Skip to main content

Full text of "Five disputations of church-government, and worship"

See other formats





^.-c- ■> 

\. tu -»,»';• v.K'>» 

"^^ FIVE 


O F 



l^- pyhether' it be Necejfurj or Profitable to the right Order or 
P^ce^fde^Cb^rches of Enghnd i that rre Re (lore the extruded 

II. Afferr. Thofe who Nullifie cur frefint Minifiry and 
Churches^ Vfhich have not the TreUtical Ordination ^ and teach the 
People to do the Ukiy do incur the gttilt of grievous Sin. 

III. An Epifcopacj de fir able for the Reformation^ Prefervatitn 
and Peace of the Churches. 

I V. Whether a ^inud Liturgie or Form of Worfhip beddefire' 
able means fsr the Peace of theft Churches } 

V. Whether Humane Ceremonies be Ntcejfaryor Profitable to the 

Church ? 

^^> By "Bichard "Baxter. ^^• 

p ON V y, 

Printed by Rjy. for Nevil Simmons, h66k(ei{€r in Kederminfier, 

and arc to be folii b> Kim there, and by Ihom'asJohApJ'i at ilic Golden 
Key in St. I'aub Church-yard, liJ'jp. At 4.S. <$.d. bound. ^ 0' 


q o 

CJ . 

«A4*i\\<iV1 . oVl *i^ uV«a: 

To his Highnefs 


Lord Proteftor 


Common-wealth of England^ Scot^ 
land and Ireland. 


v^<%^ Hefe Papers are ambitious of accompany- 
ing thofe againft Popery into your High- 
nefs prefence, for the tender of their fer- 
vice , and that upon the fame account. 
The Controverfies here decided, are thofe 
that have had a hand in moft of the great tranfa(5tions 
that of late years have here pafl 5 and that flillhavea 
hand In the differences that hinder our defired peace. I 

A obfcrvc 

The Epijlle dedicatory, 

obferve that the Nation generally rejoyceth in your 
peaceable entrance upon the Government. And are af- 
feded with indignation, if they bear but any rumors 
that troublefom perfons would difturb their hopes. And 
many are perfwaded that you have been ftrangeiy kept, 
from participating in any of our late bloody contenti- 
ons J that God might make you an Healer of our 
breaches, and imploy you in that Temple work, which 
Drfiz/Vhimfelf might not be honoured with, though it 
rv,ts in his mind, becaufe he had fhed blood Abundmtlj^ and 
made great wars, i Chron.22. 7,8. I perceive alio that 
(ome fen le me nt of Church- affairs will be expe^ed froni 
' you by the mofl. And therefore it concerneth all our 
welfare that you be well acquainted with the ftate of 
thofe differences , about which all will expect your 
judgement. For my own part I think not that mat- 
ters are half fo far out of order in the Churches^ as moft 
difcontented men imagine : But yet I know there is 
much to be mended, wherein both God and moft good 
men expe<5t you ihould contribute a confiderable part. 
Some think there is no fettlemcnt in the Church , till 
they are in the faddle, and all their Brethren are become 
their fecvants, and do them obeyfance. And alas , we 
have thofe that take it for no [ettlement , till they have 
the fvvord in their own hands , or have engaged you to 
ufe it at their difcretion,and may again fill the Prifons 
or other Lands, with their Brethren that are far better 
then themfelves : Thofe I mean that in their writings 
fo glory that their predeceffors hang'd the Puritans, 
and lament that of late they were but ftUnced^zs being a 
Icfs effeofuall means. Some v/ould have no other/<r///^- 
ment then we have , or elfe would have Licetttifiufmfs 
fettledhy a Law, and hsLvetwlimtted Liberty in Religion. 
Doubtlels thefe areconfcious what it is that diey have 


T^he Epiflle Dedicatory. 

need of : If Heathens, Infidels and Papifts be but ex- 
cepted out of the Toleration, it difpleafeth them ; And 
we can eafily conjedure why. If we grant them all the 
Liberty of their confciences ( that is, of their mif-belief, 
becaufe,alas,we cannot cure it) itfatisfieth them not, 
unlefs they may have alfo Liberty of tongue and Pra- 
dlife. When 1 have heard and read the Reafonings of 
fomeof theinagainft the Immortality of the foul, and 
the Chriftian Religion it felf , I have wondered why 
they (liould take it for fuch a point of Liberty, to have 
leave to draw others to their opinion , when they feera 
to think that mens Happinefs or Mifery is no more 
concerned in it. Thefe are the men that tell the world 
that Magiftrates have nothing to do with Religion, but 
only with our Peace and Bodily welfare,contrary to the 
fulleft Teft imony of the Scriptures ; Which is but to 
pcrfwade men toeftecmyou as the dirt of the earth, 
and to value the Miniflry above the Magiftracy,as much 
as the Soul is better then the Body , and as Heaven is 
better then this dunghill-world. And for this odious 
do(5trine, they have no ftronger reafon , then becaufe 
that Heathen Princes are uncapable of deciding matters 
about Rchgion. As if mens wilfull and wicked rndif- 
pofition would change the office , and difoblige both 
them and thofe that are guilty of no fuch unfitnefs, 
from the obligations laid upon them by the Lord .* 
They may as wifely fay that a fober Phyfitian is ob- 
liged to no more then a drunken one can perform • or 
that a [aing man may do no more then the /'//W can 
do : Or that a Learned Prince may not meddle with 
Learning, becaufe an unlearned Prince is unfit for it. 
But any man that hath read BelUrmim^Forlons^ Ctetfer^ 
■or)fuch like Jefu'.tes, may know the Fathers of this do- 
'ddnc : Nothingmope familiar with them , then that 

A 2 Princes 

T[he Eft file Dedicatory. 

Princeshave nothing to do but for our Bodies, and 
the Common Peace .- but forfooth it is the Pope 
rliat muft Rule all about our Souls. 'X^it Libertines 
know whofe caufe they plead. But verily men that re- 
gard the Intereft ot Chrift and their falvation, would 
let light by Princes, if they believed them to be fuch 
teneftiiall animals as Papiftsand Libcrtims would make 

Some al fb there be, that would have a [ettlement up- 
on too rigorous terms^ though they would not have it 
executed with cruelty. Moft men would fain have 
their own opinions prevail, and too many place too much 
of their Religion in cenfuring as Heterodox all that 
differ from them, and think it an evidence of their God- 
linefs that they are Uncharitable •, and feeing many 
minds and waies, they think that punifhment muft heal 
them all : Not that they would be driven to their 
Brethren , but all their Brethren muft be driven unto 

In the midft of all thefe crofs cxpedations , if you 
will confult with, and obey the Lord, I dare boldly tell 
you, it is paft all doubt^ that you muft avoid extreams , 
and keep as tenderly the golden mean, in this point, as 
in any that concerns you. If you give Liberty to All 
that is called Religion, you will foon be judged of no 
Religion , and loved accordingly. If you fo far clofe 
with any Party of them that walk in the faith of Chrift, 
and the fear of God, as to deal rigoroufly with the reft, 
you will be hated by them as a Perfecutor. And if men 
be oppreffed in that which they value above their lives, 
it will tempt them to negle(5t their lives for their relief. 
If you joyn with no Church in the Lords Supper and 
other holy Communion, left you feem to efpoufe the 
party that you joyn with, you will by moft be judged to 


T'he Epijile Dedicatory. 

be carnally wife , felf-feeking and irreligious, or one 
that is yet tofeek for your Religion. If you refirdin 
all that areagainftthe great undoubted Truths oiQhni^t 
from infe^iing ethers j and own all that hold the Neceffarf 
Truths in Codlinefs and Charity^ you will plea fe both 
God, and moft good men. And if you hold your per- 
fonall Communion with thofe that are of yojir own 
judgement in leiTer differences , this will notfofeyou 
the affeiflions of the godly (though of a few fa(flious 
perfons it may ) as long as you are a tender Father to 
them all , though you Communicate but with fome. 
The Godly Emperours that fupprefl the ^m/fw/ and 
many Herefies, maintained the Novatians in the Liber- 
ty of their Churches 3 and were beloved both by the 
Kovatians and the Orohodox. But if you could be the 
happy inftrument of taking away the Divifions oi the 
Codlj, that there might be no fuch thing as Parties or 
5fp4rdf/c/?j known among them (though diver fity of 
opinions there will be ) ( and if you cculh give all the 
Minifters of the Nation a pattern of fuch union of the 
tolerable diffenting parties in your own Paftors, with 
whom you (hall Communicate ) this would be the way 
to lift you highcft in the Efteem and Love of all your 
people, and make them fee that you were appointed of 
God to be a Healer and Reflorer •, and to glory in you, 
. and blefs God for you as theinffrumentot ourchiefeft 
peace. And O what a precedent and preparative it 
would be, for the Healing of all the Protefiant Chur- 
ches through the world / And certainly your Highnefs 
hath a fair opportunity for this happy work : You enter 
in a feafon when we are tired with contention, and fen- 
fible of our lofs and danger, and tenderer then former- 
ly of one another, and the moft angry parties are much 
afTwaged, and there is not To much leproach and bitter- 

A 3 nefs 

The Epiftle Dedicatory, 

nefs among the Godly , as lately there hath been. A 
Spirit of Peace and Healing is lately rifen in the hearts 
of many thoufandsin the Land, and Minifters that dif- 
fered jdo lovingly afTociate, and moft do feel the fmart 
of our Divifions , and are fo prepared for a perfeder 
clofure, that they wait but for fome Leadioghand. I 
am certain that there are Healing Principles before us, 
and a temperament is obvious to judicious charitable 
men, upon which we might accord. And, though fome 
are too rough to lie in any building, yet moderate men 
are to be found of every party, that deferveth your en- 
couragement, whom you may ufe as a precedent to the 
reft, and inftruments to promote this work. It is you 
that have thofe great advantages that can facilitate that 
which to others were impollible : and from you it is ex- 
pc<5led. In this Book, and one of ConfirmationjVt'hich 
I lately publi/hed , I confidently affirm , is contained 
much of that Reformings Reconciling Truth which 
muft heal us if ever we be healed. And though the (ki- 
dy of fuch matters require much time, yet feeing God 
coiTiraandeth Princes that the Boak of bis Law depart mt 
out sf their mouthes, hut that thej meditate in it day and 
nighty that they may do according to it^ fo{h, 1.8.1 may 
fnppofe that they will be willing alfo to meditate oft 
fuch Books as help them totmderftand it. I (hould have 
been as ready as another to cenfure fuch an addrefs as 
this,a§ guilty of prefumptuous boldnefs^but that I con- 
fider what is the work of my Calling, and what it is to 
be faithfullto the Eternall God , and am confcious of 
fidelity to your Highnefs in my boldnefs , and know 
that thefe are neceflary Truths , and that to the Ccm- 
feilors of Peace isjoy^ Prov. 12.20. and have no intereft 
in this world that I regard, in comparifon of the 
Churches happinefs. My earneft Prayers for your 


T^he Epijlle T>ecIicatorj. 

Highnefs fhallbe , that your own foul being firftfub- 
je(^ed and devoted wholly unto God, you may Rule us 
a$ one that is Ruled by him, and never know any Ince- 
reft but his, and that which is fubfeiTient to him , and 
may efcape that ftumbling ftone, on which the Princes 
of the earth do commonly dafli thcmfelves in pieces , 
even by efpoufing an fntereft contrary to Chrifts, and 
fo growing jealous of his holy waies, and falling out 
witn them : and that God would endue your Highnefs 
with ^hac heavenly Wifdom, that is firft Pure^ and then 
Fcace4l?le,Jam. 3. 17. and you may efcape the flatter- 
ing fuggeftions of the iVifdom of the fie j1) , and ferious 
Ptety may be the firft part of your Policy^ that fo the 
EtcrnallGod may be engaged in the Protection of your 
Dominions and You : That you may alwaics remem- 
ber, that you are Chrifts and your Peoples , and not 
your Own ; and that the diligent promoting of G O D- 
L Y N E S S and CONCORD may be the ftu- 
dy and refolved work of your Life. This is the way , 
and only thi% ( letflcHi and blood fay what it will) to 
make you truly Great and Happy. God is the Center 
and Common Intereft of all his fervants. Keep clofe 
to him, and they will all keep clofe to you. There is no 
other Common Intereft, nor any thing that the Godly 
do fo highly value. If they fee that it is indeed for God, 
they can bear any thing, or do any thing •, for they are 
wholly devoted to him alone. The more of God ap- 
peareth on you, and the more you promote his Intereft 
in the world, the highlyer will you be advanced, and the 
dearer will you be to all that Love him. And even with 
the ungodly multitude, that Piety is honoured in Prin- 
ces, that is defpifcd in their neighbours •, and the hand 
of Go J is plainly demonftrated in their fiirviving IK)- 
nour •, the names of Pious Princes bemg Great , when 


The EpiJlleDec/icatory. 

the Greateft leave a name that is vile, even in the 
mouthes -f common vvoildly men , who are ready to 
keepaHoly-day foraSaintwhenhe is dead, though 
they hate or will not imitate the living. Your Zeal tor 
God will kindle in your fubjcds a Zeal for you. The 
more your Life and Government is Divine , the more 
Divine will you appear, and therefore the more Ami- 
able and Honourable to the Good, and Reverend to the 
evil. Parliaments will Love and Honour you, and ab- 
hor the motions that tend to a divifion, or your juft dif- 
pleafure. Minifters will heartily Pray for you , and 
Praife the Lord for his mercies by you, and teach all the 
people to Love , and Honour , and Obey you. The 
people will rejoyce in you ^ and you will be Loved or 
Feared of all ; Such happincfs attendeth ferious Piety, 
when impiety, felfiftinefs, and negle(5l of Chrift is the 
(hame and ruine of Prince and People. I crave your 
Highnefs pardon of this boldnefs, and your favourable 
acceptance of the tendered fcrvice of 

A faithfull fubjcd to your Highnefs, 
as you are an Officer of the Uni- 
, verfallKing. 

^chard Baxter. 

A Preiace to thofe of 

the Nobility-;, Gentry^ and Com- 
mons of this Land , that adhere to 

Pre lacy. 

Hononrable, Worfliipfuf^and Beloved Country- men* 

T heing much for jour fakes t/jat 1 have 
fubliP)ed the felUwing DifputatiofJS , it 
hehoveth me here to addrefs my [elf to 
yotf^ in a few prepardtery words. What 
diftance there hutb hn^ l;cen^and fiiU con- 
ttnueth hettveen you and your Brethrtnifor 
fo th(y are) is too much known to friends and foes^ At home 
and abroad^ and too much daily rnanifefied by each fide, 
shall it flill continue, or would you have it healed ? if it 
mujl ccntinue^tellus hmv \on^,andtell us whyif Would yod 
have it go wtth us to Eternity ^ and will you not be recon* 
cilei^ nor dwell with m in Heaven ? It is not in your Pow- 
er to (hut us out 5 And will you not he there j tfwe be there ? 
Or do yeu think there will be any Difcord where Love is 
Perfe^edj and we are One in God f If you can be content 
to be favcd with «/, and believe that all of both Opinions^ 
that truly Uvc and fear the Lord, jhalllivc there in deareft 

( 4 ) Icve 

L The i^reface. 

Love for ever s how can you chufe, when you fore think of 
this^ but Love them now^ that you mtiji for ever Love ? 
endlong to be reconciled to them ^ with whom you mu[t 
there foharmonioujlj accord? Tcu know that Earth is our 
frefaratienfor Heaven : and [uch as men would be there^ 
they mnjl begin to be here : As they muji be Holy bere^ that 
ever will there jee the Lord in Holinefs •, [o mufl they here 
ife Loving and Peaceable, that ever will live in that per- 
fe^ heavenly Love and Peace, And whj is it thdt the 
diftance mnft be fo great f t^re we not all the Children of 
one Father f Have we not ail the fume Cod^ the fame Re- 
deemer^ the fame Spirit in m? {if we are Chrifltans in" 
dced^ Rom. 8.9.) Are we not in the fame BapttfmalCo- 
nj'enant with Cod f Have we not the fame holy Scripture 
for our Rule ? and are we not in the jarne unitferfal Churchy 
and of the fame Religion ? fome of you f ay ^ No-, to the 
grief of your friends^ and the (hame of your own j^nder- 
fiandings, and uncharitablenefs, 1 befcechyou bear ity 
if I touch the fore -.For rny work is Healing 5 and therefore 
though it M}\^ hctonch*t) it.f})allbe as gentry as the cafe 
will kear. If I may judge by fuch as 1 have had any op' 
fortunity to know, I mufl fay, thai the dtjiance on your 
part is continued in fome by confufcd apprehenfions of the 
cafe^ and not difhi?jguijhingthings that differ -^ In fome by 
difcententi ofmind^ and too deep a fenfe of worldly loffcSy 
and the things that you take as injuries from others .-la 
fome by the advantage of a co-interefl and confociation with 
thcfe Divines that arc of your way, and fo by a Willing- 
n-efs to think them in the right , and thofe irt the wrong 
that you take for ndverfarics : In fome by a ^iffnefs and 
fioutnefs of difpofitioffy thatcals it Ccnflancj to hold your 
ewn^ and Manlinefs not to floop to others, and takes it as 
diflwnourableto feekfor Pcace^ even in Religion with your 
fuppofed 4dverfaries 5 or to yield to ity at leaft without much 


The Preface. 5 

imprtunitf : with loo many {mferable fouls \) hismeer 
ungodlinefs.and enmitj toihatWAj of Piety, that in tmny 
that you differ from ^ aff/ears : And tn the bejiofjou it ts a. 
Kemifsncfs of Charity ^ and want of z^alfor the Churches 
Peace J and the Love and Vnitj of Brethren. To con- 
fute the reafonings of all thefe forts^ would draw out this 
Preface to too great a length. The frft fort my experience 
hath catifedme to obfer've* oft have 1 fain into company 
with men that pour forth bitter odious words againfl Prel- 
hytexiQ : and I Oik them what that Presbyterie is that 
thcj fpeak of with fo much abomination f Is it the Name 
or the Tiling j- which they fo abhor f If the Name , 
is it not A term of Scripture u[ed by the Holj Ghofl ? 
I Tim. 4. 1 4. Are not the Payors of the Church mofl fre- 
quently calUd the Presbyters^ or Elders / Tit. 1.5. AOi. 
14.23. & 15. 2,4,6322,23, I Tim. 5. 17. A(5i.20. 
17. James 5. 14. i Pet. 5. i, &c. It mujl needs then be 
the Thing, and not the Name which they abominate. And 
what is that Thing ^ mojl of them camiotteil me. Some 
prefently talk of the difnfe of the Common Prayer 5 ^ // 
that were A part of Presbyterie^ ^f^A c&vemmcnt^ and 
the form of worfbip were all one. Some prefently run ti 
Scotland,4«^ talh of forcing men to Confefsion offin^ and 
of their fee tUar enforcement of their Excommunications, 
But I. If thisbe odiom^ why was it n fed by the Bi/Jjops ^ 
Is it good in them J and bad in others f 2. And why plead 
youforDifcipline, and againfl Toleration^ ifpu Jo loath 
the things you plead for ? 3. But will you not^ when its 
known fo openly, dijl/nguijh the Mimflertal Power from the 
fcctdar ? Its known by their Laws and conflaht Praclice, 
that all the Power that wad cxcrctfed by Violence^ an Body 
orEflatCy by the Affcmblics ^was derived from the Ma- 
giflratt^ whofc Commtfisoners alfofate among them. And 
the Bijhops in England were fccondcd bf the Sword , ds 

{a 2 ) much 

4 Tlie Preface, 

much as they. Us knorvn that the PresbperUns cemmon' 
lyr/tAtntain in their Writings^ that Paflers haveno Coer- 
cive or Secular Porver^ hut only the Keys of the Kingdom 
cf Heaven^ to exercife on the Confcience, committed to 
them by Chrijl. 4. And the writings andpra^ice of thofe 
in'En^Undi openly manif eft it : and its them rvith whom 
yeuhave mofttodo. Some tell me that Presbytcrie is the 
Government of the Church without Biflwps : And is it only 
the Negation of four Prelacy that is the odious thing ? Is 
there nothing Pofitive odious in Presbyterie f Thu^ our Be- 
lief is condemned by the Paptfts^even becaufe we Believe 
not fo much as they 5 when in the Pofitives of our Faith 
there is nothing that they can blame. Some make it the 
cdieus thing that they have Lay-lElders ^ But i. The Pref- 
byterians account them not Lay , but Ecclefiafticks. 
2. And what is the odious harm that thefe men do 
among them? They are prefentj and Confent to the ad- 
mGnijhing and cenjuring cf offenders . \yind what gre tit 
harm doth that to the Church ? Is it becaufe they do net 
Preach < No fure •, in that your Readers are much like 
them* What work can you Name thnt thefe Elders are ap' 
fointed to, vhar by your Confefsionis not to be done ? It is 
•not the Work then^ that you blame ^ but that thefe men do 
it* 3 . But what is this to aH that are in this point of your 
Tnindy and think that unordained Elders wanting Power 
to preach, or adminifler the Sacraments^ are not Officers 
in the church of Gods appointment? As far as I can un-^ 
derftandj the greater part, if not three for one of the Eng- 
lifli Miniflers that you ft and at a di fiance from^ are of this 
Tnind^andfofar againft Lay-Elders as well as you-^ of whom 
J confefs my (elf to be One. {and that M' Vines was One, 
J have fljewed you in the End.) Surely then all w'e are none of 
the odious Presbyterians in your eyes. W^y then is there 
fuchadiflance ? And are Lay-Elders as bad as L^y-Chan^ 
cellors ? So 

The Preface: 5 

So alfo ivhett fome have been hotly condemning Ui as he- 
trig 4gait)fi Bjfhops^ 1 Ask them what a Bifhop is ^ and 
fvhatjort of Bilbops it is that they mean? And mofl of 
them are unable to g:ve me a rational anfrver to either of 
the ^([lions f But fome that are rvifer^ though they know 
no more forts ofBifljops but one^ yet they can fay, that by a. 
Bifhop they mean an Ecclcfiaflick Governour of Presbyters 
and the people. And if fo^ then rvhy h they vilifie Bifljops 
under the name of Presbyters ? I have here (hew- 
ed yon that tfthis be all^ then every Pariflj hath a Bifiop 
where there is a Paflor that hath Chappels, and Curates un- 
der him : Or any two Mimflers that mil [ubje^f them- 
felves to a third^ do make a Bifl)Op. Tou delude your [elves 
and others^ while you plead only in general for B^fhops •• 
We are all for B/[hops as rvelJ as yon. All the ^eflion isy 
what fort ofB^fhops they rnufl be ? Whether only Epifcopi 
gregis, or alfo Epifcopi Epifcoporum gregis ^ and if 
fe. Whether they muflbe Bijhps of (ingle Churches^ as our 
Tarifhes are , or a multitude ef churches , as Diocejfis are ? 
And if the lafi rvere granted^ Whether thefe be not pro- 
perly Archbifhops ? In all other parts of the Controverfte I 
findjthat the followers of each party go much in the darky 
And take much upon tru^ from the Teachers whom they va- 
lue^ and little nnderflandthe true ft ate of our differences .* 
So that !t is more by that common providence^ commonly \ 
called Good luck, that fome of them are Prot€(lants or \ 
Chrifiians^ then from any [aving grace within them. Had ' 
Paptfls or C^lahometans but as much intercft w themjas 
the Btfhops^ it is like they would have been as much for 

As for thofe of you that know your own Opinions^ and the 
JReafonsofthem, you m ft ft needs kncry that the Dtv.hes 
called Epifcopal in England, are of two fcru^ that very 
much differ jrom one another : And therefore fuppofing you 

^ The Preface. 

to be the followers ofthefe differhg T>ivtnes^ I (hall ac- 
cordtngljfti'rthef [feak to you as you are, 

I. The Bifhop of England, arid their followers from 
the fir ft Reformation^ begun by King Edward the fix t^ and 
reTiv(dbj Qjfeen Elizabeth, were found in Dodrine, 
adhering to the Auguftinian Method^ exprfjfed notv tn the 
y^r tides aud Homilies : They differed not in any confide- 
rable points from thofe whom they called Pantans : But 
h v?(ts tn the form ofGovernme?}t^ and Litu*-gy^ and Cere- 
monies that the difference lay, 

I I. But of late years anerv ftrainof Bifhops were introdu- 
ced, differing much from the eld^^ yet pretending to adhere 
to the Articles and Homilies^ and to be Fathers of the fame 
church of England as the reft. I knorv of none before 
i'i\Mountague of their way ^and but few that followed him^ 
till many years after. And at the demohflnng of the Pre- 
Ltcy^ they were exiftent of both forts. Would ym know the 
difference ? if you have read the writings of £p Jewel, 
Pilkington, Alley, Parry, Babbington, Baily , Ab- 
bot, Carlton, Morton, Uflier, Hall , Davenant, with 
fuch like on one fide 5 and the writings of the New 
Epfcopd Divines that are now mofi followed^ on the other 
fide, I need not tell you the difference. And if you will not 
be at the labour to know it by their writings, its like that 
you will not believe it if J tell you. For if you will take 
all on truft, ImuftfuJ}eB that you will put your iixx^iin 
them to whom you are addi^ed. 

The New party of Epifcopal Divines are alfo fibdivi- 
dcd : jome&fthemare {if their Defence of Grotius, and 
Grotius hts own Profefsion may be believed) of Grotius 
his Reltgion, that is, Paptfts : Others of thew, though they 
draw as ncer the Grotians ai Proteftants muy do^ yet own 
not Popery itfelf. So we have three notable parties 
cf Epifcopal Divines among us, i. The old Orthodox 

Trot eft ant 

The Preface. 7 

Trotejlant Btjhofi and their follo)vers. 2 . the Ket» Recsn- 
ciling Proteflant party» 3 . The New Reconciling Papifls, or 
Grotians. ex/ brief tafie efthe difference I tv: /I give you* 
I . The old Epifcopal party , as 1 faidj in Dc^rtnc 
agreed with the Non-conformift^ and held that Ds^rine 
that now we find in the Articles^ and Homilies, andifsthe 
Synod of Don^ where B^ C^vlion, B"^ Hall, ^r T>d.YG' 
n3.m, and three more Divines ofthts Nation were^ and had 
a great hand tn the framing ef thcfe Canons^ and by con- 
fenting^ did as much to make them obligatory to as in Eng- 
land , as commonl'j is done in General Councils by the De- 
legates of mofl Nations, 

But the New Epifcopal Divines, beth Proteftants and 
Papiflsy dg renounce the Synod of Dort, and the Docirine 
fif our Articles and HomtUes^ fofar as it is conform thcre^ 
tOy in the points of Predejli nation , Redemption^ Free- 
will^ Effectual Grace , Perfeverance , and /ifjurance of 
Salvation '.following that DoBrine which is commonly 
maintained by the fefuites and Arn:iini?.ns in thcje 

2. The old Epifcopal Divines did renounce the Pope 
as i^ntichrifty and thought it the duty of the Tranfmarine 
churches to renounce him^ and avoid comnnmion with his 
churchy as leprous and unft for their communion. But 
the New Epifcopal Divines do not only hold that the Pope 
is mt K^ntiehrifl^ but one part cf them {the Proteftants) 
hold that he may be obeyed by the Tranfmarine Wcjlern 
churches as the Patriarch of the Wefl^ and be taken by m 
alltobetheVnnd^wxnwxmim^to theCathol'ck Churchy 
and the Roman Determinations [ItU may ftaiid, except thcfe 
of the lafl four hundred years ^ and thofc, if they obtrude 
them not on othrs. So jRi' Biamhall ^ and many more : 
And M' Dow, and others tell us that the Canon Law 
i< fltll in force in^nghndj except fome parts of it which 


8 The Preface. 

theLaA^s dfthe Land havecaft out. And the Grotians 
teach t that the Church of Rome is the Mifiris of other 
churches^ arid the Pope tofland as the Head ef the Vn>- 
ruerful church, and to Govern it according to the Canons 
and Decrees of Councils: and they receive the 'Xx^nt-Creed 
andCowactl^ and all other Councils which the Po^e receives^ 
excepting only againfl fome School-points , and abufe ef 
manners among the Pafifls^ which their Canons and "De^ 
crtes condemn, 

J. The old Epifcopal Divines did take Epifcopacy to 
he better then Presbyterian Equality^ but not neccffary. t» 
the Being of a Churchy but to the Better being inhere it may 
be had. But the New Prelatical Divines ofbotbforts^ 
unchurch thole Churches that are not Prelatical, 

4. 7he old Epifcopal Divines thought that OrdJnation 
by Presbyters mthout Prelates was valid, and not to be done. 
agaia, though irregular. But the Neiv ones take it to be 
X^o. Or din at ion, nor thofe [e ordained to be any 2diniflersy 
but Lay-men, 

5 . And accordingly the old Epifcopal Divines did hold 
the.Forrein Proteflant Churches^ c/Fraiice, Savov, Hol- 
land, Geneva, Helvetia, ^c. that had no PreUtes^ as. 
true churches^ and their Paflors as true Uinifers of 
Chrifi,and highly valued and honoured them as Brethren. 
BtittheNewfort dodtfowntbe??^ all as no true Churches y 
thsugh they acknowledge the church of Rome to be a true, 
churchy and their Ordination valid, 

6. The old Epifcopal Divines thought it lanfultojojo 
in aBual Communion with the Paflors and Churchei that- 
were net Prelatical, But the New ones feparate from their 
ctmmtnion^ and teach the people to do fo, fuppoftng Sacra- 
mentAl adminifbations to be there performed by men that 
are no Minifters, and have no authority. , 

7, The Old Epifcopal Divines thought ii^e^t tofufpend,, 


The Preface* 9 

fiUnce^ ir/iprifen, er undo thefe Godly Dhines that did »&t 
hw towards the Altar, or fublijh mt their People Decla- 
rations or InjlruSiions for Dancing on the Lords Daj^ or 
that did preach twice a day. But many of the l^QW ones 
practically told ud, that this was i\\t\x judgement. 

Ofthefe differences I have given yeu [ome proof here- 
after : and would do here in tin exprefs words of the An- 
thors on bsth fides, were it not that ijhould be needlejly te- 
dious, and that Ijhould unneccfjarily offend the particular 
Divines of the New party who are among us, by reciting 
their words. More of the differences I pafs by, 

I . And now I would know ofthofe of you that follow the 
Ancient Epijccpal Divines,what hinderethyoufrom acha- 
ritable^peaceable Cort,munion with thofe Orthodox Miniflcrs 
now in England, that fome ofyouftan^ at a di fiance from ? 
Do^rinal differences (at leafl, requiring fuch a dijlance) 
you cannot pretend, B^ HaWtels you in hii Peace-maker 
{after cited) that there is none between )ou and the For- 
rein (Presbyterian) Churches, And as for the matter of 
Epifcopacy, if you will inpfl upon the late Englifli /"r/twc 
as necejj'ary^ viz. [^7 hat there be but One Bifl)op ever manf 
hundred churches, and that he have the fole power of EX' 
communication, and that he rule by a Lay- chancellory &c. 
and be a Lerd^ and fcconded with a forcing power, &c. ] 
then you will for fake the judgement of'yottr Leaders : For 
they will tclljou that fome of thcfe are but feparable ap- 
purtenances, fome of them corruptions and blcmifhes , and 
fomC net Necefjary. W hat need we any rnor e ado ? Tou fee 
in the puhlt(l)ed Judgements of £'' Hall, £'' Uflier, D^ 
Holdrworth , Forbes , and others, (after cited ) that 
they would have af-l Presbyters to be Go^jcrnors of the 
churches, one of them having aflated Prefidency or Mo- 
deratorfhip, and thi^ will content them. And are we ?iot 
then agreed ^ I am confident mcjl of the Minifters in 

(b) England 

10 The Preface. 

hnghnd rvouU U contentto field pu this :But what if 
there befome that arertot efjour mind concerning the Jiated 
Treftdency which you defire ? rvill you therefore twchari- 
tAbly reftffe cemmnnion with them ? fo would not your 
Leaders ! In this therefore joa will for fake them, and for^ 
fake many holy Churches efchrifl^ and for fake charity^ and 
Chrijlhimfelf that teacheth you another Icfjon. Will it not. 
content you that you hdve freedom your [elves to do that 
which fccmeth beflinyotir own eyes, nnlefs all others be of 
your opinion ? 

But perhaps you will fay that you have not Liberty your 
f elves topralfife according to this yourjtidgement. To which 
lanfwer, uTour Brethren of the (Ji^iniftery have not the 
power of the Sword, and. therefore do neither deny you Liber' 
ty^nor can give it yew. It is the Magiflrates work. And will 
you feparate from m for other mens doings ? For thatyout, 
have no rational pretence J f you know of any that perfwadc: 
Magi^rates to reflrain your. Liberty ^ thats nothing t& 
others : Cenfure none but th.ife that you know to be guilty^. 
2. / never knew that you were deprived of the Liberty ; 
of exercifing fuch an Episcopacy as the forememionca. . 
BiJIiOps do defire. 1 do nof believe you could be hindered^ . 
And we that art your neighbours never hear of it, I know 
not of either Law or Execution againfi you. If yott. think 
that the claufe in the Covenant^ or the Ordinance againfi 
FreLicy, or the late Advice that excepts Prelacy fror» 
Liberty^ are any reftraint to you , / think you are much 
miflaken, it ts only the late frame of Prelacy <ts it flood 
hj LaWy exercifedhy Archbifhops, BifJjops^ Deans , Chan- 
cellors^ &c. and that by force upon dtfjenters^ that is taken 
down, Tou have not Liberty to force any by corporal ptt- 
mfhrnent to your obedience. But you have full Liberty - 
{for OH^ht that ever I heard) to exercife the meer Epifcofa* 
ffyde fired by Hall, Uflier, and fuch like, on all that are 

TT He Preface. ii 

cf pur judgement^ anAwill fubmh to it. That we w^ 
hold conjl ant Aflemblies ofPaflers we fndbj experience : 
K^nd in theje jfjcmbltes if "jott mil chooje one for 
your flat ed Prefident, rvho mil hinder jo:t ? No one 1 am 
con^dtnt 'j Tell m whoever fufered for fo doing? of waS 
prohibited^ or any way hindered from it by any force ? 
Nay more ^if you will give this Prefident a Negative vote^in 
Ordination and furtjdiBion.who will hinder you ? yea who 
can < If twenty Mimflers (}}a/l rejolve that they will never 
Ordain, or Excommunicate any without the confent {yea 
or Command tf you muflhave it jo) ofjuch a man whom 
they take for their Frefdcnt, who can or will compell them 
to the contrary ? And all the People that are of your mind^ 
have Liberty to ]oyn tkmfelves with fuch Paflors on fuch 
terms, and jubmit themfdves to you^ if they will. 

But you will [ay. that this ii noftttir/g up ofEpifcopacy, 
while every one that is unwilling to obey m^ may refufe it» 
I anfwer^Thts is allthatthe Nature of Epifcopacy requi- 
reth: And this is all that the Church faw praChfed {even 
Komeitfelf) for above three hundred years after Chrifl. 
And is not that now tolerable for your Communion with its^ 
which fcrved then for the Communion of all the churches 
on earth ? Is the Primitive pattern of purity and fim- 
plieity become jo vile in your eyes^ as to be inconftjient 
with Chriflian Communion ? Let net juch principles 
be hecrd from your mouths, or feen in your prafiifes. 
whether the Magiftrate ought to compell us all to be 
of your mind or way , I will not now meddle with : but 
if he will not^ will you therefore feparate from your Bre- 
thren? Or will you not exerctfe the Primitive Lpifcop.icy 
en Confcnters^ becaufe ysn have not the frvord to force Dif- 
f enters ? And are you denied your Liberty^ because yon are 
rot hacked by the Sword ? Thisconcerneth other mens Li- 
berties ^ and not yours. Ton have the Libert'^ of 

{b 2 ) Epifco- 

tz The Preface. 

Epifcopal Government , ( though not of [miting others 
mth the Magi fir at es Sword) and ^ much Liberty for 
mght I know as Presbjtcri^^ns or Independents hai/e 
{though not fo much c^;;itenancc) And how comes it to pafs 
ttrJ i'rje other modes ofCcvermnent are commo/dy exercifed 
uponfheer Liberty ^ and yours is net ? Is it becaufe you have 
no confidence in any Arm hut fle(l3 ? J f your Epifcopal 
Power be of Di'vins appointmentj tvhj may you not trufi 
to aDivine afstflance as well as others^ that you think are 
mtofGod? If it can do nothi^sg without the Sword, let 
the Srvord do all without it ^ and retain Tts proper honour o 
J f it can do lefs on voluntary Subje^Sy then other w^ysof 
Church-government can dn^ fay fo^ and confefs it mofi in' 
firm J and give place to them. But if yours have moft AU" 
thority from chrifl^and fp:r it nal force npon the Confctence^ 
excrcifettj and let m fee it by experience-^ or elfe expe5i 
7iot that any P)OHld believe you^ or take yOu to here folate 
fervants of C hnfl , and true to your Mini/try. 

But perhapf youwtll fay, that you cannot ha-ve Commti^ 
nion with us ^ becaufe vpe are fchifmaticks : For fo much £p 
\Ji{hQX him/elf doth feem to charge us with.'] To which I 
anfwer^ i . ^p \J{ht^chargethn9ne with Schijm^ but thofe 
that caft fff Bipjops to whom they bad fworn obedience. 
But if I may judge of other Counties by this^ there 'are fo 
few ofthofe that they can afford you no pretence of fcruple 
agai/ifi the Communion of our i^fftmblies. I know not ( to 
my remembrance) of one {JMinifier in this County liable 
to this charge : but mofl never fwore to them, and the refl 
had no hand in their exc/ufion. 2. Whoever among us 
did either (wear to, or difobej fuch Bffhops as Bifhep Uilier 
there affureth us were the Btfhops of the antient Churches ? 
Jf they fet up another ( intolerable ) fort in flead of the 
3;f}:)0ps which he himfe/f requircth^ i^*^g(^ whether it were 
4 greater fn to fwear to thern^or to difobey them, 3. K^n^ 


The Preface. 13 

thefchifm which he mentioneth is not ftch i» hU 6rvr}]udge' 
nf(nt as makes men uncapk of your Cemmttnion, Thfs 
prefer ce therefore is frivolcu^. 

Ef^cciallj conftdering thdt mofl of m have no Vrehtes 

ihAtJomuchas claim a Government over us. In this 

County fmce ^ppPrideaux died {rvho-ivasoneofthe ancient 

moderate fort) jve know of none that ever made a pretence 

to the place. And are we [chifmaticks for not obspng a, 

BJfhopwhen we have none ? Jndfurelj none can juflly lay 

a claim tefiich a fuperioritj, even according to the ancient 

Canons J twlcfs he he firfl chofen by our [elves, yea and the 

people, as a Reverend Bip:op (/ hope yet living) of the 

ancient [ort hath toldyeu, Morton Apolog. Cathol. 

Part. I. cap. 85. p. 257. 'ReWzi^iumQ h^mfelfconfcfing 

/^4f utClerus & populus Epifcopumeligeret, hie mo- 

^ cfus fuit in ufu tempore Cbryfoflomi, Ambrofii^ A ugu flinty 

LeoniSj Gregoni, Bellarm. 1. 1 . de Clericis cap. ^. And 

other fif our Bijhops fa) the fame, 

1 conclude therefore that we are net only of one faith and 
church w th youj but differ fo little in our opinions about 
lower things , that you can thence have no pretence for an 
alienation : And therefore with thofe of you that are god', y 
andpeaceable^ 1 take it for granted that we are aBual'y 
agreed. But if any will facrifice the Churches ?e ace , their 
charity, their fouls to their parties, or pafnons and dif con- 
tents^ I leave them to God^ and to the reading of other kind 
of Books ^ that tend to change an unrenewed mind. 

I I. And to thofe of you that follow the newer flrainof 
Vrelaticul Divines^ ifball advemurc a few words, how 
fmallfoevcr the probability is(f their fucccfs. And i.To 
thofeofjou that are not departed from the Commm.ion ef 
all Proteflants I nor gone with Grotius over to the Ro- 
manifls. I bcfeechyouy as before the Lord^ proceed not in 
your bittcrncfs^ftncharitablenefs ^ or jepara'ion from jour 

C ^ 3 ) Brethren, , 

t^ The Preface. 

'BHthren, ner four hindering the work of God in their mi- 
ni [Ir at ion ^ till jou are able to produce jnchfolid grounds for 
rvhat joft do , as you dare ftand to at Ufl , before the 
judgement' [e^ efchrifl. i . Some of you charge us with 
no lejs then Hcrefie^a^ following Aerius in the rcjc^mgof 
BifI)ops^ or e^ualfzmg Presbyters with them : andean yott 
hold communion with Hereticks ? J anfivcr^ i. Ail is not 
herefte that every angry man hath called fo, no not of the 
venerable Affaerts. Do you indeed take your Dignity and 
-preheminence to be an Article of our Faith ? Why then was 
it never in the Creed? 2. CM any among us are for Epif- 
CGfacy^ that are not for your fort of Prelacy. It is that 1 pe- 
des that our Controverfte is about, ^, I pjall anfwer you 
in the words of our Reverend Moiton {a Prelate^ though 
not of the New ft rain) Apolog. Cathol. Par. i . cap. 3 5, 
pag. 96.^9 J. who anfwcreth the Papifisthat ufe agamft jm 
us thefamt&bje^ion [ Non de differentia omni, (ed de 
dififerentia Ordinis^ ^q\i Poteflate Ordtnandi { N B ) quie- 
ftio eft inftituenda. Adverfar. Aerius hxieticusordinis 
differentiam negabatefle jure divino-, idem Proteftan- 
tes ; Eefp, Quod idem forte fandus Hieronymus, nee 
aliudPatres alii a0everarunt •• hoc fcholcT veftr^ Do- 
(Jlorprimarius nonita pridem facile largiebatur ; Mich. 
Medina J lib. i . de fac. orig. affirmat^ non modo S. Hiero- 
nymum idem in hoc cum Aerianis hcereticis fenfiife, ve- 
rum etiam i^mbrofium, Auguftmum, Sedulium^ Prima- 
(ium, Chryfoflomum.^ Theedoretum, Oecumcniurn, Theophy- 
labium. Bcliarm. lib. 4. de Ecclef. milit. c. 9. Ita, ( in- 
quit Falent. JeTiiic. Tom.^.difp. 9,qu, i .pun5i. 2. ) ifti 

virialioqui fan(5lifl[imi& orthodoxi At (inquitid. 

ibid.) non eft tolerabilis hxc refponfio. Probabo vero 
hoc non modo ferendum, fed etiam omnibus aliis re- 
fponfispfarferendumefTe. Advocsitus. Erafmus /Jnnot. 
in I Tim,/\, [ Antiquitas inter Pra^sbyterum & Epifco- 


The Preface.' ly 

pum nihil intererat, ut teftatur Hiero/tjmus : Sed pod 
propter fchifma a multis deledus eft Epifcopus, i^ 
quocquot Presbyteri, totidcm erant Epifcopi. '} Tua, 
Erajme^ apud Jefuitas fordet authoritas ( but not with 

ym that I write to) Advocat. (^Iphonjus ci Caftro 

adverf. hasref. tit. Epifcop. {_ Hieronjmus in ea opini- 
one fuit, ut crederet Epifcopum & Presbyterum ejiif- 
demeffe ordinis & authoritatis] Ecce etiam altermn : 
BelUrm. lib,iJe Rem. rontif. r.8. [Videtur R E V fi- 
ll. A Uicron)mui in ca opinione fuifl'e. ] An ille folus ^. 
\_Anfdmm^ Sedulimo^'\mQVit\r\ faam ad Bkrorj'jmi 
fententiamaccjommodarunt. ] Quam eandem fenten- 
tiani' MtdiriA vefter Patribus pariter omnibus tribuic 
— Quid ex his, inquies <: oftendam 5 fi cognovifTent 
P^tres hancin Aereo hccieiindamnatam efTe, tantum 
abeftuteierrori verbis ruffragadviderentur ^ utpotius 
ihcontrariumerrorem abriperentur : fi non cognove- 
runthancopinioncmin Aereodamnatam, curvos earn 
hoc nomifiC in Proteftantibus damnandam efTe con- 
tenditis ^ Cifjant^er lib. coyijult, art. 14. C ^^ Epifco- 
patus inter Ordincs Ecclefiafticos ponendus fir, inter 
Theologos & Canoniftasnon convenit •• C(^nvenitaa- 
tem inter OMNES in Apoftolorum xuiQ inter 
Epifcopos & Presbyteros NULLUM D I S- 
CR.IMEN fuifTe 5 fed poftmodum Schifmatis 
evitandi Caufa Epifcopum Presbyterisf uifTepr.Tpofi- 
tum, cui Chirotonia, id eft Ord nandi poteftas con- 
cefla eft ] // you will not keep company with Reverend 
Morton, / prdy you go not beyond the [e Moderate Pa- 

2. But you fay, that at Icafl we arc Schifmatfcki^ and 
youmufl not holdCornmunion with fchifm. And how are 
we pnved Schifwaticks ? Why^ Q i. Becaufe we have 
safi of Bip)Ops. 2. Becaufe we now obey, them not.' \ I 


1 6 The Preface. 

have anfwcred this already • to tvhicb I add ;] i. Its a fine 

fporld^ tvhe/f men will fe far ate themselves from the 

churches of Chrifi to avoid jchtjm , and they that are 

againfl fefaratien^ and offer Cemmunion to the Separa- 

tifts, mti[l he taken to he the Schifmaticks themselves. It 

is fchifm that we dctejl^ and mould draw you from, or elfe 

what need we fay fo much fer Concord and Communion? 

2. I have told jou already^ that it is not one Minifler of 

a Multitude in our Communion that did caft off the Fre- 

lates •, half of them (^id nothing to it^ and the other half 

were Ordained ftnce, 3. Norcany&u truly fay ^ that now 

they refufe obedience t$ Bifhops^ where there are none to 

obey^ or none that command them. 4. Again I tell you^ it 

is not Epifcopacy, but only the fwfnl fpecies of Prelacy ^ 

which the Parliament^ and Affembly^ and Covenanters did 

cafi off. And what if you think this (pedes bef ? mufi all 

think fo^ or elfe be Schifmaticks ? And why not all Schif 

maticks then that are againfl the Papacy ^ which is thought 

by others the be fl form ? I have here given you fome Ar» 

guments to prove your Prelacy which was cafi ojf^ to be 

againjl the will of Chrift^and the welfare of the Churches, 

And Ijhall not believe that itf fchifm to be againfl fin 

and the churches ruine. And I cannot but admire to read 

in your writings^ that Difcipline and Piety are Pretended 

by jou^ as the thingt which you promote, and we deflroy, 

when I am mofi certain that the deflruHion of Piety and 

Difcipline are the very things by which you have fo much 

offended your Brethren % and we would heartily come as 

near you as we can, /i? /^4/ Piety 4W Difcipline may not 

be defrayed. Had we not known that the able faithful 

preuhfrs whom you called Puritans {conformable and 

not (onformable ) that laboured in the word and do6trine^ 

were ftter u promote piety then the ignorant ^drunken, 

mrldly Readers^ and lazy Preachers, that once a day would 

f reach 

The Preface. 17 

preach agairtft doing too much to bi faved ^ 4»d had we 
not knowrJ, that Piety was better promoted bj Learning the 
vfillof God^and fr a-jing, and meditating on the Lor di Daj^ 
then by dancing •, and by cheri(l)tng men truly fearing God^ 
then by [comings imprffoning, perfecuting and expelling 
them i rve muld never have been Jo much agaiptfi your 
doings as tve have been. But mens falvation is not fo 
contemptible a things as to be given aivaj to humour the 
proudj that cannot live in Corrimunion mth anj^ unlefs 
they may drive them to deflruBion, We will not [ell mens 
fouls to you at fuch rates^nor buy your Communion^ nor flop 
the reproachful mouths ef any by fuch horrid cruelties, 
VVe talk not now to you of matters that are knotvn by hear- 
fay only : we fee which way promoteth Piety, and which 
de/lroyeth it : we fee that mofi ef the ungodly in the land^ 
are the forwardcfl for yenr wayes. Tcu may have alrnofl 
all the Drunkards t B/afphemers^ and Ignorant haters of 
godlinefs in the Country^ to vote for you, and if they durft^ 
Again to fight for you at any time, 1 cannot be fo humble 
as to fay, I am blind j and fee not what indeed I fee, be- 
caufe another tells me, that bis eye fight is better then mine^ 
and that he feeth things to be other then 1 fee them to be. 
I doubt not but there are fome Pious perfons among you : i 
cenfure you no further then experience conflrameth mc. 
But 1 know that the common fenfe of mofi that are ferious 
inpra^ical Chrifliiinty, is againft your formal wayes of 
worf)iip^ andaga-nfl the courfe that you have taken in this 
v^ Undt, andthc fpiritof prophanenefs complytth tvith youy 
Anddoteth on you, in all places that ever I wa< acquainted 
in- Bear with plain truth : it is in a caufe of evcrlafl'n^ 
confequence. There is fomcwhat in a gracious foul, like 
health in the body, that d/fpofeth it to rclijh whole f am food^ 
and perceive more difference between it^ andmeer air^ or 
toyilh kickjliaws^ then it can eafly cxprejs. Ij abundance cf 

[, c) your 

i8' The Preface. 

ycur moji appUftded Preachers^ the thifigs cf Gcd iverc 
fpoken mth (o little^ life 4nd ferhufnefs-^ as if they had 
mt been believed by the fpeaker, or came not frem the 
heart •, yea Godl/nefs and Diligence for Heaven^ was the 
thing that the) ordinarily preached againft under the mmc 
of precffeneGj and being righteous overmuch. And the 
Puritans were the men that Pulpits rendered moft odims to 
the people^ andyo»r Preachers exercifed their wtt and zeal 
againft '^ while almefi all their hearers through the Land 
did take a Puritan to he one that was [erioujlj Religious, 
Many a place have I lived in, where there was not a man 
that ever [poke a word again fl Bijliops or Ceremonies ; 
hut a few there were ( alas^ a few ) that would fometime 
read a Chapter in the Bible ^and pray with their Families, 
and fpcak of the life to come, and the way to it, and for 
this they were commonly called Puritans, If a man had 
hut mildly askt a [wearer why he fwore^ or a drunkard 
ivhj he would be drunk ^ or had once named Scripture, or 
the life to come^ unlefs prophanely, the firjl word he jhould 
hear^ wds^ \_ Oyou arc one of the holy Brethren I you would 
?J6t drink or fwear^ but you will do worfe in jecret I It 
was 7tiver a good world fine e there was fo much talk of 
Scripture and Religion : but the Kingandthe Bijhops will 
take an order with you, and all the Puritans and Precifi- 
ans in the Land] I profejs upon my common fad experi- 
ence^ that this was the common language of the people 
that were ignorant and prophane in all parts <?/ England 
that ever I came in ( which were not a few • ) and thefe 
were the men that t\\^y called Puritans, and on fuch ac- 
cottnts, i^nd what could the Prelates and Preachers of 
the Ldnd have done more to mens damnation , then to 
preach them into an hatred of Puritanifm, when it was 
known by all that lived among them, that V\tty was Puri' 
tzni^m in their account, and no man was fo free from it^ 


The Prefaced ip 

as he that vtoul^ fcem at the very name of Holincfs, and 
drink and [wear ^ as if he had defyed Ccd. This is true* 
and England knsws it : and if ')cu wtU after this think 
that you have tviped your tfieuihs clean, ly faying as M' 
Pierce,^/;4; hy PunzSLns^hc means noneJyut \^men ef hloo^^ 
fedititn, violence, defpifers of dominion ^ painted fepul- 
chres^Protcflants frightened out of their wtts^ &c. ^ the 
righteous God that lovethrighteoufncfs J and hath faid^ Be 
ye holf for 1 am holy^ will wake you know to ycur penitent 
or tormenting forrow^ that the thing which commonly was 
refuted Puritanifm in England, was no fuch thing as you 
defcribe : And that its none of your wifdom to iich agatn/l 
the prieks^and play with the apple of Gods eye^and br:n{f men 
to hate the members ofChrifl^and then tcilthem yon meant 
the members of the Devil ^ andto thruft mcmnto Hell in 
jefl : I have heard before the King many a Sermon again ft 
Puritans y which I judged impious^ hut yet had this excuje^ 
that much of the auditory partly underftood^ that it was 
not Piety as fuch, that was direiily reviled : And fo per- 
haps It might be in the Vniverftties^ and fome few intelli- 
gent auditeries : hut fo it was not among the common peo- 
ple through the Land, A Puritan with them was of the 
fame ftgnification as a ferious Chriftian^ with me. And 
if you bring the Land to an hatred of fuch oi are called 
Chriftians, and then fay that by Chriftians y<>«r7;f4;7f 
none but rnadmen, feditious, bloody^ &c. you f})all anfwer 
in earneft for fpitting in the face of Chrijl m jefl ^ and 
that before htm that will not take your jears or ]ingUs^ or 
adding reproach unto reproach for afuff'icient excuje. 

I know alfo that the caflingout ef the (JMiniflers of 
your way^ is much that effcndetb you: concerning which L 
(ball only fiyy that J meet with n^ne^ or very few that pro- 
fefs not their willingnefs that all men of your mind that 
truly fear Cod^ and are able and diligent ^ fhiuldbc kept w. 

{ci) And 

20 The Preface. 

And if jou be angry for the ca fling eut of the ignorAnt^ 
injufficitnt^ negligent or fcandalous^ there's no remedj. 
But he afbamedte reproach us for cafling out fuch from 
the fcrviceof Chrift^ as Jnlian the /I pojl ate would have 
cap out from the Priejlhood of his idols : and let us crave 
your leave to expe^ as much Devotion in the fervants of 
Chnfl^ as he expe^ed in his enemies. Vid. fuUan.Opet' 
pag.54p,55o, 5 5r, drc fragment, [FacefTant itaque 
procul a nobis illebcrales joci^zc petulans omne collo- 
quium In hisoccupanda funt ftudla, & cum 

privatim, turn publice Diis fa^pe fupplicandum eft 5 
maximequidemterdedie : fin minus, fakcm diluculo 
ac Tub vefperam. Neque enim Sacerdotem decet,diem 
ullumac nodtem fine facrificio tranfigere. Eft autem 
ut initium diei diluculum, ita nodlis vefpera. Itaque 
rationiconfentaneumeft, ut amborum intervallorum, 

velut primitive qua?dam Diis confecrentur ^ 

Equidem fie ftatuo, facerdotem oporcere nodles atque 
dies purun fe ab omnibus & integrum (ervantem 

/'•5 55. Non enim mediocriter adverfus Dcos 

delinquimuscumfacras veftesoftentamus, & 0T>nium 
oculis tanquam miruri aiiquid objicimus. Ex quo id 
accidit, ut cum multi ad nosimpuri homines acccdant, 
facra ilia Deorum fymbola contaminentur. At vero 
nosfacerdotaliutivcfte, nifi ut facerdotibus dignum 
eft vitam inftituamus, id ipfiim noxas omnes crimi- 
num^ac Deorum maximecontemptum in iefe coiiti- 

net. Ad obfcsena ilia theatrorum fpe(5tacula nullus 

omnino facerdos accedat — neque cum hiftrione uilo 
vel auriga, vel faltatore. fit amicicia conjundtus , ad 

eorumve Foras accedat. Placeateos ex omnibus 

conftitui qui in Civitatibus optimi funt, & imprimis 
quidcm Dei, deinde verohominum amantiifimos quof- 
que^fi ve pau peres fint^ five divites, p . 5 5 7. Duo- 

The Preface. Zi 

bushircepijcditusfitornamcntis, Religione erga De- 

um , & in homines benignicate Et Efifl, 49. 

f 205. [ Sed velim omnes noftros facerdotes omnino, 
qui Galatiam incolunt, vcl minis impeilas, vel ratione 
perfuadeas, utfint honefti-, vel facerdotali miniftcrio 
abdices, finon una cum uxoribus, libcris, & famulis 
Diis colendis fedulo animos attendant — Deinde fa- 
cerdotem quemque hortare ne acccdat ad fpe(5lacala, 
neve in tabernabibat, ncu'artem aliquam aut opificium 
turpe infameve exerceat. Etqui tibi in his rebus mo- 
rem gerunt, eis honorem tribuito : qui autem rcfiftunc 
cxpellito. ] Leg. dr fragm. Epifi, 61. We crave your 
leave to ufe the Preshyters as flri^ly as Julian dtd thefe 
Prie(ls^ And to exfe& as much fiet^ and Jehicty in them -, 
and that jou wU not condemn allthefefor Puritanifm^that 
If ill not be tvor/e then this Afoflate Pagan, 

And for Difcipline ^ could rve have any from your 
B^ifcefacy worth the naming^ we fkould be the mere re- 
concilable to it : But it hath not been^ nor it cannot be. 
Common drunkards that rvcre for twenty or thirty years 
together drunk ufually once or twice a week^ and abundance 
as prophane in other kinds ^ were the fiated members of this 
Parip) church where now 1 live, in the Bifhops dayes • and 
were fafer from any trouble then the Puritans among thtm 
that would not imitate them- Let me here mind you of 
two of the following /trguments^ which perfwa^e us that 
your Prelacy is not of Cod^ becaufe it is deflru6livc cf Dif- 

I. when Bpifcopacy was frfi known w the Churchy 
every Presbyterie ^ or Confeflus Piesbytetorum hdd a 
Bffiop', and every Presbyter had right to be a member of 
feme fuch Prcsbjterie, Jnd jeriftifli would yen have all 
the Presbyters in a Diocefs to be 4 Vresbyterie, where your 
Bifhop muji prc^de for the ordinary Government of the 

( f 3 ) Vtocefi 

zz The Preface. 

Diocefs ai one Church <* Are y6t* ftrangsrs in Enghnd i 
Or do )ctt n$t know what Abundance we have that in one 
parifjj Are every week (candalous ^bj drunkennefs ^ cur^tngj 
/wearing ^ railings or fuchlth ? And can all the Pafiors 
travail fo far to the Presbjterie (o frequently withffttt 
negle5iing their Pafloral work f Or cm all th:fe peefle be 
ferfwided without the Magiftrates [word to travail fo 
far to anfrer for their impiety ? Will they not tell ns, voe 
have jomewhat elf to do ? Are rPe not like to make them 
watt feven years and feven, before the mo(l of them can 
have a tolerable tryal^ when fo many hundred Par ijhes^of 
which fome me may have hundreds of obfiinate fcandalous 
pcrfons^ mafi allgofofar^ and have but one judicature f* 
2 , / befeech ymgive me leave hut from Scripture^ and 
from Br. Hammonds raraphrafCj to Uy before you the 
work of a Bijhop^ and then tell me whether one man^or ten., 
or an hundred can do thii work for one of our ordinary Di^ 
ccefs^ any more then one man can build a City ? 

I . A Bifhop muft be the public k Teacher of all the flock 
which he is to Over fee . Andean one man undertake this 
for many fcore or hundred Churches ? 

% . A Bifhop mufl perfonally over fee and take cxre 9f 

all the flock^ as Ignatius fpeaks, enquiring of each one 

by Name% and can a Bifhop know and perfonally inflru^ 

fo many hundred Parifhes ? Thefe two parts of bis Office I 

prove together :. A^»20» 20. [ I taught you publickly» 

and from hoafe to houfe. 28. Take heed therefore to 

your felves and to all ihe flock, over which the Holy 

Ghoft hath made youOverfeerSjtofeed the Church 

of God which he hath purchafed with his own blood. 

3 1 . Therefore watch, and remember that by the fpace 

of three years, I ceafed not to warn every one night 

and day with tears. See Dr. Hammond f»;? f^^ Text, 

who tells you that it is ffoke to Bijhops. 

1 Pet. 

The Preface. Xj 

I P^^5.i,2,j. The Elders which are among you 

I exhortj whoamalfo an Elder Feed the fiock- 

of God which is among you , taking the overiight 
thereof, not by conftraint, but willingly, not for filthy 
lucre, but of a ready mind 5 neither as being Lords 
■jver Gods Heritage, but as enfamples to the flock ] 
See Dr. Hammond expoun^i fig it ai [poken to B/fhoPs, 
q. d, [ TheBifiiopsof your fcveral Churches 1 ex- 
hort—— take care of your feveral Churches, and 
govern them, not as fecular Rulers by force { N B) 
but as Paftors do their fheep, by calling and going be- 
fore them, that fo they may follow of their own ac- 
cord. 3 

Heh.iZ'7' Remember them that have the Rule 
over you, who have fpoken unto you the word of 
God ] Dr. Hammond Paraphr, [Set before your eyes 
the Billiops and Governors that have been in your 

Church, and preached the Gofpel to you ] all 

yau Inhabitants fi/ YorkHiire, Lincolnfhire, Norfolk, 
Suffolk, EfTcx, Middlefex, Kent, WorcefferHiire, c^^r. 
how many ef joftr Panjlus did ever hear a Bijhop preach 
the Gofpel to them f 

F^rf. 1 7. Obey them that have the Rule over you^ 
and fubmit your felves, for they watch for your fouls 
as they that muft give account ] D. H, [ Obey thofe 
that are fet to Rule you in your feveral Churches, the 
Bifhops, whofe whole care is fpent among you, as 
being to give account of your proficiency in the Go- 
fpcL ] dreadful account, for him that muflgive it for 
fo many thoufands rvhofe faces he never pip, and whofe 
narnts he never heard^ much lejs didever fpeak amrd^ 
to them I 

I rtm.^.ij. Let the Elders that Rule well be 
counted worthy of double honour , tfpecially they 


2^ The Preface, 

who labour in the word and do(5lrine ] fee Dr, H. 
expeunding it of Bifhops. 

iJhcf' 5.12. And we befeech you Brethren to 
know them which labour among you, and are over 
you in the Lord,and admonifh you,and to efteem them 
very highly in love for their works fake] Br, H, [Pay 
all due refpeds to the Bifliops of your feveral 

Churches ] Tellm ye Paripjes ^/England, what 

labours have BijJjops beflerved among pu ? or how many 
of you have they admontfhed ? and which of them are you 
hence ( bilged to honour for their works fake ? and is it 
them^ or is it the Presbyters? I mention none of thu as 
blaming Bifhops for negligence t, but as blammg them that 
wdl plead fort ^nd undertake an impefsible task-, and 
after all with an hardened forehead will defend it with 
violence and feparation from dffenters , when fo many 
ages have told the world to their faces, that the under- 
taken task was never done, 

•^^ It is the work of Bifhops to confirm the Baptized : 
and is new made peculiar to them. D. H. C on Heb. 1 3.4. 
To teach, exhort, confirm, and impofe hands, were all 
the Bifhops office in that place] i^nd if fo^ then the 
examining all the perfons in a Diocejs^ till they have jufl 
fatisfaSlion that they are fit to be confirmed^ and the aitw 
all Confirmation of them ally will be a conftderMe task of 
it f elf 

4. // is the Bifhops work to exercife Difcipline inthe 
church, by admonifhing the unruly and dif orderly , and 
bearing the cafe when the Church is told of thofe that have 
continued impenitent^ and openly to rebuke them^ and to 
€Afl them out by Excommunication^ if they remain im- 
penitent and unreformed, Br. H. on T/>. 3,10. C Itis 
thy office and duty toward fuch an one, fiift to admo- 
jnidi him once or twice, and if that will not work upon 


The Preface. z*) 

him or reduce hinij then to fet a mark upon him, to in- 
flid the cenfures on him, and toappoint all men to 
break off familiar converfe with him. ] And o tvhat 
Abundance of work is this in the feveralparts^ even in 
one Parijljj much more in a Dioccfs , fee Dr, H. en 
Mat. 18. 17, 1 8. 

5. It is the Bifiops work to take the principal care of 
the poor, and their fleck ^ or the contributions forthem^ 
which contributions were made at every Ajjemhly. See 
Dr. H. on iCor,ii.i%,e. [ The fupream truft and 
charge was referved to the Apoftles and Bifliops of 
the Church. So in the 41. Canon of the Apoftles: 
A Bifliop muft have the care of the monies, fo that 
by his Power all be difpenfed to the poor by the Pref- 
by ters and Deacons ^ and we command that he have ia 
his Power the goods of the Church. So Jufiin Mar- 
fir Apol. 2. That which is gathered is deposited with 
the Prefe<5t or Bifliop, and he helps, relieves the Or- 
phans and Widdows, and becomes the Curator or 
Guardian to all abfolutely {N B) that are in want. 
So Ignatius to Polycarp'^ After the Lord thou Hialt be 
the 'Curator of the Widdows. AndP(?/Yr4r/>himfelf 
fpeaking of the Elders or Bifhops, They vifit and 
take care of all that arc fick, not negle<5ting the Wid- 
dow, the Orphan, or the poor. ] So Dr. H. read him 
further* Remember this, all you that are for our Englifh 
Prelacy* See that the Bi(l)Op be at once in every Parifh m 
his Diocefs to receive the contributions. Or fee that you 
put all into his hands and cuftody .-fee that he take care of 
all the foor^ and widdows^ and orphans, in all your Ccun- 
try^ and that all their monies be disburfed by him, or his 
fpecial appointment^ and' be the common Overfeer of the 
poor for hts Diocefs* And n>hen you and he have trycd this 
ont ftven years ^ come then and tell us^ xvhether he will he 

l6 The Preface. 

4ny longer a Prelate^ crpit willar>y longer be for Prelacy, 
In the T/teAn timeju^ge in your Confdences by thefe paf- 
/ages ef Antiquity cited by Z>. H. whether the antient 
Bijlopi hoAene Congregation^ or many (core or hundred t9 
be their Fa (lard charge ? 

6 . Alfo it is a part of the Bip)ops work to vifit the fie ky 
And pray with ihent^and for them^ 5^4^.5.14. Is any 
Tick among you^ lee him call for the EMers oF the 
Church, and let them pray over him ] fee Dr. H. that 
by Elders is meant the Bifho^s, e. {^ Becaufethcre is no 
Evidence whereby thefe ( inieriour Presbyters ) 
may appear to have been brought into the Church Co 
early, and becaufe u^tcCvn^u in the plural, doth ao 
way conclude that there were more of thefe Elders 
then one in each particular Church ( any more then 
that the fick man was bound to call for more then one ) 
and becaufe np«<r.V7?f&/ Elders of the Church was both 
in the Scripture ftile, and in the firft writers the title 
of Billiops ; and lafUy, becaufe the vifitingof the fick 
is anciently mentioned as one branch of the Office of 
Bifliops ^ therefore it may very reafonably be refolved'^ 
that the Bi(hops of the Church, one in each particular 
Church, but many in the Univerfal, are here meant ]i 
fit far Dr . H. Remember all you that are all for Prelacy ^Of 
ftnd for thiBijhop when you are fick^ ever) per fon in th^ 
Viocefs, according to th/s exprefs command: And if he: 
vfiuld do his work by a Deputy^ remember, that in all that 
Djocefs which WiU the Bifhops charge in the Scripture^. 
times ^ there wot no Presbyter exi (lent but himfe/f^ as is> 
here confejjed. So in the following words the fame Learned 
Dr. further proveth from Antiquity^ [ that one part of 
the Bifliops office is {^t down,that they are i^aMTjiuivot 
TivivTPf «<&«.'«<, thofe that vifit all the fick ] Let us- have 
fuch B:fhops ds can and will do this, and our Cont rover fie 
will foon be at an end about Epifcopacy, . }f(re 

The Preface. 27 

jVere if not that 1 have ffoken of thefe things after- 
wards^ and fear being tedious, 1 fhould have jhewed, that 
7. B apt zing , 8. Congregating the ^(lemblies , p. 
Adr/tiniftringthe Lords Supper^ 10. Guiding the r^ffem- 
blpn the whole public k rvorfhip , 11. Sle/sing the people 
at the difmifsion , and 1 2 . Abfolving the penitent ^ and 
more then all thefe rvere the works of the ancient Epifcopal 
fun^ion. And now I leave it to the Confcience of any 
man that hath a grain of Confcience left bim^ whether 
one man be able , were he never fo witlings to do anj one 
of all thefe duties^ much lefs t9 do all of them for many 
hundred Parip)es ? Can a Btjhop teach them all, and Ca- 
techife and confer with all^ andcoimjail, and comfort, and 
admontfh all, and Govern ally and try all cafes of every 
fcandalow impenitent perfon of fo many thoufand ^ and 
Cenfure^ and Jbfolve^ and Confirm^ and Try them for 
Confirmation^ and receive all the churches jlock^ and be 
the Overfeer of all the poor^and take care of all the Or- 
phans and WiddowSy and vi fit, counfail^ and pray with all 
tbeftck^ andguide every Congregation in publick worfhip, 
and give the Sacrament to all, and pronounce the Blejsing 
in every Affembly , ^c, and this for a whole County or 
more ? O wonderful , that ever this jhoitld become a Con-^ 
trover fie amongmen^ that vilife others as unlearned and 
unwife in comparifon ef them? 1 mitfl lay by refpcfi to 
man fo far, as pUinly to profefs, that I take thefe for fuch 
ermrs as mufi need proceed from want of Ptcty and Con- 
fcience^ and practice of the duties th:it are pleaded for. If 
thefe men did not talk of Governing a t htirch, as thofe 
talk of Governing a Navy^ an Army^ or a Cowmomvealth^ 
that never fct their hand to the work^ it is not pofiblc fire 
that they fhouldthtis err. ohowmahy Bifiwps never trjed 
what it is to Govern the Chnrch^ or faithfullf \erfoym 
any one of all thefe works \ 1 folemnly profefs^ that with 

{dz) the 

7-8 The Preface, 

the help ef three more fellow Presbftcrs , and three cr 
fenr Dcacons^beftdes the greater help of abundance of Godly 
people here in their places J 1 am not able to do all this as tt 
jhould be done, for this one PariP). And yet thegreuteji 
part of onr trouhle is taken off, by therefujalof the muL- 
tttude of the ungodly to come tinder Difcipline ^ or be 
members of our Pafloral charge. Sirs, tbefe are not fcho' 
la flick [peculations ! 7 he everla fling ^o) or Torment of 
our people lycth upon the fuccefiful performance of thefe 
works ( as we that are Chrijlians verily believe ) i^nd 
therefore to Difpute, whether Oxie man fhould do all this 
for a Diocefsj ts all one as to Difpute^ whether it fhallall 
be undone or no? and that is, nvhetberwe (Jjallgiveup 
our Countries to the Dev.lor no? And fhall the Prela- 
tical Controverfie come to this ? Tou have no way to avoid 
it^ b»t by Delegating your power to others y and cafling 
your work upon them. But you confefs that this was 
never done in Scripture-times, there being then no Sub']e6i 
Fesbyterstowhom tt might be corr^mitted. And by whtt 
authority then can you do it? Can Epifcopacy be transferred 
by Deputation to another? This ts long ago confuted by 
many writers, Popifh and Proteflant, Do the work by ano- 
ther^ and you fhall have your wages by another. And 
Vfhat is your Office, but your Authority and obligation to 
do your work ? He therefore that you commit this to is a 
Sijhop. So that this is but to make ui Deputy Btfhops : 
And if fojetu^ call them Bifhops, 

J have read many of your writers of late^ that fay we 
have no Government, and faith one of them, the Presby- 
terian Government was never yet fet up in any one Parifh 
in England] Thefe are flrange things to be reported to 
Bnglifh men. Perfwade the world next that no man in 
England hath a nofe on his face. Is it not known that 
the Presbyterian Government hath been exercifed in Lon-, 



The Preface. zp 

don, in Lancafliite, and in many Counties^ thefe many 
years ? And what Government ts it that yon think h>c 
ivant ? The peeple are guided in the matters ef God by 
their feverat Pajlors, The Pa(lors live in Concord by Af- 
[ociattons in many Countries. Both Pajiors and People 
are Governed by the OWagiJIrate : And what need we 
more f Look into this County where I live^ and you fhall 
find a faithful J humble, laborious C^inifiry^ Affociated 
and walking in as great unit) as ever I read of ftnce the 
K^poflles daies. No difference^ no quarrels ^ but fweet 
and amicable Correfpondency,and Communion^ that lean 
hear of. Was there fuch a Miniflrj , or fnch love and 
concord J or fuch agodly people under them in the Prelates 
reign ? There was not : / lived where 1 do : and there- 
fore 1 am able to fay, there was not. Through the great 
mercy of God, where we had ten drunken Readers then, we 
have net one now : and where we had one able godly 
Preacher then^we have many now ; and tn my own charge 
where thtre was one that then made any fhew ef the fear 
ef God, I hope there is twenty now : And the Families 
that were wont to [corn at holme fs, and live in open tm- 
piety , are now devoted to the worjhip and obedience of the 
Lord, This ii our lofs and mijery in thcfe times which yott 
fo lament. 

3. But perhaps fouwillrefufe Communion rvith us, be* 
canfe of our differences from you in docirine about the 
Controverfies called Arminian. But the fiercenefs of ma- 
ny of you hereabouts doth ferve but to djfcover your igno- 
rance andunchantablenefs. 7 he Papifls that differ among 
themfelves about thefe points, can yet hold Commfinion m 
one church : and cannot you with ta f Will you be fiercer 
againft us then the fefuites againfl the Dominicans f 
Nay we go r/ot neer fo fir oi they, We cleave to Augiiftine, 
and the Synod of Vort ^who own not Phyftcai Predetermi- 

(,d ^ ) nation. 

30 Tne Preface. 

nation^ and meddle not mth Re^robntion Atitecedent t$ 
forefight cf fin, and tvho confers a fuffictency in Chrijis 
fatis faction for all. K^nd jet muflrve have tho^e impo- 
tent clamors^ with which the writings of Mr, Pierce 4;7i 
ether fuch abound f Whj then do you pretend to follow 
the church of England, which Mr, Hickman h^tth 
fhewed you pUinlj that you defer t f Many of the highcji 
meer Arminians are charitahle peaceable men, that hate 
feparation from their Difjenting Brethren* Curcellius 
is one of the mofl eminent men living of that way. And 
how charitable and peaceable an Epijlle hath he writ be fere 
D. Blondels book de Papiffa Joanna ? And I hear that 
Mr. HoardjfA^ Author of the Book called Gods Love to 
mankind, lives in peaceable Communion with the Neigh' 
hour Minifters in EfTex. And I have had Letters from 
many of that way with whom I Cerrefpondj full of chri^ 
fiian Love and Piety ^ and hatred of calumny and feparati- 
6ns. But verily I mufl tell you, that when we find any of 
you in your writings and Sermons making it yoitr work tot 
vilifie the (Jliiniflry^ and with the Quakers to make them 
odious to the people, and making your jeers, and railing, 
and uncharitablenefs the life of your Sermons, we cannot 
but fufpe^ that you are Pop/ft) Emifjaries, while we find 
you in their work^ or elfe that you are Malignant Enemies, 
and of the ferpentine brood, whofe heads /hall (hortly be 
bruijed by the Lord, 

4. And if it be the difufe of your Common Prayer that 
you feparate from us for, I would know of you y whtther 
youwould have denyed Communion with all that lived be- 
fore it had a being, if this be your Religion.^ I may ask 
you, where was your Religion before Luther ? before King 
Edwards daies ? Jf you fay in the Uafs book {and what 
elfe can you fay f ) / ask you then^ where was it before the 
Mafs book had a being ? Would you have denyed Commu- 

7 lie Preface, 5 i 

Kt0» t$ the A po flies dnd all the Primitive Church fcr Jeme 
hundreds of yedrs^ that never ufed ymr Book ef Common 
Brajer f will yott (iillmake things indifferent, nectjjary ? 
2. One word to thofe of yott that follow Grotius : / 
have jliewed that he profejjeth himfelf a Papift^ even in 
that D'fitifiion which cJir Pierce (o magmfieth as excel- 
lent . I hear Mr, Thorndikc and others defend him : an^ 
feme think 1 injure him hj calling him 4 I'apifl. Wonder- 
ful \ what will not be a Comr over fie among learned men ? 
K,^4re we fuln among fuch that deny him to be a Papift, 
that prof effet hex prefly to be fatisfied^ if evil manners be 
but corrected, (and jchool- opinions not impofed) which 
a»'e contrary to Tradition and all Councils^ and that pro- 
fjr^fjhtoown the Creed and Council of Trent, and all the 
B'Q^tfh: Councils what foever J and the Miflrtpnp of Rome, 
and! phc Catholick Mafler[hip of the Pope governing the 
^Phedick church according to thef: Councils ? What is 
at P'apifi' if this be none ? / refer you to my Evidence in 
tbeBifcoveryof the Grotian Religion, and the firjl chap, 
of the fecond Part of my Catholick Key, replying to Mr. 
Pierce. Confute it ratronally if you can, 1 fhaU now only 
defire J6U when j oh have read Rivet, to read a Book 
called Gxot'msPipizms^ and to hearken to the teflimeny 
of an honejl^ learned Senator of Paris, that admired Gro- 
tius, 4«^/f//i you what he is from his own mouth: and 
that ts^ Claud. Sarravius, mA^ faith in his Epiflol.pag^ 
53,5 ;. ad Gronov. [ De ejus libro & libello poftremis .^ 
interrogatuSjrefpondit plane Milleterio Confon-r, Ro- ' 
manam fidcm eftc ve^rain & finccram, foiofq'e Cleri- 
corum mores degeneres fchiimatidedifTe locum •, adfe- 
rebatque plu^M in han'c fententiam. Quid dicam i 
Merito quod falfo olim Paulo Agrifpa -r." :r>.;.« c^. y,,^- (^k-m 

«< urtn'^j 7npirf.i7ni. Deploro vehs lac^hrymis tantam 

ja(fhiram] Nefe pw huve a' credible witnefs^ that from 


3 x The Preface. 

hii own mouth reporteth it, that our RtformMion was to 
Qxoiwxs a fchifm^ and nothing hut the ill manners of the 
Clergy gave us the opportunity, AndpAg, 190, Eptjh ad 
Salmaf, [_ Vis ergo me exertc diceie quid lentiam 
de poftremo Grotii libro ? & an omnia mihi in eo pro- 
bentur ^ Rem rogas non magnam, nee adeo difficilem, 
qucmque expedire promptum eft. Tantum abeft ut 
omnia probem, ut vixaliquid in. eo reperiam, cui fine 
conditionecalculumapponam meum. Veriffime dixit 
ille qui primus dixit, Cm/«/»Papizare. Vix tamen in 
iftp Icripto aliquid legiquod mirarer, quodve a !s/=o<rS'ox.». 
Tcj* occur leret. Nunquid enim omnes iftiufmodi ejuf- 
dem authoris lucubrationes erga Papiftarum errores 
perpetuam 7vyi&-mCoi<nv & fv-i^iv, erga Jefuitas amorem, 
erga nos plus quam Vatinianum odium produnt & cla- 
mant .• In Voto quod ejus nomen praeferebat, an veri* 
tus eft hxc 7n?Acr(^iva( profiteri < 3 

Had none of you owned Grotius his Poptry^l tvould never 
have charged it on you. ButrvhenGxotius himfelf gloria 
eth of his adherents in England , and f$ many of you 
plainly defend him^ and profefs your owning of thofe hooks, 
and thoje doBrines in which his Popery is contained, ( if 
ever Popery were known in the world ) I muft then crave 
your par don t if I think [omewhat the worfe of Popery, he- 
caufe they that hold it are afhamedof it. For I abhor that 
Religion which a man bath cauje to he afljamed of, and will 
not jave him from being a lofer by it, that ownethit, and 
(iandeth to it to the lajf. And I think that man hath no 
Religion^ who hath none which he will openly profefs and 
ftana to. 

1 have at this time but the fe few requejls to make to 
you, which 1 befeech you to anfwer without partiality, 
1. That you will Jerioujly confider, whether it be truly 
CAthoUck, to unchttrch m^and fo many Churches of Cbrift 


The Preface. :3 

as drt of our mind ^ as your partakers do? Becattfe Ca- 
tboLcijm is your fretcnfe, confider whether you he not 
further from it then moft peeple in the world ? 

2 . Bccdufe I conceive this Book is not fuitedto ycur 
grcAt ohje^ionS) idefire your perufal of another that comes 
out with it J called A Key foiCatholicks^ ef^cciallythe 
fecend Part, and if you cannot anlwerthem^ take heed 
how you continue Papiflst 

3. while you hold U4 for no Miniflers or Churches^ or 
Capable of your Communion ^ it is in vain for m to hope 
for Communion with *jOu : hut wedeftre that you will con- 
fider of thofe terms of a more diftant fort of Communion, 
which there I have propounded in the End of the frjl and 
Jecond Part : and deny m not that much. 

4. At leaft we hefeechyouy that while you are Papifts, 
you will deal openly, and no worfe with us then foher P^ptjls 
that fpeak according to their Confciences ufe to do. Do not 
let it {ds the Lord Falkland fpeaks) he in the Power of 
fo much per annum ( nor of jour fa^ious interefl ) to 
keep you f rom prof ef sing your [elves tg be what you are^ 
and do not make the Proteftantname a meer cloak tofecure 
you in the oppofing of the Proteflant Canfe, and follow not 
the example c/ Spalatenfis, and the Counfelof Campian 
and Parfons, in feigning a fort of Do^rinal Puritans, and 
railing at Protcflants under that name. Deal with us but 
AS fober Papifls do, and we fl}all take it thankfully. How 
highly doth Bodin a Learned Papifl extol the Prcsbperian 
Difcipline at Gcnevah from its effects, rvhcn among ma- 
ny r.f you it hath as odious titles as tf it wnejome blafphe- 
mous damning thing. What fober Papifl would talk as 
Mr, Pierce doth \ p. 30. of the great abomination of 
the Presbyterian DiredoryO ^tidnot be able to name 
one thing in it that is abominable. Is n a great abomina- 
tion to exhort and dirc^ men to preachy andpray, and 

CO prafc 

54 The Preface. 

fraife Cod^ &c < If h be the Omifsion ef his forms and 
Ceremvnies^ that is no Part of the book ^ and if it be feme 
DireHions that are againfl them , they revile the 
Common PrAjer booky as mofl Papip have done^ or they 
that count ffteh Ceremenies aiid For?ns indifferent things, 
/«• others have done, have little reafon to account that fo- 
great an abomnation that direBeth men to omit them, 
jyhat abominable thing is impofed by the Dire5icry ? Tell 
us if you can. What excellent things doth Thucin'dS [peak 
0f the Presbyterians or Caivinijfs ? and horv highly doth 
he extol the mojl of their Leaders or Teachers whom he 
mentioneth ? But to Mr, Fierce •, jvhat a bloody per f hi otis 
fort of men ars ihey, unfit to live in a Commonwealth ? 
And to Grotius •, the Protefiants are not only of bad lives, 
but bj the Power of their Do^rine they are fuch» 1 have 
[hewed you in my Key for C^itholicks how great the 
fraijes <?/ Calvin are tn the mouth of Papir. MaiTonius, 
and other fober Papifls : and the fame may be faid of 
others of our Divine!^ who are mentioned by you with 
moft calumniating odious words. Even Maldonate the 
Jefuice, when he is rail ng at the Calvmifls. confefjeth of 
them, ( />i Match. 7. 15. ) that [^ Nothing was in their 
mouths but, the Lord, and our heavenly Father, and 
Ghrift, and Faith-, an Oath was not heard : nothing 
appeared in their deeds, but AhTif- deeds, and Tempe- 
rance, and Modefty ] Is this like your language of them ? 
Nay^ if Satan had dilated to him , hew could he have . 
uttered more falfhood and dcteflable calumniation then 
Mr, Pierce hath done, p. 7^. when he faith [_ were Hac- 
ket, Lancafler^ Arthington and others hanged for Non- 
Conformity < or was it nothing but Ceremonial which 
Coppinger^ ^c defigned again ft the lives of the whole 
privy Council, and againft the perfon of the Queen :* 
were not Cartwright^ and Travers^ and Wentworth, and 


. The Preface. 3 5' 

E^fftc?j^:ind other Presbyterian Minifters privy to the 
piot^ ] 7 he Lord will rebuke this jl.mderous tongue. Did 
ever Cochlseus, cr Bolfeck ^<7 beyond this maji? Hew 
fu'.ly is it known that H.icket and h/s Companions were 
Griindlctonians or Familifls^ jujl fttch its James Nailor, 
and the fakers ^ ( who are far nearer the Papijls then the 
Puritans or Frcsbytcr/ans ) and that thej. madly CAme 
;;7r<7 London, Coppinger and Arthington, as his two 
Prophets^ frocUiming Hacket to be J^efus Chrijl i, and 
that for objlinate inftfling en this Bla/phcmy, Hackee 
was hanged^ and d)ed blaf^hcming^ and Arthington up- 
on his Repentance pHblif})cd the whole Story ef the bcgin- 
ing and progrefs of the bufmefs^ as you may [ee it tn the 
Book called Arthingtons Sedudion. Jn which their 
madnejs, blafphen^y, cr any Ireafon of theirs or others, 
this man might ashonefllj have faid^ that Augufline, 
or Luther, or Cranmer had an hand^ or were privy to the 
plot ^ as Cartwright 3 Travers, and fuch Fresbpcrian 
Mmtjlers, What he hath read in Bancroft, / knew not, 
nor much regard, till Bancroft himfclf be better cleared 
of what he fc b'j writers charged with, concerning Ficlerus, 
Dolman, ^c, and while he was known to be the mofl vio- 
lent perfecutor of the Vuritans. But- 1 fee as the Papifls 
will take it for a currant truth, that Luther was fctcht 
away by the Devil, and that Calv'm was (ligmatizcd for 
Sodomy, and dyed blafpheming, Sec if they can but fajt 
that one CochLrus or Bolfeck of their own hath f^okeit •, 
[0 fuch men among us dare tell the world the mcfl odious 
faifl)0ods of Cartwright, Travers, and the Presbyterian 
Minificrs, if they can but fay, that Bancroft fiidit before 
them. And now the reft maj take it as unqw.ftionablc, 
when -Mr, Pierce /a«;/; faidn. Dothe(c?!iC7i bel/eve that 
there is a day of Judgement ? if they do\ th/y m-d'e but 
lamentable preparation for it. i^-Jndhts afjcrtfon pag.yy. 

( (? 2 ) ibat 

i5 The Preface. 

that [ Excominunicating Kings and killing them is 
the dodiine of the Presbyterians] and much more of 
his vffr'tun^ ii of tht fame kind. To this 1 have given him- 
an Anfwcr in mj Key for Catholicks, whtre he jhall 
fee whether Paftjh or Proteflants arc for King-killing ? 
Had )(H not gone fo far hejond fuch moderate Papifls 
as Gaflandcr, Hofpitalius, Maflbnius, Bodin, Thua- 
nus ^c> in 'iour enmity and bitternefs againft the Prote^ 
flaats^ as clearly to contradict them^ and to [peak blood 
And venom J when they (peak charitably, andhonenrably^ 
we mi^ht have had more peaceable neighbours ofyoit^thmgh 
none of jour Communion. 

And I ff^lp^f^ ^^^^ ^^^[^ ^^^^ feparate from m^as 
having no true CMiniflrf or Churches, would have all 
thefe MinHhrs that they take for none^ tobe ftlenced and 
cafl out, I do not think you will deny this tobe your de- 
fire^ and your purpefe, if ever you fhould have power ? 
And if [o^ what men are you ? and what a cafe would 
you bring this Nation in ? To your objections I have 
anfwercd in this book, and jaid fomewhat more to you in 
another Preface. Afid upon the whole matter am forced 
now to conclude, that it is an Enmity tv holimfs inun^ 
fanCiified hearts that is the principal caufe of our diflance 
and divifions 5 and that the way toconvi/fceftichmeti, 
as t09 many are that we deal with^ is not Difputing, but 
prajin^ to the Lord to change their hearts : And that if 
we coiiU once perfwade them but to the Love of God and 
Holinefs^andto aferious praCliceof Chriftian Religion^and 
{if they be Bifhops) to a faithful praCl ice ofthoje works of a 
Bilhop whch thcj confefs are his duty^anate tryChnrch- Go- 
vernment before they plead for what was never tryed by 
them,curC0ntrovcrfi€s would then be end:d:tbey would ne- 
ver more plead for fneh a Prelacy that deflroyeth Piety,4»i 
Difciplinej nor never revile the Servants of the Lord: 

The Preface. ^7 

ner rjevcr defire fo much to promote the rvork of Hdl^ as 
thecaftirjf out all that they account no Miniflers^ and the 
Cdflmg off of all that they account no Ordinances or valid 
Admwtjlrations^rvottld be. Farewel Difputmg with fuch 
men^ in order to their Convi6lion^ and an healing peace. 

Hoc non eft artis, fed pietatis opus. 


WHac the Publifiier of Dr. SteTi^ards 
Sermon doth mean by his Commmend^ 
ing it to my Corifideration^\N\\tn there is 
not a word in it that I am concerned in more 
then he, I underftand not. If he thereby in- 
timate^ that I charged Dr. Steward to be of 
Grotiii^'S Religion,or any other that difowneth 
it, he egregioufly abuleth his Reader and 
himfelf. If he intend to argue that none of 
the Prelatical Party were Grocians^ becaufe Dr. 
Stew.ird was not : Let him prove his Confe- 
quence ; Idilproveit, i. From the teltimony 
of Grotm himfelf 2. From the months and 
books of thofe that have owned Grotm 
among us, even fince they were acquainted 
with liis judgement, and have owned his Vo^ 
r«w 6r* D//ctty3J{3 in particular. If his meaning 

(^5) be 


be that (^Dr. Steward w^s a G/ori^w^ and yet 
no Papift : therefore Grotiujis are no Papifts ] 
one branch of his antecedent is falle : Either 
he was no Crottan^ or he was a Papift. Again 
I profels, that it is tar from the defire of my 
foul, to raife fo much as the leaft fufpicion 
on any that own not the Do£trine and De* 
fign of Crotius, Difclaim it, and we are fatif- 
fied. Dr. Heyli?2 was taken for as hot an 
antipuritan as moft in England •' and yet C ir^ ^ 
moderate Letter to me ) he difclaim eth Groti- 
anifm' which I mention, partly left any, by 
my naming him on another occafion in that 
Book, mifconceive me to have accufed him 
of this, and principally to difcourage the de- 
fenders of GroUH6^ when fuch men as Dr. 
Heylin and Dr. Steti;ard arc againft them. 


The Contents. 


^.^^.^. Hetkr it be Nece(farj or Profitable to the right 

f^h^l^m ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ churches of Eng- 
lt^fi!%'^ land, th^t rve rcftore the extruded EpifcO' 

Peace tvithEpifccpal Divines to he {ought y 

The Nature of Church-GGvernmem opened^ pag.J. to 14. 
Twelve forts of Biljiops to be difti»guifl)ed^ pag. 1 4, 1 5. 
which of thefe may be admitted for Peace ^ pag. j 6. 

Vnjixed General Mtniflen to do the Ordinary part of the 
Apofllei rvork,areto be continued f proved j pag.2 1 ,22. 
what Power Apofllcs had ovsr other OMiniJiers, P. 25, 

to 30, 

The Authors Concefsiens for Bpifcopacy^ pag. 50, 31. 

x^rguments agaitifl the Bagltj]) Prelacy. I . It dcflroyeth 

Govirnment and its end^ pag. 3 2 . 

2 . Itgratifieth Sdta^ and wicked intn , pag. 3 6 . 

3 . It unavoidably caufeth dtvifioris, pag. 5 7. 

4. It fnfpendtith or degradcth all the Presbyters^ png. 38. 

5 . It makelh Lay men church-geverfipri. 

^. And epprejjeth the Bilhops with guilty P'ig-44- 

7- ^^ 

The Contents. 

'J, It is the fredu5i of fride^ p2g.4S- 

8. Jt ^ratifieth lazy Mimflers^ pag.46. 

9. It 16 netcf Gods InfUtntiorJi pag.48. 

10. It is contrAr) to Gods tvord^ pag 5 i. 

11. It is un[dfej as never ufedin Scripture tiroes. 

How fully the fuppofiticn is granted us , p^g. 5 8> 5 9. 

Many Reafons proving that the Apoflles {whodt fa(5lo 
Are confejjed by I>r. H. to have fetledno [ubje6i Pref- 
bytcrsin Scripture times ^ but one Bifhop over one flat ed 
Congregation) intended not the changing of this Order 
afterwards f pag 63. to 74,&c. 

I,iore Arguments that Diocefan Bijhops are no Scrifture- 
Biffwps, pag 75. 

They are contrary to the Jervifl) and Apoflolical Govern- 
mtnt^ ^3Lg,'j6^']'j, 

Proved by two Arguments more, P^g'83584. 

The Confefi ion of Epif copal writers^ pa g . 8 5 , 8 5 . 

Again fi Diocejan Btfhops ( of many Churches ) the Tefti- 
mony of ClcmQns Romanus,/>.87. (with GrotiusV ex- 
po fit ion, pag 88. 

of Poly carps 4;?^ Ignatius {who is full againfl them) 


of luftin Martyr, and Gregory Ncociefaiienfis , 

Tertullian, P^g-93394. 

of Clemens Alexandr. and from the late divifion of 

Parifhesy • P^g.9^. 

"Ninius teflimony cited by Mr, Thorndike of ^e^.Bi- 

jhopricks planted bj Patrick/^ Iieland, pag. ^5, 97. 

More cited by Uflier, P^g'97* 

The Teflimenies of Councils, pag . 98 . /^ 1 05 . 

Many weighty Conjcquents of the proved point, pag. 1 03. 


Tl^e Contents. 


T^ofe who Nulltfie our frefent Mimfirj and Churches 
ivhtch have not the Prelatical Ordination^ and teach 
the people to do the iike, do incur the guilt of grievous 
A Preface to the Diffenters, pag. 1 09. 

One Letter of a Minifier of another County that openeth 
the Necefsity of this Difputation^ pag. 127. 

Chap, i^ A Minifier of Chri(l defined^ pag. 130. 

whether fpecial Grace be Neceffary to the being of a Mi- 

nijler, pag.i30>i3i- 

what Salifications are NcceJJ'ary^ pag .132. 

Minijlers chrifls off/cers, pag«i 3 3* 

tJlfuft be feparated to the workj pag 134. 

who are the true objeCls of the Minijlry^ pag. i^^^&c, 

whether the Pajlors or Church be fir ft ^ P« 1 3 5. 

whether a particular Church or the Vniverfal be firfi^ 


7 he Paftors rvsrk in a particular Church, P* ^ 3 7 • 

Jlorv far Intention is Necefjary tothe.Falidity of an admi- 
niftration^ p. 138, 

A Call to excrcife after a Call to Office t P- ^ 5^» 

Chap. 2. of the Nature and Ends of Ordination, (hetv- '■< 

ing what it is that is the Ordainers mrk^ and what not^ "f 


Chap. 3. Humane Ordination not of Conjlant Necefsity 
to the Being of the Mini ftry^ fully proved^ P. 1 5 o. 

Chap. 4. An uninterrupted Succefsion of Regular Ordi- 
nation is not of Necefsity^ p. 1 6^. proved. 

Chap. 5. Ordination by fuchas the Engltjh Prelates^ not 
Necefsary to the Being of the Mimflry^ proved^ p.i 73. 

( / ) objeclioni 

The Contents. 

Oh]ecilons Aafrvered. 
Chap 6. OrdinAtien efpccially 4t this time by BngUfb 

PreLites IS unnece^arj, p. 190. 

Ch.^p. 7. The Ordination u fed now /'« England, and in 

other rreteflant Churches is valid and agreeable to Scri- 

pure, and the practice of the antient Church, p. 198. 

fully frevcd : and jo our Miniflry vindicated, by twenty 

Chap. 8. The greatnefs of their fin that are now labouring 

to perfwade the people of the Nullity of our CMiniftry^ 

Churches and Adminijlrations : Manifefled in forty 

Aggravations , p. 2 40. 

Chap. 9, The pnfulnefs of defpifing ornegUBing Ordina- 

tion^ p.252. 

7 he dtftin^ power of Pajlors, People and Magi fir ates to 

our Call, P»255« 

j^f probation of P after s ntufi be [ought, p. 2 5 8. 

Whattaflors jheuld be fought to for Ordination^ p. 166. 

Disputation 3. 

A AT Epifcofacy deftrable for the Reformation^ Prefer^ 
vat ion ^ and Peace of the Churches ^ P • * 74 • 

Chap. I . of General unfixed Bijhops or i^inifiers » 

Chap. 2. of fixed Pafiors^ that alfo participate in the 

work of the unfixed J p. 28^1 

Chap. 3. It ii lawful for the fever al Affociations of 

Pafiors^ to choofe one man to be their Prefident durante 

vita, // he continue fit ^ p«2p7. 

what power /hall fuch have ? p.301. 

Chap. 4. It is lawful for the Presbyters of a particular 

Church to have a fixed Prefident for life^ P'507» 

Chap. 5. 

The Contents. 

C hap. 5 , objections ag.iinf the foremsntioncd Prifi^e>ny 
anfxvercd^ P'3'^- 

Chap. (5. The fumfn of the foregoir>g Pro^ofitions, and the 
Cfinfilhncy of them, with the principles of each party ^ 
and fo ! heir ^tptitude to reconcile , P- 3 3 T • 

Chap 7. Some Ittftances provitigthit mederAte men mil 
agree up o.>j the foremcntioned terms ^ P'33^* 

Bifhop Halls full Confcnt, p. 340,341 • 

Dr. Hide ( of the new party ) fligmatlzethhis book with 
the brand of irrational Separatifm and Recufancy , 

P- 34^343- 
Bifhop lllliei s ftdl Confent to m^ p. 344- fi'^'^^-' ^^> Hold t- 

worths, andDr, Forbs. 

7he Presbyterians Confent to the fame terms. ' Mr. Gata- 

kers, Mr. Gerees, the London P^owWe-jBezaV^Cal- 

vins, Mr, Rich. Vines in two Letters : Bijhops can 

have no other power over Paflors of other Churches ithen 

the S-f nod shave, P'347534^- 

Presbyterians for a cbttrch of one Congregation^ p.34^* 

The Polonian Protejiants Government^ P. 3 5 3 • 

Disputation 4. 

WHether a {tinted Liturgy or Form of worfhip be 
a deftrable means for the peace of thefe churches f 
Propofition. i. A filmed Liturgy is in it fe If lawful, 


Prop. 2. A fiinted Liturgy in (ome parts (f pttblick holy 

fervice is ordinarily neccffary^ P » 3 ^ 5 • 

Prop.3 . In thcfe parts of ptiblick worfhip where a form 

is not of ordinary necessity y but only Lawful, yet may it 

not only be fubmitted to, but defiredt when the peace of 

the Chnrch doth accidentally require it^ p 3 67- 

(/2) Prc)p.4- 

The Contents. 

Prop . 4. So grcAt is the difference betmen men And men, 
times and times ^ that forms maj be a duty to feme men^, 
and at fome times, and a fin to other men, andat^other 
times, p. 3 6 8. 

Prop. 5 . The Minifters and Churches that earnefily defire 
it^fhould not bj the Magi ftr ate be abfoiutely and generally 
prohibited the ufe of a convenient jiinted Uturgy,i^.^j2., 

Prop. 6, To prefcribe a form of prayer^ preaching ( or 
other fervice where is no necefsity of it ) and to lay a 
Necefsity on it, as to the thing it felf^ or the Churches 
peace^ dec. and to puntlh^ filence^ (ufpend^ excommuni- 
cate, or reproach m Schifmaticks the able, godly ^ peacea- 
ble Miniflers or people that {juftly or unjuflly) dare not 
ufe it^ is fo great a fin^ that no godly Miniflers fhould 
defire or attempt it ^ nor any godly Magifirate fuffer it^ 

Prop. 7. The fafeflway of compopng a fiinted Liturgy^ 
is to take it all^ or as much as may be^ for mrds at well 
06 matter, out of the holy Scripture, p. 3 7 8. 

Prop. 8. Tet is it lamful to ufe a Liturgy that is not fo 
taken out of Scripture as to words ^ p.3 8o« 

Prop. 9. The matter of a Liturgy in which the Concord 

of many is expctled, mufl not be doubtful or unneceffary 

. things^ ibid. 

Prop. 10. Humane forms of publick prayer or other wor- 
fhip {excepting the fore-excepted neceffary cafes ^ as 
PralmSjcJ^f. ) fhould not be con fiantlyu\ed by Minifters 
that have liberty, and are able to pray without them .: 
Nor fhould any (ordinarily) be admitted into the Mi- 
niftry ( except in . great Necefsities of the Church,) 
that are not able to pray without fuch forms, P'38i. 

Obje^ions on both fides ^ p. 3 8^. 

The jumm sf this DifptitCy ^ P'5P2. 

D I s p . 

The Contents. 

Disputation. 5. 

Qu. \7\7^^f^^^ humane Ceremonies be Neceffary or 
V V Profitable to the church? P-3P5* 

Ch ap. I . Viflin^iiorn and Propofttions in order to the deci- 
fion^ ibid. 

Chap. 2. Ceremonies forbidden^ or which man hath not 
power to inflitute^ are not to be impo fed as profit able or 
larvful^ip.S99' ^hich thoje be, 

Ittfiiinces of all our commonly controverted Ceremonies 
confideredy p.4op. 

Chap. 3. In fuch unlawful impofitions it is an aggrava- 
tion of thefm^ if Ceremonies are pretended to be Di- 
vine, P'4:i5. 

Chap.4- Jf things unlawful are commanded as indiffe- 
rent^ or things indifferent as neceffary^ the'j are pnfully 
impojed'.and the more^ becaufe of fuch pretenfes ,p,/[2j . 

Chap. 5 . A lawful and convenient thing is fi;'>fu'h i?n- 
pofed, when it is impofed on a greater pinaltj thenthe 
nature and ufe of it doth rec^uire^ or then the common 
goodwill bear^ P«4ip. 

Chap. 6. It is not lawful to make any thing the fuhje^fs 
duty by a Command, that is meerlytntliffc'cntaTitcce- 
dentlj, both in it felf and as cloathcd wi, h its accidt fjts , 

Chap. 7. Some things may be lawfully and j reft. ibly 
commanded at one Time and Place, and to one fori of 
People^ that may not at, or to another^no nor t: obeyed 
if commanded, p'43P. 

Chap 8. Thofe orders may be profitable for the p .ce cf 
the Churches in one Hation^ that are not necefjary to the 

' peace of the ihurchca of man-j Nations^ P«445* 

Chap. >? . There is no mecr Humane Z'niverfal Sovcr-.t'in^ 

The Contents. 

civil er EccUftaJikal over the whole Churchy dud there- 
fore none to make Laws obligAtorj to the whole ^ p.448. 

Chap. 10. If it be not our Lawful Governors that com- 
mand uSi hut ufurpers, we are not formally bound to 
obey them, though the things be lawful which they com' 
wdiid^ P-45 2* 

Chap. 1 1 , The Commands of lawful Governors abeut 
lawful Ceremonies^ wufl be under flood and obeyed with 
fuch exceptions at do fecure the Enh and not to the fub- 
verting of it^ p.45 8. 

Chap. 1 2. Jt maybe very ftnful to command fome Cere- 
monies^ when yet it may be the fubje^s duty to ufe them 
when they are commanded^ p. 4^0. 

Chap.13. 7he Conftant ufe of things indifferent [bould 
not be commanded ordinarily ( fee the exceptions ) 
hut they fhould be fometimes ufedjometimes not, p.4^4. 

Chap. 1 4. Thirty Reafons againfi the impoftng of our late 
Controverted Mjftical Ceremonies , as Crofsing, Suf 
flice^ &c. P4<57. 

Cnap.15, Reafons perfwading to Obedience in Lawful 
things, P485. 



p Age 10. 1.4. r. had not been by thcmfelves. ^.i^lz^ . for VhUetaSi r. Alexander. 
^ p. 30. l.pemUt. for Perfect r. Prejident. p.33-l.34>3 j-r.r^c loooth. of 3000th. 
perfon. p.37.1.34. for it, r. is. p.41.1.9. r. Pmbyterie. p.yi. 1. uh. ioithat, r. the. 
. Tp.j7A.z^.r.occafon}ng. ip.j 9. l.i 6. r. had in it. p.Si.l.i. blot out tf«y. l.ig.for 
at all, r. all. \.t^. blot out the p.87-l-i7- for had r, have. Marg. l.j. r. k^^i- 
s.ttt'oi'. p.88.1.17. for Prelacy, t. PoUcarpe. I.37. (01 there that, r. that there, p.89. 
1.1. r. c{c;)(^t/ vh';. p 93.1.3- r. /je reasjznd. I.34. for ^Wj r. at, p.94.1,29. r. we well. 
p.9 J. Marg.1.3 X. r. Bloiidel, and 1. 33. for^er,r. and. p.96.1.9. r. Churches. p.97. 
\.<^.ioxStholaYum, t.Scotorum. p.ioo. Marg.l.13. for//.o,r. o«. p.104.1.8. for 
jmean,T. I wave, p.iofr.1,4. (or tkit,):. the. Difp.i.Ptef.p.i 17.1.1^. for />/i/j,r, 
/w/f, p.iiS 1.30. blot out <z;2^. p.m. 1.14. r. Bijhop. p.114. l.iy.r. Janfenius. 
p. 137. 1.?. !'• Members. p.i39.1.' % for men,):, rim.ip.1^7. 1.3.& 4. x.plcafiire & 
Vajtors,^ 1.34.r. ^«^. p.i^o.l.i. v.tvill. p.163.1.1 1. for ProClors, x.Do£lors.^ 166. 
l.i^.r. fin in the. p.K^P-l-^.blot out«;)0».p.i8i.l.t^. r. oweei.p.i%i.l.ii.r.And 
yct.p.iZ^.lidt. for as,i-. at. p.i84.1.3.for Art.ii. T.A£i.n. p. 19 1.1.19. for foe, 
x.the,S>i\.n-(oidecafe,r.depofe. p.i94.1.z9. for <t^^, r. c^-f. p.i 99. l.i 3. for 
Art. ii. r. A£t.\\. p.ii9.1.i. r. Ariianm, p.irj. 1.31. for three and four, r. third 
Si. fourth, p.141. l.zi. for name, r. main. p.i45. 1.14. for Davcnant, r. Davenport. 
p.if3.1.l8. blotouti/o. p.i^f.l.ii. blotoutfo. p.i77' l-a- r. oneScthc. & 
III. r. worlds. p.i9i.lii-(oithe,r.that. p. 316. l.i^. r. as their, p.'^ij ,1.-^, 
iorOverfeers,r. Others. p.3i8-1.2.i-r-Be'^^f^^f- p-339-J'i^. r- /J^«^ no offeer. 
p.-}/^o.l.9.t.theleafl. p.367.1.9. r. /jrfiifp. p.37i.l.ii. (or he, r. the. p.409.1.34. 
r. but what was. p'4ao. I.16. r. of the will. p.4ri. I.i6. for them, r. ^fotf«, p.430. 
1.28. r. L.iw. 

cf» «|» ^ cfj c^-> <$5 cf. «|t tf> ^ ff> ^ V e{» tfs .$> ^ »f5 *fi tf> c|, ^ ^ 


i\n Advertifement to prevent mif- 

^JT exceeding [carcitj of time, coyiftraining me 
to rvrite thefe Papers in much hajle^ and al- 
lowing me but a curfery perufal *of them 
rvhen written^ and the like after the printing, 
for the collecting the Errata of the Prefs^ I 
find bj this ha/ly review, and by feme ebfervation of mens 
readinefs to mifunderfand me, that it is neceffary to [peak 
a little mere about the following particulars ^ that 1 may 
be tinder flood by fuch as are willing to under fl and me : and 
the mifiakes of others J jhall eafily bear, 

Sedi. I. Pag. 8p. There is fomewhat that requireth 
correCiion of the pen^ and fomewhat that requireth expli- 
cation. In tranflating that pafjage of Ignatius, QUnus 
panis qui pro omnibus fradtus eft] mujl be written next 
feffufus eft] before [& unus Calix,] And for the fol- 
lowing obje^ion^ though it was made by a difcreet per- 
fen, yet I know no ground for it : unlefs If. VoiTius his 
Edition leave out \_ toV« 777 exxXKn^ ] ( which I have not 
novf at hand J but is likelyefi) 1 know not of any Gretk 
copy that leaves it otit. Indeed Btfhop UHiers Latine doth^ 
and the Vulgar Latine leaves out the tranflatien of the 
next words before it [^ro7< ohatt J)?v-(^i!^ iv ^<na.<iy.ejiQv'^ of which 
faith Btjh»^ Uflier [Ex intcrpreiationc hac excidifle vi- 
deantur.3 And noting the corruption of the Vulgar Tran- 
Jlation in this very place , J there premifed to my Anfwer, 

{g) that 

that it might occafion a change in the Text : tku it 
huth done {9 in many places, / think is eafie to prove •, but 
that it hnthd'ne fo \\Q\Q, thre is no prohAhilitj, {if any 
Gi'CgV Copy he as is oh}c6ted : ) and the Re.tfonsofmy con- 
je^tire of the pofilbiliry, nycfolntle for a. probability, 
thcxt as 1 exprejs them not, [0 1 think ihem not rvorththc 
eyprefsing^ hut rather bid you take that as non ciiduti. 
Though of the general I find Bijl'fp Uflier hinifclf frying, 
hoth of his Lmntrerfton [Ex ea Tola integritati {ux 
reftitui pofTe Ignatium . poUiceri non aufim,] and of 
the firjl Greek Editisn [Hanc reiiqui fcquuti lunt edi- 
tores 5 non ex Graco aliquo codice alio, fed partim ex 
ingenio, partim ex vetere Valgato Latino Interprete, 
non paucis in lociseandem corrigentes] Le(5l. 
ante Annot. &pag.26. DiflTcrt. 

StCt, 2. I mujiintreat the Readerto obferve that my 

drift in this writing is net ($ much to cppofe any form of 

Government meetly as contrary to the Injlitution or Jpc* 

fiolical Rule^ as to plead again ji that which I take to be 

deflru^ive to the Ends pf Government : Not that I depre 

not a careful adhering to the jacred Rttle^ but 1, Becaufe 

J fuppofe that many c:rcumflantials of Difcifline unde* 

ter mined in the Word are feigned by feme to be fuhflan- 

Jlantial neceJJ'ary things : and that many matters are indif- 

fercnt thatjome lay the Peace if not the being of the church 

upon, 1. Becaufr I .fo far hate contention, that if any 

Government contrary to my judgement were fet up , that 

did not apparently in the nature $f it wrong the churchy 

I would filently live under it in peace and quiet nefs : and 

accordingly wmid be noiv loth to enter a quarrel with any 

Writers that differ from us in tolerable things : But if J 

know that their judgement reduced to pralUce is like to 

be the undoing of many fouls ^ and to cafi Difcipline almofi 

wholly cut fif the Churchy I think it better to difpleafe 



thentj then let them undo the Church withotit centra- 
dtchon. The befi is^ thcferiom Chrt[lians ef this age have 
experience to help them to trnderfland the cafe , and I fup' 
poji my Difftttation to be unto them as if I Dijputed before 
a min that is refloredfrom rvant^ or banif})ment or fie fine fs, 
rvhether he (hould be reduced to the Condition from which he 
ts rejlered f 

Se(5l. 3. Some faff ages here will occafjon the ^uefiion 
('^ p. 5 ) Whether and how far Church Government 
is jtire Divino ? ]] But ef this^ in the main I am agreed 
with them that I difpute, Tofpeak further, my own judge- 
ment fSy I . Thjt the Spirit 0} God hat b eflablilhed aU the 
officers and worfhip -Ordinances of his Churcht, and that ns 
new church-office or Ordinance of rvorfhip {as to the fub- 
fiance) may be inflituted by mam, 2. But that there are 
man) Circumflantials about the Exercife of thofe offices 
and Ordinances , that are not determined particularly 
bj a Law J but are left to humane prudence to determine of^ 
by y^e General dire(5lions of the Law. And fo I fuppofe 
that Bi[hops and Presbyters are but one Office , of Geds 
infiitutien-^ but in /^^ exercife of this of fee if one for 
tfder be made a Moderator or Prefident ef the refl , or by 
agreement {upon adifparity of parts or inter efl) do une- 
qtiatlj divide their work between them, in the exercife^ it 
is a thing that may be donCy and is fit where the Edi^ca^ 
tion of the Church requireth it^ but not a thing that al- 
ways muft be done, nor is of it felf << Duty, but a thing 
indifferent. The following Cafe therefore I hence re- 

Se(a.4. ^^y?. [Whether the Order of fubjea Pres- 
byters might lawfully be created by BiiLops or any hu- 
mane Power < and whether the Order of Bifhops might 
lawfully be created for the avoiding of Schifmby the 
confentof Presbyters ^ or Metropolitans by Bifliopsc] 

{g 2) Anfw. 


Anfvv. If "jOH underflAtid by //'^ rrW [Order] a di- 
pnB Office, none may create any of thefe but God. But 
if b) QSubjed Presbyters] be meant only men of the 
fanie O^^^ with Bifhops, that do for the churches benefit 
fuhjeB themfelves to the direilion or Preftdencj of another^ 
(upon feme difparitj in their gifts or the like ) in the 
exercife of that Offics^ I fuppofe that thu is a thing that 
by Conknt may be Urvfully done. And (o I verily be- 
lieve that betimes in the Church it was done^ ( of which 
itnon.) So if by [Bifliops] be meant no difiinii Office, 
but one of the Presbyters chefen from among the reft^ to 
exercife his Mini (iery infome eminency above the re fi^ by 
reafon of his greater Gifts^ or for Peace and Order ^ 1 doubt 
not but it is a thing that confent may do ; {t^nd accor- 
dingly the Canon Law defines a Bi(hop that he is [Unus 
c Presbyteris, &c,] So if by [a Metropolitan] be not 
meant another Office, bu^ one in the Came Office, by 
reafon of the advantage of his Seat^ chofen to fome a^s 
of Order for the common benefit , / doubt not but it may 
he done : but every fuchlnd'ifftvent things is not to be 
made NecelTary, fiatedly and univerfally to the Church, 

Se(ft. 5 . when I do in thefe Papers plead that the 
Order of Subjed Presbyters was not inftitutedin Scri- 
pture times, and confe^uently that it is not of Divine 
Inflitution, I mean as aforefaid^ that/fs a difiinU Office, 
er Species of Church mini fers^ 4S to the Power from 
God, it is not of Divine Inflitution, nor a lawful Jnfti- 
tut/on ef man t but that among men^ in the fame Office, 
fome might Prudenti ally be chofen to an eminency of de- 
gree as to the exercife •, and that according to the difference 
of their advantages there might be a difparity in the ufe 
ef their authoritj and gifts ^ 1 tbink was done in Scripture 
times .y and might have been after, if it had not then. And 
my judgement is, that ordinarily every particular Church 



{fuch ai our Parifl) Churcha are)hadm5re Elders then One, i 
hut not fuch Jl ore of men tj/eminent gifts m that all thefe\ 
Elders could be fuch . But as if half a dozen of the mojlju- 
d/cious per fens of this ParifJ) were Ordained to be Elder s^ of i 
the fame Office with wyfe/f but becaufe they are not etfually \ 
fit for fuhltck preaching, [bould mofl imploy thentfelves f y 
in the rejl of the Over fight , confenting that the public k \ 
preaching lie mofi upon me, and that 1 be the Moderator of ) 
them for Order in Circumflantials : This I think was the ! 
trueEptfcopacy and Presbytery of the fir ft times. From the 
mi ft alee of which, two contrary Errors have arifcn : The one - 
of thofe that think this Moderator was tf/ another Office 
infpecie, having certain work af signed him by God, which 
is above the reach of the Offce of Presbyters to perform 5 
and that he had many fixed Churches for his charge. The 
ether of them that think thefe Elders were fuch £s are cal- 
led new Lay-elders, that is, Vnordainedmen^ authorized 
to Govern , without t^uthority to Preach, Baptize , er 
Adminifter the Lords Supper, i^nd fo both the Vxdm- 
cal on one fide, and the Presbyterians and Independents on 
the other fide, run out, andmiftake the ancient form, and 
then contend again ft each other. {This wa4 the fnbftancc 
of what / wrote to Mr. Vines, which his fubjoyncd Letter 
refers to, where he fignifieth that his judgement was the 
fame.) When VSiwXand'b^xnzhdiSwere togethcr^]?2i\Awas 
the chief fpeaker^ and yet B:xvn3.b3.s by the Idolaters cal- 
led Jupiter. Nature teachetb m that men in the fame Of- 
fice Jhould yet have theprehemmence that's due to them by 
their ^ge, and Parts, and Interefis ^dcc. and that Order 
fhould he kept among themy as in Co/ledges and all Societies 
is ufuaL Tht mofl excellent part of our work is puhlick 
preachings but themoii of it for (\\iix\(iiy is the reft of the 
Ovcrfight of the church ( in Inftrucling perfonally^ ad- 
monijhmg, reproving, enquiring into the iruth of accufa- 

tions^ csmfortin^y vifting the ftck^ [lahl flung the tveak^ 
looking t0 the fcor^ abfolving , anfrvcring doubts , ex- 
commumcating^ and much more .^ Jnd therefore as there 
is a necefsity {as the experienced know) of many Elder s in 
a particular Church of any great number ^ foit u fit that 
moft hands flwuld be mofl imployed about the faid works 
of Overfight, yet fo as that they may preach as need and 
occaflen rcquireth {and admintfler Sacraments) and that 
the eminent Speakers be mofl employed in piblick preach- 
ingjjetfs as to do their part of the refl as occafion requireth: 
And fo the former Elders that Rule well fl) all be worthy 
of double honour , but efpecially thefe that labour in the 
Word and Do6irine, by more ordinary public k preaching: 
And fuch kind of feldom-preaching C^iiniflers as the for- 
mer, were in the fir fi times ^ and (houldbe in mofi Churches 
yet that are numeroM. 

Secft. 6. when Ifpeak in thefe Papers therefore of other 
mens C once fs ions that there were de fado in Scripture 
times, but One Bifhop without any fubje6i Presbyters to a 
particular Churchy remember that I fpeak not my own 
judgement, but urge again fl them their own Concefstons : 
t^ndwhen J profefs my Agreement with them, it is not 
in this, much lefs in all things ^{ for then I needed not dif- 
fpute againfl them^)but it is in this much, that in Scripture 
times there was de fado, i.No mecr Bifl}op of many parti- 
cular churches ( or flated worfhipping Congregations^) 
2. Nor any diflinCi office or Order of Presbyters^ that ra- 
dically had no Power to Ordain^or Govern^ or Confirm, &c. 
{which are thefub\eB Iresbyters I mean.) 

Sed. 7. Specially remember that by \f&\^o^s,~] in that 
dtjpute^ I mean, according to the Modern ufe^ one that is 
no i^rchbsjhopy and yet no mecr Presbyter^ but one fup- 
pofed to be between both^ that is, a Superior to meer Pres- 
byters in Order or office, and not only tn degree or modifi- 


cation of the exercife ; ^ui bchw Archhifhops {whether in 
Order or Degree:) Thefe Are they that I dijpute Againfi 5 
excluding Meirffpolit^ffSy or Archbtfhops from the que ft ion , 
and that for man J Keafons. 

Se(5l. 8. if it were prov:d or granted that there were 
Archbi(\)dps tn thofe times, of Divine Inftitution^ it would 
no whit weaken my Arguments •, For it is only the loweft 
fort of BiJJwps that 1 difpute about : yea it confirmcth them. 
For if every combination of many particular Churches had 
an Archbifhopy then the Governors of fuch Combinations 
tvete not meer BijhopSj and thenthemeer Bifhops were Fa- 
rifh Bipjops^ or B'- [hops of ftngle churches onlj : and that 
is it that I plead for, againft Diocefan Bifhops, that have 
many of thefe Churches {perhaps fome hundreds) under one 
Bijhop of the lowefl rank , having only Presbyters under 
htm of another Order. 

St^. 9. if any think that I fhould have anfwered all 
that is written for an Apoflolical Inflitution of Metropoli' 
tans, orofArchbijhops^ or of the (ubje6l fort of Presby- 
ters, or other points heretoucht, 1 anfwerthem, i. In the 
former my work was not much concerned-, nor can any 
man prove me engaged to do all that he fancieth me coK' 
cerned to do. 2. Few men love to be contradicted and 
confuted, and 1 have no reafon to provoke them further then 
necefsity requireth it, 3 ./ take not all that 1 read for an ar- 
gument [0 confiderable,as to needReplyes. If any value the 
Arguments that J took not to need an Arjfwer , let them 
make their befl of them : I have taken none of them out 
of their hands by robbing them of their Books • // they 
think them valid, let them be fo to them. Every Book that 
we write mu(l not be in folio*, and if it were . we fhould 
leave fome body nnanfwered fitll. I have not been a con- 
temner or negleller of the writings of the contrary- 
minded. But volumino'^Jly to fell the world of that I 



think thej ahfe er are abufed in , is unfU fing And un- 

Se(5t. 10. And as to th" Jus Divinum oflimted Dig- 
cejfes to the ApojlUs oi Btflyfs , a}?d of t^rchbijhops, 
MetroplitanSy Sec, J/h^i// fay hut this : I. That I take 
not all for currant in matter »f fa^> that two^ or thrte^ or 
tivicf (o many fay was done^ when 1 have either crofs te- 
fiimohj^ orvalid Beafons of the imfrobabilitj : 1 believe 
fnch Hiftorians but with a humane faith, and allow them 
fuch a degree of that^ as the probability of their report^ 
and credibility of the ferfons doth require, 2. J take li 
for no proof that all that was done in all the Churches^ 
that 1 am told was done in fowe, 3. 1 take the Law ef 
Nature and Scripture to be the entire Divine Law^ for the 
Government of the Church and World, 4. And therefre 
if any Father or HipriantellmCy that this wa6 delivered 
by the Apoflles as a Law to the Vniverfal Churchy which 
is not contained in Scriptures, nor to be proved by them^ 1 
will not believe them '^ no more then I would have believed 
Papios and all his Millenary followers^ that pretended 
Tradition from Saint John *j nor any more then 1 would 
have believed the Afians or Romans that pretended dif- 
ferent times f0r Eafter^ as a Tradition ^pofiolical bind- 
ing the whole Church. 5. iftt were proved that (^q fado 
the Apoflles did thus &r thus d/fpofeof a circumflance of 
Government or Wor(hip , tvhich yet is undetermined in 
Scripture^ 1 take it not for a fuffcient proofs that they 
intended that Fa6i for an Umverfal Law , or that they 
meant to bind all the churches in all ages to do the like: 
no more then Chrijl intended at the Injlitution of his 
Supper to tie all ages to do it after Supper^ in an upper 
room, but with twelve J and fitting^ Sec, 6. Tea if I had 
found a DireBion or Command from the Apoflles , as 
Prudential determiners of a Circumflance pro tempore & 


loco onlj {as of the kifs of loveybAir^coverhg^eAtin^^ ^^f^gi 
JlrAngledydnd blood^d)LC.)I take it not for a ^roofthat this is 
an univerfal flanding Law, One or two ofthefe exceptions 
wilj])ake off the f roofs that (ome count [Irong.forthe univer- 
fal obligation of the chunh to Diocefans or Metropolitans. 

Se(5t. II. That the Apoftles had Epifcopal Power 
( / meanfuch in each Church where they came^ as the fixed 
Bf(hops had) 1 doubt not. And becaufe thef founded Chur- 
ches according to the fuccefs of their labors , and fetled 
them^andif they could^again njifitcdthcm^therefore I blame 
not the Ancients for calling them the BtfUps ofthofe Chur- 
ches, But that each man of them was really a fixed Me- 
tropelitan , or Patriarchy or had his proper Diocefs , in 
which he was Go'vern»r in chief ^ and into which no other 
Afeflle might come as an equal Covernor without h.s Uave^ 
this and fuch like i> as well pruvtd by filence as by all that 
.1 haveread for it ef Reafon or Hiflory, that is ^ the Tefii- 
monies of the /fnciems, I find them fometime claiming 
a (fecial intcrefl in the Children that t^cy have begotten by 
their Mimflry. But doubilefs whjn Paul cjr Barnabas or Si- 
las went together Jome might h con^jertedby one^ and feme 
by another within the fame Dn'Ctfsor City if any man fhall 
convince mCjthat any great fl, lJs doth lie upon this queftio^l 
Jhal be williug to give him more of my reafonsfor what J fay, 
Se(5l. 12. And as to tmm that confidently teach 
that the Apoflles fuaed the kccieftaflical Government 
to the Politick, and t hit as by a Law, for the church 
univerfallj to obey: All the confutation at prcfcnt that 1 will 
trouble them with, fluUbe to tell them, that I never faw 
any thing like aprosf of It, to my unayflanding, among 
all the words that are brought to thatpurpofe : and to till 
them, I. That ?/ Paul chofe Ephelus, Corinth , and 
other the mofl populoU'S places to preach in, it WiV but a 
prudential c ire urn fl ant tat tng of his work, accerdiugto that 
General Law of doing all to Edification : and not an obli* 

( h) gation 


^Aticn m Faftifri ^r Preachr/scf the C off (I to do the 
fame when the cafe is not the fame, z.Andif^avX having 
converted mmy in the[e Ctties do there fUnt Churches 
( and no other can he f roved tn Scripture times ) it foi- 
Ic^'S not thai, we may fUnt no Churches hut tn Cities^ 
5. And ff the griAtefl Cities hid then the moji numerom 
C hiirches ,and t he moll eminent P^fiors fitted to them^ and 
therefore are named wiih jome note of excellency above 
the refh It folhwcth not that the refl about them were under 
them by fnhje^lion. , 4. Tea if the Bijhfps of the chief Ci- 
ties for order fAke were to call Provincial Jjfemhlies^ and 
the meetings to he in their cities^ and they were t9 be the 
Pref dents of the refl in Synods ^with fuch like circumjlan- 
tial difference^ it foUoweth not that they were proper GO' 
vernours of the refty and the refl to obey them in the Go- 
vernment of their proper charges » Nor that they had porv 
er to place and difplace them . 5 . Mtich lefs will it prove 
that the fe LMetropolitansjaking the name ofDiocefans, 
might put down all the Bifhops of two hundred charches 
under them^ and f^t up none but Presbyters ( in order di" 
jlin5i from Btl))Ops ) over the flocks^ be fides themfelves^^ 
and fo the Archbijhops having extinguifhed all thefrjl Or- 
der of B'p)0ps of pngle churches^ to take the fole Govern- 
ment of fo many Chnrches^even people as well as PreS' 
bytersintotheir own hands, 6. And I do not think that 
they can prove that the K^po files did inflitute as many 
forts of church -Government then^ as there were of civil 
iolicy in the world. All the world had not the Roman 
form of Go'^crnment : Nor had leffer Cities the fame 
dependence upon greater^ in all other Countryes, j,fVas 
it in one degree of fubordi nation ef Officers only, or in all^ 
^'"ifhat the Afoflles fuited the £ccle(iafl/call Government to 
tbi Civil ? If in O n cjjow ts it proved that they intended 
it in that one, ard not in the refl ^ //in all, then we mufl 


hi'vc mAnj dsgrus ef officers , more then jet m ha've . 
I/jferiors very many, and Superiors fome of aH cmfcience 
too high: then tvemufi have fome to artftver the Corre^ors^ 
the ConfuUr Prefidents^ and the VtcArs, and Lieutenants , 
the Pro.conftils and Prefers ^ and the Emperor himfelf: 
Even One to ht Vniverfal in the Empire ( thats yet 
fome Limit to the Pope, and wilt hazzard the removing of 
the Supremacy to Conftaiuinople, ^y the Rule thAtthe 
Apoflles arefuppofedtogoby,) And great variety mnfl 
there he in thefeveral Diccefjes of the Empire ( which 
Blondcll hathpftn^fually defcribed dc primatu inJEcclcf. 
pag. 5 1 1, to 5 1 p. fljewing the caufes of the inequality 
iff Bifl)Opricks and Churches. ) 8, According to this Opinon 
theformefchurchnmufl alter as of t as Emperours will 
change their Policy, or H^ars f}yall change them : i^nd up- 
en every change of the Privikdges of a City^ the churches 
Trehemtnenee mufi change^ and fo we fhJl he in a mutable 
frame: W^;/V/? // Bafil rf«^An'.hyaiius had under flood, 
might have quicklter decided their contr over fie. Tea ac- 
cording to thii opinio/j^ Princes may quite take dotvn CMe- 
iropotuans at pleifure , by equalling the friviledges of 
their Cities. The befl is then^ th^t it is in the power of our 
Civil Cover nours to drffolve our obligation to tJiietropoli' 
tans,yeaandto all Bifhops too^if Cities mufi be their only re- 
ftdtnce , as I have fhewed, 

Secft. ip As for them that pretend humane Laws for 
their form of Government^ that is ^ the decrees of General 
Councils r, I (tnfwery i . idifown and deny all humane Laws 
as obligatory to the Church Vnivcrfat: It is the preroga- 
tive of Go^^ yen the great eft point of the exercife of his So- 
raigniy 1^ be the law -giver to his vnivcrfal Church, 
There can be no Vniverfal Laws without an vniverfal 
Lawgiver: and there is no Vniverfal Law-giver under 
Chrifl in the worU, i , And for General Councils ( fmce 

{hz) Scrip- 


Scripture times At leaft ) there have heeen nofuch things 
ner anj thing like them , unle(s the Roman Empire^ jed a 
fiece of itjbe the whole world. I know thcrfore no humane 
Vniverfal LarvSy whether it h for forms of Government^ 
Liturgies, Holjdayes, or An) thing elfe. 

Se6b. 14. But the principal matter that tends to end our 
d ffcrence, is, the right underflanding of the Nature of that 
Government that is proper Ij Eccicfiajlical : What is it that 
tve maft have Diocefans arid Metropolitans to do f { hcftdes 
rvhat 1 have granted to Apojlolical Bijhops in the third Vi- 
jpute ? ) Is it to Teach or Rule the people of the particular 
churches i They cannot da it at [ogre at di fiance ^not know' 
ing them nor converfingtvith them •, at leaft Jo wellod they 
that are on the place ^ as the ancient Bifhops were. Is it t§ 
Rule the Piesbyters only ? Why then hath not every Church 
a Btflwp to Rule the flock, but a Presbyter that is forbidden to 
Rule them ( in all that which they call Jurifdi^ion them-* 
felves )? And how is it that Treshyters (hall he Ruled by 
Diocefans , and the Diocefans by Provincials ^ not bj 
force : For the Paftors have no coercive power by violence^ 
or touching mens hcdtes or eflates. Is it by bare command- 
ing ^ Wl'J what will that do on diff enters that difobeylfhull 
they depok the Bifhops or Piesbyters that difobey 
them i But how ^ Not by any force, but command y or, 
exhortation, or Excommunication. They can do no more 
that I know of. And what if they excommunicate a Pa- 
flor ! Let the cafe be fuppofed as now it is among us : What 
if a Bijhop with the few that adhere to him , excommuni- 
cated aH the Paflorsm the County that are not [atisfiedof 
the Divine Right of Diocefans.^ or of the lawfulnefs of all 
his impofcd Ceremonies and Forms < The people will take 
it to be their duty ( mo ft generally where the Mini fir y hath 
been favingly effectual ) to own their Vafiors notwithfland- 
ingfuch an Escommuwcation^and the. Pafiors will take it to 



hi their dutj to go on with their work : aud the excotnmunt- 
CAtion mil do no good^twlefs ferhafs tomakefomcDtvifion, 
and make both forties the [corn of the ungodly^ or frocure 
the rabble to rail more bitterly at their Paftors^ and hate 
all their advice ^be a defireable ^ood.) Irtdas when the Pope 
excommunicated them JomeBifhops again excommunicated 
the rope-^fofime ofthefe Paftors its hke would ixcommuni * 
cat e their Metropolitans: And why a Bt(})op^or at leajl a Sy- 
nod of Bifljops m^y not cafi a wicked Metropolitan out of 
their communion,is pajl my under/landing to conceive. 

Synods are for Cortimunion of Churches •, and if we had a 
Monarchic alt National church in conformity to the Com- 
mon- W'.alth^ 1 know not how it would ftand with the Law 
of Cod^ for the whole Nation to hold Communion with an 
heretical Prtmate, A Roman Synod depofed John the 
thirteenth, andother Popes have been depofed by Councils, 
I conclude therefore, that what ever power men* claim , // 
the Magiflate interpoje not ( which is extrinftck to the 
church-Government in queflien ) it will work but on mens 
Judgements, call it Depofing, Excommunicating, or 
n>hat youpleafe: and this power no man can take from you 
but by hindnng you to [peak. Tou may now depofe thu^s 
and excommunicate whom you pleaje^ and when they have 
fleightedtt^ or excommunicated you again, you will have 
done. Nay 1 think you do excommunicate us already : 
For you withdraw from our Commu,iion, and draw many 
with youy and fo you exeicife your power ( / mean it of 
that party that in the fecond Dtjputaticn I havs to do with. ) 
Sedt. 15. Much of my Oppo futon to the Engl fh Prelacy 
dependeth on the fuppofition, that they took SiW the peo- 
ple, and not only the Presbyters for the objeds 
oftheir Government, or for their chaige .* ^ndl find 
fome of the younger fort that are fprung up fince thctr ftlly 
do doubt of this. But i.all men in Eno^Und that knew 

i h I) hm. 


IfMt twenij year ag<^.rphat belonged tothefe matten, Href aft 
doubt of it. And I have m wind t& dt(p»te again ft them 
that contradi^ the commen knowledge of the Nation : as if 
they Piould doubt rvhether we had ever a King in England. 
2. Redd over the Canons, and the yearly rijitation Articles 
{xehish the Chitrch- war dens ordinarily [vare to prefent, hj , 
before they had exter read the Bookjr heard what was in it) 
and then judge. 3 . 7 heir arguing for the fole furijdi6fton 
ofBijliOpSy and that they only tvere properly Paftors,andthat 
Presbyters had not the Key tf/Difciplinej^/*^ of DoMne^is 
fome evidence, 4. It i6 known to the Nation , that the Pa- 
ftors of the Parijh Churches had no power by their Laws {or 
fttfferance) to caft out any the moil enormous ftnner cr Fle- 
rt tick from the Churchy nor to bring them to open confefion 
of their fin^ nor to Abfolve the penitent ^but by Reading $f 
their Sentence ^ and publijhing what they fent fr^m their 
Courts 5 and confequently could do nothing of all the means 
in order hereto : {For the means cannot be ufed where the 
end is known to be impofsible,) All the obfinate fcandalous 
ferfons^ and {corners at a holy life, wemuft take as mem- 
bers of our churches^ hiving no power to cafl them out. In- 
deed we had the fame power as the church-wardens y to put 
our names to their prefentments. But a power of accufing 
to a chancellors Court is not a Power of Governing ^ efpect- 
ally when Piety under the name of Precifenefs and furita- 
mfm^ was fo hated and per fecHted^ that to have accufed a 
man for meer prophanejs would have been fo far from oh' 
taining the end^as that it was like to have been the undoing 
cf the accuser., except he had been out of the [ufpicion of 
Precifenefs {as they called it) himfelf But I need not dif- 
fute thii' with any but thofe that beijigbrsd in beuer tirnts: 
{though far from what we defire) arc anacquaintcdwithths 
cafe of their Predecefjon. 

Se*^:. 16. obiccf. But do you not contradid your 


felf, in faying the Pallors vveie degraded or iufpended, 
as to the exercife of fo great a part of their work , and 
yet fay here,^ Pref. to the Reformed Paftor, that the 
Power of Difcipline was given them^ ] Artfrv, i. In 
thar Ordination the Bijlefs [aid to them [Receive the 
Holy Ghoft : \vhore (inS thou doft remit they are re- 
mitted *, whofe fins thou doO: retain they are detained.] 
And in the Book of Or din Af ion it was aiked of them [^ VVhe-' 
thcr they would give their faithful diligence always to 
ndminifter the Doclrine and Sacraments, and the Dif- 
cipline of Chrift asthe LordhatViconlmanded, and as 
this Realm hath received the fame according to the 
Commandcments of Godq Arid the Rnbrick of the 
Common Prayer Book enahtclh the Curate to admonip) open 
dftd notoriof*s evil livers bj whom the Congregation is 
offended , and thofe that have wronged their neighbors^ 
that they come not till they have openly declared that they 
have repented and amended ] But i . This doth but ferve 
to leave them tine xcuf able ^ that acknowledged Difcipline ta the Office of a Presbyter ^when ytt ije might not ex' 
ercife it. The S'fbops in the Ordination'dfTresbjters enabled 
them to preach the Gofpel : A^idfet rhty were after that 
forbidden to preach till they had a Licenfe ; and it was 
put into the Vifitation Articles^ toprefent thsfe Miniflers 
that preached without Licenfe, If they wll deny us the 
cxerafe of the Power that they pfl cffrifcfs b'clon^cth to cur 
office^ we are not anjwcrable for their" [elf-Contradi^ions* 
2. By Difciplme / fupp^fe they mean hut cur Infiru- 
fi:on^and o:ir publifhingtheir Orders for Penance^ Excom- 
mu^ catim^or Ahfolution. 3. They were the Judges cf 
the fenje of the Laws, as far as the execut on rrquired : And 
the Vnivirjjl iraciice of England, with their writings^ 
[hewed us^ to our cofl^ their judgement. What good would it 
do. us, if the Law had been on cnr fide ^ whikthc Concur' 



rent Judgement andPra^ice of the Governors denyed a, 
and went again/lit. 4. He that had kept a mun from the 
Sacrament, according te the flain words of the Kuhrick, 
was to have been accountable for it at their Courts^ and fo 
likely {if he had been a man of feriom piety j and not a per- 
fecutor of Puritans) to have been undone by it^ and was like 
to make fo little ofit^ as to the Ends of Difcipline {all men 
being compelled by the Prefentments to receive the Sacra- 
mem) that I never knew one {to my bejl remembrance) in 
2% years time that I lived under the Bifhops^ that was kept 
from the Sacrament^ except a Puritan that fcrupUd to 
take it kneeling. And what was this to true Church Co* 
vernment /* 

Sed. 17. ohjeSi, But cither they did it accor- 
ding to the eftablillied Law, or not: If they did , the 
fault was in the Law, and not in them : If they did 
tranfgrefs the Law, then the fault was in mens abufe, 
and the Law and Order cannot be blamed. Aniw. A 
jad cafe to poor ignorant miferable fouls ^ thai they mujl be 
left in obfiinacy, and deprived of Gods means of Refor- 
mation without Kerned')^ becaufe either the Law or Judges 
mufi be excufed. The Judges are the mouth of the Law to 
us : that is Law in the iffue to m which they unanimoujly call 
Law. If the fault wire in thi Laiv, it was time it fhould be 
altered: if it was inthe Bijhops univerfally^ it was time 
they fJwuldbe altered. Let U4 but have a Remedy, and en- 
joy Gods Ordinances, which he that is the Churches Head 
and King hath appointed for our benefit , and we have 

Sed. 18. objc^. But may not Bifliops when they 
Ordain, Delegate what meafure of Miniflerial Power 
they pleafe < and if you never received more , why 
lliould you ufeit i] Anfw. A poor relief to the forfaken 
church : Deprive her of Government^ and then tellm that 



tve had ne power ! Is the Power deftrahle to us, // the Or- 
finance nerc net deftrable to the Church f 2 . What Power 
have Bifheps, and whence didthey receive it^ to change the 
Ojfice of Chrijli inftttution^ or Inn /ipojlles f Jf jo , they 
may turn the three Orders ( which the Papifls themjelve's 
jay the Pope cannot alter) into as many more. Then they may 
create an office for Baptizing only , and another for the 
Lordi Supper only ^ and another for praying only ^ and fo of 
the refl ^ which is worfe then making Lay-elders y or then 
taking arvay the Cup in the Sacrament. Hath Chrift by his 
Spirit infitutcd church-effices^ and are they now at the Bi" 
Jhopi power to transform them ? 3. if they had power td 
dijtribute the work in theexercife^ part to one, and part to 
another^ yet they have no power to deprive the particular 
Churches of the whole or ajjy part z, but one or more mufi 
do it J and the Office mufibe the fame, and the power e^'er- 
cifed to the edification^ and not the confufi&n and corruption 
of the church. 

Sedt. 19. olje^i. But the Keys were given only to 
the Apoftles , and not to the feventy Dilciples nor 
ro Presbyters.] Anlw. i. if the feventy were only Dijci- 
ples^ and not church- officers^ the Ancients and the Englilh 
Bifbops have been much m/Jlaken, that have fo much urged 
ity that Presbyters fucceedthem as BifJjops do the Apoflles : 
But if they be officers^ then they have the Keys, 2. The 
£pi[c6pal Divines^ even the Papifls^ commonly confefs that 
part of the Keys are given to the Presbyters :■ and Chrif 
gave them together. 3 . Were they given only to Apoflles for 
theivifelves, cr to convey to others c* If to themfelvet 
only, then no one hith them now, if to convey to others ^thtn 
either to 'Apoflles only as their Succtjjors (but there's none 
fuch) or to Patriarchs or Primates ^ or OHetropelitans^ 
or Archbif}}Ops only: {but none of this will pleafe the Bi- 
(hops) or to Biiliops only j which 1 grant , taking Biflyops 

(0 trt 


tn the Scripture fe^fe. And I defire to fee itfrov-ed^^ that ft 
%v/cs not A prefftmptHdti-s InnovAtion in them rvbofoever 
they were, thM after the dip of the Aperies Ordained anew 
fort of Vresb-jters in the Church that (bdnld hive no power of 
the Kejs. 4. They that mtifi: ufe the Keys, mu/i have 
Power to ufe them. But Parijh Bifhops muji ufe them {as the 
nature and necefsitj of the work doth prove:) Therefore Pa- 
rifh Bifhops mufl have the rower. If only one man in a Diocefs 
of an hundred or two hundred churches t\)all h^ve the 
power of the Keys, wt may know after all the talk of Difci- 
pline^ what Difcipline to expeB, 

Se(5t. 20. oh\e5t. Why blame you Lay-chincellors, 
RegifterSjProtos, e^c, when you fet up Lay-elders i 
we are as well able to call Chancellors Ecclefiaftical, 
as you can call Lay-elders fo. ] Anfw. / never pleaded 
for Lay- elders : J f other men erre^wiU it juflifie jour error .<* 
But I mufi tell you^an unordained man in a fmgle Parifh^ ha- 
*uing power only to afsifl the Paflor in Government, is far un- 
like a Lay'Ceurt to Govern all the Churches »fa Diocejs. 

Se<5l. 2i» ob\e6i. Do not your Arguments againft 

Bifliops for excluding Difcipline, make as much for the 

cafting out of Minifters,of whom you complain in your 

Refonned Paftor for neglcd of Difcipline^] Anf.i .T/j^r 

I^Ature cf Prelacy as fet up in Englandjiv/'^rf only one man 

had f he Government offo many Churches^ unavoidably ex- 

cludeth it J if the be fl men were Bifhops {till it be othcrwife 

formed:) But the nature of a Parochial Epifcopjcy is fitted 

to promote it, 2. T/^^iJ/if Presbyters that I blamed for neg- 

leiting the higher a^s of Difcipline.^ do jet keep aivay more 

frophane per f':ns from the Lords Supper in feme one Chnrch^ 

then ever I knew kept away in all places under the Prelates , 

3. IfMinifier.ftnfully negleCl Difcipline ^yet as Preachers 

and Guides Jn public k worflnp^Scc. they are of unfpeakable 

lieedand valtte to the church : Butfepf Bifhops of England 


preached or MrtArilj : And d^. We art defirou^ that Bifljops 
[ball eoMthuc ds Pv^ichevs, hut net as Di&cefan excluders 
ef P$rochUl Church- Difcipline. 

Sed. 22. ohj£0. By pretending to agree with them 
chat fay there were no Presbyters in Scripture times, 
you would put down Presbytcrs,3ndthen the Govern- 
ment of the Church will be luch as you blame. Anf. It 
u the thing I plead for J that every Church" may have [uch 
Btjhops as thc^ had in the Apofllcs days^ and not meer {new 
devifedJPreibytersJi that arc of another office and Order. 

St^.i'^'OhjeCl, Bifliops had Deacons to attend them 
in the Scripture times, though not Presbyters*, there- 
fore it follows not that BiOiops had then but One Con- 
gregation. Ani'w. Tes hey onddouh : For Deacons ceuld 
■ not, and did not perform the Pa floral part in the whole puh- 
lick tvorfhip of any fiatrd Churches, They did not preach {as 
Deacons)and praj and praife Godinthepublick ^'^fjcmhlies, 
and adminifier the Sacraments : It's not affirmed by them 
that are againfl us : therefore there were no more Churches 
then BifJjops, 

Se(5t. 24. 0bjeB» But what doth your Arguing make 
againft the other Epifcopai Divines that are not of the 
opinion that there were no meer Presbyters in Scri- 
pture times ^ Anfw.i. Other Arguments here are as 
much again ^ them ^ though this be not (if they maintain 
that fort of Episcopacy which 1 oppofe,) 2 . They alfo confefs 
the fmalnefs sf Churches tn Scripture times : (as I have 
fliewed out of Bifhop Downam 5 ) and that is it that I plead 

Se<5l.2 %.obie5i. But ifyou would have all reduced to 
the ftate that <S^<r/4£f?^ the Church Government was in 
in Scripture times,you would have (as but one Church 
toa Biihop, fo)but One BiOiop to a Church • as D^7/. 
Difjert.^ <:,15?520,2X,22. hath proved copioufly, that is, 

C /■ 2 ) that 


that Scripture mentioneth no affiftant Presbyters with 
the Bifliop : and would that pleafe you, that think a fin- 
gle Congregation fliould have a Presbyteriec' You 
Ihould rather as he teacheth you^c.ii.p.i^j. be thank- 
ful to Ignd'tim y and acknowledge the dignity of your 
OfficCj ah CO frimario defenfore ajirui ^ fropugnari.'^ 
Anfw. As rve make no doubt from platn Scriptttreto prove, 
(^and have proved it) that fingle churches had then many 
fresbpers {[omeofthem at lea ft : ) So having t he gre ate fi 
part of Fathers and Epifcopal Divines of ottr mind herein^ 
i^even Epiphanius htmfelf) rve need not be very (olicitom 
dbfut the point of Teft/mony or Authority, 2 , We had rather 
of the two have but one Fajlor to a Congregation^ then one 
to a hundred or tvffo hundred Congregations^ having a PreS' 
byter under him in each , authorized only to a part of the 
fvork, 3. Either thediftin^ office of the Presbyters is of 
Divine Inflttutionj to be continued in the churchy or not. If 
not, Btjlwps or feme body itfeems may put down the office. 
If it be , then it feems all pods Vniverfal /landing Lam 
{even for the [pedes of church officers) are not contained 
in Scripture, And tf not in Scripture ^ivhere then ? If in the 
Fathers^ I . How (hall we know which are they ^and worthy of 
that name and honor f 2. And what ^ all we do to reconcile 
their contradiEiions f 3 . An^ what number of them mufigo 
to be the true witneffes of a Divine Law ? 4. And by what 
note may we know what points fo to receive from them^ and 
what not ? 

But if It be from Councils that we mufi have the refl of 
the Laws of God {not contained in the Scripture.) 1 . Is it 
from all orfome only ? If from all^ what a cafe are we in^ 
04 obliged to receive ContradiBiens and H ere fie s ? if from ■ 
feme only^ which are they , and how known^ana why they ra- 
tljer then the refl ? Why rwt the fecond of Ephci^us as well as 
ihe fir flat Conftantinople. But this Ifbalinot now further 


troj ecute^ unlefs I were dealing rvith the P apt [Is {to whom^ 
have fat d wore ofit^ in another writing.) 

4. \^n?LUMS his Presbyters rvere not men of another of- 
ficej noryet fet over many Churches that had all bat one Bi- 
fhof : But they were all in the fame Churches with the Bi- 
fhop^ and of the fame office ^only fubjeil to his moderation or 
vrefidency for zjnity and Order fake : and this we flrive net 
again fi iff limited by the general Rules of Scripture, 

Se(5t. 2 5. objei}. Thofe that you have to deal with 
fay not, that CThere were no Presbyters in the Apoftlcs 
days, but only that in the Apoftles writings, the word 
[Bifliops] always fignifies Billiops^and the word Elders 
either never or but rarely Presbyters. But it is poflible 
for them to be in the time of thofe writings that are not 
mentioned in thofe writings-, and the Apoftles times 
were larger then their writings, as you are told Find. 
agAtnfl the Lend, Minifl,p. 1 06. ] Anf. i. The words I ci- 
ted^ from Annot. in A( faithfully^ which you may 
ferufe : which fay that there is no evidence that in Scri- 
pture times any of thefecond Order were inftituted.] 
So that it is not Scripture writings only^ but Scripture 
times that's (poken of. And 2 , if there be no evidence of it^ 
the church cannot believe it or affirm it 5 for it judgeth not 
ofunrevealed things • and therefore to m it is no biflitution 
that hath no evidence. 3 . The Apoflles were all dead fave 
John before the end of Scripture times :So that they mufi 
ie I nfli tut ed by John only : And John dyed the next year 
after Scripture times ^ as the chief Chronologcrs judge : For 
04 he wrote his x^pocalypfe about the ] 4''' year of Domi- 
ivm^fe his Gofpd the y^ar before Trajan, and dyed the next 
year^ being after the commoner reckoning^ An.D. 98. and 
fome think more. And what lihelihood^ or proof at leaf}^ 
that John didinfiitute them the year that he dyed ? when 
t-he fame men. teU us of bis excurfion into Alia to plant 

{is) Elder i, 


Bidcrs [before that je/tryii's like. )^. And if they were mt in- 
flttutcd in Scripture timeithcn no teflimonyfrom Antiquity 
cjn prove tkcm then injlituted. But indeed if we had [uch 
tefltr/ionf and nothing cf it in the Scripture itfelf^we [houid 
t^ke tt as little to otirpurpofe.For 5 .doth Ant quit j fa-j that 
the Inflitutionwas VivinCy of Umverfal obligation to the 
church, or only that it rv as but a prudential limitation of 
the cxcrc/fe of the fame office {the like I demand cf other 
like Teftimonies tn cafe of Diocides, Metropolitans y &c.) // 
enly ths later^/V binds m not^but proveth only the licet, and 
net the oportet at leafl^as to all the Church, And then every 
Count rcy that finds caufe^may fet up another kind of govern- 
ment : I'ut if it be the former that is afferted as from anti- 
quity jthen the Scripture containeth not all Cods Vniverfal 
Laws •, which who ever affirmeth^ mnjl go to Fatliers or 
Councils ipficad of Scripture todaj^and to the infallibility 
of the FopCj or a frophetical Jnffiration to morrow^ and 


Se<5l. 27, Once more to them that yet will maintain that 
the Apo files modelled the Ecckfiaflical form to the Civily 
and that as a Lnrv to the whole Churchy we take it as their 
Conccf^wn^thai then we ew no more obedience to the Archbi' 
fhop ^/Canterbury, then to the Civil Magi fir ate ^/ Can- 
cel bury, {dnd efpecially London fure is exempted from his 
juperiority.) And 1 yet know not that any Civil Magiflrate 
of Canterbury, or York, or London^ or Worcefter, hath 
any government in this Countrie , except the Soveraign 
Mulers at Weflminfler be meant. And I hope our Itine- 
rant courfe of fudges ^will prove the right{to the Objeiion) 
of Itinerant i^pofiolical Over jeers of the churches^ for 
fettlement atleafi. 

Scd.zS. objeff. But Pariflies being not divided till 

long after the Apoftles days, there might be then no 

•ordinary Allembiies but in the City 5 and yet the whole 



Territory adjacent be the DiGCcCs.']/in[\v.Weret/jere in 
the Territories perfom enou7h to make man'j A^cmblies^ or 
only fofew as might travel tOyandjoyn with the City Affem- 
bly ? Jfthe latter^ it's it that I a([ert^tti ufual ifj the firjt a^e 
at leajl ; Jfthe former, then either all thofe in the TerritO' 
ries metforfublick Worfhipand CommHnion^or riot: //not, 
they [inned agamfl the Law of God that obliged them there- 
to as well ds Citizens : //they dldythe^j they mufl have ei' 
ther Bif])Op or Pre jbyter with them^ for the due performance 
of that fvorpjip, 

Sed:. 29. if any think all thefe jfraglingobj elf ions 
and advertifements here unfeafonable , / render him this 
trne account of them: Thi6 firft Difputation was prepared 
only for our ordinarily Monthly Exercifes here, and fo writ- 
ten long ago, before the London Miniflers Book^or the An- 
fwertoity and the refl that have followed, and therefore 
could r>ot take notice of much that hath fines paffed^ and 
tvithalwas not intended for publick view : But when 1 faw 
fj many of the Gentry and Commonalty withdraw from the 
publick worj]}!p^ and the ignorant and prophage had learnt 
to refel their Paflors bipttciions , by calling him a Lay- 
man^ and faw how thenerv feparation threatned the perditi- 
on of multitudes of the people ^(^ efpecially was awakened by 
the Calls of Miniflers in other Countries that were far more 
troubled with them then we^ I thought meet to prefix this to 
the Second D'fputation, which was it that was de fired of 
me : and therefore to take notice of thofe things fo late, 

Se<5l. 30. And the common exptrience tells you that it 
is not a few that go the way that lately was ftngular even 
among the Epifcopal^, to which I may add the Teftimonjin 
Vindic. agaiafl the London Miniflers^ p, 104. [And 
though I might truly fay that for thofe more mmute 
con fi derations or conjedures, wherein this Dodor dif- 
fers from fome others he hath the faff rages of 



manyoftbeLearncdft men of this Church at this day 
(and as far as he knows, of all that embrace the fame 
caufewith him)c^f. ] 

Se(5i:. 31. A»d this at /eafi 1 may esfcB from the 
Reader^ that if he think we argue weakly^ he will confefs 
that we argue f30t for xvcrldly greatnefs, but go again ft our 
carnal inttrefl. We contend againji Bif}wfricks of the 
Engliflnwc^^, 4i defiringno [uch Wealth or Honour, Some 
of u^ have as good opportunities to have a part in that 
kind of Greatnefs if it were again introduced^ as they : 
But 1 am net able alone for a Parijh charge y and am loth 
to have more on m'j hands ^ and my accounts-^ which is I 
juppofe the mind of my Brethren aljo. 

Se(5t, 35. One more Ad'vemfcment 1 owe the Reader, 
that this being written fo long ftnce I was made confident 
by Bipjop UQier, de Primordiis Eccl. Brit, that Ireland 
was the Ancient Scotia where Palladius , &c. planted 
the Gofpelj wh/chip^^,9j, ihavefignified. But I fhottld 
wrong Scotland, // ijlwuld not tell thee, that I have re 
ceived [uch Arguments to the contrary fince then , from 
the Right Honourable^ and my highly valued friend » the 
Bart of Lawderdail^ that I am forced to fufpend my judge- 
ment in that pointy till 1 have leifure better to fiud'j the 
pointy being yet unable toanfwer the [aid arguments. 


Whether it be Neceilary or 

Profitable to the right order or the 
Peace of the Churches of Eng- 
land that we reftore the extruded 

Epifcopacy ? 

^N this Oucflion here are thefe three things 
fuppofcd. I. That there arc yet particu- 
lar Churches ofChrift m England', and 
therefore thofe that conclude that there 
hath been no Church among u» fince the 
Diocefan Bifhops were laid by, are none 
ofthemthat weare now dilputingwitbc 
and indeed we think fo grofi a conceit an- 
worthy of a Confutation. 

2. It is fuppofcd that both the right Order and the Peace of 
thefe Churches are macteri highly to be valued. 3. And alfo 
that its our duty for the obtaining of it,to do that which is ncccf* 
fary or profitable thereto. But the doubt is. Whether the Epif- 
copacy in qu^ftion be neceflary or profitable thereto? 

For the dcci (ion whereof I (hall briefly tell you my Judge- 
ment, in thefe prop9ritions, whereof the two firft arc but prept- 
Pi OpofitioQ I . A Peace mth tht Divines of the EfiJcopaljmA^f 

mtnt , is much to be defireci and earneftlj to be endeavoured. 
Prop. 2. A certain Efifco^acj may be yielded to ^ for the Peace 
( if not for the right order) of the Church. 

Prop. 3 . The Diocefan Epifeopacy which was lately in ^Eng. 
hn^yandis now I aid by ^ may not lawfully be re-ajfumedor re-ad' 
mittedy as a means for the right Order or Teace of the Church. 

I .For the firft of chefe,! think ic cafie to prove that we ought 
to feek an Agreement in the Epifcopal controverfie, with thofe 
that differ from us in that point. 

For, I. They are brethren, of the fame faith with us, whom 
we are bound to love and honour, and therefore to ufe all juft 
means for peace with them. If we muft as much as in us Ijeth, if 
fojpble^ live peaceably with all men^ Rom. I2. 18. much more 
With Brethren of the fame family and profcffion. 

2. They arc very many • and the far grcateft (though not the 
pureft j part of the Church is of their raind : All the Greek 
Church, and the Ethiopian Church, and the Jacobite?, Armeni- 
ans,and alloiher parties without the verge of the Reformation 
from Popery here in the Weft, that ever I read or heard of, are 
allof that way , befides all theRomane Church: And,though 
I know that much ignorance, andimperfeftion, if notfupcrfti- 
tionandfoulererrorsmay be juftly charged on the Greek, Ethi- 
dpian, c^f. Churches, as well as on Rome ( rhougiinot Popery 
itself J yet I think there is fcarc« a good Chriftian that is not 
Urtwilhng tocatloff fo great a part of the Church of Chrilt, as 
thefc ^rc Indeed, he that dares fo far defpife all the Churches of 
(thrifl on earth except thefe few that are happily reformed , as 
'•to think that it is no duty ofoifrs to feek unity and peace with 
■rhertj,% all juft means,! think is no meet perfon for us to difpute 
"mth;- It is the hainous fin of /?owf , to defpife and unchurch 
^Greeks, Ethiopians, andall favc themfekes, which IhopePro- 
teftants will never imitate, who have juftly condemned ihcm /b 
deeply for it. Let the Donatifts fhutup the Church of Chrilt 
in African, and cal! the reft (^ecilims ^ and let the Pa pifts reduce 
it to the fubfcribers to their Trent confeffion, or to them on- 
ly that believe in the Popes univerfal Headftiip and Government, 
and call all others Hereticks : yet will all true Catholicks imitate 
Augjtfline ind the Councils that were calkd againft the Dona- 
sifts, who ftill defcribcd the Catbolike Church to be that which 


was difperfed over the worlds having begun at ferttfatem : and 
though to Gods praifc we dare rejoycingly affirm, that the moft 
illuflrious and the founded part of it is in Europe, among the 
Reformed , yet dare we not fay that it is all or the greatcft part 
here •, Nay we confefs that we arc but a fraall part of Chrifts 
Church. And therefore common fobriety may tell us, that the 
Peace of fo great a part of Chrifts Church as is in all the reft of 
the world, is highly tobe valued, and fought with all our might, 
in rightcoufncls. 

Moreover, even among the reformed Churches thercare ma- 
ny for fomeEpifcopacy or Superintendency : As the church 
of England and Ireland was lately for Diocefan Epifcopacy .• 
fo the Churches in Denmark,^ Swedeu ^ Saxionie^ and other 
parts of Gfrw^i^/, Tra>>filvania^ &c. arc for a lower fort of 
Epifcopacy, called Supenrcendency among them. .'jIJ..' 

5. And the quality of many of the Divines of that way is 
fuch asbefpcaks our greateft reverence tothem,and (hould move 
us to thirlt after Unity and Reconciliation with them. Many 
of them are men of eminent Learning and Godlinefs,and found 
in the faith. 

I know that it is commonly objeded, that they are general- 
ly ungodly men that are that way,- and chough fomc ofchem 
are Learned men, yetthey areall, oralmoftall, of carclefs and 
carnal lives, or meerly formal and fupcrftitious , and therefore 
their Communion is not much to be defired. 

To which lanfwer. i. The plain undenyable truth is that 
it was fo here with the moft of them in the Bifhops daycs, where 
ever I was ?.cquainrcd:Therc were more Mimfters in many places 
that would have fcorned, threatned or troubled a man for a 
godly diligent life, then that would lead him that way by a good 
example, Wemuft fpeakthat truth that cannot be hid, who- 
ever be difpleafed. To thisday,too many of that wiy are care* 
lefsand fcandaious. But then Confider withall, 2. That it is but 
too common for the common fort even of Miniftcrs as well at 
people, to be carclefs ar>d bad, what ever opinions they are ofc 
Efpccially if the times do difcountenance pradicil Rcligioufneft, 
the greater part arc likely to follow the times, being that way 
alfo foftronglyendined by nature. 3. Confider alfothic we 
have had, and have men of that Judgement that have been ex- 

B 2 ccUenc 

' A 

ccllent Inftrumcnts of the Churches jgood, tnd (o eminent for 
Gods graces and glftSjthat their names will be precious whileft 
Chrift hath in England a Reformed Church ; were there in all 
England but one fuch man diffenting from us, as Hooper, Far- 
rar^ Latimer yCranmer , Ridlej ^ fervel^ Abbot ^ Davtnant ^ fher ^ 
Hall, &c. what fobcr Godly man would not be exceeding fo- 
licitousfor a reconciliation ? lamfure ^ befides the godlinefs 
of their lives , and painful preaching ) One Jewel^ One VJber^ 
One Davenant ,hith done fo much againft the Roman Ufurpers, 
as thev will never well claw it off themtothclaft. 

Moreover who knoweth not that moft of the Godly able Mi- 
nifters of England fince the Reformation , did Judge Epifcopacy 
fome of them Lawful, and fome of them moft fit ( for the Non- 
conformifts were bm few : ) and that even before this late 
trouble and war, the moft, even almoft all, of thofe that were 
of chelate AfTembly at Weflminfier, and moft through the land, 
didfubfcnbcand conform to Epifcopal Government, as aching 
noc contrary to the word of God : fo that it is evident that it is 
very confifteni witha Godly life to judge Epifcopacy lawful 
and fir^ or elfe we (hould not have had fo many hundred learned 
and godly men of I hat mind. 

And I am not altogether unapt to believe, that many of 
them yet are fofar rcconcileabie to it f moderated, j that if it 
were again eftablirhed,chey would fubmir to it as they did : For 
1 hear but of few that have made any recantation of their former 
conformity ; but contrarily have known divers of them profefs 
%. reconcilablenefs as aforcfaid, as Mr. gataker doth in one of 
his books expref* h^s own Judgement. 

If I have proved this prcpiratory propofition (which I think 
needeth but lit'c proof, ) then have I alfo proved i . That they 
have finned much who have hitherto forborn the ufeof any 
means for Peaces .-which was in their power. 2. And that we 
>are bound our felfes to defire and feck after a peace with fuch 
men : and that we cannot difcharge a good confcience while 
we negledt fuch means as is within our reach , and Ht for us to 

The fecond Propofition is, that [] yi Certain Epifceracy 
may be yielded to , for the peace ; if not alfo (or the right order */ 
she Church] Inthe declaration of my judgement concerning ^ 


this, I make no doubt but I (hall difplcafe both fides •, the one 
for yielding fo much ^ the other for yielding no more. But 
jafld efi aiea '. I hve not upon mens favour, nor the air of their 
applaufe j That truth which difpleafeth at prefent, may tend to 
peace , and produce it at the laft, when the angry humour is 
allayed, or at leaft, when the angry age is gone. 

For the clearer dctermmation of this and the main t^eftion *■ 
following, it is ncceflary that I hcreilay i.Toopenthenacure 
of Church-Government in general : 2. To open the fence of the 
word [_ Epifcopacy ] and the feveral fores of Bifhops. And then 
3. I (hall tell you what fort of Epifcopacy it is that I could yield 
to for the Churches peace. 

I. I mull confefs I think that the greatcfl: part of the con- 
trovcrlle by far, is in this firft queftion,of the nature of Ecdefiafti- 
cal Governmenr, ftridly fo called, which is only in the hands of 
Chrifts Miniflers, Bifhops or whomfoever, commonly called. 
Clergy men. And concerning thi? ( having written my thoughts 
more largely elfewhere ) I (hall now lay down ih^k few Pro- 

Prop. I. ty^llth'ts porvtr Ecclefufiical is Jure divino, given 
from GoJ hintfelf-, and that either immediately^ or by the mediati- 
on only oftheAp'^files. I mean as to the determination ;« y^f«>, 
what It fhall be, and the conftitution of that order and power in' ' 
the Church, though perhaps fome other caufes,atlcalt * fine i]fti'\ q. , ,.- 
hfis non may intervene for the reception of this power by an m- fercncc be- " 
dividual pcrfon.Thefe therefore thacolcad only the Laws of the twccn Hle^ti- 
Land,or only Canons of former bSfhops for their Handing or "nandOrdi- 
authoricy, do fay nothing that as to our controverlie is regarda- "^^^°" > ^nd 
ble.Whu men do, they may undo.if there bereafon for ir, and if g,vcs"the tL 
it depend on their authority , we mult lubmit to their reafon. or Power, but 

Prop. 2. This 'Vivine Confiitution of the Species of ^'hurch- Chriftonly. 
Pbr¥cr and Government^ is to he found yvhollj in the rvritten ward of ^^0 lus dt 
God^ called the holy Scriptures, This we are agreed on againfl p^f/y^'" ^"^' 
the Pipills, who would fupply the fuppofed defeds of Scripture ^6c){ 170'°' 
by their unwritten Traditions, wh ch they call the other part of 
Gods word. Church Canons and Laws of men may determine 
offome modes and circumftanccs for the better execution of the 
Lawsof God, by the Peopie whom they are overl butthcy 
cannot make new Church Ordinances or Govwtiments, nor ' 

^ 3 ^ (Sonvey 


convey a Power which God the fountain of Power did net 
ordain and convey : nor can they give what they chemfelvcs bad 
rot. The Church-office and Authority therefore that is not 
proved from the Holy Scripture, is to be taken as the fruit of 
humane arrogancy and ion. Yet I deny not but that we 
may find much in Antiquity, in Fathers and Councils about mat- 
ters of fad to help us to underftand fome Scripturcs,and fo to dif- 
cern the matter of right. 

Prop. 3. The Scripture doth xot Contr^dici^ bnt fappofe and 
confirm thi light ef T^ture ; mr doth it impofe »p8n any man Na- 
tural impeffihiliiies^ nor conjiithte ofices which cannot he executed^ 
or whtch would dejiroy that end to which they are fHfpofcd to be 

Prop. 4. Ecclefiajiical Authority comprehendeth not the power 
of the /word, nor any power ef uftng violence to mens bodies^ or 
l-^ying mulfh or confifcattons on their eftates. The Ecclefiaftical 
Power which Chrift ordained, was cxercifcd for the firft three 
hundred years without any touching of mens bodies or purfes^ 
before there were any Chriftian Princes. 

Prop. 5. Afagijlrates are Hot €0 nomine obliged to punijh men 
hecaufe thej are ExcommunicAted ('whether upon every juft Ex- 
communication they (hould punifh, I will not now difpute ) but 
they are bound to know that their penalties be deferved, before 
they infliftthem; asd therefore muft themfelves take Cogni- 
fance of the Caufe, and as rational agents, underftand before 
they ad; and not blindly foHow the Judgements of the 
if they were but as Executioners where the Bifliops are Judges. 
Prop. 6. * The Power of the higheft Churcb-govermurs is bat 
an Authority of ^irefling in the nay to falvation : It is but Di- 
redivc : but then there is no room for the common Objedion, 
'ilive all that that [_ then it is no greater then any other man may ptrform •, ~\ for 
is after expref- \\ is one thing toDired Occaiionally from Charity, and another 
fedinthcfol- thing to Dired by Authority in a ftanding office, as purpofeiy 
pofii?ons.'^°" appointed hereunto, f The Power of Church-Governors is but 

t ^Hte ante 

Imperatores Chrifiiams in Synodis confcripta fuat etd ordincm aut ornaiiim facientia. 
Leges non vocantur fed Canoius, hubemq; aut Cancilii vim , uti-nhis qux fingidoi 
magis fpcilo/it quam ujiiverfos, aut obligaat per modum pa.£li volcntes & nolentes pau- 
t'iore^ ex necejfttate determinatio/iis, ac proinde ex lege Jiaturalh rwr% ex hwnxm aliquo impmo. 
Grotiusde Impcrio pag. ao9j no. tej^c & cap. 9. per totuaa. 



of the fame nature as Is the Power of a Phyikian ever his Pati- 
ents, or of a School-mafter over his Schollers, fuppofing he had 
not the power of the rod or adual force, but fuch a power as 
the Profcffors of Philofophy or other fciences had in their fevc- 
ralfchools upon the adult ^ nor all fo great neither^ becaufc 
the Laws by which wemuftrule, are made to our hands, as to 
the fubftancials.) Hence therefore it is plain, that as we can bind 
or force no man to believe us, brio undcrftand the truih, and 
tobcChriflians, but by the power of demonftraced Evidence, 
and by the light which we let in ('.through Cods grace) into 
their Confciences, fo reither can we caufe any toexccu:coar 
fentences againll offenders further than bv lioht we convince, 
them that it is their duty : fo that if all the Bifhops or Presby- 
teries in the land fhould judge fuch or fuch an opinion to be hcre- 
(le, and fhould Excommunicate tho(e that own it as hcretick?, 
in this cafe if the Church do believe as the Paftors believe, they 
willconfcntandavoid the Excommunicate perfon •, but if they 
take it to be Gods cruth which the Pallors call herelie, they will 
not take ihemfelves bound by that fentcnce to avoid him ; nor 
will theOffenderhimfelf any further be fenfible of a penalty in 
the fentence, then he fhall be convinced that he hath erred ^ and if 
the Church avoid him, he will juftifie himfelf, and judge that they 
doit wrongfully, and will glory in bis fuffering: fo that it i$ on 
the Confcicnce that Church- Governors can work- and no other- 
wife on the ourward man, but medUnte Coufcitniia. 

Prop. 7, The gromd of this is partly becdnft no Church Go' 
vernors ca-t bind any mA» eontrarj to Gods word : GiavcerrAnce, & 
ita appirenre, if the people kmow that he crreth,thcy arc not to obey 
him a^ainft God. Yet in the bare inconvenient determination of 
fomcCircumRantials, by which theduty is not dcllro\ed, but 
ie(s conveniently performed, the people are bound to obey their 
Governors, becaufeitis not againft Gods determination, and 
becaufc he errcth but in an undetermined point.of which God ap- 
pointed him to be the orderly determiner. But if God have once 
determined, no mans contrary determination can oblige ; nor 
yet if they go beyond the fphere of their own work, and deter- 
mine of an aliene fubjcd, which God did never commit to their 
determination : elle a Minifter, or Bifhop, might oblig? every 
Taylor how to cut his garment, and every Shoo- maker ho^c to 



cut his ftioc, fo that they (hould fin if they did difobey, which 
is ridiculous to imagine : and if they go about to introduce new 
(tatcd Ordinances or Symbols in the Church which they have 
nothing to do with, or in any other work (hall affuroe to them- 
felves a power which God never gave them, it doth no more ob- 
lige then in the former cafe. 

Prop. 8. Another reafon of, the fixthPropofition, is, bccaufc 
The People have M Judgement of difcerning^ -whtthtr the Govtr- 
tiors do go AccordtKg to Gods word ornot : cW'ethiy (hould be led 
blindfold, and be obliged by God to go againft Gods word, 
whenfoever their Governors (hall go againft it. It is not bruits 
or Infants, but rational men that we muft rule. 

Prop. 9. The three things which Chttrch-fower doth con ft fi itt^ 
are C in conformity to the three parts of Chrifts own office^ 
1. Ahoftt matter of Faitb^ Z, About matter of WorP^ip^ 3. Abont 
matter of FraBice in other cafes. 

1. Church-Governors about Dodrine or Matters of Faith, 
arc the Peoples Teachers, but cannot o^//^^ them to Err^ or to 
believe any thing againd God,nor make that to be truth or error 
that it not fo betore. 

2. In matter of Wor(hlp, Church- guides arc as Gods Priefts, 
and are to go before the people, and ftand between God and 
them, and prefent their prayers and prayfes to God, and admi' 
nider his holy myfteries, and blefs them in his name. 

3 . The C«m7ftanding Power of Paftors is in two things ; i . Tr 
Commanding them in the name of Cbrift to obey the Laws which 
he hath made them already. And this is the principal. 2. To give 
them new Direiiions of our own ^ which as is faid, i. Muft not 
be againft Gods Diredions. 2. Nor about any matter which is 
not theobjcd ol our own office, but is without the verge of it. 
3. Butitisonly inthemakingof »)<^fr Aiir/, for the better ex- 
ecution of the laws of Chrift ; and thofe under. la\»s muft be on- 
ly the DeterminatiM $f CircMruflanccs about God-i fcrvice u hich 
Scripture hath made neceffarj ingeuere^ but left to the Governors 
determination i« y^tcM" i andthcyarefucbasareal erable in fe- 
veral ages, countries, &c. fo that it had been unfit for Chrift to 
have determined them in his word , becaufc his word is an H^i- 
Vfr/4/ Law for all ages and countries ; and thefe Circumftances 
Will not bear an Qaiverfal determination : clfc why could not 



Chrift have done ic ? nay how i« his Law pcrfcd e!fc that doth 
omit it ? for example, God hath commanded us to read tht word, 
preach, hear, Hnq, which muH nectfTirJly^edone in fome time, 
place, gefture, number of words, &c. Bur he h.ith not command- 
ci us on what day of the week our LeAurefhall be, or at whac 
hourof the day, nor what Chapter I fhall read, nor how many 
at once, nor what Text I fball preach on, nor what Pfalm I 
(hall ling, nor in what words I fhall pray, whether impofed by 
others, ornot, whether with a book, or f(^reconceived form, 
or not ; nor whether I fhall read with fpeftides or without, or 
whether I fhall difcern how the time p^fiu'th by an hour-glafs, 
or by the clock, or by conjC!^u''c without them. Thefe there- 
fore and other fuch like, muft hamans Prudence determine of. 
But with thefe Cautions. 

I . Thefe arc moftly matters that require a various determina- 
tion in feveral places accord ng to the great variety of Circum- 
ftances ; and therefore it is for the mofl: part Htfcr for the parti- 
cu'arPaftor of that Church, who is upon the place, and feeth 
the cafe, to determine them /?ro rf nau, * then for Synods, or *ThatSy- 
diflant Prelates, to do it by general Laws or Canons binding all. nods are not 
2. Though upon a fmall mifdctermination of fuch a Circura- abfolutelyne- 
ftance, the people muft obey, yet if it befo grofly mifdetermi- ^'^'^''uink ^"'^ 
ned a$ to deftroy the duty it felf Circumftantiatcd, or to be no- of Scnpture 
rorioufly againQ theend which it is pretended for, then they arc Inflitution 
not to obey ir. As if a Paftor would appoint the People to hear ^"'^ Natural 

in the ninht only, or at fuch unfeafonable times that thcv cannot ^'^^*^'°") ^^^ 

u 11 r Im- 

come, or \n many tht: like cales. ^, ■„ r ^ 

r \ ■ L • /- I I /• pcrio Cap.j, 

Notca!lo tliatit isone thmg to prefcnbc thefe matters in Sipertotum, 
6'rct\ RegiTienta! Rcfpe(J^, and that bclongcth to him upon the 
Place ; and its another thing to prefcribc them for common V'ien 
or Co«or.^ among many Churches, and that belongs re a Synod, 
(of which anon. ) 

And it is moflcerrain by fad experience, that fcarce any thing 
hath broken the uniry and peace of the Church more, then un- 
neceffary determinations pretended to be for its unity and peace. 
CouH men have been content to have made Gods Laws the cen- 
ter and touchflone of the Churches Unity, all had been well: 
but when they muft make Canons for this Vefture, and that Ge- 
(ture, and the other Ceremony, and determine in what words 

C all 

^ io ) 

all men fhall pray, and how many words he fhall fay, or how long 
hefliillhc, and fo make ftanding Laws upon mutable clrcum- 
ftances,and this with^tany neccflity at all, but mcerly to domi- 
neer , as if they hadjoeen^lhemfelves ordained and entrufted with 
Gods worfhip and mens fouls ; fuch fottifh Presbyters, that know 
not how to fpcak or doany thing but as it is prcfcribed them, 
nor how tocarry themfelvcsfoberly or revcrendly without be- 
ing obliged which way to bow, and when and how oft, with 
the like. UnncccfTary things made NeccfTary have deRroyed 
the Churches Peace ^ and fo blind are the Authors of it, thac 
yet thev will not fee their errour, though the cries, and groans, 
and blood of the Churches have proclaimed it fo long. The 
Church Hiftorie of thefe one thoufand and three hundred 
years at leaft doth tell us that it is the Church Governours 
by their too much bufincfs and overdoing in fuchwayes, even 
by too bold and bufie determinations about doftrines or Cere- 
monies , that have broken all in peices and caufcd that con- 
fufion , difTcntion and feemingly remedilefs divifions in the 

Prop. IO. In cafes which are beyond the prefent under Jl anting 
ofthepCGpIe.they are bound as Learners ^to fubmlt to the judgement 
of their Guides : If they fee no fufficient caufe, cither in the mat- 
ter to caufe them to fufped that their Teachers arc miftaken, 
or in their Teachers to caufe them to fufped them to be feduccrs, 
they owe them fo much credit and refpeft as their Guides, as to 
believe them fidehuwaKay or to fuppofc that they are likelier 
to be in the right then themfelves; and therefore in matters of 
Dodrine not to contradift them, but to fubmit to learn of 
them, till by learning they come to that ripenefs of underftard- 
ing , as to be capable of difcerning the errors of their Guides, 
and fo to contradid ihem groundcdly, if indeed they err: fo 
alfo in the order of variable ' trcumflantials about the fcrviceof 
God, though the people ought not ro obey their Governours, 
if under thai pretence they (hould command them thinps finful ; 
yet when they are not able to fee any certain evil in the thing 
commanded , nor fo f\rong a probability of evil as fhould 
caufe them to fufpend obedience while they take better advice, 
in fuch a cafe it istlieir Dury to obey the guides of the Church. 
For they are certain that they arc commanded fo obey them that 



rule over them, dndwatch for their [qhIs, Heb. 1 3 . 17. but they 
are not certain that in fuch a cafe it is an evil that is prefcribed 
by them, nor isitfuppofed to be much probable ^ therefore a 
certain evil of difobediencc muft be avoided before an un- 
certain and improbable evil. This the very office of Church Go- 
vernours doth plainly import. 

Objeft. Then if the MiniftcrmifiAke, all the people that ««- 
derfland not the qrounds of the matter, mufi err for company, 
j^nftv. If by Mnft, you fpeak of their Duty, I deny the con- 
fcquence : For their Duty is to be men ofunderltanding, and 
to fee the truth in its own evidcnce,and fo not to err •, But if by 
Mufi, you only cxprefs a Neceffity of Infirmity which they have 
finfully contraded thcmfelves,then I yield all : but I Jiay, that 
it is a greacer fin to difobcy their guides, without known reafon, 
and confequently never to obey them in any cafe beyond the pre- 
fent knowledge of the people, then it is to follow them fide A«- 
mAtta in fuch miftakesas we have no fufficient means at prcfenc 
todifcover. For the former will overthrow almoft all Miniftra- 
tion and Church-government. 

Ob J. Then it is no fin for an Ignorant man to Err with his 
Teacher for company. Anfw, I deny that Confequence : for it 
is his (in to be an Ignorant man .- and confequently to have any 
Error. But fuppofing him already Ignorant by bis own finful- 
nefs, and that the Minifter* of the Gofpel come to heal it, wc 
may well fay that it is his greater fin to disbelieve and difobey 
them without apparent caufe, then to milbke with them where 
he is not able to difcern the miftake. 

Prop. 1 1 . Hf that difoheyeth the fVsrd of God in the month of 
a Minifier or Chhrch governor , committeth a doftble fin, in com- 
parifn of him that difbeycth the fame word in the mouth of a pri' 
vate man : for bfidc s xht fin which he firfi committeth, he breaketh 
alfo the fifth Commandment ^atd defpifeth Chrifi in his Aieffenger : 
As a m;m that (hall rcfuie to worfhip God, to ufe his name revc** 
ren:ly^&c. when a private man telleth him that it is his duty, 
doth fin by that refufal : but if he refufe it when his own Father 
cr Mother, or Minifter command him, he alfo breaks the fifth 
Commandmen: belidesthereit. Minifterial Authority therefore 
dorh aggravate the fins of pcrfons that are difobedient. 

Pi op. 12. Ttt fir all this , one private man that tvinceth etit 

Qz of 


•/ Scripture a fin or a duty contrary to the doSirine or commands of 

our Guides, mufl he regarded in that before them j and the evidence 

and aivine verity which he bringeth muji not be refufed, becaufe 

Chu ch Governors are againfi it. Ochcrwifc we fhould make 

Gods Offic^TS to be greacer then bimfelf ^ and the Promulgators 

and Preachers of his Law, to have power to null or frultrate the 

known Law which they fhould proclaim,and that the means is to 

be' preferred before the end,and whcnicdeftroyes theend,and fo 

ccafeth it felf to be a means.which are things not to beimagined. 

Prop. I 3 . Tet is it a great fin for any men lightly and rafhlj to 

ftifpefi their Teachers and Rulers, and much more Councils or the 

yphole Church \ and too eafily to credit the fingular opinions of any 

frivate man or dijfenting Paftor. But we (hould be very fufpici- 

ousof the private maa rather, and of the lingular man; and 

therefore fhould fcarch well, and fee good reafon for it before 

we credit them j though we may not rcfufe any truth which they 

(hail bring. 

Prop. 1 4. The ufes of Synods or Ceuncils, is net direBly to be 
fuperiour Governours of particular Pafiors and Churches ; but 
it: is DireElly i. For the Information and Edification of the Pa- 
Jlon th'mfelves by the collation of their reafons and mutual advice •, 
Z, Fo-'theVnionand Communion of the fa'td Tafiors, and of the 
parric-*Ur Churches by them : that they may agree in one, and 
go hand in hand to do Gods work-, and fo may avoid the 
crolfing and hindering of each other, and one may not receive 
thofe to copnmunion without fatisfadion, who arc excommuni- 
cated by orhers;,and fo thac by this c uncord of Pallors they may 
be ftrcngthencd to a more fucccfsfull performance of their duties. 
But then,thcfe Di'^eB ends ofSyn-jds being prefuppofed, ladi- 
Jfre^ly thQy mAycruly be hid to be for Government • Bccaufc 
God in general having commanded us to carry on his work as 
much as we can in Unity and Peace, and it being the proper 
work of Councils to agree upon wayes of Unity, it followeth 
thatforUnity fake it becomes ou: duty to fubmit to their juft 
Agreements •, and fo that the forming of fucli Agreements or Ca- 
Hons,isconfeqaentlyorlndire(^lya part of Government, though' 
Diredly it is but for Unity and Concord. PaOors in Synods have 
the fame poxer over their people as they liave out: and therefore 
what Canonrihey make juQly for theGovernment of the people^ 



a$ Pafiars^ZTC Bire^ly ads of Government : but as tyijftrhlfled 
Faj}urs,2ind alfo as to theCanons by which they bind each other, 
they aft but by confent or contrad in order to concord and 
communion, and not by a fuperiour Ruling power. So that Sy- 
nods as Synods arc Dircdly only GrMtU Vnitatis & Cbmnimio- 
nis^ and not Gratia Regiminis ; but Indireltly and by confe^tterjce 
from the firft uie, they arc after a fort Regime>:taL 

To conclude this about the Nacure of Church Government,in 
the two former fimiiitudes it is (omcwhat apparent : For Chrift 
calls himfelf the Phyfitian that comes to heal difcafed fouls: 
and his Church is alfo a School, and his people arc all Schoilars 
or Difciplcs, and Minifters his Ulhersor under-Schoolmafters, 
Now the Phyfitian may prefcribe to his Patient the times, the 
quancicies of taking Medicines, and what diet to ufe, and what 
cxcrcife in order to his health ^ and alfo Phyfitiansmay Uiakc 
a Colledge, and frequently meet for mutual Edification, and 
Agree what Patients to meddle with,and what not , and that 
they will not receive thofc Patients that run from one to another 
to their own hurt, and that they will ufe none but fuch and fuch 
approved MedicamentSjWirh divers the like circumrtances. But 
yet no Phyfitian can either compell men to be their Patients ; 
nor compell them fany otherwife then by perfwafion ) to take 
their Medicines , when they are their Patients ^ nor can they 
corporally puniOi them for any difobedicnce to their diredi- 
ons : But this they may do : they may tell tbem Hi ft that 
if they will not be ruled they (hall be without the Phyfitians 
help, and then rheir dci'eafe will certainly kill them, or endanger 
them; andif the Parientcominuffodifobedientas to fruflrate 
the means of cure, the i'hMitian nay give him over, and he his 
Phyfitian no more; and this is the Power of a Church Guide, 
and this i« his wav of numfling : 0';ly he may funhcracquant 
them with a Divine Commiflion, then a Phyfici^ncan do ro his 
Patient, fat leaft gradually; and foprcfs obedience more eff*;du' 
ally on their confciences. 

So a Schoolmafter may make orders for the rij>ht circumftan- 
tiating of matters inhisSfhool f fuppofingone Gran^mpr en- 
joynea bv fuperiour Authority, ) and he riav order whar Au- 
thors (hall be read, and at what hour*, and how much at ar-ine, 
atiddifpofc of the feats and orders of his Schoilars: Bucket if ■ 

C 3 ^ he >^ 


hebeaTeacher of the Adult, according to our cafe, h^ cannot 
corporally punifh thofe that either refufc to be his Schollars, or 
to learn of him or obey hizn ; but the utmoft that he can do is to 
put fome difgracc upon them while they abide in his School, and 
at lart to (hut them out. And then all the School mafters in 
the Countrey may well agree upon one Method of Teaching, 
and that they will not receive thofe without fatisfadion into one 
School, who are for obftinacy andabufe caft out of another. 
But fuch Agreements or Meetings to that enddonot make ei- 
ther one Phylitian or Schoolmafter to be the Governour of the 
reft, or above another , nor yet to have the charge of all the 
Schollars or Patients of all the reft ; fo is it in the cafe of Ec- 
defiaftical Affemblies. 

HAving faid this much concerning the Nature of Church- 
Power and Government, I come to the fecond thing pro- 
mifed, which is to enumerate the feveral forts of Bifhops that are 
to fall under our confideration, that fo we may next confider, 
which of them are to be allowed of. 

And here I fuppofe none will expeft that I fliew them all thefc 
forts diftindly exiftent ; itisenough thatlraanifeft them to be 
in themfelves truly different. 

1. And firft the name [Bi/hep] may be given to one, that is 
only the Overfeer or Ruler of the People of one particular Churchy 
and not of any Church- rulers themlelves : That ruleth the flock, 
but not any Shepherds. 

2. Thofe alfo may be called Bi/hops, who only are foint Rulers 
Kvith others of a particular Churchy and Prefidenti among the El- 
ders of that one Church for V nit J aad order fake ^ without ajfn- 
wing any Government over thofe Elders. 

3. A third fort there arc that are Preftdents in fuch an Elder- 
Jhip , and withal do tak^e a Negative voice in the Government , fo 
that nothing Jhallbe done without them in fuch affairs. 

4,A fourth fort arc the file Pafiors of fuch a particular Church 
that have many Minifiers under them as their Curates, "who are 
properly to be Ruled by them alone ^ fo that thePaftor is the 
fole Ruler of that Church, and the Curares do only teach and 
otherwifc officiate in obedience to him ; Which is the cafe of 



divers Miniftersof great Parifhes, that keep one Curate at their 
Parifli Church, and others at their Chappels. Yet its one thing 
to be the fole Ruler of the PariQi, and another to Rule the reft of 
the Elders. 

5. A fifth fort of Biftiopsarc thofe that are the fixed Preji- 
dents of a, Claffis of the PaftofS of ntAny particular (^hurches • 
who hold the title dMrante vit'i, or quam ditt bene fe g^^^rlnt^ 
though they are in ufe only while the Claflis ficteth, and have 
only a power of Moderating and ordering things, as the fore- 
man of a Jury, or a double or cafting voice, as the Bayliff in 
Eledions in moft Corporations, or as che Prelidcnt in fonie Col- 
ledges j but no Negative voice, which raaketh a Power equal 
with all the reO. 

6. A fixch fort are the headf of fuch Clafses, having a Nc(T4. 
tivt voice ^ fo th^t the refi cart do nothing without them. 

7. A feventh r^rrarcr/^e Pre/idcnts ef Provinces or Diuciffes '^***l',m)^''' 
containing niAnj C/ajfcs^ vfhich have only a Afoderating Putver^htit *•' i "^ 

no Nega'ive vo'ce. 

8 An cighch fort are the Bifhofs of particular Cities with all the: 
Rural parts thit are near it, containing many Churches-^ nvho af- 
fume the Poroer of Governing that Diecefs to themfelves alone with' 
out the Preshjters of the particular Churche'^ either not ufing 
themata'lin matter of Government, or only confulting with 
them in AfT^mblies, but giving chem no determining vote?. 

9. A ninth (on IS a Diccefan Biflop of fuch a City, who dot'h 
mt take uppn him the Rule of the people ef the Dioccfs ( beyond 
his own Congregation ) hut on'y of the Pafiort ^ luppofing chat 
the feveral PaRors or Presbyters have power to Rule the feveral 
Congrcgadons, but withall that they themfelves are to be ruled 
by liim. 

1 o. A tenth fort are fuch Bi/hops as ajfume the Government of 
thefe Diocifan Bipjopt^ ivhich art covtmonj called ty^rch()ipjops: 
to which alfo we ad jovn Metropolitans, Primates, and Patri- 
archs, whoaflume che Power of Governing all beiow tbera : a2 " 
under the feventh rank I do alfo for brevity comprehend Mc:ro- 
policans, Primates, and Patriarchs, who affume no Governing 
Powerover other Bifhops, hut only ihcpyfmamfedem,2indi the 
moderating Powtr in Councils. 

1 1 . The eleventh fore are unfixed general Fafiors^ called Am- 



bulatorjf or Itinerant^ that have a care cf all the Churches^ and 
are no further tyed to anj particptUrs, then at the necejfarj defeEl of 
their natural capacity (feeing chey cannot be in all places ac 
once, ) or elfe the difparch of that work which they there meec 
with, before they go further, andfome (uch occafion d'^th re- 
qtive '. an J being excluded outof no part of the Church, further 
then by confent for the common good, they (hail exclude thein- 
felves ; fuch, I mean, as the Apollles were. 

12. The twelfth and laft fort \% the ]ndi.% that goes u^der tice 
name of St. ]^ttcrs Succejfor, and Chnfls Vicar General, or the 
Vice-Chrifi^ who clainteth a poveer ^f Governing floe -whole H'ivtrfM 
Church as its Head, having Infallible potver of determiyi-g Con^ 
trovtrftes^ and matters of Faith^ a»d whofe <'ffce mufl enter ihs 
definition of the Catholick. Churchy and thofe that feparate from 
himarenoCatholikes, or trueChriOians. This is he that beareih 
the bag, and makcth the twelfth fort. 

3. T Comenowin the third place to tell you, how many and 
I whichof thcfe forts of Epifcopacy I think may be admit- 
ted for the Peace of the Church : And, 

1. Of the firft fort there is no Controverfie among us : few 
will deny the ^«/ DtV/w^w of Presbyters ^ as having the Rule of 
the people of a particular Churchy and the fole Rule , fup- 
pofing that there is no other Paftor ov<:r that Church but 

2. Of thefccondforrof P^irifli Bifhops C who are wrr r Pre- 
fidentsover the whole E.'dcrjhip of that particular ( hu^ch^ and 
that continually, or fixedl<.) I think there is little queltion will 
be made by any, but they alfo will eafily be admitted. 

3. The third fort ( /f Parochial 'Bifhop, having a Negative 
voiceina Tanfh Eltitrjhip) 1 OiDuld be content to admic for 
the Peace of the Church : but whechcrof it felf it he delnable, I 
do not difpure : for if one Pallor even in a Parifh may have a Ne- 
gative voice among two or three Curates, it will Follow that the 
thing it felf is not unlawful, vi^. for one Mintfler to have a Ne- 
gative vote among many, and fo among an hundred, if there be 
nothing elfe to forbid. 

4. The fourth fort (for brevity) Comprehcndetb two forts. 

1 . Skch 


I. Such Pajlon df a f/tgle Congregdtion^ which having di^erfe 
Cnratts under them who are Presbyters, do yet themfelvts take Hfon 
them the fole Government of the people and of th-eir Curattf. I 
think this is intolerable, and indeed a Concradidion.or a Nulling 
of the Presbyters office : for it is cfTential to the Presbyter of any 
Church to be a Guide or Ruler of chac Church : to put them 
out of all Rule therefore is to Null, or fufpcnd the cxercifc of 
their office-, which cannot Qatedly be done without deftroying 
it. But then 2. if we fpeakof the fecond fortjlhat is Juch Paftorx 
of particular C hurches, as have jurats rvho are Presbjters, and 
they govern their Cnr ate s^ bnt take the Cnrates as true Governors 
ofthefi-^ckt thefc as I dare not fiinply defend, (for if it be law- 
ful for one Paftor to Rule two or three in a Parifh, then why not 
twenty or an hundred, if nothing elfe forbid ? ) f o I confefs I 
(hould be ready to adroit of them,if it might attain the Churches 
peace : for I fee many godly D' vines that are agamft Epifcopacy, 
yet pradice this ; and will have no Curates in their Pandi, that 
will not be Ruled by chem. And there is a ce.rain Obedience 
which Juniors and men of weaker pirfs, do owe to their Seniors 
and men of far greater knowledge, chough the Office be the 
fame. And the Nature of the Government being not Compul- 
five and Coercive, but only upon the voluntary, whofe judge- 
ments approve and their wills confent, its confiderable how far 
even a Ruler of others may voluntarily confent and fo oblige 
himfelf to be Ruled by another, that could not have any power 
to Rule him, without that confent of his own, and voluntary 

5. As for the fifth fort, that is, {^The jianding Prefident of 
a ClajfiSy having nt Negative voice J I fhould eafily confent to 
them for order and Peace : for they are no diftinft Office, nor 
aflfunnc any Government over the Presbyters. And the Presby- 
terian Churches ^o commonly ufe a Prefident or Moderator pr9 
tempore. And doubtlefsif it be lawful for a Month, it may be 
lawful for a year, or twenty years, or quam diu fe beneg.jferit : 
and how many years had we one Moderator of our Aflemblief 
of Divines at Weflminjier ? and might hive had him fo many 
years more if death had not cut him off ? And ufually God doth 
not fo change his gifts, but that the fame man who is the fittell 
this month or year, is moil likely alfo to be the ficceft the next. 

D 6, And 


6. And for the fixth fore, vU. [ ^ Prefident of a Clafses ha- 
'vl»gaNega,tivtvolce,'\ I confcfs I had rather be without him, 
and his power is not agreeable CO my Judgement, as a thing in- 
fticuted by God, or fitceft in it felt'. But yet I fhould give way to 
irfor the Peace of the Church, and if it might heal that great 
breach that is between us, and the Epifcopal Brethren, and the 
many Churches that hold of that way ^ but with thefe Cautions 
and Limitations, i. That they (hall have no Negative in any 
thingthatisalreadyaduty or afin : for an Angel from heaven 
cannot difpcnfe with Gods Law. This I doubt not will be yield- 
ed. 2. That none be forced to acknowledge this Negative vote 
in them, but that they take it from thofe of the Presbyters that 
will freely give or acknowledge it. For its a known thing that 
all Church-power doth work only on the Confcience, and there- 
fore only prevail by procuring Confent, and cannot compel!. 

3. Nor would I ever yield that any par: of the Presbyters dif- 
fenting (hould be taken as Schifmaticks, and caft out of Commu- 
nioHjOr that it fhould be made the matter of fuch a breach. This 
is it that hath broken the Church, that Bifhops have thruft their 
Rule on men whether they would or not, and have taken their 
Negative voice at leaft, if rot their fole Jurisdi(Sion,tobefo 
ncccflary, as if there could be no Church without it, or no man 
were to be endured that did not acknowledge it ^ but he that de- 
nyeth their difputable Power rauft be excommunicated with 
them that blafpheme God hirafelf. And as the Pope will have 
the acknowledgement of his Power to be infeparablc from a 
member of the Catholike Church, and caft out all that deny it, 
fo fuch Bifliops take the acknowledgement of their Jurisdidion 
10 be as infeparablc from a member of a particular Church, and 
confequcntly ('as they fuppofe) of the univcrfal : and fo to 
deny them (hall cut men off, as if they denycd Chrift. This fa- 
voureth not of the humility that Chrift taught his followers. 

4. Nor would I have any forced to declare whether they only 
fubmit for Peace, or confent in approbation : nor whether they 
take the Bifhops Negative vote to be by Divine Inflitution, and 
ib NecefTaryjOr by the Presbyters voluntary confent &: contrad, 
as having power in feveral cafes to fufpend the exercife of their 
own juft authority, whenthefufpenfionof it tendcth to a pub- 
like Good. No duty is at all times a duty. If a man be to be or- 

daiaed by a Presbytery, it is not a flat duty to do it at that time 
when the Prefident is abfent, except in cafe of flat necefliity ; 
why may not the reft of the Presbyters then, if they fee ic con- 
ducible to the good of the Church [^ refolve never to ordain 
(except in cafe of fachNeceflicy, ) but when the Prefident is 
there, and is one therein ^ ] which is indeed to permit his exer- 
clfeo'i a Negative rote, without profefiing it to be his right by 
any Inftitucion ? It is lawful to ordain, when the Prefident is 
prefenc ; it is lawful ( out of cafes of Nccefsity ) to forbear 
when he is abfent : according therefore to the Presbyterian prin- 
ciples, we w/tjrefolve to give him <;/^/<<^(7 a Negative voice, that 
is, not to ordain without him, but in Necefsity : and according 
to the Epifcopal principles, we w«/? thus do : for this point of 
Ordination is the chief thing they ftand on. Now if this be all 
the difference, why (hould not our May h^ yield to their, Adn^ 
^f,ifthe Peace of theChurchbefound to lye upon it. But 5. I 
would have this Caution too, that the Magiftrate (hould not 
annex his fword to the Bifliops cenfure, without very clear rea- 
fon : but let him make the beft of his pure fpiritual Authority 
that he can : we (hould have kept peace with Bi(hops better, if 
they had not conae armed, and if the Magiftrates had not become 
their Executioners. 

7. As to the feventh fort, v'lz,. \_ A Preftdent of a Provlnct 
fixed, without any Negative voice'] I (hould eafily admit of him, 
not only for Peace, but as orderly and convenient, that there 
might be fome one to give notice of all Aflemblie?, and the De- 
crees to each member, and for many other mattters of order: 
this is praftifcd in the Province of London pro tempore^ and in the 
other Presbyterian Churches. And as I faid before in the like 
cafe, I fee not why it may not be lawful to have a Prefident 
^MAm diufe bene ge^'erit ^ as well for a moncth,or a year, or fcren 
years, asinourlate Affembly twofuccefsively were more, (as 
I remember ) fo that this kind of Dioccfan or Provincial Bi- 
ihop, I think may well be yielded to for the Churchei Order 
and Peace. 

8. As to the eighth fort of Bifhops, viz. Q The Biocefan whs 
MJfumeth the fele Government of many PariJJ} (^hurches both Pref- 
byters and People ] as ten, or twelve, or twer ty or more, as they 
ufed CO do, even a whole Diocefs, I take them co be intolerable, 

D 2 and 

and dcftrudivc to the Peace and happmefsof the Church, and' 
therefore not to be admitted under pretence of Order or Peace, 
if we can hinder them. But of thefc we rauft fpcak more when 
wecometo the main Qucftion. 

9. As for the ninth fort of Bilhops, viz. [ A Blocefan Ruling 
all the Presby ers, but leaving the Presbyters to Rule the People 2 
and confequently taking to himfelf the fole or chief Power of Or- 
dination, but leaving Ccnfures and Abfolucion to them, except 
in cafe of Appeal to himfelf j I muft needs fay that this fort of 
Epifcopacy is very ancient , and hath been for many ages of ve- 
ry common reception , through a great part of the Church •, 
but I muft alfofay that I can fee as yet no Divine inftitution of 
fuch a Bilhop taken for a fixed limited officer, and not the fame 
that we (hall mention in the eleventh place. But how far mens vo- 
luntary fubmiffion to fuch, andconfent to be ruled by them, , 
mJty authorize thcra, I have no mind to difpute. Only this I 
will fay , that though I allow not in my judgement this fort of 
Epiffliopacy,yet I think it incomparably more tolereable than the 
eighth forcjwhichtakcth the whole Government of the people 
from the Presbyters to themfelves; And if I lived in a place where 
this Government were eftablifhed, and managed for God, I 
would lubmic thereto ,and live peaceably under it and do nothing 
tothedi(lurbancc,difgraceordifcouragemcntofic. Myreafons 
He not fi4y to produce. 

10. As for the tenth fortof Birtiops, \'\%. Archbifhop, Afe- 
trofolitam^ Primates and Patriarchs^ hiving not only the modera' 
tion: of Synods bnt alfo either the fole Government of all the Cler- 
gy^ iijii^chi'ifGo'vernmentof all the -people y or a Negative voice 
in ally I am much more in judgement againft them,then the for- 
mer ,and r^-much the more againft them,by how much the larger 
their Jurifdii^OO is, for rcafbns which I fhalUoon have oecafion 
to produce. 

1 1. As for the eleventh fort of Bifliops,that is{ fnch asfneceed 
the Apefiles in the office of Preaching and Governing^ te wit as ««- 
limited univerfal Officers] it is a great doubt among many whe- 
ther any fuch (hould be?For though it be certain that fuch were, 
yet we are in doubt whether they have any fucceflbrs. F6r my 
own partj confefs my felf fatisfied in this, that the Apoftles have 
Suc.c#9.r», though not in th^i? extraordinary Immsdiate naan- 



ner of Miffion, nor in their extraordinary Gifts of the Spirit, yeto W.^ Cka,^. 
in all that part of their office which isof ftanding Ncceffity to>|''j-»-r*'i;**^ 
the Church: And I ara fatisHed that their general Miniftry,or7 ' 'r 
ambalatory preachirj;^ as uafixei officers, and their Govern-^ 
menr of tbe Church by Office ( fuch as they did then ufe ) are) 
of ftandingNecedity co the Church : And therefore thatasfuch' Aptplivcre 
unfixed general Officers,the Apoftles ^ejftn have Succcflfors. And ^'^"t Pmbytc- 
this I have formerly proved to you in my Thefes de Polit. Eccle- ^rJJg%J^^„f^ 
fiaft. briefly thus. »__-^ AW/**^ 

Argument I . Chrift promifed when he inftituted this General loco 
Office to be with them to the end of the world : therefore it was ^.U>ipt'i ic'"^ 
his will that it (hould continue to the end of the world, (/T/4^ [^fj'f^^''^ 
28 20,21. ; It was to a Miniftry that wcrcfent to preach the rreihyten^ 
Gofpeito every (^rextHre^or to all the wcrld^A»d to Difciple Nations, eya»t,/ednulli 
that this promife was cxprcfly made ; therefore fuch a Miniftry loco aliigau. 
IS to be continued. f^^/'^'l' 

Argum. 2. The fame work and Neceflity itill continuech : 'j,ex,radria ' 
Fot, i.Thereareftiil moftofthe Nations on earth unconverted. spifcopoTan- 
2. TheConverted and Congregated to be Confirmed and Go- txnus^ab 
vcrned, therefore the Office continueth. Ath^.^fioFru, 

Argum.i. We can fetch no Argument from the Apoftles Ex- ^j^^l^'f^-Jn^'^^ 
ample or from any Preceptor Promife to them, to prove rhe EvM-geiium 
fucceflion of fixed Paftors, which is ftronger then this by which per indiam 
we prove the fucccllion of General unfixed Officers : there- P'^dicanm^ 
fore either we mult yield to this, or by the fame reafons as v/e ^'^'^ ^ ,^ -^ 
deny iti we tnuft deny the Minidry too •« Which is not to be dcmus^Atj!' 
done. iithum dlli- 

Argum^ 4. The Apoftlcs had many AfTociates in this General gc»-tiusfitrer. 
Office in their own times : Therefore it was not proper to them, (C/'^'onug 
norroccafe with them. Barnabas, SjUs^7mothj,Titni, Apollo, rio. n^yT.*^' 
with multitudes more in thofe times, were unfixed General Of- And ot the 
ficers, that went up and down to convert the world, and ftaid C n. ConciL 
only to order and confirm^the new gathered Churches, and then ^ "I'^Sj'- ^• 
went further; fometimes returning to review, prelerve, and affni^n/pres- 
flrengthen their converts. b>tersj7/;e/i. 

Argtim, 5. If we can prove that fuch unfixed General officers f///o,hc faith- '1 

[ ^lium ut re- 
Re Bulfimofi, Ipfc C^Mri ind'uio eft nlitcr fieri folitum : Etiampo[l C.ilccd.Snod. Jufti- 
Tuams PeriideiUaritm mmlmi quorum & m Laodicenit ali'ifj^ vctcrihus Synodis eft mnt'tem. 
Ibid, ■ 

D. 3: were 


were by Chrift fettled in his Church, and that by fuch the 
Churches were iiwiny fort then to be governed, then our caufe is 
good, till the repeal or revocation of this office and order be 
proved. Let them therefore that affirm fuch a revocation prove 
it-' for till then, we have proved enough, in proving that once 
it was inftituted. But ihcy cannot prove char revocation , I 
think, nor yet any CefTation, or that the inftitution was but 
pro tempore. 

Argftm.6. Tt is not a tolerable thing to charge God with fuch 
a fudden Mutation of his Law or Order of Church Government 
without very certain proof. If we find Chrift fetling one way of 
Church Government, in his own time, and prefcntly after, for 
thefirftage, itisamoft improbable thing that befhouldtake 
that down again,and fet up another kind of Government to con- 
tinue ever after. This feems to charge Chrift with fo great muta- 
bility , that it is not to be done without very clear proof. But 
fuch proof is not produced. 

I know it is eafily proved that the immediate Miffion, 
and extraordinary meafure of the Spirit , for Miracles, 
tnogues , Infallible delivery of the dodrinc of Chrift arc 
ccafed ; But this is nothing to the general office of Preach- 
ing or Governing the Church, which is of ftanding ufe. 

So that I am fatisfied of this , that the Apoftles as General 
Preachers and Governours have fuccefTors. But then I muft 
confcfs my feif not fully fatisfied, what Governing Power it 
was that the Apoftles had over the Paftors of the Church. I 
find that when SaravU^ and after him, the Difputants in the I flc 
of fVight, do infift on this Argument from the way of Church 
Governa'cnt by the Apoftles,that their Antagonifts do prefently 
grant the Minor [ thiit The Government of the Church dt firfi 
tvas hj men anthoriz^ed to Rttle the Presbyters and their Churches.'} 
but they deny the Major, that [ the government 'xhich was then 
in the Church pjould continue till »<?»', ] bccaufe it was by Apo • 
ftles, whofc Office they think ceafetb. Whereas I muft confcfs 
I am unavoidably forced to yield the Major, that we rouft have 
the fame kind of GovernmcRt that was at firft inftituted ,unlcfs 
wc had better proof of a change : For the ftablifhmcnt of parti- 
cular Churches and Presbyters was no change of the Apoftles 
power, feeing they gave not away their power to the Presbyters 



nor ceafed to have the fame Apoftolical power which they had 
before. Only the Apoftles extraordinary Mifsion, Gifts and Pri- 
viledgcs, Iconfefs arc ceafcd. But then I conceive that the 
Minor which is (o cafily granted, viz,. [ that the Apoftles had the 
Government of the particular Presbyters] will hold more difpuce, 
at leaft as to the nature and degree of their power : and were I 
ai fully fatisfied about the Minor as I am of the Major, I muft 
ky this one Argument be forced to be for the fas Divinum of 
Ep:fcopacy. Whatat prefentfcems truthcomc, I ftialllay down 
in thefe Propofitions. 

Prop. I. It is certain that the Apoftles were general unfixed 
Officers of Chrift, having the care of the whole world com- 
mitted to them within the reach of their natural Capacity : and 
that their bufinefs was to take that courfe in the particular ma- 
nagement of their work, as is moft conduciblc to the propaga- 
tion of the faith through che whole world : and that in all places 
where they came, they had the fame power over the Churches 
gathered, as the fixed Paftors of thofe Churches have. This much . 
is paft doubt. 

Prop. 2. It is as certain that common prudence required them 
to make a convenient diftribution of the work, and rot go all 
oneway, and leave other places that while without the GofpeL 
But forae to go one way, and fomc another, as moft conduced to 
the convcrfion of all the world. 

Prop. 3. It is certain that the Apoftles were not armed with 
the fword,nor had a compulfive coercive power by fccular force^ 
but that their Government was only forcible on the Confcience, 
and therefore only on the Confcientious, fo far as they were 
fuch i unlefs as we may call mens aAual cxdufion by the Church 
and their defcrtion and mifery the effed of Government. 

Prop 4. It is moft certainthat they who had the extraordi- 
nary priviledge of being eyc-witnefles of Chrifts Miracles and 
Life, and ear-witncffcs of his Doftrine, and had the extraordi- 
nary power of working Miracles for a Confirmation of their * Authority 
Do(ftrine, muft needs have greater * Authority in mens Confci- '^na of m-Tr 
fwfj then other men, upon that very account, if there were no inter eft upon 
other. So that even their Gifts and Priviledges may be (and Confemers. 
doubtlefs were) one ground at leaft of that higher degree of-- ^'"pcnal. 
Authority, which they had above others. For in fuch a Ratio- ^^^5 allb' ^^" 



nal perfwafive Authority which workcth only on the Confcicnte, 
the cafe is much different from the fccular power of Magiftrates. 
For in the former, even Gifts may be a ground of a greater mca- 
furc of Power, in binding mens minds. And here is the grcatcft 
part of the difficulty that rifeth in our way, to hinder us from 
improving the example of the Apoftles, in that it is fo hard to 
difccrn how much of their power over other Presbyters or Bi- 
{hops was from their fupereminency of Office and Imperial Au- 
thority, and how much was mecrly from the excellency of their 
Gifts and Priviledges. 

Prop. 5. Its certain that the Magiftratcs did not then fecond 
the Apofties in the Government of the Church, but rather hin- 
der them by perfecution. The excommunicate were not punifticd 
therefore by the fecular power, but rather men were enticed to 
forfake the Church for the favingof their lives : fo that worldly 
profperity attended thofe without, and adverfity thofc within : 
which further (hewes that the forceof Apoftolical Government 
was on the Confcicnce, and it was not corrupted by an alienc 
kind of force. 

Prop. 6. Yet had the Apoftles a power of Miraculous Cafti- 
gation of the very bodies of the Offenders, at ieaftforaetimes: 
which Peter exercifed upon Ananias Sind Sapphjra^iind Paul up- 
on El}mas, and fome think upon H/wf«<«»/ and '7^i & i i 7fMj, ''*and 
thofe other that were faid to be deliver?d up to Satan : certainly 
Paul [ had in readinefs to revenge all difobediehce ] 2 Cor. 1 0.6. 
which its like extendeth fomewhat farther than to meer ccnfures. 
But its moft certain that the Apoftle ufed nor this power oF hurt- 
ing mens bodies ordinarily , but fparingly as they did other 
Miracles ; perhaps not according to their own wills, but the Ho- 
ly Ghofls. So that this did not corrupt their Government nei- 
ther, and deftroy the Spirituality of it. Yet this makes it fome- 
what more difficult to us to improve the Apoflles example, bc- 
caufe we know not how much of their power upon mens Confci- 
ences might be from fuch penal Miracles. 

Prop. 7. The Apoftles bad power to Ordain and fend others 
to the work of the Miniftry. But this only by the confent of 
the ordained, and of the people ^before they could be compleat 
fixed Paftors) for they forced not any to go, or any people to 
entertain them. And it lecmcch they did not Ordain fingly, but 



many together, ^4^/ 14.23. *Timotlojh^d his Gift i>y the /^*- * If onc\\crc 

" ■ ■ ■ not meant of 


in^cnof^iulsh^ndj and of the hands of the Prejfyterie, i Tim "o^n^cantof 

4. 14. and 2 Tim. 1. 6 c civ.ngthc 

Prep. 8. It fecms that each Apolilc dtd exercife a Govern- HolyGhoil, 
ment over the Churches which were once planted : but this was and the other 
principally in order to well fctling and confirming thetn, "^ ^u^'u^^^" 

Prop. 9 No one Aponie did appropriate a Diocefs to himfelf, ^th^r -ncUn^ 
and fay, I^ere I am [ok Governfrt or am cl.ief Governor -^ nor to think. 
<Jid they or could they forbid any others to Govern in their 
Diocefs : though, as is faid, they did agree to diftribute their 
work to the publike advantage, and not to be all in one place at 
once : but yet fucceflively they might. 

Prop. 10. Nay Its certain that they were fo far from being 
the fole Bifhops of fuch or fuch a Diocefs, that they had ufually 
fomc more unfixed general Officers with them. Paul and 'Bar- 
uabas went together at firft : and after the Divifion, Barnahs 
and Mark, PaaUnd Silas, and fomctimesTiwo/^, and fome- 
time Epaphroditui^ and fometime others went together after- 
ward. And others as well as f antes were ufually at fernfalem .* 
and all thefc had a general power where they came. Andic 
cannot be proved that James was Ruler of Peter ^ Panl and the 
reft when they were at ferujulem, nor that he had any higher 
power then they. 

Tr p. 11. Yet it feems that the fe veral Apoftles did moft look 
after thofe fame Churches which themfclveshad been the inftru- 
merits of gathering, and that fome addition of rcfped was due 
to thofe that had been fpintual Fsthers to them, above the reft, 
1 Cflr.4 15. 

P'op. 12. It was therefore by the Gentrai Comn\\{rion of 
Apoltlefhip that they Governed particular Churches pro tempore 
whilethcy were among or neer them, and rot by ^ny fpecidl 
Commifsion or Office of being the Diocefan or Metropolitanc 
of thisor that place, i. It was below them, and a diminution 
of their honor to be fo affixed, and take the charge of any par- 
ticular Churches. 2. We find not that ever they did it, 3 li 
they had, then all the diforders and urgoverncdncfs of thofc 
Churches would be imputable to them, ard therefore they moft 
be ftill with them as fixed Bifhops are, feeing they cannot go- 
vern them ac fuch a diftarce as makes them uncapable. 4. W' en 

E Peter 


Peter drew B^rn/i^as and msiny more to difsimulation, and al- 
mod to betray the liberties of the Gentiles, Paul doth not fay, 
T/jisi^ Mj Diocefs^ aMdlntujlh the Ruler here: nor doth Peter 
plead this againft him, when PauUnd Barnabas fell out, whether 
J'/4r4 fliould be taken with thera or not; neither of them did 
plead a Ruling Authority, nor fay, This is my Diocefs, or I 
am the fuperior Ruler, but they produced their reafons , and 
when they could not agree concerning the validity of each others 
reafons, they feparated and took their feveral companions and 

Prop 1 3 . It was not only the Apoftles, but multitudes more 
that were fuch general unfixed Miniflers : as the fevcnty, Bar- 
nabasy Silas, Epaphro^itus. Timothy and many others. And 
all thefealfo had a Power of Preaching and Ruling where they 

Prop. 14. None of thefe General Officers did take away 
the Government from the fixed Presbyters of particular 
Churches ; nor kept a Negative vote in their own hands, in mat- 
ters of Government : for if no fixed Biftiop (or Presbyter) 
could excommunicate any member of his Church without an 
Apoflle, then aimon all Churches muft remain polluted and unr 
gorerneJ, through the unavoidable abfence of thofc twelve or 
thirteen men. 

The Apoitlcs therefore did admonifhPaftors to do their du- 
ties, and when th^mfelvcs were prefent had power to do the 
lik^, and to cenfurePartors or people that offended : but they 
did not take on them the full Government of any Church, nor- 
keep a Negative vote in the Government. 

Prop, 15. It kerns utterly untrue that Chrift did deliver t!;e 
Kcyes only CO the twelve Apoftles as fuch, and fo only to their 
Succeffors, and not the feventy Difciplesor any Presbyters. For 
I. The feventy alfo were General unfixed Officers, and no: 
likeHxed Presbyters or Bifliops: and therefore having a larger 
Commifiion mult have equal power. 2. The Apollles were 
nat fingle Bifhops as now they are differenced from others : buL 
they were fuch as had more extenfive Commifs^ions, then thofe 
row called Arch Bifhops or Patriarchs. If therefore the Keyes 
were given them as Apoftles, or General Officers, then they 
were never given toEifhops, ForBifliofs as fixed Bifhops of 



this 01' that Diocefs are not Succcflfors of the Apoflles, who 
were Gcnetal unfixed Officers. 3. It is granted commonly by 
Papiftsand Proeftants, that Presbyters have the power of the 
Keycs, though many of them think that they are limited to ex- 
crcife them under the Bi(hops, and by their Direction and Con- 
fent, ('of which many School- men have wrote at large) 4. The 
Key of Excommunication is but a Minifterial Authoritative 
Declaration, that fuch or fuch a known Offender is to be avoid- 
ed, and tochargetheCliurch to avoid Communion with him, 
and him to avod or keep away from the Pnviledges of the 
Church • and this a meer Presbyter may do ; he may authorita- 
tively Decl ire fuch a man to be one that is to be avoided , and 
charge the Church and him to do accordingly. The like I may 
fayofAbfolution : i- they belong ro every authorized Paftor, 
Preacher and Church guide, as fuch, th.mnottoaBifViop only, 
but to a Presbyter alfo. And that thefe Keyes belong to more 
thenthe Apoftles and their SuccefTors, is plain, in that thefe are 
infufficienLNirurallv toufe them to their Ends. An Apoftic 
in t^'jf oc-yS? cannot look to the cenfuring of all perfons that are 
to be Cenfurcd at Athens^ PdrU, Loidon^Scc. fo that the moft 
of the work would be totally neglected, if only they and their 
fuppoled SuccefTors had the doing of ir. I conclude therefore 
that the Keyes belong not only to Apollles and their Succeflbrs 
in that General Office, no nor only to Diocefan Bifhops : for 
then presbyters could not fo much as exercife them with the Bi- 
fhopsin Confiftory, which thcmfelves of late allow. 

Prop. J 6. The Apoflles were fallible in many matters of fad, 
and confcquently in the Dccifions that depended thereupon ^ as 
alfo m the Prudential determination of the time and feafon and 
other Cirumflances of known, duties. And therce it was that 
/'Wand Barnabas fo difagreed even to a parting, where one of 
them wa<; certainly in the wrong. And hence Peter withdrew 
from the uncircumcifion, andraifled Barnahas and others into 
thefamed.lfimulitionfofar that he was to be blamed and wich- 
llood, Gai.z. 

Prop. 17. In fuch Cafes of mifleading, an Apoftlc was noft 
to be follownd : no more is any Church- Governor now : but it 
is lawful and needful to difTcnt and vvithfland them to the face, 
and to blame them when they are to be blamed, for the Churches 

E 2 fafety. 


fafcty, 2iSPtiHld\dh)i Peter ^ GaUtlhnsl. i. 

Prlf. i8. In thisCafethc Apoftlcs that by OflRcc were of 

er .il Authority, yet were unequal when the Rcafons and Ev:-. 
dence of Gods mind which they produced was unequal : fo chat 
a Presbyter or Bifhop [hacproducech be:ter lleafons^ is to W 
obeyed before another chat produccch IcTs Reifbn, or thAi Er- 
rech. And the Bifhop of another Church that produceth bet- 
ter Evidence of Gods mind, is to be obeyed before the proper 
Uifhop of chat fame Church that produceth weaker and worfe 
Evidence. Yea a private man that produceth Gods Word is 
to be obeyed he ore Bifliops and Councils that go againft it, or 
without it ( in that cafe, where the word bindeth us : ) fo thar^ 
in ali cafes where Scripture is to determine, he that bringeth the 
beft Scripture proof, is the chief Ruler, that is, ought chiefly 
to prevail. Though in the determination of meer Circumftan- 
cesofdaty, whch Scripture deterraineth not, but hath left to 
Ghurch-Guidcs to determine ;?ror^r^;J, it may beotherwife, fo 
that the Apoftles power in determining matters of faith, was no«^ 
as Church Governors, but as men that could produce the furcft 

Prep. 19. It isnoteafie to manifeft; whether every Presby- 
ter in privta inJia/itiAhe not an Officer to the CIvurch Univerfal, 
before he be affixed to a particular C hurch •, and whether he may. 
not go up and down over the world to exercifc that office, 
where ever he hath admittance. And if fo , what then could 
an Apoftle have done by vertue of his meer office, without 
ihe advantage of his extraordinary abilities , and priviledges, 
which the Presbyter may not do? Mayan Apoftle charge tjt\e. 
people where he comes to avoid this or chat feduceror heretick ? 
lb may any Preacher that (hall come among them, and that by 
ao:horicy. May an Apoftlc Excommunicate the very Paftor of 
she place, and deprive him ? why what is that but to perfwadc. 
the people , and Authoritatively require them, to avoid and. 
withdraw from fuch a Paftor, if the Caufe be manifeft ? A nd fo 
may any Paftor or Preacher that comes among them. For if 
( as CyP^^"" faith j it chiefly belong to the people even of them- 
felves to re jeA and withdraw from fuch a Paftor, then a Preach-, 
ifirmayby Authority perfwadc and require them to do their 
-awn duty. Yet I (hall acknowledge, that though both may dov 


the fame duty, and both by Authority, yet poffibly not both 
by equal Authority, but an Apoftlc Majore Authoritate^ and fo 
may lay a ftronger obligation on men to the fame duty ', but the 
rcll I determine noc, but leave to enquiry. 

Prop. 20. In making Laws or Canons to bind the Church 
wh chare now laid down in Scripture, the Apo'Hes acted as 
Apoflles, that is, as men extraordinarily Commiflioned, illu- 
minated and cnibled infallibly todeliver Godsjv<// toche world. 
And chercfore herein they have no SuccefTors. 

In Conclufion therefore feeing that matters of meer Order and 
Decency depcndmg on Circuraftanccs fometirae rationally muta- 
ble, fometime yearly, daily, hourly mutable, arc not to be deter- 
mined Vmvcrfa'lj alike to all the Church, nor to all a Nation, nor 
by thofe that are at too great a diftance,but by the prclcnt Partor, 
who is to manage the work, and being intruded therewith, i« 
the fitted Judgeof fuch variable Circumflanccs : and feeing for 
(landing Ordinances that equally belong to all ages and places, 
Gods word is pcrfed and fufficient without the Biftiops Ca^ 
nons j and feeing that Scripture is a psrfed Law of God, and 
Rule of Chriftian faith ^ and feeing that in the expounding of 
the Scripture, they that bring the bed Evidence will beget the 
mod Knowledge, and they thn produce the clearelt Divine 
Tcdimony , will beget mod cff"t;ftually a Divine belief, and 
thofc that arc known to be of far greatc(Y abilities in learning, 
experience and grace, andcon'ent withthcmod of the Church, 
will procure more eff-'dualiy an humane belief, then a weak un- 
learned unexperienced Paftor of our own; therefore the Jurif- 
didion of fupereminent Biftiops, Metropolitans, Primates and 
Patriarchs, will appear to be reduced into fo narrow a room,and 
written in fo fmall a charader , that he hath need of very 
quick fight that can read it , and humble men may be eafily 
drawn to think, that the Unity, Happinefs, and Safety of the 
Church lycth not in it, and that if it had been only for Chrift 
and not their own Grcatnefs, there had not been fuch Con- 
tention and Divifion made about it in the Church , a« there 
hath been, 

E 3 To » 




O d/aw fomc of this which I have faid into a narrower 
^ room , I (hall briefly tell you what I could heartily wiHi 
both Magiftrates and Minifters would fpcedily accomplilh for the 
order and Peace of the Church in thefe matters, 

I. I could wiih that they would choofc out the ableft Godly 

men, and let them be appointed General Teachers, and Guides , 

to call the uncalled, and to order, confirm, and fo take care of 

the Churches that are gathered : And if by the Magiftrates con- 

fent and their own, they divide their Provinces, it will be but 

meet. Thefe I would have to go up and down to the fcverai 

Pari(hes in their Provinces, and to have no particular Paridies of 

their own , nor to take the fixed Paftors power from the:r),but 

to take care that it be by thcmfelves well exercifed : And I 

would have the Mag ftrate keep hisfword in his own hand, and 

let thcfc prevail with mens confciences as far as they can ^ and in 

that way, if they would exceed their bounds, and arrogate any 

unjuftpowcrto thcmfelves, weflialldiffcnt and deny it them, 

andftand upon our ground, and deal with them upon equal 

terras, andfoneednot to fear them. Andlhavecaufe to think 

that neither Presbyterians nor all the Independents will be 

againft fuch General Officers ( SucccfTors of the old ones ) as 

I here defcribe •• No: the Presbyterians: for in Scotland ihcy 

appointed and ufcd fuch in the beginning, oftheir Reformation 

when they made Vi'torsof the particular Churches, and aflign- 

€d to each their limited Provinces, and fo they were ConimilTio- 

ncrs tocaftoutMinifters, put in others, and plant Kirks, and 

they had feveral Superintendents, all which is to be fecn in the 

Dodrine and Difciplinc of the Kirk o^ ScotUnd ('printed not 

long agoe again. ) And the Itinerant Comm flioners in 

H^aUs that were fet there to go about preaching and Re- 

forming,doth (hew that their Judgements were not againft the 


2. I could wi(h that every Pari(h Church may have one El- 
der{hip ( where they may be had^ or foroc Elders and 
^,^^.^.^ Deacons , with one Conftant Fixed , Pcrfed for Order and 
Unity. „ 

3 I 

3. 1 could w(h that Ordination and Confticucions for Unity \IX^^[;'J;^ 
and Communion may be done only in Synods, lefs or greater : cUnatione per- 
and that of many Presbyteries there mayconfift a CUIfis, ^^ pdn.v.necejj'e 
commonly called, and of many of thofe a Province: And that/'J'^'/^e>f''t 
theClaaical mectmgmaybc frequent, and that fomc one, the ^'^^-y^-^/^* 
fitreil man, maybe llandmg Prclident of that CUJfis during /^w c> w..^/«- 
life, except he dcfcrve removal. lacepnmm 

4. I could wi(h alfo that the Provincial Affembly ( to be held ^cM gubey- 
once a quarter or half year in each County ) may have tlie^moft '"^^-j^^ ^J*^^' 
able, difcreet, godly Mmifter chofen to be the ftandlng Prendent ipji divmtm. 
alfo during life,unlefs he defcrvc removal. atiribatum eft 

So that here are four fcvcral forts of Bifhops that for Peace /«,c.Beza 
and Order I could confent to: towit, i. A General unhxed ^'^^^'"'^ 
Superlntendenc. z. A fixed Parochial Bifhop Prefi'Jent of that ^^^^^. ^^' " 
. particu'ar Presbytery. 3. AClafiical B4(hop, Prefidcncofihat 
Claflis. 4. A Provincial Bifhop,Prefident of the Provincial Af- 
fiembly. B Jt there i§ no necellicy of thefc. 

5. Ore lie degree ot their Power I faidenouph before. It is 
intolerable rhey fhould have a Negative vote in Excommunicati- 
ons and Abrolucious and fuch Government of the people C ex- 
cept the Parochial Biftiop) favconly incareofappe«l<:,and there 
I leave it loeachminfconfideration, though I had rather they 
had none.- Buc whecher they fliould be admicced a Negative in 
Ruling the Paflors, I d'Jtcrmine not. Only in cafe of Ordinati- 
on, I would fnveall relolve to do nothing C except la a cafe of 
Neceflity j bu; when the Prcfident is One: and ftop there; which 
will permit him de faElo the ufe of his Negative^ and yet trouble- 
no mins confcienceto acknowledge ^^ jme chat it JZ/z/^fobe; 
for to that nor'.e (hould he forced. 

This much I could willingly yield to for reconciliation and 
unity : \nd I doubt not but I fliailbe fufticicntly reproached 
by r^.Tie for yielding fo far, and by others for yielding no 

AND now at lad after thefc ( notneedlcfs) preparation?,. 
I come to the main O neftion it felf, TVhetkr it ht Necef- 
fury or Proftahlc for the rljrjt Order or PcAce of the Churches, to- 
reflorethe extru^d £p^fcop^y .' And this irdeny^a-nd h*ving faidi 

(?i ) 

fo much already for ex plication ,fhal I prcfcntly give you the Rea- 
fons of my denyal •, in which the reft of the ncccffary explication 
will be contained. 

Argument i, Thdt fort of Prelacy or other GsverKmem ivhich 
defiroyeth the End of Governments and u certainlj inconfftent tvith 
the Necejfury Government and difcipline te be exercised in the 
Churches, is not tohereftored^ under pretence of the Churches 
Order or Peace ( nor can be confident with its right Order and 
Peace. ) But fuch is the Epifcopacy vthich was of late exercifed in 
England, andisnotv laidby. Therefore, c^c. 

The Major needs no proof; for few ChriftiansI think, will 
deny ic If Epifcopacy as lately here exercifed, be the certain ex- 
cluder of Government it felf and Chriftsdifcipline,while it only 
retains the empty name, then doubtlefs it is not to be reftored . 

The Minor [ prove thus. If there be a very Natural Impofii- 
bility that the late Engli(h Epifcopacy though in the hands of 
the beft men in the world , fhould Govern the Churches 
as Chrift hath appointed , and as they fhould and may othcrwifc 
be Governed; then the forefaidinconCiftcncy and dcftrudive- 
ncfs is apparent. But that there is fuch a Natural Impoflibility 
for the late Englilh Epifcopacy to Govern the Church , thus I 
(hall prove, i. By (hewing you what is undoubtedly neceffa- 
ry in Chrifts Government •, 2. And then what was the late Eng- 
li(h Epifcopacy ; and then s.Thelmpoflibility will appear of ic 
felf when both thefe are opened and compared together without 
any more ado. 

I. And I .It is part controverfie among us, that Church Go- 
vernours (hould watch over each particular foul in their flock, 
and inftruft the ignorant, admonilh the fain, convince gainfay- 
er$,counterwork feducers among them,fcek to reclaim the wan- 
dring.ftrengthen the wcak,comfort thediftrelTedjOpenly rebuke 
the open obftinate offcndors,and if they repent not, to require 
the Church to avoid their Communion, and to take cognifcancc 
of their caufe before they arc cut off : as alfo to A bfolvc the pe- 
nitent, yea to vifit the fickfwho are to fend for the Elders of the 
Church ■. ) and to pray with and for them, &c. yea and to go 
before them in the worfhip of God. Thefe are the aAs of 
Church Government that Chrift hath appointed , and which 
each faithful Shepherd muft ufe, and not Excommunication, and 



other Cenfures and Abfolution alone. 

:i.Bucifthey could prove that Church Government contain- 
eth only Ccntures and Abfolution, yecwefhall eafily prove ic 
Impoffiblefor tbclatcEnglifliEpifcopacy todothat. lor, 3.IC 
is known to our forrow that in moft Pariflies there are njany 
perfons , and in fome gr^ucr Parifhes very many , that have li- 
vcd.common open fwcarers, or drunk%rds,and fome whoremon- 
gers,common fcornersof a godly lifc.and in many moreofthofc 
offences , for which Scripture and the ancient Canons of the 
Church do excommunicate men, and we are commanded with 
fuch no not to eat. And its too well known what numbers of 
Hcrecicksand Seducers there are, that would draw men from 
the faith, whom the Church-Governours muft after the firft and 
fccond admonition rejeft. 4. And then its known what a deal 
of work is Neceffary with any one of thefc, in hciringaccufati- 
ons, examining Witneffes, hearing the defendants , fearching 
into the whole caufe, admoni0iing, waiting, re-admonifhing, 
C^c. 5 . And then its known of how great Ncceflity, and mo- 
ment ail chefe are to the honour of the Gofpel, the fouls of the 
oflfv-ndors, to the Church,to the weak, to them without, &c. So 
thatifit bcncgleded, or unfaithfully roannagcd, much mifchicf 
wi'l enfuc. Thus in part we fee what the Government is. 

Next let us fee what the Englifh Epifcopacy is. And i.For the 
extent of it.a Diocefs contained many fcorc or hundred Parifhes 
and To many thoufands of fuch fouls to be thus Governed. Per- 
hapf fome DioccfTes may have five hundred thoufand fonls,and it 
maybe L'jndon Diecefs nearer a million. And how many thou- 
fand of [hcfe may fall under fome of the forcmentioned afts of 
Governmcnr", by our fad experience we may conjedure. 

2. Moreover the Biftiop refideth, if not at ZWo« ('as ma- 
ny of them did J yet in bis own dwelling, many miles, perhaps 
twenty or thirty from a great part of his Diocef*, fo that moft 
certainly he doth not fo much as know by face, name, or report 
, thehundretli, perhaps thethourandth,or perhaps the fccood ot^oo^ 
?coo^ th i rd thouf a ndth perfon in his Dioceff. Is it Poilible then for 
him to Watch over them, or to underftand the quality of the per- 
fon and faft r in Church Cafesthequality of the perfon »> of fo 
much moment, that without fome knowledge of it, the bare 
inowlcdge of the fad fomcriraes will not fcrve. 

t 3. And 


* 1 kno<v *'3 . And then it is known thic the Englifh Epifcopaey deny- 

BifliOj) ujhyf eth to th€ Presbyters all power of Excommunication and Abfo- 
in his papers i^iq^,^ u; j^fs to prononnce it as from the Bifhop when he hath 
d^tlifaySt paftit; And they deny him alfo ail power fo much as ofcal- 
bytheOrdei ling a finner to Open Repentance, which they called Impofing 
of the Church penance: and alfo they denied all power of denying the Lords 
o^EH.gland,M Supper to any without the Bidiopscenfure, except in a fudden 
cWed f in cale, and then they muft profecute it after at the Biftiops Court;, 
the form of and there render the Reafon of that fufpcnfion : So that the 
Ordering of trouble, danger, hbour, time would bcfogreatth^t would be 
Priefls) to fpent in it.that fcarceone Minifter ofa hundred did venture on 
DLSine o^ '^ ^nce in fcven and feven years, except only to deny the Sacra- 
Chri'ft : But tucnt to a man that would not kncel , and that they might do 
the Biflwps eafily and I'afely. 

undcrftooi ^ And then Confider further , that if the Miniflcr fhould be 

^Vr^nibU{h- One of an hundred, and fo diligent as to accufe and profecute 

L^their ' ^11 the Open fcandalous offendors of his Parilh, before the Bi- 

Ccnfurcs. For fhops Court, ihatfo b€ might procure that aft of Government 

nofuchAd- from them, which he may not perform himfelf, it would take 

qVinitlranon ^^ ^jj j^-^ fi{jr,e a^d perhaps all would not fervc for half the work, 

amon^Ts" o-v cOnfidcringhow (-u he muft ride^ow frequently he muft attend, 

allowed: Nor c^c. And then all the reft, or moft of the Paftoral work mud be 

would they ncglcvled, to the danger of the whole Congregation. 

furtei-mcn to ^ ^t is a great penalty to an innocent man to travail (o far 

ftaS"he S^ to the trial oi his ( au(e. But the fpectal thing chat I note is tM?, 

cramenc'^as the that it is'Naturally Impofllble, for the Bifhopto hear^try and 

Kubrick in jadge all chelccaufes, yea or the fifth or hundredth of them, or 

the Common |^ j^j^g piuces one of five hundred. Can one man bear fo many 

Pravcr Book j,yj^jj.gj 35 jn ^ ^j^y p^yf^ bc before bim,if thts di'cip'ine be faith- 

reqiiue ,1. fnl|y executed ? By that time that he hath heard two or three 

Caufes, and examined WitncfTes , and fully debated all, the reft 

can have fjo hearing ; and thus unavoidably the work muli be 

undone. It is as if you fet a Schoolmalier to reach ten or 

twenty thoufand Schollars ? Muft ihey not be needs un'aucht > 

Or as if you fet one Shepherd to look to two or three hundred 

fcveral flocks of Sheep , that are every one of them three 

pr four miles afundcr, and fome of them fourty miles from 

fome of the reft. Is it any wonder then if many of them be 

loft ? 

6* But 


6. But what need we further wicnefs then the fad experience 
of the Church of late ? Arc we not furc that difcipline lay un- 
exercifcd, and our Congregations deHlcd, and Gods Laws and 
the old Canons were dead letters, while the Biftiops keep up the 
lame and empty name of Governours ? How many drunkards, 
i wearers, whoremongers, rayleri , Extortioners, fcornersat a 
godly life didfwarm in almofl: every Town and Parifh? and they 
never heard of difcipline , except it were one Adulterer or for- 
nicator once in (ev^n years within twenty miles compafs (where 
1 was acquainted) that flood in a white fhcet in the Chuch:Wc 
know that there was no fuch Matter as Church Government ex- 
ercifeJ to any purpofe , but all left undone , unlefs it were to 
undoe a pjor Difciplinarian ( as they therefore fcornfiilly called 
them ) that blamed them for negled of Difcipline. For my 
part, the Lord my Judge knows, that I dcfire to make the mat- 
ter rather better then tt was, then worfe then it was ^ and I fo- 
iemnly profefs th.u for the Peace of the Church , I fhould fub- 
mit to almoll: any body that would but do thcwork thatis to 
be done. Here is (Iriring between the Epifcopal, Presbyterian 
and Independent, who it is that fhall Govern. I wouldmake 
no great ftirragainft any of them all that would but doit effe- 
d^ually. Let it be done , and its not fo much matter by whom 
it is done , as it is to have it lie undone. But I can never be for * Its an cafic 
that party that neither did the work, when they might, nor pof- '"atter to 
(ibiy can do it. To be for them, is to confent that all (hould be P^"^'^ ^^^ 
undone^ and that Drunkards and Railers and all wicked perfons Leflbn • buc 
(hall continue foflill , or continue members of our Churches in they that 
all their obOinacy : and that there (hall be nothing but the name would praftl- 
of Government and Cenfurc without the thing. Its hard making "^V when 
men of Confcience believe the contrary that have had the trial! j^n^ ^p^^ 
that we have had .- If where good men were Bifhof s thus it gap toliccn- 
was, what hope of better by that way ? We cannot (hut onr tioufnefs, and 
eves againll: fo great experience. And certainly thofe Learned S^."I^'^^°^ *^ 
men among us that think fo much Difcipline may fervc turn to ainio^ '"^m 
all the Congregations in the whole the Bifhop can hardly pcr- 
perforraor have a Negative Vote in, do too manifeftly fhcw that Twade men 

they *are Icfs friends to real godlinefs, and greater friends to fin, ^'"^ ^^*^y 

mean as thcj 
tcac'i, or are themrtlvcsfuch fls they dcfcribe, or really would promote a holy life j cfpc- 
cially whtn Scorncrs rt a £;odly lire wcic favoured more tlien the pradifcrsof it. 

F 1 and 


anjd care too little for the matter it felf while they contend about 
the manner oragent,thcn ferious Chriftians (bould do. If men 
once plainly {hcwrthemfelvesmccrformalifts , and would fet up 
a fcarecrow, and pull down all true Difcipline, by fetting up 
one man to do the work of five hundred , and making the excr- 
cife of it impoffibie , what ferious Chriftian will ever take their 
part ? Not [ while I breath : Who canchoofe but fee that fuch 
do fcek their dignity, and Lordftiips, and worldly Mammon 
more then the Kingdom of Ghrift. I know they will be angry 
with me for this language ^ butfo aremoft impenitent perfons 
with reproofs. I would advife all of them that furvivcto lay 
CO heart before the Lord , what they did in undertaking fuch 
an impoffibie ta5k , and leaving fomany fouls and Congre- 
gations without Ghrifts remedy, and fufferingthc Churches to 
be fo foul, while they had the Beefom in their hands. 

This being fo manifeft. that it is impoffibie for an Englifh Bi- 
(hop to Govern as they undertook fo many Congegations,! may: 
well next argue from the mifchiefs that follow. 

Argum. 2. '~p' Hat Government T»hich grati^tth the Dev'tl 
X aHdmckfdmen^ ij not to be refiored under any 
fretence of the Order or Peace of the Church : But fuch wns the 
Eytgltjh Epifcopacy ; therefore^ (^a. 

TheMajor isun 'cnyable, fuppofipgthatitdonot this by an 
avoidable accident, but by natural Neceffity , as ! have proved. 
I confcfs feme of the Men were fo Learned and Good men, that 
I think few men honour their names more then my felf. But it 
is the way of Government that I have fpoke of. 

And f jr the Minor,it is as plain from experience, and the arga- 
ment before ufed. Ifitneccffanly exclude theexercifcof Chnft? 
difcipline from moft GongregationSjthendochit gratifie Satan; 
Bur, c^c. 

And if it keep wicked obftinate finners from the power of 
difcipline, then doth it gratifie finners in their Sins, and confe- 
quently pleafe Satan. But this it doth : therefore, ^f. 

Who knows not ( for it cannot be denied j that the generality 
of the rabble of ignorant perfons, worldlin^'?, drunktrds,haters 
ofGodlincfSjCv'^.arc very zealous for Epifcopacy^ whilcU multi- 



todes of truly confcierviious people have been againftit? And 
who knows not that they both fetcht their chief Motives from 
experience ? The ungodly found that Biftiops let tbcm keep theic 
fins, and troubled them not with this precifenefs, but rather 
drove away the precife preachers and peop'e whom they ab- 
horred. And the godly people that diflikcd Ep fcopacy, 
did it principally on the fame experience , obfcrving that 
they befriended the wicked, at lea^t by preferving them from the 
due rod of difciplinc •, but extrcifcd their zeal againU them that 
fcrupled or quellioned at leall their own IkndingorafTumed 
power, or theabufe of it- And then further. 

Argum. 3 . "TP Hat Goverrment which ttnavoidahlj caufethfe' 
1 paratioKj and diviftons in the t hurch^As nrt to 
be reffored under any pretence of its Ordtr axd Peace t Bttcfnchts 
the Bnglijh Epifcopacj ? therefore ; &c. 

I know the clean contrary is (Irongly pre: ended , arrd'.hey SccmyPrc- 
tell us that we may fee how Epifcepaey kept men in U nity , 'iiicc. to Mr. 
by the many Seflts that (ince are rifen. &ut lec it be obfcrved, ^[^f-'" of Gro- 
I. That thefc Seds were hatched in the fcparacion^which was- ^y^^^Pi!^j'°^ 
caufcd by ihemfelvc;. 2,. That the increafc haih been lincc there now tolerated 
was no Government at all. 3. It was not Epifeopacy, but the onlyasPres- 
Magiltraccs Sword whofe terror did attend ir, that kept under ^tc'ie and 
hcrc.ies in that mcafure that they were : Had Hpifcopacy flood t'^c Gongrc- 
on its own legs, without the fupport of feeular force, fo that it jrc^aoth any 
might have workt only on the confcience, then you Ihou'd have man think it- 
fccn more S^As then now. Doyou thirfk thatifEpifo-pacy were would caft or 
in Scotland in the Cafe as Presbytery is now, withouc the Sword ^^^po"^ 
to enforce it , that it would keep fo much Unity in Religion as is 
there? Iti known in France and other places that Presbytery 
huh kapt more Unity, and more kept out Hcrcfics and Sthifms,. 
even without the Sword, then Epifcopacy hath done with it. 
4. But the thing that I fpeak of ip undenyable^, that it was' 
the pjllutionofour Churches chat caufed the SeparatilUin thei 
Bi(hopsdayes to withdraw. This was their common cry ag^inft' 
us, Your Churches bear with Drunkards, Whoremongers, liail- 
crs, openScLTHcrs at Godlinef*, with whom the Scripture bids 
lis not eat ^ And v/« could not deny it : for the-Bifliops did keep 

F 3 it 


it fo by keeping out all effsftual Difcipline. Only we told 
them, that it was the Prelates fin, and not theirs that could not 
help ir, and that a polluted Church might be a true Church. And 
fo the DifciplinarianNon-Conformifts were fain by many pain- 
ful writings to fupprefs the fpirit of reparation, or elfe it had 
been like to have overwhelmed all ; Mf . John Paget, Mr. ^Brad- 
JhAVP^ Mr. Arthur Bllderfhttnt, Mr. John Ball^ Mr. Brightman^ 
lAr.Paul BAtrts^ Mr. "Dod^ Mr. Parker^ Dr. Amet , and many 
other fuch, were fain to make it a great part of their bufinefs, 
to quench the fire of reparation, which even their perfecutors 
kindled by the exdufion of Difcipline. And yet the fcnfe of 
the Churches uncleannefs was fo deep in mens minds, that it had 
bred fuch abundance of difcontended humors, that they eafily 
broke out, and turned into this diforderlyfwarm which we have 
fcen, as foon as the wars had but given them liberty. 

Atidevcn to thisday it is the uncleannefs of our Churches, 
( wherein I would the Pallors were wholly innocent ) which 
maintaineth much of the feparation, among many fober godly 
men. For the Churches were left fo polluted by the Bifhops, 
that in moft places the Presbyters dare fcarce go roundly about 
the cure, unlefs they had the help of the fword, wherein yet 
for my part I think them deeply finful. 

Argum. 4. "T^ Hat Epifcopacy yvhich degradeth aU the Pres- 
X byters in the Diocefs, or caufeth them to fufpend 
the txercife of an 'E^inttalpart of their Office^ is not to he refiored 
uniier any pretence of right order, or peace. But fuch vf as the late 
Englipj Epifcopacy : therefore. 

1 confcis this is the fecond inconvenience which followeth it, 
which I think utterly intolerable, where there is any pofsibility 
ofaremedy. The Ma for I fuppofe will be granted. For though 
anOfficcroay be unexercifed fora timeon forae fpecial rcafon, 
yet if it be ftatedly fufpendcd, and that fufpcnfion eftablifhed 
by Law or Cuftom, during the life of the Miniflcr , this is 
plainly a deftroying or nulling of the Office it fclf, and not to be 

And that It is not to be endured appeareth thus ; i. Becaufe 
theOfficeof theP.esbyter Isof Divine Inftitution, and there- 


fore not to be nulled by man. I never yet read or beard of any ^^.^^-^ ^^,^^^ 
more but one Divine of any reputation who denyed that ^^^^' ingcclefiJipt;' 
byters as now called are appointed in the Scriptures, and I think, petite fim 
that one hath deftroyed his caufe by it, of which more anon, ^iua; Prcsby^ 
2. Becaufe the Church cannot with any fafcty fpare the Office ^^'"""^^^ ^ 
of the Presbyters, becaufe they are many, perhaps many hun- p,.^^^^^^..^^ 
drcd to one Prelate : and if fo many of Chrifts Officers be laid by, ^.qco cm omni 
it is eaHe to fee what lofs the vineyard and harveli may fuftain. Ecclcfu vetcrh- 

The Minor I prove thus. 1 hat Epifcopacy which taketh from 'f^'''?^^^" 
the Presbyters the power of Church Govcrnmcnr, and alloweth yj^^^J'^^^-^^ 
chemonly thepower of preaching and adminiftring Sacraments, py^dicatio^y. 
and thofc other parts of the work which ihev diiiinguifli fiom Sacyaminits 
Government, do thereby deftroy the very Office ot the Prcs- ^^ ^^'"^^^^.^ 
byters ( and fo degrade or fufpend them ) But the lare Englifh ^^^^/r^,. 
Epifcopacy taketh from the Presbyters the power of ^. hurch- m^i.^.tdua : 
Governing ; o-c. therefore. (hemcanetFr 

The Anrcccdent is well known by thofe that know their Canons, inrx^parablc ) 
claim and confl ant pradice in J?«^/4W, till the time or their ex- f" ^^^[ji^fi-Q^, 
tlufion. That the Confcqiicnce is currant appearech thu^. a Presbyter to. 
Chu! ch- Government is as real and as eflential a part of the Pref- have the P<\f,- 
byterswork and offic-e as any other whatfoever. Therefore they erof the 
that take this from him, do dcflroy his Office. ^f'/SfSf' 

The Antecedent is proved thus : if thoie Tests of Scripture p.^^.i^^f./^,, 
which mention the Office of Presbyters, j4f}s 20. and 14-23. 
and many o:h^;r places do fpeak of Presbyters as now unc'erltcod, 
ajid not of Prelates, then Ruling is as much cfTentiii! ro ihcir 
office nsPreachinf», This is proved, i. Vromthe exprcfs words 
of the fevcrnl Texts, which make them Ovcrfcers of the fleck, 
j^Bsio. 28. and to be over the people in the Lord, ro whom 
they aretofubmit, i Tbef.$.j2^iS- andRulersof ihci^uhom 
tf^ey muftobey, as well as Preachers to them, fff^ 1 3.7, 17,24, 
1 T m.'i, 4,5. 2. It«; proved from common Confcnr. Tor, 
I. Thofe that thirk tbc!e Texts fp cak of Presbyters as now un- 
dcrftood, do moft commonly confefs this fenfe of the Texr, r -, 
that it makes them Rulers ^ only fome of them add, that 
themfelvcs mult be Ruled by the Bifliops. 2. He that denyerb 
thcfe Texts to fpcak of fnch Presbyters, doth confefs that thofe 
of whom it doth fpeak, are certainly Rulersof the C hurch. 

And then I ajdijcr:^ : But the general votsof a!moft all Expo- 


PaPorm fitors old and new, Epifcopal and others from the Apoftlcs dates 
ergo efl o,di~ i{[\ now, as far as we can know by their writings, did take thcfe 
n^VidolHci'- T'**"' *^ *^^^ ™*"y Of them, to fpeak of fuch Presbyter* ; 
imeis c«:npetit ^"d I think the new expofition of one man, is not to be taken 
■qi.thujus aic: againll the Expofition of the whole dream of Expofitors in all 
iUuiiE'ciefix ages, wichout better reafon to evince them to have erred, then* 
fetTi ^m^ any I have yet fecn produced/ At leaft, all the Epifcopal Di, 
pi^Euhfu' vines except that one mm, and thofe that now follow his new 
.carho'jca. Expofition, muft yield to what I fay, upon the authority of thefe 
Grotius ibid. Texcs. 

'^p'^il- Butif this Divine were In the right, and none of thefe Texts 

(ubiniUifunt ^^ fpoken of Presbyters, yet I make good my Antecedent thus. 
Mpifcepi) etfi tor I. If Presbyters be of humane Inftitution, then neither 
cum m:,is Preaching or Ruling is any Eflfential part of their Office by Di- 
l^resbytens id vine Inftitution -, becaufe they have none fuch : and therefore I 
l^^t^liy^il-.s niay fay one is as cflential as the other : that is, neither is fo. 
nonprxfunt-^ But yet of their humsnly inftlcuced Office, it is as effcntial a 
inbent tam:n part ftill : for if it be true, that there were no Presbyters in the 
ilUid Epifcopa- Church till about j^«<«»«/ his daies, yet its certain that when 
p\?torfr7b^''^' ^^^^ ^^^^ inftituted ( whether by God or man ) they were ag 
fm/-,ata, truly made Rulers as Preachers. And therefore we find their 
ado diibium Ignatius ftill calling on the people to obey the Presbyters as well 
cji, Epifcop:f- astheBifliops. And Hif row tells us, { Evagr.) how 
p' tt^'-^^^ ^^"^ ^^ Presbyters governed the Churches Commmi ConftUo^ 
redds aii.iK- ^V Common Counfel or Confent, and how themfelves at ^iex- 
pttrentu;: Idem <««^/'f.a chofc ou: oneand made him their Bifliop.-and Cyprian 
pag-gia- tells us enough of the Presbyters ruling in Council or Coniiftory 

with the Blfhop in his time : fo that he would do nothing wich- 
out the Presbyters. Much more proof may eafily be brought of 
this, but that! find it now acknowledged, and fo it is needleis. 
T willnoc gofar, but only note a few Canons, especially of the 
fourth C ouncil of C4r//;<«^f. Can. 2 3. is, Vt Epifcoptfs y.nlHm 
C aufAw Aftdi !t al^fijHe prx/entiu (^/ericorum ftiornm \ AliocjuiH ir- 
ritA erit fen emit Epifcopi^ nifi C/eyiccrum fr<tfentiA conjirmetar. 
Can.lZ. Epifcopus fine Cenfilio dlericorum fhorum CUricos 
jiQ^ o>-di»et • it4 ut Civiptm affenftitn, X^ connivcntiAm, O' tefii- 
monifim cjudrat. 

Can. 29, Epifcopus ft Clerico vcl laifo crimen impofncrit , de- 
dfficatHr ad probuionem in Sj nodnm. 



Cah. 2 2, Irrltaerit donatio Epifcopcrfim^vci vin^litiot've/ ccm- 
mritAtiorei EccleftajliC(it,iili>f(j\ coKtiivcntiii C^ fubfcrifticne cUri- 
• cornm. 

Can. 3 4. Vt Epifcopas in qHdtbet loco feclens flare Prcsbjterum 
yton patiatur. 

Cah. 35. Vt EpifcopHsin Ecclefa in confejfH Prsebjtererftm 
fahlimiorfcdeat : Intra domtim vero collegam fe Preshjterorum 
ejfe cognofcAt. 

Can. 3 6. Preshyteriejfii per dioecefes EccUftas regttnt, non a qui' 
b^flihet, &c. 

C4«. 37. DiaceMHsita fe Presbjteri tit Epifcopi Minijirtim 
ejfe cognofcat. 

Here you fee that Bifliops may not Ordain, hear any caufe, 
accufe a'Clcrgy man or Lay-man, not give, fell, or Change any 
Church goods, without the Presbyters : and that he is their Col- 
legue, and muft not let them iUnd if he fit, and that they Rule 
the Churches through the DiocefTes, and that the Deacons are 
Servants as well co them as to the Bilhop. /Itirelifis and Augnftine 
were in this Council. 

If they that think it uncertain whether Presbyters be raenti- com-mmVnf- 
oncd in the New Teftamcnt.and that think they becan about h- h^*^^"^,''-^ 

... J ,' , f T^- • , n f Concili9 zubcr- 

nattfis his time, do mean that yet they were of Divine Apoltoli- n.-ib.intu,%ith 
cal Inftitution, then they ftrike in with the Papifts in making the U'ler. 
Scriptures to be but part of Gods word,and infufficicnt to reveal Sec Grotius 
all Divine infiitutions about his Church -Governmentjand Wor- "^^f'^P-P-S ?4> 
{hip,andfo wc muft look for the reft in urceitainTradition.Nay provmtft^ac' 
I know not of any Papift to my beft remembrance that ever Prelacy is noc 
reckoned up the Office of Presbyters under their meer unwrit- of Divine 
ten Traditions. precc}>t,an4 

If they fay that they are of Ecclefiaftica! Epifcopal Inftituti- num^atcl 
on, not by infpired ApolUcs, but by Ordinary Bidiops, then had many 
I. They make all Presbyters to be jttre EpifcepaU^ SindBifhops Churches and 
only and their Superiours tohe jure the Italians in the ^^^u°P^i", 
Council of Trf«r would have had all Bimops to depend upon pJ^5;'^^Js, 
the Pope •• But in this they go far beyond them -, for the Italian cxcept'ordina- 

tion ( as Hier. 
znd Cfrryfofl. ) may do all that a Blfliop; and he addetli , ^uldobjlat quomi/iKS idita 
imerpretemur ut Prcsbytcn iicmiiiempotinrint ordhurc contcmpto Ep'ifcopo ? 
And pag. 359. He (licws that where Bifhops arc not, Presbyters do rigluly ordain. 
Sec th-C bcgaining of Biflwp Upnis Rcduftion of Epifcopal Government, 

G Papifts 


Papifts them'elves thought Preshjterie JHre Divino. 2. Either 
they may be changed by Bi (hops who fee them up, or not : If 
they may be taken down again by man, then the Church may* 
be ruined by m,tn ; and {o the Bilhops will imitsre the Pope j 
Either they will Reign/ir Chrift (hall not Reign, if they can hin- 
der it : Either they will lead the Church in their way , or Chrift 
fliall have no Church : If man cannot take thera down, then 
J . It fceras man did not InlHtute them ^ for why may they not 
alter their own inftitutions ? 2. And then itfeemsthe Church 
hath univerfal Handing, unchangeable Inftitutions, Offices .ind 
binding Laws of the Bidiops making: And if fo, are not the 
Bifhops equal to the Apoftles in Law making, and Church Or- 
dering? and are not their Laws to us as the word of God , and 
that word infufficient ? and every Bifhop would be to Ins Dio- 
cefs, and all to the whole Church, what the Pope would be to 
the whole. 

3. Moreover , how do they prove that ever the Apoflles 
gave power to the Bifhopstoinflicutetheorderof Prcsbyterie? 
I know of no text of Scripture by which they can prove it And 
for Tradition, we will not take every mans word that faith he 
hath tradition for his conceits, but we require the proof. The 
Papifts that are the pretended keepers ot Tradition, do bring 
forth none as mecrly unwritten, but for their ordines inferiores, 
and many of them, for Bifliops as diftind from the Pi esbytersj 
but not for Presbyters themfelves. And Scripture they can plead 
none -, For if they roentiop fuch texts where Paul bids Titus 
ordain Elders in every Citv,e^<r. they deny this to be meant of 
Elders as now,but of Prelates whom Tttus as the Primate or Me- 
tropolitane was to ordain: And if it be meant of Elders, then 
tb^y are found in Scripture, and of Divine Apoftolical Inftitu* 
tion. ^ 

4.1fthey were Tnfticuted by Bifliops after the Scripture was 
written, wasit by oneBifliop,or by many? If by one, then 
hpw came that one to have Authority to impofe a new Inftituti* 
on on the univcrfal Church ? If by many, eitherout ofCou^- 
c^l,orin ; if out ofCouncil, it was by an accidental falling into 
one mind and way, and then they arc but as (ingle men to the 
Church: and therefore ftill we ask, how do they bmd us? If by 
iijany iti Council, i. Thea let them cell us whac Council it was 



that TnOltutcd Presbytcric, when and where gathered, and where 
we mny Hnd their Canons^that we may know our order ,and whac 
Auihors fT,ention that Council. 2. And whac authority had that 
Council to bind all the Chriftian world, toallagesi' If they fay 
it bound but their own Churches , and that age • then it feeras 
the Bi(h(^ps of Evgland might for all that have nulled jthe Order 
of Pre'^bytcrs there. ButO miferable £»^/^»^andmiferable 
world, if Presbyters had done no more for ir, then Prelates 
have done ! 

I conclude therefore that the Englilh Prelacy either degraded 
the Prcsb\ tcrs, or elfe fufpended totally an eflential part of their 
office : f )r themfejves called them Re^iors^ and in ordaining 
them faid, Q Receive the Holy Ghufl : fVhofe fins thou dofi remit 
they are remitted , tt hofe fins thou defl retain thej are retained ] 
And therefore they delivered to them the Power oftheKeycs 
ofopenmg and (hutting the Kingdom of Heaten^ which them- 
felves make to be the opening and (hutting of theChurch,and the 
Governing of the Church by Excommunication and Abfolution: 
And therefore they arc not fit men to ask the Presbyters ; Bj 
what authority they Rule the ^hurch , hj binding and loofing^ 
when tbemfelves did exprefly as much as m them lay, center the 
Power on them: And we do no more then what they bid us do 
in our Ordination ; Yea they thereby make it the very work of 
our office • For the fame mouth, at the fame time that bid us 
C t-ke authority to freach the ivsrd of God 2 did alio tell USthaC 
vhofe fins roe remit or retain they are remittedor reta'ned' and 
therefore if one bean Effential, or true integral part a' leaftof 
our office, the other is fo too. From all wl ich it i» evident, that 
if there were nothing againft the Englifh Prelacy , but onl> this 
that they thus tufpend or degrade all the Presbyters in Eng' 
iand, as to one half of their ofFce, it is enough to prove that 
they (hould not bcrcftorcd under any pretence whatfoeverof 
Order or Unity. 

G 2 Arguro. 


Argum. 5. ''T^ Hat EpifcopAcy rvhich givetk the Government of 

X the Chu ck, and mAnagcmem of the Kejs uf Ex- 

^ commHriication a-ad Abfelntion into the hands of a few Lay-men^ 

I have "t ani Tvhilethey take themjr'.m the Presbyters^ is not to berejlored under 

can produce any pretence of Vnitj or Peace : Batfuch was the Englijh Prela- 

it under the cy : therefore^ &c. 

Kings ovvn The Mnjor is plain: bccaufeitisnotLay-men that are to be 

wherdn h^ ' 'Church Governours, as to Ecclefiaftical Government: This is 
forbids chat bcyond Qjjeftion with all fave the Congregational, and they 
any Church would not havc two or three Lay men chofcn, but the whole 
imn or Pneft Congregation &o manage this bufinefs. 
d"rs°niou\d be ^he Minor is known by common experience, that it was the 
aCKanccllor: Chancelor in h:s Court , with his alTidants and the Regifler , 
Ani cHlswas and fucho:her meer Lay- men, that managed this work. If icbe 
the occafioi fgj^^ ^y^^^ jj^gy ^|j [^ -js the Bifhops Agents and Subftitutcs, and 
ru^t"onr S'r'. therefore it was he that did it by thera •, I anfwer, i. The Law 
They muft for .put it in the Chancellors, and the Bifhops could not hinder 
their own ad- if. 2. If the Bilhops may delegate others to do their work, then 
vantage and it feems Preaching and RuIing,Excommunicaring andAbfolving 
?^[J^\ ^^j^s may as well be done by Lay-men as Clergy men : Then they 
accordincr'y : ni^y commifiion [hem alfo to adminiHer the Sacraments*. And fo 
So the rV- theMiniftry is not necefTary for any of thefe works.but only a Bi- 
fters, PiO- fliop to depute Lay -men to do themj which is falle and confufive. 

ftors, Appara- 

tors, were p-0mHm genus homimm ' GMood/nanyBiihop of C!e:. m the Preface to his Twe 

Myftcriesj Sec* 

Argum. 6. HP Hat Epifeopacj tvh'ch necejfari/y overwhelmeth 
■^ the fmls of the Bifiops with the mofl hat nous 
g^utU , of nfghBing the many thoufand fonts whoje charge they 
findertakejs not to be rejloredjor Order or Peace (For men are not 
to be overwhelmed with fuch hainous fin on fuch pretences) Bm 
fi4ch is the SngUJh Prelacy : and that not accidentally, through 
the badncfs of the men only , but unavoidably through the 
greatncfsof their charge, and the Natural Impollibility of their 
undertaken work. How grievous a thing it is to have the blood 
of fo many thoufands charged on them, may foon appear. And 
ihat map that undertakes himfelf the Goverqmcntof two or 


three, or five hundred thoufand fouls that he never feeth or 
knowcth,noPcanpoffibly fo Govern, but muft needs leave it 
undone f except the Hiadowofa Government which is com- 
mitted to a Lay Chancellor, ) doth wilUully draw this feariul 
Guilt upon himfelf. 

Argum. 7. HP Hat Epifcopacyrvhkh Istheprodn^ ofTrend 
"*" Amb'nion a»d Arrogancy ^contrary to theexprefs 
eomntand of Chriji , is net to he refierea, for Order ur Pence* But 
fuch is the late EnglifJj ?rclucy'.therefore,&c. 

The Major is undoubted. The Minor is proved thus. Were 
it not for proud Ambition men would not ftrive to have the do- 
ing of more work then an hundred times as many are able to 
do, and theanfwering before God for as many fouls : liut the 
Eng ifh Prelates did Ikivc to have the work and account of ma- 
ny hundreds : therefore, <^f. 

The Minor is proved and known by experience. And the Ma- 
jor is proved thus. I. From the common averfnefs that all men 
have to labour, cxceffiveopprefiing labour, and that fpiritual 
too. 2. From the felf-love that is naturally in all ; Noraancar^ 
naturally and rationally defirethac which would tire him, op- 
prefs hun , and hnally damn him, v\ithoiit great repen- 
tance, and the fpeciall mercy ofG<id, unlcl'sby the power of 
fomeluft chat draweth him to it. 3. And common prudei.ce will 
teach men not to thrull: themfelvcs into impoffiSle undcrakmgs. 
If we Tee a man defirous to have the Rule ot a whole County 
under the Prince, and that there fh.)uld be no Julhce of 
Peace, or other Magiilrace to Rule cherebu: he , though he 
know that he muft anfwer it upon his life, if the "^ ounry be noc 
well Ru!ed,as to the pumfhing of all the known drunkards,iwear- 
crs, adulterers ffrc. in the County; may nor any man fee thac 
Ambition make>* this man in a manner beildes himielf, or e.fe he 
would never fct fo li^ht bv his own life,as certainly and wihfully 
tocalt it away,b, undertak ng a work whichhe knowcth many 
men are uiiaWe to perform : And Ambition it muft needs be, be- 
caufc Honour and P-eheminency is the but and thing contended 
for, andchere is no"hingcl'e todoit. And how cxprefiydorh 
Chrift forbid this to his Apyftles, telling them, [^ with yon it jhM 

G3 m^ 


9tot hefo : hut he that Vfillhe the great (jl Jhall be the fervent of alQ 
Luke 22.26. '^s the old Rimer hath ic [_ ChrtJinstHxIt ejt49ddi» 
ioro •, fosnon/ic^ nee dixit yco' dixit fttit ergo t(ii Cujus fftut ? 
r.on arte Chri/li ] bpeakmg of the Prelates, i own noc the 
Ccnfure,but i own ChriQs prohibition. Certainly the Honour 
is but the appendix for the work fake, and the work is the firft 
thing and the main of the cffice. And I would know whether 
they would firive thus ff»r the work and the terrible account, 
without the honour and worldly gain. Nay do they not deftroy 
the work, uhile they quarrel for the doing of it, for the honor 
fake.'' It it were the Churches good and the work that they fo 
much nnioded, they would contend that fo many fhould have 
the doing of it as are nceeflary thereto, and not that none (hould 
doit but they. He that would turn all the labourers out of the 
Harveft faving himfelf, in all this County, that he may maintain 
his own priviledge, I fhould chink doth not much mind the good 
of the owner, or the well doing of the work, or his own fafcty, 
if he were to anfwer for all upon his life. 

Argum. 8. nr"" Hat Spifcopacy rrhich fo far grattjieth Uzjj Mi »• 
\ fiers as to eafe them of the ptofi f^itifhl, trohblefcw 
and hazardous part of their rforl^^^ is not to be rtfiored for order or 
nnltj : butfuchwasthe UteEr,gU(h Prelacy : thtrefore^ dec. 

The Major is undoubted. The Minor is before proved as to 
the work it felf. And as to the quality and confequents, experi- 
ence putteth it part all doubt, that the work of Government 
and O vcrfight,is incomparably more troublefom then the preach. 
ing of a .>ermon, Baptizing, adminiftrir^g the Lords Supper, 
and praying with them. When we come to touch men by perfonal 
reproof, and make that publike, and that for difgraceful finy, 
and lufpend or excommunicate them if they be cbftinate, ufu- 
ally we do not only turn their hearts againft us, but they rage 
againOus, and could even be revenged en us with the cruelleft 
revenge. Wc find that all the Preaching in the world doth noc 
fo much exafperatc and enrage m^n, as this Difcipline. I can 
Preach the moft cutting and convincing truths, in as cicfe a n an- 
rer as 1 am able, to notorious wicked livers, and they will bear it 
patiently, and lay it was a good Sermon, and fome of them fay 



that they care not for hearing a man that will not tell them of 
their fins. And ycc call them to an open conreffion of thefc 
fins in the Congregation, or proceed to ccnfurc them, and they 
will rage agiinlt us as if we were their mortal enemie'. The 
BifhopJet aikhefe men (almnft) alone- and therefore never 
exifperaced them .- and fo now they rage the more agamft us, 
and love the Bifliops the better, becaufe (hey were never fo 
troubled b^ them. 

And lierc I cannot but note, how groundiefs that accufation 
is of fume Prelacical men agiinft the Confcionable adverlaries of 
their way, when they fay, the Presbyters would fam have the 
Reins of Government in their own hand : which may be true of 
the unconftionable,that know not what it is that tliey undertake: 
but for others, it is all one as to fay, They would fam have all 
the trouble, hatred and danger to themfelvcs. Thefc Objcders 
(liew their own minds, and what it is that they look at moft 
themfclves and therefore think others do fo : its dear bought 
honour that is purchafcd at fuch races of labour and danger. I 
here folemnly profefsfor my own pare, that if I know my heart, 
I am fo far from thirking it a defirable thmg to Rule, much lefs 
toRulea D.ocefs, that if I might fo ftr gratifie my carnal de- 
fires, and were not under the bond of Gods Commands, and 
fo were it not for fear of finning and wronging mens fouls that 
arc committed to my charge, 1 would give, if I had it, many 
thoufand pounds, that I migh: but Preach, Pray, Read, Bap;iz?, _ 
adminifter the Lords Supper, thouf'h I did more then I do in them, 
and be wholly freed from the care and trouble of overfighr and 
government of this one Congregation, which is further required. 
O how quiet would my mind be, were I but fure that God requi- 
red nor:e of this at my hands, nor would call me to any account - 
forthenegleA of it ' And that this is not my cafe only, but 
the common cafe to find Difcipline fo troublefom, is apparent 
in this; thatthe whole body of the Nation ( for the generality) ; 
have contended againft it thefe many years, and in almoft every 
Congregation in En^Und, the greater part do either feparate 
from the MiniRcrs, and forbear the Lords Supper, or fonie way 
oppofe it and withdraw, that they may avoid it. And mort of 
the MinilUrs in EngUn'i^ even godly men, do much, if not alco- - 
g«hcr negled ic. So that fomc through a Carnal indulging of 



their own cafe and quiet, and to avoid mens ill will ^ and fomc 
through the great oppofitions Of the people, or for one fuch 
cnufe oroihcr, do let all alone. In fo much, as even here in this 
County where we have aflbciated and engaged our felves to force 
execution of Difcipline, this work goes on fo heavily as we fee, 
and need not mention further : when yet there is not a daies 
oipifsion of Sermons and other Ordinances : fothat its apparent 
that its it which all lazie, carnal, man-pleafing Minifters may well 
comply with, as that which fuitcs their Carnal Interefts, to be 
free from the toil and care of Difcipline. 

If you fay, why then do the Bilhops defire it, if flefh and 
blood be againft it ? I anfwcr •, Experience and the impofsibility 
of performance tells us, that it is not the work, but the empty 
name and honour that they took up ; and that indeed the flerfi 
doth much more defire. Had they defired or been willing of 
the work, as they were of LordQiips and Riches, they would 
''^ave done it. 

Argum. 9. "^T^ EpifcopAcj^ {atleafi which hath fo man) 
X^ evils as aforcf^d attending it ) wkich is not of 
Gods InftitHtion^ Jhould be admitted into the Church. The late 
Englifi Prelacy^ as to the difaf proved propirties before mentioned^ 
is not of Gods InftitHtion : therefore it is not to bt admitted into the 

The Ma jor is confeffed by all that plead for the fus Dtvinum 
■ of Epifcopacy^ or moft : and with the qualification, from the ill 
confequents, will be yielded by all. 

The Minor I prove by parts ; i . That the exclufion of Pref- 
byters from Rule, and the putting the Government from them 
into a Lay- mans hand, with the rcfl before mentioned, are not 
of Divine Inftitution, is proved already, as much as needs. 
2. If at the prcfent we yield a fuperintendency or preheminence 
of one Pallor before others, yet the Controverfie remainetb, 
whether a Prelate fhould be only Parochial, that is, only the 
Prefidentof the Elders of one particular Church, or at the ut- 
iDoft of th^t with two or three, or a few neighbour fmail Parifh- 
cs which he may well overfee, without the ncgled of the Difci- 
pline. Now I know not how any man of that way can prove 



out of ScriptuK, that a Bifhop muft have more then one Parifli, 
much Icfs more then three or four, or a few. For it is confeft 
by thcm,foroughcI know, that Scripture doth not determine 
how many Presbyters, ©r Churches a Bifliop muft have under 
biro, ( only ypt fay he muft have but one : ) for the main thing 
that they labour to prove is, that a Biftiop is above Presby- 
ters as to Ordination and Jurisdidion : and fo he may be if he 
be a Parifti-Bifliop : for a Parifti-Church may have a Curate, 
and 2 or 3 Chappels with Curates at them, beftdes Deacons ^ 
and according to the old courfe, perhaps many Presbyters more 
chat did not publikely preach ( though they wanted not autho- 
rity ) but overfee the flock. Now one man may have all that 
moft of their Arguments require^if he be but the chief over this 
Parifti Presbytery. 

But perhaps they will fay, that according to Scripture, every 
City only muft have a BiHiop, and therefore all the Country 
about muft be his Dlocefs, though the number of Churches and 
Presbyters under him be not determined. To which I anfwer, 
that the word Onlj^ is not in Scripture : no Text faith that it was 
Onlj in Cities that Churches or Bifhops were to be feated.There 
is no prohibition of fetlingthem in Villages. 

It will be faid, thatTijerr um examfle of any Sijhaf hut i» 4 
Citj. To which I anfwer. i. Themfelves ordinarily tell us in 
cafeof Sacrament gefture, and many other things, that examples 
do not alway bind affirmatively ; much lefs csn they prove that 
they bind negatively ; I mean, not to do that which was not 
done. Can you prove in Scripture that there were any particular 
Churches or Affemblies for Sacraments and other worftiip in 
Villages ? If not, then is it lawful now to have any ? If not, then 
all our Parifh Churches in the Country are unlawful. If yea, 
then why may we not have Bifhops in the Countreys without 
Scripture example, as well as Churches ? for we (hall prove thai 
the reafoni why there were none or few Bifhops in the Country, 
was for want of Churches for them to overfee. The Gofpel 
was not then preached, nor any Bifhops placed in many N.t:icns 
of the world: it doth not follow therefore that there muf^ be 
nonefince. 2. The reafon is evident why Churches and Bifhops 
were firft planted in Cities ; bccaufc there was the greatcft 
Concoarfc of people t not that God loves a Citizen better then a 

H " ' S^untrey- 

Countrey-raan, or that he will hate his Churches fo limited to 
foil, or p'ace, or fcituation : it is the number of perfons where- 

ever they live, that muft be regarded, ihac the Church be not 

coo great nor too fmall - but if there be the fame number of 

people Cohabiting in the Countrcy, as one of the Apoftolical 

churches did conlift of, then there is the fame rcafon to have a 

Church and Bifhop in thar Country Village, as was then for 

having one in a City. 3. Elders fhould be ordained in every 

Church, and therefore Bifhops ( for fome of them fay that 

thcfe were Biftiop; ) But C hurches may be in Country Villages •, 

therefore Elders and Bifhops may be in Country- Villages. 4. I 

prove from Scripture that there were Biftiops in Villages, or out 

of Cicies,thus.Whcre there was a Church,there was a Bilhop.But 

ina Village there was a Church ^ therefore. The Major I prove 

from /^^.i4.23. compared with i Tim.^. They ordained them 

Elders in every Church,or Church by Church-.but thefe Eiders arc 

called Bifliopsin i Tw.3. (and by fomcof that way maintained 

to be fuch. ) 

For the Minor I prove it from Rom. 1 6. i . where there is men- 
tion of the Church at ^(?«<:/?r<r4 : hutCe*ichreawsiS no City, but 
z^Grot'ms fpeaks, Portns Cerittthioram, ut 'Tir^ns Athenieafium ^ 
viz. adfinnm Saronicum : apparet ibi Eccleftam frtijfe Chriftiano' 
rum. Grot, in Ad. 18.18. &in Rom. 16.1. vide et Downam , 
Befenf. pag.105. who out of Strabo faith, ic was the Porc. 
that ferved moR properly for Afta. But Bifhop Dovpttam (aitb 
f ibid. ) that Cstichrea vpms a Parifh fftbordinate to the Church «/ 
Corinth, havi^ not a Bljhop er Presbytery, but a Presbyter af-. 
fignedtoit: fo before he faith, by a Church, he means 4 Cow^/j- 
njof Chriftiinshxvinga Bijhepand Presbytery.'] But if he will 
fo define a Church as that the Prelate (hall enter the Definition,, 
then he may well prove that every Church had a Prelate. And, 
fo a Patriarch may be proved to be NeccfTiry to every 
Church, if you will fay, you mean only fuch congrega-v 
lions as have a Patriarch. But it was denominated a Church,. 
A^. 14.23. beforethey had Presbyters ordained to them, an(i 
fo before fixed Bifhops : when the Apoflles had converted and. 
congregated them, they were Churches. And, the Text faith. 
that they ordained them Elders in every Church, or Church by 
Church vj andtherefore Cenchrea being a Church, muft have fuch. 



Etders ordained to Ir, according to the Apoftles Rule. And 
thacic was a Parilh with one Presbyter Tub jed to Cm»j/;^, is all 
unproved, and therefore to no purpofe. 

5, Yet I prove that the Englifh Prelacy on their own grounds, 
is not fftrt Dlvim in that it is againft the word of God, accord- 
ing to their own interpretation ^ of which next. 

Argum. 10. "T" Hat Epifcepacj which is contrary to the v^rd 
J. of Uod, or Apoflolical In/iitution, according t9 
their own iriterpretMtion^ is nottobe reftored. Bm fuch is the late 
Enqlijh Epifcopacj : therefore, &C. 

1 prove the Minor (Tor the M<i jor ncedeth none : ) according 
to their own interpretation oiTit.i.'y. and other Texts ; Every 
City fliould have a Bifliop, ( and if it may be, a Presbytery ) 
( And fo many Councils have determined, only when they grew 
greater, they except Cities that were too fmall : but fo did not 
PahI ) Buc the late Epifcopacy oi England is contrary to this : for 
one Bilhop only is over many Cities. If therefore they will needs 
haveEpilcopacy, they fhould atleaft have hada Biftiopinevcry 
City ; and though we do not approve of conHning them to Cities, 
yet this would be much better then as they were : for then 

1 . They would be ncirer their charge s,and wirhin reach of them. 

2. And they would hare fmaller charges, which they might be 
more capable of overfeeing ^ for there would be ten or twenty 
Bifliops for one tharbenow. If they fay that except i?4fiE»4«</ 
Wells, Coventry and Lichfield^ or fome hw^ they have but one Ci- 
ty. I anlwer, its not lo. Foreverv Corporation or Burrough- 
Town is truly ^i'^K ^and therefore fhould have a Bifliop Let them 
therefore either prove that a Market Town, a Burrough, a Cor- 
poration, is not ^"Ak, or elfe let every one of thefc Towns and 
Burroughs I ave a Bifliop, to govern that Town with the Neigh- 
bouring Villages by the confcnt and help of the Presbyters of 
ihefe Vil ages, (according to their own grounds J And if it were 
fo. they would be no more then Claflical Difliops at mo(K 

Perhaps (hey'le fay that, while we pretend to take down BI- 
fhops,wedobut let up more, and would h.ave many for one, ^^^'^* 
while we would have every Corporation or Panfli to have a Bi- 
fliop. To which 1 anfwer, its true : but then it is not the fame Aiif-0. 
fore of Bifliops which we would exclude and which we would 

H 2 multiply. 


mahiply : W€ would exdade cbofe BiHiopsthat would andertake 
two or three hundred mens work themfelves, and will rule a 
whole Diocefs alone C or by a Lay Chancellor ) when every 
confcionablc man that hath faithfully tryed it, doth feel the 
overfightof one Congregation to be fo great a burden, that 
it makes him groan and groan again. We would exclude thofe 
Biftiops that would exclude all others in a whole Diocefs, that 
they may do the work alone, and fo leave it undone, while they 
plead that it belongs to them to do it. If they will come into the 
Lords Harveft , and exclude from the work of Government, 
the Labourers of a whole County or two, we have reafon to 
contradid them. But this is not to bring in more fuch Biftopi 
as they that will (hut out others, but to keep in the neceflary la- 
bouring Bifhops whom they would fhut out. Nor do we ftiut 
out them themfelves as Labourers or Rulers, but as the excluder! 
of the Labourers or Rulers. If we have a Church to build that 
requireth necefTarily two hundred workmen, and fome Pillara 
in it to Ered, of many hundred tun weight,if one of the work- 
men would fay, that it belongs to him to do it all himfelf, or at 
lead when the materials are brought to the place prepared, to 
rear and order and place every ftone and pillar in the building, I 
would no otherwife exclude the vain pretender then by intro> 
ducing necefTary help that the work may be done ^ and I ihould 
think him a filly Civiiier that would tell me, thatwhilel exclude 
him, I do bat multiply fuch as he ; when his very fault confilUd 
in an hioderance of that necefTary multiplication. 

I know that fome will fay, that we feign more work then is CQ 
be done •, and we would have the fentence of Excommunica. 
tion pafs upon every light offence. I anfwer ; that its a thing 
chat we abhor: we would have none Excommunicated but for 
obfiinacy in hainous fin ; when they will not hear the Church 
after more private admonition. But there's much more of (he 
work of Government to be done on men that are not Ezconi- 
iDunicable, to bring them to Repentance, and open confeifion, 
for manifeQation of that Repenttnce to the fatisfaAion of the 
Church : but what need we plead how great the work is which 
every man may fee before his eyes, and experience patteth be- 
yond difpute } 
l^tbcnnorc thf t the Englifti %iicopacy is dii^otnt fron all 



Scripture Eplfcopacy, I prove thus. The Scripture knoweth but 
two forts of Epifcopacy : the one General, unHzed as to any 
Church or Country or Nation ; which w&$ not called Epifcopa- 
cy in the firft times : the other fixed Overfeers of determinate 
Churches appropriated to their fpecial charge : thefe were called 
Biftiopsin thofe times ; whereas the former were, fomc called 
Apoftles, from their immediate mi ffion and extraordinary Pri- 
viledges; or Evangeiifts, or Fellow- labourers and helpers of 
theApoftles, or by the like titles fipnifying their unlimited in- 
determinate charge. But our Englifh Bifhops are neither of thefe • 
therefore not any of Scripture appointment but different from 
them. I. They are not of the Apoftolical Order of General 
Minifters ; for i. Their principal work was Preaching to con- 
vert, and congregate, and then order Churches, but our Bi- 
ihops fetdom preached, forthcraoft part. 2. They were not 
tyed to any particular Church more then other, fave only at 
prudence diredcd them fo tempore ifr renata, for the fuccefs of 
their work for the Church Unjvetfa I j nor were they excluded or 
retrained from any part of the world as being another mans 
JDioceft ^ fave only as prudence might dired them for the com- 
mon good, to diHribute ihemk\ve$ pro tempore. This is apparent 
1 . by Chrids Commiflion^who fendeth them into all the world, 
only by certain advantages and particular calls, fitting Petep 
more for the Circumcifion, and PmmI for the Uncircumcifion, 
when yet both Pmrand P^jv/andall the reft, did preach and 
look to both Circumcifion and Uncircumciiion. 2. By the >Ii- 
ftory of their peregrinations and labours, whick (hew that they 
were not fo fixcd^ whatever feme writers may ungroundedly 
afSrm. EufilnMs ( difcreditingby fabulous mixtures the light* 
cr fore of his Tel^iroonies, and cenfured by fome rejeAion by 
CiUfiuj and others ) and fome with him, do cell os of fome fucn ■ 
things, as fome ApoAles being fixed Bifhops, but with no focb 
proofs as fhould fatisfie a man that weighs the contrary intima- 
tions of Scripture, and the difcord of thefe reporters among 
themselves. Only it is certain, chat nature it felf would fo re- 
train them that as they could be but in one place at once, fo 
they could not be in perpetual nx)Cion : aod prudence would keep 
them longed in thofe places where moft work^ waa^ to be done^ 
Add th(crcforc Pmt^s three years abod» at .E^^/mi ind the ndgh^ 

H 3 bowipg 


bouring parts of c//^4, did not make him the Hxcd Diocefan Bi- 
(tiop of Ephefus. 

And what I lay of the Apoflles, I fayalfoof manvfuch Itine- 
rant unfixed lvlin»fter« which were their helpers, ^sSiias^ Apollo^ 
BArrmhxSyTitus^Timothj^&cc. For though Ttmothj be called 
by lomc Anciencs the hrlt Bifliop of Efhefus^ and Titus of 
Crete ; yet it is apparent they were no fuch hxed Minifters, that 
undertook a Dioceli: durante vita as their proper charge, which 
were then called B (hops-, but they were Itinerant helpers of the 
Apoltle<i in ga;hering, planting and firft ordering of Churches. 
And therefore Thus was left in a whole Nation or large Ifland, 
to place *''i{hops or Elders in each Cicy, andfct things in order, 
and this but till /*<««/ come, and not to be himfclf their fixed Bi- 
ihop : and Timothy is proved by Scripture to have been unfetled 
and itinerant as a helper of Paul, after that he is by loroe fup- 
pofed tobe Hxedat £/>/;f/»j. I will not nec^lefly aHhrn txgere\ 
let any man that is unlatished of this, read impartially Mr. ?rint 
unbiflioping of Timothy and Titus, and note there the Itinerary 
o( Timothy from Scripture Texts. If therefore our Bifhops 
would have been of the Apoftles and their General helpers race, 
they (hould have gone up and down to gather and plant Church- 
es, and then go up and down to vifit thofc which they have 
planted i or if they live where all are Enchurchcd already, they 
{hould go u p and down to preach to the ruder fort of them, and 
by the power of the word to fubdue men further to Chrift, and 
to fee that all Minifters where they come do their duty,reproving 
and admonifhing thofc that negled it, but not forbidding thera 
to do it, as a thing bcl< nging only to them. And by Spiritual 
weapons and authority (hould they have driven Miniflers to this 
duty, and not by meer fecular force ( of which more anon. ) 

2. And as for che fixed Bifhops of ApoftolicallnflituiionjOUt 
Enfilrlh Prelacy are not like them. For the fixed Bifhops efta- 
biiftiedbyihe Apoftles were only Overfeers of one particular 
Church •• But the Englifli Prelates were the Overfeers of many 
part'tular Churches. Therefore the Englifh Prelates were not 
the fame with the old Bifhops of the ApoOles inftitution. 
/'Thccourfe tharthcPrelateitake to elude this argument is 
by giving us a fa Ife definition of a p.irncular Church. That 
we may noi therefore ba^c any unproficable Arifc abonc words, 

v'air.ii}/;.. I 


I (hall fignifie my own meaning. By a Particular Church I 
mean an AfTociated or combined company of Chriftians , for 
Cnnamunion in Publick Worfhip, and Furtherance of e,ach other 
in the way to heivcn, under the Guidance of Chrifls Church Of- 
ficers, ('one Elder or more;) fuchas arc undirided,or Churches 
of the firft order commonly called Ecclefts Prima ^ as tocxi- 
ftence, and which contain not divers Political Churches in them. 
A family I mean not : for thats not a Political Church, having no 
Paftor.An accidental company of Chriftians I mean not.Forthofc 
are no AfTociation, and fo no Political Church : ^Nor do I mean 
a National, or Dioccfane or Claffical Church, or any the like; 
which are compofed of many part cular Churches of the firft 
order, conjunct. Itis notofNeccffity chat they alway or raoft 
nfualiymeet in one Congregation : bccaufe its poflible they may 
want a capacious convenient room, and its poflible they may 
be under pcrfccution, fo that they may be forced ro meet fecret- 
ly in fmall companies ^ or there may be fome aged weak people 
or children that cannot travail to the chief place of Meet- 
ing, and fo may have fome Chappcls of cafe, or (mailer meeting. 
Butftillitrauft be a number neither fobig, norfo fraall as to 
beuncipiblc of the endsof Aflbciation, which enter the defini- 
tion •, however weaknefs, age or other accidents may hinder 
fome members from that full ufefullnefsasto themain end,whith 
o:her members have. So that they which are fo many, or 
live at fuch a diftance as to be uncapable of the ends,are not fuch 
a Church,nor are capable of fo being •• For the number will alter 
the fpecies.In a word, it cannot,! think,be proved that in the Pri- 
mitive times, there was any ont fixed Bifhop that Governed and 
Overfawany more then one fuch particular political Church, 
as was not compofed of divers lefler political Churches : nor that 
their Churches which any fixed BiHiop overfaw were more then 
could hold Communion in WorOiip in one publick place, for fo 
many of them as could ordinarily bear at once ( for all the fa- 
milies cannot ufually come at once : ) they were not greater 
then fome of our Engl(h Parifhcs are, nor ufually the tenth part 
fo great. I have been informed by the judicioui inhabitants, that 
there ar,c fourfcore thoufand in Giles Cripple -^ate Parifli in LoH' 
doM : and about fifty thoufand mStepMej/^Mid fourty thoufand 
aa Sepulchres, There cannot any Church in Scripture be found 


that was greater, nor nccr fo great as one of thefe Parifties. No 
not the Church at JerufaUm it felf of which fo much is faid : No 
not if you admit all the number of moveable Converts and So- 
journoqrs to have been of that particular Church,which yet can- 
not be proved to have been fo.I know Bifhop Dotvnam doth with 
great indignation Difpute that Diocefles were before Parifties, 
and that it was more then one Congregation that was con. 
tained in thofe Dioccffcs ; We will not contend about the name 
Di«cefs and Parifli , which by the Ancients were fometimc 
ufed promifcuoufly for the fame thing ; But as to the 
thing fignified by them, I fay that what ever you call it, a Dio- 
cefs,oraPari(h, there were not near fo many fouls asinfome 
Englifti Parifhes •, nor take one with another , their Churches 
commonly were no more Numerous then our Parifties, nor fo 
numerous. A Diocefs then and a Parifh were the fame thing, 
and both the fame as our particular Churches now are ■, that is, 
the Ecclefia [trimly or Soceities of Chriftians combined under 
Church-RulerSjfor holy Communion in Worftiip and DifcipHne. 
And there were no otherwifc many Congregations in one 
Church , then as our Chappies of cafe , or a few meeting in a 
private houfe becaufe of rainy weatber,arc many Congregations 
in one Parifli. The forefaid Learned and Godly, ( though 
angry ) Biftiop Dowttdme, faith i . page 6. that [ In- 
deed at the very fir ft (^onverfion of Cities ^ the whsle Number of the 
people converted y being fome not much greater then the Num- 
ber of the Presbjters placed among them^rfere able to make but s 
fmallCoMgregatitn.^CaW that Church then a Diocefs or a Parifli, 
1 care not, fo we come near an agreement, about the proporti- 
on of Members that the definition be not overthrown, and the 
ends of it made impoi^Qble by thediflance,number , andunac- 
quaintednefs of the members that cannot have any Church com- 
munion immediately one with another. I i there be no commu- 
nion, how is it a Church ? Nay or if there be no fuch commu- 
nion as confifts in mutual afliftance and conjnndion in Wor- 
(hip, and holding fiimiliarity alfo in our converfation ( which 
the excommunicated are excluded from ) And if a communi- 
on there be, it is either Immediate by the members themfclves 
Aflembled.or elfe but Mediately by their Officers or Delegates. 
Ific be only by the laccer Mediately , then ids noc the £c' 


clefiaprlmayhut or/4: It is an afociation of feveral Political 
Churches: For that is the difference bee ween the communion of 
afnigle particular Church , and many combined CI urches,thac 
as the hrft is a combination of perfons and not of Churches, fo 
the communion is held among the Members in common, 
whereas the other being a combination of Churches, tlie com- 
muaionik raamcained orderly by Officers and Delegates, joyning 
in Synods, and lenc from the Congregation?. If therefore it be an 
Iminediaceo dinary communion of members in Ecdefiaftical af- 
hirs,viz. Worihipand Difcipline, th it is the Particular Church 
that I intend, call it what you will clfe,and whether there may be 
any private meetings in it bcfides the main body , or not,as poili" 
blv through fomc accidents there maybe; and yet at Sacrament 
and on themolt folemncoccafions, the fameperfons that were 
at ' hippels or iefs meetings,n: ay be with the chief Aflcmbly, 

Hut I fhail proceed in the proof of this by the next Argument, 
which will fcrve foi this and the main together. 

Argum. 1 1 . T"" Hat fort of Chttrch Government may mofifafc 
JL ly be now praHifed which was ftfed in the 
Scripture times, and thats Iefs fafe which was not then ufed. But 
the Government of w^nj EUeri and particular Churches by 
one Bifhop ( fxfd, and taking that as his proper Diocefs^ fuch as 
the Englijh BifhiVs were ) was not ufcd in Scripture ttmes. There 
fore it is mt fo Jafe to ufe it or reflore it now. 

The Major is proved hence : i . In that the Primitive Church 
which v/asin Scnprure times, was of unquellionable Divine In- 
flitutiori , and fo moft pure. And it is certainly lawful to 
prad^ice that Church Government which alone was pradtifed 
by all the Cl.urchin the Scripture timesof the New Tcftament. 
2. Becaufc we have no certain Law or Diredion but Scripture 
for the frame of Government as lure Divino. Scripture is Gods 
fufficicntanJ pcrfedLaw.lf therefore there be no mention of the 
Pradiceof any fHch Epifropacy in Scripture, no nor any precept 
for the practice of it afterwards, theo cannot we receive it as of 
Divine Inllit ution. The ObjeAions fhall be anlwered when we 
have proved the Minor. 

And for the Minor 1 fhall at this time argue from the Concef- 

I fions 

iionsofchemoil Learned and Reverend n an ihac at this time 
hath deeply engaged himfclf in defence of Epifcopacy, who doth 
grant us all thefc things following, i .That in Scripture limes chey 
were the (ame perfons,and of the fame office that were called Bi- 
fhopsand Piesbyrers. 2. That ail the Presbyters mentioned in 
Scripcure times, or then infliturcd fas far as we can kno w^ had a 
Power of Ordinacion.3 .And nlfo a Power of Ruling thcChurch, 
ExcomrauniccUing and Abfolving. 4. That there was not then 
in being any Presbyter ( fuch as the Bifliops would have in 
thcfe times j who was under the Bifhop of a particular Church 
or Diocefs. His words are thefe [] And althotigh this title of 
Tlp'tJt-'Jiit^ii JE/derj^ have been dlfo extended to a fecund Order in 
the Church, andis notv onlj in ufe for them ^ under the Name of 
Presbjteyj , yet in the Scripture times it belonged principalljf , if 
not tn lone to Bijhops , there being ns Evidence, that any of thtit fe- 
eond ordsr were then injiitutedy though foon after ^ before the wri- 
ting (?/! gnatius 6 pi files there were fuch inflituted in till Churches.] 
5. It is yielded al*o by him that it is the office of thcfe Presby- 
ters or Bifhops to Teach frequently and diligently, to reduce He- 
recick«, to reprove, rebuke, Cenfuie and ablolve, to vifit all the 
fick and pray with them, c^^. And therefore ic mufl needs follow 
that their Dioce's muft be no larger then that they may faithfully 
perform all this to rhc Members of ic: And if there be but one Bi- 
Ihop CO do it,Ltm mol-1: certain then by experience that hisDlocefs 
muit be no bigger then this. Panfh, nor perhaps haUfo big. /5. And 
--, u T^-n- '^ mufir needs follow rliac in Scripture times a Psirricuiar Church 
4vP-so8. cor lilted rot o- ■eve al Churches aMoc ared,nor ot IcveialCon- 
:[ ^.^.Prius gregations ordinarily meeting in feveral places forChrifiian com- 
nm ufqucqua4j munion 

verum efj'e 

quod p;o conceffo fimltuv ( in ma. civiute nm fii'ifl'e pluY.s Sp'ifcopo^ ) f^iuvmvA cnim in. 
maSc<:le(ia ant Ciet/iplmes fm^d Splfcopi nmq.iam fitt:rin.':,mbil tame,!, obfiarc qtln in eJciem 
dvitatc duvaliquando dfjierminat- Cximfiimnt.duobHs Apojlolis ad fidm aiduuiydivnfis for- 
fan. diakBis ei^ diqiiando ntibui disju/Uti, qiiibus duo itidcm Epifcopi fcorfm, & divifis 

Et p.2ii. §. II. [ Ex his ratio confiat, q Hare fine VrtsbyUromn men'.iotie iMcvemaae, 
Epij'copis Diaconummcd:at( adj'ciamiiy-yqida fciluet m ftfigvlis Macedonle digital ibus, qHam- 
iiii EpifcopKs if[c(y nmdurn I'lC^byUri conjtitnti fa/i.'^ V]'US tantum -.ifU v'orn^-.ffiui' ubiti, 
Epifcopis adumHis. 

Mark well the ftatingof the queftion by Dr. H, Dlflert. Eplft.§. 30,3 i . The controvei'- 
fieisnot ^uibus demum 'mimbtis cognlti faerint Scclefmum ReCloreu fed an adimim m 



fi'i-guUriEcclcfu, an.idplurcs,potcfia! iji^ dcvcnerit. Ne! adiinum pnguUrem 'Prxfe Stuff 
qiicm cxfamofiore Ecckfite ufti Sinfcopiim vulgo dichn'is, pnteflatem in fimcUri ^^^^^ ^Z 
Chiifli & Apojloloiiim injiitHtloitc nmq' non pcrtinuilfc affirmimiis. ] You fee here t'lat it 
is but [ hifin?uhm Scclcfti '\ & [_ m f.'gnl.m Coetn ] that he afTiimeth an Epifcopacy of 
Chiiflsand the Apoftlcs inftitution. And fuch Bifliops mofl Churches in ^-//t^/.^/z^ l/iy;. 

muniontn the fo!emn\VorfhiporGod,but only of theChriflians 
of one fuch Congregation with a finglePaflor f though in thac 
we d ffenCjard (uppofe there we c more Pafto's then one ufually^ 
orofrenJThat this muft be granted with the red is apparent. 

1. The Reverend Author faith ^iB\(hop Dowftam before cited 
^Th/tt when the Gofpe/ was firfi preached hy the Apofifes and hut 
few Co'^iverted, they ordained i-^ every City and region, no more but 
a Bifh p and bne or more Deacons to attend him , there being at the 
prffent fo fmal jlorc out if which to tak^ more , andfofmAll need 
of ordaining more^ that tkii Bt/bop is confiituted more for the fake 
of thole which jh'fild after bclicve^thcn of thsfc which did already. ] 

2. And its proved thus : ]f there were in Scripture times any 
more ordinary Worfh{pin|^ Aflcmbli s on the Lords daycs theti 
one under one Bifhop, then cither they did Preacli, Pray, 
P.aife God, and adminifter the Lords Supper in thofeAfTera- 
blies, or they did not : If not, then i . They were no fuch Wor- 
(hipping Afll'mbiie? as we I'peak of 2. And they fhould fin 
againllChnll who required it. 3. Anddiff.-r from hisChurchcs 
which ordinarily ufed it. But if rhcy did thus, then either they 
had fonie Paltor ( Prevbyter or Bifhop ) to perform thefe holy 
ad'on:^ bcrweenGod and the people, or not : If nor, then they 
fuppofethacL^y- men might doall thisMinifterial work,inWord, 
Sacraments, Prayer, and Praile in the name of the AfTembly,e^r. 
And if fo, wha.tthenis proper to the Miniftry? then farewell Bi - 
fhops and Presbyters too. If not,then either the Bifhop muft be 
in two Affembliesatonce performing the Holy WorfliipofGod 
in their communion ( but thats impoflible •■) or clfc he muft have 
fomeaflifting Presbyters to do it; But thats denyed : There- 
fore it muft needs follow that the Church order, conftitution and 
p'a(Jlircd Government which was in Scripture rimes, was this; 
that a lingle Worftiipping Congregation was that particular 
Ciiurch which had a PresSy ter or Bifhop ( one or more ) which 
watched over and ruled that only Congrcgacion as his Diccefs or 

1 2 proper 


pKoper charj^e, havlnj^ no Government of any other Church 
( Coi^.gr^gauon ) or Elders. DefaBo this is plainly yielded. 

•^Vell ; this much being yielded,and we hiving come fo far to 
anagi'eemenf, about the actual Church Confticution and Go- 
vernment of the Scrip'ure times, we dcfire to know fome fuffici- 
ent realon,why we in thefe times may not take up with tha G )- 
vernment and Church order which waspraAifed in the Scripture 
times ? And the Reafon that is brought againft it is this ^ Becaufc 
it was rhe Apoltles intention that this fingle Biftiop who in Scri- 
pture time had but one Congregation, and Governed no Prel-- 
byte:s, (hould after Scripture times , have many fettled Con- 
gregstiops, and their Presbyters under them, and fhonld have 
the power of ordaining them, &c. To this i anfwcr, i. The In- 
tentions of mens hearts a;efecret till they are fome way reveal- 
ed. No man of this age doth know the Apoftles hearts but by 
fomefign: what then is the revelation that Provcth this Inten- 
tion ? Either it muft be fome Word or Deed. Tor the firft I can- 
not yet find any colour of proof which they bring from any 
V^ord of the ApoOles, where either thev give power to this Pref- 
bytcrorBifliop to Rule over many Presbyters and Congregati- 
ons for the future : Nor yet where they do fo much as foretell 
that fo it (h:»ll be. As for thofcof Paul to Timothy and Titus, 
th^t the.; rehttke ftot an Elder, a/fd receive not accufatioK agaiKji 
theml>ut under tvfo or three IVitmjfes, the Reverend Author af- 
firmeth that thofe Eiders were not Presbyters under fuch Bi- 
fhops as we now fpeak of , but thofe Bilbops themfelves, whom 
Timothy and Titus might rebuke. And for meer fafts without 
Scripture words, there is none that can prove this pretended In- 
tention of the Apoftles. Firft, there iS nofad of the Apoftles 
themfelves or"" the Churches or Paftors in Scriprure time 
to prove it. For Suherdinate Presbyters are conft (Ted nor to be 
th^n Inflitutedy2in^(o not exijient ' and other fad of theirs there 
can be none. And no fad after them can prove it. Yet this is 
the great Argument that moft infift on , thatthepradiceofthe 
Cliuich after Scripture times, doth prove that Intention ofthe 
Apoftles which Scripture doth not ( for ought is yet proved by 
them thati canfind j atall exprcfs. But we deny that, and re- 
quire pi-oof of it. It is not bare faying fo that will fervc. Is it 
notpoffiblefor the fuccceding.Biftiops to err and miflakethe 



Apoftles Intentions ? If not, then are they Tnfaliible as well as the 
Ap )fties, which i$ not true. They might fin in qong from the 
Inltitution : And their fin will not prove that tlur Apollles in- 
tended it (hould be To dejftre^ becaufe their followers did (o«^? 

Ifthey fay th.\t it is not likely that all the Churches fhould fo 
fuddenly be ignorant of the Apolties Intention, I anfwer, i . We 
mul^ not build our faith and pradice on Conjedurc<:. Such a 
faying as this is no proof of A poftolical intentions, to warrant us 
to fwerve from the folepra(!^i(edCiovernmcnt inScriptuie times. 
2. There is no great likelihood that I can difcern that this firfl 
praftifcd Government was altered by thofe that knew the Apo- 
ftles, and upon fuppofition that thefe are pretended were 
their intents. 3 If it were fo,yet isit not impo/llble, nor very 
improbable , that through humane frailty they might he drawn 
toconjedure that that was the Apoftles intents which fceined 
right in thier eyes, and fuitcd their prefent judgemenrs and inte- 
retts. 4 Sure we are that the Scripture is the perfed Law and 
Ruleto the Church for the Eltablifhing ofall necefftry Officer 
and Ordinances : and therefore if there he no fuch intentions or 
Inftitutionj of the Apoftles mentioned in the Scripture , we may 
not fet up univcrfally fuch Offices and Ordinances, on any fuch 
fuppofed intents. 

Z)-'/rf^(? we feem agreed, that the Apoftles fettled One Paflor 
over one Cungrcitionbavir.gno PrC'bjtcri u>ider his Rh/c : and 
ihat there were »o other in Scripture time : but (hi rtly after when 
Chriftians wcre multiplied, and the mod ofthe ( iries where the 
Churches were planted, were converted to the faith, tonether 
with tlie Country round about , then there were many Congre- 
gations, and many Paftors , and the P.iftor ofthe fir(\ C hurch in 
the City did take all the other ( hurches and Pa'lors to be un- 
der his Government , calling them Presbyters only, and himldf 
eminently or only the ''ifhop.Now the^neflinn becveen us is, 
Whether this rtas rveli done or not? (^ Whether thefe Pajiorsfh)Hld 
>tot rather have fathered Churches as free a^ their own? & whether 
the "^ hrifiians thAt ivtrc afterroard converted /loald not have com- 
bined for holy Communion themfeha in particular di^infi 1 hur- 
ches ^ andhavehai their oven Paflors f(t ever them^ as the firji 
Churches hj the /^pjfi/es had ? They that deny it, and Juftirie 

I 3 tbeir 


tlicir faft, have nothing thac wccan fee for it, but an unj»round- 
cd furmife.that it was the Apoftles meaning thac the firft Bifhops 
(houldfodo: But we have the Apollles exprefs Innicution,and 
the Churches pradife during Scripture times, for the other way. 
We doubt not but Chriltians in the beginning were thin, and 
thac the Apoftles therefore preached moli,and planted Churches 
in Cities bccaufe they were the moft populous place?, where was 
moft matter to work upon , and mortdi'ciples were there; and 
thac the Country round about did afford them here and there a 
family which joyned to the City Church • Much like as it is 
now among us with [he Anabapcifts and Separatifts , who are 
famed to be fo Numerous and potent through the Land , and yec 
I do not think that in all this County, there is fo m.any in Num- 
ber of either of thefe leds as the tenth part of the people of this 
one Parilh ^ nor perhaps as the twentieth part. Now if all the 
Anabaptifts in fVorcefierJhire , or at leaft that lived fo neer 
as to be capable of Church communion , (hould be of Mr. T'j. 
Congregation at Bewdley , or of a Church that met in the 
chief Cicy^I^Vcfj?fr^yec doth not this intimate that all the fpace 
of ground in this County is appointed or intended for the future 
as Mr. T's. Dioccfs ; but if the-fucccffivc Paftor ihould cl lira 
the whole County as his charge, if the whole were turned to that 
. opinion , no doubt but they would much crofs their founders 
mind. And ( if the comparifon may be tolerated ) we fee great 
reafonto conceive thac the Ancient Biftiops did thus crofs the 
Apoftles mind?. When there were no more Chriftians in a City 
and the adjoyning parts, then half forac of our Parlfhes, the 
Apoftles planted fiiedGovernours called Bifliops or Elmers over 
thefe particlar Churches, which had conftantcomtr,union in the 
worOiipof God : And when thcCitiesand Countreycs were con- 
i.v.erced to the faith, the frailty of ambition co-worXinp thereto, 
ehefeBifliops did claim all fpace of ground for thejr Diccefs 
where the nicmbers of their Church had lived before ; as if Chur- 
ches were to be mcafured by the acres of Land, and not by the 
,jniEmbcr of fouls^ whereas they fhould have done as the Bee-hives 
jfo, v/hen they are ready to fwarm,fo that the old hive cannot 
^contain them all, the fwarm removes and feeks them another habi- 
cacicn, and makes chem a New hive of their own. So when a 
^Church grows big enough for two Churches, one part fhould 



remove to another meeting place, and they (hould become two 
Churchc?, and the later be of the fame fort as the former, and 
as free, and not become fubjed to the former, as if men had 
righc to be Rulers of others, bccaufe they were Converted be- 
fore them, or bccaufe they dwell in a walled City, and others 
in the Villages. This Error therefore was no contrived or fud- 
dain thing, but crept on by degrees, as Countries were Con- 
verced and Churches enlarged ; we are agreed therefore de facto, 
that it wasotherwifein the Apoftles daies, foon after, 
in fome places, ic came to that pafs as the Prelates would have 
it (in fome degree. ) Dut whether the ApoPiies were willing 
of the change, IS the Quellion between us J we deny it, and ex- 
pert their better proof. And till they prove ir, wc mull: needs take 
ic for our duty to imitate that Government wi'.ich themfeives 
confefs was o«/y/>r*«f/»y>^ in Scripture times-, fuppofing this the 
fafefl way. 

BUc yer, though tlie proof lye on their part, who affirm 
the Apoltles to have had fuch Intentions, Paftors of fin- 
gle Co:igregation>; fhould afterward become the Pallors of ma- 
ny , 1 fh '11 f.v yiip^''rf^^>j.j/<i«?» give them fome Reafons for the 

I. And firft we are moft certain that the /jc/jf /if P^/c-r^ ef the'^<:^fon i. 
Chnrch. had fo ntucb Prde aK'i Amhition^ that nngh' fffif^'Jcoiaumtu, 
make thimgHt/ry of fuch a mi fluke as ten -/'e^ to the ncnufe of their ofim So- 
cVcM porpfra>idru/t. We find even the t^A'cIve ^ poflles contend crates Epifco- 
ing inChiiftsown prefence for the Primacy, till he is put fharp^^'/'*"'?''''/'^:^''* 
iy torcbukethcm, and tell them the Nece/Iity of huuiilitv, ^^'^ij'^'i^ct^,-^"}^ 
teach thc:n better the ftate of his Kingdom. Panicnti with ma- a-rdotH fines 
ny (hat contended againlUiim for a preheminence, and put him c/ve/Jov c^- 
up >n all ihofe defence? of the d'gnity of his Apoftlcfhip which -7^ ^--^'se^.t.r; 

we find him ufino. Ptter found it necefTdry to warn the Pap.ors^ '^ v'^"' * 
° ■' CoTiTifyitur 

iimHicvi^i. Iciuiatis 6'^ miitptetudnisd'igdit.itcmift Tyi:ri.n.:deiii tr.vifitf(c : co-iqu',ititr de 
Ep'fcoporum amitlone Nazianzcniis •, & propterca fi non Ep':fcopatiim^ ccrtc clvitatum 
7«y pnpcluum in rctlrKcii E-O'ifoO-ili dignJt.itc mitatiiffs vcllr. He addccK yet more 
f^h, and conclufiet'i, F-cclcli-iftical Ambition ticvci made fuch piosjivfs fioin the 
A^o^lcs diicstotliofcjas ic hath clcns fiiice to- ours, alinoft inairably. Gyctius dcim- 
ftrio^ ■ 


C 60 

that they fhould not Lord if over Gods Heritage. And John 
d id meet with a Lor dxngDioirephes, that loved co have the pre- 
heir.inence. While they lay under the Crofs, the Bifhops were 
afpiring, and ulurpmg authority over one anoirher ^ or elfc Vi^or 
of Rome had no; prefumcd to Excommunicate the AjUn Bi- 
fhops lor not conforming to his opinion : What abundance of un- 
wo thy contentions did the Bifh jps of rhe firft ages fill the 
Churches with r and much about fupa-iority, who fhould be 
greatcft ; what (hould be the privilcdges of their feveral 
Seas • (^c. Their pride no doubt was a great caufe of their 
. contention ; andthofecontentionsnecefsiratcd thcinterpofition 
of Emperors to reconcile them that could not agree of them- 
felvcs. If the Emperors called a Council to that end even the 
Council it felf would fall to pieces , and make all worfe if 
the Magiftrate did not moderate them. Had not Co»fia»tiMe 
burnt the 2^ce»e Schedules, and done much to maintain an Uni- 
., on among them,the luccefs of that Council might have been fuch 
as wouSi have been no great encouragement to fucceeding ages 
to fcek for more. What bitter quarrels are there between the 
moft eminent of all the Fathers and Bifhops of theCIiurch? 
between Chrjfoflom and Epiphamus • Chrjfofiom and Theophi/us 
AlexarJrims ; Hierom and folon of JerafAhm ; Jfrome and 
RhffiyjHs i befideshis quarrels with Chryfefiom and AH2^hji:ne. 
I open not the concealed nakednefs of the Saints; but mention 
thole publike doleful tragedies which made the C hurch an 
amazement to it felf, and a fcorn to the Heathens that lived 
about them • witncfs the well known cenfure of AmmiAnut 
Mdrcelltnus : when fo many people ihall be murdered at once in 
. (Contention for a 1 ifhoprickas wereat the choice of I)amafhs • 
ambition was too predominant. The mentioning of the contend 
tions of thofe moll excellent Bidiops, and the firrt four General 
Councils, makes Lmher break out into To many admiring excla- 
mations, in his TrcatiledffC«aVi//, that ever fuch men fhould 
loambitioufly quarrel about toyes and trifles, and childifh 
: thinps, and that even to the dillurbing of all the Churches, and 
letting rhe ChriOian world on a flame. Of the two Churches of 
;Eome and Co»J}a»ti>^oplehe {?L\th, Itaha ^Ha Ecclefta ambitiofe 
/nxat£ f'yint^ de re mhili^vaMiJfimis & r.ugacijjtmis n^niii, donee 
itAndem tttraqtie horribtliter vaflata 0' deletaef. pag. i 75. This 



caufcd N43Jaiiz.en (' whocomplainch fo much himfelf of the 
odinn or dirplcalbrc of his fellow Bifhops ) co prufcfs himfeif 
tobefoaffcded, that he would avoid all AfTcmblies of Bifliops, 
bccaufe he had never feenagood end of any Synod, and w|iich 
did not rachcrincreafe the evils than remove chem ; and hisrea- 
fon is not as BUarmine feigneth, only becaufc they were all 
Arrians ^ but becaufc, The defire of contending, and of pre- 
heminency or principality, and their emulation, did overcome 
reafon, ( which Lnther mentioning ib. pAg. 225. wondcreth 
that for thefe words he was not excommunicated as an arrant 
hcretick) Who knoweth not, that knoweth any thing of 
Church hiftory, how the Church hath been torn in pieces in all 
ages except the hril, by the diffention of the Biftiops, till the 
Pope drew part of themtounirc in him ? And who knoweth 
not, that knoweth any thing of the prcfent ftate of the Chriftian 
world, into how many fradions it is broken at this day, and al- 
moft all through the Divifion or thefe Guides ? If therefore wc 
fhall imagine that the Paflors of the Church could not be tainted 
with fo much ambition as to inlargc their own DiocefTes, and 
gather the new Chuchcs under ihemfelves, when they fhould 
have formed them into the fame order and freedom as were the 
firlt, wc (hall (hut our eyes againft the moft full experience of 
thcChrirtian world : ef,'ecially when the change was made by 

2. The fecond Reafon that perfwadeth me to ftick to the fole i^cafon 2. 
pradifed Government in Scripture times, and not to alter it up- 
on pretended Intentions of the Apoftles, is this : Nothing that 
intimAteth temerity or mutahiUtjj is to be charged upon the Holy 
Ghoft . bat to iyiftntite one frame or fpeciej of Church-government 
for Scripture times, and to change it prefently into another [pedes 
to all fhcceeding Ages , doth intimate temerity or rnntability -^ or 
at Icalt, is fo like it, that therefore without good proof it is not 
tobecharg.'don theHoly Gho!>. Th.u they are two diftinft 
fpecies o( Government is plain ; one is the Government of a 
Particular Congregation, without any other Congregations or 
Elders under thac Government : the other is the Governing of 
many Elders and Churches by one fupercminent Prelate : and if 
thefe be not two differing forts of Government, then let the 
Prelatcj confefs that the Government which wc would continue 

K is 


is of the fame fort with theirs : for ours is of tlie firft fort •, and 
if theirs be of the fame, we are both agreed. 

And that the Lord JefusChriftfhould fettle one kind of Go- 
vernment de faSio during Scripture time, and change ic for ever 
after, is molt improbable : i. Becaufe it intimatech levity, or 
mutability in a Law- giver, fofuddenlyto change his Laws and 
form of Government^ either fomething that he is fuppofed not 
to have forefeet, or fome imperfcdion is intimated as the caufe. 
Or if they fay, that it was the change of the flate of the body 
Governed, viz.. the Church .- 1 anfwer, 2. There was no change 
of the flate of the Church to neceffitate s change of the kird 
of Officers and Government •' for f as I (hall fhcw anon) there 
was need of more Elders then one in Scripture times ; and the 
incrcafeof the Church might require an increafe of Officers for 
Number, but not for Kind. There was as much need of a fill- 
ing Presbyters, as of Deacons. I may well conclude therefore, 
that he chat will affirm a Change of the Government fo fudden- 
ly , muft be fure to prove it ; and the rather, becaufe this is the 
Bifhops own great and moft confiderable Argument on the 
other fide, when they plead that the Apoflles thcmfelves were 
Rulers of Presbyters, therefore Rulers over Presbyters ( and 
many Churches ) fhould continue as Gods Ordinance : many 
ontheother fide anfwer them, ( though fo do not I) that this 
Ordinance Wis temporary, during the Apoflles times, who had 
no Succeff )rs in Government : to which the Prelates reply, that 
its npt imaginable that Chnfl fhould fettle one fort of Church- 
Governmerit tor the Hrft age, and another ever after, abolifhing 
that rirfl fo foon : and that they who affirm this, mufl prove it. 
For my parr, I am overcome by this Argument , to allow all 
that the Apoftolical pattern can prove, laying afide that which 
depended on their extraordinary gilts and privilcdges ; but 
then I fee no reafon but they fliould acknowledge the force of 
their own A^idiam ; and conclude its not imaginable that , if 
God fettled fixed Bifhops only over particular Congregation*, 
withoutanyfuch order as fubjed Presbyters, in the firft age, 
he fhould change this, andfetup fubjeft Presbyters and many 
Churches under one man for ever after. 

If they fay, that this is not a change of the fprciesy but a 
growing up of the Church from Infancy to Maturity : I anfwer,. 


It is a plain change of the Species of Government, when one 
Congregation is turned into Many, and when a new order of 
Officers, viz. fubjeft Presbyters without power of Ordination 
or introduced, and the Bifliops made Govcrnours 
ofPaftors, th.u before were but Governours of the People , 
this is plainly a new Species. Elfe I fay again, let them not blame 
us for being againfl the right Species. 

3 . The third ReaTon is this : Thej that a^rm a change ( not Kc.rfgjt 5. 
of the Governours, but alfo ) of the very natptre or kind of a par- 
ticnlar Governed or Pelitical Churchy from what it was in Scri- 
pture times ^ do affirm a thing fo improbable .as is mt without very 
clear proof to be credited. Bntfuch are thej that affirm that Con- 
gregational Btjhops were tt^rned to Diocefan'. therefore, ^c. 

The Church that was the objed ot the Government of a fixed 
Bifhop in Scripture times , was, Q A competent Number offer- ^ particular 
fans in (Covenant with Chrifl ( or of Chrifiians) cohabiting, by Churchj 
the appointment of (^hrifl and their muttial expn ffed confent ^united whac. 
( or ajjociated ' unde*- Chrifls Alinifierial Teacherf and Glides for 
the right worfhipping of G^dinpublick. and the Edification of the 
Body in Knowledge and Holinefs^ and the maintaining of obedience 
toChrifl among tbem,for theflrength^beamj andfafety of the whale 
And each part, and thereby the Pleaftug and Glorifying God the Re' 
deemer^andCreator^~\ Ic would be too long , rather then diffi- 
cult to ftand to prove all the parts of this Definition, of the firfl: 
particular Political Church. That part which molt concerneth 
our pre/ent purpofe , is the £»,^/, which in Relations muft enter 
the Definition : which in one word is. The Communion ofSaiftts 
perfonallj , as AfTociated Churches confifting of many particular 
Churches , are for the Communion of Saints by officers and De- 
legates. And therefore this communion of Saints is put in our 
Creed, next to the Catholick Church , as the end of the combi- 
nation. I (hall have occafion to prove this by particular Texts 
of Scripture anon. A Diocefan Church is not capable of thefe 
Ends. What per.'onal communion can they have that know not 
nor fee not one aonther ? that live not together, nor worfhip 
God together ? There is no more perfonal communion of Saints 
among mod of the people of this Diocefj,then is between us and 
the inhai nans o\ France or Germany: For we know not fo much 
as the names or faces of each other, nor ever come together to 

K2 any 


any holy ufeJ. So that to turn a Congregation into a Diocefan 
Church,is to change the very fubjed of Government, 

Obj. This is meer independency, to make a fingle (^on^regati' 
on, theffihjefiofthe Government. Anfw. i. I am not deterred 
from any tr.uth by Names. I have formerly faid, chat its my opi- 
nion that the truth about Church-Govcrnmcnt,is parcelled out 
into the hands of each party, Epifcopal, Presbyterian, Indepen- 
dents, and Eraftian • And in this point in Qn^eftion the Indepen- 
dents are moft right. Yet I do dot affirm C nor I think they J 
that this one Congregation may not accidentally be ncccfiitated 
to mcetinfeveral places at once, cither in cafe of perfecution , 
or theageand wcaknefs of forac members, or the fmalnefs of 
the room: But I fay only that the Church fliould contain no 
more then can hold communion when they have opportunity of 
place and liberty-, and (hould not have either feveral fettled So^ 
cieties or Congregations,nor more in one fuch Society then may 
corfift with the Ends. And that thcfe AfTemblies are bound to 
Affociate with other Affemblies^and hold communion with them 
by the mediation of their Officers ^ this, as I make no doubt of, 
fo 1 think the Congregational will confcfs. And whereas the 
common evailon is by diftinguilhing between a Worlliipping 
Church .tnd a Governed Chuch , 1 dcLire them to give us any 
Scripture proof that a Worftiipping Church and a Governed 
Church were not a'l one, fuppofingrhat rc fpeak of a fettled 
fociety or combination. Ifindnofuch diftindion of Churches 
in Scripture. A family 1 know may perform fome worfhtp,and 
accordmgly have fome Government .- And an occafional meet- 
ing of Chrifkians without any MuVifter,may perform fome Wor- 
(hip without Government among them. But where was there 
ever a Society that ordinarily afTembled for publick worfhip, 
fuch as was performed by the Churches on the Lords dayes, and 
held communion ordinarily in worlhip, and yet had not a Go-, 
verntng Pallor of their own? Without a Presbyter they could 
have no Sacraments and other publike Worfhip' And where was 
there ever a Presbyter that was not a Chui ch Govcrnour ? 
Certainly if fubjed: Presbyters were not till aftor Scripture tiroes^ 
S3or any fettled Worfhippirg Church without a Piesbyter ( unr 
hh the people preached and adminilked the Sacraments, ) then 
sherecouldbe no Worfhipping Churdi that had' not their own 



proper Governour , nor any fuch Governour (Excd) that had 
more Churches then one. 

Reafon 4. The contrary ofinionfeigneth the Afojlles to have at- o r 
lotted io each BiPjop a fpace of ground for his Diocefs^ and to have 
meafured Churches bj fuch /paces ^ and not hy the number of fouls: 
Bucchisis unproved^&abfurd. I. Unproved, For there is no place 
in Scripture that giveth the Bi(hop charge of all that fpacc of 
i^round, or of all the Chriftians that fliall be m that fpace during 
his rime. Indeed thev placed a Bifhop in each City, when there 
was butaChurcliineachCity 1 But they never faid. there fhail 
be but one Church in a City.or but one BilLop in a Cicy ; much 
lefs in all the Country region. 2. And its abfurd : For its the num- 
ber of fouls that a Church muft be meafui ed by , and not a fpace 
of ground^ ( fo they do butco-habite : j For if in the fame 
fpice of Groundjthere fhouid be twenty or an hunLTtd tiroes 
as many Chriltians, it would make the number fo great ;\s would 
be uncapable of perfonal communion , and of obtaining Church 
Ends. If a Schoolmafler have a School in thechiefCity or Town 
of this County , and there come as many from many miles com- 
■pafsas one School can hold, and there be no more there : fo 
long all that fpace may belong to his School, not for the fpace 
feke, but chenumbe'' ofSchoUars : For if there be afterward an 
hnndrcd times as many in thac fpace to be taught, they muft fee 
up more Sciiools, and it were no wife pare in the old Schooi- 
maRertomainrain that all thatCountry pcrtainc h to his School, 
bccaufe that it was fi) when there were fewer. Sothattomea- 
fure our the matcer of Churches by fpace of ji^round , and 
not by number of fouls, is plainly againft the Reafon of iht 

Reafon 5. Theoppof^ed opinion doth imply th,{t God more >'f- Kcafon-^. 
gardeth Cit es tintn Country Villages , or that Churchis ure to be 
meafured according to the number and great nefs of (.tcics rather 
then according to the number of fouls. For they fuppofe that 
every Cicy (hould have a Bifhop iftherebe but twentVjOr four* 
ty.or an hundred ChnUi3ns in it : but if there be Hvc hu-drcd 
Country Parifhcn, that have fome of them many thoufand fouls 
in them , thefcOiall liave no Bifhopsof rhcirown, but be all 
ruledby the Bifliopof theCiry. Now how unreafomhle this 
is,, racchinkj fhouldnot behardtodilcern. For, i. What is a 

K3 City 


City to God any more then a Village,that for it he fhould make 
fo partial an inftitucion ? Doth he regard /fow« any more then 
Engtibium , or Alexandria more then Tams^ for their worldly 
fpicndor or priviledges ? No doubtlefsit is for the multitude of 
inhabitants. And if fo,itsmanifcft that an equal number ofin- 
babitants elfewhere , (hould have the fame kind of Government. 
2. Is it probable that God would have twenty thoufand or an 
hundred choufand people in a Diocefs ( and in fome a Million) 
to have but one Church -Ruler , and yet would have every fmall 
congregation in a City to have one,though there be none elfe un- 
der him ? What proportion is there in this way of Government, 
that an hundred or fifty men (hall have as many Govcrnou'^s as 
a Million ? as if ten thoufand or an hundred thoufand Schollars 
out of a City fhall have no more Rulers , then an hundred in 
a City ; and all bicaufc one pare are in a City, and the other not ? 
Or a Phyfitian fhall have but an hundred Patients to look to in 
a City, and ifthcrebea Million in that City and Country, he 
ihall alfo upon pain of Gods everlafting wrath undertake the 
care of them all?Let them that ftrive for fuch a charge look to it; 
I profefs I admire at them, what they think i. Of the needs of 
men fouls: z.Oftheterrours of Godswrath. 3. And of their 
own fufficicncy for fuch a work ? Were it my cafe, if I know ray 
own heart at all, I (hould fear thartbis werebutto ilriveto 
damn thoufands, and to be damned with them, by undertaking 
on that penalty to be their Phyfitian ( under Chrift^ when I 
am furc I cannot look to the hundreth man of them , and I had 
rather ftrive to be agally-flavctothe Turks, or to be preferi cd 
to rid Chancls, or the bafcft office all my dayes. 

Reafon 6. According to the eppofed opinion , it is i» the 
Ke.yon 6- power of a King to make Bijhops to be either Congregational or Di- 
ocefan , to make a Bi/h p te have a JHiUion oj fouls or a whole Na- 
tion in charge, or to have but a*fevf. For if a King will but difTol vc 
the Priviiedgc and ritlc, and make that no City which wasaCi- 
ty, though he dimini(h not the number of fouls; and if he will 
do thus bv all the Cities , faveone in his dominion, then n^uft 
there be but one Bjfhop in his dominion. And if he will but mt^ke 
every countrey Town, that hath four or five hundred or a thou- 
fand inhabitants to be incorporate, and honour it with the title 
and priviledges of a Citv,thcn HiaII they have a Bi(hop. More- 
over, thus every Prince may demure banilh Epifcopacy out of 



his Dominions , without diminiftiing the number of Chrifti- 
ans , if he do but defranchife the Cities, and be of the mind 
as 1 have heard fome men have been, that Cities are againft 
the Princes intereft , by llrengthening the people , and 
advantaging them to rebellions. Alfo if there be any In- 
dian Nations fo barbarous as to have no Cities , though they 
were convertcd,yet muft they have no Bifhops : Alfo it would 
be in the Princes power de \ure to depofe any of thofc Bifliops 
tliat the Apofties or their SucccfTors are fuppofed to fet up : 
^ot the Roman Empcrour might have proclaimed /Intioch^ Ale- 
xandria^ or any of the reft to be no Cities, and then they mull 
have no longer have had any Bifhops. And what Bifliops fliill 
Antioch have at this day ? 

Now how abfurd all this is , I need not manifcft : that whole 
Contreves fli ill have no Government for want of Cities, thac 
Kings (hall fo alter Church Officers at their pleifurc when they 
intend it not, meerly by altering the Civil Privilcdgfs of their 
peop!c^ that a King may make one Diocefs to become an hun- 
dred, and an hundred become one,by fuch means. And yet all this 
doth undenyably follow , if the Law be that every Cir\\and only 
every City (hail be a Bifliops Sea where there are Chriftians to be 

llealon 7. There is no fufficient Reafon given ;rvhyfub)eB Prif- Keafm 7. 
hytcrs pjotildnot have been jet upin the ScripjiretimeSyasvpellas 
after , if it had kxen the ^pofiles intent that [nchfjotildbe injiitu* 
ted. The Neceliicy pretended, was no necefficy, and the Non- 
neceffitv is but prcrended. Firlt it is prere-aded that there were 
fo few fit men that there was a Ncceflity of forbearance. 
Rut this is not fo : For, i.TheChurch had larger gifts ofchc 
Spirit then, then now,and therefore proportionable to the flocks 
they might hive had competent men.then as well as now. 2.They 
had men enough to make Dcscons of, even feven in a Church : 
And who will believe then th^t they could rind none to make 
fuch Elders of? Was not Stephen or Philip fufficiently qualiHed 
to have been a fubjed Elder ? 3 . They had many that prophc- 
fied , and interpreted , and fpakc with tongues in one Af- 
fcmbly, as appears, i Cor. ia. And therefore itsmanifcfl 
that there were enough to have made Ruled Elders: Atleaft 
furt the Church at ferHfalcm^ where there w«rc fo many thou- 



ftnds, would have afforded them one fuch, if it had been re- 

Bucfecondiy, its pretended not to have been Neceffary, bc- 
caufe of the fewnefs of the people. But I anfwer, i . The fame 
perfons fay that in Igrntim his time all Churches had fuch Pref- 
byters : And its manifell that naany Churches in the Scripture 
times were more populous or large, then many or moft befide 
them were in Ignatius time. 2. Did the numerous Church at Je- 
rufalem ordinarily meet on the Lords dayes for holy communion, 
or not? Iftheydid, thenit was but a Church of one Congre- 
gation ( which is by moft denyed ) If not, then the feveral Af- 
remblies muft have feveral Presbyters ( for feveral Birtiops they 
will not hear of,) Doubtlefs they did not celebrate the holy com* 
munionofthe Church and Ordinances of God, by meer Lay- 
men alone. 3. What man that knows the burden ofPaftoral 
Overfight,can fay that fuch Churches of thoufands,as ferufa/em, 
Rome^ Alexandria^ ^c. had need of no more than one man, to 
Teach them, and do all the Paftoral work ? and fo that afTifiing 
Ruled Presbyters were then needlefs? Ifthey wereneedlefs to 
fuch numerous Churches then ^ let us even rake them for nced- 
kfs ftill , and fet up no new orders which were not feen in Scri- 
pture tinaes. 

Reaf. 8. The Afoflles left it not to the Bipjop whom they 
■KeafoaB. fj}^l,lij^ed to wake new Charch- offices and orders quo&d fpccem^ 
but only to ordain men to [mceed others in the offices and orders 
thattbewfehes had {by the infpirationofthe Holy Ghojl ) appointed, 
or tIfeChriji before them.h Bilhop might make a Bifhop or aDea- 
con perhaps, becaufe thefe were cjuoadjpeciem made before, and 
they were but to put others inco the places before appointed. 
But if there were no fuch creature in Scripture times as z ft^b- 
jeB Presbyter^ that had no power oi Ordination and Jurifdidion, 
chenif the Bifhopi afterward ftiould make fuch , they mull 
make a new office, as wel! as a new officer. So that either this 
new Presbyter isoftheinftitutionofChriftby his Apoftlcs,orof 
Epifcopal humane inftitution. If the former, and yet notinllitu- 
tuted in Scripture times, then Scripture is not the fufficicnt rule 
and difcovcrer of Divine Inftituti,ons and Church Ordinances: 
and if we once forfakc that Rule, we know not where to fix,buc 
muft wander in thtf Romane uncertainty. If the latter,then we 



muOcxpeft fome better proof then hitherto we have feen, of 
the Ep;fcopaIl ( or any humane) power lo make new Offices 
in the Church of Chrift , and thatof univcrfaland (landing nc 
ceflity. Till then wc (hall think they ought to have made but 
fuch Presbyters as rhemfelvcs. 

Realon 9. If there be not fo much as the nawe of a Ruled Pre/- RcafoH. 9. 
bjter rp'tthoHt power of Ordination , or furifdi^ion ^ in all th^ 
Scripture^ much lefs then is there any dcfcriptioM of hit Office^ or 
any DireEl ons for his ordinAti'>K y or the cjualifications prerecjui- 
fit in him > and the performance of his office when he is in it : 
^nd if there be no fnch DireFtrrj concerning Pre b)ters , then was 
it not the Apoflles intent that ever any fuch fjonld bt ordained. 
The realon of the confequencc is, i, Becauieihe Scripture 
was written not only for that age then in being, but /or the 
Church of all af;es to the end of the world •• And therefore 
it mufl be a fufficicnt dire;ftory for all. The fecond Epiftle 
to Timothy W2LS written bur a little before ?<««// death. Surely 
if the Churches in Ignatius daies were ail in need of Presbyters 
under liifhops , Pa»l n.ight well have (^n fome need in 
his time, or have forcfccn the need that was foneer, and fo 
have given dircdions for chat office. 2. And the rather is 
this confequence firm, becaufe Paul in his Epifiles toTimothy 
and Titus doth give luch full and pundual Directions concern- 
ing the other Church officers , not only the Bifhops, butalfo 
the Deacons, defcribing cheir prerequifite qualifications, their 
office , and direAing for their Ordination, and converfa- 
tion : Vea hecondcfcendech to give fuch large Direftions con- 
cerning Widows the.nfelves, that were ferviceable to the Church, 
Now is it probable that a perfcA Diredory written for the 
Churchco the worlds End,& largely defcribing the qualifications 
and office of Deicons, which i^^ the inferiour,wouId not give one 
word of direftion concerning fubjed Presbyters without power 
of Ordination or Rule , if any fuch had been then intended for 
the <. hurch ? No nor once fo much as name them ? I dare not 
accufc Pan's Epiltles written to that very purpofe,and the whole 
Scripture, fo much 0: infjlficiency , a^ to think they whv)Ily omit 
a ncccffary oHnce, and fo exactly mention the inferiour and com- 
monlv lef; nee ffiry, as tliev do. 

Realbn 10. The ncxv Epifcopal Divines do yield that all the E^cafon 19^ 

L textj 

(74 ) 

Uxts in T iraothy, Titus, and the rejl of the New Tefiament, that 
jnentitn Cjofpel Bijhops or Presbyters^ do mean only fuch as have 
porverof OrdinAtion and jHrifdiFiion.withom the concurrence of any 
fftperioftr B'ljhop. . The common Inerpretation of the Fathers^ and 
the old Epi/copal Divines of all ages, ofmo(l or mnny of thofe 
texts, is, that they fpeak^ofthe office sf fnch as now are called 
Presbyters. Lay both together , and if one of chcm be not mt- 
ftaken , they afford us this condufion, that the Presbyters that 
mro are,h^ve by thefe texts of Scripture , the pawer of Ordination 
and fptrifdiHion without the concurrence of others. And if fOjthen 
was it never the Apoftles intent, to leave it to theBifliops to or- 
dain a fort of Presbyters of another order, that fliould have no 
fuch power of Ordination or Jurifdidion,wichout the Biftiops 
•j^eAfon lu Reafon I r . We find in Church Hiftorv that it was firfl infome ■• 
f«w great Cities {t^^cozWy Rome ^n^ Alexandria) that a Bi- 
fijsp ruled many fettled worfhipping Congregations rvith their Pref- 
hyters -, when mfuch thing at that time can be proved by other 
Churches: therefore we may well conceive that it was no Ordi- 
nance of the Apoftles , but was occafioned afterward*, by the 
multiplying of Chriftians in the fame compafs of ground where 
"the old Church did inhabite; and the adjacent parts, together 
with the humane frailty of the Bifliops, who gathered as many as 
they could under thc'irowH Government when they (hould have 
creded new Churches as free as their own. 
- Reafoniz. IftheDifcription of the Bifhopi fettled in the New 

- ' Tefiament^ an^ the work^affxed to them , be fuch as canmt agree to 
cur Dice e fan Bi/hops but to the Pitflorsvf afingle Church, then 
ypas it never the mind of the Holy Ghofi that thofe Bifjops fhould 
^generate afterwards into Diocefun Bifhops : Bat the Antecedent 
is certain? therefore fo is thcC&Kfcqtient. 

I here ftill fuppofe with Learned Dr, H Annotin AU:. ii. 
<:^p<«///w,that the name Presbyter in Scripture figniHech a Bi- 
Ihbp, there being no Evidence that in Scripcure tin.e any of that 
Second Order, ( viz. (\i\i\cd: Presbyters^ were then inl^itutcd. 
Though I am far from thinking that there was but oneofth^fe 
Bilhops in a Church at leaft as to many Churches, Now as wc « 
areagreed ^/^/^^o that it was but a iingle Church that then was 
uodcr 3 Bilhopandnoe many fuch Churches ( for that follows 



undenyably upon the denying ofche exiftenceof fubjcft Pref-;&i7jJ*N/fj5W«> 
byters-, feeing no fuch Churches can be , nor the worfhippingyT**^'^*^' 
AfTembiies held without a Bifhop or Presbyter; ) fo that ic ^•^'/•^'*/'*5( 
was the mind of the A poftles that it fliould fo continue, is prove* ' 
ed by the Defcipcion and work of thofe Scripture Bifhopi. 

Argnment i. Yrom'AElsiO. 28,29, 3i. Tl.cBifhops inlti- 
tutcd and hxcd by ihe Holy Gholt were and are to rake heed to 
all the Flocks over which the Holy Ghoft hath wade them overfve- 
ers^ to feed the Church of God , and to watch againji Wolves, and 
to warn every one night and day | But this cannot be done by Di- 
ocefan BiQiops , nor any that have more then oncChurch : 
Therefore Diocefan Bi (hops are not the Bifhops that the Holy 
Ghoft hath fo fixed and infticuted, fuch as P^w/ deli:ribeth were 
to continue •' and thats fuch as can do that work. 

Argument z.lht Bifhops that the Holy-Ghoft fettled and 
would have continue, { and had the Prwer of Odinarion given 
them, ) were fuch as were to be Ordained in every City an i eve- 
ry Churchy Acls 14. 23. Tit. I. 3, 4, 5- See Di Hammonds 
Annotat. But it is not Diocefan Bsfhops that are luch ( for 
they are over many Churches and Cities ) therefore it ts not 
Diocefan Bifhops that were fettled by the Holy Ghoft, nor 
nieant in thofe texts. 

>^r.3.The I'ifhops which were inftitured by the Holy Ghoft, 
and are meant m Scnpcure, vj\:vciovt>atth for their peoples Jouls 
as tho!'e that mnjl give account. Ruling over them , and to be obey* 
cd by all^and Jpeaking to them the word oj Cjod, Htb. 13.7,1 7,24. 
But this cannot be done by a Bifhop to a w hole Dioccis, / nor 
will they be willing of fuch an account if they be wife:) therefore 
it is not Diocefan Bifhops that are meant m Scripture. 

j^rgument 4. The Bifhops fettled for connnuaoce in Scripture 
were luch as all the peop'e were to k^ow as Ubeuriag among them, 
and over them in the Lord, and admonipjing them, andtoeftetm 
them very highly in love, for their wsrk^ fake, i Thef. 5 . 12,13. 
But this cannot be meant of our Diocelan Biftiop, C whom 
the hundret h part of the flock (hall never fee, hear, nor be admo- 
nirhed by : ) rheretore it is not fuch that were fettled for conti- 
nuance in the Church. 

Ar^Hment 5 The Bifhops fettled by the Holy Ghoft,muftb/ 
any that arc ficl^ be fnt for ^ to pray over them. But this a Dio- 

L z cefan 


■<. cefanBifhop cannot do, to thehundrcthor thouf^ndrh perfon 

*?»'^.. "" in ibme places ^ therefore it is not Diocefan Biftiups f but the 

/"**• Bilhops of a fingle Church that are capable of thefe workv that 

arc meant by the Holy Ghoft, to continue in the Church, and 

confequently to whom the power of Ordaining was commiaed. 

If any quellion whi'thet the Texts allead-gcd do fpeak of fubjed- 

Presbyters, or Bifhops, I refer them to the forefaid Reverend 

Dodor,with whom I am agreed, that there were no fub;cd-Pref- 

bytcrsinfticuted in Scripture times. 

X ^on I X - ^^^ ^^^ iZJt was not one or two or all Churches for aje^r or two 

or more in their meer Ren or infancy hefore thej vpere well formed ^ "^ 
Sec Grotiusde ^^^^ conjifiedonly of one fettled worfiipping Ajfembly an i its guides •, 
ProviiT^^that ^^^ *^ was the farmid And fiahlijhed ftate of the par'tic filar Churches. 
the Clniftian To prove this I (hall briefly do thcfc three things, i. I fliaH 
€hurcH- (hew it in refpcd to the Jewifh Synagogues. 2. As to the 
Goveinmcnt Churches in the Apoflles daycs after many years growth ; even 
^^^harof^he ^^ every Church thars mentioned in the New Teflament, as a 
Temple, but particular Political Church. 3. As to fomcof the Churches 
rhac of the after the Apoftks daycs, mentioned by the ancients. 
Synag^ogues, i.ltis apparent that the Jews Synagogwes were particular 
jujd .^™e^2- Congregational Churches,having each one their feveral Rulers, 
pS'eBifhops, and as many Learned men fuppofe, they had an Ecclefiallical Ju- 
hedothk dicatureot Elders , belonging to each of them, where fit men 
thence, that couid be found , and thi^dilHnd from the Civil Judicature : Or 
they are fu<^^ 35 Others think , they had a Sanhedrim which had power to 
c-y/rt-ya-^*/- )^^8^ '" ^^^^^ Caufcs, and one of thefe was in every City, that 
Lcs them then is, in Places of Cohabitation. For in every Cicy of ffrael which 
lioldtofucha had one hundred and twenty famthes ( or free perfons fay 
Conp;icptio- Qjj^gfj ^ thgy placed the Sanhedrim of twenty three. And in 
tpi copa- gyg^yCiry which had not one hundred and twenty men in it,they 
fee the fmalleft Judicature of three Judges , fo be it there were 
but two wife men among them, h'r to teach the Law and refolve 
doubis. See Asnfworth on Narob. i r . 16. citing T^hmd. Bab. 
t^ Maimonides^ more at large. And doubilefs many of our 
Country Villages, andalmofl all cur Parifhes have more ther> 
^ 120: and every Country Village may come in , in the IcflTcr 

number below 120; which are to have three Eldtrs : and 
jhat fay fome, was every place where were ten men. And that 
idifif^^wc re under ths '^^sx Sanbedrim at ]^ir/i/ii/fw;i5-nothirrg.tO' 


the mattcr-For (o we confefs thac fuch particuIarChurches as we 
mention, have fomc fuchGeneral officers over them ^ejure^^s the 
Apoftolicai men werein the Primitive Church • bat not that any 
of thefe Synagogues were under other Synagogues-, though one 
were in a great City, and the other but in a fmall Town. And 
that thefe Synagogues were of Divine inftitution, is plain in 
divers texts, particularly in Z^rz/. 23 . i, 2, 3. where ^ C(5». 
vocation of IteUriefs^or A hoi) Convocation is commanded to be on 
every Sabboth in all their dwellings, which mofl plainly c^uld be 
neither the mctt'in^^iferh/a/em at the Temple, noryet in'fin* 
gle families: and theretoreit is not to much purpofe that many 
trouble themfelves to conjedure when Synagogues began, and 
fomc imagine it wasaboutche Captivity: For a? their concrover- 
fie can be but about the form of the meeting place, or the name 
foitscertain that fomc place there mud: be for fuch meccinjjs- 
and that the meetings -themfelves were in th^Law commanded 
by God - and that not to be tumultpary confufed ung )verned 
Affemblies. If the fcourging in the Synagogues prove not this 
power C which ismuch difpured, j Mat. 10.^ 23. 34. 
Luke 6. zz. and 12, W. and 11. I Z. Acts Zl. ig. and z6 11. 
Yecat lealt,excludmg men their Synagogue Communion, may 
John 9. zz, 7, Jf. and\z.4rZ. and\6. z. But becaufe this argu"- 
ment leads us into many Controverfits about the Jcwifli cu- 
rtomes. led it obfcure the truth by occarioiHi#quarrels, 1 Hiall 
pais \z by. ^ 

2.1 find no particular Political Church in the New Teftamenr 
confiilingof feveral Congregations,ordrnarily meeting for com - 
naunion m Gods Woifhip; ( unlefs as the forementioncd ac- 
cidents might hmder the meeting of one Congregation in one 
place ) nor having half fo many members a$ (ome of our Pa- 

When there is mention made of a Country, as Judea^ Ga/ilc-^ 
Samaria, Galatia^ the word QChurchcs 3 in the plural number 
is u fed, Gal.l.z. /f/?i 15.41. andg.^i. zCor.^.x. lUit 
ihey'l lay, Thefe were o»/y ta (pities: But ♦urrh.r conlider,there 
isexprcfsraenrion of the Church 11 Cenrhrca, which was no 
City; andthey that fiy that this wa« a Panfli fubjed to Co^ 
rinth give US but their words for it , without any proof that 
«vcr I could fee : and fo they may as well determine the whcie 

I^ 3 caufe 


caufe by bare affirmation, and prevent difputcs. The ApoRle in- 
timateth no fuch diftindion, Rom. i6. i. i Cor. ii. 18,20, 
22. 16. \_When ye c&me together in the Churchy I hear that 

there be divifions among you. '— — whenje come together 

therefore imo one place , this is not to CAi the Lords S upper, ~\ 

• 16. I We have no fuch Cufiome^ nor the Churches of God ~\ 

Here the Church of Corinth is faid to come together into one place'. 
And for them that fay , "Wivi'x^per partes , and to thsit one plact 
is many to the whole ^ I anfwer, the Apoftle faith not to a parr, 
but to the whole Chur ch^lhaz they come together in one place, ^nd 
therefore the plain obvious fence mull ftand, till it be difproved. 
And withall he calls the Chrifiian Jfemblies in the plural num- 
ber [ Churches : ] for its plain that it is of Jjfembljr Cujiomes 
that he there fpeak?. Soi Cor. i4.there is plainly expreffcd that ic 
VJSim particular JJfemblj thsLZ was called the Church, and that 
this AjfemUj> iiynany Prophets, Interpretcrs.& others that 
might fpcak. Verfe ^.\_Hethat Trophefeth^Edifieth the (fhMrch~\ 
that '\i^ Only that Congregation that heard. And Verfe 5. [ Ex- 
ctpt he interpret that the Church may receive Edifying ] And 
Vfrfe 1 2. [Seek, ^hat ye may excell to the Edifying of the Church.'] 
Verfe 1 9- [ In the Church I had rather fpeak. five words with my 

underflanding , that 1 may teach others alfo, ] And Verje 2 3 . 

[ If therefore the whslt Church be come together into one place ^ and 

all fpeak^ with t^^es- ] One would think this is as plain 

as can be fpoken^oafTureus chat thewWf C/'^rc/??^ then were 
fuch as might, and ufually did come together for holy coiti muni- 
on into one place. So FerfelS. ^ If there be no Interpreter, let 
Mmkeepfilenceinthe Church: J And which is more, left you 
ihmk that this was fome one fmall Church that Paul fpeaks of, 
he dcnomiriRwh all other particular Congregations, Qvcn Ordered 
Governed Congregations, [_Churches'2 too. Verfe 3 5. Fer God 
, is not the author ofronfujion but of peace, as in all the Churches »f 
the Saints. '^'^^^ that all the Congregations for ChnttianWorlhip, 
are called, ^.11 the Churches of the Saints. And it fecms all as well 
as this, (oflorcd with Prophets and gifted men that they need 
.not take up with one Bifliop only for want of matter to have 
madefuKjeft EUers of : AodFerfeS4- Q jLet your women keep 
filence in the Church ] for it is a fhame for a woman to fpeal^ 
in the Church, j So that fo many AffemblieSjfo many Churches. 



Oh']. B tit it feemt there -were among r/j^ Corinthians more then 
one Congregation by the plural [Churches. ] Anfrp.i Many parti- 
cular fcafons of AfTcmbling , may be called many Aflembliesor 
Churches, though the p#>p!ebc the fame. 2. The Epiftle was 
a Dircdory to other Churches, though firft written to the Co- 
rinthians. 3 . Thofe that fay, it was to Corinth , and other Ci- 
ty-Churches that /'<«/</ wrote, need no further anfwer ; It feems 
then each City had but a Congregation, if that were fo. 4 0«- 
chrea was a Church neer to Corinth^ to whom Pan' might well 
know his Epiftle would be communicated : and more fuch there 
might be as well as that, and yet all be entire free Churches. 

So in C9L 4. 1 6. I And when this Efifllc if re^id antong jok^ 
canfethat it heread alfo in theCh»rchofthe\^od\ce2ns^ and that 
je Uke'^tft: read the Epi^/e from Laodicea ]] Fhis Church was fuch 
as an Epidle might be read in, which doubtlefs wasan AfT.'mbly. 
The whole matcer feems plain in the cafe of the famous Church 
at AKtioch^ AEis 1 1. 26. exf whole year they ajjembled thcmfelves 
with the Church^and taught much people ~] H^re is mention but 
of One JJfemb'y, which is called the Church; where the peo- 
ple, it feems, were taught. And its plain that there were ma- 
ny Elders in this one Church J for y^^/13. i. it faid [There 
were in t'-" Church that was at Antioch certain P>ophets and 
Teachers ~] And Five of them are named, who are faid to Miniftcr 
there to the Lord And though I do not conclude that they were 
all thcHxcd Elders of that particular (Church , yet while they 
were there they hid no iefs power then ifchey had been fuch. In 
the third EpilUe of yy^», where there is oft mention of that parti- 
cular Church, it appearech Ff^y^ 6. that it was fuch a Church as 
before which the t'rcrhrcnand ftranpers could bear wirnef<; of 
C?4/«j Charity : And its moft probable 'hat was one Afienibly ^ 
but utterly improbable that they travailed from Cong-egation to 
Congregation to bear this witncfs. And K-r/. 9, 10. it was 
fuch a Church as John wrote an Epiftle to, and which Diotrc 
phes caft men out of : which is moft likely to be a Congrc- 
garion , which might at once henr that Epiftle, and out of 
whkh Diotrephes might eafilier reje(!) ftranger,*, and rcjcft the 
Apofilcs letters , then out of many fuch Cong'cg:itions, (7^/. 
1 . 21. When Pan! faith, he was Vnktmvn by face to the Churchts 
of ffidea, it js moft likely that they were ChuFches which were 



capable of feeitvgand knowing his face not only by parts, but as 
Churches. And its likely thofe Churches that praifed Lukst ^^^ 
ftnt him with Paul as their chofen mejfenger^ were fuih as could 
pieet to choofe him^ and noc fuch as ouADioceffes are, i Cor. \ 6. 
1,2. jP4«/ gives order both CO the CRurch of Cor/«r/>, and the 
QhmchtsoiGalatiay that upon the Lords day at the Affembly 
('as it is ordinarily expounded)chey (hould give in their part for 
the relief of the Churches of Judex. So that it feems moft like- 
ly that he makes [_(^hurches] and fuch Aflfemblics tobeall one, 
^cis 14. 23. Thej ordained them EIders,(^hfirch i^j Chnrch^or 
in every Chnrch. Here it is confefTcd by thofe we plead againft, 
that Elders fignifie not any (ubjed Elders having no power of. 
Ordination or Government ; And to fay that by Elders in each ■ 
Church is meant only one Elder in each Church , is to for- 
fakc the letter of the text without any proved Necefiity: We 
fuppofc it therefore fafer to believe according to the firil fence 
of the words, that it was Elders in every (^hurchy that is, more 
tlien one in every Church that were ordained. And what fore 
of Churches ihefe were, appears in the following vcrfes, where 
even of the famous Church of ^«f<V^ its faid, Verfe zy. when they 
were come , and had gathered the Church together, they rehearfed all 

■that God had done hy them So that its plain that this Church 

was a Congregation to whom they might make fuch rehcarfal. 
And Cha^. 15.3. Its faid that they were brought on their way by 
the Church: And if it be not meant of all^but a part of the Church, 
yet it imimateth what is aforcfiid. 

Xo conclude, though many of thefc texts may be thought to 
fpeak doubtfully, yetconfider i. That fome do moft certainly 
declare that it was particular flared AfTemblJes that were then 
called Churches, cvenGoverned Churches, having their Offi- 
cerspefcnc. 2. That thercis uncertain proof of any one par- 
ticular Political C hurch that confided of many fuch fiated A[- 
femblles. 3 That therefore the Texts that will bear an expo- 
fidon either way , muft be expounded by the certain, and noc by 
the uncertain texts- fo that I may argue thus. 

Jf in all the New Teftament , the word [ Church ] do often 
ftgnifie Jlat-ed worjljipping Jingle A^emblies ., and often is nfed fo 
as may admit that interpretation ; andis never once uffd certainly 
:to finifie many particular fiated worjhipping /Jjfemblies ruled by 



tntftxed Bijhopt then tve hdve ^^jf*/f caufe to f»ppofe that the par' 
ticuUr Political (^httrches in Scripture times conftfied but $f one 
fuchfiated Congregation. But the Antecedent is tri^e ^therefore fo is 
the Confequent. 

As Jor cheNew Epifcopal Divines that fay There wete nofnb' 
je^ Fresbj^ers in Scripture times: I fuppofe accord ir>g to their 
principles , they will grant meal! this, as isaforcfaid^ And for 
others, the Inftanccs that they bring to the contrary ftiould be 
briefly conlidcrcd. The great fwaying In(Unceofali (which 
did foiTiecimc prevail with me to be my fcif of another mind ^ 
is the Numerous Church at ferufalem • Of which its faid that 
three thoufand were converted at once,and five thoufand at ano- 
ther time, and t'lo word mightily grew and prevailed, and dai- 
ly fuch were added to the Church as (hould be faved : to whch 
fome add the mention oF the Miriadcsof believing Jews yet zeal- 
ous of the Lav, which the brethren mentioned to Paul,A^s 
21.20. And thcindance o^ Epheftts and Rome come next. But 
1 remember ho-v largely this bullncfs is debated between the late 
AfT.-mbly az fVe/lminJfcrSind thcDC'nting Brethren, that I 
think it unmeet to interpofc in ic any further then to annex thcfc 
few confiderations following. 

I. That all that is faid on that fide, doth not prove certainly 
thar that one Church at Jirufalem was the eighth parcfo big as 
Giles Cripple- (^^ate Parifh, or the fifth part fo big as Stepney or Se- 
pulchres ^nor ncsr (o b:g as Plimoth or fome other Country Pa- 
rifhc. 2. That it is p^{i doubt that the magnitude of that Body of 
Believers then a;: ferufalem^ws.s partly acccidental,and the mem- 
bers cannot m all be proved fettled cohabitants^, nor that Church 
as in its firft unordered Mifs be tfa» proved to be the fittcft ^ yj'"' 

patternfor imitation. 3. ThatChrift huh not punAuallydetermin- Churches ^^ 
ed how many members (hill be in a particular Church, 4. But the Ihouldbeno 
ends ( being pcrfonal holy communion J are the llule by which biggerthcn 
humane prudence muft determine it. 5 .That its fitter one C hurch }^^^ ^^'^ ^^' 
inllance give way to many in point of our imitation, then of ma- watcher all' 
ny to that one, ceteris paribns. 6. That its known among us that their fouls as ' 

one that muft 
give account of all. On whiclitcxt Dr. Jc,\ 'r.i\lor\nh\s late '00k of Repcntancc,Pref. 
faith [ I am furc wc cannot give account of fouL of which wc have no Notice ] And fo 
prclVcth to perlonal conduft. Let them then be BiOiops of no bigi^ci- a Diocefs then diey 
can take fuch perfonil notice andcondudof, left they judge themfdvcs. ' 

M rrorc 


raore then arc proved to have<Jiien memberi of that Churcb, 
may hear one man preach at the fame time. I have none of the 
loudeft voices, and yet when I have preached to a Congregation 
judged by judicious men to be at Icaft tenthoufand,thorcfartheft 
off faid they could well hear ( as I was certainly informed. ) 
7. That its certain by many pafTageshiftoricall in*^crip':urethat 
men did then fpeak to greater multitudes, and were heard at far 
greater diftancc then now they can orderly be : which Icon* 
j«dure was becaufe their voices were louder, as in moft dryer 
bodies ( which dryer Countreys have ^ is commonly feen,whcn 
moifter bodies have ofter hoarfer voices^and other reafons might 
concur. 8. That it is confefled or yielded that the Church at fe- 
y/^/4/fw might all hear at once, though not all receive the Lords 
Supper together. And if fo, then they were no more then 
might at once have perfonal communion in fomc holy Ordinan- 
ces, and that the Teachers might at once make known their 
minds to. 9. And then the reafon of receiving the Supper in fe- 
vcral places fecms to be but becaufe they had not a room fo fit to 
receive all in, as to hear in. And fo we have now in many Pa* 
rilhcs Aflemblies fubordinate to the chief Affembly i For divers 
families at once may meet at one houfe,and divers at another/or 
repetition^ prayer or other duties; and fomc may be at Chap- 
pels of eafc that cannot cometotheful! affembly. 10. They 
that are for PresbyrerialChurcbesofraanyCongregarions,donot 
fay , that There vmsft h ntJiny, (o make the firft political hurcfa, 
but only tbar. There mayht many ? If then there be no Necef- 
fitvofit, 1. Should It not be forbi^rn when it appearech to pru- 
dence moft irconvenient ( as frequently it wilkno doubt.) 
a. And when it is NecefTiiJitifor a peaceable Accommodation, 
becaufe other? rhinfc it a fin , fhould not a Aiaj be give place to 
t Myft noi be ^ in p;dfici[ory conujtation?, citiris faribtts f 
13. it IS granted alfo bytlem, thatthePaftorsof oneCongrc^ 
gation have not a cha'ge of Governing other neighbour v on- 
gregation in Con^iftory, (one rather then another, which they 
govcrnnot, though perhaps as neer [hem ) buc bv con'ent.And 
ihertfore as there is but a licet yUot an oportef of fuchfeMfefit 
pleaded for : fo while mfuch confcm is given, wehave tto/uch 
tb-rge ofGoverning neighbour Congregations ; andnonemay 
forte us to fuch confent. 1 2. And Ladty, that if a fir gle Con- 


gregation with it own Officer, or Officers, be not a true parti- 
cular Political Church ; then onr ordinary Parifh aflcmbiies 
arenone^and where the Presbyterian Government is notfetup 
('which is up but in few places of ^«^/w«^j it would then follow 
that we have no true Political Churches left among us(&perhaps 
never had : ) which I meet yet v/ith few fo uncharitable as to af- 
firm, except thi Papifts and theSeparatiftsanda few of the new 
fort of Epifcopal Divines, who chink we have no Churches for 
want of 'Hftiops, C except where Bilhops yet are retained and 

For my part I would not lay too great a (Ircfs upon any forms 
or modes which may be altered or divcrfified. Let the Church 
have but fnch a 2(umber of fohli us maj be cenftjient with the endi 
andfo thcfjfoweof a par ticuUr Church, that they may held per' 
fonal holy communion , and rhtn I will not ijuarrel about the na.fte 
of one or two Congregations ^nor whether they mufi reeds alt meet to- 
gether for all ordinances , nor the Uke. Yea I think a full number 
( fo they be not fo full or diftant, as to be uncap> bic of that cora- 
rtiunion ) are defireable , for the flrength and beauty of the 
Church, and coo fmal Churches, if it may be, to be avoided. 
So that all the premifes being confidered , out diflFtrence ap- 
pears to be but fmall in thefe matters between the Congregatio- 
nal and Presbyterian way, among them that are moderate. 

Ifhallnot prefumc more particularly to enter into that de- 
bate, which hath been fo far proceeded in already by fuch Reve- 
rend men, but (hall return to the reft of the task before promifed 
againft the Diocefan Churches as the luppofed fubjedofthe 
F)i(hops Government. 

As for Scripture times and the next fucceeding together, I 
fhall before I look into other teftimonies , propound thefe 
two Arguments. i From the Biftiops office , which was be- 
fore mentioned. If the office of a Biftiop in thofe times, was 
to do fo much work as could not be done by him for a Church 
any greater than our PariftieJ, then were che Churches of thofc 
times no greater then our Parities •* But the Antecedent is 
true; therefore fo is the confequent. The works are before 
mentioned, Preaching, Praying, adminiftring the Lords Sup- 
per, vificing the fick, reducing hereticks, reproving. cenfuring, 
abfolving : to which they quickly added too much more of their 

M 2 own 


own. The impoflTibility of a faicbful performance of th s to more 
is fo undenyablc.that 1 cannot fuppofcany other anfwcr but this 
that they might ordain Presbyters to affift them in the work, 
and fo do mnch of it by others. But i . I before defired to fee it 
proved by what authority they might do this. 2. Their office 
and work are fo infeparable that they cannot depute others to do 
their work (their proper work) without deputing themalfoto 
their office. For what is an office but the Oate ofoneO^- 
Hged attd Authorized to do fuch or fuch a work''A Presbyter may 
not authorize another to preach as the Teacher of a Congregati- 
on, and to adminifter the Sacraments , without making him a 
Presbyter alfo; Nor can a Biftiop authorize any to do the work 
of a Bifhop in whole or by halves without making him a Presby- 
ter or half a Bilhop And he is not authorized either to make new 
officers in the Church, or to do his work by deputies or fubfti- 

2,. I argue alfo from the Identity of that Church to whchthe 
Bifhopsand Deacons were appointed for miniftiation. It was 
not a Church of many ftatcd Congregations , or any larger 
than our Parifhes for number c^ fouls that the Deacons were 
made Minifters to : therefore it was no other or bigger which 
the Billiops were fetove'. Theconfeqnenceis good : becaufe 
where ever Deacons are mentioned in Scripture or any Writer 
that I remember neer to Scripture timc5,they are fHll mentioned 
with the Bifhopsor Presbyters as Minifters to the fame Church 
with them,as is apparent b jth in the feven chofen for the Church 
at Jeriifakm, 5nd\n Phil. I. 1,2. and in theDireftionof /'4«/ 
to Timothy for ordaining them. And the Antecedent is proved 
from the nature of their work : For they being to attend on the 
tables at the Love feafts and the Lords Supper, and to look to 
the poor, they could not do this for any greater number of peo- 
ple then we mention -^ Whether they had thofe feafts in one houfc 
or many at once,I determine not ; but for the number of people, 
it was as much as a Deacon could do at the utraoft co attend a 
ihoufand people. 

I ftiall proceed a little further towards the limes next follow- 
ing ; and firit I fliall take in my way the confefiion of one 
©r two learned men that are for Prelacy. 

Grotim in his Jmetat, on 1 Tim. 5. ,3 7. faith [] Sed mtandttm 


efi in ma Vrbe magna ficfit f lures Sjnugogas , ita & plHresfuijfe See c!ie fame 
E c cleft as ^ id, efi^ctnventMs Chrijiianorum, Et cui<^^ Eccltfia^'^^ing^^wycA 
fMijfefftfim frxfidem^ ^f*i pfulum alloejtteretHr^ c^ Preshjteros ^^ ^^!^S^ ^y 
or dinar et. Alexandria tantunt eMm fnijfe morcm ^ utunffsejfet ^'y^^^^^^' 
in tota nrbe prafes qni ad dtcendnm T^resbjteros per nrbem dijiri- i<;'^J^f\ ^7. 
bnent y docet nes Sozomenus i. 14. e^ Epiphanius , a/^; ^^ Yet I think as 
Arioiigity dtcite}., Alexandria nun^tiamduosfuijfe i'r7(TKor,r,vi 1,0. Bloitdcll that 
ce ca fumpta ^r i^oyw ^ ita Ht ftgnificat jus illnd quod habebat^!^"]'^°°^, 
ir/ov lii avvciycoyi:^. ] So thdit Grotins affiiroech that ^\-aUx"ccI 
fliops had not then fo much as all the converted perfonsof a great 
Cify under their carc^ but the Churches and Aflembiies were 
the fame,and each Aflembly bad a Prelate, and in the great Ci- 
ties there were many of thefe Churches T^nd Prelates, and that 
only the C\iy oi Alexandria had the cuRotn of having.butone 
fuch Hifliop in the whole City. 

2. Thofe learned men alfo raufl grant this caufe wt^o maintain 
that PctiT aud Panl were both of them Bifhops 0? Rome at once, 
there being twoChurches,oneofthc Circumcifion under Prrrr 
ttic other of the uncircumcifion under Pauli and that one of 
them had Linns, and the other Cletus for his SuccefTor, and that 
this Chu-^ch was firft united under Clemens'.Aud the like they fay 
of two Churches alfo at yfwnW^.andelfwhcre.If this be To, then 
there is no Law of God that Bifhops (hould be numbred by Ci- 
ties, but more Bifhops then one naay be inonc City, and were 
even when Chrifti;.ns comparatively were a fmall part of them* ' 

3. Alfo Mr. Thorndike and others affirm chat it was then the 
cuflome for the Biftiops and Presbyccrs to fit in a femicircle, 
and the Bifhophighell ina Chair, and the Deacons to ftand be' 
hind them: Tbishegathcrcth fromthe Apoji. Ccnflittit. Igm- 
tius,Dioriyftf{s -'^rcep. and the Jews Con{litutions,( in his Apolh 
form pageji,iv[(i Right ot the Church, (^c. />. 93.9-|.,95. ) 
Andifchis were fo, it fecms that Bifhops, Presbyters and Dea- 
con* wece all the Officers of one fuch Raced Congregation, and 
bad not many fuch Congregations under them : tor theBifhop 
could be hut in one place at once, and therefore this could be 
thetullomebutof one Chuichin hisDioccfs, if he had many 
whereas it is made the form of the ordinary Chriftian AfTem- 

The fame learned man ( Right of Church ;>. 65. ) faith that 

! iyiboHt 


[ About Saint Cyprians time, and not aftre^ he finds mention bffe:~ 
led C^ngregAiions in the Country ] By which it may be well con • 
jedurcd what a fmall addition the Biftiops had out of the Coun- 
treys to their City Chut chcs,and how many Congregations they 
Governed in the Apoftledayes and after. 

Heaffirnieth alio that [ the power of the Keyes belongeth /* 
the Presbyters y and that its convertible with the forver of cele- 
brating the Eficharifi, and thats the Reafon ^kj it belongs to them^ 
page 98- ibid, and that [ the Power of the Keys, that is, the whole 
.former of the Church whereof that power is the root and fourfe ,* is 
commsn to B /hops and Presbyters ] page 1 28 and that to this all 
fides agrce,/>4^f 1 06. and that by their Grant Deacons and others 
may preach Jbut not Rule or adminifier the Lords Supper ; (cepage 
1 1 8 . 1 2 3 . And he is far from being of their mind that think in 
Scripture times there was but one finglcBifliop without other 
Presbyters in a Diocefan Church: For he fuppofcd many in a 
Congregation. P4^f izd.hefaich [Tou fee by St. Paul, 1 Cor.14. 
that 9ne Ajfembly whereof he /peak/ there^ furni/hed with a 
great number of Prophets , whether Presbyters , or over and 
above them. In the Records of the Church ^we f,»d divers times 
M whole Bench of Presbyters prefiding at one yijfembly. J And 
before he had (hewed how they fate about the Biftiop, and the 
. congregation flood before them. And page 127. be faith that 
[ Clemens the Bifciple of the Apofiles^in his Epifile to the Corinthi- 
an! to compofe a difference among the Presbyters of that Church 
partly about the celebration of the Eucharifi,advifeth them to agree 
And take their turni in it. ] I confefs Iknnw not whence he hath 
this ('doubdefs not in the true approved Epiftic oi Clement J but 
it (hews in his judgement, i. That there were then many Pres- 
hytersin the Church oi Corinth. z.knd that that Church was but 
one CongregatiottjOr not very many : Elie what need the Pres- 
byters take their turns, when they might have done it at once ? 
3 o That the word Presbyter ia Clemens fignifieth not a Prelate. 
4. And it feeras this tntimateth there was then no Bi(hop in Co* 
rinth'. elfeno quellion but C/fWf»/ would have charged thcfe 
difagreeing Presbyters to obey their i3i(hop, and ufed lorae of 
Ignatius language; 5. Nay if Bilhops had been then known in the 
world , is it not likely that he would have charge^them to get a 
l^ttihopif they had not,to Govern luch a difagreeing Presbytery? 



And page 129,130,131. he (hews that [the coKaemmttjr oj 
Marcion at Romt^ andof Noelus at Ephefus , are exfrtft) faidhj 
Epiphanius,Hrfrf/I 42. /»«w. 1. (fr z> Httref. 57 num. 1. to have 
been done and faS^ed by the A Si of the Presbyters of thofe (^hhrches 

And vfhichis of later dateythe Excotumttnication of Andro- 

nxus in Svnefius $7. Spiff. ^ find reported to havepjjfedin the fame 
fort^and all this agreeable to the praSlice recorded in Scripture \ 
alledgmg, i.Tim.%,19. ARsll. \^.c\i\T)%Cyprian Ep. ,\6.^r\d 
the Apofl. ^onftit. and dkh, Bloudell in this mighc have ("pared his 
exad diligence, iC being granted, e^r. Mr. Thomdikj a! fo tells 
us pag. 62. of the words of Ninius , that [ in Ireland alone. 
Saint Patrick^ at the firft plantation ot C hriftianity founded three 
hundred and threefcoreand five Biftiopricks] And can any man 
believe that all thefe had Cities or more then one of our Pariih 
Churches , when all Ireland to this day hach nor feven ( icic- ? 
and when all this wasdoncae the filA plantation of the Gofpel ? 
I think wehabfthis fort of Epifc^aty. Even fince the Refor-i»**»c 
mition there is reckoned in Ire'andhuifoxiv Arch-b:fhops,nine- 
teen BiQiops.What think you then were 365. Bifliopj at che (iril 
plantation of the Gofpel ? 

To proceed to fome further Evidence, i . Tts manifeft in ['U' 
rnens Rom. Epifi. to the Corinthians there is reention of no more 
but two Order*; the one called fomecimeBiftiopsforaecimePres- 
tcrs, the other Deacons, p^^ 54, 55, 57. * and this he Taich the * ^^^-H^He 
Apo leJ did as k>t6rving that contention ivorild arifc ahosit the ^ \ ^^ s. 
name oj Epifcopacj.^nd that thev fo ferled ihe Mindterial Offices m^^Ht ^JfvtL 
that others Jhould fuccecd m them when fome tvere deceafed,Y or (fovnt^ xr^im 
my part I cannot fee the leaft reafon to be of their mind chat '^''°*','^< «i*- 
think Clemens here doth fpeak only ofPrtlaresor fupercminent •^*'-''^y|,^^;^ 
BilViops, f of which] refer the Reader to Mr. 5«r^c«y notes in ~;p^,;^^^/^j.*^' 
his Enpjifh Tranfliron of Clemens) But fuppofe it were fo : 6" u,bc\p;x' 
If at that timethe Churches had none but finglc Bifhop*, it \% d:(..i:itc<:^coH- 
plain then that they were but finc'e Concrcgations i for no^ 'S'""^ P''^' 
other Congreganop' having communion m tner-tncn-ordin.irv, .^opyob-.rjc^m 
publikc worfhip, cou'd be managed without a Biftiop or Pre«by- spr/:tu.Rpi;- 

copos c?- Cm-. 
e$to^ coru^qtti Credit'irl fcwf.]! know that '-riyr'o'>a< is fuppofcd by fomc to rcfpcft only 
die place of t'Kir )>icachiniT , and not of th;ir fettling Eifhops : Hiii iSc words ac 
coidnfj to the inoic obvious jMain fence do f.cin to extend it to both, and makcnofucf^ 
diftcrenov at all. 



tcr to do the work.But for them that fleight Ht.BHrtom & other 

-mens plain Reafons concerning the judgement of Clem. Romanus, 

^nd force his words to fpeak what they mean not , I defire them 

to obfcrve the judgement ofGretins whom they profefs fo much 

to value: who in his Epiflol. 162 ad Bignon. gives this as 

one Reafon to prove this Epiftic of C/fwf«/ genuine [^uod 

nuf^mm meminiti exfortls illius Spifcopornm antoritatis, qnt Ec- 

cleftAConfuetudine poft Marci mortem Alexandria, at<j; eo exem- 

slo alibi, introduci cepit , fed plane fit Paulps /Ipoftolus oflendit 

.Ecclefias commpmi Presbperorttm ejuiiidem omnes & Epifcopi ip- 

fi Pauloq-y dicunttir , confiUo fmjfe gubernatas. Nam quod 

«,'f;^'/;fea, Kivi'ra.ii <^ KAi^-ii nominat, omnia ifla nomma non ad 

BcclefiamfedadTemplumHierof. pertinent: unde infer t omnia 

reSo ordine agenda, fi fftdait, tanto magis Chrifianis ~\ You 

fee that Grotiut { then, ) and Clemeus, in his judgement, were 

againft Prelacy. ^aU^cL^H^ 

2. The very fame I fay or^reiacif^, Phikp.vihkh men- 
tioneth only two forts. Presbyters and Deacons. 

3 . And though Ignatius oft mention three,it Teems to mc that 
they were all but the Governours or Minifters ofone Congrega- 
tion, or of no more people then oncof ourPari(he«. In the 
Epiji.adSmyrn.hc faith [ 0'^<'^ S.v (pctvTi t-TncM-©-, ?^w li^ Thii- 
%©- i^Ui Jem? omv '/fi^oi, Tirkaa. .« «fctV/©- c^nl 7mfir»iyur. 
i. e. Vbi Epifcopus prafens fuerit, illuc & plebs Congregetur, 
ficHti & ubi Chrifius efl omnis militia coeleflis adefl j as ihe com- 
mon interpreter tranflateth it, [ ut vid. efi in Edit. Perier.ii & 
Vfherii,'] &c. [ Vbi comp4ruerir Epifcopus, ibi & Multitpidofit; 

%.quefnadm&dum ftbi Chrijiut,ibi omnis aftat exercitns caleftis] 
as Hicr. Vairlenius & fidelius trarflateit: O^ \_Z'hiuticj, 
apparet Epifcopus, ilUc multitude fit; qaemadmodum utic^^ ubi 
eft Chriftui fefus,illic CathoUca Ecclcfa^ as VJhcrs old Tran- 
lacion. And by tbeContexcicappeareth that chisp/f/^f.or mul- 
titudo is the Church which heruleth,andnot only oneCoPgre- 
"■gation amongmany that are under him: For this dorh with- 
out diftindion bind all the people one as well as another , to 
be where the Btfhopisorappearech,z'»^.inthe publick AiTem- 
bly for Communion in Worfhip. It is plain therefore there chat 
were not then many fuchAffemblies under him : ocherwife all 
iaveone muflhave ncceffarily difobeycd this command. 



And in the EpilHe to the PhiUde/pkUns he hath Q M«it >«> 

ire. [ Vna emmefi ^^'^^^Ei^fSigl^'&ii M^^^^ 
litis fan^His ^tii pro nobis t^f^S(]i^&um*s cahx'cjui^oc'mn bus 
nobii difi' ibhtus tjl^ ^fifo pa H it . tjni » mntb44s fmUu ^ ( i-^ ptnUm at- 
tar e omni Eccle fix ^ C^ Hnu^ EpifcopHS CHm pr esbjttror urn Colls- 
gio C^ Diaconis confervis intis. J 

Hcreic ismanifcUthacthc pArcjcular Church wh*ch in thofe 
dayes was governed by a Bifliop, Presbytery and Deacons, was 
but one Congregation- tbr every fuch v huuh had bu: one 

Obje<5i. But fovte Greeks Copies leave out rm^u n ' U^<.7.y(r't ■' . 
Anfw.i. The corrupt vulgar rranflition might occalion (he 
change ofthe rexr,lai[h Bifliop Vfher ( Annot. i» loc, pa^e 40. ) 
[_intcrmediaiUa^ ex interpretatione hac excidijfe videantur. 3 
2. Theold tranfluionof Biihop Vjher whitli leaves it our, yec 
ha:h TJtium Ahare cr unus EpiJcopttSt &c. and the fence :s :he 
famcif the other words were ouc. 3 /^»rfr/«j hach rhe like in 
other placei,as wc fhall fee Jmon; which t'orbiddcth fiKh quarrels 

Objeft. But faith the Learned and Godly Biiliop Dotvname^ 
( Drf. Ii.2. cap.<re 1 09 ) the word Altar btin^ (xpounded • 
for the Communion tab'e^ is not likely, ad too wuch favour eth 
•f Popery: but by one Utar is meant t hrifi who fanElifieth all our 
Sacrifices andOrUtifins and maketh them accept able to Cod-^ a^- 
Ignatius expoundeih himfelfin hs Epifiie to the Af.tgncfi i»s : All 
AS one run top^ether into the Temple ofCod.uxio one fefuj Chrijl m if 
Tvere unto one Altur. \ 

To tliisl anfwer, thic ic is fomc confirniarion to mc, that 
the words are foexp-cfs thac To learned a man haih no more 
to fay by way of evalion. I-ordoubt'eis this is too p, ofs and 
palpable to fatisfio the judicious impartial reader, i. That tlie 
very text which he eireth of t'le EpiRIe to the Afacrneftans 
doth m.ike fully agair.ll him 1 HihH l^icw anon. 2. That it is not 
Chrift that is hereby the «>' ^"''"'i^'os jsevident, i.Id 
chat Chrill his flcfh and blood are before diQindlv mentioned : 


-J. In that the word is put in order among the external Ordinan* 
ces: 3. Inthatitisfoufual withother ancient writers and /^»/6- 
/iWhimfelf to ufe the word Qfs-a.s-ne'oi' in the fence as we now 
take it, that it will be plain violence to imagine that it is Chrift 
that was meanc by ic. And for Popery, there is no fuch matter 
of danger, in ufing a word Metaphorically: Otherwife m^ 
we ffroft fttikc rft^ ' Ahf icfit?cbl!irnomy^ to be friends to Popery ^ 
for they ordinarily. call. theXords-Xableandthe place where ic 
flood 9y3-/*r,'P oj/ : I fay TheTableand the Sacrariptm sr place 
oj its (iandittg : for thisfeems plainly the meaning of Ignatius : 
fo faith h:(h'^)^VPjer AfiMot. inloc. ubi ff*p. Q Altare apftd Pa~ 
tres menfam Domini cam fajftm demtat ^^;<<!i Ignatium ^ Polj- 
carfum^ Sacrarium qt4$f^. \ So H. Stephens Altarium Sacrarium. 
See what LcarnedMr.ThomMke himlelf in hisRight oft he Church, 
^c. page 116. faith to this purpofe more largely ; where con- 
cerning Ignatius hisufe of rhe fame word to the Ephefians he 
faith [ where it is manifejl that the Church is called a Sanmina- 
ry or place sffacrlficiyig : Mr. Mead in his Difcourfe of the name 
Altar page 14. (hewcththat Ignatius by ^vftcfrnpiov means the 
Lords Table ^tndukesVideliHs his conceffion,as of a thing that 
could not be dcnyed. in the Epiftie of Ignatius ( or whoever 
elfe} to Polycarp Bi(hop of Smjrna htimh^Crebriuscelebran- 
tur convent us Synodiij-^ Nominatim omnes inquire. Servos d* 
ancillas ne faflidias ( as Vairlenius tranflateth ) or ( as Bifliop 
ZJ Piers old Tranflation ) Sape Congregationes fiant. Ex nomine 
omnes qu^re : Servos ^ ancillas nedefpicias. •- ■■] Whe- 

ther this were Ignatius or not, alls one to roe, as long as lufe 
ic but hiftorically to prove the matter of fad in thofe rimes. Buc 
furely no man (liouid marvail if I hence gather that great Poly- 
carp was Bifliop but of one Congregation, when he muft enquire 
or take notice of every oneof his Congregation by name, even 
as much as fervants and maids. I would every Pa rifliMiniller 
were fo exadly acquainted with his flock 1 
Another paffage there is in Ignatius to the fame purpofe^^/Jii)?. 

fid Magnef. Vjldv-ni w( il<y In top veto? 9^8 cwrfivjkn, o; e-rr 
iv 'iVTicL^dfiov , iTJi Im UfcUv %p/rc;', ^ i.e. Omnes admati ai 
7 tmplum Dei concurrite , ^cut ai unum A It are ■, ficut ad nnum 
^efum Chriflum , as the vulgar tranflation. Or as Vairlenius , 
{_Omnes vdut unus quiff iamin templumDei concurri-.e^ velut 



ad fitftm Alnare \ ad hnnm Jefum Chrtflnm \ So the old Latine in 
Vfher to the fame purpofe. And in the words beforegoing he 
bids them [^ Come all to or.e place for prayer] Here is no room 
for Bilhop Dor^nams conceit , that its Chrift thats meant by 
Bv7ig.^piov : For they are plainly put as diftinrt things : as if 
he fhauldfay, come all ts one Altar ^ as to okc Chrift. i. e be- 
caufe itiibnt one Chriji that is there to he partakfd of. All this 
doth (o evidently prove that in thofe dayes a Bifliop wich his Pref- 
bytery and Deacons, had but one Congregation meeting at on;: 
Altar for Church Commnnion in the Eucharift, that it caufed 
Mr. Mead ( in his Difcourfe of Churches pag. 48, 49, 50. 
Cent. 2. ) to fay as followeth, having cited thelc words of I^- 
natius \_ Loe here a Templew'th an Altar in it, whether the Ai^g- 
nejiarss are exhorted to gather themfelves together to praj: Ts come 
together in one place ^ dec. For it is to beobfervedthat inthcfe Pri- 
mitive times thej hud bttt one Altar in a Churchy as a Symbole^ 
both that thej rfovftjipped bftt one Goh through one Mediator Jefus 
Chrift^ andalfo of the Vnitj the Chnrch ought to have in it felf. 
Whence I gnat; us mt only here, bftt alfo i» his Efifile to the Phila • 
delphians nrgeth the unity of the Altar for a motive to the Con* 
gregatioH to agree together in one '• For unura Altare ( fai h he ) 
omni Ecclcfiac, &unus Epifcopus cumPresbyterio & Di?iconis 
confervis meis. This cfi[iome of one Altar isftill retained by the 
Greek. Church : The contrary ufe is a tranfgrfjfisn of the Latine:, 
not only Symbolically implying, bm really introducing a 7nhv^e\^^ 

• Sec. Nay more then this it fhould feem th^t m thofe fir ft 

times, before Dio,cjJes were divided into thofe hffer ar-idfub rdi' 
nate Ch^rches^ rveca Inuw Pari/hes, and Presbyters afftgned to 
them, they had nH only one ■'^ Itar in one Church or Doininicumj 
but one to a Church , talking Chnrch for the company or 
Corporation of the faithfull, stnitcd under one Bi/h-^p or Pdftor , 
and that was in the City er place where the Biftjjp had his 
Sec and Refidencf, like as the J evrs had but one Altar anJi Ttmp'e 
for the -ivhole Nation united under one h gh Prtcft. And yet as the 
Jews hadthiir Synagogues, Jo per hap i might they have more C'Vi- 
tori y then one'^ thouq^h thtir A liar were bs:t one-, there namely where 
the Ripyjp was. D.e \'o\\o faith Juftin NUrtyr, omnium cjui vel 
in oppidis vcl ruri degiinr, in eundem locum convcntus fie: 
Namely as he there tel/s us, to celebrate, and participate the holy 

N 2 Eucharifi, 

■EuchdriJ}. Whj was this , bht becattfe they had not many pljtcet 
to celebratdn ? ani nnlifs this -were fo^ whence cams it elfe 
that a Schifmatk/il Bi/h->p tvis /^(^conftituere or collocare ali- 
ud Altare ? andthut a Bijhopattdan Altar are made correlatives? 
See i", Cyprian £/?//?. 40. 72, 7:?. deumt. Ecclef. And thut 
perhaps is Ignatius to be ttnderfiooi in that forequotedpafa^e of 
hu'B.v Sujiagvpiov Unum Alcarc omni Ecclefiae, & unus Epifco- 
pus cum Presbyterio & Diaconis 1 So far Mr. A:^ead. 

1 hope upon the confenc offo admirable e Cricick and learned 
man,it will not be (o much blame-worthy in mc,if I fpeak fomc- 
whatthe more confidently this way ^ and fay, that 1 think that 
the main confulion and Tyranny that hath overfpread the Chur- 
cheSjhathbeen very much from the changing the Apoftolical 
frame of Churches, and fetting up many Altars and Congre- 
gations under one Bifliop in one ( pretended particular ) 

I had three or four paffages readv to cite out of Ignatius , but 
thefe are fo exprefs , that I apprehend the reft the lefs nectfTiry 
to be mentioned. 

The next therefore that I (hall mention ftiall be the forementi- 
oncd words of Jufiin Martyr Apol. 2, cited by Mr. Mead^ 
and by others frequently to this purpofe : In which I obfervcall 
thcfc particulars full to the purpofe. i . That they had but one 
AfTembly each Lords day for Church communion for one 
Church. 2 . That this was for reading and prayer and the Eucha- 
rift.3.That the Prefidcnt(who is commonly by thofcofthe Epif* 
copal judgement faid to be here meant the Bilhopj did preach 
and give thanks and adminifter the fuppcr: f; that it was ad- 
minirtred but tooneCongreg.icionas under that Bifhop of chat 
Church, for he could not be in two places at once. 4. That to 
the Abfent the Deacons carried their portion after the confe- 
cration : fo that they had not another Meeting and Corgregati- 
onby themfclvesfor thatend. Thisisall fo plain that I fhall 
think it needeth no Vindication. So that were there but thefe 
two Tcftimoniej, I fhould not ma'-vail if Biftiop Downam had 
extended his confeffion a little further , when he arknowledgeth 
( l.cap. 6. page 104. . that \_ At the fi>^^ and namely 
in the time efthe Apoftle V2i\i\^the woji of the Churches fofoon after 
their Converfion^ did not each of them ex eed the proporrien of a 



fop ulous C<mgre Ration ^ ] T And then wearenot out info inter- 
preting the words ofTattl and other writersofthe holy Scri- 
pture. ) The next that I (hall mention ( whocver^Was or when 
ever he lived J is Dionjf. ^e ^'cctef. HicvArch.caf. ^. where he 
tells us th^t the Pracrcd ( who was the Bi(hop,if there wcreany^ 
did Baptize rhofe that vt ere converted, and the Presbyters and 
Deacons did but alliO: him : And abundanceof work hcmenti* 
or.cth wh ch they had with all that they Baptized, and they cal- 
led all the Congregition together who joyned m Prayers with 
the B'Oi )pa[: theBaptifm. A'l wtiich lliews that he wis then 
the Bifhcp but of one pirticular Church, which ordinarily Af- 
fcmbled together for pub!ick wo (hip. For, i. If he had many 
(uch Churches or Conghgac ions under him, he could not be thus 
prefent to celebrate Bp.tlm in themail. Nor would one only be 
mentioned as his charge. 2. Nv-r is it po(iible that one Bi(hop 
(hiulJ •ich foloiigawiy or'tJaptifme as is theredefcribed, be 
able to B;^prizea!l tl.cperfors in a Diocefs fuch as ours, or the 
twe.nicthpartof tlcm,much lels in thofe times , when befidcs 
thelnfant^ot Believers, the moft eminent fort of Bipcifm, and 
greatelt labour, was about the multitudes of Adult Converts 
that by the Gofpel were daily added to the Church. 

Gregory Th.iumatfirgus was as by force made Bifhop of 
Neoeej^rea : and yet his whole Diocersor City h:\6 but Icven- 
teen''. hriftiansin it at his entrance, though when he died he found 
upon enquiry hut fevenreen Pagan?, (o great a change was made 
by the Gofpel and by Miracles ; I'ut by thisDioceTs offeventeen 
fouls we may conjedure what the (^'hurchcs were in thcfe times 
(though we (hould allow others to be an hundred times as great 
they woulJ not be foqreat as the tenth pari; of many PariOiesin 
f Wrftr^JSeethetruth of this parage in Greg. Ntjfen Oi atio in 
Cjreg. ThittmAtttr. twice over he recites it. And Bafil. Aiag /. 
dt Spir. Sane, c 1 9. And Roman. Brevier. Die i 5 Novemlf. 
And the Mcnolog Grac. mentioned before Greg, Nencefar, 
works Printed aS-Pjins i 622. But I (hall return to fome before 

The next that I ftxi\] cite is Tertuf/ian, that well known place 
in his -^pofog. r. -3 9. [ Corpm fttmus de eonfcientia Re:i(rio>iis cf* 
DiCc'tphnt umtate c^fpeijcdrre. Coimusm coetHm (fr Confrrrirati- 
oncm Ht ad [)eum quaf nunti fji^a frccAtionibns am^iantHS 

N 3 orantes. 


crantes. — -^ Cegimur addiv narHtn Uttrarum Commemoro'tionem 

—^(^eru Rdem fanclis vocibas fafcimHs^fpem erigirnus fyiiici- 

ant fij^imm^ dijciplinam praceptorum nihilominHsi»cttlcationi'_ 

bns denfumus ' ibidem etiamexhortationes^ Cafiigarioues, ^ ce»- 

fara Divina : M,tm & '^udicainr magno cnrnfondtre ut apud cet' 

tos deDci confpe^u -^ fummum^-^ futuri judicii pfeejudicium eft 

ficjiiisita deli^juerit^ut a communicatioKe Orationis^c^ conventus, 

(^ omnis Jan[li commercii relegetur.PrafdentprobAti qtiicj, fe»i' 

ores J &c. J If I be able to underltand Tertuliian , it is here plain 

that each- hurch conlilted of one Congregation, which affembled 

for Worfliip , and Difciplinc aconceorin one place, and this 

Church was it that had Prelldcnts or Seniors to guide them both 

in Worfliip and by Difcipline. So that if there were any more 

ofthefe AfTcmblicsin one particular Political Church, then there 

were more Bifliops then one,or clfe others befidcs Bifhops exer- 

cifed this Difciplinc •• But indeed its here plainly intimated that 

Bifliops were then the Guides of Congregations ( fingle,} and 

not ofDiocelT^s confining of many fuch, 

I fliall put Tfrr/iY/^w/ meaning out of doubt bv another place, 
and that is, deCoro»a Alilitts cap. '}. [Eucharifii^ Sacramem-^ 
turn Crin tempore villus, ^ etnnihm mandatmn a'Vomino^eti- 
am Ant clue an: s ritibus , nee Je a/iorum manu ]u mprttfidentiutn 
fmnimHs. \ And sf they received this Sacrament of none but tfe 
Prefidents, ( and th^i every Lords day at !eifl,as no doubt they 
did) then they cou'd have no more Congregations in a Church 
then they Iiad Prefidents. And f though ?*??wr/w fay that by 
Prefidencs here :s meant alfo Presbyters, yetj ^lofc that we now 
difputeag.unlljUnderftiAnd it of the ; relarcs. i^nd if they will not 
fo do,then may we will interpret [he forcfaid paffj-ge be 
meant of the fame fort of Prefidents . and then you may foon fee 
v/hat Bifliops were in Tertulnansdiyts. For we have no reafon 
to think that they are not the fame fort ofOffrcer--; which be cal'eth 
Prcfidenrs,and of whom he 'here (a\th,Pr<tftd(rjt probati Stniores. 

So in the foreg'^ing words in Tertu//ia»^ibi^.ni fa'd [ AcjuMm 
Adituri ibidem ^ fed ^ aHqnando prius ir. Ecclef.afub -^nti^itic 
manit ccntejl amur 7S0S renunciare Diabolo^Qr Fvmpitc^ angd s eyu j 
Where it leems that there were no more thus initisted then the 
^«///?Y/himfc!fdid firll thus cngige in the Congregation •, And I 
hdieve they take this Amijles^or a Bifli*)p. 


And hereby the way let this argument be noted. Seeing its 
part doubr that the firft fence of the word Ux-Muit is the C^r^j 
or holy AfTu-mbly it felf, why (liouidthc Meeting pUcehe fo of- 
ten called alfo Ecc/efia in thofe tinie*,in the borrcyvcd fence, but 
only in Relation to the People there afTembled? and ifs phin 
that it was but one Congrcg.icion and not a.any chat afTembled 
in that pl::ce : and therefore it was from that one that the Place 
is q^Wq^ Eccfejia. That it is oft fo called, befides this place of 
Tertulimn (which feems {o to life the word ) I refer you to 
Mr. yl/f<<^jexcrcitation of Temples, who proves it dilujidly in * Very many 
the fcveral Centuries. That faying o(Theophi/(4s /IntiochtMusad P^"^?'-"^ »" 
Antoljc'rdm feems to intimate the whole that I intend [^ficDe- tjimtrthat"' 
us didit mundd <jui p:rca(orum tfrnpcjlatibus Cr Naufragtis jatla- then the Dio- 
tur, Sjiuigngjs, qtiAS Ecclcftas Sanflas N( minumns in cjuibfis ve <^efles v ere 
ritari.r cicBrinafervct^ad^HasconfugiuHt veritatis jiudtoft, quot- '""{''P^rnaps 
qmt f.lvarl^ Dtic]^ jitdictnm ^^ irAm evitarevolttnt. ■ ^^ ^^^^ hux. iHitm Al 
the Churches oftholc cimes which were as Noahs Ark,and where t.ire : As v hca 
fafety was to be found for the foul, were S\ nagogues or AfTem- he faith that 
blics. So Tertiil. de IdoloLitr c. 7. pAg. ( mihi ) 171. Teta die ad ^ ^P'^^^O'^-'o 
hjyic pArtcm z.elns fidci peroravit , tngenuii Ckrlfliantim ab Idolii in Jn\ n :^ 'J^r 
Ecclcfiam ventre^ de adver aria cfficina in domum Dei venire. — J nihil fin.^ Can- 
ute more places of Tertullian cited by Pamelius on this place cU'o vefl:o df 
num. 29. pa^e ill. fpccially fee that dt vir?. Ve land. cap. 13. fi^<^ ^onfmfit, 
;.224 plebfsmc^, 

* C/eme.'JS yl/ex.indrinus hath divers p.'.fljges to thepurpofc/c«//;tVfmr 

&c. And 

£ Vrtih'ibcM^ur olfhrCy afliia .ip:id noSy & apud ro/tfc'h,c^ ipfos, & apicA plebcm .iniveyfafft 
cmf.m ptam J And [ H^ec fingulvrum trait.t'ida. fi: & hm.i/ida pleniia rat'!o,no>!- tantum cumj 
CO Icgh me:s, fed &■ cum pkbc ipfa iintvnfd ] And \_yt.y plcb: pcrjuadcutimmo cxtorqu-cOy at 
tiilc< Oali.iiif :r admitU,&iufl':oY fattui t'jifi.itr,mtatii dolor,e.x co quod urns alq; alius obnitente 
p!(bc& CO •Jy.idicaitvtme.i ta,n':fifacUitaefufccpti-,pciores c.xtitcrn/i' — ^How the UnJvcrf.1 plebs 
of innny Congregations or a Dioccfs like ours, flioiild be confultcd and hear and do 
any thing ro admi(Vion or cxclufio. 1 from Connuunion , and be advifed withbyCy- 
priiVt inaUfiich affiirs , i^not tahc to conceive. Sec his ii/?//^. j. 6. 10. l?3 14, i(?,3I, 
t7->z^-, .?;, 40, &c. 

l*criift all the cltatiens of Blamd^t'll de jure J'lebis 'f.i Rcg':m. Ecclcf. and fee whether 
I icy Intinv^tc not the fmalncfs of their Dioccflcs. ( Though I believe they prove no fmfi 
thing as pi 0|iei Government in the people. ) ^Jirfpcriifc all the Authors cited by him to prove that d'c EcclcfJ.c M:tl'. 18. refers to the Congiegation of Paftors and peo- 
ple together ; and it will much co firm t'le j->oint in hand, liliallnot recite any of 
rhcm , bccaufc you nvy t!\cre finj ncm in the end of Giotuis d.: hnpcio Sim. Potcjh 



now in hand. Stromat, U.j, in the beginning, hcmentioncch 
thcChurchand its officers, which hedivideth only into two forts, 
Prefbyters and Deacons. But 1 will name no more particular per- 
fons, but come to fomc intimations of the point before us from 
cuftomes or Praftices of chc Church and the Canons of Coun- 

And it feeras to me that the dividing of Parifties fo long after 
( or of Titles as they are called ) doth plainly tel! us chjic about 
thofe times it was that particular Pol cical Churcli,did Hrll con- 
tain many (\ated Congregations. And though it be uncertain 
when this began ( Mr. TA^r/j^/^ as we heard bcforc,conjedur- 
eth , about Cyprians dayes ) yet we know that it was long atrer 
the Apoftles, and that it was Itrange ro lefs populous places long 
after it was introduced at i?owf and /Alexandria, where the num- 
ber of Chriftians,& too much ambition '»f the Bilhop.occafioned 
the mukiplicati«>n of Congregations under him,and fo he became 
a Bifliop of many Churches ( named as one ) who formcly was 
Bifhopbucof aftngle Church. For if there had been enough, 
one hundred or Efcy or twenty or ten years before, to have m'.dc 
^many Parifhcsor dared AiTemblies for communion in worfh p, 
then no doubt but the light o!1SIature would have diredcd them 
to have made fone ftarcd divifions before-, For they mull needs 
know that God was not the God of Confufion but of order in 
all the Churches ,- And they had the fame teafons before as af- 
ter : And perfecution could no: be the hi/ d;ancc any rr.oreat 
firftthen at la!l: For it was under periccucing E pipeiours when 
Patifheior Tir"?!^ werediflinguiflieJ, aiid foit might, notwiih-- 
fUndii g pcrfecations have been dune .^s well at firll: as at laft, if 
there bad been the fame rcafon. <t feems therefore very pl.iin 
to me that it was the incrcafe of Converts that ciufed this divifi- 
on of Titles, and that in prancing of Churcbe^by the ApolUes, 
and during their time, and much afcer, the Chaches confifici 
of no more then our Piriflies, w;;o being moft ii.tiabitants of the 
Cities had their meetings there ^^'ul! communim , though 
they might have other fuborJrnate meetings aswemvenow in 
mens houfes for Repe*!<ri^Ser::.ons and Prayer. 

And as Mr. Thorndke out of N nius te'.ls us of 365. 
Bifbopricks in /rc/.w^ planted by Patrick., fo oih«r Auihors tell 


iisthac FatrickyiM the firft Bi(hop therc; or as others and more 
credible, lUllaAius the firft, and Patricks next : and yet the Scots 
in Irelandhid Churches before Palladias his daves, ( as Billiop 
TJjher(ht\vtth de Primordlis Ecclef.'Brita>j.'J9S,j99,Soo^8cc.) 
Johannes Major dc gcjiis^i^oiitrum li. Z.cap.Z. prioribus illistem^ 
foribnsper Saccrdotcs (^ Monachos^fine Epifcofis Scotosin fide 
ernditos fmjfe affirmau Bt ita fane ante Jl'fajorein fcripfit Jo- 
hannes Vordonus ^.cap.'^. [AmePiWadiiadven' 
turn habibant Scott fide'i Da&ores ac SacrameKtorurA Aiiniftr atones 
Presbjteros folummodo vtl Aio»aches , ritum fecjticntes Ecc/ejitc 
Primitiv£ C N. B. j Of which faith Ufher [ ^luod pojiremunt 
tibmaccepilfevidetur ^m dixerunt ( »r Johan. Semecj »« Glcjfa 
Decretidift. LegitHHs^ \ijmd in Prima Primitiva Ec" 
clefiA commune erat cfficium Epifcopornm CT* Sacerdottim : C^ 
2^mina erant communia , Q^ o^cium commune ; fed in fecMnda 
primitive c^epertint dinjiigm cr nomina & officia.]So that it feems 
that fome Churches they had before •, but Palladins and Patrick^ 
came into Jre/and,is /lugufline'mto England^ and abundantly 
increafed them, and fettled withall the Roman Mode ^ So thac 
it feemed like a new Plantation of Religion and Churches there. 
Yet it feems that the Bifhops fetled by Patrick,( fave that himfclf 
an Archbifliop was like our Bifliopsj were but fuch as were there 
before under the name of Presbyters, faith Fordon^aL^ier the rite or 
fafhion of the Primitive Church. 

And faith Vj7;er ibid. p. 800. [ Hcftor Bocthias ftiijfe didt 
Palladium primnm omnium pii Sacrum inter Scotos egere Magi^ 
firatum a fummo Pontifice Epifcopum creatum : quum Anten 
PopHllffiffragiis ex Monachis ^ Caldei^ pentififesajjfimerent/nr. 
boeth Scotorum Hifior. lib. 7. fol. izS.b. 

And he adds the faying of BaUus , (Scriptor. Britaniccenfur. 
1 4. cap. 6. J [ ^ CAlefiiro ilium mijfum 41/ Johannes Balaeus, 
ut Sacerdotalem ordincm^ inter Scotos Romano risH injiitueret.Ha" 
bebant ( inquit ) antea S cot i fuss Epifcopos ac Aiinifires ^ ex 
verbi Divini A^ir.ijlerit pltbiumfpijfragiis eltfleSy preut Aftano*^ 
rum more fieri apud Britsnnos videbAnt : Sed htec Romanis, ut 
magis ceremoniofis at(^ue Afianorum oforibus ^non pUcebant \ By 
thcfe pafTages it is cafie to conjefture whether tbey were Bifhops 
of a County,orBifhops of a Parifh that were there in thofc daief^ 
For my parr I heartily wifti that Ireland had three hundred iixty 

O five 

five good Bifliops and Churches ar this day, even when th^ 
whole Nation profefsthcmfelvcs CO be Chriflians, (which then 
they did not. ) 

To this purpofe runs the 14. Cam)i Concilii Agath. (and if it 
were fo then, much more lonq ht^o^^'jfLSiqms etiam extra. 'Pa- 
rochlut in^^uihus le^itimus tfi ordinnr'mjq:^ convent Uf orator ium 
habere voluerit reltcfnis feftivitatibHs^ nt tbi Alijfam audljt^ prop • 
ter fatigMiomm familit^ JHJla erdinatione permittimfts. Pafcha 
verOyNatali Damifiif Epiphania^ Afcenftone domini^^T emtcoftet 
^Natali SanH^i Johannis Baptiftae, ct* //f «i maxinte dies in fe* 
fiivltatibui habentur^ asn nifi in Civiutib:is, Aut Parochiis aw 
diant^ Hereit appeareth that there »va$ h\iz ont legitimtis ordi- 
ftAriufej,, convent fts in a Parifh • though they tolerated an OratO' 
ry or Chappell of eafe. And that a Parifh here is taken for a Di- 
ocefs, or fuch a Church as had proper to it fclf a Bifhop and Prcf- 
byteric, as it is probable from the ordinary ufe of the word by 
^«/e^//<j and other antientsin that fence, fo alfo from what is 
further faid in the following Canons of this Council : And fo the 
word Parilh here may be cxpofitory of the word City, or elfe de- 
note a Rural Bifhoprick. For Can. 30. faith ^BenediEiionem 
fuper pkbem in Ecclefia fttndere aut pitnitemem in Ecclejia benedi' 
cere presbjtero penitus non licebit.] And if a Presbyter may not 
blefs the people or the penitent , ( when the bleffingof the peo- 
ple was part of the work in every Solemn Aflembly for Church 
communion ) then it is manifeft that a Bifhop muft be preftnt in 
every fuch AlTcmbly to do that part which the Presbyter might 
not do T and confequcntly there were no more fuch Aflembiies 
then there were BiHiops. And to prove this more fully mark 
she very next Canon of that Council, vi^. the $ i. [^ Mijfas die 
domimco fecularibns tot as audire fpeciali ordine pr^xcipimus^ ita 
ut ante benediBionem- Sacerdot'is egredi p»pubss non prafumat. 
Quad Ji fecerint , ab Epifcopo publice confundatur] So that its 
plain that on every Lords day all the people (for here is no diftin* 
dionor limitation J were to be prefenc in the publick worfhip 
to the end, and the Bi{kopto pronounce the bieffingC whoever 
preached ) and openly to rebuke any that (houldgo out before 
it. From whence it is evident that all fuch Church AfTembiies 
for communion every Lords day were to have a Bifhop pre- 
iept wi^fe' thera to do part of the work: and therefore there. 


were no more fucb Aflembllcs then chere were Bifhops. 

In ihe 38. Canon of the fameCouncll wc find this written 
[ Cives qtii fupcriorum folefjnitatum^\^ cO, Pafchx & Natnlts 
Domini^ vcl l^entecoflesfipivutibus cum Epifcofps iHterejfeneg- 
lixerint^ejnftm in (^tvitutibus commnionis vel bentdiElionis accipi' 
endt CAhfi pofttos fe n'Jfc ciebeant, tricnnio cowmuniofte friventttr 
Ecclefu. \ So that it feems there were no more Church members 
in a City then could congregate on the feftival daies for Com- 
munion and theBifliops Blelling ; therefore there were not ma- 
ny fuch Congregations : when every one was to be three years 
excommunicate that did not Aflemble where the Biftiop was. 

Moreover all thofe Canons of feveral Councils that forbid the 
Presbyters to conhrm by Chryfm,and make it the Bifhops work, 
do (hew that theDiocefs were but fmall when the Bifl:jophimfeIf 
could do that befides all his other work. 

In the Canons called the Apoftles , cap. 5. it is ordained thus 
[ Omnium ali'.rum primitix Epifcopo Qr Presbyter is domtim 
mittunttir^ nonfuper Altdre.AiamfeJlum cjl autem ^uod Epifcopus 
(^ Presbjicri inter DlacsHOf & reliijtios clcricos eas tJividftnt.] 
By which it appcare:h that there was but ore Altar in a Church 
to which belonged the Biflaop, Presbyterie, and Deacons, who 
lived a!l as it were on that Altar. 

And Can. 32. runs thus [_ Si^uis Presbyter centemnem Epifct- 
pfim fnfim,reor/jm C9liegerit^& Alt^re Aliuderexerit^mkil h^beM's 
tjuo rebrehe»dut Spifcuphm inCAnfapietatis C^ jMJlitiie^deponatur 

<^nafi principAtfij amator txiftens Hxc autem poji unam & [e ' 

cnndam & tertiam Spifcopi obfecratioriem fieri convemat. ] Which 
ihews that there was then but one Convention and one Altar to 
which one Bifliop and Presbyters did belong : So that no other 
A (lembly or Alrar was to be fet up apart from the B -.(hop by any 
Presbyter that had nothing againft the Bifhop in point of Godli- 
lelsor Juftice. 

AndT believe if Bifhops had a whole Diocefle of two hundred 
or three hundred or a thoufand Presbyters to maintain, they 
would be loth to ftand to the fifty eighth Canon which makes 
them Murderers if they fupply not their Clergies wants : But let 
chat Canon pafs as fpurious. 

And long after when (^oncilittm Vafenfc doth grant leave to the 
Presbyters topreach,and Deacons to read Homilies m Country 

O z Pahflies 


Pariflics as v;ell ftiews that fucli Parifiies were but new 
and imperfeft Afleroblies. 

In thcCouncil of LAodiceaihz 56. Canon is [ Ko^ eponet 
Tresbjteros ame ingrt^nm Eplfcopi ingredi Ecclefiam^ (^ fedtre 
intrihunalibHSt fed cum Spifcopo ingredi- nl ft forte AHt agrotet 
iBpifcopfis^AHt in pcregrinationis commodo eptm abtj[e conjliterit. ~\ 
By which it feems that there was but one AfTemby in which the 
Bifliop and Presbyters fate together : Orherwife the Presbyters 
might have gone into all the reft of the Churches without the 
Biftiop at any time, and not only in cafe of his ficknefs or pere- 

The fifth Canon of the Council 0^ Antioch is the fame with 
that o^ (^ar., y^/jo/?. before cited, that no Presbyter or Deacon con- 
temning his own BiJbop^Jhxll withdrAw from the (^hurch and ga^ 
ther An Afferrfblj apart ^ and fet up an Altar. By which ftili it 
appears that to withdraw from that *^jffw^/;,was to withdraw 
from the Church,and that one Bi(h^p had but one Altar andA^'em- 
ihe"ch ^rch^s ^^y ^^^ Church Communion. 

wo-e no"/fo^^ ^^^ CenciLCarthag. 4. Can. 3 5 . which order the fitting of the 
largeasfome Presbyters and Bifhup together in the Church: And many de- 
Imagine, even crees that lay it on the Bifliop to look to the Church lands and 
atthefixth goods, and diftribute to the poor the Churches Alms, do (hew 
Council at ^^*^ ^^^^^^ Dioceftcs wcre h\x\ fmall,or elfe they had not been fuf- 
Trui.incon- ficient for this. 

ftantimp. All the premifes laid together mc thinks afford roe this conclu- 

when Canon ^^^^ j. jjgf the Apoftolical particular Political Churches were fuch 
aeredtHatwiii ^^ confifted of one only Worftiipping Congregation ( a Con- 
the fiftW gregation capable of perfonal communion in publick worftiip) 
day of the and their Overfcers ; and that by little they departed from this 
^eek the form,cach Bifhop enlarging his Diocefs, till he that was made at 
Baptized were fi^ft the Biftiop but of One Church, became the Bifhop of many, 

ro fay over j/r ^ c r^ i. r ■ ^ Belief ^^d fo let Up a new frame of Oovernment, by fettmg up a new 
totheBifliop kind of particular. Churches. And thus was the primitive Go- 
«.•!■ the Presby- vernmenc corrupted, while men meafured their charge by the 
licrs: And It cjfcuit of Ground, thinking they might retain the old compafs 
Diocefl\s"as when they had multiplied converts, and therefore (hou Id have 
lours that this multiplyed Churches and BilliopS; * 

work could . Jo aii this I add chefc ohfervations. i. That the very NMurt 
be thus doncv ofrChHnh<^^vernmeni tels us that a' Governour muft be prefent 


np&K the place, and fee to the execution ^ For God hath made 
sts the Laivj already, and Synods mu(t in way of V»ioti determine 
of the moltadvantagious circHmJid»cesfov the performing of the 
- duties which God impofeth : And particular Cifhops arc to 
guide their particular Congregations in Gods Worftiip, and in 
order thcreco ; Their guidance is but a fubfervient means to that 
worfliip : And thereiore they rauft Rule the Church as a Cap- 
tain doth his Company in fight, or a Phyfitian his Patient, era 
Schoolmafter his School, by his own prefcncc,and not at many 
miles diftance by a Surrogate. 

2. The dodrine which makes the firfl: particular Political 
Church to confifl: of many dated Worlliipping Churches like our 
Pariflies, doth fctonthe faddle, if not alio hold the ftirrup ijpr 
a Diocef^nBifhop to get up, to head thofc prepared bodies. 

3 . Seeing the Presbyterians do confefs that it is not Necejfarj 
(but lawful j for a particular Political Church to confiit of 
many Worlhipp ng Churches, and fay. It may conftfl only of one: 
Common Realon and experience will then direft us to conclude 

that its hcfi- ordinarily take up with that one : feeing people that * As many of 
know one another, and live within the reach of each other for J."^^" \^^cix 
common converfe,and ordinarily meet and join in the fame pub- ^\^^^ J^oij \^ 
. lick Worftiip , are moft capable of the ends of Church Policy- in teims, of 
and a Paftor capable of guiding fuch, better then other Parifhes which fee 
that he knows nor. ''^l\^^ '^^^^ 

4. He that makes the Paftor of one Pari{h the Ruler of the reft ^l^i^cc to the 
adjoint'ng,doth lay upon him much more duty then fitting in a Kiformyii'^- 
Presbytcric to vote in cenfures. For thofe ccnfures are a fmall J}or;\nd even 
part of Church Government, comparatively C elfc moft Con- in this while 
giegations in En^landhdive little or no Government •, for they JhaJp^X)rs^ 
have little or none of thefe Cenfures. j Yea indeed true Church are Rulers 
Guidance or Government contains a great part, if nor moft of and ihe Pco- 
the Palloral work , which a man would be loi h to undertake P*^ "^'f.^ °^^y' 
over too many diftant unknown Cpngregations- 'I hough hemav ^.'^'^""""^r^^ 
well undertake in Synods to promote Unity, and to do the ^Vo^rdTof the 
fceft he can for the whole Church of Chrift. It therefore thofc of Kxt,H£/>. 13. 
the Congregational way,were as ncer us in oihe*" thin^s,R'i in this 17-1 ^""- 5* 
before inlided on,f efpecially if they would renounce* that preat ^'7- ^ "^^^f' ^' 
miftake^ofthe Peoples having the Power of the Keys or Go- gvamusuhac 
Ternment, and take up for them with a Judicifim Difcretioms ,y^cfkidUiu 

O 3 and 


and juft liberty ) we need not ftand ac Co great a diOance.' 
Andlartly, If Minifters of the Gofpel would tenderly weigh 
thegreatnefs of their work and charge,and the dreadfulnefs of 
their account, the worth of fouls, the power and prcvalency of 
fin, the rage of all the Churches enemies, and the multitudes of 
them, they would fooner tremble to think of the difficulties in 
Governing or guiding one Congregation in the way to heaven, 
than grafp at more, and think thcmfelves able to be the guides 
of many, and draw fuch a heavy burden on themfclvcs, and pre* 
pare for fuch a reckoning. Left they be offended with my words, 
I will fay the like in the words of Chryfoftom ( or whoever elfc 
was the Author of the Inaperfcd work) on Alattb 20. Horn. 
SS'P^Z' ( f^^^^ ) 901. ^Sihftc ergoitafe habent y fecuUrem 
^Miiem frimatum deftderare^ etfi ratio mn efl^ velcaufa efi : (Juia 
ttfi jufium Hon efl , vel utiU efi. ^Frimat/^m autem SecU- 
pafticHm coMCUfifcere , «ff; rAtio efi' , m^\ canfa : (jut a 
Mecj\ J0fium efi , w^ ; utile. Q^is tnim fapens ultra fe fubjicere 
fefiinat fervituti^ Uhori^ dolori^ (fr ^^od mnjus eft, perictilo tali 
Jit detraticncm proorufii Scclefia^ apudjufiumjudicem? Mt/i for- 
te (jut non credit fudicium T)ci^ nee timet ^uti abnttns jirimatu fuo 
€cclefta(iice feculariter^ convertat eum inSecftlarem. Sedne forte 
ijHitalii eft in appetendo primatumj profeSiumpietatis pie pratcn- 
Aat^dico^ Nftn^ifid^hi in or dine prior eft, jam &meyitit efi me Her?] 
And of the Minifterial honours he faith {ibid.) Deni^^ipft bono' 
res in Chrifts in prima ^uidem facie videntur honor es^ rcvera aH' 
tern non [tint honor es diver ft ^ [tdfunt diver fa Minifteria '• ut put a 
honor oculi videtur^ quia illuminat Corpus : Sed ipfe honor illumi' 

nandi.non eft ei honor fed 'Jl^Unifterium ejus. ] 

So much to prove the Proportion, that the late Englifli Epif- 
-copacy isnotto btrcftored, under any pretence of Order or 
Peace. -. --^ ''''-'' V- 

Wherein I have purpofelyforborn the mention of its Abufes, 
And doleful confequents, bccaufe they may fuppofc that Abufc to 
i)C feparable from the thing. 


Confequents of that which is already Troved* ' 

TO fave the debating of many great Cohtrovcrfies that break 
the peace and deftroy or dimjnifh the Charity of many, I 
raay abbreviate the work.,by giving y«u fome of the true fequcls-jfu v 
of what hath been fufficicntly proved. 

Conf.l. The taking down of the Englifli Epifcopacy w^^ Conf. i. 
( as to the thinp)fo far from being evil, and deferving the Accu- 
lations that fome lay upon it , that it was a matter of Nec^f- 
fity to theReforraation and well being of the Churches of Chrifl: 
in was no worfe a work in it felf confidered.then 
the curing ofa grievous difeafe is to the fick, and the fupplyof 
the ncceffittes of the poor in their indigence. What guilt lieth up- 
on that man, that would have all the{icktopcrifli,forfear of 
injuring one Phyfitian, that had undertaken the fole care of all 
the County ? or that would have all the County to have but 
one Schoolmaflcr : Or an hundred Ships to have but one Pilot, 
and confequcntly to perifti : How much greater is their guilt, 
that would have had the foremcntioned Epifcopacy continued, to 
tlie hazzard of many thoufand fouls, and the abafemenc and 
ejedion of holy Difcipline , the pollution of the Churches, and 
the hardening ofthe wicked, and the diflionour of God? I men- 
tion not this to provoke any to difhonour them, but to provoke 
the perfons themfelvcs to Repentance. And I intreat them to con- 
fider , how fad a thing it is, that without any great inducements 
they Ihould draw fuch a mountain of guilt upon their fouls. The 
Bifhops had the temptation of Honour and Riches : but what 
honourorgain have you to feduceyou, tochoofeafliarewith 
other men in their fin and punifhment ? 

I meddle not here with the Manntr of demoIHhing Epifco«»- 
picy, hut wit!: the Matter-, becaufe I would not mixothcr Con- 
troverfies with this . But I am confident thofe men that ufually 
own the late Epifcopacy, and revile them that demoiiflitit.fliail. 
one way or other feel ere long, that they have owned a very 
onproiltable caure,and fuch as they fhall wifli,they had let alone, 
and that it maidenctfor chcir honour to be To much enemies 



to the welfare of the Chiirch,as the enemies of the abolitior4 of 
that Prelacy will appear to be. 

Conf. 2. Conf, 1 1.' The matter of that claufe in the National (, 
Covenant,vvh)ch concernech the abolition of this Prelacy before 
mentioned was fo far froai dcferving the Reproaches and Ac- 
-cufarjon^ that are beftowed on it by fome, that it was juft and 
neceflary to the well being of the Church. 
ivotot^ In this alfo I purpofely-Hwae'the Civil controverfie aboHtthe 
authority of iaipofing, taking, or profccuting the Covenant,and 
.• fper.N only of the Matter oi it ; (to avoid ihelofing of the . 
truth by digrcflions, and new controverfics ) They that by re- 
proaching this claufe in the Covcnant,do own the Prelacy which 
the Covenant difowneth, might (hew more love to the Church 
and their own fouls, by pleading for fickncfs, and nakednefs, 
and famine, and by paffionate reproaches of all that are againfl: 
ihefc , then by fuch owning and pleading for a far greater 

Cenf. 3. Cenf. U T. Thofe of the Englifli Miniftry , that are 
againft the old Epifcopacy, and are glad that the Church is rid 
cfit,are not therefore guilty of Schifm,nor of finfulldifobedience 
to their fpiritual fuperiours. 

li any of them 6^\ifrvcar ehedience to the Prelates ( a tyranni- 
cal] impofition that God never required* nor the Primitive 
Church never ufed ^ thats nothing to ourprefcnt cafe, which 
w not about the keeping of oaths, but the obeying or re/efting 
the Prelacy in it felf coniidered. It is not fchifmatical to depart 
from an ufurpadon that God difowneth, and the Church is en- 
dangcredand fo much wronged by, and to feek to pull up the 
Roots of Schifro, which have bred and fed it in the Churches 

f, f Conf. lY. Thofe that ftill jufllfie the ejeAed Prcla- 

.Cenj. 4. ^^^ jinddefirethcreftauration ofit,asthey needlefly choofe the 
guik of the Churches defolations, fo are they not to be taken for 
men that go about to heal our breaches , but rather for fuch 
as would widen and continue them , by reftoring the main 

.Conf. 5. Conf. V. If we had had fuch an Epifcopacy as BiHiop 
Bail and Bifhop V/her did propound as fatisfadory, fand fuch 
.jumta nwnagcit, J Epifcopacy and Peace might have dwelt 


together in BngUndto this day : It \% not the the Name of a B«- 
(hop chat hdih been the matter of our troub!c,buc the exorbitant 
.y/>ff*a introducing unavoidably the many raifchiefs which wc 
have feen and felt. '* 

Conf. V I. Ordination by the eje<^ed Prelacy ,/» ffecit^ is not >, - 
of neceflicy to the being or well being of a Presbyter or Dea- ^ *"'■'• ' 
con. Ifthe ^J/jfciM of Prelacy it (c!f be proved contrary to the 
word of God, and the welfare of the Church, then the Ordina- 
tion thAt is by this Sftcies of Prelacy, cannot be neccffary or as 

Conf. V 1 1. A Parochial or Gongiegational Paftor, having ConfTl- 
aflillant Presbyters and Deacons, cither exigent or in exp(.d- 
ancCjWas thcBiftiop that was in the d^yeio^ J giatiuj ^fuftin^Ter' 
tullian^ and that Dr. Hammond defcribech as meant in many 
Scriptures, and exigent in thofedayes. I fpeak not bow to the 
queftion about Archbifhops. 

Conf. VIII. The Oi dination that is now performed by thefe ^ ^ g 
Parochial Bidiops fefpecially in anaffcmbiy, guided by their ^**"'' ' 
Moderator j is, beyond all juft exception. Valid, as being by 
fuch Biihops as the ApoHles planted in the Churches, and neer« 
er the way of the Primitive Church, then the Ordination by the 
ejefted Specifj of Prelates is. 

Cenf I X. As the Presbyters of the Church of AiexdndrU q t ^ 
did themfdves make one their Bifhop, whom they chole frora ^' ' 
among tbcmfelvcs,and let him in a higher degree ( as if Deacons 
make an Archdeacon, or Souldiers choofe one and make him 
their Commander, faith HieromadEvagr. ) fo may the Pres- 
byters of a Parochial Church now. And as the later Canons re- 
quire that a Bilhop be ordained or confecrated by three Biftiops, 
fomay three of thcfe ( Primitive j Parochial Bifhops, ordain 
or confecrate now another of their degree. And according to 
the Canons themfdvcs,no man can juftly fay that this is invalid, 
for wantoftheConfecrationby Archbifhops, or of fuch as wc 
here oppofe. 

Conf X. Thofethatperfwadethe People that the Ordina- ^^^y; iq^ 
nation of thofe in England and other Churches is null that is 
tiot by fuch as the Engliih Prelates were, and that perfwade the 
people to take tbcm for no Presbyters or Paftori^at arc not or- 

P dained 

dii^td by Tach Prelitcs, and do naike an adaal feparacion from 
our Churches aqd Minifters, and pcrf-A^adc others to the like, up- 
on this ground, andhecaufe the Mtni'.ters have difowned the 
Englifti Prelacy, and withal confefs thfl Church oFi?ow« to bcj- 
a true Church, and cheir ordination ana Priefthooi to bs juft or 
true, arc uncharitable, and dangeroufly Schifmatical ( though i 
under precence of decrying Schirm,j and many waycsinji^-- 
riousto the Church and to the fouls of men and to .thernfclYesj^. 
This Will not pleafc; butrhat,! noqonly fpeakitbutfurtheomftt- 
nifeil iCjis become NecefTary to the right Informatioo of^ojbbets,. 

p:Tov>aiiV. . .... riJ\L o^ 

The Second 



The Proteftant Ghurches 

and Ministers that have not 
Prelatical Ordination , from the 
Reproaches of thofe Dividers that 
would nullifiethem. 


Upon the fad complaints of many- 
Godly Minifters in (cveral parts of the 
Nation, whole Hearers are turning Sepa- 

By Rich. Baxter. 


Printed by Robert White, for Nevil Simmons Book- 
feller in Keder mincer* 1^58. 

The Preface. 

Chriftian Reader, 

F thou behtit for the ifttirefi of Chrijli* 
dfjity, mtre than of a party , and a Cordis 
al friend to the Churches Peace^ though 
thou he never fo much refolvedfor Efifco* 
facjj doubt not hut thou and I fhaUbe eney 
if not in each Opinin, yet in our Reltgi- 
$n^ and in Brotherly affection, and in the very bent of our 
labours and our lives ; K^nd I doubt not but thou mlt ap - 
prove of the fcope. and fubflance of this following Difputa- 
tion^ what imperfeif tons foever may appear in the Manner 
$f it, Forfurelj there is that of Cod mthin thee, that 
will hardly fuffer thee to believe , that whiU Rome is taken 
for a true Church, the Reformed that have no Prelates muf 
be none : that their Paflors are meer Lay men^ their Ordi' 
nation being Null : and co^ fequemly their adminiflrati" 
ons in Sacraments ydcc Null an do f no Validity, The Love 
that is in thee to all believers , and ejpeci ally to the Soci- 
eties <»/^ the Saints^ and the honour andtntertfl of Chrifi^ 
will keep thee ftom this^orflriveagawjl it, as nature doth 
againfi poylonor deflru^ive difeafes. If thou art not a 
meer Oftn onifl in Rehgion , but one that hafl been iUumi' 
natedby the fpiritofChrtfi^ ahd felt his lore fhed abroad 
in thy heart and hafl ever had experience of jp'rttnai com- 
munion with Chrift and his Churchy in hrs holyOrdtnan- 
set^ I dare then veniure my caufe upon tlyjud^ ement : Go 

P,3 among 


The Preface. 

Amsjt^ tijJi/pftJiAt ftnchi/fch eiir Chanhir, Ai^d i^e^rade our 
C^f-rmficrSyAm ■^cr^ftvade all peopU.ts jij, ff^m thr^^.ds^ 

ivQ7 (hip > ibetr private devoiie'n , and their h>Bok conver^d^ 
tion '■, and when thoti hafldone.cvme info cur Adcmblief^irid 
[pare fict, tfthou be imp'artt^^ ijyiobjervc our imperfect- 
ens: ]udge of our Order andDifcipline andWorflrp^tegether 
with oitr Dofiyine and our lives : and when thou haft done 
ti^'churchusjfth^H darefl , and tf thu canf^.'Wejufltfie 
not cur {(Ives or, car tpa.yesfrom hl€mifhe[ : hut ?/ thou be 
but htartily a friend. to the B^ri^dcgroom^ 'offer us then if thott 
44refi/i kill cf divorce y orrok hirr^ tfiho'tt dare ft of /•' con- 
ftderable a portion of his inheritance. Surely if thou be bis 
friend^ thou canjl hardly find in thy heart to deliver up fo 
much.of his Kingdom to his Enemy ^and to [et the name of 
the Devil onbisdoors^ and fay ^ Ihis is thehoufebf Sa<^ 
tanand not of Chtift. Jfthonhave received but what I 
have done ( though^ alas too little ) in thofe Societies^ and 
tafled in thofe Ordinances but that which I have tafled^ 
thou>wouldfl abhor to reproach them ^and cut them off from 
the portionof the Lord. 

Remember it is not Epifcopacy nor the old conformity that 
I am here sppofing, ( My judgement of thofe Caufes I have 
given in the foregoing and following dtfputation :) But it 
is only the New Prelatical Kecufants or Separatifls^ that 
draw their followers from our Churches as no Churches and 
our Ordinances of Vl'orfljip as none, or woffe then none^ and 
call them into private houfes, as the meetefl places for th^'ir 
acceptable worfhip. Who would have thought that ever that 
generation fheuld have come to thts^ that [o lately hated the 
name of fcparation.^ and called thofe private meetings^Con- 
venticles , which were held but in due fubordjnation to 
church meetings ^and not in cppcfttien to them, as theirs are! 
who would have thought that thofe that feemed to difdwn 


» The Preface,^ 

RrcufarfCfy And perfecuted SeparAtijls,ll)9uldhave ta 
this ? Tea that thofe that under Catho'ick pretences can fo 
far extend their chariti to th: Pap'fis; haveyst fo ItttU for 
none of the meaneft of ih^ir Brethren, and for [o many Re^ 
formed Protefl^nt Churches ? Tea that t^ey Ihould pre fume 
even tocenfure ut out of the Catholick Cl>urch1jr«^ con- 
jequently outof heaven it (df. [have after here given thee 
an t^rfiance in one, Dr.Hide, W;.? brandelh the vet j front of 
his Book rvith thefe Schfmattcal uncharitable (tigmata. 
rhefenflefs ^eres of one Dr. S\v^6X\Vi%,and others run in 
the fame ch.innd,cr (ink, Jfthefe men be Chriflians indeed, 
mt thinks they fhould under ftahd, that as great ( that I fij 
not greater ) blemifJ)es, way be found on all the refi of the 
churches^ as thofe for which the Reformed are by them un- 
churched : andconfe^aentlyt^cy- will deliver up All to Sa- 
isn •, an d Chrifl mnfi be defofedt And how much doth this 
come fhort.of Infaeltty ? At leafl ma thinks their hearts 
fhould tremble leafi they hear at lafl, [_ln not loving the e 
you loved not me : in defpifing and reproaching thefe,' 
you deipifed and reproached me. ] -- : • 

And yet theje men are the great cfl pretenders next th} 
Rdmantfls^ toCatholicifmr^ Vmty,andfe-acrl Strange Ca- 
tholicks that cut off fo great and exc client a part cf the Ca- 
tholick church ! ^nd a fad kind ofvnity an^ Peace which 
dlmufl be bantjhcd from, that cannot unitein their Pre- 
lacy, though the Epifcop^uy whid) I plead form t-he neMt 
Difputatten they can own Thefumm of their ojfer, is^ that 
if. all the OMin fiers not Ordained by Prelates y will confefs 
themfclvts to be meer Lay-men and no M^iflcfsofihnfl, 
and will be Ordantd again by them^ mdtfthe churches will 
confefs themfelves No Churches ,arJr'ceive the tffence of 
churches from them,andthe Sacrarmit a^^dchurh Affem- 
blici to be Null,'invalid, or unlawfull till managed only by 
TttlaticAlMi/iifiert^then they wtli havt^Pcaceand-Lommu- 


The Vrcfacc. 

»i»n wiTh us, And not till then* And indeed mu (I rve hwjfour 
C ommumenjo deer f As the A»ahpiijts do by us in the pint 
of haptiJm)fo do thefe Kecufants in the point ofOrdinAtienl 
Joumujthe Bafttzed faith one farty^for your In fa fit Bap^ 
tifm wAf09ne. Tm mufi he Ordained faith the other fort^ 
for your Ordination by Presbyters was none. J he uppiot /V, 
}Ve mufi be all of their Opinions and parties, before rve cart 
have thetr Communion^ or to be reputed by them the Mini- 
Jiers and Churches ofchrifi. And on fuch kind of terms 
as tbeje^ we may have Vnity with any Se^, 

J{ really we be not as hearty friends to Order and Difci' 
pltne in the church as they^we [ball give them leave to take 
it for ourfhame^ and glory in it as their honour. But the que- 
ftion is not, whether we mujl have Churcb-Order < but whe- 
ther it mufi be theirs^ and none but theirs i Nor whether we 
mufi have Difcipline^ but whether it ma/l be only theirs i 
Nay^with me^ 1 mu^ profefs^the queflion is^ on the other fide 
whether we mufi needs have a Name andfhew of Difcipline 
thats next to none, or elfe be no Churches or no Miniflers of 
Chrifl ? The main reafon that turneth my heart again jl the 
Znglifh Prelacy is becaufe it diddejiroy Church Difcipline^ 
dnd almofi dejtroy the Church for want of it, or by the abufe 
of it^ and becaufe it is C as then exercifed ) itsconftftent 
with true Difcipline, The queflion is not^ whether we mufi 
have Bifhops and Epifcopal Ordination, We all yield 
to that Without contradi^ion. But the doubt is about their 
Species ofEp'tfcopacy, Whether we mufi needs have Ordi- 
nation by a Bifhpp that is the [ole Goveraeur over an hun* 
dredy or two hundred^or very many particular Churchesi or 
whether the Bifhops of ftngle Churches may not fuffice, at 
lea ft as to the Being of our office < J plead not my own caufe^ 
but the Churches ^ Fori was ordained long ago by a Btjhof 
if their own with Presbjters, But I do not therefore take 
wyfelf tobcdtfengagedfromChriflUnity or Catholtcifm, 


J Tie Preface. ^ 

and hound to Uj bj the Love rvhich 1 owe to all Chrijls mem- 
bers^ or to dcnj the Communion of the Churches , whifh ts 
boih mj Duty, and I am fttre an unvaluable Mercy. And I 
mujl(4y,that 1 have (een more of the /Incient DtjctjtUne ex- 
ercifedof late , without a Prelate y in fome Partfh Chitrcb 
in En^hnd, thdfi ever I faw or heard of exercijed by tfjg 
BiP^ops in a thoufandfuch churches a'lmydayes. And it 
is not Names that are Efjentialto the church, nor that nill 
fatisfie ourexpeciatiOfis, 

Wc are for Bifhops in every Church-, And for Or Jer fake ^ 
we would have one to be the chief. We djflike thofe that dif- 
obcphemin lawful things ^ as rvUl as you. But let them 
have a flock that ts capable of their perfonal Government , 
and then ivefball be ready to rebuke all thofe that feparate 
fromtbsm^ when we can fay as Cyprian ( Epift. 69. ad 
PupLin.) [ Omnis Ecclcda? popu'us colle(5lus eft, & 
adunatus, in individua Concordia fibi jun<51us. Soli illi 
foris remanferintjquictfiintusedentjejicicndi fueranc 
— Qui cum Eplfcopo non eft, in Eccleiia non eft ( that 
is, in that particular Church.) Cyprian had a people that 
could all meet together to cor.fult or confent at leafi about the 
Communion or Excommunication of th. members , EpiO:. 
55. Cornel, he tells Cornelius how hard the people were to 
admit the lap fed or fcaodalous upon thar return if the mani- 
feflation of repentance were not full. The Church with 
whom the pcrjon had Communion^was then it that had a Bi- 
fbop^ and was no greater then to be capable of the Cogni^ 
z ance of his cattfe^ and of receiving fatisfa^ion by his per- 
fonal penitence. 

Brethren I {for fo I will pre fume to call you ^whether you 
will or not) Some experience hath perjwaded me.^ that if 
we had honefily and faithfully joyned in the practice of fg 
much of Di(cipltne., as all our principles reauire, it would 
have helped us to that experimental knowledge { bj the blef- 

Tke Preface. ^ 

fingofCod) rvhich would have brought us nearer evert in 
our Principles^ then our idle Difputations, fcparated fro?/t 
frnBice will ever do. As Auguftinepi/^ of the dif/^utes 
de caufa mali ^.Lib. de utilicat, Credendi, cap. i8.) 
Dum nimis quarunt unde fit malum, nihil leperiunt 
nifi malum] fo I m>y fay of thefe diffutes^ while we 
thus difpute about the caufes of di [order and divifion, we 
find nothing but dt [order and divtfton. 

It is eafie tocenje^ure of the ends and hearts of thofe 
thit cry down Piay asprect[enefs, while they cry up their 
Jeveral wa'es of order : it fee ms they would have ordered 
impiety : and their order muft be a means to keep down holi- 
nefs, which all] u/l order fhould promote, Thofe men that 
ean fall in with the mofl notoricujly ungodly, and favour 
and flatter them for the flrengthening oj their interefi^ dt 
tell us what Difcipltne we may expeh from them. If they 
tell us that our Churches alfo are corrupted, and all are not 
truly or eminently godly^ we can jay to them as Auguftine utilitat. Credend. cap. 17. ) [ Pauci hoc faci- 
unt, pauciores bene prudenterq., faciunt ; fed populi 
probint, populi audiunt, populi favent ] yea we can fay 
mttch more, 

mtfir tho(e that go farther J and clap the prophaneft 
railers on the b.jckj and hfs them on to h.fs at tk^fe that 
difftr frem them, and are glad to hear the rabble revile 
our Uimftiy and our Churches , in taking part with 
their Prelacy and Liturgy, they tell hs lowder what unity 
and order t he fde fir e^ ar,d what a tnercy of God it is, that 
jnch as they have not their will : and though among them- 
[elves the flanders and reproaches of fueh men may go for 
cndible or be accepted as conducing to their ends 5 yet in 
the conclufion [uch witneffcs will bring no credit to their 
caafe^ nor with juftmen much difcredtt ours • at leafl it 
Will pot diminijh our reputation with Cod^ nor abate his 


^ 7 * 
The Preface, 

love^ nor hinder his acceptance y and then we have eniugh. 
Saith (Cyprian Epift.69. ad Pupian) Quafi apuJ lapfos 
&prophanos, & extra Ecclefiam poiitos, de quorum 
peCtoribus exctflerit Spiritus Saadus, eHealiqiid pof- 
iic nifi mens prava, &t"allax lingua, & odia venena-ta, 
& facrilega inendacia, quibus qui credit, cum illisne- 
cefle eft mveniatur, cum judicii dies venerit. ] That [s 
[^ As rf with the fcandalous aft i prophage , and thofe that 
aretvithout the Churchy from whofebrefls the holy Spirit ts 
departed, there could he any thing but a naughty fntnd^ and 
a deceitful tdnguc^ andvenemous hatred^ and facrilegtous 
lies •, and thofe that be I eve them mujl needs be found with 
them when the day of judgement comes. ] 

CM e thinkf rather the hitred^ and ruiling of the un- 
gfdly fijould intimate to you that dur mUn/flry is of God I 
X9hy elfe do all the msfl obfltna'ely wicked maligne ms <u 
their enemies ^ though we rtever did them wrong ? t»hj feek 
they our dejlru^ion, and are glad of any Lesrned men that 
will encourage them in thetr malignhy, ana te fit ike in with 
any party that are againfi us -^ when all the harm we wi/h 
or do them., is to pray for them^ and perfwade them^ and do 
our be ft to fave them from damnation ! As Cyprian ( ubi 
fup. ) faidto Pupian [ utetiamqui non credebant De© 
Epifcopuna conftituenti, vel Diabolo credercnt Epifco- 
pumprofcribenti ] [e fay I [^ 1 hey that wtU not believe 
Gods tejlimony of our Miniflry, let them belt eve the De- 
*vilsteflimonj, as the confefsionof an enemy.^ that by the 
mouths of the wicked revtleth us as MinifterSy and perfeca^ 
^tt4h»s for doing fur Maflers work. 

Another reproach ts commonly laid upon our Minlflri 
hfthofe that vili fie them in order to thetr endf, viz. tba$ 
they are boyes^ and raw and unlearned ^and manage the work 
of God fecourfelyas tends to bring it into contempt, I 
weuld there were no ground for this accufation at all : but 

CL2 / 

The Preface. 

/ mufl needs fay, i . That no men are more unmeet then you 
to be the accafers, Have you fo corrupted the Miniftr-j rvith 
the hfufficient and ungodly^ that rve are necejsitated to 
jnifly thetr places with men that are tooymng ^ and nsw do 
joureproach us, becaufe we imperf>.Bly mend your crimes ? 
yea becaufe rve work notiffipolsibjlities ? It is the defire of 
cur fouls J that no able ufeful man may be laid by^ however 
difftririg m f mailer matters^ or controverfies of fdlicy ? 
But we cannot create men ^ nor infufe learning into them '^ 
but when God hath qualified them^ we gladly ufe them 5 the 
bcfl that can be had are chofen 1, and what can be done morei 
ijAndl hofeyiUwiU acknowledge^ that godly and tolerably 
able yeung men are fitter then tmfious^ ignorant Readers, 

We excufe no mans weaknejs : bu! to fpeak out the truthy 
too many of the adversaries of our Mtmflry accufe our 
fveaknefs with greater weaknefs -., when they 'are unable or 
undifpof' d t he mf elves to manage the work of God with any 
of that gravity^ and ferioufnefs at the urtfpeakabU weight 
of the buftnefs doth require, they thmk to get the reputation 
of learned able men^ b-^ an empty childifh, trjflir>g kind of 
preaching'^ patching together fome fbrcds of [entences ^ 
andofertn^ us their Centons with as much oflenfatin, as 
if It wen an uniform^ \udicicus work. K^nd then they 
fall a yerin^ at plai/^ and ferious Preac-'ers, as if they were 
fome igrtdra''it bawling fellows^ that were nothing but a 
voice, and haa nothing to prcduce but fervent nonfence. 
Brethren^ will you bear with us a little, while wemodeflly 
excufe our fimplicity which you contemn. We ivi/l not fay ^ 
thai we can fpeak wifedom to the wife, nor make oftentatt- 
on of our Oratory : but we mufl tell you that we Believe what 
p^e fpcak, and fomewhat feel it -^ and thcr^fort we endta- 
,; vour fo to fpeak wkj we believe and fcel^ that others al[o 
mAj be I eve and feel us. if a man fpeak fmiimgly^ or not 
affectionately of very great affeCiing things, the hearers 


The Preface. 

ufc to fay^ You are but fn jeaft ^ afj^ they hdieve htm 
not^ becaufe he [peaks as »ne thdt doth ntt believe himfelf, 
Jf is n9t wit but Levity zn^ii\}^\diX.y that tvereoottnce. 
JsScn^Cifdith^ we refufe rtot an elcquent Phyfltian: bnt 
it IS not eloquence, hut Healing that rve need : the eaftng of 
eur fains y and faving of our Lves, and not the clawing of 
cur ears. We dare not /peak Itghtly or trifimgl) of Hea- 
ven or Hell* We more condemn our felvcs when we find 
within us but a dull apprehenfion of thrfe exceeding great 
eternal things, then we do for want of neat exprejs.ons, 
A 'vaincurtefttyinatttre^ doth fhew that fub/lantial worth 
is wanting. We mofi abhor the preaching of falfe dMrine : 
dnd next^ that manner of preaching Tiuih that caufeth 
an airy levity in the hearers 5 and when the manner Jam- 
eth to contradict the matter. One tafle or fight of Hetvcn 
or Hell would put you into another pafs your fives. Truly 
Brethren ( though I am one my felf, that have the leaft ad- 
vantages to vie with you in that wherein you glory ^ yet) 
there are many among them whom jou thus dtfpife, that 
have wits inclined to as much unrulinefs and luxuriancy aj 
yours : but being ballanced with the jenfe of everlaltwg 
things^ and feafoned with the Light and Life of Chrifl^ 
they are as careful to keep under and rule their wt as others 
Are diligent to feed its wantonness , and make oflentatton of 
it to the world. It will jbortly appear but ingenious folly 
which was not animated and regulated hy Chrtft, The wife- 
dom of the world is fonlifhnefs wii h God : and the foolifbnefs 
$f God IS wtferthen men, i Cor.i .25. &c. We find the 
mofi experienced Learned Divines b't.ikc themfetves to 
theplamefl fiiU'^ and much n on a^di^ed to the ancient 
fimplicity^ then green ^ inflated^ empty b/atns. When we 
difp/eafe both eur felves, and ou) queafie., coye and aery au- 
ditors hy the homcly»efs of our //>/<?, we ufrtally hear more of 
th( [uccefs of ihofe jcrmons^ then fif tbofe wherein by a 

Q 3 i^vfifdy 

T r 

The Preface. 

wordj Curiofit)^ we proctdre from the aerj more appUufe. 
5i/>/7 Auguftine (de Cacechiz ludib cap. 2.) [ Na-n 
&mihi temper prope fermo meus difplicet — fie & 
tu eo ipio quod ad te fcepius adduca .tur baptizandi 

debes intelligere n -n ita difplicere aliis fermonem 

tuum ut difplicet tibi .• nee infiuituofum le debes putare, 
quod ea qu^ cernisnonexplicas ita ut cupis •, quando 
foite ut cupis nee cerneie valeas ] Our bti(inefsisto 
teach the ignorant , t$ convert the mpen:tent , and te 
edifie and confrm the weak 5 and therefore if reve- 
titions , arid homely exprefsions , with all the fericuf" 
nefs we can u'e^ be found the fittefl means to attain thefe 
tnds we fhall ftudy them and not decline them , though 
feme" diflikethtm, Auguftine de do(5triB. Chrift lib. 4. 
cap. 12. Qui ergo dicit cum doccrevult, quamdiu 
non intelligitur, nondum feexiftimet dixifTequod vult 
ei quern vult docererquiaetfi dixit quod ipfe intelligitj 
nondum lUe ( illi / dixilTe putandus eft, a quo intel- 
ledus non eft : fi vero intelle(5lus eft, quocunque modo 
dixcrit, dixit. J 

I con fcfs when I heard a through pa fed preacher in the 
Prelate ( re'gn\ experience taught me prefentlj te expeB 
three great infirmities in him^ v\z> Jlumb It ng, (pollings 
and tiring :{i'.imh\'m2, either in do^rine^ conver[atien^ or 
both ■, efpccially in a fiony way : fpotling even the clearefl 
of his Brethren^ at^d that both in the Pulpit^ and behind 
their back!. For mojl of the wounds we have from fch 
arc in our back parts, though we never fled. They can mofl 
effi^u^lly confute us when xre do not hear them. \^s one 
of them that I knew, divided his Text into one partyw^ 
to do many of them their Dtfputatiens : they are bejl at 
Difputing alone, when there is none to contradict them. 
They are better gun-men then (word-men : Eminus for- 
tifsirni 5 cominus— more valiant a far of than neer at 

hand : 

Ttfe FSxKice. • 

iJAnd ; dnd making moreufc of powder then of bullet ; thi 
mi[e exceeding the execution : and being nearcfl them- 
felves^it is Awender that their Confciences (I art not at the 
report. It is the rervard of theje pugnacious fouh , to 
be cryedupas vi6iorious^ and to have thar triumph at- 
tended bj their like : and it is enough to prove them vigors 
that thy can but crow and ere^ the crifl. And if thiy 
are foon we mufl not wonder •, for they preach at teo 
high rates to hold cut long, junkets are not for full meals • 
andfeaflingmufl not be all the year, lichen ti^ey preacht 
but feldom^ they ju(iifie i it by telling w^^ that one of their 
fcrmens was worth ten (f theirs that preach d fo (ft en < and 
half a crown was as good asfiv fix pences. 

for rt.y party I do net undervalue their wJ^ nor envy 
them the honour of: tt : hut I would fain have thin'/s Divine 
to be Divinely handled-, and the weightiejl matters to be 
fpokenoff in the mofi ferious weighty manner. K^ndl 
would not have a fchool boy when he hath jaid a Declama- 
tion^ tothtnk ihat he tsmore learne'J then Sco[\i'> or Oc- 
kam, becaufe he hath ajmopther ftyle : nor to think that 
he hath done a gall ant er pec e of n^ork^ thtn he that hath 
read a Lecture m Jlietaphylicks. I am much inc tned t$ 
honour their px^ts '^ I value the wit of a Comedian ^ when 
I value not the employment of it. I have off en heard a 
Ruflicalfuflice call a fidltr a r^ogfic^ that cal'e^ him [elf 
4Mufician^ and perhaps he puts him m the flocks., that 
thinks he deferves a Princes ear : when I havt thot^ht »f 
their Art^ a -d far gotten the ahufe^ I have been apt to ptttj 
their cafe. I coald heir ell content that fo ^ cat an Ar'^fl 
as ]^Qi'0 pen j]} not : lei him live as an Arttfl. hut not as an 
Emperour, J honour and Uve the lemming and tnauflrj of 
the fcfuits : let ihemhe enccuraged as Le.irned , bar ?;ot 
as JefuitS. Let them a I be ufedm that which th(y are gcod ' 
jor. But A Com'cal wit ts not i n mgh to make a Mmifler if 

The Freface. 

ttie Coffd of jdvation. Counters can jingle as well as 
cold. if Jffch mufl be Biflw^s , let them be Dioce- 
fans ( jo tl Cj be kept xv.thoiit a fword ) for when they . 
have an hunar e J Churthcs.^ihi-j mil trouble th^m but [el- 
dom^ with their preachi/ig : and ihat may be endnredfvr a 
day that cannot for a jear. 

if you think I have turned my cxcufe of a plain and feri- 
ous Mtniflry into a recrimination, or feemedgutltj of what 
I blame , confider of what and to whom ifpeak . 

I am f^rr from a contempt of learning y or encourage- 
infT ignorant infnf^dent mentor \ufltfitng any rtdiculous 
unfecmly deportment , or any rafht nrationai exprefsions^ in 
the work of God. And learnefily tntredt the fervants of 
the Lord to take hecdoffucb temerity andmifcarriages^and 
remember what a work they have in hand^and how much de- 
pendeth on the fuccefs, and that the eyes of God and men are 
en them J aim that it is no light matter to an honefl heart, 
that Chrifl and his caufe f})Ould be dijlionoured by our weak- 
neffes, and our labours fbould hereby be fruflrated, and f-n^ 
ners hardned lu their impiety. But yet I mu(t fay^ that ma- 
ny that an but low in Learnings have greater abilities ( by 
or ace andufe ) to manage the great efJentialsofChriftiani- 
ty ^ andfet horned necefjary truth upon the heart, and deal 
with ignorant dead-hearted ftnners, thenma?*y very Learn^ 
cd men did ever attain to. And I confefs I could wi\h for 
the fervice of the Churchy that fomt fuch ( now private ) 
lefs -learned men ^ in great Congregations were yo^ked with 
fome Learned men that are lefs fit for lively rouzing appli- 
cation •, that they might Lovingly go together^the one confef- 
firtg his dcfeB in Le arning ^and the ether bis defcUin appli- 
cation.^ and the unlearned depending for guidance from the 
more Learned.^ in cafes of difficulty^ where his abilities fall 
fhort t, that fo they might be both as one able Minifter\ com- 
mumcating the honour of their fevcrnl abilities to each 



The Preface. 

epher to fit f ply dnd cover each others defers, Eifi^ if fuch a 
thing^ouU be Attempted ( though agneahly to the Churches 
frd{?ice for many hundred years after Chrifl) what an out- 
cry f})OHld wi havcfrmn the tncn now in hand^ againji Mc- 
chnnicks and unlearned mcn\ ind hoiv many rvould n'p roach 
their work that cannot mend it ! 1 have been long on this 
ftthje^t : 1 will end it with this flory, 

Gregory NyfenffZ/j us in hts relation of the Life of 
Gregory Thaumacurgus,?^^/ this holy man then Bijhop of 
NeoCctfarea, was [o famous by his miracles and fuccefjes 
that the Neighbour Countreys fent to him^ to preach and 
plant Churches among thevit Among others Comana a 
neighbour City fent to htm , to come and plant a chnrcb and 
Bishops among them. When he had flayed a while ^and preach - 
ed and prepared tkemyand the time was ceme that he was to 
defignthem a chief Pa(lor ( or B if} op) the UMagiflrates 
and principal men of the City were very bufie in enquiring 
anxioufly and curioujly , who was of mofl eminent rank 
and [plendour^ excelliug the refl^ that he ?night be chofen to 
the office and dignity of being their Bifijop, For Gregory 
himielfhadallthefe Ornaments ^and therefore they thought 
their Paflor mufi have them too. But wh.'nit came to choice 
they were all to pieces, fomefer one and fome for another : 
fo that Gregory looked to heaven for DireefionSjwhat to 
do. when the) were thus taken up with propofing men of 
fplendor andemincncy^ Gregory {rememhrtng Sainuels 
anointing David,) exhorted themto lookalfo among the 
meanefl-.for ^ofsibly there might be found amon'f them fome 
of better qualifications of mind : Whereupon (ome of them 
fignified, they took it as a contumelie andforn.^ that all 
ihechiefmen for eloquence.^ dtgnity and fplcndor flwidd be 
refufed, and that Mechanicks and tradefmet^ that labour 
for tehir living fbauld be. thought fitter for fi^great an office. 
And fahh one. of th&m to htnr in derifion^ If ym wiU.p4^ 

K .. by 


hi all the fl that are chofertotitof the befi^f the Citi\ew.^ 
and goto the fcum and hafe/i of the people for a Pufiorfer 
us : tts beft for you even to make Alexander the Collier a 
P riefi.and lets all agree to ch$o[e him, 'The good man hear- 
tng thefe fcornful words ^ it flruek into his mtndto know who 
that Alexander the Collier was ? Whereupon they brought 
him prefently with laughter, and fet him in themidjl ofthent 
colhtved and ha! f -naked ^ and ragged and fordid^ and thus 
y?(7^^Alexander among them,Bm Git^oiy [ufpeciedjome' 
what beittr by him^then they that laught at him-^ and there- 
upon taking him out of the companj^and examining his life^ 
he found that he was aPhilofophick mantthat being of a very 
comely perfon, and loth it fbould be any oceafton of inconti- 
nency^andalfo renouncing the vanities efthe worlds had ad' 
dtSled himfelf to the life of a Collier , that his perfott 
and worth might he hid from men , and his mind be 
kept in an humble frame. Whereupon Gregory appointeth 
fome to take away Alexander jWir</y7; him and cloath him 
with his Pafloral attire J and bring him into the Jfjembly as 
[oon as they had done. In the mean time Gregory gees to 
the Afjemblyy andfals a preaching to them of the nature of 
the Paftoral office y and the holinej's of life retjuired thereto, 
entertaining them with fuch fpeeches, till Alexander was 
brought ^and comely adorned tn Gvt%ox\ts garments was fet 
before them. Whereupon they all fell a ga'^ng and wonde- 
ring at Alexander." and Gregory falls a preaching to them 
again of the deceit fulnefs of judging by outward appear- 
ances^ about the inward worth of the foul^ and that Satan 
had obfeuredlKlcxandcrJeJl he fljsuld fubvert his kingdom, 
Tobejhort^ he ordaineth IKkxzndet their Bi(hop {aPaflor 
of aftnglechurch.) And when they dtftred to hear him 
preach, he [hewed that Gregory was not deceived in him: 
Hisfermon was fententious and full of under/landing : but 
becAufe be bad n9 flowers of or at cry r, or exaiinefs dpd ca- 



rofttf of '^"irds, one that was acurious hearer .^-./^Jid him^ 
who it is f/ifdivas hy <i vtfion brought to recent of it. And 
thuf^ffp/f ^ Alexanc'cr the Collier was made Bi(hsp 
( or i'aftor ) f Comm^^when the great ones were rejeffed: 
And afterward proved achampionfor chrifl^to whom he paf- 
fed in M art jr dome through the flames, J have rectted this 
for their fakes thjt deride the gifts dfGodin men whom they 
account nrjicariifd : but not to encourage a'^^y tothrujl ihem- 
[elves on [o great a work without Ordi^tAt^on arid due qnali- 
f cations. . 

0bie6i. But it 's Ordination it felf that is wanting to)^r^'yj^^^ 
the PaftorsoF the Reformed Churches, and theietorc' 
they are no Paftors, c^<r. Anfvv. The contrary is tn,mi' 
fefted in this enfutng f-'ifputation. This [eparaung Princi- 
ple is it that I here purpofelj contend againjl. For it is cafl in 
to divide and to deflroj : And to cjaench fuch granados and 
fire -works of the Dez il^is a rj:cfjfary work for them that will 
prefcrve a churches Peace. J read in Tbuanus ffa Bifliop 
in France that turning Protejlant^took his Popijh confecratt- 
cnforinfufficienty and was again elc^^and ordainea by the 
Proteftant MinfierSj without a Prelate^tsbe a Prelate. But 
that Presbjters Ordancd by a Presbytery of Froteflants 
(l)ould be reordained by a Prelate^ and that as nece(jaryto 
the being of their office^ is ftrange doMne^ to all the Pro- 
fejfant Churches, 'it was reje^ed commonly by the Englifh ., 
Btfhops^ even by A.?>. Bancroft himfelf. Saith Firmili- 
an MnterEpiH. Cypriani) [ Omnis poteftas & gratia 
HI Ecclefia conftituta eft, ubi prc-tfidenc Majores natu, 
qui.^ baptizandi, & Manus imponcndi &• ordinandi 
pofTident poteftatem ] /. e. All Posver and- Grace is - 
placed in the Church where Elders do prefide^who po-f- 
fcfs the power of Baptizing, Impofmg hands, and. Or- 
daining. ] 

! knowitwiUbefaidthaLV\tmi\mfp(ak ofBifhopsoft- 

R3 ' />•> 


I J. But 1 believe not thdt he fpeke offuch Bifl)Ops only ds we 

have tfj qncflien^ or that he did not fUinlj [peak ofTreshy 
ters as juch. For he [peaks of the plenitude ef Porve^and 
Grace tn the church', and therefore intended more then what 
rvds proper to a Prelate, 2. He mintioneth Elders^Majoves 
n^iwx^in general without dijlin£lion,And 3. HAJprsefident 
is plainly related to theChurch(as the ubi p)ews:)it being the 
People and not the Elders over rvhom thefe Elders are [aid 
to pre fide, Attd ^.'StZ.^uzm^isfrfiinflanced^whichwtU 
known to be commonly the work of Presbyters ^and never ap- 
propriated to the Prelate. So that the fame perfons that did 
Baptize^even the Elders of the Church, according to Firmi- 
lian , did then peffefs the power of laying on hands and of or- 
daining,But thefe things are more fully dif cuffed in whatfol- 
lorveih. And if any either adverfary or friend would fee the 
Reformed ChurchesMiniflryand Ordination more fully vin- 
dicated^ Irefer them to Voetius againfl Jafenius Defpe- 
rata caufa Papatus: which ifl had read before I had writ' 
ten this DifputationJ think I jhould have fpared my labour. 
Reader yjf others are too bufie to mi [led thee , / may fup- 
pofe thee unwill/ng to be wijled, efpe daily in a matter of [0 
great concernment:' For faith J5/^|j^^ Aguftine,Mulcos in- 
venimus qui mentiri vclint, quiauccm falli 
Do(5trin.Chrift.l.i.cap.36.) And therefore as thon lovefl 
Chrifl, his Churchy andCofpel^ and the [ouls of others and 
thine own^ take heed how thou venturefl in following a 
Je^ 6f angry men^ to unchurch f ogre at anl^ excellent apart 
of the Catholich church ^ and to vilifie and depofe fo great a 
numiber of able faithfuU Miniflers of thriflt as thofe that 
had not Prelatical Ordination. 

Jind if you are Gentlemen i or unlearned men, that for 
want of long and dtligent Jludying ofthe[e matters ^ are un- 
cap able ef judging of them^and therefore take all on the Au- 
thority of thofe whofe Learning and parts you mo[l e[leemy I 
, befeech 

T he Preface. 

h?[eechyeu before jou venture your fonls on it dnj further j, 
proCHig a jatisfaBory 4»ftvcr to thefe ^eji/0»s, 

I, whet her the Reformed Churches that have no Prelates^ 
have not aboHndedwithas learned men as any one ofthofe 
that y ou admire of a contrary judgement ? 

2. Ifjou are tempted to fufpeii menofpartiality^whether 
they that plead for Lorflup, honour and preferment^orthey 
that plead againfi it y and put it from them, are more to be 
fufpe^ed, csEteris paribus ^ 

3. Jfyou will needs [u[feH the ? rot eft ant Miniflers of 
partiality: what ground of fufpicion have you of them that 
were no Minifters < fuch as the two Scaligers, whofe lear- 
ning made them the admiration of the Chrtjlian wOrld^even 
to pApijls ai well as Protejlants : and jet were cordial 
friends to thofe Reformed churches which thefe men denf 
and draw men to difown. Such alfo as Salman us, that hath 
purpofely wrote about thefubje^ : with abundance more, 

4. If thefe are not to be trufled^why fhould notBifhofs 
themfelves be trufled? werenot BifbopVKhQY, Andrews, 
Davenam, Hall, and others of their mind^as learned piofts 
men as any whofe Authority you can urge again fi them ? 

^. J fall this be nothing,! befeechyouget a modefl refoluti- 
on of this doubt at leafl.whcther the concurrent judgement of 
all the Proteflant Churches in ChriJlendom,eve» of the En" 
glijhBilhops with the reftfiouldnot be of more authority with 
any fober Proteftmt, then the Contrary judgement of thofe 
few that are of late rifen up for the caufe that you are by them 
folicitedto own.It isa known Truth that the generality of 
the Bifhops themf elves and all the Proteflant Churches in the 
ifforld^ have owned them as true Miniflers that were ordain^ 
edby Presbyter/es^withoat Prelates'.and have owned them as 
true Churches that were guided by thefe Miniflers, 'and have 
taken them for valid adminiftrations that were performed 
by them* And are your few Recufants that would draw yot^ 



he Preface. 

i§ fefATAtm of greater teaming, authortj and regard^then 
all the Proteflants inthe AVirld heftdes .<* I hefeechyct^fydu 
fpi II needs take things ufon trufi, cotijider this ,and trnft ac- 
eoriinglj. Thoughl mujlfaj it isfittj that any trttelj Cathc 
lick Chrif^ian fhould not have better grounds than thefe^and 
k (tblc himfclfinfo f doable a cafe to percei've his duty. 

Tor my O'^n part^my confcience witnejjetb that 1 have-not , 
mitten the following Difputation out of a deftre J O; quarrel 
rvith any man^ hut am drawn to it^ to my greatjdt^fp^afftre^ 
by theprefcnt danger and neeefsity of the uht^rcfies^-i afi^dhy . 
COfhpajsion to the fouls that are turned from f he, fnUickQi' ' . 
' dinances^and engaged in the feparatie4,an.d^dlfo,ef the , 
churches that are divided andtroHble-dbjthefe mefins.fxhe.: ■ 
fad compUlnts of many of my Brethren from fever al farts t 
have moved my heart to this undertaking. Through Gods 
Mercy t I have peace at home', hut 1 may not therefore be in- 
fenfibie of the divifions and^ calamities abroad. Iffa/l adjoin 
here one of the Letters that invited me ^ and no more ; be^ 
caufe in that fine you may fee t he f cope andtenour oftherefiy 
Mna that 1 rufh not on this di^pleafing tvork, mthettt a Call, 
mrbeforfttiereu a caufe. The p^fj ages that intimate an .,, 
ffver-valuing of my felf, you may charitably impute to the 
Authors juniority and humility^ tvithfomc. mifiake through 
di fiance and dtfacc^Hnintance, 

One of the Letters that invited me to this task . 


Reverend Sir, 

Nder(l.inding by the Pnface to the Keadcr before your Glldit 
Salvianus, that yon intend a fece?id partyivhereinyoii promfe 
to Jpcalf of the tvay how to difcern. the true Church and Mim- 
Pry, I m,i{e bold teprefent yon tvith the defireoffomc Godly 
Miniftin : viz. if )o:i fee it convoucn-'iyoutvoulddo 
^^. fomethnig towards th: vindication of the prcfent Chm<hes 
and Minijkrs from the afpe^^otu of the new Vrelatical parly «« 
•• England. U is a principle much made of by many of the Gentry and'others, that 
■we\,e but Schifniaticalbi. inches broken efffrom the true body s and this by faith- 
fulltrxdiiioi is fpread amongjl them: the learning offomt rigid 'Pnlatical Schbl- 
' kirs if ve,y prevalent with ihem to ma^e them thus aicount ef }is. mth thcfe 
men. rrc mu^l be all unchurched for ca(iing off DioccfanEpifcopacy : though f^e 
be found in chefuithy and would fpend our fdves to five foulsj and the main 
fublloiue cfour Ordin.nion ( at leafl ) camot be found fault with j yet becaufe - not a B>jhup to lay his hands on usy we ait not fen', from God. Of what 
confequence this upm'onmay piovc^ if it fprcadwuhcui being checl^ed, anordi' 
H.vy apprehcnfun may peicci ve. I can gucfs fom thing from what I ebfervefrom 
thofe of this leaven already, thut our mojl fcrious pains will be little regarded, if 
our people talfc this i^c^lion j when we would a-w.x^cn them, we CMnot, becaufe 
they tal^e it that we have no power to teach them. It mujl not be men of mean 
parts that mufi underta^ more fully to wipe off' this reproach :for the learned ad- 
vcrfaries are tall Cedars in k'iowledge in comparifon of many «fui : and if men 
of parts do not grapple with them herein, they will cajily carry the vote in many 
mens judgements ; for they judge that the greater Schollars by far certainly haze 
the better in the coiueft. Sir,'i'e bcfeech you'that you would improve your acquain- 
tance in Antiquity for our help in this cafe. Not that we would engage you ift 
wrang ling with p.iruculv, menby name-, who will not want words : but how- 
ever \oit » ould eiidincc tt that our Ordination by Presbyters is not void, and of 
ru> tjfecl Ihave this reafon ready to give for this rcqueft: for (bejides I had 
fo,mc:!) heard) 1 was lately with fo me of thofe not of the meanifl influence^ who 
log'd i.p.'cfipacy as of abfolute niCcf[ity,.iQi,ming that thuOidcr the Church of 
Gud eter obferved : and that it was duubilefs of i'ljlituiion, being a. 
thia? ofCxtholicl^ tradition, and th^U'^ the beft (fanda/d to intcpret Soi^'tnreby. 
iih.itthin are we arrived at, have forfa^en the whole Church herein:' Though 
I am li tie vcrfcd in the Ancient s, yet I tell them we acknowledge food after 
the Apoflles times the name Bi^op came up as diflinlt f om the Presbyters ; but 
then I cUl for their proof that the Primitive E'fhopshadthe power of furisd:£lion 
over Presbyters, or that to htm »nly ordination was appropriated. 1 tell them alfo 
that we ha-jc (ertain tvidcnct that infome Chioches tbefe Bifi)ops were made by 


Presbyters, fo WAi the eujim in Alexandrians^ whift did ever the chuvrh .ua^. 
tbtm t0 be no Bijhops orMmfiers ? And dfo of TcrtuUians Praefident lilt 
w«^iq-,Semores,««^^/CypnansSaWo inter CoUe^^^ pacis& coiordia- 
vinculo: andtlut doubtlefs // Cypnan be to b.-b^lieved, tlv cbmh Z>7s 
then ruled by the joint co.ifent o] its Vnfms, of whom ons roas 'indeed tbe P-e'ri- 

if/L vwKi,r/.'*i'yi/jc.K/« -> M'iij ,ftnw> iwiu'.i ^'Ji^ '''"''tt,oeim pcrjecuted\iud had not 
that liberty to fenlc Dlocefan Epifcopacy in that Glory, winch the Apuiloiual in- 
ftitmion aimed .it, and the Church wxs then, what it could be, aU not what 
itr,^onldbe. Do yon judge of its weight For my part, lam mofi ftmblcd at 
ihereading of Ignzuus (whom D^ flremoufly d^.fe^ids) \.,d cannot tell . 
how to evade that Teflimony in the behalf ofEpifcopacy, if it b; indeed the tcili 
mony of the true Ignatius. But meihmJ^s his phrafe is much unliic either th it of 
Ckmtns, or of Cypnamn th,s cafe, its great pity th.u Dr. Bloudel waJs 
hiseyes,a?uLfowcarehiHdredofcnjoymgof more of his labours m this poi-m. 
Bis Notion of the Trfrolox^foloy, §«« is a very pretty on-; .r.-d it were welUfwe 
hadfuUer evidence added to that which he, hath endeavoured aftehin' bis 1\k face 
to his Apology for Hleioai. -h A>-ytej, , 

^ Or if your judgement about the power of every fingle Pajior wm fuih'mmmd i 
It w$ttld conduce much to the clearing ofthcfe contraverftes. } c^idd' nmVuihshp ' 
glad tfthepraaice ofthofe propofals which Bipjop.\.\{hc,:: hath m^c iin. aUtt ' 
pnniedjlieet : But thefe angry Brethren who now oppofe m are of a hizh^iiflrL 

But I runout too far and forget whom lam writing to. ■ Truly Jam d-eth ' 
fenftble, what mifcbief thofe feeds which are as yet but thin-fown ( AslmL 
fay ) may grow up to u time : I \now not how it is withyou^bu with us, j rdr 
ten for one at leap would be eafi'y drawn to fuch .m opinion ofiisfifthctemptati 
on were but fomcwlmtftfongcr^mulutiules obfrrving how evil trafifaftionhave 
-mm a round, bcgip. alfo to thin^we (}j41 alfo ayiye at our old Church-cufloms 
agam: now if the fe £ pi f cop at mens judgement jljould but be difperfed mo,e 
abroad, how caftly would it make thefe people think that we h.ive ddudcd than 
tUlths whilefandfowill not regard us.'Alaslirhai a fid thought is it if J fhould 
jiudy and preach and pray for mens fouls, a-idyet be rejeclcd as one that hid no 
€hargeoftbemasaMw(icr,laidonmefor Cod! n'efha^you for whatyou 
fold in your Chn{[im Concord ; and H.trcat you would cnlaroe further on this 
Sub,e6t, as you fee convenient; That the finplingsm tbe Miniftry may b' fur- 
nijbedwith arguments againfl our advryf^ri^s fro^n fuch able hand/ as yours jre 

I have dote; only I jhaU defirc your , pardon for my interrupting, you in your 
Ether buftnefsi and if IJhill hereafter crave your ajfiflance and dirtaion in fome 
safes, lprayyouexcufemeifuncivil,andvouchfafitohtme hear from mt- 
for lam ..bout to fettle where the charge is great. The Lord comm.yoH amon^ft 
m, thaiyo.'t may be further an. inftramenrof^ood. I reji, ^ ^ 

/'**• ^« Your Affectionate friend and weak 

3^57- Brother M,E,. 



Aflert. Thofe jHjo 7mllijic our 

prefent Miniflry and Qhurche^^ which 
haye not the Trelatical Ordination y 
and teach the people to do the lil^, do 
incur the guilt of grievous (in. 


Seft. I. T^l^L^Q^A^f^ O R the making good this Aflcrtlon, 

1. 1 (hall prove that they groundlcfly 
deny our Miniftry and Churches -, 
and 2.1 (hall (hew the greatnefs of 
their fin. 

In preparation to the firft I muft 
I . Take fome notice of the true Na- 
ture of the Minifterial fundion: and 2. Of the Nature and Rea- 
fonsof Ordination. 

Sed. 2. We are agreed ( orf ff««/ at leaft) that the Power 
4ftd Honour of the Miniflry is for the fVork,, and the jVork. for 

S the 



the Eyi'h, which arc the revelation of che Gofpel , the appli- 
cation or conveyance of the bcnchts to nrcn, the right worfhip- 
ing of God, and riglic Governing of his the faving 
of our felves and our people, and the Glorifyirg and Pleafing 

Sed.3 . So that Q A Mlnifier of the Gofpd is an Officer ofjefui 
Chriflt fet apart ( or feparated ) to preach the Gofpel and there- 
hj to convert men to (^hrifiiamtj^and hy Baftifm to receive Difci' 
fles into his Church, to congregate Dlfi if les ^ and to be the Teach- 
ers, Over/eers, andGovcrmars of the particular Chn^ches^ and 
to go before them inphbltck^ rvsr/hip aniadminifltr to them thefpc 
cial Ordinances of ChriJ}, according to ihe word of God ^ that in 
the Cemmtinion of Saints , the mimbers may be edified, prefervedy 
S)}d be fruitful and obedient to Chrifl-^andthe Soiietits rf ell orde- 
red, beautified and firengthened\ and both iMiniJlers and People 
faved'y and the Sanflifier^ Redeemer and the Father G lor i fed and 
fleafedin his People mw and for ever 3 

Sed. 4. In this Definition of a Minifter, 1. It is fuppofed 
that he be coriipetently qualified forthefc works: For if the 
Matter be not fo far Difpofed as to be capable of the J'srw, it 
will not be informed thereby. There are fonc QualiHcations 
ncceflary to the being of the Miniftry/ome but to che veil being. 
Its the firft that I now fpeak of. 

Sed. 5. Before I name them, left you mifapply what is faid, 

I (hail firll defire you to obferve this very neccflfary diftin<^ion : 

Its or»e thing to ask, jvho is to take him felf for a called and true 

Minifler ^ and to do the work^ , as expeBing Acceptance and Re- 

TfiArd from God : and its another thing to ask, whom are the pec 

pie ( or Churches ) to take for a true JM^ini^er, andtofnbmit to 

/ as fXpeSiing the Acceptance and bit Jfing of Godinthat fubmijfion 

] from hi admin flr at ions. Grits one thing to have ^ C<«// which 

' will before Godjuftife his Minifiration and another thing to have 

a Call which will before Go ijufiife the Peoples fubmijfion , and 

I will juftifie»«/9ro £cc^?yi<«, both him and them. Andfoitsonc 

thing tobea Minifter whom God and Confciencc will jullifie 

and own,asto Him felf'- and another thing to be a Minifter to the 

^hurch^ whom they muftown, andGod will own and blc!s<?j»// 

3,$ 10 their good. 

In the firft fence, none but truely fandified men can be Mi- 





riftcrs; but in the Utter an unlan^ificd man may be a Minf- 

fler. As there is a difference among Members bet ween the f'ii/?- 

hlc and A'lyjlical, ( of which 1 have Tpokcn elfewhcrc. * ) So is » Dif-mtc of 

there between rrf/?(jr/. Some have a Title that in foro Ecclefa Right 10 

or EcclffiajfiMce will hold good , that h^ve none that is good 

inforo Dei • In one word . the Church is bound to take many a 

man as a trite Adinifler to thcnt, ar.d receive the OrdifsJinces from 

him in faith, and cxpedation of a BleAlngupon promife; who 

yet before God isaHnfiil invader, an ufurpcr of iheM!niflry,and 

(hall be condemned for it. 

As in worldly Poffefiions, many a man hath a good Title be- 
fore men, and at the bar of man, fo that no man may dillurb his 
PcfTeflion, nor take it from him, without the ofrhefc, 
when yet he may have no good Right at the bar of God to jufti- 
fie him in his retention. So it is here. 

Sed. 6. It is too common a cafe in Civil Governments ( the 
ignorance of which occafioncth many to be dilobedicnt. j A man 
that invadeth the Soveraignty without a Title, may beno Kmg 
as to himfclf, before God, aod yet may be truly a King as to the 
People. That is. He ftands guilty before God of llfurpation, 
and ( till he Repent, and get a better Title ) (hall be anfwcrable 
for all his adminiftrations as unwarrantable : And yet, when he 
hath fettled himfelf in PofTefiionof the Place, and exercife of the 
Soveraignty, he may be under an obligation to do jufticeto the 
p:ople,and defend them.and the people may be under an obligati- 
on to obey him and honour him, and to receive the fruits of his 
Government as a blefling. Mens Title in Confciencc and before 
God for Magiftracy andMiniftry^ themfclvesaremoft to look 
after,and to iuftific-,and its often crakt and naught,when their Ti- 
tle x«/<iro6«Wi?«o may be good ;,or when the people are bound to 
obey them. And thole mifcarriages or ufurpations of Magiftrates 
or Mmifters which forfeit Gods Acceptance andBleffing to them- 
felves , do not forfeit the blefling of Chrifts Ordinances and ^ 

their adminiflrations to the Church : For it is the guilty and not 
the Innocent that muft bear the lofs. A Sacrament may be as 
cffcdual , and owned by God , for my benefit, when it is from 
the hand of a man that ftiall be condemned for adminiftring it, 
as when it is from the hand of a Saint that hath a better 
call ^ fuppoiing Hill that I be innocent of his ufarpation or error. 

S 2 This 


^ This ncceffary diftindion premifed, I (ay, th^t Jpecial Grace 
isnecefTiry to that Call of a Minifter ihat mud be warrantable 
and jullifyable to himfelf before God ; but it i; not necefTary to 
that call that's juftifyable berorecheChurch,and ia necc-fTiry to 
our rubraiffion and *to the blefling of the Ordinances and their 
Validity to our good. 

Se(ft. 7. But yet here are fome Qualifications ej[entiallj necef- 
fary, to Difpofc the man to be Receptive of the W\m{\x)\ coram 
£i:£-iy>4 f though pAving grace be nor. ; As i. f t isof NeceiVi- 
ty that he be a Chrifilan hy ProfeJJion • and fo thit he Profefs thu 
faith, repentance, love, obedience, which^ is faving. Tor the 
>4inirter inquelHon is only A Chriftian lM ni^er: and therefore 
hemuft be a Chriftian, & ali^md ampltas by profcilion. 

2. It is therefore Neceffary that he Profefs and feemto Undcr- 
ftand and Believe all the Articles of the faith, that are effcntial to 
Chriftianity, anddonotheretically deny anyoneofthefc(whiC 
ever he do by inftriour Articles. ) 

3 . He muft be one that is able to preach the Gofpel : that is, 
in fome competent manner, to make known the Eflentials of 
Chriftianity: orelfehe cannot be aMinifter atal'. 

4.He muft be one that underftandeth the Eflfentials of Baptifm, 
and isabletoadminifterit ("Though thcadual adrainiftration 
be not alway neceffary. ) 

5. He muft underftand the Effentials of a particular Church , 
and profefs to allow of fuch Churches as Gods Ordinance, or 
elfe he cannot be the Paftor of them. 

6. He muft Profefs to Value and Love the Saints, and their 
communion ; Or elfe he cannot be a Miniftcr for the communion 
of Saints. 

7. He muft Profefs and feem to underftand, believe, and ap- 
prove of all the Ordinances of Chrift which are of Neceflity to 
Church- communion. 

8. And he muft be tolerably able to difpenfc and admini- 
ftcr thofe Ordinances : Or elfe he is not capable of the office. 

9. H-e muft Profefs and feem to make the Law of God his Rule 
in thefeadminiftraricn?. 

2 o. And alfo to defire the faving of mens fouls, and the well- 
fare of the Church, and Glory and Pleafmg ofGod. If he have 
not beforehand all thefc Qualifications, he is not capable of the 


Miniflry , nor can any Ordinacion make him a true Mini- 

Scd.S.lfyou demand my proof. It is from the common prin- 
ciples thit I A'htforrn cannot be rtctioedbat into ^idifpo fed capable 
matter ' buc (uch are no difpofed capable matter • thererore , 

C^c. — ■ 2. The office is for the worle^^ and rherefore 

prefuppjfecha Capacity and ability for the work. The office 
containech i. Ai ObUgatio>t totheT^mj \ But no man can be 
obliged to do that which is Naturally Impoflible to himCthough 
1 Moral Imponibility may ftand with an obligation to duty,and 
J Natural only as founded in the Moral) 2. Ic contsineth un 
Authority or Power to do the work. • Bur fuch Voiver ( which is 
hMt2i Right of excerciftngNatHrall Abilitiei ) doth prefuppofc 
.he Abilities to be exercil'ed : Nattiral Power, is prefuppofed to 
Civil Authority . 3. It is EJfential to (uch Relations that they 
be for their Ends ' And therefore where there is an apparent in- 
capacity for the f«J,thcre is as apparent an incapacicy of the Re- 
lation. But enough of this. 

Scd, 9. 2. A Mmilter is [ an officer of Chrifl,] and there- 
fore receiveth his Authority from him, andean have none but: 
what he thus recieves. And therefore i.HehathnoSoveraignty 
or Lordftjipover thcChurch/or thatis the perogativcofChrift. 
2. He hath no degree of undcrivcd Power, and therefore muft 
prove his Power, and produce his Comraifiion before he can ex- 
pert the Church to acknowledge it. 3. He hath no Power to 
workagainftChrift, or to deftroy the fouls of men, or to do 
evil: ( Though he hath a Power by which occafionally be may 
be advantaged to evil, yet hath he no Authority to doit:) For 
Chrift giveth no man power to fin , nor to do any thing againft 
Iiimfelf 4. He deriveth not his authority /row W4» (though 
by man , as an inlburaent, or occafion, he may ) The People 
give him not hi» Power : The Magiftratc gives it not : The Or- 
dainers ( Bifhops or Presbyters j give it not, any further then 
( as 1 (hall (hew anon ) by fignifying the will of Cbrift that in- 
deed giveth it, and by inveningmen in it by folemn delivery. 
TheChoofers may nominate the perfon that ftiall receive it ; and 
tl>e Magirtratc may encourage him to accept it ; and the Or- 
dainersony Approve him and In veft him in it: but it is Chrift 
only that gives the Power as from himfelf. As in Marriage,thc 

S 3 pcrfom 

(»3 + ) 

perfons confcnt, and the Magidrace alloweth it as Valid at his 
bar ; and the Minifter bleffech them and dcclareth Gods con- 
fent: But yet the Power that the Husband hath over the wife is 
only frOi-n God as the conferring caufe; and all that the reft do is 
but to prepare and difpofe the perfon to Receive it ^ fave only 
that confequcntlyjtheconfent ofGod is declared by theMnifter. 
Of which more anon, ^ hen we fpcak of Ordination. 

Sed. I o. 3 . A Minifter is a roan {^ fep-irated^ or fet a pjrt ] 
to the work of the Gofpel. For he is to make a calling of it, 
and not to do it on the by. Common men may do fomewhac 
that Miniflers do, even in preaching the Gofpel: but they are 
Rora.i.i:«. not [^feparatedoT fet apart to it, and yo emrufled with it, nor 
rtJttkea Calling or Cottrfe ef employment of it. J Minifters there- 
fore arc Holy perfens in an eminent lort, becaufe they have a two- 
fold SandiHcation. i. They are as all other Chriftians fan<^i- 
fied to God by Chrift through the fpiric , which fo devoteth 
tbem CO him,and brings them foneer him, and calls them ro fuch 
holy honourable fervice, that the whole Church is called a Roy- 
1 Pct.z.^.?. 3l' Priefthood, a Holy Nation, &c. to offer fpiritual facrifice to 
Ron;, i.^. God. And Chrift hath made them Kings and Pfiefts to God. 
But 2. They are moreover devoted and fanftified to God, (not 
only by this feparation from the world, but) by a feparation 
from therefrof the Church to ftsnd neerer to God, and be 
employed in his mofl eminent fervice 1 I mention not mans Or- 
dination in the Definition, becaufe it is not eflential to thcMi- 
riftry, nor of Abfolute Neceflity to its being ( of which anon. ) 
But that they be fet apart by the will of Chritt and fandified to 
him, is of Neceflity. 

Sed II. 4. Thefe Minifters have a double fubjed to work up- 
on,or objeft about which their Miniftry is Employed. The firft 
is [^ The vforld^ as that matter out of -which a Church is to be raif' 
td~\ T he fecond is. Believers called out of the world ] Thefe Be- 
lievers arc, [^ Either Only Coytverted, and not inveftedin a Church 
ftate, or fuch as arc both Converttd and Invefied '."^ Thefe later 
are either [ fuch as are nat yet gathered into a particular Church, 
or fuch as are. ] For all thefe arc the ohjcds ofour office. 

ScA. 12. 5. Accordingly the firft part of the Miniftcrial 
office is to Preach the Qofpel to unbelievers and ungodly one t for 
their Coni/erfton. This therefore is not, as forac have imagi- 


.ned,a common work, any more then preaching to the Church.- 
Occafionally ex- CLtntnte, ouly anoiher man may do ir. But 
ex Officio, as a work that we are feparatcd andfetapirt to and 
cntruftcd with, lb only Miniflers may do it-No man hath the 
Fomr of Office ^ but he that hath the Duty or ObligAtlon, to 
make it the trade or bufincfs of his life , to preach the Gofpel 
( though bodily matters may come in on the by. ) 

Scvl. 13. 6. Hence it appears that a man is \[\o:dtvo^ Nature 
A Preacher of the Gofpeiin General^ before he be the Paflorof 
a particular fLock^. thougli in time they often go together : that 
Xi^ when a man is ordained to fuch a particular flock. 

Scd. 14. 7. And hence it follows that a man may be ordain- 
ed /i«^ 77;;</o or without a particular charge, where the Con- 
verting preparatory work is firfttobc done. 

Sed. 15. 8. And hence it appeareth thataMinlfler is firfti/j 
order related to the unbelieving world, as theobje(ftofhi§firft 
work, before he be related to the Church cxiftent: cither Ca- 
iholick or particular: And that he is under Chrift firlt a Spiri- 
tual Father, to beget children unto God, from the unbelieving 
woild, and then a oovernourof them, Ifothers have already 
converted them to our hands, and favcd us that pirt of our 
work, yet that ovcrthroweih not the order of the parts and 
works of our office, though it hinder the execution of the firft 
part ( it being done to our hands by others in th^t office J 

Sed. 16. 9. The fecond part of the Minifters work is about 
Believers meerly converted, together with their Children, whom 
they yet have power to Dedicate to God : Andthat istolnvefl: 
them in the Rights ofaChrirtian, byBaptifmin folemn Cove- 
nanting with God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Andthefc 
are the next Muenal objeds of our Office. 

Many of the Ancients (Tertul/la»hy nsime, and the Coun- 
cil of Eliheris ) thought that in cafe of Neceffity, a Lay-man 
Cthnughnot a Woman^ may Baptize : if thatbegranted,ycc 
muft not men therefore pretend a Neccflity where there is none. 
But I am fatisfied i.That Baptifm by a a private man, is noc 
tcni»7i»ea Nullity, nor to be done again : 2. And yet that it is 
notcxniv a pare of the Mnirtcr* work to Baptize and approve 
them that are to be Baptized, ex offic 0, but that it is one of the 
grcatcll and higheft adons of his office ; Even an eminent ex- 


ercife of the Kcyes of the Kingdom . men into the 
Church of Chrift : it being a principal part of ^hdr Truft and 
power to judge who is nr.cct to be admitted to the Priviledges 
and fellowlhip of the Saints. 

Sed. 17. I o. The third part oftheMinifters work is about the. 
Baptized, that are only entred into the univcrfal Church ( for 
many fuch there arc J or eife the unbaptized that are Difcipled, 
where the former work and this are done at once ; And that is , 
to congregate the Difciples into far ticptUr Churches for Holy Com- 
ntumoniHGodsfVerJhip, &c. They muft do part of this thcm- 
felves in Execution. But he leads them the way, by Teaching 
them their duty, and provoking them tott,anddiredingthem in 
the execution , and oft-times offering himfcif or another to be 
their Teacher,and Leading them in the Execution. So that it 
belongcth to his office to gather a Church, or a member to a 

Sed. 18. 1 1. Hence is the doubt refolved. Whether the Pa' 
ftor^ or Church ^e firfi in crder of time or Nature? I anfwer : 
The Miniftcr as a Minifter to Convert and Baptize and gather 
Churches , is before a Church gathered in order of Nature and 
of time. But the Paftorof that particalar Church as fuch, and 
the Church it felf wliofc Paftor he is, are as other Relations,to- 
getber and at once • as Father and Son^Husband and Wife, &c. 
As nature firft makes the Nobler parts, as the Heart and Brain 
and Liver ; and then by them as inflruments formeth the reft •, 
And as the Philofophcr or Schoolmafteropeneth hisSchool,and 
takes in Schollsrs -, and as the Captain hath firft his Commiflion 
to gather Soldiers: But when the Bodies are formed,then when 
the Captain or Schoolmafter dieth,another is chofen in his fteadj 
So is it in this cafe of Paflors. 

Seft. 19. 12. Hence alfo is the great controverfic eafily de- 
termined, whether a particular Church or the univcrfdl be firfi 
iHarder^andbtthe Ecclefta Prima; To which I anfwer i . The 
Oueftion is not de orpine dignitatis, nor which is finally the Mini- 
fters chief End ; For fo it is paft controverfic that thcUniverfal 
Church is firft. 2. As to order of exiflence, the univerfal Church 
is confidered either as confifting of Chriftians as Chriftians , con- 
verted and Baptized ; or further as confifting of Regular Or- 
dered Afferablics, or particular Churches. ( For all Chriftians 



arc not members of particular Churches : and they that arc,are 
yecconfiderablcdiftmdtly, as mcer Chriftians and as Church- 
members C of particular Churches j And fo its clear, that 
men arc Chriftians in order of Nature, and frequently of time, 
before they are memberi of particular Churches : and therefore 
in thisrefpectthe univerfal Church ( that is, in its cfTcncc j is 
before a particular Church. But yet there muft be (?«e particu- 
lar Church, before there can be manj. And the JnMvidual Chur- 
ches are before iht Ajfsciation or C7o»»f^»o«ofthefe individu- 
als- And therefore though in its tjj'enct and the exiftence of 
thateffence the univerfal Church be before a particular Church 
( thac is, men are Chriftians before they are particular Church- 
members •, ) yet in its Order ^ and theexiftenceofthat Order, ic 
cinnot be faid fo : nor yet can it fitly be faid that thus the Pay 
fic«Ai?' is before the univerfaU. For the firft particular Church 
and the univerfal Church were all one f when the Gofpel ex- 
tended as yet no further ) And it W3S fimfil &fimei an order id 
finivtrfil ind pt.rtict^lar Charcio: ( but yet not qftJt univerfal ) 
But now , a//:hiVniverfal Church is not Ordered at all into 
particular Churches: and therefore all the Church univerfal 
cannot be brought thus into the Queftion. But for all thofe 
parts of the univerfal Church that are thus Congregate {vi\\\.<:\i 
fhoHldht all that have opportunity ) they are confiderablc, 
either as difiinll Congregations independent •, and fo they are all 
in order of nature together ( fuppofing them exiftent: ) Or elfc as 
Connexedand /4jfociatedJor Corrfmunion of Churches, or oibcrw'iCc 
related to each other: And thus wanj Churches are after the Indi" 
viduals Siihe fingle Church is the Ecclefta prima as to all Church 
forms ef Order -J and ^Jfociationj ire but Ecclefia orta, ariHng 
from a combmation or relation or Communion of manyof chcfe. 

Seft. 20. The fourth part of the Minifterial work is abouC 
particular Churches Congregate ^^.i wc arc Paftors of them. And 
in this they fubferve Chrift m all the parts of his office. 

1 . UuHer his Prophetical office,thcy are to Teach theChurches '^^^- ^^- ^°- 
to ohferve all things whatfoever he hath commanded them: & deli- ^^' .^'3'^* 
ver & open to them that Holy dodrine which they have recei- i^ ^^, 

ved from the Apoftlcs that fealed it byMiracle5,and delivered it to 
the Church. And as in Chrifts name 10 perfwade and exhort men 
10 duty, opening to them the benefit ^and the danger of ncgled. 

T 2. Under 

Jam 5.14. 2. Under ChriQs Prleftly office they arc to ftand Ixtwecn 

Ads 2:415 4'-' GoJ and the People, and to enquire of God for ihem, and fpeak 
_ „ ^^ ^■^^^' to God on their behalf and in their name, and to receive their 
Afts^lo. 7?^ Publick Oblations to God, and to offer np the facnficcof Praifc 
1 Cor. 10. 16. andThanksgivingontheir behalf, and to celebrate the Comme- 
Afts2o.i8. moration of the facrifice ofChrift upon the Crofs i and in his 
7. Cor. 5. II. nametodclievcr his Body and Blood,and Sealed Cofcntnt.aod 
ao,ix,z4. benefits to the Church. 

z 3 . Under his Kingly office ( a Paternal Kingdom ) they are 
Mac.i8.i8. to Proclaim his Laws, and Command obedience inhisName, 
and to Rule or Govern all the flock, as Overfeersof it, and to 
reprove, admonifh, cenfure and caft out the obftinatcly impeni- 
tcnt,and confirm the weak, and approve of Profertions and Con- 
feffions of Penitents, and toAblolve them, by delivering them 
pardon of their fin^ in the name of thrift. 

Sed.2i. 14. This work muft be done for the ends mentio- 
ned in the Definition. To his own Safety^ Comfort ^ and Reward^ 
it is neccffary that thofe Ends hefincereljf mended- For the com- 
fort and Satisfadion ofthe Church and the validity of the Or- 
dinances ('Sacraments efpecially^ to their fpiritual benefit, it 
is necefTiry that thefc ends be profiled to he intended hy him-^ and 
that they be really intended bjthemfelves. 

Sed. 22. 1 5 By this the Popiih cafe may be rcfolved, tyhc 
ther the Intention of the Pnefi he necejfary to the Validity 
and fuccefsof Saraments ? Tht reality ofthe Priefts Intention 
is not neceftary to the Validity of them to the people • For then 
no ordinance psrformed by an hypocrite were Valid ; nor could 
any man know when they are Valid and when not. But that 
they may be fueh adminiflrations, as he may comfortably anfwer 
for to God, h\s Jincere Intenr ion IS NQceHary. And that they be 
fuchas the People are bound tofubtDittOfitisncceffary that he 
profefs aftncere Intention : For if he purpofcly Baptize a man 
ludicroufly in profefifed jeft or fcorn, or not with a Teeming in- 
tent oftrue Baptizing,it is to be taken as aNullity an^.Mie thin^ 
CO be done again. And that the ordinances may be blefTed and 
effe^ual to the Receiver upon Promife from God, it is neceflary 
that the Receiver have a true intent^i receiving them to the ends 
chat God bath appointed rhcro. Thus and no further is Inten- 
tion ncceifary to the validity of th^ Ordinance and to the fuc- 
(sefi. . ^- ■ Tb€- 

The particular ends I fliall not further fpeak of,a$ having been 
* iongcr already then I intended on the Definition. 

Sed. 23 . But the principal thing that I would defirc you to 
obfcrve, inordertothe dccifion of our controverfie, hence is 
that the Miniftry i$ firft confiderabie as a prork.ind Service, and 
that the Fewer is but a Tower to be 4 fervantto all, and to do the 
work^ And therefore that the fir ft Queftion is, Whether the great 
bhrden and labour of C^f inijferial fervice may be laid on any man 
withiHt Ordination bj fptch as our Englijh Prelates •' Or whether 
ail menar«difcharged from this labour and fervice on whom 
fuch Prelatei do not Impofe it ? If Magiftrates, Presby- 
ters and People confpire to call an able man to the work and 
Service of the Lord,whether he be juftified for refufing it, what 
ever the Church fuffer byit,mcerlybecaufe the Prelates called 
him not ? 

Scd. ij[\ Though the forcmentioned works do all belong to 
the Office of the Mmiftry, yet there rauft be Opportunity and a 
particular Call to the exercijfe of them, before a man is actually 
obliged to perform the feveral ads. And therefore it was noc 
Without fence and reafon that in Ordination the Bifhop faid to 
the Ordained ,{_Take thou authority to Read or to preach the word 
of Qod, when thou /halt be threunto lawfully called ] Not that ano- 
ther r4//o/ Authority is neceflary toftate them in the office, or 
to oblige them to the Duty in General : But we muft in the in- 
vitation of people, or their confent to hear us, or other fuch 
advantagious accidents, prudently difcern when and where wc 
have a Call to fpeak andexercife any ad of our Miniftry. Even 
as a Licenfed Phyfitian muft have a particular Call by his Patientf 
before he exercife his skill. This call to a particular ad,i$ nothing 
elfe but an intimation orfignificationof the will of God, that 
hie & nunc we (hould perform fuch a work : which is done 
by Providence caufing a concurrence of fuch inviting Cir- 
cumftances that may perfwadc a prudent man that it is feafo- 

Sed. 25. A man that is in general thus obliged by his office 
to do all the formeniioncd works of the Miniftry, ( that is,when 
he hath a particular call to each ) may yet in particular never 
be obliged to forac of ihefc works, but may be called to fpend his 

T 2 life 


life in forae other part of the Miniftry , and yet be a compleat 
Minifler, arid have the cbligation and Power to all, upon fup- 
pofition of a particular Call ; and not be guilty of negligence in 
oroittirg thole other parts. One man man may live only among 
In.Sdels, and uncalled ones, andfobe obliged only to Preach 
the Gofpell to them in order to Converfion, and may die before 
hefecs any ready to be baptized: Another may be taken up in 
Preaching and i5ap:izing , and Congregating the Convertcd,and 
never be called to Paftoral Rulcof a particular Church. Ano- 
ther may live in a Congregated Church where there is no ufe 
for the Difcipling-Converting- Preaching ofthe GorpeI,and fo 
may have nothing to do but to Overfee that particular Church 
and Guide them in holy Worfhip. And in the lame Church if one 
Minifters parts are more for Publick preaching , and anothers 
more for Private inftrudion, and ads of Guidance and Wor- 
ihip i ifonebebeft in expounding,and another in lively appli- 
cation; tbey may lawfully and fitly divide the work between 
them: and it (hall not be imputed to them for unfaithfulnfs and 
negligence that one forbeareth what the other doth. For we. 
have our guifts to the Churches edification .• Thus Paul faith he 
• was not fent to Baptize, i^m to Preach the Go'ptli Not that it was 
not in his Commiflion, and a work of his office i huzijitoutd exer- 
cititim he had feldorae a fecond particular Call to exercife it, be- 
ing taken up with that Preaching ofthe Gofpcl, and fettling and 
confirming Churches which to him was a greater work. 
VSed. 26. This Miniftry before dcfcri bed {^whether you ^all 
it Epifcopatfim , Sacerdotbim, Trtibyteratam^ov what elfe is fit) 
is but one and the fame Order ( for Deacon* are not the Mini- 
fters defined by us : ) It is not diftinguifhed into various Speci- 
es'. Even the Patrons of Prelacy, yea the Schoolmen and other 
Papifts themfelves, do ordinarily contefs, that a Prelate and 
presbyter differ not Ordine, but only Gradu. So that it is not 
another office that they afcnbe to Prelates, but only a more 
eminent Degree in the lame Offic*. And therefore they them* 
fclves affirm, that in O/pWo the Power of Ordination is in both 
alike ( the office being the fame ) But that for the honour 
ofthe Degreeof Prelacy, for the unity ofthe Church, Presby- 
ters are hindered from the Exercife of that Ordination, which 
yet is in their Power and Office^ 


Scd. 27. As far as Ordination is a part of tfie Miniflcrial 
Work itiscomprifcdin the forementioned ads, £«fCo»^rega' 
if»g, TeAching, Ruling, &c. J and therefore is not Jeft out of 
the Definition, as it is a duty oFthe office: though it be not ex- 
pefTrd among the Efficient caufei, for the reafon above menti* 
oneJ : and bccaufel amnow morcdilHndly to treat of it by it 
felf, and to give you further rcafons hereof in the explication of 
the Nature andEndsof this Ordination. 

CHAP. If> 

0//^^^ i^(ature and Ends of Ordination. 

Sed. I. i^gg C-"-^ ^j;'% i^i ^.; Hat we may know how far the 

Ordination in queftion is ne- 

ceffary to the Miniftry , and. 

whether the want of it prove a 

Nullity , we muft firft enquire 

what goes to the laying of the 

Foundation of this Relation , 

and how many things concur 

in the efficiency, and among the reft, what it is chat the Ordain- 

ers have to do as their proper part ^ and what are thereafons of 

their Power and Work. 

Sed. 2. A«ail that deferve the name of men, are agreed that 
there is no Power in the world but from God the AbioluteSo- 
veraign, and firftCaufe of Power : fo all that deferve chcnam^ 
of Chridians are agreed that there is no Church Power but 
what is fi:om ChnlT the head and Soveraign King of the 

Sed. 3. As the will of God is the Caufc of all things t And 
nothing but theSgnification ofit isneceffirv tothe conveying 
of meer Rights .* So in the making a man a Miniitcr of the Go- 

T 3 %ej 

pd. there ncedeth no other principal efficient caufe then the 
IVi/Zof Jefus Chrift • nor any other Inftrumental Efficient , but 
wbatis of ufc tothe /^«j(/)/»^o/ hi^ will'. So that it is but in 
the nature of 7?^;<T that they arcNeceffary. No more there- 
fore \soi Abfoltite Necejfitj, but what is fo ncceffary to/^^/^^ 
his will. If Chrillswill may be fignified without Ordination, 
a man may be a Miniftcr without it : ( Though in other refpeds 
he may be culpable in his entrance, by croffing the will of Chrift 
concerning his duty in the manner of his proceedings.) 

Sed.4 Thereisconfiderablein thcMiniftry, i.BeneficiHm. 
z. Officifim. I . The Gofpel, pardon, falvation-Ordinances are 
ihok great Benefits to the fonsof men, which the Miniftcry is to 
be a means of conveying to them: And is it felf a Benefit asic 
is the means of thefe Benefits. In this refped the Minifirj is 
a Qift of Chrift to the Church,and his Donationis the neceflary 
aft for their Miniftration. But of this gift rhc Church is the 
fubjed. Hegiveth Paftors to his Chnrch. z. But in conjun- 
dion with the Churches Mercies, theMinifter himlelf alio par- 
takes of mercy : It is a double Benefit to hira to be both recep- 
tive with them of the bleffing of the Gofpel,and to be inftruracn- 
tall for them in the conveyance , and to be fo much cxercifcd in 
io fweet and honourable,tbough fielh-difpleafing and endanger • 
ingwork. As in giving Alms, the giver is the double receiver j 
and in all works for God , the greateft Duties are the greateft 
BenefitSjfo is it here. And thus the making of a Minifter is a Do- 
nation or ad of bounty to himfelf. Chrift giveth to us the Office 
of the Miniftry , as he giveth us in that office to the Church. As 
a Commanders place in an Army is a place of Truft and Honour 
and Reward,and fo the matter of a gift , though the work be to 
fight and venture life, 

Sed. 5 . The Duty of the Minifter is caufed by an Obligation ^ 
and that is the part of a Precept of Chrift i And thus Chrifts 
command to us to do bis work doth make Minifters. 

Sed. 6. Prom the work which the Minifters are to perform, 
and the command of Obedience laid upon the people,arifeth their 
duty, in fubmiffion to him, and Reception of his Minifterial 
work; And in Relation to them that are to obey him, his office 
is a fuperionr Teaching Ruling Power, and fo is to be caufed by 
Comroiffion from C brift,as the fountain of Power that is to com* 
manii both Paftor and People SeA 

C »4-5 ) 

Seft.7. So that the Mnirtry confining of D/^f;*, Benefit, and 
Power, ^or uthoricyjic n caufed by Preceptive Obligation^ by 
Liberal Dottatio»y and by Commiffion. But the lalt i* b jc cona- 
poundtd 01 the two firft,ori rclultfrom them. The Ctmmand 
of God to Paul^ €. g. to Pfeach and do the other works of the 
Mmiftry, doth of it felf give him Authority to do them. And 
Gods command to the People to hear and fubmit, doth concur to 
make it a Power as to them. And tl.e Nature and ends of the 
work commanded are fuch as prove it a Benefit to the Church ; 
and confcquentially to the Minifter himfelf So thar all is compre- 
hended in the very impofition of the Duty : By commanding 
m to preach the word , weare Autho ized todo it,and byDo- 
ing it we are a Benefit to the Church, by bringing them the Go- 
fpel and its Benefits. 

SeA. 8. Our Principal work therefore is to findout,on whom 
Chrift impofeth the Z)«n>/ or Church Mmiftration .-And by what 
fignsofhis will, the perfon himfelf and the Church may beaf. 
fured that it is the Will of Chrift; that this man (hall undertake 
the doing of thefc work«. 

Sect 9. And therefore let us more diftinctly enquire, i . What Is 
to befignificdinordertoaMiniftersCallj and 2. How Chnft 
doth fignific his will about the feveral parts ^ and fo we fhill fee 
what IS left for Ordination to do, when wc fee what i$ already 
done, or undone. 

Sect. 10. i.Itmuft be determined or fignified that AMi- 
niftry there muft be. 2. And what their Work and Power (hall 
be. 3. And what the Peoples Relation and duty toward them 
(hall be. 4. What men (hall be Minifters, and how qualified. 
5. And how it (hall bedfcerned by themfelves andoil.CsS which 
are the men thac Chrift intends. 

Sect. 1 1 . Now let us confider i . What Chrift bath done al" 
ready in Scripture, 2. And what he doth by Providence. rewards . 
the determination of thefe things. And i. In the Scripture he i 
hath already determined ofthcfe things, or Hgnified that it u his ., 
Will, 1 . That there be a ftanding Miniftry in the Church to the 
end of the world : 2.Tbat their work (hall be to preach the Go- 
fpcl. Baptize, Congregate Churches, Govern them, admiaiftcr 
the Euchanft, ^r. as afore mentioned, 3. He hath left them 
Rules or Canoasfor the directing (hcm^ in «U (biiigs of cooftane 


univerfal ncccffity) in the performance of thefe works. 4. He 
hath defcribed the perfons whom he will have thus employed, 
both by the Qualifications ncceffaryto their Being, and to the 
• Y7cli being of their Miniftracion. 5. He hath made it the Duty 
of fuch qualified perfons to dcfirc the work , and to feek it in cafe 
of need to the Church. 6. He hath made it the Duty of the people 
CO defire fuch Paflors, and to feek for fuch and choofe them or 
confent to the choice. 7. He hath made it the Duty of the pre- 
fcnt Overfccrsof the Church- to Call fuch to rhe work,and Ap- 
prove them, and 7«ff/?them in the office (which three acts inw» 
are called Ordination, but fpecially the lafl. ) 8. He hath made 
it the Duty-of Magiflratesto encourage and protect them, and 
i 1 fomc cafes to couimand them to the work, and fet them in the 
office by their Authority. All thefe particulars are determined 
of already in the Laws of Chrif^, and none of them Icfc to the 
power of men. 

^ Sect. 12. The ordainers therefore have nothing to do to Judge 
I. Whether the Gofpel fhall be preached or no,whetherChurche$ 
(hall be Congregate or no, whether they (hall be taught or go- 
verned or no ? and Sacraments adminiftred or no ? 2. Nor whe- 
ther there (hall be a Miniftry or no Miniflry ? 3 . Nor how far 
( as to the Matter of their work and power) their office (hall 
extend, andofwhat Species it (hall be.? 4. Nor whether the 
Scripture (hall be their conftant univerfal Canon? 5. Nor whe- 
ther fuch qualified perfons as God hath defcribed , arc only to be 
admitted, or not. 6. Nor whether it fball be the duty of fuch 
qualified perfons to feek the office? or the Duty of the People 
to feek and choofe fuch , or of Paflors to ordain fuch ? or 
ofMagiftratesto promote fuch and put them on .> None of this 
is the Ordainers work. 

Sect. 13. If therefore any man ori^what pretence foevcr,(h3ll 
either determine that the Gofpel (ha^l not be preached, nor the 
Difcipics Baptized, the Baptized Congregated, the Congrega- 
tions governed, the Sacraments adminif^red, &c. or that there 
(hall be no Miniflers to do thofe works^ or if any man Deter- 
mine that which will infer any of thefe ; or if he pretend to a 
Power offufpending or excluding them, by his Non- approba- 
tion, or not. authorizing them ; he is no more to be obeyed and 
regarded in any of this Ufurpation,(hen I were if I (hould make a 


Law,tbat no King (hall reign but by my nomination,approbarion 
or Coronation. And li any man under pretence ot Ordaining 
do fee up a man that wants the Qualiricaiions which Chrift hath 
niadeneccflary tothe Bti»^ of the Mmifky, his Ordination is 
Null, as being without Power, and againh that Will of Chrifl: 
that only can give Fower. Andfoof the ref^ of the particulars 
forcmcntioncd ; Where the Law hath already determined, ihcy 
have nothing to do but obey it. And though the mifcarria- 
ges of a man in his owi; calling do not alwaies nullific his sds, ycc 
all that he doth quite out of the lineof his Office are Nullities. 
* Sedt. 14- We ice (hen that all that the Law hath left to the 
Ordainer isbutthis : In General, toDifcern and judge of itie 
perfon that isQualificd according to the Dcfcription of the Law- 
and particularly to call him om tothe work, if he need excite- 
ment, and to Trj and Approve him, before he be admittcd.and to 
Itive^ him^ or lolemnize his admittance, at his entry, iothat 
the lum of all is, but to find out the qualified perJon, becaufc 
he is rot named by the Law. 

Seft. 15. And even in this the Ordainers are not the only 
Difcernersor Judges^ but the perfon hirorclf,the People and the 
Magiftrares, have alhheforementioned parts in the work. And 
Godhimfelf goes before them all, and by providence frequently 
points them out (te man whom they are bound to choole, Or- 
dain, accept and fubmit unto : and that by thefe particular adfs- 
Sed. 16. I. As God doth plainly dcfcnbe the perfonsinthc 
word, fo he doth Qualifie them accordingly by his Guifts : and 
that of three forts : Even, his fpecial Graces Cneceflary fofar 
as was before mentioned j Mimflerial Abilities pf Knowledge 
and utterance, and a defirc after the work, for its ends. 2. God 
ufethto quaiiHe fo fmall a number thus, compared with his; 
Churches MectfTities, that vhciher they ftiCu!dbeMiniifers(in 
general^ or rot, is fcMom matter of controverfic to prijdent 
men, or at Iea{\ a doubt that's more eafie to decic'c. 3. Godufeth 
by Providence to give (omc ore msn, by advanwjre of p?rts, ac- 
qiiaintspce, opportunity, inrcrcft. (^c. a fpecial fixnefs for one 
place and people fbove other nen, ard io to fscilitste the deci- 
(ion. 4.'^ od ufeth toftiruptheheartsoftheCl urchtochopfr 
or confent to the perfon thus qualified. 5 And he ufeth to ftir 
updelircsorconfent in the heart of the pet fon to be ihe Pallor 

u ^'^y-'^^"^ of 

C Hn 

of that particular flock. 6. And heufech oft times to procure 
him Liberty , if not fome call from the Magiftrate. 7. And 
alfo to remove impediments in his way. 8. And to aflift or- 
dainers in difcerning the qualifications of the perfon , when the 
work comes co their hands. All this God doth providentially. 

Sect. 17. By this much it appeareth, that the Ordaincrsdo 
not give the power as from therafelvcsto others ; nor doth it 
pafschroughtbeir hands. They are but the occafions, and the 
Inftruraents of Inauguration or foiemn poffefiion^when their in- 
terpofition is due. It is the ftanding Kdt of Chrift in his Law that 
givcth the Power immediately, 1 fay immediately , as with- 
out any mediate receiving and conveying caufe , that is 
direftly efficient of the Power it fclf, though not fo Immediately 
as to exclude all Preparations^andperfeding Inftrumcnts, acci- 
dental! caufes & other means. As in cafe of Marriagc,it is the wo- 
roans confent that is of Neceflity to the defignation of the Perfon 
that (hall be her husband. But it is no: her Confent that properly 
giveth him the power of an husband over her. For that is done by 
God himfclf,in that Law by which he conftituteth the husband to 
be head of the wife , and detcrmineth in fpecie of his power ^ 
which one determination immediately conferrcth the power on 
alt individual perfons, when once they are chofen and named : io 
that theEledor of the perfon doth but prepare and difpofe him to 
receive the power,and not give it.He doth but open the door and 
let men in to theMiniftry, & not give ir.Its one thing to bring the 
perfon to the Pool that healeth,that he may be the man that firlt 
ftiall enter: and its another thing to heal him : Its one thing to 
Judge of the perfon that fhall receive the Power immediately 
from God, and another thing to give it him ourfclves. 

Seft. 18. Its thus in the cafe of Magiftrates Power, in whiich 
mens intercll hath ever been morcdifccrnable to the world and 
beyond controver fie then in the power of Miniftcrs. Though 
here there be a certain fpecification that depcndeth on the will of 
man, yet the Power it felf is immediately from God, and men 
do but choofe the perfon that ihall receive it, and prcfent him to 
God, and folemnly inaugurate him. Aud for my part, I think I 
fhall never confent to any fide that will needs give more to 
men ( whether Presbytcrs,Prelates,or people^ in making a Mini- 
fter^tfien in making a King.AlJ power is of God^ the powers that 
fee are ordained of God Seft. 


Sed. 19. If any doubt of this f as I perceive by hiauy wti^ 
tings, they do) Ifhall, tofpare the labour of a Digrefiion,rc- 
fcr them to the copious unanfwerable labours of abundance of 
Pfoteftants that have written in EngUndior the Royal Power: 
Butinflead of more, let them but read SpaUte»fis, and SarAvia 
and Bdfon^xndi reft fatisfied, or confute them before they expeft 
any more from mc. 

Sed. 20. As in the making of Bayhffs for our Corporations, 
either the people.or theBurgeffcs.have the power of choofing, 
and the Steward or Recorder bath the power of fwearinghim, 
and performing the Ceremonies : and yet none of thefe confer 
the power, but onlydefign thcperfon, who receives the powei- 
from the Prince alone, by the Charter of the Cities or Towns,as 
his is it in the ordaining of Minifters. The People 
may choofe, and the Paftors may inveft,but its God only by the 
Gofpel Charter that confers the power from himfclf. 

Sed. 21. Hence it is plain that the Argument is vain thats 
commonly ufed by the Prelates, hom Nemodatqmdnoythabet. 
For it falfly fuppoleth that the Ordainers are the givers of 
Power ( the mafter-error in their frame, j Chrift hath it, 
and Chriit giveth it. Men give ic not, though fomeof theaa 
have it : For they have it only to ufe and not to give. When 
the People choofe a King, they give him not the Power, but 
God giverh it to the man whom the people choofe. When ouc 
Corporations choofe their Bayliff, the choofers give him not 
the Power; fortheyhaditnotthcrafelvcs; but they determine 
ofthc man that immediately from the Princes Charter flialLjaa^ 
ceive it : Nor doth the Recorder or Steward give it Primarily, 
but only lnftrHmentAliter& perfeElive by aCeremonial inaugura- 
tion. So the People give not Paftors the Power : Nor the Ordain-^ 
ers, but only complementally. 

Sed. 22. From what is aforefaid alfo it appeareth, that the 
work of the Miniftry is founded firft in the Law of nature it felf, 
which upon fuppofition of mans mifcry and his recovery by 
Chrift, and the Promife and means appointed for application,' 
requireth every man that hath Ability and Opportunity , to 
do his bcft in the Order appointed him by God , to favc 
mens fouls by proclaiming the Gofpel, and ufing Gods appoint- 
ed means , for the great and bleffed Ends thai arc before usJ 


Seft.2 3 .Hence it alfo appearcth thacGods firft command(part- 
Jy in Nature and partly in the Gofpel ) is that [ The work. Jhull 
i?edonc,the Gofpel Jhull he preached, Churches gathered and ^O' 
<verned,SacramtKt3 adminijlred:~] and that ihe Precepc dc or dine is 
but lecundary and fubfervienc to this. And if at any time,alLeraci- 
nnsfhould make Ordination impollible, it will not follow that 
the duty Ordered ccafeth to be duty, or the precept to oblige. 
Sed. 24. The Scriptures name not the man that (hall be a Pa- 
llor, yet when it hath dcfcribed him it coniraandeth the DtTcri- 
bed pcrfon duely to feck admittance, andcommandeth the Peo- 
ple, ordainers and Magiftratcs to [_ Choofe and Apfelnt thefe men 
■to the Minifterial work: ] Now thefe Precepts contain in each of 
rhem two diflind determinations of Chrift. The firft is [that 
fuch men be Minificrs. ] The fecond is [_ that they cfer them- 
felvesto theofficefandthattheji he ylccefted andOrdained. ) For 
the fifft is implyed in the latter. If the Soveraign Power 
make a Law,that there (hill be Phyficians liccnfcd by a Colledge 
of Phyiitiansto Pradice in this Comtildn- wealth ] and defcribc 
the perfons that Qiall be licenfed •, This plainly firfl: concludeth 
that fuch perfons fhallbe Phyfitians, and but fecondarily de er- 
mine that thus they (hall be licenfed ; fo that if the Colledge 
(houldLicenfe a company of utterly infufficicnt men,and murde- 
rers than (eek mens death,or fhould rcfufe toLicenfe the perfons 
qualified according toLaw,thcy may thcmfclvcs be puni{hcd,and 
th'e Qualified perfons msy a<^ as Aiich^rized by that Law,Whicli . 
bind^th ^Hoad t^aterlum , and is by the Co!ledge ( and not 
<i«i€by tliem) fruOrate ifmad crdincm. So is it in this cafe in 

Sed. 25. Hence it appearerh that [] Ordination is one 
means conjunct With divfers others, for the De^gnation of right 
Qualified perfons^dcfcnbed in the Law of Chrift ) for the re- 
ception and cxcrcife of the Minifterial office. And that the ends 
of it are 1 . To take care that t^e office fail not : and therefore 
to call out fit men toacceptir, ifmodefty or Wpediments hin- 
vdw thenj from oSiii?ngthefi!^fdVcs;.or fhe people from nomins-- 
*ting th^ra. 2. To Jedge in ^1 torcHnkr^y caCes of the ficnefs 
''«6f perfons to the office, and 'whether ttfey ate fuch as Scrip- 
ture defcrihet hand calls out. 3. And to folemnize their Ad- 
m«sa'fltf^, by fuchaninvcfhtures asWhcnPolTeffionofaHoufe 


.5 given by a Miaiftcrial tcaiiiionofa Key: orPoffcffipn of 
Land by Nlnlfterial delivery of a twig and a turf, op as a 
Souldier is lifted, a King Crowned, Marriage Solemnized, after 
confcnc and Title, in order to a more foleran obligation, and pie- 
nary poff.'llion^fuch is our Ordination. 

Sed. 26. Hence it appeareth that as the Ordainersare not ap- 
pointed to Judge whether the Church (h\\\ have Ordinances 
andMinifters, or not (no .-nore then to Jiidg: wheclier we 
ftuli have aChrift and heavcn,ornot:)buc who-lliillbe the man; 
fo it is not to the Being of the Minillry (irapiy,and in all Cafes 
that Ordination is neccffiry, but tQjhe fafe being and order of 
admittance, that the Church be not damnified by intruders. 

Seft. 27. Ordination therefore is Gods orderly and ordinary 
means of a Regular admittance ^ and to be fought and ufed 
where it may be had ( as the folemnizing of Marriage. ) And 
it is a fin to negleft it wilfully, and fo it is ufually neceflary »e- 
cefpLAte Pritcepti^ (tr T^ctfJitAte medH ad ordinem .& bene ejfe. 
But it is not of abfolute Necefiicy Necejfitate medii ad ejfe Mini' 
fleriipv to the Validity or Succefs of our office and Miniilrations 
to the Church ^ nor in tifes of nec^fficy;wlien it e^nnot be had, 
is it ncccffary ttecefjitate pracepti ntithcr. This is the plain truth, 
Seft. 28. There arc great and 'Weighty Re&fons of Chrifts 
committing Ordination to Payors, i. Becaufe they arc moft 
Able to judge of mens fitnefs , when the People may be igno- 
rant of it. 2. Becaufe they are men-dowbly dS^^vorcd to the 
Church and workof Gt)d thcmfelves^lBirTtiier^f'riv-.triay be fup- 
pofed (regularly) to have thegrcackflciip ul impartial 

refped to the Church and caufeof God_'5..A!'-- -y 'nult i,tegu- 
iaryjbc fuppofcd to be men of grcatcit 'piety, Anil«i«d'holinefs(or 
clfe they are not weUchofen.'; 4. Andttrcy being^S^cr , are fit- 
ter tokeep Unity, when the pco|ilc are jroally dTvided in their 
choice. 5. And if every man fhouii -enter thcMiatlkf ofbim- 
fclf that Will judge himfclf fir, and can but get a pCopk to 
accept him.molfcertainly the worft woul-d be oft forwalddl to 
AS fbcffTcthty art lone. /and forwartt or >hia(imHcy 7/iM>ld 
th.'nk chemfell/es htteft. ( thexommtmcafc of tke Ptoi>«i and Ig- • 
norani ) and the People would be roo wtarnonly poilooed by 
heretical fmoOi.h- to goe'd men 5 or rt^olc commo'^iv wjdd 
pkafe and uiidoe chcraJeiv-ec, by dhooiS/ig them ttwt;,iuLvc raoft 

U.3 , interfO: ,. 

intercft in them i by friends or acquaintance, and them that 
will moft pleafe and humour them, and inftead of being their 
Teachers and Rulers, would be taught and ruled by them , 
and do as they would have them. Order is of great mo- 
ment to preferve the very being of the Societies ordered , 
and to attain their well-being. God is not the God of Confu- 
fion but of Order, which in all the Churches muft be maintain- 
ed : No man therefore fliould negled Ordination without ne- 
ceffity ; And thefe that fo negled it, (hould be difowncd by the 
Churches, unlefs they (hew fufficient caufe. 


Ordination is not of S!\(ecefsitj to the be-^ 

SeA. I. Ad^B^^BB^ Aving (hewed what the Miniflry is, 

and whatOrdination island how the 
work is impofed on us , and the 
Power conferred , I may now 
come up to the point undertaken , 
to (hew the fin of them that 
Nullific all our Minifters calling 
and adminiftrations , except of fuch as are ordained by the 
Englifti Prelates. And for the fuller performance of this task,I 
(hall do it in thefe parts. i.I (hall (hew that Ordination it felfbv 
man 1$ not of Neccfiity to the being of a Minifter. 2 . 1 (ha iflSw 
that much lefs is an uninterrupted (ucce(iion of Regular Ordi- 
nation ffuch as either Scripture or Church Canons count validj 
ofNeceflity to the being of Church or Miniftry. 3 .1 (hall (hew, 
that much Icfs is an Ordination by fuch as our £»^///Si>i(hops 


neceffary to the Being of the Miniflry. 4. I fliall flievv that 
yec much lefs is an Ordination by fuch Bilhops rehnsfic flanti- 
bui^ as now things go, of necciTity to the being of the Miniftry. 
5. I (hall (hew that without all thcfe pretences ofneccflity for a 
Presbyterian Ordination, theprefent way of Ordination by this 
& other Reformed.Churchcs is agreeable to the Holy Scripture, 
and thecuftomcof the Ancient Church, and the pojltt/ata of our 
chief oppofers. 6. 1 (hall then (hew the greatnefs of their fin 
that would Nullifie our MiniOry and adminiftrations. 7. And 
yec I (hail (hew the greatnefs of their fin that oppofe or wil- 
fully negled Ordination, 8. Andlaftly I (hall return to my 
former fub jcd: , and (hew yet how far I could wi(h tlie Epif- 
copal Brethren accommodated, and propound foraewhat for a 

Sed. 2. Khali be much briefer on all thefe, then evidence 
would invite me to be, bccaufe I apprehend the moft of them to 
be of no great necefiity toourcaule, we having enough with- 
oLitthem, and left men (liould chink, chat we need fuch Me- 
dtMrm more then we do; and becaufe of my exceeding fcarcity of 
time which forceth me to do ali hafuly. 

And for the firft that [ Humane Ordinnition is mt of Abfohte 
Necefsuj t» the Being of the Uliinifiry] I argue as followeth. ^{"thisrmi- 
tArg. 1. Ifthe Nece(rity of Ordination may ceafe (as to(in. ^enat W^ 
gleperfonsj and theNeceflity of Miniftration continue ( or dedefpema 
if the obligations to each are thus feparablc ) then is not Ordi- ^^'*f^ Papamj 
nation of Neceffity to the Being of the Minillry. Buc che Ante-^'' whichl re- 
dent is true : which I (hall prove by parts f for theconfcqucncc/Zr ^^^ 
is paft all doubt, nor will any I fuppofe deny it.) 

Sc6t . 3 . That the obligation to be prdained may ceafe to fome 
perfons, I prove by inftances in certain cafes. And i . I n cafe of 
a mans diflance from any that (hould Ordain him» As if one or 
many Chriftians were caft upon the Coafts of any Indian Hea» 
then or Mahometan Nation, as many have been. There is no 
ordination PofTible: and therefore not nece(rary or due. And 
to return for it to theChriftian partofthe world, may beasinir 
poffible : and if not, yet unlawfullby reafonofdelay. 

Sed.4.And 2.1n cafe of the great Nece(Bty of th? PcopJethaS 
cannot bear the abfencc of fuch as are able to teach them fo long 
atwhiletietravaileth maay hundred or thoufand miles for Or- 

^inaticn ; As Baftl'in another cafe wrirestotbe Biftiops of the 
Weft, that if one of them ( the Eaftern Biftiop? j fliou.'d but leave 
their Churches for a v^ry fmall time, rruch mere for ajrurney 
into the Weil, they iTiull give up their Churches to the Wolves 
•to be unc'ore before they return ^ And this cafe is ordinary 

Se<^. 5. And 3. That in cafe by Civil wars or enmity among 
Prince?:, men be unable to travail from cneof their Countrits 
into the other for an Ordsnation (which elfe ofttimes cannot 
be had ) (o the Turks and Perfians, and the Indian Mogol, and 
the Tartarians and many other Princes, by fuchwars may make 
fuch paflageanirrpofTible thing-: Nor is it like they wcuid fuffer 
their fubjcds to go into the enemies country. 

Scd.6. And4. in cafe that Princes ( Infidels or others^ 
Ihouldperfecute Ordination to the Death: I do not find that it 
were a Duty to be ordained, if it would coft all men that feek 
it their lives , and fo made them uncapable of the Ends of Ordi- 
nation *. ( For the dead preach not ) If we were all forbid to 
preach on pain of death, 1 know wcfhould not forbear, unlefs 
our places were fo fupplied, that mens fouls were rot apparent- 
ly endangered by our omiflion. But he that may preach with- 
out Ordination, can fcarcc prove ir aduty to feek Ordination 
when it would coft him his life. Or if he will plead it in Pa per, he 
would foon be farisfied in tryal. 

Sed. 7. And 5.1ncafc that the Generality of Bifhops with- 
in our reach turn Hercticks , ( ss in mary parts of the Eaft 
in the Arrian revolt, when fcarcefeven Bifhops remained Or- 
thodox j Or incafcof aNational Apoftfcie, asin the King- 
domes of JNubia^TerJttc^ and many more that by the conqueft 
of Infidels have revolted. 

Scd. 8. And 6 Ordination is no duty in cafe that Fifhops 
confederate to impofe any un^a'^ full oaths or other Conditions 
on allthatihey will ordain. As the Oath of the Roman Prelates 
containing divers falfl-:oods and unlawful pjfp- go« dcth make 
all Reman Ordination utterly impious and unlawful! to he re- 
ceived- and therefore not neceffary. 

Sect. 9. Ardy. In cafe (far B il^rpsthtmfclvesf whomthofc 
that we now ipeak todofuppofe to have the who'e Power of 
Ordination) Ihould either have a def gn tc corrupt the C hurch, 


and ordain only the unworthy , and keep out fuch ai the Nc- 
ceiTicies of the Church requireth,or fet up a deltrudive faAion, 
or by negligence or any other caufe (hould refufc ro ordain fucb 
as fliould be ordainedj ^n all ihefe cafes Ordination is imponible 
to them. 

Sed. 10. And 8. Tn cafe that death cutoffall the Bifliops 
within our reach, or that the remnant be by fickncfs, or banifh- 
ment or imprifonmcnt hindered, or by danger tflfrighted to de- 
ny Ordinarion, or by any fuch means become in acceffiWe, Or- 
dination muft here fail. 

Sed. 1 1 , And 9 In cafe that Bifhops through contention arc 
unknown,as BelUrmine confcffech it hath been at Rome^th^t the 
wifed could not tell which was Pope : Efpecialiy ifwithali both 
parcies fecra ro be fuch as are not to be fubmitted to,Ordinacion 

Scd. 12. And 10. In cafe of Prophetical immedi«te calls from 
God, which many had of old, and God hath not bound himfelf 
from the like ag» in, though none have reafon toexp€dic,and 
noncQiouUrafhlyprcfumeofit : I nail thefe ten cafes Ordina- 
tion faiieib. 

Scd 13. And that ic doth fo, needs no proof: the Inftances 
prove it themfelves. Briefly i.Nemo tenetMrad impo/pbile : 
But rn many of thefc cafes Ordination is ImpoHlble : therc^ 
fore, erf . 

Sed. 14. And 2. Nemo ttnetur ad inhoneflhmx No man is 
bound to fin : For Tnrpe efi imfofsiifile in Law. But in many of 
thefe cafes or all, is plainly fin : therefore &c. 

Sed. 20. And 3 Cej[4Mte fine ceJfatolfUgatio. The tnetins ire 
fo«theend; But inmany.if not all thefc cafes, Cejfdt finis, ^ 
ratio medii : therefore ce(fat obU^atio, 

Scft. 21 . And 4. Cejfante materia ceffdt obii^Atit. But here 
ali(}M:i^--b cejfat materia • As in cafe of the Apottacy^dcath,ba- 

rifhinci.i, concealment of Bifhops, therefore, &c. 

Sed. 22. And now I am next to prove that when the ObU^a. 
tioH t<i Ordination cetfeth, yet the ObligAtion t» 'JMinifierial Of- 
fices cti.icih not, but fuch rauft be done. 

And I.I prove it hence, bccaufe the obligations of the com- 
mon Law of Nature ceafe not upon the ceflation of a point of 
Order : B%c if the Minifkcial works (hok^d ccafe^the Obligici- 

X oni 


ons ofthc Law of Nature muft ceafe. Hcrelhavetwo 

points to prove, i . That the Law of Nature ( fuppofing ihs 
work of Redemption already wrought; and the Gofpel and Or- 
dinances eftabliflicd ) obligeth men that are able and have Op- 
portunity to do the work of Minifters . 2. And that this Law is 
not ceafed when Ordination ceafeth. 

Seft 25. ]"hc Law of Nature prohibits cruelty, and r«rquircth 
Charity,and to (hew n-ercy to mci in grcatcft Ncceiriues accor- 
ding to our ability- Buctofurpcnd'thecxercifecf ihc Mmillcri- 
al office, were the greatcft cruelty , where there is Ability and 
opportunity to exercife ir: and to exercife it is the greaceir work 
of Mercy in all the World. Nature tf acheth us to do good to all 
menrohde v?e have time ^ and t«fave them f^ith fear ^ fulltng them 
out of the fire ^ a»dtoloz/e onr r.nghbourt asourfelves ; 2nd there- 
fore to fee a man, yea a town and Country and many (Jounirie?, 
lie in fin and in 2 ftate of mifery, under the WrJth and Curfe of 
God, fo that they will certainly be damned if they c'is in that 
condition, and ycc to be filenc, and not Preach the Gofpel to 
them, nor call them home to the llatc of life, this is the grc.i tell 
cruelty in the world, excep: the tempting and driving them to 
hell. To let the precious things of the Gofpel lie by unrcvealcd, 
even C hrift 2tud pardon and hoIinefs,and eternal life and the com- 
munion of SaiQrs,and all the Church Ordinances, and withal to 
iuffcr the Devil to go away with all thefe fouls, and Chrift to 
lo'i" the honour that his grace might have by their converfion, . 
ve'Taioiy this init fclfconfidered is incomparably more cruelty 
to men, dien to cut thtir throats, or knock them on the hcad,as 
fych and as gfe^t arj injury to God as by omiffion can be done. 
I need not plead this argument with a man that hath nof much 
anmand himfclf,much Icfs with a Chriftian.For the one is taught 
of God by nature, to favc men out of a lefTcr fire then Hell> and 
a leffer pain then cvcffiafting torment , to the utmoft of his 
power •• And the other is taught of God to love his bro- 
ther and his neighbour as himfelf. Jf the Love of God dwell 
notinhim that feeth his brother in corporal need, and (hutteth ^ 
up the bowels of his compafiioni from him • how then dorh 
the love of God dwell in him, that fee: h his brother in a ftatcof 
dflmnaiionjCnrfcd byiheLaw,ancrcTiy to God, and withina^ 
fltp of «verUfiing, death ar.ddefpeation, and Y^t refufcfii c<^ - 

afford him the help that he htth at hand, and ill becaufehe is not 
ordained ? 

Scd. 24. Let this be confidered or,as in any lower cafe.If a man 
fee another fall down in the llrects, (ha I he reufe to take him Tit autm 
up, bccaufe heisnoPhyfician ? Ifthe Country be infeAed with frAjfto aut per 
the Plague,and you have a Soveraign medicine t' at will certain- ^<''''«'«'^'Me 
ly cure it with all that will be ruled, will you let them all perifh, jj(;uJ"^iil^g 
rather then apply it to them, becaule you are nor a Phyfitian,and fuperioyum au- 
that when the Fhyfirians arc not to be had ? If \ ou fee the poor 'fwititte, &c. 
naked, may no one make them cioaths but aTaylorPIf you fee the ^'^ y^rfns >;o/>- 
enemy at the Walls, will you not give the City warning,becaufc 'S'^affttatis 
you 'drc not a W"a:ch-man,or on the Guard ? If a Commander Ugc; qu^jido 
die in fighr, any man that is next may take his place in cafe of ^n ahterpgf- 
Neceffity. Will you fee the field loft for a point of Order, be- /^^ fif" f'". 
ciufe you will not do the work of a Commander? A hundred ^nvl'^lata^fa- 
fuch cafes may be put, in which its plain, that the fubftanceof the i,m\ ubi i/a- 
work in wbichmen candoagreatand neceffary good, is ofthe rumefiiUudj 
Law 0' Nature, though the regulating of them in point of order is ^Vf^Z-^'^f 
oft from H.ofitive Laws;but the Ccflation ofthe obligation ofthe ^^''^'^J^/ *'* 
Pofitives about Order, doth not difobligeusfroitithe common ocddijii. * 
Law of Nature: For then it fhould allow us to lay by humanity. Voetius. 

Sed. 25. To this fome may fay,that [_ Its true v^ maypreAeh 
in ffich cafes ^ hut not at Ailnijlers^but ai private men : and we may 
haptiiie as private men in Necefsitj : but we maj do nothing that 
is proper to the Minifirj | To this I anfwer. God hath not made 
the Confecration of the Bread and Wine in the Eacharift, nor 
yet the Governing ofthe Church, the only proper afts ofthe 
Miniftry. To preach the word as tconftant fervice, to which 
wearefeparatcd, or wholly giveup our felves, and to baptize 
ordinarily, and to congregate the Difciples, and to Teach and 
Lead them in Gods worfhip, are all as proper to the Miniftry as 
the other. And thefe arc works that mens eternal happinefj lieth 
on. If you would have an able gifted Chriftian m C )^/«4,74r» 
tarj^ Indojlan,or fuch places, ( fuppofing he have opportunity^ 
tofpcak butoccafionally as private men, and not tofpeakto 
Aflemblies, and wholly giveuphimfelf to the work, and gather 
Churches, and fet afoot all ^hurch Ordinances among thera, 
you would have him annatura!|y cruell to mens fouls. And if yoa 
would have him give up him felf to thefe works, and yet not 

Xz be 


be a Miniftcr, you fpcak contradictions. For whats the ofFcc 
of a Miniftcr, but ^ajiate of Obligation aodfavtr tvcxercife tkt 
MiMtlhrialaSij} \ As its nothing elfe to be a PhyrKi;an,fup- 
pofmg abilites , but co be obliged and impowred to do the work 
of a Pnyfit^an j The works of the Miniftry areof Neceffity to 
the Calvationof mens fouls ; Though here and there one may 
be faved withoui them by privater racans.vct that? nothing to all 
the reft : It is the falvation of Towns and Contreyes that we 
ipcakof. I count him not a man, that had rather they were al) 
damned, then faved by an ufiordatixdman, 

^eA. 26. The End oi Ordination ccafeth not, when Ordi- 
nation failech-.iheMiDifterial works and the benefits to be there- 
by conveyed, are the Ends of Ordination : therefore they 
ceafe not. This is fo plain that I perceive not thar it needs ex- 
p'ication or proof. 

Sed. 27. Nature and Scripture teach us, that Ceremonies 
give place to the fubftance^and matters of meer Order give place 
to the Duty ordered j and that Moral Natural duties ceafe not 
when meer Pofitives ceafe ; But fuch is the cafe before us. Or- 
Jmation is the ordering of the work : If that fail, ard the work, 
cannot be rightly Ordered , it follows not that it mufl be caft 
off, or forborn. On this account Chrift juftified his Difciplcs 
for pluckinp ears of Corn on the Sabbath day. Ncceflity put 
an end to the Duty of keeping; but the duty of pre- 
fervirg their lives continued. On this account he juAifieth his 
own healing on the Ssbbach day j fending them to ftudy the 
gr^at rule ! GoleArnwhut thi^s tneaneth^ Iwill have Mtrcj and 
not Sacrifi.e : ] So here, he will have Mercy to fouls and Coun- 
ireyes, rather then Ordination : On this accoint he faitb^ 
that ^T^f Triejfjin the Temple break,the SMAthattd Are hlame- 
itfs~\ and he tells them f_ 'whAt David dU when he -was hmgrj^ 
and thej thAt -mere ^ith hlm^ how he eat the fhewhrtad^ which ( out 
ofNecefsicy)iJ'<w not Urvjullfor him to eat, hut only for the FriLJlj] 
and yet be (inned not therein. 

Sed. 28. Moreover, the Church it felf is not to ceafe upon 
the ccafing ofOrdination,nor to hang upon the will of Prelates. 
Cbrif\ hath rot put ic in the power of Prclares, to deny, him a 
Church in any countries of the world. For he haih fifflde- 
teumincdthit particularCbufdiesihalibc (aad^hat dttwmir 


nation ceafeih not, ) and but fccondly chat they rtiallhavc 
Paftors thus ordained : He is not to lofc his Churches at the 
plcafiMfcf of an envious or negligent man: But foic would be 
i Paftor5 muft ccafe when Ordination ccafech : I'or though 
without Paftors there may be communities of Chriilians, which 
are parts of the univcrfal Church, yet there can be no Organized 
Political Churches. For i. Such Churches confifl cflentially of 
the DireSing or Rnling Pah , and the Rttlcd Part ) (isa lit- 
publickdoth. ) 2. Such Churches arc Chriftian AlToctationsfor 
Communion in fuch Church Ordinances which without a Paftor 
cannot ( ordmarily at leaft ) be adrainiftred : And therefore 
without a Paflor the Society is not capable of the£«^,and there-- 
fore not of the form or name i, C though itbca Church in the 
fore.granted fence. ) Niy indeed, ifany fbonld upon ncceflTity 
do the Minifterial work to the Church, and fav he did it a$ a Pri. 
vate man, it were indeed but to become a Mim^er pro tempo^e^ 
under the name ofa privateman. If P4«/had not his Power to 
deftrudion but to Edification,neither have Prelates :. And there- 
fore the Ads are null by which they would deftroy the Church^ 
Their Power of Ordering it ( fuch as they have joccafionally en- 
ableth them to diforder it ( that is. If they mifsin their own: 
work, we may fubmit t ) but they have no authority to deftroy 
it, or do any thing that plainly conduceth thereunto. 

Sed. 29. The ceafingof Ordination in any p!ace,will not ci- 
ther difoblige the people from Gods publick Worfhip, Word^ 
Prayer, Praife, Sacraments •, Neither will it deftroy their Highc 
to the Ordinances of God in Church communion. But this ic 
flioulddo.if it (bould exclude a Miniftryj. therefore, cr<^. — The 
Major is proved, i .In that the Precept for fuch Publick woiiliip', 
is before the precept foe the right ordering of ir^ He chat com- 
inandcththeOrdcr/uppofeth thethmg ordered..2.Thc precept 
for publick woi ih p,is much in the Law of Nttureand therefore. 
indifpcnfable .• and it is about the great and NeccfTiry duties chat 
the honour of Godj a4d faving of men, and prcicjrvation of '.hz 
Church licch on: itist Handing Law to be ohferved tii! the 
coming of Chi ift.. And the [lights of the Church in the sxccli- 
lent Benefits of l>ublick Ordinances and Church order, is bec^r 
founded, then to depend on the Will of ungodly Prelates. If 
Ifrinceaad Parliament fail, andall the Gov&nours turn enemies 

{6 ii' Common wealth, it hath the means of Prefcrvation ofit fcl^ 
fro.m ruine left in its Own lands ; or if the Common- wealth be 
clt1lroyed,the Community hath the Power of felf preltrvation, 
and ot forming a Common- wealth again tothat end.' Thelife 
and being of Stares, fpecialiy of mens eternal happinefs,is not to 
hang upon fo flender a peg as the corrupt will of a few Supe- 
riours, and the mutable modes ard' circumftanccs ofGovern- 
ment; nor a NcfcfTary End to be wholly laid upon an uncertain 
and oft unneceffary means. The children lofe not their Right to 
food and Raymenr, nor are to be fuflfcred to famifh , when 
ever [he Steward falls out with them, or falls afleep, or lofcch 
the Ktycs. Another fervant fhould rather break open the doors> 
and more thanks he (hall have of the Father of the family, then 
if he had let them perifh, for fear oftranfgre fling the bounds of 
his calling. If inceft (that capital difordcr in procreation) 
were no inceft, no crime, but a duty, to the Sons and daugh- 
ters o^Ad^m in cafe of Neceflity ( becaufc Order is for the End 
and thing ordered ) then much more is a difordered preferva- 
tion of the Church and faving of fouls and fervingof God, a du- 
ty , and indeed at that time, no difordcr at all. 

Sed. 30. 7. Moreover , ifthe failing of Ordination, ftiould 
deprive the world of the preaching of the word, or the Chur- 
ches of the great and neceflfary benefits of Church Ordinances 
and Communion, then one man f yeathoufands j ftiould fuf- 
fer (and that in the greatcft matters ) for thefin and wilfulnefs 
of others,and muft lie down under fuch jfuffering, left he ftiould 
difcrderly redrc'sit. But the confequent isagainfi alljufticc 
and Reafon •* Therefore the Antecedent is fo to. 

Seft. 31. In a word, it is fo horrid a conclufion,againft Na- 
ture , a d the Gofpel , and Chriftian fence, that the honour of 
God, thefiuits of Redemption, the being of the Church, the 
falvationor comfort of mens fouls , muftall be at the Prelates 
mercy , that a confiderate Chriftian cannot ( when he is him- 
felf) believe it: that it ftiould be in thS power of heretical,ma- 
licious, or idle Prelates to deny God his honour, and Chrift the 
fruit of all his fuffering?, and Saints their Comforts, and (inners 
their falvation, and this when the remedie is before us,and that it 
is the will of God that all thefe evils ftiould be chofen before the 
^vil of an unordained Miniftryj this is an utterly incredible thing. 



Se(Jl.32. Argument 2.AnotIier Argument may be this: If 
there may be all things effential to the Miniftry wirhout humane 
OrdinatioHjthcn this Ordination is not of Necefiity toitsEf- 
fencc-, But the Antecedent is true ; therefore fo is the confe- 
quent. That there be a people qualified to receive a Paftor, and 
perfons qualified to be made Paltors, and chat (iod hath already 
determined in his Law that Paflors there (ha'I be, and hojv they 
fhail be qualified is piftalldifpute ; So that nothing remains to 
be done by man ( Ordainers, MagiRrates or People ) but to de- 
termine who is the man that Chnft dercribctli in his Law, and 
would Iwvetobe thePiftors of fuch a flock, or a Minifterof 
thcGofpel, and then to folemniz? his entrance by an Invefti- 
ture. And now 1 (hall prove that a man may be a Miniller 
without the Ordainers part in thcfe. 

Seft. 3 3 . If the will of Chrifl may be known without Ord nati- 
on,that this man fhould bs the Pafior of fuch a People.or a Mini- 
fter ofthcC7:)rpel , then may a rain be a Mini!}er with >ut Or- 
dination. ButthewillofChriftmay be known, c'^^o.-—^ 

Scft. 34. N>thingneedsproofbuc the Anteceder.t (For it is 
but the fignification of the will of Chrifl: that conferreth the 
Power, and irepofeth the Duty ; ) And that his will is fotnecimj^ 
fignified concerning the individual perfon without Ordination, 
is apparent hence : i . The Defcription of fuch as Chrift would 
have to preach the Gofpel,is very plain in his holy Canons f in 
the Scriprurc. ) 2. His Gifts are frequently fo eminent in fe- 
veral perfons,as may remove all jufloccafion of doubting, both 
from the perfons thenfelves and others. 3. Their fuitablenefs to 4 
People by intereft,acquiinrance, Gr<:. maybe as notable. 4. The 
Peoples common and ftrong aflf jdion to them, and theirs to the 
People, may be added to all thefe. 5. There may be no Compe- 
titor atall; or nnnercgardabic orcompirable, andfonocon- 
troverfie. 6 The Neceliities of the People may be fo great ■ 
and vifible , thit he and they may fee that they arc in danger of 
being undone, and the Church in danger of a very great 1( fs or 
hfirt, if he deny to be their Paftor.y.Thc Magiftratc alfo may call 
and command him to the work. 8. The People and he miy con- 
fent and they may umnimouflv ch ^o^e hin, and he Accept their 
choice.Andin all thele the vvillcfChrilhscafilydifccrned, rhat 
tb^H the perlcln rhom he would have to ufidertake the Minif^ry. 

Se^.; • 


Seft. 3 5- ^or I. Wbc'c there are fo many evident figns of his 
V/i!lf andCbaradcrs agreein<^ to the defcription in the Law, 
there tlie will of Chril\ma^ bcdilcerned, and it may be known 
that this is the de'cribcd perfon. But thefe are here fuppofed 
/orcnoughof tbcfe : j And indeed it is no very ftrangc thing 
for all or almoin all theic to concur, where there are perfons of 
excellent qualifications. 

Sed. 36. And 2. Where there is no Controverfie, or room 
for a Controvcrfic , tlie determination may be made without a 
Judge: ( The Principal rca Ton and ufeofOrdaincrsis.t hat there 
may be ftanding Judges of the fitnefs of men , to prevent the 
hurt of the Church by the withdrawing of the Worthy,and the 
inrrufion of the unworthy ; ) But here is no Controvcrfic , or 

place for Controverfie : therefore, &c. 

Sed. sj.Butlfuppofeforaewili fay that [^Though thi Ap- 
trcbduoii of the Oriai^ers be not dlwsies of Ntceffitj :' beeanfe 
the VerfoH may be eafilj known without them; jet their Invefiing^ the 
per [on with the Power ii of Necefsitj ^ becAufe without that be i$ 
hut A per fon ft for the Office^ but cannet receive ii ti/l feme aut-ho- 
riKed perfons fjal/ deliver it 2 Becaufc the great miilake is in- 
volved in thisobjedion,! (hall anfwer it fully. 

Sed. 38. The Law it felfis it thatdiredlygves the Power, 
andlmpofethihcDutv, when the perfon is once determined of 
that fallsunder it : There needs no rnqrcbut the fignification 
of the Wllof ChriO, to confer the Power or Benefit, or ina- 
pofe the Duty. As an ad of Oblivion pardoncth all the dccri- 
bed perfons ; and an Ad that impofcth any burden or office up- 
on every manoffuch or fuch an eftateorpirts,doch immedi- 
ately by it felf oWigc the perfons- though fome Judges or others 
may be appointed to call out the perfons, ind fee to the execu- 
tion ( who do not thereby rmpofc the duty ) fo is it in this 
cife. Gods Law cin Authorize and oblige without an Ordamer 

Scd. 3 9. The Inveftiture performed in Ordination by man, is 
notthefirft Obligation or Collation of the Power, but only 
the folemnization of what wis done before. And therefore 
though it be necefsitatrprdcefti a duty,and ordinarily necefliry 
to Church Order and prefervation, yet i$it not neecffary to the 
Being of the Miniftcrial Office or Power. 


Se<?t.4o. And this will be made apparent, i.From the com- 
mon nature of all fuch fubfequential Inveftituresand inaugurati- 
ons , which are neceflary to full pofleffion and exercifc of 
Power fometimes , but not to the firft being of it , nor to tht 
exercife neither in cafes of Neceflity, when the Inveftiture can- 
not conveniently be had. 

Sed. 4i. Ordination Casto the Invefling ad ) is no other- 
wife neceflary to the Miniftry , then Coronation to a King, or 
lilUngtoa Souldiour,orfolemninveftitureand taking his Oath 
to a Judge, or other Magiftrate, ^c. But tbcfe are only the 
folen^.n entrance upon Pofleffion and exercife of Power, fappo- 
fing a fufficicnt Title antecedent ^ and in cafes of Neceflity, 
maybe unneccfTiry thcmfelves ^ and therefore fo is it here as a 

Scd. 42. 2. If want of Inveftiture in cafes of Neceflity, 
will not excufechc determinate perfon from the burden of the 
Minifterial work , then will it not prove him deftitute of the Mi- 
nilkrial Authority : ( For every man hath Authority to do his 
Duty, in that he is obliged to it • ) But the Antecedent is plainj 
if once I know by certain figns , that I am a man that Chrift re- 
quirethto bclmployed inhis work, I durfl not totally forbear 
it, in a cafe of fuch exceeding moment, for want of the regular 
admittance, when it cannot be had ^ while I know that the work 
is the End,and the Ordination is but the means; and the means 
may promote the end, but muft not be pleaded againll the End, 
nor to deftroy it ^ it being indeed no Means, when it is againfl 
the end. Ordination is for the Miniflry , and theMinifterial 
Office for the Work, and the Work for Gods honour and mens 
falvation : And therefore God muft be ferved, and men muft be 
favcd , and thv; Miniilry to ihofe ends mull be ufed, whether 
there be Ordination to be had or not. Neceflity may be laid 
upon us , without Ordination , and then woe to us if we 
preach not the Gofpel. The Law can make Duty without an 

Sed. 43. If this were not fo, alazyperfon that is Able for 
the Miniltry, might by pleafingor bribing the Ordaincrs , be 
exempted from abundance of duty , and efcape the danger of 
Guilt and Judgement upon his Omifljon. And truly the bur- 
den is fo great to flcfti and blood, if men be faithful in their Of- 

Y fice, 

ficCjthe labour founceffant, the people fo unconftant, ungrate- 
ful and dircouraging-,the worldly honours andiiches fo tempting 
which may be had tn a fccular life, wich the ftudy and coft that 
fits men for the Miniftry, and the enemies of our work and us 
are io many and miltcious, and times of perfecution fo frequent 
and unwelcome , that if it were but in the Prelates power to 
exempt all men at their pleafure, from all the trouble and 
care and danger and fufferings of the Mmiftery, they would 
have abundance of Solicitors and Suitors for a difpenfation ? 
efpecially where the Love of God and his Church were not 
very ftrong to prevail againft temptations C for this would free 
them from all tear.) 

Sed. 44o 3. If a man and woman maybe truly husband 
and Wife without a foleran Marriage , then a Miniftcr and 
People may be truly conjoined in their Relations and Church- 
State without his folemn Ordination. For thefc are very neer 
of a Nature. A private Contrad between themfelves may tru- 
ly make them Husband and Wife : and then the ftanding Law 
of God convcyeih to the man his Powcr,and objigeth him and 
ehe woman to their duties, without any Indrumental invefti- 
ture ; And yet if there be opportunity it is not lawful for any to 
live together in this relation, without the inveftiture of Solemn 
Matrimony, for Order fake, and to prevent the fornication and 
baftardy,that could not be avoided if Marriage be notOrdinari- 
ly poblick. Juft fo it is a very great fin to negled Ordination 
ordinariIy,and where it may be had , and tendeth to the baftar- 
dyofthe Miniftry, and of Churches, and foon would moft be 
illegitimate if that courfe were taken. And yet if Paftorand 
People go together without Ordination , upon private Con- 
traft.incafeofNcceffity , it is lawful: And if there be no Ne- 
ceffity,it is finful, but yec doth not Null the Baptifm,and other 
Minifterial adminiftrations of any fuch per fbn, to the Church of 
Chrift,or the upright members. 

Sed 45. 4, If a man may be a true Chrijiian mthoHt 'Saptfm^ 
and have Chrift and pardon and Judification and eternal life 
without it • then may a man be a true Minifter without Ordi- 
nation. For no man can reafonably plead that Ordination is 
more ncceflfary to a Minifter then Baptifm to a Chriftian. Even 
ithe Papills chat make a Sacrament of it , and afcribe to it an in. 


delible Charader, muH: ncedi fee it fomewhat lower then Bap- 
tifm. i3aptizingi$ commonly called our ChrifteniHg,as thac m 
fome fortmakcsus Chnftians. And yet for all that the true 
ufe of Baptifra is but to folemnize the Marriage between Chrift 
and us, and to Inveft and inaugurate them in a ftate of Chriftia- 
nity folcmnly, that were indeed Chriftians before. And the 
Papiftsthemrclvesconfefsthatwhcn a man firft repenteth and 
belicvech ( with a faith formata Charitatt ) he is pardoned, and 
in a State of Salvation before Baptifm , and (hall be faved 
upon the meer V^tttm Baptifmi, it mc2iCc ofNcceflity he die 
without it ( Though the partialfjoftors will damn the infant! 
for want of Baptifm, that never refufedit, when they favc the 
parents that have but the defire. j No doubt but Confiantine^ 
and man/ other, that upon miltake deferred their Baptifm, 
were neverthelefsChriftiansjand judged fo by the Church both 
then and now. And yet to negled it wilfully were no fmal fin. 
So if in our cafe, men want Ordination, they may be re- 
ally Minifters, and their Miniftrations Valid •, but it is their very 
great fin, if their wilful! ocgleA be the caufe that they are not 

Sed. 46. As Baptifm is the open badge of a Chriftian, fo 
Ordination is the open badge of a Minifter : and therefore 
though a man may be a Chriftian before God without Baptifm, 
yet Ordinarily he is not a Chriftian before the Church without 
Baptifm, til I he have by fome equivalent Profeflion given them 
fatisfaftion : And therefore if 1 knew men to be utterly unbap- 
tizcd, I would not at firft have Communion with them as Chri- 
ftians. But if they could manifeft to me that Neceflity forbad 
them, or if it were any miftake and fcruple of their confciences 
that hindered them from the outward Ordinance, and they had 
without that Ordinance made at publick and bold a profeflion 
of Chrirtianity, and fa-isfadorily declared themfclves to be 
Chriftians by other means , I would then own them as 
Chriftians , though with a difowning and rcprehenfion of 
their error;; Even fo would I do by a Minifter •• I would not 
own him as a Minifter unordained, unlefs he either (hewed a 
Necefiicy that was the Caufe. or elfe ( \i\i were his weaknefs 
and miftake) did manifeft by his abilities and fidelity and the 
confent and acceptaQce of the Church, chat he were truly cai- 

Y2 - led: 


IcJ: Andifhcdid fo, I would own him, though with a dif- ; 
owning and reproof of his miftake, and oaiillion of fo great a . 


Scd 47. 5. Thee is not a word of G»>d to be found that, 
makes OrdinitionofabfoluteNeccfficy to the being of the Mi- 
n ftry t therefore iL,is not fo to be efteemed. The examples of 
Scriptu'eOiewit to^flic reguUr vvay,and therefore Ordinarily. 
a duty : but they mew not rhat there is no other way, 

Sed. 48- Objed. llisfufficient thxt no other tt'4/ it revealed-^ . 
an {therefore tillj/ottfiid anothei%ii Script are ^ thit mn'l be takj» 
for the only waj> dnfrv.i. Scripture is the Ruje of our Rig^t 
performance of all duties: We cannot imagine that in the Rule 
there fliouid be the leaft ^ckdi ; and therefore no precept 
or imicable pactern of fin in the fmalleft matter is there found. And yet it followeth not that every fin doth. 
NuUifiea Cailmg^becaufe there is no Scripture warrant for that 
fiEl. AlUhat Will follow i% that no other way is innocent or 
warrantable .- and that only when Neceflity doth not warrant 
it. 2. 1 have (hewed already that there are other waycs war- - 
ranted in fome cafes in the Scripture •* And Ifhill fhewanon . 
that as great omifsions nullifis not the office. 

Seft. 49. Objed. Bnt hoWjbA'l t'oejf preach un'efs the) befent^ ■ 
faith pAtil^ R-irr). 10. /inj^. But the queftion is, Whether no 
man be fenttbat humane Ordination? The text doth 
r.ox affirm thi«. fet that be God* Ordinary way: butyet it 
JoUoweth nor.thereisnoo^her. If God fend them however, 
they mav preach •, zs Eitfy^s^Frf-msKtisi ■tOiigen^ and others 
did of old. 

Sea.50. Arguments. Hethathath thvvTalen'sof Minifte- 
rial Abilities, is bound to improve them to the ferviceofhis 
Mafter and be{^ advantage of the Cbursh : But fuch arc 

raany that cannot hive Ordination: ergo Concerning 

the Major, note that J fjy not that every man that is able 1$ 
hound to be a Minlf^er, much lefs to enter upon the facred fun- 
Aion without Ordination ■• For i. Some men that have Abili- 
ties may want liberty and opportunity to exercife them. 2. Others 
that have Minifterial Abilities,may alfo have Abilities for Magi- 
firacy, Phyfick,Law, d-r. and may live in a Country wher.e 
the.cxcrcifeofthe later is more Nece0ary and ufeful to the 


( ^^% ) 

good of men, and the fer vice of God, then the exercife of thtf 

^iiniftry would be. Por tbefe mento beMinifters, that either 
want opportunity, or may do God greater fervice other waies, 
is not to improve their Talents to their Mailers chiefeit fervice : 
But ftill the general obligation holds,to improve our Talents to 
the bcO advantage , and do good to as many as we can, and 
work v^hileitisday. And therefore i. Such a man is bound 
( if he be not otherwife called out firft ) to offer his fervice to 
the Church and fcek Ordination: And if he cannot have it up- 
on juft fceking, in cafe ofNeceffity,he isto exercifc his Talents 
without it.- lelt hebeufedasthe wicked flothful fervant , that 
hid his Talent, yl/^r. 25. 

Seft. 51. If this were not fo , it would follow that the 
Gifts of uod mufl be in vain, and the Church fuffer thclofs 
of them at the pleafurc of Ordainers : and that the fixed 
univerfal Law that fo feverely bindeth all men , as good 
Stewards to improve their Mailers Hock ( their Time, abi- 
lities, intereft , opportunities ) might be difpenfed with ac" 
the Pleafurc of Ordainers. And that God hath bound us to 
feck in vain , for Admittance to the exercifv! of the Talents 
that he hath endowed us with : and that even in the Ne* 
ceflities of the Church. Which are not things to be gran- 

Scd:. 52. ObjCN.^ By this dofhine you will induce diforder 
into the Church, if all that are ahle muft be JUfimflers ynhen 
they are dcnyed Ordinutiort : For then they irill be the Judges 
of th:ir own Ahllities , and every brain- fie k. frond Qfinionifi]^' 
wll thinks that there is a Necejfity of his Prea hirt^-^ and fo 
tve Jhull have confn/ion, and OrSnation will be made contemptible 
by Pretences of Necefsltj ! 

Seft. 53. Anfw.i. God will not have the Neccfiicies of 
mens fouls neg!cAcd , nor allow us to let men go quietly 
to damnation , nor have his Churches rumcJ, for fear ofoc- 
cafioning the diforders of other men. Its better that men be 
diforderly faved. then orderly damned : and that the Church be 
diflorderly preferved, then orderly- Jeflroyed ! God will not 
alllowus to fuffer every Thief and Murderer to rob or kill our 
neighbours, for fear Icll by defending them, we occafion men- 
f.o ncglcd'the Magiftratc ; Nor will he allow us to ietmen- 

Y3 perifh : 


perifb in their fickncfs, if we can help them, for fear of en- 
couraging the ignorant to turn Phytitians. 2. There is no 
part of Gods fervice that can be ufed , without occalion of 
fin tothcpervjcrfe •• Chrift himfeif is the fallaswell as theri- 
fingof many ; and is aftumbling ftone and Rock of offence : 
Luke^.54. ^^^ ygj. nocfor that tobedenycd. Thercisnojuft and rea- 
-xVcz.i.6,7,%. ^^j^^j^ j-aufg of mens abufe in the dodrine which 1 here ex- 
prefs. 3. True Necefsity wilicxcufe and Juftificthe unordain- 
ed before God fcr cxercifing their Abilities to his fervice. But 
pretended coptnterfeit necefsity will not Juftifie any ; And the 
final judgement is at hand , when all things (hall be fet ftrair,and 
true Neceffity and counterfeit Ihall be difcerned. 4. Until 
that day , things, will be in fome diforder in this world, be- 
caufe there is firTthe world, which is the diforder. But our 
Remedies are thefe, i. To teach men their duties truly, and 
not to lead them into one evill to prevent another, much lefs to 
a mifchief dcftrudlivc to mens fouls , to prevent diforder. 
2. TheMagiftratehaththe fword of juftice in his band, to re- 
ftrain falfe pretenders of Neceffity ; and in order thereto , it 
is he , and not the pretender that (hall be judge. And 3. The 
Churches have the Power of cafting the pretenders C if the 
cafcdefcrveit^ out of their communion ; and in order there- 
to, it is not he but they that will be Judges. And other re- 
medies we have none till the laft day. * 
SeA. 54. Queft. Bnt what would you have wen do that 
think, there is a Necefsity .of their Ulfours^ and that they have ' 
Mini^ trial abilities ? Anftv. i . I would have them lay by pride 
and felfilhnefs , and pafs judgement on their own Abilitiesin 
Hdmility and felf denyal. If their Corruptions are fo ftrong 
that they cannot C that is, they will not) dothis, thatslongof 
ihemfclves. 2. They muft not pretend a Neceffity where is 
none. 3. They muft offer themfelves to the Tryal of ihePa- 
flors of the Church that beft know them. 4. If in the judge- 
ment of the godly able Paftors that know them , they are 
unfit, and there is no need of them,, they muft acquiefce in 
their judgement. For able Godly men are not like to de- 
ftroy the Church or envy help to the fouls of men. 5. Jf 
they have caufe to fufpeft the Paftors of Corruption, and falfc 
judgement, let chcm go to the other Paftors chat are faith- 


full. 6. If all about us were corrupr, and their judgements 
not to be rcfted in , and the perfons are affured of their 
Ability for the Minillry , let them confider the State of the 
Church where they are : And if they are fure fo^ Confultation 
with the wifeft men ) that there is a Ncceflity , ard their en- 
deavours in the Miniflry are hketo prevent any notable hurt, 
without a greater hurt , let them ufe them without Ordinati- 
on , if they cannot have it. But if they find that the Churches 
are fo competently fupplied without them, that there is no Ne- 
ce/Iitv, or none which they can fupply without doing more hurt 
by offence and diforder then good by their labours, let them 
forbear at home, and go into fome other Countries where there 
is greater ncedfif they arc fit there for the work- jif not,let them 
fit flill. 

Sed. 55. Argument 4, If uhcM^dained men may Baptize in 
cafe of Ncceflity, then may they do other Minillerial works in 
cafe of Ncceflity : But the Antecedent is theopinon of thofe 
thai we now difpute againft. And the Confequence is grounded 
on a Parity of Rtafon:No man can (hew more for appropriating 
ihe Eucharilt, then Baptifmc to the Minifler. 




(^n uninterrupted Succefsion of Regular 
Ordination^ is not 3\(^cejjary, 

Scft. I. faflJBjvtfgBa^ Aving proved the Non-nece/Iity of 

Ofthislde- ^ j^K^ Ordkiation it felf to the Being of 

icr;c:p^rrfe M M i theMiniary, and r./i^,>j of their 

what is writ- W\ eJH !» admmiltrations,! may be the ihort- 

tenby Fotm/^ ^ [^^^ l^ er in moft of the reft, becaufe they 

di defperata iSfe^W?^^ are fufficiently proved in this. If 

f rSJ/rr' ordination it felf be not of the 

zu&paiftm. Neceffity which the adverfaries do affert, then the RegnUritj 

of Ordination cannot be of more Neceflity then Ordination it- 

felf: Much lefs an uninterrufted Spiccefsion of fuch Regular 

Ordination : Yet this alfo is afTertcd by moft that we have now 

to do with. 

Sed. 2. By ReguUr Ordination^ i^ean in the fence of the ad - 
vcrfaries themfelves, fuch as the Canons of the Church pro- 
nounce not Null, and fuch as by the Canons was done by fuch as 
had Authority to do it-* in fpecial, by true Bilhops ('even in their 
own fence. ) 

Sed. 3. And if the uninterrupted fucceffion be not Neceflary, 
then neither is fuch Ordination at this prcfent Neceflary to the 
being of the Miniftry t For if any of our predecefTors might 
be Minifters without it, others in the like cafe may be fo too. Por 
we live under the fame Law, and the Office ii the fame thing 
now as it was then. 

Scdt.4. Argument!. If uninterrupted Regular Ordination 
of all our Pf edeceflbrs be Neceflary to the Being of the Mini- 



ftry , then no man can know that he i» truly a Mimikr of Cbr!f>. 
Buc the Confcqucnt is falfe, and intolerable ; thercrore fois the 

Scd. 5. The truth of the Minor is apparcn: ihus. i.Ifwe 
could not be fure that we are true Minilters, tlicn no man couM 
with comfort feek the Minflry , nor^^ enter inco tifm^ it. For 
who can have encouragement to cnter^a*callipg when he knows 
not wheiher indeed he enter upon it ornoc t* and whether 
heengage nothimfelf in acour^eof fin , and be rot guiicy 
as Vz<.a of medling with the Ark nniawrully > efpeciallv 
in fo g-eat and tender a cafe where God is fo exceeding 

Scft. 6. And 2. who can go on in the Calling of the Mini- 
ftry.and comfortably do the work, and bear the burden,tbac 
cannot know through all h:s life , or in any admi.;iflration 
whether he b€ a Minilkr or a Ll'urpcri' What adampmuft it 
caftupon our fplrics. in Piayer, Praife , ad inillration of the 
Eucharift and all publick worfhip, f which fhould be perform- 
ed with thegeateOalcrity and delight ) when wc reircmber 
that we are uncertain whether God havefentu?, or whether 
we are ufurpers, that muft one day hear , Q Who Cent 
joM ? Whence had jou your Power } and who required this at jsur 
hands ? 

Seft. 7. And the Confequence of the Major fthat we are 
all uncertain of our ( all and office, both Papiff; and Protc- 
ftanrs j is mofl clear ( in cafe of the Necefiicy of fuch fuccefsive 
Ordination ) For 1 . No min ever did, to this day demomHrste 
fnch a faccefllan , for the Proof of his Miniflry. Norcanall 
our importunity prevail wich PapiQ? Cicaliansor Fjenc!: ) to 
give us fuch a proof. 2. It is a thing impofliibie f)r ar,y rrr»in 
now alive, to prove i he Regular Oidi- iinon of dl his Predc- 
ceffors, to the ApodJes daies , yea or - Ordination at alJ. 
How can you tcH that he that ordaintd \k>v. did not counter- 
feit himfelf to be Ordained? Or at leal* .'cl he -/ias cot or- 
dained by an unordained mani^ oi t! "t hs PicJcccfTo.'s were 
nor fo .^ h is a meer impoflibility for us t - knovv any fuc?i :h'nc; 
wcbave no Evidence to prove ir. 

SeA.8. Object. Bw it is prohble though not art a:»: for 
the C^nrch frocftdeibbj jHch Rules , ^md take th the rr^c.ttcrto he 

I of 


of fo ^eat weighs , that there is no frobahilitj that thej tvomU 
fptjfer any to go jor Paftorsor Bijhopj that are tmordaintd^ in fa 
great a cafe. 

t^nfv. I. All this is no certainty .' and therefore no 
proof." and no fatisfadion to the mind of a Miniftcr,in the fore- 
racntioned doubts. 2. Vea wc have fo great reafon to be fufpici- 
ous in the cafe that we cannot conclude that we have fo ranch as 
a probabi(y. 

Sed. 9. For, i.We know that there is fo much felfifhnefs 
and corruption in nsan as is like enough to draw them to deceit. 
Ordainers may be bribed to confccrace or ordain the uncapable, 
and the Ordained or Confecrated may be tempted to feek it in 
their incapacity ; and many may be drawn to pretend that they 
were Ordamed or Confecrated when it was no fuch matter. 
And fo there is not fo much aM Probability. 

Sed. 10. 2. And we know that there were fo many herefies 
abroad, and flill have been, and fo much fadion andSchifm in 
the Ch'irch .• that we cannot be fure that thefe might not inter- 
rupt the iucceffion , or ihac they drew not our prcdcc^ffors to 
counterfeit a Confecration or Ordination when they had none,or 
none that was regular, 

Seft. II. 3 . And we know our felves that the thing hath be^n 
tooufual. When I was young, I lived in a village that had 
but about twenty houfes. And among thefe there were five, 
that went out into the Miniftry. One was an Old Reader whofe 
Original we could not reach. Another was his fon,whofe felf Or- 
dination was rauchfufpeded : The other three had Letters of 
GrdcrSjtwo of themfufpcded to be drawn up and forged by him, 
and one that was fufpeftedto Ordain himfclf. One of them, or 
twoatlaftwere proved to have counterfeit Orders, when they 
had continued many years in the Minidry . So that this is no rare 

Scd. 12. Among fo many temptations that in fo many ages 
finccthc Apoftlcs dayes, have befallen fo many men, as our pre* 
deceflbrs in the Minifiry, or the Bifliops prcdeccflbrs have been, 
it were a wonder if all of them ftiould fcape the fnarc : So 
that we have reafon to take it for a thiisg improbable, that the 
ruccefiion hath not been interrupted. 
Sed. 1 3. And we know that m feversl ages of cbe Church the 


(i7i ) 

Prelates and Priefls Iwvc been fo vile, than in reafon wc could ex- 
peA no better from men fo vicicus , then forgery and abufc^ be 
that reads what (y/V^^/ and others fay of the Briccifli, and what 
even Baromas^ much more Efpenc£us, Cornelius LMnf. and 
Others fay of the Romanifls ; yea he that knows but what 
ftatethe Bifhops and Pricfts have been in and yet continue in, 
in ourowndaycs, will never think it an improbable thing that 
fume of our predeceffors (hould be guilty either of Simony or 
other vice that made them uncapable, orfliouldbe mcerufur- 
pers under the name of Bifhops and Miniftcrs of Chcift. 

Seft. 14. Argument 2. If uninrcrrupced Regular Ordination 
of all our PredecefTors be Neceffiry to the Being of the Miniftry, 
thf-ncanno Bifhopor Paftors whatfoever comfortably Ordain : 
For \vh-) dare lay h:s hand on the head of another , and pretend 
to deliver him authorityi in the name of Chrirt, that hath no 
affurance s' nor probAbility neither ) that hehathany Coraraif- 
fion froin Chrift to do it ? But the Confequent will be 
difowned bv thofe that difputeagainrt us? therefore fo fhould 
the A' cecedent be alfo. 

Sed. 15 Arcuriient3. If thcrebe aNeceflity of an unin- 
terrup'ed lucveflion of true Regular Oidination, then no man 
can know of the Church that he is a member of, or of any other 
Church on earth, that it is a true Church. ( By a Church I 
mean not a Community, but a Society; not a company of 
p iv^re Chriflians living together as rhri{iian|neighbours, but a 
Pol'cick Church confiftingof Paftor and people affociated fof 
theufe ofpublick Ordinances and Communion therein.jBucthc 

confcquent is falfe ; — &c. 

Scd. 16. The Major, or confequcnce is certain : For no man 
can k'-.ow rhat the Church is a true Political Organized Church, 
that knows not that the Paftor of it is a true Minifter of Chrift. 
Becaalic the Paftor is an ElTcntial conftitutive part C)f the Church 
in ihis acceptation. And I have proved already that the truth 
of the Mmiftry cannot be known upon the Opponents tcrnii. And 
for the Minor, Ithinkalmoft all Church members will grant il 
me. For though they are ready enough to accufe others, yet 
they all take cheir own Churches for true, and will be offended 
with any thac queftion or deny it. 

Scd. 17. Argument 4. If there be a Neccllity of an unin- 

Z 2 terrupted 


erruptcd fucceflion of true Ordination ^ then cannot the 

Church or any Chriftian in it, know whether they have any 

true Mmifterialadminiftrations, whether in Sacraments orocher 

Ordinar.ces. For he that cannot know that he hath a Minifter, 

cannot know thathehaththeadminiftr.itionofa Minii^cr ) But 

the conTcqucnt is untrue, and ag dnft the comfort of all Chrifti- 

&nj , and the honour of Chrift , and is indeed the very do- 

drinc of the Infidels and Papifts ^ that call themfelves Seekers 

among us. 

Sed. 1 8. Argument 5. Ifthe Churches and each member of 
them arc bound to fubmit to the Miniftry of their Paftors 
without knowing that they arc regularly ordained, or that they 
have an uninterrupted fuccefiion of fuch Ordination , then are 
they quoad EccUftam^^xnt Paftors to them,and their adminiltra- 
tions valid,though without Ordination or fuch a fuccefiion. But 
the Antecedent is true, and granted by all that now we have to 
deal with. Though they will not grant a knorvn unordained nian 
is to be taken fot aMinifter, or one wbofe fuccefiion bad a 
known Intcrcifion ; Yet they will grant that if the Nullity 
b? unknown, it freeth not the people from the obligation LO*hcir 

Sed. 19. BelUrmine ( lib 3. de ) was fo rtallcd 
with thefe difficulties that he leavesitasathing that we cannot 
br refolvedoF; thai our Pafiors have indeed Q PoteftatemOr- 
tlinis & Jtirlfdj[}lonis"] that is , that they are rr«f ?^/?or^. And 
he. laith thit 1 Nsn hahemtts ctrtittidimm nifi Morakm^ (juod 
illi ftnt vtre Epifcopi. ] But when he fhould prove it to us 
that there is a yl/<jr^/CfrM/>;rr,he leaves us to feek and gives os 
not fo much as a ground to conjedurc at any probability. 

Seer. 20. But he faith that we may know that [ fome Payors 
at leaft are true : er elfe God had ferfaken his Church. ]] A-fw. 
But what the better tire we for this, if we know not, tvhich 
they are that arc the true Paftors, nor cannot poflibiycoiue to 
know it ? 

Sect.2i . But he faith that[^o^ Chrifti hcum te*ient^& quod 
dtbemtts illi cbedientiam] may be known : and thereupon he faith 
that [Certefumus certitudineinfalUbili quods fit quos vidtmusftnt 
veri Spifcop & Panares nojlri: Nam ad hoc mn rcquiritur, nee ft- 
4hj nscCharaller Ordinis , uec legitiwa Ele^io^ [ed folumut 


hubeAnttir pre tMus ^b Ecclefia. ] From a'l this you may note 
1 . T har they are veri Epifcopi & Pafiorcs tjoflri^ chat were never 
ordaincd,ifihcy arebut reputed fuch by the Chtrch, 2. That 
we may know this by infeilUble Ctrta ^^ty, 3 . And char we owe 
them obedience as fuch. So thacas foche Church ih-y are 
true Paftors without Ordmation,and confcqucn ly to che Church 
afuccflionis unnecefTary. 

Sccc 22. Yet of fuchUfurpershc faiih ! Eos qui^cm »on ejfe 
in feveros Epifopos^ tamen donee fro talihus hubentur ab Ec- 
elefiA , deberi illis obedientiam , cptm cenfcicntiA ttidm crro^CA 
bbliget. ] So chat they are not 'veri Epifcopi infe ' and yet they 
are veri Epifcopi & PAJlorei noftri^ if Bcllarmine fay true ; 
And the words have fome truth in them, underOood according 
to the diltinccioH which I before pave, Ch/.p i. ^>cl. 5,6. H e ^M<^ 
hath no fuch Callas will fave himfelf from ihep'enalty c-. iilur- 
pation fif he knowingly be an ufurptrj buthehach fuc aCall 
as (hall oblig! the Church to obey him as their Bifhi-p or 

Sect. 23 But his x^2L(on(Cnm cenfcientia etiam trrcnea obli^ct] 
is a deceit ^ and neither the only, nor thecbier reafon, nor any 
reafon. Not che only nor chief reifon ; becaufe the obligation 
arifeth from God, and that is the greateft. Not ^nj reafon ; 
I • Becaufe indeed it is not an Erromous Confcience, that tells ma- 
ny people that their ufurpingBifhopsor Paftors are to be obey- 
ed ascrucMinifters ; For as it is ternMiiated on the Paflors act 
or ftace, it is no act of Confcience at all. and therefore no er- 
ror of confcience. For confcience is the knowledge of our own 
affairs. And as it is terminated on our own Du:y ot obeying 
them, it is not Erroneous-^ but right-, For it is the will of God,, 
that for order fake we obey both Magiftrates and Pallors that 
arefetled in P. fTJVion, ifthcy rule us according to the Laws of 
Cbrift ; at leaft, if we do not knojv the Nullity of their call. 
2. And its falfc tha t ^nErroncons Confcience bincic th ^'ih^l is, m^kes 
hsaDhij-^ For at the fame inlknt it »/ <f/f//<f /in and we arc 
bound to depofe it, and change it, and renounce the error. 
It doth but in arigk a man in a Neccflicy ot linnirg till it be laid 
by. But it is Godonly that can make our duty, andcaufeluch 
an obligation. 

Scd.24. From tbc advcrfaries C"onccffions then an uninter- 

Z 3 f uptsd 

iropted fucccfiion, or prefent true Ordination is not of Neceffi- 
tytothe being of the Miniltry, Church or Ordinances c^oad 
Eccleftam '• for zhc Church is bound to obey the ufurpers, and 
that as long as they are taken for true Pattors. Which is as much 
as moft Churches will defire in the cafe. 

Sed. 25. And theconfequenceis eafily proved: For where 
God obligeth his Churches to the obedience of Paftors fthougb 
ufurpers ) and to the ufe of Ordinances and their Miniftration, 
thiTc will he blefs the Miniftry and thofc Ordinances f to the 
innocents, that are not guilty of his ufurpation) and that obey 
God herein. And confequently the Ordinances fliall not be 
Nullities to them. God would never fet his fervanrs upon the 
ufe ofa means which is but a Nullity j nor will he command 
'^••'ii j;l,em^o-.avduty , which he will blalt to them when he hach 
done without their fault. Its none of the Churches fault 
that the Biftiop or Paftor is an ulurper , wh le they cannot 
know it , and that any of his Predcceffors were ufurpers 
fince the Apoftles dayes. And therefore where God impo- 
feth duty on the Church and prefcribech means, ( as Baptifm, 
Prayer , tb€ Lords Supper, Church -Government , &c. ) 
it is certain that be will not blafl; it, but blefs it to the obe- 
dient , nor punifh the Church fo for the fccret fin of 1 know 
not who, (committed 1 know not where nor when, perhaps a 
thoufand years ago. 

Sed. 26. Argument 6. As other adions of ufurpers are not 
Nullities to the innocent ^burch,fo neither is their Ordina- 
nation : and con'equcntly ,thofe that are Ordained by ufurpers, 
may be true Minillers. Iftheir Baptizing, Preaching, Praifes, 
Confecration and adminiflration of the Eacharift,bindtngand 
looping, be not Nullities, It follows undenyablyon the fame 
account, that their Ordmations arc not Nullities : and con- 
fequently, that they arc true Mmiilers whom they ordain-,and 
fucceffion of a more regular Ordination iinot of Necefiity,to 
the Miniiiry, Church or Ordinances. 

Seft. 27 Argument 7. If fuch uninterrupted fucceffion be 
not NecefTary to be Known , then is it not NecefTary to the 
Being of the Miniftry or Validity of Ordinances adminiftred; 
Bnt fuch a fucceffion is not Neceffary to be )^«ow» : there- 
fore^— ^—— The Confequence of tnc Major is plain, bc- 



caufc the Being or Nulliiy of Office and adminiftrationj, had 
never been treated off by God to men , nor had it been re- 
vealed, or a thing regardable , but that we may know it : 
Nor doth it otherwife attain itsends.Andthaticisnotneccffary 
to be known, I further prove. 

Scd. 28. If this fucccfliion muft be known, then cither to 
the Paftor, or to the Church, or both : but none of thefe.* 

therefore • • i. If it muft be known only to the Paftor, 

then it ij notNeccfTary as to the Church. And ycritisnot 
Neccffary tobe known to the Pallor himfclfneiiher. For (as 
is (hewed) itsimpofTiblefor him to know it, (o much as by a 
Moral Certainty. His Predcc (Tjrs and their Ordinations 
were ftrange to him. 2. Not to the C hurch. For it is not 
poffible for them to know it : Nor likely that they fhouid 
know as much as the true Ordmation of their prcfcnt PaRor 
according to the Preiatical way, when it is done fo fir out of 
their fight. 

Seft. 29. If the forefaid uninterrupted fuccefsion be nccef^ 
faryto the being of our Minidry, or Churches or Ordinances, 
then is it incumbent on all that will prove the truth 
of their Miniftery , Churches or Ordinances , to prove 
the faid fucceGion. But that is not true; for then none (zs- 
is aforefaid ) could prove any of them. Either it is meet that 
webeable to Prove the truth of our Miniflry,^hurches and ad- 
minirtration?, or not. If not, then why do theadverfariescall 
us to it? If yea: then no man among the Churches in Enropg 
( on their grounds ) hath any proof • and therefore muft not 
pretend to the Miniftry , Churches or Ordinances, bur we 
muft' all turn Seekers to day, and Infidels to morrow^ by this 

Seft. 30. Arguments. The MiniRry of the Priefts and 
Levities before the incarnation of Chrift,andin his time, was not 
Null, though they wanted as much or morethen fucha fuccef- 
fion of right Ordination ; therefore it is fo ftill with the 
Gofpel Miniftery. The Antecedent I fhall more fuliy manifeft 
neercr to the end : Only now obferve, that when Abiathar was 
pocoucby Solomon ; and when fuch as were not of iheline or 
Genealogieof the Priefts, were put as polluted pcrfonifrom 
the Pricfthood ( Neh. 7. 64, 6$. and 11 > 29, 30. E^r(ii,6i,)D 


yet were not any of their adnunillrations taken to have been 

Se(?t.3i. Argument 9, If the Miniftration o: Governing 
ads oiVfurp'wg PriKces may be Valid, and there need no proot 
ot an uninterrupt.ed fuccelsion to prove the validity, then is it To 
a'.fointhc MiniUry .- But the Antecedent is certairj therefore, 
fp-c. The Validity ofthe confcquerce from the parity of Rcafon 
I (hall manifefl anon. 

Sed.32. Argument 10. If an uninterrupted Succefsionof 
Canonical or true Ordination be NeccfTiry to the Being of the 
Church, Miniflry and Ordinances, then Rome and EnglandhdiVt 
lofl their Minillry, Churches, and Ordinances. Butth'eCon- 
fequent will be denyed by the ad^erfarics ^ therefore fo alfo mufl: 
the Antecedent, if they regard iheir Oanding. 

Sed. 3 3 . Though this be th-e Argument that I have the great- 
eft advantage to prefstheadverfary with, yet becaufe 1 have 
made it good already in two or three other writings ( in my Key 
for Cathol cks, a d my Safe Religion, and Chrill an Coniord) 
I fhall fay but little of it now. But briefly this may luffice: 
I. For the Church o^ Rowe, if either Herefie, Infiiielity, Sodo- 
mic, Adultery, Murder, Simony, violent intrufioii, ignorance, 
impiety, want of dueeIc(?tion, or of ducconfecration,or plura- 
lity of Popes at once, can prove an interruption of their fuccef- 
fion, I have (hewed them already where its proved ^ But if none 
ofthefe prove it, we are fafe our felves. 

Sed. 34 B'di Grotius ( in Difcuf.t^polog. Rivet.) pleads 
for them, K.htii\i any iKtcrctf.on have been made atKomc^ it hath 
been made upfrcm other C hurches.'^Anfw. I. That is not proved, 
but nakedly affirmed. 2. Nor will it fervc the Papillsturn, 
that mufthaveallChurchcs hold ^TomRomc and lier fucccfsion, 
and Rome from none, nor to be patcht up from their lucccfsior. 
3, De /U^7o the contrary is certain ; For i.Thofeotler held tlieir 
Miniftryasfrom theuniverfalHeadlhipofihcPopc •, and there- 
fore had themfelves their interruptions in the former interrupti- 
ons of Rome ( as being but her members : ) and therefore wc re 
ro: c^ pable themfelves of repairing of her breaches>2.The fuccef- 
kr?. of the illegitimate Popes (fuchas defofedEugeniHs^drc. ) 
ui'dmenai badasthcy,havecontinu.'d the fucceftion; And tic 
iiiilwpsthat were confecrated by power received from the ille- 


gltimate Pops?, were the only perfons that were the repairers of 
the breach. Andyet the Pops will hardly yield thai he recei- 
veth his power from any of thefc^ 3 . There have been greater 
c'efeft« inthc fucceffiion then this of Confeeration, even of due 
Eledion,Capacity,yea of an office it felf which Chrift will own. 
The Viccchriftfliip of the Pope is no office of Chrifts planting. 

Se&. 3 5. And 2 For the Englifh Prelates, as they arc unable 
to prove cheir uninterrupted fucccfUon, fo the interruption is 
proved, in that they derived and held their Power from the 
Vicecbrift oi Rome^ and that qua talis ^ for fo many ages. This 
wai their waprofefsion : and all that they did was as his Mini- 
flersby-his Authority, which was none. 

Sed. 3 6. Ob jeft. Bnt this nulled mt the true Authorit^f vhich 
they received from the Pope or TreUtes as Prelates- Anf-^. The 
Pope wasuncapable of giving them Authority (and whether the 
Prelates as fuch were fo too,we (hall enquire anon J And though 
I grant that (where the perfon was fit ) there was yet a Miniftry 
Valid to the Church(and perhaps to themfelves in the raain)yet 
that is becaufe Canonical Ordination is not ofNeceflity tothe 
Bfing of the Miniftry- ( but by other means they might be then 
Minifters, though this corruption was conjund, that they re- 
ceived their Power imaginarily from Rsme ) But that the faid 
Canonical fuccefTion was interrupted, by this Papal tenure, and 
many a delinquency, is neverthelefs fure,and fufficient to inforcc 
the Argument as to them that now arc our adverfaries. But 
fo much (hall fufficc for the Non-ncccffity.of this fwcce(fion of a 
srue and Regular Ordination,,^ 

A a CHAPo 




Ordination hy [uch as the Englijh Tre^ 
lateSy not ^^ecejfary to the TBeing of 
the (CM^iniJiry. 

Sed. I. S^^§^^^^S Have made this work unneccf- 

fary by the two former Chap- 
ters •• For if »o Ordination be of 
Neceflity to the Being of the 
Miniftry,noran uninterrupted 
Succeffion Nectftiry , then 
doubctefs an Ordination by 
thefe Prelates in Specie is not 
NcccfTary at prcfent, or as to fucceffion. But yet ex ahnneiMi 
I add. 

Se<S. 2. Argamene i. Adhominem,l may well argue from the 
Concef]Son of the £ngli(h Prelates themfelves and their raofl 
zealous adherents ; And their judgements were i . That Ibch a 
fucceilion as aforefaid of right Ordination was not of Ncccflky; 
And for this they that write againf^^che PapiAs^do commonly and 
confidently difpute. 

Sed. 3. And 2. They maintained that the Proteftant Chur- 
ches that had no Bifhops were true Churches, and their Mini- 
Acrs true Minifters, and To of their adminiftrations. This was 
fo common with them that I do not think a difTcntiog vote can 
be found> from the firft Reformation, till about the prepara- 
tions for the Spanifti match or little before. 

Sed.4. 1 have in my Chriftian Concord cited at large the words 
of many, and the places of the wricings of more, as i. Dr. FielJ, 


Alley ^ 6. Biftiop Pilkinton^ 7. BtftlOp Bridges^ 8. Bilhop Bit- 
yi«, 9. Alexander Nov/el, 10. Grotiuj ( their friend then ) 
1 1 , Mr. ChjfenhAl^ 12. The Lord Digify , 13. Bifliop Dave- 
ttdnt, 14. Bidiop PnWf««A-, i 5. Biftiop /^w^rfw/, l6.Chil. 
ling'Seorthy 17. I To which I now add ) Bifliop BromhAll ( of 
Schifm) iSDr.J'frw, 19. Dr.J'rfTv/ir^i Cinhisanfwer toPo««- 
f4w/ letter ( th^fc of the later, or prefentforcj 20. And Bi- 
fliop TJfhtr ^whofe judgement of it is lately publiflied by Dr. 
Bernard at his own dcfire ) 21. And Mr. Mafon C in a Book of 
of purpofe for jaftification ofthe Reformed Churches^ hath 
largely pleaded this caufe. 22. And Dr. Bernard faith that 
'Dv. Overall was Judged not only to confent to that Book, but 
to have a hand in it. 23 . And no wonder when even Bmcrojt 
himfelf ( the violenteft of all the enemies of them called P«r». 
tans in thofc times ) is faid by Spotswood ( there recited by Dr, 
Bernard) to be of the fame mind, and to give it as his Judge- 
ment, that the Scotch Miniflers ( then to be Confecrated Bi° 
fliops ) were not to be reordained, becaufc the Ordination of 
Presbyters was valid. 

Sed. 5. Thefe Novel Prelatical perfons then, that fo fardif- 
fcnt frrom the whole ftream of the Ancient Bifhops and their ■.id° 
herents,have little reafon to exped that wc fliould regard their 
Judgementabovethejudgement of the Englifli Clergy, and the 
judgement of a4l the Reformed Churches.Ifthcy can give us fach 
Reafons as fliouid conquer our raodeftie,and perfwade us ro con- 
demn the Judgement o^ the Plelates and Clergy of England, 5c all 
other Churches of the Protertant$,and adhere to a few new men 
of ycfterday, that dare fcarcdy open the face of their owaopini- 
ons: we fliall bow to their Reafons when we difcern them: But 
they muft not expeA that their Authority fliall fo far prevail, 

Sed. 6. And indeed I think the moQ of this caufe is carried on 
in the dark : What Books have they written ro prove our Ordi- 
nation Null ? and by what Scripcore Reafons do they prove 
it? The task lieth on them to prove this Nullity, if tiiey would 
be Regarded in their reproaches of the Churches of Chrift» 
And they are not of fuch exceiBve ModeHy, and backwardnefs 
to divulge their accufations, but fure we might by this time 
bavc cJ^peaed moce then one volume from cheoi, co have proved 

Aa 2 Dsv 


US, No Miniftcrs and Cburchess if tbcy could have done if. 
And till they do it j their wh.'perings are not to be credited 

Scft. "]' Argument 2. Ifthac ore of Prelacy that was exer- 
cifedin EngUnh was not neceffaiv it felf, yea if it were fin- 
full,and tended to the fubverfion or exceeding hurt of the Chur- 
ches; then is there no Nccelfuy of Ordination by fuch a Pre- 
lacy. But the Antecedent is true: therefore fo is the confe- 
quent. The Antecedent hath^becn proved at I^rge in the fore- 
going Difputation. Such a Prelacy as confifteth in the under- 
taking cf an impolsible task,even for one man to be the only Go* 
verrour of all the fouls in many hundred Parifhcs,exerciring it 
alfc by Lay men , and in the needful pares, not exercifing it all 
all; a Pielacy not chofen by the Presbyters whom they Go- 
vern •, yea fufpendipg or degrading ehe Presbyters of all thofc 
Churches, as to the governing part of their office, and guilty of 
the reft of the evils before mentioned , is notonly itfelf unne- 
cefTarvi but rinful,and adifeafe of the Church which all good 
men (hou'.d do the befl: they can to cure. And therefore the 
effedsofthis difeafc canbcnoraoreNeccffary to ourMiniflry, 
then the burning of a feaver, or fwellingof a Tympany, is ne- 
cefTary to the body. 

Sed. 8. NoBiftiopsarc Neceffary but fuch as were in Scri- 
ture times .* But there were none fuch as the lateEnglifti Bifhops 
in Scripture times : Therefore the Englifti Bifhops arc not ne- 
ceffary. He that denycth the Major,muft go further in denying 
the fufficienc^ of Scripture,tbenl find thcPapifts ordinarily to do: 
For they will be loth to affirm that any office is of Necefiityto 
the Being of the Church or of Pre5byters,that is not to be found 
inScripture,orthat was not then in Being: Therefore fo far wc 
are fecurc. 

Sc(^. 9. And for the Minor, I prove it thus. If the Englifli 
Bifhops were neither fuch as the unfixed General Minifters,nor 
fuch as the fixed Biftiops of particular Churches , then were 
they not fuch as were in Scripture limes. But they were neither 
fuch as the unfixed General Miniflers, nor fuch as the fixed Bi- 
fhops of particular Churches .- therefore, c^r. 

Scd. 10. Befidesthefciwo forisof Miniflcrs, there arc no 
more in iheNewTcflament. ( Ardihefearediverfifiedbutby 
ihc cxcrcife of their cfiicc , fo far as they were ordinary Mini- 


flers to continue. ) The unfixed Minifters (whether Apoftlei, 
EvangeJiflsor Prophcti ) were fuch as had no fpccial charge o/ 
any ore Church as their Diccefs, but were to do their belt for 
the Church in general, and follow the diredion and call of the 
Holy Ghoft for the exercifing of tbcir Mimllry. But its known 
to all [hat our EngMrti Bi(hops were not fuch. 1 hey were no 
ambulatory itinerant Preatheis : they went nor about to plant 
Churches, and confirm and direct fuch as they had p'anted : but 
were fixed to a City, and had everyone their Di.ctfs, which 
was their proper charge ( but Oh how they difchargcd their un- 
dertaking! ) 

Sed. 1 1 . Ob jed. The Jp',Jiles might agree among them 
felvesto divide their Prozinces, and did accordingly^ Jamei beini 
^/>&;»o/Jerufalcra, Peter 0/ Rome, (^i:. Anfvf. No doubt buc 
common reafon would teach them when they were fent to 
preach the Gofpel to all the world , to difperfc themfclves, and 
not be preaching all in a place,to the difadvantagc ot their work: 
But I. Its one thing to travail feveral ways, and fo divide them- 
fclves as itinerants ^ and another thing to divide tbcChurches 
among them, as their Icveral Dioctfles to whxh they (houidbe 
fixed; Which they never did , for ought is proved. 2. And 
its one thing prudently to difperfc themfclves for their 
labour , and another thing to claim a fpecial power over 
a Circuit or Diocefs as their charge , excluding a like charge 
and power of others. So far as any man, Apoftle or other, was 
the Father of fouls by their converfion , they ow«ed him a fpe- 
cial honour and love, which the Apoftlcsthemfelves did fomc- 
cimci claim : But this was nothing to a peculiar Diocefs or Pro- 
vince For in the fame City ( as Jerujalem ) fomc might be 
converted by one ApolUe, and fomc by another. And if a Pres- 
byter convert them, I think the adverfaries will not therefore 
make them his Diocefs, not give him there an Epifcopal Power, 
much tefs above Apoflles in that place. Nor was this the Rule 
that Dioceffes could be bounded by, as now they are taken. 

Sed. 12. Nor do we find in Scripture the leaft intimatii- 
on that the Apoftles were fixed Diocefan Bifhops , buc 
much to the contrary. i. In thai ic was not confiftenc 
with the General charge, and work that Chriil had laid upon 
tbcm to go into all tbe world ,' and preach the Gofpel to 

Aa 3 every 


182 -J 

every creature : How would this ftand with fixing in a peculiar 
Diocefs ? 

Sed. 1 3 . And 2. We find them anfwering their Commi/Tion 
in their pradicc, going abroad and preaching and planting 
Churches, and fomecimes vifiring them in their paflage^but noc 
fctling on them as their Diocrffes ^ but going further, if they 
had opportunity, to do the like for other places. Vea they 
planied Bifhop^in thefevcral Cities and Churches which they 
had gathered toChrift. Though P^Wftaid three years at £• 
^hefui and other adjacent parrs of ty^fia , yet did not all 
that abode prove it his peculiar Diocefs : ( And ye*- its hard 
to find again fo long an abode of Paul or any Apoflle in one 
place J Elders that were Bilhops we find at Ephefus, ^Els 20.and 
ibme fay Timothy was their Bilhop, and fonac fay John the Apo« 
ftle was their Bifhop .* but its clear that it was no peculiar Di- 
ocefs of Pafd. 

Sed. 14. And 3. We ftill find that there were more then one 
of thefe general itinerant Minifters in a Place, or at leaft that 
no one excluded others from having eqnal power with hitn in 
his Province, where ever he came. Barnabas^ Silas, Titus y Ti- 
nfoth«tis,Efafhrodit/ts, BoA many more were fellow-labourers 
vniih Paul in the fame Diocefs or Province, and not as fixed 
Biftiops or Presbyters under him , but as General Miniflers as 
well as be. We never read that he faid to any of the falfc 
Apoftlcs that fought his contempt [ This is my Diocefs,what 
have you t» do to play the Bifhop in another mans Diocefs? ] 
Much iefs did he ever plead futh a Power, againft Peter, Bamabat 
or any Apoftolical Minifter * Nor that James pleaded anyfuch , 
prerogative at Jeruf^Uim. 

Seft. 15. And therefore though we reverence Eufebius and 
other Ancients , that tell us of fome Apollles Dioceffes^we take 
them noc as infallible reporters , and have reafon in cbefe 
points partly to deny them credit from the word of God. The 
Churches ^hat were planted by any Apoftle, or where an Apo- 
ftle was longeft refident, were like enough to reckon ihe f/ries of 
their Paftors from him : Foe the founder of a Church is a Paftor 
of it, though not a fixed Paftor, taking it as his peculiar charge, 
fcoc delivering it into the hands of fucb : And in this fence we 
kve great reafon to uader Hand (he Catalogo^s of {h€ Anciencs .. 

and their affirmations that Apoftles were Biftiopj of theChui • 
ches. I^or Paftors they wer^: but fo that they had no peculi- 
ar Dioccfs , but ftill went on%i planting and gathering aod con- 
firming Churches: Whereas the Bifhops that were fetled by them 
( and are faid to fucceed therrjhad^ their fingle Churches which 
were their pecuHar charge; Thry had but one fuch charge or 
Churcti.when the Apollles that lead in the Catalogues had ma ny; 
& yec none To as to be limited to them. And why have we not the 
Diocefs ofPaftiind fohfi,3ind C^fathewSind Thomas,tnd the red 
of the twelve,mentioned, as well of Ptter &nd fames? Or if PauL 
bad any,it feems he was corapartner with Peter in the fam e City 
I' contrary to the Canons that rcquireth that there be but one 
Bifhop inaCfiy. ) 

Sea. 1 5. Its dear then that the Englilh Bifhops were not 
fochApoftolical unfixed Biftiops asthe Itinerants oft he firll age 
were. And yet if they were, 1 (hall (hew in the next Argument 
that its nothing to their advantage; becaufe Archbi(hop$ are 
nothing Co our quedioo. And that they were not fuch as the 
fixed Bifhops of Scripture times,! am next to prove. 

Sed. 17. The fixed Bifhops in the Scripture times had but a 
(ingle Congregation , or particular Church for tfeeir Paftoral 
Charge : But our Engttfh Bi(hops had many ( if not many 
hundred) fuch Churches for their charge- therefore our Engli(h 
Bifhope were not of the fame fort with thofe in Scripture. The 
Major I have proved in the former Difputation. The Mi- 
nor needs no proof, as being known to all that know En^ 

Sed. 18. And 2.The fixed Bifhops in the Scripture times had 
no Presbyters , at Icaft, of other particular Churches under 
them, C They Governed not any Presbyters that had other 
afTociated Congregations for publick Wor(hip. ) But the En- 
glifh Bifhops had the Presbyters of other Churches under thera 
( perhaps of hundreds: ) therefore they are not fuch as the 
Scripture Bifhops were. There isnJuch difference between a 
Govcrnour of People,and a Governoor of Paftors ; Epifcoput 
gregist & EfifctpHs Efifcoptrum^^s not all one.None of us faith, 
CjprtAninConcil, Carthsgin. calleth himfelf, or takes himfeif 
to be Epifcotum Bpifcoportim, No fixed Bi(hops in Scripcarc 
times were tnc Paftors of Paft on, at Icaft, of other Churches. 



Se3:.,i9' ThisI fuppofelmay take as grmteddefdSioirom 
the Reverend Divine whom I have cited in the foregoing Difpu- 
tation, that faith ,( Amotat. in A§f. ii. j that [ Although thii 
Title of npio-(^6T;?o' Elders ^have been alfo extended to nfecondor' 
der in the Chftrch; and r.orv ii only in ufe for them, under the tmrnt 
cf Presbyters ; jet in the Scripure'times it belonged principallj, if 
%otahne to Bijhop! •, thtre being no Evidence that any of that fecond 
Order n>ere then inflitHted ^ though Joon after ^ before the writing 
0/ Ignatius Epfiles^therewerefueh infiitutedin all C hurc be/ ] So 
tbathegrantethchat^e foBo there were then no Presbyters but 
Bijheps,2ind that they were not inflituted : and therefore Btfhops 
had no fuch Presbyters to Govern; nor any Churches but a 
(ingk Congregation . For one Bidiop could guide but one Con- . 
gation at once in publick worfh»p s and there could be no Wor- 
shipping Congregations fin the fence that now we fpeakofj with- 
out fomePrcsbyter to guide them in performance of the wor(hip. 
Sed. 20. So (aith the fame Learned man, Difertat. 4. de E- 
fifcep. page zd^, 209. [^ in cjuibus plures abf^; dubio Epifcopi 
fttere, nulUq-, adhuc quos hodie dicimus Presbjteri ] And there- 
fore he alfo condadech that the Churches were then Governed 
by Biftiops afiitled by Deacons without Presbyters, inftancing 
inthecafepftheChurch.of^fy«/<i/fw,y4£7. 6. and alledgingtbe 
VJOtdsof Clem. Remm, 'Ka-ra ^'c?.iiy T'^mi Kii^Jwti/m »».8f- 

Grotius was confident that Clemens yf^s againft their Epifcopacy, 
I (hewed before)To the fame purpofc he citeth the words of Cle- 
wens Alexandrinus in E ufe b. off ohn the Apoft!ciConcluding[£Ar 
his ratio cenfiat ,<jUAre fine Presbyterorum mentione intervenienti, 
Epifcopis Diaconi immediate adjiciantur, quiafcilicet in fmgtilis 
Macedonia civitatibus^qnamvis Spifcopus efet^nondum frtsbyttri 
confi'ttuti funt'yDiaconistantum '»"fo4 vmpi^riav ubiq^Spifcopis adjun^. 
Bis~\Differtat.^ cap, I O.Sech. 1 9,20,2 1 . So alfo cap, 1 1 .SeR.Z.&^ 
alib'i paffim. 

Sedi .21. Objeft . Bt*t though 4c fafto there were no Bifhops 
ruling Presbyters then^ nor mling any more then afingle Worfiip- 
ping Church, yet it was the Intention of the Apofiles that they JhonlA 
afterwards enlarge their Diocefs, and take the care of many Chur- 
ches^ and that they Jhould erdain thst fort of fubjeSi Presbjurs 
ihst were »#; inflituted in ScriptHre-times, Anfw, Do VQO prove 

the fecret Intention of theApoftles to be for fuch a Mutation, jn 1 
then we (hall be fatisficd in that. But till then it is enough to us 
that we have the fame Government that <^ey^^o was fet up by 
the Apoftles, and exercifed in Scripture times. And that its 
granted us that the office wasno: then inftiti^teel which we de- 
ny •. For it is the office of fuch fubjed Presbyters having no 
Power of Ordination that we deny. 

Scd. 22. Objcd". But though in Scripture times there 
■were no Bifhop over manj Chmchcs and Presbyters, jet there 
Tcert Archbifl}Op that were over many. Anfrv. Becaufe this 
objedion contains their flreng.h , 1 fhall anfwer it the more 
folly. And i. If there were no iubjcd Presbyters in thofe 
tiracF, then Archbifliops could rule none. But there were 
none fuch, as is granted ; therefore, c^c. And what proof is 
there of Archbifliops then i* 

Se(f%. 23. Their fireproof is ftom the Apofllcs : But they 
will never prove that they were fixed Bifnops or Archbifliops. 
1 have proved the contrary before. But fuch an itinerant Epif- 
copacy as the Apoftles had ( laying by their excraordinarie^) for 
my part I think ftiould be continued to the world and to the 
Church 'of which after. ) 

Another of their proofs is from Timothy and Titus 
who, thy fay, were Archbifliops, But there is full evidence 
that Timothy and Titus were not fixed Bifliops or Archbifliops, 
but Itinerant Evangclifls, that did as the Apoftles did, even 
plant and fettle Churches and then gofuriher,anddo the like. 
See and confider but the proofs of this in Trins unbiflioping 
ofTimothy zudTituj. Such Planters and Itincranrs were pr^ 
tempore the Bifliops of every Church where they came, ( yetfo 
as another might the next week be Bifliop of the fame Church, 
and another the next week after him, yea three or four or 
more at once, as they fliould come into the place ) And there- 
fore many Churches as well as Ephefns and Greet its like might 
have begun their Cacalogue with Timothy tnd Titus: and ma- 
ny a one befides Rome might have begun their Catalogue with 
Peter and 'Paul. 

Scd. 24. Another of their proofs isofthe Angels of the fcrcn 
Churches which they fay were Archbifliops. But how do they 
prove it? Uccaufe thofe CImrchesor fomcof chein were plant- 

Bb ed 

ed'in chief Cities, and therefore the Bi(hops were Metropolitans . 
But how prove they the confequencc? By their ftrong imagi- 
nation and affirmation. The Orders of the Empire had not then 
fuch connexion and proportion, and correfpondency with the 
Orders of the Church. Let them give us any Valid proof that, 
the Bilhop of a Metropolis had then fin Scripture times) the 
Bifhops of other Cities under him, as the Governor of them, 
and we (hall thank them for fuch unexpeded light. But pre- 
famption muft not go for proofs. They were much later fimes 
that afforded occafion for fuch contentions as that of Bafii^nd ' 
Ahthjmius^ ( Whether the bounds of their Epifcopal Jurisdidi- 
on fhould changeas the Emperours changed the State of thePro- 
vinces?) Let them prove that thefe Afian Angels had the Biftiops 
of other Churches, and the Churches themfdves under their ju- 
risdidion, and then they have donefomething. 

Sed. 25 . Butifthcre were any prehcminenceof Metropoli- 
litansneer thefe times, it cannot be proved to be any more then 
an honorary Primacy : robe Eplfccppis prima fedii , but not a 
Governour of the reft. How elfe could Cyprian truly fay Ccven 
fo long after ) as is before alledged, that none of them was a 
Bifhop of Bifhops , nor impofed on others, but all were left 
free to their own being accountable only to God? 
Scd. 26. Yea the Reverend Author above mentioned (hews 
(Differ tat. lie Epifcop. ^.CAp. 10. i'ff?. 9, \0,&Alibi ) that 
there were in thofe times more Biftiops then one in a City, 
though not in una Scclefiaaut Cos t*. And the like hzih Grotihs 
oft. So that a City bad ofc then more Churches then one, and 
thofe Churches had their feveral Bifhops : and neither of thefe 
Bifliops was the Governour of che other , or his Congregation; 
rauchlefs of the remoter Churches and bifhops of other Cities. 
Andthisthey think to have been the cafe ofT^eter&ndPaul at 
Rome^ yeaandoftheir immediate fucceflbrs there. And foin 
other places ( Lege Differ t. $ c,i. ) 

Sed. 27. When the great Qreg^rj Thaumaturges was made 
Bilhop of Ne6cafarea,h€ had hni Jevtntetn Chrifiiaas in his City; 
and whtn he had increafcd them by extraordinary fuc6cfres,yet 
we find not that be had fo much as a Prcsbyrer under him. And 
tfhe had, its not likely that .^«/5m/^/, his firft and chief enter- 
tainer,, would have been made but his Deacon, and be the only 



raan 6o accompany bira and comfort him in his retirement iirftht 
perfecucion.and that no Presbyter fliould be mentioned : which 
fhcwsthat B ifhops then were fuch as they wcreinScrip:ure-timcs 
( at Icaft in moft places ) and had not many Churches ^ ii h their 
Presbyters fubjed to them,as Dioccfan Bi{hop5 have. And when 
Comana, a fmall place not far off him, received the faith, Gregory 
Ordained y^/f.vj»(^fr(^theColliarj their Bifhop.over another Tin- 
gle Congregation, and did not keep them under his own Paftoral 
charge and Government : fU. QregNjfen in vita ThaumAt. ) 
Sed. 28. Butbccaufe that our D.ocefan B.fliops are fuch as 
the Archbiiliop? that rirfl afTumed the Government of many 
Churches,and becaufe we fhall hardly drive many from their pre- 
fumption,that Timmhj^ndTittis were Archbifliopsfbtfides the 
Apollles, ) I fhall now let that fuppofition ftand^ and make it 
my next Argnmeut that, 

(Argument 3.) Ordination by Archbi(hops is not reccf- Arc. 3. 
fary to the Being of Minifters or Churches. Our Englifli Bi- 
fhops were indeed Archbifhops : therefore Ordinanon by them 

is not Ncceflary ■ ] It is not the Name, but the office that is 

pleaded NecefTary. 

Sed. 29. And for the Major,! think it will not be denyed. All 
that 1 have to do with.Proreftants and Papifts, do grant the Va- 
lidity of Ordination by Bifhops. And for the Minor, it is eafily 
proved. TheBifliopsthatare theCovcrnoursof many Chur- 
ches and their Bifliops.are Archbifhops. The Bifliops 0^ England 
were the Govcrnoursof many Churches with their Bifliops: 
therefore they were Archbifhops. The M^jor will be granted. 
And for the Minor 1 prove it by parts .- 1 . That they were ( by 
undertaking ) the Goverflours of many Churches, z. And of 
many Bilhops. 

Seft. 30. HethatistheGovernour over many Congregatiorfs 
of ^hriflians affocidtedfor the fublickjVorJhip of God and holj com • 
munioM and Edification^ under thiir Proper Vafiors^ is the Gover-' 
nour of many Churches . But fuch were our Englifli Bifhops : 
therefore, &c. That fuch Societies as are here defined arc true 
Churches, is a truth fo clear, that no enemy of the Churches is 
is able to gainfay with any (hew of Scripture or reafon, they be- 
ing fuch Churches as are defcribcd in the Scriptures. And 2. That 
our Miniders were true Padors^if any will deny, ( as the Papids 

Bb 2 io4 


^indScparatiflsdo) I (ball have occafion to fay more to them 


Se(^. 51- Argument 4. If Ordination by fuchas theEnglifli 
■^./^aops be of Neccflity to the Miniflry and Churches, then; 
'.^^ jljcre no true Miniflry and Churches in the Scripture 
"?^^- nor in many years after: But the confequcnt isfalfe; 
tf- :cfore fo is the Antecedent. ThercafonofcheConfequerceis 
becaufe there were no fach Bifhops in thofe times; and this is al- 
ready provedjthey being neither the Itinerant Apoftoiical fort of 
BiOiops, nor the fixed Paftors of particular Churches j befidet* 
which there were no other. 

Sed.32. Argument 5. If Ordination by fuch astheEnglifh 
Prelates beNeceffary to the Beingofthe Miniftry and Churches, 
then none of the Proteftants that have not fuch Prelates( which is 
almoft all J-are true Churches or have true Misiftcrs ; But the 
Confcquent is falfe : therefore fo is the Antecedent. Of this I 
fhillfay more anon. 

Sei^. 33. If none of the Proteftants Churches that have not fuch 
Bifliops ^|e true Churches, and have not a true Miniftry, then 
neither Roman, Greek,, ArmenUn, ^y£thiopia»y&c. or aimofl any 
through the world are true Churches : For they are dcfedive in 
fome greater matters, and chargeable with greater errors then 
ihefe.But the Con'equent is falfe^thercfore fo is the Antecedent. 
Hethatdcnyeth all thefe to be true Churches ,denyeth the Ca- 
tho'ick Church: AndhethatdenyeththeCatholick Church, is. 
next to the denying of Chrift. 

Sed. 3 4. Having thus proved that there is no neceffity of Or- 
dination by fuch as the Englifli Prelates, 1 have withail proved 
that men arc not therefore ever the lefs Minifters, becaufe they 
have not their Ordination,nor our Churches orOrdinanccs ever 
the more to be difowned. 

S %i$' Yet where there is no other Ordination to be had, ft 
ma^ pe a duty to fubmit to theirs ; Not as they are Efifcofi ex^ 
ortes (as even Grotiusc&Ws them)orof thisy/>fd«ibut as they are 
Faflori of the Church, notwithRanding luch fuperfluitiei and. 

SeA. 36. It is not the duty therefore, but the fin, of any man 
that was Ordained by fuch Prelates to a lawful office, to difciaim 
and renounce that Ordination (^ as fomc do- ) For it is not every^ 


irregularity that nullifieih it : There may be many moJal cir- 
cumdantials , or accidental roifcarriagcs that may not Null tfe* 
ihc fubflanccof the Ordination it ftlf. 

Se<5^. 3 y.Yct it muft be concIudcd,that we may not be wilfully 
guilty of any fin in the modes or accidencs : But that may be a fin 
in the Ordairer.which the Ordained may not be guilty of, as do- 
ing nothing that fignifiech an approbation of it, but perhaps dif- 
owning it. 

Scd. 38. If we have been guilty of fubmitting to a corrupt or- 
dinationi as to the accidents, we muftdifown and repent of the 
finfuU mode and accidents , though not of the Ordination 
it felf in fubllance. As we muft bewail the errours and infirmities 
of our preaching, prayer, and other holy duties, without re* 
nouncing the duty it felf,which is of God, and to be owned. 

Se(ft. 39. AstothcQue{iionoffomcjFhethcrama» may he 
twice Orddined, in caft he fpifpeEl his firji Ord'mAtion : 1 anfwer^ 
i.You murt dillinguifti between a General Ordination to the 
office of the Miniltry , and a fpecial Ordination to a p.irticula* 
Church. (' Asthc licenfingof a Phyfitian ; andthe ferling him 
over a City or Hofpital ) The firfl may be done but once,in cafe 
it be truely done : but the fccond may be done as oft at we re- 
move to particular Churches : Though yet both may be done ac 
once, ac our firft Ordination ^ they are rtill two things ; Even a$ 
Baptizing a man into Member-ftiip of the univerfal Church, and 
taking him into a particular Church. Itsnotlike that the fepa- 
ration and Impofition of hands on PaHUnA Barmbas^ Acl. 13. 
2,3. was to their firftApoOlefliip. 

Sed. 40. If a man have weighty reafons to doubt of his firfl 
Ordination, his fafefl way is to renew it, as is ufuall in Baptini, 
with a \_Si non BaptizAtp(s es Baptizo te ] If thou be not Ordain- 
ed! Ordain thee. Thi< caa have no danger in fuch a c;»fe. 

Bb 3 CHAP. 

C HAP. V r. 

Ordination at this time, by Englijh Tre^ 
lates cfpccially^u unnecejjary. 

"Scd. u fe^^e^^^^^^ 'E^^^^* ^^'^^ i^ faid againft the Necef- 

fity of fuch Prelacical Ordination in 
itfelf, 1 conceive that more raaybc 
faid againft it as things now (land 
fromleveral accidental reafons.which 
make it not only unncceflary but 
Sed. 2 Aj I The Obligation that was upon us from the Law 
■of the Land , is taken off ( which with the Prelates tfiem- 
felvcs is no fmall argument when it was for them ) So that we 
are no further now obliged, then they can prove \x% fo from Scri- 
pture Evidence ; and how little that is, I have (hewed beforci 
The Englilh Prehcy is taken down by the Law of the Land : we 
are Icfr. at Liberty from humane Obligations acleafV. 

Sedt. 3. If any man fay, that it is an mlawful power that hath 
made thofe Laws bjtvhich Prelaical Government is taken down. 
I anfwer, i. It is fuch a Power as they obey themfclves, and 
therefore they may permit others to obey it. They hold their 
eftates and lives under it, and are proteded and ruled by itj and 
profefs fubmiflion and obcdience,for the generality of them. And 
when another .y/^foV/ of Government was up^that commanded 
men to take an engagement, to be true to the Government as 
cftablifhed without a King and Houfe of Lords, when our Con- 
fciences refiifcd thac Engagement as unlawful, the generality 


of the contrary minded took it ( even all that I was acquainted' 
wiih,that were put upon it ) So that I may take it for granted 
that they judge the power which they obey themfclvcs , to be 
obeyed by others. 

Sed. 4. And 2. 1 would be glad to hear from them any regar-- 
dablc proof that thofc thatGoverned when Paul wrote the 1 3 th 
Chapter to the Romans had any better Title to their Govern- 
ment ; Let them review their own late writings on that fubjed, 
and they may have arguments enough that ?re WdW^adhomimm- 

Se«S. 5. The Laws of the Land do make the A As even of an 
Ufurper Valid while he is in pofTefiion, and make it treafon to 
them that do againfl him that which is treafon if it were agalnft 
a lawfull Prince : and therefore if we granted them what they 
hercaffirm,tt would be no advantage to their caufe. Sub/eds 
muft look at the prefent Governours with peaceable fubjcction: 
For if they be left to try their Princes titles , and fufpend obedi- 
ence upon iheir (ingle opinions, you know what will follow. 

Sed. 6. And 3, It will be hard to prove that many a Prince 
that hath ruled in £«^/4;2^, had a better Title ." Its known ihac 
many of their Titles were naught ; And yec their Lawcs are 
Valid ftill, or were fo toPofterity. And how can they convey a 
better title to their Heirs then they had themfelves ? If you fay 
that the Confent of the People gave them a better, I muft return 
thuc if that will ferve, the people in Pirliaments ('more then one) 
and in their real fubjedicn, have confentcd to this. But this is 
a fubjcd that requjreth much more tobefaidof it, or nothing 
at all: and therefore Khali take up here, with this little which 
the pefent caufe makes neceffary. 

Sed. 7. And I may add a further Reafonj that we are not 
only difobliged by the Laws from former Prelacy , but we are ob- 
liged againlt it. The Rulers havedepofed and forbidden it 
And in lawfu 1 thinn^ it is a duty to obey our Governonrf. 
And that the demolifhing of the Prelacy , is a lawful thing 
( in it felf confidered : For I meddle not wich the manner at this 
time.) I have faid enough before to prove. It hath been ulual 
for Princes to dqptfe bad S'riefls, and heretical or contentious Bi- 
fliops , and to c "trreCt dirorders,and rcftrain ufurpaticms-oi i'r«- 
latcs among diemklves. And if any fuch thing be now d<^nc 


by our prefent Goverrours, I know not any thing of that ne- 
C€fC]ty m the Eng\i{h Species 0^ Prelacy, as will warrant us to 
d fobey them. 

Sed. 8. And it is a thing that is inconfiftent with the Peace 
and Unity of thefe Churches : Which is another reafon. 
For 1 . We have fcen the ill effeAs of irfwhich 1 am not willing 
to open to the woift ) 2. And the multitude of the moft confci- 
entious people are againft it. 3 . And the generality of the moft 
confcionablc faithful Miniflers arc againft it •, So that it could not 
be reftorcd, without the apparent ruine of thefe Churches, 
4. And a Learned Reverend AfTembly of Divines, chofcn out of 
the feveral Counties by a Parliament, wer€ againfl ic. 5 . And 
many Parliaments have been againft it. 5. And the generality 
of their adherents in the two Nations, that then lived m Aeir 
Power , have taken a Solemn Covenant againft it. Not 
againft all Epifcopacy, but againft the Englilh fort of Pre- 
lacie. So that it cannot be reftored, without incomparably 
much more hurt, then the continuance of it would have done 
good,and without fettirg all thefe Churches on a flame.- So 
far is it now from being a likely means of Unity or Peace among 

Sed. 9. And if yet they plead the obligation of the ancient 
Laws ( which is moft inlifted on by many ) I muft by 
way of juft excufe , remember them of one thing, which its 
like they do not forget : that if thofe Laws are ftill in force to 
oblige us to feek Ordination from the Prelates, and to Au- 
thorize the Prelates to Ordain, notwithftanding the Laws of 
later Powers that have repealed them, then it muft needs fol- 
low that thofe later Pov. crs are taken for no Powers: and confc- 
quently that the fame Laws do oblige the Prelates to put the 
Oar h of Allegiance and Supremacy, as to fome other Power ,up* 
on the Ordained before they lay hands upon them, and oblige 
theOrdained to take thofe Oaths, as well at to be fo Or- 
dainc d. For if they be yet of force in one, they are of 
force in both. And fo no man can be Ordained by you 
without being guilty of that which the prefent Lawcs make 
Treafon, and torfeiting his life : which I know nothing in the 
caufe that requlreth hira to do. 
Se^. 10, And I think I may conclude that it is your own 


judgeracn!!, that men ftiould rather forbear your Ordination, 
then hazard their iives,or violate the prefenf LawSjbecaufe whe" 
a Declaration or Order came forth not/.^ng ago, prohibiting 
men of your perfwafionchat had beenfeqaellreJ to Preach o^ 
Adminiller Sacraments, the gencraluy or 3 ou prcTently obey 
edit, and fome wrote for the forbearance that they pradtifed. 
And if an Ordained man (hould obey the prefent power , by 
forbearing to preach and adminiRer Sacraments, or may for- 
bear thcfeto cfcape a temporal danger j much more may mea 
do fo about your fort of Ordination. 

Sed. II. Moreover 4. We (hall be guilty of a fixed Schifm 
among the Reformed Church s , and of making t!ie heal- 
ing of our breaches impoflille, if by our compliance we 
own your dividing Principle, that [No other are trucMini- 
Ikrs or Churches but fuch as have your Manner of Ordina- 
tion] For by this Rule all the Mmifters in thcfe and other 
Proteftan: Nations muft be degraded, or taken for no Mini- 
fters, and all the Churches for no true Churches (though per- 
haps they may be confeflcd Chriftian Communities , } Nor 
the Ordinances and adminirtrations true. And do you think 
thefc are likely terms for Peace ? Will they ever be yielded 
to by fo many Churches ? Or is it a defirable thing ? 
Should Rome be fo much gratified ? And our Churches ru- 
ined? and the fouls of millions call away, and facrificcd to 
your opinion?, or Peace? While your Prelacy pretended to 
no more, but to be the be[i fort of Government, andyouc 
Church to be the hji of Churches, wc could fubmit to yo« 
in all things that were not flatly finful : But when you. 
will be the onlj Churches, and unchurch all others, even the 
raoft flourifhing Churches for knowledge and holinefs, and 
when you muft be the only Miniftcrs, and others muft be 
none, un'efs they will be Ordained by you; this is enough to 
put a fobermanto a Aand, wlicther hefiiallnotbe guilty of 
notorious fchifm , by complying with To fchifmaticai a prin- 
ciple 1 if he fubjeA himfelf voluntarily to a Prelacy that hath 
fuch principles and pretences , and to an Ordination that 
is on thefe grounds and terms. This was not the 
ground, nor thefe the principles of the former Enolifli Pre- 
lates : and therefore we were more capable of fubjcdion to 

C c them 

tbcrfl or Communion with them. We could have lived in their 
Communion and in the Communion of the reft of the ProteOanc 
Churches chat have no Prelacy. But if by innovation, you have 
rr.ade fuch u char.gc.asthat we muft fcparate from ail the Reform- 
ed Churches and MmiQers that have not your kind ofOrdfnaci- 
on,if we will be your fubjeds or be Ordained by you according 
to your grounds, its time for us to look about us, that we cfcapc 
that reparation and fcl ifm, that you would lead and en- 
gage us la by your wa of Ordination. 

Sed 12 Ainong your felves there arc many that affirm that 
if the Pops wou.d have been content with his old Patriarchal 
Power , and princifinnt unitatis^ or primacy of Order, and 
wave his laH four hundred years determinations , oratlcaftnoc 
obtrude them on other Churches ( as Bifhop Bromhall 
fpcaks) they could have held communion with him, that now 
cannot •, If Rome would have been content to be a Member 
of the Cathoiick Church , though pretendedly the noblefl, 
they could have owned it : But when it will be The Cathoiick 
Church, and ft paratc it fclf from all the refl , unchurching 
all that arc not fubjeft to them, and united in their Go- 
vernment , they then drive us further from Communion 
wi:h them. Imitate them not in any degree in this No- 
torious fchilm and feparation. Be contented to beMmifters 
and Churches ; and tell not Chrift , he hath none but you, 
and fuch as you ; and tell not Satan , that the Kingdom of 
Chrift is thus cut fhort , to the honour or rejoycing of his 

Sed. 13. It was not fo ridiculous as fad to me, to read 
in Mr. T.Ps. Self 'revenger againft Mr. BArlee^pag. 37. ^^k«t 
Ordination called a [^ '"*' Notorivus Coma Tragedie , ccjually 
" fad and rtdicu/ous , which he and others lately aBed in Djiirt- 
'* try Chrtrch^ intituled ifj the ACtdrs, ^n Ordination of A^iy.i- 
** fters, btit hj many of the SfcBators^ An Ordination of Lay 
** 'Treachers to be Lay preachers Jiill, ay>d ( withofit repentance) 
* ' for ever uncafable of the Priefihood, bj being Ordained by fuch 
*[ Prices as were uncapable of OrdainiKg."] Thus Mr. P. 

Sed. 14. And it leems he was of the fame judgemenr, 
( whoever be was ) that would have abufcd Bifhop Z'/her^hy 
giving out that he told him, that [^ as for Holhnd, hequefim^ 


ed if there XfAj a Church among them, ernot, or tvcrds fully to Pnrpofe] Aga'.nft which abufeofthc Dr. the Bifh -p was 
fain to vmdlcite hirafelf. Scejp^^e 124, 125. OfhisPofthumous 

Sed. 15. Moreover, 5. We know not of altrofl any Bi- 
(liops in England , by whom men may be Ordnined. Four 
or Hve Reverend Learned men of that degree are commonly 
ftid to furvive among us Cwho.n we much honour and value 
for their worth ) But as thefe are To dillanr, and their refi- 
dencc to the moft unknown, fo the reft (if there be any ^ 
are known to very few at .ill, that I can hear of.* Its famed 
that many Bilhops there are ^ but wc know it not to be 
true, nor know not who they be •' and therefore it cannot 
well b^ expeded , that their Ordination fhouid be fought. 
If they reveal not therafelves and their Authority , and do 
not fo ranch as orce command or claim obedience from the 
generality of Miniftcrs, how can they expeft to be obeyed? 
J f they plead the danger of perfccution , f anfwer, i. What 
Perlecution do they fuflFcr that are known ( above others 
of their way ? ) 2. If that will excufe them ( when we never 
heard of any that fuflfered the lofs ofa penny for being known 
to be a Bifliop^fince the Wars were ended ) then it feems, 
I hey take the Being of the Miniftry and Churches to be but 
of fmall moment , that arc not worthy their hazzard in a 
manifeftation of their power : And if this excufe them from 
appcaring,it mud needs in reafon excufe others from knowing 
them,obcying them, and fubmitting to them. 

Sed. 16. And when they (hall declare themfelves to be our 
Biftibps , they muft in all reafon cxped that the proof of 
it as well as the naked affirmation, be defired by us. Forwc 
rauft not take every man for a Bifhop that Taith he is (o. 
They muft (hew us according to the Canons that the Clergy 
of the Diocefs lawfully Eleded them, and Bifhops Confecrated 
them ; which are tranfadions that we are Grangers io. If 
thc\^ take the fecrct Elcdion of fix or feven or very few in 
a Diocefs, to be currant, becaufe the reft arefuppofcd to be 
uncapable by Schifm ^ i. Then they (hew thcmfdvcs fo cx- 
ceedmgly unjuft as to be unmeet for Governmeiit, if they will 
upon their fecrcc prciumptions, ar.d unproved fuppofitions, 

Cc 2 cue 

C ipO 

cut off or cenfure fo many parts of the Clergy , without ever 
accufin^ them, or calling them to fpeak fc themfelves, or 
hearing their Defence. 2. And if upon fucti prefumptuous 
Ccnfures you make your felvcs Biftiops befides the Canons, you 
cannot expeA obedience from thofe that you thus feparate from ^ 
and cenfure unheard. 

Scd. 1 7. Its known that the Englifli Bifhops fas Grotiut him- 
felfaffirmeth^ were ch»fen by the King according tothecuftora 
here, the Chapter being (hadows in the bufincfs : And if the 
King may make Bifhops, be may make Presbyters; and then 
Ordination is unnecefTfiry. But if you fay that the Confe- 
crators make ihemBiHiops , and not the Kings Eledion, then 
Rme had many BiOiops at once, when ever three or four 
Popes were confccrated at once ( which marrs all fucccflion 
tbence dirived, ) and then if fome Biftiops confecrate one, 
sndfomc another, boih are true Biftiops of one Dioccfs, and 
many Pafto'-s may be ihus Ordained to one Church. 

Scft.18. And it concerneth us before we become their 
fubjcds , to have foniec; edible Evidence that they are fo Or- 
thodox, as obe capable o! the place. And the rather becaufe 
tbaf fome that arefufpefted to be Biftiops ( how truly I know 
not) have given caufeof fome fufpicion : Either by writing 
againft Original fin , or by owning Grotius's Religion , 
( which what it was I have ftiewed elfewhere , ) or by un- 
churching the Proteftant Churches , and Nullifying their Mini* 
f\ry that have not their kind of Ordination, while they take 
the Rom tn Ordination "to be Valid,and theirChurch and Mi- 
niftry to be true, with other fuch like. 

Sed. 19. And6. Ifwcftiouldnow, whenbettermay behad^ 
fujjcd our [elves to the Ordination and Government of the 
abolifticdPrclncy, wcfhould choofca more corrupt way ofad- 
miniftration, ard prefer it to a more warrantable way: (That 
this way iscorrupt,is proved in the former Difputation. That 
a way more warrantable may be had, I ftiall prove anon. ) 
Though fubmiflion toa faulty way in fome cafes of Neccfiity 
is excufable, yet when we have our choice,the cafe is altered. 

Sed. 20. And a tender Confciencc ha:h very great retfon 
to fear left by fuch voluntrary fubjcdion, the^ ftiould incur 
moreover this double guilt ; i . Of all the hurt that this corrupt 


fort of Epifcopacy did, before the abolition. 2. And of ad the 
hurt thatit might do ^gain if it were introduced : which is nei- 
ther fmall, nor uncertain: He that hath feen the fruits that ic 
brought forth but fo: a few years before the abolition , and 
weight the argumer.'s tiO'i'i'ht againft it, raethinks (houldfear 
to be the reftorerofic 

Sed. 2 1 . If any man ( «s Mr. Thorndike and others do ) fliall 
write for a mc^e regular lb.:of Epifcopacy, its one thirg to find 
a tolerable Bipjop in hts Eool\^ and another thing to find him exi- 
gent in England', For we know not of any New fort of Regu- 
lated Epifcopacy planted : and therefore mud fuppofe that it is 
the Old fort that is in being. Let them bring their Mocferate 
forms into exigence, and then its like that many may be more 
inclined to fubmit to their Ordination : but their moderate prin- 
ciples hiving not yet made us any Moderate Epifcopacy, I fee ncc 
how we fliould be ever the more obliged forthcrn to fubmit to 
theOId*. but rather are the more julHfiedin difowningif^when 
their own reformed modeil is againft ic. 

Cc 3 CHAP. 


T/:?^ Ordination ufed ?2oW in England 
and in other Troteflant Qhurches^ is 
Validy dnd agreeable to Scripture and 
the TraBice of the zJncient Qhurch. 

Whethei- ma- 
ny alwaies 
fometlme one 
only, Calvin 
and after him 
Vaml Coloni- 
jis ( lib. 4. 
Vifp. 1. ex 
Calvin. Infii- 

t!lt. l. 4- 

thought un- 
becaurc of 

Read tlicix 

Sed. I . &^^^!f^^ Aving already proved that the late 

Englifti Bifhops Ordination is not of 
neceffityj it is facisfadory without 
any more ado, to them that would 
nullifieour Miniftry and Churches 
that have not their Ordination. But 
bccaufe wcmay meet with other ad- 
verfarieSjand becaufein a cafe of fo much weight, we (houid 
v/a!k inthecleatcft light that wc can attain, for thefarisfadion 
of our own Gonfciences, I fliail further prove the Validity of 
our Ordination , and the truth of our Call , and Min(\ry,and 

S.'ft. 2. Argument I. The Ordination is Valid which is per- 
formed bvfuch r>i{hops as were inftitutedandcxiftent in Scri- 
tuictimts. But our Ordination < ufed in £'«^/<«»^ and other 
reformed Churches j is performca by fuch Bifhops as were in- 
ftituted and exigent in Scripture times: the rcfore fuch Ordina- 
tion is Valid. 

T ine Major will nor be denyed ( being undcrftood with a fup- 
pofition of o^hcrrtquilices that ate not now in controverfie : ) 


For thofe ihat we have to deal with do grant, that fuch Bidiops 
as arc menrioned, AEls zo. i Tim. 3. Tit. i. Phil. i. i. and 
in other pafTages of Scripture, had the power of Ordination,and 
that ic belonged not only to the Apoft'cs and Evangel fts, and 
( fuch as they call j ArchbifhopSj but ihac the fixed Uifliops of 
particular Churches had it. 

Sed. 3. The Minor I prove thus (that our Ordination is by 
Scripture BiHiops. ) The Scripture Bifliops weie the Paftors 
if P.'.rticular Churches, having no Presbyters fubjedt to them, 
Moft of our Ordainers are fuch PaRors : therefore moi^ of our 
Ordainers areScnpcure Bifhops. 

Scd 4.Thc Major is afferted at large by the forefaid Reverend 
Dr. H.H. A^. II. i; p. 40-j.y/b€rc he i\KWs that[y4/- 
thtuglo thlf title (jyn,'^5"/iv'r-foi Elders have heen alyi txtcndedto a 
fecond Order i)ttheChnrch,(^ ff now only in fifefcrthem^UKdcr the 
ti.imeof Prcsi>j:ers,yet in the Scipture times, it bt longed priytci- 
f-tlly if not only to Bifhept, there being no evidence that any of that 

J(C«»d order were then inflitptted —J So that tiie ^crlpturc 

Bifhops were the PaI\ors of lingle Churches having no Presby- 
ters under them ; for there were no inferiour Piesbyters ( that 
had not ihe Power of Ordination) infticuted in thofe times. This 
therefore may be taken as a granted truth. 

Sed.5.-And that our Ordainers are fucb, is commonly known; 
1 . They arc P^/lors : T it is but few of the Prelates that denycd 
this : ) They are * RcFiorsoi the People , and have the Pallo- » Mr. r, p. 
raici]<4rgc of fouls. z.Thcy ziaVz^iono^ Particular Chnrches. calls himlclf 
3. They have ( for the moft part at lead ) no fubjeft or infcri- I^^aor ct 
our Presbyters under tl:em : therefore they are bcrip:ure Bi« ""^ 

Scft. 6. Objedl. The difference lyethin another point : The 
Sc-iptHre Ei,hops had the Power of OrdinMion : Tohr Paftors 
have not the Power of Ordination : thereefore they are not the 
fame. A^fw. T hat is the thing in Qieftion. I am proving that 
they havethe power of Ordiranon, thus : InScripturc times ,7//! 
fingie Payors of fingle Churches had the Power of Ordnarion, 
there being r.o o' inftituted : But our Ordainers arc the (in- 
gle PaHiorsof lirg'c Churches , ( and ofChriils inditution; ) 
therefore they have the Power of Ordination. If the Payors now 
arc deryed to be fuch as were inilituted in Scripture times, 

I. Let 

i.Letthero fliewwhodidinftitutethem, and by what authori- 
ty. 2, ThefolcPaftors of particular Churches were inftitucd 
in Scripture times ; But fuch are ours in queftioo, therefore, &c. 
Sed. 7. There is no fort ofPaftors lawful! in the Church but 
what were inftituted in Scripture times : But the fort of Paftors 
now in queQion arc lawfull in the Church : therefore they were 
inftituted in Scripture times : The Minor will be granted us of all 
thofe that were Ordained by Prelates : They would not Ordain 
men to an office which they thought unlawful. The Major is pro- 
ved thus:No fort of Paftors are lawful in the Church but fuch of 
whom we may have fufficient evidence that they were inflituted 
by Chrift or his ApoQles ; But wc can have fufficient evidence of 
none but fuch as were inftimted in Scripture tiracs,that they were 
inftitutcd by Chrii\ or his Apoftlcsitherefore no other fort is law- 
fall. The Major is proved in that none but Chriftand fuch as he 
committed it to, have power to inflitutc new Holy Offices for 
Worfhip in the Church;, But Chrift hath committed this to none 
but Apoftles (^ if to them, ) therefore, c^r. Whether Apoftles 
themfelves did reake any fuch new Office, 1 will not now dif- 
pute; but if they did, i. It was by that fpecial Authority which 
HO man fince the planting of the Churches by them can lay claim 
to, or prove that they have. 2. And it was bv that exrraordi- 
nary guidance and infpiration of the Holy Gholl, wh-ch none 
can manifeft to have been fince that tirae communicated. 

Sed. 8. Moreover, if there were a Power of innitutingncw 
Offices in the Church fince Scripture times, it was eitl'cr in a 
Pope,in CouncilSjOr in fingie Paftors.But it was in none of thefe: 
not in a Pope j for there wasno fuch Creature of lorg time af- 
£er,muchlefs with this authority :Not in a Council: For 1 .None 
fuch was ufed: 2. None fuch is proved. s.Elfe they (hould 
have it ftill. Not incveryBilbop, as will be eafily granted. 

Scft.p. If fuch a Power of mlHtutirg New Church- Offices 
were after Scripture times in the Church, tlien it is cealeo fmce, 
orcontinuethiiill^ Not ceafed fince. For i. The Powers or of- 
ficers then left continue flill ^ therefore their authority conuru- 
ctb fliil. 2. There is no proof that any luch temporary power 
was given to any finct Scripture times. Nor doth any fuch con- 
tiKueil'il; O.bcrvvife men might Hill mal^e usmorcNew Of- 
iicesj and fo we fhguld not iinow when we have doce, nor 



fhauld we need to look into Scripture for Cbrids will, but to the 

Se<^. lo. Argument 2. No men fincc Scripture times had 
power to change the Infticucionsof Chrift and the 
taJciDg down the fort of Paftorsby them efiablifhcd; and Tec- 
ting up another fort in their ftead. But if tfeere be lawful Pa- 
llors of particular Churches that have not power of Ordination^ 
then men had power to make fuch a change. For the fort of 
Paflors then inftituted were fuch as had but one Church, and 
w«rc themfelvcs perfonally to guide that Church in actual 
Worfhip, and had the power of Ordifiation , and there was 
no fub jed Presbyters, nor no fingle Pallors that had not the Pow- 
er of Ordination •• All fingle Paltors of particular Churches had 
that Power then : But all, or aln-.ofl all fuch fingle Paftors of 
panicular Churches are by the Diflcnters fuppofed to be with- 
out that Power now: Therefore it is by them fuppofed that 
Chrifts form of Church GovcrnnKnt and fort of Officers are 
changed, and confcquently chat men had power to change them, 
for they fuppofe it lawfully done. 

Sed. II. Argument 3. The Paftors of City Churches may 
ordain ( efpeclaliy the fole or chief Paftors : ) Many of our 
prefent Ordainersare the Pallors of City Churches f and the 
iblc or chicfPaftors in fome Places : ) therefore they may Or- 
dain. The Major is proved from the dodrine of the Diflcntcrs, 
which ii, that every City Church fhould have a B fhop, and thac . 
every Bifhop is the chief f' and fometimes only J Paftor of a 
City Church, If they fay that yet€very Paftor (though the foic 
Paflor Jof a City Church ts not a Bilhop; I anfwer,that thcnthey 
wiil infer the fame power of changing Scripture Inftitutions, 
which I mentioned, and difproved before. Let them prove fuch 
a Power if they can. 

Scd. i2.TheMinorisundcnyable,andfeen dtfa^otthsit ma- 
ny ofour Ordainers are fuch PaQors of City Churche*, and thac 
of two forts : fomeof fuch Cities as have both the Name and 
Nature of Cities : And feme of fuch Cities as hive truly the na- 
ture, but in our Engli(h cuftora of fpcech have not the name : 
iuch as are all Corporations , in the fcvcral Market Towns of 

ied. 13, Argument 4. Thofc PaRors that have Presbyters 

D d under 

ander them, have power of Ordination : But very many Eng^- 
lifli Paftors ac this day have Presbyters under them ; therefore 
ihey have Power of Odination ; By Presbyters I mean not men 
of another office, but gradually infcriour in the fame office. The 
Major is proved ad howinem from the Conceflions of the Diffen- 
ters; For C though I rarely meet in their difputations for Bi- 
ihops, with any Definition of a Bifliop,yet ) This is it that they 
raoft commonly give us as the Effential difference ofaBifhop, 
that he \tontlhit\% over Prtsbjters. Yea thisagrccth with their 
higher fort of Biihops that they fay were in the Church in IgHA' 
fjWdaies, when Tub jed Presbyters were inflituted: and there- 
fore thofe Paftors may ordain that are of ^bat higher fore of 

Se^. 14. The Minor is notorions; Many of our Paftors in 1 , 
Market Towns and other large Pariflies have a curate with them, 
in the fame Congregation, and one or two or more Curates at 
ifcveral Ghappcls of eafe , that arc in theParifli. Andthefeare 
under them 1. ZV faclo^ being chofen and brought in by then>. 
Ruled by thcm,and paid by them and removed by them* . i.A . 
jure\ the Biftiops and Laws of the Land allowed this. . 

Seft. 1 5 .Argument 5. The ftated or fixed Prefident ofa FreP 
byterie may Ordain ( with his fellow Presbyters ) But many of 
our Parifh Paftors are the fixed Prefidents of Presbyteries: there- 
fore they may ordain. The Ma jor I take for granted by all that 
ftand CO the Ordinary dcfcriptions of a Bifliop .- For the ftated 
Prefident of a Prej5byterie,is not only a Bifliop,in the judgement 
of Fprhs, Sifiiop Hall^ Biftiop VJher and fucli oiber^but is in- 
deed the Primitive 5ip^op in their judgement, and fuch aBi- . 
(hop in whom they would rtfi fuijfied ^ and do propofc fach 
for the Churches Peace. , 

Sed. 16. And the Minor is notorious : For i. In th^moftof 

our ordered Churches there is a Prcsbyterie of Ruling Ecdcfi" 

aftick Elders. 2. In many there are divers preaching Presbyters 

( which may fati>6e them that arc againft racer ruHng Elders) 

as I (hewed before. And if thcfe be not inferiourto the chief 

Paftorin Ecclefiallical Degree, yet tbey are his Compresbyters, 

and he is ( in all Parifhes that 1 know where Curates or Affi- 

ftants are) their flated Prefident or Moderdtor^to that we have in 

all fuch Congrcga^ion$(acsor4ingpo she ^odripC'Of thcBiftops 

'' ' tbcia- 

themfelvcs ) not only fuch Bifhops a^ were in the Apoflles days 
when there was no Tub jcft Presbyters, butalfo fuch Bifhops as 
were in Ignatius daicf , when the fixed Prefident or Bilhop had 
many Presbyters , to whom he wis the Prefident or Mode- 

Sed. 17. Yea if you will make his Negative voice Ejfcntial 
toa BiQiop ( which Moderate Epifcopal men deny ) yet com- 
monly this agreeth to fuch Parifti Bifhops as have Curates un- 
der them : For in the Presbyterie they have ordinarily a Nega- 
tive Voice. 

Sed. 18. Vea where there are no fuch Presbyteries witji a 
Prelident, itis yet enough to prove him a Bifhop, that he hath 
Deacons under him, or but One Deacon •' faith Dr. H H. Ah- 
not At. in Acl. il.b. [ When the Gofpei was firji preached i>y the 
Ap files y and (put few converted ^ they ordained in every ^itj and 
Region, no morebnt a Bijhdp^and one or more Deacont to attend him, 
there being at the prefent fofmall fiore out of which to take more, 
andfofma/lneedof Ordaining more ] 

SeA. 19. Argument 6. 1 he Moderator or Prefident of ma^ 
riy Paftors of particular Churches afTcmbled.may Ordain,and his 
Ordination is Valid. But fuch a Moderator or Prefident is or- 
dinarily or frequently One in our Ordinations: therefore they 
are Valid. The Major is granted by many of the DifTenterSjand 
all their principles, I think, do infer it : For fuch a one is a Bi- 
fhop, notonlyofthcApoftolicalinftitution: Nor only fuch as 
was in 7^»4//«i days,but fuch an Archbifhopasnext afterward 
fprungup. When it is not only one Church and its Presbyters 
that are under him, but the Presbyters ( or Bifhops^ of many . 
Churches that he is Moderator or Prefident of, methinksthofe 
that are for the higheft Prelacy, fhould not deny the Validity of 
his Ordination. 

Sed. 20. But two things will be hereobjeded : The one is, 
that he was not confecrated to this Prefidencj or Adoderatorfijip^ 
bj Bipjops, To which I anfwer, i . That Confccration is not of 
Neceflity to fuch a Bifhop according to the principles of Epif- 
copal Divines J it being no new Office or Order that they arc 
exalted to, but a new Degree; Ordination {which was recei- 
ved when they were made Presbyters) may fufficc, and is not 
to be iterated. 2. The Elei^ion of the Presbyters ferved (as Hi- 
erom tcftifycth ) in the Church of A/cxandriA : therefore it may 

Dd 2 fcrvc 

ferftf ftOW : ( of which more anon. ) 3 ♦ He Is chofcn by trne Bi- 
shops, ash (hewed. 

Se<S. 2 1 . The other Ob jedion is, that our Trefidtnts are hut 
pro ictapbte^and therefore are not Bijhtps. To which I anfwer, 
i.Thatinfome Places they are for a long time, and in fomefor 
an uncertain time. Dr. ^Tw/jr was Moderator of the Synod at 
WeftminJ^er, for many years together, even fl'//r4»fc'z;/Mj and 
lAt. Herle after him was long Moderator : The Lortdon Pro- 
vince hath a Prefident for many moncths ; even from one AflVm- 
biy to another. 2. 1 never yet met with an Epifcopal Divine, 
that maintained that it was eflential to a Bi(hop, to be fuch du- 
ratite vita : I am fure it is not commonly allerted. If a man be 
made the Bifliop of fuch or fuch a Diocefs , for one and twenty 
years, or for feven years, it will be faid to be irregular; but I 
know none of them that have averred it to be fo great an Er- 
ror as nullifieth his Power and adroiniftrations. And If it may 
ftand with the Being of Epifcop2cy to bclimited to feven years, 
then alfo to be limited to feven moneths, or feven weeks,or days •• 
Efpecially when ( as ufually with us ) they fix no time at the 
firftEIeSion, but leave it to the liberty ofthenext AfTembly to 
continue or to end his power. Let them prove that affirm ir,ihat 
duration for life is eflentiall to a Bifliop. 

Sefl.22. Argument. 7. Where all thcfe forcmentioned qua- 
lifications of the Ordainer do concur, (viz.. i. That he be the 
l>aftor of a particolar Church,and the chief Pallor of it, and the 
Pafior of a City Church, and have Deacons and Presbyters under 
him, and be the fixed Prefident of a Presbyterie , and the Mo- 
derator or Prefident of a larger Presbyterie of the Paftors of 
many Churches,) there f according to the principles, even of 
therigidcrfortofDiflVnters^ the Ordination is valid; But all 
thefe foreraentioned qualifications do frequently concur to fomc 
of our prefcnt Ordainersin England: therefore even accord- 
ing to the more rigid DifTcnters , their Ordination is Valid : 
,Thc premifesarc fo plain that they need no confirmation. 

Sed. 23, Argument 8. Ordination by a Presbyterie is 
Valid. But in England and other Reformed Churches we 
have Ordination by a Presbyterie : therefore our Ordi- 
nation is Valid. The Major is proved from i Tim. 4. 14. 
{_ NegleB nst the gift that is in thee rvhich was given thee 
h^ Prephecj , mth the lajing on of the handf oj the Tref- 


(20^ ) 

Prtsbjterle. Alfo from Aii. 1 3 . i ,2,3 . They were the Prophets 
and! eachers of the Church of Antitch ih%t impofed hands on 
B4rnAbasd^Ti<iiSAHl, C whether it we^e for their firft Ordination 
to the Office, or only for a particular Mifiion , I now difputc 
not. ) The Church of Jntioch h^d not many Prelates, if any: 
but they had many Prophets and Teachers, and thefc and none 
but thefc are mentioned as the Ordaincrs, Asfor them rhac 
fay thefc were the Bifhops of many Churches of Sjria^ when 
the Text faith they all belonged to this Church of Amioch^ihey 
raiy by fuch prefumpcuous contradiftions of Scrip:ure iay much, 
but prove little. 

Se(J^. 24. A? for them that grant us, that there were no 
fubjcd Presbyters inftituted in Scripture-times, and fo expound 
the Presb^^terie here to be only Apoftles and Bifliopsof the 
higher order, I have (hewed already, that they yield us the 
Caufe : though I murt add, that we can own no new fart of 
Presbyterie, notinftitutedby Chriil or his Apoftlcs. But for 
them that think that Prelates with fubjeA Presbyters were ex- 
iflent in thofe times, they commonly expound this Text of Or* 
dination by fuchfubjcd Presbyters, with others of a Superior 
rank or degree, together ; Now, as to our ufe, it is fufficienr, 
that hence we prove that a Prcsbyterie may ordain : and that un- 
deniably a Presbyterie confided of Presbyters, and fo that Pref- 
byters may ordain. This is commonly granted usj from this 
Text. That which is faid againQ us by them that grant it, is, that 
Presbyters did Ordain,but not alone, but with the BifhopF, 

Sed. 25. But, I. if this were proved, its nothing againft 
us : for if Presbyters with Bifhops have power to Ordam, then 
it is not a work that is without the reach of their Office, but 
that which belongeth to them : and therefore if ihcy could pr^ve 
it irregular for them to Ordain without a Bifhop, yec would 
they not prove it Null. Otherwifethey might prove it Null, if 
I Bifhop Ordain without t Prcsbyterie, becaufe according to 
this ObjcAion they muft concur. 2 But indeed, they prove 
not thai any above Presbyters did concur in Timothies Ordina- 
tion, whatever probability they may fliew for it. And tiU 
ihey prove it, we muft hold fo much as is proved and fronted. 

Scd^. 26 Asfor 2 Tim. 1.6. it is no certain proof of it. It 
may be impofition of hands in Confirmation, or for the firft 

Dd 3 giving 


giving of the Holy Ghofl: after Baptifra ('ordiMrily ufed by 
the Apoftlcs ) that is there fpoken of ; which alfo feemeth pro* 
bable, by the Apoftles annexing it to Timothies Faith, in which 
be fucceeded his Mother and Grandmother •, and to the fol- 
lowing effeds of [_the Spirit of Porptr^ and ef L$vet Andofs 
foHndmind^ ~\ which are the fruits of Confirming Grace : ad- 
monifhing him, that he be not ajhamed of theTefiimonyof eur 
Lord -^ which is alfo the fruit of Confirmation. However the 
probability go, they can give us no certainty, that Taul or any 
Apoftle hadanhandin the Ordination here fpoken of: when 
the Text faith that it was [_ with the Ujing on of the han^s of the 
Freslfjterieli we muft judge of the office by the name ; and 
therefore i. we are fure that there were Prcibyters. 2. And 
if there were alfo any of an higher rank, the Phrafe encoura- 
geth us to believe, that it vi&s as Freshjters, ths.z they irapofed 
hands in Ordination. 

ScA. 27. Argument 9. If Biihops and Presbyters ( as 
commonly diftinguifhed j do differ only (froii/^, ttott Ordine, in 
Degree and not in Order, (that is , as bcmg not of a diftind 
office, but of a mwe honourable Degree in the fame office j then 
is the Ordination of Presbyters valid, though without a Biftiop 
(of that higher Degree^ But the Antecedent is true ; there- 
fore fo is the Confequcnt, The Antecedent is maintained by 
abundance of the Papiils themfelvcs ; much more by Proteftants. 
The reafon of the Confequence is, becaufe ad ordinem fertinet 
ordinare. Being of the fame office, they may do the fame work. 
This Argument BiHiopZ/'y^-rr gave me to prove that the Ordi- 
nation of meer Presbyters without a Prelate is valid, when I askt 
him his Judgement of it. 

Sed. 28. Argument 10. If the Prelates and the Laws they 
wentby did allow and require meer Presbyters to Ordain, then 
muft they grant us that they have the Power of Ordination : 
But the Antecedent is true, as is well known in the Laws, and 
common Pradice of the Prelatei in Ordaining : divers Presbyters 
laid on hands together with the Bifhop : and it was not the Bi- 
fhop but his Chaplain commonly that examined and approved: 
ufually the Bifhop came forth^ and laid his hands on men that he 
never faw before, or fpoke to, but took them as he found thera 
prefcnted co him by his Chaplain : fo chat Presbyters Ordained 



as well at he j.and therefore had power to Ordain. 

SeA. 29. If it be Objedcd that they hadno povffr to Or(Ui» 
withoht a Bip.op: 1 anfwer, i. Nora B\{ho^ (]uoa4ex(rciii;<m^ 
wiihout them, according to our Laws and Cuftoms, at Icaft 
ufually. 2. Ordaining wiih a Bi/hop proveth them to beOy- 
y^/«fr/ ^ and that it is a work that beloxigcth to the order or 
office of a Presbyter: or elfe he might not do it at ail, any more 
then Deacons, or Chancellors, c^c. may. And if it be but the 
worii of a Presbyters office, it is not a Nfillitj, if Presbyters do 
it without a Prelate, if you could prove it an irregoianty. 

Se(S. 10. Argument 11. If the Ordination of the En^llfh 
PrcUtesbevalid , then much more is the Ordination of Prcf- 
bycerf, ( as in EngUnddinA other Reformed Churches is in ufe. ) 
Bux the Ordination of Englifh Prelates is valid, ("I amfureia 
the judgement of them that we difpute againft : ) therefore fo 
is the Ordination of Englifh Presbyters much more. 

Secf^. 51. The rsaibn of the Confequcnce is , bccaufe the 
Englifh Prelatcsaremoreuolike the Bifhops that were fixed by 
Apqfiolicallnllitution or Ordination, fhen the Englifh Presby- 
tersarc, as J have ftie wed at large in the former Difpucation^ 
the Scripture Bifliopswcre the finglePaflors of fingleChurcber 
perfonally guiding fhsm in the worfhip of God, and governing 
them in prefcace, and teaching them by their own mouths, vifi- 
Eia^ their ficlj, admini(tring SacrameRrs , ^r. And fuch are ' 
the Englifh Prcibyters : But fuch arc not the late Englifh Pre- 
lates that were the Governors of an hundred Churches, and did . 
not perfonally teach chem, guide them io worfhijp, govern them 
in prefencc, and deliver them the Sacraments, but we^e abfen: 
from them all favc one Congregation. Thefe were unlikcr 
to the Scripture fixed BiHiops , de&ribcd by Dr. H.H. then 
our Presbyttr^are :, therefore if they may derive, from them a 
Power of Ordmation, or from the law that inOituccd them-; 
then Presbyters may do fo much more. 

Seft. 32. Argument J 2. If the Ordination of Papifl Bi- 
fhops be valid, much more is the Oicfinicion of Englifh P; C;by- 
tersfo : but the Antecedent is true, in the .judgement of thofc 
agfinfl whom we difpute : therefore the Conlcquenc mufi be 
granted by them on that fuppofition. 
Sed. 33. Thcrcafo;iof the Confequcnce i$,bccauic the PopIiTi' 

Bifhej (} * 


Bi(bops are more unlike to theScripture Bilhops, and moreunca- 
pable of ordaining,thcn the Pi esbycers of the Reformed Churches 
are. Vnr i. The Papift Prelates profefs to receive their Power 
froEH a ViCe-chrift, at leaft quGad exercuium, & media confe- 
reuJiy which Proteftant Presbyters do not. 2. The P<ipiftBi- 
fhops profefs themfelves Paftors of a new Catholick Church , 
which is headed by the Papacy as an eflential part; and which 
Chrift will not own ( as Ibch .- ) But fo do not the Protcftanc 
Presbyters. 3 . The Papift Prelates Ordain men to the falfc Of- 
fice of turning Bread into the Body of Chrift by the way of 
Tranfubftantiation^ in their Confecration, and offering it as a 
Sacrifice for the quick and dead, and delivering this as the very 
Body of Chrift, and not Bread to the Communicants, and pcr- 
fwadingthemthaciti9fuch,and holding and carrying it to be 
Worftiipped by them with Divine Worlhip, and the like : Buc 
the Proceftant Presbyters are Ordained , and do Ordain others, 
to that true Office of a Presbyter orPaftor, or BiHiop which 
Chrift hath inftitutcd. 4. The Papift Prelates have abundance of 
falfe dodrines, and pradices in Worfliip, which the Proteftant 
Presbyters have not. 5 . And they have fio more to (hew for a 
Power of Ordination, then our Presbyters have: fo that thefe, 
with many the like confiderations, willprovc,thatifthePapifts 
Ordination be Valid, that of the Proteftant Churches by Pref- 
byters is fo much more. And doubtlefs, they that plead for a 
fucceffion from the Papift Prelates, do hold their Ordination 

Sed. 34. Argcraent 13. If the Proteftant Churches that 
have no Prelates be true Churches f in a Political fenfe, ^ and 
the Ordinances among them valid, and to be owned and received, 
then arc the Paftors of thofe Churches true Paftors, though 
they have no Ordination but by Presbyters. But the Antece- 
dent 1$ true : therefore fo is the Confequcnt. The reafon of the 
Confequcnce is clear, and granted by them that we have now to 
do wich : Becaufe the Paitorsare elTential to the Church as 
Political, and the faid Ordinances of Publike worfliip, (as the 
Lords Supper. ) and Governnaent, cannot be allowable without 
them, nor fuch as the people fliouldfubmic to or receive. This 
therefore we may take as granced. 

Sfd. 35. And for the Minor, that the Proteftant Churches 


arc true Churches thit have no Prelates, x. There are fo few of 
them that have Prelates, that he that will unchurch all the reft , 
Ifuppofe f when he piayes his game above board j would take 
it for an injury, to be accounted a Proteftant himfelf. 2. If 
the Churches of the Weft called Papifts, and the Churcbei of 
u^f-ica^ Afid.^n^ ty^mericA, be true Churches of Chrft, and 
have true adminiftrations, then (much more confidently may 
weaffirmthat) thcProteftantsare fo too. But the Antecedent 
is maintained by »hofc that wc now difpute againft, C except, 
ing the Papifts, who yet maintain it as of their own Church ) 
therefore, &c. 

Sed 3<5. Thercafon of the Confcqaence is, becaufe the Pa- 
pifts, Greekj, Armenians ^Georgians, Sjridns, i^gjptians^ AhA" 
fines^ &c. have much more to be faid againft them then we have .- 
And if the lefTer ( or fuppofcd ) imperfedion of the Proteftant 
Churches do unchurch them , ( for wanting Prelates, ) then 
the many great, and real defers of the other Churches will 
. unchurch them much more.Efpecially this holds as to the Church 
of iJowf, which yet is taken by the Diflcnters to be a true Church, 
andbyfome of them, ac leaft, denyed to be the Icatof Anti^ 
chrift. Their Vicechrift and ufurping head, and all the Mim- 
ftry that hold by him, afford us other kind of Arguments againii 
their Church, then want of Prelates can afford ibemoroihers 
igainft our Churches. 

Scd 37, And if any will deny the Antecedent fo far as to 
unchurch all the Churches in the world, that are more defeftive 
then the Proteftants,he will blot out of his Creed the Article of 
the Catholick Church, and being a Seeker or next one to .day, is 
like to be an Infidel ere I 0nll further ihew, wlenl fpeak 
of the finfulnefs of fuch. 

Sed. 38. Argument 14,. If the Adminiftrationiof a .Ufur- 
ping Presbyter to an innocent people are Valid (and not Nul- 
lities, ,) then the Ordination of an Ufurping Oidaincr to an In- 
nocentexpeAant, is Valid; ( and confcquently the Ordmntoii 
of Pre>bytcrs is Valid, if they were Ufurpers, as they are nn- 
juftlyfaid to be. J But the adminiftrations of ufurping Pref- 
i>yrcr« to an Innocent people are Valid : therelare, c^c. 

Sed. 3 9. The Antecedent is granted by BelUrmir^e himfelf 
(in the place before cited^ who faith that no more is required to 
oblige the people to obey hiro, and (ubmit, then that he be re- 

E e puted : 


.putcd aPaQor: And all muft fay fo, i.That will rot rot tlic 
innocent of the Benefit of Gods Ordinances,becaufeof'an ufu-r- 
pers fault. 2. And that will not leave the people, almoft com- 
monly, in an ucter uncertainty, whom they Should take for a Pa- 
llor and obey^and when the Ordir.aices are Valid for their good- 
Seft. 40. The Confcqucncc is made good by the Parity of 
Reafon that is in the two cafes. If ufurpatioa caufc not a Nu'l- 
iity, invalidity orunprofitablenefs in one cafe, to the innocent 
receiver, no nor make it his fin to receive, no more will it in the 
others For there is no Reafon for any fuch difference. Kay if 
it be a duty to fubmit to an unknown ufurpcr, infeveral cafes, 
in receiving the Sacraments, hearing, praying[, i^c. fo is it a 
duty in fuch cafes to receive Ordination. 

Seft.4r. Objeft. But the ufHrping Preshjiter Aoth nothiK^ 
hut yphat helongcth to the cffice of a Preibjter : hm the ufnrpng 
Ordaimr doth that which hi lengsmt 10 the office of a Preibyter- 
and therefore hii uBion is a NtilUtj^ as being extra proprium 

Sed. 42. %An[-m. I . It is proved before to belong to the of- 
fice of a Presbyter to Ordain : 2. Butfuppofc it were not; yet 
thcobjtftion isvain.- becaufe it is the office of <i^/7^o;> that the 
Ordaining Presbjter doth pretend to.and which you imagirc that 
lie doth ufurp. They fsy that fubjeA Prcibytcrs ( ^uoadordi- 
nem vel Offcium) arc no creatures of Gods appointment ; and 
iherefore they renounce that Office ; and claim that office which 
you call Epifcopacy, and hath the Power of Ordination. The 
quarrel between u? is not about meer Bifhops ffuch as Dr.H. H. 
defcribeih ?isaforefaidjThefearenotdenyed:butthePari(h Mi- 
rifters profefs themfelves fuch Bifhops; But it is about the other 
fort of Presbyters, fubjed to Biftiops, that the quarrel is : Por 
they fay, that the Church (hould have none fuch, and Dr. H. H. 
faith there is m Evidence th^t any fuch -mre inflitated in Scri- 
fture times. Now as a pretended Presbyters adrainil^ranons 
are Valid to the innocent receiver of the Sacrament , fo a pre- 
tended Bifliiops adminiftration in Ordination is as Valid to the 
innocent , dtterisj^aribus. 

Sed. 43. Argument 15. They that hdiVcth^ Ke/es of the King' 
domof Heaven^ have the power of Ordination : But Parochi- 
all Paftors called Presbyters have the Keyesof the Kingdom of 



Heaven : therefore they have the power of Oiiiination, ■ 

Se(^. 44. The Minor is granted commonly by P^pids and' 
Pfoceftants,. asto/flw? of theKeyes,butit isby manydenyed ay 
toorhcr. They fay that every Paftor hath theKcy of dodrine 
andofOrder, but nocthcKey of Jurifdidion. l)ut i.Chriflr 
gave theKcycs ofthe Kingdom of Heaven together and never 
divided them. Therefore they arc not to be divided. He did 
not give one Key to one, and another to another , but all to the 
fame men: And what God hath joyned together, let no man 
put afunder. 2. The Apoftles in delivering thefc Keycs to 
others, arc never found to have fcparated them- lor Subjeft 
VceibyiWi were not iy}ftitfited in Scripture-times: Therefore all 
that were then Ordained Presbyters had /t//;/7f Kejes to^ciher, 
and fo that offHrifdidion (" as it is called ) with the refl. 3 .That Cynrian Hp- 
Presbyters had the Key of Order, will prove that they may aS. p.<74. 
Ordain , as is aforcfaid. 4. Bf.t thai EngliOi i'^resbyters had the '^^ cicmm d: 
Key of Jfirifcii^lion is proved , i . In that they were with the Bi J/VT". «. " 
fhops to Ordain by Impofition of hands. 2. In that they were ^z,!' p/J;2;^/^'f! 
by the Book of Ordination charged coadminifler DfcipltKe : & lormlun' 
though this wasdifufed,ardthe Prelates fruQrated their power. l>)i>odi.uoii-!j 
Sed. 45.1 (hall recite thj words of Reverend VJher for the f' ^•^'-"'"'"' 
proof of this , Redudion of Epifcopacy , c^-c. [ Bj Or. J^'^^'J^^!^;!,,; 
dtr of the Church c[ England all Presbjttrs are char^cdni nonpoiui 
( in the Bo»l^ of Ordin/iticn ) to adminijlcr the DgHri^e '^'^ f^l^"»ffi- 
of Sacraments and the Difcipline ofChn/l , at the L'jrd'^'[^'" ^-"^y 
hath ccmmanitd t and at this Realm hath received the ij,"^. 7'' /'^''~ 
fame ; and that they might the he:tcr nndtrftand v^hat tke-.ibfcmes lin' . 
Lord hath commanded therein^ the exhortation of St. Paul '-^f*^ locitin 
to the Elders of tht Church of Hphcfus is appointed to^""'^'^'''^^ f''^ 
to be read ttnto them at the time of their Ordination^ ~^^^^'puti- '7 ■- 
heed unto your fclves and to all the flock,among whom the Kttfmuio^' 
Holy Ghoft hath made you Overfeers,jto Rule iheCongre- >>i»it-i\ulAMt 
gationof God which he hath purchafed with his blood. ■^''^' '^^ ^'^»-i--- 
Of tlerraij Elders ivho thns in comnJon ruled the Church of /^■^^!'^'''' 
EphcfuSr-, there jvas one Prefidtnt, whom our Savionr in his tm'um cum 

. coUcz^:%>n:is 

fed & cnm plebe ipfa uuicrfa : How big was ihc Droccfs then , aiui how much the liiihc' 
ruled alotic,itiay be hence coiijcduicd'; and whcthc Picsbytcishad my haiul Iniulin::^. 
Why doth h,fi,inn! and Tntitlltim coinmind tlieni to be fubjcCltoc'ic.Picsbyt'crs .is to c k: ' 
Apofllcs-of QiiiO^j if tilt y had not the Kc y of Govcrniuem ? 

Ee 2 ^p'JJt 

Efftlc unto this Church in a peculidr manner fiiUth the 
Angd of the Church of Ephefus. jiyt^ Ignarius i» another 
£pij}le vfrittcn about twelve years after unto the fameChureh^ 
calleth the Bijhop thereof. Bctrvixt the Bi/hopand the ^ref- 
hterie of t hut Churchy what an harmonious confent there 
was in the trdermg of the Church ijovernment , the fame 
Igna , i'rii doth fully there declare^ hy the "T* reshytcrie with St. 
Paui , Hndcrfianding the Community of the refi of the Treshy- 
ters or Elders who thtn had a hand not only tn the deliver j of 
the DoUrine and^acramentsbut alfo ii the Admini ^ration of 
the Difcipiine of Chrifi ." For further proof of which ttv have 
that k^own Tefiimony o/Tcrtullian in hUGenerAl Apology for 
Chrifiians: In the Church arcufed (xhortatiens ^thaftife- 
ments and divine cenfure , for judgement is given with gre^t 
advice as among thofe who are certain they are in the fight of 
God-^ and it is the chiefefi forejhewing of the fudgtment 
rrhih is to come , if any man have jo offended that he be ha* 
riJJjed from the Community of Prayer , and ef the e^jfem' 
yiy , and of all holy fellowfhip. The Preftdents that bear 
rule therein are certain approved Elders^ who have obtained 
this honour not by Reward, but by good report , who were no 
ether ( as he himfelf intimates ) elfewhere, but thofe from 
yfhofe hands they ufed to receive the Sacrament of the Eucha' 

For with the Bijhop who was the chief Prefident^ ( and 
therefore Jiiled by the fame TenaWhn in another place, ium- 
mus Sacerdos for difiinEliort fake ) the reji of the difpenfers 
of the Word and Sacraments joy ned in the common Govern' 
ment of the Church ^ and therefore where in matters of Ec^' 
clefiaficdl judicature, Cornelius Bijbop of Rome ufed the 
recieved form of gathering together the Presbyterie^ of^hat 
ferfons that didconfifl, Cy priin fufficiently declareth^ when he 
wtjheth him to read his Letters to the flouri/hing Clergy which 
there did prefide or rule with him. The prefence of the Clergy 
being thought f» requiftte in matters efEpifcopal audience jhat 
in the fourth Council of Carthage it yvas concluded , That 
the Bifbep might hear no mans cattfe without the pre fence of 
the Clergy ; and that othermfe the Bijhops feutence fl?o$Ud bt 
vtidy unlefsit were confirmed by the prefente of the Clergji 


vfhich TKffmdMffo to he tnfirt eel into the Catttnj o/Egbcft, 'mho 
WM tArcbbipiof of Y ork in the Saxon timts^ and afterwardj 
into the hdj of the Canon- Law it jelf. 

True it is that in eur C hnrch this hndiif Preshytertat Ge^ 
vo^nntent hath been loner difu fed, jet feeinfit fiitlproff^tth 
that tverjPafler hath a right to rule the Chtirch^fram whence 
the name ofRctloralfo was given at firfi unto him ) ardte 
admintjier the Difafltne •/ Chrifi , as veil as to difpence 
tht DotJrine andSacramentr^ and the refiraint of theexer- 
cife of that right proceedeth only from the cttflom nov re- 
ceived in this Realm ; no man can doubt hut hj another 
Law of the Land , thU Wmderance may be well rimovcd \ 
Se(5t.46.And indeed the ftrcam of Antiquky,and the Authors 
that are principally refUd on for Epifcopacy , are full againft 
them that deny the Government of the people to the Presbyters; 
And it M the principal raifchief of the Englifli Prelacy , thus to 
degy-ade ( or quoad txercitium to fufpend at Icaft ) all the Pref- 
byters from their office : Not as it is a denying them any part of 
their honour ( thats not to be much regarded i ) but as it ii a 
difcharging them of their work and burden, and confequently 
leaving the Churches ungoverned. And for the Govcrnmenc 
of Presbyters thcmfclves, in Cyprians dayes the BiOiop did not, 
could not, Ordain, or cenfure any Presbyter without his Cler- 
gy , and Councils have decreed that fo it fhould be. Yea and the 
plebs univerfa alfo was confulted with by Cyprian. 

SeA. 47. And now Icometo theMajorofmy Arrgumcnt 
which 1 prove thus. Either Ordination is an aA of the exercife 
of the power of the Keyes , or of forae other power.* But of 
no other power : therefore of the Keyes. If it be the exercife 
of any other power, it is either of a fecular power, or an Eccle- 
fiaftick : but neither of thefe, therefore of no other. Not of 
another Ecclefiaftick power : for there is no Ecciefiaftical pow- 
er, { at leaft which Ordination can be pretended to belong to) 
but [he power of the Keyes j not of a fecular power; for that bc- 
lorgeth not to Minilleri, nor is it here pretended. 

Scd. 48. And I think it will appear thatthe power of Bap- 
tizing, and judging who (hall be taken forChriftians,and who 
not, and the power of adminiRring the Eucharift and Eucht- 
rifticaladioniintbeChnrch.isas great at this of Origination, 

Ee 3 efpccially 


efpedally fuppofing that a Presbyterie muft concur in this, and 
a fingle Pesbyter may do the other. And therefore the one 
being granted them, the other cannot be dcnyed. 

Seft. 49. Argument 16. Iflheadminidrations ofthePriefts 
and Teachers in Chriftsdaycs among the Jews was Valid to 
the people, then the Ordination of our Presbyteries,and the ad- 
miniftrations of our Presbyters fo ordained are Valid to the peo- 
ple and receivers now : But the Antecedent is tiue : therefore 
(0 is the Confcquent. This Argument is managed fo frequently 
and copioufly by our Miniften heretofore againft the Scparatifts,, 
that I (hall need to fay but little of it. 

Se(^.,5o. The Antecedent is proved eafily from Scripture. 
A6lj I J. 27. & I S . 2 1 . (hew that Mofes and the Prophets were 
read in theSynagoguei every Sabbath day ,tndZ«;^e i6.29.(he\* 5 
that it was the peoples duty to hear them , Mat. 23. 1,2, ?. 
Then fp^ke Jtfus to the Adnltitftde and to his Di'fciples,fayi/j^,The 
Scrihesand tte Pharifes fit in Mofes ft at : all therefore what- 
foeverthey bidyQU-chfcrve^that obferve and do : but de not je after 
their workj : for they fay and do not. ] Mat. 8. 4. Mark i . 44. 
Luke 1 6. 29. But go thy way , jherv thy felf to the Pyiejl^and of' 
fer for thy cleanfmg thofe things which Moks commanded^ &c. 
So that it was the peoples duty to hear,and fubrait to the Teach- 
ers and the Priefts. 

SeA. 51. The reafon of the Confcquence ii, becaufe thefe 
Pricfts and Teachers had not fo good a Call as our Presbyters, 
to their Office, but were lyableto far more exceptions. The 
Priefts were not of the line that God had by his Law appointed 
to fucceed in the Priellhood : the fucccfiion had long failed, as 
COthejaft title of the SuccclTors. The Priefthood was bought 
for money of the Civil Powers .-and inftead of being the Pricft 
for life, he was oft changed every year : chofcn by a Pagan 
Prince, and by hiradifplaced : and moft think there were two at 
ence. The Scribes and Pharifes had abominably corrupted the 
Law by their traditions and falfe expofitions • and their Calling 
was much more dcfe(Sive then our$:fo that if they muft pals 
yet forMinifters of God, and their adminiftrations be valid, 
then fo moft Prcsbyter$ and their adminiftrations be efteemcd 
much more. I know we ncad not this odious eomparifon cf 
o jr Mjiniftry with the Priefts or Pharifes, but to Ihew the adver- 
V ^ faries 

faricstheodioufnefs of their accttfations, and grofsncfsof thcic 

Sed. 52. Argument 17. If Presbyters may make a Biftiop, 
then they may make a Presbyter. But they may make a Bilhop : 
therefore they may make ( or ordain ) a Presbyter. The Con- 
fequence of the Major ii proved thus, i . They that may confer 
the higher Degreei may confer the lower : the place of a Bifiiop 
is fuppofed the higher Decree, and the place of a Presbyter the 
lower. 2. The Bifhops themfclves rciquire more power in or 
tothc Confecrationof a Bifliop, then to the Ordination of a 
Minifter, called a Presbyter. The later may be done, according 
to their Canons, by one Bifhop ( with affifting Presbyters, J 
but the former rauft have three Bifliops at the leaft. 

Se<S. 53. To this it is commonly anfwered, that Pracife the 
Ordination of a Presbyt«r, is a greater work then the making of 
a Bifhop; and therefore the Major is denyed. To which I re- 
ply. I. I fpeak not of a Greater work • becaufe the viot&greAter 
IS ambiguous, andmayfignihcthc greater change in regard of 
thzTerminMta^uo, whichisnot it that I intend. But the addi- 
tion of an higher degree of power, may require more power to 
theeffeding it, then the giving of the Lower degree, though 
the lower be pracife the greater change : for the higher is the , 
greater change as to the termintts ad ejaem-j and as Epifcopacy 
comprchcndech or fuppofeth Presbyterie,ro the power of naaking 
aBifhopcoraprchendethor fuppofeth the power of Ordaining 
Presbyter*. 1 1 may be pr^cife^ for cum practfione, as the School- 
men (peak ) it may be a greater work to make a beggar to be 
the chief Prince next to the King in a Kingdom .-and ^tt fine 
fr^ifttne and in regard of the terminns nd quern it is a greater 
work Co make blm afterward a King ; and doubtlefs the additi- 
on of this Power reqaireth the Greater power to effed it. 

Seft. 54. Other wife , if the DifTcnters will fland to their 
anfwcr, we (hall from their own grounds infallibly overthrow 
their caufc thus. 1 1 is a greater work to B aptize then to Ordain 
or Confirm; therefore he that may Bapti2.e, may Ordain and 
Confirm. Juitas making a Presbyter ii sum prtecifmnt ^ and in 
refpcd to the terming 4 ^*o, a greater work t^en Confecrating 
or making a B'Qiop -, fo Baptizing is cttm prxcijl^ne and in re- 
fped t J the t')^/n*Mm a <fHo, a far greater woric f^&iA 'Ordiaation ; 


tht one raaklng a Chriftian, and the other a Miniier of a Oiri- 
ftian. See A^ail. in Seoul, in^.fent, d,j, f .2. fag. 8 16. of Con- 

Seft. 5 5 . It is only the Minor therefore that will hold difpote, 

which I prove from the well known words of Hierom to Evu- 

grins ( which Bifhop VJher told me he alleadged to King Charh 

AtihcJfleoi fVfght to th'ii end J when he was asked by him for 

an tnftance of presbyters Ordaining) [^QuoeldtMtem fofle4 unus 

tltHus eft , qui f£teris praponeretMr, in fchifnmtis remedinm 

fAUfunefl^ ne Hnufquiffjue Ad fe trahens Chrifi EccleftAm rum' 

peret. Nam & Altxandriit a Mar£o Bvungtlifia Hfqt$e ad HtrS' 

cUm & DienjftHm^ Epifcopos, 'Presbjteri femptr nnum ex fe 

tle^MWj in excel/ten gradn coUocatHm, EpifcapHtn nomindbAnti 

qmmodo fi txercitHs Jmperatorem facidt : ant I>iac*ni eligant de 

fe , qnem induftrium mverint , C^ ty^rckidiaconnm vocent. ] 

Presbyters then made the fir ft BiOiops at Alexandria. 

Sed. 56. Tothisit isanfwered, thatitwai only EleHion of 
Bijheps that Hierom afcrtbeth to the Alexandrian Presbyters^ and 
mt Ordination of them ^ for that ^as done hj fome ether Bijhops : 
And that it u Ordination that makes a man aBiJhop. 

ScA. 57. To this I reply : i. //#>»» here undertakes to tell 
us, how Btfhops were made at Alexandria j but raaktth not the 
leaft mention of other Ordination or Confecration, then thefe 
words cxprefs as done by the Presbyters ; And therefore till they 
prove it, we muft take the affirnpiation of another Ordination to 
be but the groandlefs prcfumption of the AfTcrtors. z. Hierom 
doth parpofely bring this as an argument, to prove the identity 
fird, and the neernefs afterward, of Bifhops and PresbytcrSj, 
that [ Presbyters made Btjhops s ] which would have been no 
argument, if it was not Presbyters but Prelates that made them, 
and if the Presbyters only chofe them; for, 3. The people 
csaychoofeaBifhop, as well as the l^resbyters, and ordinarily 
did it % and yet this provetb not that the people were necr the 
IBiihop in degree ; that which the people themfclves may do» 
and frequently did, is not the only thing t^at Hierom here a- 
fcribcth CO the Presbyters : butfucb/s theBledion of a Biihop : 
(dicrcfore, €^e» 4. [e it the Original or firii inaking of Pre- 
fltSf{ftt>jUe4^Wri4thaiHA^££»h€re(peakiof; which he (hews 
paf &i»a 1^ ^csi^c^i tQskm, Thli sppcircKh plainly in his 
"" """^"" "■' ~ .► -• word* 


words ( chough feme can make the plained viords tofigni/Ie 
what they would have them^ For i. He begins with a [_Pres- 
bjttris, idfji £pifcop s,2 ^^^ -• proceedcth from many I'tri- '^^^^V*'^ 
pcure pafTages, to prove them in fcripcure times the fame : and maintain due 
that not only -7«t/<«:^ «5Wf«, but officiant i for 3. When he bad H m^;7,i- o-ii- 
don? with theTcftirroniesof Samr ^o/;« in his two Epiftle?, he^^^^nivas 
immediately addeth [_ Jl/nod Autem po/fea hius tldlns eft^ qni ^"'^ced ihc 
ceteris pr^pontretftr &c. ~| where note, both that f ftHfts <7«tf J'^u^^S • 
extern pr^poneretur] is more then the bare name ; and alio that andfrcquaic 
Q Pojfca] referrethto the dace of fchns Epiftlef, and therefore expicfliom 
he plainly averrcth, that it was alccr 'fohns Epiftles, that [okh ^cavciritto 
was chofen to be before the reft. '] $. And to the Anfwer I further jju^^^f ^1^', 
reply, that here is all that wai done, and all that was needfull tKac pretend 
to be done, afcribcd to the Presbyters : For i. They eleded tiiccontiary. 
one. 2. They did in exce!(ion gradfi e/eflunt coUocare , place ^e^ior Bue- 
hira in an higher degree, and 3. E pi fcopHmnominabant -.they J'^^J. j ( r^-^'?[*^ 
named him the Bidiop f by way of excellency. ^ And if Elcdi- fsc«. 
on and placing him in the Degree, and giving him peculiarly the Hijlor.i.y.fu!. 
name, be not Ordination, then Ordination is but fome Ceremo- niJ-^-y that 

r L_r_ :_ -U - /-..LO ^ » J r»- n A/ltp IJ ill/i^i- 

ny ; for thefe contain the fubOance. 6. And Hierom cxprefly ^^^'^'•'/^'?^7 
refembleth this adion of the Presbyters to an Armies making an fr^TlxMo- 
Emperour or General i at if he had faid, As the Army mdika ,uicins & cui- 

— I J -^ •- — — — > .---..- «..•>•. J •••>...>,• />«ii.>/fj ^- t,<^- 

an Emperour ( JmperAtortm faci^t ) fo Presbyters made the <^'f^^ P'n:ipcci 
Bifhop : but the Army fo made the Emperour, that they left ^"'"^^^^^^i- 
it nor to another power to make him (and to them only.) So tfj°/Q,^j°P . 
that it is both [[Making aBftiop] that is here afcribed to the them bucPres- 
Presbyters, and \ fach a making'] as leavcthhim not unmade, ^y^ers. 
to the making of another. 7. And he refembleth it to the making ^^^b.iUm 
of an Arch-deacon, fuppofing that the Deacons do i. Eled. e^'f'^^C^^if' 
2. Judge of the perfon {<]ucm induflriHm noverint.) 3. Aud bcbantlintct^''^ 
give him the name ( f>~ Archi^diaconHmvocent. ) 8. And he .^mi/wo, £- 
affirroeth this to be ( femptr ) the conliint cuftom of the Ales- P'f^ofoi ncMi- 
andrian Presbyters, till the daycs of HeracUs and Dionjfius : f/lj^'T^^ '''''" 
intimating that then the cuUom changed : but what cullora was JifimotuHtm 
then changed ? Not the ElcAion of a Bifhop by the Presbyters, juDhgia eU- 
( with the people) for that continued long after : and therefore iioi^prom Afi- 
it muft be the Confiittiti'iM^ which afterward was done by Neigh- ''j:'^>'"'" ^"ore 
hour Bidiops in Co»/fc/-^f/o«, but till then by the Eltiiion, Co/- j^'^'.^'/Jj^j^'''" 
hatiffn, ttn J nominal io»oi iheprcjbyicrs of that City-Church. 1)mu, 

Ff 9- Havirg 

9. Having fhewed thus, that Cilhops and Presbyters were the 
fimc, and in the beginning called them by the fame name,he af- 
firms that [_Omnes Apoflolorum Jhccejforej funt~] that is, AIL 
fhefe Bijhops. lo. And he plainly afferras that the difference is 
made hj Riches a»d Poverty : He is the greater that ii the richer^ 
and he is the inferiot/r that is the poorer. [Pctentiadivitiarum (^ 
pauper tatis hhrifilitas, velfpihlimiorem, v el inferior em Bpifcephnt^ 
facit.~\ Let any impartial Reader pcrufe the EpillJe ic fdf, and 
confide- of theferen paffages, and then believe if he can, either, 
char Hieromd'id imply that other Bifhops made thefe Alexandri- 
an Bi(bops,and not the Presbyters, or that thefe Presbyters 
altered but the name, and gave not the Bifhop his new degree^ 
or that this was not a thing that wa* now de novo in remedium^ 
fchifm/ttis contrived or performed by them. There is evidence 
enough againfl thefe conceits. 

Sed. 58. And farther, for them that think it was but the. 
name that was now changed, I would ask them ihtfe few Qucfli-. 
ons, ( fuppofing them to be of their mind, that. tell us that In-. 
feriour Presbyters were not inftituted in Scripture times, and 
that it was only Prelates that are called Didiops and Presbyters in 
Scripture. ) i. Isitnotflrahge,that when after Scripture- times, 
a New Office was made, it (houldnot have a iiew Name alfo j 
but fhould have the fame name with the old fuperiour office ? 
2, And is it not Orange that both names of the fuperior Office, 
( Biihopard Presbyter J fhould be commonly given to the new 
inferior Office, at the firf^ ? 3. And ftrange that, the Church 
muft afterward be put to change the names, and retrench or 
recall the name of a Bifhop from ihs new fort of Presbyters,and 
confine it to the old, leaving (as old,/ the name of a Presbyter 
to the new inferior Orfice. 4. And if in Scripture-times (, ia 
the dayes when John v^voiq his Epilile? and Revelation ) the 
names of Bifliop and Pretbyttrweie both appropriated to Pre,, 
iares, there beinq no Inferiour Presbyters then infliru:ed ; and 
yet from J/^ri^ the EvangeliO, the Alexandrian Presbyters 
brougb: back the nam J of a Bifhop to rhe Prelates, retaining the 
name Preshjter themfelves, ^PiAro How long time was there, 
after the Jnfiitution of JaferiuHr Presbyters , till the rtgnlating of 
their names, from the dayes of Msirk ? About thirty touf year^ 
backward. Ma^k^ dyed in thf eighth year of Nero, and the 



Preibytcrs made >^^w»«jBifliop after his death, whocontiflu-' 
ed twenty two years, even from the eighth of Nero^ to the fourth 
of Domitian, as EHfcjf»s in HiJior.Ecc/efJ.z.cap.Zi. &li[>.i. 
cap. 12. CT- in Chronic. & Catalog. &■ ex Hits Ufher 
Anaal.Vol.i. ad an. Dom.6j . fag 6j-j . And Hf/z/<V«j and others 
are necr the fame time. And laith Helvicus^ fokn -wrote the 
Revelations about the fourteenth 5 ear of DomitiaM, and wrote 
his Gofpelaboiitthefirftyear of his SuccelTor Nerva. So that 
Aiark^ dyed about thirty fix years ( or thirty four at leaft ) be- ,:pj 
fore fohn wrocc his Gofpe! j fo that here you have your choice, 
whether you will believe, that fubjeft Pre»byters did regulate 
the names of themfelves and Bifhops, and did cled ('or make) 
Bifhops thirty fix years before they were inftituted themfelves ^ 
or whether you will believe- that '^et at the death 0^ Mark^ 
there were no inferior Presbyters at Alexandria^ and fo no fupe- 
rior Bifhops, for all this that Hierom doth report. 

Sedt. 59 As for the EpfcopAl Divines that difTent from the 
Principle of the foreciied Lear, ed Author ( who laith that there 
is no evidence tl^at asy V; the fcco. d fore of Presbyters were 
inftituted in Scripture times ^ I need not deal with them in this 
Difputation : for all of them that ever I yet met with, do grant 
the validity of Presbyters Ordination, ard the truth of the Re- 
formed Churches iuid th<;ir MiniGry, aud Ordinances : otherwife 
it were ealie enough to vindicate all thefc from them alfo, if they 

Sed.6o. Argument 18. Ad heminfm. If the late Englifli 
Prelates had a lawful calitoclieir Prelacy, iten much more have 
Minifters Ordained by Pi esbyrcrs a lawfull call to their Minillry. 
But the Prelates fay that'thcy liad a lawfull Call to their Prelacy: 
there;ure, &c. Thereafon ofthcConetjuence (which only will 
beden^ed^ is, 1. Bccaufe the Presbyters arc Ordained to an 
Office that is <>f Chrifls Inftitution -, but the P: 'lares are Confe- 
craredtoanOfficcthatisnotof C hrifis InfliiUtion, but againft '' 
it, andagamfl thelighcof Natuiw ( n taku g on theni the im- 
pofllble Governn^ent of an h-ndred or many hundred 
Churches) as was fhewed in the .<n mcr Du'ouration. 2. Bc- 
caufethe Prelates hold an uninte riipced Sucteili'^n of Legiti- 
mate Ordination nccefTury co the Icing of their Prcl?.':ie ( I 
mean, fuchasnow wcdiipurci«gain{>, hold this J but fo do not 

f t 2 the 


the presbyters. The faiddifTcnting Prelates arc ftill upon their 

Nimo dat qmd non haht ^ which therefore we may urge upon 

them. And i. They cannot prove an uninterrupted Succefsion 

themfelves, on whom it is incumbent, according to their prin- 

ciples , if thcv will prove their Call. 2. We can prove that they 

are the fuccelTors of fuch as claimed all their Power from the 

Koman Vicechrift, and profefled to receive it from him,and hoLd 

it of hira as the Catbolick Head , and fo that their Ordination 

comes from a feat that hath had many interruptions , and fo 

had no power of Ordination, by their Rule ; For when the 

.fucceffion was fo oft and long interrupted, Nemo ddt quod non 

hdhet'. and therefore all that followed muft be ufurpers and no 

Popes: and thofc that received their Offices from them muft be no 

Officers: But the Presbyters that Ordain will give a better proof 

©f I heir Call then this. 

Sed.6i . Argument i p.Where the Office is of Gods Tnftituti- 
on, and the perfons are endued with Minifterial abilitities,and are 
Orderly and duly dcfigned and fepar^ted to the Office of the fa- 
credMiniftry, there aretrue Minifters.and Valid sdminiftrations. 
But all thefe are found in the Reformed Churches that have Or- 
dination without Prelates: therefore, ^r. The Major is unde- 
nyable, as containing a fufficient enumeration of all things necef- 
fary to the Bang of the Miniftry. 

€eft. 62. The Minor is proved by parts. 1 . That the Office of a 
freshyter is (Jf divine inftitution,is confcflcd by moft : And I fup- 
pofe thofe that deny it to be of Scripture inf]i:otion,will ye: have 
it to be Divin^^:Bat if they deny that, yet it fufficeth us, that it is 
the fame officer that they call a Biftiop, and we a Presbyter ; that 
is, the chief Pafto^ ofa particular Church. 

Sedt. 63.2. Abd that the perfons arc duly tr comptcnlj ^ua- 
lifieh for the Miniftry,nothingbut Ignorance, Fadionand Ma- 
life, 4!hat ever I heard of, do deny. (Suppofing the humane 
frailties, that make us all infufficient gradually for thefe things) 
The Ignorant that know not what the Minifterial qualification! 
are, do judge as carnal intereft leadeth them. The Fadious rail 
at all that be not of their mind. Grottus thought the opinions 
of theCalvinifts made them unfit materials for the Catholick 
Edifice that by his Pacification he was about to frame. Sodo 
moft other Seds, rejeft thofc as unworthy that fuit not with 


(ZZI ) 

their minds. Aod malice ( whether tn mated by Hercfie, Pfc- 
phancfs or Carnal intercft ) will Cufiiy find faults, and unweari- 
edly flanderand reproach : But bcfidcsfuch 1 meet with none 
that dare deny the competent abilities of thefe Miniflcrs 

Sed. 64. Ar4 3. That theperfons arc Orciirlj AKdduljft-pa- 
rated to the work^ of the A'finiftrj is thus proved, VVhcre there is 
a reparation to theMinilUy by mutual Co^fcut of :he perfo» and 
the flocks y and by the Magijirates authority^ and by the Apfro-' 
batisn and Invefiiture of the fitteji EcclcfiajiicMl tffcerf that are 
to be had, there i« an orderly and due reparation to the Miniftry ^ 
But all this is to be found in the Ordination ufed in EnaUnd 
and other Reformed Churches , without Prelates : therefore 
&c. This proves not only the Validity of their Ordination,buc 
the full Regularity. 

Sc^. 6 <^. God him felf (as hath been fhcwed J doth by his 
Law appoint theO/^crof the Mmidry, impofinp the duty up- 
on th<: per fon that Ihall be called, and giving him his powcr^ by 
that Law, And then there is nothing to be done, but to deter- 
termineef the per fonihit is 10 r€cci)fc this power and foiemnly 
to put him in Pcjfe/pon by Invefiiture. Now the principal part otf 
the former work is done alfo by God himfelf: by his Qualifying 
the perfon with his eminent Gifts , and giving him oppor- 
tunities and advantages for the Work. So that the people and 
Odainers have no more to do, but to find out the man that God 
hith thus qualified, andtoclcd, approve and invert him ; and 
ufualiy heiseafily found out, as a candle in the nighr. So that 
the two great ads by which God maketh Minirtcrs , is his Irj- 
ftituting Law that makes the office, and his Spiritual and Natu- 
ral! Endowments given to the perfon ; which the Church i$ but 
to find out, and call into ufe and exercife. And therefore we 
may ftijl cruly fay, that the Holy Ghoft mskethPaftors or 
Overfeers of the Cburch,as weil as formerly he did [ ylcl. zo.zZ) 
becaufchegivcth theno their Gifts, though not fuch Miraculous 
Gifts as fome then hid ^ By his common Gifts of Knowledge 
and Utterance, andhisfpecial Giftsof Grace, it isthe fpirit that 
Rill makes Minifters,and ftiil Chrift giveth Pallors to the Church. 
Sed. 66. It is therefore to be notcdthat,£/»^.4.6,7,8,i i.the 
way of Chxx^^ giving cj^c^r^ to his Church is faid to be by {gi- 
ving Gifts tom(n~\ and the diverfitv of O^ce; is founded in ihc 

^il di- 


divert ty of the Meafure of Grace ^ Cor thefe Gifts) [ To 
every cne ofmisgivfn Grace accor^ini to the mettfure ofthe^ift of 
(^hrift. Therefore he faith^ ^fccnding on high he led c^privitj 

caltive.and gave Gifts to men ( I^mih J'cy^Tx ) And he gave 

fame Apofiles^fome Prophets , fotne Evange/ijts^and feme Paflors 
and Teachers ~\ So X.h2il giving G'tfts,9.n(i giving Apofiles, Pro- 
phets, &c. areliere rfiade the fame work of God : Not chat 
the Trial and Approbation of thefcg.fts is hereby made unnecef- 
fary, but that this is Gods principal ad by which he giveih Pa- 
llors and Teachers to the Church, and by which the Officers 
aredilUngiiifhed. For the Church is to difcern and fubmit to 
thofc that are thus gifced i and lo follow the Spirit, and not 
cither contra'^'ifl or had him. When God hath ihm gifted men, 
the main work is done, for making them Minifters (itwithallhe 
'give tbcm opportunities and advantages for the work ) and it is 
the Churches Daty to Own and Approve thefe Gifts of God, and 
to do their parts to introduce the perfon : And if the Ordainers 
rcfufe this, in cafe ofNeceJJlty^ the gifted perfon is bound to im- 
prove his Gifts without them. I fay [ in cafe of Neceffnj ] ufing 
the befl Order that is left. 

Sc(3. 67. This being premifcd , I come to the Argument 
(§.64.) And the Major is undenyable, becaufe there arc all 
things enumerated , that arcNeccflfary to the determination 
of the perfon qualified, that is to receive the power fromChrift, 
Sed. 68. And the Minor I prove by parts, i. That our Mi- 
niftry have ufually the peoples confcnt, is a known cafe chac 
needs no proof * 2. So is it that they have the Magiftrates allow- 
ance , and his Authority appointing Approvers for their In- 
iroduftion , and allowing Ordination and commanding Minifte- 
rial Works. 

Sed. 69. And doubtlefs the Magiftratehimfelf bath fo much 
Authority in Ecclefiaftical affairs, that if he conwriand a qualified 
perfon to preach theGofpel, and command the people to re- 
ceivchim, I fee not how either of them can be allowed to difo- 
bcy him : ( Though yet the parcy ought alfo to have recourfc 
to Favors for Ordination, and people for confenr,u'here it may 
be done. J And G'r^)//;// command eth the faying ly Mttfcttlus ^ 
that wouM have no Miniftcr quellion his Call , th;t qua- 
lified, hath the Chriftian Magiltrates CommiffioB. Aid though 




this affcrtion need fome limitations, yet it is apparent that Ma- 
j^irtrate? power is great about tlic Offices of the Church. For 

Sobmon put out Akathar from the PriellhQod,and put Zadtckjin 
hisj)l3cc, I Kings 2. 27, 35. D^vid and the Caprains of the 
hofl feparatcd to Gods fervicc thofe of the fons oi Afuphm^ 
of HemAn 3ir\(JiOifcdnihntt wholhould Prophefic wichHarps.eri^. 
1 ^Joron 16.4. Avidio did Solomon^ zChron.S. i^, 1$. They 
werefor thefcrviceof thehoufeof God,according to the Kings 
Order, i C/;ro«. 2 5. 1,6. And methinks thofe men fhould acknow- 
ledge this, that were wont to ftilc the King [_Iti all cAufes^ and 
over allpfrfofts the fitpr earn He Ad and Governottr. ] 

Sed. 70 But 3. We have moreover in the Ordination of the 
Reformed Churches, The approbation and fAemn In'veflittirc- of 
thefittefi EccUfiaJlical Officer j that arc to be had. And no more 
i& requifice to an oxderly Admiflion. There bt?ing nothing for 
man to do, but to determine of the qualified perfon.and prefcnc 
him to God to receive the pow^r and obligation from his Law ; 
it is eaficto difcern^ihat where all thefc concur ( the Peoples 
Eledion or Con fen t, the Maqillrates Authority , the determi- 
nation offitEcciefiallical Officers, and the qualification and 
confent of dhc perfon himfsif , ) there needs no more to the 
defignation of the man. Nor hath God tyed rhe elTence of the 
Church or Miniftry , to a certain formality, or 10 the inrereft 
or Will of Prelates • nor can any move ad crdi/iem he required, 
but that a qualified perfon do enter, by the beft and moll Order- 
ly way that is open to him in thofe times and p'aces where he 
is. And that wc have the fictcft. Approvers auj Ordainers^l 

SeA. 7 I . If the moft of the Proteftanc Churche? have no othcsi 
Ecciefiallical Officers to Ordain but Presbyter?, then is ic the 
moft fit and orderly way to enter into the Mitiirtry in thofe 
Churches by their Ordination, and thofe Presbyters are the fit- 
ted tiiat are there to Ordain. Butihc Antecedent ii a known, 
truth. If any in dcnyal. of the Confequcncc fay, that the- 
Churches rtiould ra:hcr be witliouc Mii-'iilKTs ihen have Ordma^ 
tion bvfuch , they are confuted by what i; f.iid before. 

Scd.72. Andif yo:i fdy, that they fliould have Bidiops^ 
«nd it is their own fault that they have not; I 3nfwef,Suppofi: 
cba;wcr<; a granted cru[h,itcanrcach.buuo fome tliathave ^he. 


Rule; it Is not the fault of every Ccngregation, or cxpc(?l*inc of 
the Minillry : It is not in their power to alter Laws and forms of 
Government: and therefore tley are bound to enter by the litteft 
way that i? open to them. 

Sed. 73. Moreover, even in E?tgla}ia\ the Presbyteries arc 
fitter for Ordination then the prefcnc Bifhops : ( as to the Nati- 
on in genera I) therefore the Ordination by Presbyteries is done by 
the fitteft Ecclefiaftical officeis,and is the moft regular and defirc- 
ablc Ordination, 

Scd. 74. I prove the Antecedent by comparing the Ordina- 
tion of the Presbyteries and the prcfcnt Prelates, i . I have 
before (hewed that the Englifli Prelacy is Kore unlike the 
Primitive Epifcopacy, then our Parochial Presbytery or Epif- 
copacy is ; and therefore hath lefs reafon to appropriate 
to themfelves the Power of Ordaining. 2, The Ordaining 
Presbyters are Many, and known perfons •, and the Prelates 
few, and to the moft (and except three or four.t o almoft allthac 
I am acquainted with) unknown, 3. The Presbyters Ordain 
Openly where all may be fatisfied of the impartiality and Order 
of their proceeding? : But the Prelates Ordain in Privatc,where 
the fame fa tisfa ft ion is not given to the Church. 4. Hereupon 
^ iseafieforany vagrant to counterfeit the Prelates fecret Or- 
ders, and fay he was Ordained by them, when it is no fuch mat- 
ter ; and who can difprove him ? But the publick Ordination of 
Probyters is not fo eafily pretended by fuch as have it not, and 
the pretence is eafi I ydifcovered. 5.The Prelates for ought I hear, 
are very few, and therefore few can have accefsto them for Ord - 
nation: But Presbyteries are in moft countreycs.6.Tbe Prelatcs,as 
far as I can learn. Ordain Minifters without the peoples confenc 
over k». horn they are placcd,and without giving them any notice 
of it beforehand, that they may put in their exceptions if they 
diffrnt.- But the Presbyters ordinarily require the confent of the 
people^ or at leaft will hear the reafons of their diffent. 7. The 
Presbyteries Ordain with the Magiftraies allowance, and the 
Prelates without and againft them. Thofc therefore that are 
Ordained b\ Prelates ufually, ftand on that foundation alone, 
and want the confent of People and Magiftrates; when thofe 
that are Ordained by Presbyteries have all. 8, Ordination by 
Prelates is now pleaded for on Srtifmatical grounds, and in fub- 


mitting toit,with many of tlKm,wemuft feem to confenf to their 
Principles ^ that all other Ordination is Null, and the Churches 
are no true Churches that arc withiut ic. ) But Presbyteries Or- 
dain not on fuch dividing terms. 9. We hear not ofreer To much 
care in the Prelates Ordinationsinthefe or former times, as the 
Presbyteries ; I could give fome inflances even of lare of the 
great difference, which I will not offend them with exprcHing. 

10. Mofl of them that we hear of, Ordain out of their own 
DiocefTc?, which is againll the ancient Canons of the Church. 

11. Some of them by their Dodrincs and their Nullifying all 
the Reformed Churclics and Miniftry that have no Prelates do 
{licw us that if they had their will, they would yet make more 
lamentable deftrudive work in the Church then ihe hotteft per- 
fccutorsoftheir late predecefTors did. For it is plain that they 
would have alKtheMiniflers difowned or caft ou:,that are nc t for 
the Prelacy. And whar a cafe then would this land fand others) 
be in ?( Ofwhich more anon.)So that we have reafon to fear that 
t hefe are deflroyers , and not faithful Paftors. I fpeak not ofall 
but only of the guilty : Tor again I fay, we very much Reverence 
fuch Learned, Worthy men ss bifhop Morton, Bifhop Brotvn- 
rigg, and fomcothers yet furvivingarc. 12. The Ordination 
by Prelates, as things now ftand, endangereih mens liberty in 
the exercifc of the Minillry,by fome things in the Manner which 

I fliali not mention. Review the refl that I faid before in Cap. 
5. and 6. and then judge, Whether he that in thefc dayes is Or- 
dained by a Learned Grave Pre^bytery f and perhaps where a 
City Pai^or is Moderator or Prefidenr,and many of che Ordain- 
ers arc the fixed Prefidents or Bifhops of a Parochial Church, 
having a Presbytery where they prefide, ) I fay, Whether fuch 
be not feparatedto the Minif^ry in the mofl orderly way that is 
row CO be found exiHent ? and come not in at the door that Cjod 
would have them to enter at. 

Se<^. 75. it ii ftrange that ihofe men ( among the Papifls ) 
that allow of the Cardiia/s choofinga Pope, and exercifing fo 
much Government as they do over all the Chriftian world, and 
all this under the name of Preshpers ef Rome , (hould yet be 
agiinft Ordination by fuch Presbyters as are indeed Parochial 
Bi(hops,andaccu'€ictobeaNuility. I fee not how thcfe things 

Gg scft: 


Se<S. 76. But yet many Papifts are more moderate in this then 
thofe at home that we now ckal with. That ErafmHs^Richardns 
Armachantis^ Gai'el. Dftrafttes, and many more of them, were 
on our (\dc in this point, is commonly known, and mcSnifcftcd 
by abundance of our writers, fomeof them Bifhops, and fome 
Epifcopal Divines themfelves. 

S^&.yj. And divers of their Schoolmen do maintain that the 
[ Ordo Epifcopalij non Mjfert a CaraElhere SACerdotali^ mfi ficut 
forma intenfa a fe ipfa rcmtjfa ] as SoKci/Ut rclateth ( in 4. Sent, 
d. 25. ) the fentence of P^/^y-iiwwj, which J'cf/wjrcfites. 

And the [^mtSoncinas^^Lwd Voetitts after him do cite Aareobts^ 
proving that Grddns Epi^copalis & Sacerdotum nonfunt dijlir.^di 
fottflatcj, &c. ^luiaSacerdos amkoritate Papapete^ Sucerdo- 
tern inftituere. Ergo non differ tint pot eft a^ Ep[fcopalh & Sa' 
cerdotis^ niji ficHt pot eft as imp edit A (fr non imp edit a: tjua tAmen 
(ft eddem, Antecedens probatur, quia em^is virtus aEliva, r,en 
impedita, poteft transfmdere feipfam ] To the f^me purpofe Ch" 
fanus and many more. 

Se(f^. 78. Hence it is that Presbyters have of old had a place 
in Councils, yea and a fuifrage too .- and the Council of Bafildid 
decide and pracftife it .• which is allowed by many of the 
Papifts. And hence it i« that divers of the Papifts do make 
Ep.fcopalprchemincncy to be but of Ecclefiaftical Inftitutior, 
Sid. 79. That the (^horepifcopi did ordana^ ind their Ordina- 
tion was Valid, though they were not accounted B. (hops (any 
otherwifc then our Parochial Bilhops are ^ is a thing that hath 
been fpoken of fo oft, and by Co many, even Biftiops themfelves, 
that I (hall pafs it by. 

Sed. 80. And (akhVe etius, even among the PapiRf, the ^h' 
kots and fuch regular Prelates that &re no Bifhops, and the Cha- 
per of Canons may Ordain ; yea and cxercife other ads of Jurif- 
didion, ai excommunicating, Grc. It is not therefore proj-er 
to the Bifhops. 

Sed 81. It is therefore as Hierom fpeaks of Confirmation by 
aBifhoponly, in hoaorem Sacerdatii^ a m^uer of Ecclefiaftical 
inftitution for Order ,and not of D:vine inftitution that Presby- 
ters without Prelates (hould not Ordain : As L^o firft Bifliop 
ofRomehkh ( Epiftol. 86. ad Epifcop. Gall. & German.) there 
are ^n^dam Saetrdotibus Prokibitaper Canones Ecc/eftafticor^ 

Ht . 

fit CcnfecratU Presbyterortm & I>i.^comrum. ] It is the Canons 
that forbid Presbyters to Ordain, and noc the Scriptures that 
rcver knew a Presbyter without thcpowtr to Ordain. 

Sed82. Were there no Ordaincrs CO do that cffice,ornorc 
but fuch as would obhgc us to fin, it were Gods regular way to 
enterbythe Peoples choice and the Magiftraces authority with- 
out them, this being in fuch cafe the open door : therefore in is 
more evidently Gods Regular way , when we have both thefc 
and the beft Mmifterial Ordination bcfides , that is on good 
terms to be had. I do not only here plead that fuch a Miniftry 
is not Null (as I did beforejbut that the entrance in fuch a cafe 
is noc finfull. 

Sed.83. There being nothing left to men herein,but the due 
dcfignation ofthe'perfon ("before the reception of his power 
from God ) the Peoples Eleftion it fcif may fervc for that dc- 
fignation, where Mmifierial Approbation is not to be had. Buc 
the ordinary courfe, where Neceflicy doth not prohibit us, is tha'C 
ail three concur, i/i>.The Confent of the people, becaufe we can- 
not Teach and Rule them againft their wills : 2 The Appro- 
bation of the Minifiry , becaufe they are beft able to judge 
of mens abilities. 3. The Allowance of the Magiftrate,for the 
orderly and advantagiousexercife of our office. Buc the firftis 
of the greatcft neccfiity of the three. 

Sed. 84. That the people have power ofEIc(f^:on , wlien 
jud authority (' Civil or tcclefiaflical ) doth not fufpend it 
or limit it, isfo eafily proved that it is commonly confefied. 
Its well known that for many hundred ycirs the people had in 
raaft or many Churches the Choice of their Bifliops or Paftors, 
or joyncd with the Presbyterie and Ordaincrs in the choice. 
BlondelltiSt Voetifis SiTxd many more have fufficiently proved 
this and other parts of the peoples intercft, by unanfwerabic 
evidence. , 

Scd. 85. CjpriA» fiith that this is by Divint Ordination. jPrJ^^'f!^' 
Efift, 68. ( edftGou/artii ) p. 201. [ Propter qpted pltbs obfc- eontrxRpfco' 
qjtcns pr^eceptis Domirticis , 0- Dcttm metuent , <i pcccatore paiumm^nmi 
prapo/it9 feparare fe debet , ncc fe ad Sacrilegi Sacerdctts fa ''"^,0 c.njitrit 
crifictawifcere.quando ipfa tftaxime h/ibeat potefi/itcntvel eUji^endi'J'j'}'''^''''^'^ - 
dignos Sacerdotei^velindtgnosrccufHndi : Qu^d ($ ipfumvidemMs Dtiiudtcium% 
ae DivifiA author t ate defce»dtre , ut Sacerdos plebe pr^feme , e^r. 

Gg 2 fub 


"•Thisisnoc ffflfommfim "*■ oculis dtUgattir^ & digtiHsat^\ iJonctiJ pitl^licoju- 

^^^ p*X ^^ dicio ac teftimonio com^robetur - Coram omni Sjnagoga 

OrdinatK)" i*^" ^^^^ conftittti Sacordotem^ idtft^inflrmt & ofieniit Ordi- 

And this ttntiones Sactrdetales nonnifi fub fofuli ajfiflentis confcient'ta^eri 

fhcwcth that oporttre^ ut f^ebe prcefente vel detegAntur malorum crimina^vel 

the Chuichcs ^omrum mcrita pradicetttur: ^fitOrdi)iatioJHfla ^ Itqiiima^ 

in O?''-"^ qua, omnium fhffrAgio & judicio fuerit examtHata. 9*iQd poflea (e • 
clays were not ' t-.- • a^ -/i ■ ir • ^^ /• 

Diocefan,con- cundum Dtvma Magijtena obJervatHr in t/imi Apufiolorum 

fiftingofma- cjuando de Ordinando m locnm JudxEpifcopo Pctrus 4^ pkbcm 
Hyijaiticiilar io^uitur, furrexit i»^ uitVcvcMi in medio difceyitiam -^ fuit autcm 
Chutches . fptry^ in uro Nee hoc in Epi[>. cporum tantum d* Sacerdo'um,fed 
people could *» Diaconorum Ordinatiombus obfervajfe /ipofiolos ammndverti- 
not have been mfijyde qii9 c?* ipfo in tyi^is ear urn fcriptum c(i : Et cenvocave- 

t>rerent,bc- runtyinquit illidfiodecim totam plcbem difcipulorum • ^uod 

holders and ^^^i^r^g tdcirco tam diligenter & caute convoataplebe tetA gereba- 
theOaiinati- ^^^•> «'^«*-' ^-^ aitarit LMiniJiertHm, vel ad Sacerdotalem locum 
on of the Bi- indigrsus obreperet. Ordinari enim nonnuncfuam indignos non fecun' 
fho^^s. dtim Dti voluntatem , fed fecundum humanam prafumptionemf 

eJ* h£c Deo difplicere , qfi<e. non ven'tant ex legitima dr j<*fiA Or- 
t Still this natione , Deus ipfemanifeffat per Okc Prophet am die ens ^ ftbiip- 
fhews, that ^ -j. j^-^ V !^ n j j-/- ' 

ihc Churches r ^^"j^^^'''^'^^^^^^ ^»ow;>frwf. Propter quod diUginter ac 
of Bifhops traditione Divina & Apo^olica obfervatione cbfervdndum ejf Ct* 
were then no tenendum ^ ejuodapud nos queq\, C^ fere Provineias univerfastenc 
greater then ^^y ^^ adOrdinationes ritt celebrandAS. adeam plebem cmprttvo- 
tSat all mieht ^ ' ,. c ^r ^- ■ rj * • • • • • 

1 ie f n liv fff*fo^dtnatur^£pifcopt e]ujdem provmeta proximi cjf^iq\ eonve' 

prefent niant,c^ EpifeopHS deligatur plebe prafente^ quitfngulorum vitAin 

and,fore-ac- plenijfime mvit^ & ttniufcujufq \ afinm de ejus conv(*' fat tone 
qiiainted with perfpexit. j" ^j4od & apud vos faQum videmtss in Sabini eoUeg* 
Y h "t *'°fi''^ ordinatione , ut de ftniverfe fraternitatis fuff^ragio (^ de 
was the peo- Epifcoporum ^ui in prsfentia eonvenerant^quiq\ de eo ad vos literas 
pies duty not fecerant judicis, EpiJcopatHs ei deferretur , & manus ei in locHtn 
only to cleft, Bafilidis imponeretur. ]] And To he goes on to ftiew that even the 
^h*^ ^*^ "^^ or^' BiftiopofiJswfjreftoringof ^rf///^ej, was not valid to refcind 
thenVyJliz^ the forefaid Ordination of Sabinus , which was thus made by 
affirm : Eufe- the Biftiops on the peoples fuffragcs. And yet our Dioccfani 

bms Hf. 

Tucl. /. f . ^.18. out oi AiolUn'ius tellcth us that Alexander a MontaD-ift, being a thief, the 

Congregation of which he was Paftor ( for that was his Diocefs ) would not admit him. 

Cypr. Epffi. 11. Plebi >— SccH/ui»»veJl,a Viv'tM fujj'r.igi.i ConjmMi & Scckrati de 

tcchfia fronts feptUermt. 


( "p ) 

have, alas, too commonly thruft on the people agalnft their 
conftnt, fuch unworthy pcrfons, as ot whom vre may fay as 
Cjpridn {ihid. ) ofthcfc, ( C«wf; alU multd fmt & ^ravia 
cleli^la. (jHibus Baf tides & Ai4rtUlis implicati tensntur ; frn(la 
tales Epifcopatam ftbi tifurpart coxantur , cum manifijlhm ftt 
ejufwodi homines nee Ecclefx Chrijii pjfe frjtfjfe^rtcc Dio Ja- 
crificia ijferre dehere. ] i have cited thefe words at Iarge,becaufc 
they are full snd plain to flitwusthc pradiceof thofe tiraes.and 
areche word^ofan /^/r;c^«Syrod, and not o^ Cyprian alone, 
and fhew that then the People had the chiefcft hand intheEle- 
dionor defignation of theperron,which isit that I havenowto 

SeA. 8(5. PameltHs himfclf while he feeks to hide the ftiame of 
their Prelates Ordination, from the light ofthefepsflages of C;- 
^ri<««,doth yet confcfs and fay, [ Non negawus vnircm EUElionis 
Epifcopornmritmn, cjttoplebe pr^fentr ^immo & fnffragiis plcbis 
eligi folent. Nam in Africa iHum obfervatum conjiAt (xele^ione 
Eradii Succejforis D. Auguftini, dc^mextat EpiftoUtjns I20. C"'^f}.tK)'r,ie\n 
In Qracia atate Chrjfoft. ex lib. 3 . de Sacer. In Hi/paniis rx hoc hib'Fpifilc lo 
Cypriani loco, & Iftdor. Officiis. In Galins, ex Epi/l.l. ^^^ V't'>Klcof 
Cele/iin. Pap. 2. Roma, ex iis ^«<e ft*pradixim(4s, Epift ad /'«- ivirthat Hn 
ton. Vbicj\ etiam alibi tx F-pift. Lconis 87, Et perdhrajfe cam the elcaion'ot 
confnetHJiinem adGregor. 1. ttfcj-. ex ejus EpiftoUs '. jwwo C^ /?^ t'leir 15iiliops 
tempora «/^- Caroli C^ Lptdovici Imperatorum , (x i.l.b. Ca- oilmen 
pitMlorumcsrandemfath confiat.] This full confefiion fiom the J^^^^'^^'^J^''' 
mouth of an adverfary,may fave me the labour of m?ny more a!- opin^on^and 
legations concerning the judgement and pradice of the ancients, the general 

Scft. 87. He that would fee more may find enough in Voetius f"rt^ia?c of all 
de DefparatA caufa Papains lib.z.c.lz.Sccl 2. & pafjm. And in J ° ^^jj ^^^^^ jure plebis : & Gout art ins on ih^ forefaid notes c f acrcVbccaufc 
TameltHs on Cjprian,p. 205. Among others he there citeth thofe EcelefiaRical 
known Canons of the Carthage Councils, thfjcdand fourft'out of Honours 
Graiian Q Nnllttt ordinetur clericus niftprobjitus, vel examine ^^p^ildbc ob- 
Epifcopornm^vel populi teftimonio ] Et [_ Epifcopus ftne conciUo con'fcrred 
elertcorumfi4QrHm clericos nonerdinet , ita ut civium conn'venti. wihtout trou-^ 
nm & tefUmonifim ju<erAt ] (What and where is that Clergy bleanidii- 

wi»houtwhofe Council our Prelates Ordain not; andtharpco. <^°'^ "^ ] 

plewhofc fuffiagcs they require ?; kr\i{z\±GoHU^tius,\Ob'y£ff'';"'l 


mmimnonigtiAri^ m Dsinimine facrofAnUa EccLfia fm lihfius 
pitiatur honore^ a^enfpimOrdini EcclefiAJlicofrAbemtts, ut Efif- 
copiper Eleflionstr^ Clerl cfr pypnli^ fccnyidum ftdtwa CdnoMPtm 
eli<Ta>ttur.] Its certain then that the people were fomctime the 
fo!e choofers, and the PaQors the approvers ; and fometinne the 
People and the Paftors joync Elcdors •, and fometi-me the Paftors 
chofc, but forced none on the psv^ple, againftor without their 
Confent ( &% Pawelias confefT^ch ; till Popuiar tumults, divi- 
fions, and other reafons occafioned the change of this ancient 
Cuftome. And therefore it is moft certain, that an Eledion by 
the people may be a valid de.ermination of the perfon. 

Sed. 88. And the perOjn being once fufficiently determined 
of, the power and obligation doth fall upon hi« immediately 
from God ; To that were it not that the Paftors Approbation is 
pjrt of the Determination , there would be nothing left far 
Ordination, but the folemnizing of their entrance by Invelli- 
turc, which is not eflential to the Minifterial Office, but ad he/ie 
(jfe, makes to a compleat and orderly pofTcfs^on, where it may 
be had ^ and where it cannot, Elcdion may fufficc. 

Se6t. 89. Vaetius^ de Defperata caufa Papatus, lib.l.fe^.z. 
cap, 20. doth by feven Arguments prove againft fanfcnius, 
EUBionem trihiere Afifjijierium : ^ ejfe p'opriee'jHs fnndame'/t' 
turn. The firft Argument is from the Definition of Eledion : 
the fccond from the Canon Law, which giveth a Bifhop his 
power before Confecration, and gives the Pope a power of go- 
verning the Church before he is inthroned or Confecrated. 
, The third is afimllibm^ in econont'e ^nd Poiicie'. the founda- 
•don of marriage-union IS mutual Confenr, and not Solcmniza- 
ition. Coronation (faith he) doth not make a King ( he 
means, «or/«M<^4Wf«M/(;, but compleativcly,) but hereditary 
SucccfsioB or E'edion. He may well be a King without Coro- 
nation, as f faith he) the cuftom is in Cajiile, Pont^gal, &c. 
TheKingof pj-^^wedependeth notpro jr-tre regm on the Arch- 
h'iOo^O'^Oi Rhemes, but faith Barclay^ hath the right and honour 
of a Kui^ before his Coronation. An cled Emperour govern- 
cch before his Coronation. ^luoAcipoteftatem adminiflrandi regni 
( GalUci ) unEiio c^ Coronatio nihil addptnt inquit Comtnc/itAtor 
JaKcliofjisprA^^mat.fol.^. His fourth Argument is from the na- 
ture of ail Relations j ^»«e pajito fandamento c^ termine^ in [nh- 


jiBo d'iCHKttdr exiftere : atqiti Solemnlzimo^ ftti Confecratio^ fen 
OrMnatio, fcH Inve(l\tt4ra ( l>i'^'^vtiTiMv vacant f aires Gr£ci ) 
ilLi externa qHAM nos confirmaiionim dicimm^ nt^nc cfl junda- 
we»tum, nc(} tie terminus Aiinifterii, aut Aiimflri \_fed le^itinta 
ekctio O'X.^^t^^'''^^ £ccleft£ ffi fhMdarnentn?9t Alinifttril, q^ ifia 
vel ilU pjtrticftla^'is Eccle/ia tft te minus ^ in qm efi correlatum 
O ves fed di/cipft/i, ad quod refer tur reUwm DoEloris fm Puftoris. 
(Though fomeof this need explication and limitation, yet its 
worthy confideration.j His fifth Argiiraent is from the Confcf- 
fions of the Adverfaries, citing Sj/v-ef}. Frlcras, Immanuel Sa^ 
OKfti>hrius, Navarrfts, yea. Be/Iar mine ^nd Pope NicoUr^ who 
maintain that Q Infammo Pontifice pofl ElcHianem nail a alia 
re^uiritur confirmatio •, quia flatim ut ele^us cfl fptfcipit a^mi- 
riftrationem. And to this agrcech their Pradice , who at the 
Council of Trent had many Bifhops meerly EUEl-^ and Ele^ 
Cardinals 2iTQZ(3ixn\HQizo Eled a Pope. His fixth Argiimenc 
is \_^^od Confecratio feu Inveftitura poti/i abijfe aliquo in Cafu: 
EleElio aute^n nunquam : ergo jundamentum Aiini/lerii feu po" 
tf fiat is Eccleftafticx ifl Eleflio & jton Confecratie ; which he 
endc^^vours to confirm. My opinion of tht jundamentum potcfla.- 
tU^ I have cxprefTcd in my Chrijlian Ccwcor^ othrrwile : biiC 
yet I confent, as is there exprefTed, to the NcccAiry of the 
peoples Consent to our Office. 

Se(f^. 90. Argument 20. If thofe in the Reformed Church- 
es that are Ordained by Presbyters, have as good a call to the 
Minirterial Office, as the Princes of the Nations f yea any one 
of them ^ have to their Sovcraignty or Power, then arc they 
true Miniflers of Chrift, and their adminiftrations \a!id to the 
Churches, and their Miniflry to be received. But the Antece- 
dent is true : therefore fo is the Confequcnc. And I prove thcra 

Sed. 91. The Secular power will be granted, as to the mod 
(at ieifl ) of Chriflian Princes and other Soveraigns ; when the 
Holy Gholl commandeth fubjedioncothc Higher Powers, even 
when they are Heathen, and come in as Nera did, Rom 13. 
wcraay well take it for granted that Chrillian Magiilrarcs, ihac 
have no bcrrer title then he, are fuch as we muft be fubjed foc 
cventhofe th;;c have not fo lawful an entrance, as may judifie 
ihcir poflcffion, or free thcra from the guilt of iiat Ufurpatioa , 



before God, may yet be fuel) white they are in poflcfsion, ;.s we 
muft be fubjed to for Confcience fake ; and all their adminiftia- 
tions arc as valid to the innocent fub jeds, as if they had as good 
atidcfls thcbeft. They that deny this, muft overthrow almoft 
all the Common, wealth's on Earth, and turn Sub jedion into 

Sed. 92. The Coafequence then is proved from the parity 
of Reafon, in both cafes. The title of fuch Princes is fo far 
good, asthatfubjcdionisdaeto them, and their Governmenc 
valid : our title to the Miniftry is at Icafl: as good as theirs : there- 
fore fubmifsion or obedience is due to us, and our adminiftrati- 
om valid to the Church. And that our title is as good as theirs, 
will appear by a due comparifon. 

Sed. 93. I. God is equally the Author of our Office, and 
of theirs. He that appointed the Magiftrate to Rule by force, 
appointed theMiniftry to Teach, and Guide, and Worftiip pnb- 
likely before the Church. There is no Power but of God : even 
Magiftrates could have none, unlefs it were given them from 
above. 2 . Ufurpation therefore is a fin in Magiftrates as well as 
Minillers. And there is the fame reafon, why it (hould invali- 
date their adions, as ours, if we were guilty of it. 3 . T he Dif- 
fenlersrule iNemodat tjtiod non habet'] concerncth the Magi- 
flrate as much as the Mmifler, and fomewhat more. A man 
may do more in works of fervice co others without a fpecial 
Office, thcniciMagiftcrial Government. Magiflracy is a Rela- 
tion that muft have a foundation or efficient caufe, as well as 
Miniftry. If a Giver that himfelf hath the Power given, is ne- 
ccfTary to make Miniflers, then alfo to make MaRiftrate> ( which 
yet is falfe in both, if you fpeak of humane Donation to the 
Soveraign ) The effed can no more be without a caufe in ihem 
then in us. 4. If the Eleftion or Confcnt of the people be 
enough to make a Magiftrate, or to be the foundation or dona- 
tion (asthey fuppofe of hisatithority, then much more may 
the eledion or confentcf the people, with the approbation and 
inveftiture by Presbyters, and allowance of the Magiftrate, prove 
thofeinqueftiontobe true Miniflers. 5. No Prince on earth 
that ever ' heard of, can prove any thing like an uninterrupted 
fuccefsion of legitimate Princes from a PredecefTor imraediatly 
authorized by God. If Hereditary Princes that arc the Succef- 
♦ foti 


Tors of Ufurpcrs ar« not to be obeyed , it will be hard to find an 
Hertdicary Prince th'.t is to be obeyed : fo that their cafe is wrorfc 
then the cafe of Minifters. 

Sed. 94. For, though i. No Pallors ou Earth can prove an 
uninterrupced Succefsion of pafoni lawfully Ordained. 2. Nor 
is it neccfTiry to prove a Local fuccef^on j becaufe God hath noc 
tycd his Church to Towns or Countries , and a Church and Pa- 
ftor that are banifhed into another Land, may there be the fame 
Chuichand Pa ftor, thou j;h in and of another place : yet i.We 
have a fucceftion of pcffefsion in the Office icielf. 2. And a 
fuccefsion of adual Ordination in great probability : no man 
can prove agiinft we receive our Miniftrie from any ihac 
were not adually Ordained. Ycc this much is not NccefTary to 
our Office. 

Sed. 95. Objeft. But Chrifl hath tyed the Offce of the 
Aiinifirj to » legit iwAie Ordination ; but he hath not tyed the A'fd- 
giftracy to A larffnlTitle. Anfw. Here are two falflioods barely 
affirmed, or implyed. Oneis that /i;«/? Title is Icfs nccffTary 
to the Magiftrate then thcMinifter •, when the Reafon of both 
i« the fame. Title is the foundation of Right. MagiOracie is a 
Right of Govcrnirg. No Relation can be without its Founda- 
tion. The other is, that God hath tyed the Office of the Mi- 
n'l^ric to & legitimate OrdinAtion. This is unproved, and I have 
proved the contrary before. Itls enrDuty to enter by Lfgiti- 
mate Or dm Alien Vfihzx^'\ini2iyht had; and thus we do. But if 
any of our Predeceflbrs (perhaps a thoufand or five hundred 
years ago ) did enter otherwife, that doth not invalidate our 
Ordination or Miniftrre, nor is it any of our fin. 

S«d. g6. AsMinifterswereatfirft Ordained by Impofition 
of hasds, foKings wcrechofcnby God, and fin the (hurch) 
anointed by a Prophet, or fpcciai Officer of God ; and fome- 
time by the people ( that is, by their fuffrages appointing it, or 
confenting to it ) as appeareth, i ^< i. & 15.17. & 16. 
13. & 24.6. 2 .y^w. 2.4,7. & 5.3. & 12.7. & 19.10. I iT/^^. 
1.45. & 5.1.2 King.ii.iz. & 23. 30. z( hron. 22. 7. fo that 
there is as much in Scripture for this manner of their inveftiture, 
as there is for Minifters Ordination by impofition of hands ; yec 
may they be Kings that have no fuch Invcftiturcj much lefi all 
cheir predcce^Tqrt. We chen that W«adueInTcniture,roay 

Hh prove 

prove our Miniftry , whfltcver our predeceflbrs liad. 

Scd. 97. I come now to the Arguments of the adverfaries of 
our Miniflric, which I need not ftand long on, becaufc they arc 
few ar.d fcarce confiderable,and fufficlently anfweredin what is 
faid. And firft its faid by a Learned man ( Dijfertat, Ae Epifcop. 
contra Blondel. Trtemonit. adL^Elor.fcB.'^.i-i,. ) \_ Nos illud in 
hdc difceftatione fro conctjfo pofitum cenfdimas, Nemintryt rede 
dare qmdnon babet: eumque Atit ess ^ui hac fotefiate irtdnti »»)$' 
^ftam f fieri ftt, finevUUtione am fdcrilcgio qmdam [ihi arrogare 
dHt a^umere AUt aUis teque a Deo Hon vecatis^ aut rmffis corrtmHni' 
caretJeHtiqnampojfe. [] Illndhic mhis unicum ?»er>timjfe fnfficief^ 
unumqutmque in ^nglicana EccUfia ab Epifcopid ordinatMm 
PresbjterHtn , nulla ordinandi alios facultate ( am per fe, am 
cjha qmlibet comparittm catn munitHm ) prttditum ejfe^ nee igitfir 
earn pbi reBius arrogare pojfe, ^nam fDiaconorum^ immo Laico- 
rum units ^amplnres^tali potejiate nnllatenHs induti^ idemanfuri 
Jim. ] The fumm is : Presbyters have not thtj power ; therefore 
they cannot give it. 

Sed. 98. Anfw. If the Argument run thus \_No man can 
give that vfhich he hath not : Presbyters have net the Office of a 
Prf^bjter : therefore they cannot give it. ] I then deny the Minor : 
They are not Presbyters^ if they have not the Office of a Presby- 
ter : that therefore which f^rr ^41^^ (tofpeakin the Diffenters 
language j they may give. 

Sed. 99. But if the Argument be this [ NojnAH can give 
m.^ ' U''^*'^-^'^-that which he bath not : Presbyters have not a power of Ordaining : 
•/*• f^' / thtreforethey cannot give a power of Ordaining] I anfwer as fol- 
' loweth. I. We receive not our Office by the Gift of man, whe- 

ther Presbyters or Prelates. The Power is Immediately from 
Chrift, and men do but open us the door, or determine of the 
perfon thai fliali from Chrift receive the power, and then put 
him folemnly into pofTefsion. It is the firft Error of the adver- 
faries, to hold chat this power is given by men as firO: having it 
themfelv^. In the Popes cafe Bellarmine himfclf will grant us 
this { Refponf. ad 7 Theolog.Venet.p. 246.212. ) [_ Sape (inqmt) 
jam diElnm efl^ EleElionem Cardinalium non conferre poteftatem^ 
fid de/ignare tantHmmodo perfonamy cm Dem potejfatem tribmt.] 
And yet that |[ Infftmmo Pontifici pofi tle^ionem nulla alia re- 
^niriiur confirmntio, qhia Jiatim m elUlus efi, fufcipit admini- 


C ^?T ) 

jlratiomnt ^ Mt dccUrat Nicol. Papa (Jan. in nomine^ di/.Z^.^ 
pAg. 175. And of the Power of Princes, the DifTenters will granc 
ic ( for we have it in their writings ) that the I'ervtr U from God 
immedUte/j, though the people miy e!ed the perfon. You will 
thrurt out all Prince* of the world by this Argument, and fay, 
I No man giveth th^t which be hath not \ the people have not a 
Foiver of Government : tloertfore they cannet gtve it. J I wonld 
anfwer you as here : Gedhatb the PcTver, and he giveth it ; but 
the people that have it not, may defign the perfon that (hail receive 
icfrom God : as the BurgefT^ of a Corporation may choofe a 
Major or Biyliffto receive chat pow^r from the SoveraJgn ( by 
thclnftrumentality of a Law or Charter) which they had noc 
themfelves to ufe or give. And fo a Presbyterie ( and fomctimc 
the people alone) may defign the perfon that fhall receive the 
Office of thcMiniftriefrora God, though th:y had it not them- 
felvcstoufeor give. 

Stdt. 100. Refp. 2. By this Argument and its fuppofirion, 
r.oncare true Miniilcrs that are Ordained by Prelates : for they 
have not the Power of the Miniftrieto Give, but only to Zyfe: 
no Ordination is a Giving of the Power, favc only by way of 
Inveftiture, which fuppofeth a Title and Right before, and is 
not of abfolutenecefsity tothe Poffcfsion ; forin feveral cafes it 
may be without it. 

Sed. 1 01. Refponf. 3. A man may Infirnment ally give or 
deliverhoih Right and Inveftiture in that which h€/><ir^»or ^jw- 
/r//, noreverbad. Your fcrvant may by your appointment, 
deliver a T cafe, a Deed of Gift, a Key, or twig and turf, for 
PolTefsion of houfe and lands, though he never hadhoufeor 
lands or pofTefsionhimfelf. It is fufficient that the Donor have 
it, that fends him. 

Sed. 102. Refp. 4. Presbyters have the Power of Presby- 
ters, or the Minifterial Office .-and if they cab give that ("which 
certainly they have,) then they can give a Power oi Ordaining 
other Presbyters. For to Ordain others, is no more then they do 
themfeivesin^»z//«^r)[;f Poiveror Office nhich they have : there- 
fore if they may do it, thofe that they give their Power to may 
doiti f^^^ *5, may alfo give ethers that power which they 
Sed. 103. Due as CO our cafe in hand, it fufficeth that we 

Hh 2 provf. 


prove, that Presbyters may give others the Office of Presbyters ; 
whether this Office contain a Power of Ordaining, is another 
Queftion, butfoon difpatchr, if this be granted ; becaufe Cas 
tsfaidj to Ordain is nothing el^sbuc to invert others with the 
Office or Power which we have our felves. 

Sed. 104. Refp. 5. The Argument makcth more againft 
the Prelates Ordination, on another account ; becaufe that 
(^ as is proved already ) that Species of Prelacie that was excr- 
c'{(cd'm E»ila»J (^ the folc Governours of an hundred or two 
hundred Churches ) is fo far contrary to the Word of Godi thac 
wemay boldly conclude, thai as fuch, they have no power to 
fife or give : their very Office is humane, and deftruftive of the 
true Paftoral Office : and therefore as fuch, they have lefs pre- 
tence of Divine Authorjtie, then Presbyters, whofe Office is of 
God. Yet do 1 not make their Ordination Null^ bccauTe they 
werePresbytersas well as Prelates, and alio wtre in Poflefsion 
of the place of Ordainers,and had the Magiftrates authority. 

Sed. 105. Refp. 6. PresbytrrshaveaPower of Ordaining: 
it is already proved. And to your confirmation ( where you 
fay that the Biftiops gave them no fuch Power ; therefore they 
have it not .• ) I anfwer : i. I deny the Confeqnence. God 
gave ic them : therefore they have it without the Bifhops gift. 
2. If by [I Giving ]] you mean but an accidental Caufation, or 
the action of a Canjafine qua mx^ or a defignation Of the Per- 
fon that (hall receive it, then 1 deay the Antecedent. The Pre- 
lates ( and Electors ) defigned the perfon , and alfo inverted 
him folemnly in the Office, which containcth this Power of Or- 
dination which you deny them. 

sed. 106. Obj. The Prelates exprejfedfto fffch thing in their 
OniinatiM. Anf. I. It being not the Prelates but Chrirt that 
make* the <5^«, weraurtnot go rothe words of the Prelates, 
hm o( Cbr'iii to know vbat the office is ^ though we may go to 
the Prelates ( while the work was in their hands ) to know who 
thi ferfoM is. If a Prelate Confecrate a Prelate, and yet mention 
not particularly the works that are pretended to belong to a 
Prelate, you will not think him thereby rertrained or di fabled to 
thofe works. HethatCrownethaKing, and they that chook. 
him, though they name not the works of his Office and Power, 
do thereby choofe him to all cbofe works that belong to a King. 



God hath fet down in h« Word, that the Husband fliall be the 
Head or Governor of his Wife i if now the woman fhall choofe 
a certain perfon to be her Husband, and the Minifter or Magi- 
ftrate folcmnizc their Marriage, without any mention of fuch 
Governing Power, rhe Power doth nevcrthe'efs belong to the 
man • becaufe God hath fpecified by his Law the Power of thac 
Relation , and the man is Lawfully put in the Relation thac 
by the Law of God hath fuch a Power : fa is it in the cife in 

Sc(^. 107. But yet 2. I add, that the Prelates and the Laws 
of EngUnJl gave to Presbyters a Power of Ordination. For 
in all their Ordinations, the Presbyters were to lay on hands 
with the Prelate f and did, in all Ordinations that 1 hive feen.} 
And if they adually impofed hands and fo Ordained, it was an 
adual profeflion to all that they were fuppofed to have the 
power of Ordination, which they exercifed. 

Seft. 108, Obj. But they had na Power giviM them to do it 
witheut tt Prelate. Anfw. i. By Chrift they bad. 2. You may 
as well fay, that Bifhops have no Power to Ordain, becaufe 
they were not (ordinarily at icaft^ to do it without the Pres- 

Sed. 109. Ob). Saiththc forefaid Learned Author (Z>#/- 
ftrt. Prdmonit. fcti. lO.ll. ) Q Vnum Ul^d Ittbens interrogarem^ 
An HieronymuSy dnm hie ejfet^ c^ PreihjteratH fecundario fHn- 
geretnr partiarid tantuitt indtitHS fotefiate , frttfente^ fed fpreto 
ftr infuper habit Epifcopo, Diaconum ant TreshjterHm ordirtare 
( ant Trejbjtero uni am alteri adiunBus ) retle potuerit ? fi oi/- 
firmetur^ dicatnr [odes , ejua demum ratione ab ee ditlnm ^t , 
EpifcopHm foU ordinatione ( ^ ergo ordinatione ) a PresbjterQ 
dtflerminatHm ejfe ] fin negetnr^ qttomodo igitur Presbjtero Angli^ 

cano^ Chi nnllam^ cjut mon Hicronjmo poteftatem^ &c. ] 

Anfw. I. This IS none of our cafe in £»^/<««<^ : we Ordtin not, . 
prafenteftd fpreto Epifcopo : but mof^ Countreyes know of no 
Bifhop that they have, but Presb^^ers. 2. Bierom might have 
Ordained with his fellow- presbyters, according to the Laws of 
ChriO, but not according to the Ecclefiaftical Canons, that 
then obtained, orborefway. 3. HiVrow plainly tells you, that 
it is by Ecclefiaflical appointment for the prevention of fchifmc, 
chat Bifhops were fee upio far as to have ihis power more thca 

H h 3 Pf cibytcri , , 


presbyters, in the point of Ordination. 4. The Englifh Pres- 
byters are Parochial Bifhops , and have an Office of Chriftg 
mak-ng, and not of the Prelates; and arc not under thofe Ec- 
clefiadical Canons that retrained Hiercm from the exercifeof 
this power. And therefore whereas it is added by this Learned 
Author [ Q^li huic dilemmati refoni , ant opponi pejfit, fateor 
etjuidem me m» adeo Ljnceum (jfe tit perfpiciam 3 he may fee 
that he could fcarce have fct us an eafier task then to anfwer his 

Scft. no. The fecond and their principal objedion is, that 
We have no precept ir example in the Church for Freihjters Or- 
dainingrvithotit Prelates', therefore it is not t0 be done. Anfw.l. 
I told you before how BiihopZ/'/Sfr told me he anfwered this 
Objeftion to Kinj? Charls. -viz. from the example of the Church 
Qf y^Lxandria where Presbyters made Bifhops, which is more. 

Sed. III. But 2. 1 arfwer, you haue no example in Scripture 
or long after that ever Prelates of the Engli(h fort , did or- 
dain , nor any precept for it , nor was fuch a Prelacy then 
known, as is proved } and therefore their Ordination hach lefs 
warrant thenthatby Pretbyters. 

SeA. 112. And 3. I have told you before of Scripture war- 
rant for Ordination by a Presbyteric, andalfobythe Teachers 
end other Officers of a fingle Church,as was the Church ofAxti • 
och. Prove that there was any Bilhop. 

SeA. 113. Laftly , itisconfeflcdby the Diffentersrhatfuch 
Presbyters or Bifhopsas are mentioned, i^B. 20. Phil. i. i. 
1 fim.^. Tit.i.c^c, had power of Ordination .• ^ut according 
to the -die judgement of moft of the Fathers (that ever I fawor 
heard of that interpret thofe texts) it is Presbyters that are 
meant in all or fome of thofe texts. It is granted us alfo by the 
DifTenters that the chief or fole Paftorsof fingle Churches in 
Scripture-times did ordain, and had the power of Ordination • 
But the Presbyters of England , and other Proteftant Chur- 
ches are the chief or fole Paftors of (ingle Churches • there- 
fore, &c. 

Seft. 114. Objed. 3. ButtheEngUpt Presbyters have broak, 
their Oaths ef Camical obedience, and therefore at leaji are fchif- 
matical. t^nfw. i. Many never took any fuch oath, to my 
k rj,),v ledge : For my part I did not. 2. The particular perfons 



that arc guilty mud be accufed : and neither muft they be judged 
before they fpeak for thcmfclves , nor yet muft others be con- 
demned for their fakes. In thefe parts, there is rot one Presby- 
ter I think of ten, who differs from the Ptelates about Ordintti- 
on, that ever took that oath. And therefore it is few that can 
be called Schifmaticks on that account. Yea 3 And thofe few that 
did take that Oath, have few of them that I know of, done any 
thing againft the Prelates. 

Scd. 115. Objedl.4. The EngHJh Presbyters have fulfd 
down the Prelates ^ and rebelled agAtnji them, and therefore at leafi 
are^uilrjof Schifttt. Anfrv. i. The guilty muft be named and 
heard: their cafe is nothing to is not one often I think, 
perhaps of twenty, that can be proved guilty. 2. It was not 
the Scripture Bifhops that they Covenanted agiinft or oppofcd : 
but only the irregular Englifli Prelacy before dcfcribed : And 
the endeavour of reforming this corrupted Prelacy, and reducing 
it to the Primitive frame, is in it fclf no fchifm. 

Sed.li6. Object. 5. Ignatius cemmandeth them to obey 
the Bip^ops and do nothing rvithout them. Anfw. i. Ignatius alfs 
commandeth them te obey the Treibjters as the Apojlles of Chrifi, 
ani to </o nothing withoht them. 2. The Bifhops ihsii Ignatins 
mentioneth were fuc has our Parifli Bifliops or Presbyters are, 
that have a Prcsbytcrietoafiift thcra: They were the chief Pa- 
llors of a fmglc Church, as is before proved out of /j^M»irw,and 
not the Paftors of hundreds of Churches. 
Sefl. 117. I (hall trouble the Reader with no more of their 
objeSions, feeing by what is faid already, he may be furniflied 
to anfwer them all : but I (hall now leave it to his impartial fober 
confideration, whether I have rot proved the truth of our Mini- 
ftry and of the Reformed Churches, and the Validity ofourad* 
miniftrations, and of our Ordination it felf i^ 




The greatnefs of their fin that are nm 
labouring to perfwade the Teople of 
the ^AQillitj of our Minijlry/Qhur^ 
chesand adminiftratiom . 

lEvcn thoTe q xi 
Proteftanc ^^^' ^' 

have Supcria- 

tcndents arc 


by them too, 

for want of a 

true Ordina- 

tion.For their 

dents were 


ordained by 

meer Presby 

Aving laid fo fair a ground for my 
application, I think ic my duty 
to take the freedom to tell thofe 
Reverend perfons that oppofe 
usin this point , the Reafons 
why I dare not joyn with them, 
and the guilt that I am perfwad- 
ed they heap upon their own 
fouis^ Wherein I proteft it is not 
mine intent to make them odious, or caft difgrace upon them 
( for I do with great relu Aancy obey ray Confcience in the per- 
formance of this task '• ) but my intent is, if it be the will of God 
ters,or fettled to givc fuccefs fo far to thefe endeavours , i . To humble them 
only by the f^j. jj^gj^ ^^^^^ ^^^ hainous fin and fave them from it ^ 2. And 
er "so m*^' ^^ ^*^^ ^^^ Church from the divifions and difturbances that 
v'emark, b already caufed by ihera and their opinion; 3. However 
when their 

feiren Bi(hops were dcpofed , fevcn Presbyters were Ordained Supcrintcdents by Johan. 
Biigtnhagms Pomerams a I'rcsbytcr of ivliWibergc in the Prefence_ cf the King anc 
Senate at the chief Church in Raff>ii-A 
"Xbeolog' page^i^. 

5c€ >'»T. Buienhflfii m Mdch. Adam. vit.Gem. 


to difcharge my Confcienccand tell them plainly, what frifihtneth 
me from their way. 

Sed. 2. And I . It feems to me ( upon the grounds before ex* 
prefTid) thatchofe men that would Nullifie all the Proteftant 
Miniftry, Churches and adminillrations, that have not Prelates, 
are guilty of fchifm, and are plain Separatifts. They depart 
from truly Catholick principles. That man hath not the juft 
Principles and Spirit of a Catholick, that can on fuch a pretence 
as this degrade or nullifie fo many Learned, Godly Miniilers, 
and unchurch fo many excellent Churches of Chrift ; they make 
a plain Schifm, andfeparate from us on as weak grounds as the 
ancient Separatifls did, whom yet they account an odious genera- 
tion. And the writings of Paget , Ball^ Braajhaw^ HiUer- 
fh^m^ Ber-nArd, and the reft that defend our Mmiftry end Chur- 
ches agiinft the old Separatifts, will ferve in the main to defend 
them againft thefe new ones, which therefore J refer the Rea- 
der to perufc.Many of the fameArgumcnts are as forcible againft 
this advcrfary. 

Sed. 3. 2. And by this means they condemn themfclves thai 

have fpoken fo much againft the Separatifts, calling them Drow- 

nifts,Schifmaticks,and the like ; and now take up the caufe (in the 

inarne ) that in them they fo condemned. Will they turn Schif- 

maticks that have fpoken againft Schifmaticks fo much } 

SeA.4. 3. By this means alfo they exceedingly wrong the 
Lord Jefus Chrift, by fccking to rob him of his inheritance ; by 
telling him that his Churches are none of his Churches, and his 
Miniftcrs arcnoncof hisMinifters, and his Ordinances are not 
his Ordinances indeed. Let them firft prove that Chrift hath 
renounced thefe Minifters,or unchurched or denied thefe Chur- 
ches, or given them a bill of divorce : and then let them fpeak 
their p'.eafure. But till then they were beft take heed what they 
do, left they have not the thanks from Chrift which they «- 

ScA. 5. 4. They go againft the plain commands of Chrift^ 
and examples of hisfervants; Chrift himfcl f bid concerning fucb 
as caft out Devils in his name, but followed him not [_ Forbid 
him not j for there is ne mAn th/it fiall do a Miracle in mj nsme 
that CUM lightly [peAk^evHof me : fcr he thdt is not Mgainft us is 
finoHr part, Marf^ 9. 37, 38, 39- He liked not their faumonr 

li cbai 


that would have the fuiffiAnce of (o good a work forbldden/or 
wan: of a due circum'lanc€, mode, **r accident. He tommand- 
eth us to ^YHj the Lor ^ of the Harveflto feni Lahoftrers into hU 
Harvefly becanfe the HArveJl is great, Andtht LAbourers are few '• 
And thefc men we jld have mukicudes of LAbourers chruii: our, 
inth.'N-'C'fTi y of the Charehes. Paul rcj">yced that Chrifi 
7CAS Preached, even by them that did it /*? Jfrife and envy ^ think: 
ing to a^d A§li[iiQn to his bonh. But thefe men would filence 
ihemthat preach in fiiicere compaffion of mens fou's. Mofes 
would not forbid EdUd and Mtdad prop'iecying,but wifli" that 
all the Lords pcup:e were Prophet?. While men do g.^od and 
not harm, or more good then harm in the Church, I fhould 
(^ee very good grounds, yea and Nect fiity for it, before I fhould 
filenec them,o: be guilty of filencing them. 

Sed. 6. 5. They manifc'^ a great deal of felfifhnefs zndpride^ 
that dare thus confcnt to the injury of Chrift, and the Church 
and fouls of men , becaufe they may not bear that Rule 
which is according to their principles and fpirits. Self denial would 
do much to cure this, 

Se^. 7. 6. And yet they do as felf-feekers commonly do,ev€n 
feek after mifery and deftruftion to themfelves. While they look 
( its like ) at the honour, and forget the work, they plead for^ 
fiich a load and burden,as is enough to break the backs of many, 
even for the doing of a work that is fo far beyond their ftrcngth , 
ihatitsameeriropofiiblity: How can one msn do the works 
which Scripture layeth on a Bifliop , for a hundred or 
two hundred Churches ? and for thoufands that he never fees or 
hears of? 

Sed.8. 7. And above all, I admire how the heart of a confi- 
dcrate Chriftian, can be guilty of fo great cruelty to the fouls of. 
men, as thefe men would be, if they had their will, in the pia- 
dice of their principles ^ What if all the Churches that have no 
Prelates were unchurched ? the Miniflers caft out as no true Mi- 
nifters,orthe people all prevailed with to forfake them, what 
would be done for the thoufands of the poor ignorant carclefs 
fouls that arc among us ? when all that all of us can do is too 
little, what would be done if fo many and fuch were laid afide i* 
How many thoufands were like to be damned, for want of the 
i means, 


means, that according to the ordinary way of God, might have 
procurtd rhcirtonvcrfionanJ Salvation ? 

SeA.9. IF [hey (ay, ihsit others us good as thej fheuU pcjje/j 
the places : I anfwer, chcy fpeak not rumen cf another world, 
but CO their re ghbovirs, ihat well know that there are few ro be 
had of tolcrab'e worth to p* fTclJ one plrceof very many, it all 
th c thev oppofewere call cue rrforfaken. D:>weno:know 
who and what tDen ihey arc that you have to fup^^ly the room 
with ? 

ScA. 10. If they fay ib.B.^ mere ohdient menvfouil feon fpriKg 
upy or manj/ofthefe would ch^.nge their mind , if thej '^erefoced 
to it; lanlwer, i.'So many wcuidbe uncliangcd as wou d be a 
greater fofs ro the Church ( if it werr deprived ofihemj then 
ever Pielacy waslikc to repair. 2. And what fhould become 
of poor fouls the while your young ones are a training up? 
3. And in all ages af^er , the Church muft iufe all thole that 
Ihould diflcnt from yuur opinion. 

Sed I I . I f you fay char. It is mtjourdeftreto fiLenceall.rhefe 
Preachers th^tjfcu difovrn : I anfwer, H<.w can that ftand w-ich 
yourd'dnreor your pradice ? Your Dodrine is, that they 
are Lay- men, and no true Min»fters, nor to be henrd and fub- 
mitted to as Miniltcrs,nor Sacraments to be received from them. 
And would you not have them then caft out ? 3 . Your pradice 
is tod. ff wade the people ( efpccially the Gentry that are nccr 
you)co feparateand dif-wn them accordingly • and it is done in 
many places. And would you not call them out,whorayou would 
have forfaken ? 

Sed. 12. If vou fay. It is jour defire that they fl>otild for f^kf 
their error and obey you, and fo he continued And notcafl out . I 
anfwer, 1. But that is not in your power to accomplifti nor 
have you rcafon to cxpcd it. They are willing to know the 
mind of God as well as you, and perhaps fearch as dil gently, and 
pray as hard as you; and yet tfiey think that its yoi' that are in 
the wrong ■ you fee that for many years the Reformed Churches 
hare continued in this mind: And it appears if they will 
not turn to your opinion, you would have them all caftoutor 
forfaken. Chnlt(hall have no fervaiits, nor the Church any Pa- 
ftorsthat will not be in this of your Opinion. 
Sed. 13.8. Hereby alfo you would run into tbegoiltofa 

li z more 


iroorc grievous perfecmion , when you have read lo much in 
Scripture againftperfecutors, and when you have heard of and 
fcen the judgements of God let out upon them, Itisaneafie 
matter for any Perfecutor to call him that he would cafl out, a 
Schifowtick, orHerctick, but it is not fo eafie to anfwerhim 
that hach faid, He that ojfendgth one of thefe little onts^ itrvere 
better for him, &c. God will not take up with fair pretences or 
falfe accufations againft his fervants,to juftifie your perfecution. 
Sed. 14. 9. Yea you would involve the people of the Land, 
and of other Nations, in ihe guilt of your perfecution; draw- 
ing them to joy n with you, incaftingout the faithful labourers 
from the Vineyard of the Lord. This is the good you would 
do the people, to involve their Souls into fo deplorable a ftate of 

Sed. 15. If you fay, Jt is )oft that are perfect4ted,-2is Iresii 
fome of you do : I anfwcr. i. If it be fo, you are the more un- 
excufable before God and man, that even under your perfecution, 
will cherifh, defend and propigate fuch a doctrine of perfecu- 
tion, as ftrikes at no lefs then the necks of ali the Reformed 
Minifters, and Churches that are not Prelatical, at one blow. 
2. For my parr, I have oft protelledagainfl any that (hall hin- 
der an able Godly Minifter from the fcrvice of Chrift and the 
Church, if he be but one that is likely to do more good then 
harm. But I never took it to be perfecution to caft out Drun- 
kards , fcandalous , negligent, infuffi^ient men , where better 
may be had to fupply the place-* no more then it is perfecution 
to fupprefs an abufive Alehoufe, or reflrain a thief from making 
thievery his trade. 3. Theprefent Governors do profefs their 
rcadincfs to approve and encourage in the Miniftry any Godly, 
able, diligent men that will but live peaceably towards the Com- 
monwealth. And I am acquainted with none ( as far as I re- 
member ) of this quality, that have not liberty to preach and 
exercife the Miniflerial Office. 4. But if you think you are per- 
fecuted, becaufcyoumay not Rule your Brethren, and perfe- 
cute others, and take upon you the fole Government of all the 
Churches in a County , or more, we had rather bear your accu- 
fations, then poor fouls fhouli bear the pains of Hellj by your 
neglect and perfecution ; if you are perfecuted when your hands 
arc held from ftriking ^ what are your Brethren, that cannot by 
; your 

your good will have leave laborioufly to Terve God in a low 
ertate, as the fer vantJ of ali.and the Lords of none ? 

Sc6t. 16, 10. By this means alfo you {hew your felvcs im- 
penitent in regard of all the former perfecucions that fome of 
you and your predecefTors have been guilty of. Abundance of 
moft Learned Godly men have bcenlilcnccd, fufpcndcd, and 
fomeof them perfecuted to banifhment, and fome ro death. Tlic 
world halh had too few fuch men for exemplary abilities, dili- 
gence and hdtfcfs, as Hilderjham, BradJJjArv , Bayn , Nicols^ 
Bri^htmnn, Do^ B Ml, Paget ^ Hiring^ Langlej^ Farktr^ Sand' 
f^rd, C^rtrvr.gbt, Bates, Antes, Rogers, and abundance more, 
chat forae fuffered unco deitb, and fome were filenced, fome im- 
prifoned, &c. for not conforming to the Ceremonies : bcfidcs 
Eliot, Hooker, Cotton, Norton, Cobbet, DAvenLm, Parker, Nojes^ 
and all the rell that were driven to New England ; and befides 
tVard and all that were driven into Holland : and befides the 
thousands of private Chriftians that were driven away with 
them : And befides all the later morcextcnfiveperfecutionof 
fuch as were called Conformable Puritans , for not reading the 
Book for dauncing on the Lords day, and for notccafingto 
preach Lectures, or on the Evening of the Lords day, and fuch 
like; A'l this I call to your mind, as the (in that (houid be la- 
mented, and heavily lamented, and not be owned, and drawn or 
continued on your own heads by impenitencic ; and how do you 
repent, that would do the like, and take your felves to be per- 
fecuted, if your hands arc tyed that you may notdoic ? For 
my own parr, I muftprofefs, 1 had rather be a Gaily- flave, or 
Chimney-fweeper, yeaor the bafcft vermine, than be a Bifhop 
with all this guilt upon my foul, C to continue, j how light fo- 
ever many make of ic, and how impenitently foeverthey juftific 

Sed. 17. i I. Yea more , after all the warnings you have 
had, in the waies and ends of your predecefTors, ic foems that 
you would yet incomparably outftrip the moft of them in per- 
secution, if you hid your way. For few of them did attempt 
or make any motion, for degrading or denying moft of the Pro- 
tertant Mmifters in Enrope, or fuch a number as in England and 
Sc9tUnd are not Ordained by Prelates , and to unchurcn all their 
Churches, This is far higher then thefc before you. 

li 3 ScA. 


Sed. 18. 12. Anil take heed ell continuing in fuchafin, 
after both prohihitiors And judgemenrs, you (hould be found 
fghters a^^i>*fi GodM thofc chac deipilc the Miniilers of Chrift, 
deffife Chriji himfelF, what (hall we thiak of them that do ic 
themfeives, and te^ch wen f) to do^ and have pleafuninthem 
that do it ? Its fearful to draw near ihar forlorn Condition of the 

Jews, I Thcf.2^\^,i6. [_ and have perfecmcd us '.and they 

•p leafs not God, and are conrary to a.11 men ; forbidding us to fpeAk^ 
to the Gentilei that thej might he favcd^ to fi/i up tijfir fins alrvay : 
f»r the wrath ts come H}on them to the uttermsft. jV^i 

Scft. 19. 13. It is apparent that your doftrinc and pra- 
ftice rcndeth to !et in the old ejected rabble of drunken,igno:ant, 
ungodly perfons into the Miniflrie. ( And what can be more 
odious to the mojt Holy. God 1 ) For if once youcaft out all 
thofe that hive not Prelatical Ordination, or all that are againft 
it, (efpecially after a former Ordination, j you muft take in 
fuch as thefe, and with fe>olfoam, make Priclh of the vilel\ ot' the 
people, or cl!e rhe places muft be vacant : for we know than 
thrre are not ablcgodly mcntobehadof yourmind to fupply 
the vacant places. 

Seft. 20. 14. Your dodrine doth tend to harden malig- 
nant wicked men in their enraitie againft a faithful Miniftrie : and 
we fee this unhappy fuccefs of it by experience. Our dodrine 
is fo much againft the inclination and intereft of the flefh, ard 
men are by corrupted nature at fuch an CBmity to God, and all 
that is truly Spiritual and Holy, that we have as many enemies 
as hearers, till Grace do cither reftrain or change them. But 
when they have fuch an irritation and encourageraenc as this, 
and that from men that would be reputed as Godly as the beft ; 
thenno wonder if they are hardened in their malignity. When 
we would inftruct them and mind them of their everlaUing ftate, 
and help to prepare rhem for their latter end ; they are told by 
^Learned men, that we are no Minifters but Lay-men and Schif- 
maic s, andthacit is their fin to own us, or receive the Ordi- 
nmces of Chrift from us as Minifters : and fo the poor people 
turnthcii backs on us and on the Aflemblies and Ordinances of 
God; and being taught bv wife and learned men to difown us 
anddcfp.feus, th.>y tbilow their drunkenncfs, and worldlinefs, 
and ungodlyncfs With greater fecurity,and with Icfsremorfe; for 


( 2-47 ) 

now tliev have a defcnfativc againll the grilling doftrine of thofc 
prccife Preachers, that would not let them alone in their fin .• 
they were wont to be diflurbed a: Uaft by Sermons, and fomc- 
time they purpofeJ to return, and were in the way of Grace, 
and in fome hope : but row chcy arc taught by Learned Godly 
Divines to keep out of bearing , they can go on and fin in 

Se<ft. 21. 15. By this means alfo you rob God of hispub- 
likc worlhip : People are taught to turn their backs on it ; yoa 
teach them that it is better that God have no pubiike Mimfterial 
worQoipatall. in Prascr,Praifes, Sacraments, &c. then that he 
fhould have it from any but PrelacicalMmiiicrsl O (acred do- 
ctrine ! And if you had your wills for the filencing or €)cdting 
of all that arc not Ordained by Prelates, how many hundred 
Church-doors muft be (hut up in the Chriftian world , or 
woffe I 

Scdt. 22. 16. By this means all Impiety would be chcriflied 
and let loofe. When once the mouths of Minillcrs were ftopped, 
the mouth of the fwearer, and curfer, and railcr, and fcorner ac 
Godlincfs would be open : and fo would be the mouth of the 
drunkard and glutton. If all that can be done, be fo much too 
little, as experience tells us,w;hat a cafe would the Nations be 
in, and how would iniquity abound , if Minifters were caft 

Sed. 23. 17. Yea it might endanger the Churches, by tbe 
introduAion of Infidelity or Heathenifm it felf. 1 or nothirg is 
more natural as it were, to corrupted man ; and if once the Mi- 
niftry be taken down, and they have none, or thofe that arc 
next to none, Infidelity and Atheifm will foonfpring up: And it 
will be a more dangerous fort of JnHdclity, then is among ma- 
ny of the open Infidels, becaufe it would be palliated with the 
name of Chriftianity, and leave men further from convidion, 
then fome that never heard of Chrif^. 

SeA. 24. 18. And it is a tetp.ptation to Infidelity and Con- 
tempt of the Church and Mini{\rie, when men fhall fee that one 
party of Cbrif^ians doth thus unchurch another. They will 
think that they may boldly fay that of us, which we fay of one 
another; one party unchurcheth all the Papil^i : thefe that we 
arenowfpcakingto, do unchurch all the Protefttnt Churches 



that are not Prdatical. The Papifts unchurch all but thcmfelv« ^ 
and (o among them,they leave Chrift but a very fraall pai c of bis 

Sed. 25. 19. Yea I fear that by Confequencc ( and too 
near and plain s Confequencc^ they d'ffolve the Catholike 
Church it iclf. And if it be fo, let them judge wbetbcr their do- 
ftrine fubverc not Chriftianitie ? I ufeno violence for the infe- 
rence. If want of Prelatical Ordination do Null the Proteftanc 
Miniftrie and.Churches, then it muft needs follow that /ar grea- 
ter defed's f and more againli the vitals of the Church ) wiil 
do as much to unchurch^he Romanics, the Greeks, Armenians, 
Syrians, 'Echiopian^.Eg\'ptians, c^c. But alas, how cafie is in 
to prove that. all.thef^havc far greater defeds then the Pref- 
byterian Proteftant Churches .' and fo the whole muft fall toge- 
ther. *-!• 

Sed. 26. 20. -By all thefc means rhey joyn with the Qaa- 
kcrs, and Seekers, and-Drunkards-in oppofing the fame Miniilrie 
that they oppofc- Tou are m true 'Minifters of fefus Chrifi^ fay 
the Quakers, Seekers, and other Seds ; fo alio fay tbefe that 
now wearcfpcakingbf : and if they preach their dodrine, and 
fide with them agairift the feryantsof Chrift, let them be afraid 
left they partake of their Spirit and Reward. 

Sed. 27, 21. Their dodrine and pradicetcndeth to grieve 
the hearts of the moft experienced gracious fouls. Should all 
theMiniftersbecaft outthat are not Prelatical, and the places 
fupplycd, as theytnuft be in their ftead, with fuchascanbe 
had, G what a day would it be to honeft humble fouls, that 
were wont to delight themfclves in the publikc worftiip of God, 
and to find inftrudion, and admonition, and confolation futable 
to their ncceffities ! If now they (hould have all turned to what 
the Doctrine of thefc men portends, their fouls would be as in 
.a Wildernefs, and fafliinc would confume them, and they would 
lament as DavU in his baniftimcnt, and the Jews in their 'captivi- 
ty, to think of the daies that once they fa w. 
I, : -Sed. 28. 22. And doth it not imply a great deal oi unholi' 
Wtfs 2LnA enmitU to R( formation ^ when men dare thus boldly un- 
church the moft. of the Reformed Churches, and pafs fuchde- 
fperate nullifying cenfure^ on the moft holy, able, painful Mini- 
iJcK of thg. Gofpcfe Q : how many of them are ftudying, and 
" '" watch- 


watching and praymg for their people day and night, and ceacA- 
•ngthem publickly and from houfeto houfe, and that fome- 
cimes with tears, willing to fpend and be fpent fo their Salva- 
tion, not fccking theirs but them ^ and when they have done 
all, they arc reproichedas noMinidersof Chnft, and the peo- 
ple taught to difown them and forfake them. Is thiiafignofa 
ion of God, that is tender of his honour and intercft ? or of a 
Holy Gracious foul ? 

Sed.29. 23. Atleaftbythis means the bands of MInifters 
are weakned in their work, and their difticulcies increafcd, and 
their hearts grieved, becaufeof their peoples mifery. O if they 
could have but a free unprejudiced hearing with poor finners 
lome good might be done 1 But they will not hear us, nor 
come neer us, or fpeak to us : Efpccially when they are taught to 
forfake us by fuch men. I would not be the man that (hould thus 
add burden and grief to the faithful Minifters of Chrift» upon 
fuch an account, for all the Bifhopricks on earth. 

Sed. 30. 24 Theyalfo diftrad the minds of Chriftians, when 
they hear men thus degrading and unchurching one another; 
fo that weak perfons ar^c perplexed, and know not what to think 
nor what Church or Religion to be of: yea it is well if many be 
not tempted hereby to be of no Religion at all : when they hear 
them condemning one another. 

Sed.3 i.2 5.Therc fhewtoo much formality and Ccremoniouf- 
nefs,when they fo much prefer their own opinon,about acircu©« 
ftance. Ceremony or Mode, before the very being of the Chur- 
ches and Minif^ry, and the fubf^ance of wo: (hip it felf, and the 
Salvation of men fouls : As if it were better for Churches to be 
no Churches , then not Prelatical Churches : or for fouls to be 
condemned, then to be favcd by men that are not Prelatical. [ 
fpcaknot thefethings to exafpcratc them f though I can expjft 
no better : ) but in the grief of my foul for the fad condition that 
they would bring men into. 

Seft. 32. 26. They lay a very dangerous fnarc, to draw Mi- 
niflers to be guilty of carting off the work of God. Tlefh and 
blood would be glad of a fair pretence for fo much liberty and 
eafe. Q how fain would it be unyoakr, and leave this labou- 
riouf, difpleafing kind oflife / And when fuch as ihefe ftiall 
pcrfwadc them that they are no Minifters, they may do much to 

K k gratifie 


gratificthe flcfti. For fomc will fay, I am at a hfs^ hetween both 
Tfvayej ; 1 cannot fee the Uvpfnlnefs of Prelacy • and jet they fpeak^ 
Jo confidently of the nullitj of all other callings^ that J will for- 
bear till I am better refolved Another will fay, I find my felf 
lobe no Minifier , and therefore free from the Obligation to Altnifie- 
rial Offices ; and J will tal^e heed how I come w^^er thjtt yoal^ 
again, till I have fuller refolmion. Another will fcruplc being 
tffice Ordained, and fo will think it fafcr to furccafc. At leafl 
they tempt men to Aich rcfolutions, that would dilcharge thena 
from fo hard a work. 

Sefl. 3 3 . 27.By this means alfo they make the breaches that 
are among us to be uncurable, and proclaim themfclves utter- 
ly unrcconcileable to the moft of the Proreftant Churches. 
For if they will have no reconciliation or communion with 
them, till they (hailconfefs therafelves no Churches, and caft 
off all their Minifters, they may as well fay flatly ,they will have 
none at all. For no reafonable man can imagine or expcft that 
ever the Churches fhould yield to thefe terms. When they are de- 
clared no Minifters or Churches, you cannot then have Commu- 
nion with them as Minifters or Churches. 

Sed.34. 28.Anditiseafie to fee how much they befriend and 
encourage the Papifts in all this. Is it not enough that you 
have vindicated the Pope from being the Antichrift, but you 
muft alfo openly proclaim that Rome Is a true Church, their 
Priefts true Priefts, their Ordinances and Adminiftrations Valid, 
but all the Proteftant Churches that are not Prelatical are indeed 
no Churches, their Minifters no Minifters, e^c. Who would not 
then be a Papift rather then a member of fuch a Proteftant 
Church ? How can you more plainly invite men to turn Papifts , 
unlefs you would do it exprefly and with open face ? Or how 
could you gratirie Papifts more? 

Sed. 35. 29. And truly if all thefe evils were accompl fhed, 
the Minifters forfaken, iniquity let loore,the Ordinances propha- 
ned by unworthy men, crc. we could cxped nothing but that 
the judgements of God fhould be poured out upon us for our 
Apoftacy : and that temporal plagues. involuntary fhould ac- 
company thefpiritual plagues that we have chofen / and that 
God ihould even forfake our land, and make us a by word and an 

f hilFing 


hilling to the Nacioni : and that his judgements fhouM write as 
upon our doors, 'This is the people that vpilfptily caji tut the Ail' 
niters rtrtd mercies of the Lord, 

Se(f^. 36. 30 And jf all this were but accompliflicd , in the 
Corclufion I maybe bold to ask, rvhat rvonUthe Devil himftlf 
have more , except our dttmnAtienit felf} It be were CO plead 
hisowncaufe, and to fpcak for himfciF, would he not fay the 
very lame as thefe Leirncd, Reverend Difputcrs do ? would he 
not fay to all our gracclefs people, Hear tt:t thefe Minijiers : they 
are no true Mimflcrs: Jcjn not in Commftnion with their Churches^ 
thejareno true Churches } I doubt not but he would fay many 
ofthe fame words, if he had leave to fpeak. And fhouldnota man 
of any fear be afraid, and a man of any pie:y be unwilling to 
plead the very caufc of Satan, and fay as he would have them 
fay, by accufingfomany famous Churches and MirHfters , as- 
being none indeed, and drawing the people fo to ccnfure them 
and forfake them ; This isno work for a Minifter ofChriO^. 

SeA. 37. Belidcs what is here faid,l defire thofe whom it doth 
concern,that are afraid of plunging thcrafelves into the depth of 
guile and horror, that they will impartially read over my firft 
(heetforthc Miniftry, which further (hews the aggravations of 
their fin that arc now the oppofcrs and reproachers of thera, 
Confider thcm,and take heed. 

SeA.38. ButagainIdefirethefeBrethrentobelieve,thaca8ic 
is none ot the Prclatical Divines that 1 here fpeak of» but thofe 
that thus nullifie our Church &Mini{\ry .while they own the Mi- 
niftry and Church of i^owf^fo it is none ofmydelire to provoke 
even tbefe, or injure them in the leaft degree • But I could not 
in this fad condition of the Church,but propound thefe hainoui 
evils to their confideration, to provoke them to try, and to take 
heed left rhey fhould incur fo great a load of guilt, while they 
think they are pleading for Order in the Church. How can there 
be any charity to the Church,or to our brethren in us.if we can 
fee them in fuch a gulf of fin as this,and yet fay nothing to them, 
for fear of provoking them todifpleafurc? 

Sed. 39. And 1 think it neccffary that all young men that arc 
caft by their arguings into temptations of falling with them into 
the fame tranfgretlions, (hould have the cafe laid open to them, 
that they may fee their danger ; and not by the accafationi of 

Kk 2 Schifm 

Schifm be led into far greater real Schifm,w/ich Co miny other fins 
IS tbefe. 

Sed. 40. Yet is it not my intentto juftificany difordcrsor 
mifcarriages that any have been guilty of in oppofitiontothe 
Prelacie. And if they can prove that 1 have been guilty of any 
fuch thing ray fe!f, I fhajl accept of their reproof, and con- 
demn my fin as foon as lean difcern ir. Only I mud crave that 
the ufual way of prefumption, affirmation, or bare names of 
crimes be not fuppofed fufficicnt for Con virion, without proof, 
and before the caufe is heard. And alfo I do profefs that for 
all that I have here faidagainfttheEnglifti Prelacy, and though 
I earneftly defire it may never be reftorcd,yec were I to live un- 
derit again, I would live peaceably and fubmiflively, being 
obedient, and perfwading others 10 obedience, in all things law- 



- 'i* "*:•■ i ":*:' i' i.-' £.^ X- 'i- '1" 

C H A P. I X. 

The finfulnefs of defpifing or negleBing 

3cd. I . ^^^^Sfli^l^^^^T is a thing fo common and hard- 
ly avoided, for men in oppofing 
one extream, to feem to counte- 
nance the other^and for men that 
are convinced of the evil of one, 
to run into the other as the only 
truth , that I think it neceffa- 
ry here ro endeavour the pre- 
vention of this mifcarriagc .• and 
having faid fo rauch againft the Neccfijty of Prelatical Ordina- 
don^and infome cafes of any , I ibal) nexcfh?w the greatness 



of their fin that defpifc or neglcd Ordination when ic may be 

Sed. 2. Vorthe riglit underftanding of what ii to be fafd, I 
muft again remember you, that though it be not at the Ordain- 
ers will to deprive the Church of Mmiftcrs, and it is none of 
iheQaelHon which they have to refolvc , Whether the Church 
Jhall have Aiinijlers or »o»f fand therefore there may be Miniftcrs 
without them, if they would hinder or refufe ; ) And though it 
be no[ the Quellion which is put to their decifion, what hind of 
Minifitrs the Church fhall have ( for that Chrift hath determin- 
ed of j ) nor yet wW ^jtalificaticns arenecej[arj to them, (for 
that alio Chridhath already fet down ; ) yet is it a great and 
weighty cafe that is put to the decifion of Ordaincrs, that is, 
whether this ma» i>e thus qualified as Chrifi hath defcribed and 
re<jNired i» LMiniJiers ? and whether he bethefittefi perfon ( or 
fit at leaft ) for the particular charge to rohicb he is called ? And 
the right determining ot this queI\ion is a thing that the Chur- 
ches welfare doth very much ^depend upon. 

Sed. 3 . And therefore it is the decifion of this one Queftion, 
that Minirtcrs, People and Magilkaces themfelves, muft all con- 
tribute their powers and endeavours too in their feveral places. 
All that they have to do is but to fee that the Churches have fit 
men, even fuch as are qualified as Godrequireth. The Peo' 
/(/(rmuft choofe fit men : orconfent to them when chofcn for 
them: The Payors muft try them^and Approve theWa<t»d only them 
that are fit : The Ma^iftrate muft enceurage, ajfift and defend ht 
men, and forbid fuch as are intolerably unfit, and not permit 
them to abafc the name and Ordinances of Chrift, and wrong 
his Church. 

Sed. 4. This treble guard at the door of the Church doth 
much tend to its fecurity , and prefervation from the great evils 
that intruders may introduce. And each party of the three hath 
a fpecial intereft which (hould make them carefull of the bufi- 
cefs ■ 1 . The people have great reafon to have a hand in it , and 
to be carefull : For it is their Bonis for which their Overfeers 
watch, and their Salvation that is concerned in it. And he that 
will not truft his Son with any Tutor without due choice,nor his 
ftate with every Lawyer,nor his body with every Phyfician, no 
nor his land, or cattle with every fcrvant, but will choofe the 

Kk 3 beft. 

beft, hath reafontoknow upon whofc care he trufteth his foul. 
For though it may be fome excufe , it will be no juftification of 
them that lie in fin and mifery, to fay , Offr Teachers did mif- 
leadus. For if the blind lead the blind, it is both that fall into 
the ditch ; And as Cyprian faith ( with the reft of hisCoi- 
legues, ) Epifl. 68- ( alias Li.l. Ep,^.) [ Propter quod plena 
diligentia^ exploratione fincera oportet eosad Sacerdotinm delegi^ 
(juos a Deo confiet audiri. Nee fibi plebs bUndiatHr^ (jttaji im- 
mUMtieJfe a contagio deliEli pcjfit cum Sacerdote peccatore commU' 
means ^ & ad injujifim at^; i/Hcitfim frapofiti fm Epifcopatum 
confenjUm fHHm commodans^ dec. ■ — ] Befidcs the work 

oftheMiniftry is Teaching and Perfwafivc.and thefuccefs is only 
on the Willing : and feeing we can do nothing on them for their 
good againft their wills,or without their orvn Confent,\t is need- 
iiiU therefore that fome way or other their Cenfent (hould be 
procuredjUnlefs we would fruftrate all our labour, andmifs our 
end. And alfo, a Church is a Society Voluntarily conjoined for holy 
fVorJhip and Living: Sind thertfort it is contrary to the nature of 
it,that they (hould have Paftor?, or be members and not Cenfent, 
Scd. 5. And 2. For the Magilirate , there is great reafon 
that he have his part alfo in the work •. For the honour of CJod 
muft be his End ; the Law of God his chiefeft Rule • the 
Church of Chrift his chiefeft fubjeds ; and the work ofChrift, 
his chifeft care and bufinefs. And feeing he Ruleth/r<j»?Chrift ,and 
ijf Chrift,and for Chrift,it isnccefTary that he take care of the 
quality, and enterance,and carriage of MinifterSjOn whom Chrifts 
work and honour doth fo much depend. 

Seft.6. Yet is there here a fpecial difference between the works 
of thefe feveral parties in admitting men into the Miniftry. The 
proper or necefTiry work of the people,is but to difcern and con- 
fent: Whether they be the firft Eledors,is a matter of indifferen- 
cy in it felf,& is foraetime fit, and foraetime unfit.The Magiftrates 
work is not to Ordain Minifters ; but carefully to Ovcrfee the 
Ordainers and thePeople,thit they put in none but worthy men: 
And if he find that they mifcarry, he is not (ordinarily at leaft) 
to take the work upon him, and Ordain fitter men himfcif; but 
to correA them to whom the work belongs, for their male-ad- 
miniftration, and reftrain them from mifdoing, and urge them 
hy due means to do it better, or caufe them to be difplaccd that 


are i3nreformabie,that better may be chofen in their flead, that 
will be faithfull. 

Scd^. 7. And 3. The reafon of the Miniflers interefl in the 
work, I fliall more at large lay down anon. And though there 
be a pofTibilicy of frequent differences arifing , through difa- 
grecmcnt of thefe three feveral parties, yet Chrift would rather 
ufethis treble guard for caution, then for the preventing of divi- 
fion, lay open his Church to the injury of intruders. 

Sed.8. And remember af;ain, that it is not in the Power of Ma- 
giftrates, Ordainers, People andall to make a Miniller of Chrifl, 
of a man that wanteth the Eflfcncial Qualifications : Ex qmvis 
ligno Konfit Mcrcuritts. He that is not qualified for the works 
Effertialtoa MiniOer, cannot by Ordination be made a Mini- 
flcr •• No more then the bare ftamp can make currant money 
of a piece of lead, when the Law makes the Mettal EfTential to 
currant Coin: And no more then a licenfe will make him a School- 
maftcr that cannot read : or him a Pilot, that knows not how to 
Rule thefliip: (inh {^^prianuH fnp. [^Sedenim defiderio hmc 
vejiro, non tarn noflra concilia, (juam Dtvina prdcepta refpondent ; 
quibfis jampridem manddtur voce Cdtlcjii, & Dei lege prefcribi- 
tiir^ (jHos c^ qnalcs eporteut defcrvire altari, (fr Sacrifcia Di- 
vina cehbrdre. ( Here he ciccth Scripture ) J^£ cum prxdiUs 
er mamfefta ftnt nobis, praceptij Divinis necejfe eji obfeqMtA nojira 
deftrviant : Nee pcrfonam in ejufm^di rtbpts aqeipere^ aut ali^uid 
CHi(Jf4am largiri poteft hftmana indnlgentia ubi inttrcedit^ ^ Ic 
gem tribmt Divinn prafcri^tio. \ (Jod gives not men authority 
to contradict his Law, or to Ordain a man uncapable of Ordi- 
nation ^ nor introduce the form,wherc the matter is undifpofed 
for it. 

Sed. 9 Vixh2L^%{Qmt^\\\2i%kyiVhnfhstildbedone,incafethAt 
thefe I hree parties diftgree : If the Magi ^r Ate rvtuld have one 
man, and the Or dmitierf another, and the people a third, or if trvo 
of them go one way, and the third another ? To which I anfwer, 
There are many things that rauft be taken into confideration 
for the right refolving of the cafe. Either the perfons nominated 
are equal or unequal: Either they are all capable, or fome of 
them uncapable : Either the welfare of that Church dependeth 
on the choice; orelfeitmay be fomewbat an indifferent cafe. 
I. If there be but one Minifter to be had, and the DifTenters 


would have Honc,then it is pail controverfie, that the D (Tenters 
are to be difobeycd. 2. Ifonc party would have a Godly, Able 
Minillcr, and the other would have an incapable, intolerable 
perfon, then it is pjiit doubr, that the party that is for the worthy 
perlbn ought to prevail, and it is his duty to infift upon it,and the 
duty or the reft to yield to him . 3 . If any will make a contro- 
veriic in this cafe where there is none, and izy^lToufaj this man 
isfinefi^ and ] fay the other Man ('that isuncapable) isfitteft^ 
andwho jhall be jnd^e ? ] The party that is in the right rauft 
hold CO f.heir ducy, till they arc perfecuted from it,and appeal to 
God, who will judge inequity. If a blind man fay to a min 
that huth his cye-fight [| Tottfaj that you fee ; and 1 fay that J fee;, 
yoH fay that it i* day, and I fay it is night j rohojballbe believid?] It 
is not fuch words that will warrant a wife man to renounce his 
eye-fight, God will judge him to be in the right thaf is fo indeed. 
4. But if really the feveral parties are for feveral Minifters that 
are 4// tolerable^ yet if there be any notable difference in their 
fitnefs, the parties that are for the lefs fit, fhould yield to the 
party that is for the more fit. If you fay. They difcem it noty 
I anfwer, that is their fin, which will not jultifie^thcm in a 
futthcr fin, or excufe them from a duty. They might dif- 
ccrn , if they were not culpable , in fo great a difference, 
at ieafl: whom they arc bound to take for the moft fit. 
5. But if there tc no great inequality , then thefe Rules 
ftiould bcobferved. i. The Magifirate fliouldnot deny the 
people their Xj^frf;* of choice, nor the Minivers their Liberty 
in Approbation or diffallowance • but only Overfee them all, 
that they faithfully do their feveral duties. 2. The Aiinifters 
(hould not hinder the people frocn their Choice^ where both 
parties nominated are fie , but content thcmfelves Wirh their 
proper work. 3 . The Veo'^le fhould not inftfl upon their cheice, 
if the Minifters to whom it belongeth, do difallow the ferfon , 
and take him to be unmeet, and refufcto ordain him; becaufe 
obedience in fuch cafes is their duty , and a duty that cannot 
tend to their lofs : at Ieafl not to fo much hurt to them 
as the contrary irregular courfe may prove to the Church. 
4. If Magiftratcs or Miniflers would make the firft choice^ and 
urge the people to confent if the perfon be fir,ic is the fafeft way 
for the people to obeyand confent, though it were better for 



the Rulers to give them more freedom in the choice. 5. If a 
peopie be generally ignorant ( \n too great a mcafure, ^ and 
addicted to uPiVoichy men, or apt to divjfions, c^c. itis their 
fafefl: way to dcfire the Minifiers to choofe fo: them. Or if they 
will not do fo, itis thefifell way for the Minificrs to offer them 
a man: Yet fo that Magif.rates and Miniilerj (hould expcft their 
Confent, and not fet any man over them as their Paftor without 
conicnt fome way procured. 6. But ifthey are no Church, but 
uncalled perfons , and it be not a Pajler of a Church ^ but a 
Preacher to Convert men^ and fit tl em for a Church-flatc , that 
is to be fettled, then may the Magijlrate fettle fuch a man, and 
force the people to hear him preach. 7. If Nectjpty require 
not the contrary, the matter (hould be delayed, till Magiftratc, 
Miniftcrs and people do agree. 8 . The chofen Pafiors (hould de- 
cide the cafe thcmfelves : 'X\\ty {ho\x\d not accept the place, and 
Cow/fwf, till all be agreed, unlefs there be a Necellity. And if 
there be,then the greateft neceffity fhould mod fway. If the 
Magiflrate refift, he will forciby prohibite and binder you from 
preaching. If the Minifteri refift, they will deny you the right 
hand offclIow(hip. If the people refift, they will not hear nor 
join in worlhip nor obey. All thcfe if podible (hould be avoid- 
ed. The Peoples confent ("to a Piftor of a Church)it of Ncceflity. 
We cannot do the work of Paftori without it. And therefore nei- 
ther Magiftrates or Mirrifters can drive us on where this is wanr- 
ing('unlefs it be only to feek it, or only to do the work of Preach- 
ers to men without. ) Unity and Communion with Neighbour- 
Churches is fo much to be defired, that nothing but Neceflity 
can warrant us to go on without it. And the Magiftrates reftraint 
is fo great a hinderance, that nothing but Nece(Tity can warrant 
us to caft our fel vcs upon it. And therefore out of cafes of Ne- 
ceflity,the Mini(\ers nominated fhould not confent till all agree ; 
Butincafcs ofNccedity, the fouls ofmen and the wor(hipo£' 
God, murtnotbe difregarded or neglefted , though neigh- 
bour .Churches or Miniftcrs difown us, or Magiftrates pcrfecutc 

Se3. I o. Remember thefe Diftindions for the underftanding 
of what follows. I . Its one thing to be Approved, and another 
thing to be foleranly Invefted. Ordination confifteth of thefe 
two parts. 2. We muft difference between Ordination, by one 

LI Paftor, 


Pciflor, and by many. 3. Between Ordination by Paflors of 
the fame Church, Of of many Churches. 4. Between O.di- 
nationby(ufficientor inrutticient Minillers. 5. And between 
Ordnation by Neighbour Miniftersor Strangers. 6, And be- 
tween Ordination by Divided Miniftcrs, and Concordant. On 
thefc preinifed I propore as folio wcch. 

Seft. II. Prop. I. Approbaciohby Miniflers is ordinarily to 
be fought and received by all that will enter into the Miniftry. 
I gave fome Rcafons hdorc^Chap. 2. Which here I fliail enlarge, 
by which the finfulnefs of Neglecting this Approbation may 

SeA. 12. Rcaf. 1. It is the way that God bath appointed us 
in Holy Scripture, and therefore to be followed. They that 
Ordained Elders or Bifhops in the Churches,did more then Ap- 
prove them, but could do nolefs, iTiw. 4. 14. Timotloy was 
ordained by the Impofition of the hands of the Presbyterie , 
I Tim. 3. 1 S. P4«/ giveth Timothy the defcription of BiQiops 
and Deacons,that he may know how he ought to behave himfclf 
inthehoufeof God, which is the Chuch, ^c. That is , that 
heraay know whom to Approve of or Ordain, Tit.i.$. Titus 
was 10 Ordain Elders in every City, «^fif/ 13. 1,2, 3. The 
Prophets and Teachers in the Church at t.^«f /or J5r did feparate 
BarMabas and Pant to the work, with Fafting and Prayer,and 
impofition of hands. It was thcApoflles that Ordained them 
Elders in every Church, /^^i 14.23. Suppofe itmuft be read 
t by Suffrages] as many would have it, that provcth no more 
but that the People did confcnc : But fti<l it is Pahl&nd Barnabas 
that Ordained them Elders, though with the peoples fuffrages, 
and it is they that are faid to faft and pray in the next words. 
i^Si.6. 3. Exprefly (hews that the People chofc the Dea- 
cons , and the Apoftles ordained them [Look ye out among 
your felves feven men of honef^ report, full of the Holy GhoS 
and wifdom,whom ^e may appoint over this bufincf<.^But I (hsW 
cut ftiort this part of my taskjbecaufc fo much is faid of it already 
by many that have written for Ordination, to whom I (hall re- 
fer you. 

Scd. 13 Reaf. 2.Iftherebenotaftanding regular way for 
Trying ard Approving fuchas enter into the Miniftry, then men 
will tc left to be their own judges, and if they can but get the 



confent of any Congregation, will prefenty be Paftori. But this 
courfc would tend to the ruinc or confufion of ihc Church, as I 
fhall manlfefl by evidence. 

Std. 14. I . If all men may enter into the Miniftry that will, 
upon their own pcrfwafion that they are fie, themoft proud, 
fclf-concciced, worthlcfs men will bcthc rcadieft togo, and if 
t ey can get hearers, will moft abound in the Churchy and the 
people will quickly have heaps of Teachers .For we all know that 
many of the Ignorant arc leaft acquainted with their ignorance : 
and commonly the Proud have the highcft thoughts of them- 
felves.and think none fo fie to Teach and Rule as they. And what 
could be more to the (hameand hazzard of the Church,then 
to have it taught and guided by fuch ignorant unworthy men ? 
Scft. ly 2. Moreover, Humble men are fo confcious of 
their weaknefs , and fcnfible of the burden and grcatnefs of 
the work, that they think themfclves unworthy , and therefore 
would draw back ; and fo by their forbearance would give way 
to the forefaid proud intruders. And thus the Church would 
foon be darkened, defiled, and brought low, if all men were 
their own judges. 

Sc6t. 16. 3. Moreover, it is the common difpoficion of Er- 
roneous and Hcrerical perfons to be exceeding zealous for the 
propagacingof their errors, and bringing as many as is pofsiblc 
totbeirmind. Sothatif allbelcfcco themfelves, the iboII He* 
retical will run firft, and carry their filth into the houfc of God, 
and feduce and undo men inftead of faving them, 

Seft. 17. 4. By this means alfo the Covetous and fordid 
worldlings will crowd in : and men will do by Preaching, as they 
do by Ale felling, even make it their laft Trade when others 
fail : and he that breaks in any other Trade, if he have but any 
rolubility of fpeech, will prefently turn Prieft ; till the Office 
and Ordinances of God feem vile, and be abhorred by the 
people. This muft be the Coflfequent if all be left to their own 

Sed. 18. 5. And it is too known a cafe, that the people 
will bid fuch perfons welcome, and fo they will make a match. 
The erroneous and giddy party will have fuch as are futable to 
them. AndtheCovetousparty will have him that will do their 
work beft cheap : if they will preach for nothing or for little, he 

LI 2 Oiall 

(hill be a man for them, though he would Tead them to pcrdlti* 
on. If it be poyfon, thcy'i take it, if it coft them nothing. And 
many there be that will have their own kindred or friends to 
make Priefts of ; and all that they have intereft in tnuft joyn 
with them on the account of fricndfhip. And the childifti in- 
judicious fort of Chriftians will follow them that have the 
fmt)Otheft tongues, or beft opportunities and advantages to pre- 
vail with them. And fothey w\\\ he toffed uf anddoyvn^ and car' 
rjed to and fro yptth every tvindof doilrine ^according to the cunmng 
fleigbt and fubtihy of men, hj which thej lie in rvait to deceive. ] 
Eph. 4. 14. ty^nd they will be carried about with divers and 
firange doBrines^ Hcb. 13.9. 

SeA. 19- ^caf. 3. And when the ^/«jy?nV is thus corrupt- 
ed fby making every man judge of his own fitnefs ) the 
Church will be corrupted, and degenerate into a common liare,. 
and ceafe to be a Church ( if Reformation do not ftop the gan- 
grene.) For it commonly goeih with the Church according to 
the quality of theMiniftrie. An ignorant Minillrie, and an ig- 
norant people i an erroneous Miniftrie, and an erring people ; 
a fcandalous MiniPtrie, and a fcandalous people commonly go 
together. Like Prieft, like people is the common cafe. 

Seft. 20. Reaf. 4. And by this means Chriftianiiy it felf 
will be di (honoured, and fecm to be but a common religion,and fo 
but a deceit , to the great di(honour of Jefus Chrift ^ for the 
world will judg,eof hira and his caufe, by the lives of them that 
teach it and profefs it. 

Scd. 21. Reaf. 5. And by this means God will be provo- 
ked to depart from us, and be avenged on ui for our difhonoufi 
ing him. If he would fpew out of his mouth lukewarm Lnodi- 
cea, what would he do to fuch degenerate focietics? If moftof 
the feven Churches, Rev.z &3.had their warnings or thrcat- 
nings for fmaller faults, what would fuch corruptions bring us 
to , but even to be plagued or forfaken by the Lord ? 

Sed. 22. Reaf. 6. If you (hould be men of ability and 
fitnefs for the work your fclves,that enter without Approbation 
and Ordination,yec others might be encouraged by your exam, 
pie that are unfit ; and if you once thus fet open the door, you 
know not how to keep out woolves and fwire : all the perfons 
before delcribed will take the opportunity, and fay, Why may 


not we enter unordaitted^ as rre/l as fuch and fuch .•' 

Scd. 23. Reaf. 7, By this means alfo you will leave many 
fobcr godly pcrfons unratlsfied in your Miniftry, as not knowing 
whether they miy own you asMinifters or nott&how much you 
fhould do to avoid fuch offence, me thinks you might perceive. 
Sedl. 24. Reaf. 8. By this courfe alfo you will walk con- 
trary to the Catholike Church of Chrift, and that in acaufe 
where you cannor reafonablv pretend any neceflity of fo doing. 
Ever fince Chrift had a Miniftry on earth, the conftant fordina- 
ry ) way of their adraiKance hath been by Minifterial Ordina- 
tion, if any man defpifc this, and be contentious, we have no 
fuch Cuftome, nor the Churches of God. Is it a defign be- 
feeming an humble man, a Chriftian, a fober man, to find out 
anew wav of making Minifters now in the end of the world? as 
if all the Minifters from the Apoftles dayes till now, had come in 
at a wrong door, and wanted a true Calling ? This is too near 
the making a New Minlftry ; and that's too near the Making of 
a new Church : and that's too near the feigning of. a new Chrift, 
The Church hath many promifes, that the gates of Hel^fhaU 
rot prevail againft it i that Chrift will be with her Minifters to 
the end of the world, they being given by him for the perfcft- 
ing of the Saints, and edifying of the Body of Chrift, till we 
all come in the unky of the faith, and knowledge of the Son of 
God, to a perfet^ man, &c. Eph.^,iz^ii. And therefore we 
muft not eilily believe, that the Miniftry of the univerfal Church 
have been falfly called or admitted untillnow, and you have 
found out a better way at laft. 

Scd. 25. Reaf. 9. You would bring that irratiosal confu- 
fion into the Church of the living God, which is not to be in- 
troduced into the bafeft Commonwealth or fociety in the world. 
Voj have more wit then to let all men play the Phyfitians : but 
will firft have them tryed by men of their own Profeflion .• or 
elfe the lives of many may pay for your Licentioufnefs. Yoa 
will have Schoolmafters approved by them that have Learning, 
before you will commit your children to their truft. And (hall 
every man be a Teacher and Ruler that will in the Church of 
Chrift, as if it were the only confufed contemptible Society in 
the world? God is not the God of Confufion, but of Peace, ai 
in all the Churches, faith the Apoftle, i C^r. 14.33, 

LI 3 s«a. 

ScA. 26. Retf. 10. Do buc confidcr how highi and holy, 
and honourable a Calling it is to bca Minifter of the Gofpel.-and 
then it will appear,that it is horrible Profanation of Holy things, 
to fufferallthatwill,to invade it. They are to be the Embaffa- 
dors of Chrift, and fpcak as in his Name, and to be Stewards of 
his Myfterics and Houfhold, and to ftand near him, as at his 
altar,and to difpenfe his treafurCjto magnifie and praifc his Name, 
and to adminifter his holy Sacraments, f^c. Andfliouldall that 
will, be taught to ufurp or invade fuch an holy Calling ? 

Sed. 27. Reaf. 11, Confideralfo, how great a Truji it 19 
that is committed to all thatareMiniftersof theGofpcl. The 
fouls of men are committed to them : the Myftcrics of God, 
tbepreciouspromifesandglad tidings of Salvation arc commit- 
ted to them : the order and affairs of the houfe of God are com- 
mitted to them :thofe that are Chrifts Sheep, his Jewels, his 
Friends, his Brethren, his Spoufe, his Members, and as the apple 
of his eye, arecomnitted to them. And is it fucablc to fo great 
aTruft, that men untryed, unapproved, that do but think well 
of themfclves, and their own doings, Ihallat their pleafure take 
fo great a charge ? Whatman of honour and wit among you, 
will give every man leave to be your Steward, that hath but fol- 
ly and pride enough to think himfelf fit for it? and will not ra- 
ther choofe your Stewards your felves ? 

Sed. 2%. Reaf. 12. And is it not evidently notorious Cru- 
elty to the fouls of men, to caft them upon every unworthy fel- 
low that will but be impudent enough to undertake the charge ? 
Do you fetfo light by mens evcrlafting Joy or Torment? You 
would not fo contemptuoully caft away mens lives ; and will you 
To contemptuouflycaft away their fouls ? And what a contempt 
isitof the Wood of Chrift, thatthepurchafemadeby it ftiould 
be thus neglcdcd ? You will lock up your money, and look to 
your goods, and take care of every groat of your eftatestand 
ihall the fouls of men,and the blood and the inheritance of Chriil 
be no more regarded ? Thisisunjuft. 

Seft. 29. Reaf. 13. Yea and it is a way of Cruelty to the 
«jcn themfelves, if every man that is fick of fclf-conceit, or 
Pride, ihall have leave to exercife it, and run therofclvcs into 
unfpeakable guilt, by undertaking fuch works as they are no 
way ablefcr ; Alas, have not thefc poor finncrs trangreflions 


enough of cheir own already, butyoumuft encourage them to 
draw the blood of fouls, and the fins of fomany others upon 
their heads? O vvfiac a burden do they take upon them I and 
what a dreadful danger do they run into? Had you faith and 
any pitty of fouls, you would rather ftudy to do your bcfi 
to prevent mens deftroying of therafelves and others, andfal* 
ling altogether into the ditch/ Iknowyou'l fay, that you are 
guilty of no fuch thing :iti$ the faving, and not the deflroy- 
ing of fouls that you intend by being Miniftcrs unordained : 
but your intentions will not jurtifie your cruel and deftrudive 
practices. Its plain thax you teach men by your doctrine and 
example to be their own judges of their fitnefs for the Miniftry, 
or to neglect the judgement of the Paftors of the Church ;ancl 
what better can this courCe produce ? 

Sed. 30. Reaf. 14. Either you are fit for the Miniftry, or 
unfit : if fit •, why (hould you be afraid of tryal ? He that doth 
evil comes not to the light :itisafign of an ill caufe that can- 
not endure a juft tryal. But if you are unfit, is it not better to 
forbear ? 

Sc6t. 31. Rcaf. 15. Your very refufing of a tryal doth 
give the people fufficient reafon to queftion your call and fitnefs 
for the work, or your humility at leaft .-for humble men think 
meanlycr of ihemfelves, then to judge themfelves meet for 
fuch great employments, when they have not theencourage« 
mcnt of men that are more fie to judge .- the good men of old 
were wont to run away from a Bifhoprick, or Paftoral dignity 
inthcfenfeof their unfitnefs: fo that the Bifhops were ftin to 
feek and fend after them: and Gregory of Neoce/aresvm Or- 
dained by TheMmus when he was three daies journey from hiro 
evenagainft his will; and then charged by him in the name of 
Chrift to yield nmo the Call. And what then (hall we think of 
that fort of men, that think themfelves fo good and worthy, 
as to run on their own heads, without due approbation ? 

SeA. 32. Reaf. 16. It is natural for man to be i'4rr<4/ in 
his own Caufe ; infomuch as no law or equity will allow men to 
be witneflfcs or judges for themfelves in the fraalleft civil contro- 
vcrfie : and fhall they be judges of themfelves in fo great a caufe ? 
Are not others more impartial ? 
Sed. 33. Rctf. ij. You caft away your own encourage- 

mcnt and fupport, and create vexation to your own Confclcn- 
ces. There are fo many difficulties to be conquered in this work, 
imdfo many fufferings to be endured, that if a man be not clear 
that his Call was good, he is like to be left to great difcomforts. 
We have exceeding great labours to undergo ; we have abun- 
dance of enemies and impediments to drive with : we have 
many a fcorn and unthankful return, and perhaps imprifonment 
or death to undergo: we are our felves, alas,too weak and infuffi- 
cient, and mud depend on God for daily helps. And with wbae 
confidence can you expcd his help, if you Call yowr felves, and 
«nter not by his Approbation ? And how will you ever go 
through all this, and fuff^r fomuch with Chriftian comfort,when 
you cannot fay that you are fent of God, and have nothing 
but your own overweening conceits of it? Could you but fay, 
£ I entered by the way that God appointed, and was cot my 
own Judge ] you might have fome more boldnefs and confidence 
of Gods affiance. 

Scd. 34. Reaf. iS.Theraofl: that plead againfl Ordination, 
that are worthy the name of fober Chriftians , do plead but 
againft the Nectjfitj of it, and cannot deny it to be Urpful : and 
(hould not all the rcafons before mentioned prevail with you to 
jfubmit to a /^i^/iv/thing ? 

Szdt, 35. Reaf. 19. And if it be thus undenyable, that men 
muft not be their ov>n Judges, it will foon appear that Mm'ifiirs 
are the {landing Judges of mens fitnefs for this work, bccaufi: 
no other Judges are appointed to it, or capable of it. kmuft be 
an ordinary dated way of Approbation, that can give us fatif- 
faftion .-.for if God iiad left the cafe at large, for men to go to 
whom they will, it would be ail one as to goto none at all, but 
to be Judges themfelves. And if adanding way of Approba- 
tion mud be acknowledged Jet us enquire where it is to be found .• 
and look which way you wi'J, and you (hall find no other, but 
this which is by men of the fame Calling with them that are to 
be Ordained. 

Se<9:. 36. For i. Magidrates it cannot be : none that T know 
pretend to that. Magiftrates in mod of the world are Infidels: 
^nd therefore cannot there be Ordainers : and none of them 
hath the work committed to them by Chrid, nor do any that I 
JmoWj^flTume it to thenifelres^ 

StSt. 37. And 2. The people it cannot be; For 1. Noman 
can (hew a word of preceptor csamplc for it; nor prove that 
ever God did give them fuch a power : Confent or Eledion is all 
that can be pretended to by them » 2. It is a work that they are 
commonly unable for: the Schollars may as wellTry and Ap- 
prove of their SchoolmaOer. We confefs the People muftbya 
)udgement of difcretion, endeavour to find outthebcft they 
can ; but if they had not helps, and if they were alfo called to z. 
judgement of dircAion and decifion, what work would they 
make? Do the Major vote, C or the Mmor either j in moft or 
alraofi any Congregations, underftand whether a man know 
the meaning of the Scripture, or i»be able to defend the truth, 
or whether he be Heretical or found in the faith, fire. ? God 
would DOC fet men on a work that is thus beyond the line of their 
Capacity. It is a thing not to be imagined, that they that call 
us to be their Teachers, (hould already b« coaimon'y able to 
Judge whether we are found or unfound, and able to teach 
them or not : for this importeth that they know already as much 
as we ( for wherein they are ignorant, they cannot judge of 
OS.; And if they know as much already, what need have they 
of our Teaching? 3. And it is contrary to the fub jedion and 
inferiority of their Relation ; they that are commanded to learn 
and obey us as their Guides, may yet confent or choofe their 
Teachers, when Approved, or to be Approved by abler men; 
bnt they cannot be imagined to be appointed by God to Ordain 
their own Overfecrs : this is a moft ungrounded fi(^ion. 

Sea. 38. Reaf. 20. On the other fide, it is thePaftorsof 
the Church, andonly they that are fitted to be the ftanding Ap- 
provers or Ordainers, as will appear in thefe particulars, i. Ic 
is they that trc juftly fuppofcd to be of competent abilities to 
try a Minifter. If hero and there a Gentleman or other perfon 
be able, that is a rarity, and therefore no ftanding way for the 
Church in Ordaining Minifters can be gathered thence. 2. Mi- 
nifters are doubly devoted to God and to his Church : and there- 
fore ftiould have, and ordinarily have, the tendereft care of the 
Church. 3. Icis juftly fuppofed that Minifters are ordinarily the 
moft pious and confcionable men that are to be had (or els they 
are too blame that choofe them to be Miniiers ) And therefore 
they may be cxpe(^ed to be moft faithful in the work. 4. And 

Mm they 


they are fewer, and have leflcr perverting incereftf,and therefore 
are like to be Icfs divided in fuch determinations, then the people 
that are fo many, and of fo many incerefts and minds, that if it 
were not for the Moderation of Magiftrates and Minifters, they 
would altnoft everywhere be all to pieces, one being for one 
man, and another for another ; fomefor one of this mind and 
way , and fomc for one of another • fome for the Orthodox, 
and fome for the Heretical. 5. Laftly, it is Miniftcrs, whofe 
Office God hath tyed Ordination to, and who have time to wait 
upon it as their duty : fo that lay all this together, and I think 
the firft Propofition is proved, for the Ncceffity (ordinarily j 
of the Paftors Approbation , ,»nd the finfulncfs of neglcA- 

SeA. 39. Prop. 2. Tt is not only the Paftors of one particu- 
lar Church, but alfo the Paftors of Neighbour- churches that 
hold Communion with that Church, thatftiould regularly Ap- 
prove or Ordain Miniftcrs : though I deny not but he may be 
a Minifter that hath no Ordination but by the Paftors of a 
particular Church , yet I conceive that this n not a regular 

Sed. 40. My reafons are thefe. i. Becaufeifit be ordinarily 
tyed to the Paftors of the fame Church only to Ordain, then it 
will be done ordinarily without any Paftors at all. Formoft 
particular Churches in the world have but one Paftor ; and when 
he is dead, there is none left ro Ordain ; and therefore others or 
none muft do it in fuch cafes. 

Sed. 41. And 2. If there be one lefr, and all the power be 
left in him, the welfare of the Church would run too great an 
bazzard : if every man (hall be Ordained a Minifter that can 
procure the Approbation of a fingle Paftor, the Church will be 
fobjeded to moft of the lamentable roiferies before mentioned, 
fuppofing that men were judges for themfelvcs. 

Sed. 42. And 3. We find in Scripture, that it was not the 
way appointed by the Holy Ghoft, for fingle Paftors to Ordain. 
The forecited Texts and examples arc a fufficient proof. 

Sed. 43. If any fay, that the Ruling Elders may. concur, I 
anfwcr. Though! make no great matter of it, nor would not 
raife a contention about it, yetlmuftfay, that I never yet faw 
any fatisfadory proof, whatever God did inftitute fuch Elders 


as this Objedion meancth, in the Church : that is, i. Such as 
are not Ordained, but come im by mccr Kledion, 2, And fach 
as have the Power of Diftipline and Overfigfit without Autho- 
rity to preach or adminifter the Sacramencs. I think thcfcare 
but humane crcatAjrcs • though I doubt not but there may be 
fuchas /^(^«.z/i)fliiII/«r^Mr preaching and adnainiftration of the 
Safframents, when fomc of their co'.leagus arc fitter for ir. 

Se(S. 44. But 2. If fuch an Office r4;» be proved, I defpair 
of feeing It proved from Scripture, that they have authority to 
Ordain. 3. And how can they have Amh^ntj^ whenraoftof 
them have not AbiUtj} And I think it is fuppofed that they have 
T\ot Abilitjlo Predch, in them that deny them Authority: zn^ 
if they want Abilitj to Preachy its two to one but they want Abi- 
lity to Try And Approve of Pnachtrs. 4. And how come they to 
have Power to Ordain others, that are not Ordaired themfelves, 
but are admitted upon bare Eledion? 5. And this courfc would 
proftitute the Churches to unworthy men, as aforefaid. 

Seft. 45. And 4. It is not a contemptible Confidcration, 
that the chief Paftor of every particular Church , hath ever 
fince the fecond Century at leaft, been Ordained by the Paftors 
of other Churches. And how it was before, we have but ve- 
ry defective Evidence, except fo much as i».lcfcu$intheHoly 
Scriptures, of which wc have fpoke before. 

Sed. 46. And 5. The Church of Chrif^ is a Chain of many 
links : a Society united in Chrifl the Head, confifting as a Repub- 
like of many Corporations, or as an Acederay of many Col- 
ledges : and a greater Union and Communion isrequifite among 
them, then among the parts of any other Society m the world. 
And therefore feeing it is the du:y of Neighbour Paftors and 
Churches, accordingto their Capacity to hold Communion with 
that particular Church and Its Paftors, it fcems reafonable, that 
they have forae antecedent Cognifance and Approbation of the 
perfons that they are to hold Communion with. 

Sed. 47. And 6. It is confiderablc alfo, that whoever it 
according to Chriftiinftitution Ordained a Minifter of a parti- 
cular Church, iswithall (if not before) Ordaified a Miniflir 
ftmplj ; thatis, oncthatrfay asafeparatedMcflcngerof Chrift, 
both preach for the Convcrfion of thofe without, and gather 
Churches where there are none, and fro ttmforc do the Office 

Mm 2 of 


of t Minifter, to any part of the Catholike Church, where he 
Cometh and bach a Call. And therefore as he is (imply a Mini, 
fter, and the Unconverted world, ortheUnlverfal Church arc 
the Obje(5ls of his Minillry, the Paftors or Menibcrs of that 
particular Church where he is fettled, have no more to do in 
Ordaining him then any other. As a Corporation may choofe 
their o«/n Phyfitian, Schoolmafter, ^c. but cannot do any 
more then other men, in Licenfing a man to be in general a Phy- 
fitian, Schoolmafter, ^c. So may a Church choofe who (hall be 
their Teachtr^ but not who (hall be fimply a Teacher or Minifter 
of Chrift, any more then an other Church may do, that's fur- 
ther from him. 

Sed. 48. And 7. It is alfo confiderable, that it is the fafeft 
and moft fatiifadory way to the Church and to the Minifter him- 
felf, to have the Approbation of manj. And it may leave more 
fcruple concerning our Call, when one or two or a particular 
Church only do Approve us. 

Seft. 49. And 8. It i? granred in their writings by thofc 
that are for Ordination by a particular Church only, that the 
Concurrence of more is Law/fil : and if Lawful, I leave it to 
Confidcralion, whether ail the foreraentioncd accidents make 
it not fo far convenient,a$ to be ordinarily a plain duty, and to be 
preferred where it may be had. 

SeA. 50. Yet do I not plead for Ordination by Neighbour 
Pafto's as from a Governing Authority over that particular 
Church : but as from an interefl in the Church Univerfal, and all 
its Officers within their reach, and from anintereft of Commu- 
nion with Neighbour Churches. 

Seft. 51. And it is obfervablc in Scripture, that the Itinerant 
\ Minifters, that were fixed and appropriated to no particular 
Church, for continuance, (fucbas the Apoftles and Evangelifis 
were, and Titus, Timothy, and fuch others ) had a Principal 
hand in the work of Ordinaiion whcreever they came. It was 
they that Ordained Elders in every City, in every Church. 

Sed. 52. Pref.y. If any (hall cull out two or three or more 

of theweakeft injudicious, facile Minifters, and procure them 

• to Grdain him; hiscourfeis irregular, and his call unfatisfado- 

ry, t^oughthe formal part be obtained to the full. For it is 

aptformcicr formality, buttofatsfic the perfon called, and the 


Church, and to fccarc the Miniftry and facrcd works and fouls of 
men , from injury by Ufurperi, that God hath appointed the 
way of Ordination ; And therefore it is fraud, and not obedi- 
ence, for any man fo to ufe it, as to cheat himfcf and the Church 
with a formality, and froftrate the Ordinance , and mifs its 

SeA. 53. Pr»^. 4. If any man, avoiding the Orthodox and 
Unanimous Miniftry, fliill apply himfelf for Ordination to fomc 
divided fchifmatical or heretical pcrfons, that will Approve him, 
and Ordain him, when the others would rejcft him, thisairo,as 
the former, ii fraud and felf-deceic, and not obedience ^ upon 
the laft mentioned grounds. It is the bafeft treacherous kind 
of (inning, to turn Gods Ordinances againft himfelf, and to (in 
under the (helter and pretence of an inftitution. By ufingthc 
meansinoppofition toitscnd, they make it no means, and ufe ie 
not as a means at all.Though Paftors muft Ordain , yet is it not 
all kind of Paftors Ordination that (hould fatisHe aQ honeft 
meaning man; but that which hath the qualifications fuited to 
the Rule and end. 

Scd. 54. Infuch cafes of unjuft eotrance,if the People Gn- 
fully coraply,and the man have po(re(rion,it may betheduty of 
Tome particular perfons, that cannot help it, ( having done their 
own parts in difowning it ) to fubmit , and not therefore to 
feparate from the Church, except in defperate extraordinary 
cafes (not now to be enumerated * ) And all the adminiftrations 
of fuch a man (hall be pot only Valid to the innocent, but with- 
out any fcruple of confcience may be ufed and received, with ex« 
pcdation of a pronsifed blefling. 

Sed. 5 J . But yet e^uoAAdcbitum it is the Churches duty ( ex- 
cept in Cafes of Nece(Tity ) to difown fuch intruders, and 
to fafped and fufpend obedience , to thofethat indired- 
ly enter, ( hya few ignorant, or fchifmatical Ordainen, re- 
fafing the try al of the unanimous abler Orthodox Mini(lry ) 
till they have either perfwadedthc man to procure their Appro- 
bation, or have ihemfelvcs fought the Judgement of the faid 
United Minifters concerning him. Apd feeing all the Churches 
of Chrift (hould belinkt and jointed together , and hold com- 
munion and correfpondency, according to their capacities , the 
Members of a particular Church are bound in rcafon, and co 

Mm 3 cbofc 

ifliofe ends, to advifcin fuch fufptcio as cafes with neigbboor 
Churches, and not co ricceive a PaI>or that comes in by way of 
Difcord, or thi'inegledeih or rcfufrtb the concordant way. 
For he that entrcth in a d. ifive way, is I-ke lo govern them ac- 
cordingly, and ftill to fhun the Communion of the Brethren. 

Sed.56. This Cj/Jrw^j fully (hews in the fore-mentioned £f. 
68.p,20i. pcrfwadmg the people to fhun the unworthy though 
they were Ordained by Bifhops, adding [OrdinMri mnnnnqHam 
inSgnos^ nm fecun^um Dei voluntatem, fed fecfindum humattdm 
pmfftnfptionem; & hac Deodifplkere, <^U£ mn vepfUfit ex legitim* 

^jufia Ordinal tone ^ Dens ipfe m*nifejiat^ &c. 3 Necef- 

tity may juftific feme things that otherwife would be irregulari- 
ties : but when Q Ptr urbes jingftUs ( that is, in every Church) 
^Ordiuati fnt Epifcopi, in atate antiqai/tnfide integri,inprejf»ra 
prohati^ m perfecutlone profcripti^ Ulefuper eos creare alios pjeudo- 
£pifc6pos audeat ] this is a faAthat the pocple (hould difown. 
And i^^uine^-jtiniutem fpiritfis nee conjun^ionem pacistbfer* 
vati^feabEccltfi<£ vinculo^ attj: h Sacerdetum colUgio fepn* 
rat^.JEpifcopi nee potejiatem potefi habere^ nee honorem, <]ni Epif- 
copdtfis ncc unitAtem vduit tenere^ nee paeem. Cyprian £pifi.^2, 

Sed. 57. Prsp. 5. Soleunnlnvcftitureistheiaft part of Ordi- 
nation, by which the man that by confent of the people and 
hiinfiif, atld by the Paftors Approbation , had received from 
Cbrifl: a Right to the Power and Honour, and Priviicdges , and 
an (Dbligation to the iDotiesof the Offi(3e,is folemnly introduced 
arid put in Poffeffionof the place. 

Sed. 58. Though in feme cafes a man may exercife the Mi- 
niftryupon theforcfaid Approbation and Eledion C which arc 
moft neceffary ) without this folemn inveftiture,yet is it ordina- 
rily a duty, pjid not to be ncglefled : And the people (hould r^y 
quire the pei^formanee of it : I need not ftand upon the Proof: 
^ for it is proved before by what was faid for Approbation, feeing 
they have ever gone together. Though fundamentally he be a 
Chriftian that, hath entered Covenant with Chrift ; yet before the 
Church he i^ Vifibly n6 Chriftian that hath not been Baptized, or 
%t leaft made open Profeifion of that Covenant. Though fun- 
Mmentallj they are Husband and Wife that are contraded, or 
-^'km together by private Confent-, yet in foro Civili^m Law 


fence,an(i before rncn,tbcy mi^ft be folcranly married, or elf'e they 
arc judged fornicators. And (houldany fantaftical perfons feck to 
caftbythis publick invefliturc or folcmn Marriage, as unnecef- 
fary , he would but let in common Whoredoms : The folemnity 
or publication in fuch Cafes is of great Necefliity. And its much 
conduciblc toihegreatcrobiigationofPaflorand people to be 
folemnly engaged together: and to have folemn Prayer for Gods 
blefling, tcndeth to their profpcrity. 

Sed. 59'Whcn men arc Ordained only to the Miniflry in 
General, it may be done in one place as well as another, (that 
isotherwife convenient. ) But if they are alfo Ordained to be 
Paftors of a Particular Church, ie is the fitteft way by far, that 
they be Ordained in the face of the Church, that the people and 
they may be mutually engaged, e^r. Though yet thii be not ab- 
folutely neceffary. 

Scd.6o. And thusi havedifpachr. With the brevity intended, 
this weighty point J concluding with ihefetwo requefls to my 
Brethren that fhall perufe it : i . That before they let out their 
difpleafure againft me for contradiding any of their conceits, 
they would humbly, impartially, and with modeft felf-fufpi- 
clon, both ftudy and pray over what they read, and not teroera- 
riouflyrulh into the battell as pre-engaged men. 2. That they 
will alway keep the faith and charity, and felfdenyal and tender- 
nefsof Chriftians upon their hearts, and the great Ends and In- 
tereft of Chrift and Chriflianity before their eyes j and take heed 
how they venture upon any controverted points or pradice as a 
Means that certainly contradideth the Spirit offhrifiiavityl^nd 
the freat Ends (the Churchei Unity, Peace and Holinefs, ^c.~} 
whicnall true means are appointed, and muflbeufed toatcain. 
Axi&rvhere*tnto T»e have already attained, let ftj wa/l^ bj the fame 
RHle^andmind the fame things, VhW.'i. 16. Remembring that in 
Chri^fi Jefus neither circumc^fton availeth, nor Hncircumctfion^bHt 
4 nevr creature- And as many at yfal\ according to this RuLe, Peace 
be on them and Mercy ^and on the IfraeiofGod^ Gal. 6. 15,16. 

JPinitur^ UMay 19. 1658. 

The Third 



Such forts of Epifcopacy,or 

Difpaiity in Exercife of the Mi- 
niftry, as is Defirable or Con- 
ducible to the Peace and Refor- 
mation of the Churches. 

By Richard "Baxter. 





Printed by Robert White, for Nevil Simmons^ Book- 
feller ia Kedcrminfier^ Anno Dm. 1658. 



Epifcopacy Def irable for the 

Reformation;, Prefervation, and 
Peace of the Churches. 


0/ (jeneral unfixed ^ijhop^ or ^!Kdini^ 

S' I- €^^<^^il2^^ ^ '' ^"^ delufory dealing of tbem tbac 
make the world believe that the qutfti- 
on between the PrcUtical Divines and 

''^>'1) r^^ '^* ^^^ ^^ ^^'^ Rcforroed Churches, i«, 
H%:^ yrtri Whether the ^hnrch jhnnld he Covtrn- 
'S<iJ^J^'^<^ td h Bi/hopj ? 7 his is a thing that is 
commonly granted : But the <;ontro- 
verfic is about the Species of EpifctpMj : Noc whether Bifhofs^ 

N n 2 but 


huthfhdtfort of Bifliops (hould be the ordinary Govcrnours of 
the Church of ChrilU 

$.2. And therefore it is alfo very immethodical and unfatis* 
faftory of mofi: that ever I read for Epircopacy,that plead only 
for Efifcopacj m General, but never once defi»e that fort of Epif- 
copacy which they plead for, but go away with it as fnaoothly 
when the queftiopis unftated,asif the'y underftood therofelves, 
and others were capable of underftanding chem ^ and fo they 
lofe their Learned labours. 

§.3 .1 have already in the firft Difputation told you atsong ten 
fevcrai forts of Epifcopacy, which they be that I think defirable, 
and which 1 judge tolerable, aad which intolerable. And I have 
there already given you theReafons why I judge fuch a general 
anfixed Bi(hop to be of (landing ufe to the Church and world,as 
here we are fpcaking of : and therefore I ihall forbear here 
the repeating of what is faid already. 
' $.4. That the world and Church flionld ftill have fuch a 
Getter aI Itinerant unfixed Mini^rj, as that was of the Apofiles^ 
EvA»geIiJ}s and others^ having there already proved, 1 have 
nothing to do more but to (hew tiic ufe of it, and to aofwcr the 
ob)cdions that fome very learned Reverend Divines have ufcd 
agatnd ir. 

$ . 5 . The principal ufe of a general Mini{lry,ts for the convert- 
ing of the unconverted world, and Baptizing them whencon- 
verced,and Congregating theit Converts into Church order,and 
fctlingihera under a fixed Government. And the next ufe of 
them is, to have a Care, according to the extent of their capacity 
and opporunitics.of the Churches which they have thus Congre- 
gated and fe:kd^ and which are fetled by other Miniflers. 

$.6. Let it be remcmbred that we are not now difputing of the 
Name , but of the Thifig : It is not whether fuch an Officer of 
Chrifl be to be called an Apoftle or an Evangelifi^ or a Prophet, 
or ti Bijhop^ OTA Preshjter: But whether unfixed general Mi- 
nifters , to gather Churche* and fettle them, and lake the care of 
fflany,withoutafpecialPaftoral charge of any one above the reft, 
were appointed by Chrift for continuance in his Church : This 
is it that I affirra.and have already proved. 

$. 7. Nor yet is it any of our QuefJon, Whether the difference 
^wttn thefe general Hnfxcd Mmjiers and ordinary fixed Pres- 


hyters , be in pint of Authority or of exercife only. Whether 
they arctwodilHnft Sfeciejof the Minidry, or but oncHfthc^ 
hn\Q office in Specie, varioufly cxcrcifed : I have given iTTmy 
thoughts of this before, fo far as I can yet reach : Bur if it be 
granted that fome fhould ordinarily exercife their office generally 
and ambulatorily over many others ordinarily muft 
exercife it fixedly in one particular Church, I (hall not contend 
whether they are to be called One Office or tvo: nor yet whe- 
ther the fixed Miniller may not extraordinarily upon a fpc- 
cial rcafon , c!o the fame work as the itinerant Minifter in 
the fame w.iy. But Minifters there tnuft be for both thcfe 

$.8. And that fome (hould make the general worklbefore 
mentioned their ordinary bufinefs, and not take the paftoral 
Charge of any particular Church, I conceive ( be!ides the for- 
mer proofsjis further minifeft.i.In that the work of Converting 
Unbelievers, and bringing them Intoafitnefs for Church Com- 
munion, is the work that is to go firll, and is the greatell work: 
Its thv-greateft in weight( prscifively confidered^and as to the 
terminus A f«oof the change that it effe(Ss:) and it is thegrcateft 
in regaid otoppofingdiflicuUies; the winning of a foul, which 
rejoyceth Angels, and rejoycethJefusChrift himfelf,will have 
fo much of Satans malice to oppofe it , and hath fo much 
refinance in the heirt of the finner, that itrequireth the whole 
work ( in ordinary j of thofe Miniftefs that arc fpecially called 

$. 9. And 2. Withall it commonly falls out, that there arc 
hr greater »«>»>^frj to be converted, then to be Governed after 
Converfion : If it be not fo in fome Countries f where the 
face of God hath fliined moft eflfedually ) yet in others, and 
in moft it is ; even in the far greatcft part of the woHd. O how 
miny millions of fouls are there that penfh for lack of know- 
ledge, and know not for want of teaching; and never heard 
of Jefus Chrift in any likely manner to prevail , in ail their 
lives } Surely fuch multitudes of Mifcrable fouls, yea Nations, 
require Miniflers wholly fet upon this work, 

^. lo. And 3.1t ordinarily falls out too ,that the unconverted 
unbelieving part of the world do live at a great diftance from 
the Churches of Chrifl : and therefore the fame man that is 

N n J Piftot 


Pador of a Charch hath not opportunity to fpeak to them. 
Of if they live in the fame Country, they feldom meet in greatefi; 
numbers in the fame Affemblies .' And therefore when the Pa- 
llor is upon his own work, it is requifitc that there be Tome to 
fpcak to the reft. 

§. 1 1 . And yet I doubt not but as there are hypocrites in moft 
Churches, and among us many that by their ignorance, or impi - 
cty wchavecaufeto judgetobeyetnoChriftians, are our Or- 
dinary hearers, fothe Paftorsofthe Churches may and muft en- 
deavour their converfion , and much fuit their preaching to the 
condition of fuch fouls. But yetthofe millions that in other parts 
of the world ( and perhaps in IreUnd, fvales and the Highlands 
of ScetUnd, too many fuch may be found ) that neither know 
what Chriftianity is, nor are the Ordinary hearers of a fixed Mit 
niflry , and live not within the reach of fuch , (hould have 
a Converting Itinerant Miniftry for thcmfelvcs. 

§, 12. Moreover, 4. ThePaftoralworkisitfelffogrcat.and 
the charge that we take of particular Churches, and our obliga- 
tion to them fo ftrid , that it will ufually it felf take up the 
whole man, and will not allow a Paftor time for the other work 
on thofc at adiftanceyetuncalled,-withoutnegledingthefouls 
that he hath undertaken to ovcrfee. 

^.13. And 5. For want of fuch general Minifters, the ftatc 
of perfons is in fomc places confounded, and the world and the 
Church arc thruft together , as if there were no difference to be 
made. Becaufe there are no Minifters known but Paftors, there- 
fore there are no People known but asChriftians, where yet the 
very knowledge of Chriftianity is too rare. Whereas if (where 
numbers and diftance make it neceffary ) the preparing Miniftry 
had firfl done their part, it would have prevented much dange- 
rous confufion, and felf-deccit that followcth hereupon in many 

§. 14. And6. By the miftaken fuppofition, that fuch gene- 
rall or unfixed Minifters arc ccafed, men have been drawn to fet 
Lay-men upon thegreateft and nobleft work of the Miniftry : 
and a conceit is hence rifcn among fome , that becaufe this is 
not proper to the Paftors of aChurch,thereforeitisnot a Mi- 
nifterial work, but the work of gifted Brethren: And here- 
upon uncalled aien are tempted to exercife it : and by laying 


afide theofficen appointed hereunto by Chrift, the burden iscafi: 
on the wcakeft men. 

$. 15. Yea 7. By this means many Mini fters them felvcs 
underftanding not the Nature and exccnt of their own Office, 
when they do but preach to any that are not of the Church that 
they hare charge of, imagine that the^' preach but as meer Lay- 
mfn ; and if they preach for the Convcrfion of unbelievers.they 
profefsic to be no ad of their office: which is an ad that bath 
more inconveniences then I fhall now exprefs,. 

$. 16. And 8. Which is worft of all, by fuppofingthatno 
Minifters arc now to be appointed for the Convcrfion of Infi- 
dels, and githcringand planting Churches, ic is come copafs 
that the moft necedTry work in all the world is neg!eded,caft 
off, and almoft quite unknown in the world: except Mr. ^/»- 
Qts and a few with him in Ne^ England^ and fome ofche Jefu- 
ites and Fryars in the Eafl-Indies and ^merica^ who have 
been fcnt , or have adventured themfelves for the Converting 
of the Nations. Were it but known and confidered, how much 
of the Will of Jefus Chrift is to be fulfilled by this moft blefled 
work. Princes would have ftudied it, and contributed their af- 
fiftance ; and many would have been ready to have offered them- 
felves to God for the work, when now it is looked on as no part 
of our duty, not only becaufe that fluggiftinefsandcowardize 
calleth ic impoflible, and the adventure unreafonable ; butalfo 
becaufe we think it was a work that was proper to Apoftles 
and Evangelifts -^ and Minifters are now tyed co their proper 
flock. And thus the poor unbelieving world is left in their 

$. 17. And 9.1 doubt by this miftakeand negled we for- 
feit the benefit of that fpccial promife, in too great a meafurc. 
Mat. 28.20. and mifs of that eminent afljllance and prefence 
of Chrift with our Miniftry, that otherwife we might expcd. 
If we did go into the world, and preach the Gofpel to the Na- 
tions(having ufed our induftry firft to learn their languages, ) 
we might exped that Chrift would alwayef be with us to the 
end of the world , in a way of affiftancc and owning of our 
Labours, anfwerable to our engagements for hits, and fervice 
to hirn. Were we deeplier engaged for Chrift, and did with 
Ttttr caftourfclvesintothcSea, or walk on chcWaceri at bii 



Call, wclhouldfindCbrlftadingasif h€ were anfvverably en- 
gaged for our irTdcmnity , oc at lealt for our eminent encourage- 
ment and reward. If ever wc might expeA Miracles again, ic 
would be upon our engagement in the anticnt work ; though [ 
know that even for this they arc now no niore neccffary,nor"I 
think, promifed. 

§. i8. And 10. Wedohereby feem taaccufeChriftunjuftly 
of Mutability, fuppofingtbat he had fetiedone fort of Miniftry 
and Government in his Church for one Age only,and then chang- 
ed it for another, that is ever after to continue alone. 1 know 
the extraordinary work of that age (to plant Churches by new 
dodrine and Miracles, and reveal the new Articles of Faith and 
Pradice in Scripture to the world ) did require fuch enable- 
ments thereto, which ordinary works do not require : and there- 
fore the A pofties, as immediatly fent, and as inditing Scriptures, 
and working Miracles, and Prophetically bringing new Reve- 
lations have no Succeflbrs. Butihe Apoftlesas preaching to the 
Nations,and as planting Churches, and as fetling them,and taking 
care of their profpcrity after they had planted them, and as ex- 
crciling their MiniRry itinerantly,as not fixed to a fpecial charge, 
thus they have Succeflbrs, the work being ordinary, and fuch as 
fhould be done now as well as then ^ and mufl continue while 
thcneceftity of it doth continue. 

<^. 19. There needeth no other proof of this, then byob- 
ferving that it was not Apoftles only, but a/l the Miniftry at firft, 
that was thus unfixed and itinerant j and that the Apoftles af- 
fumed fuch to their 8lfi[iance,and employed them all their dayes 
in this work. 

$. 20. The feventy Difciples as welt as the Apoftks 
were at firft by Chrift fent forth in this Itinerant way, for 
the Converfion of the inhabitants of f^daa. And thus fohn the 
Baptift had preached before them. And afrer Chritts Rcfur- 
redionand Afcenfion, it was not only the Apoftles, but it was 
they that were fcatrered abroad, that went everywhere preach- 
ing the Word, ^^^1.8.4. And who were thefe ? (^ Ad. 8.1. Thej 
TPfire all fcatteredabroAdthroHghom the regions of J\»^3£SL and Sc- 
maria, f jfcf ;>» the Afoftles. ] And the Evangeliltsof thofe times 
are confeffed to hare exercifed this Itinerant Miniftry ;fo did 
JBarrAl/Mf Silas ^ Mark^ Efa^hroditPts, Tjchicus , TrcphtwMs, 

9 Timothjy 


Tintsihy, Tit us y Luke, ^ridothcnordinzrUy. It Wis the firft and 
moft ordinary way then of cxerciling the Miniflry. 

$. 21. And if wc lived our felves in Heathen or Infidel 
Countreys, wc (hould be foon taught by experience, that chif 
muft be i\\\\ an ordinary work. For what elfe is to be done till 
perfons be converted and brought into the Church ? They muft 
be made Difciples before they can be ufed as Difciples , and 
caught toobferve all thini;$ that Chrift bath commanded. 

^. 22. But againft this it is objected, i. That the Afsjiles 
Tvere txtraordinarj Officers^ and thereftre have m Shccejfors. To 
which I anfwer, i. That I have before (hewed in what they 
were extraordinary, and in what not : in what they have no Suc- 
ccflfors, and in what they have. A$ Apoftles fcnt immediatly by 
Chritt to Reveal a new dodrine, and confirm it by Miraclesjthcy 
have no SaccefTors .• but as general Minifters of Chrift to converc 
fouU, plant Churches, and take a care of raapy , they have Suc- 
ceflbrs ; call them by what name youpleafe. 2. And what if 
the Apoftles have no SuccefTors? Had the fcventy Difciples 
none ? Had Apoth, Tttsts, Timothy y SiUs^ Barttabas^ &c. none ? 
Had all the Itinerant converting Minifters of thofe times none, 
that were not affixed as Paftors to a particular Church } 

$.25. Ob j. 2 . But at Itdji in the extent of their charge the 
Afoflles were extraordinary y inthatthey were to preach the Go/pel 
t9 all Ndtionj, lanfwcr •, in point of cxcrcife, being furnifhed 
with tongues and Miracles for the work, they were obliged to 
go further , or to more Nations then moft particular Minifters arc 
now obliged to go : but that is not becaulc we wane Authority, 
if we had ability and opportunity, butbecaufe we want ability 
and opportunity to exercife our Office- The Apoftles were not 
bound to go into every Nation of the world, inclufively ^ bat 
to avoid none, but go to all, that is, to as many as they could. 
Otherwifc they had finned in not going ro Mexico^ PerUy Bra" 
fitcy the Philippine or Molucca Jflandt, to 'fdpotty China^ &c. 
And it is oj*r duty to extend our Miniftry for the Converfion of 
ai many as we have Ability and opportunity to do. Thaf which 
was common to the p//«»/i>«£<««^ vfatering Miuifiry in the Apo- 
ftles dayes, was not proper to the Apoftles : but to go up ani 
down the world to Convert, and Baptize, sad plant, and water 

O o Churches, 

Churcbei was then common to fuch ( as Jfo/U, Silas, Zee. ) 
therefore, &c. 

^. 24. Ob). 3. But (^ fay others) tke Apoftles were not At 
la{i fuch mfixed Minijiers asysu imagine, ^ut fixed Diecefan Bi- 
fhQps, Peter was Bi/hop of Antioch firfi, and of Rome after :. 

Paul rvas Bijhop 0/ Rome : James e/ Jerufalem, &c. Anf. 

That any Apoftle was a fixed Bifhop, taking on him durante vi- 
ta the fpecial Paftoral charge of Jine particular Church or Dio- 
cefs, as his peculiar, is i. Barely affiimcd, and therefore not to 
be believed. 2. And is contrary both to the tenor of their Com- 
miffion, asd the Hif^ory of their Miniftrations. And 3. Is 
aJfo contrary to Charity it fcif, and therefore is noc worthy of 
any credit. The Apoftles were not fo lazy or uncharitable, as to 
affix themfelvcs to Pariflies or Diocertcs, and leave the Nations 
of the world in their unbelief; andto ceafe the work that they 
were firft fent out upon, before the neccftity of it ceafed. Peter 
and Paulw^rQ Bifhops of Rome, as they were of other Chirch- 
cs which they planted and watered, and no more : even as Paul 
wasBiftiopof Ephefus^Thi/ippi, Corinth, 8cc. And fajj^ej w^s 
either no Bilhop of Jernfalemt or no Apoftle ( but as many 
think, another fames. ) Indeed pro tempore not only an Apoftle, 
but other Itinerant Minifters were Bifhops of the places where 
they came •, that is, were Officers of Chrift, that might exercife 
any aft of their Office f Teaching, Governing, adrainiftring 
Sacraments, €^c.) to any people that gave them a Call, or fo 
far as opportunity and need required. And fo I doubt not btit 
every Minifter now may do in any Church on earth. If he be 
invited to ftay a day, or week, or month among them, and do the 
work of a Minifter, yea or if he be invited but to preach a Ser- 
mon to them, he may do it, not as a private roan, but as a Mini- 
jfter in general, and as their Teacher or Paftor pro temp&re, & ad 
hoc, thatgivehim the invitation. fort?hough the tirft Call to 
thcMiniftry, Separating us to th* Gofpel of God, do giv<vus our 
Authority in general to perform any Minifterialaft;;yec I have 
before fliewed that a farther Call is neeedfull for i/i« particular 
exercife of this power ; and this is ufually by the p«Pple : who 
may a man to be their ftated Paftor, and fometime 
but to exercife fome one Paftoral aft, or elfe to exercife all but pr9 
tempore.a there is need. 



<$. 25. And by this means it came to pafs that the line of Sue- 
cefsion in many Churches is drawn down from the Apoftles, by 
EMfehiHs^ Hierom, and other antient writers. Not bcciufe the 
ApofUes were the ftared fixed Bifhopsof thofc Churches, as the 
Succeflbrs were ; but bccaufe they firft planted and Governed 
them, and were their Bifhops pro rfw^«rf till they had fet led Bi- 
fhops over them ; and then went and did the like by other places : 
fo that one Apoftic, or Evangeiili- or unfixed Minifter, might be 
the root of Succcfsion to many Churches, even as many as they 
firft planted ; but their Succeftors had but one Church. 

$. 26. Objed. 4. Ehf^hatiife is there among us for fuch 
Miniflers as theft y when allthe Natiens are Convertedfrom Inftde- 
iityalreadj? Anfw. i. If there v;ere no ufe of fuch with us, 
we muft rot forget the lamentable necefsity of them abroad in 
the world. 2. Asl beforefaid, experience of the ignorance and 
unbelief of many about us in the bell Parifhes, dothcaufe me 
cafily to believe chat in Ireland, and part of ScotUnd^and fValts, 
and other places where fctled Minifters are few, fuch an Itinerant 
Minillryisof neccffary ufe among us. 3. Buf yet where there 
arc fetled Teachers enough, they may be fpared : for if we had 
Pariflics thac had not the knowledge of Chrift, it is a greater 
work of mercy to fuch a Parifh, to fettle a converting Teacher 
among them to fit them for a Church-ftate, that forhcy may 
have frequent Teaching, thenio fend tbem but now and then a 
Sermon. But where Minifters arc not fo plentiful, it were a great 
fin for an able man to confine himfelf to one Town or Parifh, 
and neglcA the Countrey round about. 4. And alfo there is ufe 
for Itinerants to water and take care of the Churches which arc 
planted , as the A poftles and others formerly did. 

§. 27. Concerning thefc unfixed Minifters, I add thefe fol- 
lowing Propofitions. i. That fuch Minifters may not deprive 
the fixed Paftors of any of their Power : they may not difablc 
them from Governing their own Churches as fully as if there 
were no Itinerant Minifters. If thcyareadmirted;>ro tempore to 
aflift the Churches where they corac, that will i^ot enable them 
to hinder them, or affume a Lordibip or a Rule over the Paftors 
of theChurches. 

$. 28. 2. Thefe Itinerant unfixed Minifters, arc not fo ob- 
liged to perpetual motion, but that they may rcfide for a confi- 

O 2 dcrabic 


ikrAhk time in a place, cither for the following on the work ot 
Converfion, where they find a plenteous harvelV, or for feeling 
Churches, or furprefsing herefies or diforders, or becaufe of 
their own ([inability to travail. And thus T'^M/flaid at and abouc 
Ephefus'aiAftaihvtz yean, y^*^. 20. 31. Their ftay muft be 
prudcmially apportioned to their work and opportunities. 
• $. 29. 5. No Itinerant Minifter can ( of himfelf ) exclude 
another from his Province, and appropriate it to hinrifelf,ard fay. 
Here Jrf>i/lrvo>-k^ Mlone^ er here J have greater Authority tbf»yotii 
nay it was ufual for thefeMiniftcrs to go by companies, or more 
then one ^as P^ptl and Barnabas^ Paul andSiUs^ Paul And 
Timothy yTitus, &c. ) fo that it was no mans Province or Dio- 
ccfs where they came. For they that Convert Souls to Chrift 
and not to themfelves, and Baptize into his name and notintheiir 
own, doknowthegreatnefsof the work and burden^aod there- 
fore are glad of all the afsidance they can get : when thofe that 
do nothing, are the men that thruft others out of the Vineyard, 
and fay. This hmyT^iocefs or Province -^ jsu have nothing to <k 
taUbour here. ] 

$. 30. 4. Yet may there lawfully and fitly be a Prudential 
diftribution or divifion of their Provinces among fuch unfixed 
Converting Minifters ; for to be all together and go one way^ 
muft needs be a negleding of moft of the world, and fo not a 
wife or faithful performance of the work of Chrift. And there- 
fore foraefhou Id go one way^ and. fomc another, as may moil 
promote the work. 

$. 31. And ordinarily ic is moft convenient, that there go 
more then one to the fame people , f and therefore they will not 
be like a fixed Dioccfan Bifhop ) for they have many waycs 
need of motual affiftance :onc would be oppre (Ted with io great 
a work, and have many difadvantages \n the pecfoiraanccs. Paul 
ufcd not to go alone. 

$. 32. Theperfoostobeesercifedin this ambulatory Mini- 
ilration, may be determined of, and their Provinces diftributed 
any of thefe three wayci, or all together, k By the Judgement 
andConfentof Paftors. U many (hall choofeoucone, or two, 
or more, as fit for fuch a work, the per fens ehofen have reafon to 
obey, unlcfs they can prove, or know the Paftors to be miftaken, 
and 10 hav? been raifguided in their choice. The Prophets and 

Teachers » 


Teachers of theCharchat v^tttioch mu^ (end or fcparatc Sau^ 
and SurHulfMj, for the fp^^cial work in which the Holy Ghoft 
wouldimploy them, ix^J?.i j. 1,2. which fcemsto me, tobeboc 
afccondary Call to fomefpccial exercife of their former Otfice, 
one way rather then another. Thus alfo by mutual agreement 
their Provinces may be allotted and divided. 

^. 33. 2. By the Magiftrates appointment and command 
ilfo, may this be done. Though he make not Mmifters, yet 
may he do much in afligning them their Provinces, Seats, and 
Stations ; and it is our duty to obey his Commands in fuch cafes 
if they be not plainly deilrudive to the Church ; much more if 
they are beneficial to if. 

^. 34. 3. Alfoby aMinincrsowndifcernfrg ofa firoppor- 
tanity todogood, eitiierby the Magiftrates bare perm /fion, the 
peoples invitation , or their willingnefs, or not oppofing ; or 
though they do oppofe, yet fome other advantages for the work 
may be difcerned, or Hopes at lealh Now though the C<? //o/- 
Or<?i»,(?/i(?« mufl be from the Pallors of the Churchy and neither 
Magiftrates nor people can make us Minilkrs, yc: the Ca/l of 
Ofprnftnitj may be from the people aud Magiftrate, more com- 
monly then any. And be that is already a Minifter, needs not 
alwayes another Call for the exercifing of his Miniftry, fave 
only this Call by Opportumtj. He bad his j^uthontyb^ tbs^ 
Call that placed him in the Office J which was done at rirft, ?.nd 
muft be done bur orce. But he hath his Opportunity a>fd fiation 
for the exercife of that Authority by the people and Magiiirates, 
and perhaps may receive it over and over many times. 

$. 35. 5. This way of exercifing the Miniftry is not alike- 
reccffary in ail times and places ; but with grcAt variety^ itis^ 
exceeding neceffary in fome Couutreys, andnot in others, but 
ufeful in fome degree in moft as! conceive. 

^. 36. If the Qieftion be, whether fuch a Miniflrybeufcfui 
in thcfe Dominions, or not ? I have anfwered before, rhat in 
fome darker and neceffitous parti, where ignorance doth reign, 
and Miniftcrs ( or ab!-e ones at le^ft ) a-e fcarce, there fuch ao ■■ 
exercife of the Mi niflry is neccffjirv :biic in other psrti it is not 
of fuch necefsity : yet much work there may befonfuch, or for 
ihofe in the next C haprcr mentioned, in raofi Countrcys .- of 
thtiQ-thcrcforc I fliall ne::c fpeak. 

Oo j; CHAP.'. 


Of fixed Taflors that alfo participate in 
thevporl^ of the unfixed. 

$. I. ^p^^^^T is not only the /<«jiA:f^Miniftersthat may 
lawfully do the fore-defcribed work, but the 
fixed Paftors of particular Churches may 
rake their pare of it •, and ordinarily (hould 
do fomewhat toward it : though not fo much 
as they that are wholly in it. 
$. 2. I fliallhere Qiew you, i. What fuch may do. 2. On 
what terms. 3. And then I (hall prove it. And i. They may 
a5Miniftersof Chrift, go abroad to preach where there are ma- 
ny ignorant or ungodly people in order to their ConverfioH. 
2. They may help to Congregate Believers into holy Societies, 
where it is not already done. 3. They may Ordain them Elders 
in fuch Churches as they Congregate. 4. They may ofc enquire 
tfter the welfare of the Neighbour Churches , and go among 
them, iand vifit Ibem, and ftrengthen them, and admonifti tht 
Paiftors to do their duties. 5. They may inftrud and teach the 
Paftors in publike exercifes. 6. They may exercifc anyadsof 
Worfhip or Difciplinc upon the people of any particular Church, 
which givech them a due invitation thereto. 7. They may pub- 
likely declare that they will avoid Communion with an impious 
or heretical Church or Paftor. 

§. 3. But 2. As to the mode or terms, it (hould be thus 
performed, i. No Paftor of a fingle Church muft leave his 
flock a day or hour without fuch nece(rary bufinefs as may prove 
his Call to do fo. We muH not feign a Call when we have none ; 



or pretend nccefiitics. He that knows his obligations to his pxif- 
ticular charge, and the work that is there to be done, methin'ks 
fhould not dare to be fleppingafidc, unlefs he be fure it is to a 
greater work. 

$. 4. And 2. No Paftor of a Church ihould be bufie to play 
the Bidiop in another rpans Pioccts, nor fufped or difparage 
the parts or labours of the proper Pallor of that Church, till 
the fufferings or dangers of the Chijrch do evidently warrant 
him, and call him to alfift them. 

^ 5- 3, No Minifter of Chrift fhould be fo proud as to 
overvalue his own parts^ and thereupon obtrude himfelf where 
there is no need of hira ( though there might be need of others} 
upon a coneeifthat he is fitter then other men to afford afsirtance 
to his Brethren. When the cafe is really fo, he may judge it fo .• 
efpecially when his Colleagues or fellow Miniftcfi judge fo too, 
and dcfirehim to the work : but Pride muft not fend out Mini-^ 

$ . 6. 4. A Minifter that hath divers fellow Presbyters at home,, 
to teach and g^ide that Church in his abfence.may better go out 
on afsifting works then other men. And fo may he that hath 
help that while from Neighbour Presbyters, or that hath fuch 
a charge as may bear his abfcnce for chat time, without any 
great or confiderable lofs. 

§. 7. 5. And a man that is commanded outbytheMaglJ 
ftratc, who may make himaVifiterof the Churches near him, 
may lawfully obey ; when it would not have been fit to hare 
done it withftit fuch a command, or force equivalent motive. 

$. 8. 6. Araanthat is carneftly invited by Neighbour-Mini- 
flers or Churches, that call out to him. Come and help us, may 
have comfort in his undertaking,if he fee a probability of doing 
greater good then if hedenyed them, and if they give himfa- 
tisfadory reafons of their Call. 

s\ 9 7. Men of extraordinary abilities, (hould make thetn 
as communicative and ufeful to alias pofsibly they can : and 
may not fo eafily keep their retirements, as the We^k may 

\\ i,\iO: 8r And.laftlyf No man (hould upon any of t'hcfc pre* 
fences ufurp aLord(hipover his Brctht-n, nor take on him to 
be the (Uted l^altor of Paftors, or of many Churches as his fpe- 


cialCharge. It is one thing to do the common work of "Mini* 
ftcfs abroad, by fecking mens Convcrfion, and the planting of 
Churches, or clfe to afford afsiftarce to many Churches for their ; 
prefervacion, eflablifhment or increafe : and its another thing to 
take charge of thefe Paftorsand Churches, as the proper Bifhop 
orOverfeerof them. The former ^lay be done ; buti know no 
warraticfbrthclacer.'^; '*^^' ' .? :''^ ■■' ?-<5^^^ ^"J Ji"^-;' -'^: 
$.11. That fixed Miihtder^ may d'o-all thiffe foremetltioiiid 
works, wich the aforefaid Cautions, I (hail briefly prove, i . By 
fome general Realons, fpcakingto the whole- and 2. By go- 
mg over che particulars diftinftly, and giving fome reafon for 
each part. 

(. 12. And I. It is certain that a Miniftcr doth not ceafe to 
be a Miniftcr in general, nor to be an Officer authorized to feek 
the Difciplingof them without, and Congregating them, by his 
becoming the Paftor of a particular Church : therefore he may 
ftill do the common works of the Miniftry where he hath a Call, 
aswellashisPadorairpecral work to them that be bath taken 
fpecial care of. As the Phyfitian of an Hofpital or City may 
take carealfo of other perfons, and cure them, fo be neglcd not 
his charge. 

§. 13. 2. A Tvlinifter doth not lay by his Relation or Obli- 

gitions to the unconverted world, nor to the Catholike Church, 

when be affixechhimlelf to a fpecial charge. And therefore he 

may do the work of his Relations and Obligations, as aforefaid. 

Yea thofe works in fome rcfpefts ftiould be preferred, becaufe 

thereisrnoreof Chriftsintereftin the Univerfai Church, or in 

many Churches then in one ; and that work in which the moft of 

our ultimate End is attained, is the greateft work : that in which 

God is moft honoured,the Church moftedified.and moft honour 

and advantage brought to the Gofpel and caufe of Chrift,(hould 

be preferred : But ordinarily thefe are more promoted by the 

Communication of our help to many (as aforefaid) then by 

confining it to one particular Church. Thccoramoncrt good is 

i:heteft. . . 

$. 14] 3. Ofc-times the Ncceffity of fuch Communicative 
labours IS fo apparently great, that il would be unmercifulnefs 
to the Churches or fouls of men to negled them. As in cafe of 
Reforming and fctling Churches ( upon which Lhthtr , Mc' 


lanchthon^Chtrtzus^Bptgenhaiifis.PomerAiiMs, Calvin, and others 
were fo ofc irr.ploycd. ) As aifo in cafe oF refilhng fome dcftru- 
dive hercfie? : In which cafe one able Difpu^ancand pruJenc 
advifer, and per Ton that: hath iiucreft in the people, may do 
good to thou fa nds , even to many Countries, and more then 
niukitudci of orhcrs could do. And God doth not fet up iuch 
lights to put under a bufhell, nor warrant any man tO'hidchis 
talents •, nor doth I:c bcftow extraordinary gifts for ordinary 
fevicc only, but would have them u!ed to the utmoft advantage 
of h's caufc, and for the greatcft good of fouls. 

$. 15. 4. And it is not the taking up of another calling or 
Species of Mtniftcrial Office ; For the Miniftry is one office ( di- 
ftmA from that inferiour fort of Miniflry of Deacons j :mJ con- 
ttineth the power and obligation of doing all ih.s, alien wc 
have particular Cals : It is but the exercifc of the fame office 
which we had before; We do but lay out our felves more in 
fome parts or ads of that office, then more retired Pallors do. 

<!. 16. And 5.1t belongeth to the Ma giftr a teste take care of 
the Church and the right exercifc of the gifts of their fub)e<S 
MiniQers .• and therefore if chey command one man more labour 
then anothcr,even the Plarting,or Vifuingof Churches,ttisour. 
Duty to obey them. 

§. 17. More particu'arly ^ i.That a fixe<l Pxjl.oytftajp'each 
ahrotud amon^ the unconverted , I hop«-nonc will deny. It was 
the ancient cuflomof the hxed Bifhops, befides the fecdin^of 
their flocks, to labour the Conrerfion of a'l chc:Countnesab(^t 
them that were unconverted: The example of Gr^^ory of iV«* 
cefarcd may fufficc , who found but feventeenChnlttans in the 
City, but convertednotonly all that City ( except feventcenj 
butalfomoft of the Countries about , and planted Churche^i 
and ordained them Bifhops. And fo have abundance others 
done, to the incrcafe of the Church. 

$.18. And 2. That fixed Bifliopsmay congregate new Chnrches 
yfhere there are none^ of fuch as they or others do convert, is in 
theforelaid conlUnt prafticc of the Paflors of the ancient Chur- 
ches, putpafl doubt. But fo, as that they ought not to Con- 
gregate thofc Churches to themfclves, and make thcmfclvcj the 
Bifhops or Archbiftiops of them, when they havcafpecial charge 
already, buc only fettle them under Bifhops of their own; And 

Pp this 


this is but by dircfting them in their duties , and trying the 
perfon, and invefting him that is to be their Paftor. Whether one 
or niore muft do this work, I hare fpoken already in the former 

$. 19. 3. And that fuch as thus convert a people y or Con- 
grtgatetbem^ may C according to the fore- mentioned Rules ) 
OrAain them fafiors, bj the peep Us f ft frames or Covfettt, is al- 
fo fofficiently proved in that foregoing dtfputation:and therefore 
may beherepaQ by. 

\, 20. 4. And that fhch may take care of all the Chnrchts 
Wt kin their reach ^ fo far as to do them what good they can^ is 
plain in the Law of Nature that rf quirech itj and in the general 
commands of t he GofpeKfconding the Law of Nature; while 
we have time we rauft do good to all men ; Efpecially to the 
houftiold of faith. And its plain in the Nature of the Caiholick 
Church and of its members, and in the nature of the work of 
Grace upon the foul. We are tanght of God to love one ano- 
ther : and the End of the Carholick Society is, ('as of all Socie. 
ticsj the common good, and the Glory of God: and the Nature 
of true members is to have the ame care one for another^ that fo 
there may be no fchifm in the body , and that they all fuffer and 
rejoice with one another, in their hurrs, and in their welfare, 
I Cor. 12.25,26. Itis therefore lawfull for Paftors to improve 
their talents upon thefe common grounds. 

$.21. 5. That fftcb fettled Paftors may Teach cr Preach to one 
another, isa thing not doubred ofamongus.For wecommonly 
pradice it at LcAures and other meetings of Mimfters , as 
formerly was ufual at vifitaiions, and Convocations. And if 
itbelawfultoteachMiniftcrs, thenalfotodothofeleffer things 
before and after mentioned. Yet do we not preach to one ano- 
ther as Rulers over our Brethren, butasMinif^ers of Chrift, 
and Helpers of them in the work of grace. As when one Phy- 
litian healctb another, he doth it asaPhyfitian, helping and 
advi(inga Brother inneceffity : but when he cureth one of his 
Hofpital, he doth it as a Phyfitian performing his trull to one of 
hischarge. So when a Paftor preachethto Paftors, he doth ic 
jjot as a private man, but as a Paftor obliged to help his Bre- 
thren : fioE when he preacheth to his People , he doth it aa^^ 


one that hath the cbargeof their fouls, and is their gutde to lift 

$.22 6. ty^tjd ihdt Paftors may exercife4iElj of DifcipUne Attd 
admintfitr the SacrnmeKtt to other Con^regat'tonj, up$H a fnffici' 
ent Call, is evident from what is faid already. If they may 
Preach to the Paftors iherafelves, they may help to Rule the 
flock : For, as is faid , they ceafc not their Relation to the 
Church of Chrill in general , by being engaged to one Church 
in particular. If general Minifters, fuch as Apoftles, Evan- 
gelifts, &c. might adminifler the Sacraments where they came 
in Churches that were not any of their fpecial charge above 
others, then may other Minifters of Chrift doit uponafuffici- 
ent Invitation , though the Congregarion be none of their 
fpecial charge: And in fo doing, they ad not as pnvacemen, 
nor yet as the ftated Paftors of that flock, but as Paftors , Afli- 
ftant to the ftated Paftors, and Ruling;jro tempore the people 
under them in that Afiifting way : Even as a Phy fitian helpeth 
another in his Hofpital, when he isdeiired, and thiH-neichcr 
as a Private Ordinary man , ror as Superiour to the Pby- 
fitianof the Hofpital, dot as the fi4ted Phyfitian of ithimfelf, 
but as the temporary a^iftant Phjfitidn of it. Or as a Schoolmafter 
helpeth another in his School for a few dayes in Neceflity, as bis 
temporary ajfiflant. 

$.23. 7. And upon the fame grounds it will follow that oh 
Church or Paftor on jnfi «ccafion may avoid Communion witk 
another^ and declare that they fo refohe to do i and this withouc 
ufurping any Jurifdidion over them, it being not the cafting 
out or Excommunicating of a member of our charge, as the 
Rulers of that Church, but the obeying of a plain command of 
the Holy Ghoft, which requireth us to Avoid fuch, and have 
no company or Communion with them , and with fuch no 
Slot to cat : And therefore it is a fond Argumentation of the 
Papifts, that would conclude their Pope to beHcadand Go" 
rernour , as far as they find he ever did excommunicate. 

<5.24. He that doubtethofanyof this, mnft not firft enquire. 
Whether a Minifter have fo much Povfer^ but firft Whether he 
may ht obliged tofo mnchwork^&ndfufring as his dntj. And 
then he {hall find that if there were 00 Ipecial ex-^mples or com- 
nuodi, ycc the general commands, which require us,co do good 

P p 2 while 

^h\\c we havetime t6 all, to be the fervincs of all,and feek the'ir 
falvation, &c. do as certainly oblige us to particular duties, as if 
thev were named. 

$ . 25. Objeft. Tkat cannot be : For^ aGeneral comnjand of 
doino goodto all, obligeth not a Adinijler any more then another 
man: Bftt it oh/ige'b not another man to ^reach^adminifter Sa' 
crarnentSj &c therefore it ehligeth not a Aiinifter. Anfre. To 
the Major I anlWer , that i. It- may oblige to more ^ where 
it obl'.^eth not mere , as to the Effence of the obligation. 
2. The General command obligeth feveral men to feveralads 
according to their feveral Abilities , opportunities and cli- 
pacities. If all be required to improve their Mafters Hock 
or, talents, yet all arc not required to improve the fame talents, 
becaufc they have not the fame: But one hath Rkhes to improve, 
and the general command obligc:h him to improve that talent: 
Asd anfuher hath7?rf«^?^,anotber interefl ind friends ^ another 
wr, and an 'ther leAming^ and every man is bound to improve 
whathd^hdih, and not whut he hath not. The command of Do- 
ing good ro all doth oblige a l^hjfitian to help to cure men,and 
a (Jkagijirate to benefit them by Govemmint^ and a Lawyer 
by Comfetlfot their cftatcJ, and a Afinifter by the works of 
a Minifter, for their falvation. If you (hould fay that Q this 
General command dsth bind a Magifirate^ or a Phyfttian no mori 
then another man : but it hindeth mt another man to do good by 
Ruling or by Phyjick. > therefore neither doth it bind them^ J would 
not the fallacy be obvious? So is it here. 

$. 26. It being proved that fuch AJfifi'dnt Miniff trial works 
may be performed by a fix^d Pafior to thofe about him, and with* 
in his reach, it will clearly follow that convenient means may be 
afed to bring this to performance, and help the Churches to the 
adual benefit of fuch Affiftance, And by the three forcmenti- 
oned wayes it may be done. As i. If the Paftor and People 
of any Neighbour Church, or the people alone, where there is 
no Church, do invite fuch raen^o come and helpthem. 

§. 27. And 2. The Neighbour PaRors may agree together 

for the perfwading of the fitteft men among them to undertake 

Cuch Afl.inances:as is ufual in thefetling of Leflures •, and a* 

< inthis County we have fuccefsfully for above thefe two years 

ifed the heli)of four Itinerant Lcdurer* , that have taken their 



fcTcral circuiti, one Lords day in four, ( which was ctery Lordi 
diy among them ali^ to help their neighbours. 

$. 28. And if the Invitation of a People, or the Agreement 
of Paftors may do this, no doubt then but the prudent Govern- 
ment of a Migiftrate may do it. And he may appoint Certain 
Paftors their bounds and Circuits, and appoint them to afford 
convenient aflliftance to the Paftors and people within thofe 
bound*. And thus he may make them Vi/itors of the Chur- 
ches and Coantry about r^f>w,in which vifitation, they may Teach 
and do other Mmifterial offices by Confcnt •, and may by the 
Magiftrares command, take notice whether the Churches be duly 
Conftitutcd andGoverned,and may acquaint thcMagiftrate how 
things are ; and may fraternally Reprove the Negligent Paflors 
and people where they come; And allb may provoke them to Re- 
formation,both of Church conftitution and Church«adminiftrati- 
ons ; And thcfe vifitors may give notice to the neighbour 
Churches, of fuch Paftors as they find unfit for the Mmiftry, 
that by con Tent they may be difowned by the reft. 

$•29. And though one Paftcr have not of himfclf (^ as a Pa- 
ftor ) fomuch Power over any of his Brethren, as to require 
himtocome tohim to give him an account of his wayes , yet 

1 . The AfTociatcd Paftors may defire him to appear among them 
to give them fatisfadion , when there is matter of offence : ( For 
one may better travail to many, then many toonc. ) And 

2. The Magiftrate may lawfully command Minifters to appear 
before fuch Paftors as he hath appointed to be Vifitors; and 
then it will be their duty in obedience to the Magiftrates com- 

§. 30. YetMagiftrates mufttake heed that tbcy put not the 
fword into the hands of Minifters, nor enable them with coer- 
cive power, by touching mens bodies or eftatcs*. Wedonoton* 
iy forbear to claim fuch a power, but we difclaim it, yea and 
hurablv and earneftly befecch the Princes and Senates of Chri- 
ftian Common- wealths, that they would keep the fword in their 
own hands, and not put it into the hands of any Minifters, and 
then we could better bear the daifins and ufurpations, not only 
cf Exorbitant or traofcendentP.elates, but of the Pope himfelf. 
Let them corae unarmed, and have no weapon but fpiritual, the 
word ofGod,and then we (hall Icfs fear thcm.ThcDiviGons.and 

Pp 3 tyranny 1 

tyranny,& bloodftied through the Churches h»th been by truft- 
ing coercive Magifterial power in the handsofMiniftersofthe 
Gofpcl.Though I confefs I thiok it nor a thing unhwfullin it felf 
for aMinifter to be a Magiftrate alfo, yet I think that nothing 
but neceility can warrant it ; and fo much as bindereth him 
from the work oi his caUing ( which requireth a whole man ) 
without this Neceflity, ii utterly unlawfull. Were there a 
Country that had no other perfons tolerably fit, I doubt not but 
the fame man that is a Minifter or Paftor, might be a Juftice of 
Peace, Parliament man, or a Prince: But while there are others 
that are capable of bearing thefe burdens, he is not worthy to be 
a Minifter of the Gofpcl, that would wi(h the Icaft of them upon 
his (houlders.Either Magiftracy or Miniftryis enough for one. 
Had the Englifh Prelates been armed with none but fpiritual 
weapons, ihcy had never appeared Co terrible or fo odious. 

$.31. Itfeeraetha courfe that fuiteth with the ftateofthc 

prefent Churches among u5,to have in every County, three or 

four fuchable, faithfull Paftors to be by the Magiftrate made 

Vifitors of the reft , not giving them any power of medling 

with mens bodies or eftates, but joining with them a Magiftrate 

as a Juftice or Commiflioner, that one may ferfyfAAe, and the 

* The Tcfults ^^^^ eonjlrain, as far as theSovcraign Power (hall think fit. This 

and Fryars do »' "Ot 10 kt up any New dffce or the leaft part of an office in the 

not take the Church. As it is meerly accidental to the Being of a Phyfitiao, 

Generals or whether he be tyedtoaCity, ortoanHofpital,ortoaCounty, 

^^k Orders ^^ ^® "^ P^*"' ^"' pradice as he findeth opportunity j thcfe bc- 

to be men of '"S ^"f ^^e various modes of ufing the fame * Office and works j 

anotheiOr- fo may we truly fay of the Miniftry. 

der, though $. 32. Yctis there no (uchNece/fityoi this appointment of 
they have a yifitors or Superintendents,or Afliftants by theMagiftrate.or by 
llng^and that «grecment of Minifters,or any fuch courfe,as if the Being,OT the 
Tyrannically, welfare of the Church were laid upon it. For without any fuch 
Eledions or Appointmcnts,thc Graces and Gifts of the Spirit of 
Chrift will (hew themfclves, and be communicative for the Edi- 
fication of the Churches. We fee by common experience, that 
where no one man is commanded or commended by the Magi- 
ftrate to the care of many Churches , above his brethren, yec 
fome men are as diligent and faithfiil] in doing good to all with- 
tn their reach, as if they bad been cbofcn and nominated to 
' the 

the work. Many able painfull Miniftcrs of Chrtft , thtt thirft 
for mens falvation, do go up ind down among the ignorant, or 
weak, and preach in fcafon and out of fcafon , notwithftanding 
the burden of their particular flocks , which they faithfully 

$ . 3 3 .And the parts and graces of thefe men do win them aadi- 
ence and rcfped where they come, without any Humane Au- 
thority to awe men. In almoft all parts of our Countrey we 
have either fettled or movable Ledures * and when do we fee 
a thin Congregation before a lively rowfing Minifter , or any 
man of great ability in the work? No,but we fee the Temples 
crowded ; and find that the people reverence and hearken to 
fuch men as thefe, in whom the Spirit of God appears. 

$. 3.4. Yea and theMiniftcrs themfelves will confult with the 
Wijfe, and Love the^W,and /wrwof tbofe that are 4^/?/? to ttach 
them: and imitate the ablefl preachers asneer as they can. So 
that I may truly fay, that there is a certain kind of Natural, or 
rather,rpiricual Epifcopacy everywhere excrcifed in the Church. 
A great light that burneth and fh'neth above others, will draw 
the eyes of many to it : and if it be fei on a hill it will hardly be 
hid. Calvin was no Prelate ; and yet his Gifts procured him 
thatlntereft, by which he prevailed more then Prelates for the 
conformity of the minds of many to his own. There is fcarce 
a Country but hath fome able judicious Minifter, who hatb 
the Intereji of a Bidiop with the reft ; though he have no 
higher an office then themfelves. Gods Graces deferve and 
will procure refped.Even in Civil Councils,Courtf, Committees, 
we fee that fome one of leading parts, is the Head of the reft 
chough their authoricy be equal. 

^. 35. And indeed the conveniences and inconveniences are 
fuch on both fides, that it is not an eafie coatter to determine. 
Whether appoittted Vifinrs tr Suptrintendents, be more defirdble 
then thefe tyfrhitrary Vifitors that have the NatHral Epifcopacy 
of Inter efi procured hj their meer abilities, O a the one fide,if Magi- 
Itrates appoint fuch Vifitors, the people, yea and many Minifter* 
will the morceafily fubmit.and bcar,and obey, and more unani- 
moufly concur, then if we offer our afliftance without any fuch 
appointment -. Thatsthe convenience: But thenheres theio- 
convcnicncc.'Thc Magiftratc may choofc an unworthy roan, and 


then he may bc/<r4r^^,but not honoured not loved; but ^eater 
lighes will be greater ftiil, let the Magiftratc fee the leffercn 
never fo high a Candleftick .- And then the Minifters and people 
will raeafure their cfteem of the man according to his worth,and 
that will irritate his di pleafure •, For when he is lifted up he ei- 
ther looks to be valued by his Height ^^nd not his Light or fyorth^ 
or elfe that hisZJ^^r (hould be judged of by his Height. And 
as this will turn to heart burnings and divi(ions,fo the efteem 
that is procured by humane Conftitution, will be more humane, 
and ordinarily lef« Divine then the callmg and work of a Di- 
vine requireth. On the other fide, if none be appointed by the 
Magiftrate, but every man go forth in the ftrength of his zeal 
and Abilities •, we are like to be caft on many difadvantages with, 
carnal temporizing men,and to have lefs unity among our felves* 
But then that unity, and peace, and refpcd, and fuccefs that we 
have will be more voluntary and pure. 

$,36. Thcbeft way then, ifwe could hit It, feems to be the 
joining of both thefe together. To have fuch Magiftrates as will 
appoint only the mod judicious,ablc,faithfull Minillers to be Vi« 
fitors of the Churches, that (hall go forth both in t he ftrength of 
the Spirit of Chrift, with eminency of gifts , andalfoin the 
ftrength of the Magiftrates Commiffion. But if this cannot be 
attained, I (hall not long for conftituted Vifirors or Superinten- 
dents ; but (hall be content with the Holy Ghofts appointment. 
^. 37. It is therefore the moftChriftiancourfc to lay no great- 
er ftrcfs on thefe modes and forms of Miniflration then they 
will bear; and therefore to live obediently and peaceably under 
either of them i obeying fuch Vifitors as are appointed by the 
Magiftrate, and honouring the graces of the Spirit, where there 
as no fuch appointment; and not to think the Church undone 
when our conceits about fuch things are croO. 


"*'2__1* '._!■*■ ' * *• ' •* " "■^' * "■*■" ''■ ^'" 'i " ^'■*-^ ^'^'' "'Jt:" S'A 

C H A P. 1 1 1. 

It is Lar^full for the fever al (tJjfociati^ 
ens ofTaJlors to choofe one man to 
be their Trefident^ durante vita^ if 
he continue fit. 

^ I. ^S^^S^S^Ki^ Come next to fpcikof a third fort 

of Miniftry, wnich bath aj^reater 
refcroblancctoche ancient Epifco- 
pacy, then any of the reft : Yea 
indeed is the fame that wasexercifcd 
about thefecondor third Century 
after Chrift. And that is, the fix- 
ed Prcfidents of the Presbyters 
of miny Churches 'aflTccrated. In the firft fettlernenc of 
Churches, there was either a finale Paftor to a finj^Ie Church ; 
or many Pafiors, in equality, at leaft of Office •. And 
whether from the beginning or afterward only , one of 
them became the ftatedPrcfidcnr, is very uncertain : of which 
anon. But when rlie Churchc? encreaied in magnitude, and 
many Congrcc;ations v^re gathered under one Presbyteric , 
thent!iic Prcsbyterie alio had a i^atcd Prcfident, as the Con* 
^eg.itionfil Pre'bvteric* perhaps had before. And thus he 
was ah Archbifliop under the name of a liiflif^p, that awhile 
befoi^c' M»fir cicheb qrtknown, or elie muft needs be eft^emed an 
ArchWfTi^p.- f Ml ^'w .1 I ,- . t :;:.ui , 

<j.'i. that thefernen fhouldtake the Pajf'orai charge efmanj 
Cbttrches, or t:hit they (hould fufpefidtbt'&cvervtn^i^ foyftr' of 

ciLq the 


theTreshjterSi upon pretence of a Prefidency , or fuperiority, 
it I think, a matter not warrantable by the word of God. 

^. 3. But that fuch A^jciations of the Paftors of taany Chur- 
ches (hould ordinarily be, for the fake of Union and Communi- 
on ; as alfo that it is lawfull for thefe Affociatied Mmifters 
to choofe one among them to be their Preftdem^a granted by 

<J. 4. But all the queftion is^Whethey thefe T reftdettts [hoaldh 
6nlj pro tempore^ or dnrante v f^^/uppofing that they forfeit not 
the trult? I (hUlnotfay much of the point o? convenierct -^ but 
I affirm,that of it felf it is Uwfnl to choofe a Prefident that (hall 
be fixed durante vita, ft 1 4m diuhene fe gefferit. Yea it is Urvffill 
norviti England, as things ftand. 

$.5. And I. It may fufficefor the proofof this, that it is no- 
where forbidden in Nature or in Scripture-, diredlyorby con- 
fcquence : and^thercfore it is lawfull : Where there is no hiw , 
there is no tranfgrcfiion : They that fay that it i« a thing 
forbidden, muft prove it from fome word of God ^ which [ 
think, ihey cannot do. 

$.6. 2. If it be lawfull to choofe a fixed Prefident for half 
a year, or a year, or feven year, then is it lawfull to choofe 
and fix fuch a Prefident for life (on fuppofition ftillofacontiHU- 
ed htnefs ) But it is lawful to choofe fuch a one for a year, or 
feven year : therefore alfo for life. 

$. 7 The Antecedent is granted by the Presbyterian, Con- 
gregational and Eraftian party, ( which arc all that I have now 
to do with : ) For ail thefe confented that D. Twifs (hould be 
Prefident of the Synod at Wefimi*ifier, which was till his death : 
or elfe was like to have been till the end ; Andfo another af- 
ter him. And ordinarily the Provinces and Presbyteries choofe 
a Prefident till the next Affembly. And I remember not that 
ever I heard any man fpeak againrt this courfe., 

$.8. And then the Confequencc is clear, from the parity of 
Reafons : For i. Seven years incontraAsis valued equal with 
the duration of a mans life. 2. And no man can give a Rea- 
fon to prove it Lawfull to have a Prefident feven years,or a quar- 
ter of a year, that will not prove it Lawfull in it felf to have a 
Prefident during life. And Accidents muft be weighed on both 
fi(t€f, before you can prove ic t/^tcidentalljzy'\\'. And if it be 


btic fo, ic may be one time good, if by accident it be another 
time bad. The weight/eft accident muft preponderate. 

$.9. 3. Ordtr is aching lawful in Church Aflembliesand 
Affairs : the iuicd Prefidcncy of one, is a ftated Order in Church 
AfTemblies : therefore it is lawful that all things be done in Or- 
der, is commanded, I Cor. 14.40. And thertforein general Or- 
der IS a ^Htjr, which is more then to be LdwftU. And though 
the particftUr wajes of Oriier may )ct be comparatively inditfc- 
rcnt, yet are thej Lmw/hI^ as the Ge^us is necejfarj. 

<^. 10, And that this Prefidency is a point ot Church Order, 
is apparent in the nature and ulie of thethng: andalfoin that it 
is commonly acknowledged a matter of Order in all other focie- 
ties or AfleTiblies, though but for the low and com^i^on affairf 
of the world : in a Jury you will confefs, that Order requireth 
that there be a Foreman ; and in a Collcdgcthat there be a Ma- 
iler ; and chatan Hoi'pital aSchool, and all Societies, have fo 
much Order at leal\ as this, if not much more. And why 15 
not that to h't accoun:e<l'Ordcr in the Church, that is loin all 
other fociecies ? 

<^. II. 4. Thit which maketh to the Unity of the Churches 
or Patters f and is not forbidden by Chrit\ j is bo:h lawful and 
defirable: Bur fuch isa ftated Prefidency : therefore, c^c. The 
Major is grounded 1. On nature it felf, thattclis us how much 
of the ftrcngth, and beauty, and fafety of the Church, and of all 
fociecies doth confift in Unity. The Minor is apparent in the 
Nature of the thing ; i. That Prefidency makes for Unity, is 
confeft by all the Churches that nfe it to that end. 2. And the 
continuance of the fame makes fomewhat more for Unity then 
a change would do : there beinq feme danger of divifioo in the 
new cledions : befides other and greater inconveniences. 

$. 12. 5. Thcperfon thatis mof^ fit (Conftderads Confuie- 
randis ) fhould be clofen Prcfidenc : But one and the fame per- 
fon ordinarily is moii^x. durante vita : thercf)re one and the fame 
perfon rtiould b« continued Prcfident. God doth not ufe to 
change his gi f:s at every monechly or quarterly Scfsions of a Claf- 
fi? or Provincial Synod. Either the Prefidcntchofen was the ik" 
teftat thetimcof his choice, or rot : if he were not, he was ill 
chofen : if he were fo then,its like he is f) ftill, at Icaft for a long 
time. And a mans ability is fo great and confiderabie a qualifi- 

Q^q 2 cation 

( ;co ) 

nation for every iitiployment, thaticmuftbe a very great acci- 
dent on the other fide that muft allow us [ochoofe a man that is 
icfsable. AchangecanHotbcmadein moi\ placet, without the 
injury of the Affembly and of their work. The worthieft per- 
fon therefore may lawfully be continued for the work fake. 

$. 13. 6. That way is lawful that conducech to the Reconci- 
liation of diflcnting and contending Brcdircn ( fuppofing it not 
forbidden by God. ) But fuchisthe way of a flared Prcfidency, 
W«M»reWr<2; therefore, &c. Though the Ma jor be paft doubt, 
yet to make it more clear, confidcr, that it is i. A Learned par- 
ty fas to many of them J with whom this Reconciliation is de- 
(ired : and therefore the more delirable. 2. That it is a nume- : even the moll of the Catholikc Church bv far. All 
theCrffj^Churcb, the Armenian, Syrian^ Abaffme^ and all others 
that I hear of, except the Reformed, are for Prelacy .- and among 
the Reformed, BngUndAnd Ireland bad a Prelacy-, and Dfw- 
ff)Mrk,^Swedef},^3LVi oi Germany, Tranfihania, have a fuperin- 
tendency as high as I am pleading foratieaft. Andccrtamiya 
Reconciliation, and as near a Union as well may be had, with 
fo great a part of the Church of Chrift, is a thing not to be de- 
fpifed ; nor will not be by confiderate moderate men- 

<). 14. Anditis very confiderablewithme, that it is the fu- 
ture and not only the prefent Peace of the Churches that we 
ftiall thus procure. Tor it is eafie to fee that Epifcopacy is nei- 
ther fuch an upftart thing, nor defended by fuch contemptible 
reafons, as that the Controverfie is like to die with this age : un- 
doubtedly there will be a Learned and Godly party for it, while 
the world cndureth-, unlefs God make by Illumination or Reve- 
lation forae wonderful change on the Sons of men, that I think, 
few men do exped. And certainly we fhould do the bcft we can 
toprcvent a perpetual diffcntion in the Church. Were there not 
one Prclatica! man now alive, it were cafie to forefee there would 

§. 15. Yet do I not move, that any thing forbidden by God 
Ihould be ufed, as a means for Peace or Reconciliation with men. 
Itisnotrofetupany Tyranny in the Church, ror to introduce 
any new Oftice that Chnft hath not planted : it is but the or- 
derly difpofal of the Officers and iflfairs of Chrift, which is plead- 
ed foe. 


$. 1 6. Objeft. B-<t f fome will (2^^' ) jour Minor jet is to be 
dcMyed •, for thu is not a Tvay to Reconciliation. A ftated Prtfidincj 
■tvill not ^leafe the PreUtes that hxyi been ufed to the fole furisdi^i- 
on of d whole Coi4nty^ and to fole Ordination. Anfrv. I . We know 
that the moderate will confenr. 2. And fome further accommo- 
dacion (hall be offered anon •, which may fatisfie all that will 
(hew chemfelves the Sons of Peice. 3. If we do our duty, the 
guilt will no longer lie on us , but on the rcfufcrs of Peace : buc 
till then^ its as well on uj as on them. 

■j. 17. 7. That which is lawfully praftifed already by a Con- 
currence of judgements, may lawrully be agreed on : Buc the 
Prefidency ( or more ) of one man in the Afferablies of Mini- 
ilers, is in moft places pradifed f and that lawfully; already: 
therefore, &c. There is few Aflbciations, but fome oae man is fo 
far eftcemcd of by all, that they give him an adual or virtual 
Prefidency, or more: why then may they not agree cxpreflyfo 
to do? 

S^. 18. 8. Ladly, The fo common and foanticnt pradiceof 
the Churches, fiiould move us to an inclination to reverence and 
imitation, astar as God doth not forbid us, and we have no fuf- 
ficicnc reafon to deter u? ; of which more anon. 

^. 19. Yet are notthey to be jurtified that raife contentions 
for fuch a Prefidency, and Isy the Churches Peace upon it. I fee 
not yet but that it is a thing in it (elf indifferent, whether a man 
be Prefident a moneth,a year,or for his life .• and therefore I plead 
only for condefccnding in a cafe indifferent, for the Churches 
peace : though accidentally order may make it more dcfirable ia 
one place : and jealoufies, and prejudice, or danger of ufurpati- 
on, may make it lefs defirable in another place. But none fhowld 
judge ir neceffiry or finful of i: felf. 

(>. 20. If you ask, Wh^t Power Jhall rhefe fiated Prefidents 
have ? I finfwcr, i. None can denv, but that it is fit that in 
every Affociation of Churches, there fliould be a certain way of 
Commupication agreed on. And therefore that fome one fhouid 
be chofen to receive luch Letters or other matters that are to be 
Communicated, and to fend them, or nociceof them unto all. 
This is a fervice, and the porter of doing fuch 3 y^rfiV* cannot be 
<|ueftionable while the fcrvicc is unqueltionable. 

^', 21. 2, It is meet that fome be appointed to acquaint the 

O q 3 reft 


reft, as with huffnefs, fo wkh times indp I -{c e s o^ meeting : the 
nomination of tuch times and places, or the acquaincing otheri 
with Lhem when agreed on, isafcrviccthatnonecan jultly q-ic- 
ftii>n : and therefore the lawfulnefs of the power to do ic.may not 
be queftioncd. 

§. 22. Obje(?^. Bfit what*s this to Governmsnt ? this is to make 
them Servants, and not Governors. An'w. It is the more agree- 
able to the will Of Chrirt, that will have that kind of gre^tnefs 
fought among his Miniftcrs, by being the fcrvants of all. 

$. 23. But 3. He may alio be the ftated Moderator of their 
Difputacions and Debates : this much I think will eafily be grant- 
ed them ; ard I am fure with fome (as I (hill (hew anon^ this 
much would feemfacisfadory. The Principal Prefident or Ma- 
iler of a Colledgc ij thought to have a convenient precedency 
or fuperiority, though he have not a Negative voice. And why 
ihcPrefidentinan Affociauon of Pallors (hould have a greater 
Power, I fee as yec neither necefsity nor reafon, 

$. 24. But 4. If Peace cannot otherwife be obtained, the 
matter may be thus accommodated, withont violation of the 
Principles or Consciences of the Epifcopal, Presbyterian, or Con- 
gregational party. I. Let it be agreed or confcRted to, that no 
men be put to profefs, that it is his judgement, thatBifliops 
(houldhaveas;«rf<^<'z//»o a Negative voice in Ordination, This 
was never an Article of Faith : it is not ncceffiry to be put 
^mongont Crcdenda. It is only the Prathce that is pretended 
tabt nectff^ry, and zfuifm'jjionioii. Seeing therefore it is not 
sto be numbred with the Credenda, but the aa^ehda^ let Adion 
without profi (Ted Belief fufficc. 2. Yea on the fame reafons, 
if any man be of a Contrary Judgement, and think himfclt bound 
to declare it modeftly, moderately, and peaceably, let him have 
liberty to declare it, fohis pradics be peaceable. 3. This being 
premifcd. Let the Prefident never Ordain^ except in cafe of neccj- 
fity^ but reith the pre fence or confent of the Jjfcmbly ef the JJfo- 
dated Pafiors. 4. And let the Paftors never Ordain any ^ except in 
cafes of Nec(fftt)^ hnt when theJPrefidint is there prefent.nor v/ith- 
otithisCenfm. And in Cafes of Ncceffity (as if he would de- 
prive the Churches of good Minifters, or the like ) the Epifcopal 
men will yield it may be done. 
$. 25, If fome think the Prefident yT//</? be one, and others 



©n!y think he May be one ; it is rcafonable, if we will have 
peace, thac our 7I/4; ^^e- yield to their Mn[i: he. For fo rve yield 
but to what we confefs lawful : but if thej fhould yieid, it muft 
be to what they judf»e to be finfu!. If it be not lawful to hold 
their yl/^/, that is, that a Bifhop hath a Negative voice, yet is 
it laafulcofurbear^/f /<»f7o lo Ordain till he be one, except it be 
in cafe of NcceAity. 

^. 16 If in an Affociation there beacompany of yourgor 
weak Mmifters, and one only man that is able to try him that is 
offered to the Miniftry, as to his skill in the Greek and Hebrew 
tongues, and his Philofophy, &c. is it not lawful here for all 
the rell to confent that chey will not Ordain any, except in 
cafes of Nece/iity, but when the forcf^id able man is one ? Who 
can doubt of this ? And if ic be lawful in this cafe, it is much 
more lawful, when both the ability of the faid perfon, and the 
Peace of the Churches doth require it : or if ic bebucthelafl 
alone, 1 chink it may well be yielded to. 

$. 27. But (the Epifcopal men will objcd, ) if eviry man 
Jhall have leave to BeU(ve and Profefs a Parity of Afi»i/fers, the 
PreftdtKt ^ill but be defpifed, and this tvi/l be m way to Peace^ but 
to Contention. Anfw. You have but two remedies for this, and 
tell us which of them you would ufe. The firfl: is, to force men 
by Club-law to fubfcribe to your Negative voice, or not to hold 
the contrary : The fecond is, to caft them all out of the Commu- 
nion of the Churches, that are not in judgement for your Nega- 
tive voice, though they be Moderate, Peaceable, Godly men. 
And he that would have the firft way taken, is a Tyrant, and 
would be a Cruel Perfecutor of his brethren as good as himfelf. 
And he that would take the fecond way, is both Tyrannous, and 
Schifmatical. and far from a Catholike peaceable difpofition; 
and if all mud becaft out or avoided by him, that are not in fuch 
things of his opinion, he makes itimpofsible for the Churchesto 
have pe^ce with him. 

<^. 28. But ihcy will further cbjtA : 7/ in Necejfity they fhall 
Ordain mckoht the Prefidint^ this Necejfity Tvillbe ordinarily pre- 
tended ; and fo all your offers will be in vain. Anfiv. Pr^ vent that 
and other fuch inconveniences, by producing your weighiicft 
reafons, and perfwading them ; or by any lawful means: but 
weniUllnoihavercalNecciVKies ncgleded, and the Churches 



i-aincd, for fear of mensunjuft prctenccsof a NeceflTity : that's 
but a fad Cure- 

j. 29. Butontheothcrfideit will beobjeded, This is bm 
patching hp a peace. If 1 thinks that one man hath m more right ^ 
^then another to a T^gative voice, "^hj pj^till I fcem to grant tt 
himbjmj fraElice} Anfve. As when we come to Heaven, and 
not till then, wc (h-iW h^ivt perfeSi Holirtefs j fo when we come 
to Heaven, and not tiil then, we (hall have perfcfl Vnity asd 
Peace. But tilhhen, I (hall take that which you call Patching, 
as my Duty, and our great Benefit. I f you think one man have 
not a Negative voice, we neither urge you to fay that he hath, 
nor fo much as to fe^m to own his claim. You fhall have leave 
in the publike Regifter of the AfTociation, to put it under your 
band, that [_Not at orvningthe claim of the Preftdents Negatiz; 
voice, bm as yielding in a Larvffil thing for Peace, joudo Confent 
to forbear Ordaining any vfithoHt him, except in C^f^^ ^f -^fffj^- 
tj. J This you may do, without any (hew of contradiding your 
Principles, and this is all that is defired. 

$. 30 Quefh Andmajrve mt for peace fake, grant them as 
wtich in poiyit of Jurisdiction, tts of Ordination, and Qonfcnt to do 
mthingvpithcpit Necejfiiy, bfif^henthe Prefident is one, and doth 
(^enfent ? Anfvfr Either by ftirisditlion you mean Larv making, 
or Executive Government. The firlt belongs to none bat Chrilt, 
in the fubi!ance of hi3Wor(hip •, and the Circumftances no man 
may Vnivcrfally and Vnchangeably determine of.but pro re nata, 
according to emergent occafions, the Magi^rate may make 
Laws for thepi, aridtheP/ty?eyj-may make Agreements for Con- 
cord about them : but none (hould determine of them without 
need: and therefore here is no work for Legijlatars f the Ufurpers 
that have grievoufly wronged the Church. ) And for Execu- 
tive Government, cither it ii over the People, or over the Paftors. 
To give a Negative voice to the Prefident of an A(rociation of 
the Pallors of many Churchei, in Governing the People of a 
fmgle Church, is to fet up a new Office ( a fixed Paftor of ma- 
ny Churches) and to overthrow Government, and introduce 
the noxious lort of Prelacy, which for my part, I intend not to 
be guilty of. And for proper Government of the Paflcrs,^ know 
none but God and Magiilrates that have that Power. Every 
Bi(hop,faith Cypriw.^ad the Council of C/irthage, hath Power 



of his own will, andisrcfponfihlefor his Anions to God, and 
•one of us are £pifcopi Epifcoporum, Bifhopsof Bifhops. But 
chfrei$aCoww««t<!«amongPaitorsancI Churches to be exerci- 
fcd, and foan avoiding or rcjeding from Communion: and this 
^^me call ( improperly ) a Government. And in this, for my 
parr, I fhould confent, where peacedoth require ir, that we rvi/l 
not agree upon the re'jtUiyig of an} Pajlor of cnr /ij[ociation ( no 
morc^thcn to the Accepting or Ordaining of them) witbont 
the Prefident^ but in cafes of Neceffitj : and that jul^ on the terms 
expreft about Ordination, 

SN. 31. As for inftancc, xnzparticHlar Churchy there is a Com* 
wfinion to be held among all the members^ though none of thera 
but the Officers are Governors of the Church. And in many 
cafes where the Peoples Confent is needful, irs common to ftand 
to'a Major vote : and fo great a ftrefs is laid on this, that by ma- 
ny of theCongregarional way the Government of the Church 
is ftid to be in the Major vote of the people^, and yet i. This 
is indeed no Government that belongs to chcra ; but Confent t» 
Communion 6r Exdtijion-^ and 2. No Scripture do:h require a 
Minor part tofland in all cafes to the dccifionof a Major vote, 
nor give a Major v<)ceany Rule over the Confcicnces of the Mi- 
nor part ( (hew us this voting power in Scripture ) And yet ^ 
3. All agree, that upon natural Reafons and General Rules of 
Scripture, the Churches are allowed, yea obliged, in lawful 
things, for maintaining Vnitj anci Peace^ to ftand to the judge- 
ment of a Major vote^ ( in Cafes that belong co them to vote 
in) though there be no particular word for it in the Scripture: 
Even fo ^jjociate Pafiors have not a proper Government of one 
anothery. neither by Prefidents or M.^J9r votes. ( though over 
the people they have, ) but are all under the Government of 
god and the Magiflratt only. A nd yet tbey may in ad:s of Con- 
/>«f about Communion or Non- communion wiih one another, 
prudentially agree, to take the (^onfent of the Preftdent, or of 
iht Aiajorvoteof Pafiors^ov of bo'h, where Peace, orOrder, 
or Edification requireth it : except in cafes of Necertity. 

§. 32. Qiiefl. But what vfHIjoh tahfor a Cafe of Neceffity ? 
■which yoH rvill except /' Anfw. i. If the PreHdent be dead. 2. Oc 
fick,orabfent and cannot come. 3. Or if he be malignant, and 
wilfully refufe to Confcat that the Church be well provided for. 

or Governed. 4. Andwithallfuppofingthit without the great 
hurt or hazzard of the Churches, we cannot delay the bufinefs, 
till he beone,ordoConfent. 5. Efpeciallyif hebefctin enmi- 
ty againft the welfare of the Church : and by pretence of a fuf- 
pending vote would dcftroy the Church, and bring in unworthy 
hurtful perfons or thing?. In all fuch C'-fes of Necejfitj, its 
time to lay by our humane Rules for peace and Order. 

$. 33. Objed. But reho Jhall he judge of this Nectjfity ? 
Anfw. The Magiftrate only (hall be the Compelling fnf^ge. The 
people (hall be the Difceming Jnclges : the Faflors fhall at leaft 
have as much power as the People : each of them ftiall Difcern, 
fofarastbey rauft oi'^^Wf.vffwf". And God only fhall be the 
final] fidge. 

$. 34. Objcft. Bm this will but caufe Divifions atjA Confu- 
ftons ; T^hile the Prfftdeiit think^s one thing Necejfarj , and the 
Faftors another, and the TcopU Another. Anfw. 1 anlwered this 
before. Reafon muft not be caft by, and the Churches ruined, 
and poyfon and deftrudion taken in, on pretence of fuch incon«i 
venierces. If fuch a Cafe of difference fallout, each man will 
execute as he difcerncth or judgeth, f being to anfwer for his 
own adions, and having none that can undertake to anfwer for 
him ) And when we all come to the Bar of God for final Judge- 
ment, he that was in the right fhall be juftified , and he that falfly 
pretended Neccfsity againft duty fhall bear the blame. 

$• 3S' Ohjc^. But in the mean time^ the Churches mil be 
divided. Anfw. i . I told you there is no more hope of a perft^ 
X^nitj on e&nh^thQr) Oi perfeH: Holinefs. 2. When two evils are 
before us, (though neither murt be chofen-^ for it/*/ is not an 
Objed of f^o/ff, unlefs asfeeming good, yet) the Greater Evil 
''muft be firfb and moft fludioufly repelled. And the deformity 
and deftrudion of the Churches, and the cafting out of the 
Gofpel r.nd Worlhip of God, is a greater Evil then diforder 
about good adions, and differences about fome Ctrcumftancesof 
Ncceflary works. 

■ §. 36. All this that T have faid about the Negative ( defa^o, 
though i.oide jure ) that I would have Confcnted to for peace, 
I intend not to extend to thofc Cafes and Countries where peace 
requireih it nor, but rather the contrary .-much Icfs to encou- 
rage any to think fuch a Negativ« Neccffary in ic felf. Some 


things m*y be Lawfully granted thac arc unlawfully and upon 
miftake defired, 

$.37. Laftly undcrftand aifo, that when I fpeak of yielding 
to this Negative voice in Ordination, to the PrefidcntoffacS 
an Affociation, 1 intend not to exclude the Presbyterie of a 
particular Church ( where it is fufficient ) from thefaid Pow- 
er and exercifeof Ordination: ofwhicblamto fpeak, in«h* 
the following Chapter, which is ef the Treftdcnt of fach 4 



It is Lavpful for the T^resbyters ofapar^ 
ticular Qhurch , to have a fixed T^re^ 
ficlent, during life. 

_^ y^ 

5. I- 0>^3J^^5»^5»^ Come now to the moft Ancient fixed 
Bifhop that rhe Church was acquainted 
with, except the meer Epifcop us Gregif, 
theOverfcer of the flock ; and thac is, 
j4 P re f dent of mAny Elders in one parti- 
cuUr Church. The Diocefan B fhop 
wa« long after this: 
( if you will call them fo ) in the Church were the firR menti- 
oned Itinerant Bifhops that were fent abroad to convert foul* 
and gather Churches,and afterward took care to water and con- 
firm them. The next fort of Bifhops ( and the firft fo called) 
were the fixed Paftors of particular Churches, that cannot be 
proved to have any fupcriority over Presbyters, The third 

Rr 2 fort 

fort of Biftiops ( in time , and the firft fixed Bifliops that 
were fupcriours to other Paftors ) were thefe Prcftdents of 
the Presbyteries of particular Churches. And thefe are they 
that now we have to fpeak of. And I Hiall prove that it is not 
unlawful to have fuch. 

$.2. But firft 1 muft tell you what I mean- and (hew you 
ibiUfuch may be had among us. I have in one of the former 
Difputations, defined a particuUr Church, It fliould ordina- 
rily confiftof no more then may hold ferfonal ConnnanioK to- 
gether in G ah pub lich^PVorJhip. But yet take notice, i. That it 
tendethtothe ftrength and honour of it, that it be noc too 
fmalli but confifting of as many as are well capable of the Ends. 
2. And it isUwfull for thefe to have fome other meeting places 
for part of the Church, bcfides the principal place which is for 
the whole. Chappels of eafc may lawfully be made ufe of, for 
the benefit ofthe weak, and lame,and aged, that cannot alwayes 
or often come to the common Aftembly. And where fuch Chap- 
pels are not, it is lawful! to make ufe of convenient houfes. 
Yea if there were no Place to be had, fufficiently capacious of 
a full Affcrably, or elfe if perfecution forbad them to meet, ic 
might ftill be but one Church, though the members met in fe- 
veral houfes ordinarily : as five hundred in one, and three hun- 
dred in another , or one hundred only in feveral places, every 
one going to which houfe he pleafed, and having fereral Pa- 
yors that in Society and by Confent did guide them all. But 
though fomewhat difordcrly may be born within cafes of Ne- 
ceffity •, yet i. Asit isNcceffary totheEnds.and fototheBe- 
ing of a particular Church that they be a Society capable of 
perfonal Communion-, and the perfonal Teaching,Guidance and 
Overfight of the fame Paftors, So 2. It is defirable, as much 
tending to Order and Edification, that all of them that are able 
do frequently meet in one Affcmbly , for the Worfhipping 
of God with one heart and mouth. And this is the Church I 
fpeak of. 

$ 3. It is not oWeceJfttj to theBe'ng of fuch a particular Church 
that it have more Paltors then one : And when one only is the 
Paftor or Governour, that one alone may do all the works of a 
Paftor or Governour ( For what elfe is his Office, but the ftate 
or Relation of a oaan obliged and authorized Co do fuch works? ) 



The Learned Dr. H, H. thinketh thac the Apoftlcs planted 
rone in Scripture times but fingls Paftors or Bilhops f called 
alfo Presbyters) in every Cburch,wtth Deacons under them, 
without any other Presbyters ( fubjid or afliftant) over that 
Church. This I conceive cannot be proved, nor fo much as 
the probability of it •, nay I lead a probabihcy, if not 
a certainty of the contrary may be proved, of fomc Churches. 
But yet it is mod hkely that it was fo with many Churches. 
And reafon tells us, that the thing being in it it\f indifferent, 
was futed by the Apotties to the (late of the particular Churches 
that they planted. A [mall Church might well have ^Jingle 
Paftor, when a l4rge Church, efpecially in times of perfecution, 
when they muft aflembie in fcveral houfes at once, required 
more. Some places might have many perfons fie for the 
Office , and fome but one ; Which cifes muft needs have fomc 

$ . 4. Where there arc more Paftors in fuch a Church, then one, 
I know of »e Nec(Jfn) that one (hould have any fuperiority over 
another; nor can 1 prove that it was fo from the bcginning.Somc 
Divines of the Prelatical Judgement think that this was an Or- 
dinance of the Apoftles, at the firft planting of fuch Churches ; 
Others of them think that it was of their appointment^ but not 
adualiy exifienttiW after Scripture times. Ochersofthem think, 
that as Hierom(i'\tb, it began when fadions rofe in the Church, 
not by Divine Ordination, but Ecclefiaftical agreement, for the 
preventing or cure of fchifm. 

$. 5 . The firft Church that we find it in, in Hiftory, is that of 
Alexandria. And Alexandria was a place exceedingly given to 
fedition, tumults, and divifions : the contentions bctweert'C/- 
n7and(9rr/?f/,ihe murder of Hjfpatiahy Peter und his compa- 
ny.the affiult made upon Qrejies by Amwonius dc rhe other Ni~ - 
/r»<i« Monks, and many fuch feats m the da) csoiTheop hi Ifis^Di' 
o-ijfius^ and up to the beginning, do flifw wliat they were. And 
Socrates faith of them cxpreQv, li. 7. cup. 1 3 . that [_ The peo- 
ple of Alexandria ij^tft/^ all other men, are given to Schi/m and 
contention •, for if any ejuarrel arife at any ttme among them^ pre* 
fently hainoHs ttnd horrible offences ufe to follow, and the tumult 
ts never appeafd withoHt great blood- Jhcd. ] fuch were ihe Alex* 


§.6. But yet it is certain that the Original of this cu[lom,of 
fetting nponcas Prcfidentor chief Presbyter in a particular 
Church, cannot be found out, io as to fay, by whom and when 

it was firrt broughc in. But if it begsftiupon the death oi AUr\ 
at i^/cx.indria , it moft needs be long before the death of foh» 
cUe Apollle, fin that Church, whatever other Churces did. ) 
But it feems that there was then a difference and indiffcrency in 
this point, and chat other Churces did not prcfentiy imitate the 
Churches of AUxAndria and Rome herein. He chat reads Cb- 
wens Eflftle to the CQrmhians without partiality, T think will be 
of Grotihs mind ( before cited, E}>ifl. ad Gal. ad Bignon. ) that 
Clemens knew not any fuch Prelacy among the CoriKthiant^when 
he wrote that Epiftle : And fo we may fay of feme other 
Witneffes and Churches in thofe times, and afterwards In ma- 
ny pl;5ces. 

$. 7. It is not another Ordered }Ain\({crs, or Oj^cf , that was 
in fuch Churches diftind from the Presbyters that affifted them. 
Their Prefidents or Eminent Bifhops were not made tbenEpifcopi 
Efifcoporttm, vel Paftores Paftortim^2iS having an Office of Teach- 
ing and Governing the other Paflors , as Pafiors have of teach, 
ing and Governing thsflocl^. But they were only the chief Pres- 
^j.'f^-/, or chief Bifhops or Pallors of that Cburch,as an Arch' 
deacon is to the Deacens when he is made fuch by their choice, 
as Hieroms comparifon is ( ad Evagr. ) 

$.8. Norisitlawfull now, even in the fmalleft Parifti/or any 
0»f to afTume fuch a fuperiority over any Presbyters (though 
fuch as have their maintenance from him, and are chofen by.bim, 
and are called, his (furates ) as if he were of a Suptr.our Order or 
(5j5?ftf,and fo the Governour of the other ashisinferinurf. 

$.9. But yet that zrffrnmatj of degree^ or Preftdencjt or 
^ated LModeratorjhip of one in fuch a c hurch and Prebbyceric, 
is lawful), I think with fmall labour may be evinced. And 
I .All the Arguments before ufed, for the Preftdencj of one in an 
Affociation, will prove this Parochial Preflden j with advant«ge. 
f$. 10. 2. It is a thing that is conltanily or very ordinarily 
pradifed among us already , with common approbation , or 
without contradidion,as far as I have heard. Many places have 
one Minifler only that is prefe* ted by the Patron ^ and this one 
Paftor bach divers with him ( or ai cbs coiomoo fa) ing \%^Vndt r 

himi ) 


him : ) If it be a great Congregation.raany have a Curate or af- 
fiftantin the Town with them, and other Curates at Chappcls 
that depend on that Town. Though there be but one Chap- 
pe! in this Parifti where I live , yet this Church hath three or 
four Preibyters, and three or four Deacons. And the Law of 
the Land doth give one Minifter only the Maintenance ( called 
the Benefice) and the Power of the Temple, -find the calling of 
Aflcmblics, and the choice of Curates, whom he is to maintain. 
And they that are chofcn and maintained by him, muft and will 
be ruled by him; at leaft in all circumfiantial thmgf. It belongs 
not to them to Rule even the People coMtrary to Gods word; 
nor in fuhflantiab to infl:itute new Ordinances of Worftiip : 
But in circumJiamiAls which arc left to humane determina- 
tion fas time, place, particulars of order, decency, &c. ) no 
doubt but the chief Paftors in each Parifli, do excrcife aftually a 
Negative Vote, and the Curates do nothing without their coh'- 
fent. So that this fort of Preficiencj being common among us, 
without contradidion I may take it for granted that it hath 

• the common confent. And if any allow not of fo much as is com' 
monlj HjQd, yec a Prefidencj is a far lower thing. 

sS.ii. 3,. This fortof P. efidency, ( yea with fuch a Nega- 
tive voice as in the foregoing Chapter is granted^ is ufually 
grounded on iYrf/«rf and the Qcntrat Rules of Scripture, and 
warranted by them. Natnre teachcch us, that the younger and 
more ignorant and unlearned, fhould ( proportionably) fub- 
mit to the Elder and Wifer , and in a fort be Ruled by them. 
And *ycri/)r«re faith the fame, i Pet. 5.5. [^Te younger fubmit 
jOHr felvci unto the Elder] V.ytrW-hc Aged JVoemen-y^lh^z were 
no Officers) myjft teuch the younger, Tit. 2.^. Now if common- 
ly falls out that in every Pirim that hath many Minifter , 

• there is but one that is aged, or grave, and that one common- 
ly is more Lea ned and judicious then the refl:, who areufually 
fome young unexercifed men. Now infuch cafes, (whichis 
common) no man can deny that authority to age or VVifdow 
that is naturally due to it, nor exempt the younger ignorantcr 
men from that fubmifiion which naturally they are bound to. 
Equality of Office may fland with incquahty of gifts and age.and 
confcquently of duty. 

$. 12. 4. The good of the Church requireth ic that this dif* 


proportion of Minlftcrs gifts in one and the fame Congregation 
fhould be the ordinary cafe f And rules rnuil be fitted to ordi- 
nary cafes, rather then ro extraordinary. ) For God dorh not 
( as we fee by long and fad experience^beliow his excellent gifts 
fo commonly, as that one Church ; ordinarily j fhould lave 
many Learned able men.* There are but few that areof eminen- 
cy for judgerncnc and other Miniftcrial abilities: Not on^ for 
many Panfties : If therefore many o^ tbcic (houid be placed 
together in one Church, it would be 'gainft the common good, 
and an un juft ingroffment, and injurioui unto others. Provi- 
dence therefore by the rarity of eminent parts, doch teach us 
to make it the ordinary courfc, that in every Congregation 
where there are many Pafl:ors,fomc one of chiefeft parts be cho- 
fcn to be Handing Moderator of the reft. 

$. 13. 5. That which is lawfull for Private me»to do to- 
wards one another , is lawfull Prudentially for Paftors that 
arc confciousof their own imperfcdion , to do towards one 
that they think more able then themfelves. But it is lawful for 
Private men to be fpibjeCl one to another in hnmility : therefore it 
is lawfull for fuch Paltors, i Pet. 5. 5- C Tea all of jott he fub- 
jeSi one te another^ and be cloathed with httmilitj 3 A voluntary 
jfubjedion to another, in lawfull adions , is- nowhere forbid- 
den , but here commanded ; and is a great part of Chriftian 
fclf denyal : and therefore lawful. 

$. 14. 6. And it is a thing that dependeth fo ranch on the 
Wifdom and will of Presbyters, that no m^n can hinder it. I 
can make another Minifter a Bifliopto me, whether other men 
will or not. Honor efi in honor ante. I can i . In judgement eftcem 
him more able, yea or more authorized,then other men. 2. And 
I can have recourfe to him for advice. 3 . And I can give hira 
a Negative vote in all my Minifterial Adions, fo far as they are 
left to humane determination : I can refolvetodo nothing in 
fuch matters, but by his confent. And if I find reafon for this 
inhisabilitie5,andmydifabilicies, it is Lawful. The thing there- 
fore being Lawful!, and fuch as none can hinder me from, 1 fee 
not why it niaynotbc made the matter of Confent, when the 
Churches Peace requireth it. 

$. 15. 7. Moreover, as Divifionsjullly provoked the Chur- 
ches at firll to think of fuch lawful means, for the cure ; fo our 


Divlfioni, or danger of them, do make ic as Neccflary, or conve- 
nient, now as then. We fee to our ihame, that in moft or ma- 
ny Congregations, Miniftcrs that are f^«4/or neer to an equa- 
lity in parte and place, can hardly agree and live in Peace : buc 
they arc jealous of one another, and envying each others efteem 
and intereft ( Though I confefs this is fo odious a vice, that its 
an abominable (hamcfull thing,ihat any Miniflcr of Chrift flioald 
be tainted wiih it.-but fo it is, we cannot hide it JAnd therefore it 
is our ordinary courfe to have fuch a difparity of age, and parts, 
and intereft«,^^^*t one may have the preherainence,and forac rule, 
and the reR be ruled by him. 

§. 16. 8. Laftly, the Antiquity and fpeedy Univerfality of 
tliis courfe, is a ftrong argument to make men moderate in the 
point. For i.Ttfeemeth a moft improbable thing that 4// the 
Churches, or fo many, fhould fofftdden/j take up this Trefidency, 
TreUcj, or Z>jyp>«r»r^ without fcruple or re(iftance,tf it hadbeen 
againft the Apoflles minds. For it cannot be imagined that all 
thefe Churches that were planted by the Apoftiei, or Apoftolical 
men, and had feen them and converfed with them, (hould be 
cither utterly ignorant of their minds, infuch amatterofpub- 
hkepradice, or clfe fhould be all fo carelcfs of obeying their 
new received dodrine, asprefently andunanimoufly to conftnt 
to a change, or endure it without refinance. Would no Church 
or HO perfoHs in the world, contend for the retention of the Apo- 
fiolical inftitutions ? Would no Church hold their own , and 
bear witnefs againft the corruption and innovations of the reft? 
would n$ prfens fay, [ jou go about to alter the frame of Govern- 
ment newlj pLnted among us bj the Holy Ghoft ; Jt waj not thm 
in the dajes $f?ctcr,or Paul.or John; and therefore we vfill have na 
change. "^ Thii fcems to me a thing incredible, that the whole 
Church fh«uld all at once almoft fo fuddenly and filentiy yield to 
fuch a change of Government. And I do not think that any man 
can bring one teftimony from all the volumesof Anriquity to 
prove that ever Church or perfon refifted or difclaimed fuch a 
change, in the times when it mud be made, if ever it was made, 
that is, inthefirftorfecondagcs. 

$. ly.Yea 2,It is plain by the teftimony o^BUrom before men- 
tioned and other teftimonies of antiquity, that in Alexandria, at 
lead, this pradice was ufed in the daycs of the Afo/llesthcm- 

Sf fcivcs. 


felves. For they tefli fie that from ihedayes o^ Marl^ the Eva^- 
gelifi till the (lays of Hcrodas and Dionyfius, the Preshyters 
chofe one from among them, and called him their Bijh-:p. Now it is 
fuppofed by the bell Chronologers chatyl/^rj^was flain about the 
fixcy third year of our Lord,and the tenth ofiV^rojand that Pe- 
ter and Paul were put to death about the fixty fixth of our Lord, 
and thirteenth oiT^ro^ and that ^o^^the Apoflle died about 
the ninety eighth year of our Lord, and the firft of Tra]an^ 
which was about thirty five years after the death of Mark^ 
Now I would leave it to any mans impartial confideration,whe- 
tber it be credible that the holy Apoftles, and all the Evangelifts 
or Afliftants of them, then ahvc, would have fufifercd this in- 
novation and corruption in the Church without a plain difo wn- 
ingit and reproving it : Would they filently fee their newly 
eltabliflicd Order violated in their own dayes, and not forauch 
as tell the Churches of the fin and danger? Or if they had in- 
deed done this, would none regard it, nor remember it, fo much 
astorefift thcfin ? Thefc things are incredible. 

$. 1 8. And I am confident if the judicious godly people had their 
choice , from the experience of what is for their good , they 
would commonly choofe a fixed Prefident or chief Paftor in 
every Church. Yea I fee, that they will not ordinarily endure 
that it ftiould be otherwife. For when they find that God 
doth ufualiy qualifie one above the reft of their Teachers , 
they will hardly confenc that the reft have an equal power 
over them. I have feen even a fober unanimous Godly 
people , refufc fo much as to give their hands to an af- 
fiftant Presbyter whom yet they loved, honoured and obeyed, 
though they were urged hard by him that they preferred, and 
all from a ioathnefs that there fhould be a parity. I know not 
one Congregation to my remembrance, that hath many Mini* 
fters, but would have one be chief. 

§. ip.JObjcd. Bm, ( the Prelatical men will fay) onr Parijhes 
are not capable of this, beeanfe thej have commonl/ but one Paflor^ 
nor have maintainance for more. Anfro.i. Though the greater 
number have bat one yet it is an ordinary cafe to have two , or 
threc.or more, where there are Chappels in the Parifh, and the 
Congregations great, asin Market Towns. And if ever we 
have Peace anda fetled faithful! Magiftrate that will do his pare 


for the houfe of God, we (hall cerLainJy have miny Miniflcrs in 
great Congregations : Or clfe they are like to be left defolate; 
ForMinifters will over-run them , for fear of undertaking far 
more work then with their utmofl pains they are able to per- 

$. 20. And 2. There are few Congregations,! hope,of God- 
ly people, but hzve forae private men in them that are fit to be 
Ordained AlUftant Presbyters.though not to governa Church 
alone ( without neccfiity j yettoaflift a Learned, judicious 
man, fuch as undcrftand the body of Divinity, ( as to thegrcac 
and neceftiry points ) and are iblc to pray ani difcourfe as well 
as many or moft Minifters, and to exhort publickly in a cafe 
of need. He that would imituethe example of the Primitive 
Church ( at leall in the fecond Century ) fhould Ordain fuch as 
thefe to be fome of them AJJljlmt Elder s^ andfomcof them 
D.'AcoKj in every Church ( chat hacli fuch ; ; and let them noc 
teachpubiiijiciy, when a more learned, able P^ftor is al hand to 
do ic •, but let them affiit him in what they are fitteft to perform ; 
Yet lee them not be Lay Elders : bu: auchorized to all Paf\oral 
adminirtrations.and of one and the fame office with the Paflor, 
though dividing the exercife and cxtcu^ion according to their 
abilities and opportunicies ; and nor comming in without Ordi- 
nation, nor yet taking up the Office only pro tempore. And 
thus every Panfh, wf»e:e arc able Godly men, may have a Pref- 
byterie and Prefidenr. 

^.21. Till then 3. It is granted by the Learned Dr. H. H, 
that it is not nccelTary to the beingof a Bifhop that he have fel- 
low Presbyters with him in that Church : If he have but Deacons 
it may fuffice. And this is eafie to be had. 

5>. 22. And indeed i. The parts of many very able Chriftians, 
are too much buried and loft as to the Church, for want of be« 
ing drawn into more pab'ick ufe. 2. And it is it that tempteth 
them to run of themfelves into the Miniftry, or to preach with- 
out Ordination. 3. And yet few of thefe are fit to be trufled 
with the Preaching of the word, or guiding of a Church alone, 
no nor in equality with others : for they would cither corrupt 
ihedoftrinc, or divide the Church. But under the infpeftiua 
and direAion of a more Learned judicious man, as his afliftanti, 
doing nothing againfl his mind, they might be v«ry ferviccable 

Sf 2 to 


to forae Churches. And fuch a Bilhop with foch a Presbyteric 
«nd Deacons ( neither Lay, nor ufuilly very Learned j were 
the ancient fixed Govcrnours of the Churches, if I can under- 
ftand antiquity. 



ObjeBions againjl the Trefidency fore^ 
mentionedy anfvpered. 

I. ftf«^tf(^ffii^^^UT it is not likely but all thefe moti. 
oni will have Diffenters on both fides ; 
It wereHrangeifin a divided age and 
place , and among a people engaged in 
fo many feveral parties, and that fo 
deeply as now men are, there fhould 
any healing remedy be propounded , 
that fhould not have abundance of oppofers : Moft men arc 
prejudiced and afFefted aytheir Education j or opportunitiei,or 
parties, or feveral intereft fwaythem. And therefore I expcft 
that mod fhould re jed all that I fay , and fome of them with 
much reproach and fcorn. Our difeafc were nor fo great and 
dangerousjif it could but endure the remedy. But let us confi- 
der feme of their Objecftioni. 

$ . 2. Ob jeft. I . The ftnpeaceaffie men of the Prelatical way wilt 
fay [ This is hat to turn a Bijhof into a Pdrijh-Triefi ; and to 
Mskf him the Ruler of a Psrijh Mnd a Curate or ttvo^ and in wany 
fUces^ of no Minijierj at ail : A fair Promotion. It ftems 
joH would ieave them hut Mnawt and Jhjidorv J and make them to he 
$ . 3 . Anfw. I. Remember that I grint you alfo the Prefiden- 


cj of j4JfocUtiottJ, ^c, which you may call an Arehhifhoprick 
if yoa plcafe. 2. Is it hsnour that you contend for , or labour 
and fervice to the Church ? If honour, you mufl get it by being j , 

the fervant J of others, and not by being Lords of the Clergy i^r. h. h 
or heritage of God. If you arc feekmg honour of men, and fpcaksofthc 
founding offices in the Church, by fuch diredorsas ambition, ^^'^"""'^'^ ^i- 
you are not the men that we can hope for Peace or Holinefsfrom, f^y'^']^^ 
and therefore can have little treaty with you, but to lay by bytei" und"r 
your wickcdnefs. But if it be fervkt that you contend for, in or- tScm but orc 
der to the Churches good,try firft whether a PArifh will not find °^ ^°^ Doa- 
you work enough. I have tried it, and find that if I were ten men, '^""*- 
I could find as much as I am able to this one Parifh.Though 
I do as much as I am well able night and day, and have fo many 
helpers, yec it is fo great a trouble to me, that my work and 
chargeisquitctoogrcatfor me,that I have been often tempted 
to defertit, and go to a fraaller place : And nothing ftayes me 
but this confidcratian , that God requircth no more then I can 
do, and that its better do what I can then nothing: and that if 
I leave them , the next is like to do no more. Could I but fpeak 
with each man in my Parifh by perfonal Inllruftion, once a 
moneth, or once a quarter, or half year, it would put me into 
high expedations of making a very great change among them, 
by this means; But when I am not able to fpeak to them paft 
once a ycar.or two years, Irauft needs fear left the force of former^ 
words will be loll before I come again. And yet muft you 
. needs have mere rvorf^ and ftr vice ytn^ merefonls to anfwcr for ? 
To deal plainly and fiiithfully with you, Brethren, impartial 
ftanders by conceive that its time for you rather to be more dili- 
gent inafmaller charge,and to lament your negligence in your 
Parilhes, and publickly to bewail that you have by your idlenefs 
betrayed fo many fouls.-letting them alone in their ignorance and 
ungodlinefs,and commonly doing little in your charges,buc wh:t 
you do at Church in publick. O vs rf at rs think that moftof you I'^h^j 
are fitter for fmaller charges rather then for greater. I doubt 
this will offend many. But you were better ufe it to your Rcpen^ 
lance and Reformation,then your offt;ncf . 

§.4.And 3 .1 pray you confider how your PafTion and partiali- 
ty maketh you contradid your fclves. Do you not ufe to re- 
proach the JPrf/^j/rr/ , thai they would all be JBifhops, and they.) 

Sf 3 woula 


would have a Bilhop in every Parifh,and fo are againft Billiops, 
thnt they may be Bidiops themfclves ? And whar/ is a Parifn Bi- 
(hoprickfo great a prize for onr Ambition,andyct is it focon- 
' temptible lo jcurs ? Are we proud for feeking to be Parijh Bijhops^ 
and do ;o« cake it as an empty name or fiiadow ? At leaft then 
confefs hereafter, that^'j/zr Prii/f is fo much greater then ours, 
that the Mark of our Ambition is taken by youto be a low diftio- 
noarable ftatc. 

%. 5. And 4. 1 would intreatyou impartially to try, whether 
the Primitive Apoftolick Epifcopacy fixed in particular Churches 
were not a Parochial Epifcopacy ? Try whether I have not pro- 
ved it before ? And if it were, will you pretend to antiquity^ 
and Apoftolick inftitution,and yet dcfpife the primitive fimplci- 
tY.and that which you confefs was fettled by the Apoftlc»?Letthe 
Eldeft carry it without any more ado. 

<^.6. And-5. Atlcafl fay no more that you are for Epifco' 
facj^ and wc againft it : when we are for Epifcopacy as well as 
you. \i\ion\y \jOMT tranfc indent ^ or exorbitant fort of Epif- 
copacy that we are againft. Saynotftiilthat we have no Power 
of Ordination, becaufe we are not Bifhops ^ but becaufe we arc 
only Bifhopsef one Church. Put the controverfie truly as it is , 
Whether it be larvfulfor ths Bifhop of one Cknrch with his Prebyte- 
ry to ^ydain? Yea or whether many fach AfTociated may Or- 
dain? Or rather, whether it be tyed to the Bifhop of many 
Churches (as you would have it : ) thsit is, Whet her Ordittation 
belong to Archbip}ofscnly ? Is not this the controverfie ? 

. $.7. And then 6. Why do you in your Df^m/io^j of Epifco- 
pacy ( which you very feldom and fparingly give us ) requir* 
no more then a ?<«rtfc/?;W Epifcopacy, andyet nowdefpifeitas 
ifitwereno Epifcopacy at all ? Tell us plainly what you mean 
by a Bilhop ? I thought you meant a Primus Prejbyterorum, or 
aclcafl:, a Kuier of People and Presbyters? And is not this to be 
found in a Par i{h B well as in a Biihop of many Parifties, 
or Churches? Chanpe your Defimtiin from this day forward, 
if you mu(l have a change of the thing defined, as it feemsyou 

^.%. And I wou'd know whether you can prove that it is Ef- 
ftntiai to a Bilhop to have more Churches or Parilhcs then one? 
Prove it if you are able. Was not great Gregory ofNaocefarea a 



BiQiOp with hii feventeiM fouls ? And was not Ahxandcr ( tire 
Colliar) whom he Ordained at Cow;?«<<, aBifhop, though but 
of a fmall Affembly ? Do not feme of you confefs, that Bidiops 
in Scripture-times had no fubjeft Presbyters, and confequently 
bad but a finglc Congregation ? If then a Panfh or Congregati- 
onal Bifliop were a true Bifhop, why may he not be {o Ihll ? 

^ 9. Objef^. 2. Bhi the Church under Ch'^ijlian Prirces 
PjomU not be confirmed to the model of the Church tinder pcrfcH- 
tion : Shall Bi/hops have no more poorer t^.nd honour now then they 
had then ? fVe fee in ConCl&nuna daycj a change was wade. Ataji 
they b? tjed to a Parijh now, becaufe thej vocre Bipjjpsonljiof a 
7arijh in Scripture-times ? 

$. lo. JnfTv. I. We would not have them perfecuted now, 
as they were then, noryetto want any due encouragement or 
affillance that a Chriftian Magiftrace can afford them. But yet 
we would have Gods Word to be our Rule, and Bifhops to be 
the fame things now as then, and we would not have men make 
the profpericy of the Church apretenccfor altering the Ordi- 
nances or InlUtutions of Chrift, and making fuch changes as 
their conceits or ambitious minds incline them to. Wc fhall never 
have a Rule nor fixed certainty, if we may change thrgs our 
fdvcs on fuch pretences. Pretend not then to Antiquity, as you do. 

V. II. And 2. I have in the former Difputation proved by 
many Reafons, that it was not the mind of the Aportlcs tbem- 
fclves, the Parochial or Congregitional Churches which 
they planced, fliould be changed into another fort of Churches. 
Nor is there any rcafon for it, but againl\ it, in the profperity of 
the Church, and piety of Magiftrates. For i. Pious Magiftrates 
fhould help to keep, and not to break Apoftolicalinftuutions. 
z. And pious Mag ftrates fhould further the good of the Church, 
and not hurt ic to advance ambitious men. 

<j. 12. For 3. Minifters are for the Churches, and therefore 
no change mult be made on fuch pretences that is againR the 
good of the Churclie?. If every Panfh or Congregation then, 
were meet to have a Bifhopand Presbyterie of their own, why 
fhall the Church be now fo abufed, as that a whole County fluU 
have but one Bifliop and his Presbyterie ? If every Hofpital or 
Town had a Phyfitian with his Apothecaries and Marcs, in your 
Fathers daycs, would you be their benefaftors, by procuring that 



all the County (hall have but otic Phyficlan with his Apothe- 
.carlei? Oi if every School had a Schoolmafler in your Fore- 
fathers d>iye5, .willyoufay, tbtiefhallbebutonc in your dayes, 
in a whole County ? Do you rlius think to honour Phyfitians and 
Schoolmafters, totheru'. eof the people and the Schools? So 
<io you in your advancerr cnt of Biftiops. Upon my certain ex- 
perience 1 dare affirm , that every Panrti of four or five 
thoufand louls, yea of a thoufand fouls, hach need of fuch a 
Presbytcrie Jor theii Overfight. And is not he that hath a Coun- 
ty on his hands Jike to do le(s for this Town or Pariih, then if 
he had no more then this? If your Beei fwarm, you will not 
keep them all flill in an hive, nor think of enlarging the hive to 
that end : but you will help the fwarm to an hive of their own. 
If yourChildrenmarry, you will rather fettle them in Families 
of their own, then retain all them and all their Children in the 
Family with yourfcives. So if a Biftiopof one Church (hould 
.Convert all the Countrey, he fliould rather fettle them in feve» 
ral Churches, proportionable to their numbers and di(lances,then 
to call them all hi^ orvn Church. 

$. 13. Objcd. 3. B»t hj thU weans the Chftrch T^eftU he 
fejieredrvitb Bijhepj. What anumhrof Bijhops wottldjoft have, 
if every Parijh-Prieji were a Bijhip ? fVe read not of fuch numbers 
Ai this vfould procure^ in the antient times. 

<j. 14. Anfw. I. I find where Chrift commandefh us to pray 
the Lord of the harrcft to fend forth Labourers ( that is, more 
Labourers ) into the harvcft, becaufe of the grcatncfs of the 
harvefl. But I find not where he once requireth us to pray or 
wifh that there may not be too many, for fear of pcftering the 
Church, or diminilhing the honour of the Clergy. Mens purfes, 
I warrant you, will hinder the over»abounding of them ; and 
Gods providence doth not enrich too many with abilities and 
willingncfs for the work. Do you undertake that they (hall not 
be coo had ; and I. dare undertake they will not be too many. 

?>. 15. And 2. Is it not the felicity and glory of the Church 
which you objed as an inconvenience or reproach ? O blelTed 
time and place that hath but enoT» that are able and faithfuU 1 
But 1 never knew, nor heard, nor read of the age that had too 
many that were good and faithfull in the work. Would you 
not have a chief Schoolmafter in every School, or Town, for 


fear the Land (hould be pcftered or overwhelmed with School- 
maRers? Why how can there be coo many, when people will 
iraploynomorethen they need? Oraiferable Church that hath 
fuch Bi^ops, that are afraid Gods vineyard (hould be farnifhed 
with labourers, left their grcatnefs and honour fhould be dimi- 
nifhed / Do you not fee how many thoufand fouls lie ftill in ig- 
norance.prefumption and fccurity for all the number of labourers 
chat we have? And fee you no: that fix p^rts of the world arc 
Inlidcls.and much forjwant of Teachers toinftrudthemPAndyet 
are you afraid that there will be coo many ? What could the enc- 
ray of the Church fay worfe ? 

i). i6. Objed. ivedonot meaM too man) Teachers ybm too many 
Blfhofi\ that is^tso many Governours of the ^harch. Anfw. I .God 
knowcch no Governours Miniftcriall but teachers : It feems yoa 
would have fomcwhit that you call Govemmtnt^^ni leave the la. 
your of Teaching CO Others; As if you knew not that it is they chat 
are efpeciallj jvorthj efthe donlfle honoar that labour in the yvord 
anddo^irint, I Tim.$. 1 7. Or as if you knew not that even the 
Governmenc of Paftors is moftly by ccachinj^. 2 . Governmenc 
and Teaching go togethcr,and arc both neccflary co che Church; 
And che dimtnifhing che number of Governours and of Teachers 
is all one : As aPhyfitian doth Govern all his Patients in order 
to their cure,and a Schoolmafter all his fchollars in order to their 
learning; fo doth a Paftor all his flock, in order co their fandi- 
fication and falvation. And for the Government of the Alinil 
//fr/fkw/<r/vr/, the number fliall be increafed as little as may be. 
Parifh Birtiops will Govern but a few i and therefore they can 
wrong but few, by their mif-governmcnc 

$. 17. Obj'ed. 4. Bftth this means y\fe psall have unwarthy, 
raw, and ignorant men madeBi/hops' What kjndof Bijhops Jh^/l 
■we have , if every Parifh l^ritft mufi be a Bijhop ? Some of them 
are boyes , andfome of them empty /ft llj fouls to make Bifjops of. 
$.18. Jnfw. I (hall lay open che nakednefs of this Objedion 
alfo, fo chat it (hall be no (hclcer to domineering in the Church. 
I. Awake the fparks of humility that are in you,and cell us open- 
ly, whether you think your felvcs more able worthy men to 
Govern a County, or a hundred Pari(hes, then fuch as we are 
to Govern one ? Though I have been many and many a time 
tempted with fonas lo run away firom the charge that is cat 

T I apon 


upon me, as a burden too heavy for me to bear , and I know my 
felf to be lamentably infuffcienc for it : yet I muft profefs, that I 
am fo proud as to think my felf as able to be the Paftor or Bi- 
Ihop of this Parifh, as moft Bifhops in England^ yea or any one 
of them , to be the Pallor and Governour of a County, or an 
hundred or two hundred Pariflies. Were you humble, or did 
you dwell at home, or take an account of your own abilitie?, 
when you reproach others as unable to be the Bifhops of a Pa- 
ri{h,and think your felves able to be theBifhops of a Dioccfs and 
contend for it fo eagerly ? 

$.19. And 2.Ifurtheranfweryou:We willleaveyou not a 
rag of this Objedion to cover your nakednefs. For if any Pa- , 
flors or Parifh Bifhops be more ignorant then others, and unfit 
to Teach and Rule their flocks without the afliftancc, teaching 
or diredion ofmore able men, we all agree that its the duty of 
fuch men to Learn while they are Teachers^ and to be Ruled 
while they are Ruler s^ by them that arc mfer. For as is faid , 
a Parity InTcgardoi office^ doth not deny a difparhj o^gtftr 
and fArts » And we conllantly hold, that of men that arc equal 
in regard of office, the younger and more ignorant ftiould 
Icarn of the aged that are more able and wife, and be /?»/fi by 
their advice, as far as their infufficicncy makes it neceffary. And 
will notthisfuffice J* 

§. 20. And 3. If this fuffTce not, confider that AfTociatcd 
t'^aftors are linked together, and do nothing in any weighty mat- 
ters of common concernment ( or of private,whcrein they ne( d ^ 
advice) without the help and diredions of the refl. And a 
young man may govern a Parifh by the advice o^ a Presby tcrie 
andalfo ©f Affociated able Paftors,as well arfuch Bifhops as we 
havehad, have governed a Dioccfs. '" ' 

$.21. And yet 4. If all this fuflfice ftbt, 'b^ltlmown to yon 
that we endeavour to have the befl that can be got for every 
Parifh: and Novices we will have none, except in cafe ofraeer 
nccefHty: And we have an aft forrejeding alltheinfufficienr, 
as well as the fcandalous and negligent •• and any of you may 
be heard that will charge any among us with infufficiency. Sure 
I am we are deanfing the Church of the infufficient and fcanda- 
ioas that the Prelates brought in, as fall a we can : if any prove 
jikechem, that lince are introduced 1 we defire that (hey xnay 


fpced no better. What fide foever they be on, we defireablc 
,'B;;^^"'lraen,and defirethcejedionof theinfufficienc and un- 
fi^bMU And youu^«C:»r:f!way prove infurticiency. Wit- 

ncfs Timnhy.whok youth was not to be defpilea. rv^ ^ 

Ori^fHSind many more of old began, is commonly known. J'»^e« 
Uhs was BiQiop at twenty years of age (ihc Tridcntine Bifliop j 
We will promife you that we will have none fo young to be 
Parifli Presbyters, as y?owf hath had fomc Popes and Cardinals 
and Archbifhops andBiOiops. Nor fhall any fuch ignorant in- 
sufficient men, I hope, be admitted, as were commonly admitted 
by the Prelates. 

$.2 2. Objcd.5.5«r the Apojiles and Evan^elifls had^Urger 
circmt the>i a Parifb, and therefore fo frjuld their Succejfors have ? 
fiAnfw. I grant you that they had a larger circuit, and that here- 
in, and in their ordinary work they have fuccefTors : And wre 
confent that you (hall be their Succeflbrs. Gird up your loins, 
and travail about as far as you pleife, and preach the Gofpel to 
a$ many as will receive you ( and fure the Apol^ics forced n«ne^ 
and convert as many fouls as you can, and dired them when 
you have done in the way ©f Church-commanioR, and do all 
the good that you can in the world ,and try whether we will hin- 
der you . Have you not liberty to do as the Apoltles did ? Be 
yc fervcints of all, and feek to fave all, and take on you thus 
the care of all the Churches,and fee who will forbid fuch an Epif- 
copacy as this ? / 

<J. 23 . Objeft. C. But it feents yon would have mne compelled 
to obey the "Bifhops^hptt they only that are vnilling fjonld da it : and 
fo men /hall have libertj ofconfcience^ and anarchy and parity and 
confufton will be brought into the Church. Anfrv. i . I would have 
none have liberty for any certain impiety or fin : And yet I 
would have no fin punifhcd beyond themeafare of its deferts. 
And I would not have preachers made no Preachers Cunlels the 
Church may fpare thcui)bccaurc their judgements are againfl Di- 
occfanBifhopj • and therefore I would have none lilcnced or fuf- 
fpended for this. 2. And whit is it that you would have thats 
better? Would you have men.forccdto acknowledge and fub- 
mittoyour Hpifcopacy ? And how? Small penalties will not 
change mens judgements, nor confciences. Silencing or death 
would deprive the Church of their labours: andlowcmuft 

Tt 2 lofe 


^ofe oiir Teachers left they difobey the Birtiops. If thii be yout 
cure, it difgraccth your caufc. We defire ngt Prelacy ac fo dear 
s rate. Its a hd ord*r ihs: ucPtroycs the duty ordered. 

$.24. Ohic6t.B>ttthisis to take down all Church-Govern' 
mefit, if all Jh 4 II have what Government they lij}. Atifw. i.Was 
there no Church- Government before the dayes 0^ Corftantint 
theEmperour? 2. Do you pretend to antiquity, and fly from 
the Antient Government as none? You Ihall have the farae 
means as all ihe Bifliops of the Church had for above three hun- 
dred years to bring men to your obedience : and is that nothing 
withyou? Why is it commonly maintained by us all, that the 
Primitive ilate was that pureft ftate, which after times fhould 
llrive to imitate /if yet it was fo defcdivc as you imagine? 3 . And 
why have you flill pretended to fuch a power and excellent ufe- 
fulnefsinthe Prelatical Government, if now you confefs that it 
is but anarchy, and as bad as nothing , without the inforce-r 
mentoftheMagiftrate? What Msgiftrate forceth men to obey 
the Presbyteries now in EngUnd^ Scotland^ 'or many other 
places? 4. Yet it is cur defire, that the Magiftrate will do his 
duty, and maintain order in the Church, and hinder difordcrs, 
and ail known fin : but fo, as not to put his fword into the hand 
orufeit at the pleafure of every party that would be lifted up. 
Let him prudently countenance that way of Government, that 
tcndeth mofttothegoodofthe Churches under his care-, but 
nptfo as to perfecute, filence, orcaftour, all fuch as are for a 
different form, in cafe where difference is tolerable. 5. And in 
good fadnefs , is it not more prudent for the Magiftrate to keep 
ihefwordinhisownhandsifreally it bethefword that muftdo 
the work? If Epifcopal Government can do fo little without 
the compulfion of the Magiftrate, fothat all the honour of the 
good effeds belongcth to the fword, truly I think it prudence 
in him to do his part himfclf, and leave Bilhops to their part , 
thai fo he may have the honour that , it feems, belong* unto his 
office, and the Bifliop may not go away with it, nor the Prcs- 
bytcrie neither. Let the fccular Bifhop have the honour of all 
that Order and unity that arifeth from compulfion: and good 
reafon, when he piuft have the labpur, and run the hazzard if he 
do,it amifs*' and let the EcclefianicalBifhopi have th^ honour 
pf All cbae ordei^and unity ibac arifeth frcm their management 

of the fpiritual fword and Keycs. 6. Andlaftly I anfwcr, that 
this is not the Tub je6t that you and we have to difputcof. It is 
Ecclefiaftical Government by Minifters.and not fecular by Migi- 
ftratcs that is our controvcrfie. It ii of the Power left by Chrift 
to Paftors and not to Princes 

^.25. Ob je(5t. Bfit At leafi thofefhouU he txcommnnicated that 
deny cbediinceto their Bi/hopj : that it s Tower that is left m 
the Bipjip thimfeives, 'Whether the Jldagijlrate confent or not, 
Anfrv. I. Excommunication is a fcntence that fliould f^ll on 
none but for fuch grofsand bainous fin, if notalfo obQinacy 
and impcnitency in them,as is mentioned in Scripture: UMng it in 
cafes ofcontroverfic and tolerable differences,is but a tearing and 
dividing the Church. 2. We take it not for our duty to excom- 
municate you, bccaufc you are for Diocefan Prelacy : therefore 
you fhould not take tt for yours to excommunicate others be- 
caufc they are agiinftir. For 3. If youry/j^nV/ of Epifcopacy 
be fuch as I have proved it , you have more need to repent and 
amend, andaskforgivenefsof Godandmen, thentoexcomrou'- 
nicate them that are not of your opinion , and for your fin. 
4. But if you take thisto be your duty, who hath hindered you 
from it thefe twelve yetrs ? You had liberty, for ought I know, 
to hive difcharged your confciences, and to have excommunica- 
ted us all. 5. But you might fo eafily fee what was like to come of 
if, that it ts no wonder that you forbore. If fuch a Miniftry 
and fuch a people as are now your adherents ( whofc defcripti- 
onl forbear j fhould execute your fentcnce, and caft us and 
our adherents out of their communion, what contempt would it 
bring upou you in £;»^/rf;j^ ? The Ale- houfcs would befhuiup 
fortheraoftpart,again(lus; But that and the reft, would be 
eafily born : I think this is not your way. 

$. 26. Objed. 7. But vi'hat need joti form us a ncvf frt ofSpif- 
capacy f TPcretvenct ncll enough before ? W^y did jou pull dawn 
that vchich^asTvelt f.Unted^And now pretend tt commend A better to 
Us ? We were vptllif jon had let us alone. 

$. 27. Anfw^ I . But We were not well, bccaure;o« tvouldmt 
Ictus alone. The Miniftcrs that were filenced, and imprifoned, 
and banifhed, and the thoufands of people that were fain to fol- 
low them, and all thofe that were undone by your profecutiors 
in EngUnd^ were not well, But this is a fnaall matter : The ig- 

T t 3 noranc ^ 

norant Congregations that had ignorant and drunken guides, 
where Piety was fcorned as Puritanifm, and impiery made a 
thing of nothing , and where Satan was fo commonly fcrved ; 
the many hundred Congregations jn£«^/^«<^ that never knew 
what true Difcipiine meant, rior never law in all their lives, a 
drunkard, opprelTor, railcr, blafphciTier, cither caft out, or pe- 
ritendy confefshisfin, before tlie Church , all thefe were not 
well,though you were well. 2. Whether we were well before, 
I have fhcwed in my firft Difputation, and thither I refer you. 
3 . And whether wc have bronght in a new Epifcopacy ^or only ca^ 
out a nirv one , and defire to bring in the 0/<J, we are content to 
put it to an equal tryall. We all concurr in offering you this mo- 
tion. Lettheoldefl (innd, and the newefl becafi out. 

<^. 28. Objeft. 8. Judge nowbj the effc6is : The JEpifcopacy 
which you blame , did kfep ^p Order *»d Vnity in the Church ' It 
kfpt under thofe weeds oj herefte and error that ftncefprung up ; We 
had then no ^jiakers , nor Seekers^ norfuch other SeBs as no'^ 
abound • This [vtarm oj Error i (hews rvhich Government is befi. 
$. 29. Anfrv. This is a grofs fallacy, dnencaufaprocaufa: to 
which I return you my anfwer in thefe feven confi derations. 
I .You tell us of the good that you think you did: but you tell us 
net of the hurt. I hope 1 love Divifions or Hcrcfies as little as. 
evcra Bifliopin£w^/W: and yet I rauft profefsthat I bad ra- 
ther an hundred times, have things continue as they are with all 
our fwarms of herefies,thcn to bereftorcd to their ancient pafs. 
Our lofs is as great ^sfofephs in being removed from the Prifon to 
Pharaohs ungodly family ; I mean in fpirituals ( of fcculars 
anon. ) I know not of an Anabaptift,Separatift, Quaker or any 
other Sedary in the Town that I live in,for all this noife ^ unlefs 
you will takeafewlnfidelsfor Sedaries, or a few ignorant Pa- 
pifts,or thofe of your own way. But on the other fide, I hope 
there are many hundreds that truly fear God , that formerly 
were drowned in ignorance and ungodlinefs. The families that 
were wont topurfeand fwearand rail at Godlinef5,do now wor- 
fhip God,and fet up holy inftrudions^and caft out fin • and this 
tt o»r change: And in fome meafure,! have reafon to believe that 
it is fo in other places alfo. 

$. 30« 2. The Errors of the times are many of them 7o«re>p», 
and therefore you exclaim a^imiiyour fehes- It is of your own 



[elves that mc»arift^ that write againft Original fm ^ and for 
Liberty of Prefhecjina^, C which is more then Liberty of Belie* 
ving ) and for a kind of Llmbiis Patrum and Infantum^ and 
for humane S^tisfaclions for fin to God, and for the Prima:j of 
the Pope, and that all our Proteftanc Churches are no Churches, 
orMiniRersno Minifters, that have not Prdaticat Ofdinacion, 
yea and a Succeflion of it ; with many the like ( to fay nothing 
of other Pelagian weeds. ) It doth not therefore become you to 
reproach us with our (warms of Errors while you introduce 

$.31. 3. There were Herefies and Sed:s even inthedaycs 
of Prelacy. Had you not then the Familifts, the Grundletoni- 
ans, ( (nch2i%Hacket,^n(iiCoppnger,^r\^ Artbington ) and the 
Anabaptirts,andSepirdtiRs,and|Annnoraians, and Papiflf, and 
fuchlike? befides the contention? between the Arminians and 
Antiarminians, and the contentions raifed by Epifcopacy it felf, 
and the Ceremonies that it upheld ? Who were they that rofe up 
againft the Bidiops and putkd them down, if there were Unity 
under them, as you pretend ? 

$. 32. 4. The trurh is, it was the Magiftrate aq^ not Epif- 
copacy that kept that Unity and Peace among us vvhi^hiwe had ; 
andchitkcpt under Herefies fo much as they were kept under. 
Take not therefore the Magiltraces honour to your felves. Who 
would have attended your Court$,or fubmitted to your ccnfures, 
had it not been for fear of the Secular power ? I think but few. 
You know the Hc'eticks thcmfelves obeyed you not for Confci- 
enccfake. Nor would they have regarded your Excommuni- 
cation, if the Magiftrate would have let them slone. If it was 
the fpiritual fword in your hands that kept out Herefies, why 
didyounotkeep them out fince, ?.s well as then ? You have the 
lame power from Chrift now as ever you had. And I hope the 
fears of pcrfecution will not hinder you from your duty : cfpc- 
cially when you can nime fo few that have fuffcred for excrci- 
fingChurch-difciplioeby Epifcopal power ! at leaft this was no 
hinderanceafewycarsago. lor my parr, I heartily wiih you 
free from perfecution. If you arc not. But again ! tell you, 
that which I fuppofe you know-, that as free a Toleration ot 
Prelacy in ^;i^/<iK-^ as there 1$ of Prcsbyterie, were the likclyefl: 
way to bring you into perpetual contempt. For we cannot but 



know, thatbefides a few Civil engaged GcntIemcn,Mini{lers,and 
others, your main body would confift of chofe that for their 
notorious impiccy,fcandal or ignorance, are thought unmeet for 
Church-communion by others : and that when you came to ex- 
ercife Discipline on them, they would hate you and fly from 
you as much as ever they did from Puritans : and if you did in- 
dulge them, and not reform them or caft them out, your Church 
would be the Contempt of the fober part of the world, and 
your own fobcr members would quickly relinqyifli it for fhame. 
For (2 the Church of EKgland ] »f you would needs be fo cal- 
led, would be taken for the fink^ of all the other Churches in 
England. This is a clear and certain truth that is eafily difcern- 
cd, without a Prophetick fpiric : and the difhonour of all this 
would rcfleA upon your Prelacy. 

$.33. 5. And further, I anfwcr your Ob jedion ; that it is 
notthcinfufficiency of other Church-government in compari- 
fon of Prelacy, that was the inlet of our Hercfics and DiviGons ; 
butit wastheLicentioufncfsof atimeof war, when all evil fpi- 
rits are turned loofe, and thefubtilty of the Papifts that have 
taken advantage to fpawn among us the Quakers, and Levellers, 
and Bchfmjfts, and other Pdracelfians, and the Seekers to con- 
found and^difhonour us if they could, and to promote their 
caufc. And in times of war, efpccially when fuch changes in 
the Civil ftate cnfue,and fo many adverfariei are watching to 
fow tares, fuch things are common. 

$.34, 6. And you cannot fay, that it comes from the infuf- 
ficiency of other Government in comparifon of yours, becaufc 
you fee no other Government fetled inftead of yours, fo far as 
to be fecondcd by the fword or fecular power ; no nor fo far as 
to have a word of command or perfwafion to the people to obey 
it, ( except an Ordinance that in mofl places was hindered from 
execution : ) nor is there any one Government fo much as own- 
ed alone by the Magidrate. Befides, that the Civil power it fclf 
reRrainctb not thofi^ that you fpcak of, as Co the moil of 

$. 35- 7- Laftly, if you would compare your Prelacy with 
other Government, compare them where tbc<:afe is equal. Hath 
notPresbyterieini'<rof/4»^,andini^/'4«« (with much lefs help 
and ^untcnancc from the Magiftracc^ kept ouc Hereliesand 


divifions, as much at leafl, as erer Prelacy did ? Jt is cmain that 

§. 56. And yet I muft add, that themulcitadeof Sedsand 
Hercficsthacfprungupinthc firft,and fecond,and third Ages, 
was no fuch difhonouf to the form of Government then ufed in 
the Church, as (hould encourage any man to diflikc or change it. 
If it wasPrelacy that was ufed, thenfwarmsof Sedsand Herc- 
ftcs may come in notwithftanding Prelacy (even in better hands 
then yourf. ) But if it were not Prelacy that was then the Go- 
vernment, Hcreficiarcnomore a (hamc to that Govcrnmcnc 

$. 37. I know many Readers will think, that ihii writing 
that purpofcly comes for Peace, lh(»Hld not be guilty of repeat- 
ing and remembring the faults of others, norfpeakto them Co 
plainly as is liker to exafpcrace then pacific. Bat to thefc I fay, 
I. Their Ob jcftions which they infift on. cannot be anfwered 
butby this opening of the truth. And 2. The truth is, thofe 
men that own all the abufes and pcrfecuttors of the late Prelates, 
and are impenitent as to their guilt, and wifli and would have 
the fame again, are no fit materials for a concordant frame. If 
their bufinefs be dellroyin^^, they will never well joyn with us in 
buildingand inhealing. Repentance is the beft Ingredient in oar 
Salve. We confent to the fame conditions that we propofe, and 
will thank them if they Will help us to Repentance; efpecially 
of fuch fins as are deftrudive to the Churches peace. 

^.38. Andth^ Godly Moderate Epifcopal men do concur 
with us in the blaming of the abufes of their party. Saith that 
^ood and peaceable B ifliop Haliin his modcft offer to t be AfTem- 
bly, p4^.3. [ I Jhonld be a flatterer of the times pafi, if I jhonl^ 
take i*pon me to jujiifie or approve of all the carriages of feme ^ that 
have been tntfufledvfith the Kejes of Ecclefiaftical Government i 
or to blanch over the corruptions of Conjifterial Officers : in both 
thefe there was fault enoHgh to grettnd both a Complaint and Re- 
f«rmation : and may that man never prcfper^ that deftres not an 
happy reformation ofwhatfoever hath been,or is amifs tf^the Chnrch 
of God.] ..;'. ^.-y- - 

§. 39. Objeft. 9- But it is not Only the abufes tf EpIfcopAcf, 
bnt the thing it felf that hath been Covenanted againj} in England, 
And oppofed ; nor n it only the Engltfh PrtUcj^bm all Epifcopacj ' 

U u t^ni 


an (therefore jour motion for another fpcciesw like to ^n^hutfmall 

^.40. lAnfiv. It Is no: trae that all Epifcopacy hath been 
Covenancedagairllor caKendown \i- England. Nor is it true of 
any of thefcrts of Eplfcppacy wh:cli \ hav- here mentioned. 
Ic wdS only that which was then exiP.Ci.r chat vvas taken down,- 
and only the EngliOs Aame of Arclvbifhops, Bifhops, Deans, 
and r^^c reft ,as here they Governed ,th3f was Covenanted againft. 
Of which"! (bali fpeak more anon in anfwer to the Objedions 
of others. 

$.41. Objed. 1 0. T'oti haue covetdttjljfelzei on the Revenues 
(if the TifhopSy ftndmAde ysHr f elves fat with their Foffe^oas, And 

. ,. Eng- 

land knoweth that the Bifliops lands were fold, and given to the 
Sculdiers, and not to the Presbyters. It maintained the Array, 
tind jnot the Miniftry. And that the Dean and Chapters lands is 
gone the fame way, or the like, to pay the debts of the State. 
And that Presbyters have none of them all, favc that here and 
there one that had about ten, or twenty, or thirty pound a year, 
have fomcwhat in Augmentation, that the Churches may not be 
left to Readers, and blind Guides, as they were in the Prelates 
dayes. I that have a fuller maintenance then moft in all the 
Country where I live, do receive but about eighty pound and 
fometimes ninety pound per annum : and did I need to pull down 
Prelacy for this ? 

^.42. T Come now to the Objeftions of the o;her fide, who 
X will be offended with me for confenting for peace, to 
fo much as I here do ? And i.Sorae will fay, ihatjrf are en- 
gaged again/} all Prelacy hj Covenant, and therefore cannot yield 
to fo much as yen do^without the guilt of perjury. 

$.43. Anfw. That this is utterly untrue, I thusdemonHrate. 
I. When the Covenant was ptcfcnted to the Aflembly, with 
the bare name of [^Prelacy] joyncd to Popery, many Grave 
and Reverend Divines defired th^c the word Q Prelacy ] might: 
be explained, bccaufcicwasnoull Bpifcopacy that they were 



sgiinft. And thcrcnpon the Allowing Cpncatenatron in the 
parcnthefij was given by way of explication : in thefe word^, 
(] tljAt ii, Chnrch- government by Arch-bifhops^ Bifhop^ tkcir 
C. hancellors and Commijfaries, De4ns^ Deans and Ch Afters, Arch- 
deacons, andaH other I: ccleft^fiical Officers^ depending on that Hic' 
rarchj.^\ By which it appearcih that it was only the Hnglifh 
Hierarchy or frame, that was Covenanted again.d: : and that 
which was then exiflcnc, that was rak^n down. 

cj.44-. 2. When the houfe of Lords took the CoverJinr, Mr. 
Thomas Coleman that gaveil tiiem, did fo explain ic and profefs, 
that it was not their intent to Covenant againft all Epifcopacy ; 
and upon this exph'cation it was rak^in : and certainly the P<?riia- 
ment were moft capable of giving us the due fenfe of it ^ becaafe 
it was they thatdid iropafe it. 

$.45. 3. And it could not be ail Epifcopacy that '.vai ex- 
cluded, becaufe a Parochial Epifcopacy was at the fame time ufed 
and approved commonly here in Er.gLmd. 

(N.46. 4. And in i'«r(j.'/^«<;^ they had ufed the help of Vifitors 
for the Reformation of their Churches, connraictipg the care of 
a County or large Circuit to fome one man, which was as high 
afortof Epifcopacy at leaft, as any I acn pleading for. Befides 
that they had Moderators in all, their Synods, which were tem- 
porary Bifhop-. 

^.47. 5. Alfo the chief Divines of the late A/Tcrably at 
Wefiminfter, that recommended the Covenant to the Nations, 
have profefT.d their own judgements for fuch a Moderate Epif- 
copacy as I am here defending : and therefore they never intend- 
ed thcexclnftonof thieby the Covtnant. 

§.48. Objed. 2. By this tve JJjall feem ruHtAble , tvhl/e we 
tal{e down Epifcopacy one jear^and fet it up again the /text. Anfw. 
VVe<lcfire not the fetting up of that which.w.e {lavc paiiendown.? 
and therefore it is no mutabilit,y. ;!.:.... 

%. 49- Ob jeA. 3 . But this tviil prepare for the refiaHratioM of 
the old Epifcopacy. By fuch degrees it ixv^dcd the CMftrchat frfi : 
and if fve let in the preparatory degree, the refl in t^tis like to fol^ 
low ; all that yve can do is little fit^Mgh to l^eep it.0Ht\;^r ::^ t 

§. 50. Anfw. I. If we had no other wcrkto<to/,w.c ^ou!d 

do this as violently as you defirc : but we have the .contrary ex- 

trcam to take heci of and avoid ; end the Churcties Peace, if ic 

^ U u 2, may 


may be, to procure. 2. As we muft not take down the Mlnlftry^^ 
left it prepare men for Epifcopacy, fo neither muft we beagainft 
any proficable exercife of the Miniftry, or defirable Order 
among them, for fear of introducing Prelacy. 3 . Nor is there 
any fuch danger of it, as is pretended • as long as the Magiftrate 
puts not the fword into their hands,and no man can be fubjeded 
CO them, but by his own Confent, what need wefcar their en- 
croachments on our liberties. 4. Ids not in your power to hin- 
der the Species of Epifcopacy that is pleaded for, from being in- 
troduced : but only to with-hold your own confent, and hinder 
peace and unity. For any Miniftcr that will, can efteem another 
his fuperiour, and be ruled by him, and do nothing without his 
confent : Thefe are the adiom of his own free-will. 5. As long 
as you are fr«c from violence , if you find an cfil or danger, you 
may draw back 

^ 51. Objeft. 4. Have we not frtjarted hj them late ^hgh 
alreAdy ? JhAll wefofoon he turning back^ tot^gjipt ? Anfw. Tkac 
which you have fmarced by , wc defire you not to turn back 
to ; but that which is Apoftolical, pure, and profitable to the 
Church, and thats not iy£gypt. 

$.52. Ob j'ed. 5. Tends all this for Peace mth Epifcopal Di- 
vines : an^ where is there any */ them that is vporthy fo jladioas 
A Pacification ? Do they not CGmmonlj. own their former impieties 
and perfecHtioMS ? ^re they net meer formalins and enemies to 
fraEiical Godlinefs ? Would they not mine the Church, and do as 
they have done, if they had power ? Hath God breught them dorpa 
for their ervn wickednefs, and Pmll we fet them up again ? 

$.53. Anfrv. I. All are not fuch as you defcribe : Many of 
them are godly able men, thatdefire and endeavour the good 
/of the Church. 2. If there were none in this age worthy of our 
communion^ yet, if we will have a lafling peacc,we muft extend 
the terms of it fo far as to comprehend all that are fit for Con^- 
niunion. And fuch we may cafily know , there will be of this 
opinion throughout all ages. 3 . And moft of the Churches in 
the world being already for a higher Prelacy then this, we fhould 
agree with thera as far as well we may. 

$. 54. Objcd. 6. But the Parliament have enafted in the fettle- 
mtnttfthe fivil Government ^that Popery and Prelacy fhallnot be 
tolerated. Anfw. That i«,thc Englifh Prelaey excluded by the Co^ 




vcnanr, andthat,asitwouldbccxcrcifed by vioUr!ce,and forced 
Dpond/ffentcrs. Its known what Prelacy was in jE«£/^«^j and 
they cannot rationally be interpreted to fpeak againll any bat 
what was among us,and taken notice of under that name. You 
fee the fame Power allow a PdrechUl Epifcdfacjy andalfo j4p- 
proven of all that are admitted to pnblick preaching •, and you 
fee they allow an Itinerant Aiinifirj in H^aUs : and they joifi 
Mdgiflrates and Mini/lers for the cjedisigof the infufficient Mi- 
nifter : and they never forbai! or hindered a ftatedPrefuiencjif 
or any thing that I have pleaded for -. yea they continued a yWo- 
dirator of the Affembly at ivejlmir.fter for many years, even to 
his death. And what fuller evidence would you have that it Ts 
not any fuch Epifcopacy whofe liberty they exclude, under the 
name of Prelacy ? Only they would not have the Hitr/trthj by 
L^-Chancellors IQ govern the Church, a4id that by force of 
theiccular power annexed unto theirs : and fo they deny them 
Liberty to deprive all other men of their liberty. Bui this is r;o- 
ctling to the matter in hand. 

^. 55 . To conclude, let it be noted, in anfwer to'all other ob- 
jedions, that the Prefidency , or prehcminence pleaded for,doth 
enable no man to do harm ^ but only give themfelves advantage 
to do good. They can hinder no man from preaching, or pray- 
ing or holy living, or improving his abilities to the good of the 
Church : Nor can they Govern any man further then they have 
his own Confent.All which being well confidered,l may conclude 
that this much may be granted in order to the hcihng and Re- 
forming of the Churches, 

ttu3 chap: 


The Jum of the foregoing T^ropojitiom y 
and the Qonftjlency of them mth the 
Principles of edch party ^ and fo their 
aptitude to ^^econc'ile. 


HE fumm of all that I have pro-, 
pounded is^that though we cannot, 
we may not embrace the Govern- 
ment by Prelacy, as lately cxercifed 
herein England C how confident- 
ly foever fomc appropriate the title 
of the Church oi England fo the ad- 
herents of that frame, ) yet would 
we not have the Church ungoverned , nor worfe governed, 
nor will wc refufe for peace fuch a kind of Epifcpacy as is 
tolerable in thcChurch.And there are/o«>- forts ofExercife of the 
Miniftryjwhich if you pleafCjyou may call Epifcopacy, which we 
ihall not refufe when it may conduce to Peace. ^ 

$.2. I. Weftiallconfcnt that iht Ancient ParochUl Epifco* 
/><?f)' be reftored : that is, that in every Parifli that hath a parti- 
cular Church, there may be a Paftor or Biftiop fetled to govern 
it,accordingto the word of God : And that he may be thechicf 
among the Presbyters of that Church, if there be any ' And may 
afTume fit men to be affifting Presbyters to him, if there be fuch 
to be had. If not , he may be content with Deacons. And 
thefe Parochial Bifhops arc-moft antienfj and have ^he Power 
of Ordination. 

§.3. Yet do we not fo tyc a Churchto a Parifh, put that in 
places where tlie ignorance, infidelity, or impiety of the people, 
or the fmalnefs of the Parifhes isfuch, as that there are not fit 
perfons enough in a PariOi to make a convenient particular 
Church, it may befit for two, or three, or four (in neceifity ) 
Neighbour Pariflies to j'oyn together, and to be formed into one 
particular Church. The fcvcralMinifters keeping their ftations, 
for the teaching of the reft as ^««ffc/7«w?»/, but joyning as one 
Presbyterie, for Governing of that one particular Church, th&t 
is Congregate among them. And having one Prefident, with- 
out whom nothing (hould be done in matters left to humane de- 
termination. Yet ro,that the Presbyters be not forced to this,bun 
do it freely. 

^ 4. II. Wefliallconfentthat thefeParifhC^/i^-rk/ ^<? A/- i.ThcftaKd 
fociate^znd that in every Market Town for fuch convenient P»'|;Wcncs of 
places as (hall be agreed on ) there may be frequent meetings of n ^'^'"^'•^ ^" 
the PaRori, for Communion and Correfpondency ; ahd that one 
among them be lhi\T flanding Aio-'trator durAtttc vita, or their 
Prefident ( for fo I would call him rather then Bifh.'p, though 
we would leave men to ufe what name they pleafe) And to hira 
fhould be committed the Communicating of times and places 
of meeting, and other bufineff^s and Correfpondencies. And 
the Moderating of the debates and difputations. 

S^ 5. And for my part I would confent for peace that defaflo 
no Ordination be made in eiihcr of the forefaid Presbyteries, 
without the Prefident, but in cafes of Nccefljty : fo be it i . That 
none be compei/ed to own any other Principle of this Pradice, 
then a Love of Peace ; and none be compelled to profefs that he 
holdeth the Prefident to have dejnre a Negative voice : yea that 
all have liberty to write down on what other Principles they 
thus yeild, that the PraBice only may fuffice for Pcice. 

^.6. III. We fhsll confent alfo, that one in a Deanry or ^.AVifitcr 
Hundred, or other convenient fpace, may by the Magiftrate be of the ncig'i- 
chofen a J'tfitor ef the Chhrchcsand Conntrej about him ; having ^f ^"' ^'^'J'^" 
Power only to take notice of the ftare of things, and gravely to Co"nac'- 
ftdraonilh the Paflors where they are necjlipenr, and exhort the 
people, and provoke them to Holinefs,Kcformarion and Unity, 
only by perfivaCions from the Word of God. Which is no more * 

then any Minifter may do that hath opportunity : only we dcfire 



the Magiftrate to defign a particular perfon to do it ( rtquiring 
Minrifters and people to give him the meeting, ) becaufe that 
which is every raxns work is not fo well done, as that which is 
fpeciaHy committed to Tome. And we defirc that he may ac* 
qaaint the Magiftrate how things arc. 
Thcfe two to ^' 7- ^"<1 ^^ Avo\d the inconveniences of dividing thefe works, 
be in OIK we arc dffi' ous that chefe two laft may meet in one man : and fo 
man. be that is chofen by thePaftors, the Prefidcnt of their Affocia- 

tion,may be chofen his Vifitor by the Magiftrate, and do both; 
which may be done by one in every Market-town ( which is 
truly a G y in the ancient fcnfe ) and the circumjacent Villages. 
Yet this we cannot make a ftanding Rule ( that one man do 
both ) becaufe the Taflors muft choofe their PrefideKt^ and the 
Alugiflrate his Ftfitor-^^nd its poffible they may not alwayes con- 
cur. But if the Magiftrate will not choofe fuch a Vifitor.the Pa- 
• ftorsmay.But then they can compel none to meet him or hear hiM, 

General ^•^' ^^' Bcfidcs thefe three (or two, whether you will ^ 

unfixed Mini- before mentioned, we fliall confent that there be a general fort 
§ci5. of Miniftcrs, futh as the Apoftles, Evangelifts, and others in 

thofc times were, tliat fliall have no fpecial charge, but go up 
^nd down to preach the Gofpel, and gather Chnrchei where 
there are none, and contribute the beft afliftance of their Abili- 
ties, Intercftand Authority for the reforming, confirming, and 
right ordering of Churches. And if by the Magiftrates Com- 
mand, or Minifters confent there be one of thefe afligned to 
each County, and fo their Provinces prudentially diftinguifhed 
and limited, we fhallnotdifTent. Yet we would havt fuch but 
where there is need. 

$.9. V. Befides thefe four forts of Bifhops, we arc all 

agreed on two forts more ; i . The Epifcopi ^regis, or Paftors of 

- every Congregation, whether they have any afliftant Presbyters 

riS'caUshhn ^r no, or being themfelvcs but fuch affiftant Presbyters. 2. The 

felf a BiiTiop. Magiftrate,who is * a fecular BiHiop, or a Governor of the 

sufeb.vh. Church by force. And we defirc the Magiftrate to be a nurfing 

C OtJl.l./^.C z^. 

And !ie made his Court a Church,and affembling the pcople,did ufc to takcjthe holy Scri- 
turcjand deliver Divine comeniplations out of it,or clle he would read the Common-Pray- 
ers to the whole Congregation, cap. 17. And It is plain that It was Co'iji^tntme that kept the 
Piurches in Unity and Peace, when the Bifliops elfe would have broken them to peices. 
And the Emperours frequently took down and fet upBifliops at their pleafme,efpccially in 
?hc Patriarchial Scats as T^me, Co^fiantifwplc, Antioch Altxandrix. Father 


Tather to the Church, and do his duty, and to keep the (word In 
Ms own hand; and for forcible depofing Minifters, or anypu- 
niHiment on body or eftatc,we defire no BiHiops not" o:her Mi- 
nidersmay be authorized thereto : But if Pallors exclude an 
unworthy Paflor from their Communion, let the Magifirate on- 
ly deprive him forcil'ly of his place and maintenance, if he fee 
caufc. When the Council of Anticch had depofcd Paulas Sa- 
mofatenusy he would not go cut of the houfe : AndalUhcBi- 
(hops in rhe Council could not force him out, but were fain to 
procure the Heathen Emperor y^ ur cli an to do \:. It lyeth as a 
blot on {^jril of AlcxAndria thac he was the firft man that ar- 
rogated and exercifed there a fecular Coercive Power, under the 
name of a Bi(hopof the Church. 

^. lo. There is enough in this much to fatisfie any moderate 
honeft men for Church-government, and for the healing of our 
Divifions thereabout ; And there is nothing in this that is in- 
confiftcnt with the Principles of the moderare of any Party. 

<j. II. I. Ihdit a Chftrch organiz.^ci, czMtih"^ ^QmzEccleJtA 
frima , JhonU be no greater then I have mentioned , if not 
contradidory to the Principles of the Epifcopill , Presbyreri- 
am, Congrcgationallor Eraflian. Indeed the two firl"tfay,thac 
it may be bigger : but none of them fay, /fw«/? be bigger. The 
Presbyterians inftances of the Church of ferttfalem ( which 
fcrued to the higheft, cannot be proved necr half fo great as fomc 
of our Parifhes j and fuch other Churches , are but for the 
fiMj be, and not for the rn»fi be. And therefore if they be peace- 
able, this will make no breach. 

<^. 12. 2. Thu Parochial Cbnrcbes and A jfociatioMi have fixed 
Prcfidentr, is nothing contrary to any of their Principles, as far 
as I am able to difcern them . 

<j. 13. 3. 'XhiX.Pajiorsmay be Urpfullj appoiyited to vift and 
help the Country and the neighbo fir Churches^ and export them 
to their duty.and give the Migiftrate information of their ftale, 
is a thing that none can juftly blame, any more then preaching 
a Ledlure among them. Nor do I know any party that is againit 
it,Cof thefe four.) 

$.14. And ^. That there may be more General Mini jicrs toga- 
ther^and take care of many (Churches , I think none of them will 
deny. Sure the Itinerant MmiQers in Wales will not ; Nor 

Xx yci 


yet that thcfc miy have their Provinces diftingulflied.' If 
I could imagine which of all thcfe forts would be denied , I 
would more fully prove it, yea and prove it confiftent with ihc 
Principles of each party ^ but till then its vain. 

$. 15. The only point that I remember, like to be queftioned, 
is, the corjferjtivj^ to forbear Ordination in ftveral Treshyterics ^ 
till the Prefident be one, except in cAfe ofN(C:JJitj : And nothing is 
here queftionable,that i obferve,but only Whether it bs confiftertt 
with the Principles of the Congregational pArtyJc'wg they would • 
have all Ordination to be by theEldersof their own Church , 
and where there are none, that ic be done by the people without 
Elders. To which I anfwer, i . That we here grant them that a 
Congregational Presbytcrie with their Prefident may ordain an 
Elder for that Congregation. 2. The Moderate Congregational 
men do grant us that the Elders or PaRors of other Churches 
may lawfully be called to aflift them in Ordination, though they 
ckink it be not is not therefore againft their Principles 
to do fo. For furc they may do a Lawful thing, efpcciaily when 
the Churches Peace doth lie fo much upon it as here it doth. 

$. 16. I conclude therefore that here are healing Principles 
brought to your hands, if you have but healing inclinations to 
receive them. Here is a fufficient remedy for our Divifions, 
upon the account ©f Church-governraent,if you have but hearts 
to entertain them, andapply them. But if (one on one fide 
will adhere to all their former exceflVs and abu fes, and continue 
impenitent , unchurching the beft of the Proteflant Churches, 
that are not Prelatical ( while they unchurch not the Church of 
Home:) And if others on the other (ide wiii ftifly refufc to yield in 
thing* that canr-ot be dented to be lawfull, yea and convenient 
for the Chu' cbes, and fet more by all their own conceits then by 
the Peace of Brethren, and confequently the profperity of the 
Church , we muft leave the care of all to God, and content cur 
fdves that we have done our dqty. 




Some inflances to prove that moderate men 
w II agree upon the foregoing term?. 

EST any chink thuitis a hopelefs work 
that I have motioned , and the parties 
will not agree upon thefe terms , l iiuii 
itiall next prove to you that the godly and 
moderate of each party, are agreed already 
( atleaft theEpifcopaland Presbyterians, 
and I think the reQ: ) and that its in Pradice more then Princi- 
ples that we difagrcc. . 

$.2. 1.l will begin with the ^/Ji/Jrfj/j^/DivJ/^fj-joF whom there 
ate two parties, differing much more from one another,then the 
one of them doth from tlic Presbyterians. The ancient Bifhops 
and the moderate of lace,clid maintain the Validity of Ordination 
by Presbyters,and own the Reformed Churches that had,othcr, 
fuppofing their Epifcopacy ufefuil to the perfedion or well being 
of a Church,but not ncccffary to the being of it. And this fort of 
racnf who alfo agree with us in dodrine) we could quickly be re- 
conciled with. But of late years there are many Epifcopal Di- 
vines fprung up,that embracing theDodrinc called Arrainianifni, 
do withal deny the Being of the Miniftry and Churches that wane 
Prelatical ordination-.and with thefe there is no hope ofconcord, 
becaufe they will have it on no other terms then renouncing our 
Churches and Minillry, and being a^aiK «rdaincd bythim^ and 
thus coming wholly over to them. Thefe feparate from us, and 
pretend that our Churches have no trueWorfhip( wonderous au- 
dacity, ^and our Miniflers are no true Minifters,and call the 
Church into private houfes fasD. H'W(?exprtfly inhis [^Chrift 
and his Church J in the beginning of the Preface; and many 
others, j Ofwhom I fpoke before. 

s\ 3 -That the ancient Engli(h Birtiops that hold tothedo(5rine 
of the Church pf England, and are peaceable men, are eafily 

X 3t i agreed 

( 34-0 ) 

agreed with u«, I fird prove from the example of Reverend B'l- 
(hap Hall. In his Peace •mak.erhehjiih the(e words£P^^.46,47, 
48,49. The Dlviftons of the Church are either General betwixt eur 
Church and the other Reformed ', or fpecial ivith thofe yvithin the 
bofome of etir own Church ^ both which re^ti re feveral csKJidcra' 
timi.For the former ^blejfed be God,t here is ho dijftrencf in any cffcH- 
tial matter betwixt the Church of B-^ghnd and her Slflers of the 
Reformation: JVeaccordin every po-ntofChrifiian DcHrine rcith- 
ofitlleajl the variation. ('N B) Their pnh'.ike Confffions and onrs, 
Are f tiff citnt conviSlior.s to the -ivt'ld, ofonr full and abfolute agree- 
went . the only difference is in the form of outward adminijirat ion '. 
wherein alfn we are fofar agreed, as that we all profefs thisfsrm 
ret to be ejfentialto the being of a Chnrch f N. B. j though much 
importing the we II or better being ofit^ according to our feveral 
apprehenjions thereof i and thai wt do all retain a reverent and 
loving opinion of each other in our own ftviral-waycs : rot feting 
any reafoft why fo poor a divcrftjjhould worl^ any alieyiation cf /if 
feliion-infis, one towards anether : But withall^ nethtrg hinders 
but that r»e way come yet do fey to one another I if both may refclve td 
weet in that Trimitive Government (whereby it is meet y^eOjould 
both be regulated) univerf ally agreed on bj all antiquity ; wherein 
all things SVere ordered and tranfaBed by the ConfcM of the F res by- 
g^ ttrie, moderated by one conflant Prefident thereof: the Primacy 
and perpetual prafiice whereof no man can doubt of that hath but 
feen the -writings of Ckmcns and Ignatius, and hath gor.e along 

■with the Hijiory of ihofe primitive times Wemty well reft i.4 

the judgeweht of Mr. ]ohn Corner o, the Learnedft Divine, be it 
fpoke withsut envy , that the Church of Scotland hath affsrded 
in this lafi age : [ Nulluseft dubitandi, locus, c-c. There is no 
doubt at alf faith he, but that Timothy was chofen by the Colledge ' 
ef the Presbyters, to be the Prefident of them, and that not without 
feme authority overthe rejl, but yetfuch as have the due bounds and 
limits^ And that this was a leading cafe^ and common to other 
Churches, "was never denyed by any author. Words may not breaks 
f quart f where the things are agreed. If the name of a Bi/lnp dif- 
fltafe, let them call this man a Aisderator, a TreftdcMt, a Super- 
intendent, an Overfeer ; ^ nly for the fixeclnefs or change (ftkis per' 
foH, let thi. ancient and univerfallpra^iice of Gods Church be 
thought "worthy to overfway. And if in this one point ( N. B. J 
(vekerein the dijianre it fo narroy» , we could condefccnd 10 each 

cther^ ^ 

ether, all oth:r circftwfla^cet a^A uppertdaKces of varjtng praFItccs 
or opinions^ mliht voithout any difficulty be Accorded. But if there 
mttfi be A difference of judgemtnt in thefc matters of cutward Po^ 
/icy , tvhy pj nld not cnr hearts be flill cue ? rx^hj f^ould fuch a di- 
wrfity be ofTeiver to endA»gcr the diJfJving of the bond vf brother- 
hood ? Aiaj rre have the ^r nee but to fellow the truth in, we 
JhAll in thefe fever al tracts overtake her h>ippilyirt the f «^ , and 
find her embracing of Peace, an i crowr,ir.gus rfith bhjfcdncfs \ 
Sofar BiHiOfj Hall ; fo that you (cq that only the fixing of 
the Moderator or Prcfident will fatishe fuch as he : -nd 
fowiih iiira and fuch as he, for my parti am fully agreed al- 

§. 4. And here by the way, bccaufc there are fo many Ppifco- 
pal feparatilb of late, thathazzird the fou's of their partial fol- 
lowers, andbecaufe thcrig'it hibituitingofchem nd with Perce 
i? an excellent help to a founi undcrftaiiding , and tl;e efcjp ng 
the errors and hainons fins that Fadion engage'h too many tn, 1 
therefore make it my requeft to all thatrcad rhefe Iines,but fnber- 
ly to read over that*ono Book of Bifhop R?///,c'^lled the Peace- * /niMr. 
maker, once or twice : which if I could procure,! think I fhould e 'm<> 'g'" 
domachto the Peace of thcfe Churche?, and to the good of ^'■'■«^"''- 
many endangered fouli^thatby paffionate and fadious leaders 
are mifguidcd. 

<i. 5. 1 he fame Reverend man in his Humble Remondrancc 
huh thefe words, Pag. 29,30, 3 i. \_The fecond is intended to 
ra-fe envy againfl us, as the unch,rit.ihlt ctnfurers and conderrtiers 
ef thife Reformed Churches abroad, which differ from our Cover k- 
ment : wherein we dojufily compU'n cf afl^nd^rous afperfisn caji 
upon us : We love axd honour thofeSiJler Churches, as the dear 
fpgufe of Cbrifl ; we blefsCodfor them ; and we do heartily wij7> 
untothent that happinrfs in the Partner /hip of our adm'ftjlratun.^ 
which I d-)ubt vot but thiydo no lefs heartHj vifi themfclveSy 
Good words JOH will perhaps faj ; but rrhut is all this fair eomplc- 
went, if our a^ ccnhmn^hew? For if Fpifap^cj fland bj Di- 
vine right, X^hat becomes of thefe Churches want it ? Ma ice 
And ignorance are met together in this uxjuf} aggravation : 
J. Our pofition is only /rfirmative, implying the juflifiablfni'S and 
holinefs of an EAfcopal calling, without any further implic/irc-n : 
NextfWhen wefpeak^of Divine right, we mean not an (.\pr(fs Law 

XX 3 cf 


of Go^requl'iy^git Hps'/i the abfelute Necefs'it) of the Being 0/4 
Church ( Tfhr.t hin^erAnces [oever m^J infer pofe ) but a Divine 
itijlitution war ranting it where it is, an li requiring it rvhere it may 
be had. Every Church therefore which is capable of this form 
of Government^ bsth may and ought to ajfiCi it -■ ■ ■■ - but 
thofc particular Chwches to whom this power and faculty is denyed, 
lofe nothing of the true ejfer.ce of a Churchjheughthej rmfsjfome 

thing of their glory ^nd perefeBion ■ ty^n^ page 32. Q Our 

form of Government differs little from their own, fave in 

the perpetuity of their ('^f^Tx^luor') Afoderatorfhip^andtheexclw 
Jion cfthat Lay -Presbjterie which never till this age had footing 

in the Chriflian C hurch- ] And Page 41 , 42. [ Alas 

my Bnthren, while v/e do full) agree in all the fe, and all other 
l^oclrinal and Pra.ciical points of Religion ^ why will you be fo 
uncharitable J as by thefe frivolous andcaufelefs Divi/iens to rend 
thcfeamlefscoatofChrifl^ It it a Title ^«r a Rett nut ^ or a Ce- 
remony , a Garment y or a Colour^ or an Organ Pipe, that can make 
us a different Church^whiles we preach andprofefs the fame faving 
truth, whiles we deftre ( as jou profefs to do ) to wall^ confciona- 
b!y with our God according ta that one Rule of the Roy all Law of 
our MAker , vDhiles we oppofe one and the fame common enemy , 
whiles we^iinfeignedly endeavour to hold the unity of the Spirit in 
the bonds of Peace} — — For us^ we make no difference at all 
(in the right and interefi of the Church ) betwixt C^'*^D ^"^ 
Laity, betwixt the Clergy and Laity of one part and of another : 
iveare all jopir true Brethren-, we are one with you, both in heart 
and brain , and hope to meet you in the fame heaven : but if yc will 
needs be 1 her wife minded ^ we can but bewail the Churches mi- 

ftry and your Jin. j You hear howchis good Biftiop was far 

tjrom a feparacion. 

<. 6. How contrary to this,isthc forefaid writing of Dr. Hide 
( whichlinftiincein, bccaufe iciscome acw to my hand^ who 
{\igtn5tizeth the front of his book with the brand of feparacion, 
and that of one of the moft rigid and unreafonable kinds. Thus 
he begins, [^^"^ When Confcientieus Miniflers cannot affmate in 
*' the Church, and Confcientious Chriflians cannot gc toChurch,4Md 
" Cuflomary Chriflians go thisher, either to little purpofe, becaufe 
'"^tonatrueworfhip^ortogreatfhame, hecaufe to no true O^lini' 
^^f^er/, tis fit the (fburch Jhonldcavie to private hsufes ]-— 




Doth he not begin very wifdy and charitably? What could the 
raoft Schifraatical Papift fay more? \^h&i^. not yutwor/hip I n» 
true Aiini^ers ! and but Ctiftomarj ChrifuAns that come thither ? 
Ves, and that's not all : he purfues it with znexprobration, that 
wc Arc fain (rem our Religisn^ ( ^. 4. ) and yet that's not all : 
he adds, [ " Here feems jet tu beax erj bad certainty of their Re 
*' Hq^inn •, and how can there be a bitter Certainty of th:ir fiivA" 
'* tion ? unlefs ( that we may grati^e their fngulurity more thm 
*' onr own veracity ) we will fay ^ There may be a company if 
*' goodChriftians out of the Communicn of Saints^ or k. Cemmn- 
*' nioH of Saints out of Chrifis CathUks Church. ] Should we^ 
laugh or weep at fuch a man as this i* Wha: 1 no communl.n tf 
SaintSy but with the feparating p^rty of the Prelates? Unh.ip- 
py we that Uve in England, aud tan meet with fo fma!l a number 
of thcfe Saints. Is the CathoHks Church confined to this party ? 
and Salvation to this C hunch ? Tranfccndenc Papal aircgancj ! 
Its well that thefc Prelates are not the only Key-keepers of hea- 
ven ! for we fee how wc fhould then beufcJ. ImufttelJ this 
Dr. and all of his mmd, that itisan eaficr way to Heaven, then 
we dare hope to come thither by, tojoynour fclves to their fe- 
pariting Communion of Saints, and live as the mofl that we arc 
acquainted with, that are of that Saint-itkc Communion. He 
had been better have talked a: thefc rates to men of another Age 
or Nation, then to us that fee the lives of their adherents. Wc 
never changed our Religion ror our Church. What if he read 
his prayers, and I fay mine without book ; or what if he pray in 
wkite, and I in bUck} or what if he L^ nee I in receiving the Eu- 
charift, ard I fit or fand ? or what if he ufe rhf Crop in bap- 
tifme, and I baptize no better then the Apoftles did without if-, 
dothefeor fuch like make us to be of two Rdtgions ? Do I change 
my Religion, '\f I read with a pair of fpcflacles, or if I look to- 
wards the Souch cr Weft, rather then the Eaft Crc? We fee 
what thefc men would make the ^hrij}ian Religion to be.. Were 
theApoftlcs no Chriilians, becaufe they had no kneeling at the 
Eucharift, nor C rof$ in Baptifm, nor Surplice, nor (atleall 
our) Common Prayer-book, &c ? Dare you fay they were 
noChriftians ? or yet that Chrillian Religion was one thing 
then, and another thing now ? And for our Churches, we do 
not only m^ci in thQ/amepiAccjt but wc have the fame dQ^rine^ 


ihzfatncworpjip Hnevetypart, though he talk of our no true 
worrtiip ; as if Praying, Praifing God, c^c . were no true wor- 
(h p :') the things changed were by the impofers and defenders 
( fee Dr. Biirncfj Rpjoynder ) prolcfT^d to be no parts at all of 
worfhipjbutmecr accidents •, we hiVQ ihcfawi people, fave here 
and there a few that feparate by yours and others reducement,and 
fome viU ones that we caft out ; we have abundance of the firne 
Aiimfleys that we had. Ard yet rnuft //e have m wor/hlp, Mini' 
firy^ CommHrtiortof Saints^ or Salvatio>^y becaule wc have only a 
Parochial and not a Dioccfm Epifcopacy ? Forfooth wc have 
loll our Rdigion, and are all loft men, bfcaufeour Bifhops have 
butfiiigle PariHi churches toovcrfee ( which they find a load as 
heavy as they can bear, ) ard we have not one Bifhop to take 
the Government of an hundred or two hundred Churches. At 
R-iwe he is a damned man chat helicveth not in the Pope : and is 
cut of the Catholike Church, becaufe he isout of the fubj^di- 
on of the Pope : and with thefc men, we are loft men, if we never 
To much believe in Cbrift, becaufe wc believe not in an Arch- 
bifhop, and arc out of the Catholike Church and Communion 
of Sainrs, becaufe we will not be ruled by fuch Rulers as thefe. 
And whii*s all thi?, to fuch Counties as this where 1 live, and moft: 
clfein £«j^/.%W thr.t I hear of, that know of no Biftiop they 
have ( and they rejected none, ) nor doth any come and com- 
mand them any Obec'icnce.'' Muftwebeunchriftened,unchurcht 
and damned, for not obeying, when we have none to obey, or 
none that calls for our obedience ? But I fhall let thefe men pafs, 
and leave them in their/f/><«r4r;o«,dcriring that they had Catho- 
like fpirits and principles. This much I have faid to let men fee, 
that there isno pofiibilityof our union with this fort that are 
rc(o\vcd on Si feparatiofj; and that it is not thefe Novelifts and Di- 
viders, but the antientEpifcopal party oi England that we can 
eafily sgree with. 

§.7. The next that I (hall inftance in, that was agreed with 
thefc Principles of ours, is the late Reverend and Learned Bi- 
fh p Vfljer^ of whofc Concord with us, I have two proofs. 
The one was his own profeflion to my felf. The other is his 
own writings, efpecially his Propofitions given in to King Qharls^ 
now printed , called [ The Re^nffioft of Epifcopacy to the form of 
Syxsdical Government^ receit/edin the ancient Church ] which 



f onfifteth of four Propofitions ( having firR proved that all 
Presbyters have the power of Difcipline and Church-govern- 
mcnc : ) the firll alloweth the fingte Redlor of the Pirifli co take 
notice of the fcandalous , reprove , admonifh , and debar 
them from the Lords Table. The fecond if, that in every Ru-^ 
rail Dcanry, all the Paftors within the Prccind , may by the 
Chorepifcopus or Suffragan, be every month Aflembied in a 
Synod, and according to the Major pare of their voices, he con- 
clude all matters that fh ill be brought into debate before them, 
as Excommunication r^c. The third is, for a Diccefan Synod 
once or Twice a year, whereby the confent of the Major part 
of theRedors, all things might be concluded by the Bifliop or 
Superintendent, call h,m whether you will, or in his abfencc, by 
oneof thcfaffragans, whom he deputes to be Moderator. The 
fourth is for Provincial and National Synods in like fort. 

$.8. And when I had perufed thefe papers {\n M.S. )l 
told him that yet one thing was left out, that the Epifcopal par- 
ty would many of them Itick at more then he, and thai is, a 
Negative voice in Ordinationinthe Prelident, to which and the 
reft I propofed this for accommodation in brief [^ i. Let every 
particuUr or PariJJj Church have a Bi/hop and Preihjters to ajjifl 
him^ where pojfiblj thej can he had. 2. Let all thefe /ijfociate and 
their feveral y4JfociatioHs have a fitted Pre fidcnt. 3. Let all men 
be at liberty for the name^ rphether they mil call him a Bi/hop, PrC" 
fident^ Aloderator^ Superinttnaent^ or the like, 4. iy^nd for the 
Negative voice in OrdinatieUf let all L^Utiifiers of the Affi^ciati' 
en agree that dc fa Ao they will not Ordain tvithetit hint, but in Ca- 
fes of N(C(ffity ^ but let every man be left free to his own Princi- 
ples onrphich he Jhall ground this praElice, 'and not be bound to con- 
fent ^ that dc jure<« Negative vote is due to the Prefident. ] Thefe 
tcrmsdidi propofe totbc Liijfhopfor Accommodation, and in- 
treated him to tell me plainly his judgement, whether they are 
faiisfadory and fo^fficicntfor the Epifcopal ^rty to yield to for 
Peace and Communion ? and his anfwcr was this [ Thej are fuf* 
fcient^ and moderate men tvill accept them^ but ethers will not, as 
I have trjed -.for many of them are ojfendedtvith we for propounding 
fuch terms.'] And thus this Reverend Biftiop and I were agreed 
for Peace in a quarter of an hour •, ( the truth of, i fo- 
lemnly profcfs : ) andfo would all the Minifters and Chriftiani 

Y y ia 


in EngUnd, if they were not either wlfer or foolifiier, honefter 
or clifhorjcOer then he and I. And this I leave on Record co 
Poftcricy, as a teftimony againfl the dividers and contenders of 
this age, [ That it vfaf nH long of men of the temper and princi- 
ples of this Reverend Archbipiop and my felf, that the Epifcopai 
party and their di-jfenting Brethren in England, -svers r.ot fptedilj 
ayidheArtily fi.grecd: far ivi Antittll] did it."^ To no honour of 
mine, but to ihe honour of this peaceable man, and the (hamc 
-^ of the unpeiccablehindert:rs or refufers of our Reconciliation, 

let this teftimony live, that Pofterity may know whom to blame 
for our Calamities ; they all cxtoll Peace when they rejeS it 
and deflroy it. 

^ . 9 For a third witnefs of the Reconcilcablenefs of the Mo- 
derate Epifcopai party on thefe terms, I may well produce Dr. 
Dr. KoUf- HolJfmrtb •, whofubfcribed thefe fame Propofitions of Bifliop 
rmih. Vpjcr to the King : and therefore was a Confemer to the fame 

way of Accommodation. 
Dr. Torbu §. i o. A fourth witnefs is Dr. Forbs of Scotland^ who having 

written purpofely a Book called his Jrcnicon, for Accommoda- 
tion on fuch terms, I need to fay no more of him, but refer you 
to the Book. I fhall name no more of the Epifcopai party. Thefe 
four arc enow to my purpofe. 

$.11. That the Presbjteri^ns {o^ England fpecfally j are 
willing to clofe upon thcTe terms of a fixed Moderator, I prove, 
I. B*/ the profeftCor.fent of that Reverend Learned fervant of{ey. ChriftMr.T/(jo»;4;^G'«f<«^?r, a Member of the late AfTerably at 
Weflminfter^ who hath profcfled bis judgement of this matter' 
in a Book ag linft Lilly. I refer you to his own words, for bre- 
vity fake. 
IkcUrt^on $.iz. My next witnefs, and for brevity, many in one, (hall 
Tio-jlnct' be Mr. Geree^ and the Province of London, citing him in their 
fm Divinftnt AIiniJ}crii, fag. Append. 122. the words are thefe 
I That the Ancient*Fathers in the point of Epifcopacy , differ 
moh from the high PreUtifi then from the Tresbjterian : for the 
Presbyterians alwayes have a. Prefident to guide their aElions^ -which 
thej ackttowledge may be perpetnal daranze vita modo fe bene gel- 
feril ; or temptrary to av»id inconvenience., W'hich Bilfon takes 
hild of as advantagiousy becafift fo little difcrepant^ ( as he 
faith ) from rphat he maintaimth. ] Sec the reft there. 


<s,ii. ^. Bez.A C the Leader againftPreUcy ) Cmh^dc^raJ. zexd. 
Afinl^}. Evitng. Jnjlitti'.i Diviniefl^ut in omyii ccetn Presbytero- 
rum unHslit<jii',ordineprxeAt cr prtefit relicjms. It is ef Divine 
InJlitHtion that in every yijfcmbly of Presbyters, there be one thdt 
go before andbe above the refL ) And dividing Bilhops into Divine, 
Humane, and Diabolical , he makes the Humane colcrabic Pre- 
hcy to be tlie fixed Prefidenr. 

\i:. 14. 4. (falviii ( whoisaccufed for cjcding Eplfcopacy ) cj/j^/^t. 
belides what he writesof it to Card Sadolct, Hiith in his J >ij}i- See i\[o Um. 
tftt. lib. ^.C4f. 4. $. I, [] Ea camione totam fnum OeccnoTniam Cc-Wi.vy in his 
C9mpofuer»nt { Ecckfix vetcris Ejii^copi ) ad unicam illam Dei^^'^^^ '^'^'^^ 
ver-lei >t6rnJ4m^ ttt facile videos Mihil fere h^c p^rte habnffe ^ 1 Ttrt, 
verba Dei alienum. ] §-2. [] ^^ilnibus ergo docendi mhnusin- §. js. 14. 
jH:i&Hmcrat^ eos emnes mminabant Presbyteros. Illi ex fm au- 
mero in ftngnlis civil {fibns uaum cHgebant, cui fpecialiter da- 
bant titalum Epfcopi : neex aqualitate^nt fieri folct^ dijfidin naf. 
Cerent nr. Neque tamen fie honor e Gr dignitate fnpcrior erat Epif- 
copfis^ ht Dominifim in Collcgas haberct : fed i^ has partes hab'.t 
Confhl in Senattt, ut refer at de negotiuf,fcntefttias roget^confulcKda^ 
moncndo, hcrtando, aliis praeat, antharitate f»a tetam aEiioncm 
regat ; er cft^od decrettim CommHKi Conflio fnerit, exeejuatur : 
id tntinm fuflinebat Epifcopus in Presbyterorumccettt ] f^ jj. 4. 
/f»f [[ (j tiberr.atisnem fic confiitHti nonnulU Hierarchiam vocartint^ 
nomii;e ( »i mihi viderur) improprio, certe fcriftnns intifitato : 
Cavste enim volnit fpintHs [annus, nc^ftis principatptm ant do- 
jninxtttnen* femmarct , ^uum de Ecclefx gubernatione acritur. 
VerMtnfi rem, omijfo vocabuliyintHeamur C N. B. ) refer ii-mns 
veteres Ep'tfcopos non aliam regenda EcclefiA formam vclui^e 
fingers ab ea (juam Deus verba fm prdfcripftt \ This he \ycices 
after the mention of Archbifliopsand Patriarcks, as wcK as of 
BiQiops governing in Synods. 

$. 15. Where by the way let me give you this obfcrvation, 
that BiHiops Governing but in Synods can have no other power 
of Govcrmcnt then the Synods thcmfelvcs have : But Synods 
themfelves as fuck ire not dirc<H:ly for Cevernmtnt , but for 
Concord and Comntftnion of Churches, and To cotfeauently (ot 
well-governing the feveral flocks: Kor hath a Synod' any Go- 
verning Power over a pirticuiar P.irtor, as being his fuperiour 
appointed to tha:cnd; but only a Power of Confenc or Agree- 

Y y 2 mcnc : 


ment : to which for unity, and communion fake, be is confc 
quencially obliged ; noc by Virtue of Gods Command, that re- 
quireth us to obey the Higher Power ( for three Pallors are 
not made fo the Rulers of one) but by virtue of Gods com- 
mands that require us to do all things in Unity, and to main- 
tain the Peace and Concotd of the Churches, and to avoid Di- 
vifionsand difcord. 

^. 1 6. this doth too much favour the Con- 
gregational way, I muft tell him that it is fo true and clear, 
that the Epifcopal men that are moderate acknowledge it. For 
inlhnce : the Reverend Biftiop V/her did^ without asking, of 
himfelf profefs to me chat it was his judgement [that eertainlj 
CoHncils or Sjnoh are not for Government bnt for XJnity ^ and that 
a Bifh^poHt ef Council hath the fame Governing Povfer as all the 
Conncil , though their vote may bind him for Z^nity toconfent. 

1. 1 7. This being fo,it muft needs follow that an Archbifliop, 
or the Prefidentof a National, Provincial, Diocefan, orClaf- 
ficall AfTembly, or of any AfTociation of the Paftors of many 
Churches, hath no fuperiour Governing power over the Paro- 
chial or Congregational Bifhop of one Church; but only in 
concurrence with the Synod, a Power of Determining by way 
of Agreement, fuch points as he fhall be obligedfor Unity and 
Communion to confent to and perform, if they be noc contrary 
to the word of God. This evidently follows from this Reverend 
Archbifliops do(3:rine,and the truth. 

$. 18. And if any fhall think that the Presbyterians mW not 
yield that a particular Church do ordinarily confilt but of one 
full Congregation^ I confute them by producing their own Con- 
ceHlons : in the London Minifters Jus Divinum Minifierii. Ap- 
fend^ fag.izi. they plainly fay, that [ The later CBiftiopsj 
Tvere Diocefan, the former ( that is the Bifliops of the firil or an- 
cient times j were Bi/hops only of one Congregation'] Andpag.82. 
they fay Q Thefe tyfngels rvere Congregatisnaly not Diocefan : In 
the beginning of Chrifiianitj, the number of "Believers, even in the 
greatefi Cities vpere fo ferv^as that they might well meed <^ ''^'^'^'^ 
in one and the fame place. And the fe were called, the Church of 
the City, and therefore to ordain Elders Hsf-)' iMMmav and x-^"^ 
•r'ohiv^ are all one in Scripture ~] Thus far they yield to the Con- 
gregational men. 


$.19. 5. One other witnefs ofthe Presbyt-erians readinefs to 
accommodate on thcfe terras, ' fliali give, and no more, and that 
is Mr. Richard Vines, a man that was mod eminent for his nja- 
nageraent of the Presbyterian caufe in the Affemblyjand at Vx* 
hndge Treaty, and in the lOe of Wi^ht ; the Pap:rs there pre- 
fenced to the King are to be fcen in Print. When we did fct up 
our AfTociation in this County,! purposing to do nothing with- 
out advife^ and defigning a hearty clofure of all fober Godly 
men , Epifcopal, Presbyterian, Congregational and Eraftian : 
didcosfulcfirft aboutitby Letters with Mr. Vines ^ and in his 
anfwcrto mine, he approved of thedefign, and thought our 
diflancc very fmail, and yielded to a fixed Prcfidcncy , though 
not to a Negative voice ; ( which I would have none forced to J 
Becaofe they are too long to put into this fedion,! willadjoyn 
that part of his Letter that concerns this fubjcd, prefixing one 
that went next before it , tgainft the felling of the Church 
laF.ds,that theBifhopsmay fee how little fuch men as he con- 
fentcd to it or liked it ^ and may take heed of charging them 
with Sacriledge. 

<j. 20. Laftly the -Er^i/?/^^^ arc known to be for Epifcopacy ic 
felf, fo be it, it come in by rhc power of the Magiftrate. And 
that nothing propofed crolTeth the Principles of the Cengregatio • 
)»4//men, I have fliewed before : Bat whether really we (hall 
have their confent to a Peace upon thcfc propofed terms, I know 
not ; becaufe their writing* that I have fcen, do not meddle with 
the poinr,fav^^nly one Congregational man, Mr. Giles Firmin^ 
hath newly written for this very thing, in hi* TrtAtifeofSchifm 
agai»Ji Dr. Owen, page 66, 67, 6S. I dtfire you to read the 
words to fave me the labour of tranfcnbinc; them. In which he 
giveth us to underfland, that fome of the Moderate Congrega- 
tional Party, will joyn with us in a Reconciliation on thefetermf.* 
Whether many or all will do fo, I know not. Let their prad ife 
^v.ew whether they will be the firft or the laft in the Healing of 
our Divifioni, But if they refufc, we will rot for that rcfufe to 
Love them as Brethren, and fludy to perform our duty ti-^wards 
thera : as knowing that we fuffer much more when we come 
ihort of cur duty and love to othcrs,then when they come fliort 
of their duty and love to us. 

Y y 3 Mr. Richard 


Mr. Richard yimshh Letters before mentioned as a Teftimony 
that the Presbyterian Minifters arc not sgainft a fixed Prefi- 
dcnc, or that Epifcopicy which B\(hop Hal/^ e^r. would 
have been fatisfied with. 

Reverend Friend, 

I Received jmr two lafl \ and as for a Scheolmajier I fhall do 
the be^ I can t9 propoHfii cmc to you^ Sec. Asferjonr ^^ueftion 
aboMt Sacriledge^ lam very near joti inpreftnt 9finion. The point 
v>as never fiatfd Hor debated in the IJle a/ Wight. J did for my 
■part decline I >^' difpttte : for I coftld not ma'mainthe caufe as on 
the PurliamcMts fde'and becaufe both 1 and others were unrvil/ingjt 
rcas never brought to asy open debate : The Commiffi oners did ar- 
gue it with the King '. but they rvent upon grounds of Larv and Po- 
licy ; andit vfss only Ahout B'Jhops Lands '' for they then averred 
the continuance of D. and Chapiters Lands to the fife of the Church, 
Some deny that there is any fm of Sacrileige under the Cofpel * 
and if there be any ^they agree not in the definition'. Ssme hold an 
alienation of Chwch goods in cafe of Neceffity ; and then make 
the Neceffity what and as extenft ve as they pleafe. The mofi are of 
opinion that whiles the Church lies fo unprevided for, the diMati' 
ons are not alienable fine Saci-ilcgio. Jf there were a furplufage 
above the competent maintenance^ it were another matter. Its deer 
enough that the Dinars wills arefruflrated^ and that their Gineral 
intention andthe General ufe, viz. the maintenance ef Gods wor- 
Jbipand Mmiflers, fboptldfiand, though the particsilar ufe might 
be fuperfiitiont, I cited in my lafi Sermon before the Parliament 
( uyjprinted) a place touching Sacriledge out of lAv. Hiiderftiam 
on Pfal. $1. It did mtpleafe. Tou may find the words in his bool^ 
by the Index. If hisdefcriptionofit be true, then you will flili 
be of your own mind. I dare encourage no purchafcrs -, but do 
defire to havefome mere of your thoughts about it^ and I fhall return 
you mine : as I d-) my thanks for your excellent And worthily efieew 
ed Treatife which you vouchfafed to prefix my name heftre. 
Sir, I have no more time or paper but to fubfcribt myfilf 

Tour trttly loving Friend 
London, July 20. , K. Vine?. 



T Hough IfjouUhave dtftred to have un^erjioodjour thoughts 
about the pint of Sucrtledgfythat fo Jmiyht have formed ftp 
my thoughts iniofome hetttr order andcltertr tjfuethtn I diet in wy 
ialJ: yit to /hewuntojoM ho^ much 1 value this ccmfpondtnce 
XS'ithyou^ lam ypilUngto mjike fome return taj/oftr UJl. ^nd 

fitfi touching the Sch»olmaffer intended, &c. The i^ccomO' 

dution you fpeak of ts a great And a good tPtrk ftr the gaining into 
the work^fnch ufefftl parts and inter ejis as mi?ht very much heal 
the difcord,ani Hiite the [irengih of men to cppcfedefirtiliiz'evrajff, 
0ndi»my opition m)rt feafsh/e Vfith thofe men then ar.j ethtr^tf 
they he moderate and ^odlj : for "tve differ with them rathir about 
fome pinaclts of the Temple then the foun^attM er abbuxtreffes 
thereof. I would net have muchtiwe jp nt in a formula of do^rine 
or vorP>tp : for Wf are not much dii^iUKt In them a^d happily no 
m^re the t vcith-one another : ^B4t 1 ^et$ld have the a^rtetneyit at- 
tempt4din thAi very thing ^hich chiefly made the divift'^'\ ai;i{\ 
thii is GSvernment^ideal breach and heal all : there befiK''M:-iA 
therein Lih:*tr all jeu C4». What i>;flne>ice this may hi'js ■^f9^l 
others J l^yi'}Vo not in thif exulctration of mens minds : huti thfv.*&*.^ 
fpeakj it felftr od, and your reasons [or the uttempdfigf.fif rti-^ vf^'- 
rj coHfiderabh' For tht A{ftmbly, jou knoyv^they ■c'un'mt^l^* '^i^h- 
jufi mthi<ir but what is fent ttnto them by 'Parliam'ntir o>i^ ijW> 
theYeof ( as the order fath ) and for reAfon .never tvci^ uptn 
t'^emto intermelle therein, tvhat thty do infucha things mufi 
be done as private perfsns^ An I not as in the c^'pacty «/ /Ifjtmbly 
men, exceft it come to them recommended by the Purltamert. The 
great bhfu^tf sis to f»da temperament in ordination find trovern- 
ment^in both rvhich the exclufton oradmitiaKceofP/ts^yteri ( di- 
cis caula ) fcr a fl-adoiv ^ X>i>as ret regular : and no doubt the 
Presbyters ought and miy both tench and govern ^as men th/tt mufl 
give acco'int of fowls. For th-tt you fay of every particular <' hurch 
having ma>jy Presbyter s.,i! hath been cor.fthred itt our /ijfembly^ 
and the Scriptnrefpetk^ f-tirfor it , but then th- Ct»*trch andCity 
V^as tf one extent : • no 'Farifhts or bounds *>ffigi i ■ . 'j- ;? purtust- 
lar men ( at «ott') but the A Unifiers pre acht in circuiVu'vr^wf tom- 
mon and flood in relation to the Chnrchts as tocm Church, th: ugh 


tntftirtg haply m divers houfes or placet ( at ujlillthe of 
fame Cities in the Low Couitries.) If you ^ill follow this models 
you ntufl lay the City all into one Chuch particular^ and the Vil- 
lages half a doz.en of them into a (^httrch : which is a buftnefs here 
in ^n^SLndiof vaji dtftgnandconftquence. And as for that yon 
fay ofs. Biftiopover many Presbyterf,noc over many Churches ; 
J believe no fuch ^ijhopt will plea fe our wen: bntthe notion as • 
jou conceive it, hath been and u the opinion of learned men. Gro- 
tius in his commentary on the A^S in divers places ani particular- 
ly Cap. 17. faith, that as in every particular Synagogtie^rrsanj 
of wbkhwas in fame one City ) there was c^fytiTjvtiycoy©- j fuch 
1¥af the Primitive Rijhop : and doubt lefs thefirfl Bi/hops wen 
over the community of Presbyters as Presbyters tn joint relation 
to one ^hurchor Rtgion\ iv hie h Region being upon the increafe 
•f believers^ divided into more Churches, and in after times thofe 
(^hurchei afftgredto particnlar men : yet he the Bijhop continued 
JSifhcp over thtrnftill- For that you fay^he had a Negative voice, 
tkats mo^e then ever Ifaw proved, or evey /hall, I believe for the 
firfl two hundred years $ and yet I have laboun^ to eneyuire into it. 
That makes him Angelas princcps , »of Angelas prsefes asDr, 
Kt\gno\6sfaithCz\v\ndtnies that^& makes himConixA in Senatu. 
or as the Speaker »» the houfe of Parliiment^'^hich as I have heard 
that D. B. did fay, was buttomal^e him fore-man of the Jury. 
Take heed of yeilding a Negative voice. As touching the Intro' 
ciftBion of ruling Elders, fuch as are modelled out by Parliament, 
my judgement ts fuficiently k^o^n : lam of your jadgeraent in 
the point. There (hould be fuch Elders as have power to preach 
as well as rule : J fay power • but how that Vpillbeeffe&edhtre I 
know not, except \^e could or ^ould return to the Primitive na- 
ture and confiitution cf particular Churches : and therefore it 
ittujl be helped by the combination of more Churches together in- 
to otte as to the matter of Qovernment,and let them be fttll dijiinU 
as to JVord and Sacraments. That us the eafufiivay of accommo- 
dation that yet occurs to my thoughts. Sir I fear I trouble you 
too long, but it is tofbewhow much lvalue jouandyour Lettere 
to me: for Vehich J thank yeu,andrefi 

Tours in the heft bonds 
SeptCinb.7. R. Vinef. 



T Hough Mr. Vines here yield not the Negative Voice to 
have been dtfaHo in the firft or fecond age, nor to be de 
jure ^yet he without any queftion yielded to the ftstingof m 
Prefident, durante -vitu, if he prove not unworthy, ( which 
was one chief point that I propounded to hira. ) And I 
make no doubt but he would hare yielded to a voluntary Con- 
fentof Presbyters <^f/4<^o not to ordain without the Prefident, 
but in cafe of Neceffity- But that I did not propound to him. And 
thedifficulties that are before us ^^/^(^(jinfettingiipa Parochi- 
flll Epifcopacy which he mcntion^h, I have cleared up already 
in thcfe papers, fliewinj^ partly that the thing is already exiftcnr, 
and partly how more folly to accomplifh it. All would be ctfic, 
if Holy, Self-denying, Charitable hearts were ready to enter- 
tain and put in execution the honeft, healing Principles thai are 
before ui,and obvious to an ordinary underftanding : Or (if ftill 
the Paftors will be contentious) if Holy, Peaceable Magillrates 
would ferioufly take the work in hand,and drive on thefloachfol 
and quarrelfome Minifters to the performance of their duty. 

The Epifcopacy of the Proteftant Churches in Poland, 

ADrian. Regenvolfciui Hiftor. Ecdefiaft. Sdavonicar. Pro- 
vine. lib. 3. page 424. 
N. B. Quonlam ^ prima Ecclefiarum in mimrii Polonia Pro- 
Vincia.Reformatione , ufu X^ confuetudine receftum f/?, «r e feni- 
BrilfHs hifce omnium Diflrifiuum, Quorum nsmina 3 6.recettfuimur^ 
nnus Primariux^ five in ordme Primus ^ qui vulga Superintendens 
EccUfiarum mintris Polonit vacatur^ Sjnodifque Provincialibus 
pr^ftdet ; totifts Sjnodi Provincialis authoritate ^ confenfu ac fuf^ 
fragiis eligatur^ ae, non quidtmper impofttionem manuum^ (prop- 
ter evitandam Primatus alicujusfnfpicieHem, 4Mt juris ac pottfld- 
tis alicnjuj in ctteros feniores (peciem^ ) henedifiione tantum, fra- 
ter/ta apprecatione, Ojficiorunt qud hocce concernnnt munns praU' 
fl'QHt^ piifq., totius Sjntdi prectbus , Rtgiminis duntaxat ^ Or* 
dmiibm in EcsleftA J^,i caufafinAuguratur ad declaratur; 7^* 

Z 1 mina 


w«4 TrimAriorum horum S enter um^ five Minor. Pblon. Eccitfi' 

itrMmfuperintendiHm. ] 

The Churches of the Bohemian Confefs. called Vnitatis Fra- 
rr«m,havc among the Pallors of the Churches, their Confcniors, 
and Seniors, and one Prefident over all. Id. RtgeM.Volf. f 3 1 5, 
J^Seniores five fnperattendentesEcelefiaruin Bohemiearum & Mo- 

rAvicdrufffy &c. • plerftmg\ e CtnfenioribHs eligHntur^ 41c 

fer impofitionem jMannftm puhlicAm^^ inauguratienem, in mu- 
xHs Senior AtHi or dinAHtnr ac confeerAntur. Et longa confit- 
etndine in Ecclefm trium harum provinciarum receptumeft, 
ttt € feniorihns units Primarins ( five in or dine Primus ) 
^em vulgo illi Pracfidem vocAntj nen e/igatur ^uident^ nee peca.- 
lariter Ordinetur, fed pofi dtce^nm Aliorum , ipfo OrelinAtiems 
tempore prior ftfccedAt 3 


The Fourth 


Of a Form of 


Ho>5r faritisNcceflary^De- 

firablc;, or Warrantable; In or- 
der to a Peace between the Parties 
that differ herein, and too unchari-- 
tably profecute their difference. 

By ^J^ichard "Baxters 


Printed by Robert WhitCy for Nevil Simmons^ Book- 
feller in Kcdcrmwfler^ Ann9 Vtm. i65^« 


».f ,. Jl .^ , .1 




".: V ^4 .*■ 'i -t 'i 

•8^«ii .wtCt t\AS^K ,>5\t^Wv)"fc^:^ Jii i^ll^l 


Qu. Whether a [linted Liturgy, or form 
of W^orjhip ^ he a de/trable means for 
. the Teace ofthefe Qhurches 'i 

^^ Nneceflary prolixity is not fo accfptableto 

the Reader that loves both Truth and 
time, but that I may take it for granted 
that you defirc me to leave out fuperflui. 
tics in this Difpute. i . The Etymoiogifta 
fhall be better agreed among tbemfelvcs 
of the derivation oihm^^yU and aht^pj/'* ^ 
before I will trouble you with their judge- 
raents. But we are;con3monJy agrec4 
that KHT^iyix [soft ofedfor any MinifirAtian, but more ftrid- 
ly / and ufugUy for a ^nblick^ Minifiration , or any vcork^ 
of pHblicl^ office ; and yet more ftridly from the Septu- 
agint , Ecdcfiaflick writers have almoin conHned it to Holy 
Mmfiratiott , ox pMck^fefvice or Worfhip of God. The 
fcvci^al ufes of die word in Scripture , and prophane and 
Ecclffianick Writeri, you may find info many Lexicons at plea- 
fyre, that I (hall pafs by the reft. BdUrmine doth toe grofly 
pretend that when ici applied abfolntely to holy things, the word 
n CaJicn alwayci in the New Teftimcnt, foraMiniftration in 

Z 2 3 ^acri- 

facrificing. A little obfervation may confate that miftakc. 
Nor is it agreeable cither to Scripture or the ufeof the Anticnt 
Church, to call only Forms of publick worfhip that are written, 
by the name of a Liturgy. Whether it were Form^ or no Form^ 
Writren or nst written^ Premeditated or cxtemporate^ Words or 
AElians^'^W the Public k^holj Min'iflraticn^or fervice oi God, was 
of old called The Churches Liturgy • And fo men may be for a 
lAturgy that are not for a Trajer Book. But latter times have 
Mo^ uled the word for thofe ^inted forms, that fome call 0§ces 
containing both the Kubrick^ or Dire^orj/^^nd the Ferm of words 
prefcribed as the matter of thefervice.And feeing that thofe that 
now we fpeak to, undcrftand it in this fcnfe, we muft fpeak as 
they do, while we are fpeaking to them. 

2 . Note that it is not any c^e part of Publick Worfliip that we 
fpeak of a/oMc, either Prayer, Praife, or other part, bat we fpeak 
of the whole frAme,aLnd therefore of a Liturgj^oz Prefcribed words 
in General, becaufe that is the controverlic that the times call us 
to decide. 

That which I take to be the Truth , and ufefull to our 
Healing , I (hall lay down in thefe ten Propofitions follow- 

Prop. 1. Afiinted Liturgj is in itfelf Laypfull, t« 

2 . A fiinted Liturgy in feme farts of fublick, holy fervice is of 
dmarily ttecejfary. 

3. In the Parts where it is not of Neceffiij^ it maj not only be 
fttbpfitted to, but defired whtn the Peace of the Church rtquir- 
eth it. 

4. There is fo great dfference between Miniflers^andTeofle, 
4ind Times, that it may be cenvenitnt and eligible t» fome , at fome 
times i and /tuft and not eligible to others^andat^ther times. 

$ . The miinijiers and Churches that earnejily defireit, fbauld 
not bj the Magtftrate be generally or abfolutely forbidden the uft. ef- 
a cenvenient prefcribed Liturgy. ^'*^'» .> 

6. To prefcribe a frame ef fiinted fervice, or Prayer, &c. and 
lay aNecefftty, or the Peace of the Church upon it, and to pf*ni/b, 
fi ence,fufpend, excommunicate, or reproach the able, peaceable, 
godly Mtnifters, or people that (jujilyor unpfily) fcrupUthe 
^fi'^Z °f *' » *^ f^ Z^^^f " /'»> ^^*f ffo cmfcianakle Minijierji 


JhouU attempt it, or difireit^ nor any godlj A'ijigiflrAte fhjfer it. 
7. The faff/} Tvay of comfofir.g fttch a Publ'ke Form , 
u to take it ally for matter anA wordsy out of the Holj Scrip- 

8. TVf is not this of fuch Nccejfitj^ hnt that we may '-join in 
it , or ufe Ity if the form of vpords be not from Scripture. 

g.The matter of a commcn. Liturgy^ in which we expecl arj 
General Concord^ Jhenld not he any finnecfjfary things, much lefs 
things douhtfuV^ or forbidden. 

10. Forms of Pnblick^ Prayer fhould not be confiantly ufed by 
Jil ni 'hrs that are able topraj without thtm : and none clfe fhoptld 
be admitted ordinarily to the Aliniflry , but fuch at are able 
competently to pray without fttch Forms ; unlefs in great NtccJJi- 
tits of the Church. 

Tbefe ten Propofitions are the fumm of all tint I fliill 
trouble you with, which I (hill now resicw , and prove in 

Prop. I. A Stinted Liturgy is in it f elf lawful. 
jl\. This is thus proved: 

Argument i. That which is "ot direflly or conftqncnt'allj for- 
bidden by God ^ remaineth lawfull: A flint id Liturgy is not di' 
really or confequtntially forbidden by Ced: therefore tt rem^iineth 

The Major is undoubted, bccanfe no:hirg but a Prohibition 
can make ?. thing unlawful'. Sin is a traafgreffio** of a Law : 
where there is no Law^thirc is no tran'^grcffim : And yet I have 
heard very Reverend men anfwerthis, that it is enotigh that it 
is not commanded , though not forbidden. Wiiich is plainly to de- 
ny both Scripiurc and Civil Principle*. Precept makes Duty, or 
a Ncccfiity f.v ;rrfff^r(? .'Prohibitions make an ai.'tion finfuP, 
which is proliibitcd , as Preccprs p;ovean Omidion nnfuil of 
the Duty commrinded. But Licit um wl.iih is between Duty 
and fin, is thit which is neither commanded nor forbidden. 
And fuch an aft U not y^clus Moralis , Uirg neither good nor 

Here note thefe two things. i.That though wc fiythata 
titurgy isin it fc!f!awful!, ar.d that all thiEgs rot forbidden are 



Lawful!; yctintheadua'il cxercife hic&tturtc, it will be hard 
to find oneaftuali ufeofic, which is not a duty/orafin. For 
though I am not of their mind that think every ad both fimply 
and refpedively confidcred is a duty, or a fin ("For i then every 
ad murt be J^lfts Aioralts, and fo deliberate and chofen, which 
is not true; as for inHar.ce, the winking of the eye, crc. 
2- Then nothing were indifferent. 3 .Then every ad muft have a 
Reafon for it. 4. And the Confcienccs of Chriftians muft be 
perpetually tormented: as e.^. to give a reafon when I walk, 
why I fet the r;ght foot forward before the left ^ or when two 
eggs of a bigncfs are before rae> why I take one rather then the 
other : thefe are not moral ads. ) Yet I rauft needs think that 
in the worfhipof God, its hard to imagine fuch a cafe, in which 
the ufingofa Liturgy will do neither good nor harm: Or in 
which a man cannot difcern, whether it be like to do more good 
or harm : and fo make ic the matter of eledion or refufal. And 
therefore as Paul tn&k^s Muniage i>f different in it felf , when its 
hard to find a cafe , in which it fliall not be a duty or a fin to 
particular fay I of the point in queftiontand yet pofil- 
bly fomctimc fuch cafes there ma) be. A man fometiraes in Pru- 
dence may find that conflancly to ufea form would be to him 
afm, by reafon of the ill confequents, and fo it wonldbc con- 
Hantly to difufe it : And therefore may find hirafelf bound ( by 
accident ) fomcrimes to uie^^nd fomelimes to difufe it : And yet 
may fee no reafon at all , as to thcpartlcular day and hour, why 
he fhould ufe or difufe it this day rather thcnanother,orinihe 
the Morning rarher then the Evening. 

2. Note alfo that God being the fupream Lawgiver of the 
Church, haying by Aifofes given a Law to Ifrael^ did in general 
command, Z)/«f. 12.32. that they (hovM add nothing thereto, nor 
take ought therefrom: And confequently, we may conclude it 
prohibited under the Gofpel ; Nay indeed the very prohibition of 
fclf-idolizing makcsit a fin for any man to arrogate that Lcgif- 
lation which is the Prerogative of God. For that were to deifie 
htrafelf And fo this General prohibition doth make all tin- 
warrantab'e Additions to be finfull , that is, all Additions 
wh'ch God hath not authorized men to make. But then, fuch 
additions are not fmfull formaUy, becaufe not commandedihni 
becaufe/o hidden by the General prohibition of [^ not adding. ] * 



Now for the Minor, thdt ajllnted Liturgy ts not forhidiitn, wc 
need no other proof then that no Prohibition can be produced. 
If it be prohibited, it is either by fomey/^^cM/ 7'r<^^^V;o«,or by 
the (7f«<?;-4/ prohibit ion of «or adding:'S>\it u is by neither of thefe, 
therefore not at all. Specidll prohibition 1 never yet faw any pro- 
duced. God hath nowhere fo bidden a form of Prayer. And 
the General prohibition of nst adding^ extends not to ir. For 
I. It is the Wor/hip of God which is the matter that we are 
there forbidden to add: But the Praying with a ferm^ormth' 
cut a form, 4j/j(»c){>, are neither of them any part of the worfhip 
of God; nor fo intended ( as wenow Tuppofe) by them that 
ufe it : Ic is but an indifferent Afode or (^ircumflance of Wor- 
fhip, andnotany part ofWorfhip. 2. J f Prayer withaforra 
bean Addition to Gods Worfhip, thcnfo is praying without a 
ftrm ( for God only Commands Prayer, but neither commands 
a form, nor that we frrbear a form) But the Confcquent is the Opponents will confefs^ therefore fo is the Antece- 
dent. 3.Undetcrmined mutable Modes and Circumftances are 
none of the prohibjred Additions, but left to humane deter- 
mination. Bur fuch is theform inqueflion. God hath bid us 
Preach, but not told us whether we (hall f^udy a form ofexprefs 
words alwayes before hand, but left that to prudence : more in- 
ftarceswillbeaddcdunderthenext Argument J and therefore I 
(hall now forbear them. 

Argum. 2. The Prudential Determination of fuch Modes and ^^ru^ 2. 
Circumfiances of xvorjhtp as God hath left to humane Deter mina- 
nation, is Larvfull. A fimed form or Liturgy may be fuch a De- 
termination ; therefore ajimtedform or Liturgy may be ( or is in it 
felf) lawfull. 

The Major is pad doubt,if the Hypothefis be firft proved, 
that fome modes and circumfiances of worfhip are left 
to humane Prudential Determination. And thats eafily prored 

Thofc Modes or Circumfiances of worfhip which are Necef- 
fary in Gencre, but \cfz undetermined of God in fpecie, are left 
by God to humane Prudential Determination: felfe an Im- 
poffibility fliould be necelfary. ) But many fuch there arc 
(hat are Neccff^ry in Gencre, but left undetermined of God 

Aaa in 

in fpecie, therefore many fuch are left to humane Prudential De- 

The Minor is fufficiently proved by inftances. God hath made 
it our Duty to Affcmble for his Publick Worfhip : But he bath 
not told us in what p/ace -^ nor in Tr^^t feats each perfon fhall 
fit. Yet fome place is necefTiry ; and therefore it is left to mans 
Determination : Nor hath he tied us for weekly Ledtures to 
any one day; nor on the Lords day, to begin at any o»i certain 
hoHr : and yet fome day and hoar iinacQfi^iry ; whi^h therefore 
man muft determine of. So God hath commanded us to read the 
Scriptures : But hath not told us whether they (hall be printed cr 
jvritten ^ whether we (hall read rvith SpeHacles or without ; what 
Chapter we (hall read on fuch or fuch a day ^ nor how much at 
a time ; Mmifttrs muft prcAch in feafosi and out of feafon ; But 
whether they mxi^iftand or f%t^ or what text they ihall preach on, 
or how long, and whether in a prepared form oi word? or not, 
whether they (hall nfe ttbtes, or mt^ or ufethe 5/^/^, or recite 
texts by memory, c^c. none of ihefe things are determined by 
God J and therefore are left to humane prudential determine:, 
tion. Abundance of fuch undetermined circumftances may 
be enumerated about Singing, Praying, Sacraments and all 

Now that the form of Liturgy is of this nature is manifefljGod 
hath bid us Pray ; but whether in fore-conceived words, or not , 
or whether in words of other mens firft conceiving or our own, 
or whether oft in the fame words or various, and wherhcr with 
a Book or without, thefe are no parts of Prayer at all, but only 
fuch undetermined Circuraftances or Modesas God hath left to 
our prudential Determination .- And the foremcniioned In- 
ftanccs, about Reading, Preaching Singing, (^c. areas pertinent 
toourqaeftionas this of Prayer, they being all parts of the Li- 
turgy, ®r publick fervlce, as well as this. 
^VCtim. 3 » Argum. 3 . There are many exprefs Examples in Script tire for 
formi, of Gods fervice : therefore they are uncjHefiionablj lawful. 
The 774/wj of D4W were of common ufe in the Synagogues 
and Temple- worfhip, and alfo in Private j and indited to fuch 
ends, tiezjekiah commanded the Levites to fing Praifemtothe 

Lord, K»ith the wordf of David a»d of Afaph the feer, 2 Chron. 

2r9.30.. The pi. Pfalm is entitled \^A Pfalm or jfong for the 



Sabbath d4y~\ Pfal. 102 is entitled, t/^ Prayer of the affliSiei 
yphtn he is ovtrvfhelmed^ and fourtth out his complaint before the 
Lird. ] The reft were of ordinary publikc ufc. Pfalms arc 
Prayers and Praifes to God for the mort pare : and both as Pray- 
ers, and Praifes, and as Pfalms^ they are part of the Liiurgy. 
I Chron. i 6.7. Q On that day David delivered firjl this Pfalro, 
to thank^the Lord^ the hands of Afaph and his brethren.] 
The fong of Mefes is delivered in form , Exod. 15. And the 
Sainci in the Revelations 1 5 . 3 . are faid to ftn^ the fong of Mofcs, 
Numb. 10. 3 5, 3 6. there is .nn oft- repeated form of Mofes pray- 
er. There is a form for the people, Df//f. 2 1.7,8* ff*dg.$. there 
is Deborahs Song in form. There is a form of Prayer, foel 2.17. 
Abundance more may be mentioned but for tedioufncfs. 1 (hail 
row only add, i. Jbtzihc Lords Prayer is a form direded to 
God as in the third perfon, and not to man only as a Diredory 
for prayer in the fccond perfon : it is not [ Pray to God your Pa- 
ther in Heaven that his Name may be hallowed ^ his Kingdom 
come^&cc. 3 But [ Our Father which art in Heaven, Hal/owed 
be thy Name^ &c. ] And itfeeras by the Difciples words that 
thus 7e)^« taught his Difciples to pray, Luk,. 11. i. So that we 
have m the Scripture the mention of many fee forms of fervicc 
to God, which therefore we may well ufe. 

Argum. 4. It is lawful to pray to G^din the [et Vrords that '"^ Arrum /l 
find in Scripture : but fo to pray (in t he fet words of Scriptftre) ° ' 

u a form j therefore a form is Lawful- 

I do not here plead example, as in the lafl: Argument, but the 
L^wfulat^sof [ir&ylo^'in Scripturewords. They that deny this, 
muft be fo fingular and unreaibnable, as that there is no need 
of my confutation for the manifefting of their error. And thac 
it is to us a fet form if we take it out of Scripture, as well as if 
wccompofeir, or take it out of another Book, is part all quc- 
flion. A multitude of the pra^ ers of holy men are left on record 
in the Scripture, bcHde thofe that were the prefcribed forms of 
thofe times : He thac will bat turn to his Concordance to the 
word [^O Lird^ and then to all the cited Texts, (hall find ma- 
ny fcore, if nut hundred Texts that recite the prayers of the 
Saints ^ which when wc ufc, wc ufe a form, which wc there 
find written. 

Argum. 5. ^hrijl hath left hs his Approbation of fnch forms : Argup. j. 

A a a 2 therefore 


therefori we may ufe thew. 

His Approbation is proved, i. By his owning and citing 
Daviils Pfalms, Z«j^.20.42.& 24.44. &c. 2. By bis ufirg a 
I^ywn with his Difciples at the Pafsover or Eucharift, which 
we have great reafon to think was a form that had i)een of ufe 
among the Jews. But however, if Chrift had newly then com- 
pofed it, yet was it a form to his Difciples. 3. By his thrice re- 
pealing the fame words in his own prayer. 4. By his teaching 
, his Difciples a form, as John taught his. 5. By his never ex^ 
prefiing the leaft difl ke of the old Jewifh cuftora of ufing 
forms: nor doth Scripture anywhere repeal it , or forbid it. 
6. The Apoftles command the ufe of Pfa-Ims and Hjmns^ which 
cannot be ordinary in the Church without forms. All this pro- 
vetb Chrifts approbation. 
Argam. 6. Argum. 6. If it be Uwfhlfor the people to ufe 4 fiinttd form of 
VPords in pttbltke prayer^ then is it in it felf lAwfulfor the Paftors : 
hht it is lawful for the people : for the Paftors prayer ('which 
they muft pray over with him, and not only hear \l) is a ftinted 
form to them, even as much as if he had learnt it out of a Book. 
They arc to follow him in his method and words, as if it were a 
Book prayer. 

ArCum 7 Argum. 7. h is lawful to ufe a form in Preaching : therefore 
a finted Liturgy is UwfuL 1. Bccaufc preaching is a part of 
that Liturgy. 2, Becaufe the reafon is the fame for prayer, as 
for that in the main. Now that ftudyed formed Sermons arc 
lawful, is fo commonly granted, that it ftiall fave mc the labour 
of proving it ( which were cafi*. ) 

. 8. Argum. 8. That which hath heenthepraBlce of the Church in 

' ' Scripture times, and down to this daj^ and is jet the praBice of 
almefi all the Churches of Chrifl on earthy is not Itke to be unla^* 
ful: but fuchistheufe of feme ftinted forms of pub lick, fer vice : 
thereftrey &c. That it was fo in the Jews Church, and approved 
by Chrift, I have (hewed. That it hath been of antient ufe in 
the Church fince Chrift, and is at this day in ufe in Africk^.^fta^ 
£ur6pe, even among the Reformed Churches in France, Holland^ 
Geneva, &c. is fo well known, that I think I need not ftand to 
prove it : yea thofe few that fcem to difufe it, do yet ufe it, in 
Pfalms, and Other parts of worlhip, of which more anon. 


Prop. 2. A Stinted Liturgy in fome parts of pHbhck holy fer- Prop. 
jL\. vice u ordinnrilj necfjfarj. 
This Propoficion it to be proved by inftance«,and the proof of 
the parts. The parts where a fee form is ufually neceffary, I 
fliall enumerate: defiring you by the way to underltand, i . T hac 
1 fpcik not of xn Abfolute Necejfttj nd finem, as if no other 
could bi! accepted ; but a Necejfttj of Duty : it ongbt to be done, 
as thcbeft way. 2. That I fay but [^ordi>iari/j'2 as excepting 
fome unufual cafes. 

1. The Communication or revcalation of the will of God to 
the Church by Reading of the Holy Scriptures, is part of the 
publickfcrviceof God. AsMofes&nd the Prophets were read 
every Sabbath day, fo by parity of reafon fliould the Gofpcl ^ 
and 7'4«/required thepublick reading of his Epift'e?, Atl-i^. 
27. & 15.21. 2 Cor. 3. T 5. Luk:i6.l9 ^o/.4.i6. i Thcf. 5. 2^. 
Rev.i.-J). But this Reading of the Scriptures is the ufing of a 
fct form in publike fcrvicc. For they are the fime words that 
we rpad from day to day, and ufually Muft read. 

2. The Publick Prayfing of God by fingingof Palms^ is a 
part of publickworfhip: and a moft excellent parr, rot ufually 
tobeomi'ted. Cutthis part of worfhipisordimrily tobe ufed 
in a ftinted form ; becaufe the gift of compofing Pfilmt ex tcm' 
^or^ without a prepared form, is not ulual in the Church : and 
if it were fo to one, it is not to the reft that muft ufc this wor- 
fhip. Had we not ftinted forms of /yU/wx, we fliould have ill- 
favoured work in the Church. 

5. Baptifmeisufually to beadminiftredina form of words: 
for Chrift hath prefcribed us a form, A^atth. 28, 19. [ Bapii- 
zin^ them in the Name of the Father^ and of the Son, and of the 
HtljGhoji J I thi'ik few fober men will think it ordinarily ncecc 
to difufc this form. 

4. Theufeof a form in the Confecratien and AdminifiratioM 
of the Lords Supper (though not through the whole adion J 
ii ordinarily moft fit: for Chrift hath left us a form of xvords, 
Takeje,Eatye,8>cc.'] which are moft exad^, and fafe, and none 
can mend. And Pattl reciteth his form, i Cor.i i. And fmall 
tkcracions in the very words of Baptifme , or Dcliverirg the 

A a a 3 Lords 

Lords Supper, ra?*; eaGly corrupt the Ordinance in time. 

5. The very Sacramental Elements unci A^iom are ftinrcd 
forms of Adrainiftration, which none may alter. As the walh- 
ing with watcr,the breaking of bread, and fowringout of wine, 
and giving rhera, and taking chcm, and e sting and drinking^ &c. 
Thefe arc realhrmt, not to be changed, at leaft without Neccfli- 
ty,if at all. 

6. TheBlefsingof the people in the Name of the Lord, was 
done by a prefcribed form of old, Nnm.C.zi. and is ufually to 
be done in a form ftill. For in all thefe forementioncd parts of 
worfhip, (hould we (till ufc new exprefsions, when fo few and 
pertinent mull be ufed, wefhould be put to difufe the fitceft,and 
ufe fuch as are lefs fit. 

7. In our ordinary Preaching a form (notimpofed, unlefsin 
cafes of great Necefsity and unfitnefs, bucj of our own pre- 
meditating, is ufually Htteil: I think few men are fo weak as to 
prefer ( with rooft preachers ) unprepared Sermons , before 
chofe that have more of their care and fludy. And then at leaft, 
the Text, Method, and fomewhac of the words muft be premedi- 
tated, if not all. 

8. Ordinarily there (hould be fomewhat of a form in Publick 
Confefsions of the Churches faith. For how elfe (hall all concur ? 
And it is a tender point to admit of great or frequent inutations 
in : fothacinBaptifme, and at other feafons when the Cbriftian 
faith is to be openly profcffed by one, or more, or all, a form 
that is exad, is ufually meet to be retained-, though in many 
perfonal Cafes, explicatory enlargements may do well. 

9c If there be not a frequent ufe of many of the fame words, 
and fo fomewhat of a form, in Marriage, Confirmation, Abfo- 
lution, Excommunication, the danger will be more, then the be- 
nefit by mutation will be. 

10. And with fome Minifters Cof whom anon ) even in 
Prayer* efpecially about the Sacraments, where there muft be 
great exadncfs, and the matter ordinarily, if notalwayes the 
fame, the ordinary ufe of a form may be the bed and ficteft 

In the moft of thefe Cafes i . The Nature of the thing fuffi- 
ciently proves the ordinary fitnefs of a form. 2. The conliant 
Pradicc of almoft all Churches C if not all ^ is for it : even 


they that fcruple forms of Prayer,ufe conftantly forms of Praife, 
of Reading, of Sacraments, (^c. 3 . The reft are proved ficteft: 
as aforefaid by the Apoftles generall Rules, i (^gy. 14. 26, 40. 
Let all things be done to Edifying ■' and Let all thi/tgj be dine de- 
cently and in order. '[^0'9i\ni\\Q cdi{^i\)ti(ivc mentioned, the Edi- 'l 
ficatjon of the Church ( to fay nothingof Order) requireth the 
ordinary ufe of forms. 

Prop. 3 . T iV thofe parts of publicly worfhip vfhere a form « Prop. 3 .. 

jL not of ordinary necejfityi but only Lawful I ^ yet may it 
not only he fttbmitted to, bm defiredy when the Peace of the Church 
doth accidentally require it. 

This Propofition needs no proof, but only explication. For 
he is far from the temper of a Cbriftian that fees fo light by the 
Peace of the Church, that he would not ufe a Lawfull means for 
the procurement of it , when ?<!/</ would become all things to 
all men to favc fomc,and would eat no flefh while he Uved rather 
then offend his weak brother. 

Biic-hcre youmuit take thefe cautions,ieA you mifunderlland 
this Propofition. 

1. The Peace of the rehole Church muft be in our eye, before 
the peace of a part ; and of a great and more confiderable part, 
rather then of a (\x\&\\tT ^cateris paribas. 

2. It is fuppofed that ( befides the fimple lawfulnefs of the 
thing ) there be alfo no other accidental inconveniencies on the 
other fide ( that will follow the ufe of a form) that is offuffi- 
cient moment to weigh down the argument from the Churches 
Peace. For when a thing is only good or evil, ( I mean, neccf- 
fary or finfull,) by Accident, and not in it felf, wemuft confidef 
which fide hath the mofl weighty accidents,and accordingly muft 
choofeor refufeit. 

3. Itii not the fullfillingofthe humours of every unreafonabic 
expcdanc, or every proud Magilierial ufurperthat is the /*m« , 

of the Churchy that now we Ipeak of : If a few proud men will /*<'^'* 
hold no Peace with U5,unlefs we will ferve God in their unnecef- 
fary forms, as if none had wit enough but they,to know in what 
words the Churches (hould ferve God; and ftll mullfpeak but 
*-' what 

what they teach them, it is not the huraoring of thefe Proud 
ufurpers that is the Peace thus to be bought. 

4. Wcmuftiook to ihc future as well as the prf/f«f Peace of 
the Churches ; And therefore if any will hold no Peace with us 
lUh^- noWjUnlefswe will own fome formal Engine that is like to make 
hereafter more divifion then unicy in the Churches, ( by laying 
the Unity or Peace of the Church on things that will not bear it, 
and making thir gs necefTary , that are not neceffary, nor to be 
madefo) in fucti cafes , it is not our duty to betray the gene- 
neral or future Peace of the Church for our private or prefent 

5. The defireablenefs of this Peace oftheChurch which we 
muftfeek, muftbcmuchjuigedof by its tendency to the pro* 
mo'ingof holinefs , the faving of mens fouls, the furthering of 
the Gofpel , and profperity of the Church in fpiritual refpeds .- 
For a P€acc that undermineth and betrayeth tbefe,is not dcfire- 
fible. The means is to be valued by its tendency to the attain- 
ment of the End. 

6. There is need therefore of very great prudence, to compare 
things with things, for a man to know how to carry himfelf in 
fuch cafes. For imprudent overfights, or laying greatefl ftrefs 
on fmalleft things, and flighting greater, will naake men live in 
conftantiin by abufing things indifferent. 

But ftill the Propofition holds good with thefe caution$,that 
forms and fuch like indifr<:rent things are to bcufedor difufcd 
much with refpeft to the Churches Peace. 

Prop. 4. Q O greM is the difference between men and men, timet 
Prop. 4- l3 dnd times , that forms m*j be 4 duty to fame 

men, and at feme times , and a /in ts other men> and at other 

As to private men in their families , it may be one mans d\i' 
ty to ufcaform, or book, and another mans fin, fois it with 
Miniftersalfo in the AfTemblies. Three diflindions C among 
others ) are obvious, in which this is manifefl. 

I . Some Minifters are better able to 'perform Gods pub- 
lick worfliip C except in the fore-excepted cafes ) without 
a form : and fomc are better able to do it by a form. 

2. Some 


2. SomeMlninershave a Paple thit arc (crupulom of uCwg 
forms, and fome have people that Icruple the difufing them , 
and fora€ have both forts mixr. 

3. Some Churches live under Maglftrates that command a 
form, or with Churches that unanitroufly agree on a form ; and 
others live in times and places where there is nofuch commands 
or AgreerRents. /^nd according to thcfe differences it may be 
one mans duty, and anothers fin to ufe fome forms. 

I. Gods work fliou'd be done in the moft edifying manner. 
Where Miniftersare able to perform the publick prayers of the 
Church in the moft profitable manner without a form, there ic 
is chcir duty to difufe a form, unlefs fdme other greater acci- 
dest preponderate. Still remember that for Pfalms and other 
fore-excepred parts, I take it for granted that ordinarily a form 
isneccfTary. But our main queflion row is of Praying and 
Preaching, and that cfpecially with refped to one (landing form 
that ii not ufually varied in Prayer , and an impofcd form , 
or compofed by others, in Preaching. Itfhould be the ordina- 
ry cafe of the Church that Miniflers fhould be able to dothefe 
without a conflant form of words, to the peoples greater edifi- 
cation. But yet ii is notalway fo. And where it is nor, it is 
better for Miniderstoufeaform, then todo worfe,and difho- 
nour rhe work of God, and wrong the Church by their errone- 
ous or over- rude defedive management, I know the great obje- 
dion will be, that fuch men arc not fit to be Minifters, and that 
its better to have none. But this is fooner laid then proved. 
I am far from defiringany man to undervalue the precious mer- 
cy of an able Miniftry, and from wifhing for formalities and 
reading Paftorsinftead of the learned able guides that we here 
enjoy. I hope I fhould door fiiffbr as much as another to pre- 
vent fo great a Calamity as an ignorant, unable, or negligent 
Miniftry. But yet I a^i fully fatisfiedof it, that its better for 
the Church to hive Readers then none. 

I . Confidcr that there have been fome very Learned able Di- 
vines ( Dolors of Divinity ) that by age , or other decay of 
Memory, or natural impediments difabling them fromextempo- 
rate pcrform.-iticcs cannocdoany thing in the worfhipof Gcd 
without the help of Notes or books J or it Icafl without P'-epa- 

B b b ration 


ration for cxpreiTions •, when yec upon preparation, and by con- 
venient helps, they excell many exceraporace men. 

2.TheNeceffitiesof the Church may require an allowance 
or toleration of fuch as have not ability to compofe extemporace 
Prayers,or Sermons, no nor to prepare fuch upon deliberation 
neither, but meerly read the Sermons and Prayers compofed by 
Others:! know fome will not believe that fuch (hould beMinifters^. 
But they would have them only read as private men^rachcr then 
the peopLe ftiould have nothing : For they think that a man ihac 
cannot preach or pray is no more capable of being a M-nifter , 
then a man that cannot command an Array is capable of heing i 
Commander, ^c. 

But 1. Let fuch brethren confider that there may be all abili- 
ties <=jf/f«f;W/j'requiruc to a Paftor, without the ability of praying 
or preaching without a form ( Though ftiil I pray Godtofavc 
us from a Necejfitj of fuch. ) A man that can Teach men the 
fubftancc oftheChriftian Religion, and adminifter the Sacra- 
ments, and Overfeeand Govern the flock, hath as much abi- 
lity as is neccfTary to the Being of a Paftor. But thoCe may 
haveallthis that cannot fitly preach or Pray without a form. 
They may be godly men, able in conference to inftrud the peo- 
ple in the fubftance of Religion, and to read the Scriptures, and 
the Holy writings of godly men, and to adminifter Sacraments, 
and prudently and diligently guide the people. And by the 
fame rule as you will conclude it better that {e. g.) f-vales, 
Jreland^&c. have private men to read good books, rather then 
none, left they turn heathens j I may alfo conclude that it is 
better for them to have Churches and Paftors of this weaker 
fort, then to have none, and leave their children unbaptized, 
and live without the Sacraments, and Church-Communion, and 

2. Confider I befeech you /which moves me more then any 
thing elfe ) the ftate o'f the Chriftiar^ World. In L/£th{opia, 
Syria, Armenia,'Rfijfi*yGrecia^ andabundancc of other Churches 
of Chrift there are very few Preachers, but mecr Readers; And 
can any man think that it is beft for all thcfe Churchts to be 
without Minifters, and Sacraments, rather t len to have fuch ^ O 
that God would give them better I But till then I ftall pray that 



he will continue thefe among them, rather then leave them de- 
ftitute. I know many godly judicious men, of able parts for 
conference > that yet are unable to compofe a Sermon ( though 
if rbey c^.'^lj , it were a form) that yet 1 am confident by 
Reading fucH Pradical Books as arc now extant, and by prudent ^ 
overfighr, might be tolerable Paftors for many a Congregation 
in Walc:^i\\^nQ\v have none. 

2. In a time and place where no obligation by Magiftratcs 
Commands,or Churches Agreements is laid upon us' for the 
ufe of forms, I am fully perlwaded we (hould make no more ufe 
of them, then Nectfluy compclleth us to do: But the thing be- 
ing lawfull, the Command of a Magiftratc, or the agreement 
of the Chutches may go far in moving us j And indeed muft pre- 
vail with us, unlefsin cafes where there are weightier Accidents 
to weigh down on the other fide. For obedience and Agreement 
or Concord in Lawfull things is our duty , where we have 
rot fome greater reafon to forbid it. There is much difference 
between men that are left at liberty, and men that are bound . 
by liwfull Governours. Yea though they do not well in com- 
manding , yet may we be bound ro obey, when the mat- 
ter is fuch as belongeth to their jurifdidion, and not forbidden 
by God. 

3 . A man is alfo mi^:h to regard the minds of his people : not 
out of man-pleafing difpofition , but in order to their good. 
Prudence will tell us which way is likeR to attain our Erds. 
Food is to be fitted to mens tempers and flomacks,and Phyfick, 
to their difeal'es. If a Church be fo weak that they cannot bear 
the difufe of forms, and others fo weak that they cannot bear 
the ufe of them , the Paftor muft fit his pradicc to their Edifi- 
cation , till he can bring them to a wifer judgement, that fo they 
may receive that which indeed is moft fit toedifie them. Pru- 
dence muft guide us in the circumf^antials of wtrfhip, which 
are left to our Determination ; that we may vary them as 
the condition of our flock requireih, to theit good ^ ('of which 
more anon : ) 


B b b 2 • Prop. 


prop. 5. PfOP' 5- nr ^ -^ Minifiers a»d Churches that earnefily cU- 

X fire it, fhoHldnot hj theMa^iftrai^^^' ahfolute- 
Ij , and general/ J prohibited the nfe of a convenient fiintedLi- 

Note here that I fpeak not of the defires of imy inconfide- 
rable perfons, contrary to the defires of that whole Church. 
If a few ignorant or wilfull people (hould be eager for a form, 
whea the Paftor is ?^!e and willing to manage the work of God 
without it, and the Congregation profefTeth that it hindereth 
their Edification ( by what accident foever , I am not now 
queftioning, j it is fie that thofe unreafonable perfon? (hould be 
denyed their defires ( in that Church ) rather then the whole 
Congregation. Alfoif the Magiftrate (hou4d perceive that a 
whole Congregrtion , or many, or the Pallors themfclves a^e 
eager for fome one particular form, out of a corrupt humour, 
• and in any ill dellgn to the di(lurbance of the Churches Peace, 
or that they will needs have an unlawfull Form, that for mat- 
ter is erroneous, or for manner abfurd, or apt to breed unre- 
vercnce, or binder Edification, the Magiftrate (hould pro- 
hibitc this : Yet fo , that Prudence and Moderation meafurc 
out his penalties in fuch a fort, as thatthe Churches Edifica- 
tion be not hindered by bis over-rigorous correcting mens di- 

But out of thefe and fuch like Cafes, when it is meer weak- 
nefs thatcaufeth Paftors or people to be fet upon a Clawfull) 
form , The Migiftrate ought not to prohibite them by fuch re- (hill deprive them of the liberty of worftiipping God, 
or hinder their Edification. 

TheReafons of this Propofition are thefe. i.Beciufe the 
thing being Lawfull, no Power (hould caufe'efly reftrain men 
from theufe of Lnwfull things. God having left men to their 
Liberty, none (hould without great reafon deprive them pf it. 
2. The Magiflyrate fh )uld not hinder the Peoples Edification 
^ in the manner of Gods worfhip .• But in many places a ftinted 

Liturgy it moft for the peoples Edification. Therefore, &c. 
Whether it be the Minifters weaknefs, or the peoples, that makci 
at moft ufefull to thcna , yet when the Magiftrate cannot cure 



that weaknefs, hemuflbear with them. It was the weaknefs 
of NicodentMs that made him he could not bear the day-light,in 
coming to Chrift j yea and fuch a weaknefs, as (hewed, or was 
joyned withanunregeneratefiate, andyec thrift would rather 
teach him privately then not at all. 

3. Where Confciences are fcrupulous , and think it a fin to 
worfhip publikely without a form, (though it be their error yet) 
the Governors are not to drive them away from it ^ becaajTe • en 
they will not publikeiy Worfhip God at ail : .And no worfjip is 
worfe then a lawful form o(vf or (hip. 

4. A Minift^r that is for the Ncccflity of a form (though er- 
roneoufly ) maybeinother refpedsfo ufefull to the Church, 
that he (hould not be laid by and loft to the Church for fuch a 
thing as this. 

5. The ufe of fomc forms ( as aforefaid ) being necef- 
fary, and of other forms, notonlylawfull, but of almoft com- 
mon reception through all the Churches on earth , Governors 
fhould be very caucelous in denying men liberty in that which 
almoft all the Churches have Liberty in, and morej even that 
which is their conftant ufe. 

Prop. 6. 'TP frefcribe a Form of Prayer , Preaching ( or PfQp 5^ 

X other ftrvice where is no Nectffnj of it ) and to lay 
a Neceljitj on it^as to the thing it felf^ or the Churches Peace. ^c. 
and to fpinipj^'ftlence^ fufpnd^ excommunicate, or reproach as 
Schifmatickjy the able ^ godlj , peaceable Mtnifiers or People, that 
( Pfih °^ unjufllj ) dare n9t u/e it , u fo great a fin , that 
no Gtdlj Afinifiers fijouU deftre or attempt it ^mr any godly Ma- 
gifirate fnffer it. 

This was [he great fin of the Ute Magiflrates and Prtlatcs in 
England; and it is the main difference between their party and 
others at this day. The Mag»{tratc doth not forbid men ufing 
a form or Liturgy (ihoug') they forbid one particular Liturgy 
more ftridly then I could wifh . ) But there is a very .ewof 
thefemenihat I know of, that can be contented with a Liberty 
ofufing ir themfi-'lves.if they may not have all others ctmipcllcd 
todoas tl;ey do , and go to God with the w(>rd> ha. they 
have for^ned for them , or that arebeft in their eftecm. J hey 

IJbb 3 raua 

mud be all Schifmaticks that will not ufe their form, and the 
Churches Peace rauft be laid upon it^and no raan rauft be thought 
meet to preach or pray that will not be of their opinion, but 
theableli Paftors of the Church rouftbefilencedandcafkbjf, if 
they will not ufe the Common-Prayer. The finfulnefs of this 
pradicefhail bemanifeRed in the next difpuce more fully , to 
which I referve the moft of my reafons againft it : In the mean 
time letthefe few be well confidered. 

1 . /; isacertaiyyvcaj to the Dhifion of the Church : when men 
will lay its Unity or Peace on that which will not bear it, they 
are the raoft defperate difturbers and dividers of it. If one form 
of Prayer or Preaching had been necefTary to the Churchei 
Unity or Peace , Chrift or his Apoftles might as eafily have com- 
pofed it , as they did other neccffaries. Nay experience tells us, 
that it is not held necefTary by men themfelvcs : For the Ro. 
maniCts ufe one or more forms : and zhtCrcaans another , and 
the Ethiopians another, and fo of other Churches. In the Biblio- 
theca Patrum how many Liturgies have they given l's ? And if no 
one of all thefe is necefTiry to all Churches,then not to any one 
Church, further then accidents, and mens impofitions make it 
necefTary. And no man fliould make that necefTary, that is not 
fome way necefTary before. It know that either the 
Form as fuch , or fomcwhat in the Form, is like to be Tcrapled by 
fome, even godly, able men.- and fo it will prove an engine of 
divifion. The Church hath been brought to that torn divided 
condition that it is in , by this arrogancy of domineering im- 
pofers, that mufi: lay its Peace on their onnecefTary devices ; and 
will not let us have unity in Chrift and his Inftitutions and peace 
upon his term?. 

2, By this means the people will he invehed iu the gnih of bitter 
contending, and hating all that conform not to their tvaj^anduncha- 
ritablj reproaching them as fchifmaticl^Sy and confequently of dif- 
liking the verydodrine that they preach, or hold, and the way 
they take;, and thus if uncharitablenefs, and all this fin, the 
ofF-fpring of it, be the way to Hell, then you may fee what a 
notable fervice they do towSatan, and how they cnfnare and undo 
mcnsfouls, that make fuch forms of common Neceffity to the 
Unity or Peace of the Church. 

^,Bj this means thej mil involve themfelves and the Afagijirate 



iit the guilt of perfecpiticn '■ For no better will it prove, eve?) 
in many cafes where the refufers fcruples arc unjuft. 

4. B) this M(uns thej will hinder the Edijicution of the Church, 
What it' a MiniUer have a Congregation that (luppofeupon 
milL'kes ) do fcruple chefe forms, and by prejudii;e or weaknefs 
are hindered From ferving God with cheerfuilnefs and profit, 
where they are ufed ; muft we be bound to deny them that 
mode of worfhip which their weaknefs doth require? and to 
force them to that which will not down with them? Murta 
Phy(i:ian be bound to give all his Patients onekindof dyet ? 
What if it be whoiefomc ? Will you fay, If that will not dorvH 
with him^ he /ball have n-ine : lei him die ? Th:s is contrary, to the 
end of our office ; we are commanded to do all to Edificatior), 
which this doth contradid:. 

5. /; is C6Mtrar) to the Office, Porver and Trtifl of th partica' 
Ur Pafiars of the Chfirch, to he thtis compelled in variable things. 
Aj it i» the office of a Phyfitian to judge what dyet and phylick 
to prescribe his Patienti;, and to vary it as perfons do vary in 
their tempers and difeafes, and to vary it with the fame perfons, 
as their condition c