Skip to main content

Full text of "The flora of British India"

See other formats

Sllf 1- H. BtU iCtbrarg 

5^nrth (Caroltiia S^lat? (CoUpq? 







Meidelberaer Plat2 3 


S02130188 N 


This hook must not be taken 
from the Library building 





Dates of PuhHcation of the Several Parts of this Volume » 

Part YII. pp. 1-192, was published May 1880. 
„ VIII. pp. 193-448, „ Mar. 1881. 

„ IX. pp. 449 to end, „ Dec. 1882. 





jr.D., r.R.S., D.C.L. OXON., LL.D. CANTAB. 














pRDER LXXIV. CAPazrOZ.ZACBS:. (By 0. B. Clarke.) 

Shrubs, erect or scandent, or small trees {Adoxa, a herb), braDches rouncl. 
Leaves opposite, rarely 3-nate; stipulate or not. Floiveis hermaphrodite, 
cymose or panicled, capitate in Adoxa, regular or irregular. Calyx-tuhe adnate 
to the ovary ; limb 3-5- toothed or -lobed. Corolla gamopetalous ; limb often 
2-lipped, 5-lobed, lobes imbricate in bud. Stamens 6 (in Adoxa 8-12), on the 
corolla alternate with its lobes. Ovary inferior (in Adoxa ^-inferior), 2-8- 
rarely 1-celled ; style long, with capitate stigma, or short, 2-5-lobed j ovules 
solitaiy, pendulous, or several on axile placentas. F7'uit a drupe (in Ahelia 
dry), with 1-8 cartilaginous pyrenes, or a many-seeded berry. Seeds 1 or 
many in each cell, albumen copious fleshy ; embiyo usually minute. — Species 
200 ; mostly Northern, with a few Australian and S. American. 

Distinguished from Bubiacea chiefly by habit and the frequently irregular flowers 
and rarity of stipules. 

Tribe I. Sambuceee. Corolla-limb regular. Style short, 2-5-lobed. 
Ovary-cells 1-ovuled. 

Leaves 2-ternati8ect. Flowers capitate. Stamens 8-12 .... 1. Adoxa. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets 6-9, serrate 2. Sambtjcus. 

Leaves undivided 3. Vibubnum. 

Tribe IL Xionicereee. CoroWa7»m6 regular or irregular. Style long; 
stigma capitate. 

Leaves sessile, connate, obovate. Ovary-cells 3, 1-ovuled ... 4. Teiosteum. 

Calyx-lobes elongate. Fruit elongate, coriaceous, 1-seeded ... 5. Abelia. 

Leaves entire. Flowers paired. Berry 2-3-celled 6. Lokicera. 

Leaves exstipulate. Branches fistular. Ovary 5-8-celled ... 7. Letcesteria. 

Leaves stipulate. Branches solid. Ovary 5-celled 8. Pentapyxis. 

1. ADOXA, Linn. 

A small glabrous succulent herb. Hadical leaves long-petioled, 8-tematisect ; 
cauline 3-fid. Flowers small, green, in a peduncled head. Calyx-tnbe hemi- 
spheric; limb ^-superior, 2-4-lobed. Corolla rotate, -4-6-lobed. Stamens 
8-12, in pairs alternating with the corolla lobes; anther-cells 2, confluent 
above. Ovary 3-5-celled; styles a-5; ovules 1 in each cell. Di^pe sub- 
globose ; pyrenes 4-5, compressed. Seeds obovate, flattened. 

North Carolina State College 

2 Lxxiv. CAPEiFOLiACEiE. (C. B. Clarke.) lAdoa». 

A genus differing much from the order in habit. Perhaps nearer Chryso- 

1. A. XMEosoliatellinaf Linn, ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 2. 

Var. inodora, Falc, mss. ; inodorous, cauline leaf often solitary, flowers 5-6- 

Kashmir, Falconer; Pir Pinjal, alt. 11,500 ft., C. B. C— Distbib. N. Europe, 
Asia, and America. 

Rootstock short, creeping. Stem simple, 3-6 in., terminating in a solitary 
peduncle. Radical leaves ^2 in. diam., with a long 2-6 in. petiole ; cauline 2 in 
European, often 1 in Kashmir specimens, smaller, petiole short or 0; segments 
obtuse or mucronate. Heads ^ in. diam., green, in European specimens with a 
terminal 4-merous and 4 lateral 5-merous flowers ; in Kashmir with a terminal 
5-merous and 4 or more lateral 6-merous ones. Drupe ^ in. diam. ; endocarp and 
seeds flattened. — Odour of the European plants musky, of Kashmir 0, on which 
account and the 5-6-merous flowers Falconer regarded the latter as a distinct species 
(^A. inodora, Falc), but its habit and all other^ characters are identical with the 

2. SAMBUCUS, Linn. 

Shrubs or small trees. Leaves unequally pinnate, large, often stipulate ; 
leaflets serrate or laciniate. Corymbs large, very compound, bracteate ; flowers 
smaU, jointed with the pedicel, very rarely bracteolate. Calyx-limb 3-5- toothed. 
Corolla rotate or carapanulate, 3-5-partite. Stamens 5, attached to the base of 
the coroUa. Ovary 3-5-ceUed ; style short, 3-5-partite, or stigmas 3-6-sessile ; 
ovules 1 in each ceU, pendulous. Drupe crowned by the calyx-teeth, 3-5- 
celled. Seeds compressed ; embryo long. — Distrib. Species 10-12, in all tem- 
perate regions (except S. Africa). 

1. S. Ebulua, Linn. ; herbaceous, leaflets free, stipules often foliaceous 
serrate, drupes black. H. f. 8f T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. li. 179 ; Brundis For. 
Fl. 260 ; Boiss. Fl. Oi-ient. lii. 2. 

Kashmir; alt. 6000-10,000 ft,, plentiful; T. Thomson, &c.— Distrib. Europe, N. 
Africa, and to the Elburz Mts. 

Q-regarious ; sterna mostly simple, 3-6 ft. high. Leaves in. ; leaflets 5-9, 
oblong-lanceolate, 3-6 in., puberulous or nearly glabrous. Corymb peduncled or 
leafy at the base, compact and 3-rayed in English, usually larger and many-rayed 
in Kashmir specimens; bracteoles minute, linear. Corolla ^ in. diam., broadly cam- 
panulate, white pink or dark purple. Brwpe ^ in. diam., globose. — Flowers with a 
strong peculiar odour, both in Kashmir and Europe, uppermost usually barren. 

2. S. javanica, Blume Bijd. 657; a straggling shrub, leaflets free, 
stipules usually smaU or 0, drupes black. DC. Prodr. iv. 322, Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. ii. 124; H. f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 180. S. Wightianus, Wail. 
Cat. 6303; W. f A. Prodr. 388. S. rubra, Ham.) Wall. Cat. 482. S. 
chinensis, Lindl. in Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. vi. 297; DC. I.e. S. Thunber- 
giana, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. ii. 265 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 3. Sambucus 
flp., Griff. Notul. iv. 259. 

Assam and East Bkngat. Plain ; ascending in Khasia to 5000 ft. alt., in Sikkim 
to 6000. — Dtstrib. Java, China, Japan. 

Leaves 18 in., of 5-9 oblong-lanceolate leaflets 3-8 in., puberulous or nearly 
glabrous. Corymb usually leafy at the ba!?e, often 1 ft. diam.. puberulous or almost 
villous ; bracteoles minute, ovate. Corolla ^ in. diam., broadly campanulate, white 
or pink. Berry ^-^ in. diam., globose. — Uppermost flowers usually barren ; female 

Samhucus.'] Lxxiv. caprifoliacej). (C. B. Clarke.) 3 

apetalous in the cultivated S. chinensis {Lindley), but not usually so in the ■wild 
plant. The Khasia examples have the fruits mostly sessile, agreeing thus more closely 
■with S. chinensis than with S. javanica, in which the fruits are usually shortly 

3. S. adnata, Wall. Cat. 482 ; a spreading shrub, leaflets often decur- 
rent, stipules usually small or 0, drupes red. DC. Prodr. iv. 322; H.f. Sf T. 
in Jout-n. Linn, iSoc. ii. 180. 

NiPAL, Wallich; Tambur Valley, alt. 5000-10,000 ft., J. D H. Sikkim; Singa- 
lelah, alt. 10,000 ft., Gamble, C. B. C. 

A shrub, 4-8 ft. Leaves 12 in. ; leaflets 5-9, 3-5 in., oblong-lanceolate, puberu- 
Icus or nearly glabrous. Corynih usually leafy at the base, often 9 in. diam., 
puberulous, bracteoles minute or 0. Corolla ^ in. diam., broad -campanulate. Druiics 
^ in. diam., globose. 

3. VZBU^NUia, Linn. 

Shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite, rarely 3-nate ; stipules incon- 
spicuous (in the Indian species). Floioers in terminal or subterminal coi7m- 
bose or panicled cymes, all fertile in Indian (outer radiant and neuter in some 
European, &c., species). Calyx-tube turbinate or subcylindric ; limb short, 
6-toothed, persistent. Corolln campanulate rotate or tubular ; lobes 6, equal. 
Stamens 6, inserted on the corolla-tube. Ovary 1-3-ceUed ; style short, stii^ma 
«ub-3-lobed; ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous. D^'upe 1- or aub-2-3-ceiled, 
1-seeded. Seed oblong, compressed, concave on the ventral face or with the 
margins greatly incurved ; albumen fleshy, uniform or ruminated ; embryo 
minute. — Distrib. Species 80, in N. temperate regions and in the Andes ; a few 
in the West Indies and Madagascar. 

Sect. I. fiu- Viburnum ^Oersted). Cymes corymbose. Dinipe 1-celled, 
compressed ; endocarp not intruded. Albumen uniform, margins little incurved. 

* Corolla rotate or shoHly campanulate, lobes spreading (in V. corylifolium 

1. V. cotinifoliuni, Don Frodr. 141; leaves ovate or elliptic base 
obtuse usually woolly beneath, coryml>branclies stellately tomentose, calyx 
glabrous limb very short, corolla shortly campanulate lobes about as long as the 
tube. DC. Prodr. iv. 327; Wight 111 t. 121, A fig. 1-5; Bot. Reg. t. 1050; 
H.f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 174; Brandts For. Fl 268. V. polycaipum, 
Wall. Cat. 455 ; DC. I.e. 328. 

Kashmir; alt. 6000-11,000 ft., to Kumaon, frequent. East Bhotan; Griffith 
(Kew Distrib. No. 3399). 

A spreading shrub, 5-10 ft. high. Leaves 3 by 2 in., obtuse or subacute, sub- 
entire rarely coarsely crenate, stellately-wooUy at least when young, in age often 
glabrous except on the nervej beneath ; petiole \ in. Corymbs 2-3 in. diam., generally 
terminal, dense, branches stout; bracteoles linear, equalling the calyx-tube. CornJln- 
tube i by i in., glabrous, lobes round. Anthers large, subexftert. Style very short, 
conical Drupe i by i in., compressed, broad-oblong, red. Seed dorsally 2-grooved, 
ventrally sub-concave 3-grooved. — Leaves usually thick, reticulately rugose and 
entire, but sometimes thin, glabrous, and somewhat strongly crenate. V. Lantana, 
Linn., differs but slightly by the denticulate leaves and shorter corolla-tube. 

2. V. corylifolium, H.f. ^ T.inJow-n. Linn. Soc. ii. 174 ; branchlets 
and large fruiting corymb rufous-hirsute, leaves ovate or elliptic base subcor- 
date, softly hairy beneath. 

B 2 

4 Lxxiv. CAPEiFOLUCEiE. (C. B. Clarke.) IVibumum. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 6-6000 ft. ; Moleera, Gnffith (Kew Distrib. No. 3402); Kala- 
Pani, H. /. # T. : Moflong, C. B. C. 

Leaves 2^ by 1^ in., acute, dentate, parallel-nerved. Corymbs often on. short 
lateral branches. Flowers not seen. Drupe \ hj ^ in., compressed ovate-oblongs 
bright red ; seed dorsally convex shallowly 2-grooved, ventrally concave and 2- 
grooved close to the medial line. 

3. V. stellulatum, Wall. PI As. Bar. ii. 64, t. 169; Cat. 463;- leaver 
shortly petioled elliptic-lanceolate acuminate toothed stellately pubescent 
rarely glabrate beneath, corolla small rotate. DC. Prodr. iv. 327 ; H. f. ^ T. 
inJourn. Linn. Soc. ii. 174; Brandis For. Fl. 268. V. Mullaha, Ham.:, Don 
Prodr. 141 ; DC. I. c. 

Temperate Himalaya, alt. 6000-11,000 ft.; from Kashmib to Sikkim^ 

A large shrub : branches puberulous. Leaves 3 by 1^ in., base obtuse or cuneate^ 
parallel- veined ; petiole ^ in. Corymbs terminal, in fruit divaricate, 3-5 in. diam., 
subglobose; bracts ^ in,, linear, membranous, caducous. Calyx-tuhe stellately hairy ; 
lobes minute, ovate. Corolla-lobes ~ in., round, pubescent in bud. Style short, 
stigma capitate. Drupe \ by ^m., compressed, broadly oblong, yellow-red ; seed 2- 
grooved on both faces, hardly concave ventrally. 

Var. 1. involttctatayy^iW. Cat.^458 (sp.) ; branchlets and leaves rufous-villons, 
corymbs densely -snllous, bracts lanceolate herbaceous persistent. — Nipal, Wallich ; 
Kumaon, EfJgeworth, — V. forma monsirosa, H.f. ^ T. I. c. 175. 

Vae. 2. glabrescens ; corymbs with a few scattered hairs, leaves glabrescent except 
on the nerves beneath, bracts caducous ? — V. involucratum, H. /. ^ T. I. c. 

4. V. G-rlffitlilanuin, C. B. Clarke \ leaves sbort-petioled elliptic or 
subobovate acute toothed villous beneath, corymbs densely villous umbellately 
4-7-rayed, calyx-tube glabrous, corolla very small rotate. V. foetidum, var. 
Griffithianum, Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1877, pt. ii. 121. V. foetidum, var. 
grandifolium, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 2. Viburnum sp., Griff. NottU. iv. 259 ; Ic. PL 
Asiat. t. 480, Jiff. 1. 

East Assam ; banks of the Kamyoon in the Naga country, Griffith ( Kew Distrib^ 

Branchlets stout, fuscous villous. Leaves 4-J by 2 in., often unequal-sided, base 
obtusely cuneate, nerves parallel, the lowest not uniting nor quite reaching the base of 
the leaf ; petiole ^ in. Corymbs terminal, peduncled, 1-3 in. diam., dense even in 
young fruit ; bracts 0, or few, lanceolate, ^ in. Calyx-tube glabrous, viscid and 
black in the young fruit; teeth broad- oblong. CoroUa-]ohea ^^ in., round. — More 
nearly allied to V. stellulatum than to V. foetidum. 

5. V. foetidum, Wall. PI. As. Par. i. 49, t. 61 ; Cat. 466 ; leaves oblong- 
rhomboid 3-nerved at the base remotely toothed nerves beneath stellately pubes- 
cent, corymbs subumbellate stellate-pubescent, calyx-tube glabrous. DC. Prodr ^ 
iv. 326 ; JBC.f. ^ T. in. Joum. Linn. Soc. ii. 176 {Kurz For. Fl. ii. 2. 

Khasia Mts. and Assam, alt. 3000-5000 ft., common. — Distrib. North Birma. 

An erect shrub, 6-10 ft. ; branchlets stellate-hairy. Leaves 2^ by 1^ in., scarcely 
acuminate, base cuttc ate or rounded, axils of the primary nerves with tufts of hair, 
secondary transverse conspicuous beneath ; petiole ^ in. Corymbs terminal, 2-4 in. 
diam., 4-8-rayed, peduncled ; bracts and bracteoles from linear-oblong to spathulate- 
oblong, hairy. Calyx-teeth minute, triangular. Cbro/^a-lobes ^ in, diam., round, 
white, Dnipe ~ by ^ in., compressed, subacute, red. Seed dorsally 2-grooved, ven- 
tra'l'y 3-grooved and hardly concave, — Specimens of this in Herb. Griffith, are ticketed 
as from Darjeeling. whither he sent a collector ; but the collections from thence were 
so mixed with others that no confidence is to be placed in their habitnts. 

Vab. premnacea, Wall. Cat. 461 (sp.) ; bracts at the base of the umbel large leaf- 

Viburnum.'} Lxxrv. capripoltace^. (C. B. Clarke.) 5 

like sometimes 1^ in. long. DC. Prodr. iv. 325. — Khasia Mts. and Birma. — Hardly 
distinguishable as a variety, the bracts varying from 1 to 8, and from ^ tt> 1^ in. 

6. V. Colebrookianum, Wall. Cat. 460 ; leaves large oblong crenate- 
serrate nearly glabrous, corymbs large on very short axillary branches stellate- 
hairy, corolla rotate, drupe ellipsoid, seed hardly grooved. V. lutescens, JET. /. 
^. T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 176, not of Blume ; Kwz For. Fl. ii. 2 (as to Var. 
2 only). 

Subtropical JBjmala.ya, alt. 1-5000 ft. ; Sikkim and Bhotan, common. Assam and 
Khasia Mts., alt. 0-4000 ft., frequent. 

A large spreading shrub, 6-15 ft. ; flowering branches usually pendent with large 
terminal leaves, corymbs from axils below them. Leaves b\ by 2 in,, shortly acumi- 
nate, cuneate at the base, young and petiole {\-\ in.), stellately pubescent. Corymbs 
umbelliform, dense on a portion of the branch bare of leaves ; bracts minute, brac- 
teoles 0. Calyx-tvhe glabrous, teeth minute. Corolla-lobQS ^ in., round, white. 
Drupe I by ^ in., hardly compressed, red: seed obscurely convex dorsally, concave 
ventrally. — V. lutescens, Blume, united with this by H. f. & T. has berries ^ in. long, 
narrowly obo void-oblong, with deeply grooved seed, and terminal inflorescence. 

7. V. punctatum, LTam. in Don Prodr. 142 j leaves eUiptic-lauceolate 
-coriaceous subentire glabrous punctate beneath, corymb branches angular and 
calyx-tube minutely scaly, corolla rotate. Wall. Cat. 456 ; DC. Prodr. iv 324 ; 
H.f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii, 176 ; Brandis For. Fl. 260. 

NiPAL, Wallich. Kumaon ; Sarju Valley, alt. 4000 ft., Strach. ^ Wlnterh. 

A stout spreading shrub. Leaves 3^ by 1^ in., acute at both ends, often with pel- 
tate scales on the midrib beneath ; petiole ^ in. Corymbs terminal, sessile, in flower 
2-6 in. diam., branches umbellate or corymbose, cinnamoneous when dried ; bracts 
;J in., lanceolate, deciduous; bracteoles scarcely ^ in., ovate. Calyx-teeth minute, 
obtuse. Corolla-\6bQS ^^m.,TOXind, white. Anthers large, much exserted. Driipe 
i by I in., ellipsoid, succulent. Seed 2-grooved dorsally, concave 3-grooved veutrally. 

Vak. acuminata. Wall. Cat. 465 (sp.); leaves acuminate, bracts persistent, berry 
^ by i in. squamulose, seed much compressed obscurely grooved. V. acuminatum, 
DC. Prodr. iv. 324^ W. ^ A. Prodr. 388 ; Wight Ic. t. 1021 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 217. 
V. Wightianum, Herb. Hohen. No. 1381, not of Walk— Deccam Mts. alt. 4000-7000 ft., 
common. — The berry looks so different that it may indicate a distinct species. 

8. V. sambucinum, Reimv. ; Blume Bijd. 656 ; leaves elliptic-lanceo- 
late entire nearly glabrous, corymb-branches and calyx-tube pubescent, corolla 
rotate. DC. Pr<%/r. iv. 326; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. li. 120; Oersted in Vidensk. 
Meddel. 1860, t. 7, Jig. 11-13. V. integerrimum, Wall. Cat. 457; DC. Prodr. 
iv. 324 ;H.f.^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 176. 

PiNANG and Singapore; Wallich, Walker. Malacca; Maingay Kew Distrib. 
712/2. — Distrib. Malaya. 

A stout shrub, or small tree, 20 ft. Leaves 5 by 2^^ in., shortly acuminate, base 
brt-ad-cuneate, impunctate, minutely pilose on the midrib beneath (or in Java examples 
often more hairy") ; petiole ^-f in., pilose. Corymb terminal, peduncled, umbellate, 
2-4 in. diam. ; bracts 0, or rarely caducous ; bracteoles minute, linear-oblong. Co- 
rolla-lohes J^ in., round, yellow- white. Drupe i by ^ in., compressed, ovate, suddenly 
acute ; en docarp thickened, subosseous. Seed dorsally 2-grooved, ventrally 3-grooved 
little concave. — Leaves in some Japan specimens are hairy beaeath, in othersjr as in 
"Wallich's V. integerrimum. 

** Corolla tubtdar, lobes very short erect or scarcely spreading. 

9. V. coriaceum, Blume Bijd. 656 ; leaves oblong-lanceolate acumi- 
nate coriaceous glabrous with tufts of hairs on the axils of the nerves beneath, 

C Lxxiv. caprifoliacej:. (C. B. Clarke.) [Vihurnnm^ 

corjTnbs pubescent upwards, bracteoles or caducous, corolla-tube glabrous- 
nC. Prodr. iv. 829 ; H.f.^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 179 ; Miq. FL Ind. Bat. 
ii. 120; BrandisFor. FL 269 ; V. cylindricum, Ha7n. in Don Prodr. 142 j DC, 
I. c. 329. 

Tkmpkbate Himaiata, alt. 4-8000 ft, ; from Ktjmaon to Bhotan and Khasia 
Mts., alt. 3-6000 ft., frequent. — Distbib. North Birma ; Java. 

A large shrub, or small tree, 16-20 ft. Leaves 4-9 by 2-2^ in., base cuneate or 
obtuse, quite entire in some Himalayan, often toothed in Javanese and Sikkim speci- 
mens, often punctate beneath ; petiole ^-1 in., glabrous or subpilose. Corymb termi- 
nal, peduncled or sessile, umbellate or corymbose ; bracts \ in., linear, caducous ; 
bracteoles minute, ovate. Calyx-tuhe glabrous or puberulous ; limb 0. Corolla-tube 
^ in., white. Anthers oblong, exserted. Drupe i by ^ in., moderately compressed, 
elliptic, shortly acute, black. Seed 2-grooved dorsally ; endocarp subosseous, 3-grooved 
ventrally little concave. 

Vab. capitellata, Wight Ic. t. 1022 (sp.), leaves entire or subsinuate, corolla gla- 
brous (pilose in Wight's Ic), drupe |^ by ^ in., much compressed. V. hebanthum, 
Thw. Efium. 136 partly, mi of W. J- A. — Deccan Mts. alt. 4-7500 ft. Cevlon on 
Adam's Peak (C. P. n. 39). 

Vab. zeylanica, Gardner ms. (sp.) ; berry ^ by | in. broad ovoid very little com- 
pressed. Oersted in Vidensk. Meddel.. I860, t. rli. fig. 24, 25. V. hebanthum, 
Thw. Enuvi. 136 partly. V. coriaceum, var. ^, U. f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 179. 
—Ceylon, alt. 6000 ft., Gardner, Thwaites. 

10. V. hebantlium, W. ^ A. Prodr. 388; leaves oblong acuminate 
coriaceous sinuate or sinuate-dentate glabrous with tufts of hairs in the axils of 
the nerves beneath, corymbs minutely pilose upwards, bracteoles \ in. linear, 
corolla-tube densely pubescent. Wight Ic. t. 1023 ; H. f. 8f T. in Jmim. Linn. 
Soc. ii. 179, excl. syn. V. pvhigera ; not of Thwaites. 

NiLGHERRT Mts., alt. 4-7500 ft., frequent ; Mayaburam, Sir F. Adam. 

A large shrub, doubtfully distinct from V. coriacewn by th© densely pubescent 
yellowish corolla. The fruit resembles that of V. coriaceiim, var. capitellata, but the 
leaves are rarely entire as in var. capitellata, and are less acuminate. 

Sect. II. Pseudo-Tinus. Cymes corymbose or imibeUately divided. 
Drupe succulent, 1-celled, compressed : endocarp slightly intruded. Albumen 
ruminated, margins incurved. 

11. V. cordifolium, Wall. Cat. 462; leaves elliptic cordate acuminate 
sharply serrate, steUately pubescent on the nerves beneath, corymbs not radiant 
terminal sessile steUately hairy, corolla rotate. DC. Prodr. iv. 327 ; H.f.^ T. 
ill Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. l75. 

Tempeeate Himalaya, alt. 9-12,000 ft., from Kdmaon to Bhotan, frequent. 
A large shrub, flowering before, leafing. Leaves 4i by 2^ in., nearly glabrous 
above, parallel-veined ; petiole ^1 in. Corymb in flower small dense, in fruit 3-5 in. 
diam. ; bracts \ in., linear-oblong, woolly, caducous. Calyx-tuhe soon glabrous, lobes 
lanceolate, steUately woolly. Anthers small, shortly exserted. Berry j by i in.,. 
Ijttle compressed. Seed dorsally with one shallow farrow, ventrally with much in- 
flexed edges ; testa fuU of red glands following the ruminations of the albumen. — 
V. lantanoides, Michx., of N. America, has broader less serrate leaves, the corymbs 
usually radiant and the normal flowers much smaller ; V. furcatum, Blume, of Japan, 
is almost identical with V. la^itanoides. The three are closely allied and united by 
Miquel in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. ii. 265. 

Sect. III. Tinus, Oei'st, (genus). Cymes umbellate. Drupe dry, hard^ 
blue. Albunien ruminated. 

Vilurnum.'] Lxxrv. caprifoliacej:. (C. B. Clarke.) 7 

. 12, V. atro-cyanea, C. B. Clarke ; p^labrous, leaves oblong narrowed 
at both ends not acuminate entire or obscurely sinuate-dentate, berrj' ellipsoid 
very smooth. Viburnum sp., Griff. Itin. Notes, 118. 

MisHMi Mts., Thuniathu summit, Griffith (Kew Distrib. No. 3406). 

A shrub, resembling V. Tmus, L. Leaves 3 by \\ in., axils of the nerves beneath 
naked. Cymes terminal, subsessile ; branches angular, red, slightly thickened ; bracts 
small, caducous. Flowers not seen. Berry f by ^ in. ; endocarp slightly intruded. 
Albumen strongly ruminated ; testa with many red glands. — The European V. Tinus 
has a much larger, ovoid, somewhat ribbed drupe, and hairy nerve-axils beneath. 

Sect. IV. XMElcrotlnus, Oerst. (genus). Cymes panicled. Cm-olla rotate. 
Drupe succulent, sub-2-celled, 1-seeded. Albumen uniform, margins incurved 
so as nearly to include the ban'en cell. 

13. V. odoratissimum, Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 456 ; leaves elliptic acute 
coriaceous subentire glabrous, panicle glabrous, bracts and bracteoles lanceolate 
stellately-hairy caducous. H. f. 8f T. in Journ. lAnn. Soc. ii. 177; Benth. Fl. 
Hrnigk. 143 ; Oersted in Videmk. Meddel. 1860, 294, t. 6, fig. 7-10 (Microtinos). 

Khasia Mts., alt. 4000 ft., Mrs. Mack, &c.— Distrib. N. Birma, China. 

A shrub, 6-10 ft. Leaves 5^ by 2\ in. ; base cuneate, entire or sparingly sinuate- 
dentate, primary nerves remote pinnate glandular, sometimes slightly hairy in the 
axils beneath ; petiole ^-1 in., stout. Corymb 2-4 in. high, mostly peduncled ; bracts 
I in., lanceolate, woolly in the Indian examples, minutely pubescent in the Chinese. 
Calyx-limb very wide, with shallow triangular teeth. Corolla-lobes ^ in., elliptic, 
white. Berry nearly ^ by \ in., ovoid-oblong, hardly compressed. 

14. V. Slmonsii, H. f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 177 ; leaves elliptic- 
lanceolate coriaceous denticulate or subentire glabrous, panicle pubescent, bracts 
and bracteoles lanceolate pubescent persistent. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 4-6000 ft. ; not rare ; Simons, &e, 

A shrub, 6-15 ft. Leaves 4 by 2 in. ; base rhomboid or obtuse, nerves parallel, 
much closer than in V. odoratissimum, with large tufts of hairs in the axils beneath ; 
petiole ^-^ in. Corymb flowers and fruit nearly as in V. odoratissimum, but both 
corolla and berry somewhat smaller. 

Sect. V. Solenotlnus, Oersted (genus). Cymes panicled, oi thyrsiform. 
Corolla tubular. Drupe succulent, sub-3-celled, 1 -seeded. Albumen uniform, 
margins incurved forming a T-shaped ventral groove. 

15. V. erubescens, Wall. PI. As. Bar. ii. 29, t. 134 ; Cat. 459 ; leaves 
oblong acute serrulate pilose on the nerves beneath otherwise glabrous, panicles 
peduncled terminal and many on shortened lateral branches. DC. Prodr. iv. 
329; H. f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 177; Thwaites Enum. 136; Brandts 
For. Fl. 258. V. Wightianum, Wall. PI. As. Bar. ii. 29 ; Cat. 3729 ; W. ^ A. 
Prodr. 388 ; Wight Ic. t. 1024. V. pubigerum, W. 8^- A. Prodr. 389. Vibur- 
num sp., Wall. Cat. 7474. 

Himalaya, alt. 3-10,000 ft. ; from KuxMAOK to Bhotan, common. Deccan Mts., 
alt. 5-8000 ft., common. Ceylon. 

A large shrub, or small tree. Leaves never large, 2|-3 by 1^ in., from ovate to 
narrow-oblong, base obtuse, axils of nerves beneath very hairy in Deccan examples 
nearly glabrous in the others ; petiole \ in. Corymb usually pendulous, smuil in the 
Deccan examples, sometimes 3-5 in. in the Himalayan, pubescent, nearly glabrous or 
sometimes stellately tomentose; bracts linear, f in., glabrous, sometimes i in. and 
pubescent. Calyx-teeth small, oblong, glabrous or pubescent. Corolla-tube | in. ; 
lobes i in., round, spreading, white. Stamens inserted at the same height near the 

8 Lxxiv. CAPRiFOLUCEiE. (0. B. Clarke.) \_Vihumum^ 

summit of the tube. Drupe i by ^ in., ellipsoid, scarcely compressed, red, crowned 
by the thick short style. — Deccan specimens have more slender panicles, smaller 
flowers and rather narrower berries than Himalayan, but some Ceylon specimens 
appear altogether undistinguishable from the Himalayan. 

16. V. nervosum, Don Prodr. 141, not of Hk. 8f Arn. ; leaves elliptic- 
oblong acute crenate-serrate parallel-nerved hairy on the nerves beneath, cymes 
subcapitate silky, bra6ts oblong obtuse silky deciduous. DC. Prodr. iv. 327; 
H. f. 4" T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 178 ; Brandts For. Fl. 259. V. grandi- 
florum, Wall. Ca^. 464; i>a /. c. 329; Oersted in Vidensk'. Meddel. 1860,295, 
t. Q,Ji0 1-4 (Solenotinus). 

HIMALA.YA, alt. 10-13,000 ft., from Kashmib to Sikkim, not common ; WcUlich, &c. 

A large shrub, or gnarled small tree; branchlets pilose. Leaves 2^-3 by \\ in., 
scarcely acuminate, base cuneate, adult glabrous above ; petiole \-^ in. Cymes 
appear before the leaves; branches very short; outer bracts ovate, f in. diam., 
obtuse; inner | by |^ in., oblong. Calyx-tube glabrous, teeth small, irregular, often 
ciliate. Corolla-tuhe \-\ in. ; lobes ^ in., elliptic, spreading, rose. Stamens inserted 
2 near the top of the corolla-tube, 3 somewhat lower down. Brvpe nearly g- by ^ in., 
ellipsoid, hardly compressed. 

17. V. foetens, Dene, in Jacq. Voy. Bot. 75, t. 84; leaves elliptic or 
oblong crenate-serrate glabrous, cymes thyrsifoi-m branches glabrous or sparingly 
pilose ultimately lax. Hk. f. & T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 178; Brandis For. 
Fl.269. ^ 

Kashmir, alt. 6-10,000 ft., from Murree to Chumba; Jacqiievio7it, &c., not 

A large shrub; branchlets glabrous, or laxly pubescent. Leaves 3 by 1-1 J in., 
shortly acute, base cuneate or obtuse, parallel-nerved, adult glabrous except tufts of 
hairs in the axils of the nerves beneath. Inflorescence nearly as in V. nervosum, 
Don, but soon more lax and corolla larger ; outer bracts ovate or oblong, deciduous ; 
bracteoles linear, scarious, pubescent. Stamens inserted 2 near the top of the 
corolla-tube, 3 lower down. Drupe ^-^ by \ in., ellipsoid, little compressed, red. 


Herbs ; stems from a perennial stock, simple, erect. Leaves opposite, sessile, 
connate, obovate, entire or sinuate. Flqwers whorled in short terminal spikes 
(axillary in the non-Indian species), lurid, 2-bracteolate. Calyx-tube ovoid ; 
lobes 5, short or long and foliaceous, persistent. Corolla narrow funnel-shaped, 
gibbous at the base ; lobes 6, unequal, obtuse, imbi-icate. Statnens 5, inserted 
on the coroUa-tube ; anthers linear, included. Ovary 3-5-celled ; style filiform, 
included, stigma capitate 3-5-lobed ; ovules solitary in each cell, pendulous. 
Berry 2-3- (rarely 4-5-) celled, 2-3-seeded. Seeds oblong, angular ; testa 
bony ; albumen fleshy ; embryo minute. — Species 3 ; 2 N. American, 1 Hima- 

1. T. hirsutum, WaU. in Poxh Fl. Ind. ed. Carey ^- Wall. ii. 180; 
hairy, spike short terminal, calyx-lobes minute, drupe 3-seeded. DC. Pi'odr. 
iv. 330. T. himalayanum. Wall. Cat. 484 ; DC. Prodr. I. c. , H. f. 8f T. in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 173. 

NiPAi; Gossain Than, Wallich. Sikkim; alt. 10-12,000 ft., J. D. H. Kumaox; 
alt. 10,500 ft., Strach. ^ Winterb. 

Patently hairy. Stems 18 in. Leaves broadly elliptic-obovate obtuse, hairy on 

'^riosteum.'\ Lxxiv. caprifoliace^. (C. B. Clarke.) 9 

both surfaces. Spike hardly 1 in. ; peduncle scarce ^ in. Calyx-teeth ^ in. Corolla- 
tube ^ in. long, green without purple within. Drupe ^ in., ovoid or ellipsoid trigo- 
nous, hairy towards the apex. — H. f. & T. have been misled by DC. into supposiflg 
that Wallich described T. hirsutum from Chittagong as a different species from '1. 
himalayanum. The origin of the error appears to have been that DC. read Wallich's 
ms. locality "Gossain Than" as the Sanskrit spelling of Chittagong. DC. further 
misprints the fruit as 5-seeded, whereas "Wallich states (rightly) 8-aeeded. 

6. ABSI.ZA, Br. 

Shrubs, branchlets slender. Leaves opposite, sometimes ternate, petioled, 
entire or toothed ; stipules 0. Fknoers axillaiy and terminal, in small tricho- 
tomous cymes or solitary, 2-4-bracteolate, white or rose. Calyx-tube narrow, 
striate ; teeth 5, long-, narrow, persistent. Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, 
nearly regular ; lobes 6, short, round. Stamens 4, inserted on the corolla-tube, 
Bubdidyuamous. Ovary 3-celled ; style filiform, stigma capitate subexserted ; 
ovules in 2 cells several, in the 3rd solitary. Fruit coriaceous, narrowly oblong, 
surmounted by the long calyx-teeth, cells 3, 2 empty, the 3rd 1-seeded. Seed 
subcylindric, testa meoibranous, albumen fleshy ; embryo short, cylindric. — 
DiSTEiB. Species 5, from Kashmir to China and Japan ; and 1 Mexican (^per- 
haps a distinct genus). 

1. A. triflora, Br, in Wall. PI. As. Bar 14, t. 16; leaves lanceolate 
entire, cymes 3-8-flowered, bracts lanceolate shining glabrous reticulate. Wall. 
Cat 816; DC. Frodr. iv. 339; Wiyht III. ii. 72, t. 121 0. ; H. f. 8f T. in 
Jov,rn. Linn. Soc. ii. 174 ; Lindl. ^ Paxt. Fl, Gard. t. 91 ; Brandis For. Fl. 

Temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaon, alt. 5-10,000 ft., frequent. 

An erect shrub, 3-6 ft. Leaves 1\ by f-1 in., acute, broadest near the cuneate or 
«ubobtuse base, reticulate-nerved beneath, pilose especially on the margin or glabrous ; 
petiole ^-^ in. Cymes sessile, i.e. bracts at their base 1 in. leaflike, but interme- 
diate between the leaves and bracts. Calyx-teeth \-^ in,, linear, striate, ciliate. 
Corolla-ttthe \-^ in., glabrous or pilose without; lobes \—^ in., spreading. Fruit 
g— J in., linear, narrowed upwards, glabrous or pilose. 

YA.It. par vifolia ; leaves much smaller f in, sometimes lobed or subpinnatifid, 
corolla smaller pubescent within and without. — Jhelum Valley and Wuzaristan, 

6. Z.OKZCEBA, Linn. 

Shrubs, erect or scandent ; buds scaly. Leaves opposite, petioled, sessile 
or connate, entire or in L. heterophylla sinuately-lobed. Flotvers (in the Indian 
species) in peduncled pairs, often connate by their ovaries, bracteate and usually 
^-bracteolate ; peduncles axillary, solitary, or in subterminal panicles heads or 
clusters subtended by floral leaves. Calyx-tube ovoid ; limb short, 5-toothed, 
deciduous or persistent. Corollu tubular, funnel-shaped or campanulate, tube 
€hort or long, gibbous or equal at the base, limb subequally 6-lobed or 2- 
lipped ; lobes-short or long. Stamens 5, inserted on the corolla-tube. Ovary 
5-3-celled; style slender, stigma capitate ; ovules several in each cell in double 
rows on axile placentas. Berry 2-3-celled or sub-1 -celled. Seeds few in each 
cell, ovoid or oblong, albumen fleshy ; embryo terete. — Distrib. Species 80, in 
temperate and subalpine regions of the Northern Hemisphere. 

SuBGBN I. Caprlfolium, DC. Scandent. Pairs oi Jlowers, ox some of 


10 Lxxiv. CAPEiFOLiACE^. (C B. Clarke.) [Lonicera. 

them, capitate or panicled. Bracts linear or small. Cwolla 2-lippecl. Berry 
crowned with the calyx-teeth. 

In the simple lateral peduncles the bracts are undistinguishable from floral- 
leaves: in the paniculate inflorescence of L. ja'ponica the bracts are small linear. 

1. Zi. Zieschenaultli, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey <§- Wall ii. 
178 ; Cat. 471 ; leaves ovate or oblong, beneath and calyx grey tomentose, 
corolla long closely pubescent. DC. Prodr. iv. 334; Wight III. ii. t. 120 
and 121 B. ; W. ^ A. Prodr. S89;.H. f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 173, not 
ofMiq. L. mollis, Wight III. ii. 71 ; Wall. Cat. 6301. 

Deccan Mrs., alt. 5-8000 ft. ; Wight, &c. 

Branchlets tomentose. Leaves 1^-2^ by 1-1| in., acute or rounded, base cordate 
or obtuse, above glabrous or puberufous on the impressed nerves ; petiole ^ in. Flowers 
in shortened panicles ; floral leaves 5-I in., petioled, ovate ; bracts linear, ^-^ in. ; 
bracteoles ovate, minute. Calyx-teeth ^ in., linear. Corolla-tuhe 1-1^ in., hairy 
within. Style glabrous or nearly so. — Earely the pairs of flowers are solitary, when 
the elongate floral leaves which are close beneath the flower have been described as 

2. Zi. grlabrata, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey 8f Wall. ii. 176; 
Cat. 474 ; leaves cordate-oblong acute coriaceous glabrous or nearly so rarely 
villous beneath, bracts ^^-\ in. lanceolate, calyx glabrous or nearly so, corolla 
glabrous. DC. P/w/r. iv. 334 ; H.f. ^ T. in Journ. lAnn. Soc. ii. 172, excl. 
syn. Z. ovata^ Ham. 

Temperate Himalaya, alt. 4-8000 ft. ; from Nipax to Bhotan ; Wallich, &c. 

Branchlets glabrous, or closely pubescent. Leaves 3 by 1^ in. ; nerves glabrous 
or pilose or villous beneath; petiole J-:^ in. Flower-spikes short, often panicled; 
floral leaves gradually reduced, sometimes minutely pilose above, the uppermost 
lanceolate, sessile ; bracteoles ovate, minute. Calyx-tube somewhat glaucous, rarely 
slightly hairy ; teeth 3^ in, lanceolate. Corolla-tube ^ in., rarely with a few scat- 
tered hairs without, hairy within. Style glabrous, or with scattered hairs. — 
Griflfith's specimens from E^st Bhotan have the leaves very villous beneath. 

3. Xi. macrantlia, DC^ Prodr. iv. 333 ; leaves cordate-oblong acute 
coriaceous villous beneath, floral usually greatly reduced, calyx-teeth hairy in 
fruit, corolla-lobes hirsute in bud white fading to yellow, mnth. Fl. Hongk, 
144 ; Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. ii. 269 ; Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Petersb, 
Mel. Biol. X. 58. L. japonica. Wall. Cat. 473, and in Roxh. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey ^ 
Wall. ii. 174 , H. f.8f T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 171, not of Linn. Oaprifo- 

foliiun macranthum and japonicimi, Don Prodr. 140. 

Temperate Himalaya from Nipal to Bhotan, alt. 6-10,000 ft., frequent. Khasia 
Mts., arlt. 4-6000 ft. 

Leaves 2|- by 1 in., glabrescent or pjlose on the surface above. Peduncles in sub- 
terminal panicles ; upgpr floral leaves usually linear-lanceolate. Bracts |-^ in., 
linear; bracteoles very small. Calyx-tube glaucous, glabrous. Corolla-tube ^-1^ in. — 
L. japonica, L., which is very closely allied, differs in the less coriaceous leaves, usually 
petioled ovate or spathulate floral leaves, more or less hairy calyx-tube, and less hir- 
sute unexpanded pink or reddish corolla, 

4. Zi. acuminata, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 472 : 
leaves oblong cordate acute, bracts ^-^ in. linear, calyx-tube glabrous, corolla- 
tube hairy lobes pubescent or glabrous, style densely fulvous hairy. Wall. Cat. 
472 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 334. L. Loureirii, H.f, 4' T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 172, 
not of DC. 

Lonicera.'} lxxiv. caprifoliace^. (C. B. Clarke.) 11 

Temperate Himalaya from Nipal, Wallich, to Sikkim, alt. 7-11,000 ft. ; J. D. H, 

Branchlets hairy. Leaves 4 by l^-lf in., with scattered hairs on both surfaces, or 
glabrescent; petiole f in., hairy. Inflorescence in terminal many-flowered heads, and 
also often axillary 2-flo-wered peduncles ; flol'al leaves gradually reduced, the uppermost 
linear-lanceolate, bracteiform ; bracteoles i in., subquadrate, ciliate. Calyx-teeth g\?i- 
brate or ciliate in fruit. Corolla-tube ^ in., funnel-shaped. — L. Loureirii, from Java ? 
differs in the glabrous corolla-tube and style. 

6. Xi. ovata, Ham. in Wall. Cat. 6300 ; leaves ovate or ovate-oblong ob- 
tuse membranous nearly glabrous, bracts jV/2 i"' ovate-lanceolate, calyx-tube 
glabrous, corolla-tube i in. verv slender glabrous, style hairy. Lonicera sp., 
Gf'if. Jaum. 90. 

Assam ; Hamilton, Masters. — Distrib. Birma, 

A slenderer plant, with much smaller flowers than in L. gJahrata. Branchlets 
pubescent. Leaves Ig by \-\ in., base rounded or subcordate, minutely pilose on both 
surfaces or glabrescent ; petiole ^-:|^ in. Upper pec?Mwc/c.s i n terminal panicle ; brac- 
teoles minute, ovate. Flowers white, fading to yellow. Calyx-teeth glabrous or 

SI7BGEN. II. Xylosteum, DO. Erect. Peduncles not panicled. Calyx^ 
limb deciduous (in J^. a^peinfolia ) L, rupicola and others, subpersistent). 

* Bracts large, ovate ; bracteoles w minute. 

^ 6. Zi. hlspida, Pall. ; JDC. Proclr. iii. 338 ; glabrous or hairy, leaves 
elliptic-oblong, peduncles f-1 in., bracts obovate-elliptic boat-shaped hardly 
connate. Ledeh. Fl. Ross. ii. 389, Ic. t. 212 ; H. f. ^' T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
ii. 165. L. bracteata, Hoyle III. 237, t. 63. 

Temperate and alpine Himalaya, alt. 9-13,000 ft.; from Kashmir to Ktjmaon, 
frequent. Sikkim, alt. 13-15,000 ft., J. D. H. — Distrib. Central Asia, Siberia. 

Branchlets hispid-pilose or glabrescent. Leaves 1^ by | in., subobtuse, base 
rounded, hairy on both surfaces or glabrescent ; petiole f in. Bracts ^-§ in., hispid 
ciliate or glabrescent. Corolla-tuhe ^ by i in., often hairy ; lobes \—^ in., rounded, 
pink. Style glabrous or with scattered hairs. Brupesvaove than \hy \ in., ellipsoid, 
confluent or entirely separate. Cf. Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Petersb. Mel. Biol. x. 73. — 
Exceedingly variable as to hairiness; the branchlets, leaves and bracts are some- 
times absolutely glabrous, and the leaves subscabrid beneath. 

7. Zi. grlauca, H.f. 8f T. in Joum. Linn. Soc. ii. 166, not of Meerb. ; 
leaves small oblong obtuse glabrous hispidly ciliolate, peduncle hardly any, 
bracts i-^ in. ovate flat, calyx-limb deciduous'. 

Temperate N.W. Himalaya and Western Tibet, 12-16,000 ft. ; Nubra, Zanskar 
and Piti, Thomson; Tilail in Kashmir, C. B. C. ; G-urwhal and Kumaon, Strach. ^• 

A glaucous, densely-branched wiry undershrub, glabrous except as to the margins 
of the leaves. Leaves f by ^ in., obtuse, base hardly rounded; petiole ^2 ^"- Bracts 
glaucous, hispidly ciliate on the margins, usually free, or when the fruits coalesce 
sometimes much connate. Calyx glabrous, or nearly so. Corolla-tube ^^ by j in., 
glabrous; lobes i in., elliptic, yellow. Style glahTons. Berry :5- by i in., ellipsoid, 
pairs sometimes confluent into a spherical fruit. (Both confluent and non-confluent 
berries occur on one branch.) 

8. Xi. asperlfolia, Jf.f. Sr T. in Jaum. Linn. Soc. ii. 166 ; leaves ovate- 
oblong subcordate, margin crisped and hispid, peduncle 0-^ in., bracts ovate 

12 Lxxiv. CAPRiFOLiACEJE. (0. B. Clarke.) ILonicera. 

flat, beriy crowned "by the funnel-shaped calyx-limh. X} losteum asperrimum, 
Dene, in Jacq. Voy. Bot. 77, t. 85. 

Westeen Tibet, Falco/ier; Zanskae, alt. 13,000 ft., Tlionison. Kashmie to the 
Kaeaxoeum, alt. 12,000 ft., C. B. C. Eimkim (Tibet), alt. 13,500 ft., Strach. ^ 

A shrub, 2-4 ft. ; hranchlets sparsely hispid. Leaves \\ by f in., subacute or 
obtuse, shining and glabrous above; petiole ^-^ in. Bracts ^ in., and ovaries free. 
Calyx-tube glabrous; limb ciliate or glabrous. Corolla-tube \ |by ^ in., glabrous or 
slightly hairy; lobes \ in. or more. Style glabrous. Drupe ^ by \ in., or more, 

** Bracts linear or narrotc-oblong (broad in L. parvifolia) ; bracteoles often 
connate or prominent. 

t Corolla not distinctly ttvo-lijjped, often gibbous at the base, and limb 

9. Xi. lig'ustrina, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 179 ; 
Cat. 479 ; hranchlets pubescent, leaves lanceolate obtusely acuminate margin and 
midrib beneath ciliate or glabrescent, peduncle hardly any, bracteoles connate. 
DC. Prodr. iv. 334 ; W. 8r A. Prodr. 389 ; Wight Tc. t. 1025 , H. f. 8r T. in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 166 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. Anal. Qen. t. 16, Jig. 5. L. Wiglitiana, 

Wall. Cat. under 1520, in Hei'b. Linn. Soc. 

? Nipal; Wallich. Khasia M'ls., alt. 4000-6000 ft., H.f. ^ T, Mts. of the South 
Deccan, alt. 6-7000 ft., frequent. 

A shrub, 5-15 ft. Leaves If by ^ in., base narrowed or scarcely rounded, firm, 
shining ; petiole ^ in. Bracts ^ io., glabrous ; bracteoles at first small, in fruit some- 
times |- by ^ in., forming a boat-shaped involucel half-enclosing the fruit. Calyx- 
limb tubular; margin irregular. Corolla-tube \ by ^-jL in., narrowly funnel-shaped, 
base very i^ibbous, slightly pubescent; lobes i in., obtuse, yellowish- white (Wallich). 
Style patently hairy. Drupes usually confluent into a sini^e small spherical fruit, 
ovaries free or half-coalescent in bud. — Wallich's Nipal habitat must be considered 
doubtful till confirmed, owing to the mixture of specimens on one sheet. 

10. Zi. tomentella, H. f. <§* T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 167 ; hranchlets 
pubescent, leaves oblong villous or pubescent beneath, pedimcles 0-^ in., brac- 
teolee short connate. 

Temperate Himalaya ; Sikkim, Lachen and Lachoong, alt. 8-12,000 ft., J. D. H. 

A shrub, 10-12 ft. Leaves 1^ by ^-| in., obtuse at both ends; petiole -^ in., 
tomentose. Bracts \-^ in., narrowly oblong, foliaceous ; bracteoles ^-^ in. long in 
fruit. Calyx glabrous. Corolla-tube i by |- in., subequal, pilose without and within ; 
lobes hardly ^ in., little spreading, white. Style glabrous. Berry j by j in., black, 
often coalescent in pairs into one spherical fruit. Seeds numerous, smaU. 

11. Zi. purpurascens, H. f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 169; leaves 
oljlong or obovate-oblong hairy at least beneath, peduncles ^1 in., bracteoles 
small quadrate subobsolete in the fruit, calyx-limb patelliform truncate glabrous. 
L. sericea, Boyle Lll. 236; H. f. <§- T^ in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 167. Xylosteum 
purpurascens, Dene, in Jacq. Voy. Bot. 79, t. 87. 

Subalpine Himalaya ; Kashmie, alt. 9-12,000 ft. ; Pir Pinjal, JacqueTTiont, 
C. B. C; Goolmurg, Stewart. Kunawue; alt. 12-13,000 ft., Munro. Sikkim, 
Yeumtong, alt. 11,000 ft., J. D. H. 

A shrub, 8 ft. ; hranchlets pilose, ultimately glabrous. Leaves 1 by ^ in., obtuse, 
base narrowed or obtuse, above softly pilose or glabrescent, beneath villous or hairy 
on the nerves only; petiole ^ in. Bracts ^-\ in., WnQZx or lanceolate-linear; brac- 
teoles distinct or connate. Corolla-tube ^ by ^ in., base gibbous, hairy within and 

Lonicera.'] lxxiv. caprifoluceje. (C. B. Clarke.) 13 

■without ; lobes short, purple. Sti/le sparsely pilose. Fruit usually of two confluent 
drupes, J in. diam., globose, black. Seeds many or few. — Boyle's specimens have tht 
leaves and flowers more hairy : the number of seeds varies on the same branch. 

12. Zi. angrustifolla, Wall. Cat. 480 ; leaves lanceolate white beneath, 
peduncles ^-1 in., bracts ^-^ in. linear or linear-lanceolate, bracteol«s connate 
often half as long as the fruit, calyx-limb distinctly 5-toothed. DC. Ft-odr. iv. 
337 J Journ. HoH. Soc. Lmd. iii. 238, %oith a Jig. \ H. f. 8f T. in Jown. Linn. 
Soc. ii. 167 ; Brandts For. Fl. 255. 

Temperate Himalaya ; from Kashmir and Kujiaon, alt. 6-12,000 ft., frequent, to 
Sikkim; Lachen, alt. 10-12,000 ft., J. D. H. 

A shrub, 6-12 ft, ; branchlets glabrescent. Leaves \\ by \ in. (nearly \ in. broad 
in Sikkim sp.), narrowed at both ends, beneath pubescent or glabrous ; petiole ^ in. 
Bracts linear or foliaceous. Corolla-tube i by ^ in., glabrous or pubescent, subequal ; 
lobes hardly f in., white or rose. Style short, glabrous. Fruit usually of two con- 
fluent drupes, ^ in. diam., globose; calyx-limb often subpersistent. Seeds few. 

13. Xi. rupicola, H. f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 168 ; leaves oblong 
tomentose beneath, peduncles hardly any, bracteoles small quadrate distinct 
obsolete in the fruit, calyx-teeth ^ in. narrow-lanceolate pubescent. 

Eastern Tibet (North of Sikkim), alt. 16-17,000 ft., J. D. H. Rimkim, Western 
Tibet (North of Kumaon), alt. 13,500 ft., Strach. Sf Winterh. 

A rigid shrub, 2-4 ft. ; branchlets pubescent, becoming leafless and subspinescent. 
Leaves ^ by i in., subobtuse at both ends, nearly glabrous above ; petiole ^ in. Bracts 
\ in., linear- obovate, often subfoliaceous, tomentose beneath. Corolla-iube { by | in., 
pubescent ; lobes I in. broad-oblong, spreading. Style short, glabrous. Berries ^-\ in., 
ellipsoid, not confluent in pairs, crowned by the long calyx-teeth. 

14. Xi. spinosa, Jacquem. ms. ; H. f, 8f T, in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 168 ; 
glabrous, leaves small narrow-oblong, peduncles hardly any, bracteoles quadrate 
connate inconspicuous in fruit, calyx-teeth ~ in. narroAv-oblong obtuse. Xylos- 
teum spinosum. Dene, in Jacq. Voy. Bat. 78, t. 86. 

Alpine Himalaya, alt. 11-16,000 ft. ; from Kashmir to Tibet north of Sdckim. 
— DisTRiB. Kashgar. 

A rigid shrub, 2-4 ft. ; branchlets glaucous, often leafless and spinescent. Leaves 
\ by \-^ in., obtuse, margins recurved, base narrowed ; petiole hardly any. Flowers 
subfasciculate ; bracts ^\ in., linear-oblong. Corolla-tube \-\ by ^-| in., glabrous, 
Bubequal ; lobes ^ in., elliptic. Style glabrous, exserted. Berries | by ^ in., ellip- 
soid, not confluent in pairs, crowned by the subpersistent calyx-limb. 

15. Xi. parvlfolia, Edgw. in Wall. Cat. 9058, and in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
XX. 60 ; leaves sraaU oblong or obovate glabrous, peduncles \-^ in., bracts ^-^ in. 
oblong or ovate foliaceous, coroUa-tul^ not widened upwards, style included. 
H.f. 8s T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii..l68. L. depressa, Boyle III. 226. 

Alpine Himalaya; Kumaon; BlinJcworth ; Pindari, alt. 12,000 ft., Strachey 4' 
Winterbottom. Sikkim; alt. 12-14,000 ft., Lachen and Lama Kangra, J. D. H. 

A pmall, rigid, nearly glabrous, shrub ; branches often prostrate. Leaves ^ by ^-^ 
in., obtuse, base cuneate rarely obtuse ; petiole ^ in. Bracteoles connate, often nearly 
as long as the ovary, inconspicuous in fruit. Calyx glabrous ; teeth minute, trian- 
gular. Coi'olla-tube ^ by i in., exactly cylindric, equal, glabrous without, hairy 
within ; teeth ^ in., round, pink-purple. Style short, glabrous. Berries i by i in., 
ellipsoid, not confluent in pairs ; seeds few. 

Var. Myrtillus, H. f. & T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 168 (sp.); bracts linear- 
oblong or sublinear. Brayidis For. Fl. S55. — Kashmir to Kumaon, alt. 8-12,000 ft. 
Sikkim; alt. 11-14,000 ft., Lachen, J. B. H. 

14 Lxxiv. caprifoliacej:. (G. B. Clarke.) \_Lonicera, 

16. Ii. obovata, Rot/le rma. \ H. f, ^ T. in Joum. Linn. Soc. ii. 169 ; 
glabrous, leaves small obovate-oblong, peduncle^ ^ in., brActs ^-^ in. linear 
ovate or oblong rarely foliaceous, corolla tube widened upwards, style exserted 

Temperate Himalaya, from Kashmie to Kumaon, alt. 8-13,000 ft., frequent. 
SiKKiM, Lachen, alt. 12-14,000 ft., J. D. H. 

A shrub, 6 ft. Leaves ^ by \-^ in., subsessile, obtuse, base narro-wed. Brac- 
teoles small or 0, distinct or connate, obsolete or cupshaped in fruit. Calt/x-limh 
very short, undulate, hardly toothed. Corolla-tube i by ^ in., tubular-funnel- 
shaped, base narrowed prominently gibbous or campanulate and subequal, glabrons 
•vnthout, hairy -within; teeth ^ in., round, suberect, yellowish white. Berries 
spherical, i in. diam., with 2. calyx-scars, calyx-tubes more or less coalescent even 
in th« bud. 

tt Corolla pro^ninently 2-lipped. 

a. Bracteoles connate into a cup. 

17. Zi. qulnquelocularis, Hardmck in As. Res. vi. 351 ; leaves ovate 
or broad-lanceolate hairy beneath, peduncles hardly any, bracts |-^ in. linear, 
calyx-limb short funnel-shaped teeth triangular ciliate. Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind. 
ed. Carey 8,- Wall. ii. 174 ; H. f. 8f T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 169 ; Brnndis 
For. Fl. 255. L. diversifolia, Wall. I. c. 178, Cat. 477 ; Hook. Ic. PI. t. 807 ; 
Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30, t. 33. L. Koyleana, Wall. Cat. 478. 

Tempeeate Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaon; alt. 4-12,000 ft., common. 
Bhotan ; Griffith. 

A shrul*^ 5-10 ft.; branchlets pubescent. Leaves 1^-2 by f-1^ in., acute or 
obtuse at either end, nearly glabrous above, pubescent pilose or villous beneath; 
petiole ^ in. Flowers clustered, axillary ; bracteoles pubescent, usually scarcely ^ the 
length of the fruit. Corolla hairy without and within, yellow ; tube |^ by ^ in. Style 
hairy, exsert. Berries \'^y -^ in., ovoid, not connate ; crowned, till ripe often, by the 

18. Zi. bypoleuoa, Dcrte. in Jacq. Voy. Bot. 81, t. 89; leaves ovate 
obtuse pubescent white beneath, peduncle f-^ in., bracts \ in. lanceolate 
foliaceous, bracteolea hairy as long as the glandular-pubescent calyx-tube. H. 
f. 8f T. in Jown. Linn. Soc. ii. 170 ; Brandis For. Fl. 256. L. eUiptica, Royle 
III. 236. 

NoETH-WEST Himalaya, «lt. 8-10,000 ft., Royle, Edgeworth. Kunawar, Thomson^ 
Lance. Gurwhal, Strach. iSc Winterh. 

A low shrub ; branchlets "pilose. Leaves f by ^ in., subsessile, obtuse at both 
ends, upper narrower, passing into the bracts. CaVyx-teeth minute, lanceolate. 
Corolla-tube \hy ^ in., base gibbous ; lobes \ in. and more, linear-oblong, orange-red ; 
style hairy below. Berries \ by ^ in., ellipsoid, hairy, distinct or nearly so, nearly 
included by the bracteoles. — H. f. & T. say the ovaries are usually connate, but they 
appear rarely and imperfectly so. 

19. Zi. dedplena, H. f. 8r T. in Jmm. Linn. Soc. ii. 170; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate acuminate minutely hairy, peduncles ^— ^ in. pubescent, bracts 
^ in. linear, bracteoles ovate nearly glabro'us as long as the glabrate calyx-tube. 
L. lanceolata, Wall. Cat. 476. Symphoriae sp., Ortf. Itin., 191. 

Central and Eastern Himalaya; Nipal; Wallich. Sikkim, Lachen, alt. 10-12,000 
-ft., J. D H., Elwes Bhotan ; Timboo River, alt. 6500 ft., Griffith. 

A small shrub ; branchlets pubescent. Leaves 2 by J in., subsessile, base obtuse, 
more or less pubescent on the midrib and nerves above, beneath glandular-pubes -ent 
-with the midrib hairy; petiole ^ in. CaJyx-teeth minute, ovate acute ciliate. 

Lonicera.'} Lxxrv. caprifoliacejj. (0. B. Clarke.) 15 

Corolla-tube i by | in., base gibbous, glabrous without, haiiy within ; lobes \ in., 
red-purple. Style shortly exsert, hairy to the summit. Drupes distinct or completely 

|3. Bracteoles small or 0, except 21. L. onentalis. 

20. Xi. mloropliylla, Willd. ; Roem. 8f Schult. Syst. v. 268 ; leaves small 
oblong or obovate pubescent beneath, peduncles ^1 in., bracts ^-^ in. linear, 
bracteoles 0, calyx-limb truncate. DC. Fi'odr, iv. 336; H. f. ^ T. in Joum. 
Linn. Soc. ii. 171. L. Sieversiana, Bunge Verz. Altai-Geb. 18. 

Western Tibet; Kashmir ta the Zarakorum, alt. 11-14,000 ft., frequent. — 
PiSTRiB. Northward to the Altai Mts. 

A small, erect, shrub ; branchlets glabrous or nearly so. Leaves subsessile, A-f 
by J-i in-> obtuse, base narrowed. Peduncle minutely pubescent, slender. Corolla- 
tube 5 by ^ in., base gibbous, glabrous without sparsely pilose within ; teeth ^ in., 
suberect. Style subexsert, very hairy below. Berries | in., ellipsoid; usually connate 

21. Zi. orlentalla, Lamk. Diet. i. 731 ; leaves ovate-lanceolate acute 
finely nerved above more or less pubescent beneath, peduncles ^1 in. pubes- 
cent, calyx-teeth linear-lanceolate, corolla glabro'is without or nearly so, tube 
short. DC. Prodr. iv. 337; Jaub. ^ Spach. III. t. 71 ; H. f. 4" T. in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. ii. 170 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. "\. 8 ; Brandis For. Fl. 256. L. Govaniana, 
W(dl. Cat. 481 ; DC. I. c. 337. 

Temperate Himalaya, alt. 7-11,000 ft.; from Kashmir common, rarer eastward, 
to Kumaon. — Distrib. Western Asia. 

A large shrub or tree, 26 ft., branches horizontal, flattened. Leaves 2^ by 1-1^ 
in., acute, mucronate hardly acuminate, base narrowed or scarcely obtuse, midrib 
above pubescent, nerves fine and elevated when dried, beneath dotted and more or 
less pubescent; petiole ^-^ in. Peduncle stout, or slightly flattened, thickened 
upwards. Bracts ^ in., linear-lanceolate ; bracteoles or small, but in the Kashmir 
arboreous form larger, well-marked even in fruit. Corolla-ttd>e ^ in., base gibbous ; 
limb J in., pink. Style hairy, usually to the summit, berries generally confluent. 

Var. discolor, Lindl. in Bot. Reg. xxxiii. 1847, t. 44 (sp.) ; leaves glaucous 
beneath. H. f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 171.— Kashmir, alt. 9-11,000 ft., 
Thomson. — Lindley's figure shows the corolla glal^rous without, the calyx-teeth not 
shorter than occurs in L. oriejitalis, This agrees perfectly with Thomson's examples. 
But with these occur (as L discolor) plants with pubescent leaves and corollas, which 
we refer to L. alpigena. 

22. Zi. heterophylla, Dene, in Jacq. Toy. Bot. 80, t. 89 ; glabrous or 
nearly so, leaves narrow oblong reticulate-nerved beneath, peduncle ^1^ in., 
calyx-teeth short^triangular, corolla sparsely pilose, tube short. IT. f. ^ T. in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 170. 

Western Alpine Himalaya and W. Tibet ; Kashmir ; Choupienne, Jacquemont ; 
Burjila and Karakorum, alt. 12,000 ft., C. B. Clarke. 

An erect shrub, 3 ft., branches glabrous, rigid, ascending. Leaves 2^ by ^-1 in., 
upper narrow-oblong, narrowed at both ends, margin irregularly sinuate or sublobate, 
above glabrous, even on the midrib ; petiole ^ in. Peduncles I'igid, compressed, 
thickened upwards, scarcely pubescent. Bracts i in., linear. Corolla nearly of L. 
orientalis. Style hairy to the summit. Drupes j by i in., never connate. — Appears 
distinct from every form of L. orientalis ; but when Hk. f. ^' T. suggested it might be 
a variety thereof, they had seen no specimens. 

23. Zi. alplg^ena, Linn.\ DC. Prodr. iv. 336; leaves elliptic or oblong 
acute or acuminate pilose beneath, peduncles 1-2 in., calyx-tube pubescent limb 

16 LXXiY. CAPRiFOLiACE^. (C. B. Clarke.) [Lonicerai. 

short, corolla glandular-hairy, tube veiy short. Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 1173 -^ 
H. f. 8c T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 171 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 8 ; Brandis Fo9\ 
Fl. 256. L. Webbiana, Wall. Cat. 476; DC. I. c. 336. L. oxyphylla, Fdgw. 
in Tratis. Linn. Soc. xx. 60. 

Kashmir to Kumaon, alt. 9-12,000 ft. ; Blinkworth, &c. — Distbib. European 

A large shrub ; branchlets pubescent. Leaves 4 by 1-2 in., base rounded or 
cuneate, hairy or glabrate above, with pubescent nerves ; nervation not prominent on 
either surface ; petiole i in. Peduncle stout, flattened, slightly thickened upwards, 
nearly glabrous. Bract's ^ in., lanceolate or linear; bracteoles very small. Corolla 
nearly as in L. orientalis. Drupes free in the Indian specimens. — Not a Bhotan 
plant (as stated by Hook. f. and Thomson). 


LoNiCERA FiNLAYSoNiANA, Wall. Cat. 6302, was perhaps collected in Cochin- 
China : the specimen is poor, and may be L. '^onfiisa, DC. 

L. cHiNENSis, coNFUSA and LONOiFOLiA, mentioned by Boyle {El. 236) as common 
to the Himalaya, China, and Japan, are probably referable to L. macrantha, DC. 


Under-shrubs, with fistular stems and branches. Leaves opposite, distichous^ 
caudate-acuminate, membranous, glaucous beneath, exstipiilate or with very 
smaU stipules, entire or toothed. Floioers whorled, in terminal or axillary erect 
or drooping spikes subtended by smaU or large foliaceous bracts, 2-bracteolate. 
Calyx-tube ovoid, limb iineqi illy 5-lobed, persistent. Corolla funnel-shaped, 
gibbously swollen at the base and limb subequally 5-lobed. Stamens 5, inserted 
on the throat of the corolla. Ovary 5-8-celled ; style slender, stigma capitate -y 
ovules many, 2-seriate in each cell. Beri-y oblong or subglobose, 6-8-celled, 
many-seeded. Seeds minute, testa crustaceous shining. 

1. Zi. formosa, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind. ed. Wall. ^ Carey, ii. 181 ; PI. 
As. Rar. ii. 20, t. 120; Cat. 470; branches stout, leaves ovate toothed, bracts 
large leafy, ovarv 5-celled. Bot. May. t. 3099 ; Wight III. ii \. 121 D. Brandis 
F(yr. Fl. 256. 

Temperate Himalaya, alt. 5-10,000 ft., from Kumaon to Bhotan. Khasia Mts., 
alt. 5-6000 ft., H. f.<^T. 

Branching from the base, branches 6 ft. Leaves 2-5 by 1— ** in., broadly ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate long acuminate, entire or irregularly toothed, white and more or less 
puberulous beneath, base rounded subacute or cordate ; petiole ^-1 in. Spikeb 2 in., 
pubescent ; bracts cordate laxly leafy, often purplish ; bracteoles variable. Flowers 
glandular, puberulous. Corolla \-l in., purplish-pink. Style glabrous. Berry 
subglobose, red. — Flowers rarely 3-4-merous. 

2. Xi. g'laucophylla, Hooh. /. ; branches slender, leaves lanceolate 
sinuate-toothed, bracts much shorter than the flowers, berry 7-8-ceU6d. Loni- 
cera glaucophylla, H. f. ^ T. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 165 ; Gard. Chron. 1858, 
700, with Jig. 'L. gracilis, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1870, pt. ii. 77. Pentapyxis 
sp.. Hook.f. in Gen. PI. ii. 6. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, alt. 5-6000 ft. ; Yoksun, J. D. H. ; Simonbong, Kurz. 
A much more slender plant than L. formosa, with narrower shorter-petioled 
leaves, and small axillary few-flowered spikes of puberulous flowers, the bracts of which^ 

P&ntapyxis.'] lxxiv. CAPRiFOLiACEiE. (C. B. Clarke.) 17 

are shorter than the ovary and ovate-subulate. The stipules are entirely absent or 
more or less developed into a small semicircular coriaceous lamina. In the " Genera 
Plantarum," this species, of which the flower and fruit were then unknown, was 
supposed to be a Pento/pyxis oh account of the presence of stipules. 

8. PSNTAFVXZS, Hook.f. 

A woolly erect shrub with solid stems and branches. Leaves opposite; 
distichous, coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, caudate-acuminate, sinuate-toothed; 
stipules very large leafy, orbicular margins recurved. Flowe)'8 in axillary 
peduncled or sessile rarely terminal woollen spikes, with short bracts and 
bracteoles. Valyx funnel-shaped, subequally 5-cleft, persistent. Corolla funnel- 
shaped, gibbously swollen at the base ; limb subequally 5-lobed. Stamens 6, 
inserffed on the throat of the corolla. Ovary o-celled ; style slender, stigma 
capitate ; ovules many, 2-seriate in each cell. Berry ellipsoid, 5-celled, many- 
seeded. See(h minute ; testa crustaceous, shining. 

Closely allied to Leycesteria, but differing in the solid branches, calyx, and habit. 

1. P. stipulata, Hook. f. Lonicera stipulata, Hh. f. Sf T. in Journ^ 
Linn. Soc. ii. 165 ; Gard. Chron. 1858, 700, withjiy. 

SiKKiM HiBfALAYA; at Darjceling, alt. 6-10,000 ft., J. D. H. 

A shrub, 6-8 ft., densely clothed except the leaves above with soft, white wool. 
Leaves 4-8 by 2-3 in., base rounded, subentire or sinuate-toothed, puberulous above 
or glabrate with deeply impressed nerves. Stipule \-^ in. diam., erect or reflexed. 
Heads dense, rarely subspicate ; peduncle very stout ; bracts about equalling the calyx, 
ovate. Flowers f in. long, woolly, white. Berry Jiaivy, f in., pulp thin. Seeds 
ellipsoid. — Flowers sometimes 4-merous. 

Order LXXV. ZtUBZACESS. (J. D. Hooker.) 

Trees, shrubs or herbs, rarely annual, erect or twining, unarmed or spiny, 
rarely truly prickly. Leaves simple, opposite or whorled, quite entire, 
stipulate (except in Galiece). Lnjiorescence various. Calyx-tuhe adnate to the 
ovary ; limb various. Corolla regular, usually 4-5-lobed, lobes valvate, imbri- 
cate or contorted (to the left as seen from outside). Stamens as many as the 
lobes, inserted on the mouth or tube of the corolla, filaments short or long ; 
anthers 2-celled, usually dorsifixed and dehiscing laterally or in front. Disk 
epigynous, usually annular or cushion-shaped. Ovary wholly inferior, 2-10- 
celled ; style simple or cieft, stigmas various ; ovules 1 or more in each cell. 
JFruit berried, capsular, diupaceous or of dehiscent or indehiscent cocci, 2-10- 
celled. Seeds various, albumen fleshy or horny. Embryo straight or curved ; 
cotyledons flat or semiterete, radicle superior or inferior. — Distrib. Genera 
about 340 and species 4000, chiefly tropical and subtropical. 

Series A. Ovules numerous in each cell (rarely solitary in Cephalanthus and 
a few Hedyotidece). 

Tribe I. Naucleeee. Flowers collected into dense globose heads. Corolla 
funnel-shaped ; stigma simple. 

* Ovaries confiuent ; fr^iits forming a globose Jleshy masj ; corolla-lobes 
imbricate in bud. 

Ovary 2-celled, ovules numerous 1. Sarcocephalus. 

Ovary 4-celled above, 2-celled below, ovules many ... 2. Anthocephalus. 
Ovary 2-celled, ovules solitary in each cell 3. Cephalanthus. 

18 Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. ( J . D. Hooker.) 

•• Ovaries free or nearly so ; fruits free^ capsular. 

Flowers bracteolate, calyx-limb 5-lobed, oorolla-lobes valvate 4. Adina. 

Flowers bracteolate, calyx-limb entire, corolla-lobes valvate 6. Stephegywb. 

Flowers ebracteolate, corolla-lobes imbricate 6. Nauclra.. 

Flowers ebracteolate, corolla-lobes valvate, climbers with 

hooked peduncles 7. Uncaria. 

Tribe II. CinclioneaB. Corolla-lobes valvate, imbricate, or twisted in 
bud. Fi-uit capsular, 2-celled. Seeds winged. 

Corolla-lobes vahate, style 2-fid, bracts leafy ..... 8. Hyiienopoqon. 
Corolla-lobes twisted, style entire, flowers panicled, bracts 

simple 9. Coptosapelta. 

Corolla-lobes valvate, style entire, flowers in panicled spikes, 

bracts leafy 10. Hymenodictton. 

Corolla-lobea imbricate, style 2-fid 11. Luculia. 

Tribe III. B»ondeletleae. Corolla-lobes (in the Asiatic genera) twisted 
in bud. Fi-uit capsular, 2-celled. Seeds angled, not winged. Shrubs or trees. 

Flowers simply panicled 12. Wendlandia. 

Flowers in subscorpioid cymes 18. Grbenia. 

Tribe IV. Kedyotldeee. Corolla4obes valvate in bud. Fi-uit a locu- 
licidal or septicidal 2- rarely 4-celled capsule, or of 2 or 4 dehiscent or indehis- 
cent cocci, rarely altogether indehiacent. Seeds small or minute, mrely winged. 
— Herbs, rarely shrubs, never trees. 

A. Leaves quite entii'e, stamens 4 or 5. 

* Fruit 2-celled, usually indehiscent, stipules entire. 

Corolla funnel-shaped, lobes 4-5-toothed 14. Dentella. 

Corolla rotate, anthers large, stigma capitellate . . .15. Argostemma. 

Corolla funnel-shaped, stigma minute 16. Clarkella. 

Corolla rotate, anthers connate, stigmas 2 17. Neurocaltx. 

** Fruit 4-celled, indehiscent, cells with 1 erect omde. 

Fruit with 4 bony iudehiscent pyrenes; stigmas 4 . . . .18. All^ophania. 
Fruit membranous, indehiscent. stigmas 2 19. Fergusoxia. 

*** Fruit oblong sabglobose or orbicular, 2- rarely i^eelled, usually dehiscent, 
cells many- rarely 1-seeded. 

Capsule loculi- or septicidal, rarely indehiscent, with con- 
tiguous celyx-teeth, seeds usually angular .... 20. Hedyotis. 

Capsule locidiciial above the remote calyx-teeth, rarely 

indehiscent, seeds minute, angular 21. Ot.deni-andia. 

Capsule loculicidal above the remote calyx-teeth, rarely 
indehiscent, seeds plano-convex, or globose with a ventral - 
cavity 22. Anotis. 

Capsule fubglobose loculicidal, strongly ribbed, seeds minute 

a,cg\\\a.T, flowers in secund cymes 23. 

Capsule globose septicidal, seeds minute angular, flowers 
crowded in the short recurved distant branches of an erect 
peduncle 24. Poi^ycra 

**** Fruit broadly didymously obcordatc, of 2 compressed spreading lobes, 
loculicidal above the calyx. 

Lxxv. EUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 19 

Flowers crowded on the upper side of the branches of a 

peduncled cjmie 25. Ophiobehiza. 

blowers scattered on the branches of a peduncled cyme . . 26. Pabaophiohrhha. 

B. Leaves crenate-seri^ate or undulate, stamens 2. 

Capsule dry, 2-valved 27. Cahlbmannia. 

'Capsule fleshy, 5-valved 28. Silvianthtjb. 

Tribe V. DCuBBaDndeee. Corolla4obe8 valvate in bud. Fruit fleshy 
•or drupaceous, indehiscent (rarely dehiscent). Speds minute. 

a. Inflorescence terminal. {See also 35. Adenosacme, and 41. Keenania.) 

Tlowers panicled or corymbose, calyx with one lobe usually 

forming a coloured leaf 29. Muss^nba. 

Calyx-lobes 6 slender, ovary 1-celled 30. Aceanthera. 

Flowers capitate, calyx quite entire, stamens 4 . . . .31. 

"Calyx irregularly fissured, stamens 5 32. Lbxtcocodon. 

'Calyx .5-lobed, stamens 5 33. PoLTSOLHiaA. 

Flowers umbelled 34. Tbiscladia. 

/3. Inflorescence usualli/ axillaty,Jlower8 not involucrate. 

"Calyx 4-5-lobed, corolla reduplicate-valvate, berry 2-6-eelled, 

cymeB loose 35. Adenosachb. 

Calyx-lobes 5 rigid, drupe with 2 pyrenes, flowers capitate . 36. Mtrionbueon. 

•Calyx-limb 8-16-sinuate, ""-orolla 8-16-partite, stamens 8-16, 

cymes axillary 37. Aulacodisctjs. 

Calyx 4-7-toothed, corolla 4-7-lobed, cymes axillary . . .38. UROPHYLtuM. 

Calyx-lobes 6 unequal leafy 39. Schizostigma. 

y. Flowers capitate, involucrate. 

Climbing shrub, heads axillary 40. Lbcananthus. 

Erect or prostrate shrub, head terminal 41. Kbknania. 

Tribe VI. G-ardenleee. Corolla-lobes twisted in bud. Fruit berried, 
fleshy or dry. Seeds usually large ; cotyledons often foliaceous. 

* Seeds many in each cell, or feiu in 41, 45 and 46. 

Inflorescence terminal, flowers 2-sexual, stigma fusiform . 42. Webbra. 
Inflorescence terminal, flowers dioecious, stigma fusiform . 43. Byrsophyllxjm, 
Inflorescence leaf-opposed, flowers dioecious, style-arms 2 . 44. Beachytomb. 

Inflorescence lateral, corymbose, style-arms 2 45. Anomanthodia. 

Inflorescence usually axillary, stigma fusiform, ovary 

2-celled 46. Randia. 

Inflorescence usually axillary, st'gma fusiform, ovary 

1-celIed 47. Gardenia. 

** Style-arms 2, free {rarely combined), ovary 2-celled, seeds usually fete in 
each cell, inflorescence always axillary. 

Calyx-limb cupular 4-lobed, flowers in small cymes, testa 

coriaceous 48. Hypobathrtjm. 

Calyx-limb minutely 6-toothed, flowers in spikes, testa 

gro ved 49. Petunoa. 

Calyx-limb cupular or 4-toothed, flowers dioecious capitate . 60. Morindopsis. 

Calyx-lobes 4-5 oblong, corolla rotate, testa plicate . . .51- Hyptiakthera. 

Calyx-teeth 4-6 very short, albumen ruminate 62. Narqbdia. 

20 Lxxv. RUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 

Calyx-limb elongate 4-lobed, flowers in spikes, testa grooved 53. Scyphostachts. 
Calyx calyculate, limb truncate or 4-5-lobed, flowers fascicled, 
rarely cymose 54. Diplospoba. 

Series B. Ovules 2 in each cell (ovary 2-celled). See also 63. Dtplospora. 
(Genera of uncertain affinity.) 

Corolla-lobes twisted, ovules inserted together half-way up 

the cell, 1 pendulous, 1 erect 55. Scyphiphoea. 

Corolla-lobes valvate, ovules erect on the top of an erect 

basilar placenta 56. Jackia. 

Series 0. Ovules solitary in each cell. (See also 3. Cephalanthus, 18 
AUceophania, 19. Fergus&nia, 20. Hedyotu, 21. Oldenlandia and 41. Wehera.) 

SuBSERiES a. Radicle superior. 

Tribe VII. Guettardeee. Corolla-lobes imbricate or valvate in bud. 
Stamens inserted on the mouth of the corolla. Fruit drupaceous with 2-many 
free or cohering pyrenes. Seeds cylindric ; albumen scanty or 0. 

Corolla imbricate, calyx-limb deciduous .. = .... 57. Gtuettarda. 

Corolla imbricate, calyx-limb persistent 58. Antibhhoea. 

Corolla valvate, calyx-limb cupular, ovary 4-1 2-celled . . 59. Timonius. 
Corolla valvate, calj-x 6-toothed, corolla cxu-ved 2-lipped, 

ovary 2-celIed . ' 60. Dichilanthe. 

Tribe VIII. BLnozleae. Corolla-lobes valvate in bud. Stamens inserted 
on the mouth of the corolla. Fruit of 2-cocci. Seeds dorsally compressed. 

- Albumen copious, herbs, fruit very small 61. Knoxia. 

Tribe IX. Alberteae. Corolla-lobes twisted in bud. Stamens inserted 
in the mouth of the corolla. Ovary 1 -celled with 1-2 pendulous ovules, or 
2-00 -celled with 1 ovule in each cell. 

Corolla campanulate, style 8-grooved, ovary 1-celled, 

1-2-ovuled 62. Octotropis. 

Tribe X. Vang'uerlesB. CoroWa-/o6es valvate in bud. «S^ame?is inserted 
in the mouth of the coroUa. Drupe with 2-many free or cohering pyrenes. Seeds 
various ; albumen copious. 

Ovary 2-celled, stipviles equal 63. CANTHitJM. 

Ovary 3-5-celled, stipules eq\ial 64. Vakqxjeria. 

Ovary 2-celled, one stipule very large 65. Mesoptbea. 

Subserees /3. Radicle inferior. 

Tribe XI. Xzoreee. Corolla-lobes twisted in bud. Ovary 2-4-celled ; 
ovules usually inserted about the middle of the cell, rarely basilar. Fruit a 
2-4-celled beny or drupe with 2-4 free or united pyrenes. Seeds usually 

Flowers panicled or corymbose, bracts coriaceous not 

sheathing 66. Ixoba. 

Flowers panicled or corymbose, bracts membranous lower 

sheathing 67. Pavbtta. 

Flowers axillary fascicled or solitary 68. Coffea. 

Tribe XII. MorindesB. Corolla-lobes valvate in bud. Stamens inserted 
in the mouth or throat of the corolla. Ovules usually inserted below the middle 

Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) 21 

of the cell, and amphitropous. Fruit a 2-4-celled beri-y, or a drupe with 2-4 

* Calyx-tiibes cohering in a head. 

Heads many-fld. solitary or mnbelled 69. Mobinda. 

Heads few-fld. somewhat spiked 70. KmaraixiA. 

** Flowers free. 

Calyx-limb 4-5-fid, corolla-tliroat villous, drupe with 1-4 
pyrenos, flowers axillary 71. Damnacanthits. 

Calyx-limb truncate, corolla-throat glabrous, berry 1-2- 

seeded, flowers terminal and axillary 72. Prismatomebis. 

Calyx-limb truncate, drupe with 4 pyrenes, flowers umbellate 73. C(Elospermum. 

Calyx-limb Jinnuiar, corolla-throat woolly, flowers in axillary 

heads 74. Gtyi^gchthodes. 

Tribe XIII. PsychotrlesB. Corolla-lobes valvate in bud. Stamens 
inserted near the mouth of the coroUa. Ovules basilar, cuneate, anatropous. 
Drupe with 2 or more pyrenes. (See also 18. Allaophania, and 19. Fe?-- 

* Flowers in terminal rarely axillary corymbose or panicled rarely capitate 

Calyx-limb short 4r-5-toothed, corolla usually short straight 75. Psychotbia. 
Calyx-limb short 6-toothed, corolla -tube usually long curved 76. Chasalia. 

** Flowei'S capitate or fascicled, axillary or termin/il (or solitary in Geo-phiia,). 

Calyx with 4-7 rather long lobes, creeping herbs, leaves cordate 77. Geophila. 
Calyx with 4-6 short teeth, style arms 2, heads involucred . 78. Cephaelis. 
Calyx-limb 3-6-fid, style-arms 3-9, leaves distichous . . .79. LASiiNXHUs. 

*** Flowers axiUary and terminal, solitary or few, anthers 4 subsessile. 

Calyx-limb dilated unequally 4-lobed, drupe with 2 pyrenes, 

fetid bhrubs 80. Saprosma, 

Calyx-limb truncate, drupe with 2 pyrenes, stem tuberous, 

epiphytes 81. Hydnophytttil 

Calyx-limb truncate, drupe with 3 pyrenes, stem tuberous, 

epiphytes 82. Mybmecodia. 

Tribe XIV. Peederieae. Corolla-lobes valvate in bud. Stamens inserted 
on the throat or base of the corolla. Style-arms 2-5, papillose all over. Oimles 
basilar, erect. Fruit capsular, 6-valved, or with 2 dorsally compressed pvrene« 
often pendulous from a columeUa ; albumen copious or scanty. — Usually fetid 
climbing or erect shrubs. 

Styles 2 capillary twisted, pyrenes 2, twining shrubs . . 83. P^.debia. 
Style 5-fid, capsule 5-valved at the top, testa reticulated, 

erect shrubs 84. Hamixtonia. 

Style-arms 5, capsule 5-valved at the base, enclosing 5 

pyrenes with reticulated coats, erect shrubs 85. Leptodermis. 

Tribe XV. Spermacoceae. Corolla-lobes valvate in bud. Ovary 
2- rarely 3-4-celled ; style entire, stigma capitate or 2-fid, rarely style-arms 
elongate ; ovules attached to the septum of the ovary, amphitropous. Fruif 
small, dry, capsular or of 2 cocci, or circumsciss at the base. Seeds usually 
oblong, deeply grooved on the ventral face. — Herbs, rarely undershrubs, leaves 
opposite, stipules usually setaceous. 

22 Lxxv. RUBiACEj;. (J. D. Hooker.) [Sarcocephalus. 

Fruit of 2 indehiscent at length separating cocci . . . .86. Hydbophylax. 
Fruit of 2 separable cocci, both or one only dehiscing 

ventrally 87. Spermacoce. 

Ffuit of 2 connate cocci, calyx-limb greatly enlarged . . .88. Gaillonia. 

Tbibe XVI. Galleeae. Corolla-lobes valvate in bud. Ovarij 2-celledr 
style-arms 2 ; ovules attached to the base of the septum. F7'uit of 2 small 
coriaceous or fleshy indehiscent lobes. Seeds peltate, usually hollowed ventrally. 
— Herbs ; leaves usually whorled, VTithout stipules. 

Corolla rotate or shortly campanulate 5-meroiis . . . .89. Rubia. 

Corolla rotate 4-merous 90. Galium. 

Corolla funnel-shaped 91. Aspeuula. 

Tbibe I. NAUCXiSEJS:. 
1. SA&COC£PKAZ.US, Afzcl. 

Shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing. Leaves petioled ; stipules large or 
small. Flowers in axillary or terminal peduncled globose heads, without 
bracteoles, united by their confluent calyx-tubes; bracts 2, stipular. Cali/.v 
4-6-toothed with deciduous appendages. Corolla-fAfhe long, funnel-shaped,, 
throat glabrous ; lobes 6-6, orbicular, imbricate. Stamens 5-6, on the corolla 
mouth ; anthers sessile, acute. Ovartj 2-celled ; style filiform, exserted, stigma 
capitate, oblong or spindle-shaped ; ovules very many, imbricating upwards on 
pendulous placentas. Fruits combined in a fleshy globose mass of 2-celled 
pyrenes with very thin septa. Seeds few in each cell, minute, testa crustaceous, 
albumen fleshy; embrj^o rather large, radicle inferior. — Disteib. Species 8, 
tropical Asiatic, African, and Australian. 

1. S* cordatus, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 133 ; leaves elliptic ovate or 
cordate obtuse, peduncles solitary stout 1-headed, heads of fruit smooth. Bedd. 
Fl. Sylv. t. 318 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 63. S. Horsfieldii, Miq. I. c. 134. Nauclea 
cordata, Roxh. Hort. Beng. 14 ; Fl. Ind. i. 509. N. coadunata, Boxh. in Bees 
Cyclop. N. Roxburghii, G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 467, excl. synon. N. Wal- 
lichiana, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6098. N. parvifolia, Wall. Cat. 6093 B. Platano- 
carpum cordatum, Korth. Naucl. Ind. 16. 

Malay Peninsula, from Pegu and Mergui to Malacca, Wallich, &c. Ceylon, 
Walker, &c. — Disteib. Malay and Philippine Islands, N. Australia. 

A small tree. Leaves 5-12 by 4-8 in. ; petiole |-1 in. ; stipules oblong, elliptic or 
obovate. Heads ^-1 in. diam., drooping; peduncle 1-1^ in. ; stipular bracts broad, 
almost basal. Flowers yellow, fragrant ; calyx-lobes clavate. — A form with leaves 
pubescent beneath, from the Malay Islands, is N. undulata. Wall. Cat. 6094 {not of 
Roxb.). The true N. undulata, Roxb., is not Indian, it is Wallich's N. purpurea, 
6090 D. (N. stipulacea, Herb. Roxb., not N. Roxburghii, G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 467, 
which from the description is 8. cordattcs itself). 

2. S. subditus, Miq. Fl. Ind, Bat. ii. 134 ; leaves lanceolate obtusely 
acuminate, peduncles solitary 1-headed, heads of fruit rough. Platanocarpum 
subditum, Korth. Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 133, t. 32. 

Malacca, Griffith.—DisTRi^. Sumatra, Java. 

Much more slender than S. cordatus. Leaves glabrous, 3-5 by 1^-2 in., narrowed' 
into the slender petiole, black when dry. Peduncles slender, pubescent, bracteatfr 

^SarcocejpJialus.'] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 28 

about the middle. Heads ^ in. diam., fruiting with concave summits to the carpels 
and raised edges. 

3. S. Jungrhuhnii, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 134; leaves elliptic abruptly 
obtusely pointed, peduncles 1-3-nate 1-3-headed, heads nearly smooth. 

Malacca ; Mt. Ophir, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2772), Mai7igay (Kew Distrib. 822, 
822*). — Distrib. Sumatra. 

Branchlets and peduncles puberulous. Leaves 4-5 by 2-2-4- i"-> rather coriaceous, 
nerves with minute tufts of hair in the axils ; petiole \-^ in. ; stipules oblong. 
Peduncles ^-1^ in., with a small 4-lobed cup of bracts below the middle, of which 2 
opposite are larger than the others. Heads \-^ in, diam., in fruit | in. diam. — I 
have seen no authentic specimen of Junghuhnii, but find the name attached by 
Maingay to his specimens. Miquel's description is most meagre. 


A glabrous tree. Leaves petioled ; stipules lanceolate, caducous. Flowers 
in terminal globose ped uncled solitary heads, without bracteoles, united by 
their confluent calyx-tubes ; peduncles with basal stipular bracts. Calyx-limb 
tubular, 6-lobed, persistent or deciduous. Corolla-tuhe long, funnel-shaped, 
throat glabrous ; lobes 5, imbricate. Stamens on the throat of the corolla, 
filaments short. Ovary 4-celled above, 2-celled below ; style exserted, stigma 
spindle-shaped ; ovules very many, horizontal on 2 bifid placentas, which ascend 
from the septa below its middle, and send an arm into each of the 4 upper 
cells. Fi-uits confluent into a fleshy globose mass of many few-seeded coria- 
ceous pyrenes. Seeds minute, testa rather thin ; embryo clavate in fleshy 

1. A. Cadamba, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 135; leaves elliptic-oblong ovate 
or ovate-cordate acute. Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 127, t. 35; Brand. For. Fl. 261. 
A. morindaefolia, Korth. Verh. Nat. Oesch. Bot. 154, t. 48. Nauclea Ca- 
damba, Roxh. Hart. Beng. 14 ; Fl. Ind. i. 512. Sarcocephalus Cadamba, Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 63 ; Wall. Cat. 6088, excl. 0. 

From the Himalaya to Ceylon and Malacca, wild or cultivated; Forests of 
Pegu, Kurz, — Disteib. Sumatra, Borneo. 

A large tree; branches spreading. Leaves coriaceous, 5-9 in,, shining above, 
pubescent beneath. Heads 1-2 in. diam., peduncles stout. Flowers orange-coloured 
with white stigmas, scented at night. Fmit as large as a small orange. — Wallich's 
6088 C. a cultivated plant from Ava, is very different, having membranous leaves and 
very oblique nerves. 


Shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite or whorled , stipules short. Flowers 
densely crowded in terminal or axillary solitary simple or panicled globose 
heads mixed with setaceous or paleaceous bracteoles ; peduncles with stipular 
caducous bracts about the middle. Calyx-tube obpyramidal ; limb cup-shaped, 
4-5-toothed or -lobed. Corolla-tube long, funnel-shaped; throat glabrous or 
hairy lobes 4, imbricate. Stamens on the mouth of the corolla, filaments 
short ; anthers 2-cuspidate at the base. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigma 
capitate or clubbed ; ovules 1 pendulous m eacli cell, Frmt of numerous 
obpyramidal indehiscent 1-seeded cocci, ^etds pendulous, with a fungoid aril, 
testa membranous sometimes winged ; embryo in horny albumen, cotyledons 
*iat. — Distrib. Species 6, tropical Asia, Africa, and America. 

24 Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [^GephalantJius 

1. C naucleoides, DC. Pi'odr. iv. 539; glabrous pubescent or tomen- 
tose, leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate acuminate. Kurz For. Fl. ii. 68. C. 
aralioides, Zoll. Sf Mo7\ Syst. Verh. 61. Nauclea tetrandra, Roxb. Hort, Beng. 
14; Fl. Ind. i. 576 ; Wall. Cat. 6101. 

SiKKiM HiMALA-TA, alt. 2000 ft., J. D. H. Assam, Cachak, and Silhet, — Distrib. 
N. Birma, Java, China. 

A small tree. Leai^s opposite or 8-4-nate, 3-5 by 1-2 in,; petiole short; 
stipules acuminate, often gland-tipped. Peduncles often whorled, slender ; bracteoles 
linear-clavate, hairy. Heads f in. diam., yollov-'sh-white. Calyx-lobes short, with 
interposed black glands. — Very closely allied to the N. American C. occidentalis, 
Linn., and perhaps a form of it. 

4. ADXNA, Salish. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves petioled ; stipules large, caducous. Flowers brac- 
teate or not, densely crowded in solitary or pauicled globose heads ; receptacle 
hairy. Calyx-tuhe angled, lobes 5. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube long, throat 
glabrous ; lobes 5, valvate. Stamens 6, on the mouth of the corolla, filaments 
short. Ovary 2-ceUed; style filiform, stigma capitate or clubbed; ovules 
numerous, imbricated on a pendulous placenta in each ceU. Cajjsnle of 2 dehis- 
cent cocci, many-seeded. Seeds oblong, testa winged ; embryo in abundant 
fleshy albumen, radicle superior. — Distrib. Species 6, tropical Asiatic and 

1. A. cordlfolia. Hook. f. in Gen. P/; ii, 80; leaves petioled orbicular 
cordate abruptly acuminate pubescent beneath, peduncles 1-3-axillary 1-headed. 
Brand. For. Fl. 263, t, 33. Nauclea cordifolia, JFilld. ; Boxh. Hort. Beng. 14 ; 
Cor. PI. 1, t. 63; Fl. Ind. i. 514; Wall. Cat. 0092; W. 8>' A. Prodr. 391; Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 66; Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 118 

Dry forests, alt. 1-3000 ft,, from Kumaon to Sikkim, Pegu and Tenasserim, and 
throughout the hilly parts of India to Ceylon. 

A large or small tree, wood hard. Leaves deciduous, coriaceous, 4-12 in. diam. ; 
petiole 2-3 in,, stout ; stipules orbicular or oblong. Heads f- 1 in, diam. ; peduncle 
stout, 1-2 in.; bracts small towards the apex. Flowers yellow; corolla downy; 
stigma clavate. Capsule ^ in., cuueate, downy; cells about 6-seeded. 

2. A. sessilifolia, Hook. f. in Gen. Plant, ii. 30 ; leaves sessile oblong 
glabrous base cordate tip rounded, peduncles 1-3 terminal solitaiy 1-headed, 
corolla shaggy. Nauclea sessilifolia, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 515 ; Kurz For. Flor. ii. 
65, N. sericea, Wall. Cat. 6095 ; G. Dun Gen. Syst. iii, 467. 

Chittagong, Boxburgh, Sec. Cachar, Keenaii. Pegu, Wallich, &c. 

A small tree. Leaves rather coriaceous, 6-10 by 3-6 in., glossy above; petiole 
very short and stout, stipules broadly oblong. Heads Ij in. diam., silkily villous; 
peduncle very stout, 1-2 in. ; flowers shaggily silky ; stigma clavate. Ca2)sules ^ in., 

3. A . G-rlffitliii, Hook. f. ; leaves shortly petioled elliptic oblong or 
obovate shortly obtusely acuminate glabrous, peduncles 1-2 terminal 1-headed, 
corolla glabrous. 

Khasia Mts. ; Mahadeb, alt, 3000 ft., Griffith, J. D. H, and T. T. ? Nicobar 
Islands, Kurz. 

A small quite glabrous tree. Leaves persistent, coriaceous, 4-7 by 1^-3^ in., 
narrowed into the short stout petiole ; nerves 6-7 pair, prominent beneath, transverse 
ones slender; stipules not seen. Peduncles 1-2 in., very stout, smooth. Heads \\va.. 
diam. ; bracteoles of short stiiF conical-subulate spines shorter than the silky calyces 
and apparently persistent; corolla quite glabrous. — The Nicobar specimen has rather 

Adina.'] Lxxv. rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 25 

more flaccid and broader leaves than the Khasian, with 8-9 pairs of nerves, and a 
longer peduncle ; its corollas have fallen away. 

4. A. polycepbala, Benth. Fl. Hongkong, 14G ; leaves shortly petioled 
lanceolate caudate-acuminate glabrous, heads in trichotomously branched 
panicles, corolla glabrous. Nauclea polycephala, Wall. Cat, 6100 ; G. Don 
Gen. Sgst. iii. 467 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 66. 

SiLHET and Khasia Mts., De Silva, Griffith, &c. Chittaoong, J. D. H. ^ T. T, 
Tenasserim, Kurz. Moulmein on Thounggyun, alt. 4000 ft., T. Lobb. 

A small evergreen tree. Leaves 3-5 by 1-1^ in., tather thin, glossy above; 
nerves 6-9 pair, caudate apex obtuse and variable in form and length, sometimes 
strap- shaped ; petiole ^f in.; stipules long. Heads ^ in. diam. ; peduncles and 
pedicels slender, glabrous or puberulous. Capsule obovoid. 

Vab. macrophglla ; leaves Ijroader 6-9 by 2^-4 in. oblanceolate wUh more nume- 
rous nerves {10-12 pairs) and much shorter tips. — N. microcephala, Wall, in Herb. 
Hook. Cephalanthus aralioides, Zoll. <Sf Morr. Syst. Vcrz. 61 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 
152, 344. Nauclea t.-ichotoma, Zoll. J- Morr. I.e. N. aralioides, Miq. I. c. Suppl. 
638.— Silhet. Wallich; Mergui, Griffith.— ^nmdLtvo. and Java: probably the Silhet 
habitat is erroneous, the authority being a garden specimen. 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves petioled ; stipules large, caducous. Floiuers crowded 
in globose axillary and terminal solitary panicled or subumbelled heads united 
by their confluent calyx-tubes, each peduncle with 2 deformed leaves at the top, 
within which are 2 caducous bracts ; bracteoles paleaceous. Calyx-tube short ; 
limb cupular or tubular, truncate or 5-toothed. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube 
long, throat hairy or glabrous ; lobes 5, short, valvate. Stamens 5, on the throat 
of the corolla, filaments short. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigma capitate 
or mitriform ; ovules imbricated upwards on pendulous placentas. Fi-uit of 2 
dehiscent cocci, many-seeded. Seeds small, testa winged, albumen fleehy. — 
DiSTRiB. Species 10, tropical African and Asiatic. 

1. S. parvifolia, Korth. in Verh. Gesch. Nat. Bot. IGl ; leaves orbicular 
oblong ovate or cordate, tip rounded acute or acuminate, calyx-limb very short, 
corolla-tube much exceeding the lobes. Brand. For. Fl. 262. Nauclea parvi- 
folia, Willd.', Roxh. Hort. Beng. 14; Cor. PI. i. 40, t. 52; Fl. Ind. i. 513; 
Wall. Cat. 6093, excl. ^.partly, W. 8,- A. Prodr. 391; Wt. III. t. 123; Bedd. 
Fl. Sylv. t. 34. N. parviflora, Pers. ; Dah. ^- Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 118. Cepha- 
lanthus pilulifer, Lamk. 

Dry forests of the Teopical Himalaya, from the Chenab to Birma, ascending to 
4000 ft., and throughout the drier parts of India to Ceylon. 

A small or large tree, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves extremely variable in size 
and shape, deciduous, 2-6 in., with 6-8 pair of oblique nerves ; petiole short ; stipules 
obovate. Heads about 1 in. diam., with 2 linear-oblong leaves at the base; bracts 
caducous ; peduncles ^3 in. Corolla glabrous within, stamens inserted in the tube. 
Capsules ^ in. 

2. S. tubulosa, Hook. f. in Gen. PI. ii. 31 ; leaves eUiptic-oblong or 
ovate-cordate shortly acuminate, calyx- limb tubular truncate, corolla-tube 
much exceeding the lobes. Bedd. Fl. Sylv., Anal. Gen. 128, t. xxix. f. 1 {excl. 
name parvifolia). Nauclea tubulosa. Am. in Thwaites Enum. 137; Bedd. Ic. 
PI. Ind. Or, t. 18. 

Western Peninsula ; Cochin, Johnson. Ceylon, Macrae, &c. 
A small glabrous tree. Leaves 2-6 in., rather membranous, sometimes pubescent 
beneath, variable in shape, rarely jicute at both ends, sometimes cordate; nerves 

26 Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) {^Stepliegyne. 

10-12 pair; petiole ^1 in.; stipules large, obovate, membranous. Peduncles ter- 
minal, usually 3-nate with the middle ones very short or 0, the lateral 1-3 in. ; 
bracted leaves petioled ; bracts very caducous. Heads 1 j in. diam. ; flowers glabrous ; 
stigmas cylindric, truncate at both ends. Capsules ^ in. including the calyx, ribbed^ 
nearly glabrous. 

3. S. diversifolla, Hook.f. \ leaves orbicular-cordate oblong or elliptic, 
tip rounded, calyx-limb 0, corolla- tube equalling the bearded lobes. N. diver- 
sifolia, Wall. Cat. 6096; G. Don Gen. Syst. ill. 467. N. parjifolifi var. 2, 
Kurz For. Fl. ii. ^7. N. rotunditblia, Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 516 ; Ktirz I. c. N. 
Brunonis, Wall. Cat. 6097 ; G. Don I. c. 467. 

Chittagong, Roxburgh, &c. Tenasseeim and Birma, Wallich, &c. — Disthjd. 

A small tree. Leaves deciduous, glabrous or pubescent beneath ; the lower 
orbicular-cordate, 10 in. diam., coriaceous, the upper 4-6 by 2-3 in. and mem- 
branous, nerves oblique ; petiole f-l^ in. ; stipules obovate-oblong. Heads white, in 
spreading 3-chotomou^ panicles, nearly 1 in. diam.; foliar bracts long-petioled ; 
corolla glabrous except the lobes within ; stigma elongate, mitriform. Capsules \ in. 
long, smooth, ribbed. — I have preferred Wallich's and Don's name of diversifolia to 
Roxburgh's of rotundifolia, as expressing the very remarkable difference between 
what I take to be the upper and lower leaves of the branches. 

6. NAUCXiBA, Unn. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves usually large, sessile or petioled ; stipules large, 
caducous or subpersistent. Flowers crowded in globose peduncled bracteate 
solitary or subpanicled heads. Calyx-tube turbinate or obeonic ; lobes 6, usually 
tipped with valvate processes. Corolla elongate-funnel-shaped, throat glabrous ; 
lobes short, imbricate. Stamens 5, on the throat of the corolla, filaments or 
sbort^ or long. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigma capitate cylindric or 
submitriform ; ovules many, pendulous on adnate ascending placentas. Fruit 
of 2 dehiscent many-seeded cocci. Seeds imbricate, testa winged ; embryo 
clavate in fleshy albumen. — Disteib. Species ab^ut 30, tropical Asiatic, and 

* Stigma capitate, stipules Jlat caducous. 

I.'N. purpurea, Roxb. Cor. PI. i. 41, t. 54; Fl. Ind. i. 515; leaves 
elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate subacute, beads 1-3 long peduncled, corolla glabrous. 
Wall. Cat. 6090, excl. D. ; W. 8f A. Prodr. 391, partly; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 129; 
Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 19. N. lanceolata, Blume Bijd. 1009. Anthocephalus 
indicus, Richd. in Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, v. 237. A. chinensis, Hassk. in 
Flo7'a, 1845, 231. Oephalanthus chinensis, Lamk. Diet. i. 678, excl. syn. 
Rumjjh.—R/ieedc Ho, t. Malab. iii. t. 33. 

Western Peninsula; from the Concan to the Circars, and southwards, not 

A small tree, quite glabrous. Leaves 4-8 by H-5 in., membranous, shining on 
both surfaces ; petiole ^-l;*- in. Heads 1^ in. diam., palese of conical bristles ; 
peduncles about 2-3 in., "bracteate about the middle. Calyx silky. 

2. N. zeylanica. Hook. /.; leaves elliptic or oblanceolate obtuse, 
peduncles 1-3 slender, corolla silky. N. peduncularis, Thwaite^ Enum. 137, not 
of Wallich; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 129; Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 235. 

Ceylon ; SafFragam and contiguous districts, ascending to 1000 ft. not uncommon ; 
central province rare, Gardner, Thwaites. 

A middle-sized tree. Leaves 4-6 by 1-2 in., opaque when dry, nerves 6-8 pair ; 

Nmtclea.'] lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 27 

petiole |-| in. ; stipules linear-oblong. Heads 2^ in. diam. ; peduncles slender, 1-2 
in., ■with 4 bracts below or above the middle. Flowers ochreous-purple ; style rather 

3. K. peduncularls, Wall. Cat. 609; leaves large elliptic or elliptic- 
oblong coriaceous obtusely acuminate, peduncles 3-uate very stout, corolla silky. 
G. Dm Gen. St/sf. iii. 469. 

Penang, Porter. — Distbib. Sumatra. 

Branches very robust. Leaves 6-12 by 3-5 in., shining above, cordate or tapering 
into a very stout petiole ^1 in. ; nerves strong beneath. Peduncles 1-2^ in., lateral 
spreading, central short or long. Heads 1^ in. diam.; calyx-lobes long, slender, 
clavate, acuminate, very silky, longer than the tube of the glabrous corolla. 

** Stigma elongate acute, stipules concave sub-persistent. 

4. N. missionis, Wall, Cat. 6099; leaves elliptic-lanceolate acute or 
obtuse membranous glabrous, peduncles short stout solitaiy, calyx and corolla 
tomentose. W. ^ A. Prodr. 392 ; Am. Pugill. PI. Ind. Or. 20. N. oblongata, 
Miq. in Hfirh. Hohenach. 717. N. orientalis, Herb. Madr. N. elliptica, Dalz. 8f 
Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 118. 

Travancor, Bottler, Wight. Malabar, Hohenaclccr. Concan, Stocks. 

Very similar to N. purpurea, but distinguished by the subsessile leaves of which 
the petioles are usually winged to the base, and the elongate stigma, and the remark- 
able stipules. Leaves 4-7 by 1^-2^ in., shining above; petiole rarely \ in.; nerves. 
10-12 pair, slender; stipules forming an appressed cylindric coriaceous sheath, more 
or less connate, sometimes half-way up, glabrous, obtuse, very persistent. Peduncles 
usually inclined, f-l in., with stipular sheathing bracts at the base, and 4 small bracts 
united below into a cup abcve the base, of which 2 are shorter than the others. Heads 
\\ in. diam. ; calyx-lobes and eorolla-lobes tomentose. — Of Dalzell's N. elliptica there 
are authentic specimens, bi\t in bud only. He describes the stigma as ' round,' but 
his specimens accord so entirely -with "Wight's, Rottler's, &c., in all other respects, 
that I suspfct some mistake. His plant should be searched for ' near Sura, and the 
village of Huolun, not far from Chorlo^ Ghaut.' 

6. 27. maingrayi, Hook. f. ; l&Aves broadly ellvptic or elliptic-obovate 
coriaceous obtusely acuminate, nerves beneath pu\)«scent, peduncles solitary- 
very short, calyx and corolla-lobes tomentose. 

Maeacca ; Maingay (Kew Distrib. 823). 

Branches stout, glabrous. Leaves 4-6 by 2-3 in., shining above, contracted into- 
a short petiole which is almost winged to the base; nerv'es 12-14 pair, strong, 
spreading; stipides f in. long, forming an appressed cylindric sheath, obtuse, 
coriaceous. Peduncle j- in,, curved, -with basal sheathing stipular bracts, and broad 
subpersistent ones under the head. Head 1^ in. diam. — Very near to N. missionis, 
with similar remarkable stipules, but the leaves are much broader, very coriaceous, 
with more numerous more spreading strong nerves, which are pubescent beneath; the 
bracts under the head appear to be very large and orbicular, but they are much 
withered, anc I have seen only 2 specimens. — A Bornean species (Beccari, n. 681) is 
probably the same as this, but the heads are larger. 

DorBinnL species. 

N. ovalifolia, Eoxb. Hort. Beng. 14 ; Fl. Ind. i. 576 ; Ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 124; 
* leaves sessile oval and elliptic, flowers terminal solitary.' — ' Forests of Silhet * : 
called Shal by the natives. — Possibly Adina sessilifolia. Don refers it to Vncaria 
elliptica, which is not a Khasian plant. 

N. excelsa, Blume; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 65, from Pegu. This is certainly not 
Blume's plant, if Kiirz is correct in describing it as having no bracteoles, and tho 

^8 Lxxv. RUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) IKauclea. 

pedimcles only 2-3 lines, for Blume's N. excelsa is a true Adini with slender cuneate 
bracteoles amongst the flowers, and peduncles sometimes 2 in. 

N. oBiENTALis, Lamk. III. t. 153, f. 1 ; Blume Bijd. 1066; Ham. in Trans. Linn, 
iSoc. XV. 94, is altogether doubtful. 

7. UMCAZIZA, Schreb. 

Climbing shrubs. Leaves shortly petioled ; stipules entire or 2-fid, Flowers 
in globose axillary peduncled solitary or panicled heads ; peduncles often head- 
less converted into hooked tendrils. Calyx-tube spindle-shaped ; limb 5-lobed 
or -parted. Corolla-tube long, funnel-shaped ; limb 5-lobed, valvate ; throat 
glabrous. Stamens 5, on the throat of tbe corolla, filaments short ; anthers vrith 
2 basal bristles. Ovary 2-celled ; style slender, stigma capitate ; ovules many, 
ascending on projecting placentas. Capsule elongate, septicidally 2-valved, 
many-seeded. Seeds imbricating upwards, testa v/inged above and below ; 
embryo clavate, in fleshy albumen. — Distkib. About 30 species, tropical 
Asiatic, except 1 African and 1 American. — The Gambier of commerce is the 
produce of U. Gainbier. 

* Calyx-limb long funnel- or bell-sha2)ed, teeth lanceolate, corolla hirsute cr 

1. U. scleropliylla, Roxb. Ft. Ind. i. 520 ; branches robust obtusely 
4-angled pubescent or villous, leaves short-petioled large ovate suborbicular or 
oblong rigid pubescent beneath shining and reticulate above, peduncles all 
axillary bracteate above the middle, heads very large, flowers pedicelled, corollas 
villous. U. sclerophvlla, insignis, ferruginea, and pedicellata, DC. Prodr. iv. 
347, 348. U: speciosa, Wall. Cat. 0106. U. fei-ruginea, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 69. 
Nauclea sclerophylla, Hunter in Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. 223. U. pedicellata, Bl. 
Bijd. 1012. 

Penang, Hunter, &c. Malay Peniksula, common from Pegu and Mergui to 
Malacca, Wallich, &c. — Distrib. Java, Borneo, Philippines, 

Very large and stout. Leaves 5-6 by 3^-4 in., base rounded or cordate, rusty- 
pubescent beneath with strong transverse nerves between the 8 pairs of stout principal 
ones ; petiole \-\ in. ; stipules hairy, rounded, 2-fid. Peduncle very stout, 2-4 in. ; 
bracts 6 in a whorl, \ in. long. Heads 4 in. diam. ; calyx tomentose, limb campanulate, 
lobes triangular acute; corolla 1 in., silky or densely villous all over. Capstdes 1-1^ 
in., longer than their pedicels, very variable. — Stems shaggy with long hairs in a 
specimen from Penang (Maingay), with capsules shorter and more turgid, and leaves 
ovate very hairy beneath. The corollas vary from densely shaggy with spreading 
fulvous hairs, to silkily shaggy with appressed hairs. 

2. U. pedicellata, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 520 ; Fd. Wall. ^ Carey, ii. 128 ; 
branches robust 4-angled, leaves short-petioled oblong ovate-oblong or elliptic 
shining above puberulous beneath rigid, peduncles axillary and in terminal 
panicles bracteate about the middle, flowers pediceUed, corolla ^-^ in. with 
long silky hairs. U. sclerophylla. Wall. Cat. 6105. U. fen-uginea, DC. Prodr. 
iv. 348. TJ. Hallii, Korth. Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 166, t. 33. Nauclea ferru- 
ginea, Bl. Bijd. 1013. 

Penang and Singapoee, Wallich, &c. Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. n. 2755), 
Maingay (Kew Distrib. n. 826). — Distrib. Java, Borneo. 

Closely allied to U. sclerophylla, but smaller in all its parts, with more oblong 
leaves not so reticulate above and only minutely pubescent beneath ; heads nearly as 
large, but flowers smaller and capsules much shorter and more turgid (as in one 
specimen of sclerophylla). 

^ncaria.'] lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 29 

** Calyx-limb small, funnel-shaped, limb with short teeth, corolla ylahroua 
m- pubescent {not shaggy\ 

3. IJ. attenuata, Korth. in Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 170, t. 34 ; bmnches 
4-angled puberulous, leaves el!:'ptic obtusely acuminate shining above pubeni- 
lous beneath, flowers shortly pedicelled, calyx-teeth very short obtuse, corolla 
^ in. silky, tube very slender. U. sclerophylla, Deless. Ic. Select, iii. t. 81, not 
of Roxburgh. U. Gambler, Wall. Cat. 6103 0. in part, 

Penang, Phillips. Singapore, Wallich. Tenasserim, Heifer. — Distrib. Sumatra. 

Branches nearly glabrous. Leaves 4-6 by 2-3^ in., firm, base rounded ; petiole 
i-f in. ; nerve-s about 8 pair, very obliquely ascending, strong, with transverse veins, 
axils witli tufts of hair. Peduncles 1-2 in. Heads 1^ in. diam. ; pedicels veiy short, 
elongating to ^ in, in fruit and calyx rufous-tomentose. Capsules (unripe) f in. 

4. U. ovata, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6112, in part; 6103 D. (U. Oambier) and 
6107 in part ( U. macrophylld) ; branches glabrous, leaves petioled oblong 
obtusely acuminate glabrous and ashy beneath, peduncles long stout straight 
axillary and in terminal panicles bracteate above the middle, flowers sessile, 
calyx-lobes ovate acute, corolla silky. 

Singapore, Silhet, and ' Hb. Finlayson,' Wallich. 

Foliage identical with thut of U. canescens, Korth,, but nerves usually 8 pair, 
always without tufts of hairs in the axils ; and the peduncles long and stout, 1^2 in., 
with the bract-scar ^ in. below the bead, and the silky calyx-lobes ovate and acute ; 
the heads also are larger, and the corollas more silky. It differs from a Philippine 
Island plant of Cuming (n. 1470, 1503) in the calyx-lobes very short and ovate, not 
linear or subclavate. Of Wallich's Herbarium specimens (the onW ones I have seen) 
one is from Singapore, on sheet 3112, with IT. Gambier; another is on a sheet by 
itself, marked '6103D. U. Gambier, Herb. Finlayson' (probably from Siam, where 
Finlayson collected); the third, also on a sheet by itself, is marked ' 6107. U. sessi- 
lifolia, Eoxb. Ic. pict. Sylhet.' The latter is probably an erroneous habitat. There 
is a very similar plant in Maingay's herbarium from Penang (U. sclerophylla, Kew 
Distrib. 828), with the leaves slightly scabrid beneath. 

5. IT. canescens, Korth. Verh. Nat. Oesch. Bot. 172 ; branches glabrous 
or puberulous, leaves petioled oblong obtusely caudate-acuminate glabrous 
ashy beneath, peduncles very short bracteate near the base, calyx densely 
tomentose lobes rounded, corolla pubescent. 

Malacca or Penaxg, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 1768, in part). 

I have very imperfect specimens of this mixed -with U. ovata, Br. ; they precisely 
accord with others from Sumatra, collected by Korthals. These differ from all 
described species by the glabroiis foliage, glaucous beneath, together with the very 
short curved peduncles, bracteate towards the base. Leaves 4-6 by l^-2f in., rather 
membranous; nerves slender, 7 pair; petiole ^f in. Peduncle ^ in., decurved ; 
bracts ovate, acute, pubescent. Heads \\ in. diam, ; flowers at first sessile, pedicelled 
later. — Identical in foliage with ovata, Br., and a Philippine Island species {Cumingy 
1470, 1503), differing in the peduncle and calyx from both. 

6. XT. pteropoda, Miq. Fl Ind. Bot. ii. 343 ; branches 4-augled glabrous, 
leaves large very coriaceous veyy broadly elliptic or ovate obtuse naiTowed into 
the short winged petiole quite 'glabrous, peduncles short stout all axillary brac- 
teate above the middle, heads large, flowers sessile, calyx-teeth obtuse. 

Penang, Phillips. Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib. n. 829),— Distrib. Sumatra, 

A very distinct species (the Indian specimens are in fruit only) of a pale colour. 
Bravches rather slender. Leaves 6-8 by 4-5 in., not shining above or beneath, point 
-.suddenly contracted but obtuse; nerves 6 or 7 pair, very strong beneath, arched, 

30 Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) ITTncaHa, 

reins very slender. Peduncles ^-1 in. Fruiting heads 3-4 in. diam. Capsules 
§-1 in., on pedicels as long or longer, crowned with a very imal) almost cupular 
calyx-limb. — Bornean specimens have silky corollas. 

7. U. sesslllft'uctus, Itoxb. Fl. Ind. i. 520 ; branches slender 4-angled 
glabrous, leaves elliptic obtuse or obtusely acuminate shining above glabrous 
und rather glaucous beneath, nerves 5 pair, peduncles axillary and in terminal 
panicles bracteate in the middle, corolla-tubes glabrous lobes silky or glabrous, 
capsulep sessile. Wall. Cat. 6109 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 71. Nauclea scandens, 
Roxh. mss. Ic. pict. No. 1218. 

Eastern Bengal, from Sikkim and the Khasia Mts. to Chittaqong, Pegxj, and 

Branches rather acutely angled. Leaves very uniform, pale-coloured, 4-4^ by 
2-2| in., coriaceous, smooth on both surfaces, tip sometimes produced ; nerves often 
with tufts of hairs in the axils, very oblique, veins obscure; petiole \ in.; stipules 
2-partite. Peduncles 1-lJ in., slender, often forming terminal panicles, puberu- 
lous ; bracts 4, subulate, subequal. Heads 1 in. diam. ; fruiting not much larger. 
Calyx-lobes small, rounded ; corolla-tube slender, lobes glabrous in Griffith's Khasian 
specimens, silky in Wallich's. Capsules turgid, ^ in. long, pubescent. — I follow 
Wallich in accepting this as Koxburgh's B. sessilifru^tus, though the leaves are not 
as described in the Flora Indica, 'soft underneath.' The stipules appear 2-partite, 
but are not perfect. 

8. XJ. la^vlgrata, Wall. Cat. 6111; branches 4-angled glabrous, leaves 
elliptic-lanceolate glabrous on both surfaces shining above not glaucous beneath, 
nerves 5-6 pair slender, stipules 2-fid, peduncles axillary and in terminal panicles 
bracteate about the middle, bracts short obtuse, calyx obscurely toothed, corolla 
glabrous, capsules sessile. 

Tenassebim and Pegu, Wallich, Falconer, Kurz; Khasia Mts., Griffith (Kew 
Distrib. 2769). 

Very near i7. sessilifructus, but the leaves are not at all glaucous beneath, th© 
bracts broad and obtuse, and the corolla perfectly glabrous. 

9. IT. bomomalla, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 343 ; branches tomentose or 
puberulous, leaves ovate-lanceolate long acimainate opaque and puberulous 
above especially on the nerves, shortly hairy beneath, nerves 6-8 pair, veins 
remote, stipules 2-partite, peduncles all axillary bracteate above the middle, 
flowers sessile, calyx-limb very short obscurely toothed, ovary minute cuneate 
silky, corolla pubescent. U. pilosa, Wall. Cat. 6108 0., not of Roxburgh. 

Eastern Bengal ; Jyntea hills, Wallich. — Distrib. Sumatra. 

Branches lower acutely 4-angled, upper nearly terete, closely finely pubescent. 
Leaves 2^-3^ by 1-li, gradually tapering to the long points, base rounded; petiole 
slender, \ in. ; stipules each divided into 2 subulate-lanceolate recurved subpersistent 
segments. Peduncles stout, 1 in., tapering from the base ; bracts obtuse. Heads | in. 
diam. ; receptacle small ; corolla f in. long. Capsules probably sessile. — Differs 
entirely from Roxburgh's U, pilosa in the fine pubescence, smaller size, petioled 
leaves, and calyx-teeth. 

10. U. ovallfolia, Roxh. in Wall. Cat. under 6103 B. 0. {U. QamUer) ; 
Ijranches slender glabrous, leaves broadly elliptic-ovate or orbicular obtusely 
acuminate membranous opaque concolorous and quite glabrous on both surfaces, 
wrinkled when dry, stipules 2-fid, peduncles short slender all axillary bracteate 
near the base, flowers pedicelled, calyx-lobes small round, corollas small uni- 
formly pubescent, capsules very slender. ? U. ovalifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 129. 

Pbnaxg. Porter. Singapore, Wallich, T. Anderton. Malacca, Griffith (Kew 
Distrib. 2768, 2759, an abnormal state), Cuming (». 2292). 

'U*i^aria.] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 31 

Ranches slender. Leaves 2-3 by 1^-2^ in., red-brown and quite opaque when 
dry: nerves about 5 pair, very slender; petiole slender, base rounded, rarely sub- 
cordate. Peduncles ^1 in., slender, pubescent ; bracts orbicular. Heads | in. diam. ; 
calyx villous, lobes very distinct and almost orbicular ; corolla ^ in., very slender. 
Capsules ^| in., twice as long as the fili'orni pedicels, rusty-puberulous, — A very 
distinct species, easily recognised by the broad thin quite glabrous wrinld**d (when 
dry) leaves with faint nerves, the 2-fid stipules, small flowers, calyx, and very slender 
capsules. It is one of the 6 species included under Wallich's U. Gambier (n. 6103), 
and under letter B. is called ' U. Gambier et U. ovalifolia, Roxh. Hb. 1824.' I do not 
find the peduncles to be ' axillary and terminal, compound,' as described by Eoxburgh. 

11. U. dasyoneura, Korth. Verh. Nat. Oesch. Bot. 169; branches Wr- 
angled glabrous, leaves elliptic obtusely acuminate naiTowed into the rather 
long petiole shining above, nerves 4-5 pair strong with scattered hairs beneath, 
stipules entire, peduncles short all axillary bracteate about the middle, flowers 
subsessile, calyx shortly 5-toothed, corolla puberulous. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 
143. U. elliptica, Br. in Wall. Cat. 0104, A. in part, B. 

Penang, Porter, Phillips. Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2756, U. brevispina y), 
Maingay (Kew Distrib. 827/2, U. acida). Singapore, Lobb (No. 331). 

Leaves very uniform, Z-Z\ by 2-2^ in., coriaceous, dark brown, veins very faint 
beneath ; petiole | in. Peduncles generally shorter than the petioles ; bracts ovate- 
lanceolate, glabrous. Heads 1 in. diam. ; calyx shortly tomentose, limb a small very 
shortly toothed cup; corollas slender. Capsules slender, 1 in., on filiform pedicels. — 
There are three plants under Wallich's 6104 A., of which this is the principal ; 
No. 6104 B., from Herb. Finlayson (probably from Siam), has rather more obovate 

Vab. Thwaitesii ; leaves sometimes almost glabrous beneatli, flowers and fruit more 
tomentose and ferruginous. U. Gambier, Thwaites Enum. 138, iiot of Roxburgh. — 
Ceylon ; at Colombo, &c., in the central provinces, alt. 3000 ft. 

*** Calyx-tuhe very shorty lobes oblong or linear or filiform , corolla glabrous 
or pubescent. 

12. IT. G-ambier, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 517 : leaves orate or ovate-lanceolate 
obtusely subcaudate or acuminate glabrous on both sui't'aces, base rounded or 
acute not glaucous beneath, nerves 5 pair, peduncles all axillary bracteate in 
the middle flowers pedicelled, calyx-lobes oblong, corolla-tube puberulous lobes 
white silky externally and with a white beard within. Korth. Verh. Nat. Gesch. 
Bot. t. 34 ; Wall. Cat. 6103, A. E. 0. in part, and 6107 ( U. maci-ophylla) in 
part; Hayne Arzn, Gesch. x. t. 3. PNauclea Gambier, Hunter in Trans. Linn. 
jSoc. ix. 218, t. 22 ; Fleming in Asiat. Researches, xi. 187, 

Hab. Malacca, Penang, and Singapore (wild or cultivated). — Distrib. Java, 

It is impossible to pronounce, from the descriptions of Humph and Hunter, what 
they intended by their ' G-ambier.' I have assumed that Roxburgh's is the right 
plant, both from his accuracy, and because I find that Maingay's specimens marked 
as ' the cultivated plant of commerce ' agree both with Roxburgh's description and 
with the specimen in Wallich's Herbarium (6103 A.), which bears Roxburgli's ticket 
of Gambier. Its characters are, in addition to those given above, leaves coriaceous, 
4-5 by 2-2^ in., always glabrous beneath except smaU. tufts of hairs in the nerve- 
axils, hardly shininer above ; stipules eutire ; peduncle.s rarely more than an inch 
long; heads 1^ in. diam.; calyces tomentose ; corollas ^ in. long with the orbicular 
white silky lobes contrasting strongly when dry with the dark tube, the lobes inside 
bearded towards the base with white hairs (rarely absent) • and glabrous fusiform 
capsules | in. long on short pedicels. The tuft of white hairs uu ihe corolla-lobes is 
not represented ia Roxburgh's Icones, though described by him. 

32 Lxxv EUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Uncaria, 

13. IT. jasmlniflora, Wall. Cat. 6103 C. F. ; branches glabrous or pube- 
rulous, leaves elliptic obtusely acuminate glabrous base acute coriaceous, nerves 
4-5 pair very slender, peduncles all axillary bracteate about the middle, flowers 
shortly pedicelled, calyx tomentose, lobes linear-oblong longer than the tube, 
corolla pubescent, capsules pedicelled almost glabrous. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2766), Maingay (Kew Distrib. 832). Singapore,. 
T. Anderson ; Hb. Finlayson, Wallich. 

A very distinct species, well-marked by the elliptic pbrfectly glabrous leaves 
narrowed into the petiole, and the linear-obiong calyx-lobes I have seen neither 
stipules nor bracts. — Leaves 2-3 by 1^-2 in., somewhat shining above, opaque 
beneath veins very inconspicuous ; petiole slender, | in. Heads 1|^ in. diam. Cap- 
sules turgid, | in., on very slender pedicels. — Maingay's specimens are very pale- 

14. U. pilosaf JRoxb. Fl. Ind, i. 620; branches peduncles and leaves 
beneath tomentose with short hairs, leaves short- petioled oblong-ovate abruptly 
caudate-acuminate, above pilose or scaberidous and pubescent on the 8-10 pair 
of nerves, stipules 2-partite, peduncles all axillary very stout bracteate above 
the middle, calyx-lobes linear obtuse, corolla hairy, capsules obtuse sessile. 
Wall. Cat. 6108 A. B. Nauclea scandens, Smith in Ree^. Cyclop. 

Teopicai- Himalaya, alt. 1-2500 ft. from Gakwhal to Sikkim. Khasia Mts., 
J. D. H. ^ T. T. Chittagonq, Roxburgh, J. D. H. ^- T. T. Birma, Griffith (Kew 
Distrib. 2760) ; Pegu and Tenasserim, Krirz. 

A stout hairy species. Leaves 4-6 by 2-2j in., rather membranous, greenish 
when dry, base rounded; nerves rather delicate, veins distinct; petiole ^ in.; 
stipule-segments lanceolate recurved. Peduncles stout, 1-3 in., tapering from the 
base; bracts ou the upper f, about 6 in a whorl, linear-lauceolate. Heads 1^ in, 
diam. ; calyx-lobes equalling the tube, sometimes elavate, corolla-tube very slender. 
Capsules \ in., quite sessile, elavate, tipped by the long calyx-lobes, nearly glabrous. 

15 U. Roxbarg'blana, Xorth. in Verh. Nat. Oesch. Bat. 172 ; branches 
terete, peduncles and leaves on both surfaces sti-igose scabrid or hispid, leaves 
short-petioled ovate finely acuminate rigid, stipules 2-partite glabrous, peduncles 
short stout all axiUary bracteate at the top, calyx-lobes linear-subulate, corolla 
glabrous, capsules sessile small. 

Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 831). Sinoapore, T. Anderson,. — Distrib. 

A stiff scabrid species. Leaves 2^-3 by 1-1 f in., rigid, paler beneath ; nerves 5 
pair, very stout, spreading ; petiole | in. ; stipules large, broad, coriaceous, concave, 
subpersistent. Peduncks ^1 in., tapering from the base ; bracts close to the head, 
oblong, obtuse. Capsides | in., quite sessile, strigose. 

16. U. macropliylla, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 
132 ; Cat. 6107, in part ; brancheo stout, leaves beneath and stout peduncles 
finely rusty-tomentose, leaves short-petioled broadly elliptic or elliptic-obovate 
or oblong acuminate above glabrous except on the 6 pair of nerves, stipulefc 
2-partite, peduncles axillary and terminal bracteate near the top, calyx-teeth 
linear, corolla pubescent, capsules pediceUed. U. sesailifolia, Roxh. mss. in 
Wall. Cat. 

Bhotan and Assam, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2763). Khasl^ Mts., alt. 0-4000 ft., 
common. Cachar, Keenan 

A large stout species. Leaves 5-7 by 2^-4 in., rather coriaceous, opaque above, 
base cordate or rounded ; nerves rather stout, oblique, not strongly curved ; petiole 
4 in., stout; stipules small, segments ovate-lanceolate, pubescent. Peduncles 1^-2^ 
in. ; bracts near the head, 6 in a whorl, lanceolate, densely tomentose. Heads \\ in. 
diam., fruiting 3^ in. diam. : flowers subsessile, tomentose ; calyx-lobes equalling the 

Vncaria.'] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 8S 

tube, narrow; corolla-lobes whiter than the tube. Capsules very numerous, Z\ in., 
fusiform, beaked, shorter than the slender pedicels, nearly glabrous. — One sheet of 
Wallich's 6107 is U. Gamhier, Koxb., another is U. ovata. 

17. IT. lanosa, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8; Wall. ii. 131 ; Cat. 
6110; branches subterete hairy, leaves very short-petioled ovate-lanceolate 
finely acuminate slightly hairy above softly so beneath, stipules 2-partire, 
peduncles all axillary short bracteate in the middle, calyx-lobes long linear, 
capsules long-pedicelled glabrous. Nauclea lanosa, Poir. Diet. SuppL iv. 64. 
N. setigera, Blume Bijd. 1013. 

Penang, Wallich, Phillips. — Distbib, Sumatra, Malay Islands, 
Slender. Leaves 3-4 by 1^-2 in., membranous, yellow-brown, opaque above when 
dry with scattered hairs or glabrate, paler beneath with soft appressed hairs, base 
acute or rounded ; nerves 6 pair, very distinct, obliquely arching, transverse nerves 
very slender ; petiole ^ in. ; stipular segments ovate-oblong, recurved, quite glabrous. 
Peduncles \ | in., narrowed from the base ; bracts 4, slender, recurved. Heads | in. 
diam., in fruit 2 in. ; receptacle very small and pedicels slightly hairy ; calyx-lobes 
longer than the tube. Capsules fusiform, ^ in., glabrous, on filiform pedicels twice 
their length, acute, hardly beaked. — I have seen no corollas. Wallich describes tlJe 
tube as capillary, smooth, and the lobes as a little hairy. 

18. IT. ZiObbli, Hook. f. ; branches subterete glabrous, leaves short- 
petioled elliptic-ovate abruptly obtusely acuminate glabrous membranous, 
nerves 7 pair, stipules 2-fid, peduncles all axillary bracteate above the middle, 
calyx villous, lobes linear longer than the tube, corolla-tube glabrous, lobes 

Singapore, Lohh (n. 332). 

Slender, very glabrous. Leaves 3-3| by 1^1| in., green when dry, .shining above, 
almost so beneath ; nerves slender, arching upwards, with minute a?:illary tufts and a 
few scattered hairs ; petiole slender, ^ in. ; stipules membranous, reflexed. Peduncles 
narrowed from the base, shining ; bracts 6, large, ovate, acuminate, membranous, 
reflexed. Heads 1 in^; flowers sessile. 

19. U. ferrea, DC. Prodr. iv. 348 ; branches subterete, pedimcles and 
petioles and leaves beneath densely tomentose or villous, leaves short-petioled 
ovate or elliptic-ovate obtusely acuminate with scattered hairs and tomentose 
on the 8-9 pair of nerves above, stipules 2-fid and large bracts tomentose, 
peduncles all axillary bracteate above the middle, calyx hirsute, lobes very 
long filiform, corolla glabrous, capsules slender long-pedicelled. Nauclea ferrea, 
Blume Bijd. 1014. 

Malay Peninsula, from Mergui, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2762), Heifer (Kew 
Distrib. 2761), to Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 830).— Distrib. Sumatra, Java, 

Rather robust and very hairy. Leaves 3-4^ by 2-2^ in., rather coriaceous, rusty- 
brown above when dry, paler beneath, base rounded, nerves strong spreading, trans- 
verse ones distinct; petiole ^ in.; stipules broad, recurved. Peduncles 1-1 J Jn-i 
narrowed upwards; bracts 4-6, nearly ^ in., ovate, acuminate. Heads 2 in. diam , 
fruiting not much larger ; flowers subsessile ; calyx-tube much shorter than the lobes. 
Capstdes ^ in., fusiform, shorter than the pedicels, acuminate, hairy. — U. Horsfieldiana , 
Miq., is a variety with leaves less hairy beneath. Cuming's 1128, from the Philip- 
pines, is a closely allied species with much smaller bracts and stipules. 


U. ACTOA, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 520. Nauclea acida, Hunter in Tram. Linn. Soc. ix. 
223. It is impossible from Hunter's or Roxburgh's descriptions to say to what 

34 Lxxv. RUBUCBiB. (J. D. Hookcr.) lUncaria, 

species this name applies ; it is a native of Penang, and stated to have acid foliage. 
Wallich does not include it in his Catalogue. Miquel {FL Ind. Bat. ii. 146) records 
it as a native of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Moluccas, and from his allusion to 
its often monstrous state from Borneo he probably refers to it the U. ovalifolia. 

U. ciRKHiFLORA., Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 520, doubtfully referred in Fl. Jnd.j ed. Caret/ S; 
Wall. ii. 129 to U. pedicellata, is not determinable. 



An epiphytic undershrub. Leaves petioled, deciduous ; stipules large, per- 
sistent, with fleshy axillary bristles. Flmoers rather large, corymbose, white ; 
corymbs with large white leafy reticulated bracts. Calt/x-lobes elongate, per- 
sistent. Corolla-tube long, limb salver-shaped, throat with reflexed hairs; 
lobes 5, valvate in bud. Stamens 6, inserted below the throat, filaments short ; 
anthers linear, included. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, 2-grooved, stigmas 2 
linear •, ovules many, subulate, imbricate on peltate placentas. Capsule crowned 
with the calyx, septicidally 2-valved, many-seeded. Seeds imbricate, linear, 
with long tails at each end, hilum lateral ; embryo minute in copious albumen. 
— DisTRiB. 2 Indian species. 

1. K. parasiticus, Wall, in Boxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Cai-ey ^ Wall. ii. 157 ; 
PI. As. Rar. iii. t. 227; Cat. 6113; leaves elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate 
acuminate, corymbs shorter than the leaves, flowers pedicelled, corolla-lobes 
villous. Kurz For. Fl. ii. 73. Mussaenda cuneifolia, Don Prodr. 139. 

Temperate Himalaya, from Kumaon to Bhotan, alt. 6-8000 ft., Wallich. &c. 
Khasia Mts., alt. 4-6000 ft. Pegu, alt. 3000 ft., Kurz. 

A small straggling often epiphytic shrub. Stem curved, rooting, shoots villous. 
Leaves at the ends of the branches, 3-12 by 2-4 in., membranous, narrowed into the 
short petiole, midrib broad, nerves about 20 pair ; stipules ovate, acute. Corymbs 
3-chotomous ; peduncle 2-3 in. ; bracts at the axils stipule-like, those at the pedicels 
foliaceous, long-peticled, 3-4 in. long, narrow oblong, obtuse or acute, finely reticu- 
lated. Calyx-lobes linear. Corolla \\ in. Capsule membranous, txirbinate. 

2. B. assamicus, Hook. f. ; leaves elliptic-lanceolate finely acuminate, 
corymbs longer than the leaves, flowers subsessile, corolla-lobes glabrous. 

Assam, Masters {Herb. Hort. Bot. Calc.). 

Stem as in H. parasitica. Leaves 6-10 by 2-2|in., subfalcate, narrowed into the 
shorter pubescent petiole, glabrous, midrib slender, nerves 30-40 pair ; stipules ovate, 
acuminate. Peduncle slender, 6 in., with the rachis 8 in. ; branches long, slender ; 
bracts at the axils whorled, ovate, acute, at the pedicels petioled foliaceous lanceolate 
acute. Calvx-lobes broadly ovate. Corolla f in, 


Climbing tomentose shrubs. Leaves coriaceous ; stipules small, triangular, 
deciduous. Flowei'S in terminal pendulous panicles, buds angular. Calyx-tube 
turbinate or subglobose; teeth 6, short, persistent. Corolla coriaceous, tube 
very short ; lobes 5, linear, twisted in bud. Stamens 5, on the throat of the 
corolla; filaments short, subulate; anthers elongate, 2-fid at the base, back 
hairy. Ovary 2-3-celled ; style short; stigma long fusiform, with 4 pubescent 
angles ; ovules many, ascending, placentas on the septum. Capsule 2-3-celled, 

€(yptosa'pelta.'\ lxxv. rubiace-e. (J. D. Hooker.) 35 

loculicidally 2--3-valved. Seeds many, peltate, imbricate, winged; embryo 
sti'aight in fleshy albumen. — Distbib. Species 4, all Malayan. 

1. C. flavescens, Korth. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 113; branches in- 
florescence and leaves beneath softly tomentose or glabrate, leaves elliptic 
acuminate, calyx-limb short small, corolla tube sill^ lobes glabrous. Stjlo- 
coryne macrophylla. Wall. Cat. 8406, excl. syn. Webera macrophylla, Hoxh. 

Malayan Peninsuxa, from Tenasserim to Singapore and Penang, Porter, Griffith 
(Kew Distrib. 2708), Maingay (Kew Distrib. 908). — Distrib. Siunatra, Java, 

A shrub, branches terete. Leaves coriaceous, 3-4 by 2 in., shining above, green 
when dry, nerves 3 or 4 pair prominent beneath ; petiole ^-^ in. Flowern 1 in. diam., 
fragrant. Calyx-limb short, lobes oblong. Corolla-ttibe ^ in. ; lobes twice as long, 
linear, obtuse. Capsule ^ in. diam. 

2. C. G-riffithli, Hook. f. Ic. PI. t. 1089; branches inflorescence and 
leaves beneath softly tomentose or glabrate, leaves elliptic or orbicular acumi- 
nate, calyx-limb cupular, corolla-tube and lobea silky. 

M.VLACCA and Singapoeb, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2789), Maingay (Kew Distrib. 


Very similar to G. flavescens in foliage, but more tomentose, calyx-limb larger 
almost inflated, corolla- tube shorter and much broader, and together with the lobes 
very silky ; fruit and seeds all larger. 


Trees or shrubs with thici? ^branches and bitter bark. Leaves petioled, 
deciduous ; stipules deciduous. Flowers small, spicate ; spikes in axillary and 
terminal nodding panicles with 1 or 2 large leafy reticulate persistent bracts. 
Calyx-tube short; lobes 6-6, ovate or subulate', deciduous. CoroUa funnel- 
or bell-shaped, glabrous within ; lobes 6, short, valvate in bud with everted 
margins. Stamens 5, inserted below the throat, filaments short dilated up- 
wards ; anthers linear. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigma spindle-shaped ; 
ovules numerous, on cylindric placentas adnate to the septum. Capsule loculi- 
cidally 2-valved, many-seeded; placentas at length free. Seeds imbricating 
upwards, testa broadly winged ; embryo small, in fleshy albumen. — Distrib. 
, Species 4-5 tropical Asiatic and African. 

1. K. ezcelsum, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. n. 149; 
leaves ovate elliptic or almost orbicular abruptly acuminate finely pubescent on 
both surfaces, stipules subentire, panic'es large spreading compound. W. 8f A. 
Prodr. 392; Wt. Ic. t. 79; Dalz. 8r Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 117; Brand. For. Fl. 267. 
H. thyrsiflorum. Wall. /. c. 161 ; Cat. 6114 and 6116 D. (Jlaccidum) ; Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 72. H. utile, Wight Ic. t. 1169 {letterpress) ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 130, 
t. 219, A. only. H. obovatum, Wt. Ic. t. 80 (copied from Roxburgh). H. 
Horsfieldianum, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 164. Cinchona excelsa, Roxb. Cor. 
PI. t. 106; Fl. Ind. i. 629. 0. ihyrsiflora, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 16; Fl. Ind. 
i. 630. 

Dry hills, base of the Western Himalaya from Garwhal to Nepal, ascending to 
2500 ft. , throughout the Deccan and Central India to the Annamallays ; and in 
Tenasserim and Chittagono. — Distrib. Java. 

A deciduous tree, 30-40 ft., with smooth bark. Leaves 4-10 by 3-6 in. ; mem- 

36 Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. I). Hooker.) [HymenodictyoTP.. 

l)ranous, narrowed into a petiole 1-3 iu., nerves 7-10 pair; stipules broad, recurred^ 
usually glandular-serrate. Panicles large, pubescent often drooping; floral leaves 
lor.g-petioled, 3-5 in., strongly nerved. Flowers small, Trhite, pedicelled, clustered. 
Calyx j^2 in. Corolla ^ iu. Capsules on thick decurved pedicels, | in. long, ellipsoid. 

2. K. flaccidum, Wall, in Roxb. Ft. Ind,, ed. Carey Sf Wall. ii. 152 ; 
(at. 6115 A. 0.; Tent. Fl. Nap. t. 22; FL As. Bar. ii. 81, t. 188; leaves 
elliptic abruptly acuminate glabrous or puberulous only on the nerves "beneathj 
racemes spiciform nearly simple, capsules deflexed. Brand. For. Fl. 268. 

Temperate Himalaya, alt. 3-6000 ft., from Garwhal to Bliotan frequent. Khasia 
]\tTS., alt. 4-6000 ft. 

A deciduous tree, -with ashy bark, young often epiphytic. Leaves 5-8 by 3-6 in., 
tiarrowed into the petiole of 1-4 in., nerves 7-8 pair; stipules broadly obovate 
oblanceolate or ovate, glandular-serrate. Bacemes 4-10 in., pubescent, curved, dense- 
flowered ; peduncle 1-3 in. ; floral bracts as in H. excels2im, white, convex. Flowers^ 
subsessile, white. Calt/x ^ in. Corolla about twice as long. Capsules \ in. long, 

3. K. obovatum, WaU. in Boxh. Fl. Ind., ed.' Carey 8f Wall. ii. 153; 
Ca/'. 6116; leaves elliptic or broadly obovate abruptly acuminate glabrous or 
pubescent beneath, racemes spiciform, capsules erect. W. 8f A. Prodr. 392 ; 
Wt. Ic. t. 1159; Dalz. 8f Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 117; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 219; Brand.. 
Foi'.Fl. 268. 

Western Peninsula, from Bombay to Travancore, on the G-hauts, frequent. 

In its extreme form, with broadly obovate leaves, from the southern part of the 
Peninsula, this looks very different from H. flaccidum; but specimens from the 
Concan almost unite them ; but both specimens from the Bababoodan hills, with 
elliptic leaves, and Wight's figured from Coimbatore, with broadly obovate ones, 
have erect capsules, which I have not observed in any specimen of H. flaccidum. The 
differences in the length, &c., of the anthers and filaments are probably sexual. 

11. XiVCUXiZA, Sweet, 

Shrubs. Leaves petioled ; stipules cuspidate, deciduous. Floivers rosy or 
white, in terminal many-fld. corymbs, odorous ; bracteoles deciduous. Calyx- 
lobes 5, elongate, unequal, linear-oblong, deciduous. C&rolla salver-shaped, 
tube long ; lobes 5, simple or with 2 calli at the base, imbricate in bud. Sta~ 
mens 5, in the tube of the corolla, filaments very short ; anthers linear. Ovary 
2-celled ; style slender, stigmas 2 linear included ; oviiles many, on 2 revolute 
longitudinal placentas iu each cell. Capsule almost woody, septicidally 2-' 
valved, many-seeded. Seeds minute, imbricate upwards, testa rough winged 
toothed ; embryo minute in fleshy albumen. — Distrib. 2 Indian species. 

1. Zi. gratlssima, Sweet Brit. Fl. Oard. t. 145; leaves oblanceolate 
lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, nerves usually spreading, inflorescence 
pubescent, corolla-lobes without interposed tubercles. Kurz For. Fl. ii. 71 •,. 
Hook. Bot. Mag. 8946. Cinchona gratissima. Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed^ 
Carey f Wall. ii. 154 ; Tent. Fl. Nap. t. 21 ; Cat. 6117 A. Musssenda Luculia, 
Ham. in Don Prodr. 139. 

Temperate Himalaya, from Nipal to Bhotan, not frequent, alt. 4-6000 ft, 
Wallich, &c.— DiSTKiB. Ava {Kurz). 

A spreading shrub, 10-16 ft.; branches lenticeUate. Leaves membranous or 
coriaceous, 6-9 by 2-4 in., very variable in breadth, sometimes pubescent beneath,, 
acuminate, narrowed into the petiole; nerves 9-12 pair. Corymbs sometimes 8 in* 
diam , very many flowered ; flowers 8-nate, pink, shortly pedicelled. Calyx-tube ^ in.> 

iMculia.'] Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 87 

i'limb twice as long, glabrous or pubescent. Corolla-tube 1- 1^ in., lobes 1 i in. across. 
■Capsule ^-\ in., obovoid, apparently very variable ; in Nipal specimens obovoid \ by 
^ in., in Bhotan ones ^ by \ in. 

2. Zi. Pinceana, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4132; leaves elliptic-lanceolate 
;acuminate, nerves suberect, inflorescence glabrous, corolla-lobes with interposed 
pairs of tubercles at their bases. L. gratissima, Wall, Cat. 6117 B. 

Khasia Mts., Mrs. Mack, &c., alt. 3-5000 ft. Mishmi Hnxs, Griffith. 

A bush 4-5 ft., very similar to L. grafissima, but with leaves smaller, narrower, 
more coriaceous with more numerous (12-14 pair of) nerves which are more straight 
and ascending. Tl)e inflorescence is quite glabro\is, calyx-lobes larger, corolla-tube 
1^2 in., and lobes nearly 2 in. across, with a pair of raised tabercles one en each 
Hide of the sinus. Capsule |-^ in. and broadly obovoid in Khasian specimens, very 
much larger, nearly 1 in. long with strongly ribbed valves in Mishmi ones. 



Shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite or ternately whorled ; stipules entire 
or 2-fid. Floivers small, rosy or white, in terminal dense thyrsoid or panicled 
cymes, 2-3-bracteolate. Calyx-lohes 4-5, subequal, small, persistent. Coi'olta 
tubular- salver- or funnel-shaped, throat glabrous or hairy ; lobes 4-5, imbii^ 
cate in bud. Stamens 4-5, between the coroUa-lobes, filaments or elongate ; 
anthers versatile, exserted. Ovary 2- (rarely 3-) celled ; style filiform, stigma 
entire 2-fid or 2-partite : ovules numerous, on small globose placentas adnate 
to the septum. Capsule small, globose, loculicidally, rarely septicidally 2- 
valved, many-seeded. Seeds very minute, horizontal, compressed, testa mem- 
branous obscurely winged; embryo short, cylindric, in fleshy albumen. — 
DisTEiB. Species about 16, tropical Asiatic. 

A. Leaves opposite. 

* Corolla-tube short, not twice the length of the oblong lobes ; anthers large f 
much exsei'ted. Stipules jye.rsistent or caducous. 

1. W. exserta, DC. Prodr. iv. 411; softly tomentose or pubescent all 
over, leaves opposite ovate-lanceolate glabrate above finely acuminate, stipules 
persistent recurved, calyx hairy lobes ovate or subulate, corolla-tube shorter 
than the lobes, stigma 2-partite. W. Sf A. Prodr. 402; Wall. Cat. 6267 
A. 0. D. E. r. in part ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 130 ; Brand. For. Fl. 268. W. cinerea, 
Wall. Cat. 6268; DC. Prodr . iv. 412. Rondeletia exserta, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 
14 ; Fl. Ind. i. 623. R. cinerea, WaU. in Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey Sf Wall. li. 
141. R. thyrsiflora and orisseusis. Roth Nov. Gen. 8r S]). 142. R. Heynei, 
Roem. 8r Sch. Syst. v. 234. 

Dry forests of the Tropicat. HniAiATA, from the Chenab eastward to Nipal and 
Sikkim, ascending to 4000 ft. Orissa, Central India, N. Deccan, and Concan. 

A small crooked tree ; branches terete. Leaves coriaceous, 4-9 by 1-3^ in. ; 
nerves 10-18 pair, arched; stipules ovate, acute, recurved. Panicles Beasile, ^yrsx- 
midal, 6-10 in. broad and long. Flowers ^ in. diam., white, fragrant, sessile. Stamem 
nearly as large ap the corolla-lobes. Capstde ^ in. diam., white, tomentose. 

2. W. puberula, DC. Prodr. iv. 412 ; leaves opposite elliptic-lanceolate 
acuminate glabrous except the nerves above slightly hairy chiefly on the nerves 
beneath, stipules persistent erect, panicle pubescent, calyx haiiy, lobes triangular 

38 Lxxv. rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) IWendlandia, 

(ir sutiJate, corolla-lobes shorter than the tube. Wall, Cat. 6270. W. scabra, 
Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. Beng. 1877, ii. 310. W. appendiculata, Wall. mss. 

Dry forests of the Tropical Himalaya from Giirwhal to Nipal, alt. 0-4000 ft., 
Wallich, &c. AvA, Kurz. 

Habit of W. exserta, but with smaller (4-6 by i-S in.) nearly glabrous elliptic 
leaves, which are more membranous, with .fewer (10-12 pair) of nerves, and longer 
calyx- tubes often smaller 'panicles and nearly glabrous capsules; stipules very 

3. W. Walliclill) W. 8r A. Prodr. 402, in note ; branches glabrous or 
puberulous, leaves opposite elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate acuminate at both ends 
glabrous or puberulous on the nerves beneath, stipules very caducous broad 
rounded, panicle pubescent, calyx glabrous teeth short triangular, corolla-tube 
a little longer than the lobes. Wall. Cat. 6269 B., in part {tinctoria). 

SncKiM Himalaya, alt. 2000 ft., J. D. H. Khasia Mrs., alt. 4000 ft. ; De Silva. 
&c., Crriffith (Kew Distrib. 2834). 

An erect nearly glabrous shrub ; branches swollen at the nodes when dry. Leaves 
5-7 by 1^-2^ in., rather coriaceous ; nerves 10-12 pair, prominent beneath; petiole 
^-§ in. ; stipules so deciduous that I found only one in ten specimens, it is imper- 
fect, broad, and apparently acute. Panicle moderate. Flowers like those of W. 

** Corolla-lobes rounded or shoi'tly oblong, much shorter than the usnallif 
slendei' tube; anthers included or exserted. Stipules more or less persistent . 

t Calyx-teeth shorter than the tube. 

4. W. tinctoria, DC. P-odr. iv. 411 ; leaves opposite elliptic ovate or 
obovate acuminate glabrous or pubescent beneath, stipules erect large -vrith 
a subulate point or a laterally flattened rigid appendage, calvx-teeth ovate. 
Brand. F&i\ Fl. 269 ; Kurz Foi-. Fl.^. 74 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 130. Rondeletia 
tinctoiia, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 15 ; Fl. Ind. i. 522. 

Tropical Himalaya, fxom Garwhal and from Bengal and Oudh, to the Khasta 
Mrs., Assam, Chittagong, Pegu, and Tenasserim.— Distrib.' Java ? Ava. 

A small tree. Leaves 4-8 by 2-4 in., always narrowed into the petiole, glabrous 
and often shining above, paler rarely glabrous beneath, oftener pubescent on the 
nerves, sometimes tomentose all over; nerves 10-12 pair; petiole ^f in. Stipules 
variable in length, always with erect points. Panicles large, spreading, pubescent 
pilose or tomentose ; flowers sessile, fascicled, white, \ in. long ; corolla-tube usually 
slender, the lobes forming a capitate not ovoid head ; anthers shortly exserted. Stigmas 
oblong. — There are two principal forms. 

Var. 1. normalis; leaves 3-5 by 2-2^ in. elliptic more or less pubescent beneath, 
petiole \ in., panicle tomentose. Wall. Cat. 6267 ; {exserta) F. in part, 6269 D., 
6269 D. 3. W. proxima, DC. Prodr. iv. 41] . Rondejetia proxima, Don Prodr. 139. 

Var. 2. grandis ; leaves 5-7 by 2-3^ in. eUiptic perfectly glabrous, petiole \~% 
in., panicle tomentose. Wall. Cat. 6266 B. A. (paniculata), the lower specimen only, 
6269 A. W. budleoides, Wall. mss. in W. 4" ^. Prodr. i. 402. — Khasia and Jyntea 
hills, Wallich, &c. ; Naga hills, Griffith; Sikkim, Herb. Griff."; Assam, Jenkins. 

6. Vr. nltens, Wall. Cat. 6271; robust, leaves opposite elliptic-oblong 
obtuse coriaceous shining above glabrous or puberulous on the nerves beneath, 
stipules erect very short triangular or broadly reniform apiculate, panicle pubes- 
cent, flowers in glomerules, calyx hairy, teeth short triangular. 

TaNASsfiHifli, Attran river. Wallich, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2380). 

Branches robust, glabrous. Leaves 4-5 by 1^2 in., rarely obovate or subacute, 
nerves 6-8 in Heifer's specimen, 8-12 in Wallich's. Panicle robust. Corolla slender, 
'obe<» very small. — This may be a form of W. tinctoria, with which it is perhaps 

Wendlandia.] Lxxv. rubiacEvE. (J. D. Hooker.) 39 

united by a plant of Griffith's (Kew Distrib. 2835) from Menkroom, in BLrma, -with 
elliptic-lanceolate acuminate leaves, and much more pubescent panicles. 

6. "W. grlabrata, DC. Prodr. iv. 411 ; gla"brous or with the branches, 
leaves beneath and panicle minutely pubescent, leaves opposite petioled elliptic- 
lanceolate subacute obtuse or obtusely acuminate shining above, stipules erect 
small triangular cuspidate or acuminate, calyx glabrous, teeth minute triangular. 
Kurz For. Fl. ii. 74. W. Heyneana, Wall, in W. 8r A. Piodr. 403 j Cat. 
6274. W. sumatrana and W. * laevigata, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 169, 346. 
Rondeletia tinctoria, Blume Bijd. 974. 

Maisor, Heyne ; Tenasserim, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2836), Heifer (Kew Distrib. 
2831 and 2832). — Distrib. Yunan, Malay Islands, Formosa. 

A shrub or small tree. Leaves of the form, &c., of W. tinctoria, always glabrous 
except sometimes the midrib beneath, panicle glabrous or minutely puberulous (more 
8o in W. lavigata, Miq.), flowers as in W. tinctoria, but calyx always glabrous with 
very short teeth. No one has sent this plant from "Western India but Rottler, 
whose specimens (in Herb. Kew) are marked "Nundry dr. Mars 17, 1806." A single 
specimen from Parish has 3-nately whorled leaves. 

W. tenuiflora, Miquel mss., appears a form with the slender branches of the 
panicle covered with empty bracteoles. 

7. W. corlacea, DC. Prodr. iv. 412 ; everywhere quite glabrous, leaves 
opposite coriaceous petioled narrowly lanceolate finely acuminate shining above, 
stipules erect very short and broad with an erect laterally compressed appen- 
dage, panicles very many and dense-fld., calyx glabrous, teeth short. Wall. Cat. 
6279. Rondeletia coriacea, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 142. 

Tropical Himalaya; Nipal, Wallich; Sikkim, alt. 2-4000 ft., J. D. H. 

A small tree or large shrub. Leaves 5-Q by 1^2 in., coriaceous, pale when dry, 
narrowed into a petiole \ in.; nerves about 10 pair, very delicate. Faniclcs 4-5 in. 
high and broad, branches flowering all over. Flowem sessile, ^ in. long. Calyx-teeth 
triangular or ovate-lanceolate. Corolla-tnhe slender, lobes broadly oblong. Anthers 
shortly exserted, stigmas short. — This differs from ylabrata in the longer narrower 
coriaceous leaves with faint nerves and finely acuminate points and the larger flowers. 

8. W. panlculata, DC. Prodr. iv. 411 ; leaves opposite elliptic or 
elliptic-lanceolate acuminate more or less pubescent beneath, stipules recurved 
broad orbicular or oblong with tips rounded, panicle spreading villous, calyx- 
teeth rounded. Wall. Cat. 6266 A. (upper specimen only) ; 6269 (tinctoria), B. 
in part; 6267 (e.vserta), B. in part. W. luzoniensis, DC. I. c, 412. Rondeletia 
paniculata, Poib. Hort. Beng. 15; FL Ind. i. 621. Gardenia Burha, Ham. in 
Wall. Cat. 8298. 

Assam, Silhet, and Khasia Mts., alt. 0-4000 ft. Bibma, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 
2837). — Distrib. Java, Moluccas. 

A tree. Leaves usually large, 6-8 by 2-4 in., membranous, usually tapering to 
both ends, rarely narrowly obovate, nerves 8-10 pair, petiole usually ^~\ in.; stipules 
coriaceous, pubescent. Panicle ample. Flowers as in W. tinctoria. 

ft Calyx-teeth longer than the tube. 

9. "W. lig:ustrina. Wall. Cat. 6272 ; branches slender glabrous, leaves 
opposite elliptic or elliptic-ovate acute glabrous or puberulous on the nerves 
beneath, petiole rather long, stipules broadly triangular cuspidate, panicle lax 
pubescent, calyx glabrous, teeth filiform longer than the tube. 

AvA ; Taong-dong Mts., Wallich. 

Much branched, leafy. Leaves 4-6 by 1-2 in., acute not acuminate, rather coria 
ceous, nerves 6-8 pair, petiole \-\ in. ; stipules apprcssed. Panicle-branches slender. 
Corolla-lobes oblong, half as long as the tube; stamens and styles much exserted. — 

4.0 Lxxv. EUBiACEiB. (J. D. Hooker.) [Wendlandia, 

"Wallii^'s specimen alone seen ; well distinguished by the simply acute leaves and 
glabrous caly^ with long teeth. 

10. "W, grlomerulata, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc, 1872, ii. 310 ; 1877, ii. 
129 ; For. Fl. ii. 77 ; branches slender glabrous, leaves opposite narrow-lanceo- 
late long-acuminate glabrous membranous, stipules large orbicular recurved, 
panicle small pubescent, calyx hirsute, teeth much longer than the tube. 

TenasserIm ; at Mergui, Griffith, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2838), Kurz. 

An evergreen small tree or shrub. Leaves 6-7 by f-1^ in., much attenuate at 
both ends; nerves 12-15 pair; petiole ^1 in.; stipules leafy, sometimes 2-fid, very 
persistent. Panicle with slender bra'hches. Corolla-tvhe funnel-shaped, twice as foLg 
as the calyx-teeth. Stamens much exserted. Capsule hispid. — The narrow leaves, 
stipules, and hispid calyx with long teeth, well distinguish this species. 

B, Xieaves»usually 3-nately whorled (see also 6. W. glahrata). 

11. "W. Notonlana, Wall, in W. 8r A. Frodr. 403 ; Cat. 6273, 6267 G. 
{W. exserta); robust tomentose except the leaves above, leaves usually 3- 
nately w^horled rarely opposite short petioled elliptic or ell^tic-lanceolate 
acuminate, stipules recurved with rounded or 2-fid. tips rarely straight and 
acute, panicle pyramidal hirsute dense-fid., calyx hirsute, teeth ovate-lanceolate. 
Wt. Ic. t. 1033 ; Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. FL 117 ; JBedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 224. We- 
bera thyrsoidea. Roth Nov. sp. 149. Canthium thyrsoideum, Roein. Sch. Syst. 
V. 207. Ixora montana, Miq. in Herb. Hohen. n. 336. 

Hills of the Deccan Peninsula, alt. 2-6000 ft., common. Ceylon, hills of the 
central province, ascending to 7000 ft. 

A shrub or small tree. Leaves 3-6^ by 2^ in., coriaceous, rarely obovate, nerves 
8-10 pair, strong beneath, not shining above, pale when dry, petiole ^\ in.; stipules 
variable, usually smaller than in W. tiiwtoria. Flowers reddish-white (Wight), 
odorous. Calyx hairy, teeth variable in length. — This is the southern representative 
of W. tinctoria. 

Vab. 1. bicuspidata ; leaves nearly glabrous longer petioled, stipules entire or 
2-fid or divided into 2, calyx glabroua or hairy, teeth short obtuse. W. bicuspidata, 
W. ^ A. Prodr. 403.— Mts. of Travancore and Ceylon. 

Vab. 2. zeylanica; leaves nearly glabrous lanceolate narrowed into a slender 
petide^ panicle pubescent very large and lax with long filiform spreading and droop- 
ing branches, flowers scattered sessile and on slender pedicels, calyx quite glabrous, 
teeth very minute. — Ceylon, Thwaites. 

12. W. Xiawli, Hook. f. ; branches and inflorescence tomentose, leaves 
temately whorled lanceolate obtuse pubescent on the nerves beneath, stipules 
l)roadly triangular acute, panicles very large, branches 3-nate very slender erect, 
flowers often long pedicelled, calyx hairy lobes filiform longer than the tube. 

Maisob ; on the Bababoodan hills, Law. 

Braiwhes slender. Leaves (upper alone seen) 3-4 by 1 in., quite glabrous abov«», 
paler and almost shining beneath, nerves 8-9 pair, strong ; petiole 5 in. ; stipules 
short, broad. Panicle a foot long, softly downy with white hairs. Branches very 
long and slender, forming a rather flat-topped corymb. Flowers laxly scattered, 
mixed with subulate or linear bracteoles, most of which are not floriferous. Calyx- 
teeth variable, sometimes short. Corollor-tube ^ in^ very slender. — Closely allied to 
W. Notoniana, diflfering in the form of the panicle and calyx-teeth. 

13. W. angrustifolla, Wight ms«. ; everywhere glabrous, leaves ter- 
nately whorled narrowly linear-lanceolate acute, stipules triangular-ovate acute, 
panicle slender pyramidal, calyx-teeth short subulate. 

TiNNEVELLi ; at Covffitallum, Wight. 

Wendlandia.'\ Lxxv. edbiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 41 

Branches rather slender. Leaves 3-4 by ^-| in., narrowed into the short petiole, 
coriaceous, not shining, midrib strong, nerves about 8 pair very slender ; stipules per- 
sistent. Panicle leafy below. Flowers rather crowded, often pedicelled. Corolla- 
tube slender, ^ in. ; lobes almost orbicular, small. Anthers shortly exserted. Stigma 
shortly clavate, entire or 2-fid. — ^A very diistinct species. 

14. "W. pendula, DC. Prodr. iv. 412 ; branches and inflorescence pubes- 
cent, leaves 3-nately whorled sessile ovate or ovate-lanceolate obtusely acumi- 
nate puberulous on the nerves beneath, stipules small very shortly triangular, 
panicle small, calyx glabrous, teeth lanceolate about equalling the tube. Wall. 
Cat. 6276. 

NiPAx, Wallich ; Pemmi river, alt. 4000 ft., J. D. H. 

A shrub, branches slender. Leaves 3-4 by I3— If in., thin, shining and reticulated 
above, base rounded or subacute, nerves 6-7 pair, petiole hardly any ; stipules very 
inconspicuous. Panicle 4-6 in. long, branches stout. Flowers rathered clustered, often 
pedicelled. Corolla-tube ^ in., slender, lobes oblong. Stamens shortly exserted ; 
stigma clavate. — A most distinct species, 

13. GREENEA, TF. 8> A. 

Shrubs. Leaves opposite or whorled in threes ; stipules various. Floivers 
small, white, sessile in terminal panicled scorpioid cymes, bracteoles slender or 0. 
Calyx-tuhe globose ; lobes 4-5, subulate or ovate, persistent, one longer than 
the others. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube long, glabrous within ; lobes 4-5, twisted 
in bud. Stamens 4-5 in the corolla-throat, filaments short ; anthers linear, 2-fid 
at both ends. Ovary 2- rarely 3-ceUed ; style filiform, stigmas 2 linear revolute ; 
ovules numerous on peltate placentas adnate to the septum. Capsule small, 
globose, 2-celled, septicidally 2-valved, vahes with separable endocarp, placentas 
■at length free many-seeded. Seeds falcate, or subcubical, or angled, testa nar- 
rowly winged ; embryo club-shaped in fleshy albumen. — Distrib. Species 5 or 6, 
Burmese and Malayan. 

1. G. Jackii, W. 8; A. Prodr. 404; inflorescence and leaves beneath 
•softly tomentose or villous, leaves oblanceolate obtusely acuminate, stipules 
large, flowers close-set. Rondeletia corymbosa, Jack in Mai. Misc. i. 4. R. 
spicata. Wall, in Eoxh. Ft. Ind., ed. Carey 8f Wall. ii. 139. Wendlandia? 
corymbosa, Wall. Cat. C276 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 413; Karz For. Fl. ii. 76. 
W. ? spicata, DC. I. c. 412. 

Malayan Peninsula, from Tenasserim to Singapore, Jack, &c. 

An evergreen shrub. Leaves membranous, 8-20 by 1^-6 in., puberulous or 
^labrate above, narrowed into the very short petiole; nerves 20-30 pair, slender; 
stipules very variable in length and breadth, ^1 in., acute. Payiicle subsessile, 
primary branches 3-chotomous, ultimate 2-chotomous ; bracteoles filiform. Cordla- 
iube \ in., haiiy, twice as long as the 4 ovate lobes. Capsule \ in. diam., pubescent. 

_ 2. G-. IVig'htlana, W. ^- A. Prodr. 404 ; inflorescence puberulous, leaves 
-elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate acuminate glabrous except sometimes the 
midrib beneath, stipules with long subulate points, flowers separate. Wt. Ic. t. 
1151. Wendlandia? Wightiaua, Wall. Cat. 6277; G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 620. 
W. secunda, Griff. Notul. 2m ; Kurz For. Fl \\. 75. Guettarda, sp. Wall. Cat. 

Tenasserim, Gomez, &c. Bibma, Griffith. 

A shrub or small tree. Leaves much like those of G. Jackii, but glabrous with 
longer petioles and fewer nerves; stipules usually suddenly contracted to a ]«>ng point. 
Panicles sessile or long- or short-peduncled, branches very slender. Corolla-tube A in., 
puberulous, thrice as long as the 4-5 ovate lobes. Capsules puberulous. 


42 Lxxv. RUBiACEJE. (J. D. Hooker.) IDentella^ 

Tbibe iy. redyotxdes:. 

14. DSMTEX.Z.A, Forst. 

A small weak prostrate annual or perennial-rooted herb. Leaves small; 
stipules connate, scarious. Flowers minute, solitary, axillary and in the forks, 
sessile or pedicelled, white. Calyx-tube globose; limb tubular, persistent. 
Corolla funnel-shaped, hairy within ; lobes 6, 2-3-toothed, induplicate-valvate. 
Stamens 6, in the middle of the corolla-tube, filaments short ; anthers linear. 
Ova7y 2-celled ; style short, stigmas filiform ; ovules numerous on hemispheric 
placentas. Ffniit small, dry, globose, 2-celled, indehiscent, many-seeded, Seeds 
minute, angled, testa dotted. 

1. D. repens, Forst. Oiar. Gen. 26, t. 13; Boxh. Fl. Ind. i. 632; WalL 
Cat. 6206 ; W. ^ A. Prodr. 405 ; Dalz. 8f Oibs. Bomb. Fl. 116. Oldenlandia 
repens, Linn. Mant. 40. Hedyotis repens. Lam. III. 1424, not of Don. Lip- 
paya telephioides, Fndl. Atakt. t. 13. 

In moist places throughout Bengal and eastward to Birma, and in both Peninsulas 
to Ceylon and Singapore. — Distjrib. Malayan Islands, N. Australia, Polynesia. 

A straggling weed, stems rooting at the joints. Leaves \ in., obovate spathulatfr 
or elliptic, ciliate or glabrous. Flowers ^ in. Style cleft nearly to the base. Cap- 
side ^ in. diam., hispid or glabrous. 

16. ARGOSTfiKMA, Wall, 

Small delicate herbs. Leaves usually membranous, opposite, pairs very 
unequal, or falsely whorled ; stipules entire, persistent or obsolete. Floivej's 
white, in peduncled cymes or umbels. Calyx-tube short ; lobes 5, rarely 3-7. 
Corolla rotate, 4-5-partite, valvate. Stamens 4-5, filaments short; anthers 
large, free, conniving or cohering, erect or declinate, dehiscing by 1-2 terminal 
pores, rarely longitudinally. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigma capitellate ; 
ovules very many on projecting placentas. Capsule coriaceous or membranous, 
2-celled, dehiscing at the apex or by an operculiun. Seeds minute, angled or 
compressed, testa granulate or reticulate ; embryo most minute, in dense fleshy^ 
albumen. — Distrib. Species about 40, all from subtropical Asiatic and Malayan 
Mts., except one African (which is also Indian). 

* Leaves opposite or whorled. 
t Flowers irmerous. 

1. A. sarmentosuxn, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8f Wall. ii» 
324 ; Cat. 8396 ; leaves sessile or petioled opposite or in whorls of 4 orbicular 
elliptic or broadly obovate obtuse sparingly pubescent, umbels terminal, calyx 
pubescent, teeth ovate obtuse, anthers 4 free slender opening by pores. Benn, 
PI. Bar. Jav. 95. Sonerila angustifolia. Wall. Cat. 4090. 

SuBTROPioAX Himalayas, from Garwhal to Bhotan, -alt. 2-5000 ft. Khasia Mts., 
alt. 2-4000 ft., J. D. H. ^ T. T. 

Stems 2 in. to a span, often with filiform very long simple or branched runners 
from buds below the leaves. Leaves 1-4 in., 4 in a whorl, or in 2 rarelj more pairs, 
equal or more or less unequal or dissimilar. Umbels simple, 1- many-fld. ; bracts 
ovate; pedicels |-^ in., very stout. Flowers white, with a green eye, f in. diam. 
Calyx-lobes ovate. Corolla segments acuminate. 

2. A. courtallense, Am. in Ann. Nat. Hist. iii. 22; sparsely pubes- 
cent, leaves subsessile in whorls of 4 ovate or orbicular-ovate subacute or 
obtuse base contracted rounded or cordate, umbel terminal simple, calyx-teeth 

Argostemma.'\ Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 43 

acute, anthers 4 free oblong-lanceolate curved opening by pores. Wt. Ic. t. 
1160. A. connatum, Dalz. in Hook. Kew Joum. iii. 346; Dalz. 8f Gibs. Bomb. 
Fl. 118 (by error ciineatum). 

Mountains of the Western Peninsuxa, from Canara to Travancore, Bottler, 
Heyne, &c. 

Three inches to a span high. Leaves never more than 4, very variable in size and 
shape, rarely acute or shortly petioled. Umbels 3- many-fld. Flowers about ? in. 
diam., white. Corolla-lobes acute. 

3. A. tavoyanum, Wall, in Benn. Fl. Jav. Bar. 96; Cat. 8393; leaves 
subsessile opposite or in whorls of 4 ovate acute base contracted or cordate, 
umbels terminal, calyx pubescent teeth ovate, anthers 4 free oblong-lanceolate 
with terminal pores. 

Tenassebim ; Tavoy, Wallich. Martaban. at Moulmeio, Parish. 

Sparsely pilose ; stem 2-4 in. Leaves sometimes only one pair, usually 4 in a 
whorl,- rarehy with a smaller pair added, equal or more or less unequal. Umbels 
simple, many-fld. Flowers \ in. diam. Corolla \ in. diam., and segments acute 
short. — This may prove to be a variety of A. courtallense, but the leaves are more 
acute and the caljrx-lobes more obtuse, and the corolla smaller with shorter lobes, 
as far as I can make out by moistening the dried specimens. 

4. A • kbasianum, C. B. Clarke ; leaves sessile or petioled opposite or 
in whorls of 4, elliptic ovate acute or subacute glabrous, umbels terminal and 
axillary and their peduncles pubescent, calyx-teeth broad acute, anthers 4 free 
linear-oblong straight opening by pores. A. verticillatimi, Wall. Cat. 8394, in 

Khasia Mrs., alt. 2-4000 ft., Be Silva, &c. 

Closely allied to A. coicrtallense, differing in the much narrower glabrous leaves, 
often 2-3 umbels, which are more closely pubescent; the anthers, too, are more 
strictly oblong. There are sometimes as many as 8 leaves of very various size in 
irregularly superposed pairs, and the midrib and nerves are sometimes white. 

tt Flowers 6-merous. 

5. A. pictum, Wall, in Boxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8^- Wall. ii. 327 ; Cat. 
8392 ; leaves sessile or shortly petioled, usually in a whorl of 4 of which 2 are 
very small and 2 very large, broadly ovate or almost orbicular obtuse or sub- 
acute glabrous or with a few short scattered hairs, umbels 1-3 terminal simple 
glabrous, anthers 5 coherent linear-oblong straight opening by pores. Benn. 
PI. Jav. Bar. 94. 

Penang ; Wallich, &c. 

3-4 in. high. Leaves usually large, sometimes 4 by 3 in., often variegated along 
the midrib and nerves. Peduncle slender. Calyx-teeth broad, acute. 

6. A. verticlllatum, Wall, in Boxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8r Wall. ii. 
326 ; PL As. Bar. ii. 80, t. 186 ; Cat. 8394, in part ; leaves sessile 4 in a whorl 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate finely acuminate glabrous unequal, umbels 1 or 
more terminal sometimes branched, anthers 6 free linear-oblong straight api- 
culate opening by pores. Benn. PI. Jav. Bar. 94. A. glaberrimum, Dalz. 
in Hook. Kew Joui-n. iii. 346; Dalz. 8f Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 118. A, acutura. 
Wall. inss. 

Temperate HimalaVa^ from Kumaon to Sikkim, alt. 2-6000 ft. Khasia Mts., 
alt. 4000 ft. ■« Canara ; in the Warree country, on trees, Dalzell. Martaban, at 
Motlmein, Parish. Penang, Wallich. 

Leaves 1-6 in., broader more ovate and distinctly petioled only in Moulmein 
specimens, very rarely with an additional pair of leaves below the whorl. Umbels 
1-3, sometimeswcompound, all terminaL Flowers about ^ in. diam. Calyx-teeth acute. 

44 Lxxv. RUBiACEj;. (J. D. Hooker.) [Argostenmia, 

7. A. Parislili, Hook.f. ; quite glabrous, leaves sessile in whorls of 5 or 
6 or oftener in several superimposed pairs elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, umbels 
branched terminal, calyx-teeth very short, anthers 5 free linear-lanceolate 
straight obtuse opening by pores. 

Martaban ; hills behind Moxilmein, Parish, 

Similar in many respects to A. verticillaium, and, like it, quite glabrous ; but the 
leaves are far more numerous, usually in approximate pairs, the corolla lobes longer 
and very acute, the anthers much longer and obtuse. 

8. A. pumilum, Benn. PI. Jav. Rar. 95 ; glabrous, leaves sessile about 
10 almost whorled lanceolate tip rounded lowest obovate, umbels very shortly 
peduncled irregularly few-flowered, calyx-teeth broad obtuse, corolla-lobes long 
subacute, anthers 6 free oblong opening by slits throughout their length. A. 
verticillatum, Wall. Cat. 8394 B., chiefly ; Hiern in Fl. Trop. Africa, iii. 44. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 0-2000 ft., De Siha, &c.— Distrib. W. trop. Africa. 

A very small rather rigid species, 1-1^ in. high ; stem stiff. Leaves 1-1'^ in., 
more coriaceous than usual in the genus. Umbels smaller than the leaves, few-fld. 
Flowers \ in. diam. — The "West African specimen from Mt. Sierra del Crystal (on the 
upper Gaboon river) differs only in the anthers opening towards the summit. 

9. A. Ziobbii, Hook.f. ; very slender, quite glabrous, leaves in numerous 
superposed whorls of 4-6, of which 1 is much the longest linear-lanceolate sub- 
acute, umbels axillary and terminal, pedicels slender divaricate, calyx-teeth short, 
corolla-lobes long, anthers 5 free linear-lanceolate curved with minute pores. 

Martaban ; at Moulmein on limestone rocks, Lobh, Parish. 

Stem succulent, 4-6 in. Leaves in about 5-8 equidistant whorls, the long ones 
1-1^ in., curved upwards, the short ones \-^ in. Umbels branched from the base, or 
peduncles forked. Flowers \ in. diam. Calyx very small. Anthers not conniving. 
Stigma minute. 

10. A. rostratum, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 326; 
Cat. 8396 ; quite glabrous, leaves whorled or in superimposed pairs linear or 
elliptic-lanceolate acuminate with often bulbiferous axils, umbels small solitary 
simple or compound, corolla-lobes caudate-acuminate, anthers 5 coherent ob- 
long with long slender beaks opening" by pores. Benn. PI. Jav. Rar. 95. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 3-5000 ft.. Be Silva, &c. 

Very variable indeed in stature and foliage. Stem 3-10 in., slender or robust. 
Leaves, the larger on each plant l|^-8 in., membranous, sessile or shortly petioled. 
Umbels very various, few-fld. Pedunclgs 1-3 in. Flowers ^ in. diam, Calyx small, 
lobes short broad. Anthers very large for the size of the flowers, erect ; straight beaks 
as long as the cells. — The beaked anthers distinguish this from all allied species. The 
bulbiferous specimens have smaller leaves and long capillary runners; they often 
•somewhat resemble A. Lobbii. 

** Stem with a terminal pair of leaves, one very large, the other very 
small, and sometimes one or more pairs of very small leaves lower down. 

11. A. humlle, Wall, in Benn. PI. Jav. Rar. 94; Cat. 8391; leaves 
glabrous, uppermost pair of a very large ovate-lanceolate acuminate and a very 
smaU ovate one, lower pairs few or solitary very small ovate subequal, umbels 
solitary puberulous, bracts large, corolla-lobes lanceolate, anthers 4 linear- 
subulate straight free obtuse opening by pores. 

Khasia Mts. ; Mahadeb, Griffith; Churra, J. B. H. ^ T. T. Penano, Jack. 

Yexj variable in size. Stem 1-2 in., very short in comparison with the large leaf, 
vhich is 2-6 in. long, sessile, membranous, the smaller leaf is ovate, }-^ in. long. 
Umbels 3-many-fld ; bracts ovate or orbicular. Anthers more than half the length 
of the corolla-lobes. Stigma minutely capitate. 

Argostemma.'] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 45 

12. A. unlfollum, Bmn. PI. Jav. Rar, 94 ; quite glabrous, leaves 2 only 
larger long-petioled ovate caudate-acuminate smaller (stipule ?) sessile ovate- 
cordate, umbels compound, pedicels slender, anthers 5 coherent elongate-subulate 
opening by pores. 

Penang, Porter. Maiacca? Maiiigay. 

Stem slender, a span high. Larger leaf membranous, 5-8 by 2-4f . in., base 
rounded or cordate, petiole 1-1^ in.; smaller, ^-1 in., recurved. Flowers numerous, 
^ in. diam. Calyx-lobes small, broad, obtuse. Corolla-lobes lanceolate, equalling the 
anthers. Stigma minute, capitate. — The largest-leaved species of tha genus. 

13. A. ILurzil, C. B. Clarke ; quite glabrous, leaves 2 only, larger sessile 
broadly ovate obtuse or obtusely-acuminate, smaller (stipule ?) ovate, umbels 
simple, bracts 4, anthers 5 free broadly oblong-obtuse dehiscing by their whole 
length. • A. unifolium, Kurz in Journ. As. Sac. 1877, ii. ISl, not of Blume. 

Martaban ; at Moulmein, Parish ; Attran, Scott. 

Stem simple, 3 in., forked, in one specimen stout, succulent. Leaves membranous, 
large, 3^5 by 2^-3 in., base rounded, smaller, ^ in., obtuse. Umbel 4-8-fld ; bracts 
almost orbicular, equal. Flowers ^ in. diam. Calyx-teeth very short, broad acute. 
Corolla-lobes lanceolate, much longer than the anthers. — Only three specimens seen. 

*** Stem prostrate v^ith many subequal pairs of thick distichous leaves, 
one of each pair very large, the other very small. — ^Habit of Elatostemma, 
anthers with long beaks. 

14. A. ZSlatostemina, Hook. f. ; stem umbel and leaves beneath fur- 
furaceously tomentose, large leaf of each pair shortly petioled obovate-oblong 
obtuse base contracted cordate, smaller sessile ovate-cordate, mnbels few-fid 
simple or compound, corolla-lobes lanceolate, anthers 6 coherent subulate pro- 
duced into a long straight beak opening by pores. 

Pbnang, Griffith. Singapohe, Lobb. 

Stem 6-8 in., prostrate, very robust, simple or branched, sometimes rooting at 
the nodes. Leaves 6-8 pairs, larger 2-2^ in., coriaceous ; nerves about 10 pair, united 
by very stout reticulating nerves. Peduncle softly tomentose. Flowers | in. diam. 
Calyx small, lobes triangular, acute. Stamens as long as the puberulous corolla- 
lobes. — This species singularly resembles an Elatostemma in habit. 

16. A. parvlfollum, Benn. PI. Jav. Rar. 96; stem hispid, large leaf of 
each pair petioled elliptic-ovate acute with few scattered cellular hairs above, 
glabrous beneath except the midrib, smaller sessile ovate, umbels few-fld., simple 
pubescent, corolla-lobes lanceolate, anthers 5 coherent subulate produced into a 
long straight beak. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 165, t. 31 D. 

Singapore, Lobb. — Distrib. Java. 

Stem 4-8 in. slender, prostrate, simple or branched, rooting at the nodes. Leaves 
thick and succulent, in 4-8 distant or approximate pairs; larger i^-lj in., base 
rounded or cordate and equally or unequally auricled; smaller ^ in. ;' nerves indis- 
tinct. Flowers similar to those of A. Elatostemma, but beak of anthers shorter. 

16. A. ophlrense, Maingay mss.; stem robust sparsely hairy, leaves 
coriaceous glabrous, larger of each pair subsessile oblanceolate or obovate 
obtuse or acuminate obliquely auricled at the base, smaller obliquely ovate- 
cordate sessile, umbels few-fld. 

Maiacca ; on Mt. Ophir, Maingay. 

Stem 8-10 in., ascending, nodose, copiously rooting at the base, succulent. Leaves 
thick and succulent, in many pairs, larger 2-3^ by f-l^ in., smaller ^i in. Calyx- 
lobes very broad, acute. Corolla and stamens not seen. 

46 Lxxv. RUBIACEJB. (J. D. Hooker.) lArgostermna, 

17. Jl. spinulosum, C. B. Clarke ; stem stout hispid with curled hairs, 
large leaf of each pair petioled ohlanceolate acute, glabrous ahove with minute 
spinulose hairs on and near the margin, hairy on the nerves beneath, smaller 
ovate-lanceolate acuminate, umbels forked compound many-fld., anthers 5 
coherent subulate produced into a short beak. 


Only one specimen seen. Stem 4 in., very stout, flexuous and rooting below: 
Leaves rather thick and succulent in 4 pairs, the larger 4-5 "by \\ in., base contracted 
obliquely, auricled, nerves spreading raised beneath, petiole | in. ; smaller i^in., more 
membranous Umbel and peduncle quite glabrous. Flowers ^ in. diam. Calyx-lobes 
triangular-ovate, acuminate. Corolla-lobes lanceolate. 


A. iNJEauiLATERUM, Beun. PL Jav. Bar. 95 ; "leaves usually 4 in a vhorl more 
or less unequal, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate unequal-sided acuminate glabrous ; 
umbel subsimple few-fid ; flowers 5-merous." — Perhaps A. verticillatum. 

A. soNERiLOLDEs, Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 310; calyx-lobes 3-4; corolla 
subcampanulate, 3-4-lobed; leaves whorled; anthers oblong obtuse. — AndamaL 
Islands, Kurz. — Very imperfect specimens from Dr. King do not enable me to refer 
this satisfactorily to anj described species : it resembles tawyanum. 

A. OLiGANTHA, Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 131. — An Andaman species and 
another of Kurz, from Boronga Island, on the Arracan coast, are not recognisable. 

16. CZiARKEXiZiA, I£ook,/» 

A very small erect glabrous puberulous herb. Leaves opposite, petioled, 
ovate, one of the lower pair usually suppressed, the other very large ; stipules 
minute, broadly ovate, or obsolete. Flowers 1-6 in., in peduncled terminal 
bracteate cymes, white. Calyx-tube obconic, produced above the ovary ; limb 
dilated, 5-7-toothed. Corolla-tube long, slender, funnel-shaped above, throat 
glabrous ; lobes 5, lanceolate, valvate. Stamens 6, near the bottom of the tube, 
filaments short slender; anthers linear-oblong. Ovary 2-celled; style short, 
arms 2 slender hairy; ovules many, on ascending placentas attached to the 
septum below its middle. Capsule obconic, 5-7- ribbed, crowned with the 
dilated calyx-limb, membranous, indehiscent, many-seeded. Seeds very minute, 
irregularly ellipsoid, testa black papillose. 

1. C. nana, Hook.f. Ophiorhiza nana, Edgw. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 60. 

Temperate Himalaya, alt. 4-8000 ft. Kumaon, Edgworth, &c. ; Garwhal, 

A v^ry singular little plant, requiring examination in a living state as to its mode 
of growth. Stem 1-3 in., slender, simple, curved upwards, terminating below in a 
small fleshy tuber enclosed in a rather thick sheathing coat, the outer surface of 
which coat is clothed with short rigid rootlets that adhere to surrounding particles of 
sand and ground by suckers. Radicle-leaf |-1| in. diam., solitary, orbicular or 
broadly ovate, obtuse, membranous; nerves 4-5 pair, spreading and arching; petiole 
slender ; besides this leut there is a single pair of small leaves close to the cyme. 
Cym£ on a stout peduncle ^-| in. long ; bracts small, oblong. Flowers shortly pedi- 
celled, erect, ^ in. long. Calyx-lobes triangular with acuminate tips. Corolla pubes- 
cent. Stamens and style near the very base of the corolla-tube. Fruit ^ in. long. — 
Named after my coadjutor in this work, C. B. Clarke, F.L.S. 

17. NEUROCAZ.VX, Hook. 

Low herbs. Leaves opposite, crowded, membranous, entire or toothed, 
reticulate ; stipules large, 2-iid, or multifid. Flowers rather large, pale purple, 

.Neurocalyx.'] Lxxv rubucbj:. (J. D. Hooker.) 47 

in short axillary nodding racemes or heads; bracts simple or 3-toothed or 
-partite. Calyx-lobes 6, broad, membranous, reticulate. Corolla rotate ; lobes 
shorter and narrower than the calyx-lobes, valvate. Stamens 6, filaments 
very short; anthers connate in a conical tube, bursting inwards. Ovary 2- 
celled; style filiform, stigma capitellate; ovules numerous on swollen peltate 
placentas. Fruit coriaceous or fleshy, usually irregularly bursting, many- 
seeded. Seeds minute, globose, testa crustaceoos pitted ; embryo obovoid in 
fleshy albumen. — Distrib. Species 6-8, on the Dekkan Mts., Ceylon, and 

1. M*. zeylanicus, Hook. Ic. PL t. 174 ; glabrous, leaves oblanceolate 
acuminate narrowed into slender petioles, nerves beneath and inflorescence 
puberulous, flowers racemose, caljx-lobes lanceolate. 

Cexlon; Suffi-agam district, ascending to 4000 ft., Walker, &c. 

Stem woody, 2-8 in., clothed with spreading subspinescent stipular segments. 
Leaves 4-8 by 1-2 in. ; nerves about 20 pair. Peduncles numeroub, half as long as 
the leaves. Flowers f in. diam. Corolla not half as long as the calyx, lobes lanceo- 

2. N. VTlgrhtil, Am. in Ann. Nat. HUt. ii, 22 ; leaves sessile oblanceolate 
acuiiiinate glabrous alDove, nerves beneath and inflorescence furfiu-aceous, flowers 
racemose, calyx-lobes ovate acute. N. Hookeriaua, Wt. Ic. t. 52. Argo- 
stemma calycinum, Br. in Benn. PI. Jav. Bar. 97 ; JFall. Cat. 8397. 

Southern Mountains of the Western Peninsula ; Wynaad, Hamilton, &c. ; Nil- 
gherris, Munro. Ceylon, ascending to 2000 ft.. Walker, &c. 

Stem 2-4 in., woody, tortuous. Leaves 6-9 by 1^-3 in.; nerves 12-16 pair; 
stipules lanceolate, membranous. Peduncles not half so long as the leaves. Floxcer? 
f^ in. diam. Corolla nearly as long as the calyx, lobes ovate. 

3. N. capltata, Benth. nus. ; leaves oblanceolate narrowed into long 
stout petioles, nerves beneath and inflorescence pubescent, flowers capitate, 
calyx-lobes ovate acute. 

Ceylon, Walker, Ckarnpion. 

Stem erect, stout, a foot or more high, with distant pairs of large leaves, glabrous. 
Leaves 10-12 by 2^4 in.; nerves 16-20 pair; stipules membranous, 2-partite, 
segments ovate caudate -acuminate, Peduncles axillary, shorter than the petioles ; 
heads of flowers globose or oblong. Flowers f in. diam. Corolla-lobes broadly ovate, 
obtuse, half as long as the calyx. — Very different from N. Wightii in the long stout 
stem, much larger petioled leaves with more numerous nerves, and larger floweVs. 

4. N. Cbamplonli, Benth. in Thw. Enum. 130 ; leaves sessile or 
petioled obovate-lanceolate obtuse bullate above, nerves beneath and inflores- 
cence villous, flowers racemed, calyx-lobes ovate acute. 

Cbtlon ; Kokool Corle, Thwaites. 

Stem very short, woody. Leaves 3-6 by 1-2 in., midrib hairy above, base obtuse 
or narrowed into the petiole; nerves about 10 pair; stipules membranous, 2-partite. 
Racemes half as long as the leaves. Flowers ^ in. diam. Corolla-lobes narrow, 
oblong, equalling the broadly ovate acute calyx-lobes. 

5. TX. Grardneri, Thw. Enum. 139; leaves obovate-lanceolate with 
rounded apiculate tips narrowed into a very short petiole hairy above and 
beneath, inflorescence racemose villous, calyx-lobes ovate- or orbicular-coi-date. 

Ceylon ; Pasdoon Corle and Hewetsea, Gardner, Thwaites. 

Stem short, stout, woody, villous. Leaves 4-10 by 1^-3^ in., very membranous, 
ciliate, obscurely crenulate ; nerves 15-18 pair; stipules 2-partite, segments caudate- 
acuminate. Corolla not seen. 

48 Lxxv. RUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) \_All(Bophama^ 

18. AZiZiHSOPKAMXA, ThtvaUes. 

Under8hrul)S ; branches 4-angled. Leaves sessile or shortly petioled, ovate 
or lanceolate; nerves close; stipules connate into a scarious bristly tube^ 
Flowers minute, polygamo-dioecious, in axillary dense cymes, pale purple. 
Calyx'tvhe obconic ; limb bell-shaped, 4-ribbed and with 4 bristle-like teeth, 
persistent. Corolla funnel-shaped ; tube and throat hairy ; lobes 4, valvate in 
bud. Stamens 4, inserted between the corolla-lobes, filaments of $ long ex- 
serted; anthers linear-oblong, obtuse. Ovary 4-celled; style filiform, $ ex- 
serted, arms 4 linear; o\Tiles 1 basilar erect in each cell. Fruit small, tur- 
binate, with 4 bon^ indehiscent pyrenes. Seeds erect, minute, broadly oblong or 
subglobose, compressed, narrowed at the base, testa membranous; embryo 
short, cylindric. — Distkib. Species 3, one Malayan, the others as below. 

1. A. declpiens, Thw. Enum. 147; monu or less hirsute C4 gLabrate^ 
leaves sessile or petioled ovate or lanceolate acute or acuminate, nerves strong- 
beneath, stipules broad, calyx-teeth equalling the hairy fruit. Hedjotis nodu- 
losa, var. a. Thw. Enum. 143, as to C. P. 105, not of Aimott. 

Ceylon ; Central Province, alt, 3-7000 ft. 

An erect 3-chotomously branched shrub. Leaves 1-2^ by ^1| in., usually coria- 
ceous and hairy or scabrid above, very variable i? shape from broad ovate to narrow- 
lanceolate, base acuminate rounded or cordate, upper surface flat or bullate ; petiole^ 
or ^-^ in. ; stipular bristles hairy. Calyx-limb membranous. Corolla-tube hairy, 
lobes narrow, villous within. Style slender, hairy, arms spreading. — There are three 
varieties : one with broad sessile or petioled coriaceous leaves, scabrid above, with 
very strong nerves beneath ; the second (var. flavescens, Thw. 1. c.) with ovate-cordato 
petioled membranous very hairy leaves ; the third with narrow-lanceolate coriaceous 
leaves glabrous and wrinkled above and strong hairy nerves beneath. — Closely allied 
to Hedyotis rugulosa, Korth., of the Malayan Islands, which has much longer calyx- 
teeth, on which Miquel founded the section Tetragyneia of Hedyotis. 

2. A . Amottll, Hook. f. ; glabrous or nearly so, leaves petioled ovate- 
lanceolate acuminate nerves distinct, stipules caducous ovate with few sub- 
terminal bristles, calyx-teeth shorter than the glabrous fruit. — Hedyotis nodu- 
losa, var. a. Thwaites Enum. 143, as to C. P. 87, not of Arnott. 

Ceylon ; Newera EUia, Gardner ; Adam's Peak, Thwaites. 

Closely allied to A. decipiens, but almost glabrous, with longer differently shaped 
stipules, smaller glabrous fruit and shorter calyx-teeth; the style, too, is quite - 

19. rSRGVSONXA, Hook.f 

A slender procumbent herb, branching fi*om the base; branches very longv 
rooting below, acutely 4-angled; nodes ciliate. Leaves opposite, subsessile^ 
lanceolate, scaberulous, l-nerved, margin ©recurved ; stipules connate with the 
petioles, erect, herbaceous, lanceolate, ciliate, persistent. Flowers small, axU- 
tuy, shortly pedicelled, 2-bracteolate. Calyx-tube subpyriform ; lobes 4, erect, 
lanceolate, ciliate, persistent. Corolla funnel-shajped, throat glabrous or hairy ;■ 
lobes 4, short, valvate in bud, tips ciliate. Stamens 4, inserted between the 
. orolla-lobes, filaments short ; anthers linear-oblong. Disk epigynous, 4-lobed, 
Coary 4-celled; style filiform, arms 2 linear hairy; ovules 1 basilar erect m 
each cell. Fruit of 4 pear-shaped coriaceous cocci crowned with the calyx- 
teeth. Seeds erect, pyriform ; embryo compressed, subcylindric, radicle inferior, 

1. P. zeylanlca, Hook.f. in Hook. Ic. PI. 1. 1124. Borreria tetracocca, 
Thw. Enum. 442 ; Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 39. 

Jffecb/otis.'} Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 49 

CooKG, Beddome ; Ceylon, near Colombo, W. Ferguson. 

Branches 1-2 ft. Leaves \-l\ in., and whole plant pale green -when dry. Corolla 
^ in. long. — A very singular plant, which I was at first disposed to consider as 
belonging to PsychotrkcB, but which I think now to be closely allied to Allaophania, 
as I suspected when placing it in that tribe in the " Genera PlaDtarum " It dififers 
remarkably from the other Hedyotidean genera in the form and insertion of the seed, 
and in the dimerous style with a 4-merous ovary, but is united with them through 


Herbs, undershrubs or shrubs. Leaves yery rarely ternately whorled; 
stipules free or combined in a bristly sheath. Floioers white or lilac, in ter- 
minal or axillary open close or capitate cymes. Calyx-lobes 4, acute, persistent, 
without intei-posed teeth. Corolla funnel- or bell-shaped ; lobes 4, ovate, or 
linear, valvate in bud. Stamens 4, in the tube or throat of the corolla. Ovary 
2-celled ; style filiform, stigma 2-fid or 2-lobed ; ovules numerous on sessile or 
pedicelled placentas, attached to the septum at or below the middle. Fruit 
small, membranous coriaceous or crustao6ous, indehiscent or septi- or loculi- 
cidal or of 2 separable or connate cocci, 2-many-seeded. Seeds plano-convex or 
angled, testa very rarely winged ; embryo clavate in homy albumen. — Distrib. 
Species about 80, chiefly tropical Asiatic. 

A very difficult genus to define, a few species being intermediate between it, 
Anotis and Oldenlandia. Flowers rarely 5-merous. The solitary ovules on the face 
of the septum in each cell, and the seeds, distinguish Spermacoce from it ; in habit 
they are often very similar. 

Sect. I. Siplopbragrma. Capsule septicidally splitting into two 1-4- 
(rarely more-) seeded cocci, which dehisce ventrally, top not protruded between 
the calyx-teeth. — Erect or decumbent shrubs or herbs ; stipules various. 

• Frect shrubs y cymes terminal or axillary, rarely corymbose or panicled, 
very rarely capitate ; stipules not large and sheathing. 

t Stipules entire or gland-sei-rate or -crenate, rarely pectinate. 

1. K. fknticosa, Linn. ; glabrous, brandies obtusely 4-angled, leaves 
petioled lanceolate acuminate, nerves distinct, stipules gland-crenate, cjines 
terminal panicled, calyx-teeth triangular recurved shorter than the ovoid smooth 
capsule. W. ^ A. Prodr. 408 ; Burm. Fl. Zeyl. t. 107. Spermacoce ? hedy- 
otidea, DC. Prodr. iv. 555.— Bheede Hort. Mai. iv. t. 57. 

Travancohe Mts., Bottler, ^c. Ceylon, common up 3000 ft. 

An erect shrub, green when dry. Leaves 2-4 in., coriaceous; nerves 6-12 pair. 
Corolla-throat woolly. Seeds 4 in each cell, plano-convex, or concavo-convex. — Wight 
and Arnott's var. i8., with hispid cymes, appears to be H. pruinosa; Wallich's 837 i, 
the same authors refer to this species because it was gathered by Eottler, but 
Eottler's Herbarium contains Malayan plants, and that in question is H. capitellata. 
Wallich's 837 a, also from Bottler's Herbarium, is H. pruinosa. 

2. K. XHaingrayl, Hook. f. ; glabrous, leaves shortly petioled lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate acuminate nerveless, stipules entire eglandular, cymes ter- 
minal panicled, calyx-teeth lanceolate longer than the capsules. 

Malacca ; on Mt. Ophir, Griffith, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 887). 

A short much branched shrub, green when dry, 12-18 in. Leaves 1-2 in , acute 
or rounded at the base, petiole winged. Flowers more crowded than in H.fruticosa; 
flowers and fruit and seeds similar, except that the calyx-teeth are much longer and 

60 Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Hedyotis. 

3. K. evenia, Thwaites Enum. 140, 419; sliming, branches and inflores- 
cence puberulous, leaves shortly petioled elliptic or ovate-lanceolate acute 
glabrous nerveless, margins recurved, stipules with sparingly glandular tips, 
cymes terminal panicled, calyx-lobes triangular obtuse shorter than the capeiue. 

Cbylok ; Adam's Peak, Gardner. 

A small shrub, yellow when dry; branches acutely 4-angled, Leaves ^-| in.« 
coriaceous above, varnished and with a few scattered raised points. Cymes few-fld. 
— Fruit unknown, and hence the position of the species in the genus, 

4. K. cymosa, Thivaites Enum. 142 ; glabrous, leaves sessile lanceolate 
obtuse or acute, berves very faint, stipules ovate-lanceolate long-acuminate 
gland-serrate, cymes terminal panicled, calyx-teeth in fruit lanceolate exceeding 
the capsule. Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 36. 

Ceylon; Hinidoon Corle, alt. 1000 ft., Thwoites. 

A shrub, black when dry ; branches obtusely angled. Leaves 2-3 in., coriaceous, 
margins not recurved. CyTnes flat^topped, very minutely puberulous. Calyx-teeth 
much enlarged in fruit. Capsule almost didymous. Seeds solitary in each cell, much 
compressed, plano-convex (winged when ripe ?). 

5. B. MacraBi, Hook. f. ; softly pubescent, leaves petioled recurved 
lanceolate acuminate many-nerved, stipules broader than lor^ abruptly cuspi- 
date eglandular, cymes terminal panicled, calyx-teeth shorter than the capsule. 

Ceylon, Macree. 

Grey-green when dry; branches obscurely 4-angled. Leaves 3-4 in., recurved 
and complicate, narrowed into a petiole \-f in. long, rather scabridly pubescent 
above, softly tomentose beneath ; stipules tomentose. Cymes large, rounded, with 
whorled spreading branches. Flowers small, \ in. Calyx pubescent, as are the 
corolla-lobes within. Capsule small, ellipsoid, cells many-seeded. 

6. K. purpurascens, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 6 {purpurea) ; quite 
glabrous, leaves petioled ovate or ovate-lanceolate obtuse or obtusely-acuminate, 
nerves faint, stipules gland-serrate or pectinate, cymes terminal panicled, caljrx- 
tube produced aiid teeth much longer than the capsule. 

Mts. of Travancore and Tinnevelli, Wight (Kew Distrib. 1367. H- stylosa, var.\ 

A small woody shrub, yellow-green when dry; branches tortuous and 
below. Leaves 1-3 in., coriaceous, margins flat, nerves variable in number; stipules 
pubescent. Cy/nes rounded in flower, flat-topped in fruit. Calyx-lobes oblong, obtuse. 
Corolla small, with small lobes. Capsules large, ^ in., with the enlarged calyx nar- 
rowly ellipsoid, cells many-seeded.— There being an H. purpurea previously published 
(by A. Gray), but unknown to Col. Beddome, I have substituted of purpurascens 
for his plant. 

7. K. scaberula, Hooh. f. ; finely scaberulous throughout, branches 
slender elongate terete, leaves petioled ovate acute flat, nerves faint arched, 
stipules triangular obtuse appressed, margins glandular, cymes in a loose erect 
bracteate terminal leafy panicle, flowers pedicelled divaricate, calyx-teeth 
triangular much shorter than the subglobose capsule. 

Martaban ; at Moulmein, Lohb. 

A very distinct species, rough to the touch all over, of which I have but one 
specimen, and that in fruit, pale green when dry ; branches strict, slender, with long 
intemodes. Leaves 2-3 in., base acute, equally scaberulous on both surfaces ; petiole 
^ in. Panicle elongate; pyramidal in outline, with distant intemodes ; branches strict 
rather depressed, the lower with large leaves at the axils, uppermost naked, 3-choto- 
inously branched at the ends. Capsule septicidal, the valves loculicidal. Seeds about 
8 on each placenta. — This may be a climbing species, but there is no evidence of it. 

Hedyotis.'] Lxxv. rubiace;e. (J. D. Hooker.) SI 

ft Stipules pectinate. 

8. X. stylosa, Br. in Wall. Cat. 853 ; pflabrous, leaves petioled ovate or 
-elliptic-ovate acute glabrous or hairy on the distinct nerves beneath, stipules 
connate pectinate with long subulate segments, cymes terminal, calyx-tube pro- 
duced above the ovaiy, teeth short acute. TT/ ^ A. Prodr. 407 ; Wt Ic. t. 
1027. H. ? Leschenaultiana, DC. Prodr. iv. 422, excl. var. /3. Knoxia 
Wightiana, Scldecht. in PCerh. Hohenack., not of WaUich. 

Mountains of Malabau and Travancobe, alt. 5-6000 ft., common, Noton, &c. 

A much branched shrub, yellow-green when dry. Leaves 1-2 in., very variable in 
breadth and shape, coriaceous, margins flat or recurved, nerves few obscure above ; 
•stipules pubescent. Cymes short, flowers crowded. Corolla-lobes woolly within'. 
Capsules globose, many-seeded. 

0. K. articularls, Br. in Wall. Cat. 854 ; quite glabrous, leaves sessile 
small lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate subacute, margins recurved, nerves below 
very broad, stipules connate pectinate with long subulate segments, calyx-tube 
produced above the ovary, lobes very short. W. 4' A. Prodr. 407 ; Wt. Ic. t, 

NiLGHERRY Mts., yofou, Wight, &c. 

A small rigid stout leafy bush, yellowish wheu dry. Leaves |-1 in., very rigid, 
■with 8-10 very broad and much raised longitudinal nerves beneath, marked by 
channels above. Cymes terminal, small, dense-flowered. Calyx-limb a 4-toothed cup, 
unaltei'ed in fruit. Corolla puberulous, lobes glabrous, mouth woolly. Capsule very 
variable, from ^ in. globose to ^ in., obovoid ; cells with 8-10 angular seeds. 

10. U. pruinosa, W. 4' A. Prodr. 408 ; leaves petioled ovate-lanceolate 
or lanceolate acuminate glabrous, nerves distinct, stipules free pectinate, seg- 
ments subulate, cymes pruinose, calyx-limb not produced, teeth subulate 
recm'ved shorter than the capsule. H. corymbosa. Wall. Cat. 6202, chiejly\ 
^37 a. H. lentiginosa, Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 6. 

Travancohe and Malabar ; Quilon, Wiykt ; in the backwaters, Beddcme. 

A shrub, yellowish when dry. Leaves 2-2^ in., margins flat ; nerves few, slender ; 
petiole A-^ in. ; stipules not connate, short. Cym^s spreading, many-flowered, hoary. 
KJorolla-mouth woolly. Capsules small, obovoid, subclavate or globose, many-seeded. 

11. K. swertioides, Hook. f. ; leaves sessile glabrous elliptic acute 
margins undulate, stipules free very long slender pectinate with distant subu- 
late segments, cymes very many in the upper axils and tenninal densely pubes- 
cent, calyx-limb not produced, lobes lanceolate longer than the tube. 

TiNNEVELLi; in the Pulney Mts., Wight (Kew Distrib. 359). 

A very fine and remarkable species, tall, erect, stout, with distant nodes, and a 
profuse oblong head of cjrmes, yellow when dry. Leaves 3 by 1^-1| in., coriaceous, 
contracted at the base, but hardly petioled ; nerves few, hardly raised ; stipules \-\ 
in., erect, stiiF. Cymes very many-flowered. Corolla woolly at the mouth. Fruit not seen. 
— The stout strict branches .and erect sessile broad coriaceous opposite leaves give 
the plant a gentianoid aspect. 

12. H. obscura, Thicaites JEnum. 14; glabrous except the youngest 
•shoots and sometimes the nerves beneath, leaves sessile or petioled elliptic- 
lanceolate or ovate or suborbicular acute obtuse or acuminate, stipules connate 
pectinate, peduncles axillary filiform, cymes few-flowered, calyx-teeth subulate 
shorter than the capsule. 

Ceylon; Central provinces, alt. 6-8000 ft.. Walker, Gardner, &c. 
A rigid woody shrub, black when dry, occurring under three very dissimilar forms, 
which Thwaitcs unites . — 1. leaves petioled lanceolate 1-3 in., nerv^es very obscure. 

52 Lxxv. EUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Hedyotis. 

peduncle "with often 2 leafy bracts ; 2. leaves sessile or subsessile ovate-lanceolate 
obtuse or subacute, nerves very obscure. H. ovata, var. minor, Tkwaites in Herb. ; 
3. leaves petioled orbicular or broadly ovate acute or obtuse, nerves beneath very 
strong elevated, peduncles usually filiform very short and 3-8-fid. H. ovata, var. ^ 
Thwaites Enum. I. e. — This last resembles a New Zealand Coprosma in habit ; grows 
in shady places ; its branches and peduncles are sometimes supra-axillary. 

13. 3Z. Beddomei, Hook. f. ; stipules and inflorescence hairy, leaves 
small petioled elliptic-ovate subacute, nerves strong beneath, stipules broad 
ovate shortly united pectinate, cymes terminal subsessile capitate, calyx hispid 
tube shortly produced together with the ovate-lanceolate teeth about equalling- 
the capsule. H. capitata, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 191. 

Tbavancore ; on tlie Palghat hills, alt. 6500 ft., Beddome. 

Stem woody with white bark. Leaves yellow when dry, 1-1^ in., contracted into 
a short flattened petiole, margin recurved when dry; stipules ^ in., acute. Cymes 
axillary and terminal, involucrate. Corolla-tube and lobes outside hispid, lobes 
inside glabrous except at the woolly mouth. Capsules sessile, cells about 4-seeded. 

14. K. biucifolia, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 1 ; glabtpus, leaves small 
short-petioled ovate or ovate-cordate acute nerveless margins recurved, stipules 
connate at the base broad pectinate ciliate, cymes terminal and axillaiy 3- 
flovrered, calyx-tube produced, teeth lanceolate. 

Thavancoee ; on the higher ranges of the Anamallay Mts., Beddome. 

A large shrub, branches terete. Leaves \-^ by \ in,, glabrous, shining, very 
coriaceous ; stipules with a line of hairs down the centre. Peduncles \ in. Flowers 
subsessile; bracts filiform, ciliate. CoroUa-lobes within and mouth villous. Seeds 
numerous. — Description from Beddome. 

** Erect shrubs ; cymes terminal, capitate, or panicled. Stijtules large, fofrm" 
mg loose sheaths, which often become white loith age. 

15. K. quinquenervia, Thwaites Enum. 141 ; nearly glabrous, leaves 
very coriaceous sessile orbicular very convex with margins and tips especially 
strongly recurved, very strongly 5-nerved from the base, stipular sheath cupular 
ciliate, cymes terminal sessile, calyx-tube produced and large ovate teeth to- 
gether equalling the capsule. Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 8. 

Ceylon ; Central province, alt. 7-8000 ft., Walker, &c. 

Stem woody, di-trichotomously branched ; Ijranches white below, above dark (when 
dry), with 2 lines of pubescence. Leaves dark or yellow-brown when dry, \ in. diam., 
sometimes obovate-orbicular, abruptly contracted at the base ; nerves deeply sunk 
above, beneath very thick ; stipular sheath ^ in. long, loose. Corolla-tube glabrous, 
lobes hispid at the tip, glabrous within, except at the mouth. Caps^de glabrous, cells 

16. K. Ziessertiana, Am. Pugill. PI. Ind. Or. 21 ; glabrous or nearly 
so, leaves petioled ovate elliptic or lanceolate acuminate very coriaceous, nerves 
very strong, stipular sheath ciliate, cymes terminal capitate and subumbeUed, 
calyx-tube more or less produced, teeth and limb together much shorter tlian 
the capsule. Thwaites Enum. 141 ; Bedd. Ic, PI. Ind. Or. t. 31. 0. flavescens, 
Thwaites I. c. 141 and 419. 

Ceylon ; Central province, alt. 3000 to 8000 ft., abundant. 

A shrub with stout branches and leaves very variable in size, sometimes th© 
largest of the genus, yellowish or brownish-green when dry ; young shoots sometimes 
sparsely puberulous. Leaves 3-8 by 1-3 in., narrowed into a slender or stout petiole 
^-1^ in., almost plaited (rarely flat with slender nerves), the nerves being deeply 
sunk in the upper surface and highly raised on the under, where they are sometimes 
hairy, margins flat or recurved rarely ciliolate ; stipular sheath ^l| in. long, some- 

Hedyotis,'] lxxv. rubiace^e. (J. D. Hooker.) 53 

times 1 in. diam. Cpiies glabrous or sparsely hairy, more or less umbellate, usually 
dense-flowered and rounded, sometimes quite capitate. Corolla-tube variable in length, 
lobes and throat usually densely woolly. Capsule ellipsoid, cells about 4-seeded. — In 
•a form {H. m<in/inata, Thw. mss., N. 3935), from Kotteyagalla, alt. 5000 ft., the 
leaves are ciliolate, the flowers in dense heads, the calyx-teeth longer, lanceolate, and 
the corolla-lobes glabrous except at the base. 

17. K. G-ardneri, Thtvaites Unum. 142 -, glabrous, leaves sessile recurved 
lanceolate acuminate, nerves very indistinct, stipular sheath very broad, panicle 
•erect terminal elongate pyi'amidal, calyx-tube produced and together with the 
lanceolate teeth equalling the capsule. 

Ceylon ; Adam's Peak, Gardner. 

I have seen but one specimen of this remarkable species, which has much the 
habit of a South Brazilian Eryngium ; it consists of a stout cylindric stem 6 in. long, 
clothed with somewhat corky white remains of the stipules, and bears several sub- 
terminal crowded rosettes, about 6 in. diam. of recurved yellowish when dry leaves, 
and a very stout erect branched panicle, 8 in. high by 4 broad, with distant opposite 
3-chotoraously divided flowering branches. The panicle is evidently a last year's one, 
and is white with age. Leaves 3-3^ by \ in., complicate, very coriaceous, their bases 
concealed by the remains of the large stipiiles. Capsules sessile, turbinate, ^ in. 

*** Herbs, all] annual , lot/k terminal panicled or subumbelled ci/mes, sviall 
fiowers, and ylobose capsules ; stipules very small. 

18. K. VTallicliii, Kurz in Journ. As. Soe. ]87(», ii. l-3(); a slender 
sparingly hairy or hispid annual, leaves subsessile ovate or elliptic acute, stipules 
subulate ciliate, cymes excessively 3-chotomously branched, pedicels long slender, 
flovp^ers minute, capsule globose with minute calyx-teeth. H. galioides. Wall. 
Cat. 866. 

Tbnassebim, Gomez, &c. ; Nicobar Islands, Kurz. — Distrib. Borneo. 

Stem trichotomously branched from the base ; branches acutely 4-angled, all 
floriferous. Leaves ^f in., in remote pairs, ciliate; nerves few, slender. Pedicels 
spreading, often 2-3-nate. Flowers about ^ in. long. Capstdes * in. diam., cells 
aboiit 6-seeded. Seeds microscopic, angled, smootli. — Possibly an Oldcnlandia , but 
the capsules dehisce septicidally to the base. 

19. K. eleg'ans, Wall. Cat. 887; quite glabrous, very slender, leaves 
subsessile ovate-lanceolate long acuminate, nerves very obscure, stipules small 
very broad acute or cuspidate, flowers sessile on the branches of terminal and 
axillaiy subumbellate cymes, calyx-teeth obtuse. 

Tenasserim, Gomez, Heifer. 

Probably perennial, bright green when dry ; stem very long and slender, terete, 
simple or sparingly branched. Leaves in distant pairs, 2-4| by 1-1| in., narrowed 
into short petioles, margins flat. Cytnes long-peduncled umbellately or 2-3-choto- 
mously branched from above two linear or oblong bracts ; branches 1-3 in. long, 
spreading or divaricate, rather stout. Flowers very shortly pedicelled, ^ in. long. 
Capsules ~ in. diam., crowned with -the triangular obtuse calyx-teeth ; cells about 

4-seeded This reseiiibles a species of Hance, No. 11,230, which has broader less 

aciiminate leaves and pedicelled flowers ; also very near the Chin&BQ H. aciitangula, 
which has acutely angled stem and sessile leaves. 

20. K. Helferi, -ffoo/v./. ; quite glabrous, leaves subsessile ovate obtuse 
or subacute nerveless margin recurved, stipules small broad, c}Tues small ter- 
minal shortly peduncled, branches short, capsules subsessile, calyx-teeth very 
short obtuse. 

Tenassebim or the Andaman Islands, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2909). 

A small specie.s, black in drying; branches stiff, 4-angled. Leaves sometimes 

54 Lxxv. RUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Hedyotis. 

3-nate, 1-1| in., midrib distinct beneath; stipules A^ery inconspicuous. Ci/i}ies small, 
bracteate, branches 3-6-flowered. Capsules as in H. elegans. — Certainly closely allied to 
H. elegans, but the habit is very different, the leaves small and not acuminate, black- 
brown when dry, and the cymes small. Flowers not seen. It approaches Hance's 
No. 978, from Whampoa, with narrower ciliate leaves. 

**** Herbs w shi-uhsj cymes axillary (iiever termmaT), sessile or peduncledy 
dense- or lax-flowered {or flowers solitary in 27. travancorica) ; stijndes nearly 
simple or pectinate. 

21. K. membranacea, Thwaitcs Enum. 143; quite glabrous, stem 
obtusely 4-angled, leaves petioled lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, 
nerves veiy slender, stipules free ^-circular pectinate, cymes axillary sessile 
capitate, calyx-teeth foliaceous oblong-lanceolate very much larger than the 
small ovary. 

Ceylon ; at no great elevation, Walker, Thwaites. 

Stem woody below, stout, subsimple. Leaves bright green when dry, 3-6 by 
f-H in., rather coriaceous, narrowed into the petiole, margins flat; stipules large. 
Heads \-\ in. diam., surrounding the stem. Flower's (not seen) mixed with chaflfy 
bracts.' Capstdes very small, together with the very large calyx-limb 5 in. long, cells 
few or many-seeded. 

22. K. macropbylla. Wall, in W. 8f A. Prodr. 408 ; Cat. 841 ; annual, 
stem acutely 4-angled or -winged, leaves petioled ovate elliptic or lanceolate 
acuminate, nerves distinct, stipules free broad toothed or pectinate, cymes 
axillary sessile capitate, calyx-teeth lanceolate as long as the small capsule. 
II. nodiflora, Watt. Cat. 866 ; G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 526. Scleromitrum tetran* 
drum, Kurz in Jonirn. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 136. Rondeletia teti*andra, Boxb. FL 
lad. i. 524 (according to Kurz). Wendlandia? tetrandra, DC. Prodr. iv. 412. 

Tenasseeim, GoDiez, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2889, 2892). Penang, Wallich. 
]VIat.acca. Ghnffith (Kew Distrib. 2889). Nicobar Islands, K^irz. 

Stem usually very stout, short, 6-10 in., simple. Leaves green or brown when 
dry, very variable in size and breadth, 3-6 by ^3 in., sometimes a little rough 
above ; nerves faint ; petiole ^1 in. ; stipules very variously cut, segments sometimes 
filiform and pubescent. Heads often surrounding the stem. Capsules small, glabrous, 
or pubescent. 

23. K. Thwaitesii, Jlook. f. ; stem obtusely 4-angled, leaves petioled 
elliptic- or ovate-lanceolate acuminate scaberulous above, nerves distinct, stipules 
pectinate segments long or short hispid, heads axillary sessile capitate, calyx* 
teeth foliaceous oblong-lanceolate much longer than the small capsule. II. 
macrophylla, Thwaites Enum. 142. 

Ceyi ON ; forests about Adam's Peak, Walker, Thwaites, &c. 

Slender or robust, sparingly branched. Leaves 3-8 by 1-2| in., narrowed into a 
stoTit or slender petiole |-1 in., rather coriaceous, ciliate; stipules |-| in. Heads 
surrounding the stem 1 in. diam. Capsules with large calyx 5 in. long, cells 3-seeded. 

24. K. nodulosa, Am. Pugill. 22 ; hirsute throughout, branches obtusely 
4-angled, leaves petioled ovate or lanceolate acuminate flat, nerves distinct, 
stipules setose, heads axillary sessile, calyx very hairy, teeth subulate-lanceolate 
equalling or exceeding the hirsute capsule. H. nodulosa, var. /3. Thwaites 
Enum. 143. H. axillaris, Ga7-dn. mss. (Thivaites). 

Ceylon ; Adam's Peak, Newera Ellia, and Ambagowa, Walker, &c. 

Branches or stems 1-2 ft., rather stout, shaggy, especially above and at the nodes 
and petioles with purplish soft spreading hairs. Leaves 2-4 by 1-1| in., base nar- 
rowed or rounded ; petiole ^-1 in. ; stipules membranous, connate into a truncate^ 
tube with villous bristles. Heads very dense. Corolla-ttcbe long, glabrous, lobea 

] Lxxv. BUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 55 

lanceolate, mouth woolly. Capsule of 2 hard cocci splitting ventrally, each with 
about 6 angular seeds. — This is certainly Arnott's H. nodulosa, who describes it as 
2-coccous, and not the H. nodulosa a. of Thwaites, which has 4 vndehiscent cocci, and 
is an Allcsophania. 

Vak. Walker i ; leaves glabrous above. H. "Walkerii, Am. in Nov. Act. Acad. 
xviii. i. 339 ; Walp. Rep. ii. 493.— Ceylon, Walker. 

26. K. cinereo-vlrldls, TMcaites Enum. ^\Q ; slender, much branched, 
stem obtusely 4-angled, leaves petioled lanceolate acuminate, nerves indistinct, 
stipules very short cuspidate, cymes opposite on slender peduncles or sessile 
few-flowered, calyx-teeth triangiUar-ovate acute or obtuse shorter than the capsule. 
II. inamoena, Thwaites I. c. 143, partly. 

Ceylon ; in the central province, Thwaites. 

Stem apparently erect ; branches acutely 4-angled. Leaves green when di-y, 2-6 
by |— 2 in., narrowed into a petiole -^-f in. ; cusp of stipules longer than the body. 
Tcduncles of cymes in one form \-1 in. long, in ^. of Thwaites 0, with 2 foliaceous 
bracts under the head. Flowers crowded, subsessile. Capsules ovoid, smooth, cells 

26. K. albo-nervia, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 3; quite glabrous, much 
branched, stem obtusely 4-angled, leaves petioled elliptic-lanceoiate acuminate, 
nerves distinct, stipules free deeply pectinate glabrous, cymes small axillary 
•sessile, calyx-teeth lanceolate much longer than the capsule. 

TiNNEVELLi and Travancore Mts., alt. 3-4000 ft., rare, Beddome. 

Very nearly allied to H. ciiiereo-viridis, but diflfering remarkably in the stipules, 
the segments of which are sometimes filiform, and in the long lanceolate acuminate 

27. X. travancorica, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. 7 ; quite glabrous, much 
branched, branches obtusely 4-angled, leaves small petioled elliptic acute or 
acuminate, nerves indistinct, stipules semi-orbicular pectinate, peduncles axillary 
capillary 1-fld., calyx-lobes elongate subulate longer than the capsule. 

Travancore and Tinnevelli Mts., alt. 3-4000 ft., Beddome. 

A small species ; branches woody, divaricating, white when old, youngest only 
acutely 4-angled. Leaves towards the end of the branches, green when dry, ^1^ in., 
rather coriaceous ; stipules scurfy. Peduncles shorter than the leaves, filiform. 
Flowers solitary, -^ in. long, without bracts. Calyv-tuhe not produced above the 
ovary. Corolla funnel-shaped, glabrous except the woolly mouth. Capstcles glabrous 
with stiff erect calyx-teeth, cells few-seeded. 

28. 21. birsutissima, Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. ii. ; woody, robust, 
branches and leaves bSneath hirsute, leaves petiokd elliptic-lanceclate acumi- 
nate scabrid above, nerves strong beneath, stipules very large connate deeply 
pectinate, cymes on axillary slender peduncles, calyx-teeth ovate-lanceolate 
equalling the hirsute capsule. 

Nilgherby Mts. ; between Avalanche and Sispara, alt. 7000 ft., Wight, Gardner, 

Stem, terete, spreading^ short spreading branches densely clothed with stipular 
scars, as thick as a goose-quill. Leaves crowded at the -end of the branches, yellow- 
brown when dry, 1-3 by ^1 >n., very coriaceous ; petiole short, stout ; stipules 
sometimes \ in. diam., coriaceous, hirsute; segments subulate. Peduncles shorter 
than the leaves when bearing flowers only and slender, when bracteate with a 
branched cyme stouter. Capsule globose, cells several-seeded. 

***** Herbs with terminal or terminal and axiUary globose dense-Jloicered 
cymes, often bracteate or involucrate at the base. 

56 LXXY. RUBIA-CE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Hedyotis^ 

29. K. verticillaris, W. *^- A. Frodr. 409 ; quite glabrous, stem or 
very short, leaves rosulate sessile linear-lanceolate acuminate strongly nerved, 
stipules very long narrow, heads small on axillary S-chotomously forked bracteat© 
branches, calyx-teeth ovate-lanceolate much longer than the tube. Wight Ic, 
t. 1029 ; Wall. Cat, 6188. H. plantaginifolia, Am. PugUl. PI. Ind. Or. 22. 

NiLGHERRY Mts., alt. 7000 ft., Wight, &c. Ceylon ; in the central province, alt. 
7-8000 ft., Walker, &c. 

Stem as thick as the forefinger, usually inclined and rooting, rarely 1 in. Leaves 
yellow when dry, A^ery numerous, spreading flat on the ground, 3-15 by 1-2 in., 
straight, longitudinally channelled above and ribbed beneath by the parallel nerves ; 
stipules of the radical leaves hidden, of the branches ^-% in., very slender, gland- 
toothed entire or divided. Branches (or peduncle) horizontal or ascending, rather 
longer than the leaves, naked below, trichotomously forked above with linear bracts 
at the forks, and below the head. Heads ^-^ in. diam. Corolla-tube shovt, lobes 
linear, mouth woolly. Cajpstde (not seen) small, cells many-seeded (in Wight's figure). 

30. K. uncinella, Hook. ^ Am. Bot. Beech. Voy. 192 ; erect, glabrous, 
stem 4-winged, internodes long, leaves sessile or petioled ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate acuminate, nerves distinct, stipules small broad pubescent gland- 
serrate or pectinate, heads terminal and axillary globose bracteate, calyx-teeth 
ovate-lanceolate recurved equalling the glabrous capsule. Benth. Fl. Hongkong, 
149. H. borreroides. Champ, in Hook. Keiu Jourfi. iv. 171. II. cephalophora, 
Br. in Wall. Cat. 842. 

Khasia and J[yntea Mts. ; alt. 4-5000 ft., Wallich, ^-c. — Distrib. China. 

Boot perennial. Stem usually simple and erect, stout. Leaves 1^-3 by J-1^ in., 
smooth or slightly rough above ; stipules pubescent, cuspidate, produced into a long 
point. Heads |-f in. Calyx-lobes glabrous or ciliate. Corolla-tube short, glabrous, 
lobes linear. Capsule broadly ovoid, cells about 6-seeded. — I follow Bentham in 
regarding the Khasian plant as a form of the Chinese, which diifers in the narrower 
often petioled leaves and more pectinate stipules. 

Sect. II. Dimetia. Capsule septicidally splitting into two several-seeded 
cocci, the top raised and protruding between the calyx-teeth ; cocci dehiscing 
ventrally. — Shrubs usually climbing. 

31. ». Ziawsoniee, W. ^ A. Br odr. 407 {not of Wight Ic. t. 1026); 
erect, glabrous, branches terete, leaves petioled elliptic-ovate or -lanceolate 
acute or obtuse, stipules broadly ovate entire, peduncles axillary slender, 
flowers pedicelled, calyx-teeth very short, top of capsule produced between 

Ceyi.on ; central province, common between 5-8000 ft. 

An erect shrub, variable in habit, greenish when dry. Leaves 1-3 in., narrowed 
into the petiole, pale beneath. Peduncles equalling or shorter than the leaves. 
Flowers few, ^ in. long. CaJyx-tube obconic, limb dilated with 5 small teeth. Corolla 
funnel-shaped, glabrous, mouth woolly. Capsule urceolate, cells about 4-seeded. — 
Gardner has collected at Neuera Ellia an abnormal state with obovate convex leaves 
with revolute margins. Wight's figure of Lawso7iicB represents the corolla as 5-fid 
and the fruit as pubescent, and of a totally different shape from this, with different 
placentation. It is probably a composite plate, in part of an Ophiorhiza. De Can- 
dolle's Wendlandia Lawsonics, founded on Lawsonia purpurea, Lamk., which again is 
founded on the " Pontaletsje " of Rheede (Hort. Mai. iv. t. 57), is a totally different 
and a Cochin plant, supposed by Wight and Arnott to be identical with this Ceylon 
one, but differing in the square stems and terminal cymes, and is H. fruticosa. 

32. ». capitellata, Wall. Cat. 837 {excl. H. fruticosa, Hb. Bottler) ; 
glabrous, climbing, branches round, leaves shortly petioled ovate- or elliptic- 
lanceolate acuminate, nerves distinct, stipules very short cuspidate or toothed, 

Medyotis.'] lxxv. eubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 57 

•cymes axillary and terminal, flowers capitate, capsule globose, tip produced 
between the calyx-teeth. G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 527 ; Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 
1877, ii. 135 {excl. var. y.). Oldenlandia rubioides, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 353. 
H. Finlaysoniana, Wall. Cat. 6189, 

Mat.a t Peninsula ; from Tenasserim, Gomez, to Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 
2903, H. verticUlaris), Maingay (Kew Distrib. 890). — Distrip. Sumatra, Banca, 
Borneo, Yunan. 

A tall climber, greenish when dry. Leaves 2-4 in., quite smooth on both sur- 
faces, nerves slender ; stipules transverse, ciliate. Cymes pyramidal, branches tricho- 
tomous, distant, horizontal. Heads \ in. diam., 8-20-flowered, the flowers sessile and 
radiating. Calyx small, limb cupular 4-toothed. Corolla glabrous, nearly 4-partite ; 
segments narrow, bearded within. Capsules globose, crown loculicidally and septi- 
cidally dehiscing, cells several-seeded. 

33. K. mollis, Wall. Cat. 859 ; climbing, slender, leaves sessile elliptic- 
lanceolate acuminate glabrous or hairy above, softly hairy beneath with strong 
nerves, stipules short connate 2-3-cuspidate, cymes axillary and terminal, 
powers umbellulate shortly pedicelled, top of capsule produced between the 
Tery short calyx-teeth. G. JDon Gen, Syst. iii. 627. 

Penang, Wallich. 

Stem and branches terete, glabrate below, above softly laxly hairy as are the 
leaves below and young leaves above and cjmes. Leaves pale and wrinkled when 
dry, 2^-3 i in., contracted at the base sometimes into a very short petiole. Cymes 
sessile or shortly peduncled, sparingly branched and few-flowered ; umbellules sub- 
globose, ^-| in. diam. Calyx-teeth short. Corolla deeply divided, lobes linear, glabrous, 
bearded at the base, as are the bases of the filaments.— Closely allied to H. capitellata, 
as observed by Wallich. 

34- K. scandens, Roxh. Hart. Beng. 10; Fl. Ind. i. 364; climbing, 
glabrous, branches terete, leaves sessile or shortly petioled elliptic or lanceolate 
acuminate, nerves faint, stipules connate into a short truncate 2-cuspidate cup, 
cymes- terminal, flowers pedicelled, top of capsule produced between the short 
calyx-teeth. IjC. Prodr. iv. 422 ; Don Prodr. 134 ; Wall. Cat. 839. H. poly- 
carpa, Br. and H. volubilis. Wall Cat. 838, 840. 

Tropical and Subtropical Himalaya, alt. 2-6000 ft., from Nipal, Wallich, to 
Sikkim, J. D. H. Khasl*. Mts. and Silhet, alt. 0-6000 ft., and Chittagong, abun- 
dant. — Distrib. Upper Birma. 

A much-branched climber. Leaves 3-5 in., green when dry, sometimes caudate- 
acuminate, smooth, flat; stipules membranous, ciliolate. Cymes spreading, leafy, 
flat- or round-topped, sometimes puberulous ; flowers subumbellato, pedicels ^^ in. 
Calyx obconic ; teeth ovate, acute or obtuse. Corolla-tube short, glabrous, lobes long 
bearded within. Capsule broadly obovoid, crown very prominent, loculicidally 
gaping, cells many-seeded. 

35. ». viscida, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 4 ; climbing ? glabrous, slender, 
leaves long-petioled ovate acuminate, nerves slender, stipiUes small triangular 
gland-toothed and bracts \dscid, cymes axillary and terminal, peduncles and 
branches very slender, calyx-teeth lanceolate much longer than the capside, the 
tip of which is produced between them. 

TiNNEVEixY ; in the beds of mountain streams, alt. 3000 ft., Beddomc. 

A large handsome shrub, branches very slender. Leaves green when dry, 3-5 in., 
membranous, base rounded ; stipules green. Cymes on filiform peduncles equalling the 
leaves, branches few subumbellate few-flowered ; flowers ahortly pedicelled, Calyx-tuhc 
obconic, lobes long. Corolla glabrous, lobes short bearded within. — Beddome figures 
the stipules as entire, and describes theift and the bracts as viscid, Uie bracts 
allude ' to are no doubt those at the ultimate forks of the cyme, which are stipular.— 
The ripe fruit is unknown. 

58 Lxxv. RUBiACE/K. (J. D. Hooker.) [Hedyotis^ 

36. XZ. fiilva, Hook. f. ; perennial, erect, villous, leaves sessile narrow 
lanceolate acuminate plaited, nerves 2 pair, stipules membranous with longp 
cilia, cymes glabrous small axillary shortly peduncled, calyx glabrous teeth 
subulate, tip of capsule produced between them. 

Khasia Mts. ; on dry hills near Nurtiung, alt. 4-5000 ft., J. D. H. ^ T. T. 

Rootstock ■woody, sending up strict terete stems a foot high, which and the leaves- 
are bright yellow when dry. Leaves 1-1^ in., coriaceous. Cymes on short peduncles 
^ in., flowers subcapitate. — This resembles H. vlllosa in many respects, but differs iu 
the strict habit, sessile leaves, with only two pairs of nerves and quite glabrous- 

37. XZ. Griffithii, Hook. /.; woody, branches erect acutely 4-angled 
puberulous, leaves sessile lanceols^e acuminate coriaceous scaberulous nerveless,, 
stipules short cuspidate coriaceous, heads terminal sessile involucrate, calyx- 
teeth subulate much shorter than the globose glabrous pedicelled capsule which 
has a large protruded top. 

Bhotan; in woods, alt. 4200 ft., Griffith {Bootan Journal, n. 318). 

An erect shrub, 2 ft. high, with strict stem and branches, nodes distant. Leaves 
1^-2 in., deflexed, with recurved margins in the fruiting state of the plant, yellowish 
when dry. Heads of fruit globose, ^ in. diam., involucrate by the large upper leaves. 
Capsule smooth, crustaceous, with very many small angular seeds. — A very, distinct 
species, seen in fruit only, the tip of which often exceeds the calyx-teeth; it 
resembles in habit U. uncinella, W. & A. 

Sect. III. Eullfiiiyotls. Fruit indehiscent or tardily dehiscent, or the 
crown only dehiscing loculicidally. — Herbs, diffuse or subscandent, with usually 
axillary dense-fld. cymes. 

* Fruit hard, minute, indehiscent ; cells fetv-^eeded. Cymes almost all axil- 
lary. Leaves usually plaited longitudinally with vei-y strony nerves, rarely Jlat 
with slender ne)'ves, never only \-nerved (jierves faint in II. paradoxa) ; stipules 

38. X. vestita, Br. in Wall. Cat. 847 ; diffuse, villous, leaves petioled 
elliptic-lanceolate acuminate plaited, nerves 5-7 pair, stipules membranous 
with long cilia, cymes villous small axillary shortly peduncled, fruit minute^ 
globose hairy indehiscent, calyx-teeth subulate. G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 526. 
H. costata, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 135, not of Wallich. II. ccerulea,, 
Korth. in Ned. KruidJcu7id. Arch. ii. 160. II. capituliflora, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
ii. 183. Metabolus cceruleus, Blume Bijd. 992; DC. Prodr. iv. 435. M. 
lineatus, ^rt7*f/. in DC. I. c. Spermacoce costata, Roxh. Hort. Beny. 10; FL 
Ind. i. 370. 

Subtropical Sikkim and the Khasia Mts., alt. 1-5000 ft. Assam, Cachar, tho 
Malay Peninsula, and Penano, common. — Distbib. Malay and Philippine Islands. 

A stout herb, 1-2 ft. long, branches terete. Leaves 2-4 in., greenish when dry ; 
stipules villous, with 1-3 subulate processes. Cymes inconspicuous, peduncle or 
i-^ in., simple or branched ; flowers very small, crowded in heads ^-^ in, diam., 
lilac or pink. Capsules ^^ in. 

39. K. Auricularia, Linn.-, DC. Prodr. iv. 420; annual, suberect or 
diffuse, branches glabrous or hirsute especially at the nodes, leaves sessile sub- 
sessile or petioled ovate or lanceolate acuminate smooth or scabrid above often 
pubescent beneAth, stipules membranous hairy with long cilia, cymes axillary 
sessile small very dense-flowered, flowera subsessile, calyx-teeth small shorter 
than the indehiscent glabrous or hispid fruit. Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 365 ; ed. Carey t^- 
Wall. i. 370, excl. remarks', W. 8r A. Prodr. 412 ; Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 27. 
H. nervosa, WalL Cat. 857 (? of Lamk.). II. procumbens, WalL Cat. 861. IL 

Hedyotis.] lxxv. uubiacem. (J. D. Hooker.) 6ft 

liueata, JVall. Cat. 6198, 7iof. of Ho.ib. H. costata, Br. in Wall. Cat. 849 -,. 
G. Ikm Gen. Si/st. iii. 526. H. multicaulis, ScMdl. iV. Ifo/ien. No, 845. H. 
venosa, Koiih. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 160. Metaboliis veiiosus, Bl. ; DC. 
Prodr. iv. 435. Spermacoce hispida, Miq. PL Ilohen. No. 44. ?S. lineata, 
Boivh. Ft. Ind. ii. ^Qd,—Rheede Hort. Malah. x. t. 32. 

Throughout eastern Bengal from Nipat, SiKxnr, and tlie Khasta Mts. to Assam, 
Chittagong, Munbpoob, Birma, and southward to Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib.' 
891, H. vestita). AVestern Peninsula, from Canara, southwards. Ceylon, abun- 
dant. — Distrib. Yunan, Malay Archipelago, S. China, Philippines, Australia, 

Branches 6-18 in., terete. Leaves usually pale green when dry, 1-3 in.; stipules 
as in the tM'o previous species. Ci/mes always sessile. Calyx-tcdh variable. — There 
are several very distinct looking varieties, but I am unable to define them clearly 
enough for diagnosis. Wallich's H. lineata, from the Deccan (No. 6198), is almost 
glabrous throughout, as are some Khasian specimens. The stems appear to be erect 
and woody in Wallich's H. nei'vosa (No. 857), and tlie calyx-teeth are longer in 
specimens gathered by Thomson and myself in the Kliasia at 4-6000 ft., and at 
Chittagong and Muneypoor by C. B. Clarke. Some Ceylon specimens have leaves 
with petiole \ in., and long caudate points, as in Beddome's figure. 

40. K. lineata, Boxh. Hort. Bmg. 10 ; Fl. Ind. i. 365 ; annual, pubes- 
cent, suberect or diftuse, leaves sessile ovate- or elliptic-lanceolate acute or 
aciuninate, stipules membranous villous with one or more long cilia, cymes 
axillary hispid shortly peduncled, branches few-fid., calyx-teeth much longer 
than the hispid indehiscent pedicelled fruit. DC. Prodr. iv. 420; Dm Prodr. 
134. H. ulmifolia, Wall, in Boxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. i. 173 ; Cat^ 
862; DC. Prodr. iy. ^l. 

Tropical Himalaya of Nipal and SikkiM, alt. 1-2000 ft. Eastern Bengal^ 
SiLHET, Chittagong, and Tenasserim. 

Very similar to H. Auricularia, but more finely pubescent, with pedicelled branched 
cymes ^-| in. long, and long calyx-teeth. — I reluctantly postpone Wallich's welL 
known name of H. ulmifolia for Koxburgh's earlier one of H. lineata, though there is 
no convincing evidence of this being Roxbiu-gh's plant ; the name has been misapplied 
to H. Auricularia by Wallich. 

41. XZ. grlabra, Br. in Wall. Cat. 848; glabrous, diffuse, stem elongate, 
leaves subsessile elongate-lanceolate caudate-acuminate membranous, stipules 
short with long simple or branched cilia, cymes on filiform axillary peduncles 
puberulous small loosely branched spreading, calj^-teeth much shorter than the 
glabrous indehiscent globose pedicelled fruit. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 183. Sper- 
macoce glabra, Boxh. Fl. Ind. i. 368. Kjioxia glabra, DC. Prodr. iv. 569. 

Silhet, Be Silva. Cachab, J. D. H. S[ T. T., &c. Birma, Griffith. Penang, 
Wallich, Maingay. 

Stems 2 3 ft., slender, smooth, terete, fistular ; nodes distant. Leaves 3-6 by 
^-1^ in., point often almost filiform, nerves slender; stipules with very slender 
spinous processes sometimes ^ in. long and much branched. Peduncles \-^ in., bracts 
small. Flowers minute, as are the fruits. 

42. K. paradoxa, Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1876, ii. 135; glabrous,, 
branches obtusely 4-angled robust, leaves sessile long linear or linear-lanceolate 
acute, nerves beneath very faint, stipules membranous with ciliate bristles,, 
cymes capitate axillary globose very dense-fliowered, calyx-teeth subulate hispid 
longer than the globose pedicelled fruit. 

South Andaman Island ; Escape Bi:y, Kurz. 

Apparently a large species : branches smooth, thick, almost terete. Leaves 4-6. 
by |-1 in., narrowed at both ends, flat, nerves very oblique; stipular bristles longer 

60 Lxxv. RUBIACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Hedyotis. 

than the sheath. Cymes enclosing the nodes, 1 in. diam. Fruit small, crustaceous, 
smooth ; cells about 6-seeded. — I have seen but one specimen, and in fruit only. 

** Capsule crustaceous, rarely coriaceous, loculicidal on the crown only ; cells 
many-seeded ; seeds usually angular. Cymes sessile, capitate or few-jiowered, axillary 
or terminal ; leaves glabrous or hispid, with one central nerve ; stipules with long 
hristlef^.—^GLE&oisiTBiOTSf W. & A. 

43. K. plnlfolla, Wall. Cat. 860; branches acutely 4-aDgled, angles 
sometimes hispid, leaves very narrow linear acuminate scabrid above 1-nerved, 
margins revolute, stipules with many rigid bristles, cymes sessile capitate axil- 
lary and terminal, calyx-teeth subidate shorter than the ovoid hispid capsule. 
G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 626. Scleromitrion rigid am, Ku7'z in Journ. As. Soc. 
1877, ii. 136, excl. Syn. Miquel. 

Behak and Chota-Naqporb, alt. 1-2000 ft., T. Anderson, C. B. Clarke. Malatak 
pENiNsinLA, from Pegu and the Andaman Islands to Singapore and Penang. — Distrib. 
Sumatra, Java, Borneo. 

A slender diffuse wiry much-branched annual, 4-8 in. high, black when dry. 
Leaves often fascicled, 1-1^ in., spreading and recurved, rigid; stipules very short. 
Heads |— ^ in. diam., 3- many flowered. — Kurz's S. rigidum agrees with this in the 
form of the leaves, but he describes these as glabrous, wheras they are distinctly 
«cabrid in H. pinifolia ; he further, by some error, quoted Miquel's Hedyotis rigida 
(Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 181), a shrubby species described as having lanceolate leaves 
6 in. long, 

Vab. ccBspitosa; shorter, branches tortuous, leaves quite glabrous and smooth, 
much closer set, cymes 1- few-flowered, capsules qiiite glabrous. Scleromitrion 
caespitosum, Miq. FL Ivd. Bat. Suppl. 540. Malacca, Griffith; Singapore, G. Thom- 
son \ Java, Barnes. — Possibly a different species. 

44. K. coerulea, W. 8r A. Prodr. 412 ; erect, branches terete puberulous, 
leaves opposite or fascicled linear-subulate aristate smooth above or scabrid 
1-nerved, margins revolute, stipules pectinate with filiform bristles, cymes 
sessile capitate axillary and terminal, calyx-teeth triangular with hair-points 
rather shorter than the glabrous capsule. Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind., Or. t. 30. H. 
pygmsea. Wall. Cat. 6199. H. brachiata, Miq. JPl. Hohenack. No. 373. H. 
cyanantha, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1876, ii. 136. 

Western Peninsula from Dharwar southwards, and in Ceylon ; in sandy places. 

A slender strict annual 6-14 in. high, much branched. Leaves brown when dry, 
^-1^ in., very narrow. Meads much fewer-flowered than in H. pinifolia, from which 
the hair-pointed leaves and calyx-teeth well distinguish this. 

45. K. tenelllflora, Blume Bijd. 971 ; glabrous, diffuse, branchf^s acutely 
4-angled, leaves sessile linear-lanceolate acuminate 1-nerved, margins revolute, 
stipides with long cilia, flowers 1-3 axillary sessile, calyx-teeth rigid ovate or 
lanceolate equalling the ovoid glabrous capsule. DC. Prodr. iv. 419. H. 
angustifolia, Cham. 8f Schlect. in Linn. iv. 163. H. approximata, Br. in Wall. 
Cat. 862. ? Spermacoce tubularis, Br. in Wall. Cat. Scleromitrion tenelli- 
florum, Korth. ^ S. ; tetraquetrum, Miq. "Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 186, 186. Olden- 
landia angustifolia, Benth. Fl. Hongk. 151. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, Hh. Griffith. Khasia Mts., alt. 1-4000 ft., J. D. H. f T. T. 
Nicobab's, Kurz. Penang, Wallich. — Distrib. Malay Islands, S. China, Philippines. 

Stems much branched, slender, 6-18 in. Leaves blackish-brown when dry, 1-2 by 
^-^ in., stiff, pale beneath, stipular hairs often exceeding the capsule. Calyx-teeth 
ciliate, variable in breadth and length. — The smooth surfaces of the very narrow 
leaves distinguish this from H, hispida. 

46. K. blspida, Betz Ohs. iv. 23 ; diffuse, "branches and leaves on both 
surfaces scabrid, leaves sessile elliptic- or linear-lanceolate acute or acuminate 

Hedyotis.'] lxxv. rubiacejj. (J. D, Hooker.) 61 

l-nerved, margins recilrved, stipules with long cilia, flowers 2-6 in axillary 
clusters, calyx-teeth triangular aoout equalling the hispid ovoid capsule. Ho.vb. 
Fl. Ind. t. 364 ; Wall. Cat. 845. Scleromitrion hispidum. Earth. ; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. ii. 185. Oldenlandia hispida, Benth. Fl. Mmigk. 150. 

Teopical Himalaya, from Chamba and Kangra, C. B. Clarke, to Sxkkim and the 
Khasia Mts., Assam, Cachab, Chittagong, and the Maxayan Peninsula from 
Tenasserim to Malacca. — Disteeb. Malay Islands, S. China. 

Annual ; branches 6-18 in., terete below, 4-angled above. Leaves l|-2i in., very 
variable in width, rough and rigid. Capsule similar to that of H. ieneltiflora, bnt 

47. S. nitlda, W. ^ A. Pi-odr. 412 ; branches difiiise elongate acutely 
4-angled, leaves sessile elliptic- or Hnear-lanceolate acute scaberulous or smooth 
above smooth beneath 1-nerved, margins recurved, stipules vdth long cilia^ 
flowers 1 or few axillary sessile, calyx-teeth triangular erect equalling the 
glabrous capsule. H. Neesiana, Am, Pugill. 23. H. glabella, Br. in Wall. Cat. 
886 ; Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 36. 

Westbbn Peninsula, from Dharwar southwards to Travancore and Ceylon? 
Tbnassebim, Kitr2!. 

A slender annual, similar in habit to H. hispida, but with leaves smooth or 
sparingly scabrid towards the margins above only, shining and green, and glabrous 
capsules. — I have seen no Tenasserim specimens, and it is possible that Kurz's plant 
is H. hispida, of which this may be a smooth variety. 

*** Fruit crustaceaus, indehiscent; cymes axillary {and termintdinJI. scabra)^ 
sessilBf capitate or few-fid. ; leaves fiat^ vnth or without latei-al nerves ; stipules 
triangvlar, entire or gland-seirate or fimbriate, not bristly ; corolla very short. 

48. B. inamoena, Thw. Enum. 143 in part ; shi-ubby, glabrous, erect, 
3-chotomously branched, branches subterete, leaves petioled ovate-lanceolate 
caudate-acimiinate nerves arching' faint, stipules connate below triangular 
glandular-pubescent caducous, cymes axillary very short few-flowered subsessile, 
calyx-limb cup-shaped teeth broad shorter than the smooth fruit. 

Ceylon ; Adam's Peak, Thwaites. 

A tall slender shrub, with long slender erecto-patent branches, obscurely 4-angled 
above, black when dry. Leaves dark brownish -green when dry, 3-5 by ^-1^ in., 
leathery, smooth, with a distinct midrib and faint-arching nerves ; stipules short. 
Flowers 3-6, almost sessile, small, glabrous. Calyx-tube hemispheric. Bipe fruit 
not seen. — Very hke H. cinereo-viridis, with which it has been mixed in Herbaria. 

49. X. coJkgestB., Br. in Wall. Cat. 844; robust, glabrous, branches 
acutely 4-angled, leaves sessile or shortly petioled elliptic or ovate-lanceolate 
acutely or obtusely acuminate leathery, nerves arching faint, stipules elongate 
ovate vdth a long entire serrate or lacerate point, flowers in crowded axillary 
heads, calyx-teeth broadly triangular obtuse shorter than the ovoid thick 
smooth fruit. Q. Drni Gen. Syst. iii. 525. H. argentea, Wall. Cat. 858. 

Malayan Peninsula from Tenasserim to Malacca, Wallich, &c. ; Penang, Maingay.. 
— DiSTEiB. Sumatra, Borneo. 

A stout shrub with brachiate branches. Leaves pale when dry, 3-5 by 1-2 in.» 
quite glabrous and smooth on both surfaces ; stipules sometimes ^ in., coriaceous, 
segments sometimes branched. Flowers clustered, small. Calyx-tube hemispheric. 
Fruit subdrupaceous, white. 

50. B. prostrata, Ewth. in Ned. Eruidk. Arch. ii. ItX); glabrous, 
hranches long flexuous prostrate or scandent ? obtusely 4-angled, leaves petioled 
elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, nerves distinct, stipules elongate coriaceous 
toothed or subpectinate, cymes axillary small subsessile few-flowered, calyx- 

^2 LXxv. RURiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Eed/ijoUs. 

teeth triangular. H. subcarno8a, Wall. Cat. 860. Metabolus pi-ostrntus, Bl. ; 
DC, Frodr. iv. 435. 

Tenassbeim ; Chappedong Hills, Wallick, Heifer. — Distrib. Java, Borneo. 

Stem flexuous, rooting below, sending out long slender flexuous branches -with 
distant internodes. Leaves green when dry, 3-4 bv |-1^ in., quite smooth, rather 
membranous, narrowed into a slender petiole ^-| m. ; stipules coriaceous, veiy 
variable in length, with glandular teeth, erect or recurved. Ct/mes very small, 
flowers not seen. Fruit small, smooth, cells about 6-8eeded. — This, though referred 
in Miquel's Flora to § Diplophragma, is certainly a Euhedyotis. 

61. B. scabra, Wall. Cat. 880; a low woody herb, branches terete 
joung pubescent, leaves subsessile lanceolate acuminate scaberulous or glabrous, 
uppermost involucriform, nerves faint, stipules small triangular, cymes ter- 
minal (and axillary?) capitate sessile, calyx- teeth triangular'Subulate shorter 
than the small globose glabrous fruit. 

Maetaban and Tenassbeim ; Moulmein, Wallich ; Mergui, Griffith, &c. 

Very much branched, branches woody, whitish, the younger and leaves dark- 
brown when dry. Leaves 1-2 in., the upper .stellately spreading round the cymes, 
base very acute, very obscurely scabrid; stipules pubescent, teeth few glandular. 
Cymes globose, | in. diam. ; flowers very shortly pedicelled. Corolla very small, 
tube and lobes short. Fruit crustaceous, many-seeded, apparently indehiscent, but 
there is a trace of a loculicidal groove on the crown between the calyx-teeth. — Very 
near a' N. Celebes species, which has longer calyx-lobes. 

Sect. IV. Znvolucrella. Fruit membranous, 2-3-celled, very many 
seeded, indehiscent, top not protruded between the calyx-teeth. — A herb with 
a terminal capitate sessile cyme, which is sunk amongst the bases of the involu- 
•criform uppermost leaves, stipules membranous with many very long subeqiial 
stiff recurved bristles. 

62. H. connata, Wall. Cat. 856 ; decumbent, branches 4-angled pubes- 
cent, leaves sessile oblong or linear-oblong acute coriaceous flat, nerves faint, 
stipular bristlfs longer than the sheath, calyx-teeth broadly lanceolate many 
times longer tiian the oblong fruit. H. merguensis, Hook. f. in Gen. PI. ii. 67. 

Tenassebim; Tavoy, Gomez; Amherst, Wallich; Mergui, Griffith. Andaman 
Islands, Kurz. 

A stout-branched low herb, root woody. Leaves 2-3 by ^1 in., suddenly narrowed 
■at the base, but hardly petioled, puberulous on the faint nerves beneath ; stipules 
-connate, bristles ^ in. long. Cpnes quite hidden ; flowers mixed with long stipular 
bracteoies, rarely cymes are formed in the lower axils. Fruit often 3-celled, bursting 
irregularly, walls full of raphides. Seeds angular, dotted. 

Sect. V. Anotidopsls. Fndt membranous, rarely crustaceous, 2- 
celled, indehiscent or obscurely dehiscing loculicidally between the calyx- teeth, 
crown not protruded between the cahnt-teeth. — Herbs or small shrubs, with 
«,xillary or terminal sessile or peduncled cymes ; stipules membranous, usually 
bristly. — Habit of Anotis. 

53. K. cyanescenSi Thwaites Enum. 143; hairy, stems decumbent 
rooting acutely 4-angled, leaves petioled elliptic-ovate acute membranous nerves 
distinct, stipules short bristly, cymes axillary dense many-flowered, flowers pedi- 
celled, calyx-teeth lanceolate ciliate many times longer than the membranous 
many-seeded fruit. 

Ceyix)n; Ambagowa district, Thwaites. 

An undershrub, often bluish-purple (Thwaites), branches glabrous or hairy. 
Leaves 1-3 by f-1^ in., with short scattered hairs above, more pubescent beneath, 
flat ; nerves 6-6 pair, arched ; petiole slender, \--\ in. ; stipules short, membranous. 

HedyotisJ] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 63 

with short bnstles. Cymes compound, branches dense. Flowers pedicelled, bluish, 
mixed with linear ciliate bracteoles. Corolla-tuhe and short lobes hairy, mouth not 
bearded or villous. Fruit elongate obconic, apparently indehiscent, very mem- 

54. K. monooepbala, Br. in Wall. Cat. 846 (corrected from macro- 
cephala) ; glabrous or puberulous, flaccid, branched, decumbent, leaves sub- 
sessile elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, nerves obscure, stipules slender recurved 
toothed or pectinate, cymes terminal capitate sessile glabrous, calyx-teeth 
lanceolate longer than the young fruit. 

SiLHET, Wallich. Assam, Hamilton, Masters ; Upper Assam, Griffith. 

A slender straggling species, dark brown when dry ; branches 4-angled, grooved, 
the ridges puberulous. Lenties 1-1 1 in,, base very acute, quite glabrous on both 
surfaces ; stipules variable, sometimes of one long recurved very slender simple or 
cut bristle, at others with 2 or more long bristles Cymes \-\ in. diam., terminal or 
rarely on short axillary branches with usually small leaves at their base. Flowers 
quite glabrous, except the corolla-lobes within, larger than in H. scabra, but still 
small. liipe fruit not seen. — An allied plant from Tenasserim or the Andamans 
(Heifer, Kew Distrib. 2884) is much stouter, with caudate-acuminate leaves. 
Specimens from Griffith in Herb. Bentham are marked as from Darjeeling, but are 
probably from Assam. The species was originally found by Hamilton at Bima- 
«herva in 1808 (probably in Assam). 

65. U. stipulata, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6195 and 863 a ; stems lax diffuse 
rooting below glabrous or puberulous, leaves ovate or lanceolate acute mem- 
branous, nerves slender, stipules with long bristles, cymes capitate sessile or 
peduncled axillary or terminal glabrous, calyx-teeth lanceolate recurved longer 
than the membranous broadly globose fruit. H. Lindleyana, Hook. mss. in 
W. 8f A. Prodr. 409. Oldenlandia japonica, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Liu/d. Bat. ii. 
194. O. hirsuta, Linn.Jil. ; DC. Prodr. 127. ? Anotis capitata, Korth. in Ned. 
Kruidk. Archiv, ii. 151. 

Temperate Himaus^ta, alt. 3-8000 ft., from Dalhousie to Bhotan, common. 
Khasia Mts,, alt. 4-5000 ft. — Distbib. Java, Japan. 

Bratiches slender, decumbent, 1-2 ft., terete and leaves dark brown when dry. 
Leaves |-2 in., variable in width, glabrous or with a few soft scattered hairs above 
nnd on the nerres beneath, base acute or rounded ; petiole ^~ in. ; stipules cut into 
filiform bristles nearly to the base. Cymes \-\^ in. diam. Flowers quite glabrous, 
pedicelled. Fruit membranous, indehiscent or with a loculicidal fissure on the crown 
between the calyx-teeth. Seeds many, small, angular and pitted. — Very similar to 
Anotis ingrata. 

56. K. Thomson!, Hook, f ; annual, short, suberect, much branched 
from the base, leaves fascicled sessile naiTow-linear acute margins recurved, 
stipules forming a short sheath with the petioles bristly, cymes dense in all the 
axils and terminal, calyx-teeth lanceolate recurved longer than the broadly 
obconic membranous iruit. 

East Bengal ; banks of the Megna and Mahanudde, J. D. H. cf T. T. 

Stem very short with fibrous roots, branches suberect 4-angled le?fy. Leaves J-l 
by ^ in., spreading and recurved, minutely rough above, midrib strong beneath, 
rather dilated at the base and united with the stipules into a short membranous 
sheath, proliferous in the axils ; nerves 0. F/oM'«!r5 pedicelled. (7<?roZ^ very minute, 
glabrous, tube and lobes short. Fruit apparently quite indehiscent, but there is a 
loculicidal furrow between the calyx-teeth, pericarp with raphides (as in H. coniiata). 
Seeds very numerous, small, angular, pitted, pale. — A very remarkable little plant, 
3-6 in. high, blackish when dry, not found by any previous collector, with the habit 
of an Oldenlandia, but the iguit appears quite indehiscent and the calyx is altogether 
that of Hedyotis and approaches H. pinifolia. 

64 Lxxv. RUBIACEJ!. (J. D. Hooker.) lOldenlcmdia^^ 


67. 8. andaxnanica, Kurz in Jou?ii. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 311 ; annual., 
succulent, stems furfuraceous, short stout, leaves large sessile or short-petioled 
oblong or ovate-oblong apiculate flat, stipules bristly, cymes terminal 1-3 in. 
long, peduncles erect, flowers subcapitate, calyx-teeth longer than the corolla-^ 
tube and than the small didymous capsule. 

SoTTTH Andaman and Nicobab Islands, Kurz. 

Stems 4-6 in. high, erect, simple or branched. Leaves 3-5 pair, 1-2^ by ^-1 J in., 
membranous, quite glabrous. Peduncles 1-2 in., slender,, strict, erect, bearing 2-3' 
small bracteate heads of subsessile flowers. Calyx-tube short; teeth large, ovate- 
lanceolate, recurved. Coro^/a funnel-shaped; tube broad and glabrous; mouth with 
a few hairs ; lobes linear. Stamens much exserted, anthers linear. Capsule with thfr 
crown not protruded, gaping loculicidally. Seeds many in^each cell, ^ngular, smooth. 
— Eesembles an Oldenlandia near 0. nudicaulis, but the oalyx-teeth aye close together- 
in fruit, and the seeds, though not ripe, have no appearance of pitting ; the corolla^ 
too, resembles that of Hedyotis, and the stamens have linear anthers. 


Slender erect or difiiise di-tri-chotomously branched herbs. Leaves usually 
small and narrow ; stipules acute or bristly. Flowei's small, white or pink, m 
dichotomous axiUary and terminal usually panicled cymes, rarely solitary. 
Calyx-teeth 4, rarely 5, usually erect and distant in fruit, with sometimes alter- 
nating teeth. Corolla rotate funnel- or salver-shaped, tube short or long; 
lobes 4, rarely 5, obtuse, valvate. Ovary 2-celled; style filiform, stigmas 2 
linear; ovules numerous, placentas attached to the septum. Capsule small, 
usually membranous, terete didymous or angled, loculicidal at the top, rarely 
indehiscent, many-seeded. Seeds angled or globose, testa not winged, smooth or 
pitted ; embryo clavate in fleshy albumen. — Distbxb. Species about 70, tropical 
and subtropical, chiefly Asiatic. 

SuBGEiT. I. ZSuoldenlandia. Cordla-tuhe usually short, ovary terete.. 
Capsule didymous. Seeds numerous, angled, testa smooth. — Herbs, diffuse or 
branching, usually very slender, stipules with bristles. 

* Peduncles \-^fd.,froin the lowei' or all the axils. 

1. O. corymbosa, Linn.-, Hiern in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. iii. 62; annual,, 
slender, glabrous, rarely scaberulous, leaves linear or narrowly eUiptic-lanceolate, 
margins often recurved nerveless, peduncles solitarv 1-4-flowered (rarely 2-nat&- 
1-2-flowered) and pedicels long capillary, calyx-teeth subulate rather shorter than 
the corolla-tube, crown of capsule low. O. biflora, Lamh. {not of Linn.) ; Boxh. 
Fl. Ind. i. 423. O. ramosa, Roxh. I. c. 424. O. herbacea, DC. Prodr. v. 425^ 
{not of Linn.). O. scabrida, DC. I. c. 0. alsinifolia, G. Don Gen. Syst. iii» 
629. Hedyotis Burmanniana, Br. in Wall. Cat. 868, in part ; W. 8r A. Prodr.. 
415; Dalz. 8f Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 116. H. biflora. Both Nov. sp. 92; Kurz in 
Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 133. H. ramosa, Bl. Bijd. 973 (? Wt. Ic. t. 822). H. 
btermedia, W. 8f A. Prodr. 415. H. alsinaefolia, Br. in Wall. Cat. 873. H. 
graminicola, Kurz in Trimm. Jaum. Bot. 1875, 326. Gerontogea biflora, 
Cham, et Schl. in Limicea, iv. 155. — Rheede Hort. Mai. x. t. 38. 

An abundant weed throughout India, from the Punjab southward and eastward 
to Ceylon and Malacca. — Distbib. Tropical E. Asia to Java and the Philippines; 
Trop. Africa and America. 

Very variable, not always distinguishable from 0. diffusa and 0. Heynii. It 
varies from a diminutive straggling herb, with branches 1-2 in., to an erect one a foot 
and more high. Leaves from -^2 by ^^ in., erect spreading or recurved, sometimes 

Oldenlandia.'] lxxv. rubuce^. (J. D. Hooker.) 65 

as broad as in narrow-leaved forms of H. pumila ; stipules small, membranous, ir- 
regularly-cut, with a long and several shorter teeth or bristles. Peduncles rarely in 
pairs or 4- or more -flowered, or reduced and very short as in 0. brachypoda. Capsule 
usually broad, didymous, sometimes hemispheric or narrowed below the calyx-teeth, 
base ^cute or rounded, crown usually not rising above the base of the calyx-teeth, at 
otfiers hemispheric and approaching that of 0. Heynii. — The various forms of this 
plant are distinguished by botanists as species ; but these run so much into one 
another, that it is impossible to correlate their descriptions exactly with the specimens 
in Wallich's and Wight's herbaria. 0. scahrida is a very scabrid form ; 0. alsini- 
folia a glabrous, broad membranous leaved one, like a short-capsuled 0. pumila ; 
its tissues £ire sometimes full of cystoliths, in specimens from Penang, S. India, and 
N.W. India. I have followed Mr. Hiern in adopting Linnaeus' name of corytribosa \ it 
is certainly the plant so named in the Linnsean Herbarium, though whether it is that 
of the " Species Plantarum " is doubtful, in my opinion. 

2. O. diffusa, ^oxh. Hort. Beng. 11 ; J^. Ind. i. 423; annaal, difliise, 
glabrous, leaves linear nerveless, margins usually recurved, flowers solitary 
sessile or shortly peduncled, calyx-teeth subulate rather shorter than the corolla- 
tube, capsule didymous, crown low. DC. Prodr. iv. 426. O. brachypoda, 
DC. I. c. 424 ; Wall. Cat. 864, Hedyotis ramosissima, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 
1877, ii. 133. H. diffusa, Willd. Sp. PI. i. 666. 

An abundant weed throughout India, from Eohilkund to Ceylon and Malacca. — 
DiRTRiB. Tropical Asia to Borneo, the Philippines, and Japan. 

I keep this distinct from 0. corymhosa on the ground of its being a generally 
recognised form, more constantly diflfuse, always glabrous, with shorter stouter 
peduncles or pedicels and larger capsules. It is, however, united by many aberrant 
specimens with that plant. 

Vab. ? extensa ; more robust, stems as thick as a crow-quill shining 2 ft. long, 
leaves often 2^ by \ in., peduncles longer 1-2-fld., capsule ^ in. diam. Hedyotis 
extensa, Br. in Wall. Cat. 869.— Silhet, WallicJi, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2910). 

Vau? polygojioides ; perennial-rooted, leaves very small ^-g in. narrow. Hedyotis 
polygonoides, Wall. Cat. 872. — Birma, Wallich. 

3. O. Heynii, Br. in Wall. Cat. 867, partly (Hedyotis); annual or 
biennial, glabrous, erect, much branched, leaves linear- or linear-lanceolate 
nerveless, margins usually recurved, peduncles solitary capillary l-flowered, calyx- 
teeth subulate much shorter than the slender corolla-tube, capsules didymous 
globose or ovoid, crown much protruded. O. herbacea, Wtlld. ; Roxh. Fl. Ind. 
424: (?of Linnaeus), ?0. linearis, linifolia, and asperula, DC. Prodr. iv. 425. 
Hedyotis Heynii, W. 8r A. Prodr. 416; Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. Ue.—Rheede 
Hort. Mai. x. t. 23. 

Mountainous part of India from Kumaon, alt. 6500 ft., to the Khasia Mts., alt. 
4000 ft., and southward to Ceylon ; not found in the Malay Peninsula or the Eastern 
Himalaya.— Distrib. Malay Islands, Tropical Africa. 

Usually a taller stricter much more robust plant than 0. corymhosa, with a longer 
more ovoid capsule, having a much protruded crown and usually l-flowered solitary or 
2-nate filiform peduncle equalling the leaves ; but these characters are far from con- 
stant, and in some examples the flowers are panicled towards the ends of the branches 
as in the next subsection. The name Hei^iiii may have to give place to some of the 
synonyms cited, if ever these are cleared up. 

4. O. crystallina, Roxb, HoH. Beng. 11; Fl. Ind. i, 422; annual, 
glabrous, branches low diffuse leafy, leaves elliptic- or elliptic-lanceolate sub- 
acute flat, peduncles solitary 1-2-fld. filiform equalling the leaves, calyx-teeth 
triangular-lanceolate, bases touching in fruit, a little shorter than the corolla- 
tube, capsule obovoid, crown low. DC. Prodr. iv. 426. O. numila, DC. I. c. 

426. Hedvotia WimilR. Unn. f : Wall Cat. fi200. ohipUti: W 8r A Prodr 4U. 

QQ Lxxv. RDBIACEJE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Oldenlandia, 

Not uncommon in the Plains of India from Eohilkund southwards and eastwards, 
but local. East Bengal, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2912). Chittagong, C. B. Clarke. 
Deccan not uncommon. (Not found yet in East Himalaya, Assam, the Khasia or 
Malay Peninsula). — Distrib. Java. 

A diffVise flaccid herb ; branches 2-3 in. Leaves ^-§ in. — The large calyx-teeth 
well distinguish this from any of the foregoing species. The tissues are sometimes 
full of raphides, as in some states of 0. corymhosa. 

** Peduncles from the upper axils chie/li/, mamj-^xcered. 

5. O. umbellata, imw. ; DC. Prodr.iY. 4t26\ annual, diffuse, glabrous 
or scaberulous, leaves often fascicled linear flat or almost acicular with recurved 
margins acute nerveless, peduncles in the upper axils stout 3-many-flowered, 
pedicels short, calyx-teetb a little shorter than the corolla-tube subulate, capsule 
didymous, crown low. Roxb. Cw. PI. t. 3 ; Fl. Ind. i. 421. O. puberula, G. Don 
Oen. Syst. iii. 630. Hedyotis umbellata, Lamk.; W. Sf A. Prodr. 413, excl. 
some synonyms) Wall. Cat. 871. H. linarifolia and puberula, WaU. Cat. 870 
and 884. 

Westebn Penin«\jia, from Orissa southwards, Roxburgh, &c. Ceylon, common. 
— DiSTfiiB. N. Birma, Kurz. 

Stem woody, much branched from the base. Leaves \-l^ in., spreading or recurved. 
Cymes sometimes sessile and terminal. Capsules much as in 0. coryitibosa. 

6. O. Wlgrlitli, Hook. f. ; perennial, scabrid, stem woody flexuous, 
branches rigid diffuse leafy, leaves squarrose linear-lanceolate acuminate, 
margins revolute, peduncles chiefly in the upper axils strict with terminal 
capitate cvmes, calyx-teeth triangiUar-lanceolate pungent equalling the broad 
hemispheric didymous capsule. 

Western Peninsula, Herb. Wight (Kew Distrib. 1511). 

Stems creeping in red soil or prostrate, several inches long ; branches 4-6 in., 
tufted, erect or ascending. Leaves ^1 in., sessile, pungent, scabrid on both surfaces ; 
stipules short, bristly. Peduncles usually exceeding the leaves, stout, scabrid. Heads 
^ in. diam. ; flowers sessile. Capsules large, scabrid, with a broad low crown and 
long spreading teeth. — This approaches a Hedyotis of the section Scleromitrion, but 
the foliage is not that of the majority of that group, and the form of the capsule and 
distant calyx-teeth well distinguish it. 

*** Flowei's sessile, chiejly in the upper axils, solitary or crowded; corolla 
rotate. (See also 2. O. diffusa.) 

7. O. trinervla, Retz Obs. iv. 23 ; annual, glabrous or hairy, branched 
low diffuse leafy, leaves small subsessile ovate elliptic or orbicular, nerves 
distinct, flowers solitary or clustered in the axils sessile or subsessile, calyx- 
teeth very short equalling the rotate corolla, capsule small didymous liau'v 
crown low. O. repens. Burnt. PI. Ind. t. 16, f. 2 ? Hedyotis trinervia, JV. 
^ A. Prodr. 414; Dalz. <§• Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 115; Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 29. 
H. rotundifoha, DC. Prodr. iv. 420. H. serpylli folia, Poir. in DC. I. c, 421. 
H, orbiculata, Heyne\ Wall. Cat. 6191. 

"Western Peninsula, from the Concan southwards. Chittagong, J. D. H. ^ T. T. 
Arbacan, Km-z. Ceylon. — Distrib. Sumatra, Java, Tropical Africa. 

A flaccid green weed, with straggling branches. Leaves | in., rarely more, f in a 
Pondicherry specimen, and more ovate and petioled. Stipules 2-partite, segments 
acuminate. Corolla purplish. 

*♦** Flowers partly in axillary peduncles, chiejly in open tenninal panicled 

8. O. braohiata, Wight in W. <§• A. P-odr. 416 (Hedyotis), and Wall. 
Cat. 6201, in part', annual, glabrous, very slender, st^m erect acutely 4-angled, 

Oldenlayidia,"] lxxv. rubiacejj. (J. D. Hooker.) 67 

leaves slender narrow-linear, peduncles capillary solitary axillary and 1-flowered 
and in open dichotomous terminal cymes, calyx-teeth subulate rather shorter than 
the corolla-tube, capsules small broadly didymous, crown low. O. pusilla, Itoth ; 
DC. Frodr. iv. 428. Iledyotis angustifolia, WaU. Cat, 6203. H. attenuata, 
WiUd. ; Herh. Madr., in part. 

RoHiLKUND, Royle, T. Thomson. Beha.b, Hamilton. Western Peninsula, Wight, 

A very slender erect species, resembling a state of 0. bijiora, with paniculate 
ttoxininal inflorescence. — According to the rules of priority, the name of 0. pinsilla 
should take precedence, but it is not applicable. 

9. O. diclkOtoma, Koe7i.; Both Nov. Sp. 93 (Hedyotis) ; annual, vei-y 
slender, glabrous or sparsely hairy, stem erect terete, nodes distant, branches 
ftliform, leaves linear-lanceolate acute flat nerveless, peduncles capillary axillary 
and in open terminal panicles, pedicels very long, calyx-teeth subulate much 
shorter than the slender corolla-tube, capsule globose. O, linarifolia, Jlerh. 
Madr. O. affinis, DC. Prodr. iv. 428. Hedyotis dichotoma, WaU. Cat. G204, 
in part; W. ^' A. Prodr. 4tLQ {excC. some synonyms). H. affinis, -Roem. <^'- *ScA. 
H. Heynii, Bedd. Ic. Pi. Ind. Or. t. 33 {not Br.). 

Bandelkund and southward through the Wkstebn Peninsula to Travancore, on 
<\rj hills, alt. 1-3000 ft.. Bottler, &c. 

Stem simple in small plants, much branched in large ones, 18 in. high ; branches 
shining, divaricating, copiously flowering throughout their length, ultimate ones and 
peduncles and pedicels like fine hairs, 1 in. and more long. Flowers very minute. 
Capsules smaller than in its congeners, cells about 6-seeded. — Beddome's figure is, I 
think, this plant; it does not agree with his description, called H. Heynii (t. 33). 

10. O. argruta, Br. in Wall. Cat. 864 (Hedyotis); annual, erect, stiff, 
stem simple or 3-chotomously branched furfuraceous or hispid, leaves semi- 
amplexicaul subulate or triangular-lanceolate acuminate scabrid, margins rev^- 
lute, cymes terminal lax few-flowered scabrid, peduncles and pedicels filiform, 
calyx-teeth subulate-lanceolate shorter than the funnel-shaped corolla-tube and 
longer than the didymous hemispheric hispid capsule. Hedyotis linoides, Griff. 
Notid. iv. 265 ; Kurz iii Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 134. 

Mabtaban and Tenasserim; Moulmein, and Mergui, in wet sand, Gome^, &c. 

A few inches to a span high ; branches terete, spreading. Leaves ^ in., rigid, pale 
beneath. Cymes twice or thrice forked ; flowers blue. Seeds ellipsoid, angled, testa 

no. Stocksii, Hook. f. ^- T. Herh. Ind. Or. (Hedyotis); tufted, 

flabrous, stems filiform simple or branched above, leaves subulate, stipules with 
ristles, cymes with few very large flowers, calyx-teeth elongate subulate 
almost equalling tne very broadly campanulate corolla-tube. 

Malabar ; in the Bababooden hills, Stocks, Law. 

A very slender annual, apparently growing in masses amongst grass, 4-8 in. high. 
Stems simple below or throughout their length, branches ending in di-trichotomous 
cymes, with capillary pedicels. Leaves (not fascicled) ^-^ in. Calyx-tube short, 
obconic, much smaller than the long erect or recurved t«eth. Corolla much the 
longest of the genus, quite campanulate, blue, ^-^ in. diam, Capsules hemispheric 
or turbinate, smooth. 

SuBGEN. II. XiOhautia. ^orolla-tube usually long cylindric or funnel- 
shaped, with included or shortly exserced anthers. Ovary terete. Seeds nume- 
rous, angled. — Usually strict erect, annual or perennial herbs, rarely diffuse, 
sometimes shrubby below with stiff" erect branches, very narrow leaves and 
terminal open cymes ; stipules with biistles. 

• Corolltt'tube very slendei; 

68 Lxxv. RUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) {Oldenlatidia. 

12. O. aspera, DC. Pi-odr. iv. 428; stems stout and branches scabrid^ 
leaves in fascicled whorls erect narrow-linear acute margins revolute, stipules 
with median bristles, capsules solitary or 2-3-nate subsessile on the slender 
erect branches of the cpnes rough globose didymous, calyx-teeth subulate 
shorter than the corolla-tube. Hedj-^otis aspera, Heyne in Roth Nov. Sp. 94 ; 
W. ^' A. Prodr. 417 ; Dalz. 8^ Gibs. Botnb. Fl. 115. H. ? elongata, Br. in 
Wall. Cat. 865 : G. Don Gen. Syst. iu. 627. 

The Punjab, Aitchison. RoHiLKtnn), and southwai'ds to Mysore, Bottler, &c. — 
DiSTRiB. Tropical Africa. 

A stout annual herb, 6-8 in. high, trichotomously branched. Leaves 2-3 in.» 
glabrous above, coriaceous. Cymes branched in fruit, 1-6 in. long; flowers small^ 
pale blue, ^ in. long, corolla about ^ in. diam. Cwpsules ^ in. diam. 

13. O. ? senegralensls, Hiet-n in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afric. iii. 56; glabrous- 
or minutely scaberulous, stem extremely slender erect simple, leaves not fascicled 
linear-lanceolate acuminate flat or with recurved margins, stipules with lateral 
bristles, cymes in a very loose open terminal panicle with divaricate very long^ 
capillary peduncles and pedicels, calyx-teeth subulate much shorter than the 
slender corolla-tube, "corolla-lobes acuminate, capsules hemispheric. Kohautia 
senegalensis, Endl. Atdkt. t. 23. 

Chota. Nagpore ; Hazaribagh, alt. 2200 ft., C. B. Clarke.— "DiSTm^. ? W. Tropical 

Annual, 8-16 in. high; stem wiry, terminating in a wide spreading very thin 
very few-flowered pyramidal paniculate cyme, with capillary pedicels 1-2 in. long. 
Flow»rs very small. Capsules ^ in. diam., the minute subulate teeth very distant. — 
Easily confounded with 0. dichotoma, but distinguished by the divaricate cyme- 
branches, corolla, and larger capsules. I refer it with hesitation to the Senegal plants 
which has an equally open pyramidal cyme and long-pedicelled flowers, and of which 
there is a variety with sessile or shcrt pedicelled flowers. The corolla is much shorter- 
in the Indian plant, but the specimens are too few for a strict comparison. 

14. O. retrorsa, Boiss. Fl. Or. iii. 12; stem retrorsely scabrid, leaves in 
fascicled whorls short linear-oblong obtuse flat scabrid, stipules with median 
bristles, cymes glabrous spreading, capsules sessile and pedicelled didymous, 
calyx-teeth much shoi-ter than the long slender corolla-tube, corolla-lobes short. 

Scinde; near Kurrachee, Stocks. — Distrib. Arabia. 

Stock woody, branched from the base; branches 12-18 in., slender. Leaves f-1 
in. ; nerves indistinct. Flowers scattered on the long cyme-branches. Corolla-tube 
\ in., glabrous, drpsule \ in. diam., glabrous. 

15. O. grraclllB, DC. Prodr. iv. 431 (Kohautia) ; stem below scaberu- 
lous or glabrate, leaves not fascicled naiTow linear acuminate glabrous flat^ 
stipules truncate, cyme-branches slender, capsules pedicelled obovoid globose or 
hepiispheric, corolla-lobes linear. Hedvotis gracilis. Wall, in Bo.vb. Fl. Ind., 
ed. Carey 8f Wall. i. 371 ; Cat. 843. H. stricta, Wall in As. Res. xiii. 369. 
H. fusea. Ham. in Don Prodr. 134. H. aspera, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 32. 
Kohautia sp., Ghriff. Notul. iv. 265 ; Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 477. 

Hilly districts of India. Tropical Himalaya, alt. 1-5500 ft., from Garwhal to 
Sikkim, Birma, and plains of N. Bengal. Bblgatjm, Ritchie ; Travancorb, Beddome, 
— Distrib. Ava. 

Slender, erect, 6-12 in., sparingly branched. Leaves erect, 2-3^ by ^j-| in.; 
nerves indistinct. Cyme-branches spreading in flower, erect in fruit; pedicels very 
slender. Corolla | in., brown. Capsules very variable in length, ^-\ in. 

16. O- Stricta, Linn. Mant. 200 ; slender, glabrous, difiusely branched, 
leaves from linear-lanceolate and flat to almost filiform with recurved margins, 
stipules truncate, cyme-branches long slender, calyx-teeth subulate not equalling 

Oldenlandia.'] lxxv. RUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 69 

the short corolla-tuhe, capsules pedicelled small obovoid. Hedyotis maritima, 
WaU. Cat. 6192, in part; W. ^ A. Prodr. 417. H. graminifolia, Linn. f. 
iSuppl. i. 119. O. graminifolia and O. linifolia, DC. Prodr. iv. 425. 

Sandy eea-coasts of Tinnevelly and S. Cajknatic, Hottler, Wight, &c. Ceylon, 
fiommon near the sea. 

Annual, repeatedly trichotomously branched from the base, 4 in. -2 ft. higli ; 
branches very slender, ending in vriry raceme-like cymes with distant flowers. Leaves 
1-2 in., very variable, sometimes membranous and ^ in. broad. Flowers all pedi- 
celled. Corolla-tube funnel-shaped, ^ in. Capsules ^ in. long or less. 

17. O. Shuterl, Hook. /. ; branches stout woody below ascending 
-sparingly divided, leaves short linear-lanceolate scabrid above, margins revolute, 
.stipules trimcate, cyme- branches short stiff, calyx- teeth subulate shorter than 
the cylindric corolla-tube, capsules pedicelled small ovoid. Hedyotis maritima. 
Wall. Cat. 6192, in part; Wiglt Cat. 1314. 

IMadeas, Shuter, Wight. 

Very different from 0. stricta, with which it is mixed in Herb. Wallich ; much 
stouter, with scabrid rigid leaves ^-f in. long and abbreviated cymes, in which the 
oapsules are sometimes almost crowded into heads ; the corolla-tube, too, appears to 
be cylindric- not funnel-shaped. 

18. O. coccinea, Royle III. 241, t. 53 (Kohautia) ; very slender, erect, 
scaberulous, leaves opposite not fascicled narrowly linear-lanceolate acute 
margins recui-ved, stipules bristly, cymes sparingly branched few-flowered, 
calyx-teeth very long equalling or shorter than the cylindric corolla-tube, cap- 
sules oblong or subglobose. 

Western Temperate Himalaya ; from Kashmir to Kumaon, alt. 3-8000 ft., 
Hoyle, &c. 

Annual; stem 12-18 in., simple below or throughout its length; branches erect, 
terminating in long-peduncled cymes. Leaves in distant pairs, 1-2 by -^-^ in,, rough 
to the touch. Flowers subsessile, pedicels lengthening in fruit. Corolla scarlet, tube 
^ in., lobes oblong. Capsules very variable, ^j in. long, often shorter than the 
slender calyx-teeth. 

Stjbgen. III. G-onotheca. Calyx-teeth short, broadly triangular, very 
smaU in fruit. Corolla-tube short. Ovary terete, 4-angled or 4-wiDged. Seeds 
numerous, subglobose, testa deeply coarsely pitted. 

19. O. paniculata, Linn.; Burm. Fl. Ind. 38, t. 15, f. 1; annual, 
glabrous, branches erect or ascending succulent, leaves petioled elliptic-ovate or 
oblong subacute flat, stipules truncate with median points or bristles, cymes 
3-8-tid. subterminal, calyx-tube not produced above the ovary, capsules on 
slender pedicels didymous. DC. Prodr. iv. 427. 0. alata, Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 421 
{not of Koenig). 0. multiflora, Cav. Ic. vi. 53, t. 574, f. 2. 0. racemosa and 
ramosissima, Bl. Bijd. 972. Hedyotis racemosa, W. 4* A. Prodr. 414 ; Wt. Ic. 
t. 312 ; Wall. Cat. 865, in part. H. paniculata. Dene. ; Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 
1877, ii. ISi. H. minima, Meyne ; Wdl. Cat. 877. 

Easteen Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Silhet, PEor, the Malay Peninsula, the 
Carxatic, and Ceylon, — Disteib. Birma, Malay, and Philippine Islands, China, 

Stout or slender, succulent, 6-18 in. high, erect or diffuse, branched from the 
base; branches obtusely 4-angled, robust or slender. Leaves ^-3 by ^-1^ in., bright 
green, soft, nerves indistinct, narrowed into the short or long petiole. Cymes in the 
upper axils, short, 3-8-fld.,panicled, peduncles and pedicels stout or slender. Flowers 
minxite, white. Capsules very variable, ^-^ in. diam., turbinate didymous or hemi- 
spheric, terete or 4-pibbed, membranous ; crown usually exceeding the calyx-teeth. — 
A very variable weed, sometimes erect, with stem and lower branches as stout as a 

70 Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. • (J. D. Hooker.) \_Oldenlandia. 

goose -quill, at others slender and diffuse ; cymes and fruit especially variable, the 
former in slendemess and length, the latter in size and shape. There are no speci- 
mens of H. panicidaia in Herb. Linn., but as Burman's figure of what he assumes to 
be Linnaeus' plant is a fair one, I have adopted the name. Koxburgh's 0. paniculafa^ 
from the Moluccas, with rooting stems and biennial root, must be a different plant. 
Lamarcks' H. racemosa, usually cited under this, is figured as having smooth seeds, 
and is therefore a Eu-oldmlandia. H. minima, Heyne (Wall. Cat. 877), is a seedling 
state, apparently, of this species. 

20. O. biflora, Linn. ; W, 8f A. Pi'odr. (Hedyotis) ; annual, glabrous^ 
diffuse, succulent, leaves petioled elliptic or oblong acute or subobtiise flat, 
stipules truncate with a few points or short bristles, cymes short 1-4-fld., calyx- 
tuDe not produced above the ovary, capsules shortly pedicelled turbinate 4- 
angled base acute. Hedyotis biflom,- Wall. Cat. 879. 

Carnatic, Bottler, Wight, &c. Ceylon, Gardner, Keetart. 

This very closely resembles small specimens of 0. panicidaia, and is distinguished 
by the cymes seldom having more than 3 flowers, and often reduced to 1, and by the 
larger fruit, more* turbinate and angled, and with usually larger calyx-teeth. — This 
Brown declares to be the true 0. biflora of Linnaeus, not that of Roxburgh and De 
Candolle, which is 0. corymbosa. 

21. O. alata, Koen. in W. 8r A. Prodr. 413 (Hedyotis) ; glabrous, succu- 
lent, branches stout, leaves subsessile elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate subacute or 
obtuse, stipules trnncate toothed, cymes axillary subcapitate, calyx-tube 4- 
winged proiduced above the ovary and cupular, capsule large turbinate 4-angled 
and -winged. 0. pterita, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 193. Hedyotis alata, Koen. in 
Wall. Cat. 6196. H. pterita, Bl Bijd. 972. Gonotheca Blumei, DC. Prodr 
iv. 429 ; Endl. Atakt. t. 22. 

CiBCABS, Bottler, Boxhurgh, Wight. — Distkib. Malay Islands. 

A stout annual, 6-12 in. high, with the habit of branching and foliage of O. 
paniculata, but the leaves are almost sessile, the cjnoies reduced to axiUary and ter- 
minal heads, and the capsules are much larger, | in. long, very shortly pedicelled, 
surmounted by a cupular 4-lobed prolongation of the calyx-tube, and has 4 lateral 
wings, of which 2 are shorter than the others. — The cellular tissue is full of raphides. 

22. O. nudlcaulls, Both Nov. Sp. 95 ; annual, erect, sparsely hairy, 
stem furfuraceous short naked or vdth 2 leaves below, leaves 4 in a whorl rarely 
opposite large membranous elliptic or ovate, nerves distinct, cjines long-peduncled 
fascicled terminal much dichotomously branched, branches capiUary, calyx-teeth 
minute subulate or shoiler than the corolla-tube obscure in fruit, capsule hemi- 
spheric. O. rotundifoha, G. Don Gen. Sgst. iii. 530. 0. ovatifolia and spergu- 
lacea, DC. Prodr. iv. 427, 428. Hedvotis scapigera, Br. in WaU. Cat. 881. H. 
nudicaulis, W. ^ A. Prodr. 416 ; B'^edd. Ic. PI. Ind. O?-. t. 34. H. ovatifolia, 
Cav. Ic. 673. H. rotundifoha, Hain. in WaU. Cat. 6190 (not of DC). H. 
spergulacea, Ku7'z in Joum. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 134. 

Tropical Himalaya, from Kumaon to Sikkim, the Khasia Mts., and Assam,. 
ascending to 5000 ft. Teavancore and Maisor. (Not in Ceylon.)— Distrib. Java. 

Much resembling Mollngo nudicaulis in the inflorescence. Stem stout, erect,, 
1-2 in., with or without a pair of small leaves, ^naked to the first whorl of leaves,, 
simple or 3-chotomously forked, each branch usually bearing 4 unequal leaves in a 
whorl. Leaves shortly petioled, |-2 in., tip obtuse or rounded. Cymes very open j 
flowers very small, as are the capsules. 

23. O. Parlshll, Hook. f. ; annual, very slender, sparsely hairy, stem 
short simple, leaves petioled ovate acuminate membranous, cymes terminal dicho- 
tomous open few-flowered, peduncles and pedicels capillary, calyx-teeth minuto^ 

Oldenlandia.'] lxxv. rubucejb. (J. D. Hooker.) 71 

much shorter than the campanulate corolla, capsule broadly turbinate, crown 

Mabtaban; at Moixlraein, Lobb, Parish. 

Whole plant 4-6 in., very flaccid; stem almost filiform. Leaves ^-1^ in.; petiole 
very slender. Cumes shortly pedimcled, terminal, with sometimes very reduced ones 
in the lower axils. Capsules the smallest of the genus, with very obscure calyx- 


O. CAPiixARis, DC. I. c. 426, is probably O. corymbosa, L. 

0. LACTBA, Cham. ^ Schlecht. in Linnesa, 1829, 169 (Q-erontogea) ; DC. I. c. 427, 
is quite 

0. ? HispiDA, DC. I. c. 428. Hedyotis hispida, Hoth Nov. Sp. 05, is also undeter- 

O. ? DEPHESSA, Wilfd. Sp. i. 675 ; DC. I. c. 429. Hedyotis depressa, Roem. ^ Sch., 
is probably 0. corymbosa. 

22. ANOTZS, DC. 

Herbs, prostrate or ascending, rarely erect ; stipules usually membranous or 
with margmal bristles. Calyx-tube short; lobes 4, with broad intervening 
sinuses. CoroUa tubular or funnel-shaped ; lobes 4, usually . shorter than the 
tube, valvate in bud. Stamens 4, on the mouth of the corolla ; anthers included 
or exserted. Ooary 2- rarely 3-4-celled ; style filiform, stigmas 2-4 linear ; 
ovules few or rarely solitary in each cell, on placentas ascending from near the 
base of the septum. Capsule didymous or laterally compressed, crown produced 
between the caljnc-lobes, loculicidally 2-valved at the top, rarely indehiscent, 
cells 1- or few-seeded. Seeds peltate boat-shaped or rarely plano-convex, testa 
very rarely winged, coarsely pitted; embryo clavate in norny albumen. — 
— DiSTRiB. Species about 26, tropical Asiatic and Australian, witn 1 American. 

Sect. I. Buanotis. Capsule turgid, dehiscing loculicidally by a broad 
top above the calyx-teeth. 

* Perennials. 

1. A. ingrata, Wall. Cat. 863, in part (Hedyotis); root perennial, 
branches stout elongate diffuse glabrous or hairy at the nodes, leaves petioled 
ovate-lanceolate acuminate pubenilous above and beneath, nerves numerous, 
stipules with many long bristles, cymes terminal and subterminal, flowers 
crowded, calyx-teeth large, capsules shortly pedicelled hemispheric didymous, 
cells many-seeded. Hedyotis stipulata, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6196, in part. 

Moist places in the Tempbbate Himalaya, from Nipal, WaUich, to Bhotan, Griffith, 
alt. 4-8000 ft. Khasia Mts., alt. 4-6000 ft. 

Stem 2-3 ft., straggling, rooting at the nodes below, brittle. Leaves 1^-3 in., 
membranous, blackish when dry; nerves 8-10 pair; stipular bristles hairy, ^ in. 
Flowers shortly pedicelled, white. Corolla-tube ^ in. long, broad, lobes oblong, 
glabrous or hairy. Capsules glabrous or hairy. — ^Whole plant foetid. 

2. A. grrctoills, Hook. f. ; very slender, diffuse, stem glabrous or pubes- 
cent, leaves petioled ovate acuminate sparsely hairy above and beneath, stipules 
bristly, cymes axillary and terminal once or twice unequally 2-3-chotomouslv 
forked with capitate clusters of glabrous flowers, calyx-teeth lanceolate recurved. 

Tbhpebatb Sekkim and E. Nipal, alt. 6-6000 ft., J. D. H. Khasia Mts,, at 
Moflong, alt. 6-6000 ft., J. D. H. ^ T. T. 

A very slender perennial, with the stem rooting for a considerable length ; inter- 
nodes long. Leaves 1-1^ in., membranous, dark above when dry, paler beneath, 

72 Lxxv. jiuBiACEiE. (J. B. Hooker.) [A^wtia. 

nerves 6-8 pair. Q/mes on sleuder peduncles much longer than the leaves ; heads 
of flowers ^ in, aiam. Corolla white, glabrous ; tube broad, much longer than the 
lobes. — Fruit unknown. 

3. A. Xiesclienaiatlana, W. ^ A. Prodr. 411 (Hedyotis); root 
perennial, branches diffuse ascending villous or glabrate, leaves sessile or 
petioled ovate obtuse or acute more' or less hairy or hirsute above and beneath, 
stipules bristly, cymes terminal corymbose hispid or glabrous, capsule sub- 
globose didymous with the calyx-teeth near the top, cells 1-8-seeded, seeds 
deeply pitted. 

Throughout the mountains of the Western Peninsula, from the Concan to 
Travancore, alt. 4-7000 ft. 

A most variable plant in habit, stature, hairiness, and length of the calyx-teeth, 
which often enlarge and are sometiides somewhat toothed after flowering. There are 
three principal forms. 

Va«. 1. LesQhenaultiana proper ; stout, stems often villous 1-2 ft., leaves 1-2 in. 
ovate or ova-te»lanceolate often cordate aftd sessile, cymes 2-4 in. diam., calyx-teeth 
usually short. — Hedyotis Leschenaultiana, Wt. III. 1. 125 ; DaU. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 115. 

Vab. 2. affinis ; smaller, more slender, stem 4-8 in. usually almost hispid, leaves 
i-| in. petioled coriaceous ovate, cymes 1-2 in. diam., calyx-teeth often very long. — 
H. affinis, JV. ^ A. Prodr. 411 ; Wt. Ic. t. 1030. H. cymosa, Br. in Wall. Cat. 885. 

Vab. 3. delioidea ', dwarf, glabrous or sparsely hispid, leaves ^| in. coriaceous 
petioled ovate obtuse. H. deltoidea, W. ^ A. Prodr. 410. 

4. A. declpiens, Hooh. /. ; perennial, stems elongate slender diffusely 
branching and leaves sparsely pilose, leaves petioled ovate acuminate flat mem- 
branous, stipules with long bristles, cymes terminal and axillary subpaniculately 
branched manj'-flowered puberulous or glabrate, capsules small subglobose didy- 
mous, crown shorter than the lanceolate calyx-teeth, cells 1-3-seeded. 

Western Peninsula ; Concan, Stocks ; Travancore and Pulney Mts., Wight. 

Habit of glabrate slender forms of H. Leschetiatdtiana, but the leaves have petioles 
^-1 in. ; the cymes are not at all corymbose, the branchJes being very unequal. The 
capsules much resemble those of A. monosperma at first sight, but are more hemi- 
spheric, didymous, and dehisce across the cells between the calyx- teeth. Corolla 
nearly \ in. long, tube narrowly funnel-shaped, nwich longer than the calyx-tube. 

5. A. oxypbylla, Wall. Cat. 6193 (Hedyotis) ; glabrous, root perennial, 
stem stout erect, leaves petioled linear-lanceolate, stipules long lanceolate 
simple toothed or laciniate, cymes terminal subcorymbose many-flowered, pe- 
duncles and pedicels erect, calyx-teeth short broad, capsules pedicelled turgid hemi- 
spheric, cells 5-8-seeded. Oldenlandia oxyphylla, G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 531. 

Khasia Mts. ; in marshy places, alt. 2-5000 ft., common. 

Stem 12-18 in., simple, rarely branched above, as thick as a goose-quill below, 
and rooting at the lower nodes. Leaves 4-6 by ^— | in., tapering to the base, dark 
when dry ; stipules ^ in., base ovate, not connate, coriaceous, erect. Cymes much 
divided with slendei erect peduncles and pedicels. Corolla pale lilac, much longer 
than the calyx-teeth. — Specimens from Griffith's collection are marked as from Dar- 
jeeling, probably by mistake for Khasia. 

6. A. uropliylla, Wall. Cat. 6197 (Hedyotis) ; glabrous, root perennial, 
stem erect simple, leaves sessile lanceolate caudate-acuminate, stipules cut into 
many bristles, cymes terminal many-flowered, peduncles and pedicels divaricate in 
fruit, calyx-teeth short broad, capsules shortly pedicelled turgid hemispheric, 
cells 5-8-seeded. 

Khasia and Jyntba Mts., alt. 4-6000 ft., Gomee, Griffith, &^. 

Kesembles A. oxyphylla in habit, but is more slender, with shorter broader sessile 

Anntis.'] Lxxv. rubucej;. (J. D. Hooker.) 73 

leavBw shelter stipules cut to near the base into bristles, and more spreading shorter 
cymes with divaricating capsules. 

7. A. landfolla, jDo/z. in Hook. Kew Journ, ii. 135 (Hedyotis); peren- 
nial ?, erect, branched, leaves short-petioled ovate or ovate-lanceolate acuminate 
pubescent, stipules with short bristles, cymes terminal and subterminal many- 
flowered corymbose glabrate or hispid, capsules sessile subsolitary didymous 
hispid much broader than long, crown very prominent 2-lobed, cells 2-4-8eeded. 
HedyotiB lancifolia, Dalz. ^ Oibs. Bomb. Fl. 116. H. tubularis, WaU. Cat. 
676 A. (a seedling state). 

Mysorb, Bottler, Heyne. The Concan, Nimmo, Dalzell, ^-c. 

Stem stout, shining, 2-3 ft, brittle, most difiiisely branched. Leaves l-2i in., 
Tuembranous; stipules short. Cymes often 4—6 in. diam., with slender di-tricnoto- 
nious divaricating branches. Calyx-teeth subulate, many times shorter than the 
slender cylindric corolla-tube. Capsules always hispid with recurved calyx-teeth, 
sometimes \ in. across the long axis. 

** Annuals. 

t CapstUes pedicdled or sessile, solitary or subsolitary , not collected into heads. 

8. A. Rlieedil, W. 8f A. Bi'odr. 409 (Hedyotis); annual, very slender, 
nearly glabrous, branches suberect, leaves petioled ovate or ovate-lanceolate 
acuminate very membranous with minute scattered short hairs on both surfaces, 
stipules short crenate, cymes axUlary and terminal very lax and open with long 
capillary pedimcles and pedicels, capsules solitary or 2-nate short-pedicelled 
puber ulcus broadly didymous, crown much longer than the calyx-tube, cells 1-2- 
seeded. calyx-teeth very minute. Hedyotis latifolia, Dalz. in Hook. Kew Journ. 
ii. 133'; Dalz. 4- Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 116. H. racemosa. Wall. Cat. 875, in part. 
H. capillipes, Schlecht. in Herb. Hohen. No. 847. — Rlieede Hort. Mai. x. t. 26. 

Western Peninsula ; on the hills from the Concan southwards. 

Stem 6 in.-2 ft., quite erect from the base. Leaves 2-3 (a-, narrowed into the 
fclender petiole. Cyme-peduncles sometimes 3 in., branches 1-2 in. Flowers very 
minute. Corolla rose, tube short cylindric. Capsules ~ in. diam., rather mem- 
branous, after bursting appearing as 4 connate cups ; the calyx-t?ube in fruit very 
much smaller than in any other species, and the dehiscence proportionably low. 

9. A. calycina, Wall. Cat. 878 (Hedyotis); annual, erect, slender, 
glabrous, leaves small ovate-lanceolate acuminate ciliolate, cymes axillary and 
terminal few-llowered, capsules sessile and pedicelled broader than long with 
very short calyx-teeth, cells 20-40-aeeded, seeds peltate reticulate. 

Temperate Himalaya, from Kashmir to Bhotan, alt. 3-7000 ft. Khasia Mts., 
alt. S-eOOO ft. Chota Nagpore, alt. 2-4000 ft. 

Stems 4-8 in., simple or copiously branched from the base, shining, 4-angled. 
Leaves \-\ in., membranous with sometimes a few minute scattered hairs ; stipules 
with short lateral bristles. Cyme-peduncles and branches capillary. Corolla short, 
pale-purple. Capsules didymous, truncate, crown tumid often exceeding the minute 
distant calyx-teeth. 

tt Capsules in clusters or heads. 

10. A. Montliolonl, Hook. /. ; annual, erect, glabrate or hispid, 
■diffusely branched, leaves petioled ovate or ovate-lanceolate acute, stipules with 
short bristles, cymes terminal and subterminal peduncled rounded many-flowered 
not capitate, calyx-teeth small subulate with short hair-points, capsules clustered 
didymous broader than long with a large double convex crown, cells 1-3- 

VOL. 111. D 

74 Lxxv. RUBUCR^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Anotis, 

Wbstbbn P^ninsuia ; on the Ghauts from Concan southwards, De Montliolon {\vt 
Herb. G-ay), Ritchie, Dalzell, &c. 

This resembles a good deal a short annual state of A. Leschinaidtiana, but the 
capsules are subsessile, collected in small clusters, and the crown so protruded in 2 
hemispheric bosses that the calyx-teeth are nearer the pedicel than the top. Corolla 
funnel-shaped, purple. Seeds subglobose, pitted, and with a deep ventral pit. — The- 
short hair-point of the calyx-teeth and bracts is a good character. 

11. A. quadrllocularls, Thiv. Enum. 144 (Hedyotis) ; annual, diffusely 
branched, branches slender glabrous, leaves petioled ovate subacute mem- 
branous slightly hairy on both surfaces, stipules truncate the upper with short 
bristles, cymes very small capitate peduncled and terminal or axillary and sessile, 
capsules sessile 2-4-lobed 2-4-celled with very small calyx-teeth. H. tubularis,. 
Br. in Wall. Cat. 876 b. 

Mysobe; on the Bababoodan hills, Bottler; Belgaum, Ritchie. Tratancoee; 
Courtallum, Wight. Cetlon ; Badulla district, rare, Thwaitea. 

Much more slender than A. carjiosa, not at all fleshy, with membranous pet-ioled 
leaves and much smaller calyx-teeth and longer corolla-tube. Seeds about 3 in each 

12. A. camosa, Dah. in Hook. Keio Jown. ii. 135 (Hedyotis) ; annual,, 
diffusely branched from the base, glabrous, fleshy, leaves ovate- or oblong- 
lanceolate obtuse, margins recurved, stipules truncate or obsolete, cymes capitate- 
sessile and axillary or peduncled and terminal, capsules sessile broader than 
long with large lanceolate calyx- teeth, cells 5-6-seeded. Hedyotis camosa,. 
Balz. ^ Gibs. Botnb. Fl. 116. 

Canara; on the sea-shore at Malwan, Dalzell; Mangalore, Hohenacker. 

Branches very numerous, rather stout, 5-6 in. Leaves ^-| in., pruinose. Heads 
3-6-flowered, on strict peduncles ^1 in. Calyx-teeth as long as the very short 
funnel-shaped corolla-tube. Capsules ^ in. diam., with a very wide tip and spreading 

13. A. foetlda, Dalz. in Hook. Kew Journ. ii. 134 (Hedyotis); annual, 
erect, filiform, glabrous, leaves linear or narrowly linear-lanceolate subacute 
scaberulous above, margins recurved, stipules minute bristly, cymes of 2-3 sub- 
sessile flowers terminating simple or forked slender subterminal peduncles, 
capsules sessile broader than long didymous crown very prominent, cells 1-6- 
seeded. Hedyotis foetida, Dalz. 8f Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 116. H. tenella and H. 
subtilis, Miq. in Herb. Hohm. No. 173. H. tenuiflora, Schlecht. I. c. No. 848.' 

The CoNCAN and Canara at Malwan, in stony ground, Stocks, Dalzell, &c. 

A very slender annual, 4-6 in. high, simple or excessively branched, the 
branches erect. Leaves sessile, 1 by ^-|- in. Cymes on capillary erect peduncles ; 
flowers capitate. Corolla funnel-shaped. Capsules about ^ in. diam. 

14. A. Ritcliiel, Hook. f. ; annual, stem 6 in. high very slender acutely 
4-angled hispid above, leaves shortly petioled small lanceolate or oblong-lanceo- 
late acute or obtuse hispid on both surfaces, stipules inconspicuous rounded 
toothed, c}Tnes terminal short few-flowered shortly peduncled hispid, flowers 
sessile, calyx-teeth lanceolate acuminate much shorter than the very slender 

CoNCAN ; Belgaum ? Ritchie. 

A very small slender species, growing in tufts apparently as if drawn up amongst 
grass, the internodes very long. Leaves A-J in., flat. Cymes \^^ in., with few and 
short branches, hispid with white hairs, as is the unopened corolla ; flowers 2-3-nate. 
Corolla purple, lobes short rough within. Stamens exserted ; anthers linear. Ovary^ 
2-celled ; cells about 4-ovuled. Fruit unknown. 

Anotis.] Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 75 

Sect. II. Patzia. Fruit compressed or flattened, tardily dehiscent or 

* Fruit much Jlattened, indekiscmt or obscurely dehiscent in the croivn. 

16. A . numxnularia, Am. Pugill. PL Ind. Or. 23 (Iledyotis) ; perennial^ 
hairy, stems long stout ascending, leaves sessile orbicular or broadly ovate 
obtuse or apiculate glabrous or hairy, stipules of a few bristles or obsolete, 
cymes terminal loug-peduncled simple or 3-chotomous, flowers capitate, fruit 
flat orbicular indehiscent, cells 1-2-seeded. 

Ceylon ; abundant in wet places ; alt. 5-8000 ft. 

Stem 8-18 in. from a creeping base, sparingly branched, nodes often distant. Leaves 
xiniform throughout the stem, |-§ in. diam., coriaceous, usually with crisped hairs, 
especially beneath. Cyines on stout peduncles 1-4 in., each usually once S-chotomously 
divided, branches terminating in a head of flowers \-\ in. diam. ; flowers sessile. Calyx- 
teeth short. Fruit with 2 ridges on each face, not at all didymous, contracted below 
the short calyx-teeth. 

Vab. glabra, Thw. Enum. 142 ; quite glabrous, leaves ovate very coriaceous flat or 
with recurved margins. H. nummulariformis, Am. I. c. — I reluctantly follow 
Thwaites in regarding this distinct-looking plant as a variety of A. nummularia. 

16. A. Wlg'litlana, Wall. Cat. 6194 (Hedyotis) ; perennial, tomentose, 
difiuse, leaves sessile or subsessile ovate subacute, stipules short deeply toothed, 
cymes small terminal and on short axillary branches sessile capitate few-flowered 
iuvolucrate, fruit orbicular compressed indehiscent 2-4-ceUed, cells 1-2-seeded. 
Hedyotis Wightiana and H. Finlaysoniana, Wall. Cat. 6194, 6189. Oldenlandia 
Teysmaniana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 354. Spermacoce compressa, Wall. Cat. 

Tempebate Himalaya, alt. 4-8000 ft., from Nepal to Bhotan. Khasia Mts., alt. 
4-5000 ft. Mountains of the Western Peninsula, alt. 6-7000 ft. — Distrib. Ava, 
Malay Islands, Cochin China. 

Ster/is 2-18 in., leaves clothed with soft curly spreading hairs. Leaves J-l in., 
variable in breadth. Heads involucrate by 2 leaves. Flowers white blue or purplish, 
shortly pedi celled. Fruit very small, contracted towards the short calyx-teeth, grooved 
at the union of the carpels, rugose when dry.— The Western Peninsula specimens are 
much shorter than the Northern or Eastern. Clarke has observed that the flowers 
are white in the 2-carpellary, light blue in the 3-carpellary, and blue in the 4- 
carpellarv specimens. 

** Fruit compressed, finally septieidaUy deMscent. 

17. A. monosperma, W. 8f A. Prodr. 410 (Hedvotis) ; perennial, 
slender, difi'use, more or less hairy, leaves petioled small ovate subacute, stipules 
with short lateral bristles, cymes small short terminal peduncled sparingly un- 
equally forked few-flowered bracteate, capsules shortly pedicelled subglobose, cells 
1-2-seeded. H. monosperma, Wight Ic. 1. 1031. H. mysurensis. Wall. Cat. 882. 
Oldenlandia mysurensis, G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 531. 

NiLGHERBY and Pulney Mts., Heyne, Wight, &c. 

A small-leaved much branched delicate species, more or less clothed with crisped 
hairs. Leaves ^-1 in., petiole often half their length. Cymes including the peduncles 
rarely \ in. long ; flowers minute. Corolla-tube broadly funnel-shaped, about twice 
the length of the subulate calyx-lobes. Capsules ^^ in. diam., with recurved calyx- 
teeth, didymous ; cells usually 1 -seeded. Seeds ellipsoid, deeply pitted. 

18. A. Richardiana, Am. Pugill. PI. Ind. Or. 22 (Hedyotis;; peren- 
nial, diffuse, slender, glabrous, or more or less hairy or villous, leaves petioled 
ovate acute, stipulos with long hairy bristles, cymes terminal and subterminal on. 

76 Lxxv. rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) [SpiradicUs, 

Blender peduncles unequally forked few-flowered bracteate, capsules subsessile tur- 
binate with the crown very convex, cells l-seeded. Hedyotis monosperma, var. 
subglabra, Thw. Enum. 142. 

Ceyxon; Neuera Ellia, abundant in the more elevated districts. 

Very near H. ononosperma, with which Thwaites unites it, but the stipules are 
much longer, as are the cymes, and the fruit is very different, twice as large and 
more elongate with a tumid crown, and larger ellipsoid seeds. — Very foetid (Thwaites). 

23. SPZRADXCZ.ZS, Blmne. 

Annual herbs or undershrubs. Leaves opposite and falsely whorled, naiTowed 
into a slender petiole; stipules long, subulate, persistent. Floweis minute, 
white or yellow, shortly pedicelled along one side of the branches of a dichoto- 
mous axillary or terminal spicate or paniculate cyme. Calyx-tube ovoid or 
cylindric, ribbed ; lobes 5, small, obtuse, persistent. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube 
long or short ; lobes 5, short, obtuse, valvate in bud. Stamens 5, in the corolla- 
tube, filaments short ; anthers oblong. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, glabrous 
■or haiiy, stigma 2-lobed ; ovules numerous, on placentas attached to the middle 
•of the septmn. Capsules small, subglobose or linear-oblong, loculicidally 2- 
valved, many-seeded. Seeds minute, angled, testa reticulate j embryo micro- 
scopic in fleshy albumen. — Distrib. Species 3, Asiatic. 

1. S. caespitosa, Bluyne Bijd. 975; ftem creeping below, leaves small 
elliptic obtuse, spike shortly peduncled unilateral few-fld., capsules liaear-oblong. 
Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 129, excl. syn. 

Martaban rare, Kurz. — Distbib. Java. 

Whole plant a span long ; stem ascending from a rooting base. Leaves 1-1^ in., 
in few pairs, elliptic, glabrous or faintly puberulous beneath. Spikes ^-f in. — I have 
seen no Martaban specimens, but have Javan from Kurz, who consequently knew the 

2. S. cylindrica, Wall. Cat. 6215 i^Pleotheca) ; erect, leaves elliptic or 
elliptic-lanceolate caudate-acuminate, cymes simply dichotomous, capsules linear- 

Khasia Mts., alt. 2-4000 ft.. Be Silva, &c. Mishmi Hills, Griffith. 

Stem 6-18 in., simple or branched. Leaves 2-6 by ^-2^ in., glabrous or puberu- 
lous beneath, upper often fascicled as if whorled. Cymes 1-6 in. long, on slender 
peduncles, branches long or short ; flowers close or distant ; bra,cteoles minute or 0. 
Capsules ^ in. long, clavate in dehiscence. 

3. S. bifida, Wall. Cat. 6216 (Pleotheca ?) ; erect, leaves elliptic or elHptic- 
lanceolate caudate or acuminate, cymes in slender panicles, capsules subglobose. 
LCurz in Journ. As. Soc. B?ng. 1872, ii. 311. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 2-4000 ft., De Silva, &c. Upper Assam, Griffith. Gachar, 

Stem slender or robust, 1-several feet high, puberulous. Leaves 6-12 by 1^4 in., 
shining above, puberulous on the midrib above and nerves beneath. Panicles 4-10 
.in., many-flowered; branches short, spreading. 

24. TOImITV^IL, Ifook.f. 

A low herb with rooting stem. Leaves opposite or falsely whorled ; stipules 
filiform or subulate. Floioers shortly pedicelled, crowded along one side of the 
«hort alternating recurved bmnches of a terminal panicle ; bracts leafy, imbricate. 
Calyx-lobes 5, persistent. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube short; throat densely 

Tolyura.] lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 77 

bearded ; lobes 5, short, obtuse, valvate in bud. Stamens 5, in the middle of the 
tube, fil amenta subulate ; anthers shortly 2-fid at both ends. Ovanj 2-celled ; 
style filiform, puberulous, stig-mas 2 obtuse ; ovules numerous, on subglobose 
placentas inserted on the middle of the septimi. Capsule small, subglobose, sep- 
ticidal, 2-celled, many-seeded. Seeds obtusely angled, testa crustaceous ; embryo 
minute in fleshy albumen. 

1. P. gr emin at a, -Hbo/t. /. in Ic. PI. t. 1049. Ophiorhiza Pgeminata. 
Wall Cat. 6237. 

Khasia Mrs., alt. 2-4000 ft, Hamilton, Gornez, &c. Mishmi Hills, Griffith. 

"Whole plant 4-10 in. high, simple or branched from the base, pubescent. Leaves 
2-4 in., elliptic-oblong or -lanceolate, obtuse or obtusel}-- acuminate; petiole long or 
short, often -w-inged ; nerves many, very spreading, often red-brown when dry ; stipulea 


Erect creeping or decumbent small herbs, rarely imdershrubs. Leaves usually 
eUiptic-lanceolate ; stipules caducous. Floioers white pink or greenish, secund 
on the branches of axillary or terminal dichotomous cymes ; bracts or bracteoles 
various or 0. Calyx-tube short ; lobes 5, small, persistent. Cwolla tubular or 
funnel-shaped ; lobes 5, short, valvate in bud, back often winged, often also with 
a fold in the sinus. Stamens 5, inserted on the tube ; anthers linear. Disk veiy 
large, 2-lobed. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigmas broad or linear ; ovules 
many, inserted on basal ascending placentas. Capsules coriaceous, compressed, 
obcordate, girt in the middle by the calyx-tube, the crown dehiscing bv 2 broad 
gaping valves ; placentas divaricating, many-seeded. Seeds minute, angled, testa 
crustaceous ; embiyo clavate, in fleshy albumen. — Distrib. Species about 50, 
tropical Asiatic, with a few Australian and Polynesian. 

A very diffictdt genus ; the characters taken from the position of the stamens on 
the corolla-tube, the hairiness within of the latter, the length and smoothness or 
hairiness of the style, and the form of the stigma, have not been made diagnostic, as 
being probably sexual to a very great degree. 

* Bracteoles 0, or if present very narroro and cadtLCous, falling away before the 
capstdes are fully formed. Corolla usually undei' ^ in. long {except in O. Wal- 
lichii). The species of this group are very closely allied indeed and difficidt of 

1. O. Mung'OB, Linn. ; erect, glabrous, or stem petioles cymes and leaf 
nerves beneath puberulous, stipules small, cyme-branches subumbellate verv 
spreading, bracts 0, calyx-teeth very short, corolla glabrous rounded at the tip 
in bud i in., mouth not dilated, lobes very short obtuse keeled at the back. 
Gaertn. Fruct. i. t. 56 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 701 ; W. 8r A. Pi-odr. 404. 

Khasia Mts. and Assam, ascending to 2000 ft. Birma, Tenasserim, Andaman 
and NicoBAR Islands. Mts. of the Western Pknixsula and Ceylon. — Distrib. 
Simiatra, Java. 

A suflfrutescent herb. Leaves 2-5 by 1-2^ in., very thin, elliptic or elliptic-lanceo- 
late, long-acuminate, narrowed into the petiole. Cymes 1-3 in. diam., flat-topped, 
glabrous or pubescent. Corolla white. Capsules ^-| in. diam., pedicelled. — The fol- 
lowing varieties may be referable to 0. Harrisiana. 

Var. nemorosa, Thw. Enum. 139 (sp.); leaves elliptic or obovate-lanceolate, 
stipules rounded with 1-2 long points, cymes fewer-flowered tomentose or glabrate. — 

Vab. ang^tstifolia, Tbw. Enum. 140 (sp.); leaves narrower, calyx-teeth longer, 
corolla-tube shorter. — Ceylon, 

VS Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) lOphiorrhiaa. 

2. O. Karrisiana, Heyne in W. 8,- A. Prodr. 405; herbaceous or 
shrubby below, stem above leaf -nerves beneath and cymes pubescent or tomen- 
tose, leaves ovate or ovate- or elliptic-lanceolate obtuse acute or acuminate 
glabrous or with minute scattered hairs above, stipules with 1 or more loBg 
points, cymes tomentose or glabrate rather contracted, bracteolea few filiform 
-caducous or 0, calyx-teeth subulate, corolla glabrous or pubescent ^^ in. tubular, 
lobes short keeled on the back, capsule glabrous. 

Hilly districts of India from Nipal eastward to the Khas. v Mts., alt. 0-5000 ft. 
Assam, Silhet, Chittagong, Tenasserim, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2857), Griffith (Kew 
Distrib. 2857-8-9) ; Eastern Peninsula, from the Concan southwards ; Ceylon. 

A common and variable plant, probably a variety of 0. Mungos, but smaller, more 
pubescent, with longer stipules, usually longer subulate calyx-toeth, and setaceous or 
filiform bractooles, less spreading cymes, and smaller capsules. — The following seem 
referable to it, and are scarcely distinguishable. 

Var. 1. Harrisiana, AVall. Cat. 6236; slender, rooting below, leaves \\-2 in. 
broadly ovate often obtuse base often rounded or even subcordate glabrous above, 
cymes small. Wight Ic. t. 1162 {Harrisonii), — Mysore, Heyne, &c. 

Var. 2. rM^osa, Wall. Cat. 6235 (sp.): slender, leaves 1-2^ in. ovate-lanceolate 
acuminate at both ends with minute scattered hairs above, cymes few-fld. — 0. prostrata, 
Don Prodr. 136. — Sikkim and Nipal. 

Var. 3. decmnbeus, Gardn. Mss. ; stems decumbent often much bi-anched, leaves 
1 .^-4 in. obtuse or acute narrowed at the base glabrous above, cymes contracted, 
corolla very short. — Ceylon, alt. 5-6000 ft. ; abundant in the Eastern Peninsula and 

Var. 4. argentca, Wall. Cat. 6229 (sp.) ; more glabrous, leaves l|-4 in. ovate or 
narrowly lanceolate usually white beneath and sometimes along the midrib above 
glabrous or with short hairs above, cyme and flowers glabrous. — Khasia Mts., Sylhet, 
Chittagong, Mergui, Ceylon, Nilgherries, and other Peninsula Mts. 

Var. 5. merguensis ; like var. argentea, but cyme and corolla very tomentose, leaves 
inther glabrous or with scattered short hairs above. — Mergui, Nilgherries. 

3. O. tricbocarpaf Bl. Bijd. 977 ; stem erect branched, leaf-nerves 
beneath and cyme densely pubescent, leaves ovate acute or acuminate glabrous 
or witb scattered hairs above, stipules filiform from a subulate base, cymes small 
sessile or shortly jieduncled dense-flowered tomentose, bracteoles 0, calyx-teeth 
subulate, corolla \ in. puberulous, tube narrow, capsules pubescent. 0. hispidula, 
Wall. Cat. 6234; G. Don Gm. Syst. iii. 523. O. villosa, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 
1877, ii. 130, exel. synxyn. 

Chittagono, Lister. Tenasserim, and the Andaman Islands, Gomez, Griffith 
(Kew Distrib. 2869).— Distrib. Java. 

This may be only a form of Harrisiana, and if so this latter name must give place 
to Blume's. I see little but the pubescent capsules whereby it is to be distinguished. 

4. 0> ocliroleuca, Hooh.f. ; shrubby, glabrous except the cymes, leaves 
large quite glabrous beneath, stipules lanceolate 2-fld. caducous, cyme-branches 
spreading, bracts or minute and caducous, calyx-teeth very short, corolla 
cylindric fleshy mouth not dilated, lobes short recurved pubescent within with a 
short doi-sal spur below the top not keeled at the Back, capsule glabrous. 
Ophiorrliiza, 5 Herh. Ind. Or. H.f. 8r T. 

Sikkim and Bhotan Himalaya, alt. 1-5000 ft., common. Khasia Mts., alt. 0-4000 
ft. Cachar, Kecnan. 

A small shrub. Leaves 4-9 by 1^3 in., elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, caudate- 
acuminate, nerves 10-15 pair; petiole long. Cyjne-pedimcles and branches very stout, 
more irregularly branched than in 0. Mungos. Corolla i-^ in., primrose-yellow 
orange or greenish. Capsides pedicelled, \ in. diam. 

6. O. rosea, Hook. /. ; shrubby, glabrous except the cymes, leaves 
glabrous or with the nerves beneath puberulous, stipules minute 2-fld. caducous, 

Ophiorrldza.'] lxxt. RUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 79 

bracts minute or 0, calyx-teeth very short, corolla (rounded at the tip in bud) 
glabrous or puberulous cylindric glabrous within mouth not dilated, lobes short 
rounded recurved not keeled or spurred at the back. O. discolor, Wall. Cat 
<3232 B. Ophiorrhiza, 6 Hei-h. Ind. Or. H.f. 8f T. 

Eastern HiMiiLAYA from Sikkim to Mishmi, and Khasia Mts, alt. 4-7000 ft., 

Very similar to 0. ochroleuca, but inhabiting a higher level and differing in the 
•4'orolla, which is ^-^ in. long, rosp, not fleshy, and very different in bud. 

C. O. Wallichii, Hook,/. ; quite glabrous or the cymes puberulous, leaves 
olliptic-lanceolate caudate-acuminate rather coriaceous, petiole slender, cymes 
.short-ped uncled few-flowered, branches very short, bracteoles subulate, calyx-teeth 
very short subulate, corolla 1 in., tube slender terete, lobes short broad tomentose 
within. Psychotria sp., Wall. Cat. 8358. 

Khasia Mts., De Silva ; Jyntba Hills, Gomes ; Bibma, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 

Stem branched, rather thickened at the nodes. Leaves 4-6 in., stiff, pale reddish 
beneath when dry ; stipules not seen. Ci/tne-peduncle | in., slender ; flowers crowded. 
Fruit unknown. — A very distinct species, easily distinguished by the long stiff leaves, 
reddish beneath, and the long corolla with short lobes. 

7. O. discolor, B?'. in Wall. Cat. 6232 A. ; tall, branched, quite glabrous, 
leaves elliptic-lanceolate long-acuminate membranous red beneath when dry, 
petiole very slender, stipules long slender, cymes puberulous, branches spreading, 
bracteoles 0, corolla ^ in., tube cylindric smooth, lobes not keeled, capsules 
glabrous. G. Don Gen. Si/st. iii. 522. 

Penang, Wallich. 

Apparently a tall slender shrub. Leaves 6-8 in., gradually narrowed at both ends, 
juembranous, nerves slender. Cymes as in 0. Mungos. 

8. O. villosa, Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 702; stem stout shrubby and leaf-nerves 
below and cymes densely tomentose, leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate acute or 
acuminate rather coriaceous glabrous above white beneath, cymes dense sub- 
capitate, branches very short, bracteoles 0, calyx-teeth short, corolla \ in. pube- 
rulous, tube angular. Wall. Cat. 6230. 

Chittagonq Hills, Boxburgh. 

This differs from all the forms of Harrisiana, var. argentea (also a Chittagong 
plant), in the robust habit, coriaceous leaves, and almost capitate cyme densely 
clothed with a nisty-red pubescence. The buds are truncate with 5 points, and the 
short corolla lobes strongly keeled. — Roxburgh's drawing (in Bibl. Kew) of this plant 
is quite imlike the specimens in Wallich's Herbarium, which agree with the descrip- 
tion in the Flora Indica. 

9. O. tomentosa, Jack in Roxh. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey Sf Wall. ii. 546 ; 
erect, softly pubescent throughout, leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate white 
beneath, stipules subulate, cymes with spreading branches, bracteoles 0, calyx- 
teeth small, corolla \ in. pubescent, lobes not keeled, capsule glabrate or puberu- 
lous. WaU. Cat. 6231. 

Penang, Wallich, Phillips, Maingay (Kew Distrib, 898). — Distrib. Sumatra. 

Stem 1-2 ft., stout. Leaves 3-5 in., petiole slender, both surfaces powdery. 
Floiuers small. 

Var. "i glahrata; leaves larger broader less pubescent, cyme glabrate. — Malacca? 
Maingay (Kew Distrib. 899). 

10. O. Brunonls, W. ^ A. Prodr. 404; shrubby, branched, quite 
glabrous except the puberulous cymes, leaves ovate or ovate- or elliptic-lanceo- 

80 Lxxv. RUBIACE5:. (J. D. Hooker.) \_OpMorrJiiza, 

late acute, stipules subulate, cyme8 subcorymbose many-flowered rounded, brae- 
teoles long linear or filiform deciduous, calyx-teeth subulate, corolla glabrous 
tip 5-angled in bud, capsules glabrous. 

NiLGHF^RY Mts., Wight, &c. Cochin, Johnson. 

The rounded cymes, and numerous long subpersistent bracteoles, are good charac- 
ters for the species. Leaves 3-4 in., usually ovate or ovate-lanceolate, base acute, 
very membranous ; petiole slender. Cyme-peduiicles ^— ^ in., longer in fruit. Corolla 
\ in. long, cylindric, lobes narrow. Capsules crowded, \ in. diam. 

Var. ijohnsoni; corolla narrower and longer § in. puberulous. — Cochin, John- 

Vab. ? hirsuiior, Wight mss. ; branches petioles and cymes densely tomentose. — 
Nilgherry Mts., Gardner. — I have seen neither flower nor fruit of this. 

11. O. grracills, Kurz in Jouiii. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 311 ; annual, erect,, 
perfectly glabrous, leaves lanceolate with very long slender points, cyme long- 
peduncled, branches slender, bracteoles subulate, calyx-teeth minute, coroUa-tube 
I in. terete glabrous. 

Tenasseeim, Kurz ; Birma, Brandts. 

I have seen a single specimen only. It is at once distinguished by the very long 
slender points of the membranous leaves, which are 5-9 in. long and rather oblique. 

12. O. radicans, Gardn. in Thw. Enum. 139; stems densely tufted 
slender creepin , leaves small ovate-cordate or orbicular obtuse glabrous abbve 
nerves beneath petioles and cymes pubescent, stipules minute subulate, cymes 
small few-flowered contracted, bracteoles few subulate, calyx-teeth subulate, 
corolla small, lobes short keeled on the back. 

Ceylon ; Central Province, Gardner, Thwaites. 

Stems flexuous, a foot long, rooting at every node. Leaves ^~| in. diam. Ch/me^ 
peduncles usually shorter than the leaves, but sometimes longer. Corolla ^-\ in. K)ng» 
Fruit not seen. 

13. O. opposltiflora, Hook. f. ; stem erect woody and petioles leaf- 
nerves beneath and peduncle appressedly rusty-pubescent, leaves ovate-lanceolate 
acute glabrous rather rigid, stipules subulate, cymes terminal and opposite in the 
leaf-axils corymbose many-flowered, bracteoles minute or 0, calyx-teeth lanceolate 
obtuse, corolla ^ in. glabrous within and without tubular 5-angled, lobes oblong 
obtuse keeled. 

Khasia Mts. (tropical ?), C. B. Clarke. 

Stem rigid, scabrid, 1-2 ft. Leaves 2-3 in.; petiole slender. Cymes often in the 
axils of all the 3-5 upper pairs of leaves, |-1 in. diam. ; peduncles slender, ^-1 in. ; 
branches erect ; flowers numerous, slender, erect. — A very remarkable species, the 
only one with opposite cymes. 

** Bracteoles very slender, persistent or subpersistent. Corolla an inch or more 
Umg, pubescent or hairy, lobes broad acute. 

14. O. grandlfiora, Wight Ic. t. 1069; erect, glabrous except the hairy 
corolla, leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, stipules minute lanceolate, cymes 
contracted, bracteoles very long filiform, calyx-tube ribbed teeth lanceolate, 
corolla 1-1^ in. hairy, tube slender funnel-shaped above glabrous within, lobes 
large broadly ovate acute, capsules glabrous. 

The Carnatic ; Shevagherry hiU?, Wight. 

An erect imdershrub. Leaves o-7 in., membranous, almost caudate- acuminate. 
Cymes 1-1^ in. diam.; peduncles short, ^-1 in.; branches suberect; bracts and 
bracteoles ^1 in. Calyx-teeth equalling the tube. Corolla | in. across the lobes. — 1 
have seen no fruit. 

OphtorrMza.'] Lxxv. eubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 81 

16. O. Rozbut'grhlana, Wight Ic. t. 1068; erect, branches leaf-nerves 
beneath and cymes densely pubescent, leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate 
glabrous, stipules large ovate or ovate-oblong entire or 2-fid, cymes contracted, 
bracteoles many linearrsubulate, calyx-tube terete, lobes lanceolate, corolla 1-1 ^ 
in. pubescent, tube slender iimnel-shaped above hairy within, lobes large broadly 
ovate acute, capsule ho^ry. 

The Caunatic ; Shevagherry or Pulney hills, Wight. 

Similar ki habit, statiiire, foliage and flowers to 0. grandifiora, lut the cymo is 
longer peduncled densely pubescent, the calyx-tube terete, bracteoles much shorter, and 
capsules haiiy. — Wight in his Icones states that this is a native of the Shevagherry 
hills, but the ticket on his specimen says Pulney Mts., Sept. 1836. 

16. O. eriantha, Wight Ic. t. 1067 ; erect, branches and petioles pubes- 
cent or villous, leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate glabrous above puberulous 
on the nerves beneath, stipules subulate-lanceolate equalling the petioles, cymes 
TiUous with long soft hairs contracted, bracteoles filiform caducous, calyx-tube 
terete, lobes subulate, corolla 1 in. villous with long soft hairs, tube slender 
funnel-shaped above lobes large broadly ovate acute, capsules haiiy. 

The Carnatic ; Shevagherry or Travancore hills, Wight. 

This resembles both 0. grandifiora and Boxhurghiana, differing from the former 
in the stipules, terete calyx, and hairy capsules, and from both in the villous cyme. — 
This again is stated by Wight in the Icones to be a native of the Shevagherry hills, 
but his specimens bear 2 tickets of Courtallam, one of July, the other of August, 

17. O.hirsutula, Wight mss.-, erect; stem petioles and cymes softly rusty- 
tomentose, leaves ovate-lanceolate acmninate sparsely hairy above furfuraceoua 
beneath, stipules subulate-lanceolate, cymes axillary subcorymbose, peduncles 
stout, bracteoles very narrow subpersistent, calyx-teeth lanceolate obtuse hispid, 
corolla hirsute, tube cylindric. 

NiLGHERRY '^TS.] Sisparah, Wight. 

Apparently shrubby. Leaves 4-6 in., scabrid above when dry, pale and reddish 
beneath ; petiole short. Cgme 1 in. diam. ; peduncle 2 in. ; branches spreading ; 
bracteoles scattered, pubescent ; flowers few and scattered. Flowers seen in bud only. 
Capsvle pubescent. 

*** Bracteoles linear or oblong, with a distinct midrib, persistent in fruit. 
Corolla less than an inch long (except in O. calcarata). 

t Bracteoles quite glahi'ous. 

18. O. pectlnata. Am. Pugill. PL Ind. Or. 20; erect, glabrous, leaves 
eUiptic-lanceolate long-acuminate, stipules subulate from a broad base, cymes 
capitate many-flowered, peduncle strict axillary or terminal, bracteoles many 
lanceolate glabrous, calyx-teeth subulate, corolla ^ in., tube cylindric, lobes short 
keeled villous within. Thiv. Enum. 140. 0. imbricata, Gardn. mss. O. 
Mungos, Wall. Cat. 6227 D. Psychotria, Wall. Cat. 8356. 

Westerk Peninsula ; Shevagherry hills, Malabar and Quilon, Wight. Ceylon ; 
abundant up to 5000 ft., WalJcer, Sic. 

Stem a foot high, stout, rarely branched, sometimes puberulous upwards. Leaves 
4-7 in., variable in breadth, pale beneath, midrib very stout. Cgmes globose, l-U in. 
diam.; peduncle 1-4 in., glabrous or pubescent, stout or slender; flowers usually 
densely compacted, rarely loose and pedicelled; bracteoles | in., green, imbricate. 
Capsules i in. diam., glabrous or puberulous. 

19. O. pallida, Thi-. Unum.UO; procumbent, creeping belovv, stem and 
petioles subtomentose, leaves small elliptic-ovate subacte or acuminate with 

82 Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [^Opldorrhizcu 

short curly hairs on both surfaces, stipules setaceous, cymes contracted long- 
peduncled glabrous, bracteoles numerous persistent linear glabrous, calyx-tube 
ribbed, teeth lanceolate obtuse, corolla \ in., lobes very short broadly winged. 

Ceylon ; forests of the Ambagamowa district, Thwaites. 

A small species, of lax habit, more or less clothed everywhere, except the glabrous 
cj-me, with short curly hairs. Leaves 1-4 in. Cymes smaller and more lax than in 
0. pectinata. — A small, quite creeping form has leaves very broad, not 1 in. long. 

20. O. succirubra, King diss.; erect, nearly glabrous throughout, cymes 
and leaves beneath red-purple when dry, leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, 
stipules lanceolate 2-fid, cymes short-peduncled contracted branches glabrous 
or pubescent above, bracteoles large linear-lanceolate persistent glabrous, caiyx- 
tube broadly trapezoid, teeth triangular obtuse, corolla ^ in. glabrous within, 
lobes short keeled, capsules puberulous. Ophiorrhiza 17, Herb. Ind. Or. H.f. 

SiKKiM Himalaya ; in wet forests, alt. 5-8000 ft., J. D. H., Dr. Treutler. 

Stem branched, glabrous, or with a line of hairs which runs up the peduncle, and 
stout short cyme-branches. Leaves 4-7 in., quite glabrous beneath, with sometimes .a 
few scattered short hairs above. Cymes 1 in. diam., flat-topped, few- flowered, droop- 
ing, then erect ; branches suberect ; bracts veined, exceeding the glabrous capsules. 
Calyx puberulous, tube much broader than the pink corolla. Disk-lobes very large. — 
Dr. King has attached the mss. name of succirubra to this, no doubt from the colour- 
ing of the dried leaf resembling that of Cinchona succirubra. 

21 O. G-riffithiii, Hook.f. : erect, glabrous, branches flesh)', leaves long- 
petioled elliptic acute, upper stipules large coriaceous oblong acute lower lanceo- 
late, cymes contracted, bracteoles large linear-lanceolate glabrous, calyx-tube 
ribbed, teeth triangular, corolla-tube | in. 5-angled villous within, lobes short 
broadly winged. Ophiorrhiza, (xriff. Ic. PL Asiat. t. 475. 

At Kuttack boom in the Naga Hills (Assam), Griffith. 

A very fine species, of which I have seen no capsules. Leaves 3-5 in., elliptic and 
acute at both ends ; petiole long, li-2 in. ; upper stipules ^ in, and upwards. Cymes 
nodding on a stout short peduncle ; flowers amongst the largest of the genus, crowded, 
purple, fleshy. — The leaves in Griffith's drawing have short thick petioles, but very 
slender ones in his 2 specimens. 

22. O. Tbomsoni, Hook.f. ; slender, glabrous, stem puberulous creeping 

below, leaves ovate or elliptic-ovate subacute glabrous above norves puberulous 
beneath, stipules filiform from a broad bass, C) mes small glabrous on slender 
axillary and terminal pedimcles, bracteoles narrow persistent glabrous, calyx- 
teeth subulate, corolla-limb vety broadly funnel-shaped, lobes broadly ovate 
acute. O. rugosa, Hei-b. Ind. Or. H.f. Sf T. 

SiKKiM- Himalaya., alt. 4-6000 ft., Herb. Griffi,th, J. D. H. 4' T. T., &c.; Bhotan, 
alt. 4000 ft., C. B. Clarke. 

Stein 6-8 in., rooting below. Leaves 2-5 in. ; petiole rather short. Cytnes small, 
^-^ in. diam., branches spreading. Corolla \ in., tube short, soon expanding into the 
very broad funnel-shaped limb. Stamens at the base of the tube. Capsules glabrous, 
A in. diam. 

23. O. lurida, Hook.f; stem or short rooting at the base ascending^ 
and petioles and leaf-nerves beneath pubescent, leaves elliptic-oblong obtuse 
glabrous above, stipules filifoi*m from a triangular base, cymes long-peduncled 
contracted glabrous, bracteoles linear glabrous persistent, calyx-teeth subulate, 
corolla I in., limb funnel-shaped. Ophiorrhiza No. 12, Herb. Ind. Ch: H f 
4' T. 

OphiorrJiim.^ Lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 83 

SiKKiM Himalaya, alt. 3-4000 ft., Herb. Griffith (Kcw Distrib. 2862\ J, D. H. & 
T. T., C. B. Clarke. 

A small species, with a short copiously rooting stem. Leaves ^-3 in., rather long- 
petioled, lurid green both when fresh and &r\. Cymes \-\ in. ; peduncle slender, 
long or short. Corolla i in. white, like that of 0. Tho7Jiso7ii, but having a short tule 
soon expanding into a funnel-shaped limb, with (I think winged) otate lobes. Cop- 
sides glabrous. 

24. O. Treutleri, Hook. f. ; herbaceous, pubesoent tbi-oughout with 
crisped hairs, stems stout fleshy erect, leaves elliptic-ovate or lanceolate subcau- 
date-acuminate, stipules lanceolate entire .or 2-fid, cymes manj'-flowered ou 
short peduncles hii-sute, bracteoles long linear hispid pei*sistent, calyx-teeth 
subulate, corolla hirsute, limb funnel-shaped with short spreading broad lobes 
glabrous within, capsules pubescent. Ophiorrhiza No. 16, Herb. Ind. Or. 

SiKKiM HiMAiAYA, alt. 5-7000 ft.. Herb, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2854), J. B. H. ^■ 
T. T., Treutler. J^hasia Mts., alt 5-6000 ft., J. D. H. 4- T. T., C. B. aarke. 

A low stout species, 6-10 in., with very persistent large stipi;les. Leaves 2-4 in,, 
sometimes almost glabrous above. Cyme-branches stout, ascending; bracteoles ^ in. 
or less, slender, l-nerved. Corolla pink in Sikkim, white iu Khasia. 

25. O. fasciculata, Don Prodr. 136; erect, stem woody below pubes- 
cent above as are the petioles leaf-nerves beneath and cymes, leaves elHptic- 
ovate or lanceolate glabrous, stipules lanceolate long-acuminate, cymes spreading, 
bracteoles many lanceolate pubescent persistent,* calyx-tube orbicular compressed, 
teeth very short, corolla pubescent, tube slender, lobes small, capsules pubes- 
cent. O. bracteolata, Br. in Wall. Cat 6228. O. villosa, Wall. Cat 6230 B. 

Subtropical Himalaya; from Gurwhal, alt. 4000 ft., to Sikkim and Bhotan, alt. 
4-7000 ft. Khasia Mts., alt. 3-5000 ft. 

Stem 6-18 in,, simple or branched from the woody base. Leaccs^ 1^-6 in., mem- 
branous ; petiole slender. Cymes 1-2 in. diam., axillary and terminal, few or many- 
fid; bracteoles \ in. Corolla pure white, |-| in., tube much more slender than in 
the allied species, throat vei'y short, lobes oblong. 

26. O. hispida, Hooh.f. ; stem above petioles and. capitate cyme hispid, 
leaves elliptic-lanceolate long-acuminate glabrate or with scattered hairs above, 
nerves hispid beneath, stipules large oblong-lanceolate, cymes shortly peduncled 
dense-flowered subglobose clothed with linear ciliate bracteoles, calyx-teeth 
subulate, corolla \ in., tube slender, lobes oblong hispid with long hairs, capsules 
hispid. Ophiorrhiza No. 20, Herb. Ind. Or. H.f. 3f T. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 4000 ft., J. B. H. cf T. T. Cachak ; at Shapore, Keenan. 

Stem woody below, ascending, 8-12 in. ; hairs white, stiff, suberoct and spreading. 
Leaves 3-6 in. Cymes \-'^ in. diam. ; peduncle hispidly hairy; branches verj' stout; 
bracteoles linear, ciliate; flowers greenish-white. Corolla-tube dilated below, nar- 
rowing upwards to the spreading lobes. 

27. O. subcapitata, Wall. Cat. 6238 ; softly haiiy, stem slender creeping 
below, leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, stipules ovate acuminate, cymes 
small subcapitate on slender peduncles, bracts large lanceolate obtuse ciliate 
concealing the flowers, calyx-tube ribbed teeth membranous ovate-lanceolate 
ciliate, corolla-tube cylindric, lobes short hispid at the back glabrous within, 
capsules glabrous. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 3-4000 ft., Goiyiez, &c. 

Stem long, slender, creeping below, ascending. Leaves 2-6 in., softly hairy, espe- 
cially beneath. Cymes \-^ in. diam. ; bracteoles pinkish when dry ; flowers very 
small, pedicelled. Ovary globose. Corolla glabrous, except the brittly back of the 

84 Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ophiorrhiza^ 

28. O. ealcarata, Jlook. f. ; stem slender creeping below and petioles 
leaf-nerves beneath and cymes softly pubescent, leaves elliptic-lanceolate acumi- 
nate glabrous above, stipul&s lanceolate entire or 2-fid, cymes contracted, 
bracteoles linear pubescent, calyx-teeth lanceolate, corolla |-1 in. hairy tubular,, 
lobes very short each with a long spur at the back. Musssenda repens. Wall.. 
Cat 6263. Ophiorrhiza No. 19, Herb. Lid. Oi\ H.f. ^ T. 

Khasia Mts, alt. 4-5000 ft., Gomez, Griffith. &c. (Kew Distrib. 2783.) Mishmc 
Hnxs, alt. 4000 ft., Griffith. 

Stem 10-18 in., flexuons. Leaves 2-4 in., lurid green above, pale beneath. Cymes 
8-20 flowered; branches short ascending; bracteoles much shorter than the flowers^ 
linear, pubescent. Corolla-tube narrow, puberulous or tomentose, pink or white, throat 
hardly dilated ; lobes erect, much shorter than their recurved hispid dorsal spiur, 
glabrous within. Fruit not seen. 

29. O. nutans, C. B. Clarke; steni erect and cymes rough with crisped 
hairs, leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate glabrous above or vsdth scattered 
hairs, nerves pubescent beneath, stipules large subulate-lanceolate ciliate entire 
or 2-fid, cymes contracted peduncle very stout deflexed, bracteoles large lan- 
ceolate or linear-oblong ciliate, calyx-teeth ovate acute, corolla f in. villous- 
within tubular glabrous, lobes short broad, capsule hispid. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, alt. 7000 ft., Dr. Tretitkr. Khasia Mts., alt. 5-8000 ft., C. B^ 

Stem creeping below, then erect. Leaves S-5 in., lurid when dry. Cyme 1-2 in. 
diam., flat-topped ; branches thick, suberect ; bracteoles half as long as the flowers. 
Calyx-tube globose, hispid, teeth glabrous. Corolla tubular, dilated at the base, nar- 
rowing upwards, white. 

30. O. panciflora, Hook.f. ; stem extensively creeping slender pubescent 
as are the petioles leaf-nerves beneath and cymes, leaves ovate obtuse or subacute 
glabrous or with a few scattered hairs above, stipules small filiform, cymes small 
contracted few-flowered, bracteoles linear ciliate persistent, calyx-teeth lanceolate 
obtuse, corolla \ in. funnel-shaped, tube glabrous, lobes very short broad hispid 
at the back. Ophiorrhiza No. 18, Heib. Ind. Or. H.f. 8f T. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 5-6000 ft., J. D. H. ^ T. T., C. B. aarke. 

A small, slender, prostrate species. Leaves |-2 in., lurid green. Cymes lax, \-^ 
in. diam. ; branches erect, 3-4-flowered ; bracteoles half as long as the flowers. Calyx 
pubescent, teeth longer than the compressed tube. Fruit not seen. 

31. O. g'lecliomsefolia, Th^c. Enum. 140; small, creeping, hispidly 
pubescent or tomentose throughout, leaves broadly elliptic or orbicular-ovate 
apiculate, stipules obscure, cymes small contracted hispid, bracteoles linear 
ciliate persistent, calyx-lobes membranous ovate-lanceolate ciliate much larger 
"than the minute ovary, corolla j\; in. 

Cetlon ; in forests of the central province, Thwaites. 

The smallest of the Indian species ; branches creeping nearly throughoxit their 
length, rather stout. Leaves ~-\ in. diam., lurid green, sometimes almost cordate, 
very hairy on both si;rfaces. Cymes \-^ in. diam. ; peduncle .slender, longer or shorter 
than the leaves ; flowers pedicel led, white. 


0. ERUBESCENS, Wall. Cat. 6233 ; stem woody, scaberulous, leaves 4-6 in. elliptic- 
or ovate-lanceolate o] '\usely acuminate glabrous above whitish and puberulous beneath,, 
flowers not seen. 

AvA ; Chappedong hills, WulHch. 

'Tarop'hiorrMza.'] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 85 

26. PAROFKZORRKXZA, C. B. Clarke. 

A very small villous lierb ; branches round 5 babit altogether of Ophwrrhiza. 
Leaves opposite, petioled; stipules deciduous. Cymes axillary, long-ped uncled, 
iiiltimately ebracteolate ; flowers small, scattered. Capsule widely-obovate, 
'divaricate, two-horned at the summit, dehiscent as in Ophiorrhiza. Seeds very 
many, black, spherical, covered with raised points. 

This genus closely resembles Ophiorrhiza and Polyura, but the seeds are altogether 
• different; the cymes are not clearly secund. 

1. P. khaslana, C. B. Clarke. 

Khasia Mts. ; Churra Coal Hill, alt. 4200 ft., C. B. Clarke. 

Woody stem, very short ; annual flowering branches decumbent, short. Leaves 2 J 
by 1 in., oblong, narrowed at each end, not very acute ; petiole ^ in. Peduncles 1-2^ 
in. Capside ^ by ^ in. — Described from Mr. Clarke's mss. 

27. CARZiEMANNZA, Bentk. 

Branched herbs. Leaves obliquely elliptic, crenate-sen-ate ; stipules of minute 
interpetiolar teeth. Floicers small, white, yellowish or pink, in terminal 
peduncled cymes. Calyx-tube subglobose; lobes 4-5, unequal, persistent. 
Coi'olla tubular ; lobes 4-6, short, sisbequal, subimbricate in bud. Stamem 2, 
in the middle of the tube, filaments short, flattened ; anthers dehiscing laterally 
included. Disk 2-4-lobed or -parted. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigma 
•clavate 2-fid ; ovules numerous, on basal ascending placentas, o Capsule mem- 
branous, more or less pyramidal and 4-lobed, 2-celled, loculicidally 2-valved, 
many-seeded. Seeds minute, ovoid, testa smooth or reticulated, adhering to the 
granular or horny albumen ; embryo microscopic. — Distrib. Indian. 

1. C Griffitbli, Benth. in Hook. Ketv Journ. v. 308 ; cymes glabrous or 
puberulous, bracteoles and calyx-teeth small, capsule obscurely pyi-amidal 4- 

Eastern Himalaya ; Sikkim and Bhotau, alt. 2-6000 ft. Khasia Mts., alt. 
•2-5000 ft., Griffith, &c. 

A tall branched herb, glabrous except the cymes. Leaves 3-5 in., caudate-acumi- 
nate, membranous, serrate ; petiole |-^ in. Cymes open, panicled or corymbose, 1-H 
in. diam. ; bracteoles ^ in., linear ; flowers yellow, g- in. Calyx-iube globose ; lobes 
linear-oblong, obtuse. Corolla-limb narrowly funnol-shaped ; lobes small, rounded. 
'Capsules ^ in. diam. 

2. C. congresta, Hook. f. In Herb. Ind. Or. ; cymes sparsely hispid, 
bracteoles large oblong ciliate, calyx-teeth oblong-lanceolate ciliate much larger 
than the ovary, capsule broadly pyramidal sparsely hispid. 

SiKjaM Himalaya, alt. 4-7500 ft., J. D. H. 4' T. T., C. B. Clarke. 

Foliage and habit of C. Griffithii, but leaves sparsely hairy on both surfaces, cymes 
often dense-flowered with large bracteoles, calyx quite different, corolla sparsely his- 
pid, larger, more funnel-shaped, with larger lobes. 

3. C. tetragrona, ^oo/.:./. ; cymes pubescent, branches elongate slender 
with subsessile secund flowers, bracteoles minute, calyx-teeth linear erect much 
longer than the ovary, capside broadly pyramidal and stellately 4-lobed. 

MisHMi Hills; in shaded cultivated places. Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2841). 

Apparently a prostrate shrub rooting at the nodes, with ascending pubescent 
branches. Leaves 1-2^ in., with scattered pubescence on both surfaces. Cy iM-hranche» 
J-2 in., suberect, very slender, bearing on one side distant single or pairs of shortly 

86 Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [SilviantM^. 

pedicelled flowers \ in. long. Corolla pubescent. Capsules ^ in. diam., broader than 
long, much contracted at the tip, base flattened ; lobes 4, stellately spreading Seeds 
reticulate.— A rery remarkable species. 

28. SZXiVZANTSUS, Hoohf. 

A glabrous branched shrub. Leaves broad, irregularly toothed ; stipules 0. 
Flowers rather large, purplish in subsessile dense-flowered opposite axillary 
cymes ; bracts oblong, obtuse. Calyx-tube obconic ; lobes 5, rarely 4, subfolia- 
ceous, unequal, enlarging after flowering, persistent. Corolla funnel-shaped, 
tube haiiy within ; lobes 5, short, orbicular, papillose, induplicate-valvate with 
plaited sinuses. Disk large conic. Stamens 2 in the corolla-tube, filaments 
short ; anthers linear-oblong. Ovary 2-celled ; style long, stigma spindle-shaped ; 
ovules many, on globose placentas attached to the septimi. Fruit fleshy, 2-celled, 
dehiscing from the top to the base between the calyx-lobes into 5 valves, and 
exposing the many-seeded placentas. Seeds rather large, imbricate, obliquely 
oblong, testa spongy ; embryo minute, in fleshy albumen. 

1. S. bracteatus, Hook f. Ic. PL t. 1048. Psychotria, Wall. Cat. 

SiLHET and Cachar, De Silva, Griffith, &c. 

Stem stcut, 2-3 ft., brancned, woody. Leaves 6-10 in., elliptic, acuminate, mem- 
branous ; petiole 1-3 in. Cymes 1-2 in. diam., broader in fruit. Corolla ^ in. long, 
white. Fruit 4- in. diam., crowned with the enlarged membranous or subcoriaceous 


29. KUSSHSNDA, Linn. 

Shrubs or undershrubs, rarely herbs, erect or climbing. Leaves opposite or 
3-nately whorled ; stipules solitary or in pairs between the petioles. Floicers 
yellow scarlet or rarely white, in terminal cymes ; bracts and bracteoles decidu- 
ous. Calyx-tuhe oblong or turbinate ; lobes 5, usually deciduous, one frequently 
forming a large petioled white or coloured leaf. Corolla tubular, funnel-shaped 
above, tube usually silky, throat villous ; lobes 5, valvate in bud with everted 
margins. Stamens 5, on the throat of the corolla or lower down, filaments very 
short ; anthers linear. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigmas 2 linear ; ovules 
nimaerous, on peltate fleshy placentas. Berry fleshy and areolate at the top, 
many-seeded. Seeds minute, testa pitted; embryo minute, in dense fleshy 
albumen.— DiSTRiB. Species about 40, tropical African, Asiatic, and Polynesian. 

It is a very difficult thing to assign limits to the species of this genus, and more 
so to define them. 

* Flmvers solitary ; calyx-teeth all similar, none tvhite and leaf-like. 

1. M. uniflora, Wall. Cat. 6264 ; hairy, stem very slender prostrate and 
ascending, leaves smaU ovate subacute or obtuse, flowers solitary, calyx hirsute 
teeth subulate equalling the ovary, corolla hairy, tube slender, lobes large oblong 
lanceolate. Acranthera uniflora, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1872. ii. 312; 1877,. 
ii. 160. 

Martaban and Tenasserim; at Tavoy, Gomez ; Moulmein, Parish, &c. 

Stem 6-10 in., simple or branched, terete. Leaves subsessile or petioled, 1-1^ in., 
with scattered hairs on both surfaces. Flowers sessile or peduncled, terminal or axil- 
lary. Corolla nearly 1 in. long, and as much across the subacute membranous lobes, 
white. Berry ellipsoid, hirsute, with a few calyx teeth remaining. 

Musscenda.] Lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 87 

•* Flowers m cymes ; calyx-teeth persistent till the fruit is Hpe. 

2. M. Roxburgrl&ll, Hook. f. ; erect, stem hairy above, leaves short- 
petioled oblong-lanceolate glabrous above, stipules triangular-lanceolate, cymes 
very dense many-flowered crinite from the filiform hairy calyx-teeth, corolla 
silky, tube uaiTow, lobes very small with filiform tips, berries glabrous, crowned 
with the calyx-lobes. M. corymbosa. Wall. Cat. 6252 A. B. in part, C. D. in 
part. ? M. corymbosa, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 68. ? M. pubescens. Wall. Cat. G257 
B. M. frondosa. Wall. Cat. 6260 E. ? and 0. in part. Musseenda, No. 18 and 
19, Herb. Ind. Or. H.f. ^ T, 

Tropical Himalaya ; Nipal, Wallich ; Sikkim, alt. 1-4000 ft., Herb. Griff. (Kew 
Di^trib. 2780), J. D. H., &c. Khasia Mts., Gomez, &c. ; alt. 3-4000 ft., J. D. H. ^ 
T. T. Cachae, Keenan. Chittaoong, J. D. H. <Sf T.T. ? Aseacan and Tknasserim, 

This is tho M. corymbosa of the Calcutta Gardens, and of Eoxburgh, according to 
"Wallich, but is certainly not the plant described under that name by Roxburgh in the 
Flora Indica, which has " ovate-lanceolate bracts," and ovate pointed lobes of the 
corolla, which are " convex and villous above," and which is stated to be a native of 
Ceylon and Malabar. There is, however, on one of Wallich's sheets of this plant a 
single specimen of a plant, also from the Calcutta Gardens, which agrees better with 
Roxburgh's description, having large convex pubescent corolla-lobes, and which prob- 
ably does not differ from the M. frondosa of Malabar and Ceylon. M. Roxburghii is 
best known by its dense cyme, long tube and small limb of the corolla, with a filiform 
tip ; the leaves are always glabrous abov^e, and the fruit globose and glabrous ; the 
large white calycine leaf is always glabrous. Wallich's 6257 B, a Calcutta Garden 
plant, is certainly not pubescens, and has the filiform corolla-lobes of M. Roxburghii, 
but differs in the branches clothed with spreading hairs. There are two varieties of 
M. Roxburghii. 

Vae. 1 ; branches nearly glabrous, leaves oblong-lanceolate 4-6 by 2 in., and 
bracts and flowers silky. — Assam, Silhet, Cachar, Chittagongs- 

Vae. 2 ; branches more or less villous above, leaves longer petioled broader and 
more membranous elliptic 6-12 in., bracts and flowers villous. — Nipal, Sikkim, Khasia 
Mts., alt. 3-4000 ft. 

3. 3MC. Incana, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Wall. 8f Carey, ii. 229 ; Cat. 
5266 ; stem erect subsimple softly tomentose or villous as are the leaves beneath 
and cymes, leaves shortly petioled ovate subacute hairy above white beneath, 
calyx-teeth filiform twice as long as the ovary, corolla silky, lobes ovate acumi- 
nate, berry globose with subpersistent calyx-teeth. DC. Pi-odr. iv. 371. M. 
pubescens. Ham. in Wall. Cat. 6267. 

Teopical Himalaya; Nipal, Wallich; Sikkim, alt. 2-4000 ft.. Herb. Griffith (Kew 
Distrib. 2781, 2782), J. D. H. Assam; Sukanugur and Goalpara, Hamilton. Khasia 
Mts., alt. 2000 ft., Griffith, J.D.H.^ T.T. 

Stem erect, simple and herbaceous or branched, 2-3 ft., covered with soft shining 
appressed hairs. Leaves 5-6 in., stiff, rounded or acute at the base, nerves many and 
strong ; stipules tapering from a broad base, bifid. Cymes small, subsessile. Leafy 
white calyx-lobe pubescent. Corolla f in. long; tube" slender. Berries at first hairy, 
then glabrous ; areola small. 

4. TH. ILeenanl, Hooh. f. ; subherbaceous, very robust, leaves petioled 
broadly elliptic acuminate coriaceous densely tomentose beneath, nerves very 
strong, stipules very broadly ovate acuminate, cymes dense-flowered glabrous or 
pilose crinite with the filiform calyx-teeth, corolla glabrous, tube slender, lobes 
small ovate-lanceolate acuminate. 

Cachae ; on the margins of flats, &c., Keenan. 

A remarkable plant, described by its finder as herbaceous, large and robust in all 

88 Lxxv. EUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) iMusscenota, 

its parts, and flowering fetter than the other Cachar species. It may be a form of M. 
incana or Roxburghii, but if so it is a remarkable one. — Stem as thick as the littlo 
finger, pubescent above. Leaves 8-12 by 4-G in., tliick and leathery, quite glabrous 
above, abruptly acuminate; petiole ^-2 in., very robust; stipules ^-f by \ in., 
leathery, hairy, erect or recurved. Cymes 2-3 in. diam., almost capitate, on stout 
peduncles. Calyx-teeth ^ in. Corolla nearly 1 in. long. Buds obtuse (without subu- 
late points). 

5. HI. tomentosa, Wight in Wall. Cat. 6265 ; erect, shrubby, branches 
and leaves on both surfaces densely clothed with velvety tomentum, leaves all 
petioled ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate acute or obtuse white beneath, stipules 
narrow 2-fid, cymes sessile contracted, bracts and calyx-teeth elongate subulate 
twice as long as the ovary, corolla velvety, tube 1 in., limb 1:^ in. diam., lobes 
broad acute, berry puberulous crowned with the long calyx-teeth. W. ^ A, 
Prodr. 394 ? 

Caenatic ; Ginger Hills, amongst masses of rock in shade, Herh. Wight. 

Lraves 3-5 in., narrowed into the petiole. Cymes with no leafy white calyx- lobes. 
— A very distinct species, badly described by Wight and Arnott as uirsutely villous, 
the pubescence being singularly soft, velvety and close, more so than in any other 
species. It resembles in some respects var. 2 of M. frondosa, but is distinguished by 
.the dense soft pubescence, the much larger flowers, and persistent calyx-teeth. It is 
•not the M. tomentosa of "Wight's own Herbarium, No. 1271, which is var 7 of M. 
frojidosa, and from which possibly the description in the Prodromus is taken ; there 
is, however, a specimen of this in Wight's own Herbarium, marked in mss. 1271 A. 

6. Z^. 'Walllclill, G. Don Gen. ISyst. iii. 490 ; glabrous, leaves elliptic 
ovate or lanceolate acuminate nerves beneath pubescent, stipules long gradually 
narrowed from the base entire or 2-fid, cymes glabrous, bracts subulate, calyx- 
teeth half as long as the elongate ovary or longer, corolla quite glabrous, tube 
slender, lobes naiTow finelv acuminate, berries subglobose with persistent calyx- 
teeth. M. longifolia, Wall. Cat. 6268. M. glabra. Wall. Cat. 6251 A. in part. 
M. Jelinckii, Kurz in Journ. As. Sac. 1876, ii. 135. 

Eangoox, Wallich, McLelland ; and Tenasserim, at Tavoy, Gomez. Gueat Nico- 
BAR IsLAXD, Jeliiick. 

Branches robust. Leaves in small specimens 4-5 by 2 in., elliptic, sometimes 
broadly, in larger ones much longer, 12 by 4|- in., usually abruptly or caudately acu- 
minate, rather membranous, quite glabrous above; stipules narrow, §-^ in., persistent, 
erect. Cymes lax-flowered, quite glabfous, as are the white calycine leaves. Corolla- 
tube 1 in. ; lobes ^ in., glabrous. — Very variable in foliage, and sometimes approaching 
M. glabra, but the cymes are always glabrous and the calyx-teeth persistent. 
Kurz's Nicobar specimen {M. Jelinckii) has very small calyx-teeth and obliquely ob- 
lanceolate very membrano"us leaves, with slender petioles, very like those of M, 
Griffithii, which diflfers in the silky corolla. 

^ 7. IMI. G>riffitliil, Wight diss, in Herb. ; branches with stiff appressed 
hairs, leaves petioled 12 by 3 in. obliquely oblanceolate finely acuminate very 
memljranous, midrib and very slender nerves beneath hairy, petiole slender 1-2 
in., stipules 2-fid villous, cymes sessile with several short hispid dense-flowered 
branches crinite with the filiform bracts and calyx-teeth which latter are twice 
as long as the ovary and persistent in the young fruit, corolla 1 in., tube 
slender silky, lobes naiTow acuminate, berries ovoid glabrous. 

Tekasserim; Mergui, Griffith. 

The only specimen I have seen is in "Wight's Herbarium, and the leaves entirely 
resemble those of M. Jelinckii, but the corolla is densely silky, and the calyx-teeth 
verj' long, as in M. Boxburghii and in pav'ettafolia, which has a glabrous corolla. 
The white calycine leaves are 2-3 in. long, ovate-lanceolate with very long points. 

Musscenda.'] Lxxv. rubiacejj. (J. D. Hooker.) 89 

•** Flowers in cymes, ccdyx-teeth deciduous almost immediately after Jiowering, 

8. US. macropliylla, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 228 ; 
erect or subscandent, branches 'leaves beneath and cymes hirsute or villous, leaves 
short-petioled broadly elliptic acute, bracts and calyx-lobes foliaceous oblanceo- 
late obtuse caducous, corolla lobes orbicular apiculate, berries hairy. Wall. PL 
As. Bar. ii. 77, t. 180; Cat. 6296; Bot. Bey. xxxii. t. 24; DC. Brodr. iv. 370. 
]M. hispida, Don Brodr. 139; DC. I. c. M. calycina, Wall. Cat. 6253; Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 68. M. frondosa, Wall. Cat. 6260 A. 

Tropical Himau^ta; Nipal, Wallich. Khasia Mts., alt. 1-4000 ft., J. D. H. ^ 
T. T., C. B. Clarke. Pegu and Andaman and Nicobau Islands, Kurz. Malay 
Peninsula, Maingay (Kew Distrib. %Zb1l2 and ?941). — Distbib. Ava, Philippine 

Usually a subscandent shrub ; branches stout ; hairs rufous when dry. Leaves 
4-10 by 2-3^ in., slightly hairy above; stipules acute or 2-fid, broad, recurved. 
Cymes short-peduncled, often 3-chotomou8 ; flowers crowded ; bracts large, laciniate. 
Calyx-lobes ^-f in., nerves parallel, leafy white lobe 2-5 in. Corolla 1 in., tube hir- 
sute, lobes orange, throat villous. Berries broadly ellipsoid, ^ in. long ; arcole very 
broad. — Kurz distinguishes M. calycina as a scandent shrul) with lanceolate calyx- 
teeth \ in. long, and corolla-lobes \ as long as the corolla-tube, from M. macTophylUif 
which is a large shrub, or small tree, with calyx-teeth ^-\ in. and corolla-lobes nearly 
^ as long es the corolla-tube ; but his macrophylla is not the Wallichian plant of that 
name, and is, I think, M. frondosa, var. 5. _^• 

9. 3RX. frondosa, Linn.; DC. Brodr . iv. 370; glabrate tomentose or 
hirsute, leaves sessile or petioled elliptic oblong or ovate acuminate, stipules long* 
or short often 2-fid, cymes contracted or open softly silkily tomentose, bracts and 
caducous calyx-lobes elongate-lanceolate much longer than the ovary, corolla 
pubescent silky or hirsute, lobes broadly ovate acute or acuminate, berries ob- 
ovoid glabrous, areole broad. Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 567 ; Wall. Cat. 6260 in paH ; 

Wight III. t. 124; Dalz. Sf Gibs. Bomb. Fl. Ill; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. Anat. Gen. 
xvi. f. 3. M. liavescens and M. Dorinia, Ham. in Trans, Linn. Soc. xiv. 203. 
M. formosa, Linn. Mant. 338. M-. villosa. Wall. Cat. 6254. ? M. corj-mbosa, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 6m. M. zeylanica, Burm. Fl. Zeyl. 165, t. 76.—Rheede Hort. 
Mai. ii. t. 18. 

Tropical Himalaya, from Nipal eastward ; Assam, Khasia Mts., alt. 1-4000 ft. ; 
Andaman Islands, Kurz. "Western Peninsula, from the Concan southwards. — 
Distrib. Malay Islands. 

It is difficult to limit this species, which passes into M. glabra on the one hand, 
and almost into M. macrophylla on the other; and quite impossible to define its varie- 
ties, which may be approximately diagnosed as follows. 

Vab. 1 . zeylanica ; branches leaves on both surfaces especially beneath and cymes 
velvety, leaves sessile or shortly petioled 3-6 in. abruptly acuminate, base acute 
rarely rounded, stipules short and broad, cymes tomentose, bracteoles and Ciilyx-lobes 
^\ in. lanceolate not twice the length of the ovary, white leafy lobe orbicular elliptic 
or cordate pubescent, corolla-tube densely tomentose, limb quite obtuse in bud, lobes 
short broad subacute. — Ceylon only. — I have not seen the berries, which Vahl (under 
M. glabra) states to be hairy. 

Var. 2. ingrata; branches leaves and cymes velvety, very like those of var. 1, 
stipules short and broad, cymes contracted crinite from the long lanceolate sub- 
yetaceous bracts and calycine lobes which are i-| in. long, greatly exceeding the 
ovary, corolla as in var. ] but limb with 5 points in bud. — Wall. Cat. 6250 F. ; Wight 
Cat. 1267. M. ingrata, Wall.'i 

Var. 3. laxa ; branches stipules and cymes finely densely tomentose, loaves all 
petioled broadly elliptic rounded at the base with fine short appressed liairs, stipules 
short 2-fid, cymes very open lax-flowered, bracteoles and calyx-teeth as in var. 2 but 
spreading, corolla as in var. 2. — Quillon, Wight. 

90 Lxxv. RUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Musscenda^ 

Vak. 4. glabrata ; branches glabrous or with scattered spreading hairs, leaves all 
petioled broadly or narrowly elliptic glabrous or sparingly hairy beneath or on both 
surfaces, stipules sometimes very narrow, cymes open with long bracts and calyx- 
teeth as in var. 3, corolla-tube silky, lobes apiculate as in var. 3. — WcdL Cat. 6250 
A. C. G-., a2l for the most part ; Wight Cat. 1269, 1270 (a form with lanceolate white^ 
calycine leaf). — The common Western Peninsula form. Fruit hairy in a specimen 
from Stocks. 

Vab. 5. grandifolia ; branches with spreading hairs, leaves all petioled 6-12 in. 
often almost as broad, elliptic abruptly acuminate membranous glabrous above acute 
at both ends more or lesa pubescent on the nerves beneath, stipules broad 2-fid,. 
cymes large contracted, bracts and calyx-teeth lanceolate broader than in the southern 
forms, flowers larger, buds with 5 points, conolla-limb broad acuminate. — Nipal, 
Wall. Cat. 6250 E. ; Sikkim, alt. 2-6000 ft., J. D. H., Treitiler ; Assam, Jenkins, 
Griffith ; Khasia Mts., 2-5000 ft., J. D. H. 4- T. T. ? M. macrophylla, Kttrz For. Fl. 
ii. 67, not of Watlich. — This approaches forms of M. Boxbtirghii, but has a much 
larger flower and broader bracts and calyx-teeth, which latter are deciduous. Large 
calycine white leaf sometimes 6 by 4 in. 

Var. 6. hirsutissima ; branches cymes petioles and leaves on both surfaces hirsute 
with often shaggy hairs, leaves subsessilQ 2-3 rarely 4 in. broadly ovate-elliptic 
rarely elliptic-lanceolate, stipules short, cymes shortly stoutly peduncled contracted 
few-flowered, bracts and calyx-lobes |-f in. broadly lanceolate, flowers very large, co- 
rolla hirsute often 1^ in. long and 1 in. across the lobes, tube slender or very broad 
sometimes ^ in. diam. at the base and slightly contracted above it, lobes broad 
apiculate, berry large globose, leafy calyx-lobe often absent cordate. — M. frondosa. 
Wall. Cat. 6250 H. {from Herb. Heyne); var. i3. Wight Cat. 1268. M. tomentosa, 
Wight Cat. 1271 {not of Wallich). M. villosa, Schlechf. in PL HohenacJc. N. 1382. 
Nilgherry, Pulney, Shevaroy, and Shevaghery hills, Wight; Goncan, alt. 6-8000 ft., 
C. B. Clarke, who remarks that the broader flowers are injxired by insects, and have 
the corolla-tube within glabrous below the throat and larger disk-glands ; a similar 
state is also recorded from Java. — Probably a distinct species, but it appears to pass 
into forms of frondosa. 

10. M. variolosa, Wall. Cat. 6259; scandent, hispid with spreading^ 
rufous hairs, leaves subsessile lovp'er petioled ovate or oblong or obovate-oblong* 
acuminate, stipules small, cymes small 2-3-chotomous, calyx-teeth equalling- 
the ovary or shorter deciduous in fruit, corolla-tube slender glabrate or hirsute^ 
lobes small broad not pointed, berries broadly obovoid. G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 
490 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 56. 

Tenasserim, Pegu, and Abracan, common, WalUch, Heifer, &c. (Kew Distrib* 

Apparently a slander climbing species. Leaves membranous hairy on both sur- 
faces or glabrate above, upper sessile 3-4 by 1^-2 in., lower often more elongate and 
narrowed into a slender petiole, rarely all petioled. Cymes generally rather open 
with spreading branches^and pedicelled flowers, sometimes dense. Flowers small for 
the genus. Calyx-teeth very variable, sometimes elongate after flowering ; leafy white 
one small 2 in. long, orbicular or broadly elliptic, obtuse, glabrous or puberulous. 
Berries glabrous, small, sometimes covered with broad pale warts. 

11. HI. grlabra, Vahl Symh. iii. 38; a rambling or climbing almost 
glabrous shrub, leaves shortly petioled elliptic or oblong acuminate, nerves 
beneath often hairy, stipules small simple or 2-fid, cymes glabrous or sparsely 
appressed-hairy branched, bracts and calyx-teeth subulate or lanceolate shorter 
or longer (never twice as long) as the ovary early deciduous after flowering, 
corolla-tube 1 in. very slender glabrous or with appressed hairs, lobes very short 
acute, berries globose glabrous. DC. Prodr. iv. 370; Wall. Cat. 6251; Kurz. 
For. Fl. ii. 66. M. penangensis, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 214. M. frondosa. 
Wall. Cat. 6250, B. and E. both in part. 

] Lxxv. RUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 91 

NiPAX and Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 1-5000 ft. ; Assam, Khasia Mts., alt. 0-4000 ft. ; 
Cachab, Chittagong, Tenasserim {Heifer, KewDistrib. 2778; Griffith, 2775, 2776); 
Singapore ; Maxacca {Mawgoy, Kew Distrib. 834 ; Griffith, 2779) and Penano. — 
DiSTRiB. Malay Islands. 

The very glabrous habit, rather coriaceous leaves, smaller calyx-teeth, long slender 
hairy (rarely glabrate) corolla-tube, and small broad acute corolla-lobes, distinguish 
this from its allies. The leaves do not exceed 5 inches in length ; the calycine white 
leaf is never more than 3 in. long, very broad obtuse and glabrous ; the calyx-teeth 
vary from quite minute to almost twice as long as the ovary ; the berries are some- 
times mottled as in M. variolosa, 

Var. 1 ; leaves narrowed at the base glabrous or sparsely pubescent beneath, 
calyx-teeth subulate about equalling the ovary. — From Sikkim and Bhotan to 

Vab. 2; leaves narrowed at the base glabrous or softly pubescent beneath, 
calyx-teeth lanceolate longer than the ovary. — Malacca and Singapore. 

Var. 3 ; leaves acute or rounded at the base quite glabrous, calyx-teeth equalling 
or shorter than the ovary. — Tenasserim (fruit not seen). 

Var. 4 ; leaves usually obtuse or rounded at the base setulose on the midrib 
above. M. setulosa, Klotzsch in Monatsb. Berlin. Akad. 1853, 510. — Pegu to Penang. 


M. coRDiFOLiA, Wall. Cat. 6260 ; glabrous, branches woody, leaves subsessile 
ovate-cordate rather coriaceous, fruiting cyme often sparsely hairy, berries obovoid 
glabrous areola large without calyx -teeth. — Penang, Wallich. 

M. MACROPHYLLA, Kurz Herb. {^ of For. Ft. ii. 57, not of Wallich); branches gla- 
brous, leaves 7-10 by 3-4^ in. broadly elliptic or obovate acuminate very membra- 
nous, nerves beneath hairy, petiole ^-1 in., stipules subulate-lanceolate hairy, cymes 
silky, flowers crowded, calyx-lobes much longer than the ovary and bracteoles lan- 
ceolate, corolla hirsute (in bud only), large white calycine leaf 4-6 in. long glabrous. — 
A small tree, South Andaman Island, Kurz. Probably a form of M. frondoaa, var. 5. 

M. PAVETTJEFOLiA, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 67; branches tomentose, leaves 10-12 in. 
shortly petioled oblanceolate caudate-acuminate very membranous glabrous above 
pubescent on the nerves beneath, stipules broadly triangular acuminate, cymes small 
axillary and terminal very shortly peduncled villous, calyx-teeth filiform Jbairy longer 
than the ovary, corolla (in bud) quite glabrous. — Pegu, at Tonkyeghat, Kurz. 

M. PARVA, Wall. Cat. 6261 ; G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 491 ; stem very slender scau- 
dent, sparsely hairy as are the leaves beneath, and sometimes above, leaves 2 in. 
subsessile lanceolate subacute, stipules small, cymes subsessile contracted villous, 
bracts and calyx-teeth subulate much longer than the ovary, corolla 1 in., tube very 
slender appressed-pubescent, lobes small acute. — This, from its slender habit and 
foliage, appears distinct from any described species. — A single specimen from Tavoy. 

M. viLLOSA, Wall. Cat. 6254 ; climbing, branches and leaves beneath almost 
hispid with spreading rufous hairs, leaves 3-4 in. subsessile ovate or elliptic with 
scattered hairs above finally glabrate abruptly acuminate, cymes with spreading 
hispid branches and appressed hirsute bracts and calyx-teeth which are lanceolato 
and much longer than ovary, corolla |-§ in,, tube very slender with appressed hairs, 
lobes small broadly ovate not apiculate. — Penang, Wallich, Phillips. — This resembles 
a very hairy M. glabra, or a form of variolosa, but the bracts and calyx-teeth are 
much longer ; the flowers are smaller than in any form of frondosa. 

M. CORYMBOSA, JRoxb. Hott. Beng, 15 ; Fl. Ind. i. 556 ;' W. 4' A. Prodr. 393.— This- 
is a Calcutta garden plant of Roxburgh's, which he states to be a native of Malabar 
and Ceylon, and to differ from M. frondosa in being glabrous, amongst other 
characters. No Ceylon or Malabar plant known to me answers to his description, or 
to a figure of a Calcutta Garden plant which bears this name in a collection of draw- 
ings at Kew made for Dr. Roxburgh (not the Roxburghian drawings cited by W, & A.). 
"Wallich's M. corymbosa, Roxb. 6252, consists of two plants, of which one (A. B. in- 
part, C. and D.), from the Khasia Mts. and Nipal, differs wholly from Roxburgh's 
description, and is that I have called Eoxburghii; the others (B. in part and D. in 
part, both from Calcutta Garden) do agree with his description and drawing in tho- 

02 Lxxv. EUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Mtisscejidc^, 

^labrousness of the corolla and the very large stipules. I have seen neither of these 
last in fruit, or from their native locality ; they may be forms of the protean M. 
frondosa. Wight and Arnott refer Roxburgh's drawing marked M. frondosa (from 
the Indian Museum collection) to M. corymbosa, Roxb,, I do not know on what autho- 
rity. M. corymbosa hence remains a doubtful plant, allied to M. Boxburykii, differ- 
ing in the very large persistent stipules, and large glabrous flowers with broad not 
jippendaged corolla-lobes. As Roxburgh does not describe the calyx-teeth as per- 
sisting on the berry it may be assumed that they are caducous, as in M. frondosa. 

M. cuNEiFOLCA, Boti Prodv. 139; branches and cuneate-oblong acuminate leaves 
-on both surfaces pubescent, bracts lanceolate, calyx-teeth linear acute 5 times shorter 
than the corolla. — Nipal, Wallich. This is probably M. incana, but the description 
applies as well to M. frondosa, Roxburghii, glabra, and macrophylla, all Nipaleso 


Hairy herbs or low iiuderahrubs. Leaves large, membranous, stipules 
triangular. Floioers blue, in sessile or stoutly peduncled subtermi^nal bracteate 
cymes. Calyx-tube oblong; segments 5, usually very long and persistent. 
Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped, hairy without ; lobes short, valvate in bud 
with everted margins. Stamens 5, included within the tube, filaments filiform ; 
anthers included, cohering in a tube, pointed and spurred at their tips. Ovary 
1-celled; style filiform, stigma clavate furrowed; ovules nmnerous, on 2 parietal 
2-lamellate placentas. Berry o-blong or fusiform, 2-celled, many seeded. Seed^ 
minute, subglobose, testa crustaceous pitted ; embryo clavate, in dense albumen. 
— DisTRiB. Species 10, Indian and Malayan. 

1. A. ZHCaingrayl, Hooh. f. ; stem slender woody, leaves elliptic abruptly 
acuminate glabrous, cymes terminal, calyx-lobes oblong-lanceolate, corolla-tube 
very slender tomentose, lobes ovate-lanceolate. 

Malacca, Mahigay (Kew Distrib. 940). 

Stem branched. Leaves 5-7 by 2^-4 in,, very membranous, base acute or rounded, 
petiole slender; stipules triangular-lanceolate, 2-fid. Cymes subsessile. Calyx-lobes 
:J in., puberulous, acute, deciduous. Corolla-tube Ij in., throat not swollen; limb 
1^-1^ in. diam., divided nearly to the base into pubescent lobes. Berry ^ in., ellip- 
soid, 2-celled, areolate, not crowned by the calyx-lobes. 

2. A. G-riffitliii, Hook. f. ; stem slender woody, branchlets and petioles 
silky, leaves broadly elliptic abruptly acuminate finely pubescent beneath, 
cymes terminal, calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, corolla-tube very slender tomen- 
tose, lobes lanceolate acmninate. 

Eastern Himalaya, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3089). 

This so closely resembles A. Maingayi that I doubt its locality being correct ; it 
differs in the silky branchlets and petioles, the much longer narrower caljx-lobes 
§ in. long, and the larger corolla with the limb 2^ in. diam. with lanceolate lobes, 
and the throat dilated and cylindrical. 

3. A. tomentosa, Br. in Wall. Cat. 8398 (Androtropis) ; hirsutely 
tomentose, stem very stout, leaves elliptic or oblanceolate acute hirsute on both 
surfaces, cymes short-peduncled subterminal, calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, 
corolla villous, tube funnel-shaped, lobes short rovmded. 

Khasia Mts., Be Silva, Griffith. Cachae, Keenan. 

Stem short (epiphytic, Keenan) cylindric. Leaves 4-10 in., black when dry, 
rugose ; stipules broad, acute. Calyx-lobes |-1 in. Corolla- 1^ in. long, blue ?, densely 
villous. Ovary long, fusiform. Berry \\ "in., with persistent calyx-lobes. 

4. A. zeylanlca, Am. in Ann. Nat. Hist. iii. 21 ; hirsute, stem very 
short, leaves oblanceolate tip rounded hirsute on both surfaces, cymes eubter- 

Acranthera.'] lxxv. KUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 9J^ 

minal usually long-peduncled, calj-x-lobes linear-lanceolate, corolla yillous, tub& 
funnel-shaped, lobes oblong rounded. Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 24. 

Ceylon ; central province, alt. 3-5000 ft. on shaded banks, Macrae, &e. 

A low herb. -Leaves 4-7 by 1^-3 in., rugose, black when dry, narrowed into the 
petiole. Ci/me and its stout peduncle densely hirsute. Calyx-lohes \-^ in. Corolla 
1 in. long. Berry hirsute, § in., fusiform. 

6. A. grandlflora, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 25; silkily villous, stem 
short, leaves elliptic or oblong-obovate tip roimded glabrate above pubescent on 
the nerves beneath, cymes siibterminal long-peduncled silky, calyx-lobes linear 
acute or obtuse, corolla villous, tube very long narrowly funnel-shaped, lobes 
oblong rounded. 

TiNNEVELLY ; in moist forests, alt. 2-3000 ft., Beddome. 

Very near A. zeylanica, but the pubescence of the stem and peduncle and cyme is 
more silky, the leaves glabrous or with soft hairs above, quite glabrous beneath 
between the nerves ; the calyx-lobes are under ^ in. and quite linear, and the pale 
blue corolla-tube 1^ in. long. 

6. A. anamallioa, Bedd. Ic PI. hid. Or. t. 25; almost stemless, leaves 
elongate obovate-oblong tip rounded with scattered bristly hairs above, pubes- 
cent on the nerves beneath, cymes subsessile silkily pubescent, calyx-lobes short 
ovate or elliptic spreading, corolla funnel-shaped pubescent, lobes oblong- 

Tinneveixt; Anamallay Mts., alt. 4500 ft. in moist woods, Beddomc. 

Stem ^1 in., with strong roots from the base. Leaves 2-6 by 1^ in., black when 
dry, narrowed to the base but not into the petiole, which is ^-^ in., and densely 
tomentose. Cymes many-flowered, flowers pedicelled. Calyx-lohe'^ i in. Corolla 1 in» 
long, deep blue. 

31. i.vcxns:a, DC, 

Erect or twining glabrous shrubs. Leaves coriaceous, stipules small or large^ 
Flowers white, 6-10 together, crowded on peduncled discoid receptacles which 
are axillary or terminal and solitary or umbelled. Calyx-tube turbinate, limb 
annular or cupular, quite entire persistent. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube broad, 
throat bearded, lobes 4, coriaceous, valvate in bud. Stamens 4, in the tube of 
the corolla, filaments short villous ; anthers narrow, included. Ovary 2-celled ; 
style filiform or thickened below the middle, stigmas 2 linear or spathulate *,. 
ovules numerous, on fleshy peltate placentas. Berry globose or turbinate, 2- 
celled, many-seeded. Seeds compressed, testa thickly coriaceous smooth ; 
embryo minute in fleshy albumen. — Disteib. Species 6, Malayan. 

1. Zi. Morlnda, DC. Prodr. iv. 368 ; branches flexuous, leaves elliptic 
or ovate acute shortly petioled, stipules triangular. Wall. Cat. 8437. Morinda 
polysperma. Jack in Mai. Misc. i. 14 ; Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey Sf Wall. ii. 204. 

Littoral. Singapoke, Jack; Malacca, Griffith, Maingay; Penano, WaUich. — 
DisTRiB. Malay Archipelago. 

Erect, glabrous or nearly so, branches stout. Leaves 2-3 in., brown wlien dry, 
nerves slender ; petiole \ in. Peduncles solitary in opposite axils, or terminal and 
often subumbellate. Heads | in. diam., few-flowered. Corolla ^ in., densely hairy 
within. Berries crowded, 6-8 in a head, broadly turbinate, areolate. 

32. Z.&UCOCODOM, Gardn. 

A climbing glabrous epiphytic rooting shrub. Leaves coriaceous ; stipules 
large, oblong, connate at the base, tip 2-toothed. Flotvers white, in solitary 
terminal peduncled involucrate heads ; involucre bell-shaped with the flowers 

04 Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) ILeucoeodon, 

in the bottom. Calyx-tuhe subglobose ; limb cylindric, irregularly split, per- 
sistent. Corolla funnel-shaped, throat glabrous ; lobes 5, thickly coriaceous, 
valvate in bud. Stamens 5, inserted in the tube ; anthers sessile, linear, in- 
cluded. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigmas 2 linear thick ; ovules crowded 
on broad peltate placentas. Seeds compressed, boat-shaped, testa thick striate ; 
embryo minute, in fleshy albumen. 

1. Zi. reticulatum, Gardn. in Calc. Journ, Nat. Hist. vii. 5 ; TJm. JEnum^ 
138 ; Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 94. 

Ceylon ; central province, alt. 3-5000 ft., Walker, Gardner, &c. 

Branches stout. Leaves 3-4 by 1|—1^ in., dark brown when dry, elliptic-lanceo- 
late, acute, opaque above, shining and reticulate beneath ; petiole ^-1 in. Involucre 
shortly stoutly peduncled, 1^ in. long by 2 Across the lobed mouth, sides much folded. 
Corolla 1^— I in. Berries \ in. diam., white. 

^3. P0Z.VS0Z.Z:NZA, Hook. f. 

An erect glabrous undershrub ? with a flexuous stem leafy towards the top. 
Leaves membranous ; stipules large, erect, 3-fid or torn, persistent. JFlowers in 
solitary terminal peduncled heads, sessile or pedicelled ; peduncle naked or 
involucrate about the middle by torn stipular bracts ; bracteoles 3-fid. Calyx- 
tuhe short, limb short, 5-fid. Corolla pubescent, tube slender funnel-shaped 
above, throat villous ; lobes 6, short, valvate in bud. Stamens 5, inserted below 
the throat, filaments short; anthers linear, included. Ovary 2-celled; style 
filiform, stigmas 2 short dilated ; ovules very many, on oblong tumid peltate 
placentas. Fruit unknown. 

1. P. Wallicliii, Hook. f. in Gen. PI. ii. 68. Morinda sp,, Wall. Cat, 

Khasia Mts., Gomez ; Cachar, Keenan. 

Stem cylindric, woody, simple or bi'anched, glabrous or pubescent above. Leaves 
3-5 in., brown when dry, lanceolate, acuminate, narrowed into a petiole, 5— 1 in., 
pubescent; nerves many, slender; stipules ^-i in. Heads ^ in. diam., tomentose ; 
peduncle 2-3 in., slender, pubescent ; bracts few, irregular, ovate or linear-oblong ; 
flowers subsessile. Calyx-lobes broadly ovate. Corolla 1-1 J in. long, tube very 
slender pubescent, lobes obtuse. — In the absence of fruit the position of this genus 
remains doxibtful. 

34. TRZSCIADZA, Hook. f. 

A glabrous twining shrub, branches stout. Leaves softly coriaceous, nerves 
few ; stipules short, broad, shortly connate below, acute or 2-toothed, caducous, 
leaving an annular scar. Floivers white, scented, in 3-6-flowered panicled or 
ternate peduncled terminal umbels ; bracts and bracteoles (perhaps caducous). 
Calyx-tube campanulate; limb membranous, cupular, 5-toothed, ciliate, de- 
ciduous. Corolla coriaceous, funnel-shaped ; tube short, hairy within ; throat 
glabrous ; lobes 5, lanceolate, valvate in bud, with incurved tips. Stamens 5, 
on the throat of the corolla, filaments filiform ; anthers slender, versatile, ex- 
serted. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform ; stigmas 2 linear-lanceolate ; ovules 2 
ox more in each cell, sunk in a fleshy placenta adnate to the septum. Fruit 

1. T. truncata, Hook. f. in Gen. PL ii. G9. Webera truncata, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind., od. Carey ^- Wall. li. 638. Stylocoryne truncata, Wall Cat. 8403. 
(yupia truncata, DC. Prodr, iv. 394. Pseudixora truncata, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat, 
ii. 210. 

Adenosacme.] Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 95 

Penang ; on the hill, Wallich. 

Branches cyliudric, with pale smooth bark. Leaves 4-5 by 1^-2 in., elliptic, 
subacute, brown and shining when dry, nerves few ; petiole \-\ in. Peduncles 1-2 in.; 
flowers few, small, shortly pedicellod. Corolla ^ in., fleshy, lobes longer than the 
tube. — This curious plant has been collected by Wallich alone in 1822. 


Small shrubs. Leaves very membranous, many-nerved ; stipules oblong or 
lanceolate or foliaceous, sometimes toothed and glandular. Flowers v^hite, 
yellow or greenish, in axillary and terminal panicled cymes with spreading 
branches; bracts often glandular. Calyx-tube globose or hemispheric, lobes 
4-6, persistent. Corolla tubular, short or long ; lobes 4-G, triangular, valvate 
in bud, with everted margins. Stamens 4-6, inserted in the tube, filaments 
short ; anthers linear-oblong. Ovary 2- or 5-6-celled ; style slender or thickened 
above, stigmas 2- or 5-6 linear; ovules very Humerous, on fleshy peltate 
placentas. JBeiry small, globose, 4-6-lobed, coriaceous or fleshy, 2- or 5-6- 
celled, indehiscent or loculicidal at»the crown, many-seeded, placentas globose. 
Seeds minute, angled, testa dotted; embryo minute, in fleshy albumen. — 
DiSTRiB. Species 4-5, Indian and Malayan. 

The flowers of this genus are di- or tri-morphic. 

* Berry 2-celled, white. 

1. A. longrlfolia, Wall. Cat. 6280; leaves elUptic-lanceolate, narrowed 
to a long acuminate point pubescent or puberulous beneath, stipules small 
oblong-lanceolate, cymes terminal and axillary sessile or shortly peduncled, 
branches slender divaricating, corolla ^-^ in. Kurz For. Fl. ii. 160. A. 
malayana. Wall. Cat. 6282. Bertiera javanica and fasciculata, Blume Bijd. 
i)87; DC. Prodr. iv. 392. Mycetia javanica, Reimo. Rondeletia longifoUa, 
Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Lnd., ed. Carey 8,- Wall. ii. 137 ; Don Prodr. 138. Wend- 
landia longifolia, DC. I. e. 412. W. malayana, G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 519. 

SuBTROPicAi. Himalaya and mountains of Eastern Bengal from Kumaon, alt. 
4000 ft., to StKKiM, alt. 2-5000 ft.; Khasia Mts., alt. 0-5000 ft.; Assam, Cachah, 
■Chittagong, Munnipore, Tenasserim, Maxacca, and Penang. 

A bush with very brittle branches, covered with smooth yellowish shining spongy 
bark. Leaves 4-10 in., very variable in width, narrowed into the slender petiole 
4-2^ in. long, above glabrous puberulous pubescent or with small scattered hairs, 
beneath always more pubescent or tomentose than above ; stipules oblong-lanceolate 
entire or 2-fid, glabrous hairy or with marginal glands. Cymes often 6-8 in. across, 
3-chotomously branched, glabrous or pubescent; branches very slender, zig-zag; 
bracts and bracteoles small, glandular; flowers pedicelled, solitary or fascicled. 
Calyx-tube ^ in., hemispheric or subglobose ; teeth about as long, ovate subulate or 
lanceolate and sinus glandular, persistent. Corolla fleshy, 4— ? in., glabrous or pubes- 
cent, tubular, yellow ; lobes small, broadly ovate. Berries \ in. diam., always white. — 
Plowers (as observed by "Wallich and C. B. Clarke) di- or tri-morphous ; one form has 
short styles and stamens inserted over the ring of hairs above the middle of the tube; 
in another the style is long, and the stamens basal inserted below the ring of hairs ; 
the third has a short wide corolla with the stamens about its middle. In diseased 
specimens the bracts and calyx-teeth become very hard short broad and toothed, 
Teflexed, white like the bark, and shining. 

3. A. stipulata, Hooh.f.] leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, nerves puberulous beneatn, stipules very large foliaceous, cymes terminal 
"with their peduncles pubescent shorter than the leaves, bracts linear, flowers 
ahortly pediceUed corymbose. 

E. Nn»AL and Sikxim, alt. 2-5000 ft. in very wet places, J. D. H., C. B. Clarke, &c. 

96 Lxxv. EUBIACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [^Adenosacme^ 

A lax rooting shru^, bark green opaque. Leaves 7-10 in., black when dry ; petiole 
1^3 in. ; stipules |-1 in. diam., orbicular, obtuse, glabrous. Flowers in rounded 
corymbs at the ends of the horizontal cyme-branches. Calyx-tuhe hemispheric, teeth 
oblong-ovate recurved. Corolla in the only flowers seen shorter than the calyx-teeth, 
with lanceolate lobes and exsertod stamens. Berries 2-celled, white. 

3. A. macrostaoliya, Hook. f.\ leaves elliptic-lanceolate acumirate 
quite glabrous on both surfaces, stipules very large foliaceous, cymes terminal 
-with their peduncles glabrous very slender longer than the leaves, bracts ovate, 
flovs^ers on slender pedicels lax. 

MisHHi hills, in Upper Assam, Griffith. 

Very similar to A. stipulata, but the leaves, which are a foot long, are quit© 
glabrous, the glabrous cyme far more slender, a foot long, with a peduncle 8 in. long 
and very distant slender branches 3-5 in. long, bearing loose 3-chotomous peduncles 
with slender pedicels ; the bracts, too, are short and broad. 

** Berry b-Q- celled. 

4. A . Xiawll, Hooh. f. ; leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate pubenilous 
beneath, stipules small oblong-lanceolate, cymes terminal and axillary sessile or 
shortly peduncled pubescent, branches divaricating. Lawia acuminata, Wight 
Ic. t. 1070, and in Cole. Journ. Nat. Hist. vii. 15. 

Mountains of the Gaknatic and Travancore, Law, Wight, &c. 

So similar to A. longifolia that I doubt its being other than a form of that plant, 
with a 5-6-cellod ovary. The corolla in the only flowers seen is very shortly tubular, 
fchorter thaa the subulate-lanceolate calyx-teeth and basal stamens ; no doubt ther& 
are other forms (as in the case of A. longifolia,). 

86. MTRZOMSVaOK, Wall. 

Small shrubs -with stout branches and spongy bark. Leaves and stipule* 
large. Floxvers white, in large peduncled terminal rarely axillary capitate or 
corymbose cymes ; bracts rigid, lanceolate. Calyx-tube ovoid ; lobes 5, lanceo- 
late, exceeding the corolla, rigid, persistent. Corolla small, tubiilar, throat 
villous ; lobes short, erect, hispid, valvate in bud. Stamens o, in the tube of the 
corolla, filaments short, subulate; anthers linear, included. Ovary 2-celled; 
style short, stigmas 2 linear-oblong coherent ; ovules very numerous, on hemi- 
spheric placentas. Berry ovoid, white, dry or fleshy, with 2 many-seeded cells. 
Seeds minute, angled, testa pitted ; embryo minute in fleshy albumen. — Distbib. 
Species 6 or 8, in India beyond the Granges and Borneo. 

1. M. nutans, Wall. Cat. 6225; leaves broadly elliptic or obovate 
abruptly acuminate, nerves 15-20 pair nearly horizontal, heads terminal and 
axUlary shortly peduncled dense-flowered, calyx-teeth subulate-lanceolate rigid* 
Knrz For. Fl. ii. 65. 

Assam, Hamilton; Khasia Mts., alt. 0-3000 ft., Be SUva, &c.; Chittagong 
Hills, C. B. Clarke. 

A small erect shrub, 2-3 ft. ; branches very stout, woody, with thick pale spongy 
bark. Leaves 5-10 by 3^5^ in., coriaceous, green when dry, nerves often pubescent, 
beneath; petiole ^-f in.; stipules ^-| in., triangular-lanceolate. Heads 1-1^ in. 
diam., usually globose, rarely loose with the peduncles exposed, glabrous or pubes- 
cent ; bracteoles and calyx-teeth \ in., subiilate, rigid, persistent, longer than the 
tubular corolla, which has short obtuse lobes pubescent on the back. Fruit dry. 

Vab. parviflora ; flowers corymbose smaller. — Birma, GHffith. 

2. IMC. Clarkei, Hooh. f. ; leaves elliptic-lanceo]ate acuminate, nerves 
12-15 pair slender very obliquely arched, peduncles simple or branched, calyx- 
teeth filiform. 

.Myrloneurou.] lxxv. rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 9^ 

CniTTAGONG, J. B. H. 4- T. T., C. B. Clarke. 

Very near M. nutans, if not a variety of it; the leaves are much nan-ower, and 
longer petioled with fewer and much less prominent obliquely arching nerves, and 
the bracteoles and calyx-teeth are much more slender and not rigid. 

3. M. angrustifollum, Hook. f. ; leaves narrowly elliptic-lanceolato 
acute, nerves 12-15 pair slender very obliquely arched, bracteoles and calyx- 
teeth subulate-lanceolate rigid. 

BiRMA ; hills west of the Hookhoom valley, Griffith. 

This again is ver^ near M. nutans, diflfering in the form of its leaves and their 
nervation, but agreeiLg in the bractrcles and <^yx-teeth, 

37. A VZiACODZSCXrS, Hook. f. 

A small glabrous tree, branches thick. Leaves coriaceous; stipules tri- 
angular, long-acuminate. Flowers small, polygamous, in short axillary panicled 
peduncled cymes, ebracteate. Calyx tube broadly hemispheric ; limb sliort, 
truncate. CoroUa coriaceous, rotate, 8-16-partite, throat haiiy ; segments tri- 
angular, valvate in bud with incurved tips, margins webbed. Stamens 8 or IG, 
alternate ones irregularly imperfect, filaments fiexuous; anthers minute, 
didymoiis. Disk large, prominent, 8-16-lobed, lobes opposite the petals with 
hooked tips. Ovary 6-16-celled ; style very short, thick, stigma large peltate 
fleshy, e-16-lobed ; ovules numerous, on prominent placentas in the inner angles 
of the cells. JSerry small, globose, areolate, usually 8- (6-1 6-> celled, many- 
eeeded. Seeds minute, subglobose, testa thick crustaceous pitted ; -embrj'o 
pyriform, in fleshy and oily albumen. 

1. J9L. preiniioides, Hook. f. in Oen. PI. ii. 71. Axanthes enneandra, 
Wight in Calc. Jaum. Nat. Hist. vii. 144. 

Malay Peninsula, fcom Tenasserim or the Andaman Islands, Heifer (Kew 
Distrib. 2938), to Malacca, Griffith, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 938). 

Branches stout, obtusely 4-angled. Leaves 5-9 by \i~2^ in., linear-oblong, acute, 
pale brown when dry, nerves numerous ; petiole \-^ in. ; stipules \-\ in. Cymes 
l-\\ in. diam., corymbose, triciiotomous, pubescent; peduncles ^1 in., suberect; 
bracts leafy. Flowers ^ in. diam. Berry ^ in, diam., globose. 

38. VROPHTX.Z.UDX, Wall. 

Trees or bushes with slender terete branches. Flotcers (sometimes uni- 
sexual) small, in axillaiy sessile or peduncled heads cymes or corymbs, pedicels 
short bracteolate at the base. Calyx-tube short; limb. cup-shaped, 5- (4-7-) 
toothed, persistent. Corolla coriaceous, tube short, throat villous; lobes 5 
(4-7) triangular, valvate in bad. Stamens 5 (4-7) on the thi-oat of the corolla, 
filaments short; anthers linear, acute. Ovary 5- (4-7-) celled; style short, 
often swollen at the base, stigma various ; ovules numerous, placentas attached 
to the inner angles of the ceUs. Be/ry small, 4-5-celled, many-seeded. Seeds 
minute, subglobose, ta^ita crustaceous pitted ; embryo clavate, in fleshy albumen. 
— DiSTKlB. Species about 35, tropical Asiatic and African, and 1 Japanese. 

* Branches and leaves beneath glabrous, (?ee also Sp. 6, 7, and 8.) 

1 XT. elliptlcum, Thto. Enum. 419; quite glabrous, leaves 6-9 in. 
oblong-lanceolate acuminate, stipules long, cymes sessile dense-fld., flowers uni- 
sexual glabrous without, petals bearded within. Axanthes elliptica, Wight in 
Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vii. 147, t. 2, f. 3 ; Ic. t. 1104; Thic. I. c. 139. 

98 Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [JJrophyllum^ 

Ceylox; central province, alt. 4-7000 ft., Wight, Walker, &c. 

A tree? (Wight), Branches terete, puberulous upwards. Leaven rather coria- 
ceous, narrowed at botli ends ; petiole ^1 in., and midrib above with a few short 
appressed hairs; stipules f in., rigid, erect, narrowly lanceolate, coriaceous. Cymes 
^ in. diam. Flovjers very shortly pedicelled, black when dry, \ in., dull orange 
(Thwaites 1. c. 139), white (Ic. 419). Berries orange. 

2. U, zeylanicum, T/nc. Enum. 418; quite glabrous, leaves 3-5 in. 
ovate or elliptic-lanceolate obtusely acuminate, stipules short, cymes pedimcled 
umbellate, floweis unisexual. Axanthes cej^lanica, Wir/ht in Calc. Journ. Nat. 
Hist. vii. 140, t. 2, f. 2 ; Ic. t. 1163 ; £edd. Fl. Sylv. Anal. Gen. xvi. f. 2. 

Ceylox; centrafl province, alt. 4-7000 ft., Wight, Walker, &c. 

Branches terete, more slender than in U. elliptica. Leaves coriaceous, narrowed 
nt both ends; petiole ^-| in.; stipules triangular. Cymes solitary or in pairs;, 
peduncle shorter than the petiole ; pedicels ^ in. Flowers about ^ in. diam., some- 
times puberulous. Berries orange-yellow. 

3. U. Griffitliianum, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. -vii. 147 
(Axanthes) ; leaves 6-0 in. glabrous elliptic or obovate-oblong abruptly caudate- 
acuminate, stipules § in. lanceolate from a broad base, cymes umbellate, corolla- 
lobes acute. Urophyllum sp.. Wall. Cat. 8322. 

SiNGAPOKE, Wallich; Malacca, Gnffith (KewDistrib. 2945, 2946), Maingay {B^\y 
Brunches rather slender. Leaves shortly petioled; stipules ^ in., coriaceous, 
erect, lanceolate from a broad base. Cymes solitary or in pairs from each axil;^ 
peduncle longer or shorter than the petiole, and pedicels and calyx usually minutely 
warted and puberulous ; pedicels ^-\ in. Flowers ^ in. diam. ; corolla-lobes glabrous, 
triangular, acute, membranous. — Griffith's No. 2945 has large leaves rounded at th& 
base, longer petioles, and very broad ovate-oBlong stipules. 

4. U. g-labrum, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 186 ; Cat. 
8316, excl. B. ; glabrous, leaves elHptic-oblong or lanceolate or linear or obovale- 
lanceolate caudate-acuminate, stipules very narrow linear silky, cymes glabrous 
or hoary sessile or peduncled and umbellate, calyx-lobes obtuse. J)C. Prodr. iv. 
441 ; Ktirz For. Fl. ii. 53. Urophyllum, Wall. Cat. 8318, 8319. U. arboreum,. 
Korth, in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 104. U. repandulum, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 
353. Axanthes arl3orea, Blume Bijd. 1603. Wallichia arborea, Reinw. ex^ 
Bhime in Flora. 1825, 107. 

South Tenassbeim, Kiir::, Heifer. Singapore, Penang, and Malacca, Wallich^ 
Maingay, &c. (Kew Distrib. 883). — Distrib. Java, Borneo. 

Very near indeed to U. Griffithianum, and probably not specifically distinct, but 
the 5;tipules are always very narrow, the leaves (which vary greatly in shape and 
from 3-10 in. in length) have more regular transverse veins, and the corolla-lobea 
appear to be obtuse. The leaves are either gradually or abruptly narrowed into 
narrow ligulate points sometimes nearly 1 in. long; the cyme, peduncles and pedicels 
are sometimes pubescent, and the flowers vary much in size ; hence msre than on© 
species may be confounded under the above synonyms and numbers. Heifer's 
Tenasserim plant has longer petioles, sessile cymes, and a hairy midrib beneath; it 
more resembles Griffithianum, but has very narrow stipules. 

** Branches more or less hairy {sojnetimes glabrate in S}). 6, 7, and 8). 

5. IT. hirsutuxn, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vii. 148 (Axanthes) j 
branches densely tomentose, leaves subsessile ovate- or ■ oblong-lanceolate 
caudate-acuminate pubescent beneath, stipules ^-1 in. linear-lanceolate, cymes 
.small sessile capitate, calyx and corolla tomentose. Wendlandia ? bifaria, TFalL 

Cat 6278. 

SiNGAFOKE, Wallich ; Malacca, Griffith (Kew Pistrib. 2939), Maingay (873). 
jBrajickis slender, and sripules, petioles, leaf-nerves beneath and cymes with 

Uraphyllum.l lxxv. eubiaceji. (J. D. Hooker.) 99 

spreading pubescence. Leaves 3-4 in., glabrous or pubescent above, base rounded or 
cordate ; stipules slender, gradually tapering from the base upwards. Ci/mes ^-^ in. 
diam. ; flowers small, subsessile, ^ in. diam. Berries pedicelled, pubescent. — Wallich's 
Urophyllum, 8315, from Singapore, resembles this, but has much larger leaves, 6-8 
in., narrowed at the base, petioles \ in., and shortly peduncled cymes with glabrous 
fruit. The specimens are very imperfect. 

6. IT. longrifoUum, Wight in Calc. Jown. Nat. Hist. vii. 145, t. 2, f. 1 ; 
Ic. t. 1165 (Axanthes); young branches villous or glabrate, leaves large pe- 
tioled membranous elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, nerves beneath and lanceolate 
stipules tomentose, cymes sessile with the peduncles and pedicels tomentose, 
flowers glabrous. U. strigosum, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 53, twx of Korthals. 

Tenasserim, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2940) ; Mergui, Griffith, Kurz. 

Branches slender, obtusely 4-angled, the last intemode usually villous. Leaves 
6-10 in., hardly caudate at the tip, base acute or rounded, midrib above pubescent, 
beneath tomentose, as are the petiole and stipules. Brads conspicuous though small. 
— Kurz refers this (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1877, ii. 161) to U. glabrum, which differs 
in the glabrous cyme and leaves, and in the Forest Flora to Blume's Axanthes strigosa, 
a Javanese mountain plant, described by its author and by Miquel as having silky 
strigose branches, cymes, and nerves beneath, acute calyx-teeth and subcoriaceous 
leaves, characters wholly diflferent from those of U. longifolium. The Tenasserim 
form of TJ. glabrum almost unites that variable species with this. 

7. TJ. streptopodium, Wall. Cat. 8317, partly ; branches j^etioles nerves 
beneath stipules and cymes thinly appressed-hairy, leaves petioled elliptic- 
oblong or lanceolate, stipules linear-lanceolate, cymes sessile, male calyx trun- 
cate, female 5-toothed, corolla glabrous tubular cleft at the top, style elongate. 
U. parvifloriun, Wall. Cat. 8320. Geniostoma acuminatum, Wall, in Roxb. FL 
Ind., ccl Carey Sf Wall. ii. 316 ; Cat. 9067. Urophyllum, Wall. Cat. 8316, in 
j9ar2^, and 8316 B. 

Malacca and Penano, Wallich, Griffith (Kew Jyistvih. 2941, 2942), Maingay (882). 

"Whole plant pale blue when dry, and best distinguished by the appressed whit© 
hairs on the branches, narrow stipules, toothed female calyx, and form of the corolla; 
but I find great difference in the 'size of the corolla, which is sometimes cleft at the 
top only, and at others much lower down. — V/allicKs 8316 B., from " Herb. Fmlayson" 
(from Siam, I suppose), has very fine points to the leaves, and large flowers ; his 8320 
( U. parmflorum) has slender branches, small narrow leaves and stipules, and minute 
imperfect flowers; it may be a diflferent species. 

8. TJ. Blumeanum, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. iv. 145 (Axanthes) ; 
branches slender slightly hairy, leaves petioled eUiptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate 
caudate-acuminate, petioles and cyme-brancbes and linear-lanceolate stipules 
siUrily-pubescent, cymes peduncled subumbellate simple or branched lax- 
flowered, female calyx truncate, corolla glabrous. Timonius? acuminatus, 
Wall Cat. 6218. U. streptopodium, Wall. Cat. 8317, in part, and U. glabnmi, 

8316, in part, and ? 8315. 

Penang, Porter, Wallich; Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2943); Singapore, 
Wallich, Lobb. 

Very closely allied to U. streptopodium, differing in the less silkily hairy branches, 
peduncled more pubescent cymes with looser flowers, and apparently always truncate 
male calyx, though of this I am not quite sure. — Wallich describes the calyx as 
" hairy without," which I do not find to be the case. The contents of the sheet to which 
the ticket U. glabrum of Wallich's 8317 is attached, are four specimens of this and one 
of a non-rubiaceous plant. Wallich's 8315 may be a largo state of this,' but it is far 
more robust and in an imperfect state, 

9. TJ. vUlosum, Wall, in Eoxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 185 ; Cat. 
8314; branches very stout petioles cymes and nerves beneath densely tomcn- 

100 Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hookei'.) \_Scliizostigma. 

tose, leaves very large ovate-lanceolate or linear-oblong coriaceous caudate- 
acuminate, stipules linear-lanceolate, cymes sessile or peduncled capitate and 
flowers densely tomentose. DC. Prodr. iv. 441. 

Pbnang, Wallich, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 884) ; Sinoapob£, Lohb. 

Branches as thick as the little finger, cylindric. Leaves 6-12 by 2-4 in., tail 
very slender 1-1^ in., pubescent, especially on the nerves beneath, green when dry. 
Cymes ^-1 in. diam. ; bracts often exceeding the flowers, whi<ih are the largest of the 
genus; peduncle, if present, very stout. Berry \ in. diam., pubescent, crowned with 
the calyx-teeth. 


A creeping hirsute herb. Leaves membranous; stipules broadly ovate, 
acute. Flowers 1-3 together, subsessile, axillary with 2 stipular bracts. Calyx- 
tube obovoid : limb produced, throat hirsute ; lobes 6, lanceolate, unequal, per- 
sistent. Cm-olla funnel-shaped, throat pubescent; lobes 5, ovate-lanceolate, 
valvate in bud with incurved tips. Stamens 6, in the throat of the corollA, 
filaments short ; anthers linear, half exserted. Ovary 6-7-celled ; style filiform, 
stigmas 5-7 linear; ovules crowded on placentas in the inner angles of t)ie 
cells. Berries ovoid, 5-7-celled, many-seeded. Seeds minute, ovoid, testa 
mucilaginous ; embryo clavate, in fleshy oily albumen. 

1. S. hlrsutum, Am. in Ann. Nat. Hist. iii. 20; Thw, Enum. 139 j 
Bedd. Lc. PL Ind. Or. t. 96. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8463. 

Ceylon ; southern districts, ascending to 2000 ft.. Walker, &c. 

Stem flexuous, extensively creeping and rooting, sending up short erect leafy 
branches 4-8 in. high. Leaves H-24^ in., pale brown when dry, elliptic, acute, 
hirsute on both surfaces, nerves slender ; petiole \-^ in. ; stipules | in- Flowers 
white, I in. diam. Berries the size of a small cherry. — Wallich's specimens are 
marked as from Hb. Finlayson, but as Finlayson collected only in Siam and tho 
Malay Peninsula (so far as is known) there is no doubt some error. 

40. Z<S€ANAMT»US, Jack. 

A rooting small glabrous shrub, branches acutely 4-angled. Leaves petioled 
stipules large. Flowers reddish, crowded in axillary sessile or peduncled nod- 
ding involucrate heads. Calyx-tube ovoid or turbinate; limb obliquely cam- 
panulate, unequally obtusely 2-4-lobed or 2-lipped, persistent. Corolla funnel- 
shaped ; tube inflated at the base ; lobes 6, thick, obtuse, bearded at the tip, 
valvate in bud. Statnens 6, on the throat of the corolla, filaments short ; anthers 
2-lobed. Disk urn-shaped. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigmas 2 linear or 
oblong ; ovules numerous on spongy placentas attached to the septum. Fruit 
membranous, 2-celled, mucila^nous within, many-seeded, placentas thick. 
Seeds obtusely angled, testa thick smooth ; embryo small in fleshy albumen. 

1. Xi. erubescens, Jack in Mai. Misc. ii. 83 ; Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., 
ed. Carey 4' Wall. ii. 319; Cat. 6224; DC. Prodr. iv. 620. Lecananthus sp., 
Griff. Notul. iv. 272. 

Singapore, Wallich, Lohb ; Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2784), Maingay (912). 
— DisTEiB. Sumatra, Borneo. 

Stem a foot high, stout, brown when dry. Leaves 3-6 by 1-2 in., elliptic elliptic^ 
ovate or linear-oblong, acuminate, opaque, nerves faint; petiole short; stipules ^in., 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Heads f-1 in. diam. ; the foliaceous calyces imbricating ; 
peduncle or short, glabrous or puberulous ; involucre small, lobed. Calyx purplish, 
limb enlarged in fruit. Corolla pink.— I know of but one species of this genus. 

Keenama-I lxxv. eubiacetE. (J. D. Hooker.) 101 

41. KSSNAMXA, Jlooh: f. 

A low sabherbaceous .shrub; stem woody, flexuous, cylincliic. Leaves 
opposite, eloiigate-oblanceolate, abruptly acuminate, narrowed into the petiole, 
membranous; stipules long, interpetiolar, subulate from an ovate-lanceolate 
base. Flowers sessile, in dense bracteate terminal solitary subsessile involucrate 
heads, mixed with coriaceous imbricating concave bracts ; outer bracts orbicular, 
inner oblong or spathulate, concave; bracteoles 2, spathulate, coriaceous, equalling 
the flowers. Calyx-tuhe fleshy, shortly oblong ; limb of 5 rarely 6 large oblong 
or spathulate, coriaceous, obtuse or acute, unequal, erect, concave, imbricating 
lobes. Coi'olla about equalling the calyx-lobes ; tuloe inflated, glabrous ; lobes 
6, short, orbicular-ovate, apiculate, papillose externally, valvate in bud ; throat 
with a ring of stiff hairs. Stamens 5, epigynous, seated at the base of the 
broad-lobed disk ; filaments short ; anthers small, linear, obtuse, without pollen. 
Ovary 2-celled ; style short, stigmas 2 flat ovate acute; ovules very numerous, 
crowded on globose placentas adnate to the membranous septum. 

1. K. xnodesta, Hook. f. 

Caohae ; at the Doarband Pass, R. L. Kecnan. 

Stem, as thick as a goose-quill, apparently inclined or prostrate, puberulous above, 
as are the petioles. Leaves 6-12 by l|-3 in., membranous, green when dry, midrib 
slender, and 15-20 pair of almost horizontal slightly arched nerves, puberulous 
beneath; petiole |-1 in.; stipules ^-1 in., somewhat recurved. Heads nodding, 
globose, 1 in. diam.; bracts and bracteoles green. Flowers probably unisexual, those 
of the specimens ? . Calyx \ in. long, the lobes much longer than the tube. — A very 
distinct geniis, allied to Lecananthus, but differing widely in the calyx and terminal 
inflorescence. The distinctly epigynous stamens (evidently those of a ^ plant) 
resemble those of one form of Adenosacme. I have named it after Mr. Keenan, once 
an employ^ of Kew, who formed an excellent collection of Cachar plants in 1874, 
which he presented to the Herbarium of the Royal Gardens. 


42. WEBSRA, Schreh. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, petioled ; stipules triangular-ovate, usually 
deciduous. Flowers in terminal corymbiform cymes, sessile and 2-bracteoled at 
the ovary, or pedicelled and bracteolate on the pedicel. Calyx-tuhe ovoid or 
turbinate ; limb short or long, 5- very rarely 4-fid or -partite. Corolla funnel- 
or salver-shaped, tube short or long, throat glabrous or pubescent; lobes 5, 
rarely 4, narrow, rarely short, spreading or re flexed, twisted in bud. Stamens 
6, rarely 4, on the corolla-mouth ; filaments short or ; anthers slender, ex- 
eerted. Ovary 2-celled ; style stout, usually pubescent; stigma long and 
spindle-shaped, grooved, usually far exserted ; ovules numerous, rarely few or 2 
or solitary in each cell, often immersed in fleshy peltate placentas. Beri-y small, 
globose, 2-celled, cells 1 -many-seeded. Seeds plano-convex or cupped, rarely 
angled; testa various, albumen fleshy or horny; embryo small, cotyledons 
leafy, radicle pointing variously. — Distrib. About 40 species, tropical Asiatic. 

As here defined Wchera includes the 6-merous-flowcred plants with 1-ovuled 
ovarian cells which have been hitherto referred to Ixora and Pavetta, from -^^hich 
they further differ in their short pubescent styles and stout fusiform grooved stigma. 

Sect. I. Euwebera. Ovules 2 or more in each cell. 

* Corolla-tube equalling or shorter than the lobes. 

102 Lxxv. EUBUCE/E. (J. D. Hooker.) \_Wehera. 

1. "W. corymbosa, Willd.-, Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 696; glabrous, leaves 
elliptic- or oblong-lanceolate acute or acuminate, corolla glabrous externally, 
tube broad about equalling tbe lobes, berries few-seeded. Gaertn. Fmct. 1. 192; 
Bot. Reg. t. 119. W. asiatica, Bedd. Fl. Sylv., Anal. Gen. xvi. f. 2 ; Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 47. "W. glomeriflora, Kurz I. c. W. cerifera, Moon Cat. 19. Ron- 
deletia asiatica, Linn. Cantbium corymbosum, Pers. Si/nops. i. 200. Cupea 
corymbosa, DC. Prodr. iv. 394. Stylocoryne sp.. Wall. Cat. 8408. S. Webera, 
A.Rich.; W. ^ A. Prodr. 401 ', Wall. Cat. 84.01, excl. part,B.C.'E.'F.Q.Il.; 
Thw. Enum. 148 ; Wt. Ic. t. 309, 584 ; Dalz. 8^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 119. S. rigida, 
Wt. Ic. t. 1064. Polyozus? madraspatana, DC. I. c. 495. Pavetta Wightiana, 
Wall. Cat. 6l67.—Rheede Hort. Mai. ii. t. 23. 

Western Peninsula, from the Concan southwards, and Ceylon, common. — 
DiSTBiB. Malay Islands. 

A large shrub or small tree, glabrous except the cj'mes sometimes, almost olive- 
tlack or brown when dry. Leaves 3-8 by |-3 in., coriaceous, shining above, often 
glaucous beneath ; petiole short, stout ; stipules very coriaceous, acute or mucronate, 
often sheathing. Cymes and flowers very variable in size, faintly odorous. Calyx 
glabrous or pubescent; limb shortly or deeply lobed, lobes glabrous or ciliate. 
Corolla |-| in. diam., lobes glabrous or puberulou^ within, white. Style hairy or 
glabrous. Berries size of a pea, with the calyx-limb persistent or not. — A very 
variable plant. Var. cerifera of Thwaites, from Ceylon . is remarkable for its very 
coriaceous leaves, and the copiously resinous secretion at the nodes, &c. ; a character, 
however, of usual occurrence, according to Roxburgh. S. rigida, Wt., is a robust 
small-leaved form. 

2. W. odorata, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 15; Fl. Ind. i. 699; leaves elliptic- 
lanceolate acuminate glabrous, cymes mauy-fld. pubescent, flowers pedicelled, 
corolla-tube slender pubescent shorter than the linear lobes. W. macrophylla, 
Roxb. I. c. 697. Pavetta weberaefolia^ Br. in Wall. Cat. 6182 A., in part. P. 
cerberaefolia (by prror), Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 279. Stylocoryne Webera, Wall. 
Cat. 8401 K. &. penangensis, Miq. I. c. 207. Oupia macrophylla, DC. Prodr, 
iv. 394. 

Silhet, Assam, and the Khasia Mrs., 2?e Silva, Griffith, &c. (KewDistrib. 3009). 
Muneypoor, C. B. Clarke. Penang, Roxburgh, Wallich. 

A shrub, black when dry. Leaves 5-9 hy 2-3 in., membranous ; petiole short ; 
stipules acute, deciduous. Cymes large, corymbose ; bracts linear ; pedicels slender. 
Calyx minutely toothed. Corolla-tube \ in., lobes nearlv twice as long. Ovules few. 
Berries " size of a pea " (Roxb.). —I find no difference between the flowering specimens 
from Bengal and Penang, but have seen fruits of neither. Roxburgh describes the 
berry of the Penang plant {macrophylla) as "many-seeded, as in W. corymbosa," that 
of the Silhet one {odorata) as having only 3-4 ovules in each cell. This differs from 
corymbosa in the slender pubescent corolla-tube and the bracts. 

3. ^ITm disperxna, Hook. f. ; leaves elliptic- or linear-lanceolate acumi- 
nate glabrous, cymes pubescent many-flowered, corolla-tube broad pubescent 
shorter tlian the lobes, berries 2-seeded. 

Silhet and the Khasia. Mrs., Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2786); »lt. 1-4000 ft., 
J. D. H.^T.T. 

A shrub. Leaves olive-brown when dry, 4-10 by 1^-3 in., very variable in width ; 
petiole ^-| in. ; stipules triangular-lanceolate. Cymes shortly peduncled, more robust 
shorter and fewer-flowered than in W. odorata; calyx larger obtusely -toothed. Corolla 
similar, but with a broader tube. Ovary with 2 ovules in each cell (rarely more), 
sunk collaterally in a large spongy placenta. Berries very much larger, \-~ in. diam., 
with one hemispheric seed in each. — A !Bornean species (Beccari, 380) resembles this 
closely in foliage and flowers, but I have not seen its fruit. 

Wehera.'] Lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 103 

4. W. pumila, Hook. f. ; dwarf, lecavea small rigid lanceolate glabrous 
«,piculate, corymbs small subcapitate hirsute, corolla glabrous externally, tube 
•equalling the limb^ berries several-seeded. 

Khasia Mts.; Borpane river, alt. 1-1500 ft., Sunons, Lobb, J. D. H. ^ T. T. 

A rounded erect shrub, a foot or two high, witli very woody short crowded 
branches. Leaves \\-1 in., subsessile, pale brown when dry, margin recurved ; petiole 
.-and triangular stipules pubescent. Cymes \-\ in. di;im., hirsute. Cahjx-tccih minute. 
Ovary-cells 3-4-ovuled. Corolla -white, tube and lobes about \ in. long. Berries sizo 
of a small pea, shortly pedicelled, crowned by the calyx-limb. Seeds angled. — Quite 
unlike its congeners in its dwarf size, pale brown colour -when dry, and the contracted 

** Corolla-tube longer than the lobes. 

5. W. xnonosperma, W. ^ A. Prodr. 401 (iStylocoryue) ; glabrous, 
leaves oblanceolate acuminate, corolla glabrous externally, tube much longer 
than the lobes, berry 1-seeded. Wt. Ic. t. 317. 

Travancore ; at Courtallam, Wight. 

A shrub, olive-brown when dry, branches rather slender. Leaves 4-9 by 1-2^- in., 
rather thin, narrowed into the short petiole ; stipules triangular. Cymes many- 
flowered, corymbose, glabrous. Calyx-teeth minute. Corolla-tuhe § in., lobes j in. 
Ovary-cells 2-3-ovuled. Berries "white, size of a small cherry" (AVt.). 

6. W. fragrans, Blume Bijd. 982 (Stylocoryne) ; branches and leaves 
glabrous, leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate acute, cymes pubescent open 
many-flowered, coroUa-tube very long slender much longer than the lobes, 
berries many-seeded. Stylocorvne fragrans, BC. Prodr. iv. 377. S. laxiflora, 
Blume Bijd. 983; DC. I. c. S.lucida, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 541. Rou- 
d^letia lucida. Wall. Cat. 8453. Oeriscus fragrans, Nees in Flora, 1825, IIG. 
Wahlenbergia fragrans, Blume Cat. Hort. Bait. 13. 

Malacca and Singapore, Wallich, &c., Maingay (Kew Distril). 893). — Distrib. 
Banca, Java, Borneo. 

A small tree, "sometimes 60 ft. " (Ilasskarl), branches 4-angled. Leaves palo 
brown, 4-6 in., narrowed into the petiole, rather shining above, nerves beueatli some- 
times puberulous ; stipules triangular. Cymes 3-4 in. diam. ; pedicels slender, bracts 
linear. Calyx-teeth triangular. Corolla-tuhe 1 in., 6 times as long as the linear- 
oblong lobes. Berries size of a pea. Seeds angular. 

7. W. costata, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 203 (Stylocoryne) ; leaves obovate 
obtuse or subacute glabrous or with midrib beneath and nerve-axils pubescent, 
cymes many and dense-flowered densely pubescent, corolla-tube slender pubes- 
cent much longer than the short lobes. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2791), J-Zaiw^a^ (945). —Distrid. Sumatra, Banca. 

A large tree, branches woody, branchlets tomentose. Leaves 6-9 by. 2^-4^ in., 
dark brown when dry, coriaceous, narrowed into the short petiole. Cymes shortly 
peduncled, 1^-2 in. diam., bracts minute. Calyx-lobes very short, limb deciduous. 
Corolla-tuhe \ in. ; lobes i the length of the tube, oblong. Berries size of a pea, 
many-seeded. — I have seen only imperfect fruiting specimens of Miquel's W. costata, 
which agree perfectly with this. 

8. W. BZaing^ayi, Hook./.; branches leaves beneath and cymes tomen- 
tose, leaves ovate caudate-acuminate glabrous above, cymes subcapitate, corolla- 
tube slender tomentose much shorter than the lobes, berries many-seeded. 

Malacca; Mount Ophir, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3081), Maingay (932). 
A shrub, branches terete. Leaves brown when dry, 3-6 in., coriaceous, base 
.'.rounded; petiole -]-i in.; stipules lanceolate, tomentose. Cymes 2-3 in., 

104 Lxxv. EUBIACEJ], (J. D. Hooker.) [Wehera. 

almost hispid ; bracts linear. Calyx-teeth subulate. Corolla-tube ^ in. ; lobes ^ the 
length of the tube, oblong. Berries size of a pea; Avith persistent calyx-teeth. Seeds 
broadly cuneate, sides smooth, back granulate. — Very near a Bornean species (Beccari, 
n. 1263). 

9. W. mollis, Wall. Cat. 8454 (Rondeletia ?) ; softly tomentose, leaves 
elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate acuminate, cymes open many- 
flowered with long spreading ban's, calyx-tube slender pubescent much longer 
than the lobes, berries many-seeded. 

Singapore, Wallich ; Penang, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 894). 

A small tree ; branches robust, softly tomentose and covered with long spreading 
hairs, as are the cymes petioles and midrib beneath. Leaves either broad, 6-8 by 
3-4 in., or narrow 4-5 by 1-2 in., uniformly tomentose above, pale brown when dry ; 
petiole short ; stipule large, ovate-lanceolate. Cymes subsessile, very many-flowered. 
Calyx-teeth lanceolate, deciduous. Corolla-tube ^ in., 4 times as long as the oblong 
short lobes. Berries size of a pea. Seeds angular. 

Sect. II. Pseudixora. Cells of the ovary l-ovuled. 

t Tube of the corolla shorter than the lobes. 

10. "W. stellulata, Hook.f. ; quite glabrous or nearly so, leaves elliptic- 
lanceolate acuminate, nerves 7-9 pair, petiole slender, cymes small sessile or 
shortly peduncled, flowers sessile 2-bracteolate, calyx-teeth ovate-lanceolate, 
corolla-lobes longer than the tube, the minute subulate tips stellately spread- - 
ing in bud. Stylocoryne Webera, Wall. Cat. 840, 1, in part. ? Pavetta aristata, 
Wall. Cat. 6169. 

Penang, Wallich, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3086) ; Malacca, Maingay (850) : 
?Tavoy, Gomez. 

Branches slender, smooth, and whole plant either black or dirty green .when dry. 
Leaves 6-9 by 2-3 in., membranous, shining above, glabrous or puberulous beneath; 
nerves slender; petiole \-\ in. ; stipules with a slender cusp. Cymes 1-1^ in. diam. ; 
bracts subulate-lanceolate, persistent ; branches short and calyx puberulous ; flowers 
\ in. long. Corolla with a ring of hairs in the throat ; lo1)es lanceolate, ciliolate. 
'style hirsiite ; stigma long, fusiform, grooved. — I have not in any specimens (I have 
examined 7) found the corolla to open; the stellate tips of its lobes are remarkable. 
A mere scrap is on the sheet 8401 I. of Wallich's Herbarium, but good specimens- 
were distributed by him under that number to both the Hookerian and Benthamian 
Herbaria. Wallich's specimen of Pavetta aristata is probably the same, but I have 
no other Tenasserim example. The nerves are more numerous, and it has longer 
cusps to the stipules; it is in young fruit only. Maingay in his notes states that the 
ovary-cells have several ovules ; I find only one in each. 

IT. W. attenuata, Jlooh. f. ; quite glabrous, leaves elliptic-lanceolate 
or oblanceolate acuminate polished above, nerves 5-7 pair very oblique, cymes 
sessile or shortly peduncled brachiate glabrous lower branches rather long, 
flowers pedicelled ebracteolate, calyx-teeth short triangular, corolla glabrous,, 
lobes linear longer than the tube, throat pubescent. Stylocoryne attenuata, 
Voigt Hort. Suburb. Calcut. 377. S. Webera, Wall. Cat. 8401 F. (m Herb. 
Hook. ^' Benth.) ; Benth. Fl. Ilomjh. 156. 

Cultivated in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens; no doubt from China or the Khasia 
Mts. ? — DisTBiB. Hongkong. 

A shrub or small tree, black when dry. L'.avcs 3-4 by 1-H iu., coriaceous, nar- 
rowed into a petiole \-\ in. Cymes 1-2 in. high, branches not divaricate except in 
fruit ; bracts and bracteoles on the pedicels small ; flowers white, ^ in. diam., quite 
glabrous. Stigma fusiform. Frmt size of small pea. — There arc no specimens of 
this in Wallich's Hei'barium, but good one? were distributed by him to Herbariums 

Wehera.] lxxv. rubiace.e. (J. D. Hooker.) 105 

of Hooker and Bentham, xmder the niimber 8401 F., and it is unquestionably the 
Hongkong plant. We have also Calcutta Garden specimens from Griffith (Kew 
Distrib. 2794) with the name W. attemuita. Yoigt (Hort. Subub. Calcutta) couples 
it with St. coriacea, giving to both the habitat " (China) Khasia bills," and so many 
Chinese plants are Khasian that it may -well be found there. 

12. W. long'ifolia, Hook. f. ; branches petioles leaves beneath and 
cymes softly-tomentose, leaves petioled elongate elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceo- 
late caudate-acuminate membranous, nerves 16-30 pairs, peduncles long slender^ 
flowers pedicelled, corolla pubescent. Ixora longifolia, G. D<m Gen. Syst. iii. 
573; ?Kurz For. Fl. ii. 17. I. macrophylla, Br. in Wall. Cat. C165, not of 
Bartl. Pavetta longifolia, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 275. 

Penang, Wallich, Phillips. 

Branches slender. Leaves 10-12 by 2-3 in., membranous, glossy above, brown, 
when dry, narrowed into the 1-1^ in. petiole, nerves very slender; stipules short, 
broad. Peduncle very slender, 4-G in,, brachiate at the top; bracts ^ in., filiform. 
Flowers shortly pedicelled. Calyx-ieeth subulate-lanceolate, as long as the tube. 
Corolla not seen. Ovules 1 in each cell. 

13. W. ^randifolia, Hook. f. ; leaves elliptic or obovate-lanceolate 
caudate-acuminate glabrous, nerves 12-15 pairs, cymes long-peduncled tomen- 
tose, flowers pedicelled pubescent ebracteolate at the base, corolla-tiibe much 
shorter than the linear lobes. Ixora grandifolia, Br. in Wall. Cat. 0134. 

SiKGAPORE, Wallich', Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2795, 2796), Maingay 

Branches glabrate. Leaves 5-12 by 2J-4| in., membranous, blackish when dry, 
polished above ; petiole ^-1 in. ; stipules triangular, acuminate. Cymes brachiate, 
long peduncled, or with long deflcxed branches ; lowest bracts foliaceoiis, upper fili- 
form. Flower-h}(ds ^ in. Calyx-teeth rounded, shorter than the tube. Corolla-tube 
short, nearly glabrous within. Ovicles 1 in each cell. 

14. W. Walllchii, Hook. f. ; glabrous, leaves long-petioled elliptic- 
lanceolate caudate-acuminate, nerves 12-15 pairs, cymes sessile glabrous lower 
branches long suberect, flowers 2-bracteolate at the base sessile, calyx-teeth 
triangular acute, corolla glabrous, lobes linear-oblong much longer than the- 
short tube, throat woolly, seeds plano-convex. Stylocoryne Webera, Wall. Cat. 
8401 l.,for the most 2}n'>'t. Pavetta weberaefolia. Wall. Cat. 6182 A., in pa)'t, B. 

Pexang, Wallich; Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3004, 3084), Maingay (851). 
— Distrib Borneo. 

A bush; branches s^lender, and leaves black when dry. Leaves 5-7 by 1^-2 in., 
membranous, usually shining above ; petiole slender, |-1 in. ; stipules triangular, cus- 
pidate. Cymes 2-3 in,, not brachiate, branches with sometimes a line of pubescence 
on one side, lower suberect ; bracts linear-lanceolate, persistent; bracteoles triangular, 
acute. Corolla-tuhe ^ in. ; lobes linear, much longer, margins sometimes ciliate. 
Style villous, stigma narrowly fusifcrm. Fruit size of a pea. Seeds plano-convex. — 
At first sight like W. odorata, but tlie cymes are glabrous, as is the much shorter 
corolla-tube ; the flowers are sessile and 2-bracttolate, and the ovules solitary. A 
f<imilar plant from the confines of Birma and Assam, collected by Griffith on the 
Tsegai hills, has shorter very coriaceous leaves, with fewer netves. 

15. "W. ILurzii, Hook, f.-. glabrous, • leaves petioled elliptic- or obovate- 
lanceolate acuminate, nerves 8-10 pair, cymes sessile glabrous, flowers pedicelled 
ebracteolate at the base, calyx-teeth triangular obtuse, corolla glabrous, lobes 
linear-oblong much longer than the tube, throat woolly, seeds concavo-convex. 
Ixora weberrefolia, Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 146 : For. Fl. ii. 18. 
Stylocoryne Webera, Kurz in Andaman Rej). B. 10. 

A^•DAMAX and Niq/Obar Islands, in the coast forests, Knr~. 
\0L. III. ^ 

106 Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Webera. 

Very similar to W. Wallichii, but difforing in the pedicelled eLracteolate flowers, 
and more obtuse calyx-lobes, and the seeds, -which arc deeply excavated ventrally. 

16. W. lucens^ Hook. f. ; quite glabrous, leaves small linear-oblong 
narrowly elliptic-lanceolate obtuse or acute black and shining when dry, cymes 
sessile, branches spreading, flowers pedicelled, calyx ebracteolata, teeth short 
triangular, corolla-tube equalling the linear lobes, throat pubescent. Pavetta 
sp., Bedel Fl. Sylv.y For. Man. 134/8. P. ? lucens, Br. in Wall Cat. G168. 
Stylocor}iie breviflora, Schlecht. in Herb. Hohen. No. 1374. 

NiLGHERRT and Teavaxcorb Mountains, Hcyne, Wight. 

A bush, very black when dry. Leaves 2-4 by S^-l^ in., rather coriaceous, nerves 
6-7 pair; petiole very short; stipules triangular. Cymes 1-2 in, ; lower bracts often 
foliaceous. Corolla ^ in. diam., 4-5-cleft. Stylp hairy; stigma slender fusiform, 
shortly exserted. Ovules 1 in each cell. Fruii size of a large pea, sometimes oblong 
and diseased ; cal^-x-limb persistent. 

Vae. 1. leaves narrowly oblong-lanceolate. Coffea alpestris, Wt. Ic. t. 1040. 

Var. 2. leaves obovato. Coffea Grumelioides, Wf. Ic. t. 1041. 

tt Tube {or tube and limb in W. campaniflora) of corolla longer than the 

17. W. campaniflora, HooJc. f. ; leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate 
acuminate above glabrous or scaberulous beneath pubescent or glabrate, nerves 
12-16 pair, cymes sessile or deflexed in bud hirsute, flowers sessile and pedi- 
celled, calyx hirsute teeth ovate-lanceolate, corolla puberulous, tube short, limb 
campanulate, lobes short ovate acute. Stylocoryne Webera, IFall. Cat. 8401 K. 

Chittaoong, Bruce ; Seetakoond, J. D. H. S; T. T. ; Burkul, C. B. Clarke. 

A large bush or small tree ; branches rather slender, glabrous, except the young 
shoots. Leaves 4-12 by 2-4 in., nearly black when dry, membranous, usually shining 
above, beneath hispidly pubescent or puberulous or glabrate, nerves slender; petiole 
\-% in., hispid or glabrate ; stipules triangular, cuspidate. Cymes at first sharply 
decurved, at length horizontal or suberect, 1-3 in. long, lower branches spreading; 
bracts persistent, lanceolate, lower stipuliform ; flowers | in. long, when pedicelled 
ebracteolate at the base ; buds with a very short tube and large fusiform acute limb. 
Calyx-teeth longer than the ovary. Corolla-limb |-§ in. diam., throat glabrous, tube 
villous within. Anthers long, sessile. Style short, hairy; stigma very long, fusi- 
form, curved, grooved. Ovules solitary in each cell. — A very remarkable species ; the 
corolla is quite unlike that of any other. A Malacca plant in young fruit of Griffith's 
(Kew Distrib. 2795) may be it, as also a Mergui one of Griffith's in Wight's Her- 
barium, also in fruit onl3^ 

18. W, canarica, Hook. f. ; glabrous, leaves elliptic or oblanceolate 
acuminate glabrous on both surfaces, nerves about 15 pair, cymes small sessile 
few-fld. puberuloits, branches very stout, flowers shortly pedicelled ebractfeolate 
at the base, calyx obconic obscurely toothed, corolla-tube cylindric about twice 
as long as the linear lobes, style pubescent. ? Pavetta canarica, Bedd. Fl. Sylv., 
For. Man. 134/8. 

South Canaha ; on the Ghats, BeddoTne. CbcHiN, Wight. 

Branches stout. Leaves 6-8 by 2-2^ in., dark green when dry, membranous; 
petiole ^-^ in. Bracts short, triangular. Buds 1 in., cylindric, obtuse ; corolla lobes 
linear, half the length of the tube or more, throat glabrous, tube villous within. 
^w^A^rs sessile, ^^y^e pubescent; stigma very long, narrowly fusiform. Ovules one 
in each cell, on large placentas. —Doubtfully identified with Beddome's insufficient 

19. W. T nilag'irlca, Hooh.f.) young branches pubescent, leaves obovate- 
lanceolate subcaudate-acumiuate pubescent beneath, nerves 12-15 pair, cymes 

Wehera.] Lxxv. rcbiacej;. (J. D. Hooker.) 107 

small sessile few-flowered pubescent, flowers shortly pedicelled ebracteolatc at 
the base, calyx obconic, teeth short broad, corolla-tube cylindric much longer 
than the short lobes, style glabrous, stigma yeiy slender. ? Pavetta nilagirica, 
Bedd. FL Sylv., For. Man. 134/8. 

NiLGHERRY Mts. ; Sispara Ghat and Peria Peak, Wynaad, Beddome, G. Thomson. 

Branches stout. Leaves 4-9 by 1^-2^ in., greenish when dry, glabrous aboTe ; 
petiole ^ in., stout; stipules shortly triangular. Cymes 1 in., and buds similar to 
those of W. canarica, but the branches more pubescent, and the calyx-teeth more 
prominent. Corolla (seen in bud only) more resembling a Pavetta. than a Wcbera, as 
do the very slender styles with the stigma not thickened or fusiform at all, and the 
sessile anthers ; but the flowers are 5-merous. It is probably a 5-merous Pavetta, 
and possibly a form of the protean P. indica. 

20. W. Kelferi, Hook. f. ; branches slender glabrous, leaves elliptic-lan- 
ceolate or oblanceolate caudate-acuminate membranous glabrous, nerves 10 pah', 
peduncle long slender glabrate branches pubescent, flowers pedicelled ebracteo- 
late at the base, calyx-teeth subulate shorter than the tube, coroUa pubertdous, 
tube slender much longer than the short broad lobes. Ixora Ilelferi, Kurz in 
Journ. As. Soe. 1872, ii. 31G ; For. Fl. ii. 17. 

Tenasserim, Heifer. 

Leaves 5-8 by 1^2 in., blackish when dry, narrowed into the short petiole; sti- 
pules ovate, acuminate, glabrous. Pedioncle 4-6 in., inclined or drooping; cyme 
brachiate, branches slender ; bracts linear-subulate, or the lower pair leafy. Flowers 
pedicelled. Calyx-teeth subulate. Corolla-tube § in. ; lobes broadly oblong, \ the 
length of the tube ; throat glabrous. Style fusiform, slender ; stigma shortly exserted, 
slender, fusiform. Ovules 1 in each cell. 

43. BYRSOPKYXiZiUXa, Hook. f. 

Glabrous shrubs or small trees ; branches robust, terete. Leaves veiy coria- 
ceous ; stipides large, deciduous. Floioei-s large, dioecious, white or pink, in 
terminal few-fld. corymbs or fascicles ; bracteoles small, scale-like. Calyx-tube 
{of $ ) hemispheric ; limb short, cupular, persistent. Corolla coriaceous, tube 
long, throat campanulate, mouth contracted, villous ; lobes oblong, obtuse, 
twisted in bud. Stamens 4-6, on the mouth of the corolla ; anthers sessile, 
linear-oblong, included. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, stigma spindle-shaped 
■or stigmas -2 acute cohering; ovules numerous, immersed in fleshy placentas 
-adnate to the septum. Berries ovoid or globose, 2-ceUed, many-seeded. Seeds 
■oblong, flattened, imbricate in 2 series, immersed in pulp. — Distkib. 2 Indian 

1. B. ellipticuxu, Hook.f. in Gen. Pl.W. 83; leaves elliptic or elliptic- 
obovate cuspidate, flowers 4-6-merous, stigma 2-lobed. Cofl'ea ? elliptica and 
Stylocoryne elliptica, Thw. Emim. 154 and 421 ; Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 9G. 

Ceylon, at no great elevation, Thtvaites. 

A small tree, dark brown when dry. Leaves 4-7 by 2-3 in., sometimes obovato ; 
petiole very stout, ^-1 in. ; stipules convolute, oblong, acute. Peduncles 1-3, ^| in. 
Calyx small, truncate. Corolla white; tube slender, 3-1 in. ; lobes ^ in. Berries 1 
in. diam., globose, aboiit 10-seeded. 

2. B. tetrandrum, Hook.f. in Gen. PL ii. 83 ; leaves obovate or elliptic- 
oblong, tip rounded, flowers 4-merous, stigma entire. Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 326. 
"Gardenia tetrandra, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 20. 

Tbavai?core Mts., alt. 5000 ft. ; Athraymallay, Captain Davidson. 

A shrub or small tree, dark brown when dry. Leaves 3-5 by l|-2 in., shining 

108 Lxxv. Rur.iACEj:. (J. D. Hooker.) \_Brachytome, 

above ; petiole very stout, ^-1 in. ; stipules some triangular-lauceolate acuminate, 
others complicate broadly oblong, subacute. Peduncles 1-3, 5— |- in. Calyx small, 
truncate. Corolla white tinged with rose ; tube 1 in. ; lobes ^ in. Berry about | in. 

44. BRACKVTOZMEX:, ^oo7^./. 

A glabrous shrub or small tree ; branches slender, terete. Leaves petioled, 
membranous, caudate-acuminate ; stipules triangular, acuminate, persistent. 
Flowers polygamo-dicecious, white, small, in slender panicles. Cymes from the 
axil of an undeveloped leaf (hence leaf-opposed) ; bracts minute. Calyx-tube 
oblong ; limb cupular, 5-toothed, persistent. Corolla long or funnel-shaped ; 
tube (in fl. ^ shorter) within and throat glabrous j lobes 5, short, twisted in 
bud. Stamens 5, inserted on the corolla-throat ; anthers subsessile, included, 
linear-oblong, imperfect in fl. $ . Dish in $ small, in $ cupular. Ovary 2- 
celled ; style filiform (short in ^ ), stigmas 2, shortly oblong obtuse grooved ;, 
ovules very numerous, superficial on peltate tumid placentas. Beii'ies small^ 
ellipstnd, 2-celled, many-seeded. Seeds crowded, cuneate, compressed, testa 
thin reticulate, albumen fleshy ; embryo small, sub-cylindric. — Perhaps better 
united with Randia, but the habit and flowers are peculiar, and the seeds have 
a reticulated testa. 

1. B. VTallichli, Hook. f. in Ic. PL t. 1088; Kurz For. FL ii. 61. 
Rlibiacea, WalL Cat. 8464, 8466. 

KHA.SIA Mts., alt., 3-4000 ft., De Silva, Griffith (KewDistrib. 2787), &c.— Distrib. 
Ava; Birma, alt. 5500 ft. (Chiffith). 

Pale brown when dry. Leaves 5-9 by 1-2 in., oblong or obovate-lanceolate, almost 
caudate-acuminate ; nerves slender ; petiole ^ in. Cymes short, irregularly branched, 
^-2 in. diam., lax-flowered. Corolla ^ in. long. Berry ^ in. long, crowned with the 
calyx-limb. — Griffith's specimens are marked Darjeeling, but as no other collector has- 
found it in Sikkiin, I suspect some error. 


A subscandent glabrous shrub ; branchlets soft compressed and inflorescence 
hairy. Leaves bifarious, obliquely auricled ; stipules interpetiolar, triangular, 
deciduous. Corymbs appearing supra-axillary (from the suppression of the leaves 
at the flowering nodes) ; peduncles 3-chotomous ; bracts small, triangular, and 
"bracteoles persistent. Flotvers small, white, sessile, polygamo-dicecious. Calyx- 
tube turbinate ; limb cylindric or cupular, 6-6-toothed, deciduous. Corolla 
salver-shaped, tube short, throat with reflexed hairs ; lobes 5-C, longer than the 
tube, reflexed, twisted in bud. Stamens 5-6, subsessile on the corolla-mouth ; 
anthess narrow, acute (recurved in the male), cells septate. Disk tubular. 
Ovary 2-celled ; style stout, branches 2-lanceolate ribbed : ovules many. Berries 
globose, 2-celled, very many-seeded. Seeds minute, crowded, cuneate, testa 

1. A. auriculata, Hook. f. in Gen. PL ii. 87; Webera auriculata. Wall, 
in JRoxb. FL Lnd. ed. Carey ^' WalL ii. 537. Stylocoryne auriculata, WalL Cat. 
8402. Cupia auriculata, DC. Prodr. iv. 394. Pseudixora? amiculata, Miq. Fl. 
lnd. Bat. ii. 210. Psychotria ? WalL Cat. 8338. 

SiXGAPOEK, Penanq, and Malacca, Porter, Wallich, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 903» 
904, 936).— Distrib. Borneo. 

Branches stout, and leaves dark brown when dry. Leaves 4-9 by 2^-4 in., coria- 
ceous, elhptic or elliptic-oblong, shining above; nerves slender; stipules \ in. Cymes 
corymbose, 4-8 in. diam,, very many-flowered ; stout peduncle and branches com- 

Eandla.^ lxxv. eubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 109 

pressed ; leaf at the node very small. Flowers subsessile. Cali/x ^ in. long. Corolla 
% in. diam. Berries size of a ,pea. — The inflorescence is that of Randia densijloro, to 
which genus this might be reduced. 

46. RANDZA, Linn. 

Shrubs or trees, unarmed or spinous. Leaves opposite or with one often ar- 
rested ; stipules short, intra-peljiolar, free or connate. Flotcers in axillary or 
leaf-opposed cymes on solitary or ifascicled or coi^mbose, rarely terminal, 
white or yellowish. Cahjf-tube various ; limb often tubular ; lobes short, long 
or leafy. Corolla funnel- salver- or bell-shaped, tube long or sliort, throat 
glabrous or hairy ; lobes 5, rarely more, short or long, twisted in bud. Stamens 
6y anthers subsessile, narrow. Disk annular or cushion-shaped. Ouan/ 2- 
rarely 3-4-celled ; style short or slender, stigma usually fusiform, entire or 2- 
fid ; ovules usually numerous, sunk in placentas attached to the septum. Ser- 
ries globose, ellipsoid or ovoid, 2-celled, many-seeded. Seeds often immersed in 
pulp, angled, testa thin, albumen horny ; cotyledons orbicular. — Distrib. Species 
about 90, all topical. 

Sect. I. Eurandia. Erect unarmed or spinous shrubs. Flmcers small or 
moderate-sized, solitary or few and fascicled. Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, 
glabrous or nearly so. JBerry small. Albumen uniform. 

1. It. tetrasperma, Roxh. Fl. IndA. 709 (Gardenia); branches spines- 
cent, leaves elliptic or obovate glabrous, flowers subsolitary, calyx-tube terete 
hardly produced above the ovary, corollar-tube very short, berry globose 4-seeded. 
Brand. For. Fl. 272. Gardenia densa, WaU. in Roxh. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey Sf Wall. 
ii. 659. G. teti-asperma and densa, DC. Prodr. iv. 381, 383. G. longispina, 
WaU. Cat. 8277 J), partly. G. sp., Wall. Cat. 8276, 8278, 8280, 8286. 

Salt Eange and Subtropicai, Himalaya, from Kashmir eastwards, ascending to 
4-6000 ft. in Kumaon and to 7000 ft. in Sikkim and Bhotan. Assam. Silhet. 

An erect rigid bush, 6 ft. ; branches woody ; bark rough. Leaves towards the tips 
of the branchlets, |-2 in., pale brown when dry, narrowed into the short petiole ; 
stipules small, triangular-subulate. Flowers sessile, greenish-white, fragrant, \ in. 
diam. Calyx-teeth subnlhte. Corolla-tube I in. long; lohee oblong. Anthers exsevted, 
tip suVulatQ. Stigma spindle-shaped. JBerry \ in. diam. 

2. R. fasciculata, DC. Prodr. iv. 386 ; spines axillary, leaves ovate elliptic 
or lanceolate acute glabrous or slightly hairy, flowers fascicled, calyx-tube terete 
produced above the ovary, corolla-tube long slender, beiTy globose many-seetled. 
Brand. For. Fl. 273. K. rigida, DC. I. c. R. malabarica. Wall. Cat. 8255 A. B. D. 
Gardenia fasciculata, Roxh. Hort. Bei\g. 16. G. rigida and parviflora, WaU. Cat. 
8257 A. B., 8266. Posoqueria fasciculata, Ro.xh. Fl. Ind. i. 717. P. rigida, 
WaU. in Roxh. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 670. Webera fasciculata, Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 49. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8283. 

Tropical Himalaya, from Nipal to Bhotan, ascending to 4000 ft. Khasia ]VIts., 
Assam, Silhet and Tenasseeim, Wallich, &c. 

A spreading shrub ; branches glabrous, hairy or tomentose ; bark smoothish. 
Leaves 1-5 by ^1^ in., pale when dry, base rounded or narrowed; petiole short; 
stipules narrowly lanceolate. Calyx-limb produced after flowering, cylindric, circum- 
sciss, glabrous or pubescent, teeth linear. Corolla white (yellow in Roxburgh's 
drawing), fragi-ant ; tube ^-\\ in.; limb f-1^ in. diam. ; lobes oblong, .apiculate. 
S.tigma large, fusiform, shortly exserted. Berry purple, size of a pea ; cells about 6- 

Sect. II. Ceriscus. Erect unarmed or spinous shrubs. Flaivcrs small or 
moderate-sized, solitary or few and fascicled. Calyx-lobes broad, obtuse. Corolla 

110 Lxxv. RUBIACEJ3. (J D. Hooker.) [Bandia. 

campanulate, tube usually short, lobes broad reflexed. Serry large, many-seededj 
crowned with the calyx-limb. 

3. R. uligrinosa, DC. Pt-odr. iv. 886 ; glabrous, spines short straight or 
0, leaves obovate or oblong obtuse, flowers solitary white, calyx-tube terete, 
coroUa glabrous externally. W. ^- A. Prodr. 398 ; Wight Ic. t. 397 ; Dalz. 8r 
Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 119 ; Brand. For. Fl. 273 j Kuvz For. Fl. ii. 44 ; Clarke in 
Journ. Linn. Sac. Bot. xvii. 161. Gardenia uliginosa, lietz Obs. ii. 14; Boxb. 
Cor. PI. t. 135 ; Wall. Cat. 8295. ? G. pomifera, Wall. Cat. 8296 (an unarmed 
specimen). Posoqueria uliginosa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 712. 

Eastern, Central, and Southern India, not common northwards. Sikkim, J. B. H. ; 
Assam, Hamilton. — Distrib. Ava (Gr. pomifera, Wall.). 

A small, usually very rigid tree, -with thick woody 4-angled branches, and leaves 
(except on young shoots) at the ends of the branchlets. Leaves 2-8 by 1-4 in., pale 
when dry, narrowed into the short slender petiole ; stipules triangular. Flowers 
dimorphic, either large and sessile, or small and peduncled. Calyx-tube \\ in, ; lobes 
rouilded. Corolla of the large form 1 to nearly 2 in. diam. ; lobes rounded ; tube with 
a ring of hairf within ; of the small form with a very short tube glabrous within.. 
Stigma fusiform, 2-lobed in the sessile-flowered, entire in the peduncled Berry 2 in. 
long, yellow, ellipsoid in the sessile-flowered, smaller in the peduncled-flowered. Heeds 
compressed, smooth. — Fruit sold in the markets, eatable. 

4. B>. dumetorum, Lanik. Lll. t. 156, f. 4; DC. Prodr. iv. 385; spines 
stout straight, leaves obovate glabrous or pubescent, flowers solitary, calyx-tube 
terete strigose, corolla hairy externally, berry many-seeded. W. 8f A. Pi-odr, 
397; Wight Lc. t. 580; Dak. ^^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 119; Bedd. Fl. Sylv., Anal. 
Gen. t. xvi. f. 1 ; Brand. For. Fl. 273. R. nutans, longispina and floribunda,. 
DC. ^ W.8f A.: Dalz. Sf Gibs. I. c. ; Kurz For. Fl. 45; Wight Ic. t. 581,. 
682, 583. R. Rottleri, W. ^ A. I. c. R. stipulosa, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 
228. R. spinosa, Blume Bijd. 981. R. malabarica, Wall. Cat. 8255 e. ? R. 
tomentosa, W. Sf A. Prodr. 398 ; Wall. Cat. 8264 A. Gardenia nutans, Bo.vb. 
Hort. Beng. 15 ; Wall. Cat. 8290. G. spinosa, Linn. jil. G. longispina and 
floribunda, Roxb. and others. G. dumetorum, M<'tz. ; Roxb. Cor. PI. t. 136 ; 
Wall. Cat. 8259. G. stipularis, Rottl. Sr Willd. ; DC. I. c. 383. G. glabra and 
G. propinqua, Br. in WaU. Cat. 8258, 8260. G. latifolia, Schlecht in Herb. 
Hohen. No. 861. Posoqueria dumetorum, P. nutans, P. longispina, and P. flori- 
bunda, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 713 to 719. Ceriscus malabaricusr, Gaertn. FinjLct. i. t ^8 

SuBTEOPicAL Himalaya from Jamu eastwards, ascending to 4000 ft. in Sikkim; and 
thence southwards to Chittagong, Pegu, Martaban. the Western Peninsuia, and 
Ceylon (not recorded from Assam, the Khasia Mts., Silhet, or the Eastern Peninsula). 
— Distrib. Java, Sumatra, S. China, E. trop. Africa. 

A sraall wee or rigid shrub ; spines horizontal, often long and strong. Leaves 1-2 
in., glabrous or harshly or softly pubescent on one or both surfaces, obtuse or sub- 
acute, narrowed into the short petiole ; stipules ovate, acuminate. Flowers rarely 2-3 
on a peduncle, subsessile, greenish yellow or white. Calyx strigose.; teeth very vari- 
able, sometimes spathulate. Corolla ^-| in. diam. ; lobes oval or oblong. Berry 
globose or ovoid, f-1^ in. long, glabrous or pubescent, smooth or obscurely ribbed, 
yellow, pericai'p thick. Seeds compressed, imbedded in pulp. — Wight and Arnott's 
R. tomentosa, of which very imperfect fruiting specimens only are known, is either a. 
form with leaves softly tomentose beneath, and a globose slightly ribbed peduncled 
fruit, or a different species. 

5. R. tomentosa, Blume in DC. Prodr. iv. 379 (Gardenia) ; spines very 
long, shoots and leaves beneath densely velvetty, leaves obovate or orbicular 
subacute pubescent above, calyx-tube ribbed and corolla velvetty, beny many- 
seeded. Gardenia tomentosa, Wall. Cat. 8264 B. G. dasycarpa, Kurz in Journ. 
As. Soc. 1872, ii. 412. 

Mandia.} Lxxv. kudiacf.^. (J. D. Hooker.) Ill 

Tenassekim, Martaban, and Pegu, Wallick, &c. ; Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2823). — 
DiSTRiB. Java. 

A large shrub ; brandies very stout ; spines horizontal, 1-2 in., very stout. Leaves 
brown when dry, 1-2 iu., often subcuneate, coriaceous ; stiputes triangular. Flowers- 
subsolitary, subsessile, 1 in. diam. Calyx-teeth 5-10, linear > erect. CoroUa-lobea 
oblong- obovate, silky within. Stigma globose, 2-lobed. Berry broadly ellipsoid, 
1^1| in. diam., velvetty, ribbed. 

Sect. III. Ozyceros. Climbing or erect, armed (or young shoots un- 
armed) shrubs or trees. Flowers in shortly peduncled cymes. Corolla salver- 
shaped, tube longer or (in R. malaharica) shorter than the limb, glabrous 
externally. Berry small, about 8-seeded, the calyx-limb deciduous. 

6. St. xualabarica, Lamk. Diet. iii. 25 ; erect, glabrous, spines straight 
or 0, leaves elliptic obovate or oblong, cymes short, flowers fascicled, corolla- 
tube shorter than the lobes. Gardenia fragrans, Koen. ; Roxh. Cor. PL t. 137 ; 
Roth Nov. Sjh 150; Wall. Cat. 8267. Posoqueria fragrans, Koen. in Ro.vb. FL 
Ind. i. 717. Stylocoryne Pandaki and S. malabarica, DC. Prodr. iv. 377. 
Griffithia fragrans, W. 8f A. Prodr. 400 ; Wight Ic. t. 310. Canthium parvi- 
florum, Schlecht. in Herb. Hohen. No. 816. Gardenia sp. and Rubiacea, Wall. 
Gii^. 8281, 8287. 

Western Peninsula ; on the hills, &c., from Canara southwards. Ceylon ; not 
uncommon up to 3000 ft,, Worker, &c. 

An erect shrub ; young shoots unarmed, " as is the whole plant when growing in a 
rich soil" (Roxb.). Leaves 1-2^ in., coriaceous, pale when dry; stipules small, trian- 
gular. Cymes subsessile, glabrous or puberulous, few or many-flowered, with connate 
triangular coriaceous bracts at the forks. Calyx-tuhe obconic, teeth minute. Corolla 
^-f in. diam. Stigma fusiform. Berry size of a pea, areole not raised. Seeds rough ; 
albumen ruminated. — Ceylon specimens have more elliptic leaves, looser cymes, 
larger flowers and more acute buds. 

^ 7. R. long-iflora, Lamk. Diet. iii. 2Q ; III. 1. 156, f. 3 ; climbing, glabrous^ 
spines short recurved or 0, leaves ovate elliptic or oblong, stipules broadly tri« 
angular, cymes short, corolla-tube much longer than the lobes. DC. Prodr. iv. 
386. R. scandens, DC. I. c. 387. Posoqueria longiflora, Ro.vb. Fl. Ind. i. 718. 
Griffithia curvata, Kurz in Trimen Journ. Bot. 1875, 325. G. siameusis, Miq, 
Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 158. Canthium recurvum and angidosum, Wall. Cat. 8284,. 
8285. Webera scandens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 698. W. longiflora, bispinosa, and 
siamensis, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 48, 49. Tocoyena scandens, Blume Bijd. 980. 
Gardenia patula, Hoi-sf. in Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 232. Pseud ixora javanica and 
Zollingeriana, Miq. I. c. 210. Stylocoryne bispinosa, Gi-if. Notul. iv. 260. 

Assam, Silhet, and Khasl^ Mts., ascending to 2000 ft. ; common. Chittaqong^ 
and southwards to Mal4.cca and Penano. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. — Distrib^ 
Birma, Malay Islands. 

A large shrub. Leaves 2-8 by 1-3 in., pale or dark when dry, coriaceous, often 
glandular at the nerve-axils beneath. Peduncles short or long, often from alternate 
axils of reduced leaves ; cymes trichotomous ; bracts as in R. malabarica. Calyx 
glabrous or puberulous, limb dilated, lobes triangular. Corolla white, then yellowish ; 
tube \-\^ in. ; lobes \ in. long, oblong. Stigma 2-fid. Berries globose, \-\ in. diam., 
obscurely ribbed ; areole flat or raised. Seeds rugose, imbedded in pulp ; albumen 
ruminate. — A very variable plant, especially in the length of the corolla, but I cannot 
limit the varieties according to the definitions given to the species which I have here 
included under R. longiflora. Wallich's No. 8284 E. from Singapore (Finlayson) has- 
a calyx 1 in. long, with almost filiform lobes half as long as the tube, and quite unlike 
those of any other variety. Others in Herb. Hooker and Bcntham both from Wallich, 
-with the ticket 8284 D. (Penang and Singapore) and 8284 C. (Silhet), but which are 

112 Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Bandia, 

not the plants thus numbered in the Linnsean Society's Herbarium, have very much 
larger flowers, the calyx |-| in. long, with a cylindrie tube above the ovary ^ in. long 
and irregularly cut at the top into 5 triangular teeth ; the corolla-tube 1 in. and lobes 
■| in, long: the same, but with shorter calyces, is in Maingay's Herbarium. 

8. Xt. Griffithii, Hook. f. ; erect, glabrous, spines short straight or 0, 
leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate acuminate, stipules subulate, berries globose. 
Griffithia, sp. 13, 14, Herb. Ind. Or. H.f. 8f T, 

Khasia Mts., alt. 2-4000 ft. ; Mamloo, Griffith (Kew Distrib. No. 2800) ; Nurtiung 
and Nunklow, J: D. H. ^ T. T. 

A small bright green tree ; spines ascending, \ in. Leaves green or pale when dry, 
2-5 by 1-1| in., gradually acuminate, base acute ; petiole ^\ in. Cymes few-flowered, 
subsessile ; bracts as in B. Tualaharica. Flowers not seen. Calyx-tiihe after flowering, 
oirn-shaped ; limb dilated, minutely toothed, deciduous. Berries size of a pea, areo- 
late, black. Seeds few, smooth ; albumen even. — A very distinct species* 

Sect. IV. Gynopachys. Shrubs or trees, erect or scandent, unarmed. 
Leaves in equal paii*s except sometimes those at the flowering nodes. Cymes 
Axillary, leaf-opposed. Calyx4ohes small. Corolla-tuhe rarely exceeding the 
lobes. Berry globose, usually small and soft. 

9. R. densiflora, Benth. Fl. Homjh. 155 ; glabrous, unarmed, branches 
4-angled, leaves elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, cymes leaf-opposed or from leafless 
nodes, bracts persistent, corolla-tube much shorter than the lobes, throat villous, 
berries globose many-seeded. Webera densiflora, W(dl. in Boxh. Fl. Ind. ed. 
Carey 8f Wall. ii. 536. W. oppositiflora, Boxh. Fl. Ind. i. 698 ; Kurz For. Fl. 
ii. 47. Stylocoryne densiflora. Wall. Cat. 8404 excl. A. ; Miq. in Ann. Mus. 
Lugd. Bat. iv. 128, t. 5'A. S. dimorphophylla, Teysm. Sf Binn. PI. Nov. H&rf. 
Bof/or. 4. Cupia densiflora and oppositifolia, DC. Prodr. iv. 394. Gynopachis 
Axilliflora and oblongata, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 221. Urophyllum coriaceum, 
Miq. I. c. Suppl. 542. Ixora Thozetia, F. Muell. Fragm. ii. 132. Psychotria 
sp. Wall. Cat. 8332. Rubiacea, WaU. Cat. 8455, 8456, 8465. 

Assam and Naga hills, Griffith ; Cachak, Kcenan ; Tenasserim, Wallich ; Antda- 
MAN and NicoBAR Islands, Heifer, Kurz ; IVIalacca, Singapobe, and Penang, Wallich^ 
Griffith, Maingay, &c. ; Thavancore, Wight, Bcddome. — Distrib. Malayan Archi- 
pelago, N. Australia, Hongkong. 

A large shrub or small tree, " sometimes epiphytal " (Keenan) ; branches glabrous 
•or puberulous. Leaves dark brown when dry, 4-8 by 1-3 in., coriac-eous, -smooth ; 
petiole \-\ in. ; stipules triangular, acuminate. Cymes sessile or shortly peduncled, 
solitary or opposite from leafless nodes, or solidary and opposite a reduced leaf, or from 
the axil of a reduced leaf and opposite a developed one, branched from the base ; 
branches flattened, divaricate, glabrous, puberulous or pubescent; bracts small, tri- 
angular. Flowers numerous, pedicelled. Calyx' \ in. ; teeth minute or 0. Corolla 
\-\ in. diam.. ; lobes glabrous or silky externally. Stigma slender, exserted. Berry 
size of a pea, areolate ; cells 8- or more-seeded. Seeds rugose ; albumen ruminate. 
— The inflorescence is that of Anomanthodia. 

10. R. G-ardneri, Thiv. Enum. 158 (Griffithia) ; erect, glabrous, un- 
armed, leaves lanceolate acuminate, cymes axiUary, bracts persistent, corolla- 
tube much longer than the lobes, throat pubescent or villous, berries longer than 
broad many-seeded. Griffithia Gardneri, Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 38. llandia 
Gardneri and laurifolia, HooJc.f. in Gen. PI. ii. 88. 

Ceylon; Central Province, alt. 2-4000 ft., Gardner, &c. 

Very closely allied indeed to B. densiflora, and perhaps better considered as tho 
€eylon form of that plant, but the leaves are more strictly lanceolate, the cymes always 
from the axils of fully formed leaves, and the berry is nut globose but evidently, 
though slightly, elongated ; the flowers are quite glabrous, except at the tliroatof the 
corolla, which is less villous than in B. densiflora. 

..Eandia.] lxxv. eubuce^. (J. D. Hooker.) 113 

11. R. Walllchli, Hook. f. ; glabrous, subscandent, unarmed, branches 
robust rough, leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, cymes solitary on the branches 
axillary sessile, bracts caducous, flowers very small glabrous, corolla-tube much 
shorter than the lobes, berries many-seeded. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8445, 8406. 
Griffithia, sp. 11, Herb. Ind. Or. H. f. 8f T. 

Bhotan, Griffith ; Silhet and Khasia Mts., alt. 1-4000 fL., De Silva ; Chittagong, 
J. D. H. 4- T. T.; Pegu, Kurz; Tenasserim, Heifer, &c. — Distbib. Yunan, Java. 

A tree ; branches flexuous (as if twining), very stout, with rough soft red-brown 
bark. Leaves 4-9 by 1^-2| in., brown when dry, smooth, coriaceous, shining above, 
narrowed at the base ; petiole |-l in., stout ; stipules broadly ovate-lanceolate, sheath- 
ing, coriaceous. Cymes from the upper axil of each branch ; branches spreading, 
stout in fruit, ebracteate or with a few caducous triangular bracts. Flowers shortly 
pedicelled. Calyx turbinate, minutely toothed. Corolla \ in. diam. Stigma entire. 
Berry globose, |-| in. diam. Seeds peltate, smooth ; albumen uniform. 

12. R. rug'ulosa, Thw. Enum. 169 (GriflBthia) ; glabrous, climbing, un- 
armed, leaves elliptic obtuse or obtusely acuminate, cymes several on each branch 
leaf-opposed, bracts large subpersistent, corolla-tube much shorter than the lobes, 
mouth pubescent, berries several-seeded. Stylocoryne, sp. Wcdl. Cat. 8400. 

Western Peninsula ; on the Ghats, from the Concan southwards, ascending to 
4000 ft, Heyne, Wight, &c. Ceylon; Ambagamowa, Saffragan and Galle districts, 
not common, Champion, Thwaites. 

A large climbing shrub with stout pendulous branches. Leaves 3-7 by \\-o in., 
sometimes lanceolate, rarely acute, coriaceous ; nerves very strong ; stipules broad, 
coriaceous, Eicute, 2 -glandular at the base within (Thwaites). Cymes with a short 
stout peduncle, glabrous or puberulous; branches very stout, spreading; bracts 
coriaceous, obtuse, often connate in pairs. Flowers pedicelled. Caly.v hemispheric, 
glabrous or puberulous ; teeth very variable, acute or obtuse. Corolla \~ in. diam., 
white ; tube and lobes quite glabrous. Berries size of a pea. Seeds rugose. 

Var. spedosa; flowers 1^ in. diam. Griffithia speciosa, Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. 8, 
.t. 37. — South Canara to Travancore, Beddome. — I see nothing but the size of the 
flower to distinguish this from B. rugulosa. Though stated to be found over so great 
an area, I have seen no specimens. 

13. R. Candolleana, W. ^ A. Prodr. 399 ; erect, unarmed, branches 
very stout, leaves long-petioled obovate or orbicular obtuse glabrous pubescent 
or velvety beneath, cymes subterminal axiUary or from naked nodes, corolla 
silky externally, lobes much longer than the tube, berries several-seeded. K. 
corymbosa, W.SfA.l.c. R. deccanensis, Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. 57, t. 137. 
Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8293. 

Westeen Peninsula ; Nagur Ilills, Mysore, Wight ; Nallay Mallay Hills, near 
Kurnook, Beddome. 

A small tree with naked woody branches and rough bark. Leaves 1-3 in., some- 
times nearly as broad, glabrous above, beneath softly .elvety or glabrous or with 
axillary tufts of hairs, dark brown when dry; petiole ^-1^ in.; stipules broadly 
ovate. Cymes sessile, branches spreading; bracts caducous. Caiyx-tube %]2hT0xxs, 
campanulate; limb produced, much dilated, teeth subulate. Corolla ^ in. diam.; 
lobes broadly oblong, glabrate within. Stigma globose. Berries § in. diata., globose, 
with a small elevated areole ; pericarp thin, crustaceous and shining within. Seeds 
numerous, small, imbedded in pulp, compressed, quite smooth. 

Sect. V. Anisophyllea. Unarmed shrubs or trees with unequal pairs 
of leaves. Cymes axillary, tomentose or silky. Corolla densely silky or tomen- 
tose, tube equalling or exceeding the lobes. Berry large, endocaip -woody, many- 
eceded. (Fruit unknown in R. sikliimensis.) 

114 LXXY. EUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Eandia, 

14. R. anisophylla, Jack in Roxh. Fl. hid. ed. Carey 8f Wall. ii. 661 ; 
softly villous or tomentose, erect, unarmed, leaves large obovate cuspidate pairs 
unequal, cymes axillary villous, corolla silky, lobes equalling the tube, berry 
woody ellipsoid tomentose many-seeded crowned with a tubular calyx-limb» 
Gardenia? anisophylla, Wall. Cat. 8399; DC. Prodr. iv. 381. 

Malacca, Pexancj. and Singapobe, Jack, &c. 

A small tree; branches robust, villous. Leaves 9-15 by 3|^-5 in., pale bro-vm, 
rariiible as to pubescence, narroT^-ed at the base; petiole short; stipules united into 
a villous 2-lipped tube bearded -^nthin. Cymes stoutly peduncled, many-flowered ; 
bracts deciduous. Flowers pedicelled, white. Calyx ovoid, tomentose ; limb tubular, 
.silky within; teeth OA'ate-subulate, deciduous. Corolla coriaceous, |-| in. diam. ; 
lobes obiong. Stigma fusiform. Berry 1-1^ in. long; pericarp thin with a woody 
Cixlocavp. Seeds many, compressed, smooth. 

16. Sr. sikkimensiSy Hook. /. ; pubescent, erect, shrubby, unarmed, 
leaves in unequal pairs elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate acuminate slightly pubescent 
above more so beneath, cymes axillary tomentose, coroUa densely siUdly 
tomentose, tube longer than the oblong lobes bearded within below the 

Foot of the SiKKiM Himalaya; on dry hills below Kursiong, alt. 4000 ft., 

A woody shrub ; branches stout, leafy at the tips. Leaves brown when dry, 4-7 
by H-2| in., rather membranous, with scattered hairs above, tomentose especially on 
the nerves beneath; petiole short, tomentose; stipules very broad, acute or cuspidate, 
connate in a glabrous or hairy tube, or free. Cymes sessile ; branches erect, short, 
bracts small, acute. Flowers pedicelled, erect. Calyx pubescent, funnel-shaped; 
limb dilated, teeth subulate. Corolla 1 in. diam. ; tube nearly 1 in. long, very silky ; 
lobes not half as long, obtuse, glaorous within ; mouth glabrous. Stigma clavate, 2- 
lobed. Oyary 2-celled, many-ovuled; ovules apparently not sunk in the placenta. — 
Specimens not numerous or good. 

Sect. VI. Gardenloldes. An unarmed tree. Flowers cjmo^Q. Calyx^ 
lobes small. Corolla-tube very short ; limb inflated, very l^^rge, 5-lobed. Berry^ 
large, globose, with a woody rind, many-seeded. 

IG, 3EI. ezaltata, Griff. Notul. iv. 262 ; glabrous, erect, unarmed, leaves 
elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate acute or subacute, cymes axillary or leaf-opposed 
pubescent, corolla very large, tube short, limb inflated, berry large woody many- 
seeded. Kurz For. Fl. ii. 46. Gardenia pulcherrima, Kurz in Jowrn. As. Soc» 
1872, ii. 312 ; 1877, ii. 155; For. Fl. ii. 43. 

Tkxasserlai; Mergui, in Mangrove Swamps, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2826). Anda» 
MAN Islands, Kurz. 

A tree, 60 ft. ; trunk slender ; branches with pale bark, youngest compressed and 
pubescent. Leaves 4-7 by 2-85, greenish when dry, coriaceous; petiole short; sti- 
pules broadly triangular. Cymes subsessile; branches stout, short, few-flowered. 
Calyx tomentose ; teeth triangular. Corolla white, sweet-scented, 3 in. long ; limb 
campanulate, 1^ in. across the broad ovate lobes ; throat naked. Anthers slender, in- 
cluded. Style filiform; stigma included, clavate, 2-lobed. JBerry glohoae, 1-1^ in. 
diam. ; pericarp smooth, very woody. Seeds imbedded in pulp, ^ in. across, much 
compressed, obtusely angled, smooth or wrinkled.— Griffith, and Kurz (copying him), 
describes the leaves as unequal subrepand and pubescent at the nerve-axils beneath. 

Sect. VII. Eudinla. Unarmed erect i,hrubs. Leaves in equal pairs. 
Floicers solitary or fascicled, axillary or terminal. Calyx-lobes very long. Corolla 
large, funnel-shaped. 

17. R, macrophylla, JBr. in Wall. Cat. 8304 (Rothmannia) ; erect, 
unarmed, I ranches and leaves beneath hispid or glabrate, leaves subsessile nar- 

Bandia.'] Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 115 

rowly elliptic-oblong or oblanceolate, flowers 1-2 subterminal, corolla 6 in. 

Malacca, Pknang, and Sinqaporb, WalHch, Griffith, &c. 

A shrub, 3-4 ft. high ; branches few, 2-leaved at the top (Griffith). Leaves 10-12 
by 2-3 in., acuminate, coriaceous, glossy above with pubescent midrib, more or less 
hispidly pubescent in the midrib and strong arched nerves beneath, base acute or ob- 
tuse ; .petiole very short, stout, hispid; stipules long-subulate from a broad triangular 
base. Flowers subsessile, fragrant. Calyx-tube oblong ; lobes 1 in., linear, erect, 
hairy. Corolla white with purple spots in lines on the throat, 4 in. across the short 
reflexed lobes. Anthers very long. Stigma clavate, notched. 

18. R. hygrophyla, Kurz in Joui-n. As. Sac. ii. 321 ; For. Fl. ii. 44 
(Gardenia) ; glabrous, shrubby, erect, unarmed, leaves small shortly petioled 
elliptic obovate or lanceolate subacute, flowers solitary subsessile axillary or in 
the forks of the branches, coroHa 1 in. glabrous. 

Pegu ; frequent in swampy forests, Kurz. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-3 ft,, often spreading. Leaves 2-3 in., black when dry, 
very variable in breadth, quite glabrous, base acute ; petiole ^ in. ; stipules connate, 
glabrous or hairy. Calyx-tube short, pubescent ; lobes much longer than the tubei 
linear-subulate, ciliate. Corolla rather broadly funnel-shaped ; lobes unequal, about 
^ in. long. Ovary completely 2-celled. 

47. GARDBNZA, Linn. 

Shrubs or trees, armed or not. Leaves opposite, rarely 3-nately whorled ; 
stipules iiitrapetiolar, often connate. Flowers often very large, terminal or 
axillary, solitary fascicled or rarely cymose, often dimorphic and polygamous. 
Calya.-tube various ; limb tubular or dilated, variously cleft or lobed. Corolla 
very various, lobes 5-12, tvdsted in bud. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes ; 
anthers sessile or subsessile, linear, included, inserted in the tube. Ovm^ 1- 
celled; style stout, stigma clavate fusiform or 2-cleft; ovules numerous, 
2-seriate on the 2-6 parietal placentas. Fruit often large, ovoid ellipsoid or 
globose, -coriaceous, or fleshy with a woody endocarp polished within which 
sometimes splits .along the placental sutures. Seeds very many, imbedded in 
the placenta, compressed ; testa thin ; embryo small, in horny albumen. — Dis- 
TRiB. Species about 60, tropical and subtropical. 

G. FLORIDA, L. ; Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 703, &c. ; Wall. Cat. 8268, is often cultivated in 
Indian gardens ; it is an unarmed shrub, native of Japan and China, with small ovate 
acute leaves, white very strongly scented axillary flowers 1 in. diam. (often double),, 
and an ellipsoid 5-ribbed fruit crowned by subulate calyx-teeth. The orange pulp of 
the fruit is used as a dye. 

Sect. I. Eugrardenia. Unarmed shrubs. Flqwers large, axillary, soli- 
tary. Corolla salver-shaped ; tube long, slender ; lobes 4-9. 

* Calyx-limb tubular, ^^ in. ; teeth 5-9, ovate-lanceolate or linear or short. 

1. G-. laolda, Boxb. Hort. Beng. 15 j Fl. Lnd. i. 707 ; glabrous, leaves 
ehort-petioled elliptic obtuse or subacute shining many-nerved, flowers solitary 
axillary, calyx-teeth elongate, fruit ellipsoid or globose, placentas 2. DC. Prodr. 
iv. 381 ; W.^A. Ptodr. 395; Wt. Ic. t. 675; Ddz. 8; Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 120; 
Bedd. Fl. Sylv. Anal. Om. xv. f. 6; Brand. For. Fl. 271 ; Wall. Cat. 8270. 
G. resinifera, Both Nov. Sp. 160 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 42. 

Wbstbrn Pekinsxtla, common from the Concan southwards. CHrrrAOONo, Box- 
burgh, &c. BiRMA, Brandis. 

116 Lxxv. RDBiACKiE. (J. D. Hooker.) IGardema. 

A small deciduous tree, shoots resinous. Leaves 3-10 by 2-5 in., green when dry, 
base narrowed ; nerves 20-30 pair, with often bearded axils ; stipules large, broadly 
ovate, connate. Flowers peduncled, fragrant, white turning yellow. Calt/x variable, 
tube oblong; limb tubular; lobes narrow lanceolate, persistent, Corolla-tube 1^2 
in., glabrous or puberulous; Jimb 1^-3 in. diam., lobes 5 oblong. Fruit smooth; 
pericarp thick, woody (endocarp 2-valved, Roxburgh). 

2. G-. grummifera, Linn.f. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 381 ; glabrous, leaves sessile 
or subsessile obovate acute or obtuse shining, calyx-teeth short ovate acute, 
fruit ellipsoid or oblong, placentas 4-5. Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 709 ; W,8f A. Prodr. 
395 ; Ddz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 270, e.vcl. st/n. ; Thunb. diss. Gard. t. 2, f. 3. G. 
arborea, Roxb. I. c. 708. G. inermis, Bietr, Vollst. Lex. iv. 285. Eubiacea, 
Wall. Cat. 8294 A. 

Western Peninsula, from the Satpura range southwards, Heyne, &c. 

A woody bush ; buds resinous. Leaves 1^ -2| in., coriaceous, base obtuse acute or 
cordate, sometimes puberulous beneath ; nerves 15-20 pair ; stipules connate, truncate 
or mucronate. Flowers subsessile, white. Calyx-limb shortly tubular, teeth stout 
subulate. Corolla-tube 1-2 in., glabrous or pubescent; limb 1-3 in. diam., lobes 5 
oblong obtuse. Fruit 1-1^ in., with a stout beak, smooth; pericarp thin, woody 
(endocarp 4-5-valved, Roxburgh). — Roxburgh's name G. arborea is attached to 
Heyne's specimen in Herb. "Wallich (Rubiacea 8294). 

3. Gr, obtusifolia, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 15; glabrous, leaves sessile obo- 
vate-oblong tip rounded, nerves rather distant, calyx-teeth, very short obtuse, 
fruit subglobose warted, placentas 4. Kurz For. Fl. ii. 43. G. suavis, Wall. 
Cat. 8274. Eubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8294 B. 

Pegtt and Tenassbeim, Roxburgh, &c., Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2819). 

A small deciduous tree; shoots resinous. Leaves 2^-4 in., greenish when dry, 
rough to the touch on both surfaces ; nerves 12-15 pair; stipules connate, sheathing. 
Flowers solitary, shortly pedicelled, white turning yellow. CaJyx \ in., tube puberu- 
lous, teeth very short. Corolla-tube l|-2 in., limb 2-3| in. diam. ; lobes 5, linear- 
oblong, obtuse. Fruit as large as a pigeon's egg, beaked with the stout short calyx- 
tube ; pericarp fleshy, warted with lenticels ; endocarp thin, shining, crustaceous. 

4. Gr. latifolia, Ait. Hort. Keiv, i. 294 ; branches very stout, leaves oppo- 
site or 3-nate subsessile large broadly elliptic or orbicular obtuse glabrous or 
pubescent beneath, calyx-teeth subulate-lanceolate unequal pubescent, fruit 
globose smooth, placentas 4-5. Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 706; Cor. PI. t. 134; DC. 
Prodr. iv. 380 ; W. Sf A. Prodr. 395 ; Wt. Ic. t. 759 ; Dalz. 8f Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 
120 ; Brand. For. Fl. 271 ; Wall. Cat. 8^75 ; Gaet-tn. Fruct. i. t. 193. 

Dry hilly districts of "Western, Centrai, and South-western India, from the N. 
W. HiMAiATA, in Garwhal only, ascending to 3000 ft., southwards to Behab and W. 
Bengal ; absent to the eastward of tnose limits. 

A small tree with woody resinous branchlets as thick as the little finger. Leaves 
greenish, 4-8 in. long and sometimes almost as broad; nerves about 12 pair, axils 
glandular-hairy beneath; stipules large, tumid, connate, often split or toothed. 
Flowers solitary or 2-nate, subsessile, white changing to yellow, fragrant. Calyx-limb 
campanulate; segments 5-9, unequal, recurved. Corolla-tube 2-3 in., pubescent or 
hirsute; limb 2-4| in. diam.; lobes 5-9, obovate, oblique. Fruit 1-2 in. diam., 
beaked by the calyx-limb, greenish, speckled; endocarp woody, shining within.— 
Roxburgh's drawing represents the calyx-teeth as very small, short and obtuse, and 
his description (Fl. Ind. 1. c.) says calyx small, irregularly divided ; my specimens in 
Herb. "Wallich have teeth long and subulate. (See G. enneandra at end of genus ) 

** Calyx-limb tubular obconic w caynpamdate, 1-3 in., truncate toothed or 
sinuate, entire or split on one or both sides. 

Gardenia.] Lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 117 

5. G-. coronaria, ITa?}!. in Syme's Embassy to Ava, iii. 307, t. 22 ; leaves 
siibsessile obovate shortly acuminate above shining glabrous or pubescent be- 
neath, caljx-limb terete |-1 in. often spathaceous, corolla 5-lobed, tube 2-3 in., 
fruit ellipsoid 6-ribbed, placentas 2. Kurz For. Fl. ii. 43 ; Wall. Cat. 8273. 
G. costata, Roxh. Hort. Beng. 15; Fl. Ind. i. 704; DC. Prodr. iv. 380; Wall. 
Cat. 8272. ? G. carinata, Griff. Notul. iv. 261 ; Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 474, f. 3. 

Chittagong, Roxburgh, &c. ; Kangoon, M'Clelland; Martaban, at MoulmeiD, 
Falconer, &c. 

A deciduous tree 25-30 ft.; branches stout, youngest hairy; buds resinous. 
Leaves greenish when dry, 6-12 by 3-5 in., shining on both surfaces ; nerves about 20 
pair ; stipules ^ in., connate, lanceolate. Flowers subsessile, terminal, "white changing 
to yellow, fragrant. Caly.v-liwh cylindric, shining, thin ; mouth obscurely lobed, 5- 
angledj <:aducous. Corolla-tube 2-4 in., puberulous; limb 3-4 in. diam., lobes broad 
btuse or acute. Fruit 1 in. long, smooth between the ribs; endocarp thick, woody. 
— In Koxburgh's drawings and Wallich's specimens of G. costata the calyx-limb is 
tubular, rather scarious, and cleft on one side, the mouth oblique. There are no 
fruits on Wallich's specimens. The endocarp is represented in Koxburgh's drawings 
as thin, but described as thick in the "Flora Indica." Wallich's specimens of G, 
coronaria have a thick woody endocarp, and shorter more coriaceous calyx-tube. 

6. Cr. carinata, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey 8f Wall. ii. 560 ; 
Cat'. 8271 ; leaves subsessile obovate shortly acuminate shining above more or 
less pubescent beneath, calyx-limb 5-winged below the truncate mouth, corolla 
6-9-lobed, tube 1 in., fruit ellipsoid 5-ribbed, placentas 2. 

Penang, Porter; Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 837). 

Closely allied to G. coronaria ; differing in the thick wings of the truncate calyx- 
limb, which are sometimes produced quite up to its mouth and elongated into large 
teeth, and are decurrent on the peduncle ; the corolla-tube is only 1 in. in all Wal- 
lich's specimens, though he describes it as "very long." The endocarp of the fruit 
is thin, as in that described under G. coronaria. Leaves in some of Maingay's 
specimens 16 by 7 in. and membranous. 

7. G. tubifera, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey Sf Wall. ii. 562 ; Cat. 
8266; leaves obovate-lanceolate abruptly acuminate glabrous or puberulous on the 
nerves beneath, calyx ^ in. limb elongate obconic terete, mouth truncate, corolla- 
tube many times longer than the calyx very slender, fruit globose, endocarp very 
thick and woody, placentas 5-8. DC, Prodr. iv. 381. G. resinifera, Korth. in 
Ned. Ki-uidk. Arch. ii. 191 ; Kurz in Journ. As. Sac. 1876, ii. 134 (not of Roth). 
G. glutinosa, Teysm. <^' Binnend. in Herb. Lugd. Bat. 

Singapore, Wallich ; Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 838). — Distrib. Sumatra, 
Java, Borneo. 

Subarboreous, young parts resinous. Leaves 5-9 in., shortly petioled, much nar- 
rower at the base, coriaceous ; nerves 12-14 pair; petiole ^1 in.: stipules short, 
sheathing. Flowers subsessile. Calyx f in. long, gradually dilated upwards, terete. 
Corolla-tube \\-Z in., limb 1 in. diam., lobes 6-9 short. Fruit \-\\ in. diam., 
smooth or obscurely ribbed, crowned with the trumpet-like calyx-limb Ij-f in. 
long; endocarp \ in. thick, very hard. Seeds rather large. 

8. G-. speciosa, Hooh. Ic. PI. t. 824 (Randia) ; leaves petioled obovate- 
oblong tip rounded or cuspidate, nerves puberulous beneath, calyx H in. limb 
elongate obconic terete, mouth truncate, corolla-tube many times longer than 
the calyx. 

Singapore, Lobb. 

Leaves 4-6 in. by 2 in., much broader than in G. tubifera, rounder at the tip, more 
abruptly narrowed at the base; nerves 12-14 pair; petiole longer; stipules short, 
sheathing. Calyx-tube longer and broader. Corolla-tube much stouter, Z-Z\ in.; 
limb 6-9-lobed, 4 in. diam. ; lobes narrowly ovate-oblong, obtuse. Fruit unknown. 

118 Lxxv. rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) {^Gardenia, 

9. G*. G-riffitliil, Hook. f. ; leaves subsessile elliptic-o"bovate cuspidate, 
nerves beneath puberulous, calyx-limb 3 in. tubular with a trumpet-shaped 
mouth, corolla-tube little longer, the calyx lobes broad, fruit large globose, peri- 
carp v^ry thick, placentas several. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2821). 

Braivches resinous. Leaves 6-8 by 1^-3 in., coriaceous, much narrowed at the 
base; nerves 10-14 pair; stipules | in., sheathing. jF^owers sessile. Calyx-titbe very 
coriaceous, terete ; mouth oblique, | in. diam., waved and wrinkled. Corolla-tube 2^-4 
in., one quarter or less exserted ; limb 3 in. diam., many- (12-) lobed. Fruit large, 
probably \\ in. diam., with a thick exocarp and woody not very thick endocarp ; pla- 
centas probably 5. — I have seen only a very imperfect fruit. 

Var. Maingayi ; mouth of calyx irregularly cut into triangular coriaceous teeth. 
— Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 841). 

Sect. II. Ceriscus. Shrubs, armed or unarmed. Flowers dimorphic, 
monoecious or dioecious. Calyx-teeth in the $ large, subfoliaceous ; in the ^ 
usually minute. (See Clarke in Journ, Linn. Sac. Bot. xvii. 310.) Corolla small 
(less than 1 in.), cylindric or campanulate. 

10. G-. turg^ida, Roxh. Hort. Beng. 15 ; Fl. Ind. i. 711 ; spines straight 
or 0, leaves elliptic obovate or orbicular obtuse acute or subacute coriaceous 
glabrous pubescent or tomentose beneath, ^ flowers fascicled $ solitary, corolla 
salver-shaped, tube subcylindric, fruit not beaked. DC. Prodr. iv. 382 ; Wt. 
Ic. t. 579 ; Brand. For. FL 270 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 41 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. Anal 
Gen. t. 15, f 6; Wall. Cat. 8269; aarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xvii. 310. 
G. cuneata, Br. in Wall. Cat. 8263. G. Donia, Ha?!!, in Wall Cat. 8292. 

Tropicai. Himalaya, ascending to 4000 ft., from Kumaon to Bhotan ; Oudh, 
Bkhar, Sllhet, Pegxt and the Western Peninsula. — Distrib. Ava, Wallich. 

A small deciduous tree, 25 ft. : branches rigid, robust; bark pale. Leaves 1-4 in., 
narrowed into a short petiole, pale when dry ; stipules triangular, caducous. Calyx 
of (? small, ^ in.; mouth wide, truncate; of ? ^-f in., limb shortly campanulate ; 
teeth oblong or subspathulate, foliaceous. Corolla white, fragrant ; tube slightly 
dilated upwards, ^-\ in. long; limb 1 in. diam. Fruit 1-3 in., ovoid or globose, 
smooth, pericarp thick ; endocarp woody, shining within ; placentas 5 or 6. 

Var. montana, Roxb. Fl. lud. i. 709 (sp.) ; leaves often orbicular densely tomen- 
tose beneath. G. montana, DC. Prodr. iv. 383 ; W. ^ A. Prodr. 396 ; Wt. Ic. t. 577; 
Balz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 120. — Occurs with G. turgida, and is even more common. 

11. Cr. campanulata, Roxh. Hort. Beng 16; Fl. Ind. i. 710; glabrous, 
spines straight, leaves obovate or elliptic-lanceolate membranous, ^ flowers fas- 
cicled, 2 solitary sessile, corolla campanulate, fruit not beaked. Wall. Cat. 
8279 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 383 ; Wt. Ic. t. 578 : Kurz For. FL ii. 40. G. longispina, 
Wall Cat. 8277 D. in part. ? G. Blumeana, DC. Pi'odr. iv. 383. 

Foot of the SiKiQM Himalaya, J. D. H. ; Assam, Silhet, and Chittagong, 
Roxburgh, Griffith, &c. ; Behar, summit of Parus-nath, J. D. H. ; Pegu, Kurz. — 
DiSTBiB. Java? 

A shrub, 15-20 ft. ; shoots puberulous ; spines \-l\ in., often leafy. Leaves l\-Z by 
i-1 \ in., narrowed into the short petiole, midrib slender, nerves faint ; stipules triangular, 
caducous. Calyx of <J ^ in., urn-shaped, mouth truncate dilated ; of V linib campanu- 
late, teeth oblong or subspathulate, foliaceous. Corolla ^ in., white ; lobes short, 
obtuse. Fruit |-1 j in., ellipsoid or subglobose, obscurely 5-ridged ; pericarp very 
thick, endocarp woody, placentas 5. — Wight has figured the calyx as intermediate 
between the J and ? form. G. campanulata, Blume {G. Blumeana, DC), appears from 
the description and an imperfect specimen to be this. 

12. G-. sessiliflora, Wall. Cat. 8291 ; spines straight very strong, leaves 
elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate membranous puberulous on both surfaces or beneath. 

Gardenia.l lxxv. eubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 11^ 

flowers greenish pol3'ganio-monoecious, $ fascicled pedicelled, $ sessile terminal, 
corolla velvety, tube very short and wide, fruit ovoid with a thick beak. Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 40. G. oxycarpa, Br. in Wall. Cat. 8261. 

Pegu and Tenasserm, Wallich, Kurz. — Distuib. Ava. 

A deciduous tree, 15-18 ft. ; branches and spines very stout. Leaves very like 
those of G. campamiiata, base much produced and narrowed. Calyx of ? flask-shaped, 
densely pubescent ; lobes foliaceous, obovate-oblong or orbicular, exceeding thf vel- 
vety corolla. Fruit \\ in. long ; pericarp rough, thick, flushy, with a thin shining 
endocarp and 5 ? placentas. 

13. G-. erythroclada, Kurz in Jdurn. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 311 ; For. Fl. 
ii. 40 ; branches red stout, spines short or 0, leaves connate obovate or suborbi- 
cular pubescent or tomentose, flowers gi'eenish polygamo-dioecious fascicled or 
cymose pedicelled, $ solitary sessile, fruits dimorphic of the c?-herraaph. smaller 
globose, of the $-hermaph. ovoid. 

Pegu; at Rangoon, McClelland. Tenasserim and Biuma, common in fores's, Kurz. 
— DiSTRiB. Ava. 

A small deciduous tree with very stout branches of a curious brick red colour, 
shortly pubescent, or the leaves at length glabrato. Leaves 4-10 in,, often as broad as 
long, rather rough to the touch ; petiole 1-2 in. ; stipules ovate, acute. Flowers 
densely tomentose, pedicels of <? very unequal. Calyx-lohes \ in. in flower, ^ in fruit, 
orbicular or broadly obovate. Fruits, the larger 2 in. long, broadly ovoid, obscurely 
angled ; pericarp \\ in. thick, dense, with a crustaceons shining lining ; sm.aller globose, 
size of a cherry ; placentas I think 2 only. Seeds small, black. 

Sect. III. Rothmannia. Shrubs, unarmed. Floxoers axillary (iu tlie 
Indian species), solitary or fascicled ; calyx-teeth linear. Corolla inflated. 

14. G-. tentaculata, Hook. ; branches slender pubescent, leaves elliptic- 
lanceolate or oblanceolate caudate-acuminate membranous glabrous or puberulous 
beneath, flowers axillary polygamous, calyx-lobes filiform flexuous, corolla cam- 

JMalacca, Griffith, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 2810, 839) ; foot of Mount Ophir, 

A shrub, unarmed. Leaves i-9 by \^~'lh in-, sessile or narrowed into a very short 
petiole, dark green when dry ; stipules ovate, acute, connate. Floioers in fascicles of 
3-6 ; pedicels ^-| in., -narrowly campanulatc ; limb dilated, with 5 spreading filiform 
curving pubescent teeth ^— f in. long. Corolla j in. long, glabrous ; lobes ovate, ob- 
tuse. Fruit -|-f in. long, broadly ellipsoid, crowned -with the long tentacle-like calyx- 
teeth, smooth ; pericarp thin, brittle, polished within ; placentas 2. Seeds many, 


G-. ixoR.TiFOLiA, Br. in Wall. Cat. 8262 ; glabrous, unarmed, branches angled, leaves 
4-7 by 1^-4 in. ovate- or linear-oblong obtuse very coriaceous narrowed to the base, 
nerves 10-12 pair very distant, petiole very short, fruit sessile broadly ovoid shortly 
beaked by the calyx-tube If in. long smooth, pericarp very thick polished within, 
placentas 2, seeds very broad and flat. — Tavoy, WaJliclt. — Pei-haps a Kandia. 

Gr. CALYCULATA, Eoxb. Fl. Lid. \. 704; "arboreous, leaves petioled ovate acuminate 
smooth, flowers terminal solitary sessile, germ involucelled, calycine segments cnsi- 
form, anthers -w-ithin the swelling tube of the o-clefc corolla."' DC. I'rodr. iv. 380 ; 
W. ^- A. Prodr. 396, — Native place uncertain, said to be brought from Hyderabad to 
Madras, where Roxburgh saw it in a garden. " Probably G, latifolia," W. & A. 

Gr. ENNEANDRA, Koen. ; W. S[ A. Prodr. 395 ; this diifers from G. latifoli:/, Ait., in 
the very short obtuse calyx-teeth, and in the thin pericarp of the fruit. Under G. 
latifolia I have stated that Roxburgh's drawing and description of tiiat plant diflfers 
from Aiton's in these points, but without more materials it is impossible to say 
whether this is to be regarded as a specific distinction. 

120 Lxxv. EUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Gardenia. 

G. ciTNEATA, Br. ; Kkts For. Fl. ii. 41 : "a {small glabrous tree, branches silvery, 
spines few solitary or paired 1-2 in., leaves subsessile obovate cuneate obtuse thickly 
coriaceous, flowers 2-3-nate white turning yellow rather small, caljrx puberulous, teeth 
5 linear-lanceolate with a pair of minute ones in each sinus, corolla subrotate ^ in. 
diam., lube as long as calyx, throat bearded, lobes obovate obtuse, fruit globose size 
of a wood-apple smooth." — Ava. 

G. DASTCARPA, KuTz For. Fl. ii. 42 ; "a deciduous tree, spines straight sharp, soft 
parts villous pubescent, leaves 1-2 in. obovate -oblong obtuse or acute coriaceous 
retrorse-pubescent above, villous pubescent beneath, petiole very short, flowers solitary 
sessile on thick wart-like branchlets, fruit globose corticate size of a small apple vel- 
vety crowned with the tubular calyx-limb." — Forests of Upper Tenasserim; Prome, . 
not unfrequent, Ktirz. 

G. PUBESCENS, Roth Nov. Sj). 151 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 383 ; W. <^ A. Prodr. 396 ; the- 
descriptiou is insufficient to refer this to any genus, and, according to W. & A., it is- 
certainly not a Oardema. 

G. cARiNATA, Thw. Eiium. 159 (C. P. 1655 in part); specimens imperfect, leaves 
sessile elliptic tips rounded, fruit ellipsoid obscurtfly 5-ribbed, endocarp rather thick 
woody, placentas 3. — Ceylon, Batticaloa, Gardner. This may be a form of G. co'ro- 
naria, with 3 placentas and obscure ribs. 

G. LATiFOLiA, Thw. Eiium. 421 (C. P. 3617) ; this has the winged calyx-limb of G. 
carinata, but not so strongly, and the fruit is more globose ; it may be a form of 
G. latifolla (the calyx being a very variable character). — Ceylon, near Colombo, W. 

48.* KVPOBAT»RV»I, Blume. 
49. PZSTUNaA, DC. 

Glabrous shrubs ; branches slender, strict, terete. Leaves petioled, narrovred 
at both ends ; stipules triangular or oblong-ovate. Floivers small, in axillary 
spikes, 2-bracteolate, white. Calyx-tube ovoid •, limb minute, 4-toothed, persis- 
tent. Corolla funnel-shaped, throat villous ; lobes 4, spreading, twisted in bud. 
Stamens 4 ; anthers subsessile, linear, connective thickened at the tip. Ovary 
^'often incompletely) 2-celled ; style filiform, branches linear hairy ; ovules 2-8, 
pendulous from the top of each cell. Beii-y small, 2-celled. Seeds imbricate ; 
testa thick, grooved and plaited : cotyledons linear. — Distetb. 4 or 6, Bengal 
and Malay. 

1. P. Roxburg-hii, BC. Prodr. iv. 399; stipules deciduous, spikes 
glabrous elongate, berry subglobose. P. microcarpa, DC. I. o. P. variabilis, 
Hassk. in Flora, 1845, 232. Higginsia microcarpa, Blume Bijd. 988. Spicillaria 
Leschenaultii, A. Rich, in Mem. Hist. Nat. Paris, v. 252. Randia racemosa 
and polysperma, Roxh. HoH. Beng. 15 ; Fl. Ind. i. 525, 527. R. polysperma, 
DC. l. c. 389. Hypobathrum racemosum, Kurz Foi\ Flo?-, ii. 51. Rubiacea, 
Wcdl. Cat. 8302, 8312. 

East Bengal (Suckshmee-poora), Haradton ; Silhet, Wallich ; Chittagong, Rox- 
burgh; "Pegv, M'Clelland; Tenasseeim and the Nicobar Islds., in swamp forests^ 
Kurz, &c. ; Malacca, Griffith. — Distrib. Java, Borneo. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-8 ft. Leaves 2-5 by|-l^ in,, brown when dry, thinly 
coriaceous; petiole y in.; stipules broad, caducous, with an axillary ring of brown 
hairs. SpiJccs sessile or short-peduncled, 1-2 in., erect spreading or recurved. Flowers 
^ \r\. long. Berry glol)Ose or shortly ellipsoid, pedicelled, orange-yellow. — Griffith's 
Malacca specimen has smaller very shining leaves. 

2. P. long'ifolia, DC. Prodr. iv. 399 ; stipules persistent, spikes densely 
pubescent very short. Higginsia longifolia, Blume mss. 

* This genus is intrcduced into the Key (p. 19) becaus3 it most probably occurs- 
in the Malayan Peninsula, though it is as yet unrecorded.* 

Tetunga.'] lxxv. kubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 121 

Fes ANO, Phillips, Wallick. — DiSTRin. Java. 

Leaves 5-8 by 1^-2 1 in., brown when dry, caudate-a(^;minate ; petiole ^ in.^ 
stipules broad, ^ in. long, with a hairy keel ; axils hairy as in P. Roxbiirghii. Spikes 
sessile or shortly-peduncled, ^ in. Fruit not seen.— Leaves much longer, broader and 
more acuminate than in P. lioxburghii, and spikes very different. 

3. P. venulosa, Hook. f. ; stipules persistent, spikes elongate glabrous, 
"berry pyriform. Kandia venulosa, Wall. Cat. 8301. 

Penano and Singapore, Wallich, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2829); Maingay (911). 

Leaves 5-7 by 1^2^ in., caudate-acuminate, much more coriaceous than in P. Rox- 
burghii and longifolia ; petiole stout, \-^ in. ; stipules ^ in., keeled, oblong-ovate. 
Spikes stout, 1-3 in., erect horizontal or deflexed. Berry ^ in. long, on a pedicel of 
equal length. 

50. BKORZNDOPSZS, ^ooZ;./, 

A small g-labrous tree, branches rounded, ultimate compressed. Leaves sub- 
sessile ; stipules broad, persistent. Floxvera dioecious, small, white, in opposite 
supra-axillary peduncled heads, or ? rarely solitary. Fl. $ : calyx-tube 
hemispheric, 4-5- toothed. Corolla shortly campanulate, throat villous ; lobes 
4-5, rounded, twisted in bud. Anthers 4-5, sessile, linear-oblong, acute. Disk 
hemispheric. Style with 2 erect hairy arms. Fl. $ : calyo^-tube oblong, 8- 
grooved ; limb cupular, 4-lobed, hairy within. CoroUa and style of the $ . 
Ovary 2-celled : ovules many on peltate placentas. Bciry elongate-oblong, 
3-grooved, crowned by the calyx-limb, 2-celled, few- or many-seeded. Seed» 
imbricated do-^^nwards, ovoid, acute at both ends. 

1. BZ. capillaris, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1874, ii. 189; For. Fl. ii. 52. 
Psilobium capiliare, Kurz I. c. 1872, ii. 313. Morinda, Wall. Cat. 8433, 

Pegu and Tenasseeim, common, Wallich, &c. 

An evergreen tree-, 25 ft. Leaves 3-6 by 1-2 in., polymorphous, brown when dry, 
lanceolate oblong or elliptic, acute or acuminate, base acute rounded or subcordate ; 
stipules ovate, acute. Peduncles of <? ^-3 in., often capillary, often opposite ; of ? 
or very short, rarely long. Heads \-\ in. diam. ; (? fl. ^ in. ; 9 larger; ovary 
urceolate, crowned with the triangular ciliate calyx-teeth. Berry 1 in. — Kurz, who 
must know this genus well, reduces all the forms to one ; they differ, however, greatly 
in length, breadth, and shape of leaves, and in the length of the peduncles. 

51. ZZYPTI ANTHER A, W. 8^- A. 

A glabrous shrub, branches terete. Leaves shortly petioled ; stipules trian- 
gular, persistent. Floivers small, white, sessile in axillary fascicles, bracteolate. 
Calyx-tube turbinate : lobes 5, acute, persistent. Corolla-tube short, hairy 
within ; lobes .4-5, spreading, twisted in bud. Anthers 4-5, sessile, oblong, 
obtuse, pubescent at the base and back. Disk annular. Ovary 2-celled ; style 
short, included, branches large long erect hispid ; ovules 6-10 in each cell, pen- 
dulous from its apex. Berry ovoid or globose. Seeds pendulous, imbricated, 
compressed and angled, testa thick fibrous and plaited ; embryo small. 

1. K. stricta, W. Sf A. Frodr. 399; Brand. For. Fl. 274. Randia 
stricta, J?o.r6. Hort. Beng. 15; Fl. Lnd. i. 526; DC. Prodr. iv. 386. Macro- 
cnemum strictum, Willd. in Roem. 8f Sch. Syst. v. 6. Kondeletia stricta, Both 
Nov. sp. 140, excl. syn. Hypobathrum strictum, jKm7'3 For. Fl. ii. 50. Rubiacea, 
Wall. Cai.' 8138 in part, 8313, 8307. 

Northern India and Bengal, from Oudh to Birma, comrtion, especially in E. 
Bengal, ascending 4he outer Himalaya and Khasia Mts. to 4000 ft. — Distrib. Ava. 

322 Lxxv. RUBiACE^:. (J. D. Hooker.) [Nargedia,. 

A shrub or small tree, 5-10 ft., branching from the base, branchlets decussate. 
Leaves 3-9 by ^-IJ in., lanceolate or ovate or linear-lanceolate, long-acuminate, 
coriaceous, glabrous or nerves beneath pubescent, brown when dry ; petiole \—^ in. ; 
stipules triangular, persistent. Flowers ^ in. long ; bracts 2-3. Berry size of a- pea. 

52. NARGX3SXA, Beddoine. 

A glabrous unarmed shrub. Leaves elliptic or lanceolate, acuminate ; stipules 
triangular, acuminate, persistent. Flmoers small, axillary, or supra-axillary, 
solitary or fascicled. Calyx-tuhe ovoid; limb short, irregularly 4-5-lobed. 
Corolla-tube short, cylindric, hairy within, longer than the 4-5 orbicular lobes, 
which are twisted in bud. Anthers 4-5, sessile, linear, glabrous. Ovary 2- 
celled; style short, stigma fusiform 2-cleft or -;^rooved ; ovules 4 in. each cell, 
pendulous from subapical placentas. Fruit pedicelled, nearly globose, 1-celled, 
2-few-seeded. Seeds much compressed, testa ?, albumen deeply ruminate ; coty- 
ledons ovate, radicle slender. 

1. N. macrooarpa, Bedd. Fl. Sylv. cxxxiv. t. 328. Hyptianthera 
macrocarpa, Thiu. Enmn. 157, 421. 

Ceyix)n ; Ambagamowa, and between Galle and Ratnapoora, Walker, TJiwaites. 

A shrub 8-10 ft. Leaves 5-8 by 1^-2^ in., rather coriaceous, brown when dry, 
nerves reticulate ; petiole ^ in. Calyx-tube rounded, apiculate. Corolla-lobes hairy 
down the middle. Fruit about 1 in. long, pedicelled. — I have only imperfect speci- 
mens, and have taken the character of the fruit from Thwaites. 

- 53. SCVF2ZOSTACKYS, Timaites. 

Erect shrubs, branches terete. Leaves short-petioled, linear- or oblong- 
lanceolate; stipules connate. Flowers small, in axillary or eupra-axillary 
peduncled spikes, bracteate and with connate sheathing bracteoles. Calyx-tube 
short ; limb produced, persistent, obtusely 4-lobed. Corolla-tube short, throat 
villous ; lobes 4, short, recurved, twisted in bud. Anthers 4, subsessile, oblong. 
Ovary 2-celIed ; style short, branches short pilose ; ovules about 4 in each cell, 
pendulous, placentas small on the septum. Berry ovoid or oblong, 1-celled, 
areolate. Seeds few, pendulous, ovoid, testa coriaceous grooved; embryo 
small, in fleshy albumen. — Distrib. Confined to Ceylon. 

1. S. pedunculatus, Thiv. Fnum. 157; branches scabrous, stipules and 
bracteoles cuspidate striate hairy internally, corolla haiiy externally. 

Ceylon ; at Pasdoon Corle, at no great elevation, Thwaites. 

Leaves 3-6 by 1-1 J in., brown when dry, glabrous or pubescent on the nerves 
beneath ; petiole short. Peduncles ^f in. Spii-e like a small catkin, bracts 5-8, 
imbricate. Fytcit ^ in. long, ovoid, purplish-black. Seed usually solitary, linear- 

2. S. coffeoides, Thiv. Enum. 157; branches glabrous, stipules and 
bracts obtuse glabrous internally, coroUa glabrous externally. 

Ceylon ; Eatnapoora district, at no great elevation, Thwaites. 

Leaves 3-4 by |-li in., brown when dry, petiole very short ; stipules ovate, 
scarious. Peduncles very short or 0. Spikes ovoid, few-flowered. Berry red. Seeds 
oblong, striate. 


Evergreen shrubs or trees, branches terete. Leaves shortly petioled ; stipules 
triangular, long pointed or acuminate. Flowers small in axillaiy fascicles or 
^hort cymes, polygamo-dioecious, white or greenish ; ^bracts free or connate in a 

Biplospom.'] Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 123 

•cup. Calyx-tube short; limb truncate or 4-6-lolbed or coothed. Corolla-tube 
short, cylindric or bell-shaped ; lobes 4-6, spreading, twisted in bud. Stamens 
4r-5, filaments short or long; anthers oblong or linear, often recurved. Ocart/ 
2- rarely 3-celled ; style short or long, branches linear or oblong ; ovules 2-3 in 
each cell, placentas on the septum. Berty ovoid or globose. Seeds few in each 
cell, imbricate, testa various ; embi'yo small. — DisTfQB. Species 6 or 8 tropical 
Asiatic and Malayan. 

Sect. I. £udiplospora. Bracteoles connate, sheathing the pedicel and 
base of the ovary. 

1. I>. singrularis, Korth. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 201 : glabrous, leaves 
•elliptic or oblong acuminate, flowers fascicled, calyx deeply 4-lobed, fruit globose. 
JCurz For. Fl. ii. 60, in part. PVangueria palembanica, iMiq. Fl. Ind, Bat., 
.Sup2)l. 644. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8299, 8321. 

Khasia Mts. , at Mamloo, alt. 3-4000 ft., J. D. H. ^ T. T. Pegu and Tejjas- 
«erim; Amherst, Wallich. Moolget, Gallatly. — Distrib. Sumatra, Eanka, Borneo. 

A small tree. Leaves pale when dry, 3-7 by \h-2 in., coriaceous, shining; petiole 
short; stipules triangular, acute, tip not. setaceous. Pedicels 3-4-nate, sheathed by 
the short imbricating bracts, which form a cup round them. Calyx-teefh enlarged 
After flowering. Corolla-tube | in., throat villous ; lobes ~ in., linear-oblong. Fruit 
f in. diam,, smooth, calyx-limb persistent; pericarp very thick, kecds 8-10, broad 
much compressed. 

Sect. II. Discospermum. Bracteoles veiy smaU, not sheathing, connate 
-or free. 

* Stipules acuminate, point not long and setaceous. 

2. I>. apiocarpa, Dalz. in Hook. Kew Journ. ii. 257, and in Bomb. Fl. 
120 (Discospermum) ; glabrous, leaves ovate- or elliptic-lanceolate obtusely 
•acmninate, calyx-limb truncate minutely 4-toothed. corolla-tube very short, 
fi'uit sessile ellipsoid subglobose or obovoid. Discospermum apiocarpum, .ff«f^. 
Fl. Sylv. t. 223; Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 40. 

"Western Peninsula ; on the Ghats from the Concan southwards, ascending to 
5000 ft. 

A small tree. Leaves pale when dry, 3-7 by l|-3 in,, coriaceous ; petiole ^— J in.; 
stipules triangular, acuminate, tip not setaceous. Flowers fascicled, subsessile. 
Corolla-tube ^ in., throat glabrous, lobes oblong. Stamens in $ much exserted. 
Fruit I in. long, crown conical within the narrow calyx-limb. Seeds few. 

3. I>. spliaerocarpa, Dalz. in Hook. Keio Journ. ii. 257, and in Bomb. 
Fl. 120 (Discospermum) ; glabrous, leaves elliptic-lanceolate obtuse or acute, 
calyx-limb 4-lobed, corolla-tube very short, fruit pediceUed globose. Discosper- 
mum sphaerocai-pum, Bedd. Fl. Sylc, For. Man. 134, 3, excl. syn. 

Western Peninsula, or the Ghats from Bombay southwards. 

A small tree. Leaves 2-6 by 1^-2^ in. ; petiole \-^ in. ; stipules short, acute, tip 
not setaceous. Flowers fascicled, shortly pedicelled. Calyx-teeth obtuse, ciliolate. 
Corolla-ttcbe shorter than the calyx-teeth, throat glabrous, lobes ^ in. Filaments very 
short. Fruit § in. diam., ealyciue areole raised. Seeds few, vertically imbricate, 
much compressed. 

4. I>. Dalzellii, Thiv. Enum. 158 (Discospermum) ; glabrous, leaves 
•elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate obtuse, calyx-limb 4-lobed, corolla-tube of ^ 
•elongate cylindric, fruit globose subsessile. 

•Ceylon; central province, alt. 1-3000 ft. 

Very similar to D. sphcerocarpa, and reduced to it by Beddome (For. Man. 134, 3), 

124 Lxxv. RUBiACEii. (J. D. Hooker.) [Biplos^ora. 

but the leaves are smaller and more obtuse, the corolla-tube of the female much' 
longer, and the globose fruit has the pericarp thicker than the cell. — Thwaites 
describes the fruit as 1 in. diam. ; in the dried specimens it is f in., and many-seeded, 

5. ]>. erytbrospora, Tkw. Enum. 158 (Discospermum) ; glabrous, leaves 
obovate or elliptic, tip rounded or narrowed, calyx-limb truncate subentire, 
corolla-tube very short, fruit very small peduncled globose. 

Ceylon ; Ambagamowa district, alt. 5000 ft., Thwaites. 

Leaves 3-5 by 1-^-2 in., greenish when dry, coriaceous; petiole \—^ in.; stipules 
triangular, acuminate. Flowers in small cymes ; bracteoles minute, triangular. 
CwoUa yellow, throat hairy, lobes oblong. Filaments of <J exserted. Ovary-cells 
each with 3-4 ovules. Fruit \ in. diam., pericarp thin. Seeds 1-5, compressed; 
testa red, thick. 

6. I>. malaccense, Hook.f.-, glabrous, slender, leaves elliptic obtusely 
acuminate thinly coriaceous narrowed into the slender petiole, nerves 5-6 pair 
slender, flower ^ clustered $ solitary shortly pedicelled, bracteoles 0, calyx- 
lobes 4 rounded. 

Malacca, Griffith. 

Branches slender, pale brown. Leaves 3-4 by 1^2 in., pale brown when dry^ 
paler beneath, opaque, veins obsolete ; petiole \ in. ; stipules triangular, acuminate^ 
Flowers very small, $ sessile ; $ shortly pedicelled, with 2 tubercles on the 
pedicel in the position of bracteoles. Corolla-tube funnel-shaped, rather longer than 
the glabrous lobes, hairy within. Anthers erect, sessile, exserted. Style of ? 
glabrous, thickened above the middle, arms ratber long, stout. Ovary cells 2-3- 

** Stipules with long setaceous points. 

7. I>. confiisa, Hook. f. ; glabrous, leaves elliptic obtusely acuminate, 
flowers sessile in dense fascicles, stipules with long setaceous points, calyx 
truncate, corolla-tube very short, throat villous, fruit sessile. D. singularis, 
Kurz For. Fl. ii. 50, in part. 

Tenasseeim ; at Mergui, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2798), Kurz. 

An evergreen tree. Leaves 3-5 by 1^2^ in., pale when dry, opaque; petiole \—^ 
in. Flowers almost capitate, very small. Corolla-lobes about equalling the tube. 
Filaments short. Fruit not seen. 

8. I>. pubescens, Hook. f. ; branches petioles and nerves beneath 
pubescent, leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate obtusely caudate-acuminate, 
stipules with long setaceous points, calyx obscurely 4-lobed, corolla-tube short, 
throat \dllous. ? Wall. Cat. 8297 q. v. 

Tenasseeim ; at Mergui, Griffith, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2799). 

Branches very slender. Leaves 5-8 by 2-3 in., pale when dry, base obtuse or 
rounded; petiole very short; stipules ^ in. long, base triangular, gradually tapering 
to the bristle-like point. Flowers in small axillary heads, black when dry, as are 
the very young leaves. Fruit not seen. — A very distinct species. 

9. D. G-riffitliii, Hook, f. ; glabrous, leaves oblanceolate abruptly acumi* 
nate membranous, stipules with setaceous points, cymes subspicate, calyx 
obscurely toothed, corolla-throat glabrous. 

BiEMA ; near Tselow on the Irawaddi, Griffith. 

A shrub 3 ft. high. Leaves 5-7 by l|-2^ in., pale greenish when dry, much 
narrowed into the short petiole; stipules deciduous. Cymes |-| in., sometime* 
shortly peduncled, dense-flowered, glabrous; bracteoles minute, triangular. Calyx- 
minute. Corolla-tube and lobes short. Anthers sessile. Fruit not seen. 

Diplos^ora.'] Lxxv. rubiacez^. (J D. Hooker.) 125 

10. I>. ILurzii, IIooJc. f. ; glabrous, leaves narrowly elliptic-lanceolate 
subcaudate-acuminate membranous, secondary nerves horizontal, stipules with 
setaceous points, flowers subcapitate minute, calyx calyculate, limb truncate, 
fruit small globose. Uropliyllum biloculare, Ku7'z iu Jou,i'n. As. Soc. 1872, ii, 
313 ; For. Fl. ii. 53. 

Mahtaban ; in tropical forests, alt. 2-3000 ft., very rare, Kurz. 

A small evergreen tree. Leaves 5-7 by 1^-2 in., pale greenish when di-y, shining 
.above, membranous ; nerves arched, joined by the very slender horizontal veins ; 
petiole very short ; stipules connate, bases triangular, puberulous. Flowers in very 
slender clusters. Calyx puberulous. Fruit about \ in. diam., sessile, orange- 
coloured; pericarp thin; cells 3-4-seeded. Seeds rugulose on the back. — The veins 
•are more regiilar and parallel than in any other species, recalling those of a Urophyl- 
lum or Lasianthus. 


D. ? ; Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrih. 906, Coffea) ; glabrous, leaves elliptic 2-3 
in. very opaque, nerves indistinct, stipules triangular acuminate, fruit sessile globose 
A~| in. diam., pericarp thick, cells 2- or more-seeded, seeds large much compressed. — 
Kesembles a plant from the Buitenzorg garden in Java, marked Canthium ? in the 
Calcutta Herbarium. 

55. SCYPKZPKORA, Gaertn. 

A glabrous tree, branches stout, nodose, terete, young gummy. Leaves 
coriaceous, obovate, obtuse ; stipules broad. Flowers small, in dense shortly 
peduncled axiUary cymes. Calyx-tube elongate-obconic ; limb cupular, 4-5- 
toothed, persistent. Corolla-tube cylindric, throat dilated, hairy; lobes 4-5 
oblong, twisted in bud. Stamens 4-5, filaments inserted between the lobes 
short subulate ; anthers narrowly sagittate. Disk annular, lobed. Ovary wdth 
2 narrow cells ; style filiform, branches linear obtuse ; ovules 2 in each cell, 
inserted on the middle of the septum, upper ascending, lower pendulous, funicles 
contiguous dividing the cell into two. Drupe subcylindric, 8-10-grooved and 
winged, with 2 crustaceous connate 4-5-ribbed pyrenes. Seeds subcylindric, 
testa membranous, albumen scanty ; cotyledons oblong. 

1. S. hydropbyllacea, Gaertn. Fruct. iii. 91, t. 196; DC. P)'odr. iv. 
577 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 4. Epithinia malayana, Jack in Mai. Misc. i. 12 ; Wall. 
Cat. 8444; DC. I c. 478; W. <§• A. Prodr. 424. Epitliinia sp., Grif. Notul. 
iv. 269 ; Ic. PI. Asiat. 478 and 644 A. (Lumnitzera). llubiacea, I'Vall. Cat. 
•9055, A. in part. 

Mangrove swamps on the Carnatic coast, Wight; Malayan Peninsula, the 
Andaman Islands, and Ceylon. — Distrib. Malay Archipelago to N. Australia, Phi- 
lippines, and New Caledonia. 

A small evergreen tree ; trunk short, simple ; crown rounded. Leaves 2 by l^in., 
tip rounded, brown when dry, glossy, nerves few and inconspicuoiis ; petiole \-\ in. 
Flowers subsessile, white or reddish. Calyx ^ in. Corolla-tube exceeding the calyx. 
Drupe I in. long. 

56. JACILZA, Wall. 

A lofty umbrageous tree ; branches robust, 4-angled. Leaves intra-petiolar, 
broad, sheathing, ciliate, hairy within. Flowers spicate, recurved ; spikes 
opposite, in long peduncled pendulous axiUary cymes ; bracts distichous, lower 
Rubfoliaceoiis often connate. Calyx-tube obconic, limb unilateral ; lobes 5, 
spreading, with interposed teeth, at length foliaceous, coriaceous, veined, per- 
sistent. Corolla funnel-shaped, throat pubescent; lobes 5, plaited, lanceolate, 
cuspidate, valvate in bud. Anthas 5, subsessile in the throat. J)i?k hairy. 

126 Lxxv. KUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) IJach'a^ 

Ovary 2-celled ; style capillary, exserted, thickened and hairy in the middle^ 
"branches 2 short narrow ; ovules 2 in each cell, inserted on the top of a basilar 
erect placenta. Ft-uit dry, 2-celled, cells 1-s^ded. Seeds unknown. 

1. J. omata, Wall, in Roxh. Ft. Ind. ed. Carey 8^ Wall. ii. 321 ; PI. As. 
Mar. t. 293; Cat. 6284, BC. Prodr. W. 621. 

Maiacca and Singapore, Wallick, &c. 

Branchlets as thick as the middle finger, and all young parts, the petiole, midrib, 
and inflorescence, rufous-tomentose. Leaves 5-18 in.; brown when dry, coriaceoiis,. 
tip rounded, narrowed into the short robust petiole, shining above, hairy beneath or 
glabrate; .stipules short, cylindric, coriaceous, bristles ^-1^ in. long. C^mes in 
slender peduncles 5-6 in. long ; branches slender, spreading, primary opposite with 
sheathing stipular bracts ; bracteoles broadly ovate, silky, imbricate. Calyx-lobes 
minute in flower, h in. long, oblong-lanceolate in fruit. Corolla \ in., villous. 


57. G-UETTARDA, Linn. 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite or 3 in a whorl ; stipules intra-petiolar^ 
deciduous. Flowers secund on the branches of axillary forked ped uncled usually 
opposite cymes. Calyx-tube short ; limb tubular, toothed, usually deciduous. 
Corolla-tube long, cylindric, straight or curved, throat naked ; lobes 4-9, oblong,, 
imbricate in bud. Anthers 4r-9, subsessile within the tube, linear. Ovary with 
4-9 elongate ceils f style filiform, stigma subcapitate ; ovules solitary in eack 
cell, pendulous, funicle thickened. Drupe globose or ovoid, endocarp 4-9-celled, 
and -grooved or -angled, perforated at the top opposite the cells, which are 
often displaced. Seeds pendulous, testa membranous, albumen scanty or 0; 
embryo slender. — Distrib. About 45 species, all but 1 American. 

1. Cr, speclosa, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 465; leaves broadly obovate base- 
obtuse or cordate pubescent beneath, corolla silky. Lamh. III. t. 154, f. 2j 
Boxb. Fl Ind. i. 686 ; Wall. Cat. 6219 ; W. 8f A. Prodr. 422 ; Wt. Ic. t. 40 ; 
Bedd. Fl. Sylv. Anal. Gen. t. 17, f. 2 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 37. Cadamba jasmini- 
flora, Sonne?'. Voy. Ind. ii. t. 128. Nictanthes hirsuta, Linn. Sp. PI. 8. Jas~ 
minum hirsutum, Willd. Sp. PI. i. 36 ; Rheede Hort. Mai. t. 47, 48. 

Littoral and tidal forests of the "Western and Eastern Peninsulas, the Andamak 
Islands, and Ceylon. — Distrib. Tropical shores of the old and new world. 

A small evergreen polygamous tree; branchlets stout, short, petioles leaves 
beneath and usually inflorescence pubescent. Leaves 5-10 by 4-7 in., tip acute 
obtuse or rounded, green when dry; petiole J-1^ in.; stipules ovate, pubescent, 
caducous. Cymes usually from the axils of fallen leaves, long-peduncled, with spread- 
ing dichotoinous few-flowered branches. Calycc velvety, truncate. Corolla 1-1|- in., 
softly pubescent; limb 1 in. diam., segments obovate. Drupe woody, globose, ob- 
scurely lobed. — Koxburgh observes that ho never met with hermaphrodite flowers. 

68.* AKTZRRKSSA, Conim. 
69. TZMOMTZUS, Bumph. 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite; stipules ovate-lanceolate, deciduous.. 
Flowers polygamo-dioecious in axillary cymes; ^ cymes with few or many- 
secund flowers, $ 1-3-flowered, pedicels 2-bracteolate. Calyx-tube short, limb^ 

* This genus is introduced into the Key (p. 20) because a common Sumatran 
species probably occurs in the Malayan Peninsula, though hitherto unrecorded. 

Timmuus.'l lxxv. rdbiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 127 

cupular, persistent. Corolla pubescent, coriaceous, funnel-shaped, glabrous 
within : lobes 4-5 (-10), valvate or slightly overlapping in bud. Anthers sub- 
sessile in the throat, linear. Disk hispid. Ovarj/ 6-10-celled; style short, 
stout, hairj^ branches 4-12, more or less combined; ovules solitary, pendulous 
in each cell, funicle thickened. Di-upe ellipsoid, ovoid or globose ; pyrenes 
4-10, slender, erect or radiating outwards, or supei'posed. Seeds cyUndric, testa 
membranous, albumen scanty or ; embryo slender. — Distrib. Species about 
20, tropical Asiatic and Oceanic. 

1. T. Jaxnbosella, Thw. Enum. 153 ; leaves elliptic-lanceolate acumi- 
nate minutely siUkv on the nerves beneath; § solitary long-peduncled. Bedd. 
Ic. PL Ind. Or. t.'lOO. T. flavescens. Bake?- Fl. Maurit. 144. Nelitris Jam- 
bosella, Gaertn. Fruct. i. 134, t. 29, excl. Sj/n. Heliospom flavescens, Jock in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xiv. 127, t. 4, f. 3 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 391. Eupyrena glabra, 
W. ^ A. Prodr. 423. Bobea glabra, Koi-th. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 211. 
Polyphragma flavescens, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 38. Guettarda ? peduncularis. Wall. 
Cat. 6222; Don Gen. Syst. iii. 651. G. Brunonis and G. missiones. Wall. 
Cat. 6220, 6221. 

Andaman Islands, Maxay Peninsula, and Ceylon. — Disteib. Malay Archipe- 
lago, Mauritius. 

A small evergreen tree ; branches slender. Leaves 3-6 by 1-2^ in., brown when 
dry, coriaceous, nerves few ; petiole |-| in. ; stipules ^ in. Cymes $ long- or short- 
peduncled, 3-1 2-flowered, flowers sessile. Ca/y^-ifz^Z'e obscurely toothed ; ^ terminal 
on a stout peduncle, urn-shaped, campanulate in fruit. Corolla very variable, ^\ in. 
long, silky-pubescent, lobes rounded. Drupe globose, \-^ in. long, rarely oblong, 
ribbed. — There may be more than one Indian species, but the plant is so Tariable 
that I am unable to decide. Wallich's G. ? Brunonis, from Singapore, has very 
small leaves, and the <? cymes have spreading many-flowered branches. The Ceylon 
specimens have larger flowers than the Malayan. 

2. T. Rumpliil, DC, Prodr. iv. 461; leaves elliptic-lanceolate silky 
beneath. Wall. Cat. 6217. Bobea WaUichiana, Korth. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 
ii. ^l\.—Rumph. Herh. Amh. iii. 216, t. 140. 

Penanq, Malacca, and Singapore, Wallich, &c. — Distrib. Malay Archipelago. 

Very similar to T. Jambosella , but the S cymes are usually shorter peduncled 
and smaller, and the leaves often very silky beneath. I have, however, great diffi- 
culty in distinguishing these species, and both seem to vary much in the pubescence 
of the leaves and size of flowers ; the drupes are oblong or globose. Penang speci- 
mens from Maingay have small leaves, 2|-3 in., almost glabrous beneath, and ^ fl. 
not \ in. long ; they have ellipsoid or globose berries, and may be a difierent species. 

3. T. Finlaysonlanus, Wall. Cat. 6223 (Guettarda) ; glabrate, leaves 
obovate or elliptic-oblong tip rounded or obtuse glabrous beneath. Timonius, 
Wall. Cat. 8446. Guettarda peduncularis, Wall. Cat. &2'22, in part. 

Singapore, Wallich, G. Thomson. 

Branches stout, glabrous. Leaves 3-5 in., narrowed into the very short petiole ; 
midrib strong, red ; nerves very slender. Flower <? not seen ; ? solitary or 2-nate 
on pedicels \-\\ in. Drupe globose, nearly \ in. diam. — I doubt this being anything 
but a variety of T. Jambosella, though the form of the leaf is very different, the 
petiole shorter, and flower larger. The specimens of this genus in Wallich's Her- 
barium are much mixed. The shee*" marked Finlaysonianus (6223) contains two 
specimens of what I think are different things (from Herb. Finlayson): one has 
email (2 in.) tlliptic iwiute leaves, and long pedicelled quite glabrous <J flowers \ in, 
long, fascicled on a very short peduncle, with a glabroiis long-pedicelled young fruit 
from a lower axil ; the other specimen has ? flowers only, solitary in the axils, a 

128 Lxxv. KUBiACE^. (J. D. Hcoker.) \_I)lch{lantJie. 

glabrous ovary, and pubescent corolla. It is this latter I have described as Finlay- 
souinnus ; there is another specimen of it on the sheet with T. Jambosella, and it is 
alsoWallich's 8446. 

60. BXCKXXiANTKS, Thwuites. 

Trees with stout spreading branches, and resinous buds and nodes. Leaves 
rigid, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate \ stipules connate into a short intra-petiolar 
ring. Flowers small, sessile on a tenninal sessile or peduncled orbicular recep- 
tacle formed of connate bracts. Calyx-tuhe elongate, curved ; limb obliquely- 
funnel-shaped, persistent; lobes 5, rigid, with toothed interposed segments. 
Corolla silky, funnel-shaped, tube curved, throat villous ; limb 2-lipped, upper 
lip 2-, lower 3-toothed, lobes valvate in bud. Stamens 5, anthers included, 
oblong. Disk elevated, crenvJate. Ovary with 2 narrow cells ; style elongate, 
stout, stigma exserted clavate 2-lobed ; ovules 1 pendulous in each cell, cylin- 
dric, funicle thickened. Fruit obovoid, gibbous, 2-celled, outer in each head 
incurved, pericarp thick. Seeds cylindiic, albumen fleshy ; radicle superior. — 
DiSTRiB. Species 2, Ceylon and Borneo. 

1. D. zeylanioa, Thw. in Hook. Keio Journ. vii. 270, 376, t. 8, f. A. 
{excl. stipules) \ H. f. ^ T. in Jaurn. Linn. Soc. ii. 174 ; JBedil Fl. Sylv., Anal. 
Gen. t. XV. f. 4. 

Cetix)n; between Galle and Ratnapoora, alt. 1000 ft., Thwaitcs. 

A tree 30-40 ft Leaves 4-6 by l|-2 in., glossy, red-brown wlien dry, finely 
reticulate, very coriaceous, narrowed into the stout short petiole. Peduncles very 
short; heads ^| in. diam. Calyx-lobes ^ in. Corolla ^-\\ in. long, purplish. — The 
irregular flower is veiy anomalous, and resembles that of Caprifoliaccte. 

61. KNOXZA, Linn. 

Erect herbs or imdershrubs ; stems terete or obtusely angled, with 2 lines 
of pubescence. Leaves opposite ; stipules connate with the petiole into an 
entire or bristly sheath. Floivers dimorphous, pink or lilac, subsessile on the 
elongating branches of terminal cymes, rarely spicate. Calyx-tube ovoid or 
didymous° teeth 4, minute and subequal, or 1 or 2 elongate, persistent. Corolla- 
tuhe lono-, throat villous ; lobes 4, valvate in bud with inflexed tips. Stamens 
4, inserted within the throat ; anthers linear, exserted or included. Ovary 2- 
celled; style filiform, stigma included or exserted 2-lobed; ovules 1 pendu- 
lous in each cell. Fruit very small, of 2 semi-terete or dorsally compressed 
indehiscent cocci. Seeds with a thickened funicle, testa membranous, albumen 
fleshy; embryo axile, cotyledons thin, radicle superior. — DisxRiB. Species 8 
or 9, ladian, Malayan and Australian. 

The synonymy of the Indian species is very confused, owing to the incomplete 
■descriptions of the earlier authors. Some of the citations of De Candolle and Rox- 
burgh may be open to question. Roxburgh's descriptions do not accord with his 

* Ripe fruit separating from the persistent subulate columella by a basal 
peif oration ; mericarps closely united, rarely separating. 

1. XL. corymbosa, Willd. Sp. PI. i. 682 ; pubescent villous or tomentose, 
leaves petioled or sessile linear- or ovate-lanceolate or -oblong, stipular bristles 
hairy, cymes 3-chotomou8, fruits spicate secund indehiscent perforate at tho 

\Knoxia.'] lxxv. rubiaoeje. (J. D, Hooker.) 129 

base. W. ^ A. Prodr. 439; Wt. lU. t. 128; Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. FL 111. 
K. teres, DC. Prodr. iv. 569; Wall. Cat. 819, in lutH. K. oxserta, DC. I. c. 
K. innbellata, Panics-, Spreng. Syst.i. AQQ. K. sumatrensis, Wall. Cat. 6183. 
K. mollie, Pr. in Wall. Cat. 820, not of W. S,- A. K. stricta, Tkw. Emun. 152. 
Spermaccce ? teres and S. exserta, Boxb. Hort. Peng. 10 ; FL Ind. i. 307, 368 ; 
ed. Carey ^- WaU.'i. 373,374. S. sumatrensis, i?eis Ohs. iv. 23, e.i- Cham. 8; 
Schl. in Linncea, iii. 316, not of Roxb, Fl. Ind. i. 366. ? Cuncea trifida, Haui. 
in Don Prodr. 135. 

Throughout tropical India, from Garwhal in the Western Himala.ta, eastward to 
Sikkim, ascending to 5000 ft., and in the Khasia Mts. to 4000 ft, ; to Ceylon and 
JMalacca. — DiSTEiB. Malay Archipelago and Tropical Australia. 

An erect slender annual, 1— i ft.; stem cylindric or obscurely 4-angled, sparingly 
3-chotomously branched, internodes long. Leaves 3-5 by ^1 in., pale greenish or 
brown when dry, narrowed into the short petiole ; stipular bristles }, i"- Flowers 
j^o-^ in., very small, white or purplish. Calyx-tccih minute, triangular, subequiil. 
CoroUa-tuhe hairy within. Fruit J^ in., sessile or shortly pedicelled, 4-angled. — I do 
not doubt this being the Cuncea trifida of Don's Prodromus, though the flowers aro 
described as yellow and the fruit as a berry. Koxburgh's figure of Spermaccce teres 
differs from his description in the 2-partible fruit and plano-convex seed ; he describes 
the seed oi 8. teres as round, which it should not be. 

** Ripe mericarps either connate, the fruit falling aivay as a tvhole 2vith the 
central columella, or the mericarps separating from one another and falling aicay 
from the columella. 

t Calyx-teeth, all very small, equal or one rather larger than the rest. 

2. X.. mollis, W. 4* A. Prodr. 439, not of Pr. ; pubescent villous or 
tomentose, leaves petioled rarely sessile ovate or lanceolate, stipules with hairy 
bristles, fruits crowded ellipsoid, mericarps connate and adnatetothe columella. 
K. corymbosa, Thtv. Enum. 151 ; ScMecht. in Herb. Hohen. n. 991. ? K. stricta, 
Gaertn. Fruct. i. 122, t. 25. ^K. teres, Wall. Cat. 819, in part. 

Mountains of the Western Peninsula, from the Concan southwards, alt. 3-7000 
ft. Ckylon, Walker \ Hangalle, alt. 5000 ft., Tlmaitts. 

An erect annual?, 1-3 ft., very variable in size^ much more robust branclied and 
leafy than K. corymbosa; branches 4-angled. Leaves 1^-5 by ^-1^ in., brown when 
dry, with often rufous hairs ; petiole ^-| in. Cymes with short spreading branches ; 
flowers crowded, blueish, | in. long. Fruits smooth, terete, glabrous, ^ in. long, 
black when dry, crowned with the rounded calyx-teeth. — In Ceylon specimens the 
petiole is 1 in. and very slender, in a specimen from Eitchie the leaves are quite 
sessile. Gaertner represents the mericarp of his K. stricta (from Ceylon) as sepa- 
rating and subacute dorsally, as in K. zeylanica, which has, however, very different 
<»lyx-teeth from Gaertner's figure. 

3. IL. Keyneana, DC. Prodr. iv. 570; glabrous or nearly so, leaves 
petioled ovate or linear-lanceolate, stipules with long rigid glabrous bristles, 
fruits racemose linear-oblong, mericarps separating. W. Sf A. Prodr. 440. 
Spermacoce corymbosa, Roth Nov. Sp. 98 {ex. W. 8f A.), 

SorxHERN Mysore and Carnatic; Dindygul Mts. and Courtallum, Wight. 

Erect, leafy; branches robust, terete, shining. Leaves 2-3 by f-lj in., rather 
coriaceous, brown when dry, acute or acuminate ; stipular bristles stout, smooth, ^-J 
in. Cymes puberulous, branches elongating after flowering as in K. covymbosa, but 
fruits pedicelled. Fruit pale, narrow, with a groove on each side where the mericarps 

4. X.. Wigrhtlana, Wall. Cat. 6184; glabrous, slender, leaves sessile 
linear obtuse recurved, stipules entire or 2-3-cleft, fruits few short didymous 
truncate, mericarps senaratln?. W. Sr A. Prodr. 440. 

130 T.xxv. EUBiACEJE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Knoxia^ 

NiLGHiRi and Shkvaghehry Hills, Wight, &c. 

Kigid ; stems 8-18 in., terete. Leaves 2-3 by \ in., rigidly coriaceous, pale brown 
when dry, complicate ; stipules erect, triangular-lanceolate, often quite entire. Cynie^- 
brancJies puberulous or glabrous. Fruits apparently angled, somewhat laterally com- 
pressed, shortly pedicelled, as broad as long. 

5, K. brachycarpa, Bi\ in WalL Cat. 821 ; more or less pu})esceDV 
stem -with 2 lines of pubescence, leaves sessile liuear-obloDor obtuse, stipules- 
entire or 3- or more-clel't, cymes open or capitate, fruits short didymous trun- 
cate. K. macrocarpa, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc, 1877, ii. 138. K. Isevis, DC. 
Frodf. iv. 570. Spermacoco Brunonis, Wall. Cat. 822. S. Isevis, Boxh. Hort, 
Beng. 10, Fl. Ind. 1368 ; Wt. Ic. t. 193. S. Roxburghii, Spreng. Syst. i. 404. 

Tropicax Himalaya ; Kumaon, alt. 3500-4000 ft., Blinkworth, &c. ; Nepal, 
Hamilton. Behar ; top of Parus-nath, alt. 4000 it., Anderson. Fkgv, M'Clelland; 

An erect strict herb, 2-4 ft., internodes long; stem slender or robust; more or 
less hairy or glabrate, with always 2 more or less distinct lines of pubescence. Leaves 
2-4 by |-| in., usually quite sessile and minutely pubescent on the margins and 
nerves beneath, more rarely elsewhere, base acute or rounded, pubescence of midrib 
continued down the stem ; stipules pubescent, upper often entire. Cymes, if branched, 
main branches pubescent in 2 lines, the smaller puberulous ; when capitate often) 
tomentose ; flowers small. Calyx-teeth very small, obtuse, one larger. Fruit as in 
K. Wightiana. — I suspect this to be Eoxburgh's 8p. Icevis; it is the only "interior of 
Hengal" plant at all answering to his description and drawing, from which it differs 
in the hairiness and large flowers. The Nipal and Bengal specimens have open 
cymes, the Kumaon ones globose terminal and sessile axillary heads, like Hedyotis ; 
the Pegu ones have long brachiate branches with trichotomous terminal peduncles 
bearing capitate cymes at their ends. 

ft One or f2V0 calyx-lohes infiniit much dongate, subulate. 

6. K. plantagrinea, Wall. PL As. Bar. 27, t. 82; Cat. 818; hirsute^ 
subscapose, leaves sessile liuear-oblong obtuse or subacute, stipular bristles very 
short or 0, flowers capitate, fruits racemose, mericarps keeled with 1 or 2 
elongate calyx-teeth. JDC. Prodr. iv. 570 ; Kurz in Journ As. Soc. 1877, ii. 138, 

Peg a at Prome, Wallich; rare and sporadic, Kurz. 

Bootstoch thick, tortuous, woody, giving off short woody leafy branches, fron> 
which the very slender simple flower-bearing stems arise. Leaves on the stem 3-» 
by ^-f in. ; softly hairy on both surfaces, green when dry ; stipules usually reduced 
to a truncate sheath. Flowering stems 10-16 in,, softly hairy, each bearing one or 
two very distant pairs of small leaves 1 in. long, apparently without stipules, sparingly 
trichotomously branched at the tip, each branch bearing a head of flowers which 
elongates into a spike or raceme of distant fruits several inches long. Calyx-teeth 
subulate, one or two much elongate and exceeding the mericirps. Corolla ^ in. long, 
pale blue. Fruit (in Wallich's ligu/e) ^ in., apparently flattened, with keeled meri- 
carps, the elongated calyx-tooth often much exceeding the fruit. 

7. K. zeylanica, Linn.\ DC. Prodr. iv. 560; glabrous or glabrate^ 
leaves shortly petioled ovate or ovate- or oblong-lanceolate, stipules entire or 
with nearly glabrous bristles, flowers capitate or spicate, fruits spicate, mericarps 
dorsally rounded and keeled. Bunn. Fl. Ind. t. 13, f. 2 ; A. Bich. in Mem, 
Soc. Hist. Nat. Par. v. t. 15 ; W. i^- A. Prodr. 440, excl. syn. K. stricta. 

Ckylon ; common in the southern part of the island. 

A small leafy rigid annual ? ; stem erect or ascending, and branches terett, smooth 
and scabrid above. Leaves 1-2 by \-^ in., narrowed at both ends, obtuse or sub- 
ncuto, margins recurved. Spikes and flowers glabrate or hispid, when fruiting some- 
tjmes 4 in. long and quite simple. Corolla-tnbe very slender. Fruit ^ in., broadly 
©void, the long calyx-tooth equalling the mericarp, glabrous. 

Knoayiu.'] Lxxv. rubiaceje. (J. D. Hooker.) lyl 

8. K. platycarpa, Am Pugill. 2G; hirsute or glabrate, leares ovate 
linear-oblong -ovate or -lanceolate, stipular bristlee many haiiy, cymes with 
short crowded branches but lengthening much in fruit, mericarps dorsally flat- 
tened and deeply keeled. 

Ceylon ; abundant in the central proAnnce, alt. 4-7000 ft. 

According to Thwaites a very variable species, of which he distinguishes the three 
following forms, which look very unlike ; all have short branched cymes and two 
forms of flowers, which are either hirsute glabrate or glabrous, and resemble those of 
K. zeylanica, but are often larger. 

Var. 1. jplati/carpa, Arn. 1. c. ; nearly glabrous, branches witli two obscure line? 
of pubescence, leaves narrowly oblong-lanceolate ciliolate, stipular bristles short nearly 
glabrous. — Kesembles in foliage K. zeylanica, and as the cyme branches frequently 
run Out I suspect these species may prove the same. 

Vae. 2. hirsiita,T\yvf. Enum. 162; hirsute or tomentose, leaves broader, stipidar 
bristles longer and hirsute, cymes very dense, flowers larger usually very hirsute — 
K. hirsuta, Arn. I. c. 

Var. 3. foliosa, Thw. 1. c. ; hirsute or a;labrate, branches "ery stout, leaves moro 
coriaceous broadly ovate, stipular bristlei very rigid, large calycino lobe sometimes 


K. sxJMATRENSis, DC. Prod)'. iv. 569, from the Circars; — it is impossible to say to 
what this refers. Roxburgh's Spermacoce sumatrensis (which is referred to it) is 
described as having the corolla with a broad gibbous tube, and a 2-valved capsule 
2-partible from the base ; it is probably a Hedyotis. 

Tbibe IX. AXiBBRTSH:. 

62. OCTOTROPZS, Bedd. 

A glabrous shrub ; branches slender. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, caudate- 
acuminate, membranous ; stipules triangular, persistent. Floicers in peduncled 
axillary or supra-axillary corymbose cymes. Calyx-tuhe turbinate, 5-toothed. 
Corolla campanulate, tube short, throat villous ; lobes 5, ovate, acute, twisted 
in bud. Anthers 5, sessile on the mouth of the corolla, linear, cuspidate, base 
2-fid, exserted. Disk small. Ovary 1-celled ; style stout, pubescent, 8-ribbed ; 
arms 2, short, acute, glabrous ; ovules solitary or a pair pendulous from the top 
of the cell. Fruit ovoid, smooth, coriaceous, 1-seeded. Seed oblong, pendu- 

1. O. travancorica, Beddome Fl. Sylv. t. 327; For. Man. 134/12. 

Travancorb, alt. 3-3500 ft. ; Shevagherry hills, Wight, Beddome. 

Leaves 3^-5 in. ; petiole \ in. Peduncles capillary," half as long as the leaves ; 
cyme-branches opposite ; bracts small; flowers ^ in. diam., shortly pedicelled, 2-br<ic- 
teolate. — A very singular genus, belonging to an otherwise exclusively African tribe. 
Ocfotropis is farther unique in the Order, in having a 1-celled ovary with 1 or 2 pen- 
dulous ovules. Specimens of this in Wight's Herbarium are fastened on a sheet with 
a Cant Ilium. 


63. CANTKIUia, Lam. 

(Plecteonia, Limi. in part.) 

Unarmed or spinous shrubs, erect or climbing ; branches terete. Leaves op- 
posite; stipules connate. Flowers small, axillary, fascicled or in peduncled 
cor^'mbose cymes, white or greenish, sometimes polygamous. Calyx-tube short ; 
limb very short, persistent or deciduous, 4- 5-toothed. Corolla-tube funnel- 

132 Lxxv. KUBIACE-E. (J, D. Hooker.) IGanthinm, 

shaped, campanulate, globose or urceolate, with a ring of deflexed hairs within j 
throat villous ; lobes 4-5, at length reflexed, valvate in bud. Anthers 4-5, sub- 
sessile on the throat or mouth of the corolla. Ovary 2-celled ; style stout, 
stigma large ; ovules 1 pendulous in each cell. Ih-upe didj^mous or subglobose, 
or with one carpel suppressed then reniform or oblong, with 1-2 pjTenes or a 
2-celled putamen. JSeeds oblong, testa membranous, albumen fleshy ; embrj'o 
long, with short cotyledons. — Distkib. About 70 species, in the tropics of the 
old world. 

* Unarmed, Jloioers 6-merovs. 

1. C. didyxnum, Eoxb. FL Ind. i. 535 ; unarmed, glabrous, leaves ovate 
lanceolate or suborbicular, cymes compressed shortly peduncled, bracts short or 0, 
flowers 5-merous, fruit ^-^ in. globose ellipsoid or obovoid compressed subdidy- 
mous, putamen rugose. Hoxb. FL Ind. i. 535 ; TV. Sf A. Prodr. 425 ; DC. Prodr. 
iv. 473 ; Wall. Cat. 8413 excl A. Plectronia didyma, Kurz For. FL ii. 35. 
Psydrax dicoccos, Gaertn. Frtbct. t. 26 ; DC. /. c. 476. Vangueria spirostylis and 
lucidula, Miq. FL Ind, Bat. ii. 250, and sujypl. 544 {Jid. Kurz). Indeterm., 
WalL Cat. 9069. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, alt. 1,600 ft, at Sittong, King-, Khasia and Jyntea Mrs., De 
Silva; Westehn Peninsula, from the Concan southwards; Malayan Peninsula, 
from Mergui southwards ; Ceylon, common. — Distrib. JNIalay Archip., S. China. 

A stout evergreen shrub ; branches smooth. Leaves very variable, 2-6 by ^-4 in., 
very coriaceous, polished above, usually obtusely caudate-acuminate, base acute obtuse 
or even cordate, nerve-axils eglandular ; petiole ^-j^ in. Cymes subsessile or on a 
ghort peduncle, ^-1 in., sometimes puberulous. Calyx truncate or obscurely toothed. 
Cbro^/^a campanulate, tube ^^^-^ jn. ; lobes 6, subacute. Style glabrous; stigma sub- 
quadrate, notched or 2-fid. Fruit very variable. — Thwaites' var. rostrata is founded 
on the rostrate (that is caudate-acuminate) leaves, which, however, do not differ from 
those of a common Eastern or Western form ; it has also often beaked elongate fruits, 
the result of insect injury. 

Var. lanceolata, Thw. mss. ; leaves narrowly elliptic-lanceolate obtuse 4-5 by %-l\ 
in. Canthium lanceolatum. Am. Pugill. 24. Webera lanceolata, Moon. Cat. 19. — 
Ceylon, Thwaites. — Amorgst "Wight's duplicates (Kew Distrib. 1414) are specimens 
marked from Courtallam, but as none such are in Wight's own Herbarium I suspect 
some mistake. 

Vab. grandifolia, Thw. Enum. 152 ; leaves very large 6-8 by 3-4 in., base rounded. 

Var. Kingii ; leaves more membranous elliptic-lanceolate very finely acuminate, 
cymes deflexed corymbiform, flowers large, corolla-tube \ in. quite glabrous. — 
Sikkim, Br. King. — This may prove a different species, but in the absence of fruit 
this is uncertain. 

2. C. xnontanuxn, Thw. Enum. 152 ; unarmed, glabrous, leaves small 
orbicular or ovate obtuse, cymes shortly peduncled subumbellate, flowers 5- 

Ceylon ; central province, alt. 4-7000 ft., Thwaites. 

Probably, as Thwaites suspects, a small-leaved form of C. didymum. The fruit is 

3. C. uxnbellatuxn, Wight Ic. t. 1034 ; unarmed, glabrous, leaves elliptic 
obtuse or obtusely acuminate, flowers iimbellate on a short very stout com- 
pressed peduncle, flowers 5-merous, fruit \-^ in. broad oblong or subquadrate 
didymous, putamen rugose. Dalz. 8^ Gibs. Bomb. FL 113 {not of Korth.). C. 
didymum, Bedd. FL Sylv. t. 221 ; WalL Cat. 8413 A. C. lucidum, Schlecht in 
PL Ilohen. n. 1377. Plectronia didyma, Brand. For. FL 276. Rubiacea, 
Wall Cat. 8461, 8452. 

Gafithmm.] lxxv. rubiace^e. (J. D. Hooker.) 133 

Westebx Peninsula, ou the Ghats, alt. 4-8000 ft., from the Concan southwards. 
Ten^sserim, Wallick, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2972) ; Ava, Wallick. 

An evergreea tree, 50 ft. Leaves very coriaceous, similar to the ordinary form 
of C. didymum, of which this is probably a variety, Korthal'a C. umbellatum, with a 
slender peduncle, is a very different plant. 

4. C. nellgrherrense, Wight Ic. t. 1064 bis; unarmed, leaves elliptic- 
ovate obtuse glabrous or setose beneath, flowers 5-merou8, pedicels very short 
axillary fascicled, fruits obovoid or obcordate compressed subdidymous, putamen 
smooth. Bed '. Fl. Sylv. t. 221 A. ; F&r. Man. 134, 6 (Plectronia). 

NrLGHEREY and Pttlney Mts., Wight, G. Thomson. 

An evergreen shrub or tree; branches opposite, glabrous. Leaves 3A-4^ by 1^-2 
in., rather coriaceous, dark green or black when dry ; petiole \-^ in. Flowers shortly 
pedicelled, sometimes on a very short peduncle; pedicels ^-^ in. Fruit nearly f in. ; 
pericarp thin. 

Vab. 1 ; leaves coriaceous glabrous, stipules -^^ in. — Nilgherrys, Wight (Kew 
Distrib. 1424, 1425). 

Var. 2 ; leaves less coriaceous hirsute beneath or covered with scattered rigid 
hairs, stipules small.— Pulney Mts. (Kew Distrib. Ii22, 1426). 

5. C. ficiforme, Hooh. f. ; unarmed, glabrous, leaves elliptic obtusely 
acuminate, flowers 5-merou8 fascicled on a very short peduncle, fruit veiy large 
pyriform stoutly pedicelled, putamen thick woody very deeply sinuously 

Mysore ; Shevagherry hillff, Wight. 

Branches very stout, and leaves almost black when dry. Leaves 3-4 by 1-1^ in., 
very thickly coriaceous, narrowed into a very stout petiole; nerves oblique, slender; 
stipules short, broad. Peduncles ^ in. or less, sometimes branched ; pedicels as long. 
Fruit l-\\ in., somewhat compressed, narrowed into a pedicel j in. long ; putamen re- 
sembling a small walnut. 

6. C. grlabrum, Blume Bijd. 967 ; unarmed, glabrous, leaves large ovate 
subacute, cymes small compressed shortly peduncled, flowers 5-merou3, fruit 
large ellipsoid or subovoid with 2 very smooth 3-gonou8 pyrenes. DC. Prodr. 
iv. 474; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 35 (Plectronia). Vangueria ? atroviridis, Wall Cat. 
8412. ilubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8303. 

From Tenassehim, Pegu, and the Andaman Islands, to Singapore and Penano, 
IVallithj &c., Maingay (Kew Distrib. 863). — Distrib. Java. 

A small tree; branches stout, upper compressed. Leaves 4-6 by 1^-3 in., dull 
green when dry, thinly coriaceous ; nerves few, distant; petiole ^h in.; stipules 
short. Cymes with short spreading branches; flowers small, shortly peduncled. 
Corolla-tube subglobose, ^ in. ; lobes as long. Stig^na mitriform, notched. Fruit f-I 
in. long ; pyrenes abruptly narrowed and compressed parallel to the ventral face at 
the top. 

7. C. confertum, Korth. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 236; unarmed, 
glabrous, leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate obtusely caudate-acuminate, flowers 
fascicled shortly pedicelled 6-merou3, fruit small obovoid or obcordate subcom- 
pressed, putamen woody rugose. C. glomerulatum, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat., suppl. 
686. Memecylon pauciflorum. Wall. Cat. 4114. 

Penang, Singapore, and Malacca, Wallich, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2973), Maingay 
(862, 942).— Distrib. Malay Archipelago. 

Branches slender. Leaves 3-5 by f-2 in., dull green when dry, opaque, coriaceous ; 
nerves slender ; petiole and stipules short. Flowers small, often unisexual ; budc ob- 
tuse ; pedicel i-^ in. Corolla-tube and lobes very short. Style glabrous. Fruit | 

134 LXXY. RUBiACB^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ganthium. 

in. long. — Miquel says the flowers are 4-5-merous ; all other authors say 5-merou8, as 
I find them. 

*• Unarmed ; Jloivers 4^merou8. 

8. C. travancoricum, Bed4. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 239; unariuftd, 

flahrous, leaves loug-petioled ovate obtusely acuminate, cymes long-peduncled, 
ranches slender. 

Tbavancore and Tineveixt hills ; Beddonae. 

A tree ; branchlets woody with rough bark. Leaves clustered on short lateral 
shoots, 1^-2 in., bright green beneath when dry; petiolti very slender, ^ in. : stipules 
triangular with long subulate points. Peduncle of cyme sometimes 1 in., stout and 
compressed, or shorter or ; branches very slender. Flowers very small, ^ in. diam. 
Calyx-teeth subulate. Corolla-tuhe shortly campanulate. Stigma capitate. Fruit 

9. C. graclllpes, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 314 ; For. Fl. ii. 36 
(Canthium) ; unarmed, short petioles and nerves beneath puberulous, leaves 
elliptic obtusely pcuminate, flowers 4-merous solitary or in pairs, pedicels capil- 
lary, fruit subquadrately didymous or reniform, pyrenes rugose thinly woody 

Andaman Islands ; rather frequent, Kurz. 

Shrubby ; pubescence fulvous ; branches slender. Leaves 3-5 by 1|— 2 in., green 
when dry, membranous ; nerves very slender ; petiole very short ; stipules finely 
acuminate. Flowers very small; pedicels i-| in., hairy, arising from very short 
shoots. Galyx-tccth subulate. Fruit \ in, across, with a very broad sinus at top, 

*** Armed; stamens 4 or 5. 

10. C. puberulum, Tkiv. tnss. ; spinescent, pubescent, leaves small 
elliptic acute, peduncles fascicled, flowers 4-5-meroiis, calyx-lobes long recurved, 
corolla- tube broadly campanulate. 

Ceylon ; central province, Tkwaites (C. P. 3995). 

Pra7ickes slender, elongate ; spines short, straight. Leaves |-1 in., bright green 
when dry, finely pubescent on both surfaces ; petiole short ; stipules with slender 
points. Peduncles always bracteate, 1-3-flowered, ^-^ in., fulvous pubescent, as are 
the bracts and calyx. Calyx-tube campanulate; lobes longer than the corolla, nar- 
rowly lanceolate. Corolla-tuhe ^^ in., lobes acute. Style glabrous ; stigma subglobose. 
Fruit unknown. 

11. C. Rheedii, DC. Prodr. iv. 474; spinescent, shining, branches divari- 
cate, leaves ovate obtusely caudate-acuminate, petiole and very short fascicled 
pedicels pubescent, flowers 5-merous, fruit suborbicular compressed. W. 8f A. 
Prodr. 426; Dah. %■ Gibs. Boinh. Fl. 113. AVebera tetrandra, Wall. Cat. 8265 
A. in part ; Rheede Hart. Mai. v. t. 37. 

"Western Peninsula; from the Concan southwards. Ceylon; southern and 
central part. 

Shrubby, " scandent" (Dalzell); branches slender, short, pubescent ; spines short, 
sligi. Jy recurved. Leaves 1-4^ by 1-2 in., dark brown or black when dry, rarely 
green ; base rounded, sometimes acute or cordate ; nerve-axils sometimes hairy ; 
petiole very short and triangular ; stipules appressed, hairy. Pedicels ^^ in., shorter 
than the flowers. Calyx-tepth minute, Corolla-tuhe very short and broad ; lobes lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, forming a long beak in bud, glabrous. Style hairy. Fruit ^ in. 
diam., subdidymous, truncate with a broad sinus above ; pyrenes crustaceous, contigu- 
ous. — Wight & Arnott (Prodr. 427) have a var. ^8 with the under surface of the leaves 
sprinkled with hairs, and a var. y with cordate base to the leaves. Thwaites makes 
a var. 5 mim^s for a very small-leaved form with straight ascending spines. 

CantJdum.'] Lxxv. RUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 135 

12. C. angrustifollum, Ho.vb. Fl. Ind. i. 633 ; spinescent, bi-anches di- 
varicate, leaves ovate or elliptic-lanceolate pbtusely caudate-acuminate, petioles 
and very short fascicled pedicels glabrous, flowers C-merous, fruit suborbicular 
compressed. DC. Fi-odr. iv. 474. 0; Leschenaultii, W. 8( A. Prodr. 420; Wt. 
Ic. t. 826; Dalz. 8,- Oihs. Bomb. Fl. 113; TFall. Cat. 8414. Dondisia 
Leschenaultii, DC. I. c. 469. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. S308.—meede Hurt. Mai. 
vii. t. 17. 

"Western Peninsula, on the coast and hills from Belgaixm southwards; the Sun- 
DERBUNDS, SiLHET, and Chittagong, lioxburgh, &c. 

Very near indeed to C. Rhecdii, and I expect only a glabrous variety ; the fruit 
and flowers are the same. I find traces of pubescence in the shoots of Bengal speci- 

13. C. macrocarpum, TJm. Enum. 152; spinescent, pubescent, leaves 
ovate or elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, cymes shortly peduncled, flowers 5- 
merous pedicelled, fruit large subglobose, putamen very thick and bony undulate 
externally rugose intf'rually. 

Ceylon; Hantani, alt. 3000 ft., Thwaites. 

A subscandent shrub ; short petioles and nerves rufous-tomentose. Leaves 2-3 in. , 
dull green when dry, base rounded ; petiole ^ in. ; stipules minute. Ci/me subumbol- 
lately branched, pubescent; peduncles about f in., pedicels ^-^ in. Calyx 6-t.oothed. 
Corolla dirty white ; lobes lanceolate, rather longer than tlie tube. Fruit 1 in., 
■Hsually irregular in form, only one carpel maturing. — I have seen no flowers, nor 

14. C. caxnpanulatum, Thw. Enum. 153 ; spinescent, glabrous, leaves 
email ovate or elliptic obtuse, pedicels 1-4 slender, flowers 5-merous, corolla 
campanulate. Bedd. Fl. 8ylv., For. Man. 134/6. 

Cetlon; Deltotte, in the central province, alt. 3000 ft., Thwaites. 

A subscandent shrub ; branches slender, rough, youngest scaberulous ; spines small, 
straight. Leaves %-\\ in., green when dry, coriaceous ; petiole j^ in. ; stipules minute. 
Pedicels ^ in. ; flowers quite glabrous. Calyx-lobes short, acute. Corolla ^ in. diam.. 
tube shorter than the acuminate lobes. Stigma obconic wi^ih a truncate base, entire. 
Fruit the size of a pea (not seen by me). 

15. C parvifolium, Roxb. Hort. Bemj. 15; Fl. Ind, i. 534; spines 
straight, branches slender and petioles and leaves beneath or on both surfaces 
hirsute, leaves small ovate or elliptic subacute, flowei's 5-merous subsessile, fruit 
small suborbicular compressed, putamen tubercled. DC. Prodr. iv. 474. C. 
scandens. Blame Bijd. 966; DC. I. c. 475. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8288 B. 
Gardenia rigida, Wall. Cat. 8257 in part. 

Behab; MonglnT, Hamilton. Khasia Mts., alt. 2-3000 ft., J. D. H. <^- T. T., C. B. 
Clarke. Chittagong, Wallich, J. D. H. ^ T. T. Pegu, Kurz. — Distrib. Malayan 
Archipelago, S. China. 

A rambling shrub with spreading slender pubescent or hirsute brau-;hes ; spines 
slender, supra-axillary. Leaves \-\\ in., green when dry; petiole very short; stipules 
■ovate-lanceolate. Ca^^a; minutely 5-toothed. (7oroZ/a-^»6c subglobose, glabrous ; teeth 
lanceolate, acute. Bisk villous. Fridt \ in. diam., like that of C. liheedii. 

16. C. borrlduxn, Blume Bijd. 966; spines hooked, branches slender 
jjetioles and leaves beneath pubescent or hirsute, leaves small ovate subacute, 
flowers 5-merous subsessile, fruit large subglobose. DC. Prodr. iv. 474; Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 36 (Plectronia). 0. zizyphinum, Wall Cat. 8288 A. 0. Tlypti- 
anthera rhamnoides, Morr. ^ Zoll. Syst. Verh. 60. Dondisia horrida, Korth. in 
Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 236. 

Tenasserim, Gomez; Singapore and Penang, Wallich, he. — Distrib. Malay Ar- 
chipelago, Philippine Islands. 

Differs from C, parvifolium only in the shorter hooked compressed spines an J much 

136 Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hookep.) ICanthium.. 

larger fruit, -which I have not seen, but which is described by Kurz as equalling a- 
small cherry. 

17. C. parviflorum, Lamk. Diet. i. 602; spinescent, glabrous, leaves- 
small ovate obovate or orbicular obtuse, cymes peduncled many-flowered, flowers 
4-merous^ fruit auborbieular compressed emarginate at both ends, endocarp 
woody undulate. DC. Prodr. iv. 474 ; Gaertn. f. Fruct. 1. 196, f. 3 ; Roxb. Cor. 
PL t. 57 ; Fl. Ind. i. 634 ; TF. ^ A. Prodr. 426 ; Ddz. Sf Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 113 ; 

Wall. Cat. 3289. Webera tetrandra, Willd. Sp. PI. i. 1224 e.vcl. syn. Eheede; 

Wall. Cat. 6265 inpart.—Rheede Hort. Mai. v. t. 36. 

Western Peninsula ; from the Concan southwards. Ceylon ; abundant up to 
4000 ft. 

A rigid shrub; branches often thickly covered with stout straight spines 1-2 in. 
long. Leaves usually crowded on shortened lateral shoots, ^-1 in., rather coriaceous, 
dirty green when dry, opaque, base cuneate; petiole slender, ^-^ in. ; stipules small 
-writh long cuspidate points. Ci/mes ^-| in.; peduncle and pedicel slender, short or 
long; flowers very small, 3'ellowish. Cali/x-ieet h minnte. Corolla-tube anhglohose ; 
lobes ovate. Sfj/le glabrous, stigma capitate. Fruit subquadrate or obcordate sub- 
didymous, i in. diam. — " Spines sometimes three-fold " (Roxburgh). 

64. VANGUZSRZA, Juss. 
Characters of Canthium, but ovary 3-6- (usually 5-) celled, and fruit larger. 
— DisTRiB. Species about 30, in the tropics of the old world. 

V. EDULI9, VaM {Wall. Cat, 8410), a native of Madagascar, a small tree resembling 
V. spinosa, but unarmed, is cultivated in India for the sake of its eatable fruit. 

1. V. spinosa, Poxb. Fl. Ind. i. 536 ; spinescent, leaves glabrous villous 
or tomentose. Wall. Cat. 8409; DC. Prodr. ix. 454:. V. mollis, Wall. Cat. 
8411. V. spinosa and V. pubescens, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 34. V. edulis, Miq. in 
Herb. Hohenack. n. 127, not of VaM. Pyrostria ? spinosa, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
ii. 313. Canthium, Wall. Cat. 8415, 8417. 

From Northern Bengal to Canara, Pegu, Tenasserim, and BreMA. — Distrib. 

A small tree or large bush, with straight opposite simple or 3-nate spines. Leaves 
3-4 in., opposite or 3-nately whorled, ovate or oblong, acute or acuminate ; petiole ^-1 
in. ; stipules cuspidate from a broad base. Cymes 1-1^ in., shortly peduncled ; flowers 
greenish, pedicelled. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla-tube subglobose ; lobes triangular, 
acute. Style glahrows ; stigma 4-5-lobed. Drupe f in. diam., subgloboso or turbi- 
nate, smooth, fleshy ; pyrenes 4-5, woody, smooth. — Fruit eatable. 

Var. 1. spinosa proper; leaves glabrous or nearly so. V. spinosa, Hoxh. 

Var. 2. mollis, "Wall. Cat. 8411 (sp.) ; leaves more or less pubescent or tomentose 
on both surfaces. V. pubescens, Kur^. 

Go. laSSOPTERA, Koelc. f. 

A tree ; branches robust, terete. Leaves opposite, petioled, large and broad, 
very coriaceous, tomentose beneath ; nerves strong ; stipules large, rigidly coria- 
ceous, interpetiolar, one much larger than the other, obliquely oblong, very 
obtuse, with strong parallel or subflabellate r erves, the other shorter, rounded. 
Floicers minute, in small dense axillary cymes, ebracteolate. Calyx-tube short, 
hemispheric, 5-toothed. Corolla-tube short ; throat hairy ; lobes 5, short, acute, 
valvate in bud. Stamens 5, on the corolla-throat ; filaments short suljulate ; 
anthers oblong, apiculate. Ovary 2-celled ; style short, stout, stigma capitate 
10-lobed ; ovules 1 in each cell, attached to the septum, amphitropous ? Fi-uit 
small, 2-celled, didymous (or 1-celled and globose), smooth ; pericai*p coriacepus 
with a thin fleshy covering. Seeds cup-shaped, embracing a thick horny projec- 
tion from the middle of the inner angle of the cell, testa aduate to the dense 

Meso^ytera.l lxxv. rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 137 

fleshy albumen ; embryo slender, cylindric, occupying the whole axis of the al- 
bumen, hence coiled almost in a circle, cotyledons very short obtuse, radicle 
very long superior. 

1. TfL, IMCaingrayi, Hook.f. in Gen. Plant, ii. 131. 

Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 939). 

Branches as thick as a goose-quill. Leaves 8-12 by 4-5 in., ovate or elliptic, acu- 
minate, brown when dry, glabrous and shining above, rusty beneath ; nerves 9-10 
pair, impressed above ; petiole ^ in., very stout ; larger stipule 1 in. Cymes small 
and dense in flower, open in fruit, much branched, hirsute, branches slender. Friiit 
when didymous ^ in. diam., black when dry. — The description of the flowers is aided 
by Maingay's mss., where the ovules are described as inserted near the base of the 
cell, whence I assumed the plant to belong to PsychotricB, and so classed it in the 
Genera Plantarum ; the fruit, then unknown, shows it to belong to Vangruriea, (hough 
it resembles more outwardly that of an Ixora. 


66. ZXOXIA, Linn. 

Shrubs or small trees ; branches terete. Leaves opposite, rarely in threes ; 
stipules interpetiolar. Flowers in terminal 3-chotomously branched often corym- 
biform cymes, 2-bracteolate, very rarely 5-merous. Calyx-tube ovoid ; limb 4- 
toothed, persistent. CoroUa-tuhe long, very slender ; lobes 4, spreading, twisted 
in bud. Stamens 4, on the mouth of the corolla ; filaments short or 0, rarely 
half as long as the anther ; anther slender, tip often mucronate, base 2-fid. 
Oiwy 2-celled ; style filiform, exserted, never twice as long as the corolla-tube ; 
stigma slender, fusiform ; branches 2, rarely persistently connate ; ovules soli- 
tary, peltately attached to the septum in each cell. Fruit globose or didymous 
with 2 plano-convex or ventrally concave coriaceous pyrenes. Seeds peltate^ 
testa membranous, albumen horny; cotyledons flat thin, radicle inferior. — Dis- 
trib. Species about 100, tropical Asiatic and African, rarely American. 

A genus with difficulty distinguished from the 1-ovuled species of Webera, ex- 
cept by habit, the slender corolla-tube, and 4-merous flowers. The species are 
most difficult to limit and diagnose, and the subdivisinns here proposed are only 
approximately reliable. Probably more of the Indian species are referable to Malayan, 
and especially Bornean ones than I have ventured to identify with these. Pavetta 
differs in the bracts and very long style, always twice as long as the corolla or 

Sect. I. Euixora. Flowe7's 4- very rarely 5-merous, 2-bracteolate. 
Corolla-tube very slender. 

* Calyx-teeth longer than the ovary, lanceolate subulate or filiform. Cymes 
corymbiform (except in I. lanceolaria and Notoniana). 

1. Z. acuminata, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 10 ; Fl. Ind. i. 383 ; glabrous, leaves 
petioled elliptic or Hnear-oblong acuminate coriaceous, floral pair obovate or ob- 
lanceolate from a sessile auricled or rounded 'base, cymes sessile or subsessile 
corymbiform contracted dense-flowered, bracteoles elongate subulate, calvx 
glabrous teeth lanceolate' much longer than the ovary, corolla-tube very slender 
1-1^ in., lobes narrowly obovate, mouth pubescent or villous. BC. IVodr. iv. 
488 ; Wighl Ic. t. 706 (not good) ; Wall. Cat. 6126. 

SxKKiM Himalaya, alt. 3000 ft., C. B. Clarke; Bhotan, Griffith; Assam, Khasia 
Mts., ascending to 4000 ft., and Cachar, Hamilton, &c. ; Chittaoono, C. B. Clarke. 

A robust glabrous shrub ; branches smooth. Leaves very variable, floral sometimos 
only I in., rounded or linear-oblong, in extreme forms 12 by 6 in. with a cordate base ; 

VOL. ni. 


138 Lxxv. RUBiACEj;. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ixora, 

•other leaves 5-9 by 1| to 3 in., narrowed into a very short petiole ^-^ in., pale when 
dry, very coriaceous ; nerves 15-20 paii-, slender, arching ; stipules broad with very 
short points. Ci/tnes 2-4 in. diam., sometimes almost capitate, quite glabrous ; flowers 
-white, sweet-scented, sometimes 5-merous ; bracts and bracteoles long, filiform. Calyx 
\—^ in. Corolla § in. across the narrow obtuse lobes. Anthers sessile. Stigma fuBi- 
forni or 2-fid, with short arms. Fruit |-| in. long, ellipsoid or oblong, straight or 
oblique, crowned with the slender calyx-teeth. — The extreme forms are the Sikkim, with 
6-merous flowers and very small orbicular floral leaves ; and Upper Assam ones, with 
these sometimes 20 in. long and 7 broad. Grifl&th's Bhotan specimens (Kew Distrib. 
2983) have calyx-teeth sometimes hardly longer than the tube. 

2. X. lanceolaria, Colebr. in Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 387; glabrous or the 
'Cymes pubescent, branches slender, leaves short-petioled lanceolate or linear-lan- 
ceolate subacute, neiTes very slender, cymes sessile or peduncled corymbiform 
or brachiate, branches slender, calyx-teeth oblong-lanceolate much longer than 
the ovary, corolla glabrous, tube very slender ^-| in., lobes linear-oblong obtuse, 
mouth naked. DC. Prodr. iv. 484; W. 8f A. Prodr. 429; Wt. Ic. t. 827; 

Wall. Cat. 6125 ; Bot. Mafj. t. 4399. I. leucantha, Heyne in Wall. Cat. 6148 ; 

G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 672. I. Wallichii, Herh. Wight, not of W. 8f A. Prodr. 

Western Peninsula, from Belgaum southwards, Berry, &c. 

An erect shrub with " ash-coloured branches and pendulous slender green branch- 
,lets with compressed joints" {Boxb.). Leaves spreading, 5-7 by §-2 in., quite smooth 
And rather shining on both surfaces, pale and reticulate when dry ; nerves numerous, 
slender, often almost horizontal ; base rounded or acute ; stipules short, with long 
slender points. Cymes 2-3 in. diam,, from glabrous to hoary- pubescBut ; branches 
erecto-patent ; bracts and bracteoles oblong-lanceolate, caducous. Calyx \ 'in. long, 
glabrous, with 2 erect appressed bracteoles ; teeth linear-oblong or lanceolate. 
Corolla white, f in. across the narrow lobes. Filaments slender. Stigma alender. 
Fruit globose or didymous, calyx-teeth persistent. — In W. & A. Prodr, is a var, j3, 
founded on Wight's n. 1341, and described as having oblong-lanceolate leaves some- 
times pubescent beneath ; I do not find the latter character on Wight's specimens. I. 
Wallichii o{ Wight's Herbarium is not the plant described under that name in the- 
Prodromus, not having leaves pubescent beneath, but a slight variety of /. lanceolaria 
with narrower bracts and elliptic-lanceolate leaves. 

3. Z. calycina, Thzo. JSnum. 155 ; glabrous, leaves subsessile ovate ob- 
long or orbicular obtuse or acute, base acute rounded or cordate, nerves hori- 
zontal, cymes subsessile corymbiform contracted dense-flowered, calyx-teeth 
lanceolate much longer than the ovary, corolla | in,, lobes ovate acute, mouth 
glabrous. Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 97. 

Ceylon; Central Province, ascending to 7000 ft., Macrae, Walker, &c. 

A small tree. Leaves 1^-3 in,, coriaceous, midrib stout, dark brown and reticu- 
late when dry ; nerves 6-8 pair, slender ; stipules cuspidate. Cymes- rarely peduncled, 
peduncles puberulous ; flowers white tinged with rose, subsessile ; bracts and brac- 
teoles slender. Stigma short thick with short recurved arms. Filaments short. 
Fruit \ ia., ovoid or spherical; calyx-teeth persistent. 

4. Z. Thwaitesii, Hook. f. ; glabrous or shoots and cymes pubescent, 
leaves short-petioled oblanceolate oblong or elliptic acute flat or undulate, 
nerves ascending, cymes sessile corymbiform contracted dense-flowered, calyx- 
teeth acute longer than the ovary, corolla 1-1^ in., lobes ob'ovate acute. I. 
acuminata, Thio. Enum. 165, excl. var. /3, not of Roxh. 

Ceylon ; not uncommon, ascending to 3000 ft. 

Leaves 3|-5 in., thinly coriaceous, opaque, margins usually undulate, always 
narrowed into the short petiole ; stipules with long cuspidate points. Cymes as in 
I. calycina, but calyx-teeth shorter and corolla longer with longer lobes, stigmas the 
same. Corolla-throat glabrous, in which it differs from Koxburgh's R. acuminata. 

Ixora.'] Lxxv. kdbiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 139 

Anthers sessile. Fruii globose or didymous, ^ in. diam., smooth.— I have seen no 
.specimen of Thwaites' var. fi, with the branches and leaves on both sides velvetty. 

5. Z. Kotonlana, Wall. Cat. 6132 ; robust, glabrous except the puberu- 
lous cyme, leaves petioled elliptic or oblong obtuse thickly coriaceous, nerves 
12-16 pair, cymes peduncled brachiate many-flowered clusters rounded, calyx- 
teeth lanceolate longer than the ovary, corolla ^ in., tube very slender, lobes 
-oblong obtuse glabrous, mouth glabrous. I. Wightiana, Wall. Cat. G161. I. 
..^andiflora, Schlecht. in Kerb. Rohm. No. 1369. 

NixGHERRY and PuLNEY Mts., Wight, &c. 

Branches thick, bark rough. Leaves 6-8 by 1-3 in., rarely obovate, ]mle brown 
■when dry, base acute or obtuse ; nerves 10-12 pair, strong, ascending; petiole stout, 
^-| in. ; stipules with long strong cuspidate points, glabrous. Cymes sometimes 
<5 in. diam. ; peduncles stout, 2-6 in.; lower bracts often leafy; bracteoles setaceous; 
flowers red, shortly pedicelled, glabrous. Anthers sessile, nearly as long as the 
corolla- lobes, base subentire. Stigma small, clavato, entire or cleft. Fruit glabrous, 
^ in. diam. 

6. X. Jolinsoni, Hook. f. ; glabrous, branches robust, leaves petioled 
large elliptic acute at both ends, stipules triangular acute, cymes sessile corym- 
biform, branches very short and flowers densely crowded, calyx-teeth linear- 
lanceolate much longer than the tube, corolla-tube | in., lobes linear-oblong 
Acute, mouth naked. 

Western Peninsula, near Wenna Mala in Cochin, Rev. Mr. Johnson. 

Leaves crowded on the young branches, 6-8 by Z-Z^ in., thinly coriaceous, brown 
when dry, opaque ; nerves 12-15 pair, arched, prominent beneath ; petiole very stout, 
^ in. ; stipules short, appressed. Cymes 1^ in. long, branches rather slender but very 
short and much divided; bracts and bracteoles lanceolate, coriaceous, numerous. 
Calyx-teeth rigid, erect, broader as well as longer than the ovary. Filaments and 
anthers slender. Stigma fusiform, cleft. Fruit not seen. — I haA'e seen but one 
specimen of this fine species. 

7. Z. subsessilis, Wall. Cat. 6139 ; glabrous, leaves petioled lanceolate 
•elliptic or oblanceolate acuminate, stipules with long cusps, cymes subsessile 
brachiate, branches slender lax-flowered, calyx-teeth filiform much longer 
-(rarely only equalling) than the ovary, corolla-tube ^-1^ in., excessively 
slender, lobes narrowly oblong acute mouth glabrous. G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 
h72. I. oxyphylla. Wall. Cat. 6169. 

Assam and Khasia Mts., ascending to 4000 ft., De Silva, &c. 

A shrub or small tree ; branches with pale bark. Leaves very variable, 4-8 by 
f-3 in., thinly coriaceous, pale when dry, opaque or shining; nerves very slender; 
•subulate points of stipules much longer than the short sheath. Cymes 1-5 in. diam. ; 
bracts elongate-subulate or filiform ; flowers white or rosy. Calyx-teeth variable in 
length. Corolla-limb ^-^ in. diam. Filaments long, flattened ; anthers very slender. 
Stigma slender, entire or cleft. Fruit ^ in. diam., gibbous, crowned with the slender 
calyx-teeth. — Wallich's 7. oxyphylla has shorter calyx-teeth, but seems connected by 
intermediates with subsessilis. Some Assam specimens have teeth even shorter than 
the ovary. 

8. Z. Brunonis, W^all. Cat. 6136 ; branches tomentose, leaves long sessile 
uaiTowly oblanceolate caudate-acuminate pubescent with spreading hairs, base 
cordate, cymes sessile coiymbiform hirsute, flowers subcapitate, calyx-teeth 
linear-lanceolate about equalling the ovary, Cfiwt>Ua-tube ^ in. hairv, mouth 
naked. G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 673 ; Kurz For, Fl. ii. 20. Pavetta IBruncnis, 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 270 (not of Wt. Ic). Ixiblacea, Wall. Cat. 8447. 

Fegu and Tavoy, Kurz. Penang and Singapobe, Wallich, Phillips, &c. Maingay 
(Kew Distrib. 858). 

140 Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ixora. 

A shrub or small tree. Leaves 7-12 by l^-S^ in., brownish when dry, mem- 
branous, points long and slender, above often glabrate, beneath hairy chiefly on th» 
15-20 pair of slender nerves, sometimes obscurely contracted above the cordate base 
(pauduriform) ; stipules villous with very long filiform hairy points. Flowers sessile 
amongst filiform bracteoles. Calyx-teeth very slender. Corolla ^ in. diam. ; lobes 
lanceolate, acuminate, \ the length of the tube. Filaments subulate. Stigma small. 
Fruit ellipsoid oroglobose, ^ in. long, glabrous. 

** Calyx-teeth longer and broader than the ovary, elliptic oblong or sub^ 
orbicular ; cymes corymbiform. 

9. Z. polyanthai Wight Ic. t. 1066; robust, glabrous except the villous 
or pubescent cymes, leaves large sessile or short-petioled obovate elliptic-oblong- 
or -lanceolate acuminate coriaceous, cymes subsessile corymbiform contracted 
or open very many-flowered branches robust, calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate very 
much longer and larger than the ovary, corolla glabrous, tube slender ^-1^ in.,, 
lobes narrowly obovate obtuse, mouth glabrous. I. corymbosa, Heyne in Wall. 
Cat. 6155. I. grandis, Miq. in Herb. Hohenack. n. 617. 

Western Peninstixa ; on the Ghats from the Concan to Cochin, Wight, Law, &c. 

Shrubby, branches robust. Leaves 6-12 by 2^5 in. ; pale greenish -when dry, 
narrowed to the short stout petiole; stipules broad with long cuspidate points. 
Cymes either collected into a globose sessile head or more open and 4 by 5 in. longf 
and broad ; branches suberect, sometimes white with dense woolly spreading hair ; 
bracts and bracteoles oblong, acute, membranous, caducous; flowers sessile. Calyx 
sometimes ^ in. long, pjibescent, lobes like the bracteoles. Corolla ^ in. diam., quite 
glabrous. Filaments flattened. Stigma rather large, with stout recurved arms. 
Fruit not seen. — The bracts and calyx are very different from those of any congener. 

10. Z. SLlng'Stoni, Hook. f. ; glabrous, branches and leaves above 
shining, leaves petioled elongate oblong or oblanceolate obtusely acuminate 
membranous, cymes sessile between two small leaves corymbiform contracted 
dense-flowered, branches short and stout puberulous, calyx-teeth membranous 
glabrous almost orbicular larger than the ovary, corolla-tube 1-1 1 in. very 
slendev, lobes obovate obtuse, mouth naked. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2996). 

Branches as thick as a duck's quiil, black, smooth, and polished when dry, inter*- 
nodes long. Leaves 7-12 by 22-3| in., pale brown when dry, deflexed in flower, 
erect in the fruit, base acute; nerves slender, 15-20 pair; petiole \ in., black; 
stipules short, closely appressed, apiculate. Cymes 4 in. diam., vei-y dense-flowered ; 
bracts and bracteoles broadly elliptic, coriaceous,^ deciduous. Calyx \ in. long, glabrous. 
Corolla red?, limb \ in. diam. Stigma small, entire or notched. Filaments flattened. 
Fruit ^ in. long, globose or obliquely ovoid, crowned by the broad caljx-lobes. — The 
membranous leaves, stout short cyme-branches and the calyx, afford good characters. 
It is clearly allied to /. acuminata. Mr. Kingston, whose services this very hand- 
some species commemorates, was for some years an active assistant in the Herbarium 
department, of Kew. 

11. Z. merg'uensis, Hook. f. : glabrous, very robust, leaves large 
obovate or oblong-obovate abruptly acuminate opaque coriaceous, cymes «f>ssile 
corymbiform globose densely many-flowered excessivel)^ branched from the 
very base, calyx-teeth puberulous elliptic longer than the ovary, corolla-tube 
§ in. slender, lobes obovate or oblong obtuse, mouth nearly naked. 

Tenasserim ; Mergui, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3003). 

A low shrub; branches stout, cylindric, grey and opaque when dry. Leaves l-X'i 
by 2^-5 in., pale when dry and quite dull, narrowed into a short stout petiole ; stipules 
very short, coriaceous, apiculate. Cymes 3-4 in. diam. ; branches quite hidden by 
theflowers ; bracts broad, deciduous ; flowers odorous, white or pale pink with a red. 

.Jafora.] lxxv. eubuce^. (J. D. Hooker.) 141 

or rosy tube. Corolla-throat "with a few hairs. Anthers sessile, base subentire. 
Stigma rather large> "with short diverging arms. Fruit not seen. 

*** Calyx-teeth equalling or shorter than the ovary. 

+ Cymes long-peduncled, peduncles 2 in. long or more, often inclined ^r pen- 
^tdousj cymes hrachiate in all. See also under §§ {sp. 26 to end). 

12. X. elongrata, Heyne in WaU. Cat. 6131 ; glabrous except the hairy 
flowers, leaves petioled elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate, peduncles 
4-8 in. with 2 sessile leaves below tne middle, cymes brachiate, calyx-teeth 
subulate equalling the ovary, corolla-tube very slender |- in., lobes very small 
short oblong, throat naked. G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 571. I. peduuculata, Dor/s. 
in Hook. Keio Journ. iii. 121 ; Dalz. <§• Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 113. 

The CoNCAN and Canaea ; from Bombay to Kurg, Heyne, &c. 

A shrub ; branches slender, smooth. Leaves 6-9 by 2A-4 in., membranous, pale 
when dry, narrowed into a petiole ^-1 in., the pair on the peduncle 1-4 in. more 
oblong with rounded or cordate bases ; stipules broadly ovate, cusp slender. Cyme 
4-5 in. diam. ; peduncle strict, glabrous, branches 1-3 in., and pedicels pubescent ; 
flowers fascicled, pink ; bracts and bracteoles subulate. Calyx-teeth subacute, pubes- 
cent. Corolla with spreading hairs or glabrate, limb ^ in. diam. Filaments very short. 
Stigma small, simple or cleft. Fridt (not seen by me) smooth, slightly 2-lobed. 

13. Z. spectabills, Wall. Cat. 6133 ; quite glabrous, or calyx puberu- 
lous, leaves petioled elliptic-oblong obtuse or acute, peduncles 6-10 in. with 2 
sessile leaves below the middle, cymes brachiate, calyx-teeth subulate shorter 
than the ovar}'-, corolla-tube very slender ^§ in., lobes linear, mouth naked. 
G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 572 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 22. 

Aebacan to Tenasserim, frequent, Wallich, &c. 

An evergi'een tree. Leaves 5-8 by 2-3 in., varj'ing in form, equally rounded at 
both ends or tapering towards the tip or base, membranous or coriaceous, pale when 
dry, the pair on the peduncle occupying the same position as in Z. elongata ; rarely a 
similar pair occurs at the base of the peduncle, or several upper pairs are sessile or 
cordate ; petiole \-^ in. ; stipules short, cusp compressed subulate. Cynws and bracts 
a,8 in I. eloiigata but glabrous, the flowers looser and the corolla-lobes much larger 
and longer, nearly ^ in. long. Filarnents slender; anthers very long. Fruit size of 
a pea, globose or did}Tnous. 

14. Z. pendula, Jack in Mai. Misc. i. 11 ; quite glabrous, leaves petioled 
large linear-oblong or -ovate or -oblanceolate obtuse, cymes pendulous brachiate, 
peduncle 2-7 in. naked, calyx-teeth shorter than the ovary obtuse, corolla-tube 
very slender 1-1^ in., lobes linear-oblong, mouth naked. DC. Prodr. iv. 487; 
Wall. Cat. 6127. Pavetta pendula, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 269. 

Penang, Wallich, Phillips, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 842) ; Malacca, Griffith (Kew 
Distrib. 2991). 

A shrub 3-4 ft. ; branches slender for the size of the foliage, smooth. Leaves 
8-12 by 2-5 in., coriaceous, pale, sometimes whitish beneath, narrowed to the base; 
nerves slender, about 12 pair; petiole ^-f in.; stipules broad, cusp long. Peduncle 
3-8 in., slender, with sometimes a small pair of oblong sessile loaves near the base ; 
cyme 4-6 in. diam. ; flowers red, not fascicled ; bracts and braclcoles minute, filiform. 
Anthers sessile. Stigma small, entire or cleft. Fruit not seen. 

15. 1. dlversifolia, Wall. Cat. C146 ; glabrous, leaves petioled linear- 
oblong or -lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate obtuse, upper pair often sessile, cymes 
"brachiate, peduncle 3-6 in. very slender, calyx-teeth triangular shorter than the 
ovary, corolla-tube slender i in., lobes linear obtuse, mouth naked. Kurz For. 

142 Lxxv. RUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [_Iie4)ra^ 

Mabtaban, Tbnasseeim, and Andaman Islands, in forests, Wallicky Heifer (Kew 
Distrib. 2992). 

A large eyergreen shrub. Leaves 4-9 by 1^-2^ in., rather membranous, brown 
when dry. shining above; nerves 15-18 pair, very slender, horizontal or arched;, 
floral pair -"ery variable, large or small, base rounded or cordate ; petiole |-| in. ; 
stipules with long cusps. Peduncles very slender, often from short lateral shoots ;. 
cyme 2-3 in. diam., few-flowered; flowers loose, white, sessile or pedicelled; bracts 
and bracteoles minute, subulate or obsolete. Filaments slender. Stigma cleft. Fruit 
size of a pea, didymous. 

16. Z. Brandislana, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc 1872, ii. 316; For^ Fl. ii. 
26 ; glabrous except the cyme, leaves short-petioled elliptic- or oblong-lanceo- 
late acuminate, peduncles 4-5 in. drooping, cymes small subbrachiate branches 
short, calyx-teetb triangular shorter than the ovary, corolla-tube f-1 in. [1^^ 
2 in., Kurz), lobes oblong, mouth villous. 

Uppeb Tenassbbim, Heifer ; at Attran, Brandis. 

An evergreen shrub. Leaves 4-6 by 1^2 in., rather membranous, dark brown 
when dry, finely acuminate, base rounded or acute; nerves 12-14 pair, slender; 
uppermost pair often small and sessile ; petiole ^-\ in. ; stipules broad, cusp long. 
Cyme ^2 in. diam. ; branches short, pubescent, soon dividing and rather stout, 
^uberulous ; bracts and bracteoles minute, subulate ; flowers rather fascicled, white. 
Corolla very long (Kurz). Anthers Sessile, base entire. Fruit unknown. — I have 
only two indifferent specimens from Dr. King and Heifer: both agi*ee in all respects 
with Kurz's description, except that the peduncles are not short, nor the corolla-lobea 
acute, and the flowers do not exceed 1 in. in length. The remarkable acumination of 
the leaves, and the cymes being hardly brachiate, distinguish it from all others of 
this group. 

tt Peduncle of cyme less than 2 in. ; erect or suberect, or 0. 

§ Cymes not articulate at the ramifications, brachiate, rarely corymhiform, 

17. Z. bracblata, Boxl. Sort. Beng. 10; Fl. Ind. i. 381 ; quite glabrous 
or cymes pubescent, leaves petioled oblong or elliptic obtuse, cymes sessile or 
shortly peduncled brachiate with 2-3 pairs of long branches, flowers in globrse 
clusters, calyx-teeth shorter than the ovary, corolla-tube ^ in., lobes short 
obtuse globose in bud, mouth naked. DC. Prodr. iv. 488; W. ^- A. Prodr.. 
429 ; Wight Ic. t. 710 ; Wall. Cat. 6142. I. obtusata and I. Arnottiana, Mig. 
in Herh. Hohenack. 161 and 565. 

Western Peninsijta; on the Ghats from the Concan southwards. 

A tree 30 ft., or a stout shrub. Leaves 3-7 by l|-3 in., pale when dry, always 
obtuse, coriaceous or^rather membranous, narrowed or rarely rounded at the base ;. 
nerves as faint as the veins ; petiole \-% in. ; stipules short, cusps short. Cymes 4-& 
in. long and broad, rachis and long horizontal branches slender inarticulate, inter- 
nodes distant; lower bracts stipuliform, bracteoles minute; flowers white, odorous, 
sessile or pedicelled. Anthers sessile. Style glabrous or pubescent; stigma sub- 
capitate-, simple or cleft. Fruit globose or obscurely didymous. Seeds very thin, 
sides incurved so that the transverse section represents a dorsally compressed tube. — 
Flowers the smallest of the genus, and the -only one with globose buds. 

18. Z. parviflora, Vahl Symh. iii. 11, t. 52; glabrous, or the cymes 
pubescent, leaves subsessile oblong or elliptic obtuse base rounded or cordate- 
very rarely narrowed, cymes sessile brachiate with 3-5 pairs of short branches, 
flowers in subglobose clusters, calyx-teeth very short obtuse, corolla glabrous, 
tube 5 in., lobes oblong, buds ovoid. Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 383; DC. Prodr. iv. 
488; Wight in Hook. Bot. Misc. iii. 293, Suppl t. 34; Ic-. t. 711; W. 8f A. 
Frodr. 429; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 222; Dalz. <§• Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 113; Brand. For. 
Fl. 275; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 21. I. arborea, Boxb.-, DC. I. c. I. decipiens,. 
DC. I. c. I. Pavetta, Andr. Bot. Bep. t. 78 {not of Moxb.). 

Jarom.] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 143 

Hilly districts of "W. Benga.l, Behah, and the Western Peninsula, from the- 
Satpura range southwards. Chittagong, C. B. Clarke. Pegu, Kurz. Ceylon j 
hot drier parts of the island. 

An evergreen tree. Leaves 3-6 by 1^-24 in., very coriaceous, pale when dry; 
nerves slender, rather stronger than the reticulate Venules; petiole very 'stout; 
stipules short, cusps short. Cymes 2-6 in., inarticulate, internodes shorter than in 
/. brachiata, and branches much shorter; lower bracts stipuliform, upper and brac- 
teoles minute or obsolete ; flowers white, odorous, sessile or pedicelled. Filaments 
short. Style very pubescent; stigma subcapitate, simple or cleft. Fruit small, 
didymous. Seeds plano-convex. — I have seen no Pegu specimens. — Touch-wood. 

? Vab. zcylayiica ; leaves longer petioled broadly elliptic or obovate acute or 
acuminate cuneato at the base more membranous less reticulate, stipules with longer 
cusps, cyme-branches longer. — I. jucunda, var. 7, an species distincta? Thwaites 
Enum. 155. Ceylon, Walker. &c. — This is certainly very near indeed to I. parvijiora, 
agreeing entirely even to the pubescent style and the anthers and form of seed, as far 
as I can ascertain from imperfect fruits, and diflfers from /. jucunda widely in the 
cymes, length of the corolla, and form of its lobes. 

19. X. gr^ndifolia, Zoll. ^^ Morr. Syst. Verz. 65; glabrous or the cymes 
puberulous, leaves often very large petioled elliptic ovate oblong or lanceolate 
obtuse or acute, stipules large with, ft long cusp or the upper 2-fid, cymes 
sessile brachiate or corymbiform ramifications inarticulate, branches more or 
less stout, bracts and bracteoles obsoltste, flowers pedicelled, filaments subulate,, 
anthers very slender, calyx-lobes small triangular or obtuse, corolla glabrous, 
tube ^-1^ in., lobes oblong obtuse, mouth naked. I. elliptica, Br. in Wall. Cat, 

Andaman and Nicobar Islands to Singapore, Malacca, and Penano, WaUich^ 
^c. — DisTRiB. Malay Archipelago (all the forms). 

1 I am quite unable to distinguish specifically various of the very dissimilar forms 
that occur in the localities specified : all have pedicelled white or pale pink flowers, 
fruit the size of a large or small pea, and their seeds are very concave ventral ly. The 
principal are : 

Vab. coriacea, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6151 (sp.); I. macrosiphon, Kurz i>h Trimen. 
Joum. Bot. 1875, 327 ; For. Fl. ii. 24 ; branches very stout with whitish bark, leaves 
12-18 by 4-5 in. elliptic base acute obtuse or rounded, petiole very robust, cymes with 
very thick suberect>flowering branches spreading in fruit, corolla-tube ^ in. — Penang,. 
Wallich. — Grifl&th's specimens from Malacca (Kew Distrib. 2999) have narrower 
lanceolate bases and shorter petioles, and the cymes reduced to a fascicle of thick 
primary branches starting from the end of the branch. Kurz's from S. Andaman 
have dark leaves 12-14 by 4^-5 in., with rounded bases, almost black, and similar 
cymes. — Paveita macrophylla, Blume, appears a large flowered form of this, as is pro- 
bably P. Teysmannidna and P. macrocoma of Miquel. 

Var. arhorescens, Hassk. (sp.) in Eetzia, i. 22 ; branches more slender usually 
•with white bark, leaves 4-10 by 2-3 in., usually more membranous, rachis of cyme 
elongate, branches horizontal, flowers looser, corolla-tube ^ in. — Penang and Malacca, 
Griffith (Kew Bistrib. 2987). 

Vab. Kurzeana, Teysm. & Binnend. (sp.) in Nat. Tijdsch. Ned. Ind. xxvii. 100, ex- 
Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1876, ii. 134; leaves lanceolate thin narrowed into a stout 
petiole, cymes corymbiform, corolla l-l^ in. — Nicobar Islands, Knrz. 

Var. rosella, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 23 (sp.); leaves 6-8 by 3^-4^ in. thin elliptic- 
oblong or obovate acute or acuminate margins often undulate, nerves nearly hori- 
zontal, petiole ^-1 in., cymes corymbiform, corolla ^-5 in. — South Andaman Islands,. 

20. X. brunnescens, Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 317 ; For. Fl. ii. 
24; glabrous, leaves sessile or subsessile broadly obpvate obtuse on tip rounded 
opaque, base rounded or cordate, nerves very faint horizontal, cymes small 

144! Lxxv. KUBiACEj). (J. D. Hookcr.) [Ixora, 

brachiate sessile or peduncled, flowers all pedicelled, caljx-teeth minute 
triangular, corolla glabrous, mouth naked. 

Andaman Islands, in beach jungles, Heifer, Kurz; Nicobar Islands, Kurz. 

Possibly a form of 1. graiidifoUa, but the leaves are of a very different shape, 
almost or altogether sessile, very opaque, 5-8 by 3-4 in., with very slender nerves 
and the veins not raised, margins often undulate ; stipules broad, cusps short. Cymes 
• ebracteate even in bud; ramifications inarticulate; fully formed flowers- not seen. 
Fruits globose, size of a small pea ; pedicel sometimes \ iu., slender. 

21. Z. jucunda, Thw. JEnian. 155, e.vd. var. y {not of Bdt. Mag.') ; cymes 
puberulous, leaves lanceolate oblong elliptic or oblanceolate obtuge or obtusely 
uicuminate narrowed into a short petiole, stipules very short mucronate or 
shortly cuspidate, cymes sessile corymbiform usually with many bi'anches from 
the base, bracts or bracteoles minute or obsolete, flowers pedicelled, calyx-teeth 

^minute obtuse, corolla white glabrous, tube 1-1^ in., lobes ovate acute, mouth 
naked, Pavetta Wyckii, Hassk. Retz. i. 21, ex. Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1877, 
ii. 149. 

Cetlon ; common, ascending to 4000 ft., WaUcer, &c. 

This again is very near /. grandifolia, but the leaves are narrower and never so 
large as they become in that plant, usually 4-5 by li-2 in., but sometimes 6-8 by 
3-3i in., base rarely rounded, membranous or coriaceous, stipules much shorter, 
ramifications of cyme inarticulate and corolla-lobes acute, fruit the same, flowers 
white or pink. 

§§ Branches tomentose or jmbescent. Cymes articidate o*^ die ramiflcationSf 

22. Z. villosa, Roxb. Hort. B&>ig. 10; Fl. Ind. i. 383; branches short, 

petioles and cymes pubescent or tomentose, leaves large elliptic-oblong lanceo- 
late or oblanceolate caudate-acuminate, base narrowed or rounded, stipules with 
long often spreading filiform points, cymes peduncled, branches long bmchiate, 
flowers white, calyx-teeth short, corolla glabrous, tube 1 in. very slender. DC. 
Rrodr. iv. 488; Wight Ic, t. 150; KurzFor. Fl. ii. 21 ; Wcdl. Cat. 6137. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, J. D. H. ; Assam, the Khasia Mts., Silhet, Cachak, Peou, and 
Penang, Wallich, &c. 

Shrubby. Leaves 6-16 by 2\-b^ in., very variable in shape, brown when dry, 
thinly coriaceous, glabrous above, beneath pubescent chiefly on the 10-12 pair of 
nerves or glabrate ; petiole ^-g- in. ; stipules ^-1 in., tomentose. Peduncle stout, 
2-4 in. ; cymw and ramifications hardly articulate ; lower bracts often leafy, upper 
inear-subulate ; flowers crowded, fragrant, shortly pedicelled. Corolla-lobes oblong, 
Jiiotched. Filaments subulate ; anthers slender. Style-arms slender, free or connate. 
Fruit size of a pea, smooth, red. Seeds concave ventrally, with a median ridge (in 
Roxburgh's figure). — After flowering the calyx-teeth sometimes exceed the tube, when 
the latter does not swell and form fruit, 

23. Z. cunelfolia, Roxh. Hort. Beng. 10; Fl. Ind. i. 380; branches 
short, petioles and cymes pubescent or puberulous, leaves lanceolate or oblong- 
or elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate obtusely acuminate coriaceous base acute, 
stipules with short filiform cusps, cymes sessile or short-peduncled brachiate, 
branches short, calyx-teeth equalling or shorter than the ovary, corolla glabrous, 
i;ube ^-f in. veiy slender, mouth naked. DC. Prodr. iv. 487 ; W. 8f A. Prodr. 
428; Wt. Ic. t. 709; Wall. Cat. 6140; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 21 ; Bat. Reg. t. 048. 
I. puberula, Wall. Cat. 6145, excl. c. I. rosea, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., cd, 
Carey ^ WaU. i. 398 {not of Wall. Cat.) ; Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 640. Pavetla 
Ackeringae, Teysm. ^ Binn.fde Kurz. 

Silhet, Be Silva; Pegu, Tbnassehim, and Martaban, M'Clelland, Kurz, Griffith 
(Kew Distrib. 2995). 

Ixom.1 Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hookcr.) 145 

Shrubby. Leaves 5-8 by 2-3 in., coriaceous, pale when dry, variable, ba8€i.always 
caneate or narrowed into the petiole, sometimes puberulous beneath ; stipules |r-.i in. 
Cymes and white flowers very much as in /. vUlosa, but sessile or shortly pedicelled, 
puberulous or glabrate, and the flowers shorter and corolla-lobes not notc&ed. 
Filaments slender. Fruit the size of a pea, red. Seeds ventrally concave with cv 
median ridge (in Koxburgh's drawing). — A very large specimen from Rangoon has 
elliptic leaves 9 by 3^ in. Wight and Arnott describe the calyx-teeth as twice tho 
length of the ovary, which is not the case. Kurz enumerates 3 varieties :— 1. Jiox- 
btirghii, with glabrous leaves and sessile or short-peduncled cymes; 2. puherula,yir\i\\ 
leaves puberulous beneath and larger peduncled cymes ; 3. jyiimila, 1-3 ft., flowers 
often pale rose, cymes small short more slender. 

§§§ Branches glabrous. Cymes articulate at the ramifications, corymbtf 07711, 
rarely brachiate. 

24:. Z. ooccinea, Linn. ; Moxb. Fl. Lnd. i. 375 : glabrous, leaves sessile 
or subsessile shortly oblong, base rounded or cordate rarely cuneate, tip rounded 
or apiculate, cymes sessile corymbiform dense-flowered, calyx-teeth minute 
shorter than the ovary, corolla-tube 1-lf in., lobes broad acute, mouth naied. 
W. 8f A. Prodr. 427 ; Wight Lc. t. 153 ; Dalz. Sf Gibs. Bomb. FL 112 ; Bra7ul. 
Fot\ Fl. 276 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 26. I. grandiflora, Br. in Bot. Reg. t. 154 ; 
DC. Prodr. iv. 486; Wight in Hook. Bot. Misc. iii., Suppl. t. 35. I. propinqua, 
Br. in Wall. Cat. 6119. I. incarnata, DC. I. c. ? I. obovata, Heyne in Roth 
Nov. Sp. 90. I. Bandhuca, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 10 ; Fl. Lnd. \. 376 ; Wall. Cat. 
6120 ; DC. I. c. ; Bot. Reg. t. 513 ; Wight Lc. t. 140. Pavetta coccinea and 
P. incarnata, Blume Bijd. 960. P. Bandhuca, Miq. Fl. Lnd. Bat. ii. 2GG.— 
Rheede Bort. Mai. ii. t. 12 ; Burm. Fl. Zeyl. t. 57. 

Cultivated throughout India, a native of the Western Peninsula, in the Concan, 
^c, Balzell ^ Gibson. CHrrrAGONG, apparently indigenous, J. D. H. ^- T. T. Culti-^ 
vated in Ava, Martaban, and Burma, Kurz. Ceylon ; common, ascending to 200O 
ft,, Thwaites. 

A branching shrub ; branches strict, rather stout. Leaves 2-4 by 1-2 in., coria- 
ceous, pale when dry; nerves 8-10 pair, distinct; stipi\les with rigid cusps. Cymes 
rarely shortly peduncled ; ramifications very short, articulate ; bracts and bracteoles 
subulate ; flowers scarlet, sessile or very shortly petioled. Filaments long and anthers 
short for the genus. Stigma with short revolute arms. Fruit sometimes fleshy, size 
of a pea, crowned by the calyx-teeth. .Seed very concave ventrally. — Roxburgh dis- 
tinguishes /. Bandhuca from 1. coccinea by being more branched, with stem-clasping 
obtuse leaves and ovate obtuse corolla-lobes. These characters should be looked to 
in India ; they point to intermediates between L coccinea and stricta. Ho further 
figures the seed of coccinea as plano-convex. A yellow flowering variety is said to be 
in cultivation. 

25. I. stricta, Roxb, LLoH. Beng. 10; Fl. Lnd. i. 379; glabrous, leaves 
sessile or subsessile obovate or obovate-oblong obtuse or subacute base cuneate, 
cymes corymbiform sessile or peduncled, calyx-teeth shorter than the ovary 
obtuse or acute, coroUa-tube f-1 in., lobes rounded, mouth naked. DC. Prodr. 
iv. 486; W. ^ A. Prodr. 427 ; Wight Lc. t. 184; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 26; Wall. 
Cat. 6123. I. coccinea, Bot. Mag. 160. I. alba, Ro.ib. II. cc. ; Wight Lc. t. 
707 ; Wall. Cat. 6122. I. blanda, Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 100; DC. I. c. 487. I. 
incarnata, Roxb. ; D. C. I. c. 486. I. crocata, Lindl in Bot. Reg. t. 782 ; DC. 
I. c. 486. I. rosea, Wall. Cat. 6124 ; Bot. Mag. t. 2428 : not of Wall, in Ro.ib. 
Fl. Lnd. 

Cultivated in A'arious parts of India, but a native of the Moluccas and China, 
according to Roxbui^h. Kurz regards it as indigenous in Rangoon and Upper 

There is little to distinguish this from /. coccinea but the smaller corolla-lobes 
and form of the leaves. Roxburgh figures the seeds as plano-convex, a character I 

146 Lxw. kudiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ixora 

Imve no means of verifying. The flowers vaiy from scarlet and pink to white and 
yellowish. — Kurz makes 2 varieties: — 1. Roxhurghiana, with almost sessile leaves 
often rounded at the base, and subsessile or sessile cymes ; and 2. Blmneana (Pavetta 
javanica, Blume), with short-petioled leaves acute at the base and laxer cymes oa 
pi^yncles 1-1^ in. The latter of these T take to be 7. amoena, Wall. Cat. 6121 A. B. 0. 
I. ?osca. Wall. Cat. 6124. from the Calcutta Garden, is probably a variety of this- 
with acute calyx-teeth and narrower corolla-lobes. 

2G. I. amoena, Wall Cat. 6121, D. E. F. ; G. Don Gm. Syst. iii. 571 ; 
glabrous or cymes puberulous, leaves petioled lanceolate or oblong- or obovate- 
lanceolate acuminate, base acute, cymes sessile or peduncled corymbiform,. 
Hewers crowded, calyx-teeth ovate-lanceolate shorter than the ovary, corolla- 
tube 1-1^ in., lobes oblong obtuse, mouth naked. 

Tenassbrim, at Mergui, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2986) ; Penang, Wallich, PMllijpSy 
Maingay (Kew Distrib. 846). — Distrib. Java. 

This differs from 7. stricta in its laxer more slender habit and longer lanceolate 
acuminate, more membranous leaves with petioles ^-^ in., but I suspect it will prove 
only a form of that plant. 

27. X. fulgrens, Hoxh. Hm-t. Beng. 10; Fl. Ind. i. 378; glabrous, l)ranches 
slender polished, leaves petioled linear- or obovate-oblong abruptly acutely or 
obtusely acuminate, base acute, shining above with 20-30 pair of deeply sunk 
nerves, chines large sessile or shortly peduncled corymbiform and very open or 
fiub-brachiate, branches long slender spreading, flowers shortly pedicelled, calyx- 
teeth very short obtuse, corolla-tube 1-1| in., lobes ovate acute, mouth naked. 
JDC. Prodr. iv. 486; Wi(/ht Ic. t. 151 ; Wall. Cat. 6152 A. I. saUcifolia, DC. 
I. c. 487 ; Bot. Mag. t. 4623. Pavetta fidgens, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 264. P. 
salicifolia, Blume Bijd. 951. P. Lobbii, Teysm. ^ Binnend. in Miq. Ann. Mus, 
Ludg. Bat. iv. 194. 

Tknasserim, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2998); Maiacca, Griffith (2985), Maingay 
(84o) ; SiNGAPORK, Lohh ; Penang, Wallich. — Disteib. Java, Borneo. 

A shrub, branches erect. Leaves 5-9 by 1^-2 in., membranous, dark brown when, 
dry, surface otten raised between the nerves, base always acute ; petiole \-\ in. ;. 
stipules closely grasping the stem, with slender cusps. Cyme quite sessile, secondary- 
branches long spreading horizontally, the whole forming a loose inflorescence 5-7 in. 
broad but not so high; bracts and bracteoles short, ovate, acute; flowers shortly 
pedicelled, orange then scarlet. Fruit spherical or didymous, " succulent and seed 
rugose," Itoxh. 

28. Z. congresta, Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 387 ; glabrous except the puberulous 
cymes, leaves large petioled elliptic or elliptic-oblong or -lanceolate abruptly 
obtusely acuminate, base rarely rounded, nerves strong 12-15 pair, stipules 
•short with short cusps, cymes sessile or subsessile corymbiform, branches very 
stout suberect fastigate, calyx-teeth very short broadly triangular, corolla-tube- 
1-1^ in., lobes obtuse, mouth naked. DC. P)'odr. iv. 486; Wall. Cat. 6138. 
I. Griffithii, Hooh. Bot. Mag. t. 4325. I. fulgens, Wall. Cat. 6512 B. Pavetta 
congesta, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 269. 

Tenasserim; Tavoy and Attran, Wallich, Gomez. Penang and Singapore, 
Wallich, &c. Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2984), Maingay (848). 

An evergreen tree {Kurz), closely allied to 7. fulgens, differing in the stouter 
liabit, very large usually coriaceous broader leaves G-12 by 2-4 in,, with nerves very 
prominent beneath, and petioles ^-f in., and the very stout cyme-branches, which do- 
not spread, but are fastigiate ; the stipules, too, are broader and shorter ; the bracts 
arc the same, very triangular, and the flowers are sometimes sessile, at others on 
stout pedicels ; fruit ovoid or globose or didymous. 

29. Z. rugrosula, Wall. Cat. 6158 ; glabrous except the cymes, leaves 
petioled ovate or elliptic or lanceolate acuminate, base acute or rounded, stipulea 

Ixora,'] Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 147 

short, cymes sessile corymbiform dense-flowered, branches fastigiate, calyx-teeth 
short acute, corolla-tube | in., lobes linear-oblong obtuse, mouth naked. Kurz 
For. Fl. 25. ? I. sessiliflora, Ktirz in Journ. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 316 ; For. FL 
ii. 25. 

Pegu and Tenasserim ; Attran, Wallich ; Tavoy, Gomez, Parish, Kurz. 

Differs from /. congesta in the leaves with fewer (8-10 pair) nerves, and the much 
smaller flowers with longer corolla-lobes and more slender anthei*s. Except in the 
smaller leaves, and according to Kurz, the shrnbby habit and glabrous peduncled 
cyme and pale rooe-coloured flowers /. sessiliflora does not seem to differ from /. 
rugosiila, of the which it has the few nerves ; it is perhaps a mountain form, found 
at 3000 to 4000 ft. elevation ; I have, however, seen but one poor specimen, kindly 
sent by Dr. King. The flowers of /. rugosula are white. 

30. Z. concinna, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6149; glabrous, branches slender, 
leaves not large petioled elliptic-lanceolate obtusely acuminate, cymes small 
sessile or subsessile corymbiform, flowers mostly pedicelled, calyx-teeth ovate- 
lanceolate equalling the tube, corolla-tube \ in., lobes linear-oblong obtuse, 
mouth naked. Ilubiaceae, Wall. Cat. 8449. 

Malacca ; Mt. Ophir, Lohb, Maingai/(Kew Distrib. 847). Sixgapobe, Wallick,&c. 

Leaves 3-5 by f-l^- in,, thin, pale brown when dry, hardly shining, base acute ; 
nerves 10-12 pair, distinct arched; petiole ^-\ in. • stipules ^ in, broad, cusp com- 
pressed rigid. Cymes quite sessile, or if peduncled with 2 small loaves at the top of 
the peduncle; branches erect ; bracts and bracteoles subulate ; pedicels short. Calyx- 
teeth subacute. Filaments subulate, half as long as the slender anther. Stigma cleft. 
Fruit size of a pea, pedicelled, globose or didymous, with persistent calyx-teeth. Seed 
thin, vcntrally very concave. 

31. I. opaca, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6141; glabrous except the puberulous 
cymes, branches slender, leaves petioled long narrow coriaceous linear-oblong 
or lanceolate obtuse, base acute or rounded, upper pair sometimes sessUe, nerves 
20-25 pair usually deeply impressed, cymes shortly peduncled corymbiform 
dense-flowered, branches very short fastigate, flowers sessile or subsessile, calyx- 
teeth very short obtuse, corolla-tube 1 in., lobes linear^blong, mouth naked. 
G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 573. Pavetta opaca, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 270. 

Penang, Wallich. Martaban; Mo ulraein, Prtm/^.— Distrib. Siam. 

A very distinct-looking plant, from the slender branches, long narrow 6-10 by 
1^-2 in., opaque pala brown leaves with spreading usually sunken nerves, and 
petioles \ in, long; stipules short, cusps slender, as long as the broad portion. 
Flowers pink (Parish), bracts and bracteoles small. Corolla-tube obscurely puberu- 
lous in Mergui specimen, glabrous in Penang ones. Fruit not seen. 

§§§§ Branches glabrous. Cymes articula'e at the ramifications^ h-achiate, 
rarely corynibifwm. 

32. I. undulata, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 10; Fl. Ind. i. 385; glabrous or 
cymes pubescent, branches slender, leaves petioled elliptic or linear-lanceolate 
acuminate margins often undulate, cymes peduncled or sessile brachiate with 
3-4 pair of slender branches, flowers loosely fascicled pedicelled and sessile, 
calyx-teeth lanceolate equalling the ovary, corolla-tube ^-^ in., lobes linear 
obtuse, mouth naked. Both Nov. Sp. 91 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 488 ; W. 4' A. Prodr. 
428 ; Wight Ic. t. 708 ; Wall. Cat. 0129, excl Herb. Ham. I. canjia, Wall. Cat. 

Eastkrn Tropical Himalaya; Nipal, Sikkini. and Bliotan, Hamilton,' Grij^Hfh, 
J. B. H., &c. Assam, Jenkins. Silhet, at the foot of the Khasia Mts., J. D. H. 4- T. T. 
Behab, woods at Monghir, Hamilton. 

Shrubby. Leaves 5-9 by l|-2^ in., thin, shining above, pale when dry, base 
acute; nerves 20-30 pair, slender; petiole \-h in,; stipules 'i-^ in., cusps com- 

148 Lxxv. rubucej:. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ixora. 

pressed. Ci/mes 4-8 in. and as broad, obscurely articulate; peduncle sometimes 2-3 
in. ; bracts and bracteoles subulate, persistent ; flowers small, white. Filaments 
slender ; anthers nearly equalling the corolla-lobes. Stigma cleft. Fruit pedicelled, 
size of a pea. Seed thin, with strongly incurved margins. 

33. Z. barbata, Hoib. HoH. Beng. 10 ; Fl. Ind. i. 384 ; glabrous, leaves 
petioled elliptic subacute thin upper pair at base of pedicels usually small sessile 
cordate, cymes shortly peduncled brachiate much broader than high, branches 
long slender divaricate, calyx-teeth very short subulate, corolla-tube \-\^ in., 
lobes narrow, mouth woolly. DC. Pi'odr. iv. 487; Wight Ic. t. 185; Kurz 
For, Fl ii. 22 ; Bot. Mag. t. 2505, 4513 ; Wall. Cat. 6128. 

Andaman and Nicobab Islands ; frequent in forests, Kurz. 

A large shrub. Leaves 6-8 by 2^-3i in., usually elliptic and narrowed at the 
base, rarely rounded; nerves about 12 pair, slender; upper pair oblong-ovate, acute, 
from ^-3 in. long ; petiole \-\ in. ; stipules short, broad, cusp short. Cymes quite 
glabrous, 3-4 in. by 4-12 broad, the 2-3 pairs of branches being very long and wide- 
spread, much divided towards the end with slender branchlets and pedicelled lax 
white flowers ; bracts at all the divisions narrowly lanceolate or the upper subulate. 
Fruit not seen. — Introduced into the Calcutta Garden before Roxburgh's time, but 
its native country unknown till Kurz found it in the Andamans, &c. 

34. X. oblongra, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6147 A. ; glabrous, branches stout, 
leaves petioled oblong obtuse at both ends, nerves about 12 pair, upper pair 
smaller sessile, stipules short, cymes peduncled small short brachiate, branches 
stout, calyx-teeth very short, corolla-tube ^-f in., lobes oblong obtuse, mouth 

Tenasserim ; at Amherst, Wallich. — Disteib. Java, Siam. 

Leaves 3|-5 by 1-1^ in., thinly coriaceous, greenish when dry, similar and rather 
shining on both surfaces ; nerves faint ; petiole ^ in. ; stipules with short cusps. 
Cymes 1 in. high by 2-3 broad ; peduncle and two pair of branches stout, the latter 
divided at the ends; bi-acts and bracteoles subulate, persistent; flowers white, 
odorous. — The Java, Siam, and Tenasserim specimens are singularly alike in size, 
colour, and form of leave", and size and form of cymes, but the specimens are not 

35. Z. lucida, Br, in Wall. Cat. 6135 ; glabrous, shining, black when dry, 
branches slender, leaves very shortly petioled elliptic-ovate or -lanceolate 
long-acuminate base roimded or acute, nerves about 20 pair horizontal, cymes 
small peduncled corymbiform few-flowered, branches slender, bracts and brac- 
teoles persistent, calyx-teeth lanceolate equallinj^ the tube, corolla-tube 1 in. 
very slender, lobes linear aciuninate, mouth pubescent, stigma short cleft. G. 
Don Gen. Syst. iii. 571. 

Pfnang, Wallich.. 

Leaves 3-5 by 1^-2 in., thin; nen^es very slender, raised on both polished sur- 
faces ; petiole -^^ in. ; stipules very short, cuspidate. Cymes trichotomously 
branched, 1 in. long with very few branches, and rigid persistent subulate bracts; 
bracteoles also rigid, nearly as long as the caljx. — The specimens are very insuffi- 
cient ; the habit and colour are those of /. nigricans, but the calyx-teeth, long 
corolla-tube with pubescent mouth, broader buds, and short stigma with short 
recurved arms, are very different. 

36. Z. nigricans, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6154; glabrous or cymes pubescent, 
Hack when dry, branches slender, leaves petioled elliptic-obloug or -lanceolate 
or -obovate obtusely and acutely acuminate, nerves 12-16 pair arched, cymes 
sessile or peduncled brachiate broader than long, branches slender, stipules 
with long cusps, calyx-teeth lanceolate or subulate acute, coroUa-tube ^ in., 
lobes slender, mouth naked, stigmas long slender arms. W. <§* A. Prodr, '428 j 

Ixora.'} Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 149 

Jfu/ht Ic. t. 318; Dalz. 8r Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 113; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 23. I. 
affiiiii^, Wall. Cat,. 6144. ?I. densa, Br. in Wall. Cat. 6160. 

Western Peninsula, or the Ghats from the Concan southwards; Eastern Penin- 
sula, from Pegu to Malacca; Penang, Maingay (Kcw Distrib. 859); Cachaic, 
Kccnan. — Distrib. Birma, Malay Archipelago. 

An evergreen tree or large slirub, branchlets and inflorescence as well as tho 
leaves black when dry. Leaves 5-7 by 1-2^ in., membranous, base rounded or acute, 
upper pair rarely small elliptic and sessile; nerves very slender; petiole ^-J in. ; 
stipules with long hair-like cusps ^ in. long, or broad and shortly cuspidate. Cymes 
2-6 in. broad, shorter than broad ; peduncles erect, 2 in. and under or ; bracts very 
slender^ persistent or not; bracteoles subulate, very persistent ; flowers few or nume- 
rous, white, odorous ; lobes of corolla forming a very narrow bud not much broader 
than the tube. Calyx-teeth short or long, always acute or acuminate. Filaments 
slender ; anthers very long, almost filiform. Fruit size of a pea, glabrous or didy 
mous. Seed plano-convex (as far as I can ascertain). — The Cachar specimens havo 
shorter calyx-lobes than the others. Apparently a common and a variable ]\Ialayan 
plant, published under several names, as laxiflora. Hassk. ; subulata, Teysm. & 
Binnend ; and acutiflora, Reinw. The /. densa, Br., from Penang, is probably a state 
of this with more coriaceous elliptic-lanceolate leaves, of a paler colour; the flowers 
are stated to be rod, but as there are two plants on the sheet no confidence can be 
placed in the ticket. 

Var. arguta; leaves narrowly oblanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate acuminate 4-5 
by \-l\ in. — I. ? arguta, Br, in Wall. Cat. 6157. Western Peninsula, Hcyne; Purwur 
Ghat, Bombay, Ritchie. 

37. X. erubescens, Wall. Cat. 6143 ; glabrous, Uaclv when dry, branches 
slender, leaves sessile or subsessile elliptic-oblong, tip rounded or obtuse, base 
cunea,te or rounded, nerves 8-12 pair, upper pair often cordate, cjnnes peduncled 
or sessile brachiate, branches slender, stipules with slender cusps, calyx-teeth 
very small subacute, corolla-tube ^ in., lobes slender, mouth nalced, stigma long- 
arms slender. G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 671 {character erroneous). I. memecy- 
lifolia, Kurz in Journ. As. Sac. 1872, ii. 316; For. Fl. ii. 24. 

Martaban and Tenasserim, Wallich, Heifer, Kurz; Moulmein, Griffith. 

Doubtfully distinct from I. nigricans by the subsessile more oblong leaves, obtuse 
at both ends, with fewer nerves ; the peculiar buds arc identical. Kurz makes I. 
erubescens a var. of nigricans, distinguished by the obtuse corolla-lobes, but does not 
describe those of his /. memecylifolia, which is identical with Wallich's erubescens, 
and the corolla-lobes of which are exactly like that of nigricatis proper. 

imperfectly known, doubtful, and rejected species. 

I. glaucina, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 27 ; glabrous, leaves 4-6 in. oblong to elliptic- 
lanceolate shortly acuminate, base acute, petiole ^-^ in., cymes corymbiform sessile, 
flowers crowded scarlet, calyx globose, teeth short triangular 2 acute 2 obtuse, 
corolla-tube 1^ in., lobes ovate-lanceolate acute. — Upper Tenasserim. 

I. PANicuLATA, Hb. Rottl&>' in Wall. Cat. 6163; glabrous, slender, leaves 3-4 in. 
oblong obtuse thin, petiole very short, stipules short cuspidate, peduncles 3 in. slender, 
cymes brachiate, branches 1-2 in. slender shortly branched at the end, flowers few 
sessile and pedicelled, calyx-teeth minute acute, corolla-tube 1 in., lobes linear-oblong, 
mouth glabrous. — Herb. Heyne, from Rottler. — I think this is /. oblonga, Br., of 
Singapore and Java, whence possibly Rottler procured it. 

I. Wallichii, W. 4' A. Prodr. 428 ; not of Wight Herb. This is probably /. 

I. ATTENUATA, Wall. Cat. 6164, is Chasalia curoiflora, Thiv. 

67. PAVSTTA, Linn. 

Characters of Ixora, but stipular bracts membranous, leaves usually more 
membranous, stipules more united into an iutrapetiolar sheath, style much 

150 Lxxv. eubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) [Pavetta, 

l<5i)ger, and ovules usually attached to a prominent placenta. — Distrib. Species 
abbut 60, in the tropics of the Old World. 

Pavetta, as here limited, differs from Ixora in the usually membranous more or 
lees sheathing stipulary bracts at thfi lower cyme branches, and the style twice as 
long as the corolla-tube with a slender entire rarely notched stigma, often more 
slender than the style itself. Various pentamerous species placed in Pavetta by 
authors are in this work referred to Weber a, with which they agree in habit, and the 
short hairy style with a long fusiform grooved stigma. 

* Calyx-teeth much shorter than the ovary. 

1. P. Indlca, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 490 ; glabrous pubescent or tomen- 
tose, leaves membranous elliptic elliptic-lanceolate obovate or oblanceolate 
rarely orbicular obtuse acute acuminate or caudate, cymes terminal sessile 
cor}Tnbiform, flowers pedicelled, calyx truncate or with very short tiiangular 
teeth, corolla-tube h-^ in. 

Throughout India from the Western Himalaya in GtArwhal (var. toritcntosa), 
ascending to 4000 ft., to Bhotan and Bibma, and southwards to Ceylon, Malacca, 
and Penang. — Disteib. Malay Archipelago, S. China, N. Australia. 

One of the most common and variable Indian small trees or bushes. Leaves pale 
or greenish wheu dry, 3-9 by |-3 in., a foot long in some Khasian specimens ; petiole 
^1^ in. stipules short, broad. Cymes i-5 in. diam., roimded, or reduced to few 
scattered flowers ; bracts broad, membranous, lower cupular ; flowers on slender 
pedicels, white, i-ather fragrant. Corolla-tube twice or thrice as long as the oblong 
lobes. Stigma very slender, fusiform. Berry size of a pea, 2-seeded. — Flowers occa- 
sionally 5-merous (Wight & Arnott). 

Var. 1. indica proper; leaves glabrous beneath or nearly so, cymes glabrate, 
corolla glabrous. P. indica, Linn. ; Wall. Cat. 6175, excl. F.;W.^ A. Prodr. 431 ; 
Wight Ic. t. 148 ; Thw. Emcm. 155; Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bojnb. Fl. 112; Brandis For. Fl. 
276. P. Finlaysoniana, Wall. Cat. 6177, and P. graciliflora, 6178. P. alba, Vahl 
Symh. iii. 11. P. petiolaris, Wall. Cat. 6186. Ixora paniculata, Lamk. Diet. iii. 344. 
I. Pavetta, Roxb. Fl. Lid. i. 385 ; Kxirz For. Fl. ii. 18; Eheede Hort. Mai. xix. t. 10. 
Thwaites discriminates two varieties : — 1. With few-flowered cymes, slender pedicels, 
and narrow lanceolate leaves; 2. With puberulous cymes and leaves pubescent 
beneath : both are found in Continental India, with many more founded on as slight 
characters. A third Ceylon one, montana, I have retained as distinct. 

Var. 2. polyantha; Wall Cat. 6176 (sp.); cymes piibescent, flowers densely 
crowded. P. indica. Wall. Cat. 6175 F.; Bot. Reg. t. 198. P. Eothiana, DC. Prodr. 
iv. 491 ; W. 4- A. Prodr. 431. P. villosa, Heyne in Roth Nov. Sp. 88, not of Vahl. 
Ixora tomentosa, var. glabrescens, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 19. 

Var. 3. tomentosa, Koxb. in Smith Cyclop, (sp.) ; leaves glabrous or softly or 
harshly puberulous above, beneath and the cymes pubescent tomentose or softly 
villous. I. tomentosa, DC. Prodr. iv. 490 ; Heyne in Roth Nov. Sp. 89 ; W. S;- A. 
Prodr. 431 ; ? Thw. Enum. 156; Brand. For. Fl. 275; Wall. Cat. 6173. P.Brunonis, 
Wight Ic. t. 1065. P. velutina, mollis, and canescens. Wall. Cat. 6174, 6179, 6181. 
Ixora tomentosa, Ro.xb. H&rt. Beng. 11 ; Fl. Ind. i. 386 ; Wight Ic. t. 186 ; Kurz For. 
Fl, ii. 19. — As common and widely spread as var. 1, but less variable in form of 

Var. 4 montana, Thw. mss. ; quite glabrous, leaves 2-3 in. coriaceous narrowly 
elliptic-oblong, tip rounded, corolla-tube \ in., style stout, stigma clavate. — Ceylon 
common, alt. 3-4000 ft., Thwaites. 

Var. 5. minor; quite glabrous, leaves small (2-4 in.) narrowly obovate or 
elliptic-lanceolate obtuse or acute, cymes terminal sessile corymbiform, calyx-teeth 
subulate acute, corolla ^\ in., stigma subclavate. — Shevagherry hills, Wight (Kew 
Distrib. 1483). — Looks different fmm P. indica in the smaller size of all its parts, 
acute calyx-teeth, and rather more clavate stigma. 

2. P. subcapltata, Hook. f. ; leaves elliptic-lanceolate caudate-acumi- 
nate finely pubescent beneath, cymes terminal sessile capitate n^ny-flowered, 

JPaveita.'] Lxxv. rubuce.e. (J. D. Hooker.) 151 

branches very short atid sessile, flowers densely crowded, calyx puherulous, 
teeth very short, corolla glabrous,- tube ^ in. Ixora subcapitata, Wall. Cat. 

Jtntea Hills (east of the Khasia), Gomez. 

Possibly a form of P. indica ; if so a very distinct one, having the cymes con- 
tracted into a head; the leaves are 4-6 by 1^2 in., and quite like those of P. indica. 

3. P. humilis, Hook. f. ; stem low simple or forked very robust hispidly 
liirsute above, internodes very short, leaves oblanceolate caudate-acummate 
glabrous above pubescent beneath, cymes terminal sessile very short subcapitate, 
flowers densely crowded, calyx truncate or teeth very short obtuse, corolla 
glabrous, tube ^ in. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3007), Maingay (855). 

Stem 1-2 ft. high, as thick as a goose-qiiill, siiberect, rooting below, bark -white; 
jiodes with the cupular remains of coriaceous stipules. Leaves crowded, 5-7 by 1-2 
in., narrowed into a short or long petiole, greenish when dry. Cijmcs about 1 in. 
diam. — The habit of this plant differs entirely from that of P. indica. 

4. P. hispidula, W. Sf A. Prodr. 431 ; leaves glabrous or pubescent 
beneath narrowly or broadly lanceolate oblanceolate or elliptic membranous, 
cymes open, branches spreading, flowers pedicelled, calyx-teeth very shortly 
^angular, corolla-tube 1 in., glabrous. 

Western Peninsula, or the Ghats from the Coucan southwards. Ceylon, central 
province, alt. 3-5000 ft.. Walker, &c. 

There is little to distinguish this from some of the fonns of P. indica but the 
usually much larger yellowish flowers, the more prominent calyx-teeth, and style 
often thickened towards the middle of. the exserted portion. The specific name is 
Tjadly chosen, as there is nothing hispidulous about it; the stigma described as 
slightly hispid is quite glabrous. 

Vab. 1 ; leaves lanceolate and oblanceolate nearly glabrous above softly pubes- 
cent beneath black when dry. Courtallan and Quilon, Wight. Beddome (Fl. 8ytv. 
For. Man. 134/7) includes this under P. tomentosa, and keeps var. sijpho7iantha, as a 
difierent species. 

Var. 2. siphonantha ; leaves lanceolate and elliptic-lanceolate acuminate black 
when dry. P. siphonantha, Dalz. in Hook. Kew Journ. ii. 133 (sp.); Balz. ^' Gibs. 
BoTiih. Fl. 112; Bedd. Fl 8i/lv. For. Man. 134/8.— Canara, Balzell. 

Var. 3. zeylanica; leaves obovate or oblanceolate brownish pale when dry 
glabrous or sparingly pubescent beneath, cyme branches more robust and flowers 
larger, corolla-lobes sometimes ^| in. long obtuse or acute. — Ceylon. 

Var. 4. angustifolia ; glabrous, leaves very narrowly lanceolate 4-6 by \-\ in. 
almost black when dry. P. angustifolia, Thv). Enum. 156 ; Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 
S9 ; Fl. Sylv., For. Man. 134/8. — Ceylon ; banks of streams in the central province. 

•5. P. breviflora, DC. Prodr. iv. 491 ; glabrous, black when dry, leaves 
elliptic-obovate or oblanceolate acute or acuminate, cymes sessile or shortly 
peduncled small glabrate open brachiate, branches short stout, calyx cupular, 
teeth triangular, corolla glabrous, tube longer than the linear-oblong lobes, stylo 
thick shortly exserted. Wight Ic. t. 1035 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. For. Man. 134/7. 

Nilgherry Hilt^; alt. 7000 ft., in woods, Leschcnaidt, &c. 

A bu?h, branches stout with yellow bark. Leaves 2-3 by f-1^ in., narrowed into 
the petiole, shining above, with sometimes a few scattered hairs beneath ; petiole 
^-| in. Cymes 1 in. diam., branches glabrous or pubescent; lower stipular bracts 
large, membranous. Calyx-teeth hirsute or glabrous. Corolla glabrous, rather fleshy, 
^ in. diam. Stigma clavate, obtuse. Seeds subglobose with a narrow ventral slit 
opening into a large cavity. — This has quite the habit and short style of a Webcra, 
but the stipular bracts and 4-merous flowers are those of Pavcita: it resembles 
W. lucens, but is distinguished at once by the glabrous style. 

152 Lxxv. EUBiACEj;. (J. D. Hooker.) [Favetta, 

6. P. naucleiflora, JFall. Cat. 6171 ; densely pubescent, gieenish when, 
dry, leaves elliptic caudate-acuminate softly tomentose beneath, cymes open 
terminating long axillary naked "branches with a pair of leaves at the top, 
peduncles and pedicels crowded hirsute with dense white spreading hairs, calyx- 
teeth subulate, corolla haiiy or glabrous, tube | in. twice as long as the lobes. 
G. Don Gm. Syst. iii. 576. Ixora naucleiflora, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 19. 

Bhotan; banks of the Kollery, alt. 2500 ft., Griffith. Silhet and PENANa, 
Wallich. Tenasserim, Heifer, Kurz. 

A shrub or tree. Leaves 4-6 by 1-2 in., with short scattered hairs above, petiole 
■1-1 in. Cymes sessile, 2-3 in. diam. ; flowers very many, white, much like those of 
JP. indica, var. iomcntosa, of which it is perhaps only a form. Fruit hispid. 

** Calyx-teeth elongate, equalling or longer than the ovary. 

7. P. involucrata, Thw Enum. 156; glabrous, almost black when 
dry, leaves elliptic obovate oblong or oblanceolate obtuse or subacute, cymes 
terminating axillary naked branches sessile capitate surrounded at the base by 
broad large sheathing stipular bracts, calyx-teeth equalling or longer than the 
ovary, corolla-lobes linear exceeding the tube, throat with a ring of hairs^ 
Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 100; Fl. Sylv. For. Man. 134/7. 

Ceylon; central province, alt. 5-7000 fr., Walker, &c. 

A large shrub; branches robust, bark yellowish. Leaves 2-3 by 1-1^ in,, thinly 
coriaceous, brown beneath when dry, narrowed into the short petiole. Cymes 1 in. 
diam., globose or compressed ; branches 2-4 in., terminated usually by a pair of leaves ; 
stipular bracts pale brown, often cuspidate; flowers sessile, white, densely crowded. 
Calyx-teeth ovate-lanceolate, ciliate, pubescent within. CoroUa-tuhe \ in., campanu- 
late, lobes acuminate. Style stout ; stigma hardly thickened. Fruit smooth. Seeds 
orbicular, ventrally deeply hollowed. — This has the black look and short flowers of a 

8. P. Srunonis, Wall. Cat. 6172 ; softly tomentose, greenish when dry, 
leaves obovate or oblanceolate obtuse or acute softly hirsute beneath, cymes ter- 
minal sessile contracted densely tomentose, branches 3 very stout short with a 
fastigate cluster of flowers, stipular bracts large, calyx-teeth lanceolate recurved, 
coroUa glabrous, tube ^ in. twice as long as the lobes, stigma narrowly clavate. 

NiLGHERRY HiLLs, Noton, Wight, G. Thomson. 

This resembles P. indica, var. iomentosa, but the cymes are dense with short stout 
main branches, the calyx-teeth are entirely diiferent, and the flowers are smaller. 
One of Wallich's specimens was received from Wight, but I find none in the Herba- 
rium of the latter botanist, where the specimen named Brunonis has the truncate 
calyx and loose cyme of P. indica, var. iomentosa. 

0. P. Wig'htii; Hook. f. ; nearly glabrous, pale greenish when dry, leaves 
elliptic-lanceolate acute puberulous beneath with large oblong thickened glands, 
cymes terminating slender axillaiy naked branches open much divided glabrate, 
flowers long-pedicelled, calyx-teeth slender lanceolate acuminate longer than 
the ovary, corolla glabrous, tube f in. slender 2-3 times as long as the narrow 
acute lobes. 

NiLGHERRT HiLLs, Wight. 

This, but for the very long slender teeth of the calyx, would be put with P. indica. 
The slender naked axillary flowering branches are compressed, but not so much as m 
P. involticrata . and are 2-3 in. long ; sometimes they are leafless at the summit, when 
the inflorescence appears peduncled and axillary. The calyx-teeth are erect and twice 
as long as the puberulous ovary, and the styles aie very slender and glabroUs. I have 
seen only one specimen. 

10. P. Cvlenlei, Thw. mss. ; glabrous or velvety, leaves elliptic-lanceolate 
x)r broadly elliptic obtuse or acute, cymes terminating axillary slender leafless 

Favetta.l lxxy. HUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 153 

"branches bracLiate, ealyx-teeth linear or filiform many times longer than the- 
ovary persistent and exceeding the diameter of the fruit, corolla glabrous, tube 
^ in. twice as long as the lobes. I. tomeutosa, T/m. Enmn. 166. 

Ceylon ; at Damboul, and abundant in the Batticaloa district, Walker, Thwaites. 

Of this remarkable plant there are two forms, one quite glabrous, green •when dry, 
■with leaves 5 in. long ; it is in fruit, and has very slender peduncles and pedicels, and 
filiform calyx-teeth nearly \ in. long crowning the ripe fruit; the other is more or 
less black when dry, softly velvety all over, with smaller broader leaves 2|-3 in. long; 
it is in flower, and has shorter calyx-teeth in the fruit. Thwaites first regarded this 
as a form of P. indiea, var. tomentosa, with longer caljrx-teeth ; but variable as that 
plant is, I have seen no specimen from any part of India with anything but very short 
triangular calyx-teeth, nor any with the inflorescence of this, in which the leaves at 
the end of the axillary flowering branches are wholly suppressed. 


p. coMPACTiFLORA, Kitrz in Journ. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 315; For. Fl. ii. 17 (Ixora); 
quite glabrous, leaves 3-5 in. elliptic to broadly lanceolate acuminate tapering into 
the stout petiole blackish when dry, flowers subsessile in dense involucred heads 1 in> 
diam. terminating axillary branches, involucrate bracts small inconspicuous broad 
ovate imbricate, calyx-teeth oblong roundet^, corolla-tube ^ in. rather wide, lobes ob- 
long obtuse equalling the tube. — CTpper Tenasserim, alt. 2000 ft., Kurz. — Possibly a 
Wcba'a, though placed by Kurz along with tetramerous species. 

P.? ARiSTATA, Wall. Cat. 6169, from Tavoy; the specimens have no flowers; the 
name suggests its being possibly Wehera stellaris, with which the foliage agrees, as do 
its 5 calyx-teeth. 

P.? OBLONOA, Wall. Cat. 6170 ("Herb. Finlayson" from Siam?) is pentamerous 
and a Wehera. 

P.? coFFEACEA, Woll. Cat. 7290, is probably Wehera uttcvuata, 

68. COFFEA, Linn. 

Shrubs, branchlete compressed. Leaves opposite, rarely in threes , stipules 
l>road. Floivers in axillary fascicles or cymes or solitary, vsrhite or yellowish, 
often scented ; bracteoles often connate. Calyx-tube short ; limb short, often 
glandular, persistent. Corolla-tube short or long ; lobes 4-7, spreading, twisted 
in bud. Anthers 4-7, sessile on the corolla-tubo or throat, narrow, often re- 
curved and twisted. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, smooth, branches linear or 
subulate ; ovules 1, peltately attached to the septum in each cell. Di'upe with 
2 plano-convex or ventrally concave coriaceous or cartilaginous pyrenes. Seeds 
plano-convex, concave or grooved ventrally, albumen horny; embryo short, 
towards the base of the seed, curved, cotyledons thin cordate, radicle inferior. 
— DisTEiB. Species about 2C, lu the tropics of the old world. 

Cofea ara.hka, the coffee plant, is abundantly cultivated in various parts of 
Southern India. 

Sect. I. ZSucofifeaj C«/?/a;-//?«& irregularly few or many-toothed. Corolla- 
tube long, slender. D-uit didymous when 2-seeded, Flowers solitary or 
fascicled ; lobes 5, rarely more, large, obtuse. 

1. C bengralensis, Eo.vb. HoH. Beng. 15 ; Fl. Ind. i. 540 ; glabrous, 
leaves broadly ovate or elliptic obtusely acuminate membranous not shining, 
flowers 1-3-nate 5-merous appearing before the leaves, calyx-limb many-toothed, 
corolla-tube h-lh in., fruit ovoid-oblong. Roth Nov. sj). 148 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 
499; Wall. Cat.'G2U; Wight Sf Ar^i. Prodr. 435; Brand. For. Fl. 277; Kur& 
For. FL ii. 28; Bot. Ma(f. t. 4917. 0. Horsfieldiana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. lu 

154 LXXY. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Coffea, 

Tropical Himalaya, from Kumaon to Mishmi, ascending to 3000 ff. Bengal, 
Assam, Silhet, Chittagong, and Tenassepim. — Distrib. Siam, Java. 

A shrub with horizontal slender branches. Leaves deciduous, sometimes 5 by- 3 
tn., but usually much smaller, membranous, green when diy, nerves beneath some- 
what hairy, base rounded or acute, a,lways shortly contracted into the short petiole ; 
-stipules subulate. Flowers axillary, pure white, fragrant, 1-1^ in. diam. ; corolla- 
lobes obovate-oblong. Calyx-limb with many glandular teeth. Fruit ^ in. long, 
didymous when 2-seeded, " black, and size of a small cherry," Roxb. 

2. C. Wigrbtiana, W. ^ A. Prodr. 436 ; glabrous, leaves small subsessile 
ovate obtuse glabrous or woolly in the nerve-axils beneath, flowers subsolitary 
5-merous appearing before the leaves, calyx-limb manv-toothed, corolla-tube ^ 
in., fruit small broadly didymous. Wight Ic. t. 1698 ;' Wall. Cat. 6246 ; Thio. 
JEnum. 154. 

Western' Peninsula; in arid places from Kurg to TraA-ancore, Wight, &c. Cey- 
lon i in hot drier parts of the island. 

A much branched almost spinescent shrub, with slender divaricate branches. 
Leaves ^-1 1 in., rather coriaceous, pale when dry ; stipules spinescent. Flowers white, 
with much narrower corolla-lobes than C. bengalmsis. Fruit much broader than long, 
^ in. diam., with a deep furrow between the lobes. — Thwaites and Wight & Arnott re- 
gard this as a probable variety of C. travancorensis. 

3. C. travancorensis, W. <§• A. Prodr. 435; glabrous or branches 
puberulous, leaves elliptic-lanceolate or broadly elliptic obtuse or obtusely 
caudate-acuminate, flowers 3-4-nate 5-merous appearing with the leaves, calyx- 
limb subentire or 2-3-toothed, corolla-tube |-1 in., fruit broadly didymous. — 
Wall. Cat. 6245 ; Tho. JEnum. 154. 0. triflora. Moon. Cat. 15. 

Western Peninsula ; Travancore, Wight. Ceylon ; in warm moist parts of the 
island, ascending to 3000 ft., Thwaites. 

A bush. Leaves pale yellowish when dry, 3-4 by 1-1^ in., in Ceylon specimen 
very broadly orbicular-elliptic and 2^ in. diam. Flowers much as in C. bengalensis, 
Jbut smaller. Fruit broader than long, ^ in. diam. 

4. C fragrrans, Wall. mss. ; glabrous or branches puberulous, leaves 
elliptic-lanceolate obtuse or obtusely caudate-acuminate, flowers subsolitary 5- 
merous appearing with the leaves, calyx many-toothed, corolla-tube f-1 in. 
Coff'ea, Wall. Cat. 8450. 

Silhet, Gomez ; Tenasserim, Heifer ; Mergui, Griffith. 

Verj similar indeed to C. travancorensis, and perhaps a variety of it, but the leaves 
are more shining, with the nerves more raised, and the calyx-limb, which is deeply 
-cupped, IS many-foothed. Fruit in Tenasserim examples ^ in. diam., broadly didy- 
mous, exactly as in C. travancoremis. 

Sect. II. Ziachntf stoma, Korth. (Gen.) Calyx-limb regularly 4 -toothed. 
CoroUa-tube short ; lobes 4, small, acute. Fruit glabrous or ellipsoid, not didy- 
mous when 2-seeded. — Flowers very small, in small axillary cymes. 

5. O. khasiana. Hook. f. ; branched and nerves beneath puberulous, 
leaves elliptic-lanceolate caudate-acuminate, base acute, nerves 7-8 pair, calyx- 
teeth 4 acute, corolla-tube equalling the lobes, mouth villous, lobes acute, fruit 
globose. — ? Lachnostoma triflorum, Korth. in Ned. Kruidh. Arch, ii, 202 ; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 257. Ooffea, No. 6, Herb. hid. Or. H.f. 8f T. 

Khasia and Jyntea Mts., alt. 2-4500 ft. frequent, J. D. H. & T. T., C. B. Clarke. 

A large rambling bush or small tree; branchlets with appressed hairs. Leaves 
greenish when dry, 3-8 by 1-3 in., membranous, not shining, nerves very oblique; 
petiole 4" in. ; stipules triangular, cusp long slender. Flowers in very short branched 
pubescent cymes ; pedicels very short with a cup of connate bracteoles. Calyx 

Ooffea.] Lxxv. EUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 155 

glabrous ; teeth erect, triangular. Corolla ^ in. yellowish ; lobes short Style short, arms 
linear. Fncit ^ in. diam., smooth ; calyx-teeth persistent. Seeds orbicular, ventrally 
concave. — The specimens seen of Lachwstoma triflorum are imperfect, and have smaller 
leaves than this, and the corolla is less hairy. Coffea densiflora, Blume, of Java and 
Sumatra, is evidently allied, but the description and our specimens are insufficient. 

G. C. Jenklnsli, Hook. f. ; glabrous, leaves elliptic-lanceolate caudate- 
acuminate, base acute, nerves 6-6 pair, calyx-teeth 4, corolla-iube longer than 
the lobes, mouth glabrate, lobes acute, fruit ellipsoid. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 3-4000 ft., Jenkins, Ch-iffiih (Kew Distrib. 3016). 

Closely allied to C. khasiana, but almost entirely glabrous, the young shoots only 
puberulous, the leaves are narrower with fewer stronger nerves, the flowers are rather 
larger and the fruit and seeds quite different, the former being ellipsoid ^ in. long, 
and the latter plano-convex. — This approaches C. salicifolia, Miquel, of Java. It is 
remarkable that no Coffea has been collected in the Malay Peninsula, though such 
near alliejs of this and C. khasiana inhabit Sumatra and Java. 

69. MORZNDA, Unn. 

Erect or climbing shrubs or trees, branches terete or 4-gonous. Leaves op- 
"posite, rarely in threes ; stipules connate, sheathing. Flowers in axillary or 
terminal simple panicled or lunbellate peduncled heads, white, more or less con- 
nate by the calyces. Calyx-tube short ; limb short or 0. CwoUa-tuhe short or 
long; lobes 4-7, coriaceous, valvate in bud. Stamens 4-7, filaments short; 
anthers linear or oblong. Ovary 2- or spuriously 4-celled ; style slend'^.r, branches 
long or short ; ovules solitary, ascending from towards the base of the septum 
in each cell. Fruit compressed, formed of the succulent enlarged calyces en- 
closing many cartilaginous or bony 1-seeded pyrenes, which sometimes cohere 
into a 2-4-celled putamen ; rarely of nearly free drupes. Seeds obovoid or reni- 
form, testa membranous, albumen fleshy or horny ; embryo terete, radicle inferior. 
— DiSTEiB. Species about 40, all tropical. 

* Corolla h-7-merous, tube long. 

1. BX. citrlfolia, Linn.-, DC. Prodr. iv. 446; glabrous, leaves usually 
6-10 in. broadly elliptic acuminate acute or obtuse shinijig, peduncles solitary 
leaf-opposed rarely 2-3-nate at the ends of the branches, flowers 6-merous, fruit 
of many drupes coalescent into a fleshy globose or ovoid head 1 in. diam. 

Cultivated and wild ? throughout the hotter parts of India and Ceylon. — Distkib. 
Malay Archipelago, Australia, Pacific Islands. 

A small tree ; trunk straight, bark smooth, branches obtusely 4-anglet]. Leaves 
shining, short-petioled, one of the pair next the peduncle often suppressed ; stipules 
large, broadly oblong or semi-lunar, entire or 2-3-fid, glabrous. Peduncles usually in 
the axils of every other pair of leaves, 1 in. long or more. Calyx-liynh tnmcate. Co- 
rollu white, tube ^ in. or less ; lobes glabrous, fusiform in bud, throat pubescent. 
Anthers partly exserted. Head of fruit yellowish. — I have united M. citrifplia and 
hracteata, as this seems to meet the views of most Indian botanists, though Eoxburgh, 
who alone seems to have studied these Morindas, keeps them apart, regarding M. 
bracteaia as a native (of Ganjam, in Crissa). He, however, gives us other distinctive 
characters of the latter than the foliaceous calyx-lobes and included anthers (a 
sexual character). Thwaites regards M. bracieata as both wild and cultivated in 
Ceylon, and finds the presence of bracts inconstant. Both are regarded by others as 
culti\*ated forms of M. tinctoria, which, however, looks different. Rheede, whose 
figures Roxburgh quotes for citrifolia, represents the flower of the upper head as with 
calycine lobes. 

156 Lxxv. EUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker,) [Morinda. 

Var. 1. ciirifolia proper ; calyx-limb without a foliaceous lobe. M. citrifolia, Linn. ; 
Boxb. Fl.Ind. i. 541 ; Hunter in As. Res. iv. 35 ; Ham, in Trnns. Linn. Soc. xiii. 533 ; 
W. # A. Prodr. 419; Wall. Cat. 8418; Dalz. 4' Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 114; Brand. For. Fl. 
277; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 60, rar. 1 ; Bfieede Hort. Mai. i. t. 52; Gaerin. Fruct. i. t. 29. 
• — Truly wild in Malacca, Maingay. 

Vae. 2. bractcata ; stipules more acute, calyx-limb often with a lanceolate or spa- 
thulate white foliaceous lobe sometimes 3 in. long. M. bracteata, Boxb. Hort. Beng, 
16; Fl. Ind. i. 544; Ham. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. 534; BC. Prodr. iv. 447; W. ^ 
A. Prodr. 419; Wight HI. t. 126; Wall. Cat. 8419; Thw. Enum. 144; Dalz. ^ Gibs. 
Bomb. Fl. 114; Brand. For. Fl. 277. — Wild and cultivated in various parts of India 
and Ceylon. Not unfrequent in the forests of the Andamans, Kiirz, who ascribes more 
acute stipules to this form and smaller fruit. 

Var. 3. elliptica ; leaves 6-8 in. elliptic polished acuminate, nerves strong on both 
surfaces. Tavoy, Gomez, Wall. Cat. 8434. Concan, Stocks. Malacca, Griffith. — This 
looks intermediate between angustifolia and citrifolia in foliage. The drupes are par- 
tially free in the Tavoy specimen. 

2. ZME. tinctoria, Roxb. HoH. Bmg, 15 ; Fl. Ind. i. 543 ; leaves usually 
4-8 in. broadly or narrowly elliptic acute at both ends, base veiy rarely cordate 
glabrous or pubescent or tomentose beneath or on both surfaces not shining, 
peduncles solitary or 2-nate leaf-opposed rarely terminal and panicled, flowers 
6-merous, fruit of many drupes coalescent into a globose or ovoid fleshy head 1 
in. diam. or less. 

Throughout India from the Sutlej eastwards, and southwards to Ceylon and 
Malacca. — Distrib. Malay Archipelago. 

Considered by many Indian botanists to be the wild form of M. citrifolia ; but if 
M, bractcata is truly wild in India, as is asserted on good authority, it may be safer 
to regard tinctoria as a separate plant, characterised by its smaller foliage, which is 
never shining. The following are prevalent forms, hut are neither constant nor always 
recognisable (in a dried state at any rate) from one another and from M. citrifolia. 

Var. 1 . tinctoria proper ; often shrubby, leaves glabrous rarely pubescent beneath,, 
peduncles leaf-opposed. M. tinctoria, Eoxb. I. c. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 447 ; W. 4' A. Prodr. 
419; Brand. For. Fl. 277. M. aspera, W. ^ A. Prodr. 420. M. Coreia and nodosa, 
Ham. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. 537 ; DC. I. c. 448. M. leiantha, Kurz in Journ. As. 
Soc. 1872, ii. 313 ; For. Fl. ii. 59, M. citrifolia, Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 220. M. Zollin- 
geriana and Teysmanniana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 243, 244. Morinda, Wall. Cat. 

Var. 2. tomentosa ; leaves tomentose on both surfaces, peduncles leaf-opposed, M. 
tomentosa, Hei/7ie in Both Nov. Sp. 147 ; DC. I. c. 448 ; W. ^ A. Prodr. 420 ; Dcdz. 4' 
Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 114; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 60. M. Naudia and Chacuca, Ham. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xiii. 536. M. stenophylla, Spr. ; DC. and W. 4" -4. II. cc. M. angustifolia. 
Both Nov. 8p. 147, not of Roxb. 

Var. 3. multiflora ; leaves glabrous or pubescent, peduncles axillary ^nd terminal 
simple and paniculate. M. multiflora, Roxb. Hort. Ben,g. 15; Fl. Ind. i. 546; DC. 
Prodr. iv. 447 ; Brand. For. Fl. 227. 

Var. 4. aspera ; leaves lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate acuminate and branches- 
tiniformly scabrid, stipules broad reflexed cleft to the base into two oblong obtuse 
lobes, peduncles leaf-opposed or axillary slender scabrid, corolla pubescent. M. aspera,. 
W. 4- A. Prodr. 420. Morinda, Wall. Cat. 8429, ex Herb. Wight. 

Forma exserta. M. exserta, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 15 ; Fl. Ind. i. 545 ; DC. Prodr. iv.. 
447 ; Wall. Cat. 8421 ; W. ^ A. Prodr. 419 ; Brand. For. Fl. 276 ; Thw. Enum. 145- 
and 430 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 59.— Under Roxburgh's descriptions and the above cita- 
tions are included various forms of Morinda with exserted anthers, of which some 
are referable to citrifolia and others to the varieties of tinctoria ; and as the character 
of the anthers is sexual, this form must be abandoned ^even as a variety, as Thwaites 
has pointed out. 

3. K. angrustifolia, Roxh. HoH, Beng. 15; Cor, PI. t. 237; Fl. Ind. 
i, 647 ; glabrous, leaves large elliptic or obovate-lanceolate caudate-acuminate 

Morinda.] Lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 157 

tapering into the petiole, peduncles lovi^ or short solitary leaf-opposed rarely 2-3- 
nate and terminal, drupes free. Wall. Cat. 8420; DC. Pi-odr. iv. 447; Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 61. M. squarrosa, Ham. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. 635 ; DC. I. c. 
Morinda sp., Wall. Cat. 8i2S in part, 8426,84:27, and Psychotria (? Morinda), 

Thopicai, Himalaya, wild and cultivated, from Nipal eastwards, ascending to 6000 
ft. in Sikkim. Assam and Khasia Mts., ascending to 4000 ft. CHrrrAGONO and 

An erect bush or small tree. Leaves often a foot long, narrowed into a petiole 
sometimes 1^ in., glabrous or puberulous on the nerves beneath ; stipules acute or ob- 
tuse, entire or 2-fid. Flowers very numerous, white, fragrant. Corolla-tube | in., 
glabrous ; lobes globose in bud. Fruit 1 in. diam. or less ; drupes turbinate, black. — 
Foliage often like that of M. citrifolia. 

4. XIX. perslcaBfolia, Ifam. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. 535 ; glabrous or 
scabenilous, leaves obovate-lanceolate or oblanceolate or linear caudate-acumi- 
nate narrowed into the petiole, peduncles short solitary leaf-opposed, drupes 
coalescent. DC. Prodr. iv. 447 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 61 M. lanceolata, Wall. 
Cat. 8435 

Chtttagong aud Pegu, Hamilton, M'Clelland. Birma, Wallich. Tenasserim, in 
savannah forests, Kurz. Singapore, Maingay. — Distrib. Sumatra, Siam. 

A small low diffuse shrub; branches flexuous. Leaves 2-6 in., very variable in 
breadth, tapering into the slender petiole or rarely rounded at the base ; stipules subu- 
late, i^wers rather small, white. CoroZZa funnel-shaped, quite glabrous. Fruit \hQ 
size of a cherry, smooth. — Leaves in Rangoon specimens very narrow 5 by -A- in. 

** Corolla 4- rarely 6'merous ; tube short, not \ in. 

5. M. umbellata, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 449; leaves membranous from 
broadly obovate to elliptic- or linear-lanceolate obtuse acute or caudate-acumi- 
nate glabrous pubescent or tomentose beneath, nerves very distinct, heads in 
terminal sessile umbels, drupes connate. W. 8) A. Prodr. 420 ; Wall. Cat. 
8431 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. Q2. M. scandens, Roxh. Fl. Lnd. i. 548 ; DC. Prodr. 
iv.449. M. tetrandra. Jack in Mai. Misc. i. 13; Wall. Cat. 8432; Moxh. Fl. 
lnd., ed. Carey Sf WaU. ii. 203 ; DC. I. c. M. Padavara, Juss. Morinda, Wall. 
Cat. 842Q.—Rh€ede Hart. Mai. vii. t. 27. 

Hills of Eastern Bengai, and the Malay Peninsula, from the Khasia Mts., 
iiscending to 4000 ft. to Penang and Singapore. Western Peninsula ; South Concan, 
Nilgherry, and Travancore mts. Ceylon, ascending to 4000 ft. — Distrib. Malay 
Archipelago, China, Japan, N. Australia. 

A diffuse shrub, with sometimes tomentose climbing branches. Leaves extremely 
variable, rarely 5 in., sometimes obcuneate with a retuse apex, usually elliptic-lanceo- 
late and quite glabrous, or scaberulous, or sometimes even softly tomentose beueath 
in .both eastern and western specimens, narrowed into the slender petiole; btipules 
Acute, connate. Peduncles 5-10, f-1^ in., glabrous or tomentose. Corolla almost 
rotate, throat bearded. Fruit size of a large pea or larger, irregularly lobed. — Some 
Nilgherry Mt. specimens have the leaves not shining. A Singapore specimen from 
Dr. Anderson has leaves more coriaceous, softly villous beneath, with the nerves ob- 
scure on the upper surface, thus approaching M. rigida, but the nerves are distinct 
heneath, and the heads are those of M. umbellata. 

6. HI. rigida, Miq. Fl. lnd. Bat. ii. 246 ; leaves very coriaceous elliptic 
abruptly obtusely acuminate glossy above brown and sometimes puberulous be- 
neath, nerves obscure on both surfaces, heads axillary solitary or 2-4-uate aud 
termiual subsessile, drupes connate. 

Malacca, Griffith, Maingay. — Distrib. Sumatra, Borneo. 

Branches cylindric, polished, glabrous. Leaves very unifcrm, 3-1 ly 1^-2 in., dark 

158 Lxxv. EUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) IMoriiida, 

"blackisli-bro-wn and highly polished above, rusty-brown and very opaque beneath, nar- 
rowed into a slender petiole ; stipules connate, ovate. Pedu7icles stout, glabrous or- 
pubescent. Corolla-tube ^ in., puberulous. Beads 1 in. diam. and under, with few 
very large pyrenes. 

7. BS. vlUosa, Hook. f. ; branches and leaves beneath hirsute, leaves 
elliptic-obovate or -lanceolate acuminate opaque and pubescent above, nerves 
distinct, peduncles terminal umbellate long or short ; drupes confluent. Morinda ?" 
Wall. Cat. 8425. 

Khasia Mts., Be Silva ; at the Bor Panee river, J. D. H. ^- T. T. 

A climbing shrub. Leaves greenish when dry, 3-4 by 1^-lf in., membranous r 
nerves numerous ; petiole very snort ; stipules connate with subulate points. Peduncles 
i-2 in., stout or slender, villous. Heads in flower small. Corolla small, pubescent* 
Fruit I in., pale red. 


jVI. Wallichii, Kurz, For. Fl. Q\; a small quite glabrous evergreen tree?, leaves 
3-5 in. oblong-lanceolate to linear acuminate at both ends pale beneath, petiole \-l\ 
in., flowers rather small white in small heads forming a terminal glabrous stiflf- 
peduncled small cyme, calyx truncate, the tube (in bud) only | in. long, lobes as long 
oblong-ljnear rather blunt. — Tenasserim, Kurz. — Probably in the above description* 
copied from Kurz, the tube alluded to and lobes are those of the corolla, which wori. 
has been omitted accidentally. 

70. REMMBZiZiZA, KorthaU. 

Chamcters of Morinda, but the terminal heads few-flowered and paniculate^ peltate, and seeds orbicular thin and much dorsally compressed. — Dis- 
TRiB, Species 2 or 3, Malayan. 

1. R. speciosa, Sook. f. in Gen. Plant, ii. 118; quite glabrous, leaves 
eiliptio-lanceolate acuminate. Morinda speciosa, Wall. Cat. 8436 ; Kurz For. 
Ft. ii. 62. 

Tenasseeim ; Cheppedong hills, Wallich. Malacca, Griffith, Maingay. 

A stout evergreen climbing shrub. Leaves 6-9 by 2-2^ in., brown or pale green 
when dry, thinly coriaceous, tapering into a petiole ^-1 in. ; stipules free or connate, 
short. I)}florescence 1-3 in., erect, quite glabrous ; peduncle rachis and short branches 
very stout; heads pedicelled, 3-6-flowered. Calyx-limb short, cupular, truncate. 
Corolla-tube ^-| in. ; limb glabrous within, lobes linear-oblong. Fruit ^ in. diam., 


A small* ri^d much-branched shrub covered with slender spines. Leaves 
small, subsessile, ovate, acuminate ; stipules minute, 3-cu3pidate. Flotveis 
small, white, axillary, solitary or in pairs, pedicels short, bracteolate. Calyx- 
tube obovoid ; limb 4--5-fld, persistent. CoroUa funnel-shaped, throat villous ; 
lobes 4-5, triangular-ovate, valvate in bud. Stamens 4-5, on the throat of the 
corolla ; filaments short, anthers with a broad connective, exserted. Ovary 2-4- 
celled; style filiform, stigma 2-4-cleft; ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous b^ a 
broad base from above the middle of the septum. Dit-pe small, globose, with 
1-4 hard plano-convex pyrenes. Seeds peltate, testa thin, , albumen horny; 
embryo minute, radicle inferior. — Distrib. Species 1 or 2, East Bengal, China,. 
and Japan. 

1. D. indlcus, Gaei-tn.f. Fmct. iii. 18, t. 182 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 473. 

IVIiSHMi Hills (Upper Assam), Griffith. — Disteib. Japan. 

Branches slender; spines straight, needle-like. Leaves \ in. long in Griffith's 
specimens, often longer in Japanese; nerves obscure. Corolla-tube \ in., segments 

DamnacanihusJ] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 159 

ialf as long. Fniit \ in. diam. — GriflBth's is the only Indian specimen I have seen, 
and no further habitat is given than Mishmi. Considering the confusion in which, 
Griffith's collections were when received at Kew, the locality may be doubtful, and 
the specimen a Garden one : it is an extensively cultivated plant, but being Chinese, 
may be indigenous in Mishmi. 


Shru'bs with compressed 4-gonou3 branches. Leaves opposite ; stipules 1-2- 
cuspidate. Flotvei'S unisexual, in axillary and terminal fascicles, white. Calyx^ 
tvhe of ^ small, turbinate; of $ larger, cupular, persistent. Corolla-tube 
cylindric, throat glabrous ; lobes 4-5 spreading, valvate in bud. Stamens 4-5^ 
in the corolla-tube ; filaments short ; anthers linear, included. Ovary 2-celled ; 
style filiform, branches 2 free or united ; ovules 1 attached above the middle 
of the septum in. each cell. Berrij small, 1-2-celled, 1-2-seeded. Seeds sub- 
globose, peltate, ventraUy excavated, testa membranous ; embryo small, coty- 
ledon reniform, radicle inferior. — Distrib. 2-3 species, tropical Indian and 

1. P. albidiflora, Thw. in Hooh. Kew Journ. viii. 268, t. vii. ; Enum. 
164, 421 ; leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate shining. Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. 
t. 93 ; and AtuiI. Gen. t. 29, f. 4. Oofiea tetrandra, Roxh. Ft. Ind. i. 538 •,. 
Wall. Cat. 6242 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 499 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 28. Rubi«, Wall. 
Cat. 8470. 

Khasia Mts., ascending to 4000 ft., and southwards to Malacca. Ceylon,. 
ascending to 4000 ft. — Distjbib. Malay Archipelago. 

An evergreen tree or shrub ; branches slender, 4-gonous ; bark yellow, polished. 
Leaves pale when dry, 3-5 by 1-1^ in,, coriaceous; nerves slender; petiole ^-1 in. ; 
stipules triangular, acuminate. Flowers subumbellately fascicled, rarely in peduncled 
axillary umbels, pedicels filiform, |-1 in., ebracteolate. Cali/.x-limh truncate. Corolla 
white, tube f-1 in. ; lobes linear-oblong. Fruit globose, \ in. diam. 

2. P. Pergrusonii, TMv. mss. ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv., For. Man. 134/10 ; very 
similar to P. albidijlora, but leaves rather larger, pedicels shorter all terminal 
and more numerous and the corolla much less fleshy. 

Ceylon, near Colombo. 

The above is all the information I have as to this species, except an observation 
by Beddome, that " the imbrication of the corolla-lobes is easily seen in this species." 
In reference to this point, Beddome also says in the generic character, " Corolla-lobes 
subimbrieate (or valvate ?)." Finding the corolla to be strictly valvate in P. albidi- 
flora, as Thwaites first described it, I suspect P. Fergiisonii may not be congeneric. 

73. CGBZ.OSPER2IIUM, Blume. 

Scaudent glabrous trees or shrubs ; branchlets compressed. Leaves opposite ; 
stipules connate, rarely free. Flowers in terminal cymose thyi-soid or panicled 
cymes, white or yellowish, often scented. Calyx-tube short ; limb short, per- 
sistent. Cm-olla coriaceous, funnel- or salver-shaped; lobes 4-5, narrow, 
spreading or reflexed, valvate. Stamens 4-6, on the throat of the corolla^ 
filaments filiform; anthers versatile, exserted, slender. Ovary 2 or 4-celled ; 
style filiform, branches 2 short or long ; ovules 1 in the 4-celled, geminate in 
the 2-celled ovaries, pendulous. Drupe globose, vritli 2-4 pyrenes. Seeds erect. 
— Distrib. Species 4-5, Malayan and Australian. 

1. C. scandens, Blume Bijd. 994; leaves broadly elliptic acuminate- 
coriaceous. DC. Prodr. iv. 4C8. 

160 Lxxv. EUBIACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) lCailosj)ennum. 

Maxacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3087), Maingay (933). — Distrib. Malay Archi- 


A climber; branches cylindric, smooth. Leaves 4-5 by 1^-2^ in., opaque or 
shkiing above, base acute or rounded, not narrowed into the petiole ; nerves faint, 
spiieading and arched ; petiole ^-| in.; stipules triangular. Cymes 2-5 in., umbel- 
latiely branched, puberulous ; pedicels umbellate, |- in. ; bracteoles minute. Corolla 
white, tube \ in., hairy within; segments narrow, yellow, pubescent on the inner 
face. — I have seen only flowers and fruit of an authentic specimen of C. scatidcns, and 
have no reason to doubt its identity with this, it being a widely diffused Malayan 
plant likely to occur at Malacca. The structure of the ovary is difficult to observe 
in dried specimens. I find 4 1-ovuled cells in one specimen, 2 1-ovuled cells in 
most, 2 2-ovuled cells in an authentic specimen, and Maingay says ovary by abortion 
•2-3-celled. In the Australian C. paniculatum and reticulaium I find the ovary 
4-cellel above, 2-celled below, with 2 ovxiles in each cell. 


Twining glabrous shrubs; branches tei-ete. Leaves opposite, coriaceous; 
stipules broad, acute. Flowers small, unisexual, in axillary cymose fascicles or 
peduncled heads; pedicels short; bracts deciduous. Calyx-tube small, tur- 
binate; limb annular truncate or 5-toothed, persistent. CoroUa coriaceous, 
tube short, throat woolly ; lol)e3 4-5, oblong-lanceolate, valvate in bud with 
inflexed tips. Stamens 4-5, in the corolla-tube, filaments stout ; anthers linear- 
oblong, exserted. Ovary 4-celled ; style of $ entire, of $ stout, branches 
oblong ; ovules 1 in each cell, attached to the inner angle by a broad base. 
Drupe globose, with 2-4 pyrenes. Seeds compressed, ascending, testa mem- 
branous ; embryo basal, small, radicle inferior. — Distrib. Species 3 or 4, aU 

1. G-. sublanceolata, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 548 ; branches slender 
twining, leaves eUiptic-lanceolate acuminate, nerves very indistinct, fruit the 
size of a pea. G. coriacea var., Miq. in Ann. Miis. Luqd. Bat. iv, 244. 
Pcederia tetmndra. Wall. Cat. G249. ? Psychotria, Wall Cat. 8385. ? Ru- 
biacete, Wall. Cat. 8297. 

Malacca, Sikgapore, and Penang, WalUch, Maingay. {G. coriacea, Kew Distrib.) 
— Distrib, Bangka. 

Branches with long almost filiform tips, their nodes sometimes leafless but with 
triangular stipules. Leaves black when dry, 3-4 by ^-1 in., not shining, base nar- 
rowed into the petiole; nerves without axillary glands; petiole \-^ in. Flowers 
fascicled or in much reduced cymes. Corolla-tube very short, woolly within. Style 
glabrous. Fruit with 3-4 pyrenes, — "Wallich's 8385 is possibly a young state of this, 
the branches root like ivy, and the distichous leaves are sessile, linear-oblong, acute, 
with cordate bases ; it has neither flower nor fruit. Miquel has (in the Annales) 
reduced this to a variety of G. coriacea, which appears to me to be an entirely difll;ront 

2. G-. macrophylla, Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 314 ; For. Fl. ii. 
33 ; leaves elliptic-oblong subacute or obtuse, ftuit the size of a cheny. 

South Andaman Island and Malacca, Kur^:, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 934). 

Branches stout. Leaves brown when dry, 4-6 by 2 in., tip rounded, base sub- 
acute, very coriaceous, opaque, with nerves slender in Kurz's specimen, shining above, 
with' very distinct nerves in Maingay's. F^i^ers very numerous, larger than is G. 
suhlanccolata ; calyx-tube more distinct; corolla-lobes longer. Fruit sea-gi-een. — I 
have seen no Andaman specimen, and only one of Kurz's, sent by Dr. King, and 
marked as from Nankoury, Malacca ; it has leaves of the colour and texture of G. 
siiblanceolata, and wants the hollow fringed glands in the nerve axils described by 
Kurz ; these are pres3nt in non3 of the axils of Maingay's specimen, the leaves of 
which arc brown and shining above. 

JPsycJiotria.'] lxxv. rubiaceji. (J. D. Hooker.) 161 


75. PSYCBOTRXA, Linn. 

Shrubs or small trees, rarely herbs, erect, rarely climbing or twining. Leaves 
opposite, very rarely in whorls of 3 or 4 ; stipules intrapetiolar, often connate, 
solitary or in pairs, with often glandular axillary hairs. Flotvers in terminal 
(rarely axillary) cymes, heads or fascicles, not involucrate (in Indian species), 
bracteate or not. Calyx-tuhe short, limb often deciduous. Corolla-tube 
straight, short (in Indian species), throat naked or hairy ; lobes 5, rarely 4 or 6, 
valvate in bud. Stamens as many, on the coroUa-throat or mouth, filaments 
short or long ; anthers included or not. Ovart/ 2-celled ; style short or long, 
branches 2 ; ovules 1 basal erect in each cell, usually cuneiform. Fi-uit small, 
ovoid, globose or oblong, rarely didymous with two 1-seeded plano-convex 
pyrenes, rarely separating into 2 cocci. Seeds plano-convex, ventrally flat or 
grooved, testa thin, albumen hard sometimes ruminate ; embryo small, basal, 
cotyledons broad thin, radicle inferior. — Distrib. Species about 600, aU tropical 
or subtropical. 

Sect. I. Seeds semi-terete or plano-convex, dorsally smooth and convex, 
ventrally flat without any groove ; albumen strongly ruminated. — Corolla-tube 
very short in all but P. platyneura and malayana. (Grttmxlea, Gaertn.) 

* All or loiver branches of the cymes whorUd, very rarely {in P. congesta) 
opposite, in P. Thwaitesii, sometimes capitate (see also 16. P. malayana). 

1. P. stenophylla. Thw. Enum. 147 (Grumilea); glabrous, leaves 
narrowly linear-lanceolate, stipules broad nearly orbicular obtuse coriaceous 
concave, cymes peduncled, branches whorled, flowers small capitate. 

Cbyxon; at no great elevation, Thwaites. 

Branches compressed, leaf-axils and nodes of cyme glandular and with ferruginous 
hairs. Leaves green when dry, coriaceous, 2-6 by -J-1 in., midrib yellow very pro- 
minent and grooved on the upper surface, nerves slender; petiole short; stipules 
deciduous. Cymes with 5 branches in a whorl, each ^ in. long; heads of minute 
flowers ^ in. diam. Calyx-limb sinuate. Corolla-tube very short, throat bearded. 
Fruit size of a pea, globose, black, smooth. — I follow Thwaites in placing this 
amongst the Orumiliecs, having seen no fruit. 

2. P. g>landullfera, Thw. mss. ; glabrous, leaves elliptic-oblong abruptly 
acuminate narrowed into the petiole, axillary nerve-glands large and deep, 
stipules broad very obtuse, cymes very short subsessile ebracteolate 3-chotomou8, 
flowers small crowded. 

Cetlok, Thwadtes. 

Branches terete. Leaves 5-7 by 1^2^ in., pale green when dry, coriaceous, 
nerves 9-10 pair, spreading, arched; petiole ^1 in.; stipules coriaceous, deciduous. 
Cymes (young) 1 in. ; branches very stout. Flowers (in young bud only) small, 
sessile ; calyx-limb hardly toothed. — The specimens are very imperfect, and I follow 
Thwaites in placing it amongst the ChrumilietB. 

3. P. Gardner!, Thw. Enum. 147 (Grumilea) ; glabrous, leaves cuneate- 
obovate the broad end very suddenly contracted into a broad caudate obtuse 
tip, nerves 14-18 pair, stipules obtuse, cymes peduncled brachiate, branches 
whorled, flowers capitate. 

Cetlon ; central province, alt. 3-6000 ft., Gardner, &c. 

Branches stout, compressed, smooth. Leaves 4-8 by 1^2^ in., coriaceous, pale 
brownish green when dry, narrowed into the short stout petiole ; nerves spreading. 

162 T,xxv. RUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [PsycJiotria, 

axils sometimes minutely glandular; stipules ovate, obtuse, deciduous. Cymes 
broad ; peduncles 1-2 in., and branches stout ; bracteoles rounded ; flowers 3-4:-nate, 
subsessile. Calyx obscurely 5-tootlied. Corolla^tvbe very short. Fruit small, 
spherical, smooth. Seed ^-terete ; ventral surface flat ; albumen ruminate. 

4. P. Thwaltesii, Hook. f. ; glabrous, leaves elliptic-lanceolate oblong 
or obovate acuminate or acute, nerves 12-16 pair, stipules triangular acute or 
cuspidate, cymes peduncled, branches stout whorled, flowers capitate or cymes 
82sale reduced and capitate mixed with rufous hairs, calyx-limb in the ellipsoid 
fruit minute. P. Heyneana, Wall. Cat. 8327; upper right hand specimens. 
Grumilea nudiflora, Thw. JEnum. 147, not of W. ^ A. ? G. nigra, Oaertn. 
Fruct. 138, t. 28. 

Western Peninsula. ; on the Ghats, from the CJoncan southward. Ceylon ; alt. 
3-6000 ft., common. 

A glabrous bush ; branches smooth, compressed. Leaves 3-6 by 1^2^ in., greenish 
when dry, rather coriaceous ; petiole i-H in. : stipules very variable. Cymes variable , 
peduncle^nd short branches 4-angled m fruit ; bracteoles caducous; flowers small. 
Calyx-teeth 5, small. Corolla-tube xerj short, glabrous externally and nearly so 
within. Fruit ellipsoid, smooth. Seed ^terete; ventral surface flat; albumen 
ruminate. — There are two principal forms of this and a subordinate third. 

Va^. 1. zeylanica; cymes peduncled, branches distinct. 

Vab. 2. peninsularis ; leaves usually smaller more obovate, cymes always sessile, 
branches moderate or short or 0, or the inflorescence a peduncled globose head. 

Vab. 3. coronata ; leaves small, fruit with the calyx-limb distinct 5-toothed (as 
in P. congesta, but smaller). — Ceylon at Kamboddi, alt. 4000 ft., Gardner. 

6. P. congresta, W. 8f A. Prodr. 432; glabrous, leaves obovate or 
ohlanceolate subacute, nerves 8-10 pair, stipules ovate, cymes sessile or 
peduncled, branches opposite, flowers crowded very shortly pedicelled not capi- 
tate without rufous hairs, calyx-limb crowning the ellipsoid fruit. Wight Ic. 
t. 1037. G. patens, Schlechi in PI. Hohen. n. 1373. P P. elongata, Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. And. Gen. t. xvii. 

Nelghebet and Pulney Mts. ; alt. 7-8000 ft., Wight, &c. 

An evergreen leafy bush. Leaves 2^5 by 1-2 in., rather coriaceous, greenish 
when dry ; nerves strong ; petiole \-\ in. ; stipules deciduous. Cymes with short 
thick branches and branchlets, quite glabrous, ebracteolate. Calyx 4-5-toothed. 
Corolla-tube very short, glabrous or pubescent within. Frmi ellipsoid, smooth; 
calyx-limb tubular, toothed, sometimes very low or even reduced to teeth sessile on 
the top of the fruit. Seed semiterete, ventral face flat, albumen grooved. 

Vab. astephana ; cymes less crowded, fruit with a scarcely raised calyx-limb. 

6. P. macrocarpa, Jlook. f. ; glabrous, leaves elliptic or oblanceolate 
obtuse or obtusely acuminate, stipules very broad, cymes peduncled, branches 
very short and tmck lower whorled, flowers crowded very shortly pedicelled, 
fruit ellipsoid f in. crowned by the very short calyx-teeth. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 

Tbavancoee ; at Uourtallam, Wight. 

Branches pale, smooth, branchlets compressed. Leaves 5-8 by 2-2|^ in., thinly 
coriaceous, narrowed into a rather slender petiole ^1 in.; stipules coriaceous, 
deciduous. Cymes short, not 1 in. high and hardly so broad ; peduncles 1 in. or less ; 
bracts caducous ; flowers larger than in the preceding species. Calyx-teeth 4-5, 
triangular. Corolla-tube very short, woolly within. FriUt ellipsoid, smooth. Seeds 
^-terete, ventral face flat ; albumen ruminate. 

7. P. sublntegra, W. 4* A. Prodr. 432 (Grumilea); gkbrous, leaves 
elliptic-lanceolate obtuse or obtusely acuminate, petiole slender, stipules very 
troad, cymes axillary and terminal peduncled brachiate broadly corymbose, 

Psychotria.'] LXXY. rubucej!. (J. D. Hooker.) 163 

lower pair of branches long spreading rachis above them arrested, flowers in 
many small heads terminating the bran&hlets, fruit globose areole smalL Pay- 
chotria ? Wall. Cat. 8345. 

Wbstken PjBKiNSirLA ; Shevagherry and Dindygul hills, Wight. 

Branches stout, smooth. Leaves 6-8 by 2-3 in., green and rather flaccid when 
<iry, base narrowed into a petiole ^1^ in. ; nerves distant, about 10 pair; stipules 
caducous, variable, sometimes tooth&d. Cymes large, 3-4 in. diam. ; peduncles stout, 
3 in. and less, lower pair of branches ascending or recurved branched at the end, and 
bearing small heads ^-^ in. diam. of glabrous flowers ; bracts caducous. Calyx-limb 
membranous, teeth very short, obtuse or acute. Corolla-tube broadly shortly fannel- 
ehaped, mouth villous. Fruit ^ in. diam., smooth. Seed ^-terete, ventral face flat, 
albumen ruminated. — Wight's originally distributed specimens have a terminal cyme, 
with an elongated rachis ; all the numerous others have the rachis exceeded in height 
by the ends of the lower branches of the cyme. 

8. P. truncata, WaU. in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 162; 
glabrous, leaves large cuneate-obovate or orbicular rarely elliptic-obovate 
abruptly apiculate coriaceous base cuneate, nerves 14-16 pair close and strong, 
stipules very large, cymes peduncled or sessile brachiate, lower branches 
whorled, berry ellipsoid. P. Heyneana, Wall. Cat. 8327, in part. 

Western Peninsttla ; on the (jhats from Concan southwards, Heyne, &c. 

Branches stout, smooth. Leaves 6-8 by 3-4 in., pale green when dry, narrowed 
into a stout petiole ^1^ in., upper surface usually raised between the spreading 
nerves; stipules sometimes 1^ in., broadly ovate or oblong, free or connate below, 
coriaceous. Cymes terminal, often short and dense in flower, in fruit 5-6 in. diam., 
stout, 3 in. and under ; branches long or short ; bracts deciduous ; flowers small, sub- 
sessUe. Calyx-limb truncate. Corolla-ttibe very short, glabrous, mouth with a fringe 
of hairs. Berry | in., smooth. Seed ^-terete, ventral face flat ; albumen ruminate. 
— The ticket of Heyne marked March 20, 1837, identifies the H. Heyneana of Wallich's 
catalogue with the H. truncata of his and Carey's edition of the " Flora Indiea." 

9. P. Dalzellll, Hook. /. ; glabrous, very robust, leaves obovate or 
oblong- or obcuneate-obovate coriaceous tip obtuse or rounded, base cuneate, 
nerves 12-20 pair strong, stipules very large, cymes terminal peduncled 
brachiate, branches whorled very stout with terminal capitate flowers, and 
large persistent bracts. P. bracteata, W, ^ A. Prodr. 434, not of DC. 

Western Peninsula ; from Canara southwards. 

Branches sometimes as thick as the little finger, smooth, cylindric. Leaves 6-10 
by 2-4 in., pale or black when dry, nerves strong on both surfaces ; petiole very 
short, stout; stipules broadly oblong or orbicular, coriaceous, sometimes § in. diam., 
axils glabrous. Cyme-peduncle 3 in. or less, lower branches 4-5 in a whorl, 1-2 in. ; 
l>^wjts \-\ in., broadly ovate or orbicular, very coriaceous ; bracteoles concave as long 
as and forming an involucre round the heads of flowers. Calyx-teeth 5, short, rounded, 
ciliate. Corolla-tube ^ in., glabrous, throat villous. Fruit young, glabrous, crowned 
with the enlarged calyx-limb. — Dalzell has called this a Grumilea. I have seen no 
ripe fruit 

** Cyme-h'anches opposite^ whorled in 15. P. malayana. 

10. P. elongrata, Wight Ic. 1. 1036 (Grumilea) ; glabrous, leaves elliptic 
or obovate obtuse subacute or cuspidate, base cuneate, nerves 1 0-14 pair, axils 
sometimes perforated, uppermost stipules connate obtuse, cymes terminal, fruit- 
ing elongate racemiform, branches very short opposite and peduncles very stout, 
flowers crowded, fruit globose, calyx-lmib minute. Psychotria, Wall. Cat. ^360. 

NiiiGHEERY and Shevagherry Hells, Noton, &c. Ceylon ; Central Province, alt. 
7000 ft., Thwaites. 

Shrubby. Leaves 3-6 by 1^-2^ in., pale when dry; nerves slender, spreading; 

164 Lxxv. EUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) \_Psycliotria, 

petiole very short ; stipiiles forming a sheathing 2-fid tube to the peduncle, obtuse or 
subacute, axils glabrous. Cymes 2-3 in. long in fruit; peduncle 2 in. and under, 
stout ; branches not ^ in., bracts caducous ; flowers sessile or very shortly pedicelled. 
Calyx minutely 5-toothed. Corolla-tube very short, throat villous. Fruit size of a 
small pea; calyx-limb obsolete. Seeds |-terete, ventral face flat; albumen rumi- 
nated.---Leaves of the Ceylon specimen broader and with more nerves than the 
peninsular. Beddome's figure of P. elongata (Fl. Sylv. Anal. Gen. xvii. f. 6) has 
glabrous throat to the corolla, and is a different plant. From the appearance of the 
inflorescence and persistent large calyx-limb it is probably P. congesta. 

11. P. adenophylla, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8f Wall. ii. 
166 ; <!at. 8849 ; glabrous, leaves elliptic-lanceolate or oblong acute acuminate 
or cuspidate, nerves 14-20 pair, axils minutely perforated, upper stipules 
connate sheathing truncate, axils hairy, cymes terminal rarely axillary fruiting 
elongate racemiform, branches short opposite and slender, flowers pedicelled, 
fruit pyriform, calyx-limb minute. DC. Prodr. iv. 520. P. connata, Kurz 
Far. Fl. ii. 10, not of Wallich. 

Khasia Mts. and Cachar, alt. 0-4000 ft. Pegu, MClelland; Chittagong, 
J. D. H. Sf T.T.\ Tenasserim and Andaman Islands, Heifer, Kurz, &c. 

A shrub. Leaves very variable, 4-7 by 1-2^ in., tip rounded and cuspidate or 
more or less gradually acuminate, base the same ; nerves variable in number ; petiole 
\-\ in. ; stipules \-\ in., truncate, obtuse or subacute, Cynties with the peduncle 
3-5 in., or 7 when fruiting ; branches opposite and subopposite ; bracts caducous ; 
flowers very small. Calyx-limb truncate, quite entire. Corolla-tube ~ in., throat 
villous. Fruit \ in. long. Seeds ^terete, ventral face flat ; albumen ruminate. — 
Very differeiit from P. congesta in the shape of the leaves, slender cymes, flowers, 
calyx-limb, and fruit. The hollow glands at the nerve-axils from which "Wallich 
derived the specific name are minute and not always visible. 

12. P. tylophora, Kurz in Lond. Jom-n. Bot. 1875, 328; glabrous, 
leaves elliptic-obovate or -lanceolate abruptly acuminate narrowed into the 
petiole, nerves 12-16 pair axils perforate, stipules ovate-oblong acute, cymes 
peduncled terminal erect, rachis slender elongate, opposite and alternate short 
branches slender, Iruit ellipsoid pedicelled, calyx-limb minute. 

NicoBAR IsiANDS ; woods of Katchall, Kurz. 

A shrub. Leaves 4-7 by 1^-2^ in., rather membranous, pale when dry; nerves 
slender, arched ; petiole \-% in. ; stipules glabrous, axils hairy. Cyrms racemose in 
fruit, 3-4 in. long, short, branches dichotomously divided. Fruit nearly ^ in. long. — 
I have seen but one imperfect specimen. 

13. P. pendula, Hook.f. ; glabrous, leaves elliptic-obovate or -lanceolate 
abruptly obtusely acuminate, narrowed into the petiole, nerves 12-16 pair, axils 
imperforate, cymes peduncled terminal, fruiting pendulous very long, rachis and 
very short distant opposite branches stout, fruit depressed-globose sessile 
crowned with the enlarged calyx-limb. 

Andaman Islands ; Passage Bay, Heifer. 

Branches smooth, stout, pale green. Leaves 4-6 by 1|-2| in., pale green when 
dry, nerves .slender ; petiole ^-^ in. ; stipules not seen. Fruiting cymes racemose, 5-7 
in. long. Fruit ^ in. broad, somewhat contracted at the base, obscurely didymous ; 
calyx-limb cupular, 5-toothed, with a central obtuse projecting enlarged disk. Seeds 
hemispheric, ventral face flat ; albumen not deeply ruminate. — This differs from P. 
tyloph&ra in the imperforate nerve-axils and long pendulous fruiting cymes with very 
stout branches, and sessile fruit of a totally different shape, and large calyx-limb. 

14. P. platjmeura, Kurz in Ti-imen Journ. Bot. 1875, 327 ; Fm-. Fl. 
ii. 10 ; glabrous, leaves elliptic-obovate or -lanceolate abruptly acuminate nar- 
rowed into the stout petiole, nerves about 20 pair, stipules broad ovate upper 

Psycliotria.] Lxxv. rubiacejj. (J. D. Hooker.) 165 

ol)tuse cymes terminal, peduncle and sutopposite corymbose branches 8t;oat, 
flowers pedicelled, fruit large subglobose, calyx-limb very small. 

Andaman Islands, Kurz. 

A shrub. Leaves 6-7 by lf-2^ in., thinly coriaceous, dull green when dry, nerves 
slender ; petiole ^1 in. Cymes 1-2 in. ; branches subopposite, short, dichotomously 
divided; pedicels stout. Calyx-teeth b, minute. CoroUa small. Fruit ^ in. long, 
skghtly obovoid, base suddenly contracted. Seeds ^-terete,, ventral face flat; albumeu 
rinninate. — The seeds are not very satisfactory. 

15. P. malayana, Jack in Mai. Misc. i. 3 ; glabrous, branches robubt 
leaves elliptic-lanceolate acute or acuminate, nerves 12-16 pair, axils imperfo- 
rate, stipides large acute or upper apiculate, cymes terminal peduncled many- 
flowered, branches stout lower or all whorled and with whorled branchlets, 
flowers pedicelled and sessile in the forks, corolla-tube elongate. DC. Prodr. 
iv. 520. P. aurantiaca, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8f Wall. ii. 166: Cat. 
8335 ; DC. I. c. 619. P. expansa, Blume Bijd. 963 ; DC. I. c. 621. Grumilea 
aurantiaca {excl. descript. of fruit) and Chasalia expansa, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat, ii. 
296 and 281. 

Pknang, Jack, — Distrib. Java. 

Branches soft, smooth, upper compressftd. Leaves 4-8 by 1^-3 in., greenish -when 
dry, nerves slender ; petiole |-|- in. ; stipules coriaceous. Cymes stout, puberulous or 
glabrous, very many- flowered ; peduncle 3 in. and less, and branches angled or com- 
pressed ; bracteoles caducous. Calyx-limb truncate, obscurely 5-toothed. Corolla-tube 
^ in., lobeS lanceolate, and throat villous. Fruit " obovoid, as large as a cherrystone, 
orange-coloured," Wallich. — Jack's description is too imperfect for identification, but 
as Wallich has his aurantiaca from Jack, there is little room for doubt as to this being 
his species. I have seen no fruit, but that of a very similar Bornean species differing 
only in the opposite cyme branches is that of a Grumilea. Some of Miquel's synonyms 
are too unsatisfactory to be quoted : his G. aurantiaca is described as having lO-ribbed 
fruit ; of the loose fruits transmitted with his Chasalia expansa to Herb. Kew, one is 
10-ribbed, and. does not, I suspect, belong to the plant. 

16. P. polycarpa, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 296 (Grumilea) ; scandent, 
glabrous, leaves obovate or elliptic-obovate acute or abruptly acuminate, nerves 
6-7, axils imperforate, cymes terminal brachiate, branches elongate, branchlets 
divaricate, flowers pedicelled, fruit very small ellipsoid umbonate. P. obovata, 

Wall. Cat. 8380 A. 

Maiacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3042), Maingay (924); SiNGAPOiiE, Wallich.— 
— DiSTEiB. Sumatra. 

Branches soft, cylindric, smooth. Leaves 2\-Z in., variable in width, dull greenish 
when dry, coriaceous, nerves indistinct, veins ; fifetiole \-^ in. ; stipules ovate, ob- 
tuse, caducous. Cym£ much corjmbosely branched, sometimes 6 in. diam. ; peduncle 
3 in, and less, and the branches angled ; flowers very small, on divari<»ting pedicels. 
Calyx-limb trxxncaXQ. CoroZfe ^ in., throat villous. i^'^'Mt^ ^ in..long ; calyx-limb de- 
pressed, surrounding the prominent exserted obtuse stout disk, as in P.pendula. — This 
species, notwithstanding its ruminated albumen and i^-terete seed, must stand next to 
P. sarmentosa. 

Sect. II. Seeds dorsaUy convex with 4 furrows. 

* Stem scandent. 

17. P. sarmentosa, Blume Bijd. 964 ; climbing, glabrous, leaves ellipiic 
or eUiptic-obovate acute or acuminate, nerves &-8 pair, petiole slender, cymes ter- 
minal subsessile compressed corymbiform or bracbiate, branches opposite, flowers 
pedicelled, fruit small obovoid 8-grooved, calyx-limb very small. DC. Prodr. 
iv. 622 ; Wit/ht Ic. t. 1038 ; Thw. Fnum. 148 ; Kurt For. Fl. ii. 14. P. scandens, 

166 Lxxv. RUBUCE2E. (J. D. Hooker.) IPsychotria^ 

Moon. Cat. 14. P. obovata, Wall. Cat. 8380. Grumilea JuDghuhmana, Miq. 
Ft. Ind. Bat. ii. 296. Psychotria Nov. Sp., Miq. vn Pi. Bohen. n. 809. Psy- 
chotria Sp., Wall. Cat. 8382, ? 8381, ? 8384. 

Westben PKinKSTTLA, from Canara southwards. Gbylok, ascending to 4000 ft. 
Eastebk Peninsuia, from Tenasserim sonthwai'ds to Singapore and Penang. — Distbib. 
Malay Archipelago. 

A twining shrub, 10 ft. and upwards ; branches slender, smooth pale. Leaves 2|- 
3^ by |-1^ in., greenish or yellowish when dry, thin or coriaceous, base far produced 
on tie petiole, nerves faint, veins inconspicuous ; stipules ovate, caducous. Cymes 
broad, 2-3 in. diam., rachis and branches angled; bracteoles caducous. Flowers yery 
small, greenish. Calyx-teeth minute. Corolla-tube ^ in., villous within. Fruit j in., 
white, fleshy. Seed dorsally 4-gro6ved, ventrally concave ; albumen equable. — Some 
of Wallich's 8381 and 8384 are no doubt young states (flowerless) of tlus, or possibly 
of P. polycarpa. 

18. P. Maingrayi, Hook.f,) climbing, shoots petioles and cymes hairy^ 
leaves elliptic-lanceolate acuminate at both ends, nerves 8-10 pair, stipules per- 
eigtent connate membranous toothed, cymes axillary small peduncled, fruit 
broadly ellipsoid 8-grooved, calyx-limb large, lobes broad recurved. 

SiKOAFOKB, Maingay. 

Branches slender, smooth. Leaves 2-3 by \-\\ in., rather thin, narrowed into the 
very short slender petiole ; nerves faint ; stipules pubescent. Cymes almost tomen- 
tose ; peduncle slender, compressed ; branches few, opposite ; bracts linear, pertistent. 
Fruit subsessile, | in. long ; calyx-limb cupular, pubescent. Seed as in P. sarmentosa. 

19. P. OTOldeaf Wall. Cat. 8383 ; climbing and rooting, branches leaves 
beneath and cymes villous, leaves petioled elliptic or ovate cuspidate, nerves 6-6 
pair, cymes terminal small sessile or peduncled umbellatelyoranched, flowers 
subcapitate, fruit small pedicelled ellipsoid 8-grooved, calyx-limb with erect 
acute teeth. 

SiNGAPOEE, Wallich; Maiacca, Maingay (Kew Bistrib. 923). — Distbib. Malay 
Archipelago ? 

Branches slender ; pubescence spreading, dark, rufous when dry. Leaves 1^-2^ 
in., brown especially beneath when dry, coriaceous, margin often recurved, base acute 
obtuse or subcordate, nerves strong beneath ; petiole ^-^ in. ; stipules connate, cadu- 
cous. Cymes with spreading stout compressed branches; peduncle 1 in. or less; 
bracteoles elongate, linear, very persistent, tomentose ; flowers very small. Corolla- 
ttibe pubescent, villous within. Fruit ^ in., pubescent; calyx-limb cupular. Seed as 
in the section. 

20. P. moiindaDflora, Wall Cat. 8438, A. B. 0. in part ; climbing, 
rooting, quite glabrous, leaves petioled elliptic obtusely acuminate shining, 
nerves 5-7 pair, cymes terminal subdessile and pedicelled small, flowers capitate 
at the end of the short branches, fruit small ellipsoid 8-grooved, calyx-limb small. 
? Psychotria, Wail. Cat. 8366. 

Penakg and Sinqapobb, Wallich, Porter. 

Branches smooth, slender, dark brown when dry. Leaves 3-5 by 1^-2 in., coria- 
ceous, usually red-brown when dry, base acute, nerves slender; petiole ^-| in.; 
stipules connate, caducous. Cymes with few short or long spreading compressed naked 
branches bearing globose heads ^ in. diam. of small flowers ; bracts and bracteoles 
linear, caducous. Calyx-limb truncate, obscurely toothed. Corolla-tube glabrous, 
mouth villous. Fruit ^ in. long, sessile or peduncled. Seed as in the section.— 
Amongst Wallich's specimens are some with sessile and others with pedicelled fruit ; 
it is possible that these may belong to different species. His No. 8366 from Singapore 
has narrow oblong-lanceolate leaves, very long (4-5 in.) peduncles, bearing a puberu- 
lous umbel of 6-10 rays, each ray bearing a head of sessile flowers ^ in. diam. 

Psychotria.] lxxv. rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 167 

** F7'ect shrubs. 

21. P. Wlgrbtiana, Thtu. Enum. 148 (Grumilea) ; branches leaves be- 
neath and cymes villous with rufous hairs, leaves elliptic-lanceolate finely 
acuminate, nerves 8-10 pair, cymes terminal eruciately brachiate, branches few 
naked with terminal globose heads of sessile flowers or cymes reduced to a soli- 
tary long peduncled or sessile globose head. Lasianthus ? dubius, Wight in 
Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vi. 516. 

Ceylon ; Ambagamowa and Saffragan districts, on banks of streams, Walker, &c. 

A small shrub, branches stout. Leaves 5-7 by 2-3^ in,, rather coriaceous, brownish 
green when dry, smooth and opaque above, nerves strong beneath ; petiole \-% in. ; 
stipules oblong, connate, villous. Cymes densely villous, sessile or peduncled ; branches 
and peduncle stout, the latter sometimes deflexed; bracteoles minute, obtuse; heads 
of sessile flowers dense, villous, 5— ^ in. diam. Calyx very short, cupular, limb trun- 
cate, teeth triangular. Corolla-tube very short, pubescent; throat hairy. Fruit 
" subspherical, hairy, |-^ in. diam., subcarinate," Thwaites. 

Vak. ? affinis; leaves sparsely hairy narrowly elliptic-lanceolate 4 by |-| in. 
Q-rumilea aflBnis, Thw. Enum. 148. 

22. P. madr asp atana, ^00^./. ; petioles leaves beneath and inflores- 
cence rusty-tomentose, leaves large long-petioled elliptic or eUiptic-obovate 
obtuse or subacute, nerves 20-30 pair, cymes reduced to a globose sessile head, 
fruit ellipsoid and grooved, calyx-limb very short. Psychotria, Wall. Cat. 

" Hekb. Madras," Wallich. 

Branches very stout, -woody, covered with brown shining bark, tips pubescent with 
spreading hairs. Leaves 6-12 by 2|-4 in., thinly coriaceous beneath, finely pubescent 
between the rufous-tomentose numerous slender nerves; base narrowed into a 1^ in. 
petiole ; stipides connate, villous, membranous. Head 1 in. diam., terminating the 
stout branch, and in one specimen covering the bases of the pair of petioles, densely 
rufous-pubescent ; bracts and bracteoles numerous, as long as the flowers, linear or 
oblong, membranous, villous, persistent, outer broader. Calyx-tube shorter than the 
5 unequal lanceolate villous lobes. Corolla not seen. Frvit ^ in. long, villous, 
crowned by the lanceolate calyx-lobes. Seed with very deep dorsal and 2 narrow 
ventral grooves. — In habit and appearance this resembles P. Wightiana and Helferiana, 
but differs entirely from both ; I have seen no specimen but that in Wallich's Her- 

23. P. stlpulacea, Wall in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey Sf Wall. ii. 164; 
Cat. 8329 ; very robust, glabrous, leaves very long oblanceolate or obovate-oblong 
acuminate narrowed into the very stout winged petiole, nerves about 20 pair, 
cymes trichotomous, peduncle and branches very stout, flowers pedicelled, fruit 
ellipsoid deeply 4-grooved. DC. Frodr. iv. 519. 

Penang, Jack, Phillips, Wallich. 

Branches as thick as the middle finger, soft, compressed, and foliage reddish brown 
when dry. Leaves 8-14 by 3-5 in., not coriaceous, nerves slender; petiole 1-1^ in. ; 
stipules ^-f in. long, broadly ovate, acute, often 2-fid. Cymes 2-3 in. diam., broader 
than long ; peduncle and branches very stout ; bracts and bracteoles triangular, upper 
persistent ; flowers very small. Calyx-teeth short, triangular. Corolla-tube ^ in., 
glabrous, villous within. Fruit J in. long, grooves deep ; calyx-limb small. Seed 
ventrally concave. 

24. P. Jackil, Hook. f. ; glabrous, leaves petioled elliptic or obovate- 
lanceolate obtusely acuminate, nerves 10-12 pair, cymes shortly peduncled 
brachiate, branches slender, fruit pedicelled 8-grooved. Psychotria, Wall. Cat. 

Pknano, Jack, Wallich; Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3021). 

Branches slender, polished, nod^s with broad stipular scars. Leaves 5-7 by 1|-2J 

168 Lxxv. RUBiACfiJ). (J. D. Hooker.) [Fsychotria, 

in,, rather thin, red-brown when dry and shining above, midrib and nerves slender ; 
base narrowed into the slender petiole; stipules oblojig-ovate, deciduous. Cymes 3-4 
in broad; branches angled, sometimes obscurely puberulous, divaricate, much 3- 
chotomously divided; flowers pedicelled, minute. Calyx truncate, teeth obscure. 
Corolla-tube very short, glabrous, villous within. Fruit ;^-i in. long, arftolate, calyx- 
teeth very obscure. Seeds of the section, ventral face plane. — A near ally of the 
Chinese P. elliptica, Ker in Bot. Keg. t. 607 (P. Eeevesii, Wall. Cat. 8330, and in 
Sos^. Fl. Ind. ii. 164), but more slender, leaves less coriaceous, with slender midrib 
and nerves, and smaller flowers, 

25. P. diverg'eiis, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 13 ; and in Joum. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 
143, not of Blume ; glabrous, leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate acuminate 
tapering into. a long petiole, cymes long-peduncled trichotomous, flowers shortly 
pedicelled, calyx-teeth obsolete, fruit ovoid 5-ribbed and furrowed crowned by 
the calyx-limb. 

Pegu, Malabae, and Tbnasserem, in tropical forests, Kwrz. 

An evergreen shrub, 1^-2 ft. Leaves 5-8 in., firmly membraaous or thinly coria- 
ceous, usually brownish when dry; petiole ^1 in. ; stipules variable, often very large 
and elongate, entire or 2-cleft. Flowers greenish. Corolla ^^-^ in., lobes as long, 
throat villous. Fruit ^-| in. long, smooth. Albumen equable, spuriously ruminate, 
or rather 5-ribbed. — I have seen no authentic specimen, and take the-description from 
Kurz, who says that it differs from- P. andamanica only in the glabrous cymes. It 
cannot be Blume's P. divergens, which has a'prominently toothed calyx and very large 
flowers ; it is probably a glabrous form of P. sulcata. 

26. P. andamanloa* Kurz in Lond. Joum. Bot. 1875, 328 ; For. Fl. ii. 
13; glabrous except the cymes, leaves long-petioled elliptic-obovate or -lanceolate 
caudate-acuminate, nerves 8-10 pair remote, cymes subsessile much trichoto- 
mously branched, fruit ellipsoid 8-grooved. 

Andaman and Nicobab Isiands Kurz. 

A small evergreen shrub ; branches stout, pale, the wood shrinking in drying. 
Leaves 6-9 by 2^-3^ in., membranous, greenish-brown when dry, often subfalcate ; 
nerves slender, arched ; base narrowed into the 1-2 in. long petiole ; stipules large, 
oblong, 2-cleft, deciduous. Cymes glabrous or rusty-puberulous, 3 in. diam., branches 
divaricate ; flowers shortly pedicelled, greenish-white. Calyx almost truncate ; teeth 
short, broad. Corolla glabrous, tube ^^2 '^^% much exserted, throat villous. Fruit \ 
in. long, smooth, calyx-limb persistent. — I have seen no fruit, nor any Andaman 
specimens ; it is probably a broad-leaved form of the following. 

27. P. sulcata, Wall. Cat. 8370 ; leaves long-petioled elliptic-lanceolate 
or oblanceolate acuminate membranous puberulous or glabrate oeneath, nerves 
10-15 pair, stipules very lai^e lax, cymes axillary or terminal sessile or ^eduncled 
repeatedly trichotomously divided, fruit pedicelled broadly ellipsoid 8-grooved, 
calyx very small. 

Tenasseeem, Malabar, and Bihma, Wallich, Hdfer, &c. 

Branches rather slender, smooth. Leaves 3-9 by 2-2^ in., greenish or brown when 
dry, nerves slender, base narrowed into a petiole ^-1^ in. long; stipules ^-| in., 
straight or falcate, obtuse acute or acuminate, rather persistent for the genus. Cyme6. 
small, 1-2^ in. diam. ; branches divaricate ; bracts triangular ; flowers very small, 
glabrous. Calyx-limb truncate. Corolla-tube glabrous, very short. Fruit ^ in. long, 
grooves not deep. Seed flat on the ventral face. 

28. P. erratica, J3ooA;. /. ; glabrous, leayes lanceolate or elliptic acumi- 
nate, petiole slender, ners^es 9-12 pair, stipules usually cleft, cymes axillary and 
terminal sessile glabrous or puberulous rather shortly trichotctoously branched, 
fruit pedicelled ^-grooved, calyx-limb small. 

NiPAL and Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 4-6000 ft., J. D. H., &c. ; Bhotan, alt. 5000 
ft., C. B. Clarice; Khasia Mts., alU 4-5000 ft., ChiSith, &c. 

Fsychotria.'] lxxv. rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 169 

Shrubby. Leaves 6-7 by 1-2^ in., green when dry, rather thin, base narrowed 
into a petiole 5— f in., nerves slender ; stipules with often 2 recurved acute lobes. 
Cytnes 1 in. diam., often inclined; branches flattened, soon dividing; bracts elongate, 
slender. Calyx minute; teeth broad or narrow, subacute, sometimes glandular. 
Corolla-tube very short, hairy within. Fruit ^—^ in., red and yellowish, grooves 
shallow. Seed undulated on the ventral face. — This is one of til© very few species 
that wanders westward ab far as the valley of Nipal. 

Vab. latifolia ; leaves broadly elliptic. — Khasia Mts., De Silva. — Psychotria sp., 
Wall. Cat. 8340. 

Yah. pedunculata ; cymes axillary, peduncle 1-2 in. — Nipal, Wallich. — Psychotria, 
Watt. Cat. 8369. 

29. P. iiilva, Hain. in Wall. Cat. 8336, exel. B. ; glabrous or pubescent, 
"branches stout, leaves petioled elliptic oblong obovate or lanceolate, stipules- 
large cleft, cymes axillary and terminal peduncled or sessile, branches tricnoto- 
mous or whorled, flowers usually in dense globose heads, bracts broad oft^n 
whorled persistent, fruit large ellipsoid 8-grooved, calyx-limb persistent. P. 
monticola, Kurz in Journ. 4-8- Soc. 1872, ii. 316 ; For. Ft. ii. 11. Psychotria, 
Wall Cat. 8337 ; Griff. Notul. iv. 268 ; Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 479, f. 2. 

Assam and the Khasia Mts., ascending to 4000 ft. ; Cachar, Munnipobe, and 

A large shrub. Leaves a foot long and under, very variable in breadth, usually 
narrowed into the petiole, rarely rounded at the base, variously coloured when di*y, 
often purplish-brown or reddish, thinly coriaceous ; nerves slender, spreading, some- 
times pubescent beneath; petiole ^-1 in.; stipules ^-1 in,, axils villous, segments 
sometimes hooked and recurved. Cymes large or small, rarely 2 in. across ; peduncle 
4 in. or less, pubescent or villous ; branches stout, short or long ; bracts and bracteoles 
excessively variable, more or less persistent ; flowers subsessile, glabrous or pubescent. 
Calyx minute ; teeth 5, short or long. Corolla-tube short, glabrous, villous within. 
Fruit capitate, ^| in. long, variable in shape, ellipsoid or ovoid, sometimes narrowed 
towards the top ; grooves very shallow. Seed flat ventrally, with or without a 2-fid 
groove. — A very variable plant, covered with yellowish flowers in May, whence its 
name, which, never, having been published, would be superseded by Kujz's of P. mon- 
ticola, were not the plant to which he gave that name an aberrant form, which is 
moreover erroneously described as glabrous in the Forest Flora ; under which citcum- 
«tances, and considering that the name monticola has been since applied to a tropical 
African species, it is advisable to retain Hamilton's appropriate one oi fulva for this 

Vab. ononticola; leaves more coriaceous, nerves distant pubescent beneath. P. 
monticola, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 315; For. Fl. ii. 11.— Karen hills, 

30. P. tortilis, Blume Bijd. 958; subherbaceous, stem simple, leaves 
long-petioled broadly elliptic-ovate acute membranous puberulous beneath, base 
cuneate rarely cordate, nerves 16-20 pair, veins reticulate, cymes all axillary 
small subsessile rounded, fruit very small didymous compressed, grooves 8 very 
shallow. DC. Prodr. iv.^ 620. P. microcarpa. Wall. Cat. 8344. Streblosa 
tortilis, Karth. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 246. 

Penano, Wallich ; Sinqapobe, Lobb. — Distbib. Java, Sumatra. 

Stem 1 foot from a woody base, sparsely pubescent. Leaves 4-7 by 2-4^ in., green 
when dry. very membranous , nerves spreading, slender ; petiole very slender, 1-2 in. ; 
stipules ovate, acute, or broader with a long cusp. Cyvies often from all the axils, 
pubescent, contracted and dense-flowererl but not capitate; pedicels rarely 1-2 in.; 
bracts very small ; flowers minute. Calyx-teeth very minute, triangular. Corolla-tube 
very short, hairy within. Fruit ^-^ in. diam., broader than long, pale. Seed flat 
on the ventral face. — ^A very peculiar species, quite unlike any other in habit and 

VOL. in. Cr 

170 Lxxv. EUBiACE-ffi. (J. D. Hooker.) [Psychotria^ 

Sect. in. Seeds with one obtuse dorsal ridge and 2 dorsal broad shallow 

* Cymes capitate. 

31. P. Moonii, Thw. Enum. 148 (Grumilea) ; glabrous, leaves elliptic or 
elliptic-lanceolate acuminal'^ narrowed into the stout petiole, flowers in dense 
peduncled heads mixed with large villous-edged bracts, fruit narrowly ovoid. 

CEyiiON ; Eeigam Corle, at no great elevation, Walker, Thwaites. 

Branches stout, ultimate compressed. Leaves 6-7 by 1^2;^ in., greenish or 
reddish when dry; nerves 12-14 pair, stout, much arched; stipules oblong, connate, 
ciliate. Cymes of 3-5 terminal stout branches 1 in. long, each bearing a subglobose 
head ^-f in. diam., the main peduncle suppressed, the lateral deflexed, the central 
simple or 3-chotomous ; bracteoles large, rounded, coriaceous, persistent, hairs rufous ; 
flowers sessile. Calyx-limb tubular, 5-toothed, ciliate. Fruit ^ in., crowned with the 
cupular calyx -limb, nearly circular in section with 4 broad shallow furrows. Seeds 
plano-convex; albumen equable. 

32. P. sordlda, Thw. Enum. 149 ; glabrous, leaves petioled lanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate caudate-acuminate, nerves very faint, stipules ovate, flowers 
3-4-nate in small peduncled deflexed heads, fruit oblong, caiyx-limb obsolete. 

Ceylon ; central province, alt. 4-8000 ft., Walker, Thwaites. 

Branches slender, ultimate-compressed. Leaves 3-5 by f-1^ in., pale or dark 
brown when dry, coriaceous ; nerves 6-8 pair, sometimes hardly visible ; petiole \ 
in.; stipules acute. Cymes of 3-5 short stout branches ^f in. long, the maia 
peduncle short or 0; bracteoles minute, caducous; flowers minute, sessile. Calyx 
with a funnel-shaped 5-toothed limb. Corolla-tube short, broad, glabrous within and 
without. Fruit ^ in. ; pyrenes with broad shallow dorsal furrows. 

** Cymes not capitate. 

33. P. longripetiolata, Thw. Enum. 149; glabrous, leaves long- 
petioled elliptic-oblong or ovate-oblong acuminate base rounded or cordate, 
cymes terminal peduncled, lower branches whorled trichotomous few-flowered, 
fruit ovoid crowned with the minute calyx-teeth. 

Cetlon ; Safiragan district, alt. 3-4000 ft., Thwaites. 

Leaves 5-6 by 1^2 in., yeDowish when dry, midrib stout; nerves 6-10 pair, very 
spreading; petiole 1-lf in., slender; stipules oblong, acute. Cymes small, about 1^ 
in. broad, nearly glabrous ; bracts minute, caducous ; flowers very small. Calyx-tube 
obconic ; teeth triangular. Corolla-tube very short. Fruit ^ in. ; pyrenes dorsally 
compressed, with very broad shallow lateral furrows. — The specimens are not copious. 

34. P. plurlvenia, Thw. Enum. 147 ; glabrous, leaves narrowly oblan- 
ceolate acute narrowed into a very short petiole, marginal nerves very numerous 
slender horizontal, fruit fusiform. 

Ceyxon ; Hewahette, in the central province, alt. 3-4000 ft., Thwaites. 

Branches slender. Leaves 3-4 by |-1 in., dark green and wrinkled when dry». 
margin thickened and often yellowish ; nerves 30-40 pair, slender and undulating, 
hardly distinguishable from the veins ; stipules lanceolate, \ in. Cymes very sparingly 
branched, glabrous, trichotomous ; bracteoles minute ; flowers ternate, shortly pedi- 
celled. Calyx-teeth lanceolate, exceeding the very short corolla-tube, which is hairy 
within. Seed " furrowed," Thwaites. — I have seen a single specimen without fruit. 

35. P. filipes, Hook.f. ; glabrous, leaves oblanceolate acuminate narrowed 
into a very short petiole, nerves jiumerous, stipules broad, cymes terminal 
irregularly branched peduncles and pedicels very slender, fruit oblong or sub- 
fusiform trimcate. ? P. bisulcata, var. 3., Thw. Enum. 148. 

Ceylon; Han tani, alt. 3000 ft., Gardner. 

Branches pale. Leaves 5-7 by 1-1| in., yellowish-green when dry; nerves 15-20 

Fsychotria.] Lxxv. eubucej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 171 

pair, obliquely arched, slender ; petiole short ; stipules terminal ovate-oblong, obtuse 
or 2-fid, lower broader sometimes rounded. Ci/mes sul sessile ; branches spreading 
in fruit, 2-3-chotomously divided ; flowers not seen. Fruit ^ in., deeply grooved, 
pyrenes ventrally flat, dorsally with a very prominent broad rounded rib, and two 
broad deep furrows. —I hare seen no specimen of Thwaites' P. bisulcata, var. /3., the 
character of which applies to this, and which he suggests being a distinct species. 

36. P. bisulcata, W. Sf A. Prodr. 434; glabrous, leaves obovate or 
elliptic-obovate or subcimeate narrowed into the petiole obtuse acute or acumi- 
nate, nerves 6-10 pair, cymes peduncled subebracteolate trichotoraous, flowers 
sessile, fruit ovoid or ellipsoid crowned with the small calyx-teeth. Wt. Ic. t. 
1039. P. Dodda-Jervam, Schlecht. PI. Hohmack. n. 1372, Kubiacea, Wall. 
Cat. 8458. 

NiLQHEBRT Mxs., Wight, &c. Ceylon, alt. 5-7000 ft.. Walker, &c. 

Branches rather stout. Leaves 2-5 by 1-^ in., rarely lanceolate, usually pale 
green with often a yellow midrib, coriaceous, base always cuneate; petiole ^^ in.: 
stipules \ in., ovate, acute. Cymes stoutly peduncled, rarely sessile, erect ; branches 
opposite, short or long, suberect ; bracteoles minute, caducous ; flowers very small, 
sessile. Calyx-teeth small, triangular. Corolla-tube short, villous within. Fruit ^ in. ; 
pyrenes with a broad rounded dorsal ridge and two shallow broad lateral furrows. 
Seed flat ventrally. 

37. P. connata, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ WaU. ii. 163; 
glabrous, leaves subsessile elliptic or oblanceolate obtuse or obtusely acuminate 
coriaceoiis shining above, cymes terminal peduncled, branches whorled, bracts 
coriaceous connate persistent, fruit ellipsoid crowned with the calyx-limb. Wall. 
Cat. 8347; DC. Prodr. iv. 519; W. ^ A. Prodr. 433. P. l^vigata, W. ^ A. 
Prodr. I. c. ; Wt. Ic. t. 828. 

Teavancore ; at Courtallam, Heyne, Wight. 

Branches smooth, pale. Leaves 4-7 by 1-1 f in,, narrowed into a very short stout 
petiole, reddish brown when dry, nerves 8-12 pair; stipules ovate or lanceolate, 
simple or 2-fld. Cymes erect ; peduncle 2 in. and under, and branches stout ; bracts 
coriaceous, broad, ovate, whorled and connate, ^ in. long ; bracteoles ovate, acute, 
ciliolate; flowers 8ub-3-nate, sessile. Calyx urceolate, 6-toothed. Corolla funnel- 
shaped, lobes lanceolate, throat woolly. Fruit ^ in. ; pyrenes with a broad rounded 
dorsal ridge and two shallow broad furrows. Seed ventrally flat. 

38. P. anamallayana, Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 236 ; glabrous, leaves 
large very long-petioled oblanceolate acute or abruptly acuminate, nerves 8-12 
pair, cymes terminal peduncled, branches stout whorled, bracts small caducous, 
fruit ovoid, calyx-limb small. Grumilea longifolia, Bedd. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
XXV. 218. 

Tkavancoee ; Anamallay hills, Beddome. 

Branches stout, soft. Leaves 8-10 by 1^-3 in.; gradually narrowed at the base 
into a petiole 1^-3 in., greenish when dry, rather membranous; nerves spreading, 
slender; stipules 1 in., ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate. Cymes 2-3 in. long 
and broad ; peduncle very stout ; bracts and bracteoles very inconspicuous ; flowers 
shortly pedicelled. Calyx broadly obconic; limb broad, truncate. Corolla-tube 
broad, with a ring of hairs within. Fruit ^ in., immature, but apparently as in P. 

39. P. G-rlflEithil, Hook. f. ; glabrous or the cymes puberulous, leaves 
large petioled linear-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate or sublanceolate acuminate 
coriaceous, nerves strong 15-20 pair, cymes terminal peduncled short dense- 
flowered, branches short stout irregular, bracts small caducous, fruit large 
ellipsoid trimcate deeply furrowed. 

Mat.acca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3044), Maingay. 

Branches stout, woody. Leaves 5-12 by 1^-3| in., very pale and shining when 

172 Lxxv. EUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Fsychotria^ 

dry ; midrib stout ; nerves stout on both surfaces, obliquely arching ; petiole |-1 in. ; 
stipules \-^ in,, "fleshy" (Griffith), ovate-cordate or -lanceolate, entire or 2-fid. 
Cymes short ; peduncle 2 in. or less ; branches usually whorled, sometimes irregu- 
larly alternate, very short and stout ; flowers subsessile. Calyx obconic, limb broad ; 
teeth 5, triangular. Corolla-tvhe broad, mouth villous. Fruit i in. long and upwards, 
shining ; dorsal ridge of pyrenes very strong and furrows broad and deep. Seed flat 

40. P. angrulata, Korth. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 243 ; glabrous, leaves 
obovate cuneate-obovate or oblaiiceolate rarely elliptic acute or abruptly acumi- 
nate coriaceous narrowed into the short or long petiole, cymes terminal peduncled, 
branches stoi^t whorled, bracts persistent, flowers subcapitate, fruit shortly 
ellipsoid truncMe, calyx4imb persistent. Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iv. 
210. Psycho tria, WaU. Cat 8348. Chasalia perforata, Miq. Fi. Ind.. Bat. 
Suppl. 546. 

Tenassebim; Mergui, Grriffith, Heifer. Malacca, Griffith. Sinqapobe, Wallich* 
Penang, Porter. — Distbib. Banca, Java, Borneo. 

Branches rather rough. Leaves 4--8 by 2-2| in,, rather shining, pale greenish 
when dry, or dark ; nerves slender, arching ; petiole ^— f in. ; stipules, upper ovate 
connate, lower rounded and cuspidate. Cymes very variable ; peduncle 3 in. and less, 
stout, branches very stout ; bracts broadly ovate, coriaceous ; bracteoles small or ; 
flowers sessile. Calyx-limb truncate. Corolla-tube very short, throat woolly. Fruit 
^ in,, dorsal ridge of pyrenes rounded. Seed flat ventrally. 

41. P. symploclfolia, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 11 ; glabrous, leaves small 
obovate or elliptic-obovate or -lanceolate caudate-acuminate narrowed into a 
short petiole, nerves 6-10 pair, stipules acuminate, cymes terminal peduncled, 
branches slender trichotomous, fruit ellipsoid, calyx-limb minute. Psychotria, 
Wall. Cat. 8357 ; Herh. Ind. Or. H.f. $ T. n. 27. Morinda ? Wall. Cat. 8428. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 3-6000 ft., abundant, De SUva, &c, ; Mabtaban Hnxs, alt, 
6-7000 ft,, Kurz. 

A shrub or small tree, branches slender. Leaves 3-5 by 1-1|- in., green when dry 
with pale midrib nerves and sometimes margins ; petiole \-^ in. ; stipules ^ in. and 
less, ovate, acute or with subulate points. Cymes very variable, rarely sessile; 
branches opposite, usually long, spreading, slender and trichotomously divided at 
the top with short divisions ; bracts, bracteoles, and flowers very small. Calyx-teeth 
triangular. Corolla-tube short, throat villous. Fruit J in., sometimes truncate, not 
deeply ridged and furrowed. Seed flat ventrally.— This is the Eastern representative 
of the Western P. bisulcata. Kurz's Martaban specimens have much shorter and 
stouter cyme-branches than the Khasian. 

42. P. Kelferlana, Kurz in Journ. As. Sac. 1872, ii. 314 ; For. Fl. ii. 

11 ; hirsute, leaves large broadly elliptic or lanceolate acuminate base narrowed 
into a long or short petiole, flowers in dense heads, mixed with hirsute per- 
sistent bracteoles in axillary or terminal peduncled or subsessile cymes, fruit 
ovoid crowned by the dilated calyx-limb. Psychotria, WaU. Cat. 8368. 

Eastbbn Peninsula; from Pegu, M'Clelland, to Tenasserim, the Andaman Islands, 
Singapore, and Penang, Wallich, &c. 

An erect shrub; branches stout. Leaves very variable, 6-10 by 2-5 in., red- 
brown when dry, rafher membranous ; nerves 12-15 pair, oblique or very spreading ; 
petiole ^2 in. ; stipules 1 in., lanceolate, acuminate, 2-cleft, hirsute. Cym^ very 
varia,ble ; heads of flowers 1-1^ in. diam. ; peduncle very stout ; bracts large, de- 
ciduous, and numerous small bracteoles hirsute. Calyx minute, teeth lanceolate. 
Corolla-tube short, glabrous, throat villous. Fruit hirsute or glabrate ; pyrenes with 
a broad dorsal ridge and 2 lateral shallow furrows. Seed flat ventrally. 

43. P. nlcobarica, Kurz in L(md. Journ. Bot. 1875, 328 ; shoots petioles 
and nerves beneath pubescent or glabrate, leaves large broadly elliptic acute, 

Fsychotria.'] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 173 

petiole stout, nerves 12-14 pair, stipules large rufous, cymes subsessile, flowers 
crowded, bracts and bracteoles minute, fruit broadly ellipsoid, calyx-limb 

NicoBAR IsLANBS ; cofal-reef forests on the east coast of Katchall, Kitrz. 

Stem subsessile, 1-2 ft., very stout, rusty-pubescent. Leaves 6-10 by 2-4 in., 
rather succulent, base acute, brown when dry ; petiole very stout, ^1 in. ; stipules 
^-f in., broadly ovate, 2-fid. Cymes puberulous ; branches very short in a flowering 
specimen, long and spreading in fruiting ones ; flowers pedicelled, very small. Calyx- 
teeth ovate, acute. Corollor-tubc ovoid, throat villous ; lobes acute, reflex ed. Fruit 
^ in. long, glabrous, pyrenes acutely ribbed. — I have very imperfect materials, and 
depend on Kurz^s character. This describes the albumen as spuriously ruminate, 
alluding, no doubt, to the furrows. 

Sect. IV. Seeds dorsally convex and rounded, not or slightly ridged or 

44. P. calocarpa, Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 315 ; Far. Fl. ii. 9 ; 
subherbaceous, young parts and leaves beneath puberulous with crisped haire 
finally glabrate, leaves long- ar short-petioled lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate 
acuminate often variegated margins entire or broadly crenate, intra-marginal 
nerve conspicuous, stipules large ovate often 2-fid, cymes small axillary and 
terminal shortly peduncled, calyx-teeth slender, fruit ellipsoid or subglobose 
crowned with the calyx-teeth. P. asiatica. Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 
^ Wall. ii. 160; Cat. 8331; not of lAnn. or of Roxh. P. viridifiora, Reinw. 
var. 2, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 13. P. picta. Wall. Cat. 8353; and Psychotria, 8359. 
Psychotria, 24, 25, 26, Herb. Ind. Oi'. H.f ^ T. 

NiPAL, Wallich. Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 2-4000 ft., J. B. H. Upper Assam ; 
Suddya, Griffith. Khasia Mts., ascending to 4000 ft, De Silva, &c. Cachar, Keenan. 
Chittagong, Martaban, and Tenasserim, Gomez ^ &c. 

A small evei^een subherbaceous bush, 1-3 ft. hish, with often a creeping stem 
sending up erect soft branches. Leaves very variable in size and shape, 4-8 by 1-3 
in., dark or pale green when dry, narrowed into a petiole |-2 in. long, shining or 
opaque above, thinly coriaceous or membranous, nerves sometimes margined with 
white ; margin often crenate, tlie crenatures following the loops of the intramarginal 
nerve; stipules usually ovate or orbicular, and 2-cuspidate, \~\ in. diam. Cymes 
often secund and drooping, with spreading or reflexed fruiting branches, glabrous or 
pubescent, lax or dense-flowered; bracts lanceolate, caducous or subpersistent ; 
flowers subsessile, pink greenish or white. Calyx-teeth linear, ciliate. Corolla ttihe 
very short, throat villous. Fruit \ in. long, succulent, orange or red ; pyrenes dor- 
sally obscurely 4-ribbed. Seed with or without a X-sbaped ventral groove. — P. 
virtdifolia, Reinwdt., referred here by Kurz, is a Grumilea. I have not seen his 
specimens, of which he makes 2 varieties : one with entire leaves and inconspicuous 
calyx-teeth, the other (from Chittagong) with waved leaves and larger calyx-teeth. 

45. P. Thomsoni, Hook, f ; cymes pubescent, leaves petioled lanceolate 
caudate-acuminate, intra-marginal nerve conspicuous, stipules large 2-cuspidate, 
cymes terminal loner-peduncled trichotomous, calvx-teeth triangular. Psy- 
chotria, No. 25, Herb. Ind. Or. H.f. Sf T. " 

Khasia Mts., Gri^th (Kew Distrib. 3027); Churra, alt. 4000 ft.. J. D. H. 4- T. T. 

Very similar to P. calocarpa in foliage, but quite different in the elongate cyme, 
which is stout erect and with the peduncle 3-4 in. long, and the very short broad 
calyx-teeth. The stipules are |— f in. long, orbicular, with two long cusps, and the 
bracteoles are subulate. 

46. P. denticulata, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8>- WaU. ii. 16G; 
Cat. 8326 ; glabrous or leaf-nerves beneath and c vmea puberidous, leaves petioled 
large broadly elliptic or obovate or oblanceolate acute or abruptly acuminate, 

174 Lxxy. EUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [PsycTiotna, 

nerves 16-20 pair, cymes terminal and axillary long-peduncled corymbiform 
ebracteolate, fruit small subglobose smooth. DC. Prodi', iv. 520. S. polyneura, 
DC. I. c. P. ? Ohloranthus, Serb. Ham. in Wall. Cat. 8336 B. Psychotria, 
Wall. Cat. 8372. 

Central and Eastern Tropical Himalaya ; Nipal, Wallich ; Sikkim, alt. 6000 ft., 
J. D. H. ; Bhotan and Assam, Jenkins, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3024) ; and Khasia 
Mts.", alt'. 2000 ft., J. D. H. Sf T. T. Maetaban, Wallich. 

Branches robust. Leaves very variable, 6-7 by 2-2^ in. in the oblanceolate forms, 
8-10 by 4-6 in. in the broader forms, pale green or dark when dry, base acute or 
rounded ; nerves strong, close-set, subhorizontal or ascending, not arched ; petiole 
\-\ in. ; stipules f in., ovate, lax, entire or 2-3-cleft. Cymes 2-3 in. diam. ; peduncle 
stout, 4 in, or less; branches whorled or opposite, together forming a flat-topped 
corymb ; bracts and bracteoles minute, caducous ; flowers minute, subsessile. Calyx 
hemispheric; limb truncate, obscurely toothed. CoroUa-tube verj short throat 
villous. Fruit | in. diam. ; pyrenes semi-circular in section, quite smooth. Seed 
ventrally flat with a forked median groove. 

47. P. sllhieteiisis, Hook. f. ; cymes and leaves beneath pubescent or 
glabrate, leaves large stoutly petioled oblong or elliptic acuminate coriaceous, 
nerves 15-20 pair strong, cymes terminal and axillary long-peduncled corymbi- 
form ebracteolate, fruit large pedicelled ovoid globose or ellipsoid smooth. P. 
fulva. Wall. Cat. 8336 0. Psychotria sp. 23, Herb. Ind. Or. H. f. i^ T. 

Upper Assam, Griffith; Silhet, Cachak, and the Khasia Mts., ascending to 
4000 ft., De Silva, &c. 

Branches very stout. Leaves 6-14 by 3-6 in., pale when dry, coriaceous ; nerves 
strong, arched ; petiole ^-l^in. ; stipules 1 in., broadly ovate, often cleft. Cymes 
2-4 in. diam., pubescent or puberulous ; peduncle 3 in. and less, very stout ; branches 
usually whorled, very stout, forming a corymb, spreading or deflexed in fruit ; bracts 
and bracteoles minute, caducous; flowers small, pedicelled. Calyx obconic; limb 
almost truncate. Corolla-titbe yevy short, throat with an exserted brush of erect hairs. 
Fruit 4-i in., base rounded, smooth ; pyrenes semicijrtular in section, quite smooth. 
Seed ventrally flat. — My own Khasian specimens have large ovoid fruits with no 
trace of a ventral groove in the seed and corymbiform cymes. Cachar ones from 
Keenan have a more irregular cyme, with smaller broader fruits and a deep T-shaped 
ventral groove, which, however, sometimes quite disappears. This species very closely 
resembles P. fulva, differing in the ebracteolate flowers and in the fruit. 

48. P. montana, Blume Bijd. 960; glabrous, leaves on long slender 
petioles elliptic oblong or lanceolate acuminate very membranous, nerves 8-10 
pair distant slender, cymes terminal and axillary sessile or peduncled, subcorym- 
biform branches slender, bracteoles minute, corolla-tube elongate, berry sub- 
globose or obovoid, calyx-limb minute. DC. Prodr. iv. 521. P. viridissima, 
Ku7'z in Jaurn. As. Soc. 1872, ii. 315; For. Fl. ii. 13. Ohasalia montana, 
Miq. FL Ind. Bat. ii. 281. 0. expansa, var. montana, Miq. in Herb. Psy- 
chotria, Wall. Cat. 837i; 8378; and Rubiacea, 8339. 

Assam Plains from . Gualpara to Suddya, Hamilton, Griffith-, Silket, Be Silva; 
Tenasserim and Atthan, Wallich, Heifer, &c. — Distrib. Java. 

A small subherbaceous species ; branches slender, soft. Leaves 3-7 by 1-3 in., 
usually pale green when dry; nerves slender, arched ; petiole ^1^ in. ; stipules ^ in., 
triangular, entire. Cymes usually peduncled with whorled branches 2-3 in. diam. ; 
flowers dense or lax, pedicelled. Calyx-limb spreading, teeth triangular. Corolla- 
tube long for the genus, ^U^ in., glabrous, throat with a brush of hairs. Fruit i-|- 
in., pedicelled, red, rugose, ridged at the commissure. Seed thin, plano-convex, flat 
ventrally, without a groove. — Habit entirely of a Chasalia, but the corolla-tube is 
very short and the se^ not concave ventrally. 

Var. ?tabacifoUa; leaves 12-14 by 4-4^ in. oblong, nerves about 1.5 pair. P. 
<Coffea ?) tabaciifolia. Wall. Cat. 8334.— Singapore, Wallich. 

Psychotria.'] lxxv, rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) 175 


49. p. polyneura, Kurz in Lond. Journ. Bat. 1875, 327 ; For. Fl. ii. 
11, not of DC] all parts except the leaves above ferruginous-pubescent or 
-tomentose, leaves very large long-petioled broadly or narrowly elliptic acute 
at both ends, nerves 30 pair close-set and spreading, stipules very large, cymes 
terminal small subsessile trichotomous ebracteolate, flowers sessile crowded. 

South Andaman Island, Kurz. 

Branches stout. Leaves 7-12 by 3^5J- in., membranous, red-brown when dry, 
nerves slender ; petiole 2-2^ in. ; stipules J in. broadly ovate, conuate, entire or cleft 
at the top. Cynies densely tomentose, 2-3 in. diam., branches spreading; flowers 
small. Calyx minutely 5-toothed. Corolla-tube \ery short. — Habit a good deal of 
P. Helferiana, but le.-^s hirsute, with fewer nerves, and wanting the bracteoles. 

50. P. penangrensis, Hot)k. f. ; scandent, glabrous, leaves rhombic- 
elliptic or -obovate abruptly acuminate narrowed into the petiole, nerves very 
obscure, cymes terminal long-peduncled, branches umbellate, flowers pedicelled 
imibellate, bracts and bracteoles persistent. 

Pbnano ; top of Government Hill, Maingay. 

Lark brown or blackish when dry, apparently rather fleshy when fresh. Leaves 
4-5 by l|-2^ in., thin when dry, nerves 6-8 pair, very spreading and arched ; petiole 
^-1 in. ; stipules rounded, connate, psrsistent. Cymes with a very stout erect peduncle 
2-3 in.; primary branches about 5, stout, |-1^ in. ; bracts \ in,, subulate; umbel- 
lules ^ in. diam., very many-flowered ; pedicels ^-^ in., bracteoles subulate. Calyx- 
tube obconic; teeth triangular, glabrous or pubenilous. CoroUa-tube broad, much 
longer than the calyx, hoary ; throat hirsute. Fruit (unripe) stoutly pedicelled, ^\ 
in. long, narrowly ellipsoid, furrowed, crowned by the calyx-teeth. 

61, P. Johnsonl, Hook. f. ; glabrous, leaves obovate or eUiptic-obo- 
vate or oblanceolate acute or abruptly acuminate tapering into a very short 
petiole, nerves 6-10 pair very slender, cymes terminal sessile or subsessile very 
small short ovoid or subglobose dense-flowered ebracteolate villous at the base, 
flowers sessile. Psychotria, Wall. Cat. 8362. 

Western Peninsttla; Cochin, Wight (Kew Distrib. 1442), Johnson. 

Branches stout, smooth, terete, pale. Leaves 3-5 by 1^-2 in., pale when dry, 
rather coriaceous, nerves finely reticulate ; stipules ovate, acute or rounded and cus- 
pidate, coriaceous, glabrous. Cymes very rarely effuse and H in. diam.; peduncle 
or short, arising out of long villous hairs ; branches stout, short, opposite ; flowers 
subtemate, very small, glabrous. Corolla very shortly funnel-shaped, throat villous. 
— A very distinct species, of which I have seen no fruit. 

62. P. nudlflora, W. 8f A, Prodr. 434 ; glabrous, leaves obovate cuneate- 
obovate or oblanceolate abruptly acuminate narrowed into the petiole, nerves 
12-16 pair very slender, stipules connate ovate obtuse, cymes peduncled sub- 
capitate or shortly panicled ebracteolate, calyx-limb truncate, coroUa-tube 
elongate cylindric. Psychotria, Wall. Cat. 8346. 

Travancore, Heyne ; Courtallam, Wight. 

Branches smooth. Leaves 4-7 by l-2\ in., brown or greenish when dry, thin ; 
nerves hardly stronger than the veins, very spreading; petiole \-% in.; stipules J-^ 
in., coriaceous, broad, obtuse. Cyme-^edv.ncle 1 in. and less; branches opposite sub- 
opposite and obscurely whorled, very stout, short, irregularly dichotomously divided ; 
flowers nearly ^ in. long. Calyx very short, limb quite entire. Corolla the longest 
of the Indian species, 4-lobed, glabrous without and within. — Wight labels this 
CHrumilea, but there is no fruit advanced enough to determiue this point.* 


P. Wallichiana, DC. Prodr, iv. 620. P. nervosa, Don Prodr. 137 ; " leaves oral 

176 Lxxv. RUBiACEJj. (J. D. Hooker.) [Psychotria. 

acuminate serrulate nerves glabrous, stipulfes simple, calyx-teeth rounded mem- 
branous, panicles terminal glomerate." — Nipal, Wallich. 

I suspect that this is P. denticulata badly described. The term serrulate is appli- 
cable to no Rubiaceous genus but Carlemannia, which is not Nipalese, and which 
Don would never have referred to Pyschotria. The only other Nipalese species arc 
P. calocarpa, which has broadly crenulate leaves, but slender calyx-teeth, and P. 
errdfica, which differs in the cyme and calyx too. 

P. SPKEROCABPA, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. ii. 161; glabrous 
except the cymes, leaves petioled large broad elliptic acuminate or acute coriaceous, 
nerves strong close-set, cymes terminal peduncled compact subglobose villous, flowers 
subcapitate, fruit spherical smooth. — Silhet hills, Wallich. 

Shrubby; branches thick, ends compressed. Leaves 8-12 in., base sometimes 
rounded, shining above; petiole 1 in., rounded; stipules large, ovate, 2 -lobed, lobes 
acuminate. Calyx-teeth subulate. CoroUa-tvhe short, throat villous. Fruit size of 
a large pea, petioled, without ribs; septum at length obliterated. Seeds hemi- 
spheric, ventral face flattened with a T-shaped groove. — I have seen no specimens, 
and have taken the description from Wallich. It evidently resembles P. silhetensis, 
of which the leaves are never rounded at the base, and the flowers not capitate ; 
moreover, Wallich has silhetensis under another name. He says he received it in 
1815 and 1821, and I find in his herb, a specimen of P.fulva marked as P. sphtsro- 
cwrpa'i, received from Silhet in the latter year. Possibly P. sphsrocarpa is made up 
of leaves and flowers of fulva and fruit of silhetensis, or it may be a form of P. 

P. VAGINANS, DC. Prodr. iv. 520, from Ceylon, is not identifiable from the de- 
scription ; it may be a Gaertnera. 

P. ? VAGINANS, DC. of W. 4- A. Prodr. 434; Wiffht Cat. 1352.— I find no speci- 
mens of this in Wight's Herbarium, and, the fruit being unknown, it is urrre- 

P. (Grumilea) vaginans, Dah. mss. in Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. Ill; shrubby, 
erect, glabrous, leaves large obovate, stipules ovate or lanceolate acute caducous 1^- 
2 in. long, combined in a sheathing tube, cymes terminal peduncled paniculate 3- 
chotomous puberulous, flowers small white, fruit like a black peppercorn. — Chorla 
Ghat and Mahableshwur, rare. — I suspecc this to be P. truncata. 

P. AMPLA, Wall. Cat. 8333, is a Pavetta. 

P. ASiATicA, Linn. Anum. Acad. v. 395, is a Jamaican plant received by Linnaeus 
from Patrick Browne, and is P. Broumei, Spreng. 

P. oxYPHYLLA, Wall. Cat. 8374, is a Gaertnera, as are Psychotria, 8341, 8342, 
8388, 8389. 

PsYCHOTEiA, Wall Cat. 8362, is in part Chasalia curviflora and in part a Morinda; 
8363 is in part Chasalia curviflora and in part a Leea ; 8376 is an Ixora, as is 8387 ; 
8379 is an Apocynea. 

76. CHASAZiZA, Comms. 

Characters of Psychotria, but corolla-tube usually slender and curved ; seeds 
orbicular, dorsallj^ much compressed, ventrally deeply concave, hence some- 
what cup-shaped; albumen equable. — Distrtb. Albout 10 species, tropical 
Asiatic and African. 

I.e. curviflora, TMo. Enum. 150, 421 ; glabrous, leaves membranous 
from broadly elliptic to obovate-lanceolate oblanceolate or narrowly linear-oblong 
acute cuspidate acuminate or caudate-acuminate, base narrowed into a long or 
short petiole, nerves few or many, cymes terminal bracteate trichotomous dense- 
or lax-flowered, corolla tubular curved. Kurz For. Fl ii. 14. C. lurida, curvi- 
flora, tetrandra {excl. syn. rostrata), and Sangiana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 282, 
Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iv. 202, 203, and Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl.. 546. Psychotria 
lurida, J5/. 5ey<Z. 959 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 521. P. curviflora and ophioxyloides. 
Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8f Wall ii. 167, 168, Cat. 8360, 8364; DC. 
I c. 620. P. ambigua, W. ^ A. Prodr, 433; Wt. Ic. t. 127. P. tetrandra, 

Ghasalia.] lxxv. EUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 177 

Bl. 8r DC. U. cc. Zwardekronia lurida, Korth. in Ned. Ki-uidk. Arch. ii. 252 
Ixora attenuata, Wall. Cat. 6164. Psychotria, Wall. Cat. 8361, 8362, 8363 
8364 (m paH), 8375, 8386 (a very narrow-leaved fcrrm), 8390. Rubiacea' 
Wdl. Cat. 8461. 

Easteen Tkopical Himalaya ; Sikkim, alt. 2-6000 ft. Assam, Cachar, and the 
Khasia Mts., ascending to 5000 ft. Tenasseeim, the Andaman Islands, Malayan 
Peninsula, and Penang. Western Peninsula; the Grhata from Bombay south- 
wards, Ceylon, ascending to 4000 ft. — Distrib. Malay Islands to Borneo. 

An evergreen small weak shrub 2-4 ft. high. Leaves greenish when dry, in the 
most frequent form obovate-lanceolate 4-6 by 1^-2| in. diam., narrowed into a 
slender petiole ^3 in. long ; in a common Malayan form almost elliptic, in Tenas- 
serim ones 8-10 by l^-2j in, ; in Ceylon ones they vary from 2^-5 by ^-1^ in., 
always membranous with slender distant nerves, arching upwards ; stipules triangular 
or ovate or broader, acute obtuse or rounded, entire or 2-fid, often connate and per- 
sistent. Cymes rarely 2 in. long, more or less pyramidal or rounded ; peduncle 2 in. 
long and under ; branches short, soft, rather stout, often purplish ; bracts persistent, 
ovate-lanceolate or subulate; flowers |^-f in. long,isufascicled, sessile, 4:-5-merou8. 
Calyx short, teeth triangular. Corolla variable in length, dimorphic, one form with 
exserted anthers and included stigmas, the other with these positions reversed ; throat 
glabrous. Fruit size of a pea, globose, more or less didymous, smooth; pyrenes thin. 
Seed orbicular and cupular, smooth. — This plant was first published as a Chasalia by 
Miquel, in 1856, under the name of G. lurida, founded on Blume's Psychotria lurida ; 
but Wallich's P. curviflora antedates Blume's lurida by two years, and as it is by far 
the most expressive specific name, and is also taken up as a Chasalia by Miquel after 
Thwaites {Arm. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iv. 202), I adopt it here. 

Vae. 1, lonffifolia; leaves 8-12 by 1^-2 in., nerves more numerous spreading. 
Psychotria ,longifolia, Dal^fi, in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. ii. 133, not of Beddom^. 
Psychotria, Wall. Cat. 8386. — Cachar, Keenan; Bombay, Balzell, Stocks; Malacca, 
Maingay (Kew Distrib. 3052). — Though so dissimilar, this is obviously an extreme 
form of C. curviflora, connected by intermediates ; indeed, one specimen (from Cachar) 
has the lower part of the leaf with the numerous spreading nerves of the variety, and 
the upper part with the distant arched ones of the type. 

Vae. 2. ellipsoidea ; leaves as in the common form of the species, fruit ellipsoid. 
— Khasia Mts. ; Jarain in Jyntea, alt. 3000 ft., C. B. Clarke. 

2. C. rostrata, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iy. 203, excl. syn. tetrandra; 
glabrous, leaves short-petioled elliptic-lanceolate caudate-acuminate, cymes ter- 
minal peduncled very small lax-flowered bracteate, corolla-tube very short. 
Psychotria rostrata, Bl. and Polyozua latifolia {Jid. Miquel), Bl. Bijd. 961, 
948; DC. Frodr. iv. 521, 494. 

M alacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3045), Ma,ingay (n. 937). —Distrib. Java. 

Branches slender. Leaves 4-5 by | -1^ in,, greenish when dry, membranous, base 
acute ; nerves 6-8 pair, arched ; stipules short, broad, entire or toothed. Cymes 
slender, trichotomous, branches often drooping, few-flowered ; bracts subulate ; flowers 
minute. Calyx-teeth triangular. Corolla glabrous. Fruit much as in C. curviflora. 
— This unites Psychotria and Chasalia, having the flowers of P. montaiia and fruit of 
C. curviflora. 

77. GEOFKIX-A, Dm. 

Small, slender, creeping, perennial herbs. Leavers long-petioled, orbicular 
reniform or cordate ; stipules interpetiolar, ovate, entire. Flowers small, solitary 
or umbelled, subsessile or on axillary or terminal peduncles ; bracts subulate 
linear or leafy. Calyx-tube obovoid, lobes or segments 5-7, slender, persistent. 
Corolla elongate funuel-<5baped, throat hairy; lobes 4-7, valvate in bud. 
Stamens 4-7, on the corolla-throat, filaments filiform ; anthers linear. Ova/y 

ovules 1 basal, erect in each cell. 

178 Lxxv. RUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Geophila. 

Ih-upe flesliy, pyrenes 2, plano-convex. Seeds plano-convex, not grooved ven- 
trally; emtryo basal, minute, radicle inferior. — Distrib. Species 8 or 10 

1. G-. reniformis, Don Prodr. 136 ; pubescent, leaves orbicular deeply 
cordate, umbels 1-3-flowered peduacled. BC. Prodr. iv. 537 ; W. 8f A. Prodr. 
436; Wt. Ic. t. 64; Ddz. Sr Gibs. Momh. Fl. 111. G. diversifolia, DC, I. c; 
Wall. Cat. 8325. Psychotria herbaeea, Linn. ; Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 533. Oepbaelis 
herbacea, Kurz in Jown. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 14.0.—Rheede Sort. Mai. x. t. 21. 

StLHET and Ehasia Hills, Roxburgh, De Silva. Tenasseeim and Andaman 
Islands, Griffith, Kmz. Western Peninsula ; or the Ghats from the Concan south- 
wards. Ceylon, conjmon.— Disteib. Malay Archipelago, S. China, Polynesia, Tropical 
Africa and America. 

Stems a foot or less long. Lsaves f-1^ in. diam., more or less pubescent; petiole 
1-3 in. ; stipules ovate, obtuse. Peduncle \-\\ in. ; bracts subulate-lanceolate. 
Calyx-teeth herbaceous, persistent. Corolla \-^ in., glabrous. Fruit small, globose, 

78. CBPHAEXiZS, Swartz. 

Characters of Psychotria, but flowers in involucrate heads, ovary rarely 3-4- 
celled. Albumen equable. — Distrib. Species 70, all tropical. 

The cultiA'ation of Ipecacuanha {Cephcelis Ipecacuanha, Kich.), an American plant, 
has been introduced into India, but with hitherto scanty success. 

1. C. Grlffitliii, Hook. f. ; leaves long-petioled oblanceolate acuminate, 
nerves 16-20 pair glabrous beneath, stipules 1 in. diam;, heads sessile, bracts 
orbicular connate. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3032), Maingay (928). (or stem?) as thick as the little finger. Leaves 12-16 by 3-5 in., 
brownish when dry, narrowed into a petiole often 3 in. long, coriaceous ; stipules 
very coriaceous, orbicular, upper half withered and discoloured. Head 1-2 in. diam. ; 
bracts like the stipules. Calyx-teeth obtuse. Corolla ^ in., glabrous, throat villous. 
Fruit ^ in. long, obovoid-ohlong, 4-angled, crowned by the tubular calyx-limb; 
pyrenes with a broad dorsal rib, ventrally concave. Seed very thin, pyrene dorsally 
ridged. — The more numerous nerves and sessile large heads distinguish this from 
the closely allied Malayan C. stipulacea, Bl. 

2. C. cuneata, Korth. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. ii. 248 ; leaves very nar- 
rowly oblanceolate acuminate, nerves quite glabrous beneath, stipules \ in. 
diam., heads stoutly peduncled, bracts connate. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 311. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 3085), Maingay (929). 

Stem simple, as thick as a goose-quill or less. Leaves 6-12 by |-1| in., mem- 
branous, greenish when dry, narrowed into very long petioles ; nerves very variable 
in number, ascending ; stipules small, much withered and discoloured. Heads ^ in, 
diam. ; peduncle stout, simple, 2-4 iu. ; bracts connate in a coriaceous cup ; flowers 
smaller and fewer than in C. Griffithii. Calyx-tteth rounded. Fruit ^-| in. long, 
almost globose, very fleshy, calyx-limb inconspicuous; pyrenes and seeds as in C. 

79. Z.ASXANTHUS, Jack, 

Shrubs, often foetid; branches terete, compressed at the nodes. Leaves 
opposite, distichous, usually caudate-acuminate with arching nerves and close- 
set transverse veins, which are simple or forked or branched and reticulate ; 
stipules interpetiolar, broad, rarely narrow. Flowers small, in axillary rarely 
peduncled often bracteate clusters, cymes or heads. Calyx-tube short; limb 

Jjosianthm.'] lxxt. kubuce^, (J. D. Hooker.) 179 

ehort or long, 3-7-toothed, rarely truncate, persistent. Corolla funnel- or 
salver-shaped, throat villous ; lohes 3-7, valvate in bud. Stamens 4-6 on the 
corolla-throat, filaments short; anthers linear or oblong, often apiculate, in- 
cluded. Ovary 4-9-celled; style short or long, glabrous or hairy, arms or 
stigmas 3-9 short obtuse; orules 1 linear basal erect in each cell. Drupe 
small, pyrenes 3-9, 3-quetrous and l-seeded. Seeds narrow, testa membranous ; 
enibryo terete, radicle slender inferior. — Distrib. Species about 80 tropical 
Asiatic, with smgle species in Japan, Australia, W. Africa, and Cuba. 

A very difficult genus to describe, though the nervation and venation of the leaves 
aflford very good cnaracters. The foliage closely resembles that of Urophyllum. 

Sect I. Stipolares. Cymes sessile, embraced by the large coriaceous 

1. Xi. G-riffitllli, Wight in Cidc. Joarn. Nat. Hist. vi. ©05; robust, leaves 
large eUiptic-lanceolate caudate-acuminate narrowed into a very short petiole 
pubescent beneath, nerves 1&-20 pair, veir.e reticulate, clusters of flowers large 
capitate very dense villous involucrate by the very large broad stipules, bracts 
densely filiform villous equalling the flowers. 

Mai-acca, GHffith (Kew Distrib. 2935). 

Branches as thick as a swan's-quill, black when dry, glabrous. Leaves 10-12 
by 3-3^ in., brown when dry, coriaceous, glabrous above, rusty beneath; nerves 
16-20 pair; petiole very short and stout; stipules | in. diam., broadly triangular, 
with rounded angles, acute or obtuse, very coriaceous and persistent, glabrous. Heads 
densely villous; bracts close-packed, filiform, equalling the flowers. Calyx-limb 
large, glabrous, funnel-shaped, about 7-cleft, teeth villous. Corolla-tube glabfous ; 
limb villous, 7-cleft. Drupe small, nearly globose, about ^ in. diam., glabrous; 
pyrenes about 7. 

Q. Xi. stipulaiis, Blume Bijd. 997 ; slender, glabrous except the bracts, 
leaves subsessile oblanceolate-oblong caudate-acuminate, nerves 9-10 pair, veins 
faint sparingly branched, clusters of flowers small sessile involucrate by the 
large and broad stipules, bracts lanceolate ciliate exceeding the flowers. Kurz 
JFor. Fl. ii. ^2. Mephitidia stipularis, DC. Prodr. iv. 453. 

Tenasserim or Andaman Islands, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2937).— Disteib. Sumatra, 
Java, Borneo. 

An evergreen low shrub. Leaves 4-6 by 1-2 in., rather narrowed towards the 
subacute or rounded oblique base, greenish-brown when dry, membranous ; midrib 
beneath sometimes with scattered hairs; nerves 10-12 pair, slender; petiole very 
short ; stipules ^-^ in. diam., rounded or broadly triangular-ovate or oblong coria- 
ceous, glabrous, very persistent, concealing the flowers. Bracts ^1 in. long, often 
exceeding the stipules. Calyx-teeth hirsute, sometimes I in. long. Corolla white. 
Brupe ^ in. diam., subglobose, smooth ; pyrenes 4-5. 

Sect. II. BracteaBtaD. Cymes sessile, not embraced by the lar^e 
stipules, accompanied by evident long or short bracts. (Oymes peduncled in 
6. L. Moonii.) 

* Bracts equalling or exceeding thejlowers. Branches hirsute or tomentose. 

3. Zi. cyanocarpus, Jack in Trans. Unn. Soc. xiv. 126 ; hirsute, leaves 
petioled elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate caudate-acuminate, nerves 8-12 pair, 
veins lax sparingly branched, base acute, cymes sessile, bracts many ovate- 
lanceolate leafy exceeding the sessile flowers. Kurz For. Fl. ii. 32. L. brac- 
teatus and L. Roxburghii, Wight in Calc. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 501, 502. L. 
oculus-cati, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 315. L. Isevicaulis, Ktirz in Tnmen. Joum. 
Bot. 1875, 327. Lasianthus, ? WoU. Cat. 8440. Mephitidia cyanocarpa, DC. 

180 Lxxv. RUBUCE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Lasiantlius, 

Pi'odi\ iv. 452. M. rhinozerotis, Kurz in Andaman For. Rep., Append. A. 40^ 
not of Blmne f Triosteum hirsutum, Ho.vb. Fl. Ind. i. 538. Kubiacea, Wall. 
Cat. 8305. 

Assam, Simons; Naqa Hills, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2917); Silhet, CniTTAaoNa, 
Andaman and Nicobab Islands, Tenasseeim, Singapore, Malacca and Pbnano, 
Wallich, &c. — Distrib. Malay Archipelago to Borneo. 

An evergreen bush, softly hirsute all over, or with the brancheB and leaves above 
glabrate. Leaves 6-10 by \\-2^ in., brown when dry; nerves 7-10 pair, very 
obliquely arched ;' petiole ^-§ in. ; stipules ovate, acute. Bracts \-\\ in., outer ovate 
acuminate, inner lanceolate or subulate. Calyx-teeth linear, ciliate. Corolla-tube 
^ in,, hispid, yellow. Drupe (dry) ^ in. long, broadly obovoid or subglobose, 
obscurely 4-lobed, glabrous or pubescent, bright blue, smooth ; pyrenes 4-5. — Kurz 
and Jack describe the fruit as the size of a gooseberry. "Wallich's specimen, 8305 A., 
is marked as from Herb. Madras ; if correct, this is no doubt one of several plants 
procured by the missionaries from the Eastern Peninsula. 

4. Ii. Jackianus, Wight in Cak. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 602; hirsute^ 
leaves subsessile oblong abruptly acuminate or caudate-acuniinate base rounded, 
cymes sessile, nerves 6-7 pair, veins rarely branched, bracts few outer ovate or 
linear-lanceolate exceeding the sessile flowers. Bedd. le. PI. Ind. Or. t. 12. 
L^ianthus, Wall. Cat. 8439. 

NiLGHERRY Mxs., Heyue, &c. ; Sisparah Ghat, Beddome. 

An evergreen bush, softly hirsute all over. Leaves 4-6 by 1^2^ in., dark brown 
when dry; nerves 6-8 pair; petiole very short; stipules ovate, acute. Bracts rarely 
ovate-lanceolate, ^-1 in. ; calyx-teeth 4 ovate-lanceolate, hispid, shorter than in L. 
cyanocarpus. Drupe \ in. long, obtusely octahedroid smooth ; pyrenes 4. 

6. Zi. XHoonil, Wight in Calc. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 504 •, hirsute, leaves 
petioled elliptic or elliptic-oblong acuminate base acute or rounded, nerves 7-8 
pair, veins branched and reticulate, cymes capitate peduncled, bracts- ovate- 
lanceolate about equalling the flowers. Mephitidia Moonii, Thw. Enum. 145. 

Ceylon ; Saffragam district, common. Walker, Thwaites. 

Harshly hirsute. Leaves 5-7 by 1^2^ in.; hispid or glabrous above, brown or 
greenish when dry; petiole stout, ^-§ in.; stipules ovate, acute Cymes capitate, 
i-f in. long and broad ; peduncle stout, shorter than the petioles. Calyx-teeth linear- 
lanceolate, hispid. Corolla white, tube short. Drupe " red, hairy, size of a cherry," 
Thwaites (dry) ; ^-^ in. diam., globose, smooth ; pyrenes 4. 

6. Zi. sikklmensis, Hook. /. ; branches petioles bracts and leaves 
beneath finely tomentose, leaves petioled lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate finely 
acuminate, base acute, nerves 8-9 pair, veins often branched, bracts subulate 
longer than the few sessile flowers. 

SiKKiAC Himalaya, alt. 2-3000 ft., J. D. H. # T. T. 

A shrub; branches with appressed hairs. Leaves 6-8 by l^-lf in., brownish 
when dry, glabrous above, nerves not impressed above, prominent beneath, veins 
slender parallel; petiole \-^ in. ; stipules ^-\ in., lanceolate. Bracts \-\ in. Calyx- 
teeth 5, narrow, lanceolate. Drupes subglobose (dry), ^ in. diam., nearly glabrous ; 
pyrenes 5. 

7. 1,, Walllclill, Wight in Calc, Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 503; branches 
petioles and leaves beneath hirsute with spreading hairs, leaves small shortly 
petioled oblong or oblong-lanceolate cuspidate acuminate or acute, base rounded 
or cordate often unequally, nerves 7-8 pair, veins branched laxly reticulate, 
bracts subulate longer than or equalling the few axillary sessile flowers. Wall. 
Cat. 8442, in part ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 31. L. plagiophyllus, Haiu;e in frimen 
Joum. Bot. 1875, 196. Nonatelia ? hispida. Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 
8f WallvL. 187. Mephitidea Wallichii, W. 8r A. Prodr. 390. 

Lasianthus.'] lxxv. kubiace.^:. (J. 1). Hooker.) 181 

SiLHET, Assam and Khasia Mts., ascending to 2000 ft., Be Silva, &c. Maktabak, 
Tenasserim and Andaman Islands, Kurz. — Distrib. Hongkong. 

Shrubby. Leaves 1-6 by 1-li in., pale wh^n dry, thinly coriaceous, above glabrous 
often shining, nerves beneath strong; stipxiles \ in., linear-lanceolate. Bracts ^1 
in. Calyx-teeth 5, subulate-lanceolate. Corolla-tube ^ in. (1 in., Wallich), white, 
hispid. Drupe ^ in., ovoid, glabrous ; pyrenes 5 (4-6, Hance). — This closely resembles 
L. attentiatus. I have seen no specimen from Kura's localities. 

Var. "i penangensis \ leaves narrower, base acute. Lasianthus? Wall. Cat, 8441 
{one sheet). — Penang and Singapore, Wallich- I suspect this to be a different species, 
but the specimens are insufficient. 

8. Xi. tentaculatus, Hook. f. ; branches glabrous^ leaves subsessile 
oblong or obovate-oblong rather abruptly acuminate, base rounded unequal- 
sided, nerves 9 pair spreading minutely hairy beneath, veins branching, flowers 
eessile much shorter than the erect subulate or filiform hispid bracts, calyx- 
teeth linear hispid. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8306. 

SiLHET, Wallich. 

Branches pale when dry. Leaves 5-7 by 2-2^ in., pale green when dry, mem- 
branous, rather shining above, base of lower rounded, of upper acute ; petiole 1*0 in., 
hispid; stipules j-3 in., lanceolate-subulate, hispid. Bracts numerous, ^f in., rigid. 
Calyx small. Corolla-tube f in., narrow, hispid. Drupe not seen. 

9. Xi. attenuatus, Jack in Trans. Linn. Soe. xiv. 126 ; slender, 
branches and leaves beneath softly hirsute, leaves subsessile oblong-lanceolate 
acuminate from a broad rounded or cordate base, nerves 9-10 pair, veins loosely 
Teticulate faint, cymes sessile, bracts linear-lanceolate equalling the flowers. 
Wight in Calc, Journ. Nat. Hist. vi. 604. Mephitidia attenuata, DC. Proclr. 

iv. 452. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2926) ; ? Silhet, De Silva. — Distrib. Sumatra, 

Much branched. Leaves 2^-4 by |-1^ in., pale when dry, rather membranous, 
h&ae often oblique, glabrous above, petiole very short ; stipules ovate-lanceolate. 
JBracts \ in. long, narrowed at the base. Calyx-teeth 4 linear acute. Corolla yellow, 
hairy within and without. ^' Drupe ovoid, hairy, dark blue, pyrenes ^" Jack. — In 
Wight's Herbarium this species is fastened on a sheet with L. appressus, to which his 
description of the moniliform hairs especially applies. 

10. Zi. appressus, Hook. f. ; branches petioles and leaves beneath and 
cymes hirsute with erect or appressed pale hajrs, leaves small petioled oblong- 
lanceolate acute, base acute, nerves 6-7 pair deeply impressed above much raised 
beneath, veins straight sparingly forked, bracts subulate longer than the sub- 
s ditary flowers. Lasianthus, Wall. Cat. 8443 and 8442, in ^mrt. 

Penang, Wallich. Malacca; Mount Ophir, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2927) 
Branches with very dense stiff fulvous strongly septate hairs. Leaves 2-3 by §- 

1 in., coriaceous, very pale when dry, shining and glabrous except on the hair}- 

midrib above, nerves above slender; petiole ^ in., shaggy, stout; stipules lanceolate. 

Bracts stiff, erect, ^ in. Flowers very small. Drtipe ^ in. diam., subglobof>?, crowned 

hj the triangular acute calyx-teeth, glabrous ; pyrenes 8. 

11. Zi. retosus, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vi. 506; branches and 
cymes hirsute with spreading hairs, leaves shortly petioled oblong-lanceolate, 
midrib pubescent and 12 pair of nerves deeply impressed above, very prominent 
and pubescent beneath, veins straight often forked, cymes sessile small few- 
flowered, bracts linear or lanceolate equalling the flowers, drupes glabrous sub- 
globose with long calyx-teeth. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2018). 

182 Lxxv. EUBiACEii:. (J.D.Hooker.) [Lasiantlms. 

Leaves 5 by 1^ in., pale greenish brown when dry, shining above, base rounded or 
subacute, veins strong prominent beneath ; petiole very short ; stipules small, ^ in., 
triangular-lanceolate. Bracts ^-^ in., few. Calyx-teeih 6 very slender, hirsute. 
Corolla 7 -cleft ( Wight). Drupe subglobose. not longer than its calyx-teeth, about ^ 
in. diam., smooth ; pyrenes 6-8. 

12. ■ Xi. pllosus, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vi. 506 ; branches and 
cymes hirsute with spreading hairs, leaves shortly petioled oblong-lanceolate 
caudate-acuminate, nudrib pubescent, veins reticulating and 15-20 pair of 
nerves not deeply impressed above pubescent beneath, cymes sessile few-flowered, 
bracts subulate equaUing or shorter than the flowers, drupes glabrous subglobose 
with long calyx-teeth. 

Malacca, Griffith, Cuming, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 869). 

Very similar to L. retosus, but the leaves are larger, 4-7 by 1^-2^ in., more mem- 
branous, their bases cordate, the more numerous nerves are hardly impressed. Calyx 
hispid ; teeth 6-7, filiform. Corolla-tube hairy, lobes 6-7. Drupe as in L. retosv.s, 
as long as its calyx-teeth ; pyrenes 5-7. 

Vae. ? angustifolia ; branches more densely hirsute, leaves narrower hispid above. 
— Tenasserim, at Mergui, Griffith. 

13. Zi. denslfolius, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 321 ; branches leaves on both 
surfaces and cymes hirsute with spreading hairs, leaves subsessile small close-^et 
linear-oblong acuminate, base cordate, nerves l6-\2 pair not impressed above^ 
veins very faint loosely reticulate, cymes sessile few-flowered, bracts lanceolate 
or subulate, drupes pubescent 4-lobed, calyx-teeth inconspicuous. Lasianthus ? 
Wall. Cat. 8441, in part. 

Malacca, Penang, and Singapoee, Wallich, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 868), &c. — 
— DisTBiB. Banka, Java. 

Much smaller than the two preceding ; intemodes ^ in. Leaves 1^2^ by ^-\ in., 
equally hairy on both surfaces, dirty greenish when dry ; stipules lanceolate, much 
longer than in L. pilosus. Bracts few, ^ in. Flowers not seen. Drkipe ^ in. long, 
deeply 4-lobed, with very minute calyx-lobes ; pyrenes 4 (4-5, MiqueT). 

14. Zi. crinltus, Hook. f. ; branches petioles and leaves beneath rusty- 
tomentose, leaves oblong acute or obtuse coriaceous, base rounded glabrous above 
with 8-9 pair of very indistinct nerves, veins much branched and reticulate,, 
clusters of flowers capitate sessile dense concealed amongst the numerous filiform 
subsquarrose hirsute bracts. Lasianthus.? Wall. Cat. 8441, in part. 

Penang or Singapoee, Wallich. 

Leaves 6-6 by H-IJ in,, red brown when dry, nerves and veins prominent beneath. 
Cymes meeting and almost embracing the stem, forming sessile heads ^ in. across ; 
bracts ^ in. long, several to each flower. Buds hirsute, minute. — Of this very peculiar 
species J have seei;.a fragment in bud only in WalHch's Herbarium, fastened on a sheet 
with L. densifolius. 

15. Zi. ellipticus, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vi. 607 ; branches 
petioles and bracts hirsute with spreading hairs, leaves shortly petioled broadly 
elliptic or subobovate-lanceolatc acuminate, glabrous shining above with 6-8 
pair of slender nerves and numerous parallel rarely forked veins which are 
finely silky beneath, bracts lanceolate longer than the few sessile fascicled, 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2934). 

Branches not densely hirsute. Leaves 4-6 by 1^2^ in., pale brown when dry,, 
thinly membranous, base acute, very shining above ; petiole |- in. ; stipules ^ in., 
lanceolate. Bracts \—^ in. Calyx-teeth 6, ^-^ in., triangular-lanceolate, hirsute. 
Corolla not seen (hairy, 5-cleft, Wight). Drupe | in. long, obovoid, hairy ; pyrenes 5. 

Lasianthus,'] lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 183 

** Bracts much shoHer than thejloweis. 

16. Za. tublferus, Hook. f. ; glabrous, or nerves beneatli and bracts 
puberulous. leaves petioled elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate narrowed and acuminate 
at both ends, nerves 6-6 pair, veins sparingly branched, flowers sessile clustered 
longer than the orbicular coriaceous bracts, calyx-limb campanulate shortly 5- 
toothed tubular after flowering. Mephitidia, No. 9 Herh. Ind. Or. H. f. '8f T. 

Khasia and Jyntea Hills, alt. 3-5000 ft., Griffith, &c. (Kew Distrib. 2923, 
4, 6). 

Branches daCrk brown or black when dry. Leaves 5-7 by 1^2^ in., rather rigid, 
brown when dry, opaque above ; petiole ^-i in. ; stipules small, ^— i in., triangular. 
Bracts coriaceous, glabrous and ciliate or pubescent. Calyx the largest of the Indian 
species, ^ in., black, glabrous or pubescent; limb cylindric after flowering, and as long 
and nearly as broad as the ovary, coriaceous, with 5 erect triangular or lanceolate 
hispid teeth. Corolla-tube longer than the calyx, pubescent, throat villous. Drupe J 
in., ovoid, black, crowned by the broad calyx-limb ; pyrenes 5. 

17. Zi. oblongrifollus, Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Ch\ t. 11 ; branches glabrous, 
petioles and nerves beneath and stipules strigose, leaves oblong or elliptic-oblong 
abruptly caudate-acuminate, base rounded or subacute, nerves 7 pair, veins 
close-set prominent sparingly branched, petiole and subulate bracts and flowers 
sessile fascicled hispia, calyx-teeth 6 triangular-lanceolate. 

TiNNEVELLT ; in the Pampanussam hills, alt. 2500 ft., Beddome. 

Shrubby. Leaves 6-7 by 2 in., midrib and prominent nerves slightly strigose, 
veins parallel and venules also very prominent ; petiole ^ in, ; stipules triangular. 
Flowers 2-5 in a cluster. Corolla-tube very short, lobes 4. 

18. Xi. obscurus, Blume in DC. Prodr. iv. 463 (Mephitidia) ; branches 
petioles stipules and nerves beneath softly tomentose, leaves petioled elliptic- 
lanceolate finely acuminate, base acute, nerves 7-8 pair, veins famt rarely forked, 
flowers fascicled sessile, bracts strigose outer ovate or oblong inner filiform or 
subulate, calyx-teeth lanceolate. — Miguel FL Ind. Bat. ii. 317. 

Mabtabak, at Moulmein, Parish; South Andaman Islands, Kurz. — Distbeb. 
Sumatra, Java. 

Branches almost black when dry, hairs spreading, soft. Leaves 4-7 by 1-2 in., 
greenish brown when dry, smooth and opaque above, with the midrib often pubescent, 
beneath pubescent on and between the nerves ; petiole ^-^ in. ; stipules ^ in., oblong- 
triangular, substrigose. Flowers not numerous ; bracts scattered, ^\ in. ; -calyx -limb 
cleft to the base. Drupe glabrous, " snow-white," Parish ; pyrenes 5. — The Moulmein 
specimen precisely accords with the Sumatran and Javanese. 

19. Zi. ILurzii, Hooh. f. ; branches petioles and nerves beneath hoary 
■with minute appressed pubescence, leaves shortly petioled elliptic-oblong or 
lanceolate finely acuminate, base acute, nerves 9-10 pair, veins faint straight not 
reticulate, bracts outer ovate inner lanceolate equalling the fascicled sessile stri- 
gose flowers, calyx-teeth 5-7 lanceolate. L. stercorarius, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 31, 
not of Blume, Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8310, 8311. 

Mabtaban, at Chappedong, Wallich ; Tenassebim and Andaman Islands, frequent, 
Kurz ; Penang ? Wallich. 

Branches pale reddish-brown, smooth. Leaves 5-8 by 1 J-2 in., firmly membranous, 
pale brown when dry, smooth and opaque above, finely softly pubescent on the nerves 
beneath, veins close-set ; petiole \-\ in. ; stipules \-^ in., oblong-lanceolate, pubes- 
cent. Bracts glabrous or ciliate, small, outer more or less confluent, membranous, 
shorter than the flowers, inner ovate. Calyx strigose ; limb dilated, deeply cleft. 
Corolla infundibular, ^ in., slender. Drupe very small, glabrous ; pyrenes 5-7. — 
"Wallich's 8310 and 8311 appear conspecific, and as his habitat of Penang is given 
with a doubt, they probably both come from Martaban; No. 8310 has a 6-7-cleft 

184 Lxxv. RUBIACFJ!. (J. D. Hooker.) [LasiantJms. 

calyx, larger leaves, and less crowded flowers, of which the corolla has dropped. I, 
have seen no specimen of Knrz. 

Sect. in. NudlfloP8B. Cyme« sessile. J?rac^« very inconspicuous, minute 
subulate or 0. 

* Calyx-teeth elongate, lanceolate, rarely large and broad. 

20. Ii. lucldus, Blume Bijd. 997 ; branches pflabrous or minutely strigose, 
leaves petioled elliptic-ovate-oblong or -lanceolate caudate-acuminate, base acute, 
nerves 4-6 pair minutely hairy beneath, veins distant sparingly branched, flovp^ers 
few sessile ebracteate, calyx-teeth lanceolate. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 319 ; Kurt 
For. Fl. ii. 30. Mephitidia lucida, DC. Prodr. iv. 453. Mephitidia No. 17, 


Herb. Ind. Or. H. f. Sf T. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 4-6000 ft., Griffith, J. D. H. # T. T., &c. Uppeb Tenassbbim ; 
Tabora {fid- Kwrz), — Disteib. Java. 

Branches slender, pale. Leaves 3-4 by 1-1^ in., green when dry, membranous, 
sometimes rather oblique ; petiole slender, ^\ in., strigose ; stipules minute, ^ in., 
triangular, acute, strigose. Flowers 2-3, small, -sessile or very shortly pediceiled, 
calyx-teeth glabrous or strigose. Corolla ^ in., white ; tube slender, hairy ; lobes 
hairy within. Brupe \ in. diam., pale blue, glabrous, smooth, crowned by the calyx- 
teeth ; pyrenes 4. 

21. Xi. Kookeri, C. B. Clarke inss. ; branches petioles stipules and nerves 
beneath puberulous or minutely strigose, leaves petioled elliptic-lanceolate 
caudate-acuminate, base subacute or rounded, margins obscurely waved or 
Crisped, nerves 5 pair, veins sparingly forked, flowers sessile fascicled ebracteate, 
calyx-teeth lanceolate. Mephitidia No. 18, Herb. Ind. Or. H.f. ^ T. 

Khasia Mts., near Churra, alt. 4000 ft., J. D. H. ^ T. T., C. B. Clarke. 

Bramhes pale. Leaves often deflexed, 6-9 by 1-2| in., pale green when dry, 
opaque, rigidly membranous ; nerves obliquely arched ; petiole \-\ in. ; stipules ^ in. 
Flowers 3-8 in a fascicle ; bracts very minute or 0. Calyx glabrous or nearly so, 
teeth erect. Corolla-tube hairy. Brwpe ovoid, ^ in. diam., crowned by the calyx-limb 
and teeth ; pyrenes 6. 

22. Zi. Blumianus, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. iv. 607 ; glabrous 
except at the bases of the flowers and tips of the shoots, leaves stoutly petioled 
elliptic-lanceolate caudate-acuminate, base subacute or obtuse, nerves 4-6 pair, 
veins very slender branched and reticulate, flowers sessile or subsessile, bracts 
minute subulate, calyx-ieeth lanceolate membranous much longer than the tube. 
Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 22! 

Travancore, at Courtallam, alt. 3500 ft., Wight, Beddome. 

Branches slender, pale. Leaves 3-6 by 1-2 in., greenish or brown when dry, stiffly 
membranous, opaque above, with faint arching nerves ; petiole ^^ in. ; stipules 
triangular-lanceolate, ^ in., glabrous or pilose. Flowers few or crowded, on a thick- 
ened pubescent axis, sometimes very shortly pediceiled ; bracts rarely ^ in., strigose. 
Calyx \-^ in. long, tube short ; lobes 4-5, narrow, erect." Corolla glabrous or nearly 
so, tube hardly equalling the calyx. Ovary " 3-5-celled," Wight. Brwpe not seen. — 
The calyx is quite peculiar. 

23. Ii. ciliatus, Wight in Calc. Jmim. Nat. Hist. vi. 609; branches 
petioles leaves beneath and cymes densely viUously hirsute with spreading hairs, 
leaves stoutly petioled elliptic-oblong acute or acuminate coriaceous, base acute, 
nerves 6-8 pair deeply impressed above, veins beneath strong often forked, bracts 
obsolete, flowers sessUe fascicled 3-4-merous, calyx-teeth broad large. 

NiLGHERRT Mts. ; Sisparah, Wight, &c. 

Branches stout, densely clothed with fulvous or brown hairs. Leaves 6-8 by 1-1 1 
in., yellowish brown when dry, opaque, with glabrous ner.jres above, margins usually 

Lasianthus.] lxxv. rubiacejj. (J. D. Hooker.) 185l 

fitrongly ciliate, veins beneath strong, parallel ; petiole \-^ in. ; stipules ^-^ in., lan- 
ceolate, hirsute. 'Bracts replaced by stiff bristly hairs. Calyx-teeth obconic ; lobes 
3-4, broadly oblong, obtuse, hispid. Corolla " small, very hairy ou both sides," Wight, 
Drupe size of a pea, subglobose, glabrous ; pyrenes 3-4, rugose on the back. 

Vae. rostrata ; leaves shorter more cuspidate, venules closer. L. rostratus, Wight 
Ic. 610. — Shevagherry hills and Courtallam, Wight. 

24. Xi. Thwaitesll, Houk. f. ; branches slender and petioles and leaves 
beneath softly tomentose, leaves petioled lanceolate acuminate, coriaceous, base 
acute nerves 4 pair obscure above, veins laxly reticulated, flowers few or sub- 
solitary sessile ebracteate, calyx tomentose, lobes lanceolate spreading. Mephitidia 
tomentosa. Thio. JEnutn. 146. 

Ceylon ; Ambagamowa district, alt. 3000 ft., Thwaites. 

Branches slender, pubescence dark brown. Leaves 2-4 by ^-1 in., coriaceous, 
brown when dry, rather shining above, rusty-brown beneath ; petiole \-\ in. ; stipules 
\ in., lanceolate. Flowers small, \ in. long. Calyx-tuhe campanulate. Corolla white, 
pubescent, tube short. Drupe " size of a pea, black," Thwaites. — Thwaites considers 
this closely allied to, and perhaps a form of Gardneri. I have seen but one specimen 
of each, and they are very dissimilar. 

25. Xi. rhlzophyllus, Thw. Enum. 145 (Mephitidia) ; bi-anches slender 
compressed scabrid, leaves petioled lanceolate long acuminate, membranous 
glabrous shining, base acute, veins delicate, flowers few sessile, calyx hairy, 
teeth rather long linear-lanceolate. 

Ceylon ; Adam's Peak, Gardner. 

Leaves 2-3 by |-1 in., petiole ^;J in. — The above description is copied from 
Thwaites, whose specimens are not perfect enough to enable him to complete the 

** Calyx-teeth minute, subulate or triangular. 

26. Xi. strig^illosus, Hook./.-, branches petioles and nerves beHeath 
etrigillose with appressed soft hairs, leaves petioled narrowly oblong-lanceolate 
acuminate, base acute or rounded,, nerves 8 pair strong beneath, veins sparingly 
forked, bracts obsolete, flowers few sessile 5-merou8, calyx-teeth minute triangu- 
lar. L. acuminatus, Wight Herb. Bubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8324, in part. 

Tkavancobe ; Shevagherry Hills and Courtallam, Wight. 

Branches rather short. Leaves 4-6 by 1-1^ in., pale when dry, rigid, coriaceous, 
not ciliate, midrib and nerves glabrous and rather raised above ; petiole ^\ in. ; sti- 
pules ^ in., triangular. Flower subsolitary or fascicled, sessile. Calyx hispid. Corolla 
hirsute, tube probably elongate. Drupe (unripe) ^ in. diam., glabrous, crowned with 
the triangular calyx-teeth. — Allied to L. truncatus, Bedd., but the nervation and 
calyx are different. Wallich's specimen on the same sheet with L. venulosus (also a 
Western Peninsula plant) is marked by error as from Silhet. Near L. ciliatus, but 
the leaves are nearly glabrous beneath and the calyx-teeth very different, 

27. Xi. acuminatus, Wight in Calc. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 611 ; branches 
petioles and nerves beneath appressed puberuloua or glabrate, leaves petioled 
elliptic-lanceolate finely acuminate thin and rigid, base acute, nerves 6 pair 
strong, veins very close, flowers 1-S sessile ebracteate, calyx hairy, teeth trian- 
gular, corolla glabrous externally. 

Tbavancoke; Pulney and Shevagherry Hills, alt. 7000 ft., Wight, Beddome. 
Malabar? Stocks. Nilghebry Mts., at Conoor, alt. 6000 ft., C B. Clarke. 

Branches slender, pale. Leaves 4-5 by l-H in., pale greenish brown when dry, 
nerves beneath pale, veins closer than in any Indian species except L. parmfolius ; 
petiole ^—^ in. ; stipules ^ in., triangular-lanceolate. Flowers 3-4-merous. Calyx 
hirsute, teeth minute. Corolla-tithe J^ in., glabrous, hairy within. Ovary 3-4-celled. 
Drupe not seen. 

186 Lxxv. EUBUCE-S3. (J. D. Hooker.) [Lasianfhus. 

28. Xi. parrifolius, Wight in Calc. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 512; quite- 
glabrous, leaves small petioled elliptic acute shining above coriaceous, base acute, 
nerves 2-3 pair strong, veins very close much forked, flowers 2-3 sessile 4- 
merous, bracts minute or obsolete, calyx-teeth small obtuse, corolla glabrous 

Teavancoeb; Courtallam, Wight. 

Branches slender. Leaves 1^2 by |-1 in., pale brown when dry ; petiole \-\ in. ;. 
stipules ^^ in., triangular, acute. Flowers very small. Calyx glabrous ; teeth 
minute, triangular. C'orella'tube \ in., glabrous ; throat and lobes within hairy. 
Drupe " size of a pea," Wight, globose, glabrous ; pyrenes 3-4. 

29. Xi. obovatus, Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 10 ; glabrous, leaves small 
petioled obovtite obtuse coriaceous, nerves 4-5 pair and veins very indistinct,, 
flowers 1-3 sessile ebracteate, calyx-teeth ovate or triangular. 

Teavancoeb, on the Athramallay Mts., alt. 5000 ft., Beddome. 

Shrubby, much branched; branches very short with short internodes, blacks 
Leaves hardly distichous, 1 by | in. almost black when dry, with recurved margins r 
petiole ^-^ in. ; stipules triangular, ^ in. Flowers 4-merous, Calyx campanulate-, 
puberulous ; teeth ovate or triangular. Corolla-tube very short, glabrous, throat 
villous. Ihupe not seen. 

30. Si. Walkerlanus, Wight in Calc, Jouim. Nat. Hist. vi. 512 ; quite^ 
glabrous or young shoots puberulous, leaves petioled elliptic-oblong or -lanceolate 
or obovate apiculate acute or acuminate very coriaceous, nerves 7-8 pair very 
slender, veins copiously reticulate hardly parallel, flowers fascicled sessile, bracts 
0, calyx-teeth 4 small triangular obtuse. Mephitidia Walkeriana, Thw. JSnum. 
US. M. varians, Thw. I. c. in part (0. P. 290). 

Ceylon ; Central Province, alt. 5-6000 ft., Macrae, Walker, &c. 

Thwaites distinguishes this doubtfully as a species from L. strigosm by the nar- 
rower more acuminated leaves almost or wholly glabrous beneath, and shorter flowers ; 
but these are not the characters of Wight's authentic specimens, which have shorter 
more coriaceous leaves than L. strigbsvs, with very much reticulated venules ; in small 
specimens the leaves are only 2 in. long, obtuse and apiculate, with a longer petiole" 
in proportion. It looks more like a mountain dwarf form of L. strigosus with rigid 
leaves atid small flowers, but the calyx is quite different ; it accords with Thwaites 
sessile fiowered form of Mephitidia varians. 

Var. lanceolatus ; leaves narrowly lanceolate 3-5 by ^1 in. — Ceylon, Macrae and 
Thwaites (C. P. 80, 340, 1728). 

31. Zi. ollg'antlius, Thw. Enum. 146 (Mephitidia); branches slender 
tips and petioles appressed pubescent, leaves elliptic-lanceolate long- acuminate 
membranous shining, nerves 5 pair very slender hardly distinguishable from the 
laxly reticulating veins, flowers subsolitary ebracteate. 

Ceylon ; Hantani district, Thwaites. 

Very closely allied to L. strigosus, and, as Thwaites remarks, probably a form 
growing in poor dry soil, but the nervation of the leaf is different. The only speci- 
mens seen have no flowers ; Thwaites describes them as in few-flowered heads, small, 
with short acute calyx-teeth. 

32. Zi. Gardperl, Thw. Enum. 145 (Mephitidia) ; stem stout glabrous 
or neai'ly so, leaves large petioled oblong-lanceolate acuminate, base acute 
glabrous or hairy on the 8 pair of nerves beneath, veins faint and reticulated^ 
flowers crowded sessile ebracteate, calyx substrigose, teeth ovate-lanceolate 

Ceylon ; Newera Ellia and Adam's Peak, Gardner. 

Branches black, as thick as a goose-quill. Leaves 3-8 by li-2^ in., brown when 
dry, coriaceous, opaque; petiole ^-^ in., glabrous or strigose ; "stipules very small, ^ 

Jjasianthus.'] lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 187 

in., triangular strigose-. Flowers rather numerous; bracts or minute, subulate. 
Calyx black, tube obconic ; teeth coriaceous, hispid at the tips. Corolla " somewhat 
hairy without, villous within, tube short," Thwaites. — I have seen but one specimen 
from Adam's Peak (C. P. 348), which differs from Thwaites' description in the glabrous 
branches, and in the veins being only obscurely parallel (for the genus) ; it a good 
deal resembles a form of L. strigosus. 

33. Zi. InconsplcuuB, Hooh. /. ; glabrous, leaves petioled elliptic caudate- 
acuminate opaque above, base acute, nerves 6-6 pair spreading and veins incon- 
spicuous, flowers clustered sessile small ebracteate, calyx-teeth 5 triangular acute. 
Hyptianthera stricta, Wall. Cat. 8313 L. 

SiLHET, Wallich. 

Branches very slender, strict, quite glabrous except the youngest tips. Leaves 3^5 
by 1^-to 1| in., rigid, dull greenish when dry, tip very long and slender ; nerves very 
obscure above, veins Iseneath visible rather distant branched ; petiole slender, ^ in., 
puberulous ; stipules small, triangular, tips pubescent. Flower in very small pubes- 
cent axillary clusters. Ca/yj? glabrous ; limb dilated, cup-shaped ; teeth erect. Corolla- 
tithe slender, pubescent (seen in bud only about j in. long). Drupe ^ in. diam., globose, 
smooth, crowned by the calyx-teeth ; pyrenes 4-6. 

84. Xi. lanclfolius, Hook.f. j branches above petioles and midrib beneath 
hoary-puberulous, leaves petioled long narrowly oblong-lanceolate caudate- 
acuminate membranous, nerves 9 pair very slender, veins horizontal sparingly 
forked, flowers sessile ebracteate, calyx-teeth subulate short. Mephitidia, 12 
Het'h. Ind. Or. E. f. 8f T. 

KhasiaMts., alt. 3-4000 ft., (xriffith (Kew Distrib. 2916), J. D. H. ^ T. T. 

Branches pale. Leaves 7-9 by 1-lf in., greenish when dry, somewhat shining on. 
both surfaces; petiole \-\ in. ; stipules \-^ in., narrowly triangular, villous. Flowers 
crowded. Calyx puberulous. Corolla-tube ^ in., puberulous, slender; lobes hairy 
within. Drupes \ in. diam., globose, blue; pyrenes 6. 

35. Xi. chinensls, Benth. Fl. Hongh. 160 ; branches short petioles nerves 
beneath and flowers finely appressed pubescent, leaves large stoutly petioled 
elliptic-lanceolate caudate-acuminate coriaceous, base acute, nerves 10-12 pair, 
veins much reticulated, flowers sessile clustered ebracteate, calyx-teeth small 
narrow ovate-lanceolate. Mephitidia chinensis, Champ, in Kew Joum. JBot. 
iv. 196. 

Malacca ; Pulo Bissar forest, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2920), Maingay (865).— 
DisTEiB. Hongkong, Formosa. 

Branches as thick as a goose-quill, black when dry. Leaves 6-8 by l|-2y in., 
brown when dry, rather shining and quite glabrous above ; nerves not strong above, 
prominent beneath ; petiole g-| in. ; stipules small, ^ in., narrowly triangular. 
Calyx-limb campanulate, tomentose. Drupe subglobose, obtusely angled, ^ in. diam., 
pubescent, crowned by the calyx-teeth ; pyrenes 4-5. 

36. Xi. longrlfolius, Wight in Cede. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 614 ; branches 
stout glabrous, leaves very large shortly stoutly petioled elliptic-oblong or oblong- 
lanceolate acimiinate shining above scabrid beneath, base acute, nerves 16-18 
pair, veins much reticulated, stipules very coriaceous, flowers sessile crowded 
ebracteate or bracts minute, calyx-teeth short triangular. 

Maxacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib, 2936), Maingay (867). 

Branches as thick as a goose-quill, black when dry. Leaves 12-16 by 3^-4^ in., 
thinly coriaceous, brown when dry, nerves moderately arching, scabridity of under- 
Eurface from rigid minute hairs on the nerves to microscopic points on the leaf-surface ; 
petiole \ in., black, glabrous; stipules \-\ in. long, oblong-ovate, obtuse, verj coria- 
ceous, glabrous. Flowers sessile and subsessile; bracts minute, subulate, strigoso. 
Calyx hemispheric, black, glabrous ; limb shortly tubular, truncate or obscurely irre- 

188 LXXY. EUBUCEJ). (J. D. Hooker.) [Lasianthus, 

gularly toothed. Corolla infundibular ; tube glabrous, hardly exceeding the calyx- 
limb; lobes /», triangular-lanceolate, narrow, villous within. Ovary /-celled. Drupe 
unripe, glabrous, crowned with the tubular calyx-limb. — This very fine species is by 
the stipules and other characters closely allied to L. Helferi, next wliich it should 
rank though it has minute bracts. 

37. Zi. XMEaingrayi, JSooZ;./.; branches petioles nerves beneath and flowers 
minutely substrigosely appressed-pubeseent, leaves large shortly petioled elliptic- 
oblanceolate or elliptic-oblong membranous acuminate, base acute, nei'ves 7 pair, 
veins strong sparingly r0ticulate, flowers densely clustered sessile and shortly 
pedicelled ebracteate, calyx-teeth 4 triangular minute. 

Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 871). — Distrib. Sumatra. 

Branches slender for the size of the foliage, minutely granulate, pale yellowish red 
when dry, and rather rough to the touch. Leaves 8-10 by 2^-3^ in., pale greenish 
when dry, thinly scaberulous beneath, opaque on both surfaces, nerves oblique: petiole 
^ in. ; stipules very small, ^ in., triangular, acute, strigose. Flowers crowded. Calyx 
short, pubescent. Corolla funnel-shaped, ^ in. long, puberulous or glabrate ; lobes 
pubescent within. Drupe not seen. 

38. Zi. pterospermus, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vi. 510 ; branches 
petioles and nerves beneath glabrous or finely puberulous, leaves subsessile oblong 
or elliptic-oblong acuminate, base rounded often oblique rarely acute, nerves 
10-12 pair, veins reticulate, flowers sessile crowded hispid, calyx-teeth triangu- 
lar, pjrenes 2-winged. 

Malacca, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2929), Maingay (866). 

Branches as thick as a crow-quill. Leaves 4-7 by l|-25^ in., pale brownish when 
dry, rather coriaceous ; petiole ^ in. ; stipules oblong-lanceolate, \ in., strigose. 
Flowers numerous, bracts very minute or 0. Calyx hispid. Corolla glabrate. Drup£ 
large, ^ in. diam., globose, glabrous, black, crowned by the shortly tubular calyx- 
limb; pyrenes 3-5, trigonous, with a longitudinal wing on each side of the convex or 
keeled back. — Wight is in error in calling the stipules small. 

39. Zi. Wig'htianus, Hook. f. ; branches petioles and leaves beneath 
scaberulous or strigillose, leaves petioled oblong acuminate rigid, base subacute 
or rounded, nerves 12-13 pair, veins branched and reticulate, flowers sessile 
clustered ebracteate, calyx-teeth triangular. L. yenosus, Wight in Calc. Journ 
Nat. Hiat. vi. 514, not of Blume. 

Malacca ; on Mt. Ophir, Griffith. 

Branches very stout, woody, brown. Leaves 3-4 by 1-1^ in., dark brown when 
dry, midrib and nerves very strong beneith, pubescent on both surfaces ; petiole \ in., 
stout; stipules ^-^ in., broadly triangular or lanceolate, coriaceous, hirsute. Flowers 
few. Calyx ^ in., fulvous-pubescent. Corolla (in bud) hirsute. Drupe not seen. 

*** Calyx-limb tubular or cupular, truncate or minutely toothed. 

40. Zi. constrlctus, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vi. 515 ; branches 
petioles stipules and nerves beneath sparsely strigose, leaves petioled oblong- 
lanceolate acuminate, base acute, nerves 5-6 pair, veins loosely reticulate, flxijwers 
small sessile crowded subebracteate, calyx constricted at the base of the cupular. 
shortly 4-toothed limb. Eurz For. i^/.'ii. 31. Mephitidia sp., Grif. Notul. rv 
267,t.474, f. 4. 

Tbnasserim and the Andaman Islands, Griffith, Kurz. 

Branches slender, pale. Leaves 3-7 by 1-1^ in., very pale, yellowish brown, h^irdly 
shining, texture thin ; petiole ^ in. ; stipules small, ^ in., triangular, acuminate. 
Flowers pale, sparsely pube&cent ; bracts or minute, subulate, deciduous. Calyx 
^ in., tube ellipsoid. Corolla " hirsute, tube \ in., lobes as long. Drupe ovoid, size 
of a small pea, glabrous, crowned by the large almost truncate calyx-limb " : Kure, 

Zasianthus.] Lxxv. rubuceje. (J/D. Hooker.) 189 

41. Xi. pauclfloms, Wiaht in Cede. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 516 ; branchlets 
petioles and leaves beneath softly hispid with close-set spreading white hairs, 
leaves subsessile elliptic-lanceolate acuminate, base acute, nerves 4-5 pair, veins 
faint loosely reticulate, flowers few sessile ebracteate. 

Tbnassbrim ; at Mergui, Griffith. 

Branches very slender, pale straw-coloured. Leaves 3-4 by |-li in., very thin, 
pale brownish when dry, glabrous above ; petiole ^ in. ; stipules lanceolate with long 
subulate points, strigose, deciduous. 

42. Zi. tmncatUB, JBedd. Ic. Fl. Ind. Or. t. 9 ; branches petioles and 
nerves beneath appressed-pubescent, leaves petioled narrowly elliptic-lanceolate 
finely acuminate, base acute, nerves 7-8 pair and parallel, veins strong beneath, 
flowers subsolitary sessile ebracteate, calyx-limo tubular truncate subentire^ 
corolla pubescent. 

Oeissa ; Myhendra Mts., in Granjam, alt. 4600 ft., Beddome. 

Shrubby ; branches black when dry. Leaves 6-6 by |-1|- in., grey-brown when 
dry, shining above, finely pubescent beneath; petiole ^-^ in. ; stipules ^-\ in., trian- 
gular, acuminate, hirsute. Flowers often solitary, ebracteolate. Calyx glabrous, tube 
ovoid, limb narrowed upwards. Corolla | in. long ; tube slender, pubescent ; lobes 6. 
Drupes not seen. 

43. Xi. strigrosns, Wight in Gale. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 612; young- 
branches petioles and nerves beneath strigillose with appressed hairs, leaver 
shortly petioled elliptic-lanceolate acuminate shining above, base acute, nerves 
7-9 pair, slender veins j^arallel branched and sparingly anastomosing, flowers 
few sessile, bracts or minute, calyx-limb truncate, teeth 6 minute. Mephitidia 
strigosa, Thw. Enum. 146. M. varians, Thw. I. c. (0. P. 80, 1728). 

Cetlon ; Central Province and Saffragam district, alt. 2-6000 ft.. Walker, &c. 

Brandies slender. Leaves 4-6 by 1-lf in.,rather coriaceous, brown when dry, nerves 
not very prominent beneath ; petiole ^-\ in. ; stipules small, triangular, acute. Flowers 
in small fascicles. Calyx glabrous t)r strigose. Corolla white ; tube \ in., glabrous 
or nearly so ; throat villous, limb |- in. diam. Drupe ^ in. (| in. diam. wh6n fruiting, 
2%waites), subspherical, black, opaque ; pyrenes 4-5. 

Vab. nitida, Thwaites ? an species distincta ; leaves small 2^3i- in. narrowly lan- 
ceolate very coriaceous pale when dry shining on both surfaces, midrib beneath very 
stout, reins obscure.— Adam's Peak, Thwaites (C. P. 3910). — This is a very doubtful 
plant ; I have seen no flowers or fruit. 

Vab. protracta; leaves lanceolate finely acuminate 7-8 by 1^2 in., veins less 
branched straighter. Mephitidia protracta, Thw. Enum. 146. — Ceylon, Central Pro- 
vince, Gardner. 

44. Zi. andamanlouB, Sook. f. ; branches petioles nerves beneath and 
flowers finely appressed pubescent, leaves petioled narrowly elliptic-oblong or 
lanceolate acuminate, base acute, nerves 9-10 pair, veins somewhat raticulate, 
flowers sessile clustered pubescent ebracteate, calyx-Umb shortly tubular truncate. 
Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8300. 

Tenassbbim; at Amherst, Wallich. Andaman Islands, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 
2993), Kurz. 

Branches almost black when dry. Leaves 6-8 by }-2 in., rather coriaceous and 
shining above, brown when dry ; petiole J in. ; stipules small, \ in., triangular, pubes- 
cent. Clusters of flowers small. Calyx-limb enlarged, cupular, margin entire. 
Corolla-titbe 6\&n^QV, \ in., and lobes villous without and within; limb | in. diam. 
Dimpe ^ in., globose, obtusely angled, crowned by the large tubular calyx-hmb, pubes- 
cent; pyrenes 4. 

45. Zi. Belferi, Hook. f. ; branches robust glabrous, leaves petioled nar- 
rowly oblong-lanceolate acuminate, base acute, nerves 10-12 pair finely pubescent 

190 Lxxv. EUBiACB^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ldsianthus, 

beneath, veins much reticulated, stipules coriaceous glabrous, flowers sessile 
clustered ebracteate glabrous, calyx-limb very shortly tubular truncate obscurely 

Tekasseeim or Andaman Islands, Heifer (Kew Distrib. 2921). 

Branches black when dry, perfectly glabrous, as are all parts of the plant except 
the nerves beneath and inside of stipules. Leaves 4-6 by 1-1 1 in., pale brownish 
when dry, shining above, hardly coriaceous ; nerves and veins very slender ; petiole 
J-| in. ; stipules \ in., triangular-lanceolate, very coriaceous, glabrous without, hirsute 
within, pressed outwards and downwards by the enlarging ovaries, finally pale brown 
and polished. Flowers in small clusters. Calyx quite black when dry, limb coriace- 
ous. Corolla not seen. Drupe ^ in. diam., glabrous, subglobose, 6-lobed, areolate at 
the top, the shortly 5-lobed calyx-limb pressed flat on the crown : pyrenes 6. 

Sect. IV. Pedunculatae. Cyynea peduncled (see also S. L. Moonii), 

46. Xi. longrlcauda, Hook. f. ; glabrous, leaves petioled lanceolate very 
long caudate-acuminate, base acute, nerves 8-10 pair very slender spreading 
hardly distinct from the veins, cymes or short peduncles few-flowered, bracts 
or minute, calyx-teeth triangular. Mephitidia 18, Herb. Ind. Or. H. f. 8f T. 

MisHMi Hnats (Upper Assam), Griffith ; Khasia Mts., alt. 5-7000 ft., J. B. H. 

A branching bush ; branches slender, tips puberulous. Leaves 4-6 by f-l^ i^M 
greenish when dry, opaque, tailed extremity one third of their length very slender 
(by far the most so of the genus), midrib strong, nerves looped ; petiole \—^ in. ; 
stipules ^ in., rusty-pubescent. Peduncle ^-^-^ in., 3-8-flowered; flowers sessile, 
usually 4-merous. Calyx minute, puberulous. Corolla \ in., glabrous. Drupe ^ in. 
diag^ globose, blue, calyx-teeth inconspicuous ; pyrenes 4. 

47. Xi. mlcrantlius, Hook. f. ; young shoots petioles nerves beneath and 
cymes minutely strigose, leaves petioled ovate-lanceolate acuminate, base 
rounded niembranous, nerves 5-6 pair, veins rarely branched, flowers very small 
sessile on a short peduncle ebracteate, calyx-teeth triangular-subulate. 

MisHMi Hills (Upper Assam), Griffith. 

Branches slender, glabrous, pale. Leaves 4-6 by 1-1^ in., very pale greenish 
when dry; petiole ^-\ in.; stipules small, ^^ in., triangular strigose. Peduncles 
shorter than the petioles; flowers sessile. Calyx ~ in. ; teeth spreading, hirsute. 
Corolla and Drupe not seen. 

48. Xi. Bierxnannl, King mss.\ branches petioles cymes and nerves 
beneath minutely strigose, leaves petioled elliptic or elliptic- lanceolate cuspi- 
date acuminate or caudate, base acute, nerves 5-7 pair, veins branched and 
reticulate, flowers sessile or pedicelled in short peduncles bracteolate, calyx- 
teeth ovate or lanceolate. 

SiKiaM Himalaya, alt. 5-8000 fl:., Thomson, &c. ; Khasl^ Mts., alt. 4-6000 ft., 
Griffith, &c. 

Branches slender, pale when dry. Leaves 5-7 by 1-2 in., greyish green when dry, 
rather membranous, opaque, sometimes pale beneath, tip sometimes l-\^ in., and 
very slonder ; petiole ^-^ in. ; stipules ^ in., triangular, hairy. Peduncles equalling 
the petioles ; flowers sessile and pedicelled ; bracts small, linear or subulate. Calyx 
strigose. Corolla ^^ in., rosy or pale lilac, glabrous, throat and 6-6 lobes villous. 
Drupe \ in. diam., subglobose, blue, crowned by the conniving calyx-teeth, glabrous ; 
pyrenes 6, rugose on the back. — Some Sikkim specimens have very small corollas, 
^ in. long and pubescent, probably the flowers are dimorphic. The species approaches 
a Bomean one {Beccari, n. 3227). 

49. Xi. venulosus, Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vi. 508 ; glabrous, 
leaves small petioled ovate oblong or elliptic acute acuminate or mucronate, 

ZasianthusSl lxxv. rubiacej!. (J. D. Hooker^) 191 

Tery coriaceous, base rounded, nerves 7-9 spreading, veins closely reticulated, 
flowers sessile or pedicelled and subracemose on a short stout peduncle, bracts 
subulate, calyx-teeth subulate. Wight Ic. t. 1032 ;• Bedd. Fl. 3ylv. Anal. Gen. 
t. xvii. f. 6. Santia venulosa, W. 8f A. Prodr. 422, Kubiacea, Wall. Cat. 
8324, in part {locality of Silhet erroneous), 8469. 

NiLGHEKEY Mts., alt. 6-8000 ft., common. 

A very robust leafy much-branched shrub; branches black when dry. Leaves 
1-Z^ by |-1 in., reddish-brown when dry, midrib and petiole (^-^ in.) very stout, 
nerves prominent on both surfaces ; stipules small, ^ in., triangular or narrower. 
Peduncles longer than the petioles, pedicels hairy. Calyx hirsute, teeth 4-5, erect 
* recurved. Corolla ^ in., yellowish, glabrous without, throat and lobes within 
villous. Drupe ^ in. diam., blue, crowned by the calyx-teeth ; pyrenes 3-5, thick- 

50. Zi, eapitulatus, Wight in Cole. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 611 ; branches 
strigose pubescent or glabrate, leaves petioled lanceolate acuminate base acute 
coriaceous, nerves 7-9 pair, veins sparingly branched and reticulate, flowers 
sessile on a short peduncle bracteate, calyx-teeth small. 

NiLGHEBEY Mxs. ; Sisparah, Wight ; Conoor, alt. 7000 ft., C. B. Clarke. 

A much larger and longer-leaved plant, with a narrower leaf-base than L. venu- 
losus, not so stout, with less reticulated veins, the flowers capitate and corolla 
hirsute without; but my specimens are very incomplete. Leaves 4-6 by 1-1| in. in 
one of Wight's specimens, 4-5 by 1|-2J in. in another, which has the veins scarcely 
branched. Peduncles shorter than the petioles ; bracts subulate ; flowers pubescent. 
Drupe globose, | in. diam., crowned by the recurved calyx -teeth, smooth, glabrous ; 
pyrenes 2-4, larger and much thinner-walled than in L. ventdosus. 

61. Xi, dlchotomus, Wight in Calc. Joum. Nat. Hist. vi. 508 ; glabrous, 
leaves petioled oblong or ovate- rarely obovate-oblong base rounded or cordate, 
nerves 6-8 pair, veins very closenset straight, flowers sessile and on the branches 
of a slender peduncle, bracts subulate, calyx-teeth long lanceolate. Bedd. Ic. 
PI. Ind. Or. t. 13. 

Teavancobb ; Shevagherry and Courtallam hills, Wight, Beddome. 

Branches pale. Leaves 2-4 by |-1| in., pale brown when dry, sather thin, 
nejrves strong, veins faint ; petiole ^ in., sometimes strigose on the upper face ; 
stipules small, ^ in., lanceolate, acute, glabrous. Cymes including the very slender 
peduncle 1-1^ in., irregularly sparingly dichotomously branched; bracts ~-^ in. 
long. Calyx \ in. long, teeth 3-4, spreading tips hairy. Corolla-tube exceeding the 
calyx-teeth, at length glabrous, lobes hirsute within. Ovary 3-4-celled. Drupe not 

62. Zi. varians, Thw. Enum. 146 (Mephitidia), partly ; quite glabrous, 
leaves smaU petioled shortly oblong apiculate oase subacute or rounded, nerves 
6-8 pair hardly distinguishable from the loosely reticulated veins, flowers few 
sessile or shortly pedicelled on the top of a rigid filiform peduncle, bracts subu- 
,late, calyx-teeth subulate. 

Ceylon ; Central Province, Galagama, alt. 5-8000 ft., Thwaites. 

Branches slender, black when dry. Leaves 1^-2 by f-1^ in., coriaceous, black- 
brown when dry, midrib excurrent as a firm point ; petiole long and slender for 
the genus, ^-^ in. ; stipules very small, ^ in., triangular. Peduncles very slender, 
strict, 1 in. and less, surmounted with a pair of subulate bracts ^ in. long. Calyx 
glabrous, tube urceolate glabrous, longer than the subulate teeth. Corolla and Drupe 
not seen. Ovary 3-celled. — Thwaites includes under this species some states of 
strigosus, which differs in the inflorescence and calyx, as does its much nearer ally 
L. Walkerianv^, which has a similar venation and excurrent midrib, and specimens 
of which are also included by Thwaites under L. varians. 

192 Lxxv. BUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Lasianthm, 


L. OBUQTJUS, Tkw. Enum. 146 (Mephitidia oligantha, var. $. obliqua); branches 
slender with scattered strigose hairs, leaves subsessile ovate or oblong -lanceolate 
from a rounded or cordate oblique baso caudate-acuminate membranous shining 
above, nerves 5-6 pair very slender hardly distinguishable from the laxly reticulating 
veins. — Ceylon ; Saffragam district, up to 3000 ft., Gardner, Thwaites. — The broad 
leaves with rounded or cordate bases, and wide-spreading nerves of this plant, are 
so different from any of the many forms of the preceding described species, that I 
adopt Twaites' opinion of its being distinct. 

MEPHrriDU, sp., Griff. Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 476, is probably a Psychotria. 

80. SAPROSKA, Blume. 

Shrubs, foetid when bruised, wdth often subulate bristles at the tips of the 
branches and bases of the peduncles. Leaves opposite or 3-4 whorled, mem- 
branous ; stipules interpetiolar, usually connate, 1-3-pointed, deciduous. 
Flowers small, white, axillary or terminal, solitary or fascicled, sessile or cymose 
and peduncled; bracts and bracteoles minute, often connate. Cahjx-tube 
obconic; limb dilated, 4-6-lobed or -toothed, persistent. Corolla bell- or 
funnel-shaped, throat villous ; lobes 4-5, broad, obtuse, valvate with inflexed 
flat or crisped margins. Stamens 4-5 in the corolla-throat, filaments short or ; 
anthers linear or oblong. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, arms 2 short ; ovule* 
1 basal erect in each cell. Drupe small ; pyrenes 1-2 criistaceous. Seeds ellip- 
soid and solitary or 2 and plano-convex, ventral face not grooved, testa mem- 
branous ; cotyledons small foliaceous, radicle slender inferior. — Distrib. Species 
8, tropical Asiatic and Malayan. 

Sect. I. Susaprosma. Flowevs in small cymes. Anthers subsessile. 
Seeds ellipsoid, usually solitary. — Leaves opposite. 

1. S- indicum, Dalz. in Hook. Kew Journ. iii. 37; glabrous, leaves 
sessile oblong or elliptic-oblong acuminate base narrowed or rounded, flowers 
few terminal, calyx-teeth minute triangular. Dalz. 8f Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 112. 
Dysodidendron glomeratum, Gardn. in Cole. Journ. Nat. Hist. vii. 3. S. 
glomeratum, Bedd. Ic. PL Lid. Or. t. 16. 

Western Peninsula; on the G-hats from Bombay southwards, ascending to 
4000 ft. 

Branches pale, ultimate compressed. Leaves 3-5 by |-lf in., thin. ; stipules ^ in., 
connate, often 3-cuspidate. Flowers shortly pedicelled, with a basal toothed caly- 
culus. Calyx unequally 4-5-toothed. Corolla \ in. long, white. Style shortly 2-fi'd. 
Fruit \-^ in., ellipsoid. Seed solitary, broadly ellipsoid or globose. 

Vae. Gardneri; leaves usually broadly ovate-cordate. Serissa Gardneri, Thw. 
Enum. 150. — Ceylon ; forests about Galagama, Thwaites. 

2. S. consimlle, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 29; glabrous, leaves petioled or 
sessile elliptic or lanceolate acuminate or caudate, base acute, flowers solitary 
or few terminal, calyx-teeth lanceolate. Psychotria, Wall. Cat. 8351. Cofiea, 
Wall. Cat. 8450. Rubiacea, Wall. Cat. 8467. 

Khasia Mts., Be Silva; Mabtaban and Tenasserim, in dry hill forests, alt. 
3-5000 ft., Falconer, Kurz. 

Branches pale, ultimate minutely strigose or glabrate, not compressed. Leaves 
3-5 by ^1^ in., membranous, pale greenish when dry ; petiole ^-\ in. ; stipules 
connate, mouth bristly. Flowers sessile and shortly pedicelled, pedicels with basal 
bristles. Ccdyx-tube funnel-shaped ; lobes lanceolate, spreading. Corolla ^ in. long. 
Style subentire. Fruit " broadly obovoid, smooth, and seed usually solitary," Kurz. 
—Some of the Tenasserim specimens have quite sessile leaves and look different, but, 
having no flowers, it is impossible to say whether they are so specifically. 

Saprosma.] Lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 193 

3. S. fragrans, JBedd. Fl. Sylv., Fw. Man. 134/11; glabrous, leaves 
shortly petioled elliptic obtusely acuminate, flowers in small axillary and ter- 
minal cymes, calyx-teeth broadly triangular. Serissa fragrans, Bedd. Ic. PI. 
Ind. (h\ t. U. 

NiLGHKBET Mts., OH the wcetem slope; and Tinitevellt Hills, alt. 2000 ft., 

"Foetid when crushed" {Bedd.). Branches smooth, ultimate compressed. Leaves 
3-4 by 1^2 in., green when dry, membranous; petiole ^-^ in. ; stipules entire or 
toothed. Cymes small, rarely ^ in. long, few-flowered, trichotomous ; bracts minute. 
Flowers very odorous. Calyx cupular. Corolla \ in. Style-arms 2 linear, short. 
Fruit ellipsoid, V-seeded. 

4. S. scabxiduin, Bedd. Fl. Sylv., For. Man. 134/12; branches scabrid, 
leaves long-petioled elliptic acuminate, base acute, petiole and midrib scabrid, 
flowers terminal sessile, calyx hairy, teeth 4 linear-lanceolate. Serissa scabrida. 
Thw. Fnum. 161. 

Ceylon ; near Ratnapoora, Thwaites. 

Leaves 2-3 by f-l^in.; petiole \ in. ; stipules connate, scabrid, aristate-fimbriate. 
— This I have not seen. The character is taken from Thwaites, who had but one 
specimen, without flowers or ripe fruit. 

Sect. 11. Dysodldendron. Peduncles 1-3-flowered. Anthers wdth 
filaments. Seeds usually 2, plano-convex. Leaves opposite. 

6. S. ceylanicum, Bedd. FL Sylv., For. Man. 134/12 ; glabrous, leaves 
shortly petioled elliptic or lanceolate acuminate, peduncles axillary and ter- 
minal 1-3-flowered slender, calyx-teeth 4 triangular. Dysodidendron ceylani- 
cum and Wightii, Gardn. in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vii. 2, 3. Serissa cey- 
lanica, Thw. Fnum. 150. S. Wightii, Bedc' Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 16. Lasian- 
thus fcetens, Wiyht in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vi. 617. 

Western Peninsuia; on the Ghats, alt. 3-6000 ft.,. from Malabar southwards in 
moist woods, Wight, &c. Ceylon; in forests of the central province, alt. 3-6000 ft., 
Walker, &c. 

A shrub or small tree, foetid when bruised; branches pale, smooth, ultimate 
compressed. Leaves 4-5 by ^2 in., sometimes oblanceolate, green when dry, mem- 
branous ; petiole ~^-^ in. ; stipules connate, toothed. Peduncles ^-1^ in. ; bracts 
and bracteoles* minute. Calyx^tuhe obconic, glabrous. Corolla,^ in., purple. Style- 
arms 2, short, linear. Fruit ^ in., obovoid, obtuse, " bright blue, very foetid" {Bedd.). 
Seeds plano-convex. 

Sect. III. Triad icla. Flowers in corymbose cymes. Anthers subsessile. 
Seeds ellipsoid. Leaves often 3-4-nately whorled. 

6. S. tematum, Hook./, in Gen. PI. ii. 131 ; glabrous, leaves 3-nately 
whorled petioled elliptic or lanceolate acuminate, cymes axillary solitary or 
fascicled, flowers corymbose, calyx-teeth 4-6 triangular. Kurz For. Fl. ii. 29. 
Psederia ternata. Wall. Cat. 6248, and in Poib. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ WaU. ii. 
520; DC. Prodr. iv. 471. Serissa ternata, Kurz Andam. Rep. App. A. 40. 
Mephitidia, sp., Griff. Notul. iv. 267 ; Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 476. 

Eastebn Himalaya; Mishmi and Bhotan mts., Griffith. Khasia Mts., alt. 
2-3000 ft.. Be Silva, &c. Burma, Griffith. Andaman Islands," Kurz. 

Branches pale or dark, smooth, rather stout, ultimate angled. Leaves 4-10 by 
1-3| in., rather coriaceous, greenish when dry, midrib and fjetiole (^ in.) sometimes 
scaberulous; veins often straight and parallel, as in iMsianthus; stipules ^ in., lance- 
olate with needle-like points, glabrous or pubescent. Peduncles ^-1^ in., with bristles 
at its base, bracts and bracteoles small lanceolate; pedicels J in. Calyx glabrous; 
shortly campanulato. Corolla ^ in., pubescent, white. Sivle-arms 2, linear. Fruit 

194 Lxxv. EUBUCEJ!. (J. T). Hooker.) [Saprosma. 

ellipsoid, ^ by ^ in., smooth, crowned by the conical disk, which is girt at its base by 
the very short calyx-limb. — Kurz distinguishes the Andaman form as Tar. pubenUa, 
with the petioles, stipules, nerves beneath, pubescent. 

7. S. corymbosum, Bedd. Fl. Sylv., F&t'. Man. 134/12; glabrous, 
leaves opposite and 3-4-Dately whorled, petioled elliptic acute or acuminate, 
cymes axillary and terminal trichotomously paniculately brancbed, calyx-teeth. 
4 minute. Serissa corymbosa, Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. t. 17. 

TiNNEVELLT HiLLS, south of CouTtallam, alt. 3-400O ft., Beddome. 

Branches pale or dark, smooth, i-gonous. Leaves 4-8 by 1-2^ in., dull greenish 
when dry, veins reticulate; petiole ^^ in.; stipules not seen. Peduncles slender, 
^-1 in., bristles at their base very short ; cyme- branches opposite or whorl ed, slender, 
horizontal ; bracts and bracteoles minute. Colpx shortly obconic, glabrous. Corolla 
\ in., papillose, margins of lobes hardly indupiicate. Anthers exserted. Style-amis 
2, flattened. Fruit unknown. 


Epiphytic glabrous shrubs, with a deformed fleshy tuberous simple or lobed 
stock, excavated by ants ; branches square. Leaves opposite, leathery, obtuse ; 
stipules interpetiolar, deciduous. Flowers small, axillary, solitary or fascicled, 
sessile, "white. Calyx-tube ovoid, limb obscure. Corolla funnel- or salver- 
shaped, tube long or short ; lobes 4, short, valvate. Anthers 4, subsessile on 
the coroUa-throat, oblong. Ovary 2- celled ; style-arms narrow or broad ; ovules 
1, basal, erect in each cell. Ih-upe small; pyrenes 2, plano-convex. Seeds ob- 
long ; testa thin with black lines ; embryo ? — Distrtb. 3 or 4 species, Malayan, 
N. Australian, and Fijian. 

1. R. formic arium, Jack in Tram. Linn. Soc. xiv. 124; leaves obovate 
oblong or elliptic, tip rounded. Blume Bijd. 956; DC. Prodr. iv. 461 ; Kurz 
For. Fl. ii. 8. H. montanum, Blnme DC. U. cc. Lasiostoma formicarium, 
Spreng. Syst. i. 423. — Humph. Herh. Amh. vi. t. 65, f. 1. 

South Andaman Island, Kurz. Malacca; Pulo Bissar, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 
2975), Maingay (864). — Distbib. Sumatra, Java, Borneo. 

Tuberous stock 6-14 in., sraooth> rooting from its under surface ; branches few, 
simple, or sparingly divided, stout. Leaves 3-4 by 1-2 in., pale brown when dry, 
coriaceous, nerves obf^cure, narrowed into the very short stout petiole. Flowers few. 
Corolla-tube -i in., glabrous without ; lobes oblong, acute. Fruit oblong, crowned by 
the crateriform calyx-limb, smooth, glossy, orange -crimson. — The specimens I have 
seen are very insufficient as to flowers and fruit, the characters of which are in part 
borrowed from Kurz. 

82. ZaVRlKCSCODZA, Jack. 

Characters (as far as known) of Hydnophytum, but fruit vnth 4-6 pyrenes. 
— DiSTRiB. Species 2, Malayan and N. Australian. 

1. JUL, armata, DC. Prodr. 460?; leaves petioled elliptic or cuneate- 
oblong, spinules in vertical series on the stock. .^M. tuberosa, Blume Bijd. 
1101. ? M. echinata, Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bat. t. 96. 

SiNGAPORK, A. Wallace. — Distbib. Malay Archipelago, N. Australia ? 

This is a very little known plant, of which my only materials are tubers and seeds 
gent by Mr. Wallace in 1865, with an excellent sketch containing some analyses. The 
sketch represents a nearly globose tuber, 2\ in. diam., excavated by ants, depressed at 
the top, irregularly grooved, studded with spinules irregularly disposed in longitudinal 
lines. Short thick-simple curved branches, 4-5 in., proceed from a very short stock 
on the crown of the tuber; these are covered throughout their length with ovoid 

] Lxxv. RC3IACE.E. (J. D. Hooker.) 195. 

patches of apparently close-set spinules (or bracts?), amongst which the flowers 
nestle. Leaves irregularly scattered, 3 by 1 in., elliptic, subacute, narrowed into a 
petiole \-\ in. ; stipules not represented. Calyx not represented. Corolla funnel- 
shaped, inflated below, 4 erect recurved triangular acute teeth, glabrous without ; tube 
with a ring of hairs within below the stamens. Stamens 4, on the corolU- hroat 
filaments very short; anthers broadly oblong. Style stout; stigmas 6, or 3 each 2-fid, 
erect. Fruit crowned with the calyx-limb, narrowly obovoid, " smooth, yellow, 
gooseberry-like," Wallace ; pyrenes 6 ; these I have examined ; they* are narrowly 
oblong, coriaceous, and contain 1 erect seed with a membranous testa, fleshy albumen, 
and cylindric embryo § the length of the seed, cotyledons small, radicle elongate 
inferior. — Whether this is De CandoUe's or Blume's or G-audichaud's plant is doubtful ; 
the latter has intrapetiolar 2-fid stipules connate at the base. Both this and Myrmc- 
codia present a most interesting: study, both m respect of their growth and structure 
and of their relation to the ants which inhabit them. Good specimens preserved in 
spirits are much wanted. 

Tribe XIV. PSSDEHZfiS:. 
83. PH:i>EaZA, Linn. 

Slender twining shrubs, foetid when bruised; branches terete, flexuous. 
Leaves opposite, rarely whorled in threes, petioled ; stipules intrapetiolar, 
triangular, deciduous. Flowers in axillary and terminal 2-3-cholomou5ly 
brf ached panicled cymes, bracteolate or not. Calyx-tvhe ovoid or turbinate ; 
limb 4-o-toothed, persistent. Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, pubescent, 
throat glabrous or villous ; lobes 4-5, valvate with inflexed crisped margins, 
tip often 3-lobed. Anthers 4c-b, subsessile in the corolla-tube, linear-oblong, 
obtuse. Ovary 2-celled ; stigmas 2, capillary, twisted ; ovules 1, basal, erect in 
each cell. Fruit globose or compressed ; epicarp thin, frao^ile, shining, separating 
from 2 orbicular or oblong dorsally compressed membranous or coriaceous 
pyrenes. Seeds much dorsally compressed, testa thin adnata to the pyrene ; 
cotyledons large cordate thin, radicle short inferior.— Distrib. Species 9 or 10, 
in tropical Asia and 1 in Brazil. 

* Fj-uit much compressed ; pyrenes separating from a JUiform carpophore^ 
more or less winged. 

1. P. foetida, Linn. ; Hoxb. Fl. Ind. i. 683; glabrous or nearly so, leaves 
opposite long-petioled ovate or lanceolate base acute rounded or cordate, cyme- 
branches opposite, calyx-teeth short triangular, fruit broadly elliptic com- 
pressed, pyrenes black with a broad pale wing. WaU. Cat. 6247, ej:cl. E. ; 
W. 8f A. Ftodr. 424; DC. Prodr. iv. 471 ; GHff. Notul iv. 267; Ic. PI. Asiat. 
t. 479, f. 3; Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 139; For. Fl. ii. 26. V. ovata, 
Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iv. 255. P. sessiliflora, L>C. Prodr. 472. 

From the Centrax and Eastern Himalaya, ascending to 5000 ft., southward to 
Malacca and westward to Calcutta.— Distbib. Malay Archipelago to Borneo (Mauri- 
tius introduced ?). 

Leaves 2-6 by |-2^ in.; petiole ^1 in. Panicle 2-6 in. long, puberulous ; 
branches long in distant pairs, cymose at the extremity ; bracts minute, ovate or 
subulate, ciliolate; flowers sessile and pedicelled. Calyx small, tube campanulate. 
Corolla |-| in., tomentose. Fruit \~^ in., polished, crowned by the conical disk and 
minute calyx-teeth. 

Var. microcarpa, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1. c. ; panicles very slender, flowers 
more numerous, calyx minute, fruit orbicular \ in. diam. — Ava at Taongdong, Wall. 
Cat. 6247. 

2. P. verticilU^ta, Blume Bijd. 968 ; glabrous, leaves opposite and 3- 

196 Lxxv. rubiacej:. (J: D. Hooker.) [Pcederia. 

nately whorled petioled broadly oblong upper lanceolate acuminate, cy-me- 
branches whorled, calyx-limb truncate, corolla glabrous. DC. Prodr. iv. 471. 

Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib. 885). 

Yery similar to P. fniida, except in the characters indicated, and the much nar 
rower panicles with short (J-4 in.) stouter branches. 

3. P. calyclna, Kurz in Joam. As. Soc. 1873, ii. 74 ; Fyr. Fl. ii. 76 j 
leaves opposite long- petioled cordate-ovate or -lanceolate acuminate hispidulous 
especially beneath, calyx-lobes lanceolate subfoliaceous, fruit broadly ellipsoid 
comprassed, pyrenes with a very narrow black thickened margin. P. foetida, 
WaU. Cat. 6247 E. 

Tenasseeim ; at Tavoy, Wallich. 

Branches glabrous. Leaves 4-5 by l?-2 in., very membranous, deeply cordat;? 
with the sinus open and lobes incurved; petiole 1-2 in., hispidulous. Flowers ncit 
seen. Fruit \-^ in., shining, about twice as long as the stellately spreading calyx- 
lobes. — Wallich's specimens are the only ones I have seen. 

4. P. lanugrinosa, Wall. PL As. Par. ii. 52, t. 165 (not Wall. Cat. 
7293) ; petioles and panicles scurfily tomentose, leaves opposite long-petioled 
all broadly ovate-cordate acuminate scaberulous above woolly beneath, panicle 
with the branches short stout^ fruit large compressed ellipsoid with erect calyx- 
teeth, pyrenes black with a broad pale wing. P. macrocarpa, WaU. Cat. 7292 ; 
G. Ben Gen. Syst. iii. 661. 

Eangoon ; at Pegu, Wallich, Martaban ; at Moulmein, Parish. 

Leaves 4-6 by 2^4^ in., rather coriaceous, dull greenish when dry above, buff 
beneath, the upper not narrower ; petiole 2-4 in. Panicles elongate ; branches \-^ 
in., opposite; bracts subulate or triangular-lanceolate. Corolla f in. long, pink, 
woolly within. Fruit f in. long, pale-brown, puberulous, the very short obtuse teeth 
erect and girding the base of the conical disk. 

5. P. Wallicliii, Hook. f. ; petioles and panicles finely pubescent, leaves 
opposite petioled ovate-cordate the upper much narrower scabrid above, woolly 
beneath, panicles with slender branches, flowers subcapitate, fruit small broadly 
ellipsoid compressed with broadly triangular refl^xed calyx-teeth. P. lanu- 
ginosa. Wall. Cat. 7293, in part {not of PI. As. Par.) ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 76. 

Tenasserim ; Atran river, near the hot wells, Wallich, Heifer. 

Leaves 5-6 by 2^-3 in., dull green above when dry, buff beneath, rigid, and 
clothed with short rigid hairs, base deeply cordate with incurved lobes, upper not 
half the breadth of the lower ; petiole stout, 1-1^ in. Panicles long, slender, branches 
and flowers pubescent and with short spreading hairs ; flowers in small heads about 
\ in. diam. Corolla ^ in. Fruit (young) broadly ellipsoid, nearly orbicular, J in. 
diam. — I suspect that Kupz's P. lanuginosa includes this and the true plant; he 
describes the leaves as sometimes ovate-lanceolate, which is not the case in Wallich's 
lanuginosa {macrocarpa of his Cat.), and states that it is common in mixed forests 
from Burma to Tenasserim. 

6. P. pillfera, Hook. f. ; branches petioles and panicles clothed with 
long spreading hair?, leaves opposite subbastately-lanceolate acuminate scaberu- 
lous above woolly beneath, calyx-teeth triangular-lanceolate, fruic orbicular 
compressed, pyrenes black with a broad pale wing. Wall. Cat. 7293, in part. 

Tenasserim; Atran river, Wallich. 

Ha it of P. lanuginosa, but differing widely in the long spreading hairs that 
clothe those parts which in that plant present a close short soft pubescence. Fruit 
\ in. diam,, pale, shining, the broad short calyx-teeth sharply retlexed. 


Pcederia.'] lxxv. eubiacej). (J. D. Hooker.) 197 

** JFhuit subglohose, pyi'enes not separating from afUxform carpophore. 

7. P. tomentosa, Blume Bijd. 968 ; glabrous or sparely pubescent, 
leaves opposite petioled ovate or lanceolate acute or acuminate, base rounded or 
cordate, calyx-teeth very short, fruit subglobose, pyrenes not winged. DC. 
Prodr. iv. 471 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 76. P. barbulata, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. 
Bat. 255. P. foetida, Benth. FL Hongk. 162. Psederia sp., OHff. Notul. iv. 
268; Ic.Pl.A8iat.t.4.n,i.4.. 

From the Eastbbn Himalaya and Khasia Mts., ascending to 6000 ft, to Sikqa- 
PORE. — DiSTaiB. Malay Islands, S. China, Japan. 

Leaves 2-4 by 1-2^ in., above glabrous or sparsely haiiy, beneath glabrous pubes- 
cent or subtomentose ; petiole 1-3 in. Panicle as in P.fottida, but branches usually 
shorter and the ultimate often seorpioid with secund sessile flowers. Calyx and 
corolla as in P. fatida^ Fruit ^-J. ia. diam., witii 2 orbicular mujch compressed 

? 8. P. linearis, Hook. f. ; glabrous, very slender, leaves opposite sub- 
sessile narrowly linear acute, calyx-teoth minute, corolla pubescent. 

Tknassebim ; at Mergui, Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2911). 

Branches shining. Ltaves 2-3 by ^ in., nerves Very obscure; petiole ^ in. or less. 
Panicles spreading, broad ; branches very slender, repeatedly trichotomous ; bract^eoles 
minute, flowers remote, often on long pedicels, like those of P. fattvda. Fruit 
(unripe) subglobose, glabrous, \ in. diam.- -This is probably allied in the fruit to P. 


p. RECURVA, Boxh. Hort. Bevg. 15; Fl. Ind. i. 684; DC. Prodr. iv. 471, appear* 
from Roxburgh's drawing to be Ixora recur m, Ktirz. 

P. EEKCTA, Bvxb. Hort. Beng. 15 ; Fl. Ind^ i. 685 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 471, is probably 
a Psychotria. 

84. SAXUXZiTONZA, Roxh. 

A hispid pubescent or glabrate erect S-chotomously branched undershrub, 
foetid when bruised, branches terete. Leases opposite, petioled, nerves many, 
stout ; stipules intrapetiolar, short, acute, persistent. Flowers small, in broad 
terminal 3-chotomously branched panicled or subumbellate cymes, .ehite or 
blue, sweet-scented, bracteate and bracteolate. Calyx-tube ovoid ; limb of 4-o 
subulate persistent segments. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube long; lobes 4-5, 
short, valvate. Stamens 5, inserted in the corolla-throat, filaments short subu- 
late ; anthers obovate-oblong, obtuse. Ovary 5-furrowed, outer coat almost 
free from the 5-celled inner coat; style filiform, arms 5 linear; ovules 1, basal, 
erect in each cell. Capsude 1-celled from the absorption of the septa, 6-valved 
at the top, 6 (or fewer-) -seeded. Seeds 3-quetrou8, outer coat of testa reticu- 
late 3-valved at the base, inner thick ; cotyledons cordate induplicate, radicle 

1. K. suaveolens, Boxh. HoH. Beng. 15; Fl. Ind. i. 554; DC. Prodr. 
iv. 462; Brand. For. Fl. 278; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. Anal. Gen. 134/12, t. 17, f. 3. 
H. scabra, Don Prodr. 137 ; DC. l. c. H. mysorensis, W. <^ A. Prodr. 423 ; 
Dalz. (^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 115. H. propinqua, Dene, in Jacq. Voy. Bot. t. 01. 
Lasianthus tubiflorus, Blu?ne Bijd. 999. Spermadictyon suaveolens, Buxb. Cor. 
PI. t. 286 ; Wall. Cat 6239 ; Bot. Beg. t. 348. 8. azureum, WaU. in Roxb. FL 
Ind., ed. Carey ^ WalL ii. 225; Ca^* 6240; Bot. Reg. t. 1235. 

Tropical and Subtropical Hdlalaya and the Salt Range, alt. 2-5000 ft., from 
Kashmir to Bhotan. Central India and the Western Peninsula, ascending to 
4000 ft. from Marwar and Beliar southwards to Mysore on dry rocky hills.— Distrib. 
China (probably introduced)* 

198 Lxxv. EUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ramiltonia, 

An undershrub 4-12 ft. high, with spreading branches. Leaves rather rigid, 6-12 
by 2-4 in., elliptic-lanceolate or orate, acute, glabrous or pubescent, base acute; 
petiole ^-1 in. Flowers in subglobose heads, most copiously produced in terminal 
trichotomous pubescent panicles, fragrant, white or blue, sessile or pedicelled; bracts 
subulate. Calyx-teeth very variable in shape, longer than the ovary, glabrous 
pubescent or hairy, with ofren interposed gland-tipped processes. Corolla-tube ^ in., 
pubescent or woolly. Stamens and style more or less exserted according to sex. 
€apstde ^-^ in., ellipsoid. — Bhotan specimens have very short broad calyx-teeth. 


Shrubs, foetid when bruised; branches terete. Leaves opposite, the pairs 
often fascicled ; stipules small, acute or pungent, persistent. Floioers bracteate 
and bracteolate, 3-nate or in terminal fascicles, white or purplish, subsessile ; 
bracteoles connate into a 2-cuspidate scarious tube. Calyx-tvhe obconic, lobes 

5 (4-6), coriaceous, persistent. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube slender, hairy 
within ; throat glabrous ; lobes 5 (4-6), valvate with inflexed edges. Stamens 

6 (4-6), inserted in the corolla-throat, filaments short ; anthers linear-oblong, 
^ exserted, $ included etiete. Ovary 6-celled ; style fiUform, arms 5 linear 
% exserted ; ovules 1, basal, erect in each cell. Capsule cylindric or ovoid, 

5-valved to the base, apex deciduous between the hardened persistent calyx- 
teeth, valves separating from 3-5 erect free fibrous pyrenes, the fibres simple 
or reticulating, loose or appressed. Seeds erect, testa membranous ; cotyledons 
orbicular, radicle short slender inferior. — Distrib. Species 6 or 6, a Chinese, 
and the following. 

1. Xi. lanceolata, Wall, in Roxh. FL Ind.^ ed. Carey 8r Wall. ii. 191 ; 
Cat. 6241 ; leaves ovate elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate puberulous or hispid above, 
stipules small acute appress8d, capsule cylindric. DC. Prodr. iv. 462 ; Dene, 
in Jacq. Voy. Bat. t. 90 j Brand. For. Fl. 279. Hamiltonia suaveolens, Don 
Prodr. 137. 

Temperate Himalaya, alt. 4-10,500 ft., from Kashmir to Bhotan, Wallich, &c. 

A rigid erect shrub ; branches glabrous, seabrid or hispid. Leaves very variable, 
i-4 by 1-1^ in., more or less hairy beneath, rigid or rather membranous; petiole 
i-\ in. Flowers subcapitate, terminal, and on short lateral branches, white, 4-6- 
merous. Bracts tubular, glabrotfs or puberulous. Calyx-teeth triangular, acute. 
Corolla ^ in. long, glabrous or hairy. Capsule \ ^ in., cylindric, truncate, crowned 
by the persistent ciliate calyx-teeth ; fibrous utricle enclosing the seed long and very 

2. Zi. virg>ata, Edgew. in Aitchison Cat. Punjab. PI. 70 ; leaves very 
small linear or oblong acute seabrid above, stipules with long pungent recurved 
points, capsule cylindric. 

Western Himalaya, alt. 4-7000 ft. from Murree, Falconer to Kulu, Edgeworth. 
Salt Kange, Fleming. 

A slender rigid excessively branched shrub; branches very slender, erect or 
divaricate, white with spreading pubescence. Leaves \-^ by ^-^ in., fascicled, 
straight or somewh>it falcate, margins fiat or recurved, pale beneath, nerves obscure ; 
stipules triangular with rigid long pungent points and thickened margins, white. 
Bracts cften equalling Ihe capsule. Ca/;^ar glabrous, teeth lanceolate ciliate, much 
longer tbaxj in L. lanceolata. Corolla ^ in. long, pubescent, purplish. Capsule ^ in., 
suboylindric. Seed with a few free fibres attached to the integument. 

3. Zi. G-riffithli, Hooh. f. : leaves elliptic-lanceolate acute narrowed into 

the petiole smooth or seabrid above, stipules small appressed, capsule ovoid 
twice as long as the bracteoles and as the lanceolate glabrous calyx-teeth. 

Leptoderynis.] Lxxv. RUBiACEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 199 

Khasia Mts., alt. 3-5000 ft., Griffith (Kew Distrib. 2964), &c. 

A small rigid bush ; branches stout ; branchlets slender, furfuraeeous. Leaves 
^-1^ in,, brown when dry, nerves 2-3 pair, glabrous or nearly so beneath. Calyx- 
teeth nearly glabrous, lanceolate. Corolla white, ^ in. long. Capsule 4 in. long, 
brown. Seed enclosed in an adnate reticulate fibrous coat. 

4. Xi. scabridai Hook. f. ; leaves small elliptic-lanceolate subacute 
scabrid above coriaceous, stipules with recurved pungent points, capsules ovoid 
twace as long as the bracteoles, much longer than the short obtuse glabrous 

MisHMi Hills (Upper Assam), towards the summit of Thumathya, Griffith. 

Evidently nearly allied to L. Griffithii, having a turgid capsule, but this and the 
leaves are smaller, the calyx-teeth shorter and more obtuse, and the utricle quite 
loose. " Corolla tinged with purple," Griffith. Seeds enclosed in a loose reticulate 
fibrous coat. 


L. sp. ? ; an excessively branched shrub, branches slender hispid interlaced, leaves 
f-1 in. linear or linear-lanceolate acute hispid above or on both surfaces, stipules 
small appressed, bracteoles short pubescent, capsules cylindric ^ in. long, calyx-teeth 
very short. — Nipal, Wallich {Cat. 6241 A., in fart). — Habit of L. virgata, Edgw. 

L. sp. ? ; branches stout, leaves ^ in. elliptic or ovate obtuse hirsute on both sur- 
faces, stipules small appressed, capsules cylindric \ in., calyx-teeth broad short. 
Bhotan near Telagoung, Griffith. — Specimens of an allied species or variety from 
below Chupcha, 70U0 ft., Gr^th, have very slender branches and obovate or oblung 
leaves |-^ in. 


86. KVDaOPKirZ.AX, XmTi.^. 

Creeping glabrous stout succulent herbs, branches terete. Leaves opposite, 
sessile, ovate-oblong; stipules combined with the petioles into an entire or 
toothed cup. Floioets solitary, axillary, shortly pedicelled, lilac. Calyx-tube 
4-angled ; segments of limb ovate-lanceolate, persistent. Corolla rather fleshy, 
between bell- and funnel-shaped, tube with a ring of hairs within ; lobes 4, 
ovate, valvate. Stamens 4 on the coroUa-throat, filaments filiform ; anthers 
linear. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform, pubescent, stigma obscurely 2-lobed; 
ovulea 1, peltately attached to the septum in each cell. Fi-uit large, corky, 
oblong-ovoid, compressed, curved, acutely 3-4-keeled between the acute margins, 
1-2-celled, 2-seeded. — Distrib. An Asiatic, a Natal, and a Madagascar sp^ies. 

1. K. marltlxna, Linn.f. ; leaves obovate acute. Roxh. Cor. PI. t. 233; 
Fl. Ind. i. 373; DC. Prodr. iv. 676; WaU. Cat. 6205; W. ^ A. Prodr. 441; 
Wt. Ic. t. 760. Sarissus anceps, Gaertn. Fruct. i. 118, t. 25. 

Sand-hills on the shores of the Western Pevinsola and Ceylon. 

Stems a foot long, sparingly branched. Leaves \-\ by \-\ in,, often recurved, 
sometimes papillose or subscabrid, stipules broad sheathing. Calyx-tube \ in., 
longer than the lobes. Corolla ^-^ in. long, and as broad across the lobes. Fruit 
4-| in. long, crowned with the enlarged calyx-teeth. 

87. SPERMACOCE, Linn. 

Herbs or low undershrubs; branches usually square. Leaves opposite; 
stipules connate with the petioles into a broad truncate tube with margmal 
bristles. Flowers small or minute, solitary or in axillary or terminal fascicles 
heads or cymes. Calyx-tube various, limb of 2-4 (rarely 5) teeth with often 
interposed teeth or bristles. Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped ; lobes 4, valvate. 

200 Lxxv. RUBiACEJ). (J. D. Hooker.) [Spermacoce. 

Stametis 4, on the throat or tube of the corolla, filaments short or long ; anthers 
linear or oblong. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform with 2 short arms or a capi- 
tate stigma ; ovules 1 in each cell, on the middle of the Septum, amphitropus. 
Fiiiit of 2 coriaceous or crustaceons mericarps which dehisce variously. Seeds 
oblong, grooved ventrally, testa thin often granulate ; cotyledons thin, broad ; 
radicle inferior. — Distrib. Species about 160, tropical and subtropical. 

* Capsule dehiscing septicidally, f>oth mericarps then dehiscing ventrally. 

1. S. strlcta, Linn. f. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 554 ; annual, stem usually erect 
and leaves more or less scabrid, leaves from linear to ovate acute, calyx hispid 
or pubescent, teeth slender, seeds linear-oblong highly polished. Roxh. Fl. Ind. 
i. 370 ; Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 137. tS. lasiocarpa, Br. in Wall. Cat. 
832. S. pusilla, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. i. 379; Cat. 823; 
Ban Prodr. 134. S. filina, Gardner!, and angustifolia, Wall. Cat. 830, 834, 835. 
S. triandra, Ham. in Don Piodr. I. c. Bigelovia stricta, Blume Bijd. 945. 
B, lasiocarpa, Roxburghiana, and Kleinii, W. Sr A. Prodr. 437. B. myriantha, 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 334. Borreria pusilla, DC. I, c. 543. B. gracilis, Miq. 
in PL Hohen. No. 705. 

Teopicax Himalaya from Kashmir eastwards, ascending to 6500 ft., and through- 
out India to Singapore and Ceylon. — Distrib. Tropivral Asia aud Africa. 

Stem 6-14 in., simple or branched from the base, angles more or less scabrid. 
Leaves subsessile, 1-2 by ^-^ in., green when dry, narruwed at. both ends, horizontal 
or deflexed, more or less coriaceous, glabrous or with scabrid nerves beneath. Heads 
globose, usually very many- and dense-flowered ; bracteoles filifonn, exceeding the 
calyx. Corolla ^ in. long, white. Stigma subglobose. Capsule narrowed at the 
base, glabrous below, rather membranous. — The two most prominent forms of this 
variable plant are small fruited ones with globose heads and very narrow leaves, the 
8. pusilla, DC, and B. myriantha, Miq., and a large coarser plant, S. lasiocarpa, Br. ; 
but there are no limits between these forms. 

2. S. ocymoides, Burm. Fl. Ind. 34, t. 13, f. 1 ; perennial, glabrous or 
nearly so, stems branched from the base decumbent and ascending, leaves ovate 
elliptic or lanceolate acute glabrous or scabrid above, calyx glabrous or glabrate, 
teeth lanceolate, seeds oblong black granulate opaque. S. stricta, Schlecht. in 
PI. Hohen. No. 998. S. ramosa, tenera, ocymoides, and Roxburghiana, Wall. 
Cat. 831, 833, 6185, 6186 e.rcl. B. Borreria ocymoides, DC. Prodr. iv. 544. 
Bigelowia Roxburghiana, Wight Cat. 1360 (not of W. ^ A. Prodr.). B. laevi- 
caulis and setidens, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 334, 336. 

Western Peninsula; from Malabar and the Nilgherry Hills southwards, 
Heyne, &c. Malacca, Griffith; Ceylon, Gardner, &c.— Distrib. Malay Islands, 
Mauritius, Trop. Africa. 

Root more or less woody (except in seedlings). Branches 4-16 in., stout or more 
often slender, rarely scabrid on the angles and only beneath the leaves. Leaves much 
broader than in S. stricta, often membranous, quite glabrous or scabrid above, some- 
times petioled. Flowers fewer and in smaller heads than S. stricta, with usually 
shorter bracteoles. Calyx rarely puberulous, teeth often unequal. Seeds usually 
broader and shorter than in 5. stricta. — I follow Wallich in referring this to Bur- 
jnann's plant. Wight & Amott's B. Roxburghiana is not Wallich's 6186 of that 
name, nor is it Wight's plant of that name, nor is Wight & Arnott's B. Kleinii 
Wallich's S. ocymoides. No. 6185, as cited ; both these plants of W. & A. having hispid 
calyces are referable to 8. stricta. 

** Capside septicidal, one mericarp remaining closed by the septum (which 
finally separates as a membranous plate), the other dehiscing ventrally. 

.3. S. biBpida, Linn.; DC. Prodr. iv. 555; procumbent, scabrid hirsute 
or hispid, leaves obovate spathulate oblong or elliptic obtuse or acute margins 

Spermacoce.] Lxxv. RUBUCEiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 201 

flat or waved, capsule hispid or putescent, seeds oblong granulate jpaque. 
Jioxb. FL Ind. i. 373 ; Wall. Cat 826 ; W. ^ A. Ft-odr. 438 ; Dalz. ^ Oils. 
Bomb. Fl. 111. S. articularis, Linn. /. ; Roxh. I. c. 372; Wall. Cat. 827; 

W. 8c A. I. c. ; Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 137. S. scabra, Willd. ; Roxh. 
I c. 371 ; Wall. Cat. 824. S. hirta, Rottler in Nov. Act. Bei'ol 1803, 95. S. 
longicaulis, Wall. ; avana, WaU. ; ramosissima. Wall. ; and tubularis, Br. in 

Wall. Cat. 826, 828, 829, Sm.— Burin. Thes. Zeylan. t. 20, f. 3. Rheede Hort. 
Mai. ix. t. 76. 

Throughout India, from tlie Western Himalaya at Simla, ascending to 3000 ft. to 
Assam, and southwards to CErLON and Singapore. — Distrib. S. China, Malayan 

Root annual or perennial; branches 6-14 in., ascending, stout, 4-angled, scabrous 
hirsute or glabrous. Leaves \-\^ by \-~ in,, often rounded at the tip, rigidly coria- 
ceous, pale when dry, margins sometimes thickened and cartilaginous, usually very 
scabrid above; nerves rarely impressed. Flowers 4-6 in a whorl; bracteoles filiform, 
equalling the cal_yx. Calyx-teeth linear-lanceolate. Corolla ^-\ in., blue or white. 
Stigmas 2, very short. Capsule pubescent or hispid, rounded at the base. Seeds very 
variable, ^^ in. long, narrow or broad. — A maritime Carnatic form has very hairy 
branches and stout waved apiculate leaves with cartilaginous edges ; it is Eoxburgh'.s 
typical S. hispida, and passes by insensible gradations into other forms. 

4. S. scaberrima, Blume Bijd. 946 ; leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate 
acute scabrid above with deeply impressed nerves, capsule glabrous, seeds oblong 
granulate shining. DC. Prodr. iv. 656; Miq. FL Ind. Bat. ii. 331. 

Malacca, Griffith.— Distrih. Sumatra, Java, Banca. 

Rather stout, 12-16 in., brown when dry; branches ascending, rather shining, 
nearly glabrous but scabrid or retrprsely hairy on the angles below the nodes. Leaves 
1-1^ in., subsesaile, rigidly coriaceous, very scabrid above, hardly so beneath; nerves 
very oblique. BUowers few. Corolla not seen. Calyx-teeth lanceolate. Capsule 
brown. Seeds small, oblong, with a large ventral cavity. 


5. BuRMANNi, DC. Prodr. iv. 555. S. corymbosa, Burm. Fl. Ind. 34, non Linn., is 

S. ? PRocuMBENS, Linn. ; DC. 1. c. is probably a Hedyotis. 

S. ? ui-DYOTiDEA, LC. I. c. Hedyotis fruticosa, Retz Obs. ii. 8, an Linn.'? See p. 49. 

88. GAZXaXiONZA,^.i2icA. 

Low rigid shrubs. Leaves small, opposite, linear or subulate ; stipules 
usually connate with the petioles into an entire sheath with 2 bristles or obso- 
lete. Flowers small, solitary, or in simple spiciform cymes, white. Calyx-limb 
2-5-toothed, dilated after flowering into a scarious crenate wing or leathery 
bristles. Corolla funnel-shaped, throat naked; lobes 4-6, valvate in bud. 
Stamens 4-6, in the throat or tube of the corolla, filaments short; anthers 
linear-oblong. Disk inconspicuous. Ovary 2-celled; style filiform, arms 2 
short; ovules 1 in each cell on the centre of the septum, amphitropous. Fruit 
ovoid, of 2 terete indehiscent cocci crowned with the enlarged calyx. Seeds 
oblong, grooved ventrally, albumen horny; cotyledons flat, radicle slender 
inferior. — Distkib. Species 10, N. African and W. Asian. 

1. 6-. calycoptera, Jaub. ^ Spach III. PI. Or. i. 147, t. 80 ; glabrous, 
leaves linear, stipules of the floral leaves minutely G-8-toothed, flowers spicate, 
fruit with erect wings. Boiss. Fl. Or. iii. 15. Spermacoce calyptera, Dene, 
Flor. Sinaic. 29. 

VOL. III. ff 

202 Lxxv. rubiacej:. (J. D. Hooker.) [Gaillonia. 

Thb Punjab ; dry hills near Attock, Falconer, Stewart. — Distrib. Nrbia, Arabia, 

A small shrub, with slender, erect, terete, strict, dichotomously forked branches, 
the lower white. Leaves in distant pairs, ^-1 in., black when dry, scaberulous, 
Tn;irgins revolute. Fruit about ^ in. long, of 2 narrowly oblong puberulous cocci 
surmounted by an ere<'t scarious calyx-limb; segments of limb free or connate, 
elliptic, acute, white, veined, much longer than the cocci. — The Indian specimens are 
very imperfect. 

2. G. hymenostepbana, Jauh. ^ Spach HI. PI. Or. i. 146, t. 79; 
hoary and scaberulous, leaves linear-oblong with obsolete stipules, floral connate 
with 2-lobed stipules, flowers terminal solitary and fascicled, fruit with a large 
orbicular horizontal 5-lobed wing. Boiss. Fl. Or. iii. 15. 

Punjab, Fleming. Wuzukistan, alt. 3500 ft., Stewart. — Disteib. Arabia, Belu- 
chistan, Affghanistan. 

A very small shrub, " most foetid when fresh," Stewart, with opposite divaricating 
strict slender branches. Leaves \-^ in., margin revolute. Fruit of 2 small hispid 
cocci ; the calyi-limb \-\ in. diam., pubescent or glabrate, membranous, reticulately 

Tbibe XVI. GAZiZEflS. 
89. &UBZA, Lmn. 

Scabrid hispid or prickly erect difi'use or climbing herbs; stems square, 
slender. Leaves 4-8 in a whorl, rarely opposite and stipulate. Flofbers small 
or minute, in axillary and terminal cymes, pedicel jointed with the ovary. 
Ccdyx-tu^e ovoid or globose ; limb 0. Corolla rotate or shortly bell- or funnel- 
shaped ; lobes 4-5, valvate. Stamens 4-5^ inserted on the coroUa-tube, fila- 
ments short ; anthers globose or oblong. Ovary 2-cell^d ; style 2-tid or styles 
2, stigma capitate ; ovules 1 erect in each cell, attached to the septum. Fruit 
^mall, didymous, fleshy, or globose by the suppression of a carpel. Seeds sub- 
erect, adhering to the pericarp, testa membranous; cotyledons broad thin, 
radicle slender inferior. — Distrib. Species about 30, chiefly temperate. 

1. R. cordifolla, Linn.', DC. Prodr. iv. 688; scandent, leaves 4 in a 
whorl petioled ovate-cordate acute, nerves 3-7 from the base very strong. 
Wall. Cat. 6209 ; W. 8f A. Prodr. 442 ; Dak. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 121 ; Wt. III. 
t. 128, bis. f. 1. R. Munjista, Boxb. Hort. Beng. 10 ; Fl. Ind. i. 374 ; DC. I c. ; 
Wt. Ic. t. 187. R Mungisth, Desv. Joum. Bot. 1814, 207. R. javana, DC. 
I. c. R. secunda, Moon Cat. 10. R. alata, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 
^ Wall. i. 384 ; Cat. 6208 ; DC. I. c. R. purpurea, Dene, in Jacq. Toy. Bot. 
84, t. 92. R. scandens, Zoll. ^ Moi-r. ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 338. R. chi- 
nensis, Regel ^ Maack in Reg. Fl. Ussur. 76, f. 8, t. 1. R. mitis, Miq. in Ann. 
Mils. Lugd. Bat. iii. 112. 

Throughout the hilly distrifets of India, from the N.W. "Himalaya eastwards, 
ascending to 8000 ft., and southwards to Ceylon and Malacca. — Distrib. N.E. Asia 
from Dahurja to Japan and Java, Tropical Africa. 

Clinlbing; root perennial; branches stout, smooth, or more often with the 
nerves beneath (usually) retrorsely scabrid. Leaves smoor.h or scabrid ; lower 
2-4 in.; petiole I --3 in., 2 often longer and with larger blades, upper leaves some- 
times acute at the base, shorter petioled. Cymes panicled, terminal ; branches tri- 
chotomous, spreading, with opposite sessile leafy cordate bracts. Flowers minute, 
6- rarely 4-merous. Corolla-lobes lanceolate, tips incurved. Anthers globose. Fruit 
^-^ in. diam., didymous or globose. — A very variable plant. The Khasian speci- 
mens have usually 3-nerved leaves, not impressed above ; in Western Peninsula the 
nerves are 5-7, and deeply itapressed. Eastern Himalayan specimens of Griffith's 

Euhia.] LXXY. EUBiACEiE. (J. D^. Hooker.) 203 

hare hispid branches and leaves pubescent beneath ; they have neither flowers nor 

2. R. tlnctormn, Linn.; DC. Prodr. iv. 689; scandent, leaves sub- 
sessile 4-6 in a whorl elliptic or lanceolate acuminate penni-nerved, nerves very 
obscure. Boiss. Fl. Or. iii. 17. 

Kashmir, Falconer, and Sindh, Stocks; cultivated in both. — Disthib. AfFghan- 
istan and westward to Spain, cultivated or wild. 

Stem elongate; angles scabrid or prickly. Leaves 2-4 by ^-1^ in., acuminate, 
margins and nerves beneath prickly. Cyrnes terminal, panicled, spreading, leafy. 
CorMa rotate ; lobes ovate-lanceolate, apiculate. Anthers linear-oblong. Fruit ^-^ 
in. diam., didymous and globose. 

3. a. himalayense, Klotzsch in Pi-. Wald. Reise Bot. 86, t. 76 ; leaves 
elliptic-ovate or obovate subacute or tip rounded often apiculate penni-nerved, 
nerves very obscure. R. aculeata, Royle III. 237, name only. 

Westkrn Hemalaya; Kunawur, Boyle, Munro. Kashmir, Falconer. — Disteib. 

This differs markedly from B. tinctorum in its slender habit, shorter broader 
more distinctly petioled leaves, which are also membranous and are usually obovate 
with a rounded apiculate tip; the corolla, too, is more funnel-shaped. Griffith 
observes that it occurs in hedges and fields, and that he did not see it cultivated, 
whereas he marks B. tinctorum as cultivated. 

4. B.. sikklmensis, Kurz in Joum. As. Soc. 1874, ii. 188; scandent, 
Bcabrid, leaves sessile 4 in a whorl elliptic or ovate-lanceolate acute or acumi- 
nate 3-5-nerved from tbe base. 

Eastern Himalaya ; from Sikkim, alt. 2-5000 ft., J. D. H., &c. ; and Bhotan, 
Griffith, to the Mishmi mountains (Upper Assam). 

A stout climber, branches retrorsely scabrid. Leaves 3-6 by 1-2 in., sometimes 
cordate, scabrid on both &«rfaces, sometimes pubescent beneath, base acute or 
rounded; nerves deeply impressed above. Cymes large, panicled; branches short, 
spreading, leafy. Corolla rotate, lobes subacute Anthers globose. Fruit ^ in., 
smooth. — The handsomest species of the genus. 

5. Ri ZSdgrewortbll, Hook.f. ; scandent, pubescent all over, leaves short- 
petioled 4 in a whorl lanceolate acuminate 3-5-nerved from the base. 

Western Himalaya; Kumaon, alt. 3-4000 ft., Edgeioorth, Strachey ^- Winter- 
bottom, Madden. 

Branches hardly scabrid, 8-ribbed, clothed, as are all parts (but less so on the 
leaves above), with white spreading pubescence. Leaves 2-3 by ^-^ in., membra- 
nous, margins hardly scabrid, nerves deeply impressed above. Cymes as in R. si/cki- 
mensis, but more slender, and the branches ascending. Corolla-lobes lanceolate, 
acuminate. Anthers ellipsoid. Fruit glabrous. 

6. R. ang>ustisslma, Wall. Cat. 6207; scandent, slightly scabrid, 
shining, leaves sessile 4-8 in a whorl v-ery narrowly linear keeled nerveless. G. 
Bon Gen. Si/st. iii. 643; Kurz inJoui-n. As, Soc. 1877, ii. 162. R. charsefolia, 
Walh Cat. 6210 ; G. Bon I. c. 

Central and Eastern Himalaya, .ascending to 4000 ft. ; Nipal, Wallich ; Sikkim, 
J. D. H., C. B. Clarke.— jyisTRiB. Ava. 

Stem excessively branched, ribbed, branches with short intemodes. Leaves 1-4 
by ^-^ in., young filiform, thin and brittle, flat above, midrib strong beneath, smooth 
or sparingly scabrid. Cym^s very small, often of only 3-5-flowers on a peduncle not 
longer thfin the small floral leaves or (the ? ?) on a slender peduncle ^ in. or less. 
Flowers minute. Ccrolla-lobes ovate, acute. Anthers ellipsoid. Frvit \ iti. diam. 
when didymous, on a slender peduncle, solitary, globose or didymous, smooth. — 
Habit and aspect of a climbing Asparagus. 

204 Lxxv. EUBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Buhia/ 

7. XI. tibetlca, Jlook. f. ; erect, short, scabrid, leaves sessile opposite or 
4 in a whorl broadly ovate suborbicular or elliptic ovate or lanceolate, nerves 

Western Tibet; Nubra and Piti, alt. 10-14,000 ft., Thomson, Lance ; Kulu, Hay; 
Rarakorum mountains, ak. 10,700 fr., C. B. Clarke, 

Boot (or rhizome?) long woody brown, sending up fascicles of short stout erect 
stems as thick as a crow-quill, and covered with smooth glistening white bark, from 
which again arise fascicles of erect annual simple or sparingly divided branches 6-10 
in. high ; nodes of the stem below shortly sheathed with «nembranous bases of old 
leaves. Leaves ^-1 by \-^ in., coriaceous, margins and midrib scabrid. Cijmcs 
axillary and terminal, shorter than the leaves, or flowers solitary on long axillary 
peduncles. Flowers rather large, \ in. diam. Cor uUa- segments lanceolate, acute. 
Anthers globose. Fruit ^ in. diam., smooth. — The habit of this species is ywy 
peculiar, like that of some Galia. 

8. Zl. alblcaulis, Boiss. ; var. stenophylla, Boiss. Fl. Onent. iii. 19 ; 
scandent ? scabrid or almost smooth, leaves sessile opposite or 4 in a whorl 
linear or linear-lanceolate rigid, nerves 3 from the base the lateral marginal. 
R. Kotschyi, Boiss. II. cc. 

NoBTH- WESTERN India and Salt Range, alt. 2-8000 ft. ; Murree, Fleming ; Wuzu- 
ristan, Stewart. — Distbib. AfFghanistan, Persia. 

Stem woody below; branches rather stout, often white, quite smooth, upper green 
with white thickened angles. Leaves 1-4 by ^-^ in., midrib and thickened margin d 
nerve almost quite smooth. Cymes axillary and terminal, much shorter than the 
leaves, many-flowered; peduncles and pedicels stout. Flowers minute, yoUow. 
Corolla-seg/netits lanceolate, acuminate. Anthers ovoid. Fruit smooth. — The flowers 
of Boissier's specimen of his var. Kotschyi, from Schiras, are smaller and more 
rotate than Griffith's Affghanistan ones, which he refers to it. They are funnel- 
shaped and glabrous in the Murree, &c., specimens. 

90. gAZiZVIIX, Linn. 

Glabrous, hispid, scabrid or piickly erect or scandent weak herbs ; branches 
square. Leaves 3 or more in a whorl, rarely opposite and stipulate, broad or 
narrow. FLoioers minute, in axillary and terminal cymes or peduncles, white 
yellow or greenish; pedicel jointed with the ovary. Calyx^tuhe ovoid or 
globose ; limb 0. Corolla rotate or shortly funnel-shaped, lobes 4, rarely 3, 
valvate. Stamens 4, rarely 3, in the corolla-tube ; filaments short ; anthers 
didymous. , Ovary 2-celled ; style short, arms 2 with capitate stigmas ; ovules 1 
erect in each cell, attached to the middle of the septum. Fruit small, didy- 
mous, dry or nearly so, smooth granulate or tubercled, glabrous pubescent or 
hispid with hooked hairs. Seed adhering to the pericarp, p^ano-convex, grooved 
ventrally, testa membranous ; cotyledons broad thin, radicle elongate inferior.*— 
DisTRiB. About 150 species, chiefly temperate. 

* Fruit covered with hooked hairs or bristles (rarely glabrous in 1. rotundi- 
folium). See also 17. G. setaceum. 

t Leaves S-nervedfrom the base. 

1. G. rotundlfolium, Linn.; DC. Pi^odr. iv. 699; diffuse, leaves 
sessile or subsessile 4 in a whorl ovate or elliptic acute mucronate or obtuse 
3-nervGd from the base, cymes exceeding the leaves, branches divaricate. 
Reichh. le. Fl. Germ. t. 1198; Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 49. G. latifolium, Ifam. 
in Don Prodr. 133. G. Hamiltoni, Spreng. ; DC. Prodr. iv, 600. G. elegans, 
tFall. in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ Wall. i. 382; Cat. 6212; DC. I. c. G. 
punduanum, Wall. Cat. 7291. 

"Oalium.l ixxv. rubiace^, (J. D. Hooker.) 205 

Throughout the Himalaya and Khasia Mt8., alt. 4-10,000 ft., common. "Webtesn 
Peninsula; Nilgherry mts. — Distblb. Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia. 

Perennial, glabrous or pubescent ; stem and branches trailing. Leaves ^-2 by ^-} 
in., rarely glabrous, margins usually flat. Cymes terminal ; branches, peduncles, und 
pedicels very slender. Corolla white or yellowish-green, segments acute. Fruit 
small, clothed with hooked hairs, rarely glabrous. 

Var, javanicum; very hairy, internodes shorten, leaves often suborbicular or 
obovate apiculate, corolla more or less hairy. G. javanicum, Blume Bijd. 943 ; DC. I. c. 
G. Requienanum, W. ^ A. Prodr. 443; Wt. Ic. t. 1042 (hairs of fruit erroneous). — 
Nilgherry hills. Java. 

Var. leiocarpa, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 339 ; ovary and fruit glabrous. — Khasia mts., 
J. D. H. ^ T. r.— Java. 

2. 6. boreale, Linn. ; DC. Pi'odr. iv. 600 ; erect, leaves sessile 4 in a 
whorl lanceolate obtuse rigid margins scabrid 3-nerved from the bafe, cymes 
axillary and terminal many-flowered. Metchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 1186 ; JBoiss. Fl. 
Orient, iii. 48. 

Western Temperate Himalaya, alt. 5-11,000 fl. ; Kashmir, Falconer, Th&mson; 
Lahul, Jaesckke. — Distbib. N. and Central Europe, Asia and America, the Caucasus 
and Armenia. 

Perennial, glabrous or pubescent; stems 1-2 ft. Leaves 1-2 by ^-^ in., mar- 
gins recurved when dry. Cymes suberect with short divaricate branches and ovate 
bracts. Corolla white, segments subacute. Fruit ^ in. diam., clothed with hooked 

tt Leaves penni-nerved, or nerves obsolete (never S-nerved from the base). 

3. G. triflorum, Michx.; DC. Prodr. iv. 601; erect or decumbent, 
almost smooth, leaves sessile 6-8 in a whorl penni-nerved and narrowly elliptic 
or lanceolate acuminate, or petioled and shorter and broader elliptic or obovate 
apiculate or acute, cymes few-flowered axillary and terminal. WiUd. Hort. 
Berol. t. 66. G. gratum, Wall. Cat. 6211. G. asperuloides, Edgeio. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xx. 61. Aaperula galioides, Jacq. Joum. A. consanguinea, Klotzsch 
in Pr. Wald. Reise. Bot. 87, t. 74. 

Temperate Himalaya, alt. 6-10,000 ft., from Kashmir to Bhotan. — Distrib. 
N. Europe, Asia and AmericH, Central America. 

Perennial; stems usually straggling. Leuves very variable, the longer sessile 
forms ^^-2^ by \-\ in., the sborter petioled ones ^ 1 by \\-^ in., upper sometimes 4 
in a whorl, margins flat. Cymes small. Fruit small, clothed with hooked bristles. 
— Habit and odour of Jsperula odorata. 

Var. Hoffmeisteri ; leaves petioled obovate-spathulate rounded at the tip. Asperula 
Hoffmeisteri, Klotzsch. I. c. t. 75. 

4. G. Aparine, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 608 ; climbing, scabrid with 
reflexed hairs or prickles, leaves sessile 6-8 in a whorl linear or narrowly 
obovate-oblong usually narrower below the middle cuspidate, nerves obso- 
lete, peduncles axillary 3-flowered. Reichb. Ic. Fl. Gei-m. t. 1197; Boiss. Fl. 
Orient, iii. 68; Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8f Wall. i. 382; Cat. 6213. 

Temperate Himalaya and Western Tibet, ascending to 12,000 ft., from Kashmir 
and the Salt Kange to Sikkim. — Distrib. Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. and Central 

Annual, extensively rambling or climbing. Leaves very variable, ^-1 J by ^-\ in., 
always mucronate with scabrid midrib and margins. Peduncles axillary and in ter- 
minal leafy panicles, longer or shorter than the leaves, rarely 1 -flowered, peduncles 
stout. Fruit clothed with spreading hooked bristles. 

5. G. pauciflorum, Bunge Fnum. PI. Chin. 35; nearly smooth, very 
slender, leaves sessile opposite or 4-6 in a whorl oblanceolate cuspidate penni- 

206 MXY. RUBIACEJ5. (J. D. Hooker.) [Galium. 

nerved, nerves very slender, peduncles axillary and terminal 1-flowered. G. 
Aparine, var. pauciflorum, Maxim, in Bull. Imp. Acad.f Mel. Biol. ix. 259. 

Western Tibet; Nubra, Pangim and Karakoram mts., alt. 12-14,000 ft., Thomson, 
C. B. Clarke, Henderson.— Distrib. N. China. 

Annual, very much more slender than (?. Aparine, and almost quite smooth. 
Stems filiform or capillary. Leaves f-f in., membranous, midrib slender, margins 
minutely scabrid. Peduncle \-^ in., rarely 2-flowered. Flowers minute, white. Fruit 
very small, covered -with hooked hairs. 

6. G-. vestitum, Bon Prodr. 133 ; suberect, scaberulously pubescent all 
over, leaves sessile 4-5 in a whorl oblong obtuse rigid, margins recurved, nerves 
obsolete, cymes small terminal and axillary few-flowered. 

Western and Centeax Himalaya, alt. 6-10,000 ft.; Garwhal, Falconer, &c. ; 
Nipal, Wallich. 

Perennial; stems stout for the size of the plant, ascending. Leaves J-| in., 
equally pubescent on both surfaces. Cymes short, but longer than the leaves, 
branches short, divaricate. Flowers minute. Fruit Very small, clothed -rtnth hooked 

7. Cr. llirtifloriun, Requien in DC. Jh'odr. iv. 600; suberect or decum- 
bent, glabrate or laxly clothed with long weak hairs, leaves sessile 4-nate linear 
obtuse or subacute, margins recurved, nerves obscure, cymes axillary and ter- 
minal longer than the leaves paniculate. G. ciliatam, Don Prodr. 133. G. 
Aparine, Wall. Cat. 6213, in paH. 

Temperate Himalaya ; Garwhal, Falconer ; Nipal, Wallich ; Sikkim, alt. 6-10,000 
ft., J. B. H. 

Stems weak, 1-2 ft., branched, shining, never scabrid, the spreading or reversed 
hairs being weak and long, or absent. Leaved ^-1 by ^-^ in., rather rigid, covered all 
over, or on the stout midrib beneath and margins only, with long hairs. Cymes hori- 
zontal, 1-2 in. long, slender, and with few slender divaricate distant pairs of branches. 
Flowers on slender pedicels, minute. Corolla- segments ovate, obtuse, ciliate. Fruit 
very small, ^ in. diam., clothed with hooked bristles. 

8. G. confertum, Boyle mss. ; clothed with soft spreadingf hairs, stems 
weak interlaced, leaves sessile 4-5 in a whorl broadly elliptic or obovate obtuse, 
margins flat, nerves obsolete, peduncles axillary and terminal very short 1- 

Western Himalaya ; Kunawur, ait. 7-8000 ft., Royle, Thomson. 

Boot woody, giving off innumerable interlaced slender stems, 6-8 in. long. Leaves 
^-1 by ^-^ in., floral minute. Peduncles ^^-^ in- when flowering. Corolla-segments 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Ovary hispid. Fruit not seen. 

9. G. paradozum, Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Petersh., Mel. Biol. Dec. xvi. 
263 ; procumbent, very slender, quite smooth and almost glabrous, leaves petioled 
opposite and stipulate rarely 4 in a whorl orbicular or orbicular-ovate obtuse 
apiculate penni-nerved, flowers axillary and solitary and in very small terminal 
few-flowered cymes. G. stellarisefolium, Franch. 8f Savat. Enum. PI. Jap. i. 
213 ) ii. 392. 

SiKKiM Himalaya ; by water courses at Choongtam, alt. 8-9000 ft., J. D. H. — 
DisTRiB. Manchuria, Japan. 

Annual ? Stems flexuous, a span long, almost filiform, quite smooth, succulent. 
Ltaves in distant pairs, ^^ in. long and as broad or rather less, perfectly smooth, 
very rarely with a few scattered appres.sed hairs; base rounded or narrowed into 
the distinct petiole f-^ in. long ; nerves and midrib faint ; stipules minute, inter- 
petiolar, subulate. Flowers minute, if solitary and axillary on a pedicel | in,, when 
terminal 3-nate, tn several on a very short branched peduncle. CoroUa-segments 

Oalium.'} Lxxv. rubiace^. (J. D. Hooker.) 207 

ovate, obtuse, glabrous. Style 2-fid at the top. Ovaiy densely clothed "with hook«^d 
hairs. Fruit not seen. — A very curious Galium; the Sikkim specimens are tsmallcr 
than the Manchurian, and resemble a Nertera. 

10. Of exile, Hook. f. ; minute, procumbent, stems capillary interlaced 
flexuGUs, leaves minute petioled opposite elliptic acute penninerved, peduncles 
solitary axillary and terminal 1-flo veered. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, by rivulets in the interior, alt. 12-14,000 ft. 

A most delicate annual with soft weak stemS a few inches long, procumbent 
amongst and not thicker than horse-hair. Leaves in distant pairs, ^^ in. long, 
narrowed into a short petiole, midrib and margins quite smooth ; stipules mterpetiolar, 
low, broad, most minute. Fruiting peduncles longer than the leaves. Corolla not 
seen. Ovary pubescent, about ■^ in. diam. Fruit ^ in. diam., didymous, laterally 
much compressed, chestnut brown, rather shining, covered with hooked hairs. 

** Fruit without hooked hairs (except 18. setaceum), tomentose pubescent 
scabrid tubercled granular or smooth. (See also 1. rotundifolium.) 

t Leaves penniHfierved J or nerves obsolete {never ^nerved from the base). 

11. G. serpylloides, Hoyle mss. ; softly pubescent, suberect, stem 
short much branched, leaves close-set sessile 4 in a whorl ovate oblong or elliptic 
obtuse margins recurved, nerves obscure, peduncles axillary and terminal 3- 
flowered, fruit densely clothed with long woolly straight (not hooked) hairs. 

"Westeen Himalaya ; Kunawur and Lahul, Royle, Thomson, Jaeschhe. 

Root woody, sending up innumerable suberect rather stout stems 2-4 in. high. 
Leaves \-\ by i^o-| in., midrib beneath strong. Peduncles stout, equalling or exceed - 
the leaves ; pedicels short, stout. Flovbers minute. Calyx-segments ovate, acute. 
Fruit, including the hairs ^ in. broad. 

12. G. MoUugro, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 696; glabrous or slightly scabrid 
hispid or pubescent, stems long flaccid much branched, leaves sessile or petioled 
6-8 in a whorl linear or narrowly linear-obovate acute or cuspidate, nerves ob- 
scure, cymes axillary and terminal panicled many-flowered, fruit glabrous granu- 
late. Reichb. Le. Fl. Germ. t. 118? ; Boiss. Ft. Oi-ient. iii. 63. G. asperifolium, 
JVoll. in Ro.xb. Fl. Lnd., ed. Carey Sf Wall. i. 381 ; DC. I c. 698; W. ^ A. 
Pi'odr. 442. G. parviflorum, Dan Prodr. 133. G. Aparine, Wall. Cat. 6213 in 
part. G. lividum, Jacq. Journ. 

Mountainous parts of India, alt. 3-10,000 ft.; throughout the Himalaya, Khasia 
Mrs., BiRMA, the higher Ghats of the Western Peninsula, and Mountains of Cey- 
lon. — DiSTRiB. Europe, N. Africa, Temperate Asia, Ava. 

Perennial; very variable. "Stems 2-3 ft., scandent and rambling. Leaves ^-1 by 
^-^ in., rather rigid, often polished above, margins usually recurved, midrib strong 
beneath. Cymes with short slender stiff divaricate branches, pedicels recurved in 
fruit. Corolla small, white, segments orate. Fruit black, ^ in. diam. 

13. G*. trlcome, With, j DC. Prodr. iv. 608 ; veiy scabrid, stems stout, 
leaves sessile 6-8 in a whorl linear or oblanceolate cuspidate, nerves obscure, 
peduncles stout axillary 1-3-flowered, fruit glabrous or scabrous granulate. 
Reich. Lc. Fl. Germ. t. 1198 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 67. 

Western Himalaya; Kashmir, ascending to 13,000 ft.; and Western Tibet, 
Thomson. Hills at Attock, Falconer. Wuzdbistan, Stewart. — Distrib. Central and 
S, Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia. 

A stout annual, 1-2 ft., retrorsely scabrid. Leaves 1-1 ^ by ^-^ in., rigid, midrib 
strong beneath. Peduncles longer or shorter than the leaves, stout and elongate, with 
decurved tips in firuit. Corolla white ; segments ovate, acute. Fruit large, ^ in. 

208 Lxxv. RtJBiACE^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Galium. 

]4. Cr. spurium, Linn. ; DC. Pi'odr. iv. 608;.8caberulous, leaves subsee- 
sile 4-6 in a whorl elliptic-lanceolate or oblaoceolate obtuse or acute penninerved 
cymes slender elongate terminal and axillary, fruit glabrous smooth. Boiss. Fl. 
Oi-ient. iii. 69. 

Kashmir, Falconer, Thomson. 

Annual, glabrous; stems 2-3 ft., flaccid, rambling. Leaves 1-1^ in., usually ob- 
tuse, rather thin, midrib not strong beneath, and margins minutely scabrid. Cymes 
much longer than the leaves, with slender distant divaricate branches. Corolla minute, 
vhite ; segments ovate, obtuse. Fruit Jg in. diam., black. 

16. G. veruxn, lAnn. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 603 : erect, smooth, stem pubescent 
upwards, leaves sessile 8-10 in a whorl linear cuspidate glabrous margins revo- 
lute, nerves obscure, cymes numerous short many-flowered, fruit glabrous 
granular. Heichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 1187; Boiss. Fl. Ch-ient. iii. 62. 

"Western Himaxaya; Kashmir, alt. 5-10,000 ft., Falconer, &c. ; Lahul, Hay, 
Jaeschke. — Distrib. Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia. 

Perennial; stems erect or rambling, 1-3 ft., terete. Leaves usually deflexed, very 
narrow, ^-1 by y^-^ in,, rigid. Cymes very numerous, pedicels short, straight in fruit. 
Corolla bright yellow; segments ovate, acute. Fruit ^ in., often pubescent in 

16. Cr, acutum, Edgeiv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 61 ; smooth, glabrous, 
stems interlaced, leaves sessile 6 in a whorl very small elliptic-lanceolate aristate 
niargina recurved, nerves obsolete, peduncles axillary short 1-flowered, fruit 
glabrous granulate. G. floribundum, Jacq. Joum. G. himalayense, Klotzseh ia 
Pr. Wald. Reise Bat. 88, t. 73. 

Tempkratr Himalaya; Kunawur, alt. 6000 ft., Edqeworth; Garwhal, alt. 10,000 
ft., Falconer, &c. ; Sikkim, alt. 9-13,000 ft., J. D. H., C. B. Clarke. 

Perennial, black when dry ; suberect ard stiif, or flaccid and decumbent; stems 
6-12 in , very leafy. Leaves close-set, often recurved, ^\ in., midrib strong beneath. 
Peduncle very stout when flowering, much shorter than the leaves, elongate and 
straight in fruit. Corolla very minute ; segments lanceolate, acuminate. I ruit ^^ in. 
diam.— I have noted the flowers as purplish in some Sikkim specimens, yellowish- 
white in others. 

17. Cr, tenuissimum, Bieb. FL Taur. Cauc. i. 104; erect, scabrid, 
glabrous, excessively slender, widely divaricately branched, leaves 6 in a whorl 
narrowly linear scabrid aristate, nerves obsolete, cymes very large lax very slen- 
der few-flowered, fruit minute smooth glabrous. DC. Prodr. iv. 607 ; Boiss. 
Fl. Ch-ient. iii. 73. 

Westerk Himalaya; Kashmir, alt. 5000-6o00 ft., Clarke. Punjab; at Eawul 
Pindee, Aitckison. — Distrib. W. Asia, from Syria and the Caucasus to Greece. 

Annual. Stem 6-12 in., usually retrorsely scabrid, subterete, di-tri-chotomously 
divided from the base, so that the whole plant forms a triangle with the apex at the 
root, leafy at the forks only. Leaves ^-| by ~ in., rather broader beyond the midd'e, 
ciliate with rigid hairs, margins revolute. Cymes many times longer than the leaves, 
and very long pedicels capillary. Corolla minute, white or yellowish ; segments cus- 
pidate. Fruit ~ in. diam., mericarps often free. — Too closely allied to G. divaricatum, 
Lam., which extends from Europe to Syria. 

18. G-. setaceum, Lamk.-, DC. Prodr. iv. 609; erect, short, minutely 
scabrid or glabrous, branches filiform erect or divaricate, leaves 4-8 in a whorl 
filiform acute margins recurved lower short elongate-spathulate not aristate 
upper setaceous, cymes terminal and lateral capillary few-flowered, fruit most 
minute glabrous or with a few hooked hairs. Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 77. G. 
capillare, Cav. Ic. t. 191, f. 1. 

^Galium.] Lxxv. RUBiACEiF (J. D. Hooker.) 209 

The Punjab, at Hussar, Aitchison. — Distrib. BeluchisUn, Affghanistan, Asia 
Minor, and Greece. 

Annual; stem erect, 6-8 in., terete. Leaves ^| by -^ in., the lower shorter and 
broader, margins revolute, hardly scabrid. Cymes equalling and exceeding the leaves ; 
branches and pedicels capillary. Corolla, most minute, glabrous, yollow. Fncit ^^in. 
diam., glabrous or with a few short hooked hairs. — Described from Beluch and Affghan 
specimens, the Punjab ones being very imperfect. 

19. G-. ceratophylloldes, Hook. f. ; stems erect subsiniple short very 
slender smooth and glabrous, leaves in close-set v^horls of 6 horizontal and re- 
curved ■ ery slender soft flat aristate, peduncles axillary shorter than the leaves 
3-flowered, ovary glabrous. 

Kashmir, at Poosiana, alt. 8600 ft., C. B. Clarke. 

Perennial? Stems 4-6 in., 4-angled, weak, filiform, perfectly smooth. Leaves 
\ in.; rather flaccid, longer than the internodes, finely acuminate and aristate, minutely 
scabrid towards the apex, margins hardly recurved, midrib not prominent beneath. 
Peduncles erect, with 2 subulate bracts at the tip. Corolla yellowish; segments lan- 
ceolate, long-acuminate. Fruit not seen. 

tt Leavei ^-nerved from the base. 

20. fSr, vemuxn, Sc<^. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 605 ; slightly scabrid or pubes- 
cent, decumbent, weak, leaves shortly petioled 4 in a whorl elliptic tip 
rounded 3-nerved from the base, peduncles axillary shorter than the leaves few- 
flowered, fruit smooth glabrous. Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 1185; Bou». Fl. 
Orient, iii. 80. 

Wkstkrn Himalaya ; Chumbft, alt. 9000 ft., C. B. Clarke.— Distrib. Central and 
S. Europe, Siberia. 

Perennial. Stem 6-10 in., sparingly branched, hairs reflexed. Leaves |-§ by ^-^ 
in., membranous, nerves slender. Peduncle horizontal, ebracteate, pedicels very short. 
Corolla yellow, green; segments lanceolate.- -The specimens are very scanty, and not 
in fruit; in the European plant the flowers are polygamous, the lateral <J, the termi- 
nal hermaphrodite, and the peduncle is recurved in fruit. 

91. ASP&&VX.A, Linn. 

Characters and distribution of Galium, t)ut tho corolla funnel-shaped. 

1. A. 03mancliica, Linn.; DC, Frodr. iv. 583; glabrous, stems very 
numerous ascending or erect, leaves small hnear-oblotig obtuse lower in whorls 
of 4 upper opposite, flowers glabrous in terminal fascicles, bracts linear acute, fruit 
granulate. Wight III. 1. 128 his ; Reich. Ic. Fl. Ge^-m. t. 1181 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient. 
iii. 40. 

Western Himalaya ; Kashmir, alt. 8000 ft., Falconer, C. B. Clarke ; Kistwar. 
alt. 7-9000 ft., Thomson: Garwhal, at Niti, alt. 11.600 ft., Strach. ^ Winter b.—l)is- 
TEiB. Europe, Asia Minor. 

Glabrous, rarely sparsely pubescent, 4-10 in. high : stock woody ; stems slender 
terete, branches 4-angled. Leaves scattered, ^-| by ^-^ in., mostly opposite, often 
recurved, acute or obtuse, flat, thick, nerveless. Flowers at the naked tips of the 
slender branches in corymbifonn fascicles or heads, subtended by 2 small linear-oblong 
bracts. Corolla pink or white, about ^ in. long ; segments 4, triangular, shorter than 
the tube. Fruit ^ in. diam. 

2. A. brachyantlia, Boiss.] Fl. Orient, iii. 45; Vak. with longer 
corolla ; glabrous or puberulous, siems very numerous erect virgate, leaves oppo- 
site shortly linear oblong obtuse, flowers tomentose in terminal heads or fascicles, 
bracts very short oblong obtuse, corolla funnel-shaped, fruit globose smooth. 

210 Lxxvi. YALERiANEJE. (C. B. Clarke.) 

Western Himatata; Kashmir, alt. 7-12,000 ft.. Falconer, C. B. Clarke; Kuna- 
"wur, Royle, Thomson, &c. — Disthib. Persia. 

Very similar to A. cynanchica, and scarcely distinguishable except by the shorter 
always opposite leaves, shorter blunter bracts, and tomentose more capitate flowers ; 
these latter have a longer corolla than in Persian hrachyantha, in which the corolla is 
described by Boissier as of a dirty yellow colour. The colour of the Indian ones is 
not recorded. 

Order LXXVI. VAZifiXlZANSSS. (By C. B. Clarke.) 

Herbs or (a few non-Indian species) shrubs. Leaves opposite, exstipulate, 
"but often united at the base by a stipule-like line or rim, entire pinnatifid or 
pinnate. Flowers sessile, cymose, sometimes pol} gamous or dioecious, bracteate. 
Calyx-tvhe adnate to the ovary ; limb obsolete in flower, in fruit often enlarged 
or pappose. Corolla superior ; tube equal or gibbous or spurred at the base ; 
lobes 3-6, imbricated in bud. Stamens 1-4, on the coroUa-tube. Ovary inferior, 
3-celled ; cells 1-ovuled, or one 1-ovuled, the others barren or imperfect ; style 
filiform, stigma 2-3-lobed or undivided ; ovules pendulous. Fi-uit indehiscent, 
dry, l-seeded, the two barren cells enlarged or reduced to filiform ridges. Seed 
pendulous; albumen or scanty; embryo straight, radicle superior. — Distrlb. 
Species 300, aU cool and temperate regions except Australia and S. Africa. 

Stamen 1, corolla yellow, calyx in fruit very small 1. Patkinia. 

Stamens 4, corolla red, calyx in fruit equally 6- lobed 2. Nardostachyb. 

Stamens 3, calyx pappose in fruit 3, Valeriana. 

Stamens 3, calyx epappose in fruit 4. Valerianblla. 

1. PATRZNZA, Juss. 

Erect, perennial herbs. Leaves entire or 1-2-pinnatifid or pinnate. Cymes 
corymbosely panicled ; bracts narrow, free. Calyx-limb small or 0, not enlarged 
in fruit. CoroUa-tube short or long; lobes 5, subequal, spreading, yellow. 
Stamens 1, or 3-5. Ovary 3-celled ; stigma capitate ; ovules 1 in each cell, or 
more often 2 cells barren. Fruit small, 3-celled, l-seeded, the barren cells 
equalling the fertile or nearly so. — Distrib. Species 12, N. Asiatic and 

1. P. monandra, C. B. Clarke ; corolla small symmetric shortly funnel- 
shaped, stamen 1, fruit within an orbicular scarious veined bracteole. 

Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 4000 ft.; Simonbong, J. D. H.; Yoksun, Hee, C. B. 

Stem 2-4 ft., pubescent. Leaves entire or pinnatifid, terminal lobe oblong or 
linear, coarsely crenate-serrate or entire, sparsely pubescent. Panicle often 1^ ft. 
long, and broad. Corolla ^ in. long. Stigma peltate. Bracteole of the fruit \ in. 
diam., as broad or broader than long, beautifully veined. — Hance {Symb. ad Fl. 
Sinic. 5) does not mention the number of stamens in his P. graveolens, which may 
hence be either the Indian plant or the 4-stdmened P. ovata, Bunge (Nov. Gen. et Sp. 
Chin, et Monghol. 23, t. 2). 


Erect, perennial herbs. Leaves entire, radical elongate spathulate ; cauline 
few. Flowers capitate, heads in cymes ; bracts oblong, free or nearly so. Calyx- 
limb 5-lobed ; in fruit enlarged, membranous, veined. Corolla tubular-campanu- 
late, base subequal; lobes 5, spreading, rosy. Stamens 4. Ovai-y 3-celled, 
]-ovuled : style linear, stigma capitate. Fi-uit obovate, compressed, 3-ceIled, 1- 
seeded^ the 2 barren cells smaller than the fertile. Seed obovate, compressed. 

Nardostachys.] Lxxvi. valeriane*. (C. B. Clarke.) 211 

XT. Jatamansl, DC. Mem. Voter. 7, t. 1, Frodr. iv. 624; Royle III. 
242-244, t 64. N. grandiflora, DC. I. c. 6, t. 2, Prodr. iv. 624; Wall. PI. As. 
Rar. iii. 40. Patrinia Jatamansi, Dvn Fiodr. 169, and in Lamb. Cinch. 177, 
with Jig. Valeriana Jatamansi, Wall. Cat, 431, not of Jones and lioxb. Fedia 
grandiflora, Wall. Cat. 1187. 

ArPiNB HiMAXAYA, alt. 11-15,000 ft.; from Kumaok to Sulkim, ascending to 
17,000 fl. in Sikkim, J. B. H. 

Bootstock woody, long, stout, covered with f bres from the petioles of withered 
leaves. Stem 4-24 in., more or less pubescent upwards, often glabrate below, sub- 
Bcapose. Radical leaves 6-8 by 1 in., longitudinally nerved, glabrous or slightly 
pubescent, narrowed into the petiole; cauline 1 or 2 pairs, 1-3 in. long, sessile, oblong 
or subovate. Flower-heads usually 1, 3 or 6 ; bracts \ in., oblong, usually pubescent. 
Corolla-tube \ in. long, somewhat hairy within, as are the filaments below. Fruit ^ in. 
long, covered with ascending white hairs, crowned by the ovate, acute, often dentate 
calyx-teeth. — There are two forms of this plant: a large-flowered, with usually 
glabrous bract?, and a smaller one, with the corolla-tube scarcely ^ in. long, and the 
bracts densely shortly hairy; various intermediates occur. The product spikenard 
discussed by Sir W. Jones {Asiat. Research, ii. 405) was doubtless derived from ^ar- 
dostachys ; but the plant figured as Valeriana Jatamansi is V. Wallichii, DC. 

3. VAIiSRZAKA, Unn, 

Perennial herbs (the Indian species). leaves entire pinnatifld or pinnate, 
radical often long-petioled and undivided. Cymes corymbosely panicled ; bracts 
small, oblong or linear, persistent, free or nearly so. Calyx-limb in flower (>1>- 
ficure, unrolling in fruit into 5-15 plumose bristles united at base into a short 
wide funnel-shaped tube. Corolla-tube funnel-shaped, base equal or sub-gibbous ; 
lobes 5, spreading, pink or white. Stamens 3. Ovary 3-celled, 1-ovuled; 
stigma shortly 2-3-fid or subentire. Fi-uit oblong-lanceolate, compressed, plano- 
convex, with 3 dorsal, 1 ventral, and 2 submarginal ribs, 1 -celled, the 2 barren 
cells obsolete, crowned by the persistent pappus-like calyx. — Distbib. Species 
160, in moist temperate and cool regions. 

1. V. dioica, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 637 ; glabrous, radical leaves long- 
petioled ovate entire obtuse, cauline pinnatifid, lateral lobes few narrow terminal 
obtuse, fruit glabrous. Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 85. V. pusilla, Royle III. 241. 

Temperate Western Himalaya, from Kashmir to the Karakorum, alt. 11-13,000 
ft.; frequent, C B. Clarke, &c., and in Lahul, Jaeschke. — Distrib. N. W. Asia, 

Rootstock slender, decumbent, stolon iferous. Stem 8-16 in., erect, simple, nodes 
microscopically pilose. Flowers dioecious or polygarao-moncecious ; corymbs of (J 
compact, of ? more lax, especially in fruit; upper bracts ^in., broadly linear, usually 
exceeding the fruit. 

2. V. officinalis, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 641 ; subglabrous, leaves pinnnte, 
segments numerous narrow entire or toothed, corymb large lax, fruit glabrous. 
Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 89. V. dubia, Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. i. 52 ; Ledeb. Ic. 
Fl. Ross. t. 360. 

North Kashmir; Sonamurg, alt. 8-9000 ft., Thomson, Lrvinye, C. B. Clarke; 
Kunzlwan, alt. 7500 ft., C. B. Clarke. — Distrib. North and Went Asia, Europe. 

Rootstock short, suberect, hardly thicker than the stem, stoloniferous Stevi 1-3 
ft., erect, corymbose above, nodes minutely hairy. Radical leaves at floweri ug time 
or pinnate ; the leaves on lateral autumn offsets near the root are often ovate entire 
or slightly toothed ; cauline several, all pinnate ; lobes (in the Indian plant, which is 
exactly V. dubia, Burge) narrowly oblong or linear, often entire, much or sparingly 
toothed. Upper bruct^ ^ in., oblong-linear, shorter than the fruits.— The European 

212 Lxxvi. VALERIANE^. (€. B. Clarke.) [Valeriana, 

V. officinalis has lanceolate and ovate-Jan ceolate leaflets, often much toothed or 


3. V. Jaesclikel, C. B. Clarke \ small, glabrous, radical leaves pinnate, 
pinnules many obtuse, cauline few pinnules linear, fruit hairy. 

Western Himalaya, Lahnl, Jaeschke. 

-ffoo^s^ocA: short, thickened, emitting thick horizontal fibres. Stem 6-9 in., erect, 
-simple, nodes minutely pilose. Radical leaves numerous at flowericg time, segments 
5-9, 1^ in. long, ovate to oblong; cauline 1 or 2 distant pairs, segments ^1 by ^-^^ 
in. Corymbs 1 in. diam. ; flowers small ; upper bracts ^ in., narrow oblong. — Re- 
sembles generally V. oligantha, Boiss. (Fl. Orient, iii. 87), of which it might be the 
fully developed form; but that the fruit is pilose and the root is not long nor 

4. V. ele^ans, C. B. Clarke ; puberulous, leaves all entire spathulate 
ovate or oblong obtuse, fruit hairy. 

Baltwthan; Skardo, alt. 9000 ft., C B. Clarke, 

Rootstock woody, thick, branching, with thick horizontal fibres. Stem 6-9 in., 
erect, frequently branched from near the base, glabrous upwards. Radical leaves 
several at fruit-time, ovate ; cauline several, similar, oblong. Panicle lax, in fruit 
dichotomously dividing into linear subsimple spikes ; upper bracts oblong, small, 
hardly half the length of the fruit. Flowers small, bright pink (pappus red in dried 

5. V. Roylel, Klotzsch in Rets. Pi: Wcddem. Bot. 83, t, 85 ; stem glabrous, 
leaves all undivided petioled orbicular or cordate-ovate uppermost pair sessile, 
^ruit glabrous. 

Western Himalaya, Hoffmeister. 

Root tuberous. Stem 8 in., erect, simple. Leaves |— | in., at first puberulous, en- 
tire, or the lowest obscurely toothed ; radical several at flower-time ; cauline several 
pairs, all but the uppermost petioled. Corymh 1-2 in. diam. ; upper bracts oblong- 
linear, as long as the fruit. — Not seen, the foregoing drawn up from Klotzsch's figure 
and description. The plant seems very near V. pyroi<2/b/ia, which, 'however, has a 
diflFerent root. 

6. V. pyrolsefolla, Dene in Jacquem. Toy. Bot. 85, t. 93 ; sparingly 
pubescent, leaves all subentire, radical petioled orbicular or elliptic obtuse, cauline 
sessile ovate, fruit glabrous. V. bracteata, Royle III. 241, tvithout description^ 

fde T. Thorns, ms. Valeriana, sp. No. 12 and 13, Herb. Ind. Or. H.f. ^ T. 

Temperate Himalaya; from Kashmir to Kumaon, alt. 9-14,000 ft., Jacquernont, 

• Rootstock thick, branching, subhorizontal, with thick fibres. Stem 2-VQ in., erect» 
simple, succulent, often pubescent, at least when young. Radical leaves often 1 in. 
diam., several at fruit-time; pauline ^ in., all pubescent when young, subsucculent, 
nerved when mature. Corymh 1-2 in. diam., much more lax in fruit ; upper bracts 
^ in., linear-oblong, equalling the fruit. — Can this be a form of V. Wallichii? 

7. V. Stracl&eyl, C. B. Clarke ; slender, pubescent, leaves lyrate-pinnate 
terminal lobe rhomboid, corymb lax dichotomously branching into straight 
slender spikes, fruit very pilose. Valeriana, sp 6, Herb. Ind. Or. S. f. Sf T. 

Temperate Himalaya ; from Kashmir to Kumaon, alt. 4-8000 ft., Thomson^ 
Strachcy ^ Winterhottom, &c. 

Rootstock woody, very stout. Stems 6-12 in., erect, often branching from near the 
base, uniformly minutely pubescent. Radical leaves at flower-time 0; cauline leaves 
several, minutely pubescent, terminal lobe toothed or nearly entire. Corymh slender, 
lax in fruit; ultimate branchlers 1-2 in., simple, with distant minute lanceolate brae- 
teoles whioh are much shorter than the fruit. 

Valeriana.'] Lxxvi. yalerianej;. (C. D. Clarke.) Sl3 

8. V. WaUiohU, DC. Mem. Valer. 15, t, 4; pubescent, radical leaves 
several long-petioled cordate-ovate; cauline few or much smaller entire or pin- 
nate, fruit hairy or nearly glabrous. DC. Prodr. iv. 640; Wall. PI. As. jkav. 
iii. 40. V. villoea, Wall. Cat. 433, not of Thtmb. V. Jatamansi, Jones^ in 
Asiat. Research. ii.Jig. at p. 406 ; Roxb. in Asiat. Research, iv. 433> Fl. Ind. 163 
(see Rayle III. 243). V. Spica, Vahl Enum. ii. 13. 

Temperate Himalaya; from Kashmir to Bhotan, alt, ^0,000 ft. Khasia Mts.. 
alt. 4-6000 ft.— DiSTRiB. AfFghanistan. 

Rootstock horizontal, thick, with thick descending fibres. Stem 6-18 in., often 
decumbent below, very rarely divided. Badical leava often 1-3 in. diam., deeply 
cordate, usually acute and toothed. Corymb 1-3 in. diam., not very Ihx eveij in fruit ; 
bracteoles oblong-linear, as long as the fruit. — The typical large form of this, with 
acute toothed radical leaves and pilose fruits, is easily separable from V. pyrolcefolia ; 
but there are smaller examples with the radical leaves elliptic entire, the fruits nearly 
glabrous, which are very near V. pprolafolia. Jones and Koxburgh named this plant 
V. Jatamansi, under the misapprehension (subsequently corrected by Wallicii and 
Royle indepecdently) that it produced the Jatamansi spikenard of Nardosiachys. The 
name V. Jatamansi is hence to be suppressed. 

9. V. Kardwlckii, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey ^ WaU. i. 166 ; 
pubescent below, leaves pinnate, pinnules 1-6 lanceolate acute, radical undivided 
usually disappearing before fruit-time, corymb in fruit lax, fruit hairy. WaU. 
Cat. 432, PL As. Rar. 30, t. 263; Don Prodr. 169; DC. Prodr. iv. 640. V. 
Hai-dwickiana, Roem. ^ Schidt. Syst. i. Mant. 269. V. tenera, Wall. Cat. 435 ; 
DC. Mem. Valer. 16, Piodr. iv. 640. V. elata, D(m Prodr. 159. V. javanica, 
Blume Bijd. 919. V. acuminata, Royle lU. 241. 

Tempkrate Himalaya ; from Kashmir to Bhotan, alt. 4-12,000 ft. Khasu Mts., 
alt. 4-6000 ft.— DiSTBiB. Java. 

Bodtstock hardly thickened, descending, fibrous. Stem 1-5 ft., erect, usually 
simple or corymbose only upwards, above often glabrous, uodes little pilose or some- 
times densely white-barbate ( V. acuminata, Royle). Radical leaves long-petioled, 
ovate, acute ; lower rarely undivided ( V. tenera, Wall.) ; cauline several, leaflets often 
3, r irely more than 5. upper small. Corymb in fruit often 1 foot, repeatedly dichoto- 
mous, ultimate branchlets very short; upper bracteoles much shorter than the 

Vab. Hofmeisieri, Klctzsch in Reis. Pr. Waldem. Bot. 84 (sp.); stem strict slen- 
derer nearly glabrous, leaves smaller, fruits glabrous or nearly so. Valeriana, sp. 10, 
Herb. Ind. Or. H. f. Sf T.— Himalaya, alt. 10-12,000 ft.— Identified with V. Raff- 
meisteri from Klotzsch's description only ; it is not rare at high levels. 

Var. Amottiana, Wight le. t. 1045-6 (sp.); large, middle cauline leaves often 
large with 7-9 large lanceolate pubescent leaflets, corymbs often large dense with ulti- 
mate branchlets 1-2 in. long, — Neilgherry Mts., alt. 6-8000 ft., fViyht. 

10. V. BXoonii, Am. in Herb Hook. ; sparingly pubescent, large, radical 
and lower cauline leaves pinnate with many leaflets, middle cauline pinnate with 
3-6 leaflets, fruits glabrous.. V. villosa, Moon Cat. 6, not of Thunb. V. Hard- 
wickii, Thiaaites Enum. 169. 

Ceylon^ alt. 6000 ft. ; frequent. 

Rootstock long, horizontal, not woody nor thickened, fibrous at the distant nodes. 
Stem often 4 ft., nearly glabrous. Leaves gradually reduced in size and number of 
leaflets from the base upwards. Corymb close in flower, not exceeding 6 in. Fruit 
larger and wider than in V. Hardwickii, with the dorsal nerves wider apart, perfectly 
glabrous. — Thwaites has sent this plant as V. Hookeriana (C.P. 150), and as V. Amot- 
tiana (C.P. 1729): these are exactly alike, and there is no other Ceylon form ; which 
(as noted by Sir J. D. H. in Thwaites Enum.) may be a var. of V. Hardwickii with 
glabrous fruit. It dries very black. 

214 Lxxvi. VALEBiANE^. (C. B. Clarke.) [Valeriana. 

11. V. Rookeriana, W. 8f A. Prodr. 444; sparingly pubescent, radical 
and lower cauline leaves pinnate with numerous leaflets, upper cauline few 
reduced or 0, fruit hairy. Wight III. t. 129. 

Mts. of the Dbccan, Nilghbbbt, Pulnet, and Kttro, Wight, G, Thomson. 

Eootstock woody, thick, horizontal, fibres thick. Stem 10-30 in , subscapose, nodes 
bearded. Leaves bracteiform except near the base of the stem, where they are pinnate 
with a large ovate toothed terminal lobe. Corymb usually compact in flower, in fruit 
sometimes elongate and laxly panicled. — Very doubtfully distinct from V. Moonii. 

12. V. Ziesclieiiaultll, DC. Mem. Vcder. 17; sparingly pubescent, 
radical leaves petioled oblong subentire, cauline few or several often sub-lyrate 
with small basal lobes, corymb contracted, fruit hairy. DC. Fi'odr. iv. 640 ; 
Wall. Cat. 6636; W. ^ A. Prodr. 444; Wight Ic. t. 1044. 

Nbixgherry Mts. and others in Mtsobb and Kdrg, alt. 4-7000 ft. 

Eootstock short, enveloped by the thick fibres. Stem 8-20 in., nearly glabrous, 
simple, often subscap'^se, nodes more or less hairy. Eadical leaves 2-4 by ^-2 in., 
narrowed or almost rounded at the base, entire or sinuate-crenate. — The scapose form 
has sometimes hairy fruits, and Wight has been unable in his own herbarium fo settle 
what he would call V. Leschenaultii and what V. Brunoniana. 

Vah. Brujumiana, W. & A. Prodr. 443 (sp.) ; cauline leaves small undivided or 
hardly any, fruit glabrous. Wight Ic. t. 1 043. V. aquatica, Schldl. in Herb. Hohei^ 
acker, n. 1339 (sp.). — Neilgherry Mts., frequent. 

13. V. Beddoznel, C. B. Clarke ; glabrous, radical leaves pinnate with 
numerous oblong leaflets, cauline smaller with several linear leaflets, corymbs 
contracted, fnut glabrous. V. microphylla, Bedd. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxv. 219, 
not of H. B.K. 

Anamallay Mts., alt. 7000 ft., Beddome. 

Eootstock (summit alone seen) horizontal, not woody nor thickened. Stem 4-12 
in., erect, simple, nodes hairy. Kadical leaves 3 by | in.; leaflets 11-25, ^ by ^ in., 
with few irregular obtuse teeth, sublobed or entire ; leaflets of cauline b-\^ ^ by ^ in. 
Corymb in young fruit 2\ in. long. 

4. VAX.SRZANEX.XaA, Momch. 

Annual herbs, dichotomously branching. Radical leaves rosulate, entire; 
cauline entire or toothed, rarely pinnatifid. Cymes corymbosely panicled or sub- 
capitate; bracts free. Calyx-hmb at flower-time small or obsolete; in fruit 
variously enlarged, equal or one-sided, sometimes aristate, never plumose. 
Corolla-tube short, base equal or gibbous, never spurred ; lobes 6, spreading, 
white rose or pale blue. Stamens 3. Ovary 3-ceUed, 1-ovuled ; style minutely 
3-Kd or subentire. Fruit ovoid or cyRndric, straight or curved, the 2 barren cells 
inflated, as large as the fertile, or small, or reduced to filiform ridges. — Distrlb. 
Species 47, European, Asiatic, N. American. 

1. V. dentata, Poll. Hist. PI. Palat. i. 30, not of DC.-, leaves oblong 
entire or sparingly toothed, fruit ovoid subconical pubescent barren cells reduced 
to tiliform ridges, calyx-limb obliquely truncate toothed much shorter than the 
fruit. V. Morisonii, DC. Prodr. iv. 627; Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 105; Krok 

Valerianellaf 42, t. i.Jig. 6. V. microcarpa, Lois. ; Krok. I. c. 36, t. i.^. 3. 

Kashmir, Thom,son. — Distrib. of the genus. 

Stem 3-12 in., often much branched from the base, glabrous or minutely pubes- 
cent. Leaves 1-1^ by ^-^ in. Flowers white, in small heads; bracts small, narrow- 
lanceolate. Fruit Y5 in., the two filiform cells forming a rim round an ovate-oblong 
slight depression. 

2. V. Szovltzlana, Fisch. 8f Mey. Ind. Sem. iii. 48 ; leaves oblong-linear 

Lxxyii. dtpsacej:. (C. B. Clarke.) 215 

entire and sparingly irregularly toothed, fruit ovate-oblong pubescent or hairy 
ban-en cells as large as the fertile, calyx-limb shortly cylindric truncate reticu- 
lately nerved with one long horizontal linear tooth as long as the capsule or 
nearly so. Krok. Valerianella, 68, t. 2, Jig. 17; Boiss. FL Orient, iii. 101. V. 
Aucheri, Boiss. Diagn. 1 ser. iii. 68. 

Kashmir, alt. 6-6000 ft., Falconer, Thomson, &c. 

Siem 2-20 in., minutely pubescent. Leaves 2 by | in., glabrous or obscurely 
puberulous. Corymbs in fruit subpaniculate ; bracts small, narrow-oblong. Fruit 
■|-^ in., scarcely curved, hairy especially on oue side, or pubescent, or with micro- 
scopic short hairs resembling glistening dots. 

Order LXXVII. DZPSACEH:. (By C. B. Clarke.) 

Herbs or (non-Indian species) rarely shrubs, glabrous, hairy, or prickly. 
Lecwes opposite or whorled, exstipulate, sometimes connate at the base, entire, 
toothed, lobed or pinnate. Flowers tcattered in cymes, whorled in spikes, or 
more often in dense heads, surrounded by bracts ; bracteoles often present as 
scales of the receptacle ; ovary free or adnate to a narrow funnel-shaped or utri- 
cular enveloping involucel. Clalyx-tube adnate to the ovary, usually constricted 
above it ; limb expanded, cup-shaped or bristly. Corolla funnel-shaped ; limb 
2-5-fid, equal or 2-lipped, or in the ray-flowers 2-labiate ; disk-flowers equal. 
Stamens 4 or 2, inserted high on the corolla-tube ; anthers exserted, lineaf-pblong. 
Ovary 1-celled; style filiform, stigma capitate or linear terminal or lateral; 
ovule 1, pendulous.^ ■ Achene dry, enveloped by the involucel and often adnate 
thereto, crowned usually by the calyx-limb. Seed pendulous, albumen copious 
or scanty; embryo straight, radicle superior. — Distrib. Species 120, chiefly 
Mediterranean, Western Asiatic, South African, Japanese, and Cingalese ; none 
in America, Polynesia, or Australia. 

Flowers small, scattered in 2-3-chotomou8 cymes 1. Triplosteoia« 

Flowers 2-lipped, whorled on a spike 2. Mohina. 

Flowers in dense peduncled heads, calyx-limb muticous .... 3. Dipsacus. 

Flowers in heads, calyx-limb bristly 4. Scabiosa. 


An erect, perennial, slender herb, glandular-pubescent upwards. Leaves 
petiol'ed, toothed or pinnatifid, uppermost distant, small, sessile. Cymes lax, 
2-3-chotomous ; bracts at the divisions, small, narrow-oblong; flowers very 
small, sessile or shortly pedicelled, with 2 opposite, free, narrow-lanceolate, small 
bracts, and 4 similar bracteoles, glandular ; involucel an 8-ribbed utricle, nearly 
closed at the mouth over the fruit. Calyx-limb minute, obscurely toothed. 
CoroUor-tube funnel-shaped ; lobes 6, equal, spreading, pink-purple. Stamens 4, 
inserted near the base of the corolla-tube, subincluded. Style linear, stigma 
capitate. Achene shortly beaked, free within the utricular involucel, obscurely 
4-ribbed, crowned by the unaltered calyx-limb. Seed pendulous, albumen 
plentiful ; embryo scarcely shorter than the seed. 

1. T. g'landullfera, Wall. Cat. 436 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 642. T. glandulosa, 
DC. Mem. Valer. 20, t. 6. 

Temperate and Alpinb Hihaxaya, alt. 8-14,000 ft.; from Gurwbal to Bhotan, 
Wallich, &c. 

Rootstock slender, horizontal. Stem 6-24 in., erect, simple or corymbosely 
branched, below pubescent or nearly glabrous, above with hairs tipped by large glands. 
Leaves 2 by 1 in., hairy. Flowers ^ in. Achenes ^ in. ; involucel as long. — In fruit 
the ovary- wall becomes excessively thin, and on a cross-section may be mistaken for 

216 lXxvii. dipsace^. (C. B. Clarke.) [Morina. . 

th© involucel. The achene may be recognised by its short beak crowned by the 
much wider calyx-limb. 

2. HKORZKA, Zinn. 

Perennial herbs, resembling spiny Labiates. Leaves opposite or whorled, 
narrowly oblong or linear, spinous-toothed, or in M. nepalerms unaimed. 
Floivers whorled ; whorls in spikes, surrounded by wide-based floral leaves ; 
bracteoles among the flowers few, spinous; involucel long funnel-shaped, 
mouth truncate, aristate or spinous. Calyx-limh herbaceous, 2-lipped ; lips 
entire or 2-fid. Corolla-tube elongate funnel-shaped, curved ; mouth oblique, 2- 
labiately 6-lobed. Stamens inserted at the mouth of the corolla-tube, 2 fertile 
(with or without 2 rudimentary.) or 4 fertile. Style subexsert, stigma entire. 
Achene free in the base of the involucel ; pericarp usually thickened, wrinkled ; 
apex oblique. — Distrib. Species 7 or 8, in West and Central Asia. 

1. IKE. persica, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. iv. 644 ; tall, calyx-lobes subequalobo- 
vate-oblong entire or emarginate, corolla pink, fertile stamens 2, filaments usually 
as long as the corolla-lobes. Sibth. F'. Grcec. t. 28; Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 114. 
M. WaUichiana, Royle III. 245, t. 55, Jig. 1. M. Tournefortii, Jaub. ^ Spach. v. 
Ic. PI. Xh'. 32, t. 429. M. grseca and Aucheri, Jaub. 8f Spach. I. c. 

Western Himalaya, alt. 7-9000 ft. from Kashmir to Kumaon, frequent. — Distrib. 
From Persia to Greece. 

Stem 3-4 ft., pubescent or villous upwards. Leaves 6 by 1 in., sessile, doubly 
spinous-toothed, pubescent or glabrous. Spikes elongate. Bracts free or nearly so, 
and involucels hairy or villous. Calyx-lips ^-^ by ^-\ in. Corolla-tube 1-1^ in. 

2. BE. long>ifolia, Wall. Cat. 426 ; tall, calyx-lobes unequal 2-fid vnth 
rounded not spinous lobes, corolla pink, fertile stamens 2, filaments much shorter 
than the corolla-lobes. DC. Prodr. iv. 644; Wall. PI. As. Par. iii. 1, t. 202; 
Bat. Peg. 1840, t. 36 ; ? Bot. Mag. t. 4092. M. elegans, Fisch. et Lallem. Ind. 
Sem. Petrop. viii. 67. 

Temperate and Alpine Himalaya, alt. 9-14,000 ft., from Kashmir to Bhotan. 

Stem 3-4 ft., pubescent or villous upwards. Leaves 6 by 1 in., sessile, doubly 
spinous-toothed, pubescent or glabrous. Bracts free or nearly so, and involucels 
hairy or villous. Calyx-lips, one |- by i in., the other usually much smaller. Corolla- 
tube 1 in. — Closely allied to the preceding species. 

3. M. Coulteriana, Royle III. 245 ; tall, calyx-lobes subequal bifid with 
lobes acute mucronate or spinous, corolla yellow, fertile stamens 2, filaments 
half as long as the corolla-lobes. M. breviflora, Edgw. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 

SuBALPiNE Himalaya, alt. 9-13,000 ft., from Kashmir to Gurwhal. — Disteib. 

Stem 2-3 ft., more or less hairy upwards. Leaves 6 by | in., sessile, spinous- 
toothed, glabrous. Bracts free or nearly so, and involucels hairy. Calyx-lips 5 by ^ 
in. Cordla-tuhe \-% in. Seeds 5- by ^ in., with a deep longitudinal furrow on one 
side. — Bunge Eel. Lehm. 321, places this plant in the sect. Acanthocalyx erroneously, 
for the fertile stamens are 2 only. 

4. M. polyphylla, Wall. Cat. 425 ; taU, leaves many in a whorl, bracts 
to each flower whorl numerous linear-lanceolate, calyx-lips subequal 2-lobed. 
DC. P'odr. iv. 644. 

Temperate Himalaya ; Nipal, at Gossainthan, Wallich ; Gurwhal ? Falconer. 
Stems 2 ft., pubescent upwards. Lower leaves 12 by 1 in., doubly spinous-toothed, 
glabrous ; upper similar but much smaller, often 6 in a whorl. Flow«r-whorls very 

Morina.'] Lxxvii. dipsace^. (C. B. Clarke.) 217 

close together; bracts to each whorl often 6, adnate by their bases into a short cam- 
panulate cup } to ^ in. long; their free portions 1-1^ in., very narrow, shining. 
Calyx-lips | by | in., deeply lobed. Flowers not seen. 

6. M. nepalensls, Bon Prodr. 161 ; low, all the leaves without spines 
except the uppermost and the floral leaves, fertile stamens 4 subequal. M. nana, 
Wall. Cat. 424; DC. Prodr. iv. 645. 

Nipal; Gossainthan, Wallich. 

Stem 3-6 in., pubescent upwards. Leaves -t by i in., entire, sinuate, glabrous ; 
leaves near the flower- whorls spinous, obscurely toothed. Flowers few in few approxi- 
mate whorls, forming one small terminal head. Calyx-lip i in., obovate, subentire or 
mucronate, with 1 or 2 teeth; the other lip obsolete or nearly so. Corolla-tube ^ in. 
Filaments hardly any. 

6. AK. betonlcoideSf Smth. in Hook. Ic. PI. t. 1171; low, leaves all 
spinous scarcely toothed, fertile stamens 4 subequal. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, alt. 10-13,000 ft. ; Lachen and Yeumtong, .7. D. H. ; Singa- 
lehlah and Tumbok, C. B. Clarke. 

Stem 6-18 in. Heads of jiowers few, the lower sometimes remote. Corolla pah-- 
purple. — This is perhaps the fully developed state of M. nepalensis, from which it 
only differs in having the lower leaves spinous as well as the uppermost. 

8. DXPSACirS, Linn 

Stout erect herbs, prickly or bristly. Leaves opposite, toothed or pinnatifid. 
Heads terminal, long-peduncled ; bracts subtending the heads, and bracteoles 
rigid, bristly or prickly. Involucel 4-8-ribbed, adnate often nearly its whole 
length to the ovary. Calyx-limh cup-shaped, 4-angled, 4-lobed. Cordla-tuhe 
fnnnel-shaped ; limb 4-lobed, equal or sub-bilabiate, pale blue, white, yellowish, or 
black-purple. Stamens 4, perfect. Style filiform; stigma oblique or lateral. 
Ackene adnate to the involucel in the Indian species, 8-rihbed, crowned with the 
(often deciduous) calyx-limb.— Distrib. Species 12, European, Abyssinian, and 

1. D. Inermls, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Corey ^ Wall. i. 367, as to 
var. j3 ; lower leaves pinnatifid with distant segments shortly hairy on both su)- 
faces, upper leaves 3-lid or a few uppermost simple, heads subglobose, bracteoles 
obovate-oblong with a linear bristly mucro, flowers white or yellowish. Coult. 
Dips. 23 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 646 ; Wall. Cat. 427, mainly. D. mitis, Dm Prodr. 
161. D. Roylei, Klotzsch in Pets. Pr. Waldem. Pot. 83, t. 84. Cephalaria 
cachemirica, Dene in Jacquem. Voy. Pot. 86, t. 94. 

Temperate Himalaya, alt. 6-12,000 ft., from Kashmir to Bhotan. 

Stem 1-6 ft., bristly-hirsute, prickly or unarmed upwards, more hirsute under the 
flower-heads. Flower-heads solitary or several ; bracts linear, acute or ovate obtuse, 
rigid or herbaceous, deflexed or adpressed, hairy or coarsely bristly. Involucel closely 
adnate to the pericarp, tipped by 4 minute points on the neck of the achene. Calyx- 
limb subquadrangular, glistening, white, hairy, deciduous. — Perhaps only a form of 
D. pilosus, Linn., which differs by the long hairs on the leaves, and by the flowers 
white to faint blue ; there is no difference in the degree of freedom of the involucel, as 
Coulter (with scanty material) supposed. 

Var. longicaulis, Wall. Cat. 68.56 (sp.) ; leaves on the nerves beneath and angles 
of the stem minutely prickly, otherwise glabrous or nearly so. D. strictus, Var. Kurz 
inJoum. As. Soo. 1877, pt. ii. 162.— A va, Wallich; Martaban, alt. 2500 ft., Brandts. 

2. D. strictus, Don Prodr. 160; many of the middle and upper cauline 
leaves undivided lanceolate sparingly hairy, heads subglobose, bracteoles obovate- 
oblong with a lanceolate bristly mucro, corolla cream-coloured. DC. Prodr. iv. 

218 Lxxvii. DiPSACE^. (C. B. Clarke.) IDipsacus. 

646. i). inermis, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 8r Wall. i. 867, as to var. a 
only ; Wall. Cat. 427, partly. D. auriculatus, Boyle lU. 245. 

Noeth-Wbst Himalaya, alt, 7000 ft., from Chumba to Kumaon. 
Stem often 6-10 ft., and then with 3-1 heads only.— Probably a var. of D. 

3. I>. asper, Wall. Cat. 428; lower leaves pinnatifid with distant seg- 
ments shortly pilose on both surfaces and scabrous beneath, heads subglobose, 
bracteoles obovate-oblong shortly mucronate, corolla white. DC. Prodr. iv. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 4-6000 ft. ; common. 

Closely resembling B. inermis ; the leaves are more hairy above, and on the nerves 
beneath nearly bristly. 

4. D. atratus, H.f. ^ T. ms. ; leaves pinnatifid or the upper trifid hairy 
on both surfaces, heads subglobose, bracteoles obovate-oblong with a lanceolate 
very hairy mucro, corolla intense blue-black. 

SiKK-iM Himalaya, alt. 10-12,000 ft. ; Yeumtong and Lachen, J. D. H., Elw^s. 

Closely allied to D. inermU. Stem villous, as well as bristly. Leaves with larger 
hairs than D. inermis. Bracts ovate or oblong, obtuse ; bracteoles blackish. Corolla 
only slightly pilose without. 

5. D. Xieschenaultll, Coult.; DC. Prodr. iv. 647; leaves pinnatifid 
lowest elongate with numerous approximate upper segments hairy on both sur- 
faces, heads subglobose, bracteoles obovate-oblong with long-lanceolate densely 
hairy mucros, flowers white. Wight. III. t. 130 ; W.Sf A. Prodr. 446. Scabiosa 
Brunoniana, Wall. Cat. 429. 

Mrs. of the South Deccan, alt, 7-8000 ft. ; Neilgherries and Pulneys, frequent. 

Lowest leaves often a foot or more by 3 in. ; terminal lobe oblong, with numerous 
approximate falcate-oblong lobes next to it, with longish hairs on both surfaces; 
otherwise undistinguishable from D. inermis. 

6. D. Walkerl, Am. Pugill. PI. Ind. Oi'. 26 ; bracteoles obovate-oblong 
with short-lanceolate .sparsely hairy mucros, otherwise as D. Leschenavitii. 
Wight. Ic. t. 1166. D. Leschenaultii, Thwaites Enum. 160. 

Ceylon, alt. 6-7000 ft. ; frequent. 

Dries blackish, while D. Leschenaultii dries green ; the two are hardly distinct. 

4. SCABXOSA, Unn. 

Annual or perennial herbs, never bristly nor prickly. Leaves opposite, un- 
divided, lobed or pinnatifid. Heads bracteate ; bracteoles (scales of the recep- 
tacle) small or 0, or (in non-Indian species) herbaceous. Involucel 2-8-ribbed, 
adnate to the pericarp ; limb generally expanded, broad funnel-shaped. Calyx- 
limb with short teeth and generally with long bristles. Corolla tubular ; limb 
4-5-fid, equal or, especially in the ray flowers, obliquely expanded. Stamens 4, 
perfect. Style filiform; stigma capitate or subpeltate, sometimes sublateral. 
Achene crowned by the persistent scarious expanded limb of the involucel, and 
by the persistent, usually aristate, calyx-limb. — Distrib. Species 80, chiefly 
European, West Asiatic, and African. 

Sect. I. Pterocephaxus. Bracteoles narrow. Involucel-mouth short, 
ciliate, pubescent. Calyx-limb of 12-24 long bristles. Corolla 5-tid. 

1. S. Kookeri, C. B. Clarke ; hairy, scapose, leaves linear-spathulate 
runcinate or subentire, corollas all subequal exceeding the calyx-bristles. 

Scahiosa.l Lxxvn. dipsacej!. (C. B. Clarke.) 219 

Alpine Sikkim, alt. 10-14,000 ft. ; Tongu, J. D. H., Elwes. 

Bootstock woody. Leaves all subradical, 6 by | in., alternate at the base, sessile 
or p^tioled. Peduncles 4-14 in., radical, 1-headed; heads 1-1| in. diam., globose, 
many-flowered. Bracts ^ by | in., ovate-oblong, bracteoles ^ in., linear-spathulate. 
Involucel ^ in., hairy, not scarious. Calyx-bristles 20-24, ^ in., filiform, hairy. 
Corolla I in., tubular-funnel-shaped, hairy without. 

Sect. II. Asterocephaltjs. B7-acteoles smaU or 0. Invducel-mordh 
funnel-shaped, scarious in fruit. Calyx-limb of 5 long bristles. Cwolla 6-fid. 

2. S. Ollvierl, CoiUt. Dips. 36, t. 2, Jig. 10 ; hairy, stem leafy, leaves 
narrowly oblong subentire or pinnatifid, heads small, bracts oblong-lanceolate, 
coroUas all equal small much shorter than the calyx-bristles. DC. Prodr. iv. 
656; Bmss. Ft. Orient, iii. 141. 

West Punjab; Peshawur, Vicary; Eawul Pindee and Huzaree, Stewart. — Dis- 
TBiB. Affghanistan to Armenia and Arabia. 

Stem 3-15 in., annual, often much branched. Leaves 2 by J in., narrow-oblong 
and entire, or 4 by 2 in., deeply pinnatifid. Heads few-flowered ; bracts scarcely ^ ia. 
Flowers purple, hairy without, little longer than the involucel. Involucel ^ in. diara. 
in fruit, 16-20-ribbed, scarious between the ciliate-pilose ribs. Calyx-bristles ^ in., 
barbellate, brown. Achene siikily hairy. 

3. S. Candolliana, Wall. Cat. 430; subglahrous, leaves very distant 
linear subentire, heads small radiate, bracts ovate ofetuse, corollas sojie exceeding 
the calyx-bristles. S. CandoUii, DC. Pi-odr. iv. 664. 

Western Himalaya ; from Murree to Kumaon, alt. 3-5000 ft., Blinkworth, &c. 

Stem 12-18 in. from a perennial rootstoek, little branched. Leaves 1^ by ^ in., 
lower subspathulate, puberulous. Heads few-flowered; bracts ^-^ in. Flowers 
purple, hairy without; of the ray sometimes ^ in. long. Involucel \ in. diam. in 
fruit, 16-20-ribbed, scarious between the pubescent ribs. Calyx-bristles ^ in., barbel- 
late, brown, 

4. S. speclosa, Royle III. 246, t. 55, Jiff. 2 ; stem pubescent leafy, leaves 
oblong often pinnatifid at the base with smaU lobes, heads large radiate, bracts 
narrowly oblong, corollas much exceeding the calyx-bristles. 

Temperate Himalaya; from Kashmir (abundant) to Gurwhal, alt. 7-n,000 ft. 

Sterna 1-2 ft., often branched, from a perennial rootstoek. Leaves 2 by ^ in., hairy 
on both surfaces. Heads many-flowered ; bracts ^— | in. Flowers bright-mauve, hairy 
without; those of the ray f in. long, those of the disk exceeding the calyx-bristles. 
Involucel in fruit ^ in., subcampanulate, nearly glabrous without, scarious between the 
16-20 ribs. Calyx-bristles ^ in., barbellate, nearly black. Achene ^ in. and upwards, 
silky below, the upper ^ 8-ribbed, with long deep pits between the ribs. 

Order LXXVIII. COMPOSZTHS. (By J. D. Hooker.) 

Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, 
simple or compound ; stipules 0. Iijlorescence a centripetal head of many small 
flowers, sessile on the dilated top of the peduncle (receptacle), enclosed in an 
involucre of whorled bracts ; floral bracts 0, or reduced to paleee scales or bristles 
on the receptacle. Flowers all tubular (head discoid), or the outer, or all, ligu- 
late (head rayed), all 2-sexual, or the inner 2-8exual or male, the outer female 
or neuter, sometimes dioecious. Calyx superior ; limb 0, or of hairs (panpus) or 
scales. Corolla of 2 forms : 1st, tubular or campanulate, 4-5-lobed, lobes val- 
vate, with marginal nerves; 2ndly, ligulate, lobes elongate and connate into a 
strap-shaped or elliptic ligule. Disk epigynous. Stamens 4-6, inserted within 
the corolla-tube ; filaments usually free ; anthers basi-tixed, usually coLnate ; 
connective produced upwards ; ceUs simple or tailed at the base ; polleL sub- 

220 Lxxviii. COMPOSITJE. (J. D. Hooker.) 

globose, rough. Ovary 1-celled ; style slender, 2-fid ; arms (sometimes connate) 
linear, ^-terete, naked or externally pubescent or tipped by pubescent cones, 
margins stigmatics ovule solitary, basal, erect, anatropous, nucleus with one 
coat. Fruit (an achene) dry, indehiscent. Seed erect, testa membranous, albu- 
men ; embryo straight, cotyledons plano-convex, radicle short. — Affinities. 
Close with Dipsacece, Valerianece, and Loheliacece. Distrib. Co-extensive with 
dicotyledonous vegetation ; genera about 1000 ; species about 8000. 

The Indian Composit<B have been more sedulously studied than any other equally 
large and intricate Indian fiimily of plants. The first important contribation to our 
knowledge of them under well characterised genera is contained iu Don's <' Pro- 
dromus Florae Nepalensis," wherein upwards of 60 species are described. Next came 
" Wight's Contributions to the Botany of India," where 126 species are descBibed by 
De Candolle. This was followed by the great aistribution of Wallich's Herbarium, 
in which 400 species are enumerated, many named for the first time, after having been 
referred in great part to their proper genera by Wall'ich himself, Brown, ifeentham, and 
others. These numbers, however, do not represent more than about 300 distinct species. 
The volumes containing the CompositcB of De Candolle's Prodromus include most of 
the species distributed by Wallich, together with Wight's Peninsular ones, which were 
studied and named chiefly by Arnott, and distributed in like manner to Wallich's. 
The labours of these individuals and authors laid the foundation of all future know- 
ledge of the Order in India. The greatest s\ibsequent accession of species was the 
result of Dr. Thomson s journeys in the N. W. Himalaya and Tibet, and his and my 
own in East Nipal and Sikkim, which were hurriedly distributed after much labour in 
referring the Composites to their genera, and in many cases to their species, by myself; 
whilst at the same time I arranged the whole of the Indian material in the Hookerian 
and other herbaria of Indian plants then at Kew, which were in great confusion. 
After Dr. Thomson's return to India as Superintendent of the^ Calcutta Botanic Gar- 
dens, he devoted several years to a critical study of the Indian species, and on his 
retirement left in the Calcutta Gardens a ms. catalogue of all that were known 
to him. In 1873 appeared the first part of the second volume of Mr. Bentham's and 
my " Genera Plantarum," containing the CompositcB elaborated by Mr. Bentham. In- 
this work many of the Indian genera were for the first time studied in relation to their 
allies in other countries, and various important clianges were made as to their limita- 
tion and disposition in the Order, and suggestions as to the classification of their 
included species. This was followed in 1876 by the publication by my coadjutor, Mr. 
C. B Clarke, of his " Compositae Indicse." founded on the " Genera Plantarum " in 
respect of the genera, and on the rich Calcutta collections and Thomson's mss. in re- 
spect of the species. This valuable and very laborious work has been since annotated 
for me by its author with the Wallichian and Kew herbaria, and with various works 
to which he had not access in Calcutta. In the following revision of the genera and 
species I have adhered as closely as I could to the lines of Mr. Clarke's work, whilst 
describing the genera and discussing the species in accordance with my own views. 

Tribe I. Vernonieae. Heads with the flowers all similar and tubular. 
Anthers cleft at the base. Style-amis subulate, hairy. — Leaves usually alternate. 
Floioei's never yellow. 

Subtribe 1. Euternonie^. Heads distinct, many-flowered. 

Achenes 4-5-angled. Pappus 0' 1 . Ethttlia. 

Achenes 8-10-ribbed. Pappus short, fugacious 2. Crntbathbritm. 

Achenes terete, shining. Pappus scanty 3. Lampracelenium. 

Achenes 10-ribbed. Pappus 4. Apbnoon. 

Achenes 10-ribbed. Pappus long, copious 6. Vernonia. 

Subtribe 2. Lychnophoreje. Heads 1 or few-flowered, crowded into dense 
masses like single heads. 
Corolla usually cleft laterally. Pappus chaffy 6. Elephantoptjs. 

Tribe II. ZSupatorieee. Heads with the flowers all similar and tubular. 


Lxxviii. COMPOSITE. (J. D. Hooker.) 221 

Anthers subentire at the base. Style-arms obtuse, papillose. — Leaves opposite or 
alternate. Corolla rarely orange, never yellow. Pappus usually bristly. 

Subt7'ibe 1. PiQUERiiLaE. Anther-tip truncate. 
Achenes 6-angled 7. Adenostemma. 

Subtribe 2. AoEEATiLa;. Anther-tip appendiculate. Achenes 5-^ngled. 

Pappus paleaceous 8. Agkhatttm. 

Pappus of slender hairs. Invol. bracts oo S. Eupatohium. 

Pappus of slender hairs. Invol. bracts 4 10. -Mikania. 

Trtbe III. Asteroideae. Heads with the flovvers all similar, or the outer 
ligulate. Anthers subentire (ceUs not tailed) at the base. Style-ai-ms flattened 
or plano-convex, all or those of the disk-flowers terminated by a cone. — Leaves 
usually alternate. Receptacle almost always naked. Dish-Jlowers yellow ; ray- 
flowers yellow, white or purple. 

Subti-ihe 1. Homoohrome^. Floioers all yellow, those of the ray ligulate. 

Ligules few. Heads in scorploid panicles 11. Solidaqo. 

Subtribe 2. GRANGEiNEiE. Flowers all yellow, ray 0. Pappus hardly any. 

Eeceptacle usually elongate, top flat. Achenes obtuse, flat, 

with a thickened border . . 12. Dichbocephala. 

Receptacle elongate, top convex. Achenes obtuse, flat, without 

a thickened }x)rder lb. Cyathoclinb. 

Receptacle conic or convex. Achenes with a terminal, toothed 

or bristly ring 14. Geangea. 

Subtribe 3. Bellidejb. Ray-Jlowers ? , ligulate, never yellow. Disk-Jlowem 
yellow. Pappus or very short. 

Erect herbs. Achenes viscid, hardly beaked 15. Mteiactis. 

Erect rigid herbs. Achenes of ray beaked 16. Rhynchospermitm. 

Small, stemless herb. Scape with 1 head 17. Lagenophora. 

Stem branched, branches with single heads. Achenes beaked 18. Brachycome. 

Subtribe 4. Hetebochrome.1;. Pay-fioxoers % , ligulate, never yellow. ZHskr- 
Jlowers yellow. Pappus hairs long, copious, except JBoltonia. 

Pappus of short bristles and 2-4 long hairs 19. Boltonia. 

Outer invol. bracts green. Ligules loiig, 1 -seriate . . . .20, Aster. 

Outer invol. bracts green. Ligules very short 21. Brachyaster. 

Outer invol. bracts green, narrow. Ligules 2-3-serKit6 . . 22. Erigeron. 

Subtribe 6. CoNTZEiE. Pay powers very slender, tubular, or with very short 
ligules, and dish-Jlowers yellow. Pappus copious or scanty. 
Tall or climbing herbs. Heads very small. Pappus long . 23. Microgi.ossa. 

Erect herbs. Heads vaanous. Pappus long 24. Conyza. 

An erect herb. Heads small. Pappus scanty, short . . .25. Thespis. 

Tribe JN. Znuloideee^ Heads with the flowers all similar, or the outer 
ligulate. Anther-cdls (except Laggei-a and Phagnalon) tailed. Style-arms linear, 
obtuse, or styles of the sterile fl. undivided. — Leaves usually alternate. Disk 
and ray-bowers usually both yellow. 

Subtribe 1. Plucheinrs:. Heads androgynous. Invol bracts dr^ or herba- 
ceous, rarely subscarious. Receptacle naked. Style-arms of ^ fl. filiform, not 
truncate, or style of sterile fl. entire. 

* Heads corymbose or panicled, not in globose masses (except in some Blumeae). 

Herbs. Invol. bracts narrow. Pappus copious 26. Blcmba. 

Herbs. In vol. bracts narrow. Anther-^ells ecaudate . , .27. Laogeua. 

222 Lxxvm. compositje. (J. D. Hooker.) 

Shruhs or undershrubs. Invol. tracts broad. Pappus copions 28. Pluchka. 
A small rigid herb. Heads sessile. Corolla of § fl. 2-lipped. 

Pappus 29. NANOTHAMKrS, 

Erect or diffuse herbs. Corolla of ^ A. tubular. Pappus . 30. Epaxtes. 
•• Heads in dense, globose or ovoid masses. Corolla of $ Jl.jUiform. 

Herbs •with winged stems. Pappus 31. SpaSBANTHtrs. 

Herbs with winged stems. Pappus hairs slender .... 32. ;?tbbocatjlon. 

Suhtribe 2. Ftlagine^. Heads androgynous, often in dense clusters. Ray- 
fimoers % , filiform, numerous, often enclosed in the long outer scales of the recep- 
tacle ; disl<r/lowers § > central, with imdivided styles, or, if divided with the arms, 
obtuse or subulate, not truncate. InvoL bracts scarious or hyaline, rarely 

* Achenes large, 2-4.-anffled, or many-rihhed, ciliated. 

Glabrous shrubs or underShrubs. Pappus hairs many, short, 

unequal > 33. BLEPHASispEBinru. 

Glabrous or woolly herbs. Pappus bristles very short, con- 
nate into a fimbriate ring 34. Athsoisma. 

** Achenes small, not ribbed. Small wooUy herbs. 

Pappus hairs simple 35. FrLAoo. 

Pappus hairs plumose 36. Ifloga. 

Subti'ibe 3. Gnaphalie^. Heads androgynous or homogamous. Invd. 
h-acts scarious, usually hyaline, or the inner radiating. Receptacle usually naked. 
Style-arm^ of ^ fl. truncate. 

* Fl. 5 all sterile, toith undivided or merely notched styles. Inner invol. bracte 
often radiating. Heads often unisexucd. 

Heads corymbose, always dioecious. Pappus hairs connate at 

the base 37. Antbnnaria. 

Heads glomerate, involucrate. Pappus hairs subconnate at 

the base 38. LBONTOPomtJM. 

Heads corjTnbose. Pappus hairs quite free 39. Anaphalis. 

** Fl. 5 all, or mostly fertile, with divided styles. 

Pappus hairs plumose. Minute herb 40. Lasiopooon. 

Anther-cells obtuse or apiculate {without tails) 41. Phagnaix>n. 

Fl. ? 2-co -seriate. Pappus hairs never barbellate . . . .42. Gnaphalidm. 
Fl. ? 1-, rarely 2-seriate. Pappus hairs various 43. Helichetsum. 

Subtrtbe 4. Angianthe^. Heads homogamous, discoid, small, in crowded 
clusters. Invd. bracts few, hyaline. Fl. ^ with truncate style-arms. 
Heads 1-flowered in a leafy involucre. Pappus .... 44. CiEsuxiA. 

Subtrtbe 6. EuTNirLEiE. Heads heterogamous, radiate, rarely subdisciform 
or homogamous. Flowers usually all fertile. Receptacle naked. Fl. 5 with 
linear style-arms, rounded or dilated at the top. 

Heads rayed. Pappus hairs few or many, subequal . . . .45. Inula. 
Heads usually rayed. Achenes hardly ribbed. Pappus hairs 

slender, of ray few or 46. Vicoa. 

Heads rayed or discoid. Achenes ribbed. Outer pappus 

of scales, inner of hairs 47. Pulicaria. 

Heads discoid. Achenes slender, striate, beaked. Pappus 48. Carpesium. 

Tribe V. Hellantholdeee. Heads usually radiate. Receptacle palea- 
ceous. Anther-cells not produced into tails. Style-arm^ truncate or appendicu- 

Lxxviii. COMPOSITJC. (J. D. Hooker.) 223 

late, or style of sterile fl. entire. Achenes 3-4-angled or terete or compressed. 
Pappus of 2-4 bristles or paleaceous or 0. 

Subtiihe 1. Lagascbjb. Hedds 1-flowered in globose clusters; invol. bracts 
forming a 5-fid tube. 

A villous or scabrid herb ; lower or all the leaves opposite . 48*. Laqascba. 

Subtribe 2. Millerie^. Heads few^-flowered. Fl. 5 sterile with undivided 
styles. Receptacle naked in the centre. 
Achenes and inflorescence with stipitate glands 49. Adenocaulon. 

Subtribe 3. Melampodieje. Heads many-flowered. FL § sterile with un- 
divided styles. Receptacle paleaceous all over. 

Achenes dorsally compressed,, with acute margins, embraced 

by the paleae of the receptacle 60. Chrtsooonum. 

Subtribe 4. Ambbosieje. Heads heterogamous or unisexual. Fl. 5 sterile 
with undivided styles ; $ apetalous. Anthers nearly free, with inflexed appen- 

Invol.-bracts of $ fl. free ; of $ forming a 2-flowered 2-celled 

capsule armed with glochidiate spines 61. Xanthium. 

Svhtribe 5. VERBESiNEiB. Heads hetero- or homogamous. Fl. ^ ^,11 
fertile. Achenes of the disk angled, subterete, or laterally compressed, crowned 
with 2-3 bristles or scales or naked. — Leaves usually opposite. 

• Inner invol.-bracts embracing the achenes. 

Outer invol.-bracts 5-glandular 52. Siegrsbeckia. 

Outer invol.-bracts 4, broad, in opposite pairs, a marsh herb 63. Enhydha. 

•• Inner invol.-bracts not embracing the achenes. Paleee of receptacle Jlat, 
Outer invol.-bracts many 54. Eclipta. 

*** Inner invol.-bracts not embracing the achenes. Paleee of receptacle con- 
cave, embracing the achenes. 

Ray-fl. ligulate, sterile. Achenes not winged nor ciliate . . 55. ScLEROCiRFOs. 

Eay-fl. with small ligules. Achenes not winged 66. Blainvillka. 

Ray-fl. wtth large yellow ligules. Achenes thick .... 67. Wedklia. 
Ray-H. with white or yellow ligules. Achenes ciliate . . .58. Spilanthes. 

Subtribe 6. Coreopside^. Heads hetero- or homogamous. Fl. ^ all fertile 
or neuter. Achenes dorsally compressed, 2-4-awned or naked. 

• Outer invol.-bracts herbaceoiis, subequal ; inner shorter lilce the paleee of the 

Achenes small, sub-4-angled, sheathed at the tip by the hairy 

coroUa. Pappus 58*. Guizotia. 

Achenes flat, margins lacerate and winged. Pappus of bristles 68*. Syneubeixa. 

** Outer involucral bracts few, small: inner membranous, connate bdoio. 

Style-arm^' with short appendages. Leaves alternate . . .69. Glossocabdia. 
Style-arms with short appendages. Leaves opposite. Achenes 

usually 2-4-awned 60. Bidens. 

Style-arms with long appendages. Achenes with 2 bristles .61. Glossogynb. 
Style-arms with long appendages. Achenes awnless . . .62. Ghrysanthellum. 

Siihtrihe 7. Galinsoge^e. Heads hetero- or homogamous. Fl. 5 all fertile. 
Achenes with short bristle-like paleae. 

Pappus paleae entire or fimbriate 62*. Galinsoga. 

Pappus paleae awned, plumose 62*. Teidax. 

224 Lxxvm. compositj:. (J. D. Hooker.) 

Tribe VI. Anthemldeee* Heads heteropfjimous, rayed or disciform, or 
rayless and homogamous. Invol.-hract.s 2- oo-seriate, dry or with scarious tips. 
JReceptacle naked or paleaceous. AntJier-ceUs not produced into tails. Style- 
arms truncate. Pappus or a crown of short palese. — Leaves usually alternate. 
Dish-Jl. yellow, rayjfi. variously coloured. 

* Receptacle paleaceous. Heads usually rayed. 

Achenes margined. Heads corymbose 63. Achillba. 

Achenes 4-5-angled or many-ribbed. Heads peduncled . . 64. Anthbmis. 

* Receptacle naked or with Jimhriate pits. 

Heads rayed, shortly peduncled. Achenes 5-angled . . . .65. Allabdia.. 
Heads rayed, usually long-peduneled. Achenes 6-10-ribbedj 66. Chrysanthemum:. 
Heads rayed. Achenes ventrally 3-6-ribbed, dorsally oo-ribbed 

or plane 67. Mateicabia. 

Heads disciform, peduncled. Invol.-bracts l-2-8eriate . . . 68. Cotula. 
Heads disciform, subsessile. Invol.-bracts spreading in frt, . 69. Cbntipeda. 
Heads disciform, subsessile, invoL-bracts 3-4-seriate incurved 

in frt 70. Sph^romobphka. 

Heads disciform, corymbose. In vol. bracts oo-seriate . . .71. Tanacetdm. 
Heads small, disciform, racemose or panicled 72. AbtemisiA. 

Tribe VII. SenecionldesD. Heads heterogamous, rayed or disciform. 
Invol.-bracts usuaUy l-seriate and subequal, with a few short outer at their 
base, rai*ely oo -seriate. Anther-cells obtuse below or with 2 short points rarely 
tail«i. Style-arms of § fl. truncate or appendaged. Pappus of fine hairs. — 
Leaves usually alternate. Dish-fi. yellow ; rays usually also yellow. 

Subtribe 1. Ttjssilaginejs. Invol.-bracts l-2-8eriate, subequal, free nearly 
to the base. Style-arms of fl. § flattened or narrowly clavate, papillose, not 
hairy aU round (as in EupatoriacetB or Inuloidece). 

Invol.-bracts l-seriate. Heads rayed, bracteolate, solitary . 73. Tussilago. 
Invol.-bracts 2- or few-seriate. Heads rayed, drooping, 

usually solitary 74. Cbemanthodium. 

Subtribe 2. EtrsENECiONiDRE. Invol.-bracts l-2-8eriate, free nearly to the 
base, usually with a few smaller outer ones. Style-arms of $ fl. truncate or 
obtuse, penicillate or with a hairy tip. 

* Invol.-bracts herbaceous, broad, acuminate. Heads large, rayed, long' 

Receptacle hemispheric. Herbs, leaves alternate . . . .75. Dobokicxtm. 

** Invol. bracts narroiv, loith a few much shorter outer ones (calyculate), ex- 
cept Emilia and some Senecios, 

Heads bomogamous. Style-tips long, hairy 76. Gtnuba. 

Heads bomogamous, ebracteolate 77. Emilia. 

Heads homogamoas. Stjle-tips ovate. Fleshy shrubs . . 78. Notonia. 
Heads rayed or disciform, bomogamous. Style-tips truncate 

or short or 0. Leaves radical or alternate 79. Sknkcio. 

Heads heterogamous. Fl. t^ sterile. Glabrous undershrubs . 80. Othonnopsis. 

Svhtribe 3. Othonne^. Invol.-bracts l-seriate, united to above the middle 
into a cup. Fl. § fertile ; style-arms truncate. 
Heads large, solitary, erect, sessile or peduncled. Alpine herbs 81. "Wbbnbbia. 

Tribe VIII. CalendulaceoB. Heads rayed. Invol.-bracts I-2-8eriate, 
narrow, subequal. Receptacle naked. Anther-cells mucronate. Style-arms of 
5 fl. truncate, or in sterile fl. undivided. Achenes usually large and thick and 
deformed, without pappus. 

Lxxviii. COMPOSIT.B. (J. D. Hooker.) 22-!^ 

Achenes incurved. Herbs with alternate leaves 82. Calendula. 

Tribe IX. Cjrnaroideee. JFlotvers all tubular. Invol bracts many- 
seriate, imbricate ; tips scarious, spinous or foliaceous. Receptacle densely bristly 
or paleaceous, rarely simply pitted. Con'oUa-limh slender, deeply 6-fid. '^ Anther- 
cells tailed. Styles subentire, or arms short hairy or thickened towards the 
base. Achenes often hard ; pappus various, rarely 0. — Leaves alternate, often 

Subtrtbe 1. EcHiNOPSiDEiE. Heads 1 -flowered, crowded into invol ucrate 
globose balls. 

83. EcHiNOPs. 

Suhtrihe 2. CARDUiNEiE. Heads oc-flowered, separate. Achenes glabrous, 
basal areole horizontal. Pappus hairs distinct or connate. 

* Filaments free, glabrous. Pappus hairs free, caducous. Leavers anned. 
Invol. bracts with hooked bris'les. Leaves unarmed . , .84. Arctium. 
Invol. bracts spinescent. Leaves spinescent 85. Cousinia. 

** Filaments papillose-hairy. Pappus hairs connate into a deciduous ring. 

Pappus hairs simple, not feathery 86. Carduus. 

Pappus hairs feathery 87. Cnicus. 

*** Filaments glabrous, connate. 
Invol. bracts spinous. Receptacle bristly. Pappus simple . 88. Silybum, 

**** Filaments free, glabrous (hairy in Goniocaulon). Leaves unarmed. 
Pappus hairs 1-seriate, feathery, with a few outer simple . . 89. Saussurea. 
Pappus hairs oo-seriate, subpaleaceous. Filaments hairy . . 90. Goniocaulon. 
Pappus hairs oo-seriate, rigid, rough or feathery 9L Jurinea. 

Subtribe 3. Centaure^. Heads separate, oc-flowered. Acheries glabrous ; 
basal areole oblique or lateral. 

* Involucre not bract eate at the base, or rardy so. 

Filaments glabrous. Anther-tails short or 92. Serratula. 

Filaments papillose. Anther-tails lacerate. Achenes smooth 93. Tricholbpis. 

Achenes terete, 10-lo-ribbed 94. Volaturella. 

Achenes compressed or 4-augled, 4-5-ribbed 95. Centaurba. 

** Involucre bracteate at the base by spinous leaves. 
Achenes compressed or angled, Pappus paleaceous or . .96 Carthamus. 

Tribe X. BSutisiaceae. Heads hetero- or homogamous, rayed or not. 
Invol. bracts oo-seriate, unarmed. -Reof'/>^rtc/e rarely paleaceous. Coro7/ai!- lipped, 
ligulate, or deeply S-fid. Anther-cells usually tailed. Style-arms rounded or 
truncate, not appendaged. Pappus various ^Leaves rarely opposite. (See also 
Nanothamnus, Trida.v and some Senecios.) 

Subtribe \. GocH::^ATiEiE. Coro/t*?* all tubular ; segments narrow, equal or 
obscurely 2-lipped. 
Pappus hairs simple. A shrub with alteriwt^ entire leaves . 97. Lkucomebis. 

Pappus hairs feathery. Rigid shrubs 98. Dicoma. 

Pappus scales 10, ending in bristles. Rigid shrubs. Heads 

solitary 99. Hochstettkbia. 

Pappus hairs feathery. Erect herbs, heads subraoemose . 100. Ainsli^ba.. 

Subtribe 2. Gerbere.e. Heads rayed. C&rolla 2-lipped or ligulate. 
Heads few-flowered ; fl. allligulate. An undcrshrub . . 101. Catamixis. 
Heads many-flowered ; ray-fl, 2-lipped. Soapigerous herbs 102. Gerbeka. 

Tribe XI. Ciohoriaceae. Heads homofraiiious. Corollas all ligulate ; 
ligule truncate, tip 5-toothed. Anther-htses sigiltate, rarely tailed. Style-arhis 
Blender. — Herbs, juice usually milky. Leaves radical or alternate, never oppo- 
eite. (See also 101. Catamixis.) 

226 Lxxviii. COMPOSITE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Bthulia. 

Suhtrihe 1 Htoseeideje. Achenes truncate. Pappus oi scales, with some- 
times alternating hairs, or 0. 

Rigid herbs. Fl. blue ; inner invol. bracts coriaceous, con- 
cave 103. CiCHORroM. 

Suhtrihe 2. Lapsajte^. Achenes obtuse. Pappus 0. 
Heads small, panicled. A.chene8 nmny-ribbed .... 104, Lapsana. 

Subt7'ibe 3. Rhagadiole^. Achenes narrowed upwards or beaked. Pappus 
short, of scales or bristles, or 0. 

Achenes elongate, incurved, spinous 105. Kolpinia, 

Achenes elongate, smooth 106. Rhagadioltjs. 

Suhtnhe 4. Crepide^. Usually leafy herbs, not woolly nor with stellate 
hairs. Involuci-e calyculate, inner bracts often thickened. Achenes usually 
contracted at both ends. 
Receptacle naked. Achenes ribbed, rugose ; pappus hairs 

feathery 107. Piceis. 

Receptacle naked. Achenes ribbed ; pappus hairs simple, 

free, white 108. Ceepis. 

Receptacle naked. Achenes with slender ribs; pappus 

hairs copious, slender, subcrenate below . .... 109. Ph^casium. 

Receptacle bristly. Achenes 8-10-ribbed; pappus hairs 

simple 110. Pterotheca. 

Suhh-ibe 5. HiERACiE^. Herbs, usually perennial, more or less stellately 
hairy. Achenes truncate. Pappus hairs simple. 
Pappus hairs rigid, bristles usually rough, brown . . . 111. Hiehacium. 

Suhtrihe 6. Htpocbleride^. Scapigerous herbs, hairs various. Achenes 
contracted below, usually beaked above. Pappus hairs simple or feathery. 
Receptacle paleaceous. Pappus hairs feathery .... 111.* Htpochjeris. 
Receptacle naked. Pfippus hairs simple 112. Taraxacum. 

Suhtrihe 7. LACTTJCE-aB. Herbs, rarely shrubby below, glabrous or hispid, 
rarely scapigerous. Achenes usually narrowed below, and beaked or not above. 
Pappus hairs many, simple. 
Achenes subterete, beaked, toothed below the beak . . . 113. Chondrilla. 

Achenes compressed, beaked, ribs smooth 114. Lacttjca. 

Achenes subterete, 3-5-angled, not beaked 115. Prenanthes. 

Achenes oblong, not beaked, with 4-5 rugose ribs . . . 116. Picridium. 
Achenes compressed, hot beaked, many-ribbed, ribs smooth 

or rough 117. Sonchtts. 

Achenes narrow, truncate at both ends, 4-5-ribbed . . . 118. Laun.»a. 

Suhtrihe 8. Scorzonere^e. Herbs, glabrous, woolly or hispid. Achenes 
with a broad base, or curved hollow stipes, above narrowed or beaked. 

Invol, bracts 1 -seriate. Achenes long-beaked 119. Tragopogon. 

In vol. bracts oo -seriate, outer not leafy, Achenes not beaked 1 20, Scorzonera. 
Cuter invol. bracts leafy. Achenes not beaked .... 121. Epii^sia. 


1. ETKUZ.ZA, Linn. 

Branched herbs. Leaves alternate, serrate. Heads small, corymbose, homo- 
gamous. Invd. subcampanulate ; bracts oo -seriate, imbricate. Receptacle flat, 
naked. Corollas all tubular, equal, regular, slender ; limb campanulate ; lobes 6, 
narrow. Anthers obtusely auricled. Style-arms subulate Achenes glandular 
between the 4-6 prominent ribs ; areole broad with a callous ring ; pappus 0. — 
DiSTRiB. Species 2, a Javan and the following. 


Centrathenim.'] Lxxviii. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 227 

1. ZS. conyzoides, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. v. 12 ; heads J-J in. diam. JBot. 
Reg. t. 695 ; Wall. Cat. 3196 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 1. E. ramosa, Bozb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 413 ; Wall. Cat. 2987. E. gracilis, BelUe ; DC. i. c. E. angustifolia, Bojer ; 
DC. I. c. 

Easteen Benoal, Assam, and SiLHtT. — ^Disteib. Sxrnda Archipelago and Java ? 
E. Tropical Africa, Madagascar. 

An erect glabrous or puberulous leafy annual. lueaves 2-6 in., narrowly or broadly 
elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, narrowed and entire at the base, glandular-dotted ; ser- 
ratures coarse, distant. Heads very numerous ; peduncles short or long ; tlowera 
purplish or reddish. — African specimens are usually more slender and pubescent. 


Erect or diffusely branched herbs. Leaves alternate, petioled, toothed. 
Heads homogamous, Invol. subheraispberic ; bracts oo -seriate, inner dry or 
scarioua, outer herbaceous often leafy. Receptacle flat, naked or pitted. Corollas 
all tubular, equal, slender ; limb campanulate, lobes 5, narrovsr. Anthei's ob- 
tusely auricled. Style-arms subulate. Achenes obtuse, 8--10-ribbed ; pappus 
short, scabrid, fugacious. — Distrtb. Species about 10 Asiatic, with 2 American 
and an Australian. 

* Leaves white beneath. Outer invol. bracts large, often leafy. 

t Pappus yellowish. 

1. C. reticulatum, Benth. in Gen. PI. ii. 225; robust, scabridly tomen- 
tose, leaves sessile ovate or oblong base acute or cordate scabrid above pale 
tomentose beneath; nerves reticulate, pappus equalling the corolla-tube< Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 2. Decaneuron reticulatum, DC. in Wight. Contrib. 3 ; Prodr. v. 
66; Mem. Comp. t. 1. Rolfinkia centaurioides, Zmk. PI. Ind. t. 14. Amphi- 
raphis indica, Less, in Linnesa, vi. 686; Wall. Cat. 2956. Gymnanthemum 
reticulatum, Schultz-Bip. in Walp. Rep. ii. 948. 

Westeen Peninsula; Nilgherry and Pulnev Mts., alt. 5-7000 ft., Wight, &c. 

Stem 2-3 ft., stout, erect, branched. Leaves. 2-3^ in., rigid, dirty white beneath ; 
nerves elevated, much reticulated; margins narrowly recurved. Heads sub^iolitary, 
\-\\ in. diam., inner bracts broad, acute, pubescent, outermost leafy b^t short. 
Achenes ^^ in. long. 

2. C. moUe, Smth. in Gen. PI. ii. 225; branches and invol. bracts pubes- 
cent and with white wool, leaves petioled elliptic-ovate or -lanceolate coarsely 
toothed hairy above white-tomentose beneath, pappus very short. Decaneuron 
raolle, DC. Prodr. v. 67 ; Wight Ic. t. 1082. D. Epil^um and D. scabridum, 
DC. in Wight Contrib. 7. Diospermum niolle, Ddess. Ic. Sel. iv. t. 2. Amphi- 
raphis mollis. Wall. Cat. 2957. 

Westeen Peninsula ; Courtallam, Wight. 

Annual, erect, branched, 1-2 ft. Leaves 3-6 by 1-2^ in., rather membranous, 
narrowed portion quite en>ire. Heads ^-| in. diam. ; outer invol bracts, if leafy, 
usually shorter than the head; inner often spreading or reflexed. Corolla \ in. 
Achenes J--/2 in., linear-oblong, smooth, glabrous; pappus very short.— 2). scabrid'im, 
Wight Herb. n. 1392, differs not at all from C. molle; his n. 1532, quoted by Clarke 
under var. scabridum is C. courfallense. 

3. C. courtallense, Benth. in Gen. PI. ii. 225 (not of Clarke) ; branches 
and invol. bracts coarsely hairy, leaves petioled elliptic-ovate or lanceolate 
entire or toothed, pappus very short. Decaneuron courtallense, Wt. Ic. t. 1081 ; 
St-eefz in Peters Mosamb. Bot. 353. D. molle, var. Herb. Wt. (Kew Distrib. 

Westeen Peninsula ; Courtallam and Anamallay hills, Wight ; Canara, Hohen- 


Very near C. molle, but distinguished by the often quite entire leaves, usually 

228 txxvin. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) [Gentratherum. 

larger stouter peduncles, iroader shorter and more regular invol. bracts, and especi- 
ally by the coarse hairs of the peduncles and involucre. The achenes are the same 
in both. 

ft Pappus reddish. 

4. C. Rltchiel, Hook. f. ; branches glahrate, leaves petioled elliptic or 
elliptic-lanceolate toothed white-tomentose beneath, outer invol. bracts leafy base 
cordate, pappus equalling the corolla-tube. Gymnanthemum molle, Schvlta- 
Bip. in PI. Hohenack. n. 93, a. 

The CoNCAN and Canaba, Stocks, Bitchie, &c. 

A more slender annual than C. molle, and at once distinguished by its glabrate 
orten shining branches, the 2-6 or more large leafy oblong cordate outer invol. 
bracts, and the longer pappus. Heads ^ to nearly ^ in. diam. Achenes very small, 
about ^ in. 

6. C. pbyllolaBnum, Benth. in Oen. PI. ii. 225 : branches glahrate pubes- 
cent or subatrigose, leaves elliptic toothed or serrate white-tomentxjse beneath, 
outer involucral leafy bracts several base contracted, pappus equalling the corolla- 
tube. Decaneuron phyllolsenum, DC. Prodr. vii. 264. Gymnanthemum phyllo- 
Icenum, SchtUtz-Bip. in PL Hohenack. n. 274. D. molle, Dalz. Sr Gihs. Boirib. 
Fl. 122. 

The CoNCAN, Boux, Law, Jacqiiemont, &c. Maewae, on Mt. Aboo, King. 

Very variable, annual, stout or slender ; branches usually spreading. Leaves 2-5 
in., usually elliptic, petioled, sometimes hardly white beneath. Heads \-\ in. diam. ; 
peduncles usually slender; outer invol. bracts l-oo , spreading or deflexed, linear or 
lanceolate, rarely oblong, sometimes much longer than the heads, white beneath ; 
middle bracts extremely variable, obtuse, acute or rounded, green or scarious at the 
tip, erect or recurved, margins ciliate or not. Achenes ^ in. ; pappus reddish or 
almost white. 

6. C. tenue, Clarke Comp. Ind. 5 ; branches slender glabrous, leaves elliptic 
sparingly toothed, heads small, peduncles very slender, invol. bracts glabrous 
outer 1 or 2 elongate linear or oblong, pappus much shorter than the corolla- 

Western Peninsula; the Concan, Gibson, Law, &c. 

Closely allied to C phyllolcBnum, but much more slender, with always small heads 
\-\ in. diam., and only 1 or 2 leafy invol. bracts, much shorter pappus, and more 
turgid achenes only ^ in. long. 

** Leaves not white beneath. Outer in^oL bracts shortest. 

7. C. Kookeri, Clarke Comp. Ind. 3 ; pubescent, branches angled and 
grooved, leaves linear-lanceolate obscurely toothed, pappus long. Decaneuron 
angustifolium, Herh. Ind.. Or. Hook. f. 8f T. 

The Concan, Law, Stocks. 

Annual, erect, 18-24 in., stiff, branched above. Leaves scattered, 2-3 by ^-^ in., 
and, as well as the branches, brownish when dry and puberulous on both surfaces. 
Heads ^-f in. diam. ; peduncles slender, hoary-pubescent ; bracts numerous, small, 
none leafy Corolla ^ iu. long, red. Po/Tpwif single, equalling the corolla. Achenes-^ 
in., linear-oblong. 

imperfectly known species. 

C. Metzianttm (Diospermum Metzianum, Schultz. Bip. in Herb. Hohenack. from 
Canara) resembles C. molle, but has the hairy invol. bracts of C. courtallense and no 
pappus. The specimen is a very indifferent one. 


An erect branched annual smelling of chamomile, with crisped hairs. Leaves 
a'ternate, petioled, toothed. Heads small, subcorymbosely panicled, homoga- 
mous. Involucre subcampanulate ; bracts oo -seriate, dry, inner acute. Beceptacle i 

Lamprachoenium.] lxxyiii. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 229 

flat, naked. Corollas all tubular, equal, slender; lobes 5, narrow. Ant?ier8 
obtusely auricled. Style-arms subulate. Achenes obovoid, turgid, a little com- 
pressed, smooth, shining ; pappus hairs few, short, fugacious, red. 

1. Xi. xnlCroceplialuin, Benth. in Gen. Plant, ii. 225. Decaneuron 
microcephalum, Dalz. in Hook. Keio Journ. iii. 231 ; Dalz. <§• Gibs. Bomb, Ft, 122 j 
Clarke Comp. Ind. 5. 

The CoNCAN ; at Parwar Ghat, Bombay, Gibson, Dalzell. 

Habit, pubescence and foliage of Centratherum tenue. Stem 1-2 ft., simple or 
branched from the base, glabrous hairy or glandular. Leaves petioled, 2-4 in., hairy 
above, white-tomentose beneath. Heads \-\ in. diam. ; peduncles slender, hispid or 
glabrate ; invol. bracfs acute, ciliate, none leafy, erect or recurved. Achenes ^ in. ; 
pappus reddish, equalling the corolla-tube. 

4. ADENOON, Ddz. 

An erect rigid herb. Leaves alternate, sessile. Heads corymbosely panicled, 
homogamous. Invduci'e campanulate ; bracts many-seriate, coriaceous, oblong- 
lanceolate, aristate, outer gradually shorter. Receptacle flat, minutely fimbriate. 
Corollas all tubular, equal, slender ; limb narrow, &-cleft. Anther-bases sagittate. 
Style-arms subulate, hairy. Achenes obovoid, obtuse, subcompressed, 10-ribbed ; 
pappus 0. 

1. A. Indicum, Dalz. in Hook. Kew Journ. ii. 344; Dah. 8f Gibs. Bomb. 
Fl.121 ; Steetz. in Peters Mosamb. Bot. 352 ; Clarke Conip. Ind. 5. Ethulia sp. 
V. Gen. nov. Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. 101. 

The CoNCAN ; Parwar Ghat, Bombay, Ritchie, Law, &c. ; Belgaum, Law. 

A rather stout erect hairy or hispid annual, 2-3 ft. ; stem angled and grooved, 
branched above. Leaves shortly petioled, 1-4 in., broadly ovate obovate or almost 
orbicular, coarsely unequally toothed, hairy on both surfaces. Heads | in. diam., 
ses&ile and peduncled ; peduncles stout or slender, hispid or tomentose ; bracts at the 
forks subulate ; corolla ^ in. ; limb as long as the tube. Achenes ^ in., glandular ; 
ribs very stout. 

5. VBRNONZA, Schreb. 

Herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees. Leaves alternate. Heads terminal 
or axillary, solitary cymose or panicled, homogamous. Involitcre ovoid globose 
or hemispheric, equalling or shorter than the flowers ; bracts in many series, 
inner longest. Receptacle naked or pitted, sometimes shortly hairy. Corollas 
all equal, tubular, slender : lobes 5, narrow. Anther-bases obtuse. Style-arms 
subulate. Achenes striate ribbed or angled, rarely terete ; pappus of many haire, 
often girt with a row of outer short hairs or flattened bristles. — Distkib. About 
380 species, chiefly tropical, and mostly American. 

I have found it impossible to classify the Indian Vemonias under the commonly 
recognised sections of the genus as defined in the " Genera Plantarum," and have had 
recourse to what appear to me to be more natural divisional characters, but they are 
extremely vague. The species are most difficult to limit and define, the involucral 
bracts being especially variable. 

A. Invol. bracts all or the outermost subulate or lanceolate, often aristate 
(inner linear and obtuse in V. Helferi and peguensis, outer ovate acute). 

* Heads ^-1 in. diam., rarely less, few, in open terminal or lateral corymbs 
or panicles, or solitary and axillary. 

1. V. teres, Wall. Cat. 2926; rigid, scabrid, leaves hard subsessile obovate 
or obovate- or elliptic- or oblong-lanceolate acute subserrate heads 30-^0- 

230 Lxxviii. composite:. (J. D. Hooker.) IVemonia. 

flowered large solitary and axillary or few and terminal subsessile, invol. bracts 
very many long subulate-lanceolate subsquarrose, achenes silky, pappus yellowish 
or reddish. 3c. Pi-odr. v. 15; Clarke Comp. Ind. 16. V. riparia, Wall. Cat. 
2925. V. rigiophylla, DC. I. c. 16. V. squarrosa, Less, in Linnma, 1831, 627. 
Eupatorium rigidum, Wall. Cat. 2925. Acilepis squarrosa, Don Prodr. 169. 

Teopicax Htmai-ata, from Kumaon, alt. 6000 ft., to Sikkim. Behab, Central 
India, Pegu and Biema, in dry forests. 

Stem simple, terete, erect, leafy, pubescent or tomentose with brown hairs. Leaves 
2-5 by 1-2 in., base acute rounded or cordate, usually scabrid on both surfaces, re- 
ticulate beueath. Heads |-1 in. diam. ; inner invol. bracts nearly ^ in., sparsely 
-woolly, outer small, often squarrose ; corolla glabrous. Achenes ^ in. ; pappus ^ in., 
outer hairs few, short, caducous. 

2. V. subsessilis, DC. Prodr. v. 62 ; shrubby, branches nerves beneath 
and corymbs pubescent or tomentose, leaves large sessile oblanceolate or obovate 
acute or acuminate toothed serrate or sinuate-crenate glabrous above, heads 
many § in. diam. 30-40-tiowered corymbose or panicled, invol. bracts very many 
elongate-subulate or acicular strict, achenes silky, pappus reddish. 

NiPAL, Wallich. Khasia Mts., Assam and Birma, Griffith, &c. 

Stout, shrubby. Leaves 4-12 by 1-4 in., glabrous above. Heads 40-50-flowered, 
J in. diam., branches of corymb sometimes woolly, bracts at the forks slender. Invol. 
obconic ; bracts spreading from the base, outer subulate, very narrow, rigid, pubescent 
sometimes recurved ; corolla glabrous. Achenes \ in., striate ; pappus nearly \ in., 
persistent, outer very short, unequal. — There are three forms of this. 

Vab. 1. subsessilis proper; leaves narrowly lanceolate sharply irregularly toothed 
or serrate acuminate, heads corymbose, peduncle naked or with solitary subulate bracts. 
Conyza subsessilis, Wall. Cat. 300.— Khasia Mts., alt. 600-20.00 ft. 

Var. 2 bracteolata ; more shrubby, leaves obovate-lanceolate acuminate obscurely 
sinuate-toothed, heads corymbose, peduncles with often many subulate bracts. V. 
bracteolata, DC. Prodr. v. 62. Conyza bracteolata. Wall. Cat. 3036.— Nipal, Khasia 
Mts., Assam and Birma. 

Var. 3. Tnacrophylla ; shrubby, leaves 10-12 by 3-3^ in. obovate acute coarsely 
crenate-toothed, heads panicled, peduncles with filiform bracts. — East Nipal, dry rocks 
on the Tambur river, J. B. H. 

3. V. malabarlca, Hook. f. ; branches and leaves beneath softly tomen- 
tose, leaves shortly petioled elJiptic-lanceolate serrulate acuminate puberulous 
above, heads few ^ in. diam. terminal corymbose, invol. bracts few suberect 
linear-subulate pubescent, achenes obtusely 6-angled glabrate equalling the 
invol. bracts, pappus yellovnsh. 

NiLGHERRY Mxs. ; Sisparah Ghat, Beddorne. 

Apparently shrubby ; branches strict, pubescence of very soft, pale brown, close-set 
hairs. Leaves 2\-Z by |-1 in., rather thin. Heads all peduncledj corolla-lobes 
glandular-pubescent. Achenes ^ in. ; pappus \ in., outer very distinct, short, palea- 

4. V. G-ardnerl, Thw. JEnum. 160, excl. var. ^; herbaceous, branches 
leaves beneath and inflorescence puberulous, leaves petioled elliptic-lanceolate 
finely acuminate acutely serrate, nerves not prominent above, invol. bracts nar- 
row subulate finely acuminate, achenes puberulous, pappus pale reddish. Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 11. 

Cbtlon, Central Province ; Adam's Peak, Walker ; Ambagamowa, Thwaites. 

Stem and branches slender. Leaves usually 4-5 by ^-f in., rarely 5-6 by 2-2^, 
rather membranous, teeth gland-tipped. Heads ^-f in.; peduncles slender; outer- 
most invol. braots somewhat spreading; corolla glabrous. Pappus \ in., outer very 

Vernonm.'] Lxxviii. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 231 

5. V. Thwaitesii, Clarke Comp. Ind. 11 ; branches and corynabs finely 
pubescent, leaves sessile ovate or elliptic-ovate acute acutely serrate rigidly 
coriaceous reticulated, nerves prominent on both surfaces, invol. bracts linear- 
oblong obtuse or acute, achenes puberulous, pappus pale reddish, V. Gardneri, 
j8, Thwaites JEnum., 161. 

Ceylon, Central Province ; Adam's Peak, Horton Plains, and Galagama, Walker. 

Branches slender, rigid. Leaves 2-2^ by f-1^ in., narrowed at the base, Jarely 
almost orbicular, puberulous beneath, tip and teeth almost pungent. Heads Ibw, 
hardly corymbose ; peduncles often very long ; outermost invol. bracts very short, 
subulate ; corolla glabrous. Pappus ^ in., outer very short. 

6. V. Beddomel, Hook. f. ; glabrous, much branched, upper leaves 
shortly petioled lanceolate caudate-acuminate coarsely serrate those on the 
slender peduncles narrow and reciu'ved, invol. bracts linear acuminate, achenes 
hairy, pappus white. 

Western Peninsula ; South Travancore, Beddome. 

Branches ribbed, slender. Leaves (lower not seen) 4-6 by 1-1^ iu., rather rigid, 
reticulated on both surfaces, long apex quite entire. Heads 1-1 J in. diam., few or in 
much branched corymbs; branches and peduncles very slender; outer invol. bracts 
very short, subulate. Pappus ^ in. ; outer hairs few, short. 

7. V. attenuata, I>C. Prodr. v. 33 ; rigid, branches leaves beneath and 
inflorescence puberulous, leaves hard sea^^ile obovate or oblong-obovate acute 
coarsely toothed or serrate reticulate on both surfaces, invol. bracts linear-lan- 
ceolate finely acuminate outermost subulate, achenes striate villous, pappus white. 
Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 201 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 12. Oonyza atteuuata. 
Wall. Cat. 3020. 

Eastern Himalaya and Assam, in dry tropical forests ; alt. 1-5000 ft. Tenas- 
SERiM, Wallich, Falconer, &c. 

Erect, 2-3 ft., slender, branches grooved. Leaves very variable, 3-5 by 1-2^ in. 
Heads panicled corymbose, or solitary and axillary, when they are sometimes sessile, 
i-| in. diam. ; peduncles short, slender, often divaricate; inner invol. bracts nearly ^ 
in. ; corolla glabrous. Achenes ^ in. ; pappus J in., persistent, outer hairs few short. 
— A Siam form ( V. juncca., Kurz) has heads sessile on long slender leafless branches, 
and rufous pappus. 

8. V. Helferi, Hook. f. ; nearly glabrous, stem simple slender, leaves 
sessile elliptic acute entire or serrate shining and minutely reticulate on both 
surfaces, heads 1-2 30-40-flowered, invol. bracts linear-oblong obtuse outermost 
ovate acute, achenes silky 10-ribbed, pappus white. 

Tenasserim, Heifer. 

Stem 6-10 in., erect, above and peduncles pubescent, rather flexuous. Leaves 1^-2 
by ^-1 in., thinly coriaceous, brown and shining when dry. Heads shortly peduncled, 
^ in. diam.; invol. bracts glabrous, not numerous, innermost less than ^ in., flat; 
corolla glabrous. Achenes \ in. ; pappus \ in., outer hairs numerous short flattened. 
— This has altogether the habit of V. aitenuata, to which it is indeed closely allied, 
differing chiefly in its slender habit and the linear obtuse invol. scales. 

9. V. Ziobbli, Hook. f. ; corymbs softly tomentose, leaves shortly petioled 
broadly obovate subacute obscurely toothed glabrous above with raised dots 
beneath with fine lax hairs, heads sessile in axillary and terminal fascicled 
corymbs very shortly peduncled, invol. bracts linear aristate scarious outermost 
subulate, achenes villous, pappus white. 

Tenasserim ; hills on the Attran, Lohh. 

Leaves 6-7 by 3-3^ in., rather rigid, narrowed to the base but not into the short 

232 Lxxviir. compositj:. (J. D. Hooker.) [Vemonid, 

8tout petiole, finely reticulate on both surfaces, those on the inflorescence linear- 
oblong. Heads ^-| in. diam., clothed with white woolly tomentum ; invol. bracts i in., 
whit*. Achenes (unripe) ^ in. ; pappus \ in. ; hairs slender, persistent, outer very 

10. V. cUvoruzn, Hance in Seem. Joum. Bot. 1869, 164 ; branches leaves 
beneath and inflorescence puberulous, leaves shortly petioled lanceolate acumi- 
nate distantly serrate reticulate beneath, heads small corymbose on short lateml 
branches, invol. bracts linear acute outermost subulate, achenes pubescent, pappus 
white, V. Kingii, Clarke Comp. Ind. 12. 

Pegu and Mabtaban, Kurz. Uppkb Bibma, J. Anderson. — Distbib. Canton. 

Branches grooved and ribbed. Leaves 3-6 by |-2 in., tip entire, base rounded, 
rather rigid. Heads \ in. diam., 15-20flowered; peduncles slender; outer invol. 
liracts short, subulate; corolla glabrons. Pappus \ in.; hairs slender, persistent, 
outer few, very short. — I have seen only Hance's Canton specimen, to which Clarke 
refers his V. Kingii : the achenes are immature, 

11. V. peg'uensls, Garke Comp. Ind. 13; branches and corymbs finely 
pubescent, leaves petioled oblanceolate or linear-lanceolate acute or acuminate 
serrate glabrate on both surfaces, heads in simple axillary aiid terminal branched 
panicled corymbs, invol. bracts few lanceolate aristate-acuminate inner linear- 
oblong obtuse or acute, outermost ovate minute, achenes slightly hairy, pappus 

Pbgu ; Irawaddy and Saluen valleys, Kurz. 

Apparently a robust tall species. Leaves 12 by 4 to 6 by 1 in., rather membra- 
nous, puberulous when young, narrowed into the petiole. Heads ^-| in., 12-20- 
flowered ; inner invol. bracts \ in., membranous, green. Achenes (immature) \ in. ; 
pappus hairs fine, persistent, outer many, verj short, rigid. 

12. V. Thomsoni, Hook. /.-, half-shrubby, much branched, branches 
corymbs and leaves above scaberulous, leaves subsessile lanceolate acuminate 
serrate puberulous beneath, heads obconic 10-16-flowered in small short axillary 
corymbs, peduncles slender, invol. inner bracts linear acuminate outermost needle- 
shaped, achenes glabrous strongly 10-ribbed, pappus white. 

CfliTTAGONG ; at Seetakoond, J. D. H. ^ T. Thomson. 

A straggling undershrub; branches ribbed and grooved. Leaves 4-8 by 1^-3 in., 
membranous. Heads on slender pubescent pedicels, ^ in. diam ; invol. bracts glabrous, 
shining, recurved, inner | in. Achenes ^ in. ; pappus ^ in., very fine, persistent, outer 
bairs very few. — This is probably the Seetakoond plant which Kurz includes under 
V. saligna, from which it widely diflfers in the larger heads and much longer narrower 
white invol. bracts. 

13. V. braoteataf Wall. Cat. 2921 ; rigid, scabrid or scaberulous, leaves 
sessile or shortly petioled elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate acute remotely serrate, 
heads SO-flowered few large corymbose peduncled, invol. bracts not numerous 
linear-oblong with slender often recurved awns, outermost subulate, achenes 
glabrous, pappus reddish. Clarke Comp. Ind. 17 e^'cl. syn. Wight. Decaneuron 
silhetense, DC. Pf'odi', v. 67. Xipholepis silhetensis, Steetz in Peter's Mosamh. 
Bot. 345 ? 

Eastbbn Himalaya ; Sikkim and Bhotan. Khasia Mts., alt. 2-6000 ft. Bibma ; 
Karen hills, Kurz. 

Shrubby below, erect, sparingly branched, leafy; branches terete, pubescent or 
roughly tomentose. Leaves usually narrow, 2-4 by ^-l in., rarely 4 by 2 in., more or 
less rigid and scabrid. Heads rarely many, | in. diam. ; peduncles erect or ascending, 
scabrid ; invol. bracts few, inner often ^ in., thin, glabrate. Corolla glabrous. 
Achenes quite glabrous ; otherwise and pappus as in V. Boxburgkii and teres. 

14. V. Roxburg*!!!!, LeM. in Linnaa, 1831, 674; rigid, scabrid, leaves 
hard subsessile or petioled elliptic- or obovate-lanceolate acuminate acutely 

Vernonia.'] Lxxviti. composite:. (J. D. Hooker.) 233 

serrate^ heads 30-flowered large fascicled in terminal panicled corymbs, invol. 
bracts linear obtuse and apiculate or acuminate or pungent outermost subulate, 
achenes sparsely hairy, pappus dirty white or reddish. Kurz in Joui-n. As. Soc. 
1877, ii. 200. V. aspera, DC. Piodr. v. 31, not of Ham. ; WaU. Cot. 2922, exci. 
A.; Clarke Comp. 2nd. 17. Eupatorium asperum, JRoab. Hart. Beng. Gl ; Fl. 
Ind. iii. 415. E. pyramidale, Don Piodr. 170. Xipholepis aspera, Steetz in 
Peters Mosamb. Bot. 346 ? excl. syn. 

Westeen Himalaya; Kumaon, Royle, Edgeworth. Chota-Nagpore, and Central 
India, alt. 1-4000 ft. Behar, J. J). H. Concan, Law (perhaps cult.); Birma, 
at Bhamo, on dry hills, Griffith. 

More branched than V. teres ; leaves often narrowed into a slender petiole, acumi- 
nate and deeply serrate; heads smaller, very numerous; invol. bracts fewer and 
broader, inner ^ in., quite linear ; achenes as large, less hairy and only between the 
ribs ; outer pappus hairs often absent, 

15. V. penlnsularls, Clarke mss. ; roughly pubescent, stem flexuous 
ribbed, leaves petioled elliptic acute serrate, heads 20-3(>-flowered few corymbose, 
invol. bracts oblong with very long slender often recurved awns outer filiform 
squarrose, achenes glabrous, pappus pale reddish. V. bracteata, var. peninsu- 
laris, Clarke Comp. Ind. 18. Decaneuron silhetense, Wt. Ic. t. 1083. 

Travancore, at Courtallam, Wight. 

Stem nearly simple, deeply furrowed. Leaves 2-4 by 1^-2 in., rather membranous, 
scabrid above. Heads | in. diam. ; outer invol. bracts \-^ in. ; awns often as long as 
the lamira, woolly. Achenes a.nd pappus as in V. bracteata, 

16. Vr anceps, Clarke mss. ; shrubby, branches slender terete and corymbs 
brown-pubescent, leaves petioled lanceolate or narrowly elliptic-lanceolate acu- 
minate distantly serrulate puberulous on both surfaces or beneath only, heads 
80-40-flowered in open corymbs, inner invol. bracts short oblong-lanceolate acute 
outer subulate, achenes strongly 4-5-ribbed puberulous, pappus dirty white, outer 
a ring of short paleaceous scales. V. Wightiana, var. /3, Thwaites Enum. 160. 

Ceylon ; Adam's Peak, Thwaites. 

Branches woody, as thick as a crow- or goose-quill. Leaves 2-3 by y-| in. 
Achenes ^ in., twice as long as the invol. bracts.— This, Thwaites, considering the 
close similarity of their floral characters, does not venture to separate from V. 
Wightiana; but the foliage, &c., is so entirely different in form, membranous consist- 
ence, toothing, and glabrousness, that I cannot but agree with Mr. Clarke in keeping 
it distinct; the corollas are nearly glabrous. 

17. V. revoluta, Ham. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xiv. 218; dwarf, puberulous, 
leaves sessile linear apiculate margins revolute, heads 30-40-flowered subsolitary, 
invol. bracts few broadly oblong-lanceolate acuminate, achenes hairy terete, 
pappus white. Clarke Comp. Ind. 22. V. oligocephala, Edgew. in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. XX. 63. 

Western Himalaya; Kumaon and Garwhal, Boyle, Falconer, &c. Bhotan, 

A perennial woody-rooted herb, branched from the base; stems 2-6 in., ascending 
or erect, slender, angled and grooved. Leaves erect, 1 by ~-^ in., with a strong niid- 
rib and strongly revolute entire margins. Hads \ in. diam.; peduncles striate; 
bracts subulate or ; invol. bracts puberulous ; outermost very narrow, subulate, often 
recurved; inner \ in. long, scarious; corolla-lobes hairy. Achenes (unripe) \ in., 
sparingly hairy ; pappus \ in. long, persistent, outer hairs 0. 

** Heads small, about \ in. long, numerous or few, coi-ymbose. 

t Annual ; achenes terete, not angled or ribbed. 

18. V. cinerea, Less, in Linncea, iv. 291, and vi. 673 ; herbaceous, hoary- 
voL m. I 

23 ii Lxxviii. COMPOSITE!. (J. D. Hooker.) [Vernonia, 

pubescent, leaves petioled ovate or lanceolate obtuse or acute obscurely or deeply 
obtusely or acutely toothed, heads about 20-flowered in loose corymbs, invol. 
bracts linear-lanceolate tips awned glabrous, pappus white or dirty white outer 
hairs short. DC. in WigJvt Contrib. 6 ; Prndr. v. 24 ; Wall. Cat. 3008. V. cony- 
zoides, DC. in Wight Contrib. 6 ; Pt-odr. v. 25 ; Dak. Sf Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 121. 
V. rhomboidea and montana, Edgew. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 62. V. albicans, 
DC. in Wight Contrib. 6, 'n vart ; Wight Ic. 1. 1076 (achenes wrongly figured a^ 
5-ribbed). V. abbreviata and leptophylla, DC. I. c. 25. V. laxiflora, Less, in 
LinncBa, vi. 646 ; DC. I. c. 25. V. physalifolia, DC. in Wight Contrib. 6 ; Prodr. 
I. c. 24. V. parviflora, linifolia, and fasciculata, Reinw. in Bl. Bijd. 893, V. 
Zollingeriana, Schultz-Bip. in Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 16. V. cyanonioides, Walp. 
in Linncea, xv. 509. Oonyza abbreviata, Wall. Cat. 3048 ; beUidifolia, 3047 ; 
cinerascens, 3062 ; incana, 3046 ; linifolia, 3063 ; elegantula, 3049 ; ovata, 3097 ; 
and subsimplex, 3003. C. cinerea, Linn. ; Wall. Cat. 3008. 0. mollis, WiUd. 
{Jid. Lessing). C. prolifera and heterophylla, Lamk. Encycl. ii. 84. Serratula 
cinerea, Roxb. Hart. Beng. 60. Cacalia rotundifolia, WiUd. Phyt. ii. t. 6, f . 1. 
Ohrysocoma purpurea, Forst. Prod?'. 54. C. violacea, Schum. PL Guin. 384. 
Cyanopis decurrens, Zoll. in Geneesk. Archiv. ii. 563; and Chlaotrachelus 
rupestris, Zoll. I. c. fd. Miquel. Synanthera, Wall. Cat. 7137. — Rheede Hart. 
Mai. X. t. 64. 

Throughout India, ascending to 8000 ft. in the Himalaya, Khasia and Peninsular 
Mts. — DisTBiB. Trop. Asia, Africa, and Australia. 

One of the commonest Indian weeds, erect, rarely decumbent, 6-18 in. high; stem 
slender, grooved and ribbed. Leaves tarely 3 in. long or 1^ in. broad, membranous or 
rather coriaceous ; petiole very variable. Heads about | in. diam., in rounded or open 
and flat-topped corymbs ; branches usually divaricate; peduncles slender, with small 
bracts at the axils ; invol. scales about ^-| in. ; corolla with pubescent lobes. Achenes 
^^ in. ; pappus ^ in., outer hairs very short indeed. — -it is impossible to define the 
forms of habit and foliage of this very variable plant, -which is on the whole remark- 
ably unifcJrm in its flowers ; of these the most marked are V. physalifolia, which is 
stout, very tomentose, with broad leaves ; and V. conyzoides, with short or no outer 
pappus, and ovate-lanceolate or ovate sharply toothed leaves narrowed into long 
petioles. To these may be added var. montana, Clarke (Comp. Ind. 21), from 4-6000 
ft. on the Khasia Mts., and from the N. W. Himalaya, with villous fulvous leaves and 
stems and yellowish pappus, and which is Edgeworth's V. rhomboidea ; and the var. 
ludens, Clarke 1. c, with dimorphic achenes, of which the inner are normal, the outer 
almost beaked and seedless ; it is a native of Assam, the Malay Peninsula, and China. 
To the many synonyms cited, Bentham (Fl. Austral, iii. 459) adds V., DC. 
Prodr, V. 25, and suggests that nearly all the species of DCs section Tephrodes may 

ft Perennial, rarely annual ; achenes ribbed. 

19. V. divergreHs, Benth. in Gen. PI. ii. 229 ; stout, erect, pubescent 
toment >8e or scabrid, leaves petioled elliptic-ovate or lanceolate serrate, heads 
small 8-12-flowered in usually dense much branched panicled rounded corymbs 
invol. bracts few oblong obtuse outermost ovate, achenes glabrous 10-ribbed 
pappus pale reddish-brown or dirty white, Clarke Comp. Ind. 14. V. aspera, 
Hamilt. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xiv. 219, in part ; Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877 
ii. 201. V. nilgheryensia, DC. Prodr. v. 32; Wt. Jc. t. 1078. V. multiflora, 
DC. I. c. 31. Y. Metziaua, Schultz-Bip. in Herb. Hohenack. n. 1342. V. aspera. 
Less, in Linruea, 1831, 643? Decaneuron divergens, DC. I. c. 68; Wight Con 
trib. 8 ; Ic. t. 1084. Conyza divergens, multiflora, and lanceola^a, Wall. Cat, 
3027, A., 3032 a., 3059. Eupatorium versicolor arid polyanthemura, Wall. Cat 
8167, 3171. E. divergens, Ro.ib. Hart. Beng. 61 ; Fl. Ind. iii. 415. Gymnan 
themum Metzianum, Schultz-Bip. I. c. n. 542. Lysistemma divergens and 
multiflorum, Steetz in Peters Mosamb. Bot. 341. 

Vemonia,] Lxxviii. compositj:. (J. D. Hooker.) 235 

Bbhar, on Parusnath, alt. 4000 ft. Centkal India, and from the Concak to the 
Tbavancoh Mts., Rangoon, Bibma, and Tbnassebim. 

Stem shrubby, 4-8 ft. Leaves 2-6 by 1-4 in., varying much in texture ; nenes 
spreading, reticulate beneath. Heads ^ in, diam., usually clustered ; peduncles very 
short; in vol. bracts with greenish tips; corolla glabrous. Achenes -\ in.; pappus 
^-\ in., hairs scabrid, outer very few or 0. — This cannot be the plant described by 
Hamilton as V. aspera (as supposed by Kurz), for that is stated to have a short outer 
pappus, and to be Roxburgh's Eupatorium asperum ; as, however, Wallich's 3032 B. 
(under Conyza multiflora) is an authentic specimen of Hamilton's V. aspera, and so 
named, it is probable that this author had two plants under his eye. 

20. V. obinensls, Less, in LinncRa, vi. 674 ; puberiilous or tomentose, 
■branches slender terete, leaves sessile or petioled ovate elliptic or elliptic-lanceo- 
late subserrate, heads 20-30-flowered scattered or 2-3-nate,invol. bracts pubescent 
lanceolate awned, achenes 4-5-ribbed glabrous glandular, pappus white. Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 18. V. albicans, DC. in Wight Coyttrih. 6 ; Prodr. v. 26, in part. 
Cyanopis pubescens and villosa, DC. Prodr. v. 69. Conyza chinensis, Lamk. 
Diet. ii. 83, not of Linn. C. punctulata, W(dl. Cat. 2996. Eupatorium men- 
thsefoliuoi, Wall, Cat. Isonema ovata, Cass, in Diet. Se. Nat. xxiv, 25. 
Cynanthillium -villosuni and pubescens, Blume Bijd. 889 and 890. Oentratherum 
chinense, Less, in Linncsa, 1829, 320. — Synanthera, Wall. Cat. 7136. 

Eastern Peninsula, from Pegu to Makcca.— Distrib. Java, China, Philippines. 

Annual; branches divaricate. Leaves 1-3 in., membranous. Heads | in. diam.; 
peduncles slender; invol. bracts not numerous, glabrous or puberulous; receptacle 
pitted; corolla glabrous. Achenes -^ in. ; pappus ^ in., hairs few, outer 0. — Conyza 
patula, Ait. Hort. Kew, v. 26, quot^ under this by Lessing, is a very doubtful Chinese 

21. "V. saligrna, DC. Prodr. v. 33; much branched, glabrous or slightly 
scabrid, leaves sessile or shortly petioled elliptic-oblong or oblanceolate acumi- 
nate coarsely serrate, heads 6-12-flowered in terminal branched rounded corymbs, 
inner invol. bracts linear-oblong acute or acuminate scarious purplish outermost 
subulate, achenes strongly 10-ribbed glabrous, pappus reddish or white. Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 13. V. longicaulis, DC. I. c. Conyza saligna, Wall. Cat. 3061. 
Eupatorium longicaule, Wall. Cat. 3169. 

Tropical Himalaya, from Nipal eastward, ascending to 4000 ft. ; Assam, Khasla 
Mts., Chittaqong, and Birma. 

A coarse, leafy, almost shrubby, very variable herb. Leaves 3-6 by ^-2^ in., 
rather rigid, often a little scabrid on both surfaces. Heads J-| in. diam. ; peduncles 
slender; invol. bracts rigid, outermost very short, subulate, inner ^ in. Achenes ^ 
in., compressed ; pappus \ in., outer hairs 0. 

Y A.B. ? nilghirensis ; branches and inflorescence glandular-pubescent, pappus pale 
reddish-brown.— Nilgherry Mts., Wight (Kew Distrib. 1626), Clarke.— Thia much 
resembles V. pectiniformis. 

22. V. setlg'era, Am. Pugill. 27 ; tomentose or villous, branches grooved, 
leaves petioled ovate acuminate serrate, heads 6-10-flowered small in rounded 
terminal ebracteate corymbs, invol. bracts few linear shortly awned, achenes 
4-5-angled nearly glabrous glandular, pappus yellowish. DC. P-odr. vii. 263 ; 
Clarke Comp. Ind. 18. V. neilgheryensis, Thwaites Enum. 160, not of DC. 

Ceylon; Central Province, alt. 6-7000 ft., Walker, &c. 

Erect, stout or slender, much branched, leafy. Leaoca 2-3 in., narrowed into the 
petiole, glabrate above, black when dry. Corymbs lax, ebracteate ; heads \ in. diam., 
Obconic ; invol. bracts few, puberulous ; corolla glabrous. Achenes ^ in., with a few 
short hairs ; pappus ^ in., outer wery short or 0. 

23. V. Bookerianat Am. Pugill. 28 ; hoary-puberulous^ branches terete 

236 Lxxviii. composite;. (J. D. Hooker.) IVenwnia. 

or obscurely grooved, leaves petioled ovate acuminate serrate, heads small 20- 
flowered in lax open ebracteate corymbs, invol. bracts linear-oblong obtuse or 
mucronate pubescent, acbenes 6-angled almost glabrous, pappus white. DC. 
Pi'odr, vii. 263 ; Clarke Cornp. Ind. 19. V. conyzoides, Thwaites Enum. 160, 
not of DC. 

Ceylon; Central Province, alt. 1-4000 ft., Walker, &c. 

Very similar in habit to V. setigera, but only hoary, with looser corymbs, longer 
peduncles, smaller heads, with much shorter more obtuse invol. bracts and whiter 

24. V. CandoUeana, Wt. ^ Aiin,. in Wight Cat. 1509 ; branches terete 
villous, leaves subsessile elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate acnte serrate, heads 15- 
liowered few small in a spreading villous corymb, invol. bracts few oblong pun- 
gent, achenes 4-angled glabrous, pappus white. Clarke Comp. Ind. 19. V. 
dindigulensis, DC. Prodr. vii. 263. V. conyzoides, Wt. Ic. t. 829, and vol. iii. 
part iv. p. 16 {eri'ata), not of DC. 

NiiGHERRT and Pulney Mrs., Wight. 

Apparently a low herb or shrub. Leaves 2-3 by ^-1 in., puberulous above, pubes- 
cent beneath. Heads | in. diam. ; peduncles with a few setaceous bracts ; invol. bracts 
puberulous, purple-tipped, outermost filiform ; corolla glabrous. Achenes ^^ in. ; 
pappus \ in., outer hairs subpersistent. — Collected by Wiglit alone, and the specimens 
.are very poor, and, I suspect, all from the Pulneys, or other collectors would have 
found it in the Nilgherries. 

25. V. scariosa, Am. Pugill. 28; hispidly pubescent, leaves petioled 
elliptic acute serrate, heads 12-14-flowered small sessile terminal fascicled, invol. 
bracts linear-oblong awned glabrate outermost ovate acuminate, achen«s glabrous, 
pappus reddish. Thwaites Enum. 161. Decaneuron ? scariosum, DC. Fiodr. 
vii. 264. Centratherum scariosum, Clarke Camp. Ind. 4. 

Ceylon ; Central Province, alt. 4-7000 ft., Walker, &c. 

Branches grooved and ribbed, clothed with spreading and curled hairs. Leaves 1-5 
by ^-2^ in., scabrid above, beneath hairy like the branches. Heads narrow, \ and ^ 
in. diam.; outer invol. bracts J-^; corolla glabrous. Achenes ^ in.; pappus ^ in., 
outer hairs few, short. — Thwaites' var. )3 crassa is only a more luxuriant state. 

B. Invol. bracts all obtuse or apiculate, usually linear or oblong, rarely ovate 
and acute. 

* Outer invol. bracts very large, broad, concealing.the inner. 

26. V. calycina, Wall, in DC. Prodr. v. 60; Cat. 2924; nearly glabrouH, 
upper branches involucre and upper leaves beneath hoary-pubescent, leaves sub- 
sessile elliptic quite entire obtuse, heads subcorymbose, outer invol. bracts very 
large green elliptic or oblong obtuse inner linear acute. 

Birma; Prome, WalHch. 

Herbaceous, erpct, black when dry. Leaves 2-4 by l-2i in., upper subobovate, 
rather unequal-sided, glabrous above, puberulous beneath. Heads 1 in. diam., shortly 
peduncled ; corollas 40-50, puberulous. Achcnts stellately pubescent and glandular ; 
pappus ^ in. long ; hairs reddish, shining; outer few, half as long as the innei*. 

** Outer invol. bracts longer than the inner, linear, with leafy tips ; annual. 

27. V. antbelmintica, Willd.; DC. Prodr. v. 61; tall, branched, 
glandular-pubescent, leaves petioled lanceofate or ovate-lanceolate coarsely 
serrate, heads subcorymbose, invol. bracts linear with broad purplish tips. 
Ham. in Tram. Linn. Sac. xiv. 217; Wall. Cat. 2920; Wight Conti-ib. 7; 
Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 313 ; Kurz in Jown. As. Sac. 1877, ii. 202 ; Clarke 

■ Comp. Ind. 10. Oonyza anthelmintica, Linn. Serratula anthelmintica, Roxb. 

Vernonia.] Lxxviii. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 237 

Fl. Ind. iii. 405. Ascaricida indica, Cass in Diet. Sc. Nat. iii. Suppl. 38. — Bunn. 
Thes. 210 t. 96. Rheede Hort. Mai. ii. t. 24. 

Throughout India ; from Kashmir to Ceylon (nowhere ? indigenous) and Malacca, 
ascending to 5500 ft. in the Himalaya and Khasia Mts. — Distbib. AfFghanistan. 

A tall robust leafy annual. Leaves 3-8 in., rather membranous. Heads ^5 in. 
diam., about 40-fld. Achenes \ in., 10-ribbed, pubescent ; outer pappus rather longer, 
shining, reddish, flattened, deciduous ; inner very short, rigid, paleaceous, 

**• Outer in vol. bracts much shorter than the inner. 

f Heads very small. Leaves not thickly clothed beneath vnth white woolly 

28. V. cinerasoens, Schultz-Bip. in Schweinf. Ethiop. 162; low, 
shrubby, much branched, clothed with ashy pubescence, leaves elongate spathu- 
late tip rounded sessile with a very naiTow base punctate, heads few small 
solitary on the divaricating branches of terminal cymes, invol. bracts linear 
subacute, achenes silky, pappus white. Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. iii. 275. V. 
spathulata, Hochst. in Herb. Schweinf. n. 2133. 

The Punjab ; at Peshawar, Vicary, Talbot. Salt Range, Fleming. Wuztjbistan, 
Stewart. Scind, at Kurrache, Stocks. — Distrlb, Beluchistan, Abyssinia. 

Branches white, quite terete. Leaves 5-li in., green when dry, both surfaces 
alike. Head^ \ in. diam. ; peduncles with rarely minute bracts ; invol. bracts linear, 
^ in. ; corolla glabrous. Achenes ^ in., densely silky ; pappus ^ in. ; hairs all persis- 
tent, outer many short rigid. —The achene is incorrectly described in the Flor. Trop. 

29. V. eleeagrnlfolla, DC. Prodr. v. 22; climbing, branches petioles 
and inflorescence hoary, leaves petioled oblong linear-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate 
quite entire obtuse or acute glabrous and reticulate above loosely silky beneath, 
heads 3-5-flowered in narrow terminal short loose panicles all pedicelled, invol. 
bracts few small ovate obtuse, achenes compressed 5-8-ribbed glabrous, pappui 
white outer hairs few. Clarke Comp. Ind. 24; Kurz For. Fl. 11, 80. V. ellip- 
tica, DC. in Wight Contrib. 5 : Prodr. v. 22. Conyza elseagnifolia, Wall. Cat. 

Pegu ; Maclelland. Tenasserim, Wallich, Griffith, &c. — Distrib. Siam. 

Branches long, woody, finely grooved. Lea'fes 1-3 by ^-1 in., pale and almost 
silky beneath ; petiole slender. Heads \ in. diam., about 3 at the end of the rigid 
divaricating branches of the panicle ; invol.-bracts ^ in. ; corolla glabrous. Achenes 
jg in. ; pappus | in., persistent. 

30. V. nemoralls, Thw. Enum. 160 ; herbaceous, branches and heads 
puberulous, leaves petioled elliptic- or linear-lanceolate acuminate distantly 
serrate glabrous on both surfaces nerves obscure, invol. bracts linear-oblong 
obtuse, achenes hairy, pappus white. Clarke Comp. Ind. 11. 

Ceylon ; Saffragam, Galagama, &c. Walker^ &c. 

Apparently a slender herb. Leaves 2-4 by \-l in., young slightly puliescent 
beneath. Heads sometimes corymbose, \-^ in. diam. ; outermost invol. bracts short, 
obtuse. Corolla glabrous. Achenes obscurely 10-ribbed ; pappus 5 in., outer bristles 
very short. 

tt Heads large or small. Leaves thickly clothed beneath with dense white or 
luff woolly tomentum. Shrubs. 

31. V. salviaefoUa, Wight Ic. t. 1079; branches woody, inflorescence 
and leaves beneath clothed densely with white wool, leaves crowded at the ends 
of the branches sessile linear-lanceolate obtuse crenulate rugulose above, heads 
10-14-flowered in open corymbs, invol. bracts short oblong acute, achenes com- 

238 Lxxviii. COMFORIT-E. (J. D. Hooker.) [Vemonia. 

pressed obscurely .S-4-angled {,dal)roua, pappus pale reddish. Clarke Comp. Ind. 
20. V. Arnottiana, Thorns, mss. ex Clarke. 

Tbayancorb, at Courtallam, Wight. 

Branches very thick. Ijeaves 4-6 by ^-f in., thick, above almost tubercled by the 
short close-set high wrinkles between the numerous nerves. Heads ^ in. diam., sub- 
sesstle ; peduncles with few small linear axillary bracts ; invol. bracts i in. ; corolla 
glabrous. Ackenes -J in. ; pappus as long ; outer hairs very numerous, short, flat, 
persistent, inner caducous. 

32. V. Wigrbtlana, ^rn.. PugUl. 27 ; shrubby, branches leaves beneath 
and corymbs clothed -with dense buff wool, leaves shortly petioled elliptic or 
elliptic-lanceolate obtuse or acute obscurely toothed woolly but finally glabrate 
above, heads 30-40-flowered in ternainal open corymbs, invol. bracts short ob- 
long acute, achenes 4-6-ribbed glabrous, pappus dirty white. DC. Fi'odr. vii. 
263 ; Thwaites Enum. 160, excl. var. /3 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 19. 

Ceylon ; central province, alt. 5-8000 ft., Macrae, &c. 

Branches terete, stout or slender, leafy. Leaves 2-5 by |-1^ in., coriaceous; 
petiole sometime f in. Heads \-\ in. diam. ; peduncles stout, with a few narrow 
bracts ; invol. bracts | in., woolly ; corolla laxly hairy. Achenes {-^ in. ; pappus l in., 
outer hairs very short flattened. 

33. V. indlca, Clarke Coinp. Ind. 16; branches leaves beneath and 
inflorescence clothed with dense soft whitish tomentum, leaves subsessile 
elliptic or almost orbicular acute serrate-toothed coriaceous, heads numerous in 
broad terminal corymbs 6-10-flowered, invoi. scales broad oblong mucronate, 
achenes glabrous, pappus yellowish. Conyza indica, WaU. Cat. 3042. Pe- 
caneuron dendigulense, DC. in Wight Conti-ib. 7 ; Prodr. v. 67. Lysistemma 
dendigulense, Steetz in Peters Mosamh. Bot. 341. 

Western Peninsula ; on the Ghats, from the Concan to Tiavancore. 

An undershrub, 2-3 ft., erect; branches terete. Leaves 3-6 by 1^-5 in., rigid, 
scaberulous above ; n.erves many, much raised beneath, petiole rarely 1 in. Heads ^ 
in. diam,, crowded at the end of the stout branches; inner invol. bracts \ in., tomen- 
tose, closely imbricate, outermost minute ovate; corolla glabrous. Achenes ^^ in.; 
pappus \ in. ; outer hairs 0. 

34. V. zeylcuilca, Less, in Linncea, 1829, 344 ; branches leaves beneath 
and corymbs ashy tomentose or woolly, leaves shortly petioled ovate with alyrate 
usually auricled base acute coarsely crenate, heads 4-8-flowered small fascicled 
in large terminal corymbs, invol. bracts very short ovate acute, achenes 6-ribbed 
puberulous, pappus pale reddish. DC. in Wight Contrib. 6 ; Prodr. v. 2Q ; Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 20. Eupatorium zeylanicum, Linn. — Cacalia, Burm. Thes. Zeyl. 52 
t. 21. 

Ceylon : hilly parts of the isUnd ascending to 3000 ft. 

Branches slender, grooved and ribbed. Leaves 1-2^ by ^-1 in., coriaceous, puberu- 
lous above, densely woolly and reticulate beneath, basal auricles horizontal. Heads \ 
in. diam. ; peduncles with few small axillary bracts ; invol. bracts few, woolly, ^ in. 
Jong ; corolla glabrous. Achenes Jg in. long ; pappus \ in ; outer hairs few, very 

ttt Heads usually large. Leaves not clothed with white wool beneath. 

35. V. eztensa, DC. Prodr. y. 33 ; branches and inflorescence pubescent, 
leaves petioled lanceolate acuminate sharply serrate glabrous or scaberulous 
above pubescent or glabrate beneath, heads in loose terminal corymbs 8-10- 
flowered, invol. bracts few linear-oblong concave obtuse coriaceous, outermost 
very short obtuse, achenes pubescent, pappu<» reddish. Clarke Connp, Ind. 15, 

Yernonia.l Lxxviii. compositje. (J. D. Hooker.) 239 

Oonyza extensa, Wall. Cat. S016. Gymnanthemum extensum, Steetz in Peteri 
Mosamh. Bot. 337. 

Central and Eastben Teopicai, Himalaya ; Nipal, Wallich ; Sikkim, J. D. H. ; 
Bhotan, Griffith. 

Erect, 6-8 ft, branched. Leaves 6-10 by 2^-3 in., narrowed into a short or long 
petiole, membranous. Heads ^ in. diam., longer than broad ; peduncles very slender ; 
mvol. scales not numerous, hard, closely imbricate, puberulous, inner ^ in. ; corolla 
pubescent. Achenes I in. ; pappus i in., outer hairs few or 0. — Clarke likens this to 
V. blanda, and suggests its being a variety of that plant, but the sharply serrate long 
leaves are very different. 

36. V. pectlnlformls, DC. in Wight Ccmtrtb. 2 ; Ptodr v. 31 ; 
shrubby, branches glabrate pubescent scabrid villous or glandular, leaves 
petioled elliptic-lanceolate acuminate serrate glabrous or scabrid above puberulous 
pubescent or tomentose beneath usually many-nerved, heads 10-25-flowered in 
short broad terminal corymbs, inner invol. bracts oblong obtuse or apiculate, 
outer small acuminate, achenes glabrous, pappus dirty white or reddish. Am. 
Pugill. 27 ; Wight Ic. t. 1077. V. puncliculata, DC. Prodr. vii. 204. Lybi- 
stemma pectiniforme, Steetz in Peters Mosamh. Bot. 343. 

NiLQHBBBY Mts., alt. 8000 ft. Ceylon ; central province, alt. 6-7000 ft.. Walker, 

Branches usually stout, ribbed and grooved. Leaves often close-set, 3-6 by 1-2^ 
in., rigid, narrowed into the petiole, nerves 6-12 pair. Heads \ in. diam , peduncles 
short; invol. bracts hard, concave, usually with rounded coloured tips, outer gradually 
smaller, often subulate and recurved; receptacle fimbriate; corolla glabrous. 
Achenes \ in. ; pappus ^ in long, outer hairs short, sometimes numerous, most red in 
Ceylon specimens. 

37. V» arborea. Ham. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xiv. 218 ; a tree, branches 
and corymbs pubescent tomentose or woolly, leaves large petioled elliptic or 
elliptic-ovate acuminate quite entire glabrous or beneath pubescent, base acute 
rounded or cordate, heads 1-6-flowered small in large leafless terminal panicles, 
invol. bracts very small oblong obtuse, achenes compressed or 3-4-gonous ob- 
scurely 8-10-ribbed puberulous, pappus white or yellowish hairs persistent all 
equal. DC. Prodr. v. 22 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 80. V. javanica, DC. I. c. ; Bedd. 
For. Man. 125. V. Blumeana and celebica, DC. I. c. 22. Eupatorium celebicura 
and javanicum, Biiume Bijd. 903. Oonyza acuminata and arborea, Wall. Cat. 
3034 A., 3074. ? Gymnanthemiun acuminatum, Steetz. in Peters Mosamb. Bot. 

Assam, the Ksasia Mts., Silhet, Cachab, Bibma, Tenasserim, Malacca, and 
/SlNQAPORE. Western Peninsula on the Ghats, from the Concan, southwards. 
Cbylon, ascending to 6000 ft. — Disteib. Java, Borneo, Philippines. 

A large shrub or small tree. Leaves 5-8 by 2-3 in., coriaceous, quite glabrous iii 
northern specimens, more or less pubescent in Malayan ; petiole \-\ in. Heads \ in. 
diam. ; involucre small ; bracts few, ^ in long, tomentose ; corolla glabrous. Achenes 
j^ in., pale ; pappus ^ in., hairs few, all equal and in one row. — A Philippine Island's 
var. has branches inflorescence and leaves beneath densely clotted with white or buff 
velve ty pubescence. The Malaccan and Silhet forms have the leaves usually quite 
glabrous, the Tenasserirn ones pubescent, the Ceylon densely pubescent. 

Vab. ? Wightiana; branches leaves beneath and inflorescence very densely woolly, 
petioles usually shorter and stout, heads often 1-fld. V. monosis, DC. in Wight 
Contnh. 5; Ic. t. 1085; Clarke Ccymp. Ind. 24; Bedd. Fl. Sglv. t. 225. Cony/A 
Wightiana, Wall. Cat. 3028. — Western Peninsula, on the Ghats, from the Concan 
southwards. — 1 can scarcely doubt this being a form of V. arbona, with which it 
perfectly agrees in the form of the leaves, heads, achenes, and pappus, but the 
petioles are usually very short and thick, as in V. solanifolia, sometimes however 
long and slender as figured by Wight. 

240 Lxxviii. composite;. (J. D. Hooker.) [Vernonia. 

88. V. SOlanifolia, Bmth. in Lond. Joum. Bot. i. 486 ; Kew Journ. iv. 
232 ; FL Hongk. 169 ; subarboreous, branches leaves beneath and panicles 
densely softly woolly, leaves petioled ovate-oblong or elliptic obtuse or acute 
entire or sinuate-toothed base rounded or cordate, heads 3-5-flowered in open 
large terminal panicles, in vol. bracts few small ovate obtuse woolly, achenes 
8-10-ribbed glabrous, pappus yellowish persistent with short outer bristles. 
V. Kurzii, aarke Comp. Ind. 24 ; Kurz For. FL ii. 80. 

Maktaban and Pegu ; in dry forests, Kurz. — Distrib. China. 

A large weak shrub or small tree, which I cannot distinguish from the densely 
woolly form of V, arhorea, except by the leaves being usually tomentose above with a 
shorter very stout petiole, and the presence of the outer pappus bristles. 

39. V. volkairerieBfolia, DC. Prodr. v. 32; a tree, branchlets and 
panicles pubescent cr tomentose, leaves large petioled obovate or obovate-oblong 
or lanceolate acute or obtuse glabrous above pubescent on the nerves beneath 
entire or subserrate, heads 3-10 flowered in large terminal leafless panicles, in vol. 
bracts puberulous few linear-oblong obtuse, achenes lO-ribbed nearly glabrous, 
pappus whitish persistent. Karz in Joiirn. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 202. V. punduana, 
Z>C. Prodr. v. 32. V. acuminata, DC. I. c. excl. syn. ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 22; 
Kurz For. Fl. ii. 79. V. pimduana, vulgaris and volkameriaefolia, Steetz in 
Peters Mosamb. Bot. 346. V. cuspidata, Buek in Index CandoU. ii. 5. Conyza 
volkameriaefolia and punduana, Wall. Cat. 3001, 3035. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, Khasia and Jaintea Mts. ; alt. 2-50C0 ft. Mishmi Hills, 
Griffith. BiRMA, Kurz. 

A small tree; branches robust, terete. Leaves 5-12 by l|-4 in., rather thin, 
narrowed into very short petioles. Heads very numerous, ^-| in diam. ; peduncles 
short or long, stout, with small bracts at the base; invol. bricts \ in.; corolla gla- 
brous, Ac^ies I in., with a few scattered short hairs ; pappus ^ in., very persistent, 
outer hairs few short. 

40. V. travancorlca, Hook. f. ; a tree, branchlets and inflorescence 
hoary-pubescent, leaves shortly petioled obovate obtuse sinuate towards the tip, 
glabrous on both surfaces, heads 5-6-flowered in terminal leafless panicles, 
invol. bracts few short oblong obtuse silky, achenes 10-ribbed glandular, pappus 
white deciduous. V. volkameriaefolia, Beddome, Fl. Sylv. t. 226 {not of DC). 

Travancore, Beddome. 

Closely allied to V. volkameruBjolia, but differing from it and from V. arhorea in 
the silky invol. bracts, and very deciduous quite white pappus. — I hare seen but one 
specimen ; it exactly accords with Beddome's figure. 

41. V. talaumifolia, Hook. f. <§• T. Herb. Ind. Or. ; a tree, branches 
very thick, leaves beneath and inflorescence puberulous or nearly glabrous, leaves 
very large shortly petioled obovate or oblanceolate subacute entire or sinuate- 
toothed, heads 8-20-flowered in very large irregularly branched termiual 
panicles, invol. bracts ovate obtuse, achenes deeply 10-ribbed glabrous, pappus 
red, outer hairs slender. Clarke Comp. Ind. 25. 

SiKKiM Himalaya ; alt. 1-4000 ft., J. D. H. Sf T. T. Bhotan, Clarke. Assam, 
Musters. Mishmi Hills, Griffith. 

Much the largest Indian species. Branches as thick as the little finger. Leaves 
16 by 6 in. and under, very coriaceous, glabrous, shining and reticulated on both sur- 
faces, or pubescent on the nerves beneath ; petiole \ in. Heads f in. diam., sessile 
on the long dichotomous divaricating branches of the panicle; invol. bracts | in., 
glabrate ; corolla glabrous. Achenes 1 in. ; pappus nearly ^ in. 

42. V. Parisllll, Hook. f. ; branches robust and inflorescence finely 
tomentose, leaves large shortly petioled oblanceolate subacute obscurely toothed 
reticulate minutely pubescent above more so beneath, midrib closely pubescent 


Vernonia.'] Lxxviii. cOMPOSiTiB. (J. D. Hooker.) 241 

on both surfaces, heads corymbose in a large panicle, in vol. bracts oblong her- 
baceous obtuse or acute, achenes glandular, pappus white. 

MouLMEiN ; hills on the Attran, Parish. 

A good denl resembling V. Lohbii, but the leaves are much more pubescent beneath, 
the heads form a Urge terminal branched panicle, nearly a foot long; the invol. 
bracts are herbaceous and very different in shape, and the achenes are not tximentx^e. 

43. V. scandens, DC. Frodr. v. 32 ; climbing, branches slender and 
inflorescence glabrous or pubescent, leaves petioled ovate elliptic or lanceolate 
acuminate quite entire glabrous or pubescent beneath, heads 5-10-tiowered in 
long leafy terminal panicles all pedicelled, invol. bracts ovate or linear-lanceolate 
acute or obtuse, achenes compressed glabrous deeply 10-ribbed, pappus red 
outer hairs few short slender. Clarke Cmnp. Lid. 26 ; Kurz Fcn\ Fl. ii. 81. 
Conyza scandens. Wall Cat. 3060. V. vagans, DC. I. c. ; Clarke I. c. Gym- 
nanthemum scandens and vagans, Steetz in Peter's Mosamb. Bot. 338. 

SiKKiM HiMAJLAYA and the Khasia Mts. ; ascending to 4000 ft. Assam, Silhet, 
and BiRMA. 

A rambling climber, branches woody. Leaves 2.^-4 by 1-2^ in., rather thin ; 
petiole slender. Heads \-^ in. diara. ; pedicels slender; invol. bracts very vari- 
able in breadth, puberulous, inner \ in. long ; corolla glabrous. Acheiies \-\ in. 
long; pappus between i-i- in. long.— I cannot diistinguish between V. scandem Si^il 
V. vagans, which in their extreme forms differ, the former in the broader blunter 
invol. bracts, and I think louger achenes, but I find achenes of | and \ in. in the 
same specimen, 

44. V. blanda, DC. Frodr. v. 32 ; a rambling shrub, slender branches 
and leaves glabrous, panicles puberulous, leaves petioled elliptic acuminate at 
both ends quite entire, heads 10-25-flowered in elongate branched terminal 
panicles, invol. bracts linear-oblong acute puberulous, receptacle glabrous, 
achenes pubescent 10-ribbed, pappus red outer hairs few. Clarke Comp. Ind. 
25; Kurz in Joui-n. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 202. sijn.-, For. Fl. ii. 81. V. 
blandula, Claikel. c. 26. Conyza blanda, Wall. Cat. 3033. 

Maetaban and Tenasserim ; on the Saluen river, Wallich. Pegu, Scott. 
Very similar to V. scandens, but with pubescent achenes. 

45. V. Anderson!, Clarke Comp. Ind. 27 ; scandent, branches leaves 
beneath and inflorescence pubescent or tomentose, leaves petioled ovp*e acute or 
acuminate quite entire finely reticulated, heads 5-15-flowered in axillary and 
terminal loose panicles, invol. bracts small ovate obtuse, receptacle hairy, achenes 
deeply 10-ribbed flattened puberulous, pappus red outer hairs 0. V. Cumingiana, 
Benth. Fl. Hmgk. 170 {not of Xew Journ. Bot. iv. 333). 

Upper Assam ; Naga hills, Masters. Birma, Griffith. Tenasserim, Heifer. — 
DiSTRiB. Hongkong. 

Very similar to large-leaved states of V. scandens with obtuse invol. bracts, but 
the leaves are thinly leathery, the nerves beautifully reticulated, the achenes puberu- 
lous, and the receptacle covered with deciduous fulvous hairs, Invol. bracts ^^ in., 
narrowly oblong, very obtuse, neirly glabrous. Acheves (in Hongkong specimen) i 
in, long; pappus upwards of ^ in. — Bentham is mistaken in referring the Hongkong 
plant to his V. Cumingiana of the Philippines, which has a naked receptncle and 
far more numerous flowers in a hejid ; as is Kurz (Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 20'2) in ro- 
ferring V. Andcrsoni to blanaa. 


? V, (EuPATORiuM PECTiNATUM, Wall. Cat. 3172,) from the Nilgherry Mts. ; there 
is no specimen of this in the Wallichian Herbarium. 

V. (Decanburon LiLACiNUM, Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 314) ; there is no specimen 
of this in Dalzell's Herbarium, and I fail to identify it by the dtscription. 

242 Lxxviii. COMPOSITE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Elephantopus. 


Rigid herl)8. Leaves alternate. Heads homogamous of 2-5 flowers col- 
lected into a head-like cluster. Involucre compressed ; bracts about 8, dry, stiff, 
alternately flat and conduplicate ; receptacle naked. Flowers all equally 4-lobed 
and cleft on one side and with the lobes spreading somewhat palmately. 
Anther-bases obtuse. Style-arms subulate. Arkenes truncate, lO-ribbed ; 

gappus bristles rigid, shining, slender and dilated below or chaff-like. — Disteib. 
pecies 10-12, chiefly tropical American, with one cosmopolitan. 

1. E. scaber, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. v. 86; dichotomously branched, 1-2 ft. 
high, strigose scabrid and villous, radical leaves obovate-oblong crenate cauline 
few sessile, heads clusters of 1 in. diam. surrounded by cordate leafy bracts, 
invol. bracts pungent, achenes hairv, pappus of 4-5 rigid bristles dilated 
at the base. Wall. Cat. 2979 ; Wt(/ht Ic. t. 1086 ; lio.vb. Fl. Ind. iii. 445 ; 
D(m Prodr. 169; Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. FL 122; Clarke Comp. Ind. 28.— 
Eheede HoH. Mai, x. t. 7. 

Throughout India, from the Punjab ? to Ceylon and Singapore.— Disteib. 
Tropical Asia, Australia and America. 

The embryo not unfrequently germinates in the head. 

Tbibe u. evpatorxeh:. 


Glabrous or glandular-pubescent herbs. Leaves mostly opposite. Heads 
corymbose, homogamous. Involucre campanulate ; bracts many, 8ub-2-seriate, 
narrow, herbaceous, sometimes connate; receptacle flat, naked. Corollas all 
equal, tubular, regular; tube short; limb campanulate, S^toothed. Anthers 
truncate vdth a glandular tip, base obtuse. Stt/le-arms elongate, dilated above. 
Achenes obtuse, 5-ribbed, glandular ; pappus hairs 3-5, short, rigid, often clavate, 
inserted in a short ring. — Distrib. Species 5 or 6 American, 1 cosmopolitan. 

1. A. viscosom, Forst ; DC. Prodr. v. iii. ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 28. 

Throughout India ; ascending to 5000 ft. on the Himalaya and other ranges, and 
to 6000 in Ceylon. — Distrib. All tropical countries. 

An erect rarely decumbent annual, glabrous pubescent or viscidly pubescent, 
slender or robust. Leaves sessile or petioled, opposite or the upper alternate, from 
linear to broadly ovate, serrate. Heads few or many, in lax or dense panicles or 
corymbs ; invol. bracts oblong, obtuse or acute, glabrous glandular or scabrid. — Of 
this most variable plant there is but one species. Clarke distinguishes the following 
marked Indian forms. 

VaRv 1. typica; leaves oblong-lanceolate subacute crenate glabrescent, achenes 
sparingly warted. DC. L c. A. leiocarpum, DC. in Wight. Contrib. 9 ; Prodr. I. c. 
A. Roylei, DC. I. c. 112. A. rivale, Dalz. in Hook. KewJourn. iii. 231 ; Dalz. ^ Gibs. 
Bomb. Fl. 122. A. angustifolium. Am. Pvgill. 29 ; DC. I. c. vii. 266. Lavenia alba. 
Wall. Cat. 3220. Ageratum aquaticum, Roxh. Hart. Beng. 61 ; Fl. Ind. iii. 415. 

Var. 2. elata; leaves broadly ovate or cordate nearly glabrous, achenes and invol. 
bracts as in Var. 1. A. elatum, DC. I.e. 112; ? Don Prodr. 181. A. aquaticum, 
Don I. c. A. microcephalum, DC. I.e. Lavenia erecta and carnosa, Wall. Cat. 3218 
in part, 3219. Ageratum strictum, Bot. Mag. t. 2410. 

Var. 3. latifolia ; leaves broadly ovate or cordate nearly glabrous sometimes 
very large, achenes densely warted. A. latifolium, DC. I.e. 112; Don Prodr. 181. 
Lavenia erecta, Wall. Cat. 3218 C— one of the best marked varieties. 

Var. 4. parviflora; leaves elliptic glabrous membranous, branches of panicle 
slender, achenes small densely warted. A. macrophyllftm and parviflorura, DC. I. c. 
iii. 113. Lavenia macrophylla and parviflora, Blume Bijd. 905, 906. Lavenia 
viscida, Wall. Cat. 3222 A. 

Ageratum.'] Lxxviii. coMPOSiTiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 248 

Vab. 5. fastigiata {not of Clarke Comp.I/id. 29), leaves ovate-lanceolate glabrous, 
panicles fastigiate, achenes scabrid and -warted. A. fastigiatum, DC. I. c. 111. 
Lavenia fastigiata, Blume I. c. 905. 

Var. 6. rugosa ; leaves ovate coriaceoiis rugose, acheneft densely warted. A. nigosum, 
DC. in Wight Contrih. 8; Prodr. I. c. 112; Deless. Ic. Sel. iv. t. 10. A. latifolium, 
Wt. Ic. t. 1087. A. fastigiatum, Sckultz-Bip. in Herb. Hohenack. n. 612 (not of DC). 
Lavenia rugosa, Wight in Wall. Cat. 3221. — Nilgherry, &c. Mts. only. 

Vab. 7. reticulata ; leaves ovate sometinaes a span broad often reticulate, aclienes 
smooth or sparsely warted often elongate. A. reticulatum, DC. in Wight Contrib. 8 ; 
Prodr. V. 113; Wt. Ic. i. 1088. A. viscosum, maciurense and leiocarpum, DC. in 
Wight Contrib. 9; Prodr. \. 113. A. erectum, DC. I. c. Verbesina Lavenia, Linn. 
Fl. Zeyl. Uo.—Burm. Thes. Zeyl. t. 42.— South India and Ceylon. 

8. AGSRATUnX, Utin. 

Erect herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite or the upper alternate. Heads 
corymbose or panicled, homogamous. Involucre campanulate ; bracts 2-3- 
seriate, linear, subequal ; receptacle flat or nearly so, naked or with caducous 
scales. CoroUas all tubular, equal, regular, limb 6-cleft. Anthers appendaged, 
base obtuse. Style-ai-nis elongate, obtuse. Achenes 5-angled ; pappus of 6 short 
free or connate scales, or of 10-20 narrow unequal scales^ — Distrtb. Species 
about 16, probably all American, but now distributed throughout the tropics. 

1. A. conyzoides, Linn.\ DC. Prodr. v. 108 ; annual, 1-2 ft., hispidly 
hairy, leaves petioled ovate crenate, heads small in dense terminal corymbs, 
bracts striate acute, ray-fl. many pale blue or white-, aoheues black, pappus 
scales 5 awned often sen-ate below. Clarke Comp. Ind. 30; Wall. Cat. 3176. 
A. cordifolium, Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 416 ; Wall. Cat. 3177. 

Throughout India; ascending the Himalayas to 5000 ft. — Disteib. All hot 


Herbs shrubs or undershrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate. Heads corym- 
bose, homogamous. Involucre long or short: bracts few- or many-seriate, sub- 
equal or outer shorter ; receptacle naked. Corollas all equal, regular, tubular ; 
tube slender; limb 6-lobed or toothed. Anthers appendaged, base obtu><e. 
Style-arms long, obtuse. Achenes truncate, 5-angled or -ribbed ; pappus-hairs 
1-seriate, many, rigid, scabrid. — Distrib. About 400 species, chiefly Americau. 

1. E. Xteevesll, Wall. Cat. 3168; DC. Prodr. v. 179; hoary-pubescent, 
leaves simple ovate or lanceolate acuminate entire or coarsely serrate, corj^rabs 
very many rounded, heads ^ in. long, invol. bracts very obtuse. Clarke Comp. 
Ind. 32. E. longicaule. Wall.; Clarke I. c. 32, not of DC. E. squamosum, 
Don Prodr. 170. Conyza longicaulis, Wall. Cat. 3073, Mikania clematidea, 
Wall, in DC. I. c. 191 ; Cat. 3173. 

Subtropical Himalaya ; from Simla to Bhotan alt. 2-6000 ft. exclusive of 
Sikkim. — Distrib. China, Japan. 

Tall, erect or scandent, slender, much branched above. Leaves 1-2 in.puberulous 
above, 3-pli-nerved ; petiole short. Heads pale, fastiaiate ; invol. bracts 5-8, obtuse, 
hoary; flowers 5-8. — This is usually called E. longicaule, of De Candolle, whose 
description does not agree with my Indian specimens and is probably made up of 
more than one Wallichian plant. 

2. S. cannabinum, Linji. ; DC. Prodr. v. 180 ; pubescent or puberu- 
lous, leaves simple or trisect lanceolate coarsely serrate, corymbs many rounded, 
heads ^ in. long, inner invol. bracts subacute. Clarke Comp. Ind. 34. E. 
Wallichii and heterophyllum, DC. I. c. 179, 180. E. punduannra. Wall, in DC, 
Prodr. I. c. 179 ; Cat. 3170; Clarke I. c. 33. E. nodiflorum, Wall. Cat. 3166 ; 

244 Lxxviii. COMPOSITE. (J. D. Hooker.) \_Eupatorium. 

DC. I.e. 179; Clarke /.<?., 33. E. Lambertianum and viscosum, Wall. Cat. 
3287, 3288. E. dicline, Edgeiu. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 63. E. Simonsii, 

Temperate Himalaya ; abundant from 3-11,000 ft. Khasia Mts. ; alt. 3-6000 
ft. BiRMA. — DisTRLB. Europo and Temp. Asia. 

A taller nsually coarser plant than E. longicaide, with larger heads — To this 
species many described ones are referable. Of E. Lambertianum, there is only one 
specimen in Wallich's Herbarium, but there are many in Mr. Clarke's, all from the 
Khasia; it differs in the more rigid strongly triply-nerved leaves, that are also 
strongly reticulated beneath, but passes into the commoner Kha^ian form of E. 


E Atapana, Vent. Hort. Malm. t. 3; DC. Prodr. y. 169. Cyanopis ? eriger- 
oides, BC. in Wight Contrib. 7 (not. V. erigeroides, DC.) is an American plant, 
introduced into the Calcutta and other gardens. 

E. BiRMANicuM, DC. Prodr. v. 179; Clarke Comp. Ind. 34, is a Japan plant, not 
different from E. cannabinum. 

E. FinlaySonianum, Wall. Caj*. 7133; DC. Prodr. v. 179; Clarke Com-p. Ind. 
34, from Finlayson's Herbarium, is E. cannabinum. 

E. LONGiCAULE, DC. Prodr. r. 178; it is impossible to say -what this is. De 
Candolle's description does not agree with that of the plant cited under it ( Conyza 
longzcatdis, "Wall.; Milkania ? longicaulis, Wall.). 

£. ODOKATUM, Linn. ; DC. Prodr. v. 143 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 30, is a West Indian 
species, cultivated, but very rarely, in India. 

E. POLYANTHUM, Wall. Cat. 3171 ; from Herb. Wight. There is no specimen 
of this in the Wallichian Herbarium', and it is impossible to say what it may have 

E. SUAYEOLENS, Wall. Cat. 3290, from the banks of the Irawaddy at Seguen; 
f-here is no specimen of this in the Wallichian Herbarium. 

10. MZKAZriA, Willd. 

Shrubs, or erect or twining herbs. Leaves opposite. Heads small, spiked 
racemed or panicled, homogamous, usually 4-flowered. Involucre oblong ; 
bracts 4, narrow, with often a smaller outer one ; receptacle narrow, naked. 
Corollas all equal, regular, tubular, tube slender; limb campanulate, 6-fid. 
Anthers appendiculate, base obtuse. Style-arms long, acute. Achenes truncate, 
o-angled ; pappus-hairs numerous, 1-2-seriate, scabrid, often connate at the 
base. — DisTRiB. About 60 species, all American, one of them cosmopolitan. 

1. Itt. scandens, Willd.; DC. Prodr. v. 199; climbing, glabrous or 
puberulous, leaves long-petioled ovate acute or acuminate base rounded cordate 
or truncate crenate or angled, sometimes villous beneath, heads 4-flowered 
corymbose terminating lateral branches, achenes glabrous glandular, pappus 
reddish. Clay-ke Comp. Ind. 34. M. volubilis and M. chenopodiiolia, Willd. ; 
DC. I. c. 199 and 201. Eupatorium scandens, Linn. ; Jacq. Ic. t. 169. 

Eastern Assam, Clarke; Duphla hills, Nuttall. Birma and Malay Peninsula 
from Tenasserim to Singapore. — Distrib. Siam, Malayan and Philippine Islands. 

Tbibe III.— asterozdzsh:. 

11. SOZ.IDAGO, Linn. 

Perennial herbs. Leaves alternate. Heads small, often in scorpioid cymes, 
heterogamous, rayed, yellow ; ray-fl. few, 1-seriate, ? , ligulate ; disk-fl. tubular, 
5-fid. Involucre oblong or campanulate; bracts many-seriate, coriaceous; 
receptacle small, usually pitted. Aniher-bases obtuse. Style-arms of ^ 

Solidagu.'] Lxxviii. compositje. (J. D. Hooker.) 245 

flattened, tips lanceolate. Achenes subterete or angled, 8-12-ribl)ed ; pappus- 
hairs 1-2- seriate, slender, scabrid. — Distrib. Species about 80, chiefly N. 
American, one of them cosmopolitan in the N. temp, regions. 

1. S. Virg-a-aurea, Linn.; DC, Pi-odr. v. 338-, glabrous or pubescent^ 
stems erect stout subsimple 6-24 in., lower leaves petiolad ovate or oblong sub- 
serrate, upper smaller narrower entire, heads 1-4 on short axillary peduncles 
collected in a long leafy panicle, invol. bracts narrow acute, ray-fl. about 8, 
achenes glabrous or puberulous. Clarke Comp. Ind. 35. 

Temperate Hijialata ; from Kashmir eastwards, alt. 5-9000 ft. Khasia Mt&, 
alt. 4-6000 ft. — Distrib. Europe, Temp. Asia and America, Hongkong. 

Var. 1. leiocarpa, Benth. Fl. Hongk. J 79 , var. glabriuscula, Clarke 1. o., glabrous 
or nearly so, achenes glabrous. — Kashmir to Nepal. —Amphiraphis leiocarpa, Benth. 
in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. i. 488. 

Var. 2. picbescens, Clarke 1. c. ; pubescent, achenes puberulous, at least wheu 
young. ^ S. pubescens, Wall. Cat. 3226. S. nepalensis, Don Prodr. 177- Amphiraphis 
pubescens, I)C. Prodr. v. 343. — Nipal to Khasia Mts. 


Annuals. Leaves alternate, toothed, lyrate or pinnatifid. Heads very small, 
panicled, heterogamous, globose or hemispheric, not rayed ; outer fl. oc-seriate, 
$ , fertile, slender, rigid, 2-3-toothed or cleft ; disk-fl. ^ , fertile, narrow, 4-6- 
toothed. Anther-bases truncate. Style-arms of § short, flattened, tips lanceo- 
late. Achenes compressed ; pappus 0^ or in ^ of 2 minute bristles. — Distrib. 
Species 5, Asiatic and African, 

* Receptacle much elevated. 

1. D. latifolia, DC. in Wight Contrih. 11 ; Prodr. v. 372-; annual, erect 
or spreading, glabrous pubescent or viUous, leaves petioled ovate or lanceolate 
entire pinnatitid or lyrate, terminal lobe broadly ovate coarsely toothed, heads 
^ in. diam. globose, ray-fl. filiform curved obscurely toothed. Dalz. ^ Gibs. 
Bomb. Fl. 124 ; Wight Ic. t. 1096 ; Oarke Comp. Ind. 36. D. gracilis and 
sonchifolia, DC. I. c. 371, 372. D. nilagirensis, SchultznBip. in PI. Hohenack^ 
n. 1035. Cotula siuapifolia, Roxb. HoH, Beng. 63 ; Fl. Ind. iii. 437 ; Wall. 
Cat. 3237 excl. D. C. bicolor. Roth Cat. Bot. ii. lia O. latifolia, Pers, Syn. 
ii. 464. Grangea latifolia, Lamk. IlL t. 699. Hippia bicolor, SnyUh in Rees 
Cyclop, xviii. Ethulia integrifolia, Don Prodr. 182. 

Tropical and Subtropical Himalaya; from Simla, alt. 9000 ft. to Sikkim, 
ascending to 8000 ft. Khasi^i Mts., Cachar, Biema and the Malay Peninsula. 
Western Peninsula; on the Ghats from Bombay southwards. — Distrib. Tropical 
and subtropical Asia and Africa. 

A weed 12-24 in. high. Leaves very variable. Heads on slender divaricating 
peduncles, yellow or purplish. Corolla of the ? very slender, sometimes green and 
persistent. Achenes ~ in., smooth. 

2. D. chrysanthemlfolla, DC. in Wight Contrib. 11 ; Prodr. v. 372 ; 
erect, stifi", pubescent or hispid, branches divaricate, leaves oblong or obovate 
coarsely serrate or pinnatifid, heads long-peduncled ^-l in., diam. globose or 
oblong, ray-fl. short 4-fid. Wight Ic. t. 1095; Clarke Comp. Ind. 86. D. 
oblongata, "j&M. in Gen, PI. ii. 260. D. tanacetoides, Schultz Bip. in. Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. ii. 38. D. granger folia, DC. I. c. 372. 

Western Himalaya, Boyle ; Simla, alt. 6-7000 ft., Edgeicorth, Thomson. Nil- 
GHERRY Mts., alt, 7000 ft., Wight, &c.— Distrib. Javii, Trop. Africa. 

Different in habit from D. latifolia, being very rigid, often hoary, with smaller 
leaves and larger heads on peduncles often 2 in. long. Heads purple. Corolla of 
ray-fl. shortiy fannel-shaped, deeply 3-5-cleft.. 

246 Lxxviii. cOMPOScr^. (J. D. Hooker.) [Dichrocephala. 

3. D.Bamlltonlf Hooh. f.\ robust, sparsely pubescent, leaves sessile 
|-amplexicaul obovate coarsely toothed, b^ads globose panicled shortly pe- 
duncled, corolla of % fl. short, inflated mouth minute entire, § very few 
funnel-shaped 4-fid, achenes cuneiform flattened, margins thickened. Cotula 
sinapifolia, Roxh. Hm-t. Bmg. 62; WaU. Cat. 3237 D?. 0. dichrocephala, 
aarke Comp. Ind. 160. 

Assam ; at Meteabo, Hamilton ; Brahmaputra plains, Herh. Calcutta. 

Annual, stem 6-10 in., much stouter than in any of the other species. Leaves 
•1-2 'in., sparsely pubescent on both surfaces. Heads ^ in. diam. ; iavoi. bracts very 
short, obtuse, hidden under the ripe achenes ; receptacle convex. 

*• Receptacle slightly convex. 

4. 1>. Bentbamll, Clarke Comp. Ind. 36; suborect with ascending 
Irranches pubescent, leaves dbovate sinuately lobed or spathiulate, heads ^ in. 
diam. hemispheric. 

Khasia Mts. ; alt. 3-5000 ft., J.D.H^ T. T., aarke. 

Habit of 2). latifolia, but with so different ahead and recfiptacle as almost to suggest 
generic separation. Corolla of ? fl. elongate, ovoid or suburcedlate, minutely-toothed. 
—^Clarke has erroneously described the ? as 3 fid. 'to the base, and stated that Beu- 
tham had confounded this with I), chrysaydhemifolia. 

13. CYJItTKOCIiIirG, Cass. 

Erect, annual, odoirous ■herbs. Letwes alternate, pinnatisect. Hettds small, 
ipRnicled, heterogiamous, not rayed ; outer fl. cc -seriate ; $ fertile, filiform, 2- 
toothed ; disk-fl. § > usually sterile, regular, 5-cleft. Inwluoi-e hemispheric ; 
bracts sub- 2-8eriate, lanceolate, acute, margins scarious; receptacle Nvith a 
contracted base, elevated, top concave, naked. Anther-hoses truncate. Style 
-exserted, of ^ simple or cleft. Achenes minute, oblong, smooth ; pappus 0. — 
DisTRiB. Species all Indian. 

1. C« lypata, Cass.-, DC. Prodr.w. 374; sparsely hairy, branched, lower 
leaves obovate, upper or all pinnatifid, heads in small rounded panicled corymbs 
rose-purple. Wight Ic. t. 1098 ; Clarke Comp. Ihd. 37. C. stricta, DC. I. c. 
374. 0. Lawii, Wight in Calc.Journ. Nat. Hist,. 1846 pt. ii. 159, not of Dalz. 
Tanacetum viscosum, Wall. Cat. 3232. T. purpureum, Don Predr. 181. Ar- 
temisia hirsuta, Rottl. ; Sprang Syst. iii. 490, ^rf. DC. 

Western Himalaya ; from Kashmir, alt. 1-4000 ft., and Kumaon, alt. 4-5000 ft., 
to Nipal, Wallich, and Bhotan, Griffith. Oude, Bbhar, Chota Naopore, Bengal, 
Assam, MtiNNypoRE, Ohittagong, Rangoon, Bibma, and the Western Peninsula. 

Stem 1-2 ft., soft. Leaves 1-5 in., segments toothed. Heads -^ in. diam., yellow. 
— C. Lawii is merelya very slender form. 

2. C. lutea, Law mss. ; Wight in Cdlc. Joum. Ndt. Hist. 1846, pt. ii. 158, 
t. 2, f. 1-; Ic. t. 1160; pubescent, stems many from the root slender 3-8 in., 
radical leaves linear bipinnatifid revolute cauline :alternate, segments minute, 
heads few in subscorpioid cymes yellow. Clarke Comp. Ind. 37 {C.Jlava by 
error). 0. Lawii, Dal%. 8f Gibs. Bomb. >Fl. 124, not of Wight. 

The GoNCAN ; on the Ghats, alt. 2-4000 ft. Law, &c. 

A curious and very beautiful little plant, with stellately spreading radical leaves, 
1-2 by ^ in., and very numerous slender flexuous scape-like stems branched above, 
the branches bearing afew, small, yellow heads. 

14. GRAKGBA, Forsk. 

Suberect or prosftrate villous herbs. Leaves alternate, pinnatifid. Heads 
•terminal or leaf-opposed, subglobose, not rayed, yeUow ; outer fl. l-oo -seriate. 


Grangea.] i.xxviii. cOMPOSiTiE. (J. D. Hooker.) 247 

5 , fertile, filiform, outermost 2-fid., inner 2-4-fid. ; disk-fl. 5 > fertile, tube very 
slender ; limb campanulate, 4-6-cleft. Involucre broadly campanulate ; bracta 
few-seriate, outer herbaceous ; receptacle convex or conic, naked. Anther-bases 
obtuse. Style-ai-ms of § flattened, cimeatej obtuse or with triangular points. 
Achenes flattened or subterete ; pappus cupular. — Dibtkib. Species 3 or 4 tro- 
pical Asia and Africa. 

1. G*. maderaspatana, Poir; DC. Prodr, y. 373] pubescent or villous, 
stems spreading from the root prostrate, leaves sinuately pinnatifid, heads 
solitary rarely 2-nate leaf-opposed shortly peduncled, pappus hairs connate into 
a cylindric fimbriate tube. Wight le. t. 1097 ; Dak. §■ Gtbs. Bomb. Fl. 124 ; 
Clarke Camp. Ind. 37. Artemisia maderaapatana, Roxh. Hort. Beng. 61.; Fl. 
Jnd. iii. 412. Ootula maderaspatana, Willd. C. sphseranthus. Link Enum. iL 
344. Grangea sphaeranthus, Koch in Bat. Zeit., i. 41. 

Throughout India, from the Punjab eastwarcjs and southwards. — Distbib. Tropical 
and subtropical Asia and Africa. 

A common weed, growing flat on the ground, forming patches 6-12 in. broad, and 

15. XUVRXACTXS, Less. 

Erect annuals. Leaves alternate, toothed. Heads loosely panicled or solitary, 
homogamous, white with a yellow disk, rayed ; ray-fl. 2-qo -seriate, $ , fertile, 
small, ligulate, ligules spreading or revolute ; disk-fl. § , fertile, tubular, 6-fid. 
Involucre hemispheric ; bracts few-seriate, narrow, margins scarious ; receptacle 
broad, convex, naked. Anther-bases obtuse. Style-arms of § ^^I'^o^? flattened, 
tips lanceolate. Achenes compressed, margined ; pappus 0. — Distrib. Species 
1, or more, Asiatic and African. 

1. M. Wig-litil, DC. in Wight Contrib. 10 ; Prodr. v. 308 ; pubescent or 
villous, leaves ovate or lyrate distantly serrate, upper lanceolate Sessile, heads 
long-ped uncled, invol. bracts acute villous, achenes shortly beaked. Wight Ic. 
t. 1091 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 38. M. javanica, DC. I. c. ; Clarke I. c. 

Nllgheeby Mts. ; alt. 8000 ft. Ceylon ; central province, alt. 5-8000 ft. 

A weed 2-3 ft. high ; stem rigid, branches divaricating. Leaves 1-4 in., petiole 
winged, upper auricled. Heads i in. diam., on long strict peduncles. 

Var. bellidioides ; hirsute, 4-6 in. high, leaves radical rosulate obovate-spathulate 
quite entire obtuse, heads solitary on a scape-like stem. — Nilgherry Mts., Wight. 

2. Tft. nepalensis, Less. ; DC. Prodr. v. 308 ; glabrous villous or hispid, 
leaves ovate or lanceolate coarsely serrate, heads subpaniculate, iuvol. bracts 
acute at length reflexed, achenes mucronate at the top not beaked. Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 38. M. Gmelini, DC. I. c. 309. M. oleosa and M. gracilis, Edyeio. 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 65 and 66. M. carnosa. Wall. Cat. 3219. Botryadenia 
Gmelini, Fisch. ^' Meg. Ind. Sem. ii. 30 ; Begd S&rt. Petrop. t. 23. Lavenia 
dentata, Wall. Cat. 3216 A. 

Temper.\te Himalaya ; from Kashmir to Sikkim, alt. 5-10,000 ft. KhasiaMts., 
alt. 4-6000 ft.— Distbib. Central Asia. 

A most variable weedy plant, of which I am quite unable to make satisfactory 
varieties ; indeed, as Bentham suggests, it may be only a form of Wightii. 

3. ZH. Wallichil, Less. ; DC. I. c. 309 ; very slender, sparsely hairy, leaves 
elliptic-lanceolate unequally serrate, heads very small on slender pedicels. 
Lavenia dentata, Wall. Cat. 3216 B. 

Tempebate Himalaya; Simla, Thomson. Nipal, Wallich. Sikkim, alt. 9-12,000 
ft. J. D, H. 

I can scarcely think this more than a slender small-headed form of 3/. nipalrnsia, 
but if more than one species is to be kept, this must be one of them. 

248 Lxxviii. COMPOSITJ;. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ehyoichospermum. 

16. &KirNCUOSPEaMVM, Heinw. 

A slender pu"berulous herb with long spreading branches. Leaves alternate. 
JEeads email, axillary and in spreading leafy panicles, heterogamous, rayed ; 
ray-fl. $ , 2-3-8eriate, fertile, shortly ligulate, white ; disk-fl. ^ , fertile, tube 
short, limb campanulate 4-5-cleft. Involucre short ; bracts in few series, 
lanceolate, margins scarious ; receptacle flat, naked. Anther-hoses obtuse or 2- 
lobed. Style-arms of ^ flattened; tips short, broad, obtuse. Achenes com- 
pressed, beaked, beak short in the disk, longer in the ray ; pappus of S-5 
caducous bristles or 0. 

1. R. verticillatum, Reinw. «i«8. ; Blume Bijd. 902; Clarke Comp. 
Ind, 39. Leptocoma raeemosa. Less, in DC. Prodr. v. 280. Lavenia rigida, 
Wall. Cat. 3216. Oarpesium racemosum. Wall. Cat. 3201, in paH. Zollingeria 
scandens, Schidtz-Bip. in Flora, 1854, 275. 

Temperate Himalaya ; from Kashmir, alt. 5000 ft., to Sikkim, alt. 6000 and 
Bhotan. Khasia Mts., alt, 6000 ft. Birma. — Distrib. Malay Isld., Japan. 

Stems 2-3 ft., branches very slender. Leaves 1-3 in., membranous, petioled, lan- 
ceolate, acuminate entire or coarsely toothed, narrowed into a very slender petiole. 
Heads ^ in. diam., on short, rigid, stout, axillary often bracteate peduncles, often one 
in every axil along the branches. 

17. ZiAGEZi'OFKORA, Cass. 

Scapigerous herbs. Heads small, solitary, heterogamous, rayed ; ray-fl. $ , 
1-3-seriate, fertile ; ligule white, long or short ; disk-fl. ^ , often sterile, tubular, 
limb 5-cleft. Involwyre short ; bracts sub- 2-seriate ; receptacle convex, naked. 
Anthei'-hases obtuse, entire. Style-arms of ^ narrow, flattened, tips triangular 
or lanceolate. Achenes of ray compressed, beaked, margins thickened ; of disk 
similar, often narrower and sterile ; pappus 0. — Distrib. Species 11-12 Aus- 
tralian, 1 Asiatic, 1 S. American, 1 Sandwich Isld. 

1. Zi. Billardlerl, Cass. ; DC. Prodr. v. 307; pubescent, leaves radical 
or subradical oblong or obovate sinuate-toothed pubescent, S3ape slender. Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 173. L. sundana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 32. L. Harveyi, Thwaites 
Fnum. 162. 

Khasia Mts., alt. 5-6000 ft. Ceylon, central province, alt. 4-6000 ft, — Distrib. 
Malay Islds. China. Australia. 

Rootstock -with thick fibres. Leaves 1-2 in. Scape 3-4 in., slender. Heads ^ in. 
diam.; invol. bracts linear; ligules white, short. Achenes obovoid oblong, beak 
glandular. — I follow Bentham and Clarke in reducing the Indian species to the Aus- 
tralian; though differing greatly in the size of the head. 


Branched or scapigerous herbs, with the character of Lagenophora, except 
that the ray-flowers are l-seriate, and that there is sometimes a scanty paleaceous 
pappus. — Distrib. About 40 species, Australian and New Zealand, with one S. 

1. B7. assamica, Clarke Comp. Ind. 40; glabrous, almost shrubby, 
branches sharply angled, leaves alternate sessile linear dilated upwards, beads 
small terminal solitary, invol. bracts elliptic or ovate margins scarious. achenes 
terete striate narrowed above and beaked, pappus 0. ? Synanthera, Wall. Cat. 
7134. ? Epaltes linearifolia, DC. Prodr. v. 461. Ethulia divaricata, Wall. Cat. 
98, ex DC. 

Upper Assam ; in the Dihong river, on stones. 


Boltoma,'} Lxxviii. composite]. (J. D. Hooker.) 249 

I know nothing of this plant, -which exists only in the Calcutta Herbarium, -where 
Clarke described it. The shape of the achenes differs altogether from that of 
Brachycome. Wallich's 7134 is a plant of Finlayson's, no doubt from Siam ; it is a 
mere scrap, the ray-fl. are in one ro-w, and the achenes are truncate and glandular at 
the tip. Ethulia linearifolia is a Prome species of -which there is no specimen in 
Wallich's Herbarium; it is probably the Prome plant marked " C. Prome" in 
Wallich's Catalogue, where the No. 98, placed under 2988, is the numbering of the 

11). BOX.TONZA, LHer. 

Perennial erect herbs. Leaves alternate. Heads heterogamous, rayed ; ray- 
fl. ^, 1-2-senate, ligule -white; disk-fl. §, fertile, tubular; limb elongate, 
5-cleft. Involucre hemispheric ; bracts fe-w-seriate, lanceolate, outer smaller ; 
receptacle conic or convex. Anther-bases obtuse, entire. Style-arms of § 
flattened ; tips short, lanceolate. Achenes compressed, margins thickened or 
-winged, faces plane or 3- ribbed or --winged ; pappus very short subpaleaceous 
■with sometimes 2-oo hairs added.— Species 12, N. American and N. subtropical 

1. B. indlca, Benth. Fl. JTonyJc. 174 ; scaberulous, leaves small oblong- 
lanceolate entire or subserrate, heads terminal on leafy branches small, invoL 
bracts 2-3-8eriate, pappus scales minute connate below awned. Kurz in Journ. 
As. Soc. 1877, ii. 198 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 40. Asteromaea indica, Blume Bijd. 
901; DC. Prodr. v. 303. Calimeris integrifolia, Turcz. in DC. I.e. v. 269. 
Hisutsua cantoniensis, DC. I. c. Vi. 44. Chrysanthemum cuneatum, Roxh. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 436. Calistemon indicum, Don in Loud. Hort. Brit. 848. Aster 
indicus, Linn. 

Upper Bibma, Khakyen hills, J. Anderson (cult. ?) — Disfliip. China, Malay Isld. 

Clarke doubts this being a native of the habitat ^a'ssigned above, which is further 
beyond the limits of this Flora ; it ig, however, so likely to occiur in India proper, 
that it is best to retain it. 

20. ASTER, Linn. 

Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate. Heads solitary corymbose or panicled, 
heterogamous, rayed (rarely discoid) ; ray-fl. ^ , l-2-8eriate, fertile ; ligule 
elongate, -w-hite blue or purple ; disk-fl. § , fertile, tubular, yellow, 5-cleft. 
Involucre campanulate or hemispheric ; bracts few- or many-seriate, outer 
smaller or larger ; receptacle flat or convex. Anthei'-hases obtuse, entire. 
Style-arms of § flattened, tips lanceolate long or short. Achenes compressed, 
faces -with 1-3 ribs or 0; pappus-hairs few or copious, scabrid, outer sometimes 
shorter rigid and paleaceous. — Distkib. Species about 200, chiefly of N. tempe- 
rate regions. 

Aster Amellus, L., is cultivated in Indian gardens, as is the China Aster Calli- 
siepkus chinensis, Nees (Clarke Comp. Ind. 41). There are no natural limits between 
the sections of this genus, and some of the Indian species of Erigeron may be refer- 
able to it, there being no good distinguishing characters for the latter genus. 

Sect. I. Invol. hracts in few series; outer large green obtuse.— Heads 
corymbose ; stems leafy ; leaves sessile. 

1. A. Pseudamellus, Hooh. f.\ scaberulous, stems simple below slender 
leafy, leaves sessile oblong acute or olbtuse entire or toqthed nerves indistinct, 
branches of corymb slender usually with many elliptic feaves, heads If in. 
diam., outermost invol. bracts oblong green larger than the inner. 

Western Himalaya, Jacquemont ; Kumaon, alt. 8-9000 ft., Thomson. Lahul» 

250 Lxxviii. COMPOSITE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Aster, 

Stems 8-18 in., many, stiflf, ascending from a woody perennial stock. Leaves 1-2^ 
by |-f in., green, uniform on the stem, with very obscure nerves on both surfaces. 
Ligules 12-16, ^-| in., narrow. Achenes ^^ in., pubescent; pappus rather longer, 
hairs few, slender, white. — Very like A. Amellus, L., but differing in the large outer 
invol. bracts. 

Sect. II. Invol. bracts in few series herbaceous. — Heads large, solitary, rarely 
2-3 on a stem. 

2. A. hixnalaicus, Clarke Comp. Ind. 43 ; laxly villous, stems leafy 
ascendinof, radical leaves persistent petioled obovate-spathulate entire or toothed, 
cauline oblong ^-amplexicaul, heads solitary, outer invol. bracts broadly lanceo- 
late leafy recurved, ligules 40-60 very narrow, achenes silky, pappus single 
white. Diplopappus elegans, Herh. Ind. Or. Hf. 8f T. in part. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, alt. 13-15,000 ft., J. D. H. ; Clarke. 

A small robust species when alpine, 12-18 in. in lower localities, with a single 
head, a very leafy involucre and numerous ligules. Leaves 1-2 in. ; petiole of radical 
sometimes very long. Heads 1^ in. diam. Achenes ^^ in. ; pappus rather longer. 

3. A. trlcephalus, Clarke Comp. Ind. 43; puberulous, stems erect 
leafy, radical leaves deciduous petioled obovate-spathulate, cauline oblong ^ 
amplexicaul, heads 1-8, outer invol. bracts numerous narrow longer than the 
inner, ligules 40-50 very narrow. Achenes pubescent, pappus simple reddish. 
Diplopappus elegans, Rerh. Ind. Or. Hf. 8/- T. in part. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, alt. 10-14,000 ft., J. D. H. ; Clarke. 

Clarke suggests the possibility of this being a more developed form of A. kima- 
laicus, and this I supposed it to be when I found it in Sikkim; but besides being 
taller, the invol. bracts are narrower, and the pappus hairs red and much stouter. 

4. A. Straoheyl, Hook. f. ; dwarf, stoloniferous, pubescent or villous, 
radical leaves obovate-spathulate with few distant teeth, scapes ascending one- 
or few-leaved, heads solitary, invol. bracts few linear-oblong membranous acu- 
minate, ligules 30-40, achenes pubescent or silky, pappus simple reddish. 
Heterocheeta sp., Herh. Sir. Sr Wint. 

Westebn Alpine Himalaya; Kumaon, Wallich; Pindari, alt. 12,000 ft.. Sir. ^ 
Wint., Stewart. 

A remarkable little species, with a rambling often branching rootstock^ and short 
ascending scape or stem. Leaves 1-2 in., coarsely serrate or laciniate. Heads f in. 
diam. ; ligules about ^ in. Achenes and pappus much ab in the preceding, but more 

5. A. KeteroollSDta, Benth. in Gen. PI. ii. 272; tomentose or woolly, 
stemless or stem erect leafy, radical leaves obovate or oblanceolate entire acute, 
cauline 1-2 oblong ^-amplexicaul, heads solitary very large, outer invol. bracts 
linear-lanceolate acuminate, ligules 50-60, achenes ^ in. glabrate, pappus white 
or reddish double, outer very short paleaceous. Clarke Comp. Ind. 44. A. 
alpinus, Thoms. in Herb. Ind. Or. Hf. ^ T. Heterocheeta osteroides, DC. 
B'odr. V. 282. 

Alpine Himalaya and Wbstbbn Tibet, alt. U-1 8,000 ft.— Distbib. Altai Mts. 

A variable plant (annual ?) closely resembling the European A. alpinus, but differ- 
ing from it and from the preceding species in the double pappus. — ^^Thero has been 
great confusion in the distribution of the single -flowered Himalayan Asters and 
Erigerons collected by Dr. Thomson and myself, and which have in various heroaria 
been named Aster alpinus, himalaious, and elegans, Diplopappus elegans and Erigeron 
multiradiatiis. The true A. alpinus, though Siberian and Central Asiatic, is not 
known to be Himalayan ; and I fail to recognise Clarke's " A. elegans, Hf. & T.," 
described by him at Calcutta as from Sikkim. I find no species having biseriate 
pappus together with very silky achenes except A. diplostephioides. 

Aster.'] Lxxvm. compositje. (J. D. Hooker.) 251 

6. A. tibetiouB, Hook. f. ; pubescent or slightly villous, slender, erect, 
sparingly leafy, radical leaves petioled lanceolate or oblanceolate obtuse or acute 
quite entire, cauline sessile linear-oblong obtuse, heads solitary rarely 2-3, outer 
invol. bracts linear acute pubescent or villous, achenes glabrescent, pappus double 
white, outer hairs very few short subulate. 

Western Himalaya and Tibet, JacqueTnont ; Piti, Hanii Plains and Pangong 
Lake, alt. 15-16,000 ft., in salt gmssy plains, Thomson, H. Strachey ; Laptal (N. of 
Kumaon), alt. 16,000 ft., Sir. ^ Wint. (Diplopappus, No. 2.); Karakoram, alt. 
14-16,000 ft., Clarke. 

Perennial, 4-12 in. high. Leaves small, radical 1-2 in. including the petiole. 
Heads 1-2 in. diam. ; ligules very many, |-J in. long, bright blue. Achenes very 
small, flat, -^ in. ; pappus ^ in., hairs few slender. 

7. A. diplostephloideB, Benth. in Gen. PI. ii. 272; erect, robust, 
villous, stem simple leafy, leaves sessile erect lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate 
acute quite entire, lower narrowed at the base, heads solitary 3 in. diam., invol. 
bracts lanceolate leafy, outer often very long, ligules very long and narrow, 
achenes silky, pappus reddish, outer very short white. Clarke Comp. Ind. 46. 
Heterochaeta diplostephioides, DC. Prodr. v. 282. Diplopappus diplostephioides, 
He^h. Ind. Or. Hf. 8f T. in paH. 

Alpine Himalaya ; Kashmir, sAt. 8600-1 1,600 ft., Falconer, &c. ; Wurdwan, Lance ; 
Kunawur, alt. 14,000 ft., Thomson ; Kumaon, alt. 13,000 ft., 8tr. ^ Wint. (Stenactis 
8p. 3) ; Sikkim, alt. 16,000 ft., J. D. IL 

A very handsome species, 12-18 in. high. Leaves 2-3 in. Invol. bracts some- 
times 1 in. ; ligules very many. Achenes ^ in., and pappus no longer than in the 
preceding. — Thomson's Kumaon specimens have broader leaves than the others ; Fal- 
coner's Kashmir ones are more leafy. Aitchison says the roots are used by the 
Kashmiris for washing clothes. 

Sect. III. Invol. bracts in few or many series, narrow, dry or scarious, rarely 
herbaceous. — Heads small, corymbose or solitary. 

8. A. molliusculus, Wall. Cat. '2,Q7'2 ; pubescent or .sparsely villous, 
stems' many erect or ascending from a woody rootstock leafy, leaves subsessile 
linear elliptic or obovate-oblong entire or toothed, heads long-peduncled solitary, 
invol. bracts linear-lanceolate acuminate, ligules very many short slender, 
achenes silky, pappus reddish, outer very short white. Clarke Comp. Ind. 45. 
? A. scaposus, Klatt in Sitz. Munch. Akad. 1878, 84 Diplopappus molliusculus, 
Lindl. in DC. Prodr. v. 277. Hersilia simplex. Klotzsch in Pr. Wold. Bets. 
Bot. 76, t. 73. 

Western Himalaya ; from Kumaon to Kasnmir, alt 6-8000 ft. Tibet (N. of 
Kumaon), alt. 16,000, Str. ^ Wint. (Diplopappv.s, No. 3), and of Sikkim, J. D. H. 

Stems sometimes branched, 4-12 in., slender, rigid. Leaves \-\ in., acute or 
obtuse, glabrous or scaberulous. Heads rarely 2-3, ^-| in. diam. ; ligules 20-30, 
revolute when dry. Achenes \ in.; pappus rather longer.— Tibetan specimens are 
short, prostrate, with linear leaves and larger flowers. It is difficult (if possible) to 
distinguish this from Erigeron multiradiatus. 

9. A. altalcus, Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 881 ; rigid, scaberulous, stem 
grooved much branched leafy, leaves sessile linear or oblong obtuse quite entire, 
heads solitary subcorymbose, invol. bracts linear-lanceolate acuminate, achenes 
silky, pappus single reddish. Clarke Comp. Ind. 46 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 168. 
A. angustifolius, Lindl. in Royle III. 261, t. 68,/ 1. A. spartioides, Clarke I. c. 
Callimeris altaica and canescens, Nees Aster. 228, 229; DC. Prodr. v. 268, 
269. Hersilea ramosa, Klotzsch in Pr. Wald. Reis. Bot. 76, t. 73. Galatella 
juncea, Lindl. in Royle III. 261, t. 68. 

Western Himalaya: Lahul and Kashmir, alt. 9-13,000 ft,, Jaeschke, &o.; 

252 Lxxvm. coMPOSiiiB. (J. D. Hooker.) [Ad^. 

KuMAON and Wbstren Tibet, alt 11-14,000 ft., Falconer, &c. — Distrib. Affghan 
and Beluchistan, Central Asia, Altai Mts., China. 

Stem 2-3 ft. and branches slender, green. Leaves |-2 in., sometimes contracted at 
the base, nerves very obscure. Heads ^-| in. diam., peduncled or sessile ; invol. 
bracts ^ in. ; ligules 20-30, short, blue, revolute when dry, sometimes 0. Ackenes ^ 
in. ; pappus rather longer. — Lindley's Galatella juncea is founded on a cultivated 
specimen of this from the Saharunpore Bot. Gardens, which is glabrous with linear 
leaves and rounded branches ; the achenes are immature, and I do not recognise the 
difference from those of altaicus pointed out by Clarke. A young specimen of A. 
altaicus from Beloochistan presents the same characters. 

10. A. trinervlus, Roxh. Hart. Beng, 61 ; Fl. Ind. iii. 433 ; ^abrous or 
scaberulous, slender, leatfy, leaves sessile or petioled lanceolate obtuse acut« or 
acuminate coarsely serrate, heads corymbose, mvol. bracts linear obtuse or acute, 
ligules 12-15 short, achenes hairy, pappus reddish with a few short slender 
outer hairs. Don Prodr. 177. A. scabridus, Hook. f. ^ Thorns. Herb. Ind. Or.; 
Clarke Comp. Ind. 47. A. Benthami, Sfeetz in Seemann Bot. Herald. 386. A. 
asperrimus, Wall. Cat. 2970. Diplopappus asperrimus, DC. Prodr. v. 277 
{exd. syn. Roxb.). Galatella asperrima, Nees Aster. 173. Diplopappus laxus, 
Benth. m Hook. Lond. Joum. Bot. i. 487. 

Central and Western Himalaya ; Nipal, Wallich ; Sikkim, alt. 5-7000 ff. 
MisHMi Mts. Griffith. Khasia Mts., alt. 3-6000 ft.— Distbib. Japan, N. China. 

Stem 2-3 ft., rarely almost glabrous, grooved, sometimes almost hispid. Leaves 
1-4 in., very variable, rarely oblong and obtuse, base rounded or acute, usually 
scabrid on both surfaces. Heads ^-^ in diam.; ligules 10-12, white, narrow. 
Achenes ^^ in. ; pappus \ in. 

11. A. slkklmenslSf Hook. f. <§• Thorns, in Bot. Mag. t. 4557; erect, 
leafy, glabrous or puberulous, branches terete flexuous, leaves large sessile or 
short-petioied lanceolate acuminate entire or subserrate membranous, heads 
many small corymbose, invol. bracts linear acuminate, achenes hispid 4-ribbed, 
pappus single white or reddish. Clarke Cornp. Ind. 42. 

Eastern Nipal and Sikkim, alt. 6-12,000 ft., J. D. H. 

Stems 3-4 ft., much branched, soft. Leaves 3-7 by §-2 in., narrowed into the 
broad short ^-amplexicaul petiole, membranous. Heads \ in. diam., very numerous, 
on glabrous or very pubescent branches ; peduncles slender or stout ; ligules very 
many, blue. Achenes ^ in. ; pappus ^ in. 

Sect. IV. Invol. bracts narrow or broad. — Tall herbs with large leaves, 
corymbosely branched stems abovi; the branches bearing single, rarely corymbose 
very large heads. 

12. A. Thomsonl, Clarke Camp. Ind, 48; laxly tiUous, erect, branched, 

leaves subsessile broadly ovate acuminate coarsely serrate, heads few large long- 
peduncled, invol. bracts linear-lanceolate acuminate, achenes hairy, pappus single 
much shorter than the corolla reddish, hairs subulate. Callimeris nexuosus. 
Bogle in DC. Piodr. v. 258; Botjle HI. 251, t. 58, f. 2. 

Western Himalaya; from Nipal to Kashmir, alt. 7-10,000 ft. 

An erect laxly branched herb, with flaccid hairs; branches slender, flexuous. 
Leaves 2-4 by 1-2^ in., membranous, base contracted and ^-amplexicaul. Heads 
solitary, 1^-2^ in. diam.; invol. bracts herbaceous; ligules 20-30, -^-| in. long. 
Achenes ^-^, much longer than the pappus. 

13. A. asperulus, Nees Aster. 281 ; laxly hairy or glabrate, erect, 
branched, leaves petioled ovate or lanceolate acuminate coarsely serrate, heads 
few large on slender peduncles, invol. bracts linear or lanceolate acuminate often 
long and leafy, achenes hairy, pappus hairs white or reddish equalling the 
corolla with a*^ few short ones, Wall, Cat. 2968, A. peduncularis, WaU, Cat, 

Aster.'] Lxxviil. composite}. (J. D. Hooker.) 25S 

'2067 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 48. Diplopappu8 asperulus and Amphiraphis pedun- 
cularis, DC. Frodr. v. '277 y 344. 

Western Himalaya, alt. 4-9000 ft., from Chumba to Kumaon. 

Very similar in habit and hairiness to A. Thomsoni, but readily distinguished by 
rho (usually winged) petioles and pappus. The heads vary greatly in size, from ^-H 
in., and the invol. bracts from short narrowly linear wi.h scarious edges, to nearly 
1 by 1^ in., green and leafy, and the pappus from white to red. 

14. A. Ziaka, Clarke Comp. Ind. 49 ; atems short stout simple from a 
woody tomentose rootatock, leaves with broad sheath-like petioles, ovate or 
cordate acute coarsely toothed, heads large solitary on stout peduncles, invol. 
bracts very large ovate obtuse leafy, achenes hairy, pappus hairs white or red- 
dish equalling the corolla. 

Westehn Himalaya; at Laka, near Dhurmsala, alt. 10-11,000 ft., Edgeworth; 

A remarkable species, evidently allied to A. peduncvlaris, of which it has the 
flowers, achenes and pappus, but only 6-8 in. high, with simple stout ascending stems, 
broader leaves with sheatb-like petioles, and very broad obtuse invol. bracts. 


A. NiTrDTJLUs, DC. in Wight Contrib. 9 ; JProdr. 247 ; is founded on an American 
cultivated plant, probably A. la vis, Willd. 

A. AtTREus, Don Prodr. 178, with a yellow ray, cannot belong to the genus. 


i^l.nnual or perennial herbs. Leaves alternate. Heads si^Mtary, axillary or 
few in leafy panicles, heterogamous, rayed; ray-fl. $, l-oo -seriate, fertile; 
ligule minute, bluish or rosy ; disk-fl. ^ > fertile, tubular, limb 5-cleft. Invol. 
bracts half as long as the flowers, 2-3-seriate, narrow, outer often leafy ; recep- 
tacle flat, naked or pitted. Anther-bases obtuse, entire. Style-arms of g 
narrow, flattened, tips narrowly lanceolate. Achenes narrowly obovate, quite 
flat ; pappus-hairs sub- 2-seriate, outer shorter. — Distrib. Species 6, N. 
American, Central Asian, Siberian, and the Himalayan. 

1. B. menthodora, Benth. in Hook. Ic. PI. xii. t. 1106 ; tall, erect, 
glandular-pubescent, root perennial, leaves oblong-lanceolate or ovate serrate 
upper sessile ^-amplexicaul, lower long-petioled, recept. not pitted, ligules 
longer than their styles. B. indica, Clarke Comp. Ind. 49. Erigeron anomalum, 
DC. Prodr. v. 293. 

Alhne Himalaya; Kashmir, Sind valley, alt. 12,000 ft., Clarke; Sikkim, alt- 
10-13,000 ft., J. D. H., &c. 

Stevi stiff, 1-2 ft. ; branches short, erect. Leaves 1-2 in., cauline decurrent. 
Heads ^-§ in. diam., chiefly towards the tips of the stem or branches ; invol. bracts 
few, linear, pubescent, 1-2 outer often much larger and leafy ; fl. pale blue. Achenes 
1^0 in,, nearly glabrous, margins thickened ; pappus \ in. reddish. — Whole plant smells 
like mint, but more sweetly. 

2. B. umbrosa, Benth. in Hook. Ic. PI. under t. 1106; small, annual, 
glandular and villous, leafy, branched from the base, leaves obovate lobulate or 
cuneate narrowed into the petiole, ligules minute. B. wangtuensis, Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 01. Conyza umbrosa, Earel <Sf Kii-il. in Led. Fl. Boss. ii. 493. 0. 
Uoylei, DC. Prodr. v. 381. Vernouacea, Gh-if. Itin. Notes, 322, n. 1269. 

B "Westehn Himalaya and Tibet ; from Kashmir to the Karakoram, alt. 8-12,000 

Wt ft. ; Lahul, e7a«scA^«.— DisTKiB. Alatau Mountains. Afghanistan. 

H Brajiches 4-8 in., rarely more, ascending, leafy. Leaves ^-J in. Heads many, ^ 

254 Lxxviii. COMPOSITE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Brachyadit. 

sparingly silky; pappus scanty, | in. long, reddish. — In luxuriant specimens the 
leaves are 2-3 by 1-1 1 in. and very membranous. 

3. B. robusta, B&nth. in Hook. Ic. PL under t. 1106 ; stout, annual, 
glandular-pubescent, erect, branched, leaves obovate toothed narrowed into a 
short petiole, receptacle broad. Conyza pubescens, DC. Bi'odr. v. 381. 

Westeen Himalaya, alt. 4-14,000 ft., from Kashmir to Kumaon and Gurwhal, 
Falconer, Edgeworth, &c. Western Tibet, alt. 12-14,000 ft., Thomson, SiC. 

Possibly only a large form of B. umbrosa, the heads are ^ in. diam., but the 
achenes and pappus are no longer. 

22. XSBZaSBOM, Linn. 

Characters of Aster, but ray-flowera usually in several rows with very 
slender short or lon^ ligules, and the achenes narrower. Pappus often double, 
the outer of a few short hairs or bristles. — Distrib. Species about 100, chiefly 
natives of N. Temp, regions, extremely variable and difficult t(» discriminate 
from one another, and certain of them from species of Aster. 

E. linifolius, WiUd. {Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 169), is found as an escape, or a garden 
weed, in the Punjab and elsewhere. It is a stout erect hirsute herb, with leafy stem 
and branches, the leaves are close-set, 2-2^ by i-^ in., serrated here and there, the 
numerous peduncled heads are subpaniculate and i-^ in. in diam. It is the Conysa 
atigusiifolia of Thwaites Herb. (C. P. 3928) but not of Hamilton. 

1. Species of the tropical region. 

1. S. canadensis, Linn. ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 163; annual, very 
slender, much branched above, pubescent hirsute or nearly glabrous, leafy, 
leaves narrow linear or linear-lanceolate entire or toothed, heads ^-\ in. diam. 
peduncled in elongated branched panicles, invol. bracts narrow glabrate, ligulea 
erect pink, pappus dirty white. 

Westebn Himalaya and the Punjab, ascending to 3000 ft. Rohilkund, Thomson. 
— Distrib. All warm countries, assumed to be a native of N. America. 

Stem 6 in.-3 ft. and branches erect, more slender than in any other Indian species, 
and the heads smaller. Invol. bracts acumftiate ; ligules pale rosy or purplish, 
scarcely exceeding the pappus. Acjkenes ^ in. narrow, tiat, nearly glabrous ; pappus 

2. E. asteroldes, Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 432 ; pubescent or villous, branched, 
radical leaves obovate petioled cauline obovate or oblong ^amplexicaul all 
toothed or lobulate, heads ^-^ in. peduncled solitary or subcorymbose, ligules 
capillary blue rather longer than the reddish or dirty white pappus. Wall. Cat. 
3052 A. E. hispidum, DC. in Wight Contrib. 9; Prodr. v. 292; aarke 
Comp. Ind. 64. E. sublyratum, Roa-b. in DC. l. I. c. c. ; Clarke I. c. 65, 301. 
E. hirsutum. Wall. Cat. 2976. E. aegyptiacum, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, 
ii. 193. Conyza graveolens. Wall. Cat. 3106. C. aegyptiaca, Herb. Ind. Or. 
Hf. 4- r., not of Ait. 0. Jerdoni, Clarke Comp. Ind. 62. 

I'BOV'iCAL Himalaya ; Nipal, Wallich ; Sikkim, ascending to 4000 ft, J. D. H. 
Bengal and the Western Peninsula. 

A coarse annual, 1-2 ft. high, erect, or in a dwarf state decumbent, closely re- 
sembling Conyza cBgyptiaca. Cauline-leaves ^-1 in., numerous. Invol. bracts 1-2- 
seriate, very narrow with hair points, much shorter than the pappus. Achenes very 
minute, ^ in., nearly glabrous, flat, pale. — Blumea puhiflora, under which Roxburgh's 
E. asteroides is quoted by DC. as a synonym, appears from the description to be a true 
Blumea, but of Wallich's 2975 Erigeron astercndes, Boxb. also quoted under the same 

Erigeron.] Lxxviii. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 255 

plant, there is no specimen in the Wallichian Herbarium, nor is there of Canyza gra- 
teolens (Wall. Cat 3106, Herb. Madr.), which is referred by DC. to E. kispidum. 

2. Species of the temperate and Alpine regions. 

3. S. andryaloides, Benth. in Herh. Kew\ perennial, densely softly 
tomentose or wooUy, leaves petioled spathulate entire or lobulate, heads f in. 
diam. on a very naked scape-like stem, in vol. bracts linear acute, ligules short 
broad revolute, pappus white then reddish. Clarke Comp. Ind. 62. Conyza 
andryaloides, DC. Prodr. v. 377. 

Wkstbrn HrwALAYA; Lahul and Kunawur, Royle^ ^c. Wbstkbk Tibbt, alt. 
9-18,000 ft., Falconer, &c. 

Rootstock woody, very stout. Leaves 1-2 in., densely crowded. Scapes ^ in., 
with one or two small linear leaves or 0. Invol. bracts woolly or pubescent. Achencs 
~ in. flat narrow silky ; pappus rather longer, 1 -seriate. 

4. E. monticolUB, DC. Prodr. v. 286; perennial, glabrous or sparsely 
hairy, leaves petioled, radical rosulate obovate-lanceolate acute subentire, heads 
solitary or few on a slender scape-like stem, ligules many twice as long as the 
pappus. Wall. Cat. 2977. 

Tkmperate and Alpine Himalaya ; Nipal, Wallich ; Kumaon, Strach. ^- Winterb. 
Tn its usual form a scapigerous plant, but sometimes branching, and then appa- 
rently passing into E. bellidioides. 

6. E. alpinus, Linn\ Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 166; biennial or perennial, 
hispidly hairy or glabrate, radical leaves petioled spreading obovate or oblong- 
obovate, cauline usually sessile obovate or oblong, heads solitary or corymbose 
^-f in. diam,, invol. bracts pubescent tomentose or woolly, ligules rarely ex- 
ceeding the length of the reddish pappus, achenes sub-silkv. E. acre, Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 62 ; Herh. Ind. Or. Hook. f.^T, 

Throughout the Temperath and Alpinb Westebn Himalaya, the Khasia and 
NiLGHERRY Mts. — DiSTRiB. Mountains of the N. temp. zone. 

I have in vain tried to draw any distinction between this common Himalayan 
Erigeron and E. alpiniis, which is itself in my opinion only a form of E. acris ; nor 
does the difficulty end here, for I find it almost as difficult to separate E. bellidioides 
and multiradiattis by any definite characters, whilst E. monticolus seems to pass into 
the bellidioides on one hand, and on the other, into E. andryaJoides. The following 
varieties are not strictly definable, they represent prevalent forms. 

Vab. I. alpinus proper \ hispid heads subsolitary | in. diam., invol. bracts subu- 
late-lanceolate, ligules longer than the pappus. 

Var. 2. multicaulis ; more glabrous, stem much branched from the base, branches 
slender, heads rather small usually long-peduncled corymbose, pappus hairs scanty 
shorter ones very few. E. multicaulis, Wall. Cat. 3286 ; DC. Prodr. v. 292. Tempe- 
rate and Alpine Himalaya, from Nipal westward and Western Tibet. 

Var. 3. semibarbata ; more robust and hairy or hispid, leaves often 3-nervf*d, 
cauline ^-amplexieaul or narrowed at the base, heads 2-3 in. diam. few larger, ped- 
uncles often thickened at the top, the lateral often spreading, tube of ray-fl. with 
long hairs, ligules twice as long as the pappus. E. semibarbatus and ? Hot/lei, DC. 
Prodr. V. 292. Western Himalaya, abundant. 

Vab. 4. khasiana ; erect, hairy, stem usually un branched below, radical leaves 
very crowded obovate-lanceolate, cauline sessile, heads few peduncled, ligules twice as 
long as the red rather copious pappus the shorter hairs of which are rather numerous. 
E. bellidioides, var. khasiana, Clarke Comp. Ind. 55. Khasia Mts., alt. 3-6000 ft., 
Bhotan, Griffith. 

Var. 5. Wightii ; stout, hifipid, stem usually unbranched below, radical leaves 
many oblong-lanceolate, cauline narrowed at the base, heads 2-3 in. diam. few lone- 
peduncled, ligules as long as the copious pappus, shorter hairs rather numerous. E. 

256 Lxxviii. compositj:. (J. D. Hooker.) [Erigeron,. 

Wightii, DC. Prodr. v, 286; Wight. Ic. t. 1090. E. multicauHs, var. madurensis and 
E. Leschenaultii, DC. I. c. 292. Neilgherry Mts., alt. 7600 ft. Wight describes the 
achenes as glabrous, but figures them hispid. 

Vab. 6. unijlora ; subscapigeroiis, hirsute, reuiical leaves obovate-lanceolate, cauline 
linear-oblong, heads subsolitary, involucre woolly, bracts sometimes herbaceous and 
recurved, achenes about as long as the pappvs. E. acris, var. 6. erigeroides. Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 54. Heterochaeta erigeroides, DC. Prodr. v. 282. — Alpine Western 
Himalaya and Tibet, alt. 10-17.000 f:. 

6. IS. bellidloldes, BeTvth. in Gen. PI. ii. 280 ; perennial, glabrous or 
nearly so, stem very slender grooved sparingly branched, radical leaves lanceo- 
late acutely serrate, cauline sessile oblong or linear-oblong entire or crenate, 
beads ^ in. diam. few long-peduncled, ligules thrice as long as the red pappus, 
shorter hairs few, achenes sub-silky. Clarke Comp. Ind. i55. Aster belli'dioides, 
Sam. in Don Prodr. 177 ; Wall. PI. As. Par. ii. t. 101 ; Cat. 2978. Stenactis 
bellidioides, Nees Ader. 274. 

Crntral and Western Himalaya, from Kashmir to Nipal, alt. 5-10,000 ft. 
This passes into slender forms of A. alpinus, var. multicaidis, but is usually dis- 
tinct, and perhaps into E. tnonticolus. 

7. E. multlradlatus, Benth. in Gen. PI. ii. 280 ; hirsute or pubescent, 
erect, stem stout or slender simple or branched sparingly above, leaves all cauline 
obovate or lanceolate obtuse or acute entire or 1-2-toothed, beads 2-3 in. diam. 
solitary or few long-peduncled, ligules 2-3 times longer than the red pappus 
very numerous, short pappus hairs few, achenes ~ in. nearly glabrous. Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 66. Aster multiradiatus, Wall. Cat. 2969. A. inuloides, Don 
Prodr. 178. Stenactis multiradiata, Lindl. in DC. I. c. 299.. ? Diplopappus 
Roylei, DC. Prodr. v. 276. 

Temperate and Alpine Himalaya, from Kashmir and Kumaon, alt. 7-9000 ft., 
and to Sikkim, alt. 9-12,000 ft. 

The smaller states of this are difficult to distinguish from E. alpinus, var. semi- 
harhata, but the heads are larger, the ligules are very numerous, often f in. long, and 
the involucres are broad and villous. The achenes resemble those of E. alpinus. 
In respect of the double pappus and habit this comes very near some Sikkim asters, 
especially A. molliuscultcs. 

doubtful species. 

E. AUGUSTissiMUs. Lindl. in DC. Prodr. v. 286, is a doubtful plant. The Afghan 
plant of Griffith, doubtfully referred to by Clarke Comp. Ind. 61., is certainly not 
Lindley's E. aiigiistissivius. 

Eriqeron, sp. ; hispid and glandular-pubescent, leaves 2-3 in. sessile obovatp- or 
oblong-lanceolate acute entii-e or toothed, heads f in. diam. crowded subglobose, 
invol. bracts linear, ligules rather longer than the yellowish pappus very numerous 
and narrow, achenes small unripe. — Mountains near Peshawur, Stewart (Afghanistan, 
Safed Koh, alt. 9000 ft., Collett). 


Slender shrubs, sometimes climbing. Leaves alternate, quite entire. Heads 
small, corymbose or panicled, heterogamous ; ray-fl. $ , l-oo -seriate, fertile, 
ligule minute, white ; disk-il. few or many, § j fertile, tubular ; limb dilated, 
3-4-fid. Involucre campanulate ; bracts oo -seriate, narrow, outer shorter ; 
receptacle flat, naked or nearly so. Anther-bases obtuse, entire. Style-arms of 
5 flattened, tips long lanceolate. Achenes angled ; pappus-hairs copious, 
slender, 1-2-seriate, rather unequal. — Distbib. About 6 Asiatic and African 

Microglossa.'\ Lxx\iii. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 257 

1. M. volubllis, DC. Prodr. v. 320; subscandent, branches grooved, 
leaves petioled ovate-lanceolate obscurely-toothed glabrous or pubescent beneath, 
heads ^ in. diam. peduncled clustered on the branches of rounded corymbs, 
achenes compressed 4-angled puberulous, pappus ^ in. red much longer than the 
minute achenes. Clarke Comp. Ind. 57 ; Kurz For. Fl. ii. 82. Conyza volu- 
bilis, Wall. Cat. 3057. Erigeron pyrifolius, Benth. Fl. Hmgk. 176. 

Khasia Mts., Assam. Naga Hills, Cachab, Burma, and from Pegu to Pbnang. — 
DiSTEiB. Malay Islds., China. 

A rambling shrub. Leaves l|-2^ in.; petiole very slender. Heads numerous, 
invol. bracts lanceolate ; ligulos very minute. 

2. BI. albescens, Clarke. Comp. Ind. 59 ; erect, branches faintly grooved, 
leaves shortly petioled lanceolate acuminate quite entire or subserrate hoary 
beneath, heads ^ in. diam. pedimcled loosely clustered on the branches of a 
spreading corymb, achenes puberulous obscurely 5-angled, pappus red not longer 
than the achenes. M. cabulica and M. Griffithii, Clarke Comp. Ind. 57, 58. 
Aster cabulicus, Lifidl. in Bat. Reg. 1843 ; Misc. 62 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, iii. 158. 
A. albescens, Wall. Cat. 2974. A. ferrugineus, Edgew. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 
64. Amphiraphis albescens, DC. Prodr. v. 343. Conyza conspicua. Wall. Cat. 
3066. Homostylium cabulicum, Nees in Linncea, xviii. 513. 

Tekpebate Himalaya; from Kishtwar, alt. 7-9000 ft, to Sikkim, alt. 9-12,000 
ft., and Bhotan. 

A stouter plant than M. volvhilis ; leaves 2-3 iu,, narrowed into the short petiole; 
corymbs often 8 in. diam., with lilac couspicuous ligules. — The name cabulicus, 
founded on the mistaken supposition that the plant is a native of Affghanistan, must 
be abandoned. 

3. M. zeylanlca, Benth, in Gen. PI. ii. 282 ; branches grooved and leaves 
beneath hoary, leaves narrowly lanceolate acuminate serrulate or entire, heads 
^ in. shortly peduncled croveded on the branches of a spreading corymb, ligules 
short suberect, pappus ^^ in. red twice as long as the hairy angled achenes. 
Clarke Comp. Ind. 68. Amphiraphis zeylanica, DC. Prodr. vii. 279. Solidago 
zeylanicus, Arn. Pugill. 9. 

Thavancore; Pulney Mts., Wight. Ceylon, abundant throughout the island, 
ascending to 6000 ft. 

An erect shrub. Leaves 3-4 in., narrowed into a petiole of \-\ in. Heads very 
numerous, small and crowded ; invol. bracts very small, broadly linear, obtuse. 

24. CONTZA, Less. 

Herbs. Leaves alternate, entire, toothed or cut. Heads corymbose or 
panicled, rarely solitary, heterogamous, disciform; outer fl. $, 2-oc -seriate, 
filiform, rarely ligulate, 2-3-toothed, fertile, pale-cold ; inner § , all or mostly 
fertile, yellow, tubular, limb 5-toothed. Involuci'e campanulate ; bracts 2-oo - 
seriate, narrow (except C. rufa), outer smaller ; receptacle flat or convex, naked 
or pitted and fimbriate. Anthei'-bases obtuse, entire. Style-orms of ? flattened, 
tips long or short. Achenes minute, compressed ; pappus slender, 1-seriate. — 
DisTRiB. Species 50, chiefly tropical and subtropical. 

1. C. semipinnatifida, Wall. Cat. 3058; erect, villous or hirsute, 
leaves obovate-spathulate or oblanceolate acutely or obtusely lobed or cut, heads 
crowded \ in. diam. globose yellow, invol. bracts slender, achenes g^ in. long 
glandular, pappus i in. white. DC. Prodr. v. 382 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 62. 

SooNDERBTTNDS, at Burisal, Clarke. Birma, from Prome and Martaban southwards, 
on the banks of large rivers, Wallich, Kurz. Upper Assam; Mishmi, Griffith. 

Annual, 1-2 ft., stem stout. The Mishmi species is much less hairy than the 
Birma ones, with leaves more sharply toothcfl. 

258 Lxxvm. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 

2. C.Japonlca, Less.', DC. Prodr. v. 383; erect, villous or woolly, rarely 
glabrate, leaves sessile obovate spathulate oblong or lanceolate serrate or crenate, 
heads ^ in. diam. globose, invol. bracts lanceolate with searious edges, achenes 
^ in. nearly glabrous, pappus ^ in. reddish. C. veronicsefolia. Wall. Cat. 3005; 
J5C./.C. 382; Clarke Comp. Ind. 62. 0. stricta, Wall. 01^.3044; C. multi- 
caulis, DC. I. c. 383. ? C. petiolaris, DC. I. c. ; Wall. Cat. 3282 (no specimen 
in Herb. Wall.). 

Tropical Himalaya ; from Simla eastwards, and the Khasia Mts., ascending to 
5000 ft. Pegu and Martabak, ascending to 7000 ft., Kurz. — Distbib. Affghanistan, 
China and Japan. 

Annual, 6-12 in., rarely more; stem often simple with ^ell developed radical 
leaves. The Sikkim specimens are more slender and glabrous than any others. 

3. C BDg'yptiaca, Ait. ; DC. Prodr. v. 382; erect, hirsute, leaves lanceo- 
late or obovate-lanceolate unequally pinnatifidly lobed, lobes ascending, heads 
^ in. diam. crowded, invol. bracts lanceolate edges searious, achenes ^ in. 
sparingly hairy, pappus | in. reddish. Conyza hirsuta and asteroides. Wall. Cat. 
3007 B. pa7-tly and 3052 B. partly. ? A. Jeidoni, Clarke I. c, 62. 

TaopicAL Western Himalaya ; Gaxwh&l, Falconer ] Kxxmaon, Thomson. — Distrib. 
Africa, China, Japan, Australia. 

The more deeply cut leaves and larger heads, distinguish this .from C.japonica. 
There are no materials for determining C Jerdoni^ which Mr. Clarke thinks is 

4. C. viscldula, Wall. Cat. 3006 ; pubescent and glandular, stem tall 
corymbosely branched, leaves lanceolate narrowed at both ends entire or serrate, 
heads ^ in. peduncled in loose corymbs, invol. bracts lanceolate edges searious, 
achenes ~ in. obovoid glabrous, pappus ^-\ in. reddish. DC. Prodr. v. 383 ; 
Clarke Comp. Ind. 63. 0. disticha, striata and travancorensis. Wall. Cat. 
3024, 3066, 3067 : DC. I. c. 383, 384. 0. serrulata, Wall. Cat. mh. 3024 B. 
O. Wallichji, DC. I. c. 384. C. polycephala, Edgew. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 

Subtropical Himalaya, from Simla-eastwards, ascending 4000 ft., and southwards 
to TRAVANCOPii!, Ceylon, and BiRMA. — t)iSTR. Philippine Islds., Java, New Caledonia, 

Much the tallest and most branched of the Indian species, with very uniform 
leaves 2-4 in. long, and usually loosely cymose heads. 

5. C. ang'UStifolla, Roxh. Hort. Bmg. 61; Fl. Ind. iii. 420; woody 
below, scaberulous, branches slender, leaves* sessile long narrowly linear serrate, 
heads \~\ in. in slender open peduncled cymes, invol. bracts lanceolate margins 
broad searious, achenes minute sparsely sUky, pappus ^ in. reddish very caducous 
as a whole. DC. Prodr. v. 383 ; Qarke Comp. Ind. 63 ; Ham. in Wall Cat. 

SiKKiM Himalaya, alt. 2-4000 ft., J. B. H., &c. 

Eoxburgh, who describes this from Calcuiia Garden specimens, says it is annual 
4-8 ft. high, with a simple erect stem ; he did not know its native country, and pro- 
bably procured it from Hamilton, whose specimens m Wallich's herbarium are called 
angustifolia. The Sikkim specimens are much smaller, 2-3 ft. Hamilton no doubt 
procured it firom the foot of the Sikkim hills. A specimen of a very similar plant is 
in *JrifBth'8 AfEfehan Herbarium (n. 918), but it is too young for determination. 

6. C. Strict a, Wtlld. ; DC. P-odr. v. 389; hoary or scaberulously pubes- 
cent, excessively corymbosely branched and leafy, leaves from nan'owl^ linear 
to spathulate-obovate entire or toothed rarely pinnatifid, heads ^ in. diam. ex- 
tremely numerous peduncled sorymbose, invol. bracts narrowly lanceolate, 

Conyza.] Lxxviii. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 259 

achenes about ^ in. puberulous, pappus j\ in. reddish. 0. absinthifolia, DC. in 
Wight Cmtrtb. 16; Prodr. I. c. 383; Clm-ke Comp. Ind. 64; Balz. ^ Gibs. 
Bomb. Fl 124. C. pinnatifida, Roxh. Sort. Beng. 61; Fl. Ind. iv. 430. 
Erigeron trisulcum and pinnatifidum, Don Prodr. 171, 172. Blumea ti-isiilca, 
DC. I. c. 440. Baccharis trifurcata, Trev. in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. xiii. 201, t. 13. 

SuBTBOPiCAL HiMAiATA ; from Kashmir eastwards, ascending to 5000 ft. Khasia 
Mt8., alt. 2-6D00 ft. Behae and the Westben Ghats to Tbavancobe, Pegu and 
BiBMA. — DiSTBiB. Eastern Africa. 

The excessively fastigiately branched and leafy habit of this species, and its 
minute heads, distinguish it from all others. 

7. C. adenocarpa, Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bonih. Fl. 125; pubescent and scabrous, 
stem rather woody below, leaves linear or oblong |-amplexicaul entire or 
distantly toothed, heads ^ in. diam. in terminal few-fld. corymbs, invol. bracts 
lanceolate acute, achenes ^ in. glandular and puberulous, pappus ^ in. reddish. 

The Western Deccan and the Concak, BaizeU ; highest hills east of Bombay, 

Apparently shrubby below, branches 6-10 in. high. Leaves 1-2 in., usually 
rounded at the apex, broad and 2-lobed at the base. Heads like those of C. stricta. 

8. C. rufa, Wall. Cat. 3079; tomentose or villous, branched from the 
l)ase, branches spreading or prostrate, leaves sessile obovate or oblong-obovate 
or linear-oblong coarsely toothed, heads subglobose ^ in. diam., invol. bracts 
broad ovate acute green with membranous margins, achenes ^ in. pubescent 
with curled hairs, pappus ^ in. reddish shining very caducous as a whole. DC. 
Prodr. V. 384 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 65. C. marginata, Edgew. in Trans. Linn. 
JSoc. XX. 67. 0. hirsuta, Wall. Cat. 3007 B. partli/. 

Annual, corymbosely branched, branches 4-8 in. long. Leaves 1-2 in. — The 
broad invol. bracts with defined membranous margins distinguish this from all other 
Indian species. 

excluded species. 

C. SBEBULATA, Wall, of Clarke Comp. Ind. 64, is not the plant of Wallich, and is 
altogether doubtful. 

C. PATULA, Ait. Hart. Kew iii. 184; Miller Icon. t. 247; referred to as Cyanopis 
pubescens, in DC. Prodr. v. 69, is probably a Vemonia. See Eupatorium glabrum, 
Wall. Cat. 3283, ex Herb. Heyne (Decaneuron glabrum, DC. I. c. 67), of which there 
is no specimen in Wallich's Herbarium. 


A branched glabrous annual. Leaves alternate, toothed. Heads minute, 
globose, sessile in globose clusters on the branches of dichotomous cymes, 
heterogamous, disciform, yellow ; outer fl. $ , many-seriate, often without 
coroUa, fertile ; disk.-fl. ^ , few, regular, sterile, tube very short, limb narrowly 
campanulate 4-fid. Involucre hemispheric; bracts broad, obtuse, herbaceous, 
sub-2-seriate ; receptacle flat or convex, naked. Anther-bases obtuse, entire or 
2-fid. Style-arms short, flattened, subacute. Achenes of ? small, hardly 
ribbed ; pappus-hairs about 10, short, dilated. 

1. T. dlvaricata, DC. Prodr. v. 375 ; Ddess. Ic. Sel. iv. t. 20 ; T. erecta, 
DC. I. c. ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 65. Cotula sinapifolia, Roxb. in Wall. Cat. 
3237, G. 

Tropical Himalaya; Nipal and Sikkim, Wallich, &c. Eastern Bengal, Assam, 
Silhet, Cachar, Birma and Tenasserim. 

A variable weed from 3 in. to 2 ft. high, robust with spreading branches. Leaves 
sessile or narrowed into a petiole \-\\ in., obovate, toothed. Heads ^ in. diam. 

260 Lxxviii. composite;. (J. D. Hooker.) [Blumea. 

Tribe IV.— ZNUZiOZDS^. 


Annual or perennial, glandular pubescent or woolly herbs. Leaves alternate,, 
usually toothed or lobed. Heads corymbose panicled or fascicled, rarely ra- 
eemed, heterogamous, disciform, purple rosy or yellow ; outer fl. oo -seriate, § , 
fertile, filiform, 2-3-toothed ; disk.-fl. 5 > ^^w, fertile, tubular, slender, limb 
5-toothed. Involucre ovoid or campanulate ; bracts oo -seriate, narrow, acute, 
soft or herbaceous, outer smaller ; receptacle fiat, naked. Anthei'-haseB sagittate, 
tails small, slender. Style-anns of Q flattened or almost filiform, rarely con- 
mite with the adjoining anthers. Achenes small, subterete or angled, ribbed 
or not; pappus l-seriate, slender, often caducous. — Djstrib. Species about 60, 
tropical and subtropical Asiatic, African and Australian. 

This geniis is eminently characteristic of India, and the species may be called the 
Gfroundsels of that country. There is no more unsatisfactory genus than this ; it is 
distinguished from Laggera only by the tailed anther-cells, and this is not a very con- 
stant character, the anthers of some states of B. virens having no tails, whilst forms 
of Laggera have them ; Kurz, indeed, suggests (with much probability) that some 
Laggeras are sexual forms of Blumeas, Clarke finds generally in Blmnea, that func- 
tionally ? heads occur, the disk-flo-vrers, though ^ in form, having only rudimentary- 
stamens, and that in the case of the common B. oxyodonta he has never found 
perfect $ flowers, nor has Kurz. The divisions of the Genus here proposed are 
most unsatisfactory, and I fear that the specific diagnoses are not much better. The 
glabrous or pubescent raceptacle is very difficult to see; the size of the head is 
tolerably constant ; the form and'number of ths invol. bracts are difficult to describe; 
the very minute achenes are tolerably uniform ; the foliage is sportive to an extra- 
ordinary degree, as is the pubescence ; gland-hairs are common to most species, but 
the amount varies with the dryness of the locality. I have not been able to follow 
Clarke's disposition of the species at all closely, they want a careful study in situ, and 
under cultivation. 

Sect. 1. Heads few, small, \-^ in. diam., solitary or 2 and peduncled at the 
ends of the branches.-— Small, annual herbs, erect or prostrate ; flowers yellow. 

1. B. amplectens, DC. in Wight Contrib. 13 ; Prodr. v. 483 ; sparsely 
softly hairy or glabrous, divaricate branches spreading from the base, leaves 
^-1^ in. ^-ample^dcaul oblong or obovate r>btuse or acute coarsely toothed, heads 
solitary on the branchlets peduncled ^-^ in. diam., invol. bracts very slender 
inner hair-pointed, recept. glabrous, corolla yellow, lobes of § hairy, achenes 
oblong, pappus reddish. Clarke Comp. Ind. 71 ; Dalz. 4* Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 125 ; 
Thwaites Bnu7n. 163 paHly (C. P. 1730). Conyza amplectens, Wall. Cat. 3096. 
0. obliqua, Willd. Sp. PL iii. 1930. C. amplexicaulis, Lamk. Diet. ii. 84. 
Erigeron obliquum, Linn. Mant. 

Central India and Western Peninsula ; abimdant in Bengal, chiefly near th* 
coast and Ceylon. 

The following varieties are according to Clarke, they are with difficulty limitable. 

Var, 1. typiea ; softly hairy or glabrate, leaves oblong toothed. 

Var. 2. arenaria, leaves obovate-oblong sparingly toothed usually more villous 
beneath. B. arenaria, DC. in Wight. Cont<ib. 13; Prodr. v. 433. Conyza villosa» 
Wall. Cat. 3105. 

Var. 3. pvhiflora, leaves toothed, peduncles stout, heads large ^ in. B. pubiflora,^ 
DC. Prodr. v. 434. Erigeron asteroides, Wall. Cat. 2976, B. — Intends to Bundelkund 
and N.W. India. 

Var. 4. maritima ; bushy, glabrous, glandular, leaves small, heads large. — Near 
the sea, Andaman Islds., Pegu, Soonderbunds and round the coast to Scinde. 

Var. 5. tenella ; almost glabrous. 

Blumea.] lxxviii. coMPOSiTiE. (J. D. HooKer.) 261 

2. B. bifoliata, DC. in Wight Contrib. 14; Prodr. v. 434; often pro- 
strate with ascending branches, pubescent villous or glabrate, branched irom 
the base, leaves 1-3 in. sessile obovate or oblong serrate obtuse or acute 2 upper- 
most on the branches sub-opposite, heads ^-^ in. solitary on the branchlets 
peduncled, inner invol. bracts acuminate, receptacle glabrous, corolla yellow, 
lobes of ^ hairy, achenes nan-owly oblong with 4-6 hairy angles, pappus white. 
Dalz. 4' Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 145; Kurz in Journ. As. Soc.' 1877, ii. 186; Clarke 
Cotnp. Ind. 72. B. amplectens, Thwaites Enum. 163 in part (O.P, 3523). B. 
oligocephala, BC. in Wight Contrib. 13 ; Prodr. v. 434. B. anagallidi folia, DC. 
Prodi . V. 434. Conyza bifoliata, WUld. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 431 0. foliolosa, 
anagallidifolia and amplexicaulis, Wall. Cat. 3092, 3098, 3104. 

Bengal, the "Westebk Peninsula, Biema, the Malay Peninsitla and Ceylon. 

Best distinguished from B. amplectens by the serrate (not dentate) leaves, the two 
upper of which on each branch are usually opposite, and by the tips of the invol. 
bracts not being hair-pointed. B. anagallidifolia is a very small leaved state. 

Sect. II. Heads many, \illous, small, \-^ in. diam. (^-| in B. hiei-acifoUa), 
more or less clustered and forming dense oblong spikes or contracted, panicles at 
the top of the stem, exceptionally arranged in loose open corymbs. — Erect or 
ascending stout or slender herbs, usually very villous silky or woolly, often 

flandular, rarely 2 ft. high. Leaves toothed or serrate, seldom deeply gashed, 
'appus white. (Corymbs often loose in B. barbata, and sometimes in aU the 
others. Branches prostrate in B. nodijiora See B. Belangeriana in Sect. IV.) 

3. B. Wig>htlana, DC. in Wight Contrib. 14 ; P-odr. v. 435 ; villous 
silky hairy or woolly, sometimes glandular, stem erect subsimple very leafy, 
Jeaves petioled obovate irregularly toothed or serrate, heads \ in. collected into 
terminal spiciform dense (rarely open) cymes or panicles, invol. bracts narrow 
acuminate, receptacle glabrous, corolla purple, lobes of ^ glandular, achenes 
terete or 4-6-angled not ribbed sparsely hairy. Clarke Comp. Ind. 74 ; Kurz 
in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 186 (excl. syn. hymenophylla). B. trichophora, 
parvifolia and phyllostachya, DC. P'odr. 436, 437, 438. Conyza lactucaefolia, 
paniculata, bifoliata and Wightiana, Wall. Cat. 3088, in part, 3090 A., 3091, 
3093. Erigeron moUe, Don Prodr. 172. 

Throughout the plains of India from the outer Himalaya and the Punjab east- 
wards and southwards ; and in Ceylon, Bikma and the Malayan Peninsitla. — 
DiSTRiB. Malay Islds., China, Australia, Tropical Africa. 

Similar to B. lacera, but easily distinguished by the small heads, purplish flowers, 
and hairy achenes. A very glabrous variety with large membranous long-petioled 
leaves, 4 by 1| in. from Rangoon may be the "jB. hymenophylla, DC." quoted by 
Kurz as a synonym of Wightiana, but which is not DCs plant of that name. 

4. B. nellgrlierrensis, Hook.f. ; densely softly villous and silky, stem 
simple stout erect or ascending, leaves 3-4 in. obovate or oblong-obovate sessile 
or narrowed into a petiole regularly sharply gland-toothed, heads ^ in. diam. 
very numerous in axillary clusters forming an oblong or rounded terminal spike 
or panicle, invol. bracts almost filiform softly silky, recept. glabrous, corolla 
purple, lobes of ^ glabrous, achenes glabrous angled, pappus ^ in. white. 

Nilgherby and Pulney Hills, Wight, Gardner. 

This is a mountain plant, near Wightiana in its purple flowers, but has a denser 
.inflorescence, larger head, glabrous achenes, and very regularly toothed leavea. As in 
all Blumeas, the villosity or hairiness is a very inconstant character ; this plant is 
sometimes as silky as B. Belangeriana. 

5. B. subcapitata, DC. Prodr. v. 439; pubescent, sparsely villous 
upwards, stem slender simple, leaves denticulate radical long-petioled mem- 
branous obovate or elorgate-obovate entire or sen-ately or subpi^niatifidly lobed 

262 Lxxviii. coMPOSiT^aE. (J. D. Hooker.) \_Blumea, 

below the middle, cauline smaller petioled, heads \-^ in. diam. solitary or 2-3- 
nate in the distant upper leaf-axils and forming a crowded oblong short terminal 
01 cylindric contracted panicle, invol. bracts very slender glabrescent, receptacle 
glabrous, corolla yellow, lobes of J glabrous, achenes nearly glabrous angled,, 
pappus ^ in. white. Conyza subcapitata, Wall. Cat. 3066. 

Central and Easteen Himalaya ; Nipal, Wallich ; Sikkim, alt. 1-5000 ft.^ 
J. D.H. 

I retain this species contrary to Mr, Clarke's opinion (who referred it to B. lacera) 
with diffidence, my Sikkim specimens precisely accord with Wallich's Nipal ones, and 
I find none of the forms of lacera at all like it. 

6. B. barbata^, DC. in Wight Contrib. 14; Prod?', v. 434: stem erect 
subsimple with very long hairs, leaves obovate or oblanceolate coarsely toothed 
or serrate silky beneath, heads ^ in. peduncled in short loose axillary and ter- 
minal cymes forming an elongate inflorescence, invol. bracts narrowly linear 
acuminate hairy, recept. glabrous, corolla yeUow, lobes of 5 glandular, achene& 
most minute 5-6-ribbed striate hairy above, pappus white. Kurz in Journ. As, 
Soc. 1877, ii. 188, excl. var. j3 ; Clarke Comp. Ind. 73. Conyza barbata, WalL 
Cat. 3099. 

Travancobe; Pulney Mts., Wight. Ceylon, Central Province, alt. 3-5000 ft.,. 

Stem 4-10 in., stout or slender. Leaves 1-2^ in. often narrowed into a petiole,, 
membranous, hairy and subglandnlar above. Heads on slender peduncles. 

7. B. sericans, Hook. f. ; tall, robust, stem simple erect, and leaves 
beneath densely silvery villous, leaves 2-3 in. lower petioled upper elongate- 
oblanceolate or linear acuminate minutely toothed, heads ^ in. sessile in crowded 
axillary and terminal clusters, recept. glabrous, corolla yellow lobes of ^ hairy^ 
achenes silky, pappus white. B. barbata, var. /3 sericans, Kurz in Journ. As, 
Soc. 1877, ii. 188. 

Chittaqong ; on hills, alt. 500-1 500 ft., Clarke. Biema and Mabtaban, Falconer,. 

This is quite unlike any other species in its long leaves, silvery silky pubescence- 
and inflorescence. 

8. B. grlomerata, BC. in Wight Contrib. 15 ; Prodr. I. c. 443 ; pubescent 
or villous, stem erect usually slender, lower leaves petioled obovate serrate or 
lyrate-pinnatifid upper oblong incised, heads purple \ in. diam. in small sessile 
axillary clusters all along the branches, invol. Ibracts subulate-lanceolate villous, 
coroUa yellow, lobes of § and recept. pubescent, achenes 8-10-ribbed glabrous- 
or hairy. Ddz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 125. B. fasciculata, DC. Prodr. v. 442 ; 
Clarke Comp. Ind. 81. B. fistulosa, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 187. B. 
holosericea, racemosa, spinellosa, gracilis, purpurea and leptoclada, DC. I. c. 442, 
443. B. holosericea and leptoclada, Ddz. ^ Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 125, 126. Conyza 
fistulosa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. lii. 429. C. racemosa, sericea, glomerata, gracilis,, 
purpurea and holosericea, Wedl. Cat. 3002, 3021, 3055, 3064, 3076, 3103. 

Tbopical Himalaya ; from Kumaon to Sikkim ascending to 5000 ft., and through- 
out the plains to Assam, Birma, Tenassebim and the Deccan (not in Ceylon). — 
DisTRiB. China, Java, Philippine Islds. 

Very distinct in its normal state from the slender erect branches with rounded 
axillary clusters of purple sessile heads, which become spiciform. Conyza sericea. 
Wall., has leaves very silky, especially beneath, and C. holosericea resembles it, but 
differs from the typical inflorescence of the species in the clusters of flowers being 
borne on axillary peduncles. See also B. membranacea, var. gracilis. 

9. B. nodiflora, Hook./.-, stem branched from the base, branches 2-4 
in. long very slender dichotomously forked, leaves ^-1 in. subsessile obovate- 

Blumea.] Lxxviii. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 263 

more or less toothed glabrous, heads ^ in. in dense axillaiy globose clusters 
round the branches at the leaf axils and terminal, invol. bracts linear acute 
white wooUy, recept. and unripe achenes puberulous. 

Pegu ; Prorne, M'Clelland. Tenassehim and MERon, Griffith, Heifer. 
The clusters of heads resemble those of Altenanthera nodiflora. 

10. 8. lacera, DC. Prodr. v. 436; hairy villous or glandular, rarely 
glabrescent, stem erect simple or branched very leafy, leaves petioled obovate 
toothed or serrate rarely lobulate, heads \ in. in short axillary cymes and 
collected into terminal spiciform panicles rarely corymbose, invol. bracts narrow 
acuminate hairy, recept. glabrous, corolla yellow, lobes of ^ nearly glabrous, 
achenes sub- 4-gonous not ribbed glabrate. Clarke Comp. Ind. 76. B. Musra, 
DC. I. c. 435; Deless. Ic. Sel. iv. t. 23. B. leptoclada, Dalz. ^ Gibs. Bonth. Fl. 
125, not of DC. B. villosa, Schvltz-Bip. in PI. Hohenack. n. 2a. Conyza 
lacera, Roxh. Fl. Ind. iii, 428 ; Wall. Cat. 3082. 0. thyrsiflora, villosa and 
Musra, Ham. ; Wall. Cat. sub 3082, 3083, 3095. 0. lactucaefoUa, DC. I. c. 435 ; 
WaU. Cat. 3088 inpa7't ; Burm. Fl. Ind. 180, t. 59, f. 1. 

Throughout the plains of India, from the N.W. ascending to 2000 ft. in the 
Himalaya, to Travancore and Singapore, and in Ceylon. — Distbib, Malay Islds., 
China, Tropical Africa. 

It is very difl&cult to separate this in the Herbarium from B. Wightiana (which 
see), it is even more variable ; when living, the yellow flowers at once distinguish it. 
The smell and glabrous receptacle should distinguish it from laciniata, but the latter 
character is very difl&cult to see in the last-named plant. Smells strongly of 
turpentine (Roxburgh). 

Vak. glandtdosa ; whole plant more or less glandular. B. glandulosa, DC. in 
Wight Contrib. 14 ; Prodr. 438. B. Heyneana, DC. I. c. 15 and 441. B. trigona, 
DC. I.e. 437. Conyza Heyneana, Wall. Cat. 3089. ?B. napifolia, DC. I. c. 440. 
Conyza napifolia, Wall. Cat. 3075 (heads small). This passes into C. membranacea, 
var. TTuijor. 

YiiR. cinerascens ] hoary or clothed with soft white pubescence, leaves obovate 
often simple petioled and toothed as in B. lacera, corymbs often effuse, receptacle pube- 
rulous. B. cinerascens, DC. Prodr. v. 438. B. runcinata, Wall. Cat. 3087 B. — Hot 
valleys of the Himalaya from Nipal to Bhottrn. 

11. 8. hleracifolia, DC. in Wight Cmtrib. 15; Prodr. v. 442; tomen- 
tose villous or copiously woolly or silky, stem usually robust and simple some- 
times scape-like, lower leaves elliptic or oblong petioled serrate or toothed upper 
sessile often entire, heads ^-| in. diam. more or less fascicled or spiked forming 
elongate panicles rarely corymbose, invol. bracts lanceolate acuminate, receptacle 
glabrous, corolla yellow lobes of ^ glabrate, achenes hairy. Wight. Ic. 1. 1099 ; 
Clarke Comp. Ind. 82; Kurz in Jmim. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 188. Erigeron 
hleracifolia, Don Prodr. 172. Oonyza hleracifolia, Spreng. Syst. iii. 624. 

Throughout the hilly parts of India, from the outer Himalaya in Kumaon east- 
wards and southwards to the NrLGHBBBT Mrs. and Mabtaban. — Distbib. Java. 

The robust habit of the larger form, and scapigerous habit of the smaller, are 
amongst the best characters of this most variable plant. A form (Conyza natans, 
Herb. Ham.) floats on tanks in Bengal. — See also 23. B. crinita and 25. flexuosa. 

Vae. 1. typica; simple or sparingly branched, often scapigerous, leaves oblong 
crenulate or with small teeth silkily villous beneath, neads in a dense terminal cluster 
or spike. 

Vab. 2. macrostachya; tall, robust, paniculately branched above, leaves with 
spreading hairs beneath, heads in large clusters at the ends of the branches. Var. 
evolutior, Clarke I. c. B. macrostachya and B. cemua, DC. I. c. 442 and 436. Conyza 
macrostachya and nnt&nB,,WaU. Cat. 3053, 3080. 

Vab. ». Hamiltoni; small, often clothed with close buff or white cottony tomentum, 

264 Lxxviu. coMPOSiTiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Blumea. 

branches solitary or several from the base, leaves chiefly radical often almost entirely 
villously silky beneath, heads in spiked fascicles. B, Hamiltoni, DC. I. c. 439. 
Grnaphalium Hamiltoni, Wall. Cat. 2938. Habit often that oi Antennaria hyperborea. 
— See B. crinita. Am., and Belangerianai DC, which may be southern forms of this. 

12. B. angustifolia, Thwaites Enum. 165 ; glabrous or puberulous, 
stem erect slender subsimple, leaves 1-3 in. all linear-oblong or lanceolate 
subobtuse narrowed at the base quite entire or obscurely toothed, heads few aU 
peduncled crowded or corymbose, peduncles tomentose or glabrous, invol. bracts 
linear-lanceolate pubescent or sparingly villous, recept. glabrous, achenes nearly 
glabrous. Clarhe Comp. Ind. 81. 

Ceylon; central province, alt. 1-3000 ft., Moon, Thwaites. 

Stem 1 ft., procumbent, branched and rooting below. I have seen but few 

Sect. III. Heads many, small, \-^ in. diam., peduncled in open corymbs 
or panicles with often divaricate branches, rarely clustered. — Tall, erect, green 
herbs ; stem simple below, paniculately or corymbosely branched above, glabrous 
or glandular, rarely villous densely woolly or silky ; leaves, the lower especially, 
gashed or lacinate ; pappus white. 

13. B. laciniata, DC. Prodr. v. 436; erect, usually stout, pubescent or 
laxly tomentose, 'stem branched, leaves usually large membranous runcinate 
lyrate or subpinnatifid and toothed, heads ^ in. diam. usually in broad open 
corymbs, invol. bracts lanceolate acuminate villous, recept. pubescent, corolla 
yellow, lobes of ^ hairy, achenes ribbed sUky. Clarke Comp. Ind. 78 ; Kurz 
in Jmirn. As. Sac. 1877, ii. 187. B. runcinata and sonchifolia, DC. I. c. 438. 
Oonyza sonchifolia and runcinata. Wall. Cat. 3085, 3087 A. C. laciniata, 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 427 ; Wall. Cat. 3100, 3084-B. 

Tropical Himai aya ; from Kumaou eastwards, ascending to 4000 ft, in Sikkim. 
Assam, Cachab and the Khasla. Mts., Behae and Bengal ; rare in the Concan, 
SouTHEEN India and the ]Malay Peninsula. — Distrib, Malay Islds., China, Philip- 

Usually a taller plant than B. lacera, from which it is difficult to distinguish 
specimens with leaves more entire than usual, but it is usually more glabrous, and 
should have a pubescent receptacle ; this latter character is, liowever, very variable, 
evanescent in age, and at SlII times requires a high power to detect. Roxburgh says 
that this differs from B. lacera in having all the leaves laciniate, to which I suppose 
may be added its being scentless. The four following species are possibly all re- 
ducible to laciniata. 

14. B. virens, DC. in Wight Contrib. 14; Fi-odr. v. 439; quite glabrous, 
tall, slender, much branched, bright green, leaves membranous irregularly or 
sinuate-toothed lower petioled obovate lyrate or runcinate upper oblong small 
very numerous, heads \ in. glabrous on capillary peduncles all in large open 
much branched panicles with small leaves on the ascending branches, invol. 
bracts slender ciliolate, recept. very narrow glabrous, corolla yellow^ lobes of ^ 
glandular, achenes 8-10-ribbed with spreading hairs. Clarke Comp. Ind. 79 in 
part. B. lapsanoides, DC: I. c. 440. Conyza virens, WallCat. 3037 A. B. C. 

Upper Assa\ Griffith ; Birma, WaUich ; the Concan, Canara, and Nilgherry 
Mts-, Wight, &c. 

The perfectly glabrous habit distinguishes this from all other species ; it some- 
times grows 4 ft. high with a stem as thick as the finger, but is generally smaller. 
The stem is grooved and green with a few more or less conspicuous yellow slender 

Vab. minor; 6-12 in., stem simple slender, leaves long-petioled elliptic ovate or 
lanceolate toothed or serrulate very membranous. Travancore at Courtallam, Wight. 
Closely resembles B. Tnembranacea, but the glabrous panicle distinguishes it. 

Blwnea.'] Lxxviii. composite. (J. D. Hooker.) 265 

15. B. membranacea, DC. Prodr. v. 440; pulescent, tall, slender, 
much branched, leaves and heads and flowers as in B. virens hut more or less 
softly puhescent, and the branches of the panicle glandular and with spreading 
hairs. B. hymenophylla, DC. I. c. 440. Conyza membi-anacea and hymeno- 
phylla, Wdl, Cat. 3019, 3038. C. virens, Wall. Cat. 3037 D. C. difiusa, 
MoxK Fl. Ind. iii. 429. 

Common throughout India. — Distrib. Malay Islds. 

This may be a pubescent and glandular form of B. virens. The prevalent forms 
may be approximately limited as follows. 

Vae. 1. typica ; tall, pubescent, much branched, leaves large membranous, heads 
many panicled. 

Var. 2. muralis ; glandular-hairy, stem usually simple slender, leaves elliptic- 
ovate or lanceolate toothed or serrulate very membranous, invol. bracts rigid coloured 
like those of a Vernonia. B. muralis, BC. Prodr. v. 440 ; Balz. Sf Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 
125. Conjza muralis. Ham. in Wall. Cat. Zdll. — Though in extreme forms the heads 
of this look so different from those of membranacea, they are connected by numerous 

Var. 3. gracilis ; heads subsolitary or racemose on the long slender branches. B. 
gracilis, BC. Prodr. v. 443. Conyza gracilis. Herb. Heyne in Wall. Cat. 3064. 
Taong-Dong in Ava, Wallich. Madras, Herb. G. Thomson. — This approaches B. 
glomerata in habit, and may be referable to it, but the receptacle is glabrous. 

Var. 4. Gardneri; glabrous or puberulous, erect, bright green, corymbosely or 
paniculately branched and glandular, lower leaves 2-4 in. lyrate or runcinate-toothed, 
upper lanceolate sinuate-toothed, heads | in. diam. on slender peduncles, invol, bracts 
puberulous. B. hymenophylla, Herb. Wt. {Kew Bistrib. 1577). B. glandulosa, 
Thwaites Enum. — Nilgherry Mts., Wight, Gardner; Ceylon, Walker, ^c. 

Vae. 5. viscosula, covered with lax spreading long simple and glandular hairs, 
heads few at the ends of the few long branches of the panicle. B. viscosula, BC. 
Prodr. V. 441. B. lactucsefolia, var. nudipes, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 1877, ii. 187. 
— Prome, Wallich ; Pegu, Gomez, Kurz ; Rangoon, Maclelland. 

Var. 6. subsimplex ; anther-cells without tails, their bases connate with the fila- 
ments. B. paucifolia and subsimplex, BC. Prodr. v. 441. Conyza subsimplex, Wall. 
Cat. 3003. C spiridens, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 44, excl. st/n.— This is technically a 
Baggera, but I agree with Kurz in regarding it as a sexual form of membranacea, 
from which it differs solely by the anthers ; it represents closely both the larger and 
smaller forms of membranacea, and is widely distributed. 

16. B. King*!!, Clarke mss. ; pubescent and glandular above, stem strict 
erect simple glabrate below, leaves 3-5 in. lower petioled runcinate or lyrate and 
unequally toothed rather membranous, heads | in. all peduncled in open panicles 
with many divaricate bracteate branches, invol. bracts linear rigid green puberu- 
lous, recept. glabrous deeply pitted, achenes 10- ribbed puberulous. 

Marwar ; Mt. Aboo, King. 

This again is closely allied to B. virens, and has similar habit and foliage, but the 
panicle is more robust and branched, and the invol. bracts are rigid like those of a 

17. B. Jacquemontii, Hook. f. ; villous with spreading soft haii-s, 
stem stout erect simple below, leaves 3-5 in. lower petioled obovate-lanceo- 
late coarsely irregularly serrate upper sessile toothed or lacerate, heads ^ in. all 
peduncled in open panicles with divaricating branches and pedicels, invol. bracts 
numerous subulate-lanceolate rigid coloured puberulous, recept. pubescent, 
achenes 8-10-ribbed finely silky. B. obovata? Clarke Comp. Ind. 72 {not 

Behar, on Parusnath, alt. 4000 ft., J. B. H, &c. Central India, Jacqtcemont 
(n. 1054). Nilgherry Mts., Clarke {Comp. Ind. 11); Hort. Bot. Calc.,i/eri. Griffith. 

A large coarse species, with the paniculate inflorescence sometimes 18 in. across, 
yellow flowers and coloured invol. scales like those of a Vernonia. 


266 Lxxviii. coMPOSiTiE. (J. D. Hooker.) [Blumea, 

Sect. IV. Heads few, rarely many, small, ^-^ in., usually peduncled and 
forming loose axillary and terminal corymbs but often clustered. — Prostrate or 
decumbent rarely ascending or erect herbs, woolly villous or silky, brancbea 
usually dichotomously forked ; leaves acutely irregularly toothed, the teeth 
often subspinescent ; pappus white. 

18. B. oxyodonta, DC. in Wight Contrib. 15; Prodr. v. 444; prostrate, 
pubescent villous or tomentose, branches spreading from the root leafy slender 
dichotomously forked or simple, leaves spinulose-toothed lower ^3 in. petioled 
obovate membranous, upper obovate or oblong sessile, heads \ in. diam. on 
slender peduncles solitary or few corymbose, invol. woolly or glabrate, recept. 
glabrous, corolla yellow lobes of ^ glabrous, achenes sparingly silky. Clarke 
Comp. Ind. 85. Oonyza tenera, WaU. Cat. 3023. 

Westeen TROPiCAii Himalaya, from Kumaon to Nipal, and southwards to 
Canaba, Behab, Bengai-, Pegu and Birma. — Distrib. China, Philippine Islds. 

Smaller than most species and easily recognised by its decumbent habit. Clarke 
observes that in all the specimens he has examined those anther-cells which are tailess 
are empty of pollen, and Kurz suspects it is a hybrid, or a polygamous form of some 
other species. 

19. B. eriantha, DC. in Wight Contrib. 15; Prodr. v, 444; pubescent 
or tomentose or clothed with scattered long hairs, rarely silkily villous, stems 1 
ft. slender dichotomously branched from the base, leaves 1-3 in. acutely irregu- 
larly toothed lower petioled obovate obtuse, upper sessile obovate or oblong 
acute, heads small \-^ in. mostly on the long slender peduncles of dichotomous 
cymes rarely fascicled, peduncles and invol. clothed with long silky hairs, 
recept. glabrous, achenes very minute, angles obtuse sparingly silky. 

The CoNCAN, Law. Banda, Edgeworth. 

Usually very slender, with divaricate dichotomous branches, and heads with long 
slender peduncles; but some specimens are nearly as robust as B. Malcolmii, and 
almost as silvery-villous ; the heads are, however, not half the size, and the achenes 
are smaller, and it is perhaps a var. of oxyodonta, 

20. B. Malcolmii, JELook.f. ; densely clothed with soft white silky wool, 
stems leafy ascending stout forked rarely decumbent from the root, leaves 1-4 
in. sessile leathery obovate very obtuse acutely closely jaggedly toothed, heads 
\-\ in. dianl. fascicled towards the ends of the branches or remote and pe- 
duncled villous with long white silky hau's, recept. glabrous, achenes obscurely 
angled silky. Pluchea lanuginosa, Clarke Comp. Ind. 95. 

The CoNCAN ; hills above 2000 ft.. Law ; Belgaum and VeUoor on the Fort walls 
(heads smaller), Ritchie. 

The stout habit, dense silvery woolly clothing, and sparse often peduncled heads 
of this species are its most prominent characters. The buds at the crown of the 
root form globose woolly bodies, often clustered together ; the jagging of the leaf- 
margin is very close and irregular. I have not seen specimens of the Pluchea lanu 
ginosa, described by Clarke, who tells me that this is the same plant. 

21. B. Belangrerlana, DC. Prodr. v. 444 ; silkily wooUy especially the 
leaves beneath, branches dichotomously forked strict leafy, lower leaves 2-3 in. 
petioled obovate finely toothed, upper sessile oblong coarsely toothed, heads ^ in. 
diam. sessile axOlary solitary or clustered, invol. bracts woolly, recept. glabrous, 
corolla lobes of § hispid, achenes (unripe) glabrous. B. Metziana, Schultz- 
Bip. PI. Hohenack. n. 777. 

The CoNCAN, Canara and Malabar, Law, Ritchie, &c. 

Usually much branched, the branches a foot long, stiff, and often red-brown. 

Sbct. V. Heads large, ^-f in. diam., usually clustered and axillary, or die- 

Blumea.'] lxxviii. composite:. (J. D. Hooker.) 267 

posed in elongated spikes racemes or contracted panicles. — Herbs with long 
simple or sparingly branched grooved erect or flexuous stems ; leaves 1-3 in., 
sessile or shortly petioled, glabrous beoeath or silky or tomentose, sparingly 
toothed ; pappus white. — Some forms of £. hieracifolia belong here, perhaps 
also B. chinensis. 

22. B. malabarlca, Hook. f. ; pubescent, branches slender elongate 
flexuous, leaves subsessile membranous linear-oblong acute distantly serrate 
s?ightly hairy beneath, heads ^ in. diam. pubescent in small axillary sessile or 
peduncled clusters, recept. broad pubescent, achenes strongly ribbed nearly 

Canaha and Maiabab, Bitchie ; Bababoodan Hills, Law. 

This appears a very distinct species, the leaves are membranous, and have a 
distinct short slender petiole, quite unlike that formed by the narrowed bases of the 
leaves ; it is possibly a scandent species. 

23. B. crinita, Arn. PugUl. 30; DC. Prodr. vii. 283; pubescent hirsute 
or villous, stem elongate slender or stout flexuous, leaves scabrid rigid sessile 
obovate-oblong acute sharply finely or coarsely toothed scabrid above glabrate 
or tomentose beneath, heads ^§ in. diam. woolly or villous sessile in small 
sessile or long peduncled clusters usually forming an elongate sparse panicle, 
receptacle and corolla lobes of § glabrous, achenes ribbed glabrous, pappus 
white. Clarke Camp. Ind. 84. 

Ceylon ; central province, Adam's Peak and Neuera Ellia, Walker, &c. 

The long brown often flexuous stems, and hard uniform toothed sessile leaves, 
usually round