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Full text of "The fishes of Panama Bay"



CONTRIBUTIONS TO BIOLOGi 



FROM 



The Hopkins Seaside Laboratory 

OF THE 

LELAND STANFORD JR. UNIVERSITY 



x:x:x:ii 



THE FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



By CHARLES H. GILBERT and EDWIN C. STARKS 



[ Reprinted from the Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 

Vol. IV ] 



Stanford University, California 
1904 



Cm»*nin»lii-=ts* ■« ♦•m the Hopkins Laboratory. 



Pishes of Si naloa. By David Starr Jordan, pp. 142- 

•J. On the Cranial Characters of the Genus Sebas- 
todes. By Frank Cramer, pp. 42^ i4 pltUes. 

3. The Fishes of Puget Sound. By David S. Jordan and 
Edwin C. Stabks. pp. 71. 29 phles. 

4. New Mallophaga, I, with special reference to a Collection made 
fror» Maritimf Vr^ '< -i; i.he Eay of Monterey, California. By Vernon L. 
K' i rtar^ ■' ,.. i^piates. 

5. Nctos on Fishes, Llttie Known or New to Science. 
By David Starr Jordan, pp. 48. 24 plales. 

6. Notes on Fresh Water Fishes of the Pacific Slope of 
North America. By Cloudslev Ruitkr. Description of a New 
Species of Pipe-Fish (Siphostoma sinaloae) from Mazat- 
lan. By David S. Jordan and Edwin C. Starks. Notes on Del- 
tistes, a New Genus of Catostomoid Frshes. By Alvin Seale. 
pp. 29. 

7. New Mallophaga, II, from Land Birds, together with an account 
of the Mallophagous Mouth-Parts. By Vernon L. Kellogg, pp.118. 14 
plates. 

8. List of Fishes Collected at Port Ludlow. Wash. By 
Edwin Chapin Starks. pp. 14. i plates. 

9. Marine Fossils from the Coal Measures of Arkansas. 
By James Perrin Smith, pp. 72. 9 plates. 

10. Scientific Names of Greek and Latin Derivation. 
By Walter Miller, pp. 31. 

11. A Morphological Study of Naias and Zannichellia. 
By Douglas Houghton Campbell, pp. 68. 5 plates. 

1 2. Geology of the Paleozoic Area of Arkansas South 
of the Novaculite Region. By George H. Ashley. 31 cuts. 2 
ni.aps. 

IS. The Development of Glyphloceras and the Phy- 
logeny of the Glyphioceratidae. By James Perrin Smith, pp. 
a8. 3 plates. 

14. A Geological Reconnaissance of the Coal Fields 
of the !nd'an Territory. By Noah Fields Drake, pp. 93- 

15. Dfe)scr!ption of a Species of Fish (Mitsukurina 
owstoni) from Japan, the Type of a Distinct Family of 
Lamnoid Sharks, bv D.'ViC St.vrr Jordan, pp. 5- 2 plates. 

16. The Development of Lytooeras and Phylloceras. 
?y James Terrin Smith, pp. 32. s /ifarw. 




NOTICE 

AFTER CAREFUL EXAMINATION OF THE 
INNER MARGIN AND TYPE OF MATERIAL 
WE HAVE SEWN THIS VOLUME BY HAND 
SO IT CAN BE MORE EASILY OPENED 
AND READ. 



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CONTRIBUTIONS TO BIOLOGY 



FROM 



The Hopkins Seaside Laboratory 

OF THF 

LELAND STANFORD JR. UNIVERSITY 



x:x::x:ii 



THE FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



By CHARLES II. GILBERT axd EDWIN C. STARKS 



[ Reprinted from the Memoirs of the Cahfornia Academy of Sciences 

Vol. IV ] 



FEB 24 1987 



.St.\nf(iri) University, California 
1904 



:i;ji//6 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



This memoir is the thirty-second of a series designed to illustrate investiga- 
tions and explorations connected with the Hopkins Seaside Laboratory, an adjunct 
of the biological laboratories of the Leland Stanford Junior University. These 
investigations have been carried on by means of the assistance given by Timothy 
Hopkins, Esq., of Menlo Park, California. This memoir appears in the publica- 
tions of the California Academy of Sciences, the present edition being a reprint. 

Oliver P. Jenkins, 
Charles H. Gilbert, 

Directors Hopkins Laboratory. 
Date of publication, February 6th, 1904. 



THE FISHES OF PANAMA BAY. 



CHARLES H. GILBERT and EDWIN C. STARKS. 



Contents. 



I'LATiss i-xxxin. 



Introduction .............. 3 

List of New Species ............ 5 

Systematic Account of Species ........... 5 

General Remarks on Distribution ......... 205 

Table of Distribution ............. 206 

Bibliography .............. 219 

Explanation of Plates ............ 228 



Index 



293 



Introduction. 



The ichthyologic history of Panama Bay falls naturally into three periods. 
The first, beginning with 1800, depended upon the activity of Captain John M. Dow, 
who.se collections, forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution and to the British Museum, 
were reported upon by Dr. Theodore Gill and Dr. Albert Giinther. This early work 
culminated in 1869 through the publication of Giuither's " Fishes of Central 
America," which contains an admirable summary of tiie state of our knowledge at 
that date, with valuable discussions of the faunal relations of both marine and fresh- 
water forms. 

The second period was characterized by the work of Dr. Franz Steindachner, 
based in part upon his own collections, in part upon material obtained through various 
correspondents. No general summary was given by him, but the diagnoses of new 
species, which appeared in his series of "Notizen" and " Beitriige " (See Bibliog- 
raphy), form a model of accurate and detailed work of that description. 



4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The third period has resulted from investigations undertaken either directly 
or with the assistance of the United States Fish Commission and the Smithsonian 
Institution. Under their auspices Dr. Gilbert made in 1881 large collections of 
the fishes of Pan," ma, which served as the basis for numerous papers by Jordan and 
Gilbert. A second and much larger collection, made by him in 1883, was unfortu- 
nately destroyed by fire, together with all field-notes and the manuscript report then 
ready for the printer. The only record of this material is embodied in a list published 
by Jordan (1885). The new species indicated in that list remained, for the most 
part, still undescribed and unrepresented in any museum at a period ten years later! 

The dee )er waters off the Panama Bay, out as far as the Galapagos Islands, 
were thoroughly explored by the United States Fish Commission steamer Albatross 
in 1888 and 1891. Reports upon the fishes thus obtained have been given by 
Jordan and Bollman (1889), by Gilbert (1890 b), and recently in most admirable 
and complete form by Garman (1899). 

The following account of the fishes of Panama Bay is based primarily 
upon material obtained in 1896 by an expedition from the Leland Stanford Junior 
University, generously equipped and sent out by Mr. Timothy Hopkins of Menlo 
Park, California. The party consisted of Dr. C. H. Gilbert and Messrs. E. C. Starks, 
C. J. Pierson and R. C. McGregor. During the six weeks (January lOth to Feb- 
ruary 24th) spent in residence at Panama, an almost hourly inspection of the excel- 
lent fish-market was maintained; the tide-pools of the reef were explored, and the 
rocks and islands near the city were investigated by the aid of dynamite. The 
effectiveness of the party became so reduced by illness during the last weeks of their 
stay, that they were unable to carry out that part of their plans which contemplated 
the exploration of the Pearl Islands on the one hand and the rivers of the Isthmus 
on the other. These localities offer still a rich field for investigation. Of the two 
hundred and eighty-three marine species obtained, forty-three were new, and included 
among them all but four {Tylosurus sp., Oynoscion sp., Scarus sp., and Citharichtliys 
sp.) of the still undescribed forms of the list of 1885. Descriptions of many of 
the new species have already apj^eared in the different volumes of Jordan and 
Evermann's "Fishes of North and Middle America," and full accounts of all 
appear in the present paper. 

We have admitted to our list all previous records of fishes from Panama Bay, 
unless good reason exists for doubting their validity. Several general references to 
"Panama," in Jordan and Evermann's work above cited, seem not to be based upon 
special records, and are rejected by us, even where there is a general probability of 
their occurrence at Panama in view of the known range of the species. Of the fishes 
obtained by the Albatross, we have included such only as were dredged within the 
fifty-fathom line. Even when thus restricted, the assemblage is found to contain 
many forms which are rarely or never taken along shore, and seem to constitute a 
sublittoral fauna of characteristic shallow-water species. The genera Prionotus, 
Symphurus and Dipkctrum offer numerous examples of such species. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



List of New Species. 



Types of iill iiuw s|)ecies are de 
the Leland Stanford Junior University 
following list: — 

Carcharias velox 11 S93 

Carcharias ceiclale ll.SrS4 

Carcharias azureiis 1 ISUO 

Myliobatis asperrimus 11S',)5 

Galeichthys xenauchcn .5821 

Cialeichthys eigcnmaiini (il)SB 

Tachysurus emmelanc TiSlS 

Tachysurus evermaniii ()7()(i 

Tachysurus steindachneri TO'iti 

Pisoodonophis daspilotus i)S20 

Muntna clepsydra (iMOT 

Aiich(i\'ia rastralis 5812 

Aiichovia mundeola 5817 

Anchovia naso 581(3 

Ancho\ia starksi 5814 

Cetungraulis engymcn 5815 

Heniiramphus saltator 680() 

Fistularia corneta 6808 

Oligoplites refulgens (5701) 

Hemicaranx zelotes 5819 

Peprilus snyderi (3800 

Lobotes pacificus 5883 



posited in the Ichthyological Collections of 
, and hear the numbers, indicated in the 



Lutiaiius jordani < 1 

Rhi'gina thauinasiuiii 

Sagenichthys niordax 

Larimus effulgens 

Odontoscion xanthops ' 

Stellifer illecebrosus ' 

Stellifer zestocarus 

Ophioscion simulus 

Polyclemus goodei 

Eques viola 

Pomacentrus gilli 

Halichaeres macgregori 

Xesurus hopkinsi 1 

Balistes vcrres 

PrioiKitiis I'uscarius 

Microgobius miraflorensis 

Evermannia panamensis 

Batrachoides boulengeri 

Porichthys greenei 

Hypsoblennius piersoni 

Homesthes caulopus 



lt)88 
5978 
(3809 
5520 
5519 
5515 
5518 
551(3 
5517 
5521 
(380;5 
(3804 
2(371 
(5805 
6488 
(3511 
6509 
6487 
6485 
6522 
5623 



Family GINGLYMOSTOMID.E. 

I. Ginglymostoma cirratum (Gmelin). 

A single specimen taken, 27 cm. long. The body and fins are light brown- 
ish, marked with small black spots about as large as pupil, those in front of dorsal 
arranged rather uniformly in cross-series. Snout unspotted. Lower side of head 
whitish, unspotted. 

Family GALEID.E. 

2. Mustelus lunulatus (Jordan & Gilbert). 

Plate I, Fi«. 1. 

Five specimens were secured seeming to agree in all respects with an indi- 
vidual collected by Dr. Jordan from the type locality, Mazatlan. In a young male 
53 cm. long the claspers do not project beyond the edge of the ventral fin ; in 
another 64 cm. long they are fully developed, 2>i'otruding beyond edge of ventral for 
about 4 cm. A male from Mazatlan (68 cm. long) has the claspers undeveloped, 
not reaching beyond margin of ventrals. This seems to indicate considerable irregu- 
larity in the sexual development of the species. The young of M. lunulatus are as 
yet unknown. 



(2) 



Jauuaty 12, 1903. 



6 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The Panama specimens agree well with tlie original description of the species, 
except in the following respects: — 

(a) Distance from insertion of first dorsal to anterior root of pectoral | (not 
"about 3") its distance from tip of snout. This discreiJancy is due, however, to 
an error in the original description. Mr. Barton A. Bean has kindly re-examined 
the type, and states that the first distance is contained about 2| times in the second. 

(b) Distance between dorsals 23 to 2J times (not "23 times") base of first, 
and 21 to 3^ times ("a little more than 3 times") base of second. Mr. Bean 
gives base of first dorsal 21 and base of second dorsal 3^, in the intersi^ace between 
dorsals. This interval is therefore longer in the type than in any of the Panama 
si^ecimens. The latter agree, however, with the Mazatlan specimens above mentioned. 

A specimen of M. lamdatus in the United States National Museum (No. 
46838), taken by the "Albatross" at the mouth of the Mulege River, Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, has the proportions of the type. The base of the first dorsal, excluding the 
fleshy hump which precedes the rays, is contained 2g times in the interval between 
dorsals, the base of the second dorsal 3i times in this interval. It is evident, 
therefore, that the size and relative positions of the dorsal fins must be used with 
caution for specific distinction. 

(c) Middle of dorsal base usually midway between axil of pectorals and 
anterior insertion of ventrals, sometimes very slightly nearer pectorals. In none of 
the Panama specimens is it nearer the base of the pectorals by a distance equaling 
the diameter of the eye, as given in the description of the type (slightly less than 
this in the type according to Mr. Bean). 

Following are dimensions of a Panama specimen: — 

nini. 

Total length 530 

Length of head 95 

Length of snout 43 

Diameter of orbit 17 

Length of spiracle 3-5 

Length of midcjle gill-slit 14 

Distance from ti[) of snout to front of mouth 34.5 

Distance from tip of snout to inner angle of nostrils 27 

Distance between nostrils 14 

Distance between angles of mouth 28 

Distance from tip of mandible to line joining posterior angles of lips 21 

Extreme length of upjjer lip 5.5 

Extreme length of lower lip 8 

Distance from tip of snout to base of pectorals 113 

( Greatest width of ])ectoral base 23 

Outer pectoral margin 71 

Inner pectoral margin 40 

Distal pectoral margin 57 

Axil of pectoral to base of ventrals 107 

Snout to base of \entrals 230 

Outer edge of ventrals 40 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHKS OF PAMAMA BAY 7 



nun. 



Base of ventrals 27 

Snout to base of dorsal fin prcipi-r, imt including tk-shy ridge 167 

Base of first dorsal 51 

Height of anterior margin of first dorsal (not including fleshy lunni) at base) 65 

Height of posterior margin 29 

Distance between dorsals 125 

Base of second dorsal 39 

Distance from second dorsal to base of u])[)er caudal lobe 52 

Length of upper caudal lobe 1 10 

Distance from tij) of caudal to base of notch 41 

Distance from base of notch to origin of lower lobe 75 

Distance from origin of lower caudal lobe to base of anal 39 

Base of anal 26 

A specimen of Galeus californicns from Magdalena Bay, Lower California 
(No. 1404 L. S. J. U.) compared with Al. lunulatas has the fins less incised uiul with 
rounded angles, the snout broader and less pointed, the lips longer, about equaling 
width of nostril, and the dorsal more backward in position, its base contained three and 
one-fourth in its distance from snout. The angle of the mouth is also much greater. 

Q. californicua ranges to the southward along the entire coast of Lower Cali- 
fornia and throughout the Gulf of California, where it is found associated with 
]iL lunulatus. It occurs doubtless at Mazatlan, although it has not yet been recorded 
from that point. It was obtained by the "Albatross" in 1889 at San Quentin and 
Magdalena bays on the outer coast of Lower California, and in Concepcion Bay, San 
Luis Gonzales Bay, and at Station 3026 in the Gulf of California. The foetuses 
reported from Guaymas by Evermann and Jenkins (1891, p. 129), under the name 
of Oakus dorsalix, belonged to 6. califoriiicux, as is sufficiently evident from their 
measurements. 

3. Galeus dorsalis Gill. 

Plate I, Fio. 2. 

Previous diagnoses have called attention to the low, comparatively little-incised 
fins, and the short caudal. More conspicuous differences are found in the small size 
of the eye, the large spiracle, and the large nostrils. The diameter of the eye is 
contained 2; to 3 times in the distance from tip of snout to front of upper jaw. In 
M. lunulatus of the same size, it is contained twice in this distance. The width 
of the internasal septum is less than the distance from inner angle of nostrils to 
margin of snout, while greater than this distance in M. lunulatus. The spiracle is a 
long slit, I or more than | diameter of eye. The nasal valve is smaller than in 
related species, produced mesially into a narrow flap, the width of which does not 
exceed \ width of nostril. The inner folds are also much simpler and smaller, and 
fail to conceal the olfactory membrane. The snout is narrower and sharper, with 
the outlines less curved; it is also thinner, so as to appear whitish-translucent. The 
pores on snout are much more conspicuous than in related species, and contribute to 
give it a spongy texture; they are numerous on top and sides of snout as well as 
below, and are clustered to form a conspicuous patch below front of eye. The 
shagreen is much coarser than in M. limulnlun. 



8 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 

Both jiectorals ami ventrals have broad, rounded outer angles, and have the 
posterior margins straight or nearly straight when the fin is spread. The pectoral 
contrasts strongly with that of M. lunulatus, where the outer angle is prolonged, giv- 
ing the fin a falcate shape. The tip of the pectoral reaches to or slightly beyond the 
vertical from the middle of the dorsal base. The first dorsal is low, with rounded 
anterior angle and gently concave margin, the anterior angle failing to reach the tip 
of the posterior angle when the fin is declined. Both dorsals are longer in propor- 
tion than they are in 31. hinulntus, and the caudal peduncle as well as the caudal fin 
shorter. The base of the second dorsal equals in length the back of caudal peduncle; 
the base of the anal equals in length the lower side of the caudal peduncle. The 
bases of second dorsal and anal are much shorter than caudal peduncle in M. lunu- 
latus. The angle of the lower caudal lobe is rounded or slightly angulated, never 
acute, the outline very gently concave next the angle. The margin of the posterior 
lobe is broad, evenly truncate when spread. 

Following are measurements of a specimen from Panama: — 

mm. 

Total length 468 

Length of head (to hrst gill-slit) 84 

Length of head (to last gill-slit) 107 

Length of snout 4' 

Diameter of orbit 10.5 

Length of spiracle 4 

Tip of snout to front of mouth 31 

Tip of snout to inner angle of nostrils 27 

Distance between nostrils 11 

Distance between angles of mouth 25 

Distance from tip of mandible to line joining posterior angles of lips 18 

Extreme length of upper lip 7 

Extreme length of lower lip 6 

Tip of snout to base of pectoral 107 

Width of pectoral base 24 

Outer pectoral margin 68 

Inner pectoral margin 39 

Distal pectoral margin 47 

Axil of pectorals to base of ventrals 105 

Snout to base of ventrals 233 

Outer edge of ventrals 36 

Base of ventrals 27 

Snout to base of first dorsal 152 

Base of first dorsal 52 

Height of anterior margin of first dorsal 53 

Height of posterior margin of first dorsal 17 

Distance between dorsals 100 

Base of second dorsal 41 

Back of caudal peduncle 41 

Length of upper caudal lobe 85 

Tip of caudal to base of notch 30 

Base of notch to origin of lower lobe 62 

Origin of lower lobe to base of anal 29 

Base of anal 28 



GILUERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 9 

This species is known as yet onl}' from the Biiy of Panixma. Like G. calif or- 
niciiH, from whicli it difTcirs widely in other respects, it has the young attached to the 
oviduct by a placenta. The three specimens obtained by this expedition are all 
females; one of them contains well developed young. 

4. Galeocerdo tigrinus Miiller <£• Ilenle. 

Recorded from Panama by Jordan and Eollman (1889, p. 179), their speci- 
men having been collected by the "Albatross." The species was not seen by the 
authors. 

5. Carcharias aethalorus Jordan I- Gilhert. 

Abundant at Panama, where it is used as food though not highly prized. 
Small specimens only were seen. In a male about 90 cm. long, the claspers are very 
small, not reaching margin of ventrals. The teeth of both jaws are distinctly serrate 
in these young examples, the sern? growing coarser towards base, equally present 
on the two margins. The interspace between dorsals is 5 to 6 times base of 
second dorsal (excluding the fleshy ridge before fin), and the base of anal consider- 
ably less thiin (Ij in) its distance from caudal. In other respects the Panama 
specimens answer well the original description. 

6. Carcharias velox (Gilbert). 

Plate I, Fii:. .3. 

Carcharinus velo.\\ Gilbert, Jordan & Evermann, iSgcS, p. 2747. 

Distinguishable from other known sharks of the Pacific coast of America lay the excessively 
long, slender, acute snout, the slender body, and the very long caudal tin. 

Preoral portion of snout slightly more than if times width of mouth, 5 times distance 
between nostrils, if times width of snout opposite outer angles of nostrils, \\ times interorbital 
width, 24 times distance from chin to line joining angles of mouth. Nostrils transverse in position, 
the inner angle nearer mouth than tij) of snout by a distance slightly less than lengt^^of nostril. PVont 
of eye equidistant from nostril and front of mouth, the middle of eye nearer angle of mouth than 
nostril; diameter of eye less than nostril, slightly more than half longest gill-slit. Snout very porous. 
Folds at angle of mouth slightly longer than usual. liill-slits rather wide, the middle slit i| times 
diameter of orbit. 

Teeth of lower jaw very narrow, erect, very minutely serrulate, appearing entire except with 
the lens. The species thus represents a transition between Carcharias and the alleged genus 
Hypoprion. Teeth in upper jaw very obliijue, wide at base, with a dee|) notch on outer margin, the 
terminal cusp rather narrowly triangular. 

Pectoral broadly falcate, the anterior margin convex, the distal edge concave, both angles 
rounded. Tip of i:)ectoral reaching a short distance beyond base of first dorsal. Anterior margin 
of pectoral 2j times the posterior (inner) margin, about \\ times the distal edge. First dorsal 
inserted about the diameter of orbit behind a vertical from axil of pectoral; nearer pectoral, therefore, 
than ventral. The anterior margin is concave basally, convex on distal half, the anterior angle 
rounded. The free margin is conca\e, largely owing to the much ]iroduced acute posterior lobe. 
The vertical height e.xceeds the length of the base; the anterior Ujlje very high, extending beyond 
tip of jx)Sterior when the fin is declined, equaling \ length of anterior margin of pectoral. Posterior 
margin of first dorsal 3] in the anterior margin. Base of first dorsal contained 2\ times in interspace 



10 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

between dorsals; base of second dorsal 6f times. Margin of second dorsal gently concave. Front 
margin low, the angle broadly rounded, barely reaching posterior end of base when fin is declined. 
The posterior lobe is much produced and acute, slightly longer than base of fin, the latter ij in the 
distance from its base to front of caudal pit. Upper lobe of caudal 3| in total length; the lower lobe 
2^ in the upper. Terminal lobe of caudal 3I in the upper lobe. Anal larger than second dorsal, 
higher, with deeply incurved margin, its base a little longer, its origin slightly in advance of that 
of second dorsal; the posterior insertions of the two fins nearly opposite. Length of anal base i| 
in its distance from anterior edge of caudal pit. 

Color bluish above, whitish or grayish below. Free margin of pectorals narrowly white, the 
anterior edge narrowly bordered with black, which is most evident when seen from the outer surface, 
the inner surface being dusky. The first dorsal is unmarked, the second dorsal has the anterior lobe 
dusky. Upper edge of caudal black, the lower margin faintly dusky. Fins otherwise unmarked. 

A single specimen, a female, 120 cm. long, was procured in the Panama mar- 
ket. As preserved, it is partially skinned. The following measurements were 
taken when the specimen was intact, hefore preservation. Where not exactly 
agreeing with dimensions given above, the latter will be found more reliable. 



mm. 



Tip of snout to insertion of dorsal 413 

Base of first dorsal m 

Distance between dorsals 280 

Base of second dorsal 45 

From second dorsal to front of caudal pit 73 

Front of caudal pit to tip of caudal 350 

Tip of snout to axil of pectorals 380 

Axil of pectorals to front of base of ventrals 283 

Front of ventrals to front of anal 165 

Front of anal to front of cautlal pit 116 

Girth at front of first dorsal 451 

7. Carcharias cerdale (Gilbert.) 

Plate II, Fig. 4. 
Carcharinus cerdale Gilbert, Jordan & Evermann, i8y8, p. 2746. 

Body moderately compressed, not elevated, the depth at front of dorsal not more than one- 
fourth greater than the oblique anterior margin of the dorsal fin, less than the distance from the nostril 
to the first gill-slit. Head depressed, the snout flattened, long and narrow, acute. Length of snout 
beyond mouth \ to ,'„ greater than distance between angles of mouth in all but one (the largest) 
specimen, where it is slightly less than width of mouth ; -f to f greater than distance from tip of lower 
jaw to a line connecting angles of mouth; \ to J^ greater than width of snout opposite outer angle of 
nostrils. Interorbital width equaling distance from tip of snout to front of eye in the young, to middle 
or posterior border of eye in older specimens; less than half distance to first gill-opening. Middle of 
eye nearer nostril than angle of mouth by i to | its diameter. Distance from eye to nostril \ or 
slightly more than \ distance from nostril to tip of snout. Middle of nostrils much nearer front of 
mouth than tip of snout. Nasal flap with a very narrow, short, acute lobe, placed at end of inner third 
of flap. Outer angle of nostrils nearly at margin of snout, the inner angles separated by a distance 
equaling or slightly exceeding that between inner angle of nostril and back of eye. Lips very little 
developed, the lower entirely concealed in closed mouth, the upper visible as a very short fold. 

Teeth in lower jaw narrow, erect, serrulate on both margins, more coarsely so toward base. 
The serration is more conspicuous in the smallest specimens (45 cm.), and is obsolescent on some of 



GILBERT AND STARKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 11 

the teeth in adults. Teeth in upper jaw ludadly trianmilar, in fnmt "f jaw nari'dwer and erect, those in 
sides of jaw growing at once broader and more oblique. The lateral teeth have a strong notch on the 
outer side. Both margins are strongly serrate, the serrations increasing toward base, one or more of 
those below notch sometimes enlarged and cusp-like in adults. Teeth about ||. 

Conspicuous areas of large and of small pores on under side of head. Gill-openings of 
moderate width, the longest equaling distance between eye and nostril, the fifth much shortened, about 
I length of first. Eye small, equaling length of nasal opening, i^ to 2 in middle gill-slit. 

Pectoral short and broad, the posterior margin not strongly incurved. Tip of fin extending 
to a vertical intersecting dorsal base at origin of its posterior third or fourth. Anterior margin of pec- 
toral 3 times length of inner or posterior margin, the latter less than width of base. First dorsal 
beginning behind a vertical from a.xil of pectorals a distance about equaling that which separates eye 
from nostril. Free margin of fin gently concave, the anterior angle extending to a point midway 
between base and tip of posterior lobe, when the fin is depressed. Base of first dorsal 2^ to 2^ in 
interspace between dorsals. Base of second dorsal 7 in interspace between dorsals, 2^ in its distance 
from anterior margin of pit. The origin of second dorsal falls over or behind middle of anal base. 
The fin is but slightly concave, with rounded anterior angle; its posterior angle much produced; the 
posterior margin exceeding base of fin, which about equals length of anterior margin. Anal inserted 
more anteriorly than second dorsal, its base longer, its margin much more deeply concave, the length 
of base contained about i| times in its distance from lower caudal lobe. Lower caudal pit in advance 
of the upper. The cauilal is broad throughout, the lower lobe not falcate, slightly less (y'j to \) than 
half length of ujiper loiie, which is about 4^ in total length. Shagreen coarse. 

Color varying from light to dark gray above, the belly and lower part of sides whitish. Fins 
all dusky or grayish, the caudal often with a blackish border. Pectorals with or without a black tip, 
the latter when present not as conspicuous as in C. athalonis, usually not extended onto inner face of 
fin. A specimen 73 cm. long has the claspers undeveloped, extending slightly beyond margin of 
ventrals. Another specimen, 85 cm. long, has the claspers fully developed, extending beyond the 
margin of the ventrals for a distance of 5 cm. 

Abtiiidant at Panama, where numerous specimens were secured. 

C. cerdah strongly resembles C- (cthalorua, with which it is associated in the 
Bay of Panama. It is distinguishable at sight by the narrower gill-slits, broader and 
less falcate fins, and by the much less conspicuous black tips to the pectorals. The 
dentition is very dissimilar in the two, and makes it necessary to arrange them in 
different parts of the genus, C. cerdale belonging to the subgenus Platypodon. 

8. Carcharias azureus sp. nov. 
Cazon Azul. 

Plate II, Fig. 5. 

.Snout very short and bluntly rounded, its outline nearly parallel with cleft of mouth, the length 
of its [M'eoral portion if to i| in distance between angles of mouth, constantly greater than distance 
from chin to line joining angles of mouth, and very slightly {if to y'j) less than distance between 
inner angles of nostrils. Width of snout opposite nostrils equals distance from angle of mouth to first 
gill-slit. Eye nearer mouth than nostril, nearer nostril than angle of mouth. Outer angle of nostril 
midway between tip of snout and middle of eye. Eye small, its horizontal diameter | nostril opening. 
Nostrils converging along lines whicli meet a short distance behind symphysis. The anterior margin 
is produced into a short, triangular flaj). Width of mouth equaling half length of head in front of 
gill-slits. Gill-slits wide, equaling or slightly exceeding the distance from eye to nostril, about equaling 
length of branchial area. Two very short diverging furrows visible at angle of mouth, one representing 
as usual the obsolescent upper lip. 



12 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Teeth in upper jaw broadly triangular, oblique, the anterior edge gently convex, the inner 
gently concave and often with a slight notch dividing the margin into equal parts. Teeth in lower 
jaw erect, narrowly lanceolate from a broad base. All the teeth are strongly serrate on both margins. 

Pectorals long and wide, concave posteriorly, hence appearing falcate, their tips e.xtending 
slightly beyond base of first dorsal. Both angles are broadly rounded. Upper margin of pectorals 
3s to 3i times lower margin, and i^ to i^ times the posterior margin; its length equals that of head 
in advance of first gill-slit. A line joining axil of pectorals passes in front of origin of first dorsal a 
distance equaling diameter of orbit. Base of first dorsal contained if to i| times in anterior margin 
of fin, and i| or i| times in the interspace between dorsals. Upper margin concave, the posterior but 
little produced, contained 3| to 3| times in anterior margin. Second dorsal inserted well in advance 
of anal, the length of its base contained 2^ to 2| times in base of first dorsal, 4^ to 4I times in the 
interspace, i| to il times in its distance from front of caudal pit. Posterior lobe of second dorsal 
extends nearly half-way to origin of ujiper caudal lobe. F"ront of anal under end of first third of 
dorsal base, the two fins nearly equal in length, the anal perhaps slightly the longer. Margin of anal 
much more deeply concave. Distance from anal to origin of lower caudal lobe contained i^ times in 
distance from second dorsal to origin of upper caudal lolie. Caudal slightly exceeding ^ the total 
length; the lower lobe with rounded angle appearing bluntly falcate, contained 2J- times in u]>per lobe. 

Color uniform light blue or bluish gray above, white below. Caudal and second dorsal black 
margined; the lower caudal lobe and distal half of pectoral largely blackish. 

This sjiecies is well known though not abundant at Panama, and is more highly 
prized as food than other sharks. It appeared in the market on two occasions during 
the stay of the expedition, and three specimens were preserved, measui-ing from 92 
to 95 cm. Two of these are males with the claspers quite undevelojied, not nearly 
reaching margin of ventrals. The species i.s said to reach a large size. 

C. azureus is extremely near C. nicaraguensis, from Lake Nicaragua and its 
outlet, the San Juan River. Dr. Jordan has kindly compared the above description 
with a specimen of C. nicnragiiensis (No. 39913) in the United States National 
Museum. The latter has a longer and wider snout, the length of which is contained 
11 in its preoral portion, its width opposite the nostrils equaling the distance fi-om 
the angle of the mouth to the third gill-slit. The base of the Hrst dorsal is 1 the 
interspace between dorsals, and the base of the second donsal is contained 21 times 
in the first. The lower caudal lobe is contained 2| in the upper lobe. The pectoral 
is but faintly dusky. These differences are not great, but there has been no 
oi^portunity to make a direct comparison. In view of the exceptional distribution 
of 0. nicaraguensis, known only from fresh waters, which belong to the Atlantic 
slope, it has not been thought wise to make the identification. 

9. Scoliodon longurio Jordan <£■ Gilbert. 

Abundant at Panama, where six specimens were obtained. The length of the 
base of the first dorsal is contained 21 to nearly 3 times in the interspace between 
dorsals, not 21 times, as stated by Joi'dan & Evermann (189(3, p. 42). The teeth 
are not at all serrate in the Panama specimens; the thin margin is sometimes gently 
sinuate, but never toothed. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 13 

Family SPHYRNID^. 
10. Sphyrna tiburo {Linnaus). 

Reported for the first time from the Pacific Coast of America by the Hopkins 
Mazatlan Expedition (Jordan, 1895 b, p. 383}, which secured a single specimen. 
Although overlooked by previous observers, the species seems to be not rare 
at Panama. 

Three specimens were preserved, each about 50 cm. long. A number of 
larger sjoecimens were seen, from one of which were obtained a number of fully 
developed embryos. These measure about 20 cm. in length, and exhibit perfectly 
the reniform shape of the head characteristic of this species. The groove forward 
from the nostrils is better developed in the embryos than in older individuals, being 
considerably more prominent even than in specimens of S. iiides, 60 cm. long. In 
examples of S. tiburo, 60 cm. long, the prenasal groove is but little less distinct than in 
S. tudes of the same size. In the Panama si^ecimens of S. tiburo there is a more 
decided fold at the angle of the mouth. In S. tiburo the head is both longer antero- 
posteriorly and wider than in S. tudes, the greater length being in large jiart due to 
the greater convexity in the curve of the anterior profile. Thus in S. tiburo a line 
joining inner angle of nostrils cuts oflf the anterior 4 of the snout; in *S'. tudes, 
the anterior | only. The angle between anterior and lateral margins of head is 
more obtuse in S. tiburo, owing to this increased convexity of the anterior profile. 
The angle is as distinct, however, as in 8. tudes, and the current statement con- 
cerning S. tiburo, "anterior and lateral margins of head confluent into a semi- 
circle," is by no means justified. 

II. Sphyrna tudes (Guvier). 

In common with other species of "Hammer-heads," S. tudes is frequently 
brought into the Panama market. It is undoubtedly abundant along the entire 
Pacific coast of Mexico and Central America. Several specimens were secured. 

12. Sphyrna zygzena (Linncvus). 

Still more abundant than the preceding species, appearing in the market 
almost daily. Several specimens were obtained. 

Family SQUALIDJi. 

13. Squalus sucklii (Girurd). 

Jordan and Everraann (1896, p. 54) suggest that a single species of Sgualus 
may be found to extend from the coast of California {S. sucklii) to Chile (" S. fernan- 
dinus"). In that case, it would be to this species we should assign the Panama 
record given by GUnther (1868, p. 396). 

( 3 ) March 2, 1903. 



l4 dALIFOKNlA ACADEMY OF SCtENCES 

Family PRISTID^. 

14. Pristis zephyreus {Jordan & Starks). 

A saw, 80 cm. long, was procured fresh in the market. A young specimen 
entire, 90 cm. in total length, was taken in fresh or slightly brackish water in a 
tributary of the Rio Grande at Miraflores. The smaller specimen agrees well with 
the type of the species. 

Some statements in the original description which might lead to confusion 
are explained or corrected below. 

The teeth are all deeply grooved behind, the groove with sharply trenchant 
edges. In both of the Panama specimens the teeth are in 22 pairs. The inter- 
spaces between the hind teeth are 4 times the base of teeth in the young, 2i times 
in the adult. The length of the front teeth is slightly more than I the breadth of 
the saw between them in young, 2| in this width in adults. Distance between first 
and second tooth 21 times base of first in young, twice base of first in adult. Width 
of mouth slightly less than distance between tips of hinder teeth. The "slant 
height of pectoral" of the original description includes the anterior margin of 
the whole pectoral mass, from its angle forward to a point just behind eye. The 
"lower lobe" of caudal is the distance from anterior insertion of lobe to tip of fin. 
The saw in the type is 28 cm. long from base to tip, 31 cm. from tip of saw to front 
of nostril. 

Family RHINOBATID^E. 

15. Rhinobatus leucorhynchus (Gunther). 

Seen on two occasions only. 

The relationship is extremely close between this species and JR. glaucostigma,' 
which is abundant at Mazatlan. R. leucorhynchus has no slate-colored sjjots on the 
back, and no black blotch on the under side of the snout. The rostral ridges are 
much narrower, and the rostral cartilage tapers more anteriorly. The snout is 
broadly triangular, with almost perfectly straight sides, which are slightly concave 
near tip, making the latter narrow and sharp. In i?. glaucostigma, the rostral outline 
is slightly concave from its base to near the tip, where it becomes convex, thus 
making the terminal portion of the snout broader and more bluntly rounded. The 
posterior gill-slit is narrower, contained If times in the fourth slit. In other 
details of structure, the two forms agree very closely, the proportions of disk and 
fins, the size of eyes, nostrils, and mouth, and the character of nasal flaps being 
wholly similar. 

B. glaucostigma has been considered the northern representative of R. 
leucorhynchus, but is now recorded from the Bay of Santa Helena, near Guayaquil 
(Boulenger, 1898-9, Vol. XIII, p. 1). Its discovery at Panama is therefore to be 
expected. 



GILBERT AND STAKES — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 15 

i6. Zapteryx xyster {Jordan & Evermann). 

Known only from the type specimens, collected by Prof. F. H. Bradley at 
Panama, in 1866. 

Family RAJID.E. 

17. Raja equatorialis {Jordan d- Bollman). 

Known only from the type, which was dredged by the "Albatross" in 1888, 
at Station 2797, in the Bay of Panama, at a depth of thirty-three fathoms. 

Family NARCOBATID^. 

18. Narcine entemedor {Jordait d- Starks). 

Not rai*e at Panama; five sj^ecimens seen in the market. Obtained also by 
Dr. Gilbert at Panama, in 1883. 

The interorbital width is less than given in the original description. The 
least width of frontal cartilage between the eyes is contained three times in the 
preocular portion of snout; the distance between the eyes 1|. The longitudinal 
diameter of the eyeballs, which somewhat protrude, equals or slightly exceeds the 
diameter of the spiracle. The spiracle is horseshoe-shaped, the eye entering its 
anterior border; everywhere except in front it is surrounded by a raised border 
which bears a single series of small tubercles. Series of pores are conspicuous on 
upper surface of snout, each pore often surrounded by a dark ring; a pair of much 
larger pores near middle line behind spiracles. 

A deep fold of integument surrounds the lower jaw posteriorly, growing very 
low as it surrounds angle of mouth, and passing anteriorly to join the base of the 
frenum of the nasal valve. Laterally it is concealed by a still deeper fold, which 
overlaps it postero-laterally and is continuous anteriorly with the inferior nasal valve. 

19. Discopyge ommata {Jordan <& Gilbert). 

Not seen by the expedition. First taken by Dr. Gilbert at Panama, in 1882. 
The type is from "Albatross" Station 2795, in the Bay of Panama, at a depth of 
thirty-three fathoms. 

Family DASYATID^. 

20. Urolophus halleri {Cooper). 

Not seen in 1896, but reported on previous occasions. U. umbriftr Jordan 
and Starks is one of the many color forms of this species. U. nebulosus has been 
ascribed to Panama (Jordan & Evermann, 1896, p. 81), but no authentic record of 
its occurrence can be found. 



16 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

21. Urolophus mundus {Gill). 
Urolophus astcrias Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 m, p. 579. 

The tyi^es of IJ. afiterias, obtained by Gilbert at Mazatlan and Panama in 
1881, were originally identified as U. mundus, but were afterwards distingnished 
because of disagreement with the description of U. mundus, the types of the 
latter being lost. The discrepancies do not now seem very important, however, 
and it seems safe to identify U. mundus with the present species, which is abundant 
from Panama to the Gulf of California. 

U. mundus was thought to be distinguished from other species, including 
U. asterias, by the short caudal spine, posteriorly inserted. If, however, the original 
description refers to the posterior point of insertion of the caudal spine, it agrees 
with U. asterias. Measured in that way, the insertion of the spine is usually behind 
the middle of the tail (measured from anus), and the length of the spine equals 
distance between snout and nostrils. U. mundus is said to have the skin " beset with 
numerous small stelliform tubercles, larger on the dorsal region," but no mention is 
made of the row of large spinous tubercles on median line of back and tail, charac- 
teristic of U. asterias. In U. mundus the distance of snout from hinder margin of 
pectorals is said to equal the width of the disk, while in U. asterias the disk is 
constantly somewhat wider (tV to tV)- If another species be discovered at Panama, 
with disk as wide as long, with stelliform jsrickles but with no median series of 
spines, the case will have to be reconsidered. 

Five sjiecimens were obtained by the expedition at Panama; three of them 
are males. The females are 42 and 31 cm. long, and contain embi'yos about 
two-thirds grown. Tiie coloration in all the specimens is uniform dark brownish 
on upper side of disk, without the faint dusky spots found in a Mazatlan example. 
The fringe on velum is much less conspicuous in the Panama material. None of 
the specimens approach the closely related U. rogersi Jordan and Starks, which is 
undoubtedly distinct. 

22. Urolophus goodei {Jordan & Bollman). 

Not obtained by the expedition. The types were dredged by the "Albatross" 
at Station 2795, in Panama Bay, at a depth of thirty-three fathoms. Jordan and 
Evermann (1896, p. 81) state that this species was taken in Magdalena Bay, Lower 
California, but the present writers are unacquainted with the record. Boulenger 
(1898-9, Vol. XIII, p. 3) lists it from the Bay of Santa Helena, near Guayaquil. 

23. Urolophus aspidurus (Jordan & Gilbert). 

Abundant at Panama, where numerous specimens were secured, all but one 
of which are females. One contains embryos full grown. 

The following corrections and additions may be made to current descriptions: 
The disk, taken to posterior margin of pectorals, is constantly a little broader than 
long; its length being less than that of tail measured from posterior insertion 



GILBERT AND ST ARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 17 

of ventials. The amount of exsertion of the snout is very variable, the protruding 
portion being sometimes short and broad, sometimes long and narrow. The 
distance from eye to tip of snout is 05 or 3j in disk, measured as above. The 
posterior insertion of caudal spine is very sligiitly in advance of middle of 
tail (measured from anus). The bucklers on tail vary in the present speci- 
mens from one to seven (eight in one of the types); they have not appeared 
at birth, and are still undeveloped in a young specimen 15 cm. long. It will 
probably be found that there is always a regular series of seven or eight of these 
when they first appear, a variable number of them falling ofl later. In the adults, 
those remaining are usually unequally spaced, the interspaces often showing the 
scars of the lost bucklers. Minute asperities seem to be constantly present (at least 
in females), and are most numerous in a strip extending along the median line of 
disk. The teeth are much as in U. mundns, but are much more deeply grooved. 

In females the teeth are flat without cusp, each tooth witli a deep transverse 
groove, the hinder margin of which is elevated to form a ridge crossing the tooth 
transversely behind its middle. In the male, each tooth has a long acute median 
cusp; those in the upper jaw deeply grooved from base to tip along their anterior 
face, those in lower jaw transversely convex. In U. mundus the cusps of upper 
teeth in the males are provided with shallow grooves on basal portions only, and the 
transverse grooves on the flat teeth of the females are shallow, and followed by a 
lower transverse ridge. In embryos of V. a^pidurus, the inner margin of spiracular 
rim is much elevated and produced anteriorly into a long slender coiled lobe, pos- 
teriorly into a much shorter projection. All trace of this raised rim disappears in 

the adult. 

24. Dasyatis longa {Gurman). 

Not rare. One female specimen preserved. 

Anterior margins of pectorals gently concave along the middle, becoming 
convex toward tip of snout, the latter abruptly projecting. The cutaneous fold on 
lower side of tail is low, not over 3 mm. in height; it begins opposite the anterior 
insertion of caudal spine, and is evident on about half the length of the tail. An 
extremely low ridge on back of tail behind caudal spine. The tail is very rough 
behind the caudal spine. A series of 34 coarse, spinous tubercles on median line 
of back, the three largest at intersection of median line with shoulder-girdle. 
Opposite this point are two short series of much smaller tubercles converging slightly 
backward. In addition to these, the interorbital region and the median area of back 
contain numerous stellate prickles, but few of which are behind the shoulder-girdle. 



mm. 



Length of disk 355 

Width of disk 420 

Tail (from anal sHt) evidently broken 790 

Tip of snout to middle of nasal flap 80 

Outer edge of ventrals 60 

Anterior margin of pectorals 260 

Longitudinal diameter of eyeball 20 

Length of spiracle 25 

Width of cartilage between eyes 38 



18 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Material is not at hand to decide the relation between D. longa and D. 
dipterura. The specimen listed by Jordan (1895 />, p. 389) from Mazatlan may be 
the latter, if tlie two species are distinct. In one of the Mazatlan specimens, with 
the disk 32 cm. long, the upper surface is naked, except three small spines on middle 
line near shoulder-girdle. Tlie tail is also naked, and possesses, in addition to the 
very high cutaneous fold below, a free upper fin-fold half the height of the lower. 
It is probable that the two species are distinct. 

25. Pteroplatea crebripunctata {Peters). 

Three specimens seen at Panama. 

The proportions of disk are not essentially different in P. crebripunctata, 
P. ravn, and P. inaclura. In all, the distance from tip of snout to front of anal slit 
equals half the widtli of the disk (or a little less than half in P. ravn); and the 
extreme length of disk, from tip of snout to hinder margin of pectorals, is contained 
1| to If times in the width. A line joining angles of disk intersects very slightly 
in advance of its middle a line from tip of snout to tip of tail. 

P. crebripunctata and P. maclura are extremely close, differing princii^ally in 
color, the marblings and spots being finer in P. maclura, and the lighter markings 
brighter in color, more sharply contrasting with the rest. P. rava has a sharper 
snout than the others, the rostral angle being, however, in excess of a right angle 
(110 degrees). The type of P. rava is a male specimen, 29 cm. long, with well 
developed claspers and no trace of caudal spine. 

Family MYLIOBATID.E. 
26. Aetobatus narinari (Euphrusen). 

Frequently seen; three specimens preserved, one of which has measurements 
as given below. 

Rostro-frontal fontanel narrowing anteriorly to opposite the hinder margin of 
eyes, then abruptly expanding; its greatest width anteriorly, 2] mm.; least width at the 
constriction, 13 min.; greatest width jDOsteriorly, opposite middle of spiracles, 18 mm. 



Inni. 



Tip of snout to front of anus 323 

Tip of snout to posterior margin of pectorals 365 

Width of disl< 615 

Length of tail (broken) 1200 

Greatest breadth of head (at anterior origin of pectorals) 106 

Width at eyes (including the latter) 87 

Width of cranium opposite middle of eyes 53 

Width of snout opposite front of eyes 56 

Length of spiracle 31 

Tip of snout to middle of nasal flap 61 

Width of mouth 44 

Diameter of iris 11 

The Panama specimens agree entirely with those described by Jordan (1895 
b, p. 391). The comparative measurements given in the paper cited are often 



GILBERT AND STARKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 19 

erroneous, as will appear by comparing tliem with the above. The size of the spots 
is somewhat variable, and the length of the tail is unreliable, the latter being usually 
more or less shortened by injury. 

27. Myliobatis asperrimus {Gilbert). 

Plate III, Fig. 6. 
Myliobatis asperrimus Gilbert, (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2754). 

Upper surface of head and body, excepting the snout, an area on outer side of spiracle, the 
pectoral margin and its posterior angle, and the ventral fins, thickly covered with minute usually 
stellate prickles of uniform size, most numerous on median portions of head and back; those on basal 
half or two-thirds of pectorals are least crowded, and are arranged in definite longitudinal series, 
corresponding with the muscle bands. The tail is very rough throughout, being covered with similar 
stellate prickles. It is also crossed by numerous narrow grooves, or indented lines, mostly convex 
forwards, somewhat irregular in position and direction, and not corresponding on the two sides. In 
the type they follow at an average interval of about 10 mm. Lower side of disk mostly smooth, with 
some prickles on the basal part of pectorals anteriorly, arranged in lengthwise series, and other patches 
on lower side of head, belly and base of ventrals. 

Rostro-frontal fontanel scarcely constricted anteriorly, the bounding ridges diverging abruptly 
at their anterior ends. Nasal flap with a shallow median notch, covering the mouth except the 
median portion of lower dental plate, its posterior margin coarsely fringed. Teeth in each jaw in one 
broad, median row, and three lateral rows; those of median row about five times as broad as long 
antero-posteriorly. 

The color is dusky-brown above, the anterior portion of pectorals with eight or ten narrow, 
transverse bars of bluish-white, most of which break up into series of spots towards outer margin of 
disk, the posterior ones also breaking up towards middle line. The bars and spots are fainter 
anteriorly, becoming whiter and more intense posteriorly. Towards outer angles of disk the bars are 
sometimes separated by intermediate series of light round spots. The bars usually fail to meet across 
the back. The posterior portion of disk, including base of tail and upper surface of ventrals, is 
covered with round white spots not much larger than pupil; some of those immediately succeeding the 
bars show a transverse serial arrangement. The top of head shows one or more pairs of indistinct 
light spots. Margin of snout and of pectorals blackish. Spiracular border black. Dorsal with a black 
blotch posteriorly. Under side of head and disk bright white. Proximal portion of tail blackish above, 
lighter below, the entire tail becoming black posteriorly. 

mm. 

Length of disk to front of anus 272 

Length of disk to posterior edge of pectorals 338 

Width of disk 345 

Length of tail (not perfect) 1215 

Greatest width of head, at origin of pectorals 79 

Width of cranium, between orbits 45 

Width of snout, opposite front of eye 55 

Tip of snout to middle of nasal flap 60 

Length of nasal flap 26 

Greatest width of nasal flap 35. 

Diameter of iris loy^ 

Width of mouth 33 

Distance between anterior gill-openings 75 

Distance between posterior gill-openings 45 

Distance from anterior to posterior gill-openings 45 

Length of spiracle 26 

Length of fontanel 60 

Greatest width (at anterior end) 23 



20 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

One specimen taken, a male, with undeveloi^ed claspers which do not nearly 
reach the edge of ventrals. 

Family SILURID^. 

28. Felichthys panamensis (Gill). 

Abundant. Of the six specimens j)reserved, three are males and three 
females, all being of nearly equal size. The specimens do not differ according to sex 
in the shape of the dorsal buckler as extensively as is indicated in Steindachner's 
figures (1876 b, Plate II). Furthermore, such difference as exists is in the opposite 
direction to that observed by him, as the buckler is larger and proportionally 
somewhat wider in the females than in the males. More obvious sexual differences 
are found in the length of the ventral fins and in the shape of the anal. In females, 
the ventrals are long, constantly extending beyond the front of the anal. In males, 
they fail to reach the front of the anal fin. In females, the anterior portion of the 
anal fin is produced, forming a projecting lobe, thus giving a strongly concave arch 
to the jJosterior half of the margin of the fin. In males, there is no lobe, and the 
margin of the fin is nearly or wholly straight. This difference in the shape of the 
anal was noticed by Steindachner (1876 b, p. 15), but was supposed by him to be due 
to age and not to sex. Another sexual difference seems to exist in the size of the 
head, which in the present specimens is less in the case of the females, 34 to 3| 
(3| in males). The specimens taken range from 325 to 360 mm. in length. 

29. Felichthys pinnimaculatus {Steindachner). 

Negro encuero. 

One of the most abundant food-fishes of the Panama market. Sexual jieculi- 
arities seem much less strongly marked than in F. panamensis. 

30. Galeichthys lentiginosus {Eigenmann & Eigenmann). 

Frequently seen; nine specimens preserved. 

The species is at once recognized by the very long narrow occipital process, 
by the depressed head, which is wide posteriorly and tapers rapidly forward to the 
narrow pointed snout, by the very convex mouth, and the usually smooth head. In 
the latter respect, however, there is much variation. The granulations may be confined 
to the occipital process and the posterior part of occiput, and be faintly visible 
where present, or they may entirely cover the crown forward to the interorbital 
space. In the latter case, the pattern of sculpture is exactly similar to that figured 
for Netuma planiceps (Steindachner, 1876 b, Plate IV), except that the granulations 
are less definitely in series, and that an evident groove extends backward from 
fontanel to near base of occipital process. The difference in roughness of the head 
is dependent neither on age nor sex. The specimen with best marked granulations 
is a female. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 21 

Tlic narrow poiiitod snout, and lar<;;c convexlj curved month combine to 
give the hitter a considerable hiteral cleft, when seen from the side. The length 
of the head is very constant, 3J to 3/„ in length, when measured to margin of 
opercular membrane. Eye o to 3i in its distance from tip of snout. The upper jaw 
protrudes beyond the lower for about three-fourths the width of the thick upper lip. 
The maxillary barbels extend beyond base of pectoral spine, but not beyond its basal 
third. Pectoral pore variable, usually minute and detected with difficulty, occa- 
sionally an obvious slit. 

The anal fin is very long, with [)erfectly straight margin, the rays declining 
reguhxrly from the longest to the last. Five specimens have respectively 23, 24, 24, 
24 and 25 anal rays, including rudiments. The anus is anteriorly placed, its distance 
from base of ventrals equaling half its distance from front of anal fin. All but one 
of the specimens are females, and have the inner edge of the ventrals and the upper 
side of the inner rays covered by a thickened fold of skin. 

Light brownish in life, with blue and green reflections; the lower portion of 
the sides coarsely punctate with brown. The fins are all dusky toward tips, the basal 
portions dull orange yellow. Maxillary barbels blackish, the others white. The 
specimens answer well to the description of the types. 

It is evident that the relative smoothness of the head cannot serve to distin- 
guish the nominal genera Qaleichthys and Hexanematichthys. The character is 
dependent partly on variation in the granulation of the bones, partly on the amount 
of thickening of the integument. Many species from different sections of the group 
show similar individual variations, according to which they might be placed in one 
or the other genus. The American species with villiform teeth and comparatively 
narrow crescentic palatine patches will be ranged under the oldest name, Galeichthijs. 

31. Galeichthys peruvianus (Liltkni). 

This rare species was not seen. Described originally from Callao, it has been 
recorded from Panama by Steindachner and by Gilbert, and from Altata, Mexico, 
by Steindachner. It has not been procured. by any of the numerous investigators 
in northern Mexico. 

32. Galeichthys eigenmanni, sp. nov. 

Plate IV, Fig. 7. 

This species, found in abundance at Panama, and identified with G. seemanni 
by Eigcnmann and others, seems to be an undescribed species. G. seemnnni is from 
some unknown locality in Central America, not improbably from the Atlantic side. 
It is described (Giinther, 1864 n, p. 147) as having the top of the head ^/ie(y 
granular; the occipital process with a prominent ridge; vomerine patches of teeth 
widelij separated; and [)articularly as having the fontanel reaching to the base of the 
occipital process. Dr. Jordan (1883, p. 282) has re-examined the type in the 
British Museum for this last character, and has found it as described. In all these 
respects the Panama specimens differ strongly, as shown below. 

( 4 ) March 3, 190U. 



22 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Head broad and flat, 3| to 3| in length; its depth at base of occipital process i| to i| in its 
length. The dorsal profile from dorsal spine to tip of snout nearly (appearing perfectly) straight. 
Snout wide and depressed, sharply wedge-shaped as viewed from the side; its length to a point on the 
median line of head between anterior margin of eyes 3| to 4 in head. The prefrontal does not form a 
[jrotuberance in front of eye as in G. jordani and related species, the contour of snout rising uniformly 
to the edge of the dermal margin of eye. The interorbital area is flattened and wide; its width between 
dermal supraorbital margins 2 to 2^ in head. The top of head is coarsely granular, the granulated area 
extending forward usually to above middle of orbit in two diverging areas, separated by a triangular 
continuation backward of the naked or smooth area of the snout. The length of the fontanel is 
variable in the present specimens, but in none of them does it reach the occipital process.' In two 
specimens evidently abnormal, the groove is very short, extending only to the apex of the triangular 
smooth area, which extends backward from interorbital space. Usually, however, the groove narrows 
backward uniforml)', though sometimes constricted where it enters the granular area of the head, and 
extends to within | diameter of eye of the occipital process. The occipital process is usually broader 
than long; in extreme cases it is broader than long by nearly the length of the basal plate of the dorsal 
spine; from this it varies to only as broad as long. The basal plate of the dorsal spine is twice, or a 
little more than twice, as broad as long. The niedian keel is lower than in G. planiccps or G. jordani; 
in some specimens it is scarcely evident at the termination of the fontanel, but grows stronger on the 
occipital process. 

The maxillary barbel usualh- reaches base of jjectoral spine; in one specimen to axillary pore, 
in several about to middle of opercle. The outer mental barbels often reach but | distance to gill- 
openings, but sometimes extend beyond the latter. The vomerine patches of teeth usually meet on 
median line, or are .separated by a narrow groove only. In but one specimen (an adult male) are 
they widely separated (as figured byGiinther and Eigenmann). The eye is contained b\ to 7 times in 
the head, measured in a straight line from median tip of snout obliquely above eye to gill-opening. 

As in other related species, the head is longer and the ventrals shorter in the male, the ventrals 
overlapping front of anal in females and provided with a very large fold of the integument. In the 
females the black of the ventrals passes gradually into the lighter margin. In males the transition 
between the two areas is abrupt. In five specimens examined, the gill-rakers are 5-}- 10, 5-[-io, 
6+10, 5+11, and 5+12. The pectoral pore is a long slit. The base of adipose fin is twice or 
nearly twice diameter of eye. The dorsal has 7 soft rays, and the anal 17 or 18. The length of 
the jiectoral is very variable; measuring from base of spine to tip of soft rays, it is contained from 
1 3 to I A in head. 

From G. jnnlani mid otlicr related species, G. eigenmanni can be at once 
recognized by the wider, flatter head, es*[5ecially the more depressed snout, the smaller 
•eye, the rougher head, and the less evident carina on the occipital process. 

Three males and nine females were preserved. 

It is not clear what species from Santa Helena Bay is referred to b}' Boulenger 
(18U8-9U, Vol. Xlir, ]). 5) under the name Arim seemanni. From his statement 
"Le Gakicldhys gilberii Jord., n'en est pas sej^arable," we are disposed to believe that 
he had before him specimens of G. jordani rather than G. eigenmanni. 

33. Galeichthys jordani {Eigenmann d: Eigenmann). 

1'wo specimens were obtained 250 and 345 mm. long. The larger individual 
is a female, with elongate ventrals overlapping the front of the anal fin, and provided 

' From a drawiug kindly communicated by Professor Garman, it is learned that Eigeumaun's material in 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology agrees with the present specimens in the length of the fontanel groove. 



GILBERT AND STAEKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 23 

on the ui)j)ei' surface of the inner rays with a much thickened fohl oi tlie integu- 
ment, as in G. 2>lntijpogon and O. eigenmanin. 

The specimens taken agree well with Eigenmann's description of the types, 
excejit in the size of the palatine patch of teeth, which is in adults ahout as large as 
in G. eigenmanni, and many times the size of the small vomerine patch. It is probably 
true of this sjiecies, as of G.c)Uberti from Mazatlan (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 h, p. 47, 
under ^ruis assimilis), that the palatine bands vary "considerably in size and some- 
what in form, the width ranging from ^ diameter of eye to I, being generally larger 
in adults." Eigenmann's type of G. jordani was an immature specimen. In the 
smaller of our sj)ecimens the palatine patch is much less developed than in the 
adult, though somewhat larger and more ovate than in Eigenmann's figure. 

In both of the specimens taken the fontanel groove terminates a very short 
distance in advance of the base of the occipital process, not reaching the base of 
process as described by Eigenmann. 

The gill-rakers number 5-|-ll and 5+ 12, the most anterior being very minute. 
If the one at the branchial angle be reckoned with the vertical series instead of 
the horizontal, as above, one of the specimens will have the formula 6-f 10, as com- 
pared with Eigenmann's type 6 + 9. 

Comparing the Panama material with the co-types of G. gilberti from Mazatlan, 
it is impossible to detect any appreciable differences, unless possibly in the color, 
which is lighter in the Mazatlan specimens. G. gilberti is said to lack the pectoral 
pore, but in reality possesses a minute round pore, as is evident in the co-types exam- 
ined. The adult G. jordani from Panama has the pore likewise minute, while the 
younger example has a considerably larger, slightly elongate opening. The width 
of the mouth is the same in the Mazatlan and Panama specimens; measured exter- 
nally, at the posterior labial angle, it equals the distance from the tip of the snout 
to the hinder margin of the pupil, and is contained 2| to 2\ times in the length 
of the head. 

The two would be united without question, were it not that the co-types of 
G. gilberti (three in number) agree perfectly among themselves and differ from the 
Panama specimens of G. jordani in having the occijiital plate much wider, more evenly 
rounded in transverse section, and with a much lower keel. The occipital plate is, 
in each of these specimens, wider than long by half the width of the basal plate of 
the dorsal spine. In G. jordani the width of the occipital plate is s or f its lengtli. 
This plate is also much more sharply keeled and more densely granular. On the 
basis of these differences the two species are held provisionally distinct. 

In both species the upper lobe of the caudal is longer and more falcate than 
in related species, reaching far beyond the lower lobe, and contained 3| to 3| in the 
length. The head is finely and often sparsely granular, the granular area not con- 
tinued forward in any of the Panama specimens as far as a line joining posterior 
margins of orbits. The fontanel groove widens anteriorly, is rather deep, with sharply 
defined margins, and terminates abruptly, not "merging into the broad, flat, smooth, 
interorbital area" as is described in the type of G. gilberti. 



24 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIEKCES 

34. Galeichthys xenauchen {Gilbert). 

Plate IV, Fig. 8. 

Hexancmatichthys xenauchen Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann 1898, p. 2777). 

In apjjearance, 6-'. xennnclien is most closely allied to species of Netuma, 
having the low depressed head, with the lateral outlines converging forwards to the 
narrow pointed snout, and a long largely adherent adipose dorsal. The palatine 
patches are, however, narrow, and without backwardly projecting lobes. The species 
is distinguished from all those known from the Pacific Coast of America by the long 
and extraordinarily narrow occipital process. 

Type, a female 38 cm. long. 

Head 3^ in length; depth at front of dorsal 5!; anal with 23 rays. Width of head at opercle 
iij- in its length; width at front of eyes 2 in head. Width of mouth at inner angles 2| in head. 
Interorbital width 2 j'j. Eye very small, 9 in head, 3I in its distance from tip to snout, 4I in postocular 
part of head, 4^ in interorbital width. 

Teeth all villiform. Mandibular bands well separated on middle line, very broad mesially, 
rapidly tapering to a point laterally, the band produced beyond angle of mouth, its greatest width 
contained 2| times in its length. Premaxillary band very conve.xly curved, following the outline of the 
snout, its width 5I in its length. Vomerine patches roundish, separated by an evident medial groove, 
marked off from the palatine patches by a narrower groove and a constriction. The palatine patches 
are equal in width to the vomerine patches, and less than twice as long. They are of nearly equal 
width throughout. 

Maxillary barbels very slender, reaching slightly beyond the base of the pectoral spine. The 
mental barbels do not reach edge of gill-membrane, the outer pair equaling length of snout and half of 
eye. Nostrils very large, the anterior broadly oval, with widely reflexed rim, the posterior widely 
elliptical, not concealed by the valve. Distance from anterior nostril to tip of snout equaling that from 
posterior nostril to front of eye. 

Fontanel wide, with nearly parallel edges on frontal region, abruptly narrowing at front of 
occiput, where it is continuous with a narrow and shallow groove. The latter fails to reach base of 
occipital process by a distance equaling half diameter of eye. The raised margins of the fontanel are 
continuous with a pair of sharp ridges bounding the groove, these accompanied by a pair of 
lower ridges on their outer sides and parallel with them. Posteriorly, these ridges are roughened with 
granules, and merge into the granulated area on posterior part of occiput. Occipital process granu- 
lated, the granules arranged in more or less definite lines radiating backwards and downwards on each 
side from median point of base. Lateral portions of occiput with an area of radiating striae, separated 
from the central ridges by a smooth groove-like depression. A narrow granulated area extends 
forward on each side of fontanel to above back of orbits. The occipital process is very long and 
narrow, its width opposite its middle being but f of its length. Near base it abruptly expands, the 
basal width being half its length plus that of dorsal plate on median line. Opercles and humeral 
plate weakly striate. Gill-membranes with a wide free fold posteriorly. Gill-rakers weak and short, 
I -f 4 movable ones. No evident axial pore. 

Dorsal spine slender, with a series of .sharp granulations on anterior edge; minutely roughened, 
not serrate behind. It is broken in the type, but its length was about f that of head. Pectoral 
spines rather slender, rough granular on outer margins, with short fine serrje within. Both are 
mutilated in the type, but their length was about equal to that of dorsal spine. The pectorals 
extend nearly | distance to ventrals, the ventrals nearly to origin of anal. Distance from anus to 



GILBEET AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 25 

base of ventrals | its distance from front of anal. Anal tin very lont;, its base 1| in head, its longest 
ra)- ^ head. Distance between dorsals 3^ in length. Adipose fin Ions;, highest about opposite the 
middle, with a short almost vertical free posterior margin. Its vertical height is 3I in its length, which 
is more than twice the distance from adipose fin to rudimentary caudal rays, greater than the base of the 
first dorsal, and equal to half the length of the head. Caudal fin with broad lobes, the lower 
rounded; the upper mutilated in the type, but evidently acute and longer than the lower. 

Color puri)lish alcove, more bluish anteriorly; the lower parts silvery, coarsely punctate with 
bniwn. Fins all blackish, except the lower surface of the paired fins. 

35. Galeichthys guatemalensis (Gilnther). 

This species wa.s not seen by the authors. Recorded by Giinther (1868, 
p. 393) from Panama; by Boulenger (1899, p. 2) from Rio Lara, Darien. 

36. Galeichthys dasycephalus {Gilnther). 

This species was occasionally seen; eleven specimens were preserved, all of 
which are females. 

It answers well the description of Giinther (1864 a, p. 157), and of Jordan 
and Gilbert' (1882 h, page 51), except that the head is constantly longer, 4 to 41 
in length, and the dorsal spine is contained 11 instead of 11 times in head. The anal 
contains 21 rays, including the rudiments. The top of the head is constantly much 
rougher than in G. longicephalus, although exhibiting much variation in this respect. 
The fontanel groove reaches base of occipital process in all of the specimens taken. 

37. Galeichthys longicephalus {Eigcnmann & Eigenmann). 

Taken occasionally; eight specimens were preserved, all of which are males. 

There is little variation in the sculpturing of the head, which is either en- 
tirely smooth, invested with thick skin, or minutely roughened by a few scattered 
points. None of our specimens have the plates roughly granulated, as in G. dasy- 
cephalus. 

The head is very constant in length, 3|, 3|, 3|, 3|, 31, 3|, 3| and 31 times 
respectively in distance from tip of snout to base of caudal. The maxillary barbel 
reaches to base of pectoral spine, or to the end of its basal fourth. The outer mental 
barbels are variable, sometimes not reaching gill-opening, more often slightly beyond 
it. The eyes vary in length, and equal their distance from hinder end or middle of 
posterior nostril, and about half their distance from tip of snout. The width of 
mouth about equals the length of snout, 2f to 3^ in head. In the description of the 
type, the width of mouth should doubtless stand 31, not 21, in head. The distance 
from the tip of snout to front of dorsal is contained 2| to 21 in the length; the inter- 
space between dorsals 3| to 4. 

The color of the upper part is brown, sometimes continued down over the 

' Dr. Jordan has kiudly re-eiamined the specimens here referred to, collected by Gilbert at Panama on a 
previous expedition, and states that the head measures 4^ (not 4^) in length to base of caudal. 



26 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

sides and belly, almost entirely masking the silvery of those parts. In other speci- 
mens, the sides and belly are bright silvery without brown tinge. The fins are all 
dusky, in some specimens much darker than in others; the ventrals sometimes nar- 
rowly edged with bright white. 

We have been tempted to consider this species the male of G. da^yceflialus, 
as our numerous specimens seem to be all males, while our sjjecimens of G. dnsy- 
cephnhm, as well as all those of which we have record, seem to be females. The 
structural differences are so much greater in amount than are known to be sexual 
with any other species, that we hold the two forms distinct. In addition to the striking 
difference in the length and sculpturing of the head, G. longicephalus has shorter 
barbels, coarser gill-rakers, shorter pectoral spines, a wider fontanel, and a wider 
suout and mouth. 

38. Sciadeichthys troscheli (Gill). 

Abundant along the entire coast of Mexico and Central America. At 
Panama it occurred daily in the mai-kets, but seldom in large numbers. The collec- 
tion contains five specimens from Panama, one from Champerico. 

The species varies in certain respects more than has been represented. The 
dorsal buckler varies much in width, and even in general shape; one specimen at 
hand has it triangular, tapering nearly uniformly from the base forward to the long- 
acute apex, two-fifths of its length on the median line being contained within the 
notch of the occipital process. In one individual, the granulations are very sparse, 
and largely obscured by the thickened integument. 

The maxillary barbels are blackish, with a conspicuous white inferior mar- 
gin. They vary much in length, often failing to reach opercular opening, sometimes 
overlapping base of pectoral spine. The vomerine patch of teeth is sometimes long 
(transversely) and narrow, thus separating widely the palatine bands (as figured by 
Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1890, p. 56); sometimes much shorter and wider. The 
head seems very constant in length, 3| to 3'; in total length (without caudal). 

39. Selenaspis dowi (Gill). 

Large specimens are frequently brought into the Panama market, but seldom 
more than two or three at a time. The young are rarely seen. In one of the speci- 
mens at hand, a curious variation is observable in the shape of the dorsal shield, which 
has its anterior margin medially produced and wedge-shaped, fitting into an 
emargination in the occipital process, much as in Sciadeichthys troscheli. 

40. Netuma kessleri (Steindachner) . 

One of the most abundant species of catfishes at Panama. It varies in color 
from light brown to nearly black on the upper parts, and may be pure white below 
or variously marked with brown. The fins vary in a similar manner, the caudal, anal, 
and inner surfaces of pectorals and ventrals being black in the darkest specimens, 



GILBERT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 27 

merely dusky in others. The vomerine patches vary somewhat in size and ishapu. A 
very narrow groove may be detected, separating them in all of the specimens, and 
they do not seem to be wholly confluent with the palatine patches even in adults. 
The pterygoid bands may be wholly absent, or represented by a linear group of 
small patches, or fully developed as an elliptical patch of large size. 
Nine specimens were preserved. 

41. Netuma insculpta {.for dun ((• Gilbert). 

Hitherto known only from tiie ty|)e (an adult male) and two young co-types, 
all from Panama. To these, the jiresent collection has added an adult female, 27 
cm. long. 

The species is very close to iV. planicept<, but diflfers in its wider head, more 
numerous and coarser granulations, wider occipital process, longer barbels, and 
shorter higher adipose fin. The occipital process is less sharply keeled, and the 
palatine teeth are in larger patches. In our specimen, the vomerine patches are 
large, the apposed magrius rounded, meeting in the middle but not confluent; 
evident furrows mark them off from the palatine patches. The latter are very 
large, with straight jjarallel inner edges, as in N. platijpogon. 

In the following measurements the specimen varies somewhat from the type 
description: 

Head 8| in length. Interocular width 2i in head; snout 2|; width of mouth 
(external measurement) 2; maxillary barbel reaching to end of second fifth of the 
length of the pectoral spine; outer mental barbel to little past gill-opening. Occip- 
ital |)rocess a little wider at base than its length on the median line. Length of 
predorsal plate on the median line one-third the length of one of its sides. The base 
of the adipose fin is contained 2f times in the head, its height If in its length. The 
ventrals overlap the rudimentary anal rays. The anal has 14 developed rays, 3 rudi- 
ments. The posterior face of the pectorals is black, the other fitis dusky. The 
maxillary barbel is silvery white, with a black upper margin. 

42. Netuma planiceps (Steindachner) . 

Of frequent occurrence. This proves to be an extremely variable species, the 
variations not being dependent on age or sex, and not correlated. The occipital 
process may be very much narrower than figured by Steindachner (1876 b, PI. 
IV), more tapering posteriorly; or it may be broader than there represented and 
more expanded at the base, so that the lateral margins are more concave and the 
greatest width and length of the plate are about equal. There is usually a wide 
shallow groove extending backward from the fontanel to within about a pujjil's diam- 
eter of the occipital process. This is often obscured posteriorly by granules or 
granulated ridges, and inay even be obliterated by the latter, as shown in the 
figure already cited. The carina on the occipital process is usually sharp, rarely 



28 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

rounded posteriorly. In the former case it is not infrequently continued backward 
onto the dorsal plate. The granulations are always very fine; they are sometimes 
arranged in serie.>^, and are always rather distant and inconspicuous. 

The teeth on the palate are especially variable. The vomerine patches are 
usually small, and may be either confluent with each other and with the palatine 
patches, or may be separated from both by a groove. This variation seems to be not 
determined by age. The palatine patches are sometimes ovate, small, with very 
indistinct backward processes; sometimes fully twice as large, produced backward, 
with their inner margins nearly straight and diverging. 

The snout is usually broadly rounded or subtruncate, seen from above. In 
some cases, however, it is sharply convex, the mouth then with more lateral cleft, 
and often with swollen lips. In all the specimens, the premaxillary band of teeth is 
long, its width being contained not less than four times in the length. The barbels 
are always short, the maxillary barbel seldom reaching the gill-opening. In adults, 
the appearance is often peculiarly modified by the great enlargement of the upper 
portion of the cheek muscles, making the top of the head transversely concave. 

The long adipose fin is highest near its middle, where the vertical height is about 
one-third the length. The fin is not wholly adnate, there being a short, free posterior 
border. It is constantly a little longer than the base of the first dorsal. 

43. Netuma platypogon {Giinther). 

Abundant in the Panama mai'ket. Of the ten specimens preserved, six are 
females, with elongate ventrals, which overlap the front of the anal. Unlike 
G. eigenmanni, the vent is constant in position, not more anteriorly placed in 
females. As in G. eigenmanni and G. jordani, the inner ventral ray is somewhat 
broadened in females, and gives attachment to a dermal thickening, less marked, 
however, in this species. 

In one male specimen taken at some date between January 10 and February 
24, the mouth contained eggs, and was obviously functioning as a brood-cavity. 
The strong arch to the buccal roof was evident. It is clear that the breeding season 
is not confined to June and July, as given by Steindachner (1876 b, p. 17). 

N. platypogon has the basal portion of the paired fins jet black on their upper 
surfaces, in both males and females. The anal is blacki.sh in its anterior two-thirds, 
with a wide white margin. The fontanel groove is everywhere sharply defined. It 
is widest a little in front of the middle of its length, tapering slowly backward to the 
base of the occipital plate, the base of which is always readied. Anteriorly, it 
narrows more rapidly, terminating in an acute point which is opposite or in advance 
of the middle of the eyes. 

The dorsal spine is very narrowly compressed, its anterior margin sharp, 
strongly serrate. 

44. Netuma oscula (Jordan <i- Gilbert). 

Two specimens are distinguishable from N. jylaniceps only by the smaller 
mouth and the shorter band of premaxillary teeth. The widtii of the latter (antero- 



GILBEUT AND STARKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 29 

posteriorly) is contained hut three times in its length. One specimen is a young 
male, the other an adult female with very narrow convexly curved snout, and small 
convex mouth with thick lips. The adult agrees exactly with adults of N. planiceps, 
except in the characters mentioned. N. osculd may represent an extreme variation 
in that most variable species, l)ut the two forms are retained until intermediate speci- 
mens are obtained. 

It is doubtful whether the specimen described by Eigenmann and Eigenmann 
(1890, p, 74) as I'achisitrus oscnlus is properly referred to this species, as the mouth 
is wider (two in head), and the intermaxillary band is wider antero-postcriorly, its 
width one-fourth its length. The vomerine patches seem also much more widely 
separated than in N. oi^cula or N. planiceps. In our adult female the head is 
contained of times in total length (without caudal). 

45. Netuma elattura {Jordan <i- Gilbert). 

Known from the type specimen obtained by Dr. Gilbert at Panama in 1881; 
and from another obtained at Albatross Station 2800, Bay of Panama, at a depth 
of seven fathoms (Jordan and Bollman, 1889, p. 179). 

46. Tachysurus steindachneri sp. nov. 

Plate V, Fig. 9. 

Arius mrlanopus Steindachner, icSyG /;, p. 29 (Panama); not Arius mclanopus Gunther (Rio 
Motagua, Atlantic slope of Guatemala). 

' It has been pointed out by Dr. Steindachner, in the article above cited, that 

Panama specimens of Tachjmirus, allied to T. melanopus, differ not a little from 
Giinther's description of that species. Two specimens in the present collection, 
21 (3) and 26(9) cm. long, agree with those examined by Steindachner. They 
differ fi'om melanopus in the shorter head (4^ in melanop)m), the character of 
the longitudinal groove on top of head ("indistinct, narrow, linear behind, 
scarcely extending to the base of the occipital process" in melanopus), the shorter 
maxillary barbels (not quite extending to the middle of the pectoral fin, in melano- 
pus), and in the small size of the axillary pore ("nearly as wide as a nasal 
opening" in melanopus). The description of melanopus is so lacking in detail that 
other differences may well exist. When to these considerations is added the fact that 
melanopus belongs to the Atlantic fauna, while no species of marine catfish is as yet 
known to be common to the two oceans, it seems advisable to recognize the Pacific 
form as distinct. 

Of the Pacific species, 2\ steindachneri is most nearly allied to T. liropus, but 
the latter has the inner faces of the paired fins light or slightly dusky, instead of 
black on basal half; the spines are longer and more slender, the snout longer and 
more rounded at its extremity, the anterior divergent extensions of the granulated 

( 5 I October 6, 1903. 



30 CALIFOUNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

area on top of head are much wider, and the nature of the lengthwise groove is 
widely different. 

Type, 3 , 21 cm. long. 

Head 3| in length to base of caudal; depth 5. Greatest width of head f its length; inter- 
ocular width 2|; snout 3; width of mouth (at outer angles) 2-^; eye 5I; pectoral spine i|. Anal with 
22 rays, including anterior rudiments. 

Head narrow, the occiput slightly depressed opposite the upper angle of the opercle. Snout 
narrow, depressed, subtruncate anteriorly. Top of head with a very few minute granules, most 
numerous on the occipital plate, where they are more or less confluent to form wavy irregular lines. 
The occipital plate is wider than long by the diameter of the pupil; its posterior half is narrow, the 
lateral margins being strongly concave; the median ridge is very low, disappearing behind. The 
median line of the head is occupied by a sharply defined deep groove, which is continuous from a point 
opposite the posterior nostrils to a point distant from the base of the occipital plate by the diameter 
of the pupil. This cutaneous groove is much narrower than the fontanel depression which it 
traverses, and widens or narrows independently of the latter. Its widest points are at the anterior end 
of the groove and at the anterior end of its posterior third. There are no strongly marked strise 
parallel with the posterior portion of the groove. In no other species of Tachysurus known to us is 
there a continuous groove occupying the fontanel depression. In T. furthii the groove may be con- 
tinued for a short distance in front of the sculptured area, and is then interrupted in the interorbital 
region, to reappear anteriorly as a short narrow linear depression. T. emmelane has also a short 
detached anterior portion; and this is even shorter, almost round, in T. liropus. In the type of 
T. steijidachncri, the granulated area on top of head does not send forward diverging processes, the 
line connecting the middle of the orbits being equidistant from the front of the granulated area and the 
posterior nostrils. In the co-type, some granulations accompany very narrow diverging ridges, which 
reach the middle of the interorbital space. 

The teeth are similar to those in other species of the genus. The palatine patches are large, 
well separated, of very coarse granular teeth. The maxillary and mandibular bands are wide, of villi- 
form teeth except for those forming a backwardly projecting lobe near mandibular symjjhysis; these 
being coarsely granular. 

Eye large, 2| in interorbital width. The maxillary barbel extends beyond pectoral 
pore to end of basal sixth of the spine. The outer mental barbels reach to opposite base of 
pectoral spines, the inner barbels being half their length. The pectoral pore is a narrow slit scarcely 
half the length of nostril. The branchiostegal membrane has mesially a very narrow, free fold (not 
to be made out in the co-type). Gill-rakers slender, 5-J-12, the longest half the diameter of 
the orbit. 

The pectoral spines are short and heavy, their width at base -jij their length, which is half 
the distance from margin of branchiostegal membrane to insertion of ventrals. The outer edge of the 
spine is weakly serrate near tip, minutely tuberculate elsewhere; the inner margin is provided with 
rather small, closely appressed teeth. The dorsal spine is broken in the type, | the length of 
the head in the co-type, the dorsal rays projecting well beyond it. The base of the adipose dorsal 
equals \ the length of the head. The sexual orifice is very slightly nearer base of inner ventral 
rays than front of anal. In the (male) type, the ventrals fail to reach front of anal by \ their 
length; in the female specimen they slightly overlap it. 

Light grayish brown above, with greenish and bluish reflections; silvery below. Inner faces of 
paired fins uniformly black in type (male), the basal half only blackish in the female. Anterior half 
of ventrals dusky. 



GILBEET AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 31 

47. Tachysurus emmelane Gilbert. 

Platk VI, Figs. 11 iiml 11a. 
Tachysun(s cnniiclanc Gilbert, Jordan & Evermann, 1898, j). 2785. 

Head 3| in length (4^*^ in total); depth 5 (6 in total). A. 27 (3+24). Eye 7 in head, 
2\ in its distance from tip of .snout, 4 in postorbital part of head, 35 in interorbital width, 2\ in frontal 
width opposite middle of eyes. Mouth of modenite width, gently conve.x, the distance between its 
angles (measured internally) 2| in head. 

Teeth in premaxillary and front of mandible finely villiform; posterior mandibular teeth 
stronger than those in front, bluntly conic, not, however, coarsely granular, as are the posterior man- 
dibular teeth in T. furthii, T. melanopus, and T. liropus. Mandibular bands with a wide interspace 
niesially, each widest near symphysis, rapidly tapering laterally, and extending beyond angle of mouth. 
The width of the bands is less than in related species, \ eye at their widest point. The length 
of one of the mandibular bands is slightly greater (i-jV) thi'n length of eye. Premaxillary band very 
short, its length but \ greater than that of one of the mandibular bands, extending on each side 
less than i distance from median line to angle of mouth; width of band 5 its length. Palatine teeth 
granular, in small oblanceolate patches, which taper to a point laterally, and are widely separated 
on median line, the patches agreeing in size and shape with, those in T. liropus. 

Head depressed, tapering, and at the same time narrowing anteriorly, as in other species of 
Tachysurus ; profile rising in a uniform, gently convex curve to occiput, where it becomes concave, 
owing to the more rapidly ascending outline of the occipital process. Eye low, but little above angle 
of mouth, the interorbital space decidedly convex. Barbels slender, the maxillary barbels reaching 
edge of gill-membrane in front of pectoral spine, the outer mental barbels extending beyond gill- 
membrane, i| in head; the inner not to edge of membrane. Gill-membrane widely attached to 
isthmus, without free edge. 

Occipital region with very fine granulations, those on middle of occiput forming parallel series 
along the fontanel groove, those on median portion of occipital process in series which diverge back- 
ward from the median line. The sculptured area extends forward to a vertical which traverses the 
cheek at a distance of its own diameter behind the eye; anterior edge of granulated area equidistant 
between the tip of snout and front of predorsal plate. Fontanel produced backward as a deep, narrow 
groove, which fails to reach base of occipital process by a distance equaling half the length of the 
process on the median line. The groove widens but little anteriorly; an area behind and on each side 
of the groove with parallel series of granulations, and marked off from the rest of the head by a 
shallow trench. Base of occipital process similarly indicated by a transverse indented line; occipital 
process not keeled, very wide at base, becoming abruptly very narrow behind, its posterior third 
having parallel margins and being as wide as long, the lateral margins therefore deeply concave; width 
of process at base equaling its length on median line plus that of predorsal plate, its hinder edge deeply 
incised to receive the anterior rounded wedge-shaped process of the predorsal plate. The latter is finely 
granulated anteriorly, the lateral wings concealed under the smooth skin. A narrow groove as long as 
eye occupies the anterior end of the fontanel. Opercle without radiating ridges. A short, slit-like 
axillary pore present. Humeral process short, the exposed portion not broadly triangular, the surface 
smooth, or indistinctly rough. Gill-rakers 6-j-i3, of moderate length and thickness, the longest below 
the angle, f diameter of eye. 

Dorsal spine with a series of obtuse granulations in front and very weak retrorse serree behind, 
its length to tip of calcified portion i| in head; longest soft ray if in head. Adipose dorsal not 
adnate, its anterior insertion about over middle of anal; base of adipose dorsal much greater than 
its height, less than base of first dorsal; distance between dorsals equal to length of head. Pectoral 
spine strong, ridged and granulated in front, the hinder edge with very strong seme; length of 



32 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

spine if in head, the fin projecting beyond tip of spine and reaching | distance from axil to base of 
ventrals. Ventrals reaching to or nearly to origin of anal. Vent midway between base of ventrals 
and front of anal. Base of anal equaling length of pectoral spine, its margin gently concave, the 
longest ray 2^ in head. Caudal with pointed lobes, the lower longest in the type, if in head. 

Color dark steel blue or brownish above, becoming bright silvery below; posterior |- of anal 
white, the anterior portion black with a narrow white edge; pectorals and ventrals with anterior 
(outer) face white or slightly dusky; pectorals with inner face of upper rays black; a black blotch 
covers all of inner face of ventrals except terminal half of inner rays; barbels blackish. 

Closely related to 7] incla)iopiis and T. iiiii/tiradiafiis, differing from the former in the longer 
anal fin, from the latter in the black markings on lower fins. 

■ The desci'iption of the type of 7\ mnlliradiatus {Bagrua? arioiden) Kner & 
Steindachner (18G4, p. 47), indicates a species with mucli roiiglier sculpturing of tlie 
head, a longer fontanel groove, narrower occipital process, and more anteriorly 
inserted adipose dorsal. 

The type is a single specimen, 280 mm. long, from Panama. 



48. Tachysurus furthii {Steindachner). 

Ahundant, eighteen specimens preserved. Our specimens exhibit some 
variation in the size of the granulations on top of head, also in the extent of the 
granulated area, which sometimes extends as far forward on the ridges as the posterior 
border of the eye. The groove extending backwards from fontanel is variously 
developed. An occasional specimen shows no trace of the groove; others have it 
developed for half the distance to the occipital process; in most cases it nearly 
reaches the base of the latter. In the interorbital region, the fontanel de^jression 
contains no definite groove, but at the anterior end of the depression, a short oval 
detached portion of such groove is always present. 

The interspace between dorsals is found to be 05 to 4 in the length, not "3 to 
3^" as given by Eigenmann. The sjoecies stands alone in the delicate, easily 
ruptured skin, and the very light blue color of its upper parts. 

49. Tachysurus evermanni sp. no v. 

Pl.ate V, Fig. 10. 

Trjije, 252 mm.; Panama Bay; C. H. Gilbert and party, collectors; No. G706, 
Ichthyological Collections, L. S. Jr. U. 

Very close to 2\ furtldi, from which it differs in the subequal jaws (the upper 
much protruding \n furthii), the thick, gently rounded snout (thin and subtruncate 
in furthii), the shorter barbels, the coarser granulations on head, the absence of a 
depressed linear pit at anterior end of fontanel depression (this always present in 
furthii, representing a detached anterior portion of a fontanel groove), and the much 
wider union of gill-membranes with the isthmus. 



GILBEKT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 33 

Head 3| in the length; depth 4|; tip of snout to front of dorsal 24; distance between dorsals 
3|; distance from base of inner ventral ray to front of anal 6f. Eye 4 in interocular, 8 in head; 
greatest width of head i| in its length; length of snout 2 yV I width of mouth 2|; distance between 
anterior nostrils 6| (5I m/urthii)\ pectoral spine equaling length of head behind front of pupil; dorsal 
spine equaling length of head behind posterior margin of ];)U]iil; base of adipose fin equaling base of 
dorsal behind the spine. 

The snout is convexly rounded anteriorly, less depressed than in Jurlhii. The maxillary 
barbel barely reaches gill-opening, when laid horizontally backward: the outer mental barbels reach 
margin of gill-membrane on under side of head. 

The palatine patches of teeth are narrowly elliptical, their length i^ times the diameter of the 
orbit; they are narrowly separated in front, the interspace | diameter of pupil; the inner mandibular 
teeth next the symphysis are coarsely granular, like the palatine teeth. 

Gill-membranes broadly united to the isthmus, without free fold, the width of the complete 
union with the isthmus more than twice the diameter of the eye (much narrower, less than diameter of 
eye m/iirt/iii). Gill-rakers rather strong, 5 + 9, the longest f the diameter of the eye. 

Top of head much more coarsely granulated than in fiirthii; the groove is confined to the 
granulated area, terminating at a point f diameter of pupil in front of the base of the occipital process. 
Anteriorly, the fontanel depression is evident, but contains no definite groove at any point. The occipital 
process is very broad, wider at base than long, much shorter than in fiirthii, the median portion not 
elevated as in the latter; a raised line representing an obsolescent keel is present on the median line of 
the anterior two-thirds. The predorsal plate is narrow, sculptured like the occiput on its anterior 
transverse portion only. 

The dorsal and pectoral spines are slender, rugose anteriorly, but without teeth except near 
the tips; the teeth on the posterior margin of the dorsal spine are scarcely visible, being smaller than 
mfurthii; the inner pectoral teeth are stronger and less numerous than m fiirthii. The type is a male, 
with the ventral fins failing to reach the front of the anal by half their length. The vent is midway 
between ventrals and front of anal. The pectoral pore is small, slit-like. 

The skin is thicker and less delicate than in fiirthii, and the color is darker, the upper parts 
dark brownish, with obscure bluish reflections. Barbels all more or less dusky. 

50. Tachysurus multiradiatus (Gnniher). 

Not seen by us. The type specimen was recorded by Kner & Steindachner, 
1864, p. 227, as Bagrus ? arioides, from the Rio Bayano near Panama. A second 
specimen has now been listed by Boulenger, 1891, p. 2, from Rio Cianati, Darien. 

51. Cathorops hypophthalmus {Steindachner). 

Known only from the types, and from two specimens secured by Gilbert in 
1881; all from Panama. 

52. Cathorops gulosus {Eigenmann & Eigenmann). 

Two specimens were secured, 230 and 245 mm. long. None others are 
known save the types, from Panama, which are in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. 

Our specimens agree for the most part with Eigenmann's description. The 
following details may be placed on record: 



34 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Head 34 or 3^ in length; distance from tip of snout to origin of dorsal, 2^; distance between 
dorsals 3I or 3f. Interocular space 2 in head; width of mouth, measured at outer angle of lips, 2| or 
2f ; length of dorsal spine i^ to i^ in head; upper caudal lobe i^; longest anal ray 2|-; ventrals 2 or 
2^. The retrorse teeth on inner border of dorsal and pectoral spines are minute, irregular, crowded. 
The maxillary barbels extend to distal fourth of pectoral spine; outer mental barbels to its middle, 
inner mental barbels to its base. The fontanel groove fails to reach the base of the occipital process by f 
the diameter of the eye. The palatine patches of granular teeth are wider than figured by Eigenmann, 
the two separated by a distance equal to or slightly in excess of the diameter of the eye. The patches 
vary in size and shape in the two specimens, and on opposite sides of the same individual. In one 
specimen are two detached teeth laterally on the head of the vomer, on one side only; none in the 
other specimen. 

In addition to the other characters ah-eady noted, Cathorops differs from 
2'achysurus in the absence of the patch of coarsely granular teeth along the inner 
border of the syraphysial portion of the mandibular band. 



Family SYMBRANCHID.E. 

53. Symbranchus marmoratus Block. 

Abundant in a fresh-water pond at Mirafiores, where it is trapped for food. 
As none could be taken with the seine, it seems probable that the species burrows in 
the mud. The few specimens secured were all brownish, variou.sly marbled with 
yellowish. 

Family LEPTOCEPHALID.E. 
54. Congrellus gilberti Douglass-Ogilby. 

Congrcllus gilberti Douglass-Ogilbv, 1898, p. 288. 
Ophisoma (?) balcaricum Gilbert, 1891a, p. 349. 

Dredged by the "Albatross," Station 2797, Panama Bay, 33 fathoms; recorded 
by Gilbert as Ophisoma (?) balearicum. The species is based exclusively on Gilbert's 
description above cited. The type specimens are deposited in the United States 
National Museum. 

55. Congrellus nitens {Jordan d- Bollman). 

One specimen dredged by the "Albatross" in Panama Bay, Station 2799, 
29i fathoms (Gilbert, 1890 ^>, p. 450). 

56. Congrellus proriger (Gilbert). 

A co-tyjie of this species was dredged by the "Albatross" in Panama Bay, 
Station 2799, 29| fathoms (Gilbert, 1891a, p. 35). 



GILBERT AND ST ARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA RAY 35 

Family MUR.ENE80CID/E. 

57. Mursenesox coniceps Jordan <t Gilbert. 

Safiro. 

The most abiiiulant eel at Panama, where it appears in the market nearly 
every day. The relations of the species to its Atlantic representative M.mvanna are 
much in need of elucidation. 

58. Neoconger vermiformis Gilhert. 

"Albatross," Station 2799, Panama Bay, 29^ fathoms (Gilbert, 189(J b, i). 450). 

Family MYRID^. 

59. Myrophis vafer Jordan d- Gilbert. 

Numerous in rock-pools, from which several specimens were obtained, larger 
than any before recorded. The teeth are in a moderate band in upper jaw, narrowing 
backward, and widening rapidly in front, where it becomes confluent with the patch 
at anterior end of vomerine series. Behind this, the vomerine teeth are in a single 
series, which is continued backward to behind angle of mouth. Mandibular teeth in 
a single series laterally, widening into a band at symphysis. In M. pundMus all the 
bands of teeth are wider, and those of vomer and mandible are in more than one series. 

Tabic of McasiirciiicHls in Millimeters. 



















^ 




















































ii 

5 




















J= 









3 


3 








P. 






OJ 




■a 


















p. 


Oj 


























CO 






j= 


^ 






^ 


A 1) 


•= s 




-0 




•d 


be 




a 




Ul 








CO 




CO 




■o 




<U 


a 









9J 


c4 


4/ 






<a 


>■ 








H 


a 


H 


X 




? 





W 


a 


J5 




280 


108 


172 


31 


5 


4 


H 


2 


5 


2i 


65 


215* 


98 


117* 


28i 


\\ 


31 


8 


2 


4.V 


2 


59 


210 


81 


129 


23 


1 1 
0^ 


3 


6 


2 




4 


49 



Family OPPIICHTHYID.E. 

60. Myrichthys tigrinus Girard. 

Opliisitnis xyslKriis ]oKV>.\ti & Gilbert, 1881 r, p. 346. 

Numerous specimens were obtained from tide-pools on the reef. They answer 
Girard's description of the type, and also the type description of 0. xysturus. The 
number of rows of teeth on sides of mandible varies from two to four, younger speci- 



* Tail in this specimen evidently injured-, though surrounded by the fin. 



36 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



mens having frequently the lower number. The head varies in length, being 
contained 3| to 4j times in the trunk. There are but two conspicuous series of 
roundish spots on either side of the back, a third series of much smaller spots being 
only occasionally present along base of anal fin. The spots on head vary greatly 
in size, number and position. No arrangement can be assigned to these as normal 
for the species. 

6i. Pisoodonophis daspilotus Gilbert. 

Plate VII, Fig. 12. 

Pisoodonophis daspi/otiis G\i.b-ekt: (Jordan & Evermann, 189S, p. 2803). 

Brownish above, gray below, the head and body usually thickly covered with black spots 
smaller than the eye; these are smaller and more numerous on the head, fewer and fainter on the lighter 
inferior surface, and become indistinct or entirely disappear on the terminal portion of tail. In one 
specimen the head and trunk are spotted and the entire tail unicolor. In another no spots are present, 
the upper parts being a uniform dark brown, the under parts lighter brown, a few dark freckles only 
being present on sides of head. In all specimens the snout and lower jaw are blackish. 

The anus is near the middle of the total length, sometimes nearer the tip of snout, sometimes 
nearer tip of tail. The cheeks are not greatly swollen. The gape extends behind the eye, its length, 
measured from tip of lower jaw to angle of mouth, being contained 4| to 4f in head. The snout pro- 
jects beyond the lower jaw for a distance about equaling diameter of orbit. Eye 2 to 2^ in snout, 
i|^ to 2\ in interorbital width. Tubes of anterior nostrils about \ diameter of eye, directed downward 
near tip of snout. Posterior nostrils under front of eye, concealed in the upper lip as usual. 

Teeth all bluntly conic, in rather wide bands on jaws and vomer; they are usually not disposed 
in regular series within the bands, but each band has about the width of four series, and these are 
sometimes distinguishable. The mandibular teeth become larger on approaching the symphysis, those 
at point of mandible and those on head of vomer being much the largest teeth present. The patch on 
shaft of vomer tapers backward to a point considerably behind angle of mouth. 

Origin of dorsal entirely behind tip of pectorals, its distance from snout g to -^ greater than 
length of the head. The tip of the tail is compressed, acute, horny, used for defense. Pectoral very 
short, from a wide base which slightly exceeds length of gill-slit. The fin rapidly narrows downward, 
the longest portion contained 12 to 14 times in length of head. The width of gill-slit is about \ head. 



Tabic of Measurements in Millimeters. 















.s 








cd 




3 



i*- 




M 


5 

■a 

n 










■a 




3 
2 





u 
P. 





.G 


w 

g 
. 

ii 


"5 

"5 n 





































































0^ 


rt 




p. 
n • 




11 


2 


a 


■5-^ 


n 


S O' 


«o 


b-s 


P. 




K 


H 


s 





W 


'-' 


"^ 


a 


»< 


a 


« 


Q 


r- 


a 


362 


177 


185 


38 


8 


3 


5 


9i- 


61 


2| 


3i 


5 


48 


3 


12 


401 


203 


198 


48 


10^ 


3i 


7 


1 1 


71 


3i 


4 


6 


53 


4 


144 


492 


248 


244 


52 


II 


2>\ 


Ik 


16* 


8^ 


3i 


3f 


6i 


68 


5i 


18 


494 


255 


239 


56 


12 


M 


7 


16 


H 


4^ 


4 


6 


68; 


5i 


16 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



37 



Four specimens were secured, three obtained in brackish water at the mouth 
of a small stream which empties into Panama Bay, the fourth in a fresh-water pond at 
Miraflores. There is some reason to suppose that they burrow in the mud. 

62. Ophichthus triserialis {Kmip). 

No Panama record is known to the writers. The species is abundant on 
the Mexican coast, and has been recorded from the Galapagos Islands (Gilbert, 
1890 ?», p. 450). 

63. Ophichthus zophochir Jordan <t Gilbert. 

This species has been heretofore known only from the Mexican coast (Guay- 
mas, Mazatlan, Acapulco). A single specimen was taken in a rock-pool at Panama. 
As in the type, the teeth are acute, biserial on all the bones. The color is as described, 
except that the dorsal is not definitely black-edged. The anal is conspicuously 
edged with black, the pectoral largely blackish. Poi'es on head black-edged. 

Tabic of Measurements in Millimeters. 









































S^ 




^ 

















n 




















« 




:3 
















s-o 


M 


















a 








"rt 


(4 


^ 


CO 


3 


1) 


ai 


% 
■5* 











d 












v 




H 


X 




K 


« 


w 





^ 


tU 


a" 


329 


I Hi 


2I4i 


37 


6i 


4 


I2| 


2 


19 


49 



Family MURJ:CNID.E. 

64. Rabula panamensis (Sfeindachner). 

Recorded from Panama by Steindachner, and by Boulenger (1899, p. 2), as 
Mui'cena panamensis; not seen by the writers. 

65. Lycodontis verrilli (.Jordan £ Gilbert) . 

Only the type specimen known; collected by Prof. F. H. Bradley at Panama 
in 1866; now in the museum of Comparative Zoology. 

66. Lycodontis dovii (Giinther). 

A single specimen 753 mm. long was taken in a tide-pool on the reef at 
Panama. 

The color is dark chestnut-brown, uniform on head, body and fins, except 
that the belly and under side of head are lighter. The spots are numerous, round, 
varying in size, but all of them small, the largest smaller than pupil; they were all 
very light yellow in life, and are not definitely ocellated, the ground-color being 
slightly darker around them. The larger spots are on the dorsal portions, with occa- 

(6) October 0, 1903. 



38 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



sional finer ones intermingled; those on ventral surface minute. Fins colored like 
the body, the spots of the same size and character. On the head the spots become 
less numerous, the anterior third of its length plain. 

Teeth everywhere in single series, the lateral teeth small, those anteriorly in 
both maxillary and mandible much enlarged. Shaft of vomer with a very inconspic- 
uous series of teeth, beginning opposite middle of eye, preceded after an interval by 
three very large depressible canines, the largest teeth present. A series of five 
black-edged poi'es along each half of upper and lower jaw, the two largest on upper 
jaw between front of eye and anterior nostril tube. 





1 


'able of 


Measunmciits 


in Millimeters. 
























3 












tn 

3 


C 

p 
a" 


J^ 


U 












3 




bd 














CU 


i- 


c 
a; 














rt 


So 












s 








*s 


? 


..;; 


CO 







OJ 
























t^ 


w 


!- 


K 





UJ 


aj 


Q 


a 


753 


336 


417 


103 


44 


19 


7 


50 


78 



67. Muraena clepsydra Gilbert. 

Plate VII, Fig. 13. 

Mtirccna elepsydra C.ii.hert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2805). 

Miirtfiia melanotis GiJNTHER, Cat. Fish., Vol. \'III, p. 98 (in part); here beloiii.; all other records 
of M. melanotis from the Pacific. 

Closely related to M. insnlaniDi and lil. argiis, from the tropical Pacific, but iliffering from 
both in color. 

Nostrils tubular, of almost equal length. Mouth closing- completely, the teeth entirely con- 
cealetl by the lips. Gape straight, horizontal, extending to well behind the eyes, 2^ to 2j in head. 

Teeth in jaws large, compressed and wide at base, tapering uniformly to an acute point, 
directed backward, close set, everywhere uniserial; those in sides of mandible noticeably smaller than 
those of upper jaw, the teeth in both jaws increasing in size anteriorly. As many as 18 or 20 teeth 
nia\' be present in the half of either jaw, but many of them are usually wanting, leaving gaps in the 
series. A single row of small teeth on shaft of vomer, beginning opposite front of eye. Head of 
\<,)mer with two long canines, larger than an)' of the other teeth, one or both of these usually wanting 
in larger specimens, having apparently fallen out. 

Head 2 (i [4 to 2-^'^) in trunk; head and trunk i^ to i.^ in tail; depth at anus appro.ximately 
half length of head. Eye small, its diameter contained 12 to 16 times in head; snout 5 to 5^. Dorsal 
beginning on the head, its distance from snout ij to li in head. 

Color dark brown, lighter on belly, dull whitish on under side of head. Head, body and fins 
closely covered with white spots, those on posterior parts larger, with some smaller ones intermingled, 
the larger spots with a more or less evident central constriction which makes them hourglass-shaped. 
Toward the heatl, the spots become very small and crowded, not more than half as large as pupil. 
Fins indistinctly light margined. A large elliptical jet-black blotch surrounds the gill slit, distinctly 
margined by a series of confluent w hite spots. The longitudinal diameter of the blotch is contained 5 
to 54 times in the length of the head. Angle of mouth with a small black blotch, often obscure, pre- 
ceded by a pale spot on mandible. The throat is marked with a number of parallel lengthwise folds, 
the bottom of each fokl \\ ith a dark line. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



39 



Table of Measurements in Millhnelcrs of Five Specimens: 





































§•3 




^ 














i2 




C 
S 












V) 

3 


« 


X 


u 












— 


o**- 


w 














CO 


<t2 


a 


•0 












*J 


4,5 


it 


« 


















•0 




■d 


oi 








S 




? 




<s 


a 





V 


a 


<A 


o 


u 


0) 


tti 


a 


a 


>y 


Oj 


•r 2 


H 


X 


H 


V, 


CS 


(A 


7 


Q 


Q 


675 


311 


364 


106 


45 


20i 


59 


72 


630 


289 


341 


96 


38 


i8i 


6i 


52i 


70 


612 


287 


325 


98 


39 


19 


6J 


47 


64 


473 


203 


270 


66 


28 


13 


5i^ 


40 


50 


397 


177 


220 


58 


21 


II 


4i 


27 


39 



This species is abundant at Panama, where it is frequently brought to market. 
About 25 specimens were seen during the visit of the expedition, all essentially alike 
in coloration. The type is 397 mm. long (see table of measurements), and has the 
spots on body less numerous than in larger specimens. 

68. Muraena lentiginosa Je.nyns. 

Originally described from the Galapagos Islands, this species seems much 
more abundant in Mexico, toward the northern limits of its range. No specimens 
were seen by the authors, the single Panama record being by Rowell (Jordan & 
Gilbert, 1882/, p. 381). 

Family YAAWIDA^. 
69. Elops saurus Linmtus. 
This species was occasionally seen, but was not abundant. 

Family ALBULIDiE. 
70. Albula vulpes (Linnceus). 
Not abundant. A few specimens only were seen in the market. 



Family CLUPEID^. 

71. Sardinella stolifera (Jordan & Gilbert). 

The species is apparently not abundant at Panama, as but two or three small 
specimens were seen. It is now known to extend as far south as Guayaquil 
(BOULENGER, 1898-9, Vol. XIV, p. 1). 



40 



CAMFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



72. Opisthonema libertate (Gi'tnther). 

Abundant; several specimens preserved averaging about 25 cm. long. Young 
specimens were also seen at Acapulco. 

This species differs from 0. oglinuni in coloration, in the shorter dorsal and 
anal fins (the latter containing 20 or 21 rays), and in the more numerous gill-rakers. 
The alleged differences in length of head are not reliable, both species varying greatly 
in this resj^ect and no average difference being evident. 

Six specimens of 0. libertate give the following measurements: — 



Head in length. 


Depth in length. 


3l 


2| 


31 


H 


4 


3f 


4tV 


3 


4i 


3t\ 


4! 


-> 9 

2to 



In addition to the details of coloration already reported there is frequently 
present a series of small, round, evenly-spaced dark spots, behind the humeral spot, 
along the line separating the blue of the back from the silvery of the sides. Scutes 
18+14 or 15. 

73. Ilisha furthi {Sleindachnev). 

Pcllona furthi Steindachner, 1875a, p. 14. 
Pcllona panamcnsis Steindachner, 1. c. p. 14. 

A very abundant food-fish at Panama, but of inferior quality. The species is 
extremely variable in shape, but the deepest forms with strongly arched ventral out- 
line {I. furthi) grade imperceptibly into the more slender forms with weak ventral curv- 
ature (/. 2^nna mentis). No other characters are correlated with this difference in ventral 
curvature, and it appears certain that but a single species is represented. The deeper 
specimens are constantly the smaller ones, so far as indicated by the material at hand. 
The eye is therefore projwrtionately larger, and the snout (measured into the eye) 
apparently shorter than in the larger, slenderer individuals. In none of the 
specimens do the first five to seven anal rays originate under the dorsal fin, as describ- 
ed in I. furthi. In both deep and slender forms the first anal ray is approximately 
under the last of the dorsal. The front of the dorsal is constantly nearer the tip of 
snout than the base of the caudal, the difference varying from f to f diameter of orbit. 

The following table of measurements exhibits the variation in depth of body, 
and in size of eye and snout. The length into which the depth of body is meas- 
ured, is taken from tlie tip of snout to base of caudal, excluding the projecting tip of 
lower jaw. Steindachner has apparently included the latter in his measurements. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



41 



Total length 
iu 

millimeters. 


Depth into 

the 

length. 


Orbit into 
head. 


Snout into 
orbit. 


255 


2f 


2f 


li 


280 


2^ 


2! 


i^ 


295 


2* 


2^ 


^ 


295 


2H 


3 


H 


305 


3 


3(+) 


i^ 


310 


21 


3 


i| 


320 


3i 


3i 


li 


330 


3i 


3i 


li 


390 


3(+) 


3i 


I 



74. Opisthopterus dovii {Giinther). 

This species is known only from Panama, where it occurs but rarely. Four 
specimens were seen, 18 to 20 cm. long; they agree well with Giinther's diagnosis. 
Head 41 to 5 in length; depth 3i to 3i. Eye 31 to 31 in head; maxillary 1t% or 2. 
Pectorals long, pointed, 4 to 4f in length. Origin of dorsal neai-er caudal than 
scapula by half length of head. A. 55, 59, 61, 62 in our specimens; D. 11, 12, 13, 
14. Scutes 27 or 28. Teeth in jaws strong, incurved, in a single series. 

Color light olivaceous above, bright silvery below angle of gill-opening. A 
faint bluish streak sometimes present along upper edge of silvery area. No dark 
humeral spot. A broad black vertebral band. End of snout and tip of lower jaw 
black. Fins translucent, with dark specks along the rays. 

75. Opisthopterus macrops {Giinther) . 

Occurring but rarely. Three specimens were obtained, each about 225 mm. 
long. 

The species is readily distinguished from 0. dovii by its much larger eye, 
more oblique mouth, strongly concave occipital 2:)rofile, and deeper body with much 
stronger ventral curvature. The teeth are much smaller than in 0. dovii, and there 
is a conspicuous humeral spot, lacking in the latter. In the specimens taken, the 
head is 41 or 41 in length, the depth 21 to 3. Eye 21 to 21 in head. Front of dorsal 
slightly nearer root of caudal than scapula, farther forward than in 0. dovii. Pec- 
toral 41 to 41 in length. Scutes 27. D. 13 or 14. A. 62. Coloration as in 0. dovii, 
but with a large black humeral spot. 

Not heretofore reported since the discovery of the type at Panama by Capt. 
J. M. Dow. 

76. Odontognathus panamensis (Sieindachner). 
Only the type specimen is known. 



42 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Family ENGEAULIDID.E. 

77. Anchovia miarcha {Jordan d- Gilbert). 

Collected by Prof. Frank H. Bradley in the Pearl Islands, Bay of Panama 
(Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 n, p. 622); not seen by us. 

78. Anchovia ischana {Jordun <£• Gilbert). 

Three specimens taken, the largest 63 mm. long. 

79. Anchovia curta {Jordan d; Gilbert). 

Numerous specimens were taken. Some of these have the lateral streak 
"somewhat indistinct," as given in the original description of the species, while others 
have the streak much better marked, with well-defined edges. It widens on the 
caudal peduncle and wholly disappears anteriorly. 

80. Anchovia opercularis {Jordan ct Gilbert). 

A specimen of this species is recorded by Gilbert (1890 5, p. 449) from Al- 
batross Station 2802, Panama Bay, in 16 fathoms. 

81 . Anchovia lucida Jordan I- Gilbert. 

Five specimens were taken, the largest 57 mm. in total length. 

In the original description of this species the cheek is described as being over 
half the length of the head. This is evidently a mistake, and should probably read, 
cheek over half the post-orbital part of the head. This would agree with the speci- 
mens taken. 

82. Anchovia rastralis {Gilbert <£• Pierson). 

Plate VIII, Fig. 14. 

Stolephorus rastralis Gilbert & Pierson (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2811). 

Head 3.16 (3.1 to 3.3); depth 3.8 (3.5 to 4.2) ; eye 3.4 in head (3.33 to 4). D. 14(1210 
15) A. 26 to 32. Length 5 to 8 cm. 

Body much compressed and deep; belly sharply keeled in front of ventrals; dorsal outline 
much less curved than ventral. The lower profile rises very rapidly from a point opposite middle of 
pectorals to tip of snout, the shape of head thus closely resembling that of Cdengraidis. Maxillary 
reaching almost but not quite to gill-opening; snout high, compressed, its length \ to | diameter of 
eye. Gill rakers averaging in larger examples 51+64, in smaller specimens 44+50; the largest about 
as long as eye. Insertion of dorsal fin variable, but never posterior to a point midway between base 
of caudal and middle of eye; pectoral fins reaching to or nearly to insertion of ventrals; the latter 
not to vent. 

Color olivaceous, the lower part of sides with violet reflections; sides of head silvery; a con- 
spicuous silvery lateral band, varying in width from about one and one-third times length of orbit in 
the largest examples to less than one-half the orbit in the smaller specimens. The band is widest before 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 43 

dorsal, and tapers to half or less than half its greatest width on caudal [jeduncle, where it frequently 
disappears in the young. In larger specimens the ventral edge of this band is frequently ill-defined 
anteriorly. Top of head with widely spaced black specks. A dark vertebral streak, more or less of 
which often consists of two narrow lines. Tips of caudal lobes often blackish; fins otherwise unmarked. 
Differing from closely allied species in the following characters: F"rom A. liicida, in the much 
longer head, more compressed body, well defined lateral stripe, and smaller eye; from A. comprcssa, in 
the longer head and wider lateral band; from A. panaiiicnsis and A. mundcola, in the much more numer- 
ous gill rakers, and the more anterior position of the dorsal relatively to the anal, the origin of the anal 
being under the middle of the dorsal, «hi!e in . /. panaiiunsis the origin of the two fins lie in the 
same vertical. 

83. Anchovia naso {Gilbert £• Pieraon). 

Stolephoriis naso Gilbert & Pierson (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2813). 

Head 3.3-3.5 in length; depth 4.7-5.8; eye 4.5-5 in head. Anal 22-24; dorsal 14 or 15; 
lateral line about 35. 

Dorsal and ventral outlines weakly arched; body slender, compressed, its greatest depth 1.5 in 
head; belly carinated in front of ventrals, and sometimes behind them in larger specimens. Head long 
and slender, its greatest width 1.5 to 1.7 in its length, the lower profile much more oblique than the 
upper. Snout long, compressed, bluntly rounded, its length exceeding the small eye. Cheek with 
a very acute posterior angle. Opercle narrow, oblique. Ma.xillary rather bluntly pointed, failing to 
reach gill-opening by about one-half diameter of pupil. Teeth on the ma.xillary quite prominent and 
directed forward. Gill-rakers short, 17-I-20 in number; the longest H in eye. Scales large, thin, 
deciduous, only a few scattering ones remaining on our specimens. Dorsal fin inserted midway between 
front or middle of orbit and base of median caudal rays. Origin of anal under or slightly behind 
middle of dorsal; length of anal base about equal to the distance from front of orbit to base of ventral 
fin. Pectorals not reaching ventrals, their length about one-half length of head. Length of ventrals 
equaling or slightly exceeding distance from tip of snout to middle of pupil. 

Color light olive, with the usual bright reflections; a large dark patch of brown dots on 
occiput; a double series of dots along median line posterior to dorsal, this absent in some specimens; 
large specimens with a bright well defined silvery streak, slightly narrowing anteriorly and on caudal 
peduncle, its greatest width about equaling diameter of eye. In the young, this band is fainter and 
narrower. A conspicuous series of black dots at base of anal. 

Characterized by the slender form, well defined silvery streak, sharply carinated breast, the 
small eye, and the very long, compressed, deep and rather bluntly rounded snout. Most closely 
resembling A. starksi, from which it differs in smaller eye, longer siiout, and slightly longer anal. 
Length 40 to 52 mm. 

84. Anchovia starksi {Gilbert <£-• Pierson). 
S/o/ep/iorus sfarA'S! Gilbert & Pierson (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2813). 

Head 3.3 to 3.6; depth 4.8 to 5.5 in length, 1.3 in head. Eye 3 to 3.5 in head. Dorsal 
15 or 16; anal 17 to 22; scales about 41. Vertebrae 40 (counted in one example only). 

Body long and slender, slightly deeper and more compressed tlian in A. ischaniis, which much 
resembles this species. Dorsal outline very little arched; ventral outline nearly straight from gill open- 
ing to insertion of anal fin, the lower profile of head oblique, nearly straight. Belly compressed, 
keeled for anterior two-thirds of its length in front of base of ventrals. 

Head long and pointed, its width i^ times in its length. Ma.xillary abruptly widened opposite 
the mandibular joint, tapering posteriorly to a blunt point, which reaches almost to the gill-opening, its 
length equal to length of base of anal. Snout long, sharp, and projecting, abruptly compressed in its 



44 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

terminal portion as seen from above, its length two-thirds diameter of orbit, or slightly more. Branch- 
iostegal membranes united at base for a very short distance. In four examples examined as to this 
point, the gill-rakers are as follows: 20-|-25, 23-I-24, 21-I-23, 19-I-30; the longest contained i4 to 
1 1 in eye. Scales large, thin, deciduous, a few only remaining on the specimens at hand. Origin of 
the dorsal fin equally distant from the base of the caudal fin and the tip of snout or front of eye. Anal 
inserted under beginning of posterior third of base of dorsal. Pectorals not reaching ventrals, the 
latter extending three-fifths distance to front of anal. 

Color light olive, with broad, well defined, lateral silvery streak of nearly uniform width, 
usually narrowing anteriorly and on middle of caudal peduncle, its width in our largest specimens five- 
si.xths diameter of eye. The silvery streak has a slight golden tinge. A narrow dark vertebral line, 
which widens on the nape. Occiput blackish. 

This species differs from A. adtrata in its slenderer body, shorter snout, wider opercle 
and smaller teeth; the belly is also not sharply carinate, the dorsal is more anteriorly placed, 
the ventrals are farther back, and tbe silvery streak is wider anteriorly. It differs from A. delicatissinia 
in its longer, slenderer head and body, smaller eye, longer, sharper snout, and much wider, better 
defined silvery streak. 

Lengtli 4 to G cm. Named for Mr. Edwin Cliapin Starks. 

85. Anchovia panamensis (Steindachner). 

This species was found to be rather common. 

Dr. Steindachner seems to have had both A. panamensis and A. mundeola, as 
his description covers both in many respects. His count of scales would apply 
better to A. mundeola than to A. panamensis, which has 38 to 41. The length of 
head, 4|, ajjplies better to A. panamensis, that of A. mundeola being generally about 
4 in length of body. Otherwise there seem to be no differences. 

86. Anchovia mundeola {Gilbert <£• Pierson). 

Stoh'phonis mundcolus Gilbert & Pierson (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2812). 

Head 4.15 (4 to 4.25); depth 3.77 (3.40 to 4.25); eye 3.44 in head (3.12 to 3.70). Dorsal 
13 or 14; anal 33 (33 to 35); scales 36 (36 to 39). Dorsal and ventral contours about equally and 
gradually rounded from the middle region of body to the tip of snout and base of caudal fin. Snout 
short, high, compressed, blunt at tip, its length i| in eye. Eye very large. Maxillary broad, taper- 
ing to a sharp point which reaches margin of gill-opening. Gill-rakers i7-j-2i to 22-I-24; the longest 
I ^ to 2 in eye. Anterior insertion of dorsal fin varying from a point midway between base of caudal 
and middle of eye to a point midway between the caudal and tip of snout. In ten e.xamples its inser- 
tion is before that of the anal. Anal fin long, averaging 33 rays; its origin beneath the anterior third 
of the dorsal; length of base shorter than in A. panamensis, being 3^13^ in length, while in the latter 
its length is contained ■2\ in length. Pectorals long, reaching well beyond the insertion of the ventrals, 
equaling length of head behind front of pupil; a large axillary scale. Ventrals scarcely reaching vent. 

Color uniformly light olive with silvery reflections; a faint, narrow, silvery stripe, sometimes 
scarcely distinguishable. Sides of head plain silvery. Upper margin of orbital rim black. Dorsal 
region blackish. A faint, narrow, dark line on each side of the light mid-dorsal streak. Caudal 
slightly dusky. Fins otherwise unmarked. 

This species is closely allied to A. panamensis and A. compressa, but may be distin- 
guished from the former by its longer head, larger eye, greater depth, fewer scales along the lateral 
line, and its much shorter anal base; also by the much fainter lateral silvery stripe. The eye is con- 
tained 14 to 16 times in length, excluding the caudal; while in panamensis the length contains the eye 
16 to 20 times. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



45 



Pixini ^n/. coiiiprcssa it differs in the relative length of the head and maxillary. In A. munde- 
ola the maxillary is contained in the head i^ times (i.igto 1.37); in comprcssa li times (1.30 to 
1. 81). In mundcola the head is contained 4.15 times in the length; in comprcssa 4.44 times. 

Since the jJiiblication of the above description, as cited, the material has 
been further studied by Cliloe Lesley Starks, whose results we are permitted to 
incorporate below. 

Twenty-seven specimens were measured, ranging in size from 72 to 120 mm. in length. In 
A. paiiainensis ih.& head measures .21 to .25 of the length exclusive of the caudal; in A. mundeola .24 
to .26. The depth of panamensis is .24 to .26; of mundeola .24 to .27. The size of the eye is the 
most striking difference between the two species, holding well from .05I to .o6f in panamensis and 
from .07 to .07^ \x\ mundeola. The ma.xillary measures about the same throughout (doubtless 
some tips are broken). \x\ panamensis the snout measures about .04 and in micndeola from .04 to 
.05. Gill-rakers and also the rays in the dorsal and anal fins number about the same in the two species. 
The length of anal base in panamensis seems generally longer, running from .35 to .39 of length, 
while in mundeola it runs from .33 to .36. The number of scales varies from 39 to 41 m panamensis; 
from 36 to 39 in mundcola. 

The extremes of the two species differ greatly in appearance, and no difficulty 
is encountered in sei)arating them; but a few specimens seem to come so nearly inter- 
mediate that it is difficult to know to which form to assign them. When collected 
the two species were easily separable on account of the faint, silvery, lateral stripe of 
mundeola, but since preservation it has so faded in both species that it cannot be 
considered. 

These two species may prove to be the same, but since A. mundeola has been 
described, it will be better to consider the two as distinct, until enough material can 
be obtained to settle the point beyond question. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length to Base of Caudal. 



3 s 

= 

■= 5 












0) 


'So 


C 
CO 


"3 


•0 




■^s 












ra 














A^ 














^ S". 












R 




















C3 


0. 


oJ 


M 


3 


4^ 


B cij 


as- 


a& 


s 




u 


>^ 




en 




3 l- 








S 


Q 


W 


2 


n 


Z 


% 


?; 


z 



AnCHOVIA PANAMENSIS. 



11 


24 


25i 


6 


18 


4 


36 


16 -f 22 


34 


13 


40 


89 


23 


25 


6i 


i8| 


4 


38 


16 -j- 22 


32 


13 


40 


92 


22 


26 


6f 


19 


4 


36 


15 -f 18 


32 


12 


41 


86 


21 


24 


5i 


^n 


4 


38 


16 -(- 22 


32 


13 


39 


71 


23 


24 


6 


18 


4 


37 


16 -(- 22 


33 


13 


41 


88 


23 


25 


6 


i7i 


4 


38 


16 4- 24 


35 


14 


39 


89 


23 


24 


6! 


17 


4 


39 


17 + 22 


33 


13 


40 


109 


24 


26 


6f 


19 


4 


35 


16 + 25 


30 


14 


40 


105 


24 


26 


6| 


i8| 


4 


36 


18 -f 22 


32 


13 


39 


79 


25 


26 


6| 


20 


4 


35 


15 -f 19 


32 


14 


40 



(7) 



October 12, 1903. 



46 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 







Meastire^nents in 


Hundredths of Length to Base of Candal. 




















'be 







tfl 

S 






































o 




o 








































u U 


u . 


I' . 


u 

















^ a^ 




•^ ? 


X! 


M3 
= to 


-d 


p< 


<u 


y. 


3 


U 


- CC 


H rt 


i« 


2 




V 


u 












3 l- 






M 


W 


Q 


il 


S 


(/) 


n 


Z 


^ 


Z 


^ 



Anchovia mundeola. 



84 


25 


^5} 


7i 


19 


5 


36 


16 +• 23 


30 


13 


39 


83 


25 i 


24i 


7 


194 


4^ 


35 


16 4- 22 


33 


13 


38 


91 


25i 


25 


7 


19 


4i 


36 


16 ± 19 


31 


13 


37 


87 


25 


26^ 


7 


21 


5 


34 


16 + 19 


31 


13 


39 


■ 78 


25 


24 


7 


20 


4i 


35 


17 + 22 


32 


13 


38 


104 


26 


25i 


7 


19 


4i 


35 


17 + 23 


33 


13 


37 


108 


24 


27 


7 


18 


4 


36 


20 + 24 


35 


14 


37 


102 


24i 


27 


7 


18^ 


4 


36 


16 + 25 


33 


12 


37 


93i 


25 


26 


7 


20^ 


4l 


34 


17 + 23 


32 


13 


39 


lOI 


24i 


26 


7i 


19 


4i 


34 


17 + 22 


33 


12 


37 


82 


26 


26 


7 


21 


5 


33i 


16 + 17 


31 


13 


37 


116 


25 


28 


7 


20 


5 


34 


17 + 22 


31 


13 


39 


120 


24 


27 


7 


19 


4 


34 


16 + 23 


32 


14 


37 


108 


24i 


27 


7 


20 


41 


35i 


18 -1- 22 


31 


14 


36 


75 


25 


26 


7^ 


20 


4i 


35 


17 + 23 


31 


13 


38 


103 


25 


26i 


7i 


21 


4 


33 


17 + 24 


30 


12 


37 


107 


25 


26 


7-1 


20J 


4 


35i 


20 + 23 


31 


14 


36 



87. Anchovia spinifera {Cuvier ct- Valenciennes). 
Plate VIII, Pig. 15. 

Two specimens were taken in shallow water by means of a cast-net. 

Head 4 in length; depth 4; dorsal 16; anal 38; scales 42. Form moderately slender, the 
dorsal outline ascending in nearly a straight line from snout to front of dorsal, where it reaches the 
greatest height; thence descending at about the same angle in a straight line to caudal peduncle; ventral 
outline evenly curved from tip of lower jaw to caudal peduncle. Abdomen somewhat compressed, 
not serrated. - 

The head is rather long, and has a sharp conical snout. The upper posterior outline of the 
gill-opening is very oblique. A line drawn from snout to angle of opercle would nearly parallel the 
oblique maxillary. The subopercle projects beyond the opercle in a triangular process. The eye is 
placed within the first two-fifths of the head. The maxillary is slender, and not angulated on its upper 
outline towards its posterior end. It is widest near angle of mouth, and ends in a' rather sharp point 
near lower edge of gill-opening. The teeth are small but sharp. The gill-rakers are slightly shorter 
than the orbit; about 15 + 17 in number. 

The origin of the anal is about under the middle of dorsal. The pectorals extend to or 
slightly i^ast the middle of the outer ventral rays. 



GILBERT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



47 



Owing to the action of formalin, these specimens have little of their original 
color left. Where scales remain, the lower parts of the sides are bright silvery, 
rather abruptly shaded to olive above. Apparently no lateral stripe was present. 
The caudal and the first rays of dorsal are tipped with black. In life, the caudal and 
dorsal were otherwise bright yellow. 

Measurements in Ilundredlhs of Length to Base of Caudal. 















5! 


>y 






„ 












.2 


t 




03 


ga 














M 


^ 





-c 5 
















n 
























'&.5 








>^ 







-o 


en 




•c ^ 












J3 


(fl 


« 


tft 


M^ 


TJ 


J= 




:;: 






0^ 








« 


a 








c 


n 


c 


G « 






u 








a> 








^* 


HtS 


w 





« 


S 


iSl 


-f 


-T 


i4 


^ 


96 


26 


25 


5i 


22 


4 


38 


20 


15 


17I 


99 


26 


26 


b\ 


22 


4i 


39 


19 


14 


17 



88. Anchovia macrolepidota {Kner <t Steindachner). 

Very abundant, reaching a large size and used for bait. The body is closely 
compressed, and very minute teeth persist in the maxillaries even in adults. 



89. Cetengraulis mysticetus Gilnther. 

Abundant; often used as bait in hand-line fishing. It reaches a length of 
20 cm. Our sjDecimens have been compared with C. edentulus from Jamaica, and 
are found to difi"er from this closely related Atlantic representative in the slightly 
longer head, slenderer body and caudal peduncle, smaller eye, and shorter anal fin. 
The anal has an average of but one less ray, instead of three less, as given by Jordan 
& Everraann, 1896, p. 450. 

In the original description, the gill-rakers on the lower part of arch are said 
to number 42. Dr. Boulenger has kindly reexamined for us the three types in the 
British Museum, and finds in each from 55 to 60 gill-rakers. The number in the 
specimens at hand ranges from 53 to 66. In these specimens, the pectorals usually 
do not reach the ventrals, either terminating some distance from them, or rarely 
approximating them. 

The color in life is light olivaceous or olive-green above, passing into 
the bright silvery of sides and lower parts. No lateral stripe. Caudal margined 
with dusky. 



48 



CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Measurements in Hundredths of Length ivithout Caudal. 



Species 

Locality 

Length without caudal, 
in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Orbit 

Maxillary 

Snout 

Greatest length from pre- 
opercular ridge to gill- 
opening 

Number of dorsal rays.. 

Number of anal rays 

Number of scales 



CETENGRAULIS MYSTICETUS 



Panama 



149 
36 

31 
8 

21 
4 

14 
15 

22 

42 



153 
36 
30 

211 



15 
15 
23 
40 



144 

37 

31 

i\ 
22 

4 

15 
15 
23 
43 



145 
37 
29 

8 

2li 



14 
15 
22 

43 



152 
35i 
3oi 

7i 
21 

4 

15 
14 
22 

42 



CETENGRAULIS EDENTULUS 



South Atlantic 



106 
34 

3ii 

8 
20 

5 

12 

14 
24 
39 



96 
33 
33 
9 
20 

5 

12 

14 

24 
40 



lOI 

33 

33 

8 

19 

5 

12 
15 
23 
41 



109 

33 

34i 

8i 
20 

5 



1 1 
15 
23 
40 



104 

33 
32 

9 

20 

5 

12 
15 

23 
41 



90. Cetengraulis engymen Gilberl <k Pier son. 

Cetengrarilis engyme^i Gilbert & Pierson (Jordan and Evermann, 1898, p. 2815). 

This species differs from C. mysticctus in the much narrower union of the gill membranes, the 
less numerous gill-rakers, and in the longer snout. Head 3 to 3.3 in length; depth 4 to 4.9; eye 4 in 
head; dorsal 14 or 15; anal 20 to 23; vertebrae 41. Body compressed, fusiform, not so deep as in 
mysticctus or edentuhis. The dorsal and ventral outlines are about equally and regularly curved in the 
larger specimens; in the smaller specimens the ventral contour is more nearly straight. Belly trenchant, 
but not carinate nor serrate; caudal peduncle moderate, its depth being contained 1.5 times in its 
length. Head similar to mysticctus; the snout longer, contained 5.5 to 7 times in head, i^ times in 
eye (the snout is contained 8 to 9 times in head, in mysticctus). Both jaws bear minute teeth, those on 
the maxillary largest. Branchiostegal membranes united for only | to | of the distance between tip 
of mandible and mandibular articulation; wholly free from the isthmus. Tip of mandible directly 
beneath the anterior border of orbit. Gill-rakers long, nine-tenths diameter of eye, 20 to 30 on the 
upper Umb, 25 to 30 on the lower limb; in five examples as follows, 25-J-30, 27-|-25, 30-f-26, 25-I-30, 

23-J-29 to 20-)-25. 

The origin of the dorsal is midway between base of median caudal rays and a point varying 
between front and middle of the eye. Insertion of anal below the posterior fourth or third of the dorsal, 
its length equaling the distance from the posterior border of the eye to insertion of pectoral. The 
pectoral is short, 2\ to 2^ in head, failing to reach the insertion of the ventrals by half or nearly half 
its length. Caudal deeply forked, its median rays 2\ to 3 times in head. 

Color uniformly silvery, with a distinct, well defined lateral silvery band, extending from upper 
angle of gill-opening to base of caudal; its greatest width equals the diameter of orbit, becoming 
narrower on caudal peduncle. 

Length 38 to 57 mm. 



GILBERT AND STAKES — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



49 



91. Lycengraulis poeyi {Kner (t Sleindachner). 

Seven specimens were taken, the largest 198 mm. in total length. 

In some of the specimens the pectorals scai'ccly reach to the base of the 
ventrals, while in others they reach a very little jiast this point. The gill-rakers 
become shorter and somewhat thicker with age. 

We have compared these specimens with a single specimen of L. gr-ossidens 
from Pernambuco, Brazil. The latter specimen seems to differ from L. poeyi in 
having a slightly longer maxillary, a greater distance separating the tip of snout 
from lower angle of cheek, and in the slightly larger teeth, which are more uneven 
and more widely spaced. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Species 

Locality 

Length without caudal, in mm 

Head in looths of length 

Depth 

Eye 

Maxillary 

Origin of dorsal from snout 

Greatest distance from eye to gill-opening 

Snout to lower angle of cheek 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

Gill-rakers 

Scales 



LYCENGRAULIS POEYL 



Panama. 



186 


159 


153 


189 


23i 


23 


234 


23 


26 


24 


24 


25 


5 


5 


5 


5 


18 


171 


i8i- 


18 


564- 


56 


54i 


55 


15 


14 


Hi 


i4i 


I SI- 


18^ 


18 


18 


IS 


14 


15 


14 


24 


25 


24 


24 


144-20 


154-19 


14-1-20 


14-^20 


40 


40 


41 


41 



198 
232 

24 

\i 

18 

54i 
14 
19 
14 
25 
124-19 
40 



L. GROS- 
SIDENS. 



Brazil. 



169 
24 

25 
41 
20J 

55i- 
i5i 
20J 

15 

24 • 
144-18 

39 



Family SYNODONTID^. 



92. Synodus evermanni Jordan 1- Bollman. 



Dredged by the "Albatross" in Panama Bay, at Stations 2795 and 2797, 33 
fathoms; not seen by us. The species is also known from "Albatross" Stations 2831, 
3043, 3044, off the coast of Lower California, in depths of 12 to 74 fathoms; and 
Station 2998, Gulf of California, 40 fathoms. 



50 CALIFORNIA. ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 

93. Sy nodus scituliceps Jordan cfc Gilbert. 

SynodHsJoikiiisi Jordan & Bollman, 1889, p. 153. 

Two S23ecimens seen, one of which is 40 cm. long, and is preserved. The 
head is remarkably long, 3| in length. Five rows of scales between lateral line and 
median series before dorsal; seven rows between lateral line and median series before 
anus; sixty scales in lateral line; six rows on cheeks. These characters would range 
the specimen under the nominal species 8. jenkinsi, which we are unable, however, 
to distinguish from S. scituliceps. Specimens from Mazatlanwith short head (typical 
S. scituliceps) have five or six rows of scales on the cheeks (never four as originally 
described), and have the anterior dorsal rays reaching or not reaching tip of posterior 
ray when depressed. In these, the head varies from 3| to 4|^ in length, no sjiecimen 
before us having the head as small as described for the type of ,6'. scituliceps (4|). 

The sj)ecies was also seen at Aca^iulco (Dec. 20), several specimens being 
observed lying on the sandy bottom near the wharf. They lie rigidly in a straight 
line, and their colors harmonize so well with that of the sand that they are detected 
with difficulty. One specimen, on coming to rest after swimming a short distance, 
disappeared in the sand, leaving only the tip of the snout exposed. It did not enter 
head first, but settled into the sand with its whole length at once, apparently throwing 
up the sand by motions of its pectoral and ventral fins. 

Family PCECILIID^. 
94. Poecilia elongata Gfmther. 

Very abundant in the brackish sloughs about Panama. We found it also in 
the market, where numerous specimens were taken from 5 to 18 cm. in length. 
These are all females, no males being seen. All of the specimens examined have 
young in the oviduct, about 18 mm. in length, apparently about ready to be set free. 
They have four 01^ five narrow, distinct cross-bars on the body. The scale-pouches 
have also a narrow, dark border, which shows through the scales as in the adult. 

We here supi:)lement the original description, from specimens 10 to 18 cm. in 
length. Head 3| to 4| in length; depth 3i to 4. Eye 3| to 4| in head, slightly less 
than half the interorbital width in the larger specimens, slightly more than half in 
specimens 10 cm. long. Interorbital width half head. Height of caudal peduncle 
11 to 1| in head, diminishing in height but slightly (sometimes not at all) from dorsal 
to caudal base. Scales in six specimens 30, in six specimens 31, in four specimens 
32. Nine specimens have 10 dorsal rays, two have 9; eight sijecimens have 9 anal 
rays, four have 8. 

After removing and drying the jaws, a narrow band of very fine villiform 
teeth, behind the dark-tipped slender outer teeth of each jaw, may be seen by the aid 
of a lens. 



GILBERT AND ST ARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 51 

95. Poecilia boucardii Steinduchner. 

Very ahiindnnt in i'resli nnd brackish water. Foiiiul in every pond and 
stream in the savannah about Panama. They agree very well with Dr. Steindach- 
ner's description of the typical specimens, which were taken about Colon. 

The black spots on the caudal are quite variable in size. In most specimens 
the caudal fin and even the posterior part of the caudal peduncle, is profusely covered 
with rather large black spots. There are elongate or elliptical spots between the rays, 
and smaller indistinct spots are on the rays. In a few specimens the spots are small 
and diffused, those on the rays being most persistent. The young, 25 to 40 mm. 
long, have only small indistinct spots. 

96. Anableps dowei Gill. 
Not seen by us. 

The types of the species have been ascribed to Panama, this locality being based 
on the following ambiguous statement by Gill (18G1 «, p. 3): "There has recently 
been sent to the Smithsonian Institution from Panama, by Ca2:)tain J. M. Dow, a new 
species of the genus Anableps." While this specimen was sent from Panama, it was 
apjmrently not captured at that point, as witness the following statement published 
by Dow (1861, p. 30): "Some time since, while in the bay of La Union, State of 
San Salvador, I caught ... a couj^le of what I supjiosed was Anableps tetroph- 
thalmiis; but upon sending them to my friend. Professor Baird, oi the Smithsonian 
Institution at Washington, was somewhat surprised and gratified to hear that they 
were of an entirely new species . . . A. dowii." On a subsequent trip, Dow 
obtained (1. c.) from the same locality several specimens, which were likewise sent to 
the Smithsonian Institution (see Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 i, p. 373). Others are 
recorded by Giinther (1866a, p. 338) from Chiapam and Guatemala, and still others 
(Glinther, 1864 6, p. 27) are said to have been collected by Captain Dow on the 
"Pacific Coast of Panama." 

There seems to be no warrant for changing the spelling of the specific name, 
as has been done, to dowi, dowii or dovii. It appears as dowei in three places in the 
original description, a fact which sufficiently indicates the deliberate intention of the 
author concerning it. 



^o 



Family ESOCID^. 
97. Tylosurus scapularis Jordan £ Gilbert. 

Several specimens seined in fresh water at Miraflores. Four specimens pre- 
served, the largest 41 cm. in length, the others 23. 

In these specimens the caudal peduncle is not compressed, as described for 
the type, but is about as wide as deep. The body is somewhat depressed, especially 
in the ventral region. The description of the type states that the eye " is contained 
8 or 9 times in the length of the upper jaw" (this agrees with our specimens), "and 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Sj times in rest of head." This last doubtless should read postorbital part of head. 
The eye in our specimen is contained 4^ to nearly 5 times in head without upper 
jaw. The description states that the anterior dorsal rays are " as long as from eye 
to edge of opercle." This should read to edge of preopercle or to anterior edge 
of opercle. 

The lateral band tapers to a point at each end. It is nearly confined to the 
posterior third of the body, and does not reach to the caudal rays. In the lai-ge speci- 
men it is dusky silvery and has ill-defined edges, while in the small ones it is well 
defined and bright silvery. It is bordered above with a dark streak, very conspicuous 
in the younger specimens, but diffused and only slightly darker than the body in the 
large specimen. 

98. Tylosurus stolzmanni {Steindachner). 

Two specimens were taken, 51 and 62 cm. in entire length. Besides these we 
have in the Museum of Stanford University a .specimen from Mazatlan of about the 
size of our smaller specimen. These are larger than the type (477 mm. in length), 
from the description of which they differ in some minor respects. 

In our specimens the body is as broad as high at the region of the ventrals. 
The interorbital space is a little wider than diameter of eye, which is contained 12 
times in length of head. The anal base is a little longer than the dorsal base. The 
insertion of the ventrals is nearer the caudal base than the posterior border of the 
eye by from 1 (in the larger specimen) to 3 times the diameter of the eye. 

This is probably the species recorded by Boulenger (1899, p. 2) from the Gulf 
of Panama, under the name Belone truncata. 

99. Tylosurus fodiator Jordan <& Gilbert. 

Not uncommon at Panama. Like other gars, it is called Aguja by the native 
fishermen. 

100. Tylosurus pacificus [Steindachner). 

Three specimens were collected, which agree very well with the description 
of the type. 

Family HEMIEHAMPHID.E. 

loi. Hyporhamphus unifasciatus [Ranzani). 

Two specimens collected at Panama by Captain J. M. Dow have been identified 
by Jordan and Gilbert (1882i, p. 373) with the short-nosed half-beak, H. poeiji 
( = //. unifasciatus). The species is also recorded from Panama by Jordan & 
Bollman (1889, p. ISO). 



GILBERT AND STARRS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 53 

102. Hyporhamphus roberti (Cuvier it Valenciennei^). 
One small specimen taken, about 15 cm. in length. 

103. Hemirhamphus saltator sp. no v. 

Platk IX, Fic. 16. 

//cM/r/ia////>/ius da/ao JORDAN, 1885, p. 370 (Panama) ; not of Le Sueur. 

Head from tip of upper jaw, 4^ in length from the same point to base of caudal; depth 6 1, to 
6^\. Dorsal 13 or 14; anal 11 or 12; scales 53 or 54. 

Body compressed, the .sides vertical and parallel. Mandible from tip of upper jaw 4| to 4| in 
lenyth. Diameter of eye slightly exceeding interorbital width, 4 to 4! in head. Pectoral i^ to i^ in 
head. Insertion of ventrals midway between base of caudal and anterior third of pectoral fin. Last 
ventral ray produced, and longer than first ray. Front of anal a little anterior to middle of dorsal base; 
the posterior end of anal base coterminous with that of dorsal. Posterior ray of dorsal produced; 
anterior rays about a third higher than those of anal. 

Color uniform bright silvery on lower part of sides, dusky silvery above. An inconspicuous, 
dark, narrow lateral streak e.xtends from upper angle of gill-opening to just above middle of caudal. 
Top of head and upper jaw dark. Dorsal and caudal dark; pectorals dusky; ventrals colorless, except 
a slight dusky tinge towards ends of outer rays; anal white. 

This species is closely related to H. brasiliensis from the West Indies, with 
which it has been identified. It differs from that species in the smaller eye, longer 
mandible, and longer pectoral fin. The insertion of the ventrals is more anterior; 
the horizontal length of the opercle is greater; the anterior rays of the dorsal are 
lower, and there are one or two more scales in a horizontal series. 

Eight specimens were taken, from 41 to 46 cm. in entire length. 



C) October ■>!, 190;). 



54 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 









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GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 65 

Family EXOCCETIDyE. 
104. Fodiator acutus {C'uvier d- Valenciennes). 

Abundant in Panama Bay; many were seen flying, and four specimens were 
taken, 145 to 158 mm. in length. They agree well with the description of the type. 

105. Cypselurus callopterus (Gi'mther). 

Two specimens were collected, 25 and 31 cm. in length. They agree well 
with Dr. Giinther's description and plate. 

106. Exonautes rufipinnis (Guvier <& Valenciennes). 

Only the type of Exoca-Ms dowi Gill, 1863, p. 167, ( = E. rufipinnis), is 
known from the vicinity of Panama. 

Family FISTULARIID^. 
107. Fistularia depressa Gi'mther. 

A single large specimen was taken in the market at Panama. 

We have examined specimens from Japan, Honolulu, the Philippines, and 
La Paz, L. C, and can distinguish no differences between them. In the figure of 
this species given by Dr. Giinther (Shore-fishes, Challenger, Plate XXXII), the 
greatest width between the diverging ridges on the anterior part of the snout is 
indicated at a point too far forward. In our sijecimens the ridges are farthest apart 
at the beginning of the anterior f or \ of the snout. The interorbital area appears to 
be more concave in small specimens (25 cm. in length) than in the larger ones. In 
the latter the interorbital is contained 54 in the postorbital part of the head. In 
specimens 50 cm. in length the orbit (measuring the extreme length between the 
bones surrounding the eye) is from 9-f to 9| in the head, and the length of the max- 
illary is 9|. In a specimen 69 cm. in length, the maxillary is contained 10 times 
and the eye 11 times in the head. 

A large number of small specimens 25 to 28 cm., and one specimen 41 cm. in 
length from Honolulu, are plain brown on the back, while a larger specimen 61 cm. 
long has blue spots, as in our Panama specimen. Four specimens from La Paz, 
51 cm. long, all show blue spots. The following color description was taken from 
our Panama specimen in the fresh condition. 

Olive-brown on upper parts, white below. A pair of narrow blue stripes, 
interrupted anteriorly and posteriorly, begin at the nape, diverge backward and cross 
the lateral line just in front of the point where it becomes straight, then run just 
above and parallel to the lateral line as far as the tail. Another pair of streaks, made 
each by a series of blue spots, runs close along each side of mid-dorsal line, from a 



56 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

point above axil of pectorals to front of dorsal. Behind dorsal a single series of spots 
occui^ies the median line of back. 

io8. Fistularia corneta sp. nov. 

Plate X, Figs. 18 and ISa. 

Five specimens, each 62 cm. long, were seen in the Panama market; two of 
these were preserved. Besides these, we have in the collection of Stanford Uni- 
versity several small specimens from Panama, collected by the "Albatross," and 
several small ones from Mazatlan. 

Head 3 in length. Depth of body, a short distance in front of dorsal fin, | the depth at occiput. 
At insertion of ventral fins the width of the body is twice its depth. The extreme length of the orbit 
is contained 9 times in the length of the head; maxillary 13I to 13I; interorbital width (bone) 
3f to 4 in postorbital jsart of head. Length of pectoral, from base of upper ray to ti]3S of longest 
rays, 6| to 7 in head; ventrals 11. 

The maxillary is rather short, and has a concave posterior border. The upper lateral ridge of 
snout is serrated on its posterior three-fifths. On the anterior half of the serrated portion, the serra- 
tions become abruptly finer and more crowded. The two superior ridges of the snout are rather 
wide apart posteriorly, and very gradually approach each other anteriorly. They are scarcely 
di\'ergent or even parallel in the large specimens, but in the small ones they diverge slightly on the 
anterior half of the snout. The distance between them is everywhere much greater than their distance 
from the upper lateral ridge. The area between the upper lateral ridge and the superior ridges 
is generally smooth, sometimes somewhat uneven, but never roughly sculptured. The interorbital 
area is flat and roughly sculptured on each side, and its middle third is depressed to form a smooth 
channel. 

The pectoral reaches about one-third of the distance between the base of its upper ray and the 
insertion of the ventrals. The dorsal and anal fins are exactly opposite and equal in length; their base 
4 times their distance from the middle caudal rays. The skin is everywhere smooth; the lateral line is 
not armed with bony plates. 

In the five specimens seen at Panama (fresh) the back was a uniform dark brown. In the 
small specimens from Panama and Mazatlan there is usually a lighter stripe, with ill-defined edges, on 
each side of the back, a short distance above the lateral line, and following its course to the base of the 
caudal fin. 

This species differs from F. depressa in having a shorter maxillary, a larger 
eye (in specimens of the same size), and particularly in having a much wider inter- 
orbital sjiace. There is no trace of blue markings in our material. 

We have several specimens of F. petimba from Formosa and Japan, which 
agree well with the description given by Dr. Giinther (Shore-fishes, Challenger, 
p. 68) under the name F. serrata. They differ from F. corneta in having the superior 
ridges of the snout very close together and jjarallel for nearly their whole length. 
(They are spoken of as ridges, though they appear, in this species especially, as a 
single, raised, flat area posteriorly, the sides of which are left in relief as ridges 
anteriorly.) The distance between them is everywhere much less than their distance 
from the upper lateral ridge. The area between the upper lateral ridge and the 
superior ridges is roughly sculptured with radiating lines, as shown in the illustration 
accompanying the description cited above (Plate XXXII). The interorbital area is 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 57 

deeply concave and without flat supraorbital areas. The serrations of the upper 
lateral ridge are coarse. The skin is rough to the touch, and the lateral line is armed 
with small, bony, stellate plates, which become larger posteriorly. 

We have no specimens of F. tabacaria, but from current descriptions it is 
difTerent from F. corneta. It seems always to have blue spots and to have few or no 
serrations on the upper lateral ridge. Tt has not been recorded from the Pacific. 

Family SYNGNATHIDyE. 

109. Siphostoma auliscus Swain. 

Two specimens, 122 and 88 mm. long, were taken in the Rio Grande, at 
Miraflores, near Panama. We have compared them with two small specimens of 
S. auliscus from Magdalena Bay, L. C., and find the only difference to be the more 
anterior anal opening in the smaller sjjecimen, in which it occupies the ring just 
anterior to dorsal. In the other specimens it is in the same ring with the front of 
dorsal. The Panama specimens are darker and more mottled. Each body ring has 
a broken vertical white streak, and on about every fifth ring is a faint dark streak. 

no. Hippocampus ingens Girard. 

Three specimens taken, 5, 8, and 10 cm. long. The smaller two, a male and a 
female, are rough with papillae, and have many dermal flaps. The largest one, a 
female, is almost perfectly destitute of these, though upon close examination with 
a lens very small, white papilhe are to be seen. 

Two specimens from Mazatlan in the collection of the Stanford University 
have been examined. One is smooth, the other covered with dermal flaps. 

Family ATHERINID^. 
III. Kirtlandia pachylepis (Gunther). 

This species and K. giWerti, referred to the genus Menidia by Jordan and 
Everraann (1896, pp. 798 and 801), the former afterwards transferred to the genus 
llnjrina by these authors (1898, p. 2840), belong to the genus Kvilandia . We 
have compared them with K. vagrnns, the type of the genus. Like the latter, they 
have crenate scales, which are, however, smooth, not " very rough to the touch," as 
described by Jordan and Evermann. Our specimens of K. vagrans and K. pnchj- 
lepis have no scales on the dorsal. The base of the anal has a row of rather long- 
scales. Both the dorsal and anal of K. gilberti are scaleless. 

Nine specimens of K. pachylepis were collected. They differ from Giinther's 
description only in the slightly longer head, and in a greater range of fin-rays. 

Head and depth 5 in length of body without caudal. Eye and snout about 
equal, 3^ in head. Angle of lower jaw slightly in advance of front of orbit. Inter- 



58 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



orbital space one-fourth or one-fifth wider than eye. Jaws with a band of villiforni 
teeth. Pectorals reaching nearly to tip of ventrals. Anal and soft dorsal conter- 
minous. Scales 41 to 43. About 27 scales on back in a series between occiput and 
spinous dorsal. Fins unmarked. Snout and a small area on top of head behind 
eye dusky. Back dusky, with small brown punctulations, which narrowly border 
each scale. Lateral streak dark above, shading downward into silvery, widest 
under the dorsals. A dark line on back from dorsal to occiput, composed of a single 
row of dark brown dots; more conspicuous in the smaller specimens. 

Measiirements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal, in mm... 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Snout 

Insertion of ventrals from snout... 

Length of anal base 

Length of pectoral 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Scales 



115 


99 


97 


99 


109 


100 


97 


97 


20| 


20i 


20 


20 


21 


20| 


20 


20I 


20| 


21 


20 


20^ 


20 


20J 


i9i 


204 


7 


6 


6.^ 


6 


6 


6* 


6 


6| 


6i 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


43 


41 


43 


41 


42 


42 


42 


42i 


24 


24i 


25i 


251 


24 


26i 


23i 


25i 


28i 


28 


27 


29 


274 


28 


27 


27 


v-i,8 


iv-1,7 


v-i,8 


iv-i,8 


v-i,7 


v-i,7 


IV-1,7 


v-i,7 


1,21 


1,22 


1,21 


1,21 


1,23 


1,23 


1,21 


1,21 


42 


43 


43 


42 


44 


42 


43 


41 



82 

20 

I9| 
6i 
6 

40^ 

25 

26J 

V-1,7 

1,21 

42 



1X2. 



Kirtlandia gilberti (Jordan l- Bollman). 



Of this species we obtained nine specimens, which we have examined in con- 
nection with thirteen co-types collected at Panama by the "Albatross." 

Only two of these have six dorsal spines, as described for the type; fifteen of 
them have 5; and five of them have 4. The origin of the first dorsal in the type is 
described as being at a point midway between the posterior margin of the head and 
the base of the caudal. We find that it varies from' this to a jwint half the diameter 
of the eye nearer to the occiput. The longest spine (probably owing to a slip of the 
pen) is alleged to be 4^ in the head. This should read 3| to 3i. The longest ray of. 
the soft dorsal exceeds the length of the snout by from one-fourth to one-half the 
diameter of the eye. The origin of the anal varies in position from a point midway 
between base of caudal and posterior base of pectoral (as described), to a point mid- 
way between base of caudal and middle of upper pectoral ray; the width at base is 
generally somewhat greater than "distance from tip of snout to base of pectorals." 
The scales are crenate, but smooth to the touch. The dorsal and anal are scaleless. 
The edges of the lateral band are well defined, and a much darker streak com- 
poses its upper edge. It is widest under the dor.sals, thence narrows on the caudal 
peduncle and widens at base of caudal fin. Its termination is rounded. 



GILBERT AND STARK8 — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



59 



Measurements in Hu7idredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without candal, in mm.... 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Origin of anal from caudal base. . 
Origin of first dorsal from caudal. 

Length of jsectoral 

Length of anal base 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of scales 



103 


105 


no 


103 


98 


103 


97 


93 


22 


21 


22 


20\ 


20\ 


21 


21 


21 


17 


17 


17 


17 


i7i 


17^ 


yi\ 


1 61 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5i 


6 


6 


6 


36 


37 


37 


38 


40 


38 


38 


38 


44 


43 


44 


43 


43 


45 


42i 


43 


19 


.8i 


18 


19 


18 


18 


19 


18 


19 


20,: 


20|^ 


21 


21 


20 


20 


21 


V 


IV 


V 


V 


IV 


V 


IV 


V 


1.9 


1,8 


1,9 


1,9 


1,8 


1,9 


1,9 


1,9 


1-19 


1,19 


1. 19 


1,21 


1,20 


1,20 


1,20 


1,19 


51 


49 


49 


50 


50 


50 


49 


50 



95 
20I 

17 
6 

38 
43 
l84 
20 
V 

1,9 
1,20 

51 





Fin Formults of 


the Co -Types. 








Dorsal 

Anal 


V 1-1,9 
1,22 


v-1,9 
1,20 


I v-1,9 
1,20 


vi-i,9 
1,22 


v-1,9 
1,22 


V- (broken) 
(broken) 


Dorsal 


v-( broken) 
1,20 


V-I,8 
1,20 


I v-1,9 
1,20 


v-1,9 
1,21 


v-1,9 
1,20 


v-1,9 
1,20 


v-1,9 
1,19 


Anal 



113. Atherinella panamensis Sieindachnei-. 

Plate IX, Fig. 17. 

A single specimen obtained, 13 cm. in entire length. 

We add the following details to Dr Steiudachner's excellent description: — 
Head 44 in length; depth 44. Eye 3| in head; snout 3|; interorbital width 2f. The 
enlarged outer teeth of the upper jaw are in two series only in front of jaw, in one 
series laterally. Pectoral 2| in length. The insertion of the ventrals is nearer the 
tip of the lower jaw than the base of the caudal by half the length of the head. 

Family MUGILID^. 
114. Mugil cephalus Linnaius. 

Taken by Gilbert at Panama in 1883 (Jordan, 1885, p. 371); not recorded 
by other observers. 

115. Mugil thoburni Jordan & Starts. 

Recorded (as Mugil iiicilis) from Panama (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 n, p. 624) 
and from Chiapum (Steindachner). The types of the species were collected bv the 
"Albatross" at the Galapagos Islands. 



GO 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



ii6. Mugil curema Cuvier <i- Valenciennes. 

This species comes into the Panama markets in abundance. We have com- 
pared six specimens with others from the Atlantic and can distinguish no differences 
between them. 





Measurements in Hundredths of Length 


icithoid 


Caudal. 






Locality 


Panama. 


Jamaica. 


/ 


'>j/ West. 


Length without 
























caudal, ex- 
pressed in mm. 


205 


212 


240 


250 


192 


190 


201 


231 


145 


118 


230 


Head 


27 


26 


26^- 


26 


26 


26 


26 


2b\ 


26 


27 






24 


Depth 


25 


24 


26 


22 


25 


25 


26 


26 


27 


27 


26 


Interorbital(bone 
























only) 


9 


9^ 


ID 


9 


9 


9i 


ID 


ID 


9i 


9 


9 


Insertion of ven- 
tral spine from 
snout 


40 


38 


40 


39 


40 


40 


40 


39i 


39i 


39 


38 


Front of spinous 
dorsal from 
























snout 


49i 


49i 


52 


48i 


50j 


51 


49i 


52 


50^ 


51 


50 


Tip of pectoral 
from snout 


46i 


44 


45 


44i 


45i 


47 


45i 


45 


45 .V 


47i 


43^ 


Length of pec- 
toral 


i9i 


i8i 


i8i 


i8i 


1 81 


20 


19 


i8i 


i9?T 


21 


19 


Length of anteri- 
























or dorsal rays 


III 


loV 


II J 


Hi 


I2i 


12 


12 


12 


I2i 


i3i 


II 


Length of anteri- 
























or anal rays... 


I2i 


12 


12 


12 


12 


I2i 


12]- 


12 


13 


14 


12 


Number of dor- 


' 






















sal spines and 
rays 


i\-i,S 


iv-i,7 


iv-i,8 


iv-i,S 


iv-i,8 


iv-i,8 


iv-i,S 


iv-i,8 


iv-i,8 


iv-i,8 


IV-I,8 


Number of anal 
























spines and rays 


111,9 


111,9 


111,9 


111,9 


111,9 


111,9 


111,9 


111,9 


111,9 


111,9 


in, 9 


Scales from above 
upper pectoral 
ray 


38 


37 


37 


38 


37 


37 


37 


36 


36 


37 


37 



117. Mugil hospes Jordan cC- Culver. 

Abundant at Panama. It is at once separated from AI. curema by the longer 
pectoral. We found the small crustacean nearly always present in the mouth of 
the Panama specimens, as it was in the type and co-types from Mazatlan. 



GILBERT AND STAliKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



61 



Measurements in Hu7idredths of Length without Caudal. 



Locality . 



Length without caudal, in mm. 

Head (without opercular flap) 

Depth 

I nterorbital ( bone) 

Insertion of ventral spine from 
snout 

Front of spinous dorsal from 
snout 

Tip of pectoral from snout 

Length of pectoral 

Length of anterior dorsal rays.. 

Length of anterior anal rays... 

Number of dorsal rays and 
spines 

Number of anal rays and spines 

Scales 



Panama. 



28 
26 
II 

41 

5I-V 
52i 
23i 
12 



I2i 



iv-i,8 

111,9 

37 



193 
28 
27 

lOi 

42 

53?i 

53i 

25i 

13 

13 

iv-i,8 

111,9 

37 



2b\ 

23i 
io\ 

39i 

51 
51 
23 



i2i 



iv-i,8 

111,9 

38 



27 

24i 
10 

41 

5ii 
5ii 
24 

I2i 
13 

iv-i,8 

111,9 

36 



230 



22^ 



39i 

5ii 
5ii 
24 

I2i 

iv-i,8 

111,9 

37 



190 
27 
24 
io| 

40.1- 

52 
52i 

25 

I2i 
13 

iv-i,8 

111,9 

38 



217 
26J 

245 

ID 



41 

51 
52i 

24 

12^ 
13 

iv-i,8 

111,9 

36 



219 
27 
23 
10 

4oi 

51 

52i 

23i 
12 

13 

iv-i,£ 

111,9 

36 



Mazatlan 

(Type.) 



170 
28 

23 
10 

39i 

50 

50^ 

23 

i2i 

i3i 



iv-i,8 
111,9 
38 



118. Chaenomugil proboscideus {Gunther). 

Probably not so common as farther north. Two large specimens and several 
small ones were collected, the latter found in rock-pools, in company with Querima^ia 
harengiis. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length ivithout Caudal. 



Length in mm. 
Head 



Depth . 
Eye.... 



Insertion of first spine of spinous dorsal from snout 
Insertion of first spine of soft dorsal from snout..:.. 

Insertion of anal spine from snout 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Number of dorsal rays and spines 

Number of anal rays and spines 

Scales 



191 
26 

29 
6 

56 

78 

75 

23 

15 
iv-i,8 
in, 10 

39 



154 


76 


56 


27 i 


28 


29 


31 


34 


32 


b\ 


7i 


8 


56 


56 


57 


78 


78 


77 


75 


70 


73 


23 


25 


25 


16 


18 


18 


iv-i,8 


iv-i,S 


IV-I,8 


111,10 


111,10 


111,10 


41 


40 


40 



48 

30 



55 

78 

72 

26 

18 
iv-i,8 
111,10 

40 



(9) 



November 12, 1903. 



62 



CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



119. Querimana harengus (Gunthar). 

This little mullet was taken in abundance in the rock-pools. There is con- 
siderable variation among the specimens, as the table of measurements will show. 
Nothing can be found, however, that would indicate more than one species among 
them. Out of fifty specimens examined, four were found with three anal spines. 
In each of these cases, a spine had replaced a ray, as only nine rays were present 
instead of the ten always found in two-spined examples. 

Mcasureme7its in Hundredths of Length ivithout Caudal. 



Length in mm. , without caudal. . . 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

First dorsal from snout 

Second dorsal from snout 

Insertion of ventral spine from 
snout 

Anal from snout 

Length of pectoral 

Length of anal base 

Spines and rays of dorsals 

Spines and rays of anal 

Scales 



1 

47 


40 


45 


43 


45 


45 


41 


44 


30 


32J 


32 


31 


31 


29 


28 


32 


28 


30 


29 


30 


29 


26 


26 


27 


7 


8 


8 


7 


1\ 


8 


7l 


8 


53 


55 


55 


53 


53 


51 


51 


53 


75 


76 


75 


76 


76 


74 


72 


74 


44 


46 


44 


44 


44 


41 


42 


46 


; 70 


73 


73 


71 


71 


68 


70 


71 


21 


21 


21 


20i 


20^ 


20 


19 


19 


16 


i4i 


15 


15 


16 


15 


16 


15 


iv-i, 8 


iv-i,9 


IV-I,8 


iv-i, 8 


IV-I, 8 


IV-I, 8 


iv-i,8 


IV-I, 8 


11, 10 


II, 10 


II, 10 


11,9 


11,9 


II, 10 


II, ID 


II, 10 


36 


36 


38 


37 


36 


38 


38 


37 



41 
28 
26 

8 
51 
72 

42 
69 

19 
15 

IV-I, 8 

11, 10 

37 



Family SPHYR^NID^. 

120. Sphyraena ensis Jordan & Gilbert. 

Not uncommon in the market at Panama, where nine sj^ecimens were collected. 
These agree very well with the description given by Dr. Steindachner (1879&, p. 4) 
under the name 8. forsteri, he having confused it with that East Indian species. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



63 



Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length in mm., from tip of snout to base of 
caudal 



Head from tip of snout. 
Depth 



Orbit 

Insertion ventral spine from tip of snout. 

Spinous dorsal from snout 

Soft dorsal from snout 

Length of pectoral 

Longest dorsal ray 

Longest anal ray 

Number of dorsal rays and spines 

Number of anal rays and spines 

Number of scales 



293 


298 


305 


359 


310 


290 


32 


3ii 


311 


io\ 


3ii 


32 


i4i 


13 


13 


i3i 


131 


14 


5i 


5i 


5 


5 


5i 


5?.- 


41 


40 


40.1 


391 


40I 


42 


43 i 


43 


431 


43 


44 


44 


72 V 


7oi 


69i 


70 


71I 


70', 


13 


13 


12^ 


13 


I2i 


13 


II 


Hi 


"i 


Hi 


II 


Hi 


10^ 


io>. 


10 


io\ 


10,^ 


lOi 


V-I,8 


v-i,9 


v-i,9 


v-i,6 


v-1,9 


v-i,9 


li>7 


11,8 


11,8 


11,8 


11,8 


11,8 


108 


III 


109 


108 


109 


112 



290 

31 

131 
5f 
41 
44 
7oi 
13 

Hi 
lOi 

v-i,9 
II, 8 
110 



Family POLYNEMID^. 
121. Polydactylus approximans {TAty & Bennett). 

Common but much less abundant than P. opercularis, and much less valuable 
than the latter as a food-fish. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length in mm. 

Head 

Depth 

Maxillary 



Spinous dorsal from snout 

Distance from front of spinous dorsal to soft dorsal.. 

Length of pectoral 

Longest detached ray 

Longest dorsal spine 

Longest dorsal ray 

Dorsal 

Anal 

Scales 



217 


193 


191 


206 


31 


32 


32 


32 


29 


29 


30 


28 


14 


i4i 


14 


Hi 


37 


39 


39 


39 


27 


28 


30 


27 


28 


28 


29 


31 


41 


42 


45 


45 


22 


22 


Broken 


24 


21 


19 


21 


22 


viii-1,12 


VIII-1,12 


VIII-1,12 


VIII-1,12 


111,14 


III, 14 


111,13 


111,13 


60 


61 


60 


61 



205 
32 
29 
14 

39 
27 
28 

39 
22 
20 

VIII-1,12 

111,14 

62 



64 



CAtll'ORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



122. Polydactylus opercularis (Gill). 

Taken with hook and line in great abundance. It is eagerly sought after by 
the native jwpulation, by whom it is highly prized. It is one of the most important 
food-fishes, and on some days equals or exceeds in numbers all others combined. 

The type is described as having only eight free pectoral rays, but that was 
doubtless based on erroneous observation. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length ivithont Caudal. 



Length in mm. 

Head 

Depth 



Maxillary . 



Spinous dorsal from snout. 



Distance from front of spinous dorsal to 
soft dorsal 

Length of pectoral 

Longest detached ray 

Longest dorsal spine 

Longest dorsal ray 

Dorsal 

Anal 

Scales 



280 


280 


290 


242 


205 


31 


29i 


30i 


30 


30 


25 


24 


25 


25 


25i 


18 


17^ 


i7i 


17 


i7i 


36 


36 


35 


35i 


35 


25 


26 


28 


28 


26^ 


21 


20 


21 


20 1- 


22 


31 


31 i 


32 


33i 


32 


20 


20 


i9i 


20 


20j- 


i8 


^1\ 


18 


18 


18 


viii-1,12 


vin-i,i2 


VIII-1,12 


VIII-1,12 


VIII-1,12 


111,13 


ni,i3 


HI, 13 


111,13 


111,13 


66 


69 


68 


70 


68 



178 
30 
27 

i7i 
34i 

26i 
22 

35 
20 

i7i 
VIII-1,12 

111,13 
69 



Family HOLOCENTEIDtE. 



123. Myripristis occidentalis Gill. 

Two specimens were taken among the islands in the bay. The species differ 
from M. ffAcilofxis, more than has been previously indicated. The teeth are much 
larger, and the vomerine patch is lance-shaped rather than anchor-shaped. The 
anterior rays of the dorsal and anal are longer, making these fins more angulated 
and their posterior margins more nearly vertical. Scales thirty-nine or forty in the 
lateral line, somewhat smaller than indicated in the type description. 

The color of the back is of a clearer reddish brown, less slaty than in 
M. p(milopns, and with bluish reflections on each scale. The silver begins on the 
row of scales below the lateral line rather than above, and is richer in coppery and 
greenish reflections. The dorsal is lighter, and there are no dusky bands at base of 
caudal and below the lateral line, as in M. j^'^cilojms. The ventrals have lighter or 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



65 



colorless tips. In one specimen the ventrals are immaculate, in the other a slightly 
dusky tinge is present. The three specimens of M. puecilopus have the tii^s of the 
ventrals darker, running from dusky to black. There is a dark pigment spot above 
pupil in M. occidentalis, which is absent or very slightly dusky in M. pcecilopus. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length -without Caudal. 



Length without caudal in mm... 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Snout 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Height of soft dorsal 

Height of anal 

Length of caudal 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Scales 



45 
35 
37 
15 



1\ 



22 
22 

i8 
i8 

24 
x-i, 14 

IV, 12 
3-40-7 



46 

35 
36 
15 
7i- 
24 
23 
16 
16 

24 
x-i, 14 

IV, 12 

3-39-7 



124. Myripristis pcecilopus (Gill). 

Three specimens taken. 

Very small villiform teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines; the palatine patches 
very long and narrow, the vomerine patch anchor-shaped, its length about three 
times its width across lateral arms. The median backwardly extending limb is 
narrow and pointed. 

Color of back slaty brown, passing into bright, iridescent silvery at the 
upper part of the band of scales which bears the lateral line. Upper end of opercle 
with bluish reflections. Directly below the lateral line is a narrow, straight, dusky 
streak, commencing three or four scales from gill-opening and ending a little behind 
tip of pectoral. Tips of ventrals varying from slightly dusky to black. Base of 
caudal with a dusky band. Spinous dorsal dark or nearly black. Other fins 
colorless. 



66 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Measiireme7its in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal in mm. 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Snout 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventrals 

Height of soft dorsal 

Height of anal 

Length of caudal 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Scales 



50 


44 


34 


35i 


35 


33 


14 


15 


7i 


8 


20 


21 


20 


20 


15 


15 


15 


15 


22 


23 


x-1,14 


x-i, 14 


IV, 12 


IV, 12 


3-35-7 


3-35-7 



45 
35 
35 
15 
8 
21 
21 

15 
16 

23 
x-i, 14 
IV, 12 
3-34-7 



125. Holocentrus suborbitalis Gill. 
Taken in abundance in the rock-pools. Our .specinaens do not materially 
differ from the description of the type. The statement that "the tail behind the 
vertical fins nearly equals a ninth of the total length" should doubtless read "the 
height of the caudal peduncle behind the vertical fins nearly equals a ninth of the 
total length." The length of the tail behind the vertical fins is about 3^ in the total 



length. 



Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal.'^ 



Length without caudal in mm. 

Head 

Depth 

Orbit 

Maxillary 

Preopercular spine 

Third anal spine 

Third dorsal spine 

Base of soft dorsal 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Dorsal 

Anal 

Scales 



153 


145 


150 


112 


32 


32 


32 


32 


37 


37 


38 


38 


II 


12 


"i 


12 


13 


13 


12^- 


13 


8i 


8^- 


8 


7 


19 


17 


i9i- 


21 


17 


17 


i8,t 


19 


i3i 


Hi 


14 


n\ 


22 


23 


24 


25 


21 


22 


24 


24 


XI-13 


X1-14 


XI-14 


X1-14 


IV, 9 


IV, 9 


IV, 9 


IV, 9 


39 


38 


38 


38 



I ID 
31 

37 
12 

13 

6i 
20 

i7i 
14 
25 
24 
X1-14 
IV, 9 
37 



65 
35 
39 
14 
15 

5i 
22 
20 

141 
27 
26 
X1-14 
IV, 9 
37 



68 

34i 
38 
14 
i4i 
7 
22 

19 
i4i 
27 
25 
X1-14 
IV, 9 
37 



^ In this table, the head is measured to the angle formed by largest opercular spine and edge of subopercle. The preopercular 
8pine is measured along its upper edge from its angle with preopercle. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



G7 



Family MULLID^. 
126. Upeneus grandisquamis Gill. 

Several specimens collected in the Panama market. This large series enables 
us to add the following range of variations to the original description: 

Head 83^ to 3i in length without caudal; depth 3 to 3?. Eye 41 to 5 in 
head; snout 2 to 2^. The fin counts in our eleven specimens are constantly 
VIII-I, 8 for the dorsal, and I, for the anal. The third dorsal spine is longer 
than the fourth, but does not project beyond it. Sometimes it does not reach its tip. 

Dr. Gill's measurement of the length of the sj)inous dorsal fin includes the 
'membrane which connects the last spine to the body. As most specimens have this 
membrane broken, we have considered the base of the fin to extend to the base of the 
last spine. The base of the first dorsal equals or sometimes slightly exceeds the 
interval between the dorsals, the latter equaling or sometimes slightly exceeding the 
base of the second dorsal. The interval between the dorsals contains 4 scales along 
the median line. 

The following color description was taken from a fresh specimen : Red above, 
silvery below; 2 silvery streaks along the sides anteriorly, follow the rows of 
scales above and below the latei'al line, and are continued forward on the head to a 
point behind the eye. Other silvery streaks follow the rows of scales, but are much 
less conspicuous. Dorsal and caudal deep orange-red with wide translucent margins. 
A/easuremenis in Hundredths of Le7igth without Caudal. 



Length without caudal, in mm.. 

Head 

Depth 

Snout 

Eye 

Length of 3d dorsal spine 

Length of pectoral 

Height of second dorsal 

Spinous dorsal from snout 

Front of first dorsal to front 
of second dorsal 

Number of gill-rakers 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Scales 



160 


154 


145 


142 


32 


30 


31 


29i 


32 


29 


29 


29 


15 


14 


14 


14 


7 


6i 


7 


6i 


21 


21 


20 


i9i 


25 


23i 


25 


23 


12 


I2i 


13 


13 


40 


381 


39 


38 


29 


30 


28 


29 


6+1 1 


6+1 1 


6+ 1 1 


6+12 


viii-1,8 


viii-1,8 


VIII-1,8 


vni-1,8 


1,6 


1,6 


1,6 


1,6 


2-30-5 


2-30-5 


2-31-5 


2-31-5 



121 

30 

30 
14 

19 

24 

■ 13 

38 

28i 
6+II 
vii 1-1,8 

1,6 
2-30-5 



68 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Family SCOMBRID^. 

127. Sarda chilensis Guvier <t Valenciennes. 

Abundant in the market for two or three days, but not again seen. We 
preserved one S23ecimen, 46 cm. in lengtli. 

Eighteen gill-rakers are attributed to the horizontal limb of the anterior 
branchial arch by Jordan & Evermann, 1896, p. 872. They also describe the maxil- 
lary as not reaching the eye. In our specimen there are but nine gill-rakers including 
one rudiment; and the maxillary extends to below the posterior border of the eye. 

128. Scomberomorus sierra Jordan & Starks. 

This species is brought into the market daily, and is one of the most important 
food fishes. We ])reserved six specimens. 

If it is distinct from its East Coast relative, S. maculatus, it is separated by 
only slight characters, and a large series from both shores will have to be compared 
accurately to define the species. The chief character that has been alleged to sep- 
arate the two is the more backward position of the dorsal in 8. sierra. Our 
material shows this character to be valueless. 

We have but three specimens of S. maculatus. From these, 8. sierra seems to 
differ in being a little more slender, and in having the spots rounder and more 
numerous below the lateral line. As the appended table indicates, the size of the 
head and eye may average smaller, the number of dorsal rays less, and the number 
of gill-rakers moi'e. 8. sierra has 3 or 4 rows of spots below the lateral line, while 
8. maculatus has but two, or at the most, the beginning of a third. 

We do not admit to our list 8. concolor, recorded without comment from the 
Gulf of Panama, by Boulenger, 1899, p. 3. Aside from this record, 8. concolor has 
been known only from Monterey Bay, California. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



69 



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November 13, 1903. 



70 CALIFOBNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Family TEICHIURID^. 

129. Trichiurus lepturus Linnaus. 
Recorded from Panama by Jordan and Bollman, 1889, p. 180. 

Family NEMATISTIIDiE. 

130. Nematistius pectoralis Gill. 

Probably rare as far south as Panama; only three or four seen. 

The following measurements are from a specimen 30 cm. in length. 

Head 3| in length; depth 31. Eye 5 in head; snout 3^5; maxillary 2^; 
interorbital (bone) 3|. Dorsal VIII-I, 20; anal T, 16. Gill-rakers 3 + 9, the 
longest two-thirds the diameter of the eye. 

Family CAEANGID^. 

131. Oligoplites saurus [Block X- Schneider). 

Not uncommon in the market, though much less abundant than 0. mundus. 

The top of head and nape are smooth and without conspicuous pores in smirus 
and there is no membrane connecting the anterior bninchiostegal rays of the two 
sides. Our material shows that no reliable character can be drawn from the com- 
parative size of the lowest suborbital bone and the next above. In saurus the lowest 
suborbital seems constantly narrower than the one above it, but they vary greatly in 
size, sometimes differing on opposite sides of the same specimen. Larger specimens 
have proportionately deeper bodies, so this character also must be used with caution. 

We have compared our material with specimens from the Atlantic, and can 
appreciate no difference whatever. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



71 














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72 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

132. Oligoplites altus (Gunther). 

Plate XI, Fig. 20. 

One specimen taken in the Panama market. 

Head 4J in length without caudal; depth 3^. Eye 4|- in head; snout 3f; maxillary i|. The 
interorbital width equals the diameter of the eye. Dorsal V-I, 19; anal II-I, 20. 

Body moderately deep, as in specimens of O. sauries of equal size; contour very slightly 
angulated at front of soft dorsal and anal. Mouth large, the maxillary reaching slightly past 
eye. The bands of teeth on jaws are wider than in either O. saurus or O. mundus, and differ from 
them in having the outer row of the lower jaw composed of slender movable teeth which are more or 
less in contact and project above the other teeth. They are bluntly rounded as viewed from the side, 
but are laterally compressed to a sharp cutting edge. The width of the mandibular band of teeth 
anteriorly is about a fourth of the diameter of the eye or one-fourth wider than maxillary near the 
posterior end. The premaxillary band is somewhat narrower. The patch of vomerine teeth is 
rounded in front and acutely pointed behind; its length about half the diameter of the eye, its width 
about two-thirds of its length. The palatine patches are about half as wide as the vomerine patch. 
Gill-rakers moderately slender, their length about two-thirds eye. Top of head and nape with pores, 
as in O. mundus. Anterior branch iostegal rays connected across isthmus by a thin transparent 
membrane. 

The anterior rays of dorsal are a little longer than those of anal. The last rays of dorsal 
and anal are produced; those of anal a little longer, barely reaching to the short anterior caudal 
rays. Pectoral about if in head; its tip reaching slightly past tips of ventrals. Origin of ventrals 
nearer front of anal (behind detached spines) than tip of lower jaw by about half eye. Caudal lobes 
subequal. 

Color not unlike O. mundus. Back slaty-brownish, lower parts and sides silvery. Top of 
head to tip of snout dark; tip of mandible black. Pectoral fin dusky on inner face, growing darker 
or black at base. Dorsal and caudal dusky, median rays of caudal darker at tips. Ventral and anal 
white. 

This species differs from 0. mundus in having a smaller mouth, a more slender 
body, and in the character of the teeth in the lower jaw. Dr. G. A. Boulenger has 
kindly re-examined for us the type of 0. alius in the British Museum, and informs 
us that the top of the head is densely beset with pores, and the anterior branchioste- 
gal rays of the tvyo sides are joined by membrane. There can be no question, there- 
fore, as to the correct identification of our specimen. 



GILBERT AND STARES — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 

Measurements in Himdredths of Length ivithout Caudal. 



73 



Length without caudal in inm 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Maxillary 

Snout to posterior margin of eye 

Snout to soft dorsal 

Snout to first anal ray 

Length of pectoral 

Length of caudal 

Longest dorsal ray 

Longest anal ray 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of gill-rakers 



225 

23 

30 

5 

14 
III 

49 
50 
16 
27 

iH 

io| 

v-1,19 

11-1,20 

4-I-10 



133. Oligoplites refulgens sp. nov. 

Plate XI, Fig. 19. 

Head 4f in body without caudal; depth 4*. . Eye 4^ in head; maxillary 2[; snout z\- Inter- 
orbital width little exceeding diameter of eye. Dorsal V-I, 20; anal II-I, 19. 

Body more elongate than in other members of the genus; the ventral and dorsal outlines 
similar and symmetrical, without angles at origin of dorsal and anal fins. 

Head pointed; its greatest width 2\ in its length; its depth at point of occipital crest a little 
anterior to edge of opercle, i^ in its length. Mouth comparatively small; its outline curved upward 
anteriorly and downward posteriorly; lower jaw slightly the longer; maxillary scarcely reaching to 
below middle of eye. Teeth on jaws in narrow bands which are scarcely as wide as exposed portion 
of maxillary anteriorly. Bands on vomer and palatines wide, that on vomer about if as long as it 
is wide, its greatest width in its anterior third or fourth; palatine bands at least twice as wide as those 
on jaws. Tongue with minutely granular patches. 

Head entirely scaleless. Scales on body about as in the most conspicuously scaled examples 
of O. saurus. Top of head and nape smooth as in O. saurus, without the conspicuous pores of 
O. viuyidus and O. alius. 

Insertion of ventrals about midway between base of first anal spine and the vertical from 
anterior orbital rim; their tips reaching over half way to .second anal spine. Pectoral extending to 
tips of ventrals. Longest anterior dorsal ray a little longer than longest anal ray. Last ray of dorsal 
and anal elongate, that of the anal the longer, reaching rudimentary caudal rays. Caudal rather 
short, the lobes equal; its longest ray i-^ in head. 

Sides bright silvery; top of head and snout nearly black; extreme tip of lower jaw black. 
Two very dark brown or blackish bands run parallel along the back and upper part of sides; the 



74 



CALirOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



lower sharply defined below by the silvery of the sides, passing gradually above into dusky silvery. 
The upper band is uniform in color and joins its fellow of the opposite side, forming a well defined 
median band on back as viewed from above. Dorsal spines and anterior part of soft dorsal blackish; 
anal slightly dusky anteriorly, its spines «'hite. Ventrals white; pectoral dusky on inner face, growing 
darker towards base. Upper and lower edges of caudal dusky ; the upper the darker. 

A single specimen, 22 cm. in entire length, was taken in the Panama market. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length -cvithoiil Cauda/. 



Length without caudal 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Maxillary 

Snout to posterior edge of eye 

Snout to soft dorsal 

Snout to anal 

Length of pectoral 

Length of caudal 

Length of longest anterior dorsal ray 

Length of longest anterior anal ray 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of srill-rakers 



203 



24 



22 

5 

9i 
II 

49 
51 

I2i 

18 

St 



7 
v-i, 20 
11-1,19 
6+17 



134. Oligoplites mundus Jordan & Starks. 



In the Panama market this species is more abundant than any other of the 



genus. 



0. mundus resembles 0. alius, and differs from that division of the genus to 
which 0. saurus and 0. refulgens belong in having the top of its head and nape 
closely covered with pores, which open into short canals ramifying beneath the skin. 
In a large sjiecimen from Mazatlan, about 16 inches in length, these pores and 
canals are very conspicuous and extend posteriorly in a patch on side of back to a 
point above the anterior third of the pectoral fin. 0. mundus and 0. alius have also 
the anterior branchiostegals connected across the isthmus by a thin, but tough trans- 
parent membrane. The bands of teeth on the jaws are wider, the body is deeper, 
and the caudal is longer. 



GILBERT AND 

Measjirements in 

Locality 

Length without caLuial in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Eye •. 

Maxillary 

Tip of snout to posterior edge of eye.... 

Tip of snout to soft dorsal 

Tip of snout to anal 

Length of pectoral 

Length of caudal 

Height of dorsal 

Height of anal 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of gill-rakers above angle 

Number of gill-rakers below angle 



STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



Hundredths of Length toithout Caudal. 



75 







Pa7iama 




Algodones 

Lagoon, 

Mex. 


Masai- 
Ian, 
Mex. 


198 


210 


205 


208 


174 


209 


151 


385 


25 


25i 


26i 


26 


26 


26 


251 


24|. 


35 


34 


36 


35 


361 


34 


33 


35 


5 


51 


51 


5 


5i 


5 


5i 


4 


'7i 


lyi 


171 


18 


18 


171 


17 


16 


14 


III 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


10^ 


51 


52i 


53 


53 


53 


52 


51 


51 


52 


53 


54i 


55 


55 


52i 


52 


51 


i6i 


i7i 


17 


161 


i6i 


i7i 


16 


16 


25 


27 


28 


26i 


27 


27 


251 


241 


15^ 


16 


16 


16 


15 


16 


15 


14 


15 


15 


15 


14 


14 


15 


14 


i3i 


iv-i, 19 


iv-i, 20 


IV-I, 20 


v-1,19 


IV-I, 18 


V-I,20 


IV-I, 19 


V-I,20 


n-1,19 


11-1,20 


11-1,19 


ii-i, 19 


11-1,18 


11-1,20 


11-1,19 


11-1,20 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4 


10 


II 


10 


10 


9 


10 


10 


10 



135. Trachurops crumeDopthalmus {Block). 

Occasionally brought to market, where numerous specimens were collected. 
It was also observed at Acapulco. We are unable to find any differences between 
specimens from the Atlantic and the Pacific. 

The head varies from ?>^ to 3y in length; the depth from 3] to 3|; the pec- 
toral from Sj- to 3|. Orbit 2| to 3g- in head; maxillary 2| to 2\; ventral 2 to 2\. 
Plates and scales along the entire lateral line vary from 86 to 91. 



136. Hemicaranx atrimanus {Jordan ct Gilbert). 

Of frequent occurrence in the Panama market, where it appeared sometimes 
in considerable numbers. 

As the original description was taken from a single specimen, we append the 
following notes giving a wider range of variation. 

Head 3f^ to 4] in length; depth 2.^ to 2|; length of pectoral 24 to 2J; chord 
of curve of lateral line 3^ to 4; straight part of lateral Hue 1|^ to 2. Orbit 3g to 4^ 



76 GALIPOKNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 

in head; maxillary 3]- to 3f ; ventrals li to 2J-; highest dorsal spine 3 to 3|; second 
dorsal ray 1| to 2. Length 23 to 36 cm. 

The following color description was taken from a fresh specimen: Back deep 
blue, with faint traces of cross-bars. Snout and opercles dusky. Cheeks dusky 
yellow, with coarse brown specks. Lower part of sides silvery, with some dusky 
shading and without yellow. Caudals and pectorals light lemon-yellow, the caudal 
narrowly edged with black. Pectorals with a jet-black blotch involving base and 
axil of fin and basal portion of all except the lowest rays. Dorsal, anal and ventrals 
orange-yellow, more or less dusky; dorsal inconspicuously margined with black. 

137. Hemicaranx zelotes Gilbert. 

Plate XII, Fig. 22. 

Hemicaranx zclotcs Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2845). 

Closely related to atrhnanus, with which it agrees in having a large jet-black area 
on axil and base of pectorals. It differs from atrimanus in the following characters: 
The more rounded profile of snout; the lower spinous dorsal; the longer maxillary; 
the higher, shorter curve in the lateral line; the wider scutes, which are also fewer 
in number; the darker coloration of body and fins. 

Head 4 to 4| in length; depth, 2f to 2|; D. VII-I, 26 to 29; A. II-I, 23 to 25; P. 20 to 22. 
Scutes 51 to 53 (over 60 in atrhnanus). 

Body regularly elliptical, its greatest depth about in the middle of its length, exclusive of 
caudal peduncle. Head small; anterior profile more decurved, the snout hence blunter than in 
atrimanus; depth of head just behind eye about five-sixths its length. Jaws subequal, the tip of the lower 
slightly projecting; maxillary narrow, not quite reaching anterior margin of pupil, about 3 J in head 
(3j^ in atrimanus). A single series of small, close-set subequal teeth in each jaw; no teeth on vomer, 
palatines, or tongue. Orbit considerably greater than snout, 3J to 3:* in head. Interorbital width 
(taken at anterior margin of orbit) slightly less than orbit. Occiput with an evident carina. Distance 
from snout to first dorsal spine greater than length of pectorals. 

Spinous dorsal very low, the highest spine considerably less than orbit (greater than orbit in 
atrimanus). A well developed antrorse spine before the dorsal. Soft dorsal and anal similar, not 
falcate; the rays decreasing in size from the first; the highest ray of the soft dorsal 2 to 2I in head; 
the highest ray of the anal about 2 J in head. Dorsal and anal depressible into a sheath of scales, the 
last 3 or 4 rays uncovered. Caudal fin wide, well forked, the upper lobe the longer, the longest ray 
not quite one-fourth total length of body. Pectoral fin long, falcate, but much shorter than in atri- 
manus, T,\ to 3f in body (2| to 2* in atrimamcs). Ventrals 2| to 2f in head. Scales as in atrimanus. 

Lateral line with a very strong curve anteriorly, the height of the curve 2| to 3J in its length; 
its length 2 J to 2|- in the straight portion. The entire length of the straight portion is furnished with 
scutes, which are very small in front and behind. The scutes are considerably wider and lower than 
in atrimanus: the widest about one-half the diameter of orbit (about one-third diameter of orbit in 
atrimanus) . 

Coloration much as in atrimanus, but darker and the fins without yellow. Blackish olive above, 
dusky silvery below, top of head and snout black. Spinous dorsal black; soft dorsal and anal black, 
except a narrow light streak at base. Caudal dark, margined with black; pectorals very dark, black 
on inner face, the extreme lower rays light. A large jet-black blotch covers the base of the pectorals 
and extends for about one-fifth of the whole length of the fin; the a.xil is also black. 

Four specimens were obtained in the market at Panama; none others were seen. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



77 



138. Hemicaranx furthii {Steindachner) . 
Only the types known, from Panama. Probably not distinct from H. leucurus. 

139. Hemicaranx leucurus (Gmither). 
Only the type known, from Panama. 

140. Caranx vinctus Jordan <t Gilbert. 

But few specimens were seen, four of these preserved. They agree well with 
the description of the type. The measurement of the eye in the original description 
is evidently of the entire orbit. Between the adipose eyelids, the eye is 5 to 5^ in 
head. 

141. Caranx hippos (Linnceus). 

We have compared seven specimens from Panama and Mazatlan with five 
specimens from Jamaica and Cuba. The Pacific examples seem to differ slightly in 
having an average larger number of gill-rakers and more plates in the straight 
part of the lateral line. In five of the seven Pacific specimens, the ventrals end con- 
siderably in advance of the vent; in one specimen they reach the vent, and in one 
they extend beyond it. The Atlantic specimens all have the ventrals reaching to or 
a little past the vent. The Panama specimens are all a little more slender than the 
Atlantic or Mazatlan specimens. It is not probable that these differences have any 
importance for classification. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Lc7igth without Caudal. 



Locality 

Length in mm. without caudal 

Depth at base of ventrals 

Distance from base of ventrals to 
1st detached anal spine 

Distance from vent to base of ven- 
tral fins 





Panama 




Mazatlan, 

Mex. 




Jamaica 




252 


204 


260 


261 


254 


185 


177 


200 


200 


193 


172 


32 


34 


30i 


32i- 


31 


364 


36 


35i 


36 


36 


35 


20J 


2ii 


2li 


22 


21 


24 


19 


20^ 


21 


20J 


20 


I4i 


i6i 


16 


i6l_ 


15 


15 


14 


14 


141 


14 


i3i 






228 

38 

20J 

I3A 



(U) 



< 




< 


< 


< 


a 




re 


ft 


W (Tl 


3 




3 


3 


,— 3 




T 
















» 




•» 


fo 


CI. » 
















ifi 


U) 




•-I 




n> 


n 


^ 3 


m 









M n 





n. 


a. 


< 




V 




JU 


n 


< ^ 


3 




n" 


t 

s 


IT) rT 

SO 
• 

November U, 1903 



78 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Table of gill-rakers and plates of straight part of lateral line. 



Locality 


Panama 


Mas 


jtlan 




famaica 













*Gill-rakers 


16 + 2 
39 


16 + 2 
42 


16+1 

41 


16 + 2 
37 


15 + 2 
38 


16 + 1 
39 


16 + 1 
38 


14 + 2 
33 


15 + 2 
35 


14 + 2 
36 


15 + 2 
32 


14 + 2 


Plates 


36 







142. Caranx caballus {Gmitliar). 

Frequently appearing in considerable numbers; seven specimens preserved. 
These, in addition to three specimens from Mazatlan, have been compared with four 
specimens of G. crysos from the Atlantic (two from Jamaica; one from Woods Hole, 
Mass.; one from Florida). 

C. cahallus seems to be more slender, the depth varying from 3] to 3| (3 to 
3| in C. crysos). The former has two or three of the plates on the caudal peduncle 
lengthened antero-posteriorly. Counting from a point opposite the base of tlie last 
dorsal ray to opposite the beginning of the short outer rays of the caudal, they num- 
ber four or five in C. cahallus, and seven or eight in C. crysos. 

The two species do not differ in length of the pectoral or in the number of 
plates in the straight part of the lateral line, as has been alleged. In both, the 
pectoral varies from 2| to 3|- in the length, and the plates from 47 to 50. 



143. Caranx marginatus Gill. 

Common in the Panama market. We supplement the description given by 
Jordan and Evermann (1896, p. 922) as follows: 

Head from 3i to 3{ in length; depth 2'\- to 3. Dorsal in four specimens 
VHI-I, 21; in two specimens VIII-I, 20. Anal in four specimens II-I, 16; in two 
specimens II-I, 17. Eye (iris) 4 to 4|- in head; maxillary 3 to 35, reaching to below 
posterior border of pupil. The gill-rakers number 4 or 5 + 14 or 15. Pectoral 2f 
to 3 in body. Arch of lateral line 1| to If in its straight portion. Plates in straight 
part of lateral line in two specimens 30, in three specimens 31, in one specimen 32. 

We have specimens in the collection of Stanford University from Mazatlan, 
Socorro Island and the Galapagos Islands, which agree with our Panama specimens 
in all respects. 

Doubtless all of the records of the occurrence of G. latus in the Pacific are 
referable to either G. marginatus or G. medusicola. G. marginatus differs from G. 
medusicola and G. latus in having a slenderer form, and fewer plates in the lateral 
line. 

We have re-examined the two type s^iecimens of G. medusicola from Mazatlan, 
and also several specimens from Clarion Island. None of them exceed 7 inches in 
length. From G. latus of the same size (of which we have specimens from Key 
West, St. Lucia and Bahia, Brazil), G. medusicola differs in the following respects: 

* GiU-Kikers given for lower arch ouly; the rudiments enumerateLl separately iu each case. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



79 



The maxillary is shorter, 2| to 2.V in head (2 to 2i in C. latns). The preorbital is 
wider, in the narrowest part two-thirds the diameter of the eye (half eye in C. latus)- 
The snout is longer, from 2;^ to 3 in head (3| to 3| in 0. latu»). The gill-rakers are 
more numerous, 4+17 or 18 (4+ 14 or 15 in 0. latus). It has 1 or 2 more soft 
rays in the dorsal and anal, 22 or 23 dorsal rays, 18 anal rays (20 or 21 dorsal rays, 
and IG or 17 anal rays in C. latus). One of the Mazatlan specimens is deeper than 
any specimen we have seen of 0. latus, the others are of the same depth. 

The figure of C. medusicola given by Jordan (1895 6, plate 34), shows the 
characters of this species very well, except that the preorbital is not wide enough. 
In the original description, the number of the dorsal spines, gill-rakers, and lateral 
plates is wrongly given. The first dorsal has 8 spines, the plates to the bend in the 
lateral line number from 36 to 38. 

Measuretnents in Hundredths of Length ivithoid Caudal. 



Species 

Locality 

Length without caudal in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Snout 

Least width of preorbital 

Maxillary 

Eye 

Chord of curve of lateral line 

Straight part of lateral line 

Number of soft dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Plates in straight part of lateral line 



C. MEDUSICOLA 



Mas:ailan 

(TiPES.) 


Oai 
Ma 


98 


123 


133 


3ii 


3oi- 


32 


46.} 


\7.\ 


40 


lO.^ 


lOl 


II 


4 


4 


4i 


I2i 


12 


13 


8 


1\ 


7i 


30 


30 


30 


41-I 


4ii 


42 


22 


22 


22 


18 


18 


18 


36 


36 


37 



C. LATUS 



Bahia, 
Brazil 



139 
32i 
42i 

4l 
12V 



103 

33 

43 

9 

3 

15 



1\ 


8 


30 


28 


42 


45 


23 


21 


18 


17 


38 


37 



Key West, 
Florida 



43 
9 
3 

15 
8 

30 

43 
20 
16 
36 



108 
32 
43 

9 

3 
i5i 

8 

30 

45 
21 

17 
35 



144. Gnathaaodon speciosus {Fov.sImI). 

Appearing infrequently; on two occasions many large ones were brought to 
market. Our five specimens all have 19 rays in the dorsal and 10 in the anal. 

145. Citula dorsalis {Gill). 

Frequently brought to market. We preserved seven specimens from 24 to 
36 cm. in length. To the description given by Jordan and Evermann (1896, p. 930), 
we make the following additions and corrections, based upon our material. 



80 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Depth from 1| to 2 in length. Eye 4| to 4| in head; snout 2| to 3. Pec- 
toral one-fourth to one-fifth longer than head. Ventrals reaching well past vent, 
about half the distance from their insertion to the third anal spine. Length of gill- 
rakers a little over half diameter of eye, their number 6 + 16. In three specimens 
the dorsal rays number 19 and the anal 17; in three the dorsal is 18 and the anal 16, 
and in one the dorsal is 19 and the anal 16. Scales in the straight part of lateral 
line 48 (not 58). 

146. Alectis ciliaris {Block). 

But few of this species were seen. We have compared our material with a 
single specimen from Jamaica and can appreciate no differences. 

147. Vomer setipinnis {Mitchill). 

Brought into the market almost daily, sometimes in large numbers. We 
preserved nine adult specimens and several young; the latter were taken in the 
tide-pools. 

We have compared our adult si^ecimens with three specimens from Beaufort, 
N. C, and a single large specimen from Jamaica. From the former, ours differ in the 
following respects: The body is more slender, the declivity of the anterior profile is 
less steep, the space between the eye and the angle of profile above eye is shorter, 
the bases of the anal and soft dorsal are shorter, and the scutes on the caudal 
peduncle are larger. They dilTer from the Jamaica specimen only in having larger 
scutes. We have compared the young with specimens of the same size from 
Galveston and find them similar. The specimens from Beaufort seem to occupy a 
position between the Panama specimens and V. sjnxii. 

Our material from the Atlantic is so meagre that we are unable to decide 
whether the species from the Pacific is distinct or not. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



81 



Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Locality 



Beaufort, N. C. 



A. 



Panama 



Length without caudal in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Maxillary 

Eye 

Eye to middle of upper curve of head 

Eye to anterior tip of maxillary... 

Least distance from eye to anterior 
profile 



Eye to opercular angle 

Straight part of lateral line from 
base of middle caudal rays 



Chord of curve of lateral line. 

Length of soft dorsal base 

Length of anal base 

Length of pectoral 

Length of caudal 



150 

33 

55 

13 

8 

15 



6i 
Hi 



40 

34i 

45 

53 

34 

Bro 



164 
33 

57 
13 

7i 
16 

i5i 

12 

41 
31 
46 

54 

35 

ken. 



138 
33i 
58 
13 

7i 
17 
i5i 



41 
33 
46 

52 
37 



248 


159 


33 


34i 


5H 


50^ 


i3i 


i3i 


8 


8 


I3i- 


13 


14 


i4i 


6i 


7 


iH 


13 



41 

33 

44i 

48 

34 
29 



39 

32 

42i 

48 

38^ 

29 



225 

32 

50 

13 

7 

13 
i3i 

7 

I2i 

4ii 

32 

44i 

48 

37 
28 



204 

34 
48-^ 

13 

7 

I2i 

13 

7 
13 

42 
30 
43 
48 

38 
29 



172 

33i 
52 

13 
8 

13 
14 

7 

I2i 

4oi 
31 

44 
48 
40 
30 



204 
32i 
51 
13 

7i 

I2i 

I3i 



6i 
I2i 



43 
31 

44 
48 

38 
28 



63 
39 
68 

14 

9^ 

18 

.18 

7i 
i3i 

40 

29 

46 

55 
37 
30 



Galveston 



66 


65 


66 


38 


38 


38 


63 


66 


65 


13 


14 


14 


9 


ID 


9i 


17 


19 


19 


17 


20 


18 



7 


1\ 


12 


II 


38 


37 


28 


32 


45 


45 


52 


54 


36 


35 


28 


32 



7 
12 

37 
33 
46 

53 
34 
30 



148. Selene oerstedii Luiken. 

Common; brought into the market almost daily with aS'. vomer. It may be at 
once distinguished from all other members of the genus by the occipital region being 
scarcely angulated, and by the comparatively large ventral fins. 

The following description is from a specimen 31 cm. in length. 

Head 2| in length; depth if. Eye 4 in head; snout 2; maxillary 3I-. Dorsal VI, I, 18; 
anal II, I, 15. The profile of snout is less nearly vertical than that of head in front of eye, with 
which it forms a slight angle just below the level of the eye. In smaller examples the angle is less 
noticeable. The upper profile forms a broad even curve from just above eye to spinous dorsal. The 
outline of the body is angulated at front of soft dorsal and anal. 

Teeth small, blunt, and not much crowded, in bands on jaws and palatines, in a quadran- 
gular patch on vomer. Preorbital space contained 3 times in postorbital space. Gill-rakers contained 
2\ times in diameter of eye; their number 4-t- 14. 

The pectoral reaches to above eleventh or twelfth anal ray, or to within twice the diameter of 
the eye of the base of the middle caudal rays. The ventrals reach to the first detached anal spine; in 
specimens 21 cm. in length, they reach to the first anal ray; in specimens 11 cm. long, they reach 
to the caudal rays and are about half the length of the entire body. Anterior dorsal and anal rays 
filamentous. Second dorsal spine as long as the maxillary, reaching when fin is depressed, two-thirds 
the distance between its base and the front of the soft dorsal. In a specimen 11 cm. in length it is 
longer than the head by a distance equal to the diameter of the eye. 

Color silvery with bluish reflections above. Spinous dorsal and front of soft dorsal dusky; 
other fins colorless. In specimens 21 cm. in length or less, the distal half or more than half of the 
ventrals is black. 



82 



CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal in mm.. 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Snout 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventrals 

Lengtli of caudal 

Length of dorsal base 

Length of anal base 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 



243 


150 


160 


37 


37 


39 


60 


66 


68 


9i 


9 


9 


19 


20 


20-J^ 


46 


47 


46 


iii- 


20 


17 


36 


38 


40 


45 


48 


47 


43 


43 


44 


vi-i, 18 


vii-i, 17 


VII-I, 18 


ii-i, 15 


n-i, 15 


ii-i, 15 



86 
42 

73 
10 
22 

43 
60 

37 
45 
45 

ii-i, 15 



149. Selene vomer (Linnceus). 

Common at Paimraa. We have compared our specimens with others from 
Florida and Jamaica, and find only individual differences. 

150. Chloroscombrus orqueta Jordan <& Gilbert. 

Frequently taken in abundance. We have compared our specimens with the 
original description (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882, 0, p. 646) and with specimens of 
0. chrysurus. 

The depth is very variable; in our most slender specimens the depth is 2f 
in the length, while in tlie deepest specimen (of the same length) it is 2^. 
Between these extremes are all intermediate shapes. 

151. Trachinotus rhodopus Gill. 

Not abundant; eight specimens preserved, from 15 to 36 cm. in length. 

We have compared them with a single specimen of 2\ glaucus from Key 
West. In addition to the less vertical snout noted by Dr. Gill, they differ in 
having much longer, slenderer, and more numerous gill-rakers. The scales apjjear 
to be smaller, and the dorsal and anal are probably slightly longer. 

The dorsal formula in seven specimens is VI, I, 20, in one specimen VI, I, 19; 
the anal in three specimens III, 19, in five specimens III, 18. The gill-rakers are 
long and slender, and do not greatly taper in size from their base to their tips. 



GILBERT AND STAltKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



83 



They number 14 or 15 on the lower limb of the arch, and in length are from three- 
fifths to two-thirds the diameter of the eye. 

The character of width or jwsition of the cross-bars is without value. In one 
of our small specimens, the second bar on one side occurs directly midway between 
the first and second bars on the reverse side, while the third bar is only a little behind 
the second bar of the reversed side. The first two bars are not always nearer 
together than the others, as described by Jordan and Evermann. The bars are not 
so conspicuous in our small specimens as in the large ones, but they are evident. 

In our specimens of 2\ glaucus, the dorsal formula is V, I, 19, the anal 
III, 17. The gill-rakers are short and thick at the base and taper rapidly to a 
point. They number 9 on the lower part of the arch, and in length are but 
one-third the diameter of the e3^e. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Species 



Locality. 



TRACHINOTUS RHODOPUS 



Panama 



TRACHINOTUS 
GLAUCUS 



Key West 



Length without caudal in mm 

Head 

Greatest depth at angle of dorsal. 
Eye 



Snout 

Maxillary 

Interorbital (bone) 

Pectoral fin 

Ventral fin 

Upper caudal lobe 

Length of gill-rakers 

Height of caudal peduncle 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal spines and rays 

Number of gill-rakers on lower limb of arch 



227 

27 

51 
6i 

6i 
9\ 
9 
23 
10 

50 

3i 

VI, I 

20 
III, 18 
15 



26-^- 

54 

6^ 

7 

10 

9i 
24 

lOi 

53 
4 

VI, I 

20 
III, 19 

15 



232 
27 

49 
6i- 
7 

9i 
91 

23 

51 
4 
9 

VI, I 

20 

III, 19 

14 



226 
26J 
53 

^ 

9 

9i 

21^ 

Hi 
Broken 

9 

V, I 

19 

III, 17 

9 



84 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

152. Trachinotus culveri Jordan & Starks. 

A single specimen was taken in the market. 

This species seems to differ from T. falcaius in having a slightly shorter 
dorsal and anal. Our Panama specimen and the type and co-type from Mazatlan have 
the following fin counts: Dorsal VI, I, 18; VI, I, 18; VI, I, 17; anal III, 16; III, 
17; III, 16. In twelve specimens of 2\ falcatus, three have 20 soft rays in the 
dorsal, nine have 19; in the anal, nine specimens have 18 soft rays, three have 
17. As the largest specimen of falcatus in our possession is but 8 cm. in length, 
other comjDarisons are unsatisfactory. 

T. culveri differs from T. kennedyi in having a deeper, more angulated body 
and in having the mouth more oblique. The anterior end of the premaxillary is on 
a level with a point a little above the lower rim of the orbit in T. culveri, while it is 
slightly below the orbit in 2\ kennedyi. 

153. Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner . 

Frequently brought to mai'ket but never in large numbers. Six specimens 
were presei'ved, 28 to 31 cm. in length. 

They are smaller than the specimens from which Dr. Steindachner wrote his 
excellent descrijJtion, and differ slightly as follows: Head 3| to 3i in length; depth 
1| to I3. Eye 4 to 4| in head; interorbital width 2L The maxillary reaches to 
below the middle of the eye or only slightly beyond that point. 

154. Trachinotus paloma Jordan & Starks. 

One adult specimen taken, 31 cm. in length. We have in addition a large 
specimen from Magdalena Bay and several small ones (including the types), from 5 
to 10 cm. in length, from Mazatlan and San Juan Lagoon, Mexico. For comparison 
we have a single large specimen and two smaller ones of T. carolinus from the 
Atlantic. 

T. imloma differs from T. carolinus in having a smaller eye, 5| to 5\ in head 
in adult, 3|- to 4| in young (4| in carolinus in adult, 3 to 3| in young). The gill- 
rakers are longer, their length contained 6 times in the postorbital part of the head 
in the adult (10 times in the adult of carolinus). They number the same in the two 
species, 4-J-9 or 10. The snout is longer, 3i in head (4 in head in carolinus), and 
the maxillary is shorter, 3 in head (2| in carolinus). The anal lobe seems to be 
shorter, I-4 in head, 1| in anal base (in carolinus it equals head and is 1|- in base of 
anal). We find little difference in size of head between the two species, though such 
was alleged to exist in the original description of T. jMloma. 

155. Nomeus gronovii (Gmelin). 

Recorded from Panama by Dr. Eigenmann (1894, p. 629), who states that 
they were taken in " rocky pools at Panama." It has not been taken by other 
observers. 



\ 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 85 

156. Peprilus palometa {Jordan & Bollman). 

This species was frequently brought to the Panama market. As the type of 
the species was only 7 cm. in length, we supplement the original description by the 
following taken from specimens 19 to 23 cm. in entire length. 

Head 3^ to 3^ in length without caudal; depth 1 1\ to i ,\. Eye 4J to 4f in head; maxillary 
3I; dorsal III, 44 to 46; anal III, 41 to 43. Lateral line 100. Gill-rakers 5+ 16 or 17. 

Body compressed and deep, the dorsal and ventral outlines similar in contour behind the 
head. Dorsal profile of head more convex than ventral; the snout blunt. Mouth small and oblique, 
the maxillary barely reaching past the anterior orbital rim. Teeth in a single row on jaws; none 
evident on vomer or palatines. Gill-rakers about half as long as the diameter of the eye. 

A few scales present on head under and behind the eye, and a few at upper end of opercle; 
head otherwise naked. Scales on body smooth, crowded, and loosely attached; those of lateral line 
more firmly attached. Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins covered with fine crowded scales. 

In the co-types, with which we have compared our specimens, no lobes are evident on the 
dorsal and anal fins. In the adult specimens, the lobes are well developed, though variable in length; 
they are generally longer in the larger specimens. The spines of dorsal and anal are scaled over, as 
are the rays. Anal lobe much longer than that of dorsal, often reaching to below the tips of the last 
anal rays, or to base of caudal fin. Dorsal lobe sometimes extending to opposite tip of pectoral, 
sometimes reaching further back. Dorsal and anal rays behind the lobes of about equal height, 
generally a little higher than the diameter of eye, though often less than that in the smaller specimens. 
Tip of pectoral generally reaching to half way between its base and tips of middle caudal rays. Pelvic 
bones ending as a short sharp spine. Upper lobe of caudal the longer, sometimes filamentous. 

Color bluish brown on back, silvery on lower parts of body. Top of head and snout colored 
like the back. Opercle with dusky brown areas. Dorsal, anal and caudal variously dusky. Pectoral 
dusky behind base; the rays sparsely covered towards their ends with rather large brown dots. 



( 12 ) November 20, 1903. 



86 



CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



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GILBEET AND STARRS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 87 

157. Peprilus snyderi sp. nov. 

Plate Xli, Fio. 23. 

Head 3! in length without caudal; depth 2|. Eye 55 in head; snout 3*; maxillary 3f. 
Scales no. Dorsal III, 45; anal III, 43. Gill-rakers 5+ 16. 

Dorsal and ventral outlines of body similar, the body not greatly compressed, more elongate 
than in any other American species. Snout blunt. The occipital crest forms a sharp ridge on top of 
head. Mouth rather small, the maxillary barely reaching to the vertical from anterior edge of eye; 
jaws subequal. Teeth small and close-set in a single even series, those of lower jaw fitting inside those 
of upper jaw when mouth is closed. Gill-rakers moderately slender, half as long as the diameter of 
the eye, their number 4 or 5+ 14 to 16. Top of head with a network of sensory canals ramifying 
over it, the most conspicuous branch vein-like above anterior part of eye. Branching canals also 
extend more or less over the scales of back above lateral line, sometimes reaching nearly to dorsal 
spines. 

Head entirely scaleless except the cheeks and upper part of opercles. Dorsal, anal and 
caudal with very small, crowded scales, extending nearly to the ends of the rays. Pectoral scaleless. 
Body completely invested with rather loosely attached scales. 

Dorsal and anal fins with moderate lobes, that of anal slightly longer than that of dorsal, 
about equal to the length of head without snout. Base of anal a little shorter than that of 
dorsal. Tip of pectoral nearly reaching to the vertical above notch behind anal lobe, its length 
greater than that of the head by the diameter of the eye. Pelvic girdle ending as a small sharp 
spine. Caudal longer than pectoral by nearly half eye. 

Color bluish brown on back, changing to a warm Vandyke brown on naked parts of head. 
Caudal a rich dark brown similar to that of head. Pectoral brown at base, toward end of rays dusky, 
with dark points. Other fins dusky. One specimen is more silvery than the others, and may represent 
more nearly the original coloration. Top of head brown. Caudal, dorsal and anal slightly dusky. 

The type is 255 mm. in entire length. The species came to market on but 
two days of our visit of six weeks. Seven specimens in all were seen and preserved. 

The species is named for our friend and associate, Professor John O. Snyder, 
who has helped us materially in the preparation of this report. 



88 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Type 



Length without caudal in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Snout 

Maxillary 

Longest dorsal rays 

Longest anal rays 

Length of pectoral 

Length of caudal 

Number of scales 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of gill-rakers 



200 


215 


211 


28i 


28 


27 


37 


38 


37i 


5i 


5i 


5i 


7i 


7* 


n 


8 


n 


8 


i9|- 


igi- 


19 


20 


21 


20 


32 


32 


31 


34 


34 


33 


107 


112 


106 


"1.45 


"1,45 


"1.43 


"1.43 


111,42 


"1,43 


5+^6 


4+14 


4+16 



187 


180 


28 


29 


39 


41 


5i 


5i 


8 


8 


8i 


^ 


22 


2ii 



24 

33 
36 



111,44 
111,42 
4+16 



23 
32i 

34 
III 
111,44 
111,42 
4+14 



187 
28 
37i 
5i 

1\ 

8 
20 
21 
32 

35 
108 

"1,45 
"1,43 
4+15 



192 

28i 

39 
5i 
71 



8i 



22 

23 

33 

35 
109 
111,44 
111,42 
4+14 



158. Peprilus medius {Peters). 

The Panama record of this species (Jordan, 1885, p. 375) needs verification. 
The specimens obtained may have belonged to one of the forms above recorded, 
both of which were at that time unknown. Only tlie type of P. medius is now 
extant. 



Family CHEILODIPTERID^. 
159. Apogon dovii Gilnther. 

Abundant about the rocky islands in Panama Bay. 

The sjJecies varies in color from light to dark red, with much or little black 
pigment. The caudal may be translucent or blackish, the soft dorsal is translucent, 
or may be tipped with black, or may be largely black with only the posterior rays 
whitish. The anal and ventral fins may also be translucent, or with the terminal 
portions more or less largely black. Young specimens are marked with a very con- 
spicuous round or elliptical black spot on the end of the caudal peduncle, and a rather 
poorly-defined dusky streak around the snout and across the opercle. The streak 
wholly disappears and the caudal spot becomes very faint and diffuse with age. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



89 



There seem to be no differences, save those of color, between A. dovii and A. 
retrosella. The fin-rays, general proportions, and squamation seem alike in the two. 
The fin-formula is: dorsal VI-I, 9; anal II, 8. The lateral line traverses 24 or 
25 large scales to the base of the caudal fin, and 5 or 6 scales of reduced size on the 
fin itself. Between the lateral line and the base of the spinous dorsal are 2i rows of 
scales (as in retrosella). In A. atricaudus there are A\ or 5^ rows, in A. atridorsalis 
3^ rows between the lateral line and the spinous dorsal. 

Measuremeiits in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Species 

Locality 

Length without caudal in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Eye... 

Interorbital (bone) 

Snout 

Maxillary 

Third dorsal spine 

Second dorsal ray 

Second anal spine 

Second anal ray 

Pectoral 

Ventral 

Caudal 



APOGON DOVII 



Panama 



70 


62 


40 


41 


35 


34i 


12 


13 


9 


9 


10 


10 


21 


21 


i5i 


i5i 


22 


23 


9i 


TO 


21 


20 


24 


24 


20 


19 


29 


29 



60 
40 

34 
i2i 

20| 

17 

24 

Hi 
20 

25 

20j^ 
28 



A. RETROSELLA 



Mazat- 

lan, 

Mex. 



76 
40 
34 
13 

8i 

9 
21 

17 
25 
12^ 
21 

25 
22 
28 



San 

Benito 

Id., Mex. 



55 
42 

34 
12 

9 
9 

21 

17 

24 

12\ 

21 

24 
20 

29 



Family CENTROPOMID^. 
160. Centropomus undecimalis (Block). 

Frequently found in the Panama market. 

We are unable to follow Dr. Jordan (1895 b, p. 452) in recognizing the 
Pacific form as a distinct species ( 0. viridis). The separation is based on the supposed 
greater length of the appendages to the air-bladder in viridis, and the shorter second 
anal spine. We find, however, that the third anal spine projects beyond the second 
in Atlantic specimens as well as in those from the Pacific, and there seems to be no 



90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

difference between them in this respect. The appendages to the air-Wadder vary 
widely in length, from a trifle less than the diameter of the eye to twice the diameter, 
in our Panama specimens. In the few individuals we have been able to examine 
from the Atlantic (Havana and Jamaica), the appendages vary from l-J- to li times 
the orbital diameter. It is highly improbable, therefore, that this character possesses 
any significance. 

i6i. Centropomus nigrescens Gmither. 

Only a few small sj^ecimens seen. 

162. Centropomus pedimacula Poey. 

Very abundant at Panama. 

We have had for comparison a single specimen from the Atlantic, which 
shows a slightly longer anal sjiine and a slightly wider interorbital space than any 
of our Pacific examples. In all other characters there seems to be perfect agreement 
with our Panama specimens. We believe that the slight differences found are well 
within the range of variation of the species, and shall therefore not recognize Centro- 
pomus medius (the Pacific form) as distinct in any degree. A full series from the 
Atlantic may eventually prove, however, that these characters have a higher value 
than we have assigned to them, and necessitate specific separation of the two forms. 

C. grandoGulatus is certainly not separable from C. medius { = pedimacula) . 
The scale-counts of different authors vary widely in this group, as some have included 
a number of the scales overlying the base of the caudal fin, and others cease the 
enumeration at a point corresponding to the base of the median rays. In this paper 
we have adopted the latter course, and find very uniformly 47 or 48 tubes in speci- 
mens from Mazatlan, Panama and Havana, including those from the San Juan 
Lagoon, Mexico, upon which is based the description of grandoculatus given by 
Jordan and Evermann. The first dorsal fin contains uniformly 8 spines, as in all other 
species of the genus. The describers of grandoculatus seem to have neglected the 
first spine, which is very short and often concealed by the scales. Other characters 
assigned to grandoculatus, such as the form of the body and the size of the eye, have 
no significance. The amount of black on the ventral fins is also subject to wide 
variation, and has no distinctive value. In young specimens, the black is usually 
very distinct, but in adults it grows fainter and often disappears. 

163. Centropomus unionensis Bocourt. 

Plate XIII, Fig. 27. 

Abundant in Panama Bay. 

The species is closely related to armatus and rohaliio, but has shorter anal 
spines and weaker ridges and spines on head than in either species. It agrees with 
robalito in the slender, flexible dorsal spines, the second one of which is very short, in 
the anterior position of the vent and in the pale lateral line; with armatus in the small 
number of gill-rakers, and the increased number of scales in a vertical series above 
the lateral line. The second anal spine scarcely extends beyond the tip of the longest 



GILBEKT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



91 



anal ray, and extends beyond the third anal spine a distance less than half the diam- 
eter of the pupil. The interspinous membrane is not dusky. The dorsal spines are 
slenderer even than in rohalito; the third is not heavier than the fourth, and is usually 
shortened a little, giving a rounded contour to the fin, which is sometimes, however, 
sharply angular. The second dorsal spine is very short, varying from one-fourth to 
one-sixth the length of the third. The distance from the vent to the base of the 
first anal spine equals that between the tip of the snout and some point between the 
hinder margin of the pupil and the hinder mai-gin of the orbit. The preorbital and 
the horizontal and vertical limbs of the preopercle are very weakly spinous, the 
spines being scarcely perceptible in some specimens. There are 2 stronger spines, 
as usual, at the preopercular angle. The ridges on top of head are low and nar- 
row; the median pair are most widely separated at a jioint over the middle of the 
occiput. There are 5 or 6 developed gill-rakers on the vertical limb of the outer 
arch, 11 or 12 on the horizontal limb, besides 2 or 3 rudiments on each. There are 
47 or 48 scales in the lateral line in advance of the base of the caudal, and 74 in a 
vertical series between the middle of the soft dorsal and the lateral line. The lateral 
line is uniformly pale. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length in mm. without projecting lower jaw or caudal 

Head without lower jaw 

Depth 

Eye 

Interorbital (bone only) 

Maxillary 

Thirtl dorsal spine 

Fourth dorsal spine 

Fifth dorsal spine 

Second anal spine 

First anal ray 

Second dorsal ray 

Pectoral 

Ventral 

Caudal 

Caudal peduncle (height) 

Vent from front of anal 

Distance from anal to base of ventral spine 

Longest gill-rakers 



254 


251 


244 


255 


239 


41 


40 


39i 






28 


28 


28 






5i 


5 


5 






5f 


6 


5i 






14 


i3i 


14 






i7i 


17* 


18 






17 


i7i 


i7i 






i4i 


i4i 


14 






i8i 


19 


18 






i5i 


16 


16 






broken 


i5i 


15 






23i 


24i 


23i 






2li 


21 


2li 






broken 


about 


24 






ii4 


12 


II 






16 


Hi 


15 


141- 


i5i 


38 


38i 


39 






4 


3i 


4 







250 



i4i 



92 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

164. Centropomus armatus Gill. 

Plate XIII, Fig. 26. 

Abundant in Panama Bay; distinguishable at sight by the excessively 
developed second anal spine with the black interspiuous membrane, and by the 
strong, inflexible dorsal spines. 

The species is placed by Boulenger (1895, p. 370), in the synonomy of C. 
ensiferus, but this is wholly inadmissible, as has been pointed out by Jordan and 
Evermann (1896, p. 1123). 

C. ensiferus agrees with armatus in the strongly spinous bones of the head, 
and in its greatly developed second anal spine and black membrane; but it differs 
conspicuously in the slender, flexible dorsal spines, and in the course of the cranial 
ridges and the shape of the included areas. In the three specimens of ensiferus 
before us from the Atlantic, there are but 5 or 6 scales in a vertical series between 
lateral line and middle of second dorsal fin. The gill-rakers in these specimens are 
as follows: 9+17, with 3 additional rudiments on each limb; 9 + 17 with 4 rudiments 
above, 5 below; 8+16, with 4 rudiments on each limb. The distance from the 
middle of the vent to the base of the first anal spine equals, or a little exceeds, that 
from tip of snout to hinder edge of jxipil. The second anal spine extends to opposite 
the edge of the scaly area on base of caudal, and is contained Sj^V to 3f times in the 
length. The character and direction of the ridges on top of head are very charac- 
teristic, and are well shown by the accomjjanying figure (PL XIII, fig. 24). 

In C. armatus, the second anal spine is longer than in any other Pacific 
species, to be compared in this respect with C. ensiferus only. The fifteen specimens 
secured by us vary little in the length of this spine, which extends, when depressed, 
to opposite the base of the caudal in young specimens, well beyond that point in 
adults. The third anal spine usually exceeds slightly the longest soft ray. The 
membrane between the second and third anal spines is jet-black in the young, and is 
usually blackish in varying degree in adults. In none of our specimens has the 
pigment entirely disappeared, but it is not imjirobable that it occasionally does so. 
The dorsal spines are much stronger than in any other known species, and are wholly 
constant in this regard. The third spine is the strongest, and is inflexible; it is but 
little longer than the fourth, which projects beyond a line joining the third and fifth, 
giving a rounded contour to the fin. There is considerable variation in the height 
of the spines, the fourth spine, when depressed, reaching occasionally to or beyond 
the origin of the second dorsal, but usually falling short. The second spine is pro- 
portionally long, 21 to 3| in the third spine. The dorsal formula is VIII-I, 10 (11 
articulated rays in one specimen); the anal III, 6. The vent is posteriorly placed, 
the distance from its center to the base of the first anal sj)ine about equaling the dis- 
tance from the tip of the snout to the middle of the eye. The preorbital has 5 to 7 
strong retrorse spines; an equal number of still stronger spines are in the " humeral " 
process; preopercular spines much larger than in rohalito or unionensis. 

The median pair of ridges on top of head are very strong. From the middle 
of the occiput they diverge a little, both anteriorly and posteriorly, and are separated 



GILBERT AND STAUKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



93 



at their posterior ends by a distance equaling the diameter of the pupil; anteriorly 
they converge, meeting at a point opposite the front of the eye. 

The gill-rakers are long and slender, the longest two-thirds to five-sevenths 
the diameter of the eye, there being 5 or 6 movable ones on the vertical limb, and 
11 or 12 on the horizontal limb, besides 2 or 3 immovable rudiments on each limb. 
There are 51 or 52 tube-bearing scales in the course of the lateral line, corresponding 
in number with the approximately vertical series along the back. Each vertical row 
under the middle of the second dorsal fin contains 74 or 84 scales in the fifteen 
specimens examined. The lateral line is pale, but is accompanied above and below 
by short stitch-like lines of black pigment, one pair for each scale. 

Measiucments in Hundredths of Length unthout Caudal. 



Length in mm. from tip of snout to caudal base.. 

Head without lower jaw 

Depth 



Eye . 



Interorbital (bone only) 

Maxillary 

Third dorsal spine 

Fourth dorsal spine 

Fifth dorsal spine 

Second anal spine 

First anal ray '. 

Second dorsal ray 

Pectorals 

Ventrals 

Caudal 

Caudal peduncle (height) 

Vent from front of anal 

Distance from anal to base of ventral spine. 

Longest gill-rakers 



207 

39i 

27 

6 

5i 
14 
i7i 
i7i 
15 

27i 

18 

i7i 
26 

23i 
26 

I2I- 

39 

4i 



222 

40 

29 

6 

St 
14 
i7i 
18^ 

27 
18 
18 
27 
23 
25 
12 

I2i 
36 

4^ 



230 

39 

27i 

5i 

5A- 

i4i 

17 
i6i- 

\\\ 

27 
18 

17 
27 
22 

25 
1I3- 
14 
371 
4i 



ii;i) 



November 21, 1903. 



94 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

165. Centropomus robalito Jordan <t Gilbert. 

Plate XIII, Fig. 25. 

Very abundant at Panama. 

Dr. Boulenger places this species in the synonoray of C. ensiferm, and Jordan 
and Evermann consider the two probably identical. They are easily distinguishable, 
however, by the different size and the direction of the ridges on the top of the head, 
by the larger serrations in C. ensiferits, the longer anal spines, and the rounded con- 
tour of the spinous dorsal. The membrane between second and third anal spines 
seems to be constantly blackish in ensiferm, and is usually pale in robalito. From 0. 
armatus, robalito differs strikingly in the longer, more flexible, dorsal spines, the 
angular contour of the spinous dorsal fin, the ridges on head with the shape of the 
enclosed areas, the shorter anal spines with the light interspinous membrane, the 
more anterior position of the vent, the more numerous gill-rakers, the larger scales, 
and the uniformly light color of the lateral line. The third anal spine fails to attain 
the tip of the succeeding soft ray. The second spine extends beyond the third for 
a distance equaling one-half to three-fourths the diameter of the eye ; it sometimes 
attains the base of the caudal fin, but more frequently fails to do so. The dorsal 
spines are long and flexible, the third little heavier than the fourth. The fin is 
sharply angulated at the tip of the third spine, which usually reaches a straight line 
joining the tips of the succeeding spines. The second spine is very short, contained 
4 to 4^ times in the third. The distance from the vent to the base of the first anal 
sjiine nearly equals that from tip of snout to hinder margin of orbit, varying a little 
from that measurement in either direction. The spines on the margin of the pre- 
orbital and preopercle are distinct and strong, but less so than in armatus. 

The median pair of ridges on head ai-e stronger than in any other species, and 
enclose a narrower space, which is widest opposite the posterior ends of the ridges 
and is regularly wedge-shaped, the ridges meeting at a point opposite the nostrils. 
The gill-rakers are long and slender, the longest two-thirds the diameter of the orbit. 
They are more numerous than in armatus, 7 or 8 movable ones on the vertical limb 
and 15 or 16 on' the horizontal limb, with 2 or 3 rudiments at each end of the series. 
There are 46 to 49 scales in the lateral line in advance of the base of the caudal fin, 
and 5 or 6 scales in a vertical series between the lateral line and the middle of the 
second dorsal. The lateral line is uniformly pale. 

In the fresh state the ventrals are rich golden yellow, whitish at the base, with 
white pigment at tips, best marked on the inner rays. Anal lemon-yellow, including 
the membrane between the spines, which is rarely dusky; the base of the fin and 
the last two rays are translucent. The sjiinous dorsal is translucent dusky, not dis- 
tinctly black; the soft dorsal similar, translucent at base. The caudal is dusky trans- 
lucent, slightly tinged with straw color, the latter best marked on the lower lobe. 
The pectorals are translucent. 



GILBERT AND STAEKS — PISHES OP PANAMA BAY 



95 



Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length in mm. without projecting lower jaw or 
caudal 



Head without lower jaw 

Depth 

Eye 

Interorbital (bone only) 

Maxillary 

Third dorsal spine 

Fourth dorsal spine 

Fifth dorsal spine 

Second anal spine 

First anal ray 

Second dorsal ray 

Pectoral 

Ventral 

Caudal 

Caudal peduncle (height) 

Vent from front of anal 

Distance from anal to base of ventral spine . 
Longest gill-rakers 



192 


261 


250 


240 


242 


222 


40 


39i 


39i 








27i 


28 


27 








6i 


5i 


5i 








4f 


4i 


41 








i3i 


14 


i3i 








19 


18 


18 








18 


i5i 


i6i 








15 


13 


14 








24 


20 


20 








i7i 


16 


16 








i8i 


17 


18 








25i 


24 


25 








23i 


22 


231- 








27i 

I2i- 




25 
12 








I2i 








i5i 


i6i 


16 


16 


i6i 


i7i 


39 


40 


41 








5 


41- 


4i 









242 



Family SEKRANID^. 
166. Petrometopon panamensis (Steindachner) . 

This species is seldom brought to the market, though it is very abundant about 
the islands in Panama Bay. 

The excavation in the frontal bones for the reception of the posterior processes 
of the premaxillaries is not so deep as in P. guttatus. It more nearly resembles in 
this respect Epinephelus louti, as figured by Boulenger (1895, p. 173). 

To the type description we add the following range of measurements, taken 
from specimens 19 to 28 cm. in length: Head 2| to 2|- in length, without caudal. 
Eye 51 to 6 in head; interorbital width (bone) 94-; snout 3J to 4. The fin formula 
seems to be constant as described: Dorsal IX, 14; anal III, 8. The small canines 
anteriorly in each jaw are sometimes paired on one or both sides. 



96 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

167. Epinephelus analogus Gill. 

Abundant among the islands in Panama Bay, brought to market in consider- 
able numbers. 

No variation has been reported in the number of dorsal spines, which seems 
to be constantly ten. In a specimen 20 cm. long, the upper parts were dusky- 
olive, the under parts lighter, the cross-bars very faint. The spots were brownish- 
red. The dorsal and the upper caudal rays were colored like the back; the fins 
otherwise were slaty-blue with a whitish margin, all of them spotted like the soft 
dorsal. In si^ecimens 8 to 10 cm. long, the dark bars are distinctly six in number, 
one on the nape, two below the spinous and two below the soft dorsal, and one on 
the tail. They are well marked above the lateral line, but fade out on lower part 
of sides. The round dark spots are confined to the bands, where they are arranged 
in pairs, forming two vertical series in each band; the two middle bands contain 
five pairs each. 

168. Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns). 

Abundant in the Panama market. 

In our smallest specimens, 6 and 15 cm. long, there is no trace of the numerous 
gently undulating pale lines running upward and backward, described by Stein- 
dachner (1876, h, p. 5) in a specimen 75 mm. long. In none of our specimens was 
the inside of mouth salmon-yellow, as described by Jordan (1895, b, p. 444); the 
lips were faintly tinged with yellow. The distal half of the upper pectoral rays was 
deep red, shading below into the yellow of the lower rays. The black saddle on 
caudal peduncle seems to be constantly present. The number of articulated dorsal 
rays is constantly 17, as given by Jenyns and Gill. 

169. Promicrops guttatus {Linnaeus). 
Very large specimens are frequently brought to market. 

170. Alphestes multiguttatus (Gilnther). 

Abundant in Panama Bay, the young very numerous in the tide-jiools. The 
young have fewer spots, mostly confined to the head, while the sides of the body are 
marked by wavy longitudinal dusky streaks, which are much darker where they 
traverse certain vertical areas, thus producing a number of vertical bars, which soon 
disappear. The dark streak behind the maxillary is more conspicuous than in 
adults. In specimens less than 35 mm. long, the preopercular angle is provided 
with a large furcate spine, with a long posterior and a short anterior limb. The 
posterior limb rapidly diminishes in size, while the anterior limb elongates and 
becomes appressed to the preopercular margin, forming the antrorse spine character- 
istic of the genus. 

As has been pointed out, this species is well distinguished from A. afer, by 
differences in color and in the contour of the head and body. We find no differ- 



GILBERT AND STAEKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 97 

ence, however, in the relative lengths of the second and third anal spines, and very 
little difference in the length of the gill-rakers. A. vmltiguttatus has the gill- 
rakers a trifle longer than in A. afer, but they do not exceed two-thirds the length 
of the gill-filaments. 

171. Mycteroperca boulengeri Jordan & Starks. 

Probably rare; only two specimens taken, each about 23 cm. in length. 

AVe make the following corrections to the original description, and to the 
description given by Jordan and Evermann (1896, p. 1175): 

Head 2|- in length (2[ in type, 30 cm. long); depth 3| (2^ in type). In our 
specimen, and in the type and co-types (3 specimens) from Mazatlan, the dorsal is 
constantly XI, 16, the anal III, 11. Scales 23-90-44; ctenoid posteriorly, becoming 
cycloid anteriorly. Snout 4 in head; eye o| {Q>\ in type); longest anal ray 2 (1^ 
in type) ; third dorsal spine 3. 

172. Hypoplectrus lamprurus {Jordan <i- Gilbert). 
Only the type is known, obtained by Gilbert in 1881, at Panama. 

173. Paralabrax humeralis {Cuvier ifc Valenciennes). 

Young specimens of this species are recorded from Panama by Steindachner 
(1876, b, p. 4) as Serranus albomaculatus. 

174. Diplectrum radiale {Quoy S Gaimard). 

Occasional in the Panama market, not taken by us about rocky reefs or islands. 
There are constantly 10 series of scales on the cheeks running obliquely downward 
and forward; 5i to 6 scales in a series between lateral line and base of dorsal near 
the middle of the length; and seven articulated rays in the anal fin. There is but 
little variation in the size and spination of the preopercular lobe, the species being 
readily distinguishable from I), macropoma and D. eurypledrum by this character 
alone. 

175. Diplectrum macropoma {Guniher). 

No specimens of this species were secured by us. It seems to occur abun- 
dantly a short distance from the shore, where it was dredged by the "Albatross" in 
depths of from 7 to 33 fathoms. A single specimen was said to be found by them 
in the Panama market. Its range seems to be co-extensive with that of the tropical 
fish-fauna in general, as it was obtained by the "Albatross" in 1889 at Station 3014, 
off Guaymas, Gulf of California, 29 fathoms, and at Station 3039, off Magdalena 
Bay, Lower California, 47 fathoms. 

The species is very close to J), radiale, but differs constantly in the wider 
preopercular lobe, the larger scales on cheeks (6 or 7 rows), and the lai-ger head 
and deeper body. There are constantly 7 anal rays. The colors in life have not 



98 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

been recorded; but there are no distinct blue spots on the dorsal, in our material, 
and in general the coloration seems to have been less variegated than in D. radiale. 

176. Diplectrum euryplectrum Jordan & Bollman. 

Known only from moderate depths in Panama Bay, where it was dredged by 
the "Albatross" in 1888, in 33 to 51i fathoms. 

It is a deeper species than radiale, with much wider preopercular lobe, 8 
series of scales on the cheeks, and constantly 8 anal rays. There is no trace of blue 
spots on the soft dorsal, which is marked by a very characteristic narrow black bar 
along the base. The coloration in the fresh state has not been reported. Judging 
from alcoholic specimens, it is probable that the species differs widely from radiale 
in that respect. It was not taken in the Gulf of California with its companion species, 
D. macropoma. 

177. Prionodes fasciatus Jenyns. 

This species is abundant among the Galapagos Islands, and on the coast of 
Mexico, but has been recorded but once from Panama Bay (Pearl Islands and 
Panama, Jordan & Gilbert, 1882, n, p. 625). It was not seen by us. 

178. Paranthias furcifer {Guvie.r l- Valenciennes). 

Not seen by us; recorded from Panama by Steindachner (1876, 6, p. 6; as Serranus 
creolus), and by Gilbert (see Jordan, 1885, p. 377). 

Rhegma Gilbert. 
Rhegma Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 3169). 

Allied to Rypticus, Grammistes and Gramma, having the large ctenoid scales and interrupted 
lateral line of Gram7na, and the peculiar physiognomy, attachment of gill-membranes, and fin struc- 
ture of the Rypticimr. 

Scales of moderate size, thin, not embedded, minutely ciliated; lateral lines 2, the upper near 
base of dorsal, ceasing under origin of posterior fifth of soft dorsal, the lower line beginning slightly in 
front of the end of the upper line, running along middle of caudal peduncle; the tubes very short, 
borne on much smaller intercalated scales, and not forming a continuous line. Head largely scaled, 
the snout and jaws naked. 

Gill-memljranes united anteriorly, forming a narrow free fold across the isthmus. Branchios- 
tegals 7. Pseudobranchiie well developed; a wide slit behind last gill-arch; gill-rakers short, broadly 
triangular, strongly toothed. Upper margin of opercle, above its angle, wholly attached by mem- 
brane to the shoulder girdle, as in the RypticvKE. Mouth large, protractile, the lower jaw protruding, 
the maxillary broadly exposed, with a narrow supplemental bone along its upper edge. Teeth all 
villiform, in broad bands on jaws, vomer and palatines, the inner teeth on jaws slightly longer than 
the others and depressible. Tongue smooth. Large mucous pores on under side of mandible, and 
slit-like pores present on edge of preorbital and around front of eye. Anterior nostril near edge of 
preorbital, provided with a short tube; posterior nostril without tube or raised rim, immediately in 
front of eye. A short free triangular flap on upper edge of each orbit. Upper portion of preopercle 
with a single strong plectroid spine, directed backward and downward; bones of the head otherwise 
unarmed, the preorbital and preopercle with entire edges, the opercle without spines or ridges. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — PISHES OP PANAMA BAY 99 

Ventrals small and anterior in position, as in the Rypticina-, consisting each of i strong 
spine, and 5 branched rays, their base being in front of base of pectorals; no enlarged scale behind 
base of ventrals. Vertical fins low, with rounded lobes, their basal portions well scaled; dorsal with 
7 low strong spines and 22 profusely branched rays; anal with 3 spines and 18 rays. One species, 
apparently the type of a distinct sub-family, Rhegmatinte. 

179. Rhegma thaumasium Gilbert. 

Platk XV, Pig. 31. 
Rhegma tliauniasinm Gilbert, I.e., p. 3170. 

Head 2\ in length; depth 3; eye 5 in head; D. VII, 22; A. Ill, iS. Scales 45 in a longitu- 
dinal series along middle of side. 

Body elongate, moderately compressed, with very short, deep, caudal peduncle. Anterior 
profile strongly arched, slightly depressed above orbits. Interorbital space very narrow, convex, its 
width two-thirds diameter of orbit. Mouth large, slightly oblique; lower jaw the longer, its tip enter- 
ing the profile. 

Dorsal spines low, strong, increasing backward, the last spine one-fourth longer than diameter 
of orbit. Anal spines short and strong, the middle spine longest. 

Lateral line curved strongly upward from its origin to below third dorsal spine; thence run- 
ning parallel with the back to below middle of second dorsal, from which point it gradually approaches 
the base of the dorsal, where it terminates under the fifth ray from the last; along its anterior course 
it is separated from base of dorsal by from 4 to 6 scales (in oblique series). Scales minutely ctenoid 
except on head, breast, and belly, on nape under anterior dorsal spines, and on base of pectoral. Top 
of head scaled forward to interorbital space, the anterior scales here, as well as those on cheek, much 
reduced in size, embedded, so that their outlines cannot be distinguished. 

The following measurements of the type specimen are given: 

mm. 

Total length 85 Oue-hundredths 

* '^ of length to 

Length to base of caudal 70 base of caudal. 

Greatest depth 33 

Least depth of caudal peduncle 15^ 

Length of caudal peduncle 8 

Distance from tip of upper jaw to end of opercular flap 37 

Length of snout 6 

Diameter of eye ^\ 

Interorbital width 3f 

Tip of snout to end of maxillary 19 

Length of pectoral 27 

Tip of snout to base of upper pectoral ray 35 

Tip of snout to base of ventrals 31 

Length of ventrals 13 

First anal spine 3! 

Second anal spine 6 

Third anal spine 4! 

First soft anal ray Si- 
Longest soft anal ray 15 

First dorsal spine 4 

Last dorsal spine 9 

Longest dorsal ray 15 

Caudal 23 



100 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Color, nearly uniform warm brown on head, body and fins; a dusky opercular blotch; soft 
dorsal, anal and caudal only narrowly margined with white. 

One specimen known, from Panama. 

i8o. Rypticus nigripinnis Gill. 

Not rare. The upper preopercular spine is minute, but seems to be constantly 
present. The second dorsal spine is usually a little longer than the first, and is 
united for its entire length by membrane with the succeeding soft ray. 

Family LOBOTlDiE. 

i8i. Lobotes pacificus Gilbert. 
Plate XIV, Fig. 28. 

Lobotes pacificus Gilbert, (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2857). 
Lobotes auctorum Steindachner, 1876 iJ, p. 6 ; Panama. Not of Gunther. 

Lobotes sjirinamcnsis ]Q's.vipji Si. QiiJKKsr!:, 18820', p. no; Panama. Gilbert, 1882, p. 112; Punta 
Arenas. Jordan, 1885, p. 378; Panama. Boulenger, 1899, p. 2; Rio Tuyra, Darien. 

The Lobotes of the Pacific Coast of Central America is distinguished from the 
other known species, L. surinamensis and L. erate, by the small size of the preoper- 
cular serrations, those at the angle not elongated and spine-like, even in the young. 

Head 2-| in length; depth 2\ to 2-^^ (to base of caudal rays); depth of caudal peduncle 2^^ in 
head. Dorsal XII, 15; anal III, 11; pectoral 15. Scales 46 (-f- 6 on base of caudal) W; vertebrae 
1 2 -(-12. Body more elongated than L. sicrinaiiiensis, agreeing in this respect with L. erate, the 
depth less than half the length. Upper profile deeply concave at occiput, thence strongly conve.x to 
front of dorsal. Head shorter and narrower than in L. surinamensis, the interorbital width but slightly 
longer than snout, 3^ to 4 in head (3-J- to 3I in head in L. siiriiiame?isis). Eye small, 6| to 7^ in 
head, 2 or 2y\ in interorbital width. Mandible strongly protruding, but without symphyseal knob. 
Maxillary narrow, not concealed in closed mouth, its tip reaching vertical from middle of pupil, 2^ to 
2^Tj in head. 

Upper jaw with a moderate villiform band of teeth, in front of which is a single series of 
conical close-set canines. Lower jaw with a single series, similar to outer series of upper jaw, and 
behind them a very narrow band of villiform teeth which grow slightly larger towards symphysis. 
Palate toothless. 

Posterior margin of preopercle vertical, the angle protruding little or not at all. In five young 
specimens, 175 to 275 mm. long, the preopercular teeth are fine, acute, short and inconspicuous, about 
as in species of Pomadasys. They increase but little in size towards the angle, where they are never 
spine-like; below, they are perceptible only in the immediate vicinity of the angle, the remainder of 
the horizontal limb being entire. In the adult the vertical limb is finely and evenly toothed, the angle 
and lower limb slightly roughened or entire. Opercle with two short spinous points, behind the lower 
of which a narrow tongue-shaped process of the subopercle extends to near the edge of opercular 
membrane. The humeral process is very weakly toothed, contrasting with the strongly serrate condition 
in L. siiri^iamensis. Branchiostegals 6. 

Gill-rakers short, two-fifths diameter of eye in young, comparatively shorter in adults, 5 
on vertical limb, all but one of which are broad firmly fixed tubercles, 14 on horizontal limb, the 
anterior two or three tubercular. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 10] 

Spinous dorsal low, with gently niuiKiccl (inliinc. Notch between dorsals shallow, the eleventh 
spine two-thirds the length of the longest, which is contained 2 to 2.'j times in head in the young, 
3 times in atlults. When declined, the spines are i)artially received within a scaly groove. Soft dorsal, 
anal and caudal with Ijasal portions densely scaled, and with series of scales running up on membrane 
to beyond miildle iii fin. Soft dorsal and anal of e(jual height, forming bluntly rounded lobes, the 
longest rays of which are about half head in adults, li to 1 1; in head in young. Third anal spine 
about half length of longest ray. Pectorals shorter than ventrals, 2 to 2.'5 in head; ventrals i J in head 
in young, shorter in adults. 

Scales less strongly ctenoid than in L. sicrinainoisis. Tubes of lateral line mostly simple, 
occasionally with one to three branches. 

Color grayish or brownish, with plumbeous or silvery reflections. The youngest specimens 
show faintly the dark streaks so conspicuous in young of L. surinaiiu'iisis, viz: a pair running back- 
wards from interorbital space; a pair from upper posterior border of eye converging towards front of 
dorsal; a broader band from eye downwards and backwards across cheeks. Soft dorsal, anal and caudal 
uniform blackish, or the caudal with an ill-defined lighter edge. Pectorals translucent; ventrals 
Ijlackish. 

Abundant at Panama, where it is known as Berrugate. 

Family PRIACANTHID.E. 

182. Pseudopriacanthus serrula {Gilbert). 

Only the type known, from Albatross. Station 2797, Panama Bay, 33 fathom.s 
(Gilbert, 1890 6, p. 450). 

Family LUTIANID.E. 

183. Hoplopagrus guentheri GUI. 

This species had not been taken previously farther south than Mazatlan. We 
secured one large specimen with dynamite among the rocky islands in the Bay. It 
must be very rare at Panama. 

Lutianus. 

The characters relied upon to separate Neomoinis, Lutianus, Genyoroge and 
Evophtes, seem wholly lacking in distinctive value. The band of temporal scales 
may be narrow or wide, and may be isolated or may be surrounded by bands of 
smaller scales. All degrees of scaling of top of head are found among the Asiatic 
species, and considerable variation among the American members of the group. The 
temporal ridge never joins the orbital rinj, but terminates at varying distances 
between that and the median crest. Its appro.ximation to the median crest depends 
in part upon its production anteriorly, and this is in many species a rjuestion of age. 
No groups can be separated by this character, nor can the natural affinities of the 
species be determined by its aid. A third character is derived from the emai'gina- 
tion of the preopercle, into which may lit a knob of the interopercle. Most Amer- 
ican species have this weakly developed or absent, but L. jordani forms an obvious 
transition between the two conditions, and this will doubtless be made more complete 
by an examination of the Asiatic forms. Lutianus [Evoplites) viridis is evidently 
the descendant of an Asiatic form, and has the notch and knob strongly developed. 

( 14 ) November 2B, 1003. 



102 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The temporal ridges do not join the median frontal ridge, though they are continued 
well forward and approach it. 

In this pai)er we have used the oldest name, Lutlanus, for all American 
species. 

184. Lutianus jordani {Gilbert). 

Plate XIV, Fig. 29. 
JVeomam's Jordani Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 1251). 

Head 2| to 3 in length; depth 2| to 2f ; eye 4^ in head; dorsal X, 14; anal III, 9; scales 54 
above lateral line, 43 to 47 oblique series running downwards and backwards. 

Body deep, with regular curves, the two profiles nearly equal. Snout short, with gently 
rising up[jer profile, 3^f to 3-J in head. Eye large, its diameter much greater than the width of the 
preorbital at middle of length, where it is one-seventh length of head. Maxillary reaching slightly beyond 
front of pupil, its length equaling that of snout and half eye, 2| in head. Least width of preorbital half 
the diameter of the eye. Temporal ridge ceasing about middle of orbit, much nearer orbital rim than 
median crest, but not confluent with either. Mandibular teeth in a vllliforni band, which is of moderate 
width anteriorly and tapers rapidly on sides. An outer series of distantly placed moderate canines. 
Teeth in premaxillaries similar to those below, the canines small, a pair on each side enlarged, but 
small for this genus. Vomerine teeth in a kite-shaped tract, rapidly reaching its greatest width, then 
tapering slowly backward for twice the distance. The anterior margins are gently concave, the 
posterior deeply so. Preopercular margin with a rather deep emargination above the angle. The 
interopercle forms a slight protuberance opposite the preopercular notch, the prominence failing to fill 
the notch, as it does in viridis and other species of the " Geiiyoroge " group. Above the emargination, 
the edge is very minutely and finely serrulate, at the angle provided with a few short slender rather 
distant teeth. Gill-rakers strong, those above angle short, all but one tubercular, the one at angle 
abruptly lengthened, about half diameter of eye; seven developed on horizontal limb of arch. Posterior 
nostril elliptical. 

Five or six series of scales on cheeks, the band running upward to level of upper margin of 
orbit. A single narrow band of scales on occiput, separated by a naked space from those on nape. 
Top of head, snout, mandible, preopercle, maxillary, and inferior half of interopercle naked. Scales 
above lateral line in series parallel with the lateral line; those below lateral line in horizontal series. 
Scales on the breast not much reduced, as large as those on opercle. Basal half of dorsal and anal 
with series of scales which form a sheath at base; basal three-fourths of caudal densely scaled. 

Dorsal spines heavy, not flexible, the fourth the longest, 2i to 2| in head. Second and third 
anal spines about equal, half the length of snout and eye. Soft dorsal and anal low, rounded, the 
longest ray (measured from free edge of sheath) about one-third head. Caudal lunate, the middle 
rays three-fourths the outer, i| in head. Pectorals very long, nearly reaching vertical from vent, 
1 1 in head. Ventrals i| in head. 

Color: Back and top of head deep olive; lower half of sides and below dark reddish-purple. 
Many of the scales on sides with a silvery spot near the margin, producing faint lengthwise stripes. 
Fins reddish-purple, the basal portions of soft dorsal and caudal tinged with olive. Iris silvery, with 
an inner and an outer orange circle. No blue lines on the head. Inner lining of gill-membranes and 
the shoulder girdle largely orange-red. Pectoral fins orange-brown. 

Of rare occurrence at Panama, but occasionally taken in considerable num- 
bers. It is a small species, reaching a length of about 40 cm. 

185. Lutianus novemfasciatus QUI. 
Occasional; reaching a large size. 



GILBERT AND STAKES — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 103 

i86. Lutianus argentiventris (Peters). 

With the exception of L. guUatus, the most abundant species of the genus. 
The species is marked by the very slender sharp snout, the profile being concave in 
front of the nape, convex behind it. The snout is three-eighths to four-elevenths 
the length of the head, and equals the length of the maxillary; it is not depressed 
anteriorly. The blue stripe below eye is conspicuous only in the young. It may 
extend, without interruption, from the tip of the snout along entire side of head to 
opercular margin. It is more often limited to the anterior part of the head, and 
becomes variously broken up into a series of dashes or dots. 

187. Lutianus Colorado Jordan S Gilbert. 
Not abundant; reaching a large size. 

188. Lutianus guttatus (Sieindachner) . 

The most abundant species of the genus; never reaching a large size. This 
species has the temporal region more extensively scaled than in other American 
representatives of thg genus in the Pacific. The usual temporal band of large scales 
is present, in addition to which are bands of small scales in front of and behind it. 

189. Lutianus aratus (Giinther). 

Less abundant than other species of the genus; several specimens secured. 
The maxillary reaches past the middle of the eye. 

190. Rabirubia inermis (Peters). 

A single mutilated specimen was found. The species must be one of the 
rarest known, as but three specimens have been noted by collectors. The figure 
published by Jordan (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 2nd Ser.,Vol. V, 1895, Plate XXXIX), 
errs in the number and obliquity of the dark streaks above the lateral line. Nineteen 
or twenty of these can be distinguished on the specimen from which the drawing 
was made, and the streak from last dorsal spine runs to the tenth scale of the lateral 
line. The anal fin contains ten rays in each of the Panama specimens known. 

191. Xenichthys xanti Gill. 

Brought to market in abundance. The best description of this species is that 
given by Jordan and Gilbert (1882 a, p. 325) under the name of X xenops. The 
following details may be added. 

Eye 3 to 3^ in head. Scales 52 to 54; those on head and nape less coarsely 
ctenoid than elsewhere. The fourth dorsal spine is as long as the third, or some- 
times a little longer; the fifth is but slightly shorter. In the declined fin, the fifth 
spine reaches past the tips of all the other spines anterior to the tenth; the pectoral 
does not reach the vertical fi-om the vent. In the six specimens counted, the dorsal 
was constantly XI, I, 18, the anal III, 17. 



104 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

We have compared this species with X. agassizii from the Galapagos Islands, 
and find it to differ in having fewer scales, a larger eye and a shorter pectoral fin. 
Jl. agassizii has 58 to 61 scales; the eye is contained ol to 3f times in the head; the 
pectoral reaches to beyond the origin of the anal. 

Family H^MULIDiE. 

192. Haemulon scudderi Gill. 

The most ahnndant species of the genus at Panama. 

In eight half-grown specimens, five have 11 dorsal spines, three have 12 
dorsal spines. In thirty-six young specimens, with the streaks and caudal spot 
still conspicuous, thirty-three have 11 dorsal spines, three have 12 spines. The 
articulated dorsal rays are 16 or 17 in number; the anal rays 7 or 8. In twelve 
specimens from Mazatlan, ten have 12 spines, two have 11. 

In young specimens, are three well-developed streaks and one rudimentary 
one. The uppermost starts on the median line of occiput, runs to the spinous 
dorsal, and is continued along each side of the base of the dorsal, gradually growing 
fainter and disappearing before reaching the second dorsal. A pair begin just 
inside the nostrils, run just above the eyes, diverging backward to a point opposite 
the origin of the dorsal, thence converging to the base of the last dorsal ray, behind 
which the pair unite on upper median line of caudal peduncle, on which they reach 
base of upper caudal rays. Another pair begin at tip of snout and extend backward 
through eye to middle of caudal peduncle, where they become faint or entirely 
disappear. A faint streak extends backward from upper margin of orbit to begin- 
ning of latera,! line, along the anterior part of which it may be faintly indicated. A 
large black oval spot three-fourths the size of the e3^e is half on the caudal peduncle, 
half on the base of the fin. Comparing these streaks, which disappear in adults, 
with the permanent coloi'ation in H. macrostomum, we find them characterized by 
the rudimentai'y condition of the streak along (or just below) the lateral line, and 
the total absence of a streak, present in macrostomum, running from above eye along 
sides just above the lateral line. 

n. scudderi differs from its Atlantic rejiresentative H. parr a: (1) In having 
usually 11 dorsal spines instead of 12; (2) In having longer falcate pectoral fins, 
which extend beyond the tips of the ventrals, and are nearly devoid of scales; (3) 
In the greater compression of occiput and nape, forming a crest which may be traced 
in adults to the interorbital space; (4) In the greater compression of the snout, 
which is also produced upward at tip, so that in adults the upper profile of snout and 
head as far as occiput is concave. In H. parra, the dorsal spines are normally 12. 
In but one specimen of parra out of sixteen examined, have we found 11 spines, a 
number which seems not to be recorded for the species. The pectoral fins are short 
and rounded, not reaching tips of ventrals. They are very densely covered with 
scales to their tips, both membranes and rays being completely invested. The 
ventrals also are ranch more densely scaled than in scudderi. The occiput, najie 
and snout are transversely broadly rounded in both young and old specimens, while 



GILBERT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



105 



the upper profile forms an uninterrupted even curve from tip of snout to front of 
dorsal, and beyond. The fin and scale formula does not difTcM- from that in scud- 
deri, except as noted. Tliere are 52 scales in the lateral line, corresponding with 
the lunnber of vertical series above it. 

Measurements i?i Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Species . 



Locality 



H.'EMULON 
SCUDDF.RI 



Panama 



H.'EMULON 
PARRA 

Havana, 
Cuba 



Length without caudal in mm. ... 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Snout 

Interorbital (bone) 

Ma.xillary 

Third dorsal spine 

Second anal spine 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventrals 

Length of upper lobe of caudal.. 
Height of caudal peduncle 



205 


200 


205 


36 


35i 


36 


40 


37 


37 


n 


71 


9 


>4i- 


14 


15 


9 


9 


7i 


15 


141 


15 


i5i 


15 


16 


15 


Hi. 


1 3* 


28 


29 


23 


22 


22 


21 


26 


27 


20A 


II 


lOi 


1 1 



198 

341 
37 

9 
14 

71 
14 
15 
13 
21 
20 
20 

lO 



193. Haemulon steindachneri {Jordan d- Gilbert). 

Frequent in the market and about the islands in the bay. 
A detailed and wholly satisfactory description of this species is given by Stein- 
dachner (1876 n, p. 15) under the name Hcemulon caudhnacula. 

194. Lythrulon flaviguttatum {Gill). 
Lytkrulon opalescens Jordan & Starks (Jordan, 1895, p. 459, PI. XL; Mazatlan). 

Abundant in the Panama market; often taken with dynamite about the 
islands in the bay. We have compared our specimens with the type of L. opnksceiis, 
and find no differences between them. The following account of opalexcens is based 
on a re-examination of the type, the published description being faulty in several 
respects: 

Head 3r; depth 2|; dorsal XII, 17; anal III, 10 (the last ray cleft to the 
base, the parts somewhat separated, the posterior half again forked, both joining the last 



106 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

iiiterliperaal); snout 3| in head; maxillary 2|; eye (between eyelids) 3|; interorbital 
width (between edges of frontal bone) 4; longest (fourth) dorsal spine 2; longest 
dorsal ray 3|; second anal spine 2|; scales 6 or 7-53-14. Gill-rakers 9+17 on one 
side, 9+19 on the other. 

For comparison, we subjoin a statement of measurements and counts based on 
five Panama specimens of flaviguttatvm, each about the same length as the type of 
opalescens. 

Head 3| to 3| in length; depth 2? to 2' ; dorsal XII, 16; XIII, 16; XII, 
17; XII, 17; XII, 17; the anal has 3 spines and either 10 or 11 rays; when there 
are 10 anal rays, the last ray is divided to the base and the two halves are well 
sei^arated. Snout 3~ to 3| in head; eye (between eyelids) 3| to 4; bony interorbital 
width 3| to 4; longest (fourth) dorsal spine 2; longest dorsal ray 'd\ to 3|; second 
anal spine 2f to 2|; scales 6 or 7-51 to 53-13 or 14; gill-rakers usually 10+18 or 
9+19, in one sjiecimen 11 + 20. 

195. Orthostcechus maculicauda Gill. 

Seldom seen by us. 

Well described and figured by Steindachner (1870 h, p. 12, PI. VI) as Haumdon 
mazatlnnum. The outline of the spinous dorsal is, however, widely different from 
that shown in the figure. It is convexly rounded throughout, not concave behind 
the highest portion of the fin, the second spine exceeds the seventh, and the third 
is usually slightly longer than the fifth. There is usually a faint indication of the 
caudal spot. 

196. Anisotremus pacifici (Giinther). 

Rather common in the Panama market. 

The general color is dusky silvery, with four very faint dusky cross-bars, 
which correspond in position and extent with the more conspicuous bars of A. dovii. 
The soft dorsal, anal and ventrals are blackish, the caudal and pectorals yellowish. 

The species is characterized by the very short, blunt and wide snout, the 
narrow preorbital, the very large eye, the short pectoral, and the short dorsal and 
long anal fins almost devoid of scales. The soft dorsal and anal fins are also rounded 
in contour, the middle dorsal rays being longer than the anterior rays, and the anal 
fin not emarginate, as it is in dovii. 

The head is contained 2yV to 3^ times in the length to base of caudal; the 
depth 2^ to 2|. Eye 4 in head. The preopercular margin is indented above the 
projecting angle, on which the teeth are moderately or scarcely at all enlarged. 
Below the angle, the teeth are again reduced and point downward and backward. 
The normal fin-formula is: dorsal XI, 14; anal III, 10. We find in one specimen 
only, dorsal XII, 13; and in one other, anal III, 9. The second anal spine is con- 
tained 1| to 1^, times in the head; the third anal spine 2; to 3J times. The soft 
dorsal and anal have short series of scales on basal half only of interradial mem- 
branes, the rays, together with the entire distal half of fins, being naked. In both 



GILBERT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 107 

dovii and ccesius, these fins ;ire densely scaled to their tips. The pectorals are short, 
not nearly reaching vertical from tips of vcntrals, their length Ij? in head. The 
scales on the back are in series parallel with the lateral line, but lose their regularity 
under the soft dorsal. There are 5^ or Oi series between the lateral line and the 
base of the spinous dorsal, and 46 to 48 scales in the lateral line. 

197. Anisotremus caesius (Jordan d- GilOerl). 

This species, known hitherto only from the types taken at INIazatlan and one 
specimen from Acapulco, was found to be abundant among the islands in Panama 
Bay. It is readily distinguished from its nearest relatives in the Pacific by its uni- 
form coloration, its longer dorsal fin, and its very long falcate pectoral. The preorbital 
is also wider, four-fifths diameter of eye. None of our specimens show trace of dark 
bars. The description of the types answers well to our specimens, but the maxillary 
extends to middle of eye, instead of " not quite reaching to front of eye." Of nine 
specimens examined, all had 12 dorsal spines; there were eight with 16 dorsal rays, 
one with 15; seven with 10 anal rays, two with 9. The third anal spine is longer 
than in dovii or pacifici, protruding beyond the wide basal sheath for two-fifths 
length of head. The caudal is much more deeply forked and the upper lobe more 
decidedly the longer; the median caudal rays are slightly less than half the upper. 

198. Anisotremus dovii {Giinther). 

Occasionally brought to market. 

The normal fin-formula in this species is: dorsal XI, 14; anal III, 9. We 
have no specimen with 12 spines, but this variation is to be expected. The soft 
dorsal varies to 15, but apparently not to 16. The type was described as having 12 
dorsal spines and 16 rays. The vertical fins are scaled to their tips, but the anterior 
half of each ray, with a narrow strip of the membrane preceding it, is naked. Where 
the rays fork distally, they become entirely invested. There are 64 horizontal series 
of scales between the lateral line and the middle of the spinous dorsal. The pectorals 
do not extend to opposite tips of ventrals, Ig^ in head. 

This species is very close to A. pacifici, but differs in the longer sharper 
snout, larger dorsal and anal spines, greater scaliness of the fins, the presence of but 
9 anal rays, and the intenser color of the bands. 

199. Anisotremus interruptus {Gill). 

We have two specimens, one 23 cm., the other 43 cm. long. They throw no 
additional light on the relation of inlerruptus to its Atlantic representative siirina- 
mensis. In both specimens, the scales above the anterior portion of the lateral line 
are conspicuously enlarged, an oblique series downward and backward from first dor- 
sal spine containing but 7 scales. Specimens of suriiiainensis have somewhat smaller 
scales, and are darker in coloi", especially on the fins. These are slight differences, 
however, and may well prove inconstant. The species interruptus should be accepted 
only provisionally. 



108 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



200. Anisotremus taeniatus Gill. 

Occasional in the market; of moi'e frequent occurrence about the rocky 
islands in the Bay. 

The species is undoubtedly distinct from its Atlantic representative ^4. vir- 
giniGus, although some of the characters which have been relied upon to distinguish 
the two are of no value. Thus, the gill-rakers are alike in both and the eye does 
not differ in size. The second anal spine is variable in both; in t'enialus, its tip 
usually fails to reach the tip of the soft rays, in virginicus it usually reaches beyond 
their tips. 

The most striking difference is in the color, as has been sufficiently described 
by previous authors. In addition, we note that the fins in virginicus are more densely 
scaled, this being especially well marked with the pectorals. The anterior portion of 
the spinous dorsal differs widely in contour: in virginicus, the third spine is longest, 
the second five-sixths or more than five-sixths the length of the fourth; in tamiatus, 
the fourth spine is usually the longest, the second very short, not more than four- 
sevenths the length of the fourth. Our material is not sufficieiit to enable us to deter- 
mine the limits of variation in the relative lengths of the dorsal spines. The pectoral 
seems to be slightly longer in tceniatus, and the preorbital a little narrower, but these 
differences are unimportant. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Species 

Locality 

Len,y;tli without caiuiai in mm, 

Head 

Depth 

Eye ...' 

Snout 

Maxillary 

Interorhital 

Second dorsal spine 

Thirtl dorsal spine 

Fourth dorsal spine 

Second anal spine 

Leng^th of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Upper lobe of caudal 



ANISOTREMUS 
T^NIATUS 



Panama 



170 

33 

49 

8i 

I 2 

9 

9 

10 

i5i 

16I 

16 

36 

23 

29 



193 

33 

48 
8 

12 
91 
9 
9i 

16 

17 
i6i 

36 

22 

29 



ANISOTREMUS 
VIRGINICUS 



Key West, 
Fla. 



180 
33 
49 

8 
12 

9i 

9 

12^ 
16 
'5 
■51 
34 
-3s 
28 



143 

34i 

49 
9 

i2i 
9i 
9| 

12I 

17 
16J 
1 61 
36 

24 
29 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 109 

201. Brachydeuterus nitidus (Steindachner). 

Four specimens taken. They agree with Dr. Steindachner's description in 
most particulars. 

Head 3 to 3] in length without caudal; snout 3 to 3| in head; eye 4 to 4J; 
interorbital (bone) 5. Scales 48 to .50. Two of our specimens have 9 anal rays, one 
has 14 dorsal rays; the others have 8 anal and 15 dorsal rays. The ui)[>er lobe of 
the caudal is consjjicuously longer than the lower lobe. 

202. Brachydeuterus leuciscus (Gimther). 

Very abundant; the young and half-grown specimens exhibit the same bewild- 
ering variety of form and general appearance for which the species is noted in other 
parts of its range. Compared with adults, the young appear much slenderer, with 
longer sharper snout, smaller mouth, and less arched frontal region. The preorbital 
usually appears much wider; but in all these respects there is wide variation among 
young of the same size. It reaches the length of 31 cm.; adults vary little in appear- 
ance, and approach nearly the even contour of Potnndasis panamensia. The pectoral 
is never falcate, and equals the distance from tip of snout to upper preopercular 
margin. 

203. Pomadasis panamensis {Steindachner). 

This species was very abundant at Panama. Our material shows few varia- 
tions from Dr. Steindachner's description. 

Eye 41 to 5J in head; interorbital 4i to 5; second anal spine 2| to 2~. The 
maxillary reaches a vertical from the anterior margin, or the anterior third, of the 
pupil. Dr. Steindachner's statement that the third dorsal spine is from 2 to 2| times 
as long as the second is doubtless a slip of the pen. The third dorsal spine in our 
specimens varies from 3 to 34^ times the length of the second. 

204. Pomadasis bayanus Jordan & Evermann. 

Pristipoma huniilc Kner & Steindachner, 1864, p. 222, PI. I, fig. i. Steindachner, 1879 a, 

p. 33. Not Pristipoma Immilis Bowdich. 
Pomadasis bayanus Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 1331. 

One specimen, 36 cm. long, was taken in the Rio Grande River, at Miraflores, 
a point above tide-level, where the water is perfectly fresh. A small specimen is in 
the museum of Stanford University, collected at San Jose del Cabo, Mexico, by 
Mr. J. F. Abbott. The records do not show whether this specimen was taken in the 
river at San Josi', or in the sea. 

The species is very close to P. crocro, agreeing with it in general shape and 
color, and in fin and scale formulae. Both species have normally 13 dorsal spines. 
P. bayanus has a longer snout, larger mouth and shorter second anal spine. The 
latter varies greatly with age. In our smaller specimen, it reaches far beyond the 
tip of the soft rays, to the base of the anal, and is contained 4 times in the length; in 
the larger specimen, it fails to reach the tip of anal rays, and is contained 64 times 

( 15 I November 30, 1903. 



110 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

in tlie length. The dorsal contains 13 spines, 12 rays; the anal III, 7. The scales 
are very irregular, and difficult to enumerate. We count 52 pores in the lateral line, 
in each specimen. The head is contained 3 times in the length (2-^ is a misprint for 
3| in Jordan & Evermann's description, /. c). 

The eye is contained 5 times in head in the larger specimen, 3| times in the 
smaller; snout 2i\; maxillary 2g in large specimen, 21 in the smaller; fourth dorsal 
sjMne 21 and 2J ; second anal spine 2 and Ig. The base of the second dorsal is one- 
half the base of the spinous dorsal. The gill-rakers are short and weak, 13 on hori- 
zontal limb of arch, 3 or 4 of the anterior being rudimentary, immovable. 

Striking characters of this species are: the ploughshare-shaped snout, narrow- 
ing upward and forward to form a ridge, which terminates in the acutely augulated 
premaxillaries; and the small accessory scales, which are larger than such scales are 
apt to be, are more irregular in shape, and are scattered more widely over the surface 
of the other scales. 

205. Pomadasis macracanthus {Giinther). 

A common species in the market. The following additions to current descrip- 
tions are from specimens 18 to 26 cm. in length. 

Head 2;.; to 21 in length; depth 2| to 2';. Eye 4 J to 4| in head; snout 2 J to 
3|; interorbital (bone) 5 to 5|-. Three of our specimens have 13 dorsal rays, three 
have 14. The anal has constantly 8 soft rays, as described by Giinther, the last split 
ray counting as 1; not 7 rays, as given by Jordan and Evermann (1898, p. 1332). 
Pectoral 3 to 3i in length. 

Our specimens have the scales rather strongly ctenoid, not smooth as described 
by Giinther. 

206. Pomadasis branicki (Steindachner). 

A single specimen was obtained. The dorsal spines seem to be indifferently 
13 or 14 in number. There are 14 in our specimen. 

207. Orthopristis chalceus {Giinther). 

Very common; seen daily in the markets. 

The dorsal spines are usually 12 in number, only one of our specimens has 13; 
the articulated rays are usually 15 (exceptionally IG). We have found no specimen 
with 14 rays, as recorded by Steindachner (1870 b, p. 3, PI. II; as Pristipoma kneri). 
The anal rays are usually 11 in number (exceptionally 12). The tubes in the lateral 
line (corresponding with the series of scales above the lateral line running obliquely 
downward and backward) are 52 to 54 in number. The diameter of the eye equals 
the width of the preorbital, 4| in the head; pectoral 1| to liV; snout 2^ to 2j\; the 
maxillary extends beyond the front of the eye. Brownish streaks follow the centers 
of the rows of scales, alternating with narrower grayish blue streaks along the mar- 
gins of the rows. No pale streak below the dorsal and no darker cross-bands in any 
specimens seen by us. 



GILBERT AND STAEKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 111 

208. Orthopristis brevipinnis (Steindachner). 

Plate XV, Fio. 30. 

Four specimens, from 28 to 31 cm. long, were obtained by us in the Panama, 
market; no others were seen. 

The species has been made the type of a distinct genus {hnciella Jordan & 
Fesler), differing from Orthopristis in the presence of accessory scales, from Micro- 
lepidotus in the larger scales, the presence of accessory scales on the bases of the 
larger ones, and the shorter spinous dorsal. A i-e-examination of Microlepidotus 
inornatns (Magdalena Bay, Albatross collection) shows however that the scales have 
been incorrectly enumerated in that species. They are in reality of the same size 
as the scales in brevipinnis, there being 60 in the lateral line. There are furthermore 
numerous small accessory scales on the bases of the larger ones. The dorsal and 
anal are scaled in inornatns, almost as fully as in hrevipinnis. The two species are 
very closely related, differing principally in the relative sizes of the two dorsal fins. 
This difference is not greater than that occurring between species of Pomadasis or 
Anisotremus, and seems not worthy of generic recognition. In one specimen of 
0. inornatus from Mazatlan, we find 15 dorsal spines. The only character to separate 
the two species as a generic group {Microlepidotus) distinct from Orthopristis, is the 
possession of the small accessory scales on the sides. This character appears also in 
Brachydeuterus, where elongatus and axillaris possess it highly developed, while 
nitidus and coi^viiUBforinis are without it. We have no indication of the condition in 
the type of Brachydeuterus [auritus). Should the latter have no accessory scales, 
the subordinate group consisting of elongatus and axillaris would be without distinct- 
ive name. We have preferred to reduce Microlepidotus to the rank of a subgenus, of 
equal value with Evapristis, which forms a transition between it and the ordinary 
forms of Orthopristis with naked fins and no accessory scales. 

Steindachner's description of the type of brevipinnis (1870r«, p. 10, PI. V) 
refers unquestionably to the present species, but the accompanying figure is so poor 
and inaccurate as to suggest a very different fish. Prominent among the unfortunate 
features in this drawing are: the upper contour, which should be evenly curved from 
snout to caudal peduncle; the dor.sal spines, which should be longer and slenderer; the 
soft dorsal, which is much moi'e completely scaled; the streaks above the lateral line, 
which are much less oblique, mach wider, more irregular and wavy, and less 
numerous; the series of scales below the lateral line, with their accompanying 
streaks, which should be horizontal, instead of oblique. 

The usual fin formula is: dorsal XIII, 17; anal III, 13 or 14. The third 
dorsal spine is the longest, 2^ to 24 in the length of the head. The lateral line con- 
tains 60 to 62 tubes. 

The scales in the species of Orthopristis are more nearly uniform in size than 
current descriptions would seem to indicate. 0. forhesi, from Albemarle Island, 
Galapagos Group, is said to have 80 to 85 series of scales. Examination of one of 
the types makes it evident that the vertical rows were counted, instead of the 
oblique rows. The number of oblicjue rows corresponding to the pores in the lateral 
line is 65. 



112 CALipOENIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 

Family SPARID^. 

209. Calamus brachysomus {Lockington). 

Chrysopluys calamus Gunther, 1869, p. 421 (Panama). 

Known from the Gulf of California, from Panama, and from Santa Helena 
Bay, near Guayaquil (Boulenger, 1898-9, Vol. XIV, p. 7). 

Several small specimens were seen in tbe market and a number of large 
individuals were taken by tbe aid of dynamite about the islands. Four specimens 
were preserved, ranging in length from 23 to 43 cm. 

Its southern representative, G. taurinus, is a more slender species and has 
shorter dorsal sjiines and a shorter pectoral. Two specimens of taurinus which we 
have examined from the Galapagos are darker in color, especially about the head, 
and have the inner base of the pectoral blackish. 

The original description of C. brachysotnus contains numerous errors and can- 
not be relied upon. To the description given by Jordan and Evermann (1898, 
p. 1453), we make the following additions: 

Head 3]^ to 3| in length; depth 2 to 2|. Eye 3| to 4^ in head; snout 1| to 
1|. The maxillary reaches to below the anterior orbital rim. There are but five very 
small, short gill-rakers on the lower branchial arch. In our specimens, the dorsal is 
constantly XII, 12 and the anal III, 10. The third dorsal si:)ine is contained 1^ to 
2f times in the head; the second anal spine is generally longer than the third, but 
does not reach to its tip in the declined fin. Its length is 85 to 4^ in head. 



GILBEKT AND STARKS — PISHES OP PANAMA BAY 



113 



MeastircDicnts in Hundredths of Length ivithoiit Caudal. 



Species 

Locality 

LeiiL;tli u itliuut caudal in iiiiii 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Preorbital (least depth) 

Interorbital (bone) 

Snout 

Maxillary 

Pectoral 

Third dorsal spine 

Second anal spine 

Ventral 

Caudal 

Caudal peduncle (height) 



BRACHYSOMUS 



Panama 



La Paz, 
L.C. 



TAURINUS 



Galapagos 
Islands 



286 


177 


175 


255 


286 


31 i 


31 


31 


31 


34 i 


48 


46 


49 


46 


43 


7 


8 


8| 


71 


1\ 


Hi 


12 


12 


13I 


i4i 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8i 


19 


17 


18I 


19 


20 


13 


12 


12 


i3i 


15 


37 


37 


40 


371 


35 


i6i 


16 


16 


17 


12 


7 


8 


9i 


7 


7 


22 


23i- 


24 


22 


18 


26 


29 


31 


Broken 


26 


9 


IO| 


II 


9 


9 



216 

3'1 
42 i 

8 
iii 

8 

i7i 

I2i 

36 

13 

61 
22 
31 

9 



Family GERRIDiE. 

21.0. Eucinostomus californiensis (Gill). 
Diapterus dowii Gill, 1863, p. 162. 

We found this species very common at Panama, and carefully selected a 
series of about twenty specimens, with a view to exhibiting all the variations to which 
it is subject. We have also a large number of specimens from other localities. 

Our extensive series seems to prove E. dowii to be invalid. It is alleged to 
differ from this species in having the maxillary groove " linear " instead of " broad 
and semi-oval "; in having the scales 5-47-10 instead of 6-44-13, and in having the 
" spinous dorsal blackish at the margin " rather than " fins immaculate." 

Our specimens show all intermediate stages of the maxillary groove, from 
linear to broadly U-shaped. In some individuals the groove is as wide at the anterior 
or open end as at the middle, but in most of them it is more or less constricted ante- 
riorly by the encroachment of the scales on each side. In one specimen the groove 
is wholly closed in front by the meeting of these scales. The scale-formula in our 



114 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



specimens is 5-44 or 45-10. The margin of the spinous dorsal varies in color from 
dusky to black, but we have some small specimens, collected by the Albatross, in 
which the fins may be said to be immaculate. 

Our specimens of the young up to 65 mm. in length show light brown cross- 
bars on back. One at the nape runs obliquely downward and backward to the upper 
end of gill-opening; one at the front of the spinous dorsal runs obliquely downward 
and forward to lateral line, nearly meeting the one at the nape; between these there 
is a shorter vertical bar, and more posteriorly are several bars running downward and 
forward, which become more or less indefinite along the middle of their lengtli. One 
or two of these bars are represented by the spots on the upper edge and at the middle 
of the caudal ^^eduncle. 

Our material from the Atlantic is so meager that we are unable to discuss 
relationships between E. calif orniensis, E. harengulus, and E. pseudogula. 

J\/fasure»ic>tts in Hundredths of Length ^cithout Caudal. 



Locality 

Length without caudal ex- 
pressed in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Eye (inside of adipose eyelid). 

Pectoral 

Second dorsal spine 

Second anal spine 

Caudal 

Ventrals 

Snout 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Scales 



Panama 



Chatham 
L, Gala- 
pagos 



149 
32 
37 
10 

34 

19 

9 

27 

17 
1 1 

IX, 9 

HI, 7 
5-44-10 



153 
33 
38 
10 

32 

19 

9 

28 
18 
10 

IX, 9 

III, 7 

5-44-10 



150 
31 
37 
10 

32 

18 

7i 
26 

17 

lOi 
IX, 9 
III, 7 
5-45-10 



154 

32 
37 

9 
32 
18 

8 

27 

16 

1 1 

IX, 9 

III, 7 

5-45-10 



149 
31 
36 

9 
33 
i7i- 

8 

27 

17 

10 

IX, 9 

III, 7 
5-44-10 



95 
33 
36 
10 

33, 
18 

9 
26 
18 
Hi 

IX, 9 

III, 7 
5-44-10 



80 
33 

38 

ID 
32 
17 

9 



18 
10 

IX, 9 

111,7 
5-45-10 



156 

30 

32 

9 

32 

i7i 
81 
28 
16 
lOi 

IX, 9 

III, 7 

5-45-10 



211. Xystsema cinereum {Walhaum). 

Panama records are by Giinther, 1869, p. 391 (as Oerres squamipinnis) ; and 
Jordan, 1885, p. 384. 

212. Gerres aureolus Jordan <t- Gilbert. 
Known only from the type taken by Gilbert at Panama in 1881. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 115 

213. Gerres peruvianus Guvier S Valenciennes. 

We found this species very common at Panama. From G. olisthostomus it 
differs in having the premaxillary groove scaleless, a smaller eye, smaller and 
crowded teeth, and a higher sheath of scales to dorsal and anal. From G. aureolas 
(as described) it differs in having the eye not larger than length of snout or width 
of interorbital, and in having the second dor.sal spine much stronger than the others, 
and much more than half length of head (second dorsal spine of G. peruvianus is 
from lyV to 11 in head). 

214. Gerres brevimanus Giinther. 

Probably not common; we collected five specimens ranging in entire length 
from 23 to 36 cm. The species may be at once distinguished from all other Amer- 
ican species by the short pectoral, which never reaches the vertical from the vent, 
and which equals in length the post-nasal part of the head. 

The lips are much thickened, especially the lower one. In the smaller 
specimen the breadth of the lower lip at its widest part is contained 3f times in the 
diameter of the eye. In the largest one, it is contained 2|^. Between these there is 
a regular gradation, with the exception of the next to the largest specimen (31 cm. 
long), in which the lips are much wider than in any other. In this, the lower lips 
are thickened until they meet on the median line, and appear as a medially divided 
flap, which extends backward to below the corners of the mouth, where it is trun- 
cated. We cannot determine whether this is a sexual character, as our specimens 
unfortunately have been eviscerated. 

The ujiper profile of the head is concave above the eyes and convex above 
the nostrils; the snout is blunt, in the large specimens projecting beyond the tip of 
the lower jaw a third of the diameter of the eye, in the small specimens somewhat 
less. The eye varies much with the size of the fish and is contained (inside of the 
adipose eyelid) from 3i to 41- times in the length of the head. Its width nearly 
equals the length of the snout in the smallest specimens; in the largest ones it is 
contained from 14^ to If times in the snout. 

The gill-rakers are very short, 9+13 in number. The exposed portion of 
the maxillary varies in length from 4| to 4^ in the length of the head. The ventral 
spine is stout and blunt, about six-tenths of the longest ventral ray. The second 
anal spine does not project beyond the third, which about equals the soft rays. The 
third dorsal spine projects beyond the second, sometimes beyond the fourth. 

The streaks along the rows of scales are scarcely fainter than in G. lineatus; 
those above the lateral line are as conspicuous as those below. 

Gunther's statement that the length of the head is twice and a half in the 
length of the body is evidently a misprint. It should read thrice and a half. 



116 



CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal in mm 

Head 

Depth at base of first dorsal spine. 

Eye between adipose eyelids 

Snout 

Exposed portion of maxillary 

Interorbital 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventrals 

Second dorsal spine 

Second anal spine 

Caudal 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Scales 



170 


210 


227 


247 


30 


31 A 


3ii 


31 i 


45 


43 


45 


42! 


^ 


7i 


8 


7 


9 


lOl 


1 1 


12 


6 


6 


7 


8 


10 


9h 


10 


II 


24 


25 


24 


23 


25 


26 


24 


24 


23 


21 


22 


20 


19 


i7i 


18 


16 


36 


3S 


35 


34 


ix, 10 


IX, 10 


IX, 10 


IX, 10 


III, 8 


in, 8 


III, 8 


III, 8 


6-40-1 1 


6-39-1 1 


6-39-1 1 


6-40-1 1 



278 
31 
45 

7 



io->- 
24i 

24i 

i9i 

17 

34 

IX, 9 

III, 8 
6-39-1 1 



Family KYPHOSID^. 

215. Kyphosus elegans {Pelcm). 

Abundant in the market; also taken by us about the rocky islands. No speci- 
mens of K. analogus were observed, though these were carefully looked for. It is 
probable that Panama records of K. analogus refer to elegans. The differences 
separating these closely related species are well shown by our specimens. The scales 
are comjiaratively large, there being 63 to 68 in the lengthwise series above the 
lateral line. The anal is more elevated than the dorsal, the height of its anterior 
rays being contained 14 times in the base of the soft portion of the fin. There seem 
to be constantly 13 rays in the second dorsal and 12 in the anal (instead of 12 in one 
and 11 in the other). 

Our specimens vary widely in color. One is almost uniformly deep bronze 
on head, body, and fins, there being only faint traces jjosteriorly of the lighter streaks 
which in other S2)ecimens follow the centers of the rows of scales. Other specimens 
approach more nearly the bright coloration found in K. analogus, some of the streaks 
being noticeably blue. 

216. Sectator ocyurus {Jordan tC- Gilbert). 

Seen on two occasions only, but present then in considerable numbers. 
We have the following corrections to make in the original description: The 
eye is contained 4^^ to 4| times in the head (not 4). The scales on the breast are 



GILBEET AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 117 

much reduced in size. The base of the spinous dorsal is two-thirds (not nearly equal 
to) the length of the soft dorsal or anal. The soft dorsal contains 15 (not 13) rays. 

Family SCI^NID^. 

217. Isopisthus remifer Jordan & Gilbert. 

Abundant; known only from Panama. This sjiecies is probably distinct from 
its very close Atlantic representative, /. pai^vijnnnis, but no specimens of the two 
have been directly compared, and the characters alleged to distinguish them are in 
need of verification. /. remifer is said to have longer pectoral fins and more numer- 
ous rays in the anal fin. In seven specimens at hand, however, the pectoral is 
shorter than the description of the type would indicate, equaling the length of the 
head behind the front of the pupil, and contained 1^^ to If in the length of the head. 
They agree in this character wholly with the type of /. i^arvipinnis (see Jordan, 
1883, p. 289), and with its synonym /. affinis Steindachner. /. remifer is said to 
have 19 rays in the anal, as contrasted with 16 or 17 in parvipinnis. The only reli- 
able information concerning the condition in parvipinnis is derived from Steindach- 
ner's descriiJtion and figure of /. affinis. In two specimens examined by him, the anal 
fin contained 16 and 17 rays. In seven specimens of I. remifer, the anal counts are 
as follows: 16, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 18. In the type of remifer, there are said to be 19 
rays. It is impossible to pronounce upon the distinctness of these two species until 
adequate Atlantic material is at hand for comparison. 

The dentition has been insufiiciently described by all observers. It differs in 
no essential respect from that characteristic of Cynoscion. The mandible contains 
an outer series of minute teeth, closely associated with an inner series of elongate 
canine-like teeth of considerable size. The canines are not definitely 3 in number, 
as described by Steindachner, but vary from 6, the normal number, to 2 or 3, the 
missing ones having become accidentally detached. The canines are largest along 
the middle of the side of the mandible, and cease before reaching the symphysis, the 
tip of the mandible being occupied by a double series of very small teeth. On the 
sides of the upper jaw is an outer row of slightly enlarged teeth, and a narrow band 
of villiform teeth behind it. Anteriorly the band disappears and gives place to a 
short inner series, the median pair of which are enlarged to form the very conspicuous 
fangs. 

The scales agree in size in the two species, there being 52 to 55 enlarged 
scales along the lateral line, and above the lateral line 70 to 75 oblique series running 
downward and backward. 

Isojnsthus seems to diflfer inadequately from the genus Archoscion, being dis- 
tinguished only by the longer interval between the dorsal fins. 



(16) December 4, 1903. 



118 



OALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length to base of caudal in mm. .. 

Depth 

Head from tip of upper jaw 

Eye 

Maxillary 

Least width of suborbitals (bone) 

Interorbital (bone) 

Length of third dorsal spine 

Length of fifth dorsal ray 

Length of fifth anal ray 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventrals 

Length of caudal 

Height of caudal peduncle 



221 


202 


25 


24 


32 


32 


7 


7 


14 


H^ 


If 


If 


6 


6 


I2i 


i3i 


I2i 


i3i 


" 


I2i 


2li 


22i 


16 


17 


i7i 


18 


9 


9 



218. Cynoscion prsedatorius {Jordan d- Gilbert). 

Occasionally coming into the market in considerable numbers, reaching a 
length of 75 to 110 cm. It is strongly distinguished from all other species of Cijnos- 
cion by its more oblique mouth and heavier mandible. As this character seems to us 
insufficient to warrant generic separation, we do not recognize the nominal genus 
BuGCone based upon it. 

In twelve specimens, three have 18 dorsal rays, seven have 19 rays, one speci- 
men has 20 rays, and one but 15. The last-mentioned seems normal in every way. 
There is no distinct sheath at the base of the soft dorsal. The anal fin contains 2 
spines (not 1, as described) and 9 rays. 

The scales above the lateral line increase in size posteriorly to below the mid- 
dle of the soft dorsal, and decrease somewhat on the very slender caudal peduncle. 
There are 65 to 70 oblique rows running downward and»i)ackward. The posterior 
nostril is obovate in shape. 

219. Cynoscion squamipinnis (Gilnther). 

Not rare in the Bay of Panama. 

As stated by Steindachner, the scales along the lateral line are decidedly 
larger than the others. There are 47 to 50 of these enlarged scales, and an equal 
number of oblique rows of scales I'unning downward and backward above the lateral 



GlLBEBT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY HO 

line. The enumeration of scales in current descriptions (70 and 85) is based on 
the vertical series above the lateral line. 

The spinous dorsal is shorter than in any other species of tlie genus, contain- 
ing constantly 8 spines, of which the first is short, firmly attached to the second, and 
the eighth usually adnate to the back. The pectorals reach to or nearly to the 
vertical from the tips of the ventrals. 

220. Cynoscion othonopterus Jordan & Gilbert. 
Obtained at Panama by Gilbert (Jordan, 1885, p. 383); not seen by others. 

221. Cynoscion reticulatus {Gi'mther). 

CORBINA RALLADA. 

Abundant; not reaching a large size. 

222. Cynoscion albus {Gi'mther). 

CORBINA AMARILLA. 

Abundant at Panama, reaching a large size, specimens 220 cm. long coming 
frequently to the market. This species and G. stohmanni reach the largest size, and are 
the most important food-fishes of the genus at Panama. C. albus is readily distinguished 
from other Panama species by the nearly naked dorsal and anal, the lanceolate 
caudal, the large scales, and the long pectorals. From 0. stohmanni, it is addi- 
tionally distinguished by the wider head, the blunt snout, with its decurved upper 
profile, by the longer, slenderer caudal peduncle and by the presence of much brassy 
yellow on the lower half of the sides, this being especially marked in adults. The 
median caudal rays are also much more produced than in C. stohmanni of the same 
size, and the lateral line is more arched anteriorly. Opercle largely black on its 
inner face. 

D. IX or X-I, 19 to 22. A. II, 8 or 9. Lateral line with 53 or 54 pores 
(counted to base of caudal); 57 to 60 oblique rows of scales running downward and 
backward above the lateral line. Head 3^ to 3^^ in length; maxillary 2\ in head. 
Usually 9 movable gill-rakers on horizontal limb of arch. The sheath of scales at 
the base of the dorsal fin is much wider than in C. stohmanni. Series of scales 
accompany the first few rays of dorsal and anal, the remainder of each fin being naked. 
The posterior nasal opening is narrovvly elliptical or ovate, much wider than in 
0. stohmanni. 

223. Cynoscion stolzmanni (Steindachner) . 

CORBINA BLANCA. 

Abundant in the Panama market, reaching a length of 220 cm.; the most 
highly prized representative of the genus at Panama. 



120 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

We have little to add to Steindachner's excellent description. The depth is 
contained 41 times, rather than 4 times, in the length; both dorsal and anal are scaled 
on one or more of their anterior rays. The species has normally 10 dorsal spines 
(rarely 9). 

The second dorsal and caudal are margined with blackish. The upper half of 
the axil of the pectoral is black. The membranous fold behind the mandibular teeth 
is black, contrasting strongly with the rest of the mouth. The gill-cavity is largely 
blackish, especially the lining membrane of the opercle. The ventrals, pectoral and 
anal fins are without dusky markings, except on the inner face of the upper pectoral 
rays. 

224. Cynoscion phoxocephalus Jordan & Gilbert. 

This strongly marked form is known as yet only from Panama Bay, where 
we have found it to be abundant. 

The dentition differs in no essential respect from that found in other species 
of Cynoscion. All of the teeth are smaller, including the anterior pair of canines in 
the premaxillaries. The arrangement differs somewhat from that ascribed to the 
type. The premaxillary teeth are in a band throughout, which contains everywhere 
more than two series. Along the sides of the jaw, the outer series consists of stronger 
conical teeth which are scarcely larger than those behind them. Anteriorly the 
band widens, and bears along its posterior edge a converging pair of small canines. 
The mandibular band is widest near the symphysis, where it consists of three series, those 
of the outer series somewhat stronger than the others. Laterally, the band rapidly 
narrows, at first to two series, the inner of strong conical teeth, the outer very small; 
then the outer series disappears, those of the remaining series increasing in size toward 
the angle of the mouth. 

The scales above the lateral line are in 85 to 90 oblique series, downward and 
backward. Those of the lateral line are enlarged, as usual in the genus, but are so 
concealed by smaller scales, that they are difficult to enumerate. 

The spinous dorsal is more elevated than in other species of the genus, the 
third spine often reaching the tip of the last spine when depressed. The last dorsal 
spines are very delicate, one or more of them often lacking; the spines are normally 
10 in number. The second dorsal is without a definite scaly sheath; small scales 
encroach on the thickened base of its anterior rays. 

The posterior nostril is a narrowly oblong slit, scarcely larger than the ante- 
rior pore-like opening. 

In life, grayish silvery above, with bluish and greenish reflections, silvery 
below; mouth cavity orange-yellow; opercular lining jet-black. A black humeral 
blotch, concealed by gill-cover. Anal and lower caudal lobe tinged with yellow; 
fins otherwise translucent-dusky. 



GILBERT AND STARK8 — FISHES OP PANAMA BAY 121 

225. Sagenichthys mordax sp. nov. 

Plate XVI, Fig. 32. 

This species, which comes rather abundantly to the market at Panama, has 
been identified heretofore with Sagenichthys ancylodon from the Atlantic. No satis- 
factory material from opposite sides of the Isthmus has ever been compared, and 
none from the Atlantic is now available to the authors. But if current descriptions 
of S. ancylodon are at all reliable, there can be no question as to the validity of the 
form here described, which is distinguished by the greatly enlarged scales along the 
course of the lateral line, and by the much smaller size of the scales covering the 
body generally, as shown by the number of oblique rows above the lateral line. The 
gill-rakers are shorter than in S. ancylodon. 

Dorsal X, I, 28-30; anal II, 9 or 10. Head 3^ in length; depth 4|. Snout 4^- to 4^ in 
head; eyes (between edges of adipose eyelids) 6i in head in adults 38 cm. long, 5^ to 5| in speci- 
mens 25 cm. long. The width of the bony interorbital space is slightly greater than the distance from 
the tip of the snout to the posterior nostril, slightly less than 5 times in the head. ' In younger speci- 
mens, it equals the length of snout as far as posterior nostril. 

The maxillary is longer in young specimens, its length contained 2 to 2\ times in the head; in 
larger specimens 2' to 2|. The premaxillaries have an outer series of arrow-shaped teeth, which are 
very long toward the center of the jaw, and decrease in size regularly toward the angle of the mouth. 
Anteriorly, behind the outer row, is a short series of three teeth on each side the median line, one of the 
anterior pair, or rarely both, greatly elongate, much exceeding any of the other teeth in size. 
Along the posterior half of each premaxillary, there is a narrow inner band of small cardiform teeth, 
which retain the form of the canines, each tooth having a distinctly lancet-shaped head, and a longi- 
tudinally-ridged stalk. Near the hinder end of the band, the outer row of canines become so reduced 
as to be indistinguishable from the teeth lying behind them. The sides of the mandible contain an inner 
series of large arrow-shaped canines, and a single outer series of slender teeth, similarly provided with 
arrow-shaped tips. Anteriorly on each side, the inner series of canines terminates, and an outer series 
of still larger canines develops, consisting normally of four teeth on each side the symphysis, of which 
the second pair are the largest. These are not continuous with the outer series of small teeth which 
occupy the sides of the jaw, as the latter bend around behind the anterior canines, where the two 
series overlap. The larger canines are subject to frequent injury, and are rapidly replaced by others 
occupying the same position. The lower jaw projects so that the anterior mandibular canines close 
outside the upper lip. 

The gill-rakers are proportionately longer in young specimens, in which the longest is one- 
third to two-fifths the diameter of the eye. There are 7 to 9 movable rakers on the horizontal limb of 
the outer arch. 

The dorsal spines are very slender and weak. The membrane behind the tenth spine joins the 
base of the eleventh, which is attached for its entire length to the first soft ray. All the fins are densely 
scaled to their tips. The caudal fin is doubly concave, the median rays greatly protruding in the 
young, less so in adults. The pectoral fins are very long, extending nearly twice as far as the ven- 
trals, 1} to i^ in the head in specimens 12 inches long (injured in larger specimens). Ventrals 2 J 
in head. 

The scales are very small, those above the lateral line arranged in about 105 oblique series 
running downward and backward. The scales bearing the pores of the lateral line are much enlarged, 
47 to 50 in number, counted to the base of the median caudal rays. These enlarged scales are covered 
and in part concealed by small scales similar to those above the lateral line. 



122 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



In life, grayish brown above, with bluish and greenish reflections, bright silvery below. The 
dorsal and caudal are dusky, the caudal often with narrow blackish margin, but without any deepening 
of color in the lower lobe. Ventrals and anal unmarked. Upper half of axil black, the inner face of 
the pectoral dusky, especially in its upper portion. Gill-cavity more or less dusky. 

Measuremeyits in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length to caudal base, in mm 

Depth 

Head from tip of upper jaw 

Eye between adipose eyelids 

Maxillary 

Least width of suborbital (bone only)... 
Interorbital width above middle of eye... 

Length of third dorsal spine 

Length of soft dorsal base 

Height of anal 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventrals 

Length of caudal (middle rays) 

Least height of caudal peduncle 



345 


292 


22 


22 


34 


31 


4f 


5 


i4i 


15 


I A 


li 


7 


6^ 


II 


94 


37 


38 


II 


1 1 


20i- 


21 


13 


14 


17 


19 


8 


8i 



229 

21 

3oi 

5l 
Hi 

1 1 

36 

24 

144 
21 



226. Nebris occidentalis Vaillant. 

GUAVINA. 

Nebris zestus Jordan & Starks (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 1417). 

Abundant. 

In Sagenichthys, Isopisthus and Nebris, we have genera each of wliich is 
represented by one species on the Pacific coast of Central America, and a supposedly 
different, but very closely related representative form in the Atlantic. Unfortunately> 
we have no Atlantic material for comparison in any of these cases. This is to be 
regretted the more, as no direct comparisons have ever been made, and the distinctive 
characters relied upon may prove to be fictitious. 



GILBERT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 
Measurements in Himdredths of Length without Caudal. 



123 



Length from tip of upper jaw to caudal base in mm. 

Depth 

Head, from tip of upper jaw 

Eye 

Maxillary 

Least width of suborbital 

Interorbital (bone) 

Length of third dorsal spine 

Length of fifth dorsal ray 

Length of longest anal ray 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventrals 

Length of middle caudal rays 

Least height of caudal peduncle 



246 
26 
31 

3i 
14 

4 
10 
10 

lOj 

13 

27 

19 
22 

9 



224 

24 
32 

3i 
14 

4 
1 1 

9i 
1 1 

i3i 
29 
18 
22 
8i 



227. Larimus argenteus {Gill). 

BOCATUERTA BLANCA. 

Very abundant. 

In this species, a vertical line from the corner of the closed mouth passes mid- 
way between the front of the orbit and the tip of the snout. The length of the snout 
is two-fifths that of the maxillary. The gape is arched, with the convexity behind. 
The anterior (lower) margin of the mandible is also strongly arched with its convexity 
forwards. The eye is smaller than in any other species of the genus, 4| to 5 in head, 
in adults. 

In life, very brilliant silvery on sides and below, the upper parts faintly olive, 
with silvery, greenish and bluish reflections. The dorsal and anal are slightly dusky, 
the pectorals translucent, the anal and ventrals white or faintly straw-colored. 

228. Larimus effulgens Gilbert. 

Plate XVI, Fig. 33. 

Larimus effulgens Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 142 1). 

Very close to L. acclivis, with which it agrees in almost all details of structure. The color 
is, however, bright silvery without trace of stripes, as in L. argenteus. The pectoral fin is also much 
longer. 

Dorsal XI, 28 to 30; anal II, 6; pectoral 16; head 3^ to 3^;; depth 2| to 3; pores of lateral 
line 49 or 50. 



X24 CALIFOBNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Mouth slightly more oblique than in Larinms acclivis, much less so than in L. argcntens. 
Premaxillaries anteriorly on a level with middle of pupil (lower part of pupil in L. acclivis). Maxillary 
about reaching vertical from front of pupil, 2| to 2\ in head. Teeth minute, close-set, even, in a single 
series in each jaw, none of them enlarged. Eye large, 3| to 4| in head. Interorbital space 4^ to 4^. 
Preopercular margin membranous, with flexible ribs ending in minute spinules. Gill-rakers very long, 
two-thirds diameter of orbit, 19 or 20 on horizontal limb of arch. 

Dorsal spines high and flexible, the first two not noticeably thickened. Tenth spine shortest. 
Third dorsal spine longest, 2 to 2\ in head. Soft dorsal very long, its base 2\ to 2^ in length. 
The longest dorsal ray equals length of snout and eye. Second anal spine very strong, 2\ to 2^ m 
head. Pectoral very long and narrow, 1-}^ longer than head, injured in most specimens. Ventrals 
reaching to or slightly beyond vent, i\ in head. Caudal lanceolate, the middle rays much produced, 
as long as head. Tubes of lateral line much branched. Definite scaly sheaths along bases of dorsal 
and anal. Basal portions of membranes of vertical fins with series of scales. 

Bright silvery, the back grayish. Lining of cheeks black, a small black blotch on upper third 
of axil. Ventrals, anal and lower caudal rays bright orange-yellow; fins otherwise dusky-translucent. 

Kather common at Panama, where numerous specimens were secured. 
229. Larimus acclivis Jordan & Bristol. 

Pl.\te XVII, Fig. 34. 
BOCATUERTA RALLADA. 

A common species in the Panama market. Our material agrees with the 
types of the species in those points which are supposed to be distinctive of this Pacific 
form. The black streaks are conspicuous, and the second anal spine is constantly 
shorter than the soft rays, 2J to 2| in the head. The region about the pseudobranchise 
is largely black. 

230. Larimus pacificus Jordan <i- Bolivian. 

Not seen by us; the type dredged by the Albatross in Panama Bay, Station 
2802, 16 fathoms. It was subsequently dredged in the Gulf of California, Stations 
3021 and 3026, 14 and 17 fathoms. 

231. Odontoscion xanthops Gilbert. 

Plate XVII, Fig. 35. 

Odontoscion xanthops Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1S98, p. 1426). 

' Head 3 in length; depth 3!; dorsal XII, 27; anal II, 8; pectoral 17; pores in lateral line 50. 
Head and body elongate, compressed, narrow. Dorsal and ventral outlines nearly equally 
curved. Profile slightly depressed over front of orbits, the snout bluntish, not protruding. Jaws 
equal, the lower wholly included, the symphysis prominent, slightly passing the premaxillaries. 
Mouth very oblique, the maxillary reaching slightly behind middle of eye, 2^ in head. Tip of maxil- 
lary broad. Mental and rostral pores of moderate size, not conspicuous. A series of slender canines 
in lower jaw, preceded by an irregular outer villiform row, most evident toward symphysis. The 
series of canines turns inward and backward on the symphyseal protuberance, the innermost pair 
enlarged, directed backward. Upper jaw with a series of conical teeth, similar to those on sides of 
mandible, separated by a considerable interspace from an inner series of very small close-set teeth, 
directed backward. Eye very large, subcircular, the longest diameter 3| in head; snout 4!; inter- 



GILBERT AND STABKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 125 

orbital width 4|. A definite supraorbital ridge. Suborbitals narrow. Preopercular margin without 
definite s|)ines, with minute crenulations, which end in spinous points. Gill-rakers long and slender, 
1 6 on horizontal limb of arch, the longest two-fifths diameter of orbit. 

Spinous dorsal very high, of weak flexible spines, none of which are thickened. The third 
spine is the highest, as long as snout and eye; eleventh spine shortest. Second anal spine strong, 
equaling length of snout and half eye. Pectorals short, not reaching tips of ventrals, iy\ in head. 
Ventrals not reaching vent, extending half way from their base to front of anal. Caudal apparently 
short and rounded; somewhat mutilated in the type, as are the soft dorsal and anal. 

Scales large, weakly ctenoid, except on head, where they are cycloid. Maxillary, tip of man- 
dible, and extreme tip of snout naked; head otherwise completely invested. A definite sheath of scales 
at base of soft dorsal. Soft portions of all the vertical fins with membranes scaled. 

Dark steel-gray, with olive tinge above, silvery below, the lower parts coarsely punctate with 
brown. Blackish streaks follow the rows of scales, those below the lateral line broad, horizontal, 
conspicuous; those above lateral line narrower, less intense, the anterior ones directed obliquely 
upwards, those under soft dorsal nearly horizontal. Fins dusky, the anal, lower caudal lobe, and the 
terminal portion of ventrals black. Iris bright yellow. Roof of mouth and sides of mandible within 
orange-yellow, the membrane within mandibular teeth black. Tongue faintly yellow. A dusky 
yellow bar above and one below pseudobranchite, the gill-cavity otherwise silvery. 

A single specimen, 19 cm. long, from Panama Bay. 

232. Corvula macrops {Steindachner). 

This species is frequent about the islands in Panama Bay. We collected five 
specimens, which we have examined in connection with a si^ecimen collected at 
Mazatlan by the Hopkins Expedition. 

These all seem to be darker and have more pronounced stripes along the rows 
of scales than Steindachner's figure (1876 a, PL II) of the type would indicate. 

We may supplement the original description as follows: Head 3i to 3| in 
length; depth 2|- to 3^^. Eye 3| to 4 in head; snout 4 to 4^. Two specimens have 
52 transverse series of scales; one has 53; three have 54. The anal is constantly II, 
10; the dorsal as follows: three specimens, XI, I, 25; one specimen XI, I, 24; one 
specimen XI, I, 26. 

233. Elattarchus archidium {Jordan (Ss Gilbert). 

Frequently taken on sandy shores. 

The dorsal formula has been incorrectly given. There are 11 (rarely 10) 
dorsal spines, and 26 or 27 articulated rays. In eight specimens, the second dorsal 
contained rays as follows: 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 27, 27. The diameter of the eye is 
constantly less than the interorbital width and is contained 4] to 5 times in the head; 
interorbital width 3^ to 4J. The caudal is strongly emarginate or shallowly lunate. 

Along the sides of the mandible, there is a series of minute teeth along the 
outer edge of the row of canines (as in Cynoscion) ; as we approach the symphysis 
these increase in size until they come to equal those of the inner series, which 
decrease rapidly in size along this part of the jaw. Two irregular series are thus 
formed, which turn backward on the symphyseal knob, the pair of large canines being 

( 17 ) December 8, 1903. 



126 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

the last teeth of the inner series. Along the front and sides of the upper jaw are two 
series, an outer row of enlarged canine-like teeth (smaller, however, than the large 
teeth along the middle of the mandible), and an inner row of slender curved cardi- 
form teeth curving directly backward. Those along the front of each jaw are larger 
and more widely spaced than the others. Behind the middle of the premaxillary, 
the inner series develops into a narrow band. The canines diminish in size laterally 
and become finally indistinguishable from the teeth of the band. 

A specimen of this species secured by the Albatross in San Juan Lagoon, 
near Guayraas, Gulf of California, has been compared with our material; no differ- 
ences appear to exist. In this specimen, also, there are 26 rays in the second dorsal 
fin. 

234. Bairdiella ensifera {Jordan & Gilbert). 

A common fish in the markets. It is well separated from B. icistia by the 
shorter snout, more oblique mouth, more projecting lower jaw, stouter dorsal spines, 
longer and stouter second anal spine, shorter soft dorsal and rounded spinous dorsal. 

Dorsal X, I, 22 in two specimens; X, I, 23 in three specimens; X, I, 24 in 
three specimens. Snout equals diameter of eye, or is slightly shorter; it is contained 
from 4^ to 4| times in head. Anterior margin of premaxillary on a level with a 
point slightly above lower edge of pupil. The tip of the lower jaw projects a very 
little beyond the uj^jjer. 

Dorsal spines all stout, the second the stoutest; the fourth the longest, the fifth 
and sixth only slightly reduced in length, the others reduced rapidly to the tenth. 
The jiosterior outline of the extended spinous dorsal is convex above and concave 
below. The second anal spine reaches nearly to below the caudal base, the length 
from l^- to 14 in head. 

In three sj^ecimens of B. icistia, the dorsal formula is IX, I, 28; X, I, 27; 
X, I, 26. The snout is a little longer than eye, its length from 4 to 45^ in head. 
Anterior margin of premaxillary on a level with a point midway between lower part of 
eye and lower part of pupil. Tip of lower jaw included. Dorsal spines all slender; 
the second not stouter than the others, the third the longest. The posterior outline of 
the extended spinous dorsal is concave, the fin being sharply angulated at the tip of 
the third spine. The tip of the second anal spine scarcely reaches past the vertical 
from the tips of the last dorsal rays; its length 1^ to 1| in head. 

235. Bairdiella armata Gill. 

Frequent. In six specimens the dorsal formula is X, I, 23; in five it is X, I, 
22 (not XI, I, 21, as described by Jordan and Evermann, 1898, p. 1436). 

The longest rays of the caudal fin are just below the middle; above these the 
fin is slightly concave, below it obliquely truncate. This shape is not well marked 
in some specimens. 

The following color notes are from a fresh specimen: Fins all yellow; ventrals, 
pectorals, and caudal orange-yellow; spinous dorsal with a large black blotch above; 
soft dorsal and caudal with dusky mai'gins. Mouth and gill-cavity light yellow. 



GILBERT AND STAEKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 127 

236. Bairdiella chrysoleuca {Giinther). 

Not uncommon. 

An examination of younger specimens than those from which are drawn cur- 
rent descriptions of this species, sheds little additional light on its relations to B. 
aluta. The type of the latter is 19 cm. long. We have at hand one specimen of 
chrysoleuca 19 cm., and one 165 mm. long. In these, the eye is 4J- to 5 in head (not 
4, as in aluta). The fin counts ascribed to aluta are outside the range of variation of 
chrysoleuca, as is also the number of scales in the lateral line. The soft dorsal in 
chrysoleuca varies from 21 to 23 rays (not 18, as in aluta); the anal contains 9 rays 
(not 8) and the lateral line traverses 49 to 51 scales (not 44), the count being made 
to the base of the middle rays of the caudal. If the account of B. aluta is reliable in 
these respects, the species is certainly distinct. 

In our specimens of chrysoleuca, the head is contained ?>\ to ?>\ in the length; 
the depth 21 to 3f. The width of the preorbital is contained 1| times in the diam- 
eter of the eye; the longest gill-raker is three-fifths diameter of pupil. The second 
dorsal spine is much stouter than the third and is not flexible. The filamentous ray 
of the ventral fin does not nearly reach the vent. 

237. Stellifer oscitans {Jordan <L- Gilbert). 

Frequently brought to market. We preserved six specimens, from 18 to 24 
cm. in entire length. To the original description, we add the following: 

Head 3] to 3| in length; depth 3 to 3|. Eye equals prenasal part of snout 
(measuring around contour of snout), 5 to 5;.' in head. Snout (distance from tip to 
front of eye) 3|^ to 4 in head. Three of our specimens have 24 rays in the soft 
dorsal, and three have 23. One specimen has but 10 spines in the first dorsal fin. 

238. Stellifer furthi (Steindachner). 

Common. A large number collected in the Panama market. We add the 
following to the original description: Head 3| to 3f in length; depth 3 to 3|. Eye 
4| to 5 in head; interorbital 24 to 3; second anal spine 2 to 2^^; ventral spine 
24- to 2f. The maxillary reaches to below a point midway between the posterior 
edge of pupil and the posterior edge of orbit. 

The color of a fresh specimen is as follows: Body light gray above, lower 
parts of sides silvery, tinged with pinkish salmon. All fins light yellow; soft dorsal 
with a narrow black margin. 

In Jordan and Evermann's description of this species (1898, p. 1441), occur 
the following statements: "Highest dorsal spine If in head," " ventrals 2^ in head." 
This seems to have been incorrectly transcribed from Steindachner's description, 
which gives the length of the third (the highest) dorsal spine as If times the second 
and about 2\ in the head; the ventral spine 2| in the head. 



128 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

239. Stellifer illecebrosus Gilbert. 

Plate XVIII, Fig. 36. 
Stellifer illecebrosus Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 1442). 

Head 3 to z\ in length; depth 2^9^. D. XIV, 20 or 21; A. II, 11; P. 19 or 20. 

Body compressed, rather deep, both outlines curved, the dorsal more than the ventral. 
Head broad and depressed, but less so than in other species of Stellifcrus, the interorbital width 
equaling distance from tip of snout to front of pupil, 3f in head. Greatest width of head 1^%- to 2^^ 
in its length. Upper profile depressed above the orbits, the snout rather bluntly rounded, overlap- 
ping the premaxillaries but little. Mouth large, moderately oblique, the gape curved. Maxillary 
reaching vertical from middle of pupil, or slightly behind this point, its length, measured from front of 
premaxillaries, 2| to 2g in head. Teeth in lower jaw uniform in size, in a villiform band of moderate 
width, which does not conspicuously increase towards symphysis. Premaxillary teeth in a similar 
villiform band, with an outer row of enlarged canines, which decrease in size towards the angle of the 
mouth. Lips thin, but somewhat thicker than in other species of the genus. Five large pores in 
mandible, and five in snout immediately behind premaxillaries, the inner pair being concealed by over- 
hanging lobes. Back of these are three minute pores. Horizontal diameter of eye 5I to 5 1 in head; 
length of snout 4 to 4|-; least width of preorbital half the diameter of orbit. Vertical limb of preoper- 
cle with 8 or 9 rather slender spines, which increase in size towards angle; usually three of those at 
the angle are enlarged and radiate regularly, or the lowermost may be directed abruptly downwards. 
The horizontal limb is entire or provided with small flexible spines, loosely attached and projecting but 
little beyond the integument. Gill-rakers short, slender, the longest nearly half the longitudinal 
diameter of eye, 5 or 6 above angle of arch, 10 or 11 below. 

Spinous dorsal high, the first two spines strong and rigid, the third to the eleventh weak and 
flexible, the twelfth to the fourteenth again stronger and rigid. Second spine nearly two-thirds the 
third which is the longest, \\ in head. The fin diminishes slowly in height to the sixth spine, then 
more rapidly to the eleventh which is the shortest. The twelfth to the fourteenth progressively lengthen 
and belong to the second dorsal, the last being more than half the length of the longest ray. 

Second anal spine long and slender, about two-thirds the height of the longest ray, equaling 
distance from tip of snout to front of pupil. Last ray of anal under the third before the last of the 
dorsal. Pectorals reaching to or nearly to the vertical from the vent, i| in the head. Ventrals 
short, the outer ray filamentous, i| in head. Caudal double-truncate, sublanceolate, the middle rays 
projecting much beyond the outer, i^ in head. 

Scales cycloid on top and sides of head, elsewhere ctenoid. Lateral line more arched than 
the back, becoming straight slightly behind front of anal fin. Soft parts of all the vertical fins scaled 
to their tips. Pectorals and ventrals with series of scales along the membranes. 

Color in life, plain silvery gray above, silvery below. Dorsals and upper portion of caudal 
dusky translucent. Pectorals light straw-color. Ventrals mesially orange-yellow, the inner ray, the 
outer ray, and the tips of all the rays bright white. Anal deep yellow, the rays margined with black. 
Lower caudal rays yellow. Gill-cavity dusky, without yellow. 

Three specimens from the Bay of Panama, the largest 255 mm. long. 

As stated below, under Eques viola, the last portion of the original published 
description of 8. illecebrosus (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 1442), including the 
color and some structural details, refers instead to E. viola, and should be transferred 
to the description of that species. There should be stricken from the description of 
8. illecebrosus all after the 11th line from the bottom of p. 1442. The statement sub- 
sequent to this jwint: "This species is related most nearly to Stellifer minor, in some 
respects intermediate between 8tellifer and Bairdiella " refers, however, to illecebrosus. 



OILBEET AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 129 

but was not included in the original manuscript, a copy of which is furnished above. 
On page 1439 of the volume cited, in the key to species, under the head of S. illece- 
brosiis, occurs the statement "coloration dark." This should read "coloration 
silvery." 

240. Stellifer ericymba (Jordan l- Gilbert). 

This little fish is common in Panama Bay. Many specimens were preserved, 
the largest not exceeding IG cm. in length. 

We have examined in connection with our specimens the description given 
by Jordan and Evermann (1898, p. 1444) and find it satisfactory. 

241. Stellifer zestocarus Gilbert. 
Plate XVIII, Fig. 37. 
Stellifer zestocarus Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 1445). 

Head 3J- to j,\ in length; depth 2f to 3. Pores in lateral line 47 to 50; dorsal XII, 19; anal 
II, 10. 

Comparatively deep and compressed, with narrow head, large oblique mouth, the greatest 
width of head i| to i-| in its length. Anterior profile rising in an even convex curve to front of 
dorsal, depressed very little if at all above the orbits. Greatest depth under front of spinous dorsal. 
Length of caudal peduncle, measured from base of last anal ray, i^ in head; from last dorsal ray, 
1|. Least depth of caudal peduncle 2| in head. 

Head extremely soft, the bones cavernous. Snout bluntish, not projecting beyond the pre- 
maxillaries, its length 4-^ to 4! in head. Lower jaw included, the tip produced into a short but 
distinct symphyseal knob. Mouth large, very oblique, the maxillary (measured from front of 
snout), equaling length of snout and eye, 2\ in head. Teeth in narrow villiform bands in both jaws, 
widest in sides of premaxillaries. None of the teeth enlarged. Lips thin. Mental and rostral pores 
minute. Interorbital space transversely convex, 2\ to 2^-^ in head. Supraorbital ridges prominent. 
Preopercle with a wide membranous border, which is strengthened near the angle with diverging ribs. 
A single rather stiff spine directed backwards, immediately above the angle. Gill-rakers numerous, 
long and slender, about 20 on horizontal limb of arch, the longest half the diameter of orbit. Eye 
large, elliptical, the long axis oblique, the greatest diameter 3| or 3! in head, equaling distance from 
tip of snout to front of pupil. 

Fins high, densely scaled, including the spinous dorsal. First and second dorsal spines rather 
strong and stiff, the third and succeeding spines flexible. Third spine longest, i|- in head. The 
ninth spine is shortest, the tenth and eleventh longer, belonging to the soft dorsal. The last three 
spines are stronger and rigid. Second anal spine long and rather slender, 2\ to 2| in length of head. 
Longest anal ray i| to if in head. Anal basis long, equaling length of snout and eye. Caudal 
double-truncate, almost lanceolate, the middle rays much produced, i^ or \\ in head. Pectorals 
long, reaching beyond vent, ij in head. Ventrals not nearly reaching vent, li to if in head. 

Scales thin, deciduous, weakly ctenoid. Head completely scaled. 

Nearly uniform grayish silvery above, bright silvery below. Fins slightly dusky. Mouth 
and gill-cavities silvery white. A blackish blotch in the region of the pseudobranchise. 

Seven specimens from Panama Ba}^ the longest about 15 cm. long. 

242. Ophioscion typicus Gill. 

Not common; eight specimens were taken 14 to 21 cm. in length. The 
description of this species by Jordan and Evermann (1898, p. 1448) was evidently 



130 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

taken from a young specimen. We make the following additions to the original 
description : 

Head 3| to 3f in length. Eye 4| to 5 in head; snout 3| to 4; interorbital 
(bone) 3| to 4; maxillary 3 to 3|; third dorsal spine If to 2|. 

In addition to the differences already noted as distinguishing this species from 
0. straho, we note the lighter pectorals and ventrals, which are colorless or only 
slightly dusky. In 0. straho the pectorals are dark, and the ventrals, with the excep- 
tion of a white outer ray, are nearly black. 

243. Ophioscion simulus Gilbert. 

Plate XIX, Fio. .38. 
Ophioscion simulus Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 189S, p. 1449). 

Dorsal X-I, 26; anal II, 7; pectoral 18 or 19; pores in lateral line 50; smaller scales not 
here enumerated cover the base of the caudal fin. Head 3| in length, equaling depth. 

Body more elongate and less compressed than in other species, the head especially charac- 
terized by rounded outlines; preorbitals turgid; snout blunt, scarcely at all compressed, evenly rounded 
in all directions. Top of head everywhere transversely convex, not at all depressed over the orbits. 
A scarcely noticeable depression at occiput, with the exception of which the profile rises slowly and 
evenly to the front of the dorsal fin. Predorsal region transversely evenly convex, not compressed to 
a ridge, except immediately in front of first dorsal spine. Dorsal and ventral outlines about equally 
curved, the base of anal fin but little more oblique than the normal contour at that point. Mouth 
wide, broadly U-shaped as seen from below, overpassed by the bluntly rounded snout for a distance 
(taken axially) equal to half diameter of pupil. The cleft of the mouth is moderately oblique, the 
maxillary reaching the vertical from middle of pupil. Length of maxillary (measured from front of 
premaxillaries) 3^ in head. Mandible with a broad band of villiform teeth of uniform size. Pre- 
maxillaries with a similar broad villiform band, preceded by an outer series of small canines, close-set, 
smaller in size than in related species. Preorbital of moderate width, swollen and turgid as in Pachy- 
uriis, its width 6^ in head. Posterior nostril large, circular, without trace of raised membranous edge. 
Anterior nostril vertically elliptical, small, with raised margin. Oblique diameter of eye, 4| in head. 
Preopercular margin with 14 to 16 spinous teeth (in the type specimen), the upper ones minute, 
increasing in size towards preopercular angle, around which they evenly radiate. None of them are 
conspicuously enlarged, and the lowermost is not directed abruptly downward. Gill-rakers short, the 
longest about equaling diameter of posterior nostril, 7 movable ones on upper limb of arch, 13 below. 

First dorsal high, of very slender flexible spines, except the first two. The second spine is 
strong and rigid, as long as the fourth, contained if times in the head; the third spine the longest, 
reaching when declined to base of the spine of second dorsal, its length i| in head. From the third, 
the spines decrease rapidly, so that the distal margin of the fin is subvertical. The tenth spine is the 
shortest, its membrane reaching base only of the eleventh, which belongs to the second dorsal and 
is two-thirds as long as diameter of the eye. Second dorsal high, the longest ray equaling length 
of snout and eye. Caudal sublanceolate, mutilated so that its exact shape cannot be ascertained. The 
middle rays are considerably longer than the outer, and are at least three-fourths length of head. 
Second anal spine long and strong, its measured length if in head, slightly greater than that of first 
soft rays, which however project beyond it. Outer ventral ray produced in a very short filament, 
about one-fourth diameter of eye. Ventral spine 2| in head, the longest ray, exclusive of filament, 
li in head, reaching five-sevenths distance from its base to vent. Pectorals \\ \n head, reaching 
vertical from tips of ventrals. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 131 

Lips, milar membranes, and under side of snout naked, head and body otherwise scaled. 
Scales on mandible, and a small patch on base of anterior branchiostegals, cycloid; those in advance 
of nostrils cycloid, or very weakly ctenoid; scales otherwise strongly ctenoid. Second dorsal and 
anal with a definite low scaly sheath at base, consisting of a single series of small scales and in addition 
series of scales on the membranes, extending two-thirds distance to tip. Caudal scaled to tip. Lateral 
line with a long low curve, the height of which equals half diameter of orbit. 

Color steel-gray above, without dark streaks, white below, the cheeks and lower portion of 
sides with much brown specking, sometimes confined to the margins of the scales. Mouth white 
within. Lining of opercles blackish. Fins dusky, the distal part of ventrals black, the outer ray 
white. Anal with the anterior rays tipped with black. 

A single specimen 187 mm. long. 

This species is closely related to 0. scieriis, but differs in the longer, less 
compressed body, the p\a\n coloration, the turgid preorbitals, less arched lateral 
line, and smaller canines. 

244. Ophioscion strabo Gilbert. 

This species is listed, without remark, by Boulenger (1899, p. 3) from Rio 
Tuyra, and other rivers on the western slope of the Isthmus of Darien. The species 
was not seen by us. These Panama specimens should be carefully compared with 
the closely related species typicus and simulus, which are known from Panama and 
closely resemble 0. strabo. 

245. Ophioscion imiceps {Jordan & Gilbert). 

This species seems to be rather rare at Panama. During our stay of six weeks 
we secured twelve specimens. Like other species of the genus, 0. iinicepa varies 
greatly in length of snout and diameter of eye. 

Head 3]^ to 3f in length; depth 2| to 3|. Eye 4| to 54 in head; snout ^ 
to 4; interorbital width 3| to 4|; second dorsal spine 2| to 3; third dorsal spine 
1 J to 2. 



Common. 



246. Ophioscion scierus {Jordan & Gilbert). 

Plate XIX, Fig. 39. 



The snout projects beyond the mouth for a distance varying from one-third to one-half 
the diameter of the eye. It increases in sharpness with its length. 

Interorbital width (bone) 4^ to 4^ in head (not 5|^); snout 3i to 3|; eye 5^ to 5f. Gill- 
rakers short, barely movable, 12 on horizontal limb of arch. Soft dorsal with a distinct, rather wide 
sheath of scales at base; each interradial membrane with a series of scales, rapidly diminishing in size 
from the base upward, reaching half way to margin of fin. Anal similarly scaled, the basal sheath less 
clearly defined. 

Second dorsal spine very stout, conspicuously stronger than any of the succeeding spines, all 
of which are slender and weak. The eleventh spine is twice the length of the tenth. The second anal 
spine is very robust, twice the width of the second dorsal spine, reaching to opposite the tip of the fifth 
soft ray. Soft dorsal rays 24 or 25. 

Opercular lining^blackish. 



132 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Measurements in Hioidredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal in mm. 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Snout 

Interorbital width 

Length of pectoral 

Length of third dorsal spine .. 
Length of second anal spine .. 



198 


150 


150 


153 


171 


161 


147 


31 


3oi 


32 


34 


31 


31 


3oi 


31 


3ii 


32 


32 


31 


32 


30 


51 


6 


6, 


6i 


6 


6i 


6 


8^ 


H 


8| 


8i 


9 


8 


8 


n 


7 


n 


n 


n 


7 


7 


23 


24 


26 


24 


24 


24 


24 


i6i- 


igt 


19 


l8i- 


i7i 


18 


i9i 


i5i 


18 


17 


17 


17 


17 


18 



163 

3oi 

31 
6 

9 

71^ 
23 
i6i 
16A 



247. Sigmurus vermicularis {Giintker). 

Frequently brought into the market, where we collected nine specimens. 

Head from S^V to 3] in length. Eye 5| to 5^ in head; snout 3| to 4; length 
of third dorsal spine 1| to 1|; interorbital (bone only) 4| to 5. The dorsal formula 
is as follows: In one specimen IX, I, 27; in four specimens X, T, 27; in four speci- 
mens X, I, 26. The anal is constantly II, 8. 

248. Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi). 

According to Jordan and Eigenmann (1889, p. 406), a few specimens of this 
species, said to have been taken at Panama, are in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. There are no other references to the occurrence of 
this Peruvian species at Panama, and the record is in need of verification. 



249. Micropogon altipinnis Giintker. 

CORBINA LUNA. 

Head 3,V to t,\ in length; depth t,^ to 3|. Eye 6 to 6^ times in head; snout projecting 
beyond the mouth for a distance equaling one-fourth eye. Snout 3 J in head. Anterior nostril very 
small, circular, with a narrow membranous border, widened posteriorly to form a short flap. Posterior 
nostril obliquely elliptical, its greatest diameter one-third eye. Maxillary reaching vertical from front 
or middle of pupil, 2^ in head. Anterior premaxillary teeth of the outer row noticeably larger than 
those behind them. L'sually four pairs of slender mandibular barbels. Upper preopercular serrte very 
small, increasing in size toward the angle. At the angle, separated from these by a wide interval, is 
a very strong spine directed downward and backward, below which is a similar but shorter spine 
directed more obliquely downward. The gill-rakers are very short, the longest two-fifths the hori- 
zontal diameter of the pupil, 15 or 16 present on the horizontal limb of the arch. 

The dorsal fin contains constantly 1 1 spines, the last longer than the one preceding. In eight 
specimens the soft rays number 20, 21, 21, 21, 21, 21, 22, 22. The spinous dorsal is very high, the 
third spine extending to base of first or second ray of soft dorsal; its length is contained i^ to i-| times 



GILBERT AND ST ARKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 133 

in the head. The low scaly sheath along the base of the soft dorsal disappears shortly before reaching 
the end of the tin. The second anal spine is nearly or quite equal to the length of the snout. Pec- 
torals extending well beyond the ventrals, if in the head. Outer ventral ray filamentous, i| in head. 
Caudal with the middle rays longest, the outline of the fin concave above the middle, convex below it. 

Scales above the lateral line in very oblique series downward and backward, normally 40 or 41 
in number; in one specimen there were but 35 rows, in another 43. An occasional scale is intercalated 
between these series as they approach the lateral line, the number of pores slightly exceeding the 
series. 

Color as usual in the genus. Upper part of axil dusky. Opercular lining dusky, becoming 
black posteriorly, where it contrasts strongly with the silvery opercular membrane. 

This is a common species at Panama. Our description is based on specimens 
31 to 36 cm. long. 

250. Umbrina xanti Gill. 

Recorded from Panama by Giinther (1868, p. 426, as U. analis), and by 
Gilbert. Not seen by us. 

251. Umbrina dorsalis Gill. 

Infrequent; four specimens secured. 

Dorsal X, I, 29, 29, 31, 31. Anal II, 7, 7, 7, 8. Eye 4| to 44 in head; 
snout 3^ or 3|. Preopercular margin scarcely serrate, provided with a rather thick 
membranous border with small flexible teeth. 

252. Menticirrus nasus (Giinther). 
Menticirriis sinius Jordan & Eigenmann, 1889, p. 437. 

Frequent in the Panama market. The twelve specimens before us differ 
in the size of the eye and the form of the snout sufficiently to demonstrate the 
identity of M. sinuis and M. nasus, which have been separated on differences similar 
to those here found. 

Head 3| to SI in length; depth 4^ to 4-^. Eye equals snout in front of ante- 
rior nostril, and is contained 5|^ to 5^ in head; snout 3^ to 31. The third dorsal 
spine is the longest and is contained 41 to 4| in the length. When the fin is 
depressed, its tip reaches variously from the base of the first ray of the second dorsal 
to the base of the fourth. Above the lateral line, there are 50 oblique series of scales 
running downward and backward. 

The nostrils are larger than in M. panamensis, the anterior nostril round or 
vei'y slightly oval, distant half its diameter from the posterior nostril. A dermal 
flap is attached to its po.sterior edge, and extends back to the posterior nostril. The 
posterior nostril varies in shajie from widely to narrowly elliptical. Its posterior end 
is usually pointed and reaches the beginning of the adipose eyelid. 

The caudal is S-shaped; its upper angulated lobe extends beyond the lower 
rounded lobe a distance equal to the diameter of the eye. 

( 18 ) December 11, 1903. 



134 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

253. Menticirrus panamensis {Steindachner). 

The most abundaut species of the genus at Panama. Fourteen specimens 
were preserved, the largest 33 cm. in length. The following additions may be made 
to Dr. Steindachner's description, in the light of our large series. 

Dorsal X, I, 20 or 21; anal I, 9. Depth 4| to 4| (rather than nearly 4 as 
stated by Steindachner) in length without caudal; head 3 to 3|. Eye 7 to 8 in head; 
snout 3| to 4. The anterior nostril is round, and is separated from the posterior 
nostril by a space equal to half its diameter. To its posterior edge is attached a der- 
mal flap, which extends back to the posterior nostril. The latter is a little broader 
than the former, and twice as long. It ends at a distance equal to its length from 
the orbital edge (exclusive of the adipose eyelid). The outer series of teeth in the 
upper jaw consists of from 6 to 10 irregularly spaced canines, those in the front of 
the jaw much enlarged. 

When the spinous dorsal is depressed, the tip of the third dorsal spine reaches 
to, or a very little past, the front of the second dorsal. The length of the third spine 
is contained in the length of the body 5 to 5i times; it equals the caudal and is con- 
tained 1| to 1[ in the pectoral (Steindachner describes it as equal to the pectoral). 
The caudal is conspicuously S-shaped; the upper lobe shorter than in other species; 
its tip not extending beyond the lower rounded lobe. 

M. panamensis differs from M. nasus in having a longer head, smaller eye, 
smaller nostrils placed farther from the eye, larger canines, and shorter dorsal spines. 
The anal base is longer, the fin is not so much rounded in outline. There are two 
less dorsal rays and one more anal ray; the upper angulated lobe of the caudal 
does not project beyond the rest of the fin. M. panamensis probably reaches a 
larger size. 

254. Menticirrus elongatus (Guniher). 

Frequently seen, but less abundant than M. panamensis. 

255. Polyclemus dumerili (Bocourt). 

Very abundant in the Panama market during the early part of January. The 
species has been admirably described by Dr. Steindachner (1875 b, p. 31) under 
the name Gemjanemus fascial as. It may be well to note that the pectoral and ventral 
fins are densely scaled, as well as the soft portions of the vertical fins. Below are 
given the colors in the fresh state. 

Silvery gray on back, sometimes tinged with deep reddish yellow. Lower 
half of sides, including belly and under side of caudal peduncle, salmon-red. 
Breast and area about ventrals dusky silvery. Bars jet-black. Sides and top of 
head dusky. Opercular lining blackish. Under side of head generally, including 
opercular membrane and under side of snout, tinged with salmon. Dorsal, caudal 
and pectoral fins straw-color, made dusky by minute points. Soft dorsal with a 
narrow black margin. Spinous dorsal largely blackish. Anal orange-yellow. 
Ventrals dusky yellow. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 135 

256. Polyclemus rathbuni {Jordan i£- Bollman). 
Only the types reported by Jordan and Bollraan (1889, p. 102) from Panama. 

257. Polyclemus goodei {Gilbert). 

Plate XX, Figs. 40, 40a. 
Paralonchurus {Zaclciuus) goodei Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 1480). 

The homodont dentition and elongate form of this species seem hardly suffi- 
cient for generic separation from Polyclemus. Its nearest relative is probably P. 
peruamis, Steindachner, a form with deeper body, but with scaly vertical fins and 
with the outer row of teeth but very little enlarged. 

Head 3| to 4 in length; depth 4 to 4J; dorsal XI, 25 to 27, the spines varying from X to 
XII; anal II, 7; 45 to 48 rows of scales running obliquely upwards and forwards from the lateral line. 

Elongate, with broad heavy head, the temporal region swollen, protuberant. Snout very 
high and blunt, its anterior profile vertically rounded, little protruding beyond the prema.xillaries. 
Length of snout 3,^ to 3| in head. Rostral and mental pores very large, arranged as usual. The 
symphysial pore is bounded laterally by two membranous wings, continued forward from the man- 
dibular margins, bearing many barbels. This is the condition also in Paralonchurus pclcrsi and in 
Polyclenms fasciatus, no "multifid barbel" being present. The barbels in P. goodei are much larger 
and more numerous than in any other species known to us. They are widely spaced, form a con- 
spicuous series along the inner margin of the mandible, and become crowded into a dense fringe along 
the anterior half of the margin of the interopercle. 

Mouth oblique, the ma.xillary reaching the vertical from the posterior edge of pupil, a trifle 
less than one-third head. Teeth slender, villiform, none of them enlarged, those in the lower jaw in a 
narrow band, in the upper jaw in a much wider band. Teeth nearly all with brown tips. Mouth very 
protractile. Eye large, 2\ in interorbital width, one-fourth postocular part of head. Preopercle with 
a membranous edge minutely crenate, spinulescent. Branchiostegal membrane very wide. Pseudo- 
branchiae covered by membrane, partially concealed. Gill-rakers undeveloped, represented by soft 
tubercles, of which there are 6 or 8 on the horizontal limb of arch. Two or three next the angle are 
sometimes slightly longer and movable. 

Dorsal spines slender and fle.xible, the third the longest, equal to length of snout and half eye. 
Tenth spine shortest. Soft dorsal and caudal densely covered with scales to their tips. No differ- 
entiated sheath at base of soft dorsal. Anal fin without scales. First anal spine minute, the second 
slender but not flexible, one-half to two-thirds length of longest ray. Caudal fin with the lower lobe 
longest, conx'ex, the upper lobe concave. Longest caudal rays i| in head. Pectorals broad, reaching 
vertical from tips of ventrals, but not nearly to vent, i^ in head. The ventral spine is inserted slightly 
behind the vertical from the base of the lowest pectoral ray. Outer ventral ray produced into a fila- 
ment about one-fourth total length of fin. The longest non-filamentous ray, i-| in head. 

Scales strongly ctenoid. Lateral line with a low wide curve, which grows abruptly steeper in 
its posterior part, the lateral line becoming straight behind the middle of the anal fin. The scales of 
the lateral line are enlarged, but are almost wholly concealed by smaller scales. 

Color dark grayish brown above and on sides, with greenish and bluish reflections; white 
below. Back and sides with four broad inconspicuous cross-bars extending downward and slightly 
backward; the first from predorsal region to base of pectorals; the second from end of spinous dorsal; 
the third from base of eighth to twelfth, the fourth from twentieth to twenty-fifth rays of soft dorsjjl. 
Basal portion of the anal fin, and the outer ventral rays yellow, the distal portions dusky; other fins 
dusky, the pectorals darker on the inner face, black at axil. Lining of opercle dusky. 



136 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Rare at Panama, eight specimens were obtained during a close inspection of 
the markets for six weeks. Longest specimen 28 cm. 

Measurements in Hiaidrcdths of Le^igth withoiit Caudal. 



Length without caudal in mm 

Depth 

Length of head 

Diameter of eye 

Greatest width of preorbital 

Width of interorbital 

Length of snout 

Length of third dorsal spine 

Length of longest anterior dorsal rays 

Length of third anal ray 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventrals 

Length of caudal 

Height of caudal peduncle 



TYPE 



20 1 


226 


25 


26 


2b\ 


27i 


4 


4 


4 


4 


8 


81- 


8 


8 


13 


Broken 


8i 


8 


12 


12 


24 


25 


i8i 


21 


23 


22 


loi 


10 



230 
26 
27 

4 

4 



1 1 

8 

12 

24 
20 
22 
ID 



258. Paralonchurus petersi Bocourt. 

Plate XX, Fio. 41. 

Rare; but four specimens seen. 

The genus Paralonchurus, of whicli j^etem is the type and the only known 
species, is well separated from related forms by the cycloid scales and the anterior 
insertion of the ventral fins. The base of the ventral spine falls in the vertical from 
the base of the uppermost pectoral ray. The sj^ecies carries to an extreme the 
physiognomy peculiar to this section of the family, the eyes being very small, the 
snout long and depressed, with very large pores, and the fins excessively developed. 

Head 3^ to 3^ in length; depth 4 to 4^. Dorsal X-I, 33 or 34. Anal II, 8. Lateral line 
49 or 50. Interorbital space equaling or slightly exceeding length of snout, 3| in head. Eye 3^ to 
3J in interorbital width. Distance from front of premaxillaries to tip of maxillary equaling that from 
tip of snout to posterior edge of pupil, 2y\ to 3 in head. Vertical width of preorbital under front of 
orbit equals half interorbital width. 

The snout projects beyond the premaxillaries for a distance equaling two-thirds the diameter 
of the eye; it is flattened from above and bluntly rounded from side to side. There is an evident 
depression above the orbits. Mouth larger than in related species, the maxillary reaching a vertical 
slightly behind the eye. The teeth are in bands of about equal width in the two jaws, increasing 
slightly in size toward the inner side of the mandibular band and the outer side of the premaxillary 



GILBEKT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



137 



band. Upper jaw with an outer series of enlarged teeth, the basal four-fifths of each tooth finely 
ridged lengthwise, the terminal one-fifth abruptly smooth, separated from the ridged portion by a 
shallow transverse groove. This structure is very similar to that found in Sagenichthys, except that 
the terminal portion is flattened and lance-shaped in the latter, but remains conical in Paralonchiirus. 
It is interesting to note that most of the teeth are light brown in color, as is usual with arrow-shaped 
teeth. The finer teeth in Paralonchiirus seem to show a similar structure to that just described. 

Pseudobranchiae are perfectly evident in this genus, never wholly concealed, though covered 
by the integument. Gill-rakers very short, little movable, 6 developed on the horizontal limb of the 
arch. Free edge of mandibular ramus with a series of delicate cilia, which are continued forward 
along the sides of the median pore at the chin. Preopercular margin delicately denticulate, with 
flexible teeth. 

Pectorals very large, twice as long as the ventrals, reaching the vertical from the vent, or the 
front of the anal fin. The caudal fin is unsymmetrically lanceolate, the longest rays being those just 
below the middle of the fin, the outline not incurved above or below these. The longest caudal rays 
equal the longest of the pectoral fin. The outer ventral rays are produced, extending half-way to the 
front of the anal. 

Scales all cycloid, perfectly smooth, those of the lateral line enlarged, covered with very 
small scales. The caudal is scaled on its middle rays, the other fins wholly scaleless. 

In life, the back is grayish-brown, with light blue and bronze reflections; under parts whitish. 
All the fins, except the spinous dorsal, are deep bright blue, appearing light brown by transmitted 
light; the blue color persists in spirits. Posterior border of pectoral fins black; inner ventral ray 
light brownish yellow, the outer filamentous ray whitish; anal with a narrow black margin. Branchi- 
ostegal membranes, gular membrane and lips with some yellow. Inside of mouth and gill-cavity, 
and lining of shoulder girdle orange-yellow. Lining of opercles jet-black, of cheeks dusky. 

Measurements iti Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Snout 

Greatest width of preorbital 

Interorbital (bone) 

Length of pectoral 

Length of third dorsal spine 

Length of longest anterior dorsal rays. 

Length of third anal ray 

Length of ventrals 

Length of caudal 

Height of caudal peduncle 



252 


238 


30 


30 


22i- 


23i 


2i 


2i 


9 


9 


4 


4 


9 


9 


29 


30 


10 


9 


8 


7i 


II 


12 


14 


i4i 


26 


27 


9 


9i 



138 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

259. Eques viola Gilbert. 
Plate XXI, Fig. 42. 
Eques viola Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. i486). 

The present species and Stellifer illecebrosus were originally published in 
Jordan and Everraann's Fishes of North and Middle America, Vol. II, pp. 1442 and 
I486, from manuscript furnished by Dr. Gilbert. While being typewritten, the last 
manuscript pages of the two descrij^tions were unfortunately interchanged, with the 
result that the color, as well as various anatomical details ascribed to U. viola belong 
to Stellifer illecebrosus and vice versa. In the original description of E. viola (t. c. 
p. 1486), all should be stricken out after the word " reaching" on the fourth line 
from the bottom of that page. The following description exactly follows the original 
manuscript: 

Head 2^^ to 3| in length to base of caudal; depth 2^''^- to 3^5-. D. IX or X, 38 to 41; A. 
II, 7 or 8; P. 17 to 19. Scales 50 to 54 (oblique series). 

Body narrowly wedge-shaped in section, sharply compressed towards dorsal outline, widening 
below. Lower outline of head horizontal, straight; ventral outline a gentle convex curve to base of 
anal, which is moderately oblique; lower outline of caudal peduncle slightly concave. The anterior 
upper profile rises steeply in a very gentle curve to front of dorsal, thence more obliquely to front of 
soft dorsal, where the depth of body is greatest. 

Snout compressed, with rather prominent blunt tip, which slightly overhangs the mouth. Tip 
of snout and of mandible swollen, provided with large mucous pores, a series of five in the mandible, 
two transverse series of five each in the snout, of which the posterior lateral pair is minute. Mouth 
horizontal or very slightly oblique, the maxillary reaching about to vertical from hinder margin of 
pupil, its length measured from tip of snout 2| or 2|- in head. Teeth in lower jaw in a wide villiform 
band, a few of the outer series anteriorly slightly enlarged. Premaxillary teeth in a wide villiform 
band, the outer series enlarged, forming moderate canines, larger than those in front of mandibular 
band. Interorbital space narrow, its width contained 5 to 5^^ times in the head. Eye large, 4 to 4^ 
in head. Preopercle entire, the membranous border sometimes minutely crenulate; opercle ending 
posteriorly in two concealed points, the included opercular membrane covered with fine scales. Gill- 
rakers short and weak, 5 above the angle, 9 to 11 movable ones below, the longest about four-ninths 
eye. 

Mandible, gular and branchiostegal membranes, and more or less of the snout naked, the scales 
extending forward in' some specimens to beyond the nostrils, in others scarcely beyond the front of 
orbits. Head otherwise scaled. Lateral line following outline of back, strongly curved anteriorly. 
The pores of the lateral line are minute, placed on small scales, irregularly wedged in between the 
larger ones. Above the lateral line are very oblique series running downwards and backwards, and also 
vertical series. There are about 50 of the former and 90 to 95 of the latter. Scales all ctenoid 
except those on anterior part of breast, on lower anterior part of cheeks and on interopercle. Vertical 
fins densely covered to near their tips with small ctenoid scales. Pectorals and ventrals with series of 
scales on the membranes. 

Spinous dorsal short, usually nearly triangular in outline, the second spine the longest, the 
others rapidly decreasing to the last or next to the last. Longest spine usually as long as snout and 
eye, sometimes shorter. Soft dorsal long and low, increasing in height backwards, the longest ray 
about 3^- in head. Depth of caudal peduncle equaling its length behind dorsal fin. Anterior insertion 
of anal fin about under middle of soft dorsal, the length of caudal peduncle behind anal i-| to i^ in 
head. Second anal spine strong, its length equaling distance from tip of snout to front or middle of 
pupil and nearly reaching the tips of the soft rays. Caudal convex, the lower lobe slightly longer than 



GILBERT AND STAUKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 139 

the upper. Pectorals short and broad, if to if in head, the upper angle rounded, not reaching as far 
back as the ventrals, which equal them in length. Axillary scales of ventrals and pectorals very little 
developed. 

Color varying from uniform deep bronze-purple on body and fins, to brownish gray with 
silvery reflections. Lower parts of head and body somewhat lighter. Tip of mandible white. 

Ten specimens, the longest 189 mm., were taken around San Jose Rock, in 
the Bay of Panama. 

In this species, three slender interneurals, not connected with dorsal spines, 
lie in advance of the neural spine of the second vertebra. Four interneurals giving 
attachment to dorsal spines, lie crowded between the neural spines of the second and 
third vertebrte, the anterior one being very broad. Three interneurals follow, inter- 
posed between the third and fourth neurals, and three more between the fourth and 
fifth. 

Family CIRRHITID^. 

260. Cirrhites rivulatus Valenciennes. 

The only Panama record for this species is that by Gunther (1868, p. 421), 
based on a specimen secured by Captain Dow. It was not seen by us. 

Family POMACENTRID.E. 
261. Chromis atrilobatus Gill. 

Plate XXI, Fig. 43. 

This si:)ecies is very abundant about the islands in Panama Bay, where 
numerous specimens were secured. 

It is a strikingly elegant fish in form and color. The upper parts are brown- 
ish, shading to silvery on lower sides of head and trunk. The yellowish silvery 
blotch at base of last dorsal rays and on the contiguous portion of the back is very 
conspicuous. A jet-black bar, wider in its upper portion, crosses base of pectoral fin 
and involves its axil. It often fails to reach the lower rays of the fin. The pectoral 
fin is translucent, unmarked. The ventrals are translucent or slightly dusky. The 
anal is light or variously dark, but is without distinctive markings. The spinous 
dorsal is uniformly dusky, the anterior two-thirds of the soft dorsal, including the ray 
which forms the tip of the lobe, jet-black, with a narrow white margin. The last 
three or four dorsal rays are translucent. The outer half of each caudal lobe is jet- 
black, with a narrow translucent margin, the entire central portion of the fin trans- 
lucent. 

The body is slender, tapering regularly backward from the front of dorsal. 
The top of head is everywhere transversely convex. The longitudinal contour shows 
a slight but well-defined depression above the eyes. The teeth are in wide bands in 
each jaw, the outer series conical, stronger than the others. The spinous dorsal is 
rather low and of nearly uniform height. The soft dorsal and anal are distinctly 



140 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

angulated. Both caudal lobes are produced into filaments, the upper the longer. 
The fin is very deeply forked, the median rays but one-fourth the longest rays of the 
upper lobe. The lateral line is discontinued at the anterior edge of the yellow 
blotch below last dorsal rays. It contains 19 or 20 scales. Each of the scales of the 
median series on caudal peduncle is distinctly pitted, and contains a small tube which 
is aj^parently imperforate, and represents the vanishing stages of the lateral line 
which formerly occupied this region. The median series of scales on the trunk con- 
tains 28 to 30 scales. Between the lateral line and the dorsal sheath are 21 rows 
of scales. 

The dorsal contains 12 spines and 13 rays; the anal fin 2 spines and 12 rays. 

C. atrilohatus resembles strikingly in coloration C. notalus from Japan; but 
the latter is deeper, and has 13 dorsal spines, larger scales, and a black-edged 
anal fin. 

262. Pomacentrus rectifraenum Gill. 

A large number of adult specimens, 15 to 18 cm. long, are referred to this 
species. 

Two very closely related, yet distinct, species were found associated around rocky 
islands in Panama Bay. They were separated in the field by their slightly diflferent 
color and proportions, characters to which we can now add a slight but perfectly 
constant difference in the fin-counts. Owing to the absence, among our Panama 
material, of series illustrating changes which occur with age, and to the lack of adults 
from any other region, our identification of one of these forms with the Mexican 
species redifrcenum is subject to some uncertainty. The second form is described 
below as a new species {P.gilli). Our specimens of rectifrcenum are almost uniformly 
light brown, with darker edges to the scales. The head is darker than the trunk, 
and the ventral and vertical fins are black. The jjectorals are distinctly blackish, 
with a light blotch on the upper rays near the base. A small black spot occupies the 
extreme base of the uppermost ray. In the majority of specimens, no traces persist 
of blue spots, but in others of full size, there are very distinct blue spots on the sides 
and top of head, and on the scales covering the anal fin. In one specimen 14 cm. 
long, there are in addition distinctly visible the vertical -blue streaks on the scales of 
the sides, which are characteristic of the young of rectifrcenum. 

There are constantly 15 soft dorsal rays, and 13 anal rays, the last split ray 
being in each case reckoned as one. These numbers hold in our Panama specimens 
(thirteen in number), and are also found in two young sjiecimens of redifranum (all 
to which we have access) from Mazatlan. In Gill's description of the types of redi- 
frcenum, he assigns to it IG dorsal rays and 15 anal rays. It is reasonable to supjiose 
that the split ray at the end of each fin was by him reckoned as two rays. In giving 
an account of some of the tyj^e material furnished him by Dr. Gill, Dr. Giinther 
gives 15 dorsal and 14 anal rays. In their description of the species, Jordan and 
Evermann assign 13 rays to each fin, but this is certainly an error. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



141 



In the adult, the preorbital is very wide, equaling or exceeding the diameter 
of the eye; the interorbital space is very wide and strongly arched; the margin of 
the preorbital is smooth or nearly so for some distance behind the angle of the mouth. 
There are 20 scales traversed by the lateral line, and 26 or 27 in a series along middle 
of trunk. 

Measurements in Hundredths of LeJigth without Caudal. 



Length without caudal expressed in mm. 

Head 

Depth 

Orbit 

I nterorbital 

Preorbital at end of ma.xillary 

Longest dorsal rays 

Longest anal rays 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Upper lobe of caudal 

Height of caudal peduncle 

Scales along middle of body 



127 


125 


122 


109 


122 


32i 


32 


31 


32 


33i 


52 


60 


55i- 


52A 


61 


9 


9 


8i 


9 


8i 


I2i 


I2i- 


12 


12 


I2i 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8i 


' 24 


25 


26 


26 


24 


: 22 


23 


23 


23i 


23 


27i 


30 


28^ 


29 


30 


28 


29 


28^ 


32 


30 


1 30 


29 


29 


31 


30 


16 


16 


16 


i6i 


16^ 

1 


: 26 


27 


27 


27 


27 '. 



121 

33 

55 

9 

12' 



5 



8i 



24 
24 
29 

29 
30 
16 

27 



263. Pomacentrus gilli sp. uov. 

Plate XXII, Fig. 44. 

Very closely related to P. redifrcenuvi, but differing constantly in the uniformly translucent 
pectorals, the larger eye, the narrower and flatter interorbital space, the narrower preorbital, which is 
serrated to a point opposite to or in advance of the angle of the mouth, and in the shorter dorsal and 
anal fins. 

Adult specimens, 14 cm. long, are brownish olive, or darker brown, on head and body, in- 
cluding the bases of the vertical fins. Each of the scales on back and sides has a distinct black edge. 
The vertical fins and the ventrals are black, or in some specimens yellowish. The f)ectOrals are trans- 
lucent yellow in life, with the upper rays colored like the rest of the fin. There is a blue spot at the 
base of the upper pectoral rays. Each scale on the sides of the head and on the base of the anal fin is 
marked with a pinkish blue spot. These are fainter in adults, but were not wholly lost in any of our 
specimens. The smallest specimen procured is 1 1 cm. long. The spots are here more generally dis- 
tributed. Large spots are present on the scales of the four lower series of the trunk, and on the scales 
in front of the pectoral base. Small spots are present on the scales of the caudal peduncle and on 
scattered scales on the top of the head and the sides of the trunk, especially evident above the lateral 
line. The scaly portions of the caudal, the soft dorsal and the pectorals are also marked with small 
blue spots less conspicuous than those on the anal tin. A few scales on middle of sides show vertically 
elongated spots, indicating the probable presence in the young of vertical streaks along the rows of 

(19i December 14, 1903. 



142 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



scales, as in P. rcdifmnmn. There is no indication in our specimens of blue streaks on the head, 
but such may well be present in the young. 

Head 3^ to 3-fV in length; depth if to i|. D. XII, 14; A. II, 12. The lateral line traverses 
20 scales (19 in one specimen); 26 or 27 scales in a series along the middle of the sides; 9 scales in a 
series between lateral line and anus, 3 between lateral line and front of dorsal. There are fewer 
accessory scales on top of head than in P. redifrcEnum. 

The preopercular margin is sharply serrate to or slightly below the angle; the horizontal limb 
is smooth. Preorbital sharply serrate with slender retrorsely curved spines, which occur as far forward 
as the angle of the mouth, or slightly beyond that point. 

The preorbital is narrower than in P. rectifmnian, its greatest width, opposite angle of 
mouth, equaling two-thirds diameter of orbit. 

The soft dorsal and anal fins contain constantly 14 and 12 rays, the last split ray being counted 
as one. Thirteen specimens have been examined as to this point. P. rcdifrcsnum has constantly one 
more ray in the dorsal and anal. The soft dorsal and anal fins are pointed in all our specimens, 
whereas they are bluntly rounded in P. redifrcBnum. The ventrals have the outer ray filamentous, 
extending beyond the vent, usually exceeding the length of the pectoral tin, and equaling the length 
of the head. 

The species is abundant among reefs and islands in Panama Bay. A single 
specimen was secured at Acapulco. 

We take pleasure in naming this species for Dr. Theodore Gill, to whom is 
due much of our early knowledge of Panama fishes. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length 'without Caudal. 



Length v\'ithout caudal expressed in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Orbit 

Interorbital 

Preorbital at end of maxillary 

Longest dorsal rays 

Longest anal rays 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Upper lobe of caudal 

Height of caudal peduncle 

Scales along middle of body 



i 

1 107 


105 


104 


102 


107 


34 


32i 


34 


33 


33 


56 


52 


56 


53 


53 


9 


9 


9i 


9 


9i 


10 


9i 


10 


10 


9i 


6 


6i 


6i 


6i 


6| 


26 


25 


28 


26 


26 


24 


25 


27 


25 


26 


31 


31 


3ii 


32 


31 


31 


30 


30 


32 


31 


32A 


31 


32 


31 


32 


1 61 


15 


16 


16 


16 


27 


26 


26 


26 


27 



83 

34 
54 
10 
10 
6 
28 

27 
30 
32 

31 
16 
26 



264. Pomacentrus flavilatus Gill. 
Not seen by us; recorded by Boulenger (1899, p. 3) from the Gulf of Panama. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OP PANAMA BAY 143 

265. Nexilarius concolor {Gill). 

Abunclant along rocky shores. 

This species shows remarkable resemblance to Glyphisodon dedivifrons. So 
far as known, the two do not occupy the same waters, G. dedivifrons being known 
only from the coast of Mexico, N. concolor from Panama. For description of our 
Panama material, see Jordan and Evermann (1898, p. 1559). 

266. Glyphisodon saxatilis {Linnteus). 

Very abundant everywhere about rocks. 

The sides of body show five well-defined dark bars, as described, but the 
"sixth faint bar" at base of caudal is usually absent. 

Specimens have been compared with material from the Atlantic, and from 
the Hawaiian Islands. 

267. Microspathodon dorsalis (Gill). 

Seen abundantly at Acapulco and Panama. At Acapulco, on December 
20th, numerous small specimens of a very brilliant blue were seen about the rocks of 
the mole. A larger specimen, 130 mm. long, was obtained. In this, the general 
color is slaty-black, without blue tinge. The blue on the centers of the scales 
on trunk has already disappeared, but the pair of larger blue spots on the nape, 
those above the first, sixth and fifteenth scales of lateral line, and the confluent 
pair immediately behind last dorsal ray are conspicuous. All the larger scales of 
occiput and postorbital region are marked each by a blue spot, the spots irregular in 
size and shape. An occasional scale on the nape is similarly marked. There is an 
oblong blue spot on the eye above the pupil. An interrupted blue line runs from 
supraorbital rim anteriorly above the nostril, the two lines converging toward the 
tip of the snout, but not reaching it. A second broader streak runs forward from 
below eye to the depression separating tip of snout from jjreorbital. A third short 
streak runs backward from the angle of the mouth, continued by a series of two or 
three blue spots on successive scales. A blue bar crosses the inner base of the upper 
pectoral rays. Outer margin of ventrals blue. Margins of dorsal and anal narrowly 
blue to or nearly to the tips of the lobes. Upper and lower margins of caudal pale, 
the edge narrow and light blue in color near the base of the fin, wider and translucent 
opposite the middle of the lobes. Soft dorsal and anal fins have the post-lobular 
margins transparent, this edge widest and best marked on last dorsal rays. Pectorals 
have a wide terminal translucent bar, occupying about one-third of the fin. The 
lower region has a generally distributed bluish tint in life. 

A larger specimen from Panama, 175 mm. long, is no further advanced toward 
the mature condition. The color is dark slaty-blue, with broad white margins to the 
pectorals, and narrower margins to the other fins. The larger sky-blue spots still 
persist, thi-ee above the lateral line, a saddle behind dorsal, and a larger spot on each 



144 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

side of the nape. A profusion of small blue spots cover the top and sides of the 
head, one above the eye and one behind it being larger than the others. A series 
of spots form a distinct line below the eye, extending forward on the preorbital. A 
blue spot surrounds the nostril. The tip of the snout, the anterior (lower) edge of 
the preorbital, the angle of the mouth and the mandible are blue. There is a very 
narrow blue margin to the spinous dorsal and to the anterior half of the anal fin. A 
large blue sjwt on upper margin of eye-ball. 

In older specimens, the conspicuous blue spots and streaks have largely 
vanished, but the smaller blue spots on sides of head may remain in specimens 25 
cm. long. The blue spot on the upper edge of the eye-ball persists in all our 
specimens. 

The ground color varies with the color of the bottom, adults from sand or 
coral being light gray in tint {M. cinereus), while others are blackish or slaty blue. 

Family LABRID^. 

268. Harpe diplotaenia Gill. 
Abundant among the islands in Panama Bay. 

269. Halichaeres sellifer Gilbert. 

Two specimens were secured, 19 and 24 cm. long. They agree in most details 
with the description given of the type, the single specimen heretofore known. In 
both Panama specimens, however, the outer caudal rays are shorter than the middle 
rays, the posterior margin of the fin being gently convex, even when the fin is 
spread. In the type, 29 cm. long, the caudal was found to be "truncate or slightly 
emarginate, the outer rays scarcely produced." The outer caudal rays doubtless 
become longer with increasing age, as in many of the Labridse. The outer ventral 
rays are also shorter in our specimens, where they are less than twice the length of 
the inner rays, and fail to reach the vent. This also may depend upon the age of 
the specimens. 

In the Panama specimens, the head is contained 3| to 3|^ in the length; the 
depth 3 to 35. The depth of the caudal peduncle is 1| to If in the length of the 
head. The snout 2| or 2/y in the head. 

The dorsal fin contains 9 spines and 11 rays, the anal fin 3 spines and 12 
rays in each specimen. The first anal spine is greatly reduced and concealed in 
the membrane, and might easily give occasion to a statement that but 2 spines were 
present. 

The colors were essentially as in the type of the species, but were somewhat 
less brilliant, the bright red of the sides being here of a duller brownish red tint. 
Following is a description of the coloration of our smaller specimen. 

In life, each scale has a basal band of bright blue, the scales otherwise 
brownish, margined on all sides (including the base) with light yellow or olive. 



GILBERT AND STARKS— FISHES OP PANAMA BAY 145 

There are blue spots on the opercles, and two parallel blue streaks from the eye 
toward the snout. A streak, or a series of spots, on the suborbital ring. Opercles 
with a pinkish ground color. There is a blackish half-bar under the posterior portion 
of the spinous dorsal, the bar narrowing rapidly below, and disappearing on middle 
of sides; it is directed toward the vent, and seems to be more posteriorly placed 
than in H. nichoki. There is a pinkish bar in front of the base of the pectoral. 
Caudal yellow. Dorsals brownish red, with a blue margin, and blue streaks 
running obliquely downward and backward. The anal is yellowish at the base, 
becoming brownish red toward the margin. There is a narrow blue edge, a blue 
spot at the base of each ray, and two parallel blue lines anteriorly, which divide that 
portion of the fin into basal, middle and terminal thirds. The ventrals and pectorals 
are translucent, the outer ventral rays translucent, margined externally with blue. 

270. Halichaeres macgregori sp. uov. 

Plate XXIII, Fio. 45. 

One specimen 87 mm. long was taken in company with Pseudojulis notospilus 
in a rock-pool on the Panama reef. It was not recognized at the time as a species 
distinct from notospilus, and no color notes were taken. 

Head 3 in length; depth 35; depth of caudal peduncle equals distance from tip of snout to 
middle of eye. Snout 2^ in head; eye 5. D. IX, 11; A. Ill, 12. 

Anterior canines ^, those in the lower jaw subequal, the outer canines of the upper jaw 
smaller than the others, but evidently enlarged. A well-developed posterior canine on each side of 
the upper jaw, this accompanied on one side of jaw by a smaller tooth more posteriorly placed. 

The dorsal spines are slender but pungent. The last dorsal ray is split to the base. The first 
anal spine is reduced to a mere rudiment, which can be detected only on dissection. The last anal ray 
is split to the base, each half being again partially divided. The caudal is evenly rounded behind. 
The ventral spine is three-fifths the length of the outer ventral ray, the inner branch of which is longer 
than the outer, but is not filamentous and does not project beyond the contour of the fin. The ventrals 
do not quite reach the vertical from the hinder margin of the pectorals, and extend only two-thirds the 
distance from their base to the origin of the anal. The pectorals cover si.x scales in a series behind 
their base. 

The scales in front of the dorsal fin fail to cross the median line, the naked space being very 
narrow posteriorly, but widening rapidly toward the nape. The scales are reduced in size, but are 
arranged in series continuous with those below and behind them. The scales of the breast are 
moderately reduced in size, a series anterior to base of ventrals containing 8 scales. 

The lateral line is continuous, the posterior portion running on the third series below the 
anterior portion. The tubes of the posterior portion are simple, those of the anterior portion divided 
to form two or rarely three branches. Above the dorsally lying portion of the lateral line is a single 
horizontal series of scales of full size. Above each scale of this series, and forming with it a very 
oblique row running upward and forward, are four much smaller scales which decrease rapidly in size 
upward. The uppermost of these are inserted on the base of the dorsal fin, and constitute an incipient 
sheath. Similar series of reduced scales running downward and forward are found along the anterior 
portion of the anal fin. There are 7 horizontal series of full-sized scales between the lateral line and 
the anterior portion of the anal fin. 

No trace remains of the brilliant colors which this fish undoubtedly displayed in life. In 
spirits, the ground color is grayish olive, slightly darker along the back. Many scales have each a 



146 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

dark brown spot at base, those so marked forming rather definite large groups, which correspond on 
the two sides of the fish. A series of four such groups, separated by narrow interspaces, lie along the 
lower half of the sides. Behind the eye, are three or four narrow wavy dark lines, the lower two 
joined more or less by irregular cross-branches. A faint dusky streak runs forward from eye to snout, 
a faint spot below the eye, and a well marked horizontal dusky streak on lower part of cheeks, turning 
downward and backward across preopercle. A narrow brown streak runs downward and backward 
across prepectoral area, but fails to reach the median ventral line. 

Spinous dorsal dusky, a small blackish blotch at tip of membrane between first two spines. A 
very conspicuous elliptical jet-black spot on basal portion of first four rays of the soft dorsal; the spot is 
faintly ocellated with whitish, above this a faint curved dusky streak, then the translucent margin of 
the fin. Behind the spot, the dorsal is marked with oblique cross-bands of dusky and whitish. The 
caudal appears uniformly dusky. The anal is dusky, with a narrow translucent margin. The spine 
and outer ventral ray are dusky, the rest of the fin whitish. The pectorals are uniformly translucent. 

Named in honor of Richard C. McGregor, a member of the expedition to 
Panama, to the success of which he materially contributed. 

271. Halichaeres dispilus {Gilnther). 

The types came from Panama, where the species was also secured by the 
Albatross (Jordan & BoUman, 1889, p. 182). It has been reported also from Aca- 
pulco and Mazatlan. 

272. Pseudojulis notospilus Gilnther. 

The dark bands across the back are in the number of 8, the first being on the 
nape, the eighth on the caudal peduncle. Those in front of the soft dorsal become 
progressively fainter, the anterior three, and the one on caudal peduncle, commonly 
disappearing in adults. 

The species is very abundant in all rock-pools about Panama. 

273. Thalassoma lucasanum (Gill). 

This species has been recorded from Panama by Gilnther (1864 6, p. 26) 
without comment. It has not been obtained there by other investigators. 

Family SCARID^. 
274. Pseudoscarus perrico {Jordan <& Gilbert). 

Occasionally taken about the rocky islands in Panama Bay. Five specimens 
were secured, ranging in length from 23 to 38 cm. The adipose hump on top of 
head is variable in its development among individuals of the same size. Our speci- 
mens are eviscerated, so we are unable to determine whether the development of the 
hump is dependent on sex. 

The following color-notes were taken from a fresh specimen 263 mm. long: 
Scales on body with the central portion blue, surrounded by brown. Under parts 
whitish. A wedge-shaped blue spot immediately behind the eye; 4 narrow blue 



GILBERT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 147 

streaks radiate from above the eye; 4 or 5 small spots of blue on the interorbital 
space; one or more blue streaks in front of eye, and a broad patch below eye. Teeth 
green. Dorsal fin narrowly margined with bright green; below this the fin is 
brownish golden, with an imperfect median green band, which is most distinct pos- 
teriorly; a basal series of green spots is present. The caudal has the central rays 
green, the outer ones yellow, edged with green. The anal is largely green, the 
margin being more brightly colored than the rest of the fin. The pectorals are 
brownish yellow, margined posteriorly with a translucent band; the upper ray has a 
greenish margin. The ventrals are greenish white. 

There is considerable variation in the size and shape of the green streaks 
about the eye. Those below the eye are usually wider than those elsewhere, the 
middle group often coalescent to form a wide blotch. One pair, from upper anterior 
margin of orbit, sometimes extends well across the top of the head, meeting or nearly 
meeting on the median line. 

Family EPHIPPID^. 
275. Chaetodipterus zonatus (Girard). 

This species comes abundantly to the Panama market, but seems not to reach 
a large size. The longest specimen seen was less than 30 cm. in length, and had 
not developed the thick bony masses on cranium such as appear in the adult of C. 
faber. 

C. zonatus differs from its Atlantic rejjresentative C. faber princiiially in the 
lower lobes of the vertical fins, the shorter ventrals, and the smaller scales. The 
coloration of the two is essentially the same, there being no difference in the number 
and arrangement of the bands. These may, however, be a little wider in zonatus, 
which has also a more conspicuous black blotch on the pectoral. The fin-rays are 
the same in the two species, the dorsal rays varying from 21 to 23, the anal rays from 
18 to 20. 

The lateral line contains the same number of pores in the two species, 48 to 
50, but the scales are notably smaller in zonatus, and are less regularly arranged. 
The smaller scales on the head and on the vertical fins are also noticeably smaller in 
zonatus. The widest portion of the black band which connects the front of the dorsal 
to the front of the anal has 11 or 12 scales in a longitudinal series across it; in faber 
there are usually but 6 or 8 scales across the widest portion of the band. In zonatus, 
there are 18 to 20 scales in an oblique series on sides between axil and tip of pec- 
torals; in faber, there are but 12 or 13 scales on corresponding part of sides. 

A specimen of zonatus 50 mm. long is very light grayish olive, the bars very 
faintly indicated or wholly absent. The sides of head and body are marked with 
scattered sharply-defined brown spots and blotches mostly smaller than pupil. Those 
on head are arranged in a series along the line of the dark band. On the lateral 
line, below last dorsal spines, a circular area of the ground color, as large as the eye, 
is ocellated by a brown line. The third dorsal spine is slightly shorter than in C. 
faber of the same size. 



148 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Measurements hi Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length in mm 

Head (to edge of membrane). 

Snout 

Interorbital width 

Diameter of iris 

Depth opposite first anal spine 

Longest dorsal ray 

Longest anal ray 

Longest pectoral ray 

Longest ventral ray 



C. ZONA- 


C. FABEF 


TUS 


176 


172' 


3ii 


32 


12 


I3i 


I2i 


12 


8 


s: 


75 


77 


43 


70 


38 


54 


i9i 


19 


27i 


35 



276. Parapsettus panamensis Steindachner. 

Not rare in the Panama market, where numerous specimens were obtained. 

In addition to the short graduated dorsal spines, this genus differs from 
Chcetodipterus in having no transverse fold behind the upper lip, which is therefore 
technically as well as actually non-protractile. The shoulder-girdle agrees with 
Chcetodipterus. The alisphenoids are much more developed, meeting each other 
mesially, and closing the cranial cavity in front. The interorbital septum contains a 
well-developed osseous lamina, which comes in contact posteriorly with the strong, 
compressed, vertical limb of the basisphenoid. The latter fails to meet the para- 
sphenoid below. 

Family CH^TODONTID^. 
277. Chaetodon nigrirostris (GUI). 

Plate XXIV, Fig. 47. 

Two adults of this apparently rare species were taken by the use of dyna- 
mite near one of the rocky islands in Panama Bay. 

In addition to the distinctive color-markings, this species has the scales on the 
cheeks enlarged, the exposed surfaces much higher than wide, arranged in four 
horizontal more or less wavy series, but not in quincunx order. The preopercle is 
strongly striated. 

The head and the lower half of body are silvery, more or less washed with 
light yellow, each scale having often a brownish spot at base, these forming three 
faint lengthwise stripes along the scale-rows. The base of the anal, and the upper 
half of the trunk are light brownish purple. A jet-black bar encircles upper part of 
snout, but does not include the upper lip, nor the region behind the vertical from the 



GILBERT AND STAEKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 149 

nostril. A black blotch above and behind each orbit, fails to meet its fellow by a 
distance about equaling the diameter of the pupil. A narrow black orbital ring 
encroaches on the eye-ball. A wedge-shaped black bar has its apex at front of 
dorsal, its base being separated from the orbital region by a transverse whitish bar 
which crosses the head behind the eyes. The wedge-shaped bar is bordered behind 
by a wide silvery band. The opercular membrane is jet-black, as is also the mem- 
brane covering the shoulder girdle. A few of the scales covering the supraclavicle 
are edged or blotched with black. A jet-black bar crosses the base of the upper 
three-fourths of the pectoral, and is continued into a broader axillary band, which 
likewise fails to involve the lower rays. A broad black bar begins at base of fifth or 
sixth dorsal spine, includes the basal half of soft dorsal and is continuous with a 
wedge-shaped bar on caudal peduncle, the apex of the wedge failing to reach the 
lower edge of the peduncle, but directed toward the margin of the last anal rays. 
The remainder of the vertical fins are translucent dusky, unmarked. The ventrals 
are dusky; the pectorals translucent yellowish. 

We have not admitted to our list the Atlantic species Chcetodon capistratus. 
recorded without comment from Rio Tuyra, Darien, by Boulenger (1899, p. 3). 

278. Chaetodon humeralis Giinther. 

The young are abundant in tide-pools, and adults are present in large num- 
bers among the rocky reefs and islands in the Bay. 

Our youngest specimen is 28 mm. long, and is in the last phases of the 
" 7'holichthy s" stage. The color scheme of the adult is plainly indicated, but the 
head is wholly scaleless and is entirely covered with sculptured shields. One of these 
extends from the occiput on to the nape, in the form of a dagger-shaped spine, which 
fails to reach front of dorsal by a distance equaling about one-fourth its length. The 
angle of the preopercle is produced into a rounded squamous process, which extends 
more than half way to the insertion of the ventral fins. Two similar squamous lobes 
are attached to the upper portion of the shoulder girdle, their posterior margins 
being free. The upper is larger ^nd less evenly rounded than the lower, and is 
separated from it at the point traversed by the lateral line. The margins of these 
lobes and the preopercular margin are very finely but sharply serrulate. Similar but 
smaller squamous processes are attached to the horizontal limb of the preopercle and 
to the inner edge of the dentary, lobes on one side of the head corresponding to inden- 
tations on the other, those of the two sides closely joining below and wholly concealing 
the isthmus and the branchiostegals. The cheeks are firmly cuirassed, like the rest 
of the head. 

The colors are the same as in adults with these exceptions: The ventrals are 
black. The vertical black bar at base of caudal is faintly indicated. The caudal 
fin, and the soft dorsal and anal fins are translucent, unmarked, thus contrasting 
strongly with their barred condition in the adult. The broad bar across posterior 
portion of trunk is continued definitely on to posterior portion of spinous dorsal, and 

( 20 ) December 22, 1903. 



150 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

on to the basal portion of anal spines. There is at no time any ocellus, but a distinct 
intensification of the black of the posterior bar occurs over a small rounded area 
immediately below the last dorsal spines. 

With increasing size, there appears first the black bar on dorsal and anal, 
contemporaneously with the broadening of the bar on caudal peduncle. A definite 
white bar then forms behind the latter, on the basal jwrtion of the caudal fin. Before 
the sharp differentiation of this bar, white pigment occupies its future jmsition, but 
covers a wider area, gradually thinning out posterioi'ly, visible on the entire basal 
third of the fin. As soon as it becomes concentrated into a narrow bar, a faint dusky 
margin develops posteriorly, this widening to form a bar, which develops most rapidly 
on the lower half of the fin. The bars on dorsal and anal are at first near the middle 
of the fin, leaving a wide translucent margin, but later migrate distally. 

The largest of our immature specimens is 55 mm. long. At this stage, the 
middle dark caudal bar is still much narrower than the basal bar, and there is no 
trace of the succeeding two bars (white and black). 

279. Pomacanthus zonipectus (Gill). 

Much less abundant than Holacanthus passer, with which it was found asso- 
ciated. But two individuals were seen. 

In adults, the upper profile is continued forward in an even curve to front of 
nape. From this point, the occipital region is deeply concave, the profile becoming 
again convex above ocular region and snout. The color has been well described 
by Dr. Jordan (1895^, p. 484) from Mazatlan examples. 

An immature specimen, 63 mm. long, shows the characteristic coloration of 
the young, which has been described by Jordan and Gilbert (1881 c, p. 358), under 
the name Pomacanthus crescentalis. The third yellow band behind the head cuts 
the bases of soft dorsal and anal fins three or four rays in advance of the posterior 
ends, instead of running from end to end, as described. It curves forward on the 
two fins, meeting the anterior yellow band to form a broad loop, which is wider than 
the bands and blue in color. The dorsal continuations of all save the caudal band 
are blue. A blue bar is present midway between the first and second, and the second 
and third yellow bars behind head; no other blue bars are present. The basal two- 
thirds of the caudal fin is jet-black, save for the narrow vertical yellow bar which 
divides that area equally. The outer third is translucent, with a narrow dusky bar 
near the anterior edge of the tract. 



'&'■ 



280. Holacanthus passer Valenciennes. 

Abundant among rocky islands in Panama Bay. 

Gill's type of //. strigatus, a synonym of //. jyasser, must have been an imma- 
ture specimen. In such we find a conspicuous narrow blue streak running from nape 
to upper posterior margin of orbit, thence faintly downward in a broken line toward 
base of preopercular spine. This streak disappears entirely in adults. In the young, 



GILBERT AND STARES — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 151 

a second blue streak connects upper anterior margins of orbits, then extends vertically 
downward behind angle of mouth. The transverse portion of this streak persists in 
adults and becomes greatly widened. 

An oval area in front of dorsal fin contains a number of small bright blue 
spots, usually one for each scale. The scales behind the white bar are widely mar- 
gined with blue in adult specimens, but in none do we find traces of the blue cross- 
bars described by Gill. These may be found in younger specimens than have come 
to our hands. In adults, that portion of spinous dorsal in front of the white cross-bar 
is bright yellow. The rest of the fin is deep brown like the body, passing into 
brownish yellow in the falcate lobe, and as a submarginal band in front of this and 
behind it. Behind the anterior yellow area, the fin is narrowly margined with bright 
blue, the margin becoming much wider on the vertical part of the fin. In the young, 
the dorsal is similarly colored, but the blue margin is wider and includes also the 
anterior spines, and is everywhere followed by a submarginal yellowish brown band. 
The anal is similarly marked. The caudal fin and nearly half of the caudal pedun- 
cle are light lemon-yellow, the fin posteriorly with a narrow dark brown edge. Pec- 
torals and ventrals lemon-yellow, without other markings. The white bar on sides 
extends from base of dorsal, below fifth to seventh spines, downwards to a point 
opposite middle of base of pectorals. It is usually widest in its upper third, narrow- 
ing rapidly below. In adults, the dorsal lobe reaches nearly to edge of caudal. 

The genus Angelichthys Jordan and Evermann, characterized by the absence 
of spines on the preorbital, by the coarser spines on the ascending limb of the pre- 
opercle and by the greater length of the dorsal and anal lobes, should doubtless be 
considered a section of Holacanthus. 



Family TEUTHIDID^. 
281. Teuthis crestonis Jordan d; Siarks. 

This species is very near 2\ matoides, from the Hawaiian Islands and the 
Western Pacific generally, and may prove to be undistinguishable from that widely 
distributed form. It agrees in most details of shape, color and fin-rays, but appears 
to differ in having the spine on the side of the tail distinctly smaller, and in having 
the sides of the body mottled, but not streaked. In specimens 8 to 20 cm. long, the 
caudal spine is four to five hundredths of the length from snout to base of caudal. In 
specimens of T. matoides from Honolulu, 10 to 23 cm. long, the caudal spine is five to 
six hundredths of the length. In eight specimens from Panama, the fin-rays are: 
Dorsal IX, 25, 25, 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 27; anal III, 23, 24, 24, 25, 25, 25, 25, 25. 

T. bahianus from the Atlantic has a still larger caudal spine, which is seven 
to eight hundredths of the length. 

7\ crestonis is abundant in the tide-pools of the Panama reef, and among the 
islands in the Bay. It is recorded from Panama Bay also by Boulenger (1899, p. 3). 



152 



OAHFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Family BALISTID^. 
282. Balistes polylepis Steindachner. 

Not uncommon at Panama; three specimens were collected which agree very 
well with Steindachner's description of the type and co-types from the west coast of 
Mexico. 

It may be distinguished from B. carolinensis by the smaller scales, deeper 
body, more elevated and convex interorbital, less sharply angulated anal, and the 
shorter caudal lobes. Our three specimens of B. carolinemis all have 24 anal rays, 
while B. polylepis has 25 or 26; the lateral series of scales of carolinensis are 55 or 
56 in number, those of polylepis 69 to 73. B. carolinensis has the depth of the body 
contained twice in the length, polylepis 1|- to 1| times; in carolinensis the caudal 
lobes are somewhat longer, more slender and of equal length, while in pjolylejm the 
lower lobe is the shorter. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal, in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Orbit 

Snout 

Interorbital 

Length of pectoral 

Height of anterior part of soft dorsal 

Height of anterior part of anal 

Length of middle caudal rays 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

Scales, from upper part of gill-opening... 



194 


207 


33 


32i 


57 


57 


7i 


7 


26 


26 


II 


lOi 


13 


13 


26i 


26i 


22i 


22 


20 


19 


111,(28 


III, 27 


26 


25 


69 


73 . 



211 

32 

59 

7 
26 
II 

n\ 
27 

23 
20 

III, 27 

25 

70 



283. Balistes naufragium Jordan & Starks. 

The commonest Balistoid in Panama Bay; many sjiecimens were taken about 
the rocky islands. 

We have re-examined the type of the species, from Mazatlan, and correct 
here a few slight errors in the original description: 

Dorsal III, 26; anal 24; scales 50. Head to lower end of gill-slit 2| in body. 
Snout 1^ in head; eye 5|; longest dorsal ray 1|; longest anal ray 1| ; pectoral 1^. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



153 



The groove before eye is very faint, scarcely to be made out in some of our 
Panama specimens. Dorsal very slightly falcate in the type and in larger specimens; 
in small and half-grown examples only, is it sharply angulatcd. The anal is rather 
sharply rounded. In life the sides are marked with many narrow vertical wavy 
blue lines. 

The species is easily distinguished from B. polylejns by the thicker body, the 
larger scales, the darker and more variegated coloration, the much reduced preocular 
groove, and the less falcate fins. In B. 2)ohjlepis, the upper margin of tlie dorsal 
fin is deeply concave for the whole length; in B. naufragium, the greater part 
of the upper margin is convex, a few only of the anterior rays projecting, making 
that part of the fin concave. The caudal lobes are also much shorter in this species, 
while the middle rays are more produced. The plates are much more roughly 
granular, and are fewer in number. The lips are much thicker and more deeply 
plicate, the peripheral folds being densely papillose. The ventral stay is more 
robust, and the circumoral area is devoid of plates. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Locality 

Length without caudal, in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Orbit 

Snout 

Length of pectoral 

Height of anterior rays of soft dorsal 

Height of anterior rays of anal 

Length of middle caudal rays 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Series of scales 







Panama 






Mazatlan 
(Type) 


261 


216 


180 


302 


165 


255 


331 


34 


35 


34 


35 


341 


55 


56^ 


58 


57 


58 


56 


7 


7 


71 


61 


7 


61 


27 


28i 


28 


28 


27 


30 


i3i 


131 


15 


131 


14 


15 


25 


26 


24 


24 


23 


241 


21 


20 


21 


20 


19 


21 


19 


21 


22 


19 


21 


21 


25 


26 


26 


26 


26 


26 


24 


23 


23 


24 


23 


24 


51 


50 


51 


51 


52 


50 



284. Balistes verres sp. nov. 

Plate XXVI, Fig. 49. 

We describe as new the species that has commonly been referred to B. capis- 
tratus on the Pacific coast of Central America. B. capistratus was probably based 
on East Indian material, but we have had for comparison specimens from the 



154 



CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Hawaiian Islands only. From these, B. verves differs in having smaller scales and a 
greater number of dorsal and anal rays. Specimens from Panama and Mazatlan 
have the scales 58 to 65; the dorsal has 30 to 32 rays, and the anal 28 or 29. Five 
specimens of B. capistratiis from Hawaii have 50 or 51 oblique series of scales 
(counted from the upper end of the gill-opening) ; the dorsal has 29 or 30 rays; the 
anal 25 to 27 rays. The caudal of the Hawaiian specimens is truncate, with the 
outer rays not produced. The caudal is noticeably lunate in the Panama and 
Mazatlan specimens. Bleeker's plate shows that his specimen from the East Indies 
has 50 series of scales, 30 rays in the dorsal fin, and 27 in the anal. 

The following description is from the type of B. verves: 

Head to lower angle of gill-opening 3| in length, without caudal; depth 2. Eye 5^ in head; 
snout i^; interorbital width 3^. Dorsal III, 31; anal 28. Scales from upper end of gill-opening 64. 

Teeth with their inner cutting edge produced, the lower ones shutting inside of the upper. 
The groove before the eye is scarcely longer than the eye. The length of the gill-opening is twice the 
diameter of the eye, and about equal to the length of the longest pectoral ray. 

Groove of spinous dorsal a little longer than first dorsal spine, two-thirds the length of the 
base of the soft dorsal. Anal base shorter than dorsal base by three-fifths the length of the eye. 
Anterior part of dorsal a little higher than that of anal. Caudal lunate, the outer rays about one- 
fourth longer than the middle rays. 

Posterior part of sides with 9 or 10 lengthwise series of small antrorse spines. A row of 
very small pores extends irregularly backward from eye nearly to the front of soft dorsal. 

Color in alcohol: upper parts of body brownish slate-color, lighter below. Anterior edge of 
upper lip, and lower lip and chin light yellowish. A scarcely discernible streak extends backwards 
across cheek from angle of mouth. Other specimens have this streak very conspicuous, as in 
B. capistratus. Caudal blackish; spinous dorsal dusky, other fins light yellowish. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Le^igth without Caudal. 



Locality 

Length without caudal, in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Eye 

Snout 

Height of anterior part of dorsal , 
Height of anterior part of anal.... 

Length of pectoral 

Length of caudal (middle rays) .. 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Scales 





Panama 




Mazatlan 


(Type) 










212 


281 


191 


315 


250 


32 


34 


33 


31 


33 


50 


52 


52 


48 


51 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5i 


28 


30 


27i 


27i 


30 


15 


Hi 


i3i 


15 


16 


i3i 


i3i 


I2i 


I2i 


14 


Hi 


II 


I I 


ID 


12 


15 


i6i 


i6i 


15 


16 


31 


31 


32 


32 


30 


28 


29 


29 


29 


28 


64 


65 


62 


61 


61 



194 
32 

49 

6i 
28 
16 
i4i 
12 

15 
31 
29 

58 



GIMjERT AND STAEKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 155 

:/a ry ■ ■'' Tc u ih i o /' d <=■ a 

285. Xesurus hopkinsi sp. nov. 

Plate XXV, Fio. 48. • 

Two large specimens, 41 and 43 cm. in length, were taken at Panama, and 
cannot be referred to any of the described species. For comjiarison we have speci- 
mens of X. punctatus from Mazatlan, Clarion Island, and San Benedicto Island; 
X. laticlavius from the Galapagos Islands; and the type of X. clarionis from Clarion 
Island. We have not sufficient material to decide upon the validity of the last-named 
species, and for present purposes will consider it distinct fi'om the others. 

The outlines of the body are evenly curved. The snout projects but sHghtly as compared 
with the other species, and the upper anterior outhne is shallowly concave. From before eye to dorsal, 
the profile is regularly rounded and without a projection at nape. 

Dorsal VIII, 26 or 27; anal III, 23. The head is smaller than in the other species, 26 or 27 
hundredths of the length. In seven specimens of X. pimdatus, the head averages 3 1 i hundredths 
of the length; in three specimens of laticlavius, '^\\ hundredths; in clarionis, 30 hundredths. The 
mouth is smaller; the maxillary forms but 6} hundredths of the length (in punclalits, "ji- hun- 
dredths; in laticlavius, 8f hundredths; in clarionis, 8 hundredths). The teeth are much smaller, 
though they number the same as in the other species, 8 or 9 on each side of the upper jaw. The eye 
is smaller, 4 or 4^ in the snout, 5 hundredths of the length (in pimctatus 6| hundredths; in lati- 
clavius, 7|- hundredths; in clariotiis, 6\ hundredths). 

The pectoral is broad and rounded at its tip, reaching to above the base of the second anal 
spine, when forced into a horizontal position. It seems to incline obliquely upward in its normal 
position. The ventrals nearly reach the first anal spine, and are about two-thirds the leng^ of the 
pectorals. The dorsal and anal are as in related species. In the larger specimen, the first dorsal spine 
has become almost entirely concealed beneath the skin, the first anal spine wholly concealed. 

The posterior part of the body is rather thickly covered with sharp spines, the bases of which 
are expanded as rough plates. The spines are somewhat inclined forward and are occasionally bifid 
(some specimens of other species have scattered rough plates which sometimes bear low sharp keels, 
but never high spines). The three bony shields on the caudal peduncle bear thick blunt spines, their 
points broad and smooth, as though worn. 

Color light slaty on lower parts, dark above. One specimen is faintly spotted with black on 
nape and opercles. 



156 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMy OF SCIENCES 
Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal, in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Maxillary 

Eye 

Horizontal limb of preopercle from behind fold in mandible.. 

Vertical limb of preopercle 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Length of fifth dorsal spine 

Longest anal rays 

Height of caudal peduncle just behind base of dorsal 

Length of longest caudal ray in upper lobe 



360 


335 


27 


26i 


51 


49 


6i 


6i 


5 


5 


II 


12 


13 


13 


26 


25 


16 


16 


12 


II 


12 


12 


Hi 


12 


24i 


23i 



Family TETRAODONTIDiE. 

286. Spheroides angusticeps {Jenyns). 

Not seen by ua; recorded from Panama by Jordan and Gilbert (1882 n, 
p. 631) from the Bradley collection, and by Jordan and Bollman (1889, \). 183). 

287. Spheroides lobatus (Steindachner). 
Obtained at Panama by the Albatross; not seen by us. 

288. Spheroides testudineus (Linnceus). 

Probably rather rare at Panama, where four specimens were taken. Compared 
with others from Jamaica, they seem to show a slight difference in the length of the 
head and snout, but our series is insufficient for the verification of this distinction. 
Our specimens are much bleached, so that nothing can be made out except the pat- 
tern of coloration, which agrees with that of the Jamaica specimens. No satisfactory 
comparisons can be made as to the size of spots, or the distinctness of markings. 

This species differs from 8. anniilatus in having the interorbital space (bone) 
narrower, the dorsal and anal shorter, the spots a trifle larger, and the termination of 
the dorsal and the anal further from the caudal, the insertion of the fins being more 
anterior and the base shorter. As the interorbital increases in width with age, only 
specimens of about the same size should be compared in this respect. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 
Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



157 



Locality 

Length without caudal in mm 

Head from teeth to middle of gill-opening. 

Depth at occiput 

Orbit 

Interorbital (bone) 

Snout (from teeth) 

Length of dorsal 

Length of anal 

Length of caudal 

Termination of dorsal from caudal 

Termination of anal from caudal 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 



Panama 



Jamaica 



164 


150 


135 


168 


137 


133 


32 


33 


33 


34 


35i 


34 


2li 


23 


21 


23 


25 


22 


7 


Ik 


6 


6 


7 


7 


n 


8 


8 


7 


n 


n 


i6i 


i6i 


i7i 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


i7i 


i6i 


17 


18 


15 


15 


14 


i3i 


14 


15 


24 


25 


24 


25 


25 


24 


14 


13 


14 


i4i 


13 


14 


13 


13 


i3i 


I3i 


i3i 


13 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 



151 

34 
22^ 

7i 
71- 

i7i 

I7i 

15 

25 

14 

i3i 



289. Spheroides annulatus (Jenyns). 

Appearing frequently in the Panama market. The young are common also 
in the tide-pools, associated with the young of Tetraodon hisjndns. In the young, the 
concentric rings are less variable and less interrupted than in adults. The ground 
color of the back is generally not broken up into small spots, as is so frequently the 
case in adults. The spots on the sides are usually larger and fewer in the young, or 
are sometimes entirely absent. The caudal is rather abruptly blackish upon its pos- 
terior half, the other fins are colorless. 

One specimen, 15 cm. in total length, differs from all the others in the some- 
what more prominent sharper spines, and the very different coloration. Upon the 
middle of the back is an S-shaped marking, the extremities of which are equidistant 
respectively from the eye and the front of the dorsal, the interval being in each case 
twice the diameter of the eye. Around it are very irregular incomplete rings. A 
curved line runs from just behind the eye to the middle of the gill-opening and another 
from the nape to above the base of the pectoral fin. Across the snout and caudal 
peduncle are irregular lines. The sides have fewer spots than is usual, and the fins 
are as here described for the young. The measurements of this specimen are the 
third listed in the appended table. 

We have examined specimens from Mazatlan, La Paz, and the Galapagos 
Islands. Some of the larger northern specimens {S. politus) have the color of 

(21) December 23, 1903. 



158 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



the back broken up into smaller spots than in the southern specimens, though some 
of the smaller northern specimens are like the southern in this as in otlier respects. 
Sjjheroides politus has been recorded from Panama (Jordan & Bollman, 1889, p. 183) 
and from Santa Helena Bay (Boulenger, 1898-99, Vol. 14, p. 8). "We consider it 
identical with annulatus. The Galapagos specimens vary greatly in depth of color. 
One has the back, pectoral, dorsal, and caudal very dark brown, almost black, while 
the anal is dark. The color of the back grades in other specimens to light brown, 
while the fins are nearly colorless. One specimen differs from the others in having a 
very concave interorbital. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caicdal. 



Locality 



Panama 




Galapagos 




La 

Paz, 
Mex. 


Maza 

Me 


200 


158 


121 


170 


185 


200 


116 


215 


114 


37 


36i 


36i 


34 


35 


34 


35 


36 


36i 


24 


24 


24i 


25 


24 


24 


24 


24 


23 


5i 


7 


5i 


7 


6 


■4i 


8 


5i 


6 


13 


12 


9 


IO|- 


12 


"i 


10 


13 


10 


20|^ 


19 


i6i 


i6i 


18^ 


18 


18 


20 


18 


18 


18 


18 


20 


19 


19 


19 


19 


18 


i6i 


1 61 


15 


18 


i6i 


17 


i6i 


i6i 


i5i 


24 


26 


26 


25 


24 


24 


25 


24 


25 


91- 


8i 


10 


8 


7 


8 


9 


8 


9 


91 


8 


9i 


1\ 


8 


7i 


9 


7 


10 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 



Length without caudal in mm 

Head from teeth to middle of gill-opening. 

Depth at occiput 

Orbit 

Interorbital (bone) 

Snout (from teeth) 

Length of dorsal 

Length of anal 

Length of caudal 

Distance from tip of dorsal rays to caudal . 
Distance from tip of anal rays to caudal .... 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays' 



92 

35 
22 

7 

7i 
18 

17 
16 

25 

10 

10 

8 

7 



290. Spheroides furthii (Steindachner). 

A rare species, not taken by us; recorded from Panama by the describer, 
and by Jordan (1885, p. 393) from the Gilbert collection. 



Guentheridia gen. nov. {Tetraodontidce). 

Type, Tetrodon formosus Giiuther, 1870, p. 283. 

This genus differs from Spheroides in the character of the olfactory organ, 
which is a transversely-placed tube, open at each end to its full diameter. The outer 
end is squarely, the inner obliquely, truncate, making the upper margin of the tube 



GILBERT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 159 

very narrow. The inner surface of the tube is closely covered with large cup-shaped 
pits, visible to the naked eye. To these pits the olfactory nerve is distributed; they 
are undoubtedly the end organs of the nerve. 

Similar pits are developed in the genus Tetraodon {erethizoji, setosui^, aerostaticus, 
perspicillaris, hispidus), where they occupy the inner surface of the nasal flaps; but 
they are not found in other genera. The nasal organ of Tetraodon could be formed 
from that of Guentheridia by cutting through the upper edge of the tube, thus leaving 
two lobes springing from a common base. 

The American species of Sptheroides, nearly all of which we have examined, 
have the olfactory tubes with small openings, and without cup-shaped pits on 
their inner surfaces; the latter are smooth, or are sometimes provided with one or two 
slight folds of skin. 

291. Guentheridia formosa (Giinther). 

Common at Panama, twelve specimens being secured. In addition to these 
we have examined six specimens collected by the Albatross at Panama in 1888. 
We found no young of this form, though the young of Tetraodon hispidus and Spher- 
oides annulatus were common in the tide-i^ools. 

The color pattern is variable. In some examples the spots are almost evenly 
distributed over the back and upper part of the sides, with no indication of concen- 
tric arrangement. Other examples have the spots confluent into smooth concentric 
rings, arranged with the smallest ring in the middle of the back. Between the 
examples with scattered spots and those with smooth rings are all intermediate stages — • 
some with the spots arranged concentrically but not united, some with them more or less 
united, forming rings with uneven contour. The spots vary also in size. Sometimes 
they are little more than half the size of the eye, and are separated by interspaces 
of the gray ground color of about their own width, sometimes they are as large as 
the eye, or larger, and are so closely set that the ground color shows only as narrow 
lines between them. In one specimen some of the spots have fused into small irreg- 
ular rings about twice the size of the eye, and enclose small spots of the ground color. 
The top of head has transverse rows of spots or solid bars. The latter are some- 
times united in pairs, forming wider and fewer bars. 

Tetraodon formosus was described from a single specimen from South America. 
The type description is not detailed, so the identification with this Panama form 
must be considered provisional, until direct comparison can be made with the type. 

292. Tetraodon hispidus Linnoeus. 

Arothron erethizon Jordan & Gilbert, 1882, p. 631. 

This species is not rare about the rocky islands in Panama Bay, where 
numerous specimens were obtained, ranging from 15 to 330 mm. long. The long 
quill-like spines protrude only when the fish is inflated. When retracted, the 
position of the spines is indicated by the pores in the skin. 



160 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

In our smallest specimens, the belly is white, the back brown with small 
•white sjiots, one at the base of each spine; along lower margin of sides are light 
spots of larger size, enclosed in a network of dusky lines. In slightly larger speci- 
mens, the white spots on back have disappeared, and the under parts are covered 
with a close black reticulum, the lines of which show a tendency to a lengthwise 
arrangement. This tendency becomes dominant in specimens about 3 cm. long, 
the lower parts then marked with parallel black lines of varying width and intensity, 
which occasionally anastomose. The white dorsal spots soon reappear, and the length- 
wise streaks begin to fade, wholly disappearing in adults. 

We have had for comparison numerous young and adult specimens from the 
Hawaiian Islands, and two young individuals from Japan. No differences ai"e discov- 
erable, so we have been forced to conclude that T. hispidus is identical with 
T. erethizon, and is a species of universal distribution in the tropical Pacific. 

293. Eumycterias punctatissimus {Gilnther). 

Plate XXIII, Fig. 46. 

Not rare among the rocky islands in Panama Bay. 

The white spots are always numerous and crowded, especially on the lower 
part of the sides, but they vary considerably in size, and the brown lines forming the 
network enclosing them are sometimes wider, sometimes narrower. The belly is 
always white. The sides and top of the head, the nape and the whole dorsal line, 
are marked with numerous small blue spots, usually surrounded each by a darker 
ring; the eye is occasionally, but very rarely, surrounded by blue radiating streaks. 
Young specimens are sometimes marked by an obscurely ocellated dusky area below 
the dorsal fin, but no trace of this persists in adults. The youngest specimen, 12 mm. 
long, is a uniform warm brown, without trace of spots. The basal fourth of the 
caudal fin is usually covered with fine white spots, the remainder of the caudal and 
all the other fins, translucent, unmarked. 

The vertical fins are short, with evenly rounded margins. The pectorals are 
strongly emarginate, with the upper lobe the longer. The dorsal and anal each 
contains 9 rays (rarely 10). There is a short nasal tube widely open at the summit. 

Family DIODONTID^. 

294. Diodon holacanthus Linnceus. 

Three specimens were secured, 115, 179, and 280 mm. long. All show the 
characteristic black cross-bars and blotches ascribed to this sj)ecies. Round black 
spots are also present on the lighter spaces of the back, and on the postocular area, 
where they are largest. Small black spots are present on the snout in the two smaller 
specimens, but are lacking in the larger one. In all of the specimens, large black 
spots are present over the ventral region, one in the axil of each spine. They are 



GILBERT AND STAKES — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 161 

more prominent in the youngest example than in the older ones, but their shape is 
less definite. The fins are immaculate in all, and the upper lobe of the pectoral is 
notably longer than the lower lobe, a character which becomes more pronounced in 
the older specimens. So far as our specimens are concerned, there is no indication 
that with increasing age there is an approach to D. htjstrix. The species should be 
held distinct until a full intermediate series is obtained. 



Family SCORP^NID^. 

295. Scorpaena histrio Jenyns. 
Taken by the Albatross at Panama (Jordan & Bollman, 1889, p. 182). 

296. Scorpaena pannosa Cramer. 
Only the type known; taken by the Albatross at Panama. 

297. Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks. 

Of frequent occurrence in the Panama market, the collection containing nu- 
merous specimens from 10 to 30 cm. long. 

In the type of S. mystes, the supraocular cirrus is longer than the diameter of 
the eye, but this is a very variable feature. In the majority of our Panama specimens, 
the cirrus is shorter than the diameter of the pupil, and in some individuals no trace 
of it can be found. Two Panama specimens have it long, as in the type; in a third 
it is long on one side and short on the other. In one adult co-type from Mazatlan, it 
is short, as is also the case in a young specimen from La Paz, L. C. The variation 
is dependent on neither age nor sex. 

The nearest relative of 8. mystes is the representative form S. plumieri of the 
Atlantic. The differences alleged to separate the two are slight. In all the speci- 
mens we have examined, those from the Pacific can be distinguished by the darker 
duller coloration, and the wider shallower grooves and pits on the top of the head. 
8. plumieri is currently described as having a long supraocular cirrus. From the 
following statement, however, it is evident that the species varies in this regard as 
does its Pacific representative: "Junge individuen besitzen bios wenige, oder selbst 
keine Hautlappen, und einem jungen Weibchen fehlen auch die teutakeln iiber dera 
Auge." (Kner, Novara Fische, 1866, p. 115). 

298. Scorpaena russula Jordan & Bollman. 

Dredged by the Albatross at Stations 2795 and 2797, in Panama Bay, 33 fath- 
oms; only the types known. 



162 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Family TRIGLID^. 

299. Prionotus xenisma Jordan S; Bollman. 

Dredged at Albatross Stations 2795 and 2805, in Panama Bay, 33 and 51| 
fathoms; the types only known. 

300. Prionotus loxias Jordan. 

Only the types known; dredged at Albatross Station 2805, Panama Bay, 514^ 
fathoms. 

301. Prionotus quiescens Jordan S Bollman. 

The types were dredged by the Albatross in Panama Bay, in depths of 7 to 
51|^ fathoms. 

302. Prionotus albirostris .Jordan & Bollman. 
The types from Albatross Station 2795, Panama Bay, 33 fathoms. 

303. Prionotus horrens Richardson. 

This species is very similar in general appearance to P. ruscarius, with which 
it has been frequently confused. The two agree in having a continuous shar^? ridge 
running from the margin of the snout across preorbital and cheek to the preojier- 
cular spine, this ridge bearing several strong bramble-like spines standing out from 
the head at right angles, and hooked backward. In this respect, both species differ 
conspicuously from P. tribulus, in the adults of which the rostral spine, the spine on 
the middle of preorbital, and that on the middle of cheek become inconspicuous or 
wholly wanting. P. tribulus cannot be considered a representative Atlantic species of 
either of these Pacific forms, for the relationship is not so close as has been assumed. 

P. horrens seems to be less abundant than P. ruscarius. We secured four 
adults at Panama. Three others have been rei:)orted by Jordan and Bollman 
(1889, p. 182) from Albatross Station 2800, in Panama Bay. Aside from these, the 
species is known only from the Gulf of Fonseca, where the types were obtained. 
The following description is drawn from the seven specimens above noted: 

Head 2| to 2| in length to base of caudal; depth 4 to 4i. Snout equaling maxillary, 2-\ to 
2^ in head; eye 5^ to 6; interorbital width 4. Dorsal X, 11; anal 9. Snout depressed, the longi- 
tudinal profile nearly straight, the sides concave, flaring strongly outwards to the sharp ridge at its 
lower margin. Beneath the ridge, the surface of the preorbitals is horizontal, continuous with that of 
the widely exposed dentigerous portion of the premaxillaries, and with the lower surface of the head. 
The snout is squarely truncate, or the preorbitals, especially in the young, may project slightly beyond 
its tip. They are never strongly produced, as in P. ruscarius, and permit a wide strip of the premax- 
illaries to be seen from above in the closed mouth. 

The interorbital space is wide and flat, bounded by bluntly rounded supraocular ridges, which 
are usually low, but vary somewhat. This space is never deeply concave, as in P. ruscarius and 
P. tribulus. 



GILBERT AND STAKES — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 163 

The head is very finely granular, the radiating ridges delicate and very numerous, the minute 
granules almost uniformly covering the bones. The anterior margin of the preorbitals is minutely 
serrulate or granular, the posterior tooth sometimes larger than the others, projecting spine-like. 
Immediately behind the rounded portion of the preorbital, from which it is separated by a notch, is a 
strong compressed spine directed outward and backward. Behind this, on the ridge already mentioned, 
is a series of similar spines increasing in size posteriorly. One of these is on the center of the pre- 
orbital, one on the center of the cheek, the third at the base of the preopercular spine. These spines 
decrease but little with age; but it may be possible that none of our specimens is fully grown. The 
preocular, supraocular, occipital, nuchal, opercular and humeral ridges and spines offer nothing 
peculiar. No spines immediately behind the eye. A single pair, similar to the occipital spines, 
located slightly in advance of the latter, on the blunt postocular ridge. No trace of a postocular 
groove. 

The anterior nostril has a broad short flap arising from its posterior margin. Mouth large, 
the maxillary reaching a vertical which passes through spine on middle of cheek and traverses the 
orbit midway between its anterior margin and the front of the pupil. Mandible with a small but 
evident symphysial knob, much better developed than in P. ruscarius, the intermandibular space 
anteriorly acute. Vomerine and palatine patches of teeth varying greatly in width, the vomerine patch 
greatly constricted mesially, but not wholly divided in any of our specimens. The vomerine patch 
about equals in length one of the palatine patches. Gill-rakers varying in length from two-fifths to 
four-fifths diameter of pupil. They are usually heavy, club-shaped; 6, or rarely but 5 movable ones 
are developed on horizontal limb of arch. The membrane between the opercular spines is partly cov- 
ered with cycloid scales. 

Scales thin, smooth or w-eakly ctenoid in the young, wholly smooth with entire edges in 
adults. The scales of the lateral line have their exposed portions roughened with minute projections, the 
free edges coarsely spinous in the young. The size and roughness of these scales vary widely in 
different individuals. The sides of body are wholly scaled, save for a narrow naked strip in the a.xil 
of the pectorals and ventrals. The breast is variously scaled, but less completely so than in P. 
ruscariiis. The scaled tract is sometimes limited to a narrow medial band, with a constriction opposite 
the base of the ventrals; when wider than this, it is in adults still bounded in front and on the sides 
with distinct naked margins. There are 52 scales in the lateral line, and about 100 vertical series 
above the lateral line. 

The dorsal spines are slender and flexible, none of them roughened or serrulate on their 
anterior margin. The first spine is but little shorter than the second (the longest); the free margin of 
the fin is slightly concave. The eighth is the last spine to bear movable membrane, the ninth being 
thick and short, declined, firmly embedded in the integument, and the tenth little more than a conical 
bony nodule, which is sometimes entirely concealed. The caudal is truncate when spread, rarely 
slightly emarginate. The pectorals are very short, barely reaching the vent in adults, slightly beyond 
that point in the young. In the very immature type (115 mm. long), the pectoral is figured as extend- 
ing to a point opposite the fourth anal ray. The posterior margin of the fin is evenly rounded, the sixth 
to the eleventh rays the longest. Detached pectoral rays very long and slender, the uppermost about 
as long as the rest of the fin, extending well beyond tips of ventrals. In adults, the tips of ventrals 
fall a little short of the tips of the pectorals, and neither fin reaches the vent. 

The dorsal contains invariably 10 spines and 11 soft rays; the anal has but 9 rays. As noted 
above, the last dorsal spine (or tubercle) is sometimes concealed. 

Color in spirits: dusky brown above, an obscure broad dark bar extending downwards from 
anterior part of spinous dorsal, and a second, more distinct, from posterior part of soft dorsal. A 
dusky shade on cheeks, continued on to lower side of head, where it widens from the cheek spine 
backward to behind tip of maxillary. Lower parts bright white. Spinous dorsal dusky, especially on 
its anterior half, where there may be disconnected traces of a distinct black margin. Gill-cavity 
blackish; peritoneum white. 



164 



CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



The soft dorsal has its rays faintly barred, the posterior half darkest, the margin irregularly 
blackish. Caudal with much white pigment, the terminal fourth with a series of oblong black blotches, 
occupying the membranes between the rays. The remainder of the fin has two or three irregular cross- 
series of smaller roundish black spots. The anal is white, some of the rays occasionally margined 
with black. Ventrals white, sometimes black- margined. Pectorals dusky at base, becoming black 
toward middle of fin; the distal half is occupied by a conspicuous white cross-bar, beyond which is a 
narrow bar of black. The white cross-bar does not involve the upper or the lower rays. 

Measurements m Hundredths of Length without Cazidal. 



Total length in mm 

Length to base of caudal in mm 

Greatest depth 

Least depth 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Head 

Snout 

Orbit 

Interorbital width 

Maxillary 

Greatest width of snout without spine.. 

Snout to first dorsal spine 

Base of spinous dorsal 

Base of soft dorsal 

Longest caudal ray 

Middle caudal rays 

Upper pectoral ray '. 

Fifth pectoral ray 

Ninth (longest) pectoral ray 

Upper detached ray 

Second detached ray 

Third detached ray 

Snout to first anal ray 

Base of anal 

Ventral spine 

Outer ventral ray 

Inner ventral ray 



232 


213 


224 


185 


171 


182 


25 


24^ 


24i 


9i 


9i 


9 


17 


17 


17 


43i 


40 


40 


i9i 


18 


i8| 


7i 


7i 


7i 


14 


lOi 


io|^ 


i9i 


18 


18 


24 


23 


23 


43i 


40i 


40 


23i 


2li 


20|- 


24 


24i 


26 


26*^ 


24i 


244 


24i 


22* 


22^ 


18 


l^ 


17i 


28 


27 


25i 


32 


31 


29 


3ii 


30 


31 


27 


24 


24 


21 


l^ 


20 


66^ 


65 


64 


19 


20 


20| 


14 


14 


14 


19 


18 


18 


24 


24 


22i 



152 

121 
28 

9 

18 

44 
1 91 

H 

12 

20 

26 

44 
23i 
23 
29 



26I 



20| 
29 

33 

351 

28I 

24 
65 

20i 



16^ 



21 
24 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 165 

304. Prionotus ruscarius sp. nov. 

Plate XXVII, Figs. 50, 50a. 

Pn'onoliis horrens Jordan, 1895 b, p. 492 (Mazatlan); Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2172 
(Panama; Magdalena Bay) ; not Prionotus horrens ^icwwsdsg^. 

Prionotus biroslralus ]oKr>AT<i, 1885, p. 387; Jordan & Hughes, 1886, pp. 332, 337; not Prionotus 
birostratus Richardson. 

This species strongly resembles P. horrena, with which it is found associated. 
It differs in tlie coarsely granular head, which is usually strongly birostrate, the con- 
cave interorbital space, the strongly ctenoid scales, the more numerous rays in the 
vertical fins, and in the shape of the pectoral. 

Like P. horrens, this species has a ridge extending from edge of preorbital 
backward to base of preopercular spine. The ridge is less sharp than in horrens, 
being scarcely keel-like in our younger specimens, and decidedly rounded in a large 
individual 34 cm. long. The rostral plates are usually produced into rounded lobes, 
with a deep emargination between them; but the lobes vary greatly. Where the 
lobes are large, the premaxillaries are wholly or almost wholly concealed, when 
viewed from above. In the largest sjjccimen the lobes project but little, and the 
premaxillaries are exposed. 

The ridges and granules are much coarser than in P. horrens, more nearly 
resembling P. trihulus. The ridges are everywhere easily discernible. The spines 
are slightly smaller than in P. horrens, but occupy the same positions and are for the 
most part similarly developed. The supraocular spines are usually smaller, with two 
present above each orbit, a minute one projecting into a notch in the immediate bony 
rim of the orbit, and a larger one farther removed from the rim, on the rounded 
supraocular ridge. But one supraocular spine is present in P. horrens. The humeral, 
opercular and occijiital spines and ridges are sharper and stronger in P. ruscarius. 

Head 2^ to 2| in length to base of caudal; depth 4| to 4|; snout 2^ to 2^ in head (to edge 
of opercular flap); eye 5|^ to 6; interorbital width 4 to 4|^. Dorsal X, 12; anal 11. 

Interorbital space deeply concave, as in P. Iribulus. Anterior nostril with a slender flap, 
longer than in P. horrens, reaching when depressed to or beyond anterior margin of nostril. The 
ma.xillary usually fails to reach vertical from spine on middle of cheek. The intermandibular space 
is rounded anteriorly; there is little or no trace of a symphysial knob. Vomerine patch of teeth con- 
stricted mesially in young specimens, wholly divided into two separate patches in adults. Each half 
of vomerine patch about equals one of the palatine bands. Gill-rakers 6 (movable), the longest about 
three-fourths diameter of pupil. The membrane between the opercular spines is covered with cycloid 
scales. 

Scales thick and firm, strongly ctenoid on back and sides, becoming cycloid on belly and 
breast, and on anterior portion of nape. The scales of the lateral line are less roughened than in 
P. horrens, the edges not strongly spinous. The breast is almost completely scaled, a small tract 
immediately behind the isthmus, and a narrow area at base of each ventral, naked. There are 50 to 52 
scales in the lateral line, and about too vertical series above the lateral line. 

The dorsal spines are flexible, but stronger than in P. horrens. The first and second spines 
are about equal, the succeeding ones rapidly shortened, the margin of the fin straight. The ninth 
spine bears a movable membrane. The tenth is immovably imbedded, very strong, the basal tubercle 

(22) December 20. 1903. 



166 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

bearing a well-developed, backwardly directed spinous process. The lower caudal lobe is slightly 
longer than the upper; the margin is concave rather than truncate, when the fin is spread. The pec- 
torals are very short, reaching to or slightly beyond the vent in adults, a little longer in the young. 
The fin is sharply angulated above, the third and fourth rays the longest; the posterior margin from 
the fourth to the ninth rays is vertically truncate or slightly emarginate; the whole contrasting strongly 
with the evenly rounded fin of P. horrens. The detached rays are short, the upper not nearly reach- 
ing the tips of the ventrals. 

The dorsal contains invariably lo spines and 12 soft rays; the anal has 11 rays in all of the 
eighteen specimens examined, except in one which had 10. 

Color in spirits: dark brown on back and sides, white below; a faint ill-defined dark bar 
under spinous dorsal, and one slightly more distinct under posterior half of soft dorsal. Gill-cavity 
blackish. Dorsals translucent, the spinous dorsal blackish toward tip anteriorly; posterior part of Soft 
dorsal dusky at base, the fin with a more or less distinct blackish margin, which does not involve the tips 
of the rays. Caudal translucent dusky on basal portion, with faint dark blotches arranged in one or two 
irregular cross-rows. In the terminal third, the rays become charged with much white pigment and 
the intervening membranes are black. Anal and ventrals translucent, unmarked. Pectorals dusky 
on basal half, becoming blackish toward middle of fin. The distal half of the third to the ninth rays 
with a broad whitish bar, broadly margined with black. 

This species is now known from Panama, Mazatlan and Albatross Station 
3041 (Magdalena Bay, L. C). 



GILBERT AND STARRS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



167 



Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Total length in mm 

Length to base of caudal in mm 

Greatest depth 

Least depth 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Head (to edge of flap) 

Snout 

Orbit 

Interorbital width 

Maxillary 

Greatest width of snout without spine 

Snout to first dorsal spine 

Base of spinous dorsal 

Base of soft dorsal 

Longest caudal ray 

Shortest caudal ray 

LTpper pectoral ray 

Longest (fourth ) pectoral ray 

Ninth pectoral ray 

Upper detached ray 

Middle detached ray 

Lower detached ray 

Snout to first anal ray 

Base of anal 

Ventral spine 

Outer ventral ray 

Inner ventral ray 



153 


225 


270 


119 


177 


222 


25^ 


221 


20J 


8 


8 


8 


15 


i6i 


15 


42 


39 


36i 


19 


i7i 


17 


U 


71 


7 


lOi 


9i 


9 


18 


17 


•5J 


25 


2ii 


20 


41 


37i 


341 


24 


23 


20i 


24A 


27 


25 


27i 


28 


24I 


26 


24 


2li 


25 


27 


23 


33 


33 


29 


31 


3U 


28 


26 


26 


23 


21 


22 


19 


16 


i6i 


i4i 


60 


58 


58 


; 26 


26i 


25i 


Hi 


i4i 


13 


20 


19 


i7i 


28i 


25i 


23 



202 

157 
24 

8 

14! 
40 

1 71 

8 

10 

•7 
22 

381 
23I 
25 
30 

26| 

25 

33i 

32i 

27 J 

23 

20 

61 1 

25 
Hi 

20i 

28 



305 



Family GOBIID^. 
Philypnus lateralis QUI. 



Abundant in the Eio Grande at Miraflores. In life, the scattered spots on the 
sides and the streaks about eye were reddish in color. 



168 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



In tlieir List of American Gobiidfe, Eigenmann and Eigenmann (1888, 
p. 52) distinguish the Atlantic and Pacific siJecies of Philypmis (P. dnrmitor and 
P. lateralis) by the size of the scales, the length of the head, and the number of anal 
rays. In going over this ground later, Jordan and Evermanu (1898, p. 2195) state: 
"The only constant difference between this species [P. lateralis] and Philypnus 
dormitor seems to be the brighter coloration of lateralis." 

We have examined in this connection five specimens of P. dormitor, and thir- 
teen specimens of P. lateralis. These bear out in the main the differences assigned 
by Eigenmann. In P. dormitor, the head averages shorter, although the extreme 
of variation includes some measurements of P. lateralis. The scales are smaller in 
P. dormitor, although here again there is an overlapping in the formulae. But in 
P. dormitor the anal rays are constantly 10, while in P. lateralis they are constantly 11. 
Below are data for individual specimens examined: 



p. LATERALIS. 





Mazatlan 


Panama 


Head 


2f 


2| 


2| 


3i u 


2f 


^ 


2-f 


n 


3 


n 


2i5 


2| 


2t 


2| 


Scales 


52 


54 


55 


56 


52 


56 


55 


55 


54 


54 


53 


56 


53 


51 


Scales in cross-series 










17 
II 


20 
II 


19 
1 1 


17 
1 1 


18 
II 


17 
II 


17 
1 1 


18 
II 


16 

II 


17 


Anal 




II 


II 


II 


1 1 


II 



P. DORMITOR. 





Havana 


Jamaica 


Tampico, Mex. 


Head 


3| 


3 


3+ 


3i 


31 


Scales 


56 


56 


59 


59 


61 


Scales in cross-series 


19 


19 


18 


21 


20 


Anal 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 



We have not sufficient material to enable us to decide whether there are any 
constant differences in coloration. The young of both species are marked by a 
longitudinal band, interrujited, or narrowed at intervals by incursions of the ground 
color. The only young specimen of P. dormitor in our possession shows three con- 
spicuous cross-bars on the back: one under posterior portion of spinous dorsal, con- 
tinued on the fin as a jet-black bar traversing its posterior and distal half; the 
second, immediately behind the soft dorsal; the third, much narrower, just in advance 
of the caudal fin. These become faint in adults, but we find traces of them in all our 
specimens. Where traces of these bars exist in Pacific material before us, they are 
very faint, even in brightly colored young, and do not involve the spinous dorsal. 



GILBERT AND ST ARKS — FISHES OP PANAMA BAY 169 

306. Dormitator maculatus {Block). 

Abundant at the mouth of the Rio Grande. Of the two forms recognized by 
Eigenmann as occurring in the Atlantic, our material agrees almost exactly with the 
second, which he had from Gurupa and Rio Grande do Sul. 

Our younger specimens, 10 to 15 cm. long, are slender, with the upper profile 
usually noticeably depressed above the eyes. The head is 3 to 3| in the length, the 
depth 3|to 3|. Highest anal ray 1| to 1| in head. Distance from snout to base of 
first dorsal spine equaling distance from first dorsal spine to base of last anal ray; it 
is sometimes slightly greater, sometimes slightly less than this distance, but always 
approximates it. 

The color was light grayish, with numerous oblique dark bars running down- 
ward and forward from the back. A blue spot surrounded by a black area above the 
base of the pectoral. Base of pectoral with a blue or black cross-bar. A dark bar 
downward from eye to angle of mouth, and four parallel longitudinal dark streaks 
across cheeks and opercles. The spinous dorsal was broadly edged with bright red 
in life. 

Two adults, 255 mm. long, have the depression above the eyes less marked, 
the head larger, 2j in length, the depth much greater, 2| in length, and the coloration 
plain dark brown on body and fins, save the red margin to the dorsals. Distance from 
snout to base of first dorsal spine equals distance from the latter to base of third anal 

ray. 

It is probable that this widely-distributed brackish-water species is subject to 
local variations in different parts of its range, variations which are not geographically 
progressive and are incapable of systematic recognition. According to this view, 
the resemblance of the Panama and Rio Grande do Sul specimens is a chance one, 
depending upon independent local variation from the common stock. 

A number of small specimens from the Rio Presidio at Mazatlan, Mex., do 
not agree precisely with either form, though they stand nearer the one here 
described. But the head averages somewhat smaller (3^ to 3i in length), and 
the distance from snout to first dorsal spine is about equal to that between first 
dorsal spine and middle of anal. There seems to be no basis for the division of 
these specimens into three groups, as indicated by Jordan and Evermann (1898, 
p. 2197). 

307. Eleotris pictus Kner & Steindachner . 

Eleotris aquidens Jordan & Gilbert, iSSiy, p. 461. 

Abundant in muddy overflow ponds and ditches at Miraflores, where a few 
specimens were obtained. These agree perfectly with Kner and Steindachner's 
description and figure, also with typical E. (eqiddena from Mazatlan. Both show the 
characteristic mottlings of white or bluish white on the under side of the body. The 
black bars on the sides of the head are not visible in the larger individuals, but are 
very apparent in young specimens 50 to 125 ram. long. They consist of a short 
narrow line on each side of occiput, more or less broken up into series of dots, and of 
two rather broad dark bars diverging backward from eye. The upper bar extends 



170 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

to the upper end of the pectoral base, but is not well marked posteriorly. The lower 
runs backward and slightly downward across cheeks to the preopercular margin. The 
lower part of cheeks is crossed nearly vertically by three broad dark shades separated 
by two narrow light streaks. In none of our specimens, do we note the bar described 
by Kner and Steindachner beginning at the angle of the mouth and joining the 
second bar at preopercular margin. All of the fins are dark, rather finely barred 
with blackish and lighter. The spinous dorsal has usually a rather wide translucent 
margin, and a submedial lengthwise translucent streak. 

The teeth are equal or nearly so. In young specimens, a slight enlargement 
of the outer mandibular teeth can often be detected. 

In specimens of Eleotris pisonis from Havana (Rio Almendares), the outer 
series in the upper jaw are slightly enlarged, more noticeably on the sides than in 
the front of the jaw. A few of the posterior teeth near the middle line of the upper 
jaw are also slightly enlarged. In the medial portion of the mandibles, the anterior 
row is slightly larger. The inner mandibular series is also enlarged, the teeth increas- 
ing in size laterally where the band narrows to a single series. 

In E. abacurus, the teeth are similar to those of U. jnsonis, but the canines are 
much larger. Both outer and inner series are enlarged in the ujjper jaw, the inner 
series less so, and the teeth are declined. It is extremely probable that U. ahacurus 
is a synonym of E. amblyopsis. 

308. Alexurus armiger Jordan S Richardson. 

A single specimen, 172 mm. long, slightly larger than the type. This is the 
second individual to be reported, and extends the known habitat of the species from 
La Paz, L. C, to Panama. 

The type description needs modification in the following respects: The 
diameter of the eye is contained 9^^ times, the length of the snout 5 times in the 
length of the head. There are broad bands of villiform teeth in each jaw, the outer 
series enlarged to form small canines. In the upper jaw, these increase in size 
laterally, and extend as far as does the villiform band. The inner teeth are not 
enlarged. In the mandible, the outer canines are confined to the central jDortion of 
the jaw, numbering only about 5 on each side of the symphysis. The teeth of the 
inner mandibular series are also enlarged, but less so than the outer, and are directed 
backward. 

The cheeks and opercles are wholly covered with cycloid scales similar to 
those on the occijjut. They do not overlap, and are more or less embedded and 
concealed. 

As indicated in the published drawing of the type (Jordan, 1895 b, 
PI. XLVIII), the rays of the procurrent portion of the caudal fin are unbranched 
and not articulated. 

In the Panama specimen, the fin rays number: dorsal VI, 14, anal 11. 

309. Gymneleotris seminudus (Gunther). 
Only the type known from Panama. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 171 

310. Gobius soporator Guvier 1- Valenciennes. 
The most abundant fish of the tide-pools among the rocks. 

311. Gobionellus sagittula (Gimther). 

Not seen by us; the species was described from specimens taken on the 
Pacific Coast of Central America, and has been recorded from Panama Bay by 
Jordan (1885, p. 387) and by Boulenger (1899, p. 3; Rio Tuyra, Darien). 

312. Gobionellus microdon (Gilbert). 

Plate XXVIII, Fig. 51. 

This species has been known hitlierto from two immature sjiecimens taken 
in a brackish lagoon a short distance south of Guaymas, in the Gulf of California. 
We now report it from the Panama region, where two specimens were secured in 
the Rio Grande, at Miraflores, a point entirely above the action of the tides. One 
specimen is immature, only slightly larger than the types, the other is 113 mm. 
long, apparently adult. These enable us to correct the original account of the 
species in respect to the dentition and the coloration. 

The teeth are minute in both jaws. Those in the mandible are in a narrow 
band, with the outer series very slightly enlarged, inserted on the extreme outer 
edge of the jaw, and directed almost horizontally. They are not separated by an 
interspace from the rest of the band. Those in the upper jaw are exti'emely 
minute, in a wider band than those in the mandible, the outer series stronger than 
the others, but scarcely longer. Here again, there is no interspace between the 
stronger series and the rest of the band. In G. sagittula, the upper jaw contains 
an outer series of strong conical teeth, separated by a well-defined interspace from 
a narrow inner series of small villiform teeth; the villiform band in mandible is 
somewhat wider, of slightly coarser teeth, with an outer series less enlarged, and 
with two or three pairs of strong conical teeth in the inner series next the 
symphysis. 

Color in spirits: light greenish olive, the snout and interorbital region 
brownish; a narrow black streak extending backward from eye; a second narrowly 
V-shaped streak on opercle. A series of five to seven vertically oblong blotches 
or bars on middle of sides. In the young specimen, these are distinctly band- 
like, and reach nearly to upper and lower profiles of body. In the adult, they 
are much shortened, and the anterior ones are obscure. Alternating with these 
bars above, is a series of blotches extending half way to middle line of sides, becom- 
ing confluent in the dorsal region with a brown reticulum which encloses variously- 
shaped areas of the ground color. A series of three brown blotches occupies the 
naked predorsal strip. 

Dorsals whitish, each with three or four irregular lengthwise streaks, slightly 
looped from ray to ray. The caudal has a number of narrow cross-bars composed 
of series of small spots on the membrane. Other fins are colorless, or nearly so. 
A bright gi'een spot is on the base of the tongue in life. 



172 



CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Measurements in Hundredths of Length witliout Caudal. 



Total length in mm 

Head 

Snout 

Maxillary 

Eye 

Interorbital width (bony) 

Depth 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Distance from snout to dorsal 

Distance from first dorsal spine to first ray 

Base of second dorsal 

Snout to anal 

Base of anal 

Highest dorsal spine 

Length of caudal 

Length of pectorals 

Length of ventrals 

Transverse rows of scales 

Dorsal spines 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 



87 
23^ 
6i 
10 

5 

2i 
19 

9 
31 
19 
39 
55 
37 
24 
34 



21j 
21 

65 
VI 

I4+I 
I4+I 



313. Garmannia paradoxa (Gilnther). 

Plate XXVIII, Fig. 52. 

Abundant iii tide-pools on the Panama reef, where numerous specimens were 
obtained. 

Females are light olivaceous in color, with nine or ten dark cross-bars, two of 
which are on head, one opposite base of pectorals, two under spinous dorsal, three 
under soft dorsal, one on caudal peduncle and sometimes a fainter one at the base 
of the tail. The bars are usually wider than the interspaces, and each contains a 
number of small spots of the light ground color, arranged in one or more vertical 
series. A narrow horizontal black line traverses each bar at middle of sides. The 
dorsals are coar-sely speckled, the caudal finely barred. The anal is blackish, the 
pectorals and ventrals faintly dusky; a small blackish blotch is sometimes present at 



GILBERT AND ST ARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 173 

base of upper pectoral rays. The under side of the head is coarsely spotted, usually 
with two parallel cross-bars. Males are much darker, sometimes nearly uniformly 
blackish, with all the fins black. 

Six spines have been erroneously attributed to this species. Seven are 
present in all specimens examined by us, including the one obtained by the 
Hopkins Expedition to Mazatlan (see Jordan, 1895, p. 497, PI. LIX). The normal 
fin-formula is dorsal VII, 12; anal 10. In ten specimens counted, one had 11 dorsal 
rays and one had 13; in all others, the normal formula was found. The first dorsal 
spine is constantly produced into a filament, which usually fails to reach the middle 
of the soft dorsal, but extends beyond the first dorsal ray. 

The dentition has not been correctly described. There is in the upper jaw a 
moderate band of villiform teeth, along the front of which is a series of strong curved 
canines, which decrease in size regularly toward the angles of the mouth. Behind 
the band, in the middle of the jaw, are four much slenderer canines, directed back- 
ward, all evenly spaced. In the lower jaw, the teeth are in a villiform band, with 
an outer and an inner series of strong canines. Laterally, these all give place to a 
single close-set series of teeth, which are but little larger than those of the villiform 
band. The canines of the inner seiues increase in size laterally and are directed 
obliquely backward. The outer canines are stronger than the inner, and decrease in 
size laterally. 

The scales are large and strongly ctenoid, covering the body behind the ver- 
tical from the second to fourth ray of second dorsal. There are about 16 cross-series 
of scales, the anterior series containing about 12 scales each. 

The head is contained 3^ in the length to base of caudal; 4^^ to 4| in the total 
length. 

314. Enypnias seminudus (Giinther). 

Plate XXIX, Fig. 53. 

Fifteen siiecimens were secured of this rare species, which had not been reported 
since the discovery of the types in 1861. Examination of our material shows that 
the species is widely separated from typical Gobius, and also from Oarmannia, pos- 
sessing the following characters: 

The dorsal spines are constantly 7 in number instead of 6, the number 
assigned in current descriptions. There is a pair of thick barbels on the chin, each 
of which springs laterally from the edge of the median frenum of the lower lip. 
The body is much more completely scaled than is the case with Gannaniiia jxxradoxa. 
The belly is naked, and has continuous with it a naked strip extending up into the 
axil of the pectoral fin. The head and nape are also naked, a narrow naked strip 
extending backward along base of spinous dorsal. Otherwise, the scales cover the 
body, the scaly area narrowing anteriorly behind the base of the pectoral fin. Ante- 
riorly, the scales are very small and are arranged irregularly. They increase in size 
posteriorly, and are there inserted in regular series. There are about 50 or 60 scales 
in a line along middle of sides. 

(23) Pecember 30, 1903, 



174 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

In this species, as in Oarmannia paradoxa, we fail to find the "2 small curved 
canine teeth on each side of lower jaw." The mandible contains a broad band of 
rather coarse villiform teeth, with an inner and an outer series of enlarged canines. 
The upper jaw is similar, but contains no enlarged inner series. 

None of the dorsal spines are filamentous or elongate. They are constantly 
seven in number, the last two much more widely spaced than the preceding five. 
The last membrane joins the base of the first soft ray. 

The head is large, with swollen cheeks and a blunt nose. Its length is con- 
tained 31 to o\ times in length to base of caudal, 3| to 3|- times in total length. The 
greatest depth of body is contained At times in length to base of caudal, 5J in total 
length, in a female; 4| (5|) in a male. 

In females, the body is obscurely cross-banded, a horizontal black line on 
each bar along dorsal outline, and another where each crosses middle line of sides. 
The soft dorsal and caudal are coarsely speckled in cross-series; a black bar at base 
of upper and one at base of lower caudal rays. A conspicuous black blotch at base 
of upjjer pectoral rays. Males are much darker than females, the fins all blackish 
and without cross-barring, the bars on sides little evident. 

The normal fin-formula is D. VII, 15; A. 11. In fifteen specimens examined, 
all contained 7 dorsal spines, thirteen contained 15 dor.sal rays (one had 12, and one 
16 rays), fourteen contained 11 anal rays (one had 10 rays). 

There is nothing in the squamation to distinguish this species generically from 
Oobius. The genus Enypnias may be based upon the 7 dorsal spines and the pair of 
mental barbels. 

315. Bollmannia chlamydes Jordan. 

Only the types known, from Albatross Stations 2800, 2802, 2803, 2804, 2805, 
Panama Bay, depths 7 to 51i fathoms. 

316. Aboma lucretise {Eigenviann <i- Eigenmann). 
Only the type known, fi'om Pearl Island, Bay of Panama. 

317. Microgobius emblematicus {Jordan & Gilbert). 
Microgobius cyclolcpis Gilbert, 1891, p. 74. 

About thirty specimens were secured in tide-pools on the Panama reef. 

In spirits, the coloration is largely lost, the fish having the translucent oliva- 
ceous cast so characteristic of the typical members of this genus. On the back, along 
the base of the dorsal fins, are more or less distinct traces of five elongate dusky 
blotches, the intervals between which are narrower than the eye. Most specimens 
show a distinct, vertically oblong black humeral spot. The fins are translucent 
dusky, darker in males, in some of which the ventrals and anal are black. The 
spinous dorsal has occasionally one, or several, lengthwise series of small dark spots, 
one for each spine. The red streak on caudal is often represented by a pale line 
traversing obliquely the dusky fin. For the coloration in life, we can refer to the 
original description. 



GILBERT AND STAKES — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



175 



The species varies greatly in depth, in squamation, and in the length of the 
dorsal spines. The depth varies from 4| to G in length to base of caudal. The scales 
grow larger posteriorly, and are there regularly arranged. More anteriorly, they are 
reduced in size and crowded, and are very difficult to enumerate. Different speci- 
mens vary greatly in size of scales, in amount of crowding and irregularity in the 
anterior part of the body, and also in the relative completeness with which the ante- 
rior part of the body is invested. The head, nape, and belly, and a strip along base 
of spinous dorsal are always naked. A narrow vertical strip immediately behind 
pectorals is usually scaleless. The scaly area of sides therefore narrows anteriorly 
and ends at a point about opposite the first dorsal spine. In some specimens the 
scales cease more posteriorly, ojjposite fourth or fifth dorsal spine. This condition 
does not differ essentially from that found in Microgohius signatus, the type of the 
genus, nor in 31. thalassiinis. The genus Zalyjmus, based on embleuiaticus, must 
therefore be withdrawn. As above indicated, the enumeration of the rows of scales 
is attended with great difficulty, and cannot be made with any high degree of 
accuracy. In different specimens, our counts have varied from 45 to 70, the majority 
ranging between 55 and 65. 

The third, fourth and fifth dorsal spines are usually somewhat produced, often 
extending to middle of dorsal base, or even beyond this point. In some specimens, 
apparently females, the fin is evenly rounded in outline, with none of the rays pro- 
duced. Microgobius cijdokins was based on a specimen, 5 cm. long, from the Gulf of 
California, said to differ from 31. einblemnticus in the lower spines, the larger scales, 
and in the presence of a round black humeral spot. Our present material shows that 
all of these characters fall within the range of variation of M. emblematicus, of which 
M. cyclolepis is doubtless a synonym. 

The dentition is as follows: The upper jaw is provided with an anterior series 
of slender canines extending along the proximal half only of each premaxillary. 
Those nearest the center of each jaw are upright, backwardly curved toward their 
tips; the others are strongly curved (almost hooked) in the direction of the angle of 
the mouth. Behind the canines is a single series of minute villiform teeth, extending 
much farther laterally than do the canines. The mandibular teeth are arranged like 
those in the lower jaw, the outermost canine on each side larger than the others. 
Opposite the point where the anterior series terminates, the teeth of the posterior row 
are abruptly transformed into laterally curved canines, which i-eplace on the sides of 
the jaw those of the anterior row. 

In ten specimens, the fin-formula is as follows, the last ray of both dorsal and 
anal divided to the base and enumerated as one ray: 





Dorsal 
spines 


Dorsal rays 


Anal rays 


Number of rays 

Specimens 


VII 
lO 


i6 

I 


17 
6 


i8 
3 


i6 

I 


17 
7 


i8 

2 



176 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



One specimen with 18 rays in the dorsal has 17 in the anal. In all other 
cases the two fins agree. All specimens possess a sharp thin dermal fold which 
extends from the first dorsal spine, to the base of which it is attached, forward over 
nape and occiput to a point immediately behind the eyes. A similar fold exists in 
M. signatus, and will doubtless be detected in M. thalassinus. It does not exist in 
M. gulosus, which is in other respects less closely allied to the species under con- 
sideration, and will doubtless in time receive generic recognition. A similar fold is 
found in Gobins nicholsi, and again, in an exaggerated form in Loj^hogobius cyprinoides. 

M. emblemaiicus is most nearly allied to M. thalassinus, which it seems to 
represent in the Pacific. No structural features which promise to be permanent 
are alleged to distinguish them, but we have no specimens of thalassinus at hand for 
comparison. It seems altogether probable that M. eulepis, from Fortress Monroe, 
is a synonym of M. thalassinus. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Total length in mm 

Length to base of caudal in mm. 

Head 

Snout 

Eye 

Interorbital width 

Maxillary 

Depth of body 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Longest dorsal spine 

Longest dorsal ray 

Longest caudal ray 

Longest pectoral ray 

Longest ventral ray 



48 


50 


38 


40 


27 . 


26i 


5i 


5i 


7 


7i 


li 


2 


12 


14 


21 


17 


10 


10 


16 


43 


12 


17 


26 


28 


18 


18 


21 


21 



318. Microgobius miraflorensis sp. no v. 

Plate XXIX, Fio. 54. 

A species with comparatively large ctenoid scales, with produced spinous dorsal, and with 
plain coloration. Resembling in general appearance M. emblemaiicus, but the body less elongate, 
the mouth larger, the caudal more produced, the scaling and the coloration entirely diflferent. There 
is also lacking the cutaneous fold on nape and occiput. 

Head 3|- in length; depth 5. Ma.xillary i| in head; eye 3J. Dorsal VII, 17. Anal 17; 
the last ray split to the base, the two halves separated for half the distance found between distinct rays. 



GILBERT AND ST ARKS — FISHES OP PANAMA BAY 



177 



The body is rather elongate, the mouth large, oblique, the maxillary reaching slightly beyond 
the vertical from the posterior margin of the orbit. The interorbital space is very narrow and shal- 
lovvly grooved, its width but half the diameter of the pupil. The gill-opening is produced below the 
level of the pectoral base. There are no fleshy appendages on the inner edge of the shoulder girdle. 

The teeth are in a double row in each jaw, those of the outer series enlarged to form 
slender curved canines, as in other species of Microgobius. The outer series is confined to the anterior 
portion of each jaw, the inner series extending laterally beyond them. In the mandible, these lateral 
teeth are somewhat enlarged, replacing those of the outer series, which they do not equal in size. 

The spines of the dorsal fin are all very slender and flexible, all but the first and seventh 
produced, but connected by membrane to their tips, the tip of the produced lobe reaching middle of 
soft dorsal when depressed. Soft dorsal and anal of equal extent, high, the last rays slightly over- 
lapping the caudal. Pectorals and ventrals reach the same vertical, which is slightly behind the origin 
of the anal fin. The caudal fin is lanceolate, the middle rays produced, their length equaling the 
distance between the tip of the snout and the base of the middle pectoral rays. 

The scales are large, all but the anterior ones regularly arranged and strongly ctenoid. Ante- 
riorly, in the post-pectoral region, the scales become reduced in size, cycloid, and less regularly 
arranged. As nearly as they can be enumerated, there are 44 or 45 in a longitudinal series. The 
head and nape, a narrow strip along spinous dorsal, and the breast and belly are naked. 

There were no bright colors in life, while in related species (except gulosus) there are blue, 
green and red. In spirits, the head and body are light grayish olive, with a soiled appearance due 
to minute punctulations and the faintly darker margins of the scales. The snout, and the marginal 
portions of the vertical fins, are more distinctly dusky. The sides are crossed by a number of 
extremely narrow dark lines, 4 or 5 of which can be counted on that part of sides corresponding to 
anterior halves of dorsal and anal. A more distinct narrow bar descends from the front of the spinous 
dorsal. Pectorals and ventrals colorless. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Letigth without Caudal. 



Total length in mm 

Length to base of caudal in mm 

Head 

Depth 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Maxillary 

Eye 

Interorbital width 

Snout to first dorsal spine 

Base of first dorsal 

Base of second dorsal 

Snout to origin of anal 

Base of anal 

Length of caudal 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Longest dorsal spine 



39 
29 
29 
21 
8 

i7i 

8 

2 
35 
17 
38 
54 
37 
33 
23 
25 
39 



178 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



319. Evermannia zosterura [Jordan & Gilbert). 

Seven specimens were secured from the tide-pools of the Panama reef, where 
it was associated with the much more numerous E. panamensiti. The species had 
been detected heretofore only at Mazatlan, Mex. In the Panama specimens, the 
normal fin-formula is D. IV, 14+1; A. 13+1. One specimen only varies from this 
in having the anal rays 14+1. In seven additional specimens from Mazatlan no 
variation exists. 

U. zosterura agrees with E. 'panamensis in having a rather long flexible 
appendage to the shoulder-girdle, and in the presence of embedded scales; though both 
characters are denied in all published descriptions. The scales are very few in number, 
and can be detected only by the examination of detached portions of the skin under 
high magnification. There are thus no characters remaining to separate Evermannia 
from Ilypnus, save that the latter has five instead of four dorsal spines, with none 
of them filamentous or produced; the scales are also regularly arranged and are not 
concealed. These characters seem doubtfully sufficient for generic division, but the 
groups may be provisionally retained pending further examination of allied species. 
Clevelandia is somewhat less closely related. It is said to have no fleshy appendages 
to the shoulder-girdle, but in C. ios, which we have re-examined, there is an evident 
low sharp crest along the lower portion of the girdle, rising at about two points to 
form inconspicuous papillfe. This condition is quite different from that obtaining in 
Evermannia and Jlypnus, where a single long flexible finger-like process arises from 
the same locality in all of the species. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length zcithoiit Cauda/. 



Length of body in mm 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Diameter of orbit 

Depth of body at ventral base 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Base of second dorsal 

Distance from snout to anal 

Base of anal 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Length of caudal fin 



s 


? 


22 


30 


33 


32 


6 


7 


15 


i3i 


5i 


6 + 


20 


18 


42 


43 


35 


34 


59 


61 


32 


27 


16 


i6i 


23 


22 


26^ 


24 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 179 

320. Evermannia panamensis sp. nov. 

Platk XXX, Fig. 55. 

Head 3J in length, depth 5!. Dorsal IV, 16; anal 14; pectoral 19. 

Body slender, highest opposite base of ventrals, which in preserved specimens protriulL- much 
below the general contour of the belly. The body tapers comparatively little posteriorly. The upper 
profile descends in a long even curve from the front of the dorsal to the tip of the snout, with an 
indentation in front of occiput. The lower jaw is curved upward toward tip, well included within the 
upper. The teeth are minute, slender, and slightly curved; in a narrow band on the extreme edge of 
each jaw, growing wider in front; the outer series is slightly enlarged. The ma.xillary e.xtends beyond 
the orbit for a distance about equal to its diameter; its posterior extremity slightly behind the middle of 
the head. The eyes are small, 6| in head, separated by a narrow space which is less than half their 
diameter. 

The edge of the shoulder-girdle has one rather long flexible appendage, inserted opposite the 
fourth to sixth pectoral ray counted from below. 

The first dorsal spine is filamentous in the male, extending in the type specimen to base of 
ninth soft ray, when depressed. The second spine is also somewhat produced, reaching in the type 
to slightly beyond the base of the second soft ray of dorsal. The third and fourth dorsal spines are 
shortened, but extend slightly beyond base of first soft ray. The first three spines are close-set and 
evenly spaced; the fourth is more widely separated from the third, the interval about equaling that 
separating the first from the third spine. The distance between the base of the fourth dorsal spine and 
the origin of the second dorsal equals the length of the snout. In females the first spine is usually 
produced, but less so than in males. In some specimens it fails to reach the base of the first soft ray. 

The origin of the anal is opposite the interspace between the third and fourth dorsal rays. 
Its last ray is slightly posterior to the last dorsal ray. The last rays of the dorsal and anal overlap 
the base of the caudal. The caudal is produced, lanceolate, its length four-fifths that of head. 
Scales small, cycloid, partially embedded, not easily distinguishable. 

Color in spirits: males dusky brown, somewhat lighter toward middle line of belly, the pigment 
dots on head much coarser and more widely spaced than those on sides of body. A faint vertical 
dark line below the eye. Pectorals, ventrals, dorsals, and upper half of caudal fin translucent, with 
dusky rays. Anal black, its upper half translucent, strongly contrasting. In life the upper half of 
caudal was yellow. 

The females are lighter and less uniform in coloration. The ground color is light olive, the 
upper part of head and the dorsal region finely mottled with brown, the sides of body with narrow 
streaks following the lines which separate the myotomes. The dorsal fins have translucent membranes, 
and almost uniformly dusky rays. The caudal has the upper half plain or faintly cross-banded, the 
lower half translucent or faintly shaded, the coloration of the two halves never sharply distinguished 
as in the male; there is a faint submarginal dusky streak, better defined on upper half of fin; the 
margin is narrowly translucent or whitish. The basal two-thirds of anal fin is dusky, more intense 
toward middle of fin, the marginal third translucent or whitish. The pectorals and ventrals are 
translucent, the former with dusky rays, the latter unmarked. 

This species is closely related to E. zosiernra. It is more extensively scaled 
than the latter, and seems to attain a larger size. It has one or two more soft rays 
in the dor.sal and anal fins. The male is readily distinguished by its striking and 
peculiar coloration. The females require careful inspection, but can be separated 
usually at sight by the coloration of the second dorsal fin, which is noticeably speckled 
in E. zosterura. 

Forty specimens of this species were obtained in tide-pools on the Panama 
reef. 



180 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Measuremetits in Hundredi/is of Letigth without Caudal. 



(Type) ,5 



Length without caudal in mm 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Diameter of orbit 

Interorbital width 

Depth of body at ventral 

Least depth of caudal peduncle 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal. 

Distance between front of dorsals 

Base of second dorsal 

Distance from snout to anal 

Base of anal 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Height of longest dorsal spine 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Length of caudal fin 



35 

33 

8 

i7i 
5 

i4 

i7i 
8 

43 
15 
35 
6o 

31 

lO 

30 
14 
19 
25 



32i 
33| 

74 
17 

5i 

2 

174 
8 

44 

16 

344 
61 

30 
10 

38 
16 

23 
27 



31 
324 

7 
15 

6 

14 
17 

74 
424 
i6i 

354 
64 



16 
i6i 
22 
26 



324 
32 

7 
134 

6 

14 

18 

74 
414 

36 
62 

30 
8 

154 

15 

21 

24 



321. Tyntlastes brevis (Giinther). 

This species is known from the type, and from two partially digested speci- 
mens taken from the stomach of a Centropomus (Gilbert, 18906, p. 451). 

Family ECHENEIDID^E. 
322. Echeneis naucrates Linnceus. 
Recorded from the Gulf of Panama by Boulenger (1899, p. 3). 

323. Remora remora (Linnceus). 
Obtained at Panama by Gilbert (Jordan, 1885, p. 372) ; not seen by us. 

Family OPISTHOGNATHID^. 

324. Opisthognathus punctatum Peters. 

Recorded from Panama by Jordan (1885, p. 389) on specimens secured by 
Gilbert; not seen by others. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 181 

Family DACTYLOSCOPID^. 

325. Dactyloscopus zelotes Jordan & Gilbert. 
Only the type known, collected at Panama by Captain J. M. Dow. 

Family URANOSCOPID^. 

326. Kathetostoma averruncus Jordan & Bollman. 

Known from the type, dredged in Panama Bay at Albatross Station 2800, in 7 
fathoms (Jordan & Bollman, 1889, p. 163). Recorded by Garraan (1899, p. 75) from 
depths of 56 to 210 fathoms. 

Family BATRACHOIDID^. 
327. Batrachoides pacific! {Gilnther). 

Very abundant at Panama, appearing daily in the markets; the young abun- 
dant in the tide-pools of the reef. The youngest specimen obtained by us is 24 mm. 
long, and shows a well-developed adhesive disk between the ventral fins. In a 
specimen 30 mm. long, no trace of the disk remains. In the young, the ground color 
is much lighter than in adults, while the black cross-bars on body and fins are much 
more conspicuous. 

In their account of this species, Meek and Hall (1885, p. 61) make two serious 
errors, which are repeated by Jordan and Evermann (1898, p. 2314). The scales 
are said to be ctenoid, whereas they are perfectly smooth, with entire edges; and the 
anterior mandibular teeth are described as in two rows, while they are in a cardiform 
band, some or all of the outer and the inner series enlarged as strong conical 
canines. In the outer row there seem to be regularly two or three pairs of these 
canines. 

The upper lateral line is interrupted under the middle of the soft dorsal, the 
lower line at a point slightly posterior to this: the two are then continued at the 
immediate base of dorsal and anal resjjectively, and are again interrupted near the 
ends of these fins, to reappear on caudal peduncle at their former levels; they are 
discontinued on the base of the caudal fin, but are each represented on the fin itself 
beyond the base by a series of two or three pores. 

The smaller number of fin-rays and the much larger eye serve readily to 
distinguish this species from surinamensis and houlengeri. In dentition, it seems to 
agree more nearly with the latter. 



(^' January 6, 1904. 



182 



CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Measurements in Himdredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length to base of caudal in mm 

Length of head 

Greatest width of head 

Length of snout 

Diameter of eyeball 

Interocular width 

Length of maxillary 

Greatest depth of body 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Snout to first dorsal spine 

Base of second dorsal (to base of last ray) 

Snout to front of anal 

Base of anal (to base of last ray) 

Length of caudal 

Length of pectoral (from middle of axil) ... 
Length of ventral 



08 


235 


38 


38i 


32 


33 


8 


8i 


6 


5i 


8 


10 


20|- 


22| 


18 


17 


7i 


1\ 


35s 


37 


51 


51 


55 


58i 


42 


40 


18 


17 


18 


17 


15 


15 



328. Batrachoides boulengeri sj). nov. 

Plate XXXI, Figs. 57-57a. 

Batrachoides surinamcnsis Gunther, 1861 b, p. 174 (in part); Gunther, 1868, p. 388. Not 
Batrachus surinamcnsis Bloch & Schneider (Surinam). 

Head 2| to 2\ in length; greatest width of head 3|; depth 5|. Interorbital width 2f to 2f 
in head; snout 4|;, maxillary \\ to i| in head. Eye 3| to 4 in interorbital width, 10 to 11 in head. 
Dorsal HI, 27 to 29; anal 25 or 26. 

Head very strongly depressed, the posterior part of trunk strongly compressed, the depth and 
width about equal at a point opposite the tip of the pectoral fins. The arrangement of pores and 
barbels on the head is essentially as in B. pacifici, but the filaments are more numerous and larger. 
As in other species, the filaments are clustered, being for the most part the fringed margins of cutane- 
ous flaps which occur in pairs on either side the organs of the lateral lines. 

The teeth near mandibular symphysis are in a broad cardiform patch, with the outer series 
enlarged to form broad conical canines. The sides of the mandible are occupied by a single series 
of very strong conical canines, two or three of which near the middle of each ramus are much larger 
than those in front and behind; this series is continuous with the posterior series of the cardiform band, 
where they decrease rapidly in size, those nearest the symphysis being scarcely larger than the others 
of the band. Vomerine teeth normally eight in number, the median ones small, the others increasing 
rapidly, the outermost usually as large as the largest of the palatine series. Palatine teeth strictly in a 
single series, eleven in number on each side; they increase regularly from the anterior end backward 
to the sixth, which is the largest, the remaining five being subequal, and about as large as the third. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 183 

The premaxillary teeth are all finely villiform, in a narrow band which tapers laterally to a point, and 
is discontinued opposite the fourth or fifth of the palatine series. Opercle and subopercle each with 
two strong diverging spines, the lower in each case shorter than the upper. 

Tile entire head, with the throat and breast and the pre-pectoral area are naked. The rest of 
the body, including the entire belly, is covered with elongate imbricated cycloid scales, the margins of 
which may be slightly crenate. As in other species of the genus, there are two lateral lines: the upper 
begins on a level with the upper opercular spine, runs parallel with the back for a distance slightly 
exceeding two-thirds the length of the trunk, to a point opposite the base of the eighteenth dorsal ray; 
it is there discontinued, to reappear at the extreme base of the dorsal fin, along which it is evident 
from the twentieth to the twenty-fifth ray; it is there again interrupted, reappearing at its former level, 
where it is continued to a point opposite the end of the dorsal fin. The lower lateral line curves around 
the lower base of the pectoral fin and up behind it, then runs nearly parallel with the base of the anal 
to its interruption at a point opposite the twelfth anal ray; it is then continued along the base of the 
anal to within a few rays of its end, when it reappears at its former level. Two short longitudinal 
series of filaments divide the basal portion of the caudal fin into thirds, and seem to represent a pos- 
terior continuation of the two lateral lines. 

There is a deep glandular pocket behind the upper portion of the pectoral fin. On the inner 
face of each pectoral toward the base is a series of grooves, one in each interradial membrane; these 
are continued proximally as canals which penetrate the base of the fin. 

The color is gray, very finely mottled with olive-brown. About seven dark bars cross the 
back and sides. The belly and under side of the head are whitish. The ventrals are whitish, the 
other fins colored like the body. 

This species seems to resemble the Atlantic B. surinamensis, with which it 
has been identified by Dr. Giinther. No specimens of fiurinnmensis are at hand for 
comparison, but published descriptions indicate important differences between the 
two forms. According to Cuvier and Valenciennes (Hist. Nat. Poiss., Vol. XII, 
p. 488), B. surinamensis has a very small eye, the diameter of which is contained 
eight or ten times in the interorbital space; the palatine teeth are in two rows, the 
throat is scaly, and the two lateral lines disappear near the middle of the length of 
the trunk. Meek and Hall (1885, p. 61) state that the vomerine teeth are small, 
about fourteen in number, and the pectoral is without pores on its inner surface. All 
of these features are essentially different in the species here described, as has appeared 
in the above description. Authors are not agreed concerning the arrangement of 
the palatine teeth in B. surinamensis. They are variously described as in two rows, 
in one irregular row, or in a single series. We are also uncertain concerning the 
anterior mandibular teeth; Cuvier states that those of the anterior series of the cardi- 
form band are stronger than the others, while Giinther describes a villiform patch, 
the outer teeth of which are not canine-like. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. C. H. Eigenmann, we are enabled to give the fol- 
lowing notes on the specimen of B. surinamensis, on which Meek and Hall based 
their account of the species. The specimen is 111 mm. long. It is numbered 2080 
in the catalogue of the Indiana University Museum. 

The longitudinal diameter of the eye is one-third the interorbital width. The 
palatine teeth are conic, irregular in size, in a single row. The vomerine teeth are 
14 in number, increasing in size outward. The mandibular teeth are in a single 
series laterally, in a band in front, the anterior and the posterior series of the band 



<^ 



184 



CALIPOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



evidently enlarged. Ui^per jaw with a narrow band, the posterior row slightly 
enlarged. Region in front of ventrals naked. Lateral lines disappearing near 
middle of tail. No pores at base of pectoral rays on inner surface. 

Measurements in Himdredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length to base of caudal in mm 

Length of head 

Greatest width of head 

Length of snout 

Diameter of eyeball 

Interocular width 

Length of maxillary 

Greatest depth of body 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Snout to first dorsal spine 

Base of second dorsal 

Snout to front of anal 

Base of anal 

Length of caudal 

Length of pectoral from axil 

Length of ventral 

Base of caudal to bend in upper lateral line 
Base of caudal to bend in lower lateral line. 



295 


255 


35i 


36 


29 


3ii 


H 


^ 


3i 


3i 


I2i 


13 


20J 


21 


16 


18 


7 


7 


35 


35i 


55 


56 


50 


50 


47 


49 


16 


18 


16 


17 


i3i 


15 


22 


19 


27 


22 



329. Porichthys margaritatus (Richardson). 

Taken by the Albatross in Panama Bay at Station 2802, at a depth of 16 
fathoms. Also reported by Dr. Boulenger (1899, p. 3) from Rio Tuyra, Darien (as 
P. notatus). 

330. Porichthys greenei sp. nov. 

Plate XXX, Fig. 56. 

A small light-colored species, taken by us in the tide-pools of the Panama 
reef. It differs from all other species of the genus in the complete union of the 
dorsal and anal fins with the caudal, in the small head, and in the comparatively weak 
development of the phosjjhorescent spots. 

Head 4^^ to 4^ in length; depth 5^^. The mouth is oblique, the lower jaw longest, the max- 
illary extending beyond the eye, slightly more than half length of head. A pair of slender cutaneous 
slips at tip of snout. Tip of maxillary with a cutaneous flap, the free edge of which is fringed. 



GILBERT AND STARRS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 185 

Mandible anteriorly with an outer series of small canines, behind which is a narrow band of 
short cardiform teeth. The latter pass toward sides of jaw into a sing^le series of canines, enlarging 
toward angle of mouth and hooked backward and laterally. Premaxillaries with a single close-set 
series of slender conical teeth, a median pair slightly larger than the others, but scarcely canine-like. 
Vomer with a pair of widely separated canines, about equaling the large teeth in sides of mandible, and 
much larger than any of the palatine teeth. The latter are of small size, nearly uniform, ten to 
twelve in number. The eye is small, its diameter about equaling the bony interorbital width. 

The lines of sense organs and phosphorescent organs of this species have been described by 
Dr. C. W. Greene (1899, p. 676), to whose paper we refer. As there stated, the rows agree very 
closely with those in P. 7iotatiis and P. margaritatus. The phosphorescent organs are, however, 
much smaller, proportionally, than in these species, and are less developed in the dorsal region and 
on top and sides of head. The following account gives the principal differences between P. greenei 
and the other species mentioned. In some minor details, it differs from the account given by Dr. 
Greene. 

In the ^(^rj'fl/ series, no phosphorescent spots are present. In the lateral series, there is no 
upper row of phosphorescent organs. In the pleural row, both sets of organs are constantly present; 
the sense organs are difficult to distinguish, as they are not accompanied by dermal filaments; the 
line is discontinued at a point opposite the twenty-first anal ray. Concerning the phosphorescent 

organs in this series in P. 7iotatus, Greene says (1. c. , p. 671): "The organs of this line have 

no relation to the body segments." We find that the typical arrangement, in the three species 
known to us, gives two spots to each anal ray, along that part of the line which is parallel with the 
anal fin. The spots are not equally spaced, but are rather obviously arranged in pairs, though one 
member of a pair is occasionally undeveloped. Both caudal rows are well developed as in other 
species. The gastrogiclar row is always complete, but the sense organs are again difficult to detect, 
owing to the absence of filaments. In the upper opercular series, and in a row along the lower edge of 
the black subocular blotch, the phosphorescent organs are well developed; they are absent, however, 
or very sparingly developed on all other series on top and sides of head. 

The dorsal and anal fins are longer than in other species, the dorsal containing 2 spines 
and 38 or 39 rays, the anal 35 or 36 rays. The membrane of the last dorsal spine joins base of first 
soft ray. The last two or three dorsal rays are shortened, and the last ray is joined for its full length 
with the upper ray of the caudal; there is thus a notch between the two fins. The anal is continuous 
with the caudal, without notch, as the last rays are not shortened. 

As in other species, a gland is present in the axil of the pectorals; also a series of canals pene- 
trating the base of the fin on the axillary side, as in Batrachoides, one for each interradial membrane. 

The color is translucent grayish or olive, with five broad dark cross-bars on back along base 
of dorsal fin, and a sixth on nape (including base of spinous dorsal); there are also one on occiput, 
one behind orbits and one on snout, the last three less intense and more or less joined. The basal 
portion of the pectoral fin is more or less dusky. Fins otherwise translucent, unmarked. 

Twelve specimens were obtained. The species is named for Dr. Charles 
Wesley Greene. 



180 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Measicremevts in Hundredths of Length zvtthout Caudal. 



I.ciiiLitli uitliiuit c.uul.il ill mm. 

llo;ul 

Snout 

Ink'i'oiiiital space (bony) 

Eye 

Maxillary 

Prplh 

Least (U'lilh al liasr ul laudal.. 

Snont to ilorsal 

DistaiH'o botwoen tloisals 

Base of second dorsal 

Snout to anal 

Base of anal 

Caudal 

Pectoral 

W'ntral 



76 


75 


24 


24 


5 


5 


3+ 


3i 


4 


3i 


13 


•2i 


18 


I'^^i 


34 


4 


25 


23 


4t 





1 1 
iS 



61 

I I 
iS 
12 



331. Thalassophryne reticulata (iihillier. 

Tcetli on iiKUnliblo, voiner ami palatines similar, in single series, small, nearly 
uniform in size, antero-posteriorly compressed so as to resemble tliminntive incisors. 
Sometimes single teeth are crowded out of line, bnt they are never in two definite 
series, not even, as alleged, on front of mandible. The maxillary' teeth are simihir, 
bnt very much smaller, in two rows or a narrow band. 

The last ilorsal :ind anal ra^'s are inserted at a distance from base of caudal 
equaling more than half their length. Tliey are joined by membrane for their entire 
length to the caiuhil peduncle and to the [lortioii of the caudal lin which they 
overhxp. 

The type is described as having 24 rays in the dorsal and 21 in the anal tin; 
it is figured, however, with 25 rays in the dorsal. Nine specimens counted by us 
show uniformly 26 rays in the dorsal lin, 25 in the anal; ti tenth specimen has 27 
dorsal and 25 anal rays. 



GILBERT AKD STAIiKS - FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



187 



Measuretnenls in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length to base of caudal in mm 

Length of head 

Greatest width of head 

Length of snout 

Diameter of eyeball , 

Interorbital width 

Length of maxillary 

Greatest depth of body , 

Depth of caudal fKrduncle , 

Snout to first dorsal spine 

Base of second dorsal Cto base of last ray) , 

Snout to front of anal 

Base of anal (to base of last ray) 

Length of caudal 

Length of pectoral (from middle of axil) 

Length of ventral (outer rayj 



255 


2r8 


31 


3< 


30 


y> 


6 


6 


3 


3 


6 


7 


r6 


16 


19 


19 


5i 


6 


28 


29 


56 


54 


44 


46 


52 


53 


18 


20 


224 


23 


Hi 


144 



332. Thalassophryne dowi Jordan dc Gilbert. 

This species seems to be rarely taken. A single specimen was obtained by 
us, loO ram. long. The only others known are the three types from Punta Arenas, 
Costa Rica, and two specimens dredged by the Albatross in the Bay of Panama. 

The lower half of the body is whitish, unmarked; the dorsal portion Ls blackish, relieved by 
the white lateral line and by a few irregular blotches of white, which are most numerous toward the 
middle of the sides. The head is blackish alxjve and on sides, very finely marbled with gray. The 
lower lip and the front of the lower jaw are similarly marked; the gular membrane is slightly dusky; 
the under side of the head otherwise white. The eyes are seen with difficulty, being colored like the 
surrounding area. The anal is white, except some of the posterior rays, which are margined with 
black. The basal half of the dorsal is white or grayish, sharply contrasting with the black marginal 
half. The terminal half of caudal is jet-black, the Iwsal half white, blotched more or less with brown. 
The ventrals are white; the pectorals white, marbled with brown on their basal fXjrtion. Teeth in 
premaxilbries small, in two series, the front tooth of the outer series on each side a strong conical 
canine. Sides of mandible with a single series of strong canines, which increase in size backward to 
the eighth or ninth, then suddenly diminish. On the front of the mandible, are two series of similar 
teeth. The vomer contains twelve canines, increasing in size laterally. The fjalatine teeth are in a 
single series, about twelve in number on each side, large and small teeth regularly alternating in the 
series. 

The head is contained 3| to 4 times in the length. It b cuboid in shape, with vertical cheeks, 
and very oblique mouth; in appearance resembling Astroscopus. Greatest depth of head three-fourths 
its greatest width. 



188 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 



The hist two or three rays in tlie dorsal and anal fins are procjri'ssively shortened, .tjivint^ a 
rounded eonlonr to the end of these fins. The last rays of eaeh are uniteil for tlu-ir whole length by 
membrane to the caudal. In tinee specimens at hand tlu' second dorsal contains respectively 30, 31, 
and 32 rays; the anal 29, 29, and 30.* 

Two pairs of filaments project from the free margin liehin<l the upper lip.diie in front of each 
eye, the second i)air neaier the median line. A pair of similar lilaments on lower lip near symphysis. 
No other lilaments on head or body; but pairs of inconsi>icuous thick lleshy !ol)es close in front of the 
isolated sensory organs on the lower jaw, and on the sides and top of the head. 

The opercular spine, and the s]iines of the dorsal fm are u holly I'liveloped in the inteiiument. 
They contain a central canal, which opens in a shidlow t,n-oove on the anterior face of the spine, at an 
apjireciable tlistance below the tip. 

The gciui.s D((cior Jordan & Evermann (1898, pp. 2813 and 2325), of whicli 
this species is tlie type, seems to have littlt; vahie, and is not here recognized. The 
characters assigned arc tlie many rayed dorsal and anal fins, and the union of these 
with the candal. (^ther species of 7%ilassophrij7ie have 10, 20, and 2(3 rays in the 
dorsal fin; 18, 19, and 25 rays in the anal. It seems unwarrantable to distinguish 
from these generically a species containing 30 to 33 rays in the dorsal and 29 or 30 
in the anal. As regards union of the dorsal and anal fins with the caudal, this occurs 
in varying degrees, and is not correlated with increased number of fin rays. 
2\ niacnlosd (1). II, 19; A. 18) seems to have the fins wholly distinct; T. amazonica 
(D. II, 20; A. 18) has them completely joined; T. reticulata (D. II, 20; A. 25) has 
them almost wholly united. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length to base of caudal in mm. 
Lens>th of head 



(■ri-al(.sl width of head 

I ,rnL;th of snout 

I 'iameti'r of i'\t'ball 

lulcrorbital w idlh 

Length of maxillary 

(Iix-atest depth of boilv 

I >(|idi of caud.il peduncle 

•Snout lo Inst tioisal spine 

liase of second dorsal (to liase of last ray). 

Snout to fronl of anal 

Hase of anal (to base t)f last ray) 

Length of caudal 

Length ol pcctor.il ^Iroiu middK' of a.xil).., 
Length of outer xx'utr.il ray 



134 
27i 
23 i 

4i 

2 

6 

•3 
20 

5 J 
-'5 
61 

39 

16 

18 

9 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 180 

Family GOBIESOCIDyE. 

333- Gobiesox rhodospilus GUnlher. 

The types of this species are from Panama, but it was not seen by ns. It is 
recorded by Boulenger (1898-9, Vol. XIV, [). 8) also from the Bay of Santa Helena, 
near Guayaquil. 

Oobkmx (jijrlnus Jordan & Evermann (1898, p. 2331) is founded on Giinther's 
description of specimens in the British Museum, to which he has applied the name 
Gobiesox nudus Bloch (see Giinther, 18Gli, p. 502). These specimens were partly 
from the West Indies, partly from the Island of Cardon (misspelled Cordova, fide 
Giinther, 1868, p. 381) on the Pac-ifio coast of Nicaragua, and arc probably not con- 
specific. Giinther's description (copied by Jordan and Evermann) was doubtless 
based upon the adidt specimens from the West Indies, not upon the very immature 
Nicaragua!! specimens. 

Family BLENNIID^E. 

334. Malacoctenus delalandi {Cuvier S ValencienneH). 

Not seen by us; known fi-om Mazatlan to Guayacpiil (Boulenger, 1898-9, Vol. 
XIV, p. 8). It is recorded by Giinther (1801 a, p. 371) from the "Pacific coast 
of Cent!'al America," where it was collected by Captain Dow. 

335. Mnierpes macrocephalus (Giinther). 

This species has been taken sevei-al times at Pa!iama, but was not seen by us. 
It is recorded by Boulenger (1899, p. 4) from Flamenco Island, Panama Bay. 

336. Auchenopterus monophthalmus Giinther. 

A very abu!!dant species in the tide-pools at Panama. 

The sexes are readily distinguished by the coloration, and by the size of the 
mouth. In females, the lips, mandibles, and the lower poi'tions of the cheeks and 
opercles are marbled or finely blotched with dark; the ventrals, the lower pectoral 
rays and the caudal are cross-barred. In males, all of these regions are plain, 
except the caudal, which may be faintly barred. In females, the mouth is small, the 
distance from tip of snout to tip of maxillary not exceeding (in adults) that from 
tip of snout to posterior edge of pupil. In males, the length of !naxillary as meas- 
ured above, exceeds the distance f!-om tip of snout to posterior edge of orbit. 

The first three dorsal rays foi-m a detached fin, its posterior membrane joining 
fourth spine at or immediately above the base. The three spines are flexible, not 
pungent at tip, much weaker than the succeeding spines. The fourth spine becomes, 
abruptly stiff and strong. So slender are the tips of the first and seco!id spines that 
it is difficult to detect them where they terminate in the membrane. The first and 
second spines are about equal, and a!'e somewhat longer than any of the spines in 

(]6) Jsnoary 8, 10M. 



190 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

the posterior portion of the fin. The third spine is shortened, but still is longer than 
the fourth. The dorsal formula is III, XXVI+1. In ten specimens examined, the 
anal fin contained constantly 2 spines and 20 rays, the last two rays being distinct, 
but closely approximated at the base. 

The lateral line traverses 38 to 40 scales, including the scale which overlies 
the base of the caudal fin and is sometimes without tube. The arched portion of the 
lateral line contains 18 to 20 scales, the straight portion 19 to 21. The scales con- 
stituting the upper portion of the arch are slightly enlarged, and are perforated on 
the anterior two-fifths only by a tube which opens on the under surface of the scale. 
At the summit of the arch, a single series of scales intervenes between the lateral 
line and the base of the dorsal fin. At the beginning of the straight portion of the 
lateral line, it is separated by five horizontal rows from the base of the dorsal, and 
by five rows from the base of the anal. 

The second dorsal fin is marked by seven dark bars, which are continued 
more or less definitely upon the back and sides, where every alternate band is more 
distinct, the fainter ones being often with difficulty distinguished. On the middle of 
sides, the bands are variously confluent and irregular. The dorsal ocellus occupies 
the next to the last dorsal bar; and is rarely accompanied by a second smaller ocellus 
developed in the last dorsal bar (in two out of eighty specimens). No small ocel- 
lated spots are present on the dorsal fin in advance of the main ocellus. The anterior 
dorsal fin is without ocellus, and is variously blotched with dusky; the first spine is 
light, with four narrow cross-bars in the female, plain in the male. The dorsal 
ocellus is found between the twentieth and twenty-second sjjines of the second 
dorsal, occasionally encroaching on the membrane between nineteenth and twen- 
tieth spines. The anal shows six or seven oblique dark bars, or is more frequently 
uniform blackish, with a white margin. The caudal, pectorals and ventrals are 
finely cross-barred in females, plain in males. In females, the lips, mandibles, 
and lower portion of cheeks and opercles are barred or freckled, these regions plain 
in the males. The opercle has a dark blotch; a dark shade is usually present below 
the eye. A dark blotch occupies the basal portion of some of the pectoral rays, this 
more specialized on the lower rays in females. 



GILSEKT ANi) StARKS — flSHES Ot" PANAMA feAY 
Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



191 



Length in mm 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Diameter of orbit 

Interorbital width 

Greatest depth 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of first dorsal spine 

Length of second dorsal spine 

Length of third dorsal spine 

Length of fourth dorsal spine 

Length of twenty-sLxth dorsal spine. 

Length of first anal spine 

Length of second anal spine 

Length of longest anal ray 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Length of pectoral fin 



i 


& 


? 


? 


67 


52 


67 


50 


30 


31 


31 


29 


8 


8 


8 


7 


16 


16 


i3i 


I2i 


6 


6 


6 


6 


4 


4 


3i 


3 


24 


23 


25 


24 


9 


8 


8 


n 


9i 


10 


I2i 


II 


II 


Hi 


13 


II 


7 


7 


9 


7i 


6 


61 


7 


7 


91 


9 


II 


10 


6i 


6i 


7i 


7 


8 


8 


9i 


8i 


12 


15 


i5i 


i3i 


23 


23 


24 


22 


19 


21 


22 


20 


24 


24 


24 


24 



337. Hypsoblennius piersoni sp. no v. 

Plate XXXII, Fio. 60. 

Resembling H. gentilis and H. gilberti, but with shorter spinous dorsal and much longer soft 
dorsal and anal. 

Head 4; depth 5. D. IX, 25; A. II, 24; P. 16; V. I, 3.* 

The form is elongate, with very bluntly rounded snout, the mouth subinferior, as in the other 
species mentioned. There is a slender nasal tentacle, longer than in its nearest relatives. The orbital 
tentacle is as long as diameter of eye; above a short basal stalk, it is finely dissected to form five or six 
slender filaments, one or more of which may be branched. The mouth is very small, largely trans- 
verse, reaching posteriorly to a vertical midway between front and middle of pupil. No posterior 
canines. Gill-opening extending below to opposite lower edge of pectoral base; from this point, 
the margin of the branchiostegal membrane can be traced across the throat, but it is nowhere free. 



* In six specimens of H. gilberti from San Diegn, the fin-formula stands: 

Dorsal XII, 17 XII, 18 XU, 18 XI, 19 XII, 19 XII, 19 
Anal II, 18 II, 19 U, 19 II, 19 II. 19 II, 20 

In one speciruen of H. gentilia from San Dtego, we find D. XII, IG; A. II, 18. 



192 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



The lateral line is conspicuously developed in its anterior part only, for a distance equaling the 
length of the head. 

The dorsal spines are very slender, and increase regularly in length posteriorly, there being 
no notch between spinous and soft dorsals. It differs in this respect from related species, there being 
a distinct though not conspicuous notch in H. gcntilis and H. gilberli. 

The color is very light olivaceous, with black blotches and markings following the same pat- 
tern seen in H. gilberti. Along the back is a series of six quadrate blotches, below each of which is a 
similar smaller blotch, those anteriorly separated by a light streak corresponding in position to the 
lateral line. Below the middle of sides is a series of dark spots arranged in seven pairs, those of the 
anterior pairs developed as short vertical streaks. A few scattered smaller spots on head and sides of 
body. There is a narrow V-shaped bar on occiput, a broad bar downward from eye to angle of 
mouth, and a faint V-shaped mark on gular region. A conspicuous oval black blotch on front of 
spinous dorsal. The fin is translucent with dusky markings not in definite pattern. A conspicuous 
black point at the base of each anal ray. The anal is translucent, with a dusky lengthwise streak along 
the base of the distal third of the fin. Pectorals and ventrals translucent, with some dusky markings. 

Named for Mr. C. J. Pierson, a member of the Panama Expedition, to whose 
untiring industry much of its success was due. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length in mm. to base of caudal. 

Head 

Snout 

Eye 

Gape of mouth 

Interorbital width 

Length of orbital filament 

Depth of body 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of dorsal base 

Length of anal base 

Length of pectorals 

Length of ventrals 

Length of caudal 



25 
7 

7 + 
7 

2i 

8 
20 

8 
80 

53 
22 

15 
15 



338. Hypsoblennius striatus (Steindachner). 

Abundant in the tide-pools of the Panama reef. 

Tlie following details may be added to the original account given by Stein- 
dachner (1877, p. 15, PI. VIII, fig. 4): 

The free tips of the rays and spines of the dorsal fin are white, the color less 
intense than that on anal margin. The edge of the membrane between the spines 



GILBERT AND STAKKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 193 

and between the anterior dorsal rays is black, contrasting sharply with the white- 
tipped spines and rays. A well-defined elliptical spot of jet-black occupies the mem- 
brane between the first and second dorsal spines; it is nearly as large as the eye, and 
is margined with a whitish ring. The blackish blotch, mentioned by Steindachner, 
between third and fifth dorsal spines is diffuse and ill-defined, and sometimes 
extends beyond the limits assigned. There is a black sjiot at the base of each anal 
ray. The ventrals have the basal portion dusky, the distal third or half of each ray 
white. The supraorbital tentacle is crossed with red and whitish bars. 

The usual fin-formula is dorsal XII, 10; anal 20: occasionally dorsal XII, 15; 
anal 19. The dorsal spines are constantly twelve, and the dorsal rays never as numer- 
ous as seventeen. Steindachner's type, described with seventeen dorsal rays, is figured 
with sixteen rays. The pectoral fin contains constantly fourteen rays, as figured, not 
fifteen, as stated in the description. The ventrals are described with one spine and 
two rays. They have constantly one spine and three rays. The spine is short but 
strong, and the inner ray is usually hidden in the integument enveloping the second 
ray, but is sometimes distinguishable externally. The ventral fins have been examined 
by us in H. gilberti, scrutator, jmnctatus and gentilis, and are found to contain con- 
stantly one spine and three rays. 

The interorbital space is rather deeply grooved. The anterior nostril is in a 
short tube, the posterior rim provided with a cirrus. The long supraorbital tentacles 
are unfortunately omitted in Steindachner's drawing. The length of the gill-slit 
equals the distance from the tip of the snout to the front of the pupil, scarcely extend- 
ing below to the level of lower base of pectorals. 

A short lateral line extends to or into the second dark cross-band behind the 
head, its posterior portion more or less broken up into detached fragments. It gives 
off a few short and irregular branches above and below, each ending in an open pore. 

We have examined the mandibular teeth in twenty specimens without finding 
a posterior canine, such as was reported by Steindachner in one of his typical 
examples. 

339. Hypsoblennius brevipinnis {Gilntlier). 
The species is apparently rare, as but one young specimen was obtained. 

Homesthes Gilbert. 

Homesthes Gilbert (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2394) {caulopus). 

Differing from Hypsoblennius chiefly in the presence of four articulated ventral 
rays instead of three as is usual in Blenniinm. We have examined the ventrals of 
Hypsoblennius striatus, ininctatus, ionthas, gentilis, and gilberti, and have found them 
to consist constantly of one short strong spine and three simple articulated rays. In 
Homesthes caulopus there is one strong short spine and four well-developed simple 
jointed rays. 



194 CALIFOENlA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

340. Homesthes caulopus Gilbert. 

Plate XXXII, Fig. 61. 

Homesthes caulopus Gilbert, /. c, p. 2394. 

Head 3| in length; depth at base of ventrals 4, at middle of abdomen 3|; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 3 in length of head; snout 4; eye 4 to 4^; longest dorsal spine 2|; last dorsal spine 
3|; longest (tenth) dorsal ray 2; longest (fifteenth) anal ray 2\; ventrals if; longest pectoral ray if 
to if; caudal i\. Dorsal XII, 15 or 16; anal II, 17; pectorals 14; ventrals I, 4. 

Robust, moderately compressed, with wide heavy head and short bluntly rounded snout, the 
anterior profile of which is nearly vertical. In shape and general appearance much resembling Hypso- 
blennhis gilberti. Mouth very wide, horizontal, short, the maxillaries reaching vertical from hinder 
edge of pupil, 3 to 3^ in head. Teeth as usual in this group, the posterior not enlarged or canine- 
like. Nostrils with slightly elevated margins, scarcely tubular, the hinder edge of anterior nostril 
produced into a conspicuous laciniate flap, about two-thirds as long as the diameter of orbit. A similar 
but larger orbital cirrus, divided nearly to the base into six or eight slender filaments. Interorbital 
space deeply grooved, without median ridge, opening posteriorly into the deep transverse groove 
which separates the orbital region from the somewhat swollen occiput, its width \\ eye. The mucous 
canals of head give off transverse branches which open by numerous pores, which thickly beset the 
snout, subocular region, top of head, preopercle, and upper portion of opercle. Width of gill-slit 
equaling or slightly exceeding one-half length of head, confined to area above lower base of pectorals. 
First dorsal spine over margin of preopercle; spinous dorsal low, of nearly uniform height, 
much lower than second dorsal, the spines rather strong at base, with weak reflexed tips; membrane of 
last dorsal ray joined to extreme base of rudimentary caudal rays. Anal low, rising slightly poste- 
riorly, leaving a short free interval between its last ray and the caudal. 

Lateral line strongly developed anteriorly for a distance equaling length of head; from that 
point it is only faintly visible, declining abruptly to middle of sides, along which it may be traced to 
base of caudal; the anterior portion gives of! numerous pairs of short transverse lines, each of which 
ends in a pore; no pores or lines are visible posteriorly. 

Blackish, without sharp markings, the sides with irregular light blotches, some of which are 
subcircular in outline and contain one or more black central specks; the light markings near the back 
are elongate and vertically placed, faintly outlining dark bars of the ground color; lower parts lighter. 
A vertical black blotch on cheek behind eye; no distinct bars on head; tentacles whitish. Fins all 
blackish; the anal, the ventrals, the lower caudal and pectoral rays deeper black; anal and caudal 
margined with white, some of the dorsal rays narrowly tipped with white. 

Two specimens, 102 and 115 ram. long, from Panama Bay. 

341. Scartichthys rubropunctatus (Guvier & Valenciennes). 
Recorded once from Panama (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 n, p. 628). 

342. Rupiscartes atlanticus {Guvier t& Valenciennes). 

There is no Panama record for this species, which is known, however, from 
the Mexican coast to Guayaquil (Boulenger, 1898-9, Vol. XIV, p. 8). 

343. Emblemaria nivipes Jordan & Gilbert. 
The type from Pearl Islands, Panama Bay; not seen by us. 



GILBERT AND STAEKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



195 



Family CERDALID^. 
344. Microdesmus dipus Gii-nther. 

Not seen by us. In addition to the type, this species is known only from a 
specimen recorded by Lockington (1881, p. 114), from La Paz, L. C. 

Dr. G. A. Boulenger has kindly re-examined for us the type of the species, 
and writes: " There are four ventral rays. The fifteen anterior dorsal rays are 
simple and inarticulate; further back they gradually become branched and articulate, 
and are distinctly so from the eighteenth. The anal rays are all articulate and 
branched." 

345. Microdesmus retropinnis Jordan S Gilberl. 

Platk XXXI, Fig. 59. 

Seven specimens were obtained in rock-pools on the Panama reef. 

The genus Microdesmus — with the two species M. dipus and M. retropinnis — 
has been described as having the ventrals reduced each to a single ray. Our 
material has shown, however, that in M. retropinnis a serious error was committed, for 
each ventral fin consists of a short slender spine and three slender unbranched rays, 
the inner of which is the longest. Through the great kindness of Dr. G. A. 
Boulenger, who has examined for us the type of M. dipus, we learn that that species 
also has "four ventral rays" (undoubtedly one spine and three rays). 

In M. retropinnis, the dorsal fin contains 15 slender spines and 32 to 34 rays. 
Each of the rays is definitely articulated, and the majority of them are many times 
forked. The anal rays are all articulate and all but the first one forked. 

We are informed by Dr. Boulenger that in M. dipus also the fifteen anterior 
dorsal rays are simple and inarticulate, while further back they gradually become 
branched and articulate, being distinctly so. from the eighteenth back. In this species 
the anal rays are all articulate and branched. 

In one specimen of M. retropinnis, we enumerate 58 vertebrsE in addition to 
the hypural element. The latter is assisted by one spine in forming the basis for 
attachment of the caudal fin. 

In six specimens the fins count as follows: 



Dorsal.. 
Anal ... 



49 

29 


48 
30 


48 
30 


48 
31 


47 
29 



47 
29 



The scales are circular in outline, attached by their entire margin, and are 
non-imbricate. On the head and the anterior part of the body, they are closely 
crowded and are arranged in definite rows. Toward the tail, they are moi'e widely 
spaced, and on the abdomen they are partially or wholly embedded and difficult to 
detect. They cover the entire head, including snout and branchiostegal membranes. 

The margin of the upper jaw is formed by the premaxillaries, the broad max- 



196 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



illary lying behind it. The teeth are strong and conic, with rather acute tips; those in 
the mandible are in two rows anteriorly which narrow to a single series laterally; those 
in upper jaw apparently in a single series. 

346. Cerdale ionthas Jordan cfc Gilbert. 

Plate XXXI, Fig. 58. 

Eighteen specimens were secured on the Panama reef. The genus Cerdale 
was described as differing from Alicrodesmus in having two rays in the ventral fin, 
but this was due to an error in observation. As in Ificrodesmus, the ventral fin 
contains one spine and three rays. The two genera seem to differ only in the 
much shorter body and fewer vertebrje in Cerdale. The vertebrae are 20+23 in 
number in addition to the hypural element. One haemal spine assists the hypural in 
supporting the caudal fin. 

The dorsal fin contains 12 slender spines and 30 to 32 branched articulate 
rays. The anal contains 27 to 29 branched rays (by error given 36 to 38 rays, 
instead of 26 to 28, in the original description and subsequently). 

Following are the fin-counts in twelve specimens: 



Dorsal.. 
Anal ... 



44 


44 


44 


44 


44 


44 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


28 


28 


28 


28 


28 


27 


28 


28 


28 


27 


27 



42 
29 



The pectoral fin contains fourteen rays. 

The post-temporal is forked, and rather firmly joined to the skull. The supra- 
clavicle is apparently absent. The actinosts are thin, flat, and very large, the three 
uppermost joining the hypercoracoid, the lower one joining the hypocoracoid. The 
opercular bones are all present. 

The front of the mouth is formed by the premaxillaries only. The maxillaries 
are slender and much curved. The teeth are small and conic in both jaws, uniserial 
in the premaxillaries, biserial in front of mandible becoming uniserial laterally. No 
teeth on vomer or palatines. 

The branchiostegal rays are five in number. 

The restricted gill-openings can scarcely suffice to distinguish a family Cerda- 
lidai from the Blenniidoe. 

Family OPHIDIIDJ^. 

347. Lepophidium prorates {Jordan & Bolhium) . 
Known only from type and co-types taken in Panama Bay. 

348. Otophidium indefatigabile Jordan ct- Bollmann. 
Recorded from Albatross Station 2797, Panama Bay, 33 fathoms (Gilbert, 



1890 ^', p. 453). 



GILBEKT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



197 



Family FIERASFERID^. 

349. Fierasfer dubius Putnam. 

A single specimen, 58 mm. long, was taken in a tide-pool at Panama. We 
think it better to use the name dubius rather than nffinis. (Giinther) for this species. 
The type locality for dubius is the Pearl Islands, near Panama; while the locality of 
affinis is unknown, and the description inadequate. In our very small specimen, 
the head is one-eighth the length, the dorsal begins a head's length behind the occiput, 
the pectoral equals the maxillary and is half as long as the head. The outer mandi- 
bular teeth, and the teeth on front of vomer are slightly enlarged. 

Family BROTULID^. 
350. Ogilbia ventralis {Gill). 

Not rare in tide-pools on the Panama reef. Heretofore known only from 
Mazatlan and Cape San Lucas. 

The tip of the snout and the terminal portion of mandible are furnished with 
sharply elevated curving sensory ridges. 

Family BREGMACEROTID^. 

351. Bregmaceros macclellandi Thompson. 

Dredged by the Albatross in Panama Bay, Station 2804, 47 fathoms; these 
are the types of B. bathymaster, Jordan and Bollman, 1889, j). 173 (see Jordan and 
Evermann, 1898 b, p. 2526). 

Family PLEURONECTID^. 

352. Hippoglossina bollmani Gilbert. 

The types only known, from Albatross Stations 2804 and 2805, Panama Bay, 
47 and 514 fathoms. 

353. Paralichthys woolmanni Jordan S Williams. 

The type of this species was collected by the Albatross, in 1888, at Panama, 
and was first listed by Jordan and Bollman (1889, p. 182) as P. adspersus Steindach- 
ner. Later, when made the type of a new species, it was erroneously credited to the 
Galapagos Islands. The si^ecies is abundant at Panama, where we obtained numer- 
ous specimens, and is known to range as far north as the Gulf of California (Mazat- 
lan, Guaymas, La Paz). Specimens from Mazatlan and La Paz have been distin- 
guished under the name P. sinaloce Jordan and Abbott (see Jordan & Evermann, 
1898, p. 2872), but seem to differ in no respect from P. looolmanni. 

In ten specimens from Panama, the fin-rays and gill-rakers are as follows: 



Dorsal 

Anal 

Gill-rakers.. 



70 


70 


70 


72 


73 


73 


74 


75 


75 


52 


53 


54 


58 


56 


57 


57 


58 


58 


12 


14 


14 


13 


14 


13 


14 


14 


13 



76 

58 

13 



(2C) 



January U, 1901. 



198 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



In nine specimens from Mazatlan (including the type of P. sinaloa;), the gill- 
rakers on horizontal limb of arch are constantly thirteen or fourteen in number, and 
the fin rays as follows: 



Dorsal.. 
Anal ... 



72 


72 


73 


73 


73 


73 


74 


76 


56 


57 


56 


58 


58 


59 


56 


60 



76 

61 



The longest gill-raker in P. woolmanni is two-fifths to one-third as long as the 
diameter of the eye; on the vertical limb of the arch 4 or 5 are usually present, 1 or 
2 of which may be immovable and rudimentary. 

In the northern portion of its range, P. woolmanni is accompanied by the closely 
related P. cestuarius, which differs in its more elongate form, the longer, more numerous 
gill-rakers, the more numerous iin-rays,and the lighter, more nearly uniform coloration; 
a row of distinct small white spots follows the contour of the body, near the base of 
the vertical fins. P. magdahnce Abbott (Jordan & Evermann, 1898, p. 2871), is a 
synonym of P. cestuarius. We have compared the types of the two species. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Locality 

Total length in mm 

Length to base of caudal in mm 

Head (without opercular membrane)... 

Snout (to upper eye) 

Maxillary 

Upper eye 

Interorbital width (total) 

Greatest depth 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Longest gill-raker 

Length of caudal 

Length of ventral 

Length of pectoral 

Longest dorsal ray 

Longest anal ray 

Chord of arch of lateral line 



Panama 



272 
2ig 
284- 

6^ 
14 
5 

45 
12 

2 A 
24 
8i 

14 
13 
13 



270 
219 

29i 

6+ 

14+ 

5 + 



2i 



461 
12 + 



2| 



235 

9 

i4i 
13 
13 
i5i 



Guaymas, 
Mex. 



260 

208 

2f>\ 
7 

15 
5i 
2^ 

471 

12J 

2i 
24 



14 



I2i 



12 

15 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OP PANAMA BAY 



199 



354. Ancylopsetta dendritica Gilbert. 

Plate XXXIII, Fig. 62. 
Hippoglossina sabayictisis Boulenger, 1899, p. 4. 

Infrequent; five specimens obtained. 

In this species the tubes of the lateral line are profusely branched in adults, 
but the structure does not differ from that found in other flounders with branched 
tubes. We are unable, therefore, to recognize the genus Ramularia Jordan and Ever- 
mann (1898, p. 2633) based on this character. The species is closely related to 
A. quadrocellata Gill, from which it differs most strikingly in having the anterior 
dorsal rays not produced. This also we consider of less than generic importance. 

Our specimens are smaller than the type. The depth is 1| in the length. 
The interorbital width is about half the diameter of the upper eye. The length of 
the maxillary is contained 2| to 2| times in the length of the head. The color is 
blackish brown, becoming black on distal portion of vertical fins, which are narrowly 
margined with white. The fins are similarly colored on the blind side; the head and 
body of the blind side are also more or less washed with dark brown, especially around 
the margins. The ocellated spots are arranged as in A. quadrocellata, but the one 
above the arch of the lateral line is wanting. The central light spot is yellow in life. 

In five specimens, the fin-rays are as follows: 



Dorsal . 
Anal ... 



77 


79 


79 


82 


64 


64 


65 


67 





84 
67 



This is the species described by Boulenger (1899, p. 4) from Rio Sabana, 
under the name Hippoglossina sabanensis. 

355. Platophrys constellatus Jordan. 

Taken by the Albatross in Panama Bay, at Stations 2795, 2796, 2797, at a 
depth of 38 fathoms (Jordan & Bollman, 1889, p. 183). 



356. Engyophrys sancti-laurentii Jordan & Bollmann. 

Panama Bay, Stations 2795 and 2805, depths 33 and 51^ fathoms; recorded 
by Garmau (1899, p. 222). 

357. Syacium latifrons {Jordan (& Gilbert). 
Known only from the types, which were taken at Panama. 

358. Syacium ovale {Giinther). 

But few seen; nine specimens obtained. None of these show any tendency 
to increased width of interorbital sjjace. 



200 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

359- Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan <k Bolivian). 

Abundant. In adult specimens, 255 mm. long, the colored side is uniform 
dusky brown on head, body and fins, the fins without dusky blotches. 

The tubes of the lateral line are profusely branched above and below. An 
intricate network of branching tubes covers the preopercle and the postocular region 
of the head. The upper eye is distant from profile a distance less than diameter of 
pupil. The interorbital width in adults equals half the diameter of the eye. 

360. Azevia panamensis (Steindachner) . 

Infrequent; but four specimens secured. 

The scales on the colored side of the body are strongly ctenoid, those of the 
uncolored side perfectly smooth. 

361. Citharichthys platophrys Gilbert. 

Known from the type only; Albatross Station 2799, Panama Bay, 29^^ 
fathoms. 

362. Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins £ Everynann. 

Abundant; diflfering from C. spilopterus in the longer* gill-rakers, which are 
also more numerous, in the slightly larger scales, and the slightly larger eye. In 
our specimens, the lateral line traverses 40 to 43 scales. In nine specimens of 
C. spilopterus from Havana, there are 45 to 47 scales in the lateral line. Our 
specimens of gilberti have thirteen or fourteen gill-rakers on horizontal limb of outer 
arch. Havana specimens of s2)ilo2)terus have constantly eleven gill-rakers. 

363. Etropus crossotus Jordan <k Gilbert. 
But few seen by us. 

Family SOLEIDtE. 

364. Achirus klunzingeri {Steindachner). 

Common in Panama Bay. 

Resembling A. mazatlanus, but differing in the smaller scales, the smaller eye 
and wider interorbital space, the larger mouth, the increased number of fin-rays, the 
finer, more numerous cilia (in specimens of equal size), and the more elongate form. 

The color is almost uniform brown on body and fins; in lighter specimens only 
are the vertical fins faintly mottled or blotched with dusky. Ten to twelve faint 
dark hair-lines cross the body, often to be made out with extreme difficulty. Young 
specimens show numerous patches of fine black cilia on head and body, the larger 
patches arranged in two series nearly midway between the lateral line and the bases 

*By error, Jordan and Evermann {1898, p. 2686) state, tbat tbe gill-rakers in this species are shorter than in C. spilopterus. 



niLBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BA^ 



201 



of dorsal and anal fins respectively. In older specimens, the cilia are less numerous, 
and usually disappear entirely in adults. 

As in A. mazatlanvs, the lower two-thirds of the opercle, as well as the sub- 
opercle and the preopercle on the blind side are naked; in A. klunzingeri, the scales 
on cheeks and upper part of opercles are non-imbricate and frequently smooth, 
especially in specimens of large size. 

The eyes are small and distant, the interocular space usually wider than the 
diameter of the eye. The pectoral varies widely in length and in the number of 
rays, seven specimens showing respectively 5, 5, 4, 4, 4, 3 and 2 pectoral rays. In 
five specimens there are 71 to 76 oblique rows of scales running downward and 
backward to the lateral line. In five specimens of A. mazatlanus, there are 54 to 61 
oblique rows. In three specimens of A. kbiiizingeri, there are 62 to 64 dorsal rays, 
46 to 49 anal rays; in four specimens of A. mazatlanus, 52 to 55 dorsal rays, 40 to 43 
anal rays. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length 'without Caudal. 



Length to base of caudal in mm 

Head 

Snout 

Maxillary 

Eye 

Interorbital width 

Depth 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral 

Longest dorsal ray 

Longest anal ray 



i6o 
27 
8 
io| 

2f 
2i 

64 

20 

30 

4 
Hi 

15 



365. Achirus fonsecensis (Giinther). 

Solca fonsecensis Gunther, 1862, p. 475 (Gulf of Fonseca). 

Solca fischeri Steindachner, 1879 <:, p. 13, PI. II, fig. 8 (Rio Mamoni, near Panama). 

Solea panarneiisis Steindachner, 1877, p. 10, PI. II (Panama). 

This species is abundant in the Bay of Panama and appears frequently in the 
market. It has not been recorded south of this point, but extends to the northward 
as far as Mazatlan. 

The pectoral fin is greatly reduced, containing usually two short divergent 
rays, which fail to equal the diameter of the orbit. In one of our specimens three 



202 



CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



rays are present, four specimens have but a single ray each, while two specimens are 
without any trace of a pectoral fin. A. Jischeri, based on a young specimen with one 
pectoral ray, and 8. 2Mnamensis, based on an adult specimen without pectoral, are 
duplicated by our material, and are to be considered as synonyms of A. fonsecensis. 
The best description and figure are given by Steindachuer under the name of 
8. panamensis. The figure should be reversed. 

The scales along the lateral line are 60 to 65 in number, not about 85, as 
stated by Giinther. In ten specimens, the fin-rays run as follows: 



Dorsal . 
Anal... 



6i 


6i 


6i 


60 


60 


60 


59 


58 


57 


45 


45 


42 


45 


45 


44 


44 


44 


43 



57 
43 



Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal in mm 

Head 

Snout 

Maxillary 

Eye 

I nterorbital width 

Depth 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Longest dorsal ray| 

Longest anal ray 



50 


158 


27i 


27 


9 


84 


\o\ 


10 


3 


2f 


3 


24 


61 


70 


20 


184 


29 


26i 


2i 


3 


i4i 


i3i 


15 


134 



366. Achirus scutum (Giinther). 

Known only from Panama and the Gulf of Fonseca; not recognized until 
now since the original description. We found the species abundant at Panama, 
securing about thirty specimens, the largest 18 cm. long. 

The species is strikingly marked with numerous narrow gray bars on a dark 
brown background, the bars varying in number from thirteen to twenty, often pursu- 
ing a wavy course and forking or coalescing with adjacent bars in a most irregular 
and intricate way. In some specimens, the irregularities are few in number. The 
dorsal and anal are marked like the body, but the caudal is much lighter, crossed 
by about four irregular dark bars which often break up into series of roundish spots. 

The pectoral is usually shorter than the eye and contains three rays, of which 
the middle is the longest. In twenty-five specimens, eight were found with two rays, 
and three with four rays. In five specimens, the fin-rays are as follows: 



GILBERT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



203 



Dorsal 
Anal ... 



56 
44 



55 
43 



54 
43 



54 
42 



53 
43 



In the original description, the anal fin is saitl to have 48 rays, but there must 
have been incliuled by inadvertence the five rays of the right ventral fin, which is 
continuous with the anal fin. There are 70 to 80 oblique rows of scales running 
downwards and backwards above the lateral line. The blind side of the head in 
advance of the preopercle, and the anterior rays of the dorsal and anal fins are 
fringed with rows and clusters of filaments. These are not so long or so numerous 
as in A.fonsecensis. 

Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal 



Length to base of caudal in mm 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Diameter of eye 

Interorbital width 

Greatest depth 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Longest dorsal ray 

Longest anal ray 



39 


125 


28i 


28 


9 


8i 


10 


10 


4 


4 


2i 


3 


76 


75 


20| 


20 


31 


3ii 


3 


3i 


i5i 


17 


16 


17 



367. Symphurus atramentatus Jordan d- Bollman. 

Known from specimens dredged by the Albatross in Panama Bay at Sta- 
tions 2795, 2797 and 2805, depths 33 to 51| fathoms; recorded by Garman (1899, 
p. 229). 



368. Symphurus elongatus {Giinther). 

Occasional in the Panama market, reaching a large size, the largest specimen 
seen by us being 255 mm. long. In adults, the depth is contained 3^ to 3| in the 
length, thus much greater than has been ascribed to the species. 



204 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Measurements in Hundredths of Length without Caudal. 



Length without caudal in mm. 

Head 

Depth 

Maxillary 

Snout to lower eye 

Length of lower eye 

Length of ventral 

Longest dorsal ray 

Longest anal ray 

Length of caudal fin 

Height of gill-opening 

Scales 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 



225 


233 


189 


170 


19 


21 


20 


20^ 


28 


27i 


29 


28 


5 


5i 


5i 


51 


5 


5 


5 


^■\ 


If 


2 


If 


2 


6 


5i 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7A 


7 


7 


7 


ll 


8 


8 


8 


ID 


7 


6i 


6i 


7 


96 


99 


93 


95 


106 


no 


108 


107 


88 


92 


87 


87 



137 

20 

24i 

5 
31 

li 

6 

7 

n 

lOi 

95 
104 

89 



369. Symphurus atricaudus {Jordan d- Gilbert). 

A specimen of this species has been listed from Panama by Eigenniann (1894, 
p. 632). The record is in need of verification. 

370. Symphurus leei Jordan & Bollman. 
Recorded from Albatross Stations 2800, 2802, 2803 and 2804, depths 7 to 514 



fathoms. 



371. Lophiomus caulinaris Garman. 



Described by Garman (1899, p. 79) from Albatross Stations 3387 and 3391, 
off Panama, in depths of 127 and 153 fathoms. It had been previously recorded by 
Gilbert (1890 i, p. 454) as L. setigerus, from Station 2805, Panama Bay, 514 
fathoms. 



Not seen by us. 



Not seen by us. 



372. Antennarius strigatus Gill. 



373. Antennarius sanguineus Gill. 



374. Zalieutes elater {Jordan d- Gilbert). 

Recorded from Stations 2794 and 2795, depths 62 and 33 fathoms (Gilbert, 
1890 i, p. 455); and from Panama (Jordan & Bollman, 1889, p. 183). 



GENERAL REMARKS ON DISTRIBUTION. 



The ichthyological province to which Panama belongs extends to the north- 
ward as far as the Gulf of California and Magdalena Bay. Of the 374 species recorded 
from Panama, 204 are now known to occur in the Gulf of California, and further 
exploration will certainly increase this list. The two regions differ principally in the 
greater development at Panama of Siluroids and Scisenoids, the majority of which fail 
to reach the northern limits of the province. 

To the south of Panama, the faunal relations are as yet poorly defined. The 
coast of Ecuador is known to us principally from Boulenger's (1898-9) brief account 
of a collection from the Bay of Santa Helena, near Guayaquil. The marine species 
there listed belong almost exclusively to the Panama fauna, and include many char- 
acteristic forms. How much farther to the southward these extend their range is 
unknown. The coast of Peru is largely unexplored, but the very incomplete lists 
which we possess indicate an almost total absence of Panama species. When these 
coasts shall be adequately investigated, there will probably be discovered a rather 
sharp line of demarcation of faunas, corresjionding with the interval between the 
areas of the South Equatorial and the Equatorial Counter Currents. 

Much has been written concerning the close parallelism between the fish- 
faunas on opposite sides of the Isthmus of Panama, and the bearing of this upon the 
question of a water-way formerly open between the two oceans. A full bibliography 
of the subject is given by Gregory (1895), together with a resume of the geological 
and biological evidence for the former existence of such an interoceanic connection, 
and a discussion of the probable date of its occurrence. 

From the biological side, the subject is treated in a most satisfactory way by 
Faxon (1895), with whose views we find ourselves wholly in accord. The ichthy- 
ological evidence is overwhelmingly in favor of the existence of a former open 
communication between the two oceans, which must have become closed at a period 
sufficiently remote from the present to have permitted the specific differentiation of 
a very large majority of the forms involved. That this differentiation progressed at 
widely varying rates in different instances becomes at once apparent. A small 
minority of the species remain wholly unchanged, so far as we have been able to 
determine that point. A larger number have become distinguished from their 
representatives of the ojiposite coast by minute (but not "trivial") differences, 
which are wholly constant. From such "representative forms," we pass by imper- 
ceptible gradation to species much more widely separated, whose immediate relation 
in the past we cannot confidently affirm. Of identical species, occurring in both 

( 27 ) January 25, 19W. 



206 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

oceans, our Panama list contains 43, as shown on the appended 'table of distribution. 
To these should be added the following forms, unrecorded as yet from Panama, but 
known from other localities on the Pacific Coast of North America: 

Manta birostris • Scomber colias 

Trachurus picturatus Remora albescens 

Trachurus trachurus Mola mola 
Caranx lugubris Diodon hystrix 

Thunnus thynnus Lampris luna 

Germo alalunga 

The total number of identical species which we recognize in the two faunas 
now separated by the Isthmus is therefore 54, as coraiiared with the 71 enumerated 
by Jordan (1885). It is obvious, however, that the striking resemblances between the 
two faunas are shown as well by slightly divergent as by identical species, and the 
evidence in favor of interoceanic connection is not weakened by an increase in one 
list at the expense of the other. All evidence concurs in fixing the date of that 
connection at some time prior to the Pleistocene, probably in the early Miocene. 
When geological data shall be adequate definitely to determine that date, it will give 
us the best known measure of the rate of evolution in fishes. 

Of the 82 families of fishes represented at Panama, all but 3 (Cerdalidse, 
Cirrhitidse and NematistiidiTe) occur also on the Atlantic side of Central America; 
while of the 218 genera of our Panama list, no fewer than 170 are common to both 
oceans. The well-developed families Centropomidse and Dactyloscopidfe are pecu- 
liar to the two tropical faunas now separated by the Isthmus of Panama. 

Table of Distribution. 

The following table indicates the distribution of Panama fishes, in so far as 
they have been reported from the Gulf of California, the Galapagos Islands, the 
coasts of Ecuador and Peru, and the Atlantic Ocean. For the Gulf of California, 
we have depended upon Jordan (1895 5), Evermann and Jenkins (1891), and Gill 
(1862). For the Galapagos Islands, we have at hand a manuscript list by Messrs. 
Snodgrass and Heller. Ecuador is known tons principally through the list jiublished 
by Boulenger (1898-9), and Peru through the paper by Abbott (1899a). Very few 
characteristically South American forms extend their range northward to Panama; 
and very few species from the Indo-Pacific fauna reach the continental shore-line, 
though a somewhat larger number of the latter find their way to the series of out- 
lying islands (Revillagigedos and Galapagos). 



GILBERT AND STAIlKS — FISHES OP PANAMA BAY 



207 



Panama 



Ginglymostoma cirratuni . 

Mustelus lunulatus 

Galeus dorsalis 

Galeocerdo tigrinus 

Carcharias sethalorus 

Carcharias velox 

Carcharias cerdale 

Carcharias azureus 

Scoliodon^longurio 

Sphyrna tiburo 

Sphyrna tudes 

Sphyrna zygaena 

Squalus sucklii 

Pristis zephyreus 

Rhinobatus leucorhynchus 

Zapteryx xyster 

Raja equatorialis 

Narcine entemedor 

Discopyge ommata 

Urolophus halleri 

Urolophus mundus 

Urolophus goodei 

Urolophus aspidurus 

Dasyatis longa 

Pteroplatea crebripunctata 

Aetobatus narinari 

Myliobatis asperrimus 

Felichthys panamensis 

Felichthys pinnimaculatus 
Galeichthys lentiginosus . . . 
Galeichthys peruvianus 



Gulf of 
California 


Galapagos 
Islands 


Ecuador 


Peru 


+ 




+ 




+ 








+ 






+ 


+ 








+ 








+ 








+ 








+ 


+ 






+ 








+ 








+ 








+ 








+ 








+ 




+ 




+ 


+ 






+ 








+ 








+ 








+ 




+ 


+ 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



208 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Panama 



Galeichthys eigenmanni ... 

Galeichthys jordani 

Galeichthys xenauchen 

Galeichthys guatemalensis 
Galeichthys dasycephalus .. 
Galeichthys longicephalus.. 

Sciadeichthys troscheli 

Selenaspis dowi 

Netuma kessleri 

Netuma insculpta 

Netuma planiceps 

Netuma platypogon 

Netuma oscula 

Netuma elattura 

Tachysurus steindachneri . 

Tachysurus emmelane 

Tachysurus furthii 

Tachysurus evermanni 

Tachysurus multiradiatus .. 
Cathorops hypophthalmus 

Cathorops gulosus 

Symbranchus marmoratus 

Congrellus gilberti 

Congrellus nitens 

Congrellus proriger 

Muraenesox coniceps 

Neoconger vermiformis .. 

Myrophis vafer 

Myrichthys tigrinus 

Pisoodonophis daspilotus . 
Ophichthus triserialis 



Gulf of 
California 



Galapagos 
Islands 



+ 



+ 



Ecuador 



Peru 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



GILBERT AND STAIJKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



209 



Panama 



Ophichthus zophochir 

Rabula panamensis 

Lycodontis verrilli 

Lycodontis dovii 

Miirsna clepsydra 

Muraena lentiginosa 

Elops saurus 

Albula vulpes 

Sardinella stolifera 

Opisthonema libertate 

Ilisha furthi 

Opisthopterus dovii 

Opisthopterus macrops 

Odontognathus panamensis 

Anchovia miarcha 

Anchovia ischana 

Anchovia curta 

Anchovia opercularis 

Anchovia lucida 

Anchovia rastralis 

Anchovia naso 

Anchovia starksi 

Anchovia panamensis 

Anchovia mundeola 

Anchovia spinifera 

Anchovia macrolepidota . . . . 
Cetengraulis mysticetus .... 

Cetengraulis engymen 

LycengrauHs poeyi 

Sy nodus evermanni 

Synodus scituliceps 



Gulf of 
California 



Galapagos 
Islands 



+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



Ecuador 



Peru 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 

+ 



+ 



210 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Panama 



Pcecilia elongata 

Pcecilia boucardii 

Anableps dowei 

Tylosurus scapularis 

Tylosurus stolzmanni 

Tylosurus f odiator 

Tylosurus pacificus 

Hyporhamphus unifasciatus... 

Hyporhamphus roberti 

Hemirliamphus saltator 

Fodiator acutus 

Cypselurus callopterus 

Exonautes rufipinnis 

Fistularia depressa 

Fistularia corneta 

Siphostoma auliscus 

Hippocampus ingens 

Kirtlandia pachylepis 

Kirtlandia gilberti 

Atherinella panamensis 

Mugil cephalus 

Mugil thoburni 

Mugil curema 

Mugil hospes 

Cheenomugil proboscideus 

Querimana harengus 

Sphyraena ensis 

Polydactylus approximans 

Polydactylus opercularis 

Myripristis occidentalis 

Myripristis poecilopus 

*San LulB QoDzales Bay (Albatross). 



Gulf of 
California 



+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 

+ * 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



Galapagos 
Islands 



+ 



+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 




+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 





Ecuador 



Peru 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



GILBERT AND ST AKKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



211 



Panama 



Holocentrus suborbitalis 

Upeneus grandisquamis 

Sarda chilensis 

Scomberomorus sierra 

Trichiurus lepturus . 

Nematistius pectoralis 

Oligoplites saurus 

Oligoplites altus 

Oligoplites refulgens 

Oligoplites niundus 

Trachurops crumenophthalmus 

Hemicaranx atrimanus 

Hemicaranx zelotes 

Hemicaranx furthii 

Hemicaranx leucurus 

Caranx vinctus 

Caranx hippos 

Caranx caballus 

Caranx marginatus 

Gnathanodon speciosus 

Citula dorsalis 

Alectis ciliaris 

Vomer setipinnis 

Selene cerstedii 

Selene vomer 

Chloroscombrus orqueta 

Trachinotus rhodopus 

Trachinotus culveri 

Trachinotus kennedyi 

Trachinotus paloma 

Nomeus gronovii 



Gulf of 
California 



Galapagos 
Islands 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



Ecuador 



Peru 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 



212 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Panama 



Peprilus palometa 

Peprilus snyderi 

Peprilus medius 

Apogon dovii 

Centroponius undecimalis .. 

Centropomus nigrescens 

Centroponius pedimacula.. . . 

Centropomus unionensis 

Centropomus armatus 

Centropomus robalito 

Petrometopon panamensis . 

Epinephelus analogus 

Epinephelus labriformis 

Promicrops guttatus 

Alphestes multiguttatus .... 
Mycteroperca boulengeri... 
Hypoplectrus lamprurus . . . . 

Paralabrax humc-ralis 

Diplectrum radiale 

Diplectrum macropoma .... 
Diplectrum euryplectrum.. . 

Prionodes fasciatus 

Paranthias furcifer 

Rhegma tliaumasium 

RypticuB nigripinnis 

Lobotes pacificus 

Pseudopriacanthus serrula 
Hoplopagrus gueiitlieri ... 

Lutianus jordani 

Lutianus novemfasciatus . . . 
Lutianus argent! ventris 



Gulf of 
California 



Galapagos 
Islands 



+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 

+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 



Ecuador 



Peru 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



GILBERT AND ST ARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



213 



Panama 



Lutianus Colorado 

Lutianus guttatiis 

Lutianus aratus 

Rabirubia inermis 

Xenichthys xanti 

HKmuIon scudderi 

Htemulon steindachneri 

Lythrulon flaviguttatuni 

Orthostcechus maculicauda . . 

Anisotremus pacifici 

Anisotremus csesius 

Anisotremus dovii 

Anisotremus interruptus 

Anisotremus taeniatus 

Brachydeuterus nitidus 

Brachydeuterus leuciscus .. . . 

Pomadasis panamensis 

Pomadasis bayanus 

Pomadasis macracanthus .... 

Pomadasis branicki 

Orthopristis chalceus 

Orthopristis brevipinnis 

Calamus brachysomus 

Eucinostomus californiensis 

Xystsema cinereum 

Gerres aureolus 

Gerres peruvianus 

Gerres brevimanus 

Kyphosus elegans 

Sectator ocyurus 

Isopisthus remifer 



Gulf of 
California 



Galapagos 
Islands 



+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



Ecuador 



+ 



Peru 



+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 



+ 



+ 



(28) 



January 2C, 1901. 



214 



CALIPOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Panama 



Cynoscion prsedatorius 

Cynoscion squamipinnis ... 
Cynoscion othonopterus . . . 

Cynoscion reticulatiis 

Cynoscion albus 

Cynoscion stolzmanni 

Cynoscion phoxocephalus 

Sagenichthys mordax 

Nebris occidentalis 

Larimus argenteus 

Larimus effulgens 

Larimus acclivis 

Larimus pacificus 

Odontoscion xanthops 

Corvula macrops 

Elattarclius archidium 

Bairdiella ensifera 

Bairdiella armata 

Bairdiella chrysoleuca 

Stellifer oscitans 

Stellifer furtlii , 

Stellifer illecebrosus 

Stellifer ericymba 

Stellifer zestocanis 

Ophioscion typicus 

Ophioscion simulus 

Ophioscion strabo 

Ophioscion imiceps 

Ophioscion scierus 

Sigmurus vermicularis 

Sciasna deliciosa 



Gulf of 
California 



Galapagos Ecuador Peru I ^^Jf "''^ 
Islands i Ocean 



+ 

+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



GILI5EKT AND STARKS— FISHES OF PANAMA liAY 



215 



Panama 



Micropogon altipinnis 

Umbrina xanti 

Umbrina dorsalis 

Ak-nticirrhus nasus 

Menticirrhus panamensis 

Menticirrhiis elongatus 

Polyclemus dumeiili 

Polyclemus rathbiini 

Polyclemus goodei 

Paralonchurus petersi 

Equcs \'iola 

Ciri'liites rivulatus 

Chromis atrilobatus 

Pomacentrus rectifnunum 

Pomacentrus gilli 

Pomacentrus flavilatiis 

Nexilarius concolor 

Glyphisodon saxatilis 

Microspathodon dorsalis . 

Harpe diplotsenia 

Halichaeres sellifer 

Halichteres macgregori . 

Halichteres dispilus 

Pseudojulis notospikis 

Thalassoma lucasanum... 
Pseudoscarus perrico .... 
Chaetodipterus zonatus... 
Parapsettus panamensis . 
Chaetodon nigrirostris.... 

Chtetodon humeralis 

Pomacantlius zonipectus 



Gulf of 
California 



+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



Galapagos e^^^^^i^. 
Islands 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



Peru 



+ 

+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 



2i6 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCtENCE^ 



Panama 



Holacanthus passer 

Teuthis crestonis 

Balistes polylepis 

Balistes naufragium 

Balistes verres 

Xesurus hopkinsi 

Spheroides angusticeps 

Spheroides lobatus 

Spheroides testudineus 

Spheroides annulatus 

Spheroides furthii 

Guentheridia formosa 

Tetraodon hispidus 

Eumycterias punctatissimus., 

Diodon holacanthus 

Scorpana histrio 

Scorpsena pannosa 

Scorpaena mystes 

Scorptena russula 

Prionotus xenisma 

Prionotus loxias 

Prionotus quiescens 

Prionotus albirostris 

Prionotus horrens 

Prionotus ruscarius 

Philypnus lateralis 

Dormitator maculatus 

Eleotris pictus 

Alexurus armiger 

Gymneleotris seminudus ... 

Gobius soporator 

Gobionellus sagittula 



Gulf of 
California 



Galapagos 
Islands 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 



Ecuador 



+ 



Peru 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



GILBERT AND STARRS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



217 



Panama 



Gobionellus microdon 

Garmaiinia paradoxa 

Enypnias semiiiudus 

BoIImannia clilaniydes 

Aboma liicretia; 

Microgobius emblematicus 

Microgobius miraflorensis 

Evermannia zosterura 

Evermannia panamensis 

Tyntlastes brevis 

Echeneis naucrates 

Remora remora 

Opisthognathus punctatuni 

Dactyloscopus zelotes 

Kathetostoma averruncus 

Batrachoides pacifici 

Batrachoides boulengeri 

Porichthys margaritatus 

Porichthys greenei 

Thalassophryne reticulata 

Thalassophry ne dowi 

Gobiesox rhodospilus 

Malacoctenus delalandi 

Mnierpes macrocephalus 

Auchenopterus monophthalmus 

Hypsoblennius piersoni 

Hypsoblennius striatus 

Hypsoblennius brevipinnis 

Homesthes caulopus 

Scartichthys rubropunctatus ... 

Rupiscartes atlanticus 

Emblemaria nivipes 



Gulf of 
California 



Galapagos 
Islands 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



Ecuador 



Peru 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 

+ 



2ia 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Panar 



Microdesnius dipus 

Microdesmus retropinnis .... 

Cei'dale ionthas 

Lepophidium prorates 

Otophidium iiidefatigabile ., 

Fierasfer dubius 

Ogilbia ventralis 

Bregmaceros macclellandi .. 

Hippoglossina bollmani 

Paralichthys woolmanni 

Ancylopsetta dendritica 

Platophrys constellatus 

Engyophrys sancti-laurentii 

Syacium latifrons 

Syacium ovale 

Cyclopsetta querna 

Azevia panamensis 

Citharichthys platophrys .... 

Citharichthys gilbert! 

Etropus crossotus 

Achirus klunzingeri 

Achirus fonsecensis 

Achirus scutum 

Symphurus atramentatus .... 

Symphurus elongatus 

Symphurus atricaudus 

Symphurus leei 

Lophiomus caulinaris 

Antennarius strigatus 

Antennarius sanguineus 

Zalieutes elater 



Gulf of Galapagos 
California Islands 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 



Ecuador 



Peru 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



+ 



+ 



+ 



BtKT. TOGK Am V 



1S40-42. Jenvns, L. The zooloujy of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle, under the command of 
Captain Fitzroy, R. N., during the years 1832 to 1836. F"ish. 1840-42. 

i86o<?. Gill, Theodore. Monograph of the genus Lahrosomus Sw. Proc. Acad. Nat. Set. 
Phil., i860, pp. 102-108. 

\Zbob. Gill, Theodore. Monogrd|)h of the P/ii/jpni. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., i860, 
p|). 120-126. 

i86irt. Gill, Theodore. Description of a new species of the genus Anableps of Gronovius. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1861, pp. 3-6. 

i86i(5. Gill, Theodore. Synopsis generuni Rhyiici et affinium. Ptoc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
1861, pp. 52-54. 

i86if. Gill, Theodore. On several new generic types of fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil , 
1861, pp. 77-78. 

i86i(r'. Gill, Theodore. Monograph of the Tridigitate Uranoscopoids. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., 1861, pp. 263-271. 

i86ifl!. Gunther, Albert. On a collection of fishes sent by Captain Dow from the Pacific coast 
of Central America. Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1861, pp. 370-376. 

iS6ii5. Gunther, Albert. Catalogue of the Acanthopterygian Fishes of the British Museum, 
Vol. III. 

1861. Dow, John M. [Letter concerning A)iablcps dowei.} Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, 

p. 30. 

1862. Gill, Theodore. Catalogue of the fishes of Lower California in the Smithsonian Insti- 

tution, collected by Mr. J. Xantus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1862. Part I, 
pp. 140-151; Part II, pp. 242 246; Part III, pp. 249-262. 

1862. Gunther, Albert. Catalogue of the fishes of the British Museum. Vol. IV. 

1863a. Gill, Theodore. Description of some new species of Pediculati, and on the classifica- 
tion of the group. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1863, pp. 88-92. 

1863/^. Gill, Theodore. Descriptive enumeration of a collection of fishes from the western 
coast of Central America, presented to tiie Smithsonian Institution by Captain John 
M. Dow. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1863, pp. 162-174. 

1864. Kner, Rudolf, and Steindachner, F'ranz. Neue Gattungen und Arten von Fischen 

aus Central-Amerika. Abhandl. k. bayer. Akad. Wissen., Vol. X, 1864, pp. 1-61. 

1864a. Gunther, Albert. Catalogue of the fishes of the British Museum, Vol. V. 

1864A. Gunther, Albert. On some nevy species of Central American fishes. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1864, pp. 23-27. Also, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Sen, Vol. XIV, 1864, 

pp. 221-2T,2. 

i864f. Gunther, Albert. Rei)ort of a collection of fishes made by Messrs Dow, Godman 
and Salvin in Guatemala. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lund., 1864, pp. 144-154, 



220 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

i86^d. GuNTHER, Albert. On a poison-organ in a genus of Batrachoid fishes. Proc. Zoo/. 
Soc. Lo7id., 1864, pp. 155-158. 

1865. Gill, Theodore. On a new generic type of sharks. Proc. Acad. Nat. Set. Phil., 

1865, p. 177. 

1865. Dow, John M. [Letter concerning examples of Thalassophryne obtained at Panama.] 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lo7id., 1865, p. 677. 

i866«. GiJNTHER, Albert. Catalogue of the fishes of the British Museum, Vol. VI. 

i9,66b. GtTNTHER, Albert. Memoir on the fishes of the states of Central America. Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Land., 1866, pp. 600-604. 

i858. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Notizen (VII). Sitsb. k. Akad. Wissen. Wien , 

Vol. LVII, 1868, pp. 965-1008. 

1868a. BocouRT, M. F. Note sur des poissons Percoides appartenant au genre Cenlropome, 

provenant du Me-xique et de I'Amerique Centrale. Ayin. Sci. Nat., 5th Ser. , Vol. 
IX, 1868, pp. 90-91. 

i868ii'. BocoURT, M. F. Descriptions de quelques Acanthopterygiens nouveaux appartenant au 

genre Serran et Mesoprion, recueillis dans I'Amerique Centrale. Ann. Sci. Nat., 
Vol. IX, 1868, pp. 222-224. 

1869. Gunther, Albert. An account of the fishes of the states of Central America, based on 

collections made by Captain J. M. Dow, F. Godman, Esq., and O. Salvin, Esq. 
Trans. Zool. Soc. Land., 1869, pp. 377-494. 

1869. Peters, W. Neue oder weniger bekannte Fische des Berliner Zoologischen Museums. 

Monatsber. Konigl. Akad. IVisscfi. Berlin, 1869, pp. 703-711. 

1869. BocouRT, M. Descriptions de quelques reptiles et poissons nouveaux appartenant a la 

faune tropicale de I'Amerique. Poissons de la famille des Scienoides. Noiiv. Arch, 
du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. V, 1869, pp. 21-24. 

1870a. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Notizen (VIII). Sitzb. k. Akad. Wissen. Wien, 
Vol. LX, 1869 (1870), pp. 120-139. 

18703. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Notizen (IX). III. Uber einige neue oder seltene 
Arten von Mazatlan, Lagos und Santos. Sitzb. k. Acad. Wissen. Wien, Vol. LX, 
1869 (1870), pp. 305-315. 

1870^. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Notizen (X). Sitzb. k. Acad. Wissen. Wien, Vol. 
LXI', 1870, pp. 623-642. 

1870. Gunther, A. Catalogue of the fishes of the British Museum, Vol. VIII. 

1871. Cope, E. D. Contribution to the ichthyology of the Lesser Antilles. Trans. Am. Phil. 

Soc, Vol. XIV, 1871, pp. 445-483. 

1874. Putnam, F. W. Notes on Ophidiidae and Fierasferidae, with descriptions of new species 

from America and the Mediterranean. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1874, pp. 339- 
348. 

1874. Vaillant, L., and BOCOURX, M. Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans I'Amerique 

Centrale. 4th part, fltudes sur les poissons, 1874. 

1875a. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Beitrage (I). Sitzb. k. Akad. Wissen. Wien, Vol. 
LXX, 1874(1875), pp. 375-390. 

1S75/5. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Beitrage (II). Sitzb. k. Akad. Wissen. Wiett, 
Vol. LXXI, 1875, pp. 443-480. 

1876a. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Beitrage (III). Sitzb. k. Akad. Wissen. Wien, 
Vol. LXXII, 1875 (1876), pp. 29-96. 



GILBERT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 221 

18761$. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Beitrajje (IV). Sitsb. k. Akad. Wissen. IVien, 
Vol. LXXII, 1875 (1876), pp. 551-616. 

1S77. Speindachner, F. Ichthyologische Beitrage (V). Si/si. k. Akad. Wissen. Wien, 

Vol. LXXIV, 1S76 (1877), pp. 49-240. 

1877. Streets, T. H. Contributions to the natural history of the Hawaiian Islands and Fanning 

Islands and Lower California. Fishes of Upper and Lower California. Bull. U. S. 

Nat. A/us., No. 7, 1877, pp. 43-56. 

1877. Gill, Theodore. Synopsis of the fishes of Lake Nicaragua. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phil., 1877, pp. 175-191. 

1878. Steindachner, P\ Ichthyologische Beitrage (VI). Sitzb. k. Akad. Wissen. Wien,Vo\. 

LXXVII, 1878, pp. 379-392. 

1879a. Steindachner, F. Ueber einige neue und seltene Fisch-arten aus den k. k. Zoologisch- 
• en Museen zu Wien, Stuttgart und Warschau. V. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der 

Meeresfische Siid-Amerika's. Denkschr. k. Akad. Wissen. Wien, Vol. XLI, 1879, 
pp. 28-44. 

1879^. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Beitrage (VII). Sitzb. k. Akad. Wissen. Wien, 
Vol. LXXVIII, 1878 (1879), pp. 377-400. 

i879f. Steindachner, F. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Flussfische Sudamerika's. II. Ueber 
eine Samnilung von Fischen aus dem Mamoni-Flusse bei Chepo. Denkschr. k. Akad. 
Wissen. Wien, Vol. XLI, 1879, pp. 159-169. 

1880. LocKiNGTON, W. N. Description of a new Sparoid fish {Spams brachysontus), from 

Lower California. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,Vo\. Ill, 1880, pp. 284-286. 

iSSoa. Steindachner, F. Zur Fisch-fauna des Cauca und der Fliisse bei Guayaquil. Denksch. 
k. Akad. IVissen. Wien, Vol. XLII, 1880, pp. 55-104. 

i88o3. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Beitrage (VIII). Sitzb. k. Akad. Wissen. Wien, 
Vol. LXXX, 1879 (1880), pp. 119-191. 

1881. LocKiNGTON, W. N. List of the fishes collected by Mr. W. J. Fisher upon the coasts of 

Lower California, 1876-77, with descriptions of new species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., 1 88 1, pp. 113- 1 20. 

1881. Steindachner, F. Ichthyologische Beitrage (X). Sitzb. k. Akad. Wissen. Wiefi, Vol. 

LXXXIII, 1881, pp. 179-219. 

i88irt. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Notes on a collection of fishes made by Lieut. 
Henry E. Nichols, U. S. N., on the west coast of Mexico, with descriptions of new 
species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV, 1881, pp. 225-233. 

i88i($. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. List of fishes collected by Lieut. Henry E. Nichols, 
U. S. N. , in the Gulf of California and on the west coast of Lower California, with 
descriptions of four new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV, 1881, pp. 273-279. 

i88if. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Descriptions of thirty-three new species of fishes 
from Mazatlan, Me.xico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV, 1881, pp. 338-365. 

i88i(5^. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Description of a new species of Pomadasys from 
Mazatlan, with a key to the species known to inhabit the Pacific coasts of tropical 
America. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV, 1881, pp. 383-388. 

i88i<'. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Description of a new species of Xenichthys 
{Xenichtliys xenurus) from the west coast of Central America. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Vol. IV, 1 88 1, p. 454. 

(29) Jauuary 28, 1904. 



222 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

i88iy. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Description of five new species of fishes from 
Mazatlan, Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV, 1881, pp. 458-463. 

1S82. . Gilbert, C. H. List of fishes observed at Punta Arenas, on the Pacific coast of Central 
America. Bull. U. S- Fish Com., Vol. II, 1882, p. 112. 

i882«. Jordan, D. S. , and Gilbert, C. H. Descriptions of nineteen new species of fishes from 
the Bay of Panama. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., Vol. I, 1881 (1882), pp. 306-335. 

i882i5. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. A review of the Siluroid fishes found on the Pacific 
coast of tropical America, with descriptions of three new species. Bull. U. S. Fish 
Com., Vol. II, 1882, pp. 34-54. 

i882r. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. List of fishes collected at Mazatlan, Mexico, by 
Charles H. Gilbert. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., Vol. II, 1882, pp. 105-108. 

i882fl'. Jordan, D. S. , and Gilbert, C. H. List of fishes collected at Panama by Charles H. 
Gilbert. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., Vol. II, 1882, pp. 109-111. 

1882^. Jordan, D. S. , and Gilbert, C. H. Descriptions of four new species of sharks, from 
Mazatlan, Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V, 1882, pp. 102-110. 

1882/. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Description of a new species of Conodon (^Conodon 
serrifer) from Boca Soledad, Lower California. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V, 1882, 
PP- 351-352. 

i882_f. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Catalogue of the fishes collected by Mr. John 
Xantus at Cape San Lucas, which are now in the U. S. National Museum, with 
descriptions of eight new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V, 1882, pp. 353-371. 

1882/;. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. List of fishes collected by Mr. John Xantus at 
Colima, Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V, 1882, pp. 371-372. 

1882/. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. List of fishes collected at Panama by Capt. John 
M. Dow, now in the United States National Museum. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Vol. V, 1882, pp. 373-378. 

i882/('. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. List of a collection of fishes made by Mr. L. 
Belding near Cape San Lucas, Lower California. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V, 
1882, pp. 378-381. 

1882/. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. List of fishes collected at Panama by Rev. Mr. 
Rowell, now preserved in the United States National Museum. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Vol. V, 1882, pp. 381-382. 

i882/«. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Description of a new species of Urolophus 
(Urolophus asterias) from Mazatlan and Panama. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V, 
1882, pp. 579-580. 

i882«. Jordan, D. S. , and Gilbert, C. H. List of fishes now in the Museum of Yale College, 
collected by Professor Frank H. Bradley, at Panama, with descriptions of three new 
species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V, 1882, pp. 620-632. 

1882^7. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Descriptions of two new species of fishes {Myrophis 
vafer and Chloroscombrus orqueia) from Panama. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V, 
1882, pp. 645-647. 

1S82/. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Description of a new eel {Sidera caslauea^ from 
Mazatlan, Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V, 1882, pp. 647648. 

1883. Jordan, D. S. Notes on the American fishes preserved in the Museums of Berlin, 

London, Paris and Copenhagen. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, 1883, pp. 281-293. 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 223 

1883. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Description of a new species ol Rhinobahis {Rhino- 

batus glaucosligma) from Mazatlan, Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nal. Mus., Vol. VI, 1883, 
pp. 210-211. 

1884. Grant, W. R. Ogilvie- A revision of the fishes of the genera Sicydium and Lentipes, 

with descriptions of five new species. Proc. Zool. Soc. Land., 1884, pp. 153-172. 

1884. Jordan, D. S. Notes on the fishes collected at Guaymas, Mexico, by Mr. H. F. Emeric, 

with a description of Gobiosoma histrio, a new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Miis., 
Vol. VII, 1884, PP- 260-261. 

1884. Jordan, D. S. , and Gilbert, C. H. Description of Scicena sclera, a new species of 

Scicena from Mazatlan and Panama. Proc. U. S. Nat. li/iis., Vol. VII, 1884, pp. 480- 
482. 

1884a. Jordan, D. S., and Swain, Joseph. A review of the American species of Epinephelus 
and related genera. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. VII, 1884, pp. 358-410. 

1884/^. Jordan, D. S., and Swain, Joseph. A review of the species of Lutjaninae and Hop- 
lopagrinae found in American waters. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.., Vol. VII, 1884, 
pp. 427-474. 

1S84. Meek, Seth E. A review of the American species of the genus Synodus. Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phil., 1884, pp. 130-136. 

1884a. Meek, S. E., and Newland, R. G. A review of the American species of the genus 
Sphyrcena. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1884, pp. 67-75. 

1884^. Meek, S. E., and Newland, R. G. A review of the American ^^&c\&s oi Scomberomorus. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1884, pp. 232-235. 

1884. Meek, S. E., and Hoffman, M. L. A review of the American species of the genus 

Teuthis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1884, pp. 227-231. 

i884rt. Meek, S. E., and Goss, D. K. A review of the American species of the genus 
Trachynotus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1884, pp. 121- 129. 

18841^. Meek,.S. E. , and Goss, D. K. A review of the American species of Hemirhamplnis. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1884, pp. 221-226. 

1884. FoRDiCE, M. W. A review of the American species of Stromateidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phil., 1884, pp. 311-317. 

1885. Meek, S. E., and Hall, E. A. A review of the American genera and species of 

Batrachidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1885, pp. 52-62. 

1885. Hall, E. A., and Mc Caughan, J. Z. A. A review of the American genera and species 

of Mullidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1885, pp. 149-155. 

1885. Jordan, D. S. A list of the fishes known from the Pacific coast of tropical America, 

from the Tropic of Cancer to Panama. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. VIII, 1885, 
pp. 361-394. 

1885. Eigenmann, C. H., and Fordice, M. W. A review of the American Eleotridinae. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1885, pp. 66-80. 

1885. Garman, S. Notes and descriptions taken from Selachians in the U. S. National 

Museum. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. VIII, 1885, pp. 39-44. 

1886. Jordan, D. S., and Edwards, C. L. A review of the American species of Tetraodon- 

tidae. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IX, 1886, pp. 230-247. 

1886. Jordan, D. S. , and Hughes, Elizabeth G. A review of the species of the genus 

Prionotus. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IX, 1886, pp. 327-338. 



224 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 01' SCIENCES 

1886. EvERMANN, B. W,, and Meek, S. E. A revision of the American species of the genus 

Gerres. Pioc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1886, pp. 256-272. 

1887. Jordan, D. S., and Gilbert, C. H. Description of a new species of Thalassophryme 

{Thalassophryne dowi) from Punta Arenas and Panama. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Vol. X, 1887, p. 388. 

1888. EiGENMANN, C. H., and EiGENMANN, R. S. A list of the American species of Gobiidse 

and Callionymidae, with notes on the specimens contained in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, at Cambridge, Massachusetts. Proc. Cat. Acad. Sci., 2nd Ser., 
Vol. I, 1888, pp. 51-78. 

1888-89. EiGENMANN, C. H., and Eigenmann, R. .S. Preliminary notes on South American 
Nematognathi, I, II. Proc. Cat. Acad. Sci., 2nd Ser., Vol. I, 1888, pp. 119-172; Vol. 
II, i88g, pp. 28-56. 

1888. Jordan, D. S. List of fishes collected by Alphonse Forrer about Mazatlan, with descrip- 

tions of two new species — Heros bcani and Poecilia butleri. Proc. U. S- Nat. Mus., 
Vol. II, 1888, pp. 329-334- 

1888. Jenkins, O. P., and Evermann, B. W. Descriptions of eighteen new species of fishes 

from the Gulf of California. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. II, 1888, pp. 137-158- 

1889. Morrison, W. L. A review of the American species of Priacanthidee. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phil., 1889, pp. 159-163. 

1889. KiRSCH, P. H. A review of the European and American Uranoscopidae or Star-gazers. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1S89, pp. 258-265. 

1889. Jordan, D. S., and Bollman, C. H. Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at 

the Galapagos Islands and along ^the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887- 
88. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII, 1S89, pp. 149-183. 

1889. Jordan, D. S., and Eigenmann, C. H. A review of the Sciaenidte of America and 

Europe. Reft. U. S. Com'r Fish and Fisheries, 1886 (1889), pp. 343-451. 

1889. Jordan, D. S., and Goss, D. K. A review of the flounders and soles (Pleuronectidae) 

of America and Europe. Rep' t. U. S. Com'r Fish and Fisheries, 1886 (1889), 
pp. 225-342. 

1890. Jordan, D. S., and Eigenmann, C. H. A review of the genera and species of Serran- 

idje found in the waters of America and Europe. Bull. U. S. Fish Com.,Vo\. VIII, 
1888 (1890), pp. 329-433- 
1890. Kirsch, P. H. A review of the American species of Thread-fins (Polynemida;). Attn. 

N. V. Acad. Sci., Vol. V, 1890, pp. 231-236. 

1890a. Gilbert, C. H. A preliminary report on the fishes collected by the steamer Albatross 
on the Pacific coast of North America during the year 1889, with descriptions of 
twelve new genera and ninety-two new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Jllus., Vol. XIII, 
1890, pp. 49-126. 

i?,gob. Gilbert, C. H. A supplementary list of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and 
Panama, with descriptions of one new genus and three new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mies., Vol. XIII, 1890, pp. 449-455. 

1890. Eigenmann, C. H., and Eigenmann, R. S. A revision of the South American Nema- 

tognathi or cat-fishes. Occas. Papers, Cal. Acad. Sci., I, 1890. 

1891. Jordan, D. S. A review of the Labroid fishes of America and Europe. Rep't. U. S. 

Com'r Fish and Fisheries, 1887 (1891), pp. 599-699. 

1891a. Gilbert, C. H. Description of Apodal fishes from the tropical Pacific. Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, 1891, pp. 347-552. 



GILBERT AND STAEKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 225 

iSgii^. Gilbert, C. H. Description of thirty-four new species of fishes collected in 1888 and 
1889, principally among the Santa Barbara Islands and in the Gulf of California. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. A/us., Vol. XIV, 1891, pp. 539-566. 

1891. EvERMANN, B. W., and Jenkins, O. P. Report upon a collection of fishes made at 

Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, with descriptions of new species. Proc. U. S. Naf. Mus., 
Vol. XIV, 1891, pp. 121-165. 

1892. Jordan, D. S., and Davis, B. M. A preliminary review of the Apodal fishes or eels 

inhabiting the waters of America and Europe. Rep' t U. S. Com' r Fish and Fish- 
eries, 1888 (1892), pp. 581-677. 

1893. Jordan, D. S., and Fesler, B. A review of the Sparoid fishes of America and Europe. 

Rep' t U. S. Com' r Fish and Fisheries, 1 889-1 891 (1893), pp. 421-544. 

1894. Vaillant, Leon. Sur une collection de poissons recueillis en Basse-Californie et dans 

le Golfe par M. Leon Diguet. Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, 3rd Sen, Vol. VI, 1894, 
pp. 2-8. 

1894. Eigenmann, C. H. Notes on some South American fishes. Aim. N. V. Acad. Sci., 

Vol. VII, 1894, pp. 625-637. 

iSgsa. Jordan, D. S. Description of Evcrmannia, a new genus of Gobioid fishes. Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci., 2nd Ser., Vol. IV, 1892-1894 (1895), p. 592. 

1895^. Jordan, D. S. The fishes of Sinaloa. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2nd Ser., Vol. V, 1895, 
PP- 378-514- 

1895. Boulenger, G. a. Catalogue of the Perciform fishes in the British Museum, Vol. I. 

1895. Faxon, Walter. Reports of an exploration ofT the west coasts of Mexico, Central and 

South America, and off the Galapagos Islands, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, by 
the U. S. Fish Commission Steamer "Albatross", during 1891, Lieut.- Commander 
Z. L. Tanner, commanding. XV. The Stalk-eyed Crustacea. Mem. Mus. Camp. 
Zool. Harvard College, Vol. XVIII, 1895, pp. 1-292. 

1895. Gregory, J. W. Contributions to the Palaeontology and Physical Geology of the West 

Indies. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Vol. LI, 1895, pp. 255-312. 

1896. Jordan, D. S. Notes on fishes, little known or new to science. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 

2nd Ser., Vol. VI, 1896, pp. 201-244. 

1S96. Jordan, D. S., and Starks, E. C. Description of a new species of Pipe-fish {Siphosto7na 

si7ialocB) from Mazatlan. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2nd Ser., Vol. VI, 1896, p. 268. 

1896. Jordan, D. S., and Evermann, B. W. The fishes of North and Middle America. Part 

I. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 47. 

1896. Gilbert, C. H. Descriptions of twenty-two new species of fishes collected by the 

steamer Albatross, of the United States Fish Commission. Proc. U. S. Nat. ]\Ius., 
Vol. XIX, 1896, pp. 437-457. 

1896. RuTTER, Cloudsley. Notes on fresh-water fishes of the Pacific Slope of North Amer- 

ica. III. Note on a collection of fishes made in streams near Cape San Lucas by 
Dr. Gustav Eisen. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2nd Ser., Vol. VI, 1896, pp. 263-266. 

1898. Evermann, B. W. Notes on fishes collected by E. W. Nelson on the Tres Marias 

Islands and in Sinaloa and Jalisco, Mexico. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., Vol. XII, 1898, 
PP- 1-3- 

1898. Jordan, D. S., and Evermann, B. W. The fishes of North and Middle America. 

Parts II and III. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 47. 

1898. Ogilby, J. Douglas- New genera and species of fishes. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 

Vol. XXVIII, 1898, pp. 280-299. 



226 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

1898-9. BouLENGER, G. A. Viaggio del Dr. Enrico Festa nel I'Ecuador e regione vicine. Pois- 
sons de I'Equateur. Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. comp. Torino, Vol. XIII, 1898, pp. 
1-13; Vol. XIV, 1899, pp. 1-8- 

1899. Greene, C. W. The phosphorescent organs in the Toad-fish Porichthys notatus Girard. 

Journ. Morph., Vol. XV, 1899, pp. 667-696. 

1899. Jordan, D. S., and McGregor, R. C. List of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo 

Archipelago and neighboring islands. Rep' t U. S. Corn r Fish and Fisheries, 1898 
(1899), pp. 273-284. 

1899. Garman, Samuel. Reports of an exploration off the west coasts of Mexico, Central and 

South America, and off the Galapagos Islands, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, by 
the U. S. Fish Commission steamer "Albatross," during 1891, Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Z. L. Tanner, U. S. N., commanding. XXVI. The Fishes. Metn. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. Harvard College, Vol. XXIV, 1889, pp. 1-431. 

1899. Boulenger, G. a. Viaggio del Dott. Enrico Festa nel Darien e regioni vicine. Pois- 

sons de I'Am^rique Centrale. Boll. Zool. Anat. comp. Torino, Vol. XIV, 1899, 
pp. 1-4. 

1899a. Abbott, J. F. The marine fishes of Peru. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1899, pp. 324-364. 

i899(J. Abbott, J. F. Notes on Chilean fishes, with description of a new species of Sebastodes. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1899, pp. 475-477. 

1900. Jordan, D. S., and Evermann, B. W. The fishes of North and Middle America. 

Part IV. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 47. 

1901a. Pellegrin, J. Poissons recueillis par M. L. Diguet dans le Golfe de Californie. Bttll. 
Mus. d' Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, pp. 160-167. 

1901^. Pellegrin, J. Poissons recueillis par M. L. Diguet dans I'Etat de Jalisco. Bull. Mus. 
d' Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, pp. 204-207. 

1903. Heller, E., and Snodgrass, R. E. Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos 

Expedition, 1898-1899. XV. New fishes. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., Vol. V, 1903, 
pp. 189-229. 



O-^ 228 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE L 

PAGE 

Figs. I, \a. Mustehis lunulaius Jordan & Gilbert. Panama. 5 

Figs. 2, ia. Gaines dorsalis Gill. Panama. 7 

F'gs. 3, 2,a. Carcharias velox Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 9 



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230 CALIFOKMIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



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Figs. 4, 4<i. Carcharias cerdale Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. lo 

Figs. 5, 5a. Carcharias azureus Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 11 





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232 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IIL 

PAGE 

Fio-. 6. Myliobatis asperrimus Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 19 



234 " CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 

PAGE 

Fig. 7. Galeichthys xenauchen Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 24 

Fig, 8. Galeichthys eigenmanni Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 21 



MEMams CAL.Ai:AD.ScLVaLlV, 



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236 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



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Fig-, g. Tachysurus steindachneri Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 29 

Fig. 10. Tachysurus evermatmi Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 32 



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238 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VL 

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Figs. II, Jiij. Tachysurus emmelane Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 31 



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240 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

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Fig. 12. Pisoodonophis daspilotus Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 36 

Fig. 13 Murcena clepsydra Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 38 




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242 CALIFOKNIA. ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIIL 

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Fig. 14. Anchovia ras/ralis Gilbert & Pierson. Type specimen; Panama. 42 

Fig. 15. Anchovia spinifera Cuvier & Valenciennes. Panama. 46 



244 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 

PAGE 

Fig. i6. Hetnirhamphus saltator GILBERT & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 53 

Fig. 17. Atherinella panamensis Steindachner. Panama. 59 



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246 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE X 

PAGE 

Figs. i8, iSa. Fistularia corneta Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 56 



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248 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 

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Fig. 19. Oligoplites refiilgeyis Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 73 

Fig. 20. Oligoplites alius GtJNTHER. Panama. 72 









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254 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



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Fig. 28. Lobotes pacificiis Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 100 

Fig. 29. Lutianus jordayii Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 102 






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256 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 

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Fig. 30. Orlhoprisds brevipinnis Steindachner. Panama. 11 1 

Fig. 31. Rhegma thaumasium Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 99 



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258 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVL 

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Fig. 32. Sagenichlhys niordax Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 121 

Fig. 33. Larimus effulgens Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 123 



260 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIL 

PAGE 

Fig. 34. Laiimus acdivis Jordan & Bristol. Panama. 124 

Fig- 35- Odontoscion xanthops Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 124 



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262 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



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Fig. 36. Stellifer illecebrostcs Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 128 

Fig. 37. Stellifer zesiocarus Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 129 



264 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX. 

PAGE 

Fig. 38. Ophioscion simuhis Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 130 

Fig. 39. Ophioscioji scierus Jordan & Gilbert. Panama. ' 131 




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266 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX. 

PAGE 

Figs. 40, /\.oa. Polyclemiis goodei Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 135 

Fig. 41. Parol onchnrics petersi BocouRT. Panama. 136 



268 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXL 

PAGE 

Fig. 42. Eques viola Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 138 

Fig. 43. Cliroinis atrilobatus Gill. Panama. 139 








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270 CALIFOIiNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



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Fig. 44. Pomaccntrus gilli Gilbert & Stakks. Type specimen; Panama. 141 



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a 




272 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIIL 

PAGE 

Fig. 45. Halichceres macgregori Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 145 

Fig. 46. Eumycterias punctaiissimus Gunther. Panama. 160 



274 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV. 
Fig. 47. Chcetodon tiigrirosiris Gill. Panama. 148 



I'AUE 



^raVRttliMl'filMiri™,,..; ._. 




276 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXV. 

PAGB 

Fig. 48. Xcsurus hopkinsi Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 155 






K 
W 
PQ 




278 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVL 

PAOE 

Fig. 49. Ba/istes verres Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 153 



is: 







280 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIL 

PAGE 

Figs. 50, 50a. Prionolui ncscariits Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen: Panama. 165 



282 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIIL 

PAGE 

Fig. 51. GobioncUus nikrodon Gilbert. Panama. 171 

Fig. 52. Gannannia paradoxa GiiNTHER. Panama. 172 



m 

PC 
t — I 
□ 





284 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIX. 

PAGE 

Fig. 53. Enypnias scniiiiudux Gunther. Panama. 173 

Fig. 54. Microgobiiis miraflorensis Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 176 



E 
3 

S 
u 








286 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX. 

PAGE 

Fig". 55. Evermayinia panamensis Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 179 

Fig. 56. Porkhthys grecnci Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama, 184 



X 

X 

w 



on 

H 

ra 
d 



□ 

> 

U 

Ln 



tn 
CK 

»— I 

□ 

u 





288 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXL 

PAGE 

F'gs- 57> 57«- Batrachoides boulengeri Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 182 

Fig. 58. Cerdale ionthas Jordan & Gilbert. Panama. 196 

Fig- 59- Microdesmus retropinnis Jordan & Gilbert. Panama. 195 





w^^.^ ^ 




r* 



mm 



fk 



^ 





290 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIL 

PAGE 

Fig. 60. Hvpsoblennius piersojii Gilbert & Starks. Type specimen; Panama. 191 

Fig. 61. Homesthes cau/opjcs Gilbert. Type specimen; Panama. 194 



292 CALIPOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIIL 

PAGE 

Fig. 62. Ancylopsetta dendritica Gilbert. Panama. 199 







%=?- 









y 




Index to Volume IV. 



New uiimes in heavy-faced type. 



AiiAcuRUS, Eleotris 170 
Aboma lucretiae 174, 217 
iicclivis, Larioius 123, 124, 214 
Achirus fouseceusis 201, 203, 218 
kluuziugeri 200, 201, 2IS 

mazatlauus 200, 201 

scutum 202, 218 
acnttis, Fodiator 55, 210 
adspersus, Paialiehthys 197 
joquideus, Eleotris 169 
aeiostaticus, Tetraodou 159 
aistuarins, Paralichthys 198 
iuthalorus, Carcharias 9, 11, 207 
Aetobatus uariuari IS, 207 
afer, Alphestes 96, 97 
affinis, Fierasfer 197 

Isopisthus 117 
agassizii, Xeuichthys 104 
alahiuga, Germo 206 
albescens, Remora 206 
albirostris, Priouotus 162, 216 
albomaculatus, Serrauus 97 
Albula vulpes 39, 209 
Albulida3 39 

albus, Gyuosciou 119, 214 
Alectis ciliaris 80, 211 
Alexurus armiger 170, 216 
Alphestes afer 96, 97 

multiguttatus 96, 97, 212 
altipiuuis, Micropogou 132, 215 
aUus, Oligoplites 72, 73, 74, 211 
aliita, Bairdiella 127 
amazouica, Thalassophryue 188 
amblyopsis, Eleotris 170 
Anableps 51 

dowei 51, 210 

tetrophthalmus 51 
analis, Umbrina 133 
aiialogus, Epiuephelus 96, 212 

Kyphosus 116 
Auchovia compressa .43, 44, 45 

cultrata 44 

curta 42, 209 

delicatissima 44 

ischaua 42, 43, 209 

lucida 42, 43, 209 

macrolepidota 47, 209 

miarcha 42, 209 

mundeola 5, 43, 44, 45, 46, 209 

naso 5, 43, 209 

opercularis 42, 209 

pauamensis 43, 44, 45, 209 

(38) 



Auchovia rastralis 5, 42, 209 

spiiiifera 46, 209 

starksi 5, 43, 209 
aucylodou, Sagenichthys 121 
Aucylopsetta deudritica 199, 218 

quadrocellata 199 
Aiigelichthys 151 
augusticeijs, Spheroides 156 
Auisotremus 1 1 1 

cEesius 107, 213 

dovii 106, 107, 213 

iuterruptus 107, 213 

pacifici 106, 107, 213 

suriuameusis 107 

ta^uiatus 108, 213 

virginicus 108 
auuulatus, Spheroides 156, 157, 158, 159 
Aiitenuarius sauguiueus 204, 218 

strigatus 204, 218 
Apogon atrioaudus 89 

atridorsalis 89 

dovii 88, 89, 212 

retrosella 89 
approximans, Polydactylus 63, 210 
aratus, Lutiauus 103, 213 
arohidiuin, Elattarchus 125, 214 
Archosciou 117 

argeuteiis, Larimus 123, 124, 214 
argeutiventria, Lutiauus 103, 212 
argus, Mur;T3na 38 
arioides, Bagrus 32, 33 
Arius assimilis 23 

melauoj)us 29 

seemauni 22 
armata, Bairdiella 126, 214 
armatus, Ceutropomus 90, 92, 94, 212 
armiger, Alexurus 170, 216 
Arothron erethizon 159 
asperrimus, Myliobatis 5, 19, 207 
aspidurus, Urolophus 16, 17, 207 
assimilis, Arius 23 
asterias, Urolophus 16 
Astroscopus 187 
Atheriuella pauamensis 59, 210 
Atheriuidaa 57 

atlauticus, Eupiscartes 194, 217 
atrameutatus, Symphurus 203, 218 
atricaudus, Apogou 89 

Symphurus 204, 218 
atridorsalis, Apogou 89 
atrilobatus, Chromis 139, 140, 215 
atrimauus, Hemicaraux 75, 76, 211 



January 30, 1904. 



294 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Auchenopterus mouophthalmus ISO, 217 
auctorum, Lobotes 100 
aiiliscus, Siphostoma 57, 210 
aureolus. Genes 114, 115, 213 
auritus, Brachydenterus 111 
averniucus, Kathetostoma 181, 217 
axillaris, Brachydeuterus 111 
Azevia panameusis 200, 218 
azureus, Carcharias 5, II, 12, 207 

Bagrhs AKioiriES 32, 33 
bahiamis, Teiithis 151 
Bairdiella 128 

aluta 127 

armata 126, 214 

chrysoleuca 127, 214 

eusifera 126, 214 

icistia 126 
balao, Hemirhamphus 53 
balearicum, Ophisoma 34 
Balistes capistiatus 153, 154 

carolinensis 152 

naufragium 152, 153, 216 

polylepis 152, 153, 216 

verres 5, 153, 154, 216 
Balistida) 152 

bathymaster, Bregmaceros 197 
Batrachoides 185 

boulengeri 5, 181, 182, 217 

pacifici 181, 182, 217 

surinameusis 181, 182, 183 
Batrachoididai 181 
Batrachus surinameusis 182 
bayauiis, Pomadasis 109, 213 
Belone truucata 52 
birostris, Mauta 206 
birostratus, Prionotus 165 
Bleuuiidie 189, 196 
Blenuiiuas 193 

boUmani, Hippoglossina 197, 218 
Bollmaunia chlamydes, 174, 217 
boiicardii, Pcecilia 51, 210 
boulengeri, Batrachoides 5, 181, 182, 217 
boulengeri, Mycteroperca 97, 212 
Brachydeuterus 111 

auritus 111 

axillaris 1 1 1 

corvinroforinis 111 

elongatus 111 

leuciscus 109, 213 

nitidus 109, 111, 213 
brachysomus, Calamus 112, 113, 213 
brauieki, Pomadasis 110,213 
brasiliensis, Hemirhamphus 53, 54 
Bregmaceros bathymaster 197 

maoclellaudi 197, 218 
Bregmacerotidaj 197 
brevimauus, Gerres 115, 213 
brevipinuis, Hypsobleunius 193, 217 

Orthopristis 111, 213 



brevis, Tyutlastes 180, 217 
Brotulidas 197 
Buccone 118 

CABALLus, Caraiix 78, 211 
cassius, Anisotremus 107, 213 
Calamus brachysomus 112, 113, 213 

tauriuus 112, 113 
calamus, Chrysophrys 112 
californicus, Galeus 7, 9 
californiensis, Eucinostomus 113, 114, 213 
callopterus, Cyjjselurus 55, 210 
capistratus, Balistes 153, 154 

Chajtodou 149 
Caraugidn3 70 
Caraux caballus 78, 211 

crysos 78 

hippos 77, 211 

latus 78, 79 

lugubris 206 

marginatus 78, 21 1 

medusicola 78, 79 

viuctus 77, 211 
Carcharias 9 

a'thalorus 9, 11, 207 

azureus 5, 11, 12, 207 

cerdale 5, 10, 11, 207 

nicaragueusis 12 

velox 5, 9, 207 
Carchariuus cerdale 10 

velox 9 
carolinensis, Balistes 152 
carolinus, Trachiuotus 84 
Calhorops 34 

gulosus 33, 208 

hypophthalmus 33, 208 
caudimacula, Haamulon 105 
caulinaris, Lophiomus 204, 218 
caulopus, Homesthes 5, 193, 194, 217 
Ceutropomidai 89, 206 
Ceutropomus 180 

armatus 90, 92, 94, 212 

eusiferus 92, 94 

graudoculatus 90 

medius 90 

nigrescens 90, 212 

pediruaciila 90, 212 

robalito 90, 91, 92, !I4, 212 

undecimalis 89, 212 

uuiouensis 90, 92, 212 

viridis 89 
cephalus, Mugil 59, 210 
Cerdale 196 

iouthas 196, 218 
cerdale, Carcharias 5, 10, 11, 207 
cerdale, Carcharinus 10 
Cerdalida) 195, 196, 206 
Cetengraulis 42 

edeutulus 47, 48 

engymen 5, 48, 209 



GILBERT AND STAEKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



295 



Cetengraulis mysticetns 47, 48, 209 
Chicuomugil prohoscideiis 61, 210 
Cha^todipterus 148 

faber 147, 148 

zonatus 147, 148, 215 
Chsetodou capistratus 149 

humeralis 149, 215 

nigrirostris 148, 215 
ChiPtodoutidsD 148 
chaloeus, Orthopristis 110, 2K? 
Cheilodipteridai 88 
chilensis, Sarda 68, 211 
chlamydes, Bollmanuia 174, 217 
Chloroscombrus chrysiirus 82 

orqueta 82, 211 
Cbromis atrilobatus 139, 140, 215 

notatus 140 
chrysoleuca, Bairdiella 127, 214 
Cbrysophrys calamus 112 
chrysiinis, Chloroscombrus 82 
ciliaris, Alectis 80, 211 
ciuereum, Xysta>ma 114, 213 
ciuereus, Microspathodou 144 
cirratum, Ginglymostoma 5, 207 
Cirrhites rivulatus 139, 215 
CirrhitidfB 139, 206 
Citharichthys 4 

gilberti 200, 218 

platophrys 200, 218 

spilopLerus 200 
Citula dorsalis 79, 211 
clarionis, Sesurus 155 
clepsydra, Murieua 5, 38, 209 
Clevelaudia 178 

ioa 178 
Clupeidffi 39 
colias. Scomber 206 
Colorado, Lutianus 103, 213 
compressa, Anchovia 43, 44, 45 
coucolor, Nexilarius 143, 215 

Soomberomorus 68 
Congrellus gilberti 34, 208 

niteus 34, 208 

proriger 34, 208 
conioeps, Mursenesox 35, 208 
coustellatus, Platophrys 199, 218 
corneta, Fistularia 5, 56, 57, 210 
corvina'formis, Brachydeuterua 1 1 1 
Corvula macrops 125, 214 
crebripuuctata, Pteroplatea 18, 207 
creolus, Serranus 98 
crescentalis, Pomacanthus 150 
crestonis, Teuthis 151, 216 
crocro, Pomadasis 109 
crossotus, Etropus 200, 218 
crumeuophthalmus, Trachni-ops 75, 211 
crysoa, Caraux 78 
cnltrata, Auchovia 44 
culveri, Trachiuotus 84, 211 
curema, Mugil 60, 210 



carta, Anchovia 42, 209 
cyclolepis, Microgobius 174, 175 
Cyclopsetta querua 200, 218 
Cynosciou 4, 117, 118, 120, 125 
albus 119, 214 
othonopterus 119,214 
phoxocephalus 120, 214 
priedatorius 118, 214 
reticulatus 119, 214 
squamipiunia 118, 214 
stolzmauni 119, 214 
cypriuoides, Lophogobius 176 
Cypaelurus callopterus 55, 210 



DACTYLOSCOPIDiE 181, 206 

Dactyloacopus zelotea 181, 217 

Dtector 188 

daspilotus, Pisoodouophis 5, 36, 208 

Dasyatidfo 15 

Dasyatis dipterura 18 

louga 17, 18, 207 
dasycephalus, Galeichthys 25, 2«, 208 
deelivifrons, Glyphisodou 143 
delalaudi, Malacocteuus 189, 217 
dehcatiaaima, Anchovia 44 
deliciosa, Scirena 132, 214 
dendritica, Aucylopsetta 199, 218 
depressa, Fistularia 55, 56, 210 
Diapteraa dowii 113 
Diodon holacauthua 160, 216 

hystrix 161, 206 
DiodontidiB 160 
Diplectrum 4 

euryplectrum 97, 98, 212 

macropoma 97, 98, 212 

radiale 97, 98, 212 
diplotiBnia, Harpe 144, 215 
dipterura, Dasyatis 18 
dipus, Microdesmus 195, 218 
Discopyge ommata 15, 207 
dispilus, Halichipres 146, 215 
Dormitator maculatus 169, 216 
dormitor, Philypnus 168 
dorsalis, Citula 79, 211 

Galeus 7, 207 

Microspathodou 143, 215 

UmbrJna 133, 214 
dovii, Auisotremus 106, 107, 213 

Apogou 88, 89, 212 

Lycodoutis 37, 209 

Opisthopterus 41, 209 
dowei, Auablepa 51 
dowi, Exocoetus 55 

Seleuaapis 26, 208 

Thalassophryne 187, 217 
dowii, Diapterus 113 

Euciuostomus 113 
dubius, Fierasfer 197, 218 
dumerili, Polyclemus 134, 135, 215 



296 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



ECHENEIDIDa; ISO 

Ecbeneis naiiorates 180, 217 

edentiilus, Cetengranlis 47, 48 

efifulgens, LarimuB 5, 123, 214 

eigenmanni, Galeichthys 5, 21, 22, 2:i, 28, 208 

elater, Zalieutes 204, 218 

Elattarchiis archidium 125, 214 

elattura, Netuma 29, 208 

elegaus, Kyphosiis 116, 213 

Eleotris abacurua 170 

fequideus 169 

amblyopsis 170 

pictus 169, 216 

pisonia 170 
elongata, Pcucilia 50, 210 
elongatus, Bracbydeuterus 111 

Menticirrhus 134, 215 

Sympburus 203, 218 
Elopidai 39 
Elops saurus 39, 209 
Emblemaria iiiviiJes 194, 217 
emblematicus, Miorogobius 174, 175, 176, 217 
emmelane, Tacbysurus 5, ,30, 31, 208 
Eugraulididre 42 

engymen, Ceteugraulis 5, 48, 209 
Eugyophrys saiicti-lanrentii 199, 218 
eusifeia, Bairdiella 126, 214 
ensiferus, Centropomus 92, 94 
eusis, Spbyraiua 62, 210 
eutemedoi', Narciue 15, 207 
Eiiypuias 174 

semiuudns 173, 217 
Ephippidae 147 
Epinephelus analogus 96, 212 

labriformis 96, 212 

loiiti 95 
eqiiatorialis, Eaja 15, 207 
Eqties viola 5, 128, 138, 215 
erate, Lobotes 100 
eretbizou, Arothron 159 

Tetraodon 160 
eiicymba, Stellifer 129, 214 
Esocidas 51 

Etropus crossotus 200, 218 
Euciuostomus californiensis 113, 114, 213 

dowii 113 

harenguhis 114 

pseudogula 114 
eiilepis, Microgobius 176 
Evimycterias pnuctatissimus 160, 216 
euryplectrum, Diplectnim 97, 98, 212 
Evapristis 111 

evermauui, Syuodus 49, 209 
evermanni, Tacbysurus 5, 32, 208 
Evermauuia 178 

panamensis 5, 178, 179, 217 

zosterura 178, 179, 217 
Evoplites 101 
Exoccetidaj 55 
Exoccjetus dowi 55 



Exouautes rufipinnis 55, 210 

FABER, Cbaitodipterus 147, 148 
falcatus, Tracbinotus 84 
fasciatus, Geiij'aneinus 134 

Priouodes 98, 212 
Felicbtbys panamensis 20, 207 

piunimaoulatus 20, 207 
fernaudinus, Squalus 13 
Fierasfer affiuis 197 

dubius 197, 218 
Fierasferidai 197 
fisoheri, Solea 201, 202 
Fistularia corneta 5, 56, 57, 210 

depiessa 55, 56, 210 

petimba 56 

serrata 56 

tabaearja 57 
Fistulariidre 55 

flaviguttatum, Lytbiulon 105, 106, 213 
flavilatus, Pomacentrus 142, 215 
Fodiator acutus 55, 210 
fodiator, Tylosurus 52, 210 
fonseceusis, Acbirus 201, 203, 218 

Solea 201, 202 
forbesi, Orlhopristis 1 1 1 
formosa, Gueutheridia 159, 216 
formosus, Tetraodou 159 

Tetrodou 158 
forsteri, Sphyireua 62 
furcifer, Parantbias 98, 212 
furtbi, Ilisba 40, 209 

Pelloua 40 

Stellifer 127, 214 
furtbii, Hemicaranx 77, 211 

Spheroides 158, 216 

Tacbysurus 30, 31, 32, 33, 208 



Galeichthys 21 

dasycepbalus 25, 26, 208 

eigenmanni 5, 21, 22, 23, 28, 208 

gilberti 22, 23 

guatemaleusis 25, 208 

jordaui 22, 23, 28, 208 

leutiginosus 20, 207 

lougicepbalus 25, 26, 208 

peruvianus 21, 207 

platypogon 23 

seemanui 21 

xenauchen 5, 24, 208 
Galeidte 5 

Galeocerdo tigrinus 9, 207 
Galeus ealifornicus 7, 9 

dorsalis 7, 207 
Garniauuia 173 

paradoxa 172, 173, 174, 217 
geutilis, Hypsoblennius 191. 192, 193 
GeuyauemuK fasciatus 134 
Geuyoroge 101, 102 



GILBERT AND STAKKS— FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



297 



Germo alahiuga 206 

Gerres aureolus 114, 115,213 

brevimanus 115, 213 

liueatus 115 

olisthostomus 115 

peruvianus 115, 213 

pquamipiuiiis 114 
Gerridii? 113 
gilberti, Cithaiichthys 200, 21S 

Congrellus 34, 208 

Galeichthys 22, 23 

Hypsoblenuius 191, 192, 193, 194 

Kirtlaudia 57, 58, 210 
gilli, Pomaceutnis 5, 140, 141, 215 
Giuglymostoma cirratum 5, 207 
GinglyinostomidiB 5 
glaucostigma, Rliinobatus 14 
glaucus, TrachinotHS 82, 83 
Glyphisodon declivifrons 143 

saxatilis 143, 215 
Guathanodou speciosus 79, 211 
GobiesocidiB 189 
Gobiesox gyrinus 189 

nudiis 189 

rhodospiliis 189, 217 
Gobiidae 167 
Gobiouellus microdou 171, 217 

sagittula 171, 216 
Gobivis 173, 174 

nicholsi 176 

sopoiator 171, 216 
goodei, Paralouchurus (Zaclemiis) 135 
goodei, Polyclemiis 5, 135, 215 
goodei, Urolopbus 16, 207 
Gramma 98 
Grammistes 98 

graudisqiiamis, Upeneus 67, 211 
graudoculatus, Ceutropomns 90 
greenei, Porichthys 5, 184, 217 
grouovii, Nomeus 84, 211 
grossideus, Lycengraulis 49 
guatemalensis, Galeichthys 25, 208 
gneutheri, Hoplopagrvis 101, 212 
Guentheridia 158, 159 

foimosa 159, 216 
gulosus, Cathorops 33, 208 

Microgobius 176 
guttatus, Lutianus 103, 212 

Petrometopon 95 

Promicrops 96, 212 
Gymueleotris semiuudus 170, 216 
gyriuus, Gobiesox 189 

H^MOLID^ 104 

Hsemulou caudimacula 105 
maerostomum 104 
mazallaiium 106 
parra 104, 105 
scudderi 104, 105, 213 
steiudachueri 105, 213 



Ilalichaires dispilus 146, 215 

macgregori 5, 145, 215 

uicholsi 145 

sellifer 144, 215 
halleri, Urolophus 15, 207 
harengnlus, Eucinostomus 1 14 
hareugus, Querimaua 61, 62, 210 
Harpe diplotiuuia 144, 215 
Hemicaraux alrimanus 75, 76, 211 

furthii 77, 211 

leucunis 77, 211 

zelotes 5, 76, 211 
HemirhamphidfB 52 
Hemirhamphus balao 53 

brasilieusis 53, 54 

saltator 5, 53, 54, 210 
Hexauematichthys 21 

xeuauchen 24 
Hippocampus iugens 57, 210 
Hippoglossiua bollmaui 197, 218 

sabaneiisis 199 
hippos, Caranx 77, 211 
hispidus, Tetraodou 157, 159, 160, 216 
hlstrio, Scorpoena 161, 216 
Holacauthus 151 

passer 150, 216 

strigatus 150 
holacauthus, Diodou 160, 216 
Holoceutridai 64 
Holoceutrus suboibitalia 66, 211 
Homesthes 193 

caulopus 5, 193, 194, 217 
hopkinsi, Xesunis 5, 155, 216 
Hoplopagrus gueutheri 101, 212 
horrens, Piionotus 162, 165, 166, 216 
hospes, Mugil 60, 210 
humeralis, Ghastodou 149, 215 

Paralabrax 97, 212 
humile, Pristipoma 109 
humilis, Pristipoma 109 
hypophthalmus, Cathorops 33, 208 
Hypoplectrus lamprurus 97, 212 
Hypopriou 9 
Hyporhamphus poe3'i 52 

roberti 53, 210 

unifasciatus 52, 210 
Hypsoblenuius 193 

brevipiuuis 193, 217 
geutilis 191, 192, 193 
gilberti 191, 192, 193, 194 

iouthas 193 

piersoni 5, 191, 217 
puuctatus 193 
scrutator 193 

stviatus 192, 193, 217 
hystrix, Diodou 161, 206 

icisTiA, Bairdiella 126 
Ilisha fnrthi 40, 209 
pauameusis 40 



298 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



illecebrosus, Slellifer 5, 128, 129, 138, 214 

Ilypnus 178 

imioeps, Ophiosciou 131, 214 

incilis, Mugil 59 

indefatigabile, Otophidium 196, 218 

iuermis, Kabirubia 103, 213 

iugeus. Hippocampus 57, 210 

inornatus, Microlepidotus 111 

Orthopristis 111 
iusculpta, Netuma 27, 208 
insularum, Mursoua 38 
iuterniptus, Anisotremus 107, 213 
iouthas, Cerdale 196, 218 

Hypsoblenniug 193 
ios, Clevelandia 178 
Isaciella 1 1 1 

ischaua, Anchovia 42, 43, 209 
Isopisthus 117, 122 

affiuis 117 

parvipinnis 117 

remifer 117, 213 

jENKiNsi, Syuodus 50 
jordaui, Galeichthys 22, 23, 28, 208 
jordani, Lutiauus 5, 101, 102, 212 
jordaui, Neomspuis 102 

KATHETOSTOMA AVERRONCnS 181, 217 
kennedyi, Trachiuotus 84, 211 
kessleri, Netuma 26, 208 
Kirtlaudia 57 

gilberti 57, 58, 210 

imchylepis 57, 210 

vagraus 57 
kluuziugeri, Achirus 200, 201, 218 
kueri, Pristipoma 110 
Kyphosidto 116 
Kyphosus aualogus 116 

elegans 116, 213 

LABRIDffi 144 

labriformis, Epinephelus 96, 212 
Lampris luua 206 
lamprurus, Hypoplectrus 97, 212 
Larimus acclivis 123, 124, 214 

argeuteus 123, 124, 214 

eflfulgens 5, 123, 214 

pacificus 124, 214 
lateralis, Philypuus 167, 168, 216 
laticlavius, Xesurus 155 
latifrons, Syacium 199, 218 
latus, Caranx 78, 79 
leei, Symphurus 204, 218 
leutiginoaa, MursBua 39, 209 
lentigiuosus, Galeichthys 20, 207 
Leijophidium jsrorates 196, 218 
Leptocephalida3 34 
lepturus, Trichiurus 70, 211 
leuciscus, Brachydeuterus 109, 213 
leucurus, Hemicaranx 77, 211 



leucorhynchus, Khinobatus 14, 207 

libertate, Opisthouema 40, 209 

lineatus, Gerres 115 

liropus, Tachysurus 29, 30, 31 

lobatus, Spheroides 156 

Lobotes 100 

auctorum 100 

erate 100 

pacificus 5, 100, 212 

surinameusis 100, 101 
Lobotidfe 100 
louga, Dasyatis 17, 18, 207 
lougicephalus, Galeichthys 25, 26, 208 
lougurio, Scoliodon 12, 207 
Lophiomus caiilinaris 204, 218 

setigerua 204 
Lophogobius cyprinoides 176 
louti, Epinephelus 95 
loxias, Prionotus 162, 216 
lucasauum, Thalassoma 146, 215 
lucida, Anchovia 42, 43, 209 
lucretiai, Aboma 174, 217 
lugubris, Caranx 206 
luua, Lampris 206 
lunulatns, Mustelus 5, 6 7, 8, 207 
Lutianidaj 101 
Lutianus 101, 102 

aratus 103, 213 

argentiventris 103, 212 

Colorado 103, 213 

(Evoplites) viridis 101, 102 

guttatus 103, 213 

jordani 5, 101, 102, 212 

uovemfasciatus 102, 212 
Lycengraulis grossidens 49 

poeyi 49, 209 
Lycodonlis dovii 37, 209 

verrilli 37, 209 
Lythrulou flaviguttatum 105, 106, 213 

opalescens 105, 106 

MACCLELLANDi, Bregmaceros 197, 218 
macgregori, Halichferes 5, 145, 215 
maclura, Pteroplatea 18 
macracauthus, Pomadasis 110,213 
macrocephalus, Muierpes 189, 217 
macrolepidota, Anchovia 47, 209 
macropoma, Diplectrum 97, 98, 212 
macrops, Corvula 125, 214 

Opisthopterus 41, 209 
macrostomum, Hjumulon 104 
maculatus, Dormitator 169, 216 

Scomberomorus 68, 69 
maoulicauda, Orthostcechus 106, 213 
maculosa, Thalassophryne 188 
magdalensB, Paralichthys 198 
Malacocteuus delalaudi 189, 217 
Manta birostris 206 
margaritatus, Porichthys 184, 185, 217 
margiuatus, Caranx 78, 211 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



299 



marmoratus, Symbranchus 34, 208 
matoides, Teuthis 151 
luaziitlannm, Hmmulon 106 
mazatlauus, Aehirus 200, 201 
medius, Centropomus 90 

Peprilus 88, 212 
medusicola, Caraux 78, 79 
melauopus, Ariiis 29 

Tachysurus 29, 31, 32 
melauotis, Murajua 38 
Meuidia 57 

Meiiticirrhus elongatus 134, 215 
nasus 133, 134, 215 
panamensis 133, 134, 215 
simus 133 
miaroha, Auchovia 42, 209 
Miorodesmus 195, 196 
dipus 195, 218 
retiopinuis 195, 218 
microdon, Gobiouelhis 171, 217 
Microgobius 177 

cyclolepis 174, 175 
emblematiciis 174, 175, 176, 217 
eulepis 176 
gulosus 176 

miraflorensis 5, 176, 217 
signatus 175, 176 
thalassiuus 175, 176 
Microlepidotus 111 

inornatus 111 
Micropogon altipiunis 132, 215 
Microspathodon ciuereus 144 

dorsalis 143, 215 
miraflorensis, Miciogobius 5, 176, 217 
miuor, Stellifer 128 
Muierpes maerocephalus 189, 217 
Mola mola 206 
mola, Mola 206 

mouophthalmus, Auchenopterus 189, 217 
mordax, Sageuichthys 5, 121, 214 
Mugil cephalus 59, 210 
curema 60, 210 
hospes 60, 210 
iucilis 59 
thoburni 59, 210 
Mugilidaj 59 
MuUidaj 67 

multiguttatus, Alphestes 96, 97, 212 
multiradiatus, Tachysurus 32, 33, 208 
mundeola, Auchovia 5, 43, 44, 45, 46, 209 
mundeohis, Stolephorus 44 
mundus, Oligoplites 70, 72, 73, 74, 211 

Urolophus 16, 17, 207 
Murfena argus 38 

clepsydra 5, 38, 209 
insularum 38 
leutigiuosa 39, 209 
melanotis 38 
pauameusis 37 
Mursenesocidie 35 



Mtirfeuesox couiceps 35, 208 

savanna 35 
Muraauidm 37 

Mustelus lunulatus 5, 6, 7, 8, 207 
Mycteroperca bouleugeri 97, 212 
Myliobatidai IS 

Myliobatis asperrimus 5, 19, 207 
Myrichthys tigrinus 35, 208 
MyridiB 35 
Myripristis occidentalis 64, 65, 210 

poecilopus 64, 65, 210 
Myrophis puuctatus 35 

vafer 35, 208 
mystes, Scorpsena 161, 216 
mysticetus, Cetengraulis 47, 48, 209 

Narcine bntemedor 15, 207 

Narcobatida3 15 

narinaii, Aetobatus 18, 207 

naso, Anchovia 5, 43, 209 

uaso, Stolephorus 43 

nasus, Menticirrhus 133, 134, 215 

naucrates, Echeueis 180, 217 

naufragium, Balistes 152, 153, 216 

Nebris 122 

occidentalis 122, 214 
zestua 122 
uebulosus, Urolophus 15 
Nematistiidio 70, 206 
Nematistius pectoralis 70, 211 
Neoconger vermiformis 35, 208 
Neomsenis 101 

jordani 102 
Netuma 24 

elattura 29, 208 
insculpta 27, 208 
kessleri 26, 208 
oscula 28, 29, 208 
planiceps 20, 22, 27, 28, 29, 208 
platypogon 27, 28, 208 
Nexilarius concolor 143, 215 
uicaraguensis, Carcharias 12 
nicholsi, Gobius 176 

Halichajres 145 
nigrescens, Centropomus 90, 212 
nigripinnis, Rypticus 100, 212 
nigrirostris, Chaitodou 148, 215 
nitens, Congrellus 34, 208 
uitidus, Brachydeuterus 109, 111, 213 
nivipes, Emblemaria 194, 217 
Nomeus gronovii 84, 211 
uotatus, Chromis 140 

Poriehthys 184, 185 
notospilus, Pseudojulis 145, 146, 215 
uovemfasciatus, Lutiauus 102, 212 
uudus, Gobiesox 189 

OCCIDENTALIS, Myriprlstis 64, 65, 210 

Nebris 122, 214 
ocyurus, Sectator 116, 213 



300 



CALIPOBNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Odontoguathus panamensis 41, 209 
Odoutoscion xanthops 5, 124, 214 
terstedii, Selene 81, 211 
Ogilbia veutialis 197, 218 
oglinum, Opisthouema 40 
Oligoplites altus 72, 73, 74, 211 
miindus 70, 72, 73, 74, 211 
refulgens 5, 73, 74, 211 
saurus 70, 72, 73, 74, 211 
olisthostoinus, Gerres 115 
ommata, Discopyge 15, 207 
opalescens, Lythrulou 105, 106 
opercularis, Auchovia 42, 209 

Polydactylus 63, 64, 210 
Ophlchthus triserialis 37, 208 

zophocbil- 37, 209 
Ophichthyida3 35 
Ophidiida3 196 
OiJhioscion imiceps 131, 214 
scierus 131, 214 
simulus 5, 130, 131, 214 
strabo 130, 131, 214 
typicus 129, 131, 214 
Ophisoma balearicum 34 
Ophisurus xysturus 35 
Opisthoguatbidas 180 
Opisthognatbus puuctatum ISO, 217 
Opistbouema libertate 40, 209 

ogliuum 40 
Opisthopterus dovii 41, 209 

macrops 41, 209 
orqueta, Cbloroscombnis 82, 211 
Ortbopristis 111 

brevipiunis 111, 213 
obalceus 110, 213 
forbesi 111 
inornatns 111 
Ortbostcbchus maculicauda 100, 213 
oscitaus, Stellifer 127 
oscula, Netuma 28, 29, 208 
osculus, Tachisiira3 29 
othonopterus, Cynoseiou 119, 214 
Otophidium iudefatigabile 196, 218 
ovale, Syacium 199, 218 

PACHYLEPis, Kirtlaudia 57, 210 
pacifici, Anisotremus 106, 107, 213 

Batraoboides 181, 182, 217 
pacificus, Larimus 124, 214 
pacificus, Lobotes 5, 100, 212 
pacificus, Tylosuriis 52, 210 
paloma, Trachiuotus 84, 211 
palometa, Peprilus 85, 212 
pauamensis, Aucbovia 43, 4t, 45, 209 

Atberiuella 59, 210 

Azevia 200, 218 
panamensis, Eveimanuia 5, 178, 179, 217 
panamensis, Feliohthys 20, 207 

Ilisha 40 

Meuticirrhus 133, 134, 215 



panamensis, Murama 37 

Odontoguathus 41, 209 
Parapsettus 148, 215 
Pelloua 40 

Petrometopou 95, 212 
Pomadasis 109, 213 
Kabula 37, 209 
Solea 201, 202 
pauuosa, Scorp:rna 161, 216 
paradoxa, Garmannia 172, 173, 174, 217 
Paralabrax bumeralis 97, 212 
Paralicbtbys adspersus 197 
iestuarius 198 
magdalenas 198 
sinaloaj 197, 198 
woolmanni 197, 198, 218 
Paraloucburus 136, 137 

peteisi 135, 136, 215 
(Zaclemus) goodei 135 
Parauthias furcifer 98, 212 
Parapsettus panamensis 148, 215 
paira, Haemulon 104, 105 
parvipiunis, Isopistbus 117 
passer, Holacantbus 150, 216 
pectoralis, Nematistins 70, 211 
pedimacula, Centropomus 90, 212 
Pellona furtbi 40 

pauamensis 40 
Peprilus medius 88, 212 
palometa 85, 212 
snyderi 5, 87, 212 
perrico, Pseudoscarus 146, 215 
perspicillaris, Tetraodou 159 
peruanus, Polyclemus 135 
peruvianus, Galeicbtbys 21, 207 

Genes 115, 213 
petersi, Paralonchurus 135, 136, 215 
petimba, Fistularia 56 
Petrometopou guttatus 95 
panamensis 95, 212 
Philypnus 168 

dormitor 168 
lateralis 167, 168, 216 
pboxocepbalus, Cynoseiou 120, 214 
pictui-atus, Tracburus 206 
pictus, Eleotris 169, 216 
piersoni, Hypsobleunius 5, 191, 217 
piuuimaculatus, Felicbtbys 20, 207 
pisonis, Eleotris 170 
Pisoodouopbis daspilotus 5, 36, 208 
plauiceps, Netuma 20, 22, 27, 28, 29, 208 
platopbrys, Citbarichtbys 200, 218 
Platopbrys constellatus 199, 218 
Platypodou 11 

platypogou, Netuma 23, 27, 28. 208 
Pleuronectidai 197 
plumieri, Scorpasua 161 
Poecilia boucardii 51, 210 

elongata 50, 210 
Poeciliidse 50 



GILBERT AND STARKS — FISHES OP PANAMA BAY 



301 



peuoilopus, Myiipiistis 64, 65, 210 
poeyi, Hyporhamphus 52 

Lyceugraulis 49, 209 
politus, Spheroides 157, 158 
Polyclemus 135 

clumerili 134, 135, 215 
goodei 5, 135, 215 
peruauHS 135 
rathbiiui 135, 215 
Polydaclylus approximaus 63, 210 

opercularis 63, 64, 210 
polylepis, Balistes 152, 153, 216 
rolyuemiil«> 63 
Pomacauthus crescentalis 150 

zouipeotus 150, 215 
Pomaceutridoa 139 
Pomaceutrus flavilatus 142, 215 
gilli 5, 140, 141, 215 
rectifra<num 140, 141, 142, 215 
Pomadasis HI 

bayanns 109, 213 
brauicki 110, 213 
crocro 109 

macracanthns 110, 213 
panamensis 109, 213 
Pomadasys 100 

Porichthys greenei 5, 184, 217 
margaritatus 184, 185, 217 
notatus 184, 185 
priBdatorius, Cynosciou 118, 214 
Priacauthidaj 101 
Priaoauthns sen-nla 212 
Prionodes fasciatus 98, 212 
Priouotus 4 

albirostiis 162, 216 
birostratus 165 
horrens 162, 165, 166, 216 
loxias 162, 216 
quiescens 162, 216 
ruscarius 5, 162, 163, 165, 216 
tiibuUis 162, 165 
xeuisma 162, 216 
Priatidae 14 

Pristipoma humile 109 
humilis 109 
kueii 110 
Pristis zephyrens 14, 207 
proboscideus, Chasnomugil 61, 210 
Piomiciops guttatus 96, 212 
prorates, Lepophidium 196, 218 
proriger, Congrellus 34, 208 
pseudogula, Euciuostomus 114 
Pseudojulis notospilua 145, 146, 215 
Pseudopriacanthus serrula 101 
Pseudoscarus perrioo 146, 215 
Pteroplatea crebripuuctata 18, 207 
machira 18 
rava 18 
punctatissimus, Eviinycterias 160, 216 
puuctatiim, OpistUoguathus 180, 217 
(39) 



pnuctatus, Hypsiibleimius 193 
Myiophis 35 
Xesunis 155 

QUADROCELLATA, Auoylopsetta 199 
Querimaua hareiigns 61, 62, 210 
querna, Cyclopsetta 200, 218 
quiesceus, Priouotus 162, 216 

RABIRUBIA INERMIS 103, 213 
Rabula pauameusis 37, 209 
radiale, Di'plectrum 97, 98, 212 
Raja equatorialis 15, 207 
RajidiB 15 
Eamularia 199 

rastralis, Auchovia 5, 42, 209 
rastralis, Stolephorus 42 
rathbuui, Polyclemus 135, 215 
rava, Pteroplatea 18 

rectifraBuum, Pomaceutrus 140, 141, 142, 215 
refulgens, Oligoplites 5, 73, 74, 211 
remifer, Isopisthus 117, 213 
Eemora albescens 206 
remora 180, 217 
remora, Remora 180, 217 
reticulata, Thalassophryue 186, 188, 217 
reticulatus, Cynosciou 119, 214 
retropiunis, Microdesmus 195, 218 
retrosella, Apogou 89 
Rhegma 98 

thaumasium 5, 99, 212 
Rliegmatinse 99 
RhiuobatidiB 14 
Rhiuobatus glaucostigma 14 
leucorhyuchus 14, 207 
rhodopus, Trachinotus 82, 83, 211 

rhodospilus, Gobiesox 189, 217 

rivulatus, Cirrbites 139, 215 

robalito, Centropomus 90, 91, 92, 94, 212 

roberti, Hyporhamphus 53, 210 

rogersi, Urolophus 16 

rubropuuctatus, Scartichthys 194, 217 

ruKpiuuis, Exonautes 55, 210 

Rupiscartes atlauticus 194, 217 

ruscarius, Priouotus 5, 162, 163, 165, 216 

russula, Scorpaaua 161, 216 

RypticiufB 98, 99 

Rypticus 98 

nigripiuuis 100, 212 



SABANENSis, Hippoglossiua 199 
Sagenichthys 122, 137 

aneylodou 121 

mordax 5, 121, 214 
sagittula, Gobionellus 171, 216 
saltator, Hemirhamphus 5, 53, 54, 210 
sancti-laurentii, Eugyophrys 199, 218 
sanguiueus, Antenuarius 204, 218 
Sarda cbileuais 08, 211 

Jauuary SO. 1904. 



302 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 



Sardiuella stolifera 39, 209 
saurus, Elops 39, 209 

Oliyoplites 70, 72, 73, 74, 211 
savanna, Muraiuesox 35 
saxatilis, Glyphisodou 143, 215 
scaijularis, Tylosurus 51, 210 
Scarid;o 146 

Scartichthys rubropuuctatus 194,217 
Scarus 4 

Sciadeichthys troscheli 26, 208 
Sciiona deliciosa 132, 214 
ScisBiiidie 117 

scierus, Ophioscioii 131, 214 
scituliceps, Syuodus 50, 209 
Soolioilou loiigurio 12, 207 
Scomber colias 206 
Scoiuberomonis concolor 68 

luaculatus 68, 69 

sierra 68, 69, 211 
ScombridiB 68 
Scorpteua histrio 161, 216 

mystes 161, 216 

pauuosa 161, 216 

plumieri 161 

russula 161, 216 
Scorpteuidffi 161 
scrutator, Hypsoblennius 193 
scudded, Hfemulon 104, 105, 213 
scutum, Achirus 202, 218 
Sectator ooyurus 116, 213 
seemauui, Arius 22 

Galeichthys 21 
Seleuaspis dowi 26, 208 
Seleue csrstedii 81, 211 

vomer 81, 82, 211 
sellifer, Halichan-es 144, 215 
semmudus, Euypuias 173, 217 

Gymueleotris 170, 216 
SerrauidfB 95 
Serrauus albomaculatus 97 

creolus 98 
serrata, Fistularia 56 
serrula, Pseudopriacauthus 101, 212 
setigerus, Lophiomus 204 
setipinuis. Vomer 80, 211 
setosus, Tetraodon 159 
sierra, Scomberomorus 68, 69, 211 
Sigmurus vermicularis 132, 214 
siguatus, Microgobius 175, 176 
Siluridaj 20 

simulus, Ophioscion 5, 130, 131, 214 
simus, Meuticirrhus 133 
siualoiB, Paralichthys 197, 198 
Siphostoma auliscus 57, 210 
snyderi, Peprilus 5, 87, 212 
Solea fischeri 201, 202 

fonseoeusis 201, 202 

panamensis 201, 202 
SoleidfB 200 
soporator, Gobius 171, 216 



SparidiB 112 

speciosus, Gnathauodon 79, 211 

Spheroides 158, 159 

augusticeps 156, 216 

aimulatus 156, 157, 158, 159, 216 

furthii 158, 216 

lobatus 156, 216 

politus 157, 158 

testudineus 156, 216 
Sphyrfena ensis 62, 210 

forsteri 62 
Sphyraanidaj 62 
Sphyrua tiburo 13, 207 

tudes 13, 207 

zygiona 13, 207 
Sphyrnidtc 13 

spilopterus, Citharichthys 200 
spinifera, Auchovia 46, 209 
spixii, Vomer 80 
Squalidss 13 
Squalus 13 

feruaiidiutis 13 

sucklii 13, 207 
squamipiunis, Cynosciou US, 214 

Gerres 114 
starksi, Auchovia 5, 43, 209 
starksi, Stolephorus 43 
steiudaebueri, Hasmulou 105, 213 
steindachneri, Tachysurus 5, 29, 30, 208 
Stellifer 128 

ericymba 129, 214 

furthi 127, 214 

illecebrosus 5, 128, 129, 138, 214 

minor 128 

oscitans 127, 214 

zestocarus 5, 129, 214 
Stolephorus mundeolus 44 

naso 43 

rastralis 42 

starksi 43 
Btolitera, Sardiuella 39, 209 
stolzmanni, Cynoscion 119, 214 

Tylosurus 52, 210 
strabo, Ophioscion 130, 131, 214 
striatus, Hypsoblenuius 192, 193, 217 
strigatus, Antennarius 204, 218 

Holacauthus 150 
suborbitalis, Holocentrus 66, 211 
sucklii, Squalus 13, 207 
surinamensis, Anisotremus 107 

Batrachoides 181, 182, 183 

Batrachus 182 

Lobotes 100, 101 
Syacium latifrons 199, 218 

ovale 199, 218 
Symbranchidae 34 
Symbrauchus marmoratus 34, 208 
Symphurus 4 

atrameutatus 203, 218 

atricaudus 204, 218 



GILBEllT AND STAKKS — FISHES OF PANAMA BAY 



803 



Symphurus, elouyatus 203, 218 

leei 204, 218 
Syngiiathidai 57 
Syuodouticho 49 
Synodiis evermnuni 49, 209 

jenkiiisi ."iO 

scitiiliceps 50, 209 

TAiiAfAKiA, Fistiilavia 57 
Tacbisurus oscuhis 29 
Tachysiirus 29, 30, 31, 34 

emmelane 5, 30, 31, 208 
evermanni 5, 32, 208 
furtliii 30, 31, 32, 33, 208 
liropus 29, 30, 31 
melauopns 29, 31, 32 
multiradiatus 32, 33, 208 
steindachneri 5, 29, 30, 208 
ta<uiatus, Auisotremus 108, 213 
tauriuus, Calamus 112, 113 
testudiueias, Spheroides 156 
Tetraodon 159 

aerostaticiis 159 
erethizou 160 
formosus 159 
hispidus 157, 159, 160, 216 
perspicillaris 159 
setosus 159 
Tetraodontidm 156, 158 
Tetrodon formosus 158 
tetrophthalmus, Auableps 51 
Teuthidid:!. 151 
Teiithis bahiauus 151 

crestouis 151, 216 
matoides 151 
thalassiuus, Microgobius 175, 176 
Thalaasoma lucasauum 146, 215 
Thalassophryue 188 
amazouica 188 
dowi 187, 217 
maculosa 188 
reticulata 186, 188, 217 
thaumasium, Rhegma 5, 99, 212 
thoburiii, Mugil 59, 210 
Thuimus thyuuus 206 
thyuuus, Thuuuus 206 
Thyrina 57 

tiburo, Sphyrua 13, 207 
tigriuus, Galeocerdo 9, 207 

Myrichthys 35, 20S 
Trachiuotus caroliuus 84 
culveri 84, 211 
falcatus 84 
glaucus 82, 83 
keuuedyi 84, 211 
paloma 84, 21 1 
rhodopus 82, 83, 211 
Trachurops crumenophthalmus 75, 211 
Trachurus picturutus 206 
trachunis 206 



trachurus, Trachurus 206 
tribulus, Triouotus 162, 165 
Trichiurid:o 70 
Trichiurus lepturus 70, 211 
Triglida) 162 

triserialis, Ophichthus 37, 208 
troscheli, Sciadeichthys 26, 208 
truucata, Beloue 52 
tudes, Sphyrua 13, 207 
Tylosurus 4 

fodiator 52, 210 

paciticus 52, 210 

scapularis 51, 210 

stolzmanui 52, 210 
Tyullastes brevis 180, 217 
typicus, Ophiosciou 129, 131, 214 

UMBRIFER, Urolophus 15 
Umbriua aualis 133 

dorsalis 133, 215 

xanti 133, 215 
uudecimalis, Ceutropomus 89, 212 
uiiifasciatus, Hyporhamphus 52, 210 
unlouensis, Ceutropomus 90, 92, 212 
Upeneus grandisquamis 67, 211 
UranoscoiJid:u 181 
Urolophus aspidurus 16, 17, 207 

asterias 16 

goodei 16, 207 

halleri 15, 207 

muudus 16, 17, 207 

uebulosus 15 

rogersi 16 

umbrifer 15 

VAFER, Myropbis 35, 208 
vagraus, Kirtlamlia 57 
velox, Carcharias 5, 9 
velox, Carchariuus 9 
veu trails, Ogilbia 197, 218 
vermicularis, Sigmurus 132, 214 
vermiformis, Neoconger 35, 208 
verres, Balistes 5, 153, 154, 216 
verrilli, Lycodoutis 37, 209 
viuctus, Caraux 77, 211 
viola, Eques 5, 128, 138, 215 
virgiuicus, Auisotremus 108 
viridis, Ceutroi5omus 89 

Lutiauus (Evoplites) 101, 102 
Vomer setipiunis SO, 211 

spixii 80 
vomer, Seleue 81, 82, 211 
vulpes, Albula 39, 209 

woOLMANNi, Paralichthys 197, 198, 218 

XANTHOPS, Odontosciou 5, 124, 214 
xanti, Umbriua 133, 215 

Xenicbthys 103, 213 
xenauchen, Galeichthys 5, 24, 208 



304 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



xenauchen, Hexauematichthys 24 
Xeuichthys agassizii 104 

xauti 103, 213 

xenops 103 
xeuisma, Priouotus 162, 216 
xenops, Xenichthys 103 
Xesurus clarionis 155 

hopkinsi 5, 155, 216 

laticlavius 155 

puuctatus 155 
Xystiema ciuereum 114, 213 
xyster, Zapteryx 15, 207 
xystnrus, Ophisurus 35 



Zaliedtbs elater 204, 218 
Zalypnus 175 
Zapteryx xyster 15, 207 
zelotes, Hemicaranx 5, 76, 211 
zelotes, Dactylosoopus 181, 217 
zephyreiis, Pristis 14, 207 
zestocarus, Stellifer 5, 129, 214 
zestus, Nebris 122 

zouatus, ChiBtodipterus 147, 148, 215 
zouipectus, Pomaeanthiis 150, 215 
zophochir, Ophichthus 37, 2''9 
zosterura, Evermanuia 178, 179, 217 
zyg^na, Sphyrna 13, 207 



ERRATA 



Page 5, 2 1st line, for " Hemiramphus" read Hemirhamphus. 

Page 21, loth line from bottom, for "Fig. j " read Fig. 8. 

Page 22, 17th line, for ''G. pianiccps" read Nctuma planiccps. 

Page 23, 2nd line, for "G. platypogon' read Nctuma platypogon. 

Page 24, 2nd line, for "Fig. 8" read Fig. 7. 

Page 43, 7th line from bottom, for '^A. isc/ia?ii(s" read A. ischana. 

Page 74, I2th line from bottom, after "Jordan and Starks," insert Plate XII, Fig. 21. 

Page 75, 14th line from bottom, for " cnimenopthalmiis" x^'aA crumenophthalmiis. 

Page III, 20th line, for ' ' elongatus ' ' read Icuciscus. 

Page 128, 6th line, for "Stclli/ems" read Stellifer. 

Page 133, 2istand 22nd lines, for "Menticirrus" read Menticirrhus. 

Page 134, 1st and 26th lines, for "Menticirrus" read Menticirrhus. 

Page 135, 17th line, for " Polyclemus fasciatus" xftiA-Polyclcjnus dumerili. 

Page 159, 4th line, for " eretliison" read hispidus. 

Remove parentheses from names of authorities for the following species: Mustelus lunulatus 
(page 5), Pristis sephyreus, Rhinobatus leiicorhynchus (page 14), Zapteryx xyster, Raja equa- 
torialis, Narcine etitetnedor, Discopyge ommata, Urolophus hallcri (page 15), Urolophiis goodci, 
Urolophus aspidurus (page 16), Ptcroplatea crcbripunctata (page 18), Myliobatis asperrinius 
(page 19), Galeichthys peruviatius (page 21). 

Enclose in parentheses names of authorities for: Ga/cus dorsal is (page 7), Scoliodon longurio 
(page 12). 



^T'■ 



{CoHtiHUtd from Sutmd Pagt »f Ctttftr.) 

17. Phycological Memoirs. By Ds Alton Saunders, pp.22. 
21 plates. 

18. The Phosphorescent Organs In the Toadfish Por- 
ichthys notatus Cirard. By Charles Wilson Greens, pp. 24. 
3 plates. 

19. New Mallophaga, Hi. Comprising Mallophaga from Birds 
of Panama, Baja California and Alaska. By Vernon L. Kellogg. Mal- 
lophaga from Birds of California. By Vernon L. Kellogg 
and Bertha L. Chapman. The Anatomy of the Mallophaga. 
By Robert E. Snobgrass. pp. 229. 17 plates. 

20. The Nature of the Association of Alga and Fungus 
In Lichens. By George Jamf..s Peirce. pp.36- \ plate. 

21. Studies on the Flower and Embryo of Sparganium. 
By Douglas Houghton Ca.mpbell. pp. 38. 3 pUUes. 

22. The Development and Phylogeny of Placenticeras. 
By James Perrin Smith, pp. 60. 5 plates. 

23. Studies on the Coast Redwood, Sequoia semper- 
virens End). By George James Peirce. pp. 24. i plate. 

24. Description of Two New Genera of Fishes (Ereunias 
and Draciscus) from Japan. By D.wid Starr Jordan and John 
OTreRBEiN Snyder. Description of Three Now Species of 
Fishes from Japan. By David Starr Jordan and Edwin Chapin 
Starks. pp. 10. 4 plates. 

25. Notes on Coccidee (Scale Insects): Notes on Cer- 
ococcus. By Rose W. Patterson. New and Little Known 
California Coccidae. By S. \. Kuwana. The Redwood Mealy 
Bug ( Dactylopius seqtioice sp. nov. ). By George A. Coleman. The 
San Jose Scale in Japan. By S. I. Kuwan.\. pp. 50. (, plates. 

26. Studies on Ciliate Infusoria. By N. M. Sit.\-ens. pp.44- 
6 plates. 

27. Coccidee (Scale Insects) Of Japan. By Shi.nkai Inoki- 
CHi Kuwana. pp. 56. 7 plates. 

28. The Anatomy of Epldella squamula, sp. nov. By 
Harold Heath, pp. 30. 2 plates. 

29. The Root-tubercles of Bur Clover (Medicago den- 
tlculata Willd ) and of Some Other Leguminous Plants. 
By Ceorge James Peirce. pp. 34. i plate. 

SO. The Net-Winged Midges (Blepharocerldae) of North 
America. By Vernon L. Kellogg, pp. 5°- 5 plates. 

31. The Paleontology and Stratigraphy of the Marino 
Pliocene and Pleistocene of San Pedro, California. By. 
Ralph Arnold, pp. 420. 37 plates. 

32. The Fishes of Panama Bay. By Charles H. Gilbert 
and Edwin C. Starks. pp. 304- a plates. 

Address, 

CHARLES H. GILBERT, 

Stanford University, California. 



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