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Full text of "Flora conspicua : a selection of the most ornamental flowering, hardy, exotic and indigenous trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, for embellishing flower-gardens and pleasure-grounds"

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By RICHARD morris, F.L.S., &c. 




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■rriKTEn by riciiaud taylor, 



^'^:vv york 

* Plate. 

AcoNiTUM variegatuni. ... 22 

Adonis vernalis 45 

Amaryllis concinna 44 

Anchusa paniculata 10 

Anemone pulsatilla G 

Aquilegia canadensis /3 gra- 
cilis 55 

Asclepias tuberosa 39 

Azalea nudiflora /3 coccinea 30 

pontica 17 

Bignonia radicans 21 

Campanula peregrina 47 

Cassia odorata 67 

Chelone barbata 18 

Chrysanthemum sinense /3 

purpurascens 51 

Coreopsis tinctoria 37 

Cyclamen coum CO 

Cytisus purpureus 58 

Daphne cneorum 23 

Delphinium elegans jS pleno 43 
— mesoleucum . . 29 

Fumaria cximia 28 

nobilis 4-9 

Genista triquetra 12 

Gentiana acaulis 2 

asclepiadea 38 

Gladiolus cardinalis 15 

Glycine sinensis 46 

Helianthus atrorubens .... 27 

Lathyrus grandiflorus 48 

Lilium concolor 24 


Lilium pomponium 34 

Linum narbonense 14 

Lobelia fulgens 41 

Lonicera flava 53 

Lupin us nootkatensis 19 

Magnolia glauca sempervi- 

rens 9 

purpurea 50 

CEnothera missourensis ... 3 1 

Orobus varius 35 

• vernus 4 

Paeonia officinalis rubra. ... 11 

— ^— moutan 13 

Papaver nudicaule j3 cocci- 
nea 59 

Passiflora cserulea-racemosa 40 

Phlox carnea 16 

setacea 42 

Polygala chamajbuxus .... 5 

Potentilla nepalensis 33 

Pulmonaria davurica 8 

Pyrus japonica 1 

Rhododendron arboreum . . 7 

ferrugineum 52 

Robinia hi.spida 36 

Sanguinaria canadensis. ... 3 
Schizanthus porrigens .... 32 

Spigelia marilandica 26 

Symphoria racemosa 25 

Tigridia oxypetala 20 

Trillium grandiflorum 54 

Verbena Lamberti 56 




Japan Pyrus. 


Class 12. Order 4. 

Pyrus. Pirus of Pliny: supposed to he from irup, Jire ; the fruit 
drawing up to a point like a flame. 

Linn, si/st. 467. Willd. 1020. 


Cal. superior of one leaf, five-cleft, permanent. Cor. Petals five, 
roundish, concave, larger than the calyx, and proceeding from it. 
Stam. Filaments twenty, awl-shaped, attached to the calyx, shorter 
than the corolla ; anthers oblong, of two lobes. Pist. Germ in- 
ferior ; styles five, filiform ; stigmas simple. Per. Fruit roundish, 
umbilicated, with five membranaceous cells. Seeds two in each 


Leaves elliptic- oblong, sharply serrated, smooth. 

The characters of this species frequently vary: sometimes 
having numerous petals, as a semi-double flower, but more 
frequently appearing with five or six. The pericarpium is 
seldom larger than a walnut, and rarely perfects itself in this 
country. A white and also a semi-double variety of this species 
have been obtained, so nearly coinciding in habit with the plant 
here figured as not to warrant their being made distinct species. 

The Pyi'us Japonica is a native of Japan, and was intro- 
duced into this country by Sir Joseph Banks in 1796. It 
may be considered to rank among some other shrubs from that 
country, as the most ornamental which are cultivated in our 
gardens. It possesses in itself a peculiar recommendation, 
from its blooming at a season when few other flowers appear. 
Such flowers as present themselves before Spring has put on 
her verdant robes are viewed with peculiar pleasure and de- 
light, and in a manner invite us to look forward for that 
season when Nature appears clothed in her loveliest hues. 
The flowers of the Pynis Japonica are of a beautiful red, and 
are in great abundance over the whole plant, with the excep- 
tion of the last year's shoots : the oldest branches of the tree 
will throw out spurs with flowers ; they begin to make their 
appearance early in March, before the leaves, and continue in 
perfect beaut)' until near the end of April : throughout the 
summer a few blooms will occasionally appear. This plant 
is with good effect frequently ti'ained against walls or trellis- 
work, and forms a desirable shrub, to disperse among open 
plantations and shrubberies, particularly if intermixed with 
the white variety, as they are proved to endure the severity of 
our winters. These shrubs are of free growth ; and when 
planted against walls, pruning is necessary : some of the lux- 
uriant young shoots may be removed without injui'y to the 
plants. This species of Pyrus is easily propagated, either by 
layers in the sprmg, or by cuttings in the autumn ; and it 
adapts itself to almost any soil : in common garden earth it 
grows freely ; and is found to flourish in the environs of 

The figure here given was taken from a luxuriant specimen 
against a south wall in Vincent-square, Westminster. 


1 . Section of calyx^ showing the insertion of the stamens and pistils. 

2. One stamen and the pistils magnified. 

3. Outline of a perfect leaf. 


Drawn Sr EUhed by W. Ciar/c 


Stemless Gentian, or Gentianella. 


Class 5. Order 2. 

Gentiaxa. From Gentius (king of lUyria), who is said to have dis- 
covered it, or at least to have first experienced its virtues as a cure 
for the plague vi'hich infected his army. 

Linn. gen. n. 322. Linn, spec. 330. Linn. syst. 267- 


Cal. Perianth five-parted, sharp, oblong, permanent. Cor. Petal one, 
tubular at bottom, at top five-cleft. Stam. Filaments five, shorter 
than the corolla. Pist. Germ oblong, cylindric, length of the 
stamens. Style none. Stigmas two, ovate. Per. Capsule oblong, 
one-celled, two-valved. Seeds numerous. 


Flowers solitary. Corolla five-cleft/ bell-shaped, higher than the 

Root branched. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Stem from one 
to two inches in height, with one or two pairs of leaves ; a 
large solitary flower at the extremity. Calyx angular, di- 
vided at top, five lanceolate segments. Corolla monopela- 
lous, deep blue, dotted inside. 

The Gentiana acaulis is an herbaceous perennial, grows 
freely in strong earth, produces large tufts of flowers particu- 
larly showy, and forms an excellent edging for flower-beds ; 
it flowers more freely if suffered to remain than when fre- 
quently removed, and is increased by seeds and by separating 
the roots in the spring : excessive drought is injurious to it. 
Perhaps no herbaceous plant excels this in brilliancy of colour; 
and although humble in growth, possesses particular attrac- 
tions. It flowers with greatest beauty in April and May, 
though in the summer and autumn a few blooms will occa- 
sionally appear : when growing in its wild state it has little or 
no stem. 

It is a native of many parts of Europe — some say of En- 
gland. In London it does not thrive well, and rarely flowers: 
this may be attributed to the impurity of the air, as at the 
Nurseries a short distance from the metropolis it is seen flower- 
ing abundantly : a shaded situation is favourable to this plant, 
but pure air is indispensable. 


1 . Section of the corolla spread, showing the insertion of the stamens. 

2. Pistil. 


Drawn tcEtchtd by W, CUrk. 



Canada Puccoon, or Blood-Wort. 


Class 13. Order 1. 

Sanguinaria, — from its blood-coloured juice. 

Linn. gen. 645. Linn. spec. 723. Willd. 1 140. 


Cal. Perianth two-leaved, ovate, concave. Cor. Petals eight, oblong, 
blunt. Stam. Filaments many, shorter than the corolla. Anthers 
simple. Pist. Germ oblong, compressed. Style none. Stigma two- 
grooved, height of the stamens, permanent. Per. Capsule oblong, 
two-valved. Seeds many, round, acuminate. 


Leaves upright, sinuated, lobed. .Scape one-flowered. 

Root tuberous, fleshy, bright-red internally, when cut afford- 
ing juice of the same colour, from which it takes its name of 
Sanguinaria : the juice is bitter and acrid. The root shoots 
out numerous slender stems, each bearing a flower of eightor 
ten petals. Filaments above twenty. Anthers yellow. Germ 
glaucous. Seeds shining, yellowish. A single leaf with each 
flower, of a glaucous green, with conspicuous veins. The base 

of the stem surrounded by small, oblong, membranaceous 

There is a delicacy in this herbaceous plant which renders 
it attractive and worthy of cultivation : although it does not 
form a prominent feature in the flower-border, still it pro- 
duces a good effect in the front of beds with other small 
flowers. It blooms in April, grows about nine inches high, 
with several stalks from the same root ; thrives well in peat 
earth, or in light mould and rotten leaves. It is propagated 
by separating the roots in the autumn, as it is in a dormant 
state at this season. It loses its leaves about the end of July, 
after which the roots may be divided; but this should not be 
done until the plant is of two or three years growth. 

It is a native of Canada, where it grows spontaneously in 
the woods, and was introduced here in 1680. 


1. Stamens and pistil magnified. 



Brawn, k Etched by W. Clark. 



Spring Bitter -Vetch. 


Class \7. Order 4. 

Obobus. Opoto; ofTheophrastus and Dioscorides : from opw, to ex- 
cite, and ^ovs, an ox ; this herb being used by the ancients to fatten 

Linn. gen. n. 871. Linn. spec. 1028. 


Cal. Perianth one-leaved, tubular, blunt at the base, shrivelling. Cor. 
papilionaceous. Stain. Filaments diadelphous. Anthers roundish. 
Pist. Germ cylindrical, compressed. Style filiform. Stigma linear. 
Per. Legume round, long, acuminate, and ascending, one-celled, 
two-valved. Seeds numerous, roundish. 


Leaves pinnate-ovate. Stipules semi-sagittate, quite entire. Stem 

Root perennial, fibrous. IStem one foot high, unbranched, 
smooth, angular. Leaves alternate, petioled. Leaflets three 
pairs, ovate-lanceolate, sessile, quite entire, nerved, bright- 
green, smooth, tender. Stipules at the base of the petioles. 
Midrib or rachis of the leaf long, channelled, ending in a sharp 

point. Peduncles axillary. Corolla red, purple, and blue : 
the colours change as the corolla advances. Legumes straight, 
round, containing eight to ten rounded seeds. 

The Orobus vermis is an herbaceous perennial, was intro- 
duced in 1629, and is a native of the North of Europe. It 
blooms in April in open borders. If the roots be left for a 
few years in the earth without being separated, they produce 
handsome tufts of purple flowers. It grows about one foot in 
height, and presents a pleasing contrast with early-flowering 
herbaceous plants ; as, Scilla bifolia, Sanguinaria Canadensis, 
Cynoglossum omphaloides, Alyssummontana, Cyclamen jjersicurrii 
and Soldanella alpina. Many of these little vernal flowers 
are not sufficiently conspicuous of themselves, but collectively 
produce a truly pleasing effect, that may be heightened by a 
judicious and tasteful arrangement. 

This plant is propagated by dividing the root, either in the 
autrnnn, or so early in the spring that the young shoots may 
"sustain no injury : it thrives well in common borders, provided 
the earth be not too light or dry. 


1 . Stamens and pistils magnified. 


Dra-KU t7\tc/ud tyW. Clark . 



Box-leaved Milkwort. 


Class 17. Orders. 

PoLYGALA. From iroXv, much, and yaXa,, milk; this plant being 
supposed to make cattle yield much milk. The name occurs in 
Pliny J and Dioscorides has iroXvyaXov. 


Linn. gen. n. 851 . Linn. spec. 989. Linn. syst. 639. 


Cal. Perianth five-leaved, small, permanent. Cor. subpapilionaceous. 
Standard tubular, short, reflex mouth, bifid. Keel concave. Stam. 
Filaments diadelphous, inclosed within the keel. Anthers simple. 
Pist. Germ oblong. Style simple, erect. Stigma thickish, bifid. 
Per. Capsule obcordate, two-celled, two-valved. Seeds solitary, 


Flowers scattered. Keel rounded at the tip. Stem shrubby. Leaves 

The branches are closely set with stift" smoolh leaves of a 
lucid green. The flowers proceed from between the leaves, 
near the extremity of the branches ; each flower stands on a 
peduncle proceeding from a kind of triphyllous cup formed 

of floral leaves : the true calyx is composed of three leaves, 
which are nearly white : the two outer petals are similar to the 
wings of a papilionaceous flower, and are also white, or nearly 
so ; the third petal, which forms a kind of tube and contains 
the stamens and pistils, is white at the base, but yellow towards 
the extremity, where it changes by degrees to a bright bay 
colour. Filaments four on each side, slightly united at the 

The whole of the Polygala tribe is interesting : — of those 
which are hardy, some are herbaceous perennials, others are 
annuals. The Chamcebuxus was introduced into England in 
1658, and is the only hardy shrub in the genus: when culti- 
vated, this shrub rises.with branches from nine inches to a foot 
in height ; in a wild state it does not grow so high. 

It is a native of Austria, Germany and Switzerland, where 
it grows spontaneously on the mountains, flowering plentifully 
in May, and partially until August. It thrives well in light 
mould : in peat or bog- earth it flourishes. 

This shrub, — hitermixed with GauUheria procumbens, Mit- 
ch'ella repens, Linnaea borealis, and other dwarf-growing shrubs, 
— will greatly enrich the front of American beds, where it will 
grow luxuriantly, forming a close and ornamental bush. It 
may be propagated by separation, as it throws up numerous 
branches from the ground, which may be taken off* with roots 
in the month of April. 


Stamens and pistil magnified. 


Srawn ScXngrmed, fy W, Ciar/c. 



Pasque-flower Anemone. 


Class 13. Order 7. 

Anemone. AvSjOtwvij, Hippocrates, Theophrastus, and Dioscorides : 
from Avf/xo;, the wind ,- because the flower is supposed not to open 
unless the wind blows, or rather because it grows in situations 
much exposed to the wind. 

Linn. gen. n. 694. Linn. .ipcc. 759. 


Cal. none. Cor. Petals in two or three rows. Stam. Filaments nu- 
merous, capillary, half the length of the corolla. Fist. Germs nu- 
merous, in a head. Styles acuminate. Stigmas obtuse. Per. none. 
Receptacle globular. Seeds numerous, acuminate, retaining the 


Peduncle involucred. Petals straight. Leaves bipinnate. 

Peduncles erect, round, from six to eight inches high, villose, 
one-flowered. Invohicre inultifid, with the divisions linear 
and villose. Corolla purple. Petals lanceolate, villose with- 
out. Seeds ovate, tailed, hairy. Leaves rough, finely cut. 

This herbaceous plant flowers in April., When established, 
it produces fine clusters of deep purple flowers about nine 
inches in height, and continues a succession of blooms for 
about a month. The flowers appear while the leaves are small 
and tender, but they afterwards attain their full size while 
the plant is still flowering ; and die off* early in July, about 
the time the seed perfects itself, leaving the little tuberous 
roots in a dormant state until the following spring. It is in- 
judicious to take these roots out of the ground and keep them 
dry, as is necessary with some other of the Anemonies : the 
spot where the Pulsatilla is growing should be marked before 
the foliage has perished, that the roots may not be disturbed. 
Some of the other species of Anemonies may be cultivated in 
the same border with the Pulsatilla; as, A. apennina^ A. ne- 
morosa, A. sylvestris. These, though all of low growth, are 
interesting in the flower-border. 

The Pulsatilla thrives in a light sandy earth and in an 
open situation. It is a native of Britain : is propagated 
either by seed or by parting the roots. 


Drami lrEnpra\rdlyW,C/aTk. 



Indian-tree Rose-bay, 


Class 10. Order 1. 

RiiODODENDKON. 'PoSoSsv8pov of Dioscoridcs : from foSov, a rose, 
and hvSpov, a tree. 

Linn. gen. n. 548. Don's Prod. Flora Nepalensis, p. 154. 


Cat. Perianth five-parted, permanent. Cor. one-petaled, wheel 
funnel-form ; border spreading, with rounded segments. Stam. 
Filaments ten, filiform, almost the length of the corolla, declined. 
Anthers oval. Pist. Germ five-cornered, retuse. Style filiform, 
the length of the corolla. Stigma obtuse. Per. Capsule ovate, 
subangular, five-celled, divisible into five parts. Seeds numerous, 
very small. 


Leaves lanceolate, acute, silvery underneath. Flowers in clusters. 
Peduncles and calyx downy. Corolla bell-shaped, margin crenu- 
lated, two-lobed. Capsule ten-celled, tomentose. 

Stem twenty feet iii height ; branches dichotomous, ascend- 
ing. Leaves at the end of the branches, ovate-lanceolate, on 
short petioles, bright green on the upper surface, downy be- 
neath ; midrib strong, mucli veined. Flowers deep crimson, 
fi'om ten to twenty in clusters at the extremity of the branches. 
Calyx permanent, small, five-clell. Corolla bell-shaped, dotted 
in the throat, lobed. Stamens ten, shorter than the corolla, 
falling with it. Anthers oblong. Germ superior, cylindrical, 
white, downy. 

This magnificent shrub is a native of the Nepal mountains, 
and was introduced into this coimtry in 1817. In the Flora 
Exotica it is said to have been first discovered by Captain 
Hardwicke on a tour to Sireenagur in 1796, growing in the 
mountainous tract called the Sewallc Chain, which separates 
the plains of Hindostan from the Hinnnaleh mountains : it is 
called by the natives the Boorans. Its wood is used for 
making stocks of matchlocks, or conniion muskets of Hindo- 

This species, upon its first introduction, was treated as a 
hothouse plant ; but is now fully proved to bear the severity 
of our winters. Sir James Edward Smith, P.L.S., has a spe- 
cimen in his garden which has stood in the open ground four 
years ; and it has been of late treated as a hardy tree in many 

Placed alone upon a lawn, this shrub will appear to great 
advantage ; or mixed with the purple and pink hues of the 
various American species of this genus, its deep crimson blos- 
soms will appear with additional splendour. Beautiful as this 
shrub is, it was rarely to be met with until within these few 
years ; but as it is now more generally dispersed, and as it 
flowers early in the summer, there is reason to expect that the 
seeds may be perfected in this country, though probably it 
may be propagated by layers, like the other species of Rho- 
dodendron. We have to acknowledge the kindness received, 
in being allowed the use of the specimen from which the 
accompanying delineation was copied. This specimen was the 
first that flowered in the open ground in this country : it was 
presented by Mrs. Beaumont of Bretton Hall, Yorkshire, to 
the Linnean Society, and exhibited at their meeting on Tues- 
day, June 7, 1825. Thanks are also due for the assistance 
rendered by Mr. Don, Librarian of the Linnean Society, in 
obtaining this delineation, from whose Prodrovms Flora; Ne- 
palensis the specific characters of this plant are quoted; in 
which work this shrub is fully described under the natural 
order EricecB. 


Pistil: showing the germ, style, and stigma. 

'■.■yraYfd 6- »^ Gark. 



Daurian Lungwort. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5. Order 1. 

Pclmoxakia: so named from its being supposed to be a good 
remedy in disorders of the lungs (pulmoiies) ; or, according to 
others, from the spots on the leaves resembling those on some dis- 
eased lungs. 

Linn. gen. n. 184, 

GENERIC character. 

Cal. Perianth one-leaved, five-toothed, prismatic, pentagonal, perma- 
nent. Cor. one-petaled, funnel-form ; tube cylindrical, the length 
of the calyx3 borderhalf-five-cleft, blunt, upright, spreading. Throat 
pervious. Stam. Filaments five, in the throat, very short. Anthers 
erect, converging. Fist. Germs four. Style filiform, shorter than 
the calyx. Stigma blunt, emarginate. Per. none. Calyx un- 
changed, fostering the seeds at bottom. Seeds four, roundish, 


Stem-leaves oblong, lanceolate, embracing. Root-leaves elliptic. 

Root perennial. Stem one foot in height, erect, branched 
towards the top. Radical leaves ovate, on long footstalks, 
with two or three nerves going from each side the midrib to- 
wards the point. Cauline leaves narrow, lanceolate, entire, 

quite smooth. Flowers in nodding racemes, pale red, changing 
to bright blue. Peduncles hairy. Pedicles about the length 
of the calyx. Calyx five-cleft, hairy. Corolla cylindrical. 
Nectary, five hairy glands. Stamens on very short filaments, 
inserted into the tube. Style filiform, longer than the corolla. 
Stigma capitate, small. 

This species, although the least in the genus in point of 
gi'owth, may be ranked as the most delicate and beautiful : it 
grows about nine inches in height, and the flowers are beauti- 
fully diversified with different shades of blue and pink. It well 
merits a place in the ornamental flower-border, and may be 
planted amongst rock-work with other flowering alpine plants ; 
and as it loves a light soil and dry situation, it may here meet 
with a spot congenial to its habits. The beauty of many small 
alpine plants is much heightened through their being placed 
in favourable situations on rock-work, especially when taste- 
fully arranged so as to harmonize. It is in a great measure 
through the introduction of ornamental rock-work in gardens, 
that the beautiful tribe of alpine plants have increased in esti- 
mation, and are now so much in repute. This species of 
Pulmonaria does not frequently perfect its seeds, but is propa- 
gated by separating its roots in the spring. It was introduced 
in 1812, and is a native of Dauria. 


Magnified corolla cut open, showing the insertion of the stamens and 


Drawn k£nf raved iy W, Ciarh. 


MAGNOLIA GLAUCA sempeuvirens. 
Evergreen Swamp Magnolia. 


Class 13. Order 7. 

Magnolia : so named by Plumier in honour of Pierre Magnol, Pro- 
fessor of Medicine and Prefect of the Botanic Garden at Mont- 

Linn. gen. n. 690. 


Cal. Perianth three-leaved j leaflets ovate, concave, petal-shaped, 
deciduous. Cor. Petals nine, oblong, concave, blunt, narrower at 
the base. Stam. Filaments numerous, short, acuminate, com- 
pressed, inserted into the common receptacle of the pistils below 
the germs. Anthers linear, fastened on each side to the margin 
of the filaments. Fist. Germs numerous, ovate-oblong, two-celled, 
covering a club-shaped receptacle. Styles recurved, contorted, very 
short. Stigmas villose, perpendicular with the style. Per. stro- 
bile ovate, covered with capsules, which are compressed, roundish, 
scarcely imbricate, clustered, acute, one-celled, two-valved, sessile, 
opening outwards, permanent. Seeds two or one, roundish, berried, 
hanging by a thread from the sinus of each scale of the strobile. 


Leaves ovate-oblong, glaucous underneath. 

Branches many, somewhat slender, covered with a smooth 
bark. Leaves oblong, entire, smooth, bright green on the 
upper surface, but white or glaucous underneath. The flowers 
are solitary at the extremity of the branches, with from eight 
to ten white and concave petals. The fruit is conical and 
imbricated, about the size of a walnut, and when ripe is of a 
dark-brown colour. Seeds either singly or in pairs within 
the imbricated scales. 

The Magnolia glauca, of which the plant figured is a variety, 
was introduced into this country in 1688, and is supposed to 
be the first of the genus that appeared : it was cultivated by 
Bishop Compton at Fulham. It is a native of North America, 
where it grows in low and swampy ground, and is known 
there by the names of White Laurel^ Swarnp Sassafras, and 
Beaver Tree. It is supposed to have obtained the latter name 
from the circumstance of the root being eaten by beavers ; by 
which means these animals are frequently caught. Kalm states, 
that in America this tree casts its leaves in the autumn, but that 
young trees will retain them through the winter. In woods in 
that country it grows in great luxuriance, and the flowers are 
particularly fragrant ; so much so, that their scent is percep- 
tible, if the wmd be favourable, at the distance of three- 
quarters of a mile. The Americans cure coughs and other 
pectoral diseases by steeping the berries of this tree in brandy, 
and giving a draught of the liquor every morning : it is even 
said to have salutary effects in consumptions. For a cold, it 
is very common to boil the branches in water. 

The Magnolia glauca has long been an acknowledged fa- 
vourite shrub in our gardens; and the present variety possesses 
all the beauties of that plant, with the addition of retaining its 
leaves longer : it may indeed be considered as an evergreen, 
many of its leaves remaining green until the new ones appear. 
Its habit of growth is bushy, and it will attain the height of 
about twenty feet, producing flowers plentifully in the month 
of June, which are white, particularly fragrant, and nearly 
double. It flourishes best in swampy ground, but will grow 
extremely well in the American peat beds. It may also be 
recommended as an ornamental tree for the lawn ; and the 
whole of the hardy Magnolia tribe would become conspicuous 
intermixed in an Arboretum. It is in contrast that most trees 
and shrubs are viewed to the greatest advantage. 

This species may be propagated either by layers or by 
seeds, but these are not always perfected in this country. 
Seeds are to be obtained of the M. glauca from America, 
which are packed in sand, and should be kept so until the 
month of February, when they may be sown in pots, and 
placed in a moderate hot-bed until about an inch in height : 
they should then be put into other pots, and kept partially 
shaded and frequently sprinkled with water. They may the 
following season be bedded out, or kept in pots another year. 

The nursery of Mr. Thompson at MUe End presents fine 
specimens of the different kinds of hardy Magnolia ; from 
whence we were favoui'ed with the present specimen. 

Zirawn IcE'iinvved fy W, Gar/c . 



Panicled Bugloss. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5. Order 1. 

Anchusa. Ayy^ova-a., itapa. To ayysiv, from its supposed constrin- 
gent quality j or, as others say, because it strangles serpents. 

Linn. gen. n. 182, Jit. Hort. Kew. 1. 177. 


Cal. Perianth five-parted, oblong, round, acute, permanent. Cor. 
monopelalous, funnel-shaped ; tube cylindrical, the length of the 
calyx J limb semiquinquefid, erect, expanding, obtuse 3 throat 
closed with five small scales, convex, prominent, oblong, con- 
verging. Stam. Filaments very short, in the throat of the corolla; 
anthers oblong, incumbent, covered. Pist. Germs four. Style 
filiform, the length of the stamens. Stigma obtuse, emarginate. 
Per. none ; but the calyx, enlarged and erect, contains the seeds 
in its bosom. Seeds four, oblongish, obtuse, gibbose. 


Leaves lanceolate, strigose, quite entire. Panicle dichotomous, di- 
varicate. Flowers peduncled. Calyxes five-parted, with subulate 

Root biennial or pereimial. Stem round, hirsute ; branches 
alternate. Leaves lanceolate, entire, rough, very hairy. 

Flower-buds purple, on short pedicels ; in expanding changes 
to bright blue. Peduncles hairy. Calyx five-parted, hairy. 
Stamens on short filaments inserted on the bearded throat of 
the corolla. 

This plant, although introduced as far back as 1777, is by 
no means common in our gardens : this cannot be on account 
of a deficiency in point of attraction. The colour of the 
bloom is of a splendid blue, somewhat approaching to purple, 
while the bud is of a most beautiful purple. In the herbaceous 
border it is evidently a showy plant ; it shoots up with many 
branches to the height of about five feet, producing fine pe- 
duncles of flowers during the months of May, June, and July. 
It is considered in many works as a biennial, but it is known 
to last four or five years: when once established it is not 
very readily eradicated, from its dropping its seeds, as well as 
from the roots being so tenacious of life that small pieces being 
permitted to remain in the ground will spring up and produce 

It is a native of Madeira, and thrives best in sandy ground, 
but will grow very well in light garden mould. A large spe- 
cimen of this plant may be seen in the herbaceous ground at 
Chelsea Botanic Garden, where Mr. Anderson, the curator, 
stated it had thrived for many years. The figure given here 
was taken from a specimen growing in a pot. It is cultivated 
is some nurseries under the name of Anchusa italica^ but this 
is a distinct species. 


Corolla cut open, showing the insertion of the stamens. 


SroMm l-Eizffraved fy W, Ciark. 


Double Red Officinal Pseony. 


Class 13. Order 2. 

P^ONiA of Pliny j Fla/ovia of Hippocrates and Dioscorides : from 
Paeon, a famous physician of antiquity. 

Linn. gen. n. 678. Linn. spec. 747. 


Cat. Perianth five-leaved, small, permanent ; leaflets roundish, con- 
cave, reflex, unequal in size and situation. Cor. Petals five, 
roundish, concave, narrovi^er at the base, spreading, very large. 
Stam. Filaments numerous, capillary, short. Anthers oblong, 
quadrangular, erect, four-celled, large. Pist. Germs two, ovate, 
erect, tomentose. Styles none. Stigmas compressed, oblong, 
blunt, coloured. Per. Capsules as many, ovate-oblong, spreading 
and reflex, tomentose, one-celled, one-valved, opening longitudi- 
nally inwards. Seeds several, oval, shining, coloured, fastened to 
the opening suture. 


Leaves doubly-pinnate, sublobed. Leaflets oblong, veined underneath. 

The roots are composed of many roundish thick knobs or 
tubers, which are attached to each other by fibres. Tlic 

branches are about two or two feet and a half in hciffht. The 


leaves are much lobed, and variousl}' cut into segments. 
Flowers solitary, large, and of a fine deep crimson. 

Of the varieties of Paonia officinalis, Mr. Sabine, in a paper 
in the Horticultural Transactions, vol. ii. on the double herba- 
ceous Paonias, mentions three — P. officinalis rubra, P. qffi^ci- 
nalis carnesce7is, and P. officinalis albicans. The first of these 
(which is here figured), although seen in almost every garden, 
should not on that account be omitted from a publication like 
the present, nor should it detract from its merits as an orna- 
mental plant. Mr. Sabine has observed, " It is singular that 
none of the beautiful tribe here noticed has been figured in 
publications of later years." 

This plant is of strong growth, and rises to the height of 
from two to three feet, with numbers of beautiful red flowers 
appearing in the months of May and June ; and as it grows 
freely in common borders, is a desirable plant to add gaiety 
to the shrubbery. The roots are very prolific, in large clusters 
of tubers, which, if separated in September or early in Octo- 
ber, will flower the succeeding summer, provided each of the 
tubers have eyes to shoot from. This variety being double, 
and deficient of stamens and pistils, cannot produce seeds; 
consequently can only be increased by the roots. The single- 
flowered of this species is seldom cultivated, and until recently 
was rarely met with ; its habit of growth is very similar to the 
double, but the flowers are not so conspicuous. 

It is a native of the South of Europe, and was cultivated 
in this country in 1560. It is supposed to be the Pceonia 
mentioned by Pliny as noted for its medicinal properties. 


Iirawn irEnpraved fy W, ClarA:. 

^.rm.'f/m. Pi/A/r'.rf>t// M, Cmiff, ;r/v- „ o^ ^^ /!V- ^T, i .•// {•-i. >■''•. 



Triangular Genista. 


Class 17. Order 4. 

Genista: from genu, the kneej either because it is flexible, or be- 
cause it is supposed to relieve pains in that joint. 

Linn. gen. n. 859. ^U. Hort. Kew. 3. 14. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, small, tubular, two-lipped j upper lip two- 
toothed, more deeply divided j lower, three- toothed, nearly equal. 
Cor. papilionaceous. Banner oblong, remote from the keel, the 
whole reflex. Wings oblong, loose, shorter than the others. Keel 
straight, emarginate, longer than the banner. Stam. Filaments 
ten, connate, emerging from the keel. Anthers simple. Pist. 
Germ oblong. Style simple, rising. Stigma sharp, rolled in. 
Per. Legume roundish, turgid, one-celled, two-valved. Seeds soli- 
tary, usually kidney-form. 


Leaves ternate, the upper ones simple. Branches three-sided, pro- 

Branches flexuose, green, trailing on the ground. Leaves 
trifid, ovate, concave. Flowers in clusters, on short pedicels ; 

corolla papilionaceous; petals bright-yellow; calyx green. 
Pericarpium oblong, one-celled. Seeds several, roundish, 

This showy evergreen trailing shrub flowers in great pro- 
fusion over the whole plant, producing a complete mass of 
yellow flowers during the months of May and June. In the 
shrubbery this plant becomes a conspicuous figure : its long 
and pliant branches in their natural position trailing along 
the ground, form an excellent fore-ground to more lofty 
shrubs; and if supported by stakes will materially enrich 
the body of the shrubbery itself. Other species of this genus, 
such as G. sagittalis, G. pilosa, G. anglica, and G. procum- 
bens, though of the same habit of growth with the triquetral 
but smaller and more delicate both in their nature and appear- 
ance, will not flourish when tied to a stake, and will there- 
fore add to the beauty of the front of the shrubbery alone. 
The triquetra wiU grow luxuriantly in light garden mould, 
and will at times perfect its seeds ; but may very readily be 
propagated by laying, which process should be performed 
early in April. 

It is a native of Spain, France, and Italy ; was introduced 
in 1748. 


Calyx, stamens and pistil, magnified. 


Drawn t Enp': 

Zo?tAm,fudlcshed iry STrutA, Eid, 

''!■*; .ZirA: 

Cfes.CcrnAM. Oci^ISSd. 



Shrubby Pceony. 


Class 13. Order 2. 


(Vide Paonia officinalis rubra. PI, 11.) 


Stem woody, perennial. Leaflets oblong, ovate, glaucous, and some- 
what hairy beneath ; the terminal one three-lobed. Germens nu- 
merous, distinct. 

Branches shrubby and numerous, forming a handsome bush 
of the height of from six to ten feet. Leaves on long stalks, 
alternate, spreading, and deciduous; leaflets ternate in an 
opposite direction, lobed, veined, and glaucous underneath; 
the terminal leaflets three-lobed. Leaf-buds scaly, of a fine 
pink colour. Flowers terminating the branches, solitary, from 
five to eight or even ten inches in diameter, always double, 
composed of many jagged rose-coloured petals : the stamens 
appear partially in the centre of the flower ; anthers yellow ; 
germs uncertain in their appearance. The flower possesses a 
rather sickly odour. 

Among the Chinese, a doubt exists concerning the origin of 
this magnificent shrub : some writers suppose it to have been 
obtained from the common Paeony by a particular process of 
culture ; others affirm, with more probability, that it was dis- 
covered growing in the mountains of Northern China ; that 
after its introduction into the southern provinces it became a 
general favourite among the florists, and that numerous va- 
rieties were consequently raised. So much prized were some 
of these, that they sold in China for a hundred ounces of gold. 

It is very generally cultivated, and flourishes in the province 
of Lo-Yang. In England there are but two species of the 
shrubby Paeony, — that which is here figured and P.papavera- 
cea, which has a large single flower, and was introduced by 
Sir Abraham Hume. Of P. Moutan a variety has been ob- 
tained which is named P. Moutan rosea: it differs in the 
flowers, which are of a somewhat darker red. Notwithstand- 
ing the exertions of many botanists who have sent collectors 
to China, numerous varieties of this beautiful shrub have not 
yet been obtained. These varieties are frequently depicted by 
the Chinese in various ornamental branches of art, as double 
flowers in the different colours of pink, purple, crimson, yellow, 
and white ; but the jealousy which the Chinese have ever en- 
tertained towards the English, and indeed towards foreigners 
generally, has hitherto frustrated the arduous exertions of 
botanists to obtain these splendid ornaments. The cunning and 
duplicity of the Chinese are such, that many specimens which 
have been imported as new, have proved on flowering to be 
such only as were already possessed by this country. There 
ai'e, however, some imported plants of this shrub having the ap- 
pearance of novelty now in the possession of the Horticultural 
Society, who have with much zeal endeavoured to obtain some 
of the valuable incognita of that country. The Mouta7i may 
truly be accounted one of the most ornamental shrubs in 
our gardens : it is sufficiently hardy to stand the winters of 
this country. The spring of the year, when it puts forth its 
shoots, is the time it is susceptible of injury from the Aveather, 
when the covering of a mat at night will be found a sufficient 
guard. The flowers, which appear during the months of May 
and June, give splendour to the shrub, not only by their indi- 
vidual beauty, but by their great profusion. 

This shrub thrives best in a situation somewhat sheltered, 
and in earth composed of a rich loam, rotten leaves, and a 
small portion of sand. It is propagated by laying, early in the 
spring ; and in the autumn of the following year the layers 
may be taken off" and potted. If these have a little protection 
by frames during the succeeding winter, and are kept one 
year in pots, they will become fine established plants, and may 
with safety be planted in the shrubbery or pleasure-ground. 

This plant was introduced by the late Sir Joseph 13anks in 

Fl. /4. 

Z>rxtm kSriff raved l>y W, Cla.rk 

Zmdmi.Poiiii>he4f io' Sfncik./ddfri; C? SS. CamAO^. OaTiSZi 



Narbonne Flax. 

Pentandrta. Pentagynia. 

Class 5. Order 5. 

LiNUM (Aivov of Dioscorides, Theophrastus, and other Greek au- 
thors) appears to be derived from Xivstv, to hold; the fibres of this 
plant being so remarkable for their tenacity. 

Linn. gen. n. 389. Linn. spec. 398. Linn. syst. 302. 


Cal. Perianth five-leaved, lanceolate, upright, small, permanent. Cor. 
funnel-form. Petals five, oblong, gradually wider above, obtuse, 
Stam. Filaments five, awl-shaped, upright, length of the calyx. 
Anthers simple, arrowed. Pist. Germ ovate. Styles five, filiform, 
upright, length of the stamens. Stigmas simple, reflex. Per. Cap- 
sule globose, rudely pentagonal, ten-valved, gaping at the tip. 
Partitions membranaceous, very thin, connecting the valves. Seeds 
solitary, ovate-flattish, acuminated, smooth. 


Calyxes acuminate. Leaves lanceolate, stiff, rugged, acuminate. 
Stem round, branched at the base. Filaments connate. 

Stem from a foot to eighteen inches in height, branching 
out almost to the bottom with many long slender branches. 
Flowers at the extremity of the branches of a fine blue colour. 
The seed-vessels are small; calyxes large, lanceolate, membra- 

naceous at the sides, most exquisitely acuminate at the top, 
and having a sort of awl-shaped dagger-point. The root is 

Some of the species of this genus are in the highest estima- 
tion for their utility, from the herbage being applied to the 
manufacture of linen cloth, while the seeds afford a valuable 
oil. The Narbonensei though too small and delicate to afford 
either of these necessaries to mankind, may nevertheless claim 
some share of esteem as an ornamental herbaceous plant ; no 
Other of the genus can be considered to surpass it for bril- 
liancy of colour : the bright and lively blue of the flowers, 
added to the succession of blooms it produces, renders it worthy 
of being intermixed in the herbaceous border with other deh- 
Gate plants of the same height of growth. It is slender in 
habit, will thrive extremely well in light garden mould, and 
is readily propagated by seeds or by cuttings. It was intro- 
duced into this country in 1759. 

The figure here represented was drawn from a specimen 
flowering in the herbaceous border at Mr. Knight's Exotic 
Nursery, King's Road, Chelsea. 


i . Showing the stamens enveloping the germ. 
2. The pistils exposed. 

*^* Since the publication of Rhododendron arhoreum, Plate 7, we 
have been informed that a plant of this species flowered in July last 
in the conservatory of M. Boursault, Rue-blanc, Paris^ and was there 
supposed to have been the first which had flowered in Europe. 




Superb Corn Flag. 

Triandria. Monogynia. 

Class 3. Order 1. 

Gladiolus, mentioned by Pliny j supposed to have derived this name 
from gladius, a sword, aUuding to the shape of the leaf. 

Linn. gen. n. 57. 


Cal. a spathe, two-valved, inferior, shorter than the corolla ; valves 
oblong, permanent ; the outer one larger, inclosing the inner. Cor. 
one-petaled, superior ; tube cylindric, bent ; border somewhat 
bell -shaped, six-parted ; segments oblong, form erect-patulous, 
the uppermost and lowest lateral, either without or within. Stam. 
Filaments three, inserted into the orifice of the tube, filifoiin, 
shorter than the corolla. Anthers ovate, incumbent. Pist. Germ 
inferior, triangular. Style filiform. Stigmas three, rolled back 
and spreading, blunt, villose. Per. Capsule ovate, three-cornered, 
blunt, three-celled, three-valved. Seeds very many, smooth. 


Leaves sword-shaped, many-nerved. Flowers all directed the same 
way, many on a stem. Corolla upright, with a bell-shaped border. 

Root solid, round, covered with a brown membrane. Stem 
round, about two feet in height ; leaves embracing the stem 
at bottom ; flowers on the extremity of the stem on one side 
of it, in great numbers, of a fine scarlet, with a large white 

spot on each of the three upper segments of the petal : spathe 
green, enveloping the flower before it opens, and remaining 
after the flower has withered. 

The beauties of this species cannot be surpassed by any in 
the genus; and from the root being hardy, it is rendered still 
more desirable. It was until lately in the possession of such 
only as could protect it in a greenhouse. This, as well as 
many other bulbous roots, natives of the Cape of Good Hope, 
have been proved to endure the winter of this country, and 
thrive extremely well, by the treatment adopted by the Hon. 
and Rev. Wm. Herbert at Spofforth. The method of pre- 
serving the roots is to plant them in a dry south border of 
light open and sandy earth, and in the winter to protect them 
with a covering of leaves. They should be planted early in 
the spring, that the bulbs may mature themselves in the spot 
where they are to pass the winter : it is very essential that the 
roots be well ripeiied. With these precautions there is little 
fear of their succeeding. Where the roots are well established, 
they will produce stems from two to three feet in height with 
a profusion of flowers, which, from the opposition of scarlet 
and white, become truly interesting, and vie in splendour 
with any of the bulbous tribe. 

" The passing Indian turns the admiring eye, 
Smit by the glories of her crimson dye." 

This plant is readily increased by the roots, the separating 
of which should be done early in the spring ; and it is better 
that the roots should remain in the border during the winter, 
provided it be tolerably dry, rather than be taken up. It was 
introduced from the Cape of Good Hope in 1 790. 

This figure was taken from a bed of luxuriant bulbs of 
this plant at Messrs. Whitley, Brames, and Milne's Nursery, 


Section showing the position of the stamens and pistil. 

Z'r-iii/! HrEn^rmd fy TV, Clark . 

7=., /!/,..*„,/ U., O^.r-A n-/.-/,-^ t^ro /fK nifnJt.'// .Or/": J,K 



Pale Lychnidea. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5. Order 1, 

FiiLOx. 4>Ao^ of Theophrastus, meaning ajlame; supposed to be so 
named from the brightness of the flowers of some of the species. 
Dodonseus supposed that <pXo^ used by Theophrastus applied to the 
Viola tricolor ; but this term has been more generally applied to 
Lychnis, Agrostemma, or Phlox. 

Linn. gen. n. 214. 


Cat. Perianth one-leafed, cylindrical, ten-cornered, five-toothed, acute, 
permanent. Cor. one-petaled, valve-shaped ; tube cylindrical, 
longer than the calyx, narrower below, curved in ; border flat, 
five-parted ; segments equal, blunt, shorter than the tube. Stam. 
Filaments five, within the tube of the corolla, two longer, one 
shorter. Anthers in the throat of the corolla. Pist. Germ, coni- 
cal. Style filiform, the length of the stamens. Stigma trifid, acute. 
Per. Capsule ovate, three-cornered, three-celled, three-valved. 
Seeds solitary, ovate. 

SPECIFIC character. 

Leaves lanceolate, smooth. Stem smooth. Flowers many. 

Root fibrous, perennial; stem herbaceous, rising to the height 
of eighteen inches, on which the leaves are seated in pairs 
arranged opposite, sitting close to the stalk, smooth, entire, 

and midrib evident : the stem is terminated with dichotomous 
flower-stalks. Calyx five-parted, awl-shaped, permanent seg- 
ments. Corolla pale pink, monopetalous, five-parted. Stamens 
shorter than the corolla, and seated in the throat. 

All the species of this beautiftil genus are well worthy of cul- 
tivation : the individual beauty of each is so decided, that it is 
unnecessary to select or point out any as the most attractive. 
The P. car7iea, here represented, possesses a considerable de- 
gree of delicacy in colour, which partakes in some degree of an 
intermediate tone between the reds,purples, and blues, of others 
of this genus. In still further recommendation of this orna- 
mental herbaceous plant, its style of growth is interesting, and 
its flowers continue in succession during the months of June 
and July. It flourishes in a border of rich mellow earth, rotten 
leaves, and garden mould ; it sometimes requires watering in 
the summer season, excessive drought being injurious. It 
may be propagated by cuttings, or by separating the root; the 
former method is preferable. The cuttings should be taken 
about the end of June, and must be the young shoots near the 
surface of the ground : if they be placed under a hand-glass, 
kept partially shaded for a short time, and occasionally watered, 
they will strike freely, and become good plants for bedding 
out the following spring. 

This plant was introduced in 1816. The figure was taken 
from Messrs. Buckingham and Chandler's Nursery, Vauxhall. 


1. Corolla cut oj)enj showing the insertion of the stamens. 

2. Calyx and pistil. 

=/. /;■ 

Drawn i:£7iffraved fy W, Clark. 


Yellow Azalea. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5, Order 1. 

Azalea : A^aXso;, dry ; from its growing in a dry soil. 

Linn. gen. n. 212. Linn. spec. 16G9. 


Cat. Perianth five-parted^ acute, erect, small, coloured, permanent. 
Cor. monopetalous, bell-shaped, semiquinquefid ; the sides of the 
divisions bent in. Stam. Filaments five, filiform, inserted into the 
receptacle, free. Anthers simple. Fist. Germ roundish. Style 
filiform, the length of the corolla, permanent. Stigma obtuse. 
Per. Capsule roundish, five-celled, five-valved. Seeds many, 


Leaves shining, lanceolate, smooth on both sides ; racemes terminal. 

Stems branching, woody, rising to the height of from six to 
eight feet in tliis country. Leaves green, tinged with brown 
on tlieir upper surface, oblong, and alteinate. The flowers 
are yellow, in clusters, at the extremity of the branches ; co- 
rolla tubed, opening at the top into five segments ; the stamens 
and pistil projecting beyond the corolla. Anthers simple, with 
pollen of a rich brown. Style filiform, extending beyond the 
stamens. Stigma obtuse, green. 

This splendid family of shrubs is of modern introduction 
into the gardens of this country. The beauty not only of the 

many hardy species of this genus, but of the numerous varie- 
ties that art has produced, entitle these shrubs to rank among 
the most ornamental plants that decorate the garden ; indeed 
they already appear conspicuous in evei-y good collection. 
The A. pontica, together with a fine white variety that has 
been raised from it, may be recommended for their delightful 
odour as well as for their beauty. Assemblages of the species 
and varieties of this shrub produce most pleasing effects in ap- 
propriate parts of the pleasure-ground ; the numerous shades 
of red, scarlet, pink, white, and orange, which these flowers 
afford during the months of May and June, produce a sort of 
enchantment upon the beholder. 

" But who can paint 

Like Nature ? Can imagination boast. 
Amid its gay creation, hues like hers ? 
Or can it mix them with that matchless skill. 
And lose them in each other, as appears 
In every bud that blows?" 

In the American borders, among the Kalmia^ Uliododcndron^ 
and others of this beautiful tribe, the Azalea will be found 
highly ornamental. 

Some singular accounts have been given respecting the 
medicinal properties of A. pontica. Professor Pallas relates, 
that bees frequenting the flowers of this plant produce honey 
supposed to be narcotic ; and that cows, goats, and sheep, have 
been poisoned in consequence of feeding on its leaves. It is 
said in the journals of Mr. Anthony Hove, that a Tartarian 
farmer subsisted entirely upon the profits of honey produced 
by bees from this plant, which he sold at Constantinople and 
other parts of Turkey for medicinal uses. 

The hardy Azaleas are all deciduous shrubs, and flower 
during the months of May and June : they are propagated by 
seeds and by layers. The latter process is the more expeditious; 
for the plants thus raised will frequently flower the first year 
after being removed from the shoot or mother-plant. 

The A. pontica is a native of Pontus, and was introduced 
in 1793. 

Fl. /c?. 

jOraim trEngToved fy W, Clarfc ■ 


Bearded Chelone. 


Class 14. Order 2. 

Chelone : from p^gAcuvij, a tortoise; supposed to be from the corolla 
bearing some resemblance to the vaulted form of the tortoise- 

Linn. gen. n. 748. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, five-parted, very short, permanent; divisions 
erect, ovate. Cor. monopetalous, ringent. Tube cylindric, very 
short. Throat inflated, oblong, convex above, flat beneath. Border 
closed, small. Upper lip obtuse, emarginate ; lower almost equal 
to the upper, very slightly trifid. Stam. Filaments four, hid be- 
neath the back of the corolla. Anthers incumbent. The rudiment 
of a fifth filament, like the point of a dagger, between the upper 
pair of stamens. Pist. Germ ovate. Style filiform, situation and 
length of the stamens. Stigma obtuse. Per. Capsule ovate, two- 
celled, longer than the calyx. Seeds very many, roundish, sur- 
rounded with a membranous wing. 


Root-leaves petioled, spatulate-lanceolate, quite entire. Stem-leaves 
lanceolate, sessile : peduncles long ; lower tip of the corolla 

Root perennial. Leaves opposite. Flowers scarlet, nodding 
in a terminal panicle ; partial peduncles two, three, or four- 

flowered ; segments of the calyx obtuse ; lower lip of the co- 
rolla with three acute reflexed segments ; inner part of the 
throat clothed with a dense yellow pubescence. 

The delicacy and grace of this herbaceous plant will ever 
be found sufficient to induce the lovers of flowers to give it a 
conspicuous place in the herbaceous border. The singular 
formation and pendent position of its little tubular flowers, 
the handsome pyramidical form produced by each stalk, and 
the height to which the centre stalk of the established plant 
will rise, often six feet, surrounded by other stalks of weaker 
and shorter growth, producing a succession of blooms for 
nearly two months, render this plant truly interesting. 

It thrives well in common garden mould, but will grow 
luxuriantly with a portion of loam. As it does not perfect its 
seeds in this country, it must be increased by dividing the 
root, or by cuttings ; which latter method will answer very 
well by taking the young shoots and placing the cuttings 
under a hand-glass. 

It is a native of Chili, and was introduced in 1793. 


1 . Corolla cut open, showing the insertion of the stamens j and 

barren filament. 

2, Pistil and calyx. 

n. /<?. 

SrcLKn S: Engraved fy W, Clark. 



Nootka-Sound Lupine. 


Class 17. Older 4. 

Lupixus : so named by Pliny and other ancient writers. Vossius 
gives the derivation of this name from liiptts, a wolf 3 because plants 
of this genus ravage the ground by overrunning it after the manner 
of that animal : — or from Ku-ffr], grirf; whence Virgil's epithet, tristes 
lupini ; from the fanciful idea of its acrid juices when tasted pro- 
ducing a sorrowful appearance in the countenance. 

Linn. gen. n. 8C5. 


Cat. Perianth one-leafed, bifid. Cor. papilionaceous. Banner cor- 
date-roundish, emarginate, bent back at the sides, compressed. 
Wings subovate, almost the length of the banner, not fastened to 
the keel, converging below. Keel two-parted at the base, sickle- 
shaped upwards, acuminate, entire, the length of the wings, nar- 
rower. Stain. Filaments ten, united, somewhat ascending, distinct 
above. Anthers five, roundish, and as many oblong, Pist. Germ 
awl-shaped, compressed, villose. Style awl-shaped, ascending. 
Stigma terminating, blunt. Per. Legume large, oblong, coriaceous, 
compressed, acuminate, one-celled. Seeds several, roundish, com- 


Flowers in whorls. Leaves and stem villose. 

Root perennial. Stem fi'oni eighteen inches to two feet in 
height, closely covered with a fine hairiness. Leaves on foot- 

stalks, divided into eight or ten digitate leaflets, terminating 
in points, and of a dark green, veined, and minutely haired. 
The flowers in whorls rormd the peduncle, and continue 
opening in succession, commencing at the bottom. 

L. Nootkatensis and L. perennis are the only hardy herba- 
ceous perennials in the genus ; the others are annuals. The 
Nootkatensis is a showy plant for the herbaceous ground as 
well as for the front of the shrubbery, as it will readily esta- 
blish itself in common borders, and flowers freely in the month 
of June. It differs in style of growth from the annual species, . 
being more compact in habit, brighter in coloui*, and more 
decided in the opposition of the blue and white. It grows 
about two feet and a half in height. Where this plant is 
established, the seeds which drop will produce numerous 
young plants, provided the ground be not disturbed : should 
an increase be required, these may be transplanted into beds 
in the spring, and the following year they will flower. 

This plant was introduced in 1 795 : it is a native of Nootka- 
Sound, from whence has originated its specific name. 


Calyx, stamens, and pistil^ magnified. 

Fl. 2C. 

Drtrtm laJingrmid Iry W, Clark. 



Sharp-petaled Tiger-flower. 


Class 1 6. Order 1 . 

TiGRiDiA : from the petals being spotted like a tiger. 


Cal, Spathes one or two-flowered. Cor. Petals regularly divided into 
six J three exterior large and ovate, three interior smaller and 
seated round the base. Stam. Filaments three, attached, forming 
a tube round the pistil. Anthers oblong. Pist. Germ long, three- 
cornered. Style simple, erect. Stigmas three. Pe7\ Capsule ob- 
long, three-cornered, three-celled, three-valved. Seeds numerous, 


Glaucous ; segments of the corolla ovate, acute. Style somewhat 
longer than the anthers j divisions of the stigma clavate. 

Root bulbous, producing stems about eighteen inches high. 
Leaves plaited, sheathing the stem at the base, sometimes longer 
than the stem. Spathe two-leaved, compressed, containing 
one or two flowers ; corolla formed somewhat like a cup. Tlie 
petals are six in number, alternately large and small, and 
are longer and more pointed than in T. pavonia, in whicli 
the segments are cuneiform and acuminate, the style shorter 
than the anthers, and the divisions of the stigma subulate. In 
T. oxypetala the style rises above the anthers. 

This splendid though curious plant was last year introduced 
from Mexico into this country. The rich orange-coloured 
petals, studded with dark-crimson irregular spots in the cup, 
will certainly cause it to be ranked for beauty at least on a 
par with, if not superior to, the T. pavonia^ which has long 
been an acknowledged favourite. In groups, these flowers 
will give considerable splendour to the garden ; singly, their 
beauty might be lost : intermixed groups of the two species 
would have a truly brilliant appearance. These two bulbs are 
alike hardy, and produce their fleeting blossoms about the 
same season, from the beginning of July until late in the au- 
tumn. Were it not for a succession of bloom, the Tigridia, 
notwithstanding its beauty, would fail to excite the interest 
of the botanist or the amateur ; for the flowers no sooner ex- 
pose themselves to view, than they begin to fade : a sultry 
day shortens the showy reign of this ephemeral flower to a few 
hours ; its transitory existence impresses the beholder with 
regret, who cannot 

" unpitying see the flowery race. 

Shed by the morn, their new-flushed bloom resign 
Before the parching beam." 

This plant may be increased in the same manner as T. pa- 
vonia, by seeds and by roots : the bulbs flower much better if 
forwarded in pots ere they be planted out. In the autumn they 
should be taken out of the ground and placed in a dry and 
airy situation, and protected against frost. 

The r. oxypetala has this season flowered and perfected its 
seeds at the nursery of Messrs. Allen and Rogers, King's 
Road, from whence the drawing of the present figure was 


2>ntwn tEn^ravtd by W, Clark. 

L.mdcn.I'idlMedh' 3.B,WAttMcer.Av/M<maXane.Pei-^JSif ■ 



Ash-leaved Trumpet-flower. 


Class 14. Order 2. 

BiGNONiA : SO named by Tournefort in compliment to Abb^ Bignon, 
librarian to Louis XIV, 

Lin7i. gen. n. 759. Litm. spec. 871. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, erect, cup-form, five-cleft. Cor. mono- 
petalous, campanulate. Tube very small, the length of the calyx. 
Throat very long, ventricose beneath, oblong-campanulate. Border 
five-parted, the two upper divisions reflex, lower patulous. Stam. 
Filaments four, subulate, shorter than the corolla; two longer than 
the other two. Anthers reflex, oblong, as it were doubled. Pist. 
Germ oblong. Style filiform, situation and form of the stamens. 
Stigma capitate. Per. Silique two-celled, two-valved ; partition 
membranaceous, parallel, thickened at the sutures. Seeds very 
many, imbricate, compressed ; membrane winged on both sides. 


Leaves pinnate; leaflets gashed, Sfem with rooting joints. 

Branches long and pliant, putting out fibres at their joints 
for the purpose of attaching themselves to whatever they are 
growing upon. Leaves opposite at every joint. Leaflets in 
four pairs, terminating by an odd one ; they are serrate, and 

end in a long sharp point. The flowers are produced at the 
end of the shoots of the same year, in large bunches ; they 
liave long swelling tubes shaped somewhat like a trumpet, 
whence this plant has the appellation of Trumpet-flower. 
The corolla is orange. 

This climbing shrub possesses peculiar attractions. The 
splendour of the large and numerous panicles of flowers of 
various shades of pink and orange with whicli it is adorned 
during the month of August, is sufficient to call forth the ad- 
miration of the lover of the flower-garden. The luxuriant 
growth of its branches will be found serviceable for the pur- 
pose of obscuring offensive walls, particularly if intermixed 
with climbing evergreens; the flowers of many of which, 
being much less showy, are nearly lost at the height to which 
these plants are at times required to be trained. The splendid 
flowers of the B. radicans will therefore enhance the value of 
such collections of climbers; and the flowers of each shrub 
will add materially to the delicacy, beauty, and brilliancy of 
each other. 

This shrub is a native of North America, and was intro- 
duced in le^O. It is hardy, and may be propagated by 
layers or by pieces of the root : these should be put in about 
the beginning of April. The roots should be kept in pots for 
one year, when they may be planted out. A light sandy earth 
will be found most congenial to the growth of this shrub, 
M'hich should be planted against a south or south-east wall. 

This figure was drawn from a flourishing specimen which 
flowered abundantly against the garden wall at Claremont. 


1 . Part of the corolla removed, showing the position of the stamens 

with the barren filament. 

2. Pistil. 

DntKn &r£n4^raved iy W, C/ar/c. 

2*2. Jiiniq 


Variegated Wolf's-Bane. 

ififiiiuxiiL ^ 


Class 13. Order 3. 

AcoNiTUM : supposed to have been derived from Aconae, a city of 
Bithynia, where it grew in great abundance. 

Linn. gen. n. 682. Linn. spec. 750, 


Cat. none. Cor. Petals five, unequal, opposite in pairs, 1. The 
highest helmet-tubed, inverted, the back upwards, obtuse ; the top 
reflected to the base, acuminate, to which top the connecting base 
is opposite. 2, 3. The two lateral ones broad, roundish, opposite, 
converging, 4, 5, The two lowest oblong, pointing downwards. 
Nectaries two, concealed under the first petal, fistulous, nodding , 
mouth oblique ; tail recurved, sitting on long subulate peduncles. 
Six little very short coloured scales in the same circle of the nec- 
taries. Stam. Filaments subulate, very small, broader at the base, 
inclining towards the first petal. Anthers erect, small. Pist. Germs 
three (five), oblong, ending in styles the length of the stamens. 
Stigmas simple, reflex. Pei-. Capsules as many as the styles, 
ovate-subulate, straight, one-valved, gaping inward. Seeds very 
many, angular, wrinkled. 


Flowers with five pistils ; divisions of the leaves parted half-way, 
broader above. 

Stem erect, about two feet high. Flowers in spikes, vari- 
egated, sometimes changing to plain. Leaves with footstalks 
placed alternate on the petiole. 

Of the many species of Aconlhim which are cultivated, the 
A. variegatum is the most interesting. Its habit of growth is less 
straggling than that of many others, and it attains the height 
of about two feet, bearing a spike of pale-blue flowers striped 
with white, which appear in the months of July and August. 
All the species of Aconitum are considered to be deadly 
poisonous. The A. Napelhcs, or Monk's-Hood, is decidedly 
the most dangerous : neither the root, the stem, the leaves, nor 
the flowers are free from this horrid property : it is neverthe- 
less serviceable in Materia Medica. It is said that the juice 
of these plants is used by the huntsmen of the Alps for the 
purpose of poisoning their arrows. The A. NapelbtSy being 
much stronger in its growth than the A. variegatum, is con- 
sequently better fitted for the shrubbery ; while the latter, 
being more delicate, is better suited for the flower-beds and 
herbaceous borders. 

This plant is a native of Italy and Bohemia, and was intro- 
duced in 1752. It thrives well in light earth, and is increased 
by separating the roots. 

The drawing of this figure was taken at Messrs. Bucking- 
ham and Chandler's, Vauxhall. 


1. Stamens and pistils. 

2. Nectaries. 

J)n2M7i Sc Engraved dy W. CUirh . 

"■.mdm.FabU^h^d fy' G,B.Wfi/:ffaker.JveMdrialumi'.J>erTls9A 



Trailing Daphne. 


Class 8. Order 1. 

Daphne. Aa^vij of Theophrastus and Dioscorides, after the nymph 
Daphne, in allusion to her metamorphosis into a laurel ; from some 
of this genus bearing a resemblance to the laurel. 

Linn, gen, 71.485. Linn. spec. 5\ I. Linn. sijst.Z7\. 


Cal. none. Cor. one-petaled, funnel- form, withering, including the 
stamens. Tube cylindric, imperforate, longer than the border. 
Border four-cleft ; divisions ovate, acute, flat, spreading. Stam. 
Filaments eight, short, inserted into the tube ; the alternate ones 
lower. Anthers roundish, erect, two-celled. Pist. Germ ovate. 
Style very short. Stigma headed, depressed, flat. Per. Berry 
roundish, one-celled. Seed single, roundish, fleshy. 


Flowers in bunches, sessile. Leaves lanceolate, naked, mucronate. 

Stems slender, branched. Leaves narrow, lanceolate, irregu- 
larly disposed. The branches are terminated by small clusters 
of pink flowers. The tube of the corolla long and narrow. 

The leaves are sometimes acute, sometimes obtuse and emai'- 

To any part of the flower-garden or pleasure-ground the 
Daphne Cneorum will add grace. This shrub, together with 
a variety that has been obtained possessing variegated leaves, 
are well suited for decorating rock-work, their natural prostrate 
disposition being in true accordance with such a situation : 
indeed, the very pleasing effect and the excellent relief pro- 
duced by the judicious introduction of rock-work have been 
the means of raising many small plants from obscurity. How- 
ever correct this remark may be, it is not so applicable to the 
D. Cneorum as to many other dwarf plants ; for the delicacy 
of its growth, the fragrance of the flowers, and the modesty 
of the height to which this interesting shrub attains, adapt it 
more particularly for ornamenting the front of flower-beds. 
It flowers during the month of May, producing a profusion of 
pink flowers in clusters : it will also frequently flower a second 
time during the autumn, but neither so profuse nor so luxu- 
riant as in the spring. 

This shrub does not perfect its seeds in this country, but is 
readily propagated by laying performed in the spring. It 
grows well in peat earth, or in a mixture of peat and loam. 

It is a native of the Alps of Europe, and was introduced 
in 1739. 


Corolla magnified and expanded, showing the insertion of the stamens 
in the throat. 

ri. 2/^. 

Drawn irSnijravfd fy W, C/aTfr. 

LandiPi.I'u.AiLsAed. jy ^,£,if/uiiaA-er,AveJiariaLa.}ie,lJec 



One-coloured Lily. 

Hexandria. Monogynia. 

Class 6. Order 1. 

LiLiUM of Pliny and other Latin authors. This name is rather of ob- 
scure origin : some deduce it from the Greek Xsipiov, a lily, derived 
from Xsios, smooth, not rough, also handsome, because the plant is 
conspicuous for the beauty of its flowers. It has moreover been 
called Kfivov, from x/ji|xvov, dust or pollen, because the flovi^ers seem 
in general to be sprinkled with a powdery substance, from the 
abundance of their pollen. 

Linn, gen, n. 410, 


Cat. none. Cot. six-petaled, bell-shaped, narrowed beneath. Petals 
upright, incumbent, obtusely carinated on the back, gradually more 
expanding, wider ; with thick, reflex, obtuse tips. (Nectary : a lon- 
gitudinal line, engraven on each petal from the base to the middle.) 
Stam. Filaments six, awl-shaped, upright, shorter than the corolla. 
Anthers oblong, incumbent. Pist. Germ oblong, cylindric, striated 
with six furrows. Style cylindric, length of the corolla. Stigma 
thickish, triangular. Per. Capsule oblong, six-furrowed, with a 
three-cornered, hollow, obtuse tip ; three-celled, three-valved ; the 
valves connected by hairs disposed in a cancellated manner. Seeds 
numerous, incumbent in a twin order, flat, outwardly semi-orbi- 

SPECIFIC character. 

Leaves scattered, linear. Flowers upright j corolla bending down- 

Root bulbous. Stem about two feet in height, terminated 
with two or three scarlet flowers. Leaves alternate, deep 
green, paler underneath, hnear-lanceolate, and smooth ; to- 
wards the top of the stem somewhat verticillate. Petals six, 
bright scarlet. Filaments red. Anthers scarlet, large, and 
incumbent. Pollen scarlet. 

This bright scarlet flower was introduced from China in 
1804, and although increased with facility has not yet be- 
come common in our gardens ; but its beauty and free dispo- 
sition to flower doubtless render it worthy of general cultiva- 
tion. It possesses attractions more pleasing and interesting 
than many others of this family, though less conspicuous or 
gaudy : it appears unassuming and modest near those species 
which are of a more luxuriant habit of growth, while the bril- 
liancy of its colour will cause it to shine in contrast to many 
delicate and dwarf herbaceous plants. It grows to the height 
of three or four feet, and when planted in light sandy earth 
will flower freely in the month of July, adding materially to 
the splendour of the flower-bed. It is increased by offsets 
from the roots, which, if taken off in October and bedded, 
will produce flowers the second year. 

This figure was drawn from a specimen which flowered in 
a pot at the nursery of Mr. Brooks, Ball's Pond, Islington. 

I>ravm ScEn^raved i\ W.aark. 

Laruion.Pu6iu/ud fy e.B.JirAiSaA:er.AvemnaZam.Jan!'jS2S 



Snow-beny St. Peter's Wort. 


Class 5. Order 1. 

SvMpnORiA, formerly caWed Symphoricarpos; from Tv^fopiuj, to cluster 
or accumulate, and Kapifos, fruit. 

Persoon Si/n. I. p. 214. Bot. Mag. 2211. 


Cat. Perianth superior, five-parted. Cor. campanulate ; limb five- 
cleft, obtuse ; fnu\ filled with hairs, below which the tube abounds 
with honey. Slam, five, inserted at the upper part of the tube, 
shorter than the corolla. Pist. Germ ovate, with two or three 
small bracteas applied close to its base. Style filiform, length of 
the corolla. Stigma obtuse. Per. Berry two-celled. Seeds one 
in each cell, kidney-shaped, compressed. 


Irregularly branched, terminated by corollas bearded within. 

A LOW bushy shrub ; bark of the branches brightish-brown. 
Leaves opposite, round, ovate, with a mucro ; mostly quite 
entire, but on the lower part of the shrub sometimes irregu- 
larly notched, smooth, glaucous. Flowers grow on the slender 
terminal branches in pairs, at first distant, but towards the 
extremities crowded together, supported on very short pedi- 
cles; sometunes the branches become iealy beyontl the flowers. 

The delicate appearance of this little shrub might induce 
the observer to suppose that its habit of growth was equally 
delicate. It is, however, a hardy shrub, and may be recom- 
mended not merely for this propert}', however desirable, but 
for the beautiful tints with which it is adorned in every part : 
the rich brown shining stem, furnished with dark-green leaves, 
yielding an excellent relief to the beautiful bunches of little 
pink flowers, and to the more massy groups of white berries, 
which thickly beset this interesting shrub, 

" where fruits and blossoms blush 

In social sweetness on the self-same bough/* 

from the early part of July until the end of October, produce 
a pleasing variety and contrast rarely to be seen in any other 
individual plant. No greater proof can be given of the delight 
excited by this little shrub in the lovers of plants, than that it 
is cultivated generally in the nurseries, and that although in- 
troduced so recently as 1817, it already adorns every collec- 
tion where beauty is made a prominent feature. About the 
banks of the Missouri this elegant plant is found growing in 
abundance. It may be raised from seeds in this country ; but 
the more preferable and expeditious mode of increasing will 
be by laying : the layers should be put down in a somewhat 
sandy earth about the beginning of April ; and when sepa- 
rated from the original plant in the following spring, they may 
be planted in the common shrubbery borders, provided the 
earth be not too stiff. The specimen for this figure was from 
Messrs. Buckingham and Chandler's Nursery, Vauxhall. 


Magnified section of the corolla, germ^ and calyx. 


Drawn kSngravtd fy W, Clark . 



Perennial Worm-grass, 

Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5. Order 1. 

SpiGELiA : so named by Linnaeus in memory of Adrian Spigelius, 
professor of anatomy and surgery at Padua. 

Linn. gen. n. 209. Linn, sijst. 197. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, five-parted, acuminate, small, permanent. 
Cor. one-petaled, funnel-shaped ; tube much longer than the calyx, 
narrowed below ; border spreading, five-cleft ; segments wide, 
acuminate. Stam. Filaments five, simple. Anthers simple. Pist. 
Germ composed of two globes, superior. Style one, awl-shaped, 
length of the tube. Stigma simple. Per. Capsule twin, two- celled, 
four-valved. Seeds numerous, very small. 


Slem four-cornered, all the leaves opposite. 

Herbaceou.s perennial root, producing two or three erect 
stems, about nine inches in height, with three or four pairs 
of acute-pointed leaves, placed opposite, seated close to the 
stalk, smooth, entire, and having several veins diverging from 

the midrib. The stem is terminated by a short spike of 
flowers ranged on one side of the footstalk. Calyx short, cut 
into five acute segments. The outside of the flower is of a 
deep crimson, and the inside of a pink, with the five segments 
of the corolla of a yellow colour. Stem simple, rugged, qua- 
drano-ular, rigid, annual. Leaves opposite, sessile, ovate-lan- 
ceolate, entire, smooth, spreading. Spike generally solitary, 
with small opposite bracteas. 

Of the genus Spigelia only two species are cultivated in 
this country. The plant here figured is the more interesting : 
its spikes of rich scarlet flowers add great beauty to the garden 
durino- the months of June and July. The roots of this her- 
baceous perennial are sold for medicinal purposes under the 
names Worm-grass or Pink-root ; and Woodville's Medical 
Botany mentions this species of Spigelia as a very efficient 
vermifuge. This plant is somewhat delicate, and will not ripen 
its seeds in this country ; the only mode of propagatfon is by 
separating the roots, and this process is rather slow: it is 
not therefore probable that this showy flower will ever appear 
very common in our gardens. 

It is a native of Virginia, Maryland, and Carolina, where 
it is called Indian Pink. It was introduced into tills country 
in 1694-. The drawing of this figure was made from a speci- 
men flowering in the gardens of Sion House, the seat of His 
Grace the Duke of Northumberland. 


Corolla cut open, showing the position of the stamens and pistil, 
also where the germ is attached to the calyx. 

Ft. 2'. 

Drawn tcSnyrayed, by W, Clarh . 



Shagreen-leaved Sunflower. 

Syngenesta. Polygamia Frustranea. 

Class 19. Orders. 

Helianthus : from 'HA105, tlic Sun, and ccv^os, ajluwer. 

Linn. gen. 71.979. Linn. spec. 1279. Ilort. Kew. 5. 129. 


Cal. common, imbricate, somewhat squarrose, expanded ; scales ob- 
long, broadish at the base. Cor. compound radiate j corollets her- 
maphrodite, very numerous in the disk : females fewer, much 
longer in the rav. Stam. in the hermaphrodites : filaments five, 
curved, inserted below the belly of the corollet, the length of the 
tube. Anther cylindric, tubular. Pisf. in the hermaphrodites : 
germ oblong 3 style filiform, length of the corollet 5 stigma two- 
parted, reflex : in the females, germ very small ; style and stigma 
none. Per. none. Calyx unchanged. Seeds in the hermaphro- 
dites solitary, oblong, blunt, four-cornered, compressed at the op- 
posite angles ; the inner ones narrower, crowned with two lan- 
ceolate, acute, deciduous chaffs : in the females none, Rccept. 
chaffy, large, flat ; chaffs lanceolate, acute, two separating each 
seed, deciduous. 


Leaves opposite, spatulate, crenate, triple-nerved, scabrous ; calycine 
scales erect, the length of the disk. 

Steim from two to three feet in height, round, dusky, pin-ple, 
rough, with numerous small hairs. Root-leaves Hat, hairy. 

smaller than those on the stem, whicli are twisted and waved, 
especially towards the end, rough and hairy. The disk ot 
the flower dark-red; flosculcs in the ray, yellow, marked 
w4th a few lines, pointed and entire. 

The coarse and vulgar appearance, together with the strong 
growth of some of the Sunflower family, have long excluded 
them from ornamental flower-beds ; but the species here 
figured possesses beauties which its brethren cannot equal. 
Its habit of growth is more delicate and graceful than that of 
many others in the Helianthus genus ; the stems rise to the 
height of three feet, supporting solitary yellow flowers, with 
dark-red or brown disks. In the herbaceous border it is 
generally admitted, where its large flowers and leaves will in- 
crease at least in appearance the delicacy of the smaller and 
more tender plants. Darwin, alluding to the peculiar pro- 
perty of the Helianthus genus, thus expresses himself: 

" Great Helianthus guides o'er twilight plains 
In gay solemnity his dervise-trains ; 
With zealous step he climbs the upland lawn. 
And bows in homage to the rising dawn ; 
Imbibes with eagle eye the golden ray, 
And watches, as it moves, the orb of day." 

This species is frequently, though erroneously, named Heli- 
anthus glauca or Pascalia Virginica, 

It is a native of Carolina, was found growing plentifully in 
Upper Louisiana by Mr. Nuttall, and has been seen in Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia. It was introduced into this country in 
1732, and is to be increased by separating the roots : the seeds 
will not come to perfection in this country, although the plant 
will grow and flower freely from July till October in light 
garden mould. This specimen was figured from Messrs. Buck- 
ingham and Chandler's, Vauxhall. 


1. Floret unopened, magnified. 

2. Floret expanded, showing the stamens and pistil. 

:. IS. 

Drawn irEn^raved fy W, Clark. 



Choice Fumitory. 


Class 17. Order 2. 

FuMARiA : from fuDius, smoke, because this herb effects the eyes like 
smoke ; hence also its Greek name Kaifyog. 

Bot. Reg. 50. 


Cal. Perianth inferior, of two equal, small leaves, mostly deciduous, 
often coloured. Cur. tubular, ringent, of two petals, each lobed 
and spreading at the extremity, gibbous, and holding honey at the 
base, variously formed in different species. Stam. Filaments six, 
capillary, united into two sets by their broad, elongated, membra- 
nous bases, sheathing the germen. Anthers small, roundish, ver- 
tical. Pist. Germen roundish or oblong. Style curved or oblique. 
Stigma obtuse. Per. Pod of two valves and one cell. Seeds one 
or more, roundish. 


Leaves triternate. Stevi erect, naked. 

Perennial root, which produces several stems about a foot 
and a half in height, terminated with numerous pink flowers 
at the extremity, which come out on short peduncles. Leaves 

of a blue green on the upper surface, of a paler green under- 
neath ; they are on long stalks, springing from the base, and 
surrounding the flower-stalk. 

The leaves of this graceful little plant form a handsome 
cluster close to the ground ; while the flower-spikes, which rise 
to the height of about eighteen inches, are plentifully adorned 
with blooms during the months of May and June. The hand- 
some style of growth renders this plant truly serviceable and 
a great favourite either for borders of flower-beds or for tufts; 
the latter of which become compact and very ornamental when 
the plant is well established. The seeds rarely come to per- 
fection in this country ; but by separating the roots in the 
spring the plant is easily increased. Light garden mould suits 
the natui'e of this herbaceous perennial. 

It was introduced in 1812 from North America. 

This interesting genus of plants has been divided into two 
other genera, Q/sticapjios and Corydalis, among which latter 
is included the plant here figured. The old name is however 
here retained, as that by which the plant is better known. 

Some of the species of this genus are noticed in the Phar- 
macopoeias. The Fumaria officinalis, or Common Fumitory, is 
used in cutaneous diseases, but no mention is made of the 
present species as being in any degree serviceable in the Ma- 
teria Medica. 


Stamens and pistil magnified. 

n. 20. 

Dra-xn tJSnfrmfd (y W. CfarM . 

iMi^&n.faiUsfuji 6y &.B.W7uliaker,AveM2ruiLav£,Fei.I<nr 



White-eyed Larkspur. 


Class 13. Orders. 

Delphinium (AsX^iviov of Dioscorides) : from a fancied resemblance 
of the flower, before it opens, to a dolphin. 

Linn. gen. n. G81. Link's Hort. Ber. 2. p. 80. DeCandolle Pro. 
Sijst. Veg. p. 55. 


Cal. none. Cor. Petals five, unequal, disposed in a circle ; of which 
the uppermost is more obtuse than the rest in front, and is extend- 
ed behind into a tubular, straight, long, obtuse horn : the rest 
ovate, lanceolate, spreading, nearly equal. Nectary two-cleft, 
seated in front within the circle of petals on the upper part, behind 
stretched out, involved within the tube of the petal. Stam. Fila- 
ments very many (fifteen to thirty), subulate, wide at the base, very 
small, inclined towards the petal. Anthers erect, small. Pist. 
Germs three or one, ovate, ending in styles, the length of the 
stamens. Stigmas simple reflex. Per. Capsules as many, ovate- 
subulate, straight, one-valved, gaping inwards. Seeds very many, 


Leaves spreading out from the base, cut in the form of wedges, much 
serrated on the edge j the peduncles finely covered with hair. 

Root perennial, fibrous, from which branches three or four 
stalks, round, furnished with leaves alternately situated, and a 

spike of flowers at the extremity, rising to the height of about 
two feet. Leaves deeply cut into lobes, and irregularly point- 
ed segments, supported on short footstalks. The flowers ter- 
minating the stems are of a beautiful bright blue, with a white 
eye: they are alternately placed round the stem, forming a kind 
of spike from six to nine inches in length. 

It may be considered somewhat remarkable that this plant 
has not become more generally cultivated ; — that it has decided 
clauns to beauty will be undeniable. The attractions this flower 
possesses are certainly as great as those of the other species 
of Delpliinium ; yet it is scarcely known, or very rarely seen 
decorating the herbaceous flower-bed : it has nevertheless been 
introduced into this country for some length of time, but that 
period cannot be correctly ascertained ; neither is it known 
from whence it was introduced. During the months of June 
and July the garden will most certainly be beautified by the 
addition of a plant like this ; no difficulty of propagation can 
be urged as a reason for its exclusion from the flower-bed, for 
it may be increased by separating the root as well as by seed. 
The seeds should be sown in June, and the young plants 
should be planted in beds : they will become so far established 
by this means during the autumn, that in the following spring 
they may be transplanted into the borders. A mellow and 
light soil of decayed leaves and vegetable mould is the earth 
in which this plant delights. The specimen from which this 
drawing was made, flowered at Mr. Lee's Nursery, Hammer- 


Zlrann kJ^nffTmid fy W. Clarlc. 

Zcm/iim.I'uicished ly Zcmrnnan &: C", fatemoj-ierXmf ,F<>iJ<}sfi . 


Scarlet Azalea. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5, Order 1. 

Li7m. gen. n.2\2. Linn. spec. 214. Persoon Syn. 1. p. 212. 


WAe Azalea pontica. PI. 1/. 

SPECIFIC character. 

Leaves ovate. Corollas hairy. Stamens very long. 

Stem branched. Leaves oblong, smooth, alternate, petioled. 
The peduncles are axillary, long and naked, supporting a 
cluster of red flowers, which are tubulous, swelling at their 
base like those of the Hyacinth, and contracted at their neck ; 
divided at top into five equal segments, spreading open. The 
stamens and style project beyond the corolla and stand erect. 
Although one of the species of this family of shrubs has al- 
ready appeared in this publication, yet the beautiful and in- 
teresting variety of them will be sufficient to justify the early 
representation of another of the genus. Intermixed with the 
Rhododendron, Kalmai, Ledum, &c., these shrubs appear to 
the greatest advantage; the diversity of their foliage and bloom. 

and the continued succession of flowers, present the most 
lively and handsome assemblage that plants ai-e capable of pro- 
ducing : added to which, as these shrubs (denominated Ame- 
rican shrubs) sustain their leaves during the winter, they are 
■well calculated when planted in groups to add a great de- 
gree of cheerfulness to the pleasure-ground and arboretum, in 
that dreary season when little verdure is otherwise to be ex- 
pected. Notwithstanding the many excellent properties and 
powerful attractions of the Azalea tribe, they will, like the rest 
of the American shrubs, be most probably ever limited in their 
cultivation ; the peculiar peat-soil in which they thrive will 
however be obtained by those who delight in a good collection 
of ornamental shrubs. 

As these species rarely produce seed, the propagation must 
be effected by laying. The beginning of April is the proper 
season for commencing this operation. The present shrub 
was introduced into this country in 1729. It is in its greatest 
splendour during the month of May. It is a native of Swit- 
zerland, where it grows in great profusion among the moun- 
tains; and the smallest portion of earth is found sufficient to 
yield it sustenance. 

n. 3/. 

Xn-awn icE'r^raved fy Jf.Cla.rfc . P//J>//shg// M' T.mi/Tmmi K^/"" P.y/Tn^nervr-ffmii ■*>/' 



Large-fruited Qj^nothera. 


Class 8. Order 1. 

CEnotheba : from OjvoSijctj or 0(vo9ijpa; of Theophrastus. 

Linn. gen. n. 469. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, superior, deciduous : tube cylindrical, erect, 
long, deciduous : border four-cleft ; the segments oblong, acute, 
bent down. Cor. Petals four, obcordate, flat, inserted into the in- 
terstices of the calyx. Stam. Filaments eight, awl-shaped, curved 
inwards, inserted into the throat of the calyx, shorter than the co- 
rolla. Anthers oblong, incumbent. Pist. Germ cylindrical, inferior. 
Style filiform, the length of the stamens. Stigma four-cleft, thick, 
blunt, reflex. Pei-. Capsule cylindrical, four-cornered, four-celled, 
four-valved, with contrary partitions. Seeds very many, angular, 
naked. Receptacle columnar, four-cornered : with the angles con- 
tiguous to the margin of the partitions. 


Leaves lanceolate, veined. Petals serrated. Capsule elliptic, angular. 

Stems branched, prostrate, and of a line purple ; the leaves 
are seated close on the stem : the flowers appear at each 
joint ; the petals are supported on a long tube somewhat re- 
sembling longijlora ; calyx spotted ; the capsules are seated 
close to the leaves. 

This interesting dwarf plant has been described as a bien- 
nial ; and though it will be found tolive and flower for more 
than two years, yet its existence is but of short duration ; it 
would therefore better support the appellation of a short-lived 
perennial. The present plant and the CE. macrocm-pa have 
been imagined by some persons to be the same ; the flowers 
of both are similar in appearance and colour, but the strag- 
gling habit of growth and the narrowness of the leaves of the 
missourensis will mark a sufficient distinction. During the 
months of July and August the prostrate branches of the mis- 
S02ire7isis are abundantly decorated by very numerous and lux- 
uriant yellow flowers, which become trul}-^ conspicuous from 
their size, and particularly so from their being produced on a 
plant of such humble growth. By intermixing this species 
with the CE. caspitosa (a plant similar in its habit of growth, 
but bearing a white flower) a pleasing and beautiful group for 
ornamenting small beds on a lawn or in a flower-garden may 
be obtained. The careless mixture of the blooms appearing 
above the dark green leaves, through which the elegantly 
twining purple stem is casually seen, produces a beauty that 
every lover of the flower-garden must view with admiration. 
The rock-work of a garden will also receive a considerable 
additional charm by a judicious decoration with these elegant 
little traihng plants. These species of (Enotlicra require an 
earth tolerably rich : mellow loam, rotten manure, and decay- 
ed leaves will form a good composition. As there is no cer- 
tainty of raising a supply by separating the roots, it is advisa- 
ble to increase these plants by cuttings, which if planted in an 
earth somewhat sandy, placed under a hand-glass, and partially 
shaded, will readily strike : they should be kept in pots under 
the protection of a frame during the first winter, after which 
they will thrive well in the open border. This species was 
discovered by Mr. Nuttall growing freely near the banks of 
the Missouri, from whence it takes its name: it was introduced 
in 1811. This figure was taken from a specimen flowering at 
Messrs. Whitley, Brames, and Milne's Nursery, Fulham. 

Z>rawn L-Ey^raved, fy W, Clark. 

J^'-7iu^r^,J'^:^US/u^ Cy Lo^i^fti^/i4cCl M.-Utnio^Urlt^nt/ .Sed,^ id^W 



Spreading Schizanthus. 


Class 2. Order 1. 

Schizanthus : from rTy(jX,<jii, to cut ox cleave, and avh^, ajiower; from 
the laciniated form of the corolla. 

Hooker s Ex. Flora 86. 


Cal. Perianth inferior, in five deep, linear, nearly equal, permanent 
segments. Cor. of one petal, ringent, reversed : tube compressed, 
the length of the calyx ; upper lip in five deep segments, lower in 
three. Slam. Filaments four ; two of them abortive, villous, under 
the upper lip (which by the reversed position of the flower stands 
lowermost) ; the other two perfect, inserted into the lower lip. 
Anthers roundish, of two lobes. Pist. Germen superior, roundish. 
Style thread-shaped, longer than the tube of the corolla. Stigma 
club-shaped. Per. Capsule ovate, the length of the calyx, of two 
concave cloven valves, and two cells. Seeds several, kidney-shaped, 
rough. Receptacle orbicular, compressed, parallel to the valves. 


Calyx five-parted. Corolla divided in the upper part into five seg- 
ments, in the lower into three. 

Root annual. Stem very much branched, hairy. Leaves 
pinnate, deeply divided into segments, slightly hairy ; smaller 

towards the extremity of the branches. Flowers divaricated 
over the whole plant, each supported upon a short pedicel. 

Such an elegant little annual as the S. potrigens, and one 
possessing so many attractions, is not generally to be met with : 
the delicacy of its growth, the multiplicity of its little spark- 
ling blooms variegated with yellow and purple, and set with 
spots of a richer and darker hue, are charms to be regarded 
with satisfaction by every admirer of the many beautiful pro- 
ductions of nature. "When to such recommendations is added 
the desirable property it possesses of flowering in the open air 
for so considerable a length of time as from July until destroy- 
ed by the frost, the desire already manifested by botanical 
collectors to adorn their gardens with this lately mtroduced 
beauty will not be considered a favouritism greater than de- 
served. Much resembling this species is another, S. pinnatus. 
On examination, however, the distinctions are evident: the^/«- 
natus is smaller, more upright in its growth, the lips of the co- 
rolla are always of an intense purple, the upper petal spotless, 
the bracteas large and foliaceous, and the footstalks of the 
fruit quite secund, deflexed from the base, and at the superior 
extremity singularly curved inwards. The S. porrigens is 
raised from seed, which should be sown in pots about the end 
of February in a moderate hot-bed. When the young plants 
are sufficiently strong, they should be transplanted into sepa- 
rate pots and be protected till the end of May, at which time 
they may be planted in the open borders with safety. It thrives 
well in a soil of two parts peat-earth and one part loam. 

This figure was drawn from a specimen which flowered at 
Mr. Palmer's, Bromley, Kent. 


I>ra>m &:Enjraved Iry W, ClaTh. 

/'.,m/i/m. 7'/jJ>Ljhi>.'/. "Whrrh /.toe fnr T/myrm^m t- /^ T'/tTTir-njtr^jr 7f,-- 



Nepal CInquefoil. 


Class 12. Orders. 

PoTENTiLLA : from potentia, on account of the root being powerfully 

Linn. gen. n. 634. Hookers Fl. Ex. 88. Don's Pro. Fl. Nep. p. 233. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, flattish, ten-cleft: the alternate segments 
smaller, reflex. Cor. Petals five, roundish, spreading, inserted by 
their claws into the calyx. Stnni. Filaments twenty, awl-shaped, 
shorter than the corolla, inserted into the calyx. Anthers elongate. 
Pist. Germs numerous, very small, collected into a head. Styles 
filiform, the length of the stamens, inserted into the side of the 
germ. Stigmas obtuse. Per. none. Recept. roundish, small, 
permanent, covered with seeds, inclosed within the calyx. Seeds 
numerous, acuminate, wrinkled. 


Stem erect, hairy, many-flowered. Leaves pinnate, hairy. 

Stem about a foot in height, hairy ; at the extremity branch- 
ing with flower-stalks. Flowers of a beautiful transparent bright 
red. The radical leaves long, quinate, hairy. Leaflets ovate- 
lanceolate, regularly serrated. The stem-leaves ternate, and 

smaller than the others. Stipules situated at the footstalk of 
the leaves, ovate, large, green. 

The introduction of this truly elegant species of Potentilla 
was by means of seeds received by Dr. Graham from Nepal, 
whence they had been transmitted by Dr. Wallich. It flow- 
ered in the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, in July 1823; since 
which time it has become circulated among manv botanical 
collections, and it will doubtless hold a prominent situation in 
every bed of herbaceous plants where beauty and elegance 
guide the selection : in short, by all lovers of delicate and se- 
lect flowers it requires only to be seen to become cultivated 
and admired. It will assimilate with the more choice and low- 
growing herbaceous plants, either in the border or on orna- 
mental rock-work ; the succession of its beautiful red flowers, 
supported on stems about a foot in height, which appear 
during the months of July and August, adds considerably to 
its claims. As this plant perfects its seeds in this country, no 
obstacle is in the way of its being generally cultivated. It 
thrives well in peat earth, or a composition of decayed leaves 
and peat. 

This specimen was figured from Messrs. Whitley, Brames, 
and Milne's Nursery, Fulham, where it flowered very pro- 
fusely in the American beds during the summer of 1825. 


1 . Part of the calyx magnified, showing the insertion of the stamens. 

2. Pistils, with one stamen attached. 

To . 34- . 

J)rawn, IcHn^ravf.d iy W. CiarK. 



Pomponian Lily. 

Hexandria. Monogynia. 

Class 6. Older 1. 

Linn. spec. 434. 


Vide Lilium concolor. PI. 24. 

SPECIFIC character. 

Leaves scattered, awl-shaped. Flowers turned down. Corollas rolled 

Root large, yellow, scaly, from which arises an upright stalk 
about three feet in height, furnished from the base to nearly 
the top with long narrow leaves having a longitudinal ridge 
on their under side : they are of a deep green, and terminate 
in acute points. The peduncle supports from five to nine 
flowers, each on a short pedicel. The flowers are yellow, with 
irregular-formed yellow spots almost approaching to lines; 
they hang down, and the petals are rolled back. 

The genus Lilium contains many ornamental species re- 
markable for the great diversity of their colours. The present 
species, though possessing neither the multiplicity of thits nor 

the loftiness of some of the species, is nevertheless graceful, 
and in height of growth is more desirable as a companion for 
the generality of herbaceous plants which decorate the flower- 
bed. It rises to the height of about eighteen inches : the stem 
from the ground upwards is decorated with closely set leaves 
ranged with the nicest precision, and is terminated by a cluster 
of gracefully pendent yellow flowers, in number from six to 
ten, which are seen in perfection during May and June. There 
are other species of Lilies which may well be grouped with 
the present figure, from their being somewhat similar in height 
of growth but different in colour : of these there are Lilium 
martagon and Lilium chalcedonicum, with their varieties. The 
root is bulbous, and is readily increased by offsets, which 
may be planted where they are to remain, as they frequently 
flower the first year after being taken offl The separating and 
planting these bulbs should be performed about the middle of 
March. They will be found to thrive in light garden mould 
with a small portion of sand. 

This bulb is a native of the Pyrenees, and was introduced 
in 1620. This figure was drawn from a specimen which 
flowered at Messrs. Buckingham and Chandler's Nursery, 

Tl. 3S. 

Synzivn, ScSnmaved ly W, ClarAr. 

Land/^n.TiMcj'fud March ISio.liy y.cmffman ScCfF'li^rnostir^ow. 



Party-coloured Bitter-Vetch. 


Class 17. Order 4. 


Vide Orobus vernus. PI. 4. 


Leaves pinnate. Stipules half-arrow-shaped, entire. Stem winged. 

Stem herbaceous, rising from a foot to eighteen inches, much 
bi'anched, the extremities freely producing flowers of different 
shades of white, yellow, and red. The stem, from being winged 
and so much branched, renders this plant easily distinguished 
from either angustifolius or albus : the former of these, Linnaeus 
seems to have confounded with this plant, which not only 
differs as above, but in the stipules being broader. The 
flowers appear in clusters of about six or eight : their calyx 
red; standard crimson, faduig to a pale yellow; wings and 
keel variegated with yellow and buff". 

The diversity of colour displayed by this little herbaceous 
perennial is rarely met with in any other individual plant Its 
delicacy requires it to be placed almost alone, in order that 

the beauties may be visible : its place in the flower-bed should 
be in the front, as it would be lost if suffered to be crowded 
by other plants. The stems rise to the height of about fifteen 
inches, and are justof sufficient strength to support themselves; 
they had therefore in general better be supported by small 
sticks, to prevent injury from wind. These flowers will continue 
in succession during the months of June and July, possessing 
the various shades of red, pink, and yellow. They will some- 
times perfect their seeds, by which means they are increased. 
This plant thrives in a tolerably rich earth, composed of peat, 
loam, and decayed manure. 

It is a native of Italy, and was introduced in 1759. The 
specimen from which this figure was drawn flowered at Messrs. 
Malcolm and Gray's Nursery, Kensington. 


1. Standard. 
2 & 3. Wings. 

4. Keel. 

5. Calyx, stamens, and pistil, magnified. 

ri. 30. 

J>ra.wn Sc Kn^aved by W, Ctark . 

Z<m^7,.I'uiUshcdJl{arch U'Sff. iyloyiy^ruinllsCfraiJTnosterJfow. 



Rose Acacia. 


Class 17. Order 4. 

Robinia: so named in honour of John Robin, botanist to Henry IV. 
and Louis XIII. of France. 

Linn. gen. n. 879. Lhm. stjst. 688. 


CaL Perianth one-leafed, small, bell-shaped, four-cleft : the three 
lower toothlets more slender 3 the upper fourth toothlet wider, 
scarcely emarginate to the naked eye : all equal in length. Cor. 
papilionaceous. Standard roundish, larger, spreading, blunt. Wings 
oblong, ovate, free, with a very short blunt appendix. Keel almost 
semi-orbicular, compressed, blunt, the length of the wings. Sfarn. 
Filaments diadelphous, (simple and nine-cleft,) ascending at top. 
Anthers roundish. Pist. Germ cylindrical, oblong. Style filiform, 
bent upwards. Stigma villose in front, at the top of the style. 
Per. Legume large, compressed, gibbous, long. Seeds few, kidney- 


Racemes axillary. Leaves unequally pinnate. Stem unarmed, hispid. 

In its native countiy this shrub will frequently attain the height 
of twenty feet, but in Britain is rarely half that height. The 
young branches are armed with closely set brown bristly hairs, 
in some measure resembling the RaspbeiTy, but the hairs are 

more evident in this shrub. The leaflets are in six or seven 
pairs. The peduncles hang down with large clusters of pink 
flowers, each flower on a separate pedicel. The legumes are 
flat and oblong. 

This shrub from its foliage alone is a truly ornamental plant; 
added to which, the beautiful racemes of pink flowers with 
which it is adorned entitles it to be ranked among the most 
ornamental shrubs. The place which it should occupy is the 
front of the plantation, as its flowers are produced close to the 
branches, and many of them towards the lower part of the 
plant ; consequently, if it were closely surrounded with taller- 
growing shrubs, much of its beauty would be lost. It never- 
theless must be in a situation somewhat sheltered from the 
wind, as the branches are of that brittle nature as to be fre- 
quently much damaged by it: it is through this liability 
to break that this shrub is rarely grown as a standard tree, 
though when so grown it has a very interesting appearance. 
These are obtained through being worked upon the common 
Acacia with stems about six feet high ; and where they can be 
protected from injury, their introduction in this form is very 
desirable. In addition to the process of grafting, this shrub 
is raised from seeds imported from America, to which country 
it is indigenous. It was introduced here in 1758. It flourishes 
in a light vegetable earth with a portion of loam. 

This figure was drawn from a specimen from Mi'. Mackay's, 
Belgrave Nursery, King's Road. 


Calyx, stamens, and pistil. 


Dravn i'EmrTaveci iy W. Car/c. 

/.cm/im.PnNcs/ifd fy /.maman Sc C'.ra&jyjo.'terJi^, April 2cf26 . 



Dyeing Tick-seed Sunflower. 

Syngenesia. Polygamia-Frustranea. 

Class 19. Orders. 

Coreopsis : from x.opis, cimex, a bug or tick ; and o^^/is, fades, ap- 
pearance ; the seeds having some resemblance to these insects. 

Linn. gen. ?z. 981 . 


Cal. common, either simple, subimbricate, or doubled j the exterior 
usually with eight leaflets, which are coarse, and placed in a circle 3 
the interior with as many larger ones, membranaceous, and colour- 
ed. Cor. compound rayed : corollets hermaphrodite numerous in 
the disk : females eight in the ray. Stam. in the hermaphrodites : 
filaments five, capillary, very short. Anther cylindric, tubular. 
Pist. in the hermaphrodites : germ compressed ; style filiform, 
length of the stamens ; stigma bifid, acute, slender : in the females, 
germ like the hermaphrodites ; style and stigma none. Per. none. 
Calyx scarcely altered. Seed in the hermaphrodite solitary, orbi- 
culate, convex on one side, concave on the other, with a transverse 
protuberance at top and bottom, surrounded by a membranaceous 
edge, with a two-horned tip : in the females none. Recept. chaffy. 


Leaves linear, pinnate, opposite ^ the rays of the flower dark red near 
the disk. 

Stem about three feet in height, smooth, and round. Branches 
dichotomous, on which the leaves are placed opposite, with 
numerous linear leaflets, deeply pinnated. Flowers terminating 
the branches, generally about three, on rather long pedicels. 
The ray of the corolla is composed of seven or eight yellow 
petals, with deep red toward the disk. The disk is of a dark 
browTi or red. 

This new and showy annual may be considered a great 
acquisition to our gardens, 

" where'er she 

Rolls her dark eye, and waves her golden hair." 

From the beauty of its flowers it may be said to have eclipsed 
all the other species of this family : the bright golden appear- 
ance of its petals, contrasted with the rich dark disk in the 
centre, renders it remarkably conspicuous. Its free disposition 
to flower, and the continued succession of blooms with which 
this plant is decked, demand for it a conspicuous place in the 
flower-border. It is readily raised from seeds, which should 
be sown about the middle of February in a moderate heat. 
The young plants should be potted off when about an inch in 
height, gradually brought into the open air, and planted in 
the ground early in May, in light garden mould. The gaiety 
and duration of the flowers of this annual beauty will render 
it an ever-pleasing acquisition to the flower-border. It may 
with good effect be planted in small beds, forming a group 
of itself, either in the pleasure-ground or flower-garden. 

It is a native of Mexico, and was introduced in 1 824. 

This specimen was obtained from Messrs. Allen and Ro- 
gers's Union Nursery, King's Road. 

/>rawn ScJ^nff raved iy W, ClarA; . 

London.. PcOilished iry Imff^'ufn. ScCfFaii'.moster2iow, .4prU JS20-. 



Swallow-wort Gentian. 

Pentandrta. Digynia. 

Class 5. Order 2. 

Linn. spec. 329. Bot. Mag. 1078. 


Vide Gentiana acaulis. PI. 2. 


Corolla five-cleft, bell-shaped, opposite, sessile. Leaves stem-clasp- 

Stem upright, about one foot in height. Leaves smooth, em- 
bracing the stem, and terminating in an acute point : they are 
strono-ly marked with veins terminating at the point. Flowers 
bell-shaped, in pairs, and of a beautiful blue. This species is 
sometimes confounded with G. septenifida, as the corolla is 
sometimes six- or seven-cleft ; but it may be distinguished in 
having the flowers in a spike nearly half down the stalk. 

The interesting species of this tribe of plants demand the 
attention of every cultivator and admirer of flowers: they 
form a leading feature in almost every flower-border ; nor are 
they wanting among the ornaments on rock-work. Some of 

the species are very humble in point of growth, — others more 
aspiring ; but they all individually possess attractive beauties. 
As long as the weather will permit a bloom to assist in the 
decoration of the flower-garden, some of the species of this 
family are found lending their aid in the general beauty of the 
scene. The present species is particularly worthy of enco- 
mium. Its spike of handsome blue flowers tinged with purple, 
intermixed with rich green leaves, makes it an acquisition 
either to the flower-garden or the herbaceous border ; while 
its splendid flowers conspicuously shine during the months of 
July and August. It is readily raised by seeds, which should 
be sown soon after they acquire maturity, as they do not freely 
vegetate after being kept. If the seeds be sown as soon as 
ripe in the autumn, they should be kept in the seed-pots under 
hand-glasses or frames through the winter : in the following 
spring they should be potted off* into other pots, where they 
may remain until of sufficient size to plant in the borders. 

This plant is a native of Austria, and was introduced in 1629. 

This figure was drawn firom a specimen which flowered at 
Cashiobury, the seat of the earl of Essex. 



2>7-atm ScZnaravrd ly W, Clarfc. 

/.,m^o7i, Fuilished 6 Z.w^w<7?? tCfalyrn/^sierSiW, Jjt^t/ /•Tie' . 


Tuberous Swallow- wort. 

Pentandria. Digynia. 

Class 5. Order 2. 

AscLEPiAS : from Msculapius, on account of the medicinal properties 
some of the species in this genus possess. 

Linn. gen. n, 306. Linn. spec. 316. 


Cal. Perianth five-cleft, sharp, very small, permanent. Cor. mono- 
petalous, flat or reflex, five-parted ; divisions ovate, acuminate. 
Nectaries five, growing to the base of the filaments below the an- 
thers, fleshy ; protruding from the bottom a sharp horn bending 
inwards. Sfani. Filaments five, collected into a tube swelling at 
the base. Anthers oblong, upright, two-celled, terminated by an 
inflex membrane lying on the stigma, having a reversed wing on 
each side, growing broader downwards, with its edge contiguous to 
the next. The pollen is collected into ten corpuscles, inversely 
lanceolate, hanging down into the cells of the anther by short 
threads frequently flexuose, which are annexed by pairs to five car- 
tilaginous twin tubercles, each placed on the tip of the wings of 
the anthers, adhering to the angles of the stigma between the an- 
thers. Pist. Germs two, oblong, acuminate. Styles two, subulate. 
Stigma common to both, large, thick, five-cornered, covered at the 
top by the apexes of the anthers, umbilicate in the middle. Per. 
Follicles two, large, oblong, acuminate, swelling, one-celled, one- 
valved. Seeds numerous, imbricate, crowned with down. Receptacle 
membranaceous, free. 


Leaves lanceolate. Stem divaricate, hairy. 

Root tuberous. Stems from a foot to a foot and a half in 
height, hairy, round, dusky red. Leaves alternate, except on 
the upper part of the stem. The flowers in large clusters at 
the extremity of the stems, of a bright orange. 

This very splendid herbaceous plant would, no doubt, be 
found to adorn every garden if its propagation were more 
easily effected. Unfortunately, it does not perfect its seed in 
this country, and consequently it can be increased but slowly 
by its root alone. 

In its native country (North America), it is found growing 
very luxuriantly in sandy gravel, where its roots frequently 
penetrate to the depth of three feet, and of proportionate bulk. 
The smaller-sized roots are sometimes imported into this coun- 
try in very good preservation when packed in sand or in moss. 
These roots thrive very well when planted in sandy earth. 
Upon a sandy or gravelly bank it flourishes, which renders it 
well adapted for rock-work, where its fine orange clusters of 
flowers may be shown to advantage. The height it generally 
attains is about a foot and a half; and when in a soil and situa- 
tion in which it delights, scarcely any herbaceous plant can 
vie with it for splendour. The beauty of these flowers is 
apparent in the months of July and August, during which 
time, others of the same genera are in flower ; as A. amcena, 
A. syriactti and A. incarnata, which, though not equal in 
beauty to tuberosa, are nevertheless worthy of cultivation, and 
will look well in the same bed contrasted with each other. 
This was introduced in 1690. 


1. External petal 

2. Internal petal, forming the nectary 

3. The nectary, showing the projecting barren filament 

4. Showing the position of the stamens^ the situation of an outer 

petal, and part of the calyx 

5. The pistil 




Whitley's Hybrid Passion-Flower. 


Class 16. Order 2. 

Passiflora ; formerly called Flos Fassionis, from a fancy that all tlie 
instruments of our Saviour's Passion were displayed in the flower, 

Linn. gen. n. 1021. Hort. Soc. Trans. 


Cal. Perianth five-parted_, flat, coloured. Cor. Petals five, semi-lan- 
ceolate, flat, blunt, of the same size and form with the calyx, 
Stam. Filaments five, awl-shaped, fastened to a column at the base 
of the germ, and united at the bottom, spreading. Anthers incum- 
bent, oblong, blunt. Fist. Germ roundish, placed on the apex of 
a straight cylindrical column. Styles three, thicker above, spread- 
ing. Stigmas capitate. Fer. Berry fleshy, subovate, one-celled, 
pedicelled. Seeds very many, ovate, arilled. Recept. of the seeds 
triple, growing longitudinally to the rind of the pericarp. 


Leaves 3 — 5 -parted. Segments thinly lanceolate, leathery, sharp at 
the point. Cabjx of lanceolate segments, loose and keeled. 

Steini flexuose, climbing, round, and of a bright green with 
a partial tinge of red : it throws out tendrils, by which it 
attaches itself to whatever it reaches. Leaves three-lobed, of 
a dark green above, but paler underneath, and strongly marked 

with red veins. Stipules in paiz's, at the base of the leaf-stalk. 
Calyx green. Petals concave, pale purple and red. Flowers 

Of the numerous varieties of Passion-Flower lately obtained, 
the present very handsome variety was the first. It was raised 
by Mr. Milne (of the firm of Whitley, Brames and Milne, 
Fulham,) hi the year 1819. It was obtained by impregnating 
some flowers of P. cderulea with the farina of P. racemosa. 
This experiment has produced a variety possessing the com- 
bined beauties of these two species, as well as the desirable 
property of being hardy. 

" here beauty plays 

Her idle freaks ; from family diffused 

To family, as flies the father dust. 

The varied colours run : and while they break 

On the charm'd eye, th' exulting Florist marks 

With secret pride the wonders of his hand." 

Mr. Milne has produced many other varieties as well as the 
present ; and his success gave the stimulus to other botanists 
to similar experiments, which have led to the production of 
many varieties, both hardy and tender. The luxuriant habit 
of growth and the free disposition to flower, render this a 
desirable shrub for covering a building or trellis-work where 
beauty is required. The free disposition of this climber to 
flower makes it very acceptable to entwine among others 
which, though luxuriant in foliage, are deficient in bloom. 
The foliage is of itself ornamental, and may indeed be said to 
be excelled by no other shrub. The facility with which this 
plant is increased by layers has enabled its numerous admirers 
to become possessed of it. It should be planted in a south or 
south-east aspect, in light garden mould; and it will produce a 
profusion of flowers from July until checked by the frost. 

This specimen was drawn from a fine plant which flowered 
at Messrs. Whidey, Brames, and Mihie's. 


rjr.:w, .v-7'.?jtrr.ivi'4 H If.Ciarfc. 



Fulgent Lobelia. 

; Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5. Older 1. 

Lobelia : from Matthias de Lobel, a Flemish botanist, who was phy- 
sician to King James I. 

Linn. gen. n. 1006. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, five-cleft, very small, growing round the 
germ, withering ; toothlets nearly equal. Cor. one-petaled, irre- 
gular ; the tube cylindric, longer than the calyx, divided longitu- 
dinally above ; border five-parted ; divisions lanceolate, of which 
the two superior ones are smaller, less reflex, more deeply divided, 
constituting an upper lip j the three inferior ones more spreading, 
frequently larger. Stam. Filaments five, awl-shaped, the length of 
the tube of the petal, connate above. Anthers connate into an 
oblong cylinder, gaping five ways at the base. Pist. Germ sharp- 
pointed, inferior. Style cylindric, length of the stamens. Stigma 
obtuse, hispid. Per. Capsule ovate, two- or three-celled, two- or 
Ihree-valved, gaping at the top, girt by the calyx. Seeds many, 
very small. Recept. conic. 


Leaves oblong, lanceolate, rather serrate, slightly villose ; flowers in 
a spike. 

Root white and very fibrous. Leaves closely succeeding each 
other on the stalk ; they are lanceolate, of a blueish green. 

with a kind of pubescence on its surface giving it an appear- 
ance of velvet. Stem erect, rising to the height of about three 
feet. The flowers are of a brilliant scarlet, and form a spike 
at the end of the stem. 

The splendour of this herbaceous perennial is such as to 
call forth the admiration of every beholder. Whether it be 
intermixed in the herbaceous border, or in a bed forming a 
group of the hardy species of this genus, among which there 
are many possessing much beauty, it will nevertheless be pro- 
minent for brilliancy. It may be grown to great perfection in 
pots, for the purpose of ornamenting flower-houses during the 
summer months ; for this purpose it should be cultivated by 
means of artificial heat in the early part of the season, and 
may by this method be made to obtain the height of five or 
six feet, although in the open border it rarely exceeds the 
height of three feet : its earliest flowers appear in July, with a 
succession until the end of August. 

Every facility is afforded by this plant for rapid propagation 
and general cultivation : it freely increases by its roots, which 
may be separated in the month of March, very small portions 
of which will produce plants. It thrives well in a light rich 
earth, composed of portions of light garden mould, decayed 
leaves, and rotten manure. It is a native of North America. 
The date of its introduction is not correctly ascertained. 


1. The stamens exhibited, showing their union at the anthers. 

2. The pistil, with the corolla and calyx removed. 

Tl. 4Z. 

2>mwn SrS-nfmvti/ ty JV. Clnr/t. 

Zinion,I'uddiJ'^£t^ fy ZonffTnan Ic C^ PaterTiiisifr Jiew, Mn- JS26\ 



Bristly Lychnidea. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5, Order 1. 

Linn. gen. n. 214, Linn. spec. 217. 


Vide Phlox carnea. PI. 16. 


Leaves bristly-shaped, smooth; flowers solitary. 

The stalks if they be tied up will rise about one foot in 
height ; but in their natural position trail upon the ground, 
raifing some stems and flowers about four or five inches. The 
leaves are closely set upon the lower part of the stem ; they 
are of a dark green, somewhat hairy, and have a very bristly 
appearance, from whence is its name. The flowers are of a 
light purple, and larger than those of subulata , from which 
this plant differs also in the leaves, which are finer and more 
hairy than those of subulata. 

This little herbaceous plant is peculiarly adapted for rock- 
work: in such a situation, though humble in its habit of 
growth, its profusion of flowers will be shown to great advan- 

tage. It may also be well recommended for decorating the 
herbaceous border : indeed it appears with marked splendour 
and is viewed with great interest intermixed with other dwarf- 
growing herbaceous plants. The flowers are pink with some- 
what of a purplish tinge, and appear in the months of June 
and July, at which time others of the same genus are m flower 
with which it may be intermixed, as P. amccna^ P. suhulata^ 
P. carnea ; and for a fiirther contrast of colours, the following 
dwarf plants would appear as companions to advantage : Gen- 
tiana verna, JRhexia virginica^ Globularia nudicaidis, Chironia 
Centaurium^Spigelia mar ilandica, and Androsace carnea. These 
in combination are alike applicable for rock-work or for the 
herbaceous border. The plant here figured thrives in a light 
open earth, and is readily propagated by cuttings, which should 
be taken off about the beginning of July and placed under a 
hand-glass in a shaded situation, and in the following spring 
should be planted out or potted as may be required. It is a 
native of North America, and was introduced in 1790. The 
specimen from which the drawing for this figure was made, 
flowered at Mr. Knight's Nm-sery, King's Road, Chelsea. 


1 . Corolla cut open, showing ihe insertion of the stamens in the tube 

of the corolla, and the pistil and calyx at the base. 

2. Pistil magnified. 


DroMm &-S7!ff raved ly W, Clar/c. 

Zondon,ruMished IryZariffman & CfTaZemo.''terJtcnv,MayJS26 . 


Dark Purple Larkspur. 


Class 13. Order 3. 


Vide Delphinium mesoleucum. PI. 29. 


Leaves smooth, five-parted 5 lobes lanceolated. Calyx shorter than 
the petals 5 the spur curved. 

The stems generally attain about three feet in height, some- 
times highei*, and generally about three or four from the same 
root. Leaves of a light green, much fainter on the under side, 
very much divided into deeply laciniated segments. The 
flowers are closely but irregularly disposed along the stem ; 
they are supported each on a peduncle from one to two inches 
long, and are of a beautiful dark purple, and in this variety 

While examining the conspicuous ornaments of the herba- 
ceous border, this variety of Delphinium elegans will be found 
to claim peculiar attention. It is distinguished as a variety 
from the true species by its double flowers, from whence it is 

named : it is also more luxuriant in its growth, and the flow- 
ers appear in greater profusion as well as richer in colour. 
These variations render it truly desirable for general cultiva- 
tion. The showy appearance displayed by this plant in the 
flower-bed is equalled by few others, and it decidedly eclipses 
all its brethren of this genus. The leading or main stems are 
generally about three feet in height, supporting handsome 
spikes of dark purple flowers ; these are succeeded by smaller 
stems springing from the root, which attain the height of about 
a foot and a half, producing flowers, though not in so great 
abundance. Thus a succession of flowers is produced for a 
considerable time ; especially so if the larger stems be cut 
down immediately after they have produced their flowers : by 
pursuing this mode the plants may be kept in beauty through 
the months of July, August, and September. It grows freely 
in a light vegetable earth, and is increased by separating the 
roots, which should be done early in April, the season at 
which the young roots are beginning to appear. When sepa- 
ratino- large roots, each portion should have one or two shoots, 
which will flower the same season they are separated. This 
is the only process of propagating this variety. The species 
from which this variety has emanated is a native of the North 
of Europe, and was introduced about 1750. 


Dravn Si:£nffrave<f fy Iff Clarfc. 



Blush Amaryllis. 

Hexandria. Monogynia. 

Class 6. Order 1. 

Amaryllis : supposed to be derived either from a shepherdCvSS of 
that name in Virgil, or from ai/^apvyy], splendour, in allusion to 
the beauty which this genus possesses. 

Linn. gen. n. 406. Bot. Reg. 902. 


Cat. Spathe oblong, obtuse, compressed, emarginate, gaping on the 
flat side and withering. Cor. Petals six, lanceolate. Nectary six 
very short scales, without the base of the filaments. Stain. Fila- 
ments six, awl-shaped, with oblong incumbent rising anthers. Pist. 
Germ roundish, furrowed, inferior. Style filiform, almost the length 
and in the situation of the stamens. Stigma trifid, slender. Per. 
a sub-ovate, three-celled^ three-valved capsule. Seeds several. 


Leaves erect, linear, obtuse. Scape long. Spathe simple, exceed- 
ing the peduncle. Corolla tubular, bell-shaped, longer than the 

Root bulbous, small. Leaves six to nine inches long, erect, 
linear, smooth on each side, light green, acute at the end. 
Scape nearly a foot in height, round, hollow, smooth, bright 
green, approaching to red towards the base, one-flowered. 
Peduncle an inch and a half in length. Spathe one-leafed, 
undivided, longer than the peduncle. Corolla six-petaled, 
funnel-shaped, three inches long, bright pink. 

This interesting bulb has been figured in the Botanical Re- 

gister under the name Zephyranthes grandijlora. Unwilling 
to attach this plant to a new genus, foi* the formation of which 
no characters sufficiently remarkable appear, and wishing to 
avoid the confusion occasioned by adopting new names which 
no essential characters will warrant, the present plant is here 
arranged under the genus Ama7-yllis, to which the character 
and general appearance bear so exact a resemblance, that no 
objection is anticipated to this adaptation : — for these reasons 
some other plants that have been figured in this publication 
are attached to the genus to which they seemed more decidedly 
to belong, in preference to some of the new genera lately intro- 
duced. The desire of many botanists to form new genera upon 
the most trivial variations, may prove that they possess an ex- 
tensive knowledge of the science; but it nevertheless serves to 
involve in mystery and confusion that science, which it should 
certainly be wished were rendered as simple as possible. 

From the recent introduction of this plant, it has not yet 
stood the test of our winters : there is however every reason 
to suppose it perfectly hardy, from the circumstance of many 
other bulbs introduced from the same country flourishing in 
open borders. The same precaution, however, should be taken 
with this as with those alluded to, by planting it in a light open 
and sandy earth, upon a dry border, with the additional care 
of strewing some dry litter on the surface of the bed during 
the winter. By observing these particulars there is little 
doubt but it will be found to flourish and become as hardy as 
A. Atamasco and A. lutea. This bulb with others, was intro- 
duced last year (1825), by Lord Napier, from Mexico, which 
country abounds with 

" fresh verdure and unnumber'd flowers. 

The negligence of Nature, wide and wild ; 
Where undisguised by mimic art, she spreads 
Unbounded beauty to the roving eye." 

This specimen flowered in the hot-house of A. B. Lambert, 
Esq., Boyton House, Wilts, through whose kindness the pre- 
sent figure has been permitted to be engraved. 

ri. AS. 

Z>rnv7! Sc£?ij?mved iy W, CCarfc. 



Spring Adonis, 


Class 13. Order 7. 

Adonis : from Adonis in the Heathen mythology, famed as being 
the favourite of Venus. 

Linn. gen. n. 698. Linn. spec. 7/1. syst. .514. 


Cal. Perianth five-leaved ; leaflets obtuse, concave, a little coloured, 
deciduous. Cor. Petals five to fifteen, oblong, obtuse, shining. 
Stam. Filaments very short, subulate. Anthers oblong, inflex. 
Pist. Germs numerous, in a head. Styles none. Stigmas acute, 
refle.K. Per. none. Recept. oblong, spiked. Seeds numerous, 
irregular, angular, gibbous at the base, reflex at the top, a little 
prominent^ naked. 


Flowers twelve-petaled ; heads of seeds ovate. 

Root herbaceous ; stem from twelve to eighteen inches in 
height, closely set with deeply pinnated leaves, and termi- 
nated by a solitary yellow flower, the calyx of which is of a 
rich brown : the exterior part of the petals, towards their 
points, partaking of the same colour ; the interior of the same 
of a bright yellow. 

Plants which appear as early m the season as this species 
oi Adonis have a decided claim to our notice. After the long 
and dreary months while vegetation has been lying dormant, 
it is with peculiar delight we view these flowers thus early 
waking to life and beauty. This plant is not merely early in 
the production of its flowers, but where it has been so long 
estabHshed as to produce a tuft of any considerable magni- 
tude, the luxuriance of its large yellow flowers contributes con- 
siderably to decorate the flower-border. From its being per- 
fectly hardy and growing well in any prepared border, it may 
with good effect be placed amongst many low shrubberies, 
where, mixed wath a few other early flowering herbaceous 
plants, it will assist to satisfy the eye previous to the shrubs 
themselves showing forth their verdure and floral beauty. It 
is readily increased by separating the roots early in March, 
about the end of which its flowers begin to appear, a suc- 
cession of which is produced throughout April. It is a native 
of the North of Europe, and was introduced in 1731. This 
specimen was figured from the herbaceous border at Messrs. 
Malcolm and Gray's Nursery, Kensington. 


-^.^..*v Ai/ W r7/7r^. . 


Chinese Glycine. 


Class 17. Older 4. 

Glycine : from y\uKvr, sweet. 

Linn, gen, n. 868. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, compressed ; mouth two-lipped j upper lip 
emarginate, obtuse ; lower one longer, trifid, acute. Cor. Papilio- 
naceous. Banner obcordate, the sides bent down, the back gib- 
bous, the tip emarginate, straight, repelled from the keel. Wings 
oblong, towards the tip ovate, small, bent downwards. Keel linear, 
sickle-shaped, bent upwards at the tip, pressing the banner up- 
wards, obtuse, towards the tip broader. Stam. Filaments dia- 
delphous, (simple and nine-cleft,) only a little divided at the tip, 
rolled back. Anthers simple. Pist. Germ oblong. Style cylin- 
dric, rolled back. Stigma obtuse. Per. Legume oblong. Seed 


Stem shrubby, twining ; leaves divided into pairs ; leaflets ovate- 
acuminate, downy. 

Branches shrubby, long and pliant : the flowers produced 
generally from small spurs, and begin to make their appear- 

ance before the leaves, which succeed the flowers, and are 
divided into pairs of leaflets, and are of a pubescent or downy 

Among the numerous showy and ornamental shrubs intro- 
duced from China, the present species of Glycine demands a 
considerable degree of admiration. Scarcely any other climb- 
ing shrub can vie widi it in the beauty and profusion of its 
delicately tinted racemes of flowers. Its light azure hue 
gives such an ' airiness to the whole plant, that, added to 
the delightful odour emitted, it seems formed to realize all 
the floral beauties that poetical license has figured to the 
imagination. In the conservatory this shrub is truly con- 
spicuous ; for when planted in the ground, its growth is 
remarkably luxuriant, producing shoots of above ten feet in 
length in one season. These shoots, when trained and spread 
out upon light wire-work extending over the roof of the house, 
produce, during the month of April, a dense mass of delicate 
flowers. Besides decorating the conservatory and green- 
house, it is found to flourish in the open air against trellis- 
work, or in open borders supported by a stake. Its hardihood 
adds much to its recommendation, as it thus becomes interest- 
ing to those who have not the convenience of a glass pro- 
tection. Virandas, alcoves, porticos, and every description 
of trellis-work will be highly enriched by the addition of this 
among other climbing shrubs. When planted out of doors 
it does not produce its flowers and leaves until about the 
middle of May. It should be planted in an earth composed 
of loam, decayed leaves, and a small portion of peat and sand. 
It is increased by layers which should be made from wood 
of one year old. The drawing of the present figure was ob- 
tained through the kindness of J. C. Palmer, Esq., of Brom- 
ley, Kent, who possesses in his conservatory, among many 
other imported novelties from China, one of the first of this 
species that was introduced into this country, and who also 
has some of these plants flourishing in the open air, without 
affording them the least protection from cold. 

Fl. 47- 


Zirawn ScEngraved by W, Clark. . 

f..ii:.i,.jA-, r^^m^w z-rf F/i/frnMferHow.Junf ys:'/>. 



Rough Bell-flower. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5. Order 1. 

Campanula: from Carapana, a little bell, from the shape of the 

Linn. gen. n. 218. Willd. Sp. PI. 1 . p. 906. Reich. Sp. PI. p. 462. 


Cat. Perianth five-parted, acute, erect, expanding, superior. Cor. 
Monopetalous, bell-form, impervious at the base, half five-cleft, 
marcescent ; divisions broad, acute, spreading. Nectary in the 
bottom of the corolla, composed of five valves, acute, converging, 
covering the receptacle. Stam. Filaments five, capillary, very 
short, inserted on the tips of the valves of the nectary ; anthers 
longer than the filaments, compressed. Pist. Germ angular, in- 
ferior : style filiform, longer than the stamens ; stigma three-parted, 
oblong, thickish j divisions revolute. Per. Capsule roundish, an- 
gular, three- or five-celled, emitting the seeds at so many lateral 
openings. Seeds numerous, small. Recep. columnar, adnate. 


Leaves ovate, rough j stem simple, hairy ; corolla spreading. 

Stem herbaceous, from eighteen inches to two feet in height, 
round, hairy, and of a bkieish colour. Leaves ovate, covered 

with brown hairs, setting close to the stalk, serrated on the 
edge, and somewhat undulated. Flowers arranged alternately 
along the stalk, forming a handsome spike of purple flowers. 
The genus to wh'ch this plant belongs is deservedly an 
universal favourite : it embraces in its family a very numerous 
and interesting variety, among which exists a wide diffusion of 
character of growth, from the unassuming C. pumilla and 
C. hederacea, rising their heads but a few inches from the 
ground, to the stately and showy C. ladea, frequently aspiring 
to the height of nine or ten feet. These lofty stems are sur- 
rounded by numerous milk-white flowers, forming to appear- 
ance a conspicuous pillar of snow. The species here figured, 
though it does not claim notice from its aspiring or conspicu- 
ous characters, nevertheless calls forth admiration from the 
delicacy of the purple flowers with which it is adorned : it is 
distinguished from others of the genus which approach it in 
size and other characters, by the richness of its dark eye. Its 
situation in the flower-bed must be near the front, arranged 
with such other plants as attain about one foot in height and 
flower in the month of July. It will be found to flourish in 
an earth composed of a good proportion of decayed leaves 
and rich vegetable mould. It sometimes perfects its seeds, by 
which means it is propagated. It was introduced about 1794', 
but from whence does not appear to be correctly known. 
This specimen flowered at Messrs. Whitley, Brames, and 
Milne's Nursery, Fulham. 


Corolla removed showing the insertion of the Stamens and Pistil. 


2>raMn Sc'Enffrayai <*i' W, ClaTfc . 

Zon.d.on.I'ubiifhed (y tnnffiricui. &:C'Fater?uisUrRow, Jtmel,?2h'. 



Perennial Lathyrus. 


Class 17. Order 4. 

Lathyhus : from XaQvpog of Theophrastus, which Implied something 
of the pea or vetch tribe. 

Lin7i. gen. n. 8/2. Bot. Mag. 1938. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, half five-cleft, bell-shaped : divisions lance- 
olate, sharp : the two upper ones shorter ; the lowest longer. 
Cor. papilionaceous : standard obcordate, very large, reflex on the 
sides and tip : wings oblong, lunulate, short, obtuse. Keel half- 
orbiculate, size of the wings, gaping inwards in the middle, Stam. 
Filaments diadelphous (single and nine-cleft), rising upwards. 
Anthers roundish. Pist. Germ compressed, oblong, linear. Stvle 
erected upwards, flat, wider above, with sharp tip. Stigma, from 
the middle of the style to the tip villose in front. Per. Legume 
very long, cylindric or compressed, acuminate, one-celled, bivalve. 
Seeds several, cylindric, globose, or but little cornered. 


Stem rough, four-sided ; peduncle two-flowered, naked ; tendril 
divided into two j leaves obovate, undulate. 

Root perennial. Stem branched, clinging : branches square, 
with rounded angles, rigid, not at all winged, nor hairy, claspers 

generally twice ternate with oval leaves, rather broadest 
towards the point, viewed undulated at the margin. Stipules 
very narrow, semi-sagittate. Pedicles nearly equal, united to 
the peduncle by a joint. Corolla very much resembling 
Lathyrus odorafus, but larger. 

The want of a knowledge of this herbaceous plant must be 
the sole cause of its not being more generally cultivated in the 
flower-garden and herbaceous border, its beauty and neatness 
are surely sufficient to recommend it to the notice of every 
admirer of flowers. If it be planted against a trellis, or in any 
situation where it can find support, it will attain the height of 
about seven or eight feet, and the profusion of flowers which 
it produces during the months of July and August, renders it 
a conspicuous and splendid ornament. It is not yet generally 
dispersed in collections, but wherever it is introduced it is cer- 
tain to obtain admiration. It thrives in a light mellow earth, 
and may be propagated by the root as well as by seeds, which 
it sometimes produces though not invariably. It is a native 
of the South of Europe, and was introduced in 1814. The 
specimen here figured was obtained from Messrs. Chandler 
and Buckingham's Nursery, Vauxhall. 


Stamens, Pistil, and Calyx slightly magnified. 


2>ra»rr, ScS-n^aved fy K Clari; . 


Large-flowered Fumitory. 


Class 17. Order 2. 

Linn, si/st. C30. But. Mag. \9i>3. 


Vide PI. 28. 


Stems simple. Bractcas shorter than the flower, undivided. 

Herbaceous, perennial. Root leaves seven to nine, a span in 
height, bipinnate. Stem erect, angular, furnished with three 
or four leaves near the flower ; they are sessile and compound, 
of a dark green on their upper surface, and glaucous under- 
neath. Tlie flowers are at the extremity of the stem forming 
a kind of abrupt raceme, they are all directed the same way. 
Bracteas ovate, lanceolate, entire. Flowers of a pale green or 
nearly white, excepting towards the throat, where they ara of 
a dark brown approaching to black, with a bright yellow bor- 
der surrounding. Calyx minutely toothed. Capsule thin, fri- 
able. Seed large, lenticular, beaked, very smooth, dark and 

This herbaceous plant is conspicuous and interesting from 
the clusters of yellow flowers, rendered more showy by the 
dark spots, which serve to give brilliancy to the other parts. 
In addition to the contrast of the colours in this, which distin- 
guishes it from other species of the genus, there exists a 
marked peculiarity in the style of flowering. In this, the flow- 
ers appear in a close cluster forming a sort of raceme, while 
in the other species they are more scattered. Though they 
are of shorter- duration than many others, yet as they all ap- 
pear nearly at the same time, they are when in flower de- 
cidedly the most conspicuous of the genus : they are in their 
greatest beauty and perfection towards the end of April, and 
continue at least a month. As this species does not readily 
perfect its seeds here, and is increased but sparingly from the 
roots, it is on this account much admired and cherished in 
places where it is cultivated. Nearly all the species in this 
genus are humble in gi'owth, rarely exceeding a foot in height, 
and many are much less. This species attains the height of 
about one foot, and thrives well in a border of light but rich 
vegetable mould. It is a native of Siberia, and was introduced 
in 1783. This specimen was figured from Messrs. Malcolm 
and Gray's Nursery, Kensington. 


The Corolla removed showing the situation of the Stamens and Pistil. 


Z>ra<m S::Snffravea »y W, Cfr.rl-. 



Purple Magnolia. 


Class 13. Order 7. 

Linn. gen. n. 690. inild. Sp. PL p. 1257. Bot. Mag. 390. 


Vide PI. 9. 


Huwcrs six-petalled, the exterior of the petals purple. 

Branches long and somewhat pliant ; the bark of the young 
shoots smooth, shining, of a bright green, and witli small 
white spots. The flowers at the extremity of the young shoots, 
solitary; petals six, ovate, concave, narrowing towards the 
base, the exterior of which are of a lively purple, the interior 
white. Calyx of two or three dark brown concave leaflets, 
which are deciduous. Leaves ovate, entire, of a bright 
«rreen, and much veined. Stamens and pistils seated upon 
a conical receptacle, which afterwards supports the pericarp 
composed of numerous cells placed in an imbricated form, 
each of which contains one or two small ovate or roundish 

The grandeur and magnificence of this tribe of shrubs mark 
them as truly conspicuous objects in the pleasure-ground. 
Amongst them are found all the qualifications for decorative 
shrubs; — a grand and ornamental style of growth, bold and 
conspicuous foliage, with flowers of corresponding magnifi- 
cence, possessing a most delightful and fragrant odour. The 
M. grandiflora, though it deservedly ranks as the most 
princely shrub in our gardens, yet surpasses by little only the 
present species. The hardihood of the M. -purpurea makes it 
well adapted to this country, and its free disposition to flower 
renders it peculiarly ornamental. It is generally cultivated 
against a wall or trellis, but will flourish in the open ground, 
although its flowers in such situation are not so luxuriant and 
numerous. It is found to flourish in a soil composed of peat 
and loam, and is increased by layers, which should be put 
down in a portion of sand towards the end of March. It is a 
native of China, and was introduced in 17i)2. This specimen 
flowered against the green-house at Coombe Wood, the seat 
of the Earl of Liverpool. 

n. J-/. 

Drawn kfinffiaveii b z*^ Cl^rt: . 




Starry Purple Chinese Chrysanthemum. 

Syngenesia. Polygamia Superflua. 

Class 19. . Order 2. 

Chrysanthemum. Xpucravflefiov of Dioscorides : from XP^'^°S S^^'^' 
and avSoj a flower. 

Linn. gen. n. 1)66. Linn. Trans, vol. xiv, p. 142. llort. Trans, 
vol. vi. p. 338. 


Cell. Common hemispherical, imbricate} scale close incumbent ; the 
interior ones larger by degrees ; the innermost termmated by a 
i)arched scale. Cor. compound radiated ; coroUets hermaplirodite, 
tubular, numerous in the disk. Females more than twelve in the 
rav. s'tani. in the hermaphrodites, five, capillary, very short, yin- 
tliers cylindric, tubular, shorter than the corolla. Pist. In liie her- 
maphrodites, germs ovate, style filiform, longer tlian the stamens, 
stigmas two, revolute. Per. None. Calyx unchanged. Seed 
solitary, oblong, without any pappus. Rec. naked, dotted, convex. 


Leaves: lobes narrow, slightly serrated. Florets unequal in length, 
pointed at their termination, narrow and incurved at their centre. 

Root perennial. Stem herbaceous, annual, about four feet in 
heio-ht. Tlie branches are numerous, and are termmated by 
broad loose clusters or corymbs of flowers. The expansion ol 
a <rootl flower exceeds tliree inches and a half. The florets are 
a ricli purple, paler where their anterior surface is exposed, 
and verv pale at their extremities. lu C^hina the flowers are 

much larger, and the plant, according to the information com- 
municated by Mr. Parks, occasionally sports in the gardens of 
Canton producing perfectly white flowers. The leaves are 
small, reflexed, of a grayish green, and rather deeply divided ; 
the lobes narrow and very slightly serrated with pointed ser- 

This specimen is one of the many interesting plants in- 
trodiiced by the Horticultural Society from China. It was 
brought into this country by Mr. Parks in 182i. Scarcely any 
other tribe of herbaceous plants possesses greater attractions 
than this, not merely for its more extended and interesting 
variety of colours, but for its productions of flowers at a sea- 
son when nearly all the brilliant attractions of the vegetable 
world are retiring either into total oblivion or else to a state 
of dormancy. When the beauties of the flower-garden begin 
to decay, and the brown autumnal tints succeed tlie lively co- 
lours of Spring and Summer, 

*' When o'er the cultivated lawns and dreary wastes 
Retiring Autumn flings her howling blasts, 
Bends in tumultuous waves the struggling woods, 
And showers their leafy honours on the floods," — 

then will appear this tribe of plants arrayed in all the splen- 
dour which the most diversified and interesting colours can 
convey. When the weather is mild, they continue in great 
perfection from October to the end of November ; and when 
protected by means of glass, they are truly ornamental, and 
will adorn the green-house until after Christmas, 

" And instant Winter's utmost rage defy." 

The many beautiful varieties of this tribe which have been 
lately introduced, and the facility with which they are in- 
creased, have contributed to bring these plants so much into 
notice. They may be raised by cuttings of young shoots 
taken off about the end of May or the beginning of June : 
these may be placed separately in small pots under a hand- 
glass in a shaded situation ; as they become rooted and re- 
moved to larger pots, they require a rich mellow earth, when 
if the more luxuriant shoots be topped at their extremity, they 
will branch out and form very handsome bushy plants, and 
will flower extremely well in the pots. When planted in the 
open border or against a wall, they generally attain tlie height 
of from three to five feet. 

The specimen for this drawing was kindly furnished from 
the splendid collection of this tribe of plants cultivated in the 
gardens of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick. 


Lrcavn &-En^mve4 A' W.CZarA^ . 



Rust-leaved Rose-bav. 

Decandria. Monogynia. 

Class 10. Order 1. 

Litui. Si/st. 405. Spec. 562. 


Vide Ehododendron arbor eum. PI. 7. 


Leaves smooth, leprous underneath : corollas funnel-shaped. 

Stems very much branched, towards the ground spreadhig ; 
they rise about a foot and a half high. The leaves are rather 
in clusters towards the extremity of the branches, dry, coria- 
ceous, ovate, narrowed at both ends, bent back at the edge ; 
underneath they are ferruginous, with innumerable little dark 
coloured dots ; the younger leaves have generally a few cili- 
ate hairs, but these afterwards disappear. Flowers in an up- 
right raceme at the end of every branchlet. Peduncles one- 
flowered, upright, dotted. Corollas nodding, of a beautiful 
rose colour, with yellowish dots, they have little or no scent. It 
has been known to vary with white flowers. The two lower 
segments of the corolla are a little narrower and longer than 

the three others. Filaments whitish red, liairy at bottom, the 
lower ones gradually shorter, not exceeding the tube, inserted 
into the receptacle itself by an attenuated toothlet ; anthers 
oblong, erect, yellow. The stamens commonly fade before the 
corolla. Germ superior, green ; style nearly the length of the 
stamens : stigma capitate, five-cleft. 

This little shrub differs very much in character from many 
others of the genus. The compact evergreen bush which it 
forms, added to the beauty and profusion of its flowers, renders 
it truly attractive. The leaves of this shrub possess an inter- 
esting conti'ast of colour, the upper surface being of a bright 
and shining green opposed to the brown and ferruginous ap- 
pearance of the under part ; it is in this peculiar property that it 
differs from R. hirsutum, which in other respects it greatly re- 
sembles. The dwarf habit of growth of R. femigineum per- 
mits it to be arranged in the American bed with the Ledum 
and Kalmia tribes, intermixed with Gaulthcria procionbcJis, 
Epigca repens, and many of the hardy species of Erica which 
flower about the same time, producing a pleasing assemblage. 
These, with the greater portion of American plants, generally 
flower during the months of May and June. That part of 
the pleasure-ground allotted to this tribe of plants may by 
judicious planting be rendered beautiful in the extreme: and 
here the dwarf plants alluded to contribute in a considerable 
degree to produce a continuation of flower, commencing at the 
more lofty species at the back, down to those of more humble 
growth in fi'ont. This species of Rhododendron is propagated 
in a similar manner to the others, — by layers, which should be 
put down early in May; it requires to be planted in peat 
earth. This specimen was figured from Messrs. Malcolm 
and Gray's Nurserv, Kensington. 

Fl. S3. 

Driwn !c En^ravid fy W, Clark . 



Bright Yellow Honeysuckle. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. 

Class 5. Order 1. 

LoNicERA : SO named by Plumier in honour of Adam Lonicer, plu- 
sician at Frankfort. 

Linn. gen. n. 233. Bot. Mag. 1318. 


Cal. Perianth five-parted, superior, small. Cor. one-petalled, tubu- 
lar 5 tube oblong, gibbous J border five-parted j divisions revolute, 
one of which is more deeply separated. Stam. Filaments five, awl- 
shaped, nearly the length of the corolla. Anthers oblong. Pist. 
Germ roundish, inferior. Style filiform, the length of the corolla. 
Stigma obtuse-headed. Per. Berry umbilicated, two-celled. Seeds 
roundish, compressed. 


Leaves ovate, glaucous beneath, much veined, marginated, connected 
at the base, perfoliated. 

Stem shrubby and climbing. Leaves ovate, or nearly cor- 
date ; in pairs, and are stem-clasping ; also alternately oppo- 
site : such as appear near the base of the young shoots are 
less true in their forms ; losing the character of the cordate 
form, and are more oblong. The shoots appear in pairs, and 
emanate from the base of the leaves. 

There does not exist a tribe of shrubs more generally ad- 

mired than tlie Loyiicera. By the humble peasant who deco- 
rates his cottage door, and by the more refined proprietor of 
a domain who cukivates the rarer species to ornament the 
arches of his conservatory, — the fragrant Honeysuckle is 
equally admired. Many of the species w^aft their delightful 
sweets throughout the pleasure-ground : even in the wood, 
where neglected Nature rears some of her rudest productions, 
will often be seen the delicate Honeysuckle stretching out its 
branches for support, and emitting to the gale the delightful 
odours distilled from its mellifluous tubes. Whether beautify- 
ing the sequestered wood or the retired paths of the arbore- 
tum, or decorating the veranda or alcove, these shrubs seem 
constituted to realize those floral delights which the poet is 
so ambitious to convey — 

" Fair Lonicera prints the dewy lawn 
And decks with brighter blush the vermil dawn. 
Winds round the shadowy rocks and fancied vales. 
And scents with sweeter breath the summer gales ; 
With artless grace and native ease she charms. 
And bears the horn of plenty in her arms." 

The present species possesses a similarity in point of growth 
to many of the climbing sorts, but differs in its flowers, which 
are of a bright yellow. 

This plant is perfectly hardy. It should be planted against 
a wall or trellis-work, though from the beauty of its flowers it 
frequently is seen adorning the green-house or conservatory. 
It thrives well in a mixture of peat loam and vegetable mould, 
and is increased by layers put down in the month of March. 
In the open ground the flowers are produced early in June : 
in the green-house, about a month earlier. 

It is a native of North America, and was introduced in 1810. 

This specimen was figured from the gardens of the Count 
de Vande, Bayswater. 


1. Stamens showing their insertion. 

2. Pistil. 


Srmm ^EnffTUVfd fy »! Clar/c . 



Large-flowered Trillium. 

Hexandria. Trigynia. 

Class 6. Order 3. 

Linn. gen. n.456. Hooker's Par. Lou. 1. Bat. Mag. 855. 


Cal. Perianth three-leaved, spreading j leaflets ovate, permanent. 
Cor. Petals three, subovate, larger than the calyx. Stam. Fila- 
ments six, awl-shaped, shorter than the calyx, erect. Anthers 
terminating, oblong, length of the filaments. Pist. Germ round- 
ish. Styles filiform, recurved. Stigmas simple. Per. Berry round- 
ish, three-celled. Seeds many, roundish. 


Leaves rounded at the base. Flowers ovate, lanceolate, recurved, 

Root perennial. Stem herbaceous, from six to twelve inches 
in height, producing three leaves, from the centre of which a 
solitary flower appears, supported by a stem about two inches 
in length. Leaves almost always in threes, on stalks rising 
direct from the root; they are of an ovate-lanceolate form, 
and are of a bright green on their upper surface, but of a 
fainter or rather brown tinge underneath. The flowers are 

inclosed in a calyx of a lively green. Petals three, white, 
having a slight tinge of blue towards their extremity when 
they begin to decay. 

Among the interesting tribe of American herbaceous plants, 
this species of Trillium ranks high. Considering its humble 
growth it is remarkably showy; and, when arranged with 
other low-growing American plants, appears to great advan- 
tao-e. The bright ijreen foliage affords an excellent relief to 
the white flowers, which may be further enhanced in delicacy 
by an intermixture with another species of the same genus, 
T. fcetidum, bearing purple flowers : these flowers begin to 
adorn the flower-garden early in the season. Soon after the 
leaves appear the flowers are produced, and are in perfection 
early in May. Their duration is not long, as they fade 
oenerallv before the end of that month, after which the stem 
and leaves soon decay : consequently they never perfect their 
seed in this country. They require to be planted in peat 
earth in rather a shaded situation, where they will, when well 
established, produce offsets, which are the means of increase. 
The surface of the ground where the plants are cultivated 
should be disturbed as seldom as possible. They are subject 
to injury by the exposure of their roots; and the offsets are 
liable to be hurt through being disturbed. 

This species is a native of North America, and was intro- 
duced in 1802. 

The figure is from a specimen from Mr. Lee's Nursery, 


1. Stamens. 

2. Pistil. 

fl. 6S. 

Zmmn ScSTt^r-aved fiy W, ClarA:. 


Slender Canadian Columbine. 


Class 13. Order 5. 

Aquilegia or Aquilixa, from Aquila, an eagle; because the necta- 
ries seem to resemble eagles' claws. The English n;ime Colum- 
bine is derived from Columha, a pigeon ; from the resemblance 
which these parts of the wild plant bear both in form and colour 
to the head and neck of a pigeon. 

Linn. gen. n. 684, Linn. spec. 752, 


Cal. none. Cor. Petals five, lanceolate, ovate, flat, spreading, equal. 
Nectaries five, equal, alternate with the petals ; each horned, 
gradually broader upwards, with an oblique mouth, ascending out- 
wardly, annexed inwardly to the receptacle ; produced below into 
a long attenuated tube with an obtuse top. Stam. Filaments thirty 
to forty, subulate, the outer ones shorter j anthers oblong, erect, 
the height of the nectaries. Pisf. Germs five, ovate-oblong, ending 
in subulate styles longer than the stamens. Stigmas erect, simple. 
Chaffs ten, wrinkled, short, separate, and involving the germs. 
Per. Capsules five, distinct, cylindric, parallel, straight, acuminate, 
one-valved, gaping from the to])s inward. Seeds very many, ovate, 
keeled, annexed to the gaping suture. 


Nectaries straight. Stamens longer than the corolla. 

Hoot perennial. Stem slender, erect, of a bright brown, 
supporting both leaves and flowers towards its summit : these 

leaves are sometimes simple, and merely lobed, while those 
from the root are compound, being biternate. The flowers 
are supported on foot-stalks from two to three inches in length. 
The corolla is composed of five nectaries, of a strong red to- 
wards their summit, and of a bright yellow at the mouth, be- 
tween each of which is seated five small linear petals, also red. 
The pericarp is composed of five lobes. 

The original species of Aquilegia canadensis has long been 
known and admired by the cultivators of choice flowers. The 
present figure is a variety which has been produced from that 
alluded to, and is found to possess all the attractive qualities 
of the parent plant, added to a peculiar delicacy of nature of 
its own, which has given rise to its present distinguishing name 
as a variety. Its style of growth is more slender and delicate 
than in the original species ; and it requires more delicacy of 
treatment in its cultivation, being very particular in its soil 
and situation. It should be planted in a light earth composed 
of decayed leaves with a small portion of loam : it is more 
likely to succeed if kept in a pot. Thus treated, its beauties 
are displayed to better advantage ; and it may here be better 
protected against a very destructive enemy, the wire-worm, 
which frequently attacks it in the open ground. It generally 
attains the height of from nine inches to a foot, producing a 
succession of flowers during the month of May. It will per- 
fect its seeds, by which means it is readily increased. 

The species from which this variety was produced is a 
native of Canada, and was introduced in 1640. 

This specimen was figured from the Collection of Edward 
Jesse, Esq., Bushy Park Cottage, whose kindness in allowing 
the drawing to be made is acknowledged. 


1 . The stamens exhibited with a portion of the corolla. 

2. Pistils. 

Fi. se. 

I/rawn ScEn^raved i}' Jl^, Clark. 



Lambert's Vervain. 


Class 14. Order 2. 

Verbena : from its being one amongst the herbs with which the 
altars antl sacred places were adorned, and the chief priest was 
crowned. The laurel, olive, myrtle, &c. were termed Verbenas for 
the same reason. 

Linn. gen. n. 32. Bot. Mag. 2200. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, angular, tubular, linear, five-toothed j the 
fifth toothlet truncate, permanent. Cor. one-petalled, unequal j 
tube cylindrical, straight for the length of the calyx, then widening 
and curved in ; border spreading, half five-cleft; segments round- 
ed, almost equal. Stum. Filaments two or four, bristle-shaped, 
very short, lying within the tube of the corolla ; two of them 
shorter (where there are four). Anthers curved in, as many as 
there are filaments. Pist. Germ four-cornered. Style simple, fili- 
form, length of the tube. Stigma obtuse. Per. very slender, and 
scarcely manifest, or almost none. Calyx containing the seeds. 
Seeds two or four, oblong. 


Spike solitary, long. Stem hairy, decumbent from the root. Leaves 
deeply cut into lobes unto the e.\^tremity. 

Root biennial. Stem decumbent, from which the leaves and 
shoots appear in pairs, very much haired, affording a marked 

difference from V. Aubletia, from wliicli it also differs in habit. 
Leaves opposite, also hairy, and marked with deep incisions 
to the point, supported upon footstalks of an inch and a half 
in length. The flowers at first appear in a cluster, opening 
at the bottom of the spike, which afterwards shoots to the 
length of six inches, bearing a succession of flowers to its ex- 

This little decorative biennial adds more to the ornament 
of the flower-garden than any others of the genus : and indeed 
far more so than can be conveyed by the delineation of an in- 
dividual figure.- The beauty and richness of the purple tinge 
possessed by the blossoms of these plants when growing in 
masses in the flower-bed produce an interesting appearance; 
and the continuity of flowers with which they are decorated 
adds still more to their attractions. They remain in a state 
of blossom for some months from the early part of June. It 
ripens its seed freely, whereby it is readily increased. Tlie 
seed should be sown in the autumn, either on a sheltered 
border or in pots, when it would be as well to afford them 
some slight protection during the winter : and in the spring 
plant them in the open ground ; they will flourish in any light 
open earth. As this plant is to be so easily obtained, it may 
be unsparingly dispersed among the flower-beds ; and, unless 
carried to excess, the distribution of this plant may add con- 
siderably towards the grand assemblage the flower-garden 
presents during the summer months. 

It is a native of Carolina, and was introduced in 1816. 

This specimen was obtained from Boyton House, Wilts, 
through the kindness of Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq., Vice 
President of the Linnaean Society. 


1. Corolla open, showing the insertion of the stamens. 

2. Pistil. 

Dniifli \-f:miimf/l fy H'.(''<'r/c 

/rnJ^n M'ltsli.dhi'lA:niimajiSct':l'al,rmysl^rlt>w .Se/>!' Ki 



Sweet-scented Cassia. 

Decandria. Monogynta. 

Class 10. Order 1. 

Cassia ; by Dioscorides xccTcricc. The derivation of this term is un- 

Linn. gen. n. 514. 


Cell. Perianth pentaphyllous, concave, coloured, deciduous. Cor. 
Petals five, roundish concave, the inferior ones more distant, more 
spreading, larger. Stani. Filaments ten, declined : the three in- 
ferior ones longer j the three superior ones shorter. Anthers : the 
three inferior very large, gaping at the tip ; the four lateral ones 
without the rostrum gaping ; the three superior ones very small, 
sterile. Pisf. Germ sub-columnar, long peduncled. Style very 
short. Stigma obtuse, ascending. Per. Legume oblong, partitions 
transverse. Seeds many, roundish, affixed to the superior suture. 


Leaflets in eight pairs. Stipules linear, pointed. 

Stem shrubby, of a brownish green. Leaves alternate, of a 
dark green on their upper surface, but lighter with a brown 
tinge underneath. Flowers yellow, sweet-scented. Stamens 
with purple anthers. Pistil green. 

The propriety of the introduction of this interesting new 
Cassia into a work professing to depict hardy plants only, 
may be questioned by many : but, although hitherto cultivated 
in the green -house, this plant will doubtless endure the open 
air of this country with the same precaution merely as is be- 
stowed upon many other shrubs which are exposed to the 
open air, and which are natives of the same part of New South 
Wales. Many of these plants have been inured to the climate 
of this country, and it is therefore not anticipating too much 
to expect that this will prove equally hardy. This plant has 
been very recently introduced from New South Wales ; and 
the present specimen was kindly forwarded by Aylmer Bourke 
Lambert, Esq. from Boyton House, Wilts, where it flowered 
in the green-house in the month of May. When planted in 
the open air in a dry border of a north-west aspect, and in a 
soil composed of peat-loam and a little sand, it will no doubt 
flower luxuriantly, of which its habit indicates a free disposi- 
tion. In the open air the flowers will not appear until the end 
of June. Like many of the species in this genus, the flowers 
are yellow ; but this species differs very essentially from any of 
the others, in the peculiar fragrance of its flowers. It has 
not been sufficiently long in this country to ascertain whether 
it will mature its seed : probably it will not in the open air, 
but it may be increased by layers or by cuttings. 

It was introduced by seeds from New South Wales in 1825. 


1. Insertion of the stamens and pistil. 

2. Petal. 

Drawn SrHn^/.i- 



Purple-flowered Cytisus. 


Class 17. Order 4. 

CvTisus : Kvria-os of Hippocrates and Theophrastus. Said by Pliny 
to have been lirst found in the isle of Cythus, whence it is supposed 
to have derived its name. 

Linn. gen. n. 877. Linn. syst. G67. 


Cal. Perianth one-leafed, bell-form, short, obtuse at the base : mouth 
two-lipped 5 upper lip two-cleft, acuminate 3 lower three- toothed. 
Cor. papilionaceous. Standard ovate, rising upwards, sides reflex. 
Wings the length of the standard, straight, obtuse. Keel some- 
what bellied, acuminate. Skim. Filaments diadelphous (single and 
nine-cleft) rising upwards. Anthers simple. Pist. Germ oblong. 
Style simple, rising upwards. Stigma obtuse. Per. Legume ob- 
long, obtuse, attenuated at the base, stiff. Seeds a few, kidney- 
form, compressed. 


Flowers peduncled, solitary. Leaves smooth. Stems decumbent, 
becoming shrubby. Legumes sickled above. 

Stem shrubby, smooth, brownish, pliant, prostrate. Leaves 
scattered, alternate, petioled; leaflets sessile, ovate, sharpish, 

dark green, quite entire. Flowers axillary, solitary, erect, 
on a short pedicel. Calyx tinged with purple. Corolla large, 
fine piu'ple. Filaments all connate. Anthers orange-coloured. 
Legume much narrower at the base, subpeduncled, linear, 
compressed, sickle-shaped, black when ripe, and commonly 

Few shrubs which ornament the lawn or pleasure-ground 
are more interesting when in flower than this species of Cyti- 
sus. Whether it be cultivated as a dwarf shrub in its natural 
style of growth- in trailing on the ground, or as a standard in 
being worked upon a stem of the common Laburnum, it in- 
variably attracts attention. When it is placed alone on the 
lawn as a standard, its branches having a natural disposition 
towards the earth, they hang in a pendent manner round 
the main stem, upon which they are worked by the process of 
budding ; and when in flower present a very lively appear- 
ance. Other species of this genus may be treated in the same 
manner. The C. supinus when thus worked assumes the same 
habit of growth, while the C. argenteus and C. capitaUis present 
their shoots upwards ; but either, as dwarfs or standards, are 
very ornamental. The C. purjnireus, when cultivated as a 
dwarf shrub, has a good effect grouped with many of the 
species of Daphne; also in the front of the American beds in- 
termixed with the Ledum tribe and other dwarf shrubs. When 
cultivated in this manner it does not attain above a foot in 
height, as its habit is to trail upon the surface of the ground. 
It is readily increased by layers, and thrives well in a light 
vegetable earth. The flowers are purple, and appear in great 
profusion in the month of May. 

It is a native of Austria, and was introduced in 1 790. 

3imrn Sr En^med by W.Clark . 

rep., t..B.,... crjofx 



Scarlet Naked-stalked Poppy. 


Class 13. Order 1. 

Papaver, from Pappa. 

Linn. gen. n. G48. 


Cal. Perianth two-leaved^ ovate, emarginate ; leaflets subovate, con- 
cave, obtuse, caducous. Cor. Petals four, roundish, flat, spreading, 
large, narrow at the base, alternately less. Stam. Filaments nu- 
merous, capillary, much shorter than the corolla. Anthers oblong, 
compressed, erect, obtuse. Plst. Germ roundish, large. Style 
none. Stigma peltate, flat, radiate. Per. Capsule crowned with 
the large stigma, one-celled. Seeds numerous, very small. Recept. 
longitudinal plaits, the same number with the rays of the stigma, 
fastened to the wall of the pericarp. 


Calyx egg-shaped, hairy, rough. Leafstalks radical, very long. Leaves 
downy, lobed ; lobes acutely dentated. 

Root biennial. Root-leaves hispid, broader, shorter, less 
deeply divided, and fewer segments than in the others, which 
are divided into narrower and longer segments : they are of 
a very glaucous green, more particularly so underneath. 
Stems herbaceous : tliey rise about a foot in height, they are 

naked, and support on the extremity a solitary flower. In 
this variety the flowers are a beautiful scarlet. 

Of the numerous species and varieties of this tribe of plants, 
very few are admitted as ornaments to the flower-garden: 
many of the annual kind are excluded, either from possessing 
too gaudy an appearance or from the liability to scatter their 
seeds too numerously on the border, producing a multiplicity 
of plants, and a monotony of foliage and bloom. Independent 
of the very gaudy species there are some well worthy of culti- 
vation in ornamental flower-borders. The P. nudicaule (from 
which the present variety has been produced) possesses a de- 
gree of interest from its free production of delicately tinted 
yellow flowers, about a foot or rather more in height. It is 
from this species the present as well as many other varieties 
have been produced, varying principally in the colour of the 
flowers, which in diiferent plants produce variations of all the 
shades of yellow, orange, and scarlet. The variety repre- 
sented by this figure has been selected for the brilliancy of its 
colour, for being less fugitive than many of the others, and 
for transferring its beauties with truth to its offspring, while 
many of the others sport to a great extent with their colours. 
This variety, intermixed with P. nudicaule in the border, will 
be found to assist in addinji to each other a degree of bril- 
liancy which will render them conspicuously ornamental. 
They may be admitted both in clumps in the flower-garden 
and in the front of the shrubbery-borders : they grow freely 
in light vegetable earth, and may be increased by seeds. 

The P. nudicaule is a native of Siberia, and was introduced 
in 1730. 

This species was figured from Mr. Knight's Nursery, King's 
Road, Chelsea. 

Dniirn i. eiMraieti fy WXloiic . 

Imdcu. Mlishtd h Eonaman Sc C tatirnoster Ram Sep: ISU . 



Round-leaved Cvclamen. 


Class 5. Order 1. 

Cyclamen, from v.'^y\a,. 

Linn. gen. ??. 201. Bot.Mag.A. 


Cal. Perianth half five-cleft, roundish, permanent j divisions ovate. 
Cor. one-petalled. Tube somewhat globose, twice as large as the 
calyx, small, nodding. Border bent upwards, five-parted, very 
large, divisions lanceolate. Neck prominent. Stam. Filaments 
five, very small in the tube of the corolla, converging. Pist. Germ 
roundish. Style filiform, straight, longer than the stamens. Stigma 
sharp. Per. Berry globose, one-celled, gaping five ways at the 
top, covered with a capsular shell. Seeds very many, somewhat 
ovate cornered. Recept. ovate, free. 


Leaves orbicular, cordate, quite entire. 

Root perennial, tuberous. Leaves plain, orbicular, with short 
weak petioles ; their underside is very red in the beginning of 
winter, but that colour goes off in the spring ; their upper side 
is smooth, of a lucid green, and spread flat open ; whereas the 
other sorts are hollowed and reflex at the base. The flowers 
are of a bright purple, and are supported on stalks about three 
inches in heiuht. 

Scarcely any genus meets with more universal encomium 
than that of the Cyclamen. The few species which this genus 
possesses, vary very little from each other, yet they possess 
very great attractions : a slight variation in the character of 
their leaves, in the colour of their flowers, or the time of their 
appearance, are the only observable differences. The species 
here figured possesses advantages over the rest, as it puts 
forth its flowers as early as February, a season when the most 
trifling signal of the return of vegetation impresses the mind 
with an engaging interest, as it recalls the delights attendant 
upon the production of those floral beauties which ever yield 
pleasure and delight. As the flowers of this little ornament 
do not rise above the height of four inches, they are in danger 
of being obscured in the border, and they are therefore fre- 
quently cultivated in pots. They will however flower as well 
in a dry border composed of light vegetable mould and sand; 
and in this situation are more likely to perfect their seeds. 
When grovvTi in pots they should, about the end of July, when 
their leaves die off", be kept tolerably dry for about three 
months. They are propagated by seed, which is freely pro- 
duced : these seeds should be sown in flat pots immediately 
after they are ripe, which is about the middle of August. They 
will appear during the autumn, and should be kept in a frame , 
or pit throughout the winter, and early in the spring should 
be planted out either into the ground or into separate pots. 

This is a native of the South of Europe, and was introduced 
in 1731. 

Figured from Messrs. Chandler and Buckingham's Nur- 
seiy, Vauxhall. 

- -ix 

Bolanical Ga 

r' ^- 

SB407 .M628 gen 

Morris. Richard/Flora conspicua : a sele 

I II 111 Hill II II IMII1III1 III III H I I' 1. 

3 5185 00002 0378 'V 

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