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THE following volume contains a record of work done in the Theban 
Necropolis during the years 1907-11. In the editing of this report 
I have availed myself of the generous help of several scholars, whose names 
appear at the heads of the chapters they have contributed. To these gentlemen 
I wish to tender my sincere thanks for their co-operation. 

Mr. Howard Carter has been in charge of all operations ; and whatever 
successes have resulted from our labours are due to his unremitting watchfulness 
and care in systematically recording, drawing, and photographing everything as 
it came to light. 

To Professor Sir Gaston Maspero, the Director-General of the Service des 
Antiquitds, I wish to proffer my thanks for his most kind and valuable 
support; as also to Mr. Weigall, who, in the course of his official work, has 
given me his most willing assistance. To Dr. Budge I should also like to 
express my indebtedness for several valuable suggestions. 



August 1911. 



PREFACE. By the Earl of Carnarvon . . , . . . . v 

INTRODUCTION. By the Earl of Carnarvon 1 

Chapter I The Mortuary Chapel and Sepulchre of Teta-Ky. By 

Howard Carter 12 

II The Paintings and Inscriptions of the Vaulted Chamber 

OF Teta-Ky. By George Leg rain 14 

III The Funerary Statuettes from Tomb of Teta-Ky. By 

Percy E. Newberry 19 

IV Excavations in the Valley of Der el Bahari. By 

Howard Carter 22 

V Work done in the Birabi. The Seventeenth Dynasty 

Tomb No. 9. By Howard Carter 34 

VI The Carnarvon Tablets I and II. By F. Ll. Griffith . 36 
VII The ' Valley '-Temple of Queen Hatshepsut. By Howard 

Carter , . . .38 

VIII Ptolemaic Vaulted Graves. By Howard Carter . . 42 

IX Demotic Papyri and Ostraca. By Wilhelm Spiegelberg 46 
X Colonnade and Foundation Deposit of Rameses IV. By 

Howard Carter 48 

XI Other Antiquities discovered. By Howard Carter 49 
XII The Late Middle Kingdom and Intermediate Period 

Necropolis. By Howard Carter 51 

XIII Hieratic Texts from Tomb No. 37. By George Moller . 89 

XIV The Vegetable Remains. By Percy E. Newberry . . 94 





Electrum Statuette of a Youth : XVIIItii Dynasty 
Period of Amenhetep I 



1. Excavations in the Birabi 

2. First Appearance of the ' Valley -Temple Wall 
8. The ' Valley '-Temple Wall 

4. Tomb No. 25 

5. Tomb No. 37 

6. Uninscribed Cones of the Eleventh Dynasty 

7. Votive Cake-offering — Tomb of Kha-em-hat 

8. Chert Chisels and Hammers 

9. Scarab from Tomb No. 5 . 

10. Hieratic Inscriptions from ' Valley -Temple 

11. Graffiti on Stones from ' V^alley -Temple 

12. Gilt Copper Vessel from Ptolemaic N'^aulted Graves 
18. Ptolemaic Coins from Ptolemaic Vaulted Graves 
14, Key to Gaming-board 

























(1) Open Court-yard; (2) Vaulted Cliambei-s. 

Plan of Tomb. 

(1) Right AVall of Painted Niche ; (2) Left Wall of Painted Niche. 

(1) Ceihng Decoration ; (2) Ceiling Decoration and Frieze. 

Scenes on North AVall. 

Scenes on Eastern and Western \A'"alls. 

Scenes on Southern AVall. 

(1) Shawabti Figure in ISIodel Coffin ; (2) Shawabti Figure of Sen-senb. 

Model Coffins. 

XII (1) Table for Offerings ; (2) Funerary Statuettes. 


XIII Panoramic View showing the Sites excavated. 

XIV Tomb No. 5 before and after opening. 

XV Plan of Tomb No. 5. 

XVI Series of Coffins from Tomb No. 5. 

XVII Tomb No. 5, Antiquities from. 

XVIII Tomb No. 4, Limestone Statuette ; and Pottery from Tombs Nos. 1-16. 

XIX (1) Foundations of Wall of Amenhetep I and Aahmes-nefert-ari ; 
(2) Offerings to a Tree. 

XX (1) Serpentine Wall ; (2) Bathing Slab. 

XXI (1) Offerings from Dronios Deposit; (2) Brick-lined Hole tor Dromos 

XXII Dromos Deposit. (1) Pottery and (2) Implements. 

XXIII (1) Child's Toy; (2) Pottery from Excavations; (3) Stamped Bricks 

of Amenhetep I and Aahmes-nefert-ari. 

XXIV Panoramic View showing Site of ' Valley '-Temple and of Dromos 




XXV (I) Three sides of Ji Canopic Box; (2) Three Canopic Jars in 

XXVI Types of Pottery. 
XW'II Carnarvon Tablet I, obverse. 
XXN'III Carnarvon Tablet I, rei'irsc. 
XXIX Carnarvon Tablet II, obverse and 7-everse. 


XXX Plan of Hatshepsiit's ' ^^alley '-Temple and Neighbouring Tombs. 
XXXI Northern Boundary Wall of ' N'alley '-Temple. 
XXXII (1) Tally-stone of Hatshepsiit ; (2) Stamped Brick of Hatshepsfit ; 
(3) Wooden Hoe ; (4) Stamped Bricks of Hatshepsiit and 
Thothmes I. 


XXXIII View of Ptolemaic Vaulted Graves over Site No. 14. 

XXX n' (1) Amphorae beneath Floor of Vaulted Grave ; (2) Facade of 

\'aulted Grave. 

XX Wl 
^^^yi[ Carnarvon Papyrus I. 

XXXVII Demotic Dockets and Inscribed Potsherd. 

xxxvini ^ r> IT 

XWlKi Carnarvon Papyrus II. 


XL Foundation Deposit of Rameses IV^. 


XLI A XXIInd Dynasty Stela. 
XLII (1) Osiride figure; (2) Mud Feretory or Shrine; (3) Reed Burial of 

a Man ; (4) Inscriptions on Underside of Lid of a Box. 
XLII I Funerary Statuettes and Model Coffins. 


XLIV (1) Statuette of Ankhu ; (2) Mummy Decoration; (3) Wooden 

Doll ; (4 and 5) Faience Bowl. 
XLV (I) .lewel-box; (2) Contents of .lewel-box ; (3) Scribe's Palette. 
XLVI (1) Jewel-box; (2) Contents of Jewel-box. 
XLV 1 1 Pottery Vessels and Pans. 




XLVIII (1) Ivory and Ebony Toilet-box ; (2) the same with Drawer and 
Lid open. 
XLIX (1) Scene Engraved on Front of Toilet -box ; (2) Inscriptions on Lid 
of Toilet-box. 
L (1 and 2) Gaming-board and Playing Pieces in Ivory. 
LI (1) Blue Faience Hippopotamus ; (2) Necklace, MiiTor, and Brooch. 
LII (1) Alabaster Toilet Vases ; (2) Pottery. 

PLATE LIU: TOMBS Nos. 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34: 

LIII (1, 2, 5) Types of Pottery ; (3) Rishi Coffin (Tomb No. 32) ; (4) Dug- 
out Coffins (Tomb No. 29). 

PLATE LIV: TOMBS Nos. 27 and 31: 

LIV Stela of the Keeper of the Bow, Auy-res. 










LXI 1 1 











Plan of Tomb. 

Central Passage showing Closed Doorway of Hall C. 

North Wing of Con-idor showing Closed Doorway of Chamber A. 

(1) Seal Impression on Doorway of Chamber A; (2) Interior of 

Chamber A. 
(1) Chamber B before Opening ; (2) Chamber B after Opening. 
(1) Decorated Rectangular Coffins ; (2) Plain Rectangular Coffins. 
(1) Children's Coffins and Viscerae Boxes; (2) Plain Anthropoid, 

' Dug-out ', and Semi-decorated Anthropoid Coffins. 
(1) KMz Coffins ; (2) Decorated Anthropoid Coffins of New Empire. 
Decorated Anthropoid Coffin of the New Empire. 
(1) Rush- work Baskets ; (2) Mechanical Toy Bird and Bird Trap. 
(1) Toilet Set ; (2) Fan-holder, Kohl-pot, &c. 
Scribe's Outfit. 
(1) Electrum Statuette; (2) Statuettes lying in Coffin No. 24; 

(3) Wooden Statuette. 
(1) Objects from Decorated Rectangular Coffins; (2) Objects from 

Plain Rectangular Coffins. 
(1) Objects from a Rectangular Gable-Topped Coffin; (2) Objects 

from a Plain Rectangular Coffin. 
Objects from RhJu Coffins, 
(1) Chair and Stool; (2) Musical Instruments. 
Scarabs, Cowroids, and Rings. 


TOMB No. 37 (Continued). 

LXXIII Bead Necklaces, Bangles, and Bracelet. 

LX X I V Pottery Vessels. 

LXXV Panel Stelae. 

LXXM (1 and 2) Writing Tablet No. 28, reverse and obverse ; (3) Panel Stela. 

LXXN'II \Vriting Tablet No. 2G, obverse. 

LXXVIII Writing Tablet No. 26, reverse. 




The necropolis of Thebes — the great city which for so many centuries had 
been the capital of Egypt — lies on the western side of the Nile valley, on the 
margin of the desert opposite the modern village of Luxor. No ancient site has 
yielded a greater harvest of antiquities than this famous stretch of rocky land. 
From time immemorial it has been the profitable hunting-ground of the tomb 
robber ; for more than a century a flourishing trade in its antiquities has been 
carried on by the natives of the district, and for nearly a hundred years archaeolo- 
gists ha\'e been busy here with spade and pencil. The information that has been 
gleaned from its temple walls and tombs has enabled scholars to trace, point by 
point, the history of the city from at least 2500 b. c, to Ptolemaic times. The 
necropolis itself extends for some five miles along the desert edge, and evidences 
of the explorer and robber present themselves at every turn. Open or half-filled 
mummy pits, heaps of rubbish, great mounds of rock debris, with, here and there, 
fragments of coffins and shreds of linen mummy-wrappings protruding from the 
sand, show how active have been the tomb despoilers. Notwithstanding all 
the work that has been done here, very little can, in any sense, pretend to have 
been carried out in a systematic manner ; and as few records of the various 
excavations have been kept, the work of the present-day explorer must necessarily 
be a heavy one. Often he will get no further in his excavations than the well- 
sorted-over dust of former explorers ; and if he is fortunate enough to make 
a ' find ', it is often only after clearing away a vast amount of rock debris and 
rubbish to the bed-rock below. 

With a view to making systematic excavations in this famous necropolis, 
I began tentative digging among the Kurneh hills and desert margin in the spring 
of 1907. My workmen were all from the neighbouring villages and their number 
has varied from seventy-five to two hundred and seventy-five men and boys. 
I had three head reises — Mansur Mohammed el Hashash, Mohammed Abd el 
Ghaffer, and Ali Hussen — who all worked well and satisfactorily. The labourers 
themselves were a willing and hard-working lot : but though they were no more 
dishonest than other Egyptian fellahin, inducements for them to steal were many, 
and we found it essential to proceed in our work with great care. 1 made it a rule 
that when a tomb was found, as few workmen as possible should be employed ; 
and, in order that the opportunity for stealing should be reduced to a minimum, 



no clearing of a clianiber or pit was carried on unless Mr. Carter or I was present. 
That nothing should escape us, we also, in certain cases, had to sift over the 
rubbish from the tombs three times. 

My preliminary excavations eventually resulted in my confining attention to 
three sites in that part of the necropolis which lies between the dromos leading 
to Dcr el Baluiri and the great gorge giving entrance to the vjdley of the Tombs 
of the Kings. These three sites were: (1) a spot a few metres to the north of 
the village mosque, where, according to the natives, lay a hidden tomb; (2) the 
Birabi,' which is near the desert edge, between the hills of Drah abu 1 Nagga and 

Fig. 1. Excavations in the Biraiii. 

the cultivated land, and adjoins the entrance to the dromos of Hatshepsut's famous 
terrace temple ; and (3) that part of the Xlth Dynasty cemetery which lies along 
the hill slope, on the northern side of the Der el Bahari valley. 

Excavation on the first site was begun in 1908, and, after a fortnight's arduous 
work among the native houses and rubbish heaps of the village, an important 
inscribed tomb of the beginning of the XVIlIth Dynasty was opened. This tomb 
proved to be of a ' King's Son ' named Teta-Ky, and contained, among many painted 
scenes, a figure of Aahmes-nefert-ari, the queen of Aahmes I and mother of 
Amenhetep I. This is the earliest known portrait of the celebrated queen, who 

' liirdin is the plural of birba, an ' ancient temple ', but here tlie name is locally used more for 
a ' vaulted tomb ', of which many occur in the district. 



afterwards became the patron goddess of the necropolis : she is figured as of fair 
complexion and not black, as is usually the case in her portraits of a later date. 
The scene shows lier adoring the goddess Hathor, as a cow issuing from a cliff; 
and behind her is a lady, presumably the queen's mother,' named Teta-hemt, who 
is otherwise unknown. In the course of clearing this tomb many wooden 
Funerary Figures, in model coffins, were brought to light. These figures were of 
two types: (1) rudely carved mummiform figures with model coffins of wood, 

Fig. si. First Appearance of the ' Valley '-Temple Wall. 

clay, or pottery, some of wiiich were inscribed with hieratic or linear hieroglyphic 
texts ; and (2) well-carved figures in wood, painted and with gilt faces, and 
inscribed with an early form of Chapter VI of the Book of the Dead. The figures 
of the first type were all found in the four niches in the courtyard wall 

' Unfortunately the inscription above the lady is mutilated, but the personal name, Teta-hemt, is 
preceded hy n c^ t and an — k — *. The .9, as Professor Newberry has pointed out to me, must be the 

3rd pers. sing, suffix *'her', and he would suggest the restoration \N _^ "''-■*■> 'her mother'. An 
alternative reading would be 11 snt-s, ' her sister ', but the usual writing of this group is with 

'>~w« n : thus V o '^^ sals, ' her daughter ', is very improbable. 

^^ ^^ b2 



(Pis. 1 and II). Those of the second type were buried in pairs in shallow holes 
round the four sides of the top of the main pit shaft in the centre of the courtyard 
floor (PI. II). The placing of shawabti figures in this position— as it were for them 
to guard the mouth of the pit of the sarcophagus chamber— is only known in this 


The clearance of Teta-Ky's tomb having been completed, we turned our atten- 
tion to the Biriibi site. Three days' digging in the loose ddbris unmasked a hidden 
burial-place. Masses of pottery and denuded mummies were brought to light, and 
at the very threshold of the tomb (afterwards numbered 9) were discovered two 
wooden tablets (one in fragments) covered with stucco and inscribed with hieratic 
texts. One of these tablets has written (1) on its obverse, an important historical 
text relating to the expulsion of the Hyksos kings by the King Kamosi ; and (2) on 
its reverse, a copy of part of the well-known Proverbs of Ptah-hetep. 

In the early spring of 1909 work was continued on the Birabi site. The tomb 
(No. 9), discovered the previous season, was finally cleared, but nothing further 
was found in it. Jutting out of one side of the hole caused by the excavation 
of the tomb, however, appeared the beginning of a well-built stone wall. About 
forty metres' length of this wall was cleared, and though unfinished, the masonry 
in general was good. A doorway, giving ingiess from the north (see Plan, 
PI. XXX), eighteen metres along its length, showed that its northern side formed 
its exterior face. The facing of the stone blocks, not agreeing in direction of their 
chiselling, showed that they had been re-used from some older building, and as the 
size of the blocks and their chiselling were similar to the masonry of the Mentu- 
hotep temple at Der el Bahari, it was conjectured that the wall must be of a date 
posterior to the Xlth Dynasty. Regarding the purpose of the wall, we obtained 
no clue in 1909, nor could we then date it with any precision. In 1910, however, 
we found several blocks lying near the wall which bore hieratic inscriptions giving 
the name of Hatshepsut's master-builder, Pu-am-ra. Afterwards, similar inscrip- 
tions were found on the blocks built in the masonry. These, together with a single 
block bearing the name of the great queen's famous architect, Senmut, clearly 
proved that the wall which we had found must have belonged to some building of 
Hatshepsut's reign. Further clearance revealed that the building was of the nature 
of a terrace temple like that at Der el Bahari. So far as we can at present see, the 
axis of the building corresponds to the axis of the dromos leading to Hatshepsixt's 
temple. This point, together with the fact that a foundation deposit with objects 
bearing the prenomen of the queen and the name of her temple {Zeser-zeseru) was 
brought to light, apparently in the centre of our monument, shows that we are 
dealing with a building in some way connected with the temple at Der el Bahari. 
The probable interpretation is that this newly -discovered ' Terrace Temple ' is in 
reality a ' Valley '-Temple or ' Portal ' to Hatshepsut's noble monument at Der el 
Bahari. It would, therefore, correspond to the so-called ' Valley '-Temples of Gizeh 
and Abusir. Another interesting fact relating to Hatshepsut's Der el Bahari 
temple was the discovery of a foundation deposit at the north-west corner of the 


dromos (PI. XXIV, i), where it joins the temple. This is the largest deposit that 
has hitherto been discovered, and exhibits two new features in connexion with the 
custom of placing of such deposits, namely, the consecration of the building by 
unction and flesh and blood offerings. These offerings were kept separate from the 
usual model tools and implements which were found near by, and the vessels 
containing the unguents and wines were smashed, and their contents, as well as 
grains of com, were poured over the clean sand that filled the cache. In 1911 
search was made for the companion deposit in the south-west corner (PI. XXIV, c); 
this was soon found, and it differed only in the fact that the secondary group — 
i. e. the tools and implements — was missing. 

Fig. 3. The ' Valley '-Temple Wall. 

Beneath the foundations of the ' Valley '-Temple we cut through a layer of 
rock debris averaging two metres in thickness, and discovered a series of pit and 
corridor tombs hewn in the rock-bed below. These had all been plundered, some 
indeed twice, and most of their contents had been scattered and some burnt. 
Several bore evidence of having been pilfered, in the first instance, shortly after 
the close of the Middle Kingdom, and then again during HatshepsCit's reign, 
probably by the workmen employed in building the ' Valley '-Temple. As evidence 
of the earher plundering we may mention the fact that fragments of one stela were 
found in two separate tombs (Nos. 27 and 31), on opposite sides of the great wall. 
After this first plundering, the rock ddbris must have collected to a considerable 
depth above the tombs before the second spoliation took place, for rough retaining 
walls, built of stones and bricks found in the mounds, were made to support the 
sides of the shafts pierced through the earth by the later robbers. 



The tombs, as we have aheady noted, are of two types: (1) pit tombs, 
eomprising a vertical shall with one or more chambers at the bottom, and (2) 
corridor tombs, witli open court in front, vestibule and passage leading to chambers 
with \ertical shafts, and sarcophagus chamber below. In all cases the original 

Fig. I. Tomb No. 2ij. 

contents had been plundered and some of the tombs had been re-used towards 
the end of the Intermediate period. One of the pit tombs, however, contained an 
unopened coffin and objects scattered about the chambers, which all clearly 
belonged to the original burial. Fortunately one of the objects— the fine casket 
figured in PI. XLVIII — was inscribed with the cartouche of Amenemhat IV, and 


this enabled us to date with precision tomb No. 25. This casket is of ivory, ebony, 
and cedar wood, and was found broken into about two hundred pieces, which have 
been admirably fitted together, and the whole box restored to its original form by 
Mr. Carter. Beside the names of Amenemhat IV this casket bore the name of 
the ' Keeper of the department of Food ', Kemen. It is interesting to note that in 
the prayer inscribed upon the top of the lid, the god invoked is Sebek, I^ord 
of X^ @ Hent, a locality in the Fayum where the later Xllth Dynasty kings 
appear to have been very active. Among the objects found in this tomb and 
belonging to the same early date, were the board for a game, which Mr. Carter 
has succeeded in elucidating (p. 56), a coffin bearing the name of Ren-senb, and 
containing, besides the mummified body, a fine bronze mirror with ebony handle 

Fig. 5. Tomb No. 37. 

mounted in gold, and a beautiful necklace of gold-capped obsidian beads. In tomb 
No. 24 were necklaces of beads and amulets characteristic of the same period, and 
a mounted Xllth Dynasty scarab-seal. The stela, fragments of which were found 
in tombs Nos. 27 and 31, is of the Xlllth Dynasty, and to the same period may be 
ascribed several other objects found in these tombs. All these antiquities certainly 
belong to the original interments ; and this enables us to date the whole group of 
tombs to the period covered by the end of the Xllth and perhaps the whole of the 
Xlllth Dynasty.^ These Middle Kingdom tombs, we have already noted, had in 
some cases been re-used : this fact was brought to light in 1910, when we dis- 
covered fragments of several Rishi coflfins in both the pit and corridor tombs. Coffins 
of this type are peculiar to the XVIIth and early XVIIIth Dynasties; so in 

' Among this group are several tombs which may perhaps be referred to a slightly later date. 


them we had evidence of the tombs having been re-used at this period. In 1911 
further light on this point wjvs obtained by the discovery of tomb No. 37, which we 
found to^'contain some sixty-four coffins, and a hirge ninnber of miscellaneous 
objects which may all be referred to the same period. Of the bricked-up chambers 
here, one bore seal impressions of Thothmes I, and among objects scattered over 
the floors of other chambers were scarabs of Amenhetep I, Thothmes I, Thoth- 
mes II, Hatshepsiit, Neferu-ra, and Thothmes III, as well as several scarabs 
contemporarj' with the Xlllth Dynasty and the Hyksos period: the contents 
of this tomb thus cover the whole of the Intermediate period to the beginning of 
the reign of Thothmes III. 

Altogether about 11,000 square metres of debris were cleared from the Birabi 
site and, of course, many miscellaneous antiquities were brought to light in the 

Fio. 6. Uninscribed Cones of the XIth Dynasty. 

course of the excavation. On the debris and rubbish that had collected above 
the ruias of the ' Valley '-Temple were many vaulted graves, built of mud briqks ; 
these, however, proved to have been plundered without exception. Under their 
floors were generally placed one or more amphorae which had been used for storing 
grain, water, and cakes, no doubt for the welfare of the deceased. One vase was 
sealed with clay and contained two well-preserved Demotic papyri, comprising 
deeds of sale, executed under Ptolemy Epiphanes ; these documents, and a hoard 
of copper coins of Ptolemies III and IV, also found here, enable us to date the 
vaulted tombs to the Ptolemaic period. • 

Below these graves on the north-west comer of the site, and on the same level 
as the upper court of the ' Valley '-Temple, we unearthed paving slabs bearing 
marks of columns, with, beneath the comer of these substructures, a foundation 



deposit of Rameses IV. This, fortunately, enabled us to difFerentiate the 
building from the earlier temple; but we have as yet no further clue as to its 
nature, except that it was of stone quarried from the Der el Bahari temple of the 

The third site which we worked was along the northern slope between the 
north-eastern foot hills of the Der el Bahari valley and the Queen's temple. 




Fig. 7. Votive Cake-offering. 

Along the face of the cliff here are the rock-cut tombs of the great nobles of 
the Early Middle Kingdom, and lower down are some graves of their retainers. 
These tombs had been re-used at the time of the Priest Kings, and were afterwards 
again violated. Then at a later period they were used for interments of Saite date, 
and, lastly, they served as dwelUng-places for the Copts. 

' This was demonstrated by the presence of stone chippings bearing fragments of the temple 
I>ainting$ that had been chipped off in refacing. 


Out of the fifteen locations investigated by us only one (No. 5) ga^•e any 
lewanl. juid here we found ujidisturbcd burials of a poorish class of people belonging 
to late Saite times. < 

In nearly all the early tombs potter>- cones were found, sometimes in gieat 
numbeiN, but not in a single case did we obtain one that was inscribed. They 
were always found in the fmnt courts and were certainly contemporary with the 
tombs of the Early Middle Kingdom. In all other parts of the Theban necropohs 
these cones date from the beginning of the New Empire ' downwards, and, with 
rare exceptions, they have the names and titles of the deceased persons for whom 
they were made. Their real meaning has always been an open (piestion, Maspero 
has suggested that they are model cakes or loa\es of bread, made in burnt clay for 
the sake of permanency, llhind found them built into a wall in a tomb court ; and 

Fig. 8. Chert Chisels and Hammers. 

he and others have asserted that they were intended for ornament in the con- 
struction of the tombs. The same argument that they were meant for decoration 
migiit be used in the case ot the pots that the modern natives frequently use when 
building light walls at tlie present day in the same tombs. The bas-relief in the 
tomb of Kiia-em-hat, shown in Fig. 7, together with the fact that the cones 
are found nearly always on the floors of the open courtyard of tombs, tends to 
corroborate tiie theory of Maspero. 

Distributed over the surface of the hillside were immbers of chert hammers 
and chisels, and also heaps of flakes, showing that they had been made on the spot. 
These are exactly similar to others that have been found at IJeni Hasan and other 

' 'I'lie earliest inscribed s|)ecinieiis known bear tlie cartouclies of Aahnies I. 


rock-cut tomb sites of Egypt. They were probably used for the rougher work 
when hewing out the rock. 

Our trenches near to the Der el Itahuri temple exposed the workmen's 
dweUings and part of a hu'ge wall bearing tlie names, stamped upon its bricks, 
of Aahmes-nefert-ari and Amenhetep I. Here also were found votive offerings, 
as well as leaf offerings ' in small pottery vessels, and oblations to trees. 

These offerings to trees had already been noticed during the excavation 
of Hatshepsut's temple by the Kgypt Exploration Fund,'' when trees were 
discovered in the I^ower Terrace with simihir \'otive objects buried in the earth 
around them. In the tombs of the XVIIItli Dynasty and later periods repre- 
sentations of people offering to trees are often found ; while even at the present 
day a general feature of the Mohannnedan cemetery is its tree (generally a 
gemmcz, ' sycomore-fig ' •'), under which water and other offerings are often placed 
by mourners, while rags are attached to its branches or twigs. In the tomb of 
Thothmes III the deceased khig hiiriself is depicted * as receiving nourishment 
from the tree through a breast that protrudes from one of its boughs. It is 
interesting to note in regard to the votive offerings that within (JOO yards of the 
scene of our excavations the tomb of Sheikh Abd El Kurneh, the local Moham- 
medan saint, is surrounded by heaps of mud model houses, small vessels of henna, 
and even the latest European wax candles, to invoke his assistance for the 
public weal. 

' In Spiegelberg and Newberry's Thcban Necropolis (p. 8) there is upon a stein a prayer wliicli reads: 
' May every one love him if he is sjireading water \\\w\\ the leaves before iny stela.' 

* Naville, Archaeological Report, 1894-5, j). 37. 

' In India the Sacred Fig (Ficu.i rcligioxa) is venerated by the natives, who will not allow the tree to 
suffer mutilation or destruction. 

* Loret, Lc lomheati de ThoiilMcx III, PI. 6. 

c 2 



By Howard Carter 

Thoi'GH partly excavated in the rock at the side of a foot-hill the Mortuaiy 
Chapel of Teta-ky and his family is mainly a crude mud-brick construction, with 
its actual sepulchres subterranean : these latter are approached from a vertical 
shaft in the centre of the fore-court (PI. I. 1 and 2). 

The pecuhar irregularity of the courtyard and buildings, which will be seen 
from the plan (PI. II), seems due, in the first place, to the shape of the site, and, 
secondly, to the fact that this particular part of the necropolis must have been 
much overcrowded. Though it is built of mud-brick, the structure itself suffered 
comparatively Uttle damage imtil recent years. The low walls of its fore-court, 
entered from the east, the small painted shrine in the south wall, the \aulted 
chambers on either side of the alley that leads to the principal and decorated chapel 
under the rock at the north end, are all more or less intact. In fact, the gi-eater 
part of its destruction can be put down to the Arabs of modem times. Hence, 
except from slight mutilations, the structux-e is still practically intact. 

Architecturally the plan and construction is of a well-known type. Its chapels 
are early examples of the brick-vaulted chambers often found in and so typical of 
the Der el Medinet Necropolis of Thebes. Only two of its chambers are painted : 
the small shrine or niche built in the wall of the fore-court ; and the main chapel 
under the rock called upon the plan ' painted vaulted chamber '. The latter alone 
has inscriptions. 

The painted niche has depicted on its right wall seated figures (unnamed) 
receiving offerings (PI. IIL 1) ; and on the left wall a conventionally drawn vineyard, 
in which there is shown a figure gathering grapes (PI. III. 2). Its barrel-vaulted 
ceiling, now destroyed, was decorated with multicoloured bands which are so 
frequently seen on the roofs of Theban rock-cut tombs. But of this ceiUng 
hardly enough remains to allow a tnie and accurate description. 

The main chapel, or painted vaulted chamber, has upon its walls the usual 
funereal, husbandry, and offering scenes, and among the people portrayed are 
relatives of Teta-ky (see further description by Legrain, p. 14). Its segmental 
barrel-vaulted ceiling is painted, like the Beni Hasan tombs, with a wooden key- 


beam running longitudinally down the centre, painted yellow with darker and 
almost red graining (PI. IV. 1) ; and on either side of the beam, above a Kkeker 
frieze, the space is divided by black lines into red, yellow, and white squares 
(PI. IV. 1 and 2). The red and white squares contain quatrefoils. In fact, 
to quote Professor Newberry's description ' of the ceiling decoration of the tomb 
of Amenemhat would be to describe the roof ornamentation here, it differing 
only by the absence of imitation mat-work in the centre. Below the Klieker 
frieze is a band of hieroglyphic inscription giving the names of the deceased, 
and of his mother. 

An interesting and new feature is the series of four small niches along the 
west wall of the open courtyard (PI. I. 1 and PI. II). In these niches were found 
numerous shawabti figures in model coffins of mud and wood (see further descrip- 
tion by Newberry, p. 20). This I believe to be the only instance where such figures 
have actually been found in situ, a fact of some importance, for so little is known 
about the provenance of these early figures. ' 

Another important discovery was eight similar, but more fully developed 
figures in wooden sarcophagi (see further description by Newberry, p. 19) placed in 
pairs on each of the four sides of the mouth of the shaft leading to the subterranean 
sepulchral chambei's (PI. II). These were buried about a foot below the surface, 
and were dedicated to persons buried in the vaults below. The reason for their 
being so placed is unknown ; they were possibly guardian figures, like the magical 
ones placed in the walls of later tombs at the four cardinal points. - 

From the north and east walls of the main painted chamber are two passages 
which could not be excavated further than the plan shows, owing to their being 
under modem native houses. But judging from the kind of rubbish that choked 
them they appear to have been opened and ransacked. This was probably done 
by tunnelling from the interior of the native houses above. 

' Newberry, Bent Hasan, \, pp. 20, 29, 37. 

' Carter and Newberry, Tmnh of Thoutinosis IV, pp. 9, 1 0. 



Bv George Le(jiiain. 

The following description of the paintings of the tomb of Teta-ky is taken 
from notes I ?nade in 1909 when I visited Lord Carnarvon's excavations. The 
notes I made at that time were not then intended for publication. This fact will 
explain their briefness. The tomb of Teta-ky having unfortunately been mostly 
destroyed by natives since that date, the copy of tlie texts and pictures that I took 
on the occasion of my visit in 1909, together with Mr. Howard Carter's photographs, 
are the only remaining records of this tomb. 

The funerary chamber is rectangular. The shorter walls lie east and west, 
whilst the longer sides face north and south. The roof is \'aulted, barrel in form, 
and fairly regular. The ceiling is painted with a many-coloured diequer pattern ; 
this decoration can be well seen in Plate IV. 1 and 2. 

The decorations of the north and south walls consist of a long row of Kheker- 
omaments. Beneath this row there is a line of detailed liieroglyplis, and beneath 
these again are scenes which run from left to right. These pictures were painted 
on stucco mixed without straw. This stucco has fallen away in several places, 
which has naturally caused the disappearance of many portions of the scenes 
represented in the tomb. Added to these accidents the tomb was re-used in 
ancient times, and part of the scenes were covered with an opaque lime-wash. 
Besides all these mutilations, breaches, and holes have veiy much spoilt this curious 

The general scheme of decoration can be described as follows : — 

Northern Wall. Scenes of the private life of Teta-ky. 

Efuitern Wall. Queen Nefert-ari presenting offerings to the funerary 

Hathor Cow, ' Lady of Dcndera'. 
Southern Wall. Funerary procession, l^'uneral and arrival of Teta-ky in 

the Kingdom of Osiris. 
Western Wall. Teta-ky in adoration before Osiris Khent-amenti. Beneath, 

funerary banquet and stela of Teta-ky. 
This order is adopted in the following description. 


North Wall. The following text is above the scenes : 1 A r i H J) ^^ I <— > 


Scene A (PI. V). The dead man 1 ^'^ fl ^T ^ - ' '*'he Royal Son Teta-ky ', 
is seated beneath a kiosk, of which three columns are visible. The polychrome 
capitals of these columns are in the shape of lotus buds. Around his neck Teta-ky 
wears a large necklace, and he has armlets on his arms and bracelets on his wrists. 

His wife o ^i J T ' "^^^ I^ady Senba', is seated at his side with left arm 
around him. Teta-ky is receiving grapes from a girl standing before him. 

Behind the girl is a woman standing near the right-hand column. 

name ci 

Scene B (PI. V). Two women stand before three seated men. By the side 
of the smaller woman there is a harp. The text relating to this woman reads : — 

^*=^*s ^^"^^^ V '^^^ taller woman places her hands towards the face of 
the first seated man. He holds her by the left wrist. Above this woman is the 

Above the first man is l]\ -si- %^ i\\\ , i"^ 
Above the second man is ^(jftlp^'^'flf "^^^ 
Above the third man is ^ (] """^ -iszi- fe^ ^ (]■?■ ^ SA 


Scene C. A woman opening a small box shows its contents to two squatting 


Above the woman ^ U ^, ^ 1 ^ ' 

Above the first man "^ § § *7| -^sz^ ^ 
Above the second man ^ 'tI -^s^- ^:5k 'jj ^ 


Nine women follow. Their names read :— 
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 

At m 



O I 




ii ;;^ 



Sccn^^ J). Much of this scene is covered with whitewash. A woman brings 
a cup in one hand, whilst in the other she holds a red clay vase. A squatting 
woman beneath a tree is in front of her. To the right a man paddles. 

Harnessed and loaded donkeys are seen here (PI. V). To the right men 
unload the donkeys. Further on a man squats before a heap of gi-ain "^ao"* 
Originally there existed three horizontal lines of hieroglyphs, of which only the 
following signs remain : — 

(2) llllllllll^llill 

East Wall. The decorations of this wall are arranged in the following 
manner : — 

The Solar Disk spreads its wings above the two scenes, A and B. 

Scene A (PI. VI). To the left is depicted the Cow Hathor, white with 
brown markings, the Solar Disk between her horns. She is 1^1 "^"^ |*| '^ 'bi R -o . 

Before the Cow Goddess, Queen Nefert-ari ^'^^^l^^l^Q^fj'^'lf ]5l 
holds a flaming censer. Nefert-ari is followed by ^ ^ '^ (] . 

In the left lower corner of this scene, below the Hathor Cow, two men 
and a woman are carrying offerings. 

Scene li. This scene on the right side is practically destroyed, only the 
picture of the Hathor Cow is remaining. 

South Wall. Scenes, sections A and B divided by the entrance door, are headed 

by the following inscription :— 1 A "^^^ J 

/^\ <r~^ ^•'^-^ AAAA/V^ 
* 'Vi -» A J! 

I I I o6oi t 1 1 I I 

a Sfll ^ 


Scene A (IM. VII). The mummy is seen under a canopied sledge. Two men 
opposite each other embrace the mummy. A woman fondles the feet, another the 
head. On the side of the canopy a long coiled snake forms the frieze. A man 
with arms hanging by his sides follows behind the sledge. He wears a wig, 
necklace, and a long tunic, and is following the funeral procession. The sledge 
itself is pulled by three men and two beasts. Between these men and animals and 
the sledge a man is shown pouring water upon the ground to facilitate the traction of 

the sledge. Above this man we read A "'^ ||, and above each of the men : — ^^^> 
followed by a name obliterated. 

The driver places his left hand on the hind-quarters of the cattle and with his 
right hand lifts a stick as if to strike. 

Three men, wearing curious high and open-work head-dresses, come foi'ward 
to meet the funeral procession and dance before it (PI. VIII). Above these dancers 
the following hieroglyphs can be read : — ^^^ ^ P'^'^"^^ A 1 "^~" w^' 

Scene B (PI. VIII). Beneath the funerary canopy the mummy is placed 
upright. The priest throws a few grains of incense into a censer which he pi-esents 
to the mummy. The mummy is perhaps of the RisM or feather type ; that is 
to say, of the kind of decoration used for the mummy cases of the Antefs, and 
of the people of Thebes who died before the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty. 
A number of coffins of the same and more elaborate type have since been found 
by Lord Carnarvon in the necropolis of the Xllth to XVIIIth Dynasties in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Teta-ky's tomb. 

Scene C (PI. IX). To the right of this scene, in a Naos, stands the Osiris 
Khent-amenti clad in white, wearing the Upper Egyptian crown, and holding the 
crook and flail. In front of him, from left to right, are, firstly, the plan of 
an habitation in which two of the ilf 7f^-dancers are walking. Secondly, two 
obelisks in red granite. Thirdly, two trees covered with fruit. Fourthly, two 
rows of four shrines containing gods, goddesses, and funerary genii. 

Scene D (PI. IX). This scene, almost entirely destroyed, depicted the 
transport of the Tekenu to the necropolis. This person is wrapt in red cloth and 
is squatting on a sledge. At this spot much of the wall is broken away. We read 

the following legend in front of the Tekenu : — M ^ ^^ •^s O ^ <=> TL i^^:^ , 

while above him is 7^ ^ ^ ^ ^ — ^ . 

The ceremonial continues to the right. Above the break in the wall is the 
sign ^, then -:2>- ^ i III' ^"^ •"'S^t at the end is figured a coffer or box 
ornamented with a lion's head, which is carried on the shoulders of the officiating 
priests. Before these personages is an inscription which reads : — ^^^ '^ ' 1 1« 



West fFiall (PL VI). The decorations on this wall are arranged in the 
following manner : — 

A. .•» centre. Vertical line of text U ^il ^I °i W^i izf ^S 

B. right side. The 1 ^. ^ \\ Y^ W ^^ presents numerous offerings piled upon 
an altar to Osiris Khent-amenti, who is seated upon a high pedestal and is clad in 
white and wears the Upper Egyptian crown. Behind Teta-ky the ~^ 1 ^ "^^^ ^ 
cuts off the fore-leg of a white bull. 

C. left side. The 1 ^^ ^ \\ "^^ ^ stands before another similar Osiris Khent- 
amenti. He bums incense, poui-s water from a vase, and makes other oblations. 
Behind him a ser\ant cuts off the fore-leg of a dark-coloured bull. 

Lower portion. 

D. Central false door. Almost entirely destroyed. Decorated witli multi- 
coloured palm-leaf frieze ; this was the funerary stela of Teta-ky. 

E. Left side. On the left a man is seated. The text in this instance is 
so mutilated that his name (11 i af ^*" alone be read. Behind him the lady 
'^ (1 ^ ^f I rS ^^ places her arms around liis neck. In front of these two 
people, to the right, a man makes offerings and libations. 

Text:Ai5E — il^iii^ni- 

F. right side. A similar group to E, with the following texts above the two 
seated persons : — 

The inscription above the man making offerings has been covered by white- 
wash, and it is only possible to read the following signs : — 



By Percy E. Newberiiy 

The discovery of Model Sarcophagi containing Funerary Statuettes in small 
holes on tlie four sides of the entrance to the mummy shaft (see PI. II and p. 13) 
of Teta-ky's tomb is of considerable interest ; it is, I believe, the first recorded 
instance of shawabti figures having been found in such positions. They were 
placed in the four holes in pairs ; each model coffin and figure bears a different 
name, but curiously enough, that of Teta-ky, whose body was buried in the 
sarcophagus chamber at the bottom of the shaft, does not occur. Each model 
coffin consists of a rectangular box and lid of wood ; the lid, having uprights at 
each end, is curved in section ^^ : outside, the lid and box is painted white, with 
three blue vertical bands on box, and the lids are inscribed in black ink with the 
name of the person for whom the shawabti figure in the sarcophagus was made 
(PI. X. 1). Each shawabti figure is of wood carved to represent a human mummy 
with arms crossed over chest, face and hands gilt, head-dress blue, and body white 
(PI. X. 2). Each figure is also inscribed with the usual shawabti text in horizontal 
lines across the front and sides of the body. 'I'he people for whom these figures 

were carved are : (1) the |^-=>fflT^'^ ^d V ^^ 'Overseer 
of the Garden of Amen, Ra-hotep'; (2) I ^#0^0 fvars. I iflTU and 
±W 'Sen-senb'; (3) ^(]J^^ ' Teta-nefer ' ; (4) ^1]:::^^ 'Teta-an'; 
(5) ^(]^^0^'Teta-em-ra'; (6) (j^j^^-^^ ' Yma'; (7) ^^si-^ 'Res'; 
and (8) P^^T y^ 'Senbu'. The first two names, it should be observed, are 
those of Teta-ky's father and mother ; probably the remaining six are also of other 
members of his family. We may, therefore, hazard the conjecture that these eight 
shawabti figures were placed at the opening of the shaft in the belief that they 
would protect, or 'answer for', their relation Teta-ky, whose body was interred 

Besides the Funerary Statuettes described above, a large number of figures 
in Model Sarcophagi^ were discovered in the four niches in the wall on the west 

' On the early history of these Model Sarcojjhagi and Statuettes see Spiegelberg and Newberry's 
Theban Necropolis, \t\i. 26-9. 

1) 2 



side of the main court (Pis. 1, II, p. 13). These Model Sarcophagi are of painted 
|x)ttery, mud, or wood, the boxes are rectangular or oval in shape, with lids having 
uprights at each end; some of them bear inscriptions (PI. XI). The figures are 
all of wood roughly ciu-ved to represent human mummies, and some of tliem 
are inscribed (PL XII. 2). The inscriptions, written in linear hieroglyphs or in 
hieratic, are of five types : — 

(1 ) Giving only the name of the person for whom they were made. 

(2) The simple de hetep seten formula to Osiris: e.g. 1 A '"^ "^ f|) *" I "* - 

(8) The (le hetep seten formula to Osiris, Lord of Busiris and Abydos. 

(4) The de hetep seten formula to Osiris with name of dedicator added ; 

e.g. 11 — "^"^Pf V^^'^oflZ!^^ '(dedicated) by his son who 
makes to live his name Teta-an.' 

(5) The shawabti text in its early form: ij ^ TTT "^ f] J '^ (| ° .^'^=^^. ° 








1 1 1 

Ci CJED tt 


J O I 



^^^^-^^^fll^ 'Oh! this shawabti, if Teta-ky in the under- 

world is summoned to do work for a man according to his duties, to cultivate 
the fields, to flood the banks (for imgation purposes), or to carry sand from west 
to east. Behold I am there to do it.' 

The personal names occurring on these shawabti figures are typical of the 
period immediately preceding the XVIIIth Dynasty. I arrange them in 
alphabetical order. 

W Aahmes. 

W Aahmes-sa- 



jj Aah-hetep. 

Ji^^ Antef. 
Ij^^ Atef. 

LJkP^ Pa-khnems. 


^l^\^ Nekhtu. 
^?^i R--l^«tep. 
^^^"^ Res. 

I dj) Sena. 

I \^n'^; ^ Sen-senb. 

PT^^ Senbu. 
'% Tahuti. 




?^ Tahuty-aah. 
\W Tahutimes. 
-isi-W Teta-an. 


* I Teta-em-ra. 

^^ Teta-mesu. 

flj^^ Teta-nefer. 
(j^J Teta-hemt. 
Ij"^^ Teta-sa. 
(||1 J jl^ Teta-senb. 
fl^=^11^ Teta-ky. 

Table for offerings (PI. XII. 1) with rectangular depressions pierced with 
holes for draining to spout, and inscribed with the de hetep seten formula to 
Osiris Khent-amenti, and to Osiris, Lord of Busiris and of Abydos, that he may 
give offerings for the Ka of the Royal Son, Teta-ky. The horizontal line across 
the lower part of the table for offerings gives : — 

(1) The name and titles of Teta-ky 's father -^^^^ i®^n^ *"*^ (^) ^^ ^^^ 
mother, the <=> II a^./.^ | . jj_ 

A fragment of a statue of Teta-ky bears the following legend : — 

r5i^2i4^fl''^^fl^3 ' Mayor in the Southern City (i. e. Thebes) 
Teta-ky, justified '. This is the earliest known reference to the office of a Mayor 
of Thebes. 




By Howard Cahter 

The panoramic view given in PI. XIII clearly shows the nineteen different 
sites that were excavated and examined in this particular part of the necropolis 
during 1909 and 1910. Many were experimental excavations made on the chance 
of there being hidden tombs, but as several sites gave no results it is unnecessary 
to describe them. 

Site .{. A tier of tombs, plundered, and most of them used in later times, 
probably by Copts, as dwelhngs. 

In the comer of the court of the principal tomb of this series, under a fallen 
stone di\'isionaI wall (original), was a number of long and well-made pottery cones, 
uninscribed ; the position and state in which they were found, the wall having 
fallen and covered them at an early period, gives us reason to suppose that they 
lielong to the tomb and are of the Xlth Dynasty (see Fig. G, p. 8). Besides 
these cones, a very rough sandstone table of offerings without inscription, two 
Coptic pots, one with a wooden lid, some fragments of leather sandals, and a 
granite colour-grinder, were found dispersed in the drifted sand. 

Site 4- A large tomb, facing west, high up on the mountain slope, with 
a causeway some twenty-five metres broad, walled on either side with rough 
stones, and leading down the face of the hill. 

Like the tomb itself the facade is hewn in the rock ; its right and letl wings 
and overhead retaining wall, now mostly destroyed, were built of mud-brick. 

The passage and chambers being open for many centuries the task here was 
to clear the facade court, into which its walls had fallen and been covered with 
rubbish drifted in from the desert above. It was discovered that the floor of the 
court, owing to the sloping rock bed, had been levelled and made good with stone 
rubble faced with lime mortar. The enormous fissures in the rock which ran 
through from side to side along its transverse axis had been treated in the same 
way. In the centre of the court, before the tomb entrance, was a large square 
shaft, sunk into the rock and formed mostly out of the natural fissures, previously 
mentioned, which had been utilized by the ancients in its construction. At the 
bottom of this shaft was the sarcophagus chamber, with its dooi-way blocked by 
a sandstone portcullis of one piece, measuring two metres high and one and a half 


metres broad. The sarcophagus cliamber was rectangular in shape, low, and just 
large enough to receive the burial, i.e. the sarcophagus with the funereal equip- 
ment. At the south-east side of the court, buried beneath the fallen bricks of that 
side wing, is a small unfinished chamber. 

The total area of the court had some two metres of earth covering it, and in 
the upper surface there were many cylindrical beads, a blue paste scarab (unin- 
scribed), and two rough limestone heart-scarabs covered with blue paint. On the 
floor-level were fragments of funeral boat figures in wood, and a torso in limestone 
of one of the original occupants of the tomb (PI. XVIII. 1 and 2). Covered by 
comparatively recent workings were two iron spear-heads. 

In the shaft, which was filled with earth, were more cylindrical beads, some 
gilt, a black amber head, an obsidian eye-pupil from a coffin, a fragment of 
a crystal bead, the head and fractured pedestal of the limestone torso found in the 
court (PI. XVIII. 1 and 2); also many burnt pieces of wood from coffins and 
figures including a rough table of oflterings in limestone. The fractured pedestal 
had upon it the following partially erased inscription : — 

i^.^ 8 ^ ^ (] ^ 

The sarcophagus chamber was plundered and three parts full of rubbish. Access 
to it was obtained in ancient times by means of an opening forced between the top 
of the portcullis and lintel of the doorway. Its contents were smashed and burnt. 
Beads and small fragments of the objects of the burial were all that remained. 

The side chamber of the court, mentioned above, was completely choked with 
drifted sand and had no antiquities in it at all. 

Though among the objects found there were many of the XXIInd Dynasty, 
or even of a later period, the larger portion were certainly of the original 
Xlth Dynasty burial ; which, judging from the scanty remains, must have been 
very fine in quality, and of some high state official, but there was no inscription 
to tell us who he was. 

Site G. A depression in the surface of the hill slope, which proved to be 
a rock-cut court with sepulchral chambers on both sides and at its northern end 
(PI. XV). 

Almost at the commencement of its excavation the men came across the small 
chamber on the east side, containing the coffin of an adult burial untouched since 
the time it was deposited there. The entrance to this chamber was walled in 
with stones mixed with bricks and pieces of pottery, and it was found intact 
with the exception of a small opening at the top accidentally made by the workmen 
before discovering its real nature. 

Later on, at the opposite side of the court, another small chamber was 
disclosed, but it proved to be unfinished. 


I.<astly, at the end of the court, a Im-ge diamber containing burials of seven 
adults and one cliild was found to be untouched. The seahng of the entrance 
was in perfect condition and wjis constructed Hke the other with similar stones 
and bricks (PI. XI\'^. 1 and 2). The chamber was about two-thirds full of rubble, 
upon which the coffins Avere deposited, the first two having a slight excavation 
made for tliem. The first two coffins were placed side by side with their heads 
towards the east ; they were covered by a pink shawl and chain garlands of leaves ; 
with, beside the first one, a bouquet of cornflowers. This was evidently the last 
tribute paid to the dead placed in this sepulchre (see PI. XV^II. 3). The rest of 
the coffins, seven in all, belonging to a previous intennent, and of a different type, 
were lyuig north and south with their heads to south. They were crowded 
together as if to make room for the latter burials. Some of these latter coffins 
had pieces of mummy-cloth upon them ; the last of all some fragments of a decayed 

The east side-chamber was quite clean, and the coffin in it was placed exactly 
east and west with its head to the west. 

After the removal of the coffins the large chamber was carefully explored. At 
the far end the commencement of an uncompleted pit was found, and at the 
entrance the remains of the early brick wall that originally closed the doorway 
were uncovered. 

From the style of this tomb, the brickwork' that closed the doorway, together 
with the pottery and some cones found in the rubbish, it clearly belongs to the 
earlier epoch of this district, the roughness of form being mostly owing to the 
inferior rock in which it is hewn (a conglomerate of hme and flints striated with 
Tqfle). The beginning of a chamber on the west side of the court had been 
abandoned on account of some large flint-bouldei's embedded in the conglomerate 
which had prevented further progress, and the chamber on the east side was made 
in its stead. Neither of these cuttings seem to belong to the original design ; they 
were most probably made by the usui-pers found within the tomb : the fact that 
the floor-level of the completed side-chamber was the same as that of the rubbish 
drifted into the courtyard and tomb before its usurpation, I think, corroborates the 
above conjecture. 

The burials in detail are as follows : — 

1. A. (PI. XVI. 3). A coffin containing inner case and mummy of a man 
named J^ iL_D /) ^ Pa-de-Amen, "^ ^ A_D ^ 1 son of Pa-de-khonsu by the 
lady ^■'=^%,! Maartu. 

Outer Case. Of wood, top of lid flat, with the face, head-dress, ornamental 
collar, and vertical line of hieroglyphs down the centre, painted. 

Inner Case. Of thin wood, very roughly made, and painted white, with the 
four ' Amenti ' figures painted in colour upon the chest. The vertical inscription 
on the front gives the de hetep seten formula to Osiris, and the name "^^ "^^^ ^ 


Reth-ar-es, which seems to have no connexion with the other names mentioned 
on the outer case. 

The mummy was swathed in (1) the outer covering, consisting of a pink shawl 
bound by three longitudinal and seven transverse yellow bandages, (2) the inner 
covering of numerous narrow swathing bands bound round the body as well as 
crossways, with folded pieces of linen napkins and pieces of shawls stuffed in 
the hollow parts. Among these numerous wrappings were pieces embroidered 
with small blue patches woven into the fabric, some had their edges fringed, and 
many were much worn and darned. 

The body was of a male adult, middle aged, with the hands placed at the sides. 

1. B. A coffin containing a mummy of a lady named "^^^^ ^ V ' Maartu 
(PI. XVI, Fig. 1). ^-11 

The coffin is far more elaborate than the former one, and generally finer both 
in workmanship and painting. The scenes painted upon it are of the deceased 
witnessing the weighing of her heart against the feather of truth in the presence 
of two apes representing Thotk, the devouring monster Lord of Dunt, the 
goddess of truth Maat, Horus, Osiris, NepJithys, and two children of Horus. 
Below, the spirits of Ash-Mut and winged figures of Ra on either side. 

Round the case, on the two outer sides and end, is a band of coloured 
hieroglyphs ; and in the interior on the bottom, a painted figure of the goddess 
Mut surmounted by the winged Horus. 

All the inscriptions give the de hetep seten formula invoking the 
gods in favour of the deceased, they also give her name and parentage 

Daughter of Amenhetep-en-auf. -^^^ ^^=^ y _^ ^ > Her Mother, the 

Lady of the House Nanu-nes-her. 

The mummy was enveloped in a well-preserved dark terra-cotta coloured 
linen shroud, tied underneath and held in position by several narrow bands of 
brown and yellow linen, making a rich piece of colour and delicious harmony in 
contrast to the clean white and decorated interior of the coffin. Lying at the head 
was a fillet of leaves, like a diadem, sewn together and adorned with tiny petals of 
flowers (PI. XVII. 2). The swathings under the shroud were similar to the first 
mummy {I. A), with the exception that the hnen was coarser and the bandages 
broader (185 mms.). Among the folds were four Amenti figures and one Bennu 
bird in wax (PI. X\^II. 2) ; these were placed on the right vertical nipple line and 
on a level with the base of the Xephisternum. 

The body was of a female adult of approximately thirty-five years of age 
The hands were placed between the thighs. 

2. B. Coffin containing a mummy of a man named „ 1 Pa-de-Khonsu. 
The decoration of the coffin and the manner of mummification of the 

body were both similar to l.A. Some of the linen bandages had markings 
in light and dark blue, and red striated with dark blue running the whole 




length, woven into tlie stuff; and, like the others, many of the bandages were 

The genealog)' of these three persons was as follows :— 

Amenhetep-en-auf=Nanu-nes-her (of coffin '2. li) 
Pa-de-Khonsu = Maartu (of coffin 1. B) 
Pa-de-Amen (of coffin l.A). 

The meaning of the bandages being in so many cases carefully darned and 
mended might be explained by the inscriptions found on the walls of the tombs 
of the New Kingdom — a part of the ritual and last words of the relatives before 
the mummy when depositing it for ever in the tomb. ' Woe, woe, . . . Alas this 
loss ! the good shepherd has gone to the land of Eternity ; he who willingly opened 
his feet to going is now enclosed, bound, and confined. He who had so much 
fine linen, and so gladly put it on, deeps now in the cast-off gnrvients of yesterday.' ^ 
The mummy bandages are strips torn nearly in every case from larger pieces like 
shawls and garments. 

The second group of coffins, 3. B to 7. B (see PI. XV), are of slightly smaller 
dimensions, painted black, and of a much rougher type. Only one of them had 
traces of design upon it, and that was in yellow upon the black background. The 
mummies they contained, though in good preservation and simulating the others 
in fashion, did not in general display the same care as in the former series. The 
linen in which they were wrapped had similar markings and mends, but they were 
of a coarser nature, and in some cases the materials were quite worn and old rags. 

Coffin 3. B bore the de hetep seten formula, but the name of the deceased was 

The imnnmy in coffin 7. B, of a man not more than thirty years of age, 
had on the left arm, tied at the elbow, a very fine blue glazed steatite scarab 
(PI. XVII. 1, also Fig. 9, p. 27). 

The small child's coffin, 8. B, was of plain wood exceedingly roughly made, 
and it contained the remains of a yoimg boy prepared in the same manner as 
the others. 

This last group may possibly have relationship in common with the others, 
even though their class does not appear to be of so high a standing ; but 
unfortunately we have no inscription or real indication to teU us; tlie existing 
evidences show two distinct families but tend towards their being within a short 
period of one another— perhaps not more than a century. 

Site 6 had openings to tombs, but proved unproductive. 

Site 7, in the open courtyard of a large tomb of the Xlth Dynasty ; many 
decayed funeral boats and granary figures, as well as pottery cones and potsherds, 
cast out in past times, were the only reward for its excavation. 

' The Rev. Dr. Collin Campbell, who was with me at the time we discovered these coffins, kindly 
translated the formulae upon them. 

' Erman, A Handbook of Egyptian Religion, p. 1 'M. 


Site 8. Here were tombs with mud-brick buildings in front of them, hke 
dwelhngs of embalmers. Beads and amulets, and a broken Tazza^ (table) in 
pottery, all of different periods, were here unearthed. 

Site 10. A tomb with large open courtyard facing south. This was completely 
excavated. On the east side of the main door was a low single brick wall ; between 
it and the east corner a shallow round hole in the floor, like that for a foundation 
deposit (see tomb No. 16). In the east wall of the court was a small chamber, 
its entrance passage was three parts full of sand, while the chamber itself was 
comparatively clean. It must have been open anciently for many years as the 
ceiling, walls, and even the pots in it, were covered with mason-bees' nests. 
Mingled with the rubbish were pots of peg-top shape (PI. XVIII. 10), broken 
pieces of coffins, funereal cones (see Fig. 6), and human bones, all of different 
dates and occurring here accidentally. The pieces of coffin were eaten by white 
ants, a pest certainly foreign to this part of the Theban necropolis, and for that 
reason I believe these wooden fragments came from some other portion of the 

Fig. 9. Scarab from Tomb No. 5. 

Theban necropolis. There is reason to suppose that the courtyard was never 
finished ; there were many huge stones protruding out of the rock and jutting 
into the yard. In this yard more pottery was found, with among them two small 
pieces of Hnen tied up and containing pellets, like masticated corn mixed with 
gi-ains of wheat. 

Sites 11 and I'.i produced nothing of further interest than a palm-tree in front 
of one of the tombs (12) which had been planted there in Nile mud brought up 
from the cultixation. 

Site IS, a large rubbish heap formed of the debris thrown out by the ancient 
workmen when making the neighbouring tombs. 

Here our hopes were to find a grave covered and protected by stuff' thrown 
over it. Such indeed was the case, for within a few days the greater part of the 
mound was cleared away and the mouth of a cutting exposed. Naturally this 
raised great expectations, as the chances were that it would be undisturbed. But, 
as nearly always happens to the excavator in such cases, it is the unsuspected that 
occurs ; the tomb had never been completed ! 

Sites 15 and 10 were on the open desert close to one another. 15 proved 

' Cf. siniilar tazza PI. XVIII. Vi. 


to lie unfniitftil. 10. though it at first appeared to be more promisiTig by there being 
plenty of artificial chippings, had but little interest outside the fact that it led 
to a cutting of an already pilfered tomb. At the entrance of this cutting, in 
a small hollow in the Tofe rock, on the west side, was a ' pocket ' of barley, which 
was at first a puzzle, as it did not seem accidental. Afterwards, on thinking that 
it might l)e of the nature of a foundation deposit to the tomb, the opposite side 
was carefully searched, and a corresponding 'pocket' with barley was eventually 
found ; thus proving the conjecture to be correct, and showing that the tombs 
here, like the royal ones in the Valley of the Kings,^ had foundation deposits as 
was customary also in the temples. 

At the doorway of this tomb a pottery pan offering like a ' Soul House ' was 
found (PI. XVIII. 16). 

Site 17. Here a pair of rush sandals and a pottery female figure were the 
prizes of the last day's work of the season of 1909 among the sepulchres of this 

In PI. X^''III. 3 are shown examples of each type and shape of the Xlth 
Dynasty pottery found in the above excavations. There were only two other 
examples of a later date (Coptic), and they were of the most common form ; the 
numbers on the illustration refer to the sites they came from. 

Continuing the work in the year 1910, the large mounds immediately east 
of the footpath leading to the Biban el Muliik were thoroughly investigated. 
These extend north and south on the hUl slope below the great rock-cut tombs 
which are situated under the cliff at the top. This work was divided into two 
sites, Nos. 18 and 19 (PI. XIII) and placed under two reises. It produced 
practically nothing, being only an immense covering of stone chippings upon the 
gebcl tlirown out from the tombs above. Among this accumulation, which varied 
in depth from one to five metres, many horns of animals suggesting sacrifices, 
leather thongs from implements, broken timber, and balanites kernels (PI. LXXIX) 
were found ; in fact the refuse from the workmen who had been employed upon 
the sepulchral caverns above. Thus, in the two seasons, this half of the north 
side of the \alley between the eastern foot hills at its mouth and the mountain 
path may be said to have been thoroughly explored, leaving but small chances 
of undiscovered tombs. 

The men were then removed further westward, close to Hatshepsut's Temple, 
where parallel trenches, twenty -five to forty metres broad, were dug. They began 
at the base of the slope and were carried up, in some cases, nearly to the foot 
of the vertical cliff; the excavations were continued vmtil the rock surface had all 
been exposed. 

Trench 20, begun from the temple temenos, yielded the following results : — 

1. On the flat of the valley bed, between the temenos and the rising groimd, 
was disclosed the mutilated foundation of a large wall (PI. XIX. 1), extending 

' Carter, Tomb of HAtxhopsitii, Chap. VI, and Carter and Newberry, Tomb of Thoiihiiosis, pp. 1-5, 
Nos. 46001-46035. 

a D J o □ 


east and west, two metres wide, and built of crude bricks stamped with the 
cartouches of Amenhetep I and Aahmes-nefert-ari (PI. XXIII. 20). 

2. Over and along the side of the wall were many irregularly built mud 
dweUings for workmen, made of stray bricks of the Xlth and early XVIIIth 
Dynasties ; they no doubt were the rest-houses of the builders of the Queen 
Hatshepsut's temple. 

3. Among the huts, in a depression roughly enclosed by limestone blocks, 
were the roots and stem of a date palm, set in black soil. Below the roots of 
the tree were several pots and a broken limestone statuette, placed as offerings 
for the welfare of the palm (PI. XIX. 2). The pots contained a mud sediment. 
The statuette, which seems to have been used also as an offering, has the following 
inscriptions upon it : — 

Do., front of dress g^^M^^^lj^J^^^^eSOl 
On front end of throne li^^Jl]^, ^^^Pf ^^^IffislP^i 
On right side of throne (l)^/\-=3=i)|^,j5g^n^ 

<*) ii.JJ-(isu;.ft|i. ■ 
w siniiniip-s» 

On left side of throne (D ^^''-ElSi'^tnl 

(5) ^^^jqilil 

On back of throne fi ^ 11 k G O S 

They mention the ' True Royal Scribe, Scribe of the Altar of the Lord of 
the Two Lands', Amenemhat, called Keriba (the Son of) 'Scribe of the Altar' 
Amenhetep. It was dedicated by Amenemhat's brother, ' Who made to live his 
name,' ' The Royal Scribe,' Userhat. 

4. A few metres above, in the first part of the hill slope, hewn in the Tafe, 
was a chamber (No. 21). The interior had been plastered and it appears to have 
been a kind of office for the clerk of the works for the Queen's temple. It 
contained a broken rush and wicker-work stool, fragments of a mat, a basket, 



torn fragments of papyrus, clay pellets for seal impressions, and a donkey halter. 
Leading up to the entrance was a small causeway. The fragments of papyrus, 
forty-three in number, when fitted together, pro\ed to be part of Chapter XLI 
of the * Book of the Dead ', a list of different names of Osiris. 

5. Higher up, on the top of the low foot-hill, was a series of cells built against 
the second incline. In one of these was a washing slab made of sandstone, with 
a hole in the corner of its sunken bed to allow the water to drain into a cesspool 
below : this was perhaps the bathing-place for the workmen (PI. XX. 2). 

6. On the second incline, eight metres above the bath, was part of u 
'serpentine' wall (PI. XX. 1), a peculiar structure not uncommon in building 
operations. Such a wall was found near the unfinished part of the north colonnade 
of the Queen's temple. Another example was found this season in Site 14. Its 
specific pur{X)se is not thoroughly understood, perhaps it was an economical method 
of making enclosures for the working staff. In this particular case the bricks used 
for it belong to different periods— the Xlth Dynasty brick (black mud without 
straw) and stamped bricks of Amenhetep I, Aahmes-nefert-ari, and Hatshepsut ; the 
latter shows that it cannot have been earlier than the date of the Thothmes family. 

7. A natural fissure in the hill near by had been, in late times, converted into 
a group of small tomb-chambers (No. 22). They had in them the plundered 
remains of burials like those of site No. 5, found in the season's work of 190!) (p. 23). 

Trench J.i, the next trench (parallel and east of 20), produced little or nothing. 
More stamped bricks of Aahmes-nefert-ari and Amenhetep I were found, and the 
l)eginning of an unfinished tomb-shaft in which was a boulder bearing the name, 

written in black ink. '^^^ ci % '^, Mentu-hetep. 

Full attention being required by the Birabi exca\ations, the third parallel 
trench was not begun until after an interval of ten days, when the good services of 
Mr. Cyril Jones were obtained for this express purpose. Mr. .lones, with thirty 
men and sixty boys, steadily continued the work as before, the base of his trench 
(No. 20) reaching as far as the north-east corner of the temple inclosure wall. The 
part ascending the valley side was barren and only exposed a plundered Xlth 
Dynasty tomb (No. 30), re-used as an habitation, and afterwards as the place of 
a later burial consisting of a wooden dug-out coffin. But, on turning round the 
comer of the temple enclosure, he discovered a most interesting historical cache, 
a foundation deposit of the Der el Bahari dromos (for the exact position of this deposit 
see PI. XXn'). For this deposit a circular hole, three metres deep and 140 cms. 
in diameter, had been made, and lined with a mud-brick wall with rounded and 
plastered coping (PI. XXI. 2). The interior was filled with greyish (local) sand 
sprinkled with grains of com. But for some reason the whole of the deposit was 
not placed in it. The tools and implements were found in a smaller hole, simply 
dug in the ground a few feet away, and like the former pit it was filled with sand 
and grain. 

In the main pit the objects, placed in groups under alternate layers of sand. 


were discovered in the following order : — A few inches below the surface, the skull 
of an ox (PI. XXI. 1), and underneath it a group of pottery, whole and broken, one 
pot containing grain, another containing fruit of the Nebhek tree. Then came the 
jaw-bone and fore-leg of an ox (PI. XXI. 1), a piece of bread, a square sample of wood, 
an ebony symbolical knot (PI. XXII. 2. E), and an alabaster pebble (PI. XXII. 2. N) 
elaborately inscribed. In the third batcli another symbolical knot, of cedar wood, 
two samples of fine linen, broken pottery that had contained oil, wines and food- 
stuffs, and two samples of coarse linen. Lastly, a rush mat, a pitcher-carrier, a 
second rush mat, and under it a second pitcher-carrier, masses of broken pottery, 
including a vessel containing a sample of mortar. Below these was plain sand 
reaching to the bottom of the pit. 

Those of the second hole, mostly implements, were placed apparently not in 
any particular order, and are given in the following list, and illustrated in 
Plate XXII. 2 : — A bronze axe (A), graver (B), and chisel (C) ; an adze with a bronze 
blade bound by leather thongs to its wooden handle (F) ; a wooden mallet (D), 
hoe (G), brick mould (H), and peg (J) ; two sieves, one of palm-leaf with coarse 
mesh (K), the other of halfa-grass, with fine mesh, and made of horse or donkey 
hair (L) ; a rushwork jar rest (?) (M) ; a smelting crucible made of sun-dried 
mud (I), and lastly a pottery dish and jar. Many of these models were quite large, 
about three-quarter actual size, and all in a most perfect state of preservation. 

The two knots (PI. XXII. 2. E) have engraved upon them M,Kf f ( © ;?Ul' 
the ' Nebti ' name and prenomen of Hatshepsut. 

The alabaster pebble (PI. XXII. 2. N) has also the following legend : — 

that Queen Maat-ka-ra (Hatshepsut) made this monument for her father 
Amen-Ra, when she measured out for Amen the Der el Bahari temple. 
Among the broken debris of pottery found in the main cache were two fragments 

beai'ing the words \\ . ^ ' wine ', and *i^ """^ (^ ' roast meat \ 

Types of the pottery are given in Plate XXII. 1. These vessels of red pottery 
have nearly all been dipped into colour of a terra-cotta hue. The hp, rim, and 
neck of the jars (D, F, H), the upper half of the bowls (E, G, I), the interior and 
rims of dishes (A, B, C), are all coloured in that manner. 

There is no doubt that the pots were intentionallj' smashed when deposited, 
and that the probable reason for this breaking was to disperse their contents during 
the ceremony over the sand. From this cause most of the pots and potsherds 
were found adhering to one another, due to the spilt imguents as well as to the 
blood from the flesh-offering having dried and caked them together. This may 
be a reason for the more perishable objects being placed in a separate cache. The 
bones, shown in Plate XXI. 1, are those of a young beast, the ossification being 
that of an immature animal. They measure : — 

Skull. Length from top of occipital tuberosity to end of the pre-maxilla. 


457 mms. (approximate) ; width of frontal bone between orbits, 1 50 nims. ; length 
of jaw, from the mandibula condyle to end of the sub-maxilhuy bone, 380 mms. 

Fore-leg. I^ength of scapula, along scapula axis, 317 mms. ; length of 
humerus, from the head to the tip of outer condyle, 283 mms. ; length of radius, from 
head to the lower end, 287 mms. ; maximum lengtli of the great metacarpal, 215 mms. 

Other details of interest brought to light by these exca\ations in these 
trenches arc recorded below : — 

1. A potsherd with charcoal sketch of a Sinaitic ibex upon it. 

2. A fine ostracon, bearing, in hieratic, a receipt dated in ' The 11th yeai- 
(?Thothmes III), third month of Summer, 24th day', for various articles given 
by the * Mayor " Aahmes. 

3. Fragments of a shawabti figure, of white and \iolet glaze, bearing the 

name and title 'Royal Scribe of the Altar', "^^^ fl I ^ , Ky-nefer. Date 
XlXth Dynasty. 

4. A group of broken shawabti figures, blue faience, of ^| I(^^J_"?''^f 
Zed-Khensu-auf-ankh. Date XXIInd Dynasty. 

5. Three jar seals — (i) bearing on top two cartouches, with only the two signs 

{_J 1 visible ; (ii) has the cartouche f O J? W j ' ("0 o" the top surface is a 
cartouche-formed impression but illegible, and painted on the side is the com- 
mencement of the cartouche f fl <=> m ( J ( in yellow on a blue ground. 

6. A child's toy — an interesting little pack-horse with removable packages, 
made of clay and housed in a pot. The packs are supported by four vine-leaf 
stalks which are stuck into the animal's sides (PL XXIII. 1). 

7. From the rubbish of the court in front of Tomb 30 a small biuidle of linen 
containing a steatite scarab, a strip of plaited rushwork, and some diamond-shaped 
pieces of leather with minute multicoloured bead-work sewn upon them. 

8. In two places the trenches cut through temple refuse heaps, one high upon 
the north side of the monument, the other at the north-east corner of the temenos. 
These heaps are certainly of great interest, and should one day be carefully worked 
through, for in them there are numbers of broken votive offerings, brought by the 
populace to invoke the aid and assistance of the local divinity. They consist of 
bronze, earthenware, blue glaze, Hathor heads, cows, vicnaU, model bunches of 
grapes, rings, balls, sistrums, sphinxes, scarabs, scarab-shaped and cowroid beads 
(one bearing the name of Aahmes I), amulets, such as ears, eyes, and AnUis, dishes, 
bowls and vases, some of which are of very large dimensions. 

A full series of pottery is given in PI. XXIII. 2. 

Types. B, C, D, E, G, K, L, M are of rough red pottery. 
A, F, lightly burnt mud and lenticular in shape. 
I, red pottery, coloured white, and ornamented with black and red. 
J, red pottery, whitened. 
N, red pottery with black and red rings (fragment). 


Plate LXXIX. 1 gives two examples of fig-basket found in the refuse heaps 
mentioned above. 

Towards the end of the exploration of 1911 an attempt was made to discover 
the corresponding dromos deposit to that revealed by the work of Mr. Cyril Jones 
in 1910. The exact measurements of the position of the former one were taken, 
and laid down on the opposite side of the dromos ; the spot thus indicated was dug, 
and within a few hours the second cache was exposed. It resembled the former 
one in every way, the only variant being that the inscription upon the alabaster 

pebble in this case was slightly different. It reads : — '=>'1I( O^iLJ 1t|^ ^^i 
^2 IS. o (1 (1 , ' The Good Goddess Maat-ka-ra, living, beloved of Amen Ra, Lord 

of the thrones [of the two lands].' ' 

This completes our three consecutive seasons' researches on the north side 
of the Der el Bahari Valley, which is mainly occupied by the early tombs of 
the Xlth Dynasty. 


' The deposit of implements was missing in this case. 



By HowAiM) Cakter 

The site between the native house ' Beit el Meleit^n ' and the village 
mosque, about one hundred and fifty metres north-east of the mouth of the 
Der el Bahari valley, was examined in 1908, and as it resulted in the discovery 
of a XVnth Dynasty tomb (No. 9), it was continued in the following year 1909. 
We began by exhaustively clearing tomb No. 9 that for the sake of protection 
during the interim had been re-covered with earth. In 1908 the front court, pit, 
and pit-chamber had been investigated : in 1909 our attention was thus confined 
to the inner chamber only, but everything of interest was discovered during the 
earlier work. 

During the work of 1908 the courtyard was found to contain great masses 
of pottery and mutilated mummies, and it was among these, on a rock ledge, that 
the important historical tablet referring to the expulsion of the Hyksos by the 
General Kamosi (see further description by Griffith, p. 3C), and the second broken 
tablet were recovered. In the first chamber were found parts of a wooden painted 
Canopic b»ox, with three of its jars in pottery painted to imitate alabaster (PI. XXV. 
1 and 2), among other destroyed remains of a plundered burial. But in 1909, 
owing to the depth and sliding nature of the rubbish, a more extensive excavation 
had to be made to open the main chambers. Little more was found here than 
further examples of pots, a child's coffin too decayed for preservation, and a reed 
burial of a poorer and much later man (for example see PI. XLII. 3). The tomb 
consisted of a court formed by low stone and mortar walls, with a cutting in the 
centre leading to the entrance : this entrance or doorway gave access to a passage, 
cut in the rock, some six metres in length, which led to a rectangular chamber that 
apparently formed one of the sepulchral repositories. Cut in the floor of this 
chamber, on the west side, was a shaft nearly three metres deep, giving ingress to 
two other chambers, one above the other. 


It hardly seems credible that such a mass of pottery as was found in the 
rubbish outside could have all come from so small a tomb, and one is inclined to 
think that the greater part must have come from some neighbouring and perhaps 
larger tomb. 

Plate XXVI gives the difFerent types of the potteiy vessels found here. The 
earthenware is fine in quality, deep red, with smooth surface, and of a soft nature. 
Some are of a yellowish-grey material, and examples ot these are given in 
Plate XXVI. 2 (the five pieces on the right hand of the lower row). In the top 
illustration are shown three very fine specimens of complete jars with lids in red 
pottery with black lines round the circumference of their bellies. 

The name on the Canopic box is Kati-nekht, [_j ^ W^ W ( var. [_j ^ *^ W» j. 



By F. Ll. Griffith 

The writing tablet (Carnarvon Tablet I) is a document of the highest historical 
importance, preserving as it does a contemporary record of the conflict of the Theban 
Dynasty with the Hyksos. On the face of the tablet eight lines of hieratic contain 
the introduction to the famous Proverbs of Ptah-hetep, setting forth how the Wazir 
Ptah-hetep, son of a king, spoke to his King Assa of the advance of old age upon 
him and the diminution of all his powers, and requested that he might delegate 
his duties to his son, whom he would instruct in the words and ways of the 
Ancients. The King accorded his request and bade him proceed, and thus 
originated the rules of good conduct which go by the name of the old Wazir. The 
text' of the tablet shows some considerable differences of reading from the only 
other copy known — that in the Prisse Papyrus. 

Below this fragment of philosophy are marked the lines of a draught-board, 
in squares 10 x 3. Four of the compartments contain hieratic signs indicating their 
place in the game. 

The historical text on the other side consisted of no less than seventeen long 
lines. Unhappily the flaking of the stucco^ about the fracture has robbed us of 
one line and of the greater part of two more. The text is singularly difficult, 
and this great gap, added to some minor imperfections, further obscures the 
meaning. In the following brief analysis I have had the help of a number of 
excellent readings suggested by Mr. A. H. Gardiner. 

The text is dated in the seventh year of King Kamosi, who is described as 
beloved of Amen-Ra, the god of Karnak. His Majesty was speaking in his 
palace unto the court and nobles who attended him, ' Consider for what is my 
might ! One prince is in Avaris, another in Ethiopia ! ' He continues to dis- 
course of the division of the land and mentions Memphis and Cusae in an obscure 
context. 'And the nobles of his court said, "Behold, the Asiatics have 
approached (?) unto Cusae, they have drawn (?) their tongues in one manner, [saying ?] 

' Jequier, Le Papyrus Prisse et ses variantes (Fap. Brit. Mus. 10371 and 10435, Tablette Carnarvon au 
Caire), Paris, 1910; Maspero, Recueil, Vol. XXXI, p. 146. 

* The tablet is made of wood covered with stucco of fine plaster for a writing surface. 


We are happy with our Black Land as far as Cusae, our barley is in the 

papyrus-marshes our barley is not taken." ' The meaning of this is very 

uncertain. Then after a gap, ' they are painful to His Majesty,' perhaps referring to 
the replies of the countries. 

After a long gap, '[The king, mighty in] Thebes, Kamosi, protector of 
Egypt [said ?], " I have gone north victorious to drive back the Asiatics by the 
command of Ammon : the plans of my army have succeeded : every mighty 
man was before me like a flame of fire, the mercenaries of the Mezaiu (Nubians) 
were like the threshing instrument (?) to seek out the Satin and to destroy their 
places : the East and the West were successful (?), the army rejoicing at each 

thing in its order. I led the victorious mercenaries of the Mezaiu 

Teta the son of Pepa in Nefrus, I allowed him not to escape (?). I stopped the 

Asiatics, I freed (?) Egypt I was in my ship, my heart rejoicing ! When 

day dawned, I was on him like a hawk : at a moment of I drove him out, 

I hacked down his wall, I slew his people, I caused my soldiers to embark like 
wolves with their prey, with slaves, cattle .... honey, dividing their property ; 

their hearts "' Another very obscure line follows. As Ahmosi, the 

successor of Kamosi, completed the overthrow of the Hyksos by the capture of 
Avaris early in his reign, one may conjecture that this text gives us the stage in 
the expulsion of the Hyksos when they were driven from Middle Egypt and 
confined to Lower Egypt by the Theban power. The latter had also to contend 
with a rival in Nubia, who was likewise crushed by Ahmosi. 

It is remarkable that the titles of Kamosi as given here do not agree with 
those upon the Treasure of Ahhotp ; the handwriting proves that Lord Carnarvon's 
tablet (Carnarvon Tablet I) had been written within a few years of the events 
recorded in it. The publication of the facsimile is certain to rouse the interest of 
every student of one of the most fascinating problems in oriental history. 

The fragments of the second tablet (Carnarvon Tablet II), facsimiled in 
Plate XXIX, have not yet been translated. 



Bv Howard Cautek 

Adjoining the site of Tomb 9 is the ' Valley '-Temple to the Dromos of 
Hatshepsut's Mortuary Chapel at Der el Bahari (Site 14, PL XXX). 

It was first discovered by the excavation of the tomb No. 9, which exposed 
some of its stone-work, and it was a surprise to find here, in such a well-known 
place, a finely built limestone construction of considerable proportions quite near 
to the surface. 

At the beginning this building was a puzzle to us, the part revealed in season 
1909 being only a long piece of the outside wall which gave but few data, and thus 
became a source of much speculation as to its meaning. This wall ran east and 
west, having a base measurement of 2-60 metres broad with its outer faces sloping — 
their 'batter' being 4 cms. in every rise of 25 cms. Its construction consists of 
two outer skins of small well-made limestone blocks built upon sandstone founda- 
tion slabs, with, in the middle, a core of stone and mortar rubble mixed with sand. 
In it was a doorway, about half-way along the length cleared, which opened out 
to the north — its door-jambs being on that side. The eastern extremity of the 
excavation then made, showed that in that direction it descended. Under the 
doorway a search was made for a deposit but with no result, though at the west 
end, the part of the wall first discovered, there was a pocket of sand which seemed 
to have belonged to something of that nature. 

The extensive exploration of this site in 1910 clearly determined that it was 
an unfinished portion of a building of TeiTace-Temple form ; and that the wall, 
which had given rise to many theories, was only its northern boundary wall 
(PI. XXXI. 1 and 2). 

The intended scheme of this unfinished building seems to have been an Upper 
and a Lower Court, divided by a single Colonnaded Terrace (see plan and section, 
PI. XXX), similar somewhat to Hatshepsut's Mortuary Chapel at Der el Bahari. 
It is, however, all in the very early stages of construction, the wall itself being the 
only part that shows any signs of completion. V^ery possibly, in earlier times, 
a great deal more of the structure existed, for it had been used as a quarry for 
limestone at some late period. 



In detail, the ' battered ' boundary wall, averaging nearly 6 metres in height, 
was capped by a coping-stone curved on the top. The base of its outer face 
dechnes from the level of the Upper Court down to the level of the Lower Court, a 
matter of nearly 4-50 metres difference in level ; while, on the inner side, the base is 
horizontal and takes the levels of the two courts. When looking at the plan (PI. XXX) 
it will be noticed that the wall gradually swells on the outer face between the two 
sections, viz. the Upper and Lower Courts, and suddenly returns to its normal 
thickness. This can be explained by the fact that a 'battered' surface must 
necessarily spread as it descends to a lower level. It was at this point (the level of 
the Lower Court) blended back to the normal base measurement of the wall by 
a small angle of masomy (see PI. XXXI. 1). 

The Lower Court, as far as the excavation shows us, seems to be a plain open 
quadrangle, abutting a raised terrace colonnade, of which one base alone of the 
square columns of the Terrace still exists. Above this Terrace, the back of which 

^'Mmn Wk^i&m 


Fig. 10. Hieratic Inscriptions from ' Valley '-Temple. 

served as a retaining wall, is what we can only suppose to be the Upper Court, 
and like the lower one is a square open enclosure. On the north side of this Upper 
Court is a doorway (mentioned above) in the boundary wall. Behind the masonry 
of the Terrace are the remains of the original mud-brick scaffold for supporting the 
earth of the Upper Court while building the back stone wall of the Terrace itself. 
The masonry in some cases is good, while in others it is of the roughest kind, and 
in many parts the surfaces have been left undressed. 

Hieratic inscriptions, written in ink upon the under surfaces of the stone 
blocks from the walls (see Fig. 10), name the architect 'the Second Priest of Amen, 
Pu-am-ra', whose tomb (dated Thothmes III) is in the Assassif. 

This fixed the date of the monument to the reign of Queen Hatshepsut or 
Thothmes III, but to which of these two reigns, and for what use the edifice was 
intended, still remained unanswered for want of further data. 

I^ater, in the year 1911, we at last discovered a foundation deposit of the 
building (see PI. XXX, marked Hatshepsut's Deposit A and B), and here a small 



brick pillar and model tools gave the owner's name, ' Maat-ka-ni ' (the prenonien 
of Queen Hatshepsut), and on the tools themselves was the name of the building 
• Zeser-zeseru '. The occurrence of these names shows at once that the building 
formed part and parcel of the Der el IJahari edifice, and from its position it is clear 
that the building was the termination of the dromos of the famous temple — in fact 
its PorUil or ' \'alley '-Temple — assimilating in idea the older plan of the pyramid 
chapels and ' valley '-temples connected by great causeways of the pyramids at 
Gizeh, the tomb which takes the place of the pyramid being in this case on the 
opposite side of the chfF in the valley of the Tombs of the Kings. 

The foundation deposit, like that of the other end of the dromos found in 1910 
(p. 31), was composed of two separate groups, (1) a pillar of ten mud-bricks, each 

stamped with the Queen's prenomen ( G Jl_J j (see Plan, PL XXX, marked A); 

and (2) a few metres from it (see Plan, PI. XXX, marked B) were found two 
model adzes in wood inscribed with the following hieroglyphic inscription : — 

^^r^^^^-^. These were fully four metres below the 


pavement level of the Upper Court of the ' Valley '-Temple. 









Fig. 11. Graffiti on Stones from ' Valley '-Temple. 

Objects found during the excavation of, and belonging to this monument, 
were: — 

1. Lying loosely in the rubbish, a very fine specimen of a workman's hoe 
(PI. XXXII. 3). 

2. In the masonry of the corner of the terrace colonnade, a mason's mallet, 
exactly similar to those found in the Queen's Temple of Der el Bahari by the 
Egypt Exploration Fund in 1893-1896. 

3. Generally distributed about the site were stamped bricks of the Queen 
(PI. XXXII. 2), and also two larger bricks stamped with the cartouches of 

Thothmes I and Maat-ka-ra in conjunction, with the epithets f^ and A ^ ■?• 
under their names (PI. XXXII. 4). 

4. A red crystalline sandstone tally-stone bearing the prenomen of Hatshepsut 
(PL XXX n. 1). 


5. Low down, about the foundation level and half-way along the lower section 
of the north boundary wall, was a mass of stones with dressed faces for building. 
These stones, numbering seventy-six in all, were stacked with their faces down- 
wards. Out of these stones thirty-five had painted in black upon their faces the 

signs 1^3:7, 'the Good Festival', with one of the batch having the supplementary 
word "^ Jm ' ' I^i"i^k '. Another had an illegible inscription beginning with 

the sign /J and the word 'Amen'. Six had peculiar signs or quarry marks 
scrawled in charcoal (see Fig. 11). That on the fifth stone can be read as 
I '\\\'=^'], the name of the Queen's architect Sen-mut. The sign M, Sent, 
that occurs on four of the other stones might be interpreted as ' a ground plan'. 



By Howard Carter 

Covering the upper stratum of the sites explored in the Birabi were numerous 
brick-vaulted graves, mostly found not moi-e than a metre or so beneath the surface 
rubbish (PI. XXXIII). 

Probably when these vault-graves were first made they actually stood above 
the surface, their superstructures being in all probability intended to be exposed, 
as would be gathered from the fact of their external walls showing, in some cases, 
pauited decoration upon the plaster still adhering to them (PL XXXIV. 2). In 
every case they were found to be plundered, and in the course of examining some 
forty examples that we came across, we rarely found but the very slightest traces 
of the burials they once contained. And all that we were able to gather from 
these vestiges of the actual interments was that they were of the Ptolemaic period, 
but almost pure Egyptian in type. This fact thoroughly corroborates Mr. Edgars 
statement that ' during the Ptolemaic period many of the (ireek inhabitants 
began to adopt the practice of mummification. At first naturally their custom 
went to the native undertakers, and their mummies were decorated just like those 
of the Egyptians. Here and there as time goes on, signs of Greek influence begin 
to appear. Uut it is not till the Roman period that the style becomes what could 
be properly called Greek.' > 

In these graves the coffins were of rectangular and anthropoid form, and the 
mummies were enclosed in canvas cartonnages covered with stucco elaborately 
decorated with pictures of the numerous Egyptian deities and ritual inscriptions 
of the usual formulae. Their funerary objects were glazed faience bowls of 
several colours, such as many different blues, violets, &c. ; small roughly glazed 
shawabti figures ; porcelain deities and amulets ; painted carved wood Ba-hirdn ; 
erotic figures in faience ; and beads, &c. There were also vases and bowls in 

' Edgar, Cat. Gen. C. M. (iraeco- Egyptian Coffin.i, jip. ii, iii. 


pottery ; and in two instances we found a bowl of copper gilt (Fig, 12) and vases 
in lead, left or forgotten by the plunderers. 

Luckily the substructure of these graves was nearly always found intact, 
and likewise in many cases their superstructure. And by this we were able to 
gather that it was a common custom for them to have small brick vestibules 
or shrines before their entrances ; and that under the floors of either the out- 
buildings or the vaulted chambers themselves, one or more amphorae were buried 
for water or food for the dead (PI. XXX IV, Fig. I); the mouths of these jars 
were covered by inverted bowls and sealed with mud. 

In one of these sealed vessels, found under the floors, two demotic papyri 
were discovered (see description by Spiegelberg, p. 46) ; in others were date cakes, 

Fio. 12. Gilt Copper Vessel from Ptolemaic Vaulted Graves. 

grain, and seeds of different kinds ; and in the corner ot one of the small outer 
chambers a batch of forty-seven Ptolemaic coins (p. 44). The fortunate discovery 
of the papyri and coins, treated hereafter, give data for fixing the period of these 
vaults to the earlier Ptolemaic times. 

V^^'ith regard to construction, these vault-graves built of mud-brick are of 
a rectangular longitudinal shape. The side w^alls, one and a half bricks thick, 
are from six to ten bricks high, while the end walls are carried up to the height 
of the crown of the vault. On the inner face of the side walls a ledge is left, 
half-way up, for a support to carry the vaulted roof (the outer faces are run 
up as high again to receive the thrust of the vault). The vaulted roof, one 
brick in thickness, has its rings leaning against the end wall, starting at the 

G 2 



foot with first one brick on either side, then two, three, and so on, until the feet 
of these incomplete rings are far enough out to allow a complete leaning ring 
to be formed with its cro^vn actually touching the end wall at the top. To this 
complete ring the bricks of the subsequent rings of the vault are stuck, thus 
avoiding the force of gravity and enabling the vaulting to be built without the 
aid of timber centring. This is a method by which a barrel-vault can be made, 
technically known as a. Jiown-vault, and which is known and used by natives in 
Egypt at the present day. 

For strength and to reduce the thrust, the vault is of parabolic section and 
not truly semicircular. 

Access to these vaulted chambers was sometimes by means of an arched 
opening in the end wall covered by the vestibvde (PI. XXXIV. 2), or, when the 

FiQ. 13. Ptolbmaic Coins from Vaulted Graves. 

latter structure was wanting, by a chimney-like hole at the top of one end of 
the barrel-vault. 

The flat vault bricks (34x16x6 cms.) have grooves on one side to allow the 
mortar to have a better and finner grip — a very necessary point for this style 
of vaulting. 

The group of forty-seven Ptolemaic copper coins (Fig, 13), the preservation of 
which is unusually good for coins found in Upper Egypt, new coinage rarely getting 
so far south, belong apparently to the dominations of Ptolemies III and IV. They 
are of four sizes and in detail are as follows : — 

Av. weight Av. diani. 
grammes. mms. 

10. Obv. Head of Zeus Amon to right. 

Rev. Eagle on thunderbolt to left ; cornucopia in field 
in front of eagle. 

Mints: ^. A I. t. 73 420 


Av. weight Av. diam. 
grammes. mms. 

6. Ohv. Head of Zeus Amon to right. 

Rev. Eagle on thunderbolt to left ; cornucopia in field 
in front of eagle. 

Mints: M. €E. t. ^. 67-0 40-5 

17. Obv. Head of Zeus Amon to right. 

Rev. Eagle on thunderbolt to left, head turned to 
right ; cornucopia in field over back of eagle. 

Mints: E. E. p. A. 480 390 

14. Ohv. Head of Zeus Amon to right. 

Rev. Eagle on thunderbolt to left ; cornucopia in field 
in front of eagle. 

Mints: ^. A I. S. 35-5 340 




The two papyri which I propose to call in future Papyrus Carnarvon I and II 
are of great importance on account of their date.^ They both bear the protocol 
of a local king who reigned in Upper Egypt under Ptolemaios Epiphanes 
(205-181 R.C.). The king is named Harmachis, and so far there are known to 
exist only three other contracts of his time, two in the Berlin Museum (Demotic 
Pap. Berlin, Nos. 3142 4, 3145), dated in his third and sixth years, and another 
mentioned in the Revue Egypt ologique, I, p. 121 (the collection in which it is 
preserved not being mentioned), is dated in his fifth year. 

The two Carnarvon papyri are dated in the fourth year, and their protocol 
reads : * Year 4 in the month of Athyr of King Harmachis, living eternally, beloved 
of Isis, beloved of Amonrasonter, the great god.' 

In the first papyrus (Pap. Carnarvon I, Pis. XXXV, XXXVI) a woman 
Senobastis sells 1| cubits of waste land (about 40 square metres), situated in the 
endowed land of the god Amon near a place P-ohi-n-p-mehen, to a herdsman (?) 
and sla\'e of the god Amon, Psenesis. 

The second papyrus (Pap. Carnarvon II, Pis. XXXV^III, XXXIX) concerns 
a sale of arable land in the same region between the herdsman (?) and slave of 
the god Amon, Pachnumis and Paos bearing the same titles. 

Paos and Psenesis were brothers, a fact which makes the two papyri part 
of the acts of the same family. They are signed by the same public notary, 
* Petamenophis, the son of Petemestus, . . . who writes in the name of the priests 
of the god Amonrasonter,' and among tlie sixteen witnesses on the verso of the 
papyri eleven are identical in both texts (PI. XXXVII. 1 and 2). 

These two documents concern two different sales of temple land in the same 
Theban region between different contractors, of whom two are members of the 
same family. As we know that in Ptolemaic and Roman times every sale was 
concluded by two documents, the agreement for sale (crvyypatf)-}] -rrpdcrecjs) and 
the contract of cession {a-vyypa(f)r} aTroa-Taa-iov), it is evident that we have only 

' I hope to publish a full translation of both texts with commentary shortly. 


hcalf of the complete acts of the two sales, viz. the sale agreements. Now in 
Pap. Carnarvon I on the right margin opposite line 4 there is a part of a sign 
(not given in the plate) which may be the end of a line of another text. This 
may belong to the lost contract of cession written upon the same roU as the 
existing written agreement. At any rate the two documents are not complete, 
they are only the sale agreements, and their juridical complements, i.e. the Cession 
Acts, may still turn up some day. 


Among the thirty-three demotic ostraca, i. e. demotic inscriptions upon 
potsherds and limestone flakes, found among the Ptolemaic remains in the upper 
stratum of Site 14, and all of the Ptolemaic period, only one has a definite date. 

It is of 'the year 21 of the kings Ptolemaios son of Ptolemaios and of 
Ptolemaios, his son,' i. e. of Ptolemaios II, Philadelphos, and his son Euergetes I 
(about 265-264 B.C.). The texts contain tax receipts, contracts, accounts, and hsts 
of workmen. 

One ostracon is of a quite unusual type (PI. XXXVII. 3). Perhaps it is the 
receipt for the fee of a contract concerning a sale of land; the text is signed. by 
Thothmosis, and has the date of ' the year 4 the 30th (?) Choiak '. 



By Howard Carter 

In 1911 many large paving slabs of limestone with positions of columns 
marked by circles chiselled upon them were uncovered (see plan, PI. XXX. 40). 
These were immediately below a number of Ptolemaic vault-graves, and practically 
on the same level as the pavement of the Upper Court and some twenty-eight 
metres south of the boundary wall of the ' Valley '-Temple. 

As far as the work of this season allowed, eleven of these substructures were 
revealed, giving enough proof that a late building of some kind, in part or 
complete, had existed there. The fact that lime-mortar still exists within the 
circles that marked the bases of the columns, proves that at least the lower 
part of the column drums once stood there. The builder of this double colonnade, 
running east and west, was proved to be Rameses IV by our finding under the 
north-east comer a deposit bearing his names. This deposit, placed in the sand 
and enclosed by a few bricks and not a metre and a half below the masonry, 
consisted of 143 electrum and faience objects excluding the barley grains, samples 
of red jasper, and matrices of emerald that were mixed with them. 

PL XL illustrates a complete series of the different articles that formed 
the deposit: 

Plaques, made of electrum. 

Cartouches, of blue and violet glass. 

Plaques, of blue glazed faience. 

Cartouches, of blue glazed faience. 

Various objects, also of blue glazed faience. 

Samples of blue and violet glass rods, red jasper, and matrices of 
The variants of the names of Rameses IV that occur among these objects are : 

Group 1. 

99 '^' 

» 3. 

„ 4. 

»> 5. 

,, 6. 







V z 


^ J. 


z V z 


By Howard Carter 

In the removal of the lower strata of Site 14 the mass of sand, amounting 
to many thousands of cubic metres, contained but few things to which any great 
importance could be attached. In fact, days were passed while extricating the 
masonry of the ' Valley '-Temple without hardly a single object coming to light. 
Among the few things discovered the most important were : — 

1. A genealogical stela in limestone, measuring 44x29 cms., coloured, and 
of the ' Household of the mother of the Mer Shen of Amen, Zed-Amen-auf-ankh' 
(PI. XLI), It mentions the following personages : — 

The Lady Nes-ta-nebt-Asheru. 

The Priest of Amen in Karnak, Hor. 

His mother, the Lady Nes-ta-nebt-Asheru. 

The Priest of Amen- Ra, Hor, son of the Priest Pedemut. 

Her mother Ta-bak-en-ta-Ashat-qa. 

The Governor of Thebes Hor-se-Ast, son of Zed-Aah. 

The Chief Royal Scribe Bak-en-Khonsu, son of the Mayor of Thebes Auf- 

His mother, the Lady Mes-per, daughter of the Priest of Amen-Ra Hor, son 

of Zed-Amen-uah-es. 
The Chief Royal Scribe Hor, son of Zed-Amen-uah-es. 
The mother of the Lady Nes-ta-nebt-Asheru, Nes-Khonsu-pa-khred. 
The Priest of Amen-Ra Nekht-ef-mut. 
Her mother, the Lady Ta-aa, daughter of the Priest of Amen Hor-kheb, son 

of Ahat.' 

2. Along the sloping base of the boundary of the ' Valley '-Temple, on the 
north side, were three small mud-brick feretories or shrines. They were ' lancet- 
arch ' in form, measuring 50 cms. high, 40 cms. broad, and rather more in length, 
with, in front, a small arched opening (PI. XLII. 2). One was built against the 
wall, a little above the pavement level, and facing north ; the others were some 
distance from the wall and facing east. In one were a few dried dates and leaves 

' For this translation thanks are due to Professor Newberry. 



(Pi. LXXIX). and near by at a lower level were the bones ot a gazelle. These 
feretories may have been shrines erected to pet animals buried there, and possibly 
are of quite late date. 

8. A stamped brick of Amenhetep 11. 

4. A stamped brick of Thothmes III. 

5. Part of the back and leg of a bifold wooden chair, inlaid with ivory and 
ebony, and of an earUer date than the XVllIth Dynasty (?XIIth Dynasty). 

6. A wooden box, painted white, measuring 50 x 30 x 30 cms., which has on 
the under side of the lid four entries in hieratic (PI. XLII. 4). They mention 
a date ' third month of winter season, day 10 ' ; a ' Scribe of the Necropolis ' ; 
jui ' Overseer of workmen ', called Amen-renpet ; an account of three vases of 
liquids ; names of officials, and an account of grain, together with the name of 
a wood.' 

7. Two burials of poor people. One was enveloped in rushes bound together 
with rope, the other with reeds (PI. XLII. 3). The bodies in both cases had 
a single winding sheet, but show no signs of mummification. They appear to 
belong to a late epoch. 

8. A wooden Osiride figure (PI. XLII. 1) covered with bitumen and wrapped 
in linen. The arms, crossed over the breast, have in the right hand the Flail, 
and in the left, hand the Crook, which are made of copper. Period XVIII (?) 
Dynasty. (It is similar to the bitumened figures found in the tombs in the Valley 
of the Kings.) 

9. Shawabti figures of the Intermediate period in model coffins (PI. XLIII). 
The most important specimens were : — 

A. A wooden sarcophagus with figure wrapped in linen. The inscription 
hi linear hieroglyphs gives the de hetep seten formula to Osiris, for offerings for 

T"^:* Nefer-ur. The figure is dedicated by his ' sister* ^ ^. c^ J| Sedemt. 

B. A clay coffin with wooden shawabti, the lid crudely anthropoid in shape, 
and roughly decorated with green and yellow in the design of the RisM coffin type 
(see PI. XLIII) ; the rough figure inside has green stripes painted upon it. 

' The translation is due to Professor Newberry. 




By Howard Carter 

Deep below the foundations of the 'Valley '-Temple of Queen Hatshepsiit in 
the Birabi are rock-hewn tombs, oi pit and corridor types, dating from the Xllth 
DjTiasty on to the Intermediate Period. 

This fact was first ascertained in 1910, and in that year twelve tombs of this 
necropolis were opened. Their exploration was continued in 1911, when four more 
were revealed, and three out of the four were thoroughly investigated. 

All the graves examined during the two seasons had had their original burials 
previously pillaged : firstly, at a period not long after their origin, and certainly 
before the New Empire ; and in certain instances a second time in the XVI I th or 
XVIIIth Dynasties, when some were re-used for odd burials. 

These successive plunderings gave access to the white ants, the worst of all 
the enemies the explorer has to contend with. Often when a chamber is first 
entered its contents seem in comparatively good preservation, but on the slightest 
touch or movement they fall into a thousand fragments, their substance being 
riddled by these tiny insects. 

The positions and plans of these tombs are shown in the Plan and Survey, 

Corridor Tomb 24- 

This was the first and most spacious among those opened in 1910. It had no 
less than eight chambers, a long passage, an open court, and a pit. It was only 
from the remains of funereal ddbris, discovered in the rubbish of an open depression 
in the rock (i. e. the court), that it was recognized that an early and violated tomb 
was in the course of being revealed. These fragments were : — 

1. The cross-bars of an Angarib (bedstead made of plaited rope on a wooden 
frame supported by four legs). 

2. The greater part of a wooden model boat of uncommon design. 




8. A small piece of wood with beautiful cornelian inlay upon it from a coffin (?). 
4. Broken pieces of cartonnage painted and gilded. 

' Ankhu '. 

6. Another coffin board, inscribed with coloured hieroglyphs, reading — 
n ^ ii_® J ^1 (j (j I] J gi^.i„g the name ' Khety '. 


7. A broken arrow-head of flint with sen'ated edges. 

8. Pieces of leather sandals, pottery, and a portion of the neck of a jar with 
'^^^ c=^= Men-hetep written upon it. 

9. A scribe's palette with two reed brushes (PI. XLV. 3). 

10. The hind half of an exquisitely made frog in glazed steatite, and the fore 
part of a lion in faience.' 

When cleared enough to be entered the interior of the tomb presented a scene 
of utter despoliation. Its chambers were strewn with rubble mingled with bones, 
skulls, and tomb furniture, shattered and burnt, which only too well corroborated 
those traces of the ravages which had been found outside. In the central chamber 
was a burial — a wood dug-out coffin, anthropoid in form, the lid bound at head 
and shins with rope. Several days were spent in carefully searching the remains 
in this tomb, and by sifting the sand many times favourable results were obtained. 
These results are recorded below • — 

Near the Entrance. A small w^ooden statuette and pedestal ; upon the 

' Ankhu ' may possibly be traced, and if so it probably identifies the figure with 
the person mentioned on the coffin fragment found outside (PI. XLIV^. 1). 

Doorway. A nude female figure in cedar wood, very much worn and 
originally coloured. She wears a heavy head-dress tied by a fillet on either side. 
Such figures were entered among the funerary complement for the personal use of 
the deceased (PI. XLIV. 3). 

First part of Passage. Two broken blue faience bowls. One shaped like 
a water-lily leaf and decorated with lotus floral designs (PI. XLIV. 5), the other 
of biangidar form, with its vertical sides encircled by a band of very indistinct hiero- 


thus naming the ' Lady of the house Ab-aau ' (PI. XLIV. 4). Near these were 
three pieces of alabaster making up a complete bowl, a pendant of deep blue glazed 
faience, some blue glaze inlay, the fore-part of a hippopotamus, a bone and shell 
necklace, and lastly a leather ball. 

' Found in second sifting. 


In South Chamber above the Pit. Parts of a bifold wood jewel box (PI. XLV, 
the lid was found in the passage), and the following beads and amulets that possibly 
came out of it : — 

A. Blue glaze faience beads imitating shells. 

B. Haematite beads and scarab. 

C. Cornelian beads. 

D. Two amethyst scarabs. 

E. A hippopotamus head and crouching monkey in cornelian. 

F. Matrix of emerald ^«-bird. 

G. Necklace of amulets in matrix of emerald, amethyst, cornelian, blue paste, 
and glazed steatite and faience. 

North Clmmber above the Pit. A small jewel-box, turned upside down and 
containing the following ornaments (PI. XLV. 1 and 2) : — 

A. Steatite scarab mounted on silver wire. 

B. Necklace of small round garnet beads. 

C. Garnet and cornelian bracelet. 

D. Greenstone cylinder mounted in gold. 

E. Broken agate cylinder mounted in gold. 

F. Two fragments of nuts of the Balanites aegyptiaca. 

G. Amulets — cornelian eye, emerald hippopotamus head, silver plaque, and 
gold bead. 

H. A tiny string of gold, silver, cornelian, and turquoise beads of the most 
minute and exquisite workmanship. 

Nearly every basket of earth from the floor of this tomb contained numbers of 
deep violet lozenge-shaped ornaments made of glazed pottery. They are peculiar 
to the Xllth Dynasty, and seemingly were used for decorating the wrappings of 
the mummy, as is well illustrated by a mask cartonnage found in tomb No. 25, 
where they are depicted in rows and forming part of an ornamentation 
(PI. XLIV. 2). In some cases actual mummy-cloth was found adhering to 
them, and aU had some adhesive substance on their backs. 

A complete series of pottery belonging to this tomb is given in PI. XLVII, 
Figs. 1 and 2. 

Fig. 1. A. Rough red pottery, coloured red, with white band. 

B. „ „ with white spots. 

C. „ „ coloured red with white stripes. 

D. „ „ rim and neck coloured red. 

E. Fine red pottery, plain. 

F. Grey pottery, with J^ c^= written in red upon it. 

G. Pink pottery, plain. 

H. Grey pottery, ornamented with black, red, and yellow drop pattern. 
1. Very fine terra-cotta pottery, plain. 


Fig. 1. J. Fine red pottery, coloured red or terra-cotta. 

K. Soft red pottery, plain. 

L and N. Fine red pottery, with rims coloured red. 

M. Fine red pottery, with white surface. 
Fig. 2 illustrates two trays divided into compartments and two small vases, 
made of a very coarse red pottery. 

Botanical specimens found in this tomb are figured in PI. LXXIX. 2 under the 
letters A and H. The latter, a stone fruit, was found in great quantities, as 
well as frequently in the other tombs that were opened. 

Pit Tomh No. 25. 

A pit tomb partially concealed by the paving-blocks of the terrace colonnade 
and foundations of the nortli boundary wall of the temple. 

In the upper rubbish filling the pit were bricks from the doorway and broken 
pottery, giving evidence of former riflers ; and, after a descent of some three metres 
or more, the openings of the sepulchral vaults at either side were exposed. These 
chambers, half-fiUed with earth that had poured in from the shaft, had in them 
remains of coffins, oblong in form, broken, and ant-eaten. They were of plain, 
thick wood, without decorations, and only the inner shell had, in some cases, bands 
of inscription. In the shaft itself, at the bottom, was a single coffin, dragged out 
from one of the chambers at the time of the early violation. 

At first this grave seemed to be a great disappointment. Eut when, in 
I^ord Carnarvon's presence, the men found in the lower filling of the shaft an ivory 
pin and a piece of a box with silver binding \ our hopes were raised. Lord 
Carnarvon at once stopped the workmen until a time when full surveillance of the 
clearing could be made. It was a difficult job, most careful work had to be done 
with trowel, bellows, and sometimes a spoon, extricating fragile objects while stones 
and sand poured down from the overhanging masonry above in a menacing manner 
at every gust of wind. 

On the following day operations were begun by clearing the bottom steps of 
the shaft and searching the coffin. Under the latter, nine more ivory pins, frag- 
ments of alabaster, cosmetic vases, the broken parts of an ebony and cedar-wood 
toilet-box inlaid with ivory, and fragments of an ornamented ivory gaming-board 
were discovered, twisted and shattered into a hundred pieces. The coffin, too far 
gone for us to hope to preserve it (ants having eaten the whole of the wood, leaving 
only the bitumen coating perforated and like an eggshell), had had bands of yellow 
hieroglyphs along its sides and ends ; but only here and there could a few signs be 
discerned. Still, enough could be made out to trace the title [■^=f1 \ Q and name 
[a~w«a] '[J] 'Great one of the southern tens, Rensenb' (which was afterwards 

' This was part of the toilet-box, Pis. XLVIII-IX. 


corroborated by the inscription on the mirror handle found on the mummy), and 

certain of the hieroglyphs were of the ' mutilated ' type (i. e. |s, for ^, and 

>^^ for >^ often found in texts of the late Xllth Dynasty and Intermediate 

The mummy, lying on its side, was reduced to a black powder through 
spontaneous combustion, caused by the damp that had filtered through from 
above. It had a cartonnage mask covering the head and shoulders, with gilt face, 
the head-dress painted yellow and striated with grey-green bands which had oval 
spots in black (illustrating the use of the violet ornaments found in tomb No. 24). 
Embedded in the wrappings, at the small of the back, was a blue faience hippo- 
potamus (PI. LI. 1). Round the neck a gold and obsidian necklace and a ' Shen ' 
brooch of gold and cornelian (Pi. LI. 2). On the breast, concealed in the linen 
wrappings, was a bronze mirror with ebony handle mounted and inlaid with gold. 

The inscription upon it reads "^^t -^ ^ ^ [1 "T* | -?■ ' Great one of the southern 
tens, Rensenb, repeating life ' (PI. LI. 2). How it came about that these chambers 
should be ravaged, this burial dragged into the daylight of the open shaft, and yet 
unrifled, is a mystery yet to be solved. 

I7i the Southern Chamber. At the entrance were the front part and pieces 
of the drawer of the toilet-box (PI. XLVIII. 1), three alabaster vase lids, an 
alabaster vase, and a gold bead. Besides these articles this chamber had planks 
from wooden canopies and coffins, and the remains of three mummies (one a child) 
charred to soot. In the depression in the floor and lower chamber were found two 
broken ivory crocodiles, two sphnters of a mystic wand, and the body of a stripped 
mummy ; under the latter, in the dust, were beads of a necklace. 

In the North Chamber. Among the many parts of coffins was one bearing 

inscriptions giving the usual prayers, &c., for a certain lady named ^ ^ i ' Henut\ 

born of ^~^~« ' Sent '. Here were also despoiled mummies, one of them having a 

wig of plaited hair (decayed), clasped by a gold fillet, and a necklace. Some stray 
beads and a mud sealing bearing a coil pattern were found when sifting the lower 
layer of dust covering the floor. 

The following paragraphs give details of the objects found in this tomb that 
are not fully described above, including the pottery found scattered in its different 

Toilet-box (Pis. XLVIII-XLIX). An oblong box, made of cedar wood, 
veneered with ebony and ivory, and measuring 28-5 x 18 x 20 cms. 

The front, two sides, end, and lid have in their centres large slabs of ivory, 
bordered by two narrow strips of ebony and ivory, with broad margins of ebony, 
the whole giving a unique appearance. The front is made to pull forward, and 
has attached to it a drawer half the depth and the whole length of the box 

' See Coffin-tomb No. 27. 


(see Fig. 1, PI. XLVIII). This drawer has its edges, top and bottom, veneered 
with thin strips of ivory, glued to its solid ebony sides and end, mid in it a shelf, 
made of two pieces of wood, pierced with eight holes to receive vases for cosmetics 
and other toilet requisites.* The drawer slides in beneath a tray attached to the 
inner walls of the box. Access to the tray can only be obtained by raising the lid 
of the box ; and it has, besides two small partitions in the corner, a hollow scooped 
out of the bottom to receive a mirror (see Fig. 2, PI. XLVIII).^ 

The lid and front have silver knobs let into bindings of the same metal. 

Engraved upon the front ivory slab is a delightful little scene (PI. XLIX. 1) 

of the owner, '^=:^ ^^.^""^ ' Kemen '. ^ f] * true Royal friend ', ^ ' whom he 
(the king) loves ', ■^^ 1 ..•" ' Chief over the secrets of the Royal mouth ', 

k% '°o° ■f> v^ 'the keeper of the department of the kitchen', offering to his lord, 

the King Amenemhat IV, Around the margin of the top of the lid, gravered 
and inlaid with ivory powder is an inscription (PI. XLIX. 2) bearing the prenomen 

and nomen of Amenemhat IV, with a religious formula to ' Sebek ' ^37 x^ ^ 
Lord of Illahun (in the Fayum) that he may give a good burial and long service 
to the ka of Kemen. The legend here gives also the name of Kemen's mother 
tjafl ' Ana'. The method adopted in the construction of the box is so peculiar 
that it is worth particular notice. Each front, side, end, and lid is made of six 
pieces of cedar wood, viz. a centre panel to receive the large slab of ivory, on 
either side two thin sUps to receive the narrow strips of ebony and ivory, and 
lastly a top and bottom rail for the broad ebony margins. In fact, the cedar- 
wood body is made of as many pieces as there are horizontal overlaying leaves 
of the superior materials, all of which, with the exception of the front, where 
dowels are introduced, were merely stuck together by glue. The corners of the 
box are mitred, and the ends of the drawer dovetailed to the body of the front 
part of the box. 

The four alabaster vases (PI. LII. 1) belong to the drawer ; there were three 
fragments of others. 

Ivory Gaming-board^ (PI. L). Shaped like an axe blade and resting on four 
bull's legs carved in solid ivory. The dimensions are 15 x 10 cms. (maximum 
measurement), total height 7 cms. 

It contains a small drawer of ivory and ebony, which has a bolt of ivory shot 
in copper staples for fixing it when closed. Belonging to the game are ten 
carved ivory pins or playing pieces — five have dogs' heads, and five jackals' heads ; 
these, no doubt, were kept in the drawer. 

' In the Cairo Museum eight similar vases belonging to a toilet-box bear the names of sacred oils, 
Nos. 18652-8. 

* In the Cairo Museum is a wooden tray for mirror with two hollows or receptacles for materials for 
polishing (?) mirror face, No. 44'012. 

' Petrie, Kahtm, Gurob and Hawara, PI. XVI, p. 30, a similar gaming-board in pottery. 



Its construction is a flat top made of two ivory slabs, backed by two wooden 
panels which are joined together by three transverse wood pegs passed through the 
thickness of each panel. The bottom was made of one piece of wood with cross- 
bars at either end. The curved ivory sides and end are backed with blocks of 
wood that take the same shape as the board, and leave in the interior an oblong 
space to allow entry of the drawer. The ivory bull's legs are tongued into the 
wooden side-blocks, and are held there by means of three ebony rivets. Round 
the four edges, top and bottom, as well as the four corners, was an ebony veneer, 
most of which was destroyed. Glue was the means of adhesion. The wood used 
was sycomore. The upper surface (PI. L. 1) has engraved upon it a palm-tree 

30 29 

Fig. 14. Key to Gaming-board. 

surmounted by the sign ' Shen' (see Fig. 14), the latter being pierced through the 
ivory and wooden body beneath. On each side of the palm-stem is a parallel line 
of ten holes, along the edges of the two sides a row of fifteen holes, and at the 
top edge on either side of the ' Shen ' a row of four holes (and if including the 
corner hole, five). Each hole is encircled by a small ring, engraved, and is pierced 
through the ivory and wood below, and these holes were intended to receive the 
playing pieces. For some reason or other, a large hole was made in the centre 
of the palm-tree, but it was afterwards filled in. In the front edge of the board 
is a small semicircular notch, made to permit the thumb to grip the drawer when 

opening it. ♦ 




Now a word as to the game itself; how was it played, and how were the 
moves denoted ? Presuming the ' Shen ' sign, which forms a large centre hole 
at the top, to be the goal, we find on either side twenty-nine holes, or including 
the goal, thirty aside. Among these holes, on either side, two are marked T nefer, 

'good'; and four others are linked together by curved lines (see Fig. 14). 
Assuming that the holes marked 'good' incur a gain, it would appear that the 
others, connected by lines, incur a loss. Taking this for granted, and that the play 
tenninates at the goal ' Shen ', the game seems then to commence at the heart 
of the palm — the only place where five playing pieces aside could be placed without 
clashing with the obstacles (i. e. holes incurring gain or loss). Thus, starting from 
the first hole under the palm, and calling it No. 1, the tenth hole, by the indicating 
lines, shows a forfeit of two points, and the twentieth hole a forfeit of fourteen 
points. The good holes Nos. 15 and 25 have nothing to indicate what gain was 
attached to them. If it should be a profit of a certain number of holes, one 
would expect to find them marked like the forfeits, but possibly it was that 
they entitled (?) the player to the right of a second move, which could not be 
marked in such a manner. Now the moves themselves could easily have been 
denoted by the chance cast of knuckle-bones or dice,^ both being known to the 
ancient Egyptians at an early period ; and if so we have before us a simple, but 
exciting, game of chance, ' Hounds contra Jackals ', and played somewhat as 
follows : — The opponents, taking each a side, place their five men in holes Nos. 1 
to 5,* under the palm. The hounds having obtained the right of first throw, by 
a toss or some equivalent, start : — 


1st H. Cast 3 = hole 8 

„ I . . . . • = >j y 

„ 5 - „ 14. 

„ 3 . ■ . . . . = „ 17 

„ 6 = „ 23 

„ 4 . . . . . = „ 27 

„ 3 = the goal . . = „ 30 

1 point to Hds. (winning piece remains in goal). 


1st J. Cast 6 = hole 1 1 

„ 5 = ., 16 

» 3 = „ 19 

„ 6 = 25, wins 2nd 

throw = 4 . . . = „ 29 
„ 6 Returns to 25, wins 

2nd throw 4 . . = „ 29 

„ 6 Returns to 25, wins 

2nd throw 1 . . = „ 26 

,.3 = „ 29 

Jks. lose their piece. 

' For knuckle-bones see group No. 25, tomb No. 37. Cp. Quibell, Excavations Saqqara, p. 114, 
PI. LXIII. Dice : I have found three specimens among objects from the rubbish heaps of the temple of 
D6r el Bahari, and as there were no antiquities here that could be later than the XVIIIth Dynasty, one 
is led to suppose that the dice are of the same date. Two of the dice were of clay and one was made of 

' For the numerical order of the holes see Fig. 1 4. Only one piece aside can be played at a time, 
as if more they might win the same hole and hence clash ; and only one die used. 





Snd H. Cast 4 



I = 20, forfeit 14 

4=10, forfeit 2 




Hds. lose their piece. 

3rd H. Cast 6 

„ 6=15, win 2nd throw 6 

„ 6 

„ 5 Returns to 
,, 4 Returns to 


; 8 









Hds. lose their piece. 

4th H. Cast 3 . 

„ 4 . 

4 . 

7 = 20, forfeits 14 

5 ; 

2 . . 
4 = 20, forfeits 14 

Hds. lose their piece, 

5tk H, Cast 

2 . 


hole 3 


4 . 


„ 1 

5 . 


„ 12 

2 . 


„ 14 

6 = 20, forfeits 14 


„ 6 

4=10, forfeits 2 . 


» 8 

6. . . . 


„ 14 

1 = 15, wins 2nd 

throw = 6 . 


„ 21 

• J) 

4 = 25, wins 2nd 

throw = 5 = the 



„ 30 

^ points to Hds 

hole 9 
„ 21 

,. 27 
„ 28 
„ 28 

= hole 5 

= „ 9 

= „ 13 

= „ 6 

= „ 9 

= „ 14 

= „ 16 

= „ 6 

= „ 12 

= „ 14 

= „ 19 

^nd J. Cast 3 

» 4 

» 5 

» 5 

„ 6 

,, 4 

., 4 

„ 3 

Returns to 

Returns to 

= the goal 

1 point to Jks. (winning piece remains in goal) 

hole 7 

„ 11 

„ 16. 

„ 21 

„ 27 

„ 29 

» 27 

„ 30 

nrd J. Cast 5 = hole 8 

„ 4 . 

„ 6 . . . 

„ 6 . . . 

„ 6 = the goal 

2 points to Jks. (winning pieces remain in goal). 

4th J. Cast 2 
„ 3 

3 = 10, forfei 









s 2 

Returns to 
= the goal 













I in 































S points to Jks. (winning pieces remain in goal). 

5th J. Cast 5 


4 = 15, wins 2nd throw 1 

6 . . . . 

1 . . . . 
4 . . 
6 Returns to 

2 . . . . 

4 Returns to 

= hole 6 

= „ 11 

= „ 16 

= „ 22 

= „ 23 

= „ 27 

= „ 27 

= „ 29 

= „ 27 

Jks. lose their man, but have 3 men in the goal, 
and thus win by 1 point. 

Necklace. Of long drop-shaped beads made of gold and three kinds of 
coloured stones — cornelian, lapis lazuli, and matrix of emerald. They were strung 
in the ancient colour order, viz. red, blue, yellow, and green — cornelian for the 
red, lapis lazuli for the blue, gold for the yellow, and matrix of emerald for 
the green. Some of the beads had tiny floral tops, which, when combined, 
formed a lotus column, or perhaps a flower ; but by no means did all of them 

I 2 


have this additional piece, as was proved by some of the beads still attached by 
their original threads. Unfortunately this necklace, of exquisite quality, cannot 
be restrung, as all the wax cores of the gold beads (the gold being only a thin 
outer covering) has amalgamated, and the holes are completely choked. At 
present, in their tender state of preservation, to re-bore them would endanger 
their being split, as some already are. 

Amuletic necklace. This second necklace is of quite a different type, very 
small, and of all kinds of beads and amulets. The order ' seems to have been 
alternate groups of barrel garnet beads, divided by minute gold beads, and between 
them amulets in gold, cornelian, glazed steatite, and faience. There are also 
tiny cornelian and glaze .beads among them. The amulets that occur are the 
eye, hand, rope-knot, crouching lions, crocodiles, flies, and other strange forms 
difficult to recognize. The position of these amulets, strung on the necklace, can 
only be a matter of conjecture. ^ 

Shell necklace. Of this only a few pieces were found. They are small shells 
and ornamental vase-shaped beads, of lapis lazuli, matrix of emerald, and turquoise. 
B^etween each was a short cylindrical gold bead.^ 

Tlie obsidian and gold necklace (PI. LI. 2) hardly requires description, the 
illustration showing all details. Tlie beads are strung in the exact order in which 
they were found. The ' Shen ' brooch (PI. LI. 2) was not attached to it. 

Pottery. The various types are all shown in PI. LII. 2. 

A. Soft red pottery. 

B. Fine red pottery. 

C. Rough red pottery. 

D. Rough red pottery with rim coloured red. 

E. Fine red pottery with rim coloured red. 

F. Red pottery. 

G. Red pottery, coloured red. 

H. Rough red pottery spotted white. 
I. Red pottery, coloured red. 

Pit Tomh No. 27. 

The contents of this tomb (PI. XXX) were pillaged and almost entirely 
destroyed, the ants leaving not a fragment of the wood untouched. Among 
the debris of the original burials was an intrusive one of a child.* All that was 
of importance to record was: (1) A portion of an anthropoid coffin with Rishi 
decoration, like the case found in Tomb 32 (PI. LI 1 1. 3), but of much larger 

' This is known by some adhering to one another when found. 

» See Tomb 24, PI. XLVI, Fig. 2 G, and amulet necklace of Vth Dynasty, Petrie, Deshnshch, 
PL XLVI. This type of necklace seems almost a necessary adjunct to the dead in the earlier periods. 
» See Tomb 24, PI. XLVI. A. * See example PI. LIII. 4. 


dimensions and with the face gilt ; down the front of this coffin was a vertical 
inscription, of which the foUowing was visible : i.£^ira%-^^"'^i/^in^ 

'^'I'^WS^^ -^^=^^^1 naming the 'Scribe of the ArmyV 
' Superintendent of the temple', Nenen ...(?); (2) an ear from a silvered mask; 
(3) three pieces of the upper portion of a stela (the rest of this stela was found 
in Tomb No. 31, PL LIV) ; (4) a pot (the only one found in the tomb) like 
Fig. J in Tomb No. 24. 

Pit Tomb No. 28. 
This grave (PI. XXX) had even less in it than No. 27 ; in the shaft was 
an intrusive burial of a poorish type. The chambers, which were choked with 
rubbish, contained only a pair of copper forceps, a brown stone bead, and one 
hydroceramic vase (PI. LI 1 1. 1). 

Pit Tomb No. 29. 

This tomb (PI. XXX) gave access to two other similar graves on either side 
of it, Nos. 29 A and B. The three were plundered, and their chambers filled 
with sand almost to the ceiling. In the shaft of No. 29 was a burial with ' dug-out 
coffin' yielding a scarab, and in its chamber were two other burials, illustrated 
in PI. LIII. 4. These were typical examples of the 'dug-out coffin'. They 
contained ' dried ' bodies wrapped in a simple winding-sheet (Intermediate Period ?). 

No. 20 A. This could not be thoroughly excavated, as the mouth of its ' 
shaft was under the southern part of the excavations which has not been cleared, 
and the sand poured down from above it as fast as it was removed from below, 
making it too dangerous to clear. 

No. 2d B was only accessible through a small hole in the south-west comer 
of pit No. 29 ; it gave equal trouble, and could only be excavated under considerable 
risk, its pit being partially under the foundations of the temple wall. It was fuU 
of plundered mummies huddled together under a great weight of sand and stones 
thrown in by the temple workmen when building the wall. With them was 
a wooden head-rest, a canopic jar lid, and a scribe's palette, some roughly made 
chair legs, pieces of cartonnage (of linen covered with plaster, gilt), and a long 
flexible wooden implement, two metres in length, perhaps a weaver's batten. The 
types of pottery found in these chambers are shown in PI. LIII. 5 : — 

A. Rough red pottery, decorated with white paint, with holes in the neck 

for fastening the cover. 
R. Fine red pottery, coloured red. 

C. Red pottery, rim coloured red. 

D. Soft red pottery. 

E! Red pottery, has small spout, and upper part coloured red. 

F. Pink pottery. 

G. Red pottery, rim coloured red. 


Pit Tombs Nos. 31-34. 

This group of tombs (PI. XXX) is under the Lower Court of the ' A^alley'- 
Temple. The chambers are cut into one another, and thus form a homogeneous 
series. They were choked up with sand, with but Httle of their plundered contents 
left. It was hopeless to try to tell to which of the tombs the few remains 
belonged, and hence in enumerating them the chamber in which they were foimd 
can alone be given. 

Pit Tomb No. 81. A ' dug-out ' painted coffin burial with roughly painted 
shawabti box, and the lower portion of the stela found in Tomb No. 27 (PI. LIV). 
In its chamber were found a few examples of pottery. 

Pit Tomb No. 32. First chamber— an interesting type of a female figure 
made of painted wood with pottery head.* Second chamber — a Rislii coffin 
(PI. LIII. 3) belonging (?) to the original burial. It was found lying on its 
right side in a space on the floor especially cleared for it, and was bound at 
head and foot with palm fibre cords, which makes it appear to have been re-used. 
Notwithstanding its appearance of perfect preservation when first discovered, the 
coffin and even the body inside were so completely rotten that they fell to pieces 
at the least touch ; it was in such a condition that it was impossible to preserve it. 
It being the most complete mummy case hitherto found in these tombs, a lengthy 
description is necessary. The case, anthropoid in shape, was decorated as if 
enveloped by the wings of a bird. This Rtshi ^ decoration is on a light yellow 
ground, the feathers themselves being of deep bluish green, picked out here and 
there with red and white, and detailed in black. The face was flesh colour, with 
eyebrows and side-beard straps green, the eye sockets of copper with aragonite 
eyeballs and obsidian pupils. Down the centre of the front of the coffin was 

H vertical line of hieroglyphs reading: ||^^fJ'^^5^g,"^2:^iYJ 

A J ~w>^ cs -t- © 1 1^ I— J yblanli space . Below the feet are the two kneeling 

figures of ' Isis ' and ' Nephthys ' facing one another, and between them a \ertical 

legend reading :jV||j^j°^,„ 

I^t Tomb No. 33. This had nothing in it, and being under the temple con- 
struction it was too dangerous to attempt a total clearance of its chamber or 

Pit Tofmb No. 34. This had only three intrusive interments, which were in 
an almost unrecognizable condition. Examples of the pottery vessels scattered 
about in the chambers of this group are given in PI. LIII. 2. Their material does 
not differ from the other examples already described as coming from this necropolis. 

The stela of Auy-res (PL LIV) found in Tombs No. 27 and 31 is of limestone, 
measuring 59 x 31 cms, ; the inscriptions are incised upon the stone face and 

' See figure found in Tomb No. 54. ' Feathered. 


coloured dark blue ; the figures are in the usual colouring and have blue collarettes. 
The horizontal legend begins with : — 

' (1) May the king give an offering to Osiris Khent-amenti, the Great God, 
Lord of Abydos, that he may give (2) oblations of water, incense, wax, all good 
and pure things (3) upon which the god lives . . . for the ka of the Keeper of the 
Bow, Auy-res, justified.' 

His family are recorded in the following order : — 

Row 1. ' His wife, Atef-s-senb. 

His son, the Great One of the Southern Tens, Y-meru. 

His son, the Great One of the Southern Tens, Erde-en-ptah. 
Row 2. His daughter, the servant of the Ruler, Auy-senb. 

His son, the Am-khet,^ Dedut-res. 

His sister, Auy-senb. 

His son, the Am-khet,^ Y-meru. 
Row 3. The Keeper of the Bow, Sa-Hathor. 

The Lady, Sent-nw-pw. 

The 17a6-priest of Amen, Sebek-hetep. 

The Lady, Sep-en-urdet,' 

There was no evidence to show to which of these two tombs this stela 
belonged. • 

In the rubbish, and partially under the foundations of the wall of the Lower 
Court of the ' \^alley '-Temple, was a coffin ^ that had been thrown out from 
one of the Xllth Dynasty tombs. This coffin was of wood, rectangular and 
oblong in form, with no inscriptions or decoration ; it contained a body of 
a female child. Round her neck was a cornelian necklace still attached by its 
strings, and on her breast was a bronze mirror reflector ; from the manner this 
reflector was wrapped in linen it must have been buried with the deceased without 
a handle. The girl's hair was plaited. 

Circular Pit No. 35. 

This pit (PI. XXX) was the last and most puzzling of all opened this season. 
It is a rock-hewn shaft, some three metres in diameter at the mouth and only 
63 cms, at the bottom, and thus, hke an inverted cone, descends 22-50 metres ^ 
into the Tajie stratum. The filling was absolutely untouched, and from top to 
bottom consisted of pure black soil from the arable plain ; the upper surface had 
been hardened by water. The bottom of the shaft, apparently unfinished, was 
on one side slightly deeper than the other. A hoUow copper bead-like object 
of cylindrical-drop shape found on the top surface, was the only object discovered 
here. At four metres below the surface the shaft had been cut through one of 

' Poulterer (?). ^ Opposite Tomb No. 27. 

' 22.50 metres = 74 ft. approximate. 


the pit tombs ' of the cemetery, and the hole in the side thus caused had been 
mended with mud bricks. Its whole meaning is at present inexplicable. - 

No. 36, PL XXX. 

A large mud-brick structure of which only part of one side has been exposed 
by our excavations. This part lies within the area of the ' Valley '-Temple (No. 14), 
and is in line with the Colonnaded Terrace. The one end (north-east corner) and 
the stretch of some thirty-five metres of wall that has been uncovered does not 
give us enough data to tell its exact meaning or date. It is built upon the 
bed-rock, and it averages four metres in height. The brickwork seems to be 
earUer than that of the New Kingdom. The probabilities are that it belongs 
to the Intermediate Period or even perhaps the Middle Kingdom. Towards the 
southern end of the part cleared by us the foundation of the wall has been built 
over the courtyard of Tomb No. 41. 

Tomh No. 37. 

This tomb, shaped like an inverted T, is the largest one yet opened in this 
group ; in fact it could be ranked among the larger mausolea of the Theban 
Necropolis, and evidently belonged to one of the higher Egyptian dignitaries 
(Pis. XXX, LV). 

It consists of (1) a long corridor having an eastern frontage with some eighteen 
openings, which give access to a rock-cutting of the nature of an open court. 
(2) Cut in the back wall of this corridor, and at right angles to it, are a long 
central subterranean passage leading to a hall (C), and two sepulchral chambers. 
Access to one of these sepulchral chambers (J) is by means of a staircase, while 
the other (EJ) is approached by a vertical pit (D) of four metres in depth ; both 
are cut in the floor of the hall (C). The northern end of the corridor was divided 
off by a stone and mortarpartition, with a small chamber (B) at the back, which 
was presumably a portion divided off for a member of the owner's family. The 
blind end of the corridor on the south had originally been closed by a mud-brick 
wall, and no doubt thus formed another private compartment like the third 
chamber (A), which is parallel to the central passage. 

It appears, therefore, that there were five distinct burial chambers (and if 
counting the hall (C) a sixth) which were closed, leaving the greater part of the 
corridor and central passage open for any ceremonial rites that might be made 
by the Uving relations in favour of the deceased. 

This great tomb, dating from the Late Middle Kingdom, was found to have 
been utihzed for the storing of numerous stray burials of epochs ranging through 
the Intermediate Period down to the early part of the XVIlIth Dynasty. Our 
reasons for assigning this date to the tomb were the antiquities (Nos. 85, 86, 87) 

' Not numbered or excavated yet. 

' It has been suggested that it was made for a tree, but no vegetable remains were found here, and 
it seems too deep for such a purpose. 


found in the layer of rubbish and burnt ashes that covered its floors ; these were 
quite distinct from the coffins and other antiquities forming the cache which 
rested upon the rubbish. 

It is difficult to imagine how such a large mausoleum, cut in the shallow 
and crumbling limestone stratum, with so many openings, could for long have 
been protected from plunderers. The smoke-blackened walls show how its contents 
were destroyed, and the martins' nests, together with the innumerable mason-bee 
cells that adhered to the walls and ceiling, show that the tomb had been left 
open after having been plundered for a lengthy period, before it was re-used as 
a storehouse. 

When revealed, the main entrance was not closed by bricks or by stones, 
as was often the custom, but the sand was merely poured over when the Ancients 
last covered it up. The remaining openings had certainly in some instances been 
closed by planks from old coffins, but the greater number were carelessly filled 
like the entrance. Three of the inner chambers were carefully closed ; in two cases 
with bricks, and in one with stones. These closed chambers were as follows : — 

Hall (C) had its doorway bricked two-thirds up with crude mud-bricks and 
Tqfle mortar, and the remaining third of its opening with similar bricks but with 
a mud mortar (PI. LVl), showing that it had been opened and reclosed a second 
time. The mortar-bed of mud for this last closing was found in the central passage 
(Pis. LV, LVI. 14) just as it was left by the ancient mason. 

Chamber (A) had its doorway completely closed with flat mud-bricks, and 
the outer surface smeared over with Tq/le stucco (PL LVII, above the coffin 
to the left), which was stamped in numerous places with a seal giving the Nebti 

name TM ^") of Thothmes I (see PI. LVIII. 1). 

Chamber (B) had its entrance blocked by a heap of stones piled before it and 
a coffin placed in front (PI. LIX. 1). 

Behind these bricked-up doorways was the greater mass of the burials that 
were stored in the tomb. 

From whence all these burials came we have no evidence to show us at 
present, nor can we tell for certain the reason for their being concealed in this 
particular tomb. It is possible that, while clearing the ground for the great dromos 
of Der el Bahari, and during the preparation of its ' Valley '-Temple, stray 
interments were disturbed, and that this tomb being so situated that it must 
necessarily be covered by the ' Valley '-Temple, it was used by the pious officials 
of the Theban Necropolis as a place of concealment (see position of tomb in relation 
to the temple, PL XXX). 

The seal impressions stamped upon the wall that closed chamber {A), we have 
just seen, give the Nebti name of Thothmes I, and thus we have a date for the 
time when some of the coffins were re-interred, and probably the date when the 
above monument must have been begun. 

The scattered manner in which the coffins were placed in the different 



chambers and passages of the tomb, and the fact that one of the chambers (C) 
had been re-opened and re-closed, tends to show that they were not placed in 
the tomb at one time, which is in favour of the theory that they really were dis- 
turbed interments stored there from time to time during the course of some work. 

The latest date found among the objects of the whole cache was Thothmes III, 
and that name occurred only on one object — a small scarab (PI. LXXII. 53 from 
burial No. 53, p. 80). 

The two chambers in the corridor {A, B) contained eight and four separate 
coffins respectively : the hall (C) at the end of the passage had fourteen ; in the 
pit (D), piled from bottom to top, were eighteen cases ; and in the bottom 
crypt {E) was another batch of eight sarcophagi. Thus, counting also those lying 
about the open corridor and passage which numbered twelve, we obtain a total 
of sixty-four coffins. Besides these there were also twenty-eight other objects 
pertaining to funeral equipments. 

Among these sixty-four miscellaneous wooden sarcophagi, some containing 
as many as four mummies in each, there were seven distinct types, and with them 
a great number of children's coffins. 

The types of the coffins of adults were: (1) Decorated rectangular, (2) plain 
rectangular, (3) ' dug-out ', (4) Rishi, (5) plain anthropoid, (6) semi-decorated 
anthropoid, and (7) decorated anthropoid of the New Kingdom. Each of these 
groups I have treated below, followed by a separate detailed description of each 
burial and object found in the tomb (see p. 70). 

Decorated rectangular coffiTis, Nos. 7, 35, 59, 63 (for examples see PI. LX. 1). 
The coffins of this class are most probably contemporaneous with the Hyksos 
period. They are similar to the coffin in the Cairo Museum belonging to a certain 
Abdu, a contemporary of the last of the Hyksos kings.^ Coffin No. 59 (p. 81) 
contained four mummies, two of which, and a basket containing a scarab, gave 
conflicting evidence to the above dating. The scarabs found on these two 
mummies bear the names of Thothmes I and II (PI. LXXII. 59 A, D), and the 
one in the basket (PI. LXXII. 59) according to Newberry is of a similar date. 
But the remaining antiquities, i.e. head-rest, biangular bowl, and black vase of 
foreign character (PI. LXVIII. 59) may be of an earlier period, and perhaps 
belonged to one of the other two mummies found in this coffin, and to the 
original interment. Coffin No. 63 (p. 82), which contained two mummies, had 
somewhat similar objects (PI. LXVIII. 63) to No, 59, but on one of the mummies, 
a woman, there were two cowroids (PI. LXXII. 63 A) which could be referred 
to the Early XVIIIth Dynasty. No. 7 (p. 70) yielded nothing beyond the actual 
body, and gives no further help for or against dating this group to these Dynasties. 

Plain rectangular coffins. Of these coffins there are three kinds, those with 
gable tops, those with flat tops, and those with open-grid bottoms (for examples 
see PI. LX. 2). The gable-topped coffins, Nos. 53, 62, 64, 65, 69, 71, 77, 83, with 

' Maspero, Gtdde C. M., 1911, pp. 386, 510, and Lacau, Cat. Gen. C. M., No. 28108. 


lids sometimes nearly semicircular in section, have always on the lid a longitudinal 
beam in the centre. These are probably of the same epoch as the other two kinds, 
but I am treating them here separately ; they are very similar to some described 
by M. Lacau as Sarcophages anterieurs au Nouvel Empire in his catalogue of 
that section of the Cairo Museum, more especially to No. 28030, which has exactly 
the same central beam and construction of hd. One is thus led to beUeve them 
to be of this period. Groups of objects found in some of them (for examples see 
PL LXIX. 64, 71, and 83) could be anterior to the New Kingdom. On the other 
hand, Nos. 53 and 62 (Pis. LXIX. 53 and LXXII. 62 A, B) contained antiquities 
of the Early XVIIIth Dynasty to as late as the time of Princess Neferu-ra 
(Hatshepsut's daughter) and Thothmes III (see PI. LXXII. 53). This last 
evidence is not absolutely contradictory, for we have examples of rectangular 
wooden coffins belonging to the New Kingdom. I am inclined, however, to 
assume that they have been re-used in these particular instances. No. 83 of the 
batch (p. 86) was covered intentionally with stone chippings and placed in a niche 
(PI. LV. G) especially made for it. This gave us every reason to suppose it to 
be a burial made in the tomb when left open after destruction, and before it was 
used as a storehouse. The three pots (PI. LXXIV. G) belonging to this coffin, 
and carefully placed behind it, give us a clue to the date of the stray pottery found 
mingled with the other coffins and lying on the floors of the passage and chambers 
of this great tomb, namely, the Intermediate Period. 

The flat-topped coffins, Nos. 8, 15, 21, 22, 34, 36, 46, 48, 49, 55, 57, 75, 76, 78, 
79, and 81 were often found to be made of scrap timber from other sarcophagi, 
and on the whole they perhaps incline to be later than the gable-topped coffins. 
The latest fixed date found on the objects in them was that of the Divine Wife, 
Hatshepsut, which occurred in that of No. 21, on a silver-mounted scarab ring 
(PI. LXXII. 21). A head-rest found with it is certainly different in character to 
others found here, and it has engraved upon its stem the deities Bes and Taurt 
(PI. LXVIII. 21). The head-rest found in coffin No. 57 (PI. LXVIII. 57) has 
a short base, and it strikes one as being of a character between the earlier long- 
based types like No. 15 (PL LXVIII. 15) and that of No. 21. Burial No. 78 
was furnished with the most complete group of objects (PL LXVIII. 78), and 
might be referred to the Early XVIIIth Dynasty. The last section of this group, 
the open-grid bottomed coffins, Nos. 50 and 52, are of smaller size (see PL LX. 52). 
They recall some of the older coffins of the Early Middle Kingdom found at 
Aswan that have false bottoms of lattice work,^ But these coffins constructed 
out of wood from older sarcophagi are seemingly later than the rest, for in one 
of them, No. 50, a necklace of beads and amulets (PL LXXIII. 50) is certainly of 
the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty. 

1 Annates, 1903, Tome IV, p. 70. A coffin of a certain Heq-Tau. 'Tlie bottom of tfie coffin is 
divided into small compartments by a kind of wooden frame or trellis, each division being filled with 
earth, probably representing cultivated land.' 



• Dug-out ' cqffim. Nos. 37 and 58 (see PI. LXI. 58) are exceedingly rough, 
and cut out of tree trunks. One of them had its lid bound to its shell with rope. 
From a scarab (PI. LXXII. 37) found in coffin 37 these 'Dug-outs' seem to 
belong to the beginning of the Second Theban Empire, though similar specimens 
found in some of the tombs recorded above were of a slightly earlier date. 

Rtshi coffins. Nos. 2, 10, 11, 12, 60, 66, and 70 are a type pecuhar to the 
Theban Necropohs, and only a limited number of these coffins have been discovered. 
They are named »^w/«'' from the design painted upon them being composed of 
two large wings of many-coloured feathers that envelop the mummy fonn ; for 
examples of those found here, see PI. LXI I. 1.^ They belong to the Intermediate 
Period. With the seven specimens discovered in this cache there were only a few 
beads, a cowroid seal (PL LXXII. 11), a bronze mirror, and a wooden head-rest 
(PI. LXX. 70) ; and, with the exception of the cowroid seal which might be as 
late as the Early XVIIIth Dynasty, these objects do not seem later than the end 
of the Intermediate Period. 

The richest intennent of this type, in personal objects, was the one found 
by Prof Petrie,' and the antiquities here were all characteristic of the time between 
the Middle Kingdom and the New Empire. 

If one compares the facial type of these coffins, more especially the profiles, 
of all the examples known, it will be noticed (as Erskine Nicol pointed out to me) 
that they have a distinct and uniform character. And it is not without interest 
to note that the expression and peculiarity of face strongly resembles the so-called 
Hyksos heads discovered by Prof Naville at Bubastis.* 

Plain anthropoid coffins, Nos. 5, 29, 38, and 47 (PI. LXI. 29). Only one 
coffin of this series contained any material that was of use for dating. This coffin. 
No. 47 (p. 79), with the mummy of a woman, had a scarab of the Hyksos Period, 
a cowroid in glass, and a glazed scaraboid bead of the Second Tlieban Empire (see 
PI. LXXII. 47). The two latter objects plainly show that the burial cannot be 
anterior to the Early XN^IIIth Dynasty. 

Semi-decorated anthropoid coffins, Nos. 6 and 68 (PI. LXI. 6). These two 
specimens form a small group of their own. They are of very coarse workmanship, 
in design resembling those of the New Kingdom, but in the face they have a likeness 
to the Rishi type. They bear no names or inscriptions, and the only objects beside 
the mummies found in them were a few bead-bangles (PI. I^XXIII. 6), which 
give but little help towards their date. One is inclined to believe that they are 
coffins of the poorer people of the Early New Empire. 

Decorated anthropoid coffins of the New Kingdom, Nos. 23, 24, 73, and 74 
(Pis. LXII. 73, LXI II. 74). These coffins are painted white and embeUished 

' An Arabic expression introduced by Vassalli. 

' See specimen, Mariette's Monuments divers, PI. LI, coffin of Aqlior. Anotlier specimen was found 
in Tomb 27 in 1910 (PI. LIII. 'A). 

' Petrie, Qurnek, 1909, pp. 6-9, Pis. XXII-XXIX. 

♦ Naville, Bubastis, 1887-9, and Petrie, History of Egypt, I, Figs. 142-3. 


with a light and simple decoration. The finest specimen of the series was No. 23 
(p. 74), but unfortunately it was found in very bad preservation, the rock ceiling 
of the tomb having fallen upon it. Coffin No. 24 (p. 74) contained, besides other 
antiquities, two scarabs of a much earlier period than the date of the coffin ; one 
was of the Xlllth Dynasty and bears the name of a ' Herald' Ren-senb, the other 
is of the Intermediate Period and bears an enigmatical inscription (PI. LXXII. 24). 
In coffin No. 73 (p. 84) was a small pot containing a kind of pomatum, which shows 
the use of such small pottery vessels so frequently found with burials of this cache. 
Coffin No. 74 (p. 85, PI. LXIII) was of particular interest, it having depicted 
upon its sides, in place of the usual representations of the gods, scenes of burial 
ceremonies; and among the formulae written upon it occurs a variant form of 
the sign for Horus.' 

A fifth coffin. No. 18 (PI. LXII. 18), of simple blue decoration upon a white 
ground, might be placed in the same category, though perhaps it is of a slightly 
earlier date than the above four. 

Two viscera boxes, Nos. 19 and 20, found at the feet of coffins 23 and 24, 
probably belong to them. One of the boxes, No. 20 (p. 73, PI. LXI. 20), bore 
the name Ta-nezem, which occurred on coffin No. 24. At the feet of coffins 73 
and 74 was another viscera box. No. 72. 

Childrens coffins. These numerous small coffins were of exceedingly rough 
workmanship, without any decoration, and were of the following types : (1) Rect- 
angular (PI. LXI. 61, 80), (2) 'dug-out' rectangular (PI. LXI, 41), (3) 'dug-out' 
anthropoid (No. 40), and (4) a type peculiar to itself (PI. LXI. 42). No doubt 
their parents were among the many adult burials found in this cache, but we have 
nothing to tell us to which they belong. One of these small coffins. No. 84, had 
a small necklace (PI. LXXIII. 84) like that found in 1910 in the Middle Empire 
tomb No. 24 (p. 53, PI. XLV. H). Another, No. 31, contained (resting upon the 
shins of a mummy of a small child) a basket with the diffisrent kinds of necklaces 
represented in PI. LXXIII under No. 31,^ On one of these necklaces a bead, 
cowroid in shape, bore the prenomen of Thothmes I. These necklaces did not 
appear to belong to the child, as a number of stone chippings were found mingled 
with them, which would suggest their having been gathered up from the ground 
and thrown into the coffin. 

The method used in wrapping the mummies was found in general to be similar 
in all cases. They had always one shroud of linen laid over them, and sometimes 
one underneath, with an occasional one between the actual bindings of the body. 
The limbs were separately bound. In some instances the mummy was tied up 
with long twisted linen ropes bound round, spirally, from head to foot, and these, 
I believe, had been re-wrapped. Some of the mummies were bitumenized. 

' My attention was drawn to this fact by Professor Spiegelberg. 

" The three examples given in this illustration are the types found among the many necklaces 
belonging to the basket that was found lying in the coffin. 


In the Rishi burials the fashion adopted closely resembled the Rishi interment 
discovered by Professor Petrie (Petrie, Qurneh, pp. 7-9). 

The scarabs found on the mummies, when worn as a ring, were always placed 
on the third finger of the left hand. A few beads sprinkled among the wrappings 
of the body was also found to be a not uncommon custom. 

Among other objects pertaining to the funeral equipments found in this cache 
there were : No. 16, a rush-work basket containing articles of toilet use, and 
a scarab of Amenhetep I (Pis. LXIV, LXV. 16) ; No. 25, another similar basket 
containing what appears to be part of a scribe's outfit (PI. LXVI). Here a reed- 
case and palette illustrates the hieroglyph ^, but unfortunately the small bladder 

for colour, shown in the centre of the sign, is missing in this case. Nos. 28, 63 A, 
and 92, musical instruments (PI. LXXI) ; No. 28, a bird trap (PI. I^XIV) ; 
Nos. 26, 28, two writing tablets ; and Nos. 88, 89, and 90, three panel stelae 
(Pis. LXXV to LXXVIII). 

Catalogue of the Antiquities found in Tomb No. 37.' 

1. A bunch of vine leaves and twigs lying upon the ddbris of the tomb. 

North Wing. 

2. Rishi cojfin. Shell, cut out of a stem of a tree, and left quite plain and 

rough. Lid, painted detail and feathering like No. 66, but in this case 
painted upon a yellow ground only. It bears no inscriptions, and the 
face is coloured yellow (Pis. LVII, LXII. 2). 

Contents : — A well-preserved mummy of a tall man. 

3. A very decayed mummy of a man, wrapped in a mat and bound with cord. 

4. A group of broken pots and some vine leaves. 

.5. Plain anthropoid coffin. Like No. 29, but has its face painted yellow. 
Contents : — A mummy of an old woman very loosely wrapped. 

6. Semi-decorated anthropoid coffin. Lid and shell painted white with longi- 

tudinal and transverse bands in yellow. Face yellow. Head-dress 
yellow with blue lines. It bears no inscriptions (Pis. LIX, LXI. 6). 

Contents : — Three mummies covered with a shroud. Two were lying 
side by side, the third was reversed with its head towards the feet of 
the others. («) The reversed burial, mummy of a woman re-wrapped ; 
{b) mummy of a woman ; (c) mummy of a man with bead bangles on 
left wrist, the beads were of dark violet glaze (PI, LXXIII. 6). 

7. Decorated rectangular coffin. The general ground colour is yellow, and 

the design painted upon it is in red, green, dark blue, and white. On 
the ends, the figures of Is'is and Nephthys kneeling upon neb signs are 

* For the actual positions of the objects refer to plan of tomb, PI. LV. 


North Wing {continued). 

depicted upon a white gi-ound. The lid was tied on with ropes of D6m 
palm-fibre (PI. LX. 7). 

Contents :— Mummy of an old man, reduced to a mere skeleton. 
Among the debris from the abdomen of the mummy was a bladder- 

8. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 75. 

Contents : — Mummy of a man covered with a sheet. Resting against 
the coffin was an earthenware pot (PL LXXIV. 8). 

Central passage. 

9. The base of a wooden head-rest (this was similar to those found in the coffins 

of this cache). 

10. Rishi coffin. Broken and in bad condition. It was made and decorated Uke 

No. 2. 

Contents : — Mummy of a man very roughly wrapped. 

11. Rishi coffin. Shell, plain wood. Lid, the ground colour white and yellow, 

and the detail like No. 6G. The longitudinal band for text down the 
front had no inscription (Pis. LVI, LXII. 11). 

Contents :— Mummy of a woman lying flat on its back with the head 
turned towards the left. A small child's mummy was resting on her 
feet. Among the debris at the bottom of the coffin were: (1) a few 
small beads of greenish blue faience ; (2) a cowroid seal of green glazed 
steatite (PI. LXXII. 11); in the hole pierced through the cowroid seal 
were remains of thread. 

12. Rishi coffin. Like No. 66 (PI. LVI. 12). 

Contents : — A scantily wrapped mummy of a man. 

13. The frame of a wooden stool. This was leaning against the wall, and it 

rested upon the mutilated remains of a mummy (PI. LVI. 13). With 
the debris of the mummy was (1) the greater portion of a large necklace 
of blue faience beads : the remainder of this necklace was found scattered 
upon the floor as far as the entrance of the hall at the end of the central 
passage (PI. LXXIII. 13) ; (2) the mouth and nose of a mummy mask. 

14. A mortar-bed. The mud mortar here (PI. LVI. 14) appears to have been 

mixed for the second closing of the doorway of the hall (C) ; the first 
closing of this doorway was with a Tafle mortar. 

15. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Like No. 75, the coffin shows signs 

of rough handling, and had been broken to pieces. 

Contents : — Mummy of a woman. By the left shoulder was a wooden 
head-rest broken into two pieces and the central portion of its stem 
missing (PI. LXVIII. 15) ; on the third finger of the left hand was 
a blue glazed steatite scarab tied with string (PI. LXXII. 15) ; and 
sprinkled in the linen wrappings were a few small beads of blue faience. 


Hall {Q. 

16. An oval-shaped riish basket. This basket is finely woven and measures 

50 cms. across its long axis. It shows traces of coloured strands 
interwoven into the mesh at intervals to form triangular markings, 
but the colour of these markings has deteriorated. The lid has a flange 
round its lower edge to fit into a corresponding rim or flange on the 
inner side of the mouth of the basket itself (PI. LXIV. 16). 

Contents : — A pair of bronze forceps for extracting hair (PL LXV) ; 
note the curved ends made expressly for that purpose. 

A razor very finely wrought of copper, with two separate cutting 
edges. One edge or blade is slightly concave for shaving the convex 
surfaces of the head, face, and body ; the other blade is of convex shape 
for shaving the concave parts, such as the ami-pits (PI. LXV). The 
preservation is so good that the knife edges are still keen, and the prints 
of the ancient finger-marks are still visible upon its polished surfaces. 
It measures 18-5 cms. in length. 

A hone of granular white stone for sharpening the razor (PI. LXV). 

A kohl-box made of cedar-wood (?). It is octagonal in shape, and 
has an ivory lid and base. The lid turns on a stud-headed wooden peg, 
and when closed it was held in place by an ivory bolt shot into copper 
staples. On the side of the box, slung in two copper staples, is the 
ebony kohl-stick. The total length is 7-9 cms. (PI. LXV). 

The handle and clasp of a fan made of wood (PI. LXV). 

A pottery bowl (PI. LXV). 

An ebony kohl-stick. 

A pair of leather sandals (these were adhering to the bottom of the 
basket, and could not be removed). 

A large round basket (PI. LXIV, right-hand side of illustration). 

A small round basket (PI. LXIV, left-hand side of illustration). 

The large round basket contained : 
A kohl-pot of hard grey stone like aragonite, and a kohl-stick of 
ebony (PI. LXV). 

A bronze mirror made of copper, measuring in its maximum 
length 17 cms. (PI. LXV) : the handle had been coated with a white 
metal (silver ?) to prevent corrosion. 

A scarab made of green jasper and bearing the prenomen and 
nomen of Amenhetep I (Pis. LXV, LXXII. 16). It is round 
backed and a fine specimen. 

Some decayed locks of hair. 

The smaller round basket contained : 

A blue glazed steatite scarab of the Hyksos Period (Pis. LXV, 
LXXII. 16). 

17. .^ chair and a stool. These were broken and tucked between the foot of 


Hall (C) {contiyiued). 

coffin No. 18 and the wall (PL LXXI). The chair made of wood has 
a low square seat of rush- work mesh plaited upon a frame and supported 
by four square legs ; the legs are strengthened by cross-bars. The 
slanting, curved, compound back is dowelled into the frame of the seat, 
and it is stayed by uprights which are continuous from the back legs ; 
it also had (now missing) a central strut at the back. These uprights 
and the central strut were fixed to the back of the chair by means 
of ivory pegs. The principal constructive joints of the main body of 
the chair are strengthened by angle-pieces of carved bent wood, and 
these angle-pieces when exposed to view are ornamented by being 
composed of several kinds of wood. The top rail of the back (missing) 
appears from some of the remaining ivory pegs to have been made 
of ivory. It measures 41 x 52 cms. square, the seat 28 cms. high, and 
the top rail of the back must have been something hke 75 cms. when 
perfect. The stool had a similar seat to the chair, and it also has 
similar strengthening bars between the legs. It stands 16 cms. in 
height, and measures 38 x 35 cms. square. 

18. Decorated anthropoid coffin of the JVeiv Kingdom. Ground colour white ; 

head-dress and bands for hieroglyphs blue. The inscriptions, written 
in black, with linear hieroglyphs of the Intermediate Period style, do 
not give any name (PI. LXII. 18). 

Contents : — Mummy roughly wrapped. The sex was difficult to 

19. Viscera box. Small square box painted white and of inferior quality. The 

interior, divided into two compartments by a central partition, contained 
matter wrapped in linen like the viscera of a mummy. 

20. Viscera box. Painted white, with the de hetep seten formula upon the lid 

giving the name c^ ^\ ^ t\ J| Ta-nezem. Depicted upon the four sides 
of the box are human-headed canopic jars, with, written on either side, the 
usual formulae in vertical bands (PI. LXI. 20). The interior, divided into 
four compartments, contained similar matter to No. 19 (see coffin No. 24). 

21. Plain rectatigular flat-topped coffin. Like No. 75 (broken). 

Contents : — Mummy of a man covered with a sheet. At the side of 
the left shoulder a wooden head-rest (PI. LXVIII. 21), with, engraved 
upon its stem, the deities Bes and Taurt. On the third finger of the 
left hand a scarab mounted on a silver ring (PI. LXXII. 21). The 
scarab is round-backed, of green glazed steatite, and has inscribed upon 
its base the ' Divine Wife, Hatshepsut '. 

22. Plain rectangidar flat-topped coffin. Like No. 75 (broken). 

Contents :— Mummy of a woman, decayed and fallen to pieces. In the 
debris traces of plaited hair and two red jasper scarabs (PI. LXXII. 22). 


Hall (C) {contimied). 

23. Decorated anthropoid coffin of the Nerc Empire. Ground colour white. 

Head-dress, blue striated with yellow lines. Face, yellow, with the 
eye-sockets of bronze, eyeballs of aragonite, and pupils of obsidian. 
Decoration, round the neck a collarette painted to represent rows of 
coloured beads, fringed with drop pendants, and with hawk-headed 
clasps. Below, over the breast, the vulture Nekhebyt and goddess Nut. 
On either side, at the ankles, the jackal Annbis is represented resting on 
his pylon. At the feet Isis and at the head Ncplithys. There are three 
transverse bands round the body and one longitudinal band down the 
front, all of which contain the usual religious formulae with the owner's 

name _^ ^ i§\ Tahuti. On the sides of the shell, in the panels formed 

by the bands of hieroglyphs, are representations of the different gods 
facing legends dedicated to them. The lid was fixed to its shell by 
stud-headed wooden pegs. 

Contents: — Mummy of a man with his hands crossed over the 
thighs. On the third finger of the left hand, attached by string, was 
a round-backed green glazed steatite scarab (PI. LXXII. 23). 

Beneath the coffin, and lying on the floor of the chamber, was 
a walking staff 142 cms. in length. The bark upon the stick was intact 
and it resembles that of cherry wood. The end was worn, and at the 
handle a natural projecting branch was trimmed so as to form a crutch. 

24. Deco?-ated anthropoid coffin of the New Empire. This coffin was similar to 

No. 23, but not so fine. The eyes were only painted, and the decora- 
tion varied by having the goddess Niit alone below the collar, the 
absence of the two jackals on the sides of the ankles, and Nephthys 
on the head. The legends, between the bands of formulae, referring to 
the gods had been added in black ink after the completion of the coffin. 

It bore the name '■^^^ J Aah-hetep, who was called ^^^\^^J| 
Ta-nezem (see viscera box No. 20). 

Contents :— Mummy of a woman carefully wrapped, with the right 
arm across the breast, and the left arm resting at the side. She was 
covered with a sheet which when removed exposed two statuettes 
lying on either side of the knees of the mummy (PI. LXVII. 2), and 
upon the shins a round shallow basket (PI. LXIV. 24) containing a 
heart scarab made of unburnt steatite bearing an enigmatical inscription 
(PL LXXII. 24). On the left hand, tied with string to the third 
finger, were two scarabs : one, high-backed and of blue glazed steatite, 
bore the name of the ' Herald Ren-senb ' ; the other, high-backed and 
of blue paste, had a winged kheper surmounted by Ra engraved upon 
its base (PI. LXXII. 24). Underneath the mummy was a very small 
basket containing three copper forceps and a kohl-stick. 


Hall (C) {continued). 

The statuette found on the right side may be described as follows: 
Small portrait figure of a boy named /] "^^^^ /=: fT] Amenemheb, nude, 
and of electrum ; dedicated by his father Tahuti ^ ' who makes to live 
his name'. It measures 13 cms. high, and stands upon a wooden 
pedestal which is inscribed. The work is that of a very good artist, 
showing great instinctive feeling and subtle modelling as well as 
delicacy. Though the actual finish of the detail is not carried to 
a very high pitch, this fact does not lessen its beauty, and a glance 
at the photographs (PL LXV^II. 1 and frontispiece) will at once show 
its charm and high art sense. In the left hand is a lotus-bud with 
long and flowing stalk. The metal was cast and the figure worked 
upon after it was chilled. The statuette at first may seem attenuated, 
but any one who knows the youth of modern Egypt will at once 
recognize its truth. 

The statuette found on the left side was in wood, of a boy named 

S ^ ^ J o ^ Hu-uben-ef, and it was dedicated by his father Tahuti 
' who makes to live his name '. This figure stands 31 cms. in height, 
and is very cleanly cut, the work good, but of a different and perhaps 
not so high a standard as the metal figure of his brother. Nevertheless 
it is exquisitely rendered and shows a strong likeness to the other, 
particularly in the shape of the head. The pedestal is inscribed with the 
dedication, and mentions also a prayer for per-kheru offerings for the 
/iff. Traces of colour, red, are visible on the nude parts ; the hair is 
coloured black, the eye-balls are painted white, the pupils, eye-lashes, 
and brows black (PI. LXVII. 2). 
25. An oval-shaped basket. This basket is similar in make to No. 16 and 
measures 40 cms. across its long axis. It is of coarser weaving and 
shows no signs of decorations (PI. LXIV. 25). Some bituminous 
material had been spilt into it, and many of the objects it con- 
tained adhered to its inner side and were stuck together from that 

Contents (PI. LXVI) : — It seemed to have contained a scribe's outfit, 
which was once probably complete, but many of the objects found in it 
were broken and parts of them were missing. These were : (1) a large 
reed case made of a section cut from the stalk of a thick rush. At the 
top this has a floral ornament made of four pieces of carved wood which 
are let into spaces cut in the sides at the end and bound in position by a 
strip of linen. The node or natural joint of the rush has been utilized for 
the bottom end, and the top end was stopped by a rag plug. In it were 

1 See coffin No. 23. 



Hall (C) (continued). 

found twenty-six thin reeds and a few seeds of a plant.' (2) A small 
reed case made like the former one described above, but without top 
ornament. It enclosed fifteen thin reeds and similar seeds of a plant/ 
(3) A wooden palette varying only from the common and well-known 
types by having three small oblong-shaped holes pierced diagonally 
through the side corners for strips of leather (?) for suspension. (4) A 
peculiar wooden instrument, mallet-like in shape : its use is unknown to 
me. There are on the small end indentations like marks that could be 
caused by tightly-bound string. (5) A rectangular oblong piece of 
hard wood. Its use is unknown to me ; but it appears to be part of 
some instrument, as there are two holes in one side and another at the 
end. In all three holes there are ends of broken pegs. (6) A stick 
some 30 cms. in length. It seems to be the cross-bar of a pair of scales 
(note the hole and peg in the centre and peculiar notched ends). 
(7) A bag made of woven fibrous string. (8) A small linen bag ; 
the mouth was drawn together by string in the same manner as purses 
of the present day. (9) A roll of leather, bound with strips of the same 
material. (10) A roU of linen (not shown in the Plate). (11) Very small 
fragments of papyrus which seem to have been torn from a small roll of 
papyrus (not shown in the Plate). (12) A clay figure of a cynocephalous 
ape (Thoth). This little creature was wrapped in linen. (13) Human- 
headed sphinx, cut out of a sheet of copper. (14) A large round piece 
of wax. (15) A tortoise-shell. (16) A miniature clay cup. A strip of 
linen was bound round the stem. (17) Model knuckle-bone in clay. 
(18) Some pieces of resinous material. (19) A small wooden peg. 
(20) A small amuletic figure in green glaze faience. (21) One large 
clay disk, four wax disks, and twelve disks of different sizes made of 
some black material. They appear to be weights : 

1. Clay 120 grains. 

2. Wax 40 „ 

3. „ 40 „ 

weight obscured from bitumen 
adhering to them. 

4. „ 

5. ,, 

6. Black material 3-5 grains. 

o. „ ,, 3-5 „ 

J. ,, ,, 3-0 ,, 

10. „ „ — broken. 

11. „ „ 30 grains. 

' These seeds, too far gone to be recognized, are shown in PI. LXVI, above the figure of the ape. 


Hall (C) {continued). 

12. Black material 2-5 grains. 


2 5 , 


25 , 


25 , 


25 , 


20 , 

26. A writing tablet. This tablet, made of wood and covered with stucco, with 

surface polished for writing, bore inscriptions on both sides. It was 
broken in two halves, measures 48 x 26-5 cms., and was found among 
the stones covering the floor of the chamber (see Chapter XIII by 
Dr. MoUer). 

27. Parts of a model five-stringed musical imtrument. Similar to Nos. 28, 63 A, 

and 92 (see PI. LXXI, and for description No. 63 A). 

28. A pottei-y pan containing various objects. (1) A model four-stringed musical 

instrument (PI. LXXI. 28) made of sycomore wood, ebony, and ivory. 
(For further description see No. 63 A.) (2) A bird-trap (PL LXIV. 28) 
made of wood and of the following construction and mechanism : — 
Two flat boards cut semicircular and joined in the middle by a central 
broad bar of wood which is slightly longer than the diameter of the 
circle formed by the two semicircular boards ; these three pieces of 
wood formed the floor of the trap. Upon the central bar, it will be 
noticed that there are two pairs of pillars, grooved on top, and a hole 
in the bar on the right and left side of each pair of pillars (see PI. LXIV). 
Strung over each pair of pillars were (now missing) several strands of 
catgut (?), with their ends passed through the holes on either side, and 
held at the back by short pieces of stick. By revolving these pieces 
of stick at the back the strands of catgut were twisted and brought 
to any degree of tension required, and thus by this method formed two 
spring-hinges. Fixed in these spring-hinges was a flexible piece of stick 
bent to form an arched bow (not shown in PI. LXIV), either end of the 
bow being passed through the strands of twisted gut at such an angle 
as to cause the bow to be pressed on to one half of the circular bottom 
of the trap (the position when closed). Attached to the bow and on 
the opposite half of the bottom of the trap was a net (see holes for 
this purpose and remains of net, PL LXIV. 28), sufliciently large to 
allow the capture of a bird. To open the trap, the bow would be pulled 
over to the side that the net is attached to. On this side, at the edge, 
there is a notch (see PL LXIV. 28) for a pillar-catch which held the 
bow open. This catch was worked by a string through a hole beside 
it (see PL LXIV. 28), which was passed underneath and brought up 
through a hole in the centre of the bottom of the trap (see PL LXIV. 28), 


Hall (C) {continued). 

where the string was attached to a sensitive adjustment so placed that 
the movements of a bird touching it would detach it and cause the 
trap to close (i. e. the bow to spring into its original position on the 
opposite side). The wooden bow belonging to the trap was found 
sometime afterwards among a lot of stray wood that came from the 
tomb, and it was exactly as described above. (3) A mechanical toy 
bird made of wood (PI. LXIV, right and left of trap). (4) Pottery 
bowl of red pottery full of a brown powdery substance. (5) A painted 
clay head of a bull. (6) A small round basket containing a blue 
faience kohl-pot. (7) A writing tablet like No. 26 (see Chapter XIII 
by Dr. ISIciller). 

29. Plain antln-opoid coffin. The outer surface of this coffin is painted white, 

with the features of the face roughly delineated in black (PI. LXI. 29). 
Contents : — Mummy of a girl. 

30. Rectangular child's coffin. Similar to No. 80. 

Contents : — Skeleton of a baby. 
3L Dug-out rectangular child's coffin. Similar to No. 41. 

Contents: — Mummy of a child. In the wrappings covering the hair 
were some bone and cornelian beads like those found in coffin No. 78 
given in PI. LXXII. 78. Resting on the feet of the mummy was 
a basket turned over and its contents spilt. The contents were several 
necklaces of many kinds of blue faience beads, of which examples are 
given in PI. LXXIII. 31. A¥ith them was a small blue ftiience kohl- 
pot of usual type. One of the cowroid beads bore the prenomen of 
Thothmes I, while others had hieroglyphic signs on them, including 

one which had TI^^ upon its base. 

32. A bunch of papyrus reeds. 

33. A small obsidian unguent vase. This was found resting upon the chest of 

coffin No. 23. 

34. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 7.5 (broken). 

Contents : — Mummy broken to fragments. 

35. Decorated rectangular coffin. Smashed to pieces by the falling of the rock 

ceihng of the chamber. There were no traces of objects. 

36. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 75. 

Contents : — Among the decayed remains of a mummy was a round- 
backed green glazed steatite scarab, bearing a very fine example of 
spiral pattern engraved upon its bezel (PI. LXXII. 36). 

37. Rectangular dug-out coffin. Similar to No. 58 (fid missing). 

Contents : — Mummy of a woman. In the debris of the mummy, on 
the bottom of the coffin, was a round-backed green glazed steatite scarab 
(PI. LXXII. 37). 


Hall (C) {continued). 

38. Plain anthropoid coffin. Similar to No. 29. 

Contents :— Mummy of a man. Lying on the bottom of the coffin 
was a blue faience scaraboid bead (PI. LXXII. 38). 

39. Parts of a frame of a wooden stool. Similar to No. 13. 

40. Anthropoid dug-out child's coffin. Painted white and \ery roughly made. 

Contents : — Child's skeleton. 

Pit (D). 

41. Rectangular dug-out child's coffin. The shell was cut out of one block of 

wood, and for the lid a flat board was used. Wooden pegs at either 
end of the lid show that it once had head and foot pieces (PI. LXI. 41). 
Contents : — Mummy of a child. 

42. Rectangular dug-out child's coffin. This was of peculiar type. The block 

of wood from which it was made was cut in half diagonally, so that 
the lid and shell were of equal proportions. Some auxiliary pieces 
of wood had been let into the lid to strengthen it (PI. LXI. 42). 
Contents : — Skeleton of a baby. 

43. Rectangular child's coffin. Similar to No. 80. 

Contents : — Skeleton of a very young child. In the shell of the 
coffin there were a few miniature blue faience beads. 

44. Rectangular child's coffin. Similar to No. 80. The lid was tied on with rope. 

Contents : — Skeleton of a child. 

45. Rectangular child's coffin. Similar to No. 80. 

Contents : —Mummy of a child. 

46. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 75. 

Contents : — Mummy of a man. 

47. Plain anthropoid coffin. Similar to No. 29. The lid was tied on with rope. 

Contents : — Mummy of a woman, in bad condition and much decayed. 
In the debris there were some bone bead-bangles (for example see 
PI. LXXII I. 53); a blue glazed steatite scarab of the Hyksos period; 
a turquoise blue glass cowroid bead ; and a blue faience scaraboid bead 
(PI. LXXII. 47). 

48. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 75. 

Contents : — Mummy of a man. 

49. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 75. 

Contents :— Two mummies ; one of a man, the other of a woman, 
lying head to feet. Among these remains were some bone and cornelian 
bead-bangles (for example see PL LXXIII. 78). 

50. Rectangular open-giid bottomed coffin. Similar to No. 52. 

Contents :— Mummy of a half-grown child. The mummy was 
enveloped in reeds. Upon it were bone and cornelian bead-bangles 
(see PL LXXIII. 78) ; a group of tubular barrel-shaped beads, coated 


Pit (D) {continued). 

with chips of glass and disk-shaped faience beads ; also an amuletic necklace 
(PI. LXXIII. 50). The beads of this amuletic necklace -were made of 
cornelian, faience, and blue opaque glass ; the amulets were flies, hawks, 
and symbolical knots, made of glazed and unglazed steatite, jasper, and 
faience, and the central pendant of gold. The original position of these 
objects upon the mummy it was impossible to ascertain. 

51. Rectangular dug-out cJuhTs coffin. Similar to No. 41. 

Contents: — Mummy of a child. In the coffin, underneath the 
mummy, was a wooden throw-stick and a gold earring ; the second 
gold earring was afterwards found at the bottom of the pit. The 
throw-stick, 42 cms. in length, is finely carved out of very hard wood, 
and it has a propeller-like twist. 

52. Rectangular open-grid bottomed coffin. A plain wood rectangular coffin, 

with wooden bars at intervals in place of the boarded bottom (PI. LX. 52). 
Contents : — Mummy of a w^oman, bent, as it was too large for the 
coffin. On the third finger of the left hand, attached by string, were 
two jasper scarabs (PI. LXXII. 52). One of the scarabs had a fish and 
lotus-flower engraved upon its bezel. 

53. Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin. Similar to No. 62, but has no traces 

of paint. 

Contents : — Mummy of a man. Beside the head, and resting on the 
bottom of the coffin, were : — (1) a small wood and ivory jewel-box 
(fallen to pieces) ; (2) an alabaster bowl in the shape of a cartouche ; 
(3) a blue faience bowl ; and (4) a pottery vase (PI. LXIX. 53). The 
mummy had rotted away, and among the debris were : — (1) round-backed 
blue glazed steatite scarab, mounted in a gold funda, bearing on its base 
the name of the royal daughter, Neferu-ra (daughter of Queen Hat- 
shepsut) ; (2) round-backed blue glazed scarab bearing the prenomen of 
Thothmes III ; (3) round-backed green glazed scarab, mounted in gold 
funda, bearing a decorative pattern ; (4) cowroid seal of glazed steatite 
(worn to brown) bearing a decorative pattern, and mounted in a gold 
Amda ; (5) high-backed scarab of dark green paste bearing a floral 
pattern, and mounted upon a copper-wire ring — the wire is threaded 
through the scarab and is passed through a small hole on the other end 
of the wire, flattened and pierced for the purpose, and it is held thus by 
being twisted round the wire a few times (PI. LXXII. 53). Fallen out 
of the small jewel-box (mentioned above) there were three necklaces. 
One of them was a long string of violet faience beads (similar to No. 6, 
PI. LXXIII) ; another was made up of plain bone beads (PI. LXXIII. 
53) ; and the third consisted of cornelian, violet faience, and gold beads, 
with amulets at intervals made of gold, sih'er, cornelian, and blue glass 
(PI. LXXIII. 53). 


Pit (D) (continued). 

54. A grey pottery vase (PL LXXIV. D), bearing a hieratic inscription (see 

Chapter XIII, by Dr. MoUer). 

55. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 75. 

Contents : — Two adult and one child's mummy. Like the coffin they 
were very much broken. Among the remains were bone and cornelian 
beads, and an ivory bracelet (PI. LXXIII. 55, on the plate incor- 
rectly 85). 

56. Rectangular child's coffin. Similar to No. 80. 

Contents : — Mummy of an infant. 

57. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 75. 

Contents : — Three adult mummies, which, like the coffin, were broken. 
With them was a wooden head-rest (PI. LXVIII. 57) ; a round-backed 
green glazed steatite scarab (PL LXXII. 57) ; and a few stray beads 
of cornelian, faience, and bone. 

58. Rectangular dug-out coffin. The lid was tied on with rope (PL LXI. 58). 

Contents : — Mummy of a man. 

59. Decorated rectangular coffin. The colouring is similar to that of No. 7, 

except that instead of the two goddesses at either end there are 
geometrical drawings (PL LX. 59). 

Contents : — Four mummies covered with a large shroud. At the 
head end of the coffin, and resting on the mummies, there were: (1) a 
black pottery vase ; (2) a red pottery biangular bowl ; (3) a wooden 
head-rest ; (4) a basket containing four dom nuts, and a vase which 
had in it a piece of crystal, and a round-backed green glazed steatite 
scarab (PL LXVIII. 59 and PL LXXII. 59). 

The four mummies, packed head to feet, were as follows : — 

(a) Mummy of a woman with a scarab necklace (PL IjXXII, 59 A) ; 

a bead necklace (PL LXXIII. 59) ; and some bead-bangles of 
bone and cornelian (for examples see No. 78, PL LXXIII). One 
of the scarabs upon the necklace bears the nomen of Thothmes I. 

(b) Mummy of a child. 

(c) Mummy of a man wrapped in very coarse linen. 

(d) Mummy of an adult (sex difficult to ascertain). 

With the mummy there was a walking-staff; in the abdomen were 
some dom nuts, and a group of scarabs (PL LXXII. 59 D), which 
appear, from the string that some were still threaded upon, to have once 
formed a necklace. In the wrappings near the neck of the mummy 
were some faience and bone beads. One of the scarabs bore upon its 
bezel O ^z:7 ^ Neb-ded-Ra, encircled by a coil pattern (cp. Scarab, B.M., 
No. 37730) ; another had the prenomen of Thothmes II, above a crouching 
jackal ; and a third one has the Hor-nub name of Thothmes I. 



Chamber (E). 

60. Rfshi coffin. Similar to No. 11, but of very rough workmanship. 

Contents : — Mummy of a woman scantily wTapped in coarse linen. 

61. Rectangular child's coffin. Similar to No. 80. 

Contents : — Mummy of an infant. 

62. Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin. The outer surface of this coffin is 

covered with a thin paint of pinky hue. The lid is slanting on either 
side, has a longitudinal beam in the centre, and an upright head and 
foot piece on its ends (PI. LX. 62). 

Contents : — Three mummies : two were of adults lying side by side, 
the third of a child placed at their feet. The child's mummy had upon 
its neck an amuletic necklace composed of round and barrel faience 
beads of red and green colour with pendant amulets of the same 
material, and in the centre a brown stone turtle ; on the arms were 
bead-bangles composed of bone and faience beads ; and lying near the 
hands, tied upon a piece of string, were two scarabs and a cowroid seal 
(PI. LXXII. 62 A). One of the adult mummies had round its neck 
a cornelian bead necklace (PI. LXXII I. 62) ; and upon the third finger 
of the left hand a green glazed steatite scarab (PI. LXXII. 62 B). 

63. Decorated rectangular coffin. The coloration of the detail, painted upon 

a strawberry-coloured ground, is similar to No. 7. On the end panels, 
the goddesses Isis and Ncphthys are standing with the arms upheld 
(PI. LX. 63). 

Contents : — Two mummies of a man and a woman, lying side by side, 
and covered with a shroud. Beside the head of the woman were two 
grey pottery vases, and a larger one in black pottery ; a dark blue faience 
bowl, and a wooden kohl-pot (PI. LXVIII. 63). The woman had within 
the wrappings of the head a broken ivory comb (PI. LXVIII. 63) ; and 
near the hands, lying loosely, were two cowroid seals (PI. LXXII. 63 A). 
The man had no ornament upon him. 
63 A. A four-stringed musical instrument (PI. liXXI. 63 A). The neck, back, and 
belly are made of one piece of sycomore wood. The belly is hollowed 
out like a trough, and has its two sides curved slightly inwards at 
the middle, thus forming a kind of waist (this was probably due to 
the tension of the strained skin that covered it). Across the belly, 
longitudinally, is the combined tail-piece and bridge to which the lower 
fixed ends of the strings are attached : the tapering end of this com- 
bined tail-piece and bridge was inserted into a socket at the juncture 
where the belly and neck join, and its lower and broader end was bound 
to a protuberance, made for the purpose, at the extreme end of the 
belly. Near the top end of the neck, and into the back of it, the four 
key-pegs for receiving the strings are inserted. The strings themselves 
(their lower ends being fixed to the combined tail-piece and bridge). 


Chamber (E) {continued). 

which were passed along the side of the neck and twisted round the 
key-pegs, had their upper ends brought over the neclc and sUpped under 
the tightened portion of the strings which pressed against the side of 
the neck (see Fig. 92, Ph LXXI). For a sounding-board, skin was 
stretched over the whole of the beUy, with an aperture left at the 
juncture of the belly and neck to allow the combined tail-piece and 
bridge to be inserted into its socket. The total length of the instrument 
is 1-37 metres. This particular specimen I believe to have been an 
actual instrument, while the others, Nos. 27, 28, and 92, were merely 
small models. With these models there are slight variations in the 
construction, but as the main idea is the same it is unnecessary to 
describe them. 

64. Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin. Similar to No. 62, but has no traces 

of colour upon it. 

Contents : — Mummy of a man sewn up in a shroud. Near the head 
a wooden head-rest; by the side a walking-staff; and under the head, 
wrapped in a piece of linen, were (1) a wooden kohl-pot of trefoil 
section, (2) a bronze razor and granular stone hone,^ (3) a cord belt and 
loin cloth (PL LXIX. 64). On the third finger of the left hand was 
a blue glazed steatite scarab, mounted on gold funda : this was tied with 
string (Ph LXXI I. 64). 

65. Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin. Similar to No. 62, but with no traces 

of colour. 

Contents : — Two mummies of a man and woman, lying head to feet, 
and covered by a shroud. The mummy of the woman had a broken 
alabaster bowl (PI. LXIX. 65) lying at the feet. The mummy of the 
man appeared to be re- wrapped, and had nothing on it. 

66. Rishi coffin. Shell— cut out of a tree trunk, and painted with black, red, and 

white bands. Lid — the detailed feather-decoration is painted in red, 
green, and dark blue on a white and yellow ground. The face is yellow. 
The longitudinal band down the centre has no inscription (PI. LXII. 66). 
Contents : — Mummy of a man. 

67. Rectangular child's coffin. This coffin had been enlarged, and the lid, which 

was made of old boards, was tied to pegs at either end of the shell. 
Contents : — Mummy of a child, with knees bent. 

Chamber {A). 

68. Semi-decorated anthropoid coffin. Similar to No. 6 (PI. LVIII. 68). 

Contents : — A skeleton of a young man with hardly any traces of 
mummification visible. 

' See No. 16. 
M 2 


Chamber {A) {coutimied). 

69. Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin. Similar to No. 62 (PI. LVIII. 69). 

Contents : — Mummy of a woman much decayed. 

70. Rishi coffin. Similar to No. 66. The longitudinal band down the front has 

the de hetep setcn formula, but bears no name : space for the name has 
been left bhmk (PI. LVIII. 70). 

Contents:— Mummy of a woman lying flat on her back, with head 
turned towards the left. In front of the face, a wooden head-rest ; 
under the cheek, a large bronze mirror. On the head was a wig of 
plaited hair (PI. LXX. 70). 

71. Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin. Similar to No. 62. The bottom of 

the coffin was not in place, and was lying on the floor, only partly 
under it. 

Contents : — ISIummy of a woman covered with a mat with long pile. 
On her right side, a wooden cylinder covered with leather and con- 
taining six musical reeds. These reeds were (I) 36-5 cms. long, with 
four notes ; (2) 36-5 cms. long, with three notes ; (3) 30-5 cms. long, 
with two notes ; (4) 28 cms. long, with four notes on one side (three 
were intentionally blocked up with resinous material), and on the other 
side there was a hole or note ; (5) 25 cms. long, with five notes (a crack 
mended with resinous material) ; (6) 23-5 cms. long, with five notes. 
The reeds average 12 mms. in thickness. Under the woman's legs was 
a basket containing two flints, two lumps of clay, a reed kohl-pot and 
two wooden kohl-sticks, a piece of a wooden comb,' a splinter of wood, 
some bone and faience bead-bangles, and a small plaited lock of hair. 
In the womb were traces of an embryonic skeleton (PI. LXIX. 71). 

72. Viscera box. Similar to No. 20, with rounded lid (Pi. LXI. 72). No 


Contents hke Nos, 19 and 20. 
78. Decorated anthropoid coffin of the New Empire. Similar in fashion to 
No. 23,. but rougher in detail and finish (Pis. LVIII and LXII. 73). 

The lid was fixed in place by wooden pegs, and it bore the name -"^^fiP 

Contents : — Mummy of a woman covered with a shroud. On the 
right side of the head was a broken kohl-pot ; and at the top of the head, 
rolled in linen, a chignon, a pottery vase containing a kind of pomade 
which bore prints of the ancient fingers, and an ebony comb and bone 
hair-pin (PI. LXX. 73). The mummy was sewn up in a sheet, which, 
when removed, exposed transverse bindings which continued down to the 
bitumenized body. The arms were crossed over the abdomen. On the 
head, over the natural hair, a plaited wig much decayed. 

' See 73. 


Chamber {A) {contimied). 

74. Decorated anthropoid coffin of the New Empire. This coffin (PL LVIII. 74.) 

is fully illustrated by Plate LXIII, Figs. 1, 2. It bears the name of 

^^^^ s=* ^ |_| Mentu-hetep, and, among the religious formulae written 
upon it, gives the variant ^_ for Horus. 

Contents : — Mummy of a man covered with a shroud. Under the 
shroud, and resting upon the mummy, was a long (164 cms.) bronze 
snake sceptre ; and on the third finger of the left hand a round-backed 
green glazed steatite scarab (PI. LXXII. 74) tied with string. 

75. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Lid and shell made of planks of wood, 

with upright head and foot pieces upon the ends of lid (Pis. LVIII, 
LX. 75). 

Contents : — Mummy of a woman with plaited hair. Round the 
waist was a girdle composed of two twisted strings of bone beads. 

76. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 75. 

Contents : — Mummy of a woman. Hair plaited ; on wrists, bangles 
of double strings of bone and cornelian beads ; on third finger of left 
hand a scarab (PI. LXXII. 76), and few beads strung on thread ; and 
tied round the fourth finger of the same hand was a small cornelian 
pendant drop. 

Chamber {B). 

77. Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin (PI. LIX. 77). Similar to No. 62. 

Contents : — Three mummies covered with a shroud : one was of 
a man, and the other two of children. The children's mummies were 
bitumenized and bound in knotted and twisted linen. The mummy of 
the man (bearded) had on the third finger of the left hand a scarab 
mounted upon a silver ring (PI. LXXII. 77 C). The scarab, made of 
steatite (brown), bore an ornamental Hathor design. 

78. Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin (PI. LIX. 78). Similar to No. 75. 

Contents : — Mummy of a woman covered with a shroud. Under the 
head a basket containing a dark brown stone kohl-pot, an alabaster vase, 
and a cedar-wood comb. Near the basket were two black pottery long- 
necked vases (PI. LXVIII. 78). Lying on the breast, and under the 
wrappings, was a small basket (PI. LXVIII. 78) containing bone 
and cornehan bead-bangles (PI. LXXIII. 78), and three scarabs and 
two cowroids. On the neck an amuletic necklace ; and on the third finger 
of the left hand two gold-mounted cowroids. The scarabs were two of 
glazed steatite mounted in gold fundi, and one of cornelian ; the cowroids 
were three of glass mounted in gold, and one of steatite mounted in 
gold (PI. LXXII. 78). The amuletic necklace was composed of 
lapis-lazuli, gold, cornelian, and garnet beads, strung more or less 
haphazard between gold amulets (PI. LXXIII. 78). 


Chamber (B) (continued). 

79. Plain rectan^tlar flat-topped coffin (PI. LIX. 79). Similar to No. 75 (head 

and foot pieces missing and lid partly open). 

Contents : — Mummy of a young woman, which appeared to have 
been re-wrapped. On the neck a necklace (PI. LXXIII. 79) composed 
of gold, lapis-lazuli, and cornelian beads. 

80. Rectanguhn- child's coffin. Square box, oblong in form, made of wooden 

planks. The lid had upright head and foot pieces (Pis. LIX and 
LXI. 80). 
Contents : — Mummy of an infant. 

South JVing. 

81. Plain rectangular fiat-topped coffin. Similar to No. 75. This coffin was 

open, its lid lying by its side, and was empty. 

North Wing. 

82. Two ivory castanets. The ends shaped like human hands, and cur\'ed. 

They were lying in the d<^bris of the corridor of the tomb. 

Niche (G). 

83. Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin. Similar to No. 62, but of small 

size and thinly coated with white paint. Upon the top of the coffin 
was a decayed mummy of a person of immature age, and with it were 
three gold earrings (PI. LXIX. 83). The contents of the coffin 
were two children's mummies lying one upon the other, and resting 
upon the top one was a small round basket (PI. LXIX. 83) containing: 
(1) a wristlet of bone and cornehan beads (PI. LXXIII. 83) ; (2) a 
necklace of bone beads (for example see 53, PI. LXXIII) ; and 
(3) a necklace of violet faience beads. Upon the lower mummy were 
two small bundles of linen containing fruit of the nebek-\xee, which 
were bound together with a string of blue faience beads. This 
mummy had upon its left wrist (?) a bangle of bone and faience 
beads (PI. LXXIII. 83). 

Behind the coffin were three pots (PI. LXXI\^. G) leaning against 
the back wall of the niche. The niche {G) seems to have been 
specially made for these burials, which were covered up by the stone 
chippings made in its excavation. These burials appear to have been 
made in the tomb when left open after its destruction, but before it was 
used as a storehouse. 

Passage (L). 

84. Dug-out anthropoid child's coffin. The shell, cut out of a tree stem, was 

very roughly made. The lid was missing. 

Contents : — Mummy of an infant decayed, and among the debris were 
minute blue faience and gold beads (PI. LXXIII. 84). 


Central Passage. 

85. An ivory castaiiet. Burnt, and with end shaped like a human hand ; it 

differed from No. 82 by being straight. This was found in the layer of 
rubbish that covered the floor of the passage. It appears to belong to 
the original interment of the tomb. 

Hall (C). 

86. A wooden statuette and fragvient of a wooden coffin of the Middle 

Kingdom. The statuette, broken, is covered with stucco and painted, 
and is of exceedingly coarse workmanship. It represents a woman 
carrying upon her head a hnen basket. The fragment of coffin bore 


an inscription reading '-V-' ^ •% "^^ ^ | "^ (^ (1 o ^jj^rM^M -offerings for 

the devoted one Hen^t. These antiquities were found in the layer of 
rubbish that covered the floor, and probably belong to the original 
interment of the tomb (some parts of the statuette came from the small 
chamber F). 

87. A wooden jexn^el-box. This is similar to the box found in tomb No. 24 

(PI. XLVI). 

Contents: — A ka-hetep amulet and necklace of blue faience (PI. 
LXXIII. 87) ; a necklace of white and violet cylindrical faience beads 
(PI. LXXIII. 87) ; a blue glazed steatite scarab (PI. LXXII. 87) ; 
a blue glazed steatite kohl-pot, made to imitate matrix of turquoise ; 
a reel of white faience ; and a copper fillet for the hair (see tomb 
No. 25, p. 55). These objects are all of the Middle Kingdom period, 
and were discovered in the layer of rubbish covering the floor of the 
chamber. They probably belonged to the original interment. 

Pit {D). 

88. Panel stela. Covered with white stucco and painted. It measures 45 x 27 cms. 

(see Chapter XIII, by Dr. MoUer). 

89. Panel stela. Similar to No. 88, and measures 57 x 22 cms. (see Chapter XIII, 

by Dr. MoUer). 

90. Panel stela. Similar to Nos. 88 and 89, but of much thicker wood, and 

badly broken (see Chapter XIII, by Dr. MoUer). 

Chamber (F). 

91. Broken shafts of arrows, parts of botvs, a wooden mallet, and a wooden hoe. 

These antiquities came from the rubbish in chamber F, at the bottom 
of pit D. 

92. Parts of a four-stringed musical instrument. See No. 63 A, also 

Pottery. Examples of the different kinds of pottery vessels found in this tomb 
are figured in PI. LXXIV. 


The letters and figures refer to the lettering on the Plan (PL LV). The four 
specimens marked GEN. came from the corridor and passage. 

In the right corner of the plate are examples of mud-sealings found in the 
rubbish that covered the floor. 

Pit Tombs Nos. 38 and 39. 

Both these are of common pit-tomb type, and were possibly made for the 
retainers of the owner of tomb No. 37. They were carefully examined but found 
to be plundered. Only a few fragments of pottery vessels similar to those from 
tombs No. 24 and 25 were found in the sand filling them (PL XXX). 

Tomb No. 41- 

A large tomb south of No. 37. This has not yet been excavated or examined, 
for it was only discovered a few days before ending the work of season 1911 
(PL XXX). 



By George Mollek 

89. Wooden stela of Ihy (PI. LXXV). This tablet is composed of two boards 
held together by pegs or dowels, and covered with a fine coat of stucco, the surface 
of which has been polished to receive the writing. Upon it are the following 
representations : — Above, to the right, is drawn the sacred Barque of Sokaris ; 
below, to the left, is figured the deceased with staff and sceptre, and before him, 
a boy offering a goose, a table with offerings, a lotus-flower, loaves of bread, joints 
of meat, &c. The legend is in the hieratic writing typical of the Hyksos period, 
and reads : — 



® w 



n I 


i il 



[© Ml] 


' Ihy comes in the boat 
ot Sokaris ; to him has been 
granted justification.^ He is 
favoured of the Lord of the 
Shrine.- A ^^M^rM-ofFering 
in bread and wild fowl to the 
veteran in the presence of 
Ptah, Ihy, justified.' 

Below the figure of deceased is : — 


n I ■ 




' Homage before the Barque of 

I I 

' The justified dead. 


* i. e. the god Sokaris. 


Sokaris, Nnewing the beauties of the Holy Ship, adoring at his coming forth, 
joyous among the glorified Spirits, the v-eteran Ihy, Lord (of Worthiness).' 

Below the figure is^flij^ifl/l.t.^^j ' 'i'he Veteran Ihy, justified.' 

90. Wooden stela of an unknown lady (PI. LXXVI. 3). The stucco has 
mostly peeled off, and only the representation of the offerings (on right side) are 
well preserved. The figure of the deceased is almost entirely destroyed, and only 

the beginning of the inscription is preserved : l\ ® ^^ ^ ' M comes ' 

88. Wooden stela of the ^^^^^ °i^ g^^R^.l^^iq^^ 
1^ (PI. LXXV), 'One held worthy by Ptah-Sokar, the Lord of the Shrine,' the 

Steward y, justified.' In the legend the name of the deceased is destroyed, 

and the title ' steward ' is partly broken. The figure shows the deceased standing 
with a staff in his left hand. 

54. Pot of burnt clay (PI. LXXH''. D) with two lines of hieratic text giving 
the beginning of a rough draft for a letter : — 


^^ a '^^'^^ ^.s^ <— > O "''''^ '"'^"■^ AWVAA ;.s^ 

' Harmose to Ahhotep, Life, Wealth, Health, and the Favour of Amon-Re ! 
Behold, I have not found ... I have permitted that something be brought 
to me.' 

The break in the middle of the second line makes the meaning of the text 
impossible to interpret. 

Regarding the date, it is to be noted that the script is typical of the late 
Hyksos period, or of the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty, and may be compared 
with that of the Papyrus Ebers. 

26. Writing tablet of wood covered with stucco (Pis. LXXVII, LXXVIII). 
The text on the obverse contains a letter, perhaps not an original document, but 
an exercise. This supposition is borne out by the fact that the text on the reverse 
of the tablet is written in a clumsy handwriting. 

The beginning of the text can be restored by the help of an ostracon in 
the Berlin Museum (P. 12366) ; the lacunae at the beginning of hnes 8-10 are, 
however, wanting. The text is, moreover, very faulty, so that the following 
translation, in which I was fortunate enough to have Prof. Erman's help, is only 
given with reservations: — 

' The god of the dead of Memphis (Saqqarah). 






3 4 









7 8 9 10 

I }A 



5 6 










'O' I 

I I I 




ci D 

ilTI r T I 


I I I 










1^ ^^ 

ii ii 
ii 11 

AA/^AA^ 'WA/^A 


I I I 


c^ n 


ii ® 





31 I 




^ T 



13 14 

ft - 

I I I 



I I I 


'(1) The servant speaks to his lord, [from whom he desires to receive hfe, 
prosperity, and health] throughout the length (2) of eternity, for ever, just as [this 
servant * desires. Mayest thou be justijfied before (3) the Spirits ^ of Heliopolis 
and before the gods. \^May they grant thee] all good \things'\ every day, (4) as 
I desire it, so that [a//] thy affairs [under the protection] of Month, (5) the Lord 
of Thebes, may be as I desire ; may Ptah, Lord of Memphis, rejoice his heart 
(that of the person addressed) vv^ith a very good life, (6) as well as a good old 
age, and that he may attain to a state of worthiness, so that his worthiness may 
come before Month, (7) Lord of Thebes, as 1 desire it, in peace, and great comfort. 
But this letter [(8) which thou hast written me, as far as that is concerned, give 
thyself] with regard to it, [no anxiety]. I shall be of thy mind. Mayest thou 

by ' r. 

^N The familiar alternative for ' I '. [In the following it can therefore be translated 

^ That is to say, ' gods.' 




be gracious towards (?) NBT ... (9) this , causing to send out . . . 

(10) wth myrrh of Punt and pleasing odours of God's Land,i (11) clothed 

in the rf^/rc-garment, which (?) I make. The poor man, he sees (12) 

thou seest thy wife there ill ''■ as she weeps (13) over thee. She weeps over thee. 
Thy fish of the night, thy bird of the (14) day.' 

This uninteUigible passage contains a play on words between rmj, 'weeping' 
(Coptic pi-»»e), and ?•;«, ' fish ' (Coptic, Boh. p&.An) ; the last words have indeed 
passed into a proverb. 

The reverse of the tablet was much written over, and in places it is obvious 
that there have been enisures. In two places were portions of repetitions of the 
text on the obverse (lines 11, 12), also a list of names in the same handwriting, 
showing that it was all the work of the same person, like the text on the reverse 
of 21. 


I /www )WV I 


l i"*^ 


' Three people were concerned- 




(a woman), 

(a woman), 

[Amen]-nekht (a man), 
Beki (a man).' 

21. Small writing tablet of wood covered with stucco (PI. LXXVI. 1 and 2). 
At the left side of the obverse is a hole for a string. The reverse is mended with 
a piece of bark. 

Obverse : — ^ 

A^v^^A /Ci ., V-1 i^ | J[ 




' Probably southern Arabia. ' Read T 5^ h lA. 

* The names following remain visible from the previous inscription. * Possibly tAl 


The text is badly damaged, the most intelhgible is the second line : ' If the 
boy comes to the barrack if he be weeping . . .' Evidently, from first to last, this 
text concerns a nurse. The reverse contains a list of four names which, as we 
have already mentioned, occur also in the text of No. 26, and in the same hand- 

^ ^. k i J ^ ^ Amenemheb, 
.^^^^o Amen-nekht. 

Q ^^^^ ^ *^ ^ ^ Amen-em-ene, 

1 AAA/VNA _a^^ AAAVVA J-^ 1 





(Pl. LXXIX) 

By Percy E. Newberry 

Fig. 1. Fig baskets composed of leaves of the Date Palm {Phoenix dactyUfera, L.). 

Fig. 2. A. Some species of Compositae not identified. 

B. Leaves of the Persea tree [Mimumps Schimperi, Hochst.). 

C. Leaves of the Grape Vine {Vitis mnifera, L.). 

D. Stones of the Balanites aegyptiaca, Del. 

E. Fruit of the Persea tree {Mimusops Schiviperi, Hochst.). 

F. Fruit of the Sycomore Fig {Ficus Sycomorus, L.). 

G. Young fruit of the Date Palm {Phoenix dactyUfera, L.). 
H. Mature fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca, Del. 

With the exception of the fragments of flower-stalks (Fig. 2 A) of some species 
of Compositae, the specimens figured here are all of well-known ancient Egj^tian 
plants. Two of them, the Mimusops Schimperi and the Balanites aegyptiaca, are 
not now known in Egypt proper. 


Aah-hetep, funerary statuette of, 20. 

called Ta-nezem, 74. 
Aahmes, funerary statuette of, 20. 

coffin bearing name of, 84. 

Mayor, 32. 
Aahmes-nefert-ari, mother of, 3. 

earliest portrait of, 2. 

wall of, 11, 28. 

bricks of, 11, 30. 
Aahmes-sa-pa-ar, funerary statuette of, 20. 
Abdu, contemporary of Hyksos kings, referred 

to, 66. 
Adze, model of, 31, 40. 
Ahat, 49. 
Ah-hotep, letter to, 90. 

treasure of Queen, referred to, 37. 
Ahmosi, 37. 
Amen-em-ene, 92. 

Amenemhat IV, name on casket, 6, 56. 
Amenemhat, 29. 

Amenemheb, statuette of, 75, 92. 
Amenhetep I, wall of, 11, 28. 

bricks of, 11, 30. 

scarab of, 8, 72. 
Amenhetep II, brick of, 50. 
Amenhetep, scribe of the altar, 29. 
Amenhetep-en-auf, 25. 
Amen-nekht, 92. 

Amen-renpet, overseer of workmen, 50. 
Amenti-figures, in wax, 25. 
Amphorae, buried under graves, 8, 43. 
Amulet, ka-hetep, 87. 
Amulets, Middle Kingdom, 53. 
Amuletic necklaces, 60, 80, 82, 85. 
Ana, mother of Kemen, 56. 
Ankhu, coffin fragment bearing name of, 52. 
Antef, funerary statuette of, 20. 
Arrows, fragments of, 87. 
Asiatics, mentioned, 36. 
Assa, King, mentioned, 36. 

Atef, funerary statuette of, 20. 

Atef-s-senb, 63. 

Auf-aa-hor, Mayor of Thebes, 49. 

Auy-res, stela of, 62. 

Auy-senb, 63. 

Avaris, mentioned, 36. 

Axe, model of, 31. 


Bag, small linen, 76. 

Bak-en-Khonsu, royal scribe, 49. 

Balanites a£gyptiac,a, 28, 94. 

Bangles, bead, 70, 78, 82, 84, 85, 86. 

Baskets, rush-work, 72, 74, 75, 78, 84. 

Batten, weaver's, 61. 

Beads, Middle Kingdom, 53, 59, 60, 71, 87, 

sprinkled in mummy wrappings, 70. 
Bead-work upon leather, 32. 
Bedstead (angarib), 51. 
Beki, 92. 
Birabi, 4. 
Bird-trap, 77. 

Black soil, pit filled with, 63. 
Bladder-stone found in mummy, 71. 
Boat, model of, 51. 
Bowl, alabaster, 80, 83. 

faience, 52, 80. 
Bracelet, ivory, 81. 
Brick, name of, on stone, 41. 
Brick- mould, model of, 31. 
Brooch, shen, 55. 
Burials, undisturbed, 10, 23, 24, 86. 

concealed by officials, 65. 

stored in tomb, 64. 

in decorated rectangular coffins, 70, 78, 81, 

in plain rectangular gable-topped coffins, 
71, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86. 

in plain rectangular flat-topped coffins, 73, 
78, 79, 81, 82, 85, 86. 



Burials, in plain rectangular grid-bottomed 

coffins, 79, 80. 
in dug-out coffins, 61, 78. 
in Rishi coffins, 70, 71, 82, 83, 84. 
in plain anthropoid coffins, 70, 78, 79. 
in semi-decorated anthropoid coffins, 70, 

in decorated anthropoid coffins, 73, 74, 84, 

children's, 26, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 86. 
reed, 50. 
nisK 34, 50. 

Campbell, Rev. Dr. Collin, 26. 
Canopic box, 35; jar lid, 61. 
Carnarvon Papyri, I and II, 43, 46. 

Tablets, I, II, III, IV, 4, 34, 36, 70, 77, 
78, 90, 92. 
Casket, ivory, ebony, and cedar- wood, 6, 7, 54, 55. 
Castanets, ivory, 86, 87. 
Chairs, 50, 72. 
Chignon, 84. 
Chisel, of chert, 10. 

model of, 31. 
Circular pit, 63. 
Coffins of Heq-Tau, referred to, 67. 

decorated rectangular, 66. 

rectangular with gable top, 66. 
with flat top, 67. 
with grid bottoms, 67. 

♦dug-out', 30, 61, 68. 

Rhhi, 60, 62, 68. 

anthropoid, plain, 68. 

decorated anthropoid, 25, 68. 

children's, 26, 69. 
Coinage, preservation of, in Upper Egypt, 44. 
Coins, Ptolemaic, 8, 43, 44. 
Combs 82, 84, 85. 
Cones, pottery, 10, 22, 24. 
Copts, dwelling in tombs, 9, 22. 
Cowroid seals, 32, 71, 78, 80, 82, 85. 
Crucible, for smelting metal, model of, 36. 
Cynocephalous ape, clay figure of, 76. 


Dancers, MW-, 17. 
Date-cakes, in amphora, 43. 
Dedut-res, 63. 
Demotic ostraca, 47. 
papyri, 8, 43, 46. 

Dice, 58. 

Dog, playing piece of a game, 56. 
Dom-palm nuts, 81. 
Doorways closed and sealed, 23, 24, 65. 
Draught-board, 36. 
Dwellings for workmen, 11, 29. 
for embalmers, 27. 


Earrings, gold, 80, 86. 
Edgar, Mr., referred to, 42. 
Epiphanes, Ptolemaios, 8, 46. 
Erde-en-ptah, 63. 
Ernian, Prof., referred to, 26, 90. 
Ethiopia, mentioned, 36. 
Euergetes I, 47. 
Excavations, at Birabi, 4, 34. 

at Der el Bahari, 9, 22. 

near village mosque, 2. 


Fan, handle and clasp of, 72. 
Feretories for animals, 49. 
Fig-baskets, 33. 
Fillet of copper, 87. 

gold, 55- 

leaves, 25. 
Forceps, 61, 72, 74. 

Foundation deposits : Der el Bahari dromos, 4. 
30, 33. 

implements placed separate, 31. 

of Rameses IV, 9, 48. 

of tomb, 28. 

of ' valley '-temple, 4, 39. 
Frog, steatite, glazed, 52. 
P'unerary statuettes, discovered in position, 3, 
13, 19. 

as guardians to tomb, 13, 19. 

found in tomb of Teta-ky, 19. 


Gaming- board, 7, 56. 

Gardiner, Mr. A. H., referred to, 36. 

Gemmez (sycomore-fig), 11. 

Girdle, bead, 85. 

Glue, 56, 57. 

' Good ' festival mentioned on stone blocks, 

Grain in foundation deposit, 30, 38, 48. 
Graver, model of, 31. 




Hair, locks of, 72, 84. 

plaited, 55, 84, 85. 
Hair-pin of ivory, 84. 
Hammers of chert, 10. 
Harmachis, King, 46. 
Harmose, letter of, 90. 
Hathor cow, 3, 16. 

Hatshepsut, Queen, bricks stamped with her 
name, 40. 
' valley '-temple of, 4. 
tally-stone of, 4 0. 
scarab of, 8, 73. 
A"ebti-imme of, on deposit, 31. 
measured temple for Amon, 31. 
foundation deposits, 30, 33, 40. 
Head-rests, 61, 67, 71, 81, 84. 
Hent, 7. 

Henut, the I^ady, 55. 
Henyt, coffin fragment of, 87. 
Hieroglyphs, mutilated, 55, 61. 
Hoe, 40; model of, 31. 
Hone for sharpening, 72, 83. 
Hor, Priest of Amen, 49. 
Hor-kheb, priest, 49. 
Hor-se-Ast, Governor of Thebes, 49. 
Horus, variant sign for, 85. 
Hounds contra jackals, the game of, 58. 
Hu-uben-ef, statuette of, 75. 
Hyksos scarabs, 8, 72, 79. 

tablet relating to expulsion of, from Egypt, 

Ihy, stela of, 89. 

Implements, models of, in deposit, 5, 30, 31, 40. 

Inscriptions on stone blocks, 39, 40. 

on vase, 90. 
Instrument of wood, 76. 
Ivory, bracelet of, 81 . 

on toilet-box, 55. 

gamingboard, 56. 

castanets, 86, 87. 

Jackals, playing pieces, 56. 
Jar-rest, model of, 31. 
Jar-seals, 32. 

Jewel-boxes, 53, 80, 87. 
Jones, Mr. Cyril, 30. 


Ka-lietep amulet, 87. 

Kamosi, King, 4, 36. 

Kati-nekht, canopic box of, 35. 

Kemen, 'keeper of the food department,' , 

Keriba, statuette of, 29. 
Kha-em-hat, bas-relief from tomb of, 10. 
Khety, coffin of, 52. 
Knuckle-bones, 58, 76. 
Kohl-box, 72. 

Kohl-pot, 72, 83, 84, 85, 87. 
Kohl-stick, 72, 74, 84. 
Ky-nefer, shawabti figure of, 32. 

Leaf offerings, 11. 

Linen, mended mummy-wrappings, 26. 

Linen purse, 76. 

Lion, fragment of, in faience, 52. 

Lock of hair in basket, 84. 


Maartu, coffin and mummy of, 24, 25. 
Mallet, mason's, 40. 

model of, 31. 
Maspero, Sir Gaston, referred to, 10. 
Mechanical toy, 78. 
Memphis, 36. 

Men-hetep, name on pot, 52. 
Mentu-hetep, 30. 

stones from temple of King, 4. 

coffin bearing name of, 85. 
Mes-per, the Lady, 49. 
Mezaiu (Nubians), mentioned, 37. 
Mirrors, 7, 55, 72, 84. 
Mortar-bed in tomb, 71. 
Mummy-wrappings, 25, 69, 70. 

embroidered, 25. 

worn and mended, 25, 26. 
Musical instruments, 70. 

stringed, 77, 82, 87. 

reed-pipes, 84. 
i/IF-dancers, depicted in tomb-painting, 17. 




Nanu-nes-her, the Lady, 25. 

Naville, Prof., referred to, 68. 

i\V66c*-tree, fruits of, 31, 86. 

Neb-ded-ra, scarab of, 81. 

Necklaces, 7, 55, 59, 60, 71, 78, 80, 81, 86. 

Necropolis Middle Kingdom and Intermediate 

Period, 5, 51. 
Nefer-ur, shawabti figure of, 50. 
Neferu-ra, scarab of Princess, 8, 80. 
Nekht-ef-mut, priest, 49. 
Nekhtu, funerary statuette of, 20. 
Nenen, scribe of the army, 61. 
Nes-Khonsu-pa-khred, 49. 
Nes-ta-nebt-Asheru, the Lady, 49. 
Nicol, Mr. Erskine E., 68. 


Obsidian, 7, 55, 60, 78. 
Offerings to trees, 11, 29. 

dates, 49. 

flesh and blood, 5, 30, 31. 

flower, 24. 

leaf, 11, 49. 

votive, 11. 
Office of clerk of the works of Der el Bahari 

Temple, 29. 
Ornaments for mummy-wrappings, 58. 
Osiride figure, 50. 
Ox, bones of, 31 . 

Pachnumis, 46. 
Pa-de-Amen, coffin of, 24. 

genealogy of, 26. 
Pa-de-khonsu, 24. 
cjoffin of, 25. 
Pa-khnems, funerary statuette of. 
Palette, scribe's, 52, 61, 76. 
Palm-tree, in front of tomb, 27. 

design on gaming-board, 57. 
Pan-pottery, 77. 
Panel stelae, 70, 87, 89. 
Paos, 46. 

Papyrus, demotic, 43, 46. 
hieratic, 30. 
reeds, 78. 
Pedemut, priest, 49. 
Peg, model of, 31. 

Pepa, 37. 

Petainenophis, public notary, 46. 

Petemestus, 46. 

Petrie, Prof. Flinders, referred to, 68. 

Philadelphos, 47. 

P-ohi-n-p-mehen, 46. 

Pomade (pomatum), 69, 84. 

Portcullis to sarcophagus chamber, 22. 

Pottery, Xlth Dyn., 28. 

Middle Kingdom, 5.'i, 60. 
Intermediate Period, 87. 
XVIIth Dyn., 35. 
XVIIIth Dyn., 31, 32. 
Proverbs of Ptah-hetep, 4, 36*. 
Psenesis, herdsman, 46. 
Ptolemaic coins, 44. 
Pu-am-ra, hieratic inscriptions of, 4, 39. 


Quibell, Mr. J. E., referred to, 58. 


Ra-hotep, funerary statuette of, 19, 20. 
Rameses IV, colonnade, 8, 9, 48. 
foundation deposit, 9, 48. 
variants of cartouches of, 48. 
Razor, copper, 78, 83. 
Reed-burial, 50. 
Reed-pen case, 75. 
Relatives of Teta-ky, 19. 
Ren-senb, coffin of, 7, 54. 
mirror of, 55. 

scarab of the herald, 69, 74. 
• Res, funerary statuette of, 19, 20. 
Reth-ar-es, 25. 
Rhind, Mr., referred to, 10. 
Rishi coffins, 7, 17, 32, 60, 62, 68. 

model coffin like, 50. 
Roast meat, the word for, in hieratic, 31. 
Rope of D6m-palm fibre, 71. 
Rush-burial, 50. 

Sacrifice, animal, 28. 

Sa-Hathor, 63. 

Saite burials, undisturbed, 10, 

Sale agreements, 46, 47. 

Sandals, 28, 72. 

Satin, 37. 



Scarab-seals, tied on arm, 26. 

position when worn as ring, 70. 

of Middle Kingdom, 7, 53. 

Xlllth Dyn., 8. 

Amenhetep I, 72. 

Thothmes I, 81. 

Thothmes II, 81. 

Thothmes III, 80. 

Neferu-ra, 8, 80. 

Neb-ded-ra, 81. 

Ren-senb, 74. 

of red jasper, 73, 80. 

of green jasper, 72. 

of blue paste, 74. 

of green paste, 80. 

of steatite, glazed, 26, 53, 78, 80, 81, 

83, 85, 87. 
of steatite, unburnt, 74. 
of amethyst, 53. 
Sceptre, bronze snake, 85. 
Scribe's outHt, 70, 75. 
Sealed doorway in tomb, 65. 
Sebek, Lord of Illahun, 7, 56. 
Sebek-hetep, • Uab-priest, 63. 
Sedemt, 50. 

Sena, funerary statuette of, 20. 
Senba, the Lady, 15. 
Senbu, funerary statuette of, 19, 20. 
Senmut, name of, on stone block, 4, 41. 
Sen-senb, funerary statuette of, 19, 20. 
Sep-en-urdet, the Lady, 63. 
Sent, the Lady, 55. 
Sent-sign on stone blocks, 41, 
Sent-nw-pw, the Lady, 63. 
Serpentine wall, 30. 
Sheikh Abd El Kurneh, tomb of, 11. 
Shrines for animals, 49. 
Sieves, models of, 31. 
Sinaitic ibex, sketch of, 32. 
Sites excavated, 2. 
Slab for washing, 30. 
Sledge, mummy depicted upon a, 17. 
Smelting crucibles for metals, 31. 
Snake sceptre, 85. 

Sphinx, bronze, 76. ' 

Staff; walking, 74, 81, 83. 
Statuettes, 21, 23, 29, 52, 75, 87. 
Stones from Der el Bahari temple, 9. 

Mentu-hetep's temple, 4. 
Stool, wicker-work, 29. 
wooden, 71, 72, 79. 
Structure of mud brick unknown, 64. 


Ta-aa, the Lady, 49. 
Ta-bak-en-ta-Ashat-qa, 49. 
Table of offerings, 21. 
Tahuti, funerary statuette of, 20. 

coffin bearing name of, 74. 
Tahutimes, funerary statuette of, 21. 
Tahuty-aah, funerary statuette of, 21. 
Ta-nezem (see Aah-hetep). 
Tekenu, transport of, depicted, 17. 
Teta, son of Pepa, 37. 
Teta, funerary statuette of, 21. 
Teta-an, funerary statuette of, 19, 21. 
Teta-ankh, funerary statuette of, 21. 
Teta-em-ra, funerary statuette of, 19, 21. 
Teta-hemt, funerary statuette of, 21. 

mother of Aahmes-nefert-ari, 3, 16. 
Teta-ky, tomb of, 2, 12, 14. 
Mayorof Thebes, 21. 
funerary statuettes of, 21. 
table of offerings of, 21. 
Teta-mesu, funerary statuette of, 21. 
Teta-nefer, funerary statuette of, 19, 21. 
Teta-sa, funerary statuette of, 21. 
Teta-senb, funerary statuette .of, 21 . 
Thothmes I, brick of, 40. 
scarabs of, 8, 81. 
seals of, on doorway, 8, 65. 
Thothmes II, scarabs, 8, 81. 
Thothmes III, brick of, 50. 

receiving nourishment from tree, 11. 
scarabs of, 8, 80. 
Throw-stick, 80. 
Toilet-box, 55. 

Tombs re-used in Intermediate Period, 6. 
Torso, in limestone, 33. 
Tortoise-shell, 76. 
Toy, child's, 32. 

mechanical, 78. 
Turtle, amulet, 82. 


Unguent vase, 48. 

Unguents in foundation deposit, 5, 30. 

Userhat, royal scribe, 29. 

' Valley '-temple, 4, 38. 
Vases, alabaster, 56, 85. 



Vaaes, black pottery, 81, 82, 85. 

inscribed, 81,90. 
Vaulted graves, Ptolemaic, 8, 42. 
Vegetable remains, 94. 
Vine leaves, 70. 
Viscera boxes, 69, 73, 84. 
Votive offerings, 11. 


Walking staff, 74, 81, 83. 
Weaver's batten, 61. 
Weights, 76. 
Wheat, 27. 
Wigs, 55, 70, 84. 
Wine, 31. 

Workmen's washing slab, 30. 
Wrappings, mummy, 25, 69, 70. 
Wristlet, bead, 86. 
Writing tablets, 70, 77, 78, 90, 92. 


Yma, funerary statuette of, 19, 20. 
'^-meru, 63. 

Zed-Aah, 49. 

Zed-Amen-auf-ankh, stela of, 49. 
Zed-Amen-uah-es, 49. 

Zed-Khensu-auf-ankh, shawabti figure of, 32. 
Zeser-zeseru, 4, 31, 40. 

Tomb of Teta-Ky 

?■:■• ; . ^=- g • • 

W^^--^- • 

1. Open Couet-yard 

2. Vaulted Chambers 








ii» MVO-BRICKWORK [bRICKS 44X16X13. C/^] S C A. L E }4s0 

Tomb of Teta-Ky 

';ai'VvM:.r^.-v ,--^J 

1. Right Wall of Painted Niche 

2. Left Wall of Painted Niche 


Tomb of Teta-Ky 

1, Ceiling Decoration 

/.4\\\«r.ull^- ,tp^. ,,i«W ,il(\\i vimili .1 


2. Ceiling Decoration and Frieze 

ToMn OF Teta-Ky 

1. North Wall. Scenes A and B 

2. NoBTH Wall. Scene D 

1. Eastern Wall 

2. Western Wall 

Tomb op Teta-Ky 

1. Southern "Wall. Scene A 







2. Southern "Wall. Scene A (continued) 

Tomb of Teta-Ky 

1. Southern Wall. Scene A (continued) 

2. SouTHEBN Wall Scene B 

Tomb of Teta-Ky 

T ^^-^few^ 


^iiiiaiCimuiu luiuiiihuiu u«Mtutttuu( 

""^'©r * 



^^■--y-^i^..^ ■ ^' 


1. Southern Waij,. Scene C 

1-1 ■- ■yMfNS.'^m :._JCT 


*.J. i :ic.ViJ:.i 

2. SooTHEKN Wall. Scenes C and D 

Tomb of Teta-ky 

i. Shawabti Figure in Model Coffin 

2. Shawabti Figuke of Sen-senb 

J. l-^A^JJ-fA^KJ 

Tomb of Teta-ky 

Plain Wood Model Coffins 

Plain Mud Model Coffins 

Decoeated Mud Model Coffins 

Insckibed Mud Model Coffins 

1. Table for Offerings 


2. Funerary Statuettes 


















BkB EL Bahaei Valley 

^?K^" ~^ ', 'I'j j". ■ _. V /. . ' \Ui. *■ 




'"^^^fi^. ^ 







Tomb No. 5 before Opening 

Tomb No. 5 aitee Opening 






TOMB 5 SCALE- yrs 







































1. SCAHAB ON Muiiiiv Akm. (Tomu No. 5) 

2. Wheath and "Wax Amulets. (Tomb No. .5) 

D&s, EL Bahabi Valley 

1 & 2. Limestone Statuette. (Tomb No. 4) 

3. Pottery feom Tombs Nos. 1-16 


Deb el Bahaki Valley 


1. Foundations of Wall of Amenhetep I and Aahmes-nefekt-ari, and Workmen's Dwellings 

2. Offerings to a Tree 

D£b el Bahaei Valley 

1 . ' Serpentine ' "Wall 

2. Bathing Slab 

Der el Bahari Valley 

1. Okfeeinqs from the Dromos Deposit 


n r>».T^ 

■n „., T\_ 

Dee el Bahari Vallkv 




1. Pottery from the Dromos Deposit 


9 TxiPr TTxrvvTC: i^Rnxf t^ut T^unxmo T^l?^>nc;T^ 

1. Child's Toy 

2. Pottery from Excavations 






3. Stamped Bricks of Amenhetep I and Aahmes-nefert-ari 

Panoramic View of 'Dfi.n el Bahaei Valley 
A. Site op ' Valley '-Temple. B & C. Dbomos Deposits 

Tomb No. 9 


1. Three Sides of a Canopic Box 

2. Three Canopic Jars ix Pottery 

•/.« ; 'j: 

Tomb No. 9 




Pottery from Tomb No. 9 

Tomb No. 9 

«»f J 

L**-vi*^ ^J -J' Jv V>?. Ol 




Tomb No. 9 



Tomb No. 9 





1. Carnaevon Tablet II. Obv. 

2. Cabnakvon Tablet II. Rev. 


' ..• I*; 

' • ■« .«•• • • •. . ,0 

••■-.' -c 


•■■•;■.^. '-••: 

=0, ^ / . ■ . **, '. ■•; 



%■ ,"*.. ^ :*. ■' • . 


•» ,» ; 























axis of id.e.b. 







Ntw EMPiRK £xvui oyw] 


, .„.' p<^«.TiA» e.x 


Plan of HatshepssCt's ' Vall 

Platb XXX 

y>>\<iiii.-uiiim,, 1,14, ami, 


m Neighbouring Tombs 




(^ Mum* TtyT"^******' ' "■ ■■ ^^ 





1. Tally-stone op HATSHEPsftT 

3. "WoioDEN Hoe 

2. Stamped Beick of Queen Hatshepsut 




4. Stamped Beicks op Hatshepsut and Thothmes I 

Ptolemaic Vaulted Graves 

I— I 










1. Amphorae beneath Fi.ooe op Vaulted Gbave 




2. FAfADE OF Vaulted Grave 

Ptolemaic Vaulted Graves 

.^iri^fif^ .;: ,^,.S^|^jfN{^jjj^j^^ ^^. .„.j,^^ ^_, 

^* J' liJ 

5?-' ;i 

jr. f i : 


■ .ft-taa-TMit'*'- 

T ■ r 

• 'J I* 



5 •* •< lF * I 

* i^l 




Ptolemaic Vaulted Gbaves 


■v:.:3^j-rP j^?: ..,#.^ ^r*- 4. ;■<:?. 

T^liKiiyrtra: > ;^'-Ha- !'=?"> •■■4?' ^^^Txy 

is Ail ■$, •Ill;f7^''--h $ . '-^ ■ 














Ptolemaic Vaulted Geaves 

<— 5:>;. 








■~v — ■<■' 














"Jl ^ -^^ 3 * '^^- "-r-' g- ^- ^ ^ • »v 

1 1 











^i Jill wit 1^^ 

~ 4 :M' 

J: "^ 

jL- ■ ^"' "Ct' W' .4\ ^ -^ 3 -^^ 






'/ ■ .7 


^ T Y ^^ ^ i^ ^,;;^ 

' '^ '** 1 1 f if I' 

I '^ ^ J ^i. n 

a .? ^ 



3 f *-:v^>^-^-Vr T 



^: ^ < 


i ; 











Site No. 40 

/,(, 1 


HI9 W 

, J 

Foundation Deposit of Eameses IV 

Site No. 14 



XXIInd Dynasty Stela 

1. OsiRiDE Figure 


'* ,..w 

2. Mud Ferktory or Shrink 

3. Reed Burial of a Man 




^ ; 

. ^■ 

A, .■-■ T^ . ■: - s. . ' .,»■■-'.■ 

4. The Under-side of Lid of a Wooden Box with Inscriptions 


Site No. 14 



W- z. 

■'^^'!^^.■ ''' 






^^g^\ ^»jH|hh 





■ --'^z 

.>., ■ 









Tomb 24 



1. Statuette of Ankhu 

2. Mummy Dkcoeation 



^ f' 





Ajr»*[ -F^^^^l 


It r "■ 'i^^^a^^^^^l 



4. Faience Bowl 

3, Wooden Doll 

5. Faience Bowl 

Tomb 5>4 

1. Jewel-box 


^S— ^ .-^ 


2. Contents op Jewel-box 

- - ■ J. .Ht^^-l-cI^MWt "■ ■ Vk.^-L 

•••'^'-■-'---■'*^ -- ^^- 

3. Scribe's Palette 

1. Jewel-box 


2. Contents of Jewel-box 

Tomb 24 

1 & 2. Pottery Vessels and Pans 

Tomb 25 

1. IvoEY AND Ebony Toilet-box 

2. The Same with Drawer and Lid open 

Tomb 25 


'•: : f*'^"*'- 

1. Scene engraved on the Front of the Toilet-box 


2. Inscriptions on Lid of Toilkt-box 



^ :■:;.* 




1 & 2. Gaming-Board and Playing Piecks in Ivory 

1. Blue Faience Hippopotamus 








Obsibian and Gold Necklace ; Bronze, Ebony and Gold Mirrob 
AND 'Shen' Brooch of Cornelian and Gold 

Tomb 25 

1. Alabaster Vases belonging to the Toilet-box 

2. Pottery pbom Tomb No. 25 

f V, 













at h 




. :...>.':--'^r-- ' *^ 

^ — ^°^ 'ui'' ■ '-^"■''-^T(f---","''-~- 

























Tombs 27 & 31 

Stela op the ' Keeper of the Bow ' Auy-bes 

Tombs 27 & 31 

Stela of the ' Keeper of the Bow ' Auy-ees 

Tomb 37 



'^«'» A-*** ' 

Centeal Passage showing Closed Dooeway of Hall C 

Tomb 37 

pM^ \^ vnmr-' 


1. Seal Impkessions on Dooeway of Chamber A 

2. Interiok of Chamber A 

Tomb 37 

1. Chambek B before Opening 

2. Chamber B aftek Opening 

Tomb 37 









Tomb 37 

-'■„T..AJ' . /.I 














1. EisHi Coffins 

2. Decobated Anthropoid Coffins of the New Empire 

Tomb 37 
















Tomb 37 

1. Rush-work Baskets 

2. Mechanical Toy Bied and Bird Tkap 

Tomb 87 

f * y ■ . ' -i.. s gi!it 

r w^ 


1. Toilet Skt 

'i?-j vti 


"■y . •: V . 


2. Fan -HOLDER, Kohl-pot, &c. 

Tomb 37 


Scbibk's Outfit 
















Tomb 37 

1. Objects from Decoeated Eectanqulak Coffins 

3. Objects from Plain Eectangular Coffins 

Tomb 37 

1. Objects froj[ a Rectangular Gable-topped Coffin 

2. OBJEcrs FROM Plain Rectangular Coffin 

Tomb 37 

1. Objects prom Rishi Coffins 


2. Objfxts from Rishi Coffins 

Tomb 37 

1. Chair and Stool 

2. Musical Instrumknts 

Tomb 37 

^^. Ap. g, ^ 

,1 »"ijCi 

50 -A _ 

• i^T' /(®\i .^-^1 (i»^.) /?Sir 
*^ (ffl| '^P 'C^S' >{^5^ 

59 -D 

Scarabs, Cowroids, and Einqs 

Tomb 37 

smuB^li,.B.B O-B-S 

r Bu V > 


Bead Necklaces, Bangles, and Bracelet 

Tomb 37 



Tomb 37 



ToKB 37 



















Tomb 37 



Writing Tablet. No. 26, Obv. 

Tomb 37 


Writing Tablet. No. 26, Rev, 






fV ! JTrtij r^- 




1. Fig Baskets 

2. Botanical Specimens 



Carnarvon, George Edward 
Stanhope Molyneaux Herbert, 
5th Earl of and Carter, 

Five years of exploration! 
at Thebes ... 1907-1911 


•' "■ >£i ■"4r_"'-T jir«^;yi^^fjS[gp|