinct vertical streaks. Ceylon and Zanzibar. 

3. Chcetodon falcida. D. |-§G|-f, A. ^A-^, L. r. 28. A narrow ocular band, two wide triangular bands 
pass downwards from the dorsal fin, another exists over the free portion of the tail. Twelve or more narrow 
black bands on the body. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

4. Chcetodon pictus. D. -|4, A. ^oV?) ^- r - ft ■ -^- n ocular band descending to the chest. Several dark 
lines descend downwards and forwards from the first half of the dorsal fin to the head, whilst in the last half 
of the body others go backwards and downwards. Dorsal and anal fins dark : caudal with a dark base and two 
dark vertical bands. Red Sea, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago. 

5. Chaitodon vagabundus. D. |-§^-f, A. -^o?^^", L. r. ■*-§■. An ocular band descending to the interopercle. 
Many dark bands pass downwards to the middle of the body when they go backwards. Dorsal and anal fins 
margined with black : two vertical black bands on caudal. From the Red Sea throughout those of India to 
Polynesia. 

6. Chatodon Mertensii, D. |-§-, A. T 3 g-, L. 1. 34. A narrow interrupted ocular band : anterior two-thirds of 
body violet, with narrow vertical, angular, bands : last third of body, soft dorsal, and anal fins yellow : a vertical 
band on caudal : a narrow dark intramarginal line to soft dorsal and anal fins. Red Sea, Seas of India, and 
beyond. 

7. Chcetodon auriga. D. $£:-}£ , A. ^yy, L. 1. 42. Fifth dorsal ray prolonged. An ocular band descends 
to the interopercle. A dark ocellus on the middle dorsal rays. Red Sea, through those of India to Polynesia. 

8. Chcetodon Kleinii. D. a-^-l-g-, A. xs"-2"o> -'-'• !• 33. Brownish, with a broad ocular band extending to a 
black ventral fin : edges of soft dorsal, caudal, and anal black. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

9. Chcetodon guttatissimus, D. -tf , A. ry-Tsi L. 1. 38. An ocular band descends to the interopercle : brown 
spots on the body scales, and small ones on the soft dorsal and anal fins : caudal with a black vertical band. 

10. Chmtodon vittatus, D. -^i-y^, ■&-■ -£oi -'-'• r - t~s- Body with numerous fine dark lines passing backwards : 
a dark band along the base of the dorsal fin, another along the centre of the soft dorsal : a dark band on the last 
third of the caudal : ventrals white. From the Red Sea to Polynesia. 

11. Chaiodon unimacidatus, D. -j-^l-g, -A- tt-to> -'-'• !• ^6. A narrow ocular band : a black blotch on the 
side above the lateral-line beneath the last four dorsal spines. Ceylon to the Malay Archipelago. 

12. Chcetodon collaris, D. -^i-^j, A. s-fi^^, L. 1. 34. Each scale with a light centre : a whitish band from 
in front of the dorsal fin to the chest, another to the eye, and a third over the snout. Seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago. 

13. Chcetodon lunula, D. -^i-^-g, A. tbVo, L. 1. 40. A wide ocular band descends to the preopercle : a 
second from the first dorsal spine joins it : a third goes to the base of the pectoral, and another over the free 

Tholiohthys osseus, PI. XXVI. fig. 2 (twice life size.) 
Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 687. 
D. lh P. 15, V. 1/5, A. y^o, C. 17, L. 1. 41. 

Length of head nearly 1/3, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/2 of the total length. Eyes — diameter from 1/2 to 2,'5 of the 
length of head, 1/2 in diameter from the end of snout, and 1 apart. In the specimen figured the angle of the preopercle is much enlarged, 
reaching to almost below the origin of the pectoral fin : the shoulder scale and those over the shoulder girdle considerably dilated. 
F ins — third dorsal spine the longest and strongest, the fin notched : ventrals rounded : caudal cut almost square. Scales — ctenoid. 
Lateral line — ceases opposite the end of the soft dorsal fin. 

This is evidently the same species as the one I formerly described, I. c. but the development of the cranial bones differs. Pro- 
bably in Holacanthi the preopercular spine is the remains of the elongated and dilated preopercular angle seen in this species. 

In the very young, as figured by Dr. Giinther, the developments mentioned above are greatly magnified, showing that atrophy 
occurs as age advances. 



104 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

portion of the tail. Young with a large ocellus on the soft dorsal fin. Seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago. 

14. Chcetodon melanotics, D. if, A. -£g, L. 1. 37-40. A narrow ocular band : body yellow, with its upper 
fourth stained with black and black lines along each row of scales : a yellow vertical band on caudal : a short 
black one at the base of the first four anal rays. Red Sea, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago. 

15. Chcetodon octofasciatus, D. -r^-Vs-, A. T 3 r , L. 1. 50. Light vertical bands on the body and head. Seas 
of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

16. Chcetoclon olicj acanthus, D. ^frfo, A. ys^-tzi L. 1. 46-48. Five vertical brown bands : a dark ocellus 
at the base of the eighth to twelfth dorsal rays. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

A. Willi four anal spines. 

1. Chsetodon plebeius, Plate XXVI, fig. 3. 

Brouss. MS. Brit. Mus. ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1269 (?) ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 68. 
Ghostodon plebejus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 5, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 35, t. xxxii, f. B. 

B. vi, D. JJ^, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. ^ T¥ , C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 7/15. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/7, height of body nearly 1/2 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of 
length of head, and 1 diameter from end of snout. Preopercle finely serrated : the maxilla reaches half way 
to below the front edge of the orbit. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the fourth slightly the longest, the soft 
portions of the dorsal and anal rounded : second anal sjrine longest and strongest : caudal slightly rounded. 
Colours — yellow, with a black ocular band which has a white edge : a black white-edged ocellus at the base of 
the caudal fin. 

Habitat. — Andaman islands to the South seas ; the specimen figured is from the British Museum collection, 
and is 4j inches in length. 

B. With three anal spines. 

2. Chsetodon xanthocephalus, Plate XXVI, fig. 4. 
Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. ii, p. 182 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 33. 
B. vi, D. iflif, P. 15, V 1/5, A. A, C. 17, L. r. if, L. tr. 11/18. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal one sixth, height of body If in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of 
length of head, 1| diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Preopercle indistinctly serrated. Fins — soft 
portions of the dorsal and anal rounded. Colours — a small dark blotch above the orbit : body brownish-yellow, 
with six indistinct dark vertical streaks : dorsal and anal fins dark violet, having white edges : caudal and 
ventrals yellowish. 

Habitat. — Ceylon and Zanzibar, the figure and description are from the type specimen in the British Museum. 

3. ChEetodon falcula, Plate XXVI, fig. 5. 
Bloch, ix, p. 102, t. 425, f. 2 ; Bl. Schn. p. 225 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 41 ; Bleeker, Batoe, p. 311 ; 
Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 17, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 39, t. xxvii, f. C. 

Chcetodon ulietensis, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 39 ; Bleeker, Amboina, p. 38 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 18. 

B. vi, D. (^mr, P- 15, V. 1/5, A. T ^ TJ , C. 17, L. r. 28, L. tr. 6/12. 

Length of head 3J to one fourth, of caudal 6|, height of body If in the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/4 of length of head, nearly 2 diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxfila reaches half way to 
below the front edge of the orbit. Preopercle serrated along its vertical limb, but almost entire along its angle 
and vertical edge. Teeth— brush-like. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the last being the longest, 
the soft portion of the fin rounded : candal cut almost square : ventral reaching as far as the anal spines : 
pectoral equal to the length of the head behind the angle of the mouth : second anal spine strongest and rather 
the longest, being equal to the last of the dorsal fin. Colours — body and head of a rather red-lilac-purple, 
beco min g of a primrose colour posteriorly, and also on the fins. A dark ocular band, narrower than the orbit, 
commences a short distance anterior to the dorsal fin, and is continued through the eye on to the interopercle, it 
has a white edge. A black band, widest above, arises from the first four or five dorsal spines, and is continued 
to a short distance below the lateral-line :* a second angularly pointed in front, begins from the last three spines 
and descends to the lateral-line : a third passes over a free portion of the tail. Twelve to fourteen vertical 
narrow black bands pass down either side. Soft dorsal fin with a narrow black upper margin : caudal with a 
black and white posterior edge : anal with a black intramarginal band having a white outer margin, and two 
more superiorly parallel to it. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen figured was taken at the 
Nicobars, the species attains to at least 8 inches in length. 

* A different distribution of colours is shown in Garrett's " Fische d. Sudsee," in which the body is lighter than described 
above. The two dark vertical bands from the dorsal fin are conjoined superiorly and only extend forwards so far as the fourth dorsal 
spine, but they descend lower than in my specimen. Likewise the band over the free portion of the tail is reduced to a blotch. The 
body bands arc stated to have sometimes white edges. 



FAMILY, II— SQUAMIPINNES. 105 

4. ChaBtodon pictus, Plate XXVI, fig. 6. 

Forsk. p. 65; Bl. Schn. p. 226; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 55; Bleeker, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind. ii, p. 177; 
Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 24 ; Klunz. Fisehe d. Both. Meer, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 781. 

Chcetodon vagabundus ? Bussell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 65, pi. 83 ; Bennett, Fish. Ceylon, p. 7, pi. 7. 
Chcetodon decussatus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 54; Bleeker, 1. c. xiii, p. 328 ; Kner, Nov. Fisehe, p. 101. 
Painah, Tel. : Khyeng-lchayowlc, Arrak. 

B. vi, D. if, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. r ^ m C. 17, L. 1. f|, L. tr. 6/14. 

Length of head above 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body 4/7 of the total length. .Eyes— diameter 
4/13 of the length of head, 1 diameter from the end of snout, and also apart. Preopercle finely serrated. 
Teeth — brush-like. Fi/ns — dorsal spines of moderate strength, soft portions of both dorsal and anal fins angular. 
Pectoral as long as the head behind the anterior nostril : ventral reaches to the anal : second anal spine stronger 
but of equal length to the third. Colours — snout with a black band : a dark ocular one descends through the 
eye over the interopercle to the chest : numerous fine dark lines descend downwards and forwards from the first 
half of the dorsal fin to the middle of the body, whilst in the posterior half of the body there are others having a 
direction downwards and backwards. Dorsal and anal fins dark, having a black margin and a light external 
edge, the dark line is continued over the posterior third of the body : there is another dark line over the free 
portion of the tail, and a dark semilunar mark on the caudal fin. Ventral darkest in its centre. 

Amongst Sir Walter Elliot's drawings exists a figure of this species marked Kunnadee or Kalloodi : a 
second labelled September, 1848, shows the red bands across the snout, this is the variety, No. 83, figured by 
Bussell and identical with G. decussatus, C. and V. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, those of India to the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 10 inches in length. The 
specimen figured is life-size from one captured at the Andamans. 

5. Chastodon vagabundus, Plate XXVII, fig. 1. 

Chcetodon vagabundus, Linn. Mus. Ad. Fried, ii, p. 71 and Sys. i, p. 465 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1251 ; Bl. p. 1102, 
t. 204, f. 2 ; Bl. Schn. p. 222 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 50 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Chsetod. p. 18; Gunther, 
Catal. ii, p. 25 and Fisehe d. Sudsee, p. 43. 

Pah-noo-dah, Andam. 

B. vi, D. ifi-H, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. ^? w , C. 17, L. r. ff, L- <*■ 4/15. 

Length of head about one fourth, of caudal from 6h to one sixth, height of body If of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 3/10 of the length of head, lj diameters from the end of snout, and also apart. Snout rather 
produced and pointed. The maxilla reaches to below the front nostril. Preopercle finely serrated, most strongly 
so at its angle. Teeth — brush-like. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the interspinous membrane 
deeply notched : soft portions of the dorsal and anal obtusely angular : pectoral as long as the head behind the 
angle of the mouth : ventral nearly reaching the anal : second anal spine equals the length of the third : caudal 
rounded. Colours — a black ocular band having white edges descends to the angle of the interopercle. Numerous 
dark bands pass downwards and forwards to the centre of the depth of the body, where others pass backwards. 
Dorsal and anal fins margined with black. Two black vertical bands on the caudal, the anterior of which is 
concave. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea, through those of India to Polynesia. 

6. Chsetodon Mertensii, Plate XXVII, fig. 2. 

? Chcetodon chrysurus, Brouss. 

? Pomacentrus chrysurus, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 423 ; Gunther, Catal. iv, p. 29 (not synom.) 
Chcetodon Mertensii, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 47 ; Gunther, Fisehe d. Sudsee, p. 45, t. 36, fig. B. (from a 
drawing) . 

B. vi, D. if, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. A, C. 17, L. r. ff, L. tr. 5/14. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal 6§, height of body 2J of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3J of the 
length of the head, ly diameters from end of snout and also apart. The maxilla reaches to about half way 
below the front edge of the orbit. Preopercle entire, its angle very oblique. Teeth — brush-like. Fins — ■ 
dorsal spines of moderate strength, increasing in length to the fifth, the soft portion of the fin as high as the 
spinous and rounded posteriorly : ventral spine strong, as long as the head excluding the snout : caudal cut 
nearly square : anal spines of moderate strength but long, the third rather the longest exceeding the highest of 
the dorsal by nearly one fourth, soft portion of the fin similar to that of the dorsal. Colours — head and anterior 
two-thirds of the body lavender, its posterior third yellow : interorbital space yellow : a narrow dark white- 
edged band commences a little in front of the dorsal fin, then ceases, but reappears a little above the eye, 
through which it descends and passes down the preopercle to a little in front'of its angle. Anterior two-thirds 
of the body with narrow black vertical bands, which form an angle at the middle of the body directed forwards. 
A narrow dark intramarginal line having a white outer edge exists on both the dorsal and anal fins : a narrow 
dark vertical band in the last third of the caudal, followed by a rather wider yellow one, whilst externally the 
fin is grey. 

In Garrett's " Fisehe d. Sudsee," the formula given is D, i|, A. -j 9 ^, and if it is the same species the 
ficnire is not exact. 



106 ACANTHOPTERYGLT. 

Habitat. — A specimen in the Berlin Museum is from the Red Sea. I have the species from Ceylon, and 
Valenciennes' fish in Paris is from the Mauritius, labelled " Chcetodon chrysurus, v. p. 423," by Valenciennes, 
but does not correspond with the description of C. chrysurus. Some other specimens are likewise thus labelled 
by Valenciennes, but the locality from which they were procured is unknown. 

7. Chastodon auriga, Plate XXVII, fig. 3 (var. setifer). 

Forsk. p. 60 ; Bl. Schn. p. 226 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 79 ; Riipp. 1ST. W. Fische, p. 28 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, 
p. 7 ; Klunzing. Fische d. Roth. Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 775. 

Chcetodon setifer, Bloch, t. 425, f. 1 ; Bl. Schn. p. 225 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 76 ; Guerin, Icon. Poiss. 
pi. 22, f. 1; Less.Voy. Coq. Zool. ii, p. 175, Poiss. pi. 29, f. 2; Richards. Ich. China, p. 246; Cuv. Reg. Anim. 
111. Poiss. pi. 38, f. 1 ; Jenyns, Zool. Beagle, Fish. p. 61 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 6 and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 36, 
t. xxvi, f. B ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 97. 

Pomacentrus filamentosus, Lacep. iv, pp. 506, 511. 

Cliastodon sebanus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 74. 

Chmtodon auriga, var. Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 28. 

Chmtodon lunaris, Gronov. ed. Gray, p. 70. 

Linophora auriga, Kaup, Arch. d. Naturg. 1860, pt. 2, pp. 137 and 156. 

B. vi, D. aza, P. 15, V. 1/5, A ^^, C. 17, L. r. |f L. tr. SHfr/13. 

Length of head 3/11 to 2/7, of caudal 1/7, height of body 4/7 to 1/2 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 
2/7 of length of head, nearly \\ diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Snout pointed. The maxilla reaches 
half way to below the front edge of the orbit. Preopercle very finely serrated. Teeth — brush-like. Fins, — in 
the specimen figured there are only eleven dorsal spines of moderate strength, the fifth ray is produced into a 
short filament, soft portions of dorsal and anal angularly shaped : pectoral equals the length of the head posterior 
to the nostrils : third anal spine the longest : caudal slightly emarginate. Colours — in C. auriga a brown ocular 
band, having a white anterior edge, passes through the orbit to over the interopercle. Body with darkish lines, 
passing upwards and backwards in the anterior third of the body, and downwards and backwards posteriorly. 
A darkish band passes from the base of the soft dorsal across the free portion of the tail and to the lower half 
of the anal. A dark band goes through the middle of the anal fin. Dorsal, anal, and caudal edged with white. 
In the variety C. setifer the ocular band, which has white edges, widens after it has passed the orbit and extends 
to the interopercle. Body with narrow darkish bands passing upwards and backwards in the anterior third of 
the body, and downwards and backwards in the last two thirds. A dark ocellus on the centre of the middle 
dorsal rays. Anal with a fine black intramarginal band having a white outer edge, upper and hind margins of 
the anal edged with black : two fine vertical lines on the caudal fin which enclose a semilunar space. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea, through the seas of India to Polynesia. The specimen figured was captured 
at the Nicobars, and is 4 T 6 o inches in length. 

8. Chsetodon Zleinii. 

Bloch,* t. 218, f. 2 ; Bl. Schn. p. 225 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 22. 

Chcetodon virescens, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 30 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii. Chart, p. 18. 

Chcetodon flavescens, Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 61. 

B. vi, D. JL P. 15, V. 1/5, A. t^-o, C. 17, L. 1. 33, L. tr. 5/11. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal 1/6, height of body nearly 1/2 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and \\ apart. The maxilla reaches to below the front nostril. 
Preopercle entire. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength increasing in length to the fifth, the soft portion 
of the fin rounded and rather higher than the spinous : caudal rounded : second and third anal spines of about 
equal strength, their length about equal to the fifth of the dorsal. Colours — uniform brownish, becoming darkest 
posteriorly : a rather broad ocular band extends from in front of the dorsal fin, through the eye over the pre- 
and inter-opercles to the chest and goes to the base of the ventral fin : a black band over the snout. Ventrals 
black : edges of the soft dorsal, anal, and caudal black. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

9. Chsetodon guttatissimus, Plate XXVII, fig. 4. 

Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. ii, p. 183; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 26; ? Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, 
v p. 780. 

Chmtodon tachete, Lienan, Nat. Hist. Soc. Mauritius, 1839, p. 36. 
B. vi, D. -H, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. t^, C. 19, L. 1. 38, L. r. ff 

Length of head 4/17, of caudal 2/11, height of body 1/2 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout and also apart. Preopercle serrated : the posterior extremity of 
the maxilla reaches nearly half way to below the orbit. Fins — soft portions of dorsal and anal rounded 
posteriorly. Colours — a brown white-edged ocular band one third the width of the eye passes from the nape to 
the lower edge of the interopercle. Body yellow, each scale having a brown spot : dorsal and anal fins with an 

* Klein, MSS. iv, t. 10, f. 2, p. 255. 



FAMILY, II— SQUAMIPINNES. 107 

outer narrow black edge and a broader white outer band, followed externally by a yellow margin, the rest of 
the fins covered with fine dark brown spots : caudal yellow with a black vertical band. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Zanzibar, and Red Sea. The figure is taken from Bennett's type specimen. 

10. Chsetodon vittatus, Plate XXVII, fig. 5. 

Chcetodon trifasciatus, Lacep. iv, p. 498 ; Mungo Park, Trans. Linn. Soc. fii, p. 34. 

Chcetodon vittatus, Bl. Schn. p. 227 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 34 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Chaetod. 
p. 18 ; Beechey, Voy. Zool. p. 61, pi. 17, f. 3 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 23, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 41 ; Kner, 
Novara Fische, p. 100 ; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer, 1870, p. 782. 

Chcetodon austriacus, Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 30, t. 9, f. 2 (var.). 

B. vi, D. JJhr, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. ^ m C. 18, L. r. *$, L. tr. 5/13. 

Length of head 4/17 to 1/4, of caudal 1/6 to 1/7, height of body 2/3 to 1/2 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 1/3 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and li apart. Snout obtuse : the maxilla reaches 
nearly half way to below the front edge of the orbit : preopercle finely serrated. Fins — the soft portion of the 
dorsal, anal and also of the caudal rounded. Colours — a dark line passes over the snout, separated by a thin white band 
from the ocular one, which is half as wide as the orbit, and passes to the chest. Another dark line exists parallel 
to it, with an intermediate fine light one. Body with about fifteen fine dark lines passing backwards. A dark 
band along the base of the soft dorsal fin, becoming wider over the free portion of the tail : another band along 
the centre of the soft dorsal. A light yellow band along the base of the anal with a dark one above it, whilst it 
has a white outer edge. Fins margined with dark and edged with orange. A dark vertical band on the 
posterior third of the caudal. Ventrals white. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea to Polynesia. 

11. Chsetodon unimaculatus. 

Bl. p. 1181, t. 201, f. 1 ; Bl. Schn. p. 221 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 72 ; Bleeker, Banda, i, p. 241 ; Giinther, 
Catal. ii, p. 11. 

B. vi, D. ri-Vs. p - 15, V. 1/5, A. .5^, C. 17, L. 1. 46, L. tr. 8/19, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/6, height of body about 1/2 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3| of 
the length of head, rather above 1 diameter from the end of snout, and lj apart. Lower jaw slightly the longer : 
the maxilla does not quite reach to below the front edge of the orbit. Preopercle entire. Fins — the dorsal 
spines strong, increasing in length to about the seventh from whence they slightly decrease, the soft portion of 
the fin, also of the anal, and the caudal rounded. Colours — yellowish, with a narrow brownish black ocular 
band descending from just in front of the dorsal fin through the middle of the eye to the angle of the preopercle 
and on to the chest : a black blotch on the side above the lateral-line* below the last four spines and two first 
rays : posterior edge of soft dorsal with a narrow black band which is continued over the free portion of the tail 
on to the hind edge of the anal rays. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, (from whence the above specimen came,) to the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 
5 inches in length. 

12. Chsetodon collaris, Plate XXVII, fig. 6. 

Bloch, t. 216, f. 1 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1263 ; Bl. Schn. p. 223 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 53 ; Bleeker, Cha3tod. 
p. 19; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 21. 

Chaitodon unifasciatus, Gronov. ed. Gray, p. 69. 

Chcetodon prcetextatus, Cantor, Catal. p. 156, pi. iii ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 22 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, 

' B. vi, D. ^_\j, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. „«„, C. 17, L. r. &&, L. tr. 7/15. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body 3/5 in the young to 2/3 in the adult of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 1/3 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 5/7 apart. The maxilla reaches two- 
thirds of the distance to below the orbit. A few fine serrations at the angle of the preopercle. Teeth — 
brush-like. Fins — fifth and sixth dorsal spine the longest : second anal spine the strongest and longer than the 
third : caudal cut nearly square. Colours — brownish olive, each scale light citron colour in its centre. A bluish- 
white band passes from in front of the dorsal fin over the opercles and on to the throat, where it expands : a 
second across the preorbital and over the cheek to the throat : opposite the orbit it gives off another branch 
which passes to the angle of the mouth and the throat. Another similar line exists on the forehead and is lost 
opposite the anterior edge of the orbit. Dorsal and anal fins tinged with reddish violet, the upper fourth of the 
soft portion being margined with six coloured bands in the following order from without : white, black, scarlet, 
black, pearl white, and black : anal tipped with three rows, white, black, and scarlet. Posterior half of caudal 
pearly white, divided by a black band from a scarlet base. Ventrals, black. 

Jerdon (M. J. L. and Science, 1849, p. 134), under the head of Chcetodon pretextatus, Cantor, observed, 
" I possess a dried specimen which appears to be this species." I also obtained mine at Cochin where I found 

* In Bloch's type specimen, a little more than 4 inches in length (No. 1257) the blotch is partly (about 1/3) below the lateral-line, 

P 2 



108 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

they were common for about a fortnight in June, after the commencement of the monsoon (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, 

P- 16 )- 

Bloch's type is of about equal length to Cantor's (5| inches), which it closely resembles. The specimen 

I have floured appears to be the young and proportionately much higher. The specimens of 0. collaris in the 
British Museum resemble those of C. reticulatus at Paris. 
Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

13. Chastodon lunula. 

Pomacentrus lunula, Lacep. iv, pp. 507, 510, 513. 

Chcetodon lunula, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 59, pi. 173; Bleeker, Gilolo, p. 57; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 25 and 
Fische d. Sudsee, p. 42, t. xxxiii, A, B, C, D. 

Chcetodon biocellatus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 62; Less. Voy. Duperr. Zool. Poiss. p. 176; Bleeker, Borneo, 
p. 403 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 9. 

B. vi, D. ^l, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. J^, C. 17, L. r. ffc &■ <*■ V^- 

Length of head 2/7 to 4/11, of caudal 1/6 to 2/13, height of body 4/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 of length of head, lj diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Preopercle serrated. Fins — the soft dorsal 
and anal rounded, caudal slightly rounded. Lateral-line — ceases below the last third of the soft dorsal fin. 
Colours — ocular band of a deep chestnut colour with white edges, and rather wider than the orbit, ending on the 
edge of the preopercle : a second brown band passes from the five first dorsal spines and unites with the occipital 
one : a third band from the fifth and sixth dorsal spines gradually widens and goes as low as the base of 
the pectoral fin : a band along the base of the soft dorsal passes over the free portion of the tail : caudal with a 
dark band in its posterior third : dorsal and anal with a dark edge and white margin. 

In the young the ocular band is edged with white, the vertical bands are badly developed, and a large 
black white-edged ocellus exists in the centre of the soft dorsal. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, Andaman islands to the Malay Archipelago. 

14. Chaetodon melanotus, Plate XXVIII, fig. 1. 

Bl. Schn. p. 224 (not Reinw.) ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 777. 

Chcetodon dorsalis, (Reinw.) Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 70 ; Rupp. Atl. p. 41, t. 9, f. 2 and N. W. Fische, p. 28 ; 
Bleeker, Banda, i, p. 240 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 28. 

Chcetodon marginatus, (Ehren.) Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 57. 
, Chcetodon abhortani, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 58. 

B. vi, D. if, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. -jJl., C. 17, L. 1. 37-40, L. tr. 6/16. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal nearly 1/7, height of body 4/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, rather more apart. The maxilla does not quite reach to below the 
front edge of the orbit. Preopercle very finely serrated. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, increasing in length 
to the fifth from whence they again diminish in height : soft portion of the fin also of the anal and the caudal 
rounded. Colours — yellowish, having a narrow black ocular band descending from in front of the dorsal fin 
through the middle of the eye, over the preopercle, interopercle, and on to the chest. The upper fourth of the 
body stained with black and black lines along each row of scales, a black band over the free portion of the tail 
but interrupted in the middle. Fins yellow, a narrow black intramarginal band along the soft portions of the 
dorsal and anal fins with a white outer edge : a yellow band with a narrow black external edge down the centre 
of the caudal, the last third of which fin is grey. A short black band at the base of the first four anal rays. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining at least 5 inches in 
length. Schneider's type still exists in Berlin, it is about 4 T 3 u inches long. 

15. Chsetodon octofasciatus. 

Chcetodon octofasciatus, Gmel. Linn, i, p. 1262 ; Bloch, t. 215, f. 1 ; Bl. Schn. p. 223 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, 
p. 17 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Chsetod. p. 16 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 17 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 98. 
Chcetodon octolineatus, Gronov. ed. Gray, p. 69. 
B. vi, D. T J _l_ p. i9 ; v. 1/5, A. -fy-, C. 18, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 12/24. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal nearly 1/6, height of body 2/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of 
length of head, nearly 1 diameter from end of snout and also apart. Preopercle a little rough along its edge, 
especially at the angle, but not serrated. Fins — dorsal spines strong, increasing in length to the fourth, the 
interspinous membrane deeply emarginate, soft portions of it and of the anal rounded : second anal spine the 
strongest but not quite so long as the third : caudal cut almost square. Colours — buff, vertically banded, with 
a central band along the snout to between the eyes : ocular band commences a short distance in front of the 
dorsal fin, and passing through the eye (which is about twice its width), it crosses the cheeks and is lost on the 
chest : the second goes from the third and fourth dorsal spines to behind the base of the ventral : the third 
from the seventh dorsal spine to before the commencement of the anal : the fourth from the two last spines to 
the first anal rays : the fifth from the first few dorsal rays to the anterior third of the soft anal : the sixth down 
the last third of the soft dorsal across the free portion of the tail (where it increases in width) to near the 



FAMILY, II— SQUAMIPINNES. 109 

posterior extremity of the soft anal : the last over the base of the caudal : soft dorsal and anal with a dark 
outer edge and light margin. 

Amongst Sir W. Elliot's drawings is a very good representation of this species marked C. octofasciatus, 
but with no note as to where it was obtained, Jerdon however remarks (M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 134) that it 
is rarely met with in Madras, where its Tamil designation is Munja cooli min. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

16. Chaatodon oligacanthus. 

Platax ocellatus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 299; Cantor, Catal. p. 170. 

Ghmtodon oligacanthus, Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, ChEeton. p. 16 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, pp. 34, 516 ; 
Kner, Novara Fische, p. 102. 

Parachatodon olig acanthus, Bleeker, Nov. Typi Gen. Pise. neg. 1875, p. 5. 
B. vi, D. rffc,, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. „*„> C. 17, L. 1. 46-48. 

Length of head 4/15 to 1/4, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 4/13 
of the length of head, 1 diameter from the end of snout and also apart. Both limbs of preopercle serrated, the 
inferior being most coarsely so. Fins — anterior portions of soft dorsal and anal the highest. Lateral-line — 
ceases opposite the posterior fourth of the dorsal fin. Colours — yellowish white, with five vertical brown bands, 
the anterior four of which have black edges, the ocular one is brown and narrower than the orbit : three more 
similar bands pass from the back to the abdomen : at the upper part of the last is a dark ocellus at the base of 
the 8th to 12th dorsal rays inclusive : the fifth band is over the free portion of the tail. The posterior half of 
the ventrals is sometimes black. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, the Malay Archipelago to the Philippine Islands.* 

Genus, 2 — Chelmo, Guv. 

Branchiostegals six or seven : pseudobranchix. Body elevated and compressed. Snout produced as a long 
round tube by the horizontal elongation of the premaxillaries and mandibles^ which are laterally connected by 
membrane, the gape of the mouth anteriorly being small. Preopercle without any spine, it and the preorbital may be 
serrated. Teeth on the jaws: none on the palate. One dorsal with from nine to thirteen spines, none being elongated: 
anal with three. Scales of moderate or small size. 

Geographical distribution. — East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Chelmo longirostris, D. i-|cif, A. ysVg, L. 1. 70-75. Yellow, with a black triangular patch from the 
first dorsal spine to the snout, and extending to the opercle : a round black spot at the posterior angle of the 
anal fin. East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Chelmo rostratus, D. -3o?3t:, A. -j-oVr, L. 1. 47-50. Five orange white-edged cross bands. East coast 
of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China. 

1. Chelmo longirostris. 

Ghoetodon longirostris, Brouss. Ich. t. 7. 

Chelmon longirostris, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 89, pi. 175 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Chastod. p. 20. 

Chelmo longirostris, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 38, and Garrett's Fische d. Sudsee, p. 48. 

D. iiiif, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. T ^ m C. 18, L. 1. 70-75, L. tr. 11/30. 

Length of head 3/7, of caudal 1/7, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/15 of the 
length of head, If diameters in the postorbital portion of the head. Angle and lower edge of the preopercle 
serrated, some fine serratures along the upper edge of the orbit and a few along the lower edge of the preorbital. 
Fins — dorsal spines strong, the interspinous membrane very deeply emarginate, the fourth spine somewhat the 
longest, equalling that of the head behind the front nostril, and exceeding the length of the rays, which latter 
portion of the fin is rounded : pectoral equals two-thirds the height of the body : third anal spine the longest. 
Colours — yellow, with a black triangular patch extending from the base of the first dorsal spine to the snout, 
and its lower edge going through the eye to the opercle. Posterior edge of the dorsal with a black margin : 
a small round black spot at the posterior angle of the anal fin : caudal grey with a rather wide dark band over 
its base at and anterior to the commencement of the rays. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

* ADDENDA. 
Chietodou ? 

XJ ' 26) ■ a - 27T' 

" I also have a drawing and the dried skin of another species of Chsetodon which I procured at Tellieherry. It has the ground" 
colour of the body, a sort of lavender colour, line from the first dorsal down to the muzzle yellow ; chin, throat and lower part of face,, 
and a line from top of opercle to base of pectoral bright orange, membrane between the dorsal spines yellow, with a blue spot which 
continues in a line on to the upper portion of the soft dorsal, and also on the anal ; soft dorsal green with a yellowish margin. Anal 
and ventral yellow. Caudal lavender, the rays purple and margined on the sides with yellow and exteriorly with orange. Lips red. 
D. 14-26, A. 3-23. Length 6 inches."— Jerdon, M. J. L. and S. 1851, p. 134. 

f Due to this tubular elongation of the snout, these fishes are able to employ it as a blow pipe, from which they discharge 
globules of water at insects flying above them. 



110 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

2. Chelmo rostratus, Plate XXVIII, fig. 2. 

Chcetodon rostratus, Linn. Mus. Ad. Fried, i, p. 61, t. 33, f. 2 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1244; Bl. p. 1184, t. 202, 
f. i ; Bl. Schn. p. 221 ; Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 337, pi. 47 ; Gronov. Sys. ed. Gray, p. 73. 

Chcetodon enceladus, Shaw, Nat. Misc. p. 2, pi. 67. 

Chelmon rostratus, Cuv. Reg. Anim. ii, p. 190, andllhis. Poiss. pi. 40, f. i; Bennett, Life of Sir S. Raffles, 
p. 689 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 87 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 158 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Chsetod. p. 20. 

Chelmo rostratus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 36 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 103. 

D. ^^ P. 16, V. 1/5, A. aTr ! aT , C. 17, L. 1. 47-50, L. r. ff, L. tr. 8/20 (Vert. 10/14). 

Length of head nearly or quite 1/3, of caudal 2/13 to 1/7, height of body about 1/2 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 1/5 of length of head, 2| diameters from the end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. Preopercle finely 
serrated along both limbs : lower edge of preorbital and supra-orbital margin likewise serrated in the young. 
Teeth — brush-like. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, the soft portions of the dorsal and anal obtusely 
angular : caudal rounded. In the young the ventral reaches the anal rays, but not so far in larger specimens : 
pectoral equal in length to the head behind the front nostril. Scales — seven rows between lateral-line and base 
of sixth dorsal spine. Colours — head and body with five orange cross-bands edged with brown and with white 
outer margins : a round black white-edged spot in the middle of the soft dorsal and within the fourth cross 
band : a dark band round the free portion of the tail : soft dorsal, caudal and anal with blue and white edges. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa through the seas of India, the Malay Archipelago and China. The 
specimen figured is 4 T "o inches in length. 

Genus, 3 — Heniochus, Cuv. and Val. 

Taurichthys, Cuv. and Val. : Diphreutes, Cantor. 

Branchiostegals five : pseudobranchice. Body elevated and strongly compressed: mouth shoii, or of moderate 
length. Preopercle finely serrated or entire. Teeth villiform, none on the palate. A single dorsal fin, with from 
eleven to thirteen spines, the fourth of which is elongated and filiform, anal with three. Scales ctenoid or cycloid, of 
moderate size, and more or less covering the vertical fins. Lateral-line continuous. Air-vessel present. Pyloric 
appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of India to Polynesia, &c. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 
1. Meniochus macrolepidotus, D. ^-r^f, A. ttt-tsj -'-'• !■ 52-60. Three purplish vertical bands. 

1. Heniochus macrolepidotus, Plate XXVIII, fig. 3. 

Chcetodon macrolepidotus, Artedi, species, p. 94 ; Linn. Syst. i, p. 464 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1247 ; Bl. p. 1177, 
t. 200, f. 1 ; Lacep. iv, p. 455, pi. 11, f. 3 and pi. 12, f. 1 ; Bl. Schn. p. 231 ; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. in Wien, 1870, p. 784. 

Chcetodon acuminatus, Linn. Mus. Ad. Fried, t. 33, f. 3 ; Gmel. Linn. 1241 ; Bl. Schn. p. 229. 

Chcetodon bifasciatus, Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 342 ; Gronov. ed. Gray, p. 75. 

Heniochus acuminatus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 98. 

Heniochus macrolepidotus, Cuv. Reg. Anim. ii, p. 191; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 93, pi. 176; Temm. and 
Schleg. Fauna Japon, p. 82, pi. 44, f. 1 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 246 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Cheetod. 
p. 21 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 39 and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 48, t. xxxvii ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 23 ; Klunzing. 
Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 784. 

JDiphreutes macrolepidotus, Cantor, Catal. p. 159. 

Purroamee, Mai. : Chuddulcun, Tarn. : Pah-no-dah, Andam. 

B. v, D. H:lf, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. ^J^, C. 17, L. 1. 52, L. r. fa, L. tr. 9/22, Csec. pyl. 6, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/3 of the total length. Eijes — diameter from 4/13 to 
1/3 of length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. A slight protuberance above each 
orbit but none on the neck. The maxilla reaches to half way between the snout and the front edge of the orbit. 
Vertical limb of preopercle finely serrated, more coarsely so at its angle : sub- and inter-opercles entire : opercle 
with two points. Teeth — villiform in the jaws. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, the fourth having a filamentous 
prolongation reaching to the caudal fin or even beyond, the fifth is also somewhat elongated : ventral reaches 
the anal : the second and third anal spines of about equal length and strength : caudal cut nearly square. 
Scales — about 5 rows between the lateral-line and the base of the eighth or ninth dorsal spines. Colours — 
pearly white, with a dark purplish band over the summit of the snout, another over the eyes : a third broad 
one extending from the three first dorsal spines and posterior two-thirds of the opercle, passing downwards 
includes the whole of the ventral fin and extends backwards to the anal : the last commences at the summit of 
the fifth dorsal spine, passes downwards to the base of the seventh, is as wide as to the first ray, and ends in 
the posterior third of the anal fin. Pectoral, soft portions of dorsal, anal, and caudal fins bright yellow. 

In Cuv. and Val. a variety figured by Bennett, Ms. wherein the colours have become transposed, the dark 
bands being where the light ones ordinarily are, is named H. permutatus, (Ed. Benn.) 1. c. p. 99. 



FAMILY, II— SQUAMIPINNES. Ill 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, through the Indian Ocean and Malay Archipelago : it is said to attain 
18 inches in length. 

Genus, 4 — Zanclus,* Guv. and Val. 
Gnathocentrum, Guich. ; Gonopterus, (Gronov.) Gray. 

Branchiostegals four: pseudobranchice. Body elevated and compressed. Snout of moderate length. Pre- 
opercle without any spine, it and the preorbital may be serrated. Teeth in the jaws, none on the palate. One dorsal 
fin with seven spines, the third of which is very elongate: anal with three. Scales small. Air-vessel present. Pyloric 
appendages in moderate numbers. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Zanclus cornutus, D. -j-oVtj A. -sy?^^. Yellowish-white, with three vertical dark bands. Seas of India 
to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Zanclus cornutus, Plate XXVIII, fig. 4. 

Chcetodon cornutus, Linn. Syst. p. 461; Bl. p. 1179, t. 200, f. 2; Bl. Schn. p. 221; Lacep. iv, p. 473, 

P L2 > f - L 

Zanclus cornutus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 102, pi. 177; Swainson, Fish, ii, p. 212; Bleeker, Verb. Bat. 

Gen. xxiii, Chffitod. p. 22 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 493. 

Gonopterus mcerens, Gronov, ed. Gray, p. 77. 

B. iv, D. ^Vr, P- 19> V. 1/5, A. ^_ C . 16) C8ec . pyL 14; y ert . 9/13 . 

Length of head nearly 1/3, of caudal 4/17, height of body 5/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 
of length of head, 1 diameter apart, and twice the length of the postorbital portion of the head. Upper edge 
of orbit serrated in its front half and a parallel serrated ridge just above it. Fins — dorsal spines very elongated 
and filiform, the last rays are very short : anal much the highest anteriorly : caudal emarginate. Scales — minute. 
Colours — yellowish-white, with three broad, dark, vertical brown bands, the anterior from the two first dorsal 
spines and upper profile as far forwards as the orbit, descends over the opercles and cheeks to the ventral fin : 
the second band commencing from the base of the fourth spine to the first ray passes downwards to the highest 
portion of the anal, it has a white hind edge : the last goes over the caudal fin, having a concave posterior 
margin and a white front edge. There is also a band over the snout : pectoral yellow. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

Genus, 5 — Holacanthus, Lacep. 

Genicanthus, Swains. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchice. Body compressed, and as a rule much elevated. Preopercle serrated, 
with one or more strong spines at its angle directed backwards. No palatine teeth. A single dorsal fin ivith from 
twelve to fifteen spines: anal with three or sometimes four. Scales of moderate or small size, more or less covering the 
vertical fins. Air-vessel with two horns posteriorly. Pyloric appendages many. 

Geographical distribution. — Throughout the seas of India and generally in those of the tropics. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

A. Scales small. 

1. Holacanthus imperator, D. ■ayJra, A. .^jt- Bluish, with three narrow blue bands on the head and 
about nineteen narrow oblique canary coloured bands on the body ; chest brownish, caudal yellow. From seas 
of East Africa through those of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Holacanthus Nicobariensis, D. y^-Iti ^- A- Blue, with light vertical more or less semicircular bands 
on the body. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

3. Holacanthus annularis, D. 2~o-|t;, A. Jjy. Brown, with a blue ring on the shoulder, and six or seven 
blue body bands radiate from the eye : caudal yellow. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

B. Scales of moderate size. 

4. Holacanthus diacanthus, D. J-*-, A. -^, L. r. 52. Yellowish, with eight to twelve vertical blue brown- 
edged bands. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

5. Holacanthus xanthurus, D. aa, A. tsVq) !"• !• 50. Greyish, with a bght opercular- band and a yellow 
shoulder spot. Seas of India. 

6. Holacanthus xanthometopon, D. -ft, A. -fy-, L. 1. 47. Blue, with yellow black-edged spots on the cheeks 
a yellow interorbital band, a blue spot on each scale on the body. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago. 

* This genus is included by Dr. Giinther amongst the Carangidce. Respecting the skeleton he observes of Z. cornutus, which 
has vertebra 9/13, that " the anterior and posterior portions of its vertebral column are so shortened in their longitudinal diameter, that, 
at both extremities, one vertebra has not been developed," Catal. ii, p. 493. One of his definitions of the Family Carangida: being 
" Vertebra 10/14" 1. c. p. 417. 



112 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

A. Scales small. 
1. Holacanthus imperator, Plate XXVIII, fig. 5. 

Chmtodon imperator, Bloch, p. 1164, t. 194; Gmel. Linn. p. 1255 ; Bl. Schn. p. 217. 

Holacanthus imperator, Lacep. iv, pp. 527, 534, pi. 12, f. 3 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 180 ; Bleeker, Celebes, 
iii, p. 758, and Act. Soc. Neder. i, Man. en Makass. p. 49 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 52, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 53, 
t. xli, fig. A ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 787. 

B. vi, D. ^_fe, P. 21, V. 1/5, A. ^^, C. 17. 

Length of bead 1/4 to 3/13, of caudal 1/7, height of body 1/2 to 4/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/3 to 1/4 of the length of head, lj to 1-| diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. Body oval, strongly 
compressed : snout elevated. The maxilla reaches half-way to below the front edge of the orbit. Vertical linib 
of preopercle rather oblique and serrated, as is also its horizontal limb ; angle with a strong, smooth, curved 
spine, one and a quarter diameters of the orbit in length, and reaching to below the base of the pectoral fin. 
Teeth — in closely set rows, some of them with a small lobe on either side of their base. Fins — dorsal spines 
strong, gradually increasing in length, with the interspinous membrane deeply notched, its soft portion as well 
as that of the anal rounded. Pectoral as long as the head behind the angle of the mouth : ventral reaching to 
the anal : anal spines strong, the third the longest and equal to the last of the dorsal or the head excluding the 
snout : caudal rounded. Scales — small, covering the vertical fins. Colours — Body blue, having a greenish 
tinge along the back : about nineteen canary-coloured lines pass upwards to the dorsal, horizontally to the 
caudal, or downwards towards the anal fin. A large black descending band with a blue anterior edge, on the 
shoulder : chest chestnut. A light blue stripe across the snout, round the cheeks, and to the preopercular spine, 
which is nearly black. A brown band superiorly edged with blue crosses the eye and passes on to the pre- 
opercle. Opercle yellow, edged with blue, and the branchiostegals black. A narrow black edge to the caudal : 
ventral dark with orange coloured rays : pectoral blackish. 

A coloured drawing nearly 8 inches in length, labelled Kulloo holi meen and Holacanthus imperator, exists 
amongst Sir Walter Elliot's figures of fish. 

Habitat. — Prom the East coast of Africa through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Holacanthus Nicobariensis, Plate XXVIII, fig. 6 (variety semicirculatus). 

Ghcetodon Nicobarcensis, Bl. Schn. p. 219, t. 50. 

Holacanthus geometricus, Lacep. iv, pp. 528, 537, pi. xiii, fig. 1 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 189. 

Holacanthus striatus, Biippell, N. W. Fische, p. 32, t. x, f. 2 ; Bleeker, Amb. iv, p. 414 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, 
p. 53. 

Holacanthus semicirculatus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 191, pi. 183 ; Bleeker, Amb. vi, p. 414 and Banka, p. 452 ; 
Voy. Coq. Zool. Poiss^ p. 173, pi. xxx, fig. 3; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 53. 

Holacantlms Nicobariensis, Bleeker, Amb, vi, p. 413 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 52 and Fische d. Sudsee, 
p. 54, t. xli, f. B. 

B. vi, D. 'H*, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. T1 fi rT , C. 18, L. r. ffif^. 

Length of head 1/4, of pectoral 1/4, height of body 1/2 to 4/9 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 to 
2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 to 1 diameter apart. Preopercle serrated, its spine 
smooth reaching to opposite the posterior edge of the opercle and equal in length to 3/4 or 1 diameter of the orbit. 
Teeth — brush-like. Fins — dorsal spines shorter than the rays, the soft dorsal angularly-rounded in the adult : 
caudal rounded. Scales — minute, about thirteen rows between lateral-line and base of sixth dorsal spine. 
Colours — this fish shows different distributions of the same colours, some dependant on age, others not so. In 
the young (H. striatus') it is deep blue with slightly curved vertical bands, alternately white and bluish- white, 
the white ones being the broader. Caudal white, with or without a narrow black outer margin. In a specimen 
in my collection there are reticulated blue lines between the broad white band behind the eye and on one 
descending from the centre of the spinous dorsal. In the adult (H. semicirculatus) the vertical bands have a 
more curved direction, the convexity being forwards. In the Nicobariensis this is still more apparent, a white 
spot or short transverse band being the centre around which the body bands are curved. In both these last 
varieties the tail fin is coloured. 

In my H. striatus 2-fL inches in length, the preopercular spines are bifurcated at their extremities, in a 
specimen in the British Museum (l^ inches) they are not so. 

Klunzinger, Verb. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 789, enumerates Holacanthus striatus, Riipp. Blkr. &c, 
H. lineatus, Riipp. H. ccerulescens, Riipp. Chwtodon asfur, var. b. Forsk. Holacanthus haddaja, C.V., Chmtodon 
maculosus, T?orsk.=Holacanthus maculosus, Holacanthus aruset, Lacep., Fomacanthus asfur, Lacep. as varieties 
of Chcetodon asfur, T?orsk.=Holacanthus asfur. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

3. Holacanthus annularis, Plate XXIX, fig. 1. 

Cliaitodon annularis, Bl. t. 215, f. 2 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1262 ; Bl. Schn. p. 219 ; Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 330, 
pi. 47. 

Holacanthus annularis, Lacep. iv. pp. 526, 533; Cuv. Reg. Anim. ii, p. 192; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 178 ; 
Cantor, Catal. p. 164 ; Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Chastod. p. 26 ; Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 42. 



FAMILY, II— SQUAMIPINNES. 113 

Clicetodon sahni-tschcvpi, Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 69, pi. 88. 
Chcetodon resimus, Gronov. Syst. ed. Gray, p. 71. 
Nga-lyk-pya, Arrak. : Dood-ha-mal, Chittagong. 

B. vi, D. ^l, P. 20, V. 1/5, A. Tnfe, C. 17. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 1/6, height of body 4/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, \\ diameters from end of snout, and also apart. Preopercle finely serrated along its vertical limb, the 
spine at its angle smooth and as long as the diameter of the orbit. Teeth — brush-like. Fins— dorsal spines 
increase in length to the last, none of the rays prolonged : the soft portion of the fin angular, in adults it is 
often produced, that of the anal rounded : third anal spine the longest. Scales — small. Colours — sienna, "with 
a blue ring on the shoulder. One narrow blue interorbital band is continued behind the eye over the opercle on 
the hind edge of which it curves upwards towards the ring : a second across the snout passes under the eye 
across the opercle and joins the third on the body : six or seven arched blue bands radiate from the head and 
are continued along the body converging towards the soft dorsal fin : pectoral yellow, with a blue band at its 
base. Dorsal and anal fins dark, the six body bands are continued on to the former, where there are also some 
intermediate narrow blue lines, the fin with a blue upper edge : anal with three blue lines on it and a light blue 
margin : caudal yellow, with a narrow orange tip. 

Russell observed, "the present subject bears a strong resemblance to Chcetodon annularis, Linn., but differs 
principally in two circumstances ; the one the setaceous elongation of the dorsal fin, resembling that of Clicetodon 
setifer, Bloch; the other (less material) in the remarkable ring on the shoulder being rather square than of a 
circular figure." 

Amongst Sir Walter Elliot's drawings is one of this fish, which was coloured from an individual captured 
at Waltair, March, 1853, its native names are recorded as Jatipyna, Tel. : Lolla terate, Mai. Jerdon remarks, 
M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 134, " I only once procured this beautiful fish." The specimen figured was taken at 
Singapore by the late Dr. Stoliczka. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, China, and beyond. It attains at least a foot in length. 
The specimen figured is 6 inches long. 

B. Scales of moderate size. 

4. Holacanthus diacanthus. 

Chcetodon diacanthus, (Boddasrt), Bl. Schn. p. 220. 
Clicetodon dux et Boddcertii, Gmel. Linn. pp. 1243, 1255. 
Chcetodon. fasciatus, Bloch, t. 195; Gmel. Linn. 1266; Bl. Schn. p. 217. 

Holacanthus dux, Lacep. iv, p. 534; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 184; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 37; Bleeker, 
Celebes, iii, p. 757. 

Acanthopus Boddcertii, Lacep. iv, pp. 559, 560. 

Holacanthus diacanthus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 48 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 786. 

B. vi, D. if, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. &, C. 17, L. r. 52, L. tr. 7/25. 

Length of head 1/5, of caudal 1/6, height of body 3/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/9 of length 
of head, li diameters from end of snout, and also apart. Preopercle strongly serrated, its spine strong, equal in 
length to about 2 diameters of the orbit, and extending to below the base of the pectoral fin. Fins — soft dorsal 
and anal rounded : third anal spine longest and strongest : caudal rounded. Colours — yellowish, with from 
eight to twelve vertical blue brown-edged bands, those on the body being continued on to the vertical fins. A 
short one exists along the snout, two descend from the summit of the head to the eye and to a little below it : 
one traverses the opercle, and about eight exist on the body : caudal yellow. Anal has bluish streaks parallel to 
its base. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

5. Holacanthus xanthurus, Plate XXIX, fig. 2. 
Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 183 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 51. 
B. vi, D. if, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. T ^_ Tlf , C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. r. *<£§*, L. tr. 7/22. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4/17, of caudal excluding its prolongation 1/6, including it 1/4, height of body 
1/2 of the total length excluding caudal filament. Eyes — diameter 1/3 to 2/7 of the length of head, 1 diameter 
from the end of snout, and also apart. Body compressed : dorsal and abdominal profiles about equally convex. 
The maxilla reaches half way to below the orbit. Vertical limb of the preopercle serrated, and having a strong- 
smooth spine which is equal to or rather above one diameter of the orbit in length at its angle, and reaching nearly 
to the base of the pectoral fin. Teeth — in jaws fine, pointed, with the outer row the largest. Fins — dorsal 
spines and rays almost parallel to the dorsal profile, the fourth dorsal spine slightly the longest, the last being 
equal to the third : soft portion of the fin slightly rounded : pectoral a little longer than the head excluding 
the snout : the ventrals reach the vent : third anal spine longest, strongest, and one- third longer than the 
longest in the dorsal fin, the soft portions of the two similar : caudal rather rounded, with its upper ray produced 

Q 



114 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

into a filament.* Scales — strongly ctenoid, and longitudinally fluted, much smaller above than below the lateral 
line. Colours — body greyish-brown, darker along the back, and becoming black over the tail as well as on the 
vertical fins, head, and chest : a lightish opercular band and a small but brilliant yellow shoulder spot : dorsal 
and anal fins edged with yellowish- white : caudal canary colour. After death each scale seems to have a light 
semilunar band. 

A coloured figure, nearly 6 inches in length, exists in Sir Walter Elliot's collection, termed Kul kasa, and 
Holacanthus rabdophorus. 

Habitat. — Ceylon and Madras to 6 inches in length. 

6. Holacanthus xanthometopon. 
Bleeker, Sumatra, ii, p. 258 ; Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 51. 
B. vi, D. -Hs P. 17, V. 1/5, A. tV, C. 17, L. r. 47, L. tr. 7/25. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 2/11, height of body 4/9 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of 
length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and also apart. Vertical limb of preopercle with widely set 
serrations, a strong spine at the angle of the preopercle not quite half so long as the head. Fins — soft dorsal 
and anal fins angular : caudal rounded. Colours — blue, cheeks and opercles with numerous golden spots exter- 
nally edged with black : some fine black lines on the lips and chin : a broad yellow interorbital band : body 
violet, each scale with a brilliant blue spot : a yellow shoulder spot. Dorsal, caudal, and pectoral yellow, with a 
black spot at the base of the last seven dorsal rays, caudal with a black edge : ventral and anal white with a 
blue edge. 

Habitat — Andamans and Malay Archipelago. A specimen, 7| inches in length, exists in the Calcutta 
Museum. A native artist attempted for a whole week to figure it but unsuccessfully. 

Genus, 6 — Scatophagus, Cuv. and Val. 

Cacodoxus,f Cantor. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchioz. Body much compressed and elevated, snout of moderate length. Pre- 
opercle spiineless. Palate edentulous. Two dorsals, united at their bases, the first having ten or eleven spines, and 
anteriorly a recumbent one directed forwards ; the soft dorsal covered ivith scales : anal loithfour spines. Scales very 
small. Air-vessel simple. Pyloric appendages rather numerous. 

Geographical distribution. — East coast of Africa ; Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Scatophagus argus, D. 10 | to-tt> A. tt-Ys"- Purplish, blotched all over with dark spots. Seas of India, 
to China and Australia. 

1. Scatophagus argus, Plate XXIX, fig. 3. 

Chcetodon argus, Gmel. Linn. p. 1248 ; Bloch, p. 1191, t. 204, f. 1 ; Bl. Schn. p. 232 ; Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 
332 ; Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 61, pi. 78. 

Chaitodon pairatalis, Ham, Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 122, 372, pi. 16, f. 41. 

Chaitodon atromaculatus, Bennett, Fish. Ceylon, p. 18, pi. 18. 

Scatophagus argus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 136 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 245 ; Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 58 and 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1867, p. 58 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 34 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 106. 

Cacodoxus argus, Cantor, Catal. p. 163. 

Scatophagus omatus, Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 58. 

Sargus maculatus, Gronov. ed. Gray, p. 65. 

Qu-ee, Sind. ; Chitsilloo and Eesputti, Tel. ; Sipili, Tarn. ; Nutchar char, Mai. ; Nga-pa-thoomg, Arrak. ; 
Beeshatara, Chittag. ; Po-ra-dah, Andam. 

B. vi, D. 10 | t^, P. 20, V. 1/5, A. „^, C. 16, Csec pyl. 18 (20). 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 2/11, height of body 1/2 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and If apart. Body somewhat quadrangular, strongly compressed, and 
the dorsal profile more curved than the abdominal. The maxilla reaches to about half way between the end of 
the snout and the front edge of the orbit. Preorbital with the last half of its lower edge finely serrated. Some- 
times a few very fine teeth at the angle of the preopercle and also along its lower limb : sub- and inter-opercles 
entire. Opercle with a weak spine. Teeth — villiform in the jaws. Fins — dorsal spines strong, each alternate 
one thicker on one side, interspinous membrane deeply notched, fourth spine the highest equalling the length of 
the head behind the posterior nostril, anterior rays much the longest, but not quite equalling the length of the 
fourth spine : anal spines all about the same length, each alternate one being the stronger : caudal fan-shaped, 
its central rays rather the longest. Scales — minute, in about 110 irregular rows, and continued over the soft 
portions of the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins, likewise on the head and opercles ; about 30 rows between the 6th 
dorsal spine and the lateral-line. Colours — purplish, becoming white on the abdomen : large round blackish or 

* Having seen many specimens and all with this prolonpation/I think it unlikely that such is a sexual distinction, 
f Substituted for Scatophagy^, C. V. pre-occnpied by Scatophaga, Meigen, 1803 (Diptera.) 



FAMILY, II— SQUAMIPIKNES. 115 

greenish, spots on the body, most numerous along the back, and varying in size and tints. First dorsal brownish- 
blue, having a few minute spots : second dorsal yellowish, with slight brown markings between the rays. 

In the very young, a bony ridge, ending in a spine, passes from the eye to above the opercle on to the 
shoulder, it is serrated along the upper edge of the orbit and the lower edge of the preorbital. 

Dr. Gunther, Ann. and Mag. I. c. considers Scatophagus ornatus, C.V., the young of 8. argus, C.V. 

Habitat. — Indian Ocean, to China and Australia, attaining a foot in length : it enters backwaters and 
rivers, but is a foul feeder,* and, so far as I have observed, is not in request as food. Hamilton Buchanan 
remarks of it that " when newly caught it is a fish of great beauty, easy digestion, and excellent flavour : but 
after death it soon becomes soft and strong tasted." Cantor states that at Pinang " it is eaten by the natives, 
though many reject it on account of its reputed disgusting habits." In Ceylon, where it is termed Dewi 
horaleyali, "it is generally esteemed, its flesh partaking the flavour of trout." — Bennett, I. c. 

Genus, 7 — Ephippus, Cuv. 

Selene, Lacep. ; Hardies, Cantor. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchiai. Body much compressed and elevated. Snout short, the upper profile 
parabolic. Preopercle without a spine. No teeth on the palate. Dorsal with eight or nine spines, several of which 
are flexible and elongated, all are receivable into a groove at their base, interspinous membrane deeply cleft, and a deep 
notch between the spinous and soft portions of the fin : three anal spines ; pectoral short. Scales of moderate or 
small size, some over the soft dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. Air-vessel bifurcated anteriorly, and with two long horns 
posteriorly. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

Ephippus orbis, D. xfr-fo, A. -^, L. 1. 42, L. tr. 7/15. Silvery. Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago 
and beyond. 

1. Ephippus orbis, Plate XXIX, fig. 4. 

Chcetodon orbis, Bloch, p. 1187, t. 202, f. 2 ; Gmel. Linn. 1244 ; Lacep. iv, pp. 458, 491 ; Bl. Schn. p. 232 ; 
Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 339. 

Ephippus orbis, Cuv. Reg. Anim. ii, p. 191 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 127 ; Swainson, Fishes, ii, p. 213 ; 
Richards. Ich. China, p. 245 ; Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 62 ; Day, Fish. Mai. p. 35. 

Ilarches orbis. Cantor, Catal. p. 160. 

Nulla torriti, Tarn. : Kol-lid-dah, Andam. 

B. vi, D. yfifo, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. &, C. 19, L. 1. 42, L. r. ff, L. tr. 7/15, Cajc. pyl. 2-4. 

Length of head 1/4 to 2/9, of caudal 1/5, height of body nearly 2/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2J of the length of head, nearly 1 diameter from end of snout, and also apart. The upper profile is much elevated, 
rising abruptly from the snout to the first dorsal fin : the abdominal contour is much less convex. The maxilla 
extends to opposite the anterior margin of orbit. Preopercle narrow, finely denticulated on its vertical limb 
and at its angle. Sub- and inter-opercles entire, opercle ending in two obtuse points connected by a shallow 
emargination. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong at their bases, interspinous membrane at first deeply 
emarginated, but not that between the last spine and the soft rays : the third, fourth and fifth spines are 
elongated and filiform at their extremities, especially the third. The anterior rays of the dorsal from the 3rd 
are somewhat the longest : the fin rounded.f Ventral having its first ray elongated. Second anal spine the 
strongest, equal to the seventh in the dorsal in length : anterior rays the longest. Ventral pointed. Caudal 
slightly produced in the centre, and somewhat emarginate above and below. Scales — some over the bases of 
the vertical fins. Air-vessel — thick, with one tendinous attachment on either side, having horns anteriorly 
and two long bifurcations posteriorly. The intestines in this species are much convoluted, and possess two, 
sometimes four, long pyloric appendages. May 11th, 1868, a female was taken in which the ova was well 
developed. Colours — back and head greyish-green, sides and abdomen silvery shot with pink : fin membranes 
diaphanous finely dotted with black, more especially in their marginal halves : rays bluish white. The young 
have a dark grey orbital band, another over the nape, and two over the body : the fins are edged with grey. 

Habitat. — Seas of India and the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 6 inches in length ; the one figured 
is 5f inches long. 

Genus, 8 — Dkepane, Cuv. and Val. 

Sarpochirus, Cantor; Cryptosmilia, Cope. 

Branchiostegals, six : pseudobranchice. Body elevated and much compressed. Snotit slwrt. Preopercle 
spineless. Palate edentulous. Dorsal having anteriorly a concealed spine directed forwards, and eight or nine spinous 

* Col. Tickell, MS. disputes this and asserts that he has eaten this fish taken some distance off the coast, of the most delicate 
flavour. My reason for believing the natives to be correct as to its love for foul feeding is that I have opened many specimens, and those 
taken from near inhabited localities had, as a rule, their stomachs full of ordure. 

f In two specimens 2 T 3 3 and 2£ inches in length respectively, a recumbent, anteriorly directed spine exists in front of the base 
of the dorsal fin. • 



116 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

rays, which, as well as those of the anal, are receivable into a groove at their bases : vnterspimous membrane deeply 
notched : pectoral long and falciform. Scales of moderate size. Air-vessel posteriorly prolonged into two horns. 
Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, throughout those of India, and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Drepane punctata, D. -^'.^y, A. tf-tt- Silvery, with or without vertical bands and black spots. 

1. Drepane punctata, Plate XXIX, fig. 5. 

Chcetodon punctatus, Gmel. Linn. p. 1243; Bl. Schn. p. 231 ; Shaw. Zool. iv, p. 365. 

Chmtodon longimanus, Bl. Schn. p. 229. 

Chmtodon falcatus, Lacep. iv, pp. 452, 470. 

Ghcetodon latte, Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 62, pi. 79. 

Chcetodon terla, A and B, Russell, 1. c. i, pp. 63, 64, fig. 80, 81. 

PJphippus pwiictatus et longimanus, Cuv. Reg. Anim. ii, 191. 

Drepane punctata, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 132, pi. 179; Swainson, ii, 213; Dampier, Voy. New Holland, ii, 
pi. 4 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 244, and Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, x, 1842, p. 28 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. 
xxii, p. 5 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 62, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 55 ; Day, Pish. Malabar, p. 36 ; Kner, Novara 
Pische, p. 107. 

Drepane longimana, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 133 ; Richards. 1. c. p. 245 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, 
Chfetod. p. 23. 

Harpochirus punctatus et longimanus, Cantor, Catal. pp. 162, 163. 
.Gryptosmilia luna, Cope, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. xiii, p. 401. 

Punnur, Sind. ; Slvuh, Belooch. ; Pundthee, Mai. ; Pulli or Torriti, Tarn. ; Thetti, Tel. ; Moopi-chanda, 
Chittag. ; Shengna-roet, Arrak. ; Nga-shengna, Burm. 

B. vi, D. silts, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. ^t,-, C. 15, L. 1. 50-55, L. r. fgij-f, L. tr. 14/33, Ca^c. pyl. 2-3. 

Length of head from 4/13 to 1/4, of pectoral 1/2, of caudal 1/4 to 1/5, height of body 2/3 to 3/4 of the 
total length. Eyes — diameter from 3/7 to 1/3 of the length of head, 1 to If diameters from end of snout, and 
2/3 to 3/4 of a diameter apart. Dorsal profile considerably elevated, the abdominal much less curved. 
Mouth small, the maxilla extends to below the first third of the orbit. Preorbital high, its depth generally 
exceeding the diameter of the eye. Preopercle with a few serrations on its lower limb : sub- and inter-opercles 
entire. 

In young specimens the upper edge of the orbit and the upper edge of the occipital process are serrated, 
whilst there exist about eight strong teeth along the horizontal limb of the preopercle. In a very young 
specimen (1J inches long), in addition to the foregoing, an elevated roughened ridge passes from the upper 
hind edge of the orbit to the lateral-line. 

Fins — dorsal spines strong, and considerable differences are perceptible, in a young individual (at 1^ 
inches long), the last six are of equal height. Should there be nine dorsal spines, the fourth is the longest in 
the adult ; if only eight then the third : this spine equals the length of head behind the middle or front edge of 
the eye : interspinous membrane deeply notched, and the rays longer than the spines : pectoral sometimes 
reaching to the base of the caudal : second anal spine the strongest and generally the longest : caudal with its 
central rays slightly produced. Colours — silvery, having a gloss of gold and tinge of purple, with or without 
vertical bands and black spots : edges of the fins stained with grey, and a similar band along the middle of the 
dorsal. 

The D. punctata has been considered a distinct species, and it may be that such an opinion is correct.* 
At 4g inches in length is the earliest age at which I have seen distinct spots existing on the vertical body bands. 
Out of twelve specimens of this variety, and in which every individual is distinctly spotted, nine dorsal spines 
invariably exist, as given by Russell, and in Cuv. and Val. vii, pi. 179. 

In D. longimana, the black spots are absent, and out of eleven specimens examined, eight had only eight 
dorsal spines, the number given by Russell, whilst the horizontal one before the dorsal fin was as a rule more 
apparent than in the other variety : in some of the remaining three the spots may have disappeared. 

In the very young the fish are covered all over with minute dark spots giving them a grey appearance. 

Jerdon observes that D. punctata is termed Pooli tarate, and D. longimana, Sipu tarate. M. J. L. and S. 
1851, p. 134. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to Australia, attaining at least 15 inches in 
length, and in most places esteemed as food. 

Genus, 9 — Toxotes, Cuv. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchiae. Body oblong, compressed, back depressed. Eyes of moderate size. 
Snout rather produced ; lower jaw the longer. Villiform teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatine bones. A single dorsal 

* " Except the colours, no external character can be assigned to distinguish the two species, hut anatomical differences have 
been pointed out by M. M. Cuv. and Val." — Cantor, I. c. 



FAMILY, II— SQUAMIPINNES. 117 

fin having four or five strong spines situated in the posterior half of the bach : anal with three spines. Scales 
cycloid, of moderate or rather small size, some are extended to over the soft portions of the vertical fins. Air-vessel 
simple. Pyloric appendages in moderate numbers. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas and estuaries of India, to the Malay Archipelago and Polynesia. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Toxotes microlepis, D. -f^, A. T 3 T , L. 1. 42. Two to four rows of large Hack patches or stripes 
along the sides, most being above the lateral-line. Estuaries and large rivers of Burma and Siam near their 
mouths. 

2. Toxotes chatareus, D. ' ^ 5 , A. ts^ty, L. 1. 31. Five or six oblong black patches along the upper half 
of the head and back. Estuaries and rivers of India, Bengal and Burma to the Malay Archipelago. 

3. Toxotes jacidator, D. t^tyj A. Tg-5-pf, L. 1. 27. Four triangular blotches descend from the back to the 
lateral-line. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Toxotes microlepis, Plate XXX, fig. 1. 

Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. of Bengal, 1860, p. 142 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 68. 
Nya-kya-ma, Burmese. 

B. vii, D. -a-, P. 12, V. 1/5, A. ^ C. 19, L. 1. 42, L. r. ff, L. tr. 6/14, Csbc. pyl. 8. 

Length of head 3/10 to 2/7, of caudal 2/11 to 1/6, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/3 to 2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and lj apart. Body compressed, dorsal profile 
horizontal and flat. The maxilla reaches to below the centre of the orbit. Preopercle and preorbital with their 
lower edges finely serrated. Teeth — villifonn in the jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — the dorsal commences 
slightly in advance of the anal, but is in the last third of the length of the body, its posterior three spines the 
longest, as is also the third of the anal. Colours — golden, with two to four large black oblong blotches or stripes 
along the sides, most being above the lateral -line : dorsal blotched with black and having dark edges : anal 
dark : caudal yellow. 

Habitat. — Burma and Siam. The specimen figured is from the Irrawaddi, and 4-j inches in length. 

2. Toxotes chatareus, Plate XXIX, fig. 6. 

Coins chatareus* Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 101, 370, pi. xiv, fig. 34. 

Toxotes jaculator, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 314 (part) ; Cantor, Catal. p. 176 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 67 
(part). 

Nga-prong-gryn, Kodryn and Panlong-gryn, Arrac. 

B. vii, D. ( t^ 5 , P. 13, V. 1/5, A. -n^, C. 17, L. 1. 31, L. tr. 4-5/11-10. 

Length of head 3J to 3|, of caudal 5| to 1/6, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3J 
to 1/4 of length of head, 1 to lj diameters from end of snont, and 1J apart. The maxilla reaches to below the 
middle of the orbit. Preorbital and preopercle serrated along their lower edges. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, 
vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the fourth somewhat the longest and equal to the length of the 
head behind the middle or front margin of the eyes. In the specimen with only four dorsal spines, the third 
equals the fourth as described. Anal commences slightly behind, the dorsal, the third spine a little the longest 
and equal to 2/5 the length of the head. Pectoral as long as the head without the snout. Caudal cut nearly 
square. Scales — from 26 to 28 rows between the snout and the base of the dorsal fin : 6 rows between the 
lateral-line and the base of the last dorsal spine. Colours — silvery shot with gold, dorsal profile greenish-brown, 
six or seven oblong spots between the eye and the end of the base of the dorsal fin. Some black blotches on the 
soft dorsal : anal with its lower edge black. In the young the blotches are larger and darker, the ventral is 
black, and there is a black band along the base of the caudal. 

Habitat. — Rivers and estuaries of India, Burma, and the Malay Archipelago. My largest specimen is 
8 inches in length, but it attains upwards of a foot. The specimen figured is 6 inches long and from the 
Irrawaddi. 

3. Toxotes jaculator. 

Scicena jaculatrix, Pallas, spic. viii, p. 41. 

Scarus Schlosseri, Gm. Linn. p. 1282 ; Lacep. iv, pp. 5, 17 ; Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 398. 
Labrus jaculatrix, Lacep. iii, pp. 425, 464 ; Shaw, 1. c. p. 485, pi. 68. 

Toxotes jaculator, Cuv. Reg. Anim. ii, p. 196 ; Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 314, pi. 192 (pt.) ; Swainson, ii, p. 214 ; 
Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Chsetod. p. 31 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 67 (part). 
B. vii, D. tjAjt, p. 15, V. 1/5, A. tjSjt, C. 17, L. 1. 27, L. tr. 4-5/10-9. 
Length of head 1/3, of caudal 1/6, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3J to 1/4 of 

* I have to thank Dr. Bleeker for directing my attention to the difference between T. chatareus and T. jaculator. All my 
fresh water and estuary specimens have five dorsal spines, except one individual having four, and tkej=cliatareus : my marine forms 
have only four and= jaculator. Valenciennes remarks on the difference seen in the spines and rays, but considers the fish varieties of 
one species. 



118 



ACANTHOPTERYGII. 



length of head, 1 to 1 J diameters from end of snout, and from 1J to 1| apart. The maxilla reaches to below the 
middle or last third of the orbit. Preorbital and preopercle very finely serrated along their lower edges. Teeth — 
villiform in the jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the third the longest and equal to from If 
to 2/5 in the length of the head. Anal commences below the first dorsal spine, the third spine the longest and 
equal to from 2\ to 3|- in the length of the head. Pectoral as long as the head without the snout. Caudal 
rather emarginate. Scales — 24 rows between the snout and base of the dorsal fin : five rows between the lateral 
line and base of the last dorsal spine. Colours — brownish shot with .golden : four triangular black blotches 
pass downwards from the back to the lateral-line, most developed in the young. Fins dark. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The two specimens described 
are 3| and 9| inches hi length from the Andaman islands. 




RUIN OF PORTUGUESE CATHEDRAL AT COCHIN (18G4.) 



FAMILY, III— MULLIDiE. 119 



Family, III— MULLID^E * Swainsom 

Branchiostegals four : pseudobranchiae. Body rather elongate. Profile of head more or less parabolic. 
Eyes of moderate size, lateral. Mouth in front of snout, rather small, and with a lateral cleft. Two stiff 
barbels below the chin belonging to the hyal apparatus. Teeth feeble and variously inserted. Two dorsal 
fins situated at some distance asunder : the anal similar to the second dorsal : ventral with one spine and 
five rays. Scales large, feebly ctenoid, and rather deciduous. Air-vessel, when present, simple. Pyloric 
appendages few or in moderate numbers. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of temperate parts of Europe and those of most of the tropics, many 
young and some adults have been captured in rivers. 

Uses. — Usually excellent as food. We are informed that they were originally termed Mullus by the Romans, 
with reference to the scarlet colour of the sandals that their Consuls wore, and which were subsequently 
adopted by their Emperors under the designation of Mullens. These fish kept in vivaria did not increase in 
size. The liver was considered the most delicate portion of the Red Mullets, which are now frequently termed 
the "Woodcock of the seas," due, it is asserted, to the fact that they are dressed similarly to those birds. 

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA. 

1. Upeneoides. — Teeth in both jaws, on the vomer, and palatine bones. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, 
seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

2. Mulloides. — Teeth in several rows in both jaws, palate edentulous. From the Red Sea and East coast 
of Africa, through the seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

3. Upeneus. — Teeth in a single row in both jaws, palate edentulous. From the Red Sea and East coast 
of Africa, through the seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

4. Upeneichthys. — Teeth in both jaws and on the vomer, none on the palatines. Australian seas. 

5. Mullus. — Teeth in the lower jaw, none in the upper : present on the vomer and palatines. Mediter- 
ranean and temperate parts of Europe. 

Amongst these fishes a minute first spine to the dorsal fin appears to be sometimes wanting ; in other 
instances, where it is of a larger size, it seems rarely to be absent. There are likewise several other points that 
should not be overlooked. The comparative length of the barbels appears liable to increase with age ; 
sometimes a sharp spine exists at the shoulder in the young, mostly disappearing as the adult stage is arrived 
at, although in such it may remain or even be present on one side and absent on the other, as a rule it atrophies 
into a blunt point. The preorbital may be scaled or scaleless. 

In the " Fishes of Zanzibar," 1866, Messrs. Giinther and Playfair reunited all the genera into that of 
Mullus (p. 40). Dr.- Giinther observed in the " Zoological Record" for 1865, p. 183 : " The Recorder regrets 
to have formerly adopted the genera proposed in this family by Bleeker * * the Recorder regards the Midlidce 
as one natural genus." However, in Garrett's " Fische <1. Sudsee," 1874, Dr. Giinther still retains Bleeker's 
genera, and they appear to have been generally adopted by other Ichthyologists as based on distinct anatomical 
characters. Still it does not seem supei'fluous to suggest that specimens of the genus Upeneoides may be taken 
in the Indian seas with a more or less edentulous vomer and palate. 

Dr. Bleeker however changes his nomenclature in revising this family in 1874, considering the genus 
he formerly termed as Upeneoides = Upeneus, Cuv. and Val. thus cancelling Upeneoides : Mulloides he retains, 
but includes all his other fish of this family under the generic term Parupeneus, chiefly characterised by a single 
row of conical teeth in both jaws ; vomer, and palate edentulous. Scales along the median line, of the abdomen, 
having an obtuse keel. Dorsal and anal fins scaleless. 

Genus, 1 — Upeneoides, Bleeker. 

Megalepis, Bianc. ; Upeneus, sp. Cuv. ; Upeneus, (C. V.) Bleeker, 1874. 
Definition as in the family, except: — teeth fine in thejaivs, vomer, and palatine bones. 

Geographical distribution. — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa through the seas of India, to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Upeneoides vittatus, D. 8 | |, A. 7, L. 1. 38-39. Air-vessel present. Body, dorsal and caudal fins striped. 
Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

2. Upeneoides sulphureus, D. 8 | f , A. 7, L. 1. 36-38. No air-vessel. A golden stripe from the orbit to 
the upper third of the tail : dorsal banded. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

* In Cut. and Val. iii, p. 419, it is remarked " Ce genre est tellement isole, que l'on peut le considerer comme formant a lui 
seul une famille particuliere." 



120 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

3. Upeneoides camdens, D. 7-8 | 9, A. 7, L. 1. 32-34. Air- vessel present. Leaden colour, bands on dorsals 
and caudal. Madras. 

4. Upeneoides tragula, D. 7-8 | |, A. 7, L. 1. 30-32. Head and body with brown spots : a brown stripe 
from eye to the base of the caudal : dorsal and caudal barred. East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

5. Upeneoides bemasi, D. 7 | §, A. ^-, L. 1. 30-32. Air-vessel absent. A silvery stripe from tie eye to the 
caudal fin, body with red spots : dorsal and upper lobe of caudal barred. Madras to the Malay Archipelago. 

6. Upeneoides tcsniopterus, D. 7 | \, A. 7. Air-vessel present. A large triangular reddish blotch on the 
free portion of the tail : dorsal and caudal banded. Ceylon. 

1. Upeneoides vittatus, Plate XXX, fig. 2. 

Mullus vittatus, Forsk. Fauna Arab. p. 31 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1341 ; Lacep. iii, pp. 382, 401, pi. 14, fig. 1 ; 
Bl. Schn. p. 79 ; Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 616, t. 89. 

Mullus surmuletus, Russell, ii, p. 43, fig. 158 (Bandi cjoolivinda). 

Mullus subvittatus, Schleg. Fauna Japon. Poiss. p. 30. 

Upeneus vittatus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 448 ; Riippell, X. W. Fische, p. 101 ; Bleeker, Revis. Mull. p. 6. 

TJpeneus bitceniatus, Bennett. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1830-31, p. 59. 

Upeneoides vittatus, Bleeker, Amb. p. 42 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 397 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 27 ; Kner, 
Novara Fische, p. 67 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 742. 

Clieerul, Mai. : Chah-ti-ing-ud-dah, Andam. 

B. iv, D. 8 | i, P. 15-17, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 15, L. 1. 38-39, L. tr. 2|-3/7, Case. pyl. 11, Vert. 7/17. 

Length of head 4/17, of caudal 1/5, height of body 4/17 to 2/9 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
3j to 3| of length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Interorbital space nearly flat. The 
maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Barbels to below the angle of the preopercle or even 
beyond. Teeth — in several vilbform rows in both jaws and palatines, and in a single one on the vomer. 
Fins — spines of first dorsal weak, its first one minute, the second and third of nearly the same length, and 
equal to two-thirds of the height of the body, and 1/3 higher than the second dorsal : six rows of scales 
between the two dorsal fins ; origin of anal below the third or fourth dorsal ray, its spine minute : ventrals reach 
rather above half-way to the anus : caudal somewhat deeply forked. Scales — ctenoid, extending over the head 
to the snout, none on the preorbital bone : two rows between lateral-line and first dorsal fin, and three between 
it and the second : those along the median line of the abdomen with a dull keel along their centres. Lateral- 
line — in an arborescent form on each scale, especially anteriorly. Air-vessel — present. Colours — chestnut on 
the back : golden below. Two or three bright yellow longitudinal bands along the sides : first dorsal fins black- 
edged and with two blackish bands : pectoral pinkish edged with white : upper caudal lobe crossed by six 
yellowish-brown bars having dark edges and a black tip, whilst on the lower lobe there are three oblique dark 
bars and a white tip. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

2. Upeneoides sulphureus, Plate XXX, fig. 3. 

Upeneus sulphureus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 450 ; Bleeker. Revis. Mull. p. 4. 
Upeneus bivittatus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 520. 
Hypeneus vittatus, var. Cantor, Catal. p. 35. 

Upeneoides bivittatus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 64 (in part) ; Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 702 (variety). 
Upeneoides sulphureus, Bleeker, Act. Soc. Ned. ii, Amboina, p. 45 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 398 ; KLner, 
Novara Fische, p. 67. 

Upeneoides fasciolatus, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 151. 

B. iv, D. 8 | |, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. 7, C. 15, L.l. 35-38, L. tr. 2|/7. 

Length of head 1/4 to 5/21, of caudal 1/6, height of body 4j to 2/9 of the total length. E/yes — diameter 
2/7 to 4/15 of length of head, 1J diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below the first 
third of the orbit. Interorbital space nearly flat. Barbels reach to opposite the posterior edge of the orbit in the 
young, but to nearly below the angle of the preopercle in the adult. Teeth — in several villiform rows in both jaws, 
in an uninterrupted semilunar band on the vomer, and also present on the palate. Finis — first dorsal spine very 
small, the third a little longer than the second or the fourth, and 3/4 the height of the body below it : six rows 
of scales between the two dorsal fins : second dorsal 2/3 as high as the spinous : origin of anal below the second 
or third dorsal ray : ventrals reach rather above half-way to the anus : caudal rather deeply forked. Scales — 
ctenoid, on the head extending as far forwards as the snout, none on the preorbital bone. Lateral-line — tubes 
in an arborescent form on each scale. Air-vessel — absent. Colours — of a reddish-chestnut on the back, becoming 
silvery on the abdomen which in the adult is shaded with yellow. A purplish blotch on the opercle descending 
on to the subopercle. A brilliant golden stripe, two-thirds as wide as a scale, passes from the orbit to the upper 
third of the tail, there are generally two or three more below and parallel with it, and in the larger specimens a 
light band passes along the row of scales above the lateral-line. First dorsal milk-white edged with black, 
having two horizontal yellow lines finely dotted with black : second dorsal with only one band : caudal reddish, 



FAMILY, III— MULLID^G. 121 

with a black white-edged margin. In some specimens I have found the caudal with bands much as in TJ. 
vittatus, but fewer in number and lighter in shade. They possessed no air-vessel. 

A species much similar exists in Madras, differing in that the eye is a Little smaller, the maxilla reaches 
to below the front edge of the orbit : preorbital scaled. A few villiform teeth on the vomer, some also on the 
palate. Fins — second and third dorsal spines as high as the body. No band or marks on the fins. A female 
specimen full of roe a little above 61^ inches long was captured in December, 1867. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 5 inches in length. 

3. Upeneoides cseruleus. 
Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 194. 
B. iv, D. 7-8/9, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. 7, C. 15, L. 1. 32-34, L. tr. 2$/7. 

Length of head 2/9 to 1/5, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/9 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and also apart. The maxilla reaches to below the first 
third of the eye. Interorbital space flat. Opercle with two spines. Barbels do not reach so far as to below 
the angle of the preopercle. Teeth — in fine villiform rows in both jaws, in a single row on the vomer and 
palate. Fins — the first spine of the dorsal fin is minute or wanting, the longest equals the length of the head 
behind the middle of the eye, or two-thirds of that of the body below it : seven or eight rows of scales between 
the two dorsal fins : ventral reaches about half way to the anus, but is not quite so long as the pectoral : caudal 
forked. Scales — finely ctenoid, none on the preorbital bone. Lateral-line — the tubes are rather long and bifurcate 
in the first portion of the lateral-line, the branches subsequently are short and mostly spring from its upper side. 
Air-vessel — present. Colours — leaden colour superiorly, becoming dirty white below. First dorsal with a black 
tip, a whitish band along its centre and a badly marked one at its base : second dorsal dark with a light band 
along its centre : extremities of caudal stained with black and a band across the upper lobe : pectoral, ventral 
and anal yellowish. 

Considering the time of year at which all the specimens have been captured and their small size, it is not 
improbable that they are the young of a larger species, as U. vittatus. 

Habitat. — Madras, to 4 inches in length, most common during the months of June and July. 

4. Upeneoides tragula, Plate XXX, fig. 4. 

Upeneus tragula, Richardson, Ich. China, p. 220 ; Bleeker, Revis. Mull. p. 11. 
Upeneoides variegatus, Bleeker, Perc. p. 64, and Act. Soc. Ned. ii, Amboina, p. 48. 
Upeneoides tragula, G-iinther, Catal. i, p. 398 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 66. 
Mullus tragula, Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 40. 

B. iv, D. 7-8/1, P. 13, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 15, L. 1. 30-32, L. tr. 2/7, Case. pyl. 6. 

Length of head 2/9 to 4|, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/5 to 4/17 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
4/15 to 1/4 of the length of head, 1 J diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. The ma xil la reaches to beneath 
the first third of the eye. Snout rather obtuse anteriorly. A strong preopercular spine, a smaller one at the 
shoulder just below the commencement of the lateral-line. Barbels reach to opposite the hind edge of the pre- 
opercle. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — first spine of the dorsal fin minute or even absent, 
first dorsal very little higher than the second : anal commences slightly behind the origin of the second dorsal. 
Scales — ctenoid, covering snout and preorbital bone : two entire rows between the lateral-line and bases of the 
dorsal fin : some over forepart of dorsal and anal fins : four rows between the two dorsal fins. Colours — silvery, 
head and body spotted with brown, a brown longitudinal band passes from the eye through the snout to the 
base of the caudal fin : dorsal fin with dark, almost black, bands : each caudal lobe with five or six oblique black 
bars. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, Andamans to the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 4^ inches in 
length. The specimen figured is from the Andaman islands. 

5. Upeneoides bensasi, Plate XXX, fig. 5. 

Mullus bensasi, Tern, and Schleg. Faun. Japon. Poissons, p. 30, pi. xi, f. 3. 

Upeneoides bensasi, Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxvi, Japan, p. 71 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 399. 

Upeneoides guttatus, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 938. 

Upeneoides tragula, Gunther, Zool. Record, 1867, p. 160 (not Richardson). 

B. iv, D. 7/|, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. i C. 15, L. 1. 32-34, L. tr. 2/7. 

Length of head from 4/17 to 2/9, of pectoral 2/13, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/5 to 2/11 of the total 
length. Eyes — diameter from 4j to 4|- in length of head, nearly or quite 2 diameters from end of snout, and 
1| apart. The maxilla extends to beneath the front edge of the orbit. The barbels reach to below or rather 
behind the posterior margin of the preopercle. Preopercular spine small. Interorbital space nearly flat. 
Teeth — villiform in either jaw, in vomer, and palate. Fins — four rows of scales between the two dorsals, the 
first of which fins is higher than the second, the longest dorsal spine is two-thirds the height of the body below 
it and 1/3 more than the second dorsal : caudal forked. Scales — ctenoid. Two entire rows between the lateral- 
line and the bases of either dorsal fin. The central row along the median line of the abdomen with a blunt 
keel : scales on preorbital. Lateral-line — the tubules are very arborescent posteriorly, especially on their 

E 



122 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

upper side. Air-vessel — absent. Free portion of tail one half longer than high at its base. Colours — chestnut 
along the back, becoming golden on the abdomen : head reddish : a silvery stripe from the eye to the centre 
of the caudal fin, with a row of red spots above and another below it. Dorsals tipped with black and having 
two reddish bands across them : caudal reddish, the upper lobe having four oblique chestnut bars. Pectorals, 
ventrals, and anal yellow. 

Jerdon observes (M. J. L. and S. 1851, p. 141) of the sea fishes of Madras, " I have common drawings 
of two other species of this genus, one of them spotted all over with small red spots, and dorsals and caudal 
barred with the same, called Te nevere, Tarn. 4 inches long." 

Habitat. — Madras to the Malay Archipelago. It appears to be abundant all the year round on the 
Coromandel coast attaining to five inches in length. 

6. Upeneoides tasniopterus. 
Upeneus tozniopterus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 451. 
B. iv, D. 7/J-, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. 7, L. 1. 38, L. tr. 3/7, Ca3c. pyl. 2. 

Length of head, of caudal and height of body each 4/19 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/9 of 
length of head, If diameters from end of snout, and If apart, lnterorbital space flat, a very slight rise from 
snout to the base of the first dorsal fin, a slight swelling over the snout in front of the eye. Opercular spine 
weak. Barbels reach to below the first third of orbit. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer and palate. Fins — 
first spine of the dorsal fin the highest and equal to two-thirds of the height of the body, the second very 
nearly as long : six rows of scales between the bases of the two dorsal fins : pectoral equal in length to the 
first dorsal spine : caudal deeply forked. Lateral-line — the tubes very arborescent posteriorly. Air-vessel — large. 
Colours — back reddish, becoming white on the abdomen. A large triangular reddish spot said to have existed 
on the free portion of the tail but not now apparent. First dorsal fin with three brownish longitudinal bands, 
second dorsal likewise banded : caudal with six oblique streaks across either lobe. 

Habitat. — Ceylon to Australia, attaining at least 12 inches in length. The description is tak«n from 
Val.'s type specimen in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris. 

Genus, 2 — Mulloides, Bleeker. 

Upeneus, sp. Cuv. and Val. 

Definition as in tJie family, except that the teeth in the jaivs are in several rows : palate edentulous. 

Geographical distribution. — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Mulloides flavolineatus, D. 7/|, A. 7, L. 1. 36-37. Barbels thick and reach the hind edge of preopercle. 
A yellow band from eye to middle of base of caudal. From Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay 
Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Mulloides flavolineatus, Plate XXX, fig. 6. 

"~7 Mullus auriflamma, Forsk. p. 30 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1340 ; Bl. Schn. p. 79. 

Mullus flavolineatus, Lacep. iii, p. 406. 

Mullus aureovittatns, Shaw, Zool. iv, p, 618. 

Upeneus flavolineatus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 456 ; Rlipp. N. W. Fische, p. 101, t. 26, f. 1 ; Jenyns, Vqy. 
Beagle, Fishes, p. 24. 

Upeneus Zeylonicus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 459, and vii, p. 520. 
Upeneus auriflamma, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 461. 

? Hypeneus flavolineatus, var. Cantor, Catal. p. 36. 

Mulloides flavolineatus, Bleeker, Ceram. ii, p. 697, and Revis. Mull. p. 15 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 403, and 
Fische d. Sudsee, p. 56; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 69 (not syn.). 

Mulloides Zeylonicus, Bleeker, Nieuw- Guinea, p. 8, and Revis. Mull. p. 16 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 404. 

Mulloides auriflamma, Klunz* Fische d. roth. Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 742. 

B. iv, D. 7/|, P. 17-19, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 15, L. 1. 35-36, L. tr. 2/6, Ceee. pyl. 18. 

Length of head 3/13, of caudal from 2/9 to 1/5, height of body from 4/21 to 1/5 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 3| to 1/4 in length of head, 1§ of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla 
reaches two-thirds of the distance to below the front edge of the orbit. lnterorbital space flat. The barbels, 
which are thick, extend to opposite or rather posterior to the hind margin of the preopercle. Opercular spine 
rather weak. Snout somewhat compressed and. pointed. Teeth — in villiform bands in jaws. Fins — first three 
dorsal spines of about the same length and equal to three-fourths of the height of the body. Five rows of 
scales between the two dorsal fins. Second dorsal anteriorly half to two-thirds as high as the first, its last rays 
only half as long as its front ones. The length of the pectoral equals that of the head in front of the hind edge 

* Bleeker considers Mulloides niber, Klunz. 1. c. p. 75 this species : in Garrett's Fische d. Sudsee, t. 43, f. A, is a figure of 
Ivlunzinger's species life-size, showing ahout 40 rows of scales along the lateral-line. Giinther gives it at 42-43. 



FAMILY, III— MULLIDiE. 123 

of the orbit. Anal of the same shape as the second dorsal, its first spine minute : it commences slightly behind 
the origin of the second dorsal. Caudal deeply forked, its lobes pointed. Free portion of the tail l-J- times 
as long as it is high at its commencement. Scales — ctenoid, extending as far forwards as the snout, none on 
the preorbital bone : three rows on the cheeks, also between the lateral-line and the base of the second dorsal 
fin. Lateral-line — tubes very arborescent, especially anteriorly. Avr-vessel — large. Colours — upper surface of 
the head and back reddish-chestnut, becoming whitish along the sides, and tinged with yellow on the abdomen. 
A narrow yellow band from the upper edge of the eye to the snout, and a second from below the eye joins it. 
A brilliant golden band, rather above one scale in width, passes from the hind edge of the eye to the middle 
of the base of the caudal fin. Fins flesh-coloured, a yellow band along the base of the second dorsal : lower 
lobe of caudal grey. 

Having examined Val.'s type of Upeneus Zeylonicus I consider it to be this species. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen figured 
is 10 inches long and from the Andamans. 

Genus, 3 — Upeneus, {Guv. and Vol. pt.) Bleelcer. 

Mullupeneus, Poey; Parupeneus, Bleeker (1874). 

Definition as in the family, except that only a single row of teeth exists in either jaw, whilst the palate is 
edentulous. 

Geographical distribution. — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Upeneus macronemus, D. 8/9, A. 7, L. 1. 29-30. Last dorsal and anal rays produced. A black band 
from the eye to below the end of the soft dorsal, a black blotch at the base of the caudal : a deep black band 
along the base of the second dorsal : ventral blackish externally. Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay 
Archipelago and beyond. 

2. Upeneus barbmmis, D. 8/9, A. 7, L. 1. 29-31. Last dorsal and anal rays not produced. A black 
lateral band from the eye to below the end of the soft dorsal : a black spot at the base of the caudal : in some 
specimens a dark band along the base of the second dorsal. Red Sea, those of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and beyond. 

3. Upeneus multifasciatus, D. 8/9, A. 7, L. 1. 30-32. A dark vertical band from below the second dorsal 
to the lateral-line : a second over the free portion of the tail. A black band along the base of the second dorsal : 
dark lines on the anal. Seas of India to Polynesia. 

4. Upeneus luteus, D. 8/9, A. 7, L. 1. 30. Eyes, diameter 6J in length of head. Light lines about the 
head : golden spots on many of the scales : second dorsal and anal with three to five longitudinal lines. East 
coast of Africa through the seas of India. 

5. Upeneus displurus, D. 8/9, A. \, L. 1. 29. Eyes, diameter 4| in length of head. Some light lines upon 
the head and golden spots on most of the scales of the body. Second dorsal and anal with narrow bands : 
caudal reticulated. Coasts of Sind. 

6. Upeneus Indicus, D. 8/9, A. -f, L. 1. 30. Purplish-red, with a large oval shining golden blotch on the 
lateral-line opposite the interspace between the two dorsal fins ; a purplish-black mark on the side of the free 
portion of the tail. Seas of India to China. 

7. Upeneus cinnabarinus. Red vermilion : upper caudal lobe orange, lower red. A large purplish blotch 
over the opercle and subopercle. Ceylon. 

1. Upeneus macronemus, Plate XXXI, fig. 1. 

Mullus macronema, Lacep. iii, pp. 383, 404, pi. 13, f. 2. 
Mullus auriflamma, Lacep. iii, p. 400, pi. 13, f. 1 (not Forsk.). 

Upeneus lateristriga, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 463 ; Rfippell, N. W. Fische, p. 101 ; Bleeker, Celebes, p. 242. 
Upeneus macronemus, Bleeker, En. Pisces, Arch. Ind. p. 37 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 405 ; Klunz. Fische d. 
roth. Meer, p. 744. 

Mullus macronemus, Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 40. 

Parupeneus macronema, Bleeker, Amboina, p. 281, and Revis. Mull. p. 24. 

B. iv, D. 8/9, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. 7, C. 15, L. 1. 29-30, L. tr. 2|/7. 

Length of head 3/11 to 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/4 to 4J in the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/5 of length of head, 2j diameters from end of snout, and 1J apart. Greatest height of head equals its length 
excluding the opercle. The maxilla reaches two-thirds of the distance to below the front edge of the eye. Lips 
thick. Interorbital space rather convex. Opercular spine rather strong. Barbels reach to nearly opposite the 
hind edge of the opercle. Teeth — in a single row in both jaws. Fins — first spine of dorsal short, the third and 
fourth equal the length of the head in front of the hind edge of the orbit, and nearly or quite twice as high as 
the anterior dorsal rays : last dorsal and anal rays very elongated : ventral a little longer than the pectoral : 
caudal forked. Scales — finely ctenoid, present on the snout, maxilla and cheeks, not on the preorbital : three 
rows between the two dorsal fins, and two entire ones between the lateral-line and the bases of the dorsal fins. 
No enlarged pores on the snout. Lateral-line — with several short bifurcations posteriorly. Free portion of tail 

E 2 



124 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

longer than high at its commencement. Colours — a black band passes from the snout through the eye, at first 
just below the lateral-line, subsequently upon it, and ending below the end of the soft dorsal, it is l.j- scales in 
depth at its widest part : a black blotch at the base of the caudal fin, these two marks are divided by a light 
oblique vertical band which passes over the free portion of the tail just- behind the second dorsal fin : some 
golden spots exist on the scales along the sides of the body. A purplish stripe goes from the eye to the snout. 
First dorsal violet, second dorsal with a deep black band along its base, it has several irregular transverse 
lines along its upper half : pectoral with a dark base : ventral blackish externally, reticulated internally : anal 
with narrow transverse lines as in the upper half of the soft dorsal, but of a violet colour : caudal with a black 
edging. 

A specimen in the Calcutta Museum has on it an old label with Apogon Amherstinus. It was probably 
brought, from Amherst by Blyth, but I am unable to find any record of the name having been published. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining at least 8| inches in 
length. 

2. Upeneus barberinus. 

Mullus barberinus, Lacep. iii, p. 406, pi. 13, f. 3. 

Upeneus barberinus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 642; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 101; Bleeker, Perc. p. 172; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 405 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 70 ; Klunz. Fische d. roth. Meer. Verb. zool. bot. Ges. Wieri, 
1870, p. 745 ; Garrett, Fische d. Sudsee, t. 42. 

Parupeneus barberinus, Bleeker, Ternate, p. 234, and Revis. Mull. p. 25. 

B. iv, D. 8/9, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. 7, C. 15, L. 1. 29-31, L. tr. 2|/7. 

Length of head 2/7 to 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/9 to 1/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/11 of length of head, 3 diameters from end of snout, and 1| apart. The maxilla reaches to nearly midway 
between the end of the snout and the front edge of the eye. Opercular spine rather strong. Barbels reach to 
rather beyond the vertical from the angle of the preopercle. Teeth — in a single row of moderately sized ones in 
the jaws. Fins — first spine of dorsal fin very short, the third, sometimes also the fourth, the highest and 
equalling the length of the head in front of the hind edge of the orbit, in a large specimen rather more, and 
about twice the height of anterior dorsal rays : second dorsal fin not having its last rays prolonged : pectoral 
nearly as long as the longest dorsal spine and equal to the ventral : caudal forked. Scales — finely ctenoid, 
present on snout and cheeks but none on the preorbital bone. Three rows between the two dorsal fins, and two 
entire ones between the lateral-line and bases of the dorsal fins. Lateral-line — tubules with several rather 
long bifurcations posteriorly. Free portion of tail longer than high at its base. Colours — a black band 
passes from the eye along the lateral-line and from below the middle of the second dorsal it becomes above that 
line ending 2/3 of a scale above it below the end of the second dorsal : a round black spot at the root of the 
caudal. In some specimens there is a darkish band along the dorsal fins. 

The similarity between this species and U. macronemus is so great that I have not considered it necessary 
to figure both. In U. barberinus the bands, especially on the fins, are much lighter, and the last dorsal and anal 
rays not elongated as in U. macronemus. Both are abundant at the Andamans, and I would suggest an 
examination of their sexes and the number of cascal appendages in either sex. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, through those of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining at least 
12 inches in length. 

3. Upeneus multifasciatus. 

Mullus multifasciatus, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Uranie, p. 330, Atl. t. lix, f. 1. 

Upeneus trifasciatus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 468 ; Jenyns, Voy. Beagle, Fish. p. 25 ; Bleeker, Banda, p. 237; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 407 (Synonym, in part) ; Kner, Novara Fische, 71 ; Garrett's Fische d. Sudsee, pi. 44, 
B.C. 

Parupeneus multifasciatus, Bleeker, Madagascar, p. 42, t. xix, f. 3. 

B. iv, D. 8/9, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. 7, C. 15, L. 1. 30-32, L. tr. 2|/7, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4/15, of caudal 4| to 1/5, height of body 1/4 to 4| in the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/5 to 1/6 of length of head, 3| diameters from end of snout, and 11 apart. Interorbital space very convex, no 
open pores on preorbital bone. The maxilla, which is very broad posteriorly, reaches a little above half way to 
below the orbit. Barbels extend 1 diameter of the orbit behind the posterior edge of the preopercle. Teeth — in 
a single conical row in the jaws. Fins — first spine of dorsal minute, third the longest and equal to the length of 
the head in front of the middle of the eye, and twice as high as the anterior dorsal rays : three rows of scales 
between the bases of the two dorsal fins. Pectoral as long as the head anterior to the hind edge of the eye : 
anal commences on the vertical below the third or fourth dorsal ray, it is usually longer at its base than it is 
high, but in a beautiful figure of this species in Bleeker's Madagascar, 1. c. the last dorsal ray is elongated : 
ventral reaches the anus : caudal forked. Scales — ctenoid, present on the snout, cheeks and upper jaw, but 
not on the preorbital bone : 2£ rows between the lateral-line and the bases of the dorsal fins. Lateral-line — 
tubes arborescent posteriorly. Free portion of tail somewhat longer than it is high at its base. Colours — 
purplish, a black horizontal band usually exists on the snout, and is continued through the eye sometimes to a good 
distance behind it. Two or three wide black bands descend from the two dorsal fins or the interspace between. 



FAMILY, III— MULLID^E. 125 

them to the middle of the body, their number may be decreased by their amalgamating into one, or increased by 
their being split up into several. There is usually a third band over the free portion of the tail or a spot 
on the side of its base. Second dorsal, anal, and sometimes the outer half of the ventral finely banded, 
occasionally a dark basal band exists on the second dorsal. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

4. Upeneus luteus, Plate XXXI, fig. 2. 

Upeneus luteus (? Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 521) ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 63. 

Upeneus cyclostoma, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 409 (not Cuv. and Val.) ; (? Klunz. Fische R. M. Verh. z. b. 
Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 745.) 

Mullus luteus, Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 41. 

Parupeneus luteus, Bleeker, Amb. p. 281, and Revis. Mull. p. 32. 

B. iv, D. 8/9, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. 7, C. 15, L. 1. 30, L. tr. 2/7. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 6| in the 
length of the head, 3| diameters from the end of snout, and If apart. Height of head nearly equals its length. 
Interorbital space a little convex : the profile from the snout to the base of the first dorsal fin is in a moderate 
and even curve. No open pores on the preorbital. The maxilla reaches to about midway between the snout 
and the hind margin of the orbit. Barbels with roughened elevations along their whole length and extending 
to a little behind the posterior edge of the preopercle. Opercular spine of moderate size. Teeth — a single row 
of conical ones in either jaw. Fins — first spine of dorsal minute, the third and fourth the longest and equal to 
1J in the height of the body and nearly twice as high as the anterior dorsal rays : three rows of scales between 
the bases of the two dorsal fins : pectoral three-fourths as long as the head : caudal deeply forked, the lobes 
pointed. Scales — ctenoid, present on snout, maxilla and cheeks, none on the preorbital bone. Two entire 
rows between the lateral-line and the bases of the dorsal fins. Lateral-line — the branches of the tubes very- 
short but numerous. Free portion of tail rather longer than high at its base. Colours — reddish, the edges of 
the scales somewhat the darkest. A broad purplish band, having a light yellow edge on either side, goes from 
below and in front of the eye to the snout : the lower band is continued backwards across the upper edge of 
the opercle where it joins another from the lower edge of the eye : a third narrow yellow band goes from the 
upper edge of the eye backwards. Outer edge of preopercle purplish. The centre of each scale on the body, 
except the first thirteen of the lateral-line, has a golden spot : abdomen yellowish. Second dorsal and anal 
with from three to five bluish longitudinal lines. 

This species very nearly resembles the figure of U. Vlamingii, C. V. iii, pi. 71, but has its second dorsal 
much lower. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa and seas of India, attaining at least a foot in length. Specimen 12 inches long. 

5. Upeneus displurus, Plate XXXI, fig. 3. 

Mullus displurus, Playfair, Fish. Zanzibar, p. 41, pi. v, fig. 4 (not 3) adult. 
Mullus pleurotoenia, Playfair, 1. c. fig. 3 (not 4) young. 

B. iv, D. 8/9, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. \, C. 16, L. 1. 31, L. tr. 2-2|/7. 

Length of head 3| to almost 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/9 to 4| in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 3/14 to 1/5 of length of head, 1| to 1^ in the postorbital portion of the head, 2| to 2J from end of 
snout, and lj apart. Snout pointed, compressed. The maxilla reaches to rather more than half way below 
the front edge of the orbit. Barbels extend to below the hind margin of the preopercle. Interorbital space 
slightly convex : opercular spine of moderate strength. Fins — fourth dorsal spine rather the longest and equal to 
three-fourths of the height of the body below it : three rows of scales between the two dorsal fins : front 
portion of the second dorsal equals two-thirds the height of the first dorsal : pectoral as long as the head 
anterior to the hind edge of the orbit : anal commences slightly behind the origin of the second dorsal : caudal 
deeply forked and the lobes pointed. Scales — on snout and head including most of the preorbital bone : the 
uncovered portion has some rather large pores. Colours — reddish, the edges of the scales being slightly 
darkest. A broad purplish band, having a light silvery edge, passes from in front of the eye to the snout : 
two more narrow silvery lines, formed of short oblong spots, proceed from hind edge of orbit for a short 
distance : the two rows above the lateral-line, and generally the three below, have a golden-yellow spot in the 
centre of each scale : a light golden band over the free portion of the tail. First dorsal marbled with brown, 
the second with four and the anal with three reddish bands : caudal reticulated with light grey markings. 
Specimens from the East coast of Africa are said to have two shining light longitudinal bands, the first from 
the orbit to the middle of the soft dorsal, and the second, which is broader, from the upper lip to the middle of 
the back. 

Some confusion appears to have occurred respecting Colonel Playfair's two species, the markings stated 
to exist on the fins of pleurotcenia are shown on those of displurus by the artist. In the type specimens I am 
unable to trace any spots on the fins, whilst the two shining longitudinal bands are very distinct, but they are 
also slightly apparent in the large specimen. Also the dark band over the tail is present in the smaller- 
specimens as well as in the large one. The situation of the eyes as shown by the artist appear to me to be 
correct although at variance with the text. 



126 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

If the foregoing species are merely to be recognised by their markings, then the one I procured in Sind, 
■where it is abundant, can hardly be more than another form of colouring, consequently those who hold the 
displurus and plwrotcenia to be distinct, would probably consider this as a separate species. 

Habitat. — Sind, where it attains at least 9i inches in length, probably also found in East Africa. The 
specimen figured is 8^ inches long. 

6. Upeneus Indicus, Plate XXXI, fig. 4. 

Mullus Indicus, Shaw, Zool. iv, pt. ii, p. 614. 
Mullus barbatus, Russell, ii, p. 42, pi. 157 (not Linn.). 

Upeneus Russellii, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 465 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 220 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 62. 
Upeneus Waigiensis, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 466. 

Upeneus Malabaricus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 467 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 407, and Fische d. Sudsee, p. 58, 
pi. xlv, f. B. 

Upeneus Indicus, Gunther, Catal. i, p. 406 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 28. 

Pa/rupeneus Russellii, JBleeker, Ternate, p. 234. 

Mullus Malabaricus, Playfair, Pish. Zanz. p. 41. 

Parupeneus Indicus, Bleeker, Bouro, p. 148, and Revis. Mull. p. 27. 

Pahtee goolivinda, Tel. : Mussara, Tarn. 

B. iv, D. 8/9, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. V. C. 15, L. 1. 30, L. tr. 2£/7. 

Length of head from 4/15 to 1/4, of caudal 1/5 to 3/16, height of body 4/15 to 1/4 of the total length. 
Eyes — situated in the anterior portion of the posterior half of the head, or even a little behind it, and from 
2/11 to 2/13 (larger in the young) of its length, lj diameters apart. Snout somewhat pointed. The maxilla 
reaches rather more than half way to below the front edge of the orbit. Interorbital space more or less convex. 
Barbels reach to beyond the angle of the preopercle. Opercular spines small. Teeth — generic. Fins — first 
spine of anterior dorsal minute, the third and fourth the longest, 1/2 higher than the rays, and equalling three- 
fourths of the height of the body. Pectoral as long as the head in front of the hind edge of orbit : anal commences 
slightly behind the level of the second dorsal and is as high as it : caudal deeply forked, the lobes pointed. 
Scales — finely ctenoid, extending on the head as far forwards as the snout, but none on the preorbital bone : 
two entire rows between the lateral-line and the bases of either dorsal fins. Free portion of the tail longer 
than high at its commencement. Lateral-line — tubes becoming very arborescent posteriorly. Air-vessel — present. 
Colours — purplish-red, with a large oval shining golden blotch on the lateral-line opposite the interspiace between 
the two dorsal fins, which usually disappears after death ; a purplish-black mark, lightest in its centre, on either 
side of the free portion of the tail between the end of the dorsal and the base of the caudal fins : yellow lines 
or spots on the abdomen. Some light violet lines on the upper surface of the head. A broad purple band 
from the eye to the snout, having a narrow violet one on either side : cheeks pink, variegated with yellow and 
tortuous blue lines : a dark spot at the corner of the mouth. Dorsal purplish streaked with blue : a few yellow 
bands on anal, fins pinkish except the caudal, which has the rays purplish, but the membrane has a greenish tinge. 

Amongst Sir W. Elliot's drawings is one of this species labelled Upeneus Pussellii and Kul naveri, Tarn. 
Jerdon observes, M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 140 : " this very beautiful fish is rarely met with at Madras": Russell 
also made much the same remark — however, I have frequently obtained it there. 

The species I considered U. spilurus from the Andamans I find to be U. Indicus : the U. Malabaricus has 
been considered to differ in wanting the spine to the anal fin and thus having only seven rays. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining at 
least 16 inches in length. 

7. Upeneus cinnabarinus. 

Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 475. 

B. iv, D. 8/9, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. 7, C. 15, L. 1. 29, L. tr. 3/7. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 4/17 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 1/4 of length 
of head, nearly 2 diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. The dorsal profile makes a considerable rise from 
the snout to above the centre of the eyes. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. A rather 
strong opercular spine. Barbels rather thick and reach to below the front edge of the orbit. Teeth — conical 
and in a single row in either jaw. Fins — first spine of dorsal fin short, the second not quite so long as the third 
which equals rather above one-third of the height of the body below it : the pectoral as long as the head 
posterior to the front nostril : caudal deeply forked. Scales — three rows between the two dorsal fins. Lateral- 
line — the tubes very arborescent posteriorly. Air-vessel — small. Colours — of a vermilion, darkest on the back, 
now there appears to be a central silvery spot in the middle of each scale forming the two rows above and the 
two below the lateral-line. Dorsal and anal rays yellow, the membrane reddish : upper caudal lobe orange, the 
lower one red. A large purple spot covers the opercle and descends on to the subopercle. Barbels rosy. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, where it is said to be abundant. The above description is taken from Valenciennes 
type specimen in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris. 



FAMILY, IV— NANDIDCE. 127 



Family, IV— NANDIDCE, Gimther. 

Pseudochr amides, pt., et Mcenoidei, pt. Mull. & Trosch. 

Branchiostegals from five to six : pseudobranchiae present in marine genera, but sometimes concealed 

or absent in those of the fresh-water. Body oblong and compressed. Teeth feeble, but dentition more or 

less complete. Dorsal fin single : the length of the base of the spinous portion of greater or equal extent to 

that of the soft : anal with three spines, its rays similar to those of the dorsal : ventrals thoracic, with 

one spine and four or five rays. Scales ctenoid, covering the body. Lateral line interrupted or absent. No 

super-branchial organ. Air-vessel present. Pyloric appendages few or absent. 

\ 

Dr. Giinther's family Nandidas is composed of three groups, his Nandina being similar to Nandoides, 
Bleeker, containing the Genera Nandus, C.V., Badis, Bleeker, and Pristolepis, JeTdon—Catopra, Bleeker, which 
Bleeker observes belong to the great Family Percidce* Thus restricted, this small group would find a natural 
place between the Centrarchini (Grystina, pt.) and the Osphromenoides (Labyrinthibranehii) and the Polycentroides. 
It also approaches the Pseudochromidoides and the Cichhides. The dentition inside its mouth distinguishes it 
from the groups enumerated. 

Geographical distribution. — Of the Asiatic Genera of Family Nandidce, Giinther, some are marine, others 
fresh- water fishes, extending their range from the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, through those of India, the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

The colours in some are liable to considerable variations, due to age, probably season, and the locality 
they inhabit. The number of spines, rays, and even scales, as in the indigenous fresh- water Acanthopterygian 
genera, Ambassis, Anabas, Poly acanthus and Trichog aster are by no means fixed, a few more or less being of no 
infrequent occurrence. The same remark applies to the serrations of the bones of the head as they often vary in 
specimens from different parts, which however can merely allow their being classed as local varieties and not 
distinct species. 

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA. 

First group— Plesiopina. 
Pseudobranchia? present : ventral with four rays. 

1. Plesiops. PseudobranchiEe. None of the bones of head serrated. Villiform teeth in jaws and palate, 
none on tongue. The first one or two of the ventral rays elongated and bifid. Red Sea, through those of 
India to the Malay Archipelago. 

Second group — Nandina. 

Pseudobranchiae absent : ventral with five rays. 

2. Badis. None of the bones of head serrated. Villiform teeth in jaws, palate, root of tongue and roof 
of cavity of mouth. Fresh waters of India and Burma. 

3. Nandus. Opercles may be serrated or armed. Villiform teeth in jaws, palate, root of tongue and cavity 
of mouth. Fresh waters of India and Burma. 

4. Pristolepis. Opercles serrated or armed. Villiform teeth in jaws and palate, with globular crowns at 
the root of tongue and roof of cavity of mouth. Fresh waters of India, Burma, Siam to the Malay Archipelago. 

First group — Plesiopina. 
Pseudobranchiae present : ventral with four rays. 

Genus, 1 — Plesiops, Cuv. 
Pharopteryx, Riipp. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchice. Body oblong and compressed. Mouth moderately protractile. Nont 
of the bones of the head serrated. Villiform teeth on the jaws, vomer, and palatines, none on the tongue. Eleven fo 
twelve spiines in the dorsal fin, three in the anal : ventral with one spine and four rays, the outer ones being elongated 
and bifid. Scales cycloid, of moderate size. Lateral-line interrupted. Air-vessel present. Pyloric appendages 
absent. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 
1. Plesiops nigricans, D. f_|-, A. §, L. 1. 23-28. Each scale on the body with a blue central spot : a large' 

* Dr. Giinther's classification is adhered to for reasons stated in note at p. 2. 



128 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

black blue-edged ocellus on the opercles, a blue line along the dorsal and anal fins which, as well as the caudal, 
have a light edge : blue spots on soft dorsal, anal and caudal fins. Red Sea, through those of India to the 
Malay Archipelago. 

1. Plesiops nigricans, Plate XXXI, fig. 5. 

Pharopteryx nigricans, Rupp. Atl. p. 15, t. iv, f. 2, and X. W. Pische, p. 5. 

Plesiops ccendeo-lineatus, Rupp. N. W. Fische, p. 5, t. ii, f. 5 ; Bleeker, Amboina, iii, p. 110 ; Gunther, 
Catal.' iii, p. 363. 

Plesiops melas, Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxii, Bali, p. 9. 

Plesiops corallicola, (K. and v. H.) Bleeker, Sumatra, ii, p. 280; Gunther, Catal. iii, p. 364; Day, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 685 ; Kner, Xovara Fische, p. 214. 

Plesiops nigricans, Gunther, Catal. iii, p. 363; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1871, p. 517. 

B. vi, D. £.$-, P. 21, V. 1/4, A. |, C. 16, L. 1. 23-28, L. tr. 2J/10. 

Length of head from 4/15 to 1/4, of pectoral 2/11, of caudal 2/9, height of body 2/9 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 1/4 to 1/5 of length of head, 3/4 to 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Snout obtuse. 
The maxilla reaches to behind the posterior edge of the orbit. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, vomer and 
palatines, none on the tongue, the outer row of teeth in the upper jaw are usually slightly enlarged. Fins — 
dorsal spines much shorter than the rays, the interspinous membrane (which extends beyond the tips of each 
spine) deeply emarginate, soft portion of the fin and also of the anal pointed : two outer ventral rays elongated : 
third anal spine the longest : caudal pointed. Scales — finely ctenoid in the last half of the body. Colours — 
brownish, each scale on the body with a blue centre, some of those on the shoulder and head with several blue 
spots. Opercle with a large black blue-edged ocellus. A blue band along the dorsal and anal fins : dorsal, 
caudal and anal with a white margin : soft dorsal and anal with blue streaks in the direction of the rays, they 
are also present on the caudal but in the form of transverse blotches. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. It is very 
common at the Andaman islands, attaining at least 6 inches in length. 

Second group — Nandina. 
Pseudobranchiae concealed or absent : palatine and vomerine teeth : ventral with five rays. 

Genus, 2 — Badis, Bleelcer. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchice apparently absent. Eyes lateral. Mouth protractile. Opercle with one 
sharp spine, none of the other bones of the head armed. Villiform teeth on the jaws, vomer and palatines, absent 
from the tongue. A single dorsal fin, the spinous portion being of much greater extent than that of the soft: anal 
with three spines, its rayed portion similar to that of the dorsal. Scales ctenoid, of moderate size. Lateral-line 
interrupted or absent. Air-vessel large and simple. Pyloric appendages absent. 

Geographical distribution.— Fresh waters of the hills and plains of India and Burma. 

Hamilton Buchanan observed of his two species of Badis, that " the two following species I refer to the 
genus Labrus, although their almost total want of teeth would perhaps require their form in g a distinct genus. 
Xotwithstanding the form of their tail fins, they approach nearer the Labrus malapterus of Bloch, (Ichth. t. ix, 
p. 26, pi. 296, f. 2) than to any other fish described by that author," p. 70. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

1. Badis Buchanani, D. 1 f:^- 7 , A. -^ T , L. 1. 26-32 interrupted. Purplish and banded, or irregularly 
spotted or blotched. Fresh waters of India and Burma. 

2. Badis clario, D. V*>-A £ ( L. 1. 26-30 absent. Stone colour, with several dark vertical belts, most being 
in the posterior half of the body. Bengal, Behar and Western ghauts. 

1. Badis Buchanani, Plate XXXI, fig. 6. 

Labrus badis, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 70, 368, pi. 25, fig. 23. 
Badis Buchanani, Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxv, t. 2, f. 3 ; Gunther, Catal. iii, p. 367. 
Kala-poo-ti-ah and Chiri, Punj. : Kundala and Ka-sundara, Tel. : Kahlee-poee and Bundei, Ooriah: Nabat 
and Ran-doh-nee, Assam. : Pin-lay-nga-ba-mah and Nga-mee-loung, Burm. 

B. vi, D. if3£, P. 12, V. 1/5, A. &, C. 16, L. 1. 26-32, L. tr. 2|/8. 

Length of head 2/9 to 1/5, of pectoral 1/5, of caudal 2/9, height of body 2| to 2/9, in the variety figured, 
in the total length. Form of body an elongated oval, sides compressed. Eyes — diameter 3f (3/11) of the 
length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge 
of the orbit : lower jaw slightly the longer. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer and palatines, also on pre-sphenoid 
and epi-hyal. Fins— -spines somewhat slender, the soft portion of the fin rather elevated and pointed : anal 
spines short, its soft portion similar to that of the dorsal : caudal pointed. Variations, as in other Acanthopte- 
rygian fresh-water fishes, exist in the number of spines and rays ; in Bengal and Madras the formula is generally 
D. if:! 7 , A. 6? T > L- 1- 26-28, but in Assam and Burma it is mostly as follows: D. V-tt> 8 , A. f, L. 1. 28-33. 



FAMILY, IV— NANDID^. 129 

Scales — ctenoid, extending over the body and head, there are two or three small rows along the bases of the 
dorsal and anal fins, and some minute ones are often present on the rays of the vertical fins, one entire row 
exists between the highest portion of the lateral-line and the small scales along the base of the dorsal fin. 
Lateral-line — interrupted below the posterior extremity of the dorsal fin. Air-vessel — large, with thin walls. 
Colours — subject to great variation. In India proper, including the Punjab and Sind, the body is variegated 
with alternate belts of black and green ; but in old fishes, especially if captured in dirty water, these bands 
are black and dirty red. On each shoulder there is usually a bluish-black spot, another is often present 
on the opercle, and a third at the base of the caudal fin. In specimens from Assam and Burma a different 
mode of colouring obtains. In Assam, in the variety figured, they are of a dull red, blotched or spotted with 
black ; but in Burma these spots take the form of six vertical bands, each being formed by four transverse 
blotches one above the other ; a large one is situated on the shoulder, and another on the side of the free 
portion of the tail : all the vertical fins have a narrow white edge. 

Habitat. — Fresh waters of India and Burma, attaining at least 3^ inches in length. I obtained several 
at Mandalay in Upper Burma from a canal which was being baled out. 

2. Badis dario. 

Labrus dario, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 72, 368. 
Badis dario, Gunther, Catal. iii, p. 367. 
Kunkakie, Ooriah : Ka-sondara, Tel. 

B. vi, D. V% P- 9> V. I/ 5 . A - f> C. 15, L. 1. 26-30, L. tr. 11. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal nearly 1/4, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Under jaw slightly 
the longer. Eyes — diameter 1/3 of length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Teeth — 
minute as in the last species. Fins — dorsal spines slender, the soft portion as well as of the anal pointed : 
caudal wedge-shaped. Scales — rather large. Lateral-line — absent. Colours — stone-colour, with several black 
vertical bands, mostly in the last half of the body ; but in dirty water the black colour extends all over. 

Habitat. — Ponds, rivers and ditches in the northern parts of Bengal, Behar, and along the Western 
ghauts, attaining three inches in length : it is eaten by the natives. 

Genus, 3 — Nandus, Cuv. and Val. 

Bedula, Gray. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchiae absent. Body oblong, compressed. Eyes lateral. Mouth very protractile, 
its cleft deep. Opercle with one spine : preopercle serrated, or more or less entire, as are also the preorbital, sub- and 
inter-opercles. Teeth villiform on the jaws, vomer, palatines and tongue : the length of the base of the spinous portion 
of the dorsal fin longer than that of the rays: anal with three spines. Scales of moderate size, ctenoid. Lateral-line 
interrupted. Air-vessel large and simple. Pyloric appendages absent. 

Geographical distribution. — Fresh waters of India, Burma and Siam. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Nandtis marmoratus, D. -Tr-i^ A. y ! ¥ , L. 1. 46-57. Brown, vertically marbled with wide darker bands. 

This species shows great variation in accordance with the localities where it is taken, the serrations on the 
bones of the head being usually exceedingly indistinct or even absent in specimens obtained in Sind and India 
as far as Calcutta. But in Assam a considerable difference is perceptible, as most of the specimens have both 
limbs of the preopercle and also the lower edges of the sub- and inter-opercles serrated, sometimes rather 
coarsely so. 

1. Nandus marmoratus, Plate XXXII, fig. 1. 

Coius nandus, Ham. Buch. pp. 96, 370, pi. 30, fig. 32 ; McClell. Cal. J. N. Hist, ii, p. 574. 

Nandus marmoratus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 482, pi. 207 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 17 ; Jerdon, Madras J. L. and 
Sc. 1848, p. 141 ; Gunther, Catal. iii, p. 367 ; Day, Fish. Malab. p. 128 ; Bleeker, Nandioides, p. 3. 

Bedula Hamiltonii, Gray and Hardw. HI. In. Zool. ii, pi. 88, f. 3 (from H. B. Ms.) 

Mootahree, Mai. : Bodosi and Gossiporah, Ooriah : Vaadhul, Hind. : Septi, Tel. : Latha and Gudtha, Beng. : 
Mussoassah, Punj.: Gad-gud-di and Bad-vaad-hi, Assam. 

B. vi, D. J^tt, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. T ? T , C. 15, L. 1. 46-57, L. r. f£ff, L. tr. 5^-6/17-20, Vert. 24. 

Length of head 1/3, of pectoral 2/15, of caudal 1/6 to 2/11, height of body 1/3 to 3/10 of the total 
length. Eyes — diameter 1/5 to 1/6 of length of head, rather above 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. 
The profile over the orbit is rather concave, whilst the abdominal is not so convex as that of the dorsal. Pre- 
maxillaries very protrusible, reaching to one diameter behind the posterior border of the orbit. The posterior 
extremity of the maxilla reaches to some distance behind the eye. Preopercle may be entire, only finely serrated 
at its angle, or serrated along both limbs : the sub- and inter-opercles likewise may be entire, serrated along 
their approximating portions or in their whole extent. Preorbital with some minute serrations or entire. 
Teeth — in villiform bands in the jaws, in an elongated band, widest at either extremity, on the tongue ; in a 
narrow row on the palatines and in a ^-shaped band on the vomer, in some cases " intermixed with these in each 
jaw are several sharp teeth of a larger size." (Ham. Buch. 1. c.) Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, their base 

s 



r ^ c\ 



130 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

occupying rather above three-fourths of the length of the fin and are receivable into a groove, interspinous 
membrane deeply eniarginate, soft portion of the fin similar to that of the anal and almost square : anal spines 
of moderate strength the central one the longest and equal to two-thirds the length of the rays : caudal cut 
nearly square. Scales — rather smaller on the nape than on the body, some extend over the bases of the dorsal 
and anal rays, an enlarged one at the angle of the ventral fin and another between the two ventrals. Lateral- 
line — interrupted at about the 36th scale. Colours — greenish-brown with brassy reflections, vertically marbled 
with three broad patchy bands, and a fourth crosses the free portion of the tail, or occasionally there exists a 
black blotch there, some narrow dark bands radiate from the eye. Narrow bands of spots across the soft 
portions of the dorsal, anal, and the caudal fins. 

In Assam and to the east of Bengal, as already observed (p. 129), the bones of the head are more 
strongly serrated than is usually seen in the <5ther parts of India. 

Bleeker has discriminated between the Nandus marmoratus C. "V. of India, and the N. nebulosus, Gray 
and Hardw. which inhabits the islands of the Sound. Of this latter he observes amongst other peculiarities that 
its scales are tflff > being much fewer in number than in N. marmoratus. In examining 10 specimens of this 
latter I find as follows : 

Five from Madras and Malabar L. r. ff, ff, ff, ff. ff, L. tr. 5|-6/17-20. 
Five „ Assam . . . . . L. r.' ff, ff. ff, ff, ff, L. tr. 5|-6/18-19. 

Habitat. — Fresh and brackish waters of India and Burma, attaining at least 7 inches in length. It is 
common in. ditches and inundated fields where it preys on small Cyprinidce. It is exceedingly tenacious of life. 

Genus, 4— Pkistolepis, Jerdon (1848). 

Catopra, Bleeker (1851) : Parauandus, Day. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchia absent. Eyes lateral. Mouth moderately protractile. Opercle with two 
flat (generally bifid) spines : preopercle and preorbital mostly serrated. Teeth villiform on the jaivs and palate, villiform 
or globular on the vomer, obtusely globular on the base of the tongue, on the roof of the cavity of the mouth (pre- 
sphenoid), and sometimes on the vomer. Anal fin with three or four spines. Scales ctenoid, large, extended on to the 
iuterbranchial membrane. Lateral-line interrupted. Pyloric appendages two. 

Geographical distribution. — Fresh waters of the plains and hills of India, Burma, Siam and the Malay 
Archipelago : those with villiform teeth in the adult on the vomer would appear to belong to India proper : 
those with globular teeth on that bone to Burma and the Eastwards. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

A. With villiform teeth on vomer (Paranandus). 

1. Pristolepis marginatus, D. fflff , A. ■§, preorbital, preopercle, sub- and inter-0]3ercles serrated. Wynaad. 

2. Pristolepis Malabaricus, D. yf f^, A. f . Malabar ghauts descending to the plains. 

B. With globular teeth on vomer (Catopra). 

3. Pristolepis nandioides, D. ffff , A. f . Burma and to the East as far as the Malay Archipelago. 

A. With villiform teeth on the vomer (Paranandus). 

1. Pristolepis marginatus. 

Jerdon, Madras Journal, Lit. and Sc. 1848, p. 141, and Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1865, xvi, p. 298 ; 
Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 131. 

Catopra tetracanthus, Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 192, pi. xxvi, fig. B. 

B. vi, D. ff3f > P. 14, V. 1/5, A. f, L. r. ff , L. tr. 3|/11. 

Length of head 3^ to 3|, of caudal 1/5, height of body, 3| in the total length. Eyes — diameter 3| to 3f 
of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. Length of head rather exceeds 
its height. Lower jaw very slightly the longer : premaxillaries reach to opposite the anterior margin of the 
orbit: the maxilla to below the front edge of the eye. Preopercle serrated at its angle and also for a short 
distance along its vertical border : sub- and inter-opercles likewise with some serrations at their approximating 
angles : opercle with two flat spines, the lower of which may be bifid : preorbital sometimes rather strongly 
serrated. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, with an outer rather widely placed row of curved ones : villiform teeth 
on the vomer and palatines, and granular at the root of the tongue and on the roof of the cavity of the 
month (pre-sphenoid). Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, increasing in length to the fifth: three last anal 
spines of about the same length : caudal rounded. Scales — two entire and two half rows between the lateral- 
line and the base of the dorsal fin : 13 rows between the base of the ventral and that of the dorsal fin. Lateral- 
line —interrupted opposite the last third of the soft dorsal on the twenty-first scale. Colours — as in the next 
species. 

Habitat.— This form, originally described by Jerdon, was obtained from the "river of Manontoddy, 
flowing into the Cauvery : in the Cotiaddy river in North Malabar, and in the stream that runs near Canote 
in the same district." I have obtained one in Malabar 3f inches in length, with the P. Malabaricus. I 



FAMILY, IV— NANDID^E. 131 

believe it to be rather an elongated variety of the next, but for the present leave them distinct. Dr. Jerdon 
felt so satisfied that the fish he described was the Gatopra Malabarica, Giinther, and I obtained so many 
specimens from Malabar, all but one however with merely three anal spines, that I accepted his opinion that a 
misprint had occurred. The two original specimens of tetracanthus are in the British Museum, having been 
received without any indication of their habitat from the E. I. Museum, it is therefore open to enquiry whether 
they might not be Jerdon's types. This fish is said to attain a considerably larger size than 4 inches in length. . 

2. Pristolepis Malabaricus, Plate XXXII, fig. 2. 

Catopra Malabarica, Giinther, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1864, p. 375 ; Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 30. 
Nandus Malabaricus, Day, Fish. Mai. p. 130, pi. viii. 
Chutichi, Mai. 

B. vi, D. yJJj--, P. 14-15, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 16, L. 1. 25-27, L. r. ffcff, L. tr. 3J/11, Vert. 13/11. 

Length of head 4/13 to 1/4, of pectoral 1/4 to 2/9, of caudal 2/9, height of body 2/5 to 4/9 of the total 
length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout and also apart. Body compressed, 
a considerable rise to the dorsal fin : head as high as long : jaws equal in front ; the premaxillaries reach 
posteriorly to opposite the first third of the orbit ; the maxilla reaches to a little behind the front edge of the 
eye. Preopercle with its vertical limb roughened, in some cases serrated, most strongly so at its angle : sub- 
and inter-opercles with some fine serrations at their approximating portions. Opercle with two sharp flat 
spines which are generally bifid : preorbital entire. Teeth — vilHform in the jaws, with the outer row somewhat 
enlarged, some specimens have merely two or four teeth enlarged in the lower jaw, and standing rather in front 
of the remainder : vomer and palatines with small vilhform teeth ; the presphenoid has small teeth, all but the 
outer row of which have rounded crowns, and there are some of the same description at the root of the tongue 
on the epi- and cerato-hyals, those on the cerato-hyal having rounded crowns, the outer row being somewhat 
smallest and pointed, they do not extend so far forwards as in the P. nandioides, neither are the middle ones so 
large : villiform teeth on both superior and inferior pharyngeals. Fins — dorsal spines rather stout, shorter than 
the rays, increasing in length to the third and having a groove for their reception along their base, interspinous 
membrane somewhat deeply emarginate : second anal spine thickest but not quite so long as the third, a groove 
along their base : caudal rounded. Lateral-line — interrupted, ceasing opposite the fourth ray on the twenty- 
first scale, commencing again in the centre of the side below the last ray, there are two entire and two half rows 
between the lateral-line and base of the dorsal fin, and 13 between the ventral and base of the dorsal. 
Colours — rifle-green with purplish reflections, fins with lighter edges : caudal with a white outer margin. In 
some specimens the fish is vertically banded. 

Habitat. — Ghauts of Western India, where it seems to prefer clear and rapid streams, attaining at least 
6 inches in length. 

B. With globular teeth on the vomer (Gatopra) . 

3. Pristolepis fasciatus, Plate XXXII, fig. 3. 

Gatopra fasciata, Bleeker, Borneo, p. 65, and Xandioides, p. 7, fig. 2 ; Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 368. 
Gatopra nandioides. Bleeker, Sclerop. &c. 1851, p. 172 ; Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 368 ; Day, Proc. Zool. Soe. 
1869, p, 615. 

Gatopra Siamensis, Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 191, pi. xxvi, fig. A. 

B. vi, D. if:if, P. 15, V 1/5, A. |, C. 14, L. 1. 26-28, L. r. ff, L. tr. 4|/12, Csec. pyl. 2. 

Length of head from 4/13 to 4/15, of pectoral 1/5, height of body 2J to 2j in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter nearly 1/4 of length of h-?ad, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1-|- apart. Head as high as long. 
Snout in the adult convex ; body oblong, compressed, the dorsal profile rising considerably to the base of the 
dorsal fin. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Preorbital and preopercle rather strongly 
serrated ; fine serrations, which may be absent, on the contiguous portions of the sub- and inter-opercles : two 
sharp flat spines on the opercle, mostly bifid, and the lower the larger. Teeth— villiform in jaws and palatines, 
globular on vomer, base of tongue and roof of the cavity of the mouth, at the base of the tongue they extend 
forward nearly to its anterior extremity. In the young, G. Biamensis, the vomerine teeth are not quite 
so blunted as they become in the adult. Fins — dorsal spines strong, interspinous membrane deeply 
emarginate, central rays the longest : second anal spine the strongest but not so long as the third : caudal 
rounded. Lateral-line — interrupted opposite the posterior end of the dorsal fin, being continued on the 
third row of scales below it. Air-vessel — large. Scales — four entire rows between the lateral-line and base of 
the dorsal fin, and 16 or 17 between the bases of the ventral and dorsal. Cmcal appendages — two. Colours — 
dull greenish, having a deep black spot in the axilla and over the upper part of the base of the pectoral fin, 
which otherwise is yellow : the other fins slate coloured. 

Four specimens were procured in Burma varying from 4^- to 8 inches in length. A small one from 
Prome had only 12 dorsal spines, but otherwise no difference was perceptible. Two from Sittang had each 
13 spines : the im m ature is banded. I have likewise a specimen 3^ inches long from Siam, collected by Dr. v. 
Mertens, its opercular spines are not bifurcated. 

Habitat.— Fresh- waters of Burma, Siam, and the Malay Archipelago. 
( s 2 



132 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 



Family, V— SPARID^E, Cuv. 

Squamipinnes, pt. Cuv. : Chcetodontidce, pt. Richards. 

Branchiostegals from five to seven : pseudobranchise well developed. Body oblong and compressed. 
Eyes of moderate size, lateral. Mouth in front of snout, having a lateral cleft. Bones of the head with a 
rudimentary muciferous system. No teeth on the palate (except in Genus Pimelepterus) ■. more or less broad 
and cutting or conical teeth in front of the jaws, or a lateral series of molars, or both conjoined. A single 
dorsal fin formed by a spinous and soft portion, their bases being of nearly equal extent; anal with three 
spines : lower pectoral rays generally branched, but not so in some genera : ventrals thoracic, with one spine 
and five rays. Lateral-line continuous, not extending on to the caudal fin. Scales cycloid or minutely ctenoid. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of temperate and tropical regions, some entering fresh waters. 

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA. 
First group— Cantharina. 
Broad cutting teeth in front of the jaws : no molars : palate edentulous. Lower pectoral rays branched. 

1. Grenidens. One or more rows of broad cutting teeth and with a posterior band of granular ones : no 
pointed lateral tooth. Scales on cheeks and opercles, none on the vertical fins. 

Second group — Sargina. 
Cutting teeth in front of jaws : no molars. Lower pectoral rays simple. 

2. Sargus. Molar teeth in several rows along the sides of the jaws. 

Third group— Pagrina. 
Cutting teeth in front of the jaws and molars along the sides. 

3. Lethrinus. No scales on the cheeks. 

4. Sphairodon. Scales on cheeks. Canine teeth and a single row of molars. 

5. Pagrus. Scales on cheeks. Canine teeth, two rows of molars in the upper jaw. 

6. Chrysophrys. Scales on cheeks. Canine teeth, three or more rows of molars in the upper jaw. 

Fourth group — Pimelepterina.* 
Cutting teeth in front of the jaws, and teeth on the palate. 

Pimelepterus, as defined above. 

First group — Cantharina. 
Broad cutting teeth in front of the jaws : no molars : palate edentulous. Lower pectoral rays branched. 

Genus, 1 — Ceenidens, Cuv. and Vol. 
BrancMostegals five : pseudobranchice. One or two roios of broad teeth in both jaivs, with their cutting edges 
crenulated : a band of granular teeth posteriorly but no pointed lateral ones : neither molars nor vomerine teeth. A 
single dorsal with eleven spines which can be received into a groove : three cnal spines : lower pectoral rays branched. 
Scales ctenoid, of moderate size, covering cheeks and opercles, but not the vertical fins. Air-vessel simple. Pyloric 
appendages in small numbers. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, coasts of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Grenidens Indicus, D. £$:<}#, A. -j-j^n-, L. 1. 53-57, L. tr. 7/13, Csec. pyl. 5. Dorsal spines very strong. 
Greyish, fins black. Red Sea and seas of India. 

2. Grenidens ForsMlii, D. \±, A. -g^, L. 1. 52-54, L. tr. 5/15, Ceec. pyl. 3. Dorsal spines comparatively 
weak. Silvery, fins grey. Red Sea and seas of India. 

1. Crenidens Indicus, Plate XXXII, fig. 4. 
Day, Report on the Sea Fish and Fisheries of India, Nov. 15th, 1873, p. clxxxvi, No. 184. 
? Grenidens ForsMlii, Kner, Novara Fische, p. 74. 

* Klnnzinger, in his elaborate paper on the Fishes of the Red Sea, considers this group as distinct from the Spwidx. 



FAMILY, V— SPARID^E. 133 

Crenidens macracanthus, Gunther, Ann, and Mag. Nat. Hist. Nov. 1874, p. 368. 
Keen-see, Belooch. : Oolan, Tarn. 

B. v, D. i£H, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. yo?^, C. 17, L. 1. 53-55, L. tr. 7/13, Csec. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 1/4 to 2/9, of caudal about 1/5, height of body 4/11 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 2/7 to 1/3 of length of head, 1 to 1| diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Form of body oval 
and compressed : a slight swelling above the eyes. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. 
Preorbital broad, scaleless, occasionally notched on its lower margin to receive the extremity of the maxilla. 
Opercle with a soft point. Teeth — a compressed row in the front of either jaw, eight in the upper, each being 
lobed at the sides, behind this row are three more of the same character but smaller in size and more in number ; 
in large specimens there may be some with rounded crowns in the inner row : in the mandible there are ten in 
the front row smaller in size than those in the upper jaw each having about five notches, behind these are two 
or three rows as in the upper jaw. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the fourth which is the longest, equalling 2 S 
to 1/3 in the height of the body, they are alternately wider on one side. Pectoral extending to above the base 
of the anal : second anal spine strong and nearly or quite as long as the fourth of the dorsal, the third which 
is weaker, is of about equal length : caudal emarginate. Scales — two or three rows on the cheeks, 6| or 5 
entire and 2 half rows between the lateral-line and sixth dorsal spine, 17 rows between snout and base of dorsal 
fin, and 9 or 10 between base of ventral and lateral-line. Colours — greyish- silvery, the scales on the head and 
anterior portion of the body with black edges, dark lines along the rows on the body : dorsal and anal fins 
black except the last anal ray which is white : pectoral yellow, with its base orange, and a black spot in a x il l a : 
outer two-thirds of ventral black, the rest bluish- white : caudal dark grey with a black edge. 

Habitat. — Very common along the Sind coast and not rare at Madras : attaining at least 12 inches in 
length. Also found at Suez. The specimen figured is from Sind and 10 inches long. 

2. Crenidens Forskalii. 

Sparus crenidens, Forsk. Desc. Anim. p. xv, No. 19. 

Crenidens Forskalii, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 377, pi. 162 quater ; Riippell, N. W. Fische, p. 120 ; Peters, 
Wieg. Arch. 1855, p. 243 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 424. 

B. v, D. i|, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. gjh:, C. 17, L. 1. 52, L. tr. 5/15, Ccec. pyl. 3. 

Length of head 4£ to 4|, of caudal 4/21 to 1/5, height of body 2| of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and also apart. A swelling over the anterior-superior 
angle of the eye. The maxilla reaches to below the anterior nostril. Preorbital two-thirds as high as the orbit 
is wide. Teeth — in a compressed row in front of either jaw as in the last species (C. Indians), but with ten in 
the anterior row in the upper and twelve in the lower jaw. Fins — dorsal spines rather weak, with the fourth 
slightly the longest, and rather less than half the length of the head : pectoral much longer than the head, but 
not reaching to above the anal spines, which latter are weak, the third being equal to two-thirds of the length 
of the fourth dorsal spine, and not quite so strong as the second : caudal forked. Scales — 11 or 12 rows between 
the base of the ventral fin and the lateral-line, and 5-| or four entire and two half rows between the lateral-line 
and base of the sixth dorsal spine. Colours — silvery, the vertical fin being rather darker than the body. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India, Sind, and the coast of Mozambique. 

Second group — Sargina. 



becond group — Sargina. 
Cutting teeth in front of jaws : no molars. Lower pectoral rays branched. 



Genus, 2 — Saegus, (Klein), Cuv. 

Branchiostegals five or six : pseudobranchio3. Opercle either unarmed or with a blunt point. A single row of 
cutting teeth in the front part of the jaivs, and several lateral rows of rounded molars. A single dorsal with from tea 
to thirteen spines receivable into a groove along its base : anal with three. Scales finely ctenoid, of moderate size, 
covering the cheeks. Air-vessel sometimes notched anteriorly and posteriorly. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — This genus has a wide range, being found in the Mediterranean, Atlantic, and 
the Western shores of India. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

Sargus nod. D. -j-j-yy, A. y^-, L. 1. 62-68, L. tr. 6/16. Eight flattened and compressed incisors in either 
jaw. A black spot on the lateral-line on either side of the tail. Red Sea, Beloochistan and Sind. 

1. Sargus noct. Plate XXXII, fig. 5. 

(Ehren.) Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 51 : Riippell, N. W. Fische, p. 110 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 444 ; Klunz. 
Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 81. 
Keen-see, Belooch. 

B. vi, D. •jJ.yy, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. yV, C. 17, L. 1. 62-68, L. tr. 7-8/16, Case. pyl. 8 (5), Vert. 10/13. 

Length of head 1/4 to 2/9, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3/10 of the total length. .Eyas — diameter 
1/3 to 1/4 of the length of head, 1 j to If diameters from end of snout, and also apart. Dorsal and abdominal 



134 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

profiles about equally convex. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit : snout compressed, lips 
rather thick. The height of the preorbital equals two-thirds of the diameter of the orbit, preopercle and 
preorbital entire : opercle with a blunt point. Teeth — eight broad, compressed, rather forwardly directed 
incisors in either jaw, also three rows of rounded molars. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, increasing 
in len°-th to the fourth, which equals about half of that of the head, the rays much lower than the spines. 
Pectoral as long as the head ; ventral does not reach the anus : second anal spine strongest and longest, equalling 
the length of the snout : caudal forked, the upper lobe usually the longer. Scales — five rows between the eye 
and the angle of the preopercle. Colours — greyish-silvery, fine dots on the scales, forming lines along the centre 
of each row, and a darkish spot at the base of the pectoral : a black blotch with a silvery lower border (lost in the 
adult) on the lateral-line between the end of the dorsal fin and the base of the caudal. Fins — blackish, except 
the pectoral, which is flesh-coloured, and the caudal which has an orange tinge. Eyes golden. Young with 
narrow vertical brown lines on the body. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, very common at Suez, to the coast of Sind, attaining at least 12 inches in length. 

Third group — Pagrina. 
Cutting teeth in front of the jaws and molars along the sides. 

Genus, 3 — Lethrinus, Cuv. 

Brancliiostegals six: pseudobranchiw. Villiform teeth in the anterior portion of the jaws, having canines in 
front of them : lateral teeth in a single row and either conical or ivith rounded crowns : none on the palate or tongue. 
Dorsal fin single, receivable into a sheath at its base, and having ten spines and nine rays : anal with three spines. 
Scales of moderate size, none on the cheelcs. Air-vessel generally notched posteriorly and having short lateral processes. 
Pyloric appendages few. 

Bleeker in his revision of the fishes of this genus offers some excellent remarks. The Lethrini have the 
same number of spines and rays, whilst the number of pierced scales along the lateral-line only varies between 
about 45 and 50, and the scaling of the head is the same in all. One would imagine that specific characters might 
be found in the length of the snout, in the comparative height of the preorbital, and in the form of the posterior 
teeth in the jaws, but these characters have merely a relative value, because the snout becomes more elongated 
as age advances, the height of the preorbital increases, and the rounded molars in the adult are occasionally the 
remains of what were conical and pointed teeth in the young. The same variations are seen as to colours, the 
black lateral blotch present in the young disappears in some species as age advances, in fact the vivid colours of 
immature become more sober and uniform as age increases. The best characteristics are found in the number 
of rows of scales between the lateral-line and the dorsal fin, in the form of the profile : in the relative heights of 
the body and head, and in the strength and length of the dorsal and anal spines. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

A. With the lateral teeth conical. 

1. Lethrinus rostratus, D. l , A. §, L. tr. 6/16. Height of body 1/4 of the total length: eyes 2 to 2| 
diameters from end of snout. Pourth dorsal spine longest. Olive-brown, with dark bands on the head, and 
generally a dark blotch between the pectoral fin and lateral-line. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago and beyond. 

B. With some or all of the lateral teeth molarform. 

2. Lethrinus cinereus, D. *J>, A. §, L. tr. 6/17. Head slightly longer than high. A quadrangular blotch 
between the pectoral fin and the lateral-line. Seas of India. 

3. Lethrinus Jcarwa, D. ^, A. f, L. tr. 6/17. Head rather higher than long. A blue spot on each scale, 
a blood red edge to opercle. Seas of India. 

4. Lethrinus nebulosus, D. ^, A. f, L. tr. 6/16. Head rather longer than high : eyes 2| diameters from 
end of snout. Bands of blue and yellow spots. Red Sea and Indian Ocean. 

5. Lethrinus opercularis, D. a ¥ °> A. f , L. tr. 6/16. Colours as in karwa. Seas of India. 

6. Lethrinus omatus, D. ^, A. f, L. tr. 6/15. Head as high as long. Eyes 1£ diameters from end of 
snout. Several longitudinal bands and a violet one across the base of the pectoral fin. Andamans to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

7. Lethrinus ramak, D. 1 T o ) J^. a, L. tr. 6/14. Head longer than high. Eyes 2 diameters from end of 
snout. Olive, with yellowish bands and a violet spot in the axilla. Red Sea and Ceylon. 

8. Lethrinus haralc, D. y, A. f , L. tr. 5|/15. Eyes 2 diameters from end of snout. Head as high as 
long. An oblong black blotch below the lateral-line opposite the middle of the pectoral fin. Red Sea and seas 
of India. 

A. With the lateral teeth conical. 

1. Lethrinus rostratus, Plate XXXIII, fig. 1. 
(Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 296 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Spar. p. 13 and Revis. 
Leth, p. 26 ; Gimther, Catal. i, p. 454. 



FAMILY, V— SPAMD^E. 135 

Lethrinus longirostris, Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 44, pi. vii, fig. 2. 

B. vi, D. y\ P- 13, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 19, L. 1. 48-50, L. tr. 6/16, Ceec. pyl. 3. 

Length, of head 3/11, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/5 of 
length of head, 2J diameters from end of snout, and lj apart. Interorbital space nearly flat : snout pointed 
and compressed. Length of head 1/4 more than its height. The maxilla reaches to nearly below the front 
nostril. Teeth— three rather small curved canines in front of the upper jaw, and a small one on either side of the 
symphysis of the lower jaw : from 18 to 20 compressed, conical, and pointed teeth along either ramus of the lower 
jaw, and about 15 similar ones in the upper, the most posterior of these last being occasionally a little rounded. 
Fins — dorsal spines rather weak, increasing in length to the fourth which equals one third of the height of the 
body or the postorbital length of the head, but is not quite so long as the rays : pectoral as long as the head, 
exclusive of its postorbital portion : ventral almost reaches the anal spines, the third of which is considerably 
longer than the second : caudal emarginate. Scales — four entire and 2 half rows between the lateral-line and 
base of sixth dorsal spine. Colours — olive-brown lightest on the abdomen. Head, more especially superiorly, 
having a tinge of purple : a dark brown blotch behind the posterior superior angle of the eye : three narrow 
dark bands pass from the anterior edge of the eye to the upper jaw : a fourth along the inferior and hind edge 
of the eye : an oblique one commences on the opercle and crosses to the angle of the mouth becoming very faint 
in its last portion : a large blotch on the opercle. Inside of mouth orange. The centre of each scale having a 
blue spot, darkest externally : about eight faint vertical bands descend from the back towards the middle of the 
body, and usually a dark blotch is apparent between the pectoral fin and the lateral-line. A black spot at the 
base of each dorsal ray and the fin lightly banded : ventrals slate-coloured : some indistinct vertical bands on 
the caudal. 

L. horely, C. V. vi, p. 292, is said to be closely allied and very similar to L. frcenatus, C. V., the first has 
the teeth larger and more rounded, and only two streaks between the end of the mouth and the eye. Its back 
is vinous brown, abdomen white and the dorsal spotted with red. The eye in the latter is only 1/3 the length 
of the head, rather above 1 diameter from the end of snout, and nearly 1 apart : the height of the body is 
about 1/3 of the total length, but the specimen is only about 4| inches in length. 

The specimen figured was captured at Bombay and is 12 inches long. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

B. With some or all the lateral teeth molarform. 

2. Lethrinus cinereus. 
Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 293. 
? Lethrinus maculatus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 292. 

B. vi, D. V°, P- 13, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 47-48, L. tr. 6/17. 

Length of head 3/11, of caudal 3/17, height of body 1/3 to 4/13 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 to 
1/4 of length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. Interorbital space nearly fiat. The 
height of the head nearly equals its length. The maxilla, 1/3 the length of the head, reaches to beneath the front 
nostril. Opercle with two points separated by a shallow emargination, the lower being the larger. Teeth — four small 
curved canines in the upper and six in the lower jaw, the lateral teeth conical and somewhat irregular in size, 
especially in the lower jaw, the posterior ones of which have rounded crowns. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate 
strength, increasing in length to the fourth and fifth which equal about 1/3 of the height of the body. Pectoral 
nearly as long as the head : ventral reaches the vent : second and third anal spines of moderate strength, of about 
equal length and as high as the third of the dorsal fin, highest anal ray not equal to the length of the base of 
the rays : caudal forked, lobes pointed. Free portion of the tail as high or higher at its commencement as it is 
long. Scales — 5 entire and 2 half rows between the lateral-line and the base of the dorsal fin. Colours — of an 
olive brown, having a quadrangular black blotch between the pectoral fin and the lateral-line : faint vertical 
bands on the body which are more or less broken up : numerous white or blue spots on the scales in the iipper 
half of the first two-thirds of the body : dorsal fin with brown spots and a red outer margin : pectoral pinkish : 
ventral slate-coloured : anal similar to the second dorsal : caudal with 3 faint brown vertical bands most distinct 
in the young. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond : my longest specimen is 9 inches and 
from Madras. 

3. Lethrinus karwa, Plate XXXIII, fig. 2. 

Sparus Tcarwa, Russell, i, p. 71, pi. 89. 

Lethrinus karwa, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 311 ; Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 558. 

? Sparus Jcorely, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 292. 

Karwa, Tel. 

B. vi, D. V°, P- 13, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 6/17. 

Length of head 2/7 to 3|, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter in the 
adult at 15 inches 1/4 to 4J of length of head, 2| diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Head rather 
higher than long. Interorbital space nearly flat : the maxilla (2| in the length of the head) reaches to below 
the front nostril. Preopercle very oblique in adults : opercle with two blunt points separated by a somewhat 



136 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

deep emargination. Teeth — four large and strong canines in either upper jaw, and the same number in the 
lower, the outer of which are the largest, in the adult all the lateral row of teeth in the upper jaw with rounded 
crowns, increasing in size to the last but two ; in the lower jaw the first five of the teeth are more or less conical 
and rounded, whilst those behind have rounded crowns widest transversely except the last two. In younger 
specimens the posterior teeth are not so rounded. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength increasing in 
length to the third, which equals rather more than li diameters of the orbit in height and scarcely so long as 
the longest ray, it is longer than the fourth. Pectoral nearly as long as the head : ventral reaches the vent : 
second anal spine rather strongest but not so long as the third, which equals the length of the second of the 
dorsal fin, and is nearly as high as the rays, the longest of which does not equal that of the base of the soft 
portion of the fin : caudal emarginate. Scales — 5| or 4 entire and 2 half rows between the lateral-line and the 
base of the spinous dorsal fin. Colours — olivaceous-brown becoming lighter on the abdomen, the centre of each 
scale having a cobalt-blue spot forming longitudinal lines in the direction of the rows of scales, in some 
specimens there are intermediate yellow bands • inside of mouth orange : pectoral flesh-coloured, base of its 
second ray bright blue : dorsal, caudal and anal slate-coloured, margined with orange, and having a line of spots 
along the centre of the rays ; ventral externally slate-coloured. In most adult specimens a faint quadrangular 
spot is seen between the lateral-line and the middle of the pectoral fin and indistinct vertical bands. In some 
the edge of the opercle, sub-opercle and branchiostegous rays is of a blood-red colour, but this colour is 
likewise seen in some specimens of L. nebulosus. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India : the specimen figured was captured at Madras in June, 1867, and is 
16 inches in length. 

4. Lethrinus nebulosus, Plate XXXIII, fig. 4. 

Sciana nebulosa, Forsk. p. 52. 

Lethrinus nebulosus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 284; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 118; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 460; 
Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 86. 

B. vi, D. V°, P- 13, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 46-48, L. tr. 6/16. 

Length of head 3/11 to 2/7, of caudal 1/6 to 2/11, height of body 3/11 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— 
diameter 1/4 to 2/9 of length of head, 2 to 1\ diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Height of the head 
rather less than its length. Interorbital space nearly flat, dorsal profile not much elevated. The maxilla, 
2§ in the length of the head, reaches to beneath the front nostril. Numerous fine open pores on the lower 
surface of the mandibles, and even on to the cheeks in the adult. Preopercle moderately oblique : opercle with 
two blunt points, separated by a shallow emargination. Teeth — four rather small canines in the front of either 
jaw, the first three of the lateral teeth in the upper jaw rather conical, the remainder with globular crowns, not 
wider transversely than in their antero-posterior diameter : the first six or seven lateral teeth in the lower jaw 
rather conical, the remainder with globular crowns and rather larger than in the upper jaw. Fins — dorsal 
spines of moderate strength, increasing in length to the fourth which equals rather more than 1-| diameters of 
orbit in height, and is about equal to the longest ray. Pectoral nearly as long as the head : ventral reaches the 
anus : second anal spine nearly one-fourth shorter than the third which is nearly as long as the third of the 
dorsal fin, and as high as the anal rays, the highest of which last equals the length of the bases of the rays : 
caudal forked, lobes pointed. Scales— the row containing the lateral-line rather smaller than the one above or 
below it : five entire and two half rows between the lateral-line and base of the dorsal fin. Free portion of the 
tail about as long as high at its base. Colours — a blue, black-edged band passes from the eye to the posterior 
nostril, a second to the angle of the mouth : another blue line exists below the eye : preopercle spotted with 
blue. Inside of the mouth orange : opercular membrane yellow, sometimes blood-red. Body olivaceous, 
becoming lighter on the abdomen : scales orange along their centres, and every other row spotted with blue at 
its base : in some specimens faint vertical bands are perceptible, and a darkish blotch between the pectoral fin 
and the lateral-line, whilst the rows of scales below the pectoral have a narrow dark line along their centres. A 
large specimen had a cobalt blue band over the last half of the eye, whilst the last row of occipital scales was of 
the same colour : upper surface of the head tinged with blue. Dorsal, caudal and anal slate-coloured, the 
dorsal edged with reddish, and having two rows of blue spots : faint lines along the soft dorsal and anal, the 
caudal with narrow blue transverse bars : upper pectoral ray blue in its basal half. 

The specimen figured was captured at Aden : my longest specimen is from Sind, and 16-1- inches in 
length. 

Lethrinus centurio,* C.V. has the height of the body about 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — in the 
commencement of the last half of the head, 2J diameters from end of snout, and \\ apart. Height of head 
1/4 more than its length. 

Habitat. — Red Sea and the seas of India : very common at Madras. 

5. Lethrinus opercularis. 

Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 289 : Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Spar. p. 14, Revis. Leth. p. 20 ; Giinther, 
Catal. i, p. 463. 

? Lethrinus geniguttatus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 304. 

* Lethrinus centurio, C.V. vi, p. 301 ; Peters, Wieg. Arch. 1855, p. 243.' 
Lethrinus esculentus, C.V. vi, pi. 158. 



FAMILY, V—SPARID^:. 137 

B. vi, D. V°, P- 13, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 6/16. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 1/4 of length 
of head, If diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. Teeth — as in L. nebulosus. Fins — as in L. nelulosus, 
except that the second anal spine is nearly as long as the third, equals one diameter of the eye in length, and 
is not quite so long as the second in the dorsal fin. Colours — as in karwa. 

Habitat. — Seas of India and ? Malay Archipelago. 

6. Lethrinus ornatU3. 

Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 231 ; Bleeker, Revis. Lethr. p. 18. 
Lethrinus erythrurus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 293 (young). 
Lethrinus xanthotamia, Bleeker, Sclerop. 1851, ii, p. 176; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 461. 

B. vi, D. V°, P- 13, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 6/15. 

Length of head 4/15, of caudal nearly 1/5, height of body nearly 1/3 (4/13) of the total length in a 
specimen 7 inches long. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length of head, If diameters from end of snout, and nearly 1 apart. 
Interorbital space nearly flat : dorsal profile somewhat elevated. Height of head equals its length. The 
maxilla is nearly 1/3 the length of the head, and reaches to almost below the front edge of the orbit. Preopercle 
scarcely oblique : opercle with two blunt points, separated by a very shallow emargination. Teeth — four conical 
canines in either jaw, the first five lateral teeth in the upper jaw conical and pointed, the remainder with 
globular crowns : the first five in the lower jaw similar to those in the upper but smaller, the posterior ones of 
moderate or rather small size and with rounded crowns. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, increasing 
in length to the fourth which is the highest, as long as the longest ray, and equal to about 1/3 of the height of the 
body below it. Pectoral almost as long as the head : ventral reaches the anus : second anal spine rather stronger 
but shorter than the third which equals the length of the third of the dorsal fin, and is nearly as high as the 
rays, the height of which equals the length of the base of the soft portion of the fin : caudal forked. Scales — 
the row containing the lateral-line is much smaller than that above or below it. Colours — greenish-olive, 
with from six to seven yellow horizontal bands : the opercular membrane red, caudal edged with red. A violet 
band across the base of the pectoral fin. 

Young specimens have the dorsal and anal edged with reddish, and irregular blackish blotches about the 
body, the largest, which is somewhat quadrangular, being above the middle of the base of the pectoral fin. 

Habitat. — An damans to the Malay Archipelago. 

7. Lethrinus ramak. 
Scimna ramak, Forsk. p. 52. 

Lethrinus ramak, Riipp. 1ST. W. Fische, p. 117, t. 28, f. 3 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 459 ; Klunz. Fische d. 
Roth. Meer, Verh. z. b. Ges. in Wien, 1870, p. 752. 
Lethrinus fasciatus, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 290. 
? Lethrinus Ehrenbergii, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 312. 

B. vi, D. V°, P. 13, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 6/14. 

Length of head 3f , of caudal 1/5 to 5f, height of body 3j in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 to 4J 
in the length of head, 2 diameters from end of snout, and If apart. Interorbital space slightly convex from 
side to side. Height of head a little less than its length. The length of the maxilla is 2f in that of the head, 
it reaches to beneath the posterior nostril. Fine pores visible over most of the scaleless portion of the head. 
Teeth — canines rather small, the lateral row in the jaws are first compressed and pointed, the posterior 6 or 8 
being rounded, the first few of which are largest and most obtuse. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, 
increasing in length to the third and fourth, which equal one-third of the height of the body, but are not quite 
so long as the last rays. Pectoral nearly as long as the head : ventral reaches the anus. Second anal spine 
strongest but not so long as the third which equals the second in the dorsal fin : the longest ray not quite equal 
to the extent of the base of the soft portion : caudal forked. Scales — 5| or 4 entire and 2 half rows between 
the lateral-line and the base of the spinous dorsal. Free portion of the tail as high at its base as it is long. 
Colours — olive, with yellow longitudinal bands, a small violet spot in the axilla. 

The ca nin es in front of the jaws in Cuv. and Val.'s specimens are rather larger than described above, 
whilst a brown spot exists below the lateral-line above the first third of the pectoral fin. 

Habitat. — Red Sea and Ceylon. 

8. Lethrinus harak, Plate XXXIII, fig. 3. 

Scicena ha/rah, Forsk. p. 52. 

Lethrinus harak, Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 116, t. 29, f. 3; Bleeker, Spar. p. 15 and Revis. Lethr. p. 21 ; 
Giinther, Catal. i, p. 458 ; ? Kner, Novara Fische, p. 81 ; ? Klunz. Fisch. R. M. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, 
p. 755. 

Lethrinus rhodopterus, Bleeker, Singapore, p. 65. 

? Lethrinus Amboinensis, Kner, Novara Fische, p. 80 (not Bleeker). 

f Lethrinus Banhamensis, Garrett's Fische d. Sudsee, t. xlvil* 

* Dr. Giinther's description has not yet been published, it appears, from the figure, as if the species had only 4J rows of 
scales between the lateral-line and the base of the 6th dorsal spine, thus agreeing with Klunzinger's description. 



133 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Po-tcmg-dah, Andam. 

B. vi, D. V°, P- 12, V. 1/5, A. f , C. 17, L. 1. 46-47, L. tr. 5*/15, Csec. pyl. 3. 

Length of head 3/11, of caudal 2/11, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3f to 1/4 
in length of head, rather ahove 2 diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Height of head nearly equals its 
length. Snout rather elongated and pointed, having a slight swelling above the anterior superior edge of the 
eye. The maxilla reaches to below the front nostril. Teeth — canines in front of the villifbrm bands in both 
jaws, and of moderate size ; the first four in the lateral row conically obtuse, whilst the hind ones are large and 
rounded. Fins — dorsal spines weak, increasing in length to the fourth which equals one-third of that of the 
body below it, or 2| in the length of the head, and is about equal to the length of the rays. Pectoral about 
equal in length to the head : ventral just reaches the anal spines, which are of moderate strength, the third 
being slightly the longest : caudal forked. The height of the free portion of the tail at its commencement 
equals its length. Scales — from 5| to 4 entire and 2 half rows between the lateral-line and the sixth dorsal 
spine. Colours — greenish-olive, with an oblong blackish blotch below the lateral-line opposite the middle of 
the dorsal fin. 

Klunzinger gives only 4i rows of scales above the lateral-line ; if such is not a typographical error his 
fish cannot be this species. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

Genus, 4 — Sphsrodon, Rupp. 

Chrysophrys, sp. Cuv. and Val. : Pagrus, sp. Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals six : psendobranchim. Jaws with conical canines anteriorly and a single row of molars 
laterally. A single dorsal fin with ten spines, receivable into a groove at their base : three anal spines. Scales of 
moderate size extending on to the cheeks. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, throughout those of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Sphmrodon heterodon, D. -^a, A. f, L. 1. 44-48. Rose-coloured, base of pectoral violet. Ceylon and 
Malay Archipelago. 

1. Sphserodon heterodon. 

Pagrus heterodon, Bleeker, Gilolo, p. 54. 

Sphcerodmi heterodon, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 465. 

B. vi, D. |a p. 15, v. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 44-48, L. tr. 5/14. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/4 in the young to 2/9 in the adult, height of Jbody 2/7 of the total length. ' 
Eyes — diameter 3/7 to 1/3 of length of head, 2/3 to 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1 diameter apart. A 
swelling over the anterior superior edge of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. 
Teeth — generic, the molars very broad. Fins — dorsal spines increasing in length to the third and fourth, from 
whence they continue about the same length : pectoral extends to above the anal : caudal deeply forked and 
elongated in the young. Colours- — rosy, scales with darker edges : base of pectoral violet. 

Habitat. — Ceylon and Malay Archipelago. 

Genus, 5 — Pagrus, Cuv. 
Argyrops, Swains. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudo-branchiae. Jaws with an anterior row of conical canines, and laterally fivo or 
even a rudimentary third row of rounded molars. A single dorsal fin with from eleven to twelve, sometimes elongated, 
spines, receivable into a groove at their base : anal with three. Scales of moderate size, extending on to the cheeks. 
Air-vessel simple. Pyloric appendages, when present, in small numbers. 

Geographical distribution. — Mediterranean, Atlantic shores of America, Red Sea, and throughout those of 
Africa and India to Australia. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Pagrus spinifer, D. V-To a , -&•• s-o, ^- h S3, L. tr. 6-7/18. Whitish, with pink vertical bands. Red Sea 
and seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Pagrus spinifer, Plate XXXIII, fig. 5. 

Sparus spinifer, Forsk. p. 32; Gmel. Linn, i, p. 1273; Bl. Schn. p. 281 ; Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 1, 
pi. 101. 

Pagrus spinifer, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 156 ; Riippell, N. W. Fische, p. 114 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 472 ; 
Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. p. 761. 

Pagrus longifilis, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 159 ; Bleeker, Celebes, iii, p. 756. 

Soh-ru, Belooch. : Kooroota, Tel. : Soh-ru, Belooch. : Pimuntlai, Tarn. 

B. vi, D. yjis, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. T ? T) C. 17, L. 1. 53, L. tr. 6-7/18, Caac. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 3/11 to 4/15, of caudal 1/5 to 2/11, height of body 3/7 to 2/5 of the total length. Eyes— 



FAMILY, V— SPARIDyE. 130 

diameter 3J to 1/4 in length of head, If to 2 diameters from end of snout, and nearly one apart. Dorsal profile 
ratter more convex than that of the abdomen, a more or less developed protuberance before the anterior- 
superior angle of the eyes. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Preorbital very deep, 
being equal to from 1 to 1J diameters of the orbit. Preopercle crenulated at its angle and along its lower 
limb : opercle high and narrow having two very blunt points. Teeth — four conical incisors in front of both 
jaws, with about three rows of rounded teeth immediately behind them : two rows of teeth with rounded 
crowns along the sides of either jaw, the most interior being small and in above two rows, the first few in the 
outer row of the maxilla may be more or less conical. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength and compressed, 
the young having filamentous prolongations, two first very short, just appearing above the scales, the third the 
longest in the fin, often longer than the head, and its interspinous membrane cleft to the base of the fourth 
spine, the membrane between the rest of the spines deeply emarginate. Pectoral one-third longer than the 
head : ventral reaches as far as the anus : the second anal spine a little stronger than the third and of about 
equal length, being 2y to 2i or even 1/3 in the length of the head : caudal emarginate. Scales — cycloid, about 
six. rows between the orbit' and the angle of the preopercle. Colours — whitish, with pi nk ish bands passing 
along the centre of every scale becoming rather indistinct below the middle of the height of the body. In 
specimens up to 4 inches in length there are five vertical bands on the body. 

Dr. Gunther, 1. c. observes that a young specimen from China in the British Museum has A. §■, a 
number I have not observed in Indian examples. In two young specimens (to 3 inches) from Sind the 
filamentous prolongation of the dorsal fin reaches to the base of the caudal. 

A specimen from Sind, 11 inches long, has a very prominent protuberance above and in front of the orbits. 

Habitat. — lied Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

Genus, 6 — Cheysopheys, Guv. 

Chrysoblephus, Swainson. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchice. Body oblong, compressed. Four to eight conical or compressed teeth 
anteriorly, and three or four roios of rounded molars laterally in either jaw.* A single dorsal fin, with from eleven to 
thirteen, spines, receivable into a groove at their base : anal with three spines. Scales of moderate size, extending over 
the cheeks. Air-vessel sometimes notched or with very short appendages. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, coasts of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

Some stress has been laid in the discrimination of species in this genus as to whether the lower edge of 
the preorbital is straight or notched, in order to receive the posterior extremity of the maxillary bone. This 
sign however is of little if any value, for it may be straight, emarginate or deeply notched in the same species, as 
seen in G. berda, &c. The proportionate height of the preorbital to the diameter of the orbit varies with age, and 
its depth appears, as a rule, to increase, while that of the eye decreases, in comparison to the length of the 
head. Likewise, as is also the case in some other Genera, as Pristipoma, having the alternate dorsal spines 
broad on one side and not on the other, — it is not an invariable rule that the broad side shall be the first, third, 
fifth, and so on, for in specimens of the same species they may be the second, fourth, sixth, &c. The length of 
the second anal spine is subject to considerable differences, see C. Cuvieri, whilst the number of dorsal spines 
likewise varies. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

1. Chrysophrys datnia, D. rKTo, ■&■• "s-9"> L. 1. 46-48, L. tr. 4-5/11, Case. pyl. 4. Six incisors in front of 
either jaw, an outer compressed row along a portion of the rami, and four or five rows of rounded molars in the 
upper and three or four in the lower jaw : 3-J- rows of scales between the lateral-line and the base' of the dorsal 
spines. Greyish. Seas and estuaries of India. 

2. Chrysophrys berda, D. -rr-ii> A. -g--Voi ^- ^ 44-46, L. tr. 6/13, Case. pyl. 3. Six incisors in front of 
either jaw : an outer rather conical row along a portion of the upper jaw : four rows of rounded teeth in the 
upper and three in the lower jaw : four entire and two half rows between the lateral-line and the base of the 
spinous dorsal. Greyish, a dark opercular spot. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

3. Chrysophrys Cuvieri, D. x\\zi -A-- ¥-o"> L- 1- 48, L. tr. 4-5/12. Six conical incisors in front of either jaw. 
with villiform teeth behind them : the outer row at the sides rather conical and compressed : molars small, three 
rows in the upper and two in the lower jaw. Greyish, fins nearly black. Seas of India ? to the Malay 
Archipelago and beyond. 

4. Chrysophrys bifasciata, D. t^-Vt) A. ro-TTi I J - !■ 48-50, L. tr. 7/15. Dorsal, caudal and pectoral yellow, 
ventral and anal black. Two vertical black bands on the head. Red Sea and seas of India. 

5. Chrysophrys sarba, D. -^\±, A. -j^, L. 1. 55-60, L. tr. 6-7/14. From four to six broad compressed 
incisors in front of the upper and six to eight in the lower jaw, three rows of large molars in the lower and four 
in the upper jaw. Silvery, with golden bands along each row of scales. Red Sea and seas of India. 

6. Chrysophrys haffara, D. \\, A. T \, L. 1. 60, L. tr. 7/14. Six compressed incisors in front of either jaw, 

9 

* "It must be considered, as a rule, in ilvose fishes v:ith a truly single dorsal fin, composed of a spinous and soft portion, that 
often one m iioo soft rays, nearest to the spines are transformed into true spines, the number of the latter thus appearing to be increased." 
Gunther, Catal. i, p. 493. For instances advanced to the contrary, see 1. c. p. 183, respecting Genyoroge and Mesopirion. 

T 2 



140 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

three rows of rounded teeth in the lower, four in the upper jaw. Second anal spine 1/3 of length of head. 
Silvery, with golden bands along the rows of scales on the body. Red Sea, seas of India to China. 

1. Chrysophrys datnia, Plate XXXIV, fig. 1. 

Coins datnia, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 88, 369, pi. 9, f. 29. 
Chrysophrys longispinis, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 116 ; Bleeker, Beng. p. 93. 
Chrysophrys Schlegelii, Bleeker, Japan, p. 400, and Verh. Bat. Gen. xxvi, p. 86. 

Chrysophrys hasta, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 490 (not Spa/rus hasta, Bl. Schn.) ; Day, Fish. Mai. p. 29 ; Kner, 
Nov. Fische, p. 88. 

B. vi, D. AiziA p. 15, V. 1/5, A. T ? T , C. 17, L. 1. 46-48, L. tr. 4-5/11, Ckc. pyl. 4. 

Length of head from 1/4 to 4/17, of caudal 1/6, height of body 4/11 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/4 to 1/5 of length of head, 1 to \\ diameter from end of snout, and also apart. A slight protuberance above the 
anterior-superior angle of the orbit. Dorsal profile considerably elevated. Preorbital twice as long as deep, its 
lower edge usually almost straight, but occasionally notched. In a large specimen in the British Museum it is 
emarginate in the last three-fourths of its lower edge. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. 
Vertical limb of preopercle very finely serrated : opercle with a well developed spine. Teeth — six incisors in 
front of either jaw, more closely set and less pointed than in C. Cuvieri, and with rounded teeth behind them ; 
an outer compressed row, (neither so large or pointed as in the last species, and blunted in the adult,) extending 
for only four or five teeth, exists in either jaw, internal to which are three or four rows of rounded molars in the 
lower and four or five in the upper jaw : the inner teeth of the hind rows are the largest : there are no villiform 
teeth in either jaw. Fins — alternate dorsal spines strongest on one side, the fourth being the longest, and as 
long as the postorbital portion of the head : first anal spine short, the second as long as the head excluding the 
snout. Lateral-line — 3^- rows of scales between it and the sixth dorsal spine, 10 rows between the base of the 
ventral fin and the lateral-line. Colours — silvery-grey, the bases of the scales darkest and their edges silvery, 
this is most distinct above the lateral-line : a dark interorbital band : dorsal and caudal with black edges, a dark 
band along the soft dorsal and the first few anal rays. 

Dr. Giinther (Catal. i, p. 490) considers C. xanthopoda and C. auripes, Richardson, synonyms of this 
species. It differs from C. berda in its teeth, likewise in the strength of the dorsal spines, the number of 
pyloric appendages, and also of the rows of scales. 

Habitat. — The specimen figured (6 inches long) is from the Hooghly at Calcutta, where it attains at 
least 18 inches in length. It is found from the Red Sea throughout those of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and beyond. 

2. Chrysophrys herda, Plate XXXIV, fig. 2, and XXXV, fig. 2 (var. calamara.) 

Sparus berda, Forsk. p. 32; Lacep. iv, pp. 31, 105; Bl. Schn. p. 278 (not Risso.) 

Sparus hasta, Bl. Schn. p. 275. 

Sparus calamara, Russell, i, p. 63, pi. xcii. 

Chrysophrys berda, Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 120, t. 27, f. 4; Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 113; Richards. Ich. 
China, p. 240 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 494 ; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. 1870, p. 758. 

Chrysophrys calamara, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 117; Bleeker, Spar. p. 10; Cantor, Catal. p. 48; Giinther, 
Catal. i, p. 493 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 30. 

Dun-de-a, Sind. : Calamara, Tel. : Aree, Mai. : Goorne and Gurrapu-mattawa, Tarn. : Kola mudvjan, Hind. : 
Nya-wah, Mugh. : Moo-roo-kee-dah, Andam. : Jarras, Sind. 

B. vi, D. ii;if, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. ^ C. 17, L. 1. 44-46, L. r. f|, L. tr. 6/13, Caec. pyl. 3. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 1/5 to 1/6, height of body 3/8 to 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 to 1/4 of length of head (in a young specimen 4^- inches long 1/3), lj to 1^ diameters from end of snout, 
and also apart. Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen, snout compressed and somewhat pointed. 
The maxilla reaches to below or slightly behind the front edge of the orbit. Preorbital narrow with its lower 
edge straight, emarginate or even notched above the end of the maxilla. Vertical limb of preopercle a little 
roughened or even minutely serrated : opercle with a distinct spine. Teeth — six incisors in front of either jaw, 
the remainder of the teeth with rounded crowns except a few in the outer row of the upper jaw, which are 
occasionally not so obtuse as the others : three or four rows in the lower jaw, four or five in the upper, the 
largest being the last of the inner series. Fins — each alternate dorsal spine strongest on one side, the fourth 
or fifth being slightly the longest and equalling from about 1/2 to 2/3 the length of the head. Pectoral slightly 
longer than the head. Ventral not reaching the anus. Second anal spine much the strongest equalling from 
1/2 or a little more (in typical berda) to 3/4 of the length of the head (in the variety calamara), in which 
last it is much the strongest : caudal emarginate. Scales — four entire and two half rows between the lateral- 
line and the base of the spinous dorsal : nine rows between the base of the ventral and the lateral-line. Air- 
vessel — notched posteriorly. Colours — in berda silvery-grey. Scales darkest at their bases and usually a black 
spot behind the opercle on the shoulder. A black edge to the dorsal interspinous membrane, soft dorsal, caudal, 
and anal with black edges : a dark band along the anal fin. In specimens from Sind brownish bands usually 
radiate from the eye. In the variety calamara the fish is dark-greyish, the scales with dark edges, the fins 
black or edged with black. Some specimens are much darker than others. 

Valenciennes vi, p. 115, observes that he has compared Sp>arus hasta, Bl. Schn. with S. berda (Forsk.) 
C. V. and that they are identical. " Valenciennes confounds under the name of Chr. berda, Bengal specimens of 



FAMILY, V— SPARID^E. 141 

Spams hasta with eleven dorsal spines and Sp. berda, Forsk." (Giinther, Catal. i, p. 491). Professor Peters 
having shown me a specimen 14| inches long with Bl. Schn.'s name Sparus hasta on it, marked as his type, and 
which was sent to Valenciennes, by whom it is also labelled, I certainly think that Valenciennes was correct 
and the specimen belongs to the variety calamara. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, and seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. I have taken specimens of 
berda. in Sind 30 inches in length. The calamara is known as " black rock cod" in the Madras Presidency, and 
is excellent eating : it is common in Malabar until July. 

3. Chrysophrys Cuvieri, Plate XXXIV, fig. 3. 
Dentex hasta, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 255 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 373 (not Sparus hasta, Bl. Schn.) 
B. vi, D. tJl,, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. T ! T , C. 17, L. 1. 48, L. tr. 4-5/13. 

Length of head 2/7 to 1/4, of caudal 1/6, height of body from 2/7 to 1/3 in the young of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 1/6 (to 1/4 in the young) of length of head, lj to 2 diameters from end of snout, and 1| apart. 
Dorsal profile scarcely elevated in the adult, that of the abdomen almost horizontal. Preorbital low in the 
young with an almost straight inferior edge, in an adult (as 14| inches) the depth of the preorbital equals the 
diameter of the eye. The maxilla reaches to below the front third of the orbit or to under its centre in the 
adult. Vertical limb of preopercle very minutely serrated in the immature : opercle with a distinct spine. 
Teeth — four to six sharp, pointed and rather conical incisors in front of either jaw, with villiform teeth behind 
them : a pointed and compressed row along the outer side of either jaw, the last few of which are small and 
with rounded crowns ; internal to these are two rounded rows of small molars in the lower and three in the 
upper jaw. In a fine specimen 14| inches in length this distribution of the teeth is still seen, and the size of 
the molars is far less than is apparent in any other of the genus taken in India ; they approach very close to 
the dentition of Dentex nufar, pi. 34, f. 4, which was mislaid until too late to insert in its proper place. Fins — 
alternate dorsal spines strongest on one side, the fourth or fifth being the highest, and nearly equalling the 
length of the postorbital portion of the head in the young or 1/3 the height of the body in the adult : pectoral 
not quite so long as the head : first anal spine short, the second strong and equal to half the length of the head 
or even more in the young, but it greatly decreases in comparative length with age, being only 2| in the length 
of the head in the adult : caudal slightly lobed. Scales — seven rows between the eye and angle of the preopercle : 
a few over the base of the soft portion of the dorsal : a band at the base of the anal : the caudal with fine ones 
almost to its end : four entire and two half rows between the lateral-line and the base of the spinous dorsal : 
10 rows between the base of the ventral fin and the lateral-line. Lateral-line — very slightly curved. Colours — 
silvery-grey, about eight lines radiate from the eye and posterior edge of the preorbital : each row of scales has 
a darkish band along its centre : dorsal and caudal fins black tipped, a grey band along the centre of the dorsal 
fin and a grey spot at the base of each spine and ray : anal spines grey, the membrane and rays black except 
the two last rays which are white. 

This species differs from the G. datnia in its teeth and more pointed snout, whilst the head at its widest 
part only equals its postorbital length. It is identical with the two specimens of Dentex hasta, C. V. in the Paris 
Museum. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to at least 14| inches in length : the figure is from a specimen captured at 
Mangalore measuring 14£ inches. 

4. Chrysophrys bifasciata, Plate XXXIV, fig. 5. 
Chcetodon bifasciatus, Forsk. p. 64. 
Holocentrus rabaji, Lacep. iv, p. 725. 
Sparus mylio, Lacep. iii, pi. 26, f. 2, and iv, p. 131. 
? Labrus catenula, Lacep. iii, p. 467, pi. 26, f. 3. 

Chrysophrys bifasciata, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 118 ; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 112 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 188 
Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. Verb. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 758. 
Bah-mear, Bel. 

B. vi, D. ^ L, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. -nj^, C. 19, L. 1. 48-50, L. tr. 7/15, Case. pyl. 2. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/11, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 2/9 of length 
of head, Ik to 2 diameters from end of snout, and 1\ apart. Dorsal profile more convex than the abdominal : 
a slight elevation above the anterior angle of the eye. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit : 
preopercular margin a little roughened above its angle, its height equal' to at least the diameter of the eye. 
Teeth — six krge compressed incisors in the front of the upper and four in the lower jaw : five rows of rounded 
molars along the sides of the upper and four in the lower jaw. Fins— dorsal spines strong increasing in length 
to the fifth, which is two-fifths of the length of the head, whilst the rays are scarcely higher than the spines : 
pectoral a little longer than the head : ventral does not reach the anus : second anal spine much the strongest 
and equal in length to the third : caudal forked. Colours — silvery, with dark lines along each row of scales on 
the body, and having two black cross bands, the first through the eye, the second over the hind edge of the 
opercle : a yellow band before the eyes, snout black, dorsal, caudal and pectoral yellow, dorsal spine black, and 
a narrow black edge along soft dorsal : ventral and anal black except the last anal ray which is yellow. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa and seas of India, attaining at least 15 inches in length. The 
specimen figured is from Sind and 14 inches long. 



; 12 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

5. Chrysophrys sarba, Plate XXXIV, fig. 6. 

Sparus sarba, Forsk. p. 31 ; Gniel. Linn. p. 1275 ; Bl. Schn. p. 280 ; Lacep. iv, pp. 97, 103. 
Sparus bufonites, Lacep. iv, pp. 141, 143, pi. 26, fig. 3. 
Sparus psittacus, Lacep. iv, p. 141. 
Sparus chitehillee, Russell, i, p. 73, pi. xci. 

Chrysophrys sarba, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 102 ; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 110, pi. 28, f. 1 ; Gunther, Catal. i, 
p. 488; Kner, Novara Fisclie, p. 88; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. 1870, p. 759. 
Chrysophrys chrysargyra, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 107. 
Tin-til, Belooch. : Chitehillee, Tel. : Vella-mattawa, Tarn. : Suffacla-muddawa, Hind. 

B. vi, D. ^.Vr, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. ^ C. 17, L. 1. 55-60, L. tr. 6-7/14. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4f, of caudal 2/11 to 1/5, height of body 2/5 to 4/11 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/3 to 3| in the length of head, 1J diameters from end of snout, and lj apart. Dorsal profile slightly 
more convex than that of the abdomen. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the eye. Preorbital 
rather above one diameter of the eye in height. Vertical limb of preopercle entire, its angle and lower edge 
crenulated : opercle with a badly marked spine. Teeth — from four to six broad and compressed incisors in the 
front of the upper jaw and six to eight in the lower, the remainder of the teeth with rounded crowns the 
largest being in the inner row, about three rows in the lower and four in the upper jaw. Fins — dorsal spines 
of moderate strength alternately broader on one side, the fourth being the highest and equal to a little more 
than half the length of the head. Pectoral longer than the head : ventral not quite reaching the anal and its 
spine rather longer than the highest in the dorsal fin : second anal spine strongest, of equal length or a little 
shorter than the third and equal to the length of the sixth of the dorsal or 1/2 the length of the head : caudal 
emarginate or slightly lobed. Scales — five rows between the eye and the angle of the preopercle : some small 
ones over the caudal fin, about h\ rows between its almost straight lateral-line and the base of the dorsal fin. 
Colours — silvery, with golden bands along each row of scales, parallel to the back above the lateral-line and 
horizontal below it : no dark blotch on the shoulder above the opercle : fins yellowish with a tinge of grey 
along the upper portion of the dorsal and the end of the caudal : a dark band along the middle of the former 
fin. Eyes golden. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea through those of India, attaining at least 16 inches in length. They 
abound in Madras about April, when the young ascend the rivers and backwaters. As food it is inferior to the 
berda. 

6. Chrysophrys haffara, Plate XXXV, fig. 1. 

Sparus haffara, Forsk. p. 33; Gmel. Linn. p. 1276; Bl. Schn. p. 279. 

Chrysophrys haffara, Cuv. and Val. vi, p. 108 ; Riipp. S". W. Fische, p. Ill, t. 29, f. 1 ; Gunther, Catal. i, 
p. 488 ; Klunz. Fische d. Roth. Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 760. 

? Chrysophrys aries, Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. Poiss. p. 68, pi. 31 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxvi, 
p. 87 ; Gunther, Catal. i, p. 489. 

B. vi, D. H, P. 15, V. 1/5, A. J T , C. 17, L. 1. 60, L. tr. 6-7/14, Case. pyl. 3. 

Length of head 4J to 4b-, of caudal 4J- to 1/5, height of body 2| in the total length. Eyes— diameter 3| 
to 4| in the length of the head, 1£ to 2 diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Dorsal profile more convex 
than that of the abdomen, a prominence over the forepart of the orbit causing the snout to appear somewhat 
vertical : posterior nostril very elongated. The maxilla reaches to below the first edge of the orbit. Preorbital 
deep, being 1 diameter of the orbit in height. Preopercle entire : opercle with a spine. Teeth — six conical and 
compressed ones in front of either jaw, sometimes only four in the lower, the remainder of the teeth with 
rounded crowns the largest being in the inner row, three rows in lower four in upper jaw. Fins — dorsal spines 
rather weak, then' breadth on both sides being nearly equal, the fourth the highest and equal to two-fifths of the 
length of the head. Pectoral longer than the head : ventral reaches the anus, its spine a little longer than the 
fourth of the dorsal : anal spines comparatively weak, the second a little the strongest and slightly the longest, 
equal to 2j to 2| in the length of the head : caudal lobed. Scales— five rows between the eye and the angle of 
the preopercle, about 5i rows between its slightly curved lateral-line and the base of the dorsal fin, a very long 
one at base of ventral fin. Colours — silvery, with golden bands along each row of scales as in C. sarba : usually 
no black mark on the shoulder, fins grey, ventral and anal almost black. 

This species is evidently closely allied to the C. sarba, and I have only obtained it in Sind ; it is however 
at once recognised by its comparatively short and weak anal spines. 

Habitat. — Red Sea and Sind to (?) China: the largest specimen I obtained in Sind measured 12 inches 
in length. 

Fourth group — Pimelepterina. 

Cutting teeth in front of the jaws and teeth on the palate. 

Genus, 7— Pimelepterus (Lacep.) Cuv. 
Kyphosus, (Lacep.) Cuv. 

Branchiostegals seven ; pseudobrancliim. Preopercle as a rule serrated. Villiform teeth in the jaws, with an 
outer row of cutting ones : fine teeth on the vomer, palatines, and tongue. A single dorsal ivith eleven spines, anal 



FAMILY, V-SPARLTLE. 143 

with three. Scales of moderate size, fine ones over the soft portions of the vertical fins. Air-vessel dwided posteriorly 
into two long processes, sometimes notched anteriorly. Pyloric appendages few or very numerous. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, those of Africa, India, Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Pimelepterus fuscus, D. -rfly^-, A. ^-, L. r. ff- Fifth to seventh dorsal spines one-third to one-half 
higher than the rays. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Pimelepterus cinerascens, D. -fi-, A. ^ L. r. ||^g . Fourth and fifth dorsal spines nearly as high as 
the rays. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Pimelepterus fuscus. 

Xyster fuscus, (Comm.) Lacep. pp. 484, 485. 

Pimelepterus fuscus, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 264 ; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 34, t. 10, f. 3 ; Giinther, Catal. i, 
p. 498 ; Klnnz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 796. 

? Pimelepterus Waigiensis, Quoy and G-aim. Voy. Frev. Zool. p. 386, pi. 62, f. 4 ; Giinther, Catal. i, 
p. 498. 

? Pimelepterus marciac, Cnv. and Val. vii, p. 267 ; Riipp. 1. c. p. 35 ; Bleeker, Waigiou, p. 3. 

Pimelopterus fuscus, Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 796. 

B. vii, D. ri-TS-Ti, p - 18. V. 1/5, A. -fy, C. 17, L. 1. 60, L. r. f|, L. tr. 10/23, Case. pyl. numerous. 

Length of head 1/5, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of length 
of head, rather above 1 diameter from the end of snout, and 1| apart. Body oblong, compressed, and with a 
swelling opposite the front of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to nearly below the front edge of the orbit. 
Preopercle with its angle serrated. Sub- and inter-opercles entire : preorbital very finely serrated. Teeth — in a 
single compressed row, their horizontal portions being rather longer than their vertical : minute teeth on the 
vomer and palate. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, increasing in length to the fifth, sixth, and 
seventh, which are 1/3 to one-half higher than the longest ray : pectoral slightly longer than the ventral, which 
equals the length of the head behind the middle of the eye : anal spines of moderate strength, the third much 
the longest and equal to half the length of the first ray : caudal emarginate. Scales — over vertical fins, 21 rows 
between the ventral fin and the lateral-line, and 11 or 12 between it and the base of the sixth dorsal spine. 
Colours — grey, darkest along the back and at the edges of the scales. A silvery band under the eyes. 

The difference between the cinerascens and fuscus is chiefly to be found in the larger number of scales, the 
greater comparative height of the soft dorsal and anal fins in the latter to what exists in the former, and the 
size of the pectoral and ventral fins, as well as that of the eye. This may however be only a sexual difference, 
and the various species merely varieties. Kliinzinger places P. marciac=Waigiensis, CV. as synonyms to 
P. tahmel=cinerascens, Forsk. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, throughout those of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond ; attaining upwards 
of 2 feet in length. 

2. Pimelepterus cinerascens, Plate XXXV, fig. 3. 

Scicena cinerascens, Forsk. No. 66, p. 53. 

Pimelepterus altipinnis, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 270 ; Bleeker, Banka, ii, p. 727. 

Pimelepterus tahmel,* Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 35, t. 10, fig. 4 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 499 ; Bleeker, 
Solor, p. 5. 

? Pimelepterus Dussumieri, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 274. 
Pimelopterus tahmel, Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 795. 
Thendala, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. H, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. -i C. 17, L. 1. 60, L. r. ff:|a L. tr. 10/21, Cfec. pyl. numerous, short. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 2/11, height of body nearly or quite 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and lj- apart. Body oblong, compressed, with a slight 
swelling opposite the front of the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit. Preopercle 
with its angle serrated, sub- and inter-opercles entire : preorbital finely serrated. Teeth — in a single compressed 
row, their horizontal portions being about one-third longer than their vertical, minute ones on vomer and palate. 
Fins — dorsal 'Opines of moderate strength, increasing in length to the fourth and fifth which are nearly as high as 
the middle rays, which are the highest in the fin, the whole being enveloped in scales : pectoral of the same length 
as the ventral and equal to the head excluding the snout : anal spines of moderate strength, the third slightlv 
the longest but only half or two-fifths of the height of the anterior portion of the soft anal, which is scaled as is 
also the soft dorsal : caudal emarginate. Air-vessel — divided posteriorly, one portion passing along either side of 
the caudal vertebrae to above the hind end of the caudal fin : anteriorly it is not divided. Scales — 19 rows between 
the ventral fin and lateral-line, and 9 between the latter and the base of the sixth dorsal spine. Colours — 
silvery-grey, with a dark band between each row of scales : a silvery band under the eye : fins nearly black. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

* Tahmel is the Arabic name of this fish according to Forskal, whilst cinerascens is the specific term he applied to the species. 



Ui ACANTHOPTERYGIL 



Family, VI— CIERHITID^, Gray. 

Percoidei, pt., et Sciwnoidei, pt., Cuv. : Theraponidce, pt., et Polynemidce, pt. Richardson. 

Branchiostegals three, five or six : pseudobranchiae. Body oblong and compressed. Mouth in front of 
snout having a lateral cleft. Eyes of moderate size : cheeks not cuirassed. Teeth in the jaws villiform or 
pointed, sometimes canines as well : vomerine and palatine teeth present or absent. A single dorsal fin com- 
posed of spines and rays of nearly equal estent: anal with three spines. Lower pectoral rays simple, and 
generally thickened : ventrals thoracic, at some distance from the insertion of the pectorals, and having one 
spine and five rays. Scales cycloid : lateral-line continuous. Air-vessel absent, or with many appendages. 
Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Tropical seas, likewise in the temperate parts of the South Pacific. 

SYNOPSIS OP GENERA. 

1. Cirrhites. Branchiostegals six. Opercle unarmed. No teeth on the palatines. Seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

2. Cirrhitichthys. Branchiostegals six. Opercle with spines. Teeth on the palatines. Seas of India to 
the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

Genus, 1 — Cirrhites, (Gomm.) Cuv. 

Amblycirrhitus, Gill ; Paracirrhites, Bleeker.* 

Branchiostegals six. Preopercle denticulated : opercle unarmed. Villiform teeth in both jaws : canines 
generally present : teeth on the vomer, none on the palatines. A single dorsal fin with ten spines : the lower five to 
seven pectoral rays are unbranched. Scales of moderate size. Air-vessel absent. Pyloric appendages few. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES.f 

1. Cirrhites Forsteri, D. -^a, P. 7+ VII, A. -§, L. 1. 50. Head and chest with black spots : a broad brown 
or black band from the head to the upper half of the tail, and a yellow one below it. East coast of Africa, seas 
of India. 

2. Cirrhites fasciatus, D. if, P. 9 + V, A. -§. Greyish, vertically banded with darker : white spots on 
head and nape. Pondicherry. 

1. Cirrhites Forsteri, Plate XXXV, fig. 4. 

Perca tceniata, Forster, Descrip. Anim. p. 224. 

Gha/mmistes Forsteri, Bl. Schn. p. 191. 

Sparus pantherinus, Lacep. iv, p. 160, t. vi, fig. 1. 

Cirrhites pantherinus, Cut. and Val. iii, p. 70 ; Less. Vov. Coq. Poiss. p. 225, pi. 22, fig. 1 ; Bleeker, 
Banda, p. 232. 

Gerranus Tanhervillce, Bennett, Ceylon, p. 27, p. 27. 

Cirrhites Forsteri, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 71, and Garrett's Fische d. Sudsee, t. xliv, A ; Gill, Proc. Am. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1862, p. 112 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 797. 

Ambly cirrhites Forsteri, Bleeker, Ned. T. Dierk. iii, p. 175. 

Paracirrhites Forsteri, Bleeker, Cirrh. 1874, p. 6. 

B. vi, D. if, P. 7+VII, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 15, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 5/13, Caec. pyl. 4, Vert. 10/16. 

Length of head 3| to 1/4, of caudal 1/7, height of body 3j to 3| in the total length. Eyes — diameter 

* Genus Oxycirrhites, Bleeker, has the premaxillary produced a considerable distance in front of the mouth. ' Genus Paracir- 
rhites has the scales on the cheeks large and regularly imbricated, and those on the body smaller ; whereas in Cirrhites the scales on the 
body are large, and those on the cheeks small. 

j- I have not included C. punctaius, C. and V. iii, p. 70, which Dr. Giinther (in Catal. ii, p. 72) states comes from the "Indian 
Ocean ?" as in the ' Histoire Naturelle des Poissons,' its locality is not given. In the British Museum Catalogue the existence of one 
specimen is thus recorded, " a, Adult : stuffed. Sine patria." On the stand this is now marked " W. Indies." The specimen is as 
follows. 

D. if, P. 7+VII, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 16, L. r. 42, L. tr. 5/10. 

Length of head 3§, of caudal 2/11, height of body 3 J of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/9 of length of head, 1 J diameters 
from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. Vertical limb of preopercle finely serrated. Interorbital space deeply convex. A short 
tentacle at the anterior nostril. Fins — fifth dorsal spine the longest, equalling the length of the rays, or 2J the height of the body : 
second anal spine much the longest, equalling the highest in the dorsal tin. 



FAMILY, VI— CIRRHITIL\E. 145 

2/9 to 2/11 of length of head, 1| diameters'from end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below the 
middle of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle finely serrated, angle oblique, its lower limb also the sub- and 
inter-opercles and the preorbital entire : a blunt opercular point. Anterior nostril rather valvular and fringed. 
Teeth — strong canines on either side of symphysis of the upper jaw, two large and some small lateral conical 
canine-like ones in the mandible : the villiform teeth on the vomer in a triangular patch, with its base behind. 
Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, increasing in length to the third and fourth which equal 2j in the height of 
the body, they slightly decrease in length to the last but one, the twelfth being rather longer than the eleventh ; 
interspinous membrane with a fine prolongation from behind each spine, the highest rays of the dorsal fin as 
long as those of the anal : lower free rays of pectoral fin longer than the branched ones and equal to two-thirds 
of the length of the head : ventral reaches the vent : second anal spine the strongest, and as long as the third 
which is nearly one-third the height of the body : caudal cut square or slightly emarginate. Scales — cycloid, 
some between the rays of the vertical fins : the sub- and inter-opercles, and outer edge of the preopercle are 
covered with fine scales, as is also the preorbital and suborbital ring of bones, whilst on the cheeks and opercles 
there are many small ones amongst the rows of large ones, which about equal in size those on the body. 
Colours — reddish, head, chest and base of pectoral fin with black spots : a broad dark band along the middle of 
the body to the upper half of the caudal fin, becoming brown with black blotches in its last third. A wide 
yellow band from above the pectoral to the lower half of the caudal fin. Upper edge of the last half of the 
spinous dorsal black, continued as a black band along the base of the soft dorsal : front edge of anal and outer 
edge of soft caudal with narrow black margins. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The 
specimen figured is 5| inches long, and was captured at the Andaman islands. Bennett observes, " the Tik 
Jcossah of the Cingalese inhabits rocky situations, seldom exceeds eighteen inches in length, and is a firm-fleshed 
and wholesome fish." 

2. Cirrhites fasciatus. 

Cuv. and Val. hi, p. 76, pi. 47; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 73 (not Bennett). 

B. vi, D. ii, P. 9+V, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 15. 

Length of head 3/11, of caudal 1/7, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, 1 diameter from end of snout. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Teeth — no 
canines. Fins — dorsal interspinous membrane very deeply emarginate, fourth dorsal spine the highest and 
equal to about 1/3 the height of the body, from it they decrease to the last but one, which is not so high as the 
last : soft portion of the fin as high as the spinous : second anal spine the longest, equalling rather more than 
the highest of the dorsal fin. Colours — greyish, becoming white below, it is vertically banded with darker : 
some white spots on the snout and nape. 

Habitat. — Pondicherry. 

Genus, 2 — Cieehitichthts, Bleeker. 

Cirrhitopsis, Gill. 

Branchiostegals six. Preopercle denticulated : opercle spinate. Villiform teeth and canines in the javjs : 
teeth also in the vomer and palatines. A single dorsal fin with ten spines : anal with three : five to seven of the lower 
pectoral rays unbranched. Scales of moderate size. Air-vessel absent. Pyloric appendages few. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Cirrhitichthys aureus, D. y^-j, P. 7+ VI- VII, A. T ? T , L. 1. 43, L. tr. 4/12. First dorsal ray prolonged. 
Rosy, with badly defined blotches : some red spots on the caudal. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

2. Cirrhitichthys marmoratus, D. -fj, P. 7+ VII, A. f , L. 1. 40, L. tr. 4/10. No elongated dorsal ray. - 
Body and vertical fins with brown spots. Red Sea to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Cirrhitichthys aureus, Plate XXXV, fig. 5. 

Cirrhites aureus, Temm. and Schleg. Faun. Japon. Poiss. p. 15, t. vii, f. 2. 
Cirrhitichthys aureus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 75. 
Cirrhitichthys Bleelceri, Day, Sea Fishery Report, No. 207, p. exci. 
Shun-gun, Tarn. 

B. vi, D. t^l p. 7+VI-VII, V. 1/5, A. «? T , C. 15, L. 1. 43, L. tr. 4/12. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 2/11, height of body 3/10 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, 1 j diameters from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. Interorbital space concave. The maxilla 
reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Preopercle denticulated along its vertical border, as is also the 
shoulder scale : sub- and inter-opercles entire : preorbital nearly as deep as long, entire. A weak opercular 
spine. Teeth — villiform, with an outer rather enlarged row in the upper jaw, and two or more rather curved 
and conical lateral ones in the mandible : villiform bands on the vomer and palate. Fins — dorsal spines rather 
strong, increasing in length to the fifth and sixth, which equal two-fifths of the height of the body : first ray 
elongated, otherwise the soft portion only as high as the spinous : pectoral a little longer than the head, the two 

u 



146 



ACANTHOPTERYGII. 



upper free rays the longest and reaching to above the anal spines, the free rays may be six or seven in number : 
ventral not reaching the vent : second anal spine strongest and much the longest, 1/4 higher than the longest in 
the dorsal fin : caudal slightly emarginate. Scales — large on the opercles, cheeks with a few small ones inter- 
spersed : none on the preorbital or suborbital ring. Colours — rosy, with lightish longitudinal lines and a large 
ill-defined blotch below the soft dorsal extending half way down the side, in some specimens two more descend 
from the spinous dorsal : a small dark blotch behind the upper edge of the preopercle. Dorsal and caudal fins 
more or less banded, soft dorsal darker than the spinous portion, and having a light outer edge : caudal with 
red spots. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and Japan. It is rather common at Madras, attaining 
to about 4 inches in length. 

This is the species once obtained by Jerdon (M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 132) at Madras, and which he 
termed Cirrhites fasciatus, C.V. 

2. Cirrhitichthys marmoratus, 

Labrus marmoratus, Lacep. iii, p. 492, pi. v, fig. 3. 

Cirrhites maculatus, Lacep. v, p. 3 ; Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 69. 

Cirrhites maculosus, Bennett, Zool. Journ. 1829, p. 38. 

Cirrhitichthys maculatus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 74. 

B. vi, D. i£ P. 7+VII, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 15, L. 1. 40, L. tr. 4/10, Vert. 10/16. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of length 
of head, \\ diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to below the middle 
of the orbit. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated : sub- and inter-opercles entire. A broad fringed valve to 
the posterior nostril. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, vomer, and anterior portion of the palatines. Fins — dorsal 
spines increase in length to the fifth and sixth, which equal two-fifths the height of the body and are as long as 
the rays, the last spine is a little higher than the one preceding it, no prolonged dorsal ray : pectoral reaches 
as far as the ventral and equals the length of the head excluding the snout : the ventral extends to the anus : 
second anal spine strongest, longest, and equalling the highest in the dorsal fin. Colours — body and vertical 
fins with brown spots, and a row of dark spots along the base of the dorsal. 

Habitat. — Bed Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 




KATIVE OFFICIAL OF CUDDALORE AND FISHERMEN (186S). 



FAMILY, VII— SCOBP^ENID^E. 147 



Family, VII— SCOKP^ENID^E, Swainson. 

Selerogenidce, pt. Owen. 

Branchiostegals five to seven : pseudobranchise. Body oblong, compressed or subcylindrical. Eyes 
lateral. Cleft of mouth lateral. Some of the bones of the bead armed : suborbital ring articulated with the 
preopercle. Teeth in villiform bands. A single dorsal fin in two distinct portions : the anal usually similar 
to the soft dorsal : ventrals thoracic. Body scaled or scaieless. Air-vessel generally present. Pyloric 
appendages when present, few or in moderate numbers. 

Geographical distribution. — Some of these fishes are usually found in niost seas. 

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA. 

1. Sebastes. Interorbital space convex, scaled. No occipital groove but usually a few spines on top of 
head : no skinny appendages. Teeth in jaws, vomer and palatines. A single dorsal fin : no free rays at base 
of pectoral : articulated fin-rays as a rule branched. Scales present. 

2. Sebasticlvtliys. Differs from Sebastes in having no teeth on the palatines. 

3. Scorjpcena. Interorbital space concave, generally scaieless, with a groove on occiput laterally bounded 
by spines. Teeth on jaws, vomer and palatines. A single dorsal fin deeply notched (D. 11 | 9--V0) : n0 free rays 
at base of pectoral : articulated fin-rays as a rule branched. Scales present. Fleshy appendages of varying 
size on head and body. 

4. Scorpcenopsis. Differs from Scorpcena in having no teeth on the palatines. 

5. Pterois. Interorbital space more or less concave : bones of the head armed : no occipital groove. 
Villiform teeth in jaws and vomer, none on the palatines. A single, deeply- notched dorsal fin (D. 11-12 | to-tt) : 
no free rays at base of pectoral : articulated fin-rays as a rule branched. Scales present. Fleshy appendages 
on head. 

6. Apistus. Sharp preorbital and preopercular spines : bones of the head armed. Barbels present. 
Teeth in jaws, vomer and palate. A single dorsal fin (D. 1 fl-g- 5 ) : three anal spines: a free ray at base of 
pectoral which is elongated : articulated fin-rays as a rule branched. Scales present. 

7. Centropogon. Sharp preorbital and preopercular spines : bones of the head armed. Teeth in jaws, 
vomer and palate. A single dorsal fin (D. 1 $C-J-' B ) : three anal spines : no free ray at base of pectoral : articulated 
fin-rays as a rule branched. Scales present. 

8. Gymnapistus. Sharp preorbital and preopercular spines : bones of the head armed. Teeth in jaws, 
vomer and palate. Two dorsal fins, the first with three spines : anal with three spines : no free ray at the base 
of pectoral : articulated fin-rays as a rule branched. Scales rudimentary or absent. 

9. Ambly apistus. Head and body strongly compressed : no groove across occiput. Sharp preorbital 
and preopercular spines : bones of the head armed. Teeth in jaws, vomer and palate. A single dorsal fin 
(D. V-xo 7 ) : three anal spines: no free rays at base of pectoral: articulated fin-rays branched. Scales 
rudimentary or absent. 

10. Mieropus. Preorbital and preopercle with spines, also the sub- and inter-opercles : other bones of 
the head armed. No groove across occiput. Villiform teeth in the jaws only. A single or two dorsal fins 
with less spines than rays : two weak anal spines : no free rays at base of pectoral : ventral almost rudimentary. 
Articulated fin-rays branched. Scaieless. 

11. Minous. Head large, a groove across occiput. Sharp preorbital and preopercular spines : bones of 
the head armed. Teeth in jaws and vomer, none on the palatines. A single dorsal fin (D. f^- 1 -^) : anal spines, 
if present, badly developed : pectoral with a free ray at its base. Articulated fin-rays unbranched. Scaieless. 

12. Gocotropus. Head and body strongly compressed : no groove on occiput. Blunt preorbital and 
preopercular spines : bones of head armed. Teeth in jaws and vomer, none on palatines. A single dorsal fin 
(D. yJrV 5 .) : two weak anal spines : pectoral without free rays at its base. Articulated fin-rays unbranched. 
Scaieless. 

13. Pelor. Head irregularly shaped, it and body with many skinny appendages : a groove across occiput. 
Bones of the head armed. Villiform teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines. Articulated fin-rays generally 
branched. Scaieless. 

14. Choridactyhis. Head and body compressed : a groove on occiput. Sharp preorbital and preopercular 
spines : bones of the head armed. Teeth in the jaws, none on vomer or palate. A single dorsal fin (D. y) : 
two anal spines : three free rays at base of pectoral. Articulated fin-rays branched. Scaieless. 

15. Synancidium. Head monstrous and irregularly shaped. Bones of the head with blunt spines. 
Teeth in jaws and vomer but not on the palate. A single dorsal fin (D. •£_%•) : three anal spines : no free 
Tays at base of pectoral. Articulated fin.rays branched. Scaieless. 

16. Synanceia. Head monstrous, irregularly shaped. Bones of the head spineless. Teeth in jaws, 
none on vomer or palate. A single dorsal fin (D. ^I-j- 8 ) : three anal spines : no free rays at base of 
pectoral. Articulated fin-rays branched. Scaieless. 

u 2 



148 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

17. Pseudosynanceia.. Eyes directed upwards. Villiform teetli in jaws and vomer. Dorsal spines 
strong (D. V°) : three anal spines : no free ray at base of pectoral. Articulated fin-rays unbranched. Scaleless. 

18. PolycavXis. Body anteriorly sub-cylindrical, posteriorly compressed. Eyes directed somewhat 
upwards. Preopercle armed. Teeth villiform in the jaws, none on vomer or palate. A single dorsal fin 
(D. fl-rf) : no anal spines (A. 11-15) : no free rays at base of the pectoral fin. Articulated fin-rays unbranched. 
Scaleless. 

M. Sauvage in his paper on Triglidce, Cuv. and Val. (Sep. 1873) divides them as follows : 1, ScoRPiENiM: ; 
2, Platycephalidj: ; 3, Triglidj: ; and subdivides the first family thus : 

( a. Body covered with ordinary scales as Sebastes, Scorpxna, Pterois, and group of Apistus 
„ t \ — SCOEPJINI. 

lb. Body scaleless or with spinate scales, as Synancidium, Synanceia, Minous, Pelor, and 
(_ group of Cottes, &c. — Cottini. 
Dr. Giinther, "Pishes of Zanzibar," (p. xiv, errata) observes, "before Synanceia insert Family Cottidje," 
&c. I must refer to M. Sauvage's paper for my reasons for placing all the foregoing Genera in the present 
Family. 

Genus, 1 — Sebastes, Cuv. and Val. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchiod. Head and body somewhat compressed. No groove on the occiput, 
usually a few small spines ; preopercle armed. Villiform teeth on the jaws, vomer and palatines. Fins not elongated : 
a single dorsal, having the spinous portion more or less separated from the soft by a notch, spines twelve to fourteen : 
anal not elongated, -with three spines: no free rays to the pectoral fin. Articulated fin-rays branched. Scales present 
and of moderate or small size, extending as far forwards as the orbit or even beyond : no skinny appendages. Air- 
vessel, as a rule, present. Pyloric appendages few or in moderate numbers. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Sebastes Stoliczlcce, D. -j-J, A. ■§, L. 1. 35. No spines on top of head. Reddish, marbled with brown : 
fins spotted or blotched. Nicobars. 

1. Sebastes Stoliczkae, Plate XXXVI, fig. 1. 
B. vii, D. ft, P. 14, V. 1/5, A. f, 0. 16, L. 1. 35, L. r. £§, L. tr. 5/14. 

Length of head 3/10, of caudal 2/13, height of body 3/11 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3| in 
length of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Height of head equals its length without 
the snout. Interorbital space convex. The maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. Vertical limb 
of preopercle, serrated, and having three strong anteriorly- directed spines along its horizontal border : sub- and 
inter-opercles entire. No spines on the head : no groove below the eyes : a moderately strong opercular spine. 
A nasal tentacle nearly half the diameter of the orbit in length. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. 
Fins — dorsal spines strong, increasing in length to the fourth which is more than half (If) the height of the 
body, they gradually decrease to the last which equals three-fourths of the diameter of the orbit in length, the 
rays are almost of the same height as the spines. Pectoral as long as the head behind the front third of the eye 
and longer than the ventral which just reaches the vent : second anal spine much the strongest and longest, 
equalling the length of the pectoral fin : caudal rounded. Scales — finely ctenoid, those on the head and to below 
the third dorsal spine much smaller than those on the body : upper surface of head scaled as far as the snout, 
also along the suborbital ring of bones and on the cheeks and opercles : 4| rows between lateral-line and base 
of sixth dorsal spine : 10 between the ventral and the lateral-line. Colours — reddish, marbled with brown : 
some dark bands radiate from the eye : all the fins spotted, blotched and banded with brown or black. 

Habitat. — Nicobars, from whence the specimen figured (life-size) was brought by the late Dr. Stoliczka. 

Genus, 2 — Sebastichthts, Gill. 
Sebastodes, Ayres. 

Differs from Sebastes in having no palatine teeth. , 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Sebastichthys strongia, D. 11-12 | -§-, A. f , L. 1. 45. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Sebastichthys strongia. 
Scorpeena strongia;, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 323 ; Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astrol. Poissons, p. 688, pi. xi, f. 2 ; 
Less. Voy. Duperr. Zool. Poiss. p. 213 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 803. 
Scorpoena cyanostigma, Bleeker, Buru, p. 400. 
Sebastes strongensis, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 105. 

B. vi, D. 11-12 | i P. 19, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 15, L. I. 45, L. tr. 5/16. 

Length of head 1/3, of pectoral 1/4, of caudal 2/11, height of body nearly 1/3 of the total length. Wyes— 
diameter a little more than 1/3 of length of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, 1/2 a diameter apart. 
Supraorbital ridge spined : two spinate lines given off posteriorly from the orbit, one towards the occiput, the 
other towards the lateral-line. A sharp spine on nostril : anterior edge of preorbital with obtuse spines. Ridge 



FAMILY, VII— SCORP^NID^E. 149 

below the orbit to the angle of the preopercle also spiny, and two more strong spines on the lower margin of 
the preopercle. Three strong spines on preorbital and. a very strong one at shoulder. Two tentacles above the 
orbit and several more about the head. The maxilla reaches to under the posterior third of the orbit. Teeth — 
villi form in both jaws, and also on the vomer. Fins — the lower eight rays of the pectoral with free extremities. 
Dorsal spines strong, increasing in length to the ninth. Second dorsal rather lower than the first. Second anal 
spine longest and strongest : caudal rounded. Scales — cover the body, the occiput, cheeks and opercles, also 
the bases of the soft rays of the fins. Lateral-line — in single tubes, with here and there tentacles. Colours — 
brownish, banded with darker, the first passing downwards through the eye : a large brown spot on opercle : fins 
irregularly banded in dotted lines. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Andamans, Malay Archipelago. 

Genus, 3 — ScorPjENA, Artedi. 

Scorpcenopsis, Heck. ; Neosebastes, Guichenot ; Pseudomonopterus, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals seven : psetulobranchice. Head large, with a scaleless groove on the occiput, armed with spines 
and usually with skinny flaps. Villiform teeth on the jaws, vomer, and palatines. A single dorsal fin deeply notched, 
dividing the two portions, having twelve spi/iies, and three in the anal, which latter fin is not elongated : pectoral large, 
without free rays. Air-vessel absent. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Tropical seas, also in the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of America. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Scorpmna haplodactylus, D. 11 | \, A. f , L. r. 43, L. tr. 6/22. An orbital tentacle. Brownish-black, 
banded and marbled. Andamans and Malay Archipelago. 

2. Scorpoena armata, D. 11 | |-, A. f, L. 1. 35, L. tr. 9/19. No orbital tentacle. Roseate brown, with 
darker blotches. East Indies. 

1. Scorpsena haplodactylus, Plate XXXVI, fig. 2. 

Scorpcena aplodactylus, Bleeker, Ceram. ii, p. 698. 

Scorpaina haplodactylus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 117; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 116. 

B. vii, D. 11 | i P. 5+XII, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 15, L. 1. 26, L. r. f|, L. tr. 6/22. 

Length of head 1/3, of pectoral 1/4, of caudal 1/7, height of body 3/10 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/4 of length of head, 1§ diameters from the end of snout, and 1/2 a diameter apart. Width of 
head equals three-fourths of its length. The maxilla reaches to below the centre of the orbit. Interorbital 
space deeply concave, no groove below the eyes. Two spines on the posterior-superior edge of the orbit, the 
hind one of which is furnished with a tentacle. Three strong spines on the occipital and the same number on the 
temporal ridge, and one intermediate small spine. A strong turbinal spine : a suborbital spinate ridge : three 
strong spines on the vertical limb of the preopercle and two blunt ones along its horizontal border : two strong 
opercular spines. Several fleshy tentacles about the head. A strong spine above the base of the pectoral fin on the 
shoulder girdle. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, in a narrow V-shaped band on the vomer, and a few on the anterior 
end of the palatines. Fins — dorsal spines increase in length to the fourth, which equals half the height of the body, 
from it they decrease in length to the eleventh, between which and the next exists a deep notch, the twelfth spine 
twice as high as the eleventh : soft dorsal slightly higher than the spinous. Pectoral equals the length of the 
head behind the middle of the eyes, its twelve lower rays unbranched : second anal spine the strongest and 
longest, equalling half the height of the body : caudal rounded. Scales — on the cheeks, upper and hind edge of 
the opercles, and a few fleshy tentacles along the lateral-line. Colours — brownish-black, banded and marbled 
with darker : anal having a broad band along its basal half : one vertical band at the base of the caudal, another 
along its centre, and a dark margin edged with white : dorsal with brown marks. 

Habitat. — Andamans (where the specimen figured life-size was procured) to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

2. Scorpaena armata. 

Sauvage, Nouv. Arch, du Museum, p. 49, t. ix, pi. 6, fig. 1. 

B. vii, D. 11 | i P. 6+XII, V. 1/5, A. |, C. 13, L. 1. 35, L. tr. 9/19. 

Length of head 4/11, of caudal 2/11, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of 
length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to nearly 
below the hind edge of the orbit. Interorbital space very concave, with a quadrangular fossa, along which are 
two low ridges that terminate posteriorly in two spines : a deep groove below the eyes. Two or three spines 
along the upper margin of the orbit : a turbinal spine : two strong ones on the preorbital from which a ridge 
proceeds to a spine in the middle of the vertical border of the preopercle, below which are three smaller ones. 
Opercle with two spines. Occipital and temporal ridges spinate. Teeth — villiform in jaws, in a V-shaped band 
on the vomer, and a large band on the palatines. Fins — fifth dorsal spine rather above half the height of 
the body : pectorals and ventrals of the same length passing to slightly beyond the anus : third anal spine the 
longest, exceeding the highest in the dorsal fin : caudal slightly rounded. Scales — over body and head, none 
between the eyes. Colours — roseate brown, with darker blotches and a few yellowish-white spots : head spotted 
with black. Fins yellowish-brown, spotted with darker, sometimes forming lines. 



150 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Habitat. — Two specimens, obtained in the East Indies, were presented to the Paris Museum by M. Bonare. 

Genus, 4 — Scoep^nopsis, Heckel. 
Scorpcenichthys and Parascorpcena, Bleeker. 
Differs from Scorpcena in having no palatine teeth. 
Geographical distribution. — Tropical seas, also •with those of the last genus. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Scorpcenopsis Guamensis, D. 12 | ■§-, P. 9+X, A. f , L. r. 43. No orbital tentacle. Scales over cheeks 
and opercles. Brown, marbled with darker. East Indies to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Scorpcenopsis cirrhosa, D. 11 | -J^-, P. 6-f-XII, A. f , L. r. 56. Orbital tentacle, if present, small. Head 
scaleless. Pinkish brown marbled with darker. 

3. Scorpcenopsis oxycephala, D. 11 | ^, P. 6+XII, A. f, L. r. 46. Orbital tentacle well developed. Scales 
on the upper portions of opercle and preopercle. Reddish brown, spotted and blotched with darker. Nicobars 
to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

4. Scorpcenopsis rosea, D. 11 | Jg-, P. 6+XII, A. f , L. r. 43. An orbital tentacle. Scales on upper portion 
of opercles. Reddish brown, marbled. Seas of India. 

5. Scorpcenopsis venosa, D. 11 | £, P. 6+XII, A. f , L. 1. 38. Apparently no orbital tentacle. Head scaleless. 
Reddish brown blotched with darker. Seas of India. 

1. ScorpEenopsis Guamensis. 

Scorpcena Guamensis, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Frey. Zool. p. 326. 

? Scorpcena polylepis, Bleeker, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind. 1851, ii, p. 173. 

Sebastes polylepis, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 106.* 

B. vii, D. 12 | i P. 9+X, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 13, L. r. 43. 

Length of head 1/3, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Interorbital space concave. No groove 
beneath the eyes. Supraorbital edge spinate. No orbital tentacle. The maxilla reaches to below the middle 
of the eye. Spines on head acute. Teeth — villiform in jaws and on the vomer. Fins— highest dorsal spines 
equal half of the height of the body. Scales — present on cheeks and opercles. Colours — brown marbled with 
darker. 

Habitat. — Malay Archipelago, and said to have been brought from the East Indies. 

2. Scorpsenopsis cirrhosa.t 

Perca cirrhosa, Thunb. Nya Handl. Stockh. xiv, 1793, p. 199, pi. 7, fig. 2. 

Scorpcena cirrhosa, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 318 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 120 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 
1870, p. 801. 

Scorpcena neglecta, Temm. and Schleg. p. 42, pi. 17, fig. 2, 3; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxvi, p. 79. 

Scorpcena barbata, Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 105, t. 27, fig. 1. 

B. vii, D. 11 1 T V, P. 6+XII, V. 1/5, A. 1, C. 13, L. r. 56. 

Length of head 1/3, of caudal 1/6, height of body 3/10 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/5 of length 
of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. Interorbital space deeply concave, with 
two low ridges along its whole extent which do not end in spines : a deep groove below the anterior edge of 
the orbit : a shallow groove over occiput : occipital and temporal ridges strongly spinate. Two strong spines 
along the upper edge of the orbit. Sometimes an orbital tentacle of small size, which is however mostly absent. 
A spinate ridge from the preorbital across the cheeks, preopercle spinate : opercle with two spines. Tentacles — 
besides the orbital one, there are many more about the head and a very large one above the angle of the mouth : 
there are also some on the body. Teeth — in jaws and vomer, none on the palate. Ems — dorsal spines increase 
hi length to the fourth, which is half as high as the body, and usually shorter than the second of the anal, 
which equals half the length of the head : ventral reaches the anus : caudal cut nearly square. Scales — none 
on the head. Colours — Pinkish brown marbled with darker : fins spotted and blotched. 

Habitat. — West coast of Africa, seas of India to Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

3. Scorpsenopsis oxycephala, Plate XXXVI, fig. 3. 

Scorpcena oxycephalus, Bleeker, Sclerop. p. 20, and Verh. Bat. Gen. xxii, Sclerop. p. 7 ; Kner, Novara 
Fische, p. 116. 

Scorpcena cirrhosa, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 120 (in part). 

Scorpcenopsis oxycephala, Sauvage, Nov. Arch. Mus. t. ix, p. 52, pi. 6, fig. 3 and 3a. 

B. vii, D. 11 | J^ P. 6+XII, V. 1/5, A. 1, C. 13, L. r. |f, L. tr. 7/22. 

* Specimens marked Sebastes polylepis, B. M. Catal ii, p. 107, belong to this species, under which des ; gnation they are now 
placed. 

t The specimen of Scorpcena polyprion, B. M. Catal. ii, p. 115, recorded as " d. Half grown, Ceylon, presented by Captain 
Gascoigne," appears to belong to this species. 



FAMILY, VII— SCOBP^ENIM!. 151 

Length of head 4/13, of caudal 2/11, height of body 4/17 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 1/5 of 
length of head, 1| diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Interorbital space deeply concave, -with two low 
ridges along its whole extent, and which do not end in spines, between them anteriorly is a third : a deep 
groove below the front third of the orbit continued as a shallow one below the eye : a groove across the occiput 
having one spine anterior to it and two more belonging to the occipital ridge posterior to it. Three strong 
Bpines along the upper edge of the orbit with a tentacle between the last two. A strong turbinal spine. A 
tentacle to the front nostril. Preorbital with ridges in a star-shape, about seven in number, and ending in 
spines : a spinate zidge across the cheeks to a strong spine in the centre of the vertical border of the preopercle, 
which has two more below it and one blunt one along its lower limb : opercle with two spines. Temporal ridge 
■ spined and one spine between it and the occipital ridge. A spine on the shoulder girdle just above the base of 
the pectoral fin. Tentacles — besides those enumerated, there exists a large one above the angle of the month, 
some small ones along the margin of the preopercle, a few also on the lateral-line and on some of the body scales. 
Teeth — villiform in jaws and vomer. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, the third very slightly longer than the 
fourth, and equal to two-fifths of the height of the body and about as long as the rays : pectoral as long as the 
head without the snout and reaching as far as the ventral : second anal spine much the strongest and equal to 
the length of the head behind the last third of the eye : caudal cut square. Scales — present on the upper 
portions of the opercle and preopercle, eight rows between sixth dorsal spine and lateral-line. Colours — reddish, 
clouded with brown, and having a few blackish spots : a dark band commences in the upper half of the 
interspinous membrane between the second and third dorsal spines, and passing along the upper third of the 
fin, descends between the sixth and seventh on to the back : many blotches on the fins : a dark band descends 
over the last half of the caudal : three narrow dark horizontal bands go across the lower half of the anal : 
undivided pectoral rays spotted ; ventral with brown spots. 

In a young specimen (2| inches long) captured along with the one described above, the eye is compara- 
tively much larger, the cheeks and opercles are scaled, there are two supraorbital tentacles and a short one on 
the upper angle of the eye, whilst the body is comparatively higher. 

Habitat. — Xicobars to the Malay Archipelago and beyond: the specimen figured (over 6 inches in length) 
was obtained at the Nicobars. 

4. Scorpsenopsis rosea, Plate XXXVI, fig. 4. 
Scorpaina rosea, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 703. 
B. vii, D. 11 | gLy, P. 6+XII, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 15, L. 1. 43, L. tr. 7/18. 

Length of head 1/5, of pectoral 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — 
somewhat elevated, with a deep groove below, and anterior and posterior depressions : interorbital space 
deeply concave, with an elevated smooth ridge on either side : diameter of eyes 1/4 of length of head, If from 
end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Snout rather elevated, a transverse depression between it and the 
orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the centre of the orbit : lower jaw the longer. A sharp turbinal spine ; 
a broad fleshy fringed tentacle to the anterior nostril. Above the angle of the preopercle is a ridge with five more 
backwardly directed spines. Along the angle and lower edge of the preopercle are three denticulations, the 
superior strong and sharp, the others blunted, also three fleshy tentacles along its border and one on its surface. 
Interopercle with a blunt spine and tentacle. Opercle with a central bony ridge ending in two spines. Temporal 
ridge containing three spines, and occipital one likewise spiny ; whilst there is one spine between it and the ridge 
below it. Orbit with a strong spine at its posterior- superior — and another at its superior — edge, the last with a 
long wide tentacle at its base. Several fleshy tentacles exist on the snout, a large one at the angle of the 
month, and two on the end of the upper jaw : also three rather large ones on the lower jaw. Teeth — villiform, a 
V-shaped patch on the vomer, none on the palatines. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, the third the longest, 
interspinous membrane rather deeply cleft and extended beyond each spine. Pectoral with its lowest twelve 
rays unbranched and minute fleshy appendages attached to them. Second and third anal spines of equal length, 
the former much the stronger. Caudal cut nearly square. Scales — present, some on the upper part of the 
opercle, head otherwise scaleless. Lateral-line in 23 or 24 tubes. Colours — rosy, marbled with greyish : one 
or two irregular vertical grey bands on the caudal fin : dorsal, anal, and ventral also banded : pectoral with 
numerous dark spots. 

S. Mauritiana, C. V. appears very similar, it has 43 rows of scales above the lateral-line and 40 below it. 
Six branched pectoral rays but only 10 simple ones. 

Habitat. — Madras. 

5. Scorpaanopsis venosa. 

Scorpcena mooroo-bontoo, Russell, Pish. Vizag. i, p. 44, pi. 56. 
Scorpcena venosa, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 317 ; Swainson, Fish, ii, p. 266. 

B. vii, D. 11 | i, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. f , C. 16, L. 1. 38. 

Length of head 1 /3 of the total length. Eyes — rather above one diameter from the end of snout and also 
one apart. The maxilla reaches to below the last third of the eye. Interorbital space very concave with two 
longitudinal ridges that end posteriorly in spines : a groove before the eyes : a quadrangular space on the vertex 
bordered by spines : turbinal and preorbital spines, a spiny ridge across the cheeks : vertical limb of preopercle 



152 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

spinate : occipital and temporal ridges spinate. Tentacles — none apparent over the orbit (?) : very distinct on 
lower jaw and different parts of the head. Valenciennes observes that its most remarkable character is that all 
the skin of the head between the spines is as if it were veined with small scooped out lines which join on all 
sides, and thus form a network which has the appearance of scales. Teeth — none on the palate. Fins — fourth 
dorsal spine the longest and equal in length to the second of the anal which is 2/5 of the length of the head. 
Scales — none on head, those on body oblong, ctenoid with a single row of minute spines along its marginal 
border. Colours — " head and body dark, with a mixture of dull red : the throat and belly are of a pink colour. 
The fins irregularly streaked black and red : the ventral at its root is pink like the belly." — (Russell.) 

M. Sauvage, who has kindly compared Valenciennes' type specimen for me with a drawing I made 
of S- rosea, has furnished me with the additional information detailed above. He likewise observes " S. venosa 
differs from 8. rosea (according to your figure) by the head being more elongated : the body also more elongated 
and the dorsal spines not being so high." 

Habitat — Coromandel coast of India. 

Genus, 5 — Pteeois, Guv. 

Macrochyrus, Pteroleptus, Pteropterus and Brachyrus, Swainson. 

Branchiostegals seven: pseudobranchice. Head rather large, armed with spines and having shinny flaps : no 
occipital groove. Villiform teeth in jaws and on vomer, none on the palate. A single deeply notched dorsal fin, 
hawing from twelve to thirteen spines : anal with tioo or three spines and few rays : rays, and sometimes spines, 
elongated: no pectoral appendages. Air-vessel large. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, coasts of Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and Polynesia. 

It does not appear that any very great value can be placed on the comparative length of the dorsal spines, 
or pectoral rays in this Genus of Fishes, as they are subject to considerable modifications, some being dependant 
upon age, and others seem to be subject to variation in specimens of the same species. It has yet to be 
ascertained whether the orbital tentacle is equally developed in both sexes. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Pterois Pussellii, D. 12 | -rrli-2> ^. r. ■£-§-. A short supraorbital tentacle. Interorbital space and nape 
scaled. Caudal unspotted. No white spot in axilla. Pectoral grey, with its two upper rays spotted. Seas of 
India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Pterois miles, D. 12 | to-tt> 1". r. 92. A short supraorbital tentacle. Interorbital space and nape scaled. 
Dorsal, caudal, and anal spotted. A white spot in the axilla. Seas of India. 

3. Pterois zebra, D. 12 | -J^, L. r. f£. A long supraorbital tentacle. Interorbital space scaleless. Dorsal, 
caudal, pectoral and anal spotted. A white spot in the axilla. 

4. Pterois volitans, D. 12 | -j-o-tt, L. r. 90. A long supraorbital tentacle. Interorbital space and nape 
scaleless, or with rudimentary scales. Dorsal, caudal and anal spotted. A white spot in the axilla. Red Sea, 
East coast of Africa, seas of India to Australia. 

5. Pterois cincta, D. 11 | yy, L. r. 45. A long supraorbital tentacle. Nape scaled. Soft dorsal, caudal 
and anal spotted. No white spot in axilla. Red Sea, seas of India and beyond.. 

1. Pterois Russellii, Plate XXXVI, fig. 5. 

Gasterosteus volitans, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 25, pi. 133 (hodipungi), (not G. volitans, Linn.) 

Pterois Bmssellii, (Van Hass.) Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 128. 

Pteroleptus longicauda, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 264. 

Pterois miles, Cantor, Catal. p. 42 (not Bennett). 

Pterois hodipungi, (Russell) Sleeker, Banka, p. 450; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 124. 

Pseitdom-onopterus hodipungi, Bleeker, Fish. Madagascar, p. 87. 

B. vii, D. 12 I y&t, P. 13, V. 1/5, A. T ? ¥ , C. 14, L. r. fi, L. tr. 11/33. 

Length of head 1/4, of caudal 2/7, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes— diameter 2/9 to 1/5 of 
the length of head, If diameters from the end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to 
below the middle of the orbit. Preorbital with a spinate ridge traversing its centre, and continued over the 
cheek to the upper preopercular spine, below which latter there exist two or three more on its vertical, and two 
along its horizontal edge. A spine at the posterior-superior angle of the orbit and a short supraorbital tentacle. 
Interorbital space deeply concave, it and the occiput scaled. Occipital and temporal ridges spiny ; a small 
turbinal spine. A rather long fleshy tentacle at the angle of the preorbital, one at the anterior nostril, and 
several more about the head. Teeth — villiform in jaws and vomer. Fins — dorsal spines increase in length to 
the fifth which equals the height of the body and is longer than the rays : the pectoral, with its membrane, 
especially between its four upper rays, deeply cleft, it reaches a little beyond the base of the caudal, or even further .- 
ventral extends to the anal rays : third anal spine the longest, equalling the length of the snout : caudal pointed. 
Scales — eleven rows between lateral-line and 6th dorsal spine. Colours — reddish, with from eleven to twelve 
broad dark vertical bands, with intermediate narrow ones. A black spot on the shoulder behind the opercle, no 



FAMILY, VII— SCORPyEKTO^. 153 

white spot in the axilla. Pectoral grey, its upper two rays with black spots, its lowest five pinkish, in the adult 
all are spotted : ventrals grey, with obscurely marked white spots : dorsal spines grey, or white annulated with 
grey, soft dorsal, caudal, and anal flesh-coloured without spots, but having in adults a narrow black edge. 

Bennett observes that Russell's fish, Gasterosteus volitans, is identical with P. volitans in Sir S. Raffles' 
life, but not with P. volitans, Linn. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, Mauritius to the Malay Archipelago. Very common in Madras, the specimen 
figured is 7 inches long, the largest obtained 11| inches. Jerdon (M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 141) observes this 
fish is termed Sin toumbi, Tarn, at Madras. 

2. Pterois miles, Plate XXXVII, fig. 2, 

Seorpana miles, Bennett, Pish. Ceylon, p. 9, pi. 9. 

Pterois miles, Gunther, Catal. ii, pp. 125, 520 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 40. 

Pterois murieata, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 363 ; Riippefl, N. W. Fische, p. 107 ; Kner, Xovara Fische, p. 118 ; 
Klunz, Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 807. 

? Pterois geniserra, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 666. 
Macroahyrus miles, Swainson, Fishes, ii, p. 264. 
Kurrun toombi, Tarn. " Flying dragon." 

B. vii, D. 12 | t^tt, P. 14, V. 1/5, A. T ? T » C. 14, L. r. 92, L. tr. 12/-, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 2/9, of pectoral 4/11, of caudal 2/9, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 to 1/4 of the length of head, 1 ^ diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to below 
the front edge of the orbit. Preorbital covered in its lower third with spinate elevations which are continued 
across the cheeks to the angle of the preopercle where they end in three spines in the young or clusters of them 
in the adult : two strong turbinal spines : upper edge of orbit spinate as is also the temporal ridge as far as 
the commencement of the lateral-line : interorbital space convex but not very deeply so : occipital ridge spinate, 
most strongly so posteriorly where it ends in a flattened blade-like spine which has several more near its base. 
A short orbital tentacle, one at the anterior nostril, a long preorbital one over angle of the mouth, and other 
short ones about the head. Teeth — villiform in jaws and vomer. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, highest 
from the 6th to the 12th, which equal the height of the body and are longer than the rays : pectoral with the 
inter-radial membrane most deeply cleft between the first three rays, and reaching to below the end of the base 
of the dorsal fin : ventral reaches the anal, the third sjoine of which last fin is the longest and equal to the 
length of the snout : caudal wedge-shaped. Scales — present in the interorbital space and on the nape. Colours 
— red, with many dark vertical bands much wider than the ground colour, in fact, in the first two-thirds of the 
body the ground colour appears like narrow light bands : in the last third of the body the dark bands are wider 
apart with from one to three intermediate narrow ones. Head banded, bands mostly radiating from the eye, 
two of an S-shape over the chest. A white spot surrounded by black in the axilla. Dorsal spines with from 
five to six dark rings : soft dorsal, caudal, and anal covered with small black spots : pectoral with large black 
blotches on a lighter ground : ventral nearly black, with white and light brown spots. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea through those of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The largest- 
specimen captured at Madras measured 14 inches in length. Klunzinger considers this another form of P. voli- 
tans, from which it may be distinguished by its scaled nape, comparatively short pectoral, and the numerous 
spines on its head. In a specimen 9 inches long the pectoral reaches the root of the caudal. 

3. Pterois zebra. 

Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 367 ; Bleeker, Amb. and Ceram. p. 265 ; Qaoy and Gaim. Voy. Uranie, p. 329, and 
Voy. Astrol. Poiss. p. 692, pi. xi, f. 6 ; Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 126. 

Brachijurus zebra, Swainson, Fishes, ii, p. 264. 
Pseudomoiiopterus zebra, Bleeker, Fish. Madag. p. 87. 

B. vii, D. 12 | tS-, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. J y , C. 14, L. r. f* L. tr. 9/. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 2/9, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, (in a specimen 3| inches long,) 1 diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. Interorbital 
space deeply concave, traversed by two low ridges which posteriorly end in a strong spine : interorbital 
space scaleless. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Preopercle with three spines on its 
vertical border at and above its angle : turbinal spines present. Two or three spines along the upper edge of 
the orbit, its hind margin likewise serrated. Ridges in a stellate form on the preorbital, one of which is con- 
tinued backwards in a spinate form across the suborbitals and cheeks to the superior preopercular spine : three 
strong spines on the occipital and four along the temporal ridge. A long orbital tentacle equalling more than 
half the length of the head : fleshy tentacles along the lower edge of the preorbital, the hind one over the angle 
of the mouth being very large. Teeth— villiform in jaws and vomer. Fins — dorsal spines increase in length 
to the seventh, remaining about of equal height to the tenth, or as long as the height of the body and higher 
than the rays : pectoral with 17 rays, the upper four having filamentous prolongations, and reaching as far as 
the base of the caudal : ventrals reach the anal spines, the third of which is slightly the longest, and equal to 
li diameters of the orbit in length : caudal wedge-shaped. Colours — body vertically banded with narrow inter- 
mediate ones : a black blotch with a white central spot in the axilla : dorsal spines annulated with black : soft 

x 



\^ 



154 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

dorsal and anal with black spots in irregular lines : four or five sinuous vertical bands on the caudal : pectoral 
and ventral with black transverse bands and lines as wide or wider than the ground-colour. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. I have this species from the Andamans. 

4. Pterois volitans, Plate XXXVII, fig. 1. 

Gasterosteus volitans, Linn. Syst. Nat. XII, i, p. 491. 

Scorpama volitans, Bloch, t. 184 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1217; Bl. Schn. p. 193; Lacep. iii, p. 289; Gronov. 
ed. Gray, p. 119 ; Bennett, Fish. Ceylon, p. 1, pi. 1. 

Scorpcena mahe, Lacep. iii, p. 278. 

Pterois volitans, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 352, pi. 88 ; Swainson, Pishes, ii, p. 264 ; Bleeker, Sclerop. p. 8 ; 
Ruppell, N. W. Fische, p. 107 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 122 ; Day, Pishes of Malabar, p. 38 ; Klunz. Verb. z. b. 
Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 806. 

Pseudomonoptertis volitans, Bleeker, Fish. Madagas. p. 87. 

Pterois a nageoires lie cle vin, Lienard, Nat. Hist. Soc. Mauritius, 1839, p. 33. 

Purrooah, Mai. : Cheeb-ta-ta-dah, Andam. 

B. vii, D. 12 | T^yy, P. 14, V. 1/5, A. f:f, C. 14, L. r. 90, L. tr. 13/, Ccec. pyl. 3, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 3/11 to 3/13, of caudal 3/11 to 4/13, height of body 4/13 to 1/3 of the total length. Eyes 
— diameter 1/4 to 2/9 of length of head, \\ to 1^ diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Interorbital space 
deeply concave, it and the nape scaleless, or with some very rudimentary scales : it is traversed by two low 
ridges which do not terminate posteriorly in spines. The maxilla reaches to below the front edge or first third 
of the orbit. Preopercle with two or three spines along its vertical border, and three more along its lower limb : 
turbinal spines present : some blunt ones along the upper edge of the orbit : occipital ridge with two blade-like 
spines : two more, but less developed, on the temporal ridge : lower margin of preorbital with three blunt spines 
and a raised line, sometimes almost spinate, running across the cheeks from that bone to the upper preopercular 
spine. Opercular spine but slightly developed. A long tentacle from the upper edge of the orbit and about half 
the length of the head : also fleshy tentacles along the lower edge of the preorbital, the hind one of which is most 
developed. Teeth — villiform in jaws and vomer. Fins — the first ten dorsal spines are high, and equal to the 
height, or one half more, of the body, the interspinous membrane deeply emarginate : soft portion of fin not so 
high as the spinous : pectoral reaching to or beyond the root of the caudal, the membrane between the upper 
four rays, deeply cleft : ventrals reach the anal rays : third anal spine the longest, being three-fourths as high as 
the first dorsal spine : caudal rather rounded or wedge-shaped. Colours — reddish, with vertical brown bands 
having narrower and lighter intermediate ones : three or four broad ones radiate from the eye : one passes over 
the nape, and seven or eight more are present on the body, the third and fourth usually coalescing under the 
middle of the pectoral fin. A black mark in the axflla, having a pure white spot in its centre. Dorsal spines 
annulated with black : soft dorsal, caudal, and anal spotted : pectoral greyish with light-coloured spots : ventral 
slate-coloured with white spots. 

Habitat. — Bed Sea, East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to Australia. 

5. Pterois cincta, Plate XXXVII, fig. 3. 

? Pterois radiata, (Park.) Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 369 ; Garrett, Fische d. Sudsee, t. lvi, fig. A. 
Pterois cincta, Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 108, t. 26, f. 3; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 125 ; Klunz. Verb. z. b. Ges. 
Wien, 1870, p. 806. 

B. vii, D. 11 | TT l TTr , P. 16, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 15, L. 1. 25, L. r. 45, L. tr. 7/25. 

Length of head 3/11, of caudal 1/4 to 3/14, of pectoral 2/3, height of body 3/11 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. Interorbital space 
very concave. The maxilla reaches to below the hind edge of the orbit. Tentacle above the orbit long, and 
reaching as far as the end of the snout. Margin of orbit serrated : occipital and temporal ridges spinate : other 
bones about the head comparatively feebly armed. Several fleshy tentacles on the head : long ones on the 
snout. Teeth — villiform in jaws and vomer. Fins — eighth to ninth dorsal spines the highest, equalling half the 
height of the body : pectoral reaches as far as the end of the caudal. Scales — on nape. Colours — snout 
uncoloured : a deep brown band edged with white extends from the eye to the angle of the interopercle : the 
second encircles the neck, and there are six more on the body, which looks as if it were traversed vertically by 
narrow milk-white bands. A dark band at the base of the pectoral, which is also stained in its outer half; a 
blackish mark in the axilla without any white spot. Ventral greyish, its spine white : caudal spotted. 

The name P. radiata attached to a figure of this species in Garrett's Fische d. Sudsee, 1. c. would appear* 
to show that Dr. Giinther considers the figure of a Pterois, made at Otaheiti by Parkinson, to be identical with 
the above. See Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 369. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, Andamans to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

Genus, 6 — Apisttjs, Cum. 
Pterichthys, Swainson ; Polemius, Kaup. 

Branchiostegals six. Head and body rather compressed. No groove acrross occiput. Strong and sharp 
* Parts i-iii have been published in this country, including lx plates, but only 96 pages of letterpress. 



FAMILY, VII— SCORP^ENLD,E. 155 

preorbital and preopercular spines: opercles armed. A mandibular barbel. VilKform teeth m jaws, vomer and 
palate. A single dorsal fin with more spines than rays (D. 1 f:-g- 5 ) : three anal spines : pectoral elongated and having 
a free ray at its base. Articulated fin-rays branched. Scales present. Air-vessel with a constriction. A cleft behind 
the fourth gill. 

Geographical distribution. — From, the Red Sea through, those of India. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Apistus carinatus, D. 1 % 15 , P. 12+1, A. f, L. r. 70. Body greyish above, rosy below : pectoral black 
and a black blotch on the spinous dorsal : soft dorsal and anal banded in spots. Seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Apistus carinatus, Plate XXXVII, fig. 4. 

Scorpmna carinata, Bl. Schn. p. 193. 

Trigla toorrah-minoo, Bussed, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 45, pi. 160, B. 

Apistus alatus, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 392 ; Tern. Schleg. Fauna Japon, p. 49 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 131. 
Apistus carinatus, Cut. and Val. iv, p. 395. 

Apistus Israelitarum, (Ehrenb.) Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 396 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 131 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. 
Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 809. 

Pterichthys alatus et carinatus, Swainson, Fish, ii, p. 265. 
Polemius alatus, Kaup. Wiegm. Arch. 1858, p. 333. 

B. vi, D. 'V 6 . P- 12+L V- 1/5, A. f, C. 12, L. r. 70. 

Length of head from 2/7 to 3/11, of caudal 1/4 to 2/9, height of body 3/13 to 1/4 of the total length. 
Eyes — directed slightly upwards and outwards, diameter 2/7 to 1/4 of length of head, rather above 1 diameter 
from end of snout, and 1/3 of a diameter apart. Upper surface of the head rugose with two divergent lines 
passing from the snout between the eyes to the occiput where they terminate in small spines a little in front of 
either side of the base of the dorsal fin. The maxilla reaches to below the centre of the orbit. Preorbital spine as 
long as the orbit,'having two small ones anteriorly on the lower edge of the bone. Preopercle with one strong 
sjsine and two or three small ones along its lower edge : opercle rugose, with two spines and a spinate temporal 
ridge. Barbels — a long slender one, equalling the diameter of the eye, is situated below the mandibular 
symphysis, and another a short distance behind it. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer and palate. Fins — first 
dorsal spines increase to the sixth, then decrease to the fourteenth ; in some specimens the first few dorsal spines 
are shorter than in others : membrane deeply notched, fifteenth spine nearly twice as long as the preceding 
one : pectoral reaching to the base of the last dorsal ray, its single appendage to the first of the anal : ventral 
slightly longer : third anal spine the longest : caudal cut square. Scales — small, somewhat trefoil in shape. 
Air-vessel — thick, constricted in the centre. Colours — body greyish along . the back, becoming rosy on the 
abdomen : pectorals deep black : appendage milk-white : dorsal diaphanous, tinged with grey and edged with 
black, a deep black blotch from the eighth to the fourteenth spine : three oblique brownish streaks on the soft 
dorsal, which also has a brown edging : upper pectoral ray white : caudal with four vertical black bands : anal 
greyish, with a yellow horizontal band. 

Russell mentions a variety of a grey colour. Ehrenberg's specimen at Berlin has D. 1 /, not J T 5 as gi^en by 
C.V. and Klunzinger. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining 5 inches in length. 

Genus, 7 — Centeopogon, Giinther. 
Gymnapistes, sp. Swainson. 

Branchiostegals six or seven. Head and body rather strongly compressed : no groove on occiput. Preorbital 
with a strong spine, preopercle likewise spinate: opercle armed. Villiform teeth in the jaivs, vomer and palatine 
bones. A single dorsal fin with more spines than rays (D. 1 yl^- 5 ) : anal with three spines: pectoral without any free 
rays at its base: articulated fin-rays branched. Scales present. (A narrow cleft behind the fourth gill.) 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Gentropogon Indians, D. ^, A. -§-, L. r. 80. Pinkish, with irregular bands on the head : bars on body, 
anal and caudal fins. Madras. 

1. Centropogon Indicus, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 2. 
B. vii, D. V 4 , ?• 10, V. 1/4, A. f, C. 14, L. r. 80. 

Length of head 3/10, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of length 
of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to below the 
first third of the eye : lower jaw slightly the longer. Interorbital space slightly concave, traversed by two 
ridges which posteriorly have rather spinate terminations. Preorbital with a strong spine extending to below 
the last third or hind edge of the eye, and having a small one at its base. A strong preopercular spine equal to 

x 2 



156 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

two-thirds of tlie diameter of the orbit in length, five more blunt ones along its angle and lower edge : opercle with 
two spines : occipital and temporal ridges sharp but not spinate. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer and palate. 
Fins — second and third dorsal spines the longest and about equal to two-thirds the height of the body, longer also 
than the rays : soft portion of the dorsal fin not joined to the caudal : pectoral as long as the head excluding the 
snout, all the rays branched : ventral reaches the anus : third anal spine considerably the longest and equal in 
length to the highest in the dorsal fin : caudal slightly rounded. Scales — distinct, none on the head. Colours — 
rjinkisk, with irregular markings over the head, the cheeks being barred with pinkish and brown vertical bands : 
three or four badly defined vertical bars on the body, the last being over the base of the caudal fin : a vertical 
brown band over the last third of caudal fin, and the posterior third of the anal banded : ventral nearly black 
in its last half. 

Habitat. — Madras, the specimen figured is 2| inches long. 

Genus, 8 — Gymmapistus, Swains. 

Apistus, sp. Cuv. and Val. : Trichosomus* sp. Swainson : Prosopodasys, Giinther. 

Branchiostegals six. Head and body somewhat compressed: no groove across the occiput. Preorbital and 
preopercle with strong, sharp spines : opercle armed. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer and palate. Dorsal fin formed 
of two portions, the first of three spines which are connected by membrane with the second part, the spines in greater 
number than the rays : three anal spines, pectoral without any free rays at its base : articulated fin-rays branched. 
Scales rudimentary or absent. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

1. Oymnapistus niger,D. 3 | 9 ~J°, A. -f-. Scales absent. Nearly black. Seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

2. Gynvnapistus draccena, D. 3 | f, A. -j? ¥ . Scales rudimentary. Greyish-brown, with a black blotch on 
the dorsal fin between the third and seventh spines : other fins marked with black. Seas of India. 

1. Gymnapistus niger, Plate XXXVII, fig. 5. 

Apistus niger, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 415. 
Gymnapistes niger, Swainson, Fishes, ii, p. 266., 
Prosopodasys niger, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 141. 
Pom-tho-cho-rogue-dah, Andam. 

B. vi, D. 3 | »-J», P. 10, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 9. 

Length of head 3/10, of caudal 2/9, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of 
length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Mouth oblique, lower jaw very 
slightly the longer ; the maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. Preorbital with a very strong 
sharp spine reaching to beyond the hind edge of the orbit. Preopercle with a sharp spine, as long as one 
diameter of the orbit, about the middle of its vertical border, with three obtuse ones below it and two along its 
horizontal limb, Interorbital space slightly concave. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer and palate. Fins — the 
first dorsal commences over the hind third of the orbit, the interspinous membrane of the two fins continuous, 
the second spine is two-thirds as high as the body and there is a short interspace between the two fins : the 
rayed portion is of equal height with the second part of the spinous, a membraneous prolongation goes from 
the end of the fin nearly to the base of the caudal. Pectoral, which is 1/4 of the total length, reaches to above 
the anus, but the ventral does not extend quite so far : third anal spine longer but weaker than the second : 
caudal cut square. All the articulated fin-rays branched at their extremities. Scales — absent except in the 
form of roughnesses here and there in the skin. Colours — brownish-black, caudal yellowish- white, striated with 
brown and having a dark band in its last fourth and a white external edge. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago : very numerous at the Andamans where the specimen 
(figured life-size) was captured. The natives assert that wounds from its spines are exceedingly venomous. 

2. Gymnapistus dracsBna, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 1. 
Apistus dracama, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 403. 

Apistus Belengeri, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 412 ; Belenger, Voy. Ind. Orient, p. 349. 
Trichosomus draccena, Swainson, Pishes, ii, p. 265. 

Prosopodasys draccena, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 140 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 42. 
Tetraroge Belengeri, Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 41. 

B. vi, D. 3 | f:h P- 13, V. 1/5, A T ? T , C. 13. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/4, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 of length 
of head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 2/3 of a diameter apart. Width of head equals its length 
behind the orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the first third of the orbit : lower jaw the longer and having a 
tubercle at the symphysis. Preorbital with a strong sharp spine directed backwards, three-fourths of the orbit 

* Preoccupied by Tricliosoma, Rud. Vermes, 1819, also (Rainb.) Boisduv. Lepidop. 1834. 



FAMILY, VII— SCORP^nSTIEvE. 157 

in length and having a small one at its base. Preopercle with a sharp spine as long as the orbit, and three or 
four blunt points along its angle and lower limb. Opercle with two spines. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer 
and palate. Fins — dorsal spines sharp but slender ; the first arises over the middle of the eye, the interspinous 
membrane is deeply notched, the second or third spine the longest equalling half the height of the body, all 
three are longer than the spines of the second dorsal, the membrane of which latter is deeply notched. All the 
articulated rays are branched. Pectoral a little longer than the head and reaching to above the middle rays of 
the anal : ventral reaches the anal spines, the third of which is the longest : caudal cut almost square. Scales — 
rudimentary. Colours — greyish-brown, a black blotch on the dorsal fin between the third or fourth and seventh 
or ninth spines : soft dorsal nearly black in its last three-fourths : pectoral blackish, as is also the outer half of 
the ventral and the anal : caudal yellowish- white with some small brown spots. 

Habitat. — Common in the seas in Western India and Ceylon, especially off Canara, where it attains 
3 inches in length. 

Genus, 9 — Amblyapistus, Bleeker. 

Apistus, sp. Cuv. and Val. : Platypterus* Swainson. 

Branchiostegals five or six. Head and body strongly compressed : no groove across occiput. Strong and, sharp 
preorbital and preoperctdar spines : opercle armed. Villiform teeth in jaws, vomer and palate. A single dorsad fin 
imth more spines than rays (D. 1 |-I-j-J) generally elevated anteriorly: three anal spines: pectoral without any free 
ray at its base. Articulated fin-rays branched. Scales, if present, rudimentary. Air-vessel present. Pyloric 
appendages few. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Amblyapistus tcenianotus, D. '-g-If 6 , A. T ? T . Second dorsal spine as high as the body. Reddish, with 
irregular dark spots and blotches : a brown mark between the fifth and seventh dorsal spines. Andamans to 
the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Amblyapistus longispinis, D. * ■§■!■§■■, A. -£ T . Second dorsal spine two-thirds as high as the body. 
Scales minute. Pinkish, with blotches and a white spot on the side. Seas of India to China. 

3. Amblyapistus macracanthus, D. '-f-ToS A. §. Brownish-black : pectoral with a white border. Anda- 
mans and Malay Archipelago. 

1. Amblyapistus taenianotus, Plate X XX VIII, fig. 5. 

Tcenianotus latovittatus, Lacep. iv, pi. 3, f. 2 (no description.) 

Apistus tmnianotus, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 404 ; Richardson, Voy. Samarang, Fish. pi. 4, fig. 1 and 2 ; Bleeker, 
Amb. ii, p. 557. 

Tetraroge tmnianotus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 136. 
Platypterus tcenianotus, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 265. 
Amblyapistus tcenianotus, Bleeker, Fish. Maur. p. 87. 

B. v. D. i|cf •, P. 12, V 1/5, A. T _V, C. 12. 

Length of head 3/13, of pectoral 2/7, of caudal 4/17, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 3/10 of length of head, nearly 1 diameter from end of snout and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Body 
strongly compressed, the profile from the snout to the commencement of the dorsal fin almost vertical. The 
maxilla reaches to below the front edge of the orbit, lower jaw slightly the longer. Preorbital spine curved and 
very sharp, of moderate length and having a small basal one : preopercle with a sharp spine a little above its angle, 
and three or four blunt ones along its lower margin : two opercular spines, the upper the longer. Teeth — villi- 
form in jaws, on vomer, and in a small patch on the palate. Fins — dorsal high anteriorly, its first spine a little 
above one diameter of the orbit in length, its second as high as the body, and its third a little shorter : from 
about the fourth spine to the end of the rays all are of about the same height : a slight membraneous continuation 
between the end of the dorsal and base of the caudal fins. All the articulated fin-rays branched.f The ventrals 
do not reach the anal and are shorter than the pectoral : third anal spine the longest : caudal slightly rounded. 
Scales — rudimentary. Lateral-line — first sixteen tubules distinct, subsequently they coalesce into one tube. 
Colours — reddish, with irregular brownish spots, a brown mark between the fifth and sixth or seventh dorsal 
spines. 

Habitat. — Andaman islands, Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining a few inches in length. The 
specimen figured is in the British Museum collection. 

2. Amblyapistus longispinis, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 4. 

Apistus longispinis, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 408 ; Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astrol. Poiss. p. 694, pi. xi, fig 4. 
Apistes multicolor, Richardson, Voy. Samarang, Fishes, p. 3, pi. iv, fig. 3, 4. 
Tetraroge longispinis, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 134. 

B. vi, D. >W, V. 1/4 A ¥ _V, C. 12. 

* Preoccupied (K. and V. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. Fishes, 1837, &c. 

t The specimen marked " b. Young, Madras. Presented by T. C. Jerdon, Esq.," has none of its articulated rays branched, 
it is A. roseus. 



158 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

Length of head 4/15, of caudal 2/11, height of body 3/11 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of 
length of head, one diameter from end of snout, and nearly one apart. Body strongly compressed, a rise from 
the snout to the base of the dorsal fin at about 45°. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit, lower 
jaw sbghtly the longer. Preorbital with one sharp spine reaching to below the hind edge of the orbit and 
having a small one at its base. A strong sharp spine at the angle of the preopercle, and some blunt ones along 
its lower edge : opercular spines moderately developed. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — 
dorsal spines moderately strong, commencing over the middle of the eye, interspinous membrane deeply 
emarginate, the first dorsal spine equals the length of the head in front of the middle of the eye, the second an'd 
third are of equal length and as long as the head excluding the snout, last eight spines of about the same height 
as the rays : pectoral as long as the head, its articulated rays branched, and it extends as far as the ventral : 
second anal spine rather strong and nearly as long as the head anterior to the hind edge of the eye, third spine 
equals the length of the head behind the middle of the eye : caudal cut square. Scales — rudimentary, but 
distinct. Lateral-line — with 20 tubes. Colours — pinkish, a brown spot on the lateral line below the seventh 
dorsal spine, and a white one above and behind it : fins with brown spots, end of caudal blackish. 

The sj^ecimen is figured life-size from one from China in the British Museum, presented by Mr. Reeves. 
I never obtained this species in India, but one stated to have come from thence was given the British Museum 
by General Hardwicke. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to China, attaining a few inches in length. 

3. Amblyapistus macracanthus, Plate XXXVIII, fig 3. 

Apistus macracanthus, Bleeker, Ceram. p. 267. 
Tetraroge macracanthus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 133. 

B. vi, D. y.flf , P- 12, V. 1/5, A. £, C. 12. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 1/4, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3/11 of length 
of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Body strongly compressed. The maxilla 
reaches to below the first third of the orbit. Preorbital with two strong sharp spines : five along the angle and 
vertical limb of the preopercle, the upper being sharp and the strongest : opercle with two spines. Barbels 
absent. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal fin commences before the eyes, is high 
anteriorly, the first three spines being at some distance from the others, the second dorsal spine the highest, 
being nearly as high as the body, the last spine as high as the rays. All the articulated fin-rays branched near 
their extremities. Pectoral rather longer than the height of the body : ventral reaches the anal : third anal 
spine the longest and equal to half the length of the head : caudal pointed, its lower border truncated, it is 
slightly joined to the base of the caudal by a membranous prolongation. Scales— s, few small ones imbedded 
in the skin on the body. Colours — brownish-black, the pectoral with a white border. 

Habitat. — Andamans and Malay Archipelago, the specimen figured (a female 3.j inches long) was captured 
at the Andaman islands. 

Genus, 10 — Micropus, Gray. 

Caracanthus, Kroyer : Ampliiprionichthys, Bleeker : Centropus, Kner : Crossoderma, Guichenot. 

Branchiostegals four to six. Body strongly compressed. Preorbital, pre- sub- and inter-opercles armed. 
Villiform teeth in the jaws only. A single or tioo dorsal fins, the first with seven or eight spines, the anal with two : 
no free pectoral rays : ventrals rudimentary : some of the articulated fin-rays branched. Body scaleless, but covered 
with small tubercles, (no cleft behind the fourth gill.) 

Geographical distribution. — These small fishes appear to be distributed through the seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Micropus Zeylonicus — D. 7/14, A. T 2 T , yellowish-brown, with darker reticulations. Malabar and Ceylon. 

1. Micropus Zeylonicus, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 6. 
Ampliiprionichthys Zeylonicus, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 515. 
B. iv, D. 7/14, P. 13, V. 1/3?, A. T \, C. 15. 

Length of head nearly 1/3, of caudal 1/5, height of body 4/9 to 1/2 of the total length. Eyes — high up, 
1-| diameters from end of snout and 1 apart. Body elevated and compressed, the profile from the dorsal fin to 
the snout very steep. Mouth anterior, lower jaw rather the longer : the maxilla reaches to below the middle 
of the eye. Preorbital with a strong spine directed backwards and somewhat downwards : preopercle with five 
blunt spines, the two lowest being the longest : an equally long one but not so blunt exists on the interopercle : 
subopercle with one blunt spine : opercle with two badly developed spines. A serrated ridge passes from the 
back of the orbit towards the occiput. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, none on the vomer or palate. Fins — 
dorsal fin has a notch between its two portions, the third and fourth spines the highest, and equal to a little 
more than 1 diameter of the orbit : rays not so high as the spines : ventrals rudimentary : anal spines with a 
deep notch in the membrane separating them from the rays. Scales — absent, but slight elevations on the skin. 
Colours —bluish along the upper half of the body, becoming dirty brown on the abdomen : several irregular 



FAMILY, VII— SCORP^NIDiE. 159 

rows of yellowish blotches along the back and sides, separated by a darker reticulation : fins light-coloured, 
caudal marked as the sides of the body. 

Habitat. — The specimen figured (1\ inches long) is from Malabar ; some from Ceylon, dredged by Dr. 
Anderson in the Galle harbour, exist in the Calcutta Museum, the largest is 2-J- inches in length. 

Genus, 11 — Minous, Cuv. and Val. 

Corytliobatus, sp. Cantor. 

BrancMostegals seven. Head large, body rather compressed : a groove across occiput. Preorbital with a strong 
spine, preopercle likewise spinate : opercle armed. Villiform teeth on jaws and vomer, palatines edentulous. A single 
dorsal fin with about the same number of spines as rays (D. -f%L£) : anal spines if present badly developed : pectoral 
with a free ray at its base. Articulated fin-rays single, unbranched. Scales absent. Ccecal appendages few. 
(A cleft behind the fourth gill.) 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Minous monodactylus, D. fV-i> P- 10+1, A. 9-11. Greyish, becoming flesh-coloured along the abdomen, 
fins marked with black. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Minous monodactylus, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 7. 

Scorpaina monodactyla, Bl. Schn. p. 195.. 
Trigla worrah-minoo, Russell, ii, p. 44 ; fig. 149. 
Apistus minous, Cuv. Reg. Anim. 

Minous woora, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 421 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 213 ; Bleeker, Sumatra, ii, p. 251. 
Minous monodactylus, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 424, pi. 59, f. 2 ; Bleeker, Sclerop. p. 9, and Fish. Mauritius, 
p. 87; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 148 ; Day, Fish. Malab. p. 43. 

Apistes Russellii et monodactylus, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 265. 
Corytliobatus woora, Cantor, Catal. p. 45. 

Minous Adamsii, Richards. Voy. Samar. Fish. p. 7, pi. 2, f. 4, 5. 
Cul-plaachee, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. fjJi P. 10+1, V. 1/5, A. 9-11, C. 10, Cfec. pyl. 4. 

Length of head 3/10, of caudal 1/4, height of body 4/17 to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 to 1/4 of the length of head, If diameters from the end of snout, and also apart. The maxilla reaches to 
below the front edge of the orbit. Preorbital spine strong, sharp, and equal in length to 2/3 of the diameter of 
the orbit, and having another small one at its base. In one specimen there are two long preorbital spines on one 
side as well as the basal one, but the normal number on the other. Preopercle with a strong sharp spine at its 
angle and three other shorter and blunter ones, one or two short ones also at its lower limb. Temporal and 
occipital ridges spinate, and all or most of those on the head rugose, as are also the edge of the orbit and the 
superciliary ridge. Teeth — fine in jaws, on vomer, but none on the palate. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, 
the first distinct from the remainder, the membrane deeply cleft : pectoral large and as long as the head, 
reaching to below the commencement of the soft dorsal or even to its third ray, a single free ray below the 
pectoral fin which is nearly as long as the fin, in dried specimens it sometimes splits into two : caudal rays, and 
all the articulated ones, unbranched. Scales — absent. Colours — head greyish-brown above, sides and abdomen 
lighter or flesh-coloured, with dark blotches and marks : dorsal fin light brown margined with black : pectoral 
black, its appendage white : caudal buff, with three vertical brown bars. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to China, attaining 4 or 5 inches in length. 

Genus, 12 — Cocotropus, Kawp. 

Corytliobatus, sp. Cantor ; Tetraroge, pt. Giinther. 

BrancMostegals six. Head and body strongly compressed : no groove across the occiput. Preorbital with a 
strong blunt spine : preopercle with a similar one : opercle armed. Villiform teeth in jaws and vomer, palatines 
edentulous. A single dorsal fin with more spines than rays (D. V-to 5 ) •" t wo weak anal spines: pectoral without any 
free ray at its base. Articulated fin-rays single, unbranched. Scales absent. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Cocotropus echinatus, D. if-, P. 11, A. y 2 ^. Pinkish. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Cocotropus roseus, D. V-tVS -P- 1^> A. T %. Pinkish, a white outer angle to each side of the caudal fin. 
Coromandel coast of India. 

1. Cocotropus echinatus. 

Corytliobatus echinatus, Cantor, Catal. p. 45, pi. 13. 

Cocotropus echinatus, Kaup. Wiegn. Arch. Naturg. 1858, p. 333. 

Tetraroge ecldnata, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 136. 

B. vi, D. H, P. 11, V 1/3, A. f, C. 12. 

Length of head 3/11, of pectoral 1/4, of caudal 1/6, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — 



160 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

near the dorsal profile and below the base of the two first dorsal spines, diameter 2/9 of length of head, 
1| diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Body and head strongly compressed, the anterior 
profile ascends almost vertically from the snout to the base of the first dorsal spine. Maxilla reaches to below 
the centre of the orbit. Preorbital with a strong curved blunt spine, having a smaller but similar one at its 
base : four blunt spines along the margin of the preopercle and three on the opercle. Teeth — villiform in the 
jaws, and in a crescentic band on the vomer. Fins — the single dorsal commences over the front half of the 
orbit, the first spine being rather curved, and the longest equalling the head excluding the snout, the last spines 
as high as the rays which are unbranched : from the end of the dorsal fin a membraneous continuation extends 
to the base of the caudal. Anal spines very weak : caudal rounded. Body and head studded with small obtuse 
prickles. Lateral-line — indistinct. Colours — buff, with five brown lines radiating from the eye ; upper ed^e of 
dorsal purple : some large brownish blotches in the upper half of the body, all the fins more or less dotted with 
brown, and a whitish spot at the upper and lower angle of the end of the caudal. 

This species exists in the Calcutta Museum, where it was labelled Apistes spinosa, from the Andamans, it 
attains a few inches in length. 

Habitat. — Andamans and Pinang. 

2. Cocotropus roseus, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 8. 

B. vi, D. yjfr , P. 14, V. 1/3, A. T %, C. 12. 

Length of head 2/7, of caudal 1/7, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— placed high up, 
diameter 1/4 of length of head, If diameters from end of snout, and 3/4 of a diameter apart. Body strongly 
compressed : profile from dorsal fin to snout oblique : mouth slightly oblique, lower jaw a little the longer. 
Preorbital with two blunt spines, the longest going backwards to beneath the first third of the eye, the lower 
and shorter one a little downwards and backwards. A rough ridge passes across the suborbitals to a little above 
the angle of the preopercle on the vertical limb of which are two blunt spines, the upper the longer, and equal to 
the diameter of the orbit in length : two more smaller spines along its horizontal limb : three opercular spines : 
an elevated occipital ridge, and also a temporal one having three blunt spines. No barbels. Teeth — villiform in 
jaws and vomer, none on the palate. Fins — dorsal fin continuous, it commences over the middle of the eye ; 
spines strong, the second being slightly the longest and equal to half the height of the body, they subsequently 
slightly decrease to the last which is as high as the first ray : a membraneous extension exists from the end 
of the dorsal fin, and nearly reaches the base of the caudal. All the articulated fin-rays are unbranched. 
Pectoral equals the length of the head and reaches to the commencement of the anal : ventral short, reaching 
half way to the anus, it has one spine and three rays : two weak anal spines only : caudal rounded. Scales — 
absent, skin with many widely spread rough elevations, becoming somewhat spinate in large specimens : tubes 
of lateral-line 10 or 11 distinct ones in number, which occupy its whole length. Colours — fleshy, the fins having 
more of a pinkish tinge. Dorsal fin edged with white, having a dull grey band along its centre, and most 
distinct in its last half : caudal edged with white, and having a dull base due to numerous grey spots : pectoral 
and anal reddish, the former having many black spots upon it : ventrals white. 

These fish are very common in Madras in October, and through the cold months, but they rarely exceed 
2 1 or 3 inches in length. 

Jerdon observes (Madr. Journ. Lit. and Sc. 1851, p. 141), " Agriopus , I possess a drawing of a 

small species of this genus of a mottled red colour throughout. I only procured it once, it was named Crasi 
toumbi, Tarn." The specimen is in the British Museum, as Tetraroge tamianotus (ii, p. 136), from which it may 
be readily distinguished, as the spines on its head are blunt, and its articulated fin-rays are unbranched, which 
is not the case in A. tamianotus (see p. 157). 

My reasons for considering this distinct from C. echinatus are the more oblique profile from the snout to 
the dorsal fin : the second dorsal spine (instead of the first) being the highest : the pectoral having 14 (instead 
of 10) rays, &c. 

Habitat. — Coromandel coast of India. The specimen is figured life-size. 

Genus, 13-^Peloe, Cwo. and Val. 

Branchiostegals seven. Head irregularly shaped. Villiform teeth in the jaws and vomer. The three first 
dorsal spines connected by a membrane and are at a little distance from the others (12-14) which are somewhat isolated 
one from another, due to the interspinous membrane being deeply cleft ; two free rays at the base of the pectoral fin, 
having a connecting membrane: ventrals thoracic. Articulated fin-rays branched. Scales absent. Head, body and 
fins with shinny appendages. Air-vessel small. Pyloric appendages few. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Pelor didactylum, D. 3 | *£:£*, A, 11-12, Brownish-grey, irregularly banded, Andaman islands to the 
Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Pelor didactylum, Plate XXXIX, fig, 1. 

Scorpcena didactyla, Pallas, Spic. Zool. Fas. vii, p, 26, t, 4. 
Trigla rubicunda, Hornst. Nga Handl. ix, p. 45, t. 3. 



FAMILY, VII— SCORP^ENIDyE. 161 

Synanceia didactyla et rubicunda, Bl. Schn. pp. 195, 196. 

Pelor maculatum, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 434 ; Less. Voy. Coq. Poiss. p. 210, t. xx ; Giinther, Catal. ii, 
p. 150. 

Pelor obscurum, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 436 ; Less. Voy. Coq. Zool. ii, p. 211, Poiss. pi. 21, f. 2 ; Bleeker, 
Ceram. iii, p. 241 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 119. 

Scoipazna digitata, Gronov. ed. Gray, p. 117. 

Pelor didactylum, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 150 ; Bleeker, Revis. Synan. 1874, p. 7, t. iv, f. 1. 

B. vii, D. 3 | l f:i 5 , P. 10 + II, V. 1/5, A. 11-12, C. 12. 

Length of head 2/7 to 1/4, of caudal 2/11, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/11 
in the adult to 1/3 in the young of length of head, 2| diameters from end of snout, and from 1 to lj apart. 
The maxilla reaches to nearly below the front edge of the eye : lower jaw considerably the longer : the width 
of the head at the opercles equals its length. Interorbital space deeply concave with a transverse ridge between 
the two eyes : a deep saddle-shaped depression across the occiput : a groove below the eyes. Upper edge of 
orbit with blunt spines : spinate occipital and temporal ridges : preopercle with spines on its vertical border : a 
suborbital spinate ridge : a turbinal spine : opercle mostly with two spines. Rather long fleshy tentacles on the 
lower jaw. Teeth — villiform in jaws and on vomer, none on the palate. Fins — second dorsal spine somewhat 
the longest of the three first, as high as the longest in the rest of the fin, and 3/5 of the length of the 
head : interspinous membrane deeply cleft and covered with skinny appendages. Pectoral equals the length of 
the head, and has two free rays at its base : caudal cut almost square. $ca?es-<-absent, but skinny appendages 
over the head, back, and fins. Colours — brownish-grey becoming dirty white beneath, with fine spots over the 
body and head. Dorsal coloured as the body, a dark band passes down the last few spines on to the body, and 
another over the last few rays takes the same course : caudal yellow with a dark vertical band across its base, 
and another in its last third : outer edge of anal dark coloured. 

Habitat. — Andaman islands, from whence the one figured (a female 5| inches in length) was procured, 
to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 

Genus, 14 — Choeidacttlus, Richardson. 

Branehiostegals six. Head and body compressed. Pones of the head uiith osseous ridges ; the preorbital, pre- 
opercle and opercle with spines : a groove on the occiput. Villiform teeth on the jaivs, pala.te edentulous. A single 
dorsal fin with more spines (13) than rays (9) : anal with two spines : pectoral fin with three free rays : ventrals 
with one spine and five rays. Articulated fin-rays branched. Scales absent : some skinny appendo<ges on the body. 
Air-vessel absent. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Coromandel coast of India, and seas of China. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Choridactylus multibarbis, D. y, P. 9 + III, A. -§-. Brownish with darker markings: dorsal fin 
yellow with black marks : caudal yellow, with black basal and terminal bands : other fins dark, the ventral 
with white spots. Madras and China. 

1. Choridactylus multibarbis, Plate XXXIX, fig. 2. 

Choridactylus multibarbis, Richardson, Voy. Samarang, Fishes, p. 8, pi. 2, f. 1-3. 
Ghorismodactylus multibarbis, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 151. 

B. vi, D. V 3 , P- 9+III, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 15. 

Length of head 1/4, of pectoral 1/4, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — 
high up, with prominent orbits, diameter 2/7 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and rather 
more apart. Mouth anterior : lower jaw slightly the longer, the maxdla reaches to beneath the front edge of 
the orbit. Interorbital space concave, with two longitudinal ridges which posteriorly end in a transverse one 
connecting them together, Upper edge of orbit with points scarcely spinate. Preorbital with a sharp spine 
posteriorly, two-thirds the length of the orbit having a small one at its base pointing downwards, as well as 
two or three more spinate elevations. A spinate or rough ridge runs along the suborbitals and over the cheeks 
to the middle of the vertical limb of the preopercle, which is armed with a sharp spine that crosses the whole 
width of the opercle : it has a small one directed outwards at its base : there is likewise a spine at the angle of 
the preopercle, and three blunt points along its horizontal edge. Two spines on the opercle. Occipital and 
temporal ridges with blunt spines, one on the shoulder girdle above the base of the pectoral fin. A deep 
depression across the occiput, extending down behind the eyes. A fleshy tentacle over the centre of the eye, 
and some on the mandible. Teeth — villiform in the jaws. Fins — dorsal fin commencing just behind the eyes, 
the first three spines somewhat removed from the rest, the fourth likewise stands at some distance from those 
in front of or behind it, the third and fourth spines the longest, nearly equalling two-thirds the height of the 
body, interspinous membrane deeply emarginate : rays a little higher than the longest spine and branched near 
their extremities : pectoral rounded and having three free rays below its base : ventral large and attached by 
nearly the whole length of its inner edge by a skinny flap to the abdomen : anal spines small, the second one- 
third the longest : caudal rounded. Scales — absent. Colours — brownish, with a yellow shoulder mark, and 
two or three vertical orange bands : base of ventral and anal with fine white spots. Fins blackish brown, with 

T 



1G2 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

a light band between the fourth and sixth dorsal spines : margins of pectorals orange : caudal with a black 
band at its base, and another in its last third having a light edge : outer two-thirds of anal blackish : free rays ■ 
black, with white in their middle. 

This is the species observed upon by Jerdon (Madr. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 141,) as follows : — " I have 
drawings and specimens of a very curious fish, which I have marked as Apistus niger, C. V. I however hardly 
think it can belong to this genus ; it appears to me rather an aberrant form of Pterois, allied to Swainson's 
genus Brachyrus." 

This fish is very common at Madras, attaining about 4 inches in length : the specimen figured (life-size) 
is from that locality. 

Habitat. — Coromandel coast of India, and China. 

Genus, 15 — Synancidium, Mull. 

Buffichthys, Swains. 

Brcmchiostegals seven. Head monstrous and irregularly shaped, but without slump spines. Villiform teeth 
on the jaws and vomer, but not on the palatines. The soft dorsal continuous with the spinous, less rays (6-9) than 
spines (13) ; anal with 3 spines and few (5) rays : no pectoral appendages. Scales absent : body and sometimes 
the head with shinny flaps. Air-vessel small. Pyloric appendages few. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Synancidium horridum,~D. X f-Iy 3 , A. f. Eyes elevated: a deep saddle-shaped depression across the 
occiput. 

1. Synancidium horridum, Plate XXXIX, fig. 3. 

Scorpcena horrida, Linn, i, p. 453 ; Bl. t. 183 ; Lacep. iii, p. 261, ii, t. 17, f. 2. 

Synanceia horrida, Bl. Schn. p. 194 ; Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 440 ; Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Gen. xxii, Scler. 
p. 9, and Revis. Synan. 1874, p. 12. 

Scorpcena monstrosa, Gronov. ed. Gray, p. 117. 

Synanceia grossa, Gray and Hard. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 97. 

Buffichthys horrida et grossa, Swainson, Pish, ii, p. 268. 

Synanceia trachynis, Richards. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, ix, p. 385. 

Synancidium horridum, Mull. Akad. Wiss. 1844, p. 163 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 144 ; Kner. Novara Fische, 
p. 119. 

B. vii, D. iJpp, P. 16, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 12, Csec. pyl. 3, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 1/3, of caudal 2/11 to 1/6, height of body 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/8 of 
length of head, 3 diameters from end of snout. Crown of head irregularly saddle-shaped : a deep groove on the 
cheeks, orbit raised. Teeth — villiform in the jaws and on the vomer, which last, Bleeker observes, are not 
invariably present.* Fins— dorsal spines stiff, the three first the highest and somewhat separated from the 
others : the vertical fin more or less enclosed in skin. Articulated fin-rays branched. Skin with numerous 
large and small tubercles even when on the fins : some large fringed tubercles along the lower edge of preopercle 
and preorbital. Colours — brownish-fawn colour superiorly, becoming lighter below : irregular blotches on the 
body, and smaller ones on the fins. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

Genus, 16 — Synanceia, Bl. Schn. 

Synanceichthys, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals seven. Head monstrous, irregularly shaped but spineless, no saddle-shaped fossa across the 
occiput: no transverse elevation between the orbits, nor deep groove below the eyes. Villiform teeth on the jaws, vomer 
and palatine bones edentulous. The soft dorsal continuous with the spinous, less rays (5-6) than spines (13-16) : 
anal with 3 spines and few (5) rays, no pectoral appendages. Air-vessel^ present. Scales absent. Pyloric appen- 
dages few. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Synanceia verrucosa. D. -±_\, A. f . From the Red Sea, through those of India to the Malay 
Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Synanceia verrucosa, Plate XXXIX, fig. 4. 
Bl. Schn. p. 195, t. 45 ; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 109 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 146 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges.. 
Wien, 1870, p. 811 ; Bleeker, Revis. Syn. 1874, p. 15. 

Scorpcena brachio, Lacep. iii, pp. 259, 272, pi. 12, f. 1. 

Scorpcena brachiata, Shaw, Zool. iv, pt. 2, p. 274. 

Synanceia sanguinolenta, Ehren. Pise. t. 3. 

Synanceia brachio, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 447 ; Bleeker, Sclerop. p. 9. 

* Of course if the presence of vomerine teeth is inconstant, the genus Synancidium (which is chiefly separated from 
Synanceia owing to their presence) has no generic value. 



FAMILY, VII— SCORP^ENLTXE. 163 

B. vii, D. i_V, p - 1/S. V. 6, A. f, C. 10-12, Caec. pyl. 0(4). Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 2/5, of caudal 1/7, height of body 2§ in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/6 to 1/7 of 
length of head and 2 diameters from end of snout. Head monstrous : interorbital space very concave : orbits 
but little elevated. A slight groove on the cheek : no saddle-shaped depression across the occiput. The anterior 
extremity of the lower jaw is on the dorsal profile. Body with cutaneous excrescences, and many filaments 
about the head. Colours — brownish, caudal with a vertical dark band down its centre and white margins : 
pectoral and ventral with dark edges and light borders : anal banded. 

Lienard's Synancee a trois bandes, D. 13/7, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. £, C. 14 (Nat. Hist. Soc. Mauritius, 1839, 
p. 34) is apparently this species. Three vertical white bands, the first between the fifth and seventh dorsal 
spines : the second at the commencement of the rays : the third over the base of the caudal. Caudal with 
two brown bands between the white, and a third of yellow. 

Le Juge, in the Transactions of the same Society. (1871, v, p. 19), has observed that this fish termed 
' Laffe' is very poisonous at the Mauritius ; the poisonous instrument being its dorsal spines, each of which 
has a poison bag at its base. 

Habitat — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond : attaining 
at least 13 inches in length. 

Genus, 17 — Pseudosynanceia. 

BrancMostegals seven. Body elongated, anteriorly sub-cylindrical, posteriorly compressed : head brooA 
depressed. Eyes on the upper surface of the head directed upwards. ' Preopercle and preorbital armed. Gill-opening 
with a superior as well as posterior orifice, the two being continuous. Villiform teeth in the jaivs and on the vomer, 
none on the palate or tongue. A single dorsal fin with strong spines (16) and (5) unbranched rays : anal with three 
splines and few rays (7). No pectoral appendage. - Ventral thoracic tvith one spine and less than five (3) rays, and not 
united to the abdomen along its inner edge. Articulated fin-rays unbranched. Scales absent, shin smooth. 

This genus differs from Leptosynanceia, Bleeker, in having vomerine teeth. Should these teeth be 
inconstant, the fish described would belong to genus Leptosynanceia. 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Pseudosynanceia melanostigma. D.^jA.f. Grey mottled with black. Some of the fins yellow with 
black edges or bands. Coast of Sind. 

/ 1. Pseudosynanceia melanostigma, Plate LV, fig. 6. 

B. vii, D. V, P. 14, V. 1/3, A. f, C. 11. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal 4J, height of body one-sixth in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/7 of 
length of head, \\ diameters from end of snout, and 3 apart. The eyes are upon the upper surface of the head 
and directed upwards and slightly outwards. The maxilla, which expands posteriorly, reaches to below the 
middle of the eye. Upper surface of head depressed and its width rather exceeding its length. Preorbital 
with ridges placed in a star form and ending in two spines on its lower border. Upper surface of the head 
" with sinuous, but not spinate, ridges. Preopercle with a moderately strong spine at its angle, and three short 
blunt ones along its lower limb. Opercle with a spine. Gill opening with a small rounded superior orifice, 
exclusive of, but continuous with the posterior one. Lower jaw the longer, its symphysis forming a portion of 
the dorsal profile. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, in a well-developed transverse band across the vomer, none on 
the palate or tongue. Fins — dorsal spines strong, commencing over the centre of the opercle, the posterior ones 
being somewhat the longest but not so high as the rays, which are unbranched ; interspinous membrane deeply 
cleft, the soft dorsal not continuous with the caudal. Pectoral with its upper rays much the longest, it extends 
to over the anal. Ventral short. Anal spines short but pungent, its rays and those of the caudal unbranched. 
No skinny tentacles on head, body or fins. Colours — of a grey mottled with black on the top of the head and 
along the back, becoming yellow on the abdomen. Spinous dorsal also mottled, a vertical yellow band across 
the front half of the soft dorsal, and black in its last half. Pectoral yellow, with some grey spots at its base 
and a wide black edge. Ventral and anal yellow edged with black. Caudal yellow, with a black band down 
its last half, externally edged with yellow. 

Habitat. — Kurrachee, in Sind, where I procured the specimen figured (7 inches long). It lives in the 
mud and is difficult to obtain, for although I saw several we only captured one. 

Genus, 18 — Polycaulis, Guntlier. 

Synanceia, sp. Bloch : Trachicephalus,* Swainson. 

BrancMostegals seven. Body anteriorly sub-cylindrical, posteriorly compressed : head broad, rather depressed. 
Eyes directed upwards. Preopercle armed. Gill-opening with a superior as ivell as posterior orifice, the two being 
continuous. Villiform teeth in the jaws, absent on the vomer. A single dorsal fin with flexible spines and rays : anal 
somevjhat elongated : no pectoral appendages : ventral thoracic, united to the abdomen along its inner edge. Articu- 
lateol fin-rays unbranched. Scales absent. Vertical fins more or less enveloped in shin. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

* Preoccupied, Trachycephalus, Tsch. Rept. 1838. 



164 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

1. Polycaulis elongakis, D. xt-T¥> A. 11-15. Brown, with the fins black-edged or else spotted with white. 
Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Polycaulis uranoscopus, Plate XXXIX, fig. G. 

Synanceia uranoscopa, Bl. Schn. p. 195 ; Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 458. 

Synanceia elongata, Cuv. and Val. iv, p. 456 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxii, Sclerop. p. 10 ; Griffith, 
Cuv. An. King, xi, pi. 8, fig. 3. 

Trachicephalus elongatns, Swainson, Fishes, ii, p. 268. 

Synanceia breviceps, Richardson, Voy. Sulph. Fishes, p. 71. 

TJranoscopus adhesvpinnis, Blyth, J. A. S. of B. 1860, p. 142. 

Polycaulus elongatus, Gimther, Catal. ii, p. 175; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 120. 

B. vii, D. Tfifi , P. 13, V. 1/5, A. 11-15, C. 11. 

Length of head from 1/5 to 2/9, of caudal 1/5 to 2/11, height of body 1/5 to 2/9 of the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 2/9 to 1/5 of length of head, 1-|- diameters from end of snout, and 2 apart. The maxilla reaches 
to below the middle of the eyes. Head as wide as long, and covered with bony ridges having numerous blunt 
points : a blunt preorbital spine having a short one at its base, five along the edge of the preopercle, two on 
opercle. Lower jaw the longer. Gill-openings having a small rounded superior orifice continuous with 
the posterior one. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, becoming very obsolete in old specimens. Fins — spines and 
rays enclosed in the skin, the dorsal commences between or rather in advance of the superior openings of the 
gills, its spines are low and more or less flexible. Pectoral pointed and a little longer than the head, ventral 
attached along its entire inner edge to the abdomen : caudal cut square. Scales — absent. Colours — brownish, 
with or without white dots : fins stained dark at their edges, sometimes spotted, the caudal with a white edge. 

One of Bloch Schneider's specimens of Synanceia uranoscopa, in spirit, was shown me at Berlin as his 
type, it was identical with that described above. In the description he states it possesses D. 31 (probably a 
misprint for D. 21), and A. 20 (perhaps for 10, the first short ray having been overlooked). His specimen came 
from Tranquebar. 

Jerdon (M. J. L. & Sc. 1851, p. 141) observes that this fish is termed Cul toumbi, Tam. at Madras, and 
is not very uncommon. 

Habitat. — Seas and estuaries of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining at least 5 inches 
in length. 



FAMILY, VIII— TEUTHIDILVE. 165 



Family, VIII— TETJTHIDIDJE, Cuv. 

Teutliyes, pt. Cuv. 

Branchiostegals five : pseudobranchiaa well developed. Body oval and strongly compressed. Eyes of 
moderate size, lateral. Mouth slightly cleft, and but little protractile. A single row of cutting incisors in 
either jaw : palate edentulous. One dorsal fin with the spinous portion more developed than the soft : anal 
with seven spines. Ventrals thoracic, with two spines and three intermediate soft rays. Scales minute. 
A complete lateral line, but no armature, on the side of the free portion of the tail. Air-vessel present. 
Pyloric appendages few. 

Several different opinions have been advanced respecting the position this family of Acanthopterygian 
fishes should hold. Cuv. and Val. placed them after their Mcenidce and next to their Acanthuridce. Swainson 
observed (Fishes, ii, p. 247) : " the procumbent advanced spine before the dorsal induces me to place this genus 
between Seriola and Caranx rather than with the Acanthuri." 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL GENUS. 
1. Teuthis. — Definition as in the family. 

Genus, 1 — Teuthis,* Linn. 

Siganus, Forsk. : Centrogaster, Houtt. : Amphacanthus, Bl. Schn. : Euro, (Comm.) Lace'p. 

Branchiostegals five : pseudobranchim. Body oval, strongly compresssd. Teeth small, denticulated. A single 
dorsal fin with thirteen spines as ivell as a horizontal one anteriorly ; anal with seven ; each ventral with two, an outer 
and an inner one,having three intermediate rays. Scales minute, cycloid. Air-vessel large, forked both anteriorly and 
posteriorly. Pyloric appendages when present^ few (4-6). 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Teuthis Java. Neutral tint, with grey rounded spots on head, and along the back, becoming more 
elongated on the sides and lineated on the abdomen. Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

2. Teuthis vermiculata. Light brown, with undulating bluish lines, about one-fourth as wide as the 
ground colour. Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

3. Teuthis marmorata. More elongated than the last, colours much the same, but the blue lines are 
narrower and become sinuously-longitudinal on the sides. Seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

4. Teuthis virgata. Oblique lines and spots on the snout, blue spots on the upper third of the body : a 
wide brown blue-edged ocular band, and another from the spinous dorsal to the base of the pectoral fin. An- 
damans to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

5. Teuthis concatenata. Blue bands on the head : orange spots over the body. Andamans to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

6. Teuthis margaritifera. Brownish-olive, with scattered small blue spots, and a dark shoulder-mark : 
some marks and lines on the vertical fins. Andamans to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

7. Teuthis sutor. Body higher, otherwise very similar to the last. Spots larger, those on the sides with 
a dark centre : a dark shoulder-mark. Seychelles and Malabar. 

8. Teuthis cramin. White spots over the body : a dark shoulder-mark and barred caudal fin. Seas of 
India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

9. Teuthis stellata. Greyish, with purplish angular spots : a dark shoulder-mark sometimes present. 
Red Sea through those of India. 

1. Teuthis Java, Plate XXXIX, fig. 5. 

Teuthis Java, Linn. Syst. i, p. 507 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1362 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 207 ; Giinther, Catal. iii, 
p. 315 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 125. 

Sparus spinus ? Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 2, and Worahwaii, pi. 102. 

Amphacanihus Javus, Cuv. and Val. x, p. 118 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Teuth. p. 9 : Schleg. and 
Mull. Verh. Nat. Ges. Overz. Bezitt, p. 10 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 205. 

Ottah, Tam. : Thar-oar-dah, Andam. ; Woralwah, Tel. 

B. v, D. U, P. 18, V. 2/3, A. |, C. 19. 

Length of head 4/21, of pectoral 1/6, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3/8 to 4/11 of the total length. Eyes— 

* Worah. Tam. ; Nga-pron-ha, Mugh. f Riippell states that in T. sigana they are absent. 



16G ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

diameter 1/3 to 2/7 in the length of head, lj diameters from end of snout and also apart. Interorbital space 
rather elevated, with a central shallow groove which narrows anteriorly : anterior superior edge of orbit serrated. 
The maxilla extends to below the posterior nostril : horizontal edge of preopercle roughened. The height of 
the soft portion of the cheek equals that of the orbit, whilst it is one-half wider than deep. Teeth — generic. 
Fins — dorsal sprues strong, their base occupying five-sevenths of that of the entire fin, the spines increase in 
length to the fourth, which is as long as the head excluding the snout, and slightly higher than the rays, from 
it they decrease to the last which equals the length of the snout : soft portion of fin (as well as of the anal) 
obliquely rounded : anal spines strong, increasing in length to the third which equals the longest in the 
dorsal fin, from thence they decrease to the sixth, but the seventh is longer and equal to the third : caudal 
emarginate, its central rays being equal to two-thirds of the length of the longest of the outer ones. Scales — 
minute. Colours — head, back, and sides of a dark brownish neutral tint, becoming lighter on the abdomen. 
On the head and back many pale grey rounded spots, becoming more elongated on the sides and abdomen. The 
upper spots are not so wide as the ground colour. No streaks on the head as a rule, but to this there are excep- 
tions, and in some instances the cheeks are reticulated : fins immaculate. 

This doubtless is Hepatus, Gronov. Zooph. t. 8, fig. 4, and probably Aw/pliacanth/us Mussellii, Bleeker. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. Jerdon (M. J. L. and S. 1851, p. 138) 
mentions having procured both of Russell's species at Madras. 

2. Teuthis vermiculata, Plate XL, fig. 1. 

Amphacanthus vermiculatus, (Kuhl. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. x, p. 126 : Mull, and Schleg. Verh. 
Overz. Bez. Vissch. p. 11, pi. 3, fig. 3 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Teuth. p. 11. 

Teuthis vermiculata, Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 317 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 123. 
Kut-e-rah, Mai. : Chow-lucl-dah, Andam. 
B. v, D. ¥ -_ ) P . 16> v. 2/3, A. / ¥ , C. 17. 

Length of head about 1/5, of caudal 2/13, height of body 3/7 to 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
3| in the length of head, upwards of 1^ diameters from end of snout, and If apart. The maxilla reaches 
about half way to below the front edge of the orbit. Angle of preopercle slightly produced. Teeth — generic. 
Fins — Dorsal spines strong and occupying five-sevenths of the length of the base of the entire fin, from the 
fourth they are of about the same height, equalling half the length of the head, but are not so high as the first 
few rays : rayed portion of the fin angular : anal of the same form as the dorsal, but the spines are stronger and 
occupy three-fifths of the entire base of the fin, they are of about the same height from the third, equalling half 
the length of the head : pectoral two-fifths of the height of the body and longer than the ventral which does not 
quite reach the anal fin : caudal shghtly emarginate. Scales — minute, but distinct over the body and cheeks. 
Colours — light brown, running into bluish green on the back, and nearly white on the abdomen. The whole of 
the body, head, and lips are lineated with undulating bluish lines of about one-fourth the width of the ground 
colour, being broadest near the abdomen : caudal fin with brown lines. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, Malay Archipelago and beyond, attaining at least 11 inches in length. 

3. Teuthis marmorata, Plate XL, fig. 2. 

Amphacanthus marmoratus, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Uranie, Zool. p. 367, pi. 62, fig. 1 ; Cuv. and Val. x, p. 
124 ; Kner, Xovara Fische, p. 208. 

Teuthis marmorata, Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 322. 

Teuthis striolata, Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 319, and Garrett, Fische d. Sudsee, t. 59, fig. A. 

B. v, D. U, P. 18, V. 2/3, A. f, C. 17. 

Length of head 3/16 to 1/5, of caudal 1/7, height of body 3/10 to 2/7 of the total length, ^yes- 
diameter 1/3 of length of head, 1 to 1\ diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Interorbital space nearly 
flat, edge of orbit entire. The maxilla reaches to nearly below the hind nostril. The soft portion of the cheek 
(between the orbit, preopercular limb, and hind edge of preorbital and maxilla) is as high as the orbit, and but 
slightly longer than high. Teeth — generic. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, increasing to the fourth 
and subsequently decreasing from the seventh, the highest spines equalling the length of the head behind the 
first third of the eyes, and being half as long again as the soft portion of the fin which is rounded : pectorals 
as long as the head excluding its post-orbital portion : ventral reaches more than half way to the anal : anal 
spines increase in length to the third, (which equals half the length of the head,) from whence they decrease to 
the last, which equals two-fifths of the same extent : caudal lobed, upper lobe the longer. Colours — brownish, 
covered all over the back with blue vermiculated lines, which become sinuously-longitudinal along the sides : 
head covered with similar lines. Dorsal, anal, and caudal with sinuous brown lines : pectorals yellow. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

4. Teuthis virgata, Plate XL, fig. 3. 
Anvphacanthus virgatus, Cuv. and Val. x, p. 133 ; Mull, and Schleg. Verh. Overz. Bez. Vissch. p. 14, pi. 
3, fig. 1 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiii, Teuth. p. 11 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 209. 
Teuthis virgata, Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 323. 
Tah-meer-dah, Andam. 



FAMILY, VIII— TEUTHIDID^E. 167 

B. v, D. {%, P. 17, V. 2/3, A. f C. 17, Ccec. pyl. 4. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 2/9, height of body 2/5 to 3/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/3 
of length of head, 1J diameters from end of snout, and If apart. A slight protuberance over the eyes : no 
serrations to orbit. The maxilla reaches to below the posterior nostril. Angle of preopercle slightly produced. 
Teeth — generic. Fins — dorsal spines rather strong, increasing in length to the fifth, from whence they remain 
of about the same height to the seventh, after which they decrease ; the longest spines equal that of the head 
excluding the snout, and are of the same height as the longest of the rays, the soft portion rather angular : 
pectoral as long as the head excluding its post-orbital portion : ventral does not reach the anal : anal spines 
increase in length to the fourth, from which they continue of about the same length, or equal to the longest in 
the dorsal fin : caudal emarginate. Scales — minute. Colours — some oblique blue lines and spots on the snout. 
Upper two-thirds of body coppery yellow, covered with round blue spots, and having blue lines on the head. 
A brown band, as wide as orbit, extends from before the dorsal fin through the eye to below the jaws ; a second 
from the sixth and seventh dorsal spines to the base of the pectoral, both these bands are edged with blue. 
Fins yellowish. 

Habitat. — Andamans (where the specimen figured was taken) to the Malay Archipelago, and beyond. 

5. Tenthis concatenata, Plate XL, fig. 4. 

Arnphacanthus concatenatus, Cuv. and Val. x, p. 127 ; Bleeker, Amboina, p. 46. 
Teuthis concatenata, Cantor, Catal. p. 208 ; Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 316. 
Thar-oar-dah, Andam. 

B. v, D. fi, P. 18, V. 2/3, A. f, C. 18, Ccec. pyl. 5-6, Vert. 10/13. 

Length of head 4/19, of caudal 4/21, height of body 3/8 to 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 13 
of length of head, 1J diameters from end of snout, and If apart. Dorsal profile more convex than that of the 
abdomen. Interorbital space with a broad shallow groove along its whole extent, bounded on either side by a 
low ridge : anterior-superior angle of the orbit feebly serrated : preopercular angle slightly produced. Soft 
portion of the cheek as deep as wide, and equal to 1 diameter of the orbit. Teeth — generic. Fins — dorsal 
spines increase in length to the fifth, which equals the length of the head excluding the snout; they subsequently 
slightly decrease to the twelfth, but the last is a little longer : soft portion of dorsal and anal fins angular and 
rather higher than the longest spine : pectoral almost as long as the head : ventral reaches the anal spines : 
anal spines increase in length "to the third, which equals the highest in the dorsal fin, the last spine is a little 
longer : caudal emarginate. Scales — larger than in most of the known species. Colours — dark, greyish-brown, 
covered all over with light orange spots, which along the back are larger than the interspaces, but decrease in 
size towards the abdomen. A broad blue band extends from below the orbit to the angle of the mouth, and 
another passes along the preopercle : brown spots on the caudal fin. 

Habitat. — Andaman islands and Malay Archipelago. 

6. Teuthis margaritifera, Plate XL, fig. 5. 

AmpJuicanthus margaritiferus, Cuv. and Val. x, p. 145 ; Bleeker, Java, iv, p. 334 ; Kner, Novara Fische, 
p. 206. 

Teuthis margaritifera, Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 317. 

B. v, D. if, P. 17, V. 2/3, A. |, C. 17, Vert. 10/13. 

Length of head 4/21, of caudal 2/11, height of body 4/13 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/3 of length of head, 1J diameters from end of snout, and also apart. Dorsal and abdominal profiles equally 
convex. The maxilla reaches to below the posterior nostril. Interorbital space nearly flat : no serrations along 
the edge of orbit. Soft portions of the cheek two-thirds as high as the orbit is long, and half longer than high. 
Angle of preopercle slightly produced. Teeth — generic. Fins— dorsal spines rather weak, increasing in length 
to the fifth which is a little above half the length of the head and one-third longer than the rays, subsequently 
they decrease to the last which equals the diameter of the orbit in length : pectoral rather pointed and as long 
as the head excluding its post-orbital portion : ventral does not reach the anal spines : third and fourth anal 
spines slightly longer than the second and equal to the third of the dorsal fin, from thence they decrease to the 
last which equals If diameter of the orbit in length : caudal lobed, the upper the longer, central caudal rays 
two-thirds as long as the longest of the outer ones. Scales — minute. Colours — brownish-olive, with small 
scattered blue spots on the back and sides, much smaller than the interspaces : a dark oval shoulder-mark : 
some dark lines on the spinous dorsal : soft dorsal and anal with brown spots. 

Habitat. — Andamans to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

7. Teuthis sutor. 
? Euro brunneus, Comm. V. 
Amphacanthus sutor, Cuv. and Val. x, p. 148. 

Teuthis sutor, Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 317; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 126. 
Teuthis margaritifera, Playfair, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 855 (not Cuv. and Val.), 



168 ACAXTHOPTERYGII. 

B. v, D. i^d, P. 16, V. 2/3, A. t^,,, C. 17. 

Length of head 2/11, of caudal 2/11, height of body 4/11 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/7 of 
length of head, 1J diameters from end of snout, and If apart. The maxilla reaches to below the front nostril. 
Anterior-superior edge of orbit indistinctly serrated. Fins — fifth dorsal spine the longest and equal to half the 
length of the head, from it they decrease to the last -which equals If diameters of the orbit in length : third 
anal spine the longest equalling half the length of the head, from it they decrease to the last which is only 
two-fifths of the same distance : caudal emarginate, the central rays two and a quarter in the length of the 
outer ones. Colours — light brown, with pale blue spots, those in the middle of the side being the largest and 
having brown centres : a dark blotch on the shoulder. 

In Cut. and Val. it is observed as closely resembling A. margaritiferus, but haTing its pectorals a little 
more short and rounded. 

Habitat. — Seychelles and coast of Malabar : the foregoing description is from Colonel Playfair's specimen, 
11 inches in length, captured at the Seychelles. 

8, Teuthis oramin, Plate XL, fig. 6. 

Amphacanthus guttatus, var. oramin, Bl. Schn. p. 207, t. 48. 

Amphacanthus albopunctatus, Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. Poiss. p. 128. 

Teuthis brevirostris, GronoT. ed. Gray, p. 142. 

Teuthis oramin, Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 318. 

Teuthis albopunctata, Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 318. 

B. v, D. H-, P. 1G, V. 2/3, A. I, C. 17. 

Length of head from 4f to 5f , of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/3 to 3f in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 2| in the length of head, 1 to If diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Interorbital space flat, 
anterior-superior edge of the orbit Tery finely serrated. The maxilla reaches to below the posterior nostril. 
The preopercular angle slightly produced : the soft portion of the cheek as high as the orbit and half longer than 
high. Teeth — generic. Fims — dorsal spines rather weak, increasing in length to the fourth which equals the 
length of the head excluding the snout, and is nearly twice as long as the rays, subsequently they decrease to the 
last which is only two-fifths of the length of the head : pectoral as long as the head excluding its postorbital 
portion : ventrals do not reach the anal : anal spines increase to the third and fourth which equal the highest in 
the dorsal fin, they subsequently decrease to the last which equals If diameters of the orbit in length : caudal 
with pointed lobes, the central rays being equal to two-thirds of the length of the outer ones. Scales — Tery 
minute. Colours — oliTaceous, with indistinct longitudinal stripes in the upper half of the body, below silvery- 
white. A round black shoulder spot, and a black spot at the top of the eye : numerous pearl white spots on the 
upper half of the body. Dorsal fin spotted with brown : caudal with four or five vertical bars and a black outer 
edge. Spinous portion of anal with large black spots, the soft irregularly lineated : pectorals orange. In 
specimens over 7 or 8 inches in length, the markings on the fins generally become obsolete, the white spots on 
the body decrease in number, and have a blue tinge. The shoulder spot becomes dark, but the spot on the 
upper edge of the eye remains. 

The black shoulder sjoot has been omitted in Bl. Schneider's figure, which otherwise is not incorrect : 
when freshly captured the bars across the caudal fin are very distinct. 

Dr. Giinther observes, " Professor Peters has informed us that the dried typical specimen mentioned by 
Schneider appears to have been lost." (1. c. p. 318). It must however be added that Schneider's specimen in 
spirit is still in good preservation at Berlin. 

Habitat. — Common along the coasts of India, attaining at least nine inches in length. If it is the same 
as Amphaccmthus dorsalis, G.V.=Teuthis clorsalis, Cantor, it would appear to be found at Pinang and Java. 

9. Teuthis stellata. 
Scams stellatus, Forsk. p. 26, No. 10. 

Amphacanthus stellatus, Bl. Schn. p. 209 ; Riipp. N. W. Fische, p. 129. 
Avvphacanthus punctatus, Riipp. Atl. Fische, p. 46, pi. 11, f. 2 (not Bl. Schn.) 
Ampliacanthus nuchalis, Cuv. and Val. x, p. 140. 
Teuthis stellata, Giinther, Catal. iii, p. 320. 

B. v, D. i%, P. 16, V. 2/3, A. |, C. 19. 

Length of head nearly 1/4, of caudal 1/4, height of body about 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/3 of length of head, H diameters from end of snout, and If apart. The maxilla reaches to below the hind 
nostril. Fins — fourth dorsal spine the highest, soft dorsal and anal rather pointed : last anal spine the longest : 
caudal deeply lobed, the upper the longer. Colours — greyish, covered all over with small angular spots of a 
purplish-brown colour : a greenish-yellow spot in front of the dorsal fin : a dark shoulder spot sometimes present : 
dorsal and anal fins spotted with brown, the border of the soft rays and of the caudal yellowish. 

A specimen in the Calcutta Museum from the Red Sea has fine white upper edges and dark lower ones 
to the spots on the body. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, through those of India. 



FAMILY, IX— BERYC1TLE. 169 



Family, IX— BEKYCIMJ, Lowe, 

Holocentrince, pt. Swainson. 

Branchiostegals from four to eight : pseudobranchiae present. Form of body oblong 1 , or rather elevated 
and compressed. Opereles more or less armed. Head with large muciferous cavities. Eyes large, kteral. 
Cleft of mouth more or less oblique, extending to the sides of the muzzle. Teeth more or less villiform in 
both jaws, and usually so on the palate. Dorsal fin, when single, having the spinous portion of less extent 
than the soft, or with isolated spines in front of the fin : or there may be two dorsals, the first being spinous. 
Ventrals thoracic, each with either less or more than five soft rays. Scales ctenoid, seldom bony or absent : 
none on the head. Pyloric appendages numerous or in moderate numbers. 

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA. 

1. Myripristis. BrancHostegals seven to eight. Bones of the head serrated, no large spine at the angle 
of the preopercle. Tropical seas. 

2. Holocentrum. BrancHostegals eight. Bones of the head serrated : a long, strong, spine at the angle of 
the preopercle. Tropical seas. 

Genus, 1 — Mtripkistis, Cuv. 

Branchiostegals usually eight, more rarely seven : pseudobranchiae well developed. Eyes large, mostly lateral. 
Muzzle short, lower jaw prominent. Cleft of mouth oblique, in one species horizontal. Opercular pieces serrated : 
opercle generally with one spine, none on the preopercle. Teeth villiform on jaws, vomer, and palatines, there may be 
an outer widely separated row of small obtusely conical ones in the jaws. Two dorsal fins, scarcely united: ventral 
ivith one spine and seven rays : anal with four spines : caudal forked. Scales large, ctenoid. Air-vessel transversely 
contracted near its centre. Pyloric appendages in moderate numbers. 

Although considerable prominence has been given to the presence or absence of black marks on the fins 
in species of this genus, I am convinced that it is subject to great variation, and present or absent in the same 
species. 

Geographical distribution. — Tropical seas. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Myripristis botche, D. 10 ] -j-jlTe-, A. t^-ts^ L. 1. 28-30, L. tr. 3/7f. Soft dorsal, anal, and caudal black 
edged, first dorsal also often more or less black. A dark opercular and axillary mark. East coast of Africa, 
seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

2. Myripristis murdjan, D. 10 | T-g-Ts> &-• ts-tsj J-*. 1. 28-30, L. tr. 3§/7-§. Red, with a dark mark at the 
gills and axilla. East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Myripristis botche, Plate XLI, fig. 1. 

Sparus botche, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 4, pi. cv. 

Myripristis botche, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 181 ; (Bleeker, Perc. p. 52, Kner, Novara Fische, p. 5, t. i, f. 1, 
not synon.)* 

Myripristis adustus, Bleeker, Amboina, p. 108, Revis. Myrip. 1871, p. 16 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 22 ; 
Playfair, Fish. Zanzibar, p. 51. 

B. viii, D. 10 | t^^., P. 15, V. 1/7, A. 1 ** r? , C. 19, L. 1. 28-30, L. tr. 3/7£. 

Length of head 4/15, of caudal nearly 1/5, height of body nearly 1/3 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 2\ to 2| in the length of the head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 apart or nearly 1/4 
in the length of the head. Head slightly longer than high. Chin prominent : the maxilla, which is not 
denticulated, reaches to below the last third of the orbit. Under surface of lower jaw roughly and irregularly 
furrowed : pre- and sub-orbitals serrated, also both limbs of the preopercle : a moderately strong opercular 
spine with two or three above and below it ; the lower half of the opercle, the sub- and the inter-opercles 
serrated. Teeth — villiform. Fins — dorsal spines weak, the longest being half the length of the head : second 
dorsal higher than the first : pectoral equals the length of the head behind the front third of the orbit : the 
ventral reaches two-thirds of the way to the anal : fourth anal spine the longest and equalling the diameter of 
the orbit but not so strong as the third : caudal forked. Scales — seven to eight rows anterior to the dorsal fin : 
seven along the preopercle : two entire and two half rows between the lateral-line and the base of the dorsal 
fin. Free portion of the tail rather higher than long. Colours — scarlet, the edges of the scales violet, more 
especially above the lateral-line : longitudinal bands, alternately lighter and darker along each row of scales. 
First dorsal black, or black with a light longitudinal band, or simply rose-coloured : the other fins pinkish, with 
the outer third of the soft dorsal, anal, and caudal lobes black, which amount is sometimes reduced to a mere 

* This species has been named M. macrolepis by Bleeker, Revis. Myr. p. IS. 



170 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

spot. A deep black spot behind the gill-opening, a dark mark in the axilla. In some rare instances a dark 
spot may exist on the upper edge of the eye. 

I have only collected two species of this genus on the Coromandel coast of India (see pi. xli.), and am 
of opinion that they are the two that Russell (plates civ. and cv.) obtained from the same place. Russell 
distinctly shows one has a band on its eye, pi. civ. (see also pi. xli. f. 2.) The one with the banded eye is by far 
the commonest, and I consider it as M. murdjan. 

The second species is easily recognised by its more or less black fins, and appears to be M. adustue. 
Admitting that Russell's description does not coincide, neither does it with his own figure. He gives B. viii, 
D- H (ii). p - 15 > V ' V 7 (s)> a - t (to"), 0. 21 ; his figure gives D. ±i A. ■&, demonstrating that his numbers 
are not trustworthy. 

Jerdon (M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 131) observes: " Myripristis botche, C. V. Mooncla kun kakasi, Tarn. 
Russell, 105." 

Dr. Giinther, Catal. i, p. 21, considers Russell's fish (pi. cv.) is identical with M. murdjan, but Bleeker 
points out that the colours in the two are very differently disposed on the fins. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen 
figured is 8f inches in length and from the Coromandel coast of India. It is not nearly so common as the 
M. murdjan. 

,•• 

2. Myripristis murdjan, Plate XLI, fig. 2. 

Scicena murdjan, Porsk. p. 48 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1301. 

Perca murdjan, Bl. Schn. p. 86 ; Lacep. pp. 396, 418. 

Sparus sullaneroo-kuntee, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 3, pi. civ. 

Myripristis murdjan, Rupp. Pische Roth. Meer. p. 86, t. xxiii, f. 2, and N. W. F. p. 95 ; Cuv. and Val. iii, 
p. 177 and vii, p. 495; Bleeker, Amb. p. 109, and Revis. Myrip. 1871, p. 11; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 21; Kner, 
Novara Fische, p. 4; Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 51 (part); Klunz. Fische Roth. Meer, Verb., z. b. Ges. Wien, 
1870, p. 726. 

Myripristis melanophrys, Swains. Fish, ii, p. 207. 

B. viii, D. 10 | „!„, P. 15, V. 1/7, A. ^i^, C. 19, L. 1. 28-30, L. tr. 3|/7|. 

Length of head 3j to 3|, of caudal from 1/5 to 2/9, height of body from 1/3 to 3j in the total length. 
Eyes — diameter 2j to 2\ in length of head, 1/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and about 1/2 a diameter apart, 
the width of the interorbital space equalling from 1/4 to 4j in the length of the head. Posterior edge of hind 
nostril usually serrated in the young. Lower jaw slightly the longer, having a rough, nipple-like projection on 
either side of the symphysis. The maxilla reaches to beneath the last third of the orbit, it has some blunt 
denticulations on its front near its lower end. Under surface of lower jaw furrowed by ten or twelve grooves : 
the maxilla, pre- sub- and inter-opercles also grooved. Preopercle serrated in its whole extent. Interopercle 
finely denticulated : opercle with a moderately strong spine, having a few denticulations above it, and the whole 
of its outer margin below it serrated. Sub-opercle with an emargination opposite the base of the pectoral fin. 
Shoulder-scale serrated. Upper surface of the head roughened by three or four raised lines, which, passing 
backwards, divide and subdivide, each terminating in a small spine. Teeth — villiform in the jaws, with an 
external row of widely separated ones which are larger and conically rounded, none on the tongue. Fins — 
dorsal spines increasing in length to the third which is about the same height as the three next or equal to one 
diameter of the orbit, the interspinous membrane rather deeply emarginate, front portion of the second dorsal 
higher than the first. Pectoral as long as the head behind, the middle of the eye in the adult, longer in the 
young : ventral reaches two-thirds of the distance to the anal. Third anal spine the strongest but the fourth 
the longest and equal to 2/5 to one-third in the length of the head : caudal forked. Free portion of the tail 
about as high at its base as it is long. Scales — about seven rows along the preopercle. Colours — roseate, gill 
openings deep brownish-black, or else like coagulated blood, a dark mark in the axilla. A dark vertical band 
through the eye, sometimes confined to above the pupil. Dorsal, caudal, and anal fins with milk-white outer 
edges ; a dark mark, often deep black, may be present or absent at the highest points of the soft dorsal and anal 
fins, also at the tips of the caudal. Rarely there is a dark mark along the first dorsal. Outer edge of ventral 
white. 

Myripristis kuntee, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 487, was considered in the Hist. Nat. des Poissons to be identical 
with Russell's fish, a conclusion doubted by Bleeker, whilst Dr. Giinther considers it closely allied to M. 
pralinius, C. V. 

Habitat. — From the Red Sea and East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago 
and beyond. The specimen figured is a little over 6 inches in length, and from Madras : my longest is 11 j inches 
long. It is very common at Madras especially about February. 

Genus, 2 — Holocentrum, Artedi. 
BhyncMchthys, Cuv. and Val. (young*) ; Gorniger, Agassiz. 

* The genus Rhynchichthys, Cut. and Val., is probably formed of the young of some of these species, and is distinguished by an 
elongated, pointed, and more or less transparent snout, the same as is perceived in some immature fresh water Indian siluroids. A small 



FAMILY, IX— BERYCIDiE. 171 

Branchiostegals eight. Eyes large, lateral. Jaws of equal length, or the lower slightly the longer : snout of 
moderate length. Opercles and suborbitals serrated : operate with two spines : generally a large spine at the angle of 
the preopercle. Villiform teeth on the jaivs, vomer, and palatines. Two dorsal fins scarcely united : ventral v;ith 
one spine and seven rays : anal with four spines, the third being long and strong : caudal forked. Scales ctenoid, of 
moderate size. Air-vessel oval and simple. Pyloric appendages numerous. 

Bleeker observes that amongst the characters by "which these fishes may be distinguished one from 
another, especial notice should be taken of the number of rows of scales on the preopercle, the relative height 
of the two last dorsal spines, and the presence or absence of spines at the margin of the nostrils or the end of 
the snont. To show that these intra- nasal spines are not invariable I would refer to H. Andamayiense, p. 172. 
It appears that in some at least of the species of Holocentrum, the comparative length of the preopercular spine 
to that of the body increases with age, whereas, as already observed (p. 9) in Serrani or Lutiani (p. 29), when 
one exists at this spot in the immature it becomes more or less absorbed in the adult. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Holocentrum diadema, D. 11 | -Jj, A. f , L. 1. 47-48, L. tr. 3/7. Width of interorbital space 1/4 of length 
of head. No intra-nasal or rostral spine. Red, with silvery bands. Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of 
India to China. 

2. Holocentrum Andamanense, D. 11 | 15, A. f- , L. 1. 42, L. tr. 2>\j7\. Width of interorbital space about 
1/5 of length of head. Intra-nasal spine present or absent : a rostral one bifid at its extremity. Uniform 
rosy-scarlet. "Audamans. 

3. Holocentrum caudimaculatum, D. 11 | 13-14, A. -|, L. 1. 40-43, L. tr. 3|/7|. Width of interorbital space 
about 1/5 of length of head. Intra-nasal and rostral spines present, Red, with longitudinal violet bands, a 
white spot on the free portion of the tail behind the end of the dorsal fin. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

4. Holocentrum rubrum, D. 11 | 12-13, A. f, L. 1. 35-39, L. tr. 3/6 L Width of interorbital space from 2/7 
to 1/4 of length of head. No intra-nasal spines, but rostral ones present. Red, with more or less longitudinal 
bands : fins sometimes with dark marks. 

5. Holocentrum sammara, D. 10 | TriT3> A. T t$, L. 1. 39-40, L. tr. 3/7. Width of interorbital space from 
3| to 1/4 of length of head. No intra-nasal spines, but rostral ones present. Red, with or without violet 
longitudinal bands : usually a dark mark between the first four dorsal spines, and a dark sjjot at the base of each 
spine : vertical fins usually with some dark markings. 

1. Holocentrum diadema. 

Holocentrus diadema, Lacep. iv, pp. 372, 374, pi. 32, fig. 3 ; Riippell, Atl. Fische, p. 84, t. xxii, f. 2. 

Holocentrum diadema, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 213 ; Less. Voy. Duperr. Zool. ii, p. 220, t. xxv, fig. 2 ; Bleeker, 
Moluc. p. 259, and Revis. Holoc. p. 13 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 42 ; Klunz. Fische Roth. Meer. Verh. z. b. Ges. 
Wien, 1870, p. 723. 

B. viii, D. 11 [ Jj, P. 13, V. 1/7, A. f, C. 19, L. 1. 47-48, L. tr. 3/7, Vert. 11/16. 

Length of head 2/7, of pectoral 2/9, of caudal 1/6, height of body 3^ to 3f in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 2 to 2i in the length of the head, 1/2 a diameter from the end of snout, and from 1/2 to 2/3 of a diameter 
apart, the width of the interorbital space being about 1/4 of the length of the head. The height of the head equals 
its length without the snout ; its width equals half its length. The maxilla reaches to below the anterior third 
of the orbit. Opercles, preorbital, and suborbitals denticulated, as is also the posterior half of the upper edge of 
the orbit. Lower edge of preorbital serrated and having a strong blunt spinate projection, directed downwards 
and forwards. Upper opercular spine the longest and strongest, but not equalling that on the preopercle. The 
posterior edge of the preopercle and the lower ones of the sub- inter- pre- and opercle spinate. No spines at 

specimen of Holocentrum .(H. platyrMnum, Klunz. 1^ inches long) exists in the Berlin Museum, and does not possess this elongation of 
the snout, the latter being nearly 1/2 a diameter of the eye in length. The following may be the fry of a Holocentrum ( ? rubra?)!). 

Rhynchichthys ornatus. 
Day, Proc. Zool. Society, 1868, p. 149. 
B. viii,D. 11/12, P. 15, V. 1/7, A. |, C. 17, L. 1. 38, L. tr. 3/7. 

Length of head 3J, o'f pectoral 1/6, height of body 34. in the total length. Eves— diameter 2/5 of length of head, 1/2 a diameter 
from end of snout, the width of the interorbital space equalling nearly 1/3 of the length of the head. Height of head nearly equal to 
its length. Upper jaw the longer, overhung by a projecting and transparent fnout. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the 
orbit. Preopercular spine equals about 1/2 the width of the orbit : the opercular pieces and shoulder-bone serrated, upper opercular 
spine the longer nearly equalling the length of that at the angle of the preopercle. Teeth— villiform. Pins— dorsal spines moderately- 
strong, the second and third the longest equalling half the height of the body and much higher than the rays, its last two spines of about 
equal height, interspinous membrane deeply cleft. Third anal spine longest and strongest, equalling the one at the angle of the 
preopercle, caudal slightly forked. Scales— seven rows between the occiput and dorsal fin, and also along the preopercle. Colours — 
bluish-silvery along the back and sides, rosy on the abdomen : dorsal orange, with black spines ; interspinous membrane between the 
first three spines and also between the sixth and last of a deep black colour, the other fins yellowish. 

Habitat. — Madras, to 1 £ inches in length. 

z 2 



. 172 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

nostrils nor end of snout. Fins — the fourth to the sixth dorsal spines the longest and equal to about half the 
height of the body, interspinous membrane deeply cleft : the two dorsal fins of about the same height. Ventral 
reaches the vent. Third anal spine the longest and equal from about 1/5 of the total length in young specimens 
to 1/6 in adults. Caudal forked. Scales — not fluted, eight rows between the occiput and the base of the dorsal 
fin : seven or eight rows along the preopercle. Colours — red, with from eight to eleven longitudinal silvery 
bands : spinous dorsal brownish black, having a white longitudinal band, the other fins rosy. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago, China and beyond. 

2. Holocentrum Andamanense, Plate XLI, fig. 3. 
Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 686. 
B. viii, D. 11 | 15, P. 17, V. 1/7, A. a C. 22, L. 1. 42, L. tr. 3^/7%. 

Length of head 4/13 to 2/7, of caudal 1/6, height of body 3j to 3J in the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 to 3| in length of head; 1 diameter from end of snout, and 3/4 apart, the width of the interorbital space 
being not quite 1/5 of that of the head. Height of head equals its length behind the posterior nostril : dorsal 
profile' over the eyes slightly concave. Lower jaw a little the longer. The maxilla reaches to below the first 
third or middle of the orbit. The posterior process of the premaxillary extends to opposite the first third of the 
eye. Vertical and horizontal limbs of preopercle. rather finely denticulated, and with an entire but fluted spine 
at its angle as long or 1/2 longer than the orbit. Opercle with two or three flat spines, the upper or central one 
being the longest, the margin of the opercle below it spinate. Sub- and inter-opercles wholly or partially 
serrated : preorbital with two or three triangular tooth-like processes directed downwards along its lower border, 
and the interspace serrated. Shoulder-bone rather strongly serrated. A spine directed inwards and rather 
upwards at the left nostril of one specimen, not on the right side nor in the other specimen, a bifid spine on 
either side at end of snout. Teeth — villiform, none on the tongue. Fins — third to fifth dorsal spines the highest 
and equal to the length of the postorbital portion of the head, the last spine much the shortest being less than 
half the diameter of the orbit in height, interspinous membrane very slightly notched. Pectoral reaching to 
the thirteenth scale. Third anal spine the strongest and equal to 1/6 of the total length. Caudal deeply forked. 
Free portion of the tail as high at its commencement as it is long. Scales — 3J rows between the lateral line and 
the dorsal spines, six before the dorsal fin, and seven or eight rows along the preopercle. Colours — uniform 
rosy-scarlet. 

Habitat. — Andamans, from whence two specimens were procured, the longest (figured) being nine inches 
in length. 

3. Holocentrum caudimaculatum. 

Holocentrus spinifer, Rupp. Atl. p. 86, t. xxiii, fig. 1 (not N. W. Fische, p. 97). 
Holocentrus caudimaculatus, Rupp. N. W. Fische, p. 97. 
Holocentrum spiniferum, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 206, vii, p. 498. 
Holocentrus ruber, Bennett, Fish. Ceylon, p. 4, t. iv. 

Holocentrum caudimaculatum, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 41, and Garrett, Fische d. Sudsee, p. 95 ; Playfair, 
P. Z. S. 1867, p. 855 ; Klunz. Fische Roth. Meer, 1870, p. 724; Bleeker, Revis. Holoc. p. 22. 
Holocentrum leonoides, Bleeker, Celebes, p. 71, and Perc. p. 54. 

B. viii, D. 11 | 13-14, P. 14, V. 1/7, A. f, C. 19, L. 1. 40-43, L. tr. 3j/7|. 

Length of head 3|, of pectoral 1/5, of caudal 4|, height of body 1/3 to 3j in the total length. Fyes — 
diameter 2/5 to 1/3 of the length of head, from 1/2 to 2/3 of a diameter apart and also from the end of snout, 
the width of the interorbital space about 1/5 of the length of the head. Height of the head equals its length 
excluding the snout, and its width equals half its length. Jaws of about equal length anteriorly, the maxilla 
reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Preorbital serrated and anteriorly with a rather large blunt spine 
pointing downwards. Opercular bones serrated, the upper opercular spine the longer : the preopercular spine 
as long as or longer than the orbit. Shoulder-bone serrated. Two intra-nasal spines. Teeth — villiform. Fins — 
the fourth dorsal spine the longest and equal to about 2/5 of the height of the body, but not so high as the soft 
dorsal : dorsal interspinous membrane rather deeply emarginate. Third anal spine longest and strongest 
equalling about 2/9 of the total length. Caudal forked. Scales — seven or eight rows between the occiput and 
the base of the dorsal fin : seven or eight rows along the preopercle. Colours — red, more or less longitudinally 
banded with violet, and having a white spot over the free portion of the tail behind the end of the dorsal fin. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

4. Holocentrum rubrum, Plate XLI, fig. 4. 

Sciama rubra, Forsk. p. 48 (not Bl. Schn.) 
Perca ritbra, BL Schn. p. 90. 
Perca praslin, Lacep. iv, p. 418. 
Holocentre tetracanthe, Lacep. iv, p. 334. 

Holocentrum alborubrum, Lacep. iv, p. 372 ; Richards. Ich. China, p. 223 ; Bleeker, Fish. Ind. Arch. p. 2. 
Holocentrus ruber, Riippell, Atl. p. 83, t. xxii, f. 1, and N". W. Fische, p. 96. 

Holocentrum Orientale, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 197, vii, p. 497; Bleeker, Perc. p. 53; Jerdon, M. J. L. and 
Sc. 1851, p. 131. 

Holocentrum marginatum et laticeps, Cuv. and Val. iii, pp. 216, 211, and vii, p. 500 (not Giinther). 



FAMILY, IX— BERYCIDJB. 173 

Holocentrum spinosissimum, Rich. Ich. China, p. 223 (not Tern, and Schleg.). 

Hole/centrum rubrum, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 35, and Garrett, Fische d. Sudsee, p. 96 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, 
p. 1 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 7 ; Playfair, Fish. Zanz. p. 52 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 722 ; 
Bleeker, Revis. Hoi. 1871, p. 27. 

Cul-kah-catchee, Tarn. 

B. viii, D. 11 | 12-13, P. 15, V. 1/7, A. f, C. 19, L. 1. 35-39, L. tr. 3/6|, Case. pyl. 20, Vert. 11/16. 

Length of head 2/7 to 3|, of caudal 2/13, height of body 2>\ to 3| in the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 to 2f in the length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from the end of snout, 3/4 of a diameter apart, the width of 
the interorbital space equalling from 2/7 to 1/4 of the length of the head. The maxilla reaches to below the 
centre of the orbit. The posterior process of the premaxillary shorter than the diameter of the eye. Upper 
surface of the head roughened with sinuous lines which posteriorly end in spinate points. Suborbital ring of 
bones narrow, fluted and serrated in their whole extent. Preopercle likewise fluted along its vertical limb, 
having a strong spine as long as the orbit at its angle and serrated along both limbs. Opercle evenly fluted, 
armed with two spines (the lower being the shorter) and its outer edge strongly serrated : sub- and inter- 
opercles fluted and denticulated : shoulder-bones denticulated. Snout with two sharp nipple-shaped spines on 
the preorbital and intermediate serrations : no spines at nostrils. Teeth — villiform. Fins — dorsal spines strong, 
the third to the fifth the longest, the third equalling half the height of the body, but not so high as the soft 
portion of the fin. Pectoral reaches to the twelfth scale of the lateral-line, and the ventral three-fourths of 
the way to the anus. Third anal spine very strong, its height equalling about 2/3 of the height of the body, 
whilst it is 2/9 to 1/5 longer than the fourth spine. Caudal forked. Scales — six or seven rows between the 
occiput and the base of the first dorsal fin : seven rows along the preopercle. Colours — in the young silvery 
white with longitudinal dull rosy bands from the opercles, the second and third coalescing. In the adult it is 
red with seven or eight silvery bands. Head more or less rosy as are also the fins. Occasionally there is a 
little dark about the latter. 

In the Fishes of Zanzibar, " Var. b, has a large black blotch at the base of the soft dorsal and anal, a 
third at the root of the caudal, and a fourth at the axil of the pectoral. This is clearly identical with that 
described by Bleeker as H. melanospilos. These varieties are structurally identical, and the difference in 
coloration is probably a sexual one ; one specimen of Var. b proved to be a male fish, at or near spawning time.'' 
(p. 52). 

Respecting colour, the one I have figured, destitute of any black, was a male. Jerdon's specimen (sem- 
poora.m, Tarn.) has a black spot at the base of both soft dorsal and anal fins, and a third above the superior 
opercular spine, whilst the margin of the preopercle is dark-edged ; it has no vestige of a spine inside the nostril, 
as exists in Holocentrum melanospilus, Bleeker. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

5. Holocentrum sammara. 

Scicena sammara, Forsk. p. 48 ; Lacep. iv, p. 314. 
Perca sammara, Bl. Schn. p. 89. 
Labrus angulosus, Lacep. iii, p. 430, t. xxii, f. 1. 
Holocentrus sammara, Riipp. Atl. Fische, p. 85, t. xxii, f. 3. 

Holocentrum sammara, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 216 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 33, Amb. p. 555, and Revis. Holoc. 
p. 16 ; Giinther, Catal. i, p. 46 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 9 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1870, p. 720. 
Holocentrum Ghristianum, (Ehren.) Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 219. 
? Holocentrum lave, Giinther, Catal. i, p. 47. 
Holocentrum Tahiticum, Kner, Novara Fische, p. 9, t. i, f. 2. 

B. viii, D. 10 | ^1-nr, P. 14, V. 1/7, A. T %, C. 19, L. 1. 39-40, L. tr. 3/7, Vert. 11/16. 

Length of head 3£ to 3|, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3j to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2f to 1/3 in the length of head, 2/3 of a diameter from end of snout, and also apart, the interorbital space 
being equal to 3| to 1/4 of the length of the head. The height of the head equals its length excluding the 
snout : its width equals half its length. The lower jaw the longer : the maxilla reaches to below the middle 
< f the eye. Both limbs of the preopercle serrated in their entire extent, the length of the preopercular spine 
equals about 1/3 of the diameter of the orbit. The external edges of all the opercles more or less serrated : 
two spines on the opercle, the upper of which is as large as the preopercular one, the lower rather smaller. 
Preorbital denticulations strong : suborbital likewise serrated. No spine at nostrils nor at the end of the snout. 
Shoulder-bone striated and serrated. Teeth — villiform. Fins — the dorsal spines from the second to the fourth 
are of about the same height and equal to If in that of the body, subsequently they decrease to the tenth which 
is one-fourth of their height : interspinous membrane deeply emarginate : second dorsal highest anteriorly and 
rather higher than the highest dorsal spine. Pectoral nearly equals the head excluding the snout. Ventral 
reaches half way to the anal. Third anal spine strongest and longest, equalling from 5| to 4i in the total 
length. Caudal forked. Scales — six to seven rows between the occiput and the base of the dorsal fin : seven 
along the preopercle. Colours — body with or without longitudinal violet bands, which may be composed of 
spots. A black spot may be present on either cheek. Usually a black spot between the first four dorsal spines, 
and sometimes a light mark between the bases of each spine. Anterior edge of soft dorsal and anal, also 
usually upper and lower edge of caudal, violet. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 



174 ACANTH0PTERYGI1. 



Family, X— KUKTIM1. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchiffi absent. Body oblong and compressed. Eyes large. The 
infraorbital bones do not articulate with the preopercle. Cleft of mouth oblique: lower jaw prominent. 
Villiform teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines. A single dorsal fin, the spinous portion being of less extent 
than the soft, some spines may even be rudimentary : anal elongated, with two or three spines : ventrals 
thoracic with one spine and five rays. Scales of moderate or small size. Air-vessel present. Pyloric 
appendages few. 

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA. 

1. Kurtus. Dorsal spines rudimentary, three anal ones. A horizontally directed spine between the 
ventral fins. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Pempheris. Six dorsal and three anal spines. Scales over the anal fin. Red Sea, seas of India to 
the Malay Archipelago. 

Genus, 1 — Kurtus, Bloch. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchice absent. Body oblong and strongly compressed : back elevated. Cleft 
of mouth oblique and deep, the lower jaio prominent. Preopercle denticulated. Villiform teeth in the jaws, vomer, 
and palatines. A single dorsal fin of much shorter extent than the anal, its spines being rudimentary : between the 
ventrals is a horizontal baclcwardly directed spine. Scales very small. Air-vessel present, enclosed in a conical cavity 
made by the ribs, which are dilated, convex, and forming rings in contact with each other. 

SYNOPSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 
1. Kurtus Indicus. D. t |:tt, A. -gy^. Silvery. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

1. Kurtus Indicus, Plate XLII, fig. 1. 

Kurtus Indicus, Bl. t. 169 ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1184; Shaw, Zool. iv, p. 185, pi. 25 ; Bl. Schn. p. 163 ; Bleeker, 
Verb. Bat. Gen. xxiv, Makr. p. 78 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 510. 

Kurtus Blochii, Lacep. ii, pp. 516, 517 ; Cuv. and Val. ix, p. 421, pi. 277 ; Cuv. Regne Anim. Poiss. pi. 
64, f. 2 ; Swainson, Fishes, ii, p. 253. 

Blennius, ? Russell, Fish. Vizag. i, p. 37, and Somdrum-lcara-mooddee, pi. 48. 

Kurtus cornutus, Cuv. Reg. Anim. Poiss. pi. 64, f. 1 ; Cuv. and Val. ix, p. 426. 

Cyrtus Indicus, Cantor, Catal. p. 145; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 172. 

Kahasi, Tel. ; Oordah and Valliaul-cutchul, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. yf-^, P. 21, V. 1/5, A. J^, C. 17, Vert. 8/15. 

Length of head 1/4 to 2/9, of caudal 1/4 to 2/9, height of body 1/3 to 2/7 of the total length. Eyes— 
in the anterior half of the head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and \\ apart. Body strongly compressed, the 
males having a cartilaginous arched process directed forwards and situated a short distance in front of the dorsal 
fin. Lower jaw the longer, and having a tuberosity at the symphysis, when the mouth is closed its extremity 
forms a portion of the dorsal profile : the maxilla reaches to below the last third or hind edge of the orbit. A 
strong, short spine directed downwards at the angle of the preopercle, and two or three more along its lower 
edge : the occipital ridge rough. Teeth — in minute rows, in the jaws, vomer, and palatines. Fins — dorsal fin 
having five spines in front of its soft portion, preceded by a recumbent spine directed anteriorly : in front of this 
spine are some points appearing above the skin, most distinct in the fry, and similar to the rudimentary fins of 
Stromateidai, &c. : soft portion of the dorsal fin highest anteriorly : ventral reaches as far as the anal, it has a short 
backwardly-directed spine in front of the base of the outer ray of either fin, and also a horizontally similar but 
larger one between the two fins. Second anal spine two-thirds as high as the rays : the length of the first few 
anal rays equals four-ninths that of the fins base : caudal deeply lobed. Scales — fine and irregular on the body. 



FAMILY, X— KURTID^. 175 

Lateral-line — ceases opposite the end of the soft dorsal. Colours — silvery shot with steel-blue, or lilac : back 
with fine black dots which behind the occiput form a rounded black spot. 

The young are not uncommon in the Sunderbunds about January and February. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. It attains at least 4J- inches in length, 
and is most numerous on the Coromandel coast during the cold months. The specimen figured is a male from 
Coconada. 

Genus, 2 — Pempheris, Ctvo. and Veil. 

Branchiostegals seven. Body oblong, compressed : head obtuse. Eyes large. Cleft of mouth oblique, with tie 
lower jaio prominent. Opercle with a small spine. Villiform teeth on the jaws, vomer, and palatine bones. A single 
short dorsal fin with six spines and nine rays : anal with three spines and many rays. Scales small, extended over the 
anal fin. Air-vessel divided into an anterior and posterior portion. Pyloric appendages few. 

Geographical distribution. — Red Sea, seas of India, to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

1. Pempheris mangula, D. f, A. 4-2-T61 -'-'■ 1- 60-64. Byes, diameter 2f to 2£ in length of head : height 
of body 3| in the total. Silvery, dorsal black tipped. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 

2. Pempheris Molucca, D. f , A. -j-q?^, I j - 1- 56. Eyes, diameter half the length of head : height of body 
2/5 of the total. Silvery, fins stained with darker. Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

1. Pempheris mangula, Plate XLII, fig. 3. 

Sparus mangula-hutti, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 10, pi. 114. 

Pempheris mangula, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 304 ; Bleek. Chsetod. p. 30 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 509 ; Kner, 
Novara Fische, p. 171 ; Klunz. Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1871, p. 469 ; Garrett, F. d. Sudsee, t. lix, f. B. 

Pempheris Otaitensis, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 304, pi. 191 ; Less. Voy. Coc. p. 197 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 
508; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 171. 

? Pemplieris Vanicolensis et nesogallica, Cuv. and Val. vii, pp. 305, 306. 

B. vii, D. f, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. „*„> C. 17, L. 1. 60-64. 

Length of head 1/5, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3/10 of the total length. Eyes — diameter from 2y to 
2 1 in the length of head. Interorbital space slightly concave. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the 
eye. Preopercle having rather a strong denticulation on its intramarginal edge near the angle. Teeth — 
villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — soft dorsal highest anteriorly, rapidly decreasing in height to the 
last ray. Pectoral a little longer than the head. Ventral reaches the anal fin. Anterior portion of the anal the 
highest and equal to two-fifths of that of the body : caudal emarginate. Colours — violet-brown superiorly, 
becoming silvery below. Fins roseate with fine dots : axilla and base of pectoral light coloured. 

Habited. — Seas of India and beyond. The specimen figured (6 inches long) is from Madras, where at times 
it is abundant.. Jerdon, M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 134, observes this fish is termed Moonda-hun-heirawa, Tamil. 

2. Pempheris Molucca, Plate XLII, fig. 2. 

Pempheris Molucca, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 306 ; Cuv. Reg. Anim. El. Poiss. pi. 44, f. 2 ; Temm. 
and Schleg. Fauna Japon, p. 85, pi. 44, fig. 3; Richards. Ich. China, p. 244; Cantor, Catal. p. 175; Giinther, 
Catal. ii, p. 509 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 108. 

Pempheris Malabeirica, Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 308. 

B. vii, D. f, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. M ! w , C. 17, L. 1. 56, Ceec. Pyl. 6-7, Vert. 10/14. 

Length of head 3|, of caudal 1/5, height of body 2/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter about 1/2 the 
length of the head, 3/4 of a diameter apart. The maxilla reaches to below the middle of the orbit. Preopercle 
entire, but having three somewhat spinate denticulations along its intra-marginal border. Teeth — in jaws, 
vomer, and palate. Fins — dorsal spines weak, increasing in length to the last which is scarcely so high as the 
first rays, the soft portion decreases posteriorly in height. Pectoral as long as the head. Ventral short : anal 
highest in front : caudal forked. Scales — the rows along the lateral-line larger than the others. Colours — 
silvery-grey, upper third of the dorsal rays black : pectorals orange, and usually having a dark base ; anal rather 
dark anteriorly and interiorly : caudal with its posterior margin stained grey. 

It is suggested by Cuv. and Val. that Curtus macrolepielotus, Bl. Sclm. p. 164, which is said to have large 
scales with their edges dotted with red, subvertical eyes and B. 2, D. -fa, P. 12, V. 1/5, A. -Jj-, C. 22, from 
Tranquebar, may be this species : the ^j- being a misprint for -jL-. More information is however necessary before 
this point can be decided. 

This species is very abundant off the Sind coast, and found through the seas of India to Japan. 

Habitat. — Red Sea, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. The specimen figured (6 inches 
long) is from Kurrachee. 



176 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 



Family, XI— POLYNEMHXZE. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchiae. Body oblong, somewhat compressed. Eyes large, lateral, 
more or less covered by an adipose membrane: mouth on the lower side of a prominent snout, and having a 
lateral cleft. Muciferous system on the head well developed. Villiform teeth on the jaws, and palatines : 
present or absent on the vomer. Two dorsal fins : several free and articulated appendages below the pectoral 
fin : ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five rays. Scales finely ctenoid or cycloid, and more or less covering 
the vertical fins. Lateral-line continuous, continued on to the caudal fin. Air-vessel, when present, varying 
in form and structure. Pyloric, appendages of varying numbers. 

Geographical distribution. — Seas of India to the Pacific, also tropical portions of the Atlantic, not found 
in the Red Sea. . 

SYNOPSIS OP INDIVIDUAL GENUS. 

Genus, 1 — Polynemus. Definition as in the Family. 

Uses. — These fish are all excellent as food, and from some, rough isinglass or fish-sounds are obtained and 
exported in large quantities. 

Genus, 1 — Poltnimus,* Linn. 

Trichidion, Klein ; Polistonemus, Gill ; Uleutheronema, Bleeker. 

Preopercle serrated. Teeth villiform on the jaws, palatines, vomer, and pterygoid bones. First dorsal fin with 
seven or eight wealc spines ; soft dorsal and anal of nearly equal extent : pectoral rays simple or branched and having 
a varying number of free ones (3-7) at the base of the fin. Scales ctenoid, rather small, extended on to the vertical 
fins. Air-vessel, when present, varying in form, size, and structure. Pyloric appendages few, in moderate numbers, 
or many. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

1. Polynemus pa.radiseus, D. 7 \ y^-ts^ A. -^, L. 1. 70. Seven free pectoral rays, the three upper being 
twice as long as the fish. No air-vessel. Golden colour. Upper part of Bay of Bengal to the Malay 
Archipelago, entering rivers. 

2. Polynemus heptadactylus, D. 8 | Y2-TS' -A- tt-T2> ■'-'■ !■ 50-52. Seven free pectoral rays reaching the 
base of the anal. No air-vessel. Golden, pectoral black, vertical fins with dark edges. 

3. Polynemus xanthonemus, D. 8 | yY, A. ty^o-. Six free pectoral rays reaching beyond the tip of the 
ventral. No air-vessel. Pins edged with black. Seas of India to China. 

4. Polynemus sextarius, D. 8 | X5-V3, A. -j-^Tg, L. 1. 48-50. Six free pectoral rays reaching to the middle 
or end of the ventral fin. Air-vessel small and simple. Upper half of dorsal, pectoral, and outer part of 
ventral black. A large black shoulder-spot. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

5. Polynemus sexfilis, D. 8 | xa-iyg-, A. y^Ta-j L. 1. 46. Six free pectoral rays reaching rather beyond the 
ventrals. Air-vessel large. Golden, pectoral black : dorsal and anal black-edged. Seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

6. Polynemus Indians, D. 8 | -3-3!.^, A. yfl-rj-, L. 1. 70-75. Pive free pectoral rays reaching nearly to the 
anal fin. Air-vessel long and narrow. Vertical fins dark edged. Seas of India to Australia. 

7. Polynemus plebeius, D. 8 | -^g, A. ?ff, L. 1. 60-65. Pive free pectoral rays reaching to the end of the 
ventral fin. Air-vessel present. Golden, with grey longitudinal bands. Seas of India to China. 

8. Polynemus tetradactylus, D. 8 | xsVsj -A-. tt-iTi L. 1. 75-85. Pour free pectoral rays reaching to the 
end of the ventral. Air-vessel absent. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China. 

1. Polynemus paradiseus, Plate XLII, fig. 4. 

Polynemus paradiseus, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1401 ; Russell, ii, p. 69, pi. 185 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 320. 
Polynemus risua, aureus, toposui, Ham. Buck. Pish. Ganges, pp. 228, 232, 381. 

Polynemus longifilis, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 365, and vii, p. 512 ; Bleeker, Bengal, p. 91, and Enum. Spec. 
Ind. Arch. p. 245, (not Borneo, ii, p. 268, and vi, p. 418.) 

Trichidion paradiseus, Bleeker, Fish. Madagascar, p. 78. 
Tupsee muchee, Beng. ; Nga-poongna, Burm. Mangoe fish. 

B. vii, D. 7 I yJ-i-j, P. 15+vii, V. 1/5, A. T %, C. 19, L. 1. 70, L. tr. 5/14, Vert. 10/15, Csec. pyl. 5(10). 

Length of head 2/13 to 1/6, of pectoral 2/5 to 1/4, of caudal 3| to 3|, height of body 2/13 to 1/6 of the 
total length. Eyes — minute in the young, in the adult diameter 1/8 of length of head, 2 diameters from end of 

* .Kala, Tarn.: Nut-tiah, Mngh. 



FAMILY, XI— POLYNEMIDJE. 177 

snout, and 3 apart. Height of head equals its length excluding the snout, its width equals its postorhital 
length. Snout overhanging the mouth. The maxilla extends to upwards of two diameters behind the posterior 
edge of the orbit. Preopercle serrated and having a soft, produced, and rounded, angle : the other opercles 
entire. A small spine on the shoulder. Teeth — villiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — spines of first dorsal 
weak, the second one slightly the longest : the height of the first ray of the second dorsal equals the length of the 
base of the fin which is highest anteriorly, its upper edge concave. Pectoral rays undivided, the fin has seven 
free rays below its base, the three superior being the longest, strongest, and about twice the length of the fish. 
Ventral does not quite reach the anal, the latter fin commencing under the second dorsal and being of the same 
height, its lower edge emarginate. Caudal deeply forked, upper lobe the longer. Scales — ctenoid, in regular 
horizontal rows, covering the body and head, with fine ones over the vertical fins. Lateral-line — forms a gradual 
curve, and becomes lost at the centre of the base of the caudal fin. Least depth of the free portion of the tail 
equals 2/5 of the length of the head. Air-vessel — absent. Colours — generally golden, with a shade of gray 
along; the back, and the dorsal fins also stained grayish with a slight tinge of the same shade, so are also the 
caudal, the pectoral, and upper pectoral appendages. 

Buchanan observes : " Those who officiate in the temple of Sib are called Ta/pasi in the vulgar dialect, 
and Twpasivi in Sangskritta, that is to say penitents. They ought not to shave, on which account a fish called 
Mangoe fish by the English of Calcutta, which has long fibres proceeding from near its head, is called by the 
same name." 

Habitat. — Indian seas, Bay of Bengal at least as low as Coconada, also along the coasts of Burma 
to the Malay Archipelago, entering rivers for spawning purposes, and generally during the S. W. monsoon 
and the cold months. It is considered a great luxury for the table and commences to be taken in 
numbers about June'. It attains 9 inches in length. Ham. Buch. observes : " I have, I think, observed three 
species included under this name (Mangoe fish), and Dr. Russell describes a fourth : but all have exactly the 
same qualities and manners, nor am I sure that the slight differences in the number of rays which I observed 
may not be accidental varieties, rather marking individual than specific differences" (p. 229). 

2. Polynemus heptadaetylus, Plate XLII, fig. 5. 

Cuv. and Val. hi, p. 390 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 60 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 34 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 321 ; Day, 
Pishes of Malabar, p. 59. 

B. vii, D. 8 | 0-13-3, P. 15-fvii, V. 1/5, A. ^5^, C. 19, L. 1. 50-52, L. tr. 5/11, Cebc. pyl. 4. 

Length of head 1/5, of caudal 1/4, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3f in the 
length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Height of the head equals its length excluding 
the snout, the width of the head nearly equals half its length. The maxilla reaches to 1/2 a diameter behind 
the posterior edge of the eye : interorbital space nearly flat. Preopercle strongly serrated, having a well 
developed spine just above its angle, which is rounded and produced. A spine on shoulder at the commence- 
ment of the lateral-line. Teeth — viUiform in jaws, vomer, and palate. Fins — first dorsal spine short, the third 
the longest and equal to 2/3 the height of the body, the last scarcely one- third of its height ; second dorsal 
highest anteriorly where it equals 3/4 of that of the body, upper edge of the fin concave. Pectoral rays 
unbranched, the length of the fin equals 3/4 of the height of the body, its appendages reach to the base of the 
anal, the upper being the longest. Ventral reaches the vent. Anal highest anteriorly where it equals the first 
dorsal, its lower edge straight. Caudal deeply lobed. Air-vessel — absent. Free portion of the tail in its least 
depth equals If in the length of the head. Colours — golden, pectoral nearly black : edge of first dorsal, upper 
edge of second dorsal, margins of caudal, lower half of the anal and tip of ventral also black. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 6 inches in length. 

3. Polynemus xanthonemus. 

Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 517 ; Richardson, Ich. China, p. 219 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 325. 
B. vii, D. 8 | T V, P. 15+vi, A. tt^, Ca3c. pyl. 12. 

It is observed that this fish more resembles P. sextarius than P. sexfilis. Fins — its six free pectoral 
rays extend beyond the end of the ventral but are shorter than in P. heaxmemus, in which they reach to the end 
of the body. Although the caudal lobes are not more elongated than in P. sextarius (1/5 of the total length), 
the fin is more deeply cleft. Air-vessel — absent. Colours — back greenish, sides and abdomen silvery : the fins 
yellow with a black border, the free rays are the same colour as the fins. 

Sir John Richardson observes of Reeves' figure, that it " has a zigzag blackish line above the base of the 
pectoral, which is not noticed in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' but in other respects it agrees with the description 
in that work." 

Habitat. — Seas of India to China, attaining at least 6 inches in length, I have not recognised this 
species in India. 

4. Polynemus sextarius, Plate XLII, fig. 6. 

Bloch. Schn. p. 18, t. iv ; Cuv. and Val. hi, p. 388, and vii, p. 514 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 59 ; Cantor, Catal. 
p. 32 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 326 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 60. 



178 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

B. vii, D. 8 | ^1^, P. 14 + vi, V. 1/5, A. ^Vr, C. 17, L. 1. 48-50, L. tr. 5/10. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4|, of caudal 1/5 to 2/9, height of body 1/4 to 2/9 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/3 to 3| in the length of head, 2/5 to 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and about 1 apart. 
Height of head equals its length behind the middle of the eye, its width from 2| to 2| in its length. The 
maxilla reaches to behind the posterior edge of the orbit. Vertical margin of preopercle denticulated, with a 
rather strong tooth just above its angle, which latter is rounded, produced, and entire. Teeth — villiform, those 
on the vomer in a transverse band, whilst the palatine band is semi-interrupted. Fins — dorsal spines with 
rather filamentous terminations, the third being equal to 1J in the height ' of the body and as long as the 
highest ray in the second dorsal : the height of the second dorsal and of the anal are nearly the same, but the 
length of the base of the former is longer than that of the latter : upper edge of the second dorsal fin scarcely, 
if at all, emarginate. Pectoral rays branched ; the free rays at the base of the fin reach to the middle of the 
ventral fin, occasionally to its end : caudal rather deeply forked. A spine on the shoulder at the commencement 
of the lateral-line. Air-vessel — small and simple. Ccecal appendages — long and rather numerous. Pree portion 
of the tail in its lowest part equal to 1/2 the length of the head. Colours — golden, the upper half of the first 
dorsal black spotted : pectoral and ventral with numerous black spots sometimes occasioning the former to be 
almost black : other fins more or less numerously dotted with black and often black-edged. A large black spot 
on the shoulder on the lateral-line from the second to the eighth scales. 

This fish is very numerous throughout the coasts of India up to 7| inches in length. 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa, seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

Jerdon in his Ichthy. paper on Madras (M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 140) observes of the species of this 
genus he had obtained " Polynemus tetradactylus, C.V. Yerra kala, Tarn. ; P. plebeius, C.V. Pole kala, Tam. ; 
P. Indians, Shaw, Walan Icala; P. sextarius, C.V. Kutli kala, Tam. : P. heptadactylus, C.V. Ma-kala, Tam. The 
first three species are called Roeball at Madras and are considered good eating." 

5. Polynemus sexfilis, Plate XLIII, fig. 1. 

? Cuv. and Val. vii, p. 515 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 325 (not Playfair, Pish. Zanz.* p. 53). 
Polynemus hexanemus, Cantor, Catal. p. 33 (not Cuv. and Val.). 
Trichidion sexfilis, Bleeker, Fish. Madagascar, p. 79. 

B. vii, D. 8 | ^h^, P. 15 + vi, V. 1/5, A. TT 3 T¥ , C. 17, L. 1. 46, L. tr. 5/10, Case. pyl. many. 

Length of head 4|, of caudal 2/7, height of body 2/9 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/9 of length of 
head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Height of head equals its length excluding the snout, its 
width equals 4/7 of its length. The maxilla reaches half a diameter behind the orbit. Vertical margin of 
preopercle strongly denticulated with a rather strong tooth above its rounded, produced, but entire angle. 
Teeth — villiform in jaws, in a semilunar band on the vomer, and in an interrupted one on the palatines. Fins — 
third dorsal spine 2/3 of the height of the body : second dorsal 1/4 higher anteriorly than the anal, its upper 
edge rather concave. The pectoral rays unbranched, the free ones reach to rather beyond the end of the ventral : 
base of the anal slightly longer than that of the second dorsal : caudal deeply forked. A spine on the shoulder 
at the commencement of the lateral-line. Pree portion of the tail as high as it is long, its least height equal to 
nearly 1/2 the length of the head. Ccecal appendages — long and rather numerous. Air-vessel — large. Colours — 
golden, pectoral deep black, a black lower edge to the anal : ventral dark in the middle. 

In Cuv. and Val. P. sexfilis is said to have no air-vessel. This species appears to closely resemble P. 
Pfeifferce, Bleeker, which also has a large air-vessel, and D. 8 | -rY, A. ^ L. 1. 48. Length of head 1/5, and of 
caudal lobes Z\ in the total length. 

This species differs from P. sextarius in its eye being smaller, its caudal lobes larger, the base of its anal 
longer than that of its second dorsal, its third dorsal spine 2/3 of the height of the body, some of its pectoral 
free-rays reaching beyond the end of the ventral, and its rays being simple, and likewise in having a black 
pectoral fin but no black shoulder-spot. From the P. xantlwneimis, wherein only 12 pyloric appendages exist. 

Cantor, whilst observing that " the second, third, and fourth filaments from the pectoral fin are the 

* The fish alluded to by Colonel Playfair in the " Fishes of Zanzibar," is not identical with the above, and might be termed 
Polynemus Playfairi, if it is not P. Vuru : two other specimens exist in the British Museum : the species is as follows : — 

B. vii, D. 8 | T \, P. 13 + vi, V. 1/5, A. T \, C. 17, L. 1. 63, L. tr. 7/13. 

Length of head 5J, of caudal 3|, height of body 4| of the total length. Eyes— diameter nearly 1/3 of length of head, 1/4 of a 
diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. The maxilla reaches to a little behind the vertical from the posterior edge of the orbit. 
Height of head equals its length excluding the snout, its width two-thirds of its length. A spine at the shoulder. Fins — first dorsal 
two-thirds as high as the body below it: second dorsal nearly equal in height to the length of the head and having its upper edge deeply 
concave, its front rays being one-fifth higher than the first dorsal fin. Pectoral as long as the head behind the middle of the eye, irs 
upper free-rays reach to a little beyond the end of the fin. The distance between the bases of the ventral and anal fins equals the length 
of the head excluding the snout. Anal not quite so high as the second dorsal, it commences below the fifth dorsal ray and has a very 
emarginate lower edge. Caudal deeply forked. Free portion of tail slightly higher at its base than it is long. Colours — body with lines 
along each row of scales and a black pectoral fin. 

This species appears to be closely allied to P. kuru, Bleeker, which however has the upper caudal lobe 3J in the total length. 
The specimen (Col. Playfair's) from which this description has been taken is about 14 inches in length. ■ 

Habitat. — East coast of Africa to the Malay Archipelago, and probably found in the seas of India, although I have not obtained 
it there. It would be interesting to see if it has or has not an air-vessel. 



FAMILY, XI-P0LYNEMIDJ3. 179 

longest, greatly exceeding the length of the head almost extending to the anal fin," (p. 33), considers his fish 
identical "with P. hexanemus, wherein some of them reach the caudal fin. 

Habitat. — Seas of India and Mauritius. The specimen, which is figured life-size, is from Madras. 

6. Polynemus Indicus. 

Polynemus maga-booshee, Russell, ii, p. 68, pi. 184. 

Polynemus Indicus, Shaw, Zool. v, p. 155 ; Swainson, Fishes, ii, p. 234 ; McClell. Cal. J. N. H. iii, 
p. 179,* pi. vi ; Cantor, Catal. p. 29; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 326 ; Day, Fishes of Malabar, p. 60 ; Kner,f Novara 
Fische, p. 137. 

Polynemus sele, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 226, 381 ; McClelland, Cal. Journ. Nat. Hist, iii, p. 181. 

Polynemus uronemus, Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 385. 

Polynemus plebeius and gelatinosus, McClelland, C. J. N. H. iii, pp. 179, 181. 

Tahlun-kala, Tarn. : Yeta, Mai. : Dara, Bombay : Bhat. Mahr. : Lukwah, Arrac. : Katha or Ka-hu-yan, 
Burin. : Kwey-yeng, Tavoy. 

B. vii, D. 8 | Ta-i-ra P. 15 + v, V. 1/5, A. Tlcf,-, C. 17, L. 1. 70-75, L. tr. 7/13, Vert. 5/19, Case. pyl. many. 

Length of head 4j to 4|, of pectoral 1/6 to 2/13, of caudal 1/4, height of body 1/6 of the total length 
excluding the filamentous prolongation of the tail. Eyes — diameter 1/7 of length of head, 1 to \\ diameters 
from end of snout, and 2 apart. Height of head equals 2/3, and its width 2/5 of its length. The maxilla 
reaches to far behind the orbit. Preopercle with a rounded and produced angle, its posterior margin mode- 
rately serrated, and having a strong tooth above its angle. Interorbital space rather flat. Teeth — villiform in the 
jaws, in a somewhat semilunar band on the vomer, and in a wide cuneiform band broadest anteriorly on the 
palatines, the last being emarginate internally about its centre. Fins — spines of first dorsal weak, the third 
having rather a filamentous prolongation, the fin one-third, higher than long, second dorsal highest in front 
where it equals the anal and is one-third higher than its base is long : upper edge of the fin concave. Pectoral 
with its rays branched, having five articulated free rays, the upper of which is the longest reaching nearly to 
the anal, which latter fin extends posteriorly some distance behind the vertical from the end of the second dorsal, 
its lower edge is concave. The distance between the bases of the ventral and anal fins is longer than the head. 
Caudal deeply lunated having pointed lobes which usually have filamentous terminations, the lower being mostly 
the longer. Free portion of the tail in its least depth equal to 2/5 of the length of the head. Air-vessel — oval 
and thick, occupying the entire length of the abdomen and posteriorly prolonged amongst the caudal muscles. 
It adheres to the vertebra? from the third to the seventh, whilst from either side towards the ventral surface it 
has from 28 to 35 appendages. Lateral-line — continued along the lower caudal lobe almost to its end. Vertical 
fins rather densely scaled. Colours — back purplish-black, abdomen silvery- white,, dashed with gold. First and 
second dorsals also anal stained with black, as is likewise the lower half of the opercle. Caudal with many 
black points. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and Australia. It attains 4 feet in length, but is rarely 
above 201bs weight. A large fish yields about two ounces of rough isinglass. The largest specimens appear to 
be captured in the embouchures of large rivers : they take a bait freely. 

7. Polynemus plebeius 

Brouss. Ich. fasc. i, t. viii ; Gmel. Linn. p. 1401 ; Bloch. t. cccc ; Bl. Schn. p. 17 ; Shaw, Zool. v, pi. exxr ; 
Cuv. and Val. iii, p. 380 ; Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon, p. 29, t. xi, fig. 1 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 58 ; Richards. 
An. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, p. 210 ; McClell. Cal. Journ. Nat. Hist, iii, p. 185 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 27 ; Giinther, 
Catal. ii, p. 329. 

Polynemus lineatus, Lacep. v. pi. 13, f. 2, p. 410; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 327; Kner, Novara Fische, 
p. 137. 

Polynemus tmniatus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 526. 

Trichidion plebejus, Bleeker, Fish. Madagascar, p. 79. 

B. vii, D. 8 | J,, P. 17 + v, V. 1/5, A. 2 f^, C. 17, L. 1. 60-65, L. tr. 7-8/13, Cebc. pyl. many. 

Length of head 2/9, of caudal 3/11, height of body 1/5 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 3f to 4J 
in the length of head, 1/2 to 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 to 1J apart. Interorbital space rather 
convex. Height of the head equals its length excluding the snout, its width is not 1/2 its length. The maxilla 
reaches to about 1 diameter behind the posterior edge of the eye. Angle of preopercle rounded and produced ; 
its vertical limb rather coarsely serrated and most so above the angle. Teeth — villiform. Fins — third dorsal spine 
with rather a filamentous prolongation and equal to 3/4 of the height of the body, the length of the base of the 
fin equals rather above 2/3 of its height. Second dorsal rather higher anteriorly than the first or than the anal, 
its upper edge deeply concave. Pectoral rays unbranched, its length equals 3/4 the height of the body, of its 
five free-rays the superior reaches rather beyond the ventral. Ventral reaches the vent, the distance between its 

* McClelland observes (C. J. N. H. iii, p. 1 73) that " at Scinde (where it proves, as originally suggested by us. to be the source 
of the cod-sounds alluded to as an article of export from Kurrachee) it is called seer." However the Kurrachee fish is a Scicenoid (see 
p. 187) and not one of this family. See also paper by Mr. O. Reilly, 1. c. ii, p. 450, and by Captain Bogle, ii, p. 615. 

t Kner observes of Russell's figure " nicht gut." Cantor however more justly remarks that it was in his time "the only 
correct figure." 



180 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

base and that of the anal equals the length of the head excluding the snout. First spine of anal minute or 
wanting : the lower edge of the fin deeply concave. Caudal with pointed lobes. Least depth of the free 
portion of the tail equals half the length of the head. Air-vessel — elongated, narrow, and simple. Coxal 
appendages — numerous. Vertical fins rather densely scaled. Lateral-line — continued along the lower lobe of the 
caudal fin to the end of its second or third rays below its centre. Colours— golden, having a grayish tinge along 
the back and darkish lines along each row of scales : anal fin dashed with gray, ventral white and externally 
grayish : both dorsals, the caudal and pectoral gray-edged. 

Habitat. — This species is exceedingly common in the seas and estuaries of India. I have captured females 
full of roe as early as March. It is found from Sind through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and 
beyond. 

8. Polynemus tetradactylus. 

Polynenvus maga-jellee, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 68, pi. 183. 

Polynemus tetradactylus, Shaw, Zool. v, p. 155 ; Cuv. Reg. Anim. 111. Poiss. pi. xix, f. 1 ; Cuv. and Val. 
iii, p. 375, vii, p. 514 ; Swainson, Fishes, ii. p. 234 ; McOlell. Joum. As. Soc. Beng. 1839, p. 206 ; Royle on 
Isinglass, pp. 25, 26 : Richards. Ich. China, p. 218 ; Bleeker, Perc. p. 57 ; Cantor, Catal. p. 25 ; Giinther, 
Catal. ii, p. 328 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 62 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 138. 

Polynemus teria, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 224, 381 ; Gray and Hard. 111. Ind. Zool. pi. 92, f. 2. 

Polynemus salliah et quadrifilis, Cantor, Joum. Roy. As. Soc. v, p. 166. 

Fleutheronema tetradactylus, Bleeker, Bintang, 1868, p. 5. 

Polun-hala, Tarn. : To-bro-dah, Andam. 

B. vii, D. 8 | yJys, P. 17+iv, V. 1/5, A. ^r^, C. 17, L. 1. 75-85, L. tr. 8/14, Case. pyl. many. 

Length of head 1/5, of caudal 1/5, height of body 1/5 to 1/6 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 2/9 
to 1/5 of the length of head, 1/2 a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Height of head equals its length 
excluding the snout or behind the middle of the eye, its width equals 2/5 of its length. The maxilla extends 
to 1 diameter behind the posterior edge of the orbit. Angle of preopercle produced and rounded, its vertical 
limb serrated and having its strongest denticulation just above the angle. Teeth — villiform. Fins — third 
dorsal spine equals 3/4 of the height of the body and is as long as the anterior rays of the second dorsal, the 
upper edge of which last fin is concave. Pectoral rays undivided, the free rays reach nearly to the end of the 
ventral, which latter extends to the vent. The distance between the bases of the ventral and anal fins equals 
the length of the head excluding the snout. Anal similar to second dorsal, its first spine minute or absent :* 
caudal deeply forked. Air-vessel — absent. Caieal appendages — numerous. The least depth of the free portion 
of the tail equals nearly 1/2 the length of the head. Colours — silvery-green, becoming yellowish-white on the 
sides and abdomen : dorsal and caudal grayish with minute black points and nearly black at the edges :' ventral 
and anal pale orange in their outer halves, pectoral filaments white. A dark mark on the upper portion of the 
' opercle. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China, attaining 6 feet and upwards in length : 
it is excellent eating. This species appears to ascend higher up the rivers than any of the others, and the 
young are numerous in the Hooghly at Calcutta. Ham. Buchanan observes : " I have been assured by a credible 
native that he saw one which was a load for six men, and which certainly therefore exceeded in weight 320 lb. 
avoirdupois." (Fish. Ganges, p. 225.) 

* Cantor gives three or four anal spines : Buchanan two : Enssell and Cuvier one. I have specimens in which I can only 
discover two, others wherein three are distinct. 



FAMILY, XII— SCLENITLE. 181 



Family, XII— SCI^NID^, Cuv. 

Branchiostegals seven .- pseudobranchiae sometimes concealed, or even absent. Body somewhat com- 
pressed and rather elongate. Eyes lateral, of moderate or small size. Mouth in front of or below the snout. 
Cheeks unarmed; opercles sometimes with weak spines. Barbels present in a few genera. Muciferous system 
on the head well developed. Teeth in villiform bands, with the outer or inner row often enlarged : canines 
present in some genera but neither cutting nor molar- form ones in the jaws : palate edentulous. Two dorsal 
fins, the spines of the first usually feeble (8-12), the second much more developed (22-43 rays) than the first : 
anal with one or two spines and much fewer (5-16) rays than the second dorsal : pectoral rays branched : 
ventrals thoracic with one spine and five rays. Scales ctenoid or cycloid, covering the head and snout, placed 
in oblique and often sinuous rows on the body. Lateral line complete, often continued on to the caudal fin. 
Stomach CEecal. Air-vessel, when present, as a rule with branching or elongated appendages. Pyloric 
appendages generally few. 

The number of rays in the soft dorsal fin are liable to considerable variation in species belonging to this 
family, whilst the caudal becomes more obtuse as the adult stage is arrived at. The scales, -which are placed in 
oblique rows, often vary considerably in the number of pierced ones along the lateral-line, and in those descending 
or ascending to it, consequently it becomes necessary to enumerate what are present in each separate place. The 
eye is comparatively very much smaller in adults of this family than it is in the immature. 

Bleeker, Memoire sur les Scienoides (1874), has shown that the dentition of these fishes forms a far better 
guide to classification than the size and length of the second anal spine, &c. He also questions the utility of separating 
Scicena (Artedi) Bleeker=Z7m5rma, Cuv. and Val. from Johnius (Bloch) Bleeker, simply because the former has 
a central barbel under the symphysis of the lower jaw. In my investigations I have found another species, Scicena 
albida, C. V. (or a Pseudoscicena, Bleeker), in which a rudimentary barbel exists at each of the first lateral open 
pores below the symphysis of the lower jaw, but obviously insufficient for the purpose of constituting a new 
genus. 

Z7se-s. — The air-vessels of many of these fishes are extensively collected along the coasts of India as they 
afford isinglass which is exported to China and elsewhere. As food however their flesh is rather tasteless whilst 
young, and coarse when large, consequently in many localities, as Kurrachee or in Beloochistan, the sounds or 
air-vessels are as valuable as the whole of the remainder of the fish. 

Habitat. — Kliinzinger observes that from the Red Sea no representatives of the true SciiEMD-E have been 
recorded ; a few appear to be present along the East coast of Africa, whilst from Beloochistan and Sind throughout 
the seas of India they are numerous, many entering estuaries and rivers, and although one species (S. coitor) is 
often found far above tidal reach it still is only a visitor from the ocean. 

SYNOPSIS OP GENERA. 

1. Umbrina. Upper jaw overlapping the lower. A central barbel under the symphysis of the lower jaw. 
Fins as in Scicena. 

2. Scicena. Upper jaw overlapping the lower or both equal. Teeth villiform, with an outer enlarged 
row in the premaxillaries and sometimes an inner enlarged series in the mandibles. No central barbel beneath the 
chin ; second dorsal fin rather long (23-32 rays) . 

3. Scioenoides. Eyes small : head broad and convex. Upper jaw overlapping the lower or both equal. 
Teeth villiform, with an outer much enlarged row in the premaxillaries, and an inner conical series in the mandibles. 
No barbels. Second dorsal fin elongated (27-43 rays). 

4. Otolithus. Lower jaw prominent. Elongated and pointed canines in both jaws : a single row of widely 
separated conical teeth in the lower jaw. No barbels. Second dorsal fin rather long (28-31 rays). 

Genus, 1 — Umbkina, Cuv. 

Menticirrhus and Cirrimens, Gill: Scicena (Artedi) Bleeker, 1874. 

BroMchiostegals seven .- pseudobranchice. Body oblong and rather elongated. Eyes of moderate she. 
Interorbital space rather broad and somewhat convex. Snout rounded and overhanging the upper jaw, which latter is longer 
than the lower. A central barbel present below the symphysis of the lower jaw. Teeth villiform, with the outer row in 
the premaxillaries enlarged : no canines. Two dorsal fins, the first with 9-10 spines and connected at its base to the 
second which is of moderate length (24-30 rays) : anal with two spines. Scales ctenoid or cycloid, extending over the 
head and snout, and more or less present on the vertical fins, and, on that of the tail. Air-vessel present. Pyloric 
appendages in moderate numbers or few. 

The open pores or orifices of some of the muciferous channels of the head are very distinct. There are 3 or 
5 in a transverse row across the snout, whilst along the free edge of the skin as it crosses from one preorbital to 

* Absent in some American species. 



182 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

the other over the groove for the posterior limb of the premaxillaries, there are five more. The central one is 
mostly triangular, the largest, and at the upper surface : whilst along its free edge, sometimes below it, are two 
more on either side. The existence of a lateral-lobe is entirely due to these orifices, and its size is in accordance 
with their position. 

On the lower surface of the mandible beneath the symphysis is a single central barbel having a pore at its 
base, occasionally it has one in front aud another behind it. On either side of its base laterally and rather 
posteriorly are two more open orifices. 

Habitat. — From the East coast of Africa, through the seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and beyond. 
They are found in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, and some in the rivers of North and South America. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

1. Umbrina macroptera, D. 10 | -j-s-Voj A. f , L. 1. 48, Case. pyl. 11. Barbel half as long as the eye. First 
dorsal fin 2/5 the height of body. Scales cycloid on head and chest, elsewhere ctenoid. Grayish. Seas of India to 
the Malay Archipelago. 

2. Vmbrina sinuata, D. 10 | ^rl-g-g, A. f-, L. 1. 44. Barbel one-quarter as long as the eye. First dorsal fin 
1/2 height of body. Scales ctenoid except on snout, and below eyes. Dorsal, ventral, and anal fins nearly black ; 
nine wide and sinuous brown bands from the back pass downwards and forwards. Sind. 

3. Umbrina Dussumieri, D. 10 | 2-*-ir> A. -f-, L. 1. 52. Barbel half as long as eye. First dorsal fin from 
4/5 to as high as body. Scales cycloid. Usually dark coloured. Seas of India to China. 

4. Umbrina Russellii, D. 10 | -^-yyi A. f-, L. 1. 44. Barbel sometimes nearly as long as the eye. First 
dorsal fin 4/9 of height of body. Scales ctenoid. Grayish, first dorsal tinged with black. Seas of India to the 
Malay Archipelago. 

1. JJmbrina macroptera. 

Bleeker, Sumatra, p. 254; Giinther, Catal. ii., p. 279. 
Scicena macropterus, Bleeker, Mem. Scien. 1874, p. 60. 
B. vii, D. 10 | -3^, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. m, L. tr. 5-6/15, Gbc. pyl. 11. 

Length of head 1/4 to 2/9, of caudal 1/6, height of body 3^ to 4-l in the total length. Eyes — diameter 3f 
to 4| in the length of head, 1|- to 1^- diameters from the end of snout, and 1 apart. Greatest width of the head 
equals half its length, and its height equals its length excluding the snout. The snout rather inflated and 
prominent. Cleft of mouth slightly oblique, the maxilla reaching to below the middle of the eye. The distance 
between the eye and the maxilla equals 1 diameter of the orbit. Preopercle serrated, most coarsely so at its 
angle : two opercular points. Three pores across the base of snout : outer fold of skin of snout laterally lobed, 
having five pores along its free border. Barbel below the symphysis of the lower jaw nearly half the diameter of 
the eye in length, having a deep pore on either side of its base and another rather more externally. Teeth — in 
villiform rows in both jaws, the outer row in the front half of the premaxillaries being somewhat enlarged. Fins 
— dorsal spines weak, the first very short, the second to the fourth about the same length and equal to 2/5 the 
height of the body and more than twice as high as the rays. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout. 
Ventral reaches nearly half way to the anal fin. . Second anal spine of moderate strength, one-third shorter than 
the first ray, and equal to 2-L in the height of the body. Caudal rather wedge-shaped. Scales — cycloid on the 
head, chest, and as high as the base of the pectoral fin, the remainder ctenoid. Lateral-line — becomes straight 
opposite the posterior end of the anal fin : the tubes give off a branch on either side which rarely subdivides. 
Colours — grayish, becoming silvery on the abdomen, and everywhere covered with minute black dots, but so small 
as not to interfere with the general light colour. Fins yellowish, dotted as the body. A dark mark on the opercle. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. I took a female, 8 inches long, with fully developed 
ova in April, 1868, and found eleven cascal appendages. It is not uncommon at Madras. 

2. Umbrina sinuata, Plate XL VI, fig. 1. 

B. vii, D. 10 | w l^, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f , C. 17, L. 1. f|, L. tr. 7/12. 

Length of head 4t, of caudal 1/5, height of body 3f in the total length. Eyes — diameter 3^ in length of 
head, 3/4 of a diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Greatest width of head equals 1/2 its length, and its 
height equals its length excluding the snout. The distance between the eye and the upper jaw equals 3/4 of the 
diameter of the orbit. Snout obtuse, swollen, and overhanging the jaws. Upper jaw overlapping the lower : 
the maxilla reaching to below the middle of the eye. Preopercle serrated, most coarsely at its angle : two oper- 
cular spines. Shoulder-flap serrated. Three pores in a transverse line, across the base of the snout, and five 
more orifices along the free edge of the skin, a lateral lobe present on either side. Central barbel below the 
symphysis of the lower jaw 1/4 the length of the orbit : two open pores on either side. Teeth — villiform in 
both jaws, an outer enlarged row in the anterior half of the premaxillaries, whilst a few of those in the front 
row of the lower jaw near the symphysis are larger than those posterior to them. Fins — dorsal spines weak, 
the third to the fifth the longest, 1/4 higher than the rays and equal to the length of the head behind the 
middle of the eyes. Pectoral as long as the head behind the anterior third of the eyes. Ventral reaches two- 
thirds of the distance to the base of the anal. Second anal spine strong, equal to half the length of the head and 
1/3 shorter than the first ray ; the length of the base of the fin equals 1/4 of that of the soft dorsal. Caudal 



FAMILY, XII— SCLENTO^. 183 

wedge-shaped. Scales— ctenoid except on the snout and below the eyes, those on the sum m it of the head as 
far as the occiput very much smaller than those on the body. A dense band at basal third of soft dorsal and 
anal fins. Lateral-line — becomes straight above the end of the anal fin, its tubes with two, sometimes more, 
branches. Colours — brownish silvery, everywhere covered with minute dark points. A diffused bluish spot on 
the opercle. Nine sinuous brown bands on the body, wider than the ground-colour, passing from the back 
downwards and forwards : a dark spot in the axilla. First dorsal black, a black band along the whole length of 
the soft dorsal. Anal similar to soft dorsal. Ventral black. Caudal yellow, with a black tip and white outer 
edge. 

Two specimens captured at Kurrachee up to 4 inches in length. 

The dorsal fins show considerable similarity to U. Dussumieri, but the scales are ctenoid instead of 
cycloid. 

3. Umbrina Dussumieri, Plate XLIII, fig. 2 and 3. 

Umbrina Dussumieri, Cuv. and Val. ix, p. 481; Bleeker, Scieen. p. 19 ; Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 279; Day, 
Fishes of Malabar, p. 48. 

Umbrina amblycephalus, Bleeker, Amb. p. 412 ; Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 278. 
Seiosna Dussumieri, Bleeker, Memoire Scienoid. p. 56. 
Tarn hattelee, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. 10 | silir, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. yL T , C. 17, L 1. *W , L. tr. 6/17, Case. pyl. 7-9. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4t> °f caudal 1/7, height of body 4| to 2/9 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
2/7 to 3f in the length of head, 1-J- diameters apart and also from the end of snout. Height of head equals its 
length excluding the snout, and its thickness equals 2/3 of its length. Dorsal profile more convex than that of 
the abdomen. Snout obtuse, it and the cheeks inflated : cleft of mouth nearly horizontal : the maxilla reaches 
to below the middle of the eye. Distance between the eye and the upper maxillary bone equals one diameter 
of the orbit. Preopercle crenulated (scarcely denticulated) in its whole extent, its angle rounded : two 
opercular spines. Shoulder-lobe with smooth edges. Central barbel below the chin about half a diameter of the 
eye in length, a deep pore exists on either side of its base : pores on snout generic. Teeth — villiform in both 
jaws, a few of the outer row and in the anterior portion of the premaxillaries being enlarged, somewhat conical 
but scarcely curved. Fins — dorsal spines weak, the first short, the two next from 4/5 to as long as the 
height of the body and three times as long as the rays. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout. 
Ventral reaches half way to the anal. Second anal spine rather above half the height of the first ray. Caudal 
wedge-shaped in the young, more obtuse in the adult. Scales— cycloid on the body and head : a few over the 
bases of the soft dorsal and anal fins. Lateral-line — curves to above the end of the soft dorsal, it is in single 
tubes, which bifurcate posteriorly. Colours — usually of a dark brown or coppery tinge, often nearly black and 
shot with golden, lightest along the abdomen. Fins reddish-brown, the first dorsal stained with black : other 
fins with gray edges : ventrals yellow. 

Fig. 2 is from Madras, and of the most common colour there : fig. 3 is from Bombay, has a dark shoulder- 
spot and generally gray colour, which is the most common appearance in the latter locality : the specimen 
figured is 7 inches long. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to China, attaining at least 8 or 9 inches in length. 

4. Umbrina Russellii, Plate XLIII, fig. 4. 

Labrus qualar-Jcatchelee, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 13, plate 118. 

Umbrina Russellii, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 178; Richards. Ich. China, p. 226; Cantor, Catal. p. 71; 
Jerdon, M. J. L. & Sc. 1851, p. 132; Gunther, Catal. ii, p. 278 ; Kner, Xovara Fische, p. 131. 
Umbrina Kuhlii, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 179; Bleeker, Sciasn. p. 19. 
Scicena InAica, (K. and v. Hass.) Cuv. and Val. v, p. 179. 
Seioena Kuhli, Bleeker, Bintang, p. 293. 
Scicena Russellii, Bleeker, Memoire Scienoid. 1874, p. 58. 

B. vii, D. 10 | ^} YT , P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. it L. tr. 6/15, Ca3c. pyl. 7 (8 Kner). 

Length of head 1/4 to 4\, of caudal 1/6, height of body Bf c to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes —diameter 
3£ to 1/4 of length of head, 3/4 to 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Greatest width of head equals 
half its length, its height equals its length excluding the snout. Snout overhanging the jaws, the upper slightly 
the longer ; the maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. . Nostrils opposite the lower third of the eye. 
Distance between the eye and the upper jaw equals 3/4 of a diameter of the orbit. Preopercle distinctly 
serrated: two opercular spines. Barbel equals from 2/5 of the diameter of the eye to nearly as long as it. 
Pores on snout and lower jaw generic : shoulder-flap serrated. Teeth — villiform in both jaws, with an outer 
enlarged row in the anterior half of the premaxillaries. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, the 
fourth equal to 2\ in the height of the body and 1/3 longer than the rays. Pectoral equal to the head exclud- 
ing the snout. Ventral reaches half way to the anal. Second anal spine strong, 4/5 as long as the first ray, 
and nearly equal to half the length of the head. Caudal wedge-shaped. Scales — ctenoid. Lateral-line — 
curves to above the middle of the anal fin where it becomes straight, tubes with one or two branches from either 



184 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

side. Colotirs —gray, becoming silvery-white on the abdomen : a steel-blue opercular spot : upper two-tlurds 
of first dorsal nearly black : other fins yellow. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 10 inches in length. 

Genus, 2 — Sclena, (Artedi) Guv. 

Johnius, Bloch: Gorvina and Stellifer, Cuv. : JBola, sp. Ham. Buch. : Leiostomus, Cuv. and Val. : 
Goracinas, Pall. : Homoprion, Holb. : Amblyodon, (Raf.) Gir. : Gheilotrema, v. Tsch. : Geuyonemus, Plagioscion, 
Scicenops, Bairdiella, PLaploinodotus, Bhinoscion and Ophioscion, Gill : Biplolepis, Steind. : Pseudosciaena, Bleeker. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchice. Body oblong, rather elongated, and compressed. Byes of moderate 
size. Interorbital space rather broad and slightly convex. Snout rounded, sometimes overhanging the upper jaw, 
which last is longer than the lower, or both are of equal length.* No central barbel below the symphysis of the lower 
jaw. Teeth villiform, with an outer enlarged row in the premaxillaries, and sometimes the inner row in the mandibles 
enlarged. No distinct canines. Two dorsal fins, the first with 9-10 spines, and connected at its base to the second 
which is of moderate length (23-32 rays). Anal with one or two spines. Scales ctenoid or cycloid, extending over the 
head and snout, and generally more or less present on the vertical fins and cm that of the tail. Air-vessel present.f 
Pyloric appendages in moderate mmibers or few. 

Pores or the orifices of muciferous canals are found in most of the species of this genus, identically as 
described in Umbrina. But a few, evidently approaching towards Otolithus, have some or all absent from 
both jaws. 

In one species, Scicena albida, a small, though distinct barbel, is present at the anterior of the lateral open 
pores on the lower jaw. Whether very great stress ought to be laid upon whether the scales are ctenoid or 
cycloid appears open to doubt. (See S. carutta, S. glaums.) 

This genus has been subdivided by Bleeker into the following : 1. Pseudoscicena, in which the inner 
row of teeth in the lower jaw is distinctly larger than those external to it : 2. Johnius, destitute of any enlarged 
row of teeth in the lower jaw. 

SYNOPSIS OP SPECIES. 

A. An enlarged inner row of teeth in the lower jaw. (Pseudosciaina.) 

1. Scimna Bleelceri, D. 10 | -£f, A. f, L. 1. 60, L. tr. 11/18. Eyes, diameter 1/5 of length of head. 
Second anal spine weak, l-i- diameters of the orbit in length. Gray, with a dark axillaiy spot. First dorsal 
gray, fins edged with gray. Bombay. 

2. Scimna miles, D. 9-10 | 2-5-3-0, A. f, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 8/16. Eyes, diameter 2/9 to 1/5 of length of head. 
Second anal spine very strong and half the length of the head. Silvery, outer edges of vertical fins sometimes 
gray. Seas of India. 

3. Scicena Vogleri, D. 10 | r ^. Tr , A. f, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 6/14. Eyes diameter 2/9 to 3/14 of length of 
head. Second anal spine weak, as long as the eye. Silvery, first dorsal dark. Seas of India to the Malay 
Archipelago. 

4. Scicena sina, D. 10 | yf-Vs-i -&-. f, L. 1. 52. Eyes, diameter 1/4 of length of head. Second anal spine 
weak, 2/7 of length of head. Seas of India. 

5. Scixna cuja, D. 10 ] -j-yia-g-, A. -f, L. 1. 50. Eyes, diameter 1/5 of length of head. Second anal spine 
very strong, as long as the head behind the middle of the eyes. Oblique dark streaks above the lateral-line 
and horizontal ones below it. Estuaries of Ganges and Siam. 

6. Sciama coitor, D. 10 | -si-^-g-, A. -f-, L. 1. 55. Eyes, diameter from 1/4 to 2/11 of length of head. 
Second anal spine strong, and as long as the postorbital portion of the head. Silvery. Large rivers of India 
and Burmah. 

7. Scicena axillaris, D. 10 | yb-twi - a - h L. 1. 50, L. tr. 6-7/14. Eyes, diameter 1/4 of length of head. 
Second anal spine strong, 2J in the length of the head. Silvery, upper two-thirds of first dorsal black, a dark 
axillary spot. Seas of India. 

8. Sciama albida, D. 9-10 | ^ Vf> A. f , L. 1. 52, L. tr. 7/18. Eyes, diameter 1/4 to 1/7 of length of head. 
Second anal spine strong, half as long as the head. Silvery, a diffused opercular blotch. Seas of India. 

9. Scicena diacanthus, D. 10 | -^h^t -A- f» L. 1. 52, L. tr. 7/18. Eyes, diameter 2/9 to 1/6 of length of 
head. Second anal spine 2f in the length of the head. Brownish-gray superiorly, silvery below. Upper half 
of body, dorsal, and caudal fins spotted in the immature. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

10. Sciwna aneus, D. 10 | a-j-l^j-, A. f-, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 8-9/18. Eyes, diameter 1/4 to 4j in the length of 
head. Lower jaw the longer. Second anal spine weak, from 3/4 to 1 diameter of the orbit in length. Silvery, 
first dorsal gray. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

11. Scicena m.aculata, D. 10 | - s -s-- s ^, A. f, L. 1. 45-48, L. tr. 8/16. Eyes, diameter 4j to 1/5 of length of 
head. Second anal spine 1/3 the length of head. Silvery, with five broad black bands, sometimes interrupted. 
Seas of India. 

B. No enlarged inner row of teeth in the lower jaw. (Johnius.) 

12. Scicena Belengeri, D. 9 | -ay-"^ -A- f> ^ '■ 52, L. tr. 6/14. Eyes, diameter 3£ to 3| of length of head. 
Second anal spine 2j in length of head. Slate-coloured, with the vertical fins nearly black. Seas of India to 
the Malay Archipelago. 

* Scicena aneus, Bloch, is an exception, forming a transitional state to genus Otolithus not only in this respect, but in the 
pores on the snout, and below the symphysis of the mandibles. 
■]" Stated to be absent in some American species. 



FAMILY, XII— SCLENIL^E. 185 

13. Scicena semiluctuosa, D. 10 | y?-tt> A. f , L. 1. 55-60, L. tr. 8-9/25. Eyes, diameter 2/9 to 1/6 of length 
of head. Second anal spine about 1/2 the length of head. Gray, with blackish bands going along each row of 
scales : fins black. Seas of India to China. 

14. Scicena glaums, D. 10 | ys^, A. f, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 6/18. Eyes, diameter 3§ to 4| in length of head. 
Second anal spine 2/5 of length of head. Gray, a diffused bluish opercular blotch : an axillary spot : first 
dorsal nearly black : vertical fins with gray edges. Seas of India. 

15. Scicena carutta, D. 10 | a^Vs) &-. -f, L. 1. 50, L. tr. 5-6/18. Eyes, diameter 1/4 of length of head. 
Second anal spine 2/7 to 2/5 of length of head. Purplish-brown, with a light band along the lateral-line. Fins 
dark. Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. 

16. Scicena osseus, D. 10 | ^sVg-, A- f> ^. 1- 50, L. tr. 6/15. Eyes, diameter 1/5 of length of head. Second 
anal spine 1/4 as long as the head. Gray, with the fins stained at their edges. Malabar. 

A. An enlarged inner row of teeth in the lower jaw (Pseucloscicena). 

1. Sciaena Bleekeri, Plate XLV, fig. 4. 
Soh-lee, Bel. 
B. vii, D. 10 | r ^ TT , P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L.l. S W, L. tr. 9-10/18. 

Length of head 4j, of caudal 5|, height of body 4f in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/5 to 1/7 of length 
of head, 1J to 2 diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Greatest width of head equals 2/5 of its length, and 
the height equals its length excluding the snout. Dorsal profile more convex than that of the abdomen, a slight 
concavity over the eyes : head rather strongly compressed. Snout not overhanging the jaws, cleft of mouth 
somewhat oblique, the jaws of about the same length anteriorly, the maxilla reaches to below the last third of 
the eye, whilst superiorly its anterior extremity is on a level with the lower edge of the eye. The distance 
between the eye and the upper edge of the maxilla equals 2/3 of the diameter of the orbit. Preopercle with 
some rather strong denticulations and three well-marked ones at the angle : two opercular spines. Shoulder- 
scale strongly serrated. A pore above the centre of the free edge of the skin of the snout, and a smaller one 
on either side, but no lateral lobe. Five pores on under surface of lower jaw below the symphysis. Teeth — 
villiform in both jaws, with an outer row of curved conical ones in the premaxillaries : whilst the inner row in 
the lower is much larger than the rest of the teeth. Fins — fourth to sixth dorsal spines of about the same 
height, one-third higher than the rays and equal to about 2\ in that of the body. Pectoral equals two-thirds 
of the height of the body. Ventral reaches half way to the anal fin. Second anal spine weak, half the length 
of the first ray and about equal to \\ diameters of the orbit, the length of its base equals 4i of that of the soft 
dorsal. Caudal wedge-shaped. Scales — cycloid on snout and under the eyes, ctenoid elsewhere. Lateral-line — 
curves to above the middle of the anal fin, the tubes have simple bifurcations. Colours — Silvery-gray along the 
back, becoming dull white below : a black spot in the axilla. First dorsal gray with a light line along its centre : 
caudal dark in its outer third, fins otherwise yellowish.- 

This species appears to be closely allied to Johnius microlepis, Bleeker, Sumatra, p. 11, or Pseucloscicena 
microlepis, Bleeker, Mem. Scien. 1874, p. 23, but its anal spine is not nearly so long and its eye is much smaller. 

Habitat. — Bombay, from whence two specimens were procured, the largest, which is figured, being nearly 
8 inches in length. Large specimens from 27 inches in length were not uncommon at Gwadur where the fish is 
extensively salted. 

2. Sciaena miles, Plate XLIII, fig. 5. 

Holocentrus miles, Lacep. iv, p. 244. 

Labrus tella Jcatchelee, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 13, f. 117. 

Gorvina miles, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 94, is, p. 479 ; Jerdon, M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 131 ; Bleeker, Sciasn. 
p. 17 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 300. 

Gorvina solclado, Cantor, Catal. p. 70. 

Gorvina Wolfii, Bleeker, Borneo, p. 66. 

Gorvina sampitensis, Bleeker, Borneo, p. 421. 

Corvina Celebica, Bleeker, Celebes, p. 244. 

Gorvina clorsalis, Peters, Fische Mozam. p. 242. 

Johnius Gelebicus, Bleeker, Enum. Pise. p. 35. 

Johnius miles, Bleeker, Pinang, p. 75. 

Pseucloscicena miles, Bleeker, Memo. Scien. 1874, p. 25. 

Vella kattelee, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. 9-10 | ^i^o, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. 1HI, L. tr. 8/16. 

Length of head 4j to 4£, of caudal 1/6, height of body 3J to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter ii to 1 .5 
of length of head, 1 1 diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Greatest width of head equals half its length, and 
its height equals its length excluding the snout. Cleft of mouth moderately oblique. Snout not overhanging the 
jaws which are of about equal length anteriorly, or the upper slightly the longer, the maxilla reaches to below the 
last third of the eye. Preopercle with some rather widely separated denticulations especially at its rounded angle : 
two opercular points. Free border of the skin of the snout with five orifices of canals and a small lateral lobe : 
five pores on the inferior surface of the lower jaw. Teeth — villiform in the upper jaw, with an outer row of lar^e 
curved conical ones in the premaxillaries : villiform in the lower jaw with the inner row consisting of distantly 

2 B 



186 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

placed enlarged ones. Fins — dorsal spines weak, nearly twice as long as the rays, and from If to 1/2 as high as the 
body. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout. Ventral reaches rather above half way to the anal. 
Second anal spine very strong, nearly as long as the first ray and equal from 1/2 the length of the head to its 
length behind the middle of the eyes : the extent of the base of the fin from 1/4 to 1/5 of that of the soft dorsal. 
Caudal wedge-shaped. Scales — cycloid on head and chest, ctenoid on the remainder of the body. Lateral-line — 
becomes straight above the hind edge of the anal, its tubes arborescent posteriorly. Colours — grayish darkened 
with green along the back, becoming white on the sides and abdomen, sometimes a small brown spot in j front 
of each dorsal ray. Outer edges of the fins in some specimens dark, except the ventral which is white. 

Habitat.' — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, attaining at least 2 feet in length. The specimen 
figured, from Bombay is 10 inches long. 

3. Scisena Vogleri, Plate XLV, fig. 1. 

Otolithus Vogleri, Bleeker, Sumatra, p. 253. 

Scicena Vogleri, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 294. 

Pseudoscicena Vogleri, Bleeker, Memoir. Scien. 1874, p. 35. 

B. vii, D. 10 | ^Vo, P. 19, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. r. ff, L. tr. 6/14, Ccec. pyl. 9. 

Length of head 3f , of caudal 6|, height of body 1/4 to 4j in the total length. Byes — diameter 4i to 4f in 
the length of head, 1 to 1 \ diameters from the end of snout, and also apart. Body rather compressed, the dorsal 
profile more convex than the abdominal. Width of head equals If in its length, its height equals its 
length excluding the snout. The snout does not overhang the upper jaw which is very slightly longer than the 
lower, cleft of the mouth oblique, the maxilla reaching to below the middle of the orbit. Preopercle distinctly 
but finely serrated : two opercular spines : the distance between the eye and the maxilla equals 1 diameter of 
the orbit. Five large open pores under the symphysis of the lower jaw, also five orifices along the free edge of 
the skin of the snout. The shoulder-scale serrated. Teeth — villrform in both jaws, with an outer row of 
large, curved, and rather distantly placed ones in the premaxillaries : and an internal row of large conical and 
rather widely separated ones in the lower jaw. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the second to the 
fifth subequal in length, from 2 to 2j in the height of the body, and 1/3 higher than the rays. Pectoral as long 
as the head behind the first fourth of the eye. Ventral scarcely reaches half way to the anal. Second anal 
spine weak, half the height of the first ray, and 4-§- in that of the body. Caudal wedge-shaped. Scales — cycloid 
on the head, ctenoid over the chest and body : the base of the soft dorsal fin rather thickly scaled. Lateral- 
line — becoming straight opposite the posterior portion of the anal fin, its tubes with one or two branches. 
Colours — silvery, glossed with golden, first dorsal dotted with black, most distinctly so in its upper half 
superior edge of soft dorsal and last half of caudal gray : a small dark spot sometimes present in the axilla 
fins yellow. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago. The largest specimen I have taken is 101 inches in 
length. 

4. Sciasna sina, Plate XLIV, fig. 2. 
Johnius sina, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 122 ; Blyth, J. A. S. of Beng. 1860, p. 141. 

Corvina sina, Belang. Voy. Ind. Orient. Zool. p. 359 ; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. xxvi, p. 82 ; Jerdon, M. 
J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 132. 

Scicena sina, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 292 ; Day, Pish. Malabar, p. 52. 
Booroo and Somoah or Soor, Sind. : Goal, Bel. 

B. vii, D. 10 | ¥7 a T5 . ) P. 17, V. 1/5, A j-l-s, C. 17, L. r. ff> L. tr. 8/14, Co3c. pyl. 9. 

Length of head 1/4 to 2/9, of caudal 1/5 to 2/11, height of body 2/7 to 1/4 of the total length. Byes— 
diameter 1 /4 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and l£ apart. Height of head equals its length 
excluding the snout, and its width If of its length. Snout rather inflated, scarcely overhanging the jaws : jaws 
of nearly equal length anteriorly : cleft of mouth nearly horizontal, the maxilla reaching to below the last 
third or hind edge of the orbit. The distance from the eye to the upper jaw equals 1/2 to 3/4 of a diameter of the 
orbit. Preopercle rounded, generally some distinct spinate teeth at its angle. Snout with three pores across its 
base : the free edge of the skin with a large central opening, and another externally on either side, no large lateral 
lobe : shoulder-flap serrated. Five open pores under the symphysis of the mandible. Teeth — villiform, with an 
outer curved row of rather distantly placed ones in the upper jaw, and an inner enlarged row in the mandible. 
Fins — dorsal spines rather weak, third and fourth the longest and equal to 2\ in the height of the body. 
Pectoral as long as the head without the snout. Ventral reaches nearly 1/2 way to the anal. Second anal 
spine more than half the height of the first ray, and equal to 3| in that of the body : the base of the fin equal 
to 2/7 of that of the soft dorsal. Caudal wedge-shaped. Air-vessel — large anteriorly, bulging on either side 
like a ha mm er, whilst from it descends an appendage on each side : posteriorly it ends in a sharp point. Scales — 
ctenoid, except on the head where they are cycloid, a few exist on the bases of the soft dorsal and anal fins. 
Lateral-line — becomes straight over the middle of the anal fin : each tube gives off a branch on either side. 
Colours — silvery, tinged with brownish along the back, and shot with gold on the abdomen : first dorsal blackish, 
especially in its outer half, the other fins gray. 

This fish attains a very large size on the Western coast of India and Sind, even so far as Gwadur. They 
are not much valued as food but their air-vessels are extensively collected for isinglass. In Bombay and Sind 



FAMILY, XII— SCLENnLE. 187 

there are daily to be seen in the markets examples of this fish and 8- glaucus of 5 or 6 or even more feet in length. 
Females in full spawn are common in April. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, attaining several feet in length, the one figured is 6 inches long. McClelland 
in his paper on isinglass in the Calcutta Journal of Natural History, refers the Soar (spelt Seer) fish from which 
the sounds are collected at Kurrachee, to a Polynemus, but it is a Scicena, and as described above or S. glaucus. 

5. Scisena cuja.* 

Bola cuja, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 81, 369, pi. xii, f. 27. 

Corvina cuja, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 96 ; Temm. and Schleg. Fauna Japon. Poiss. p. 58 ; Blyth, Journ. As. 
Soc. of Bengal, 1860, p. 141 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 300. 
Sciamoides avper, Blyth, 1. c. p. 140 (young). 

B. vii, D. 10 | ■^ T l TW , P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. if, L. tr. 7/16. 

Length of head 1/4 to 2/9, of caudal 1/8, height of body 3^ to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 
1/5 of length of head, 1 diameter from end of snout, and also apart. Profile along the upper surface of the head 
somewhat concave : snout not swollen : jaws of nearly the same length anteriorly, or the lower slightly the 
longer. Greatest width of the head equals 2| in its length, and its height equals its length behind the front 
nostril. Cleft of mouth somewhat oblique, the maxilla reaches to below the hind edge of the orbit. The 
distance between the eye and the upper jaw equals 3/5 of the diameter of the orbit. In the fry the upper 
edge of the orbit is serrated and two rough ridges pass backwards from it. Preopercle scarcely denticulated : 
two opercular spines. Three open pores across the base of the snout, and five large ones along the edge of the 
free portion of the skin, but no lateral lobe. One central pore below the symphysis of the lower jaw, and two 
large ones on either side posterior to it. Teeth — villiform in either jaw, with an outer row of enlarged, curved, 
rather distantly placed and comparatively small, ones in the anterior half of the premaxillaries : the inner row in 
the lower jaw is slightly larger than the villiform bands. Fins — dorsal spines strong, the second to the fourth 
the longest, one third higher than the rays, and equal to the length of the postorbital portion of the head. 
Pectoral as long as the head behind the middle of the eyes. Second anal spine very strong, nearly or quite as 
long as the first ray and equalling the length of the head behind the middle of the eyes. Caudal rounded. Scales 
— cycloid on the head, ctenoid on the body, the basal third of the soft dorsal and anal densely scaled : those on 
the summit of the head to the end of the occiput very much smaller than those on the body. Lateral-line — the 
tubes divide posteriorly into many branches. Colours — oblique dark streaks, following the rows of scales, exist 
above the lateral-line, horizontal ones below it. Both dorsals with two or three rows of black spots. 

Habitat. — Estuaries of the Ganges, and Japan. It attains to several feet in length. 

6. Scisena coitor, Plate XLIV, fig. 3. 

Bola coitor, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 75 and 368, pi. 27, f. 24. 

Corvina coitor, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 116 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 301. 

Johnius coitor, Blyth, J. A. S. of Beng. 1860, p. 141. 

Corvina nalla-Jcatchelee, Richards. Ich. China, p. 226. 

Botahl and Putterild, Ooriah : Nga-ta-dun and Nga-pok-tldn, Burm. 

B. vii, D. 10 | ^izl-g-, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. |<i : ||, L. tr. 5-6/15, Ca?c. pyl. 6-7 (9 Madras). 

Length of head 4j to 4| , of caudal 5| to 1/6, height of body 4-1- to 4| in the total length. Eyes — diameter 
from 1/4 to 5-|- in the length of head, \\ to 2 diameters from the end of snout, and from 3/4 to 1^ apart. 
Greatest width of head equals one and two-thirds in its length, its height equals its length excluding the snout. 
Snout scarcely overhanging the jaws but prominent and swollen superiorly, upper jaw somewhat the longer. 
Interorbital space nearly flat, and the profile over the eyes rather concave. The distance between the eye and 
the upper edge of the maxilla equals from 3/4 to 1 diameter of the eye. Preopercle serrated, most distinctly so 
at its angle : two weak opercular spines. Shoulder-flap finely serrated. Three small open pores across the 
snout, and five much larger ones along the free edge of the skin of the snout, whilst there is a well developed 
lateral lobe. One central and two lateral orifices below the symphysis of the lower jaw. Teetli — villiform in 
both jaws, with an external slightly enlarged row in the premaxillaries, and an inner similar one in the lower 
jaw. Fins — dorsal spines weak, the second to the fourth the longest and equal to 2/3 the height of the body 
and 1/4 more than the rays. Pectoral equal to the length of the head behind the front nostril. Second anal 
spine rather strong, 4/5 as high as the first ray and equal to the length of the postorbital portion of the head, 
the length of the base of the fin equals from 3| to 1/4 of that of the soft dorsal. Caudal wedge-shaped. Scales — 
cycloid on the snout and below the eyes, elsewhere ctenoid. Lateral-line —makes a gradual curve, and above 
the commencement of the anal becomes straight, its tubes give off a single branch on either side. Colours — 
silvery shot with gold and purple, upper half of first dorsal blackish : soft dorsal, caudal, and anal dark externally, 
whilst the last fin has a darkish basal band. 

This fish appears to vary considerably. Burmese and Bengal adult specimens have six or seven ctecal 
appendages, and an eye from 1/5 to 5-J- in the length of the head. In southern Madras, adults have nine ca?cal 
appendages and an eye about 1/4 the length of the head. Scimna (Corvina) nasus, Steind. Yerh. z. b. Ges. 
Wien, 1866, p. 771, t. xv, f. 1, is probably this species. 

* Johnius serratus, Bl. Scbn. p 76, has been referred to this fish, it came however from Tranquebar where S. cuja is not found. 

2 b 2 



188 ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

A specimen of this fish, 6£ inches in length, exists in the Berlin Museum, it was received from Paris with 
the label Corvina fiircrwa, and stated to have come from the Ganges. The true Perca furcrcea, Lacep. or Corvina 
fwrcrcea, Cuv. and Val. is described and figured by Steindachner as the Pachypops furcroeus from the Brazils. 
(Verb. z. b. Ges. Wien, 1866, p. 4, t. i.) 

Cantor's specimen of Johnius Bussumieri (Catal. p. 64), which is a skin, appears to me to be identical 
with the foregoing, but its anal spine is a little short, being 2\ in the length of the head, whilst the length of the 
base of its anal equals 4f in that of the length of the base of the soft dorsal. Another of the specimens in the 
British Museum seems to be 8. Vogleri. The species I formerly (Fishes of Malabar, p. 51) described as Scicma 
Bussumieri I now find is not identical with that species (see p. 192). It appears so doubtful as to what Corvina 
Bussumieri (C.V. v, p. 119) is, that I have omitted it. The description approaches most closely to that of 
Scice.no, sina amongst the species of this Genus which I have collected in Malabar. 

Habitat. — Throughout the larger rivers of India and Burmah, descending to the sea at certain seasons : 
it attains a foot in length. The one figured (an adult) is from the Irrawaddi. 

7. Sciasna axillaris, Plate XLIII, fig. 6. 

Corvina axillaris. Cuv. and Val. v, p. 113 ; Belanger, Voy. Ind. Orient. Zool. p. 356 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, 
p. 302 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 53. 

B. vii, D. 10 | ^i^, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. if, &• <*. 6-7/14, Ca3c. pyl. 9. 

Length of head 4i to 4J, of caudal 1/6, height of body 3J to 3f in the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 
of length of head, 3/4 to 1 diameter from end of snout, and l->- apart. Dorsal profile more convex than that of 
the abdomen. Greatest width of head equals half its length, and its height its length excluding the snout. 
Snout not overlapping the jaws, the jaws of about equal length anteriorly : the maxilla reaches to below the 
hind edge of the eye. Vertical limb of preopercle serrated, most strongly so at its angle. Two opercular 
spines. Distance from the eye to the maxilla equals two-thirds of the diameter of the orbit : shoulder-flap with 
smooth edges. Wo open glands visible across the snout nor lateral lobes. A knob below the symphysis of the 
lower jaw and two open pores behind it on either side. Teeth — villiform, with an outer curved row of rather 
strong ones in the premaxillaries, whilst the inner row in the lower jaw is twice as strong as the remainder. 
Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the fourth and fifth the longest, equal to 2-1- in the height of the body, 
and 1/3 longer than the rays. Pectoral equals the head excluding the snout. Ventral reaches two-thirds of the 
way to the anal, its first ray elongated. Second anal spine strong, 3/4 as long as the first ray and equal to 2J in 
the height of the body, the length of the fins base equals 3^- in that of the soft dorsal. Caudal wedge-shaped. 
Scales — cycloid on the head and as far as the bases of pectoral and ve'ntral fins, superiorly they extend to below 
the middle of the first dorsal, posterior to these places they become ctenoid. Lateral-line — curves to opposite 
the commencement of the anal, its tubes are arborescent posteriorly. Colours — silvery dashed with purple, a 
black spot in the axdla : upper two-thirds of the first dorsal black, and a dark tinge along the top of the first 
portion of the second : fins greyish. 

Habitat. — Seas of India. The specimen (figured life-size) from Orissa, was taken along with two others, 
the largest, captured at Madras in April, 1868, was a female 6i inches in length, and full of well developed ova. 

8. Scisena albida, Plate XLTV, fig. 4 and 6. 

Bola coibor, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 78, 368. 

Corvina albida, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 93 ; Belanger, Voy. Ind. Zool. p. 355 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 304 ; 
Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 54. 

Johnius anei, filyth, Proc. Asi. Soc. Beng. 1860, p. 141 (not Bloch). 
Corvina Neilli, Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 55. 
Vella hattelee and Karoom kattelee, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. 9-10 | ^I^, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. f-, C. 17, L. 1. 1^11, L. tr. 7/18, Ca3c. pyl. 5. 

Length of bead 3f to 1/5, of caudal 1/6 to 1/7, height of body 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — diameter 1/4 
in the young to 1/7 in the adult* in the length of head, and from 1 to lj diameters from the end of the snout. 
Dorsal and abdominal profiles about equally convex in the adult. Greatest width of head equals half its length, 
and its height equals its length excluding the snout. Interorbital space very sHghtly convex : snout not overhang- 
ing the mouth. Jaws equal in front, or the upper slightly the longer, cleft of mouth slightly oblique, the maxilla 
reaching to below the last third or hind edge of the eye. Preopercle with some serrations in the young most 
developed at its angle, but which become indistinct in the adult. Opercular spines indistinct. Three pores across 
the front of the snout : the free edge of the skin of the snout with five orifices and a slight lateral lobe. A bluntish 
knob below the symphysis of the lower jaw behind the base of which is a large open pore, and two more on the 
side of either ramus : a short barbel exists between the central pore and anterior lateral one, and a very minute 
one at the posterior pore. Teeth — villiform with an outer row of large curved ones in the premaxillaries : whilst 
the inner row in the lower jaw also consists of enlarged pointed teeth. Fins — dorsal spines increase in length to 
the third which is one-fourth higher than the rays, and equals from If to 1/2 the height of the body. Pectoral as 
long as the head excluding the snout and a little longer than the ventral, which latter reaches half way to the anal. 
Second anal spine strong, nearly as long as the first ray and equal to 1/2 or 2/3 the height of the body. Caudal 

* Specimens 8 inches long haTe the diameter of the eye 1/4 in the length of the head, 4-f at 11 inches : 5| at 15 inches, and 
1/7 in very large ones. This atrophy is not peculiar to this species. 



FAMILY, XII— SCLENTEvE. 189 

wedge-shaped in the young, rounded in the adult. Scales — cycloid on head, elsewhere ctenoid, fine ones covering 
the bases of the soft dorsal and anal, and in the adult the whole of the caudal fin ; those anterior to the base of 
the first dorsal fin are much smaller than those posteriorly. Lateral-line — becomes straight opposite the anal fin : 
the tubes are arborescent posteriorly. Colours — silvery, with a light streak along each row of scales, the first 
dorsal in the young with a black interspinous membrane, but only having a black outer edge in the adult : 
second dorsal stained gray at the upper third. A dark bluish mark on the opercles, most distinct in the young. 
Ventral, anal, and caudal yellowish. 

In Indian specimens there are as a rule only nine spines in the first dorsal fin, and the first of these is very 
short. 

The two figures show the marine form (fig. 4) at 8i inches in length, the tail is longer and the colours 
much lighter. Fig. 6 is the estuary species as found off Calcutta, the back is dark and the lower surface brilliant 
golden : a dark spot on the axilla. 

Habitat. — Seas of India (China ?) : termed Sa/pe hatele at Pondicherry. It is a common species, but not 
in much esteem for the table, it attains at least 3 feet in length. 

9. Sciasna diacanthus. 

Lutjanus diacanthus, Lacep. iv, pp. 195, 244. 
Labrus nella Jcatchelee, Russell, ii, p. 11, pi. 115. 
Labrus hatchelee, Russell, ii, p. 12, pi. 116 (young). 
Bola chaptis, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, pp. 77, 368, pi. 10, f. 25. 
Johnius cataleus, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 128 ; Blyth, J. A. S. of Beng. 1860, p. 141. 
Johnius chaptis, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 130 ; Blyth, J. A. S. of Beng. 1860, p. 141. 

Corvina catalea, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 128 ; Belanger, Voy. Ind. Orient, p. 360 ; Richards. Ich. China, 
p. 226 ; Jerdon, M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 131 ; Bleeker, Scieen. p. 18. 
Corvina platycephala, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 132. 

Sciama maculata, Gray and Hardw. Bl. Ind. Zool. ii, p. 89, f. 1 (young). 

Johnius diacanthus, Cantor, Catal. p. 67 ; Bleeker, Java, p. 326 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 133. 
Johnius Valenciennei, Eyd. Soul. Voy. Bonito, i, p. 150, t. i, f. 2. 
Johnius maculatus, Blyth, J. A. S. of Beng. 1860, p. 141. 
Sciosna diacanthus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 290. 
Pseudoscimna diacanthus, Bleeker, Mem. Scien. 1874, p. 27. 

B. vii, D. 10 | 23^, P. 18-19, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. if, L. tr. 7/18, Case. pyl. 8. 

Length of head 1/4 to 4|, of caudal 1/6, height of body 4^ to 1/5 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 4<\ to 1/6 of length of head, 1-^ to li diameters from end of snout, and also apart. Greatest width of 
the head equals If in its length, and the height equals its length excluding the snout. Snout slightly inflated, 
upper jaw a little the longer, cleft of mouth oblique, the maxilla reaches to below the last third of the orbit. The 
distance from the eye to the upper jaw equals 2/3 of the diameter of the orbit. Margin of preopercle crennlated 
in the adult, in the immature the angle is denticulated : two opercular points. Snout with three open pores 
across its base, and three openings along the free edge of the skin, but no lateral lobe. Five open pores under 
the symphysis of the lower jaw. Shoulder-flap finely serrated. Teeth — villiform in either jaw, with an outer row 
of curved, conical, and distantly placed ones in the premaxillaries, and an inner enlarged row in the mandibles. 
Fins —dorsal spines weak, increasing in length to the third and fourth which are 1/4 higher than the rays, and 
2 to 2^ in the height of the body. Pectoral equals the length of the head behind the middle of the eyes. 
Ventral reaches nearly half way to the base of the anal. Second anal spine moderately strong, at least half as 
long as the rays and equal to 2| in the length of the head : the length of the base of the fin equals 1/3 to 2,7 of 
the base of the soft dorsal. Caudal wedge-shaped. ' Scales — ctenoid except on the snout and below the eyes. 
Lateral-line — becomes straight above the end of the anal fin, the tubes are arborescent posteriorly. Colours — 
brownish-gray shot with silver along the back, which below the lateral-line gradually fades to dull silvery-gray, 
head of the same colour glossed with purple. Fins yellowish, with black dots. Eyes golden. In the immature 
as up to a foot and a half in length or even more, the fins are grayish with dark edges, and the dorsal has two 
rows of dark spots : the caudal also has black spots and a black edge. In still younger specimens the back and 
upper half of the body has many black spots, and the young are as a rule vertically banded. 

Russell observes that his plate 116, or the maculata, Gray and Hard, was believed by the fishermen to be 
the female : I have dissected many males however having this form of colour. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago and China, attaining at least 5 feet in length : it 
ascends tidal rivers and estuaries, and is found in the Hooghly as high as Calcutta. 

10. Sciaena aneus, Plate XLV, fig. 5. 
Johnius aneus, Bloch, t. 357. 
Corvina anei, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 131. 

? Corvina sina, Schleg. Fauna Japon, p. 58, pi. 24, f. 2 (not Cuv. and Val.) 
Otolithus macrophthalmus, Bleeker, Sciasna, p. 16, and Java, Gen. et Spec. nov. p. 99. 
Scicena -macrophthalmus, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 291. 
Otolithus aneus, Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 939. 
Corvina macrophthalmus, Bleeker, Bintang, p. 292. 



190 ACANTHOPTERTGII. 

Pseudoscicena macroplithalmus, Bleeker, Mem. Scien. 1874, p. 21. 
Pennah, Tarn. : Chal-bum-dah, Andam. 

B. vii. D. 10 | jJj^ P. 18, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. w, L. tr. 8-9/18, Case pyl. 10. 

Length of head 3-f to 1/4, of caudal 1/7 to 1/8, height of body 1/4 to 4?\ in the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 1/4 to 4J in the length of head, 1 to 1^ diameters from end of snout and also apart. Greatest width 
of head equals 4/7 of its length, and the height equals its length behind the posterior nostril. Interorbital 
space nearly fiat, snout not overhanging the mouth, the lower jaw the longer. Cleft of mouth oblique, 
the maxilla reaches to below the middle of the eye : the distance between the eye and the upper edge of the 
maxilla equals from 1/2 to 3/4 of the diameter of the orbit. Nostrils large and opposite the upper third of the 
orbit. Preopercle finely but widely serrated along both limbs, its lower edge very strongly serrated in the 
young : two opercular spines. Shoulder-flap entire. A small pore on either side of the snout just above the 
free edge of the skin. A small open pore on either side of the symphysis of the lower jaw on its under 
surface. Teeth — villiform in the upper jaw, with an outer conical row of distantly placed ones becoming canine- 
like near the symphysis. In the lower jaw an internal row of distantly placed conical teeth having a 
few villiform ones between or external to them. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the second to the 
fifth the longest, one-third higher than the rays, and equal to from 1/2 to 2-1- in the height of the body. 
Pectoral equals the length of the head excluding the snout. Ventral scarcely reaches half-way to the vent. 
Second anal spine weak, and from 3/4 to 1 diameter of the orbit in length, the length of the base of the fin 
equals from 1/4 to 4^ in that of the soft dorsal. Caudal slightly rounded, cut square, or even a little emarginate. 
Scales — cycloid except in the posterior portion of the body where they are feebly ctenoid. Lateral-line — tubes 
become arborescent posteriorly. Air-vessel — oval with about 30 lateral processes on either side and extending the 
whole length of the abdomen. Dr. Ogg, chemical examiner at Madras (1867), found the isinglass very inferior. 
Colours — silvery-gray, becoming dull white along the abdomen : first dorsal black tipped or stained with dark gray : 
second dorsal grayish, lightest along its centre. Pectoral, ventral, and anal yellowish. Caudal tipped with gray. 

In the Museum at Paris there is a specimen labelled as above and brought from Batavia by M. Raynaud. 

Habitat. — Seas of India to the Malay Archipelago, it is very common at Madras up to 8 or 9 inches in 
length. It is not rare at Bombay or the Andamans : the specimen figured is 5^ inches long and from Madras. 

11. Sciaena maculata. 

Johnius maculatus, Bl. Schn. p. 75 ; Cantor,* Catal. ]3. 68 (not synon.) ; Blyth, J. A. S. of Beng. 1860, 
p. 141 (not syn.). 

Perca sari-kullah, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 17, pi. 123. 

Corvina maculata, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 126 ; Jerdon, M. J. L. and Sc. 1851, p. 132. 
Scicena maculata, Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 291 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 50. 
Cooroowa and Vari Icatahelee, Tarn. : Cutlah, Mai. : Taan-tah, Bel. 

B. vii, D. 10 | lT !jj, P. 18, V. 1/5, A. f-, C. 17, L. 1. t§i, L. tr. 8/16, Cebc. pyl. 8. 

Length of head 3-^- to 3f , of caudal from 1/5 to 1/6, height of body 3|- to 1/4 of the total length. Eyes — 
diameter 4j to 1/5 of length of head, li diameters from end of snout, and 1 apart. Width of head equals 1/2 
its length, and its height 4/5 of the same extent. Upper jaw overlapping the lower, and being itself overhung by 
the snout : the maxilla reaches to below the middle or last third of the eye. Preopercle with about six widely 
separated but rather strong denticulations at its angle, and its lower border crenulated in the young : 
opercle with two rather obtuse spines. Shoulder-flap serrated. A transverse row of four pores across the 
snout, the free edge of the skin with five orifices and a lateral lobe. A central pore below the mandibular 
symphysis, having two more on either side of it. Teeth — villiform in the upper jaw with an outer row of 
conical curved ones most developed near the median line : in the lower jaw villiform in several rows above the 
symphysis, whilst laterally the inner row consists of curved, enlarged teeth, and the outer villiform ones soon 
disappear. Fins — dorsal spines of moderate strength, the third to the seventh being the longest and equal to 
half the height of the body and one-third higher than the second dorsal fin. The pectoral equals the length of 
the head excluding the snout. Ventral reaches half way to the vent, its outer ray prolonged. Second anal 
spine 2/3 as long as first ray, and equals about 1/3 of the height of the body, length of the base of the fin 
1/4 of that of the soft dorsal. Caudal wedge-shaped in the young, becoming more obtuse in the adult. 
Scales — ctenoid, except on the cheeks. Lateral-line — curves to below the middle of the soft dorsal when 
it proceeds straight, the tubes have usually a single branch on either side. Air-vessel — with 14 or 15 lateral 
processes on either side, each having two or three insertions. Colours — silvery-gray, abdomen whitish, cheeks 
tinged with golden. Five broad black bands, sometimes interrupted, extend over the back, the first from the 
nape passes backwards and downwards, and shortly after crossing the lateral-line abruptly terminates. The 
second commencing opposite from the fifth to the seventh dorsal spines passes backwards and downwards, 

* The species termed Johnius maculatus, var. by Cantor, (Catal. p. 68), is still present in the British Musenm, it has been 
termed by Bleeker (Mem. Scien. 1874, p. 51) J. Cantori. I would here add to Cantor's description the following remarks from his 
type. Height of head equals its length excluding the snout : the distance from the eye to the upper jaw equals three-fourths of 
a diameter of the orbit. Teeth — an enlarged outer row in the upper jaw: solely villiform ones in the lower. Fins — longest spines of 
first dorsal fin one-third higher than the rays and equal to 3/5 of the height of the body. Second anal spine nearly as long as the first 
ray and equals the length of the postorbital portion of the head, length of the base of the anal fin equals 4J in that of the soft dorsal. 
Scales — ctenoid, except on the snout and below the eyes j 48 rows along the lateral line, 50 above it, and 45 below it. 



FAMILY, XII— SCLENTD^E. 191 

terminating opposite the middle of the ventral fin. The third arising opposite the second and third 
dorsal rays or between the two dorsal fins passes downwards parallel to the second band. The fourth com- 
mences below the centre of the second dorsal and descends to the lateral line : the fifth taking the same course 
is below the last few dorsal rays: occasionally there is a sixth over the free portion of the tail. Upper 
two-thirds of first dorsal stained black, becoming more indistinct with age : caudal slightly tinged with black, 
the other fins yellowish. 

Habitat. — Seas of India, attaining at least a foot in length, it is not considered good eating. 

B. No enlarged inner row of teeth in the lower jaw (Johnius). 

12. Sciaena Belengeri, Plate XLIV, fig. 5. 

Spams, Russell, Fish. Vizag. ii, p. 8, pi. cxi. 

Corvina Belengeri, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 120 ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 303 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 54. 
? Corvina lobata, Cuv. and Val. v, p. 122, pi. cvii ; Giinther, Catal. ii, p. 304 ; Day, Fish. Malabar, p. 55. 
Corvina Kuhlii, Cuv. and Yal. v, p. 121 : Bleeker, Sciffin. p. 18, and Eniim. Pise. p. 35. 
Johnius Belengeri, Cantor, Catal. p. 65 ; Kner, Novara Fische, p. 133 ; Bleeker, Memoire Scie'noid. 
1874, p. 46. 

Tooroo Jcattelee, Tarn. 

B. vii, D. 9 | w ;^, P. 17, V. 1/5, A. f, C. 17, L. 1. _H_, L. tr. 6/14, Cebc. pyl. 5. 

Length of head 4| to 4|, of caudal 5i, height of body 1/4 to 4| in the total length. Eyes — diameter 3j- 
to 3f in the length of head, nearly 1 diameter from end of snout, and 1 apart. Height of head equals its 
length without the snout or behind front nostril, and its thickness equals from 1| to If in its length. Snout 
rounded, overhanging the upper jaw which last is in advance of the lower. The maxilla reaches to below the 
middle of the eye : cleft of mouth almost horizontal. Preopercle serrated, most coarsely so at its angle and 
along its horizontal limb : two opercular spines. The distance between the eye and the upper edge of the maxilla 
equals 1 diameter of the orbit. Snout with three open pores across its base : the free edge of the skin has one 
central and a second opening on either side dividing it into four lobes : five rather small open pores on the lower 
jaw. Teeth — villiform in both jaws with an outer row of enlarged and curved ones in the upper. Fins — dorsal fin 
having as a rule only 9 spines, the first of which is very short : the second and third equal from 2/3 to 1/2 the 
height of the body, and are 1/3 higher than the rays. Pectoral as long as the head excluding the snout. 
Ventral reaches half way to the anal, its outer ray prolonged. Second anal spine from a little above 1/2 to 2 3 
the height of the first ray, and from 2 \ to 2/5 of that of the body : length of base of the fin equal to 1/4 of that 
of the soft dorsal. Caudal wedge-shaped. Scales — ctenoid except on snout and below the eyes where they are 
cycloid : they form a thick covering for the base of the soft dorsal fin. Lateral-line — curves to opposite the end 
of anal where it becomes straight, at first it is indistinct : the tubes with one or two branches. Air-vessel — " each 
side has ten branching processes, shorter, however, and apparently placed at a greater distance from each other 
than in /. Dussumieri. The three posterior pairs are much longer than the preceding, the eighth' and ninth 
bipartite, the tenth pair is undivided, pointed." — (Cantor.) Colours — dark-gray, dorsals, anal, and caudal almost 
black : a dark blotch on the opercle : some specimens are much lighter. I have also a specimen 5 1 inches long- 
marked as in S. lobata. 

Out of 16 specimens from the coasts of India I find none with more than 9 dorsal spines.