(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Fitchburg, Massachusetts, past and present"

Gc 

974.402 
F555e 
1242345 



GENEALOGY COLLATION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01095 5182 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/fitchburgmassachOOinemer 



^^^s 




ALVAH CROCKER. 



(L 



RlTGHB aRfi, 



MASSACHUSETTS 



P asTa^b Pres ent 



BY WILLIAM A. EMERSON 

AUTHOR OF EMERSON'S HAND-BOOK OF WOOD ENGRAVING, 

AND HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF DOUGLAS, 

MASS A CHUSE TTS. 



ILLUSTRATED 



FITCHBURG: 

TRESS OF BLAKCHARD & I'.UOWX 

1SS7. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 






Descriptive. Location — Situation and extent — Boundaries — Attractive 
features — Natural and other advantages — Churches and schools — 
Fitchburg as a railroad center. ..... 17-21 

CHAPTER II. 

Fitchburg of the Past. Its appearance in 1S30 — In 1835 — Main street 
in 1S00 — Description of the town in 1764 — Early settlers — Capture 
of the Fitch family by the Indians — Their ransom — Question of the 
town being named for John Fitch settled — Earliest Indian episode — 
Mrs. Rowlandson's account. ..... 22-29 

CHAPTER III. 

City Government. Administration of municipal affairs — Present officers 
— Sketches of mayors — Sketches of present officers — Police depart- 
ment — Fire department — Highway department — Poor department — 
List of aldermen and common councilmen from the time the city 
was incorporated. ....... S^S^ 

CHAPTER IV. 

Educational. Schools — School committee — Teachers — High School as- 
sociation — Principals of the High School — Superintendent of schools 
— History of the Fitchburg Public Library — Description of the 
Wallace Library and Art Building. .... 59—75 

CHAPTER V. 

Professional. Sketches of Fitchburg doctors, past and present — 

Sketches of present lawyers — Medical organizations. . . 76-96 

CHAPTER VI. 

Literary and Artistic. Sketches of Fitchburg authors and artists. 97-1 iS 

CHAPTER VII. 

Military. History of the Fitchburg Fusiliers — Washington Guards — 
Sixth Regiment Infantry, M. V. M. — Fitchburg in the Rebellion — 
Incidents — In rebel prisons — Close of the war — Soldiers' Monu- 
ment. . . . . . • ■ 1 19-152 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Organizations. Fitchburg Military Band — Edwin V. Sumner Post 19, 
G. A. R. — E. V. Sumner Relief Corps, No. 1 — Clark S. Simonds 
Camp, No. 28, S. of V. — E. V. Sumner Building Association — 
Sketches of past commanders Post 19, and department commanders 
— Taylor Union, No. 1 — Secret and benevolent societies — Other 
orders — Temperance societies — Worcester North Agricultural So- 
ciety— W. C. T. U — Y. M. C. A.— Benevolent Union— Agassiz 
Association — Home for Old Ladies — Union Aid Hospital — Fitch- 
burg Clubs. ....... 153-180 



XII 



CONTENTS. 



Paper Making. Crocke 

wright and Falulah Paper Mills. 



CHAPTER IX. 
Burbank & Co. — Rodney 



Wallace — Whcel- 



181-19; 



CHAPTER X. 

Manufacturing. The Parkhill, Cleghorn and Orswell Mills — Fitchburg 
Cotton Mill— Fitchburg Duck Mill — Berwick and Baltic Mills— The 
Wachusett, Fitchburg Worsted and Star Worsted Mills — Shoe 
and Shoe Tip manufacturing — Walter Heywood Chair Manufactur- 
ing Co. — Fitchburg Carbonized Stone and Pipe Co. — E. A. Good- 
rich Brick yard. ....... 



193-205 



CHAPTER XI. 

Iron Industries. Putnam Machine Co. — Fitchburg Machine Co. — Geo. 
F. Simonds, Simonds Manufacturing Co. and Simonds Rolling-Ma- 
chine Co. — Fitchburg Steam Engine Co. — C. H. Brown & Co. — 
Burleigh Rock Drill Co. — R. A. Leonard— D. M. Dillon— Heywood, 
Wilson & Co.'s Foundry — Rollstone Iron Foundry — M. J. Perault's 
Iron Foundry — William A. Hardy's Brass Foundry — Fitchburg 
Manufacturing Co. — Other Fitchburg inventors and machinery 
manufacturers. ....... 

CHAPTER XII. 

Commercial. National Banks and Savings Institutions of Fitchburg — 
Post-Office — Insurance Companies — Fitchburg Gas Co. — Wachusett 
Electric Eight Co. — Fitchburg Street Railway Co. — Board of Trade 
— Grain Mills — Opera House — Business houses. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Journalism in Fitchrurg. A history of newspapers and magazines 
that have been published in Fitchburg. .... 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Biographical. Sketch of Ivers Phillips — Stephen Sheplev — Goldsmith 
F. Bailey— C. H. B. Snow— L. II. Bradford— Charles A. Priest. 

CHAPTER XV. 

Churches and Homes. History of Fitchburg churches and sketches of 
their pastors — Homes of Fitchburg. .... 



206-2: 



!2S-2 5 9 



260-279 



:So-2S9 



290-31: 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 
portraits. 



Alvah Crocker. 


Fron 


tispiece 


Amasa Norcross, 


opposite 


page 31 


Eugene T. Miles, 


" 


" 3 2 


Hiram A. Blood, 


" 


" 34 


David H. Merriam, 


" 


" 36 


William H. Vose, 


it 


" 36 


Eli Culley, 


" 


" 36 


Alonzo Davis, 


" 


" 36 


Frederick Fosdick, 


" 


" 39 


Frank A. Wood, 


" 


" 40 


David M. Dillon, 


(1 


" 40 


John Parkhill, 


" 


" 40 


James F. D. < Garfield, 


" 


" 40 


Henry M. Choate, 


" 


" 40 



Horace M. Kendall, 

Henry A. Willis, 

Henrv Jackson, " 

Walter A. Davis, " 

Chas. H. D. Stockbridge, " 

John D. Kielty, " 

Edward P. Pierce, " 

Henry F. Rockwell, 

John E. Kellogg, " 

David W. Tinsley, " 

S. S. Holton, 

John J. Sheehan, " 

Aaron F. Whitney, " 

Mrs. Caroline A. Mason, " 



opposite page 40 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 

5- 
5 2 
5- 
52 
5 2 
52 
9 S 



PORTRAITS. 



XIII 



Col. A.J. H. Duganne, opposite page 

Col. Henry G. Greene, " 

Surgeon Chas. H. Rice, " 

Maj. Thos. H. Shea, 

Capt. Tristram W. Sheldon, 

ist Lieut. Walter F. Page, 

2d Lieut. Frank A. Greer, 

Col. Edwin Upton, " 

Capt. John B. Proctor, " 

Capt. J. H. Kirbv, 

Rev. G. R. W. Scott, D.D., 

Fitchburg Military Band, 

Charles H. Foss, " 

T. L. Barker, 

Walter A. Eames, " 

R. (). Houghton, 

Edward B. Macy, " 

S. B. Farmer, " 

Geo. E. Goodrich, " 

Sidney Sibley, " 

John F. Bruce, " 

James Cuthbert, " 

Ira G. Wilkins, 

Edward P. Loring, " 

John W. Kimball, 

Daniel C. Putnam, " 

J. A. Battles, " 

Dr. A. W. Sidney, " 

Rodney Wallace, " 

E. M. Dickinson, " 
Walter Hey wood, " 
Salmon W. Putnam, " 
George F. Simonds, " 
C. H. Brown, " 
C. H. Brown, Jr., " 

F. E. Brown, " 
J. F. Brown, 

Charles Burleigh, " 

Ebenezer Torrey, " 

Henry Allison, " 

O. H. Lawrence, " 



page 1 06 


Fred A. Currier, opposite pi 


ige 239 


" 127 


Albert S. Pierce, " ' 


' 240 


" 127 


George M. Bowker, " ' 


' 240 


" 127 


Patrick B. Purtill, " 


' 240 


" 127 


Charles E. Wallace, " 


' 240 


" 127 


John F. Shea, " ' 


' 240 


" 127 


Eugene Forest, " 


' 240 


■' 127 


Charles F. Lamb, " ' 


' 240 


« 127 


Frank J. Dwyer, " ' 


' 240 


127 


Festus C. Currier, " ' 


' 244 


" 128 


Dr. George Jewett, " ' 


' 246 


" 154 


Joseph dishing, " ' 


' 24S 


« 160 


Henry A. Goodrich, " ' 


' 250 


" 160 


L. J. Brown, " ' 


' 253 


" 160 


Col. Ivers Phillips, " ' 


' 280 


" 160 


Nathaniel Wood, " ' 


< 2S6 


" 160 


Goldsmith F. Bailey, " ' 


' 286 


" 160 


Stephen Shepley, " ' 


' 286 


" 160 


Dr. Peter B. Snow, " ' 


2S6 


" 160 


Dr. Alfred Hitchcock, " ' 


' 2S6 


" 160 


Rev. George Trask, " ' 


' 286 


" 160 


C. H. B. Snow, " ' 


' 286 


" 160 


L. H. Bradford, 


' 286 


" 160 


Charles Mason, " ' 


' 286 


" 167 


John Lowe, " ' 


' 2S6 


" 168 


George Keed, " ' 


' 2S6 


" 172 


Samuel Burnap, " ' 


' 2S6 


« 176 


Charles A. Priest, " 


' 2S8 


" 1 88 


Rev. W. H. Piersor., " 


' 294 


" 201 


Rev. S. L. Blake, D. D., " 


' 294 


" 202 


Rev. Frank Rector, " ' 


' 294 


" 206 


Rev. W. W. Colburn, " 


' 294 


" 213 


Rev. P. J. Garrigan, " ' 


' 294 


" 219 


Rev. F. O. Hall, 


' 294 


" 219 


Rev. H. L. Jones, " ' 


' 294 


" 219 


Rev. C. S. Brooks, " ' 


' 294 


" 219 


Rev. F. T. Pomerov, " ' 


' 294 


" 220 


Rev. W. W. Baldwin, " 


' 294 


" 229 


Rev. J. L. Tarpev, " ' 


' 294 


" 230 


Rev. C. Beaudoin, " ' 


' 294 


" 232 







VIEWS. 



Residence of O. H. Lawrence, 

The Boulder, Rollstone Hill, 

Monoosnoc Brook, 

Residence of Rodney Wallace, 

Residence of James Phillips, Jr., 

Union Passenger Depot, 

Map of Fitchburg in 1830, 

Location of the four roads, 

Garrison of David Page, 

Reuben Gibson House, 

Joseph Spofford House, 

Fitch Monument, Ashby, . 

Inscription on the Fitch Monument, 

Elevation of City Water Works, 

Old Academy Building, 

High street High and Grammar Schools, 



17 
18 
18 
19 
19 
20 

23 

25 
25 
26 
26 

27 
27 

5 1 
62 

63 



XIV 



VIEWS. 



Wallace Library and Art Building, 

Interiors, Wallace Library and Art Building, 

Group of Relics, .... 

Residence of Charles T. Crocker, . 

Residence of Mrs. Salmon W. Putnam, 

Residence of Charles Mason, 

Badge of Co. F, 25th Regiment, 

The Court House, ..... 

Monument Square, .... 

Christ Church, ..... 

Grand Army Badge, .... 

Grand Army Cottage, .... 

Home for Old Ladies, .... 

Office of Crocker, Burbank cS: Co., 

Crocker, Burbank & Co.'s Brick Mill, 

Crocker, Burbank & Co.'s Stone Mill, 

Crocker, Burbank & Co.'s Hanna Mill, 

Crocker, Burbank & Co.'s Lyon & Whitney Mill, 

Fitchburg Paper Co.'s Mills, . 

Parkhill Manufacturing Co.'s Mills, Circle street, 

Parkhill Manufacturing Co.'s Mills, Factory Square, 

Cleghorn Mills, .... 

Orswell Mills, ..... 

Fitchburg Worsted Co.'s Mill, 

E. M. Dickinson's Shoe Factory, 

Works of Putnam Machine Co., 

Works of Fitchburg Machine Co., 

Works of Simonds Manufacturing Co., 

Works of C. H. Brown & Co., 

Rollstone Iron Foundry, 

Crocker Block, ..... 

Fitchburg Savings Bank Block, 

Board of Trade Seal, .... 

Cushing Mill, .... 

Washburn & Woodward's Mill, 

Interior of H. A. Goodrich & Co.'s Store, 

Stiles' Block, ..... 

L. J. Brown Block, .... 

Webber's Block, .... 

Proctor's Block, .... 

Emory's Block, . ... 

Fitchburg Hotel and Printing Office, 

Sentinel Building, .... 

First Baptist Church, , 

New Methodist Church, 

New Universalist Church, . 

Rollstone Congregational Church, 

Residence of Mrs. Eugene T. Miles, 

Residence of John Parkhill, (Vose estate,) 

J. Holland's Residence, 1S40, 

Residence of Henry A. Goodrich, 

Residence of Dr. Thomas Palmer, 

Residence of Henry Allison, . 

Residence of Dr. A. W. Sidney, 

Residence of Dr. Charles H. Rice, 

Cottage of E. E. Howard, . 

Twin Cottages, Charles street, 



09 

70 

72 

90 

90 

100 

L14 

151 

IS' 

I5 £ 
156 

158 

177 
182 



185 
186 
191 
194 

195 
196 
197 
199 
200 
208 
21 1 
214 
21S 
224 
231 

2 33 
246 
248 
248 
251 
252 
254 
257 

259 
259 
261 
269 

293 
296 

299 
302 
306 
306 

3°7 
308 

3°9 
310 
310 
310 
3" 
3" 



TO THE READER. 



It should be borne in mind that mention of present time 
refers to the fall of 1887, at which time the manuscript was 
revised and ready for publication. 

In the preparation of this volume the compiler has relied 
to some extent upon previous publications, and in addition to 
the acknowledgment of their use would mention the Fitch- 
burg Sentinel, the files of which have furnished, editorially 
or otherwise, what are believed to be reliable and impartial 
statements relating to the varied interests of the city and its 
representative men. His labor has been also very materi- 
ally lightened by the cheerful and ready assistance of per- 
sonal friends, and by having free access to the Public Li- 
brary at all times, through the kindness of the librarian, 
P. C. Rice, and his assistants. In this connection he would 
also refer with pleasure to Edmund Barton, librarian of the 
American Antiquarian Society, Worcester ; to James F. D. 
Garfield, who furnished the chapter on journalism entire; and 
to Lewis H. Bradford, Henry A. Willis, Joseph G. Edgerly, 
Frederick A. Currier, Eben Bailey and John W. Kimball, 
who have in various ways rendered him most valuable ser- 
vice. 

To these and all others who have in any way contributed 
to the advancement of the work, he would tender his grate- 
ful acknowledgments, and in conclusion would say that an 
honest effort has been made to obtain information from au- 
thentic sources, and to give without partiality or favoritism 
the part that each in his own way and jn his own special 
department has contributed to the general prosperity and 
wealth of the community. 




h- 

LLi 
UJ 

cc 

\- 

GO 

cc 

Ul 



UJ 

u 



UJ 

cc 



X 

o 
u. 
o 

UJ 

o 



CO 

UJ 

cc 



CHAPTER I. 



DESCRIPTIVE. 




HE city of Fitchburg is situated in the 
north-eastern part ot Worcester county, 
on a branch of the Nashua River and at 
the junction of the Fitchburg, Cheshire, 
Fitchburg" & Worcester, and Old Colony 
Railroads. It is about forty-seven miles 
north-west from Boston, twenty-four north 
from Worcester, and thirty west from 
Lowell. The township is in form almost a parallelogram, 
being about six and one-half miles long by four and one-half 
miles broad, and contains a little less than eighteen thousand 
acres. It is bounded on the north by Ashby, east by Lunen- 
burg and Leominster, south by Leominster, and Westminster, 
and west by Westminster and Ashburnham. 

The general surface of the township is extremely uneven, 
there are spurs of hills running in all directions, seemingly 
thrown up at random by the hand of nature, many of which 
are very abrupt and of considerable magnitude. These hills 
and corresponding valleys afford much picturesque scenery 
to the observer from the highlands. 

The finest view of the city and surrounding country can 
be obtained from the top of "Rollstone," a hill of solid 



18 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 




granite rising three hundred feet above the river to the 

south-west ; on the very summit 
of this hill, standing out in bold re- 
j| lief against the sky, is the boulder, 
a round mass of rock forty-five 
feet in circumference. The view 
from the top of Rollstone is well 
worth the trouble taken in making 
the ascent ; at the feet of the 
observer lies the city, forming almost a semi-circle, wooded 
hills arise on all sides, Wachusett seven miles distant rears 
its imposing pile in the south-west, while big Watatic over- 
tops its brethren in the north-west. Nearly opposite 
Rollstone is Pearl Hill, a very considerable elevation, one 
side of which rises abruptly in the form of a precipice. 
The Pearl Hill road furnishes one of the many pleasant 
drives around the outskirts of the city, and is thoroughly 
appreciated by citizens and visitors. 

Whitman's River and Nookagee Brook enter the town of 
Fitchburg from the west, but soon unite and form the 
Nashua River, which winds through a rocky valley, flanked 
by steep and rugged eminences, to the city, and then by a 
southerly course leaves the city near its south-eastern corner. 
Monoosnoc Brook in the southern borders of the town, 
with its cascades and falls, swollen by the spring rains, pre- 
sents an appearance both 
wild and picturesque. 
The farms of Fitchburg 
are most of them located 
on the outlying hills, 
and although there are 
scarcely any meadow 
lands to be found in the 
limits of the town, yet 
there is very little poor or 
waste land. In general 
the soil is excellent, both 
for tilla<*x j and grazing. 





RESIDENCE OF RODNEY WALLACE, PROSPECT ST. 




RESIDENCE OF JAMES PHILLIPS, JR., MAIN ST. 



DESCRIPTIVE. 19 

The most level land is alongside the Nashua River, which 
runs through the thickly settled portion of the city, and 
upon which its principal manufacturing establishments are 
located. 

The city is well and compactly built on or in the vicinity 
of one principal street or thoroughfare extending along the 
valley of the Nashua River, and called Main street. The 
city tends to increase along the course of the valley mainly, 
although now the surrounding slopes are fast becoming cov- 
ered with dwellings. There are man}' handsome residences 
and fine estates in and around the city, a few of which are 
represented in the concluding chapter. 

In the heart of the city are three parks, the upper and 
lower commons, with their band stands for evening concerts 
during the summer months, and Monument Park, directly 
opposite the Wallace Library and Art Building, in the centre 
of which stands the handsome monument dedicated to the 
fallen heroes of the Rebellion. In the outskirts of the city, 
at the eastern terminus of the horse railroad, are the fair 
grounds and adjacent land, recently bought by the Park 
Company, to be improved and beautified as a public park. 

Fitchburg is fortunate not only in natural location and 
surroundings, but is kept inviting and healthy. Its streets 
are well lined with shade-trees, the water supply is pure and 
abundant, the police force prompt and efficient in enforcing 
the laws under a prohibitory city government, and the fire 
department thoroughly organized, and supplemented by the 
fire alarm telegraph and telephone furnish protection to 
property. The streets are well lighted with electric lights 
and gas. The letter-carrier system is in operation, and con- 
venient means of transit to the extreme limits of the city is 
furnished by the street railway. The churches and schools 
are numerous and flourishing. 

In addition to its local advantages, Fitchburg is an im- 
portant railroad centre, and is located on the Hoosac Tunnel 
Line. More than fifty passenger trains daily arrive at the 
union depot, and the traveler who desires to reach New 
York, Boston, Providence, Fall River and New Bedford, or 



20 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



local stations between the points, may take trains almost any 
hour in the clay. The Fitchburg railroad runs eleven pas- 
senger trains to Boston every week-day, and five to Green- 
field and North Adams. Through trains leave Boston via 
Fitchburg and North Adams for Saratoga Springs, this route- 
being twenty-five miles shorter from the "Hub" to the 
famous Spa than any other route. Fast through trains are 
also operated by this line to Chicago, St. Louis, and all 
points West. The Cheshire Railroad is operated between 




UNION PASSENGER DEPOT. 



Fitchburg and Bellows Falls, Vt., and in connection with 
the Fitchburg and Central Vermont offers a through line to 
all Canadian points and all points in Vermont, and is the 
shortest line from Boston to Lake George. The Northern 
Division of the Old Colony Railroad terminates at Fitchburg, 
and furnishes four daily trains to Boston and also to the 
principal cities of Southern Massachusetts. The Fitchburg 
and Worcester Division affords ample means of communica- 
tion between the shire towns of the county. 



DESCRIPTIVE. 21 

The union passenger station used by all these roads in 
common is a commodious building" and an ornament to the 
city. 

Among the other public buildings may be mentioned the 
City Hall, a large brick structure, the whole upper story of 
which is devoted to a hall — the largest in the city, the first 
floor to the city offices and the basement story to the .police 
station ; the county Court House, a stone building of noble 
proportions, in the rear of Monument Square, built in 187 1 : 
the American House, opposite the depot : the Fitchburg 
Hotel and Rollstone House, are prominent landmarks on 
Main street : Whitney's Opera House, the only theatre in 
town ; the county Jail in South Fitchburg ; the High School 
on High street, built in 1S69 ; the Post-Office building, a 
neat and substantial brick edifice, opposite the Baptist 
church, the post-office occupying the lower floor and the 
upper portion devoted to the Board of Trade, Park Club, and 
offices. The finest public edifice in the city is the Wallace 
Library and Art Building, the gift of Hon. Rodney Wal- 
lace to the city ; it occupies one of the best locations on Main 
street, looking out upon Monument Park. 

The principal business buildings are the Fitchburg Sav- 
ings Bank Block, Rollstone National Bank Building, Wa- 
chusett National Bank Building, the L. J. Brown, Coggs- 
hall & Carpenters, Belding's, Dickinson's, Holgate's, 
Cushing's, Hatch's, Crocker's, Knights of Honor, Wixon's, 
Stiles's, Emory's and Proctor's all on Main street, and Union, 
Goodrich's and the new dishing block (not yet completed) 
on Dav street. 



CHAPTER II. 



FITCHBURG OF THE PAST. 




AVING given a verbal description of 
the citv of Fitchburg in 1887, let us 
for a moment glance at the village as 
it appeared but a little more than fifty 
years ago. No better idea of its 
transformation since that time can be 
conveyed than that given by Eben 
Bailey in his pen picture of the village 
of Fitchburg in 1830, which appeared 
in the "Worcester County History," in 
which he says, "There were quite a 
number of houses on West and Mechanic streets, but not a 
single house on the north side of Main street, between a 
point just below the present residence of Ebenezer Torrey 
and the house owned by Oliver Fox, Esquire, near the 
corner of Main and Prichard streets (this latter not then 
being laid out). There were at that time in Fitchburg 325 
dwelling houses, two meeting houses, one academy, twelve 
school houses, one printing office, two woolen mills, four 
cotton mills, one scythe manufactory, two paper mills, four 
grist mills, ten saw mills, three taverns, two hat manufacto- 
ries, one bellows manufactory, two tanneries, two window- 
blind manufactories, and one chair manufactory." 

"In 1835 tne appearance of the village was somewhat as 
follows : We should find a store on the corner of Main and 
River streets, and further down, not far from the common, 
the Baptist church, in the basement of which was a book- 



FITCHBURG OF THE PAST. 23 

store and bindery. Near the head of the common was the 
Unitarian church, used for town meetings and public pur- 
poses. On the corner of Main and Rollstone streets was 
the orthodox church, and just below a grocery store, over 
which was the tailor shop of Daniel Cross, while further 
down was the tavern, situated on the site of the Fitchburg 
Hotel. Just beyond the tavern was a store and in the rear of 
it the printing office. On the other side of the street, where 
the store of E. M. Read now is, was the store of Benjamin 
Snow & Son, and just above, in the building where is now 



the barber shop of D. W. Hilton, was a hardware store. 
Above was the Fitchburg Bank and a tavern on the present 
site of the Rollstone House. There were perhaps forty 
dwellings in the upper portion of the village. There was a 
cotton mill where is now the mill of B. M. Pitts and the 
woolen mill in Factory square was substantially the same as 
is the present factorv of the Fitchburg woolen mill company 
(recently sold to the Parkhill manufacturing company). In 
Newton Lane there was a cotton factory. In the Old City 
there was a store in the rear of the present store of I. C. 



24 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Wright, and there were about a dozen dwelling houses. 
There was also the stone cotton mill on Laurel street, and a 
paper mill on Water street. There were a number of stone 
bridges and a dozen dams on the Nashua. There was stage 
communication daily with Boston, Keene and Lowell, and 
stages left three times a week for Springfield and Worcester. 
There were mail-stages which answered to our express trains 
and there were also accommodation stages between Fitch- 
burg and Boston. Those were halcyon days for hotel keep- 
ers and the stage driver was a man of importance." 

For the following brief description of Main street, as it 
appeared in 1800, we are indebted to Mrs. Harriet Kimball, 
widow of Alpheus Kimball and mother of A. P., William 
and Gen. J. W. Kimball, and Mrs. Richard H. Torrey. 

Mrs. Kimball is now in her 98th year and is the oldest 
person in Fitchburg, having resided here about 90 years. 
Her memory and mental faculties are remarkably well pre- 
served and she remembers the location of the buildings along 
Main street at the beginning of the present century. 

She says, "at that time the first house on the main road 
west of the Lunenburg line was situated on what is known 
as the Dr. Palmer place, nearly opposite the residence of E. 
A. Goodrich, on that part of the road which is now called 
Summer street. The next house occupied what is now the 
American House corner and there were no houses, now 
standing, between that and the Safety Fund Bank (Crocker 
Block). An ancient soap shop occupied the present site of 
Crocker Block, and was known as 'Old Potash.' West of 
that there were no other buildings until near where the 
Rollstone House now stands. The street was unpaved and 
there were no sidewalks and very little fence on either side 
of the street.'' 

Going still further back in the history of the town to the 
time of its incorporation in 1764, the people subsisted chiefly 
by farming, using the crudest implements of husbandry. 
The population at that time was about 250. The roads were 
few in number and poorly constructed, many of them merely 
bridle paths, and most of the travel was on horseback. The 



FITCIIIiURG OF THE PAST. 



25 



Nashua river was considered a curse to the place, and the 
valley through which it run was shunned by the early 

settlers. The art of construct- 
ing durable bridges was not 
understood in those days, and it 
was generally thought that 
Fitchburg could never be a 
nourishing place on account of 
the destructive freshets and con- 
sequent expense of maintaining 
and keeping in repair the roads 
and bridges. The accompany- 
ing engraving is given, showing 
the location of the four principal 
streets leading through the town 
at that time. Following still 
further back to the rirst settle- 
ment of the town we find that 
the rirst settler within the limits 
of Fitchburg was one David 
Page, who lived in the vicinity of Pearl street. His dwell- 
ing was built of logs and surrounded by a stockade of sticks 
of timber driven closely 
together as a protection """' 

against the incursion of I 
savages, and to add to its 
convenience and safety in 
case of siege he made 
covered channel by which 
a small brook was con- 
ducted for quite a dis- 
tance underground and -jp 
through the garrison, sup- ~~^*a§y: 
plying it with pure water. 

Torrey's History refers to David Page as one of a large 
family of children of Governor Page, and states that he after- 
ward removed to the northerly part of Vermont. An elderly 
jientleman of Lunenburg, from whom the facts were obtained 





26 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 




in 1835, relates the following: "This Page, having a roving 
disposition and a speculative cast of mind, took it into his 
head, when quite young, that he could make more money by 
trading with the Indians, than by cutting down forest trees 
and cultivating the soil. Accordingly, he directed his course 

towards Canada, and com- 
menced purchasing bea- 
ver and otter skins of the 
ignorant natives upon this 
principle, — that his foot 
weighed just four pounds 



jjjjjg and his hand one pound. 
This they seemed to doubt, 
but were soon satisfied by 
his making the declaration that it was as fair for one party as 
the other, since he weighed off to them, by the same weights, 
his powder, tobacco, shot, etc. This grand field for making 
an honest living was, however, soon closed ; for some other 
traders coming that way, explained the trick to the Indians, 
and the Old Governor's speculating son had to decamp very 
suddenly — weights and all — to save his life."' 

Soon after Page located other settlers began to come in, 
until in 1748, there were at least five other garrisons within 
the present boundaries of Fitchburg. The owners were 
Samuel Poole, Samuel Hunt, Isaac Gibson, Joseph Spofford, 
and John Fitch. The latter lived in the northern part of the 
town, since set off to form a part of the town of Ashby, and 
it seems certain the town of Fitchburg was named for him, as 
he was prominent in se- 
curing its incorporation. 
In 1748, Fitchburg re- 
ceived a visit from the In- 
dians and on the 5th ot 
July, the garrison of John 
Fitch was attacked by 
them. The two soldiers 
who were with him were 
killed, but he kept up the defence of the garrison for some 




FITCHBURG OF THE PAST. 



27 






time, his wife loading the guns and he tiring them. They 
finally surrendered, however, being told that their lives would 
be spared if they would do so, and the family, consisting 
of Fitch, his wife and rive children, the youngest a babe, 
were taken to Montreal. 

The following day 

Deas. Goodridge and 

Amos Kimball were 

fired upon by Indians, 

but escaped to Page's 

garrison. The alarm 
:1 being given, soldiers 

started in pursuit of the 

Indians, but finding a 

piece of bark stuck on 

a tree, on which Fitch 

had written a request 

for them not to follow 

them further as their 
captors would kill him if overtaken, 
they gave up the pursuit. 

The following fall, the Fitch family 
were ransomed and all returned safely, 
with the exception of Mrs. Fitch, who 
died on her way home. For years after 
John Fitch was a prosperous and influ- 
ential citizen in Fitchburg and after- 
ward in Ashby, where his neighborhood 
was set off in 1767 to form a part of ' = = | z =7=C^r ^ =M 
that town. He died April 8, 1795, ^gajl 
aged 87 years, at the house of a rela- 
tive in Ashby, and a monument com- 
memorating these events was afterward 
erected to his memory. There has been 
a difference of opinion in the past regarding the year of the 
Indian raid and also doubt expressed as to the town of Fitch- 
burg being named in honor of John Fitch, but these questions 
have been set at rest by the researches of the late Stephen 






^<S FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Shepley and Henry A. Willis. Mr. Shepley's investigation 
fixes the time of the Indian raid in July, 1748. This ac- 
count differs from Peter Whitney, Rufus C. Torrey and the 
monument date, but these last authorities differ from each 
other and are not fully substantiated. The statement made 
at different times, that the town received its name from a cer- 
tain large landholder by the name of Fitch, was found (after 
a thorough search of records in Boston and Worcester by 
Mr. Willis) to have the slightest possible foundation, the 
person referred to being a non-resident and having only an 
indirect interest in a small piece of ground. 

The earliest account of any visit of the pale faces within 
the limits of Fitchbnrg, as well as the only other Indian epi- 
sode connected with the history of the town, dates back to 
the nth of Februarv, 1676. On the da}' previous the Indians 
attacked Lancaster, destroyed the settlement by burning the 
houses, murdering many of the people and taking the rest 
with them into captivity. Among the number spared was 
Mrs. Rowlandson, wife of the minister of the place, who on 
her return from captivity published an account of her jour- 
neyings through the wilderness. From her description it 
would seem that she passed the night of Feb. 11 within 
the limits of Fitchburg and on Rollstone Hill. Let us 
for a moment imagine the scene, surrounded bv a band 
of merciless savages, exulting over the destruction of her 
home and the murder of those near and dear to her. 
Overwhelmed by the loss of her husband and children 
and exposed to the wintry blasts, with a prospect of hope- 
less captivity in view, what torture of mind and bod)' might 
she not have endured. It was but one case of many 
in those days of hardship and danger. Mrs. Rowland- 
son's description of the massacre at Lancaster and suc- 
ceeding events is as follows : (Forty-two persons sought 
shelter under her roof and after a hot assault the Indians suc- 
ceeded in setting the house on fire.) "Quickly,*' Mrs. Row- 
landson says, ''it was the dolefullest day that mine eyes ever 
saw, now the dreadful hour is come some in our house were 
fighting for their lives ; others wallowing in blood ; the 



FITCIir.URG OF THE PAST. 



29 



house on fire over our heads and the bloody heathens ready 
to knock us on the head if we stirred out. I took mv chil- 
dren to go forth but the Indians shot so thick that the bullets 
rattled against the house as if one had thrown a handful of 
stones. We had six stout dogs but not one of them would 
stir. The bullets Hying thick, one went through my side 
and through my poor child in my arms." The brutalities of 
an Indian massacre followed. Mrs. Rowlandson was taken 
captive with one poor, wounded babe. She adds, "Down I 
must sit in the snow, with my sick child, the picture of death, 
in my arms. Not the least crumb of refreshment came 
within either of our mouths from Wednesday night to Satur- 
day night, except a little cold water." 

How little do the mothers ot the present day, surrounded 
by the comforts and blessings of civilization, know of the 
sorrows of the women of a former generation. 



CHAPTER III. 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 




The administration of municipal 
affairs is committed to the hands of 
a Mayor, Board of Aldermen, and 
Common Council. The annual 
election is held on the first Tuesday 
in December and the city govern- 
ment is formally organized on the 
first Monday of the following Janu- 
ary. Six Aldermen — one from each 
ward — compose the Board, and the Common Council consists 
of eighteen members — three from each ward. 

Meetings of the city government are held on the first and 
third Tuesdays of each month. 

The officers of the city for the present year are as follows : 
Mayor: Frederick Fosdick. 

Aldermen : Ward i — Frank A. Wood ; Ward 2 — David 
M. Dillon : Ward 3— John Parkhill ; Ward 4— James F. D. 
Garfield; Ward 5— Henry M. Choate ; Ward 6— Horace M. 
Kendall. Clerk of the Board of Aldermen: Walter A. 
Davis. 

Common Councilmen: Ward 1 — Michael D. Crimmins, 
Frederick Ryan, Joseph A. Fuller; Ward 2 — George S. 
Coggswell, James Hanna, Francis A. McCauliff ; Ward 3 — 
William H. Goodwin, Benjamin G. Bagley, Henry F. Rock- 
well ; Ward 4 — Willard Dennis, Joseph C. Moulton, William 
Edwards : Ward 5 — Alvin E. Battles, Charles P. Washburn, 
Clarentine E. Ferson ; Ward 6 — Thomas H. Doherty, 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 31 

Michael Whalon, James II. McCarty. President of the 
Common Council: Henry F. Rockwell: Clerk: J. E. 
Kellogg, elected by the Common Council. 

The following named well known citizens have filled the 
office of Mayor since the incorporation of the city : 

Amasa Norcross, from formation of the City Government 
to Jan. 1875 : Eugene T. Miles, from Jan. 1875 tu J an - 
1876; Hiram A. Blood, from Jan. 1876 to Jan. 1877 ; David 
H. Merriam, from Jan. 1877 to Jan. 1879: William H. Yose, 
from Jan. 1879 to J an - 1880; Eli Culley, from Jan. 1880 to 
Jan. 1882 ; George Robbins, from Jan. 1882 to Jan. 1883 ; 
Alonzo Davis, from Jan. 1883 to Jan. 1886, and Frederick 
Fosdick, from Jan. 1886 to the present time. 

AMASA NORCROSS, 

first Mayor of Fitchburg, was born in Rindge, N. II., Jan. 
26, 1824, he received an excellent academic education, first 
in the academv of his native town and subsequently in a sim- 
ilar institution at New Ipswich, N. H. Selecting the profes- 
sion of law he became in 1844 a student in the office of the 
Hon. Nathaniel Wood in Fitchburg, and in 1847 was ad- 
mitted to the bar, since that time he has pursued his 
professional labors in this city and is to-day the senior mem- 
ber of the Fitchburg bar. In 185S-59 and 1862 Mr. Norcross 
was a member of the Massachusetts house of representatives, 
elected on the republican ticket, in 1858 he was a member of 
the committee of probate and chancery of which Gov. An- 
drew, then a member of the house, was chairman, and in 
1859 an d 1862 he was a member of the judiciary committee. 
In August of the last named vear he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln United States assessor for the 9th Congressional 
District of Massachusetts, serving for ten years and until the 
office was abolished bv act of congress. In 1862 the authori- 
ties of Dartmouth conferred upon him the degree of Master 
of Arts. In the session of 1859 Mr. Norcross was appointed 
a member of the joint committee of the senate and house ot 
representatives to examine and amend the report ot the com- 



32 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

missioners appointed to codify the laws of the state. Upon 
this committee were several distinguished lawyers, among 
whom were Gen. Caleb Gushing and Gen. Benjamin F. But- 
ler. In 1S74 ^ e was a member of the Massachusetts senate 
and chairman of the judiciary committee of that body, also 
chairman of the committee on federal relations. To him was 
assigned the honor of drafting the report which recom- 
mended rescinding the resolutions of censure upon Charles 
Sumner which had been passed by the legislature of Massa- 
chusetts. The rescinding resolutions reached Senator 
Sumner at Washington a few days before his death and 
doubtless contributed materially to soothe his last hours. In 
the fall of 1876 Mr. Norcross was elected representative to 
congress and re-elected in 1878 and again in 1880. 

Local affairs always received a proportionate share of Mr. 
Norcross' attention. On the organization of the City Gov- 
ernment in 1873 he received the honor of first election to the 
Mayoralty of the new city : he was re-elected the following 
year. With financial and other public organizations he has 
been for many years prominently identified. He is a director 
in the Rollstone National Bank, president of the Worcester 
North Savings Institution and of the Fitchburg Fire Insur- 
ance Company. He took an active part in organizing the 
Fitchburg Benevolent Union, was its first president and is 
now one of its life members. For fifteen years he has been a 
trustee of the Lawrence Academy at Groton ; by an act of 
legislature was made one of the original members of the or- 
ganization known as the dishing Academy at Ashburnham, 
of which he is now a trustee, contributing largely to the or- 
ganizing and building up of this now flourishing academy. 

EUGENE T. MILES, 

second Mayor of Fitchburg, familiarly known in Fitchburg 
as Captain Miles, was born in Framingham, Aug. 26, 1826. 
His parents resided in Shrewsbury but were temporarily 
stopping in Framingham. He was educated as a business 
man in Worcester, where he beu'an as clerk in Kinnicufs 




^ I 



£^c/ At^t- y. 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 33 

hardware store. In 1856 he came to Fitchburg and was 
associated with A. G. Page in business ; Mr. Page sold his 
interest to Mr. Augustus Whitman. The partnership with 
Mr. Whitman extended from 1856 until the death of Capt. 
Miles, in 1876. He was one of the corporators of the Whit- 
man & Miles Manufacturing Co., in 1864, of which company 
he was president at the time of his death. He was connected 
with a number of other manufacturing companies of this city 
and also at Akron, Ohio. He was prominently connected with 
the municipal affairs of Fitchburg for many years, was a 
member of the board of selectmen in 1864, '65, '66 and 1872, 
and Mayor of the city in 1875. He was one of the directors 
of the Fitchburg National Bank and one of the trustees of the 
Fitchburg Savings Bank. He was also president of the 
Worcester North Agricultural Society, and a member of the 
State Board of Agriculture and one of the vice-presidents of 
the Fitchburg Board of Trade since its organization. 

Capt. Miles was an earnest supporter of the Union army 
during the late war, ever ready to aid the soldiers and their 
families. He finally concluded to go to the front, but the 
health of his partner failed, which left the sole management 
of a very extensive business entirely to his care, compelling 
him to resign his commission as captain of Company A, 53d 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, before the regiment left 
its quarters in New York for active service in the field. At 
the close of the war he was captain of the Fusiliers one year. 
He also did a large share of the work of the committee on 
the soldiers' monument. 

In the very meridian of his manhood .and in the midst of 
usefulness he was called from the scenes of this life. He 
died very suddenly at his residence on Blossom street, June 
26, 1876. 

Better known to all of the citizens of Fitchburg, both rich 
and poor, than almost any other man, and bound up as lie 
was with so many of our mercantile interests, his loss was 
severely felt. His characteristics were a devotion to the wel- 
fare of his adopted city, honesty of official life as well as 
integrity in business affairs of every description, and the 
3 



34 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

exercise of those estimable qualities that go to make up the 
companion and friend ; and it may be truly said of him that 
in his death the poor man, the soldier, and the soldier's 
family lost a sincere friend. 

HIRAM ALBRO BLOOD, 

third Mayor of Fitchburg, was born in Townsend, Mass., 
Feb. 3, 1833, where he received an academical education. 

He was first elected Mayor by the board of aldermen and 
common council, Nov. 2, 1875, to fill out the unexpired term 
of Eugene T. Miles, and at the subsequent annual election 
in December he was elected mayor by the people and was 
inaugurated January, 1876, and filled the office of Mayor for 
one year and two months. 

At the age of twenty he entered the commission house of 
Bliss, Sutton & Co. in Worcester, Mass., as a clerk and be- 
came a member of the firm in 1854, at which time he opened 
a branch house in Fitchburg, and came here to live and has 
resided here ever since. In 1857 he dissolved his connection 
with Bliss, Sutton & Co., and entered into a co-partnership 
with William O. Brown of this city, under the name of Blood 
& Brown, which existed until i860, when Mr. Brown with- 
drew to enter the United States Army, becoming a major of 
the 25th Regiment, and a new firm was formed under the 
name of H. A. Blood & Co., which continued to carry on 
the business. In 1865 Mr. Blood withdrew from all mercan- 
tile pursuits and became entirely interested in railroads, to 
the construction and operation of which he has ever since 
oiven his time and attention. 

CD 

In 1865 he became connected with the Fitchburg and 
Worcester Railroad company, as a director, and as its super- 
intendent and general manager. He afterwards built or was 
largely instrumental in building, the Boston, Clinton and 
Fitchburg, the Framingham and Lowell, the Mansfield and 
Framingham and the Fall River railroads, of which he suc- 
cessively became superintendent and general manager, and 
afterwards united and consolidated them together with the 





tt/ s*l£ 




CITY GOVERNMENT. 35 

New Bedford and Taunton, and the Taunton Branch rail- 
roads into one system under the name of the Boston, Clinton, 
Fitchburg and New Bedford Railroad Company, reaching 
from Fitchburg and Lowell in the north, to Mansfield, Taun- 
ton, New Bedford and Fall River in the southern part of the 
state. This system of railroads was for a time operated by 
Mr. Blood as general manager and was afterwards united and 
consolidated with the Old Colony Railroad Company, of 
which it now forms an important part. In the construction 
of these railroads, and in their subsequent operation and con- 
solidations, Mr. Blood was the moving and directing spirit. 

In 1875 ne procured the Charter for the Wachusett Na- 
tional Bank of Fitchburg, obtained all the subscriptions to its 
capital stock, established the bank and became its first vice- 
president. 

He is now chiefly interested in railroads in the state of 
Ohio, being the president of The Cleveland and Canton Rail- 
road Company in that state, which position he has held since 
May, 1S84, but he still retains his residence in Fitchburg, 
where he has an office, as well as an office in Boston, Mass. 

1242.14.*; 

DAVID H. MERRIAM, *° 

fourth Mayor of Fitchburg, was born, July 3, 1820, at Essex, 
in the county of Essex and state of New York, was one of 
seven children of Josephus and Betsey Merriam. His father 
died when he was eight years of age, his mother moved to 
Fitchburg in July. 1829, with her seven children. Fitchburg 
at that time contained about 2,000 inhabitants. 

He carried on the carriage and harness business five 
years, from 1842 to 1847, he then commenced studying law 
with Hon. Nathaniel Wood and Ebenezer Torrey. In 1850 
was appointed Assistant Marshal of Massachusetts, by the 
President, to take the census of this district. In 1851 was 
admitted to the bar at Worcester, at the April term of the su- 
preme judicial court, and in 1858 he was admitted to practice 
in the United States court by the Hon. Judge Sprague upon 
examination, he being the first person ever admitted to 



36 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

practice in the United States court from Fitchburg. In 185 1 
he was appointed a Justice of the Peace for the county of 
Worcester by Gov. George S. Boutwell, which office he has 
held thirty-six years. In 1861 he represented the district, in 
which Fitchburg was a part, in the Massachusetts house of 
representatives, and was a member of the judiciary commit- 
tee, and a member of a joint committee of a special session to 
prepare for the families of the soldiers by passing the state 
aid laws and other acts of like nature. Was one of the se- 
lectmen of Fitchburg in 1861. In 1863 was appointed 
Provost Marshal of the 9th District of Massachusetts by 
President Lincoln and held the office during the war, and 
was honorably discharged, Oct. 15, 1865, having served 
until the close of the war. In 186S he was appointed Special 
Justice of the police court of Fitchburg by his Excellency 
Alexander H. Bullock, governor, which office he now holds. 
He was elected Mayor of Fitchburg in 1877 and 1878, and 
has held the office of Commissioner of Insolvency for the 
county of Worcester for eighteen years and has practiced 
law in Fitchburg thirty-six years, and holds a commission as 
Notary Public and Justice of the Peace and Quorum tor the 
Commonwealth. 

WILLIAM H. VOSE, 

fifth Mayor of Fitchburg, was born in Leominster, Nov. 5, 
1808. His early life was spent on the farm, but at the age 
of 14 he entered a woolen mill to learn the art of finishing 
cloth. In 1828-29 he was employed in the Fitchburg Woolen 
Mill. At 21 years of age he went to Royalston and was em- 
ployed as overseer in the mill of Rufus Bullock, father of the 
late Governor A. H. Bullock, till 1846, when he moved to 
Winchendon and formed a partnership with George S. 
Coffin, which continued about two years, the firm being en- 
gaged in the manufacture of woolen goods. In 1848 Mr. 
Vose bought an interest in the Fitchburg Woolen Mill ; soon 
became manager of the company and continued in that posi- 
tion until the time of his death, which occurred Oct. 27, 1884. 





Davicl H. Merriam. 



Wm. H. V< 




s* 







Eli Culley. 



Alonzo Davis 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 37 

For several years Mr. V^ose was a valued member of the 
directors' board of the Fitchburg National Bank and a trus- 
tee in the Fitchburg Savings Bank. He also served on the 
board of selectmen tor two years, from April 1862. He rep- 
resented the district of which Fitchburg formed a part in the 
legislatures of 1863 and '64. In 1873 and "74 he represented 
Ward 3 in the board of aldermen and was chairman of the 
important committees on highways, water and education. 
Those who served with him on those committees know with 
what fidelity to the best interests of the whole city he investi- 
gated every matter brought before the city council. His 
time and valuable business experience was always freely 
given to city affairs to bring the greatest good to the greatest 
number. In December, 1878, he was elected Mayor and 
served one year — declining an unanimous renomination. 

In all the relations of public and private life he was most 
exemplary and few men who have held positions of trust en- 
countered so little adverse criticism as Mr. Vose. His spot- 
less integrity and sincerity inspired perfect confidence and it 
seemed impossible for him to deceive or dissimulate. He 
weighed questions carefully and deliberately and arrived at 
conclusions slowly but with sound judgment. He was 
cheerful even under depressing circumstances and inter- 
course with his hopeful spirit was an excellent remedy for 
despondency. While freely expressing his convictions he 
treated with uniform courtesy all who came in contact with 
him and was always ready to listen and give due weight to 
the opinions of those who differed from him. He contributed 
in many ways to the prosperity of the city, but his most 
valuable contribution was the influence of his character and 
example on the rising generation. 

ELI CULLEY, 

sixth Mayor of Fitchburg, was born, Feb. 4, 1840, near the 
city of Bath in the west of England. At the age of fifteen 
came to the United States and located in Massachusetts. He 
was living in Boston at the time of the war and enlisted in 



38 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Company K, 43d Massachusetts Regiment. On his return 
from the army, being in poor health, he did not actively en- 
gage in business for some time ; but later on began the man- 
ufacture of riles in Weymouth, Mass. In the spring of 1868 
he removed his file business to Fitchburg, at first occupying 
a building near the Rollstone Machine company's works on 
Water street, and later moving to his present place of busi- 
ness at Newton lane. He was president of the Common 
Council in 1875, member of the board of Aldermen in 1877 
and 1878, and Mayor in 1880 and 1881, and is the only 
Mayor who has served as president of the Common Council 
and on the board of Aldermen as well. He was representa- 
tive to the Legislature in 1880. 

GEORGE ROBBINS, 

seventh Mayor of Fitchburg, is a native of Leominster, where 
he was born, Dec. 5, 1827. At sixteen years of age he was 
apprenticed to learn the trade of plate and sheet iron worker. 
In 1854 he came to Fitchburg and started in his present 
gas fitting and plumbing business. He served the town in 
the capacity of selectman prior to its incorporation as a city, 
and was a member of the committee who drafted the city 
charter. 

ALONZO DAVIS, 

eighth Mayor of Fitchburg, was born Nov. 15, 1817, in 
Gardner, Mass., where he learned the chair business. In 
1845 he removed to Fitchburg and in company with 
Augustus Rice started a chair manufactory in "Newton 
Lane," continuing the chair business with Hiram Wood, 
John D. Pratt, Henry T. Pratt and Charles E. Pratt, as 
partners, at different periods of time, until 1855 when in 
company with Henry T. Pratt a new brick factory was con- 
structed on "Tuttle Flat" — so called — of the following dimen- 
sions : 150 feet long, 40 feet wide, four stories high, where 
the chair business was continued under the firm name of A. 
Davis & Co. until 1864, when Mr. Davis purchased of his 




FREDERICK FOSDICK 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 39 

partners their interests and became sole owner, continuing 
the business to 1877. A little later Mr. Davis sold his 
factory to the Parkhill Manufacturing Company and retired 
from the chair business, which he had carried on for thirty- 
two consecutive years. Mr. Davis served as member of the 
city government for eight successive years, commencing in 
1S78 ; two years as common councilman ; three years as 
alderman, and three years as Mayor. 

FREDERICK FOSDICK, 

ninth and present Mayor of Fitchburg, was born in Groton, 
Mass., April, 1850, came to Fitchburg in 1870, and was in 
the office of the Burleigh Rock Drill Company thirteen 
months, then went to Pennsylvania coal mines for the pur- 
pose of setting up some pumping machinery for New Bedford 
parties, returning to Fitchburg in 1872, and taking the posi- 
tion of draughtsman for the Haskins Machine Companv. 
Upon organization of the Fitchburg Steam Engine Company 
took the position of Treasurer and Business Manager, which 
he still retains. He was three years on the school committee 
by election, two years president of common council and ex- 
officio on school committee, and two years Mayor, cx-officio 
on school committee, making seven years on the school 
board. He is also a trustee in the Worcester North Savings 
Institution. 

The other members of the present city government are as 
follows : 

ALDERMEN. 

Frank A. Wood, was born in Westminster, February, 
1844, lived there until the beginning of the war, when he en- 
listed in Company A, 36th Regiment, at expiration of his 
term of service returned to Fitchburgf and has been in busi- 
ness here most of the time since ; for the past fourteen years 
has been engaged in the provision business on Water street. 
Was on the city council in 1877. 



40 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

David M. Dillon, was born in St. Johns, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1843 ; went to learn the boiler makers trade at the 
age of fourteen ; left his native city and came to Boston in 
1S60, where he continued to work at his trade. In 1863 he 
was employed by the United States government as a boiler 
maker and stationed at Port Royal, S. C, where he re- 
mained for over a year. Coming North he finally located at 
Worcester where he started the boiler business in 1865, con- 
tinuing in the business for four years. He sold out in 
Worcester and came to Fitchburg in 1870. 

John Parkiiill, was born near Glasgow, in Scotland ; 
he came to this country and located in the city of Provi- 
dence, R. I., in 1848, where he remained for three years. 
From Providence he removed to Adams and afterwards 
to North Adams and was actively connected with the 
manufacturing of cotton goods in these two places for more 
than twenty-five years. He came to Fitchburg in 1879 an ^ 
in 1880 established the successful gingham industry which 
bears his name and of which corporation he is president. 

James F. D. Garfield, is a native of Langdon, N. H., 
where he was born Aug. 14, 1S28. He came to Fitchburg 
at the age of seventeen and from that time till twenty-one 
worked at printing in the office of the Fitchburg Sentinel — 
attending school at intervals at the Fitchburg Academy 
and at Lawrence Academy, Groton. The next three years 
were divided between school at Leicester Academy and 
working at his trade in Worcester. 

In September, 1852, he returned to Fitchburg, bought 
one-half interest in the Fitchburg Sentinel office, and con- 
tinued the publication of that paper in company with his 
brother Elisha Garfield, till October, i860, when he sold out, 
his brother, the senior partner, taking the entire business. 
After an interval of one or two years, which was passed in 
Boston and in Pawtucket, R. I.. Mr. Garfield in April, 1864, 
entered into partnership with John P. Sabin, for the purpose 



# 




■an1< ff^Wood. 




-- . 





James F O. Garfield 





Henry M . Choale. 



Horace M . Kendall 



BOARD OF ALDERMEN. 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 41 

of carrying on the coal business. At the end of one year 
William O. Brown succeeded Mr. Sabin and in April, 1866, 
George N. Proctor purchased Mr. Brown's interest. From 
that time to the present the firm has continued under the 
name of Garfield and Proctor, doing; business at the old 
stand, No. 23 Water street. At the municipal election in 
1881, Mr. Garfield was elected a member of the school com- 
mittee of Fitchburg for three years and in 1884 received a re- 
election for the same length of time. 

At the city election in December, 18S5, he was chosen 
alderman from Ward 4, and the following year was re- 
elected to the same office, during' the latter term serving as 
president of the board. In November, 1S86, he was chosen 
to represent the city of Fitchburg in the general court for the 
session of 1887, his associate being Joseph S. Wilson. 

Henry M. Choate, was born in Jamaica, Vt., Nov. 17, 
1836. Spent his early life on a farm, until the spring of 
1858, when he removed to Baltimore, Md. He was there 
salesman in a wholesale bakery for one and a half years. 
In September, 1859, ne came to Fitchburg and engaged in 
the grocery business with his brother until Ma}', 1882, when 
poor health compelled him to abandon the business, and he 
has engaged in no special occupation since that time. 
Served on the common council two years, 1881 and 1882. 

Horace M. Kendall, was born in Dunstable, Mass., 
June 6, 1848. His boyhood days were spent at home on the 
farm. In October, 1867, he went to Manchester, N. H., to 
learn the machinist's trade at the Manchester Locomotive 
Works and worked there four years. In November, 187 1, 
moved to Fitchburg and was in the employ of the Fitchburg 
Machine Works from that time until April, 1S85. He is at 
present employed at the Simonds Rolling Machine Com- 
pany's works ; was a member of the common council of 
Fitchburg three years, 1882-83 and 1884. 



42 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The city clerk is the official clerk of the board of alder- 
men. There have been but two city clerks since the 
incorporation of the city, the veteran town and City Clerk 
Henry Jackson, who served the town nearly six years and 
the city until January, 1887, and his successor, now in office. 

CITY CLERK. 

Walter A. Davis, the present city clerk, is a native of 
Fitchburg, the only son of ex-Mayor Alonzo Davis. He 
fitted for college at the high school and entered Williams in 
1865, graduating four years later. He was afterwards for 
several years associated with his father in the chair business. 
From 1880 to 1887, he was in the employ of the Fitchburg 
Railroad Company, as freight clerk, night clerk and ticket 
clerk. His education and experience in transacting business 
with all classes of people have admirably fitted him for the 
office he holds. 

COMMON COUNCIL. 

Michael D. Crimmins, was born June 5, 1847, in Ire- 
land, came to America and located in Orange, Mass., in 
i860, moved to Fitchburg in 1867, is an iron moulder by 
trade and employed by Heywood, Wilson & Co. 

Frederic Ryan, was born in Westminster, Mass., 1855 ; 
at the age of five vears came to Fitchburg and has resided 
here since ; is a carpenter by trade. 

Joseph A. Fuller, was born Sept. 14, 1841, in what 
was then the town of Cumberland, R. I., now Woonsocket. 
At the breaking out of the Rebellion he enlisted in the 1st 
R. I. Cavalry, Troop C, served during the war, was slightly 
wounded twice — a buck shot scalp wound and a sabre cut. 
Since returning from the service he has travelled over the 
United States, Canada and Chili, South America, setting up 
woolen machinery. He came to Fitchburg in 1881, and has 
since been in the employ of the Putnam Machine Company. 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 43 

George S. Coggswell, was born Jul)' 12, 1857, at 
Pascoag, R. I., afterwards resided in Westerly, R. I., live 
years, moving to West Fitchburg about 1873, i- s overseer of 
the weaving department of the Fitchburg Worsted Company, 
West Fitchburg. 

James Hanna, was born Nov. 25, 1858, in West Fitch- 
burg and with the exception of eleven years in New York 
state has lived here since. He was for a long time over- 
seer of spinning at the Fitchburg Woolen Company's mills, 
but since the woolen business was discontinued has engaged 
in the coal business with Edward McElroy, under the firm 
name of McElroy & Hanna. 

Francis A. McCauliff, was born January, 1848, is a 
native of the Province of Quebec and came to Vermont in 
1S67. He has resided in Fitchburg about seventeen years, 
most of the time engaged in the granite business. 

William H. Goodwin, was born in Sterling, Jan. 2, 
1827. As a contractor and builder has since resided in 
various places, Fitchburg, Bolton, Clinton and Worcester, 
returning to Fitchburg in 1S51. Since which time he has 
probably built five hundred houses and public buildings in 
this city, besides rebuilding nearly every dam on the Nashua 
within the city limits. Is the present Inspector of Buildings. 

Benjamin G. Bagley, was born in Clinton, Maine, 
Feb. 16, 1845, removed from that place to Waltham and 
afterwards to Fitchburg, where he has resided for the past 
ten years. Is a carpenter by trade and a member of E. V. 
Sumner Post 19, G. A. R., having served in Co. F, Unat- 
tached Maine Infantry, during the war. 

Henry F. Rockwell (President), was born in Fitch- 
burg in 1849, and received his education in the public schools 
of his native town. In 1S64 he went to Boston as an appren- 
tice in the Pharmacy of S. II. Woods, 51 Tremont street, 
and from that time has made the drug business his occupa- 
tion. He returned to Fitchburg in 1877 and engaged in 
business at 401 Main street, where he is still located. 



44 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Willard Dennis, a native of Barre, Mass., was born 
March 30, 1825, removed to Fitchburg and was engaged 
in manufacturing and mercantile business here for the past 
thirty years, although he was a printer by trade. He was a 
member of the firm of George Robbins & Co. He died Oct. 
9, 1887. 

Joseph C. Moulton, was born in Sandwich, N. II., 
Jan. 1, 1824. Left home at 21 years of age, came to Massa- 
chusetts in 1848, and three years later became a resident of 
Fitchburg, engaging in the daguerreotype business, out of 
which has grown his present extensive photograph business ; 
was chosen the first president of the Y. M. C. A., serving 
three years and declining a re-election ; superintendent of 
the Rollstone Sunday School for thirteen years. 

Wileiam Edwards, is a native of Wales where he was 
born Dec. 3, 1846; came to New York in 1868; to Fitch- 
burg in 1870 to engage in the business of slate roofing. 
This is his third year on the common council. 

Alvin E. Battles, a native of Fitchburg, was born 
June 28, 1837, has since resided in Fitchburg, with the ex- 
ception of a few vears in Millbury, Mass., and Manchester, 
N. H. Is a moulder by trade ; has been connected with the 
Fitchburg fire department for a number of years. 

Charles P. Washburn, was born in Middleboro, 
Mass., Dec. 11, 1856, with the exception of a short resi- 
dence in Boston, lived there until 1881, when he engaged in 
business and removed to Fitchburg ; is at present associated 
with F. F. Woodward in the firm of Washburn & Woodward, 
grain dealers. 

Clarentine E. Ferson, was born May 19, 1845, in 
Francestown, N. H. His parents went to Lowell, Mass., 
when in his infancy ; lived there until he was thirty years of 
age, with the exception of three years' service in the Union 
Army and one year in the western country. In 1875 ne 
went to Greenville, N. H., where he resided four years, then 
came to Fitchburg, in October, 1879, and has lived here since. 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 45 

His military service was in Co. L, 1st Regiment Massachu- 
setts Artillery, enlisting as a private at sixteen years of age, 
and was sergeant at the end of his term of service. 

Thomas H. Doiierty, was born in Lowell, Mass., Oct. 
26, 1853 ; has resided in Fitchburg since 1863 ; is in the em- 
ploy of Alderman F. A. Wood, in the provision business, on 
Water street. 

Michael Whalon, was born August, 1839, in Dayville, 
Conn. He came to Fitchburg at the age of seven and has 
lived here since ; is an iron moulder by trade. 

James H. McCarty, is a native of Fitchburg, was born, 
July 18, 1862, is engaged in the provision business at the cor- 
ner of Water and First streets, where he has always resided; 
has represented his ward in the common council three years, 
and was the youngest man ever elected councilman in this 
city. 

CLERK OF COMMON COUNCIL. 

John E. Kellogg, clerk of the common council, was 
born at Amherst, Mass., July 2, 1845 ; graduated at Willis- 
ton Seminary, Easthampton, in '65, and Amherst College in 
'69 ; since been engaged in journalism — two years on Spring- 
field Republican, two years with New York Associated 
Press, a few months with the Taunton Gazette, and since 
1873 with the Fitchburg Sentinel. He has been clerk of the 
common council since May, 1880, and a member of the 
school committee since January, 1887. 

city auditor. 

Henry Jacksox, city auditor, is a native of Leominster, 
Mass. When five years old he removed to Fitchburg where 
he has since resided most of the time. He attended the 
academy at Framingham and Fitchburg, has been employed 
as bookkeeper in various positions in this city, Aug. 25, 
1866, was elected town clerk, acting as town and city clerk 
until January, 1887 ; clerk for the board of selectmen to 



4(! FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

January, 1873 ; water register from 1872 to 1885 '•> librarian 
of the public library from September 1866 to January 1873 ; 
member of the auditing committee from 1867 to 1873 and 
city auditor from 1873 to the present time. 

CITY TREASURER AND COLLECTOR OF TAXES. 

Henry A. Willis, was born in Fitchburg, Nov. 26, 1830 ; 
has lived here the most of his life, engaged in banking, and 
is now president of the Rollstone National Bank. He was 
president of the first common council in 1873, elected city 
treasurer and tax collector for 1874 anc ^ annually since ; has 
been a trustee of the public library for about twenty years ; 
was a member of the legislature in 1866. He is or has been 
connected with various Fitchburg corporations in official ca- 
pacity. Ebenezer Torrey, who was treasurer and tax col- 
lector the first year, 1873, had served the town in the same 
capacity for many years. 

CITY SOLICITOR. 

Edward E. Pierce, was born in Templeton, Mass., 
Dec. 28, 1852; came to Fitchburg about i860; graduated 
at the high school in 1873 ; entered Harvard University in 
1873 ; graduated at the law school, Harvard University, in 
1877, with the degree of L. L. B. ; is a member of the law 
firm of Pierce & Stiles. The following named lawyers have 
filled the office of city solicitor: George A. Torrey, 1873; 
David H. Merriam, 1874-75-76; Harris C. Hartwell from 
1877 to 1886. 

CITY PHYSICIAN. 

John D. Kieltv, was born in Fitchburg, June 17, 1858, 
educated in our public schools and at the dishing Academy, 
Ashburnham, Mass. ; graduated from the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, Boston, May 24, 1883, an d from the 




VValter A. Davis. 



C. H. D. Stoekbridge. 





John D. Kielty. 



Edward P. Pierce 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 47 

Bellevue Hospital Medical College, city of New York, Mar. 
13, 1S84 ; was appointed city physician January, 1887. 

The past city physicians are Charles H. Rice, 1873-74- 
75; Alfred O. Hitchcock, 1876; F. H. Thompson, 1877; 
E. P. Miller, 1878; D. Sidney Woodworth, 1879-80-81; 
Alfred O. Hitchcock, 1882-83 ; E. P. Miller, 1884; D. Sid- 
ney Woodworth, 1885-86. 

DEPARTMENTS. 

POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

There are few cities in the United States where there is 
greater safety to life and property than in Fitchburg. The 
pleasantest relations exist between the different departments 
of the city government, and as a consequence, thev work to- 
gether for the public welfare. The city has been remarkably 
free from crimes of a serious nature, and few disastrous tires 
have occurred. We have, moreover, been singularly blessed 
in this age of labor agitation, by freedom from labor troubles 
and strikes, with all their attendant miseries, showing evi- 
dent consideration on the part of employers and a reasonable 
and contented spirit on the part of the employed. 

The police force of Fitchburg is not large as compared 
with the size of its population. The force at present consists 
of a chief, captain, sergeant and thirteen patrolmen. It is in 
an excellent state of discipline and a credit to the city. 

The small number of arrests for drunkenness, disturbance 
of the peace and other misdemeanors, usually committed in 
public places, is something remarkable when we consider the 
rapid growth of business and population in our city. This 
happy state of things is due in part to the faithful perform- 
ance of dutv by the officers of this department and in part by 
the law abiding character of our citizens. 

The officers in their endeavors to suppress the sale of in- 
toxicating liquor have had the support and encouragement oi 
the city government, and a pronounced temperance senti- 
ment on the part of the people, a decisive majority of our 



48 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

citizens having voted that no licenses for the sale of intoxicat- 
ing liquors shall be granted in our city and elected a mayor 
and aldermen in harmony with this vote. 

The officers and members of the police department are 
appointed by the mayor and aldermen in January, and are 
for the present year: Charles H. D. Stockbridge, chief; 
Russell O. Houghton, captain; Thomas Connor, sergeant; 
and Patrolmen W. H. Shattuck, Benjamin A. Young, John 
Flannagan, Joseph T. Battles, Joseph Shepard, Charles II. 
May, Frederick E. Raitt, Michael M. Connor, Milan G. 
Twichell, Ephraim E. Farrar, James F. Roy, Charles A. 
Kendall, Ira F. Legrow. 

Charles H. D. Stockbridge, the present chief of po- 
lice, was appointed in January, 1886. He is a native of Dix- 
field, Me., but came to Massachusetts when quite young and 
was in the employ of the Waltham Watch Company until 
1885, when he was appointed chief of the Waltham police by 
Mayor Johnson. Just before the close of the war,' when only 
fifteen years old, he enlisted in the 42d Massachusetts Regi- 
ment, but owing to the close of the war the regiment was not 
called into active service. He was connected with the mili- 
tary for eight years after the war, and at one time was 
captain of Company F, 5th Regiment, M. V. M. 

Those who have served as chief of police previous to 
1886 are R. O. Houghton, 1873-74; A. P. Kimball, 1875; 
William Gilchrist, 1882 ; Aaron F. Whitney, 1876-77-78- 
-79-80-81-83-84-85. 

FIRE department. 

The fire department is efficiently organized and is always 
kept in good working condition, ready for instant and zealous 
service. It is managed by a board of engineers who have 
charge of a good set of new and modern equipments, consist- 
ing of three steam lire engines, one hook and ladder com- 
pany, also hook and ladder truck manned by West Fitchburg 
hose company, and four hose companies, with three hose car- 
riages in reserve. 



CITY GOVERNMENT. <1 ( .> 

The board of engineers are chosen in November by the 
city council in convention and are as follows : D. W. 
Tinsley, chief; G. H. Kendall, ist assistant ; B. Parkhurst, 
2d assistant; J. N. Whiting, 3d assistant; G. E. Wellington, 
4th assistant. J. W. Rand, superintendent fire alarm tele- 
graph. 

Steamer Wachusett No. 1 — is located at zS Oliver street. 

Steamer Rollstone No. 2 — is located at 28 Oliver street. 
Engineer, W. H. Dow ; fireman, Charles T. Cook. 

Steamer Wanoosnoc No. 3 — is located at 108 Wachusett 
street, West Fitchburg. Engineer, Thomas May. 

Franklin Hook and Ladder Co. No. 1 — is located at 30 
Oliver street. Foreman, George J efts ; clerk, J. W. 
Fogarty : driver, H. H. Beard ; thirteen men. 

Rollstone Hose Co. No. 1 — is located at Steamer House, 
28 Oliver street. Foreman, F. C. Foster : clerk, J. T. Ken- 
dall ; driver, S. Poland; thirteen men. 

Wanoosnoc Hose Co. No. 2 — is located in No. 3 Steamer 
House, 108 Wachusett street, West Fitchburg. Foreman, 
Calvin Beer ; clerk, George Pethybridge ; driver, W. W. 
Marston ; thirteen men. 

Mazeppa Hose Co. No. 3 — is located on Factory square. 
Foreman, W. A. Pearce : clerk, F. P. Burrington ; ten men. 

Niagara Hose Co. No. 4 — is located on Day street. 
Foreman, T. F. Murnane ; clerk, J. II. Fogarty; ten men. 

David W. Tinsley, has been at the head of the lire de- 
partment for the past three years. He is a native of Hing- 
ham, Mass., where he was born Aug. iS„ 1848. At the age 
of 23 he came to Keene, N. H., and was there for about a 
year connected with the fire department as a member of 
Phoenix Hose Co. No. 4. He came to Fitchburg in 1872 
and about a year after joined the Fitchburg Fire Depart- 
ment: was a member of Hose Company No. 1, until 1878; 
was on the board of engineers until his election as chief of 
the department in 1884. 

Mr. Tinsley was for nearly ten years foreman of the lum- 
ber, door, sash and blind manufactory of C. A. Priest, but in 

4 



50 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

March of the present year, rinding his health was being af- 
fected by too close application to business, gave up his 
position, and has since been regaining his health ; working a 
portion of the time on architectural and mechanical drawing 
at his residence. 

Those who have served as chief of the fire department, 
since the incorporation of the city, are Lucius Aldrich, 
George H. Manchester, A. J. Green and George Reed. 

Mr. Reed, in speaking of the fire department, refers with 
pleasure to the temper of the organization during all the time 
he was connected with it. He joined the department in 1848 
as a member of Washingtonian Engine Co. No. 2, which was 
located on Day street, and in 1857 joined the only Hook and 
Ladder company ; was on the board of engineers twelve 
years, the last seven of which he was chief. He served 
under Kilburn Harwood, John H. Wheeler, James B. Lane, 
A. P. Kimball, Capt. E. T. Miles and Francis Sheldon, be- 
fore the incorporation of the city, and under Lucius Aldrich, 
George H. Manchester, and A. J. Green, since. No one is 
better acquainted witli the department or would speak more 
truthfully of its management, it is therefore an uncommon 
tribute to such an organization for their former chief to refer 
to his associates without a single unpleasant recollection and 
without the remembrance of an unkind word or act during 
the long time of active service. 

It is hardly necessary in this connection to say there 
exists a sincere friendship and respect for Mr. Reed, 
not only with the entire department as it is at present organ- 
ized, but with all who have ever been associated with him, 
either as his superior, equal or subordinate in rank. 

WATER DEPARTMENT. 

Every part of the city is supplied with an excellent quality 
of water, abundant in quantity and furnished to the inhabi- 
tants at reasonable rates. The first board of water commis- 
sioners was appointed in 1870, the town having accepted a 
charter from the legislature. Full plans and estimates were 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 



51 



presented and adopted and the works constructed in 187 1-2. 
The water supply was taken from Scott and Shattuck 

brooks, tributaries of Falulah brook, with four reservoirs, 

Scott, Overlook, Marshall 
and Falulah. Water for 
the high service is taken 
from Scott and Overlook 
and for the low service from 
Marshall and Falulah. The 
tour reservoirs have a ca- 
pacity of about 300,000,000 
gallons. Scott is 450 feet 
above the track of the Fitch- 
burg railroad, Overlook 405, 
Marshall 216, and Falulah 
236. The mode of supply 
is by gravitation and it is 
gratifying to know that the 
supply of water for lire ser- 
vice, as well as for do- 
mestic use, will doubtless 
prove sufficient for the next 
ten years. 

The water commissioners 
chosen in January, by the 
city council in convention, 
are Charles II. Brown, 
Thomas C. Lovell, Samuel 
D. Sheldon. Superintend- 
ent of water works, Thomas 
C. Lovell ; water registrar, 
A. W. F. Brown. 




ssssssssssssssssssssssss^ 



CITY ENGINEER AND SUPERINTENDKNT OF WATER WORKS. 



Thomas C. Lovhll, is a native of West Boylston, born 
March 21, 1846; spent his early life in his native town: 
studied civil engineering with Phineas Ball of Worcester ; 



52 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

came to Fitchburg in 1869 and opened an office as civil en- 
gineer : was elected superintendent of water works in 1875, 
as water commissioner in 1879, an< ^ c ^y engineer in 1880, 
which position he still holds. 

There have been but two city engineers previous to Mr. 
Lovell, George Raymond in 1873-4, ant ^ Thomas C. Shel- 
don 1875-6-7-8-9. 

WATER REGISTRAR. 

A. W. F. Brown, was born in Chelsea in 1864, April 
j : lived afterwards in Greenfield, Mass., and moved to 
Fitchburg in 1872 ; was elected water registrar in Janu- 
ary, 1885. 

HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT. 

The highway department of Fitchburg has many obstacles 
to meet in the faithful carrying out of its work, by reason of 
the demand for new streets, sidewalks, etc., occasioned by 
the marked growth of the city, and the difficulty of making 
effective and permanent work on our hillside streets. 

Thomas Larkin, Jr., the present superintendent of 
streets is a native of Fitchburg, where he was born June 24, 
1852, and has resided here since. 

George W. Holman was superintendent of streets in 1873 
and 1874: Joel Davis, 1875-76-77; F. W. Aldrich, 1878- 
79-80-81-82 ; Abram G. Lawrence, 1883-84-85-86. 

POOR DEPARTMENT. 

The overseers of the poor chosen annually in January by 
the city council in convention are, this year the Mayor 
ex officio, (chairman), S. S. Holton, John J. Sheehan, 
Aaron F. Whitney and the president of the common council 
ex officio. 

S. S. Holton, a native of Northfield, Mass., was born 
Nov. 16, 1818 ; represented his town in the legislature one 
year; removed to Montague in 1857, and came to Fitchburg 





Henry F. Rockwell. 



John E. Kellogcj. 




David W. Tinsley. 




S. S. Holton. 





John J, Sheehan. 



Aaron F. Whitney. 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 53 

in March 1872 : elected an overseer of poor in 1883, and has 
been an assistant assessor for several years. 

John J. Sheehan, was born in Ireland. Feb. 5, 1844: 
settled in Lowell. Mass., in 1848; has been a resident of 
Fitchburg since July, 1864 ; served five years on the city gov- 
ernment; placed on board of overseers of poor in 1S84 : is a 
member of the civil service examining board : is a member of 
the firm of Sweeney & Sheehan at 238 Water street. 

Aaron F. Whitney, is a native of Westminster, and 
came to Fitchburg in 1852 ; was superintendent of the chair 
manufactory of Alonzo Davis for twenty years previous to 
1876, when he was appointed chief of police, in which 
capacity he served for nine years : one year under Mayor 
Blood, two under Mayor Merriam. one under Mayor Yose, 
two under Mayor Culley and three under Mayor Davis, after 
which, in 1886, he was elected bv the common council to his 
present position on the board of overseers of the poor. 

The poor farm, situated in South Fitchburg, is a model 
institution of its kind and a credit to the city : it is in charge 
of N. B. Stone, superintendent, and Mrs. E. T. Stone, 
matron. 

Trustees of Public Library, and School Committee, arc 
given elsewhere. 

TRUSTEES OF PUBLIC BURIAL GROUNDS. 

M. W. Cu minings, Joel Joel, Daniel B. Whitrier. 

ASSESSORS OF TAXES.. 

David F. Melntire, Elliot X. Choate, Charles K. 
Sawyer. 

CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINERS. 

John J. Sheehan, Francis Buttrick, Walter A. Davis. 

BOARD OF REGISTRARS OF VOTERS. 

Leander Sprague, D. A. Corey, Z. F. Young, Walter A. 
Davis, clerk. 



54 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

INSPECTOR OF MILK. 

C. H. D. Stockbridge. 

INSPECTOR OF PETROLEUM. 

Henry G. Greene. 

SEALER OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

E. E. Farrar. 

INSPECTOR OF BUILDINGS. 

William IT. Goodwin. 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

The Mayor and Aldermen. 

The names of those who have served the city as Alder- 
men previous to 1887 are : 

1873. Ward 1, Elijah M. Dickinson; 2, Charles T. 
Crocker; 3, William H. Vose ; 4, Ezra B. Rockwood ; 5, 
Benjamin Snow ; 6, John C^. Wright. 

1874. Ward 1, James Goodrich; 2, Edwin D. Works; 
3, William H. Vose; 4, Ezra B. Rockwood; 5, Benjamin 
Snow ; 6, Festus C. Currier. 

1875. Ward 1, James Goodrich ; 2, Edwin D. Works ; 
3, Leander Sprague ; 4, Alfred R. Ordway ; 5, Andrew B. 
Sherman ; 6, Festus C. Currier. 

1876. Ward 1, James Goodrich; 2, Daniel R. Streeter ; 
3, Leander Sprague; 4, George Robbins ; 5, Andrew B. 
Sherman ; 6, Isaac C. Wright. 

1877. Ward 1, Charles F. Putnam; 2, Harrington Sib- 
ley; 3, Charles T. Crocker; 4, John W. Kimball; 5, Eli 
Culley ; 6, Sylvanus Sawyer. 

1878. Ward 1, Charles F. Putnam; 2, Harrington Sib- 
ley ; 3, Francis Sheldon ; 4, George Robbins ; 5, Eli Culley ; 
6, S. A. Webber. 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 55 

1S79. Ward 1, William A. Foster: 2, Harrington Sib- 
lev; 3, Francis Sheldon; 4, Lucius Aldrich ; 5, Asa S. 
Lawton ; 6, E. A. Goodrich. 

1880. Ward 1, Henry L. Rice; 2, George F. Fay; 3, 
Alonzo Davis; 4, James L. Chapman; 5, Asa S. Lawton; 
6, Scott A. Webber. 

1881. Ward 1, Salmon W. Putnam : 2, George F. Fay : 
3, Alonzo Davis; 4, Lucius Aldrich: 5, Asa S. Lawton; 
6, Festus C. Currier. 

1882. Ward 1, Salmon W. Putnam: 2, John F. Bruce; 
3, Alonzo Davis; 4, Lucius Aldrich: 5, Jacob II. Fair- 
banks ; 6, A. B. Lawrence. 

1883. Ward 1, Henry O. Putnam ; 2, George E. Waite ; 
3, William E. Wallace; 4, James L. Chapman; 5, Joel 
Joel ; 6, A. B. Lawrence. 

1S84. Ward 1, Henry O. Putnam; 2, George E. Waite; 
3, Gardner Farrar ; 4, John Burney ; 5, Joel Joel ; 6, Henry 
G. Morse. 

1885. Ward 1, Henry O. Putnam ; 2, George E. Waite ; 
3, Gardner Farrar ; 4, John Burney ; 5, Joseph S. Wilson; 
6, Henry G. Morse. 

1886^ Ward 1, L. H. Goodnow : 2, David M. Dillon; 
3, John Parkhill: 4, James F. D. Garfield: 5, Henry M. 
Choate ; 6. Henry G. Morse. 

The names of the Common Councilmen previous to 1SS7 
are as follows, president of Common Council in small 
capitals : 

1873. Ward 1, Henry J. Colburn, Harrington Siblev, 
Franklin Lvon ; 2, Cornelius Bogart, Samuel D. Sheldon, 
Daniel R. Streeter ; 3, Samuel E. Crocker, Francis Sheldon, 
Leander Sprague ; 4, Henry A. Willis, Thomas C. 
Upton, Charles H. Brown; 5, Winchester Wyman, James 
A. Ferson, II. B. Rice: 6, Charles L. Fairbanks, John 
Barnes, Henry McGrath. 

1874. Ward 1, Henry J. Colburn, Charles Mason, 
Henrv L. Rice; 2, Cornelius Bogart, Samuel I). Sheldon, 



")() FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Daniel R. Streeter ; 3, Samuel E. Crocker, Francis Shel- 
don, Leander Spragne ; 4, Lyman Patch, Thomas C. Upton, 
Charles II. Brown; 5, John R. Farnum, A. B. Sherman, 
Lorenzo Barker; 6, John J. Sheehan, Edward Dwyer, E. 
P. Young. 

1875. Ward 1, William A. Hardy, Harrington Sibley 
Henry L. Rice; 2, Cornelius Bogart, Stephen W. Dole, 
Daniel R. Streeter; 3, Charles Brigham, Francis Sheldon, 
Gardner Farrar ; 4, Lyman Patch, Z. F. Young, E. A. 
Broun; 5, Eli Culley, J. A. Ferson, Lorenzo Barker; 
6, John J. Sheehan, John Barnes, S. W. Putnam. 

1876. Ward 1, H. L. Rice, E. P. Kittredge, Samuel 
Stevens ; 2, Cornelius Bogart, Samuel A. Wheeler, Jr., John 
Phillips; 3, Gardner Farrar, Charles Brigham, Francis 
Sheldon ; 4, E. A. Brown, George D. Colony, J. R. Has- 
kell ; 5, J. A. Ferson, John Lowe, G. H. Kellogg; 6, Ed- 
ward Dwver, Edward Knapp, James B. Sargent. 

1877. Ward 1, E. P. Kittredge, William A. Hardy, F. 

A. Wood; 2, Cornelius Bogart, William M. Pride, William 
Woodbury ; 3, Francis Sheldon, S. A. Wheeler, Jr., Moses 
G. Lyon ; 4, George D. Colony, Lucius Aldrich, L. D. 
Bartlett; 5, George H. Kellogg, Asa S. Lawton, Joel Joel; 
6, Edward Dwyer, Scott A. Webber, John J. Sheehan. 

1878. Ward 1, B. D. Dwinnell, Daniel A. Chaney, 
James Dalev ; 2, William Woodbury, William Baldwin, Jr., 
J. F. Bruce; 3, Moses G. Lyon, Richard A. Leonard, 
Alonzo Davis ; 4, Lucius Aldrich, Jonathan R. Haskell, 
'Joseph A. Tufts; 5, George H. Kellogg, Joel Joel, Asa S. 

Lawton ; 6, John J. Sheehan, John Linnehan, P. B. Purtill. 

1879. Ward 1, M. F. Sweeney, M. W. Cummings, N. 

B. Sleeper; 2, Wm. Woodbury, Wm. Baldwin, Jr., John F. 
Bruce; 3, R. A. Leonard, Alonzo Davis, H. E. Huntley; 
4, J. A. Tufts, E. Foster Bailey, Charles A. Priest; 5, 
Joel Joel, Albert N. Lowe, E. B. Macy ; 6, Edward Dwyer; 
G. N. Green, M.J. Sparks. 

1880. Ward 1, M. F. Sweeney, Henry O. Putnam, 
Joseph T. Battles; 2, John F. Bruce, Cornelius Bogart, 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 57 

John Q^. Peabody : 3, Richard A. Leonard, Francis F. 
Farrar, W. E. Wallace : 4. E. F. Bailey, John Burney, Ed- 
ward P. Loring : 5, Joel Joel, Edward B. Macy, George 
H. Wheelock; 6, Edward Dwyer, M. J. Sparks, William L. 
Bartlett. 

1SS1. Ward 1. Henry O. Putnam, James B. Shannon, 
A. Cuthbertson ; 2. Cornelias Bogart, John Q^. Peabody, 
Joseph Butler; 3, Henry G.Morse, William E.Wallace, 
Charles Brig-ham : 4, E. F. Bailey, Frederick Fosdick, 
Charles A. Priest: 5. Henry M. Choate, Alvin O. Stickney, 
George H. Kellogg: 6, John J. Sheehan, Edward Dwyer, 
George N. Green. 

1882. Ward 1, James B. Shannon, Alexander Cuthbert- 
son, William A. Hardy ; 2, John Q^. Peabody, James Pearce, 
John McNamara : 3, William E. Wallace, George B. Wood- 
ward, R. A. Leonard : 4, Frederick Fosdick, Charles A. 
Priest, John Burney: 5, Henry M. Choate, John H. Parker, 
Albert A. Buxton ; 6, Charles Smith, Winchester Wyman, 
Horace M. Kendall. 

1883. Ward 1, George W. Luke, Alexander Cuthbert- 
son, Bernard H. Flaherty; 2, John Q^. Peabody, A. H. 
Proctor, James Pearce; 3, Francis Sheldon, John Parkhill, 
A. B. Haskell: 4, Charles A. Priest, John Burney, W. A. 
Macurda ; 5, Charles H. Glazier, Joseph S. Wilson, John 
H. Parker; 6, Horace M. Kendall, Henry Concannon, 
Henry McGrath. 

1884. Ward 1, Bernard H. Flaherty, George W. Luke, 
Joseph T. Battles; 2, James Pearce, Bela W. Blood, A. H. 
Proctor; 3, John Parkhill, John H. Daniels, Uriah E. Cleve- 
land; 4, George II. Spencer, William A. Macurda, 
Carmi M. Parker: 5, John H. Parker, Charles H. Glazier, 
M. A. Holton; 6, H. M. Kendall, Henry McGrath, Henry 
Concannon. 

1885. Ward 1, Patrick Donlan, Bernard II. Flaherty, 
Raymond J. Parker; 2, James Pearce, Bela W. Blood, 
Augustus H. Proctor; 3, John H. Daniels, Uriah E. Cleve- 
land, Harlan P. Tyrrell ; 4, George II. Spencer. Carmi 



58 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

M. Parker, William Edwards; 5, Hiram H. Lamb, Henry 
A. Hatch, J. Dudley Littlehale ; 6, Henry J. Lewis, Michael 
J. Hogan, James H. McCarty. 

1886. Ward 1, Raymond J. Parker, Patrick Donlan, 
Andrew Connery ; 2, George W. Weymouth, George S. 
Coggswell, George Wilmott ; 3, Benjamin G. Bagley, Wil- 
liam H. Goodwin, Henry F. Rockwell ; 4, William Edwards, 
Charles Fosdick, Willard Dennis; 5, Hiram H. Lamb, 
Alvin E. Battles, C. P. Washburn; 6, James H. McCarty, 
Henry J. Lewis, Michael J. Hogan. 

The following named persons have served as clerk of the 
common council: 1873, Sullivan W. Huntley; 1874-5, 
Henry A. Hawley ; 1876-77-78, George E. Clifford; 1879- 
80, Thomas C. Sheldon; 1880 to present time, J. E. Kel- 
logg. 



CHAPTER IV. 



EDUCATIONAL. 




l^Ff] School, Grammar, Inter 
\M ary and Ungraded Schc 



S to educational advantages, Fitchburg 
is equal to the demands of the advanced 
sentiments of the times. The schools 
consist of what are denominated the High 

rmediate, Prim- 
:hools. The ar- 
rangement is designed to furnish a 
gradation of schools and regular system 
of instruction. Scholars from all parts 
of the city possessing the requisite quali- 
fications are admitted to the Hi^h School. This school affords 
the scholars the means of acquiring a systematic and thor- 
ough education, or, if they desire it, of fitting themselves for 
college. There are four grammar schools — one on High 
street, one on Day street, one on South street, and one in 
West Fitchburg. 

The schools are kept forty weeks in the year, one term of 
sixteen weeks and two terms of twelve weeks each. 

A school committee, composed of three citizens from each 
ward, is elected by the people, the mayor being ex officio 
chairman, and the president of the Common Council a mem- 
ber. A Superintendent of Schools is intrusted with direct 
supervision. 

The present Superintendent of Schools is Joseph G. Ed- 
gerly. The School Committee for 1887 are : Ward 1 — 
Lyman H. Goodnow, J. Warren White, Henry O. Putnam : 
Ward 2 — James H. Fairbanks, Charles K. Sawyer, John E. 
Kellogg; Ward 3 — Herbert I. Wallace, William E. Henry, 
Edward P. Downe ; Ward 4 — James F. D. Garfield, Charles 
S. Hayden, Charles H. Rice ; Ward 5— Joseph M. R. Eaton, 



1)0 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Nelson F. Bond, Stillman Haynes ; Ward 6 — Peter McDon- 
ough, John Gallagher, Edward Lennon. 
The teachers are as follows : 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

Herbert W. Kittredge (Principal), A. Eugene Nolen, 
E. Adams Hartwell, Martha Keith, Irene C. Cowles, Lizzie 
A. II. Sleeper, Dora T. Pierce. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

High Street — -George H. Hastings (Principal), Mary B. 
Johnson, Clara A. Woodbury, Ella F. Caswell, Emma L. 
Lane, Mary E. Fairbanks. 

Day Street — George Winch (Principal), Mary C. Smith, 
Harriet Chaffee, Adelaide Goodrich, Mary S. Bingham, Ger- 
trude L. Davis. 

South Street — Clara D. Hosmer (Principal), Mary A. 
Barnes, Sara J. Barber. 

West Fitchburg — Shelley K. Townend (Principal), 
Emma J. Bennett, Clara B. Cutler. 

INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS. 

High Street— (A), Clara L. Tenney ; (B), Nellie F. 
Livermore. 

Day Street — (A), vacancy; (B), Jennie A. Goodrich. 

Maverick Street — Mary E. Gallagher. 

Rollstone Street — Adeline Damon. 

South Street — Jennie M. Hills. 

Middle Street — Lizzie M. Nolan. 

South Fitchburg — Carrie L. Baldwin. 

Clarendon Street — Phebe M. Blanchard. 

Rockville— Rose A. Cullen. 

Wachusett — Lillian A. Rose. 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

School Street— (A), Stella B. Lowe ; (B),EttaF. Willard. 



EI>1 CATKINAL 



f.l 



High Street — (A), M. Lizzie Kimball: (B), Josephine 
Reynolds: (C), Carrie E. McMaster. 

Day Street — (A), Lizzie M. Glazier; (B), Minnie L. 
Merrill; (C), vacancy. 

Highland Avenue — (A), M. Eldora Jones; (B), Edna A. 
Spring. 

East Street — (A), Kate A. Gallagher; (I)), Jennie R. 
Rice. 

Maverick Street — L. Frances Jones. 

Rollstone Street — (A), Jeanette Y. Wright : (B), Minnie 
E. Bemis ; (C), Mary A. Connig. » 

Middle Street— (A), Kate F. O'Brien; (B), Eva M. 
Barnes; (C), Lizzie A. Daly. 

South Fitchburg — Nellie A. Dvvyer. 

Clarendon Street— (A), Harriet M. Qelahanty ; (B), 
Lilla M. Marble; (C), Alice E. Welch. 

Rockville — Sarah L. Sawyer. 

Wachusett — Annie M. Bagiey. 

UNGRADED SCHOOLS. 

Mt. Elam — Jessie E. Worster. 
Woodbury — Helen E. Woodbury. 
Kimball— Mary A. Bartley. 
Dean Hill — M. Lizzie Sullivan. 
Pau"e — Annie L. Maynard. 
Caswell — Ida M. Austin. 
Pearl Hill— Addie M. Corey. 

SPECIAL TEACIIKRS. 

Laura F. Smith (Singing). William Briggs (Drawing). 



EVENING DRAWING SCHOOL. 

William Briggs (Principal), Julia A. Perkins (Assistant). 

Evening common schools are open each year, generally 
from November to March. This Near there are schools at 
High Street, Day Street, ami West Fitchburg. 



G2 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Parochial schools were opened two years ago on Water 
street and the number of pupils at Middle street and South 
Fitchburg were diminished thereby to such an extent that two 
schools at South Fitchburg were closed. 

THE HIGH SCHOOL ASSOCIATION. 

About 1830 some of the citizens formed an association 
called the High School Association of Fitchburg, which was 
an important supplement to the educational powers of the town. 
The directors were Benjamin Snow, Francis Perkins and Dr. 
Charles Wilder. Dr. Jonas A. Marshall was secretary and 
Mas, treasurer. A building called the Acad- 
emy was erected at a cost of $1,200 on 
land given for the purpose by Capt. 
Zackariah Sheldon and situated just in 
front of the present High School. The 
academy building was rented to individ- 
uals for school purposes until 1849, when 
the town voted to establish a public High 
School, and purchased the academy of 
the High School Association. 

Afterwards the old academy build- 
ing was used for various purposes. It was here that Mr. 
E. Butterick started in the business of making shirt pat- 
terns, was successful, and removed to New York, establish- 
ing the business of E. Butterick & Co., one of the largest 
fashion establishments in the world. 

In 1869 the academy was moved and the present high 
school building was built. The academy is now a part of the 
Rollstone House. 




PRINCIPALS OF HIGH SCHOOL. 

The first principal of the Fitchburg High School was 
Anson Southard Marshall, a native of Lyme, N. H., 
where he was born Dec. 3, 1822. He fitted for college at 
Thetford Academy, Vt. ; graduated at Dartmouth College 1848 ; 
was principal of the High School 1849-51 ; studied law with 



EDUCATIONAL. 



63 



Wood & Torrey and later in Concord, N. H., with President 
Franklin Pierce and Hon. Josiah Minot; admitted to the bar 
1S52 : assistant clerk of the New Hampshire House of Rep- 
resentatives 1853 ; U. S. District-Attorney for New Hampshire 
during Buchanan's administration ; chairman of Democratic 
State Central Committee 1867 ; from 1870 clerk and counsel 
of the Concord railroad. On Jul\' 4, 1874, vy hile enjoying a 
picnic with his family in the grove near Pennacook Lake, ac- 
cidently shot by a militia company engaged in target practice. 












HIGH STREET HIGH AND GRAMMAR SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

His superior qualities as a teacher and his solicitude for the 
welfare of those under his charge are well' remembered by 
those now living who were his pupils. 

Enoch Gibson Hook, A. B., was principal in 185 1. 
Martin Heald Fiske, A. M., 1852. 
Rev. Ezekiel Hale Barstow, A. M., 1852-53. 
Jonathan Clarkson Brown, A. B., 1853-54. 
Rev. Milan Hubbard Hitchcock, A. B., 1854. 
Eli Andrews Hubbard, A. M., 1S54-57. 
Hanson Leland Read, A. M., 1857-62. 



1)4 fitchburg, past and present. 

Francis Huntington Snow, 1862-63. 

Edward Dorr Pritchard, A. M., 1863-64. 

Rev. Walter Whitney Hammond, A. M., 1864-1865. 

Ruel Baxter Clark, A. B., 1865-1875. 

Ray Greene Huling, A. M., a native ot Providence, R. 
I. , where he was born Oct. 15, 1847 ; fitted for college at Prov- 
idence High School and at Mowrv & Goff\s English and 
Classical High School ; graduated at Brown University 1869 ; 
assistant in Fall River High School 1 869-1875 ; visited Europe 
in 1875 and was principal of the Fitchburg High School from 
1875 unt il 1SS6, when he accepted the position of Principal 
of the New Bedford High School. 

Herbert William Kittredge, A. M., son of Russell 
II. and Laura F. (Holmes) Kittredge, of Jaffrey, N. H. ; 

born in Nelson, N. H., Nov. 18, 1858; fitted for college at 
Keene, N. H. ; graduated at Dartmouth College 1879; 
studied methods at Quiney, Mass., fall of 1879; Master of 
Grammar School, East Bridgewater, Mass., 1880; Principal 
of Brandon Graded School, Brandon, Ct., 1880-84; North 
Brookfield, Mass., High School, 1884-85; Dover, N. H., 
High School, 1885-86; Fitchburg, Mass., High School since 
1886: married Julv 14, 1885, Marion Thatcher; visited 
Europe in 1887. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS. 

Joseph Gardner Edgerly, son of Samuel J. and Eliza 
(Bickford) Edgerly; born Oct. 12, 1838, in Barnstead, 
N. H. ; moved to Manchester, N. H., in 1845 ; worked 
on a farm in Dunbarton, N. H., and in the mills at 
Manchester, during his bovhood, attending school a part 
of the year ; fitted for college in the Manchester High 
School ; began teaching in a district school in New Boston, 
N. H., in the winter of 1857-58, "boarding round" according 
to the custom in those davs : the next winter taught in 
one of the suburban schools of Manchester ; principal of 
West Manchester Grammar School from September, 1859, 



EDUCATIONAL. 65 

to March, 1862 ; entered the postal service at Fortress 
Monroe, April, 1862, but obliged to return North in July of 
the same year on account of his health ; resumed teaching 
after regaining his health ; principal of the Manchester 
Street Grammar School in 1863 ; sub-master Maverick 
School, East Boston, one term during college course ; entered 
the sophomore class of Dartmouth College in the fall of 1864, 
graduating in the class of 1867 ; elected superintendent of 
schools in Manchester the day after graduation, and held the 
position eight years ; superintendent of schools in Fitchbnrg 
since 1875 5 married, 1877, Mary J. Graves, of Groton, Mass. 

HISTORY OF THE FITCHBURG PUBLIC 
LIBRARY. 

The history of this library is similar to that of other 
institutions of like character. Its growth has been gradual. 
It has developed from small beginnings. The Fitchburg 
Philosophical Society was organized, about the year 1828, 
for the purpose of maintaining lectures and debates. It was 
before this society that Hon. Nathaniel Wood delivered a 
series of lectures on the history of the town, the manuscript 
of which is now in the public library. From these lectures 
most of the material was obtained that was used in the prep- 
aration of Rufus C. Torrey's History of Fitchburg, published 
in 1836. The society soon after its organization purchased 
Rees's Cyclopedia in forty-seven volumes, including six 
volumes of plates. These books were intended to be the 
basis of a library, but the project was not a successful one, 
and in 1838 the six volumes were transferred to the Fitch- 
burg Library Association, the successor of the Philosophi- 
cal Association. These books are now in the public library. 
The new organization was apparently more successful than 
the former one, and quite a collection of books was made. 
The library of this association was kept in the store of Mr. 
Phineas A. Crocker, in a small building which stood where 
the Stiles building now stands. 

In 1853 the Fitchburg Athenaeum was organized, "to 



66 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

furnish facilities for intellectual, moral, and social improve- 
ment, bv the establishment and maintenance of a library, 
reading room, and lectures." The Fitchburg Athemeum 
was not a public institution. It loaned books to its mem- 
bers. 

The subject of establishing a public library was dis- 
cussed from time to time but no decisive action was taken 
till 1859. The warrant for the town meeting of that year 
contained the following article: — "To see if the Town will 
appropriate the amount allowed by law for the establishment 
of a Free Town Library or act anything thereon." The 
sentiment of the citizens seemino- to be in favor of a free 
library the shareholders of the Athenaeum held a special 
meeting previous to the town meeting to consider the ex- 
pediency of presenting their library to the town, but after 
some discussion it was decided, by a vote of twenty-five to 
fourteen, not to make such a disposition of the books belong- 
ing to the association. 

The town meeting that year was held April nth, and the 
citizens at that time voted — "To appropriate the sum of 
$1,831 for the establishment of a Free Town Library." A 
board of trustees was chosen at this meeting, consisting of 
Goldsmith F. Bailey, J. W. Mansur, James R. Wellman, 
Jabez Fisher, Thomas R. Boutelle, Thornton K. Ware, 
Hanson L. Read, Moses G. Lyon, and John J. Piper. 

The annual meeting of the shareholders of the Fitchburg 
Athenaeum occurred May 10, 1859, anc ^ at tnat meeting it 
was voted : — "To instruct the president and treasurer to sell 
all the property of the institution, aside from the money in 
the treasury (about $75), to the town of Fitchburg for $400." 
The town subsequently authorized the purchase of this 
property and thus came into possession of about 1,600 
volumes. 

There was also, at that time, another collection of books 
in the town, about 200 volumes, belonging to the Agricul- 
tural Library. These books were purchased by the 
trustees. 

It was decided to use for the library, the room that had 



EDUCATIONAL. 67 

been occupied by the Athenaeum. This room, correspond- 
ing very nearly to the room now used for the mayor's office, 
was enlarged by the addition of the room adjoining in the 
rear. The library was opened for the delivery of books 
December i. 

December 23, after the library had been open three 
weeks it was stated in the Sentinel that accounts had been 
opened with over 1,200 persons, that 2,775 volumes had 
been taken, and 1.937 volumes returned. It was also stated 
that the library hours as announced were insufficient, and it 
was deemed advisable, while the urgent demand for books 
continued, to keep open every evening excepting Sundays 
and holidays. 

The library remained in the rooms first occupied until 
December, 1879, when it was removed to more commodious 
quarters in the extension of the city hall building, where it 
remained till July, 1885, at which time it was transferred to 
the Wallace Library and Art Building. 

The librarians have been : Daniel Stearns, appointed 
November, 1859: B. P. Todd, April, 1861 ; J. M. Graham, 
April, 1862 ; C. N. Fessenden, April, 1865 ; Henry Jack- 
son, September, 1866; P. C. Rice, January, 1873. 

The present board of trustees of the public library are : 
Louis D. Bartlett, Lewis H. Bradford, George D. Colony, 
Joseph G. Edgerly, Phillip J. Garrigan, George Jewett, 
James Phillips, Jr., George H. Spencer, Charles H. Rice, 
Herbert I. Wallace, Thornton K. Ware, Henry A. Willis. 
Chairman, Thornton K. Ware; secretary, Joseph G. 
Edgerly; treasurer, Lewis H. Bradford; committee on 
books, Messrs. Ware, Bartlett, Colony, Edgerly and Phil- 
lips ; committee on library, Messrs. Garrigan, Rice, Spencer 
and Jewett; Committee on finance, Messrs. Bradford, Phil- 
lips and Willis ; committee on art, Messrs. Wallace, Ware 
and Willis. Librarian, Prescott C. Rice : assistants, Flor- 
ence Russell Dwinnell, George E. Nutting. 

The following description of the " Wallace Library and 



68 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Art Building' will give some idea of the beauty and elegance 
of the library apartments : 

The spot selected for the building is the best possible for 
the purpose in the city. With Monument Square, upon which 
the city has expended $75,000, directly in front, and the court 
house beyond, the view from the new building is attractive, 
and there is no spot in the city where tasteful architecture 
could have a better effect. The location is central, conven- 
ient to the post-office, and several of the costliest buildings in 
the city are in the immediate vicinity. 

The exterior of the building is built of Trenton pressed 
brick, with brown sandstone trimmings from the Kibbie quarry 
at Longmeadow and is in the Greek classic style of architec- 
ture. The foundation is dressed Rollstone granite and the 
basement is dimension ashler. The cornices, gutters and hips 
on the roof are of copper. The roof is covered with Brown- 
ville slate. 

The building has a frontage of seventy-four feet, and a 
depth of sixty-five feet, with a central front projection six by 
twenty-five feet. The front entrance is approached by a walk 
of pressed brick and a flight of twelve dressed granite steps 
between ornamental buttresses of the same material as the 
steps. The front doors are placed in a recess eleven feet wide 
and six feet deep. The wall above the recess rests on a 
heavy double arch, supported on each side by two columns 
of polished red granite with carved capitals. Above the arch 
are three square-headed, single light windows, and the name 
of the building appears in raised letters — the w r ord "Wallace" 
above the middle window and "Library and Art Building" 
just below it. 

The sandstone trimmings above the two outside windows 
of the three are ornamented with fret work. Over these win- 
dows are three circular windows set in sandstone and at the 
sides of each window are round sandstone columns with carved 
foliage capitals. The whole is surmounted by a gable with 
modillion and dentil cornice, all of copper. In the frieze of 
this cornice the date of erection, " 1884," is inscribed with 
scroll work each side of the inscription. The pediment is of 
brick. 



EDUCATIONAL. 69 

The second floor is lighted by narrow windows arranged 
in groups, there being two groups of five each in front. On 
each side is a group of eight windows, to the right and left of 
which are double windows separated from the group by chim- 
ney piers. The rear is lighted by one group of four windows 
and three of two windows each. 

The basement is lighted by square-headed mullion win- 
dows, four in front, five on each side and four in the rear. The 
windows of the first floor which are directly over those in the 
basement are circular-headed, and are trimmed with heavy 
molded Voussoirs with two lights of plate glass. 

The top of the building is surmounted by a large sky-light, 
thirty by thirty-nine feet, with side lights beneath this part of 
the building. 

In the window over the door of the main entrance is the 
city seal upon a plate of Venetian and antique glass five feet 
in diameter. In the lower corner of this window are panels 
of glass emblematic of art and literature ; the glass is of two 
thicknesses. Outside the building the effect can be seen only 
when the hall is lighted. From this hall one flight of marble 
stairs leads to the rooms above, another flight to the base- 
ment ; at the left is a door leading to the ladies' retiring room 
and directly opposite are the large swinging doors leading to 
the library proper. The floor of the entrance hall is of Italian 
marble and the wainscotting of Italian, Knoxville and Tennes- 
see marbles, relieved by rosettes of French Red ; the ceiling 
is frescoed in oil, the design being a delicate tracing upon a 
gold background, and the frieze is a scroll design in gold 
upon a deep red background. The hall is lighted by a large 
brass chandelier with two burners. 

The waiting room, which is separated from the entrance 
hall by swinging doors, is finished in oak and frescoed in 
neutral tints, and around the sides, for the use of persons 
waiting to receive books, are placed oak seats upholstered in 
brown leather. 

The delivery counter is directly beneath the arch which 
opens into the main room for books. This book room is 
twenty-six feet by seventy feet, and sixteen feet in height, and 



70 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

at either end are larger fireplaces of brick, sandstone and 
marble. Connected with the main book room at one corner 
is a small room with wash bowl, etc., for the use of the 
librarian, and next to the librarian's room is the elevator which 
runs from the basement to the upper story. 

On the left of the waiting room is the room for books of 
reference. The book cases, chairs, table, and mantel in this 
room are of oak and there is at one side a large fireplace for 
wood. 

On the right of the waiting room is the readings room for 
magazines. The ceiling ot this room is panelled with heavy 
carved oak cornices and beams, and the ceiling, frieze and 
walls are frescoed. There is also a heavy oak mantel with a 
plate glass mirror over it. The room is furnished with two 
large tables and a reading desk and chairs, all of oak. This 
room contains a fireplace. 

In the basement there is a public reading room in which a 
large number of daily and weekly newspapers will be kept on 
file. Here are also the boiler room, and two large rooms 
which are to be used for work rooms and for storage purposes. 

The upper vestibule is large and high. The style of the 
room is varied, being Gothic, German and Italian. The 
arched ceiling is frescoed in sombre hues with a frieze of 
subdued gold and in the cove above are paintings of natural 
flowers upon a dark background, while the fiat surface has 
the same design as the hall below. Directly over the stairway 
is a large panel in blue with oak branches interwoven across. 

This vestibule is lighted by a magnificent chandelier of 
eight burners made of brass, copper and oxidized silver. On 
the right of this room is the Trustees' room, which is beauti- 
fully frescoed, carpeted and finished in mahogany, and heated 
by an open fireplace. The furniture consists of a mahogany 
table and chairs of the same wood. Next to it is a toilet room 
for the use of the trustees. From the vestibule a door leads 
directly into the Art Gallery. 

The Art Gallery is thirty-three feet by forty-four feet, and 
thirty-two feet in height, and is lighted entirely from above 
by corrugated glass panels in the ceiling, and windows of the 




NTERIORS— WALLACE LIBRARY AND ART BUILDING. 



EDUCATIONAL. 71 

same glass on the four sides of the monitor roof; the wood 
work of the ceiling is frescoed in dark olive and bronze. The 
fresco painting of this room is remarkably rich and harmo- 
nious in color effect, the style being the pure German Renais- 
sance. The dado is a dark olive relieved by a band of gilt ; 
the walls for the pictures, a Pompeian red, surmounted by a 
frieze of rich design and color, representing conventional 
pomegranate leaves and fruit. 

The general effect of the cove is a gold scroll upon a light 
blue background. In the cove are four large paintings, one 
upon each side of the room. There is one, "Arts and Sci- 
ences," directly opposite the main entrance. It represents 
Vulcan at his forge — Apollo as God of Music surrounded by 
the Muses representing painting, poetry, music, astronomy, 
history, etc. Above the main entrance, directly opposite "Arts 
and Sciences" is "Apollo Musagetes," in which Apollo is rep- 
resented as driving his chariot through the clouds, while he is 
surrounded by the Muses and pursued by the Fates. At one 
end of the room is a smaller painting called "Old Masters." 
In this picture a child is seen standing upon the edge of 
a staging, in an old cathedral, swinging a burning censer, 
out of the smoke of which arises the nude form of a woman, 
and over the woman an artist is bending with the palette and 
brushes in his hand. The conception of the picture is, that 
the old masters received their inspiration from the church, the 
child with the censer representing the Catholic church. 

The picture at the other end of the room, a companion 
painting to "Old Masters," is called "Modern Art," and rep- 
resents a female artist painting from a living model, the idea 
being that modern artists paint directly from nature. 

Around the Art Gallery are four small rooms, each twelve 
by twentv-three feet. All the wood floors in the building 
are of southern hard pine, and all the finish, with few excep- 
ceptions, is of oak. The doors are all made of oak and are 
heavy and substantial. 

The works of Art which are now in the Art Gallery, as 
well as the collections of engravings, photographs and relics 
in the adjoining rooms, are a source of much profit and 



72 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



enjoyment to our citizens, and a great attraction to strangers 
who may be sojourning in our city. 

At the time the Art Gallery was opened to the public, the 
main room was set apart for oil paintings, the west side room 
for photographs, the east side room for engravings and water 
colors, the south-east corner room for "relics," and the south- 
west corner room for exhibition of art work from the schools or 
such as might be required. The library was already in pos- 
session of a valuable collection of photographic copies of 
works of art in the galleries of Europe which were properly 
arranged, and to which some additions have been made by 
gift and purchase. / 




A very good number of oil paintings have been received 
and also several large, fine steel engravings and photographs. 
The following is a list of the various pictures and articles 
thus far represented : 

Oil Painting, "Headwaters of Owens River," artist, W. 
Keith ; presented by Thomas Mack. 

Water Color, "Gathering Sea Weed, Pacific Coast," artist, 
F. A. McClure; presented by D. B. Whittier. 



EDUCATIONAL. 73 

Oil Painting, "Sentinel Rock," artist, G. Andrews: pre- 
sented by H. F. Coggshall. 

India Ink Portrait of Anson Marshall, artist, J. C. Monlton ; 
presented by H. A. Goodrich. 

Oil Painting, ''Gleams of Sunshine,'' artist, R. M. Shurt- 
leff ; presented by H. I. Wallace. 

Oil Painting, "A Quiet Nook," artist, J. Appleton Brown : 
presented by H. A. Willis. 

Oil Portrait of Charles Sumner, artist, Edgar Parker ; pre- 
sented by James Phillips, Jr. 

Oil Portrait of Alvah Crocker, artist, Edgar Parker; pre- 
sented by the family. 

Engraving, " Haydn returning from England," presented 
by George F. Simonds. 

Engraving, "The Jersey Beauties," presented bv Henry 
Hale. 

Engraving, "Departure of the Mayflower,'' presented by 
Rodney Wallace. 

Engraving, "First Sunday in America," companion to 
"Departure of the Mayflower," presented by Rodney Wal- 
lace. 

Oil Painting, "The Christening, " artist, A. Bodenmuller : 
presented by Rodney Wallace. 

Four large and twelve small photographs of Colorado 
scenery, presented by Ivers Phillips. 

Four extra large photographs of "St. Peters," "The Coli- 
seum," "The Forum," and "The Castle of St. Angelo," pre- 
sented by Rodney Wallace. 

Fifty photographic copies of works of art in the Corcoran 
Art Gallery, Washington, D. C, presented by the Corcoran 
Art Gallery. 

Oil Painting, "Thunder Storm in the Rocky Mountains," 
artist, W. G. Beaman ; presented by the artist. 

Oil Painting, "On the banks of the Seine," artist, Jules 
Scalbert ; presented by Robert Graves. 

Oleograph, "Henrv III. and his Court:" presented by 
John Parkhill. 

Engraving, "The Bathers :" presented by John A. Lowell. 



74 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Oil painting, "Twilight," and fifteen etchings; artist, R. 
Lovewell ; presented by the artist. 

Etching, "Courtship of Miles Standish," artist, C. G. 
Turner ; presented by H. C. Howells. 

Oil portrait of Rodney Wallace, artist F. P. Vinton ; pre- 
sented by the trustees of 1885. 

Oil painting, "Sunrise in the Rocky Mountains," artist, 
W. L. Sountag ; presented by Thomas Mack. 

Pastel, "Woodland Solitude," artist, E. H. Rogers; pre- 
sented by Rodney Wallace. 

The value of the reference and reading room of the Li- 
brary cannot be computed ; it is certainly one of the most im- 
portant features of the institution as an educator not only of 
the general public, but of the rising generation. For the 
benefit of those who are not yet aware of the peculiar advan- 
tages it affords, the practical and timely remarks of Superin- 
tendent Edgerly are here quoted. Speaking of the reference 
room in particular, he says : — 

" This collection of books is growing in public favor every 
day, because the people are learning more and more how to 
use it. Persons from all parts of our city, and from the ad- 
joining towns, and sometimes from distant localities, come 
here to consult these books, which they cannot find in places 
nearer their homes. 

"In some libraries, none under eighteen years of age are 
allowed free access to the reference room. With us, the 
pupils of the grammar schools are freely admitted and as far 
as time can be so assigned, assistance is given to them in their 
search for required information relating to their studies. 

" Many of our teachers at the present time are receiving 
valuable aid from the library. A teacher is allowed to take 
nine books for use in the school. There are to be found in 
the library many books containing information bearing di- 
rectly upon the subjects concerning which certain schools 
are studying. Here is an opportunity to teach the pupils the 
value of a public library, to encourage them to make a care- 
ful study of good Books. This plan tends to bring the public 
school and the public library into close relation. The pupil 



EDUCATIONAL. 7") 

needs to be impressed with the thought that he can have free 
access to the library after his school life is ended, that the 
library is to be a help to him in all the relations of life. Our 
young people need aid in the choice of reading matter. The}' 
should be taught not only how to read, but what to read. A 
catalogue — like the one now in use — carefully examined at 
home or in school renders efficient aid to the pupils in the 
selection of books. An interesting article in a magazine con- 
taining allusions to the works of certain authors frequently in- 
duces a person to read more of those authors. 

""Constant use is made of the reference room. It is not 
always desirable nor convenient to carry from the library the 
volumes that a person wishes to consult in order to obtain in- 
formation upon certain topics, but books can be consulted in 
the reference room and much valuable time gained thereby." 



CHAPTER \ 7 



PROFESSIONAL. 




O one class of our citizens are more 
highly esteemed and honored by the 
community than our family physicians, 
not only those in active service, but 
those who have passed oft" the stage, 
have endeared themselves to many now 
livincr to whom these brief sketches will 
be interesting. In response to this sen- 
timent of the people, and the desire 
also on the part of resident physicians for an extended sketch 
of Dr. Alfred Hitchcock, a considerable portion of this 
chapter is devoted to the preservation of the names and labors 
of Fitchburg doctors. We are indebted to the late Dea. L. 
H. Bradford for sketches of the early physicians. In the re- 
maining portion of the chapter are given brief sketches 
of present members of the legal profession. 



DOCTORS. 



A few years previous to the Revolutionary war, a young 
man, Dr. Thaddeus McCarty of Worcester, the first settled 
physician, supposed, came to this town. He married the 
daughter of Landlord Thomas Cowdin, the ancestor of some 
of our best citizens, and to whose memory the Hon. John 
Cowdin of Boston, has erected a fine granite monument on 
the brow of Mount Laurel cemetery in this city. Dr. Mc- 
Carty gained great skill as a physician and previous to his 
death removed from town. 



PROFESSIONAL. 77 

Dr. Jonas Marshall, grandfather of Abel Marshall, 
settled here after the revolution, in the east part of the town, 
on the identical farm now occupied by his grandson. He 
continued practice and died here venerable in years and hon- 
ored as a physician. 

Dr. Peter Snow, one of the earliest physicians in Fitch- 
burg, came here in 1782 from Lunenburg, having studied 
medicine with Dr. Abraham Haskell in that town. Dr. Snow 
succeeded Dr. Thaddeus McCarty, who had removed the pre- 
vious year to Worcester. He located in the Gen. James Reed 
house situated on the lot now occupied by the city hall. He 
whs the principal magistrate and also the leading physician in 
the town for over forty years. From 1801 to 1808 and from 
1817 to 1820 he was a member of the board of selectmen of 
Fitchburg, and from 1817 to 1824 he was tow r n clerk. He 
died Nov. 22, 1824, aged 65 years. 

Dr. Peter Stearns Snow, the eldest son of the above, 
was a licentiate of the Massachusetts Medical Society and 
commenced practice in connection with his father in 1815, 
and at his father's death was chosen to succeed him as town 
clerk from 1824 to 1829. He continued the practice of his 
profession until 183 1, when on account of poor health, he re- 
tired from active practice. For many years he was a val- 
uable member of the school committee, and up to a late 
period was secretary of the board. He died Nov. 25, 1884, 
aged 91 years and 11 months. 

Dr. Charles Snow, the youngest son of Dr. Peter 
Snow, graduated in Brunswick, Me., in 1824, and practiced 
in this town with his brother, Dr. Peter Stearns Snow, two 
years ; he then removed to Tuscaloosa, Ala., to join his broth- 
ers, Henry and Boylston, who had established themselves in 
mercantile business there. He continued to reside there until 
his death, which occurred January 15, 1SS4, aged So years. 

Dr. Chester J. Freeland graduated at the Berkshire 
Medical College in Pittslield in 1825 ; he practiced in the 
towns of Becket and Worthington 25 years. He came to 
this town in 1855, and from that time until his death, April 



78 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ioth, i860, practiced as a homceopathic physician in Fitch- 
burg. 

Dr. James C. Freeland, homoeopathic physician, son of 
the last named, graduated at the Cleveland Homoeopathic 
College in Cleveland, Ohio, in 185 1, settled in Fitchburg in 
1855, and died April 23, 1871, aged 39 years. 

Dr. William B. Chamberlain came to this town in 
May, 1S63, and formed a co-partnership with Dr. James C. 
Freeland ; he left Fitchburg in November, 1864. 

Dr. Charles Wellington Wilder, son of Dr. Charles 
Woodward W 7 ilder, graduated at the Medical Department of 
Dartmouth College in 1849 ; he commenced the practice of 
medicine in December of that year in the dwelling house on 
Main street, latelv removed from the lot on which the Wal- 
lace Library and Art Building is erected ; he died at the in- 
sane hospital at Worcester. 

Dr. James Preston Cummings graduated at the Medical 
Department of Harvard University in 1851, and commenced 
practice in Leicester ; he removed to this town in 1854. ^ e 
died August 27, 1858, aged 29 years, and was buried with 
Masonic honors. 

Dr. David D. Otis graduated at the Medical Department 
of Harvard University in 1856; he also commenced practice 
in Leicester and came to this town in the autumn of 1852, 
but soon afterwards removed to Providence, R. I., at which 
place he died in 1858. 

Dr. Thomas W. Wadsworth graduated at the Medical 
Department of Dartmouth College in 1851, and that year 
commenced practice in Fitchburg. During Dr. Hitchcock's 
absence in Europe, perfecting himself in surgery in the hos- 
pitals on the continent, Dr. Wadsworth took charge of his 
patients. He was a prominent member of the Baptist church 
in this town. He died in Petersham in March, 1854, ar >d 
was buried here among those to whom he ministered and 
loved, aged 35 years. On his monument is the quotation : 
"He wrought all morning and rested at noon." 



PROFESSIONAL. 71) 

Dr. William W. Godding, of Winchendon, graduated 
at the Vermont Medical College in 1857. lie was assistant 
physician in the Asylum for the Insane in Concord, N. H., 
from 1859 to 1862, and in July of the latter year he removed 
to Fitchburg, and commenced practice. In 1863 he received 
the appointment as assistant physician in the United States 
Hospital for the Insane in Washington, D. C, and accepted 
the same in September, relinquishing practice here. 

Dr. Osmyn L. Huntley graduated at the Vermont Med- 
ical College in 1S41, and the next year came to this town 
and commenced the practice of his profession. In 1853 he 
purchased the mansion house on Main street previously 
owned and occupied by Rev. Calvin Lincoln, in which he 
died in February, 1856, aged 36 years. 

Dr. James Ripley Wellman graduated at the Medical 
Department of Dartmouth College in 1855 and succeeded 
Dr. Huntley on Main street in 1856. Dr. Wellman was one 
of the most promising young physicians — modest, scholarly 
and learned in his chosen profession, and sincerely mourned 
by his friends when he died in July, 1861, aged 32 years. 

Dr. Alfred Miller graduated at the Vermont Medical 
College and commenced practice in Ashburnham in 1845. 
He removed to Fitchburg in 1863 and located at the same 
place on Main street in which the two last named physicians 
had resided — the same location on which George F. Fay has 
lately erected the most costly residence in the citv of Fitch- 
burg. Dr. Miller was one of the most popular physicians in 
Worcester North, and for several years was' a member of the 
school committee, and a representative in the General Court 
from this city. He died universally regretted by the citizens 
of Fitchburg, Nov. 15, 1877, aged 62 years. 

Dr. Josiah Norcross graduated at the Medical Depart- 
ment of Harvard University in 1846 ; in August of that year 
he formed a co-partnership with Dr. Thomas R. Boutelle and 
settled in this town. In 1849 he removed to South Reading 
and relinquished practice. 



80 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Dr. Artemas Farwell removed to. Fitchburg in 1842 
from Providence, R. I. He was in business in that city with 
Dr. Brown, who was so prominent in the Dorr war, and it 
was in their office that the incipient stages of the Rhode 
Island rebellion in 1841 and 1842 were planned. 

Dr. Elijah Darling, of Westminster, removed to this 
town in the year 1828, and in 1831 he purchased the business 
of Dr. Peter S. Snow. After a short time he sold out to Dr. 
Otis Abercrombie, a graduate of the medical department of 
Yale College. In 1829, Dr. Abercrombie came to Fitchburg 
from Ashburnham, having practiced in that town about two 
years, and was in partnership for a while with Dr. Jonas A. 
Marshall ; his health failing, he relinquished the business of 
his profession in 1838 and removed to Lunenburg, and died 
in that town Jan. 24, 185 1, aged 49 years. Dr. Abercrombie 
came from the well-known family of that name in Deerfield, 
Mass., and his own family are now residing in Lunenburg. 

Dr. Charles Woodward Wilder, graduated in the 
medical department of Dartmouth College in the year 1S17 and 
commenced practice in Leominster, in partnership with Dr. 
Abraham Haskell, Sr. ; in 1820, he removed to Templeton, 
where he remained until 1828, when, in consequence of im- 
paired health, he sold his business and returned to Leom- 
inster. In 1830 he removed to Fitchburg, in 1833 he 
returned to Leominster, changing business with Dr. Thomas 
R. Boutelle. Dr. Wilder is remembered by many of our 
citizens for his apt sayings and genial humor, always full of 
good nature and proverbial kindness. For several years he 
was a director in the Fitchburg and Worcester railroad com- 
pany. He died in February, 185 1, aged 60 years. 

Dr. Thomas R. Boutelle, graduated in the medical de- 
partment of Yale College in 1819 ; the same year he settled in 
New Braintree ; in 1824 he removed to Leominster, succeed- 
ing to the business of Dr. Abraham Haskell, Jr., and in 1833 
removed to Fitchburg, changing business with Dr. Charles 
W. Wilder. In 1S53 and 1854, he was president of the 
Worcester District Medical Society ; in 1856 and 1857, 



PROFESSIONAL 



SI 



president of the Worcester North Agricultural society; in 
1857 and 1858, vice-president of the Massachusetts AJedical 
society: from 1862 to 1864, a member of the board of trus- 
ters oi the State 1 Industrial School for Girls at Lancaster: in 
1864 and 1865, president of the Worcester North District 
Medical society. During the war ol the rebellion he was 
chairman of the relief committee of the town, and their meet- 
ings were held at his office every Saturday evening during 
those long dreary years, and his labors never ceased in 
caring for the comfort oi the families of the soldiers in the 
field. He died July 13, 1869, aged 74. 

Dr. Alfred Hitchcock, in his day by far the most re- 
markable member of the medical profession in Fitchburg, was 
actively engaged in the practice here tor thirty-seven years. 
He was a graduate of Dartmouth Medical College, Nov., 
1837, and subsequently received a diploma at Jefferson Med- 
ical College, Philadelphia. In December, 1837, ' u ' settled 
in Ashby, but removed to Fitchburg at the written request of 
main' of the prominent citi/ens in April, 1850. He was a 
member of the board of overseers of Harvard University from 

1857 to 1865. 

An earnest seeker after knowledge in whatever sphere 
he might labor, an acute observer, his mind naturally turned 
to the sciences with an interest which seemed to constantly 
increase with his years. To enlarge his sphere of observa- 
tion in his profession, he visitc d Europe in 1851-52. His 
general, culture, legal mind, sound judgment and scientific 
attainments eminently qualified him as a counsellor in his 
profession : and his medical brethren far and near sought his 
services in surgery and other important cases of a dangerous 
or doubtful character. Governor Andrew early recognized 
his attainments and ability, and at the opening of the war ap- 
pointed him brigade surgeon in Burnside's expedition, a posi- 
tion which he finally declined tor other duties. During the 
three years of the war, he spent one-fifth of his whole time in 
the interest of the sick and wounded of Massachusetts soldiers 
in the field and at home. In 1S47 he first entered the State 
legislature, and was three times elected to the executive 



82 FITCH BURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

council of the State — in 1861-62-63. His letter accepting 
his renomination in 1862 is as follows : "If the nomination is 
again ratified at the polls, I shall cheerfully bear the incon- 
venience and sacrifice which in my own case the office entails 
in obedience to the democratic idea, that while no man has a 
claim for public office, so no man has a right, especially in 
time of public calamity, to decline the responsibilities of office 
when tendered by the public suffrage. The national life is 
in peril ; bloody treason is rampant and defiant and it is no 
common nor idle thing to lire to vote, or to hold office in this 
momentous era. I heartily deprecate the attempts- in certain 
quarters to fan the embers of party strife, and even amid the 
thunders of war to stir the seething cauldron of party politics. 
For myself, old party ties sit loosely, save only those which 
bind me to an unconditional, loyal and unchanging support of 
all the war measures of the State and National governments. 
In the coming State election, but two classes will vote, and 
whether consciously or unconsciously, one will be to sustain 
and strengthen the executive arm in its efforts to preserve the 
national life and put down the slaveholders' rebellion, and the 
other to weaken or paralyze that arm, and thus give aid and 
comfort to traitor foes." Such was his personal character as 
a citizen, and all of his acts as a man and a citizen entitled 
him to the respect he received, while his professional skill 
was recognized not only by his fellow-townsmen, but by very 
many persons throughout the State and in other parts of the 
country. One of the most eminent physicians of Massa- 
chusetts once said that he regarded Dr. Hitchcock as "the 
peer of the best practitioners in the Commonwealth.'' He 
was utterly free from dogmatism, or the pride of the schools, 
but full of gentleness, courtesy, judgment and decision. 
While he felt a commendable pride in the triumphs of his art, 
he was always ready and indeed earnest to acquire infor- 
mation from whatever source it might come. He was one 
who never ceased to learn and was constantly willing to 
accept truth whether from the highest or humblest. 

Dr. Harvey D. Jillson studied medicine in Worcester 
and at Harvard University and commenced practice as an 



PROFESSIONAL. 83 

eclectic physician in Leominster in i860, continuing there 
four years ; he then practised four years in Ashburnham and 
came to Fitchburg in 1868. For two years he was president 
of Worcester North Eclectic Medical society and eleven years 
its secretary ; for one year he was vice-president of the 
National Eclectic Medical Society, and died September 25th, 
1877, aged 43 years. 

Dr. James P. Foley studied at St. Mary's College in 
Baltimore, also at Holy Cross College in Worcester and the 
St. Joseph's Provincial College at Troy, N. Y. He grad- 
uated at Dartmouth College in 1872, and commenced practice 
in Fitchburg ; he was a member of the Worcester North 
Medical Society. He died September 18th, 1881, aged 41 
years. 

Dr. Andrew J. Flagg, a native of Royalston, was a 
graduate at the Philadelphia Medical College and commenced 
practice in Claremont, N. H., and a few years previous to 
his death removed to this city and made a specialty of chronic 
diseases. He died January 24, 1883, aged 49 years. 

Dr. Jonas A. Marshall, born March 26th, 1800, was 
for over forty years a practising physician in Fitchburg. He 
was chosen town clerk for twenty-four years in succession. 
He died in Charlestown, Mass., February 25th, 1887. 

Dr. Edward Liston Pillsbury, the oldest son of Dr. 
Levi Pillsbury, was born in Fitchburg in 1844 ; lie grad- 
uated at the medical institution of Dartmouth College in 
1865, and practised in Fitchburg until ,1868 ; he then re- 
moved to Boston, where he was in active practice until his 
death in 1880, aged 36 years. 

Dr. Levi Pillsbury graduated at the medical institution 
at Dartmouth College in 1842, settled in Fitchburg Mav rst, 
1844, and is the oldest practising physician in the city. Ex- 
cepting for a little more than a year in 1861 and 1862, on 
account of ill health, he has been in the active practice of his 
profession for more than forty years. 



84 FITCHBURG, PA$T AND PRESENT. 

Dr. George I). Colony graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in the class of 1843 : he studied medicine with the late 
Dr. Amos Twichell, ofKeene, N. II., a prominent and well- 
known surgeon in his day, and attended lectures at the Med- 
ical Department of the University of Pennsylvania and re- 
ceived his degree at that institution in 1S46. He commenced 
the practice of medicine in Athol the same year and con- 
tinued in active practice there until his removal to Fitchburg 
in May, 1861. 

Dr. Jabez Fisher graduated at the Medical Department 
of Harvard University in 1S46 : he settled in Fitchburg in 
1851 as a hvdropathic physician and surgeon, and in 1855 
retired from practice and engaged in horticultural pursuits, 
on what he named "Pomoland," in the north part of the 
town. He at once took the first rank in fruit culture, and is 
authoritv, especially in all that pertains to the raising oi 
grapes. In 1855 and 1856 he was chosen senator for Wor- 
cester Northeast Senatorial District. In 1857 and 1858 he 
was president of Worcester North Agricultural Society. 
From 1857 to 1863 he was an influential member of the State 
Board of Agriculture, and has since filled several positions in 
Fitchburg, with credit to himself and the city of his adoption. 

Dr. George Jewett graduated at the Berkshire Med- 
ical College in Pittsheld, Mass., in 1847, at the age ot" 22 
years. He continued his studies at Harvard Medical Col- 
lege, and was a pupil of the late Dr. Jacob Bigelow : he 
practised six years in Templeton and five years in Gardner, 
and came to Fitchburg in 1858. In January, 1862, he en- 
tered the army as assistant surgeon, was soon promoted to 
surgeon ot the 51st Regt., and was honorably discharged 
with his regiment. He visited Europe in 1867 and 1868 : 
was president of Worcester North Medical Society in 1876-77 ; 
has been examining surgeon for pensions since 1864. and was 
president of the Examining Board of Pensions in this city. 
He was also president of Worcester North Agricultural So- 
ciety in 1878 and 1S79, an ^ a member of the State Board of 
Agriculture from 1881 to 1884. He, is a trustee of the Public 



PR( )l ESSK >N \I.. < s -> 

Library, president of the Hospital Cottage corporation, 
Baldwinville, director in the Fitchburg Fire Insurance Co., 
president of the Board of Trade, and was councillor of the 

Massachusetts Medical Society. 

Dr. Hubbard II. Brigham, eclectic physician, came to 
Fitchburg in 1845 : he graduated at the Eclectic Medical col- 
lege in Worcester in 1855, and is active in his profession at 
this time. 

Dr. Sarah C. Brigham, wile of the above, graduated 
at the Eclectic Medical College in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1856, 
and has since been in the practice of her profession here in 
connection with her husband. 

Dr. Daniel Brainard Whittier, was born in GofTs- 
town, X. II.. October 21, 1834, being oi Scotch-Irish descent 
by his maternal parent and of English by his paternal. He 
pursued an academic course at the New Hampshire Confer- 
ence Seminary receiving his medical education at Harvard 
Medical College and at the New York Homoeopathic Col- 
lege, from the latter of which he graduated in March, 1S63. 
Since that time Fitchburg has been his home and place of 
the practice of his profession. He has served the cite as a, 
member of the school board : has been president of the State 
Homoeopathic Medical Society, as well as the Worcester 
County Homoeopathic Association. 

Dr. Hollis K. Bennett, was born in Warren, \'t.. 
in 1838 : received a common school education : took his 
medical degree at the Pennsylvania Medical University : 
began practice in Hartford. X. Y.. afterwards in Whitehall, 
where he was examining surgeon tor pensions: came to 
Fitchburg in October, 1872 ; is a member of the New York 
State Homoeopathic Medical Society, American Institute of 
Homoeopathy since 1869, and a member of the principal 
Homoeopathic societies in Massachusetts. 

Dr. A. W. Sidney was horn in Westminster. Feb. 27. 
1824: attended the public schools of that town and the West- 
minster Academy : graduated at Dartmouth Medical Col- 
lege; began practice in Sterling in i860; came to Fitchburg 



86 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

in 1866 and has been in the practice of his profession here 
since ; he is a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 
the American Medical Association and the Ninth Interna- 
tional Medical Congress; is also president of the corporation 
of the Home for Old Ladies. 

Dr. Charles H. Rice, was born in Ashburnham, 
Mass., in 1843 ; resided in Ashby from the age of two till 
sixteen and attended the public schools of that town ; entered 
Appleton Academy at New Ipswich, N. H., and graduated 
there in 1862 ; studied medicine at Harvard and Dartmouth 
Medical Colleges, graduating at the former in 1865 and the 
latter in 1866 ; began the practice of medicine and surgery in 
Fitchburg in the spring of 1866, where he still continues to 
reside and continue the practice of his profession ; is presi- 
dent of the Worcester North Medical Society ; surgeon of 
the 6th Regiment M. V. M. ; member of the school commit- 
tee and one of the trustees of the public library. 

Dr. F. H. Thompson was born in New Salem, Franklin 
county, Mass., Aug. 5, 1844; educated at New Salem 
Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy, Amherst College and 
Harvard Medical School ; graduated from the latter May 
1870; began practice in Fitchburg, May, 1874; was c ^y 
physician in 1877, a member of the school committee from 
1875 to 1878 and from 1878 to 1881 ; a trustee of the public 
library from 1882 to 1887 ; is a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, joining in 1870; was surgeon on the staff of 
General Kimball in 1877-78. 

Dr. D. S. Woodworth, was born in Greenfield, Mass., 
Sept. 3, 185 1. His parents moved West when he was quite 
small, and he attended the public schools of Fremont, Ohio. 
His father having died in Ohio, the rest of the family moved 
East again ; he going to Boston, where he entered the employ 
of C. F. Hove} r & Co., and remained with them several 
years ; came to Fitchburg and began the study of medicine 
with Dr. H. H. Brigham, Jan. 1, 1873; graduated from the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical Department, 
Columbia College, New York, March 1, 1876; is a member 



PROFESSIONAL. 87 

of the Massachusetts Medical Society ; has practised in Fitch- 
burg since; was city physician in 1879-80-81-84-85-86; 
president Worcester North Eclectic Medical Society, 1878 ; 
on school committee in 1879-80-81-82 ; medical director 
Massachusetts Mutual Aid Society for several years past ; 
past master C. W. Moore Lodge F. & A. M. ; past com- 
mander Jerusalem Commandery, K. T. ; past grand Roul- 
stone Lodge ; past chief patriarch King David Encampment, 
and Assistant Surgeon General Division of the East Patriarchs 
Militant, I. O. O. F. ; member of O. U. A. M. and A. L. H. ; 
past chancellor of Alpine Lodge, K. of P., and is at the pres- 
ent time grand chancellor of Massachusetts K. of P. 

Dr. Ernest P. Miller, son of Alfred and Elsie L. 
Miller of Fitchburg, was born Jan. 4, 1S51, in Ashburnham ; 
fitted for college at Fitchburg high school, graduating in 
1868; a student in Amherst College, 1868-70; teacher in 
Fitchburg, 1870; graduated at Harvard College, 1872; 
teacher in Fitchburg high school, 1872-4; graduated at Har- 
vard Medical School, 1876; medical examiner from 1877; 
city physician, 1880 and 1883. 

Dr. Herbert H. Lyons, was born at Milford, Mass., 
Sept. 24, 1855 ; graduated from Milford high school, June, 
1874 ' graduated from Boston College in 1878 ; began the 
study of medicine at the Harvard Medical School, Septem- 
ber 1878, and graduated therefrom in June, 1881 ; began the 
practice of medicine in Fitchburg, September, 18S1, where he 
still continues to reside and practise medicine and surgery. 

Dr. Atherton P. Mason, is the" son of Charles and 
Caroline Atherton (Briggs) Mason and was born in Fitch- 
burg, Sept. 13, 1856. He was educated in the public schools 
of this city, graduating from the Fitchburg high school in the 
class of 1875. I n tne ta ^ °f x 875 he entered Harvard Col- 
lege, where he remained four years, taking the degree of A. 
B. at his graduation in 1879. In October of the same year 
he entered the Harvard Medical School and took the full 
medical course of three years, graduating with the degree of 
M. D. in June, 1882. He remained in the vicinity of Boston, 



88 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

having an office in Somerville and attending exercises in the 
Boston City, and Massachusetts General Hospitals, until 
February, 1884, when he returned to Fitchburg and located 
permanently in his native city. Dr. Mason is a member of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society and secretary of the 
Worcester North District Medical Society. 

Dr. John D. Kielty, (sketch as city physician, chapter 
III.) 

Dr. C. W. Spring, was born at Salmon Falls, N. II. : 
graduated from Dartmouth, 1SS0, and from Harvard Medical 
School in 1S84 ; began the practice o'f his profession in 
Fitchburg in the spring of 1885. 

Dr. J. Everett Luscombe, received his degree in 
1885 at the Boston University School of Medicine, and set- 
tled in Fitchburg the same year, where he still continues the 
practice of medicine and surgery. He is a member ot the 
Worcester County Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

Dr. II. W. Pierson, a practicing physician, recently lo- 
cated in West Fitchburg. 

LAWYERS. 

Ebenezer Torrey, (sketch as president of the Fitch- 
burg National Bank in commercial chapter.) 

Charles Mason was born in Dublin, N. H., June 3, 
1810. In 1829 he entered Phillips Exeter Academy, where 
he was fitted for college; graduated at Harvard in 1834. 
From 1835 to 1839 h e was a tutor in the University in the 
Latin department. He read law'at the Dane Law School 
and received the degree of LL. B. in 1839. In September, 
1839, ne was admitted at Boston to practise law in the courts 
of the state and in the circuit and district courts of the United 
States. He remained in Boston till May, 1841, when he 
opened an office in Lancaster, Mass., and in September, 
1842, moved to Fitchburg where he has since resided. In 
June, 0S42, he was appointed one of the standing commis- 
sioners of bankruptcy for the Massachusetts district under the 



PRi (FESSK INAL. 



89 



United States Bankrupt law; in August. 1845, master in 
chancery, an office which at that time had jurisdiction in in- 
solvency proceedings, and in July. 1851, a commissioner oi 
insolvency for the county of Worcester. He was a member 
oi the house ot representatives of Massachusetts in 1S49 and 
'51. In the hitter year was one of the one hundred and 
ninety-three members who succeeded alter a struggle of more 
than three months and on the twenty-sixth ballot in electing 
Charles Sumner to the United States senate. Mr. Mason 
was also a member ot the constitutional convention in 1853. 
He married. Aug. o. 1853, Caroline Atherton Briggs : and in 
1857* built the residence on Laurel Hill where the family has 
since resided. Mr. Mason has always been deeply interested 
in the education ot the young, and has had much to do with 
the public schools ol Fitchburg, especially during the earl}' 
portion ot his residence here. For several years he was an 
active member and chairman of the school committee of the 
town. lie also took an active part in getting up the "Fitch- 
burg Athenaeum." From 1864 to 1869 he was secretary of 
the Fitchburg Mutual Fire Insurance Company. Since that 
time his health has been impaired, at times so much as to 
compel him to seek a change of scene, and he has pursued 
no stated business. 

T. K. Ware, a native of Cambridge. Mass., graduated 
at Harvard College. 1X42, and at Harvard Law School in 
1845 : studied in Sidney Bartlett's office in Boston : admitted 
to the bar in 1X46. and has been engaged in the practice oi' 
his profession in Fitchburg since: married Jan. 22, 1852, 
Lucy A. A. Marshall, daughter of the late C. Marshall of 
Fitchburg: was a member ot the Massachusetts house of 
representatives in 1849 am ' T, ^54 an< ^ mis been justice 
of the police court since it was established : from Sep- 
tember, 1864, to September, 1X75. was in partnership with 
Charles II. B. Snow in the firm of Ware & Snow, which 
was dissolved upon the death of Mr. Snow: from Novem- 
ber, 1875, to July, 1X70. was associated with George A. 
Torrev, in the linn of Ware & Torrey ; from [uly, 1879, 



90 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

to July, 1887, it was Ware, Torrey & Ware, by the 
addition of his son C. E. Ware as junior partner. The 
firm is at present T. K. & C. E. Ware. Mr. Ware was con- 
nected with the Fitchburg library as trustee from the start, 
and has been chairman of the board since the death of its 
first president, C. H. B. Snow; is president of the Fitchburg 
Savings Bank and a director in the Fitchburg National 
Bank. 

Amasa Norcross, (sketch as Mayor, Chapter III.) 
David H. Merriam, (sketch as Mayor, Chapter III.) 

George Arnold Torrey was born in Fitchburg, May 
14, 1838, and is the son of Ebenezer Torrey and Sarah 
Arnold Torrey ; was educated in the schools of Fitchburg, 
Leicester Academy and Harvard College, graduating from 
the latter in 1859. Mr. Torrey received his legal education 
in Harvard Law School, graduating in 1861 ; was admitted 
to the bar and commenced practice the same year ; June, 
1861, was married to Ellen Malibran Shirley of Boston; in 
1875 became a member of the firm of Ware & Torrey, with 
T. K. Ware for a partner ; in 1879, Ware, Torre}' & Ware, 
by the addition of C. E. Ware, and July, 1887, gave up prac- 
tice to become corporation counsel for the Fitchburg Rail- 
road, with an office in Boston. 

Stillman Haynes was born in Townsend, Mass., April 
17, 1833 ; son of Samuel and Eliza (Spaulding) Haynes; at- 
tended common and select schools of his native town and 
afterwards Leicester Academy and the Normal School at 
Lancaster. He was for some time at New Ipswich Academy 
an associate teacher and a student with Elisha F. Quimby, 
later professor of mathematics and civil engineering at Dart- 
mouth College. Mr. Haynes graduated at Kimball Union 
Academy, Meriden, N. H., in 1859; in 1859 ne entered the 
law office of Bonney & Marshall at Lowell as a student of 
law ; was admitted to the Middlesex bar in 1861 ; commenced 
practice in Asburnham in 1862, but in 1863 returned to Towns- 
end and opened a law office, remaining there till 1868, when 
he removed to Fitchburg - . While in Townsend he was a 




RESIDENCE OF CHARLES T. CROCKER, PROSPECT STREET. 




RESIDENCE OF MRS SALMON W. PUTNAM, WALNUT STREET. 



PROFESSIONAL. 91 

member of the Board of Selectmen, and for several years 
served on the School Committee of the town. Since his 
removal to Fitchburg, he has devoted himself exclusively 
to the practice of his profession. He has been elected for 
several terms on the School Board of which he is a member 
at the present time. Mr. Haynes married October 8, 1863, 
Ilattie M. Kimball, of Temple, N. H. 

Charles S. Hayden was born in Harvard, Mass., Nov. 
10, 1848 ; son of James G. and Lucretia B. Hayden. He 
attended the public schools of his native town and the Groton 
High School ; graduated at the Fitchburg High School in 
the class of 1869 ; read law with Wood & Torrey, and then 
entered the Harvard Law School, where he graduated with 
the degree of LL .B. in 1871 ; admitted to the bar in August, 
187 1. June 13th, 1879, Mr. Hayden was appointed Special 
Justice of the Fitchburg Police Court. He married January 
23d, 1873, Miss Mary E. Lawrence, of Fitchburg. 

Harris C. Hartwell was born in Groton, Mass., De- 
cember 28, 1847 ; son of Benjamin F. and Emma W. 
Hartwell. He graduated at Lawrence Academy in 1865 and 
then entered Harvard College, graduating there in 1869 ; 
read law in the office of Hon. Amasa Norcross, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1873 ; in 1874 ne entered into partnership 
with Mr. Norcross, forming the well-known legal firm of 
Norcross & Hartwell. He was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts House of Representatives in 1883-84-85, and of the 
Massachusetts Senate in 1887. He was chairman of the 
judiciary committee in the House in 1885 and of the same 
committee in the Senate in 1887. For ten years (1877-1886) 
Mr. Hartwell was City Solicitor of Fitchburg. He has 
been a member of the School Board. As a member of the 
Fitchburg Harvard Club, he has for some years served most 
acceptably as its president. He married, October 23d, 1877, 
Effie M. F. Needham, daughter of Col. Daniel Needham, of 
Groton. 

Samuel L. Graves was born in Groton, Mass., July 
18th, 1847; son of John J. and Lucy Graves ; graduated at 



92 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Lawrence Academy, Groton, and then entered Amherst Col- 
lege, where he graduated in 1870; then came to Fitchburg 
and read law in the office of Wood & Torrey for three years, 
and opened an office of his own. Though often urged to be 
a candidate for public office, Mr. Graves has always refused 
such offers, preferring to devote himself to the practice of his 
profession. He has been a member of the School Board ; 
was married in 1878 to Mary E. Lane, daughter of Abbie E. 
and the late James B. Lane, of Fitchburg. 

Harrison Bailey was born in Fitchburg July 12th, 
1849; son of E. Foster and Dorothy S. Bailey; educated in 
the public schools of Fitchburg and fitted for college at the 
Fitchburg High School ; graduated at Amherst College' in 
1872 ; Harvard Law School 1874: read law with George A. 
Torrev and was admitted to the bar in September, 1874. He 
immediately afterwards opened an office on his own account 
and has since continued in the practice of general law bus- 
iness : is one of the commissioners to qualify civil officers. 

Charees F. Baker was born in Lunenburg, Mass., 
Dec. 4, 1850; son of William and Olive R. (Boutwell) 
Baker; graduated from the Fitchburg High School in 1868: 
Harvard College 1872 ; read law- with Norcross & Hartwell ; 
was teacher in Fitchburg High School 1872-74 : admitted to 
the bar in 1875, and was Assistant District-Attorney for Wor- 
cester county at one time ; has been in the office of Norcross 
& Hartwell since admission to the bar and became a member 
of the firm of Norcross, Hartwell & Baker, January 1, 1887 ; 
has been a member of the School Board; married April 24, 
1879, Henrietta Woods, of Winchester, Mass. 

James II. McMahon was born in Tulamore, Kings 
County, Ireland, Feb. 4, 1850; son of John and Sarah Mc- 
Mahon. His parents came to this country a few- months 
after his birth and located at Shirley, Mass. Mr. McMahon 
attended the public schools of Shirley and also had private 
instruction in Boston. He read law with E. B. O'Connor, of 
Boston, and later with James M. Woodbury, of Fitchburg. He 
was admitted to the bar in September, 1877. In November, 
1877, he opened an office where he has since continued in 



PROFESSIONAL 



D3 



the practice of general law business. Mr. McMahon has 
been a member of the School Board. 

Edward P. Pierce (sec sketch in the City Government 
chapter. ) 

Thomas F. Gallagher was born at Lynn, Mass.. Dec. 
27, 1855: son of Thomas and Anne N. Gallagher : educated 
in the public schools of Lynn : graduated at the University of 
Notre Dame, Indiana, in 1876; read law with lion. William 
1). Northend in Salem ; admitted to the bar in October, 1878 ; 
had an office in Lynn till December 15, 1881, when he came 
to Fitchburg and opened an office, and continued in bus- 
iness for himself till September. 1886, when he entered into 
partnership with the late John W. Walsh. 

Charles E. Ware was born in Fitchburg, July 17, 1853 ; 
son nf Thornton K. and Lucy A. A. Ware; educated in the 
public schools of Fitchburg during early youth ; entered Rox- 
bury Latin School, where he graduated in 1872 : graduated at 
Harvard College in 1876, and Harvard Law School in 1878; 
July 1st. 1879. the ' aw m ni °f Ware, Torrey & Ware was 
founded, he being junior member of it; July 1, 1887, the firm 
became T. K. & C. E. Ware on account of Mr. Torrey be- 
coming corporation counsel for the Fitchburg Railroad Co.. 
and being obliged to give up other practice. Mr. Ware mar- 
ried June 30. 1881, Harriet P. Long ofRoxbury. 

James A. Stiles was born in Fitchburg, Sept. 1, 1855 : 
son of fames F. and Ann M. (Works) Stiles. lie was ed- 
ucated in the public schools of Fitchburg, graduating from 
the High School in the class of 1873 ; entered Harvard Col- 
lege and graduated in the class of 1877 : read law with 
George A. Torrey ami Harrison Bailey, of Fitchburg, and 
was admitted to the bar in August. 1880 ; in May. 1882, he 
formed a partnership with Edward P. Pierce and opened an 
office of the linn in West Gardner, Mass., where he has since 
continued : was appointed, May 4, 1884, Trial Justice, and 
June ir. 1884, Senior Special Justice of the First District 
Court of Northern Worcester county. Mr. Stiles married. 
June 0, 1887, Miss Mary L. Emerson, of Claremont, X. II. 



( J4 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

John W. Walsh was born at Leominster, July 22, i860, 
and was the second of a family of ten children of James and 
Bridget Walsh. He was an apt scholar and made rapid 
progress in the public schools of his native town. While pur- 
suing his studies in the Leominster High School he com- 
menced reading law in the office of Hamilton Mayo. After 
graduating at the high school in 1876, he entered Holy Cross 
College at Worcester, intending to take the full course, but 
about the end of the first year his health was impaired by a 
severe attack of lung fever. As soon as his health was suf- 
ficiently restored he entered the Law Department of Boston 
University, where he graduated in 1880 ; he was admitted to 
the bar in Suffolk county the same year, and very soon after 
he had attained his majority. He came to this city in the 
latter part of the same year, and in partnership with John W. 
Corcoran, of Clinton, commenced the practice of law. The 
partnership lasted till 1886, when, September 6, Mr. Walsh 
and Thomas F. Gallagher formed a copartnership for the 
practice of law. Soon after he came to Fitchburg he de- 
livered an address on Robert Emmet which showed that 
he possessed much ability as an orator. In 1882, he was 
invited by Post 19, G. A. R., to deliver the oration at St. 
Bernard cemetery on Memorial Day, and performed the duty 
so admirably that he was invited to be the orator at the same 
place on a similar occasion in 1884 and again in 1886. Mr. 
Walsh was always deeply interested in political affairs, and 
frequently spoke at Democratic campaign meetings, both here 
and in other parts of the State. He was a candidate of his 
party for representative in 1885, and led his ticket in this 
city. In 1883 he was elected a member of the school com- 
mittee from Ward 2 for three years, and did good service on 
the board. He was also a leader and president of the local 
branch of the National Land League, and did much to arouse 
the sympathy of his fellow-citizens for Ireland's cause. He 
was also for a time 2d lieutenant of the Washington Guards, 
(Co. D, 6th regiment) and always took a deep interest in 
the success of the company. Mr. Walsh died Aug. 12, 1887. 
Few young men have made so rapid progress in their chosen 



PROFESSIONAL. i>. r ) 

profession as Mr. Walsh, and few lives have been so full of 
promise of usefulness and attainment as the one just closed. 
He was a very genial companion and his social qualities 
made acquaintance friendship. 

David K. Stevens was born in Fitchburg, August 12, 
i860; son of Samuel and Sarah Stevens; educated in the 
public schools of Fitchburg, graduating from the high school 
in 1877 ; studied law in the office of Henry R. Start, Bakers- 
field, Vt., at the Boston University Law School and in the 
office of Bennett & Fuller, Taunton, Mass. ; admitted to the 
Bristol county bar in April, 1882 : in 1884 formed a partner- 
ship with Charles H. Blood and took charge of the Boston 
office of the firm, where he has since continued. He mar- 
ried November 24, 18S4, Jennie E. Waite, of Cambridge, Vt. 

Charles H. Blood was born in Fitchburg, Dec. 10, 
1857 ; son of Hon. Hiram A. and Mary M. (Person) Blood; 
educated in the Fitchburg public schools ; graduated at Fitch- 
burg High School in 1875, Harvard College 1879; read law 
with Attorney-General Marston, of New Bedford, and at- 
tended Boston University Law School during 1882-3 ; 
admitted to the Bristol bar August, 1883 ; soon afterwards 
opened an office in Fitchburg ; also had an office in Boston. 
In 1884 he formed a partnership with David K. Stevens, of 
Fitchburg. 

MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Fitchburg Society for Medical Improvement. — Or- 
ganized July, 1874. President — II. H. Lyons; Vice-Presi- 
dent — D. P. Richardson; Secretary and Treasurer — J. D. 
Kielty. Members — Levi Pillsbury, George Jewett, Ernest P. 
Miller, George D. Colony, Charles H. Rice, Frederick H. 
Thompson, Herbert H. Lyons, Austin W. Sidney, Atherton 
P. Mason, J. D. Kielty, C. W. Spring: D. P. Richardson 
and E.J. Cutter, Leominster; Dr. Stimson, Lunenburg. 

Worcester North District Medical Society. — Em- 
bracing Fitchburg and towns in the northern part of 



96 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Worcester county. President — Levi Pillsbury ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, C. II. Rice: Secretary — A. P. Mason: Treasurer, 
E. P. Miller; Librarian — F. H. Thompson. 

Worcester North Eclectic .Medical Society. — Or- 
ganized July, 1861. Meetings held on the last Tuesday of 
each month. Annual meeting on the last Tuesday in July ; 
held in Fitchburg. President — Dr. Gleason, Townsend, 
Mass. : Secretary and Treasurer, Dr. N. Jewett, Ashburn- 
ham : Councillors — Drs. II. II. Brigham and G. W. Garland. 

Worcester County Homceopathic Society. — Meet- 
ings held quarterly at Worcester. Annual meeting the second 
Wednesday of November. President — O. W. .Roberts, 



Wa 



Lib. 



1 — E. L. Melius, Worcester. 



CHAPTER VI. 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 



OMETHING akin to local pride may be 
considered pardonable in the people of 
Fitchburg while reviewing the list of 
workers in the field of literature and art, 
who are, or have been, closely identified 
with the place and in whom the city feels 
a peculiar ownership ; for there is scarcely 
a legend of all the region round that has 
not been woven into song, and there are 
very few of the many picturesque or fa- 
miliar haunts that have not been repro- 
■^^> duced by those who are pleased to be 

numbered among the sons and daughters of Fitchburg. 

A reference to the life work of each, however unimportant 
it may seem in their own estimation, will be warmly wel- 
comed and cannot fail to be an inspiration and incentive to 
others. 




LITERARY. 



Caroline Atiierton (Briggs) Mason, the subject of 
this sketch, though not a native of Fitchburg, has resided 
here over thirty years and has been identified, on many occa- 
sions, with the recent history of the place. 

She was born in the patriotic old seaport town of Marble- 
head, and was the youngest daughter of Dr. Calvin and 
Rebecca (Monroe) Briggs, and granddaughter of Rev. James 
Briggs of Cummington. Her grandfather on the maternal 
7 



98 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

side was Dr. Ephraim Monroe, born and educated in Scot- 
land and a surgeon in the military service. Dr. Briggs was 
a graduate of Williams College and received the degrees of 
A. M. and M. B. from Harvard in 1807, and of M. D. in 
181 1, being one of the first to receive the degree of M. D. 
from Harvard. He was a physician of large practice and 
high standing in Marblehead and neighboring towns and 
cities. He died in 1852, and soon afterward Mrs. Briggs 
and her family removed to Fitchburp;. 

Marblehead has been considered by some who have no 
correct means of judging, as altogether an illiterate town. 
Such is not the fact. At one time it was second only to Bos- 
ton in wealth and population ; but the Revolutionary War 
and the War of 181 2, with the embargo preceding it, depopu- 
lated and reduced it. There were still left, however, wealthy 
and aristocratic residents, who, together with the professional 
part of the community and other families of standing and 
education, made up a society equal to the best to be found in 
any of our cities and larger towns. It was under the ad- 
vantages of such intellectual and social surroundings that 
Mrs. Mason passed her early years. She, as well as her six 
older sisters, was educated at Bradford Academy. 

Before reaching the age of twenty she had begun to de- 
velop her poetical talent. Under the signature of "Caro" 
she contributed regularly to the Salem Register, and it was 
under that signature and in that paper that appeared verses 
which were soon known throughout all English speaking 
countries — the words of the song ,r Do They Miss Me at 
Home?" These words were set to music, both in this country 
and in England, and a hands irae sum was realized by certain 
parties in the operation ; but Mrs. Mason never received 
anything — not even the credit of the authorship. A few 
years ago, however, there appeared in The Literary World 
a sketch of Mrs. Mason in which her authorship of these 
words was affirmed and substantiated. This sketch was 
copied by numerous papers and one result was that she re- 
ceived letters from all parts of the country asking for her 




CAROLINE A MASON 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. !»!» 

autograph together with a stanza or two of the song. Quo- 
tations from the sketch will be used later by the writer of the 
present article. 

Besides the Salem Register she early contributed to the 
National Era, Anti-Slavery Standard and the Common- 
wealth; and, just previous to her marriage, she published, 
through Phillips, Sampson & Co., Boston, a volume of verses 
to which much favor was accorded. 

Soon after removing to Fitchburg she was married to 
Charles Mason, Esq. Since then they have resided here, 
and for the last thirty years in their present residence, 
Laurel Hill, one of the sightliest and best located situations 
in town. They have a son who is a practising physician in 
Fitchburg. 

Mrs. Mason has been a welcome contributor to most of 
the leading magazines and many religious and secular papers. 
"Her work in prose has been slight, embracing an anony- 
mous Sunday-school story, 'Rose Hamilton,' published in 
1859, a serial, 'Letty's Pathway ; or Following On,' which 
appeared in the Boston Recorder in 1866, and occasionally 
short stories and sketches appearing in leading periodicals. 
But her work in verse, which has been graceful and, in 
didactic elements, true and strong, has been considerable. 
Whatever she writes is inspiring. Her poem, 'Waking,' 
which begins with 

'I have done at length with dreaming,' 
was the means, early in its career of transforming at least one 
young woman from a butterfly to a thoughtful character. Of 
more recent productions, a touching bit' for mothers, called 
'Only Me,' has received the widest editorial favor. Mrs. 
Mason has written some of the best hymns of this centurv, as 
recent Unitarian praise-books and other religious compila- 
tions show. The sonnet form is a favorite with her of late, 
and has been used to fine purpose, especially in her series of 
pieces on the months.'" 

That her standing as a poet is fully appreciated is amply 
attested not only by occasional appreciative notices from the 



100 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

press, but also by letters written to her by individuals promi- 
nent in learning and literature. Among such voluntary evi- 
dences in her possession are two which she prizes highly, — 
one, a graceful note written by Alfred Tennyson, poet 
laureate of England, thanking her for her sonnet entitled 
"Tennvson and the Violets," (lines embellishing an incident 
related by James T. Fields) ; the second, a note from Charles 
Sumner, expressing his sincere appreciation of a poem 
written by Mrs. Mason. This poem was prompted by the 
reading of that grand speech which Mr. Sumner intended to 
deliver in Faneuil Hall, Sept. 3, 1872, but which, owing to 
his illness, was given to the public in print. In this speech 
he made a noble defence of his fearless, self-sacrificing atti- 
tude toward the great questions of the day, and re-affirmed 
that unswerving fidelity to the principles of justice, truth and 
right, for which he was ever distinguished, — a speech which 
effectually silenced the howling mob that was endeavoring to 
pull him down from his well-deserved pinnacle of honor and 
fame. Another poem written by Mrs. Mason on the occasion 
of his great Emancipation Speech delivered at Worcester in 
October, 1861, was so highly esteemed by Mr. Sumner that 
he caused it- to be printed in connection with the speech, and 
it may be found in his published works. 

Mrs. Mason has, for many years, promptly and willingly 
responded to the numerous calls made upon her talent to fur- 
nish poems for occasions, both public and private, in Fitch- 
burg ; and the poems she has written relating to Fitchburg 
and its citizens would almost make a volume. 

She has published none of her poems in book form since 
the volume referred to earlier in this sketch, though repeat- 
edly urged to do so. A volume of selections from her later 
productions would certainly be appreciated, and it is to be 
hoped that such may appear ere long. 

Among the best of her poems are : "The Lost Ring," an 
unpublished narrative poem of some length, "Eureka," "Heir- 
ship," "En Voyage" "Be Like the Sun," "Waking," "We 
Three," "Not Yet," "Dernier Ressort" "Nature and Poet," 
and "Sonnets of the Months." 






UM$ 



gMBMS 




RESIDENCE OF CHARLES MASON, ESQ., 

Laurel Hill. 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 101 

Among the most popular have been: "A Memory," 
"Waking," "Sonnets of the Months,'" "En Voyage" "Only 
Me," "Do They Miss Me at Home?" and "Be Like the 

Sun." 

Mary Caroline Dickinson was born in Fitchburg. 
With no early advantages of education except what its 
common schools afforded, Mary C. Underwood began her 
life as a teacher as soon as she was fifteen years of age 
and continued it until her twenty-fourth year with no in- 
terruption except that of her marriage to George Preston 
Lowe, whose early loss, which occurred during his ab- 
sence abroad while she was yet in her teens, was the great 
shadow upon her early life. These years of teaching proved 
two things — one known to other people, and one to herself. 
The former was the fact that she possessed the true teacher's 
gift, which is born and not made ; the latter the fact that her 
so-called education had furnished no proper training for the 
work of an educator ; hence those earlier years of imparting 
knowledge became also the time of real study. Without the 
advantages she resolved to have the acquirements which, or- 
dinarily, are won through the best schools and colleges, and 
from that day to this she has not ceased to be a student, keep- 
ing herself abreast of the most advanced movements in the 
education of women. From Fitchburg, where few teachers 
have been more warmly remembered by the boys and girls 
once under their care, she passed to the head assistantship of 
a grammar school in Boston, and thence to the Hartford Fe- 
male Seminary. 

From the latter place she went abroad, hoping for oppor- 
tunities to continue her education, in which, however, she had 
already made such progress as to be favorably considered for 
assistant lady principal of Vassar College, which opened 
about this date. She went to Europe with the family 
ol one of her pupils, supplementing her constant work by 
writing for the New York Tribune and other journals, con- 
tributing at one time regularly to no less than thirteen pe- 
riodicals, and, aside from this excessive labor, continuing 



102 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

her pursuit of studies denied her in her youth. At the end of 
one year, her pupil having married, she transferred her ser- 
vices as teacher to a family from Chicago, toward whom she 
has ever since retained rather the relation of daughter than a 
friend, and with whom she remained during their stay, return- 
ing with them to this country in the autumn of 1867. A few 
months later saw her installed as acting lady principal of the 
Van Norman Institute, at that time one of the most flourish- 
ing schools of New York city. Here she remained until 
her marriage with Mr. John B. Dickinson, a prominent 
hanker of New York, whose failing health took them again 
abroad in the winter of 1871-2, on which occasion they re- 
mained away nearly three years, travelling in the summer, 
and living in Italy in the winter, with the exception of the 
winter of 1872-73, when they passed three months in their 
Dahabeah on the Nile. During this long absence the pen 
was not silent, but many a bright sketch and tender poem 
found its way to the public, almost invariably, however, with- 
out the author's name. A bit of verse called "If we had but 
a day," written on the Nile w r ith an overturned soap box for 
a desk, drifted from Maine to Texas in the columns of 
numerous journals, but it was only one of many that had 
been coming all along through the years from the time wdien 
the teacher made amends for having accused her of borrowing 
her composition by having it printed in the columns of the 
Fitchburg Sentinel. Still, notwithstanding much fugitive 
work, the writing was largely dropped until after the death 
of Mr. Dickinson and the subsequent loss of fortune which 
followed within two years after this event. 

All her life lon»- Mrs. Dickinson had ranked herself 
among working women, only laying down the implements of 
one line p{ work to take another in social or philanthropic 
fields. Now she took them up again as a bread-winner, 
making no claim to genius or even to marked talent, and al- 
ways doubting if she had any unusual gifts. "Talent uses 
us," she used to say ; "If I had had a spark of it, I could not 
have waited for circumstances to force me to use it." Hence 
she never had any hope of literary reputation, but went to 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 103 

work resolved to accept no task, however great, that would 
not do u'ood, and to turn away from nothing, however small 
that would, and never using her name except when 
necessary to insure publication. Yet, with this resolution 
rigidly kept, she soon drifted into regular lines of journalistic 
work. She wrote leaders for dailies, editorials for weeklies, 
serials, short travels, poems, articles on education and phil- 
anthropy, and Sunday School lessons, never free enough to 
work in any favorite line, hut always shaping her work to suit 
the demand of the hour. A little collection of poems reprinted 
by Dodd, Mead & Co., of New York, from the various period- 
icals in which they first appeared, found much favor. The 
novel published by Carleton & Co., New York, called 
"Among the Thorns," is too well known to need comment 
here, and two stories, "The Amber Star" and "A Fair Half 
Dozen," first printed in England, have been re-issued in this 
countrv bv Phillips & Hunt, of New York. 

Charming as all this journalistic work is, showing in its 
wide range unusual versatility and strength that gives the 
writer an undoubted rank in fiction, it is as a critical and 
biographical essayist that Mrs. Dickinson's strongest power 
lies. Her reviews of the life and work of Harriet Martineau, 
Madame George Sand, Madame de la Rochefoucauld, 
Charles Kingsley and many others, are a valuable addition to 
literature and show a power of analytical discrimination that 
has met with cordial recognition from most critical minds. 
But busy as has been this "working woman's" pen, she has 
never been weaned from her real work as an educator. Soon 
after the death of her husband she took charge of the depart- 
ment of literature and composition in a school in Brooklyn, 
resigning in order to give herself more fully to private stu- 
dents, young and old, who desired to place themselves under 
her guidance. The simple little home opposite Central Park 
is not only a favorite spot with bus}' workers in every field, 
but during the morning hours of every winter it is a studio for 
women who come to be helped to a finer culture, a wider 
knowledge, or larger possibilities of life. Having known the 
double experience of both how to abound and how to suffer 



104 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

need, few women have been better prepared to be a strength 
to other women, and especially to those who suffer and those 
who toil. Earnestly interested in every problem for their ad- 
vancement or prosperity, when she could no longer give 
money, she has unsparingly given herself. Ample use 
has been found for her best powers from time to time, as 
the secretary of the Female Bible Society, the oldest charity 
of New York city ; one of the vice-presidents of the W. F. 
Missionary Society; National Superintendent of the Depart- 
ment of Temperance in colleges and schools of higher educa- 
tion of the W. C. T. U. While in this post she originated 
the "Student's League," which binds not onlv to Temper- 
ance, but to Purity, and Chivalry, and Truth. Her interest 
in the cause of temperance made her for two years one of 
the editors of the National Reformer. 

In the interest of the Shut-in Society, she edits their mag- 
azine for invalids, called The Open Window, and in the in- 
terest of general philanthropy she has been associated with 
Edward Everett Hale in the editorship of his magazine. The 
exactions of such a life, of which a sketch like this affords 
only the faintest outline, have left their marks upon health 
and vigor, causing the abandonment of much work in which 
the worker would gladlv remain ; but she still retains enough 
to rob literature quite too largely of her time. 

As the general secretary of the new order called the 
King's Daughters, so rapidly spreading over the country, an 
organization that binds every woman to do some work for 
others, she finds ample opportunity to reach and inspire 
thousands of women, rich and poor, to join the ranks of 
workers and make their lives a ministry of good ; while as 
the president of the Women's National Indian Association, 
now organized and at work in two-thirds of the States in the 
Union, she is enabled to widen her circle of service until it 
includes also the women and children of the plains. In a 
life like this, literature must necessarily be an incident, but 
her literary work is of a style so pure and a character so vig- 
orous as to make one wish it might have made the life itself. 
Such as it is, it keeps the flavor of the winds that blow over 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 1<>"> 

the pine woods and the granite hills of New England and is 
not unworthy of the Fitchburg that is to be. 

Martha Downe Tolman, is a native of Fitchburg, 
daughter of Deacon Nathan and Mary Downe Tolman. 
Both parents were of English ancestry traced to colonial 
days. Miss Tolman was educated in the public and private 
schools of Fitchburg. Her first published verses appeared 
in the Well Spring, a Sunday School paper published in 
Boston, for which little rhyme, entitled "Sabbath Bells,'* the 
editor sent her three dollars, the first money received for any 
literary work, and consequently magnifying its value a 
hundred fold. Her first book, entitled "Fabrics,'" was pub- 
lished in 1871, by Messrs. A. I). F. Randolph & Co., New 
York. Miss Tolman was exceedingly unfortunate in the 
printing of this book. Owing to the inability of the publish- 
ers to attend to the proof reading personally at that time, it 
was left, with three similar books, in the hands of the 
printers. Each book shared a common fate, receiving a 
generous sprinkling of typographical and other errors. Two 
years later a second book, "Finished or Not," was published 
in Boston by Messrs. D. Lothrop & Co. Other editions of 
"Fabrics" were also published by this house, and the book 
was reprinted in London by Messrs. Ward, Lock & Tyler. 
Aside from these books, Miss Tolman has from time to time 
written verses and articles in prose for papers and magazines. 
In all of her writings the style is pure and racy, at the same 
time instructive and profitable ; it touches the finer sensibili- 
ties, appeals to one's better nature, and inculcates the lesson 
of loving and living for others. 

In "Fabrics" we have her thoughts on great themes em- 
bodied in the form of a story. It impresses one in a solemn 
yet pleasant manner with the great aim and end of life and 
inculcates those excellent moral precepts which all would do 
well to imitate. 

In "Finished or Not" the author portrays most truly and 
touchingly what benevolence and culture may accomplish 
for helpless humanity. 



106 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The writer is never feeble or doubtful in her moral teach- 
ing, her evident aim being to do good to every reader ; and 
for thoughtful, reflective and appreciative young people, 
these books must have a special charm and value. In addi- 
tion to her literary work Miss Tolman has devoted a portion 
of her time to local philanthropic work as a member of the 
Fitchburg Benevolent Union and secretary of the corporation 
of the Old Ladies' Home. 

Colonel Augustine J. II. Duganne was born in 1823. 
His father was Assistant Charge de Affairs at Constantinople, 
Turkey. His mother was the only daughter of wealthy par- 
ents residing in France, where she met this dashing young 
officer, who obtained her consent to a secret bethrothal and 
clandestine marriage. By this act she so wounded the pride 
of her parents, that she was disowned both as daughter and 
heiress. 

Finding the parents unrelenting, and seeing no prospect 
of being recognized by them, she accompanied her husband 
to Qjiebec, in Canada, he for some unexplained reason not 
wishing to return to Constantinople. As a result of this 
union two children were born to them — one a daughter, the 
other a son, Augustine Joseph Hickey, the subject of this 
sketch. In 1823, the parents removed to Boston, and it is 
supposed that Augustine was born on board ship during the 
passage. Being reduced to poverty, the mercenary motives 
of the husband became apparent, a separation took place, 
followed soon after by the death of the mother. The children 
were then placed in an orphan asylum, of which Alvan 
Simonds, a native of Fitchburg and cashier of the Merchants' 
National Bank, in South Boston, was a trustee. At the age 
of fifteen he was taken from this institution by John Garfield, 
of Fitchburg, then proprietor of the Sentinel, and was duly 
installed in his office to learn the printing business. 

It was soon discovered by Mr. Garfield that his protege 
had a fondness for books, which sadly interfered with the 
progress of type-setting, it being no uncommon occurrence to 
find him on a cold winter's day snugly wrapped in a but- 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 1<>7 

falo robe and completely absorbed in a book or in some out- 
of-the-way corner remote from the case engaged in scribbling 
verses. After the first year in the printing office he began 
to write for the Sentinel. These contributions in the early 
numbers, beginning in 1839, were a U anonymous, and so 
completely did he surround his articles with mystery that not 
more than three or four persons, and those his most trusted 
friends, knew who wrote them. 

The first of his articles that attracted public attention was 
"An Acrostic to Education." This was followed soon after 
by a poem entitled " Slander," which was prefixed by a Latin 
quotation and signed "Julian." This article had the appear- 
ance of having been written by a person of education, and 
from certain significant allusions the authorship was accred- 
ited to a teacher in the academy. About this time one Pat- 
terson, an employe in the woolen mill, under the signature 
of "Syphax," criticised "Conrad," another local literary light, 
for misquoting Byron : whereupon ''Julian" took a hand 
in the discussion, creating an unusual interest for several 
weeks. (It is exceedingly unfortunate that the papers con- 
taining these early efforts are not preserved.) 

All these communications were written by young 
Hickev and copied by his intimate friend, the late Goldsmith 
F. Bailev, who took charge of them, and, awaiting his op- 
portunity, dropped them in the postoffice unobserved. In this 
way no one in the Sentinel office, not even the proprietor, 
suspected the real author. The late Charles H. B. Snow 
also took a warm interest in him and appreciated his genius. 
From Fitchburg he removed to Boston, hired an office where 
he made a business of proof-reading, and such literary work 
as came to hand. His hand-book of patriotic poems and 
songs, entitled " Hand Poems," was published at that time — 
1844, he being about twentv-one years of age. About this time 
it is related of him that on a cold winter's day he chanced to 
come across a little negro boy on the street who was crying 
piteously from cold and hunger. Without hesitating to con- 
sider how he should provide for the little waif in addition to 
his own maintenance, he took him to his office and ted. 



108 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

clothed and lodged him for some time. This arrangement 
was, however, brought to an abrupt and unpleasant termina- 
tion. It happened something in this wise : The little fellow, 
grateful beyond measure and aching to do something to show 
his gratitude, finding the family coal-bin empty, generously 
tilled it from the adjoining bins without the knowledge or 
consent of his benefactor, who was soon called upon by the 
irate owners either to make restitution or submit to arrest. 
From Boston he removed to New York, and there had his 
name changed by an act of the legislature to Augustine J. H. 
Duganne, — in compliance with his mother's dying request 
for him to assume her maiden name, — the signature over 
which his writings usually appeared thereafter. 

He soon became prominent in politics in New York city, 
and was one of the founders of the American Know Nothing 
party. He subsequently became a staunch republican, which 
political faith he held to the end of his days. He was at one 
time connected with the New York Tribune and held official 
positions under the city government. His experience while 
serving on a committee for investigating the moral condition 
of the city furnished material for his book "The Tenant 
Houses ; or Embers from Poverty's Hearth." His best known 
work was his "History of Government," showing the progress 
of civil society, and the structure of ancient and modern 
states. His last was a satire on Ingersol called "Injure Soul." 
His contribution to our national literature has been considera- 
ble both in poetry and prose ; of the former he published 
"Home Poesies," "The Iron Harp," "The Lydian Queen" 
(a tragedy produced at the Walnut Street Theatre, Philadel- 
phia), "MDCCCXLVIII" or "The Year of the People," 
"Parnassus in Pillory" (a satire) , "A Mission of Intellect" 
(delivered at Metropolitan Hall, New York, 1852), "The 
Gospel of Labor," "The True Republic," and "Poetical 
Works," the first complete collection of his poems. Of his 
prose writings a series of critiques on contemporary authors 
appeared in Sartains Magazine, under the title "Revised 
Leaves." He also wrote several dramas and twenty or thirty 
novelettes and romances as well as a large number of papers 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 1<>'.> 

upon a variety of subjects, under various nom dc plume in 
the different magazines and journals of the day. During 
this period of his life, his marriage took place. His wife was 
the daughter of a West India man of great wealth, who re- 
sided in Philadelphia. She was the daughter of the then 
reigning belle of that city, remarkable for her beauty, and 
as good as she was beautiful. Their tastes were congenial, 
and with ample means at command, nothing happened to dis- 
turb the happiness of their married life until the breaking out 
of the Rebellion, when with patriotic enthusiasm Mr. 
Duganne entered into the work of recruiting soldiers for the 
army. He succeeded in raising several regiments and, in 
response to what he considered an imperative duty, left the 
pleasant associations of home and entered upon active service 
at the head of the 176th New York Regiment, accompanying 
it to the front. In one of the engagements in which the regi- 
ment participated, Colonel Duganne was taken prisoner and 
held for a long time at Camp Ford, Texas, in the hands of 
the rebels, the story of which was rehearsed in his book 
"Camp and Prison ;" or "Twenty Months in the Department 
of the Gulf." "The Fighting Quakers," a true story of the 
war for the Union, was published by authority of the New 
York Bureau of Military Records. Another of his books is 
entitled "Sound Literature,*' the safeguard of our national 
institutions. 

The following criticism from the pen of William H. Bur- 
leigh is considered just and impartial, by those who are most 
familiar with his works. He says : "Colonel Duganne's 
lyrical powers are characterized by a nerVous energy, a gen- 
erous sympathy with humanity, a wonderful command of 
language, and an ardent hatred of wrong and oppression in 
all its forms. His poems have a distinct character of their 
own, and are evidently the strong, unrestrained and indignant 
utterances of a bold spirit, deeply penetrated with a love for 
its kind and intolerant of all despotisms/' 

Any analysis of the character of Colonel Duganne would 
fail of completeness were we to omit what might be termed 
the imperfect side of his nature, a peculiarity which is often 



110 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

the accompaniment of genius, but which in the eves of his 
friends only served to intensify the purity of his character, 
and reveal to them that childlike simplicity which the 
changes of fortune and circumstances were powerless to 
effect or modify. From a business point of view he was un- 
successful, never being able to comprehend the value or 
need of money. While yet a young man and struggling 
with poverty he refused the ample fortune offered by his 
mother's brother, who had inherited the estate of his grand- 
parents in France, and would have shared the inheritance 
with him, but he could not be induced to accept as a present 
what he considered belonged to him by right. After the 
close of the war Colonel Duganne resumed editorial and lit— 
erarv work on The New York Tribune. April 5, 1869, he 
delivered an oration on the "Heroic Succession," at Cooper 
Institute, it being the second anniversary of the death of 
Lincoln. 

Upon the death of his wife Colonel Duganne arranged 
his affairs in New York with the intention of at once return- 
ing to Fitchburg, there to spend the remainder of his days, 
for through all these busy years he still retained a strong at- 
tachment for his early home and boyhood friends. These 
plans, however, were never realized. He died at his home 
in New York, Oct. 20, 1884, surviving his companion only a 
few months. 

Rev. William Gushing, A. B., a former well-known 
resident of Fitchburg, was born in Lunenburg, May 15, 
181 1, attended school there, and fitted for college at Cam- 
bridge; graduated at Harvard University, 1S32, and was a 
student in Harvard Divinity School in 1832-3 ; removed to 
Fitchburg and was a teacher in the Academy for seven terms 
and was editor, for a short time in 1834, °f a weekly religious 
paper called the "Christian Messenger ;" was engaged in 
teaching in various places until 1837, when he completed his 
studies at the Harvard Divinity School, graduating in 1839 ' 
was ordained as an evangelist, June 10, 1S40; was engaged 
in preaching and teaching until 1857, removing that year to 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 1 1 1 

a farm in Clinton, where he remained ten years, occasionally 
supplying pulpits: from thence he removed to Med ford, in 
1867. and to Cambridge, in 1868, where he has since resided. 
He was employed until 1878, as assistant in Harvard Col- 
lege Library, since which time he has been engaged in 
literary work for himself. In 1S78, he published an "Index 
to the North American Review," and in 1879, an "Index to 
the Christian Examiner." He spent several years' work on 
his "Century of Authors," which, however, was not pub- 
lished. The material has been purchased by Appleton & 
Co., of New York, to be used in the preparation of their "Cy- 
clopaedia of American Biography." 

His r initials and Pseudonims,'' a dictionary of literary 
disguises, comprising a collection of twelve thousand initials 
and pseudonims employed from the beginning of the 
eighteenth century to the present time, with eight thousand 
real names of authors, represents a vast amount of labor in 
their preparation, for Mr. dishing does not confine himself 
to the bare bones of the initials and pseudonims which he ex- 
plains, but adds interesting notes explanatory of the writers ; 
and in the second part we find the real names of the authors 
followed by initials and pseudonims and short biographical 
notices. He is now preparing a supplement which will be 
ready for the press in the fall, this will contain six thousand 
additional initials and pseudonims. A companion volume to 
these two is the book of "Anonyms," comprising the titles of 
some twenty thousand books and pamphlets with the names 
of the authors, followed by brief biographical notices. The 
"Publishers Circular," London, ranks Mr.' Cushing's "Initials 
and Pseudonims" beside Allibone's great "Dictionary" and 
Cowden Clarke's no less famous "Concordance to Shaks- 
peare," for good, honest workmanship. It is indeed difficult 
to decide which of the three books will prove the most useful 
to the librarian and the student of English and American lit- 
erature. 

James Ripley Wellman Hitchcock, who signs him- 
self simply Ripley Hitchcock, was born in Fitchburg, July 



112 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

3, 1857. He prepared for college at the Fitchburg High 
School, entered Harvard in 1873, and was graduated in 
1877. For the next two years he pursued special post-grad- 
uate studies in Cambridge and at his home. During this 
time and also while in college he wrote articles which were 
published in various minor periodicals, and in 1879, wnen ne 
took up his residence in New York city, he began to occupy 
himself regularly with literary work, contributing many arti- 
cles to magazines and newspapers. In 1880, he accepted a 
position on the staff of the New York Tribune. Early in his 
college course he had begun a special study of art, which he 
continued after graduation, and his interest in the subject, 
upon which he had already written, was utilized in his selec- 
tion to perform the minor work of the Tribune $ art depart- 
ment. In 1882, Mr. Hitchcock became the art critic of the 
Tribune and he remains at the head of this department. In 
the summer and autumn of 1882, Mr. Hitchcock travelled 
through the southwest, Northern Mexico and California as 
the correspondent of the Tribune. He also wrote a series of 
letters for the Boston Herald. In 1883, he went through 
the southwest and northwest, visiting British Columbia, and 
making a journey to the glaciers of Mt. Tacoma on Puget 
Sound, afterward described in a magazine article. Since 
1883, Mr. Hitchcock's journalistic work has consisted almost 
entirely of art criticism, with some book reviewing. His 
connection with the daily press has become rather that of the 
special contributor than that of the regular journalist, and a 
large portion of his time is occupied with literary work out- 
side of daily journalism. His books and a considerable pro- 
portion of his magazine articles have naturally treated of art. 
He is the author of "Etching in America," a book published 
in New York early in 1886, which received favorable reviews 
in this country and in England. He is also the author of the 
text of "Some Modern Etchings,'' published in 1884 ; "Recent 
American Etchings," published in 1885 ; "Notable Etchings," 
published in 1886 ; "Representative American Etchings," 
published in 1887, and of a monograph upon George Inness, 
N. A., published in 1884. Mr. Hitchcock, who is a keen 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 113 

lover of out-door sports, usually spends his summers in 
salmon and trout fishing in New Brunswick and Quebec, 
and articles by him upon these topics are included in the 
Century Company's "Boys' Book of Sports." Among his 
contributions to monthly magazines have been articles for the 
Century, St. Nicholas, the Popular Science Monthly, Out- 
ing, the Art Review, the Art Amateur, the Book Buyer 
and others. The list includes some half dozen articles each 
for St. Nicholas, the Art Review and Outing, those for the 
last named magazine dealing with fishing and incidents of 
travel. An article in the Century magazine entitled "The 
Western Art Movement" was translated into French and re- 
published with comments in Li Art . It was also re-published 
in pamphlet form in Nova Scotia. Some of the weekly pub- 
lications for which Mr. Hitchcock has written are the Chris- 
tian Union, the Youth's Companion, Puck, and others. In 
addition to the work of his department of the Tribune he has 
for some years contributed occasional letters upon artistic and 
literary topics to the Boston Herald. Although Mr. Hitch- 
cock's writings have dealt chiefly with art and literary criti- 
cism, and out-door life and travel, he has done a little in 
fiction in addition to critical and descriptive work. In 1885 
he was chosen a trustee of the National Societv of Arts and 
served as long as the organization lasted. In 1886 he 
visited Washington, in an unofficial capacitv, to examine into 
the possibility of securing a modification of the tariff upon 
works of art. Mr. Hitchcock is a member of the Authors* 
Club. For the year 1887 he is a member of the executive 
council and of the committee on membership of this club. 

Chari.es Mason, A. M., for a little more than forty-five 
years a resident of Fitchburg, and connected with its educa- 
tional interests, has written more or less on education, and 
since he has been in town has preserved a large amount of 
material (probably as complete a collection of reports, docu- 
ments, etc., as can be found in the city) relating to the his- 
tory and progress of Fitchburg. His position in educational 
and parish affairs has brought him in contact both personally 



114 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

and by correspondence with prominent men in educational, 
political and ministerial circles, and his collection of letters 
received from men of that stamp, many of whom are now 
dead, is both interesting and valuable. In 1852 Mr. Mason 
was invited to deliver the address at the centennial celebra- 
tion of his native town, Dublin, N. H. He prepared and de- 
livered the address, which was printed in the history of Dub- 
lin, N. II. His book on "The National and State Govern- 
ments" has been used as a text book in schools and acade- 
mies. At the time of its issue it received the approval and 
commendation of eminent educators, lawyers, and the press. 

Rev. S. Leroy Blake, D. D., was born in Cornwall, 
Vt., Dec. 5, 1834; fitted for college at Burr and Burton 
Seminary at Manchester, Vt. ; entered Middlebury, Vt., Col- 
lege in the autumn of 1855, and graduated in 1859; taught 
at Royalton, Vt., Lancaster, Mass., and Pembroke, N. II. ; 
entered Andover Theological Seminary, May, 1862, nine 
months after his class entered, and graduated in 1864. He 
was ordained and installed at Pepperell, Mass., Dec. 7, 1864 ; 
in 1869, was settled over the South church in Concord, N. 
H. ; came to Fitchburg the first Sabbath of April, 1880, 
after a short pastorate in Cleveland, Ohio, and was installed 
over the C. C. church in Fitchburg, Sept. 1, 1880, remaining 
until March 27, 1887. The degree of Doctor of Divinity 
was conferred upon him by Iowa College in 1883. While in 
Fitchburg, Dr. Blake published a volume entitled "The 
Book," which has attracted the attention of thoughtful people 
and received the indorsement of some of our most scholarly 
Biblical commentators. In this volume Dr. Blake has given 
to the world a convenient summary of the evidence upon 
which the canon of Holy Scriptures rests, and the authorship 
of its several books. He brings together the testimony of the 
apostolic and other fathers, the historians and doctors, and 
from it draws his conclusions, as to the time and authorship 
of the books and what books have from the first comprised 
the Sacred Canon. Instead of beginning with the apostles 
and working down, Dr. Blake has pursued the even more 
convincing method of working back to them from the time 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 115 

when there is admitted to have been an accepted Canon. 
"The Christian Union" says : "Such books as these are 
needed just at this time when the wave of unbelief is reced- 
ing, and many need to have the proofs that sustain the Word 
of God freshly presented to their minds." Dr. Blake has also 
published during his ministry several sermons and pamphlets. 

Asa Thurston. Among those in the past who have a 
name for literary work may be mentioned Asa Thurston, 
who compiled a dictionary and grammar of the Hawaiian 
language, which language he also spoke fluently. He was 
no doubt the most remarkable man Fitchburg ever produced. 
He was born in 1787, on one of the hill farms on Ashbv west 
road. As a young man he was athletic and given to sports, 
having no high aim in life, but meeting with a change of 
heart he became an earnest christian ; prepared himself by a 
course in Yale College and Andover Theological Seminary, 
for his life work as a missionary to the Sandwich Islands, the 
natives of which were then in the deepest darkness and deg- 
radation. In 1819, he set sail for the Sandwich Islands and 
remained until the time of his death. He died at Honolulu, 
March 11, 1868, living to see more than fifty thousand con- 
verts to Christianity and a corresponding progress in civiliza- 
tion. The value of his life work for humanity can never be 
estimated. 

Rufus Campbell Torrey was born in Oxford, Mass., 
Feb. 13, 1813 ; fitted for college at Wrentham in 1833 ; spent 
the next four or five years in Fitchburg, engaged mostly in 
teaching and editing a newspaper ; was a teacher in the 
Fitchburg Academy ; wrote the well known History of Fitch- 
burg in 1836, which was reprinted in 1865 ; removed to 
Mobile, Ala., in 1838: studied law and was admitted to the 
bar in 1840; practised his profession at Grove Hill and Clai- 
borne, Ala. ; was judge of county court, 1844-48 ; prominent 
officer in the Masonic Fraternity ; was state senator, 1876- 
1880, and retired from the practice of the law in 1879 : died 
at Claiborne, Ala., Sept. 13, 1882. In the preparation of Mr. 
Torrey's History the manuscript of a series of lectures written 
by his friend Nathaniel Wood, Esq., was freely used and a 



116 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

full acknowledgement of its use made in the preface. This 
original manuscript is now preserved in the public library. 

Among the local writers whose services have been most 
valuable to the city may be mentioned : 

Henry A. Willis, author of Fitchburg in the War of 
the Rebellion, published in 1S66. 

Eben Bailey, writer of the Sketch of Fitchburg, in the 
Worcester County History, published in 1879, by C. F. 
Jewett & Co. 

Ray Greene Huling, a book entitled The Teachers 
and Graduates of the Fitchburg High School, 1849 t0 J ^3, 
preceded by Some Mention of Teachers in the Fitchburg 
Academy, 1830 to 1848. 

The Fitchburg Agassiz Association have prepared 
valuable essays from time to time on various subjects, its 
members having interested themselves in the study of the 
plants and minerals of this region. "The Flora of Fitch- 
burg,'' which has received high commendation from eminent 
naturalists, and the unpublished essays on Rollstone and 
Pearl Hills, being especially worthy of notice here. 

artistic 

S. Herbert Adams, son of Samuel Minot and Nancy 
A. (Powers) Adams, was born at West Concord, Vt., Jan. 
28, 1858; came to Fitchburg in 1863. At the early age of 
nine years his entreaties for a teacher to instruct him "to 
make pictures" were unceasing. A teacher being procured 
he was gratified with two terms only of instruction in draw- 
ing. Again, when he was eleven years old, the slumbering 
propensity for "making pictures" burst forth in the demand 
for another teacher. He was put under the tuition of Miss 
M. Louisa Haskell (since Mrs. Dr. Alden Sylvester), who 
was his teacher in drawing until it was introduced into Fitch- 
burg public schools in '71. Miss Haskell being the teacher 
of that department of education, she still held her connection 
with him, and by her influence and encouragement may have 



LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 117 

done much to shape his life work. lie entered Fitchburg 
High School in 74, where lie remained but two years; en- 
tered Worcester Technical Institute in '76, with the intention 
of graduating therefrom, and then attending the Massachu- 
setts Normal Art School in Boston. Before the expiration of 
the first year he became convinced he could not obtain as 
much of artistic knowledge there as he had expected, and 
deemed it wiser to relinquish the education he could there 
gain in other branches, and turn his whole energies to what 
he intended as a life work. Accordingly in 1877, he entered 
the Massachusetts Normal Art School. After successfully 
passing class A in "78, he took the supervisorship of drawing 
in Fitchburg public and evening schools. Here he labored 
for nearly four years, ever impatient that he must relin- 
quish his art work, and always availing himself of any little 
opportunity to continue it. In the spring of '82, he re-entered 
the Normal Art School and passed the examinations of class 
B — the painting department — at the end of the school year ; 
and in '83, graduated from the school with high honors, 
having clone the work of the mechanical and modelling classes 
in one year, in a most satisfactory manner. In September of 
the same year he went to Baltimore, Md., as first assistant in 
the Maryland Institute of industrial and fine arts. Here he 
had charge of the modelling, and instructed in other depart- 
ments. After two years, increase of salary, or offers of 
larger remuneration from other localities, could not hold him 
in America. But with his prominent characteristic, to over- 
come all obstacles, he determined to carry into execution his 
long cherished plan of giving his undivided attention to 
sculpturing. He arrived in Paris, June, '85, and almost im- 
mediately entered the Julian school, soon to learn he could 
not make the progress he desired among so many pupils. 
Consequently he began work under the instruction of the 
eminent sculptor, M. Antonin Mercie' ; also attending even- 
ing schools under efficient artists. In '86 and '87, he had 
portrait busts accepted at the Salon. Of the last it has been 
said by competent critics, "it would do credit to an older 
artist." He is still in Paris, studying, and also engaged in 
original work in his own studio. 



118 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

S. Augusta Fairbanks, birthplace Fitchburg, daughter 
of C. P. Deane, educated at Kimball Union Academy, 
Meriden, N. H., and Worcester Academy, Massachusetts; 
was a teacher for several years in the public schools of this 
city. She received private instruction in drawing and paint- 
ing of J. J. Enneking and F. Childe Hassam, also attended 
the famous Julian School in Paris in 1883 and '84 ; is at 
present in Fitchburg, giving private instruction in drawing 
and painting at her studio, 238 Main street. 

Eleanor A. Norcross, a daughter of Hon. Amasa 
Norcross, is a native of Fitchburg ; graduated at Wheaton 
Seminary ; taught drawing one year in the public schools in 
Fitchburg ; studied painting two winters with Alfred Stevens 
in Paris, exhibited a portrait in the Salon, 1886. Miss Nor- 
cross was intrusted with the selection of photographs for the 
Fitchburg public library, and a similiar collection for 
Wheaton Seminary, together with five oil paintings of copies 
from old masters, which were of her own execution. 

Martha Medora Adams, daughter of Samuel Minot 
and Nancy A. (Powers) Adams, is a native of Concord, Vt. ; 
graduated from the Fitchburg High School in 1879 > studied 
with her brother Herbert for a few months ; in the spring of 
1S80, entered the Normal Art School, Boston, leaving at the 
end of the school year in 1882, having passed classes A and 
B ; gave private instruction in drawing and painting for one 
year in Fitchburg; in September, 1883, re-entered the 
Normal Art School in the modelling class ; January, 1884, 
went to Baltimore, Md., where she was for a short time a de- 
signer of ornament in Chesapeake pottery ; in the following 
spring became a teacher of painting in the Maryland Insti- 
tute, where she successfully taught until the close of the 
school year in 1885. She then returned to Massachusetts 
resumed private teaching, and studied with Vonnoh ; has 
also been a pupil of T. O. Longerfelt and Juglaris ; since 
September, 1886, has taught drawing in the girls' High 
School, Boston. 



CHAPTER VII. 



MILITARY 




jHE oldest military company now in exist- 
ence in the city, received its charter in 1S16, 
and was known by the name of the Fitcii- 
burg Fusiliers from the time of its organ- 
ization. By petition of Ephraim M. Cun- 
ningham and forty others the company was 
formed from the "Old South" Company be- 
longing to the 4th Regiment, 2d Brigade, 
7th Division, M. V. M. This militia com- 
pany, as far back as 1807, was under good 
discipline and, so far as the records go to 
show r , was well officered. The commission of Isaiah Put- 
nam, (grandfather of J. E. and Lieut. Daniel C. Putnam,) 
as ensign, is now in existence, dated 1S07, May 5 ; his 
resignation taking place two years later. From that time, in 
common with the militia generally, it gradually became de- 
moralized, was poorly uniformed and undisciplined, but was 
usually on hand at "general muster'' and was designated bv 
the boys as the "Slam Bangs."' 

The charter was granted to the new company, Dec. 14, 
18 16, and the organization was perfected at a meeting, Feb. 
3, 1817, at which John Upton, (uncle of Colonel Edwin 
Upton,) was elected captain; Alpheus Kimball, (father of 
General John W. Kimball,) lieutenant, and Walter Johnson, 
ensign. These three officers were of equal height, a trifle 
over six feet, and otherwise well fitted to command. The 
uniform adopted by vote of the company consisted of a blue 
coat trimmed with bell buttons and lace, pantaloons of the 
same color as the coat, made to button over the boots, and 



120 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

trimmed with bell buttons from the bottoms to the hips, the 
caps were bound with red morocco and varnished and other- 
wise "ornamented as a committee chosen might think 
proper." The officers of the company were chosen a com- 
mittee for that purpose. 

In the first constitution and by-laws adopted by the com- 
pany appears the following : "Article XII. In order to en- 
force the principles of military subordination the senior of- 
ficer present at any meeting of the company shall be mod- 
erator, and strict obedience shall be paid to his command, in 
debate as well as in military manoeuvres, and the members 
of the company do pledge themselves to support their officers 
in the discharge of their duty on all occasions, and to dis- 
countenance all improper conduct that any member of the 
company may discover towards either of them or any of the 
members ; and as this company has associated not merely 
for the purpose of parade and ostentation, but to form a corps 
at all times prepared to resist sudden invasions and repel in- 
ternal commotion, it is expected that every member will hold 
himself ready at a moment's warning ; and whenever ordered 
that he will instantly repair to the rendezvous appointed by 
his commanding officer, with a heart resolved to support at 
all hazards his country and the government which protects 
him, and that unless commanded he will never quit his 
standard till freed from it by an honorable death." 

That there was something more than sentiment in taking 
this pledge is proved by the fidelity with which it has been 
kept. 

The first public appearance of the Fusiliers in their new 
uniforms was July 4, 181 7, on the occasion of the presenta- 
tion of a standard by the ladies of Fitchburg. The presen- 
tation speech was made by Miss Sarah Richardson, and 
replied to by Ensign Johnson. The account of the celebra- 
tion, together with the pair of white kid slippers worn on that 
occasion by Miss Richardson, has been presented to the 
relic-room of the Wallace Library and Art Building by her 
son, Mr. R. W. Kendall of Boston. 

On the occasion of a muster at West Boylston, Oct. 7, 



MILITARY. 121 

1841, the company on its return marched through Lancaster 
and Lunenburg, and, according to the records of the com- 
pany, ''upon entering the latter village, about five o'clock in 
the afternoon, they met with a warm reception in the persons 
of some of their own townsmen, who had hastily formed 
themselves into a company and come down for the purpose 
of taking the Fusiliers, and marching them in triumph to 
Fitchburg. Although they fought valiantly, like men, vet 
like the heroes of Bunker Hill, being out of ammunition, 
they were compelled to surrender: but unlike them, they re- 
tired more covered with mud than glory. The company 
voted not to go home till morning and were accommodated 
with hot coffee, and so forth, by Captain Putnam.'' Some of 
our present substantial citizens, who were then little bovs, 
who had voluntarily escorted the company down, well re- 
member their return from Lunenburg, late that night, 
through the dense woods and drenching rain, without the 
military escort they had so confidently anticipated. 

About a week previous to attending the muster, the Fusi- 
liers, then under command of Captain James Putnam, were 
presented with a new standard, purchased by the ladies of 
Fitchburg. The presentation speech was made by Miss 
Louisa Beckwith, for the ladies, and Ensign Edwin Upton 
responded in behalf of the company. After the reception of 
the banner the Fusiliers escorted the ladies to the Fitchburg 
Hotel, where a collation was prepared, at the expense of the 
company, bv Landlord Mclntire. 

The banner bore upon one side the motto : "United by duty, 
to defend the right ; presented by the ladies, September, 
1841." Upon the same side stands the goddess of liberty by 
the side of a bust of Washington, with her extended hand 
holding a wreath in the act of placing it upon the immortal 
hero, who rests upon a monument upon which is engraved 
the majestic eagle protecting the emblem of union. On the 
other side is "Fitchburg Fusiliers, Instituted, Dec. 14, 1816," 
with a bold representative of the aborigines of our country 
standing in the centre, dressed in his native costume, resting 
one hand upon his bow and holding in the other his chosen 



122 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

arrow, while upon one side is exalted the horn of plenty and 
above rests unsheathed the sword of Justice. On the staff is 
mounted the eagle, with his folded wings, in wakeful com- 
posure. 

After the exercises the Fusiliers in the evening, by re- 
quest attended a lecture, in the Second Parish meeting 
house, by John Hawkins, the celebrated temperance lecturer. 
The commanding officers of the Fusiliers previous to the 
close of the Rebellion were John Upton, elected Feb. 3, 
1817 ; Alpheus Kimball, Sept. 20, 1819 ; Levi Pratt, May 
15, 1823; Robert Sampson, Jr., March 27, 1826; Stephen 
T. Farwell, July 5, 1827 ; Levi Downe, April 16, 1831 ; Dr. 
Jonas A. Marshall, Jan. 21, 1832 ; Horace Newton, May 12, 
1838 ; John Caldwell, Sept. 14, 1839 : James Putnam of 
Lunenburg, Jul}- 5, 1841 ; Edwin Upton, March 11, 1843; 
Alfred White, Feb. 28, 1849; A - R - Ordway, April 13, 
1850; Joseph Wood, April 19, 185 1 ; John W. Kimball, 
Feb. 24, 1855 ; James A. Cunningham, Feb. 3, 1858. 
Captain Cunningham when in the Fusiliers lived in Lunen- 
burg. After the close of the war, Dec. 17, 1866, he was com- 
missioned major general ; was adjutant general of Massa- 
chusetts from Dec. 17, 1866, to close of 1878, and is 
at present governor of the Soldiers' Home at Chelsea. 
John W. Kimball, elected Jan. 7, i860; Clark S. Simonds, 
appointed Aug. 1, 1861, killed in the battle of An- 
tietam, Sept. 17, 1862; John Markland, appointed Sept. 
18, 1862, killed at Gettysburg, July 4, 1863 ; Charles H. 
Eager, appointed Oct. 15, 1862 ; James May, appointed May 
22, 1863 ; Eugene T. Miles, elected May 10, 1862 ; George 
G. Nutting, elected March, 1863, killed at Fort Bisland, La., 
April 13, 1863; George H. Bailey, elected May 21, 1863, 
wounded May 25, 1863, during the siege of Port Hudson, 
died May 27 ; Jerome K. Taft, elected June 10, 1863, 
wounded in the assault on Port Hudson, June 14, died July 
3, 1863. 

As will be seen the Fusiliers lost five commanding offi- 
cers during the war, and it is rather a remarkable fact that 
the last three named, Nutting, Bailey and Taft, were each in 



MILITARY. 12?) 

turn killed before their commissions as captain reached them. 

The history ot the Fusiliers, from 1861 to 1865, is given 
in the "sketch of Fitchburg in the War of the Rebellion." It 
may not have been generally known that the Fusiliers and 
the Leominster Co. A. were designated to be attached to the 
6th Regiment for the purpose of going to Washington, but 
the Stoneham Light Infantry and one other company were 
for some reason assigned their places in the regiment. 

After the war the Fusiliers were reorganized, with John 
W. Kimball as captain, and called the 50th Unattached Com- 
pany of Infantry. They were afterwards attached to the 1st 
Battalion Infantry, 1st Brigade, and designated Co. B, the 
same as before and during the war. The commanding of- 
ficers of the company, since the war, have been John W. 
Kimball, elected April 12, 1865 ; G. E. Goodrich, II. G. 

Greene, G. E. Goodrich, George Burford and T. W. Slid- 
es 

don. The 1st lieutenants, E. T. Miles, G. L. Lawrence, R. 
O. Houghton, H. E. Caswell, A. R. Fitts, H. A. Willard, 
G. A. Bailey, W. F. Page; 2d lieutenants, Merrill Carleton, 
H. S. Hitchcock, H. C. Cheeney, Orlando Wetherbee, J. 
L. Peavey, F. E. Bruce, B. G. Bagley, F. A. Greer. 

The present officers being Tristram W. Sheldon, cap- 
tain; Walter F. Page, 1st lieutenant, and Frank A. Greer, 
2d lieutenant. 

THE WASHINGTON GUARDS 

were organized in July, 1855, on petition of Charles II. Foss 
and fifty-nine others. The first meeting for the choice of 
officers was held at the American House Hall, Thursday 
evening, July 19. The following officers were elected : 
Captain, John B. Proctor; 1st lieutenant, Hiram P. Minot; 
2d lieutenant, Charles II. Foss; 3d lieutenant, Oscar A. 
Battles; 4th lieutenant, Varius Stearns. July 25, the by- 
laws drafted by a previously appointed committee were 
adopted, and July 26, the name of Washington Guards was 
adopted. A committee on uniforms, consisting of T. B. 
Choate, John B. Proctor, Charles H. Foss, H. P. Minot, I. 



124 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

C. Wright and O. A. Battles, was chosen and after several 
weeks' consideration a uniform was adopted by the company. 
The cap was of cloth, smaller at the top than at the base, 
and surmounted by a blue pompon ; pants and coat dark 
blue, with epaulettes ; patent leather body belts and webbing- 
cross belts. 

The first muster attended by the "Guards" was held Sept. 
12, 13, and 14, in West Brookfield. In February, 1859, tne 
company purchased seventy bear skin caps and in August 
following a supply of fatigue caps. After the opening of the 
war. in November, 1862, they removed their armory to the 
American House Hall, where the last recorded meeting was 
held, April 1, 1864. There seems to have been so few mem- 
bers remaining at home that the meetings were given up and 
the company lost its organization. The bear skin caps, 
which had originally cost the company nearly four hundred 
dollars, were left, practically, without owners, in the garret 
of the American House Hall, and were after a time af>f>rofri- 
atcd and made up into sleigh robes by outside parties. Soon 
after the close of the war, August 23, 1S66, a company was 
formed largely through the efforts of Richard Tucker, whose 
name appears frequently on the records of meetings in 
1862 and 1864. This company was composed entirely of 
members of Taylor Union and was called the "Union 
Veterans;" Hiram P. Minot was captain. Sept. 11, 1868, 
by a vote of the members, the name of the company was 
changed from "Union Veterans" to "Washington Guards," 
the present organization, and designated Co. D, 10th Regi- 
ment, M. V. M. 

The commanding officers of the "Guards" have been as 
follows : At the organization of the company, Captain John 
B. Proctor, who was succeeded by Captain Jonas Corey, 
Dec. 13, 1856. May 5, i860, Colonel Edwin Upton, who 
had previously commanded the old 9th Regiment Mass. Vol- 
unteer Militia for several years, was elected to succeed 
Captain Corey and was captain of the "Guards" at the break- 
ing out of the war, when he was commissioned the first 
colonel of the 25th Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer In- 
fantry. 



MILITARY. 12") 

The "Guards" formed the nucleus of six companies for 
the war and their captains were as follows : Theodore S. 
Foster, Co. D, 21st Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer In- 
fantry ; Charles H. Foss, Co. F, 25th ; Thaddeus L. Barker, 
Co. A, 36th ; Jonas Corey, Co. B, 53d (9 months regi- 
ment) ; Levi Lawrence, Co. F, 57th ; Eben T. Hayward, 
Co. IL, 4th Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. 

As before mentioned Hiram P. Minot was captain of the 
"Guards" when the name was restored and the permanent 
organization effected in 1868. Sept. 7, 1S69, George A. 
Whitcomb was elected captain: Aug. 14, 1873, William 
Ewen ; March 22, 1875, Frank W. Bigelow ; May, 1876, 
Henry McGrath ; April 16, 1877, John H. Kirby ; 1882, T. 
H. Shea; 1S85, F. S. Lynch; 1 886 to present time, John 
H. Kirby. 

The present officers of the company are : captain, J. H. 
Kirby; 1st lieutenant, James F. Shea; 2d lieutenant, John 
King. 

Captain John B. Proctor, the first commissioned 
captain of the Washington Guards is a native of Charlestown, 
Mass., where he was born in 1824. His parents moved to 
Lunenburg in 1826, where he lived until 1844, when he was 
appointed purchasing agent of the Vermont and Massachu- 
setts railroad, with his office in Gardner. In 185 1, he en- 
gaged in the wholesale flour and grain business in Fitchburg. 
In 1S58, he was elected superintendent of the Middlesex 
railroad in Boston ; in 1873, was appointed bv Governor 
Washburn a justice of the peace for all the counties in the 
state. In 1864 he was appointed by the president a commis- 
sioner to examine the Union Pacific railroad, which required 
making several trips across the plains to California. 

He engaged in the real estate business, as broker and 
auctioneer, in Fitchburg in 1868, and remained in that busi- 
ness until he removed to his present home in Jaffrey, N. H., 
in 1881. He was at one time president of the Worcester 
North Agricultural Society. He is now proprietor of the 
Proctor House, situated on the pleasant southern slope of 
Monadnock Mountain. 



12!> FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Colonel Edwin Upton, commissioned the first colonel 
of the Massachusetts 25th Volunteers, was born in 1815, in 
Fitchburg, Mass. By trade he was a mason, but for a 
number of years before the breaking out of the war was 
largely engaged in the lumber trade, in which he accumu- 
lated some property. Under the administration of President 
Lincoln he received an appointment in the Boston Custom 
House, which he held and surrendered at the time of receiv- 
ing the commission as colonel. For twenty-five years he 
had been actively connected with the Massachusetts Militia, 
receiving regular promotion from a private to the rank of 
colonel of the Old Ninth Regiment. He had held that com- 
mission with great credit to himself for a number of years, 
bringing the regiment to a high degree of military perfection, 
until it ranked as one of the best militia organizations in the 
state. At the breaking out of the war, he was captain of the 
''Washington Guards."' 

Before leaving for Worcester, to assume his command, 
Colonel Upton received a valuable testimonial from his 
townsmen, in the shape of a fine horse and set of equipments, 
and was subsequently presented by his brother officers at the 
Custom House, with a complete set of regimentals as an ex- 
pression of their regard. On account of his health Colonel 
Upton was obliged to tender his resignation on the 28th of 
October, 1862, much to the regret of his command, and all 
who had the welfare of the regiment at heart. On his retir- 
ing he was presented by the enlisted men of the regiment 
with a beautiful sword, belt and sash, costing' one thousand 
dollars. 

After the recovery of his health he was again appointed 
to the Boston Custom House, as storekeeper of the ap- 
praisers' store. He resigned that position that he might 
accept appointment as keeper of the jail at Fitchburg. In 
the discharge of his duty, while superintending the blasting 
of rocks upon the jail grounds, a premature explosion occa- 
sioned such injury that he has since been totally deprived of 
sight. 




Col. H. G. Greene 



Surgeon, Chas. H. Riee. Maj 



Mai. Thos H. Shea. 




Capt. T. W. Shel 



don. 1st Lieut. W. F. Page 



2nd Lieut. F. A. Greer. 






Col. Edwin Upton. 



Capt. John B. Proctor. Capt. J. H Kirby. 



MILITARY. 127 

SIXTH REGIMENT INFANTRY, M. V. M. 

The "Old Sixth" Regiment needs no other eulogy than 
its history. From the time when it received its baptism of 
blood in the streets of Baltimore, to the end of its second 
campaign, the same spirit of patriotism pervaded its ranks, 
and ever and always it could be depended upon for prompt 
and efficient service. 

The headquarters of the regiment are in Fitchburg and 
our citv is well represented in the list of its officers. The 
companies arranged in battalions are as follows : F, Marl- 
boro ; I, Concord; L, Boston; M, Milford ; E, Ashburn- 
ham ; B, Fitchburg; D, Fitchburg; K, Clinton; G, Lowell; 
C, Lowell ; H, Stoneham ; A, Wakefield. 

The officers of the regiment are Colonel Henry G. 
Greene, Fitchburg ; Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Parsons, 
Marlboro ; Majors — Charles F. Woodward, Wakefield ; 
Thomas H. Shea, Fitchburg; George H. Chaffin, Grafton; 
Adjutant (rank ist Lieut.) George Burford, Fitchburg ; 
Quartermaster (rank ist Lieut.) Ambrose M. Page, Marl- 
boro; Surgeon (rank major) Charles H. Rice, Fitchburg; 
Assistant Surgeon (rank ist Lieut.) William M. Hoar, 
Lowell; Paymaster (rank ist Lieut.) Lewis G. Holt, Law- 
rence ; Chaplain George R. W. Scott, Fitchburg ; Inspector, 
Rifle Practice, F. II. Parker, Ashburnham. 

Colonel Henry G. Greene, present commanding of- 
ficer of the 6th Regiment, has for several years been 
connected with the state militia, having been present at nine- 
teen successive annual camps of the state militia. In July, 
1862, he enlisted from Southbridge as a private in the 34th 
Massachusetts Regiment and received his discharge in 
February, 1864. For a year following his discharge from 
service he had charge of the dispensary of the Readville 
Hospital in this state, and in 1865, went into a drug store 
in Fitchburg, where in 1868, he succeeded to the business. 
In 1867, he enlisted as a private in the Fitchburg Fusiliers 
and was afterwards promoted to corporal, sergeant and first 



12.S FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

sergeant. He was commissioned second lieutenant in 1871, 
first lieutenant in 1873, captain in 1875, and was elected 
major, Dec. 10, 1878. That year the militia was re- 
organized and the 10th regiment was swept out of existence 
and Major Greene was transferred to the 6th Regiment as 
major, and upon the election of Colonel Smith M. Decker he 
was chosen lieutenant colonel. May 16, 1884 he was elected 
colonel. 

In 1878, Colonel Greene received the appointment of 
deputy sheriff from General A. B. R. Sprague, which office 
he still retains. 

IN THE REBELLION. 

Fitchburg has a war record of which every citizen may 
justly be proud. 

A community which sent nine companies into the 
field during the war, which promptly filled its quotas under 
all calls, and then had seventy-five men to its credit, above 
all demands upon it, has a record well worth preserving and 
it is gratifying to every patriotic citizen to know that such a 
work was undertaken and most faithfully written while the 
scenes and events of the war were yet fresh in the minds of 
all. We refer to the book entitled "Fitchburg in the War of 
the Rebellion,'" by Henry A. Willis, adjutant of the 53d 
Regiment, from which volume we select, by permission, 
some interesting facts and incidents for this chapter. 

The opening scenes of the Rebellion are well remem- 
bered by those of us who were living at that time. The 
secession of the southern states, the attack upon Fort 
Sumpter, its gallant defence by Major Anderson and the call 
of President Lincoln for seventy-five thousand volunteers 
opened all eyes to the fact that war, so long feared, so much 
to be deplored, so uncertain in its duration and consequences, 
was at last upon us. Who will ever forget the excitement of 
that memorable day ; the prompt response of Governor An- 
drew to the president's call and his order for several regi- 
ments to proceed at once to Washington. We had at that 




REV. G. R. W. SCOTT, D. D. 



Chaplain 6th Reg., M. V. M. 



MILITARY. 129 

time two companies of militia in town : the "Fitchburg Fusi- 
liers," Captain John W. Kimball, and the ''Washington 
Guards," Captain Edwin Upton, both of the old ninth regi- 
ment, which had but three other companies. The com- 
manders of these companies reported their commands ready 
to go forward at once, if called upon. All was excitement; 
little business was done ; people gathered on the street cor- 
ners with saddened hearts, but with determined looks, 
discussing what might next occur. Tuesday, Wednesday 
and Thursday passed and Friday, the ever memorable nine- 
teenth of April, came. Late in the afternoon the wires 
flashed the news of the attack in Baltimore, as follows : rr The 
sixth Massachusetts regiment is now fighting its way through 
Baltimore, four men have been killed, many wounded, and 
the fighting is still going on." What a shock it gave us ! 
What patriotic heart does not remember its impulses as the 
terrible truth burst upon him that our own Massachusetts 
soldiers had indeed become the first victims of this wicked 
outbreak. Next morning's papers gave full particulars, and 
a meeting was held, that same afternoon, to see what this 
town would do towards sustaining our government in its hour 
of trial. Alvah Crocker, Esq., presided, and opened the 
meeting with a few eloquent and patriotic remarks and was 
followed by several other gentlemen, after which resolutions 
were presented to meet the emergency and unanimously 
adopted. 

The excitement had become intense and almost painful. 
All felt that there was now one duty above all others de- 
volving upon every loyal man ; to give personally a full and 
hearty support to the government by all means within our 
power. The next day was Sunday, the first Sunday in war 
time. The services in the churches were of a patriotic 
nature, but the day was not altogether a quiet one. Notes of 
preparation were heard, and many of our ladies were busy in 
preparing clothing for the brave men who stood ready to go 
at a moment's warning. On Saturday, the twenty-seventh of 
April, the town voted unanimously to appropriate ten thou- 
sand dollars for the benefit of the soldiers. The "Fusiliers" 



130 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

and "Guards" had recruited their companies and they 
had a grand parade and drill. The Leominster company 
marched up and joined in the exercises. The preparations 
went forward. The ladies took hold of the sad but patriotic 
work and held meetings at the armories of the soldiers to pre- 
pare bandages, clothing, etc. The physicians of the town 
met and voted to tender gratuitous professional services to 
the families of the soldiers of the town while engaged in the 
war. Only two of their number are now engaged in the 
pursuit of their profession, to-day, Drs. Jewett and Colony. 

Thursday, May 16, was a great day in Fitchburg. The 
High School and Day street schools had procured flags 
which were thrown to the breeze amid booming of cannon, 
music and the shouts of the people. The same evening wit- 
nessed an interesting scene in the town hall, which was 
densely crowded. Hon. J. W. Mansur, who was one of our 
leading manufacturers at that time, presided. He opened the 
meeting with a few well chosen remarks, defining our duties 
as citizens in the crisis. At the close of his remarks one of the 
school girls stepped forward with one of the flags, and ad- 
dressing Captain Kimball of the "Fusiliers," presented it to his 
company, expressing the hope that if called upon to bear it 
to the field, they would stand by it to the last. Captain Kim- 
ball responded eloquently on accepting it for his command. 
He caused his men to swear that it should never trail in the 
dust, while a single arm was left to uphold it. He spoke of 
the scenes through which the banner had passed in the Revo- 
lution, and of the defeats and victories of that and subsequent 
wars. "Emblem of liberty ; if struck down now, the hope of 
men for free government would be forever extinguished." 
Another school girl then, in a clear voice and appropriate 
language, presented the other flag to Captain Edwin Upton, 
who received it for his command with a few appropriate 
remarks. 

On the eleventh of May the "Fusiliers" voted to volunteer 
for the war. The "Guards" also began filling up for the 
same purpose. At last the "Fusiliers" were ordered into 
camp at Worcester. They left on the twenty-eighth of June 



MILITARY. 131 

and their departure was the occasion of quite a demonstra- 
tion. They were escorted by a company of "Old Fusiliers," 
men from forty to sixty years of age, who had served in its 
ranks in bye-gone days. At half-past ten the procession 
marched into the town hall where their friends had met to 
bid the "boys" good-bye. Speeches were made by Hon. 
Alvah Crocker and others, and eacli member of the company 
was presented with a copy of the New Testament by the 
clergymen of the city. The soldiers were then vaccinated 
gratuitously by Drs. Jewett and Hitchcock. Prayer was of- 
fered by one of the clergymen, after which the company was 
escorted to the Fitchburg Hotel to partake of a dinner which 
was provided for them by the citizens, subsequent to which 
the procession was again formed and marched to the Wor- 
cester railroad depot, followed by an immense crowd of 
citizens. Here many affecting scenes took place, the tender 
parting of the soldiers with their friends, (alas ! to many the 
last on earth) the final starting of the train amid the huzzas 
of the multitude, made the scene one long to be remembered. 
As the train moved slowly away, the band played sadly and 
slowlv the old familiar air "Auld Lany Svne." 

And so left us our first company of Fitchburg men for the 
war. Did it occur to an}- of us that this noble company of 
young men, the pride of our hearts and homes, were leaving 
us for three long years of hardship and suffering, and, 
that ere their return, should see thirty-three of their number 
killed or dead from disease contracted in the service, while 
two-thirds of the remainder should have been wounded, 
many maimed for life? wSuch was the 'tale, and such is 
cruel, heartless war. 

The first company actually raised and accepted from this 
town, under the call of the president, for three vears troops, 
was recruited by Captain James Savage, Jr., of Boston, who 
was well known by many of our citizens. His company was 
attached to the second regiment. His record is a short but 
noble one. He was promoted to major, in June, 1862, 
wounded at Cedar Mountain, Aug. 6, and died in a Rich- 
mond prison the nineteenth of September following. His 



l.'>2 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

company was always known as the Fitchburg company, 
although the most of the men came from adjoining towns. 

We have not the space in this book to give even a brief 
history of the different organizations which followed this one 
to the seat of war. Fitchburg was largely represented in 
the 2d, 15th, 21st, 25th, 26th, 53d, 57th, 36th, 4th heavy ar- 
tillery and on board sixteen ships of the navy, and there were 
but few of the great battles in which Fitchburg men did not 
participate, and the record of the organizations to which they 
were attached are among the most brilliant of any of the war. 

After the great battles of the war in which our boys were 
engaged, the town sent committees of prominent citizens to 
the front to look after the dead and wounded as well as the 
sick, taking with them articles of wearing apparel and com- 
forts in every form. The ladies of the town formed a "Sol- 
diers' Aid Society'' and carried out a systematic plan for 
assisting in the patriotic work. With the enlisting of the first 
Fitchburg men, the labors of the Fitchburg women began. 
They prepared and sent to the soldiers in camp, such things 
as would best contribute to their comfort, and by frequent 
visits made them feel they were not forgotten while away 
from home sharing the dangers and hardships of a bloody 
war. 

For greater method and efficiency they organized on the 
sixteenth of May, 1861, "The Ladies' Soldiers Aid Society." 
The second article of their constitution read as follows: "The 
object of the Society shall be to furnish to the soldiers en- 
gaged in the present war of our country such aid as may be 
in our power," and from that day till the war closed and the 
troops were mustered out, most nobly did they carry out the 
provisions of that article, as many a sick and wounded sol- 
dier bov has, and will gratefully testify. 

Of the residents of Fitchburg who went to war, one was 
brevet brigadier general, two were colonels, two lieutenant 
colonels, two majors, two surgeons, four brevet majors, 
seventeen captains, twenty first lieutenants, seven second 
lieutenants, three navv officers and sixteen seamen in the 
navy, 693 non-commissioned officers, musicians and privates. 



MILITARY. 133 

Of this number sixty were killed in battle, sixty-eight died 
from wounds or disease or from starvation in rebel prisons, 
while eighty-four received wounds from which they recov- 
ered, twenty-five were taken prisoners. The unwritten 
history of these brave men, the dangers the}' encountered, 
the hardships and privations they patiently endured, the hair- 
breadth escapes and instances of individual heroism, would 
fill many large volumes. They never faltered in their love 
for the old flag, nor in their determination that it should be 
maintained unsullied, and their memories will ever be held 
dear and cherished in the hearts of their grateful country- 
men. 

ON THE FIELD OF BATTLE. 

We are glad to record in this connection a few of the 
many instances of heroism on the field of battle and in rebel 
prisons : 

THE 25TH MASS. VOLS. AT COLD HARBOR. 

Of the fighting qualities of the 25th as shown in this 
battle, we shall quote from a narrative of the battle published 
in one of the Philadelphia papers, Jan. 31, 1885, ov Gen. P. 
D. Bowles of the Confederate army, who commanded im- 
mediatelv in our front and who was an eye-witness to the 
gallant charge made by the 25th in that engagement, he 
says : 

"We were not long; waiting. Soon the woods in our front 
resounded with the cold mechanical huzzas as if from a 
myriad of voices, and a general advance was made along the 
whole line. They came out of the woods directly in my 
front and their lines extended as far to the right and left as 
the eye could reach ; first one, then two, three, four, five, on 
thev came until the eleventh line was in full view. I ordered 
my men to hold their fire until they came within seventv 
yards of our works. This command was so well executed 
that the first, second and third lines of the enemy looked like 
one. The Federals were advancing all this time without any 



134 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



caps on their guns, and not a shot had come from the Union 
lines save those from the six-gun battery in my front, which 
was bursting shells high over our heads and in our rear. 
Our artillery was not idle, but firing double-shotted canister 
from the two rifled guns, and at the distance of one hundred 
yards was cutting wide swaths through their lines at every 
fire, literally mowing them down by the dozen, while heads, 
arms, legs and muskets were seen flying high in the air at 
every discharge. 

"We were not long in discovering' that there was no child's 
play awaiting us. We were opposing a determined and gal- 
lant foe. The wide lanes 
made in their columns were 
quickly closed, while on, 
on they came, swaying first 
to the right, then to left, 
^g like great waves of the sea, 
L until one upheaval from the 
j|§rear would follow another, 
2H hurrying them nearer and 
HII nearer each moment to the 
£, murderous fire from our 
works. There was a ra- 
vine with a marsh in Gen- 
eral Anderson's front and 
just at the edge of the> 
woods. Here the enemy 
would surge to the right to obtain shelter from my men, 
only to be raked by the artillery and the leaden hail from 
Anderson's Brigade. At this point the dead were piled upon 
each other five or six deep, and the blood ran down the 
branch or gully until it flowed past our line. At times the 
smoke was so dense that nothing could be seen, but as the 
wind carried it away the solid blue mass could be observed 
reforming in the old orchard in our front. 

"About this time the excitement ran so high with my men 
that the surgeon of the regiment quit his litter corps and was 
in the line firing before I discovered him. Some of the 




MILITARY. 135 

officers, with hats in hands, went up and down the line, feel- 
ing so much elated that they would strike the men over the 
heads and faces and shout with all the joy ever expressed at 
a camp-meeting by a new convert. 

"Here for one hour and a half a solid mass of humanity 
had charged and charged again like a flock of sheep against 
a stone wall. Such invincible resolution I never saw before 
or since. They would advance to the charge again and 
again, only to be shot down without any shadow of resist- 
ance, until the ground was blue with the dead and wounded. 
Finally the Federal columns passed back out of sight in the 
deep smoke. I then had a good supply of ammunition 
brought into the line and everything made ready for the third 
attack. After waiting some twenty or thirty minutes we 
again heard the old huzza, but in such a feeble manner and 
from so few that it caused surprise. Then it was that the 
videttes called out: 'They are coming again.' 

"On looking over the works I discovered what I supposed 
to be one regiment with a single flag and an officer in front 
with sword raised hiffh in the air, calling on his men to 
charge. I ordered my command to place their guns on the 
works and wait for orders. When the advancing line 
reached within seventy yards I ordered my line to tire, when 
the whole of the Federal regiment fell to the ground save 
one man, who ran back to the edge of the woods and at- 
tempted to hide behind a white oak tree, but was completely 
riddled by fifty balls in less time than it takes to write it. 

"The regiment that made this gallant charge was the 25th 
Massachusetts, which was the only regiment that obeyed or- 
ders to advance. This we learned from the twenty odd offi- 
cers and men who fell down among the dead and wounded 
at the first fire. The balance of the brigade had refused to 
go forward, and not since the charge of the three hundred at 
Balaklava has a more heroic act been performed. 

"Up to this time not a man in my command had been 
scratched, and no one in our brigade except our brigadier 
general, E. M. Law, who was struck by a fragment of a 
shell early in the engagement. It was the most sanguinary 



136 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

charge of our civil war, and no more heroic act was per- 
formed by either side during that unhappy struggle than that 
on the part of the Federals which I have just described." 

While the battle was in progress the following inci- 
dent occurred : Corporal Orlando P. Boss, with Privates 
Aldrich and Battles of his own company, was in a rifle pit 
half way between his brigade and the enemy. The Union 
troops were behind a breastwork from which the enemy had 
been driven, and the enemy from one hundred yards away 
kept up a tremendous tire. A number had been shot en- 
deavoring to return over the breastwork to get back into the 
lines. The call of a w r ounded man attracted the attention of 
the party in the rifle pit, and they discovered Lieutenant W. 
F. Daley of Co. E of their own regiment, badly wounded. 
He was lying on the ground some fifteen paces in front of 
the breastwork and directly in line of fire. Mr. Boss 
crawled back and threw his canteen to the wounded man, 
who was crying for water and then taking Aldrich, who was 
wounded, on his shoulders, crept back through the enemy's 
fire and over the breastwork. 

He was determined to rescue the unfortunate lieutenant, 
if possible, and with Privates W. D. Blanchard — now living 
in Leominster — A. F. Bartlett and W. O. Wilder — now 
Councilman Wilder of Worcester — prepared to make the at- 
tempt. While the others began to undermine the breast- 
works from within, Boss and Blanchard crept back over the 
works and up to where Daley lay. The enemy observed 
their motions and directed their fire upon the daring men, 
but by lying low and digging a small trench they escaped 
injury. They got Daley upon a blanket and dragged him 
back to the breastwork. There they also began to dig, and 
finally met their friends from within, and bore their wounded 
officer through the hole to the lines. He was mortally 
wounded, however, and subsequently died in the hospital. 

In the battle of Cold Harbor Fitchburg lost another of her 
brave boys, Lieutenant James Graham, a kind and genial 
comrade, a brave and fearless officer, beloved by his 



MILITARY. l:i. 

associates and worthy the promotion he had so recently re- 
ceived, and, like young Upton, he had the confidence and 
esteem of his superior officers. In connection with the death 
of Graham the order was given "Forward, double quick, 
charge." Captain Foss fell with a shot through his right 
thigh, saying to Lieutenant Graham : "Go on, Jim, I have 
got one of them." Graham replied, "I will tell Captain 
Tucker he is in command of the division," (Foss being in 
command of the second division at that time.) Graham 
leaped over a low breastwork, and in so doing lie was shot 
dead. Captain Foss being severely wounded remained on 
the field under a severe fire for about two hours, but was 
finally carried from the field by four of his company, who 
volunteered to risk their lives to save their captain. 

INCIDENT OF THE ENGAGEMENT AT ARROWFIEEI) CHURCH. 

On the ninth of May, 1864, occurred the engagement at a 
place called Arrow field Church. It was in this engagement 
that a singular coincidence occurred, in connection with three 
Massachusetts regiments. The regiments engaged in this 
battle were the 25th, 23d and 27th Massachusetts, and on the 
opposite side were the 25th, 23d and 27th South Carolina — 
Massachusetts versus South Carolina — "Mudsills" versus 
"Chivalry." The rebels came rushing forward, four lines 
deep, with their own peculiar yell. They presented a bold 
front and charged with an impetuosity worthy of a better 
cause until within fifteen or twenty yards of our line, when 
their column began to waver, a few arrived within ten yards 
of our line, but few of that number ever got back to tell the 
tale. At a distance of less than fifty yards our two reei- 
ments, the 25th and 27th forming the front line, opened a 
deadly fire on them at "right and left oblique" and literallv 
piled up the dead and wounded. A counter charge was 
made and the audacious foe were put to rout. During this 
engagement the 25th lost a brave and patriotic voung officer 
from this place, Lieutenant Charles E. Upton, son of 
Thomas Upton and a nephew of Colonel Upton. 



138 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

INCIDENT OF THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 

It will be remembered that at the terrible defeat at Ball's 
Blurt", our men were driven into the Potomac, and obliged to 
escape by swimming the river. Colonel Devens of the 15th 
and Lieutenant Eager of our Co. B, could neither of them 
swim and were taken across the river by four of the mem- 
bers of Co. B, Walter A. Eames, George L. Boss, Fred H. 
Sibley, Alvan A. Simonds. This gallant action on their 
part was duly acknowledged by Lieutenant Eager in the fol- 
lowing extract from a letter of his which was published at 
the time : 

"You asked me for an account of my escape from the 
"sacred soil of Virginia" on the night of the 21st of October. 
I must say I feel decidedly delicate in furnishing any items 
relating to myself, but it will give me pleasure to put on 
record the acts of those four brave fellows (God bless them !) 
who took me safely across, at the risk of their own lives, 
and but for whom, I might now have been confined in some 
Southern prison. After the order had been given to retreat, 
we rallied in a kind of bridle path, under the Bluff, and 
near the river, when Colonel Devens ordered us to throw 
our arms into the river and take care of ourselves as best we 
could. There were a good many of the company who said 
they could not swim, or did not dare undertake it. I told 
them I could not swim but we would keep together as much 
as possible, make our way up the river, and perhaps find a 
boat in which we could cross. George L. Boss, upon hear- 
ing me say I could not swim, said two or three of them could 
take me across, and soon appeared with Corporal Fred H. 
Sibley and Alvan A. Simonds, who insisted upon my going 
with them. I told them I might be the means of drowning 
them all, and they had better go without me, but they still 
insisted, and seemed so confident of success, I told them if I 
could find anything that would float I would make the at- 
tempt. Upon going to the river edge, we found a limb some 
six inches through at the butt and perhaps ten feet long, and 
in pulling that out, pulled up a common floor joist about the 



MILITARY. 139 

same length. Upon seeing that I told them I could "make 
the trip" with it on my own hook, and not endanger their 
lives, but they would not hear a word to that, and said that I 
must go with them. At this point Walter A. Eames offered 
his services in assisting us across, and which proved to be 
very valuable. I certainly think without his help we should 
have had hard work to have reached the opposite shore. 
Just as we were about to embark, Colonel Devens came to 
the water's edge, stripped of his equipments and clothing, 
when Eames asked him if he could swim. He replied that 
he could not. Eames said to him, "Hop on to our craft and 
we will take you across, too." After satisfying himself they 
were all swimmers but me he waded in. In spite of all our 
efforts, we drifted quite a distance down stream, the current 
being strong, and finally landed on a small island, separated 
from Harrison's Island by a stream some twenty-five yards 
wide, which proved to be fordable, only about waist deep. 
When we arrived at the old barn , we learned that no soldiers 
would be allowed to cross as they were very busy getting the 
wounded from the island to the Maryland shore. We found 
our overcoats and blankets, which we had left there in the 
morning, wrapped ourselves up and laid down by some 
wheat stacks till there was an opportunity for us to come 
over. We reached Poolesville about twelve o'clock at night, 
some barefooted, others bareheaded, and some with nothing 
but shirt and overcoat." 



CAPTURE OF NEW ORLEANS BY FARRAGUT S FLEET. 

Perhaps no event of the war carried greater consternation 
to the hearts of the rebel leaders at Richmond, and the 
people of the South, than the capture of New Orleans by 
Farragut. All their fears were centered in Admiral Foote's 
operations above Island No. 10, where they made a most de- 
termined stand ; and there was good reason for this belief. 
The obstructions in the river between Forts Jackson and St. 
Philip were of the most formidable character, consisting of 
hulks of sailing vessels anchored in a row across the river 



140 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

with heavy scows between the vessels, and bound together 
by heavy chains and with long spars alongside and pointing 
down stream to make it more difficult for gun-boats to 
approach them. It soon became apparent to Admiral 
Farragut that nothing could be accomplished until these ob- 
structions were removed. A council of war was held on 
board the flagship "Hartford," and Lieutenant Commander 
C. H. B. Caldwell, the brave and intrepid captain of the gun- 
boat "Itasca," volunteered his ship for the dangerous service, 
and his offer was accepted. The story is most graphically 
told by our genial letter carrier George M. Bowker, who be- 
longed to the Itasca, and was therefore not only an eye 
witness to the gallant exploit, but took an active part in it. 
He says : 

"Accordingly we ran alongside the Hartford and had our 
masts taken out and our smoke stack covered with mud from 
the river. The ship was painted the color of the muddy 
water of the river and every precaution was taken to prevent 
splinters from flying, as these always cause more wounds on 
board a ship than shot and shell. The bags in which the 
men's clothes were kept, with the hammocks, were secured 
to the side with rope netting, and everything movable on 
deck was put down in the hold or secured, the air ports were 
darkened though no lights were burning except those which 
lit up the magazine and shell rooms, and those were in 
places made for the purpose, below the deck and the water 
line. 

"Everything being in readiness we got under way at 
nine p. m. of April 20, and started up the river. The order 
was given that not a word should be spoken above a whisper 
and every man was to keep a good lookout and report any- 
thing unusual that might be seen. We were followed by the 
gunboat Tinola' with fleet Captain Bell on board, and they 
were to render any assistance we might need. The orders 
from the admiral were to 'cut the chain at all hazards' and it 
was thought if it could be accomplished even with the de- 
struction of the ship and the whole ship's company, we should 
be justified in making the attempt, and Captain Caldwell 



MILITARY. 141 

promised it should be done if he lived long enough to do it. 
We steamed along up the river till we got to the hulks and 
were trying to find a place where we could push the bows of 
the ship between one of the scows and a hull, and had just 
begun to congratulate ourselves that we were not observed, 
when a musket shot was fired by a rebel picket which proved 
to be the signal for a terrific fire which was opened upon us 
by the guns of Fort Jackson. These were immediately re- 
plied to by the mortars which were discharged as rapidly as 
possible, and which served to materially check the fire from 
the fort, but I counted fifty-four shots which passed over us 
just above the hammock nettings. The scene was a re- 
markable one, the night was very dark and after the mortar 
shells had passed a certain distance from the piece, we could 
readily see the course they were taking by the burning fuse 
until they reached their height and began to descend and I 
counted seven of them in the air at one time. The first time 
we attempted to make fast to the hull we failed, the current 
in the river being so strong we drifted back and the grapnell 
we threw aboard the hull having caught the light rail which 
ran round her quarter, it pulled away ; but the next time we 
put on all steam and our vessel forced her way up between 
the scow and hull and we made her fast there. The captain, 
first lieutenant and half dozen men then climbed over the side 
of the hull and went forward to see how the chain was se- 
cured. An order soon came from the captain to the powder 
division, of which I had charge, for a half dozen barrels of 
powder which were quickly placed on board the hulk with 
a quantity of fuse. But before it could be placed in position 
for use, the men, who were trying to cast off the chain from 
the capstan to which it was fast, succeeded, and the chain re- 
leased from its terrible strain, fell with a crash and snapped 
asunder like a piece of twine, and each section of the ob- 
struction swpng down the river like an immense gate. The 
hull, to which we were fast, swinging against us we were 
soon fast in the mud. We were trying our best to get off' 
when the 'Pinola' came up and Captain Caldwell explained 
the situation to him as best he could amid the din and roar of 



142 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

those heavy guns in that narrow space, and the shriek of the 
great projectiles as they went flying over us. He told us to 
stay by her, do our best to get her afloat, and if we did not suc- 
ceed by the time the moon came up, to blow her up and get 
down to the fleet every man for himself. But Captain Cald- 
well sent the first lieutenant, with the first cutter's crew, 
down to Farragut, who, after learning the situation, promptly 
sent the 'Pinola' back to tow us off'. After two or three inef- 
fectual attempts we succeeded in floating oft' into deep water 
and got down to the fleet just as the moon came up, at half 
past one. It had become known among the ships of the 
squadron what our errand had been, and that we had been 
successful, and as our red light passed each vessel as we 
proceeded to our anchorage abreast the 'Hartford' we were 
greeted with deafening cheers. We had not been long at 
anchor before an immense fire-raft was set afloat and came 
down to us, sending its lurid flames, from its load of pitch 
pine knots, high in the air and lighting up the river for miles 
up and down. She drifted lengthwise between the 'Hart- 
ford' and 'Itasca' and we could see the men of the 'Hartford' 
working away at hand force pumps, trying to keep the sides 
and rigging of the ship wet, and in case of fire to quickly ex- 
tinguish it. The only damage this fire-raft did was to raise 
great blisters on the sides of both ships. She drifted to the 
opposite side of the river and burned up. All hands were 
called to 'splice the main brace,' the anchor watch was set, 
the rest of the men were 'piped down' and comparative quiet 
again rested over the river, a shot from the mortars being 
discharged every half hour through the night. And so the 
weary six days and seven nights wore on. A doubt being 
expressed by some of the commanders that the river was 
clear from obstruction, Captain Caldwell took the admiral's 
barge and a boat's crew from the 'Itasca' and on the eve of 
the twenty-third went up the river where the obstructions had 
been, and with a 'deep sea lead' sounded all the way across. 
He went so close to the shore the voices of the rebel pickets 
could be plainly heard. Satisfied that our work had been 
completed, he returned to the fleet and made his report to 



MILITARY. 143 

Farragut, who immediately ordered the ships to prepare for 
action, in accordance with plans he had arranged. 

"The main features of this great battle are matters of his- 
tory, but an article appeared in the Century magazine which 
reflects so severely on his own comrades-in-arms that those 
who are living to read it, will do so with a smile of scorn and 
with feelings of indignation at its manifest injustice. But 
Farragfut's soldiers who read it will regard it as an outburst 
of Southern braggadocio. It was written by Beverly Ken- 
non, commander of the rebel gunboat 'Gov. Moore,' and in it 
he says, in substance, that his ship, which he calls an old 
tinder box, defied the whole squadron and did nearly all the 
damage to the 'Varuna" which caused her to sink. When 
the truth was, that while he was keeping quiet in the dense 
smoke of the battle, the gallant Boggs in the f Varuna' was 
righting the half-dozen rebel gunboats on the west bank of 
the river, among which he found himself after passing the 
forts, and four of which he blew up and sunk before his ship 
went down. Again he says he kept such a good look out 
that no movement of the Yankee sailors could by any means 
escape his notice, when the fact was, the 'Itasca' was near 
the obstructions some time before being observed, and the 
'Varuna' was past Fort Jackson before a gun was fired, and 
the second division was well up to the forts. Unfortunately 
for us the 'Itasca,' which was in the third division, was de- 
layed by getting afoul a raft, and before we got past the fort 
our boiler was exploded by a forty-two-pound solid shot, 
which prevented us seeing the most of the battle with the 
rebel gunboats above the forts. We could' only drift back 
and run ashore near the mortar boats, from which place we 
saw the 'turtle ram' swing round the bend of the river with 
the smoke issuing from her port holes, a victim to the terrific 
broadsides of the old 'Mississippi' frigate, and finally with a 
fearful lunge sink beneath the muddy waters of the river 
never more to rise. And more, Beverly Kennon will never 
succeed in making the sailors of Farragut's squadron believe 
he is guiltless of the charge of inhumanity which was pre- 
ferred against him at that time and which caused the gov- 



144 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ernment to keep him confined in one of our forts for a long 
time, showing that the government also believed them. But 
the men on both sides will wonder that the man, even after 
the lapse of half a century, could have the audacity to pub- 
lish such an article as that was, for both sides know that a 
more gallant foe was never met in deadly strife. They fought 
with a desperation worthy a better cause. They were sim- 
plv crushed by a superior force, and not many days later saw r 
ship load after ship load of blue coated soldiers landed on the 
levee at New Orleans and go marching down the street with 
the band of the gallant old 26th Massachusetts Regiment at 
the head playing that old tune so familiar thirty or thirty-five 
years ago, 'Picayune Butler has come to town.' ' 

IN REBEL PRISONS. 

During the war but few comparatively of our citizens 
were so unfortunate as to be held prisoners in the hands of 
the rebels. Seven only, as far as we have been able to 
learn, died victims to the systematic devilish treatment of the 
rebel authorities. Their names are John H. Prichard, died 
Jan. 18, 1865, grave identified and numbered 12,475 in the 
Andersonville cemetery. Charles E. Goodrich died in the 
"prison pen'' 1 at Florence, S. C in October, 1864. William 
T. Peabody, died Sept. 1, 1864, his grave in the cemetery at 
Andersonville, numbered 7,556. Henry K. Hill, buried 
with the multitude of other unfortunates at Florence, S. C, 
his grave unnoted and unknown. George P. Cotting went 
through the horrors of Andersonville, reduced to the point of 
starvation, and exchanged was too weak to proceed further 
than Annapolis, and died before his friends could reach him. 
William H. Hay den, enlisted in the navy, was captured to- 
gether with the rest of the crew of the "Granite City" while 
cruising up the bayous of Texas, imprisoned at Galveston, 
Texas, where all the systematic cruelty of Andersonville, 
Salisbury, Florence and Belle Isle was practised. He soon 
fell a victim to disease brought on by the miserable quality of 
the rations issued to the prisoners, was removed to the hos- 



MILITARY. 145 

pital, little better than a slaughter pen, where the "let "em die 
poliev" was carried out to the fullest extent. After untold 
suffering he died, Sept. 16, 1864, after an imprisonment of a 
little more than four months. Cyrus Putnam was taken to 
Richmond, subjected to the miseries of rebel imprisonment, 
which, with the neglect of his wounds, soon carried him to 
his grave. 

The horrors of the prison pens of the South have never 
been, can never be half told. In the case of each of the vic- 
tims of rebel barbarity here mentioned, death was caused by 
the slow, deliberate process of starvation, a barbarity that 
savages would scorn to practise. Miss Clara Barton who 
was known in the army of the Potomac as the "angel of the 
battlefield'' and whose name is a "household word" in many a 
soldier's home, visited Andersonville soon after the close of 
the war, and caused the graves of soldiers buried there to be 
identified and properly marked. In her report addressed to 
the people of the United States, she says : "But after this 
whenever any man, who has lain a prisoner within the stock- 
ade of Andersonville, would tell you of his sufferings, how 
he fainted, scorched, drenched, hungered, sickened : was 
scoffed, scourged, hunted and persecuted ; though the tale 
be lono; and twice told, as you would have your own wrongs 
appreciated, your own woes pitied, your own cries for mercy 
heard, I charge you listen and believe him. However defi- 
nitely he may have spoken, know that he has not told vou 
all, however strongly he may have outlined, or deeply he 
may have colored his picture, know that the reality calls for 
a better light and a nearer view than your clouded, distant 
gaze will ever g*et. And your sympathies need not be con- 
fined to Andersonville while similar horrors glared in the 
sunny light and spotted the flower girt garden fields of that 
whole desperate, misguided and bewildered people. Where - 
ever stretched the form of a Union prisoner, there rose the 
signal for cruelty and the cry of agony, and there, day by 
day, grew the skeleton graves of the 'nameless dead.' 

"Thousands of our brave fellow-citizens were thus cruelly 
murdered. As their trials and sufferings were great, so shall 
10 



146 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

these memories be precious and a grateful people shall ever 
hold their names in fond remembrance." 



THE ESCAPE. 

An account of the adventures of A. A. Simonds and 
Roland E. Bowen, two soldiers of the 15th Regiment, who 
escaped from the enemy was written for Mr. Willis' History 
by Mr. Simonds, who was a native of Fitchburg. The rem- 
nant of the 15th was captured June 22, 1864. Mr. Simonds 
and Mr. Bowen were taken to Petersburg, Libby prison and 
Belle Isle, and were on the way to Andersonville when they 
made their escape. The first night out they were on the 
watch to make their escape but no opportunity was offered. 
The second day the line of prisoners had got well strung out 
and the head of the column was halted in a road leading 
through a piece of woods. It being very hot and dusty 
every man made for the shade. It was planned so as to 
have a guard about a rod in front and none for several rods 
in the rear. The two men then slipped into the woods, ran 
for half a mile or more until they came to a brook where 
they quenched their thirst and had a good wash ; they rested 
here a short time and then started for the Blue Ridge of the 
Alleghany mountains, taking the sun for a guide, travelling 
northwest as near as they could calculate. The second 
morning they came suddenly upon a man dressed in gray, 
with brass buttons upon his jacket and a gun over his 
shoulder ; as they could not avoid him they walked up to him 
and were greatly relieved to find he was not a rebel picket 
but was out hunting squirrels. They travelled nights by 
taking the North star for a guide. When obliged to get sup- 
plies of food they were seldom refused. At one house a 
woman, whose husband was in the rebel army, gave them 
bread, thinking they were going home on a furlough over 
the mountain ; a young lady at a large farm house, with two 
children and a negro servant, gave them half a loaf of bread, 
a pie, some bacon, and some milk, also a copy of the Rich- 
mond Examiner. One day they overtook a negro with a 



MILITARY. 147 

wooden leg' out picking blackberries, who asked them to his 
house, where his wife cooked them a johnny cake. They 
rested two hours and the negro went with them a short 
distance, telling them about the country for several miles. 
He gave Bo wen a canteen, which proved very useful to 
them, as they did not have to hunt up water so often. He 
also gave them some meal and pork. Near the close of 
their journey they narrowly escaped being recaptured. 
They were nearing Manassas Gap, while passing through an 
open field and within a few rods of the woods, when looking 
up they saw a squad of thirteen rebel cavalrv men in the 
road. They ran into the woods, and looking round found 
the rebels had not seen them. The next day thev passed 
Snicker's Gap ; just as they were in the middle of the road 
two of Mosby's men came around a bend in the road and saw 
them. While they were running for the woods the rebels 
put spurs to their horses, sending a pistol shot after them. 
As the ball whizzed by their heads Mr. Simonds stumbled 
and fell ; his companion, thinking he was wounded, cried 
out, "we surrender ;" "no we don't," Mr. Simonds cried, and 
getting up they ran until out of breath, and then laid down 
in the bushes. They were not discovered and the next day 
arrived at Harpers Ferry and were once more among friends. 
It was twenty-three days after they made their escape before 
they reached the Union lines. They had travelled four 
hundred miles, were footsore and weary, but thankful 
enough to have escaped from the horrors of a rebel prison. 

CLOSE OF THE WAR. 

The following clear and interesting account of the sur- 
render of Lee's army was given in a letter from Mr. Frank 
H. Snow of this place (an agent of the Christian Commis- 
sion. ) 

Sunday, April, 19, 1865. 

The most brilliant page in the military history of our na- 
tion has been written to-day in characters that shall never be 
effaced. The Rebel Napoleon has surrendered his entire 



148 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

command to the Wellington Grant, and the rebellion is virtu- 
ally brought to a close. The enthusiasm of our troops to- 
night knows no bounds. The air is rilled with the sound of 
glad huzzas as the great news spreads like wildfire from regi- 
ment to regiment. All along the lines hundreds of military 
bands are discoursing martial music and naught seems lacking 
to complete the happiness of all. For the first time since the 
opening of the war, a hundred thousand Union soldiers lie 
down to rest with the certainty that they will not be summoned 
to arms before morning. [After describing the movement of 
the two armies he continues.] The circle, some six or seven 
miles in diameter, was now complete. Its circumference con- 
sisted of a hundred thousand Northern veterans and the Rebel 
army was in the centre. Three hundred and eighty pieces 
of artillery were in position, ready to concentrate a fire of an- 
nihilation upon the Confederate host. 

Lee's only alternative was — surrender or death. Under 
the circumstances he deemed it best to choose the former 
course. The articles of capitulation were made out by 
General Grant and signed by General Lee at the house of 
Wilmer McLean, who, singularly enough, is also the owner 
of the first Bull Run battle field. The negotiations were 
completed at twenty minutes to four o'clock this afternoon. 
At that time the two generals-in-chief came out from the 
house and rode away, each to his own army. I was so for- 
tunate as to be within a rod of General Grant when he dis- 
mounted from his horse. Some traces of satisfaction were 
visible, even upon his usually inflexible countenance. He 
rilled a tin cup with water from a pail near by and allayed 
his thirst, then, cutting off a twig from a little bush at his 
feet, he sat down in General Gibbon's camp chair and be- 
gan to whittle. In about half a minute he coolly turned to 
Major General Gibbon and remarked "General, I think we'll 
begin to go home to-morrow." Gibbon replied with enthusi- 
asm and the conversation became general. 

The whole impression of Grant's character conveyed by 
his conduct on this remarkable occasion was that of a great 
military genius whom no reverse could discourage, no victory 



MILITARY. 149 

unduly elate, and no obstacles deter from the successful ac- 
complishment of his plan. Amid the general rejoicings 
which followed the announcement of the surrender, an inci- 
dent occurred which deserves to be recorded. When the 
good news first came in, Mr. G. S. Chase, the agent of the 
Christian Commission of the Fifth Corps, remarked to 
Brigadier General Gregory, by whose side he chanced to be 
standing, that no event in American history demanded more 
hearty thanksgiving" to Almiirhtv God than this glorious ter- 
mination of the great Rebellion. General Gregory immedi- 
ately ordered his brigade to be drawn up in solid column, 
and then those scarred and bronzed veterans, the heroes of a 
score of battle fields, sung together and with impressive 
effect, that familiar doxology — "Praise God from whom all 
blessings flow." 

Such was the fitting termination of the bloody scenes 
which for four years have been enacted on the soil of 
Virginia. God grant that the sword need never again be 
drawn in defence of Liberty and Union. 

THE FITCIIBURG SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. 

After the close of the War of the Rebellion, which took 
place virtually in April, 1865, having continued for more 
than four years, the people of Fitchburg began agitating the 
question of the erection of some suitable monument, memo- 
rial hall, or other structure, dedicated to the memory of our 
fallen heroes. 

April 9, 1866, the town voted to appoint a committee of 
five to report the names of seven to constitute a committee to 
take the subject in hand. This committee was L. H. Brad- 
ford, Ebenezer Torrey, William H. Vose, Amasa Norcross, 
and George F. Fay, who presented the names of Alvah 
Crocker, George E. Towne, Captain Eugene T. Miles, L. 
H. Bradford, Alpheus P. Kimball, Stephen Shepley, and 
Henry A. Willis, and these gentlemen were constituted the 
Soldiers' Monument Committee. 



150 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

April 9, 1868, it was voted to add to the committee, 
General John W. Kimball, Colonel Theodore S. Foster and 
Walter A. Eames. Later on a committee was appointed to 
investigate and report upon a Memorial Hall, and action re- 
lating to the monument was suspended. The members of 
this committee were F. F. Woodward, A. A. Simonds, David 
H. Merriam, Gardner S. Burbank, Jabez Fisher, George 
Robbins, E. P. Monroe, Hale W. Page, and Edwin Upton. 
This committee's adverse report was accepted and the com- 
mittee discharged. The Monument Committee was then al- 
lowed to proceed with their plans. 

April 2S, 1868, the town voted to purchase the property 
of William W. Comee and Isaac Hartwell lying contiguous 
to and bounded by Main, Hartwell, Elm and Church streets, 
for the sum of $40,000. The purchase was made and in the 
summer of 187 1 the lot was graded, fenced and improved, 
substantially as it now is. October 2, 187 1, the plans for a 
monument were accepted and the committee instructed to 
carry out the designs and plans at a cost of $25,000. On the 
fifteenth of November. 1871, the contracts were made with 
S. A. Wheeler & Son for the construction of the foundation 
to receive the granite superstructure and the bronze statues ; 
April 1, 1872, with Martin Milmore of Boston for the execu- 
tion of the bronze work, including the statues and tablets ; 
on the eighth of the same month with Messrs. Runels & 
Davis of Lowell, Mass., to erect the superstructure out of 
Concord granite. Messrs. Wheeler & Son's contract was 
completed in May, 1873, Messrs. Runels & Davis' with 
equal promptness. Messrs. David Damon & Co. of Fitch- 
burg executed the work of the granite base for the fence 
and steps at the openings. The iron fence surrounding the 
inclosure was erected by J. L. Roberts of Boston. 

Although the contract for the bronze statues was made 
with the designer, Mr. Milmore, it is but justice to say that 
they were made by the Ames Manufacturing Company under 
the supervision of M. H. Mossman. The four tablets were 
made by Samuel Hooper & Co. The inscription on the first 
not only being a tribute from a grateful public to the memory 



MILITARY 



151 



of those who fell on the battle field, but equally reeognizes 
the sacrificing services of thousands now in our midst who 
went out and fought as bravely as did the fallen heroes. 
The other three are inscribed with the names of one hundred 
and thirty-five of the citizens of Fitchburg who fell in the 
War of the Rebellion. 

The expenditures which have been made upon the monu- 
ment and grounds are substantially as follow- : ^ u e cost of 
the lot, $40,000; granite base for fence, $3,0u. ence, 

$3,000; foundation for monument, $2,000 per- 




COURT HOUSE. 



( HRIST CHURCH. 



MONUMENT SQUARE. 



structure, $9,000; bronze statues and tablets, $15,400; 
which with the grading and miscellaneous expenditures make 
the total cost at least $75,000. 

By an accident in casting the central or prominent 
figure, "America,"' a delay of four months was occasioned, 
and the dedication was postponed until June, 1874. The 
seventeenth day was selected, it being the ninety-ninth anni- 
versary of the battle of Bunker Hill, but circumstances again 
intervened making further postponement necessary. Finally 
on June 24, 1874, tne dedication took place, a full account of 
which may be found in the committee's published report in 



152 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

the public library. The grounds in the inclosure were after- 
wards seeded with lawn grasses and the walks finished with 
paved gutters. Four brass field pieces, secured to Fitchburg 
from the national government through the efforts of the 
chairman of the committee, Hon. Alvah Crocker (then mem- 
ber of the United States congress,) were mounted, regulation 
style, and placed on the four corners of the square equi- 
distant from the base of the monument. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



ORGANIZATIONS. 




EFORE the civil war, for many years, 
there was in Fitchbur^ a musical or- 
ganization known as the Fitchburg 
Brass Band. The last mention that we 
can find of this band is in Willis* "Fitch- 
burg in the Rebellion." 

"When the Fitchburg Fusiliers left 
for the seat of war on the twenty-eighth 
of June, 1S61, they were escorted to the depot by the Old 
Fusiliers. These veterans presented a very creditable ap- 
pearance, being accompanied by a portion of the old Fitch- 
burg Brass Band, composed of the following : Jonathan 
Farns worth, Cyrus Thurston, Ebenezer Thurston, Jeremiah 
Kinsman, Charles Derby, J. K. Gibson, the first three of 
whom paraded with the company at its first appearance, 
forty-five years before." 

From this time to 1868 there was no regularly organized 
band in Fitchburg. The present Fitchburg Military Band 
was born Jan. 4, 1868, when eight gentlemen met in an un- 
finished room in Belding & Dickinson's new block, and or- 
ganized "The Musical Club." This club held several 
meetings, adopted by-laws, and purchased a few instruments, 
but never appeared before the public. Starting with the 
club as a nucleus, on March 26, 1868, the Fitchburg Cornet 
Band was organized with thirty-three members, and George 
Rich as leader and director. Their first public appearance 
was with the Fitchburg Fusiliers on May 27, of the same 



154 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

year, and during that year they rilled thirty-one engage- 
ments. Mr. Rich left the organization on Jan. 16, 187 1, 
and the band was without a leader until March 11, of the 
same year, when Ira W. Wales of Abington was elected 
leader, but he only held his position for about one month. 
On April 19, 187 1, owing to some trouble and disagreement 
among the members, a vote was passed to discharge their 
leader, disband and close up affairs entirely ; but on the 
third of May, nine members met together and re-organized, 
taking the property and paying the debts of the old band. 
George Rich was again chosen leader and held the position 
until the last part of the year, when, owing to a general feel- 
ing of dissatisfaction with the way things were going on, 
the band narrowly escaped utter extinction, but five of the 
most plucky members met and determined to keep up the 
organization if possible. Through the efforts of the 
members, Mr. Warren S. Russell was secured as leader. 
January 11, 1872, the band was again re-organized and 
under his faithful and skilful management attained almost 
the highest rank among the musical organizations of New 
England. It was during Mr. Russell's term of service that 
the name of the band was changed to "The Fitchburg 
Military Band," which name it has retained to the present 
time. Mr. Russell was a most estimable man, of rare musi- 
cal ability, and his death in March, 1884, was a sad blow to 
the members of the band and to the citizens of Fitchburg as 
well. At his funeral, March 18, 1884, the floral tributes 
from many musical organizations in New England, the pres- 
ence of Mr. D. W. Reeves, always a warm friend of Mr. 
Russell, with the American Band of Providence, R. I., 
whose members voluntarily tendered their services for the 
occasion gratuitously ; the great concourse of citizens and the 
general suspension of business throughout the city showed 
better than words the estimation in which he was held. 

After Mr. Russell's death the general management of the 
business of the band w 7 as placed in the hands of a committee 
of five, chosen annually by the active members, from both 
active and honorary members. In June, 1884, the committee 



t»-jl 




. <A**tj - iat . ■ 



ORGANIZATIONS. 155 

were fortunate enough to secure as leader and director Mr. 
G. A. Patz, formerly leader of Gilmore's celebrated organi- 
zation in Boston. They have furnished music for the past 
thirteen years at Lake Pleasant, and tilled engagements in 
main- other places. They are also the regimental band of 
the 6th Regiment, M. V. M. They now furnish music 
for the new Carnival Club at Cottage Citv, Martha's Vine- 
yard. Connected with the band is an orchestra of high 
standing, which, out of respect to their former director, is 
known as the Russell Orchestra. The library of the band is 
very large and complete, containing the works of Donizetti, 
Meyerbeer, Suppe, Rossini, Lachner, Strauss, Lumbye, 
Gungl, Wiengarten, and all the noted composers. 

There are now more resident musicians in the organiza- 
tion than ever since the band was first started, and never 
before was the band in such excellent condition in all re- 
spects as at the present time. 

The officers of the band are : Executive committee — H. 
I. Wallace, president; C. E. Ware, Jr., secretary; T. S. 
Mower, C. A. Dadmun and D. F. Manning ; agent and 
treasurer, C. A. Dadmun ; agent for honorary members, C. 
H. Wyman. 

Active members: G. A. Patz, conductor; Tafley Mauch, 
solo cornet; Thomas Kivlon, ist cornet; J. Keough, 2d cor- 
net: I. P. Osgood, 3d cornet; C. E. Goodwin, piccolo; D. 
F. Manning, Eb clarinet; A. Geoffrion, solo clarinet; C. E. 
Webber, ist clarinet; A. Da Costa, 2d clarinet; Fred Clapp, 
3d clarinet: Carl Jasper, oboe; William Putnam, ist horn; 
A. A. Holt, 2d horn ; Fred Latter, 3d horn ; R. N. Davis, 
baritone : Albert George, solo trombone ; A. Maynard, 2d 
trombone; W. E. Locke, bass trombone; C. A. Dadmun, 
tuba ; J. B. Rockerfellow, tuba : J. L. Miller, bass drum ; 
E. B. Roncarti, snare drum ; Edward Weston, cymbals. 

The Fitchburg Military Band has become one of the per- 
manent institutions of the city. It is held in the highest esti- 
mation by our citizens, and by their generosity it has been 
possible to keep up the high reputation of the organization. 



156 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



THE GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 



This organization is composed of honorably discharged 
soldiers and sailors of the army and navy of the United 
States, who served during the late Rebellion, uniting to es- 
tablish a permanent organization of these veterans and 
comrades-in-arms based upon the principles of fraternity, 

charity and loyalty. Fraternity : 
To assist and strengthen those kind 
and fraternal feelings which bind 
together the soldiers, sailors and 
marines who united to suppress 
the late Rebellion and to perpetu- 
ate the history and memory of the 
dead. Charity: To assist such 
former comrades-in-arms as need 
help and protection, and to extend 
needful aid to the widows and 
orphans of those who have fallen. 
Loyalty: To maintain true alle- 
giance to the United States of 
America, based upon a paramount respect for and fidelity to 
its constitution and laws, to discountenance whatever tends 
to weaken loyalty, incite to insurrection, treason or rebellion, 
or in anv manner impairs the efficiency and permanency of 
our free institutions ; and to encourage the spread of uni- 
versal liberty and equal rights and justice to all men. 




EDWIN V. SUMNER POST 19, G. A. R., 

of Fitchburg was organized by George M. Woodward, 
assisted by Adjutant Brown of Post 10, at Room 2 in the 
American House, Aug. 16, 1867. 

The charter members were Eben T. Hay ward, Charles 
H. Foss, T. S. Foster, Gilbert Thompson, T. L. Barker, 
George E. Goodrich, James May, George B. Proctor, J. 
Myron Goddard, William H. Wheeler, Henry S. Hitchcock, 
George F. Merriam, John Sullivan, Calvin A. Bigelow, John 



ORGANIZATIONS. 157 

Kemp, Hiram P. Minott, George L. Lawrence, James 
Daley, P. Charles Connor, Henry F. Monroe. Samuel \V. 
Harris, Alonzo Parker, and James F. Bartlett. 

At the first meeting Charles II. Foss was elected com- 
mander; T. L. Barker, S. V. C. ; E. T. Hayward, J. V. 
C. ; George E. Goodrich, adjutant, (that oflice then being 
elective, and George B. Proctor having the same number of 
votes on the first ballot:) George F. Merriam, Q^ M. Ad- 
journed to meet in Wood & Torrey's block. The organization 
was called an Encampment and not a Post. 

The second meeting was held Sept. 2, and all the mem- 
bers were present. 

At the third meeting, a photograph of George B. Taylor 
was presented as that of the first soldier from Fitchburg to 
fall, and that hangs to-day over the chair of the J. V. C. 
September 19, elected as delegates to first Department con- 
vention, T. L. Barker, E. T. Hayward and Calvin A. 
Bigelow. November 7, 1867, Charles D. Nash, present 
department commander, was mustered. May 30, 1868, was 
the first celebration of Decoration Day, (Colonel Loring was 
the orator). At first officers held for only six months. June 
25, 1868, Henry A. Willis was elected commander and 
declined. T. L. Barker was then chosen commander. 
September 8, 186S, the name E. V. Sumner was adopted for 
the Post. The design for a seal was adopted at about the 
same time. March 26, 1869, lecture committee reported re- 
ceipts from lecture course, $366.00. With this monev a 
sinking fund was created. It was voted to deposit this 
money in the bank, for charitable purposes only, to be drawn 
out by unanimous vote of the relief committee, or by vote of 
the Post. Here was the foundation of that magnificent fund 
from which has been drawn the means to do their noblest 
work. 

October 25, 1877, a committee was appointed to consider 
the matter of inviting the ladies to organize a Relief Corps. 
A favorable report was made; and Nov. 22, 1877, it was re- 
ported that a Corps was formed after the plan of Bosworth 
Post in Portland, Me. ; and in January, 1878. the E. V. 



158 



FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



Sumner Relief Corps, No. I, was organized, and it has since 
proved itself on many occasions an efficient helper to the 
Post. 

Its officers are : President, Mrs. Emma L. Littlehale ; S. 
V. P., Mrs. Carrie S. Bagley ; J. V. P., Mrs. Martha Ham- 
let; treasurer, Mrs. Marcia S. Crowfoot; chaplain, Mrs. 
Martha M. Jaquith ; conductor, Mrs. Carrie A. Whitcomb ; 
guard, Mrs. Olive A. Cilley. 

CLARK S. SIMONDS CAMP, NO. 28, SONS OF VETERANS, 

was organized in July, 1883. Its present officers are : 
Captain, D. W. Colburn ; first lieutenant. F. W. Eager; 
second lieutenant, H. L. Damon ; camp council, N. C. 
Upham, I. F. Legrow, E. M. Tennant. Meetings first and 
third Tuesdays of each month. 

December 6, 1877, voted to look for other quarters, and 
after a struggle of six years moved into the present elegant 
and commodious rooms in Rollstone Bank block, whence 

it is not likely to re- 
move till it occupies 
that ideal Grand 
Army building which 
is to be erected, 
sooner or later, on 
some eligible and 
appropriate corner of 
Main street. The 
Post have had all 
told upon their roster 
J about five hundred 
^slHiflliBpi^^ and thirty names. 
the g. a. r. cottage. They have in their 

ranks, to-day, two 
hundred and fifty-three comrades. In their hall hang the 
portraits of twenty-six comrades who have answered to the 
roll-call above, and recently two others have been gathered 
in. 




ORGANIZATIONS. 1")|) 

The amount expended as relief to old members and to 
families, to Aug. 28, 1887, was $8,091.39 ; sick benefits from 
April 1, 1885, to Aug. 28, 1887, was $772.50; contributed to 
Soldiers' Home, $1,083.18; total, $9,947.07. 

And this charity is bestowed as silently as the dew falls 
from heaven. It is dispensed by a relief committee whose 
left hand knows not what its right hand doeth. In order to 
raise funds for this work of charity the Post has often ap- 
pealed to its friends in Fitchburg and vicinity, and has 
never appealed in vain. It has given fairs, lectures, con- 
certs, plays, and what not, to raise money. It gave more 
than any other Post, in proportion to its numbers and means, 
to the Soldiers' Home at Chelsea, $1,083.18. 

It has become a corporation for the purpose of holding 
real estate and owns a house in the city. The following are 
the officers of the 

E. V. SUMNER BUILDING ASSOCIATION: 

Directors— E. P. Loring, H. A. Willis, Ira G. Wilkins, 
N. F. Bond, C. H. Glazier, J. W. Abbott, John W. Kimball ; 
president, E. P. Loring: vice-president, I. G. Wilkins; 
treasurer, Sidney Sibley ; clerk, Moses Hoyt ; executive 
committee — H. A. Willis, C. H. Glazier, N. F. Bond. 

The rating of the Post at department head-quarters has 
been high, they have always had their share of the honors of 
the department and of the national encampment. Three de- 
partment commanders have been taken from their ranks ; 
John W. Kimball, past commander department of Massachu- 
setts ; Charles D. Nash, present commander department of 
Massachusetts ; Daniel C. Putnam, commander department 
of Ohio. 

Names of the commanders of Post 19 G. A. R., from 
organization, August, 1867 : Captain Charles H. Foss, 25th 
Massachusetts Infantry ; Colonel T. L. Barker, 36th ; Ser- 
geant Walter A. Eames, 15th; Colonel John W. Kimball, 
15th ; Captain Russell O. Houghton, 26th : Corporal Edward 
B. Macy, 36th ; Corporal S. B. Farmer, 53d ; Captain 
George E. Goodrich, 34th; Private Sidney Sibley, 21st; 



1(><) FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Corporal J. F. Bruce, 53d; Private James Cuthbert, 44th; 
Captain Ira G. Wilkins, nth New Hampshire Infantry; 
Colonel E. P. Loring, 10th United States Heavy Artillery. 

Charles H. Foss was born in Scarboro, Me., Oct. 18, 
1828 ; received a common school education in Portland, Me. ; 
at the age of seventeen went to Boston and served an ap- 
prenticeship with Otis Tuffts, steam engine builder ; May, 
1852, came to Fitchburg and entered the employ of S. W. 
Putnam & Co., (later Putnam Machine Co.,) remaining with 
them until the breaking out of the war ; was second lieuten- 
ant of the Washington Guards at date of organization (July, 
1855 ) ; resigned as first lieutenant, December, i860; enlisted 
as a private in the same company when the war broke out. 
The 9th Regiment, M. V. M., of which the Guards formed 
a part was not called upon by Governor Andrew for the 
''three months service" as was expected, and when the enlist- 
ment of three years troops began, by request of the colonel 
of the 25th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, Mr. Foss 
raised a company for that regiment and was commissioned 
captain of said company, (Co. F, 25th Massachusetts Volun- 
teers,) Oct. 12, 1861 ; received a gun shot wound through 
the right thigh, at the battle of Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864; 
mustered out at expiration of service, Oct 20, 1864 ; was 
chosen first commander of Post 19, G. A. R. ; worked for 
C. H. Brown & Co. during ten years after the war; ap- 
pointed on the police force, Sept. 20, 1882. In making an 
arrest, Aug. 17, 1886, the main bone of his left leg was 
broken near the ankle, and he was discharged from police 
force, Jan. 4, 1887. 

T. L. Barker was born on the seventeenth of June, 
1826, at Nelson, N. H. ; came to Fitchburg in July, 1855, 
and entered the employ of J. & S. W. Putnam. He enlisted 
Aug. 19, 1862, and was commissioned captain of Co. A, 36th 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, and served through the 
war, holding and serving under the commissions of major, 
lieutenant colonel, and colonel; was mustered out June 25, 





Walter A. Eames. 




S. B. Farmer 




John F Bruce. 




James Cuthbert. 



Ira G. Wilkin^ 



Edward P Loring. 



PAST COMMANDERS, POST 19, G. A. R. 



ORGANIZATIONS. 161 

1865, when he returned to Fitchburg and was again em- 
ployed at the Putnams ; joined Post 19, as a charter member, 
and was eleeted senior vice commander and commander in 
1868; was also on board of selectmen the same year; re- 
moved to Montreal, Canada, in 1874, ant ^ m J 88o to 
Waltham, Mass., and entered the employ of the Waltham 
Watch company, residing there since. 

Walter A. Eames was born in West Cambridge, Mass., 
Sept. 30, 1841 ; came to Fitchburg in 1858, and engaged in 
the granite business with the old firm of S. A. Wheeler & 
Co. He enlisted in 1861 in Co. B, 15th Massachusetts 
Volunteers, (Fitchburg Fusiliers,) and participated in all the 
service, marches and engagements of the regiment up to the 
battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December, 1862, in which en- 
gagement he was severely wounded (at the time thought 
mortally) and disabled from further service. He was one of 
the early members of Post 19, tilling the various offices, and 
was elected commander, Dec. 28, 1869. In 1872 he was 
commissioned inspector of customs at Boston, which position 
he now holds. 

John White Kimball was born in Fitchburg, Jan. 27, 
1828. lie was educated in the public schools of Fitchburg, 
and learned the trade of scythe making with his father and 
worked at this business up to the time of the war. 

From 1858 to 1872, with the exception of the three years 
he was in the army, he was constable : tire engineer, i860 
and 1861 : selectman in 1865, assessor in 1S64 and 1S65 : 
tax collector from 1865 to 1872, inclusive; alderman in 1877 ; 
representative in 1864-65-72 ; has been a trustee of the 
Worcester North Savings Institution and of Fitchburg Sav- 
ings Bank ; was deputy constable from Feb. 10, 1866, to 
July 1, 1871, and from that time until Jan. 20, 1874, was 
police commissioner of the commonwealth. He tilled the of- 
fice of United States pension agent for the Western District 
of Massachusetts from Dec. 19, 1873, to July 1, 1877: cus- 
todian of rolls, dies, plates, etc., used in the printing of 
11 



102 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

bonds, National Bank and United States Treasury Notes, 
and the securities of the United States in the Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing of the Treasury Department, Wash- 
ington, D. C, from Nov. i, 1877, to Feb. 17, 1879. He 
was postmaster from March 1, 1879, to March 16, 1887. 

General Kimball's military life began in 1846 as a 
"marker boy" in the Fitchburg Fusiliers, and, passing through 
the different grades of non-commissioned and commissioned 
officers, was made captain of the Fusiliers from Feb. 24, 
1855, to Jan. 7, 1858; adjutant of the 9th Regiment Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia, from May 1, 1858, to Jan. 7, 
i860; captain of Fusiliers from Jan. 7, i860, to Aug. 1, 
1861, and took the company into the United States service 
June 28, 1861, joining the 15th Massachusetts Regiment 
Infantry at Worcester. He was the senior captain in this 
regiment, major from Aug. 1, 1861, to April 29, 1862, and 
lieutenant colonel from April 29, 1862, to Nov. 10, 1862; 
from Nov. 10, 1862, to Sept. 2, 1863, was colonel of the 53d 
Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry; March 13, 1865, was 
made brevet brigadier general, United States Volunteers, 
"for gallant and distinguished services in the field during the 
war;" from April 12, 1865, to Oct. 7, 1866, was captain of 
the Fusiliers, then called the 50th Unattached Company of 
Infantry and attached to 1st Battalion Infantry, 1st Brigade, 
and designated Co. B, same as before and during the war; 
engineer, on the staff of Major General Benjamin F. Butler, 
Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, from Aug. 15, 1870, to April 
28, 1876 ; colonel of 10th Regiment Infantry, Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia from Aug. 1, 1876, to Sept. 21, 1878. 

General Kimball served as commander of E. V. Sumner 
Post 19, G. A. R., 1871-1872; senior vice-commander of 
the department of Massachusetts G. A. R., from January, 
1873, to January, 1874; commander of department of Massa- 
chusetts from January, 1874, to January, 1875. 

Russell O. Houghton was born in Boxboro, Mass., 
Oct. 7, 1835 > went to Lunenburg with his father in 1840, 
and lived in that town until he was sixteen years old, when 



ORGANIZATIONS. 163 

he came to Fitchburg and learned the blacksmith trade of 
A. S. Dole; after finishing his trade in 1857, went to Cali- 
fornia, remaining two years ; at the breaking out of the war, 
enlisted in the Massachusetts 6th Regiment for three months 
as a private. After the sixth regiment was discharged, Mr. 
Houghton assisted in raising the 26th Regiment for three 
years, and entered Co. B as orderly sergeant ; while in this 
regiment was promoted to all of the grades in his company 
and left the service as captain in October, 1865. At the close 
of the war settled in Fitchburg ; was appointed on the board 
of tire engineers in 1872 ; in 1873, when the first city gov- 
ernment was formed, was appointed chief of police, holding 
the position for two years ; in 1877 was appointed on the po- 
lice force again and has held the position until the present 
time, filling the office of night and day patrolman and captain 
of police ; was commander of Post 19 in December, 1872. 

Edward B. Macy was born Aug. 25, 1843, at Nan- 
tucket ; removed to Boston and was for several years in the 
dry goods business there; Aug. 25, 1S62, enlisted in Co. F, 
36th Massachusetts Volunteers, serving until Nov. 24, 1863, 
when he was discharged on account of a sunstroke which 
disabled him for further service ; returning to Boston he soon 
afterwards came to Fitchburg, and engaged in the dry goods 
business here. In 1875, after ten years as a dry goods mer- 
chant, he embarked in his present wholesale and retail fruit 
and provision business. lie became early connected with 
the G. A. R. Post here, held the various, offices, and was 
elected commander, March 5, 1874. 

S. B. Farmer was born in Nashua, N. H., Dec. 31, 
1832 ; came to Fitchburg at age of twenty-one and went to 
work tor the Putnam Machine Co., where he remained until 
the war; enlisting in Co. B, 53d Regiment, in September, 
1862, participated in the service and engagements of the reg- 
iment, returning to Fitchburg at expiration of term of service 
and again entered the employ of the Putnams, continuing 
there until 1876, when he bought a farm in Windham, X. 



164 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

II., and removed to that place, where he has since devoted 
his time to farming. He joined E. V. Sumner Post 19 
while in Fitchburg, held the various offices in the Post and 
was made commander in 1874. 

George E. Goodrich was born in Stow, Mass., April 
29, 1S3S. His parents removed to Fitchburg the same year, 
where he has resided ever since. In 1855, when seventeen 
years of age, he joined the Washington Guards at the time of 
its organization, and at the commencement of the war of 

1861 and 1865 entered the United States service in that com- 
pany, which was known as Co. D, 21st Massachusetts Regi- 
ment, and, with his two younger brothers, was mustered into 
service July 19, 1861. After one year's service in the 21st 
Regiment he was promoted to second lieutenant, and as- 
signed to Co. I, 34th Massachusetts Regiment, Aug. 6, 

1862 ; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. A, 34th Regiment, 
Sept. 6, 1863, and captain of Co. C, 34th Regiment, Oct. 
18, 1864. Captain Goodrich was discharged, with his com- 
pany and regiment, at the close of the war, receiving final 
payment, July 6, 1865, having been in the United States ser- 
vice within a few days of four years. He was on every 
march and in every battle or skirmish in which his regiment 
was engaged, more than twenty in all. He was at the 
capture of Petersburg and the surrender of General Lee and 
his army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, April 19, 
1865. Since the war he has taken an active interest in mili- 
tary affairs, joining the Fitchburg Fusiliers, Co. B, 10th 
Regiment, M. V. M., in May, 1867, serving as captain of 
that company eleven years ; major of the 10th Regiment one 
year ; lieutenant colonel three years, and colonel one year, 
making a service in the militia and United States service of 
twenty-six years. Mr. Goodrich was postmaster of Fitch- 
burg from Nov. 1, 1866, to March 1, 1879, and now works 
at his trade as machinist for the Putnam Machine company ; 
was a charter member of Post 19, G. A. R. ; has held various 
offices in the Post and was its commander in 1876-77. 



ORGANIZATIONS. 165 

Sidney Sibley was born in Barre, Mass., Oct. 9, 1843 ; 
mustered into the United States service in Co. K, 21st 
Massachusetts Regiment, Aug. 18, 1S62, and was discharged 
therefrom, May 23, 1864; joined the Grand Army during 
the winter of 1867 at Paxton, Mass. : became one of the 
charter members of Post 50 at Barre, Mass., in 1868 ; came 
to Fitchburg in April, 1872, and joined Post 19, May 28, 
1872. He was commander of the Post from Jan. 1, 187S, to 
Jan. 1, 1880. 

John F. Bruce was born at Lempster, N. H., Aug. 10, 
1833 ; moved to Fitchburg in 1851 ; worked for A. A. Beck- 
with, manufacturer of doors, sashes, blinds, etc., until Aug. 
26, 1862, when he entered the service as a corporal in Co. 
A, 53d Regiment, M. V. M., serving a little over one year; 
was discharged Sept. 2, 1863, being very much disabled by 
chronic diarrhoea and fever and ague : after one year he en- 
gaged in the manufacturing and lumber business with his 
former employer, Mr. A. A. Beckwith, as a partner; sold 
out his interest in the business in 1871 ; in 1872 he engaged 
in the grocery and mineral water business, which he still 
continues. He became a member of Post 19 in 1867 : served 
in minor offices and was commander of the Post in 1880 and 
1881 ; served on the council of administration, department of 
Massachusetts, G. A. R., in 1879 anc ^ I 88o, and on the 
national staff in 1884. 

James Cuthbert was born in Tilacoultry, Scotland, 
April 19, 1842 ; came to this country and settled in North 
Andover, Mass., July, 1852; removed to Lawrence in 1S56, 
and to Queechy, Vt., in the spring of 1858. The spring of 
1861 found him in Bridgton, Me., making army blankets for 
the boys at the front, and thinking that his duty also lay in 
that direction started for home for the purpose of enlisting ; 
passing through North Andover, was prevailed upon by 
Mr. Davis, (of the firm of Davis, Wiley & Stone,) to learn 
the machinist's trade; he, however, enlisted in 1862, in Co. 
A, 44th M. V. M., and, after his term of service expired, 



166 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

finished his trade in Windsor, Vt. : came to Fitchburg in 
1866 ; became a member of Post 19, G. A. R., in 1868 ; has 
filled various positions in the Post and was commander in 
1882-83 ; was elected in 1883 one °f three trustees of the 
Post, which position he now holds. 

Ira G. Wilkins enlisted at Manchester, N. H., Aug. 
21, 1862, in the nth Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteers; 
was promoted in May, 1864, to second lieutenant, and in 
November, 1864, to first lieutenant; served on staff of 
Brigadier General S. G. Griffin from May, 1864, till the 
close of the war; wounded April 2, 1865, in the assault be- 
fore Petersburg ; appointed captain United States Volunteers 
by brevet to date from April 2, 1865 : mustered out June 4, 
1865. He came to Fitchburg in May, 1880, with Messrs. 
Parker & Co., furniture manufacturers; joined Post 19, G. 
A. R., Aug. 5, of same year, and became its commander in 
December, 1883, holding that office two years. 

E. P. Loring was born in Norridgewock, Me., March 
2, 1837 ; graduated from Bowdoin College, August, 1861 ; 
entered 13th Maine Regiment in October, 1861, as first 
lieutenant of Co. B ; went to Ship Island with General Butler 
in March, 1862 ; August, 1863, was made captain of Co. A, 
1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery, colored; August, 1864, pro- 
moted to major, 10th United States Colored Heavy Artillery ; 
same year on staff of General T. W. Sherman as assistant 
inspector general; was mustered out Feb. 22, 1867, as 
brevet lieutenant colonel ; graduated at Albany Law School, 
1868, and settled in Fitchburg in April of that year; went to 
house of representatives in 1872 and 1874, an< ^ to ^ ie senate 
in 1883 and 1884; was chairman of the somewhat famous 
Tewksbury committee ; was for several years clerk of the 
district court and is now comptroller of county accounts ; was 
commander of Post 19, G. A. R., in 1886 and 1887. 

The present officers of Post 19 are : Commander, Charles 
H. Glazier; S. V. C, J. W. Abbott; J. V. C, Andrew 
Conner}-; quartermaster, Sidney Sibley; surgeon, F. M. 



49fr ^ 




JOHN W. KIMBALL, 

Commander Department of Mass., G. A. R., 1874. 



ORGANIZATIONS. 1G7 

Peckham ; chaplain, Ernest Schragle ; O. D.,J. N. Cutler; 
O. G., B. Parkhurst ; adjutant, Charles W. Gale; sergeant- 
major, J. A. Fuller; Q^. M. S., F. H. Whitcomb ; hall 
trustees, C. H. Glazier, J. C. Bruce, James Cuthbert. 

John W. Kimball, commander department of Massa- 
chusetts, sketch already given. 

Charles D. Nash, commander department of Massa- 
chusetts, is a native of Abington, Mass., and was born Dec. 
4, 1842 ; enlisted as corporal in the 38th Massachusetts 
Volunteers, July 24, 1862 ; moved to Fitchburg, March 24, 
1867, and joined Post 19 in 1868; has held the following of- 
fices in the G. A. R. : Q^. M., adjutant, surgeon, J. V. C, 
commander, aid to department commander and commander 
in chief, J. V. department commander, S. V. department 
commander and department commander of Massachusetts. 

Daniel C. Putnam, commander of department of Ohio, 
is the son of the late James P. and Abbie S. Putnam, and 
was born at the old Putnam farm on the Pearl Hill road, 
March 10, 1844. His early life was spent upon the farm and 
in the schools of the countrv and town until his eighteenth 
birthday, when he went to Washington, D. C, and there 
enlisted on March 21, 1862, in Co. F, 25th Massachusetts 
Volunteers, at that time commanded by his uncle, Colonel 
Edwin Upton. The regiment was at this time in North 
Carolina, and he joined it at Newbern on April 1, 1862, and, 
at once, shouldered his musket, and as a .private participated 
in all the services and campaigns of his regiment until May 
23, 1864, when he was promoted to regimental commissary 
sergeant, and on May 16, 1865, was made regimental 
quartermaster sergeant. On May 17, he was commissioned 
second lieutenant. He was discharged July 29, 1865, having 
served a little more than three years and four months. He 
removed to Ohio, and settled in Clark county in 1868, and 
was engaged in clerking for one year, when he commenced 
teaching and taught six years, the last two years being 



1T>8 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

superintendent of the public schools at Yellow Springs, 
Greene county, Ohio. During this time he completed his 
education, which he had dropped at the time of his enlist- 
ment. In 1873 he graduated from the Ohio Central Normal 
School at Worthington, Ohio. During the year 1875 he 
took up some special lines of study at the Ohio State Univer- 
sity at Columbus, Ohio. In January, 1876, he went into 
business at Springfield, Ohio, and is now a member of the 
house furnishing establishment of Andrews, Wise & Putnam. 
This firm has the largest and most profitable business of its 
class in central Ohio. Mr. Putnam joined the G. A. R., 
Feb. 18, 1 88 1, as a charter member of Mitchell Post 45, de- 
partment of Ohio, and was elected its first commander, and 
re-elected for a second term. He was district mustering 
officer in 1883, and served for three years as a member of 
the council of administration. On April 29, 1887, at the 
twenty-first annual encampment of the department of Ohio, 
G. A. R., he was elected its commander. The Springfield 
Sunday News, in speaking of his election to this position, 
says : ,f It is universally claimed a well deserved honor. Not 
only is Commander Putnam one of the most eminent and de- 
voted G. A. R. men, but he was, also, a good soldier, and is 
one of the best and most accurately informed military men in 
Ohio as to history, work, and tactics. 

TAYLOR UNION NO. I, ARMY AND NAVY VETERANS. 

One evening in the latter part of May, 1865, five veterans 
of the arm}-, W. A. Hardy, S. W. Harris, W. S. Hersey, 
Robert Elliott and Richard Tucker, having met casually on 
the cross-walk at the junction of Mill and Main streets, were 
discussing military matters. One of this party suggested 
that it would be well to form an association to care for dis- 
abled comrades like their then deceased Comrade Greene. 
To make a long story short the}' voted to hire a hall, and 
made Sam Harris a committee of one to make arrangements 
for a meeting. The next day Washington Hall was secured 
and posters put out for a meeting at which a temporary or- 




DANIEL C. PUTNAM, 



Commander of the Department of Ohio, G. A. R. 



ORGANIZATIONS. 1 •'>!' 

ganization was formed, and on the following night there was 
a permanent organization of the "Army and Navy Veterans- 
Union." At a subsequent meeting the name was changed to 
that of "Taylor Union No. i, Army and Navy Veterans," in 
honor of George C. Taylor of Co. B, 15th Massachusetts 
Volunteers, killed at Hall's Bluff — the first volunteer from 
Fitchburg who gave his life to his country. The early 
records were kept in a memorandum book and have all been 
lost except the financial secretary's book, now in the hands 
of Comrade Harris. From the charter, now in the posses- 
sion of Richard Tucker, we copy the following list of the 
charter members : Walter A. Eames, William S. Hersev, P. 
H. Fletcher, William A. Hardy, Edwin II. Minot, William 
H. Green, Samuel W. Harris, Aaron G. Buttrick, Patrick 
Lennon, Warren P. Boutwell, Joseph L. Moody, Richard 
Tucker, George B. Proctor, Henry L. Sheldon, Charles R. 
Briggs, Charles M. Billings, Abner G. White, John Sul- 
livan, Amos C. Plaisted, Cyrus Nickerson, Timothy S. 
Marsh. The charter was dated the second day of January, 
1866. 

Afterwards a Dorcas Union was also instituted, out of 
which also may have grown the present Relief Corps. Sept. 
28, 1865, the Leominster Union was formed with one hun- 
dred members — the members of the Taylor Union assisting 
at the installation. Soon after, Unions were formed in Gard- 
ner, Templeton and other places to the number of seventeen 
or eighteen. A grand lodge was organized in December, 

1865, the seal bearing these words : "Grand Army and Navy 
Veteran Union." 

Comrade Harris says a purchasing agent from Illinois 
was in Fitchburg at about that time : that he became inter- 
ested in the Taylor Union, and procured a copy of the 
by-laws of the Order, took it West, lost it and sent for an- 
other, that five copies in all were sent, and in February, 

1866, Dr. Stephenson of Illinois suggested the formation of 
the G. A. R., and published the first draft of a constitution 
for the same. From the Grand Army and Navy Veteran 
Union, it would be easy to form the title. Grand Armv of the 



170 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Republic — the name of a society which will live while the 
Republic itself shall stand. 

All the correspondence and records, except as stated, 
were burned up by a good wife in her annual house cleaning, 
and we can only say that it was not wholly a success, having 
been organized on an extensive basis, and naturally gave 
way to what promised to be a more successful association of 
veterans, the G. A. R. 

SECRET AND BENEVOLENT. 

The large number of beneficial, secret and similar socie- 
ties that are in successful operation in Fitchburg indicate a 
very social and philanthropic spirit on the part of the people. 

Masonrv is represented by four bodies. Aurora Lodge, 
F. and A. M., the oldest, instituted June 9, 1801, at Leom- 
inster, and removed to Fitchburg, March 17, 1845. Regular 
communications are held the first Monday of each month ; 
annual communication in September. 

Charles W. Moore Lodge, F. and A. M., instituted 
Oct. 9, 1856. Regular communications third Tuesday of 
each month ; annual communication in September. 

Thomas Royal Arch Chapter, instituted Dec. 21, 
1821, at Princeton; removed to Fitchburg, Nov. 13, 1847. 
Regular convocation second Wednesday of each month ; an- 
nual convocation in September. 

Jerusalem Commandery, K. T., instituted Oct. 13, 
1865. Regular conclaves third Thursday of each month; 
annual conclave in September. 

The Masonic Hall is in the upper stories of the Fitchburg 
Savings Bank building, and comprises some of the finest 
rooms in the state. 

The Odd Fellows' organizations are also four in number. 
Mt. Roulstone Lodge No. 98, I. O. O. F., instituted 
Dec. 12, 1845. Regular meetings on Friday evenings. 

Pearl Hill Degree Lodge No. 47, D. of R., I. O. 
O. F. Meetings first and third Tuesdays of each month. 



ORGANIZATIONS. 171 

King David Encampment No. 42, I. O. O. F. Reg- 
ular meetings second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. 

Grand Canton Hebron No. 4, Patriarchs Mili- 
tant. Regular Cantonment first Thursday evening of each 
month. 

The Odd Fellows' rooms are in the upper story of the 
Rollstone Bank block, 129 Main street. 

The Knights of Pythias are represented by two bodies. 
Alpine Lodge No. 35, K. of P., instituted March 12, 
1879. Meetings Thursday evening in each week. 

Red Cross Division, Uniform Rank, K. of P., in- 
stituted January, 1887. Meetings every other Monday 
evening. The Knights of Pythias rooms are in Crocker 
block, 234 Main street. 

other orders. 

Fitchburg Lodge No. 797, Knights of Honor ; Roumania 
No. 312, Knights and Ladies of Honor; Overlook Council 
No. 972, American Legion of Honor; Castle Fitchburg No. 
195, Knights and Ladies of the Golden Rule ; Local Branch 
No. 390, Order of the Iron Hail; Council No. 777, Royal 
Arcanum ; Shakespeare Lodge No. 121, Sons of St. George ; 
Wachusett Council No. 21, O. U. A. M. ; Fitchburg Asso- 
ciates No. 22, N. M. R. A. ; Wachusett Division No. 191, 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers ; Guard Lafayette ; 
George Lodge No. 538, German Order of Harugari ; W. A. 
Foster Lodge No. 216, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen ; 
Railroad Men's Relief Association ; Fitchburg Lodge No. 1, 
Brotherhood of Section Masters ; Firemen's Relief Associa- 
tion ; E. A. Smith Division No. 146, Order of Railway Con- 
ductors ; Ancient Order of Hibernians ; Societe St. Jean 
Baptiste de Fitchburg ; Ancient Order of Red Men; Rail- 
road Men's Christian Association ; Fitchburg Woman's Suf- 
frage League. 

TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 

Fitchburg Reform Club ; St. Bernard's Total Abstinence 
and Mutual Aid Society ; Wendell Phillips Division Sons of 



172 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Temperance ; Monadnock Temple of Honor No. 17 ; Aqua- 
rius Council No. 10, Select Templars ; Silver Spray Temple 
of Honor No. 3; Falulah Lodge No. n, I. O. of G. T. ; 
Henry A. Reynolds Lodge No. 81, I. O. of G. T. ; The 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union ; The Young 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union ; Unity Temperance 
Society. 

WORCESTER NORTH AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
(Incorporated in 1852.) 

Including the city of Fitchburg, towns of Leominster, 
Sterling, West Boylston, Princeton, Lunenburg, Ashburn- 
ham, Westminster, Gardner, Templeton and Royalston in 
Worcester count}', with Ashbv in Middlesex, though persons 
from any part of the state may become members. 

The annual exhibition is held on the grounds of the Park 
Company on Summer street, on the last Tuesday and 
Wednesday of September, in each year. These grounds 
comprise about thirty acres of land, well fitted up with half 
mile track, stable, cattle sheds and a large building contain- 
ing two halls for exhibition purposes and the annual dinner, 
with several smaller rooms for other purposes. The annual 
meeting and election of officers takes place on the first Fri- 
day in December. The present board of officers are : Presi- 
dent, J. A. Battles, Fitchburg; Vice Presidents — L. C. 
Albee, Fitchburg, George Cruickshanks, Lunenburg; Sec- 
retary, C. S. Keith, Fitchburg; Treasurer, F. C. Currier, 
Fitchburg. Delegate to state board of agriculture, George 
Cruickshanks, Fitchburg. 

The board of trustees from each of the towns is made up 
as follows : Ashburnham, three ; Ashby, two ; Leominster, 
seven; Lunenburg, five; Princeton, five; Westminster, 
three; one from each of the towns of Greenville, N. H., 
Oakdale, Sterling, Templeton, Winchendon, Groton ; and 
twenty-five from Fitchburg. 

Joseph A. Battles, president of the society, is a native 
of Fitchburg, where he was born April 5, 1835, on a f arm at 
the foot of Monoosnoc mountain. His early days were spent 




JOSEPH A BATTLES 



ORGANIZATIONS. 1 7."> 

(in the farm, remaining there until he was twenty-five years 
of age, when he entered the employ of P. Smith & Co., 
bakers, and was afterwards admitted to partnership. 

In 1866 he started in the livery business at the Rollstone 
barn with only three horses and the necessary outfit : after- 
wards removed to Oliver street, and in the spring of 1869 to 
Day street, where for a few months he was assoeiated with 
Mr. L. M. Wheeler, in the firm of Battles & Wheeler, and 
since carrying on the business alone until in the spring of the 
present year, when he decided to go out of business perma- 
nently, selling his livery property at public auction ; finding, 
however, that he needed some active employment to take up 
his mind he has gradually worked into his accustomed busi- 
ness, although not so extensively as before. 

Mr. Battles began with very little capital, but his genial 
ways and accommodating spirit insured popularity, and 
prosperity as well. lie was the first owner of a hack in 
Fitchburg, and anticipated the needs of the public by adding 
hacks and barges as they were needed, until his investment 
in livery property, after twenty years in business, amounted 
to twenty-five thousand dollars. 

THE WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION. 

This organization, the outgrowth of the "crusade work" in 
Ohio, begun by christian women, who felt they could no 
longer keep still under the terrible burden which the liquor 
traffic was laying upon them and upon the whole nation. 

The first meeting of the Fitchburg W.'C. T. U. was held 
the third Tuesday in January, 1875. The first practical 
work was the circulation of the pledge throughout the town. 
a work in which a large number of ladies were engaged, 
thus bringing this question very plainly before many, who 
had given it but little thought before. Since then petitions 
to the legislature have been presented, again and again, to 
the people for signature, witli other Unions of the state, to 
secure better legislation on this subject. Conventions have 
been held, almost as many as years have gone by. A large 



174 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

number of public meetings and the best lectures that could 
be secured, have been given to the people to influence public 
sentiment. For the same purpose thousands of pages of lit- 
erature have been distributed in public places, as well as 
given quietly by the visiting committee. 

Early in the work an invitation was extended to Dr. 
Reynolds to visit the Union, and through his influence the 
Reform Club was formed, and for some time meetings were 
held with the Club. 

The treasury of the Union has never, with one exception, 
lacked the funds necessary to meet the obligations at the 
close of the year, and then was only two or three dollars 
lacking. Some fifteen hundred dollars have passed through 
the hands of the treasurer during this time, aside from that 
used by the relief department. 

The watchword of the organization has been "Prayer," 
but working has gone hand in hand with praying, and the 
time, thought, patience and faith expended have brought 
forth fruit none the less real and lasting because of the quiet, 
unostentatious methods employed. 

THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

as now existing had its origin among the young men of the 
First Baptist church, in the fall of 1886. Two preliminary 
meetings were held at this church by a number of young 
men. A third meeting resulted in the organization of the 
Association in October, 1886, with George Winch as presi- 
dent. 

Following the organization a parlor conference was held 
at the residence of J. Parkhill. Twenty-three of the leading 
business men of the city were present, and the conference 
was conducted by Russell Sturgis, Jr., of Boston, and R. M. 
Armstrong, state secretary. A citizens' committee was ap- 
pointed to solicit funds for the year's work, in union with the 
finance committee of the Association. The citizens' commit- 
tee consisted of Dr. George Jewett, J. H. Daniels, H. M. 
Francis, Dr. C. H. Rice, and E. N. Choate. The sum of 



ORGANIZATIONS. 175 

$1,425 was raised. Two rooms in Twichell's block were 
opened, Dec. 27, 1886, and four others added in July, 1887. 
The Association is now, (November, 1887,) in possession of 
a reading room well equipped, a comfortable parlor, a game 
and recreation room, a room for boys, and a hall for social 
and religious gatherings. The membership is nearly two 
hundred and fifty and is constantly growing. A course of 
entertainments of high order, practical and medical talks, 
educational classes, boarding-house register, employment 
bureau and many other privileges are open to members, 
though most of these privileges are free to any young man. 

The work is mainly dependent for support from the busi- 
ness men — $2,000 will be raised for the year 1887-88. 

On July 25, 1887, William P. Taylor, a graduate of 
Yale University, entered upon his duties as general secretary 
of the Association, and under his charge the work has shown 
a rapid increase in growth and usefulness. The publication 
of a monthly organ, ''Beacon Light," has been one of the re- 
cent additions to the work. 

THE FITCHBURG BENEVOLENT UNION 

was organized as a society, March 6, 1876, and incorporated 
Feb. 10, 1886. Its object is to have one comprehensive, 1111- 
sectarian organization, which, as far as possible, shall 
distribute charity wisely and endeavor to help the poor to 
help themselves. The board of managers are : President, 
Ebenezer Bailey; \ r icc-Prcsidcnts — Rodney Wallace, Mrs. 
A. Crocker, Sen., Lewis H. Bradford. 

Executive Committee — Mrs. George D. Colony, Miss 
Mattie D. Tolman, Mrs. B. D. Dwinnell, Mrs. S. W. Put- 
nam, Miss Anna S. Haskell, Amasa Norcross, James 
Phillips, Jr., Dr. Thomas S. Blood, Mial Davis, Dr. D. B. 
Whittier. 

Secretary, Rev. J. M. R. Eaton ; Assistant Secretary, 
Mrs. B. F. Wallis; Treasurer, Albert C. Brown. 

Life Members — Amasa Norcross, Benjamin Snow, C. T. 
Crocker, Rodney Wallace, Mrs. William B. Wood, Mrs. G. 



176 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

S. Burbank, Mrs. James Phillips, Jr., Mrs. C. T. Crocker, 
Mrs. Rodney Wallace, Mrs. A. Crocker, Sen., David Bou- 
telle (deceased), Gardner S. Burbank, George F. Fay, Miss 
Eleanor A. Norcross. 

Annual meeting last Monday in September. Meetings 
of the board of managers on last Monday in December, 
March and June. Meeting of relief committee second Mon- 
day of each month, at 4 P. M. Headquarters of the Union 
in the office of Mrs. A. Crocker, Sen. 

THE FITCHBURG AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION, 

Chapter No. 48 of the National Association, was formed in 
January, 1886, by the consolidation of four chapters of the 
Agassiz Association and the Young American Industrial 
Society. It is doing much to promote the personal study of 
nature by the young people of the city. The officers are : 
President, W '. G. Farrar ; Vice-President, George B. Hitch- 
cock; Recording Secretary, William B. Page; Correspond- 
ing Secretary, Frank A. Marble ; Treasurer, E. Adams 
Hartwell ; curator, C. E. Burnap. 

Executive Committee — W. G. Farrar, George B. Hitch- 
cock, G. V. Upton, II. C. Patch, C. E. Burnap, Nellie M. 
Silsby, Mary L. Garfield, Cora P. Blanchard. 

THE FITCHBURG HOME FOR OLD LADIES. 
In poratecl Sept. -1, 1883. 

The project of establishing a home for aged women in 
Fitchburg originated in a society of benevolent ladies, who 
had organized in the autumn of 1879, un d er the name of the 
"Ladies' Union Aid Society," chiefly for the purpose of aid- 
ing young girls, teaching them to sew and kindred employ- 
ments. The first annual meeting was held Dec. 6, 1883. 
In January, 1884, the corporation received a generous gift 
from Dr. A. W. Sidney of a deed of land lying on Marshall 
street, to be used as the managers might think best for the 
benefit of the home. Soon after this the society was called 



ORGANIZATIONS. 



177 



upon to part with their friend and generous supporter, Mr. 
L. J. Brown, the first president of the corporation. Whose 
faithful services and generous support had been most cheer- 
fully given and to whose unfailing interest and substantial aid 
the early success of the enterprise was mainly due. Upon 
the death of Mr. Brown the society elected as his successor 
Dr. Sidney, who has been spared for active labor in that 
position until the present time. 

In August of 1885 occurred the death of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Boutelle Robinson, a life member of the corporation, and one 
who had given her cordial interest to the establishment of the 

Home. Mrs. Robinson 
left a legacy to the Home 
which was amply suffi- 
cient to warrant the pur- 
chase and the opening of 
a Home at an early day. 
This bequest was a signal 
assurance of God-speed 
to the work which had 
been progressing through 
two years of corporate 
existence. Accordingly, 
after due consideration, 
and after weighing the 
relative advantages of several places available, the estate lo- 
cated on the corner of Summer and Beacon streets was 
secured, as best adapted, both for situation and household 
convenience, to the requirements of the Home. Through the 
generosity of friends the Home was furnished and ready for 
opening in June, 1886. 

The present officers are : President, Dr. A. W. Sidney : 
Vice-President, Mrs. C. W. Wilder; Treasurer, Mr. B. F. 
Wallis; Secretary, Miss M. I). Tolman. 

Executive Committee — Mr. I. C. Wright, Mr. William 

M. Leathe, Mr. H. A. Willis, Mrs. I. C. Wright, Mrs. 

Laban Cushing, Mrs. Lowell M. Miles, Mrs. M. C. Crocker. 

Matron, Mrs. Z. A. Rich : Physician, Dr. A. W. Sidney. 

12 




HOME FOR OLD LADIES. 



17(S FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

UNION AID HOSPITAL OF FITCHBURG. 

The question of the establishment in this city of a hospital 
for the care of the sick or injured, who are without the means 
of suitable treatment elsewhere, has been raised from time to 
time among benevolent and philanthropic persons and the 
medical profession for several years. Recently such an in- 
stitution came to be regarded as more and more a necessity 
and the eighth of January, 1885, a few persons deeply inter- 
ested in the matter associated themselves together for the 
purpose of forming a corporation to be known as the Union 
Aid Hospital of Fitchburg. The first meeting of the sub- 
scribers was held on the nineteenth of January. At this 
meeting by-laws were adopted, directors chosen, committees 
appointed, and all necessary steps taken in compliance with 
the laws of the state to obtain incorporation. 

A certificate of incorporation was issued on the twenty- 
sixth day of March. Monthly meetings of the board of 
managers have been held since, and all persons chosen for 
different positions entered upon the work with a readiness to 
commence active measures for the achievement of their pur- 
pose. The object sought to be accomplished, the relief of 
suffering, especially the distress of the unfortunate, is one 
that appeals to the noblest instincts of our nature, and one 
that is entitled to the most cordial sympathy from the com- 
munity at large. 

The officers of the incorporation are : President, Dr. 
George D. Colon}'; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. Dolly Marble, 
E. R. Turner, A. F. Whitney ; Secretary and Treasurer, 
S. W. Huntley: Clerk, H. E. M. Young." 

Directors — Dr. George D. Colony, E. M. Dickinson, 
George E. Waite, J. W. Kimball, Dr. F. H. Thompson, 
Mrs. W. O. Brown, George E. Clifford, Walter A. Fair- 
banks, Charles F. Putnam, George F. Simonds, Mrs. H. J. 
Putnam, Mrs. L. O. Allen, W. R. Deering, Dr. C. H. Rice, 
H. G. Morse. 



ORGANIZATIONS. 17!) 

THE PARK CLUB 

was organized Jan. i, 1S81 ; having for its object the promo- 
tion of social intercourse, the cultivation of a better 
acquaintance among business men of the city. The officers 
are: President, Dr. E. P. Miller: Secretary, Herbert I. 
Wallace ; Treasurer, C. E. Ware. 

Directors — R. Wallace, James L. Chapman, L. Sprague, 
G. H. Spencer, O. II. Lawrence, 

Executive Committee — Leander Sprague, George II. 
Spencer, Eli Culley. 

THE WINDSOR CLUIi 

was organized with the same social features as the Park 
Club, but its membership is principally made up from the 
younger business men of the citv. The officers are : Presi- 
dent, J. W. Palmer; Vice-President, W. M. W. Spring; 
Secretary, \Y . E. Sheldon : Treasurer, F. D. Page. 

Directors— C. E. Wallace, J. H. Scott, C. A. Hubbell, 
J. W. M. Brown, O. F. Lord. 

Executive Committee — Dr. O. F. Lord, W. M. W. 
Spring, J. W. M. Brown. 

THE CHAPIN CLUB 

is a social and literary society connected with the First 
Universalist church, organized the first of January, 1884. 

Its officers are : President, Edward A. Brown ; Vice- 
President , N. B. Stone : Secretary, Mrs. E. A. Brown : 
Treasurer, II. A. Damon. 

Executive Committee — Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Sibley, Mr. 
and Mrs. A.J. Litchfield, II. A. Sargent. Walter Hardy, G. 
H. Carter, Mrs. W. L. Humes, Misses Kate Challin, Ilattie 
Dudley and Lucy Brown. 



180 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

THE ARLINGTON CLUB 

was organized Jan. i, 1886. Its membership is limited to 
married men under thirty-seven years of age. It is a bene- 
ficial as well as a social organization and has a fund from 
which a benefit of fifty dollars is paid upon the death of a 
member, or twenty-five dollars upon the death of the wife of 
a member. Frederick Ryan was instrumental in securing 
the organization of the Club and was its first president. 

The present officers are : President* Thomas H. Doherty, 
Vice-Presidents, Charles Smith, J. F. Ward ; Recording 
Secretary, William Ryan ; Financial Secretary, Joseph 
Flynn ; Treasurer, Frederick Ryan. 

Board of Directors — T. II. Doherty, John Screenan, 
Bernard H. Flaherty. 

Sick Committee — Michael Kennedy, John Mally, Michael 
Lynch. Sergcant-at-Arms, Michael Kennedy. 

THE PINE TREE CLUB 

held its first meeting at the office of Colonel E. P. Loring 
on the evening of Nov. 30, 1886, at which time thirteen per- 
sons gave in their names for a permanent organization. It 
was quite a surprise party, as friends and neighbors met that 
had known each other for years in this city and learned for 
the first time that they were not strangers in their native state 
of Maine. 

The following persons were present on that occasion : E. 
P. Loring, Norridgewock ; B. G. Bagley, Clinton ; Mrs. H. 
M. Francis, Skowhegan ; Dr. Francis B. Joy, Starks ; Seth 
E. Brigham, Bridgeton ; Joseph T. Goodwin, Dresden ; 
William R. Deering, Saco ; Sumner E. Bowman, Norridge- 
wock ; James M. Appleby, Canaan; John A. Whitcomb, 
Biddeford : Samuel T. Johnson, Windham ; Henry M. 
Saunders, Wiscassett ; Henry B. Dyer, New Sharon. 



CHAPTER IX. 



PAPF.R MAKING. 




APER-MAKING, which is one of the 
most valuable industries of Fitehburg, 
was commenced in a mill built by 
Thomas French, on the site of the 
Rollstone Machine Company's works 
on Water street, and was owned by 
Gen. Leonard Burbank. It was after- 
ward owned by Crocker and Gardner, 
and later by Alvah Crocker. 
The second paper-mill was built bv A. Crocker & Co., 
in West Fitehburg, on the present site of the Rodney Wal- 
lace middle mill. Being successful, Alvah Crocker began to 
increase his business and took Gardner S. Burbank into com- 
pany with him. The firm of Crocker, Burbank & Co. was 
formed in 1850. They soon began to enlarge their business, 
building and purchasing new mills until, at the present time, 
the firm owns six large mills : The Cascade Mill, built in 
1847 ; the Upton Mill, on the road to William Woodbury's, 
built in 185 1 ; the Hanna Mill, built in, 1852 ; the Lyon Mill, 
in Rockville, built in 1853 ; the Whitney Mill, also in Rock- 
ville, built in 1847 ; and the Stone Mill, below the Snow and 
Cascade Mills, built in 1854. 

Mr. Crocker's native place was Leominster, his parents 
poor, his father being a vatman in the Nichols and Kendall 
paper-mills, and there at the age of eight years, Alvah was 
put to work. His habits of industry and economy, and de- 
sire for knowledge were early manifested, and his plans per- 
sistently carried out in spite of difficulties. His employer's 



182 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



library furnished the first source of book knowledge, and his 
inquiring turn of mind led him to make the most of his sur- 
roundings for the acquisition of practical ideas. 

At the age of sixteen, he had saved fifty dollars with 
which he entered Groton Academy, and remained until he 
was obliged to leave to obtain more money. Not receiving 
encouragement from his father, he gave up all ideas of get- 
ting a college education, and made the most of his limited 
opportunities, managing in one way or another to obtain 




■uuaniinHuuui ■■iiuiiiuiUiEUJ j i ii 1 1 1 • mi ii ■ ■ i ■ uiinmy|mm mmu2*«yf i|H!^^gBJB^^ 



OFFICE OF CROCKER, BURBANK & CO. 



books and continue his studies outside of his regular hours of 
labor. 

In 1820, he went to work in a paper-mill in Franklin, 
N. H., and in 1823, removed to this city and entered the em- 
ploy of Gen. Leonard Burbank, the pioneer paper-maker of 
Fitchburg. Three years later, becoming dissatisfied with 
working for wages, and impelled by his active and ambitious 
spirit, we find him embarking in business for himself. Se- 
lecting a spot of land, in West Fitchburg, he built, with the 



PAPER MAKING. 



is:; 



aid of borrowed capital, his first paper-mill, its locution be- 
ing in a birch swamp, and not easily accessible as the river 
road was not then built. 

In addition to the natural disadvantages of location, soon 
after starting, changes had to be made from hand labor to 
machinery, in order to compete successfully with other mills, 
and to add to his difficulties, the mill building was injured by 
a freshet, calling for expensive repairs. The times were 
hard, threatening financial disaster, but through it all he 
worked on with untiring energv, hopeful and determined. 




THE "BRICK" MILL. 

and finally weathered the storm. Some idea of the obstacles 
he encountered at this time may be learned from the fact that 
he then owed twelve thousand dollars on his original invest- 
ment, and an expenditure of ten thousand dollars had to be 
made for machinery, beside the amount due his commission 
agents. Up to this time, he had sent his product to a com- 
mission house in Boston, as an offset to rags and chemicals 
used, and the returns made by them showed that some of his 
paper had been sold, but much of it had not, and they in- 
formed him "they had concluded not to guarantee," Inning 
against him a balance of $4,000 in their favor : this, although 
not due, was loudly and unscrupulously called for. There 



1S4 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



was but one course open for him to pursue. He began to 
sell his paper directly to consumers, opening accounts, with 
yearly settlements only, for what stock he wanted, through- 
out the country, working month after month by day, and 
frequently taking his product to Boston by night, working 
incessantly to pay back debt and interest. 

In 1834 Mr. Crocker was employed by the town to get a 
road further up the Nashua river, but meeting with opposi- 
tion by the landholders, he bought the whole Nashua valley 
to the Westminster line, gave the land for the road, and by 




THE "STONE" MILL 



this investment laid the foundation of financial success. All 
the mills of Crocker, Burbank & Co. have since been located 
in this valley. 

In all of the interests of the city with which Mr. Crocker 
became identified, he exhibited the same rare business sa- 
gacity and foresight shown in the management of his private 
affairs. He saw that whatever would increase the business 
facilities of the city and build it up would benefit the individ- 
ual as well, and pay for all the effort necessary to its accom- 
plishment. 

At this time Fitchburg was without railroad communica- 
tion with the outside world, and Mr. Crocker bent his ener- 



PAPER MAKING. 



IS.") 



gies to the securing of a railroad from Boston to Fitchburg. 
In the prosecution of this work, he went, in 1836, to the leg- 
islature and began to publicly advocate the measure. His 
first idea was to secure a branch road either from Lowell or 
Worcester, but later, in 1842, he came out boldly in favor of 
a direct line from Boston to Fitchburg, and in spite of all op- 
position and ridicule, the Fitchburg Railroad was built. 
March 5th, 1845, Mr. Crocker rode into Fitchburg on the 
first locomotive, and was the first president of the road. The 
first (stone) depot was built on land owned by Mr. Crocker. 




THE "HANNA" MILL. 

It was thought by many who favored a different location, 
that the railroad could not be extended farther west on ac- 
count of the heavy grade, but three years afterwards, the 
Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad was in running condi- 
tion, with Alvah Crocker for its first President. Mr. Crocker 
was afterwards actively engaged in railroad operations, es- 
pecially in the Troy & Boston, and in the completion of the 
Hoosac Tunnel. In 1847 and 1848, he delivered several 
hundred lectures in their behalf, doing probably more than 
any other man in the state, to insure the completion of the 
Tunnel, and was one of the commissioners when the work 
was put into the hands of the state. 



186 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



In January, 1872, he was chosen Representative to Con- 
gress from the ninth district, was afterwards re-elected, and 
was a member at the time of his death which took place 
Dec. 30th, 1874. 

Beside the railroad enterprises to which so much of his 
public life was devoted, a greater work was undertaken at 
Turners Falls, which however was left unfinished at his 
death. The magical rise and growth of that place was due 
to his sagacious energy and enterprise. While searching for 
a more direct railway route between Millers Falls and 







fHE 'LYON AND WHITNEY INHLL. 



Greenfield than the one pursued by the Vermont & Massa- 
chusetts railroad, he saw the magnificent water power 
possessed by the Connecticut river at Turners Falls and 
rightly concluded that nature had thus furnished the means 
at hand for a great manufacturing city. He entered at once, 
with his characteristic promptness, upon the prosecution of 
his scheme, which, to the exclusion of nearly every other in- 
terest, took possession of his mind at that time. In company 
with other capitalists the Turners Falls Company was or- 
ganized for the purpose of controlling and utilizing the water 
power at that point. They purchased largely of land lying 
on the river front near the falls, and a dam having a fall of 



PAPER MAKING. 187 

thirty feet and a capacity of 30,000 horse-power was built. 
From that time until the close of his life, the daring projector 
worked hard for the prosperity of the enterprise, spending 
large sums of money in promoting its interests. It was his 
ambition to make Turners Falls not only rival Lowell, 
Holvoke and other large manufacturing centres, but to pass 
by and above them. What he would have accomplished for 
the place, had he been spared to test his energies to the full, 
no one can say, but estimating the probable results of the 
future from the "Teat attainments he had effected in the few 
years he was permitted to devote to the task, it cannot be 
denied that he would have left Turners Falls as a splendid 
monument to his greatness. 

While directing his energies to the consummation of this 
great work, he was not unmindful of his own citv and 
labored steadily and persistently to secure needed improve- 
ments, being largely interested in getting a water supply. 
During the war for the preservation of the Union Mr. 
Crocker was a staunch patriot, a strong sympathizer with the 
national government, and a liberal donor of time and money 
to the triumph of the great and good cause. Governor 
Andrew entrusted him with the honorable duty of caring for 
the wounded Massachusetts soldiers, and more than one 
patriot can testify that when the funds were not available for 
the relief of his need, the money of Mr. Crocker was at once 
and judiciously drawn upon to convey the aid desired. 

RODNEY WALLACE PAPER MILLS. 

In 1S53 Rodney Wallace came to Fitchburg and entered 
upon his business life. He formed a co-partnership with 
Stephen Shepley, known as Shepley & Wallace. They 
were wholesale dealers in books, stationery, paper stock and 
cotton waste. This firm continued under the name of 
Shepley & Wallace, and R. Wallace & Co., till July 1, 1865. 
On this day the firm was dissolved and the business was 
divided. Mr. Wallace took the department of paper stock 
and cotton waste, which he still carries on. To what pro- 



188 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

portions it has grown under his management, may be judged 
from the fact that the business done amounts at least to 
$200,000 a year. 

December 31, 1864, Stephen Shepley, Benjamin Snow 
and Rodney Wallace bought the Lyon Paper Mill and the 
Kimball Scythe Shops at West Fitchburg, and began the 
manufacture of paper, under the name of the Fitchburg 
Paper Company. Stephen E. Denton was taken into the 
firm as a partner soon after. He had charge of the business 
at the mill. In July, 1865, Rodney Wallace and Benjamin 
Snow bought the interest of Stephen Shepley ; and the Fitch- 
burg Paper Company was then Wallace, Snow and Denton. 
Mr. Denton died ' in June, 1868. January 7, 1869, Mr. 
Wallace bought the interest of Mr. Snow, and Jan. 23 of the 
same year, he bought the interest of Mr. Denton's estate of 
his widow, who was at that time residing in New York. 
From that date till the present the Fitchburg Paper Company 
is Rodney Wallace. He retains the old firm name. His 
two sons, Herbert I. Wallace and George R. Wallace, are 
associated with their father in the management of his busi- 
ness. The former is a graduate of Harvard in the class of 
1877. The latter of the Institute of Technology in Boston. 
Since becoming sole owner Mr. Wallace has added largely 
to the original property. A neat village has sprung up 
around his mills. He has put in a substantial stone dam at 
great expense and in 1878 he erected a new brick mill, with 
all the modern improvements, doubling the capacity of the 
establishment. Just across the Nashua river is the Fitchburg 
railroad. He has a freight station of his own, where he re- 
ceives all his freight and ships all his paper. During the 
past year he has completed another large mill in West 
Fitchburg, greatly increasing his facilities for business. The 
present capacity of the mills is from thirty to forty thousand 
pounds per day of hanging, coloring and lithographing 
paper. 

Aside from his own business, which makes large drafts 
upon his time, strength and thought, Mr. Wallace has been 
closely identified with numerous other corporate and mone- 








^-^f/^C^^i 



T C^C^ 



PAPER MAKING. [ 81) 

tary interests. He has thus had a large share in contributing 
to the growth and prosperity of the city. 

Since 1S64 he has been president and director of the 
Fitchburg Gas Company ; a director of the Putnam Ma- 
chine Company since the same year ; a director of the Fitch- 
burg National Bank since 1866 ; a partner in the Fitchburg 
Woolen Mills since 1867 ; a trustee of Smith College since 
1878. He is a director of the Fitchburg Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Company ; a trustee of the Fitchburg Savings Bank ; a 
director of the Fitchburg Railroad ; a director of the Park- 
hill Manufacturing Company. Besides these he has had 
the settlement of large and important estates. We would 
especially note the large estate of the late Ephraim Mur- 
dock, Jr., of Winchendon, and that of the late Hon. William 
H. Vose, of Fitchburg. 

In 1873 he was representative to the General Court, to 
which office he was elected in the fall of 1872, by nearly 
every ballot cast. He was re-nominated the next year, 
without dissent or opposition, but declined a re-election on 
account of ill-health. While a member of the legislature he 
was on the committee on manufactures, a position which his 
abilitv and experience fitted him to fill. The most conspicu- 
ous political office he has held is that of Councillor. While 
holding that position he represented one of the largest and 
most important districts in the state. In it are included the 
thriving city of Worcester and the sister city of Fitchburg, 
which, with their varied industries, needed a man of large 
and ripe judgment to represent them. He served three 
years, during 1880, 1881 and 1882, or throughout the entire 
administration of Gov. Long. While in the Council he was 
a member of the following important committees : On par- 
dons, on harbors and public lands, on military affairs, and on 
warrants. 

At the close of Gov. Long's administration he refused to 
allow further use of his name for the office he had so ably 
filled for three years, and celebrated his retirement from this 
position as a servant of the public by a brilliant reception 
tendered to Gov. Long, in the city hall, Fitchburg, Decem- 
ber 7, 1882. 



190 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Largely through the influence of Mr. Wallace, various 
improvements have been made in Fitchburg which contribute 
to its attractiveness. Prominent mention may be made of 
the beautiful union railway station at Fitchburg, in securing 
its erection and in planning which he was largely instru- 
mental. But the most conspicuous act, by which he showed 
his public spirit and generosity of purpose as a citizen, was 
his gift to the city of Fitchburg of the beautiful public 
library which by vote of the city government is called by his 
name. This act of beneficence secures to the city for all 
coming time a "people's college," where the child of the 
poorest as well as of the richest, the toiler as well as the man 
of leisure, may get a very important education. No one 
knows better the educational needs of the people, and the 
gift therefore seems all the more appropriate, coming from 
Mr. Wallace. His early life was spent among the hills of 
New Hampshire. At twelve years of age he started out to 
make his way in the world. He let himself to a farmer for 
forty dollars for the first year, with the privilege of attending 
school eight weeks in the winter. That first forty dollars he 
earned was the beginning of a large fortune, and the eight 
weeks of schooling of that winter on the farm was the be- 
ginning of a knowledge gleaned here and there as opportu- 
nity offered, which has fitted him for prominent positions of 
trust and responsibility. At an early age (sixteen) he was 
charged with the responsibility of driving freight teams from 
Bellows Falls, Vt., and Rindge to Boston, returning with 
loads of merchandise, taking his first lessons in the school of 
business, in which he proved an apt scholar. 

In 1843, at the age of twenty, he entered the employ of 
Dr. Stephen Jewett. The energy which young Wallace had 
already shown induced Mr. Jewett to put the whole business 
of selling his medicines into his hands. In selling these 
medicines he traveled over five of the New England states, 
becoming acquainted with the topography of these states and 
the location of all their important places. Such were the 
beginnings of a business career of great prosperity. It was 
in these ways that he got his start in life, and in these lesser 




I:!;!,, 

i II III., , 

IHiSIHIilllll,',; , 

ill 












:;'!!:!:!:!;'■"!!!"' 

:;■'" 

flf/ffii 



iiiii"" 



1<J2 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

employments he proved himself worthy of and equal to the 
greater tasks yet before him. 

THE WHEELWRIGHT PAPER COMPANY MILL. 

The paper-mill of George W. Wheelwright & Son was 
built in 1864, and the manufacture of paper commenced the 
same year. The mill is located on Fourth street and has a 
capacity of 10,000 pounds of book paper per day. The office 
of the company is in Boston. Officers : George W. Wheel- 
wright, president; H. T. Page, vice-president; T. E. Blake, 
treasurer. 

THE FALULAH PAPER COMPANY MILL. 

The mill of the Falulah Paper Company is located in 
South Fitchburg, on the site of the old scythe manufactory 
of A. P. Kimball and John Chandler, which was built in 
1848, and where Edwin Richardson commenced his scythe 
business in 1852, continuing for twenty-five years. The 
present mill was built by the Snow Paper Company and 
passed into the hands of the Falulah Paper Company in 
October, 1886. The capacity of the mill is about six thou- 
sand pounds of manilla paper per day. The members of the 
linn are S. L. and A. N. Lowe. 



CHAPTER X. 



.MANUFACTURING. 



* *" J jjjHE starting of the Parkhill Manufacturing 

IHliiil iiiijii! Company marks an era in the History of 

iBiiiiIiii Fltchb ;: r v i ,ts stnes ; . tbro . u « ht 

- .> II! D W an entirety new enterprise to the place, 
''"i'^Bill'l 1 : - 1 ^lH lor, previous to this, cotton manufacturing 

- iii/Ji ( was not a leading industry, although one 

■'■IIDSiBIBIIII . . -,,•', 

iiiiiiii!Bip!|iii "I the first cotton mills in the country was 

illllliilllill built >" Fitchburg. The Parkhill enter- 

■WiBlMJBiiMiiiMHIiiMi prise brought in a new class of workers 

gBmiiiiiB~j||!!liiiii|||HWir 

and stimulated the growth ot the place to 
a remarkable extent. Its success encouraged the starting of 
the Cleghorn mills and later the Orswell mills. 

At the time the Parkhill mill was put in operation it was 
unusual to start mills for weaving only, and many predicted 
the failure of the experiment, notwithstanding the fact that it 
was customary for weaving mills in England to buy their 
yarns. The success of this concern has been closely 
watched by many who are interested in the cotton industry. 
The firm was formed in the fall of 1879 an ^ was composed 
of John Parkhill, Thomas R. B. Dole and Arthur II. Lowe. 
Mr. Parkhill, having had practical experience in cotton 
manufacturing, assumed the position of superintendent of the 
mill. Mr. Dole was at the time connected with the Fitch- 
burg National Bank and he was made treasurer and broker. 
Mr. Lowe, who had had an extensive business experience, 
assumed the business management. They bought of Alonzo 
13 



194 



FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT 



Davis (who rendered valuable encouragement to the new 
enterprise) his chair shop property on Circle street. New 
machinery was put in to the extent of thirty looms, and the 
mill was started as a colored cotton weaving mill about the 
middle of February, 1880. The company continued as a 
co-partnership until January, 1882, when a corporation was 
organized with $100,000 capital. With increased capital the 
business was enlarged to meet the demands for its products, 
an addition was built, 135x35 feet, two stories. The next 
season this was made three stories and additional looms 




'■5f-W\ 



PARKHILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY'S MILLS, CIRCLE STREET. 

were put in. Another building, 150x55 feet, three stories, 
together with a new engine-house, was built, and this season, 
1887, a new dye house, 140x55 feet, two stories, and a new 
steam chimney have been added. In addition to what has 
been done on Circle street the company have bought the 
Fitchburg woolen mill property and have converted it into a 
cotton mill, thus restoring to the first mill built in Fitchburg 
its original industry. These improvements and additions 
show the continuous growth and enterprise of this concern. 
By November 1 the company will have grown from its small 



MANUFACTURING. 



195 



beginning to have about one thousand looms, will employ 
about four hundred and fifty hands, and annually pay 
its employes about $250,000, with a production of about 
9,000,000 yards of cloth. They make the justly celebrated 
Toile tin Nord goods, and their success attests the care, per- 
severance and enterprise of its management. A sketch of 
John Parkhill, president, will be found in the city government 
chapter. 

Arthur H. Lowe, treasurer and general manager, is a 
son of John Lowe, and was born in Rindge, N. H., in 1S53. 
At the acre of about two vears he came to Fitchburg, where 




PARKHILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY S MILLS, FACTORY SQUARE. 



he has since made his home ; was educated in our public 
schools, leaving the high school before graduating to assist 
his father. At majority he became partner, with his brothers, 
in the firm of I. A. Lowe & Co., and continued with them 
till he became connected with the mill business. He was 
foremost in starting the Cleghorn mills, and at its organiza- 
tion, he was made treasurer and general manager. In 1S86 
he became a partner of Lowe Bros., and is also a director of 
the Fitchburg National Bank and a trustee of the Fitchburg 
Savings Bank. 



196 



FITCHPURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



CLEGHORN MILLS 

is an incorporated company having a capital stock of 
$100,000. Its officers are Andrew Cleghorn, president and 
superintendent; Arthur H. Lowe, treasurer. The directory 
consists of Andrew Cleghorn, Arthur H. Lowe, George F. 
Fay, John H. Daniels, D. M. Dillon, George Crocker and 
George R. Wallace. The mills are located in the western 
part of the city, and embrace a substantial brick structure 
170 by 60 feet, four stories, and an annex of wood 170 by 60 
feet, two stories. The mills began operation in December, 




illlli Pilll' VMm |yaiiii'iiiiii| 

CLEGHORN MILLS. 

1885. The product is fine dress goods, and about 225 per- 
sons are employed. A spur track connects the mills with 
the main line of the Fitchburg railroad and Hoosac Tunnel 
line. The product of Cleghorn Mills embraces the most 
recherche novelties, entirely different from the product of 
most any other manufacture. 

Mr. Cleghorn, the superintendent of the mills, has been 
engaged in manufacturing since boyhood, and understands 
every detail of the cotton business. He was born near Glas- 
gow, in Scotland, came to this country and located in 



MANUFACTURING. 



107 



Adams, Mass., in 1848, where he remained until he removed 
to North Adams in 1862. From there he came to Fitchburg 

in 1885. 



THIi ORSWELL MILL 

is the latest addition to the industries of Fitchburg, its loca- 
tion is on River street, bordering on the Fitchburg railroad. 
Ground was broken for the mill May 1, 1886, and a sub- 
stantial brick building 346 by 78 feet, four stories, built. 

The product is fine 
numbers of cotton 
yarn. The capac- 
ity ot the mill is 
20,000 spindles ca- 
pable of producing 
24,000 pounds of 
yarn per week. 
The capital is at 
present $150,000. 
Its officers are 
orswell mill. Warren M. Ors- 

well, president and general manager; W. F. Stiles, treas- 
urer. Mr. Orswell has long been engaged in the manufacture 
of cotton yarn elsewhere, and with his practical knowledge 
of the business and executive ability has already made the 
Orswell mill one of the leading industries of Fitchburg. 




THE FITCHBURG COTTON MILL, 

located on Main street, better known as the Pitts Mill, is 
used for the manufacture of cotton and carpet warps, batting, 
twine, etc. This enterprise was founded in 1867 by Mr. H. 
W. Pitts, who, on the fourth of February, 1882, was suc- 
ceeded by his son, the present proprietor, Mr. B. Marshall 
Pitts. 

The plant comprises five buildings, the main one being a 
four story brick structure 50 by 100 feet in dimensions. 
The machinery is operated by water power, and an engine 



198 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

and boilers, each of one hundred horse power, are brought 
into service when the water supply proves deficient. The 
mill has a capacity for producing sixty thousand pounds of 
warp per month and ninety hands are needed to carry on the 
operations of the concern. 

THE FITCHBURG DUCK MILL, 

near Water street, South Fitchburg, is engaged in the manu- 
facture of cotton duck. The mill is owned by David 
Nevins. Samuel Clough is treasurer, and Thomas H. Clark, 
agent. 

James McTaggart, Jr., began the manufacture of fancy 
cassimeres at the Berwick mills, in West Fitchburg. 
This plant comprises three buildings, the main one being a 
three-story frame and brick structure, 40x100 feet in dimen- 
sions and equipped with the necessary machinery. The 
driving force is furnished by water and steam. 

The demand for the product of his mill induced the pro- 
prietor, in January, 18S6, to increase his facilities for pro- 
duction. He accordingly acquired possession of Baltic mills, 
located about a quarter of a mile from Berwick mill. The 
product of these mills embrace a fine line of fancy cassimeres 
for men's wear. 

The leading representative of the woolen business is 
James Phillips, Jr. Mr. Phillips is the owner of the 
Wachusett Mills, in West Fitchburg, which were built in 
1864 and purchased in 1872 by Rockwell & Phillips. At 
this time the mills contained but twelve looms. In 1875 Mr. 
Phillips became sole proprietor, and the business has steadily 
grown until now the mills give employment to nearly four 
hundred hands and contain one hundred and fifty broad 
looms, weaving worsted coatings and suitings, the annual 
product amounting to over $1,000,000. 



MANUFACTURING. 



199 



The Fitchburg Worsted Company, at South Fitch- 
burg, was incorporated in 1880 with a capital of $250,000 
— James Phillips, Jr., president, and George N. Proctor, 
treasurer. This concern manufactures worsted suitings, 
operating two hundred and fifty narrow looms, turning out 
$1,000,000 worth of goods per year, and employing three 
hundred and seventy-five operatives. 




THE FITCHBURG WORSTED COMPANY'S MILL. 

The Star Worsted Company began operation in 1882 
and occupy a mill on West street — James Phillips, Jr., presi- 
dent, and George N. Proctor, treasurer. They employ one 
hundred and twenty-five hands in the manufacture of worsted 
yarn. Six Noble combs are operated, the product aggre- 
gating $400,000 annually, which is all used by the Fitchburg 
Worsted Company and James Phillips, Jr. 

The cloth of these mills is all of high grade and is 
considered equal to any manufactured in the United States. 



200 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



The first establishment in Fitchburg for the manufacture 
of shoes, by machinery, was that of E. M. Dickinson & Co. 
Mr. Dickinson was born in Northfield, Mass., Aug. i, 1816 ; 
was educated in the public schools and worked on a farm 
until he was twenty-two, when he went to Marlboro, Mass., 
in 1838; commenced making shoes in Marlboro in 1842. 
In 1854 ne removed to Fitchburg and continued the same 
business, on the corner of Main and Laurel streets. Soon 
after he built a shop on Oliver street, where he remained for 
six years. During this time but little machinery was used, 
most of the work being done by hand. 

About i860 he moved into S. F. Atherton's building, in 
Newton lane, and commenced the use of machinery. Here 
he remained about ten years making ladies', misses' and 
children's pegged shoes, and then moved into the building 
owned by the Simonds' Manufacturing Company, on Main 
street, where he continued to manufacture until 1881 when 




E. M. DICKINSON & CO. S SHOE MANUFACTORY. 



he built the four-story brick factory, corner of Main and 
North streets, which the company now occupies. The firm 
is composed of E. M. Dickinson and his son, C. P. Dickin- 
son, who has been associated with him for ten years. They 
manufacture a grade of misses' and children's fine boots and 
shoes, which are sold principally in the west and northwest. 
The capacity of their present factory is fifteen hundred pairs 
per day, and they employ from one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty hands. 



1 




DICKINSON. 



MANUFACTURING. 201 

The Messrs. Dickinson are also owners of the Sole 
Leather Tip Company, located in the same building with 
their shoe factory. This business consists in the manufac- 
ture of sole leather tips, the tip which is most universally 
applied to children's shoes to-day. They are the only parties 
who produce tips from the rough leather, and are the largest 
manufacturers in the trade, sending their goods to shoe 
manufacturers all over the United States and into Canada. 
Their product is several million pairs annually, cutting up 
over fifteen thousand sides of leather. 

Mr. E. M. Dickinson, the senior member of the firm, has 
for more than thirty years been identified with the various in- 
terests of Fitchburg. He was on the first board of aldermen 
when the city government was organized in 1872, and a 
director in the Safety Fund National Bank from its organiza- 
tion. 

THE FITCHBURG SHOE TIP CO., 

incorporated in 1884, with a capital of $30,000. Henry A. 
Willis, president; treasurer and manager, E. F. Belding. 
Manufacture sole leather tips for youths', misses' and chil- 
dren's shoes. They do an extensive business in these 
specialties and sell to many of the leading shoe manufacturers 
in New England, Southern and Western states. Mr. Beld- 
ing was one of the first manufacturers to introduce these tips 
to the trade, and for over eight years has been engaged 
largely in the manufacture and sale of them. 

The company own valuable patented machinery built ex- 
pressly for the manufacture of these tips.. The leather from 
which the tips are made, and of which they use many 
thousand sides a year, is all finished expressly for them. 
The Boston office of this company is at 112 Summer street. 

E. F. BELDING & CO., 

manufacturers of misses', youths' and children's boots and 
shoes, 106 Water street. Mr. Belding is the only one in 
this company. He commenced manufacturing shoes in 



202 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Fitchburg about ten years ago ; was associated as a partner 
with others for eight years and Nov. i, 1885, started a shoe 
factory at 106 Water street, where he is making a fine grade 
of misses' and children's shoes. He employs from 75 to 80 
workmen and makes about 700 pairs of shoes a day. His 
business is growing rapidly and he intends building a factory 
which will double his present capacity. He has an office at 
112 Summer street, Boston. 

THE WALTER HEYWOOD CHAIR MANUFACTURING CO. 

w r orks, located on River street, comprise three main build- 
ings, two of which are 300 feet by 50 feet, and one 300 feet 
by 40 feet, each factory being two stories w r ith an attic. 
There is also a building for office and store rooms, a boiler 
house and sheds. The premises of the company extend over 
an area of about nine acres. A railroad track, belonging to 
the company, a quarter of a mile long, connects the premises 
with the main track of the Fitchburg railroad, every thing is 
arranged for convenience and economy in doing business. 
The corporation was originally the Walter Heywood Chair 
Co., but in order to settle the estate of Walter Heywood in 
1885, the company sold out to the Walter Heywood Chair 
Manufacturing Co., the business continuing as before, with 
all the old members remaining in the firm, and is at present 
conducted by L. Williams, president, and George H. 
Spencer, treasurer. 

Walter Heywood, founder of the Walter Heywood Chair 
Co., was one of the pioneers in the chair business of the 
country. He was born in Gardner, Mass., where he early 
began the manufacture of chairs. In 1841 he gave up his 
business in Gardner and removed to Fitchburg. In com- 
pany with Leander P. Comee he, in 1842, built the block on 
Main street, more recently known as Sprague & Comee's 
block, and in 1842 the firm opened a store for the sale of dry 
goods, groceries, hardware and other merchandise at the 
sales rooms now occupied by L. Sprague & Co. In the fall 
of 1844 the firm hired a part of the "Old Red Mill" on West 




oA\v\^ \ V) V.^wJ^ 



MANUFACTURING. 203 

street, afterward used as a cotton factory by H. W. Pitts & 
Son, and commenced to manufacture chairs employing about 
ten hands. In 1846 the chair business was removed to the 
upper story of a new building which Alvah Crocker had 
erected on Water street on the spot now occupied by the 
Fitchburg Steam Engine company's shop. This shop was 
burned Dec. 7, 1849, an< ^ tne ^ rm ^ ost heavily by the fire. 
The partnership was then dissolved and Mr. Heywood di- 
rected his whole attention to the manufacture of chairs. Mr. 
Crocker erected a new building 130 by 40 feet, and three 
stories high, on the site of the burned shop and Mr. Hey- 
wood hired the whole of the new building. 

In 1852 he received as partners Alton Blodgett, who had 
entered his employ in 1833 and who continued a member of 
the company, till his death, Sept. 19, 1878 ; Lovell Williams, 
still a member of the company, and George E. Towne, who 
continued with the company till 1874, when he disposed of 
his interest to H. A. Blood. G. H. Spencer the present 
superintendent of the works, was admitted to the firm in 
1864. Soon after the new company was formed they erected 
two large buildings in the rear of the shop, on land leased of 
Mr. Crocker and with increased facilities they greatly en- 
larged their business. In 1856 the firm opened a foreign 
trade which eventually extended to England and the conti- 
nent of Europe, the West Indies, South America, Australia, 
New Zealand, Africa, China and Japan. 

The Walter Heywood Chair Co. was organized as a 
stock company under a special act of the legislature, May 31, 

1869, with a capital of $240,000. On the night of July 21, 

1870, the most destructive conflagration that ever visited 
Fitchburg laid the entire establishment in ruins. Fortunately 
the loss on the chair company's property was fully covered 
by insurance and preparations were made, shortly after the 
lire, to rebuild the works. A lot of land on River street was 
at length purchased, and the present commodious buildings 
were erected. 

As the result of close application to business Mr. Hey- 
wood accumulated a handsome property. He made large 



204 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

investments in the manufacturing interests of the city, and 
his counsel was sought in the management of concerns in 
which he was interested. He was formerly one of the 
largest stockholders in the Putnam Machine company and a 
director from 1867 to the time of his decease. In 1866 he 
purchased an interest in the Fitchburg Iron Foundry and at 
his death was senior member of the firm of Heywood, 
Wilson & Co. He was a director of the Fitchburg Machine 
Company from 1870 until his death, and a partner in the 
Fitchburg Machine Works from its organization in 1877. 
He was a director of the Burleigh Rock Drill Company from 
its organization in 1867, a director of the Fitchburg State or 
National Bank for thirty-seven years, a trustee of the Fitch- 
burg Savings Bank from its organization until June, 1877. 
He was also town treasurer of Gardner from 1834 ^ ms 
removal to Fitchburg in 1841. 

His success in business was the growth of patient years of 
toil rather than any series of brilliant exploits. He was no 
adventurer in doubtful projects, but his energies and his 
counsels were always in the line of discretion and prudence. 
If ever his judgment was waived in business matters, it was 
generally observed, in the end, that his views were sound 
and reliable, and would have yielded the largest measure of 
success. 

He was plain and unostentatious, solving his problems by 
a careful process of reasoning, rather than by jumping at 
conclusions. He was conservative, persevering, yet ener- 
getic and thorough in everything he undertook. From, the 
one horse load of chairs which he made in 1824, his business 
grew until he was president of one of the largest chair manu- 
facturing establishments in the world. Mr. Heywood was 
fortunate in calling around him a class of men who rendered 
great assistance in the management of the extensive business.- 
His associates, with few exceptions, grew up with the busi- 
ness under his training. 



MANUP'ACTURING. 205 

FITCHBURG CARBONIZED STONE AND PIPE COMPANY, 

located on North street, near Main, was incorporated in 
1882, with a capital stock of $5,000, for the manufacture of 
artificial stone and brick for building purposes, drain pipe, 
vases, paving stones, carriage blocks, etc. 

This company furnished material for the Knights of Honor 
and Dickinson's blocks, new Universalist and new Methodist 
churches, residences of E. N. Choate and U. E. Cleveland, 
and many other public and private buildings in the city- 

The officers are A. N. Lowe, president; S. S. Law- 
rence, vice-president, and A. B. Peck, treasurer and super- 
intendent. 

EDWIN A. GOODRICH, BRICK MANUFACTURER, 

owns and operates three brick yards in Fitchburg, — one lo- 
cated at South Fitchburg, one on Summer street, and the 
other in the northwesterly part of the town, and known as 
the Pound hill brick yard. During the present year, 1887, 
owing to the increase in building operations, the production 
of the three yards is greatly in excess of any previous year. 
Outside of his manufacturing business, Mr. Goodrich has 
been for several years an active member of the Worcester 
North Agricultural Societv, and was at one time its execu- 
tive officer. He also served the city as alderman in 1879. 



CHAPTER XL 



IRON INDUSTRIES. 






ACHINERY manufacturing was 
first begun in Fitchburg in 1838 by 
two brothers, Salmon W. and John 
Putnam, their business being mainly 
in repairs and only furnished work 
for the two brothers, but important 
changes were brought about in the 
construction of their machinery 
which soon created a demand for 
their productions and increased their business accordingly. 

While in the midst of a growing business the machine 
shop with all its contents was destroyed by fire on the 
seventh of December, 1849, occasioning a loss of $12,000, 
without insurance. Notwithstanding the severity of this loss 
the debts were all promptly paid and the next year the shop 
was rebuilt and put in running order. 

In 1858, Salmon W. Putnam secured the organization 
and incorporation of the Putnam Machine Company of which 
he was chosen president and general business manager. 
From the first he showed himself thoroughly competent to 
guide and control the affairs of this large business. He was 
not only an enterprising business man, but was naturally en- 
dowed for this business, being in the third generation of iron 
and steel workers. He was early schooled in a life of self- 
reliance, beginning as he did at eight years of age to earn 
his own living, as "bobbin boy" in a cotton factory, and ob- 
taining his education of three terms schooling with money he 




y 



/ // / r,,, . 



IRON INDUSTRIES. 207 

had contrived to save from his small earnings, and afterwards 
devoting what he could afford to the purchase of substantial 
and useful books, such as would best contribute to his ad- 
vancement and success. 

At the time of the incorporation of the company, the cap- 
ital stock, which was originally forty thousand dollars, was 
increased to one hundred and sixty thousand dollars, after- 
wards with a surplus of three hundred and twenty thousand 
dollars. The business having outgrown the capacity of the 
old shop of the Putnam Machine Co. on Water street, they 
were forced to locate elsewhere. Accordingly having pur- 
chased sufficient land, amounting in all to some twenty-six 
acres, they began, in July, 1866, the building of their present 
extensive works at a cost of over two hundred thousand dol- 
lars. 

The arrangement of the buildings and machinery was 
devised throughout to ensure facility, effectiveness and econ- 
omy of operation. The main machine shop, in which the 
working tools are located, is a building of brick, one story 
high, running north and south, six hundred and twenty-five 
feet long and forty-eight feet wide, supported in the centre by 
thirty-five iron columns upon which the main line of shafting 
for driving the entire machinery is fastened. The building 
is devoted to seven different departments of work but is with- 
out partition or obstruction to the sight from end to end. It 
is lighted by two hundred and eighty-four large windows, 
five hundred gas burners, and heated by over six miles of 
steam-pipe, and has a floor room of thirty-seven thousand 
square feet. 

From its west side extend seven wings, six of them being 
fifty-two by thirty-six feet and one fifty-two by forty-four feet, 
each of these being devoted to the setting up and delivery of 
machinery made in the corresponding department, and are 
all furnished with powerful cranes for handling the heavier 
articles, while between the wings are spaces for the tempo- 
rary accommodation of castings used in each department. 
Extending from the east side of the main building are five 
small wings, twelve feet square, suitably fitted up as offices 



208 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



for the foremen of the various departments. The large 
wings are furnished with folding doors opening into a road- 
way which extends the whole length of the shops to the 
main line of the Fitchburg Railroad and Hoosac Tunnel line 
which passes by the southern end of the company's works, so 
that a machine, when complete, can readily be transferred to 
the cars and freighted without delay to its destination. At 
the extreme south end and connected with the main machine 




WORKS OF THE PUTNAM MACHINE COMPANY. 



shop is located the blacksmith shop with its forges and heavy 
hammers. 

The power used in driving the machinery of the works is 
three large, powerful, automatic cut-off steam-engines, of 
their own manufacture. 

Parallel with the main machine shop, and divided from it 
by the roadway on the west side, are located the several iron 
and brass foundries, pattern and box shops, store-house, and 
other buildings for various purposes, all arranged systemati- 
cally for the saving of labor and convenience of supervision. 



IRON INDUSTRIES. 20U 

The classes of machines manufactured are known and 
termed machine shop and special railroad tools. It may be 
mentioned as an indication of the extent of their business, 
that the first two fully equipped machine shops in China were 
furnished throughout by them with engines, shafting and 
hangers, lathes, planers, drills and other tools complete. 

For fourteen years after its incorporation, until his death, 
Feb. 23, 1872, Salmon W. Putnam continued to conduct the 
affairs of the company with signal ability, and such was the 
place he held in the estimation of his fellow-citizens that on 
the day of his funeral business was generally suspended. 

Since the death of the father the four sons who survive 
him have been actively engaged in the business of the com- 
pany. Charles F. Putnam was elected as president and 
financier, to succeed his father in the general management 
of the company; Salmon W. Putnam, Jr., as superintendent 
designer of the company, having in charge the pre-arrange- 
ment, designing and mechanical construction of the different 
kinds of machinery made by the company ; Henry O. Put- 
nam, as superintendent of that department of manufacture 
devoted to the building of special tools ; and George E. Put- 
nam, the youngest son, engaged in the office affairs of the 
company in connection with his brother, the president. 

Under the management of the sons the business has con- 
tinued to prosper, and, with the exception of the short period 
of business stagnation in 1873, the company has run its 
entire works with nearly its full complement of men. 

In 1882 the Putnam Tool Company on Walnut street was 
founded, with Salmon W. Putnam, Jr.,' as president, and 
George E. Putnam, treasurer. Four years later, March 18, 
1886, the Putnam Machine Co. and the Putnam Tool Co. 
were consolidated under the title of Putnam Machine Co., 
a controlling interest being vested in the four brothers and 
their mother. 

The w r orks now have a capacity for over 500 hands. A 
New York house is maintained at 115 Liberty street, as an 
exhibiting and distributing establishment, by the company. 
The Putnam Machine Co. is officered as follows : Charles F. 

14 



210 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Putnam, president; S. W. Putnam, vice-president; Henry 
O. Putnam, treasurer; George E. Putnam, general superin- 
tendent; Henry Allison, secretary. 

Directors — Rodney Wallace, Henry Allison, Frank 
Leighton, Henry O. Putnam, S. W. Putnam, Charles F. 
Putnam and George E. Putnam. 

THE FITCHBURG MACHINE COMPANY. 

The works of this company are located near the foot of 
Main street, opposite the Brown Engine Works. Every 
class of iron working machinery designated as machinists' 
tools is manufactured by them, including engine lathes, 
wagon axle lathes, iron planers, drill presses, shaping ma- 
chines, and so forth. Mr. J. L. Chapman is superintendent 
and treasurer of the company, and upon him devolves the 
general management of the works. 

Mr. Chapman came to Fitchburg in the spring of 1864, 
and commenced the manufacture of tools in Atherton's block, 
so called, in Newton lane, in company with S. C. Wright, 
under the firm name of S. C. Wright & Co. This was a 
most unfavorable time for the starting of such an enterprise, 
there being a great scarcity of machinery, while the price of 
labor and material was much increased by reason of the war 
then in progress. The outfit of the shop consisted of the fol- 
lowing tools to start with : An old chain lathe, bought out 
of the Old Stone Cotton Mill, (now owned by Joseph Cush- 
ing,) and of which Jonathan Gill was then superintendent; 
an old chain planer, from out of a country blacksmith and 
machine shop in Townsend ; a second-hand Gould shaping 
machine, bought in Newark, N. J. ; an old pattern maker's 
lathe, and a second-hand engine lathe, out of an old shop in 
Newton lane, which was remodelled before it could be used. 
This list of machinery included everything that could be 
purchased at that time. The firm then employed but four 
men. They immediately went to work and made their own 
patterns and tools. 

After remaining about a year in Newton lane they moved 



212 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

in 1865 into the building on the corner of Main and Laurel 
streets, now occupied by I. C. Wright as a hardware store. 
Here they employed thirty men, taking into partnership with 
theni Hale W. Page and Artemas R. Smith, the firm name 
remaining unchanged. February 22, 1866, they removed to 
their present location, occupying the easterly half of the 
building, a little later on they bought out Sylvanus Sawyer, 
who occupied the westerly half of the same building, and 
Jan. 1, 1867, formed a stock company, under the firm name 
of the Fitchburg Machine Company, with the following 
stockholders: S. C. Wright, J. L. Chapman, A. R. Smith, 
Hale W. Page, Augustus Whitman, Eugene T. Miles, Low- 
ell M. Miles, Jared Whitman, Jr. ; and officered as follows — 
S. C. Wright, president; J. L. Chapman, secretary; 
Augustus Whitman, treasurer. Out of this list of stock- 
holders but three are now living, J. L. Chapman, Lowell M. 
Miles and Jared Whitman, Jr. 

In 1867 Mr. Chapman became both secretary and treas- 
urer, remaining in that capacity until the closing up of the 
company's affairs in 1877, when the Fitchburg Machine 
Works was formed under the laws of general co-partnership, 
the firm consisting of S. C. Wright, superintendent; J. L. 
Chapman, treasurer; Walter Hey wood, Harrington Sibley 
and Joseph S. Wilson. Since its organization, Mr. Wright 
and Mr. Heywood have both died, and since the death of 
Mr. Wright, in December, 1880, Mr. Chapman has acted as 
superintendent and treasurer, having the full management of 
the business. 

THE UNION MACHINE CO. 

was incorporated in the year 1867, with a capital stock of 
$60,000, the officers being Francis Sheldon, president; G. 
S. Burbank, treasurer; S. S. Dow, superintendent. They 
commenced business by manufacturing machinist tools and 
doing general repairs, after which wood working machinery 
was added. 

The manufacture of the "Jucket" steam-engine was intro- 
duced in 1870, and carried on for about two years, when it 




' 



wo it auy^tco^y^ 



■ . 



IRON INDUSTRIES. 213 

was given up and the manufacture of paper-making machin- 
ery of all kinds was commenced, which business is the spe- 
cialty at the present time. 

In the year 1869, S. E. Crocker was elected treasurer, to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of G. S. Burbank ; 
the following year S. E. Crocker resigned the position, in 
favor of R. R. Conn, who held this trust one year, and was 
succeeded by Geo. F. Fay who retained the office until 1876, 
at which time the company wound up its affairs, transferring 
all stock, etc., to Messrs. Crocker, Burbank & Co., who re- 
tained the services of S. S. Dow as superintendent, added 
new machinery, and continued the building of paper machin- 
ery, under the old name of Union Machine Co., in connec- 
tion with their paper business. In 1882, J. E. Morse was 
called to fill the position of superintendent, owing to the 
death of S. S. Dow, which position he held until October, 
1887, when a stock company was again formed, with the fol- 
lowing officers: John Burney, president; S. E. Crocker, 
treasurer ; and Emmons Crocker, secretary. 

This company again added new and modern machinery 
and continued the manufacturing of paper machinery, and 
to-day ranks among the best establishments in this line of 
business. Their machines are shipped to all parts of the 
United States, Canada, Japan, etc. 

Mr. Burney, the president, has been for a long time iden- 
tified with the machine business of Fitchburg. 

George Frederick Simonds was born in Fitchburg, 
Jan. 12, 1843. He was educated in the public schools of 
Fitchburg, and between his sixteenth and twenty-first birth- 
days, (with the exception of his eighteenth year, when he 
was in the army,) he was engaged in his father's office and 
works and during this four years he familiarized himself 
practically with every department of the business. His 
father was a manufacturer of scythes, pickaxes, etc. 

When twenty-one years of age he organized the firm of 
Simonds Brothers & Company and rented his father's old 
works and commenced the manufacture of mower and reaper 



214 



FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



knives and sections, and planing machine knives, since 
which time he has been actively identified with the manu- 
facturing interests of Fitchburg. 

Three companies, the Simonds Manufacturing Company 
of Fitchburg with a capital of $150,000, the Simonds Roll- 
ing-Machine Company of Boston with a capital of $400,000 
and the Simonds Steel and Iron Forging Company of Lon- 
don with a capital of $750,000 are the result, mainly, of his 
inventions and energy. He is a director of the Fitchburg 
National Bank, and a trustee in the Fitchburg Savings 
Bank. 

THE SIMONDS MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

was incorporated by an act of the legislature in 1868, with a 
capital of $150,000. Their extensive works in Fitchburg are 
located on the corner of Main and North streets. They have 
also branch works in Chicago and San Francisco. 




WORKS OF THE SIMONDS MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

The officers of the company are George F. Simonds, 
president ; Daniel Simonds, vice-president and treasurer ; 
Edwin F. Simonds is manager of the. Chicago Branch and 
John Simonds that in San Francisco. 

The products of this company are machine knives of 
every description and the well known Simonds' saw. 

The founder of this industry was Abel Simonds, who was 
born in Fitchburg, Dec. 10, 1804, and commenced the man- 
ufacture of scythes in 1832. He was well versed in the 
manipulation of steel, which knowledge he handed down to 
his sons. 



IRON INDUSTRIES. 215 

In 1S64, when Mr. Simonds went out of business, the 
firm of Simonds Bros. & Co., was formed, consisting of 
George F. Simonds, A. A. Simonds and Benjamin Snow, 
their works being located in West Fitchburg. The new firm 
that year began the manufacture of machine knives and 
mower and reaper sections, building up a large and flour- 
ishing business. 

The present company organized, as above, in 1868, and 
moved from West Fitchburg to the location now occupied by 
them where the manufacture has been continued until the 
present time. A consolidation of all the western manu- 
facturers engaged in the manufacture of mower knives and 
sections having been effected in 1878, this company sold to 
them that department of its business and commenced the 
manufacture of saws by an entirely new system of tempering 
and straightening, which produced results superior in every 
respect to what had before been accomplished. 

The company also have valuable patents covering radical 
improvements in the adjustment of circular saws and in cross- 
cut and changeable tooth saws. 

The company has in its employ about two hundred men 
and its goods are sold in every state in the Union, while 
many are exported. A somewhat remarkable result has 
been obtained by this company in entering a field long held 
by old established concerns, and building a large and flour- 
ishing trade, at prices in advance of all competitors. 

THE SIMONDS ROLLING-MACHINE COMPANY. 

Adjacent to the works of the Simonds Manufacturing 
Company on Willow Street, is the plant of the Simonds Roll- 
ing-Machine Company, of Boston, Mass., erected in the 
Spring of the present year. This Company, incorporated in 
November, 1886, with a capital of $400,000, acquired by 
purchase all of the patents for the United States and Canada, 
which have been granted to Mr. Geo. F. Simonds, relating 
to the forging of metal articles by rolling, a new process of 
metal working which had attracted wide-spread attention, 



216 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

patents having been secured in the principal countries 
throughout the world, and a company known as the Simonds 
Steel and Iron Forging Company, Limited, with a capital of 
£150,000 having already been organized in London earlier 
in the same year by some of the leading manufacturers of 
England. 

Near the commencement of the year 1884, an incident at- 
tracted the attention of Mr. Simonds to the possibility of 
moulding metal articles, circular in cross section, to any 
given form, while rotating them on their axes between oppo- 
sitely moving surfaces, and experiments were made with 
putty as a material, between wooden surfaces, with results 
that warranted the construction of a substantial machine by 
which were successfully rolled various small articles such as 
spheres, small projectiles, machine handles, etc., etc. 

At the works in this city, which were built for experi- 
mental purposes, development has been continual, and it 
would seem that the scope of the machine and the variety of 
articles that can be made to advantage by it, are practically 
unlimited ; the productions are turned out with wonderful 
rapidity, with an accuracy and of a quality superior to those 
made by any known process. 

Companies are at present being organized to manufacture 
under these patents in several cities of the United States, as 
well as Canada, and it is believed that it will effect a com- 
plete revolution in the manufacture of many articles as to- 
day produced. 

Some sixty skilled workmen are employed at the shops 
in this city, engaged in experimental work and in develop- 
ing the scope and efficiency of the machines which are to be 
supplied to the various sub-companies in the United States 
and Canada ; while incidental to the work of development 
there is undertaken, to a limited extent, the manufacture and 
sale of a few articles such as armor piercing projectiles, 
axles of different kinds, spindles, etc. 

The officers of the company are George F. Simonds, 
president; Thomas L. Livermore, of Boston, vice-presi- 
dent; Edward Sawyer, of Boston, treasurer; and George 
E. Downe, secretary. 



IRON INDUSTRIES. 217 

FITCHBURG STEAM ENGINE COMPANY. 

This plant was founded in 187 1 and was known as the 
Haskins Machine Company's Works. In 1876, the Fitch- 
burg Steam Engine Company, composed of Hale W. Page, 
president, Frederick Fosdick, treasurer, and Charles Fos- 
dick, superintendent, purchased the entire plant and good 
will of all the interests of the Haskins Machine Company, 
and changed the name to the Fitchburg Steam Engine Com- 
pany. The works are situated on Water street and have a 
capacity for sixty hands, the greater number of whom are 
skilled mechanics. 

The engines manufactured by this company find a market 
in all parts of the United States, South America, Germany, 
Holland, and throughout the western continent. The suc- 
cess of this company has been largely due to careful super- 
vision and close attention to the details of the business bv the 
active members of the corporation, the Fosdick Brothers. 

Mr. Page held the position of president up to the time of 
his death, May 17, 1887. He is remembered by many in 
Fitchburg as one of the pleasantest of men, genial, warm- 
hearted, enterprising, always ready to aid others, thoroughly 
honest and reliable. 

The present president, Frederick Fosdick, is also mayor 
of the city. Charles Fosdick was born in Groton, Mass., in 
March, 1848 ; came to Fitchburg and was in the Burleigh 
Rock Drill Company's office a year ; then went to work in 
the machine shop, at the west shaft of the Hoosac tunnel, 
where he was employed about a year, returning to Fitch- 
burg in 187 1 to take the position of superintendent of the 
machine company, organized by John Haskins ; when the 
Haskins Machine Company was succeeded by the Fitchburg 
Steam Engine Company in 1876, he became the superin- 
tendent of the latter company, which position he still holds ; 
in 1886 he served as president of common council, declining 
a re-nomination. 



218 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



C. H. BROWN & CO., STEAM ENGINE BUILDERS. 

C. H. Brown, the founder of the steam engine business in 
Fitchburg, was born in Blackstone, Mass., March 9, 1820. 
He removed with his parents to Lewis county, N. Y., in 
1828, working at farming summers and attending school 
winters until 1835, when his parents returned East. In 1836 
he commenced to learn the machinist's trade near Greenville, 
R. I., and afterwards worked on cotton machinery at 
Blackstone, Newton Upper Falls, Providence, R. I., and 
Whitinsville, Mass. In 1845 went to Northford and Water- 
bury, Conn., and worked on machinery for the manufacture 




WORKS OF C H. BROWN & CO. 



of solid-headed pins. From Waterbury he went to Boston 
and was employed by Otis Tufts in the manufacture of steam 
engines until 1849, when he removed to Fitchburg and pur- 
chased one-third interest with J. & S. W. Putnam in the 
machine business, the new firm being called J. & S. W. Put- 
nam & Co. 

A new industry was now commenced in Fitchburg, the 
manufacture of steam engines, of which Mr. Brown had the 





C. H. Brown. 



C. H. Brown, Jr. 





F. E. Brown, 



J. F. Brown 



IRON INDUSTRIES. *21!> 

entire management. In 1855 a new engine was brought out 
and patented in 1S56 by Mr. Brown and Mr. Charles Bur- 
leigh, then in Mr. Brown's employ. The patent was 
assigned to the Putnam Machine Co. and is now known as 
the "Putnam" engine. This engine was built under Mr. 
Brown's supervision until 1859, when his health became so 
much impaired by too close application to business that he 
was obliged to give up the active duties in the shop and soon 
after disposed of his interest in the Putnam Co. 

After a rest of about four years he commenced business 
in a very small way in Newton lane. Business soon in- 
creased to such an extent that more room was necessary and 
in 1866 one-half of the second story in Sylvanus Sawyer's 
brick block was leased of S. C. Wright & Co. In 1871 he 
invented what has since been known as the "Brown Auto- 
matic Cut-off Engine," and so great was the demand for this 
engine that he was obliged to lar<>-elv increase his facilities in 
order to supplv the demand. In April, 1873, a building lot 
was purchased of Jacob II. Fairbanks on the corner of 
Main and Willow streets, and in May a new brick building 
was commenced. In 1S75 the company moved into their 
new and commodious quarters. 

The present firm of C. H. Brown & Co. is composed of 
C. H. Brown, C. H. Brown, Jr., F. E. Brown, and J. F. 
Brown, father and three sons, who manufacture the "Brown" 
engine exclusively. They are made in a great variety of 
sizes, both large and small, and are now in use in all parts of 
the United States. 

BURLEIGH ROCK DRILL COMPANY. 

Charles Burleigh, founder of the Burleigh Rock Drill 
Co., one of Fitchburg's most ingenious mechanics and most 
competent business men, died May 28, 1883. 

Mr. Burleigh was born at Waterville, Me., Aug. 30, 
1824 ; when eighteen years of age he left his native town and 
was on a whaling voyage three years, visiting all quarters oi 
the globe, and penetrating nearly to the northern limits of 
navigation. He returned to Waterville when twentv-one 



2:20 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

years of age, and soon after went to East Boston, where he 
was employed for several years by Otis Tufts, a pioneer en- 
gine builder. He was married in 1850, and in October of 
that year came to Fitchburg, where he afterward resided. 
He commenced working as a machinist for J. & S. W. Put- 
nam at their shop on Water street. 

When the Putnam Machine Company was organized, in 
1856, Mr. Burleigh became a stockholder and was elected a 
director, holding that office more than twenty years. He 
was superintendent of Department Number 4 of the Putnam 
Machine works for several years previous to 1869, when his 
large business enterprises outside the works commanded his 
whole attention. About 1865, Mr. Burleigh at the request, it 
is said, of the late Alvah Crocker, applied himself to the diffi- 
cult work of perfecting a power drill, for the primary pur- 
pose of making the completion of the Hoosac Tunnel practi- 
cable, all previous attempts had failed. The large amount 
expended upon the Tunnel was wasted unless the enterprise 
could be finished. The work was prosecuted at a discour- 
agingly slow rate with hand drills and its completion seemed 
more remote than when it was first commenced, before the 
difficulties were appreciated. Mr. Burleigh's drill proved a 
practical success and its invention enabled the Shanley 
Brothers to push the work to its completion. It was the first 
successful power drill invented and its features have been 
copied in other drills. Mr. Burleigh also invented a com- 
pressor, which is an essential accompaniment to the drill, as 
well as various other styles and kinds of mining machinery. 
In 1867 the Burleigh Rock Drill Company was organized, 
with a capital of $150,000, to make and sell these two 
machines, since which time they have found a ready market 
in nearly every quarter of the globe, the product of this 
company in the aggregate forming no small item in the ma- 
chinery business of Fitchburg. 

These inventions have carried Mr. Burleigh's name 
wherever great engineering feats have been accomplished. 
They were used at the Hoosac Tunnel, the Brooklyn Bridge, 
along the line of the Union and Central Pacific railroads, in 




CHARLES BURLEIGH. 



IRON INDUSTRIES. 221 

removing obstacles at Hell Gate and in various works of 
lesser magnitude. Mr. Burleigh made many valuable in- 
ventions and improvements in other departments of mechanics 
and took out a large number of patents. 

He was a director of the Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg and 
New Bedford railroad for several years previous to its con- 
solidation with the Old Colony railroad, and after the 
disasters of 1877, he rendered signal service in saving the 
common stock from wreck and in placing the preferred stock 
on a basis which secured to the creditors who accepted it 
more than the full amount of their claims ; was one of the 
promoters of the New York & Boston inland railroad. He 
was a charter member of the Wachusett National Bank and 
a director from its organization in 1875. He was a director 
in several mining companies in the West, and was interested 
in various railroad and manufacturing companies. 

The present officers of the Burleigh Rock Drill Company 
are: Henry A. Willis, president; John Burney, treasurer; 
C. R. Burleigh, superintendent. 

The Burleigh Tunnel Company was organized in 1869, 
with a capital of $50,000. Lowell M. Miles is president, D. 
A. Corey, clerk, and C. R. Burleigh, treasurer. 

ROLLSTONE MACHINE COMPANY 

was organized in 1867, for the manufacture of wood-working 
machinery, and dealers in all kinds of tools, saws, belting, 
knives, emery wheels, etc. The business of this company 
has largely increased the past few years, and now machines 
of their manufacture can be found in operation all over the 
continent. This company control the manufacture and sale 
of the celebrated Hodge's Universal Angle Union, for plumb- 
ers' use, in connection with steam, water or gas works. 
Thev are also manufacturers of the C. F. Smith system of 
ice-making and refrigerating machines ? also the E. N. 
Gates' system of hot water heating for private houses, fac- 
tories, etc. The company, as at present organized, consists 
of II. F. Coggshall and C. T. Crocker, proprietors, and 
George L. Stearns, manager. 



222 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Richard A. Leonard, manufacturer of agricultural im- 
plements and packing boxes, West Fitchburg. For upwards 
of thirty years Mr. Leonard has been connected with the 
mowing machine industry, and was one of the first salesmen 
to introduce them into New England, when the business was 
in its infancy. Born in the town of Raynham, Mass., Oct. 
5, 1830, and his early years were spent on his father's farm. 
His ancestors were iron workers — the first in his line in this 
country having settled in that town and established a forge 
in the colonial days. In 1858 John P. Adriance, who first 
introduced the two-wheel mowing machine into New Eng- 
land, secured the services of Mr. Leonard as travelling 
agent. In 1861 the business had increased to such an extent 
that it was found necessary to divide it — one-half being 
moved to Poughkeepsie, and again, in the season of 1864-5, 
another division was made, and one-half of the business 
transferred to Fitchburg, Mr. Leonard acting as general 
agent. The manufacturing of horse rakes and laundry 
machinery was also carried on in connection with the mowing 
machine business here. In 1S76 Mr. Leonard bought out 
the business in Fitchburg and began the manufacture of the 
Leonard mowing machine, and packing boxes, and for a 
time made creameries. In February, 1886, the works were 
totally destroved by fire and the same season his present 
factoiy, opposite the site of the old shop, was built, and he 
commenced again the manufacture of packing boxes, the 
mowing; machine business, in which he still retains an 
interest, being removed to Worcester. Mr. Leonard served 
the city in the common council in i878-'79-'8o and '82, and 
as representative to the legislature in 1886. 

The works of David M. Dillon, boiler manufacturer, 
are located on Crocker street, below Rollstone foundry, on 
the line of the Fitchburg and Old Colony Railroad. The 
business was started in 1870, at the corner of West Main and 
River streets, where he remained two years. The neighbors 
not being accustomed to so much noise circulated a petition 
for the removal of the works. Not having shop room 



IRON INDUSTRIES. 22i\ 

enough, and wishing to accommodate a long-suffering public, 
Mr. Dillon built a shop and removed to his present location 
on Crocker street, where he continues to do business and 
make quite a noise. You will rind boilers of his make in 
nearly every state of the Union, and he has exported quite a 
number to foreign countries. 

Mr. Dillon was the pioneer in making steel boilers and 
was laughed at by other boiler builders and called a crank 
for attempting to make a boiler of steel, but did not have 
long to wait to find the public calling for steel boilers. 

HEYWOOD, WILSON & CO. FOUNDRY. 

This industry was started at the old Greene foundry on 
Water street opposite the Union Machine Company's works. 
The business was started by Asher Greene who was after- 
wards associated with David Ware. The business was car- 
ried on afterwards by Waldo Wallace until 1866, when Geo. 
Wheelock and J. S. Wilson bought a one-half interest with 
Waldo Wallace, and upon the death of Mr. Wallace the same 
year, Walter Hey wood and Harrington Sibley bought his in- 
terest, and the firm was known as Heywood, Wheelock & 
Co. About the time the present foundry, adjoining the 
Fitchburg Machine Company's works, was built, Mr. 
Wheelock sold out his interest to Hale W. Page, and the 
style of the firm was changed to Heywood, Wilson & Co. 
Mr. Page retired from the firm in 1875, a °d since the death 
of Mr. Heywood, Aug. 1, 1880, the business has been 
owned and carried on by Mr. Wilson and .Mr. Sibley, but 
retaining the old firm name. 

Mr. Wilson is a native of Dover, Mass., born Jan. 29, 
1827. At the age of nineteen, he went to Waltham, where 
he learned the trade of iron moulder. After serving his ap- 
prenticeship, he went to Boston to work, and in 1861 and '62, 
was employed at the Charlestown Navy Yard, making shot 
and shell for the Government, after this, removed to Nor- 
wood, and in 1866, came to Fitchburg to engage in the 
foundry business. Mr. Wilson has served as councilman 



224 



FITCIIDURG, PAST AND I'RKSENT. 



and alderman, and the past two years represented the city in 
the legislature. 

Mr. Sibley is a native of Sutton, Mass., where he was 
born June 4, 1814. At two years of age, he moved to Troy, 
N. H., where he remained until 1841, having learned and 
worked at the scythe maker's trade. He came to Fitchburg 
in 1 841, living here since with the exception of three years 
when he resided in Troy and Littleton, N. H., and Athol, 
Mass. He was employed by Farwell & Co., Abel Simonds, 
and Whitman & Miles, on scythes, mowing machines and 
farm implements, until he became, in 1866, a partner in the 
foundry business. Mr. Sibley has for the past seven years 
been a director in the Wachusett National Bank, and has 
served the city five years, two years as councilman and three 
years as alderman. 

THE ROLLSTONE IRON FOUNDRY. 

under the proprietorship of L. H. Goodnow, was established 
here in 1867, for the manufacture of all kinds of machinery 




THE ROLLSTONE IRON FOUNDRY, 



castings, such as fly-wheels, pulleys, gears, segments, en- 
gine work of all kinds, and wire drawing machinery. The 
works are thoroughly equipped with improved machinery, 
tools and appliances for heavy work, and furnish employ- 
ment to from fifty to seventy-five hands. Prominent among 
the list of products of the foundry is the great variety of fly- 
wheels and pulley patterns, ranging from three inches to 



IRON INDUSTRIES. 22f) 

twenty feet in diameter, any number of inches in width of 
face, and any weight required, made whole or in halves, 
turned, bored and slotted ready for the shaft. Particular at- 
tention is also paid to getting up iron fronts for buildings, 
and everything adapted to the use of millwrights and man- 
ufacturers. 

Mr. Goodnow is a native of Northboro, moving to 
Worcester when eight years old, learning the iron trade, and 
was in that business until moving to Fitchburg in 1875, at 
which time he entered into co-partnership with Hale W. 
Page in the foundry business, and remained with him some 
two years, at which time he assumed control of the business 
himself alone. He was connected with the city government 
as alderman in 1886, and has been on the school board for 
the past six years, and is a director in the Wachusett Bank. 

M. j. perault's iron foundry. 

This industry located opposite the Union Machine Com- 
pany's works was started in 1883, by Marshall & Farnsworth, 
for the manufacture of fine castings. It was carried on by 
them only about ten months, when in July, 1884, M. J. Pe- 
rault succeeded to the business. Mr. Perault has been in 
the foundry business for the past thirty-four years. He is a 
native of Canada, at the age of four years removed to New- 
ton Upper Falls, afterwards went to Waltham, where he 
began work in the Davis foundry, removed to Worcester in 
1861 and was employed in the foundry of the New York 
Steam Engine Company. In 187 1 he came to Fitchburg 
and took the situation of foreman in the Smith & Page 
foundry, continuing in that position after Mr. L. II. Good- 
now became proprietor until the year 1884, when he started 
in business for himself. 

WM. A. HARDY'S BRASS FOUNDRY, 

located opposite the Union Machine Company, has been 
under the present management for a period of thirty-four 
15 



CHAPTER XII. 



COMMERCIAL. 




S a commercial center Fitchburg exerts 
a wide influence, attracting trade for 
many miles. The business blocks, 
many of them, are substantial, and 
the stores large and attractive. 

The financial institutions of the 
city are seven in number — four of 
them are national banks and three 
savings. 

THE FITCHBURG NATIONAL BANK 

is the oldest, having been chartered in 1832 under the state 
banking laws. It was reorganized in 1865 under the 
national banking act and has a capital of $250,000, with a 
surplus of $140,000. Its first president was Francis Perkins, 
and Ebenezer Torrey, cashier. After the death of Mr. 
Perkins, in 1859, at the next annual meeting which occurred 
in a few months, Ebenezer Torrey, who, until this time, had 
been cashier, was elected president, and Charles J. Billings 
chosen cashier. The first banking house was a small 
granite building, which was succeeded in 1853 by a new 
brick building built on the same spot, now occupied by 
Crocker, Burbank & Co. as an office. In 187 1 the bank 
moved into its present quarters in the Fitchburg Bank 
building. 

Its officers are : Ebenezer Torrey, president ; Charles J. 
Billings, vice-president; B. N. Bullock, cashier; H. G. 



COMMERCIAL. 229 

Townend, teller ; William Kimball, book-keeper ; H. A. 
Damon, clerk; Thornton K. Ware, solicitor; directors, 
William D. Peck, Ebenezer Torrey, Timothy S. Wilson, 
Gardner S. Burbank, Charles J. Billings, Rodney Wallace, 
George F. Fay, Charles T. Crocker, Joseph Cushing, Henry 
F. Coggshall, Thornton K. Ware, Carmi M. Parker, 
George F. Simonds, Arthur H. Lowe. 

Ebenezer Torrey — born in Franklin, Mass., Aug. 16, 
1801. His parents were John and Sally (Richardson) 
Torrey, both natives of the same town. His preliminary 
education was received in the academies of Leicester and 
Lancaster. In 1818 he entered at Harvard and graduated in 
1822. After graduation he entered upon the study of law in 
Fitchburg, in the office of John Shepley, an eminent lawyer, 
who subsequently removed to Maine. In 1825 he was 
admitted to the bar and for two years was engaged in the 
practice of his profession alone. In 1827 he associated him- 
self in business with Nathaniel Wood. The firm of Torrey 
& Wood lasted for nearly half a century and its members 
ranked with the acknowledged leaders of the legal fraternity 
in Worcester county. Several Fitchburg lawyers of present 
prominence began their career under the tutilage of these 
two men whose firm relation was dissolved in 1873. While 
active in his chosen profession Mr. Torrey, from the time of 
his enrollment among the members of the bar, almost always 
held offices of trust and honor. For thirty successive years 
he was treasurer of the town of Fitchburg, serving for one 
year after its incorporation as a city, declining further ser- 
vice. In 1832 he became one of the incorporators of the 
Fitchburg Bank. In addition to his connection with the 
banking business he was elected in 1829 one of the trustees 
of the Worcester Mutual Fire Insurance Company and has 
ever since sustained the same relation to it. Mr. Torrey was 
chosen a member of the Massachusetts house of representa- 
tives in 1832, and again in 1847. In 1849 ^ ie served in the 
senate and was chairman of the committee on banks and 
banking. In 1853 he was a member of the council of Gov- 
ernor Clifford and in 1854 of that of Governor Emory Wash- 



230 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

burn. In 1825 Mr. Torrey was married to Frances Hough- 
ton of Fitchburg, who died in 183 1. In the following year 
he was married to Sarah Arnold of Uxbridge, Mass. 

THE ROLLSTONE NATIONAL BANK 

received its first charter in 1849 > was ^-incorporated in 1865 ; 
its capital is $250,000, with a surplus of $140,000. Moses 
Wood was the first president and Lewis H. Bradford the 
first cashier. Upon the death of Moses Wood, in 1869, 
Alvah Crocker succeeded him. Mr. Crocker was succeeded 
by Henry A. Willis, as president, which office he now holds. 
L. H. Bradford served as cashier until 1856, when he was 
succeeded by William B. Wood, who resigned in 1858. 
Henry A. Willis was then chosen cashier, and upon his ap- 
pointment to the office of president, January, 1873, John M. 
Graham was chosen in his place. In 1881 Wilbur B. 
Tenney was made cashier. The first banking-house of the 
Rollstone Bank was a small granite building, which stood 
where the Rollstone Bank building now stands. This latter 
building was erected in 1869. The bank is officered by 
Henry A. Willis, president, (sketch and portrait in Chapter 
III); Wilbur B. Tenney, cashier; W. J. Stearns, teller; 
Charles W. Spinney, clerk; Amasa Norcross, solicitor; 
directors, Henry A. Willis, Amasa Norcross, Louis D. Bart- 
lett, E. Foster Bailey, I. C. Wright, Charles H. Brown, 
George H. Spencer, James Phillips, Jr., Edgar F. Belding, 
H. T. Page, M. D. Haws. 

SAFETY FUND NATIONAL BANK. 

authorized by Comptroller Knox, June 9, 1874. This was 
before free national banking, consequently the first ninety 
thousand dollars of circulation was purchased from another 
National Bank. The stockholders paid in twenty thousand 
dollars, in addition to the capital, to offset the premiums 
paid on United States bonds and circulation, which enabled 
the bank to declare a dividend, at the close of the first year's 





1 <C^71y 




4 crti/^ 



COMMERCIAL. 



231 



business, from the earnings. Since then the bank has paid 
regular semi-annual dividends. The bank commenced busi- 
ness July i, 1874, m tne 
second story of Belding 
& Dickinson's brick block, 
and removed to its pres- 
ent location in Crocker 
block, March, 1875, the 
building having been 
erected by Hon. Alvah 
Crocker, under an agree- 
ment for a twenty years' 
lease of the banking 
rooms to the Safety Fund 
National Bank. Present 
capital, $200,000; own 
$200,000 United States 
four per cent, bonds ; sur- 
plus, $31,000. The first 
president was Henry Alli- 
son and the first cashier 
F. F. Woodward. In crocker block. 

1883 Mr. Woodward resigned to engage in other business 
and George K. Tapley, of the John Hancock National Bank 
of Springfield, was elected his successor. Joel G. Tyler, 
book-keeper, has been identified with the bank since Septem- 
ber, 1882. 

Mr. Allison is a native of Rome, N. Y. ; came to Fitch- 
burg in 1858 to take a clerkship in the post-office, under the 
Hon. J. W. Mansur, entered the old Fitchburg State Bank, 
April, 1864, continued there, with Fitchburg State and 
National Banks, until April, 1874, at which time he was 
elected the first president of the Safety Fund National Bank, 
in which position he has continued until the present time, 
this being his twenty-fourth year in banking. 

The present board of directors are R. R. Conn, E. M. 
Dickinson, Lyman Patch, George Hall, Charles F. Putnam, 
Wilder P. Clark, Frank Leighton, J. F. D. Garfield, F. F. 




232 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Woodward, George R. Wallace, Myron B. Damon, Henry 

Allison. 

WACHUSETT NATIONAL BANK 

was incorporated May 20, 1875, with a capital of $500,000, 
which has since been reduced one-half, leaving the present 
capital $250,000, and surplus fund of equal amount, 
$250,000. 

This bank was opened for business June 1, 1875, in 
Belding & Dickinson's block and continued in that loca- 
tion until Jan. 1, 1876, at which time the present banking 
house, corner of Main and Day streets was completed. Its 
first oiHcers were A. W. Seaver, president; H. A. Blood, 
vice-president, and George A. Seaver, cashier; but the latter 
being removed by death before the bank was opened for 
business, Henry L. Jewett was elected his successor. 

The present officers are O. H. Lawrence, president; 
William O. Brown, vice-president; George E. Clifford, 
cashier; W. G. Corey, teller; H. G. Morse, book-keeper; 
E. B. Farrar, messenger. 

Directors — William O. Brown, H. A. Hatch, O. H. 
Lawrence, George N. Proctor, Harrington Sibley, A. B. 
Sherman, W. A. Fairbanks, L. H. Goodnow, John Burney, 
J. S. Bradley, Thomas Rice, George F. Morse, S. K. 
Pierce. 

THE FITCHBURG SAVINGS BANK 

was incorporated Feb. 12, 1846, and went into operation the 
first of June following. Francis Perkins was the first presi- 
dent and Ebenezer Torrey the first treasurer. On the death 
of Mr. Perkins, in 1859, Nathaniel Wood was chosen presi- 
dent Aug. 15, 1859; Ebenezer Torrey, June 27, 1876; 
Thornton K. Ware, Sept. 26, 1877. 

In 187 1 the bank erected one of the largest and costliest 
business buildings in the city, in which they now have their 
rooms. The officers are : President, Thornton K. Ware, 
(sketch in Chapter V.) ; vice-president, Samuel E. Crocker; 




v 




COMMERCIAL. 



233 



Ebenezer Bailey, clerk; Charles J. Billings, treasurer: An- 
drew Jewett, assistant treasurer. 

Trustees : Thornton K. Ware, Samuel E. Crocker, 
William D. Peck, Ebenezer Torrey, Justin Stearns, Timothy 
S. Wilson, Jacob Haskell, George F. Fay, Rodney Wallace, 
Charles T. Crocker, Gardner S. Burbank, Leander Sprague, 




FITCHEURG SAVINGS BANK BLOCK. 



Daniel Cross, Henry F. Coggshall, Joseph Cushing, Albert 
L. Fessenden, John W. Kimball, Carmi M. Parker, George 
F. Simonds, R. R. Conn, Henry G. Morse, B. D. Dwinnell, 
Arthur H. Lowe. 



THE WORCESTER NORTH SAVINGS INSTITUTION, 

incorporated May 26, 1868; organized June 13, 1868; com- 
menced business July 6, 1868; deposits Jan. 1, 1887, 
$2,488,327.22 ; location, Rollstone National Bank building. 
The first officers were Moses Wood, president; David 
Boutelle, vice-president; H. A. Willis, treasurer; L. II. 



234 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Bradford, clerk. Upon the death of Moses Wood, Augustus 
Whitman was elected president and held the office until 1880. 
He was succeeded by Benjamin Snow, who resigned in 1883 » 
followed by Lowell M. Miles, who resigned in 1886, when 
Amasa Norcross was elected. 

The present officers are : Amasa Norcross, president, 
(sketch and portrait Chapter III.) ; H. C. Hartwell, vice- 
president; H. A. Willis, Treasurer; B. F. Wallis, clerk 
and assistant treasurer ; A. C. Brown, book-keeper. 

Trustees — Amasa Norcross, George Robbins, E. N. 
Choate, L. D. Bartlett, E. F. Bailey, Henry A. Goodrich, 
I. C. Wright, John Upton, S. Haynes, A. B. Sherman, 
Edwin Upton, E. B. Rockwood, S. A. Childs, J. L. Chap- 
man, James Phillips, Jr., Frederick Fosdick, Asa S. Lawton, 
Mial Davis, Fitchburg ; William Baker, Lunenburg ; Anson 
D. Fessenden, Townsend ; Walter R. Adams, Ashburnham ; 
Charles O. Green, Ashby ; M. D. Haws, Leominster. 

THE FITCHBURG CO-OPERATIVE BANK 

was incorporated Oct. 27, 1877, under the name of the 
"Fitchburg Co-operative Saving Fund and Loan Associa- 
tion." The name was changed July 1, 1883, by legislative 
enactment, to the "Fitchburg Co-operative Bank." 

Its objects are the periodical savings of money paid in by 
the shareholders, which money is at once invested by loaning 
it among the shareholders only, secured by first mortgage on 
Massachusetts real estate, or by pledge of the shares them- 
selves, or by both. One dollar for each share held is paid 
in by the holder at meetings held every month, and these 
dues, together with all other accumulations, are put up at 
auction to the highest bidder as soon as the amount on hand 
is ascertained. These monthly payments continue until each 
share attains the value of $200, when it is said to mature and 
no longer participates in the profits, but is withdrawn by the 
holder. The shares are issued in series six months apart, 
and all the shares in each separate series have the same 
value and mature at the same time, while the different series 



COMMERCIAL. 235 

mature in the order of their issue. Each borrower, by pay- 
ment of dues on his shares, is laving by a sinking fund to 
meet his mortgage at maturity, and he receives his mortgage 
cancelled instead of the cash, which is paid to the non- 
borrower. 

The influence of this institution has been very marked, 
for through its workings many persons have been induced 
to commence the acquirement of wealth in a small way. 
Others have been able to secure a homestead at a cost of 
monthly payment but little above that of necessary rent. It 
tends to encourage industry, economy and thrift, and opens 
an easy way for every person whose income exceeds his ex- 
penses, by which something tangible may be laid aside 
against adversity or old age. 

The following persons have held their offices during the 
life of the bank, with the exception of the treasurer, who 
was preceded by George E. Clifford for the first four years : 
Jabez Fisher, president; Henry L. Rice, vice-president; 
Joseph F. Simonds, secretary, and Charles F. Baker, treas- 
urer. A board of directors, consisting of the above, with 
fifteen additional names, constitute the management. Its 
office and the office of its secretary is at room No. 5 Roll- 
stone Bank block, 129 Main street, and its meetings for busi- 
ness are held on the third Thursday evening of each month. 

THE FITCHBURG POST-OFFICE. 

In 1827 David Brigham, Esq., as postmaster had his office 
for a time in the "Abram Dole house," on "\Vest Main street, 
but soon removed to the dwelling house now in Wesleyan 
Place, in the rear of the Methodist church, but which then 
stood on Main street, and which even now show traces of 
its former use in the letter drop in what was the office room. 
All the equipment used was a wheel about two feet in diam- 
eter provided with divisions of the several letters of the al- 
phabet. 

Mark Miller was the next postmaster, being appointed by 
President Andrew Jackson, in October, 1834, an ^ removed the 



230 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

office to a frame building adjoining the Fitchburg House, 
located about where the Emory House now stands, and 
the building is now removed to Oliver street. He occupied 
the first floor as a book-store and the second floor for 
the printing office and publishing office of a weekly news- 
paper ; but on his failure in business after holding the 
office only a few months, the Hon. Nathaniel Wood was 
appointed by President Jackson, early in 1835 > ne moved the 
office to the building standing nearly opposite the present 
Sentinel office, and during his term the first attempt at 
use of call boxes in aiding in the delivery of the mail was 
made. His principal assistants were his brother and after- 
wards Charles and Stephen Shepley. The office was re- 
moved, about 1841, to Wood & Torrey's brick block, in the 
store now occupied by Davis & Rogers' market, and at that 
time and until the completion of the Savings Bank block oc- 
cupied by Shepley's book-store. He was succeeded, in 1849, 
by his partner, Hon. Goldsmith F. Bailey, who was ap- 
pointed by President Taylor, and who retained the office in 
the same location and Mr. Stephen Shepley as his assistant. 

The postage in those days w r as 5 cents, 6j^_ cents, 12 }4 
cents, 18^ cents, and 25 cents, according to the distance, 
and was very seldom prepaid. The letters for every town 
were done up in a wrapper, and the destination written 
thereon, and a way bill sent for amount of postage due, re- 
quiring a large amount of work for the business transacted. 

At the arrival of the stage, which would only wait about 
five minutes, rapid work w r as required to open the mail bag, 
take out mail for the office, and substitute the outgoing mail. 
In 1853, John Todd, Esq., was appointed by President 
Franklin Pierce, and soon after removed the office to the new 
town hall building just erected, a considerable increase was 
made in the number of boxes and other facilities for trans- 
acting the business. He had as his assistant, (and acting 
postmaster in fact,) Martin Giles, now of Westminster. In 
1859 Mr. Todd resigned on account of removal to New 
York, and J. W. Mansur, Esq., was appointed by President 



COMMERCIAL. 237 

Buchanan. He retained Mr. Giles as assistant, who was 
succeeded by Henry Allison. 

The salary of the office as re-established in January, 1S60, 
was $1,727.26. 

About i860 the post-office was burglarized, but an en- 
trance to the safe not being effected, the loss was very small. 

Mr. Mansur was removed by President Lincoln in 
September, 1861, and Judge T. K. Ware appointed, who 
had as his assistant General John W. Kimball. Judge Ware 
was removed by President Johnson and Colonel George E. 
Goodrich appointed in 1867. His assistants were Albert A. 
Marshall and Charles E. Wallace. 

On Nov. 18, 1872, the office was moved to its present loca- 
tion, corner of Main and Church streets, in the old Trinitarian 
church building, which had been remodelled for the office, 
and room that was imperatively needed by the rapid growth 
of the city was secured. 

On the expiration of Col. Goodrich's third term, in 1879, 
Gen. John W. Kimball was appointed by President Hayes, 
and retained as his assistant Charles E. Wallace, during his 
entire term of eight years. 

In 1882 the post-office building was greatly improved by 
alterations that brought the office down to the level of the 
street and secured for the office all of the first storv. During 
the repairs the office was temporarily removed to Spaulding's 
building, corner of Main and Grove streets. 

In November, 1884, the free delivery service was com- 
menced with five carriers, all of whom still remain on duty. 
And the office was again altered by the removal of a large 
number of the call boxes which were no longer needed. 
The special delivery service was commenced Oct. 1, 1885. 

On the expiration of General Kimball's second term in 
February, 1887, the present postmaster, Frederick A. Cur- 
rier was appointed by President Cleveland, after a spirited, 
but good-natured contest by four candidates. An additional 
carrier was secured Sept. 1, 1887, and Frank J. Dwyer was 
appointed and carriers' limits somewhat extended, an in- 
creased deliveries of business mail provided for, and addi- 



238 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

tional street letter boxes added. He retained as his assistant 
Charles E. Wallace, and nearly all of the other employes 
and carriers. 

The present office force consists of Charles E. Wallace, 
assistant postmaster; Frank H. Damon, Albert H. Harris, 
D. Irving Damon ; Miss Elizabeth F. Delahanty, money order 
clerk ; Miss Mary P. Arnold, stamp and registered letter 
clerk. 

The six letter carriers are Albert S. Pierce, George M. 
Bowker, Patrick B. Purtill, Eugene Forest, Charles F. 
Lamb, Frank J. Dwyer. Special delivery messenger, 
Walter F. Oxford. 

There are now about fifty street letter boxes, distributed 
so as to accommodate as large a number of people as possi- 
ble, taking into account also the convenience of the carriers 
in making collections. 

The business of this office as shown by the returns for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, was : Receipts from sales of 
postage stamps and stamped envelopes $22,709.67 ; 2,533 reg- 
istered letters and packages forwarded and 2,433 received and 
delivered; 830 special delivery letters delivered and 1,142 
special delivery stamps sold ; 3,798 domestic money orders 
issued, amounting to $37,814.11 ; 2,553 postal notes issued, 
amounting to $4,777.17 ; 641 foreign money orders issued to 
points in England, Ireland, Scotland, France, Germany, 
Italy, Portugal, Switzerland, Canada, etc., amounting to 
$7,756.38; and 2,868 money orders and 3,476 postal notes 
paid, amounting to $38,995.30. The letter carriers deliv- 
ered 431,542 letters, 94,548 postal cards, 299,484 newspapers 
and packages ; and collected from street letterboxes, 333,174 
letters, 85,913 postal cards, 33,560 newspapers and pack- 
ages; showing a total of 1,278,221 pieces handled for the 
year. 

Frederick A. Currier, the present postmaster, son of 
Festus C. and Joanna M. Currier, was born in Worcester, 
December 24, 185 1, but his parents removed to Holliston 
when he was about a year old and he received his early edu- 




1& 



COMMERCIAL. 2.*)i) 

cation in the public schools of that town. He removed to 
Fitchburg, in January, 1869, and entered the insurance 
agency of his father, and at the time of his appointment was 
a member of the firm F. C. Currier & Son, insurance, rail- 
road and steamship ticket agents. He was connected with 
Whitney's Opera House for three years as treasurer, and 
afterwards for three years as business manager. He was 
for four years secretary of • the Worcester North Agri- 
cultural Society, and declined a re-election. He has also 
assisted his father, who is secretary, in the work of the 
Massachusetts Mutual Aid Society. He is a firm democrat 
but has never been an offensive partisan or active politician. 
He received the endorsement of the business men irrespec- 
tive of party. 

Charles E. Wallace, assistant-postmaster, was born 
in Clinton, Mass., Sept. 3, 1847 ; removed to Fitchburg in 
the fall of 1S61, where he was employed in the store of 
Waldo Wallace, corner of Main and Laurel streets, and was 
also employed as clerk in various places until Jan. 1, 1872, 
when he entered the post-office in the city hall building 
under Postmaster George E. Goodrich. He has served as 
assistant-postmaster under George E. Goodrich, J. W. Kim- 
ball, and F. A. Currier, the present postmaster, to date. 

Albert S. Pierce, carrier 1, was born in East Jaffrey, 
N. H., March 15, 1845, and lived at home on a farm until 
seventeen years of age, when he enlisted, Aug. 11, 1862, in 
the 14th N. H. Volunteers for three years, or during the 
war ; he remained in the regiment during its entire term of 
service of nearly three years, and was discharged at the close 
of the war. After returning home he learned the machinist's 
trade, and followed that occupation until Nov. 1, 1884, when 
he was appointed letter-carrier. 

George M. Bowker, carrier 2, is a native of Fitchburg 
and educated in its public schools. He has a good war 
record, having served five years in the United States Navy, 
participating in the great battles fought by Admiral Farragut 
in the Gulf of Mexico and on the Mississippi river. Since 



240 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

the war he has travelled extensively in Europe and Africa. 
When the free delivery system was given the city he was 
appointed to the service by Gen. Kimball, as a veteran of the 
war. 

Patrick B. Purtill, carrier 3, was born in Ireland in 
1846, came to Fitchburg in 1S64, and commenced 'working 
for the Putnam Machine Company, learned the machinist's 
trade and remained in the company's employ until 1879, 
when he began work for the Fitchburg Steam Engine Com- 
pany, continuing with them until his appointment as letter- 
carrier in 1884. 

Eugene Forest, carrier 4, a native of St. Bock, P. Q^., 
was born in 1850 of French parentage. He was educated in 
the St. Viatem school and graduated in 1866. He came to 
Fitchburg in 1868 and has been a resident since, with the 
exception of four years when he was in the employ of W. F. 
Whitney, chair manufacturer, at South Ashburnham, in the 
cane work department. He received his appointment as 
letter-carrier in 1884. 

Charles F. Lamb, carrier 5, was born in Phillipston, 
Mass., Nov. 6, 1856, and named in honor of John C. Fre- 
mont, the first Republican candidate for the presidency. He 
was brought up as a farmer and lumber man until April, 
1879, wnen he came to Fitchburg to enter the employ of 
Sylvanus Sawyer as gardener; in 1880 began work for the 
Putnam Machine Co. and remained about three years ; re- 
ceived his appointment as letter-carrier when the system was 
first adopted here. 

Frank J. Dwyer, carrier 6, a native of Fitchburg, was 
born Dec. 3, 1859; employed by E. M. Dickinson & Co., 
shoe manufacturers, from 1877 to 1887 ; was warden in 
Ward 6 from 1882 to 1886, and appointed letter-carrier Sept. 
1, 1887. 

John F. Shea, postmaster at West Fitchburg, was born 
in Fitchburg in 1840 ; is a machinist by trade and worked for 
the Union Machine Co. until November, 1885, when he was 
appointed postmaster at West Fitchburg. 



^ 







* 



*\ 




& 




Albert S. Pierce. 



Geo M . Bowker 



Patrick B. Purtill. 




C E Wallace, Assistant P.M. J. F. Shea, P. M., W. Fitchburg. 





1 




Eugene Forest. 



Chas, F. Lamb. 



Frank J. Dwyer. 



COMMERCIAL. 241 

THE FITCHBURG MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY 

was organized June 29, 1847. Nathaniel Wood was the first 
president, serving in that capacity for over twenty-six years 
and as treasurer for twenty-four years. The first secretary 
was Ivers Phillips, who was succeeded by Abel Thurston in 
1850. Mr. Thurston held the office of Secretary for upwards 
of fourteen years. He was succeeded, on his death in 1864, 
by Charles Mason, and he by L. H. Bradford, who was 
made president on the resignation of Nathaniel Wood. E. 
P. Downe, the present secretary, was then elected and upon 
the death of L. II. Bradford, Amasa Norcross was made 
president. 

The present board of officers are : Amasa Norcross, 
president ; William Baker, vice-president and treasurer ; 
E. P. Downe, secretary ; directors, William O. Brown, 
Amasa Norcross, Daniel Cross, Gardner S. Burbank, Rodney 
Wallace, George H. Spencer, George Jewett, II. G. Morse, 
William D. Peck, Orlando Mason, S. R. Merrick, John M. 
Lockey, Simeon W. A. Stevens, William Baker. 

The company has a fine suite of rooms in the savings 
bank block. From the beginning it has been prospered and 
now carries insurance amounting to $15,800,000. 

Nathaniel Wood, the first president of the company, for 
nearly fifty years one of the most prominent citizens of Fitch- 
burg, was born in Holden, Mass., Aug. 29, 1797. lie 
graduated at Harvard, in 182 1, and was an instructor in that 
college and also in the academy at Lancaster after gradua- 
tion. After studying law and being admitted to the bar in 
Boston he came to Fitchburg, and in Feb., 1827, formed a 
partnership with Ebenezer Torrey, under the well known 
name of Torrey & Wood, remaining in partnership until the 
latter became too infirm to attend to office duties. Mr. Wood 
was an able lawyer and especially successful as a conveyan- 
cer. He had not only agreeable qualities of disposition but 
was endowed to an unusual degree with sound, sterling qual- 
ities of mind and character. One who had known him inti- 
16 



242 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

mately for more than fifty years, and who for more than 
forty years was associated with him in business, spoke of 
him as " being characterized during the whole period of his 
business career for an unswerving integrity and honesty." 
This is no slight eulogy coming from a business associate of 
so many years who must have known him so intimately, and 
have watched him in the midst of those crises of temptation 
which happen in the career of every business man. 

He was a firm believer in the power of religion to make 
men better, and so long as his powers lasted took an active 
part in the word of the church and Sunday school. We will 
not attempt to give a complete list of the offices filled at dif- 
ferent times by Mr. Wood ; the records of the town of Fitch- 
burg show that he was one of our most active and conspicu- 
ous citizens. He was moderator of many of the town meet- 
ings from 1830, a member of the school committee for many 
years, selectman, president and director of the Fitchburg 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company from its organization, di- 
rector and solicitor for the Fitchburg National Bank, and 
president of the Fitchburg Savings Bank. He was a life- 
long democrat and often the candidate of his party. He was 
in the lower branch of the legislature in 1839, 47 an ^ 5 0, 
and was also once elected senator, and was the candidate of 
his party for congress in 1841. 

Mr. Wood was an industrious man. He believed in hard 
work, and loved to the last to keep to that regular routine of 
labor and duty which characterized him in his earlier life. 
Probably the hardest thing he ever did was to relinquish ac- 
tive duty, and it was only the irresistible force of infirmity 
and disease that could compel him to surrender. After a 
sickness lasting some two years, he died of paralysis, Aug. 
3, 1876, in his seventy-ninth year. 

THE MASSACHUSETTS MUTUAL AID SOCIETY 

of Fitchburg was among the first of the mutual benefit socie- 
ties organized in this state, having been incorporated Feb. 
17, 1879, an ^ us fi rst certificate was issued March 26, 1879. 
Its object is to furnish protection and relief, such as is sought 



COMMERCIAL. 243 

in life insurance. It is founded on the mutual co-operative 
plan, and is a purely mutual association, the members having 
full control of all its business. It is established on the prin- 
ciple of mutual aid and assistance, so that the husband and 
father, or wife and mother, whose income may be limited, 
can through its means easily provide for their dependents in 
case of their death. The law of the state requires the estab- 
lishment of an emergency fund, (one assessment from each 
member) which now has reached the sum of $5,000, and will 
constantly be enlarged by the addition of new members and 
its own accumulations of interest. There are now upwards 
of 2,400 outstanding certificates in force, representing an in- 
surance of nearly $5,000,000, and it has paid out on account 
of death claims, more than $150,000. Most of this large 
sum has been paid to the widows and children of its deceased 
members, whose entire future support is dependent upon this 
money, a relief that in their condition in life could not other- 
wise have been secured for them. It has a steadily growing 
membership, no institution of this kind in this state has a 
better record for promptness and square dealing, and it 
already has obtained a high standing in insurance circles. 
The board of managers are nearly all residents of this city, 
and most of them have continued in office from the begin- 
ning. The first president was Henry A. Willis, president of 
the Rollstone National Bank, who served in this office for 
five years. Henry F. Coggshall, secretary and manager of 
the Fitchburg Gas Company, was his successor and served 
three years, when Henry A. Goodrich was elected as its 
third president and is now in office. The^ other officers are 
as follows : Harris C. Hartwell, vice-president and solicitor; 
Ezra B. Rockwood, treasurer; D. S. Woodworth, M. D., 
medical director; F. C. Currier, secretary. 

The board of managers are H. A. Willis, H. F. Coggs- 
hall, L. Sprague, A. S. Lawton, George Robbins, H. A. 
Goodrich, H. C. Hartwell, D. S. Woodworth, J. P. Farns- 
worth, Aaron F. Whitney, F. C. Currier, C. W. Goss, J. II. 
Putnam, H. A. Currier. 

Festus C. Currier, secretary of the society, was born in 
Holliston, Mass., Oct. 6, 1825, and resided there for many 



244 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

years, engaging in mercantile and insurance business. lie 
removed to this city in 1868 and engaged in the insurance 
business and built up a large insurance agencv in this 
vicinity. He disposed of this business in 1875, anc ^ was soon 
after appointed by Governor Gaston on the state detective 
force, proving a very successful officer. He was especially 
detailed and placed in charge of the inspection of manu- 
factures and public buildings and visited nearly every 
manufactory in the state. His extensive insurance experi- 
ence particularly fitting him for the work. 

On the expiration of his commission he did not ask for a 
re-appointment, but again entered the insurance business in 
company with his son (Fred A.) and has also done a large 
business in railway and steamship tickets, foreign drafts and 
investment securities. 

In 1879 he was the principal mover in starting the Massa- 
chusetts Mutual Aid Society, and was elected secretary, 
which position he has retained, and as the active business 
manager has built up a large and prosperous society. 

He served as alderman in 1874 anc ^ '75' anc ^ was a g a in 
elected in 1881. He has served as treasurer of the Worcester 
North Agricultural Society for the past six years and has 
been a director of the Fitchburg Co-operative Bank for 
several years. He has been active in politics and has always 
acted with the democratic party : has been honored by nomi- 
nations for various offices, having been the candidate for 
county commissioner in 1874, coming within a few hundred 
votes of an election for representative to the legislature in 
1880, also was on the Cleveland electorial ticket for this state 
in 1884; and as candidate for congress in 1886, received a 
very flattering vote, reducing the majority of Mr. Whiting, 
his successful opponent, by about forty per cent over his pre- 
vious election. 

THE UNITED STATES MASONIC ACCIDENT INSURANCE 
COMPANY, 

incorporated Sept. 1, 1887, insures only Masons over twenty- 
one and under sixty years of age. President, ex-Mayor Eli 



«. 



<■ 




COMMERCIAL. 245 

Culler ; vice-president, General John W. Kimball ; secretary-, 
C. S. Perry ; treasurer, J. G. Tyler. 

Directors — Eli Cullev, Gen. J. W. Kimball and Charles 
F. Baker of this city, George F. Morse, Joel G. Tyler, Dr. 
H. R. Brown and Charles S. Perry of Leominster. 

The office of the company is at Room 14, Savings Bank. 
block. 

WORCESTER NORTH UNDERWRITERS ASSOCIATION. 

President, J. M. Lockey ; treasurer, F. A. Currier; sec- 
retary, C. E. Kirby. 

THE FITCIIBURG GAS COMPANY 

was incorporated under the laws of the state of Massachu- 
setts in 1852, with a capital of $60,000. Rodney Wallace is 
president, and H. F. Coggshall, treasurer. The board of 
directors are Rodney Wallace, Charles T. Crocker, G. S. 
Burbank, T. K. Ware, and Francis B. Sheplev. The com- 
pany's plant is located on the Old Colony and Fitchburg rail- 
roads, in the southern part of the city, and consists of the 
necessary works with two gasometers, one having a capacity 
of 65,000 and the other 28,000 cubic feet, with twelve miles 
of street mains. The company's office is located at 331 
Main St. 

THE WACHUSETT ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY 

was incorporated in 1883, with a capital of $100,000. The 
first officers were L. J. Brown, president, Geo. E. Clifford, 
treasurer. 

The central station is located on Water St., and is 
equipped with a 275 horse-power engine and the usual ac- 
companiments. The capacity is about 140 Thompson-Hous- 
ton arc lights. The company are about putting in the 
Thompson-Houston system of incandescent lighting, which 
is specially intended for residence and interior lighting at a 



246 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



long distance from the station, or in any part of the city. 
The company are also making arrangements to furnish 
electric power for mechanical purposes. The officers are 
Walter A. Fairbanks, president, Geo. E. Clifford, treasurer, 
O. H. Lawrence, James L. Chapman, directors, A. H. 
Kimball, superintendent. The company's office is located at 
162 Main St. 

THE FITCHBURG STREET RAILWAY CO. 

was incorporated April 10. 1886, with a capital of $60,000, 
and is officered as follows : President, H. A. Willis ; vice- 
president, H. I. Wallace; treasurer, B. F. Wallis ; clerk, 
H. C. Hartwell ; superintendent, W. W. Sargent. 

Directors— H. A. Willis, H. I. Wallace, H. C. Hartwell, 
J. Phillips, Jr., E. F. Belding, G. W. Weymouth, G. H. 
Spencer. 

The road commenced business July 1, 1886. It is three 
and one-half miles in extent, from Sanborn road to the Fitch- 
burg park and the Lunenburg line, extensions have been 
authorized to Waite's corner and city farm. The road is 
supplied with first-class equipments, horses, cars, etc., and 
has done a very successful business for the one year it has 
been in operation. 



THE FITCHBURG BOARD OF TRADE. 

The principal mercantile organi- 
zations of the city are the Board of 
Trade and the Merchants Associa- 
tion. The Fitchburg Board of 
Trade, the oldest organization of 
the kind, is an association of busi- 
ness men that has made itself felt in 
public as well as commercial affairs. 
It was organized in May, 1874. ^ n 
1876 the board moved into its rooms 
in the Post-Office and Board of Trade building. Its officers 
are: President, Dr. George Jewett, (sketch in Chapter V.,) 









t ■ ' r 






COMMERCIAL. 247 

vice-presidents, H. A. Goodrich, C. H. Greene ; directors — 
Charles T. Crocker, Rodney Wallace, James Phillips, Jr., 
Joseph G. Edgerly, Jabez Fisher, H. C. Hartwell, H. A. 
Willis, T. C. Upton, George H. Spencer, B. D. Dwinnell, 
W. A. Macurda ; secretary, E. P. Loring ; treasurer, Eben 
Bailey. 

THE MERCHANTS ASSOCIATION 

includes in the list of membership nearly every merchant in 
the city. The first officers elected, March 24, 1886, were : 
President, Daniel Cross, the oldest merchant in Fitchburg, 
whose business career covers a half century ; vice-presidents, 
H. A. Goodrich, Walter P. Guy, W. C. Emory; Secretary, 
H. E. Jennison ; treasurer, D. H. Pierce. Regular monthly 
meetings are held on the first Wednesday of each month. 

The present executive officer, Henry A. Goodrich, has 
been in business thirty-two years. He was born in Fitch- 
burg in 1830, entered the Fitchburg Academy in 1841, 
worked in a factory during his vacations, left the High 
School in 1849 to take a position as overseer in a woolen 
mill, where he accumulated enough to start in business with 
his own money in 1855. Like many other active and ambi- 
tious men, he has met with reverses, but by industry, energy 
and perseverance has quickly overcome them and is to-day 
at the head of one of the finest and best regulated clothing 
and furnishing establishments in New England. He has 
twice represented the city in the state legislature, and is now 
president of the Massachusetts Mutual Aid Society and one 
of the trustees of the Worcester North Sa'vings Bank. 

The other officers of the association are : Vice-Presidents, 
A. R. Ordway, S. G. Frost, W. S. Harris; directors— W. 
P. Guy, D. G. Wallace, F. A. Wood, C. M. Parker, J. F. 
Bruce, M. W. Fitz, J. F. Stiles; secretary, J. P. Farns- 
worth ; treasurer, D. H. Pierce. 

In 1868 Joseph dishing took the stone mill on Laurel 
street, formerly occupied as a cotton mill, and converted it 



248 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



into a flour and grain mill. He is now doing a large busi- 
ness there in flour, grain and feed. The premises are con- 

5^ veniently fitted up for the 
^^ business and are connected 

*S£ by a turnout with the 




^ti!i|--IJ-*l.=l-l-i.BJ IM 




ti^S main line of the Fitch- 
fSk burg railroad. There are 



in addition to the main 
g§ mill two large buildings 
for storage purposes, also 
an extensive saw mill and 
lumber yard on the opposite side of the river. Mr. dishing 
is a native of Ashburnham, Mass., and has been a resident 
ol Fitchburg for nearly forty years. He was first engaged 
in the livery business, afterwards in the lumber business, and 
in 1858 opened a flour and grain store under the American 
House, where he remained until he bought the stone mill 
and started his present business. 

In 1881 Charles P. Washburn bought the flour mill 
and elevator formerly owned by the Fitchburg Flour Co., 




WASHBURN & WOODWARDS MILL. 



and converted it into a corn and grain mill. In 1883 Frede- 
rick F. Woodward bought a half interest, since which time it 
has been operated and managed by the firm of Washburn & 




■;■ " ; .'-:'-- ■■'■ - :: 



iy / / 



COMMERCIAL. 249 

Woodward. The premises are admirably fitted up Tor doing 
a large wholesale and retail business. In 1884 a storehouse 
100 feet long and thirty feet wide, was built to accommodate 
their increasing business. Mr. Washburn is a native of Mid- 
dleboro, Mass., where, before removing to Fitchburg 1 > he 
was engaged in the coal and grain business. Mr. Wood- 
ward is a native of Fitchburg. He was a member ot the 
53d Regiment during the Rebellion ; afterward in the hard- 
ware business, and for ten years cashier of the Safety Fund 
National Bank of Fitchburg. 

Whitney's Opera House, the only place of entertain- 
ment in the city, is centrally located at 208 Main St., and 
was built by Andrew Whitney, the largest owner of build- 
ings occupied for mercantile purposes in the city. It is sub- 
stantially built of brick, and in its arrangements will com- 
pare favorably with houses in cities of equal size. It has a 
seating capacity of about one thousand. It was managed by 
Mr. Whitney during its first three years, having been opened 
to the public Oct. 20, 1881. In 1884 the management was 
assumed by Fred. A. Currier who had acted as treasurer of 
the house, for Mr. Whitney, from its first season, and during 
Mr. Currier's mariagement, w r hich continued for three years, 
(until his appointment as postmaster,) many of the leading 
musical and dramatic attractions made their first appearance 
in this city, and the reputation of Fitchburg for good "paying 
houses" w r as established. During the last season, ninty-two 
evening and eight matinee entertainments were presented, 
with total receipts of nearly $25,000. Mr. John W. Ogden 
is the present manager, having been connected with the 
house for several seasons. 

The house draws a large patronage from the neighboring 
towns, and an established attraction is always sure of a laro-e 
attendance. 

In referrinir to the business houses of the city no effort 
is made to give a director}' of all who are engaged in the 
dirTerent branches of trade, but simply to make mention of 



250 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

some of the representative firms, or individuals, who have 
been a long time in business. 

GENTS' FURNISHINGS. 

Daniel Cross, the veteran merchant tailor, is also the 
senior merchant in active business in Fitchburg, at the 
present time. Mr. Cross was born in Swanzey, Cheshire 
county, N. II. ; served his apprenticeship in Keene, N. H. ; 
came to Fitchburg in 1833, and established himself in busi- 
ness in a small building, where the city hall now stands. 

The following-named merchants were in business at 
that time : Kimball & Farwell kept dry goods and gro- 
ceries ; E. F. Bunnell kept a dry goods store on the corner 
of Central and Main streets, now occupied by E. M. Read. 
In the same building was a jewelry store, kept by Silas H. 
Goodnow. 

Mr. Cross remained in his first location only about a 
year ; after this, for about eight years, he carried on business 
in a two-story building, over Kimball & Farvvell's store, 
which building is now the two lower stories of the present 
Sentinel office. From there he moved across the street, into 
Heywood & Comee's block, where John F. Bruce now is, 
remaining there for about thirty years, when he removed to 
his present quarters in Stiles' block. 

Henry A. Goodrich, senior member of the firm of H. 
A. Goodrich & Co., commenced to sell gentlemen's furnish- 
ing goods in 1855. F° r fifteen years his familiar sign was 
over the door of the store now occupied by J. C. Sanborn, 
under the Fitchburg hotel. In 1867 he removed to quarters 
in Belding & Dickinson's block, and in 1885 moved into the 
new building erected by Mr. E. M. Dickinson. Among the 
many clerks and salesmen who have graduated at Mr. Good- 
rich's establishment may be mentioned E. H. Spencer, the 
hatter, in Central block ; J. R. Wood, now furnishing sales- 
man in Chicago, 111. ; A. J. Litchfield, afterward with Farns- 
worth Bros., now Litchfield & Stebbins ; E. B. Sears, now 





! {Y,\^W€tl/l£^L 



COMMERCIAL. 



251 



in the fur business, on Sumner street, Boston ; Robert 
Brooks, head salesman with Max Stadler & Co., New York; 
H. E. Taylor, late United States Revenue Collector at Brat- 
tleboro, Vt. : Charles Smith, now bank cashier in Minne- 
apolis ; Elijah Stebbins, Jr., of Litchfield & Stebbins ; L. A. 
Smith, salesman for J. J. Rav, Boston ; Foster E. Beaman, 
book-keeper at Hook & Hastings' organ factory, Boston. E. 
Stebbins, Jr., was in the employ of Mr. Goodrich eleven 
years; F. E. Beaman, as partner and salesman, thirteen 
years, and W. L. Humes, now the junior partner, has been 




INTERIOR OF H. A. GOODRICH & CO. S STORE. 

with him most of the time for twelve years past. The other 
leading gents' furnishing houses, in the order of their estab- 
lishment are, E. H. Spencer, Farnsworth Bros., Albee & 
Lyons, Edward Connor, Litchfield & Stebbins, U. E. Cleve- 
land, the Globe Clothing Store, and H. E. Goodere. 

DRY GOODS. 



James F. Stiles commenced the dry and fancy goods 
business in 1845, and is now the senior in that branch. He 



252 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



is a native of Cavendish, Vt., and came to Fitchburg in 
March, 1841, and entered the employ of T. C. Caldwell, 

who kept a country store. 
He remained with Mr. Cald- 
well three years, when he 
started in business for him- 
self, in the room now occu- 
pied by R. R. Conn as a 
jewelry store, in the build- 
ing- known as the Torrey & 
Wood block. After two 
years he removed to where 
Warren Upton's market now 
is, then across the street to 
what is now the Emory mar- 
ket, under the Calvinistic 
church ; here he remained 
for some ten years, remov- 
stiles' block. j n g to Central block, where 

he remained until he built the Stiles block, in 1875, moving 
into his present store on the first of January, 1876. 

L. Sprague & Co. established their business in 1851. 
The members of the firm are Leander Sprague and F. H. 
Colburn. 




A. B. Sherman started in business in Fitchburg, Feb. 
15, 1855, in the building one door below his present location, 
the Rollstone Bank building, into which he moved as soon 
as it was completed, February, 1870. 

The L. J. Brown Store, for several years past the 
leading dry goods house, is now owned and managed by 
Nichols & Frost, the individual members of the firm being 
F. I. Nichols and W. A. Frost. It has been under the 
management of the present firm since Oct. 1, 1884. 

Luther J. Brown, the founder of the establishment, was 
born at Eden, Vt., Dec. 31, 1827, and was the oldest of 



COMMERCIAL. 2.">."> 

three children of Luther H. and Bersheba (Shattuck) 
Brown. He was educated at the schools of his native town, 
at an academy at Johnson. Yt., and at Appleton Academy, 
New Ipswich. His first experience in mercantile business 
was at Eden, Vt. , where he was engaged in the dry goods 
and grocery business with his father. He soon after went to 
Hyde Park in the employ of Noyes Bros., who kept a large 
country store: afterwards to Manchester, N. H., where he 
was employed in a mill. When twenty-three years of age 
he went to Boston, and was employed for several years by 
Brett & Ellis, at that time wholesale and retail dealers in dry 
goods on Federal street. In 1853 the firm placed him in 
charge of a branch store at Xatick, where he remained about 
a year. Mr. Brown came to Fitchburg in August, 1855, and 
soon after formed a partnership in the dry goods trade with 
A. B. Sherman, which continued nearly three years. The 
firm of Sherman & Brown occupied the store next to the 
Rollstone Bank block. He married Jan. 13, 1856, Miss 
Sarah P. Harding of East Medway, who was a most efficient 
helpmate in building up his large business. In i860 Mr. 
Brown formed a partnership with Charles Kimball of Haver- 
hill under the firm name of Kimball & Brown, which con- 
tinued about a year and a half, at the store which Mr. Brown 
afterward occupied, but which was very much enlarged. 

In April, 1862, Mr. Brown commenced business for him- 
self, and his energy and business tact soon developed a large 
and thriving trade. In 1865 his increasing business required 
a large addition to his store, and five extensions were made, 
at various times, till two large stores in front were occupied 
and the space between Main and Crescent streets mainly de- 
voted to mercantile purposes. 

Mr. Brown commenced with dry goods and cloak-mak- 
ing, but dressmaking was added. In 1882 the carpet 
department was established, and the milliner}' parlor a year 
later. Mr. Brown leased the store for several years, but ac- 
quired the propertv by purchase. The store front has been 
rebuilt twice since he owned the block. In 1882 the tasteful 
brown stone front was erected, making it one ot the finest 



254 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



blocks in the city. In addition to this he also had a branch 
store at Shelburne Falls for three years. Mr. Brown was 
thoroughly alive to the interests of the city and made invest- 
ments where they would increase its prosperity. He was a 
director in the Wachusett National Bank from its organiza- 
tion in 1875, vice-president of the Worcester North Savings 
Institution and trustee from the time the bank was incorpo- 
rated, president of the Wachusett Electric Light Company 
from its organization. He was also a vestry-man of Christ 
church, and a member of Jerusalem Commandery, Knights 
Templar, a prominent Odd Fellow and first president of 

the Old Ladies' Home. 
pr Mr. Brown represented 
5L the city in the legisla- 
|T ture in 1878 and 79, 
g, serving on the impor- 
?J tant committee on fi- 
nance. 

His active interest 
in whatever tended to 
= promote the growth of 
1 the city and his willing- 
ness to aid worthy ob- 
■n jects, and his business 
' capacity, made him a 
^rf most valuable citizen, 
while his social qualities 
^P made for him many 
the l. j. brown block. warm personal friends. 

His hall was freely open to meetings, whether political, 
religious, or in the interests of temperance. For several 
years he furnished the hall, warmed and lighted, for meetings 
of the Railroad Men's Christian Association. 

The death of no citizen could have produced a profounder 
sensation ; his had been a busy and a useful life and his loss 
was deeply felt in this city where the best part of his life was 
spent. On the day of his funeral the city was draped in 
mourning : the stores and post-office were closed and business 




COMMERCIAL. 255 

was generally suspended throughout the city. Business men 
very generally expressed the universal sorrow at the loss the 
community had sustained, by placing the emblems of mourn- 
ing in their windows. The dry goods, millinery and clothing 
stores were most prominent in this public expression of feel- 
ing, recognizing in Mr. Brown, an active but honorable rival 
in his department of trade, whose energy and skill had 
brought trade to counters other than his own. 

Among the later dry goods establishments may be men- 
tioned : E. G. Stowe's, M. W. Fitz & Co., Boston 
Store, L. U. Hammond, Girard & Irish, E. J. Moore & 
Co. 

GROCERIES. 

The grocery store of Warren S. Harris was estab- 
lished by T. C. Caldwell in 1835 5 tnat °f S. D. Baldwin 
by J. Baldwin in 1837. The store of H.J. Lacey in West 
Fitchburg, known as the "old Baldwin store," has also been 
long established. H. A. Hatch & Co., are the oldest es- 
tablished grocerymen now in active business. The senior 
member of this firm, H. A. Hatch, has been in the business 
since 1844. He m ' st started in the old Rollstone block, in 
that portion now occupied by George H. Chapman as a shoe 
store. In 1870 he built Hatch's block, at the corner of Main 
and Prichard streets, a portion of which the firm has since 
occupied. Of the thirty or more now engaged in this line of 
business the following have been the longest established : 
W. P. Guy, C. A. Cross, (wholesale,) J. A. & E. A. Jos- 
lin, Josiah Spaulding, John F. Bruce, Daniel Boyle, 
M. N. Benjamin, John D. Morrill, G. II. & T. Cutler, 
Hiram A. Goodrich, Charles R. Conn and E. M'. Read. 
Cobb's Boston Branch, A. L. Williams & Co. proprietors, 
although more recently established, is one of the largest in 
the city. 

MEAT AND PROVISIONS. 

The oldest meat and provision house in the citv is that of 
the Lowe Brothers, which was established by John Lowe, 



256 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

whose ancestors were among the early settlers of the town of 
Fitchburg, and whose father was David Lowe. Of this large 
family only four sons are now living, two worthy citizens of 
their native city, one in Michigan, and one in California, 
while one died at the close of the war, having served three 
years' time in the army. John, the eldest of these boys, by 
his early marriage, was brought into connection with A. & 
O. W. Mead, now wealthy commission dealers in Boston, 
but then neither of the three had any capital. 

They suggested that he should ride through the country 
in this vicinity and buy whatever produce he could find for 
sale among the farmers, and they would sell, and divide the 
profits. The business suited him ; the rapid drives about the 
country, the meeting with all classes of men, developed his 
powerful will and wonderful perseverance, which were con- 
trolled by strict integrity and honesty of purpose. 

He soon conceived the idea of supplying his own towns- 
people. Like all new ventures, the idea was ridiculed and 
opposed ; but believing in the law of supply and demand, he 
pushed on, and soon had a market established in Guy's 
block. Leaving his brother in charge, he moved his family 
to Rindge. For the next few years he could not be said to 
live anywhere, for his days were spent between scouring 
Cheshire county for supplies and looking after the store here, 
sending his supplies to Boston, and spending most of his 
nights in driving from one place to the other. His brother 
leaving for the West, Mr. Lowe bought a place and removed 
his family to Fitchburg again. 

In the financial crisis of '57 he lost all he had. It was a 
crushing blow. So many years gone, and nothing left but 
an honest name and what the "law allowed." Meeting W. 
C. Emory one day, they talked over the situation. Putting 
their money together — between seven and eight dollars — Mr. 
Lowe said : ff I will go and buy something and you may sell 
it." Then came the reward of honest dealing. It was won- 
derful how the farmers, with whom he had dealt, sustained 
and trusted him. The business steadily increased, he sup- 
plying most of the markets with dressed beef at wholesale, 



COMMERCIAL. 



257 



the amount of which was many thousands annually during 
and since the war. He was always his own cashier and 
book-keeper, carrying every account with him in a pass-book 
(or memorandum). Having established a flourishing and 
successful business he sold out the same in favor of his sons, 
whose long training as "helps" had fitted them to be worthy 
successors of the father. They had greatly increased the 
business, having added the manufacture of pork products, 
when a disastrous fire occurred, completely destroying all 
their works, and as such supplies can be obtained direct from 
Chicago it is not likely that they will soon be rebuilt. 

FURNITURE DEALERS. 

Eugene W. Willis is proprietor of the oldest furni- 
ture house, which was established by his father, S. D. Willis, 
who commenced the manufacture of coffins and mattresses in 
1845, occupying, for thirty years, the store adjoining the 
present National house, at first alone and later with his son, 
Eugene. His health failing he retired to a farm among the 
New Hampshire mountains, but, with health restored, he re- 
turned to the furniture business, at 306 Main street, with his 
son and grand-son. 



Martin Webber, a resident of Fitchburg for twenty-four 

years, has been engaged 
in the furniture business in 
his present location, 221 
Main street, for the past 
eleven years. Mr. Web- 
ber is a cabinet-maker bv 
trade, and was employed 
by F. A. Beckwith. man- 
ufacturer of doors, sash 
and blinds, for eleven 
years, previous to pur- 
chasing his present busi- 
ness of R. I. Lawton. 




258 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Fitchburg Furniture Company. — (Mr. C. M. Par- 
ker) succeeded J. K. P. Wood, in the retail furniture 
business, 335 Main street, in 1884. Mr. Parker had been, 
however, for a long time, connected with the furniture 
business as a manufacturer. He was born in Merrimac, 
N. H., in 1835, where he commenced manufacturing. In 
1880 he removed to Fitchburg and has since conducted 
the business, under the name of Parker & Co. The 
manufactory is located in Newton Place, comprising a fac- 
tory, with engine and boiler-house adjoining. Employment 
is given to about forty hands, nearly all skilled workmen, 
and the product includes house and office desks, secretaries, 
hall stands, etc., in mahogany, walnut, cherry, oak and 
other popular woods now in use. Mr. Parker is a member 
of the New England Furniture Exchange. Upon coming to 
Fitchburg he took a lively interest in town affairs ; was rep- 
resentative to the legislature for two years, and held various 
offices of trust ; has served the city in the common council ; 
is a director of the Fitchburg National Bank, and a trustee of 
the Fitchburg Savings Bank. 

Hartwell & Reed. — This is one of the oldest estab- 
lished marble works in the country. Its origin dates back to 
a period of fifty-six years ago, and was founded by Mr. 
Isaac Hartwell, and conducted by him alone, until 1848, 
when he formed a partnership with Mr. George Reed, 
under the style of Hartwell & Reed. Mr. Hartwell has 
since died, and the surviving partner is now the proprietor. 

T. S. Blood is the oldest established dentist. He was 
born in Sterling, June 23, 1810; began the practice of his 
profession in Worcester, in 1837, and afterwards moved to 
New York City; came to Fitchburg in 1840; since 1852 
has occupied his present office. 

Thomas Palmer began the practice of dentistry in 
Fitchburg in 1844. For the past fifteen years his son, 
Joseph W. Palmer, has been associated with him in business, 
under the name of Palmer & Palmer. 



COMMERCIAL. 



259 



J. C. Moulton is the oldest established photographer 
in the city, having been in business here since 184S. 

R. R. Conn, watchmaker and jeweller, is the oldest in 
his line of business, commencing Aug. 24, 1855. 

W. A. Macurda, apothecary, began business in 1868. 




PROCTOR S BLOCK 



EMORY S BLOCK. 



The following are also seniors in their respective lines 
of business: Charles Mason, insurance; S. A. Childs, real 
estate; J. F. D. Garfield (Garfield & Proctor), coal; F. A. 
Beckwith, lumber ; G. B. Knowlton, hardware ; Baker Bros., 
booksellers and stationery ; George H. Chapman, boots and 
shoes; S. G. Frost, harness maker; Peter B. Howard, hair 
dresser. 



Charles G. Giles, referred to in the post-office sketch as 
M. Giles, died of paralysis at Westminster, Dec. 3, 1887, at 
the age of sixty-nine years. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 




The first printing-office and 
newspaper in Fitchburg was estab- 
lished in October, 1830, by J. E. 
Whitcomb & Co. It is to be re- 
gretted that no files of the early 
volumes of papers printed here 
have been preserved, and that only 
a few scattering numbers are now 
to be found as memorials of the in- 
troduction of printing into the 
town. 

Jonathan E. Whitcomb was a son of John Whitcomb, a 
farmer then living in the south part of the town. Young 
Whitcomb had served a year at the printing business in 
Greenfield, and in the fall of 1828 went to Boston, where, 
after working a year, he purchased a small office and com- 
menced the business there. In the autumn of 1830, being 
then but twenty-one years of age, he moved his office to 
Fitchburg, and, in connection with John Page, started the 
Fitchburg Gazette, the first number of which was issued on 
or about the 19th of October. Mr. Page was a son of Enoch 
C. Page, of Lunenburg, and had served his apprenticeship 
to the printing business in the office of Col. Edmund dishing 
of that town. He was younger than his partner, Whitcomb, 
being at that time only twenty years of age. 

The size of the Gazette was what was called super-royal 
(about 22 by 28 inches). The paper was manufactured \>y 



JOURNALISM IN FITCIIBURG. 



2(U 



Mr. Alvah Crocker, at his mill at West Fitchburg. The 
first number was issued to one hundred and twenty-five sub- 
scribers, — the price being one dollar and fifty cents a year, 
or a dollar and twenty-five if paid in advance. The printing- 
office was in a wooden building just below the entrance to 
the Fitchburg Hotel. The driveway to the hotel stables 




FITCHBURG HOTEL AND PRINTING-OFFICE. 



passed through between the printing-office and the hotel en- 
trance, the dance hall of the hotel being over the driveway, 
and connecting the two buildings. The second story was 
used for the newspaper, and the lower for printing Bibles 
from stereotype plates, for Col. Edmund Cushing, of Lunen- 
burg, and for a small circulating library and book-store. 

In March, 1831, only four months after the first issue of 
the Gazette, Mr. Page left the firm, and Whitcomb carried 
on the paper till December following, when he sold a half 
interest to Beniah Cooke, then principal of the academy. 
The firm of Whitcomb & Cooke continued as publishers till 
March, 1832, when Whitcomb disposed of his remaining in- 
terest to Cooke, but continued to edit the Gazette till Septem- 
ber following, when he left town and the paper was edited 
for three months by Nathaniel Wood, Esq. Whitcomb's last 
issues were decidedly outspoken in opposition to the princi- 
ples and policy of the Jackson administration. During the 
political campaign of 1832 the Gazette, under Mr. Wood's 



262 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

editorial care, supported Levi Lincoln for Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts and Henry Clay for the presidency, — candidates 
of the " National Republican" party. 

Among the local advertisements in the Gazette, in Au- 
gust, 1832, were the following: Cyrus Thurston, singing- 
school ; William Torrey, high school ; Marshall & Aber- 
crombie, drugs and medicines ; Julian & Safford, carriage 
and harness making ; M. Sawyer, Abel Thurston and Cyrus 
Thurston, assessors' notice ; Elbridge Wright and Horatio 
Fairbanks, blacksmithing ; B. Cooke, book-store, circulat- 
ing-library, book-binding and printing; Fitchburg Fusiliers' 
notice, Rufus C. Torrey, clerk ; Boston and Keene line of 
stages, and Fitchburg and Lowell accommodation stages. 

Just before Whitcomb & Page's dissolution, in March, 
1831, a new publication appeared from the Gazette office, — a 
monthly literary magazine, entitled The Album; or, A Pan- 
acea for Ennui. The first number bore the imprint of J. E. 
Whitcomb & Co., publishers ; the second and third were pub- 
lished by John Page ; but Whitcomb is understood to have 
been the moving spirit in the enterprise. He was the editor, 
as well as principal contributor to its pages, and after the 
third number his name alone appeared in connection with it. 
The first six numbers each consisted of sixteen octavo pages, 
with fancy covers, after which the work was enlarged to 
twenty-four, and premiums were offered for contributions, 
viz. : For the best moral tale, a set of Byron's works, in 
eight volumes, elegantly bound in gilt ; for the second best, 
a volume of the Gazette and Album ; for the third, a volume 
of the Album ; — each tale to occupy at least eight printed 
pages. The Album was "devoted to the cause of virtue and 
refinement," "dedicated to lovers of light reading," and was 
to be " furnished to subscribers at one dollar a year in ad- 
vance." The contents were largely original, and manifested 
a good degree of ability ; but the experiment proved an ex- 
pensive one, and the publication was suspended at the end 
of nine months. 

In October, 1832, the name of the Gazette was changed 
for a time to the Fitchburg Gazette and Weekly Advertiser ; 



JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 2fi3 

and the heading was embellished with a wood-cut of the 
printing-office and Fitchburg Hotel — then a wooden struc- 
ture ; — but sometime during the following year the original 
heading was restored, and the wood-cut omitted. The sub- 
scription price was raised to two dollars, or one dollar and 
fifty cents in advance. 

The Gazette started as a neutral paper, but under the ed- 
itorial management of Mr. Cooke, took an active part in the 
political campaign of 1833, in support of the democratic party. 
During its first two years the heading of its editorial column 
was ornamented by the cut of a flying angel — represented 
with an open book bearing good tidings earthward — which 
by a stretch of imagination might be taken for Mercury, the 
messenger of the gods. The cut was accompanied by the 
Shakspearean quotation, 

"I, from the orient to the drooping west 
Making the wind my post-horse, 
Still unfold the acts commenced on this ball of earth." 

Not long after the paper took its political stand the winged 
messenger was displaced by the American eagle, and Shak- 
speare gave way to the famous declaration of General Jackson, 

"The Union ! it must be preserved." 

In January or February, 1834, Mark Miller of Peter- 
borough, N. H., purchased a part or the whole of Cooke's 
interest in the Gazette, and continued its publication as a 
democratic paper. The general appearance of the sheet was 
changed on passing into Miller's hands, being enlarged by 
the addition of a column on each page, and having plain 
Roman capitals substituted for the old English or black letter 
of its former heading. Mr. Miller's name appeared as editor 
and publisher, but Mr. Cooke retained, wholly or in part, 
the ownership of the printing-office. 

Within three months after Miller assumed the editorial 
chair the publication of the Gazette was discontinued, having 
led a precarious existence of three and a half years. In the 
Gazette office during the first two or three years there worked 
as apprentices, George D. Farwell, son of Daniel Farwell of 



264 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Fitchburg, John Garfield, who was afterwards prominently 
identified with the printing business in the town, and two 
brothers by the name of Chapman. One of the latter after- 
wards went to Indiana, where he became famous in the 
presidential campaign of 1840, as the man who was requested 
to "crow." 

In April or May of this year (1834) Miller and Cooke 
separated. Dividing the office, Miller, with his portion, 
moved into the attic of the building opposite the Fitchburg 
Hotel, now owned by George N. Proctor, where he com- 
menced the publication of a new paper entitled the Massa- 
chusetts Republican,* the first number bearing date the 16th 
of May. This was also devoted to the interests of the demo- 
cratic party. In size and general appearance the Republi- 
can was similar to the Gazette, being printed on a sheet 
22 by 31 inches, and having six columns to a page. The 
price of the paper was a dollar and fifty cents a year, to 
which twenty-five cents was to be added for every six months 
delay. 

Miller at the same time published a weekly religious 
paper called The Christian Messenger, edited by William 
Cushin"\ and devoted to the dissemination of the doctrines of 
the Unitarian denomination. Mr. Cushing was a son of Col. 
Edmund Cushing of Lunenburg, and was at the time princi- 
pal of the Fitchburg academy. The Messenger was started 
in April, 1834, an d wa s issued in octavo form, eight double- 
column pages to each number ; price seventy-five cents a 
year. The heading of the paper was ornamented with the 



*According to the recollection of some of our older citizens there seems to have 
been a paper printed here at one time called the "Star;" and we find an article in 
the daily Sentinel, in its first issue, May 6, 1873, which states (on the authority of 
the late Charles H. B. Snow, Esq.,) that the Fitchburg Gazette was bought out and 
converted into a democratic weekly called the " National Republican and Worcester 
County Star." This statement tallies with an item in the Massachusetts Spy, of May 
28, 1834, referring to the Worcester County Republican, then just started, as an ad- 
vocate of whig principles, which adds — " In this respect it contrasts favorably with 
the leetle tory Star that twinkles so lugubriously in the same neighborhood." Pos- 
sibly the name Worcester County Star may have been an appendage to the title of 
the Republican in its earliest issues ; but if so its name was very soon changed to 
simply " Massachusetts Republican.'" 



JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 2f>5 

cut of a flying angel, bearing in one hand a book and 
in the other a scroll, with the words, "Behold I bring you 
good tidings — the Everlasting Gospel." After the eighth 
number the name of William Cushing as editor disappeared, 
and Rev. Jonathan Farr of Harvard assumed the editorial 
charge. The Messenger lived less than three months. 

After dividing with Miller, Mr. Cooke sold the remaining 
portion of the Gazette office to George D. Far well, who had 
served an apprenticeship in the office, and in May, 1834, 
Farwell printed the first number of a new paper called the 
Worcester County Courier, William and Rufus C. Torrey, 
editors and proprietors. The Courier was started as a whig 
paper, in opposition to the politics of the Massachusetts Re- 
publican; and was similar in size and general appearance to 
that paper ; was published weekly, terms two dollars per 
year, one dollar and seventy-five cents if paid in advance. 

At this time there were three papers published in the 
town, — two political and one religious. Of course the three 
were but feebly supported. Up to this time, for a series of 
years, David Brigham, Esq., had been postmaster of the 
town ; but through the influence of political friends Mr. Mil- 
ler obtained the appointment to the post-office, with the 
reasonable expectation, no doubt, that the income therefrom 
would materially aid in the support of his paper. But finan- 
cial difficulties were already upon him, and he very soon 
resigned his position as postmaster and left the town — under 
a cloud. With his departure, the Massachusetts Republican 
came to an untimely end, leaving the Courier the sole sur- 
vivor of the field. The career of the Republican covered a 
period of not far from six months, Miller's appointment to the 
post office having occurred in September or October. 

The Worcester County Courier was continued two full 
years, to June 28, 1836, when its suspension was announced. 
At this time the paper was conducted by George D. Farwell 
as publisher and proprietor, Mr. William Torrey, one of the 
former editors, having died a year previously, June 12, 1835, 
while the name of his associate, Mr. R. C. Torrey, had also 
disappeared as editor, he having succeeded William Cushing 
as principal of the academy. 



266 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The suspension of the Courier was but for a single week, 
the office being then purchased by Mr. John Garfield, who 
resumed its publication as a neutral paper. It was reduced 
in size to 2 2 by 28 inches, having five columns to the 
page instead of six, but was improved in its general appear- 
ance. The name was changed to Fitchburg Worcester 
County Courier, the old English, or black letter, dis- 
placed the plain Roman capitals in the title, and the price 
was reduced to $1.25, in advance. One year later the 
name of the paper was made to read simply The Courier, 
and under it, as a motto, were the words "free discussion." 

Soon after purchasing the Courier Mr. Garfield em- 
ployed Mr. Wm. S. Wilder as editor, and under his manage- 
ment the paper was continued till the winter of 1838, when, 
during the absence of Mr. Garfield, the editor changed the 
character of the paper from a neutral to a democratic sheet. 
Party feeling was running high at the time, and the two 
political parties were about evenly balanced. Mr. Wilder's 
course in running up political colors, created a sensation, 
and resulted in a suspension of the Courier, the final issue 
being under date of March 9, 1838. In announcing the 
suspension Mr. Wilder says : — 

"We are no less convinced than ever that a paper might 
and ought to be well supported in this place, yet such are 
the sectional party feelings that we despair of seeing it 
done, unless some one can be found to conduct it who is 
more capable of the task than ourself. * We know 

that some felt to regret that a political stand was taken. We 
appreciate their motives but do not admit the justness of 
their reasoning. We believed that the times loudly called 
for political decision and political action. We 

believed that the means which were used to secure the 
re-election of Governor Everett, by representing him as 
favorable to the views of the abolitionists, were basely hypo- 
critical ; and the circumstances of some special efforts to 
this effect served to hasten our departure from neutral 
ground." 

The suspension of the Courier was immediately followed 



JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 2f)7 

by the appearance, from the same office, of a small sheet, 
half the size of the Courier, called The Times. This 
appears to have been designed chiefly as an advertising 
medium, and was printed by Garfield for Mr. Wilder, though 
no name appears as publisher or editor. For want of patron- 
age the Times was discontinued after two or three months, 
and for a period of four or rive months no paper was pub- 
lished in the town — Mr. Garfield, in the meantime, continu- 
ing the business of job printing. 

On the twentieth of December, 1838, the first number of 
the Fitchburg Sentinel made its appearance — J. Garfield, 
printer, Ezra W. Reed, editor, — neutral in politics. 

With the starting of the Sentinel a new era commenced 
in the journalism of Fitchburg. The paper was destined to 
live and become one of the established institutions of the 
town. In its initial number the intention was announced 
of making it a family newspaper, "devoted to the interests of 
the farmer, the mechanic and the manufacturer, and also to 
the interests of the common schools." At first the size of 
the sheet was 19 by 26 inches, but at the end of two 
months it was enlarged to 20 by 28, and otherwise improved 
in appearance; the price was $1.25 per year, in advance, 
or, if payment was delayed, "twelve-and-a-half cents to be 
added at the end of every three months." Mr. Reed con- 
tinued to edit the paper about one year when, owing to fail- 
ing health, he gave up the position. He died Jan. 9, 1840. 

During the first two or three years the columns of the 
Sentinel were enlivened by frequent contributions, both of 
prose and poetry, from a coterie of local contributors, some 
of whom developed decided literary talent. Among the 
more prominent of these writers were — Henry C. Whitman, 
then a law student with Torrey & Wood — afterwards judge 
of the Supreme Court of Ohio, who wrote a series of articles 
on education, over the nom-de-plume of " ' Publius ;" Franklin 
Reed, a brother of the editor, who wrote on moral, historical 
and society matters, over the initials " T. JV. T.:" Miss 
Louisa Beckwith, later Mrs. Leander P. Comee, whose 
poetical contributions were signed "Louisa ;" William C. 



268 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Elleck, a harness maker, later editor of the "Cold Water 
Cup,"'' who wrote under the nom-de-plume of " Conrad ,'" 
one Patterson, an operative at the Fitchburg woolen mill, 
whose articles, both poetry and prose, were over the signa- 
ture of "Syfihax;" and a young man by the name of 
Augustine Joseph Hickey, then about sixteen years of age 
— an apprentice in the Sentinel office — whose contributions 
bore the pseudonym of "yulian." It was during this period 
that a spicy controversy arose between the three writers last 
named, in which the articles of "yulian" (whose identity 
was unknown to either of the other two, and, in fact, to any- 
body save one or two confidential friends,) were wrongly 
attributed to different individuals of professional or classical 
education, and were least of all supposed to come from the 
printer's devil. After leaving Fitchburg Hickey assumed 
the name of Duganne, and became well knowm in literary 
circles as an author and poet. 

The Sentinel prospered and continued to be published by 
Mr. Garfield till March, 1841, when William J. Merriam 
purchased the office and continued the paper. In January, 
previous to Mr. Merriam's purchase, William S. Wilder 
again took the editorial chair, "with a full assurance that the 
management of a neutral paper is a task replete with diffi- 
culties and trials." He retained the position during the 
year, but in January, 1842, Mr. Merriam assumed the entire 
management. The paper was now enlarged to 21 by 30 
inches, and a new engraved heading of fancy letters super- 
seded the plain Roman capitals which had been in use from 
the first. 

The town had now taken a start, and was fast increasing 
in population and importance. The subject of railroad com- 
munication with Boston was beginning to be agitated. The 
first public meeting to consider this subject was held at the 
town hall on the evening of Nov. 12, 1841, pursuant to a 
notice in the Sentinel of the nth. The Sentinel columns 
were freely opened for the discussion and furtherance of the 
project. The railroad was completed from Boston to Fitch- 
burg in February, 1845, and opened for use on the 5th of the 
following month. 



JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 



269 



The paper was again enlarged in August, 1845, to 24 by 
34 inches, by adding a column to each page. The suppres- 
sion of the liquor traffic and the promotion of the cause of 
temperance in the town was then agitating the public mind. 
The Sentinel took strong ground in favor of legal measures 
against the traffic, and its editor, by this means, brought 
upon himself the wrath of the dealers, one of whom threat- 
ened to publicly horsewhip him for articles published con- 
cerning liquor prosecutions in which he, the dealer, was 
defendant. 

About the time the Sentinel was started the printing office 
was moved to the second story of a wooden building, a little 
to the rear of the old office — about in the present driveway 
to the hotel stables. Its entrance was through an alley, and 
by a flight of outside stairs, between the old office and the 
present Emory House. The room vacated was used for 
years afterwards as a lodge room by the Masonic fraternity. 
In February, 1849, the office was moved into the present 
Sentinel building, then owned by Crocker & Caldwell. Pre- 
paratory to re-build- 
ing the hotel, in 
1850, the old office 
building's were re- 
moved, the Gazette 
building to the lot 
now known as Mon- 
ument square, where 
it was fitted up for 
tenements. It was 
afterwards removed 
to Oliver street, cor- 
ner of Adams, and is now owned by Marraton Upton. The 
old Sentinel building was moved to Central street, between 
Brook and Vine, where it still stands. 

In December, 1850, Mr. Merriam sold out to Elisha and 
John Garfield. The Sentinel now appeared with new type, 
the heading was changed to a text, or old English shaded 
letter, and the amount of reading matter was considerably 




270 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

increased. About this time the project of a new county, 
with Fitchburg as a shire town, was being pushed, and the 
Sentinel entered into the discussion with a lively interest in 
its favor. In September, 1852, J. F. D. Garfield bought 
John Garfield's interest, and in connection with his brother, 
Elisha, continued the business eight years, to October, i860. 
At the commencement of 1853 the paper appeared in a new 
dress ; it was somewhat enlarged, and had seven columns to 
a page instead of six. From October, i860, through the 
war period, the Sentinel was conducted by Elisha Garfield 
alone. In April, 1864, John Garfield again became a half- 
owner, and in September, 1865, sole owner of the establish- 
ment. Mr. James M. Blanchard became a partner with 
him, from April, 1866, to March, 1867, when Mr. Charles 
C. Stratton succeeded Mr. Blanchard as partner. In Janu- 
ary, 1870, Mr. Bourne Spooner took a third interest in the 
concern, and the style of the firm was Garfield, Stratton & 
Co., until January, 1871, when Mr. Garfield sold his interest 
to Messrs. Stratton & Spooner. In March, 1873, Mr. John 
E. Kellogg was admitted a joint partner, the new firm 
taking the name of The Sentinel Printing Company. In 
July, of the same year, Mr. Spooner withdrew, and Mr. 
Thomas Hale of Keene, N. H., a former editor of the Keene 
Sentinel, purchased Spooner's interest and became associ- 
ated with Messrs. Stratton & Kellogg in the editorial man- 
agement. Two years later Mr. Hale retired from the firm, 
and from that time to the present, Messrs. Stratton & Kellogg 
have constituted The Sentinel Printing Company, and had 
the entire management of the paper. In May, 1873, the 
Fitchburg Daily Sentinel was started, the first number being 
issued May 6. It was an evening paper, in size 21 by 30 
inches. The Daily Sentinel has been well conducted, and 
has continued vigorous and healthy to the present time. In 
October, 1881, the paper was enlarged to 23 by 35, and 
again in September, 1885, to 25 by 39, and in October, 1886, 
to 27 by 44 inches, both the daily and weekly being now 
of the same size. At different periods in its history the col- 
umns of the Sentinel have had the benefit of valuable editorial 



JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 271 

services from different individuals, among whom may be 
mentioned Hon. Joseph W. Mansur, William B. Town and 
Charles H. B. Snow, Esqs., and Col. E. P. Loring. 

In February, 1842, a small sheet, 13 by 20 inches, was 
started, christened the Cold Water Cup and Fitchburg 
Washingtonian. It was issued weekly, devoted to the cause 
of temperance, edited by William C. Elleck, and printed 
and published, at the office of the Sentinel, by W. J. Mer- 
riam. With the twelfth number the Cold Water Cup was 
discontinued, and its list of subscribers transferred to the 
Waterfall, a similar sheet then recently started at Worcester. 

In January, 1845, a new paper called The Wachuseit In- 
dependent was started by William S. Wilder and E. R. Wil- 
kins. Wilder was formerly editor of the Courier, and for 
one year edited the Sentinel. Wilkins was a printer. The 
paper was devoted to the "working-men's cause, genuine de- 
mocracy, anti-slavery," etc., published weekly, terms $1.25 
per year. The office was at first located in the attic of 
Snow's building, opposite the Fitchburg Hotel, now owned 
by G. N. Proctor ; but was soon moved to the' building at the 
corner of Main and Laurel streets, now known as the Citi- 
zens House. This was the first printing-office in that part of 
the village then known as the "old city." The Independant 
was discontinued at the end of six months, and its subscrip- 
tion list transferred to the Sentinel. 

The Voice of Industry, a weekly paper devoted to the 
cause of labor, was started May 29, 1845, "by an association 
of working-men ;" W. F. Young, editor; terms, one dollar in 
advance; the size of the sheet being 21 by«28 inches. The 
printing-office was opposite the Fitchburg Hotel, in the quar- 
ters vacated by the Waehuseti Independant . As stated un- 
der its editorial head, the Voice professed to "labor for the 
abolition of idleness, want and oppression — the prevalence 
of industry, virtue and intelligence." The editor was a 
harness maker by trade, had practiced the profession of a 
dentist, and could do a "good job" at either; as demonstrated 
by his labors, daily, while carrying on his editorial work. 

The shares in the Voice "association" were placed at five 



272 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

dollars each, and a goodly number of working men were in- 
duced to invest in the enterprise ; but when the original in- 
vestment was exhausted, and an attempt was made to assess 
the shares, there was trouble in the camp. The Voice con- 
tinued to be published here five or six months, and was then 
transferred to Lowell, where its publication was continued 
for a time. 

In February, 1847, a paper called the Fitchburg Tribune 
made its appearance from a printing-office located in Roll- 
stone block; George A. White, publisher and proprietor. 
The size of the sheet was 23 by 34 inches, published weekly, 
at $2.00 a year. It was well printed and its editorials well 
written, but it failed to receive the patronage necessary to 
become firmly established, and was discontinued in May fol- 
lowing its first appearance. Its editorial department was for 
a while in charge of Charles C. Haswell, Esq., of Concord, 
an experienced journalist, though his name did not appear. 

In January, 1852, The Fitchburg IVezvs, a weekly paper, 
made its appearance. Its size was 23 by 34 inches, price 
$1.25 a year in advance, and was printed in Rollstone block, 
the former office of the Tribune. The News was edited and 
published by Dr. Charles Robinson, afterwards Governor of 
Kansas, and was at first announced as "neutral in politics 
and religion ;" but its editor was a man too decided and posi- 
tive in his ideas to remain long on neutral ground, and the 
paper soon took a stand in support of the Free Soil party. 
It was spicy in its criticisms and newsy in its treatment of 
local affairs. Dr. Robinson continued the publication of the 
Nezvs one year, to January, 1853, when he sold out to Rol- 
lins & Knowlton, publishers of the Winchendon Itfirror, 
which latter paper was discontinued. Under its new man- 
agement, the News took a rapid decline, and in June follow- 
ing, it died a natural death. 

The Fitchburg Reveille, the first number of which ap- 
peared March 30, 1852, was a political paper, established to 
advocate the principles and policy of the old whig party. It 
was published semi-weekly, on a sheet 23 by 33 inches, the 
terms being $3.00 a year in advance. Mr. John J. Piper 



JOURNALISM IN F1TCHBURG. 273 

was the editor and proprietor, and the offiee was in Central 
block, (third story.) next west of the city hall. Mr. Piper 
was not a practical printer, but had had experience as a 
newspaper editor and manager previous to his coming to 
Fitchburg, having been for some years connected with the 
Semi-weekly JVe-ws, published at Gloucester, Mass. He 
conducted the Reveille with marked ability, during a period 
of nearly seventeen years, to the time of his death, which oc- 
curred on the 3d of February, 1869. An interesting sketch 
of his life appeared in the Reveille of the nth of that month. 
Mr. Piper was a fluent and forcible writer, and at times 
tipped his pen with a raciness and keenness of satire that 
caused his paper to be frequently quoted, and made his 
columns the field for many a sharp skirmish with political 
opponents. 

In the presidential campaign of 1856, the Reveille es- 
poused the cause of the republican party, advocated the elec- 
tion of Fremont, and was thereafter a staunch advocate of 
the principles of that party. The paper was enlarged in 
April, 1859, to 2 4 by- 36 inches, and continued to be issued 
as a semi-weekly till October, 1S61, when it was changed to 
a weeklv, and the price made $2.00, or $1.75 in advance. 
In October, 1866, it was further enlarged to 26 by 38 inches, 
and again in April, 1869, to 27 by 41 inches, having eight 
columns to the page. After the death of Mr. Piper, in 1869, 
his brothers, Joseph L. and Henry F. Piper, continued the 
publication of the Reveille, and soon removed the office to 
Rollstone Bank building. J. L. Piper retired from the 
concern in May, 1874, anc ^ tne paper was conducted by 
Henry F. Piper alone till Frank L. Boutelle became a part- 
ner with him in May, 1875. 

On November 24, 1875, Piper & Boutelle started a new 
daily paper in connection with the /Reveille, entitled the 
Fitchburg Daily Press. It was an evening paper, in size 
21 by 31 inches, and was announced as a campaign paper to 
discuss the issues of the then pending municipal election. It 
favored the election of H. A. Blood for mayor, who was 
elected. The Press was continued after the election till Au- 
18 



274 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

gust following, when the firm of Piper & Boutelle disap- 
peared as publishers of the Reveille, and the Daily Press 
dropped out of existence. 

The suspension of the Press was immediately followed 
by a new daily from the same office, called the Fitchburg 
Evening Chronicle, the first number appearing August ioth, 
with the name of Mr. Ezra S. Stearns as editor and mana- 
ger. The Chronicle was republican in politics, was neatly 
printed on new type, and ably edited ; but the enterprise was 
started during a period of general business prostration, and 
the time had not fully come for two daily papers to be suc- 
cessfully carried on in the place. Soon after the Chronicle 
was started, the printing and publication offices were re- 
moved from Rollstone Bank building to Rollstone Block, 
over the office of Norcross & Hartwell. Here the two pa- 
pers, the Reveille and Chronicle, were continued to Febru- 
ary 15, 1877, when they were both merged in the weekly 
and daily Sentinel. Thus closed the career of the Reveille, 
which had had an existence of a quarter of a century, and 
occupied a prominent position in the journalism of Fitchburg. 
Mr. J. J. Piper, its founder, had at the time of his death 
wielded the pen of a skilled journalist for a longer period in 
the town than any other person. 

In January, 1881, Mr. William M. Sargent commenced 
the publication of a weekly paper called The Fitchburg 
Tribune. It was a good looking sheet, 26 by 40 inches, 
and was issued from an office in Goodrich block, Day street, 
at $1.50 per year. In March, following, a Daily Evening 
Tribune was started from the same office, on a sheet 18 by 
25 inches. It was a penny paper, the yearly price being 
three dollars. In the summer of 1881, the Evening Tribune 
was enlarged to 22 by 30 inches, the price remaining the 
same as before. In July, 1882, Mr. Sargent disposed of his 
interest in the Tribune to J. W. Ellam of Clinton, who con- 
tinued it, daily and weekly. In April, 1883, Mr. Ellam 
retired, and the name of E. A. Norris appeared as "mana- 
ger." In September, 1884, Albert G. Morse became the 
publisher, and continued the paper to February, 1885, when 



JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 275 

the daily was discontinued and the weekly Tribune became 
the Fitchburg Weekly News. A. G. Morse was the printer, 
and J. II. White business manager. The News was issued 
in quarto form, on a sheet 26 by 40 inches. In May, 1885, 
Mr. White became the publisher, and continued the News to 
February, 1886, when he changed the name to the Monthly 
Visitor. The Visitor has continued to the present time, un- 
der the same management ; the name, however, having been 
changed to Ladies' Home Visitor. 

The Fitchburg Enterprise was started in December, 
1880, by Thomas C. Blood. It has been published three to 
live times a year, is a well patronized advertising sheet, and 
still lives. Each number contains some original as well as 
some selected reading matter of interest. 

The United States Monthly, a sixteen page paper, de- 
voted to the cause of temperance, good health, right living, 
intelligence and industry, and advocating especially prohibi- 
tory measures against the liquor traffic, was started in June, 
1885, by H. C. Bartlett; price, 50 cents a year. It is a 
neatly printed and well conducted paper, the size of the 
pages 11 by 14 inches, and has continued to the present 
time, doing valiant service in the cause of temperance and 
prohibition. In February, 1887, the price was reduced to 25 
cents a year, the size remaining the same. 

The Beacon Light, organ of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, is a small eight page paper, published monthlv. 
Its first issue was in September, 1887. The Parish Helper 
is a neat little monthly published in the interest of the parish 
of Christ Church. It was started in October,, 1887. 

A sixteen page monthly entitled Good Luck has recently 
made its appearance. It is largely devoted to advertising. 
Millard F. Jones is manager, at 155 Main street. 

In looking back over the period of journalism noticed, we 
find the way strewn with the wrecks of numerous enterprises 
that were from time to time launched upon the waters, 
weathered the breakers for a brief season, and passed to the 
inevitable. 

In 1854 a Dr. R. Parker came to Fitchburg and offered 



27(i FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

his professional services to the citizens. In August of that 
year he commenced the publication of a monthly paper 
called the Fitchburg Homoeopathic 'Journal. It proposed to 
treat of the medical science of homoeopathy "and many other 
things of importance to every family, whether they believed 
in homceopathy or not." It was in octavo form and lived 
three months. 

In October, 1854, a sma U sheet appeared entitled The 
Fitchburg Daily, printed and published by Plaisted & Bax- 
ter, at the office in Rollstone block. This was the first at- 
tempt to start a daily paper in Fitchburg. Its size was 18 
by 24 inches ; in politics it inclined strongly to native Ameri- 
canism ; and it survived just three days. Wm. A. Plaisted 
and John Baxter had been printers at the Sentinel office, but 
the editor was an adventurer who represented himself to be a 
doctor, and as having funds enough to "stand it" should the 
paper not pay for the first few months. The fact was he had 
little if any money, but obtained credit more than he de- 
served, and very suddenly decamped, leaving his printers to 
explain in a parting editorial, that "the human heart is de- 
ceitful above all things and desperately wicked." 

In May, 1855, the Country Journal, a literary paper for 
the home and fireside made its appearance from the office of 
the Fitchburg Reveille, J. J. Piper, editor and publisher. It 
was a large, handsome, well printed sheet, issued weekly, 
— made up largely of original contributions by well known 
writers of ability, whose services had been engaged for the 
purpose, — and bid fair to become a most desirable family 
paper : but it failed to receive sufficient encouragement, and 
lived but three months. 

In 1857 a small sheet appeared called The Inkstand. It 
was published monthly as an advertising sheet, by "Captain 
Sidnev," at the furniture store of Sidney D. Willis, and run 
from March to October. It was a combination of comicali- 
ties and quaint conceits, characteristic of its editor. It was 
well patronized and at the end of two months had to be en- 
larged, and was re-christened Inkstand and Reporter. It 
was the pioneer of all the advertising papers. Of its two 



JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 277 

editions monthly, the first was on sale at "one cent a copy," 
while the second, a week later, was distributed gratuitously. 

In November, 1869, Rev. George Trask published the 
first number of The Anti-Tobacco yournal. It was octavo 
in form, with 24 to 48 pages to a number, and was issued 
quarterly and as much oftener as funds came in to enable 
him to do it. It professed to be the organ of the "one man 
society" in the anti-tobacco crusade, and was filled with 
spicy, pungent and readable matter in the editor's own pecu- 
liar style, against the "use of the weed in all its forms." It 
was never issued very regularly, but was kept up at inter- 
vals for twelve or fifteen years. The first few vears the 
printing was clone in Boston ; but during the latter part of the 
time it was printed at the Fitchburg Reveille office. 

In December, 1865, the Rolhtonc Mirror, a sheet 20 by 
25 inches, started off' with a flourish as a weekly local paper 
from an office in Washington block. It was too spicy to last, 
and only survived a few weeks. No names of printer or 
publisher given. 

In June, 1881, a new illustrated paper appeared called the 
Church and Home, published monthly at West Fitchburg, at 
30 cents a year. It was edited by Rev. F. T. Pomerov, 
then pastor of the West Fitchburg Methodist Episcopal 
church, each number consisting of eight or ten pages, 11 by 
16 inches. It was continued through the year and disap- 
peared. 

Among the many advertising sheets of greater or less 
pretension, that have run for a brief season and then gone 
"the way of all the earth," may be mentioned the Trade 
yournal issued monthly, in 1867, by L. J. Brown ; the Wel- 
come Visitor, in 1872, by O. H. Perry and M. T. Doten ; 
the Pioneer Pictorial Advertiser, in 1872, by J. E. Man- 
ning ; The Railway Globe, started in 1874, i ssue d monthly 
for distribution in the railway trains : Charles B. Dennis and 
Charles E. Kirbv were the publishers as late as 1878 and 
'79; the Fitchburg Monthly Gazette, started in April, 1879, 
by L. J. Brown, C. E. Kirby manager, continued a year or 
two; the Commercial Advertiser, started April, 1879, and 



278 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

published monthly by John W. Ogden, was continued eigh- 
teen months. 

Some amusing amateur papers have been issued from 
time to time : The Pioneer by Charles Shepley in 1841 ; The 
Old Bachelor in 1842 ; The Mt. Rolhtone Star in 1848, all 
by boys in the Sentinel office ; The Manifesto in 1850, by 
the "Junto," at the office in Rollstone block. 

The pioneers in journalism, whose names are associated 
with the papers here during the first twenty years, have near- 
ly all gone to their reward. William dishing still remains 
doing good service to literature at his home in Cambridge. 

J. E. Whitcomb left Fitchburg in 1832, changed his 
name to James E. Wharton, and located in Wheeling, Va., 
where for some twenty years he successfully conducted the 
Wheeling Gazette and Times. He removed to Ohio about 
1856, and for a year or two published the Massillon Nezvs ; 
and in 1859 started in Brooklyn, N. Y., a new paper called 
the Brooklyn Daily Transcript. He was born Sept. 2, 
1809, and died in Portsmouth, Ohio, November 2, 1881, at 
the age of seventy -two, leaving a son who is a physician, and 
a daughter. 

John Page went to Norwich, Conn., in 1832, and started a 
new paper called the Independent Republican. He spent 
the last years of his life in New York working at his trade as 
compositor; and died there in October, 1856, at the age of 
forty-six years. A letter in the Fitchburg Sentinel of Aug. 
31, i860, gives some interesting particulars of his history. 

Benaiah Cook wenttoKeene, N. H., where he published 
for some years the Cheshire County Republican, and about 
1846 started The Philanthropist, and in 1850, the American 
Nezvs, both temperance and anti-slavery papers. The latter 
paper he conducted to the time of his death, August 8, 1852, 
at the age of fifty-one. 

Mark Miller went to Albany in the autumn of 1834, 

where he engaged in wood and copper engraving, which 

occupation he followed in that city and at Rochester till 

1848, when he removed to Racine, Wis., and published the 

Wisconsin Farmer till 1854. In 1862 he removed to Des- 



JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 279 

moines, and started the Homestead, which he edited till 
1870; then he established the Western Pomologist which he 
continued till his death, April 9, 1874, at the age of sixty- 
four. He was a clear and fluent writer, was thoroughly 
versed in the practical knowledge of horticulture, and being 
a skilful engraver was able to illustrate as well as write, 
which gave to his contributions to the literature of horticul- 

o 

ture especial value. 

George D. Farwell, Mr. Cooke's successor, on leaving 
Fitchburg gave up printing and engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness at St. Louis, Mo., in connection with steam-boating on 
the Mississippi river. He died at St. Louis, Sept. 12, 1850, 
from the effects of cholera, at the age of thirty-five. 

Rufus C. Torrey, after leaving the Courier, turned his at- 
tention to teaching, and while thus engaged wrote the His- 
tory of Fitchburg, which was published in 1836. In 1S3S 
he went to Alabama, read law and engaged in the active 
practice of the profession. He filled, from time to time, 
various positions of honor and trust ; was state senator, state 
solicitor, and judge of the county court. He died at Clai- 
borne, Ala., Sept. 13, 1882, at the age of sixty-nine years. 

John Garfield came to Fitchburg in 183 1. He was a na- 
tive of Langdon, N. H., where he was born April 10, 1815, 
and died in this city August 19, 1885, aged seventy years. 

William S. Wilder, after retiring from editorial labor, 
was for a time assistant postmaster of Fitchburg. He left 
here in 1846, and thenceforward was largely engaged in 
mission work in the city of New York. He died there, April 
18, 1887, at the age of eighty-two years. 

William J. Merriam, after disposing of the Sentinel, turned 
his attention to the law ; but after a few years gave up that 
profession and engaged in the drug business, which he con- 
tinued till his death. He died in this city, October 7, 1887, 
at the age of seventy -two years. 

The facts and figures in the foregoing sketch are a mere 
outline of journalism in Fitchburg. It remains for the histo- 
rian to clothe these bare details with a life and interest which 
the importance of the subject demands. 



CHAPTER XIY. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 




N the history of Fitchburg for the last half-cen- 
tury there are those who have been identified 
with the manufacturing and other business, who 
have not been mentioned in the preceding 
pages. Some of this number have retired from 
active business, while others are not now living. 
Several have passed away during the present 
year. 



Colonel Ivers Phillips, now a resident of Boulder, 
Colorado, was for many years connected with the manufact- 
uring and other business interests of Fitchburg, as well as 
the railroad interests of Worcester county. Both of his 
parents were natives of Fitchburg, but about the time of their 
marriage moved to Ashburnham, where on the twenty-eighth 
day of July, 1805, their son Ivers was born. At the age of 
seven years he came with his parents to Fitchburg, remain- 
ing until 1837, when he removed to Worcester, but returned 
to Fitchburg in 1844. 

In i860 he once more made Worcester his home, giving 
up business there in 1873 and going to Colorado. After 
spending the greater part of nine years in travel he built a 
fine residence in Boulder and settled down, probably for the 
remainder of his life. 

Mr. Phillips first became interested in the manufacturing 
business here in 1844, buying two mills at public auction. 
These he operated one year, in company with A. L. Ackley, 








n^yis? 




BIOGRAPHICAL. 281 

when he sold his interest in the stone mill to Mr. Ackley and 
bought the latter's interest in the Rockville Mill, which he 
continued to operate until the flood of 1850. 

During the six years previous to 1850, Mr. Phillips built 
two mills, with stone dams, the brick house now occupied by 
E. D. Works, and (with one or two unimportant exceptions) 
all the houses north of Mr. Works' on both sides of Phillips 
brook, besides several other houses. 

In May, 1850, a reservoir dam in Ashburnham gave way 
and the flood came rushing down through the valley, carry- 
ing everything before it. One of the mills recentlv built, 
together with a portion of the dam, was made a total wreck, 
and the other mills badly damaged. Mr. Phillips' Rockville 
Mill, one dwelling house and store were totally demolished. 
The flood came so suddenly that Mr. Carter, the clerk in the 
store, had not time to secure the money in the drawer, but 
seizing the books upon the counter "ran for dear life.'' 
He reached the door none to soon, for the books were swept 
from his arms and he only succeeded in saving his life by 
springing into a tree and remaining until the flood subsided. 

For several years after the flood Mr. Phillips continued to 
invest in manufacturing property, buying, building or sell- 
ing, but did not confine his operations to that alone. As 
president of the Hotel Company he had charge of the build- 
ing of the present Fitchburg Hotel, and as contractor built 
the present city hall ; as president of the Fitchburg & 
Worcester Railroad Co., took down the four wooden bridges 
on the road and replaced them with substantial stone arch 
bridges, also built the Old Colony freight house in Fitch- 
burg. 

For more than twenty years Mr. Phillips was continu- 
ously employed in railroad positions. He was an early 
advocate of the Vermont & Massachusetts railroad and a 
director, also a director of the Fitchburg & Worcester rail- 
road and the second president of the board. Subsequently 
he was a director and president of the Agricultural railroad, 
now a part of the Old Colony, and also of the Boston, Barre, 
& Gardner railroad, now operated by the Fitchburg railroad. 



282 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Upon taking charge of the Fitchburg & Worcester railroad 
in 1849, the debts of the corporation amounted to more than 
one-half the cost of the road. After the first year regular 
semi-annual dividends were paid and when Mr. Phillips left 
the road in 1866, there was but one debt outstanding amount- 
ing to $2,000, and money enough in the treasury to pay it. 

In military affairs Mr. Phillips was an enthusiast. In 
1827 he was commissioned a lieutenant, in 1834 he was 
colonel. Declining further promotion, he resigned May 26, 
1835, having been an officer eight years and not yet thirty 
years of age. 

In 1853 he was a member of the Massachusetts senate 
and from 1862 to 1869 assessor of Internal Revenue of the 
Eighth Massachusetts district, also for several years a trustee 
in the Fitchburg Savings Bank and a director in the Fitch- 
burg National Bank. For ten years past he has been a 
director in the First National Bank of Boulder, and its presi- 
dent for a portion of the time. 

Stephen Shepley, son of Stephen and Amelia Shattuck 
Shepley, was a native of Shirley, Mass., having been born 
in the south part of that town, Dec. 29, 1818. His early 
ancestors came from York, England, and settled in Groton, 
Mass. Of one branch of the family, Chief Justice Shepley 
of Maine was a distinguished representative. 

Mr. Shepley came to Fitchburg in 1844, and during the 
winter of that year and of 1S45 taught school in the brick 
school-house, which stood on the corner of Blossom and 
Crescent streets. Soon after, he entered into partnership 
with his brother Charles Shepley, in a wooden building, 
nearly opposite the Sentinel office. Here they kept a book- 
store and also took charge of the post-office. In 1846 the 
firm of S. & C. Shepley moved into the Torrey & Wood 
block and occupied the store which is now used as a meat 
market. Here Mr. Shepley remained till 187 1, when he 
moved into the savings bank block, then just completed. 

On Jan. 15, 1848, Charles Shepley (who was a popular 
and promising young man) died, and Stephen continued 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 283 

alone until 1852, when he sold the business; but the next 
year he formed a partnership with Rodney Wallace, then of 
Rindge, N. H. They bought back the business from Mr. 
H. R. Phelps, the gentleman to whom Mr. Shepley had sold 
it, and opened the store as wholesale and retail dealers in 
books, stationery, paper and paper stock. This business 
was a successful and increasing one. Mr. Shepley and Mr. 
Wallace continued in partnership for twelve years, when 
they dissolved, Mr. Shepley taking the book and stationery 
business and Mr. Wallace that of paper stock. Afterwards 
Mr. Shepley took as partners, successivelv, Mr. B. W. Eddy, 
Mr. Henry W. Stearns and George W. Baker. June 3, 
1879, within seven months of his death, he severed his con- 
nection with the store, on account of ill-health. 

In 1864, in company with Rodney Wallace, Benjamin 
Snow and S. E. Denton, he entered into the business of 
paper-making, but retired from it in about a year. He died 
Jan. 18, 1880, of heart disease, from which he had suffered 
for some years. 

Mr. Shepley was an active business man and was pros- 
pered in his private affairs ; but not only in business, in everv 
department of public life he was equally active, and was 
honored by his fellow-citizens with many offices of trust. 
He served on the school committee, and as a representative 
to the legislature in 1853, as a trustee of the public librarv, 
trustee of the Fitchburg Savings Bank, as a director of the 
Fitchburg National Bank, as a member of the State Board 
of Agriculture, and of the Massachusetts Genealogical and 
Historical Society, as well as in other places of responsibilitv. 
He took great interest in historical subjects, especially in 
town history, and many valuable facts in the History of 
Fitchburg have been obtained through his researches. In 
1876 he read a paper on John Fitch, in the town hall in 
Lunenburg, which was carefully prepared and very valua- 
ble. In agricultural matters he also took great interest, and 
was a valued member of the Worcester North Agricultural 
Society. He added greatly to the interest of the meetings 
of the Fitchburg Board of Trade by reading papers at van- 



284 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ous times, prepared by himself, and full of new facts and 
useful information. He was a social, genial, practical man, 
well read upon almost all subjects, and a most agreeable 
acquaintance. 

Goldsmith F. Bailey was born in East Westmoreland, 
N. H., July 17, 1823. When he was three years old his 
widowed mother removed with him to Fitchburg, where his 
early education was obtained. At the age of seventeen he 
began an apprenticeship as a printer in the office of the 
Bellows Falls Gazette^ of which paper he afterwards became 
publisher. In 1845 he commenced the study of law in the 
office of William C. Bradley of Westminster, Vt., but com- 
pleted it in the office of Torrey & Wood in Fitchburg. In 
the year 1848 he was admitted to the bar, and in the same 
year he became a partner in the law firm of N. Wood & Co. 
In 1856 he was chosen representative from Fitchburg to the 
legislature, and in the years, 1857 and 1859, respectively, he 
was elected to the state senate, where he served first as a 
member and then as chairman of the judiciary committee. 
Through these early years of life he was constantly rising in 
the respect and confidence of his fellow-citizens, and in the 
fall of i860 he was chosen by the republicans of the ninth 
congressional district to represent them in congress. 

Thus, at the early age of thirty-seven, he found himself 
on the threshold of an apparently brilliant future, with an 
enviable reputation as a lawyer, a legislator and a citizen. 
But now it was that he found himself in the grasp of that 
fatal disease, consumption, and nothing could stay its prog- 
ress. He visited Florida for his health, and returning, took 
his seat in congress during the extra session, and again went 
to Washington in December ; but was soon obliged to resign 
his seat and return to his home, where he died May 8, 1862. 

Mr. Bailey seems, in an unusual degree, to have won the 
confidence and esteem of all who knew him. He was a 
witty, agreeable companion and a true-hearted, generous 
man. In business he was thorough, in thought clear and 
rapid, with almost intuitive perception of the motives of men. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 285 

The Boston Advertiser said of him at the time of his nomina- 
tion to congress : — 

"The republican convention in the Ninth, or Worcester 
district, yesterday nominated for congress Goldsmith F. 
Bailey of Fitchburg. This is a strong nomination. We 
have witnessed with pleasure Mr. Bailey's course in active 
service in both houses of the legislature ; quiet and unob- 
trusive, he has made his influence widely felt. Indefatigable 
in the committee room, with a mind well stored with the 
principles of law and of justice, in debate quick to appre- 
hend the points of argument on all sides, impartial in form- 
ing his own opinion, lucid in its expression, he is the sort of 
man who makes the most useful legislator." Other Boston 
and Worcester papers spoke of the nomination in a similar 
vein. 

In our cemetery, overlooking the village, stands a plain 
marble shaft, erected to the memory of Goldsmith Fox 
Bailey by his friends. Upon it is inscribed the Latin word, 
resurgam (I shall rise again). It is a touching tribute to 
his memory, for it shows that the instinctive, consoling 
thought of his friend was that a life of such promise, so cut 
short, must be rounded out and completed where disease and 
death have no home nor abiding place. 

C. H. B. Snow, son of Dr. Peter B. Snow, was born 
Aug. 7, 1822. A native of Fitchburg, as was his father, 
and here he spent his whole life. He was a graduate 
of Harvard College, in the class of 1844, and commenced 
the practice of law in 1848, having studjed with Messrs. 
Wood & Torre)'. For several years he was a law partner 
with Hon. Amasa Norcross, but for the last eleven years 
of his life he was connected in business with Judge T. 
K. Ware, under the firm name of Messrs. Ware & Snow. 
At the time of his death, Sept. 18, 1875, he was state senator 
from this district. For many years he was a prominent 
member of the board of school committee and board of trade, 
chairman of the board of trustees of the public library, and 
clerk of the vestry of Christ church. His social standing, 



28(5 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

his gentlemanly bearing, his courteous and affable demeanor, 
all combined to endear him to his fellow-townsmen, beside a 
large circle of acquaintances throughout the state. As a 
lawyer "he was learned, sagacious, faithful and honest ; he 
won and retained the confidence of his clients, and the re- 
spect and esteem of parties to whom he was opposed. In 
the performance of his various duties, both private and offi- 
cial, in his native city and in the senate of the state, he was 
actuated by a conscientious regard to the trusts committed to 
him, uninfluenced by any considerations of personal benefits 
or partisan objects." 

Lewis Hoppin Bradford was a lineal descendant of 
the eighth generation of Governor William Bradford, who 
was governor of Plymouth colony from April, 162 1 — four 
months after the landing on Plymouth Rock — till 1633, and 
whose vigorous treatment of the "Indian Question" doubtless 
saved the infant colony from extermination. He was also 
a lineal descendant of the second Governor Bradford, son of 
the preceding governor. He also counted among his an- 
cestors John Alden, the "Scribe of Plymouth" whom all 
readers of Longfellow recall as having brought the "Court- 
ship of Miles Standish" to an abrupt termination. 

Deacon Bradford's later ancestors followed Roger Wil- 
liams to Providence, where he was born March 5, 1808. He 
was educated at the public schools of his native city, and 
while a young man was in the wooden-ware business in 
Providence and New York city, a member of the firm of 
Child, Viall & Wood. He moved to Gardner about 1845 
and was for a time interested in the South Gardner Chair 
Company. He was also interested in a store at South 
Gardner in company with S. W. A. Stevens and William 
Hogan. He served on the board of selectmen in 1848 and 
was moderator at the annual town meetings in 1848 and '49. 

When the Rollstone Bank was organized in June, 1849, 
he was elected a director, and in October of the same year 
he was chosen the first cashier and resigned the position of 
director — the state law not allowing a person to hold both of- 



»"^- 





Nathaniel Wood. Goldsmith F. Bailey. Stephen Shepley. 




C. H. B. Snow. 



L. H. Bradford 



Charles Mason. 







John Lowe. 



George Reed. 



Samuel Burnap. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 287 

iices at the same time. He removed to Fitchburg about that 
time and was cashier till December, 1856, when he resigned 
to engage in other business. In 1859 ne was again elected 
director and held the office till his death. 

At the organization of the Fitchburg Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Company June 29, 1847, he was chosen a director and 
has been re-elected every year since the organization. He 
was elected secretary Sept. 25, 1869, and succeeded the late 
Nathaniel Wood as president and treasurer Oct. 22, 1873. 

Deacon Bradford was early interested in the movement 
which culminated in the abolition of slavery, and in 1853 he, 
with the late Stephen Shepley, represented Fitchburg in the 
legislature. 

He was a staunch supporter of the government during 
the war, and, though too old to enter the ranks, his time and 
means were freely given. In 1862, soon after the battle of 
Roanoke Island, he and the late Hale W. Page were sent by 
the town to look after the sick and wounded soldiers. Their 
mission was faithfully and successfully accomplished, and 
they returned north with a number of disabled soldiers, 
among whom was Dr. James S. Green, assistant surgeon of 
the 2 1 st Mass. regiment, who was lying very sick near Ilat- 
teras Inlet. Dea. Bradford rode for several miles in a heavy 
gale to rescue Dr. Green. 

For several years before becoming secretary of the insur- 
ance company he was U. S. assistant assessor of internal 
revenue in the office in this city. He was president of the 
Worcester North Agricultural Society in 1S62 and '63, and 
secretary of the same society in 1864, '67, '68 and '69. He 
was a prominent member of the Baptist church in this city, 
and has been a deacon since May 5, 1865. He was also 
clerk of the Baptist church from July 27, i860, to Dec. 18, 
1883, when he resigned. He was for fourteen years the 
church treasurer, and treasurer of the Wachusett Baptist As- 
sociation from its formation, and the first president of the 
Wachusett Baptist Sunday School Convention. 

He has also been treasurer of the Baptist Vineyard Asso- 
ciation since its incorporation Jan. 1, 1876, and was one of 



288 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

its most faithful supporters. He was also treasurer of the 
Hospital Cottages for Children at Baldwinsville, and has 
always taken a deep interest in its work. He was a trustee 
of the public library from April 9, 1866, till his death, Aug. 
23, 1887, and was treasurer of the board most of the time. 
He has been a trustee of the Worcester North Savings Insti- 
tution since its organization in 1868, and was secretary of 
the board till 1880. 

Dea. Bradford's character needs no eulogy. Faithful to 
every trust, honorable and kindly in all his relations with 
others, charitable in his judgment of motives and acts, cour- 
teous to all, he attained to a rounded Christian manhood and 
leaves the record of an irreproachable life. 

Charles Adams Priest was the third child of Benjamin 
and Nancy Coolidge Priest. He was born in the town of 
Hillsboro, N. H., May 3, 1832, and at the time of his death 
was fifty-five years, four months and sixteen days old. He 
received his early education in the common schools of his 
native town, supplemented by a short course at the Washing- 
ton and Francestown academies. About the time of his 
majority, he engaged in trade in his native village. In 1854 
he married Miss Emily Baily of Brookline, N. H., whose 
acquaintance he formed while at school. In November, 
1865, he removed to Brookline, and engaged in the lumber 
business, at the stand of his deceased father-in-law, the late 
Ensign Baily. He remained in Brookline until February, 
1870. 

Mr. Priest came to Fitchburg in 1870, and was after- 
wards engaged in the lumber business most of the time. He 
was superintendent for the Fitchburg Lumber Company in 
1872 and '73, and succeeded the company at the yard on 
Water street after they closed business. In 1878 he leased 
the works on Rollstone street, formerly occupied by the 
Beckwith Lumber Company, which he subsequently pur- 
chased and which he enlarged and improved. He was a 
member of the common council in 1879, '^ I > ^ 2 anc ^ '^3' anc ^ 
rendered the city valuable service on the committees on high- 





UUL4 




<U£l. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 2S{) 

ways and city property the first two years, and on the 
committees on fire department, city property and elections 
the last two years. 

He was president of the Worcester North Agricultural 
society in 1885, and declined a re-election on account, of im- 
paired health. He was a leading member of the Masonic 
fraternity, having been Eminent Commander of Jerusalem 
Commandery, Knights Templar, in 1882, '83 and '84. He 
was also a member of Aleppo Temple of the Arabic Order of 
the Mystic Shrine of Boston. 

Mr. Priest was a leading democrat and, though strong in 
the party faith, he was courteous to political opponents and 
had the respect of men of all political creeds. He was the 
democratic candidate for senator in 1884 and '85, and polled 
more than the full party vote. He was a kind and consider- 
ate employer, honorable in all his dealings, and had built up 
a prosperous and increasing business. 



19 



CHAPTER XV. 




CHURCHES AND HOMES. 

ITCHBURG does not lack earnest and 
efficient church organizations and attractive 
houses of worship. 

The First Congregational Church 
(Unitarian) was formed Jan. 7, 1768. 
The present Unitarian church edifice at the 
head of the upper common was erected in 
1837. The first settled minister, Rev. John 
y Payson, was ordained Jan. 27, 1768, and 
remained until May, 1794. His successor. Rev. Samuel 
Worcester, was ordained a pastor in September, 1797. Dur- 
ing the interval between the two pastorates the pulpit was 
supplied by Rev. John Kimball, Rev. John Miles, Rev. Mr. 
Noyes and others. Rev. Samuel Worcester's relations with 
the church were dissolved in September, 1802. 

About this time the church was divided into two societies 
and the parochial powers of the town dissolved. The First 
Parish held the church property, and in 1804 ordained the 
Rev. William Bascom as their minister. In 181 2 at his own 
request the parish granted Mr. Bascom a dismissal and the 
societies were temporarily re-united. This union existed 
until 1823, with Rev. William Eaton as pastor from 1815 to 
1823, when a final separation took place. 

Rev. Calvin Lincoln, the first Unitarian pastor, was 
then ordained in 1824 and remained settled over the parish 
until 1855 ; Rev. Horatio Stebbins, his colleague, from 1851 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. 2!»1 

to 1854; Rev. William P. Tilden, 1855 to 1862; Rev. Jared 
M. Heard, 1863 to 1864; Rev. Henry F. Jenks, 1867 to 
1870; Rev. Charles W. Emerson, 1871 to 1875 ; Rev. James 
T. Hewes, 1875 to 1880; Rev. William H. Pierson, from 
1 88 1 to the present time. 

The officers of the church and Sunday School are : 
Pastor, Rev. William II . Pierson ; moderator, George II. 
Spencer; assessors, Edwin A. Goodrieh, John F. Bruce; 
Deacons, A. R. Ordway, T. S. Blood; treasurer, Joseph 
P. Farnsworth ; sexton, Nathan C. Upham ; organist, A. 
S. Belding. Sabbath school held in the vestry, superintend- 
ent, Emory A. Hartwell. 

The Rev. William H. Pierson, the present pastor, was 
born at Newburyport, Mass., Jan. 12, 1839. ^ n January, 
185 1, at the age of twelve years he went into the printing 
office of the Newburyport Herald, where he remained six 
years, when he entered the Brown High School of his native 
city to tit for college. He was admitted to Bowdoin College, 
Brunswick. Me., in i860, graduated in 1864 and then 
entered the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J., where 
he completed his course in 1867. From January, 1868, to 
July, 1872, he was pastor of the South Parish at Ipswich, 
Mass. From August 1872, to January, 1881, he was pastor 
of the Winter Hill Congregational church, Somerville, 
Mass. During his pastorate of nearly nine years in Somer- 
ville, his religious opinions slowly undergoing a change, he 
felt called upon to resign. In June, 1881, he was ordained 
pastor of the First Parish (Unitarian) church in this city, 
Rev. Dr. Bartol of Boston preaching the installation sermon. 

THE CALVINISTIC CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

The early history of this church previous to its separation 
from the First Parish has already been given at the begin- 
ning of this chapter. 

October 31, 1823, it was voted "that this church remove 
its connection from the First Parish and unite with the Cal- 
vinistic Congregational society formed this day in the town 



292 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

of Fitchburg." At once the church, to the number of 102, 
removed to the small house of worship on the spot where the 
present Calvinistic church now stands, on the corner of Main 
and Rollstone streets. This church was built during the 
pastorate of Rev. Titus Theodore Barton in 1805, it was en- 
larged in 1828 and used until the present brick building took 
its place in 1844. The pastors since 1823 have been as fol- 
lows : 

Rev. Rufus A. Putnam, from February, 1824, to March, 
1831 ; Rev. John A. Albro, May, 1832, to December, 1834; 
Rev. Joshua Emery, May, 1835, to June, 1837 '> Rev. Eben- 
ezer W. Bullard, July, 1838, to June, 1852 ; Rev. G. Buck- 
ingham Wilcox, June, 1853, to August, 1856; Rev. Alfred 
Emerson, June, 1858, to June, 1870 ; Rev. Henry M. Tyler, 
December, 1872, to December, 1876; Rev. Samuel J. Stew- 
art, April, 1877, to September, 1880; Rev. S. Leroy Blake, 
September, 1880, to April, 1887. 

Pastor, Rev. Clarence R. Gale. Sabbath school held in 
the chapel on Rollstone street, superintendent, D. B. Silsby ; 
assistants — I. O. Converse, C. A. Phillips. 

Parish Officers — Clerk, Edward P. Downe ; treasurer, 
Eben Bailey ; assessors, Charles P. Dickinson, Arthur H. 
Lowe, Daniel Simonds. 

Church Officers — Deacons, John Parkhill, J. Calvin 
Spaulding, David B. Silsby, Artemas F. Andrews, Henry 
M. Francis, Irving O. Converse ; clerk, Edward P. Downe ; 
treasurer, William K. Bailey ; organist, Mrs. Holgate ; 
chorister, William Knowles. 

Although without a settled pastor the C. C. church has 
extended a unanimous call to the Rev. Clarence R. Gale, 
assistant pastor of Memorial church, Springfield, who ac- 
cepts to begin his labors here Jan. 1, 1888. 

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 

In 1831, at their request, five persons in the town of 
Fitchburg, members of the branch Baptist church in Leom- 
inster, were set apart as a branch church in Fitchburg. On 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. 



293 



the eighth of June it was organized with the powers and 
privileges of an independent church, and public religious ser- 
vices were for some time held in Academy Hall. 

In the summer of 1833 a house of worship was built on 
West street, and on the fourteenth day of November the 
branch church was separated from the parent stock. On the 




J- '■1-iLl 
FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 



same day Samuel Crocker and Samuel A. Wheeler were set 
apart as deacons. The independent church now consisted of 
sixty-two members, and in the next twenty years 226 persons 
were baptized into its fellowship. The increasing congrega- 
tion demanding a larger house of worship, the present 



294 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

edifice on Main sjtreet was built at a cost of $25,000 and 
dedicated March 1, 1854. 

The audience room of the church is a standing memorial 
to the good judgment and architectural skill of the building 
committee. There is not a pillar anywhere in the way, the 
pews are circular, and the acoustic properties as nearly per- 
fect throughout as could well be. A whisper can almost if 
not quite be heard across it. 

Within the present year the growth of the Sunday school 
and the general prosperity of the church demanded more 
room and improved facilities for church work. Plans of en- 
largement that had been long considered were fully matured, 
and through the very generous offer of Mr. Samuel E. 
Crocker the society was encouraged to proceed. The entire 
space in the rear of the meeting house was covered by a 
chapel building ; thus securing a spacious, well ventilated 
room for the school and social meetings, also class rooms, 
primary department, library, pastors study, a more conven- 
ient baptistry and dressing-rooms. The old vestry w r as 
utilized for ladies' parlor, dining rooms and kitchen. The 
auditorium was at the same time thoroughly renovated, fitted 
with stained glass windows, the singers' gallery changed to 
the rear of the pulpit and provided with a magnificent Hook 
& Hastings organ. The entire property is one of the best to 
be found within the denomination in this part of the state. 

The pastors of the First Baptist church have been settled ; 
Nov., 1833, Rev. Appleton Morse; resigned Nov., 1834. 
Feb., 1835, Rev. John W. McDonald; resigned Oct., 1835. 
Jan., 1836, Rev. Lorenzo O. Lovell ; resigned Feb. 1837. 
April, 1837, Rev. Appleton Morse ; died Oct., 1838. March, 
1839, R ev - N. W. Smith; resigned Feb., 1841. March, 
1841, Rev. Oren Tracy; resigned Oct., 1845. March, 1846, 
Rev. Stephen Remington; resigned Nov., 1846. Nov., 
1846, Rev. Edward Savage; resigned Oct., 1851. Nov., 
1851, Rev. John Jennings; resigned April, 1855. Dec, 
1855, Rev. Kendall Brooks; resigned May, 1865. Aug., 
1865, Rev. Samuel A. Collins; resigned Aug., 1867. Nov., 
1867, Rev. Stillman B. Grant; died Dec, 1874. April, 





Rev. Frank Rector. 


*5> 


jfijfc 




^yj/ 


({ <4ff^^ 


\ «TM IH 


^^e^^^fflar^^ 



Rev. F. T. Pomeroy. 




Rev. W.W. Baldwin. Rev. J. L. Tarpey. Rev. C.^eau^oin. 

FITCHBURG CLERGYMEN— PAST AND PRESENT. 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. 2i>5 

1875, Rev. Isaac R. Wheelock ; resigned May, 1885. Oct., 

1885, Rev. George W. Gardiner, D. D. ; resigned, June, 

1886. Nov., 1886, Rev. Frank Rector. 

Church Officers — Pastor, Rev. Frank Rector ; Deacons, 
E. G. Stanley, Mial Davis, M. W. Cummings, C. K. Saw- 
yer ; superintendent Sabbath school, George M. Bowker; 
assistant superintendent, H. C. Hastings. 

Parish Officers — Assessors, Dr. A. W. Sidney, W. A. 
Macurda, John II. Daniels ; clerk, J. C. Sanborn ; treasurer, 
W. G. Haves; sinp-inp; committee, S. E. Crocker, L. M. 
Davis, A. W. Sidney ; organist and director, Charles Smith ; 
sexton, Henry Ames. 

Rev. Frank Rector, the present pastor of the First Bap- 
tist church, was born July 20, 185 1, near Parkersburg, 
Wood county, W. Va. His father, one of the pioneer 
Baptists of that state, was a native of the Old Dominion, and 
his mother was born in Vermont. At the age of seventeen 
he made public profession of religion and united with the 
church of which his father was at that time pastor. The 
early years of his life, including the turbulent days of the 
war, were spent on a farm on the banks of the Ohio river. 
In the autumn of 1872 he entered the preparatory school at 
Granville, Ohio, and two years later, in the same town, en- 
tered the freshman class of Denison University, and was 
graduated from that institution in the class of '78. The fol- 
lowing summer was spent in travel through the two Vir- 
ginias, and in the fall of that year he entered the Theological 
Institution at Newton Centre, Mass., and was graduated 
from that school in the spring of 1881. During the next four 
months he acted as supply for the Second Baptist church of 
Newport, R. I., and at the end of the time was invited by 
that people to become their pastor. The call was accepted, 
and Sept. 6, 1881 — known throughout New England as the 
"yellow day" — Mr. Rector was ordained. After a pastorate 
of five and one-half years he was called to succeed Rev. 
George W. Gardiner, D. D., in the pastoral office of the 
First Baptist church of this city, which position he now 
holds. 



296 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

This church and society was formed in March 1834, anc ^ 
the church edifice which stands near the foot of the common 
was built in 1840. In October, I885, the society purchased 
from Thomas S. Blood a lot of land on the corner of Fox and 
Elm streets, and in July and August, 1886, laid the founda- 
tion of their new church edifice. In April, 1887, work was 
resumed upon the building, and it is now nearly completed, 




NEW METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 



Jan. 1, 1888, being the time set for its dedication. The in- 
terior comprises a large audience room, vestry, ladies' parlor, 
infant Sunday school room, pastor's room and kitchen. The 
church organ was built by Holbrook. 

The first pastor of the church was Rev. Joel Knight; in 
1 841-2, the Rev. Mr. Whitman ; Rev. Luman Borden, 
1843-4; Rev. Amos Walton, 1845; Rev. D. K. Banister, 
1846-7 ; Rev. A. D. Sargent, 1848-9 ; Rev. C. S. Macread- 
ing and Rev. Daniel Steele, 1850; Rev. J. W. Lewis, 
1851-2 ; Rev. Samuel Tupper, 1853-4; Rev. George M. 
Steele, D. D., 1855; Rev. W. A. Bramon, 1856; Rev. 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. 297 

Burtis Judd, 1857-8; Rev. U. K. Banister, 1859; Rev - H - 
M. Loud, 1860-1 ; Rev. A. O. Hamilton, 1S62-3 ; Rev. 
George M. Steele, D. D., 1864: Rev. L. D. Barrows, D. 
D., 1865; Rev. William H. Hatch, 1866-8; Rev. Joseph 
Scott, 1869-70; Rev. J. S. Barrows, 1871 ; Rev. D. D. 
Hudson, 1872 ; Rev. W. W. Colburn, 1873-5 ; Rev. C. T. 
Johnson, 1876; Rev. J. O. Knowles, 1877; Rev. Fred 
Woods, D. D., 1878-9 ; Rev. J. H. Twombly, D. D., 1880-2 ; 
Rev. William J. Pomfret, 1883-4; Rev - T - Berton Smith, 
1.885-7. 

The present officers of the church and Sunday school are : 
Pastor, Rev. T. Berton Smith ; Trustees — President, Henry 
O. Putnam ; treasurer, E. N. Choate ; John Putnam, Lyman 
Patch, Charles A. Morgan, James Puffer, C. S. Merriam, 
William E. Henry, Charles Oliver, C. C. Stratton, Charles 
W. Putnam ; stewards, James Phelps, Edward F. Lincoln, 
Edward Newitt, J. H. Potter, George E. Watson, Fred A. 
Hale, David C. Sleeper, J. E. Luscombe ; recording stew- 
ard, Charles A. Morgan. Superintendent of Sabbath school, 
A. E. Joslin ; assistant, Charles Oliver ; collector, Edward 
Newitt ; treasurer, Charles Oliver. 

TRINITARIAN CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

In 1843 the intense feeling on the slavery question caused 
a portion of the Calvinistic Congregational church to secede, 
and a new society called the "Trinitarian Congregational" 
was organized. They erected the building now owned by J. 
M. Carpenter and known as the Post- Office block, at the 
corner of Main and Church streets, in 1844. They were 
active and earnest workers in the slavery controversy and it 
was known as one of the so called stations on the Under- 
ground railroad to Canada, in the flight of the slave to 
freedom. It is a noticeable fact that the slavery question was 
their only uniting force, and that when the freedom of the 
slave was secured, the society began to lose its cohesive 
power and its last sermon was preached on the clay that the 
equality of the negro, before the law, was guaranteed. And 



298 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

on the fifteenth of November, 1S71, the church building was 
sold at auction to John M. Carpenter for $14,300. Largely 
through the efforts of the Rev. George Trask, of "anti- 
tobacco fame," who was for several years the pastor, the 
proceeds of the sale were disposed of by presenting the Rev. 
Elnathan Davis, a former pastor, $2,000 as a token of appre- 
ciation of his earnest labors for the society, and the balance 
was given to the Freedman's Aid Society. 

The first officers of the Trinitarian church were the Rev. 
George Clark, pastor ; Timothy F. Downe and Nathan Tol- 
lman, deacons. The other pastors were Rev. Foster Petti- 
bone, Rev. Charles Bristol, Rev. George Trask and Rev. 
Elnathan Davis. 



THE FIRST UNIVFRSAEIST CHURCH. 

This church and society was organized Oct. 9, 1844. 
Their first church upon the corner of Main and Rollstone 
streets, was built in 1847. For some years past it had been 
felt the church was not well located for the convenience 
of worshippers, and that a new and more modern church 
building, more centrally located, would tend to enhance the 
material and spiritual prosperity of the organization. In 
pursuance of this idea a lot of land on the corner of Day and 
Union streets was secured, and the present attractive and fine 
edifice was built. The doors were thrown open to the public 
in February, 1886. 

The pastors settled over the society since its organization 
have been as follows, the dates given being the close of the 
several pastorates : Rev. Mather E. Hawes, spring of 1849 > 
Rev. Charles Woodhouse, fall of 1852 ; Rev. Josiah Marvin, 
spring of 1856 ; Rev. A. W. Bruce, spring of 1859 ' R ev - A. 
J. Weaver, spring of 1864 ; Rev. E. A. Eaton in charge, 
spring of 1865 ; Rev. J. G. B. Heath, spring of 1866; Rev. 
Joseph Crehore, July, 1870; Rev. Frank Magwire, spring 
of 1879 > R ev - R- S. Kellerman, January, 1884 ; Rev. Frank 
O. Hall, from June 1, 1884. 

The church and Sunday school officers are : Pastor, Rev. 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. 



2 Oil 



F. O. Mall ; deacons, Horace Damon, Joseph S. Wilson ; 
standing committee, Henry L. Rice, J. D. Littlehale, F. S. 
Lovell ; clerk, J. Frank Fisher; treasurer, Walter A. Davis. 
Sunday school in church ; superintendent, J. S. Wilson ; 
assistant, Herbert A. Damon ; sexton, Thomas W. Reynolds. 




NEW UNIVERSALIS!' CHURCH. 

The present pastor, Rev. Frank Oliver Hall, was born in 
New Haven, Conn., March 19, i860. He resided in Cali- 
fornia and Georgia through the greater part of his boyhood, 
but in 1877, his parents having removed to Maine, he entered 
Nichols Latin school at Lewiston, with the purpose of fitting 
for college. He entered Tufts College, Divinity School, in 
1880, was graduated in 1884 ; took charge of his present 
pastorate immediately after graduating. 



300 fitchburg, past and present. 

st. Bernard's roman catholic parish. 

Religious services were held in Fitchburg for the 
Catholics as far back as 1842, but it was not until 1848 that 
the society had a church and a resident pastor, Rev. M. F. 
Gibson, with 800 souls. Rev. Edward Turpin succeeded 
Father Gibson in 1856 and remained ten years. He was 
succeeded by Rev. C. M. Foley in 1866. Father Foley 
built the present church edifice, one of the finest in the city, 
in 1869. Rev. P. J. Garrigan took charge of the parish in 
1875, and embellished the interior of the church and dedi- 
cated it 1879. He also purchased land and built the present 
church in West Fitchburg, which is now a separate parish 
and sustains its own pastor. He also built the present parish 
house, a neat brick edifice on Water street, and the parochial 
school and Convent on First street. The number of souls in 
this parish is estimated at about 4,000. 

The church has a Sunday school of 900 children taught 
by some eighty teachers, young people of the parish. There 
are three temperance societies here, one for men twenty years 
of age and over ; one for boys from fifteen to twenty years of 
age, and one for boys from ten to fifteen years ; the member- 
ship in these three societies, over each of which a clergyman 
has special care, is about 500 men and boys. There is also 
a Christian Doctrine society, whose object is the diffusion of 
knowledge of Christian Doctrine and the establishment of a 
library for the Sunday school and members. Then there is 
a society of the Holy Name with about 100 men ; the Sodality 
of the Sacred Heart for young (unmarried) ladies, and the 
Rosary Confraternity for all ages and both sexes. These 
last three have for object, growth in virtue and fidelity in the 
service of God. Finally there is a Conference of St. Vincent 
de Paul whose object is the care of the poor of the parish. 
The members meet weekly, have a perfect system of assisting 
the poor, and they spend annually in charity about $600. 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. 301 

CHRIST CHURCH (EPISCOPAL). 

This church and society was organized Oct. 7, 1863, 
with the Rev. H. L. Jones, of New York city, as the first 
rector. Their church, which is a tine stone building, was 
built in 1S67, and consecrated in April, 1868. It is situated 
on Main street, between Hartwell and Fox streets, and ad- 
jacent to Monument Square, (as shown in the view of Monu- 
ment Square in the military chapter.) 

In February, 1875, the Rev. H. L.Jones was succeeded 
by the Rev. T. Logan Murphy, of Newport, R. I., who re- 
signed Nov. 9, 1876. The Rev. Emilius W. Smith, of Mc- 
Keesport, Penn., accepted the invitation of the church in 
August, 1877, and resigned June 2, 1884; from this time the 
parish was supplied by the Rev. G. W. Porter, D. D., until 
June 1885, when the present Rector was settled. 

The officers of the church and Sunday school are : 
Rector, Rev. Charles Morris Addison ; wardens, Dennis 
Fay, George D. Colony; vestry, George F. Fay, John 
Upton, James L. Chapman, Charles T. Crocker, Henry T. 
Page, A. B. Haskell, Alvah Crocker, C. A. Cross, Eli 
Culley, J. W. Ogden ; treasurer, George F. Fay ; clerk, 
James L. Chapman; organist, William H. Gerrish ; sexton, 
William Wood. Sunday school held in the church. 

Charles Morris Addison, the present Rector of Christ 
church, was born in Charlestown, Mass., July 16, 1856. 
His early life was passed in Washington, D. C, where he 
was educated at the Preparatory Department of Columbia 
College. He was prepared by tutor for the Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N. Y., where he studied civil 
engineering. In 1878 he went to Cambridge, Mass., and 
prepared at Harvard College and the Episcopal Theological 
School for the ministry. Graduating in 1882, he was called 
to the Rectorship of St. John's church, Arlington, Mass., and 
appointed missionary at Winchester. In 1885 he was called 
to his present parish and assumed charge June 1, 1885. 



302 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



ROLLSTONE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 



In 1868, owing to the insufficiency of the Calvinistic 
church to accommodate the increased congregations, and the 
evident need of a church in the easterly section of the village, 
a division took place, and the Rollstone church and society 
was formed. 




ROLLSTONE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

Rev. Leverett W. Spring, a graduate of Williams Col- 
lege and of Hartford Theological Seminary was engaged as 
pastoral supply for one year. The first public services were 
held in the hall of the American House, March 8, 1868. 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. ."><».") 

The church was organized on the sixteenth of the following 
month, comprising 150 members. Oliver Ellis and J. A. 
Conn were appointed deacons -pro ton fore. On the same 
day Mr. Spring was ordained, and installed as pastor. Soon 
after this the society was incorporated, and steps were imme- 
diately taken to raise funds for building a church. A site 
was secured at the intersection of Main and Snow streets, 
ground was broken for the foundation in August, 1868, and 
the corner stone laid Oct. 5, of the same year. The church 
was dedicated Feb. 24, 1870. The first deacons of the 
church were Samuel Burnap, Oliver Ellis, John A. Conn, S. 
Newell Weston, David Boutelle, William L. Bullock. The 
pastors have been Rev. Leverett W. Spring, from April, 
1868, to March, 1875. The Rev. G. R. W. Scott, D. D., 
entered upon his duties as pastor in the fall of 1875, continu- 
ing in active service until December 1885, when he was 
obliged to give up his work for a time and seek needed rest. 
In the winter of 1886 he went abroad, the Rev. W. S. Alex- 
ander, D. D., supplying in his absence. Dr. Scott finding 
that his health would not warrant his return, the people of 
his charge reluctantly accepted his resignation, and Mav 11, 
1887, his successor, the present pastor, was installed. 

Charles S. Brooks, the present pastor of the Rollstone 
Congregational church, was born in New Braintree, Mass., 
Jan. 19, 1840. He graduated at Williston Seminary, East 
Hampton, in 1858, and at Amherst College in 1863. After 
engaging in teaching over two years as principal of the high 
and grammar school in Rockland, Mass., he pursued a 
course of theological study at Andover Seminary, from which 
he graduated in 1869. He was pastor of the Congregational 
church in Tyngsboro, Mass., from September, 1869, to 
August, 1872 ; of the Congregational church, South Deer- 
field, Mass., from January, 1873, to April, 1877 ; of the Sec- 
ond Congregational church in Putnam, Conn., from May. 
1877, to February, 1887. He was installed pastor of the 
Rollstone church. May 11, 1887. 

The present officers of the church, society and Sunday 
school are : Pastor, Rev. C. S. Brooks : church committee. 



304 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

in addition to pastor and deacons — Ezra B. Rockwood, R. 
R. Conn, Dr. D. B. Whittier, Charles W. Wilder, S. N. 
Weston, D. C. Harrington ; church clerk, S. Newell 
Weston ; church treasurer, W. E. Clifford ; executive parish 
committee — R. R. Conn., S. N. Weston, C. H. Doten ; par- 
ish clerk, Frank E. Fairbanks ; parish treasurer, E. R. 
Farnsworth ; sexton, T. R. Lawrence; Deacons — J. C. 
Moulton, Frederick Fosdick, Cyrus S. Tolman, H. S. Hitch- 
cock, C. H. Doten, F. E. Fairbanks. Superintendent of 
Sunday school, J. C. Moulton; assistant superintendent, D. 
C.Harrington; organist, Lucy Conn Potter ; chorister, J. 
H. Potter. 

WEST FITCHBURG M. E. CHURCH, 

as an organization, was established Nov. 17, 1881, with 
twenty-two members and six probationers. About the time 
of its organization there was unusual religious interest, and 
several persons were converted and joined the church. The 
accommodations of the chapel, which was built in 1874, as a 
mission chapel, were inadequate for the increasing congrega- 
tion, and the present church was built, and dedicated May 
11, 1883. 

The first pastor, Rev. F. T. Pomeroy, was returned by 
the New England Conference, after three years' service, for 
a fourth year, at the earnest request of the church. This 
action was rendered possible under the mission rule, there 
having been no church organization during the first year of 
Mr. Pomeroy's appointment. The second pastor, Rev. 
William Wignall, succeeded to the pastorate of the church 
April, 1884; Rev. Elias Hodge April, 1885; and April, 
1887, Rev. W. W. Baldwin. The present officers of the 
church are : Pastor, Rev. W. W. Baldwin ; stewards, James 
Sheppard, George J. Pethybridge, Charles Taylor, Henry 
K. Tucker, Edward Pickwick, Hugh Irving, George S. 
Coggswell, George Pierce, Robert Beer, William H. Craig; 
trustees, Charles Taylor, David McTaggart, George S. 
Coggswell, George J. Pethybridge, Edward Pickwick, Cal- 
vin Beer, James Sheppard, George Pierce, James Pearce ; 
sexton, Fred S. Hedenberg. 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. 305 

The Sunday .school has been in existence since Nov. 15, 
1874. W. W. Whiting, superintendent, and Moses Coggs- 
well, assistant, were its first officers. From the time ot its 
organization to April 18, 1875, ^'hen it was re-organized, the 
average attendance was about forty-five. The attendance 
has gradually increased, and is about 130 at the present 
time, with an enrolled membership of nearly 200. 

The West Fitchburg Social Circle, an auxiliary society, 
was formed in February, 1876, its object being to bring 
the people together and help in enlarging the circle of ac- 
quaintance. It has been a help to the community, socially, 
and to the church, financially, and still exists as the "Ladies' 
Sewing Circle." 

During the first years of holding meetings, several gen- 
tlemen having large business interests in that part of the 
town, by their liberal donations of land and money, provided 
and furnished a suitable place of worship, and have since 
generously contributed to the support of public worship. 
The mission chapel thus erected forms the chapel part of the 
present church edifice. The church membership is fifty-six, 
with twelve probationers. 

Rev. W. W. Baldwin, at present pastor of the West 
Fitchburg M. E. church, was born in Blenhiem, N. Y., May 
30, 1837. He was educated at Union College under the 
celebrated Dr. Nott. In June, 1862, he graduated in the- 
ology from what has since become the School of Theology 
of Boston University. 

He was licensed to preach in the Methodist Episcopal 
church in August, 1859, at Seward, N. Y. In May, 1862, 
he joined the Maine Conference, and was sent to mission 
work in Gorham, Coos County, N. H. He organized the 
church at that place and built the church edifice during the 
first year. His fields of labor since then have been in Maine, 
Colorado, Michigan, and Massachusetts. Three years ago 
last April he was transferred, without his solicitation, into 
the New England Conference, to fill the pulpit of the M. E. 
church in North Andover, which had become vacated. 
After three years of service there he came to the West Fitch- 
20 



306 F1TCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

burg church, in April last. His present efforts are directed 
toward intensifying the religious life of the church, and 
gradually placing the church on a surer financial basis. In 
his preaching he intends to be catholic to an extent that peo- 
ple of all denominations may find themselves benefited, 
while in his pastoral work he strongly advocates "organized 
Christianity." 

CHURCH OF SACRED HEART (CATHOLIC,) WEST FITCHBURG. 

This church was organized in 1878. Its first pastor was 
the Rev. James Canavan, who was succeeded by Rev. 
James Donahoe, followed by the Rev. J. L. Tarpey, the 
present pastor, in June, 1886. 

Connected with the church are the Sacred Heart Total 
Abstinence and Literary Society, for young men ; the Young 
Ladies' Sacred Heart Sodality ; Society of the Holy Name, 
for boys ; and Children of Mary, for young girls. 

The superintendents of the Sunday school are Michael 
Lee and Mary O'Brien ; organist of the church, Miss Lizzie 
McCann. 

FRENCH CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

This church was organized in 1886, with Rev. C. Beau- 
doin as pastor. In December of the same year 52,000 feet of 
land and a dwelling-house on Walnut street was purchased 
and a chapel with basement erected, the house being remod- 
elled and used as a parsonage and temporary school. It is 
expected that a church will be built within the next two or 
three years, when the chapel will be used as a school 
building. 

HOMES OF FITCHBURG. 

The changes in Fitchburg are nowhere more noticeable 
than in the style of building. In the early days of the town 
the settlers located round on the hills for better protection 
from the Indians, or for other good and sufficient reasons, 
and little thought was given to the architecture of their 
dwellings, which were for the most part rude log houses, 




V05E ESTATE, PROSPECT ST., RESIDENCE OF JOHN PARKHILL. 




RESIDENCE OF MRS. EUGENE T. MILES, BLOSSOM STREET. 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. 



307 



either stockaded or garrisoned, and the interiors furnished 
with only the plainest articles of necessary use. After this 
came the one and two story framed farm houses, with 
their enormous stone chimneys and fireplaces, suggestive 
of corn bannocks, pumpkin pies and kitchen dances. The 
timbers in these houses, huge beams of the toughest oak, 
were well calculated to stand the ravages of time, and it is 
therefore not at all strange that some of the first of these old 
landmarks remain with us until the present day. One of 
them was built by Amos Kimball, on the Samuel Hale 
farm, and is now a portion ot the old house in the rear of the 




j. Holland's residence, 1840. 



present residence. Later on we find an improvement in the 
style of building, with a greater variety in outward form 
and a sensible reduction in the size of chimneys, but with the 
same unnecessarv strength of beams and rafters. A house 
of this class is now standing on the corner of Charles and 
Linden streets. It was originally a parsonage, occupied by 
the Rev. John Payson, and stood on the site of the present 
residence of Samuel Burnap on South street. Mr. Burnap 
purchased this house and a large tract of land of Mr. C. 
Marshall, in 1838, and removed the old house to where it is 
now located, to make room for his present residence. Then 



308 



FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



came the more modern houses built according to the taste or 
fancy of the owner, and with better interior finish and fur- 
nishing- ; among these were the square cottage, plain but 
homelike, the octagon, and the story and a half cottage, with 
projecting chamber, supported by turned posts, thus forming 
a front piazza. The transition from the latter to the more 




RESIDENCE OF HENRY A. GOODRICH, HIGHLAND AVENUE. 



pretentious structure, the classic mansion, with its heavy 
columns was most natural. The Mansard roof was popular 
for a time, as well as the Gothic and Italian style of archi- 
tecture. Many of these residences, probably more than five 
hundred in number, were built under the direction of William 
H. Goodwin, our present inspector of buildings. For the 
picturesque and attractive architecture of later years, the city 
is largely indebted to Henry M. Francis. Many of our 



CHURCHES AND HOMES. 



309 



modern public buildings were built from his plans, as well as 
a large number and variety of private residences. This 
variety adds greatly to the general appearance of the city 
and while many costly and elegant dwellings have been con- 
structed, in many instances the reasonable cost of land and 




DR. THOMAS PALMER'S RESIDENCE, 184S. 



building material has induced individuals of moderate means 
to build, and it is gratifying to know that the great propor- 
tion of dwellings are being built by individuals as permanent 
homes, rather than by capitalists for an investment. Such a 
condition of things indicates a healthy and natural growth, 



310 



FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 



and will serve as a 
permanent founda- 
tion for the Fitch- 
burg of the future. 
To every young man 
thinking of settling 
down, to middle- 
aged men with fami- 
lies to bring up, who 
contemplate making 
a change and want 





RESIDENCE OF HENRY ALLISON. 

to find a place where 
there is good air and pure 
water, the best of schools 
and churches, the best 
society, the fewest rum- 
shops, not necessarily the 
most aristocratic town, 
but the one which is 
suited to the great middle 
class, who pay their way 
as they go and either own 



RESIDENCE OF DR. A. W. SIDNI 

or intend to own a home 
of their own, to such 
Fitchburg offers a stand- 
ing inducement. 

Furthermore a de- 
scription of the advan- 
tages and attractions of 
the community may be 
supplemented by a refer- 
ence to the people. You 
will find them a substan- 
tial and energetic class, 




RESIDENCE OF DR. CHARLES H. RICE. 



CHURCHES AND IIOMKS. 



311 



ready to welcome new comers to 
share the advantages they them- 
selves enjoy. Man}' of them are 
well-to-do mechanics, mostly na- 
tive born citizens, and generally 
owners of their homes. 

According to the census of 
1885 the number of inhabitants 
was 15,375, and at the present 
time, judging from the usually 
accepted bases for calculation, it 
has reached at least 18.000. In 
this busy, thriving little city, the 
seeker for a home will find all 





TWIN COTTAGES, CHARLES STREET. 



e. e. Howard's cottage, 
milk street. 



the elements vitally 
essential to its estab- 
lishment, and may, 
if he choose, par- 
ticipate with others, 
who, having chosen 
Fitchburg for their 
abiding place, know 
the truth through a 
personal experience. 



FITCHBURG. 

BY MRS. CAROLINE A. MASON. 



Nested among her hills she lies, — 

The city of our love ! 
Within her, pleasant homes arise ; 
And healthful airs and happy skies 

Float peacefully ahove. 

A sturdy few, 'mid hopes and fears, 

Her fair foundations set : 
And looking backward now, through years 
Of steady gain, how small appears 

Her old estate ! — and yet, 



312 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 

She dons no autocratic airs, 
In scorn of humbler days, 
But shapes her fortunes and affairs, 
To match the civic wreath she wears 
And justify her bays. 

Honor and Truth her old renown : 

Conservative of both, 
The virtues of the little town 
She holds in legacy, to crown 

The city's larger growth. 

Nor ease nor sloth her strength despoil : 

Her peaceful farmers till, 
With patient thrift, th' outlying soil, 
Her trained mechanics deftly toil, 

Her merchants ply their skill ; 

Her ponderous engineries supply 

A thousand waiting needs ; 
Her wheels revolve, her shuttles fly, — 
And ever where the prize hangs high, 
Her foot, unfaltering, leads. 

Her sympathies are large and sweet : 

And when, at Freedom's call, 
The war flags waved, the war drums beat, 
She sprang, responsive, to her feet, 
And freely offered all ! 

Alert in War, she emulates 
The Arts of Peace, as well : 

Religion, Order, guard her gates ; 

Wealth, Culture, Thrift, like happy Fates, 
Her destinies foretell. 

So, through the round of years, she keeps 

Advancing on her past : 
Her old-time vigor never sleeps, — 
And even as she sows she reaps. 

God bless her to the last ! 



'■: & ■■'; k 



■'; J . i- 



^^^^}:'-"