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Full text of "Flora of Colorado"



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BULLETIN 100 iqo r 

tnt, 

THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

OF THE 

COLORADO AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



FLORA OF COLORADO 



BY 

P. A. RYDBERG, PH.D. 



PUBLISHED BY THE EXPERIMENT STATION 

FORT COLLINS, COLORADO 

1906 



PRESS OF 

THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY 
LANCASTER, PA. 



THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

FORT COLLINS, COLORADO 



THE STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 

TERM EXPIRES 

HON. P. F. SHARP, President Denver 1907 

HON. HARLAN THOMAS Denver 1907 

HON. JAMES L. CHATFIELD Gypsum 1909 

HON. B. U. DYE Rocky Ford 1909 

HON. B. F. ROCKAFELLOW Canon City 1911 

HON. EUGENE H. GRUBB Carbondale 1911 

HON. A. A. EDWARDS Fort Collins 1913 

HON. R. W. CORWIN Pueblo 1913 

GOVERNOR JESSE F. McDONALD, -> 

PRESIDENT BARTON O. AYLESWORTH. / cx 



A. M. HAWLEY, SECRETARY EDGAR AVERY, TREASURER 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE IN CHARGE 
P. F. SHARP, CHAIRMAN. B. F. ROCKAFELLOW. A. A. EDWARDS 



STATION STAFF 

L. G. CARPENTER, M.S., Director IRRIGATION ENGINEER 

C. P. GILLETTE, M.S ENTOMOLOGIST 

W. P. HEADDEN, A.M., Pn.D CHEMIST 

W. PADDOCK, M.S HORTICULTURIST 

W. L. CARLYLE, M.S AGRICULTURIST 

G. H. GLOVER, B.S., D.V.M VETERINARIAN 

W. H. OLIN, M.S AGRONOMIST 

R. E. TRIMBLE, B.S ASSISTANT IRRIGATION ENGINEER 

F. C. ALFORD, M.S ASSISTANT CHEMIST 

EARL DOUGLASS, M.S ASSISTANT CHEMIST 

S. ARTHUR JOHNSON, M.S ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIST 

B. O. LONGYEAR, B.S ASSISTANT HORTICULTURIST 

J. A. McLEAN, A.B., B.S. A ANIMAL HUSBANDMAN 

E. B. HOUSE, B.S ASSISTANT IRRIGATION ENGINEER 

A. H. DANIELSON ASSISTANT AGRICULTURIST 

P. K. BLINN, B.S FIELD AGENT, ARKANSAS VALLEY, ROCKY FORD 

E. R. BENNETT, B.S POTATO INVESTIGATIONS 

WESTERN SLOPE FRUIT INVESTIGATIONS, GRAND JUNCTION : 

O. B. WHIPPLE, B.A FIELD HORTICULTURIST 

ESTES P. TAYLOR, B.S FIELD ENTOMOLOGIST 



OFFICERS 
PRESIDENT BARTON O. AYLESWORTH, A.M., LL.D. 

L. G. CARPENTER, M.S .DIRECTOR 

A. M. HAWLEY SECRETARY 

MARGARET MURRAY - STENOGRAPHER AND CLERK 

iii 



CONTENTS. 



Preface ix 

Introduction xi 

Key to the Orders xvii 

Subkingdom Pteridophyta I 

Order i. Ophioglossales I 

Family i. Ophioglossaceae I 

Order 2. Filicales I 

Family 2. Polypodiaceae i 

Order 3. Salviniales 5 

Family 3. Marsileaceae 5 

Order 4. Equisetales 5 

Family 4. Equisetaceae 5 

Order 5. Isoetales 5 

Family 5. Isoetaceae 5 

Order 6. Lycopodiales 6 

Family 6. Lycopodiaceae 6 

7. Selaginellaceae 6 

Subkingdom Spermatophyta 7 

Class i. Gymnospermae 7 

Order 7. Finales 7 

Family 8. Pinaceae 7 

9. Juniperaceae 9 

Order 8. Gnetales 10 

Family 10. Ephedraceae 10 

Class 2. Angiospermae 1 1 

Subclass i. Monocotyledones 1 1 

Order 9. Pandanales 1 1 

Family 1 1. Typhaceae 1 1 

12. Sparganiaceae 1 1 

Order 10. Naiadales 12 

Family 13. Zanichelliaceae 12 

14. Naiadaceae 13 

Order n. Alismales 13 

Family 15. Scheuchseriaceae 14 

16. Alismaceae 14 

Order 12. Hydrocharitales 15 

Family 17. Elodiaceae 15 

Order 13. Poales 15 

Family 18. Poaceae 15 

19. Cyperaceae 57 

Order 14. Arales 74 

Family 20. Araceae 74 

21. Lemnaceae 74 

Order 15. Xyridales 75 

Family 22. Commelinaceae 75 

23. Pontederiaceae 75 

Order 16. Liliales 76 

Family 24. Melanthaceae 76 

25. Juncaceae 77 

26. Alliaceae 81 

v 



vi CONTENTS. 

27. Liliaceae 82 

28. Convallariaceae 83 

29. Dracaenaceae 85 

30. Calochortaceae 85 

31. Trilliaceae 86 

32. Smilaceae 86 

Order 17. Amaryllidales 86 

Family 33. Ixiaceae 86 

Order 18. Orchidales 87 

Family 34. Orchidaceae 87 

Subclass 2. Dicotyledones 91 

Order 19. Salicales 91 

Family 35. Salicaceae 91 

Order 20. Fagales 96 

Family 36. Betulaceae 96 

37. Corylaceae 97 

38. Fagaceae 97 

Order 21. Urticales 99 

Family 39. Urticaceae 99 

40. Cannabinaceae 100 

41. Ulmaceae 100 

Order 22. Santalales 100 

Family 42. Loranthaceae 100 

43. Santalaceae 101 

Order 23. Polygonales 101 

Family 44. Polygonaceae IOI 

Order 24. Chenopodiales 113 

Family 45. Chenopodiaceae 113 

46. Amaranthaceae 120 

47. Corrigiolaceae 121 

48. Allioniaceae 122 

49. Tetragoniaceae 124 

50. Portulacaceae 125 

51. Alsinaceae 127 

52. Caryophyllaceae 132 

Order 25. Ranales 134 

Family 53. Ceratophyllaceae 134 

54. Ranunculaceae 134 

55. Nymphaeaceae 147 

56. Berberidaceae 148 

Order 26. Papaverales 148 

Family 57. Papaveraceae 148 

58. Fumariaceae 149 

59. Brassicaceae 150 

60. Capparidaceae 168 

Order 27. Resales 169 

Family 6r. Crassulaceae 169 

62. Saxifragaceae 170 

63. Parnassiaceae 175 

64. Hydrangeaceae 175 

65. Grossulariaceae 176 

66. Rosaceae 178 

67. Malaceae 191 

68. Amygdalaceae 193 

69. Mimosaceae 193 

70. Cassiaceae 194 

71. Fabaceae 194 

Order 28. Geraniales 217 

Family 72. Geraniaceae 218 

73. Linaceae 219 



CONTENTS. vii 

74. Oxalidaceae 220 

75. Zygophyllaceae 220 

76. Rutaceae 221 

Order 29. Polygalales 221 

Family 77. Polygalaceae 221 

Order 30. Euphorbiales 221 

Family 78. Euphorbiaceae 222 

79. Callitrichaceae 225 

Order 31. Sapindales 225 

Family 80. Limnanthaceae 225 

81. Spondiaceae 225 

82. Celastraceae 226 

83. Aceraceae 226 

Order 32. Rhamnales 227 

Family 84. Frangulaceae 227 

85. Vitaceae 228 

Order 33. Malvales 229 

Family 86. Malvaceae 229 

Order 34. Hypericales 231 

Family 87. Elatinaceae 231 

88. Frankeniaceae 231 

89. Hypericaceae 231 

90. Cistaceae 232 

91. Violaceae 232 

Order 35. Opuntiales 234 

Family 92. Loasaceae 234 

93. Cactaceae 237 

Order 36. Thymeliales 239 

Family 94. Elaeagnaceae . 239 

Order 37. Myrtales 240 

Family 95. Lythraceae 240 

96. Epilobiaceae 240 

97. Gunneraceae 248 

Order 38. Umbellales 249 

Family 98. Hederaceae 249 

99. Cornaceae 249 

100. Ammiaceae 250 

Order 39. Ericales 258 

Family 101. Monotropaceae 258 

102. Pyrolaceae 258 

103. Ericaceae 259 

104. Vacciniaceae 260 

Order 40. Prinulales 261 

Family 105. Primulaceae 261 

Order 41. Oleales 264 

Family 106. Oleaceae 264 

Order 42. Gentianales 264 

Family 107. Gentianaceae 264 

108. Menyanthaceae 268 

Order 43. Asclepiadales 269 

Family 109. Apocynaceae 269 

1 10. Asclepiadaceae 270 

Order 44. Polemoniales 271 

Family 1 1 1. Cuscutaceae 272 

1 12. Convolvulaceae 273 

113. Polemoniaceae 274 

1 14. Hydroleaceae 281 

115. Heliotropaceae 284 

1 16. Boraginaceae 284 



viii CONTENTS. 

1 17. Verbenaceae 2 94 

1 18. Lamiaceae 294 

1 19. Solanaceae 3 

120. Rhinanthaceae 34 

121. Pinguiculaceae 3 X 9 

122. Orobanchaceae 3 J 9 

123. Martyniaceae 3 20 

Order 45. Plantaginales 320 

Family 124. Plantaginaceae 3 20 

Order 46. Rubiales 32 1 

Family 125. Rubiaceae 3 21 

126. Caprifoliaceae 3 2 3 

127. Adoxaceae 3 2 4 

Order 47. Campanulales 3 2 5 

Family 128. Cucurbitaceae 3 2 5 

129. Campanulaceae 3 2 5 

130. Lobeliaceae 3 2 6 

Order 48. Valerianales 3 2 6 

Family 131. Valerianaceae 3 2 6 

Order 49. Carduales 3 2 7 

Family 132. Ambrosiaceae 3 2 7 

133. Carduaceae 3 2 9 

134. Cichoriaceae 4 2 

Summary 4 12 

Gazetteer of Localities Mentioned 417 

Index 431 



PREFACE 



It was not the original intention of the Experiment Station to 
prepare and publish a work on the Flora of Colorado. The con- 
ditions of the State, the character of the flora, which is so different 
from that of the east, forced the necessity of collections and the 
study of local flora by the botanists of the Agricultural College 
and Experiment Station from the very first. The economic study 
of Colorado plants, especially the search for those which might be 
adapted to arid conditions, increased this necessity. Opportunity 
was furnished by collections of grasses and forest products for the 
World's Fair, and occasion was always taken when trips were made 
for any purpose, to obtain additional specimens. In the course of 
time the collection became so extensive that unless put in form for 
publication the time and expense involved would be lost, and the 
work which had been done would be of little service to us, and of 
none to the public in general. 

Some systematic collection was done by Professor James Cassidy, 
Professor of Botany (1881-1889), in the intervals of his many 
duties, up to the time of his death in 1889. His successor, Professor 
C. S. Crandall, gave much time to the work, especially after the 
establishment of the experimental grass station in cooperation with 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. This afforded occasion and 
opportunity for trips in search of promising species of native grasses. 
Subsequent collections, especially of forest products and grasses 
for the World's Fair in 1893, gave rise to further collecting trips 
to various parts of the State. Enthusiastic aid was given by 
Mr. J. H. Cowan, an energetic and promising student, who became 
Professor of Horticulture and Botany upon the resignation of 
Professor Crandall, but whose promising career was terminated by 
death before he had entered upon the active duties of the position. 
By this time the collection was of considerable size, had been in- 
creased by exchanges, and represented much time and expense. 
A great many calls came for information, and it was at first 
thought to publish only a list of the plants which were represented 
in our own collection. The pressing demands and many duties, as 
well as the lack of facilities, made it difficult for Professor Paddock 

ix 



x PREFACE. 

to undertake the completion of the work, and this was rendered un- 
necessary by the fortunate arrangement with the New York Bot- 
anical Garden, by which Dr. Rydberg took our collection for naming, 
and undertook the preparation of the Flora for publication. With 
the facilities of the Garden and the cordial aid given by Dr. Britton 
and Dr. Rydberg, and the special knowledge of Rocky Mountain 
Botany of Dr. Rydberg, it became possible to make this include 
much more than our own collection, which had been the original idea. 
The unrivaled and almost exhaustive collections accessible to them, 
the completeness of the knowledge of Dr. Rydberg, have made this 
a much more extensive and consequently much more valuable work 
than was originally designed. It therefore includes the work of nearly 
all collectors from the earliest times, and may be considered an 
exhaustive list of the plants at present known in Colorado. The 
extent of the service may be recognized when it is stated that while 
our own collection numbered about 1,400 plants, this Flora includes 
2,912, a number greater than is known for any other State except 
California. The amount of work involved in its preparation, sup- 
plying keys to the genera and families, and the completeness of the 
work speak for themselves. 

Acknowledgment should also be gratefully given to the State 
Board of Agriculture, and especially to Hon. P. F. Sharp, President 
of the Board, without whose assistance, encouragement and financial 
aid it would not have been possible for the Station to consider the 
completion and publication of a work of such magnitude. At one 
time it was proposed to lessen the expense by issuing a part of the 
edition as a College bulletin at a fixed price, but the Board took the 
liberal view that the saving would not compensate for the other dis- 
advantages and that the generous friendliness of the State would jus- 
tify the special effort in putting this at the service of those needing 
it, and thus the Station is enabled to issue the Flora as one of its 
bulletin series. It is believed that the publication will be of use to 
all systematic botanists, to the schools of the State, to those inter- 
ested in the economic study of Colorado plants, as well as to all those 
interested in the fascinating Flora of the Plains and Mountains of 
Colorado. It is a necessary step in the systematic and economic 
study of our plants. 

The preparation of the copy, keys and index has all been assumed 
by Dr. Rydberg, and also the laborious task of reading the proof. 
In addition the proof has been read by Professor Paddock and by 
the undersigned, but in the latter case attention was directed prin- 
cipally to the places and elevations. 

L. G. CARPENTER. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In 1901, Professor L. G. Carpenter wrote to Dr. N. L. Britton, 
director-in-chief of the New York Botanical Garden, inquiring if 
anybody connected with the Garden would be willing- and had time 
to complete the determinations of the botanical collections accumu- 
lated at the Agricultural College at Fort Collins, especially during 
the time Professor C. S. Crandall was professor of Botany at that 
institution. As the author was well acquainted with the flora of 
the Rocky Mountain region, Dr. Britton referred the matter to 
him and at the same time gave him permission to undertake the 
work provided proper arrangements were made. After some corre- 
spondence with Professor Carpenter and Professor W. Paddock, 
such agreements were made as to make it possible not only to under- 
take this work but also to prepare a catalogue for publication. 

The work has taken more time than was expected at first, partly 
because it had to be done mostly in the spare time from the author's 
official duties at the museum of the Botanical Garden, and partly 
because the author could not always secure the help he expected in 
the more mechanical work of recording the localities. The printing 
has also been delayed a good deal, and has been interrupted a few 
times for various reasons, so the work appears in print about a year 
later than was expected. 

The catalogue is mainly based on the collections of the Agricul- 
tural College at Fort Collins, mentioned above, and the herbaria 
at the New York Botanical Garden. Some additional records have 
been secured from other sources, as for instance, the National Her- 
barium at Washington, the Gray Herbarium at Harvard University 
and the herbarium of the College of Pharmacy of the City of New 
York. The author has also consulted the various publications on 
the flora of Colorado. The most important of these are : 

T. C. Porter and J. M. Coulter, Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado ; 
J.M. Coulter, Manual of the Botany of the Rocky Mountain Region ; 
T. S. Brandegee, Flora of South-western Colorado ; Alice Eastwood, 
Flora of Denver and Vicinity ; John Torrey's report on E. James' 
collection in Long's Expedition ; Asa Gray's reports on the collec- 
tions of C. C. Parry, E. Hall and Harbour ; Professor E. L. Greene's 
various publications in Pittonia, Plantae Bakerianae and Leaflets 



XI 



xn INTRODUCTION. 

and the publications of Professors T. S. Brandegee, Aven Nelson 
and M. E. Jones, Mr. G. E. Osterhout and Miss Alice Eastwood in 
the Botanical Gazette, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Zoe, 
Erythea and the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 

The author has tried to verify the records referring to Colorado 
plants given in these publications. Some of these records have 
been proven erroneous. In some cases the specimens were wrongly 
determined, in others the stations at which they were collcted are 
not within the present boundaries of the state of Colorado. Of 
course, all such species have been excluded from this catalogue. 
The author has also excluded a few more, which he thought should 
be included in the same category, although he has not been able to 
prove them erroneously referred to the flora of Colorado, as for 
instance Californian, Mexican, or Alleghanian species, accredited 
to Colorado but not to the intervening states. He has also been 
forced by circumstances to exclude a score or so species recently 
described from Colorado, but wholly unknown to the author. Not 
being able to include them in his " keys " and being uncertain 
whether the descriptions really characterize new and valid species or 
merely represent redescriptions of old ones, he thought it best to 
leave them out until more information could be had. 

At first it was suggested that a catalogue should be prepared 
similar to the author's Catalogue of the Flora of Montana and the 
Yellowstone National Park. After some consultation with Professor 
Carpenter, it was agreed that the publication would be of more value 
to the plant lovers of Colorado, if some characterization of the 
plants could be given. A descriptive botany or so-called manual 
was out of question. The author would not have time to prepare 
such a one within a reasonable time and the College did not have 
funds available to pay for the cost of preparing it. The author 
had already begun the work on a botany of the whole Rocky 
Mountain region. He was preparing the " keys " first, leaving the 
main descriptive work to be done later. Some of these keys were 
already made, and he hoped to have most of them ready by the 
time the catalogue was ready to go to print. It would not take 
much more work to abstract from these keys the parts referring 
to the Colorado genera and species, than to cite a number of refer- 
ences to descriptions as was done in the Flora of Montana and the 
Yellowstone National Park. The author showed Professor Carpen- 
ter a catalogue prepared in this way, viz., Dr. T. C. Porter's Flora 
of Pennsylvania. This was taken as a model, except that the locali- 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

ties as given on the labels should be recorded instead of merely the 
counties. A gazetteer explaining the localities is given as an appen- 
dix. This was partly prepared by the author, but completed, cor- 
rected and revised at Fort Collins, principally by Mrs. L. G. 
Carpenter. 

As stated before, the keys were mainly abstracted from those of 
the author's larger work in preparation, i. e., as far as these were 
made. As the Manual will be a purely scientific work, the keys 
are perhaps drawn in a more technical style than desirable in a 
catalogue to be used principally by the local and the amateur 
botanists of Colorado and by tourists. To reconstruct the keys 
would involve too much extra labor. Besides it is hard or rather 
impossible to use only plain English without losing the fine shades 
of distinctions which can be expressed by more technical words. 
For example, the only purely English word for the technical words : 
" villous," " floccose," " pannose," " tomentose," " tomentulose," etc., 
is " woolly." 

The measurements in the keys are given in the metric system, a 
system now used by nearly all the scientific departments of the 
United States Government and of most colleges and universities of 
this country. In the English system formerly used in descriptive 
botany, etc., the inch was divided into 12 lines. It is very hard to 
find a ruler now-a-days with this division, while rulers with the 
metric system are to be had nearly everywhere. For those un- 
familiar with this system, the following comparative table is given. 
The equivalents are near enough for all practical purposes : 

i mm. = ^5- inch. I line 2 mm. 

3 mm. = y% inch. ^ inch 3 mm. 

I cm. : - 2 /^ inch. i inch = 25 mm. or 2^2 cm. 

5 cm. 2 inches. i span = I dm. 

I dm. = 4 inches. i foot 3 dm. 

I m. =40 inches (nearly) or i yard 9 dm. 

foot. 1,000 ft. ==300 m. 



The altitudes were also given in meters, but they were changed 
into feet by the request of Professor Carpenter, who claimed that 
the people of Colorado, for whom principally the work is prepared, 
as a rule think of altitudes in feet only. As the United States Land- 
Office has not as yet adopted the metric system as their standard, 
the altitudes may just as well be given in feet. This statement is 



INTRODUCTION. 

made to explain why two different standards are used in the same 
work. The altitudes are those at which the different species grow 
within the state of Colorado, so far as records show. Many of the 
plants which grow at an altitude of 14,000 feet in Colorado, grow 
at sea-level along the arctic coast. 

The nomenclature used is in principle agreeing with the so-called 
American Code adopted at a meeting in Philadelphia, printed in the 
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club in May, 1904, and submitted to 
the International Botanical Congress at Vienna last summer, with 
a few modifications resulting from a compromise with the European 
botanists. This code as modified is now followed by a majority of 
the leading systematic botanists in this country. The fundamental 
principle underlying is that the selection of generic as well as specific 
names should always be governed by the priority of publication. The 
European botanists have adopted this principle as far as specific 
names are concerned, but most of them are not yet willing to apply 
the same rules to generic names. In the older publications on the 
Rocky Mountain flora the so-called Kew Rules were adhered to, 
which after all gave very little consideration to priority. Many of 
the names in this catalogue will be unfamiliar to some of its users, 
but in most cases the old names are given as synonyms in italic and 
also in the index. In the index there has been inserted also a few 
common names not given in the text followed by the equivalent latin 
generic name in parenthesis. Most of these are local names un- 
known to the author before they appeared in a recent publication on 
western botany. 

With regard to generic limitations, the author belongs to that 
radical school which believes in small genera with closely related 
species rather than in larger ones with a heterogeneous mass of 
different groups of plants having relatively little relationship to each 
other. Many of the older genera have therefore been divided. The 
division of genera as well as species has gone perhaps a little further 
than many would think advisable, but the author has tried to be con- 
sistent in his work. 

The author has not published any new species or genera in this 
work. He has also tried to avoid the publishing of new names or 
new combinations of names. Anything that had not been published 
before, the author has endeavored to publish in the Bulletin of the 
Torrey Botanical Club while the catalogue was being set in type. 
The reasons for so doing are the following: (i) The publication of 
technical descriptions should be limited to technical books and peri- 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

odicals; (2) in this catalogue there could not very well be given a 
fuller synonymy with citations of places of publication, nor fuller 
discussions, which are always desirable and often necessary for 
clearness sake; (3) if the diagnoses of new species had been inter- 
polated here and there, the uniformity of the catalogue would have 
suffered. 

As it is, the Flora is the result of much labor and stands as a brief 
index of the present knowledge of the flora of the state. In its 
present form, the author hopes that it will be valuable for the pur- 
pose for which it was prepared, viz., as a record of the higher vegeta- 
tion of the state of Colorado as far as known to-day and as a guide 
and help to those interested in its flora. Whatever shortcomings 
there may be, the author hopes will be forgiven. The technical sys- 
tematist will undoubtedly find many facts omitted which he would 
expect to find in a " Flora of Colorado." 

From the summary given after the catalogue it can be seen that 
the higher vegetation (fernworts and flowering plants) of Colorado 
comprises over 700 genera and 2,900 species, a number sur- 
passed only by California and perhaps by Florida out of all states 
in the Union. The largest families are Carduacecc or the Composites 
proper, with 568 species or about igy 2 % of the flora; Poacecc or 
grasses, 267 species or 9% ; Fabacea or Pea Family, 185 or 6y 3 % ; 
Brassicac 144, Rhinanthaceoe 106, Cyperacecc 101, Polygonacece 94, 
Ranunculacece 92, and Rosacece 89 species, or between 3% and 4%, 
etc. Just as remarkable as the large number of species of Compo- 
sites (about y$ of the whole flora), is the small number of Pterido- 
phytes. The ferns proper are only 25, to which are to be added 15 
other fernworts. The same may be said of the Gymnosperms, only 
20 in number. 

The author has had the help of several specialists in certain groups. 
Professor L. M. Underwood has prepared the manuscript of the 
PTERIDOPHYTA, and Mr. H. D. House that of the family Violacecc. 
Mr. G. V. Nash has given valuable assistance in the grasses. 
The account of the Polygonacece was written in conjunction with 
Dr. J. K. Small. Dr. Theodor Holm has characterized the groups 
and species of Carex and listed the specimens of that genus, while 
the author prepared the key to the groups. Mr. S. H. Burnham, 
Mr. H. D. House and Mr. W. W. Eggleston have assisted in listing 
the localities and Mrs. William Mitchell in copying the keys. 

P. A. RYDBERG. 
NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN, 
NEW YORK, March, 1906. 



KEY TO THE ORDERS. 



Subkingdom PTERIDOPHYTA. 

Plants without flowers or seeds, but producing spores each of which, on 
germination, develops into a flat or an irregular prothallium. The prothallia 
bear the reproductive organs (antheridia and archegonia). As a result of 
the fertilization of an egg in tfie archegonium by a sperm produced in the 
antheridium a fern or an allied plant is developed. 

PAGE. 

Leaves broad entire or dissected. (Fern-like plants.) 
Spores of one kind, minute, borne in sporangia. 

Vernation straight or inclined ; eusporangiate, the sporangia ringless, 
leathery, opening by a transverse slit, arranged in spikes or panicles. 

Order i. OPHIOGLOSSALES. i 

Vernation circinate ; leptosporangiate, the sporangia membranous, pro- 
vided with a ring which opens elastically. Order 2. FILICALES. i 
Spores of two kinds, minute microspores and larger macrospores, borne 

in sporocarps ; leaves filiform or quadrifoliate. Order 3. SALVINIALES. 5 
Leaves scale-like or awl-like. (Moss-like or rush-like plants.) 

Sporangia in an apical cone, borne under peltate scales : stems hollow, 

rush-like. Order 4. EQUISETALES. 5 

Sporangia in the axils of small or leaf-like bracts : stems solid. 

Leaves awl-like, often much elongated, borne on a short corm-like cau- 

dex : aquatic plants. Order 5. ISOETALES. 5 

Leaves narrow or scale-like, flat, borne on erect or creeping stems : ter- 
restrial plants. Order 6. LYCOPODIALES. 6 

Subkingdom SPERMATOPHYTA. 

Plants with flowers which produce seeds. Microspores (pollen-grains) 
borne in microsporangia (anther-sacs) develop each into a tubular prothal- 
lium; a macrospore (embryo-sac) develops a minute prothallium, and to- 
gether with the macrosporangium (ovule) in which it is contained, ripens 
into a seed. 

Ovules and seeds borne on the face of a bract or a scale : stigmas wanting. 

Class i. GYMNOSPERM^:. 7 
Ovules and seeds in a closed cavity (ovary) : stigmas present. 

Class 2. ANGIOSPERM.E. 1 1 
i. Gymnospermae. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers both in aments ; perianth none ; trees or 
shrubs with needle- or scale-like leaves. Order 7. FINALES. 7 

Staminate flowers in aments ; pistillate ones single or in pairs ; perianth 
present, urnshaped ; ours horsetail-like shrubs with jointed branches and 
leaves reduced to sheathing scales. Order 8. GNETALES. 10 

xvii 



xviii KEY TO THE ORDERS. 

2. Angiospermas. 

Cotyledon i: stem endogenous. Subclass i. MONOCOTYLEDONES. n 

Cotyledons normally 2: stem exogenous (with rare exceptions). 

Subclass 2. DlCOTYLEDONES. 9! 

i. MONOCOTYLEDONES. 

Perianth rudimentary or degenerate, its members often bristles or mere 

scales, not corolla-like, or wanting. 
Flowers not in the axils of dry or chaffy bracts (scales or glumes). 

Perianth of bristles or chaffy scales. Order 9. PANDAXALES. 1 1 

Perianth fleshy or herbaceous, or wanting. 

Fruit baccate; endosperm present. Order 14. ARALES. 74 

Fruit drupaceous; endosperm wanting. Order 10. NAIADALES. 12 

Flowers in the axils of dry or chaffy, usually imbricated, bracts (scales or 

glumes). Order 13. POALES. 15 

Perianth of 2 distinct series, the inner series usually corolloid. 

Gyncecium of distinct carpels. Order n. ALISMALES. 13 

Gyncecium of united carpels. 

Endosperm mealy. Order 15. XYRIDALES. 75 

Endosperm fleshy, horny or cartilaginous. 

Ovary and fruit superior. Order 16. LILIALES. 76 

Ovary and fruit wholly inferior or half-inferior. 

Endosperm present and usually copious ; flowers regular ; androe- 

cium not reduced. Order 17. AMARYLLIDALES. 86 

Endosperm wanting. 

Flowers regular, monoecious or dioecious : aquatic plants. 

Order 12. HYDROCHARITALES. 15 
Flowers irregular, perfect : terrestrial or epiphytic plants. 

Order 18. ORCHIDALES. 87 

2. DlCOTYLEDONES. 

A. Corolla wanting. 

I. Calyx wanting, at least in the staminate flowers. 

Herbs. Order 30. EUPHORBIALES. 221 

Trees or shrubs. 

Fruit i -seeded: seeds without tufts of hairs. 

Fruit a nut or an achene. Corylaceae in Order 20. FAGALES. 96 

Fruit a drupe or a samara. Oleacese in Order 41. OLEALES. 264 

Fruit many-seeded : seeds each with a tuft of hairs. 

Order 19. SALICALES. 91 

II. Calyx present at least in the staminate or in the perfect flowers. 

1. Flowers, at least the staminate, in aments, or ament-like spikes; fruit 

a nut or an achene. Order 20. FAGALES. 96 

2. Flowers, at least the staminate, not in aments. 
a. Ovary superior. 

Gyncecium of i or several and distinct carpels : stigma and style 

of each solitary. 
Carpel solitary. 

Ovary neither enclosed nor seated in a hypanthium or a calyx- 
tube. 
Flowers not solitary in the axils of the leaves ; land plants. 

Urticaceae in Order 21. URTICALES. 99 
Flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves ; aquatic plants. 

Ceratophyllaceae in Order 25. RANALES. 134 
Ovary enclosed in or seated in a hypanthium or a calyx-tube. 
Stamens borne under the gyncecium. 

Allioniaceae in Order 24. CHENOPODIALES. 122 
Stamens borne on the hypanthium or adnate to the calyx- 
tube. Order 36. THYMELEALES. 239 
Carpels several. 



H KEY TO THE ORDERS. 

Stamens inserted below the ovary. 

Families in Order 25. RANALES. 134 
Stamens inserted on the edge of a cup-shaped hypanthium. 

Families in Order 27. ROSALES. 169 
Gynoecium of 2 or several united carpels ; stigmas or styles 2 or 

several. 

Ovary, by abortion, i -celled and i-ovuled. 
Leaves with sheathing stipules (ocreae). 

Order 23. POLYGONALES. 101 
Leaves estipulate, or if stipules are present they are not 

sheathing. 
Trees or shrubs ; ovary not seated in a hypanthium. 

Ulmaceae in Order 21. URTICALES. 100 
Herbs or vines. 

Stipules herbaceous : inflorescence spicate or racemose : 
leaf-blades palmately veined. 

Cannabinaceae in Order 21. URTICALES. 100 
Stipules scarious or hyaline or none ; inflorescence cy- 
mose : leaf-blades pinnately veined. 

Families in Order 24. CHENOPODIALES. 113 
Ovary several-celled, or with several placentae, several-ovuled. 
Stamens hypogynous, inserted under the gyncecium in the per- 
fect flowers, not on a disk in the pistillate flowers. 
Flowers perfect. 

Stamens not tetradynamous. 

Stamens 2 ; inflorescence spicate. 

Besseya in Order 44. POLEMONIALES. 313 
Stamens 3-10; inflorescence cymose. 

Order 24. CHENOPODIALES. 113 
Stamens tetradynamous. 

Brassicaceaa in Order 26. PAPAVERALES. 150 
Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 

Euphorbiaceae in Order 30. EUPHORBIALES. 222 
Stamens perigynous or epigynous, inserted on the margin of a 

hypanthium or a disk. 

Fruit a samara. Aceracesa in Order 31. SAPINDALES. 226 

Fruit drupe-like or berry-like. Order 32. RHAMNALES. 227 

b. Ovary inferior. 

Flowers not in involucrate heads. 

Fruit a berry or a drupe, or nut-like. 

Stamens as many as the perianth-members and alternate with 
them, or fewer. 

Tetragoniaceje in Order 24. CHENOPODIALES. 124 
Stamens as many as the perianth-members and opposite them, 

or twice as many. Families in Order 37. MYRTALES. 240 

Fruit a capsule. 

Sepals as many as the ovary-cavities or one-half as many. 

Order 37. MYRTALES. 240 

Sepals (4-5) at least twice as many as the ovary-cavities. 
Styles 2-3 ; leaves alternate. 

Saxifragacese in Order 27. ROSALES. 170 
Styles solitary ; leaves opposite. 

Glait.r in Order 40. PRIMULALES. 264 
Flowers, at least the staminate, in involucrate heads. 

Ambrosiacese in Order 49. CARDUALES. 327 

B. Corolla present. 

I. Petals distinct, at least at the base. 

i. Carpels solitary, or several and distinct, or united only at the base. 
Stamens at the base of the receptacle, i. e., hypogynous. 



KEY TO THE ORDERS. 

Plants with relatively firm stems and leaves, not succulent. 

Order 25. RANALES. 134 
Plants with succulent stems and leaves. 

Crassulacea in Order 27. ROSALES. 169 
Stamens on the margin of a hypanthium (the hypanthium very small 

in some Saxifragaceae). Order 27. ROSALES. 169 

2. Carpels several and united, 
a. Ovary superior. 

$ Stamens inserted at the base of the ovary or receptacle. 
Stamens numerous. 
Sepals imbricated. 

Calyx deciduous. Order 26. PAPAVERALES. 148 

Calyx persistent. 

Styles or stigmas distinct or united, but not discoid ; land 

plants. Capparidaceae in Order 26. PAPAVERALES. 168 

Styles or stigmas united into a disk ; aquatic plants ; petals 
and sepals numerous. 

Nymphaeaceae in Order 25. RANALES. 147 
Sepals valvate ; stamens with united filaments. 

Order 33. MALVALES. 229 

Stamens few, not over twice as many as the petals. 
Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them. 
Anther-sacs opening by hinged valves. 

Berberidaceae in Order 25. RANALES. 148 
Anther-sacs opening by slits. 

Flowers monoecious. Order 30. EUPHORBIALES. 221 

Flowers perfect. 

Portulacaceae in Order 24. CHENOPODIALES. 125 
Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, or 

more, sometimes twice as many. 
Stamens 6 : petals 4 : sepals 2 or 4. 

Families in Order 26. PAPAVERALES. 148 
Stamens, petals and sepals of the same number, or stamens 

more, usually twice as many as the sepals or petals. 
Ovary i-celled. 

Ovules, or seeds, on basal or central placentae. 

Families in Order 24. CHENOPODIALES. 113 
Ovules, or seeds, on parietal placentae. 

Stamens with united filaments and no staminodia. 

Order 33. MALVALES. 229 
Stamens with distinct filaments. 
Staminodia present. 

Parnassiaceae in Order 27. ROSALES. 175 
Staminodia wanting. 

Families in Order 34. HYPERICALES. 231 
Ovary several-celled. 

Stamens adnate to the gynoecium. 

Asclepiadacese in Order 43. ASCLEPIADALES. 270 
Stamens not adnate to the gynoecium. 

Stamens with wholly or partly united filaments. 
Anthers opening lengthwise. 

Families in Order 28. GERANIALES. 217 
Anthers opening by pores. 

Order 29. POLYGALALES. 221 
Stamens with distinct filaments. 
Anthers opening by pores. 

Families in Order 39. ERICALES. 258 
Anthers opening by slits. 

Stigmas or styles distinct and cleft, or foliaceous, 

or united by pairs. Order 30. EUPHORBIALES. 221 
Stigmas or styles all distinct or all united, neither 
cleft nor foliaceous. 



KEY TO THE ORDERS. xxi 

Stamens 2. Order 41. OLEALES. 264 

Stamens more than 2. 

Ovule solitary in each carpel. 

Styles distinct ; ovule pendulous. 

Families in Order 28. GERANIALES. 217 
Styles united ; ovule erect or ascending. 

Limnanthaceae in Order 31. SAPINDALES. 225 
Ovules 2 or more in each carpel. 

Order 34. HYPERICALES. 231 
tt Stamens inserted on the margin of a disk or hypanthium (peri- 

gynous or hypogynous). 
Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them. 

Styles and upper part of the ovaries distinct ; ovules and seeds 

many. Saxifragaceae in Order 27. ROSALES. 170 

Styles united, ovules and seeds solitary or 2. 

Order 32. RHAMNALES. 227 

Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, or more. 
Styles distinct ; upper part of the ovaries distinct, at least at 

maturity. Saxifragaceae in Order 27. ROSALES. 170 

Styles united. 

Hypanthium flat or obsolete : disk fleshy. 
Plants without secreting glands in the bark. 

Order 31. SAPINDALES. 225 
Plants with secreting glands in the bark. 

Rutaceaa in Order 28. GERANIALES. 221 

Hypanthium cup-shaped or campanulate : disk obsolete or in- 
conspicuous. Order 37. MYRTALES. 240 
b. Ovary inferior. 
Stamens numerous. 

Hypanthium not produced beyond the ovary. 

Ovary partly inferior. Hydrangiaceae in Order 27. ROSALES. 170 
Ovary wholly inferior. Order 35. OPUNTIALES. 234 

Hypanthium produced beyond the ovary. 

Families in Order 37. MYRTALES. 240 
Stamens not more than twice as many as the petals. 
Styles wanting ; stigmas sessile. 

Gunneraceae in Order 37. MYRTALES. 248 
Styles present. 
Styles distinct. 

Ovules several in each cavity of the ovary ; fruit a capsule 

or a fleshy many-seeded berry. 
Fruit, if dehiscent, valvate. 

Families in Order 27. ROSALES. 169 
Fruit circumscissile. 

Portulacaceas in Order 24. CHEXOPODIALES. 125 
Ovules solitary in each cavity of the ovary ; fruit a drupe or 

2-5 more or less united achenes. Order 38. UMBELLALES. 249 
Styles united, or single. 
Plants without tendrils. 

Ovary enclosed in or surpassed by the hypanthium or ad- 

nate to it. 
Ovules solitary in each cavity of the ovary. 

Order 38. UMBELLALES. 249 
Ovules several in each cavity. 
Ovary with parietal placentae. 

Loasaceae in Order 35. OPUNTIALES. 234 
Ovary with central or basal placentae. 

Families in Order 37. MYRTALES. 240 
Ovary exceeding the hypanthium, the top free. 

Hydrangiaceae in Order 27. ROSALES. 175 



xxh KEY TO THE ORDERS. 

Plants with tendrils ; fruit a pepo ; leaf-blades palmately 

veined. Cucurbitacea in Order 47. CAMPANULALES. 325 

II. Petals more or less united. 
Ovary superior. 

Stamens free from the corolla. 

Gyncecium of a single carpel. Families in Order 27. ROSALES. 169 

Gynoecium of several united carpels. 
Filaments united. 

Stamens diadelphous. Fumariaceae in Order 26. PAPAVERALES. 149 
Stamens monadelphous. 

Anther-sacs opening by slits. 

Oxalidaceae in Order 28. GERANIALES. 220 
Anther-sacs opening by pores. 
Calyx and corolla very irregular. 

Order 29. POLYGALALES. 221 
Calyx and corolla regular. 

Families in Order 39. ERICALES. 258 

Filaments distinct. Families in Order 39. ERICALES. 258 

Stamens partially adnate to the corolla. 

Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and opposite them, or 
twice as many or more; ovary i -celled; placentae central or basal. 

Order 40. PRIMULALES. 261 
Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with 

them, or fewer. 

Corolla not scarious, veiny ; fruit various, but not a pyxis. 
Carpels distinct, except sometimes at the apex. 

Order 43. ASCLEPIADALES. 269 
Carpels united. 

Ovary i -celled, with central placentae. 

Order 42. GENTIANALES. 264 
Ovary 2-3-celled, or falsely 4-celled, or if i-celled with 

parietal placentas. Order 44. POLEMONIALES. 271 

Corolla scarious, veinless ; fruit a pyxis. 

Order 45. PLANTAGINALES. 320 
Ovary inferior. 

Stamens with the filaments free from the corolla. 

Stamens 10; anther-sacs opening by terminal pores or chinks. 

Vacciniaceae in Order 39. ERICALES. 260 
Stamens 5 or fewer ; anther-sacs opening by longitudinal slits. 

Order 47. CAMPANULALES. 325 
Stamens adnate to the corolla. 

Ovary with 2-many fertile cavities and 2-many ovules ; calyx un- 
modified, at least not a pappus. 
Plants tendril-bearing. 

Cucurbitaceae in Order 47. CAMPANULALES. 325 
Plants not tendril-bearing. 

Ovules mostly on basal placentae ; plants parasitic. 

Order 22. SANTALALES. 100 
Ovules variously borne, but not on a basal placenta ; plants not 

parasitic. Order 46. RUBIALES. 321 

Ovary with one fertile cavity. 

Flowers not in heads, often in head-like spikes or racemes. 

Order 48. VALERIANALES. 326 
Flowers in involucrate heads. Order 49. CARDUALES. 327 



FLORA OF COLORADO. 



Subkingdom PTERIDOPHYTA. FERN-WORTS. 

Order i. OPHIOGLOSSALES. 
Family i. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Presl. ADDER'S-TONGUE FAMILY. 

i. BOTRYCHIUM Sw. MOONWORT. 

Plant large, the sterile leaf ternately decompound, sessile at the middle of the 
stem. i. B. virginiannm. 

Plant small ; the leaf under 5 cm. long. 

Leaf triangular, sessile near the top of the stem. z. B. lanceolatum. 

Leaf oval, slightly stalked from near the middle of the stem or lower. , 

3. B. Lunaria. 

1. Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. Rich woods, N. S. to Labr., B. C 
and Wash, to Texas and Fla. Arkansas Canon (Brandegee). 

2. Botrychium lanceolatum (S. G. Gmel.) Angs. In woods, N. J. and N. S. 
to Alaska and Wash. " Colorado." 

3. Botrychium Lunaria (L.) Sw. In open places, Newf. to Alaska and 
Utah: rare. Alt. about 12,000 ft. Gray's Peak. 



Order 2. FILICALES. 

Family 2. POLYPODIACEAE R. Br. FERN FAMILY. 

Sori round, or at least less than twice as long as broad. 
Sori naked. 

Leaves jointed to the rootstock, simply pinnate. i. POLYPODIUM. 

Leaves continuous with the rootstock, ternately compound. 

2. PHEGOPTERIS. 

Sori covered with a membranous indusium when young. 
Indusium superior. 

Indusium circular fixed by the center. 3. POLYSTICHUM. 

Indusium heart-shaped or reniform fixed by the sinus. 4. DRYOPTERIS. 
Indusium inferior or lateral. 

Indusium inferior, breaking at maturity into stellate lobes. 

5. WOODSIA. 
Indusium lateral, thrown back at maturity like a delicate hood. 

6. FILIX. 

1 1 



2 POLYPODIACEAE. 

Sori linear or oblong, at least twice as long as broad. 
Sori marginal. 

Indusium present formed of the recurved leaf margin. 

Indusium double, the inner membranous one opening outwardly ; leaves 

large, scattered. 7. PTERIDIUM. 

Indusium single. 

Leaves dimorphous, the sporophyls contracted and more or less pod- 
like. 8. CRYPTOGRAM MA. 
Leaves uniform or nearly so. 

Leaves chaffy or tomentose, the ultimate segments small and bead- 

hke. 9. CHEILANTHES. 

Leaves smooth with dark polished stalks ; segments broader. 

10. PELLAEA. 

Indusium wanting; under surface (in the Colorado species) with white pow- 
der; rachises zigzag. 11. NORTHOLAENA. 
Sori dorsal, oblique to the midribs or rachises, covered with a special in- 

dusium. 
Leaves pinnate or pinnately compound. 

Sori straight. 12. ASPLENIUM. 

Sori curved, often crossing the veins ; indusia occasionally horseshoe- 
shaped. 13. ATHYRIUM. 
Leaves dichotomous, the divisions few and narrow ; small rock-loving plants 
of the mountains. 14. BELVISIA. 

i. POLYPODIUM L. POLYPODY. 

i. Polypodium hesperium Maxon. [P. vulgare of western botanists.] On 
rocks, Mont, to B. C, Wash., Colo, and Ariz. Alt. about 8500 ft. Red Moun- 
tain road, south of Ouray. 

2. PHEGOPTERIS Fee. BEECH-FERN. 

i. Phegopteris Dryopteris (L.) Fee. In moist-rocky places; Newf. to 
Alaska, Ore., Colo, and Va. Alt. about 8000 ft. Green Mountain Falls. 

3. POLYSTICHUM Roth. HOLLY-FERN. 

i. Polystichum Lonchitis (L.) Roth. On rocks, Arctic America to N. S., 
Calif, and Colo. Alt. 8500-10,000 ft. Ruby; Red Mountain road, south of 
Ouray; Fish Creek Falls, Routt Co. 

4. DRYOPTERIS Adans. MALE-FERN, WOOD-FERN. 

i. Dryopteris Filix-mas (L.) Schott. On rocks, N. S. to northern Mich., 
Alaska, Calif., Ariz, and Colo. Alt. 6000-8500 ft. Red Mountain road, south 
of Ouray; Horsetooth Mountain; Canon City; Rist Canon. 

5. WOODSIA R. Br. 

Teeth of young leaves coarse, not ciliate. 

Stalks and pinnules covered with minute flattened hairs. i. W. scopulina. 

Stalks and pinnules smooth. 2. W. oregana. 

Teeth of young leaves fine, ciliate at the tips. 3. W. mexicana. 

i. Woodsia scopulina D. C. Eaton. On exposed rocks, Mich, to B. C., 
Calif., Ariz, and Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. North Cheyenne Canon; vicinity 
of Arthur's Rock; Boulder; Horsetooth Gulch; gulch west of Soldier Canon; 
foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; South Boulder Canon. 



POLYPODIACEAE. 3 

2. Woodsia oregana D. C. Eaton. On exposed rocks, northern Mich, to 
B. C., Calif., Ariz, and Neb. Alt. 4000-11,500 ft. Hills about Box Canon, 
west of Ouray; Red Mountain road, south of Ouray; Cheyenne Canon; 
Horsetooth Mountain ; North Cheyenne Canon ; hills south of La Veta ; Par- 
lin, Gunnison Co. ; Alpine Tunnel. 

3. Woodsia mexicana Fee. Foot-hills from Colo, and Ariz, to Mex. Alt. 
7500-9500 ft. Manitou ; South Cheyenne Canon; Colorado Springs; Chey- 
enne Mountain ; Ouray. 

6. FILIX Adans. BLADDER-FERN. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 2-3-pinnate. i. F. fragilis. 

Leaves broadly triangular, 3-4-pinnate. 2. F. montana. 

1. Filix fragilis (L.) Underw. [Cystopteris fragilis Bernh.] On moist 

rocks, Newf. and Labr. to Alaska, Calif., Ariz, and Ga. Alt. 5000-13,000 ft. 
Horsetooth Mountain; Crystal Creek; near Ouray; Red Mountain, south of 
Ouray; Upper La Plata River; near Pagosa Peak; Cheyenne Canon; Steam- 
boat Springs; Minnehaha; Sierra Blanca; gulch west of Bear River; Par- 
lin, Gunnison Co. ; Lake City ; Pike's Peak ; Rist Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; 
Michigan ; Leroux Creek ; Howe's Gulch ; Silverton ; Mount Garfield. 

2. Filix montana (Lam.) Underw. On rocks, Lab. and Que. to B. C. and 
Colo. Alt. about 10,500 ft. Mt. Antero, Saguache Range. 

7. PTERIDIUM Scopoli. BRACKEN. 

i. Pteridium aquilinum pubescens Underw. [Pteris aquilina of western 
botanists.] On poor soil in open places, Mont, to Calif., Colo, and Ariz. 
Alt. 8500-10,000 ft. Red Mountain road, south of Ouray; near Pagosa Peak; 
Bosworth's ranch ; Rabbit-Ear Range. 

8. CRYPTOGRAMMA R. Br. PARSLEY-FERN. 

Leaves 3-4-pinnatifid, densely cespitose ; texture firm. i. C. acrostichoides. 

Leaves 2-3-pinnatifid, scattered ; texture flaccid. 2. C. Stelleri. 

1. Cryptogramma acrostichoides R. Br. On loose rocks, Lake Superior to 
Alaska, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8500-11,500 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; Mt. Hes- 
perus; Estes Park, Larimer Co.; West Spanish Peak; Twin Lakes; Red 
Mountain road, south of Ouray; Clear Creek; Fish Creek Falls, Routt Co. 

2. Cryptogramma Stelleri (S. C. Gmel.) Prantl. [Pellaea gracilis Hook.] 
On moist rocks, Labr. and Pa. to Colo, and Alaska. Alt. 7500-9500 ft- 
Canons west of Ouray. 

9. CHEILANTHES Sw. LIP-FERN. 

Leaves hairy or tomentose, not scaly. 

Stalks covered with woolly hairs when young, at length nearly smooth. 

i. C. Feet. 

Stalks and rachises with narrow lanceolate scales. 2. C. Eatoni. 

Leaves covered beneath with imbricated scales, not tomentose. 3. C. Fendleri. 



4 POLYPODIACEAE. 

1. Cheilanthes Feei Moore. [C. lanuginosa Nutt.] On dryish rocks, 111. 
and Minn, to B. C., Ariz, and Tex. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Trail Glen ; Ute Pass ; 
West Indian Creek ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Colorado Springs ; Canon City. 

2. Cheilanthes Eatoni Baker. On rocks, Ariz, to Colo, and Texas. Alt. 
about 5800 ft. Arkansas Canon. 

3. Cheilanthes Fendleri Hook. On dry rocks, Texas to Colo, and Calif. 
Alt. 5000-8500 ft. Horsetooth Mountain ; Cheyenne Canon ; Green Moun- 
tain Falls ; Glen Eyrie ; Boulder ; Arkansas Canon ; Manitou. 

10. PELLAEA Link. ROCK-BRAKE. 

Simply pinnate ; texture thin ; pinnae obtuse, narrower when fertile. 

i. P. Breweri. 
Bi tri-pinnate ; texture coriaceous. 

Pinnae obtuse or barely acute. 2. P. atropurpurea. 

Pinnae mucronulate. 3. P. Wrightiana. 

1. Pellaea Breweri D. C. Eaton. On rocks, Mont., Ore. and Calif. Re- 
ported from Colorado, but exact locality not given. 

2. Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link. On rocks, New England to B. C., 
southward to Ga., Texas and Ariz. Alt. about 7500 ft. Box Canon, Ouray. 

3. Pellaea Wrightiana Hook. On rocks, Kans. to Texas and Calif. Canon 
City. 

IT. NOTHOLAENA R. Br. CLOAK-FERN. 

i. Notholaena Fendleri Kunze. On exposed rocks, Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. 
Alt. 6000-9500 ft. Cheyenne Canon, base of Pike's Peak; Queen's and 
William's Canons ; Arkansas Canon ; Colorado Springs ; Ute Pass ; Clear 
Creek Canon, at Dumont ; South Cheyenne Canon ; between La Veta and 
Gardner; La Veta; Bergen Park. 

12. ASPLENIUM L. SPLEEN WORT. 

Leaves simply pinnate. 

Rachis chestnut brown or blackish. 

Pinnae 2-3 cm. long, auriculate on the upper side at base. 

1. A. platyneuron. 
Pinnae i cm. long, obliquely oval, not auriculate at base. 

2. A. Trichomancs. 
Rachis green ; pinnae ovate-rhomboidal, oblique at base. 3. A. viride. 

Leaves bipinnate. 4. A. Andreu'sii. 

1. Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes. [A. ebeneum Aiton] On rocks, 
Me. to Fla., Tex., N. M. and Colo. Green Horn Mountains (Greene). 

2. Asplenium Trichomanes L. On limestone rocks, quite generally east of 
the Rocky Mountains. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. South Boulder Canon ; Horsetooth 
Mountain ; Horsetooth Gulch. 

3. Asplenium viride Huds. On rocks, N. Br. and Vt. to Alaska, Ore. and 
Wyo. Reported from Colorado, but exact locality not given. 

4. Asplenium Andrewsii A. Nelson. Sandstone cliff, in Colo. Boulder 
Creek. 

13. ATHYRIUM Roth. LADY-FERN. 

i. Athyrium Filix-foemina (L.) Roth. In moist, shady places, Newf. to 
B. C., Calif, and Fla. Alt. about 9000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; Fish Creek 
Falls, Routt Co. 



POLYPODIACEAE. "> 

14. BELVISIA Mirb. 

i. Belvisia septentrionalis (L.) Mirb. (Asplenium septentrionale Hoffm.) 
On rocks, S. D. to Mont., N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 6000-6500 ft. Horsetooth 
Mountain; South Boulder Canon; Arkansas Canon. 

Order 3. SALVINIALES. 
Family 3. MARSILEACEAE R. Br. MARSILIA FAMILY. 

i. MARSILEA L. 

i. Marsilea vestita Hook. & Grev. Wet, sandy soil, Ark. and Tex. to 
Calif., B. C. and S. D. Saguache (Wolf). 

Order 4. EQUISETALES. 

Family 4. EQUISETACEAE Michx. HORSETAIL FAMILY. 
i. EQUISETUM L. HORSETAIL. 

Stems annual, copiously branching. 

Spike-bearing stems pale, soon withering; sheaths of branches 4-toothed. 

i. E. arvense. 
Spike-bearing stems withering at apex, producing branches below ; sheaths of 

branches 3-toothed. 2. E, pratense. 

Stems perennial, evergreen ; branches few. 

Stems smoothish, i4-3o-furrowed. 3- E. laevigatum. 

Stems roughened, s-io-furrowed. 4- E- variegatum. 

1. Equisetum arvense L. In sandy places, Greenl. and Va. to Calif, and 
Alaska. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Fort Collins; Ouray; West Indian Creek; 
Mancos; Bob Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus; Hotchkiss. 

2. Equisetum pratense Ehrh. Along streams, N. Sc. to N. J., Colo, and 
Neb. Alt. up to 10,500 ft. Bob Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus. 

3. Equisetum laevigatum A. Br. Moist places, N. J. to Tex., B. C. and 
Calif. Alt. 4000-12,500 ft. Gunnison ; Parlin; Ft. Collins; West Spanish 
Peak; Cucharas River, below La Veta; Wahatoya Creek; Trimble Springs; 
Mancos ; Grand Junction. 

4. Equisetum variegatum Schleich. In sandy soil, Arctic America to N. 
Y. and Nev. Clear Creek, near Denver (Coulter). 

Order 5. ISOETALES. 

Family 5. ISOETACEAE Horan. QUILLWORT FAMILY. 
i. ISOETES L. QUILLWORT. 

Stomata wanting ; leaves 40-60, rigid ; microspores whitish, papillose. 

1. /. paupercula. 
Stomata present ; leaves 5-25, soft ; microspores deep brown, spinulose. 

2. /. Bolanderi. 

i. Isoetes paupercula (Engelm.) A. A. Eaton. [/. occidentalis Henderson, 
I. lacustris paupercula Engelm.] In lakes, always submerged ; Colo, to Calif., 
Wash, and Ida. Grand Lake, Middle Park. 



6 ISOETACEAE. 

2. Isoetes Bolanderi Engelm. In ponds, Mont, to Wash., Colo, and Calif. 
-"Western Colorado." 

Order 6. LYCOPODIALES. 

Spores uniform, minute. Family 6. LYCOPODIACEAE. 

Spores of two sorts, minute microspores and larger macrospores. 

Family 7. SELAGINELLACEAE. 

Family 6. LYCOPODIACEAE Michx. CLUBMOSS FAMILY. 
i. LYCOPODIUM L. CLUB-MOSS, RUNNING PINE. 

i. Lycopodium annotinum L. In open places in forest, Mass, and Newf. to 
Colo., Wash, and Alaska. Alt. 9000-10,500 ft. Beaver Creek; Estes Park; 
Front Range, Larimer Co. ; Notch Mountain. 

Family 7. SELAGINELLACEAE Underw. SELAGINELLA FAMILY. 
i, SELAGINELLA Beauv. LITTLE CLUB-MOSS. 

Stems rooting at base only ; spikes thick, with lax bracts ; macrospores spinulose. 

i. 5". selaginoides. 
Stems rooting their entire length ; bracts rigid. 

Leaves without bristles at the ends ; stems slender, wiry. 2. S. mutica. 
Leaves with distinct terminal bristles. 

Stems short, compact ; leaves light green, crowded, with long terminal bristles. 

3. 5". dens a. 

Stems long, loosely spreading ; leaves dark green, lax, with short terminal 
bristles. 4. 5. Underwoodii. 

1. Selaginella selaginoides (L.) Link. In open places in high mountains, 
Labr. and northern N. Y. to Alaska and Colo. Exact locality not given. 

2. Selaginella mutica D. C. Eaton. On rocks, N. M. to Colo, and Calif. 
Alt. 6000-6500 ft. Idaho Springs ; South Cheyenne Canon ; North Chey- 
enne Canon ; Royal Gorge. 

3. Selaginella densa Rydb. (S. Engelmanni Hieron.) On exposed rocks, 
S. D. and western Neb. to Mont, and Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. The Rustic, 
Larimer Co. 

4. Selaginella Underwoodii Hieron. (S. rupestris Fendleri Underw.) On 
exposed rocks, N. Mex. and Colo. Alt. 5000-7500 ft. North Cheyenne 
Canon ; Minnehaha ; Pike's Peak ; South Cheyenne Canon ; Boulder ; foot- 
hills near Ft. Collins; Manitou. 



Subkingdom SPERMATOPHYTA SEED-BEARING PLANTS. 

Class 1. GYMNOSPERMAE. 
Order 7. FINALES. 

Carpellary scales with bracts, never peltate ; ovules inverted ; buds scaly ; wing 
accompanying the seed a portion of the carpellary scale ; cones dry. 

Fam. 8. PINACEAE. 

Carpellary scales without bracts, in ours fleshy and peltate ; ovules erect ; buds 
naked ; wings of the seed (if present) a portion of the testa ; cones in ours 
berrylike. Fam. 9. JUNIPERACEAE. 

Family 8. PINACEAE Lindl. PINE FAMILY. 

Leaves usually several together, surrounded by a sheath at the base : cones 

maturing the second year. 
Cone-scales with dorsal, (in ours) spine-armed appendages. 

Seeds with elongated wings, these free from the scales and attached to the 

seeds when these fall. i. PINUS. 

Seeds with rudimentary wings, these adnate to the scales when the seeds 

fall. 2. CARYOPITYS. 

Cone-scales with inconspicuous terminal, unarmed appendages ; wing of the 

seed rudimentary. 3- APINUS. 

Leaves solitary, without sheath ; cones maturing the first year. 

Branchlets rough from the prominent, persistent leaf-bases (sterigmata) ; 
leaves in ours quadrangular in cross-section ; cones pendulous with per- 
sistent scales. 4- PICEA. 
Branchlets smooth, the leaf-scars scarcely raised ; leaves flat. 

Cones pendulous ; their scales persistent on the axis ; leaves petioled, with 
transversely oval scars. 5- PSEUDOTSUGA. 

Cones erect ; their scales deciduous from the axis ; leaves sessile with cir- 
cular scars. 6. ABIES. 

i. PINUS L. PINES. 

Leaves in fascicles of 4 or 5 ; spines of the cone-scales long and slender. 

1. P. aristata. 
Leaves in fascicles of 2 or 3 ; spines of the cone-scales short and stout. 

Cones 6-9 cm. long and 5-6 cm. in diameter; leaves 8-15 cm. long. 

2. P. scopulorum. 

Cones 3-5 cm. long and 3 cm. in diameter; leaves 3-6 cm. long. 

3. P. Murrayana. 

1. Pinus aristata Engelm. FOXTAIL PINE, HICKORY PINE. Rocky and 
gravelly mountains from Colo, to Nev., southern Calif, and Ariz. Alt. 8500- 
12,500 ft. Mt. Garfield ; Seven Lakes ; Como ; Veta Pass ; Pike's Peak ; Mid- 
dle Park; Gray's Peak. 

2. Pinus scopulorum (Engelm.) Lemmon. BULL PINE, ROCKY MOUNTAIN 
YELLOW PINE. Hills and mountains from Nebr. to Mont., Ariz, and N. M. 



8 PINACEAE. 

Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Mountains, Veta Pass; Mancos; Ouray; Minnehaha; 
Georgetown ; Horsetooth Mountain. 

3. Pinus Murrayana Oreg. Com. LODGE POLE PINE, BLACK PINE. Hills 
and mountains from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. 
Mountains near Veta Pass; Pallas and Sydney; Dillon; Mount Ouray; 
Breckenridge; Cipango; Baxter's ranch; North Park; Como. 

2. CARYOPITYS Small. PINONS, NUT PINES. 

Cones about 3 cm.; leaves usually in pairs, seldom in threes, i. C. edulis. 
Cones 4-5 cm. ; leaves singly or rarely in pairs. 2. C. monophylla. 

1. Caryopitys edulis (Engelm.) Small. (Pinus edulis Engelm.) Dry foot- 
hills and table-lands from southern Wyo. to western Texas, northern Mex., 
Ariz, and Utah. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Glen Eyrie; Cedar Creek; Red Rock 
Canon ; Mancos ; Salida ; Florence ; Manitou ; Buena Vista ; Grand Junction. 

2. Caryopitys monophylla (Torr. and Frem.) Rydb. (Pinus monophylla 
Torr. and Frem.) Dry hills and mountain slopes from Utah to Calif., Lower 
California and Ariz. One specimen from Colorado seems to belong here. 

Manitou. 

3. APINUS Necker. CEMBRA PINES. 

i. Apinus flexilis (James) Rydb. (Pinus flexilis James) ROCKY MOUN- 
TAIN WHITE PINE. Mountains from Alb. to western Texas and southern 
Calif. Alt. 7500-11,000 ft. Clear Creek, Middle Park; Ojo; Graham's Park; 
North Park; Minnehaha; Beaver Creek; Chambers Lake; Manitou. 

4. PICEA Link. SPRUCES. 

Branchlets pubescent; cones 3-5 cm. long. i. P. Engelmatinii. 

Branchlets glabrous ; cones 5-9 cm. long. 2. P. Parryana. 

1. Picea Engelmanni (Parry) Engelm. ENGELMANN SPRUCE, WHITE 
SPRUCE. Mountains, especially on the north sides, from Alb. to B. C., Ore., 
Ariz, and N. M. Alt. 8500-12,500 ft. 'Empire; Buffalo Pass, Park Range; 
Mount Baldy ; Wahatoya Canon ; Bob Creek, La Plata Mountains ; Grand 
Lake ; Cameron Pass. 

2. Picea Parryana (Andree) Sarg. (Picea fungcns Engelm.) BLUE 
SPRUCE, COLORADO SPRUCE. Mountains especially along streams from Wyo. to 
Utah and N. M. Alt. 6500-10,000 ft. Empire ; near Pagosa Peak ; Crystal 
Park ; Wahatoya Canon ; Cameron Pass. 

5. PSEUDOTSUGA Cam DOUGLAS SPRUCE, RED FIR. 

i. Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) Sudw. DOUGLAS SPRUCE, RED FIR. Hills 
and mountains from Alb. to B. C., Calif., northern Mexico and western Texas. 
Alt. 6000-11,500 ft Pagosa Peak; South Cheyenne Canon; Colorado 
Springs; Como; State Bridge, Grand River; Boulder; Manitou; Minnehaha; 
Mancos; Placer; hills about Ouray; Cameron Pass; Pingree Hill; Stove 
Prairie. 



P1NACEAE. 9 

6. ABIES Miller. BALSAMS, FIRS. 

Resin ducts of the leaves within the soft tissue, remote from the epidermis. 

1. A. lasiocarpa. 
Resin ducts of the leaves close to the epidermis on the lower side. 

2. A. concolor. 

1. Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. BALSAM FIR. Subalpine mountains 
from Alb. to Alaska, Ariz, and N. M. Alt. 9500-12,500 ft. West Spanish 
Peak ; Grand Lakes ; Empire ; Andrew's ranch ; Mt. Richtofen ; Cameron 
Pass. 

2. Abies concolor Lindl. WHITE FIR. Along streams in the mountains 
from Colo, to Ore., Calif, and N. M. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Wahatoya Canon; 
Manitou ; Veta Mountain ; Bob Creek, west of La Plata ; Ouray. 



Family 9. JUNIPERACEAE Horan. JUNIPER FAMILY. 

Leaves subulate on the mature branches ; aments axillary, the pistillate with 
smaller scales at the top. i. JUNIPERUS. 

Leaves scalelike and appressed on the mature branches ; aments terminal, the 
pistillate with larger scales at the top. 2. SABIXA. 

i. JUNIPERUS L. JUNIPERS. 

Low shrub with depressed branches ; leaves abruptly bent at the base, deeply 
channelled, abruptly acute. i. /. sibirica. 

Tree or erect shrub ; leaves straight or nearly so, shallowly channelled, gradually 
acuminate. 2. /. communis. 

1. Juniperus sibirica Burgsd. MOUNTAIN or Low JUNIPER. Exposed rocky 
mountains and hills from Labr. to Alaska, Utah and N. Y. Alt. 6500-10,000 
ft Pike's Peak; Colorado Springs; Empire; Marshall Pass; Golden; Little 
Beaver; near Veta Pass; Bob Creek, west of La Plata Mountains; Ouray; 
Grand Lake; between Sunshine and Ward; Ojo; Beaver Creek; Baxter's 
ranch; Trapper's Lake; Rist Canon. 

2. Juniperus communis L. JUNIPER. Rocky hills and stony places from 
Lab. to Mont., N. M. and Ga. Alt. 5000-8500 ft. Minnehaha ; Colorado 
Springs. 

2. SABINA Haller. RED CEDARS, SAVINS, JUNIPERS. 

Fruit reddish-brown or bluish by a bloom, with dry-fibrous sweet flesh. 

i. 5. utahensis. 

Fruit blue or blue-black, rarely copper-colored, with juicy resinous flesh. 
Trees or erect shrubs ; fruit on straight peduncle. 

Leaves minutely denticulate at the apex; fruit 5-7 mm. in diameter, usually 
i -seeded. 2. S. monosperma. 

Leaves entire ; fruit 4-5 mm. in diameter, usually several-seeded. 

3. S. scopulonnn. 
Prostrate shrub ; fruit on recurved peduncle. 4. S. prostrata. 

i. Sabina utahensis (Engelm.) Rydb. (Juniperus californica utahensis 
Engelm.) On dry mountain slopes and table-lands from western Colo, to 
Nev., southeastern Calif, and Ariz. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. State Bridge; Glen- 
wood Springs; Grand River Valley. 



10 JUNIPER ACEAE. 

2. Sabina monosperma (Engelm.) Rydb. (Juniperus occidentalis mono- 
spcrma Engelm.) Dry foot-hills and mesas from Colo, to Utah, Ariz., N. M. 
and northern Mexico. Alt. 5500-7500 ft. McCoy; Cedar Creek; La Veta; 
Mancos; Owl Canon; Rustic. 

3. Sabina scopulorum (Sarg.) Rydb. (Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.) 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN RED CEDAR. On foot-hills and river bluffs from Alb. to 
B. C, Ore., Ariz, and Texas. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Colorado Springs; Golden; 
Garden of the Gods; Ouray; Durango; McCoy; State Bridge, Grand River; 
Kremmling; Eagle River, Walcott; Boulder; Manitou ; New Castle; Salida; 
Andrew's ranch ; Soldier Canon ; Rist Canon ; Trinidad ; Owl Canon. 

4. Sabina prostrata (Pers.) Antoine. CREEPING JUNIPER, TRAILING SAVIN. 
Exposed hills and slopes from N. S. to B. C., Colo, and N. Y. Alt. 4000- 
8500 ft. North Cheyenne Canon; Parlin; Owl Canon. 

OrderS. GNETALES. 

Family 10. EPHEDRACEAE Dumort. JOINT-FIR FAMILY. 

i. EPHEDRA Tourn. JOINT-FIRS. 

Scales and branches opposite ; bracts opposite and connate, scarious only on the 

margins. i. E. antisyphylitica. 

Scales, branches and bracts in threes ; the latter scarcely connate ; those of the 

pistillate cones mostly scarious and more or less clawed. 
Scales 2-3 mm. long, not becoming shreddy ; fruit scabrous. 

2. E. Torreyana. 
Scales 6-12 mm. long, becoming shreddy; fruit smooth. 3. E. trifurca. 

1. Ephedra antisyphylitica E. A. Mey. On desert land from Colo, to 
Texas and Mex. Mancos. 

2. Ephedra Torreyana S. Wats. On desert lands to an altitude of 5500 ft. 
from Colo, and Utah to N. M. and Calif. Deer Run. 

3. Ephedra trifurca Torr. On desert lands from southwestern Colo, and 
Utah to Texas and Ariz. Mesa Verde; Las Animas Valley (Brandegee). 



Class 2. ANGIOSPERMAE. 

Subclass 1. MONOCOTYLEDONES. 

Order 9. PANDANALES. 

Flowers in elongated terminal spikes ; fruit hidden among bristles. 

Fam. ii. TYPHACEAE. 
Flowers in globose lateral spikes ; fruit not hidden among bristles. 

Fam. 12. SPARGANIACEAE. 

Family u. TYPHACEAE J. St. Hil. CAT-TAIL FAMILY. 
i. TYPHA L. CAT-TAILS. 

i. Typha latifolia L. In marshes, lakes and streams from Newf. to Wash., 
Fla. and Calif. ; also Mex., Asia and Europe. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Pagosa 
Springs; Ft. Collins; common in swamps formed by irrigation. 

Family 12. SPARGANIACEAE Agard. BUR-REED FAMILY. 
i. SPARGANIUM L. BUR-REED. 

Leaves triangular-keeled at the base. 

Mature achenes truncate at the apex, stalked ; stigmas often z. 

i. S. eurocarpum. 

Mature achenes acuminate at the apex, sessile ; stigma always solitary ; lower 
heads peduncled. 2. S. multipedunculatum. 

Leaves flat throughout, mostly floating. 

Mature heads 12-15 mm. in diameter; style and stigma of about the same 

length as the achenes. 3. 5. angustifolium. 

Mature heads 7-10 mm. in diameter; style and stigma shorter than the achenes. 

4. S. minimum. 

1. Sparganium eurocarpum Engelm. In marshes and slow streams from 
Newf. to Wash., Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Along Platte River, 
Denver. 

2. Sparganium multipedunculatum (Morong) Rydb. (S. simplex multi- 
pedunculatum Morong) In marshes, slow streams and lakes, from the 
Mackenzie River to Wash, and Colo. Alt. 6500-10,500 ft. Gunnison; Cot- 
tonwood Lake; Kremmling; West Cliff; margin of lake, Buffalo Pass, Park 
Range; Estes Park; eight miles west of Hebron. 

3. Sparganium angustifolium Michx. In lakes and streams from Newf. to 
Ore., N. Y. and Calif. Alt. 8500-11,500 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; Seven Lakes; 
Trapper's Lake ; Estes Park. 

11 



12 ZANICHELLIACEAE. 

4. Sparganium minimum Fries. In ponds and streams from N. B. to 
Alaska, N. Y. and Utah. Grand Lake; Estes Park. 



Order 10. NAIADALES. 

Gynoecium of distinct carpels ; stigmas disk-like or cup-like. 

Fam. 13. ZANICHELLIACEAE. 
Gynoecium of united carpels ; stigmas 2-4, slender. 

Fam. 14. NAIADACEAE. 



Family 13. ZANICHELLIACEAE Dumort. POND-WEED FAMILY. 

Flowers perfect in peduncled spikes ; ovaries sessile ; stamens 4 ; connective ap- 
pendaged. i. POTAMOGETON. 

Flowers monoecious, axillary ; anthers i ; connective not appendaged. 

2. ZANICHELLIA. 

i. POTAMOGETON L. POND-WEED. 

With both floating and submerged leaves. 

Submerged leaves bladeless. i. P. natans. 

Submerged leaves with proper blade. 
Submerged leaf-blades lanceolate. 

Submerged leaves all petioled. 2. P. lonchites. 

Submerged leaves sessile or the uppermost short-petioled. 

Peduncles of the same thickness as the stem. 3. P. alpinus. 

Peduncles thicker than the stem. 4. P. Zizii. 

Submerged leaves linear. 5. P. heterophyllus. 

With submerged leaves only. 

Leaves with broad blades, lanceolate or oval, many-nerved. 

Leaves short-petioled or sessile, not clasping. 6. P. lucens. 

Leaves clasping. 7. P. Richardsonii. 

Leaves narrowly linear or capillary. 
Stipules free from the leaves. 

Glands at the base of the leaves absent. 8. P. foliosus. 

Glands at the base of the leaves present. 9. P. pusillus. 

Stipules adnate to the base of the leaves. 
Stigma broad, sessile. 

Leaves filiform, y^- l /2 mm. wide ; stipular sheath 3-8 mm. long. 

10. P. filiformis. 
Leaves about i mm. wide ; stipular sheath 1-2 cm. long. 

11. P.. interior. 
Stigma capitatej style evident. 12. P. pectinatus. 

1. Potamogeton natans L. In lakes and ponds from N. S. to Alaska, Fla. 
and Calif.; also Mex., Europe and Asia. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Rio Grande, 
Alamosa ; Lee's Lake, Ft. Collins ; Laramie River near state line. 

2. Potamogeton lonchites Tuckerm. In ponds and slow streams from N. B. 
to Wash., Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Alamosa. 

3. Potamogeton alpinus Balbis. (P. rufescens Schrad.) In ponds from 
N. S. to Alaska, N. J. and Calif. Alt. 8000-11,500 ft Georgetown ; Tomichi 
River; Seven Lakes; Trapper's Lake. 



ZANICHELLIACEAE. 13 

4. Potamogeton Zizii M. & K. In lakes and streams from Que. to Ida., Fla. 
and Texas. Cerro Summit. 

5. Potamogeton heterophyllus Schreb. In still or flowing water from Lab. 
to B. C., Fla. and Calif. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Near Boulder. 

6. Potamogeton lucens L. In ponds and lakes, from N. Sc. to Fla. and 
Calif. Cottonwood Lake. 

7. Potamogeton Richardsonii (Bennett) Rydb. (P. perfoliatus lanccolatus 
Robbins) In lakes, ponds and slow streams from Newf. to Alaska, Del. and 
Calif. Alt. about 8000 ft. Tomichi River. 

8. Potamogeton foliosus Raf. In streams and ponds from N. B. to B. C., 
Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. North Platte River, below Hebron ; Grand 
River, Sulphur Springs; Platte River, Denver. 

9. Potamogeton pusillus L. In slow streams and ponds from N. B. to B. C., 
N. C. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Base of Pike's Peak; Brantly Canon, 
Las Animas Co. ; Alamosa. 

10. Potamogeton filiformis Pers. In ponds and lakes from Anticosti to 
B. C., N. Y. and Colo. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Twin Lakes; Walsenburg; Grand 
Lake. 

11. Potamogeton interior Rydb. (P. marinus occidentalis Robbins) In 
lakes and slow streams from Alb. to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 6500-10,000 ft 
San Luis Valley; Ironton Park, nine miles south of Ouray; Tomichi River; 
Gunnison ; Hamor's Lake, Durango. 

12. Potamogeton pectinatus L. In fresh, alkaline or salt water from N. B. 
to Alaska, Fla. and Low. Calif. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Twin Lakes; New 
Windsor; lake near Ft. Collins; Grizzly Creek; Trapper's Lake; Lee's Lake, 
Ft. Collins. 

2. ZANICHELLIA L. ZANICHELLIA. 

i. Zanichellia palustris L. In fresh and alkaline ponds and streams especi- 
ally with sandy bottoms from Mass, to Wash., Fla. and Calif.; also in the 
Old World. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Ft. Collins; Platte River, Denver; stream 
twelve miles below Grand Lake; swamp along Poudre River. 

Family 14. NAIADACEAE Lindl. NAIAS FAMILY. 
i. NAIAS L. NAIAS. 

i. Naias guadalupensis (Spreng.) Morong. In brackish and alkaline water 
from Kans., Nebr. to Ore., Fla. and Texas ; Tropical America. Lee's Lake, Ft. 
Collins. 

Order n. ALISMALES. 

Petals similar to the sepals ; anthers long and narrow ; carpels coherent. 

Fam. 15. SCHEUCHSERIACEAE. 

Petals different from the sepals, in ours white ; anthers short and thick ; carpels 

not coherent. 

Fam. 16. ALISMACEAE. 



14 SCHEUCHSERIACEAE. 

Family 15. SCHEUCHSERIACEAE Agardh. ARROW-GRASS FAMILY. 

1. TRIGLOCHIN L. ARROW-GRASS. 

Carpels 3; fruit linear-clavate, tapering to an awl-shaped base. i. T. palustris. 
Carpels 6 ; fruit oblong or ovoid, obtuse at the base. 2. T. maritima. 

1. Triglochin palustris L. In marshes from N. B. to Alaska, N. Y. and 
Colo. ; also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 6500-10,000 ft. Lake John, North 
Park; lola; Hamor's Lake, north of Durango; Grizzly Creek; Como; South 
Park. 

2. Triglochin maritima L. In marshes, especially those that are more or 
less alkaline or saline, from Lab. to Alaska, N. J. and Calif. Alt. 6500-10.000 
ft. Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; Doyle's ; Trimble Springs, north of Durango ; Gyp- 
sum, Eagle Co. ; Tobe Miller's ranch ; Steamboat Springs. 

Family 16. ALISMACEAE DC. WATER-PLAINTAIN FAMILY. 

Carpels in a ring on a flat receptacle. i. ALISMA. 

Carpels spirally arranged in several series on a convex or globose receptacle. 

2. SAGITTARIA. 

i. ALISMA L. WATER-PLANTAIN. 

i. Alisma Plantago L. (A. brevipes Greene) In water from Que. to 
Wash., Colo, and Low. Calif. ; also in Europe. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Cerro 
Summit; La Porte, Larimer Co.; La Plata River; Piedra; near the river, 
Ft. Collins ; Hubbard Creek, Delta Co. 

2. SAGITTARIA L. ARROW-HEAD. 

Basal lobes of the leaf-blades not longer than the blade proper. 

Beak of the achenes at a right angle to the body and of l /^ its length or more ; 

bracts ovate. i. S. lot i folia. 

Beak of the achenes erect, very short. 

Bracts lanceolate, 8-20 mm. long ; petiole comparatively short ; blade sel- 
dom floating. 2. S. arifolia. 
Bracts ovate-lanceolate, 4-6 mm. long; petioles very long; blades floating 

or none. 3. S. cuneata. 

Basal lobes of the leaf-blades 2-3 times as long as the blades proper. 

4. S. longiloba. 

1. Sagittaria latifolia Willd. In marshes and shallow water from N. B. to 
B. C, Fla. and Tex. Lee's Lake, near Ft. Collins ; along the river near Ft. 
Collins. 

2. Sagittaria arifolia J. G. Smith. In shallow water and mud from Me., 
Sask., B. C. and Mich, to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Near Boulder; 
New Windsor, Weld Co.; North Cheyenne Canon; Alamosa; Kremmling; 
La Porte road, near Ft. Collins. 

3. Sagittaria cuneata Sheldon. In lakes from Minn, to Sask., B. C. and 
Colo." Colorado." 

4. Sagittaria longiloba Engelm. In shallow ponds from Kans. to Colo., 
Tex. and Sonora. Exact locality not given. 



ELODIACEAE. 15 

Order 12. HYDROCHARITALES. 
Family 17. ELODIACEAE Dumort. TAPE-GRASS FAMILY. 

i. PHILOTRIA Raf. WATER-WEED. 

Calyx over 2.5 mm. broad. i. P. angustifolia. 

Calyx less than 2 mm. broad. 2. P. minor. 

1. Philotria angustifolia (Muhl.) Britton. In ponds and slow-flowing water 
from N. Y. to Sask., Ky. and Nev. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Lee's Lake, Ft. 
Collins. 

2. Philotria minor (Engelm.) Small. In ponds and slow-flowing streams 
from Me. to Minn., Wyo., Tenn. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Rio Grande; 
Alamosa; Lee's Lake. 

Order 13. POALES. 

Leaves 2-ranked ; their sheath with their margins not united ; stem mostly hollow ; 

fruit a grain. Fam. 18. POACEAE. 

Leaves 3-ranked ; their sheath with united margins ; stem solid ; fruit an achene. 

Fam. 19. CYPERACEAE. 

Family 18. POACEAE R. Br. GRASS FAMILY. 

Spikelets falling from the pedicles entire, naked or enclosed in bristles or bur- 
like involucres, i -flowered, or if 2-flowered the lower flower staminate ; no 
upper empty glumes ; rachilla not extending above the upper glume. 
Spikelets round or somewhat compressed dorsally ; empty glumes manifest ; 

hilum punctiform. 
Flowering glume and palet hyaline, thin, much more delicate in texture than 

the empty glumes. 
Spikelets in pairs, one sessile and the other pedicellate. 

Tribe i. ANDROPOGONEAE. 
Spikelets not in pairs (Alopecurus, Polypogon, Cinna, etc.). 

Tribe 6. AGROSTIDEAE. 
Flowering glume, at least that of the perfect flower, similar in texture to the 

empty glumes, or thicker and firmer, never hyaline and thin. 
Flowering glume and palet membranous ; the first glume usually larger than 

the rest. Tribe 2. ZOYSIEAE. 

Flowering glume and palet chartaceous to coriaceous, very different in color 

and appearance from the remaining glumes. Tribe 3. PANICEAE. 
Spikelets much compressed laterally ; empty glumes none or rudimentary ; hilum 

linear. Tribe 4. ORYZEAE. 

Spikelets with the empty glumes persistent, the rachilla articulated above them, 
i -many-flowered ; frequently the upper glumes are empty ; rachilla often pro- 
duced beyond the upper glume. 

Spikelets borne in an open or spike-like panicle or raceme, usually upon dis- 
tinct pedicels. 
Spikelets i -flowered. 

Empty glumes 4 ; palet i-nerved. Tribe 5. PHALARIDEAE. 

Empty glumes 2, rarely i ; palet 2-nerved (except in Cinna). 

Tribe 6. AGROSTIDEAE. 
Spikelets 2-many-flowered. 

Flowering glumes usually shorter than the empty glumes ; the awn dorsal 

and usually bent. Tribe 7. AVENEAE. 

Flowering glumes usually longer than the empty ones ; the awn terminal 
and straight (rarely dorsal in Bromus) or none. 

Tribe 9. FESTUCEAE. 



16 



POACEAE. 



Spikelets in two rows sessile or nearly so. 

Spikelets on one side of the continuous axis, forming one-sided spikes. 

Tribe 8. CHLORIDEAE. 
Spikelets alternately on opposite sides of the axis, which is often articulated. 

Tribe 10. HORDEAE. 

TRIBE i. ANDROPOGONEAE. 

Racemes singly disposed ; apex of the rachis-internodes a translucent cup-shaped 
appendage. i. SCHIZACHYRIUM. 

Racemes disposed in pairs or more ; apex of the rachis-internodes not appendaged. 
Rachis-internodes and pedicels sulcate, the median portion translucent, the mar- 
gins thickened. 2. AMPHILOPHIS. 
Rachis-internodes not sulcate. 

Some or all of the racemes sessile. 3. ANDROPOGON. 

All of the racemes more or less peduncled. 

Pedicellate spikelets wanting. 4. SORGHASTRUM. 

Pedicellate spikelets present and usually staminate. 5. SORGHUM. 



TRIBE 2. ZOYSIEAE. 



Only one genus represented. 



6. HILARIA. 



TRIBE 3. PANICEAE. 



Spikelets naked, not involucrate. 
Empty glumes 2. 

Rachis produced beyond the upper spikelet ; spikelets narrow. 

37- 



SPARTINA. 



Rachis not so produced ; spikelets globose. 38. BECKMANNIA. 
Empty glumes 3. 

Empty glumes not awned. 

Spikelets in very slender i -sided racemes, which are usually whorled or 

approximate. 7. SYNTHERISMA. 
Spikelets in panicles or panicled racemes. 

Spikeles lanceolate, acuminate, long-hairy. 8. TRICHACHNE. 
Spikelets orbicular or lanceolate ; if the latter, then glabrous. 

9. PANICUM. 

Empty glumes awned or awn-pointed. 10. ECHINOCHLOA. 
Spikelets involucrate. 

Involucre of numerous bristles. u. CHAETOCHLOA. 

Involucre of two spine-bearing valves. 12. CENCHRUS. 



TRIBE '4. ORYZEAE. 
Spikelets perfect ; empty glumes wanting or rarely rudimentary. 

13. HOMALOCENCHRUS. 

TRIBE 5. PHALARIDEAE. 



Third and fourth glumes empty, awnless. 

Third and fourth glumes enclosing staminate flowers. 



14. PHALARIS. 

15. SAVASTANA. 



TRIBE 6. AGROSTIDEAE. 

Flowering glumes indurate when mature and very closely embracing the grain, 

or at least firmer than the empty glumes. 
Spikelets all perfect not in pairs. 

Flowering glume 3-awned. 16. ARISTIDA. 

Flowering glume i -awned. 

Awn twisted and bent. 17. STIPA. 

Awn not twisted. 



POACEAE. 17 

Flowering glumes broad ; awn deciduous. 

Flowering glumes glabrous, or pubescent with short appressed hairs. 

1 8. ORYZOPSIS. 
Flowering glumes pubescent with long, silky hairs much exceeding 

the glume. 19. ERIOCOMA. 

Flowering glumes narrow ; glabrous or with short, appressed hairs ; the 

awn persistent. 20. MUHLENBERGIA. 

Spikelets in pairs, one perfect and the other staminate or sterile, in a spike- 
like panicle. 21. LYCURUS. 
Flowering glumes usually hyaline or membranaceous at maturity ; at least more 

delicate than the empty ones ; grains loosely enclosed. 
Stigma sub-plumose (i. e., with short hairs all around), projecting from the 

apex of the nearly closed glumes. 
Inflorescence spike-like. 

Rachilla of the spikelets articulated above the empty glumes, which are 

therefore persistent. 22. PHLEUM. 

Rachilla of the spikelets articulated below the empty glumes, hence the 

spikelets deciduous entire. 23. ALOPECURUS. 

Inflorescence an open small panicle ; dwarf arctic-alpine plant. 

24. PHIPPSIA. 
Stigma plumose, projecting from the sides of the spikelets ; inflorescence an 

open or spike-like panicle. 
Grain not permanently enclosed in the flowering scale and palet ; pericarp 

opening readily at maturity. 

Flowering glumes long-hairy on the veins. 25. BLEPHARI NEURON. 

Flowering glumes not long-hairy on the veins. 26. SPOROBULUS. 

Grain permanently enclosed in the flowering glume and the palet ; pericarp 

adherent. 

Spikelets readily falling off entire when mature. 27. POLYPOGON. 
Spikelets with the empty scales at least persistent. 

Palet i-nerved and i-keeled; stamen i. 28. CINNA. 

Palet 2-nerved and 2-keeled or sometimes wanting ; stamen 3. 
Flowering glumes naked at the base. 29. AGROSTIS. 

Flowering glumes with long hairs at the base. 

Flowering glume and palet thin-membranous. 30. CALAMAGROSTIS. 
Flowering glume and palet chartaceous. 31. CALAMOVILFA. 

TRIBE 7. AVENEAE. 

Awn of the flowering glumes inserted dorsally below the teeth. 
Grain free, unfurrowed ; spikelets less than i cm. long. 

Flowering glumes erose-toothed or shortly 2-lobed at the apex. 

32. DESCHAMPSIA. 

Flowering glumes 2-cleft or deeply 2-toothed at the apex ; teeth awn-pointed. 
Awn twisted and bent. 33- TRISETUM. 

Awn if present not twisted, straight. 34- GRAPHEPHORUM. 

Grain furrowed, adherent to the glumes ; spikelets exceeding i cm. in length. 
Ovary not crowned by a villous appendage. 35. AVENA. 

Ovary crowned by a villous appendage (awned species of) 

65. BROMUS. 
Awn of the flowering glumes inserted between the teeth. 36. DANTHONIA. 

TRIBE 8. CHLORIDEAE. 

Spikelets with perfect flowers. 

Spikelets with i (rarely 2) perfect flowers. 

Spikelets deciduous as a whole ; rachis articulated below the empty glumes. 
Rhachis produced above the upper spikelet ; spikelets narrow. 

37. SPARTINA. 
Rhachis not produced beyond the upper spikelet ; spikelets globose. 

38. BECKMANNIA. 
o 



18 POACEAE. 

Spikelets with at least the empty glumes persistent. 

Glumes above the perfect flower none ; spikes digitate, very slender. 

39- SCHEDONARDUS. 

Glumes above the perfect flower i-several ; spikes scattered. 

Spikes 1-4, rarely more ; spikelets 25 or more. 40. BOUTELOUA. 

Spikes numerous, 12 or more; spikelets few, less than 12. 

41. ATHEROPOGON. 

Spikelets with 2-3 perfect flowers ; spikelets alternate. 42. LEPTOCHLOA. 

Spikelets dioecious ; those of the two sexes very unlike. 43. BULBILIS. 

TRIBE 9. FESTUCEAE. 

Flowering glumes, at least of the pistillate spikelets, 3-lobed and 3-awned ; plant 

dioecious. 44. SCLEROPOGON. 

Flowering glumes entire or at most 2-lobed. 

Hairs on the rachilla or flowering glume very long and enclosing the latter. 

45. PHRAGMITES. 

Hairs, if any, on the rachilla and the flowering glume shorter than the glume. 
Stigimas barbellate on elongated styles ; spikelets in threes in the axils of 

spinescent leaves. 46. MUNROA. 

Stigmas plumose, sessile or on short styles. 
Flowering glumes i-3-nerved. 

Lateral nerves of the flowering glumes hairy. 
Flowering glumes deeply 2-lobed. 

Internodes of the rachilla long, often half as long as the flowering 

glume ; plants without stolons. 47. TUIPLASIS. 

Internodes of the rachilla short, many times shorter than the glumes ; 

plants with long, arching stolons. 48. DASYOCHLOA. 

Flowering glume entire or slightly 2-lobed ; internodes of the rachilla 

short. 

Inflorescence a short congested raceme ; leaf-blades with thick car- 
tilaginous margins. 49. ERIONEURON. 
Inflorescence a panicle ; leaf-blades not with cartilaginous margins. 
Panicle simple or compound ; the spikelets on pedicels of varying 

length. 50. TRIDENS. 

Panicles composed of long branches, along which the appressed 

spikelets are arranged on short pedicels. 51. DIPLACHLE. 
Lateral nerves of the flowering glumes glabrous. 

Callus of the flowering glumes copiously pubescent with long hairs ; 

panicle open. 52. REDFIELDIA. 

Callus of the flowering glumes glabrous. 

Second empty glume similar to the first or nearly so. 

Panicle narrow, dense and spike-like, shining ; its branches erect. 

53. KOELERIA. 

Panicle open ; its branches spreading. 

Rachilla continuous (except in E. major) ; flowering glume de- 
ciduous ; palet persistent ; plants of dry soil. 

54. ERAGROSTIS. 
Rachilla articulated ; flowering glumes and palet both deciduous 

with the rachilla-internodes ; water plants with 2-flowered 
spikelets. 55. CATABROSA. 

Second empty glume very unlike the first one, broad at the summit. 

56. EATONIA. 
Flowering glumes s-many-nerved. 

Spikelets with two or more of the upper glumes empty, broad and enfold- 
ing each other. 57. MELICA. 
Spikelets with upper glumes flower-bearing or narrow and abortive. 
Stigmas placed at or near the apex of the ovary. 

Spikelets borne in one-sided fascicles which are arranged in a glom- 
erate or interrupted panicle ; flowering glumes herbaceous. 

58. DACTYLIS. 



POACEAE. 19 

Spikelets borne in panicles of racemes. 

Glumes more or less compressed and keeled. 

Spikelets cordate, large. 59. BRIZA. 

Spikelets not cordate. 

Plants dioecious ; flowering glume of the pistillate spikelets 
coriaceous ; palet strongly 2-keeled and serrate on the 
margin. 60. DISTICHLIS. 

Plants with perfect flowers or in some species of Poa dioe- 
cious ; spikelets all alike ; flowering glume thin ; palet 
ciliate or smooth on the margin 
Flowering glumes scarious-margined ; rachis glabrous or 

with webby hairs. 61. POA. 

Flowering glumes membranous, not scarious-margined ; 
rachis with stiff hairs, extending into a hairy appendage. 

34. GRAPHEPHORUM. 
Glumes rounded on the back, at least below. 

Flowering glumes obtuse or acutish and scarious at the apex, 

usually toothed. 
Flowering glumes distinctly s-7-nerved ; style present. 

62. PANICULARIA. 
Flowering glumes obscurely 5-nerved ; style none. 

63. PUCCINELLIA. 
Flowering glumes acute, pointed or more commonly awned at 

the apex. 64. FESTUCA. 

Stigmas plainly arising below the apex of the ovary which is tipped 
by a hairy cushion. 65. BROMUS. 

TRIBE 10. HORDEAE. 

Spikelets usually single at the nodes of the rachis. 

Empty scales broad, with their sides turned towards the rachis. 

66. AGROPYRON. 

Empty glumes with their back turned to the rachis. 70. LOLIUM. 

Spikelets 2-6 at each joint of the rachis, or if solitary the empty glumes arranged 

obliquely to the rachis. 

Spikelets i-flowered or with a rudimentary second flower. 67. HORDEUM. 

Spikelets 2-many-flowered. 

Rachis of the spikes articulated, readily breaking up into joints. 

68. SITANION. 
Rachis of the spikes continuous, not breaking up into joints. 

69. ELYMUS. 

Tribe i. ANDROPOGONEAE. 
i. SCHIZACHYRIUM Nees. BUNCH-GRASS, BROOM-GRASS. 

i. Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash. (Andopogon scoparium 
Michx.) On sandy or dry gravelly hills from N. B. to Sask., Fla. and Tex. 
Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Near Boulder; Cheyenne Mountain; Engelmann Canon; 
New Windsor, Weld Co.; Royal Gorge; La Porte, Tobe Miller's ranch; 
Poudre Canon ; Ft. Collins. 

2. AMPHILOPHIS Nash. 

i. Amphilophis Torreyanus (Steud.) Nash. (Andropogon saccharoides of 
Coult. Man.; not Sw.) In dry soil from Mo. to Colo., Tex. and Ariz.; also 
in Mex. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Canon City. 



20 POACEAE. 

3. ANDROPOGON L. BEARD-GRASS, BLUE-STEM. 

Fourth glume of the sessile spikelet with a long geniculate awn, more or less 

spiral at the base. 
Outer two glumes of the sessile spikelet more or less hispidulous all over ; hairs 

on the rachis-internodes usually 2. mm. or less long. i. A. furcatus. 

Outer two glumes of the sessile spikelet smooth or nearly so, except on the 
nerves ; hairs of the rachis-internodes 3-4 mm. long. z. A. chrysocomus. 

Fourth glume of the sessile spikelet awnless or with a short, straight, untwisted 
awn. 3- A. Hallii. 

1. Andropogon furcatus Muhl. In meadows from Me. to Sask., Fla. and 
Tex. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Near Boulder; La Veta; Golden; West Dry Creek, 
Larimer Co. ; Manitou ; Colorado Springs ; Tobe Miller's ranch, near La 
Porte; Ft. Collins. 

2. Andropogon chrysocomus Nash. In dry meadows from Neb. to Colo., 
Kans. and Tex. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. La Veta; on the plains. 

3. Andropogon Hallii Hack. In sandy soil from Neb. to Mont., Kans. and 
Mex. Exact locality not given. 

4. SORGHASTRUM Nash. INDIAN GRASS. 

i. Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. (Chrysopogon nutans Benth.) In dry 
soil from Ont. to Man., Fla. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Near Boulder; 
New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Canon City ; Tobe Miller's ranch, near La Porte ; 
Ft. Collins. 

5. SORGHUM Pers. JOHNSON GRASS, SUGAR CORN. 

i. Sorghum halapense (L.) Pers. Cultivated for fodder and occasionally 
escaped. Rocky Ford. 

Tribe 2. ZOYSIEAE. 

6. HILARIA H. B. K. MESQUITE, BLACK GRAMA. 

Outer glumes of the spikelets cuneate, awnless ; the nerves strongly diverging. 

i. H. mutica. 
Outer glumes linear or oblong, awned ; the nerves parallel. 2. H. Jamesii. 

1. Hilaria mutica (Buckl.) Benth. On dry plains from southern Colo, to 
Tex. and Ariz. Reported from Colorado, but doubtful. 

2. Hilaria Jamesii (Torn) Benth. Hillsides and gulches of the mesas from 
Wyo. to Nev., Tex. and N. Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Deer Run; mesas near 
Pueblo ; Arboles ; Mancos ; Hotchkiss, Delta Co. 



Tribe 3. PANICEAE. 

7. SYNTHERISMA Walt. CRAB-GRASS. 

Pedicels terete or nearly so, sparingly if at all hispidulous ; lower sheath glabrous. 

1. 5". humifusum. 
Pedicels sharply 3-angled ; the angles strongly hispidulous ; as are also the sheaths. 

2. S. sanguinale. 



POACEAE. 21 

1. Syntherisma humifusum (Pers.) Rydb. On roadsides, in old fields and 
waste places, introduced from the Old World and established from N. S. to 
Mont, and Colo, and Fla. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Georgetown ; Ft. Collins. 

2. Syntherisma sanguinale (L.) Dulac. (Panicum sanguinale L.) In 
lawns, cultivated ground and waste places; introduced from the Old World 
and established from Mass, to Neb., Fla. and Calif. Alt. about 5000 ft. 
Boulder; Canon City; Ft. Collins. 

8. TRICHACHNE Nees. 

b 

i. Trichachne saccharatum (Buckley) Nash. On dry hillsides from Colo, to 
western Tex., Ariz, and Mex. Alt. up to 8500 ft. Canon City; Fremont Co. 

9. PANICUM L. PANIC-GRASS, WITCH-GRASS, SWITCH-GRASS, MILLET. 

Basal leaf-blades long and narrow ; spikelets lanceolate to ovate, acute to acu- 
minate. 

Annual. i. P. capillare. 

Perennial with long, scaly root-stock. 2. P. virgatum. 

Basal leaf-blades ovate to lanceolate ; spikelets elliptic to ovate or obovate, obtuse. 

Spikelets less than 2 mm. long. 3. P. nnciphyllum. 

Spikelets more than 2 mm. long. 4. P. Scribneriannm. 

1. Panicum capillare L. In sandy soil and waste places from S. Dak. to 
B. C, N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9500 ft Black Canon ; Ft. Collins ; Pike's 
Peak; Grand Junction; near Boulder; Canon City; Colorado Springs; 
Graymont. 

2. Panicum virgatum L. In meadows and on river-banks from Me. to Ass., 
Fla. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Ft. Collins; Golden; Trimble Springs; 
New Windsor, Weld Co.; near Boulder; La Veta; Tobe Miller's ranch. 

3. Panicum UHciphyllum Trin. (P. pubescens and P. dichotomum of Coult. 
Man.) In dry or sandy soil from Me. to B. C., Ga. and Ariz. Exact local- 
ity not given. 

4. Panicum Scribnerianum Nash. (P. scoparium of Coult. Man. ; not 
Lam.) In meadows from Me. to B. C., Va., Ariz, and Ore. Alt. 4000-6000 
ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Palmer Lake ; Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co. ; 
Boulder. 

10. ECHINOCHLOA Beauv. BARNYARD-GRASS, COCKSPUR-GRASS. 

i. Echinochloa Crus-galli (L.) Beauv. (Panicum Crus-galli L.) In sandy 
or alkaline soil, waste places and old fields. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Golden; 
Grand Junction ; Dry Creek, Larimer Co. ; Canon City. 

Echinochloa Crus-galli mutica is a variety with short awn. Golden ; Tobe 
Miller's ranch, near La Porte; Ft. Collins. 

ii. CHAETOCHLOA Scribn. FOX-TAIL GRASS, ITALIAN MILLET, HUNGARIAN 

GRASS. 

Inflorescence with the spikelets racemosely arranged; bristles 5-16 at the base 

of each spikelet, involucrate, tawny-orange. i. C. glauca. 

Inflorescence with the spikelets in clusters or on branches ; bristles 1-3 at the 
base of each spikelet, not involucrate. 



22 POACEAE. 

Second glume of the spikelet as long as the flowering glume or very nearly 

so ; annuals. 
Panicle usually i cm. thick or less ; bristles commonly green ; spikelets about 

2 mm. long. 2. C. viridis. 

Panicle usually 1-3 cm. thick ; bristles usually purple ; spikelets 2.5-3 mm. 

long. 3. C. italic a. 

Second glume manifestly shorter than the flowering glume ; perennial. 

4. C. composite,. 

1. Chaetochloa glauca (L.) Scribn. (Setaria glauca Beauv.) YELLOW 
FOX-TAIL. In waste places and cultivated grounds from Vt. to Man., Fla. 
and Tex. Alt. up to 5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

2. Chaetochloa viridis (L.) Scribn. (Setaria viridis Beauv.) GREEN FOX- 
TAIL. In cultivated ground and waste places from Me. to Wash., Fla. and 
Calif. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Near Boulder; Idaho Springs; Ft. Collins; 
Granada. 

3. Chaetochloa italica (L.) Scribn. (Setaria italica Kunth.) ITALIAN 
MILLET, HUNGARIAN GRASS. Cultivated and escaped in fields and waste 
places from Que. to Minn., Fla. and Colo. Grass station, Ft. Collins. 

4. Chaetochloa composita (H. B. K.) Scribn. In dry soil from Tex. to 
Colo, and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Canon City. 

12. CENCHRUS L. SAND-BUR, SAND-SPUR, COCK-SPUR, BUR-GRASS. 

i. Cenchrus tribuloides L. In sandy soil from Me. to Minn., Fla. and Tex. 
Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Near Boulder; Ft. Collins; Canon City; Colorado 
Springs. 

Tribe 4. ORYZEAE. 

13. HOMALOCENCHRUS Mieg. RICE CUT-GRASS, CATCH-FLY GRASS. 

i. Homalocenchrus oryzoides (L.) Poll. In wet places and swamps from 
N. Sc. to Wash., Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. New Windsor, Weld 
Co.; Canon City; river-flats east of Ft. Collins. 

Tribe 5. PHALARIEAE. 

14. PHALARIS L. CANARY-GRASS. 

Outer glumes not winged; inflorescence a narrow panicle. i. P. arundinacea. 

Outer glumes winged ; inflorescence a spike or spike-like panicle. 

Spikelets narrow ; third and fourth glumes much reduced ; blade subulate, hairy. 

2. P. caroliniana. 

Spikelets broad, third and fourth glumes thin, membranous ; blade lanceolate, 
glabrous or sparingly hairy. 3. P. canariensis. 

1. Phalaris arundinacea L. In swamp and wet meadows from N. Sc. to 
B. C., N. J. and Nev. Also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. George- 
town; Gunnison; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Fort Collins; Hamor's Lake; 
Table Rock. 

2. Phalaris caroliniana Walt. In wet soil from S. C. to Calif., Fla. and 
Mex. Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co. 



POACEAE. 23 

3. Phalaris canariensis L. Introduced from Europe and Africa ; in waste 
places from N. S. to S. D., Va. and Colo. Alt. up to 8500 ft. Gunnison; 
Colorado Springs. 

15. SAVASTANA. HOLY GRASS, VANILLA GRASS. 

i. Savastana odorata (L.) Scribn. (Hierochloe borealis R. & S.) Among 
bushes and on banks from Lab. to Alaska, N. J. and Ariz. Alt. 6500-8500 
ft. Stove Prairie, Larimer Co. ; West Cliff ; South Park ; along the Cone- 
jos River, north of Antonito. 

Tribe 6. AGROSTIDEAE. 

16. ARISTIDA L. POVERTY GRASS, WIRE GRASS. 

Spikelets crowded, 4-6 on the short panicle-branches, which are spikelet-bearing 

to the base or nearly so. i. A. fasciculata. 

Spikelets not crowded, usually 1-3, or if more the branches of the panicle or 

their divisions with a long, naked base 

Second glume of the spikelet 1.5 cm. long or less, usually equalling or slightly 
exceeding the flowering glume. 2. A. Fendleriana. 

Second glume of the spikelet 2 cm. long, from more than l / 2 longer than to 
nearly twice as long as the flowering glume. 3. A. longiseta. 

1. Aristida fasciculata Torr. In dry soil from Kans. to Calif, and Tex.; 
also in Mex. Alt. up to 5500 ft. Canon City. 

2. Aristida Fendleriana Steud. (A. purpurea Coult. ; not Nutt.) In dry 
sandy soil from S. D. to Mont., Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Los 
Pinos ; Buena Vista ; South Park ; Salida, Chaffee Co. 

3. Aristida longiseta Steud. In dry soil from 111. to S. D., Wash., Tex. and 
Mex. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Near Boulder ; Trail Glen ; New Windsor, Weld 
Co. ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; Arboles ; Durango ; Ft. Col- 
lins; Colorado Springs; Cucharas Valley; Denver; Pueblo; foot-hills, Lari- 
mer Co.; Palisades; Canon City. 

17. STIPA L. PORCUPINE-GRASS, OAT-GRASS, WILD OATS. 

Outer glumes of the spikelet 2 cm. long or more. 

Awn plumose. i. 5\ neo-mexicana. 

Awn not plumose. 

Base of panicle usually included in upper sheaths; flowering scale 8-12 mm. 

long ; awn slender and curled above. 2. S. comata. 

Base of panicle exserted ; flowering scale over 12 mm. long; awn straight 

above or nearly so. 

Flowering scales 12-15 mm. long. 3. S. Tweedyi. 

Flowering scales 20-25 mm. long. 4. 6". spartea. 

Outer glumes of the spikelets 1.5 cm. long or less. 
Panicle loose and open. 

Awn plumose ; panicle-branches ascending. 5. 5". Porteri. 

Awn not plumose ; panicle-branches diverging or reflexed at maturity. 

6. S. Richardsonii. 
Panicle dense and spike-like. 

Empty glumes scarious or hyaline, the nerves hence prominent. 
Flowering glumes about 5 mm. long, long-hairy towards the apex. 

12. S. Lettermannii. 



24 POACEAE. 

Flowering glumes over 5 mm. long, equally hairy throughout. 

Flowering glumes 5-6 mm. long, spindle-shaped when mature ; callus 

short. 7- S. viridula. 

Flowering glumes 6-7 mm. long, almost cylindric ; callus long and 

pointed. 8. 5. Nelsonii. 

Empty glumes firm, thickish, membranous or herbaceous ; nerves not promi- 
nent. 
Flowering glumes 4-5 mm. long ; leaf-blades very narrow, involute. 

9. S. minor. 
Flowering glumes 8-10 mm. long; leaf-blades broad. 

Panicle slender; stem low and slender. 10. S. Scribneri. 

Panicle stout and dense; stem tall and stout. n. S. Vaseyi. 

1. Stipa neo-mexicana (Thurb.) Scribn. Dry hills from Colo, to N. Mex. 
and Calif. Alt. up to 6000 ft. Colorado Springs. 

2. Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr. On dry plains and hills, especially in sandy 
soil, from Alb. to Alaska, N. Mex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Along the 
Platte River, Denver; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Mancos ; Almeha; Ft. Col- 
lins ; mesas opposite Grand Junction ; Rist Canon ; near Narrows along Pou- 
dre River. 

3. Stipa Tweedyi Scribn. Plains and valleys from Alb. to Wash., Colo. 
and Ariz. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Ft. Collins ; near Badito, between La Veta 
and Gardner; Walsenburg; Arboles; Grayback mining camps; Black Canon 
of the Gunnison ; Chester, Saguache Co. ; Durango ; Mancos ; North Park ; 
Gypsum ; Rist Canon. 

4. Stipa spartea Trin. On prairies from Man. to B. C, Ills, and Colo. 
Reported from Colorado Springs (Porter) ; South Park (Canby, Mehan) ; 
but doubtful. 

5. Stipa Porteri Rydb. (S. Mongolica Porter & Coult. ; not Turcz.) 
Mountains of Colo. Twin Lakes. 

6. Stipa Richardsonii Link. In meadow lands and hillsides from Alb. to 
Mont., S. D. and Colo. Mountains west of Laramie River, Larimer Co. 

7. Stipa viridula Trin. (S. parviflora Americana Schultes) Dry prairies 
and hills from Sask. to Mont., Kans. and Utah. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Gato; 
Columbine; plains, Larimer Co.; Rist Canon. 

8. Stipa Nelsonii Scribner. Dry plains and hills from Ass. to Ida. and 
Colo. Alt. 7500-10,000 ft Near Boulder; hills about Box Canon, west of 
Ouray; Cerro Summit; Idaho Springs; Poncha Pass; Georgetown; Durango; 
West Mancos Canon ; Rist Canon ; Poudre Canon. 

9. Stipa minor (Vasey) Scribn. (S. viridula minor Vasey) Dry hill- 
sides and mountain valleys from Mont, to Utah and N. M. Alt. 8000-12,500 
ft North Park; Twin Lakes; Marshall Pass; Roger's; Cumbres ; Colorado 
Springs; Robinson, Summit Co.; Long Gulch; near Chamber's Lake; Ute 
Pass road; along the Michigan, North Park; Anita Peak, Routt Co. 

10. Stipa Scribneri Vasey. On foot-hills and mountain-sides of Colo, and 
N. M. Alt. 5000-9500 ft Plains and foot-hills near Boulder; Trail Glen; 
Clear Creek Canon, Golden ; near Empire ; Royal Gorge ; Georgetown. 

11. Stipa Vaseyi Scribn. (S. viridula robusta Vasey.) On foot-hills and 
mountain-sides from Colo, to Ida., Tex. and N. M. ; also in Mex. Alt. 5000- 
9000 ft Colorado Springs; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Idaho Springs; foot- 



POACEAE. 25 

hills, Larimer Co.; Pagosa Springs; Manitou ; Twin Lakes; Hardin's ranch; 
Soldier Canon ; gulch west of Soldier Canon ; hills west of Dixon Canon. 
12. Stipa Lettermannii Vasey. Hills and plains from Wyo. and Ida. to 
Colo, and Utah. Manitou. 

18. ORYZOPSIS Michx. MOUNTAIN RICE. 

Spikelets, exclusive of awn, 2.5-4 rnrn- long ; leaves very slender and involute. 
Outer glumes 3-5 mm. long ; inflorescence very narrow with short, erect 

branches. i. O. exigua. 

Outer glumes 2.5 mm. long ; inflorescence at length open with long, often 
spreading or reflexed branches. 2, 0. micrantha. 

Spikelets, exclusive of the awn, 6-8 mm. long ; leaves broad and often flat. 

3. O. asperifolia. 

1. Oryzopsis exigua Thurber. On hillsides from Mont, to Wash., Colo, 
and Ore. Alt. about 8500 ft. Pearl. 

2. Oryzopsis micrantha (Trin. & Rup.) Thurber. On hillsides and among 
bushes, from Ass. to Mont., Neb., N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Estes 
Park; near Badito, between La Veta and Gardner; Georgetown; Arboles; 
Idaho Springs; Durango; Glen Eyrie; Walsenburg; Roaring Fork, Larimer 
Co. 

3. Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. In woods from N. Sc. to B. C, Pa. and 
N. M. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Veta Pass. 

19. ERIOCOMA Nutt. 

Panicle open, dichotomously branched with divergent branches, i. O. cuspidata. 
Panicle narrow, with few spikelets on short, erect branches. 2. O. Webberi. 

1. Eriocoma cuspidata Nutt. (Oryzopsis cuspidata Benth.) On dry bar- 
ren plains, canons and sand-hills from Sask. to Wash., Tex. and Calif. ; also 
Mex. Alt. 4000-9500 ft. Grand Junction ; Black Canon ; Buena Vista ; New 
Windsor. Weld Co.; Arboles; Pueblo; Fort Collins; Mancos; along Platte 
River, Denver; Sangre de Cristo Creek; river bluffs north of La Veta; Wal- 
senburg; Howe's Gulch; Cherokee Hill; hills about Trinidad; Dixon Canon; 
near Fork's Hotel, Manitou; Middle Park. 

2. Eriocoma Webberi Thurber. On desert lands from western Colo, to 
Nev. and Calif. Alt. up to 5500 ft. Grand Junction. 

20. MUHLENBERGIA Schreb. 

Panicle contracted, narrow, spike-like, the short branches rarely spreading. 
Empty glumes awl-shaped ; leafy and branched plants, with long root-stocks 

covered by imbricated scales. 

Flowering glumes not awned, basal hairs not equalling the flowering glume. 
Empty glumes about equalling the flowering glume in length, sharp-pointed, 

about 3 mm. long. i. M. mexicana. 

Empty glumes exceeding the flowering glume, generally twice as long, 

awned, about 5 mm. long. 2. M . racemosa. ^ 

Flowering glumes distinctly awned ; basal hairs equalling the flowering 

glume. 3- M. comata. 

Empty glumes lanceolate to ovate ; plants mostly tufted and leafy at the base, 
only in M. Richardsonis with an elongated, scaly root-stock. 



26 POACEAE. 

Second glume not toothed or slightly so ; flowering glume awnless or rarely 

very short-awned. 

Empty glumes more than half as long as the flowering glume, acuminate. 
Flowering glumes scabrous, green or dark. 

Panicle dense, obtuse, 5-10 mm. wide. 4. M. Wrightii. 

Panicle slender and lax, attenuate at the apex, less than 5 mm. wide. 

5. M. cuspidata. 
Flowering glumes more or less purplish, sparingly long-hairy. 

6. M. Thurberi. 
Empty glumes less than half as long as the flowering glume, obtuse or 

abruptly acute. 
Spikelets (excluding the awn if present) 1.5 mm. or more long. 

Plant with a strong perennial, scaly root-stock. 7. M. Richardsonis. 
Plant annual ; root-stock, if any, very slender. 

Flowering glumes merely awn-pointed, decidedly purplish ; plant 1-2 

dm. high. 
Spikelets 2 mm. long or more ; inflorescence short and rather 

dense ; stem 0.5-1 mm. thick. 8. M. simplex. 

Spikelets about 1.5 mm. long; inflorescence slender and lax; 

stem very slender, filiform. 9. M. filiformis. 

Flowering glumes with a distinct awn y 2 -i mm. long, greenish ; 

plant 4-6 cm. high. 10. M. aristata. 

Spikelets about i mm. long ; plant less than 4 cm. high, annual. 

11. M. IVolfii. 
Second glume sharply 3-s-toothed ; flowering glume long-awned ; awn at 

least l /z as long as the glume. 
Stem 3-6 dm. high, leafy; panicle 7-12 cm. long; awn 8-15 mm. long. 

12. M. gracilis. 
Stem 1-3 high, almost naked above; panicle 5-7 cm. long; awn 1-4 mm. 

long. 
Spikelets 3-4 mm. long ; awn 2-4 mm. ; leaves usually stiff. 

13. M. subalpina. 
Spikelets about 2 mm. long ; awn 1-2 mm. ; leaves filiform. 

14. M. filiculmis. 
Panicle open, its branches long and spreading. 

Plants densely cespitose, branched only at the base. 

Secondary branches of the panicle single ; basal leaves short, strongly re- 
curved. 15. M. gracillitna. 
Secondary branches of the panicle fascicled ; basal leaves not recurved. 

1 6. M. pungens. 
Plants diffusely branched, prostrate. 17. M. Porteri. 

1. Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. In wet meadows and swamps from 
N. B. to N. D., N. C. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. New Windsor, Weld 
Co. ; Rocky Ford ; Fort Collins ; gulch west of Soldier Canon ; Tobe Mil- 
ler's ranch, near La Porte. 

2. Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) B. S. P. (M. glomerata Trin.) In 
wet meadows from Newf. to B. C., N. J., N. M. and Ore. Alt. 4000-10,000 
ft. Colorado Springs ; Cheyenne Mountain ; Engelmann Canon ; vicinity of 
Ouray; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Estes Park, Larimer Co.; Fort Collins; 
Black Canon; Deer Run; Manitou; Middle Park. 

3. Muhlenbergia comata (Thurb.) Benth. In wet soil, especially in sand 
from Mont, to Wash., Kans. and Calif. Alt. 6500-10,000 ft. Mountains near 
Pagosa Peak; Gunnison; Carlton Lake, Grand Co.; Georgetown; Gypsum 
Creek Canon, Eagle Co.; Twin Lakes; Hinsdale Co.; Empire. 

4. Muhlenbergia Wrightii Vasey. In wet places in the mountains of Colo., 



POACEAE. 27 

N. M., Ariz, and Mex. Alt. about 7500 ft. Mountains, Larimer Co. ; La- 
Veta. 

5. Muhlenbergia cuspidata (Torr.) Rydb. (Vilfa cuspidata Torn; Sporo- 
bolus cuspidatus Woods) On dry plains from Man. to Alb., Mo. and Colo. 

Exact locality not given. 

6. Muhlenbergia Thurberi Rydb. (Vilfa filiciihnis Thurber; Sporobolus 
filiculmis Vasey; not Dewey) Canons and dry plains from Colo, to W. 
Tex. and N. M. Alt. up to 9500 ft. Canons west of Ouray. 

7. Muhlenbergia Richardsonis (Trin.) Rydb. (Vilfa Richardsonis Trin. ; 
Sporobolus depauperatus Coulter in part) On prairies and in meadows from 
Anticosti to B. C, N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Arboles ; George- 
town ; Durango ; Mancos ; Gunnison ; Elk River, Routt Co. ; Grizzly Creek ; 
West Mancos Canon ; North Park ; Mountain View, Pike's Peak ; Twin 
Lakes; Colorado Springs; South Park; Alamosa; Como. 

8. Muhlenbergia simplex (Scribn.) Rydb. (Sporobolus simplex Scribn.) 
In meadows and along brooks from Nebr. to Wyo. and N. Mex. Alt. 8000- 
10,000 ft. Georgetown ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; Twin 
Lakes; southeast of Jefferson, South Park; Crystal Park. 

9. Muhlenbergia filiformis (Thurber) Rydb. (Vilfa depauperate filiformis 
Thurber) In wet places from Wyo. and Ore. to Colo, and Calif. Steam- 
boat Springs, Routt Co. 

10. Muhlenbergia aristata Rydb. (Sporobolus aristatus Rydb.) Perhaps 
only a variety of the preceding. In wet places from Wyo. to Utah and Colo. 
Alt. about 8500 ft. Columbine. 

11. Muhlenbergia Wolfii (Vasey) Rydb. (Sporobolus Wolfii Vasey) On 
wet shores in the mountains of Colo. Alt. 9000-10,000 ft. South Park; 
Twin Lakes ; Halfway House. 

12. Muhlenbergia gracilis Trin. On gravelly or sandy soil in the moun- 
tains from Tex. to Colo, and Calif.; also Mexico. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. 
Monument Park; Georgetown; Twin Lakes; Ruxton Dell; canon northeast 
side of Cheyenne Mountain; vicinity of Boulder; Como; Home; Buena Vista; 
Jefferson, South Park; Manitou; Colorado Springs; Cheyenne Canon; Clear 
Creek; Georgetown; Bosworth's ranch, Stove Prairie; gulch west of Sol- 
dier Canon; southeast of Jefferson, South Park; Middle Park; Ute Pass; 
Empire. 

13. Muhlenbergia subalpina Vasey. (M. gracilis breviaristata Vasey) On 
dry hills from Wyo. to N. M. Alt. about 10,000 ft. Estes Park, Larimer 
Co.; Beaver Park; Twin Lakes; Ute Pass; Como. 

14. Muhlenbergia filiculmis Vasey. Perhaps only a depauperate alpine form 
of the preceding. Mountains of Colo. Alt. 8500 ft. Green Mountain Falls; 
Como. 

15. Muhlenbergia gracillima Torr. On plains and foot-hills and in canons 
from Kans. to Colo., Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Huerfano ; Mani- 
tou; Fort Collins; along the Platte River, near Denver; Colorado Springs; 
Twin Lakes ; Timnath ; near Owl Canon. 

16. Muhlenbergia pungens Thurb. BLOW-OUT GRASS. On sand-hills and 
"bad-lands" from Neb. to Utah. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Twin Lakes; Ster- 
ling, Logan Co. 



28 POACEAE. 

17. Muhlenbergia Porteri Scribn. (M. Texana Thurb. ; not Buckl.) On 

hills and plains from Tex. to Colo, and Calif. ; also Mex. Alt. about 6500 
ft. Canon City. 

21. LYCURUS H. B. K. 

i. Lycurus pheoides H. B. K. On dry hillsides from Tex. to Colo, and 
Ariz.; also Mex. Alt. 6000-7500 ft. Garden of the Gods; Meadow Park; 
gulch west of Soldier Canon. 

22. PHLEUM L. TIMOTHY. 

Spikes usually elongated-cylindric ; awns less than l / 2 the length of the outer 
glumes. i. P. pratense. 

Spikes short, ovoid or oblong ; awn about J4 the length of the outer glume. 

2. P. alpinum. 

1. Phleum pratense L. In meadows and waste places, escaped from culti- 
vation from N. Sc. to B. C, Fla. and Calif. Alt. up to 11,000 ft. Pagosa 
Springs ; Alpine Tunnel ; Ruxton Park ; Mancos. 

2. Phleum alpinum L. In mountain meadows from Lab. to Alaska, N. H. 
and Calif. ; also in northern Europe and Asia. Alt. 8500-12,000 ft. Near 
Pagosa Peak ; Dead Lake ; Ruxton Park ; mountains west of Cameron Pass ; 
Chamber's Lake ; LaPlata ; Georgetown ; Seven Lakes ; West Indian Creek ; 
Lake City; Robinson, Summit Co.; Gray's Peak; Beaver Creek; Boreas; 
Hematite; Pike's Peak. 

23. ALOPECURUS L. FOXTAIL. 

Spike elongated-cylindric, 3-7 cm. long : 4-6 mm. in diameter. 

i. A. aristulatus. 
Spike oblong, 2-4 cm. long; 9-12 mm. in diameter. 2. A. occidentalis. 

1. Alopecurus aristulatus Michx. In wet meadows from Me. to Alaska, 
Pa. and Calif. Alt. 4000-11,500 ft. Wahatoya Creek; Colorado Springs; 
Arboles; Laramie River, Larimer Co.; Grizzly Creek; Mancos; Dead Lake; 
vicinity of Boulder ; Manitou ; Twin Lakes ; South Park ; Tobe Miller's 
ranch, near La Porte; Quimby; Barne's Camp; Spring Canon; Soda Creek; 
Poudre Canon ; Hotchkiss ; Table Rock ; Fossil Creek ; along Purgatory 
River, near Trinidad. 

2. Alopecurus occidentalis Scribn. (A. alpinus of Coult. Man.; not L.) 
In wet meadows from Alb. to B. C., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8500-11,000 ft. 
Cameron Pass; Marshall Pass. 

24. PHIPPSIA R. Br. 

i. Phippsia algida R. Br. In arctic-alpine localities from Greenl. to Alaska; 
also in Colo., arctic Europe and Asia. Chicago Lake, near Georgetown. 

25. BLEPHARINEURON Nash. 

i. Blepharineuron tricholepis (Torr.) Nash. (Sporobolits tncholepis 
Torn) Mountain valleys from Colo, to Utah, Tex. and Ariz. ; also Mex. 



POACEAE. 29 

Alt. 6000-12,000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; Ruxton Park; Mount Ouray; Mon- 
tezuma; Ruxton Dell; Ribbon Lake; South Park; Colorado Springs; Minne- 
haha; Hinsdale Co.; Middle Park; southeast of Jefferson, South Park; 
Pagosa Peak. 

26. SPOROBOLUS R. Br. DROPSEED, POVERTY-GRASS, WIRE-GRASS. 

Perennials. 

First glume one-half as long as the second or less ; plant not with long, scaly 

root-stocks. 

Branches of the panicle verticillate. i. 5". argutiis. 

Branches of the panicle scattered. 

Spikelets about 2 mm. long ; first glume lanceolate. 

Sheath naked or sparingly ciliate at the throat ; empty glumes glabrous. 

2. S. airoides. 
Sheath with a conspicuous tuft of hairs at the throat ; empty glumes 

scabrous on the keel. 

Leaf-blades 6 cm. long or less, widely spreading, involute ; sheath 
pubescent with long hairs, at least towards the base. 

3. S. Nealeyi. 
Leaf-blades not widely spreading; sheaths glabrous, except the apex, 

and slightly on the margins. 
Panicle usually more or less included in the sheaths ; its lower 

branches much exceeding the upper ones. 4. S. cryptandrus. 
Panicle always exserted, oblong, comparatively narrow ; its lower 

branches but little, if any, exceeding the upper ones. 

5. S. flexuosus. 
Spikelets 4.5-5 mm. long ; first glume subulate, usually awned. 

6. S. heterolepis. 
First glume almost equalling the second ; plants with long, scaly root-stocks. 

7. S. asperifolius. 
Annuals ; empty glumes almost equal, ovate. 8. 5". confusus. 

1. Sporobolus argutus (Nees) Kunth. On the plains from Kan. to Colo., 
Tex. and Mex. ; also West Indies. Exact locality not given (Vasey}. 

2. Sporobolus airoides Torr. Dry prairies and river-valleys from Neb. to 
Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-11,000 ft Canon City; Marshall Pass; South 
Park; Mancos; Fort Collins; Doyles; Arboles; Colorado Springs; La Porte; 
Palisade, Mesa Co. ; Grand Junction ; Alamosa ; Cottonwood Creek ; Gun- 
nison. 

3. Sporobolus Nealleyi Vasey. In dry places from Tex. to Colo, and N. 
M. Alt. about 7500 ft. Vicinity of Alamosa. 

4. Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray. In sandy soil from Mass, to 
Wash., Pa., Tex., Ariz, and Ore. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Canon City; Empire; 
Manitou; Denver; Deer Run; plains and foot-hills, near Boulder; Colorado 
Springs; Fort Collins; Salida, Chaffee Co.; La Veta; Georgetown; Spring 
Canon ; Poudre Canon ; gulch, west of Soldier Canon. 

5. Sporobolus flexuosus (Thurber) Rydb. (S. cryptandrus ftexuosus Thur- 
ber.) In sandy places from Tex. to Nev. and Mex. Reported from Colo- 
rado, but doubtful. 

6. Sporobolus heterolepis A. Gray. On dry prairies from Que. to Sask., 
Pa. and Colo. Exact locality not given. 

7. Sporobolus asperifolius (Nees & Mey.) Thurber. On dry prairies from 
Ass. to B. C, Mo., Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-7500 ft Cottonwood Creek; 



30 POACEAE. 

Saguache Creek; Fort Collins; Denver; Durango; vicinity of Boulder; Gun- 
nison ; Cottonwood Creek ; Manitou ; Grand Junction. 

8. Sporobolus confusus Vasey. (S. ramulosus of Coult. Man.; not Kunth.) 
In wet, sandy places from Neb. to Mont., Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 
4000-8500 ft. Colorado Springs ; Saguache Creek ; Cimarron ; Minnehaha ; 
Ouray; Gunnison; Piedra; Buena Vista; mountains of Larimer Co.; Twin 
Lakes; Alamosa; vicinity of Fort Collins; Table Rock. 

27. POLYPOGON Desf. BEARD-GRASS. 

i. Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. In waste places from N. H. to 
B. C, S. C. and Calif. Alt. about 5000 ft. Fort Collins; Poudre River. 

28. CINNA L. WOOD REED-GRASS. 

i. Cinna latifolia (Trev.) Griseb. (C. pendula Trin.) In damp woods 
from Newf. to B. C., N. C. and Utah. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Empire; Buffalo 
Pass road, Routt Co. ; Idaho Springs ; Salida. 

29. AGROSTIS L. RED-TOP, HERD-GRASS, TIORIN, BENT-GRASS, HAIR-GRASS, 

TICKLE-GRASS. 

Palet conspicuous, at least one-third as long as the flowering glume. 

Panicle large; branches verticillate ; spikelets about 3 mm. long; stem 3-10 

dm. high. i. A. alba. 

Panicle small and narrow ; branches scattered or in pairs ; spikelets about z 

mm. long ; stem 0.6-3 dm. high. 2. A. depressa. 

Palet minute or wanting. 

Branches of the contracted panicle short, at least some of them spikelet-bearing 
to the base. 3. A. asperifolia. 

Branches of the panicle more slender, naked below. 

Flowering glume awnless or short-awned ; the awn not exceeding the spike- 
let. 

Branches of the panicle filiform, branched far above the middle, at last 
divaricate or reflexed ; plant usually over 3 dm. high. 

4. A. hiemalis. 
Branches short, 1-3 cm. long, ascending; plant 1-3 dm. high. 

5. A. teniiiculmis. 

Flowering glume with a long, bent awn, which exceeds the spikelet by one- 
half. 6. A. canina L. 

1. Agrostis alba L. In wet meadows from Newf. to B. C., Fla. and Calif. ; 
native also of Europe and cultivated. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Gunnison ; Golden ; 
Fort Collins; Engelmann Canon; Georgetown; Ouray; Twin Lakes; Mani- 
to'u ; gulch west of Soldier Cafion ; Baxter's ranch. 

2. Agrostis depressa Vasey. In wet mountain meadows and along brooks 
from Wyo. to Utah and Colo. Alt. 9000-11,000 ft. Georgetown; Beaver 
Creek. 

3. Agrostis asperifolia Trin. (A. exarata Coulter, in part) In wet mead- 
ows from Man. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-10,500 ft. Beaver Creek; 
near Pagosa Peak ; Arboles ; along the Lower Cucharas River ; Twin Lakes ; 
Fort Collins ; gulch west of Soldier Canon. 



POACEAE. 

4. Agrostis hiemalis (Walt.) B. S. P. (A. scabra Willd.) On prairies and 
hills, both in dry and wet soil, from Lab. to Alaska, Fla. and Calif. ; also 
in Mex. Alt. 4000-11,000 ft. Vicinity of Fort Collins; Baxter's ranch; 
Poudre Canon; Twin Lakes; Taylor River; about Ouray; Gunnison; North 
Cheyenne Canon; Ruxton Dell; Pagosa Springs; near Pagosa Peak; near 
Boulder; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Cameron Pass; Estes 
Park; Grand Lake; Hamor's Lake; Grizzly Creek; Georgetown; mountains, 
Larimer Co.; Marshall Pass; Valley and Empire; Veta Pass; Salida; Twin 
Lakes; South Park; Como; gulch west of Soldier Canon; Little Beaver 
Creek; between Graymont and Silver Plume; Steamboat Springs; Rabbit- 
Ear Range. 

5. Agrostis tenuiculmis Nash. (A. tennis Vasey) In mountain meadows 
from Mont, to Wash., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 10,000-11,500 ft. South Park; 
Mt. Elbert; Dead Lake; near Pagosa Peak; summit of North Park Range, 
Routt Co. 

6. Agrostis canina L. Along mountain brooks from Newf. and Alaska 
to Pa., Colo, and Nev. Alt. about 9000 ft. Silver Plume. 

30. CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. REED-GRASS, BLUE-JOINT. 

Awn strongly geniculate, exserted, longer than the empty glumes ; callus-hairs 
much shorter than the flowering glume; panicle dense and spike-like. 

1. C. purpurascens. 

Awn straight or nearly so, included ; callus-hairs not much shorter than the flower- 
ing glume (except in C. scopulorum). 

Panicle open, the lower branches wide-spreading and often drooping ; leaf- 
blades flat ; callus-hairs copious, almost equalling the glume. 
Spikelets 4-6 mm. long ; empty glumes narrow, sharply acuminate ; awn stout, 
attached below the middle, considerably exceeding the glume. 

2. C. Langsdorffii. 
Spikelets 3-4 mm. long, awn attached near the middle, equalling or slightly 

exceeding the glume. 3- C. canadensis. 

Panicle more or less contracted, branches ascending. 
Leaf-blades flat or nearly so. 

Callus-hairs copious, 2 /z as long as the flowering glume or longer. 

Plant cespitose ; empty glumes acute. 9. C. hyperborea elongata. 

Plant not cespitose ; empty glumes long-acuminate. 

4. C. Scribneri. 

Callus-hairs sparse, Y 2 as long as the glume. 5. C. scopulorum. 
Leaf-blades involute. 

Culm and the narrow leaf-blades soft, not rigid ; plant not cespitose. 
Spikelets 2.5-4 mm - l n g ' empty glumes thin, sharp-acuminate. 

6. C. neglect a. 
Spikelets 2 mm. long; empty glumes thickish, barely acutish. 

7. C. micrantha. 
Culm and the usually broader leaf-blades hard, more or less rigid. 

Plant not cespitose, tall ; panicle very long. 8. C. inexpansa. 
Plant strongly cespitose ; panicle short and dense. 

9. C. hyperborea. 

i. Calamagrostis purpurascens R. Br. (Deyeuxia sylvatica Vasey; not 
DC.) On dry, stony hills and alpine table-lands from Greenl. to Alaska. 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6500-12,500 ft. Silver Plume; mountains above Idaho 
Springs; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; South Park; Mt. Ouray; 
Mt. Garfield ; Georgetown ; Front Range, Larimer Co. ; Webster ; Pike's Peak ; 



POACEAE. 

Stove Prairie Hill, Larimer Co.; mountains of Estes Park; Buena Vista; 
Clear Creek ; near Chambers' Lake ; Como ; above Beaver Creek ; Happy 
Hollow; Devil's Causeway; Graymont. 

2. Calamagrostis Langsdorfii (Link.) Trin. (D. Langsdorffii Trin.) In 
wet meadows and open woods from Greenl. to Alaska, N. C. and Calif. 
East of Laramie River, Larimer Co. 

3. Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. (D. Canadensis Munro.) 
In wet thickets and open woods; also in meadows from Lab. to B. C., N. C. 
and Calif. Alt. 4000-11,000 ft. Fremont Co.; Middle Park; near Pagosa 
Peak; Engelmann Canon; Red Mountain, south of Ouray; Alpine Tunnel; 
Georgetown ; Rabbit-Ear Pass ; mountains and canons, west of Palmer Lake ; 
Estes Park; vicinity of Pike's Peak; Gunnison; Buena Vista; Veta Pass; 
vicinity of Ft. Collins ; Table Rock ; Barnes' Camp ; Elk Canon. 

C. canadensis acuminata Vasey is a variety approaching the preceding spe- 
cies, in having larger flowers and more acuminate glumes. It has the same 
range as the species. Alt. 9000-10,000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; Anita Peak. 

4. Calamagrostis Scribneri Beal. In open marshes and wet meadows from 
Alb. to B. C., Colo, and Wash. Alt. about 9000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak. 

5. Calamagrostis scopulorum M. E. Jones. Among rocks in Utah and Colo. 
Alt. about 9000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak. 

6. Calamagrostis neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn. In open meadows from Lab. to 
Alaska, Me. and Colo. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Georgetown ; Ironton Park ; Twin 
Lakes. 

7. Calamagrostis micrantha Kearney. In wet meadows from Ass. to Colo. 
Alt. about 8500 ft. Steamboat Springs. 

8. Calamagrostis inexpansa A. Gray. In wet meadows and swamps from 
N. Y. to Ida., N. J. and Colo. Alt. about 8000 ft Penn's Gulch. 

9. Calamagrostis hyperborea Lange. (D. stricta Am. auth. in part.) On 
sandy shores and among rocks, from Greenl. to Alaska, Vt. and Calif. Alt. 
4000-8500 ft. Clear Creek ; Hamor's Lake ; Georgetown ; Twin Lakes. 

The following varieties are recognized by Kearney : 

C. hyperborea stenodes Kearney, with narrow, strongly involute leaves, nar- 
row panicle and smaller (3-3.5 mm. long), less scabrous empty glumes. In 
swamps from Ass. to Mont, and Colo. Alamosa; South Park. 

C. hyperborea elongata Kearney, with broader, often flattened, leaves and 
large, often interrupted, panicle. In wet meadows and swamps, especially in 
the plain regions, from Ont. to B. C., Colo, and Calif. Veta Pass ; Penn's 
Gulch; Gunnison; Fort Garland. 

C. hyperborea americana (Vasey) Kearney, with shorter, merely acute, 
empty glumes and short dense inflorescence. In meadows and on prairies 
from Vt. to B. C., Colo, and Ore. Breckenridge; Durango. 

31. CALAMOVILFA Hack. REED-GRASS, SAND-GRASS. 

i. Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook) Hack. (Calamagrostis longifolia Hook.) 
On sandy shores and sand-hills, from Ont. and Man. to Ind. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-5000 ft. Tobe Miller's ranch, near La Porte; vicinity of Fort Collins. 



POACEAE. 

Tribe 7. AVENEAE. 

32. DESCHAMPSIA Beauv. HAIRGRASS. 

Empty glumes not extending beyond the apex .of the upper flowering glume ; 

leaves narrow. 
Empty glumes 4-5 mm. long ; awn from half longer than to twice as long as 

the flowering glume. i. D. alpicola. 

Empty glumes 3-4 mm. long. 

Awn about half longer than the flowering glume ; leaves short, almost fili- 
form ; plant 2-3 dm. high. 2. D. curtifolia. 
Awn slightly if at all exceeding the flowering glume ; leaves long and firm ; 

plant usually 3-8 dm. high. 3. D. caespitosa. 

Empty glumes much exceeding the upper flowering glume ; leaves broad. 

4. D. atropurpurea. 

1. Deschampsia alpicola Rydb. (D. caespitosa alpina Vasey; not D. alpina 
R. & S.) In alpine meadows and on slopes, from Colo, to southern Wyo. and 
Utah ; a similar, if not identical, form in Alaska. Alt. 9000-14,000 ft. Bert- 
houd's Pass; Twin Lakes; Pike's Peak; Silver Plume; South Park; near 
Pagosa Peak; East River; Seven Lakes; Mt. Ouray; Georgetown; Cache la 
Poudre, Larimer Co. ; Tennessee Pass ; Dead Lake ; vicinity of Gray's Peak ; 
Clear Creek ; Cameron Pass ; Gray's Peak ; Ethel Peak, Larimer Co. 

2. Deschampsia curtifolia Scribn. (D. brachyphylla Nash, in part.) On 
wet alpine slopes from Mont, to Colo. Alt. 11,000-12,000 ft. Little Kate 
Mine, La Plata Mountains ; crater of Mt. Richtofen. 

3. Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. In wet meadows and swamps from 
Newf. to Alaska, N. J. and Calif. Alt. 7500-11,000 ft. Twin Lakes; George- 
town; Pagosa Springs; Cache la Poudre, Larimer Co.; Hamor's Lake; North 
Park ; Gunnison ; Marshall Pass ; Ruxton Park ; Grizzly Creek ; Steamboat 
Springs; Silver Plume; Pike's Peak; Como; North Park; Deadman Canon; 
near Chambers' Lake; Fort Collins; Barnes' Camp; Ragged Mountains, Gun- 
nison Co. ; Hahn's Peak, Routt Co. ; summit of North Park Range. 

4. Deschampsia atropurpurea (Wahl.) Scheele. In alpine and subarctic 
meadows from Lab. to Alaska, northern N. Y. and Calif. Alt. about 10,000 
ft. Buffalo Pass, near Divide, Routt Co. 

33. TRISETUM Pers. FALSE OATS. 

Leaf-sheaths and blades long-hairy ; upper part at the stem densely pubescent. 

i. T. subspicatum. 
Leaf-sheaths and blades glaborous or the lowest sheath short-pubescent, with 

reflexed hairs ; stem glabrous or slightly scabrous in the inflorescence. 
Inflorescence long, dense, cylindric ; lower empty glume only slightly narrower 
than the upper ; leaf-blades not much broader than the sheaths and without 
conspicuous auricles. 2. T. majus. 

Inflorescence lanceolate, open ; lower empty glume scarcely more than half as 
broad as the upper ; leaf-blades much broader than the sheaths and there- 
fore with conspicuous auricles at the base. 3. T. montanmn. 

i. Trisetum subspicatum (L.) Beauv. (T. subspicatum molle Coult.) On 
mountains and hillsides from Greenl. to Alaska, N. H., Colo, and Calif. ; 
also in northern Europe. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Twin Lakes; Valley Spur; 
Seven Lakes ; Georgetown ; Gray's Peak ; Cameron Pass ; Pike's Peak ; Dead 



34 POACEAE. 

Lake; Windy Point; Ironton, San Juan Co.; Mt. Bartlett; Devil's Causeway; 
mountains above Graymont; along the Michigan, North Park; Ethel Peak, 
Larimer Co. 

2. Trisetum majus (Vasey) Rydb. (T. subspicatum ma for Vasey; T. sub- 
spicatum Coult., mainly; not Beauv.) In meadows and on hillsides from 
Mont, to B. C, Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Below Berthoud's 
Pass; Middle Park; near Pagosa Peak; Mt. Baldy; Pike's Peak; Marshall 
Pass; Cumberland Mine; Ironton, San Juan Co.; Cameron Pass; Idaho 
Springs; Georgetown; Cache la Poudre, Larimer Co.; Upper La Plata; 
Seven Lakes ; North Park ; Trapper's Lake ; near Chambers' Lake ; along 
Michigan, North Park; Ute Pass. 

3. Trisetum montanum Vasey. In moist places, especially among bushes 
from southern Wyo. to N. M. Alt. 7500-10,000 ft. Twin Lakes ; near Pagosa 
Peaks; vicinity of Ouray; Minnehaha; Idaho Springs; Ruxton Creek; Villa 
Grove, Saguache Co. ; Beaver Creek ; Cameron Pass. 

34. GRAPHEPHORUM Desv. 

Empty glumes equal or nearly so, 6-7 mm. long. i. G. muticum. 

Empty glumes unequal ; the lower 3-4 mm. long, the upper 4-5 mm. 

Inflorescence open ; culm minutely pubescent at the nodes ; rachilla short-hairy. 

2. G. Shearii. 
Inflorescence narrow ; culm perfectly glabrous ; rachilla long-hairy. 

3. S. Wolfii. 

1. Graphephorum muticum (Boland.) Scribn. (G. melicoidcs Coult; not 
Beauv.) In wet meadows from Alb. to Wash., Colo, to Calif. Alt. 9000- 
10,500 ft. Near Ironton, San Juan Co. ; Marshall Pass ; headwaters of Pass 
Creek; Cumbres; Barnes' Camp; along Walton Creek; Ute Pass road; 
Cameron Pass. 

2. Graphephorum Shearii (Scribn.) Rydb. (Trisetum argcnteum Scribn.; 
not R. & S. ; T. Shearii Scribn.) Among rocks at an altitude of 9000 ft. 
Las Animas Canon, below Silverton. 

3. Graphephorum Wolfii Vasey. (T. Wolfii Vasey.) In wet places in wil- 
low thickets. Alt. about 10,500 ft. Twin Lakes; Cameron Pass. 

35. AVENA L. OATS, OAT-GRASS. 

Empty glumes shorter than the flowering glumes ; panicle lax, narrow and some- 
what nodding; flowering glume hairy at the base. i. A. striata. 
Empty glumes longer than the flowering glumes. 

Panicle narrow and spike-like, strict; empty glumes 8-14 mm. long; flowering 

glumes hairy only at the base. 

Plant 1-1.5 dm. high; leaves strongly involute; callus of the flowering glume 

and prolongation of the rachilla long-hairy. 2. A. Mortoniana. 

Plant 2-4 dm. high ; leaves mostly flat ; callus and prolongation of the 

rachilla short-hairy. 3. A. americana. 

Panicle open ; empty glume over 2 cm. long ; flowering glumes often hairy up 
to the base of the awn. 4. A. fatua. 

i. Avena striata Michx. In woods from N. B. to B. C., Pa. and Colo. 
Alt. 7000-11,000 ft. Crystal Park; mountains, Larimer Co.; Little Kate Mine, 
La Plata Mountains ; Pennock's mountain ranch. 



POACEAE. 35 

2. Avena Mortoniana Scribn. On mountain tops of Colo. Alt. 13,000- 
14,000 ft. Mountains near Silver Plume; Gray's Peak; Robinson, Summit 
Co.; Cameron Pass; Beaver Creek; Mt. Garfield. 

3. Avena americana Scribn. On ridges and hillsides from Sask. to Alb., 
S. D. and Colo. Alt. about 10,000 ft. Ruxton Dell. 

4. Avena fatua L. WILD OATS. Naturalized from Europe and Asia, in 
grain fields from Minn, to B. C, Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 5000 ft. Fort 
Collins. 

36. DANTHONIA DC. WILD OAT-GRASS. 

Flowering glume pubescent only on the margin and at the base. 

Spikelets on slender, spreading and somewhat drooping pedicels ; stem leafy 
throughout. i. D. californica. 

Spikelet on short erect pedicels in a dense, spike-like inflorescence ; stem 
naked above. 2. D. intermedia. 

Flowering glumes hairy on the back as well as on the margins and base ; in- 
florescence spike-like, with short, erect branches. 

Empty glumes 15-20 mm. long. 3. D. Parry i. 

Empty glumes 10 mm. or less long. 4. D. spicata. 

1. Danthonia californica Bolander. In wet meadows from Mont, to B. C., 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Steamboat Springs; along the Michi- 
gan, North Park; pasture, Walton Creek flats; Arapahoe Pass. 

2. Danthonia intermedia Scribn. In meadows and on mountain slopes from 
Alb. to B. C., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 9000-11,500 ft. Silverton; Red Dirt 
Divide, Routt Co. ; Middle Park ; Dead Lake ; near Pagosa Peak ; Ruxton 
Dell; Rabbit-Ear Pass; Marshall Pass. 

3. Danthonia Parryi Scribn. In mountain valleys from Alb. to N. M. 
Alt. 8500-10,000 ft. Twin Lakes ; Empire City ; South Park ; Chicken Creek, 
west of Mt. Hesperus ; Bear Creek Canon ; Georgetown ; Ute Pass ; Ruxton 
Dell; Dillon. 

4. Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. In dry soil from Newf. to B. C., N. C., 
La. and Colo. Alt. about 6500 ft. North Cheyenne Canon. 

Tribe 8. CHLORIDEAE. 

37. SPARTINA Schreb. MARSH-GRASS, CORD-GRASS. 

First glume awn-pointed, equalling the third ; second glume long-awned. 

1. S. cynosuroides. 
First glume acute, shorter than the third ; second glume acute. 

2. S. gracilis. 

1. Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Willd. In swamps and streams from N. S. 
to Mackenzie River, N. J., Tex. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Near Boulder; 
Fort Collins ; Tobe Miller's ranch ; Poudre Canon. 

2. Spartina gracilis Trin. In saline or alkaline meadows from Sask. to 
B. C., Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Grand Junction; Sagauche Creek; 
Canon City. 

38. BECKMANNIA Host. SLOUGH-GRASS. 

i. Beckmannia erucaeformis (L.) Host. In swamps and wet meadows 
from Ont. to Alaska, Iowa, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Gunnison ; 



36 POACEAE. 

Wahatoya Creek; Middle Park; near Denver; Trimble Springs; North 
Park; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Saguache Creek; Fort Collins; Chambers' 
Lake ; Larimer Co. ; Fort Collins. 

39. SCHEDONARDUS Steud. WILD CRAB-GRASS. 

i. Schedonardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trelease. (S. Tex anus Steud.) 
In sandy soil, especially on river-banks from 111. and Man. to Ass., Tex. and 
N. M. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Vicinity of Boulder; New Windsor, Weld Co.; 
Fort Collins ; Colorado Springs ; vicinity of Pike's Peak ; Arboles ; Denver. 

40. BOUTELOUA Lag. GRAMA, MESQUIT-GRASS. 

Spikelets usually more than one ; cespitose perennials. 

Awns manifestly arising from between the lobes of the flowering glumes. 

i. B. polystachya. 
Awns terminating the lobes of the flowering glumes. 

Stem densely villous below. 2. B. eriopoda. 

Stem glabrous. 

Rachilla bearing the rudimentary glumes and awns glabrous ; second glume 

strongly papillose-hispid on the keel. 3. B. hirsuta. 

Rachilla bearing the rudimentary glumes and awns with a tuft of long 
hairs at the apex ; second glume scabrous and sparingly long-ciliate on 
the keel. 4. B. oligostachya. 

Spikelet solitary ; tufted annual. 5. B. prostrata. 

1. Bouteloua polystachya (Benth.) Torr. In river-valleys from Tex. to 
Calif. San Juan and Mancos Valleys (Brandegee). 

2. Bouteloua eriopoda Torr. In dry soil from Tex. to Calif. San Juan 
Valley (Brandegee). 

3. Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. On plains and prairies, especially in sandy soil, 
from 111. and Minn, to S. D., Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Vicinity of 
Boulder; Twin Lakes; Manitou; Colorado Springs; Meadow Park. 

4. Bouteloua oligostachya (Nutt.) Torr. On plains and prairies from Wis. 
and Man. to Ass., Miss, and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Vicinity 
of Boulder; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Buena Vista; Fort Collins; Denver; 
Mancos ; Durango ; Fort Morgan ; Georgetown ; Walsenburg ; Gunnison ; Col- 
orado Springs ; Twin Lakes ; Fort Garland ; between Ft. Collins and La 
Porte; Alamosa; Poudre Canon ; Baxter's ranch; prairie near Long Lake; 
Rocky Ford. 

5. Bouteloua prostrata Lag. Plains and hills from Tex. to Colo, and Ariz. ; 
also in Mex. Alt. 7500-8500 ft. Colorado Springs; vicinity of Ouray; 
Manitou. 

41. ANTHEROPOGON Muhl. 

i. Antheropogon curtipendulus (Michx.) Fourn. (Bouteloua racemosa 
Lag.) On hillsides, in canons and dry valleys from Ont. to N. D., N. J., 
Tex. and Ariz.; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Vicinity of Boulder; Mani- 
tou; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Meadow Park; Durango; Walsenburg; Fort 
Collins; Colorado Springs; gulch west of Soldier Canon; Poudre Canon. 



POACEAE. 37 

42. LEPTOCHLOA Beauv. 

i. Leptochloa mucronata (Michx.) Kunth. In fields from Va. to Colo., 
Fla. and Calif. Locality not given (Letterman). 

43. BULBILIS Raf. BUFFALO-GRASS. 

i. Bulbilis dactyloides (Nutt.) Raf. (Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.) 
On prairies and plains from Minn, to N. D., Wyo., Ark. and N. Mex. ; also 
Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Vicinity of Boulder; New Windsor, Weld Co.; 
plains near Denver; Fossil Creek, Larimer Co.; Fort Collins; Quimby; 
Spring Canon. 

Tribe 9. FESTUCEAE. 

44. SCHLEROPOGON Phillippi. 

i. Schleropogon brevifolius Phillippi. On rocky ridges from Tex. to Colo, 
and Ariz. Alt. about 5000 ft. Pueblo. 

45. PHRAGMITES Trin. REED. 

i. Phragmites Phragmites (L.) Karst. (P. communis Trin.) In lakes 
and swamps from Newf. to B. C., Fla. and Calif. ; also in Mex., W. Ind., 
Europe and Asia. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Hotchkiss, Delta Co.; LaSalle; Deer 
Run ; Loveland, Larimer Co. ; along lower Cucharas River. 

46. MUNROA Torr. FALSE BUFFALO-GRASS. 

i. Munroa squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr. On dry plains from N. D. to Ass., 
Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Boulder City ; Fort Collins ; plains near 
Denver ; Manitou ; Black Canon ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; near Golden ; 
Idaho Springs; Colorado Springs; Salida; valley north of Georgetown; gulch 
west of Soldier Canon; Florence; Boulder; Lafayette. 

47. TRIPLASIS Beauv. SAND-GRASS. 

i. Triplasis purpurea (Walt.) Chapm. On sandy beaches from Out. to 
Neb., Fla. and Tex. Locality not given (Hall and Harbour). 

48. DASYOCHLOA Willd. 

i. Dasyochloa pulchella (H. B. K.) Willd. (Triodia pulchella Willd.) 
On hills and plains from Wyo. to Tex. and Calif. ; also in Mex. San Juan 
Valley (Brandcgee}. 

49. ERIONEURON Nash. 

i. Erioneuron pilosum (Buckley) Nash. (Triodia acnminata Benth.) In 
dry, gravelly soil from Kans. to Colo., Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. 
Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co. ; Delta ; Grand Junction ; Canon City ; 
Pueblo; Royal Gorge; dry mesas, 9 miles above Delta. 



38 POACEAE. 

50. TRIDENS R. & S. 

Second empty glume i-nerved. i. T. muticus. 

Second empty glume 3-s-nerved. 2. T. elongates. 

i. Tridens muticus (Torr.) Nash. (Triodia mutica Benth.) On dry hills 
from Tex. to Colo, and Ariz.; also northern Mex. Canon City (Porter}. 

z. Tridens elongatus (Buckley) Nash. On plains and prairies from Tex. 
to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. about 5500 ft. Pueblo; Canon City. 

51. DIPLACHNE Beauv. 

i. Diplachne acuminata Nash. In wet places from Ark. to Neb. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-5500 ft. New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Canon City. 

52. REDFIELDIA Vasey. 

i. Redfieldia flexuosa (Thurb.) Vasey. (Graphcphorum fle.vuosum Thurb.) 
In sand-hills from S. D. to Ind. Terr, and Tex. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Sterling, 
Logan Co. ; Fort Garland. 

53. KOELERIA Pers. PRAIRIE-GRASS, JUNE-GRASS. 

i. Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. On prairies and plains from Ont. to B. C, 
Pa. and Calif. A very variable species and perhaps a composite one. The 
form common in the Rocky Mountain region has narrow, involute, glabrous 
or puberulent leaves and narrow panicle, and has been described under the 
name K. nitida Nutt. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Middle Park; Pagosa Springs; 
vicinity of Boulder; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Arboles; Gunnison; Sangre de 
Cristo Creek; Golden; Twin Lakes; Mancos; Crystal Park; Minnehaha; 
Cimarron ; vicinity of Ouray; near Pike's Peak; Stove Prairie Hill, Larimer 
Co.; La Veta; Manitou ; North Park; Happy Hollow; Hotchkiss; Horse- 
tooth Gulch ; Table Rock ; Manitou Junction ; Dixon Canon ; hills about 
Dolores ; dry hills along Trail Creek ; Como ; Grizzly Creek ; Fort Collins ; 
Hardin's ranch ; Willow Creek, Routt Co. 

54. ERAGROSTIS Beauv. SKUNK-GRASS, STINK-GRASS. 

Culm often decumbent at the base, much branched, 1-5 dm. high ; annuals ; 

panicle green. 
Spikelets 1.5 mm. or less wide ; palet remaining attached to the continuous 

rachis, after the flowering glume has fallen. i. E. Purshii. 

Spikelets 2.5-5 mm. wide ; palet falling with the flowering glume and the inter- 
nodes of the rachis. 2. E. major. 
Culm erect, rigid, simple ; perennial ; panicle purple. 3. E. pectinacea. 

1. Eragrostis Purshii Schrad. In dry or sandy places from Ont. to Wash., 
Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Alamosa, Conejos Co.; Canon City, Fre- 
mont Co. ; along the river, Ft. Collins. 

2. Eragrostis major Host. (E. poacoidcs megastachya A. Gray.) Natural- 
ized from Europe, in waste places and fields from Ont. to Wash., Fla. and 
Calif. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Vicinity of Boulder; Longmont; New Windsor, 
Weld Co. ; Canon City, Fremont Co. ; Cheyenne Mountain ; Tobe Miller's 
ranch ; near Ft. Collins. 



POACEAE. 39 

3. Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Steud. In sandy soil from Mass, and 
S. D. to Fla., Tex. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Meadow Park. 

55. CATABROSA Beauv. WATER WHORL-GRASS. 

i. Catabrosa aquatica (L.) Beauv. In water, where it is often floating, 
from Lab. to Alaska, Nebr., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 5000-9500 ft. Sangre de 
Cristo Creek; Rabbit-Ear Pass; Fort Collins; Breckenridge ; near Gray's 
Peak; gulch west of Pennock's. 

56. EATONIA Raf. 

Second empty glume much wider than the flowering glumes, rounded or truncate 

and somewhat cucullate at the apex. 

Intermediate nerves of the second glume almost as prominent as the lateral 
ones ; leaf-blades firm, much broader than the sheaths and therefore with 
prominent auricles. i. E. robusta. 

Intermediate nerves of the second glume faint, the lateral strong ; leaf-blades 
soft, not much wider than the sheaths ; auricles not prominent. 

2. E. obtusata. 
Second empty glume not much wider if at all than the flowering glumes, obtuse 

or acute. 
Second empty glumes rather firm, as well as the flowering glumes obtusish. 

3. E. intermedia. 

Second empty glume thin and with a broad, scarious margin, acutish ; flower- 
ing glumes acute. 4. E. pennsylvanica. 

1. Eatonia robusta (Vasey) Rydb. (E. obtusata robusta Vasey.) On 
river-banks from Neb. to Wash., N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Vicin- 
ity of Boulder; Rocky Ford. 

2. Eatonia obtusata (Michx.) A. Gray. In meadows from Mass, to Mont, 
Fla. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. About Boulder ; Manitou ; gulch west of 
Soldier Canon ; near Timnath ; Fort Collins ; Hotchkiss, Delta Co. 

3. Eatonia intermedia Rydb. In meadows from Alb. to Colo. Alt. 5000- 
8000 ft. Pagosa Springs ; Durango ; Gunnison. 

4. Eatonia pennsylvanica (DC.) A. Gray. In open woods and among 
bushes from N. B. to B. C, Ga. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Vicinity of 
Pike's Peak ; Arboles ; Pagosa Springs ; Alamosa. 

57. MELICA L. MELIC-GRASS. 

Stem not bulblike-thickened at the base. i. M. parviflora. 

Stem bulblike-thickened at the base. 

Second empty glume much shorter than the flowering glume of the lowest 
flower ; spikelets flattened. 2. M. spectabilis. 

Second empty glume about equalling the flowering glume of the lowest flower ; 
spikelets terete or nearly so. 3. M. bulbosa. 

i. Melica Porteri Scribn. (M. parviflora (Porter) Scribn.) On hillsides 
and in canons, especially among bushes, from Neb. to Colo., Tex. and Ariz. 
Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Cheyenne Canon ; mountains near Pagosa Peak ; Engel- 
mann Canon; vicinity of Ouray; Idaho Springs; Glen Eyrie; Upper La 
Plata; vicinity of Pike's Peak; Black Canon; Manitou; vicinity of Pine 
Grove. 



40 POACEAE. 

2. Melica spectabilis Scribn. In meadows from Mont, to Wash., Colo, and 
Oregon. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Honnold; North Park; foot of Mt. Richtofen, 
on the Michigan; mountain west of Cameron Pass. 

3. Melica bulbosa Geyer. In meadows and on hillsides from Mont, to 
Wash., Colo., Utah and Ore. Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. ; Glenwood Springs, 
Garfield Co. Osterhout's specimens (somewhat undeveloped) have unusually 
broad leaves and may belong to the closely related M. calif arnica Scribn. 

58. DACTYLIS L. ORCHARD-GRASS. 

i. Dactylis glomerata L. Cultivated and naturalized from Europe ; in fields 
and waste places from N. B. to Wash., Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. 
Cucharas River, below La Veta ; Chicken Creek ; Veta Pass, Costilla Co. ; 
Fort Collins. 

59. BRIZA L. QUAKING-GRASS. 

i. Briza maxima L. Introduced ornamental grass, and escaped along irri- 
gation ditches. Alt. about 7500 ft. Gunnison. 

60. DISTICHLIS Raf. SALT-GRASS, MARSH SPIKE-GRASS. 

i. Distichlis stricta (Torr.) Rydb. (D. maritima stricta Thurber.) In 
salt marshes from Sask. to Wash., Mo., Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. 
Grand Junction ; Deer Run ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; near Denver ; Fort 
Collins; Saguache Creek; Alamosa; Pueblo; Rocky Ford. 

61. POA L. BLUE-GRASS, MEADOW-GRASS, BUNCH-GRASS. 

Annuals. I. ANNUAE. 

Perennials. 

Cobweb at the base of the flowers present, although in some species scant ; 
flowering glume acute (except in P. compressa), and usually strongly 
keeled ; plants with horizontal rootstocks, never true bunch-grasses. 
Intermediate nerves of the flowering glumes strong. 

Inflorescence with numerous many-flowered spikelets ; its branches in fruit 
ascending ; the lower in 3*5 or 4*3 ; flowering glumes acutish ; cobweb 
copious. II. PRATENSES. 

Inflorescence with usually few-flowered spikelets ; its branches reflexed or 

spreading in fruit ; flowering glumes very acute. 
Spikelets few and usually purplish ; branches of the inflorescence few, 

solitary or in pairs, only in P. callichroa in 3's. III. REFLEXAE. 
Spikelets many, green ; branches of the inflorescence many ; the lower 
often in 3*5 or 4*5. IV. PLATYPHYLLAE. 

Intermediate veins of the flowering glumes faint or obsolete. 

Stem compressed ; panicles narrow, open. V. COMPRESSAE. 

Stem not compressed. 

Branches of the panicles reflexed. VI. APERTAE. 

Branches of the large panicle not reflexed. 

Flowers green ; nerves of the empty glumes strong ; meadow species 

with flaccid leaves. VII. SEROTINAE. 

Flowers more or less purplish ; nerves of the empty glumes usually 

faint ; hill species with rather stiff leaves. VIII. RUPICOLAE. 
Cobweb at the base of the flowers none. 



POACEAE. 41 

Spikelets rounded at the base ; 'empty glumes very broad and their backs 
strongly arched ; low, somewhat tufted plants, with short but open panicle 
and broad leaves. IX. ALPINAE. 

Spikelets acute at the base ; empty glumes narrower and not strongly arched 

on the back. 
Flowering glumes 3-4 mm. long ; low alpine plants with few, more or less 

purplish spikelets. 

Branches of the inflorescence ascending. VIII. RUPICOLAE. 

Branches of the inflorescence spreading or reflexed. (P. alpicola in) 

III. REFLEXAE. 

Flowering glumes. 5 mm. or more ; plants comparatively tall or robust. 
Spikelets decidedly flattened ; flowering glumes acute. 

Nerves and inter-nerves more or less hairy, at least below ; flowers 

perfect. 

Inflorescence open ; plants with horizontal rootstocks ; innovations 
(i. e., new shoots) extra-vaginal (except in P. pseudopratensis). 
Intermediate nerves of the flowering glumes faint ; spikelets pur- 
plish. X. PHOENICEAE. 
Intermediate nerves of the flowering glumes strong ; spikelets 
green or slightly purple-tinged. XL WHEELRIANAE. 
Inflorescence narrow ; plants more or less tufted, without creeping 

rootstock. 
Leaves not filiform ; innovations mostly extra-vaginal. 

XII. EPILES. 

Leaves filiform ; plant true bunch-grasses with intra-vaginal inno- 
vations. XIII. FILIFOLIAE. 
Nerves of the flowering glumes villous, but the inter-nerves glabrous ; 
plants dioecious ; bunch-grasses with intra-vaginal innovations. 

XIV. FENDLERIANAE. 

Spikelets only slightly flattened ; flowering glumes narrow, nearly straight 
on the back, rounded at the apex ; bunch-grasses with narrow panicles 
and intra-vaginal innovations. XV. BUCKLEYANAE. 

I. ANNUAE. 

Low, 1-2 dm. high; branches of the panicle spreading. i. P. annua. 

Taller, erect, 2-5 dm. high ; branches of the panicle erect. 2. P. Bigelovii. 

II. PRATENSES. 

One very variable species. 3- P- pratensis. 

III. REFLEXAE. 

Cobweb present but scant. 

Internerves of the flowering glumes more or less pubescent, at least below. 
Spikelets 3-4-flowered ; stem-leaves usually folded or involute; plant usually 

less than 3 dm. high. 
Internerves of the flowering glumes short-pubescent below ; leaves filiform, 

involute ; those of the sterile shoots usually arcuate. 4. P. cenisia. 
Internerves of the flowering glumes long-hairy ; leaves 1-2 mm. wide, usu- 
ally conduplicate, rather firm. 5- P- arctica. 
Spikelets s-7-flowered; leaves all flat, 3-4 mm. wide; stem fully 3 dm. high. 

6. P. callichroa. 
Internerves of the flowering glumes glabrous. 

Intermediate nerves of the flowering glumes pubescent ; plant 3 dm. or less 
high ; leaves mostly basal, firm ; stemleaves 1-2, usually conduplicate. 

7. P. pudica. 
Intermediate nerves of the flowering glumes glabrous; plant usually over 

3 dm. high ; stemleaves several, flat and flaccid. 
Hairs of the mid-nerves and lateral nerves copious and spreading. 

8. P. refle.ra. 



42 POACEAE. 

Hairs of the mid-nerves and lateral n'erves few and appressed or none. 

9. P. leptocoma. 

Cobweb lacking ; internerves and the intermediate nerves glabrous ; mid-nerves 
and lateral nerves hairy; habit like P. arctica. 10. P. alpicola. 

IV. PLATYPHYLLAE. 
One species. n. P. platyphylla. 

V. COMPRESSAE. 

One species. 12. P. couipressa. 

VI. APERTAE. 

Branches of the inflorescence short, usually in pairs. 13. P. aperta. 

Branches of the inflorescence very long, in 3's to s's. 14. P. macroclada. 

VII. SEROTINAE. 

Stem stout ; leaves 2-5 mm. wide ; ligule 3-4 mm. long, triangular ; branches of 
the panicle at last spreading ; second glume narrower than the flowering glumes, 
% as long or more. 15. P. serotina. 

Stem slender ; leaves seldom over 2 mm. wide ; ligule about i mm. long, truncate ; 
branches of the panicle ascending ; second glume as wide as the flowering 
glumes and 2 /$ as long. 

Flowers green ; empty glumes, especially the second, with broad, scarious mar- 
gins and strong lateral nerves. 16. P. interior. 
Flowers usually purple-tinged ; scarious margin of the empty glumes scarcely 
evident and lateral nerves faint. 17. P. crocata. 

VIII. RUPICOLAE. 

Mid-nerve and lateral nerves of the flowering glumes pubescent ; plant strict, 1-5 

dm. high. 

Empty glumes shorter than the flowering glumes ; their lateral nerves indis- 
tinct. 
Cobweb at the base of the flowers scant ; stem slender and leafy, usually 3-5 

dm. high. 17. P. crocata. 

Cobweb none; stem 1-2 (seldom 3) dm. high, leafy mostly at the base. 
Flowering glumes 3 mm. long or less, firm, obtuse. 18. P. rupicola. 
Flowering glumes about 4 mm. long, acute, thin. 19. P. Pattersonii. 

Empty glumes equalling or longer than the flowering glumes, i. e., their tips 
almost as high as the tip of the subtended flowers ; their lateral nerves more 
prominent. 20. P. Grayana. 

Nerves of the flowering glumes glabrous ; plant seldom over 5 cm. high. 

21. P. Lettennanii. 
IX. ALPINAE. 

One species. 22. P. alpina. 

X. PHOENICEAE. 

One species. 23. P. phoenicea. 

XI. WHEELERIANAE. 

Leaf-sheaths retrorsely stigose. 

Internerves of the very acute flowering glumes merely strigulose or scabrous. 
Nerves scabrous. 24. P. Wheeleri. 

Nerves silky or villous on the lower portion. 25. P. Vaseyana. 

Internerves as well as nerves of the obtusish flowering glumes villous at least 

below. 26. P. tricholepis. 

Leaf-sheaths glabrous. 

Internerves of the lanceolate flowering glumes scabrous or strigulose ; innova- 
tions very few and consisting of wholly extravaginal runners. 

27. P. occidentalis. 



POACEAE. 43 

Internerves of the ovate flowering glumes pubescent ; innovation several, both 
extra- and intra-vaginal. 28. P. pseudopratensis. 

XII. EPILES. 

Flowering glumes about 5 mm. long, strongly purple-tinged, but slightly scabrous ; 
stem-leaves broad. 29. P. subpurpurea. 

Flowering glumes about 4 mm. long or less, usually greenish or slightly purple ; 
stem-leaves narrow. 30. P. epilis. 

XIII. FILIFOLIAE. 

One species. 31. P. nematophylla. 

XIV. FENDLERIANAE. 

Ligules 5-7 mm. long, acute or acuminate. 32. P. longiligula. 

Ligules short, rounded or truncate at the apex ; those of the innovations obso- 
lete. 

Panicle very narrow and long-peduncled, contracted. 33. P. longipedunculata. 
Panicle more open at least in anthesis. 

Flowering glumes narrowly oblong ; leaves very slender and rough. 

34. P. scabrinscula. 
Flowering glumes ovate. 

Panicle very short ; plant low ; leaves smooth below, scabrous above. 

35. P. brevipaniculata. 
Panicle longer ; plant 3-6 dm. high ; leaves scabrous below, hispid-puberu- 

lent above. 36. P. Fendleriana. 

XV. BUCKLEYANAE. 

Internerves of the flowering glumes glabrous ; nerves silky. 

Plant low ; leaves stiff, involute and often arcuate. 40. P. juncifolia. 

Plant tall ; leaves broad and flat. 37. P. glancifolia. 

Internerves of flowering glumes more or less scabrous or strigose. 
Flowering glumes merely scabrous throughout. 

Empty glumes strongly nerved, elongated lanceolate, almost equalling the 
oblong, very scabrous flowering glumes ; leaves usually broad (2-3 mm.) 
and flat ; ligules lanceolate, acute. 38. P. nevadensis. 

Empty glumes not strongly nerved, ovate-lanceolate, usually much shorter 

than the flowering glumes, which are broader and less scabrous. 
Ligules narrowly lanceolate, 3-4 mm. long, acuminate ; stem-leaves very 

narrow and involute. 39. P. laevigata. 

Ligules short, 1-2 mm. long, triangular or broadly ovate and acutish or 

truncate. 
Plant 2-4 dm. high ; leaves mostly basal and stiff, short, seldom 8 cm. 

long ; ligules rounded. 40. P. juncifolia. 

Plant 4-10 dm. high, leafy throughout; leaves longer. 
Ligules ovate or rounded, acute or obtuse ; leaves soft. 

41. P. con f lisa. 

Ligules very short, truncate ; leaves rather firm. 42. P. truncata. 

Flowering glumes more or less strigose on the lower portion, scabrous above. 

Flowering glumes not longer than the empty glumes, ovate ; pubescence much 

longer on the nerves. 43. P. pratericola. 

Flowering glumes oblong, longer than the empty glumes ; pubescence on the 

nerves scarcely stronger than that on the internerves. 
Ligules ovate or rounded, obtuse or acutish. 41. P. confusa. 

Ligules lanceolate, acuminate. 

Plant yellowish green ; leaves all filiform, soft and usually involute. 

44. P. lucida. 
Plant dark green, leaves broader, flat or conduplicate ; at least those of 

the stem firm. 

Creeping rootstock none ; panicle dense ; flowering glumes greenish 
at the base and purple above ; leaves usually narrow and con- 
duplicate. 45. P. Buckleyana. 



44 POACEAE. 

Creeping rootstock often present ; panicle narrow and usually lax ; 
flowering glumes if at all purplish only slightly so at the very tip ; 
leaves flat. 46. P. Sheldonii. 

1. Poa annua L. In waste and cultivated places, from Lab. and B. C. to 
Ga. and Calif. ; also in Mex. Naturalized from Europe. Alt. up to 9000 ft. 
Hamor's Lake, north of Durango. 

2. Poa Bigelovii V. & S. From Tex. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. up to 6000 
ft. " Colorado," locality not given ; Colorado Springs ; along Purgatoire 
River, near Trinidad. 

3. Poa pratensis L. In meadows from Lab. and Alaska to Fla. and Calif. ; 
also native of Europe and Asia. Alt 4000-11,500 ft. Mountains northeast of 
Dolores; Fort Collins; Marshall Pass; Manitou; Villa Grove; Beaver Creek; 
Dead Lake; Crystal Park; mountains near Pagosa Peak; vicinity of Ouray; 
Cameron Canon ; Pagosa Springs ; Happy Hollow ; Cucharas Valley, near La 
Veta; Sangre de Cristo Creek; La Plata Canon; Parrott City; Pass Creek; 
Cascade Canon; Quimby; along Conejos River, north of Antonito. 

4. Poa cenisia All. (Poa flcxuosa Wahl.) In wet places in arctic or alpine 
regions from Greenl. to Alaska; also in Colo. Alt. about 10,500 ft. Moun- 
tains near Pagosa Peak. 

5. Poa arctica R. Br. In wet places in arctic or alpine regions along the 
arctic coast and Alaska, the Canadian Rockies and Colo. Alt. 11,000-14,000 
ft. Gray's Peak; Mt. Bartlett; Saddle, Pike's Peak; mountains near Pagosa 
Peak ; Chambers' Lake. 

6. Poa callichroa Rydb. On alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. about 11,500 ft. 
Dead Lake ; Campton's Ranch. 

7. Poa pudica Rydb. (P. arctica Scribn. ; in part.) In wet places in alpine 
or subalpine Colo. Alt. 11,000-13,000 ft High mountains about Empire; 
near Pagosa Peak; Stephen's Mine. 

8. Poa reflexa V. & S. In wet meadows from Mont and Ore. to N. M. 
Alt. 8000-13,000 ft. Twin Lakes ; Seven Lakes ; Silver Plume ; high moun- 
tains about Empire; Cameron Pass; Marshall Pass; near Teller, North Park; 
Upper La Plata River ; near Pagosa Peak ; Democrat Mountain ; headwaters 
of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Pass Creek; near Ironton, San Juan Co.; Cham- 
bers' Lake; Ute Pass road; Four-Mile Hill. 

9. Poa leptocoma Bong. In wet meadows from Mont, and Alaska to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 8500-12,500 ft. Villa Grove; Pike's Peak Valley; chaparrel- 
covered hills southeast of Ouray; near Pagosa Peak; Columbine; Chicken 
Creek; Upper La Plata River; Ruby; Beaver Creek; Cameron Pass; Little 
Kate Mine, La Plata Mountains. 

10. Poa alpicola Nash. (Poa laxa Thurb.) In wet places on the alpine 
peaks of Colo, and Utah; perhaps also Calif. Alt. 11,500-13,000 ft. Long's 
Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine ridges east of Middle Park; 
Bottomless Pit, near Pike's Peak; top of Mt Hayden; Estes Park; Gray's 
Peak. 

11. Poa platyphylla Nash & Rydb. (Poa occidentalis Vasey.) Along 
mountain streams of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 7000-10,500 ft. Near Pagosa 
Peak; Veta Pass; Cucharas River, near La Veta; Ojo; Wahatoya Canon; 
headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Bob Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus; 



POACEAE. 45 

Beaver Creek; Horsetooth Gulch; Howe's Gulch; Happy Hollow; Brantly 
Canon; Rabbit-ears, Larimer Co. 

12. Poa compressa L. In woodlands, among bushes and in cultivated places 
from N. H. and B. C. to N. C. and Calif. Alt. up to 9500 ft. Veta Pass, 
Costilla Co. 

13. Poa aperta Scribn. In the mountains of Colo. Telluride; about 
Ouray; Breckenridge. 

14. Poa macroclada Rydb. Mountains of Colo. Alt. about 9000 ft 
Rogers. 

15. Poa serotina Ehr. In wet meadows and swamps from Newf. and B. C. 
to N. J. and Calif. ; also in Europe. Alt. 4000-9500 ft. New Windsor, Weld 
Co.; plains and foot-hills, near Boulder; Mountain View; Fort Collins; gulch 
west of Soldier Canon ; along Poudre River. 

16. Poa interior Rydb. (Poa nemoralis Am. auth. ; in part.) In wet mead- 
ows from the Canadian Rockies and Wash, to N. Mex. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft 
Fort Collins; Ute Pass; Twin Lakes; Estes Park; South Park; Marshall 
Pass; Beaver Creek; Stove Prairie Hill; hills about Box Canon, west of 
Ouray ; Cerro Summit ; Andrew's Shetland ranch ; La Plata Canon ; canon 
west of Pennock's ranch, near Ft. Collins ; Table Rock ; foot of Mt Rich- 
tofen, on Michigan River ; Hotchkiss ; mountains northeast of Dolores. 

17. Poa crocata Mich. (P. caesia strictior A. Gray, and P. nemoralis 
Am. auth.; in part.) On hills and dryer meadows from Lab. and Alaska to 
Vt, Minn, and Ariz. Alt. 5000-13,000 ft. Fort Collins; Happy Hollow; 
near Narrows; Mount Baldy; Barnes' Camp; foot of Mt. Richtofen, North 
Park; South Park; Ruxton Creek; Robinson, Summit Co.; headwaters of 
Clear Creek and alpine ridges east of Middle Park; near Georgetown; in 
valley near Empire ; mountains near Pagosa Peak ; Gentian Ridge ; West 
Spanish Peak; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Graymont; Gunni- 
son; Cameron's Cone; Crystal Park; Marshall Pass; Anita Peak; Willow 
Creek, Routt Co. 

18. Poa rupicola Nash. (Poa rupcstris Vasey.) On the mountains from 
Mont, and Ore. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 11,500-13,000 ft. South Park; 
Gray's Peak; Silver Plume; Pike's Peak; Seven Lakes; near Pagosa Peak. 

A form with more hairy glumes has been collected at the following locali- 
ties : near Manitou ; Little Kate Mine, La Plata Mountains ; mountain near 
Veta Pass; mountain meadows, Pike's Peak; Cameron Pass, above timber 
line. 

19. Poa Pattersonii Vasey. On the mountain peaks of Colo, and Ariz. 
Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. South Park; headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine 
ridges east of Middle Park; summit of Mt Garfield; West Spanish Peak; 
east of Cameron Pass, above timber line; mountains above Beaver Creek; 
Como Pass, above timber line. 

20. Poa Grayana Vasey. On the mountains of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. about 
13,000 ft. Pike's Peak: Peak Slope; Saddle; Devil's Causeway; Cameron 
Pass. 

21. Poa Lettermannii Vasey. (Poa Brandcgei Beal.) On the alpine peaks 
of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. about 14,000 ft. Gray's Peak. 

22. Poa alpina L. In wet places on the mountain tops, along streams and 



46 POACEAE. 

in the arctics, from Greenl. and Alaska to Que., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 9000- 
13,000 ft. Cameron Pass ; near Pagosa Peak ; Tennessee Pass ; La Plata 
Canon ; Little Kate Mine, La Plata Mountains ; mountains of Estes Park ; 
South Park; Mt. Hesperus; Gray's Peak; Georgetown; Mt. Harvard; South 
Park; Mt. Richtofen; bank of Michigan, North Park. 

23. Poa phoenicea Rydb. Mountains of Colo. Alt. about 12,500 ft 
Vicinity of Pike's Peak: Peak Valley; Windy Point. 

24. Poa Wheeleri Vasey. {Poa cuspidata Vasey.) In meadows from 
Mont, and Ida. to Colo, and Ore. Alt. 6000-11,000 ft. Berthoud's Pass; 
Marshall Pass ; Ute Pass Road ; North Park ; Cameron Pass ; Rist Canon ; 
Anita Peak; summit of North Park Range; Rabbit-Ear Range. 

25. Poa Vaseyana Scribn. In mountain meadows of Colo. Alt. 9000- 
10,000 ft. Silver Plume; Mt. Princeton; near Chambers' Lake. 

26. Poa tricholepis Rydb. Mountain meadows of Colo. Alt 7500-11,500 
ft. Near Pagosa Peak ; canons and meadows, west of Ouray. 

27. Poa occidentalis (Vasey) Rydb. (Poa flexuosa occcidentalis Vasey.) 
In the mountains of Colo, and Utah. Alt. 10,000-11,500 ft. Twin Lakes; 
Beaver Creek. 

28. Poa pseudopratensis Scribn. & Rydb. In wet places from Neb. to S. D. 
and Colo. Alt. 4500-6000 ft. Colorado Springs; New Windsor, Weld Co.; 
along river below Fort Collins. 

29. Poa subpurpurea Rydb. (P. purpurascciis Vasey; not Sprengel.) In 
the mountains from Mont, and Wash, to Colo. Cameron Pass. 

30. Poa epilis Scribn. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo, and Utah. - 
Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Buffalo Pass; Silver Plume; Camp Creek; high moun* 
tains, vicinity of Gray's Peak; Buena Vista; near Pagosa Peak; Cameron 
Pass; Little Kate Mine, La Plata Mountains; Poudre Canon; Beaver Creek; 
summit of North Park Range. 

31. Poa nematophylla Rydb. Dry hills of Colo. Meeker, Rio Blanco Co. 

32. Poa longiligula Scribn. & Williams. Hillsides and plains from S. D. 
and Ore. to N. M. and Calif. Alt 7000-10,000 ft. Navajo Canon; "Colorado 
Terr." ; Glenwood Springs ; Buena Vista ; South Park ; Sierra Sangre de 
Cristo ; Black Canon ; Table Rock ; Palisades ; Horsetooth Gulch ; bank of 
Grizzly Creek ; North Park. 

33. Poa longipedunculata Scribn. Hills and mountain-sides from Wyo. to 
N. Mex. Alt. 5000-12,500 ft. Mountains northeast of Dolores; hills about 
Trinidad ; Rist Canon ; Silver Plume ; Gray's Peak ; Graymont ; Stove 
Prairie ; Lake Ranch ; Bear Creek Divide ; Beaver Creek ; Marshall Pass ; 
Manitou ; Dolores; Veta Mountain; Poverty Ridge; near Pagosa Peak; Ojo; 
Crystal Park ; Los Pinos ; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch ; Tur- 
key Creek and tributaries; West Spanish Peak; West Mancos Canon; West 
Indian Creek; plains near Denver; Black Canon. 

Poa longipedunculata virescens Williams. Chambers' Lake ; hills about 
Trinidad. 

34. Poa scabriuscula Williams. Dry mountains of Utah and Colo. Alt. 
about 8500 ft. South Park. 

35. Poa brevipaniculata Scribn. & Williams. Dry meadows and mountain- 
sides in Colo. Alt. 5500-10,000 ft. Horsetooth Gulch; gulch west of Sol- 



POACEAE. 47 

dier Canon; Mt. Hesperus; Bob Creek; Cripple Creek; river-bluffs north of 
La Veta; Estes Park; Ojo; Veta Mountain; hills southeast of La Veta; 
Table Rock; Trinidad; headwaters of Pass Creek; Piney and Beaver Creeks; 
West Mancos River; Los Pinos; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron; Seven 
Lakes ; mountains near Veta Pass ; Mt. Hesperus ; West Indian Creek. 

Poa brevipaniculata subpallida Williams is a low variety with pale-green 
color. Rocky Mountains (Hall & Harbour} ; Bear Creek; headwaters of 
Clear Creek and alpine ridges, east of Middle Park; Stove Prairie Hill. 

36. Poa Fendleriana (Steud.) Vasey. Dry hills and table lands from Colo, 
to N. Mex. and Calif. Alt. 6000-11,500 ft. Trinidad; Upper LaPlata; Mani- 
tou; Los Pinos; near Pagosa Peak; near Badito; Colorado Springs. 

37. Poa glaucifolia S. & W. Moist banks from S. D. and Mont, to Colo. 
Fort Collins and Calloway Hill. 

38. Poa Nevadensis Scribn. In dry meadows and on hillsides from Mont, 
and B. C. to Colo., Nev. and Ore. Alt. 5000-6500 ft. Gulch west of Sol- 
dier Canon ; near Fort Collins ; dry hills near Wood's ranch. 

39. Poa laevigata Scribn. On dry meadows and hillsides from Mont, and 
Wash, to Colo. Alt. 6500-9000 ft. Gunnison ; Chester; lola; Mancos; along 
the Michigan, North Park; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

40. Poa juncifolia Scribn. Dry hills and plains of Wyo., Utah and Colo. 
Middle Park ; South Park ; Georgetown ; Hardin's ranch. 

41. Poa confusa Rydb. Dry meadows and open "parks" in the mountains 
from Mont, and Nebr. to Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Twin Lakes ; dry plains, 
North Park; Colorado and Wyoming State line; near Ft. Collins. 

A form with the glumes slightly strigose below. Clear Lake; George- 
town. 

42. Poa truncata Rydb. Meadows of Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft. Dillon, 
Summit Co. ; Holdredge Ranch, North Park. 

43. Poa pratericola Rydb. & Nash. (P. andina Nutt.) Dry plains and 
prairies of Nebr., Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-12,000 ft. South Park; Green 
River ; Twin Lakes ; La Porte ; mountains near Pagosa Peak. 

44. Poa lucida Vasey. On dry hills from S. D. and Wyo. to Colo. Alt. 
5000-9000 ft. Twin Lakes; Graymont; South Park; North Park; Colum- 
bine ; vicinity of Ft. Collins ; Crystal Creek ; La Plata Canon ; Mancos ; Hold- 
redge Meadow, North Park; Beaver Creek Camp. 

45. Poa Buckleyana Nash. On dry plains and hills from Nebr., Mont, and 
Wash, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 5000-12,000 ft. Silver Plume; Buena Vista; 
Leroux Creek, Delta Co.; Cimarron; Encampment Meadows; meadow near 
Pinkhampton; Holdredge Meadow, North Park; Cameron Pass, above tim- 
ber line ; Marshall Pass ; mountains above Beaver Creek. 

46. Poa Sheldonii Vasey. On dry hills and mountain-sides in Colo. Alt. 
8000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine ridges east of Mid- 
dle Park; along Cottonwood Creek, near Buena Vista; Silver Plume; Mt. 
Ouray; Chicken Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus; West Mancos Canon; Bob 
Creek ; Como. 



48 POACEAE. 

62. PANICULARIA Fabr. MANNA-GRASS, REED MEADOW-GRASS. 

Spikelets ovate or oblong, 6 mm. or less long. 

Flowering glumes slightly if at all scarious and entire at the apex. 
Spikelets 3 mm. long or less ; branches of the panicle drooping. 

1. P. nervata. 
Spikelets 4-6 mm. long ; branches of the panicle ascending or spreading. 

2. P. americana. 
Flowering glumes with broad, dentate, scarious margins. 

Spikelets 4-6-flowered. 3. P. pauciflora. 

Spikelets 2-3-flowered. 4. P. Holmii. 

Spikelets linear, 12 mm. or more long. 5. P. borealis. 

1. Panicularia nervata (Willd.) Kuntze. {Glyceria nervata Trin.) In 
wet meadows and swamps from Lab. to B. C., Fla. and Calif. ; also in Mox. 
Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Manitou ; Crystal Park ; mountains of Larimer Co. ; 
Democrat Mountain ; near Pagosa Peak ; Pagosa Springs ; Dome Rock Val- 
ley ; Placer, Costilla Co. ; Bosworth's ranch ; Happy Hollow ; Pagosa Springs. 

2. Panicularia americana (Torr.) MacM. (G. aquatica Coult. ; not Smith) 
In swamps and along streams from N. B. to Alaska, Tenn. and Nev. Alt. 
4000-8500 ft. Mancos; mountains, Larimer Co.; Denver; Fort Collins; 
Pleasant Grove ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Saguache Creek ; LaVeta ; Bax- 
ter's ranch ; canon west of Palmers Lake ; Table Rock ; Bosworth's ranch, 
Stove Prairie; Pagosa Peak. 

3. Panicularia pauciflora (Presl) Kuntze. (G. pauciflora Presl.) In wet 
meadows from Mont, to B. C., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 9000-10,500 ft. Bob 
Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus ; near Pagosa Peak ; Chester ; near Chambers' 
Lake ; east slope of Rabbit-Ear Range ; mountains northeast of Dolores ; 
Pagosa Peak. 

4. Panicularia Holmii Beal. Dense thickets in Colo. Alt. about 8500 ft. 
Lamb's ranch, Long's Peak (Beat). 

5. Panicularia borealis Nash. In shallow water from Me. to Alaska, N. 
Y., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 5000-8500 ft. Cerro Summit ; Buffalo Pass Road, 
Routt Co. ; Boulder. 

63. PUCCINELLIA Parl. MEADOW-GRASS. 

i. Puccinellia airoides (Nutt.) Wats. & Coult. (Glyceria distans Coult.; 
in part.) In wet meadows, especially in alkaline soil, from Man. to Macken- 
zie River, B. C., Kans. and Nev. Alt. 4000-11,000 ft. Buena Vista; lola; 
Gunnison ; Fort Collins ; South Park ; Durango ; Alpine Tunnel ; Saguache 
Creek; Doyle's; Georgetown; Colorado Springs; Walsenburg; Boulder; 
Longmont. 

64. FESTUCA L. FESCUE-GRASS. 

Empty glumes firm, the second 3-s-nerved. 
Annuals or biennials ; stamens 1-2. 

Spikelets 7-i2-flowered ; awn not much exceeding the flowering glume in 

length, often much shorter. i. F. octofiora. 

Spikelets i-7-flowered ; awn much longer than the body of the flowering 

glume. 2. F. nncrostachys. 

Perennials ; stamens 3. 



POACEAE. 49 

Leaves 4 mm. or more wide, flat ; culm from a rootstock or with stolons. 
Awns long, usually longer than the body of the flowering glumes ; empty 
glumes narrowly lanceolate ; branches of panicle reflexed or spreading. 

3. F, Jonesii. 
Awns, if any, very short ; branches of the panicle ascending. 

Glumes narrowly lanceolate, acuminate and awn-pointed ; spikelets 3-4- 

flowered. 4. F. fratercula. 

Glumes broadly lanceolate, abruptly acute ; spikelets s-g-flowered. 

5. F. elatior. 
Leaves (at least those of the sterile shoots) 2 mm. or less wide, strongly 

involute. 

Culm from a rootstock or with stolons ; sterile shoots mostly extra-vaginal. 
Body of the flowering glume 5-6 mm. long ; stem-leaves firm and often 

flat* spikelets 4 lo-flowered. 6. F. rubra. 

Body of the flowering glume 4 mm. long ; leaves very narrow and soft ; 

spikelets 2-3-flowered. 7. F. Earlei. 

Culm densely tufted, no rootstock ; sterile shoots mostly intra-vaginal. 
Flowering glumes (without the awns) 3-4 mm. long, not twice as long as 
the first glume; plants 1-2 (rarely 3) dm. high; inflorescence spike- 
like. 
Flowering glumes lanceolate, long-acuminate and long-awned ; panicle 

dense ; leaves short and firm. 8. F. brachyphylla. 

Flowering glumes oblong-lanceolate, abruptly contracted into a short 

awn ; panicle lax ; leaves filiform and soft. g. F. minutiflora. 
Flowering glumes (without the awns) 5-8 mm. long, more than twice as 

long as the first glume. 
Basal sheaths short ; blades of stem-leaves rarely 8 cm. long. 

Awns short, less than half as long as the glumes ; inflorescence 
usually dense and its branches very short. 

10. F. pseudovina. 
Awns long, nearly equalling to much exceeding the body of the 

glumes in length ; inflorescence open and branches more slender. 

11. F. ingrata. 

Basal sheath long and loose ; blades of stem-leaves usually over i dm. 

long; inflorescence narrow and awn short. 12. F. arizonica. 

Empty glumes thin, ovate-lanceolate, more or less scarious ; second glume i -nerved 
or 3-nerved only at the base ; culms densely tufted with numerous basal 
sheaths. 

Ligules long and acuminate; inflorescence open. 13. F. Thurberi. 

Ligules short and rounded ; inflorescence narrow and spikelike. 

14. F. confinis. 

1. Festuca octoflora Walt. (F. tenella Willd.) In dry, sandy soil from 
Que. to B. C, Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft Denver; New Windsor, 
Weld Co.; Veta Pass; Walsenburg; Denver; Wray; Quimby; Horsetooth 
Gulch ; Palisades. 

2. Festuca microstachys Nutt. In sandy soil from Ida. to B. C, Colo., 
Ariz, and Calif. " Western Colorado." 

3. Festuca Jonesii Vasey. In woods from Mont, to B. C.. Colo., Utah and 
Wash." Western Colorado." 

4. Festuca fratercula Rupr. On open hillsides, in canons and meadows 
from Colo, to Arizona and Mex Alt. 7500-9500 ft Near Pagosa Peak; 
canons and adjoining meadows, west of Ouray. 

5. Festuca elatior L. In field, among bushes and in waste places from 
N. Sc. to Wash., N. C. and Calif. Cultivated and naturalized from Europe. 
Alt. up to 5000 ft. Fort Collins ; Durango. 



50 POACEAE. 

6. Festuca rubra L. In meadows from Lab. to Alaska, N. C. and Calif. ; 
also in Europe and Asia. Alt. up to 5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

7. Festuca Earlei Rydb. In canons of Colo. Alt. about 9500 ft. LaPlata 
Canon. 

8. Festuca brachyphylla Schultes. (F. orina brevifolia S. Wats.) In 
arctic-alpine localities, in rather barren soil, from Greenl. to Alaska, Vt. and 
Calif. Alt. 9500-14,500 ft. Gray's Peak ; Mt. Lincoln ; Little Kate Mine, 
La Plata Mountains ; Cumberland Mine ; Cameron Pass ; Pike's Peak ; West 
Spanish Peak; near Pagosa Peak; Mt. Lincoln; Mt. McClellan ; high 
mountains near Clear Creek; Beaver Creek; mountains northeast of Boreas; 
mountain above Barnes' Camp. 

9. Festuca minutiflora Rydb. On alpine peaks in Colo, and Calif. Alt. 
10,000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek ; Manitou ; Mt. Ouray ; near 
Pagosa Peak ; Como ; Tennessee Pass ; Mt. Lincoln ; Cameron Pass ; Moun- 
tains northeast of Boreas. 

10. Festuca pseudovina Hackel. On dry hillsides and mountains from 
Sask. to B. C., Mich, and Colo.; also in Europe. Alt. 9000-12,500 ft. Bert- 
houd's Pass; Cameron Pass; Dead Lake; Mount Garfield; Beaver Creek; 
Poverty Flats; Palsgrove Canon; Happy Hollow; near Teller, North Park; 
Chambers' Lake ; Twin Lakes ; mountains above Clear Creek ; Veta Pass ; 
Ute Pass road ; Boreas ; mountains northwest of Boreas. 

11. Festuca ingrata (Hack.) Rydb. (F. ovina of western reports and F. 
ovina ingrata Hack.) On hillsides and in dryer meadows from Mont, to B. C., 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. 3000-12,000 ft. Grizzly Creek; Chicken Creek; Mount 
Garfield; Rabbit-Ear Pass; North Park; Wolcott, Eagle Co.; Barnes' Camp; 
along the Michigan, North Park ; Beaver Creek ; Como ; near Monument ; 
flats along Elk River ; Campton's ranch ; grass plot, Ft. Collins ; Pinkham 
Creek, Larimer Co. ; Willow Creek, Routt Co. 

Festuca ingrata nudata (Vasey) Rydb. (F. ovina nudata Vasey) is a 
variety with narrower panicle, longer basal leaves, nearly naked stem and 
glabrous glumes. Middle Park; North Park. 

12. Festuca arizonica Vasey. (Including F. Vaseyana Hack.) On rocky 
slopes from Colo, to Utah, N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. George- 
town Pass ; Twin Lakes ; Pagosa Springs ; West Mancos Canon ; foot-hills 
east of Mancos; Cottonwood Lake; Democrat Mountain; Idaho Springs; 
Veta Pass. 

13. Festuca Thurberi Vasey. (S. scabrclla Vaseyana Hack.) On hill- 
sides in Colo, and southern Wyo. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Twin Lakes; Mt. 
Lincoln ; Veta Pass ; vicinity of Pike's Peak ; Cimarron ; Grizzly Creek ; near 
Pagosa Peak; Front Range, Larimer Co.; foot-hills east of Mancos; West 
Mancos Canon ; Dark Canon ; Chicken Creek ; Beaver Creek ; North Park ; 
Sangre de Cristo Creek ; South Park ; Argentine Pass ; Happy Hollow ; 
Hahn's Peak. 

14. Festuca confinis Vasey. (Poa Kingii S. Wats.) In canons and on 
hillsides from Mont, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6500-10,000 ft. Stove Prairie 
Hill and Stove Prairie, Larimer Co. ; Boulder Canon ; Rist Canon ; Happy 
Hollow; Colorado and Wyoming State line; Beaver Creek. 



POACEAE. 51 

65. BROMUS L. BROOM-GRASS, CHESS. 

Flowering glumes compressed-keeled. 

Palet less than 34 as long as the flowering glume. 

Leaves glabrous ; glumes glabrous or merely scabrous. i. B. polyanthus. 
Leaves pubescent ; glumes hairy at least when young. 2. B. marginatus. 
Palet more than % as long as the glume. 3. B. unioloides. 

Flowering glumes rounded on the back, at least at the base. 

Flowering glumes oval or broadly elliptic ; second empty glume s-7-nerved ; 

first 3-nerved ; introduced annuals. 

Flowering glumes nearly as broad as long, awnless or with a short, dorsal 
awn. 4. B. brizaeformis. 

Flowering glumes much longer than broad, always conspicuously awned. 
Flowering glumes glabrous. 

Sheaths glabrous ; awn much shorter than the flowering glume, nearly 

erect. 5. B. secalinus. 

Sheaths pubescent ; awn fully as long as the glume, at maturity strongly 

divergent. 6. B. patulus. 

Flowering glumes more or less hairy. 7. B. hordeaceus. 

Flowering glumes lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate ; second empty glume 3- 

nerved ; first one i-nerved except in B. Porteri. 

Awns shorter than the glumes ; perennials and all except B. inermis native. 
Inflorescence more or less drooping. 

First empty glume 3-nerved. 8. B. Porteri. 

First empty glume i -nerved. 

Flowering glumes evenly pubescent on the back ; sheaths densely 

lanate. 9. B. lanatipes. 

Flowering glumes ciliate on the margins, glabrous or sparingly hairy 
on the back ; sheaths glabrous or the lower sparingly hirsute. 

10. B. Richardsoni. 
Inflorescence not dropping. 

Inflorescence narrow, its branches erect ; flowering glumes usually 

awned. n. B. Pumpellianus. 

Inflorescence broad, its branches spreading ; flowering glumes usually 

awnless. 12. B. inermis. 

Awn longer than the glumes ; introduced annuals. 

Spikelets numerous on slender, recurved, secund pedicels ; flowering glumes 

8-12 mm. long. 13- B. tectorum. 

Spikelets few; pedicels not secund; flowering glumes 12-16 mm. long. 

14. B. sterilis. 

1. Bromus polyanthus Scribn. In meadows from Mont, to Ore., N. M. 
and Calif. Alt. 6000-11,500 ft. Trimble Springs; hills above Dix P. O. ; 
Cerro Summit ; West Mancos Canon ; Rabbit-Ear Pass ; Keblar Pass ; Robin- 
son, Summit Co.; Walsenburg; Veta Pass; foot of Mt. Richtofen, on the 
Michigan; near Chambers' Lake; Cameron Pass. 

2. Bromus marginatus H. & A. In meadows from Alb. to B. C, Colo, and 
Calif. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Steamboat Springs, Routt Co.; Ft. Collins; Fish 
Creek Falls, Routt Co. 

Bromus marginatus latior Shear is a large variety with large open panicle 
and longer awns. Vicinity of Boulder. 

3. Bromus unioloides (Willd.) H. B. K. Meadows from Ala. and Calif, 
to La. and Tex. Fort Collins; Cherokee Hill. 

4. Bromus brizaeformis F. & M. Locally introduced from Mass, to Wash., 
Del. and Calif. Native of Europe and Asia. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Vicinity of 
Boulder. 



52 POACEAE. 

5. Bromus secalinus L. In waste places and fields from Me. to Wash., Fla. 
and Calif. Introduced from Europe and Asia. Alt. about 5000 ft. Boulder; 
Fort Collins. 

6. Bromus patulus M. & K. In waste places from Mass, to Wyo., Mo. 
and Colo. Introduced from Europe. Alt. about 5000 ft. Fort Collins. 

7. Bromus hordeaceus L. (B. mollis L.) In waste places from Me. to 
Wash., Del., Colo, and Ariz. Introduced from Europe. Denver. 

8. Bromus Porteri (Coult.) Nash. (B. Kalmii Porteri Coult.) On hill- 
sides and in meadows from Man. to Sask., Alb., Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 7000- 
11,000 ft. About Ouray; West Mancos Canon; Georgetown; Mancos; Cerro 
Summit; Arboles; Durango; North Park; Cameron Pass; Stove Prairie 
Hill; Twin Lakes; Buffalo Peaks; Gunnison; Marshall Pass; Robinson; 
Clear Creek ; Middle Park ; Wagon Wheel Gap ; Chambers' Lake ; Ft. Col- 
lins; Four-Mile Hill; Michigan Hill, Cameron Pass; Dolores. 

9. Bromus lanatipes (Shear) Rydb. (B. Porteri lanatipes Shear.) On 
hillsides in Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Lower Boulder Canon, Boulder Co. ; 
Idaho Springs; Mountain View; Hiawatha; vicinity of Boulder; Lafayette; 
Empire Pass; Dome Rock Valley; Fort Collins; Poudre Canon; Rist Canon; 
quaking asp grove, west Gunnison Co. ; gulch west of Soldier Canon ; Hahn's 
Peak, Routt Co. 

10. Bromus Richardsonii Link. (B. ciliatus Coult.; not L.) In mead- 
ows and on hillsides from Sask. to B. C., Colo., Ariz, and Ore. Alt. 
6000-11,000 ft. Cheyenne Mountain; vicinity of Pike's Peak; near Pagosa 
Peak; Pandora; Gunnison; mountains of Larimer Co.; Upper La Plata 
River; Beaver Creek; about Ouray; Mount Baldy; Ruxton Dell; Estes 
Park; Colorado Springs; Silver Plume; Marshall Pass; Tobe Miller's ranch; 
Moon's ranch; Happy Hollow; Four-Mile Hill; gulch west of Soldier 
Canon; bank of Poudre; Andrews ranch; western Gunnison Co. 

11. Bromus Pumpellianus Scribn. In meadows and on hillsides from Sask. 
to Alaska and Colo. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. On Grizzly Creek; Veta Pass; 
Gray's Peak; Walsenburg; Como; Beaver Creek Camp. 

Bromus Pumpellianus melicoides Shear is an awnless variety. Beaver 
Creek. 

12. Bromus inermis Leyss. Escaped occasionally from cultivation from 
Ohio to Mont, and Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft. Fort Collins. 

13. Bromus tectorum L. In waste places from Mass, to Wash., Va. and 
Utah. Introduced from Europe. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Longmont, Boulder 
Co.; vicinity of Boulder; Fort Collins. 

14. Bromus sterilis L. In waste places from Mass, and Ohio to Pa. and 
Colo. Introduced from Europe and Asia. Alt. about 5000 ft. Fort Collins; 
estray in garden plot. 

Tribe 10. HORDEAE. 

66. AGROPYRON. WHEAT-GRASS, QUACK-GRASS. 

Rachis of the spike breaking up at maturity, the joints falling with the spikelet. 

i. A. Scribneri. 

Rachis of the spike continuous. 

Cespitose, the innovations intra-vaginal ; no horizontal stolons (except in A. 
arisonicum). 



POACEAE. 53 

Spikelets compressed, remote on the axis ; awns divergent. 

Spikelets erect. 2 A. Vaseyi. 

Spikelets spreading. 

Empty glumes acute or obtuse ; stem-leaves 3-4, not glaucous. 

3. A. spicatum. 
Empty glumes acuminate or awn-pointed ; stem-leaves 6-7, glaucous. 

4. A. arizonicum. 
Spikelets subterete, approximate on the rachis or somewhat distant in A. 

tenerum. 

Awn strongly divergent. 16. A. Bakeri. 

Awn erect or none. 

Awn long, usually longer than the body of the flowering glume. 

Plant tall, over 3 dm. high, erect or ascending ; empty glumes broadest 

below the middle ; spike elongated. 

Stem stout; spike 7-10 mm. wide, erect but usually unilateral; 
spikelets (excluding the awns) 12-15 mm. long. 

5. A. Richardsoni. 

Stem slender ; spike about 5 mm. wide, usually nodding, seldom uni- 
lateral ; spikelets (excluding the awns) about i cm. long. 

6. A. caninum. 
Plant 2-3 dm. high, densely tufted, decumbent at the base, geniculate ; 

empty glumes broadest above the middle ; spike short. 

7. A. andinum. 
Awn short or none. 

Spike stout and dense, 3-8 cm. long, usually tinged with purple ; empty 

glumes broadest above the middle. 8. A. violaceum. 

Spike slender and lax, 7-20 cm. long, green ; empty glumes broadest 

below the middle. 9- A. tenerum. 

Stoloniferous, sometimes slightly tufted ; innovations extra-vaginal ; flowering 

glumes acute or merely awn-pointed. 
Sheath not pubescent. 

Flowering glumes glabrous or merely scabrous. 

Spikelets erect, nearly cylindrical or slightly compressed. 

Leafblades hairy above ; empty glumes shorter than the spikelets, 

which are usually distant. 10. A. lanceolatum. 

Leafblades scabrous but not hairy, spikelets usually not very lax. 
Empty glumes nearly equalling the spikelets ; spike elongated. 

11. A. pseudorepens. 
Empty glumes half as long as the spikelet ; spike short. 

12. A. riparium. 
Spikelets spreading, much flattened. 13- A. occidental. 

Flowering glumes densely pubescent. 14- A. molle. 

Sheaths pubescent ; flowering glumes very scabrous or short-pubescent. 

15. A. Palmeri. 

1. Agropyron Scribneri Vasey. On high mountain-tops from Mont, to 
Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Silver Plume; Gray's Peak; near 
Pagosa Peak; Cumberland Mine, La Plata Mountains; Mt. Garfield; Bald 
Mountain; West Spanish Peak; Buena Vista; headwaters of Clear Creek; 
Cameron Pass ; mountains above Beaver Creek. 

2. Agropyron Vaseyi S. & S. On dry hills and mountain-sides from Mont, 
to Ore., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Vicinity of Boulder; Ute Pass; 
Golden; Horsetooth Gulch; gulch west of Soldier Canon; foot-hills of 
Larimer Co. 

3. Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Rydb. (A. diver gens Nees ; A. strigosum 
Coult.) On dry hills and mountains from Mont, to Wash., Ariz, and Calif. 
Alt. 5000-6500 ft. Hot Sulphur Springs, Middle Park; along Platte River; 



54 POACEAE. 

Bosworth ranch, Larimer Co. ; Glenwood Springs, Garfield Co. ; foot-hills, 
Larimer Co. ; Poudre Canon ; Rist Canon ; Pinkham Creek, Larimer Co. 

4. Agropyron arizonicum S. & S. In the mountains from Colo, to Ariz, 
and Mex. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. Mountains between Sunshine and Ward, 
Boulder Co. ; near Pagosa Peak ; Robinson, Summit Co. 

5. Agropyron Richardson! (Trin.) Schrad. (A. unilaterale Cassidy.) In 
meadows and among bushes from Minn, and Sask. to B. C, Iowa and Colo. 
Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Veta Pass ; Manitou ; Graymont ; LaPlata Canon ; 
Crystal Park ; mountains of Larimer Co. ; Dillon ; Salida, Chaffee Co. ; Twin 
Lakes ; Empire ; along the Michigan, North Park ; Como ; Bosworth's ranch, 
Stove Prairie. 

6. Agropyron caninum (L.) Beauv. In meadows from N. Sc. to Ida., N. 
C. and Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. Mancos; North Park; Red Stone. 

7. Agropyron andinum (S. & S.) Rydb. (A. violaccum andinum S. & S.) 
On high mountain-tops from Mont, to Colo. Alt. about 9000 ft. Silver 
Plume ; summit of North Park Range. 

8. Agropyron violaceum (Hornem.) Vasey. In the mountains from Greenl. 
to Alaska, N. H. and Utah. Alt. 6500-12,000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; West 
Mancos Canon; Cerro Summit; Crystal Park; Trinidad; near Badito; Green 
Mountain Falls ; Gunnison ; Buena Vista ; Empire ; Ft. Collins ; gulch west 
of Soldier Canon ; La Porte ; mountain west of Cameron Pass ; Four-Mile 
Hill ; North Park ; near Chambers' Lake ; Cameron Pass ; Willow Creek and 
Fish Creek Falls, Routt Co. 

9. Agropyron tenerum Vasey. On hillsides from Lab. to Alaska, N. H., 
Mo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Fort Garland ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; 
Colorado Springs ; Arboles ; Mancos ; Fort Collins ; Trimble Springs, north 
of Durango; Deer Run; Gunnison; Twin Lakes; Mancos; Soldier's Canon. 

10. Agropyron lanceolatum S. & S. On the plains from Wyo. to Wash, 
and Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft. Fort Collins ; Galloway Hill ; Horsetooth 
Gulch. 

11. Agropyron pseudorepens S. & S. In meadows from Iowa to Alb., N. 
M. and Utah. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Clear Creek, near Empire; Kebler Pass; 
mountains near Pagosa Peak ; vicinity of Boulder ; Colorado Springs ; La 
Porte; Beaver Creek; Durango; Grizzly Creek; New Windsor, Weld Co.; 
Pike's Peak; Fontaine qui Bouille Valley; Veta Pass; Ft. Collins; Gray- 
mont. 

12. Agropyron riparium S. & S. On river banks from Mont, to Colo. 
Alt. about 7000 ft. Colorado Springs. 

13. Agropyron occidentale Scribn. (A. rcpcns glaucum Am. auth.) On 
prairies and plains from Man. and Sask. to Ore., Mo., N. M. and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-9500 ft. Veta Pass ; Weston's Pass ; Trimble Springs, north of 
Durango ; Longmont, Boulder Co. ; Wahatoya Creek ; Ft. Morgan ; South 
Park ; Hotchkiss ; Table Rock ; Ft. Collins ; La Porte. 

14. Agropyron molle (S. & S.) Rydb. In dryer valleys on the plains, 
especially in alkaline soil, from Sask. to Wash, and N. M. Alt. 5000-9000 
ft. Weston's Pass; Arboles; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Mancos; Cerro 
Summit ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Wahatoya Creek ; Golden ; Canon City, 
Fremont Co.; North Park; Hardin's ranch; Ft. Collins. 



POACEAE. 55 

15. Agropyron Palmeri (S. & S.). (-^- spicatum Palmcri S. & S.) In 
the mountains of Colo., N. M. and Ariz. Alt. up to 7000 ft. 'Mancos; Ar- 
boles; Quimby. 

1 6. Agropyron Bakeri E. Nelson. Mountains of southern Colo. Alt. 9000 
ft. Near Pagosa Peak. 

67. HORDEUM L. BARLEY, SQUIRREL-TAIL. 

Empty glumes all alike, subulate-filiform. 

Empty glumes 3-6 cm. long ; flowering glume of lateral spikelets long-awned. 

i. H. jubatum. 
Empty glumes 1-2 cm. long ; flowering glume of lateral spikelets short-awned 

or awn-pointed. 

Lateral spikelets flower-bearing. 2. H. boreale. 

Lateral spikelets neutral. 3. H. nodosum. 

Empty glumes of the middle spikelet lanceolate. 4. H. pusillum. 

1. Hordeum jubatum L. On prairies and in meadows from Lab. to Alaska, 
N. J., Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-11,000 ft. Mancos; Cerro Summit; Ar- 
boles; vicinity of Boulder; Fort Collins; Fort Morgan; Golden; New Wind- 1 
sor ; Alpine Tunnel ; Ute Pass ; Twin Lakes. 

2. Hordeum boreale S. & S. In meadows from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, 
and Wash. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Marshall Pass ; South Park ; Como ; North 
Park. 

3. Hordeum nodosum L. In meadows from Mont, to Alaska, Tex. and 
Calif. Alt. 5000-9500 ft. Georgetown; North Park; South Park; Durango; 
Golden ; Twin Lakes ; Ft. Collins ; Chamber's Lake. 

4. Hordeum pusillum Nutt. In arid valleys from 111. to Ida., Ga. and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; near 
the river, east of Ft. Collins ; Buckhorn Creek, Larimer Co. 

68. SITANION Raf. 

Some of the empty glumes 2-cleft ; lowest flower of one or both spikelets sterile 
and like the empty glumes, but inserted on a rachilla and falling away 
with it. 
Sterile shoots numerous ; stem slender ; flowering glume 3-awned. 

i. 5". Hystrix. 

Sterile shoots few; stem stout; flowering glume i-awned. 2. S. molle. 
Empty glumes all entire ; lowest flower of both spikelets perfect. 
Flowering glumes glabrous. 

Stem-leaves very long, erect, flexuose, strongly involute. 3. 5. longi folium. 
Stem-leaves short, rigid, spreading or divaricate. 4. 5". brevifolium. 

Flowering glumes soft-pubescent. 5. S. pubiflorum. 

1. Sitanion Hystrix (Nutt.) Smith. (Ageliops Hystrix Nutt.) On dry 
shale hills and among sage brush on the plains from Wyo. to Wash, and 
Colo. Walsenburg; North Park. 

2. Sitanion molle J. G. Smith. On moist mountain-sides in Colo. Alt. 
10,500 ft. East side Buffalo Pass, Larimer Co. 

3. Sitanion longifolium J. G. Smith. On hillsides and among rocks from 
Nebr. to Nev., Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 6500-9000 ft. Villa Grove, Saguache 
Co.; Denver; Mancos; North Park; mountains of Larimer Co.; Hardin's 
ranch ; Oak Mesa, Delta Co. ; Anita Peak, Routt Co. 



56 POACEAE. 

4. Sitanion brevifolium J. G. Smith. On hills and mountain-sides from 
Wyo. to Utah, Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Mancos; Ouray; Mar- 
shall Pass; vicinity of Boulder; mountains between Sunshine and Ward, 
Boulder Co.; Twin Lakes; Georgetown; Walsenburg; Colorado Springs; 
La Veta ; vicinity of Ft. Collins ; Willow Creek, Rotitt Co. 

5. Sitanion pubiflorum J. G. Smith. On dry hills from Colo, to Ariz, and 
N. M. Alt. about 6000 ft. Trinidad. 

69. ELYMUS L. WILD RYE, LYME-GRASS. 

Flowering glumes long-awned ; empty glumes lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 

narrowed at the base. 
Spike broad ; spikelets spreading. 

Flowering glumes hirsute or villose. i. E. canadensis. 

Flowering glumes scabrous or strigose-hispidulous or nearly glabrous. 
Robust; spike usually included at the base; leaves 8-15 mm. wide. 

2. E. robustus. 
Slender ; spike exserted ; leaves seldom over 5 mm. wide. 

3. E. brachystachys. 
Spike narrow ; spikelets erect. 

Leaves 7-15 mm. wide, spreading; empty glumes lanceolate, acuminate to 
' short-awned. 4. E. glaucus. 

Leaves less than 5 mm. wide, usually nearly erect ; empty glumes very nar- 
rowly linear-lanceolate, long-awned. 

Spike 7-8 mm. thick ; awns 30-40 mm. long. 5. E. Saundersii. 

Spike 5 mm. thick or less ; awns 5-10 mm. long. 6. E. Macoimii. 

Flowering glumes awnless or short-awned ; empty glumes linear-aristiform or 

subulate, or if broader not narrowed at the base. 
Empty glumes aristiform or narrowly subulate. 

Plant stout, 1-2 m. high; spikelets 2-6 at each joint; flowering glumes acute 
or very short-awned ; in our form scabrous-stigulose. 

7. E. condensatus. 
Plant slender, 3-10 dm. high; spikelets 1-2 at each joint. 

Flowering glumes broadly lanceolate, acute or minutely awn-pointed, glab- 
rous ; rachis scabrous on the sharp angle ; spikelets erect. 

8. E. triticoides. 
Flowering glumes narrowly lanceolate, awned ; rachis nearly terete, strigose ; 

spikelets somewhat spreading. 

Flowering glumes glabrous. 9. E. ambiguus. 

Flowering glumes strigose. 10. E. strigosus. 

Flowering glumes villous. 12. E. villiftorus. 

Empty glumes lanceolate-subulate, tapering from a rather broad base ; spike- 
lets usually singly; flowering glumes glabrous. n. E. simplex. 

1. Elymus canadensis L. On river-banks and among bushes from N. S. 
and Wash, to Ga. and N. M. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Durango ; Fort Collins ; 
along Platte River, near Denver; La Porte, Larimer Co.; Salida, Chaffee 
Co. ; gulch west of Soldier Canon ; Black's Lake. 

2. Elymus robustus S. & S. On river-banks from S. D. to Ida., Mo. and 
Colo. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Idaho Springs; Black Canon; vicinity of Boulder; 
Fontaine qui Bouille. 

3. Elymus brachystachys Scribn. & Ball. On dry plains and hills from 
Mich, and S. D. to Tex., N. M. and Utah; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. 
Rist Canon, Larimer Co.; eastern Colorado; along river, east of Ft. Collins. 

4. Elymus glaucus Buckley. (Elymus Sibiricus Thurb. ; not L.) In mead- 



POACEAE. 57 

ows and among bushes from Mich, to Alb., B. C, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 
7000-11,000 ft. Mountains near Pagosa Peak; Hamor's Lake, north of 
Durango; about Ouray; Keblar Pass; Villa Grove; Horsetooth Gulch; Ute 
Pass road ; mountains above Cameron Pass ; edge of aspen grove, western 
Gunnison Co. 

5. Elymus Saundersii Vasey. On mountains in Colorado. Exact locality 
not given. 

6. Elymus Macounii Vasey. In meadows from Man. and Sask. to Alb., 
N. Mex. and Utah. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Denver ; Durango ; Fort Collins ; 
Gunnison; Manitou. 

7. Elymus condensatus Presl. On hills and in dryer valleys from Alb. 
and B. C. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Grand River at Hot 
Sulphur Springs; Doyle's; vicinity of Boulder; Chester, Saguache Co.; Grant 
Creek ; Deadman Canon ; Campton's ranch ; Miller's ranch, near La Porte. 

8. Elymus triticoides Nutt. In meadows and on hillsides from Mont, to 
Wash., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Grant Creek; foot-hills, Lari- 
mer Co.; Georgetown; Barnes' ranch, Larimer Co.; Rist Canon. 

9. Elymus ambiguus Vasey & Scribn. In canons and on hillsides in Colo. 
Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Penn Gulch; Empire; Fort Garland; Minnehaha; near 
Manitou; Engelmann Canon; Rist Canon, Larimer Co.; near Badito; Art- 
ists' Glen ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Veta Pass ; Campton's ranch. 

10. Elymus strigosus Rydb. In the foot-hills and on shale slopes in Colo, 
and Wyo. Alt. about 7700 ft. Near Boulder. 

11. Elymus simplex S. & W. Dry plains and hills from Wyo. and Colo, 
to Ore. Alt. up to 11,000 ft. Robinson, Summit Co. 

12. Elymus villiflorus Rydb. On plains and foot-hills of Colo. Apparently 
the same also in the Black Hills and the Canadian Rockies Alt. 5000-6000 
ft. Vicinity of Boulder. 

LOLIUM L. RYE-GRASS. 

i. Lolium perenne L. In waste places and cultivated ground from N. S. 
to Va., Calif, and Wash. Ft. Collins. 

Family 19. CYPERACEAE. SEDGE FAMILY. 

Flowers of the spikelets perfect or at least one perfect. 
Glumes of the spikelets 2-ranked. 

Perianth present, the members bristle-like ; inflorescence axillary. 

1. DULICHIUM. 

Perianth wanting ; inflorescence in terminal, solitary or umbelled heads. 

2. CYPERUS. 
Glumes of the spikelets spirally imbricated. 

Base of the style not at all or only slightly thickened, deciduous. 

Perianth-bristles conspicuously elongated. 3. ERIOPHORUM. 

Perianth-bristles not conspicuously elongated. 4. SCIRPUS. 

Base of the styles manifestly swollen, persistent as a tubercle on the achenes. 
Perianth present ; spike solitary. 5. ELEOCHARIS. 

Perianth wanting ; spikelets umbellate. 6. FIMBRISTYLIS. 

Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 

Achenes not enclosed in a perigynium ; glumes 2-flowered. 7. ELYNA. 
Achenes enclosed in a perigynium ; glumes i-flowered. 8. CAREX. 



58 CYPERACEAE. 

i. DULICHIUM L. C. Richard. 

i. Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britt. In wet and muddy places from 
N. S. to B. C, Fla. and Tex. Locality not given. 

2. CYPERUS L. CYPERUS, GALINGALE, NUT-GRASS, PAPYRUS. 

Rachis persistent. 
Annuals. 

Glumes awned or mucronate. i. C. inflexus. 

Glumes acute, neither awned nor mucronate. 2. C. acuminatus. 

Perennials. 

Glumes tipped with a curved or bent awn. 3. C. Fendlerianus. 

Glumes blunt or merely mucronate. 4. C. Bushii. 

Rachis deciduous above the two empty glumes. 5. C. filiculmis. 

1. Cyperus inflexus Muhl. In wet, sandy soil from Vt. to B. C, Fla. and 
Calif.; also in Mex. Alt. 5000-6500 ft. Plains and foot-hills near Boulder; 
Ft. Collins; along Platte River, near Denver; Canon City; New Windsor, 
Weld Co.; Arkansas River; along Poudre River. 

2. Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook. In wet soil from 111. to Ore., La. 
and Calif. Exact locality not given. 

3. Cyperus Fendlerianus Boeckl. In wet soil from Tex. to Colo., Ariz, 
and Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Arkansas Canon. 

4. Cyperus Bushii Britt. (C. Schweinitzii Coult. ; not Torr.) In sandy 
soil from Wise, to Ore., Kans. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Denver; 
Meadow Park. 

5. Cyperus filiculmis Vahl. In dry fields and on hills from N. H. to Minn., 
Fla. and Tex. Alt. about 5500 ft. Colorado Springs. 

3. ERIOPHORUM L. COTTON-GRASS. 

Achenes obovoid, obtuse. 

Glumes ovate-lanceolate ; achenes light brown. \. E. polystachyon. 

Glumes oval or ovate, obtuse ; achenes dark brown, almost black. 

2. E. ocreatum. 
Achenes linear-oblong, acute. 3. E. gracile. 

i. Eriophorum polystachyon L. In bogs from Greenl. to Alaska, Ga. and 
Colo. Alt. 4000-11,500 ft. Hamof's Lake, north of Durango; Seven Lakes; 
West Cliff; Estes Park, Larimer Co. 

2.- Eriophorum ocreatum A. Nels. In bogs of Wyo. and Colo. Twin 
Lakes. 

3. Eriophorum gracile Koch. In bogs from Newf. to Alaska, Pa. and 
Calif. Estes Park, Larimer Co. 

4. SCIRPUS L. BULL-RUSH, CLUB-RUSH. 

Involucre of a single bract or wanting. 

Spikelets solitary, rarely 2 together ; plants dwarfed. 

Annuals; bristles none. i. -S". coloradcnsis. 

Perennials ; bristles present. 

Involucre none. 2. S. pauciflonts. 

Involucre of one erect bract. 



CYPERACEAE. 59 

Bristles present, longer than the achenes. 3. 5. caespitosus. 

Bristles wanting. 4. S. pumilis. 

Spikelets normally more than one, usually several or many ; taller plants. 
Spikelets few, 1-12, appearing lateral. 

Annual with fibrous roots. 5. S 1 . Hallii. 

Perennial with rootstocks. 6. S. americanits. 

Spikelets numerous, umbellate. 7. S. lacustre. 

Involucre of 2 or more leaves with flat blades. 

Spikelets few, umbelled or capitate, relatively large. 8. S. campestris. 

Spikelets numerous, in compound umbels or in umbelled heads, relatively small. 
Style-branches 2 ; achenes plano-convex ; bristles mostly 4. 

g. S. rubrotinctus. 
Style-branches 3; achenes 3-angular ; bristles 6. 10. S. atrovirens. 

1. Scirpus coloradensis Britt. On muddy shores of lakes in northern Colo. 
Alt. about 5000 ft. Larimer Co. 

2. Scirpus pauciflorus Lightf. In wet soil from Anticosti to B. C, N. Y. 
and Calif. Alt. 9500-11,500 ft. Antonito; Seven Lakes; Ruxton Dell; 
Georgetown. 

3. Scirpus caespitosus L. In bogs and among wet rocks from Greenl. to 
Alaska, N. C. and Colo.; also Europe and Asia. Lat. 39-4i.* 

4. Scirpus pumilus Vahl. In wet places in alpine regions in Alb. and Colo. 
" Rocky Mountains." 

5. Scirpus Hallii A. Gray. In wet soil from Mass, to Colo., Fla. and Tex. ; 
also Mex. Locality not given. 

6. Scirpus americanus Pers. (S. pun gens Vahl.) In fresh and alkaline 
swamps from Me. to B. C., Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Plains and 
foot-hills near Boulder; Julesburg; mesas near Pueblo; Colorado Springs; 
Lake City; Spring Canon ; Platte River, Denver; Fort Collins. 

7. Scirpus lacustris L. In lakes and swamps from Newf. to B. C., Fla. 
and Calif. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Gypsum, Eagle Co.; Walsenburg; Ft. Col- 
lins ; Grand Junction ; Buffalo Pass, Park Range ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; 
near Ft. Collins. 

8. Scirpus campestris Britton. (S. maritimus of Coult. Man.) In wet 
places, especially with alkaline soil, from Man. to Wash., Tex. and Ariz. ; 
also Mex. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Ft. Collins; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Mont- 
rose; Walsenburg; Grand Junction; lowland along Poudre River; Ft. Collins. 

9. Scirpus rubrotictus Fernald. In swamps from Newf. to Ida., N. Y. and 
Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. McCoy; La Veta; Steamboat Springs, Routt Co. 

10. Scirpus atrovirens Muni. In swamps from N. Sc. to Sask., Ga. and 
La. and Colo. West of Man. and Nebr. it is only represented by v. pallidus 
Britt. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Plains and foot-hills near Boulder; Ft. Collins; 
New Windsor, Weld Co.; along Poudre River, Ft. Collins. 

5. ELEOCHARIS R. Br. SPIKE-RUSH. 

Style-branches 2. 

Annuals with fibrous roots. i. E. atropurpnrea. 

Perennials with horizontal rootstock. 

Culm stout ; tubercle conic-triangular. 2. E. palustris. 

Culm slender; tubercle narrower. 3- E. glaucescens. 

* Hall & Harbour, who collected in Colorado, did not give any definite locali- 
ties. On the labels is only given: Rocky Mts., lat. 39-4i. 



60 CYPERACEAE. 

Style-branches 3. 

Achenes cancellate and longitudinally ribbed ; spikelet flat. 

4. E. acicularis. 
Achenes smooth, papillose or reticulate ; spikelet terete. 

Achenes papillose. 5. E. acuminata. 

Achenes finely reticulate. 

Spikelets ovoid, blunt. 6. E. arenicola. 

Spikelets narrowly oblong, acute. 7. E. montana. 

1. Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz.) Kunth. In wet soil from Iowa to Colo., 
Fla. and N. Mex. ; also Mex. and Trop. Am. Reported from Colorado, but 
doubtful. 

2. Eleocharis palustris (L.) R. & S. In swamps from Lab. and Alaska to 
Va. and Calif. ; also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Trimble 
Springs, near Durango; Gunnison; Ruxton Dell; Sterling, Logan Co.; New 
Windsor, Weld Co. ; Ft. Collins ; along Platte River, near Denver. 

3. Eleocharis glaucescens (Willd.) Schultes. In swamps and wet mead- 
ows from Me. to Mont., Fla. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Cucharas River, 
below La Veta; Julesburg; mesas near Pueblo; Quimby. 

4. Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. In wet soil and mud from Newf. 
to Sask., Wash., Fla. and Calif. ; also Mex., Cent. Am., Europe and Asia. 
Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Divide between Colorado Springs and Denver; New 
Windsor, Weld Co. ; Georgetown ; river bank, Ft. Collins. 

5. Eleocharis acuminata (Muhl.) Nees. In wet soil from N. Sc. to Alb., 
Ga., La. and Colo. Mt. Lincoln. 

6. Eleocharis arenicola Torr. On sandy shores and in swamps from S. C. 
to Colo., Fla. and Tex. Salida. 

7. Eleocharis montana (H. B. K.) R. & S. In wet places from Colo, to 
Calif, and Mex. Alt. about 7000 ft. Dolores. 

6. FIMBRISTYLIS Vahl. 

Leaves strongly involute. i. F. castanea. 

Leaves flat. 2. F. thermalis. 

1. Fimbristylis castanea (Michx.) Vahl. In saline soil from N. Y. to 
Neb., Fla. and Tex. Lat. 39-4i. 

2. Fimbristylis thermalis S. Wats. Usually near warm springs from Colo, 
to Calif. Sterling, Logan Co. 

7. ELYNA Schrad. 

i. Elyna Bellardi (All.) Koch. (Kobresia scirpina Willd.) In wet places 
in alpine or arctic regions from Greenl. to Alaska and Alb. ; also in Colo. 
Alt. 8500-13,000 ft. South Park; Twin Lakes; Georgetown; Clear Creek, 
near Georgetown ; summit of Mt. Garfield ; Ruxton Dell ; Sierra Blanca. 

8. CAREX L. SEDGE. 

Stigmata 2 ; spikes all or nearly all bisexual, or dioecious, sessile. 

VIGNEAE. 

Stigmata 3 ; or if 2, the spikes mostly unisexual, the lateral ones pistillate (species 
of Microrhynchae, C. pulla and C. misandra'). CARICES GENUINAE. 



CYPERACEAE. 61 

VIGNEAE. 

I. Spike single, androgynous* or unisexual. 

Perigynia erect, with the hyaline beak split on the convex face. 

2. NEUROCHLAENAE. 

Perigynia spreading at maturity, spongious at the base with a serrate bidentate 
beak. 5. C. gynocrates. 

II. Spikes several. 

A. Beak of the perigynium entire, truncate or oblique. 

Spikes remote ; perigynia erect, several-nerved ; scales hyaline. 

Spikes green; perigynia not winged. i. BRACHYSTACHYAE. 

Spikes brown; perigynia winged. 21. C. siccata. 
Spikes sessile in a rounded or ovoid head. 

Perigynia erect, prominently many-nerved. 10. CEPHALOSTACHYAE. 

Perigynia spreading, nerveless or nearly so. n. SPHAEROSTACHYAE. 

B. Beak of perigynium bidentate or in the last split on one side. 

1. Spikes androgynous or dioecious. 

Perigynia elliptic and acuminate to orbicular, faintly nerved or nerveless, 
slightly spreading, spongious at the base, from green to brownish. 

5- ACANTHOPHORAE. 

Perigynia ovate or lanceolate, nerved. 

Spikes in a dense-flowered spicate inflorescence ; bracts often conspicu- 
ous ; perigynia not spongious at the base, winged. 

6. XEROCHLAENAE. 

Spikes in an interrupted spicate inflorescence ; bracts inconspicuous ; 
perigynia spongious at the base. 7. PHAENOCARP^E. 

2. Spikes gynaecandrous.f 
Perigynia wingless. 

Spikes silvery to light green, remote ; perigynia membranous, light green, 

erect. 3. ARGYRANTHAE. 

Spikes brownish. 

Perigynia spreading, spongious at the base ; spikes in a spicate inflo- 
rescence. 4. ASTROSTACHYAE. 
Perigynia erect ; spikes in an oval or rounded head. 

23. C. Bonplandii. 
Perigynia winged. 

Perigynia lanceolate to ovate, narrowly winged ; scales brownish. 

8. ATHROSTACHYAE. 

Perigynia ovate to nearly orbicular, broadly winged ; scales green to 
light brown. 9. PTEROCARPAE. 

CARICES GENUINAE. 

I. Perigynia neither inflated nor tapering into a long beak. 

A. Spike solitary. 

Perigynia glabrous ; beak not ciliate. 

Perigynia erect or in C. obtusata horizontally bent. 

Perigynia greenish. 16. LEIOCHLAENAE. 

Perigynia brown. 

Achenes terete. 19. LAMPROCHLAENAE. 

Achenes triquetrous. 34. C. Parryana. 

Perigynia reflexed. 17. ATHROCHLAENAE. 

Perigynia pubescent or at least the beak ciliate. 

Perigynia membranous ; scales very broad and scarious-margined ; bracts 

not foliaceous. 20. ELYNANTHAE. 

Perigynia not membranous ; scales narrow, acuminate ; bracts more or less 
foliaceous. 58. C. scirpoidea and 59. C. oreocharis. 

B. Spikes several. 

*Staminate above, pistillate below, 
f Pistillate above, staminate below. 



62 CYPERACEAE. 

1. Perigynia compressed; scales very dark. 

Spikes all gynaecandrous or the lateral pistillate ; stigmata 3 (except some- 
times in C. misandra). 

Spikes all gynaecandrous. 12. MELANANTHAE. 

Lateral spikes pistillate. 

Spikes sessile or nearly so. 12. MELANANTHAE. 

Spikes long-peduncled. 18. STENOCARPAE. 

Terminal spike staminate, the lateral pistillate or the uppermost of these 

staminate or androgynous. 

Stigmata 3 ; spikes oblong. 35. C. Raynoldsii. 

Stigmata 2; spikes cylindrical. 13. MICRORHYNCHAE. 

2. Perigynia turgid. 

Spikes 2-4, all gynaecandrous, dark brown ; perigynia gibbous, papillose. 

14. AEOEASTACHYAE. 
Spikes several ; the terminal and sometimes the uppermost of the lateral 

ones staminate ; the rest pistillate or in C. Backii all androgynous. 
Perigynia glabrous ; spikes peduncled. 

Beak short or none ; spikes erect, loosely flowered ; perigynia nerved. 

15. CENCHROCARPAE. 
Beak prominent, bifid or bidentate. 

Spikes not very densely flowered, drooping ; perigynia faintly nerved, 
erect or slightly spreading. 23. HYMENOCHLAENAE. 

Spikes densely flowered, erect ; perigynia nerved, squarose at ma- 
turity. 24. SPIROSTACHYAE. 
Perigynia pubescent. 

Pistillate spikes few-flowered, roundish ; perigynia obovate to globose, 
obscurely nerved ; bracts foliaceous but sheathless. 

21. SPHAERIDIOPHORAE. 

Pistillate spikes cylindric, dense-flowered ; perigynia ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, nerved ; bracts sheathing. 22. TRICHOCARPAE. 
II. Perigynia inflated and tapering into a long beak. 

Perigynia abruptly contracted into a very long, slender beak. 

66. C. longirostris. 
Perigynia gradually tapering into the beak. 

Perigynia, at least the lower, reflexed at maturity, sessile ; bracts sheathing. 

25. ECHINOSTACHYAE. 

Perigynia not reflexed. 

Bracts sheathless ; perigynia sessile. 26. PHYSOCARPAE. 

Bracts sheathing; perigynia stipitate. 27. RHYNCHOPHORAE. 

I. VIGNEAE. Stigmata 2. Spikes all or nearly all bisexual or dioecious, 

sessile. 

1. BRACK YSTACHYAE. 

Spikes several, short and few-flowered, sessile, remote, light-green; scales 
hyaline ; perigynium erect, several-nerved, spongious at the base. 

Spikes gynaecandrous (i. e., pistillate above, staminate below) ; bracts inconspic- 
uous ; perigynium light-green, ovate, tapering into a short, almost entire beak. 

1. C. canescens. 
Spikes androgynous (i. e., staminate above, pistillate below) ; bracts narrow, but 

conspicuous ; perigynium shining reddish-brown, abruptly-beaked. 

2. C. tenella. 

2. NEUROCHLAENAE. 

Spike single, androgynous, shining reddish-brown ; perigynium erect, ob- 
long, faintly nerved, scabrous along the short hyaline beak, with the orifice 
slit on the convex face. 

One species. 3. C. nardina. 



CYPERACEAE. 63 

3. ARGYRANTHAE. 

Spikes several, short and loose-flowered, sessile, remote, silvery to light- 
green, gynaecandrous ; bracts short; scales hyaline; perigynium erect, mem- 
branaceous, light-green, stipitate, lanceolate, nerved, serrate along the mar- 
gins, tapering into a long bidentate beak. 

One species. 4. C. Deweyana. 

4. ASTROSTACHYAE. 

Spike single or several, short and few-flowered, sessile, remote ; bracts 
short and narrow ; scales brownish ; perigynium sessile, spreading at matur- 
ity, cordate to ovate, several-nerved, spongious at base, tapering into a ser- 
rate, bidentate beak. 

Spike single, unisexual or androgynous. 5. C. gynocrates. 
Spike several, gynaecandrous. 

Perigynium narrowly ovate, faintly nerved. 6. C. stellulata. 

Perigynium broadly ovate, prominently nerved. 7. C. sterilis. 

5- ACANTHOPHORAE. 

Spikes several, short, but dense-flowered, sessile, androgynous ; bracts often 
long ; scales greenish to brown ; perigynium slightly spreading, elliptical and 
acuminate to suborbicular, faintly nerved or nerveless, spongious at base, 
narrowly winged, the beak serrulate, bidentate. 

Spikes green, forming a dense, decompound panicle. 8. C. vulpinoidea. 
Spikes forming a spike or head. 
Inflorescence spicate. 

Spike interrupted. 9. C. Hookeriana. 

Spike contiguous. 10. C. occidentalis. 

Inflorescence capitate. n. C. Hoodii. 

6. XEROCHLAENAE. 

Spikes many, small, in a dense-flowered spicate inflorescence, sessile, con- 
tiguous, androgynous or dioecious ; bracts often conspicuous ; scales brown- 
ish ; perigynium stipitate, erect, ovate to lanceolate, nerved, brown, winged, 
serrulate along the margins, tapering into a distinct, bidentate beak. 

Scales acuminate. 

Perigynium ovate, acuminate; spikes often unisexual. 12. C. marcida. 

Perigynium lanceolate; spikes bisexual. 13. C. Sartwellii. 

Scales awned, perigynium ovate-lanceolate ; spikes mostly unisexual. 

14. C. Douglasii. 

7. PHAENOCARPAE. 

Spikes small, many in an interrupted spicate inflorescence, sometimes pan- 
iculately branched, sessile, contiguous or nearly so, androgynous; bracts in- 
conspicuous ; scales brownish ; perigynium somewhat spreading, ovate, 
nerved, shining brown, spongious at base, the beak serrulate, bidentate. 

One species. 15. C. teretiuscula. 

8. ATHROSTACHYAE. 

Spikes several, but not many, in a dense-flowered spike or head, sessile, 
gynaecandrous ; bracts seldom conspicuous ; scales brownish ; perigynium 



64 CYPERACEAE. 

erect, lanceolate to ovate, more or less winged, very seldom wingless, taper- 
ing into a long serrulate or ciliate beak, with the orifice oblique or bidentate. 

Perigynium winged. 

Spikes in an oval or roundish head ; perigynium ovate to lanceolate ; beak slit 

on the convex side. 

Bracts longer than the inflorescence. 17. C. athrostachya. 

Bracts inconspicuous. 

Perigynium broadly ovate to suborbicular, rather light brown or greenish. 

1 8. C. f estiva. 

Perigynium lanceolate, very dark brown and shining. i8a. C. ebenea. 
Spikes in a more or less distinct spike. 

Perigynium lanceolate, narrowly winged, ciliate ; inflorescence short. 

1 6. C. scoparia. 
Perigynium ovate. 
Beak bidentate. 

Perigynium thin, green ; spikes nodding when young, tapering at the base. 

20. C. pratensis. 

Perigynium firm, brown ; spikes erect, strict. 22. C. Liddonii. 

Beak not bidentate. 

Beak slit on the convex side. 19. C. petasata. 

Beak oblique at the orifice. 21. C. siccata. 

Perigynium not winged. 23. C. Bonplandii. 

g. PTEROCARPAE. 

Spikes several, large and heavy, dense-flowered, contiguous or the lower 
ones remote, sessile, gynaecandrous ; bracts inconspicuous ; scales light-brown 
to green ; perigynium erect, ovate to almost orbicular, much compressed, 
nerved, broadly winged, prominently serrulate, the beak bidentate. 

Spikes ovate in a roundish head. 25. C. straminiformis. 
Spikes in a spicate inflorescence. 

Perigynium about 5-nerved. 24. C. straminea. 

Perigynium 7-is-nerved. 26. C. festucacea. 

10. CEPHALOSTACHYAE. 

Spikes several, reddish brown, androgynous, dense-flowered, sessile in a 
roundish or ovoid head ; bracts inconspicuous ; scales ovate, acute ; peri- 
gynium stipitate, erect, ovate, turgid, spongiotis, prominently many-nerved, 
shining reddish-brown, the beak scabrous, obliquely cut, with hyaline orifice. 

One species. 27. C. stenophylla. 

11. SPHAEROSTACHYAE. 

Spikes several, androgynous, dense-flowered, sessile in a roundish head ; 
bracts inconspicuous ; scales broadly ovate with hyaline margins ; perigynium 
spreading at maturity, stipitate, ovate, turgid, nerveless or nearly so, yellow- 
ish, becoming fuscous at maturity, scabrous along the prominent, obliquely 
cut beak. 

One species. 28. C. incurva. 



CYPERACEAE. 65 

II. CARICES GENUINAE. Stigmata 2 or 3. Spikes mostly unisexual. 

12. MELANANTHAE. 

Spikes several, dense-flowered, mostly peduncled and drooping, contiguous, 
gynaecandrous or the terminal staminate, the lateral pistillate; bracts con- 
spicuous, but narrow, sheathless ; scales dark-colored; perigynium sessile, 
erect, very seldom spreading, sessile, more or less compressed, elliptical, few- 
nerved, granulated and often scabrous along the upper margins, purplish- 
spotted to almost black, the beak short, entire to emarginate; stigmata 3. 

Spikes several. 

Terminal spike gynaecandrous or in C. Parryana sometimes pistillate. 
All spikes gynaecandrous peduncled and often somewhat drooping. 
Spikes ovate. 

Scales and perigynia blackish. 31. C. atrata. 

Scales and perigynia copper-colored. 32. C. chalciolepis. 

Spikes cylindric ; scales blackish ; perigynia light-green. 

33. C. bella. 

Lateral spikes pistillate, sessile, erect. 
Spikes contiguous in a dense head. 

Perigynia erect. 29. C. alpina. 

Perigynia spreading. 3- C. melanocephala. 

Spikes somewhat remote, spicate. 

Perigynia subtriquetrous ; lateral spikes usually small or none ; scales 

purplish, with hyaline margins. 34- C. Parryana. 

Perigynia compressed ; lateral spikes not reduced ; scales purplish. 

36. C. Buxbaumii. 
Terminal spike staminate, the lateral pistillate and peduncled, but erect and 

contiguous. 35- C. Raynoldsii. 

Spike single. 34- C. Parryana. 

13. MlCRORHYNCHAE. 

Spikes several, cylindrical, often dense-flowered, sessile or short peduncled, 
erect, remote, the terminal staminate, the lateral pistillate or the uppermost 
staminate or androgynous; bracts foliaceous, sheathless; scales dark, obtuse; 
perigynia often stipitate, erect, compressed, roundish-ovate to elliptical, more 
or less prominently nerved, granulated, often scabrous along the upper mar- 
gins, pale green, the beak mostly minute, entire to emarginate; stigmata 2. 

Perigynia compressed ; beak not bent horizontally. 
Spikes sessile. 

Perigynia several-nerved ; spikes remote. 

Perigynia stipitate, deciduous ; beak entire. 38. C. vulgaris. 

Perigynia persistent ; beak bidentate. 44. C. nebraskensis. 

Perigynia 2-nerved, not deciduous ; spikes contiguous. 39. C. rigida. 
Spikes peduncled. 

Spikes short ; scales spreading, acuminate, longer than the scabrous roundish 

perigynia. 40. C. chimaphila. 

Spikes long and cylindric, remote. 

Perigynia rhombic, entirely beakless. 37- C. rhoinboidea. 

Perigynia beaked. 

Perigynia stipitate, oval. . 41. C. acutina. 

Perigynia sessile, obovate to broadly elliptic. 43. C. variabilis. 

Perigynium turgid, with a beak bent horizontally ; spikes sessile or nearly so. 

45. C. scopulorum. 



66 CYPERACEAE. 

14. AEORASTACHYAE. 

Spikes several, short, but dense-flowered, long-peduncled and drooping, 
somewhat remote, the terminal staminate, the lateral gynaecandrous ; bracts 
narrow, sheathless ; scales dark-colored, lanceolate-acuminate, longer than 
the perigynium, which is stipitate, erect, orbicular to obovate gibbous, papil- 
lose, nerved, with a short, entire beak; stigmata 3. 

One species. 46. C. magellanica. 

15. CENCHROCARPAE. 

Spikes several, loose-flowered, peduncled, but erect, contiguous, the ter- 
minal staminate or gynaecandrous, the lateral pistillate; bracts foliaceous, 
sheathing; scales dark or greenish; perigynium erect, turgid, glabrous, dis- 
tinctly several-nerved, the beak short or none ; stigmata 3. 

Terminal spike staminate or gynaecandrous ; perigynium globose, orange-colored, 
beakless or nearly so. 47. C. aurea. 

Terminal spike staminate ; perigynium obovate, greenish, abruptly beaked, with 
the orifice hyaline. 48. C. Torreyi. 

16. LEIOCHLAENAE. 

Spike one, lax and few-flowered, androgynous; scales hyaline, mucronate; 
perigynium erect, pale-green, stipitate with a short beak or beakless. 

Perigynium many-nerved, elliptical, emarginate, beakless. 49. C. polytrichoides. 
Perigynium oval, two-nerved, shortly beaked. 50. C. Geyeri. 

17. ATHROCHLAENAE. 

Spike one, dense and many-flowered, androgynous, the pistillate portion 
squarrose at maturity; scales lanceolate to oblong, deciduous; perigynium 
shining, brown, reflexed at maturity, ovate to linear-oblong, prominently 
stipitate, nerveless, tapering into a long beak ; stigmata mostly 3. 

Rootstock creeping, stoloniferous ; leaves flat ; perigynium ovate, the beak two- 
lobed. 51. C. ttigricans. 

Rootstock caespitose, matted ; leaves very narrow, involute ; perigynium linear- 
oblong, the beak obliquely cut. 52. C. fyrenaica. 

r 

1 8. STENOCARPAE. 

Spikes several, very dark, dense-flowered, borne on long, capillary pedun- 
cles, more or less drooping, the terminal gynaecandrous, the lateral pistil- 
late ; scales very dark, acuminate ; perigynium purplish, erect, attenuated at 
both ends, compressed, nerveless, the beak long, serrulate, with the orifice 
oliquely cut to bifid, hyaline; stigmata 2. or 3. 

One species. 53. C. misandra. 

19. LAMPROCHLAENAE. 

Spike one, short and few-flowered, androgynous ; scales broad, brownish ; 
perigynium obovate to elliptical, obscurely nerved or nerveless, the beak 
short, with the orifice entire or obliquely cut; stigmata 3. 



CYPERACEAE. 67 

Spike dull-brown ; perigynium erect or slightly spreading at maturity, obovate, 
shortly beaked or beakless, the orifice entire. 54. C. rupestris. 

Spike shining, reddish-brown ; perigynium horizontally bent at maturity, turgid, 
coriaceous, obscurely nerved, the short beak with hyaline orifice. 

55. C. obtusata. 

20. ELYNANTHAE. 

Spike single, androgynous, the pistillate portion few-flowered; scales very 
broad; perigynium membranaceous, whitish to brown, erect, sessile, oval to 
obovoid, pubescent or ciliate above, the beak short, with the orifice entire or 
obliquely cut ; stigmata 3. 

Spike silvery-shining, light-brown ; perigynium oval, pubescent, the beak entire. 

56. C. filifolia. 

Spike reddish-brown ; perigynium obovoid, attenuated at both ends, the beak cili- 
ate, obliquely cut. 57. C. elyiwides. 

21. SPHAERIDIOPHORAE. 

Spike one, the plant dioecious or monoecious, or several, the terminal 
staminate, the lateral pistillate ; the latter few-flowered, roundish, mostly ses- 
sile or the basal long-peduncled ; bracts foliaceous, sheathless ; scales acu- 
minate, often mucronate, green to blackish ; perigynium dark-green, stipitate 
or sessile, obovate to globose, pubescent, obscurely nerved, the beak mostly 
short, obliquely cut or bidentate, with the teeth erect; stigmata 3. 

Spikes solitary ; beak short, obliquely cut. 

Dioecious ; spike very dark, many-flowered ; perigynium strigosely hairy, obo- 
vate to oval. 58. C. scirpoidea. 

Monoecious : spike androgynous, silvery-shining ; perigynium minutely pubescent, 
broadly elliptic. 59. C. oreocharis. 

Spikes several. 

Rhizome stoloniferous ; spikes dark-colored, sessile or nearly so ; perigynium 
globose, abruptly beaked ; beak short, entire or 2-lobed. 60. C. pennsylvanica. 

Rhizome caespitose ; spikes peduncled, light-green to brown. 

Perigynium oval, stipitate; beak bifid. 61. C. Rossii. 

Perigynium globose ; beak long, obliquely cut. 62. C. umbellata. 

22. TRICHOCARPAE. 

Spikes several, cylindrical, dense-flowered, sessile or the lowest one pedun- 
cled, but erect, remote, the terminal and uppermost lateral staminate, the 
others pistillate; bracts foliaceous, long and sheathing; scales purplish or 
brown, mucronate to aristate; perigynia erect, sessile, ovate to ovate-lanceo- 
late, turgid, more or less pubescent, nerved, the beak prominent, bidentate; 
stigmata 3. 

Perigynium ovate, densely pubescent. 63. C. lanugmosa. 

Perigynium ovate-lanceolate, sparingly pubescent, the beak with very long, diverg- 
ing teeth. 64. C. aristata. 

23. HYMENOCHLAENAE. 

Spikes several, androgynous or the terminal staminate, the lateral pistil- 
late, not very dense-flowered, long-peduncled and drooping; bracts folia- 
ceous, sheathing; scales hyaline, mucronate; perigynia erect to slightly 



68 CYPERACEAE. 

spreading, oval to elliptical, glabrous below, faintly nerved, the beak promi- 
nent, scabrous, bifid or bidentate; stigmata 3. 

Spikes androgynous, light-green. 65. C. Backii. 

Spikes staminate or pistillate on the same culm. 

Spikes green ; perigynium inflated, orbicular, the beak very long, linear, with 
the orifice obliquely cut. 66. C. longirostris. 

Spikes shining, reddish-brown ; perigynium elliptical, the beak entire. 

67. C. capillaris. 

24. SPIROSTACHYAE. 

Spikes several, rather short, dense-flowered, peduncled, but erect, remote, 
squarrose at maturity, the terminal staminate, the lateral pistillate ; bracts 
foliaceous, sheathing ; scales light-brown, acuminate ; perigynia greenish, 
spreading, oval to elliptical, turgid, sessile, nerved, glabrous, the beak long, 
scabrous, bifid ; stigmata 3. 

One species. 68. C. viridula. 

25. ECHINOSTACHYAE. 

Spike one, androgynous, or several, the terminal staminate, the lateral 
pistillate, cylindrical, dense-flowered, peduncled, but erect, squarrose at ma- 
turity; bracts foliaceous, very long, sheathing; scales lanceolate, light-brown; 
perigynium greenish, more or less inflated, nerved, glabrous, the beak long, 
bidentate ; stigmata 3. 

Spike one, androgynous ; perigynium reflexed at maturity, narrowly lanceolate, 
orifice of beak oblique ; rhacheola extended through orifice of the beak. 

69. C. micro glochin. 

Spikes several, the terminal staminate, the lateral pistillate ; perigynium ovate, 
much inflated, spreading at maturity, the beak bifurcate ; rhacheola not ex- 
tended. 70. C. retrorsa. 

26. PHYSOCARPAE. 

Spike one, androgynous, or several, the terminal and, sometimes, the upper- 
most lateral staminate, the others pistillate, cylindrical, sessile or the lower- 
most peduncled, dark-colored ; bracts foliaceous, sheathless-; scales lanceo- 
late, acuminate, brownish or purple; perigynia shining, spreading, but not 
reflexed, membranaceous, globular to oblong-elliptical, inflated, sessile ; 
nerved, the beak short, bidentate or merely emarginate ; stigmata 2 or 3. 

Spike single, androgynous ; perigynium elliptical, tapering into a bidentate beak. 

71. C. Engelmannii. 
Spikes several. 

Pistillate spikes cylindrical, often very long ; perigynium inflated, many-nerved, 
oblong-elliptical, tapering into a cylindrical, bifurcate beak ; stigmata 3. 

72. C. ntricitlata. 
Pistillate spikes short, blackish ; perigynium slightly inflated, broadly ovate, 

nerveless, the beak short, emarginate ; stigmata 2. 73. C. pulla. 

27. RHYNCHOPHORAE. 

Spikes several, cylindrical, very robust and dense-flowered, sessile or nearly 
so, mostly erect, contiguous, the terminal and, sometimes, the uppermost 
lateral staminate, the others pistillate; bracts foliaceous and very long, sheath- 



CYPERACEAE. 69 

ing; scales light-green, lanceolate, mucronate to aristate; perigynia greenish, 
erect, stipitate, membranaceous, ovate, much inflated, prominently nerved, 
glabrous or scabrous along the long beak, which is sharply bifurcate; stig- 
mata 3. 

Perigynium subglobose, glabrous, the beak bifurcate. 74. C. nionile. 

Perigynium very large, ovate, scabrous, prominently stipitate, the beak very long, 
bifurcate. 75. C. lupulina. 

1. Carex canescens L. In bogs from Newf. to B. C., Va., Colo, and Ore. ; 
also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 8500-11,500 ft. Marshall Pass; Lake Mor- 
aine; Trapper's Lake; Bob Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus; lat. 39-4i.* 

2. Carex tenella Schkur. In bogs, especially in the woods, from Newf. to 
B. C., N. J., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6000-11,500 ft. North Park; Castle 
Canon ; Graymont ; Colorado Springs ; near Gray's Peak ; near Pagosa. Peak ; 
Bob Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus; Twin Lakes; Little Beaver Creek; Mt. 
Elbert; along Quail Creek, near Stevens' Mine. 

3. Carex nardina Fries. From Greenl. to Alaska, Colo, and Ore.; also 
Europe. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Silver Plume; Mt. Elbert. 

4. Carex Deweyana Schwein. In woods from N. S. to Ore., Pa. and 
N. Mex. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co. 

5. Care.x gynocrates Wormskj. In bogs from Labr. and Alaska to Pa. and 
Colo. Mosquito; South Park. 

6. Carex stellulata Good. In bogs, Labr. and Alaska to Colo. ; also Europe 
and Asia. Wet Mountain Valley; Beaver Creek, Larimer Co. 

7. Carex sterilis Willd. In moist soil from Newf. to B. C, Fla. and Calif. 
-Twin Lakes ; South Park. 

8. Carex vulpinoidea Michx. In swamps and wet meadows from N. B. to 
Man., Fla., Tex. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Brantly Canon, Las Animas 
Co. 

9. Carex Hookeriana Dew. Dry meadows from Sask. and B. C. to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. about 5000 ft. Ft. Collins; Los Pinos; hills about Trinidad; 
dry meadows at Dix ; gulch south of Rist Canon. 

10. Carex occidentalis Bailey. (C. muricata A mericana .Bailey.) In mead- 
ows from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt 6500-11,000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; 
Sierra Blanca; Montrose; Estes Park; Cedar Edge; Green Mountain Falls, 
near Pike's Peak; La Plata Canon; Mt. Hesperus; gulch west of Soldier 
Canon; lat. 39-4i. 

11. Carex Hoodii Boott. (C. muricata confix a Bailey.) In meadows from 
Mont, and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Continental Divide, 
Routt Co.; foot of Mt. Richtofen, on the Michigan; Four-Mile Hill, Routt 
Co. ; Hahn's Peak, Routt Co. ; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Cd. 

12. Carex marcida Dewey. In meadows from Man. to B. C, Neb., N. M. 
and Nev. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Gunnison ; Colorado Springs ; mesas near 
Pueblo; Cucharas River, below La Veta; North Park; Pagosa Springs; 
Durango; Ft. Collins; Buena Vista; Twin Lakes; South Park; moist 
meadow, Fort Collins. 

13. Carex Sartwellii Dewey. In swamps from Out. to B. C, N. Y. and 
Utah. South Park; lat. 39-4i. 

* See footnote on page 59. 



70 CYPERACEAE. 

14. Carex Douglasii Boott. In dry or alkaline soil from Man. to B. C, Neb., 
N. M. and Calif. Alt. 5000-11,000 ft. Antonito; Ruxton Dell; Gunnison; 
Ironton; plains near Denver; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; Ft. Collins; 
La Plata Canon ; Grizzly Creek ; pasture, Walton Creek flats ; near Long's 
Peak; in the Spruce Zone, headwaters of Clear Creek. 

15. Carex teretiuscula Good. In swamps and meadows from N. Sc. to 
B. C., Pa. and Colo. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Hamor's Lake. 

16. Carex scoparia Schkur. In moist soil from N. S. to Man., Fla. and 
Colo. Alt. up to 7000 ft. Cheyenne Canon. 

17. Carex athrostachya Olney. In meadows and copses from Ass. and 
B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. North Park; Mt. Massive. 

18. Carex festiva Dewey. Grassy mountain sides and meadows from Ass. 
and B. C. to Mex. Alt. 6500-13,000 ft. Marshall Pass; Sierra Blanca; 
Seven -Lakes; Gunnison; Honnold; Cascade Canon; Chrystal Park; West 
Indian Creek; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Pass Creek; Do- 
lores ; La Plata Canon ; Bob Creek ; Silver Plume ; Andrew's Shetland ranch ; 
Mosquito; foot of Mt. Richtofen, on the Michigan; Cameron Pass; Como; 
Chambers' Lake ; Mt. Massive ; White House Mountain ; Mt Lincoln ; Pike's 
Peak; Gunnison; Georgetown; not uncommon in the Aspen and Spruce 
Zones from Silver Plume to Stevens' Mine ; Gray's Peak. 

C. festiva var. pachystachya Bailey. Bob Creek; banks of streams, near 
Pagosa Peak. 

C. festiva var. stricta Bailey. W r alton Creek flats, Routt Co. ; Georgetown ; 
Silver Plume. 

C. festiva var. decumbens Holm. Empire ; mountains near Pagosa Peak ; 
Mt. Kelso, near Stevens' Mine. 

i8a. Carex ebenea Rydb. (Carc.v festiva Haydeniana Bailey; not C. Hay- 
deniana Oln.) In mountain meadows from Alb. and B. C. to Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 6000-12,000 ft. Ironton; Alpine Tunnel; Pike's Peak; Bottomless 
Pit ; Mt. Harvard ; between Cheyenne Mountain and Seven Lakes ; near 
Pagosa Peak ; Silver Plume ; Cameron Pass ; Chambers' Lake ; Clear Creek 
Canon; Marshall Pass, Gunnison watershed; Mt. Kelso; Thompson's Canon, 
on Long's Peak; Mt. Massive; Mt. Elbert. 

19. Carex petasata Dewey. (C. Icporina Bailey in Coulter's Man.) In 
mountain meadows from Alb. and Alaska to Colo, and Ore. Alt. 10,000- 
13,000 ft. Bottomless Pit; Chambers' Lake; Windy Point on Pike's Peak; 
Cameron Pass, at timber line; La Plata River; James' Peak; Mt. Massive; 
Mt. Kelso. 

20. Carex pratensis Drej. In meadows from Ont. to Alaska, Mich, and 
Colo. Alt. 5000-8500 ft. Middle Park ; Stone Basin, Larimer Co. ; Howe's 
Gulch ; Long's Peak. 

21. Carex siccata Dewey. In dry fields and hills from Ont. to B. C., N. Y. 
and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Calvin Canon; Mosquito; La Veta River; 
Silver Plume; Fort Collins; near Pike's Peak; between Bald Mountain 
and Seven Lakes ; Chambers' Lake ; Mt. Massive ; Mt. Kelso ; Lamb's ranch, 
near Long's Peak ; Colorado Springs ; Georgetown ; South Park ; Middle 
Park, along Grand River. 

22. Carex Liddonii Boott. In meadows from Mont, and B. C. to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. about 7500 ft. Mountains in Larimer Co. ; Campton's ranch. 



CYPERACEAE. 71 

23. Carex Bonplandii minor Olney. (C. illota Bailey.) Mountains of 
Wyo., Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 11,500 ft Headwaters of Clear Creek; 
Ethel Peak, Larimer Co. 

24. Carex straminea Willd. In dry fields and on foot-hills from N. B. to 
Man., Pa. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Clear Creek 
Canon. 

25. Carex straminiformis Bailey. In dry meadows and on hillsides from 
Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 9500 ft. -West Mancos Canon. 

26. Carex festucacea Schkur. In rich soil from N. B. to Minn., Fla. and 
Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Windsor; Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co. 

27. Carex stenophylla Wahl. On dry plains from Man. to B. C., Iowa 
and Colo. Alt. 4000-10,500 ft. South Park ; Turkey Creek and tributaries ; 
mesas near Colorado Springs ; Como ; vicinity of Horsetooth ; Georgetown. 

28. Carex incurva Lightf. In alpine-arctic regions from Greenl. to Alaska 
and Colo. ; also in Europe and Asia. Alpine ridge, near Middle Park ; 
Gray's Peak; Silver Plume. 

29. Carex alpina Sw. In rocky places, in arctic or alpine regions from 
Lab. and Alaska to Ont. and Colo. Alt. 8500-12,000 ft Seven Lakes; South 
Park; Ruxton Dell; Pike's Peak; La Plata River; Beaver Creek; Idaho 
Springs; Georgetown. 

C. alpina var. Stevenii Holm. Georgetown ; Colorado Springs ; Silver 
Plume; Middle Park; Lamb's ranch, near Long's Peak; between Graymont 
and Stevens' Mine; Gray's Peak. 

30. Carex melanocephala Turcz. (C. nova Bailey.) In the mountains 
from Mont, to Colo. Alt. 8500-12,000 ft. Sierra Blanca; Middle Park; 
Alpine Tunnel; west side of Bald Mountain; Pike's Peak; Ouray; Upper 
La Plata River; Silver Plume; Oro City; Wet Mountain Valley; Chambers' 
Lake ; Mt. Elbert ; Mt. Kelso ; headwaters of Clear Creek. 

31. Carex atrata L. In arctic-alpine localities from Lab. and Alaska to 
Que., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 11,500-13,000 ft Sierra Blanca; South Park; 
Long's Peak; Gray's Peak; lat 39-4i. 

32. Carex chalciolepis Holm. Mountains of Colorado.- Alt. 8500-13,000 ft. 
Marshall Pass; Ouray; Mt Hesperus; Devil's Causeway; Cameron Pass; 
Silver Plume; Bottomless Pit; near Pagosa Peak; Little Kate Mine; West 
Spanish Peak; Bald Mountain; Pike's Peak; Estes Park; Empire; James' 
Peak; Mt Massive; Mt Elbert; Mt Kelso; Long's Peak; Gray's Peak. 

33. Carex bella Bailey. Mountains of Colo., Utah and Ariz. Alt. 9000- 
11,500 ft Sierra Blanca; Upper La Plata River; Mt. Hesperus; Stage 
Coach Mountain; West Spanish Peak; South Park. 

34. Carex Parryana Dewey. In alpine and arctic regions from Hudson 
Bay to B. C. and Colo. Alt. 6500-10,000 ft. South Park; Table Rock; 
Mosquito; South Pass; Twin Lakes; lat 39-4i. 

35. Carex Raynoldsii Dewey. In mountain meadows from Mont, and 
Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Foot of Mt. Richtofen, on the Michigan; Rabbit- 
Ear Range, Routt Co. 

36. Carex Buxbaumii Wahl. In bogs from Newf. to Alaska, Ga. and Calif. 
Twin Lakes; lat. 39-4i. 

37. Carex rhomboidea Holm. In alpine swamps of Colo. Alt. 8500-9500 
ft. In swamps near Long's Peak; Twin Lakes. 



72 CYPERACEAE. 

38. Carex vulgaris Fries. (C. Goodenovii J. Gay.) In wet grounds from 
Newf. to Alaska, Pa. and Colo. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Silver Plume. 

C. vulgaris var. lipocarpa Holm. Columbine ; Steamboat Springs, Routt 
Co. 

39. Carex rigida Good. (C. vulgaris alpina Booth.) In the mountains 
from Alaska to Colo. Alt. about 11,500 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek. 

40. Carex chimaphila Holm. Alpine regions of Colorado. Alt. 11,000- 
12,000 ft. Alpine Tunnel ; Long's Peak. 

41. Carex acutina Bailey. Mountains from Mackenzie and Alaska to Colo, 
and Ore. Alt. 8500-10,000 ft. Foot of Mt. Richtofen, on the Michigan; 
Silver Plume; Georgetown; Graymont; Lamb's ranch, near Long's Peak; 
James' Peak. 

42. C. acutina var. petrophila Holm. Dry rocks near Graymont. 

43. Carex variabilis Bailey. (C. stricta Bailey in Coulter's Man.) Wet 
meadows from Mont to Colo. Alt. 8500-11,500 ft. Seven Lakes; Sierra 
Blanca; Ruxton Dell; Grizzly Creek; Twin Lakes; Leadville; Ute Pass; 
Empire ; Cameron Pass ; Georgetown ; Mt. Massive ; Mt. Kelso. 

C. variabilis var. sciaphila Holm. Mt. Massive, 11,000 ft. 

44. Carex nebraskensis Dewey. In meadows from Nebr. to Ore. and N. 
M. -Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Wahatoya Creek; Palmer Lake; near Pike's Peak; 
Colorado Springs; Ft. Collins; Oak Creek; Weston Pass; Twin Lakes; 
Monument Park. 

45. Carex scopulorum Holm. (C. Tolmici subsessilis Bailey, in part.) 
Mountains of Colo. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Sierra Blanca; Marshall Pass; 
Pike's Peak; Clark's Peak; Bottomless Pit; Mt. Harvard; Estes Park; Sil- 
ver Plume ; Mt. Massive ; headwaters of Clear Creek ; Stevens' Mine ; Mt. 
Kelso; Gray's Peak. 

46. Carex magellanica Lam. In bogs from Newf. to B. C., Pa. and Utah ; 
also in Europe and South America. Alt. about 8500 ft. Estes Park. 

47. Carex aurea Nutt. In wet meadows from Newf. to B. C., Pa., Utah 
and Wash. Alt. 4000-11,000 ft. Gunnison; Palsgrove Canon; Seven Lakes; 
Green Mountain Falls ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Wahatoya Creek ; Piedra ; 
Los Pinos ; Georgetown ; Elk River, Routt Co. ; Mancos ; West Mancos 
Canon; North Park; Twin Lakes; Mt. La Plata; Clear Creek Canon, near 
Graymont. 

48. Carex Torreyi Tuck. In dry soil from N. Y. to N. W. T. and Colo. 
Near Golden City. 

49. Carex polytrichoides Willd. In bogs and swamps from Newf. to B. C, 
Fla., Tex. and Ore. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Twin Lakes; lat. 39-4i- 

50. Carex Geyeri Boott. Dry mountain sides from Mont, and B. C. to 
Colo, and Ore. Alt. 8500-11,000 ft. Bob Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus; 
North Park, near Teller ; foot of Mt. Richtofen, on the Michigan ; Chambers' 
Lake; lat. 39-4i. 

51. Carex nigricans C. A. Mey. On the higher mountains from Alb. and 
Alaska to Colo, and northern Calif. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Telluride; 
Thompson's Canon, on Long's Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek; lat. 39- 

4i- 

52. Carex pyrenaica Wahl. On the higher mountains from Alb. and 
Alaska to Colo, and Ore.; also in Europe. Alt 11,500-14,000 ft. Sierra 



CYPERACEAE. 73 

Blanca; Mt. Harvard ; Gray's Peak; Cameron Pass; Telluride; Pagosa Peak; 
Long's Peak; lat. 39-4i- 

53. Carex misandra R. Br. In arctic and alpine regions from Lab. to 
Alaska and Colo.; also in Europe and Asia. Alt. about 12,000 ft. Gray's 
Peak. 

54. Carex rupestris All. In alpine and arctic regions from Greenl. to 
Alaska and Colo. Alt. 11,500-13,000 ft. Pike's Peak; Cumberland Mines; 
Gray's Peak; James' Peak; Mt. Elbert; Long's Peak; Floral Mountain; 

lat. 39-4i. 

55. Carex obtusata Lilj. On dry hills and prairies from Newf. and B. C. 
to Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Ruxton Dell; Georgetown; Chicken Creek, 
west of Mt. Hesperus; South Park; Long's Peak; lat. 39-4i- 

56. Carex filifolia Nutt. On dry plains from Man. to B. C., Neb., Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Lat. 39-4i; Ute Pass; Table Rock; Silver 
Plume. 

57. Carex elynoides Holm. Mountains of Colo. Alt. 11,500-13,000 ft 
Alpine Tunnel; near Pagosa Peak; Mt. Princeton, Chaffee Co.; Mt. Mas- 
sive and Mt. Kelso. 

58. Carex scirpoidea Michx. In rocky soil from Greenl. to Alaska, Mass. 
and Calif. San Juan Co.; South Park; lat. 39-4i. 

59. Carex oreocharis Holm. Mountains of Colo. Alt. about 8500 ft. 
Lamb's ranch, near Long's Peak. 

60. Carex pennsylvanica Lam. In dry soil from N. B. to Alb., N. C. and 
Colo. In the state only represented by var. vespertina Bailey. Alt. 5000- 
8500 ft. New Windsor; Colorado Springs; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Ft. Col- 
lins ; headwaters of Pass Creek ; Como ; vicinity of Horsetooth ; Trail Creek 
and Rist Canon ; Ute Pass ; mountains near Central City ; Dixon Canon ; 
Horsetooth Gulch. 

61. Carex Rossii Boott. Mountains from Alb. and B. C. to Colo. Alt. 
6000-11,500 ft. Middle Park; Chambers' Lake; Cameron Pass; Little Kate 
Mine, La Plata Mountains ; Silver Plume ; near Pagosa Peak ; Colorado 
Springs; Twin Lakes; headwaters of Beaver Creek; Mt. Massive; head- 
waters of Clear Creek. 

62. Carex umbellata Schkur. In dry soil from N. Sc. to Ore., N. J. and 
Colo. In the state represented by var. brevirostris Boott. Alt. about 6000 
ft. Near Golden City. 

63. Carex lanuginosa Michx. In swamps and wet meadows from N. Sc. 
to B. C, N. J., N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Gunnison ; Twin Lakes ; 
Windsor; Turkey Creek and tributaries; mountains in Larimer Co.; Du- 
rango ; swales, Ute Pass ; Canon City ; Campion's ranch ; Pagosa Spring ; 
Estes Park. 

64. Carex aristata R. Br. In bogs from Ont. to Ore., N. Y. and Utah. 
Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Saguache Creek ; river bank, near Fort Collins. 

65. Carex Backii Boott. In woods and thickets from Ont. to Man., N. Y. 
and Colo. Alt. up to 5500 ft. Ft. Collins; lat. 39-4i. 

66. Carex longirostris Torr. On banks and in moist thickets from N. B. 
to N. W. Terr., Pa. and Colo. In the state represented by var. minor Boott. 
Gulch west of Pennocks and south of Rist Canon; lat. 39-4i. 



74 CYPERACEAE. 

67. Carex capillaris L. In alpine-arctic regions from Greenl. to Alaska, 
N. H. and Colo. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. South Park; West Spanish Peak; 
Pike's Peak; Georgetown; Devil's Causeway; West Mancos Canon; Twin 
Lakes ; Middle Park ; Thompson's Canon, on Long's Peak ; Silver Plume ; 
lat. 39-4i. 

68. Carex viridula Michx. In bogs and among wet rocks from Newf. to 
Wash., Pa., Colo, and Utah. Hamor's Lake. 

69. Carex microglochin Wahl. In arctic-alpine regions from Greenl. to B. 
C. and Mont.; also in Colo., Europe and Asia. Lat. 39-4i. 

70. Carex retrorsa Schkur. In swamps and wet meadows from N. S. to 
Ore., Pa. and Colo. Durango. 

71. Carex Engelmannii Bailey. Alpine slopes of Colo. Alt. about 12,000 
ft. Silver Plume; Upper Clear Creek region. 

72. Carex utriculata Boott. In marshes from Lab. to B. C., Del. and Calif. 
Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Gunnison ; Veta Pass; South Park; Bijou Basin; 
Steamboat Springs ; Bob Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus ; Hamor's Lake, north 
of Durango ; Cascades near Pike's Peak ; Twin Lakes ; Upper Laramie River ; 
near Chambers' Lake; Little Beaver Creek. 

C. utriculata var. minor. Not uncommon with the type. 

73. Carex pulla Good. (C. saxatilis L.) In arctic-alpine regions from 
Greenl. to Alaska and Colo. ; also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. 
Seven Lakes ; Deep Creek Lake ; White River Plateau. 

74. Carex morale Tuck. In marshes and wet meadows, N. Sc. to B. C., 
N. J. and Calif. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Twin Lakes ; Upper Laramie River ; 
Chambers' Lake ; Hamor's Lake. 

75. Carex lupulina Muhl. In swamps from Out. to Mont., Fla. and Tex. 
Alt. up to 6500 ft. Durango. 

Order 14. ARALES. 

Plants normal, with flowers on a spadix. Fam. 20. ARACEAE. 

Plants reduced to small floating thalloid structures, with only 1-3 flowers. 

Fam. 21. LEMNACEAE. 

Family 20. ARACEAE. ARUM FAMILY. 
i. ACORUS L. SWEET FLAG, CALAMUS. 

i. Acorus Calamus L. In marshes and streams from N. S. to Minn., Fla., 
Colo, and Texas. Alt. 3500-4500 ft. Fort Collins. 

Family 21. LEMNACEAE Dumort. DUCK-WEED FAMILY. 

i. LEMNA L. DUCK- WEED. 

Fronds long-stalRed, mostly submerged, forming large masses. i. L. trisulca. 
Fronds short-stalked or sessile, floating on the surface. 

Fronds pale and usually strongly gibbous beneath. 2. L. gibba. 

Fronds green or purplish beneath, not gibbous. 3. L. minor. 

i. Lemna trisulca L. In springs and running water from N. S. to Sask., 
B. C., N. J., Tex. and Cal. ; also in the Old World. Alt. 3500-8000 ft. 



LEMNACEAE. 75 

Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron ; near Grand 
Lake ; Spicer, Larimer Co. 

2. Lemna gibba L. In ponds from Nebr. to Cal., Tex. and Mex. ; also in 
the Old World and Australia. Alt. 3500-12,500 ft. Pike's Peak; near 
Boulder. 

3. Lemna minor L. In still water and slow streams from Lab. to Alaska, 
Fla. and Mex. ; also in the Old World and Australia. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. 
Trinidad ; along Uncompahgre River, near Ouray ; Ironton Park, 9 miles 
south of Ouray; Hayden, Routt Co. 



Order 15. XYRIDALES. 

Calyx and corolla free, of very different members ; stamens free. 

Fam. 22. COMMELINACEAE. 

Calyx and corolla of quite similar members and partly united ; stamens partly 
adnate to the perianth. Fam. 23. PONTIDERIACEAE. 



Family 22. COMMELINACEAE. SPIDERWORT FAMILY. 
Perfect stamens 3, rarely 2 ; petals unequal ; bracts spathe-like. 

I. COMMELINA. 

Perfect stamens 6, rarely 5 ; petals all alike ; bracts leaf-like. 2. TRADESCANTIA. 

i. COMMELINA. DAY-FLOWER, DEW -FLOWER. 

i. Commelina crispa Wooton. In sandy soil from Mo. to Neb., Colo., Tex. 
and N. M. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Canon City. 

2. TRADESCANTIA L. SPIDERWORT. 

Flowers 1-1.5 cm. in diameter; plant glabrous or calyx and pedicels sparingly 
glandular; leaves 4-6 mm. wide. i. T. scopulorum. 

Flowers 2-3 cm. in diameter ; calyx and pedicels usually densely glandular-pube- 
scent ; leaves 6-8 mm. wide. 2. T, occidentalis. 

1. Tradescantia scopulorum Rose. In moist ground from Black Hills of 
S. D. to Colo., N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Boulder; Denver; Colo- 
rado City. 

2. Tradescantia occidentalis Britton. On sand-hills and in rocky ground 
from Neb. to Mont., Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Denver ; Eads ; New 
Windsor; Fort Collins; Walsenburg; near Boulder; Pennock's mountain 
range ; Spring Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Wray. 



Family 23. PONTEDERIACEAE Dumort. PICKERELL-WEED FAMILY. 

i. HETERANTHERA Willd. 

i. Heteranthera limosa (Sw.) Willd. In shallow water or mud from Va. 
to Neb., Fla. and La. and Colo.; also W. Ind., Mex. and Cent. Am. Alt. 
4000-5500 ft. Between Longmont and Loveland ; eastern Larimer County ; 
west side of Cache La Pondre ; Limnath Co. 



76 MELANTHACEAE. 

Order 16. LILIALES. 

Styles present, distinct or united ; stigmas terminal. 

Styles distinct ; capsule septicidal. 24. MELANTHACEAE. 

Styles united, often very short or obsolete during anthesis. 

Capsules septicidal ; petals and sepals very unlike. 30. CALOCHORTACEAE. 
Capsules loculicidal ; petals and sepals nearly alike. 

Sepals and petals chaffy. 25. JUNCACEAE. 

Sepals and petals not chaffy. 

Herbs with bulbs, corms or rootstocks. 

Plants with bulbs or conns, or short, erect rootstocks. 

Flowers in umbels, at first included in and later subtended by a 

scarious involucre. 26. ALLIACEAE. 

Flowers solitary or racemose, or in Leucocrinum by shortening of 

the stem umbel-like, without involucre. 27. LILIACEAE. 

Plants with elongated, horizontal rootstocks. 28. CONVALLARIACEAE. 
Shrubby plants with woody caudices or trees. 29. DRACAENACEAE. 

Styles wanting. 

Flowers perfect ; plants not climbing. 

Leaves and bracts alternate ; plants with bulbs ; fruit a capsule. 

30. CALOCHORTACEAE. 
Leaves or leaf-like bracts whorled ; plants with rootstock ; fruit a berry. 

31. TRILLIACEAE. 
Flowers dioecious ; plants climbing or trailing. 32. SMILACACEAE. 



Family 24. MELANTHACEAE R. Br. BUNCH-FLOWER FAMILY. 

Plants with rootstock and large oval clasping leaves ; petals and sepals gland- 
less, i- VERATRUM. 

Plants with bulbs and linear leaves ; petals and sepals with more or less distinct 

glands. 

Ovary partly inferior ; glands obcordate. 2. ANTICLEA. 

Ovary wholly superior ; glands obovate or semiorbicular. 3. TOXICOSCORDION. 

i. VERATRUM L. WHITE HELLEBORE. 

Petals oblong-lanceolate. i- V. tenuipetalum. 

Petals oval. 2. V. speciosum. 

1. Veratrum tenuipetalum Heller. Along stream in Colorado. Alt. about 
9000 ft." Colorado " ; Rabbit-Ear Pass ; Fish Creek Falls. 

2. Veratrum speciosum Rydb. (V . calif ornicum Wats., and Coulter; not 
Durand.) In Colorado also erroneously called Skunk Cabbage. In moun- 
tain meadows, along streams, from Mont, to Wash., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 
6500-10,000 ft. Breckenridge ; Marshall Pass; Indian Creek Pass; Waha- 
toya Creek, near La Veta; Pagosa Peak; Columbine; Oak Mesa. 

2. ANTICLEA Kunth. 

Petals and sepals 7-8 mm. long, 7-i3-nerved. i. A. elegans. 

Petals and sepals 5-6 mm. long, 3-7-nerved. 2. A. color adensis. 

i. Anticlea elegans (Pursh) Rydb. (Zygadenus elegans Pursh; Z. dila- 
tatus Greene) In meadows from Sask. to Alaska, Colo, and Nev. Alt. 
6500-12,500 ft La Veta; Indian Creek Pass; La Plata Mountains; Cham- 
bers' Lake; North Cheyenne Canon; Larimer County; Marshall Pass; Al- 



MELANTHACEAE. 77 

pine; Ruxton Park; Minnehaha; Mount Garfield; mountains above Gray- 
mont ; Medicine Bow Mountain ; Silverton. 

2. Anticlea coloradensis Rydb. In the mountains from Colo, to Utah and 
N. M. Alt. 8500-12,000 ft. Idaho Springs ; Leroux Creek ; Mt. La Plata ; 
Marshall Pass; Steamboat Springs; Estes Park; Middle Park; Pike's Peak; 
high mountains about Empire ; divide between Arkansas River and Bayou 
Salade ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; above Beaver Creek ; Rist Canon ; bank 
of the Michigan; Gore Pass; Stove Prairie Hill; Redstone; Baxter's ranch; 
Buffalo Pass ; Medicine Bow Mountains. 

3. TOXICOSCORDION Rydb. POISON CAMASS, DEATH CAMASS, HOGS' 

POTATO. 

Petals and sepals rounded or obtuse at the apex ; leaves 3-5 mm. wide. 

i. T. gramineum. 
Petals and sepals acute at the apex; leaves over 5 mm. wide. 2. T. falcaturu. 

1. Toxicoscordion gramineum Rydb. (Zygadenus venenosus Wats., in part.) 
Gravelly hillsides from Sask. to Ida. and Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Howe's 
Gulch. 

2. Toxicoscordion falcatum Rydb. {Zygadenus Nuttallii Coulter, in part ; 
not A. Gray.) Hills and mesas of Colorado. Alt. 5000-7500 ft. Fort Col- 
lins; La Veta; Walsenburg; Los Pinos ; Denver; Spring Canon near Cal- 
loway Ranch ; Palmer Lake ; Boulder. 

Family 25. JUNCACEAE Vent. RUSH FAMILY. 

Leaf-sheaths open; capsules i- or 3-celled, with axial or parietal placentae; seeds 

many. i. Juxcus. 

Leaf -sheaths closed; capsule i -celled, with basal placentae; seeds 3. 

2. JUNCOIDES 

i. JUNCUS L. RUSHES. 

I. Lower bracts of the inflorescence terete, erect, appearing like a continuation 

of the stem ; inflorescence therefore apparently lateral. 

A. Flowers several in a more or less compound panicle ; seeds apiculate 

(EFFUSI). 

Stem light-green, striate when dry, on account of the free hypodermal fibro- 
vascular bundles; sepals and petals green; stamens 3. 

i. /. filiformis. 
Stem dark-green or at the base purplish, not. striate ; sepals and petals dark 

purplish-brown ; stamens 6. 

Inflorescence congested; branches 1-3 cm. long; petals and sepals acute or 
short-acuminate, almost equal in length. 2. J. balticus montanus. 

Inflorescence open ; branches 4-8 cm. long ; sepals long-acuminate and much 
exceeding the acute petals. 3. /. balticus vallicola. 

B. Flowers 1-5, of which one is subsessile and the others pediceled (SUBTRI- 

FLORI). 
Upper sheath merely bristle-pointed ; petals and sepals with green backs and 

dark-brown margins. 4. /. Drummondii. 

Upper sheaths leaf-bearing ; green backs of the petals and sepals less prominent. 

Sepals and petals linear-lanceolate, light-brown ; capsule acute. 

5. /. Parryi. 
Sepals and petals broadly lanceolate, very dark -brown ; capsule retuse. 

6. /. Hallii. 

II. Lower bracts not appearing as a continuation of the stem, or if so channeled 

on the upper side ; inflorescence terminal. 



78 JUNCACEAE. 

A. Leaves neither septate nor equitant. 
i. Leaves not fistulose ; flowers many. 

a. Flowers bracteolate, inserted singly on the branches of the inflores- 
cence ; leaves narrowly linear, either flat or subterete and channeled, 
a. Perennials; stem simple (TENUES). 

Seeds long, caudate ; leaves subterete, with a shallow groove above. 

7. J . Vaseyi. 

Seeds not caudate ; leaves flat, but often involute ; lunate in cross- 
section. 
Auricles at the summit of the sheaths membranous, whitish ; petals 

and sepals scarcely spreading. 
Auricles scarcely produced beyond the insertion, scarcely scarious ; 

inflorescence open. 
Perianth 34 mm. long, equalling the capsule. 

8. /. interior. 
Perianth 4.5-5 mm. long, exceeding the capsule. 

9. /. arizonicus. 
Auricles conspicuously produced beyond the point of insertion ; 

flowers few, congested. 10. /. confusus. 

Auricles cartilaginous, yellowish-brown ; petals and sepals spread- 
ing, ii. /. Dudleyi. 
P. Annuals; stem branching (BuroNii). 12. /. bufonius. 
b. Flowers not bracteolate, in true heads on the branches of the inflores- 
cence ; leaves broad and grasslike (GRAMINIFOLII). 

13. 7. longistylis. 

2. Leaves fistulose (i. e., hollow) ; flowers few, in small heads (CASTANEI). 
Stem leafy only at the base, but the uppermost leaf often with a long 
sheath ; petals and sepals about 4 mm. long ; leaves about i mm. in 
diameter ; lower bract of inflorescence membranous. 

14. 7. triglumis. 

Stem more or less leafy ; leaves about 2 mm. in diameter ; perianth 5-6 
mm. long; lower bracts foliaceous. 15. 7. castaneus. 

B. Leaves septate. 

1. Leaves terete, not equitant. 

a. Septa poorly developed; heads 1-3 (see 7. triglumis and 7. castaneus). 

b. Septa well developed ; heads usually several (in 7. Mertensianus usually 

only i) (NODOSI). 
Inflorescence with short branches ; flowers echinate-spreading or the 

lowest of the head reflexed ; capsule narrowly lanceolate. 
Heads 7-8 mm. in diameter ; leaf-blades erect ; petals usually longer 

than the sepals. 16. 7. nodosus. 

Heads over 10 mm. in diameter; leaf-blades usually spreading; sepals 

longer than the petals. 17. T. Torreyi. 

Inflorescence with elongated branches or in 7. Mertensianus with a single 

head ; flowers erect-ascending ; capsule oblong. 
Heads several ; leaves terete ; seeds not caudate. 

1 8. 7. trnncatus. 

Heads solitary or rarely 2-3 ; leaves somewhat flattened ; seed usually 
caudate. 19. 7. Mertensianus. 

2. Leaves equitant, laterally flattened, so that one edge is towards the stem 

(ENSIFOLII). 
Flower-clusters numerous, small, 5-i2-flowered, light-colored. 

20. J. brunncscens. 
Flower-clusters few, is-25-flowered. 

Flowers greenish or light-brown ; ligules of the sheath usually without 

auricles. 21. 7. porous. 

Flowers fuscous or very dark -brown ; ligules of the sheath produced into 
small auricles. 22. 7. saximontanus. 

i. Juncus filiformis L. In wet places from Lab. to Alaska, Pa., Utah and 
Wash. Reported from Colorado (Coulter), but doubtful. 



JUNCACEAE. 79 

2. Juncus balticus montanus Engelm. In meadows and marshes from 
Lab. to Wash., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 5000-11,000 ft. North Park; Clear 
Creek bottoms, above Georgetown; east of Ft. Collins; Hardin's ranch; 
Penn's Gulch; Lake City; Cottonwood Creek; Buena Vista; Sangre deCristo; 
Palmer Lake; Green Mountain; Georgetown; Andrew's Shetland ranch; 
Garland; Gunnison; Alpine Tunnel; Julesburg; Ruxton Dell, Pike's Peak; 
Cucharas River; Cambres; Moon's ranch; along the Conejos River, north 
of Antonito; Leroux Creek; Table Rock; Chambers' Lake; Gore Pass. 

3 Juncus balticus vallicola Rydb. In wet meadows from Mont, to Alaska, 
Colo., Utah and Wash. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Denver; Andrews' Shetland 
ranch ; Mancos ; Dolores. 

4. Juncus Drummondii Mey. On wet alpine slopes from Mont, to Alaska, 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8500-13,000 ft. Red Mountain, south of Ouray; 
Georgetown; Windy Point and Bottomless Pit, Pike's Peak; Sierra Blanca; 
Alpine Tunnel; Cameron Pass; Pagosa Peak; Ironton; Berthoud Pass; 
Buffalo Pass ; Park Range ; mountains west of Cameron Pass ; Buffalo Pass ; 
Anita Peak, Routt Co. ; summit of North Park Range. 

5. Juncus Parryi Engelm. On alpine slopes from Mont, to Wash., Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Gray's Peak. 

6. Juncus Hallii Engelm. On alpine slopes of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. about 
10,000 ft. Marshall Pass. 

7. Juncus Vaseyi Engelm. In meadows from Me. to Minn, and Colo. 
Grand Lake. 

8. Juncus interior Wiegand. (J. tennis Coulter, in part; not Willd.) In 
meadows from Ills, to Wyo., Mo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Grand Lake; 
Fort Collins; plains and foot-hills near Boulder; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; 
Poudre Canon; bank of Poudre, La Porte. 

9. Juncus arizonicus Wiegand. In meadows from Texas to Col. and 
Ariz. Alt. up to about 5000 ft. New Windsor. 

10. Juncus confusus Coville. (/. tennis congestus Engelm. ; in part.) In 
wet meadows from Mont, to Wash, and Colo. Alt. 6500-10,000 ft. Chicken 
Creek; North Park; mountain north of Steamboat Springs; Fort Collins; 
Chambers' Lake; Grizzly Creek. 

11. Juncus Dudleyi Wiegand. (/. tennis Coulter, in part; not Willd.) In 
meadows from Me. to Wash., N. Y. and Mexico. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Platte 
River, Denver; Gunnison; Mancos; Cheyenne Mountain; Ft. Collins. 

12. Juncus bufonius L. In wet and sandy soil from Lab. to Alaska, Fla., 
Calif, and Mex. ; also in the Old World. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Georgetown; 
Gunnison; Fort Collins; Wahatoya Creek; Villa Grove; Hebron; plains and 
foot-hills, near Boulder. 

13. Juncus longistylis Torr. In meadows from Alb. to Ida., Nebr., N. M., 
Calif, and Mex. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Dolores; Chambers' Lake; Moon's 
ranch ; Trimble Springs, Durango ; Upper Larimie River ; Pike's Peak ; head- 
waters of Pass Creek; Ruxton Dell; La Veta; Gunnison; Blind Canon; 
Placer; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Denver; South Cheyenne Canon; head- 
waters of Clear Creek; Gunnison; Como; Leroux Creek; Graymont. 

14 Juncus triglumis L. In arctic and alpine regions from Lab. to Alaska, 
N. Y. and Colo. Alt. about 11,500 ft Seven Lakes; headwaters of Clear 
Creek. 



80 JUNCACEAE. 

15. Juncus castaneus Smith. In arctic and alpine regions from Greenl. to 
Alaska and Colo. Alt. 9500-12,500 ft. Seven Lakes; headwaters of Clear 
Creek ; Ruxton Park. 

16. Juncus nodosus L. In wet meadows, along rivers and in marshes, from 
N. Sc. to Mackenzie River, B. C, Va. and Nev. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Trimble 
Springs ; Durango ; Colorado Springs ; Ft. Collins ; Poudre Canon. 

17. Juncus Torreyi Coville. In wet places, especially in sandy soil, from 
N. Y. to Mont, Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Plains and foot-hills, near 
Boulder; Huerfano Valley; Walsenburg; Julesburg; Fort Collins; Canon 
City; Denver; Larimer County; Colorado Springs. 

18. Juncus truncatus Rydb. (/. alpinus insignis of Coulter's Man. ; in 
part.) In wet places in Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Meadow 
Height ; Elk River, Routt Co. ; Grizzly Creek. 

19. Juncus Mertensianus Bong. In wet mountain meadows from Mont, to 
Alaska, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8500-11,000 ft. Pagosa Peak; North Park; 
Marshall Pass; Breckenridge ; Georgetown; Ironton; Red Mountain, Ouray; 
Buffalo Pass ; Park Range. 

A form with 2 or 3 heads was collected on the Upper La Plata River. This 
has been taken for the var. paniculatus Engelm., to which it scarcely belongs. 

20. Juncus brunnescens Rydb. (/. xiphioides montanus Engelm., in part.) 
In wet meadows from Colo, to Nev., N. M. and Ariz. -Pagosa Spring. 

21. Juncus parous Rydb. In wet mountain meadows from Colo, to N. M. 
Garland ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Steamboat Springs ; Pike's Peak. 

22. Juncus saximontanus A. Nelson. (/. xiphioides montanus Engelm., 
mainly.) In wet meadows from Alb. to B. C., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8500- 
10,000 ft. La Plata River; Garland; Pagosa Springs; Sangre de Cristo 
Creek; Carlton Lake, near Grand Lake; Ouray; Redcliffe; Rogers; Mount 
Harvard; Steamboat Springs; Ironton Park, Ouray; foot of Mount Richto- 
fen, on the Michigan; Steamboat Springs; Graymont; Gypsum Creek Canon; 
Hebron, North Park. 

2. JUNCOIDES Adans. WOOD-RUSH. 

Flowers on slender pedicels in a corymbiform inflorescence. i. /. parviflorum. 
Flowers subsessile in headlike or spikelike clusters. 
Spikelets peduncled, forming a corymb. 

Flowers light-yellow. 2. J. comosum. 

Flowers brown or feruginous. .3. /. intermedium. 

Spikelets subsessile, forming a compound spike. 

Plant tall, 4-5 dm. high ; inflorescence subcapitate ; stem-leaves broad and 
flat ; bractlets not ciliate. 4. /. subcapitatum. 

Plant 1-2, rarely 3-4 dm. high ; spike usually elongated and nodding ; stem- 
leaves narrow, attenuate ; bractlets ciliate. 5. /. spicatum. 

i. Juncoides parviflorum (Ehrh.) Coville. (Luzula spadicca parvinora 
and v. mclanocarpa Meyer.) In wet meadows from Greenl. to Alaska, Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 8500-11,500 ft. Beaver Creek; White River Plateau; Silver 
Plume ; Crystal Park ; Villa Grove ; Cameron Pass ; Mt. Robinson ; Seven 
Lakes, Pike's Peak ; Pagosa Peak ; Caribou ; Bald Mountain ; Salida ; head- 
waters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Little Kate Mine, La Plata Mountains. 



JUNCACEAE. 81 

2. Juncoides comosum (Meyer) Sheld. (Lusula comosa Meyer.) In wet 
meadows from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, and Cal. Alt. about 8500 ft. Crystal 
Park. 

3. Juncoides intermedium (Thuill.) Rydb. (Lusula campestris Am. auth.) 
In woodlands and meadows from Newf. to B. C, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 
8500-10,000 ft. North Park; Chambers' Lake; Middle Park. 

4. Juncoides subcapitatum Rydb. Along mountain streams, near the tim- 
ber line. Found only at the type locality. Silver Plume. 

5. Juncoides spicatum (L.) Kuntze. (Luzula spicata Desv.) On hillsides 
and in mountain meadows from Greenl. to B. C., N. H. and Calif. Alt. 
10,000-13,000 ft. Cameron Pass; Pagosa Peak; La Plata Mountains; Pike's 
Peak ; West Spanish Peak ; Seven Lakes ; Mt. Harvard ; Mt. Garfield ; Gray's 
Peak. 

Family 26. ALLIACEAE Batch. ONION FAMILY. 

i. ALLIUM L. ONION, GARLIC, LEEK, CHIVES. 

I. Bulb crowning a persistent rootstock. 

Leaves terete and hollow. i. A. sibiricum. 

Leaves flat or channeled, not hollow. 

Umbels not nodding ; petals and sepals long-acuminate. 

2. A. brevistylum. 
Umbels nodding ; petals and sepals obtuse or acute. 

Leaves rounded-convex on the back, not keeled. 3. A. recurvatum. 
Leaves almost flat and keeled. 

Umbels few-flowered ; leaves 1-2 mm. wide. 4. A. neo-mexicanum. 

Umbels many-flowered; leaves 3-5 mm. wide. 5. A. cernuum. 

II. Bulbs without rootstock. 
Outer bulb coat fibrous. 

Umbels bulblet-bearing. 6. A. rubrum. 

Umbels not bulblet-bearing. 

Capsule not crested ; involucre usually 3-leaved. 7. A. Nuttallii. 
Capsule more or less crested. 

Bracts broadly ovate in anthesis, not reflexed ; flowers white or light-rose ; 

several layers of the bulb-coat fibrous. 
Petals and sepals over i cm. long ; peduncles often 2 or 3 from the 

loose sheaths; bracts 3. 8. A. macropetalum. 

Petals and sepals less than i cm. long ; peduncles single from the 

close sheaths ; bracts usually 2. 
Plant 3-6 dm. high; pedicels 12-15 mm. long; petals and sepals 6-8 

mm. long. 9- A. Geyeri. 

Plant 1-3 dm. high; pedicels 8-12 mm. long; petals and sepals about 

5 mm. long. 10. A. reticulatum. 

Bracts lanceolate, usually 3, soon reflexed ; only the outer bulb-coat 

fibrous; flowers red-purple. n. A. Pikeanum. 

Outer bulb-coat not fibrous, but often more or less reticulated. 

Petals long-acuminate, serrulate. 12. A. acuminatum. 

Petals acute, not serrulate. 13- A. Brandegei. 

1. Allium sibiricum L. (A. Schoenoprasum Am. auth., mostly; not L.) 
In dry places from Me. to Alaska, N. Y., Colo, and Oreg. Alt. 5000-8500 
ft. Upper Laramie River; Northern State line. 

2. Allium brevistylum S. Wats. In wet woodlands from Mont, to Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. 6500-9000 ft. Canon of the Cache la Poudre; North Park, 
near Teller; North Platte, near Hebron; Cerro Summit, near Chambers 
Lake ; forks of Poudre and Big South. 

6 



CONVALLARIACEAE. 

3. Allium recurvatum Rydb. (A. cernuum of Coulter's Man., mainly.) On 
banks and hillsides from the Black Hills of S. D. to B. C. and N. M Alt. 
5000-8500 ft. Colorado Springs ; Cheyenne Mountain ; Pike's Peak ; Gunni- 
son ; Garden of the Gods ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Engelmann Canon ; Par- 
lin, Gunnison County ; Minnehaha ; Yampa ; Villa Grove ; Cerro Summit ; 
Larimer County; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Howe's Gulch; 
Redstone ; Poudre Canon ; Clear Creek bottoms, below Georgetown ; Em- 
pire. 

4. Allium neo-mexicanum Rydb. In rocky places of Colo., N. M. and Ariz. 
Headwaters of Clear Creek. 

5. Allium cernuum Roth. In rich, rocky soil from N. Y. to Sask., Mont., 
W. Va. and Colo., but very rare in the Rocky Mountain region. Pagosa 
Springs. 

6. Allium rubrum Osterhout. In rich ground from Colorado and Wyo- 
ming. North Park, Continental Divide; in pastures along Walton Creek. 

7. Allium Nuttallii S. Wats. In dry, rocky or sandy plains from S. D. to 
Wyo., Kans. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Colorado Springs; Denver; south- 
west of Ward, Boulder County. 

8. Allium macropetalum Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Palisades. 

9. Allium Geyeri S. Wats. (A. dictyotum Greene; A. reticulatum deser- 
ticola Jones.) In dry soil and hillsides from N. D. to Wash, and N. M. 
Alt. 5000-11,500 ft. Upper La Plata Canon; Indian Creek Pass; Pagosa 
Springs; near Ironton; Mt. Abram; Red Mountain road, near Ouray; Ci- 
marron; Swallows, between Pueblo and Canon City; Dixon Canon; Ft. Col- 
lins ; mountains above Manitou ; Como and vicinity ; gulch west of Pen- 
nock's ; Spring Cation ; Moon's ranch ; Dillon Canon ; Medicine Bow Moun- 
tains. 

10. Allium reticulatum Eraser. In dry, gravelly soil from Sask. to Idaho, 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. 5000-8500 ft. Mesas near Pueblo ; La Veta ; Aztec ; 
Arboles ; South Park ; Soldier Canon ; Horsetooth Mountain ; Quimby ; 
Horsetooth Gulch. 

11. Allium Pikeanum Rydb. In rocky places in Colo. Alt. 11,000-13,000 
ft. Pike's Peak : near Halfway House ; Bald Mountain ; Peak Valley. 

12. Allium acuminatum Hook. In dry soil from Mont, to B. C., Col., 
Ariz, and Ore. Alt. 6500-8500 ft. Mancos; Cerro Summit; Honnold; Du- 
rango; Dolores. 

13. Allium Brandegei S. Wats. From Ida. to Wash., Colo, and Ore. Elk 
Mountains ; Steamboat Springs ; Rabbit-Ear Range, Routt Co. 



Family 27. LILIACEAE Adans. LILY FAMILY. 

Plant with a short rootstock ; flowers subumbellate on subterranian pedicels from 
the crown of the rootstock ; petals and sepals united into a long tube. 

i. LEUCOCRINUM. 
Plant with bulbs or corms, either leafy-stemmed or scapiferous ; petals and sepals 

distinct or nearly so. 
Bulb scaly ; plant tall, leafy. 

Anthers versatile ; petals and sepals oblanceolate, clawed with a linear nec- 
tariferous groove. 2. LILIUM. 



LILIACEAE. 

Anthers fixed near the base, slightly if at all versatile; petals and sepals 
obovate-oblanceolate, not clawed, in ours mottled ; nectary a shallow pit. 

3. FRITILLARIA. 

Bulb tunicated, anthers strictly basifixed. 

Leaves 2, basal or nearly so ; flowers nodding. 4. ERYTHRONIUM. 

Leaves several, alternate ; flowers not nodding. 5. LLOYDIA. 

i. LEUCOCRINUM Nutt. 

i. Leucocrinum montanum Nutt. In sandy soil from S. D. to Mont, and 
Colo. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Denver; headwaters of Clear Creek; Boulder; 
Pike's Peak; Colorado Springs; Larimer County; New Windsor; Table 
Rock; Howe's Gulch; gulch west of Dixon Canon; Spring Canon; bank of 
Cache la Poudre River; Rist Canon; bluffs north of La Porte; hills west 
of Soldier Canon; vicinity of Horsetooth Gulch; Boulder; Colorado City. 

2. LILIUM L. LILY. 

Leaves linear. i. L. umbellatum. 

Leaves lanceolate. 2. L. montanum. 

1. Lilium umbellatum Pursh. Hills, among bushes, from Hudson Bay to 
B. C, Ky. and Colo. Baxter's ranch; Empire. 

2. Lilium montanum A. Nelson. On hills, among bushes, from Mont, to 
Colo. Alt. 6500-10,000 ft. Crystal Park; West Spanish Peak; Hamor's 
Lake, north of Durango; Larimer County; Long Gulch; Stove Prairie Hill; 
Rist Canon; Laramie River, at Sherwood's. 

3. FRITILLARIA L. FRITILLARY, TIGER LILY. 

i. Fritillaria atropurpurea Nutt. On hillsides from N. Dak. to Ida., Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 4000-9500 ft. Poverty Ridge, near Cimarron; Lamb's ranch. 

4. ERYTHRONIUM. ADDER'S-TONGUE, DOG-TOOTH VIOLET. 

i. Erythronium parviflorum (S. Wats.) Gooding. (E. grandiflorum parvi- 
Horum S. Wats.) On rich hillsides from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 
8500-11,500 ft Cameron Pass; Bear Creek Divide; West La Plata Moun- 
tains; North Park; Grand Mesa; mountain west of North Park; source of 
Leroux ; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

5. LLOYDIA Salisb. 

i. Lloydia serotina (L.) Sweet. In exposed alpine or arctic regions from 
Mont, to Alaska and Colo.; also in the Old World. Alt. 10,000-14,000 ft 
Crystal Lake; Arapahoe Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek; Red Mountain; 
Saddle Cliff, Pike's Peak; Alpine Tunnel; Carson; West Spanish Peak; Mt. 
Hesperus ; mountains above Graymont ; Franklin ; mountains northeast of 
Boreas. 

Family 28. CONVALLARIACEAE Link. LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY FAMILY. 

Sepals and petals distinct. 

Flowers white, in terminal racemes or panicles ; anthers introrse, stem simple. 

i. VAGNERA. 

Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary or in small umbelliform clusters ; anthers 
extrorse or opening laterally ; stem branched. 



84 CALOCHORTACEAE. 

Flowers axillary, greenish-white ; filaments slender ; anthers acute. 

2. STREPTOPUS. 

Flowers terminal, yellow; filaments dilated; anthers obtuse. 3. DISPORUM. 
Sepals and petals partially united into a tube; flowers axillary. 4. SALOMOMA. 

i. VAGNERA Adans. FALSE SOLOMON'S SEAL, WILD SPIKENARD. 

Inflorescence paniculate. 

Leaf-blades acuminate ; the lower contracted at the base into distinct petioles. 

i. V. racemosa. 

Leaf-blades acute; all sessile and more or less clasping. 2. V. amplexicaulis. 
Inflorescence racemose. 

Petals and sepals linear or linear-lanceolate. 3. V. leptopetala. 

Petals and sepals oblong-lanceolate. 

Pedicels short, slightly if at all longer than the flowers or the fruit ; leaves 

lanceolate, acute. 4. V. stellata. 

Pedicels long ; the lower often 2-3 times as long as the flowers or the fruit ; 
leaves narrowly lanceolate, long-attenuate. 5. V. liliacea. 

1. Vagnera racemosa (L.) Morong. (Smilacina racemosa Desf.) In moist 
woods from N. S. to Wash., Ga. and Calif. Alt. 6500-8500 ft. Ojo; Ouray; 
Boulder Canon. 

2. Vagnera amplexicaulis (Nutt.) Morong. (Smilacina amplexicaulis 
Nutt.) In rich woods from Mont, to B. C, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6000-9000 
ft. La Plata River Canon; Big Creek Gulch, Routt Co.; Black Canon; 
Poverty Ridge, Cimarron ; Redcliffe ; Ouray ; Veta Mountain ; headwaters 
of Pass Creek; near Pagosa Peak; Gore Pass; banks of Fish Creek; gulch 
south of Boulder ; Hematite. 

3. Vagnera leptopetala Rydb. In dark, wooded canons of Colo. Alt. 
9000-10,000 ft. Headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Dark Canon; 
Chicken Creek, West La Plata Mountains; near Pagosa Peak; Los Pinos. 

4. Vagnera stellata (L.) Morong. (Smilacina stellata Desf.) In open 
woodlands from Newf. to Sask., Mont., Va. and Colo. Alt. 4000-12,000 ft. 
Ojo; Halfway House, Pike's Peak; Colorado Springs; Ft. Collins; banks of 
Poudre River, north of La Porte ; Horsetooth Gulch ; mountain north of 
Steamboat Springs; Franklin; Campion's ranch. 

5. Vagnera liliacea (Greene.) Rydb. (Smilacina scssilifolia of Coulter's 
Man. in part, not Nutt.) In moist woodlands from S. D. to B. C., N. M. and 
Calif. Alt. 7500-9000 ft. Chaparral-covered hills southeast of Ouray; Van 
Boxle's Ranch, above Cimarron ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; 
Pike's Peak. 

2. STREPTOPUS Michx. TWISTED-STALK. 

i. Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. In moist wood from Greenl. to 
Alaska, N. C., Colo, and Ore. Alt. 6500-10,000 ft. Cameron Pass ; Rabbit- 
Ear Range; Upper La Plata River; near Pagosa Peak; Sangre de Cristo 
Creek; Keblar Pass; Columbine; Grant Lake; Jack Brook; mountains above 
Beaver Creek ; Bosworth's ranch ; Stove Prairie ; Big Creek Gulch ; Steam- 
boat Springs. 

3. DISPORUM Salisb. 

i. Disporum trachycarpum (S. Wats.) B. & H. (Prosartcs trachycarpa 
S. Wats.) On mountain sides and in canons from Man. to B. C., Colo, and 



CONVALLARIACEAE. 85 

Ariz. Alt. 7500-11,000 ft. Chaparral-covered hills southeast of Ouray; 
mountains about Ouray ; near Pagosa Peak ; Tunnel Mountain ; gulch south 
of Boulder; foot-hills near Ft. Collins; Big Creek Gulch, Routt Co.; Eldora; 
Baltimore. 

4. SALOMONIA. 

i. Salomonia commutata (R. & S.) Britton. (Polygonatum giganteum 
Dietr.) River banks and moist woods from R. I. to Utah, Ga. and Ariz. 
Locality not given. 

Family 29. DRACAENACEAE Link. YUCCA FAMILY. 

Flowers perfect, large; ovary many-ovuled and capsule many-seeded, i. YUCCA. 
Flowers polygamo-dioecious ; ovules 2 in each cell; capsule often i -seeded. 

2. NOLINA. 

i. YUCCA. YUCCA, SPANISH BAYONET. 

Fruit a dry capsule. 

Leaves narrowly linear, very long; style swollen, green. i. Y. glauca. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, short; style not swollen, white. 2. Y. Harrimaniae. 

Fruit fleshy. 3. Y. baccata. 

1. Yucca glauca Nutt. (Y. angnstifolia Pursh.) On dry plains and hills 
from Nebr. to Mont., Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Colorado Springs; 
Walsenburg; near Boulder; Poudre flats, west of Ft. Collins. 

2. Yucca Harrimaniae Trelease. On arid plains and hills of Utah and 
Western Colorado. Alt. about 6500 ft. Cimarron; Durango. 

3. Yucca baccata Torr. On arid plains from Colo, to Nev., Tex. to Calif. ; 
also in Mex. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Trinidad ; hills south of Dolores ; Durango. 

2. NOLINA Michx. 

i. Nolina Greenei S. Wats. Dry mesas, Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft 
Trinidad. 

Family 30. CALOCHORTACEAE Rydb. MARIPOSA LILY FAMILY. 

i. CALOCHORTUS Pursh. MARIPOSA LILY, SEGO LILY. 

Petals abruptly acuminate; glands oblong. i. C. acuminatits. 
Petals rounded or merely acute at the apex. 

Anthers obtuse ; glands not broader than long. 2. C. Nuttallii. 

Anthers acute; glands broader than long. 3. C. Gunnisonii. 

1. Calochortus acuminatus Rydb. On dry hills from Mont, to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. about 6500 ft. Mancos. 

2. Calochortus Nuttallii T. & G. On hillsides from Mont, to Colo, and 
Calif. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. Cimarron. 

3. Calochortus Gunnisonii S. Wats. In meadows from Mont, to Colo, and 
Ariz. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. North Park, near Teller; Boulder; headwaters 
of Clear Creek; Middle Park; Mancos; Como; Piedra; Veta Pass; Jack's 
Cabin, Gunnison watershed; Yampa; Ruxton Dell, near Pike's Peak; La 
Veta; Villa Grove; Table Rock; Four Mile Hill; Spring Canon; Horsetooth 
Gulch ; Brant's Soda Spring, near North Platte ; Trinidad ; Dixon Canon. 



86 TRILLIACEAE. 

Family 31. TRILLIACEAE Lindl. TRILLIUM FAMILY. 
i. TRILLIUM L. TRILLIUM, WAKE-ROBIN. 

i. Trillium ovatum Pursh. In rich woods from Mont, to Wash., Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. about 9000 ft. Columbine. 

Family 32. SMILACACEAE Vent. SMILAX FAMILY. 
i. NEMEXIA Raf. SMILAX, CARRION-FLOWER. 

i. Nemexia lasioneuron (Hook.) Rydb. (Smilax lasioneuron Hook.; S. 
herbacea Am. authors, in part ; Neme.via herbacea melica A. Nelson) 
Among bushes from Sask. to western Nebr. and Colo. Horsetooth Gulch ; 
along Buckhorn Creek, Larimer Co. ; Colorado Springs ; South Cheyenne 
Canon. 

Order 17. AMARYLLIDALES. 

Family 33. IXIACEAE Ecklon. IRIS FAMILY. 
Styles alternate with the stamens ; petals and sepals nearly equal. 

I. SISYRINCHIUM. 

Styles opposite and arching over the stamens, sepals much larger than the petals, 
reflexed. 2. IRIS. 

i. SlSYRINCHIUM L. BLUE-EYED GRASS. 

Outer bracts of the spathe little or not at all longer than the inner. 

Small and slender; flowers 10 mm. or less long; capsule less than 3 mm. high. 

1. 5". halophilum. 
Stouter; flowers 12 mm. or more long; capsule 4 mm. or more high. 

2. 6". occidentale. 
Outer bracts of the spathe conspicuously prolonged, sometimes 2-3 times as long 

as the inner one. 
Petals and sepals not emarginate, narrowed to the aristulate tip. 

3. S. alpestre. 
Petals and sepals more or less retuse or abruptly contracted to the aristulate 

apex. 4. 5". angusti folium. 

1. Sisyrinchium halophilum Greene. In alkaline meadows from Idaho to 
Colo, and Calif. Colorado (Bicknell). 

2. Sisyrinchium occidentale Bickn. In wet meadows from Mont, to Idaho 
and Colorado. North Park; Doyles ; Sapinero. 

3. Sisyrinchium alpestre Bickn. In mountain meadows of Colorado. 
Alt. about 8000 ft.- Parlin, Gunnison Co. 

4. Sisyrinchium angustifolium Miller. In meadows and around streams 
from Newf. to the Mackenzie River and B. C., south to Va. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-9000 ft. Gunnison; Arboles; near Seven Lakes, Pike's Peak; Crystal 
Park; Dolores; Mancos ; Chicken Creek; Grayback mining camps; Cu- 
charas River, below La Veta ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Ft. Collins ; North 
Boulder Peak. 

2. IRIS L. IRIS, BLUE FLAG, FLEUR-DE-LIS. 

i. Iris missouriensis Nutt. In meadows, marshes and along streams from 
N. Dak. to Ida., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Mancos ; Marshall 



IXIACEAE. 87 

Pass; Crystal Park; Veta Mountain; Stove Prairie; river-flats near Ft. 
Collins; Ruxton ranch; Hematite; Cherry Creek; Andrew's ranch. 

Order 18. ORCHID ALES. 
Family 34. ORCHIDACEAE Lindl. ORCHID FAMILY. 

I. Fertile stamens 2; lip a large inflated sack. i. CYPRIPEDIUM. 

II. Fertile stamen i. 

A. Pollinia caudate at the base, attached to a viscid disk or gland. 
Gland surrounded by a thin membrane ; lip toothed at the apex. 

2. COELOGLOSSUM. 

Gland naked; lip entire. 

Sepals 3-5 nerved ; plants with rootstocks or fibrous-fleshy roots. 
Stem scapiform, i -leaved at the base; anther sacks divergent. 

3. LYSIELLA. 
Stem leafy ; anther-cells parallel or nearly so. 4. LIMNORCHIS. 

Sepals i -nerved; plants with rounded or oblong, undivided corms. 

5. PIPERIA. 

B. Pollinia not produced into caudicles. 

1. Pollinia granulose or powdery. 

Anthers operculate. 6. EPIPACTIS. 

Anthers not operculate. 

Leaves green throughout, borne on the stem. 

Leaves alternate ; spike mostly twisted. 7. IBIDIUM. 

Leaves 2, opposite ; spike not twisted. 8. OPHRYS. 

Leaves white-reticulate, basal. 9- PERAMIUM. 

2. Pollinia waxy or smooth. 

Plants with corms (solid bulbs) ; rarely if ever with corralloid roots ; leaves 

solitary, not scale-like. 
Leaf cauline ; lip not sackate ; flowers small, racemose. 

10. ACHROANTHES. 

Leaf basal; lip saccate; flowers large, solitary. n. CYTHEREA. 

Plants with coralloid roots ; leaves numerous, reduced to scales. 

12. CORALLORRHIZA. 

i. CYPRIPEDIUM L. LADIES' SLIPPER. 

Leaves alternate ; flowers solitary, terminal, or also in the axils of the upper 
leaves. 

Lip 2-2.5 cm. ; rarely 3 cm. long. i . C. parviflorum. 

Lip 3.5-4 cm. long. 2. C. pubescens. 

Leaves 2, opposite or nearly so ; flowers usually several, in a contracted bracted 

raceme. 3- ^- fasciculatum. 

1. Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. In woods from Newf. to B. C, Ga. 
and Colo. La Veta; Piedra. 

2. Cypripedium pubescens Willd. In rich wood from N. S. to Minn., Ga. 
and Nebr. Stove Prairie Hill. 

3. Cypripedium fasciculatum Kell. In rich soil from Wash, to Calif, and 
Colo. Estes Park. 

2. COELOGLOSSUM Hartm. LONG-BRACTED ORCHIS. 

i. Coeloglossum bracteatum (Willd.) Parl. In boggy woods from N. B. 
to Alaska, N. C. and Colo. Exact locality not given. 



ORCHIDACEAE. 

3. LYSIELLA Rydb. 

i. Lysiella obtusata (Pursh) Rydb. In boggy places in the woods from 
Newf. to Alaska, N. Y. and Colo. Alt. 8500-11,500 ft. Chicken Creek, West 
La Plata Mountains; North Park; Clear Creek; camp on Little Beaver 
Creek; bank of Michigan, North Park. 

4. LIMNORCHIS Rydb. BOG ORCHID. 

Connective of the anther narrow ; anther cells therefore close together ; spur not 

longer than the tip. 
Flowers greenish or purplish. 

Spur Y^-Yz as long as the lip, very saccate. 

Lip linear or nearly so, 5-7 mm. long ; ovary slightly curved ; spike elon- 
gated, i. L. strict a. 
Lip lanceolate, fleshy 4-5 mm. long ; ovary strongly curved ; spike usually 
short. 2. L. pitrpurascens. 
Spur almost equalling the lip, scarcely saccate. 3. L. viridiflora. 
Flowers whitish. 4. L. borealis. 
Connective of the anther broad ; anther cells therefore distant ; spur much ex- 
ceeding the tip. 5- L. la.viflora. 

1. Limnorchis stricta (Lindl.) Rydb. In bogs from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, 
and Wash. Alt. 8500-10,000 ft. Upper La Plata; Jack Brook; Twin Lakes; 
Manitou. 

2. Limnorchis purpurascens Rydb. On rich brook-banks in the mountain 
woods of Colo. Alt. 7500-11,000 ft. Gnnnison; Parlin; Iron Mountain; 
Georgetown ; Como ; mouth of Cheyenne Canon ; Barnes' Camp ; camp on 
Little Beaver Creek ; swamp above Beaver Creek ; Franklin ; mountains north 
of Steamboat Springs. 

3. Limnorchis viridiflora (Cham.) Rydb. (Habenaria hyperborea S. Wats. 
and of Coult. Man.; not R. Br.) In bogs from Alb. to Alaska and Colo. 
Alt. 6500-10,000 ft. McCoy; Ouray; Gunnison; La Veta; Cascade; Piedra; 
Wahatoya Creek ; Georgetown ; West La Plata Mountains ; Clear Creek ; 
Barnes' Camp ; mountains above Ouray ; mountain north of Steamboat 
Springs. 

4. Limnorchis borealis (Cham.) Rydb. (Habenaria dilatata of Coult. 
Man.) In bogs from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, and Wash. Alt. 8500-10,000 
ft. Chambers' Lake ; Columbine ; Veta Pass ; Graymont ; Gore Pass ; sum- 
mit of North Park Range. 

5. Limnorchis laxiflora Rydb. In bogs from Ore. to Colo, and Utah. 
Uncompahgre Mountains ; Los Pinos ; Franklin. 

5. PIPERIA Rydb. 

i. Piperia unalaschensis (Spreng.) Rydb. (Habenaria Unalaschcnsis S. 
Wats.) In damp rich woods from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 
about 8500 ft. South Boulder Peak. 

6. EPIPACTIS R. Br. HELLEBORINE. 

i. Epipactis gigantea Dougl. In rich woodlands from Mont, to B. C, 
Western Tex. and Calif. Alt. about 8500 ft. Glenwood Springs. 



ORCHIDACEAE. 89 

7. IBIDIUM Salisb. LADIES' TRESSES. 

Callosities at the base of the lip obsolete ; lower sepals coherent with the petals 

and upper sepal. i. G. strict a. 

Callosities nipple-shaped, directed downward ; lower sepals free. 

2. G. porrifolia. 

1. Ibidium strictum (Rydb.) House. (Spiranthes Romanzoffiana of Coul- 
ter's Man.; not Cham.; Gyrostachys stricta Rydb.) In springy places, rich 
hillsides and open woods from Newf. to Alaska, Pa. and Colo. Alt. 5000- 
10,000 ft. Gunnison; West Cliff; Cabin Canon; Jack's Cabin; Parlin; Waha- 
toya Creek; Marshall Pass; Twin Lakes; Empire. 

2. Ibidium porrifolium (Lind.) Rydb. In marshes from Ida. to Wash., 
Colo, and Cal. Camp Harding, near Pike's Peak. 

8. OPHRYS (Tourn.) L. TWAYBLADE. 

Lip broad at the base, with distinct auricles, slightly cleft at the apex ; leaves 
oblong to oval. i. L. borealis. 

Lip narrow and narrowed at the base, 2-cleft for about half its length into linear- 
lanceolate lobes, without auricles, but with a pair of divergent teeth ; leaves 
reniform. 2. L. nephrophylla. 

1. Ophrys borealis (Morong) Rydb. (Listera borealis Morong) In woods 
from Hudson Bay to the Mackenzie and Mont. ; also in Colo. Saguache 
Range. 

2. Ophrys nephrophylla Rydb. (Listera cordata Am. auth., partly; not R. 
Br. ; Listera nephrophylla Rydb.) In woods from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, 
and Ore. Alt. 10,000-11,500 ft. Larimer Co.; Slide Rock Canon, West La 
Plata Mountains ; Beaver Creek ; Franklin. 

9. PERAMIUM Salisb. RATTLE-SNAKE PLANTAIN. 

Lip evidently sackate, with recurved margins. i. P. ophiodes. 

Lip scarcely sackate, with incurved margins. 2. P. Menziesii. 

1. Peramium ophioides (Fernald) Rydb. In woods from Prince Edwards 
Island to the Black Hills of S. D., N. C. and Colo. Alt. about 8500 ft 
Minnehaha; Pike's Peak. 

2. Peramium Menziesii (Lindl.) Morong. (Goodyeara Menziesii Lindl.) 
In mountain woods from Que. to B. C., N. Y. and Calif. Alt. 7500-9000 ft. 
Mt. Abram, Ouary; Pagosa Peak. 

10. ACROANTHES Raf. ADDERS' MOUTH. 

i. Acroanthes monophylla (L.) Greene. In woods from Que. to Minn., 
Pa. and Colo. Alt. about 7500 ft. Glen Mountain Falls. 

ii. CYTHEREA Salisb. CALYPSO. 

i. Cytherea bulbosa (L.) House. (Calypso borealis Salisb.) In cold 
woods from Lab. to Alaska, Me. and Calif. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Telluride; 
East Indian Creek. 



90 ORCHIDACEAE. 

12. CORALLOREHIZA R. Br. CORAL-ROOT. 

The small spur or callosity adnate to the ovary. 

Lip entire; whole plant yellow. i. C. ochroleuca. 
Lip with 2 lobes or teeth below the middle ; plant brownish. 

Lobes or teeth small ; lip unspotted ; spur very small. 2. C. Corallorrhiza. 

Lobes prominent ; lip spotted ; spur manifest. 3. C. multiflora. 

Spur or callosity lacking. 4. C. Vreelandii. 

1. Corallorrhiza ochroleuca Rydb. In woods of western Nebr. and Colo. 
Alt. about 8500 ft. 'Near La Veta. 

2. Corallorrhiza Corallorrhiza (L.) Karst. (C. innata R. Br.) In woods 
from N. Sc. to Alaska, Ga. and Colo. Alt. about 10,000 ft. Caribou. 

3. Corallorrhiza multiflora Nutt. In woods from N. S. to Alaska, Fla. 
and Calif. Alt. 4000-9500 ft Crystal Forest; Damfino Creek; Ouray; Cas- 
cade Canon ; West Indian Creek ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; near Pagosa Peak ; 
North Boulder Peak ; Elizabethtown. 

4. Corallorrhiza Vreelandii Rydb. In wet woods of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 
about 8500 ft. Veta Mountain ; Pennock's mountain ranch. 



Sub-class 2. DICOTYLEDONES. 
Order 19. SALICALES. 

Family 35. SALICACEAE Lindl. WILLOW FAMILY. 

Bracts incised ; disk cup-shaped ; stamens usually 10 or more ; stigmata elongated 
and expanded; winter buds with several scales. i. POPULUS. 

Bracts entire; disk reduced to i or more small glands; stamens less than 10, 
usually 2 ; stigmas short, not expanded ; winter-buds with one scale each. 

2. SALIX. 

i. POPULUS L. POPLAR, COTTON WOOD, ASPEN. 

Petioles strongly flattened laterally. 

Leaf-blades suborbicular, acute or very short acuminate. i. P. tremuloides. 

Leaf-blades broadly deltoid or cordate, abruptly long acuminate. 

Teeth of the leaves few, less than 10 on each side; cup of the pistillate 
flowers 6-8 mm. broad ; pedicels equalling or exceeding the capsule. 

2. P. Wisliseni. 
Teeth of the leaves many, more than 10 on each side; cup of the pistillate 

flowers less than 6 mm. broad ; pedicels shorter than the capsule. 

3. P. occidentalis. 
Petioles terete or nearly so. 

Petioles half as long as the blade or longer ; blades ovate or rhombic, abruptly 
long-acuminate. 4- P- acuminata. 

Petioles about one-third as long as the blades or less ; blades lanceolate, not 
abruptly acuminate. 5- P- angustifolia. 

1. Populus tremuloides Michx. In open woods and on mountain sides from 
Newf. to Alaska, Tenn. and Nev. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Near Georgetown; 
Cheyenne Canon ; dry rocks, Cheyenne Mountain ; Minnehaha ; chaparrel- 
covered hills southeast of Ouray; South Park; near Pagosa Peak; South 
Cheyenne Canon; Colorado Springs; Ojo; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Chicken 
Creek, West La Plata Mountains; Rist Canon ; Fort Collins; Redstone; 
Howe's Gulch. 

2. Populus Wislizeni (S. Wats.) Sarg. In canons and on river banks from 
Tex. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. River bottoms, Arboles; Grand 
Junction; plains, Colorado Springs. 

3. Populus occidentalis (Rydb.) Britton. (P. deltoides occidentalis Rydb. ; 
P. angulata Port. & Coult. ; not Ait.) In river valleys and hillsides from 
Sask. to Mont., Kans. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Plains near Denver; 
Walsenburg; Palisade; near Boulder; Lyons; Fort Collins; along the Arkan- 
sas River, Lamar; Eldora to Baltimore. 

4. Populus acuminata Rydb. On river bottoms and in canons from the 
Black Hills of S. D. to Ida., N. M. and Nev. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Fort Col- 
lins; Walsenburg; Denver; Hardin's ranch; Redstone. 

5. Populus angustifolia James. In canons and along streams from N. D. 
to Wash., N. M. and Calif. Alt. 6000-11,000 ft. Pike's Peak; Upper Platte; 
plains near Denver; South Cheyenne Canon, Colorado Springs; Gunnison; 

91 



92 SALICACEAE. 

Cimarron; chaparrel-covered hills southeast of Ouray; Turkey Creek and 
tributaries; Fort Collins; Mancos; Garden of the Gods; near Boulder; Rist 
Canon; banks of the Poudre River; Redstone; Hardin's ranch; Trinidad. 

2. SALIX L. WILLOW. 
Capsule glabrous. 

Filaments hairy, at least below ; bracts caducous, light yellow. 
Stamens 3-7 ; stipe slender, 2-5 times as long as the nectaries. 

Petioles without glands; leaves serrulate, thin. I. AMYGDALINAE. 

Petioles with glands ; leaves densely glandular-serrate. 

II. PENTANDRAE. 

Stamens 2 ; stipe very short or none. III. LONGIFOLIAE. 

Filaments glabrous ; bracts persistant, seldom light yellow. 

IV. CORDATAE. 
Capsule hairy. 
Filaments hairy. 

Leaf-blades linear to lanceolate not very veiny ; bracts caducous ; tall 

shrubs. III. LONGIFOLIAE. 

Leaf-blades oval or suborbicular, very veiny ; bracts persistent ; depressed 

shrubs. IX. RETICULATAE. 

Filaments glabrous ; bracts more or less persistent. 

Capsule rostrate, distinctly stipitate ; style none or short, always shorter 

than the stipe. 
Stipe equalling or exceeding the bracts ; styles Yz mm. or less long. 

V. ROSTRATAE. 

Stipe shorter than the bracts ; styles usually about i mm. long. 

VI. BRACHYSTACHYAE. 
Capsule scarcely rostrate, subsessile or if stipitate, stipe shorter than the 

style. 
Style evident, at least l /2 mm. long. 

Leaves permanently white-silky or tomentose, at least beneath. 

VII. PELLITAE. 

Leaves either green or grayish beneath. VIII. ARCTICAE. 

Style none ; depressed shrubs with entire strongly veined leaves. 

IX. RETICULATAE. 

I. AMYGDALINAE. 

Leaf-blades narrowly lanceolate; petioles short. i. 5. Wrightii. 

Leaf-blades broadly lanceolate ; petioles slender. 2. S. amygdaloides. 

II. PENTANDRAE. 

Represented only by 3. S. Fendleriana. 

III. LONGIFOLIAE. 
Capsule glabrous. 

Capsule sessile. 4. S. exigua. 

Capsule stipitate. 

Leaves permanently silky. 

Leaves 3-5 mm. wide ; ovary without hairy swelling at the apex. 

5. 5". luteosericea. 
Leaves 2-3 mm. wide ; ovary with a hairy swelling at the apex. 

6. 5". stenophylla. 
Leaves glabrous when mature. 7. 5". linearifolia. 

Capsule more or less pubescent. 

Capsule sparingly silky, often becoming glabrous in age. 
Leaves permanently silky ; bracts not densely silky. 

5. 5". luteosericea. 
Leaves glabrous or nearly so when mature ; bracts densely silky ; aments 

dense. 8. S. sessiliflora. 

Capsule densely white-villous ; stigma sessile. 9. 5. argophylla. 



SALICACEAE. 93 

IV. CORDATAE. 

Capsule long-stipitate ; stipe in fruit 1.5-6 mm. long, equalling or longer than 

the bracts ; style 0.5 mm. or less long ; aments leafy-peduncled. 
Leaves dark green above, strongly serrate ; young branches not light yellow. 

10. 5". cordata. 
Leaves yellowish green, entire or crenulate ; young branches light yellow. 

11. S. Watsoni. 
Capsule subsessile or very short-stipitate ; stipe in fruit less than 1.5 mm. long 

and much shorter than the bracts; style 0.5-1.5 mm. long; aments subsessile 
and naked or subtended by a few small leaves. 
Branches without a bloom. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate or obovate, more or less distinctly serrate. 
Leaves thin, ovate or obovate, light green and dull above. 

12. 6". padophylla. 
Leaves firm, dark-green and shining above, lanceolate. 

Style 1.5 mm. long; aments 2.5-6 cm. long. 13. 5". pseudocordata. 
Style less than i mm. long; aments 1-2.5 cm. long. 

14. S. monticola. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate to oblong, entire. 15. S. Wolfii. 

Branches with a bloom. 16. S. irrorata. 

V. ROSTRATAE. 

Leaves linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate. 

Leaves more or less silky ; branches usually with a bloom. 

17. 6". Geyeriana. 

Leaves not silky; branches without a bloom. 18. S. macrocarpa. 

Leaves ovate to obovate. 

Mature leaves thin, glabrous, faintly nerved. 19. 5". perrostrata. 

Mature leaves firm, pubescent or tomentose beneath, more strongly nerved. 

20. 5". Bebbiana. 

VI. BRACHYSTACHYAE. 
Only represented by 21. S. Nuttallii. 

VII. PELLITAE. 

Only represented by 22. 5. pachnophora. 

VIII. ARCTICAE. 

Leaves grayish-villous on both sides, although less so above. 

Twigs white-villous ; branches yellow or grayish. 23. S. brachycarpa. 
Twigs puberulent, rarely villous ; branches usually purplish. 

Leaf-blades oblong or linear-oblong ; bracts obovate ; shrub depressed. 

24. 5". pseudolapponum. 
Leaf-blades oblanceolate or obovate-oblanceolate ; bracts oblong ; shrub not 

depressed. 25. 6". glaucops. 

Leaves glabrate or when young covered with white hairs parallel to the mid- 
rib. 

Shrubs not creeping ; leaf-blades oval to oblong or lanceolate. 
Aments leafy-peduncled. 25. 5. glaucops glabrata. 

Aments subsessile, naked from lateral buds. 26. 5". chlorophylla. 

Shrubs creeping ; leaf-blades obovate to oblanceolate. 

27. 5. petrophila. 

IX. RETICULATAE. 
Only represented by 28. 5. saximontana. 

i. Salix Wrightii Anders. Along streams from Tex. to Colo, and Calif. 
Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Arkansas River; Denver. 

z. Salix amygdaloides Anders. Along streams from Que. to Wash., N. Y., 
Mo. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Plains, Colorado Springs; Denver; Wai- 



94 SALICACEAE. 

senburg; Cucharas river, below La Veta; mesas near Pueblo; Fort Collins; 
near Boulder ; gulch west of Pennock's mountain ranch ; Trinidad ; La Porte. 

3. Salix Fendleriana Anders. (S. pentandra caudata Nutt. ; 5". lasiandra 
Fendleriana Bebb.) Wet mountain valleys and along streams from Alb. to 
B. C, N. M. and Calif. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. New Windsor; Gunnison; on 
Turkey Creek and tributaries; Los Pinos; along the Uncompahgre River, 
near Ouray; Ojo; Mancos ; Cimarron; Fort Collins; along the Conejos 
River, north of Antonito ; Trail Creek ; Steamboat Springs. 

4. Salix exigua Nutt. On river-banks from Mackenzie River to Wash., 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Plains, Colorado Springs ; Twin Lakes ; 
North Park; Los Pinos; Trinidad. 

5. Salix luteosericea Rydb. On sandy river-bars from Neb. to Mont., Ida. 
and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Fort Collins ; plains, Larimer Co. ; Walsen- 
burg; Sterling, Logan Co.; near Boulder; Elizabethtown ; Denver; Walton 
Creek; along the Conejos River, north of Antonito; Rist Canon; Dolores. 

6. Salix stenophylla Rydb. Along streams from Tex. to Colo, and N. M. 
Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Mancos; Cucharas River, below La Veta; Walsenburg; 
Gunnison ; Cerro Summit. 

7. Salix linearifolia Rydb. (S. longifolia tenerrima Renders.) Along 
streams from Minn, and Sask. to Wash., Ark. and Colo. Exact locality not 
given. 

8. Salix sessiliflora Nutt. Along streams from Alb. to Mont., Colo, and 
Nev. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Grand Canon ; along Uncompahgre River, near 
Ouray'; Grand Junction; Cerro Summit. 

9. Salix argophylla Nutt. Along streams from Mont, to Wash., Tex. and 
Calif. Alt. about 5000 ft. Fort Collins ; Rist Canon. 

10. Salix cordata angustata (Pursh) Anders. In river-valleys from N. B. 
to Wash., Va. and N. M. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Los Pinos; Walsenburg; 
Cucharas River, below La Veta ; on Turkey Creek and tributaries. 

11. Salix Watsoni (Bebb.) Rydb. (S. cordata Watsoni Bebb.; 5. flava 
Rydb.; not Schoepf.) In river-valleys from Mont, to Calif, and Colo. Alt. 
6000-7000 ft. Manitou ; South Park; Middle Park; Walsenburg; Cucharas 
Valley, near La Veta. 

12. Salix padophylla Rydb. In valleys from Mont, to N. M. Alt. 8000- 
11,000 ft. Los Pinos; Pass Creek; Ojo; Bob Creek, West La Plata Moun- 
tains ; North Park ; on Turkey Creek and tributaries ; Gunnison ; Carson ; 
Silverton ; near Chambers' Lake ; Dolores. 

13. Salix pseudocordata Anders. (S. Novae- Angliae pseudocordata 
Anders.) Along streams from Sask. to Alb. and Colo. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. 
Manitou ; North Park ; South Cheyenne Canon. 

14. Salix monticola Bebb. In mountain valleys from Alb. to Ore., Colo, 
and Nev. Alt. 2200-3000 ft. Pike's Peak ; Lake City ; Georgetown ; head- 
waters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Chamber's Lake ; 
Sheep Creek, above Campion's. 

15. Salix Wolfii Bebb. In mountain valleys of Wyoming and Colo. Alt. 
8000-10,500 ft. South Park; Tennessee Pass; on Grizzly Creek; Ironton 
Park, nine miles south of Ouray; North Park; Rico; Eldora to Baltimore; 
Camp Creek, Larimer Co. 



SALICACEAE. 95 

16. Salix irrorata Anders. In canons and along streams from Colo, to N. 
M. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Dry rocks, Cheyenne Mountain; Manitou; Cucharas 
Valley, near La Veta; South Cheyenne Canon; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Los 
Pinos; Ironton Park, nine miles south of Ouray; Gunnison; Crested Butte, 
Gunnison watershed ; Grizzly Creek ; Sheep Creek, above Campton's ; Horse- 
tooth Gulch ; Rist Canon ; Howe's Gulch. 

17. Salix Geyeriana Anders. In mountain valleys along streams from 
Wyo. to Wash., Colo, and Ore. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Mountains of Estes 
Park; Minturn; Columbine; Sargent's; Pinkham Creek, Larimer Co. 

1 8. Salix macrocarpa Nutt. Along streams in the mountains from Wyo. to 
Wash, and Colo. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Seven Lakes; Stove Prairie, Lari- 
mer Co. 

19. Salix perrostrata Rydb. In valleys and in wet places in the foot-hills 
from Hudson Bay to Alaska and Colo. Alt. 1500-2700 ft. Foot-hills, Colo- 
rado Springs; foot-hills west of Fort Collins; Los Pinos; South Cheyenne 
Canon; Ruxton; Green Mountain Falls; Ojo; Cimarron; Chicken Creek, 
West La Plata Mountains ; Pike's Peak Trail ; Rist Canon ; mountains north- 
east of Dolores ; Boulder. 

20. Salix Bebbiana Sarg. (S. rostrata Richardson) In valleys and on 
hillsides from Anticosti to Alaska, N. J. and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft 
Manitou ; Ruxton Dell ; Pike's Peak ; North Park, Larimer Co. ; mountains 
of Estes Park, Larimer Co.; Horsetooth Gulch; Boulder; Beaver Creek. 

21. Salix Nuttallii Sarg. (S. flavescens Nutt.) Along streams and in wet 
valleys from Ass. and B. C. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 7000-11,000 ft Hills 
about Box Canon, west of Ouray; Wahatoya Canon; Little Kate Basin, La 
Plata Mountains; mountains, Larimer Co.; Artists' Glen; North Cheyenne 
Canon; chaparral-covered hills southeast of Ouray; Stove Prairie, Larimer 
Co.; Mount Baldy; Barnes' Camp on Little South; Redstone; Eldora to 
Baltimore ; Empire. 

22. Salix pachnophora Rydb. In the mountains along streams, Colo, and 
N. M. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Rico, Dolores Co.; along Uncompahgre River; 
near Ouray ; Chambers' Lake ; Halm's Peak, Routt Co. ; Rabbit-Ears. 

23. Salix brachycarpa Nutt. (Salix desertorum stricta Anderson; S. stricta 
Rydb.) In springy places in the mountains from Que. to Alb. and Colo. 
Alt. 7000-11,000 ft Twin Lakes; Pike's Peak; Sheep Creek, above Camp- 
ton's ; near Higho ; Veta Pass, Sangre de Cristo Range ; Walden, Larimer 
Co. 

24. Salix pseudolapponum Seem. On mountain tops of Colorado. Alt. 
9000-13,000 ft. Gray's Peak; Georgetown; Cimarron Pass; Alpine Tunnel; 
Mt. Abram, Ouray; Sierra Blanca; Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains; 
Mt. Hesperus, above timber line; West Spanish Peak; headwaters of Sangre 
de Cristo Creek; Twin Lakes; Bottomless Pit; east slope Pike's Peak; Dead 
Lake ; Tennessee Pass ; bank of Michigan, North Park ; mountains above 
Graymont; Eldora to Baltimore; Berthoud Pass. 

25. Salix glaucops Anders. In alpine bogs and springy places from Alb. to 
Yukon Terr., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 7000-13,000 ft. In var. glabrata Anders., 
the leaves are nearly glabrous above. Mountains between Sunshine and 
Ward ; Brush Creek, Custer Co. ; mountains south of Ward, Boulder Co. ; 
Bear Creek Divide, West La Plata Mountains ; Alpine Tunnel ; Mt. Abram, 



96 SALICACEAE. 

Ouray; Sheep Creek, above Campton's; Sierra Blanca; near Pagosa Peak; 
Silver Plume; timber line, Pike's Peak; Ironton Park, nine miles south of 
Ouray; Mt. Harvard; Red Mountain, south of Ouray; Marshall's Pass; Car- 
son ; Lake Moraine ; mountains above Boreas ; head of Red River, Frankin ; 
Hematite ; Cameron Pass ; southeast of Jefferson ; Empire. 

26. Salix chlorophylla Anders. In mountain bogs from Lab. to Alaska, N. 
H. and Colo. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Georgetown; Clear Creek, Middle Park; 
Alpine Tunnel ; mountains above Boreas ; Pike's Peak ; Little Kate Basin ; 
Wahatoya Canon; Buffalo Pass, Park Range; Red Mountain, south of Ouray; 
Columbine; mountains of Estes Park, Larimer Co.; Carson; Marshall Pass; 
mountains above Boreas ; Cameron Pass ; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. ; Beaver 
Creek; North Park Range, Routt Co. 

27. Salix petrophila Rydb. (S. arctica petraea Anderson) On exposed 
mountain tops from N. H. to B. C, Colo, and Utah. Alt. 12,000-14,000 ft. 
Gray's Peak; near Pagosa Peak; mountains above Boreas; Mt. Howard; 
Marshall Pass. 

28. Salix saximontana Rydb. (S. reticulata Port. & Coult., in part) On 
exposed mountain tops from Wyo. to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 9000-14,000 ft 
Clear Creek, Middle Park ; Arapahoe Peak ; Argentine Pass ; Floral Moun- 
tain ; Georgetown ; Mt. Hesperus ; mountains above Cameron Pass ; Gray's 
Peak; Bald Mountain; West Spanish Peak; Mount Garfield; Sierra Blanca; 
Alpine Tunnel; Franklin; Ragged Mountain, Gunnison Co.; Ethel Peak, 
Larimer Co. 

Order 20. FAGALES. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers both in aments ; fruit not with a bur or cup. 
Staminate flowers 2 or 3 together in the axils of the bracts, each with a calyx ; 
pistillate flowers without a calyx. 36. BETULACEAE. 

Staminate flowers solitary in the axils of each bract without a calyx ; pistillate 
flowers with a calyx. , 37. CORYLACEAE. 

Staminate flowers in aments ; pistillate often solitary, the involucre becoming a 
cup or bur. 38. FAGACEAE. 

Family 36. BETULACEAE Agardh. BIRCH FAMILY. 

Stamens 2 ; bracts of the mature pistillate aments membranous, usually 3-lobed, 
deciduous with the nut. i. BETULA. 

Stamens usually 4 (3-6) ; bracts of the mature pistillate aments thickened and 
woody, erose or toothed, persistent. 2. ALNUS. 

i. BETULA L. BIRCH. 

Wings of the fruit much wider than the body ; trees or tall shrubs. 

i. B. fontinalis. 
Wing of the fruit usually narrower than the body ; low shrubs. 2. B. glandulosa. 

i. Betula fontinalis Sarg. (B. occidentalis S. Wats. ; not Hook.) Along 
streams from S. D. and Alb. to Yukon Terr., N. M. and Ore. Alt. 5000- 
9000 ft. Walsenburg ; Garland ; Engelmann Canon ; foot-hills, Fort Collins ; 
Livermore, Larimer Co. ; South Cheyenne Canon ; North Cheyenne Canon ; 
Ojo; Pass Creek; foot-hills near Fort Collins; Elizabethtown ; Howe's Gulch; 
west of Rist Canon ; Rist Canon ; Eldora to Baltimore ; Elk River, Routt Co. 



BETULACEAE. 97 

2. Betula glandulosa Michx. In bogs from Greenl. to Alaska, N. H., Colo, 
and Ore. Alt. 9000-11,000 ft Middle Park; Argentine Pass; Cameron Pass; 
mountains above Como; Twin Lakes; Seven Lakes; Blue River; Ironton 
Park, nine miles south of Ouray ; Ruxton Park ; head of Muddy River, Mid- 
dle Park; Pike's Peak; Tennessee Pass; Silverton; Breckenridge ; between 
Como and Boreas; bank of the Big Muddy; western Gunnison Co.; Eldora 
to Baltimore. 

2. ALNUS Gaertn. ALDER. 

i. Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. (A. incana virescens S. Wats.) Along streams from 
Mont, to Alaska, N. M. and Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward; Ojo; Turkey Creek and tributaries; canon, Idaho 
Springs ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Hermosa ; near Pagosa Peak ; head- 
waters of Pass Creek ; Larimer Co. ; Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; 
Red Mountain, south of Ouray; Lower Boulder Canon, Boulder Co.; Par- 
lin; Colorado Springs; Black Canon of the Gunnison; Rist Canon; foot- 
hills near Fort Collins ; Steamboat Springs ; Dolores. 

Family 37. CORYLACEAE Mirbel. HAZEL-NUT FAMILY. 
i. CORYLUS L. HAZEL-NUT. 

i. Corylus rostrata Ait. In thickets and open woods and on hillsides from 
N. S. to N. D., Ga. and Colo. Alt. 1200-8000 ft. Lower Boulder Canon, 
Boulder Co.; North Cheyenne Canon; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Rist Canon; 
gulch west of Soldier Canon ; vicinity of Arthur's Rock. 

Family 38. FAGACEAE Drude. BEECH FAMILY. 

i. QUERCUS L. OAK. 

Leaves lobed or divided, not evergreen ; lobes rounded, obtuse or acute, but not 

spinulose-tipped. 
Leaves bright green, early deciduous. 

Mature leaves softly pubescent, almost velvety beneath, deeply divided. 

i. Q. utahensis. 
Mature leaves glabrate, puberulent or somewhat pubescent, but not velvety 

beneath. 

Cup flat, covering less than l /4 of the acorn. 2, Q. Vreelandii. 

Cup hemispheric, covering y$ to *^> of the acorn. 
Acorns barrel-shaped, obtuse. 

Mature leaves very thin, glabrate beneath or puberulent only on the 
veins ; cup covering about l / 2 of the acorn ; scales of cup thin. 

3. Q. leptophylla. 
Mature leaves firm, puberulent beneath, cup covering about I /T, of the 

acorn ; scales of cup thick, corky. 
Leaves mostly oblong in outline, lobed halfway to the midrib or 

less, rather dull. 4. Q. Gimnisonii. 

Leaves obovate in outline, divided deeper than halfway to the mid- 
rib, very shining above. 
Lobes of the leaves broadly oblong, rounded at the apex. 

5. Q. nitescens. 
Lobes of the leaves ovate or triangular, acute. 

6. Q. novomexicana. 



98 FAGACEAE. 

Acorns ovoid, acute ; cup covering about l / 2 of the acorn. 

7. Q. Gambellii. 
Leaves pale green, more persistent. 

Lobes oblong-ovate, obtuse or acutish, not mucronate. 

8. Q. venustula. 
Lobes triangular-ovate, mucronate. g. Q. Fendleri. 

Leaves persistent, evergreen, sinuate ; lobes or teeth spinulose-tipped or mucronate. 
Leaves decidedly crisped, sinuately lobed ; lobes distinctly spinulose-tipped. 

10. Q. pungens. 
Leaves flat, sinuately toothed ; teeth mucronate or slightly spinulose-tipped. 

11. Q. undulata. 

1. Quercus utahensis (A. DC.) Rydb. (Q. stcllata Utahensis A. DC.) A 
small tree, often 10 feet or more high, growing in the mountain regions of 
Utah, Colo., Ariz, and N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Chaparral-covered hills 
southeast of Ouray ; Hotchkiss, Delta Co. ; Trinidad ; Glenwood Springs ; 
Mancos ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Wahatoya Canon ; hills about Box Canon, 
west of Ouray ; Manitou ; Mancos Canon ; west of Palmer Lake ; Glen Eyrie. 

2. Quercus Vreelandii Rydb. A chaparral-forming shrub, 1-1.5 m - high, 
growing on hillsides in Colo, and N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Chaparral-covered 
hills southeast of Ouray; Cerro; Glenwood Springs; butte five miles south- 
west of La Veta ; South Cheyenne Canon ; Colorado Springs. 

3. Quercus leptophylla Rydb. A tree, 10-15 m. high, growing along streams 
in the mountains of Colorado. Alt. 5500-8500 ft. Turkey Creek and tribu- 
taries ; Cucharas River, above La Veta ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Routt Co. ; 
Chicken Creek, West La Plata 'Mountains. 

4. Quercus Gunnisonii (Torr.) Rydb. A chaparral-forming shrub, 1-3 m. 
high, growing on hillsides and mesas from Colo, to Utah, N. M. and Ariz. 
Alt. 6000-8000 ft. North Cheyenne Canon; butte five miles southwest of 
La Veta ; Colorado Springs ; Cochetopa Pass ; Canon of Arkansas ; Canon 
City ; Durango ; hills back of Manitou ; Steamboat Springs ; Denver. 

5. Quercus nitescens Rydb. A chaparral-forming shrub, 3-5 m. high, grow- 
ing on mesas and hillsides, but along streams sometimes forming a small tree; 
in Colo, and eastern Utah. Alt. 6000-11,000 ft. Butte five miles southwest 
of La Veta; Glenwood Springs; chaparral-covered hills southeast of Ouray; 
Red Mountain, south of Ouray; hills about Box Canon, west of Ouray; West 
Mancos Canon ; Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co. ; Los Pinos ; Ute Pass, near 
Pike's Peak; Cheyenne Canon, near Pike's Peak. 

6. Quercus novomexicana (A. DC.) Rydb. (Q. Douglasii Novomexicana 
A. DC.) A chaparral-forming shrub, 3-5 m. high, or along streams a small 
tree, from Colo, to Utah and N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Glenwood Springs; 
Engelmann Canon ; between Pallas and Sydney ; Cucharas River, above La 
Veta ; Mancos ; Manitou ; chaparral-covered hills southeast of Ouray ; Chey- 
enne Mountain ; Canon City. 

7. Quercus Gambellii Nutt. A chaparral-forming shrub, 3-5 m. high, grow- 
ing on hillsides from Colo, to Utah and N. M. Alt. 6500-9000 ft. Chaparral- 
covered hills southeast of Ouray; Cucharas River, above La Veta; Gunnison; 
Twelve-Mile Creek ; north of Cheyenne Canon ; Manitou ; Canon of the 
Arkansas ; South Park ; Ute Pass ; Garden of the Gods. 

8. Quercus venustula Greene. A small shrub, 1-2 m. high, known only 
from the type locality. Raton Mountains, near Trinidad. 



FAGACEAE. 99 

g. Quercus Fendleri Liebm. A shrub, 1-3 m. high, growing on dry hillsides 
from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Mesas near Colorado 
Springs; McElmo Canon; Raton Mountains, near Trinidad; Canon of Ar- 
kansas ; Green Horn Mountains ; Poncho Pass ; Purgatory River, near 
Trinidad. 

10. Quercus pungens Liebm. (Q. undulata Wrightii Engelm.) A low 
shrub, 1-3 m. high, on dry hills from Colo, to Utah, Tex. and Ariz. ; also 
Mex. Canon City; Arkansas Canon. 

11. Quercus undulata Torr. (Q. undulata Jamesii Engelm.) A shrub, 1-3 
m. high, growing on dry hills from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. " Rocky Moun- 
tains " ; Canon of the Arkansas ; Steamboat Springs. 

Order 21. URTICALES. 

Style and stigma i ; ovules erect or ascending ; herbs with small greenish flowers ; 

fruit an achene. 39. URTICACEAE. 

Styles and stigmas 2 ; ovules pendulous. 

Herbs or herbacious vines with opposite leaves ; fruit an achene. 

40. CANNABINACEAE. 
Trees or shrubs with alternate leaves ; fruit a samara or drupe. 

41. ULMACEAE. 

Family 39. URTICACEAE Reichenb. NETTLE FAMILY. 

Herbs with stinging hairs ; leaves -opposite ; flowers not involucrate. 

i. URTICA. 

Herbs without stinging hairs ; leaves alternate ; flowers involucrate by leafy 
bracts. 2. PARIETARIA. 

i. URTICA L. NETTLE. 

Teeth of the leaves ovate, strongly directed forward ; stem sparingly strigose 

and bristly. i. U. gracilis. 

Teeth of the leaves broadly triangular, not strongly directed forward ; stem 

glabrous or nearly so. 2. U. gracilenta. 

1. Urtica gracilis Ait. In alluvial soil along streams from N. S. to Alaska, 
N. C. and N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Mountains between Sunshine and Ward; 
Steamboat Springs ; Mancos ; Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; Fort 
Collins ; along the Uncompahgre River, near Ouray ; chaparral-covered hills 
southeast of Ouray; Gunnison; Spring Canon; Campton's ranch. 

2. Urtica gracilenta Greene. (U. Brewcri Coulter; not S. Wats.) Along 
streams from Wyo. to Tex. and N. M. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Near Pagosa 
Peak. 

2. PARIETARIA L. PELLITORY. 

Leaf-blades lanceolate, 2-7 cm. long, twice as long as the petioles or longer. 

i. P. pennsylvanica. 

Leaf-blades oblong or ovate-oblong, 0.5-2 cm. long, not twice as long as the 
petioles. 2. P. obtusa. 

i. Parietaria pennsylvanica Muhl. On shaded banks and hillsides from 
3nt. to B. C., Fla. and Mex. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Steamboat Springs ; Lower 
Boulder Canon, Boulder Co. ; Black Canon ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; gulch 
west of Pennock's mountain ranch ; along Poudre River, near Fort Collins ; 
Horsetooth Gulch. 



100 URTICACEAE. 

2. Parietaria obtusa Rydb. In shaded places from Colo, to Utah, Tex. and 
Calif.- Alt. up to 6000 ft. El Paso ; Sunset Canon. 

Family 40. CANNABINACEAE Lindl. HEMP FAMILY. 
i. HUMULUS L. HOPS. 

i. Humulus lupulus neo-mexicanus Cockerell. The native hops of the 
Rocky Mountain region has deeper divided leaves and more sharply acuminate 
bracts than the cultivated variety. It grows along streams from Wyo. to 
Utah, N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Fort Collins; Colorado Springs; 
along the Uncompahgre River, near Ouray ; Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; Walsen- 
burg; Manitou ; canon west of Palmer Lake; along Cache la Poudre River; 
Poudre Canon. 

Family 41. ULMACEAE Mirbel. ELM FAMILY. 
i. CELTIS L. HACKBERRY. 

i. Celtis reticulata Torr. (C. occidcntalis Port. & Coult. ; not L.) On 
hillsides, in rocky places, from Tex. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. 
"Colorado," locality not given; plains and foot-hills near Boulder; near Os- 
borne City; Golden; gulch west of Pennock's mountain ranch; foot-hills 6-8 
miles west of Fort Collins. 

Order 22. SANTALALES. 

Leaves opposite : fruit a berry ; tree-parasites. 42. LORANTHACEAE. 

Leaves alternate : fruit a drupe or nut ; root-parasites or saprophytes. 

43. SANTALACEAE. 

Family 42. LORANTHACEAE D. Don. MISTLETOE FAMILY. 

Anthers 2-celled ; pollen-grains smooth ; berry globose, pulpy and semi-translucent. 

1. PHORADENDRON. 
Anthers i-celled; pollen spinulose ; berry compressed, fleshy, opaque. 

2. RAZOUMOFSKYA. 

i. PHORADENDRON Nutt. 

i. Phoradendron juniperinum Engelm. Parasitic on species of Sabina from 
Colo, and Ore. to Tex. and Calif. ; also in Mex. Mancos ; Hotchkiss ; Pax- 
ton ranch. 

2. RAZOUMOFSKYA Hoffm. 

Staminate flowers all or nearly all terminal on distinct peduncles, dichotomously 
paniculate (on Pinits Murray ana, contort a and divaricatd). i. R. americana. 
Staminate flowers nearly all axillary, forming simple or compound spikes. 
Branches 1-2 mm. in diameter. 

Plant yellowish-green ; accessory branches of fruiting specimens flower- 
bearing. 

Spikes short, 3~5-flowered ; stems bluntly angled (on Pseitdotsitga niucro- 
nata). 

2. R. Douglasii. 
Spikes many-flowered; stems sharply angled (on Finns flexilis). 

3. R. cyanocarpa. 



LORANTHACEAE. 101 

Plant greenish-brown; accessory branches merely leaf-bearing (on Caryopitys 

edulis and monophylla). 4- R- divaricata. 

Branches 3-4 mm. in diameter (on Pinus scopulorum, and ponderosa). 

5. R. cryptopoda. 

1. Razoumofskya americana (Nutt.) Kuntze. (Arceuthobium Americanum 
Nutt.) Parasitic on Pinus Murrayana, contorta and divaricata, from Sask. 
and B. C. to Colo, and Ore. Dillon; Grand Lake; Sunset. 

2. Razoumofskya Douglasii (Engelm.) Kuntze. (A. Douglasii Engelm.) 
Parasitic on Pseudotsuga, from Ida. to N. M. South Cheyenne Canon; El 
Paso Co. ; West Mancos Canon. 

3. Razoumofskya cyanocarpa A. Nels. Parasitic on Pinus Hexilis, from 
Wyo. to Colo. Cheyenne Mountain. 

4. Razoumofskya divaricata (Engelm.) Kuntze. (A. divaricatum Engelm.) 
Parasitic on Caryopitys edulis and monophylla. Mancos ; Dillon. 

5. Razoumofskya cryptopoda (Engelm.) Coville. (Arceuthobium crypto- 
podnm Engelm.; A. robustum Engelm.) Parasitic on Pinus scopulorum and 
ponderosa. Between Sunshine and Ward, Boulder Co.; West Indian Creek; 
Custer Co.; Stove Prairie Hill; Rist Canon. 

Family 43. SANTALACEAE R. Br. SANDAL-WOOD FAMILY. 

i. COMANDRA Nutt. BASTARD TOAD-FLAX. 

i. Comandra pallida A. DC. On plains and hills from Man., Alb. and B. C. 
to N. M. and Utah. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron; 
Cucharas River, below La Veta ; Wahatoya Creek ; Los Pinos ; Steamboat 
Springs; Mancos; Fort Collins; Boulder; Dolores; along Poudre River; 
Horsetooth Gulch ; Colorado City ; Pinkham Creek, Larimer Co. 

Order 23. POLYGONALES. 

Family 44. POLYGONACEAE Lindl. BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. 

Flowers subtended by involucres; stamens 9. i. ERIOGONUM. 

Flowers not involucrate ; stamens 4-8. 
Stigmas tufted. 

Perianth 6-parted ; styles 3-parted ; achenes 3-angled. 2. RUMEX. 

Perianth 4-parted ; style 2-parted ; achenes lenticular. 3. OXYRIA. 

Stigmas capitate. 

Leaf-blades jointed at the base; ochreae 2-lobed, becoming lacerate; filaments 
at least the inner dilated. 4- POLYGONUM. 

Leaf -blades not jointed at the base: ochreae not 2-lobed; filaments slender. 
Ochreae cylindric, truncate. 5- PERSICARIA. 

Ochreae oblique, more or less open on the side facing the leaf. 
Simple strict herbs with terminal spikes ; perianth-lobes not keeled. 

6. BISTORTA. 

Twining vines with flowers in axillary clusters ; outer perianth-lobes 
winged or keeled. 7- TINIARIA. 

i. ERIOGONUM L. 

Achenes 3-winged ; perianth not accrescent. I. ALATA. 

Achenes merely 3-angled ; perianth accrescent in fruit. 
Perianth with a stipe-like base. 

Involucres in branching cymes. II. ERIANTHA. 



102 POLYGONACEAE. 

Involucres in simple or compound umbel-like or head-like clusters. 
Perianths hairy. III. FLAVA. 

Perianth glabrous. IV. UMBELLATA. 

Perianth without a stipe-like base. 

Ovaries and fruit pubescent ; involucres few, capitate or subcymose. 

V. LACHNOGYNA. 
Ovaries and fruit glabrous or nearly so. 

Involucres in head-like or umbel-like clusters. 

Perianth-lobes very unequal. VI. HETEROSEPALA. 

Perianth-lobes equal or nearly so. VII. CAPITATA. 

Involucres in open cymes. 

Cymes i -sided and spike-like. X. VIRGATA. 

Cymes dichotomous or trichotomous. 
Bracts scale-like. 

Involucres, except those in the forks of the inflorescence, sessile in 

the bractlets ; the uppermost conglomerate. 
Perennial with a suffruticose caudex or shrubby. 

VIII. CORYMBOSA. 

Annuals, erect and strict. IX. ANNUA. 

Involucres all peduncled, never conglomerate. XI. PEDUNCULATA. 
Bracts leaf-like. 

Primary cauline leaves scale-like, with a pair or a fascicle of well- 
developed secondary leaves in their axils. XII. DIVARICATA. 
Primary cauline leaves well developed, often also with secondary 
leaves in their axils. XIII. FOLIOSA. 

I. ALATA. 

Involucres hairy, when mature 3-3.5 mm. long and 1.5-2 mm. wide; stem and 
leaves manifestly hairy. i. E. alatum. 

.Involucres glabrous, when mature 2-2.5 mm. long and of the same width ; stem 
and leaves nearly glabrous. 2. E. triste. 

II. ERIANTHA. 

Perianth whitish ; styles hairy at least to the middle. 3. E. Jamesii. 

Perianth yellow ; styles hairy only at the base. 

Involucres 6-8 mm. long ; leaf-blades oblong to oblanceolate. 

4. E. Bakeri. 
Involucres 9-10 mm. long; leaf-blades suborbicular to oval. 

5. E. arcuatum. 
III. FLAVA. 

Stipe-like base of the perianth very short ; old leaf -bases permanently tomentose. 
Leaf-bases thickened ; perianth copiously white-pubescent ; leaf-blades silky 

above ; involucres usually several. 6. E. flavum. 

Leaf-bases not thickened ; perianth sparingly pubescent ; leaf-blades slightly 

floccose above ; involucres 1-3. 7. E. aureum. 

Stipe-like base of the perianth slender ; old leaf-bases glabrous. 

8. E. xanthum. 
IV. UMBELLATA. 
Perianth deep yellow. 
Umbels simple. 

Leaves densely tomentose beneath. 9. E. umbellatum. 

Leaves almost glabrous at maturity. 10. E. umbelliferum. 

Umbels compound; leaves tomentose beneath. n. E. croceum. 

Perianth cream-color. 

Perianth about 6 mm. long at maturity ; leaf-blades spatulate-oblong or elliptic, 

glabrous above at maturity. 12. E. subalpinum. 

Perianth about 8 mm. long at maturity ; leaf-blades oval or ovate, permanently 
tomentose above. 13- E- latum. 



POLYGONACEAE. 103 

V. LACHNOGYNA. 

Leaves and scape silky ; the latter elongated, i dm. or more high ; the former 
2-4 cm. long, long-petioled ; blades oblanceolate to oblong, acute. 

Inflorescence irregularly branched. 14. E. lachnogynum. 

Inflorescence subcapitate. 15. E. Tetraneuris. 

Leaves lanate, strongly revolute ; scape usually none. 16. E. acaule. 

VI. HETEROSEPALA. 

Involucres about 7 mm. long; leaf-blades oval. 17. E. orthocaulum. 

Involucres 4-5 mm. long. 

Perianth bright yellow, or purplish ; leaf-blades about as broad as long. 

1 8. E. ovalifolium. 

Perianth cream-colored to isabel-colored ; leaf-blades elliptic to oval or spatu- 
late, decidedly longer than broad. 19. E. ochrolencum. 

VII. CAPITATA. 

Perianth yellow. 20. E. chrysocephahtm 

Perianth white or brownish or pinkish. 

Perianth pubescent. 21. E. multiceps. 

Perianth glabrous. 

Lobes of the involucres much shorter than the tube. 

22. E. coloradense. 
Lobes of the involucres about as long as the tube. 23. E. pauciflorum. 

VIII. CORYMBOSA. 
Perianth yellow. 

Leaves crowded on the short branches of the caudex ; blades oblong to linear- 
oblong, flat. 24. E. campanulatum. 
Leaves more scattered on the elongated branches of the caudex ; blades nar- 
rowly linear, strongly revolute. 25. E. brevicaule. 
Perianth white or pinkish. 

Shrubs or herbaceous plants with a woody caudex, mostly over 2 dm. high ; 

leaves not heath-like. 
Flowering branches leafy only at the base. 

Involucres in the forks of the inflorescence sessile. 

Leaves mostly flat ; involucres narrowly turbinate ; perianth 2-2.5 rnm. 

long. 26. E. lonchophyllum. 

Leaves mostly revolute ; involucres campanulate ; perianth 3-3.5 mm. 

long. 27. E. nudicanle. 

Involucres in the forks of the inflorescence distinctly peduncled, at least 

the lower. 
Involucres broadly campanulate, about as wide as long. 

28. E. scoparium. 
Involucres turbinate, decidedly longer than broad. 

Leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate or linear, usually revolute. 

29. E. tristichum. 
Leaves spatulate to oblanceolate, flat. 30. E. salicinum. 

Flowering branches leafy halfway or more. 

Leaf-blades relatively broad, broadly oblong to oval, obtuse. 

Involucres 4-5 mm. long. 31- E. Fendlerianum. 

Involucres 2-2.5 mm. long. 

Branches of inflorescence divaricate. 32. E. divergens. 

Branches of inflorescence ascending. 33. E. corymbosum. 

Leaf-blades narrow, from spatulate to linear, acute. 
Leaf-blades spatulate or oblanceolate, mostly flat. 

Inflorescence many times compound, copiously branched ; internodes 

long. 

Inflorescence tomentulose, broom-like, with strongly ascending 
branches; involucres about 1.5 mm. long. 34. E. effusum. 



104 POLYGONACEAE. 

Inflorescence glabrous, lax with spreading branches ; involucre 2-2.5 

mm. long. 30. E. salicimim. 

Inflorescence less compound ; branches and internodes short, mostly 

spreading. 35. E. microthecum. 

Leaf-blades linear, revolute. 36. E. Simpsonii. 

Dwarf depressed undershrubs, less than i dm. high, with heath-like leaves. 

37. E. contortum. 

IX. ANNUA. 

One species. 38. E. annmim. 

X. VIRGATA. 

Leaves crowded on the ends of the short caudex ; blades abruptly narrowed at 

the base or subcordate. 39. E. racemosum. 

Leaves scattered on the fruticose branches ; blades tapering at the base. 

40. E. Wrightil. 

XI. PEDUNCULATA. 

Perianth glabrous. 

Scapes and branches glabrous. 
Peduncles erect or ascending. 

Perianth-lobes nearly equal and similar ; leaves glabrous. 

41. E. Gordonii. 
Perianth-lobes very unequal and dissimilar ; leaves floccose beneath. 

Outer perianth-lobes dilated above; involucres about 1.5 mm. long. 

42. E. rotundifolium. 
Outer perianth-lobes not dilated above ; involucres about 3 mm. long. 

43. E. tenellum. 
Peduncles reflexed or deflexed. 44. E. cernuum. 

Scapes and branches villous or glandular, especially near the nodes. 

45. E. trinervatiim. 
Perianth glandular or pubescent. 

Scapes and branches glandular, especially near the nodes, not inflated. 

48. E. glandidosum. 
Scapes and branches glabrous : upper portion of the lower internodes of the 

scape inflated. 

Accessory branches at the lower forks of the inflorescence many and nearly 
as strong as the three main branches ; branches divaricate. 

46. E. fttsiforme. 
Accessory branches at the lower forks of the inflorescence none or few 

and small ; branches ascending. 47. E. inflatum. 

XII. DIVARICATA. 
One species. 49. E. divaricatum. 

XIII. FOLIOSA. 
One species. 50. E. salsiiginosum. 

1. Eriogonum alatum Torr. In sandy soil from Neb. and Wyo. to Tex. and 
Ariz. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine ridges 
east of Middle Park; plains and foot-hills near Boulder; Green Mountain 
Falls; Sand Creek Pass; South Park; Williams' Canon, near Pike's Peak; 
Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Table Rock ; Pagosa Springs ; Thompson's Park, La 
Plata Mountains ; Spring Cafion ; Dillon Canon, near Trinidad ; plains, near 
foot-hills, Larimer Co. 

2. Eriogonum triste S. Wats. (E. alatum glabriusculum Torr.) In sandy 
soil from Colo, to Tex. and N. M. North Park ; headwaters of Clear Creek 
and alpine ridges east of Middle Park. 

3. Eriogonum Jamesii Benth. On plains and hills from Kans. and Colo, to 
Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Headwaters of Platte River; Colorado 



POLYGONACEAE. 105 

Springs ; Durango ; Middle Park ; La Veta ; Grand Junction ; Morrison ; Gun- 
nison ; Salida ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Red Rock Canon, near Pike's Peak ; 
Rosita; Buena Vista. 

4. Eriogonum Bakeri Greene. (E. flavum vegetius T. & G. ; E. Jamesii 
Havesccns S. Wats.; E. vegetius (T. & G.) Nels.) On plains and hills from 
Wyo. and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 9000-10,000 ft. Meadow Park; 
mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; Bald Mountain, west of Loveland ; 
Black Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch, Fort Collins ; Poudre Canon ; Moon's ranch. 

5. Eriogonum arcuatum Greene. Mountains in Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. ; 
known only from the type locality. Pagosa Springs. 

6.. Eriogonum flavum Nutt. (E. crassifolium Dougl.) On dry hills and 
mountains and in canons from Sask. and Alb. to Neb. and Colo. Alt. 4000- 
12,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine ridges east of Middle Park; 
plains and foot-hills near Boulder; Sand Creek Pass; Twin Lakes; Medicine 
Bow Mountains ; Minnehaha ; Ruxton ; Georgetown ; Fossil Creek ; Artists' 
Glen and Cheyenne Canon, near Pike's Peak. 

7. Eriogonum aureum Nutt. (E. chloranthum Greene.) Mountains of 
Colo. Alt. 11,000-13,000 ft. Mount Ouray; Marshall Pass. 

8. Eriogonum xanthum Small. On exposed mountain tops in Colorado. 
Alt. 12,000-14,000 ft. Gray's Peak; spur of Mt. Harvard. 

9. Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. On mountains and dry valleys in Wyo., 
Ida., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 6000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek and 
alpine ridges east of Middle Park; North Park; Arkansas Junction, near 
Leadville; plains and foot-hills near Boulder; mountains between Sunshine 
and Ward; Gunnison; Fort Collins; Clear Creek Canon; near Denver; Man- 
cos; South Table Mountain, Golden; canons and meadows, Ouray; Kelso 
Mountain; Horsetooth Gulch; Colorado and Wyoming State line; near Nar- 
rows ; hills west of Soldier Canon ; camp on Grizzly Creek, foot of Rabbit- 
Ear Range ; Empire. 

10. Eriogonum umbelliferum Small. Mountains from Wyo. and Nev. to 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. 7000-11.000 ft. Veta Pass; Grayback mining camps; 
vicinity of Ouray ; Redcliffe, Eagle Co. ; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron ; 
Black Canon; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Glenwood Springs; 
Leroux Creek, Delta Co.; Lake Creek; Middle Park; Spicer, Larimer Co. 

11. Eriogonum croceum Small. Mountains from Ida. and Wash, to Colo. 
Alt. up to 9000 ft. Hesperus ; Telluride ; Piedra. 

12. Eriogonum subalpinum Greene. In dry mountain valleys from Alb. and 
B. C. to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Headwaters of Arkansas River ; 
Larimer Co. ; near Pinkhampton, North Park ; Arkansas Junction, near Lead- 
ville; edge of Wyoming, North Park; Crested Butte; Dillon; Idaho Springs; 
South Park; Middle Park; foot of Mt. Richtofen, on the Michigan; north 
bank of Poudre River; forks of Poudre and Big South; Rustic; Empire; 
Pinkham Creek. 

13. Eriogonum latum Small. In dry valleys and on plains from Mont, and 
Wash, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 5000 ft. Denver. 

14. Eriogonum lachnogymum Torr. Dry plains and canons from Kans. and 
Colo, to Tex. and N. M. Alt. about 5000 ft. Brantly Canon, Las Animas 
Co. 



106 POLYGONACEAE. 

15. Eriogonum Tetraneuris Small. Dry mesas of Colorado. Alt. about 5000 
ft. Bank of the Cimarron River; mesas near Pueblo. 

16. Eriogonum acaule Nutt. On dry hills from Wyo. and Ida. to Colo. 
" Southwest Colorado." 

17. Eriogonum orthocaulum Small. Dry plains and hills from Alb. and Ida. 
to Colo, and Nev. Rifle, Garfield Co. 

18. Eriogonum ovalifolium Nutt. Dry plains and hills from Mont, and 
Wash, to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. Mancos ; Grand Junction. 

19. Eriogonum ochroleucum Small. Dry rocky hills from Mont, and Ida. 
to Colo, and Nev. Grand Junction. 

20. Eriogonum chrysocephalum A. Gray. (E. Kingii laxifolium T. & G. ; 
E. laxifolium A. Nels.) Dry hills and plains of Neb., Wyo., Colo, and Utah. 

"Southern Colorado" (Brandegce*). 

21. Eriogonum multiceps Nees. Dry plains and " bad-lands " from N. D. 
and Mont, to Neb. and Colo. Exact locality not given. 

22. Eriogonum coloradense Small. Mountain in Colo. Mt. Harvard. 

23. Eriogonum pauciflorum Pursh. In sandy soil in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
up to 9000 ft. Middle Park ; in low sandy valleys, North Park ; North Fork, 
Larimer Co. 

24. Eriogonum campanulatum Nutt. Dry hills and plains from Neb. and 
Wyo. to Colo, and Utah." Colorado " (Parry) ; Middle Park. 

25. Eriogonum brevicaule Nutt. On dry plains from Mont, to Colo, and 
Utah. Egeria Park; Elk River, Routt Co. 

26. Eriogonum lonchophyllum T. & G. On plains of N. M. and Colo. 
Durango. 

27. Eriogonum nudicaule (Torn) Small. (E. effusum nudicaulc Torr.) 
Plains from Kans. and Utah to Tex. Alt. about 7500 ft. Cimarron. 

28. Eriogonum scoparium Small. Plains of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 5000- 
8000 ft. Vicinity of Gunnison ; Denver ; Durango ; between Porter and 
Durango. 

29. Eriogonum tristichum Small. Plains of Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. 
Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Mesa Verde; Arboles; Black Canon, Gunnison; 
Durango. 

30. Eriogonum salicinum Greene. Canon in Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. ; 
known only from type locality. Black Canons, near Gunnison. 

31. Eriogonum Fendlerianum (Benth.) Small. (E. microthecum Fendleri- 
aniim Benth.) Dry plains of Colo, and N. M. Alt. about 5000 ft. Canon 
City; Pueblo. 

32. Eriogonum divergens Small. (E. corymbosum divaricatum Torr. ; not 
E. divaricatum Hook.) Dry plains from Colo, to Utah and Ariz. Green 
River. 

33. Eriogonum corymbosum Benth. Dry plains of Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. 
Along San Juan River; Grand River; Mancos. 

34. Eriogonum effusum Nutt. Dry plains from Mont, to Neb. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Wahatoya Creek; Denver; Canon City; vicinity of 
Boulder; Morrison; Golden; Buena Vista; Manitou; New Windsor, Weld 
Co. ; mesas, Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Fort Collins ; headwaters of 
Clear Creek and alpine ridges east of Middle Park; Salida; Fort Collins; 
Table Rock; La Veta. 



POLYGONACEAE. 107 

35. Eriogonum microthecum Nutt. Dry plains from Mont, and Wash, to 
Colo, and Calif. Colorado City; Beaver Creek. 

36. Eriogonum Simpsonii Benth. Dry plains from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. 
San Luis Valley; Rio Florido. 

37. Eriogonum contortum Small. Arid plains of western Colo. Grand 
Junction. 

38. Eriogonum annuum Nutt. In sandy soil from S. D. and Mont, to Tex. 
and Mex. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Piney Creek of Grand River; Denver; Mani- 
tou ; Ute Pass; Colorado Springs; Golden; Table Rock. 

39. Eriogonum racemosum Nutt. Dry plains and hills from Colo, and 
Utah to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. Between Parrott and Hesperus; 
Jack's Cabin; Gunnison ; hills about Box Canon, west of Ouray; Dolores; 
Piedra ; between Porter and Durango ; Mancos ; Durango. 

40. Eriogonum Wrightii Torr. Dry plains from Colo, and Utah to Tex. 
and Calif.; also northern Mex. "Colorado" (Thurber). 

41. Eriogonum Gordonii Benth. Dry plains and "bad-lands" of Wyo. and 
Colo. Canon City; Gunnison Valley; mesa, Montrose; Grand Junction. 

42. Eriogonum rotundifolium Benth. Dry plains from Colo, to Tex. and 
N. M. ; also in northern Mex. " Near the Rocky Mountains." 

43. Eriogonum tenellum Torr. In arid places from Colo, to Tex. and Mex. 
" Southwest Colorado." 

44. Eriogonum cernuum Nutt. " Bad-lands," hills and in canons from Mont, 
and Ida. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Canon City; South Park; 
along the McElmo River ; Grand Junction ; along Platte River, near Denver ; 
Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Valley Spur; Granite; Buena Vista; Gunnison; Min- 
nehaha ; Black Canon of the Gunnison ; Troublesome ; Upper Arkansas River ; 
Bahia Salada, South Park; Sierra Blanca; Sargent's. 

45. Eriogonum trinervatum Small. Arid places of Colo, and Utah. Alt. 
4000-7000 ft. Cimarron; Grand Junction. 

46. Eriogonum fusiforme Small. In sandy places and dry hills from Colo, 
to Utah and Ariz. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Grand Junction ; Palisade, Mesa Co. ; 
dry adobe hills, between Delta and Hotchkiss. 

47. Eriogonum inflatum Torr. In arid places from Colo, to Ariz, and Cal. 
Alt. 4000-5000 ft. On the Upper Colorado ; Grand Junction. 

48. Eriogonum glandulosum Nutt. (E. Ae.vum Jones.) Arid places of Colo. 
Alt. about 6000 ft. McElmo Canon ; Grand Junction. 

49. Eriogonum divaricatum Hook. Dry hills from Wyo. to Colo, and Ariz. 
San Juan and Mancos Valleys (Brandegee). 

50. Eriogonum salsuginosus Hook. In dry alkaline soil from Wyo. to Utah 
and N. M. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Near the Mancos River; Grand Junction; 
McElmo Canon ; San Juan Valley. 

2. RUMEX L. SORREL, DOCK. 

Flowers dioecious ; foliage acid. 

Leaves with auricled or hastate bases. i. R. Acetosella. 

Leaves narrowed at the base, neither auricled nor hastate. 

2. R. paucifiorus. 

Flowers perfect, or andro-polygamous ; foliage not acid. 
Inner perianth-lobes entire, undulate or denticulate. 
Inner perianth-lobes without tubercles. 



108 POLYGONACEAE. 

Inner perianth-lobes in fruit over 2 cm. broad, plants with deep-seated 

woody rootstock. 3. R. venosns. 

Inner perianth-lobes in fruit less than 1.5 cm. in diameter. 

Plants with clusters of tuberous roots ; inner perianth-lobes in fruit 1-1.5 

cm. broad. 
Achene about 7 mm. long ; inner perianth-lobes in fruit broader than 

long ; plant low. 4. R. salinus. 

Achenes about 5 mm. long ; inner perianth-lobes in fruit longer than 
broad. 5. R. hymenosepalns. 

Plants with taproots or thickened rootstocks ; inner perianth-lobes in fruit 

510 mm. wide. 

Plants low, less than 3 dm. high, with short tuber-like rootstock ; fruit 
maturing before the inner perianth-lobes become enlarged. 

6. R. praecox. 
Plant tall, not with a tuber-like rootstock ; inner perianth-lobes well 

enlarged in fruit. 
Inner perianth-lobes in fruit with rounded apex, not conspicuously 

punctate. 7. R. occidentalis. 

Inner perianth-lobes abruptly pointed, conspicuously punctate. 

Fruiting inner perianth-lobes broader than long, sinuate on the 

margin. 8. R. densiflorits. 

Fruiting inner perianth-lobes longer than broad, sharply dentate. 

g. R. sitbalpinits. 

Inner perianth-lobes or at least one of them bearing a tubercle in fruit. 
Only one tubercled. 

Leaves dark green, more or less crisp ; fruiting inner perianth-lobes 8-9 

mm. broad, reniform. 10. R. Patientia. 

Leaves pale green, not crisp ; fruiting inner perianth-lobes 5-6 mm. 

broad, deltoid ovate. u. R. altissimns. 

All three petals bearing tubercles. 

Leaves wavy-margined, dark green, not glaucescent. 

12. R. crisp tis. 

Leaves flat, light green and glaucescent. 13. R. salicifoliits. 

Inner perianth-lobes in fruit spinulose on the margin. 

Tall plants ; lower leaf-blades cordate at the base ; one tubercle. 

14. R. obtusifolius. 
Low plants ; lower leaf-blades narrowed at the base ; 3 tubercles. 

15. R. persicarioides. 

1. Rumex Asetosella L. In waste places, old fields, roadsides, etc., from 
Lab. and Alaska to Fla. and Calif. ; introduced from Europe. Alt. about 5000 
ft. Boulder. 

2. Rumex pauciflorus Nutt. (R. Geyeri (Meisn.) Trelease.) In meadows 
from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Continental Divide, Larimer Co. ; 
Steamboat Springs ; Rabbit-Ears. 

3. Rumex venosus Pursh. In sandy soil from Ass. and Wash, to Kans. and 
Nev. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Cucharas River, below La Veta ; Fort Collins ; 
Pleasant Valley ; upper part of Platte ; Miller's ranch ; Bingham Hill ; Pueblo ; 
Wray; Colorado Springs. 

4. Rumex salinus A. Nels. In sandy soil in Wyo. and Colo. Palisades. 

5. Rumex hymenosepalus Torr. In sandy soil from Ind. Terr, and Utah 
to Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Grayback mining camps ; Grand Junc- 
tion. 

6. Rumex praecox Rydb. Along brooks in the higher mountains of Wyo. 
and Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Grayback mining camps; Bob Creek, west 
La Plata Mountains. 



POLYGONACEAE. 109 

7. Rumex occidentalis S. Wats. In wet ground from Alb. and B. C. to 
N. M. and Calif. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. West Cliff; Hot Sulphur Springs; 
Steamboat Springs; Veta Pass; Mountain View, Pike's Peak; Gunnison; 
Idaho Springs ; Pine Creek ; Twin Lakes ; Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; forks of 
White River. 

8. Rumex densiflorus Osterh. (R. Bakcri Greene.) In wet ground in 
Wyo. and Colo. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Idaho Springs; North Park; Gunni- 
son ; Fort Collins ; summit of North Park Range, Routt Co. 

9. Rumex subalpinus M. E. Jones. In swampy ground in the mountains 
of Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 10,000 ft. Keblar Pass ; Pagosa Peak ; Cam- 
eron Pass ; North Park ; Deadman Canon. 

10. Rumex Patientia L. Cultivated and occasionally escaped from Mass, 
and N. J. to Utah; native of Europe. Pass Creek; Little Kate Basin (?). 

11. Rumex altissimus Wood. In valleys and wet places from Mass, and 
Wash, to Va. and Colo. Mouth of Deer Creek. 

12. Rumex crispus L. In waste places from Newf. and Mont, to Fla. and 
Calif. ; introduced from Europe. Alt. about 5000 ft. Fort Collins. 

13. Rumex salicifolius Weim. Along rivers and lakes from Ont. and Alaska 
to Tex. and Calif. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Zola ; Sangre de Cristo 
Creek; Calhan; Fort Collins; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; La Plata; 
Boulder; New Windsor; Robinson; Alamosa; Pitkin; Empire; Pueblo; 
Steamboat Springs. 

14. Rumex obtusifolius L. In waste places from Vt. and Neb. to Ga. and 
Colo. ; introduced from Europe. Alt. about 5000 ft. Fort Collins. 

15. Rumex persicarioides L. (R. maritimits L.) In or near water from 
Que. and B. C. to N. C. and Calif. Parlin ; Gunnison ; Canon City ; Higho ; 
New Windsor; Steamboat Springs; above Bents' Fort. 

3. OXYRIA Hill. MOUNTAIN SORREL. 

i. Oxyria digyna (L.) Compt. In the mountains among rocks from Greenl. 
and Alaska to N. H., Colo., Ariz, and Calif. ; also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 
9000-14,000 ft. Cameron Pass; headwaters of Clear Creek; Ouray; Bottom- 
less Pit, Pike's Peak; Mt. Harvard; Red Mountain, south of Ouray; Red- 
cliff e; Ironton; Clear Lake; Pagosa Peak; Mt. Hesperus; Chambers' Lake; 
Berthoud Pass ; Beaver Creek ; Graymont ; Hahn's Peak. 

4. POLYGONUM L. KNOT-WEED. 
Fruit erect. 

Inflorescence of small axillary clusters, scattered more or less throughout the 
plant ; all with elongated stems or branches ; perianth-lobes never keeled 
near the apex. 
Plants copiously leafy throughout ; upper leaves scarcely reduced, more 

crowded. 
Perianth-lobes with yellowish green margins ; plant erect with spreading 

branches in age, leaves broad, yellowish green. i. P. ercctuin. 

Perianth-lobes with white, pink or purplish margins ; plants prostrate or 

diffusely spreading ; leaves from bright to pale bluish green. 
Leaves thick, prominently veined, usually pale ; ocrea very conspicuous ; 

faces of the achenes granular. 2. P. buxiforme. 

Leaves thin, not prominently veined, bright green ; ocrea not conspicuous ; 
faces of the achenes finely striate. 3. P. avicitlare.. 



110 POLYGONACEAE. 

Plants with the upper leaves more scattered and reduced, mostly erect perennials. 
Upper bracts not subulate ; achenes dull. 

Lobes of the perianth with yellowish margins ; perianth 3-4 mm. long ; 
achenes about 3 mm., nearly smooth. 4. P. ramosissimum. 

Lobes of the perianth with whitish or pinkish margins ; perianth 2-3 mm. 
long ; achenes 2-2.5 mm. long, distinctly granulate or striate. 

5. P. rubescens. 

Upper bracts subulate ; achenes smooth and shiny. 6. P. sawatchense. 

Inflorescence aggregated at the ends of the branches ; bracts leaf-like and usu- 
ally broader than the narrowly linear leaves ; plants dwarf annuals. 
None of the perianth-lobes keeled. 

Leaves several, gradually merging into the bracts ; achenes blunt-angled and 

strongly striate. 7. P. Watsonii. 

Leaf usually solitary and much longer than the bracts ; achenes sharp-angled 

and obscurely striate. 8. P. unifolium. 

Some of the perianth-lobes keeled near the apex. 9. P. Kelloggii. 

Fruit reflexed. 

Upper bracts much reduced and subulate. 

Perianth 1.5-2 mm. long; leaves narrowly linear; achenes exerted. 

10. P. Engelmannii. 
Perianth 4-5 mm. long ; lower leaves oblanceolate to linear-oblanceolate ; 

achenes included. n. P. Douglasii. 

Upper bracts foliaceous, relatively broad, lanceolate or oblong. 

Achenes included. 12. P. montanum. 

Achenes exserted. 13. P. commixtum. 

1. Polygonum erectum L. In waste places from Me. and Alb. to Ga. and 
Ark. and Kans. Also reported from Colorado, but no exact locality given. 

2. Polygonum buxiforme Small. (P. litoralc Small, in part) In sandy 
and alkaline soil from Ont. and Wash, to Va., Tex. and Nev. Alt. 4000-10,000 
ft. Georgetown; Silver Plume; along Platte River, Denver; Montrose; Fort 
Collins; Colorado Springs. 

3. Polygonum aviculare L. In waste grounds from Newf. and Sask. to 
Va. and Calif.; introduced from Europe. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Fort Collins; 
Gunnison. 

4. Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. In river valleys and low ground from 
Minn, and Wash, to Ills., N. M. and Nev. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Cheyenne 
Mountain ; Fort Collins ; Upper La Plata Canon. 

5. Polygonum rubescens Small. In sandy soil from Ida. to Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 4500-8000 ft. Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; Larimer Co. 

6. Polygonum sawatchense Small. On hillsides from S. D. and Wash, to 
Colo., Ariz, and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Saguache Range ; Box Canon, 
west of Ouray ; Calhan ; Veta Pass ; Estes Park. 

7. Polygonum Watsonii Small. (Polygonum imbricatum S. Wats.) In wet 
places from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft 
South Park; Leroux Park; Upper West Mancos Canon; Chambers' Lake. 

8. Polygonum unifolium Small. In wet places from Mont, to Colo. Ten- 
nessee Pass. 

9. Polygonum Kelloggii Greene. In wet soil from Wash, and Mont, to 
Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Steamboat Springs ; Bard Creek Valley, near 
Empire. 

10. Polygonum Engelmannii Greene. (P. tcnuc microspcrmum Engelm.) 
On hillsides and mountains from Mont, and B. C. to Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 



POLYGON ACEAE. Ill 

ft. Georgetown; Golden; Bergen Park; Idaho Springs; Boulder; Manitou; 
Dale Creek ; Lower Boulder Canon. 

11. Polygonum Douglasii Greene. (P. tcnuc Coulter; not Michx.) On 
hillsides and in sandy soil from Vt. and B. C. to N. Y., N. M. and Calif. 
Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Larimer Co. ; Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co. ; Pagosa 
Springs: Wahatoya Creek; canons west of Ouray (broad-leaved form); 
Sheepshorn Divide, Middle Park; Pagosa Peak (broad-leaved) ; Eagle River; 
Boulder; Soldier Canon; Big Creek Gulch; Walton Creek; Arthur's Rock; 
Bosworth ranch; Horsetooth Gulch; Chambers' Lake; Boulder; Golden; 
Idaho Springs. 

A form more branched at the base is Polygonum Douglasii consimile 
(Greene) Small. (P. consimile Greene) Lower Bouder Canon. 

12. Polygonum montanum (Small) Greene. (P. tcnue latifolium Engelm.) 
In the mountains from Alb. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Mar- 
shall Pass; Red Mountain; Ironton Park; North Park; Mt. Harvard; Silver 
Plume ; White River Plateau. 

13. Polygonum commixtum Greene. In the mountains from Colo, to Mont. 
Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Silver Plume; Grizzly Creek; Cameron Pass; Mt. 
Robinson; summit of mountains west of North Park. 

5. PERSICARIA Adans. SMART-WEED, LADY'S THUMB. 

Racemes terminal only and usually solitary ; plants aquatic. 
Ocrea without a spreading foliaceous top. 

Plant usually floating ; leaf-blades of an oblong type, glabrous, acute or 

obtuse. i. P. coccinea. 

Plant usually diffuse and emersed ; leaf-blades of a lanceolate type, pubescent, 
acuminate. 2. P. Muhlenbcrgii. 

Ocrea with a spreading foliaceous top ; leaf-blades narrowly oblong or lanceolate 
(broader in floating forms), pubescent. 3. P. Hartzvrightii. 

Racemes axillary as well as terminal, numerous. 
Ocrea without marginal bristles. 

Racemes erect ; glands on the branches and inflorescence numerous, stalked. 

4. P. omissa. 

Racemes drooping ; glands on the branches and inflorescence sessile. 
Styles united only at the base. 5. P. incarnata. 

Styles united to about the middle. 

Leaves deep green on both sides. 6. P. lapathifolia. 

Leaves pale beneath. 7. P. incana. 

Ocrea bristle-fringed. 

Racemes oblong or cylindric, densely flowered, about i cm. thick in fruit ; 

perianth not punctate, usually pink to red-purple. 8. P. Persicaria. 

Racemes slender, loosely flowered, about 5 mm. thick in fruit ; perianth white 

or pale-green, copiously punctate. 

Racemes erect ; achenes smooth and shining. 9. P. punctata. 

Racemes nodding, at least in fruit ; achenes granular and dull. 

10. P. Hydropiper. 

1. Persicaria coccinea (Muhl.) Greene. (Polygonum amphibium Hook.; 
not L. ; P. coccineum Muhl.) In water or rarely in mud from Me. and 
Alaska to N. J. and Calif. Alt. up to 9000 ft West Cliff, Pike's Peak; 
McCoy; Ouray; Veta Mountain; Hamor's Lake; Gunnison. 

2. Persicaria Muhlenbergii (S. Wats.) Small. (Polygonum Muhlenbcrgii 
S. Wats.) In swamps, mud and shallow water from Me. and B. C. to Va. 



112 POLYGONACEAE. 

and Calif. ; also in Mex. Alt. up to 6000 ft. Uncompahgre Mountains, near 
Los Pinos ; Fort Collins ; Alamosa. 

3. Persicaria Hartwrightii (A. Gray) Small. (Polygonum Hartwrightii 
A. Gray.) In wet places and shallow water from Me. and Wash, to Pa. 
and Calif. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Canon City; Denver. 

4. Persicaria omissa (Greene) Small. (Polygonum Pennsylvanicum Coult. ; 
not L. ; P. omissum Greene.) In wet ground and dried up ponds in Kans. 
and Colo. Alt. up to 5000 ft. Loveland, Larimer Co. 

5. Persicaria incarnata (Ell.) Small. {Polygonum incarnatum Ell.) In 
wet soil from Vt. and Ida. to Fla. and Calif. Alt. up to 5000 ft. Fort Col- 
lins ; New Windsor. 

6. Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) S. F. Gray. (Polygonum lapathifolium L.) 
In wet soil from Que. and B. C. to Fla. and Calif; also in Mex., W. Ind., 
Europe and Asia. Alt. up to 5000 ft. Fort Collins. 

7. Persicaria incana (Koch) S. F. Gray. (Polygonum lapathifolium in- 
canum Koch.) In swamps from Newf. and B. C. to N. Y. and Colo. Alt. 
up to 6000 ft. Alamosa. 

8. Persicaria Persicaria (L.) Small. (Polygonum Persicaria L.) In waste 
places and rich ground from Newf. and B. C. to Fla. and Calif. ; also in 
Mex. and Europe. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Boulder; Livermore; Fort Collins. 

9. Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small. (Polygonum punctatum Ell.) In 
swamps and wet places from Me. and Wash, to Fla. and Calif. ; also in Mex., 
Cent. Am., W. Ind. and S. Am. Alt. up to 5000 ft. Fort Collins; plains 
near Boulder. 

10. Persicaria Hydropiper (L.) Opiz. (Polygonum Hydropiper L.) In wet 
places from Newf. and B. C. to Ga. and Calif. ; also in Mex., Cent. Am. and 
Europe. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Fort Collins; Denver. 

6. BISTORTA Tourn. BISTORT. 

Racemes not viviparous (not bulblet bearing), oblong, 1-2 cm. thick. 

Perianth 5-6 mm. long ; leaf-blades lanceolate, oblong or oblanceolate. 

i. B. bistortoides. 

Perianth 3-4 mm. long ; basal leaf-blades linear. 2. B. Imearifolia. 

Racemes viviparous (bulblet bearing below), linear, 5-8 mm. thick. 

3. B. vivipara. 

1. Bistorta bistortoides (Pursh) Small. (Polygonum Bistorta oblongi- 
folium Meisn.) In wet meadows and swamps in the mountains from Mont, 
and Wash, to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 7000-13,000 ft. " Rocky Mountains " ; 
Lake City; Halfway House, Pike's Peak; Cabin Canon; Mt. Harvard; Colum- 
bine ; South Park ; Mt. Garfield ; Pagosa Peak ; Grayback mining camps and 
Placer Gulch ; Garden of the Gods ; Ruxton ; Cameron Pass ; Graymont ; 
Chicken Creek, West La Plata Mountains; Marshall Pass; Oak Mesa; 
Beaver Creek, Larimer Co. ; Boreas ; Gore Pass. 

2. Bistorta linearifolia (S. Wats.) Greene. (Polygonum Bistorta lineari- 
folium S. Wats.) In alpine swamps and along streams from Mont, to Colo, 
and Nev. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Alpine ridges east of Middle Park; "Rocky 
Mountains"; Pike's Peak. 

3. Bistorta vivipara (L.) S. F. Gray. (P. viviparum L.) In alpine or sub- 



POLYGONACEAE. 113 

arctic swamps from Greenl. and Alaska to N. H. and Colo. ; also Europe 
and Asia. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Alpine Tunnel; Grand Lake; Robinson; 
Seven Lakes; Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains; West Spanish Peak; 
Cameron Pass ; Indian Creek Pass ; White River Plateau ; Gray's Peak ; 
North Park ; Eldora to Baltimore ; Beaver Creek ; Cameron Pass ; Gore 
Pass ; Graymont. 

7. TINIARIA Reichenb. FALSE BUCKWHEAT. 

Outer sepals merely keeled at maturity. T. Convolvulus. 

Outer sepals developing conspicuous wings. T. scandens. 

i. Tiniaria Convolvulus (L.) Webb. & Moq. (Polygonum Convolvulus 
L.) Among bushes from N. S. and B. C. to Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 
ft. Box Canon, west of Ouray; Engelmann Canon; Fort Collins; Colorado 
Springs. 

z. Tiniaria scandens (L.) Small. (Polygonum scandens L.) In thickets 
from N. S. to Mont., Fla., La. and Colo. Exact locality not given. 

Order 24. CHENOPODIALES. 

Fruit a utricle, achene or anthocarp, indehiscent, circumscissile or bursting 

irregularly. 
Fruit a utricle. 
Stipules wanting. 

Bracts not scarious. 45. CHENOPODIACEAE. 

Bracts scarious. 46. AMARANTHACEAE. 

Stipules present, scarious. 47. CORRIGIOLACEAE. 

Fruit an anthocarp, the achene surrounded by the tube of the corolla-like calyx. 

48. ALLIONIACEAE. 
Fruit a capsule, dehiscent by apical or longitudinal valves. 

Ovary several-celled ; corolla wanting. 49. TETRAGON IACEAE. 

Ovary i-celled ; corolla mostly present. 

Sepals, 2; or, if more (in Lewisia), plant scapose, with fleshy basal leaves 

and the flowers solitary on a jointed scape. 50. PORTULACACEAE. 

Sepals, 4-5 ; plants leafy-stemmed. 

Sepals distinct; petals not clawed; ovary sessile. 51. ALSINACEAE. 

Sepals united ; petals clawed ; ovary more or less distinctly stipitate. 

52. CARYOPHYLLACEAE. 

Family 45. CHENOPODIACEAE Dumort. GOOSEFOOT FAMILY. 

Embryo annular. 

Stems and branches not jointed; leaves not scale-like. 

Flowers perfect, all with perianth, not inclosed in a pair of bracts. 
Fruit inclosed in the calyx. 

Calyx in fruit not transversely winged. 
Sepals 3-5, stamens 1-5. 

Fruiting calyx herbaceous. i. CHENOPODIUM. 

Fruiting calyx fleshy, red. 2. BLITUM. 

Sepals i ; stamens i. 4. MONOLEPIS. 

Calyx in fruit transversely winged. 

Flowers paniculate ; leaves ample, sinuate, flat. 3. CYCLOLOMA. 

Flowers spicate ; leaves linear, terete. 9. KOCHIA. 

Fruit laterally flattened, exserted from the marcescent calyx. 

10. CORIOSPERMUM. 



114 CHENOPODIACEAE. 

Flowers monoecious or dioecious ; the pistillate inclosed in two accrescent 

bractlets. 
Pericarp not hairy. 

Bracts compressed, i. e., with one side towards the axis ; leaves more or 

less farinose ; testa mostly coriaceous. 5. ATRIPLEX. 

Bracts ob-compressed, i. e., with one edge towards the axis ; testa mem- 
branous. 
Pericarp hastate with crested margins, 2-toothed apex ; more or less 

farinaceous herbs with toothed leaves. 6. SUCKLEYA. 

Pericarp obovate or orbicular, entire ; undershrubs with entire leaves. 

7. GRAYIA. 
Pericarp densely hairy, conical ; low and tomentose shrubs. 

8. EUROTIA. 
Stems and branches fleshy, jointed; leaves scale-like. n. SALICORNIA. 

Embryo spirally coiled. 

Shrubs with monoecious bractless flowers ; staminate flowers in spikes, without 
perianth ; pistillate ones solitary, axillary ; fruiting calyx transversely winged. 

12. SARCOBATUS. 
Herbs with perfect bracteolate flowers. 

Fruiting calyx transversely winged; leaves spiny. 14. SALSOLA. 

Fruiting calyx not winged; leaves fleshy, not spiny. 13. DONDIA. 

i. CHENOPODIUM L. GOOSEFOOT, LAMB'S QUARTERS, PIG-WEED. 

Leaves more or less mealy or glabrate, never glandular or sweet-scented, sinuately 

lobed, dentate or entire ; embryo forming a complete ring. 
Stamens 5 ; calyx not at all fleshy in fruit. 
Leaves entire or sinuately toothed, but not with large, divaricate teeth ; seeds 

1-1.5 mm. in diameter. 

Calyx lobes carinate ; at least the upper panicles exceeding the leaves. 
Pericarp easily separating from the seeds. 

Leaves linear or oblong, entire or slightly sinuately toothed. 

Leaves thin, linear; inflorescence not very dense; spikes somewhat 
interrupted below. r. C. leptophyllum. 

Leaves thick, oblong ; inflorescence dense and crowded. 
Plant densely mealy, yellowish. 

Plant tall with nearly erect branches. 2. C. oblongifolinm. 

Plant low with spreading-ascending branches. 

3. C. desiccation. 

Plant only slightly mealy, dark green. 4. C. Wolfii. 

Leaves broadly ovate or triangular, more or less hastate at the base. 
Plant densely mealy ; leaves rather thick. 

Plant low and spreading. 5. C. incanum. 

Plant tall and erect. 6. C. albescens. 

Plant sparingly mealy; leaves very thin. 7. C. Frcmontii. 

Pericarp firmly attached to the seed. 

Leaves subentire or merely hastately toothed. 

Leaves thick, more or less mealy ; none of them cuspidate. 

8. C. Watsonii. 
Leaves thin, glabrate, all or the upper usually cuspidate. 

9. C. Bcrlandieri. 
Leaves more or less sinuately dentate ; inflorescence dense. 

10. C. album. 
Calyx lobes not carinate ; panicles mostly axillary, shorter than the leaves. 

n. C. glaucitm. 
Leaves with large divergent acute lobes ; seeds about 2 mm. in diameter. 

12. C. hybridum. 
Stamens 1-2 ; calyx reddish and slightly fleshy in fruit. 

Plant usually over i dm. high, erect ; leaves usually more or less toothed. 

13. C". riibniin. 



CHENOPODIACEAE. 115 

Plant less than i dm. high, prostrate ; leaves entire or merely hastately toothed. 

14. C. humile. 
Leaves glandular, sweet-scented, pinnately lobed ; embryo horseshoe-shaped. 

Lobes of the leaves rounded or broadly oblong, more or less toothed. 

15. C. Botrys. 
Lobes of the leaves lanceolate, entire. 16. C. cornittnm. 

1. Chenopodium leptophyllum Nutt. On prairies, in waste places and fields 
from Neb. to Mont., Mo. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Gtmnison ; Buena 
Vista; Deer Run, Gunnison watershed; entrance to Grand Canon, 15 miles 
from Grand Junction. 

2. Chenopodium oblongifolium (S. Wats.) Rydb. (C. Icptopliyllnm oblon- 
gifolium S. Wats.) On dry prairies and plains from N. D. to Wyo., Mo., 
Tex. and Ariz. Atl. 4000-7000 ft. Crow Creek ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; 
Fort Collins ; Wray. 

3. Chenopodium desiccatum Aven Nelson. Dry waste places in Colo. Fort 
Collins. 

4. Chenopodium Wolfii Rydb. In dry places in the mountains of Wyo. and 
Colo. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Twin Lakes ; Cheyenne Mountain ; Crow Creek ; 
Grizzly Creek ; Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; Steamboat Springs. 

5. Chenopodium incanum (S. Wats.) Heller. (C. Fremontii incanum S. 
Wats.) In dry grounds, especially in prairie dog towns. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. 
Crow Creek ; Fort Collins. 

6. Chenopodium albescens Small. In dry soil from Tex. to Colo. 
Durango. 

7. Chenopodium Fremontii S. Wats. Among bushes and in canons from S. 
D. to Mont., N. M. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Vicinity of 
Fort Collins; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Minnehaha ; southeast of Ouray; 
Poudre Canon. 

8. Chenopodium Watsonii A. Nelson. (C. olidum S. Wats.) In dry places 
from Colo, to Ariz. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. -Valley Spur. 

9. Chenopodium Berlandieri Moq. In dry soil from Mo. to Wyo., Fla. and 
Tex. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Sheepshorn Divide, North Park; near Pagosa Peak; 
Huerfano Valley. 

10. Chenopodium album L. In fields and waste places; introduced and 
naturalized from Europe; from Newf. to Alb., Fla. and Calif. Gunnison; 
about Fort Collins. 

11. Chenopodium glaucum L. In alkaline soil from Alb. to Colo, and Utah; 
also in Europe. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Walsenburg; Steamboat Springs; New 
Windsor; Gunnison; La Veta; above Palisade. 

12. Chenopodium hybridum L. In waste places and around dwellings from 
Que. to B. C., N. Y. and Utah. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Park Range; Steamboat 
Springs ; Mancos ; Hotchkiss, Larimer Co. ; Johnston Canon ; Gunnison ; 
Horsetooth Gulch; gulch west of Soldier Canon; Big Creek Gulch. 

13. Chenopodium rubrum (L.) Reichenb. In alkaline flats and meadows 
from N. Y. to Alb., Mo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Hot Springs in San 
Luis Valley; Mt. Harvard; Gunnison; West Cliff; Delta; north of Trap- 
per's Lake ; falls of the Poudre. 

14. Chenopodium humile Hook. In alkaline meadows from Mont, to B. C., 
Neb. and Colo. Alt. up to 8000 ft. Gunnison. 



116 CHENOPODIACEAE. 

15. Chenopodium Botrys L. In waste places from N. S. to B. C, Ga. and 
Calif.; also Mex. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Plains and foot-hills near Boulder; 
Ouray; Idaho Springs; Box Canon, west of Ouray; Clear Creek Canon, 
above Golden. 

16. Chenopodium cornutum B. & H. In dry places from Colo, to N. M. and 
Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Huerfano Co. ; Buena Vista ; Little 
Veta Mountain. 

2. BLITUM L. STRAWBERRY ELITE. 

Leaves more or less dentate, truncate or broadly cuneate at the base ; inflorescence 
dense and leafy. i. B. capitatuin. 

Leaves entire, except the hastate teeth at the cuneate base ; inflorescence slender 
and naked above. 2. B. hastatum. 

1. Blitum capitatum L. In rocky soil from N. S. to Alaska, N. J. and 
Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Mountains between Sunshine and Ward, Boulder 
Co.; Hamor's Lake, above Durango; Georgetown; Sangre de Cristo Creek; 
North Park; Gunnison; Veta Pass; La Veta; Minnehaha; Ouray; Brecken- 
ridge ; Anchor ; Poudre Canon ; Elizabethtown ; Chambers' Lake ; Buena 
Vista ; forks of Poudre and Big-tooth. 

2. Blitum hastatum Rydb. In stony ground from Wyo. to Utah and Colo. 
Alt. 6000-9500 ft. Big Creek Gulch, Routt Co. ; Trapper's Lake. 

3. CYCLOLOMA Moq. 

i. Cycloloma atriplicifolium (Spreng.) Coult. (C. platyphyllum Moq.) 
In sandy soils from Ont. to Mont., Ark. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. La 
Salle ; Denver ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; near Boulder ; Elk Canon. 

4. MONOLEPIS Schrad. 

Leaves lanceolate, hastately lob'ed, flower clusters several flowered ; pericarp some- 
what fleshy. i. M. Nuttallicma. 
Leaves spatulate, entire; flower-clusters i-3-flowered ; pericarp thin. 

2. M. pnsilla. 

1. Monolepis Nuttalliana (R. & S.) Engelm. (M. chcnopodioidcs Moq.) 
In alkaline soil from Minn, to Wash., Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft 
Near Bents' Fort; valley near Empire; Sangre de Cristo Creek; headwaters 
of Pass Creek ; Arboles ; Durango ; vicinity of Fort Collins ; Gunnison ; New 
Windsor, Weld Co. ; Buena Vista ; Montrose ; Platte River Valley ; Grand 
Junction ; Fort Collins. 

2. Monolepis pusilla Torr. In alkaline soil from Wyo. and Colo, to Calif. 
Grand Junction. 

5. ATRIPLEX L. Orache. 

Annuals. 

Bracts united only at the base ; radicle inferior. 

Bracts thin, broadly ovate, mucronate. 17. A. hortensis. 

Bracts thick, deltoid or lanceolate, acute. 

Stem tall, erect ; leaves broadly ovate or triangular-hastate. 

i. A. carnosa. 

Stem low, 2-4 dm. high, spreading or ascending ; leaf-blades lanceolate, 
hastately lobed. 2. A, subspicata. 



CHENOPODIACEAE. 117 

Bracts united to above the middle ; radicle superior. 

Bracts usually broadly cuneate, truncate at the apex, seldom with tubercles ; 

leaves linear. 3. A. Wolfii. 

Bracts rhombic-orbicular, conspicuously toothed and appendaged, or tubercled 

on the back ; leaf-blades rhombic, cordate or ovate. 

Leaf-blades large, more or less hastate, truncate or cuneate at the base. 
Leaf-blades rhombic-deltoid, minutely scurfy, acute. 

Leaves subsessile or the lower short petioled with winged petioles, very 

thin ; plant a thumble-weed, 1-3 m. in diameter. 4. A. expansa. 
Leaves petioled, firmer ; plant scarcely a thumble-weed. 

5. A. argentea. 

Leaf-blades subcordate, coarsely scurfy, obtuse. 6. A. cornuta. 

Leaf-blades small, i cm. or less, ovate-lanceolate, rounded at the base, sub- 
sessile, firm. -j. A. philonitra. 
Perennials. 

Bracts not winged on the back. 

Bracts with entire margins or merely wavy, without appendages on the 

back ; leaf-blades entire, broadly oval. 8. A. confertifolia. 

Bracts either with a distinctly toothed margin or appendaged on the back, 

or both. 
Bracts broadest above the middle. 

Bracts 3-toothed, only rarely tubercled on the back. 

9. A. eremicola. 
Bracts entire, strongly tubercled or appendaged on the back. 

10. A. corrugata. 
Bracts broadest below the middle, strongly tubercled or appendaged ; 

leaf-blades oblanceolate to spatulate. 
Leaf-blades oblanceolate or narrowly spatulate, subsessile or short- 

petioled. 

Low ; leaves usually short-petioled ; staminate flowers brown-puberu- 
lent, in panicles. n. A. oblanceolata. 

Usually tall ; leaves subsessile ; staminate flower yellow in inter- 
rupted spikes. 12. A. Nuttallii. 
Leaf-blades broadly spatulate, distinctly petioled ; staminate spikes 

brown, interrupted. 13. A. cuneata. 

Bracts broadly 4-winged on the back. 

Wings thick, laciniate-toothed. 14. A. odontoptera. 

Wings thin, sinuately dentate or subentire. 

Wings when fully developed 4-6 mm. wide, distinctly dentate ; leaves 

broad, linear-oblong to spatulate. 15. A. cancscens. 

Wings very broad and thin, fully 8 mm. wide, merely sinuate ; leaves 
linear. 16. A. occidentalis. 

1. Atriplex carnosa A. Nels. (A. patula hastata of Coulter's Man.) In 
alkaline or saline meadows from Nebr. to Mont, and Kan. Fort Collins. 

2. Atriplex subspicata (S. Wats.) Rydb. (A. patula subspicata S. Wats.) 
In alkaline soil from N. D. to Mont, Colo, and Utah. Alt. up to 9500 ft 
Pitkin; Delta. 

3. Atriplex Wolfii S. Wats. In alkaline soil, in Wyo. and Colo. San Luis 
Valley; Saguache. 

4. Atriplex expansa S. Wats. (A. pabularis A. Nels.) In alkaline soil 
from Ind. Terr, to Mont, Tex. and Calif. About Fort Collins; Delta. 

5. Atriplex argentea Nutt In alkaline flats and dry lakes from N. D. to 
B. C, Kans. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Grand Junction ; Mancos ; Pueblo ; 
vicinity of Fort Collins. 

6. Atriplex cornuta M. E. Jones. In alkaline soil from Colo, to Utah. 
Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Colorado Springs. 



118 CHENOPODIACEAE. 

7. Atriplex philonitra A. Nels. In alkaline soil, in the plain regions of 
Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Mancos ; Grand Junction ; plains of the 
San Juan; Hotchkiss; between Hotchkiss and Smith's Fork; Delta Co. 

8. Atriplex confertifolia S. Wats. On mesas and alkaline flats from Wyo. 
to Nev., Colo., Ariz, and Calif. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Pueblo ; Mancos ; Rifle, 
Garfield Co.; Denver; Grand Junction; Deer Run; Delta; Hotchkiss; Pali- 
sades. 

9. Atriplex eremicola Osterh. On saline bottom-lands and dry plains in 
southern Wyo. and northern Colo. North Park ; Grand Junction. 

10. Atriplex corrugata Watson. On arid plains of Colo. Hotchkiss, Delta 
Co. 

11. Atriplex oblanceolata Rydb. On arid plains of Wyo. and Colo. Delta; 
Hotchkiss ; Grand Junction ; Fort Collins. 

12. Atriplex Nuttallii S. Wats. In bad-lands and arid valleys from Sask. 
to Mont., Colo, 'and Nev. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Arboles; Canon City; Grand 
Junction ; about Fort Collins ; Hotchkiss ; Gypsum ; Fossil Creek. 

13. Atriplex cuneata A. Nelson. In arid places of Utah and Colo. " South- 
western Colorado"; Grand Junction (Nelson}. The Mancos specimens cited 
by Nelson belong to A. confertifolia. 

14. Atriplex odontoptera Rydb. On dry plain of Wyo. and N. Colo. Alt. 
about 5000 ft. New Windsor. 

15. Atriplex canescens James. On dry mesas and alkaline valleys from S. 
D. to Wyo., Kans., N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Wolcott; Walsen- 
burg; Fort Collins; Canon City; Huerfano Valley; Grand Junction; Pueblo; 
between Bents' Fort and Upper Pueblo ; Olathie ; Gypsum ; Hotchkiss, Delta 
Co. 

16. Atriplex occidentalis Torr. On dry mesas from Colo, to Utah, Texas 
and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Boulder ; Huerfano Valley ; Mancos ; Pueblo. 

17. Atriplex hortensis L. Escaped from cultivation in waste places. Alt. 
up to 7000 ft. Boulder ; Glenwood Springs ; La Veta ; vicinity of Fort Col- 
lins. 

6. SUCKLEYA A. Gray. 

i. Suckleya Suckleyana (Torr.) Rydb. (S. petiolata A. Gray.) River 
valleys from Mont, to Colo. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Six miles southeast of 
Golden ; Cheyenne Wells ; Denver. 

7. GRAYIA H. & A. 

i. Grayia Brandegei A. Gray. In desert regions of Colo. Hill's ranch, 
Elmo Creek. 

8. EUROTIA Adans. WHITE SAGE, WINTER SAGE. 

i. Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq. On hillsides and sage plains from S. D. 
to Wash., Kans. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. -Fort Collins ; Salida ; New 
Windsor; Gunnison ; La Veta; Trail Glen; Grand River, above Kremmling; 
Boulder; bluffs north of La Porte; Barlow ranch, three miles from Forks' 
Hotel ; banks of Cache la Poudre ; Gypsum ; Fort Collins. 



CHENOPODIACEAE. 119 

g. KOCHIA Rath. 

Perennials ; leaves narrowly linear, fleshy. 

Branches tomentulose, soon glabrate ; leaves somewhat hairy when young ; fruit 
nearly smooth. i--K. americana. 

Branches and leaves densely and permanently hairy ; fruit very pubescent. 

2. K. vestita. 
Annual ; leaves linear-lanceolate, not fleshy. 3- K. scopana. 

1. Kochia americana S. Wats. In alkaline meadows and marshes from 
Wyo. to Cal., Colo, and Ariz. Alt. about 4600 ft. Grand Junction. 

2. Kochia vestita S. Wats. In alkaline meadows and marshes from Wyo. 
to Cal. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Grand Junction; McElmo Canon. 

3. Kochia scoparia Schrad. Introduced from Europe and sparingly grow- 
ing in waste places from N. Y. and Mich, to Pa. and Colo. Alt. about 5000 
ft. Fort Collins; New Windsor. 

10. CORIOSPERMUM L. BUG-SEED. 

Fruit with a distinct wing at least y 2 mm. wide. 

Spike lax; lower bracts much narrower than the fruit. i. C. nitidum. 

Spike dense ; lower bracts rarely narrower than the fruit. 2. C. marginale. 
Fruit merely acute, margined, scarcely winged. 

Plant glabrous. 3- C. emarginatiim. 

Plant more or less villous. 4- C. villosum. 

1. Coriospermum nitidum Kit. (C. hyssoppifolium microcarpum S. Wats.) 
On sand-hills and in canons from Ills, to N. D., Tex. and Colo.; also in 
Europe and Asia. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Huerfano Valley; Colorado Springs; 
Canon City. 

2. Coriospermum marginale Rydb. In valleys of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-7000 ft. Denver; Huerfano Valley; Rocky Ford; near Boulder. 

3. Coriospermum emarginatum Rydb. In valleys of Wyo. and Colo. Colo- 
rado (exact locality not given). 

4. Coriospermum villosum Rydb. In sandy valleys from Alb. to Ore., Colo, 
and Nev. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Salida ; Gunnison ; Buena Vista. 

ii. SALICORNIA L. GLASS-WORT. 

i. Salicornia herbacea L. (S. rubra A. Nelson.) In salt marshes from 
Que. to B. C., Ga. and Calif. North Park; Larimer Co. 

12. SARCOBATUS Nees. GREASE- WOOD. 

i. Sarcobatus vermiculatus (Hook) Torr. In dry alkaline or saline soil 
from Neb. to Wash., Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Salida ; Mancos ; 
Grand Junction; Mancos Canon; Lake John, North Park; near Montrose; 
Walsenburg ; Olathie ; Black Canon of the Gunnison ; Gypsum ; Middle Park. 

13. DONDIA Adans. SEA ELITE. 

Sepals more or less fleshy, but none of them carinate ; leaves narrowed at the base. 
Plant perennial, stout. i. D. Moqitini. 

Plant annual, slender. 2. D. diffusa. 



120 CHENOPODIACEAE. 

Sepals very fleshy, one or two decidedly carinate ; leaves broadest near the base. 
Plant depressed, spreading. 3. D. depressa. 

Plant erect. 4. D. erecta. 

1. Dondia Moquini (Torn) A. Nels. (Chenopodium Moquini Torr. ; 
Swacda Torrcyana S. Wats.) In salt marshes from Wyo. to Nev., Colo, and 
Lower Calif. Canon City; Hotchkiss. 

2. Dondia diffusa (S. Wats.) Heller. (Swacda diffusa S. Wats.) In salt 
marshes from Nebr. to Nev. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Salida ; Grand 
Junction ; Mancos ; Canon City ; Delta ; Pueblo. 

3. Dondia depressa (Pursh) Britton. (Salsola depressa Pursh; Swaeda 
depressa S. Wats.) In salt marshes from Sask. to Mont, Colo, and Nev. 
Alt. up to 8000 ft. Buena Vista ; river bottom land, Fort Collins ; Delta. 

4. Dondia erecta (S. Wats.) A. Nels. (Swacda depressa erecta S. Wats.) 
In salt marshes from N. D. to Mont., Colo, and Nev. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. 
Grand Junction ; Lake John, North Park ; Fort Collins ; Pueblo ; along Pou- 
dre River. 

14. SALSOLA L. RUSSIAN THISTLE, SALT-WORT. 

i. Salsola Tragus L. In waste places and old fields ; introduced from Eu- 
rope and naturalized from Ont. to Wash., Mo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. 
Near Boulder; Pueblo; Denver; Huerfano Valley; Canon City; Walsenburg; 
La Salle. 

Family 46. AMARANTHACEAE J. St. Hil. AMARANTH FAMILY. 

Anthers 2-celled ; green plants with alternate leaves. 

Perianth present in all flowers. i. AMARANTH us. 

Perianth wanting in the pistillate flowers. 2. ACNIDA. 

Anthers i-celled ; stellate or woolly plants with mainly opposite leaves. 

Filaments united into a short cup at the base ; calyx neither crested nor spiny ; 

plants stellate, diffuse. 3. CLADOTRIX. 

Filaments united into a long tube ; calyx crested and tubercled or spiny at 

maturity ; plants woolly, erect. 4. FROELICHIA. 

i. AMARANTHUS L. AMARANTH, PIGWEED. 

Sepals clawed ; flowers in terminal and axillary spikes. 

Bracts lanceolate, shorter than the flowers. i. A. Torreyi. 

Bracts subulate, longer than the flowers. 2. A. Palmeri. 

Sepals not clawed. 

Plants tall, simple ; flowers in terminal and axillary spikes. 

Stamens 3 ; sepals 1-2 mm. long. 3. A. Poiveltii. 

Stamens 5 ; sepals 2-3 mm. long. 

Spikes stout, 8-14 mm. thick, strict; stem usually more or less pubescent. 

4. A. retrofle.rus. 
Spikes slender, 4-6 mm. thick, usually drooping ; stem glabrous. 

5. A. hybridtis. 
Plant low, much branched ; flowers in small axillary spikes, shorter than the 

leaves. 
Sepals 4-5 ; bracts lanceolate-subulate, a little longer than the sepals ; plant 

prostrate. 6. A. blitoides. 

Sepals 3 ; bracts much longer than the sepals, pungent ; plant erect, glabrous. 

7. A. graccizcns. 



AMARANTHACEAE. 

i. Amaranthus Torreyi (A. Gray) Benth. (Amblogyne Torreyi A. Gray.) 
In sandy soil from Iowa and Wyo. to Mex. and L. Cal. Alt. 4000-5000 ft.- 
Fort Collins; north fork of Gunnison, Delta Co. 

2. Amaranthus Palmeri S. Wats. In sandy soil from Kans. and Colo, to 
Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. about 6000 ft. Clear Creek Canon, above 
Golden. 

3. Amaranthus Powellii S. Wats. In sandy valleys from Colo, to Texas 
and Calif. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Southeast of Ouray; Boulder; Alamosa. 

4. Amaranthus retroflexus L. In waste places from Vt. to Ida., Fla. and 
Mex. ; naturalized from Europe. Alt. up to 6000 ft. Denver ; Cheyenne 
Mountain ; Fort Collins ; Durango. 

5. Amaranthus hybridus L. In waste places from R. I. to Colo., Fla. and 
Calif.; also in Mex.; naturalized from Europe. Upper Rio Grande; exact 
locality not given. 

6. Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats. In dry grounds, roadsides and waste 
places from N. Y. to Mont., La. and Calif. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Pike's Peak 
trail; Manitou; Colorado Springs; Ouray; Buena Vista; Durango; vicinity 
of Fort Collins. 

7. Amaranthus graecizens L. (A. albus L.) In cultivated grounds and 
waste places from R. I. to Wash., Fla. and Ariz.; introduced from tropical 
America. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Fort Collins. 

2. ACNIDA L. WATER HEMP. 

i. Acnida tamariscina (Nutt.) Wood. In alluvial soil from 111. to S. D., 
La. and N. M. Alt. up to 5000 ft. Fort Collins. 

3. CLADOTRIX Nutt. 

i. Cladotrix lanuginosa Nutt. In dry soil from Kans. to Colo., Tex., Ariz, 
and Mex. Rocky Ford. 

i. FROELICHIA Moench. 

Stout, 6-12 dm. tall; crest of fruiting calyx continuous, dentate, i. F. campestris. 
Slender, 2-5 dm. high ; crest of fruiting calyx interrupted. 2. F. gracilis. 

1. Froelichia campestris Small. (F. Florldana Coult. ; in part.) In sandy 
soil from Mo. to Colo, and Tex. Alt. about 5000 ft. New Windsor, Weld 
Co. 

2. Froelichia gracilis Moq. In sandy valleys from Neb. to Colo., Ark. and 
Texas. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Boulder; Colorado Springs; Denver; along Pou- 
dre ; Fort Collins ; Manitou ; Ute Pass. 

Family 47. CORRIGIOLACEAE Reichenb. WHITLOW-WORT FAMILY. 



i. PARONYCHIA Adans. WHITLOW-WORTH. 

Flowers solitary ; leaves scarcely exceeding the bracts ; plants densely pulvinate. 
Leaves elliptic, thick, not spinulose-tipped. i. P. pulvinata. 

Leaves linear, chartaceous, spinulose-tipped. 

Leaves arcuate, spreading ; spinules of sepals over i mm. long. 

2. P. scssilifiora. 



122 CORRIGIOLACEAE. 

Leaves straight, ascending ; spinules of sepals less than i mm. 

3. P. brevispina. 
Flowers more or less clustered ; leaves much longer than the bracts. 

Plant low and diffuse, less than i dm. high ; calyx fully 3 mm. long. 

4. P. diffusa. 
Plant taller, i dm. or more high; stem erect or ascending; calyx 2-2.5 mm. 

long. 
Branches of the cymes ascending ; calyx about 2.5 mm. long ; sepals lanceolate, 

gradually acuminate. 5. P. Jamesii. 

Branches of the cymes divarcate ; calyx about 2 mm. long ; sepals oblong, 

abruptly acuminate. 6. P. Wardii. 

1. Paronychia pulvinata A. Gray. On exposed mountain tops from Wyo. 
to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 11,000-14,000 ft. Cameron Pass; Mt. Garfield; 
Gray's Peak; Pike's Peak trail; Massif de 1'Arapahoe; Berthoud Pass. 

2. Paronychia sessiliflora Nutt. On dry ridges from Sask. to Alb., Tex. 
and Utah. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Upper Larimer River. 

3. Paronychia brevispina (A. Nels.) Rydb. (P. sessiliflora brevispina A. 
Nels.) On dry hills in Wyo. and Colo. Waldon, North Park. 

4. Paronychia diffusa A. Nels. On dry plains and mountains from S. D. 
to Wyo., Kans. and Colo. Alt. 5000-13,000 ft. Castle Rock, near Golden ; 
Gray's Peak; Pike's Peak trail; Table Rock. 

5. Paronychia Jamesii T. & G. On dry plains and mountains from Neb. 
to Wyo., Tex. and N. M. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Ruxton Ridge; 
Pike's Peak ; river flats east of Ft. Collins ; Horsetooth Mountain ; moun- 
tains between Sunshine and Ward ; Boulder ; Larimer Co. ; Morrison ; 
Meadow Park, Lyons ; Colorado City; Spring Canon; Ft. Collins; Horse- 
tooth Mountain. 

6. Paronychia Wardii Rydb. On dry plains from Neb. to Colo., Kans. and 
Tex. Alt. up to 7000 ft. Colorado City; Cheyenne Mountain. 

Family 48. ALLIONIACEAE Reichenb. FOUR-O'CLOCK FAMILY. 

Bracts distinct. i. ABRONIA. 

Bracts united. 

Fruit neither strongly tubercled nor winged. 

Fruit not ribbed ; involucre herbaceous, little if at all enlarging in fruit, not 

becoming membranous. 
Stamens usually 5 ; involucres campanulate, not enlarged in fruit. 

2. QUAMOCLIDIOX. 

Stamens 3 ; involucre rotate, somewhat enlarged in fruit in the manner of 

the next genus, but not membranous. 3. ALLIONIELLA. 

Fruit ribbed ; involucre rotate, in fruit becoming much enlarged and mem- 
branous. 4. ALLIONIA. 
Fruit with two rows of strong tubercles on the back and surrounded by two 
toothed inflexed wings. 5. WEDELIA. 

i. ABRONIA Juss. 

Fruit narrowly winged or crested ; wings or crests not completely encircling the 

fruit. 
Fruit biturbinate, i. e., tapering at both ends, irregularly ridged or crested. 

i. A. fragrans. 
Fruit turbinate or obpyramidal, i. c., almost truncate above, distinctly winged ; 

the wings very broad above. 
Bracts broadly ovate or obovate, acute or obtusish. 



ALLIONIACEAE. 123 

Stem puberulent. 2. A. elliptica. 

Stem glabrous. 3- A. glabra. 

Bracts oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, attenuate or cuspidate. 

4. A. Carletoni. 
Fruit completely surrounded by the broad netted-veined membranous wings. 

Flowers 3 cm. or more long ; limb about i cm. wide ; peduncles longer than the 

leaves. 5- A. cycloptera. 

Flowers 1.5-2 cm. long; limb about 5 mm. wide. 6. A. micrantha. 

1. Abronia fragrans Nutt. In dry sandy soil from S. D. to Ida., Kans. and 
N. M. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. New Windsor, Weld Co.; Crow Creek; Ft. Col- 
lins; Salida; Cucharas River, below La Veta; Walsenburg; near Pueblo; 
Table Rock; Fossil Creek; Colorado Springs. 

2. Abronia elliptica A. Nels. (A. Bakeri Greene.) In sandy soil in Wyo. 
and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Deer Run ; Grand Junction ; Rifle, Garfield Co. 

3. Abronia glabra Rydb. In dry arid soil in Colo, and Utah. Grand 
Junction ; near Ft. Collins ; Hotchkiss. 

4. Abronia Carletoni Coult. & Fisch. Dry plains of Colo. Alt. about 5000 
ft. Ft. Collins. 

5. Abronia cycloptera A. Gray. Plains from Wyo. to Tex. and Calif. 
Exact locality not given. 

6. Abronia micrantha A. Gray. On dry mesas and in sandy soil from S. D. 
to Mont, and N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Near Pike's Peak; Crow Creek; 
Canon City; Grand Junction; Trinidad; valley of upper Arkansas River; 
Swallows, between Canon City and Pueblo ; near Badito ; near Pueblo ; head- 
waters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Walsenburg; Salida; New Windsor; 
Conejos River, north of Antonito. 

2. QUAMOCLIDION DC. FOUR-O'CLOCK. 

i. Quamoclidion multiflorum Torr. (Mirabilis multiftora A. Gray.) In 
valleys from Colo, to Utah, Texas and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft Florence ; 
Pueblo; Deer Run; Cucharas Junction; Canon City; Cucharas Valley, near 
La Veta ; Grand Junction ; Cimarron ; Pueblo ; Florence. 

3. ALLIONIELLA Rydb. 

i. Allioniella oxybaphoides (A. Gray) Rydb. (Mirabilis oxybaphoides A. 
Gray) In valleys from Colo, to Utah and Tex. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Salida; 
Buena Vista ; Trail Glen. 

4. ALLIONIA Loeffl. UMBRELLA-WORT. 

Leaves from cordate to broadly ovate-lanceolate ; all distinctly petioled. 

1. A. nyctaginea. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, oblong or linear, sessile or only the lower short-petioled. 

Involucres in open terminal cymes. 

Stem more or less hirsute as well as viscid. 

Leaves ovate or broadly oblong, as well as the stem conspicuously hirsute. 

2. A. hirsuta. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate, almost glabrous ; stem sparingly hirsute or glabrous 

except under the nodes. 3- A. pilosa. 

Stem glabrous below, not hirsute, viscid-puberulent above. 

Lower leaves ovate, rounded at the base. 4- -4. sessilifolia. 

Lower leaves lanceolate to linear, tapering at the base. 



124 ALLIONIACEAE. 

Leaves erect or ascending ; lobes of the involucre rounded or broadly 

triangular-ovate. 
Plant prostrate or diffuse; involucres and branches of the inflorescence 

densely viscid hairy. 5. A. diffusa. 

Plants more simple, erect or ascending ; branches of the inflorescence 

usually merely viscid-puberulent. 

Leaves from ovate or obovate to linear-lanceolate, usually over 5 
mm. wide. 6. A. lanceolata. 

Leaves narrowly linear, less than 5 mm. wide. 7. A. linearis. 

Leaves divergent ; lobes of the involucre elliptic or oval. 

8. A. divaricata. 

Involucres on solitary axillary peduncles, rarely also in small dense terminal 
clusters. 9. A. Bodinii. 

1. Allionia myctaginia Michx. (Oxybaphus myctaginius Sweet) In 
alluvial soil from 111. to Sask., Mo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Denver; 
Ft. Collins ; buttes along Poudre River, near Ft. Collins. 

2. Allionia hirsuta Pursh. On plains and sandy valleys from Minn, to S. 
D., Nebr. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Cheyenne Mountain ; Manitou ; Colo- 
rado Springs ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; North Cheyenne Canon ; 
Colorado Springs ; Englemann Canon ; vicinity of Ft. Collins. 

3. Allionia pilosa (Nutt.) Rydb. In dry and sandy soil from Wis. to Sask., 
La. and Tex. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. New Windsor, Weld Co. ; La Veta. 

4. Allionia sessilifolia Osterhout. Plains of Colo. Livermore. 

5. Allionia diffusa Heller. In sandy soil and on plains from N. D. to Wyo., 
Kans. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Minnehaha ; Piedra ; Ft. Collins ; Pueblo ; 
Horsetooth Gulch; Table Rock; Hotchkiss; above Rustic; Grand Junction. 

6. Allionia lanceolata Rydb. On plains and prairies and in dry sandy soil 
from Minn, to Wyo., Tenn., Tex. and Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Estes Park, 
Larimer Co. ; Canon City ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; vicinity of Ft. Collins. 

7. Allionia linearis Pursh. (Oxybaphns angustifolius Sweet.) On dry 
plains from Minn, to Mont., La. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. 
Grand Canon of Arkansas; Platte River, Denver; Grand Junction; southeast 
of Ouray; Parlin, Gunnison, Co. 

8. Allionia divaricata Rydb. In sandy valleys from Colo, to N. M. and 
Ariz. Durango. 

9. Allionia Bodinii (Holz.) Morong. (Oxybaphus Bodinii Holz.) On dry 
mesas from Colo, to Utah and Tex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Pueblo ; Ft. Collins. 

5. WEDELIA Loeffl. 

i. Wedelia incarnata L. In valleys from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; also 
Mexico and Tropical America. Canon City (Greene}. 



Family 49. TETRAGONIACEAE Reichenb. CARPET-WEED FAMILY. 

i. SESSUVIUM L. SEA-PURSLANE. 

i. Sessuvium sessile Pers. On saline plains from Kans. to Nev., Tex. and 
Calif. ; also Mex. Alt. about 8000 ft. Alamosa. 



PORTULACACEAE. 125 

Family 50. PORTULACACEAE Reichenb. PURSLANE FAMILY. 

Ovary superior. 
Sepals 2. 

Sepals deciduous; capsule 3-valved. i. TALINUM. 

Sepals persistent. 

Capsule 3-valved from the apex. 

Plants with corms or fleshy roots ; stem-leaves opposite. 2. CLAYTONIA. 
Plants with slender rootstocks or annual roots. 

Stem with a single sessile pair of leaves, with an erect or ascending 

rootstock or in ours annual roots. 3. LIMIA. 

Stem decumbent or floating, with several pairs of stem-leaves, rooting 
at the nodes and producing filiform runners, forming bulblets at 
the apex. 4- CRUNOCALLIS. 

Capsule circumscissile near the base. 

Plants with fleshy roots and short caudices and numerous basal leaves. 

5. OREOBROMA. 

Plants with globose corms and 2-3 cauline leaves. 6. EROCALLIS. 

Sepals 4-8. 7- LEWISIA. 

Ovary partly inferior ; upper portion circumscissile, falling off with the sepals. 

8. PORTULACA. 

1. TALINUM Adans. FAME-FLOWER. 

Flowers about i cm. wide; stamens 5. i. T. parviflorum. 

Flowers 2-3 cm ; stamens many. 2. T. calycinum. 

1. Talinum parviflorum Nutt. (T. teretifolium Porter & Coult. ; not L.) 
In rocky soil from Minn, to S. D., Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000- 
7000 ft. Garden of the Gods; Denver, along the Platte River; Ft. Collins; 
Mason's river-front farm ; Spring Canon. 

2. Talinum calycinum Engelm. In sandy soil from Ark. to Colo., Tex. to 
N. M. Exact locality not given. 

2. CLAYTONIA L. SPRING BEAUTY. 

Plant with rounded corms ; basal leaves few. 

Stem leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, i-ribbed or indistinctly 3-ribbed. 
Leaves petioled ; corolla white. i. C. Virginians. 

Leaves sessile ; corolla pink. 2. C. rosea. 

Stem leaves broadly lanceolate, distinctly 3-ribbed. 3. C. lanceolata. 

Plants with a short caudex and a fleshy tap root ; basal leaves numerous. 

4. C. megarrhiza. 

1. Claytonia virginiana L. Around springs from N. S. and Mont, to Va., 
Tex. and Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Foot-hills, Ft. Collins ; Soldier Canon ; 
Larimer Co. 

2. Claytonia rosea Rydb. In rich damp soil in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 7000- 
8000 ft. Graham's Peak; hills southeast of La Veta. 

3. Claytonia lanceolata Pursh. (C. Caroliniana sessilifolia Torr.) In wet 
rich soil from Sask. and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Howe's 
Gulch ; gulch west of Dixon Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Grand Mesa. 

4. Claytonia megarrhiza Parry. Among rock-slides, on the higher moun- 
tains, from Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-14,000 ft. West Spanish 
Peak; Cameron Pass; Gray's Peak; Central City; James' Peak; Pike's Peak; 
near Pagosa Peak; Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains; Como; Boreas; 



126 PORTULACACEAE. 

Carson ; Mt. Bartlett ; Robinson ; mountains near Empire ; Massif de 1'Arapa- 
hoe ; Lake City; headwaters of Clear Creek; mountains northwest of Como; 
Boreas; Devil's Causeway; Berthoud Pass; Ethel Peak. 

3. LIMNIA L. SPANISH LETTUCE. 

i. Limnia depressa (A. Gray) Rydb. (Claytonia parvMora depressa A. 
Gray) On river banks and near springs from S. D. to Wash., Colo., Ariz, 
and Calif. Reported from Colorado, but doubtful. 

4. CRUNOCALLIS Rydb. WATER SPRING BEAUTY. 

i. Crunocallis Chamissonis (Esch.) Rydb. (Claytonia Chamissonis Esch.) 
In streams from Minn, to B. C, N. M. and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Rabbit- 
Ear Pass; Beaver Creek; Long Gulch; Ward, Boulder Co.; Middle Park; 
Green Mountain Falls ; North Park ; Empire ; Moon's ranch, Larimer Co. ; 
Empire; Walton Creek, North Park; Baxter's ranch; Table Rock; Middle 
Park ; Arapahoe Pass ; Beaver Creek ; Long Gulch. 

5. OREOBROMA Howell. 

Sepals not erose-denticulate. i. O. nevadcnsis. 

Sepals erose-denticulate. 2. O. Grayi. 

1. Oreobroma nevadensis (S. Wats.) Howell. (Calandrinia Ncvadensis S. 
Wats.) On dry mountains from Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Steamboat 
Springs. 

2. Oreobroma pygmaea (A. Gray) Howell. (Calandrinia pygmaea A. Gray) 
Dry mountain sides from Mont, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. up to 12,000 ft 
Mountain northeast of Boreas ; Ragged Mountain, Gunnison Co. ; Leroux 
Parks ; Cameron Pass ; Bob Creek ; Boreas ; Leadville ; Grayback mining 
camp ; Arapahoe Peak. 

6. EROCALLIS Rydb. 

i. Erocallis triphylla (S. Wats.) Rydb. (Claytonia triphylla S/ Wats. ; 
Oreobroma triphylla Howell) In the mountains from Wyo. and Wash, to 
Colo, and Calif. Cameron Pass. 

7. LEWISIA Pursh. BITTER ROOT. 

i. Lewisia redeviva Pursh. On stony ridges from Mont, to Colo., Ariz, 
and Calif. Pinkham Creek, Larimer Co. 

8. PORTULACA L. PURSLANE, PUSSLEY. 

Stem prostrate ; sepals pointed in the bud ; seeds obscurely granulate. 

i P. oleracca. 
Stem ascending ; sepals obtuse in the bud ; seeds echinate-tuberculate. 

2. P. rctnsa. 

1. Portulaca oleracea L. In waste places and cultivated soil from Maine to 
Mont., Fla. and Mex. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

2. Portulaca retusa Engelm. In sandy soil from Ark. to Nev., Tex. and 
N. M. Alt. up to 6000 ft. Colorado Springs. 



ALSINACEAE. 127 

Family 51. ALSINACEAE Wahl. CHICKWEED FAMILY. 

Stipules wanting. 

Petals 2-cleft or 2-parted. 

Capsule short ovate or oblong; styles usually 3. i. ALSINE. 

Capsule long, cylindric and often curved; styles usually 5. 2. CERASTIUM. 

Petals entire or merely notched. 

Styles as many as the sepals and alternate with them. 3. SAGINA. 

Styles fewer than the sepals or if occasionally of the same number opposite 

them. 
Seeds with a basal membranous appendage (strophiole) at the hylum. 

4. MOEHRINGIA. 

Seeds not strophiolate. 

Capsules opening by twice as many valves as the styles. 5. ARENARIA. 

Capsules opening by as many valves as the styles. 6. ALSINOPSIS. 

Stipules present. /. TISSA. 

i. ALSINE L. STARWORT. CHICK-WEED, STITCHWORT. 

Lower leaves ovate, abruptly contracted into a distinct petiole. 

1. A. media. 

Leaves all sessile or subsessile. 
Plant not at all viscid. 

Upper bracts at least scarious. 

Petals minute or none ; branches of the inflorescence at last reflexed. 

2. A. baicalensis. 
Petals equalling or exceeding the sepals ; branches of the inflorescence 

ascending. 
Leaves broadest about the middle, narrowed at the base. 

3. A. loHgifolia. 
Leaves broadest near the base. 

Leaves narrowly linear-lanceolate, light green ; flowers usually many. 

4. A. longipes. 
Leaves lanceolate, bluish green ; flowers few, often solitary. 

5. A. lacta. 
None of the bracts scarious. 

Leaves linear to lanceolate, more than four times as long as broad. 
Petals equalling or exceeding the sepals. 

Plant low, less than i dm. high, bluish green. 5. A. laeta. 

Plant tall, light green ; stem over i dm. long. 6. A. borealis. 

Petals much shorter than the sepals or none. 7. A. crassifolia. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, ovate or oval, less than four times as long as broad. 
Leaves thin. 

Stem glabrous or nearly so ; sepals obtuse. 8. A. obtusa. 

Stem distinctly pubescent; sepals acutish. 9. A. calycantha. 

Leaves very thick and fleshy. 10. A. polygonoides. 

Plant more or less viscid, especially the upper portion. u. A. Jamesiana. 

1. Alsine media L. (Stcllaria media Cyr.) Introduced around dwellings. 
Native of Europe and Asia. Ft. Collins. 

2. Alsine baicalensis Coville. (Stcllaria umbcllata Turcz.) Along moun- 
tain streams from Mont, to Ore., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-14,000 ft. 
Cameron Pass ; Red Mountain ; Seven Lakes ; Buffalo Pass ; Beaver Creek ; 
Ouray; Ruby; West Spanish Peak; Grayback mining camps; Silver Plume; 
near Pagosa Peak; Middle Park; Mt. Hesperus; Trapper's Lake; Pike's 
Peak ; Gray's Peak ; Ironton ; Argentine Pass ; northeast of Boreas ; Eldora 
to Baltimore ; summit of North Park Range, Larimer Co. 



128 ALSINACEAE. 

3. Alsine longifolia (Muhl.) Britt. (Stcllaria longifolia Muhl.) In wet 
meadows from Newf. to Alaska, Md. and Colo. Alt. 4000-11,000 ft. Pike's 
Peak ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Tennessee Pass ; Mancos ; Larimer Co. ; 
Andrew's Shetland ranch; Idaho Springs; Higho; Parlin; Sheephorn Divide; 
Gunnison; lola; headwaters of Clear Creek; Graymont; Conejos River, north 
of Antonito ; Baxter's ranch ; Table Rock ; Steamboat Springs. 

4. Alsine longipes (Goldie) Coville. (Stcllaria longipcs Goldie) In wet 
meadows from Lab. to B. C. and Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Leroux Parks ; 
Caribou. 

In the Rocky Mountain region it is mostly represented by var. stricta 
(Richardson) Rydb. (Stellaria stricta Richardson.) It differs from the type 
in having acute sepals. Its range extends farther southwest to Calif. Alt. 
8000-11,000 ft. West Indian Creek; Moon's ranch, Larimer Co.; Marshall 
Pass ; Dark Canon ; Tennessee Pass ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

5. Alsine laeta (Richards.) Rydb. In wet places in the mountain sides from 
Lab. to B. C., Que. and Nev. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Little Veta Mountain; 
West Spanish Peak ; Bob and Chicken Creeks ; Beaver Creek ; Devil's 
Causeway. 

6. Alsine borealis (Bigel.) Britt. In wet meadows from Lab. to Alaska, 
N. J. and Calif. Idaho Springs ; Trapper's Lake. 

7. Alsine crassifolia (Ehrh.) Britton. (Stcllaria crassifolia Ehrh.) 
Marshes and wet places from Lab. to Alaska, Que. and Colo. Alt. about 
10,000 ft. Como. 

8. Alsine obtusa (Engelm.) Rose. (Stcllaria obtusa Engelm.) In wet 
places from Mont, to B. C., Colo., Utah and Wash. Alt. up to 10,000 ft 
Ruby ; Anthracite Creek. 

9. Alsine calycantha (Bong.) Rydb. (Stcllaria calycantha Bong.) In bogs 
and wet meadows from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 9000-10,500 
ft. Bogs, Columbine ; Bob Creek. 

10. Alsine polygonoides Greene. In wet places in Colo. Alt. about 11,500 
ft. Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains. 

11. Alsine Jamesiana (Torr.) Heller. (Stcllaria Jamcsiana Torr.) In 
wet woodlands from Wyo. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 5000-9000 ft Howe's 
Gulch ; Rist Canon ; Poverty Ridge ; near Cimarron ; mountains west of 
Steamboat Springs; Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co.; Mesa Verde; Cucharas River, 
below La Veta ; Apex ; hills south of Rifle, Garfield Co. ; Mancos ; Platte 
Canon ; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

2. CERASTIUM L. MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED, POWDER-HORN. 

Annual ; pods 2-3 times as long as the calyx. 

Pedicels in fruit 1-3 times as long as the calyx, straight or nearly so. 

1. C. brachypoduin. 
Pedicels in fruit 5 times as long as the calyx or longer, strongly curved above. 

2. C. longipediiiiculatui/i. 
Perennials ; pods 1-2 times as long as the calyx. 

Leaves oblong, ovate or oval, mostly obtuse or acutish. 

Petals i cm. long or more, fully twice as long as the calyx. 

Sepals, at least the outer, oval, obtuse, scarious-margined at the tip as well 

as on the sides. 3. C. pulchclhun. 

Sepals lanceolate, acute, scarious-margined mostly only on the sides. 

4. C. Earlei. 



ALSINACEAE. 129 

Petals less than i cm. long. 

Sepals tinged with purple; stem depressed. 5. C. beeringianum. 

Sepals light green; plant not depressed. 6. C. pilosum. 

Leaves, except the uppermost, linear or linear-lanceolate, acute. 

Leaves of the inflorescence short, broadly ovate. 7. C. oreophilum. 

Leaves all linear or linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong. 

Stem villous with reflexed hairs. 8. C. campestre. 

Stem finely glandular puberulent. 

Leaves thin and soft, all linear or narrowly linear-lanceolate ; midrib not 

prominent. 9. C. scopulorutn. 

Leaves thick and firm; midrib prominent. 10. C. occidentale. 

1. Cerastium brachypodium (Engelm.) Robbinson. In dry sandy soil from 
S. D. to Mont., Mo., Tex. and Ariz.; also Mex. Alt. 4000^7500 ft. Moun- 
tains, Larimer Co. ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; gulch west of Pennock's ; 
Ft. Collins ; gulch west of Soldier Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Howe's Gulch ; 
Bijou Basin. 

2. Cerastium longipedunculatum Muhl. (C. nutans Ra.) In wet places 
from N. S. to B. C., N. C, Ariz, and Ore. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Veta Pass; 
lola ; Veta Mountain. 

3. Cerastium pulchellum Rydb. On alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. 13,000 ft. 
Hayden Peak. 

4. Cerastium Earlei Rydb. In wet places among rocks in the mountains 
of Colorado. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Near La Plata Post Office; Little Kate 
Basin ; Mt. Robinson ; Cumberland Basin ; Horsetooth Gulch. 

5. Cerastium beeringianum C. & S. In alpine-arctic regions among rocks 
from Alb. to Alaska, Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Gray's Peak; Seven 
Lakes ; Upper West Mancos Canon ; Mt. Hesperus, at timber line ; mountains 
of Estes Park; Bottomless Pit, near Pike's Peak; West Spanish Peak; head- 
waters of Clear Creek; southeast of Cameron Pass. 

6. Cerastium pilosum Greene. In alpine places among rocks in Colo. Alt. 
5000-12,000 ft. Mountains above Ouray; Horsetooth Gulch. 

7. Cerastium oreophilum Greene. In wet places among the mountains from 
Colo, to Calif. Alt. 5000-12,000 ft. Seven Lakes; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; 
foot-hills west of Ft. Collins ; Pass Creek ; mountain near Veta Pass. 

8. Cerastium campestre Greene. On hills and mountain-sides from Alb. to 
Yukon, Wash, and Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Mt. Abram, Ouray; Pike's Peak; 
foot-hills north of Ft. Collins ; Berthoud Pass ; Continental Divide ; Muddy 
Pass; North Park; Soldier Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; Trapper's Lake; Pen- 
nock's; Como; Dixon Canon; Spring Canon, Howe's Gulch; Coup Divide. 

9. Cerastium scopulorum Greene. In mountains from Colo, to Wyo. and 
N. M Alt. 9000-11,000 ft Near La Plata Post Office; Little Kate Basin, La 
Plata Mountains; vicinity of Como; Robinson; Veta Pass; Cameron Pass; 
Dixon Canon. 

10. Cerastium occidentale Greene. On dry hills from Mont, to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt! 8000-12,000 ft. Cripple Creek road ; Seven Lakes ; Cameron Pass ; 
Veta Mountain; Clear Creek Station; Empire; Horsetooth Mountain; Horse- 
tooth Gulch; Bear Creek Canon; Spicer, Larimer Co.; Rabbit- Ear Range, 
Routt Co. 



130 ALSINACEAE. 

3. SAGINA L. PEAL-WORT. 

Basal leaves linear-filiform ; petals shorter than the green sepals, i. ,5". saginoides. 
Basal leaves subulate ; petals longer than the purple-tinged sepals. 

2. S. nivalis. 

1. Sagina saginoides (L.) Britton. (S. Linnaei Presl) In wet places, 
among rocks and on brook-banks from Greenl. to Alaska, Que., Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Twin Lakes ; Grayback mining camps ; La Plata 
Post Office ; headwaters of Clear Creek ; Cameron Pass ; Buffalo Pass ; Em- 
pire ; Chambers' Lake. 

2. Sagina nivalis Fries. In arctic-alpine localities from Lab. to Alaska and 
Colo. Alt. about 14,000 ft. Gray's Peak. 

4. MOEHRINGIA L. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong or oval, usually obtuse ; sepals obtuse or acutish ; stem terete. 

1. M. lateriflora. 
Leaves lanceolate, acute ; sepals very acute or acuminate ; stem angled. 

2. M. macrophylla. 

1. Moehringia lateriflora (L.) Fenz. (Arenaria lateriflora L.) In wet places, 
especially among bushes, from Lab. to Alaska, N. J. and Utah. Alt. 5000- 
10,000 ft. Happy Hollow, Larimer Co. ; headwaters of Pass Creek ; Leroux 
Creek, Delta Co.; Rifle, Garfield Co.; Stove Prairie; Walton Creek. 

2. Moehringia macrophylla (Hook.) Torr. (A. macrophylla Hook.) In wet 
places, among bushes, from Lab. to B. C., Vt. and Calif. Alt. 10,000-12,000 
ft. Red Mountain; Slide Rock Canon. 

5. ARENARIA L. SANDWORT. 

Leaves neither narrowly linear nor pungent. 

Plant low and spreading ; stem less than i dm. long ; leaves ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, less than i cm. long. i. A. polycaulos. 
Plant taller ; stem 2-3 dm. long ; leaves oblong or linear-oblong, over i cm. long. 

2. A. confusa. 

Leaves narrowly linear, more or less rigid and pungent. 
Sepals ovate to ovate-lanceolate. 

Inflorescence contracted and headlike. 3. A. congcsta. 

Inflorescence more open. 

Flowers mostly subsessile in small glomerules at the ends of the branches 

of the very irregular cymes. 4. A. Burkei. 

Flowers all pedicelled in open regular cymes ; inflorescence more or less 

glandular. 
Leaves distinctly pungent ; plant sparingly glandular-puberulent. 

5. A. tiintahensis. 

Leaves more fleshy, hardly pungent ; inflorescence and calyx densely glan- 
dular-pubescent. 6. A. Tweedyi. 
Sepals narrowly lanceolate, acuminate. 
Cymes open, not densely congested. 

Plant more or less glandular. 7. A. Fendlcri. 

Plant perfectly glabrous. 8. A. Eastwoodiae. 

Cymes densely congested. 

Sepals 8-10 mm. long; stem leaves 2-3 cm. long. 9. A. pinetonnn. 

Sepals 5-7 mm. long; stem-leaves 0.5-1.5 cm. long. 10. A. Hookeri. 

i. Arenaria polycaulos Rydb. (A. sa.vosa Coulter; not A. Gray) On dry 
hills from Colo, to Ariz. Alt. 9000-10,000 ft. La Plata Post Office; Dark 
Canon; Breckenridge; Grayback mining camps; Mt. Harvard; Silverton. 



ALSINACEAE. 131 

2. Arenaria confusa Rydb. (A. saxosa Robinson, in part) In sandy soil 
from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7500-12,000 ft. Ouray; Wahatoya Creek; 
near Pagosa Peak ; La Plata Mountains ; Mancos. 

3. Arenaria congesta Nutt. On dry plains from Mont, to Wash., Colo, and 
Calif. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Oak mesa, Delta Co.; Little Muddy Creek, Gun- 
nison Co.; Twin Lakes; North Park; along the Michigan; Middle Park; 
Ouray; Cimarron. 

4. Arenaria Burkei Howell. (A. subcongesta (Wats.) Rydb.) On plains and 
hills from Mont, to Colo, and Nev. Alt. about 8000 ft. Hills about Box 
Canon, west of Ouray; Willow Creek, Routt Co. 

5. Arenaria uintahensis A. Nels. Dry plains from Mont, and Ida. to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. about 8000 ft. Mesa on the Gunnison River; Grand Junction. 

6. Arenaria Tweedyi Rydb. On dry mountains of Colo. Alt. about 12,000 
ft. La Plata Mountains. 

7. Arenaria Fendleri A. Gray. On dry hills and mountains from Wyo. to 
N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-13,500 ft. Mountains between Sunshine and 
Ward; Crystal Park; Stage Coach Mountain; butte 5 miles southwest of 
La Veta; Callian; Cascades, near Pike's Peak; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Cam- 
eron Pass; Crystal Lake; Colorado Springs; Caribou; headwaters of Clear 
Creek; Gray's Peak; Dillon Canon; vicinity of Como; Leroux Creek; Cam- 
eron Pass ; Moon's ranch ; Wood's ranch ; mountains between Steele's and 
Little Beaver ; Graymont ; West Cameron Pass ; South Park, southeast of 
Jefferson ; Monument ; Campton's Pass ; Ethel Peak. 

Arenaria Fendleri Porteri Rydb. On dry mountain ridges of Colo. 
Alt. 7000-13,500 ft. Mount Ouray; Pike's Peak; Alpine Tunnel; mountains 
west of Como ; South Park, southeast of Jefferson ; Silver Plume ; George- 
town; Stephan's Mine; divide between Colorado Springs and Denver; Estes 
Park, Larimer Co.; Pike's Peak; Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains; 
West Spanish Peak ; La Plata Post Office ; north of Cheyenne Canon ; Em- 
pire; Berthoud Pass. 

Arenaria Fendleri diffusa Porter & Coulter. On dry mountains of Colo. 
Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Mountains between Steele's and Little Beaver ; Como ; 
Mt. Harvard; Green Mountain Falls; Georgetown; Cheyenne Mountain; 
Middle Park; Boulder. 

8. Arenaria Eastwoodiae Rydb. (A. Fendleri glabrescens Wats.?) On dry 
hills in western Colo. Grand Junction. 

9. Arenaria pinetorum A. Nels. On dry hills from S. D. to Ida., Neb. and 
Colo. Livermore, Larimer Co. ; Cedar Hills ; Owl Canon. 

10. Arenaria Hookeri Nutt. On dry hills from Mont, to Nebr. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Larimer Co. ; Cedar Hills. 

6. ALSINOPSIS Small. SANDWORT. 

Sepals acute or acuminate. 

Petals 6-7 mm. long, much exceeding the sepals. i. A. macrantha, 

Petals small, scarcely exceeding the sepals. 

Plant densely glandular. 2. A. propinqua. 

Plant glabrous or nearly so. 

Leaves linear-subulate, usually over i cm. long, i -nerved, obtuse, more or 
less triangular, fleshy. 3. A. Rossii. 



132 ALSINACEAE. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved, acutish, flat, less than i cm. long. 

4. A. qnadrivah'is. 
Sepals obtuse. 5. A. obtusiloba. 

1. Alsinopsis macrantha Rydb. In sandy soil in the mountains of Colo. 
Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains. 

2. Alsinopsis propinqua (Richards.) Rydb. (Arcnaria propinqua Richard- 
son; A. verna hirta Am. auth. ; A verna acquicaulis A. Nels.) In sandy soil 
from Hudson Bay and Mackenzie River, to B. C., Colo, to Utah. Alt. Sooo- 
13,000 ft. Pike's Peak ; Silverton ; Saddle Cliffs ; Georgetown ; Little Kate 
Basin, La Plata Mountains ; near Pagosa Peak ; South Park ; Boreas ; Beaver 
Creek; Chambers' Lake; Eldora to Baltimore. 

3. Alsinopsis Rossii (Richards.) Rydb. (Arenaria Rossii Richards.) In 
arctic-alpine regions from the arctic coast to Colo, and Wash. Alt. 11,000- 
13,500 ft. Sierra Blanca; Bald Mountain. 

4. Alsinopsis quadrivalvis (R. Br.) Rydb. (Arenaria quadrivalvis R. Br.) 
In alpine-arctic situations, along the arctic coast of North America and on 
alpine peaks in Colo. " Colorado." 

5. Alsinopsis obtusiloba Rydb. (Arenaria obtusa Torr. ; not All. ; A. biflora 
S. Wats., in part; A. Sajanensis Robinson; scarcely Willd.) On exposed 
mountain tops from Alb. to B. C., N. M. and Utah. Alt. 10,000-13,500 
ft Mt. Garfield; Pike's Peak; Beaver Creek; Ward, Boulder Co.; Mount 
Ouray; Alpine Tunnel; Mt. Harvard; Cameron Pass; Iron Mountain; West 
Spanish Peak ; near Pagosa Peak ; Gray's Peak ; Mt. Princeton ; Seven 
Lakes; Caribou; Empire; headwaters of Clear Creek; Massif de 1'Arapahoe ; 
mountains near Como ; Cameron Pass ; Graymont ; Beaver Creek ; Berthoud 
Pass ; northwest of Como ; Gray's Peak ; Cameron Pass ; Graymont ; Ethel 
Peak. 

7. TISSA Adans. SAND SPURRY. 

i. Tissa sparsiflora Greene. Sandy and alkaline soil from Wyo. to B. C., 
Colo, and Ore. New Windsor. 



Family 52. CARYOPHYLLACEAE Reichenb. PINK FAMILY. 

Calyx-ribs, usually 10, at least twice as many as the teeth, running both into the 
teeth and the sinuses. 

Styles mostly 3 ; capsule usually septate at the base. i. SILENE. 

Styles 5 ; capsule i-celled to the base. 2. LYCHNIS. 

Calyx strongly 5-angled and 5-ribbed. 3. VACCARIA. 

i. SILENE L. CATCHFLY, CAMPION. 

Annuals. 

Glabrous or nearly so or the upper nodes glutinous. 

Stem-leaves linear or linear-lanceolate ; bracts narrowly linear-lanceolate. 
Petals exceeding the sepals by 2-5 mm. ; blade obovate-cuneate, 2-cleft. 

i. S. antirrhina. 

Petals none or small, not exceeding the sepals ; blade cuneate, truncate or 

emarginate at the apex. 2. S. antirrhina depauperata. 

Stem-leaves oblanceolate or lanceolate ; bracts lanceolate, more or less scarious- 

margined below. 3. S. antirrhina vaccariifolia. 

Viscid-pubescent or hirsute throughout. 4. S. noctiflora. 



CARYOPHYLLACEAE. 133 

Perennials. 

Calyx not much inflated. 

Plant caulescent, rather tall, not densely matted. 

Inflorescence thyroid-paniculate, racemiform or spicate, not leafy ; flowers 

over i cm. long. 
Claws and auricles of the petals narrow ; the latter laciniate ; leaves linear 

or linear-lanceolate. 5- $" Sconleri. 

Claws and auricles of the petals broad ; the latter ciliate ; leaves ob- 

lanceolate. 6. 5". Hallii. 

Inflorescence leafy ; the flowers borne in the axils of the branches, less than 

i cm. long. 
Leaves broadly oblanceolate, spreading ; branches of the inflorescence 

divaricate. 7- S. Menziesii. 

Leaves narrowly oblanceolate, ascending ; branches of the inflorescence 

usually ascending or erect. 8. 5\ stellarioides. 

Plant subacaulescent, densely cespitose, dwarf. 9. 5. acaulis. 
Calyx much inflated and bladdery. 10. 5. vulgar is. 

1. Silene antirrhina L. In waste places from Newf. to B. C, Fla. and 
Calif. Alt. 5000-6500 ft. Palmer Lake; northwest of Soldier Canon. 

2. Silene antirrhina depauperata Rydb. In sandy soil from Sask. to B. C., 
Colo, and Ariz.- Exact locality not given. 

3. Silene antirrhina vaccariifolia Rydb. On hillsides from Mont, and Ida. 
to Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Larimer Co. ; Rist Canon ; near Golden. 

4. Silene noctiflora L. In waste places and fields from N. S. to Man., Fla. 
and Utah. Naturalized from Europe. Alt. about 5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

5. Silene Scouleri Hook. In the mountain valleys and hillsides from Ida. 
to B. C., Colo, and Ore. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak. 

6. Silene Hallii S. Wats. In the mountains of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 6000- 
12,000 ft. Jack's Cabin, Gunnison watershed ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; 
Ruxton Dell; Villa Grove; Cheyenne Canon; Mancos; Upper La Plata 
Cafion ; headwaters of Clear Creek ; Gray's Peak ; Bosworth's ranch ; Stove 
Prairie; Mt. Harvard. 

7. Silene Menziesii Hook. In wet soil, especially among bushes, from 
Mont, to B. C., Neb., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 7000-10,500 ft Ouray; Bob 
Creek; headwaters of Clear Creek; Graymont; Gore Pass; North Park; 
Hotchkiss; Dolores. 

8. Silene stellarioides Nutt. Among bushes from Mont, to Wash, and 
Colo. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. Gunnison; Leroux Creek, Delta Co.; Middle Park; 
Mancos ; Los Pinos ; Sangre de Cristo Creek. 

9. Silene acaulis L. On exposed mountain tops, often near the snow, from 
Greenl. to Alaska, N. H. and Ariz. Alt. 9000-13,000 ft. Saddle, Pike's Peak; 
West Spanish Peak ; Mt. Hesperus and Little Kate Basin ; near Pagosa Peak ; 
Mt. Harvard ; Boreas ; Gray's Peak ; Cameron Pass ; Marshall Pass ; Massif 
de 1'Arapahoe ; Crystal Lake ; Beaver Creek ; Leroux Creek ; Ethel Peak. 

10. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke. (5". in-flat a J. E. Smith.) Intro- 
duced from Europe, in meadows and waste places, from N. B. and Ills, to 
N. J. and Colo. Manitou. 

2. LYCHNIS L. 

Tall, 3 dm. high or more, several to many-flowered. 

Petals included. i. L. Drummondii. 

Petals exserted. 2. L. striata. 

Low, about i dm. high ; flowers 1-3. 3. L. montana. 



134 CARYOPHYLLACEAE. 

1. Lychnis Drummondii (Hook.) S. Wats. On dry hills and plains from 
Man. to B. C, N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Sangre de Cristo Creek; 
Middle Park; Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray; hills about Box Canon, 
west of Ouray; Marshall Pass; Georgetown; Yampa; mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward ; Trapper's Lake ; South Park ; Empire ; vicinity of 
Como; Leroux Creek, Delta Co. 

2. Lychnis striata Rydb. On hillsides from Wyo. to Utah and Colo. Alt. 
8000-10,000 ft. Cameron Pass ; Silver Plume. 

3. Lychnis montana S. Wats. Mountains of Colo, and Wyo. " Colorado " ; 
exact locality not given. 

3. VACCARIA Medic. COW-HERB. 

i. Vaccaria Vaccaria (L.) Britton. (Saponaria Vaccaria L.) In waste 
places from Ont. to Alaska, Fla. and Calif. Naturalized from Europe. Alt. 
5000-8000 ft. Cucharas Valley; Wahatoya Creek; Pagosa Springs; Boulder; 
Ft. Collins; Pueblo. 

Order 25. RANALES. 

Stamens numerous ; anther-sacs opening by slits. 
Gynoecium of single or several free carpels. 

Submerged water plants with minute axillary sessile monoecious flowers ; 

anthers with horn-like appendages. 53. CERATOPHYLLACEAE. 

Land plants or rarely water plants with perfect or rarely dioecious flowers ; 

anthers not with horn-like appendages. 54. RANUNCULACEAE. 

Gynoecium of several united carpels ; water plants with floating, reniform or 

orbicular-cordate leaf-blades. 55. NYMPHAEACEAE. 

Stamens definite (in ours 6) ; anther-sacs opening by hinged valves. 

56. BERBERIDACEAE. 

Family 53. CERATOPHYLLACEAE. A Gray. 
i. CERATOPHYLLUM L. 

i. Ceratophyllum demersum L. In water from Newf. and Ore. to Fla. and 
Calif. Platte River. 



Family 54. RANUNCULACEAE Juss. CROWFOOT FAMILY. 

Carpels with several ovules ; fruit a follicle or a berry. 
Flowers regular. 

Petals inconspicuous or none, not spurred. 

Fruit follicles ; leaves simple ; flowers solitary. 

Petals wanting; leaf-blades entire or toothed. i. CALTHA. 

Petals present, small, linear, clawed ; leaf-blades palmately parted and 

toothed. 2. TROLLIUS. 

Fruit a berry ; leaves twice or thrice ternately compound ; flowers racemose. 

3. ACTAEA. 
Petals conspicuous, produced into a spur or at least saccate at the base ; 

leaves ternately compound. 4. AQUILEGIA. 

Flowers irregular. 

Posterior sepal spurred. 5. DELPHINIUM. 

Posterior sepal hooded, helmet-shaped or boat-shaped. 6. ACONITUM. 



RANUNCULACEAE. 135 

Carpels i-ovuled ; fruit an achene. 

Petals wanting ; sepals often petal-like. 

Sepals imbricated in the bud; leaves all alternate, or only those subtending 

the inflorescence opposite. 

Flowers subtended by opposite or verticillate leaf-like bracts. 
Styles short, not elongated in fruit. 7- ANEMONE. 

Styles much elongated in fruit, plumose. 8. PULSATILLA. 

Flowers not subtended by opposite or verticillate bracts ; leaves all alternate, 

ternately compound. 17- THALICTRUM. 

Sepals valvate in the bud ; leaves all opposite. 

Flowers cymose-paniculate, dioecious or polygamo-dioecious ; stamens and 

sepals spreading. 9- CLEMATIS. 

Flowers solitary, perfect. 

Stamens erect ; sepals thickish, more or less converging ; staminodia 

wanting. 10. VIORNA. 

Stamens spreading ; sepals thin, spreading from the base ; staminodia often 

present. n. ATRAGENE. 

Petals usually present. 

Sepals spurred ; small annuals with basal linear leaves ; receptacle in fruit 

elongated-cylindrical. 12. MYOSURUS. 

Sepals not spurred ; plant usually bearing cauline as well as basal leaves ; 

receptacle in fruit spherical, conical or short-cylindric. 
Achenes transversely wrinkled ; petals white. 13. BATRACHIUM. 

Achenes not transversely wrinkled ; petals yellowish at least without. 
Achenes not ribbed. 14- RANUNCULUS. 

Achenes longitudinally ribbed. 

Achenes compressed ; leaves simple, crenate or lobed. 

15. HALERPESTES. 
Achenes terete; leaves compound. 16. CYRTORHYNCHA. 

i. CALTHA L. MARSH-MARIGOLD, MEADOW -GOWAN. 

i. Caltha leptosepala Hook. (C. rotundifolia (Huth) Greene; C. chiono- 
phila Greene.) Along brooks and below the snow from the Canadian Rockies 
to Colo. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Cameron Pass; Graymont ; Beaver Creek; Al- 
pine Tunnel; Bear Creek Divide; Marshall Pass; Pike's Peak; Red Moun- 
tain, south of Ouray ; Columbine ; Grand Mesa ; Carson ; Gore Pass ; Seven 
Lakes; near Ironton; Chambers' Lake; Gray's Peak; Front Range, Larimer 
Co.; South Cottonwood Gulch, Chaffee Co.; Mt. Harvard; Lake City; Em- 
pire ; Rabbit-Ear Range. Routt Co. 

2. TROLLIUS L. GLOBE-FLOWER. 

i. Trollius albiflorus (A. Gray) Rydb. (T. la.viis albiftorns Gray) In 
swamps and along streams from Mont, to Wash., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 9000- 
12,000 ft. Above Beaver Creek ; Leroux Park ; Cameron Pass ; Slide Rock 
Canon; Mt. Hesperus, above timber line; Pagosa Peak; Grand Mesa; Gray- 
mont; Red Mountain; Marshall Pass; Crystal Lake; headwaters of Clear 
Creek; Massif de 1'Arapahoe. 

3. ACTAEA L. BANE-BERRY. 

Filaments whitish; raceme short; pedicels in fruit 1-3 cm. long. 

Fruit white, ellipsoid, 9-12 mm. long. i. A. eburnea. 

Fruit red, spherical or nearly so, 5-7 mm. long. 2. A. argnta. 

Filaments greenish ; raceme elongated ; pedicels very short, even in fruit less than 

i cm. long; fruit red. 3. A. viridifiora. 



136 RANUNCULACEAE. 

1. Actaea eburnea Rydb. In rich woods and canons from Newf. to Alb., 
Vt. and Utah. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Mancos ; Ouray; Ragged Mountain, Gun- 
nison Co. 

2. Actaea arguta Nutt. In rich woods and canons from Mont, to Alaska, 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Mountains above Ouray; Wahatoya 
Canon; Black Canon ; Veta Pass; Artists' Glen; near Pike's Peak. 

3. Actaea viridiflora Greene. In canons from Colo, to Ariz. Alt. about 
8000 ft. Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co.; hills west of Ouray; Trapper's Lake. 

4. AQUILEGIA L. COLUMBINE. 

Petals merely saccate, not spurred ; terminal leaflet rhombic, acute. 

1. A. Eastu'oodiae. 
Petals spurred ; all leaflets obtuse. 

Lamina of the petals longer than the strongly curved spur ; flowers blue ; stem low. 

2. A. saximontana. 
Lamina of the petals shorter than the slightly curved or straight spur. 

Spur not over 2 cm. long ; flowers nodding. 

Sepals and spur red. 3. A. elegantula. 

Whole flower light yellow. 4. A. micrantha. 

Spur 3-7 cm. long ; flowers in anthesis usually erect. 

Basal leaves usually twice ternate ; spur 3-4 cm. long ; sepals blue or white. 

5. A. coerulea. 

Basal leaves usually thrice ternate ; spurs 4-7 cm. long ; sepals yellow. 
Spur 4-5 cm. long ; sepals less than 2, cm. long, ovate-lanceolate, acute ; 
follicles strongly curved outward. 6. A. thalictri folia. 

Spur 5-7 cm. long ; sepals 2-3 cm. long, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate ; follicles almost straight. 7. A. chrysantha. 

1. Aquilegia Eastwoodiae Rydb. {A. ecalcarata Eastw. ; A. micrantha 
Mancosana Eastwood; A. Mancosana Cockerell) In dark canons, Colo. 
Johnston Canon, Mesa Verde. 

2. Aquilegia saximontana Rydb. (A. brevistyla A. Gray; not Hook.) 
Among rocks, Colo. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Cameron Pass ; Gray's Peak ; 
headwaters of Clear Creek ; Bottomless Pit ; Argentine Pass. 

3. Aquilegia elegantula Greene. {A. Canadensis A. Gray, in part) On 
wooded hillsides in Colo, and N. M. Alt. 7500-11,000 ft. Rico; Silverton; 
Marshall Pass; Slide Rock Canon; Mancos; about Ouray; Van Boxle's 
ranch, above Cimarron ; Minturn, Eagle Co. ; Glenwood Springs ; headwaters 
of Sangre de CristS Creek ; mountain near Veta Pass ; West Indian Creek ; 
Lake City. 

4. Aquilegia micrantha Eastw. In canons of Colo, and Utah. Johnston 
Canon. 

5. Aquilegia coerulea James. In woods and on mountain-sides from Mont, 
to Utah and Colo. Alt. 6500-12,000 ft. Vicinity of Como and Como Pass, 
above timber line ; west of Rist Canon ; Beaver Creek ; Pennock's mountain 
ranch; Table Rock; timber line above Graymont; Baxter's ranch; Cameron 
Pass ; Trapper's Lake ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Horsetooth Mountain ; Poudre 
River; Rist Canon ; Bosworth's ; above Beaver Creek; forks of Poudre 
and Big South; Empire; Mt. Hesperus, above timber line; West Spanish 
Peak; Bob Creek; below Gray's Peak; Middle Park; mountains near Veta 
Pass ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Marshall Pass ; Mt. 
Ouray; near Teller, North Park; Pike's Peak; Columbine; Dark Canon; 



RANUNCULACEAE. 137 

North Boulder Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co.; 
Hahn's Peak. [STATE FLOWER OF COLORADO.] 

6. Aquilegia thalictrifolia Rydb. (A. chrysantha Coulter, in part.) In the 
mountains of Colo, and western Tex. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Alpine Tunnel; 
Colorado Springs; Bear Creek Canon; Canon City; Grand Canon of the 
Arkansas. 

7. Aquilegia chrysantha A. Gray. In the mountains of N. M. and Ariz. 
It has also been reported from Colo., but no locality given. 

5. DELPHINIUM L. LARKSPUR. 

Pedicels erect or nearly so. 

Sepals white, only tinged with blue ; pods over i cm. long, about four times as 

long as broad ; seeds squamellate. 
Spur almost three times as long as the upper petals, more or less curved ; 

seeds 3 mm. long, black, slightly squamellate. i. D. Penardii. 

Spur scarcely twice as long as the upper petals, almost straight; seeds 1.5-2 

mm. long, brown, strongly squamellate. 
Lobes of the lateral petals divergent ; lower pedicels elongated ; spur mostly 

erect. 2. D. camportim. 

Lobes of the lateral petals not divergent ; lower pedicels not elongated ; spur 

mostly horizontal. 3. D. albescens. 

Sepals dark blue ; pod less than i cm. long, only 2-3 times as long as broad ; 
seed not squamellate, but wing-margined ; stem and leaves glabrous and 
glaucous. 12. D. elongatum. 

Pedicels ascending or spreading. 

Inflorescence few-flowered, the lower pedicels elongated ; sepals broad, spreading ; 

leaf-segments narrow. 
Roots fascicled, thick, but not tuberiform; stem usually viscid, at least above; 

blades of the lateral petals about i cm. long. 4. D. bicolor. 

Roots tuberiform ; stem not viscid ; blades of the lateral petals about 5 mm. long. 

Flowers dark blue. 5. D. Nelsonii. 

Flowers light blue. 6. D. dumetorum. 

Lower pedicels not elongated. 

Segments of the basal leaves obtuse, mucronate ; flowers light blue. 

7. D. scapositni. 
Segments of all the leaves acute or acuminate. 

Plant not at all viscid ; follicles pubescent. 
Stem grayish strigose throughout. 

Leaves divided into cuneate, merely cleft segments. 

8. D. geranii folium. 
Leaves repeatedly divided into linear division. 

Stem 3-5 dm. high ; bractlets oblong, close under the calyx. 

9. D. Geyeri. 
Stem 5-20 dm. high ; bractlets subulate, 2-3 mm. below the calyx. 

ii. D. robnstiun. 
Stem glabrous and glaucous at least below. 

Inflorescence dense ; follicles scarcely at all arcuate. 
Leaves puberulent ; inflorescence stigose. 

Leaf-divisions broad, cuneate, -merely cleft into lanceolate lobes. 

10. D. cuculatum. 
Leaves repeatedly dissected into linear lobes. 

11. D. robiistum. 
Leaves glabrous and glaucous ; inflorescence almost glabrous. 

12. D. elongatum. 
Inflorescence lax; follicles strongly arcuate. 13. D. ramosum. 

Plants more or less viscid, at least the pedicels. 



138 RANUNCULACEAE. 

Plant tall, 4-20 dm. high, not cespitose. 
Follicles viscid pubescent. 

Flowers light blue or yellowish, tinged with blue or purple. 

14. D. multiflorum. 

Flowers dark blue. 15. D. occidentals. 

Follicles glabrous. 

Sepals obtuse. 16. D. reticulatum. 

Sepals acute or acuminate. 17. D. Barbeyi. 

Plants about i dm. high, cespitose, viscid pubescent. 

1 8. D. alpestre. 

1. Delphinium Penardii Huth. On dry plains of Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft 
Horsetooth Gulch; bank of Arkansas River; Poudre flats, north of Ft. Col- 
lins; Ft. Collins; Dixon Canon; near Badito; Wahatoya Creek; Brantly 
Canon, Las Animas Co. 

2. Delphinium camporum Greene. On dry plains from Colo, to Tex. and 
Ariz. Alt 4000-8000 ft. Plains and foot-hills near Boulder; New Windsor; 
near Badito ; Walsenburg. 

3. Delphinium albescens Rydb. In meadows from Ills, to Man., Ind. Terr, 
and Colo.- Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

4. Delphinium bicolor Nutt. Hills and plains from Ass. and Wash, to S. D., 
Utah and Ore. Also reported from Colorado ; but doubtful. 

5. Delphinium Nelsonii Greene. On hillsides from Alb. to Wash., Neb. 
and Utah. Alt 4000-10,000 ft. Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co. ; hills west of 
Soldier Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; Dolores; Ouray; Howe's Gulch; Rist 
Canon ; Spring Canon ; Table Rock ; Grand Junction ; Wyoming State line ; 
Minturn, Eagle Co.; Ft. Collins; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Chicken Creek; 
Los Pinos ; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron ; foot-hills west of Ft. Col- 
lins ; Mesa Verde ; Cerro Summit ; Ironton ; Apex ; near Boulder ; Steamboat 
Springs ; Beaver Creek, Larimer Co. 

6. Delphinium dumetorum Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 
7000 ft. Cimarron. 

7. Delphinium scaposum Greene. On dry plains from Colo, to N. M. and 
Ariz. Alt. about 7000 ft. Mancos. 

8. Delphinium geraniifolium Rydb. On hills from Colo, and Ariz. Colo- 
rado Springs. 

9. Delphinium Geyeri Greene. On the plains from Wyo. to Colo. Alt. 
5000-7000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Rist Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; hills 
south of Horsetooth Mountain; plains near Ft. Collins; Livermore, Larimer 
Co. ; New Windsor. 

10. Delphinium cuculatum A. Nels. On mountain sides from Mont, and 
Ida. to Colo. Alt. about 9000 ft. Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co. 

11. Delphinium robustum Rydb. In mountain meadows from Mont, to N. 
M. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Wahatoya Creek ; La Veta ; Colorado Springs ; In- 
dian Creek Pass ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. 

12. Delphinium elongatum Rydb. On hills and mountains of Colo. Alt. 
7000-10,000 ft. Elk Canon; Baxter's ranch; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Villa 
Grove ; alpine ridge east of Middle Park ; headwaters of Clear Creek. 

13. Delphinium ramosum Rydb. In canons and on mountain sides in Wyo. 
and Colo. Alt 6000-9000 ft. Crystal Park ; Williams' Cation ; Artists' Glen ; 
North Cheyenne Canon ; Idaho Springs. 



RANUNCULACEAE. 139 

14. Delphinium multiflorum Rydb. On mountain sides from Mont, to 
Wash, and Colo. Alt. about 8000 ft. North Park; Columbine; divide road 
to Steamboat Springs; Wilson, San Miguel Co. 

15. Delphinium occidental S. Wats. (D. quercetorum Greene.) On the 
mountains from Wyo. to Utah and Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Cerro Sum- 
mit ; Berthoud Pass. 

16. Delphinium reticulatum (A. Nels.) Rydb. (Delphinium occidentale 
reticulatum A. Nels.) On mountain-sides in Wyo. and Colo. Mouth of 
Basin Creek; Upper La Plata Canon. 

17. Delphinium Barbeyi Huth. (D. scopulorum subalpinum A. Gray; 
D. subalpinum A. Nels.) In shady places in the mountains of Wyo. and 
Colo. Alt. 8000-13,000 ft. Cameron Pass ; Boreas ; Gray's Peak ; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray; Buffalo Pass; Columbine; near Ironton; Silver Plume; Indian Creek 
Pass; near Pagosa Peak; Upper La Plata Canon; Sangre de Cristo Creek; 
Hinsdale Co.; Empire; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

18. Delphinium alpestre Rydb. On alpine peaks, among rocks, in Colo.- 
Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Mountain northwest of Como; West Spanish Peak. 

6. ACONITUM L. MONKHOOD. 

Front line of the hood strongly concave, i. e., the beak long, porrect, almost 

horizontal. 
Lower sepals at least 2/4 as long as the lateral ones ; leaf segments rather broad. 

1. A. Bakeri. 
Lower sepals Yz-Ys as long as the lateral ones ; leaf segments narrow. 

2. A. porrectum. 
Front line of the hood almost straight, i. e., the beak directed downward. 

Lateral sepals very oblique; upper margin semi-reniform. 3. A. cohimbianum. 
Lateral sepals moderately oblique ; upper margin slightly, if at all, concave. 

Flowers blue. 4- A. insigne. 

Flowers ochroleucous. 5- A. ochroleucum. 

1. Aconitum Bakeri Greene. (A. atrocyaneum Rydb.) In the mountains 
of Colo., Wyo. and Utah. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Boreas; Steamboat Springs; 
gulch west of Bear River; Marshall Pass; Cameron Pass; near Ironton, San 
Juan Co. 

2. Aconitum porrectum Rydb. In the mountains of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 
6000-10,000 ft. Graymont ; Arapahoe Pass ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Coffee 
Pot Springs; Columbine; Pike's Peak; North Park; Villa Grove; La Plata 
Mountains; Lake City; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

3. Aconitum columbianum Nutt. In meadows and open woods from Mont, 
to B. C, N. M. and Calif. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Ruxton Park ; Ruxton Creek ; 
Pike's Peak; Ouray; Hinsdale Co. 

4. Aconitum insigne Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000-11,000 
ft. Bosworth's ranch; Stove Prairie; Beaver Creek; Alpine Tunnel; Par- 
lin, Gunnison Co.; Middle Park; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Veta Pass; Sangre 
de Cristo Creek; Central City; La Plata Mountains; near Pagosa Peak; 
Eldora to Baltimore; Empire. 

5. Aconitum ochroleucum A. Nels. In the mountains of Colo, and Wyo. 
Alt. about 9000 ft. Indian Creek Pass; Ruxton Park, Pike's Peak; Eldora 
to Baltimore. 



140 RANUNCULACEAE. 

7. ANEMONE L. ANEMONE, WIND-FLOWER. 

Achenes densely villous. 

Style filiform, usually deciduous ; heads of fruit spherical or nearly so ; involucral 

leaves short-petioled. 
Leaves ternate ; divisions broadly cuneate or flabelliform, crenate or slightly 

cleft. i. A. parviflora. 

Leaves 2-4 times ternate; segments linear to lanceolate. 2. A. globosa. 
Styles subulate, persistent ; heads of fruit cylindrical ; involucral leaves long- 

petioled. 3. A. cylindrica. 

Achenes not villous. 

Flowers cymose ; achenes sparingly hirsute when young, sessile ; style long, 

straight. 4. A. canadensis. 

Flowers subumbellate ; achenes glabrous, stipitate ; style short, curved. 

5. A. narcissiflora. 

1. Anemone parviflora Michx. On exposed mountain tops from Lab. to 
Alaska, Out. and Colo. Alt. about 10.500 ft. South Cottonwood Gulch, Chaf- 
fee Co. 

2. Anemone globosa Nutt. (A. multifida Hook., in part; not Poir.) In 
meadows and on hillsides from S. D. to Mackenzie River and Alaska, Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 7000-12,000 ft. Rist Canon; gulch east of Stove Prairie; 
Barnes' Camp ; forks of Poudre and Big South Rivers ; near foot of Rabbit- 
Ear Range ; near Georgetown ; Campion's ranch ; Carson ; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray; Placer; Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray; Veta Pass; Crystal 
Park; Ruxton Park; Pagosa Springs; Central City; Tennessee Pass; Grizzly 
Creek; Mt. Harvard; Grayback mining camps; Little Veta Mountains; 
Caribou; Lake City; Empire; Eldora to Baltimore. 

3. Anemone cylindrica A. Gray. Among bushes and on hillsides from N. B. 
to B. C, N. J. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Pennock's ; Horsetooth Moun- 
tain; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Dillon Canon, Trinidad; hills west of Soldier 
Canon ; Trinidad ; La Veta ; Wahatoya Creek ; Mancos ; Pagosa Springs ; 
Piedra. 

4. Anemone canadensis L. (A. dichotoma L.) In river valleys and among 
bushes from Lab. to Alb., Md. and N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Rist Canon ; 
Ft. Collins; Table Rock; Poudre Flats; Garland; Sangre de Cristo Creek; 
New Windsor. 

5. Anemone narcissiflora L. In the mountains from Alb. to Alaska and 
Colo. Alt. 8000-13,000 ft. Cameron Pass ; Beaver Creek ; near Teller, North 
Park; Tennessee Pass; mountains northeast of Boreas; Mt. Harvard; Buf- 
falo Pass ; Alpine Tunnel ; South Park ; summit of North Park Range, 
Larimer Co. 

8. PULSATILLA Adans. PASQUE FLOWER. 

i. Pulsatilla hirsutissima (Pursh.) Britton. (Anemone patens Nuttal- 
liana A. Gray.) On plains and hills from Ills, to Mackenzie, Alb., Tex. and 
Wash. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Cameron Pass ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Clear 
Creek; Hermosa; Manitou; Crystal Park; about Ouray; mountains near Veta 
Pass ; South Cheyenne Canon ; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins ; Horsetooth 
Gulch ; Howe's Gulch ; Stove Prairie Hill ; Poudre Canon ; Dixon's Cation ; 
Ojo; Lake City; Pike's Peak; North Boulder Peak; Eldora to Baltimore; 
Bear Creek Canon. 



RANUNCULACEAE. 141 

9. CLEMATIS L. VIRGIN'S BOWER. 

i. Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. Among bushes and in canons from N. D. 
to B. C, Mo. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Log Canon; Poudre River, near 
Ft. Collins; Rist Canon; Redstone; Narrows; Deer Run; Ft. Collins; near 
Ouray; Manitou ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; Piedra; Arkansas Valley; 
Salida; Durango; plains, Colorado Springs. 

10. VIORNA Reichenb. LEATHER-FLOWER, VASE-VINE. 

Sepals not at all or very slightly dilated above. 

Divisions of the leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2-5 cm. long. i. V. Scottii. 

Divisions of the leaves linear to lanceolate, 1-2 cm. long. 2. V . Bakeri. 
Sepals conspicuously dilated at the apex. 

Sepals acute or short-acuminate ; plant in age glabrate ; divisions of the leaves 

lanceolate. 3- V- Jonesii. 

Sepals obtuse or merely acutish ; plant permanently villous ; divisions of the 

leaves linear. 4- V- eriophora. 

1. Viorna Scottii (Porter) Rydb. (Clematis Scottii Porter; C. Douglasii 
Scottii Coulter) In open woods and on hillsides from S. D. to Wyo. and 
N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Vicinity of Dillon Canon ; Trinidad; La Veta; 
Veta Pass ; Poverty Ridge, near Cimarron ; Grizzly Creek ; La Plata River 
Valley, near Hesperus Post Office ; Canon City. 

2. Viorna Bakeri (Greene) Rydb. (Clematis Bakeri Greene) In moun- 
tains of Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. Los Pinos ; Camp Creek, Larimer Co. 

3. Viorna Jonesii (Kuntze) Rydb. (Clematis Douglasii Jonesii Kuntze) 
On hillsides and in canons from Colo, to Nev. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Howe's 
Gulch, near Ft. Collins; vicinity of Ouray; Dolores; Cimarron; Dixon Canon ; 
foot-hills near Boulder. 

4. Viorna eriophora Rydb. (Clematis eriophora Rydb.) In the foot-hills 
of Colo., Utah and Wyo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co.; gulch 
west of Dixon Canon ; Howe's Gulch ; Rist Caiion ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Ft. 
Collins ; Clear Creek ; mesas near Colorado Springs ; mountains near Golden 
City; Pagosa. 

ii. ATRAGENE L. BELL-RUE, PURPLE VIRGIN'S BOWER. 

Leaves merely ternate. 

Staminodia usually decidedly spatulate ; leaflets toothed or cleft ; teeth and apex 
rounded. 3. A. diversiloba. 

Staminodia linear or none ; leaflets entire or crenate above the middle, long- 
acuminate, i. A. occidentalis. 
Leaves twice or thrice ternate ; Staminodia linear or lacking. 

Secondary leaflets merely toothed or cleft. 2. A. pseudalpina. 

Secondary leaflets divided to near the base. 4. A. tenuiloba. 

1. Atragene occidentalis Hornem. (A. Columbiana Nutt.; Clematis vcrti- 
cillaris Coult, in part) In mountain woods from Mont, to B. C., Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Howe's Gulch ; gulch east 
of Stove Prairie; Rist Cafaon; Baxter's ranch; Ft. Collins; Four-Mile Hill, 
Routt Co. ; Empire ; Camp Creek, Larimer Co. 

2. Atragene pseudalpina (Kuntze) Rydb. (Clematis alpina occidentalis 
A. Gray; not A. occidentalis Hornem.) On hillsides, among bushes and in 



142 RANUNCULACEAE. 

open woods, in Colo, and N. M. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Van Boxle's ranch, 
above Cimarron; Minnehaha; Ojo; hills southeast of La Veta; Veta Pass; 
Idaho Springs; Mt. Abram, Ouray; chaparral-covered hills southeast of 
Ouray; Lake City; Cheyenne Canon. 

3. Atragene diversiloba Rydb. In mountains of Colo. Mountains near 
Denver. 

4. Atragene tenuiloba (A. Gray) Britton. (Clematis alpina tcnuiloba 
A. Gray.) In mountain woods from S. D. to Mont., Colo, and Ariz.- Alt. 
7000-10,000 ft. Placer ; Sheep Canon ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Williams' 
Canon, above Manitou ; Colorado Springs ; Pike's Peak. 

12. MYOSURUS L. MOUSE-TAIL. 

Achenes with a flat back, only slightly carinate and tipped with a very short 

appressed beak. i. M. minimus. 

Achenes strongly carinate on the back, tipped with a long subulate ascending beak. 

2. M. aristatus. 

1. Myosurus minimus L. In muddy places and shallow water from Out. 
to Wash., Fla. and Calif. ; also in Europe and northern Africa. Alt. up to 
5000 ft. Denver (Eastwood). 

2. Myosurus aristatus Benth. In muddy places from Mont, to Wash., Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Long's Peak. 

13. BATRACHIUM S. F. Gray. WHITE WATER-CROWFOOT. 

Petals 5-7 mm. long, broadly obovate ; stamens many. 

Segments of the leaves 10-15 rnm. long, rather rigid, scarcely collapsing when 

withdrawn from the water. i. B. trichopliyllion. 

Segments of the leaves 15-30 mm. long, flaccid, collapsing when withdrawn from 

the water. 2. B. Haccidum. 

Petals less than 5 mm. long, oblong-obovate ; stamens 5-12. 

Stem slender ; leaves not very flaccid. 3. B. Drouetii. 

Stem filiform ; leaves very flaccid. 4. B. confervoides. 

1. Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix.) Bosh. (Ranunculus aquatilis tricho- 
phyllus Chaix.) In water from N. S. to B. C, N. C. and Calif.; also 
in Mex., Europe and Asia.- Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Near Ouray ; Grizzly Creek ; 
Ft. Collins; Sangre de Cristo Creek; New Windsor; Denver. 

2. Batrachium flaccidum (Pers.) Rupr. (Ranunculus aquatilis trichophyl- 
lus A. Gray, in part) In water from Lab. to Wash., N. C. and Low. Calif. 
Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. -Ft. Collins; Trail Creek, near junction with North 
Poudre; Trapper's Lake; below Carson; Upper Laramie River; Boulder. 

3. Batrachium Drouetii (F. Schultz) Nym. In water from Vt. to Alaska, 
R. I. and Low. Calif. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Along Uncompahgre River, near 
Ouray; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Piedra. 

4. Batrachium confervoides Fries. In water from Man. to Alaska, south to 
Colo. In Grand Lake. 

14. RANUNCULUS L. CROWFOOT, BUTTER-CUP. 

Leaves linear to oval, entire or merely denticulate or crenate ; none divided or cleft. 

FLAMMULAE. 
Some of the leaves at least cleft. 

Sepals black-hairy. NIVALES. 

Sepals not black-hairy. 



RANUNCULACEAE. 143 

Some of the basal leaves entire. GLABERRIMI. 

None of the leaves entire. 

Plants neither immersed in the water nor creeping in the mud, if rooting 

at the nodes, not with palmately lobed or dissected leaves. 
Achenes turgid, marginless. 

Petals much exceeding the sepals. 

Basal leaf-blades not divided to the base. AFFINES. 

Basal leaf-blades divided to the base, 2-3 times ternate. TRITERNATI. 
Petals scarcely exceeding the sepals. ABORTIVI. 

Achenes compressed with a distinct margin. 

Beak of the achenes distinctly hooked. RECURVATI. 

Beak of the achenes straight or nearly so. REPENTES. 

Plants immersed in the water or creeping in the mud ; leaves palmately 
lobed, divided or dissected. MULTIFIDI. 

FLAMMULAE. 

Stem filiform, prostrate, rooting at the nodes. i. R. rep tans. 
Stem not filiform, erect or ascending, not rooting. 

Petals distinctly clawed ; beak of the achenes stout. 2. R. unguiculatus. 

Petals not clawed ; beak of the achenes filiform. 3. R. alismaefolius. 

NlVALES. 

Leaf-blades spatulate or elliptic, 2-4-toothed at the apex. 4. R. Macauleyi. 

GLABERRIMI. 
Basal leaf-blades elliptic to oval, usually all entire. 5. R. ellipticus. 

AFFINES. 

Achenes pubescent ; heads oblong to cylindric. 

Basal leaf-blades or some of them merely crenate ; the rest 3-cleft at the apex 

with a narrow middle lobe. 
Petals broadly obovate, about i cm. long ; sepals densely villous. 

6. R. cardiophyllus. 
Petals oblong-obovate, 3-6 mm. long ; sepals not densely villous. 

Petals 5-6 mm. long ; head of achenes oblong. 7. R. inamoenus. 

Petals 3-5 mm. long ; head of achenes cylindric. 8. R. micropetalus. 

Basal leaf-blades all digitately or pedately cleft with acute lobes. 

9. R. affinis. 
Achenes glabrous. 

Plant glabrous, except the sepals. 

Lobes of the stem-leaves elliptic, oval or obovate. 10. R. Eschscholtzii. 

Lobes of the upper stem-leaves linear to oblong. 

Basal leaf-blades orbicular, seldom reniform, seldom cleft more than half- 
way down ; heads of fruit decidedly oblong ; stipules semi-circular, about 
2 mm. long. n. R. alpeophilus. 

Basal leaf-blades decidedly reniform, cleft deeper than half-way down ; 
heads of achenes spherical or nearly so ; stipules of the stem-leaves oval, 
3-4 mm. long. 12. R. ochreatus. 

Plant more or less pubescent. 13. R. ovalis. 

TRITERNATI. 
One species. 14. R. adoneus. 

ABORTIVI. 

Basal leaf-blades, at least some of them, merely crenate. 

Achenes pubescent ; heads of achenes cylindric. 8. R. micropetalus. 

Achenes glabrous ; heads spherical. 



144 RANUNCULACEAE. 

Basal leaf-blades cordate at the base; plant glabrous. 15. R. abortivus. 
Basal leaf-blades rarely cordate at the base ; plant hairy. 

1 6. R. micranthus. 
All the leaf-blades divided or lobed. 

Lower leaf-blades less deeply lobed, often not more than half down to the base. 

17. R. sceleratus. 
Leaf-blades all divided to near the base. 18. R. eremogenes. 

RECURVATI. 

Flowers small ; petals only 2-5 mm. long. 

Stem glabrous. 19. R. Douglasii. 

Stem hairy ; with spreading hairs. 

Petals 2-3 mm. long. 20. R. Bongardii. 

Petals 4-5 mm. long. 21. R. Earlei. 

Flowers larger; petals 5-10 mm. long; stem appressed-pubescent. 

22. R. acriformis. 

REPEXTES. 

Heads of achenes oblong, about 5 mm. thick. 23. R. pennsylvanicus. 

Heads of achenes globose, about 8 mm. thick. 24. R. Macounii. 

MULTIFIDI. 

Leaf-blades deeply cordate at the base ; primary divisions lobed or dissected. 

25. R. Purshii. 

Leaf-blades truncate or slightly cordate at the base ; primary lobes merely crenate 
or entire. 26. R. intertextus. 

1. Ranunculus reptans L. (R. Flammula rcftans E. Meyer) On sandy 
shores from Lab. to Alaska, N. J., Utah and Ore. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. 
Vicinity of Como ; bank of Michigan, North Park ; Trapper's Lake ; plains 
and foot-hills near Boulder ; Ward ; Gunnison ; Parlin ; Twin Lakes ; Steam- 
boat Springs. 

2. Ranunculus unguiculatus Greene. In wet places in the mountains of 
Colo. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Grand Mesa; Buffalo Pass; near Pagosa Peak; 
Deep Creek Lake, Garfield Co. ; Rabbit-Ear Range, Routt Co. ; Beaver Creek. 

3. Ranunculus alismaefolius Geyer. (R. calthacfolius Greene) In wet 
places from Wyo. to Nev., Colo., Utah and Ore. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. 
Deep Creek Lake; Bear Creek Divide; Cameron Pass; Tennessee Pass; 
Golden; Berthoud Pass; headwaters of Clear Creek; alpine ridges east of 
Middle Park. 

4. Ranunculus Macauleyi A. Gray. In wet places, among rocks, on alpine 
peaks of Colo. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Red Mountain; Carson; Pagosa Peak; 
West Spanish Peak; Bear Creek Divide; Hinsdale Co. 

5. Ranunculus ellipticus Greene. (R. glabcrrimus Coulter, in part.) In 
wet places from Mont, to B. C, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 5000-12,000 ft. Rist. 
Canon ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; gulch west of Bellone ; Dixon Canon ; foot 
of Horsetooth Mountain ; Ft. Collins ; Berthoud Pass. 

6. Ranunculus cardiophyllus Hook. (R. afKnis cardiophylhis A. Gray) 
In wet meadows and bogs from Sask. to Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Table 
Rock; gulch east of Stove Prairie; Campton's ranch, 12 miles below Grand 
Lake; Veta Pass; Twin Lakes; Tennessee Pass; Graham's Peak; divide be- 
tween Colorado Springs and Denver; Eldora to Baltimore. 



RANUNCULACEAE. 145 

7. Ranunculus inamoenus Greene. In meadows and along streams from 
Mont, to N. M. and Utah. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Silverton ; Boreas; Mancos; 
Breckenridge ; Bob Creek; Veta Mountain; Cucharas River, above La Veta; 
Manitou; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Los Pinos; West Indian 
Creek; Palsgrove Canon; Grand Mesa; Caribou; Berthoud Pass; Eldora to 
Baltimore; Rabbit-Ear Range, Routt Co. 

8. Ranunculus micropetalus (Greene) Rydb. (R. affinis micropctalus 
Greene) In wet meadows and along streams from Colo, to Utah and Ariz.- 
Alt. 7000-11,000 ft. Rico; Silverton; gulch east of Stove Prairie; Rabbit-Ear 
Pass; Chambers' Lake; Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray; headwaters 
of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Iron Mountain; Cucharas Valley, near La 
Veta; West Spanish Peak. 

9. Ranunculus affinis R. Br. In alpine bogs and meadows from Sask. to 
Alaska and Colo. Alt. 7000-12,000 ft. Stove Prairie Hill; Boreas; West 
Indian Creek; Eldora to Baltimore. 

10. Ranunculus Eschscholtzii Schlecht. In wet alpine or subarctic localities 
from Wyo. to Alaska, Colo., Nev. and Wash. Mt. Heseprus, at timber line; 
Mt. Barrett. 

11. Ranunculus alpeophilus A. Nels. In wet places near the snow from 
Mont, to Colo. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Boreas ; Trapper's Lake ; Beaver Creek ; 
Mt. Abram, Ouray ; Alpine Tunnel ; Tennessee Pass ; Caribou ; Berthoud 
Pass. 

12. Ranunculus ocreatus Greene. In wet places on alpine peaks in Colo. 
Head of Leroux Creek, Delta Co. ; Mt. Hesperus, at timber line ; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray. 

13. Ranunculus ovalis Raf. (R. rhomboidcus Goldie.) In meadows from 
Lab. to Athabaska, Que. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Stove Prairie Hill; 
Table Rock; Cherry Creek, El Paso Co. 

14. Ranunculus adoneus A. Gray. On alpine peaks from Wyo. to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Mountains about Graymont; above Beaver 
Creek; above timber line, West Como Pass; Berthoud Pass; Georgetown; 
south fork of Cache la Poudre River; Cameron Pass; Ward, Boulder Co.; 
Spicer, Larimer Co. 

15. Ranunculus abortivus L. In woods and wet grounds from Lab. to 
Sask., Fla. and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Rist Canon; Pennock's mountain 
ranch; Walton Creek'; Victoria; Clear Creek; Cucharas Valley, near La 
Veta; Cascade; Ft. Collins; Cameron Pass; Steamboat Springs. 

16. Ranunculus micranthus Nutt. In rich woods from Mass, to Sask., Pa. 
and Colo. Twin Lakes. 

17. Ranunculus sceleratus L. In swamps and ditches from N. B. to Wyo., 
Fla. and Colo. Villa Grove. 

18. Ranunculus eremogenes Greene. In swamps and on lake shores from 
Sask. to Alb., N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Poudre, near La Porte; 
Ft. Collins; Montrose; Placer; near Boulder; Gunnison; Black Canon; New 
Windsor ; Arboles ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta. 

19. Ranunculus Douglasii Howell. (R. tcnellus Nutt.; not Viv.) On river 
banks and wet meadows from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 
8500 ft. Leroux Creek, Delta Co. 

10 



146 RANUNCULACEAE. 

20. Ranunculus Bongardii Greene. (R. tcncllus Lyallii A. Gray) Along 
streams from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, and Ore. Near Wyoming line, North 
Park. 

21. Ranunculus Earlei Greene. Along mountain streams in Colo. Alt. up 
to 10,000 ft. Gore Pass ; Leroux Creek ; Hotchkiss, Delta Co. ; Mancos ; Bob 
Creek. 

22. Ranunculus acriformis A. Gray. Along streams in Wyo. and northern 
Colo. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Laramie River. 

23. Ranunculus pennsylvanicus L. f. On river banks from N. S. to Ida., 
Ga. and Colo. Alamosa. 

24. Ranunculus Macounii Britton. Along streams and in wet places from 
Ont. to Alb., Iowa and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Ft. Collins; Bear River; 
Steamboat Springs; Durango ; bank of Michigan, Walden; New Windsor; 
Gunnison ; Mancos; Middle Park; La Veta ; Kremmling; Cucharas Valley, 
near La Veta ; Routt Co. 

25. Ranunculus Purshii Richardson. (R. multiiidus Coult., in part) In water 
and on muddy flats from N. S. to Alaska, Ont., Colo, and Ore. Alt. 4000- 
10,000 ft. Laramie River; above Beaver Creek; Ft. Collins; bank of Michi- 
gan, at Walden ; Front Range, Larimer Co. ; Wahatoya Creek ; Parlin, Gun- 
nison Co.; stream 12 miles below Grand Lake; Gunnison. 

26. Ranunculus intertextus Greene. (R. hypcrborcus natans Coult.; not 
Regel; R. natans A. Gray; not Meyer) In water in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
8000-10,000 ft. Vicinity of Como ; Graymont ; Georgetown ; Breckenridge ; 
Cassell's ; South Park ; Empire City. 

15. HALERPESTES Greene. 

i. Halerpestes Cymbalaria (Pursh) Greene. (Ranunculus Cymbalaria 
Pursh ; O.rygraphis Cymbalaria Prantl) In wet and especially alkaline soil 
from Lab. to Alaska, N. J. and Calif. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Ft. Collins ; 
Pueblo ; Gypsum ; Trail Creek ; Graymont ; Colorado Springs ; Montrose ; 
Grizzly Creek; Durango; Arboles; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Walsenburg; 
Parlin; Ouray; Palsgrove Canon. 

16. CYRTORRHYNCHA Nutt. 

Sepals broadly rounded-ovate, not clawed ; petals usually wanting. 

i. C. neglecta. 
Sepals spatulate or obovate, clawed ; petals usually present. 

Leaf segments thick, mostly acute ; panicle corymbiform. 2. C. ranimcitlina. 

Leaf segments thin, broad; inflorescence not corymbiform. 3. C. mpestris. 

1. Cyrtorrhyncha neglecta Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Horsetooth 
Mountain ; Golden City. 

2. Cyrtorrhyncha ranunculina Nutt. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 6000-8000 ft. Hills west of Soldier Canon ; Rist Caiion ; foot-hills, Ft. 
Collins ; Howe's Gulch, Larimer Co. ; Spring Canon ; Horsetooth Mountain ; 
Dixon Canon ; Green Mountain Falls ; Ohio Creek. 

3. Cyrtorrhyncha rupestris Greene. In the mountains of Colorado. Black 
Canon. 



RANUNCULACEAE. 147 

17. THALICTRUM L. MEADOW-RUE. 

Flowers perfect. 

Plant 2 dm. or less high : achenes turgid; filaments filiform, i. T. alpinum. 
Plant 3-10 dm. high; achenes flat and very oblique; filaments clavate. 

2. T. sparsiflorum. 
Flowers dioecious or polygamous. 

Achenes turgid, thick-walled ; ribs thick and almost corky, separated by acute 

grooves. 
Plants polygamous ; stem-leaves subsessile. 

Achenes, petioles and lower surface of the leaves decidedly viscid-pubescent. 

3. T. dasycarpuui. 
Achenes, petioles and the lower surface of the leaves glabrous or slightly 

viscid-puberulent. 4- T. purpurascens. 

Plants dioecious ; stem-leaves petioled. 5. T. venulosum. 

Achenes more or less flattened, thin-walled ; ribs not thick, separated by wide 
shallow rounded grooves ; achenes not twice as long as broad, decidedly oblique. 

6. T. Fendleri. 

1. Thalictrum alpinum L. In alpine and arctic bogs from Greenl. to 
Alaska, Colo, and Calif. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Como; Alpine Tunnel; Seven 
Lakes ; Tennessee Pass ; near Wyoming line, North Park ; Hamor's Lake, 
above Durango ; West Indian Creek ; Pike's Peak ; headwaters of Clear 
Creek ; alpine ridges east of Middle Park. 

2. Thalictrum sparsiflorum Turcz. In wet ground from Mont, to Alaska, 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6000-8500 ft Happy Hollow ; near Georgetown ; Carle- 
ton Lake ; Parlin ; Long Gulch, Larimer Co. ; Minnehaha ; headwaters of 
Clear Creek; Empire. 

3. Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Lall. In wet meadows from Ont. to 
Sask. and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Ft. Collins; La Veta; New Windsor; 
bank of river, Larimer Co.; Wahatoya Creek; Pagosa Springs; Walsenburg. 

4. Thalictrum purpurascens L. (T. Cornuti Torn, in part; not L.) In 
wet meadows from N. S. to Sask., Fla. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Along 
the Poudre ; Ft. Collins and La Porte ; plains and foot-hills near Boulder. 

5. Thalictrum venulosum Trelease. On hills and in open woods from Man. 
to B. C. and Colo. Alt. 5000-12,000 ft. Dillon Canon ; Cache la Poudre ; 
Gunnison ; Estes Park ; Cumberland Mine, La Plata Mountains. 

6. Thalictrum Fendleri Engelm. In the mountains from Wyo. to N. M. 
and Ariz. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Dillon Canon, 
Trinidad ; gulch west of Pennock's ; Livermore ; Steamboat Springs ; Four- 
Mile Hill, Routt Co.; vicinity of Ouray; Villa Grove; Ute Pass; Dillon; foot 
of Pike's Peak ; Veta Pass ; West Indian Creek ; North Cheyenne Canon ; 
Mancos; Silver Plume; Idaho Springs; Arboles; Pagosa Peak; Chicken 
Creek; Bob Creek; Colorado Springs; Turkey Creek; Sangre de Cristo 
Creek; Eldora to Baltimore. 

Family 55. NYMPHAEACEAE DC. WATER-LILY FAMILY. 
i. NYMPHAEA L. YELLOW WATER-LILY. 

i. Nymphaea polysepala (Engelm.) Greene. In lakes and slow streams 
from Mont, to Alaska, Colo, to Calif. Alt. up to 11,000 ft. Chambers' Lake; 
Bierstadt Lake. 



148 BERBERIDACEAE. 

Family 56. BERBERIDACEAE. BARBERRY FAMILY. 

Primary leaves of the shoots reduced to spines ; in their axils short branches with 

secondary, unifoliate leaves. i. BERBERIS. 

Primary leaves of the shoots pinnate ; no spines. 2. ODOSTEMON. 

i. BERBERIS L. BARBERRY. 

i. Berberis Fendleri A. Gray. In the mountains of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 
6000-7000 ft. Durango; Mancos ; Arboles; Mancos Canon. 

2. ODOSTEMON Raf. OREGON GRAPES. 

Fruit becoming dry and inflated at maturity ; leaflets less than 3 cm. long ; shrub 
15-36 dm. high. i. O. Fremontii. 

Fruit fleshy, not inflated at maturity; leaflets 3-6 cm. long; shrub prostrate, 1-3 
dm. high. 2. O. Aqiiifolnnn. 

1. Odostemon Fremontii (Torr.) Rydb. (Berberis Fremontii Torr.) In the 
mountains of Colo., Utah, N. M. and Ariz. Smith Fork Canon, Delta Co. 

2. Odostemon Aquifolium (Pursh) Rydb. (Berberis Aquifoliuin Pursh; B. 
re pens Lindl.) On hills from Mont, and Ida. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000- 
10,000 ft. Vicinity of Horsetooth ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Rist Canon ; Clear 
Creek Canon, above Golden; Platte Canon; Ouray; Snake River; hills south- 
east of La Veta ; East Indian Creek ; Veta Mountain ; canon of La Plata 
River; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; about Ouray; Lake City; near Boulder. 

Order 26. PAPAVERALES. 

Sepals 2 or 3 ; endosperm present. 

Flowers regular; stamens in ours numerous. 57. PAPAVERACEAE. 

Flowers irregular ; stamens 6, diadelphous. 58. FUMARIACEAE. 
Sepals 4, rarely more ; endosperm wanting. 

Capsule 2-celled ; stamens 6, tetradynamous, rarely 2 or 4. 59. BRASSICACEAE. 

Capsule i-celled; stamens not tetradynamous, 6 or more. 60. CAPPARIDACEAE. 

Family 57. PAPAVERACEAE Juss. POPPY FAMILY. 

Capsule opening by many dentiform lids under the stigma ; placentae ceptiform. 

i. PAPAVER. 
Capsule opening by 4-6 valves at the summit ; placentae nerviform. 2. ARGEMONE. 

i. PAPAVER L. POPPY. 

i. Papaver radicatum Rottb. (P. alpinum and P. nudicaulc A. Gray; not 
L.) In arctic regions and on alpine mountain tops from Greenl. and Lab. to 
Alaska and in Colo. ; also in Europe. Alt. 13.000-14,000 ft. Gray's Peak. 

2. ARGEMONE L. PRICKLY POPPY. 

Corolla yellow. i. A. mexicana. 

Corolla white. 

Stem unarmed or prickly, but not hispid pubescent. 2. A. intermedia. 

Stem hispid pubescent as well as spiny; leaf-blades deeply and usually doubly 
lobed. 3. A. hispida. 



PAPAVERACEAE. 149 

1. Argemone mexicana L. Introduced from Mexico and sparingly estab- 
lished from N. J. to Fla. and N. M. It has been reported from Colorado, 
but doubtful. 

2. Argemone intermedia Sweet. (A. platyceras Coult., in part) In sandy 
soil, on the plains and in the foot-hills, in canons and draws from S. D. to 
Wyo., Tex. and Mex. Alt. 4000-7500 ft. Dixon Canon; Spring Canon; 
Trinidad; Manitou ; Black Canon; plains and foot-hills near Boulder; New 
Windsor; Ft. Collins. 

3. Argemone hispida A. Gray. (A. bipinnatifida Greene) On sandy soil, 
on the plains and in the foot-hills, from Wyo. to Utah and N. M. Alt. 4500- 
9000 ft. Ft. Collins; along Platte River, Denver; Huerfano Valley, near 
Gardner; Veta Pass; west of New Windsor; foot-hills, Colorado Springs; 
plains and foot-hills near Boulder; Redcliffe. 

Family 58. FUMARIACEAE. FUMITORY FAMILY. 

Capsule 2-valved, several-seeded. i. CAPNOIDES. 

Fruit globose, indehiscent, i -seeded. 2. FUMARIA. 

i. CAPNOIDES Adans. CORYDALIS. 

Annual or biennial ; corolla yellow. 

Bracts narrowly lanceolate; pod torulose, pedulous. i. C. aurcitin. 

Bracts ovate-lanceolate, ovate or obovate ; pod erect on curved pedicels, not 
torulose. 2 - C. montanuni. 

Perennials with thickened roots ; corolla white or tinged with purple. 

3. C. Brandegei. 

1. Capnoides aureum (Willd.) Kuntze. (Corydalis aurca Willd.) Among 
bushes, in open woods and on hillsides, from N. S. to Alaska, Pa. and Calif. 
Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Dillon Canon, Trinidad; above Beaver Creek; Platte 
River Valley; Stove Prairie Hill; Trail Creek; near Boulder; mountains 
between Sunshine and Ward; Engelmann Canon; Ouray; Villa Grove; 
Georgetown; river bank near Ft. Collins; West Indian Creek; Green Moun- 
tain Falls; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; South Park; Manitou; West 
Mancos Canon; Ward, Boulder Co.; Sapinero; Minnehaha; Marshall Pass; 
Pike's Peak; mountain sides near Empire; Ute Pass; Walden, Larimer Co. 

2. Capnoides montanum (Engelm.) Britton. (Corydalis aurea occidcntalis 
A. Gray; Capnoides pachylobum Greene) On river banks and in canons 
from S. D. to Utah, Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Trinidad; gulch west 
of Soldier Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; foot-hills of Larimer Co. ; Howe's 
Gulch; Los Pinos; hills southeast of La Veta; Arboles; near Boulder; Rist 
Canon ; Spring Canon ; Poudre flats ; Trinidad ; Manitou ; mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward; New Windsor; Upper West Mancos Canon. 

3. Capnoides Brandegei (S. Wats.) Heller. (Corydalis Brandegei S. 
Wats.) In the mountains of Colo, and Utah. Alt. 9000-10,000 ft. Leroux 
Creek; Crystal Creek; Ruby; near Pagosa Peak; Piedra Mountains. 

2. FUMARIA L. FUMITORY. 

i. Fumaria officinalis L. Introduced from Europe and established locally 
from N. S. to Fla., Colo, and Tex. Ft. Collins. 



150 BRASSIACEAE. 

Family 59. BRASSIACEAE Lind. MUSTARD FAMILY. 

I. Pods sessile or short-stipitate (in two species of Thelypodium) ; sepals erect or 
conivent in anthesis ; anthers not twisted (except in Thely podium). 

A. Pods compressed or flattened contrary to the narrow partition. 
Pods not didymous ; plants not densely stellate, except in Smelowskya. 

Pods orbicular, oval or cuneate, strongly flattened ; plant not stellate. 
Cells of the pod i-seeded. 

Pods ovate-cordate, acute at the apex, neither winged nor retuse. 

i. CARDARIA. 
Pods orbicular, elliptic or rarely ovate, retuse or notched at the apex, 

usually winged. 2. LEPIDIUM. 

Cells of the pods 2-seeded. 

Pods more or less winged ; cotyledons acumbent ; hairs of the plant 

simple or none. 3. THLASPI. 

Pods cuneate, wingless ; cotyledons incumbent ; plants with branched 

hairs. 4. BURSA. 

Pods ovate or lanceolate, not strongly flattened ; plant stellate. 

5. SMELOWSKYA. 
Pods more or less didymous ; plants stellate. 

Seeds solitary in each cell ; pods strongly flattened. 6. DITHYREA. 
Seeds several in each cell ; pods more or less inflated. 7. PHYSARIA. 

B. Pods neither compressed nor flattened contrary to the partition, 
i. Anthers not sagittate at the base. 

o. Pods terete or tetragonal. 

Pods short, scarcely more than twice as long as broad, or less. 
Cotyledons accumbent ; valves of the pods nerveless. 

Pubescence stellate ; seeds flat. 8. LESQUERELLA. 

Pubescence not stellate ; seeds terete. 10. RORIPA. 

Cotyledons incumbent or folded transversely ; valves of the pod i-nerved ; 

pubescence not densely stellate. 9. CAMELINA. 

Pods long, several times as long as broad. 

Pods scarcely beaked, merely tipped by a short style or a sessile stigma. 
Pods terete or nearly so. 

Seeds in two rows in each cell of the pod. 

Valves of the pod nerveless ; seeds globose or oblong, turgid ; 

cotyledons accumbent. 10. RORIPA. 

Valves of the pods i -nerved; cotyledons at least partly in- 
cumbent. 

Seeds flattened; leaves entire or toothed n. TURRITIS. 
Seeds turgid; leaves pinnatifid. 13. SOPHIA. 

Seeds in one row in each cell of the pod. 

Glabrous perennials with creeping rootstocks. 

12. SCHOENOCRAMBE. 

More or less hairy annuals or perennials with tap-roots. 
Pubescence of simple hairs ; leaves runcinate or entire. 

I2a. SlSYMBRIUM. 

Pubescence of forked hairs ; leaves pinnately dissected. 

13. SOPHIA. 
Pods 4-angled. 

Stem leaves clasping by a cordate base. 23. CONRINGIA. 

Stem leaves not clasping. 

Corolla white. 14. STENOPHRAGMA. 

Corolla yellow. 

Seeds plump ; leaf-blades entire or toothed. 

15. ERYSIMUM. 

Seeds flat; leaf-blades pinnatifid. 16. BARBAREA. 

Pod with a long distinct beak. 

Beak flat and sword-like. 17. SINAPIS. 

Beak elongated, conic or 4-angled. 18. BRASSICA. 

b. Pod flattened parallel to the broad partition. 



BRASSIACEAE. 151 

Pod orbicular ; valves convex, with flattened margins ; filaments dilated 

and toothed near the base. 19. ALLYSSUM. 

Pod oblong, ovate or linear, rarely nearly orbicular ; valves flat, or if 

convex not with flattened margins ; filaments unappendaged. 
Valves nerveless. 

Valves not elastically dehiscent ; seeds in two rows ; pod usually short. 

20. DRABA. 
Valves elastically dehiscent ; seeds in one row ; pod long. 

21. CARDAMINE. 
Valves nerved and reticulate, not elastically dehiscent. 

Pod short, from orbicular to linear-oblong. 20. DRABA. 

Pods elongated-linear. 

Cotyledons accumbent. 22. ARABIS. 

Cotyledons incumbent. 23. CONRINGIA. 

2. Anthers sagittate at the base. 

Calyx campanulate, open ; petals ample. 

Pod flat. 24. STREPTANTHUS. 

Pod terete or tetragonal. 26. THELYPODIUM. 

Calyx urn-shaped, closed ; blades of the petals narrow, undulate-crisp. 

25. EUKLISIA. 

II. Pod terete long-stipitate ; sepals spreading in anthesis ; anthers curved and 
spirally twisted. 27. STANLEYA. 

i. CARDARIA Desv. 

i. Cardaria Draba (L.) Desv. (Lcpidium Draba L.) Introduced from 
Europe; in waste places from Wyo. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000-5000 ft 
Palisades ; Grand Junction ; near Boulder. 

2. LEPIDIUM L. PEPPER-GRASS. 

Style evident, at least equalling the wing-margins of the fruit. 
None of the leaves pinnatifid. 

Blades of the basal leaves truncate and 3-toothed at the apex. 

i. L. spatulatum. 

Blades of the basal leaves acute, serrate or crenate. 2. L. crenatum. 

Basal leaves at least pinnatifid. 

Segments of the basal leaves short obovate or broadly oblanceolate in outline. 

3. L. montanum. 
Segments of the basal leaves elongated, linear, oblong or lanceolate. 

Only the lowest leaves pinnatifid ; pod broadly oval ; style scarcely longer 

than the width of the wing-margin. 4. L. alyssoides. 

Lower stem-leaves also pinnatifid ; pod narrower, acutish at both ends ; style 

about twice as long as the wing-margin. 
Plant low, 3 dm. high or less ; leaves or their lobes narrowly linear. 

5. L. Jonesii. 
Plant tall, 4-8 dm. high ; upper leaves broadly linear or oblong. 

6. L. Eastwoodiae. 
Style obsolete, at least much shorter than the wing-margin of the fruit, or stigma 

subsessile. 
Petals conspicuous, at least equalling the sepals, spatulate or obovate. 

Blades of the petals broadly obovate, much exceeding the sepals ; style short. 

/. L. idahoensc. 
Blades of the petals spatulate ; style none. 

Cotyledons accumbent; petals broadly spatulate. 8. L. virginicum. 

Cotyledons incumbent ; petals narrowly spatulate. 

Stem glabrous or nearly so ; petals well exceeding the sepal. 

9. L. medium. 
Stem glandular puberulent ; petals about equalling the sepal. 

10. L. ramosum. 



152 BRASSIACEAE. 

Petals none or minute, scarcely more than half as long as the sepals, linear or 

linear-spatulate. 
Plant branched at the base ; petals often present. 

Axillary racemes very short and dense, usually shorter than the leaves ; 
petals more than half as long as the sepals. n. L. ramosissimum. 

Axillary racemes at last elongated ; petals very minute or none. 

12. L. divergent. 
Plant simple below, branched above ; petals none ; racemes elongated. 

13. L. densiflorum. 

1. Lepidium spathulatum (Robinson) Vasey. (L. scopulorum spathulatum 
Robinson) In the mountains of Colo. Between Meeker and Craig; head- 
waters of Bear Creek. 

2. Lepidium crenatum (Greene) Rydb. (Thelypodium crenatum Greene) 
In river valleys of Colo, and Utah. Paonia; Mancos. 

3. Lepidium montanum Nutt. In mountain valleys and on plains from 
Wyo. to Wash., Colo, and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Pitkin ; 
Lake City. 

4. Lepidium alyssoides A. Gray. In river valleys from Colo, to Tex. and 
Ariz.; also in Mex. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Grand Junction; Conejos River, 
north of Antonito ; Alamosa. 

5. Lepidium Jonesii Rydb. In mountain valleys of Colo, and Utah. Alt. 
4000-7000 ft. Palisades ; Grand Junction ; Spring Canon ; Montrose. 

6. Lepidium Eastwoodiae Wooton. In river valleys of Colo, and N. M. 
Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Glenwood Springs ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Pueblo Co. 

7. Lepidium idahoense Heller. In sandy river valley in Ida. and Colo. 
Alt. up to 7000 ft.- South of Horsetooth Mountain ; Spring Canon ; foot-hills, 
Larimer Co. 

8. Lepidium virginicum L. In waste places from Que. to Minn., Fla. and 
Tex. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Along the Conejos River, north of Antonito; 
Horsetooth Gulch ; near Pagosa Peak. 

9. Lepidium medium Greene. In waste places and on sandy soil from Mo. 
to Tex. and Calif. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Grand Junction ; gulch west of Pen- 
nock's; Reno; Larimer Co.; plains and foot-hills near Boulder; Lower 
Boulder Canon. 

10. Lepidium ramosum A. Nels. In arid soil from S. D. to Wyo., Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Vicinity of Como ; Wolcott, Eagle Co. 

11. Lepidium ramosissimum A. Nels. In arid soil from Neb. to Wyo. and 
Colo. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Pitkin ; plains, Colorado Springs. 

12. Lepidium divergens Osterh. In the mountains of Colo. Tennessee 
Pass. 

13. Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. (L. apetalum Aschers. ; not Willd. ; L. 
intermedium A. Gray) In waste places and sandy soil from Me. to Alb., DC. 
and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Quimby ; Ft. Collins ; New Windsor, Weld 
Co. ; plains, Larimer Co. ; Arboles ; chaparral-covered hills southeast of 
Ouray; Dix. 

3. THLASPI L. PENNY-GRASS. 

Pod orbicular in outline, broadly wing-margined and deeply notched at the apex. 

i. T. arvcnsc. 

Pods obovate or cuneate in outline, with narrow margins, truncate or slightly 
notched at the apex. 



BRASSIACEAE. 153 

Pods emarginate ; sinus narrow. 

Rootstock rather slender ; stem 1-2 dm. high ; petals spatulate, about 5 mm. 

long. 2. T. Nuttallii. 

Rootstock stout, densely caespitose ; stems less than i dm. high ; petals broadly 

obovate, 6-7 mm. long. 3. T. coloradense. 

Pods truncate or nearly so at the apex ; sinus broad and open. 

Stem 2-3 dm. high ; stem-leaves ample, broader than the basal ones ; sepals 

green. 4- T. glancum. 

Stems i dm. high or less ; stem-leaves reduced ; sepals and often also petals 

purplish. 5- T. purpurascens. 

1. Thlaspi arvense L. In waste places from Lab. to B. C, N. Y. and Colo. 
Introduced from Europe. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Quimby; Silverton; plains 
and foot-hills near Boulder; Pass Creek. 

2. Thlaspi Nuttallii Rydb. (T. cochleariforme Nutt. ; not DC.) Among 
rocks in the mountains from Mont, to Wash, and Colo. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. 
Dead Lake ; Minturn, Eagle Co. ; Bob Creek ; banks of Michigan Creek, near 
Teller; North Park. 

3. Thlaspi coloradense Rydb. In wet places, among rocks, on the peaks, in 
Colo. Alt. 6000-14,400 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Gray's Peak; along 
Beaver Creek ; above timber line, west of Cameron Pass ; Sierra Blanca ; sum- 
mit of Pike's Peak ; Grand Mesa ; west slope of Bald Mountain ; Clear Creek ; 
Red Mountain, south of Ouray ; Seven Lakes ; Los Pinos ; Tennessee Pass ; 
Cheyenne Mountain ; West Spanish Peak ; South Cheyenne Canon ; Massif de 
1'Arapahoe ; Spicer, Larimer Co. 

4. Thlaspi glaucum A. Nels. In mountain valleys and canons from Ida. to 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-13.000 ft. Spring Canon; Red Mountain; Pike's 
Peak Valley; Silver Plume; Gray's Peak; Bob Creek; Cameron Pass; Pass 
Creek ; near Ironton, San Juan Co. ; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

5. Thlaspi purpurascens Rydb. Among rocks, on the peaks of Colo, and 
Ariz. Alt. 7000-14,300 ft. Gray's Peak ; Cimarron ; Spring Canon ; Horse- 
tooth Gulch; gulch west of Dixon Canon; Rist Canon; Table Rock; Front 
Range, Larimer Co. ; Dixon Canon ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; 
Iron Mountain ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

4. BURSA Weber. SHEPHERD'S PURSE. 

i. Bursa Bursa-pastoris (L.) Britton. In waste places and fields from Lab. 
to Wash, and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Quimby ; Table Rock ; Ft. Collins ; 
hills about Box Canon, west of Ouray; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Mancos. 

5. SMELOWSKIA. 

Segments of basal leaves spatulate. i. 6". americana. 

Segments of the basal leaves linear or linear-oblong. 2. S. lineariloba. 

1. Smelowskia americana Rydb. (S. calycina B. & H. ; not C. A. Mey.) 
On the higher mountain tops from Mont, to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 10,000- 
12,000 ft. Cumberland Basin, La Plata Mountains; Devil's Causeway; moun- 
tain northwest of Como ; Ragged Mountain, Gunnison Co. ; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray. 

2. Smelowskia lineariloba Rydb. On alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. 12,000- 
14,000 ft. Douglass Mountain ; Georgetown ; Silver Plume ; northwest of 
Como ; near Ironton, San Juan Co. ; Mt. Bartlett, Robinson. 



154 BRASSIACEAE. 

6. DITHYREA Harv. 

i. Dithyrea Wislizeni Engelm. In dry regions from Tex. and Colo, to 
Utah and Ariz. Alt. 4500-6000 ft. Valley of the San Juan (Brandegce). 

7. PHYSARIA A. Gray. DOUBLE BLADDER-POD. 

Pods deeply cordate at the base ; lower sinus almost as deep as the upper. 

i. P. didymocarpa. 

Pods not cordate at the base or slightly so ; lower sinus none or very shallow. 
Basal leaves or at least some of them more or less fiddle-shaped. 

Leaves of the decumbent flowering stems reduced ; terminal lobe of the basal 

leaves rounded or reniform, very obtuse, entire. 2. P. vitulifera. 

Leaves of the ascending flowering stems ample ; terminal lobe of the basal 

leaves rhombic or ovate, obtuse or acute, sinuate. 3. P. floribunda. 

Basal leaves oblanceolate or spatulate, acute, not fiddle-shaped, 2-4 cm. long. 

4. P. acutifolia. 

1. Physaria didymocarpa (Hook.) A. Gray. On dry hills from Sask. and 
Alb. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Bluffs north of La Porte; Ft. 
Collins; Ruxton; Durango; Mancos. 

2. Physaria vitulifera Rydb. In mountain valleys and canons of Colo. 
Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Palisades ; Idaho Springs ; Grand Junction ; headwaters 
of Clear Creek; alpine ridges east of Middle Park; Bear Creek Canon. 

3. Physaria floribunda Rydb. In mountain valleys of Colo. Alt. 5000- 
9000 ft. Plains and foot-hills near Boulder ; Wolcott ; Veta Pass ; Golden, 
Jefferson Co. ; Cimarron ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Clear Creek Canon ; 
Hotchkiss ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

4. Physaria acutifolia Rydb. On dry hills in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 5000- 
10,500 ft. Grand Junction ; Ruxton Ridge ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Steam- 
boat Springs. 

8. LESQUERELLA S. Wats. BLADDER-POD. 

Ovary and pod stellate-pubescent. 
Pods ovoid or ellipsoid. 

Pods distinctly compressed and acute at the apex. 
Pods 6-8 mm. long ; plant usually over i dm. high. 

Basal leaf-blades broadly oval ; septum elliptic in outline ; style equalling 

the pod in length. i. L. Shearis. 

Basal leaf-blades oblanceolate to obovate ; septum ovate in outline ; style 

much shorter than the pod. 2. L. curvipes. 

Pods 3-5 mm. long ; plant i dm. or less high. 

Leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate ; plant pulvinate. 3. L. alpina. 
Leaves narrowly linear ; plant multicipital with a subterranean woody 

caudex. 4. L. parvula. 

Pods not compressed above. 

Basal leaf-blades rounded or broadly spatulate. 

Stem-leaves small, generally less than i cm. long, linear-oblanceolate. 

5. L. prostrata. 
Stem-leaves oblanceolate to obovate, 1-2 cm. long. 6. L. montana. 

Basal leaf-blades linear-oblanceolate. /. L. arenosa. 

Pods globose. 

Stem very slender; stem-leaves oblanceolate, 1-3 cm. long. 

7. L. arenosa. 

Stem stouter, strict ; stem-leaves linear, 2-6 cm. long. 8. L. argentea. 

Ovary and pod glabrous, globose. 



BRASSIACEAE. 155 

Basal leaf-blades oblanceolate. 

Plant usually over 3 dm. high ; flowers and fruit corymbose. 

9. L. Engelmanni. 
Plant usually less than 3 dm. high ; inflorescence at least in fruit elongated, 

racemose. 10. L. stenophylla. 

Basal leaves broadly oval. n. L. ovalifolia. 

1. Lesquerella Shearis Rydb. On plains and foot-hills of Colo. Alt. 5000- 
8000 ft. Boulder ; Palmer Lake ; Idaho Springs. 

2. Lesquerella curvipes A. Nels. On dry hills from Mont, to Colo. Alt. 
up to 10,000 ft. Como. 

3. Lesquerella alpina (Nutt.) S. Wats. (Vesicaria alpina Nutt.) Dry Hills 
from N. D. and Mont, to Colo. Florence; North Park. 

4. Lesquerella parvula Greene. On dry hills in Colo. Mt. Bross, Middle 
Park. 

5. Lesquerella prostrata A. Nels. In dry places, in the mountains, from 
Ass. to Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Northern State line ; mountain near Veta 
Pass ; between La Veta and Gardner. 

6. Lesquerella montana (A. Gray) S. Wats. (Vesicaria montana A. Gray) 
On hillsides and in the mountains from Wyo. to N. M. Alt. 5000-11,000 ft. 
Larimer Co. ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Palmer Lake ; Fossil Creek ; Ft. Collins ; 
Rist Canon, Larimer Co.; Salida; Mancos ; Trinidad; mesas near Colorado 
Springs; river bluffs north of La Veta; Los Pinos; plains near Denver; hills 
southeast of La Veta ; Manitou ; Veta Pass ; South Park. 

7. Lesquerella arenosa (Richardson) Rydb. On dry hills from Sask. to 
S. D. and Colo. Dolores. 

8. Lesquerella argentea (Pursh) MacM. (Vesicaria Ludoviciana DC.) 
On plains and dry hills from Minn, to N. D., Kans. and Colo. Wray; north 
of Craig, Routt Co. ; Clear Creek ; 25 miles below Manitou. 

9. Lesquerella Engelmanni (A. Gray) S. Wats. On dry mesas from Kans. 
and Colo, to Tex. and N. M. Pueblo. 

10. Lesquerella stenophylla (A. Gray) Rydb. (Vesicaria stenophylla A. 
Gray and V. Fendleri, in part.) On dry mesas from Colo, to Tex. and N. M. ; 
also in Mex. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Florence ; Swallow's, between Pueblo and 
Canon City; mesas near Pueblo; Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co.; Pueblo. 

11. Lesquerella ovalifolia Rydb. (L. ovata Greene.) On dry mesas and 
hillsides from Neb. to Colo, and Kans. Alt. about 1500 m. Mesas near 
Pueblo. 

10. RORIPA Scop. WATER-CRESS. 

Aquatics, usually immersed and rooting, with pinnate leaves and white petals. 

i. R. Nasturtium. 
Terrestrial or marsh plants with pinnatifid leaves and yellow petals (except in 

R. trachycarpa. 

Perennials with rootstocks ; petals much exceeding the sepals. 
Pods pappillose. 

Leaves thin ; petals white ; fruit recurved. 2. R. trachycarpa. 

Leaves thick ; petals yellow ; fruit erect. 3. R. calycina. 

Pods not papillose. 4. R. simiata. 

Annuals or biennials. 

Pods spherical to oblong-ellipsoid ; in the latter case shorter than the pedicels. 
Pedicels 4-10 mm. long; pods 3-5 mm. long (rarely 6-7 mm. in R. palustris), 
1.5-2 mm. thick. 



156 BRASSIACEAE 

Stem more or less hirsute. 5. R. hispida. 

Stem glabrous. 

Stem tall, 3-8 dm. high ; stigma prominent, 2-lobed. 

6. R. palustris. 
Stem low, divaricately branched, 1-3 dm. high; stigma scarcely thicker 

than the style. 7. R. alpina. 

Pedicels 2-5 mm. long ; pods globose. 8. R. sphaerocarpa. 

Pods oblong to linear-cylindric, equalling or longer than the short pedicels. 
Style about i mm. long. 

Leaves nearly all pinnatifid with obtuse divisions. 9. R. obtusa. 
Leaves mostly sinuate, or, if pinnatifid, with acute divisions. 
Pods short, ellipsoid, straight on straight pedicels. 

8. R. sphaerocarpa. 

Pods elongated ovoid, curved on curved pedjcels. 10. R. curvipes. 
Style minute, 5 mm. or less long. 

Low, slender, less than 2 dm. high ; leaves not auricled at the base. 

11. R. lyrata. 
Stouter, over 2 dm. high ; petioles of the stem-leaves auricled at the base. 

12. R. Underwoodii. 

1. Roripa Nasturtium (L.) Rusby. (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) In 
slow brooks and streams from N. S. to Wash., Va. and Calif. Alt. 1200- 
2800 m. Along Poudre, Ft. Collins; Durango; plains and foot-hills near 
Boulder; about Ouray; swamp near Ft. Collins. 

2. Roripa trachycarpa (A. Gray) Greene. (Nasturtium trachycarpum A. 
Gray) On river banks in Colo. Alt. about 6000 ft. Walsenburg; "South- 
western Colorado." 

3. Roripa calycina (Engelm.) Rydb. (N. calycinum Engelm.) On sandy 
river bottoms from Mont, to Wash, and N. M. Alt. about 5000 ft. Ft. 
Collins. 

4. Roripa sinuata (Nutt.) A. S. Hitchc. (Nasturtium sinuatum Nutt.) 
On river banks and in wet ground from Minn, to Wash., Mo. and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Ft. Collins ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Gunnison ; New Wind- 
sor ; mesas near Pueblo ; Pike's Peak ; near Boulder. 

5. Roripa hispida (Desv.) Britton. (N. hispidutn Desv.) In swamps from 
N. B. to the Mackenzie and B. C, south to Fla. and N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 
ft. Ft. Collins; Cache la Poudre banks; Quimby; plains and foot-hills near 
Boulder; Gunnison; Pass Creek. 

6. Roripa palustris (L.) Bess. (N. palustre DC.) In swamps from Lab. 
to B. C., Ga., N. M. and Nev.- Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Trapper's Lake; Du- 
rango ; Twin Lakes. 

7. Roripa alpina (S. Wats.) Rydb. (./V. obtusum alpinum S. Wats.) In 
wet places in the mountains from Mont, and Ida. to Colo, and Utah. 
Ft. Collins ; Poudre Canon ; Steamboat Springs ; Fish Creek ; Hotchkiss. 

8. Roripa sphaerocarpa (A. Gray) Britton. (N. sphacrocarpum A. Gray; N. 
obtusum sphaerocarpum S. Wats.) In wet places from Ills, to Wyo., Calif, 
and Ariz. North Park, near Wyoming line; near Ironton, San Juan Co. 

9. Roripa obtusa (Nutt.) Britton. On sandy beaches and river banks from 
Mich, to Wash., Tex. and Utah. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. New Windsor; Mt. 
Harvard ; Massif de 1'Arapahoe ; Hotchkiss, Delta Co. 

10. Roripa curvipes Greene. In wet places in mountain valleys of Colo, 
and Wyo. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Squaw Hill, above Cimarron ; Dale Creek, 
Larimer Co. ; Gunnison. 



BRASSIACEAE. 157 

ii Roripa lyrata (Nutt.) Greene. (N. lyratum Nutt.) In sandy wet soil 
from Mont, to Wash., Colo, and Calif. New Windsor. 

12. Roripa Underwoodii Rydb. In wet places in the mountains of Colo. 
Alt. about 11,000 ft. Red Mountain, south of Ouray. 

ii. TURRITIS L. 

i. Turritis glabra L. (Arabis pcrfoliata Lam.) In waste places and on 
sandy soil from Que. and Alb. to Pa., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft 
Middle Park; Mancos; near Pagosa Peak; Almelia; Hotchkiss; Platte 
Canon ; Steamboat Springs. 

12. SCHOENOCRAMBE Greene. 

Leaves all linear, entire. 

Plant decumbent, slender ; pods ascending, more or less arcuate ; style about i 

mm. long. i. 5\ decitmbens. 

Plant, erect, stouter; pods erect or nearly so, straight; style obsolete, 0.5 mm. or 

less long. 2. 5". linifolia. 

Some of the lower leaves pinnatifid. 3. S. pinnata. 

1. Schoenocrambe decumbens Rydb. In dry places from Mont, to Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. up to 7000 ft. Gypsum. 

2. Schoenocrambe linifolia (Nutt.) Greene. (Sisymbrium linifolium Nutt.) 
In dry places from Mont, to B. C, Colo, and Utah. Alt. 5000-7000 ft 
Cimarron ; Arboles ; Grand Junction. 

3. Schoenocranibe pinnata Greene. On dry hills from Wyo. to Colo, and 
Nev. Alt. about 7000 ft. Cimarron. 

13. SISYMBRIUM L. HEDGE MUSTARD. 

i. Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. In waste places from Newf. to B. C., 
Fla. and Calif.; naturalized from Europe. Platte near Denver (Eastivood). 

14. SOPHIA Adans. HERB-SOPHIA, TANSEY-MUSTARD. 

Pedicels ascending or spreading. 

Pods linear, i mm. wide, somewhat curved ; seeds in one row. 
Pods 8-15 mm. long; stem simple or with ascending branches. 
Pods divergent ; segments of the uppermost leaves often entire. 

1. S. leptophylla. 
Pods ascending ; segments of the leaves all sharply cut-lobed. 

2. S. incisa. 

Pods 5-8 mm. long; stem diffusely branched. 3. S. purpurascens. 

Pods more or less clavate, 5-12 mm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; seeds usually in two 

more or less distinct rows. 

Pods 8-12 mm. long, mostly erect on spreading pedicels. 
Leaves and stem green, only sparingly stellate. 

Stem divaricately branched ; branches making with the stem an angle of 
45 or more; pedicels 8-10 mm. long, usually shorter than the pods. 

4. S. ramosa. 
Stem simple or with erect or strongly ascending branches. 

Petals much exceeding the sepals ; terminal segments of the upper leaves 

usually elongated, linear, entire. 5. 5". filipes. 

Petals not much exceeding the sepals ; terminal segment of the upper 

leaves not elongated. 6. S. intermedia. 

Leaves and stem cinereous-stellate. 



158 BRASSIACEAE. 

Petals longer than the sepals, about 2 mm. long ; upper leaves mostly 
once pinnate, with elongated broad terminal segments. 

7. S. andrenarum. 
Petals not longer than the sepals, about 1.5 mm. long ; upper leaves visually 

more dissected ; terminal segment narrow, not elongated. 

8. 5". halictonnn. 
Pods 5-8 mm. long. 

Pods acute above, acuminate below ; style obsolete. 9. 5". pinnata. 

Pods acuminate at both ends; style evident. 10. 5". proccra. 
Pedicels erect. 

Pods over i mm. thick. 

Plant green and almost glabrous. 10. 6". procera. 
Plant cinereous-pubescent. 11. S. brevipes. 
Pods about .75 mm. thick ; plant glandular puberulent, especially the inflores- 
cence, or glabrous. 12. 6". glandulifera. 

1. Sophia leptophylla Rydb. In dry places from Wyo. and Ida. to Colo. 
Alt. about 6500 ft. -Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Bosworth's ranch ; Stove 
Prairie. 

2. Sophia incisa (Engelm.) Greene. On hillsides from Wyo. to N. M. 
Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Walcott ; Chicken Creek ; Idaho Springs ; southeast of La 
Veta ; Mancos ; west of Steamboat Springs ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Cimarron ; 
Glemvood Springs, Garfield Co. 

3. Sophia purpurascens Rydb. On mountain sides in Colo. Alt. about 
11,000 ft. Known only from the type locality: Red Mountain, south of 
Ouray. 

4. Sophia ramosa Rydb. On mountain sides in Colo. Alt. about 9000 ft. 
Known only from Pitkin. 

5. Sophia filipes (A. Gray) Heller. On hillsides from N. D. and Wash, 
to Colo. Mancos. 

6. Sophia intermedia Rydb. On hillsides and prairies and in sandy soil 
from Mich, and B. C. to Tenn. and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Sangre de 
Cristo Creek ; near Ironton, San Juan Co. ; Buena Vista ; Parlin ; Mancos ; 
plains near Denver ; southeast and north of La Veta. 

7. Sophia andrenarum Cockerell. On hillsides and in sandy valleys from 
Mont, and Wash, to N. M. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Canon City; Walsenburg; 
river bluffs north of La Veta ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Ft. Collins ; 
New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Los Pinos ; near Poudre River ; Antonito. 

8. Sophia halictorum Cockerell. In sandy valleys from Colo, and Utah to 
Tex. and N. M. Alt. up to 6000 ft. Walsenburg. 

9. Sophia pinnata (Walt.) Howell. In sandy soil from Va. and Colo, to 
Fla. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Plains near Denver; mesas near Pueblo; 
Ft. Collins ; Cache la Poudre ; Lamar ; Gypsum ; New Windsor, Weld Co. 

10. Sophia procera Greene. In sandy valleys from Wyo. to N. M. and 
Utah. Alt. 7500-9000 ft. Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray; Box Canon, 
west of Ouray; near Pagosa Peak; Tennessee Pass. 

11. Sophia brevipes (Nutt.) Rydb. (Sisymbrium canesccns brevipes 
Nutt. ; 5*. incisum Hartwcgianum S. Wats.; (?) 5". Hartwegianum Fourn.) 
In sandy valleys, among bushes, from Mackenzie to Minn, and Utah. Man- 
cos ; east side Poudre River, above Ft. Collins; Middle Park. 

12. Sophia glandulifera Rydb. In sandy places from Wyo. to N. M. 
La Veta. 



BRASSIACEAE. 1-59 

15. STENOPHRAGMA Celac. 

i. Stenophragma virgata (Nutt.) Greene. (Sisymbrium virgatum Nutt.) 
In dry places in Wyo. and Colo. Exact locality not given (Hall & Harbour) ; 
McCoy's, Eagle Co. 

16. ERYSIMUM L. 

Petals less than i cm. long. 

Petals 3-5 mm. long. i. E. cheiranlhoides. 

Petals 8-10 mm. long. 2. E. parviflornm. 

Petals over i cm. long. 
Petals light yellow. 

Plants biennial or short-lived perennials ; not cespitose. 
Basal leaves, as well as the whole plant, grayish. 

Pods widely spreading, 5-8 cm. long, stout ; stem-leaves usually sinuate- 
dentate. 3- E. aspentm. 
Pods strongly ascending or almost erect, 8-12 cm. long. 

Claws of the petals one-half longer than the sepals ; stem-leaves broadly 

oblanceolate, usually sinuate-dentate. 4. E. elatum. 

Claws of the petals scarcely exceeding the sepals ; stem-leaves entire 

or nearly so. 
Stem-leaves linear or nearly so ; pods usually twisted. 

5. E. asperrimum. 

Stem-leaves oblanceolate ; pods straight. 6. E. oblanceolatum. 

Basal leaves, at least, silvery white ; stem leaves narrowly linear. 
Plants 2-3 dm. high ; stem-leaves sinuate-dentate. 7. E. Bakeri. 
Plants 1-2 dm. high ; stem-leaves entire. 8. E. argillosiun. 

Plants low cespitose perennials. 

Leaves entire-margined or nearly so. 9. E. nivale. 

Leaves sinuate-dentate. 10. E. radicatum. 

Petals varying from orange to dark brown or purple. 

Plant simple, 3-5 dm. high; basal leaves 5-10 cm. long, oblanceolate. 

n. E. Wheeleri. 
Plant cespitose, 1-2 dm. high ; basal leaves 2-4 cm. long, spatulate. 

12. E. amoenum. 

1. Erysimum cheiranthoides L. In waste places, on river banks and among 
bushes, from Newf. and Alaska to Tenn. and Utah. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. 
Headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Middle Park; along the Poudre; 
Ft. Collins; Grizzly Creek; North Park; New Windsor, Weld Co. 

2. Erysimum parviflorum Nutt. (E. inconspicnum (S.Wats.) MacM.) On 
hillsides from Minn, and Alb. to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Dix 
Post Office; Mancos; Durango; Ruxton. 

3. Erysimum asperum DC. Dry plains and hills, Sask. to Ark. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-9500 ft. -Butte, 5 miles southwest of La Veta; mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward. 

4. Erysimum elatum Nutt. On hills from N. D., Mont, and W T ash. to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. up to 6000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Rist Canon ; 
Horsetooth Gulch; Quimby; Cucharas River, below La Veta; Horsetooth 
Gulch ; Pike's Peak ; Crystal Park ; Camp Creek, Larimer Co. 

5. Erysimum asperrimum (Greene) Rydb. (Cheiranthus asperrimus 
Greene) On hills from S. D. and Mont, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000- 
9000 ft. Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Minnehaha ; near Pueblo ; Manitou ; Wil- 
liams' Canon, above Manitou ; Spring Canon ; Table Rock ; Trinidad ; Dixon 
Canon ; Howe's Gulch ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Rist Canon. 



160 BRASSIACEAE. 

6. Erysimum oblanceolatum Rydb. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 5000-11,000 ft. Golden; near La Plata Post Office; Hamor's Lake, above 
Durango; Williams' Canon; near Pueblo; Georgetown; Stove Prairie Hill; 
Cameron Pass ; Dixon Canon ; plains and foot-hills near Boulder ; Alpine 
Tunnel ; Cimarron. 

7. Erysimum Bakeri (Greene) Rydb. (Chicranthus aridus Greene; C. 
Bakeri Greene) On dry hills in Colo, and N. M. Golden City. 

8. Erysimum argillosum (Greene) Rydb. (C. argillosus Greene) On dry 
mesas and bluffs of Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft. Pueblo; plains near Denver; 
bluffs north of La Porte. 

9. Erysimum nivale (Greene) Rydb. (C. nivalis Greene) In the higher 
mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 11,000-13,000 ft. Mountains northeast 
of Boreas ; mountains above Graymont ; mountain northwest of Como ; above 
Ouray ; Carson ; Argentine Pass ; Mt. Hesperus, above timber line ; Slide 
Rock Canon ; West La Plata Mountains. 

10. Erysimum radicum Rydb. On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt 10,000- 
13,000 ft. Pike's Peak; Bottomless Pit. 

11. Erysimum Wheeleri S. Wats. (E. aspcrum alpestrc Cockerell) On 
dry hills and plains in the mountains from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and Ariz. 
Alt. 5000-12,000 ft. Mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; plains and 
foot-hills near Boulder; East Indian Creek; Turkey Creek and tributaries; 
Veta Mountain; Ojo; west slope Bald Mountain; Slide Rock Canon, West 
La Plata Mountains ; foot-hills near Ft. Collins ; mountains near Veta Pass ; 
headwaters of Pass Creek ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Howe's Gulch ; Montrose ; 
Dillon Canon ; Chicago Lakes; near Boulder. 

12. Erysimum amoenum (Greene) Rydb. (Cheiranthus nivalis amocnus 
Greene.) On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. La Plata 
Mountains ; Silverton ; near Ironton, San Juan Co. ; Mt. Abram ; mountains 
near Ouray; Berthoud Pass. 

17. BARB ARE A L. WINTER-CRESS, SCURVY-GRASS. 

Pods sharply 4-angled, stout-pediceled ; leaf-segments 4-8 pairs, i. B. praecox. 
Pods obtusely 4-angled ; leaf-segments 1-4 pairs. 2. B. americana. 

1. Barbarea praecox (J. E. Smith) R. Br. In waste places from N. Y. 
to Wash., Fla. and Calif. ; sparingly introduced from Europe. Hotchkiss. 

2. Barbarea americana Rydb. (B. vulgaris gracilis S. Wats.; not DC.) 
In rich soil from Sask. and Mont, to Colo, and Nev.- Between Eldora and 
Baltimore. 

18. SINAPIS L. WHITE MUSTARD. 

i. Sinapis alba L. Introduced in grain fields and waste places from Me. 
to B. C. and Calif. Ft. Collins. 

19. BRASSICA L. WILD MUSTARD, TURNIPS, CABBAGE. 

Pedicels 1-2 cm. long: plant glabrous. i. B. juncea. 

Pedicels about 5 mm. long ; plant sparingly hispid. 2. B. arvensis* 

i. Brassica juncea (L.) Coss. Sparingly introduced from Europe; in 
waste places from N. H. to Colo., Va. and N. M. Alt. about 8000 ft. Hills 
about Box Canon, west of Ouray. 



BRASSIACEAE. 

2. Brassica arvensis (L.) B. S. P. (B. Sinapistnim Boiss.) Introduced 
from Europe and sometimes a troublesome weed in grain fields from Newf. 
to Alb. and Colo. Ft. Collins. 

20. ALYSSUM L. 

i. Alyssum alyssoides (L.) Gouan. (A. calycinum L.) In fields and 
waste places and on hillsides from N. H. and Iowa to N. J. and Colo. ; intro- 
duced from Europe. Alt. about 5000 ft. Boulder. 

21. DRABA L. WHITLOW-GRASS. 

Winter annuals or No. 7 sometimes perennial ; style obsolete. 
Pods hairy. 

Flowers white ; leaves all crowded on the lower part of the stem ; racemes 

short on long naked peduncles. 
Inflorescence even in fruit corymbiform ; petals minute or none. 

i. D. micrantha. 

Inflorescence in fruit elongated ; petals conspicuous. 2. D. coloradensis. 

Flowers yellow or in age sometimes whitish ; stem more or less leafy throughout. 

Basal leaves obovate, ovate or oblong ; stem-leaves ample ; pedicels longer 

than the pods. 3- D. nemorosa. 

Basal leaves oblanceolate or oblong ; stem-leaves smaller, oblong-lanceolate ; 

pedicels shorter than the pods. 4- D. montana. 

Pods glabrous. 

Stem more or less leafy. 

Basal leaves obovate; stem-leaves several, broad. 5. D. lutea. 

Basal leaves oblanceolate ; stem-leaves very few and small. 

6. D. uitida. 
Stem scapiform or with a single leaf ; leaves in basal rosettes. 

Basal leaves oblanceolate or narrowly spatulate, hirsute. 

7. D. crassifolia. 
Basal leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate, glabrous, except the very sparingly 

ciliate margins. 8. D. Parryi. 

Perennials ; style usually evident. 

Plant scapose or nearly so ; leaves ciliate on the margins. 

Petals white. 9- D. fladnizensis. 

Petals yellow. D. steptocarpa Grayana. 

Stem leafy. 

Petals white ; leaves stellate ; plant usually over i dm. high. 

10. D. cana. 
Petals yellow. 

Plants glabrous, except the margins of the leaves, which are occasionally 

ciliate. 
Leaves linear or narrowly linear-oblanceolate, thin. 

Leaves much shorter than the flowering stems ; pods lance-linear. 

11. D. chrysantha. 
Leaves almost equalling the flowering stems ; pods ovate. 

12. D. graminea. 
Leaves spatulate or broadly oblanceolate, thick. 13. D. crassa. 

Plants decidedly hairy, at least on the stem. 

Pubescence long-hirsute, with simple or slightly branched hairs. 

14. D. streptocarpa. 
Pubescence dense, mostly of branched or stellate hairs. 

Styles 1.5-2 mm. long; pods glabrous or slightly puberulent. 

Pubescence rather sparse and minute ; stem-leaves usually sharply 
toothed. 15. D. spectabilis. 

11 



162 BRASSIACEAE. 

Pubescence dense and grayish ; stem-leaves entire-margined or mi- 
nutely denticulate. 16. D. Helleriana. 
Style i mm. long ; pod decidedly pubescent. 
Stem erect or nearly so. 

Leaves thin ; basal ones usually over 2 cm. long ; cauline ovate to 

lanceolate. 
Petals 5 mm. or more long ; stem-leaves often dentate. 

17. D. luteola. 
Petals 3-4 mm. long ; stem-leaves entire-margined. 

1 8. D. aureformis. 
Leaves thick; basal ones 1-2 cm. long; cauline lanceolate or oblong. 

19. D. aurea. 
Flowering stem decumbent ; leaves finely stellate ; pods twisted. 

20. D. deciimbens. 

1. Draba micrantha Nutt. (D. caroliniana micrantha A. Gray) In arid 
soil from 111. to Wash., Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Mancos ; Denver ; 
foot-hills west of Ft. Collins. 

2. Draba coloradensis Rydb. (D. cuncifolia Coult, in part; not Nutt.) On 
plains and hillsides of Colo. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Hills west of Soldier Canon; 
Ft. Collins ; Mancos ; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins ; plains near Denver ; near 
Boulder; New Windsor. 

3. Draba nemorosa L. In dry places, often among grass, from Mich, to 
Mont., B. C, Colo, and Ore. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Georgetown ; mountain 
near Veta Pass ; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins ; headwaters of Sangre de 
Cristo Creek ; Rist Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Poudre River ; west of Soldier 
Canon; Howe's Gulch; near Chambers' Lake; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Middle 
Park ; Georgetown. 

4. Draba montana S. Wats. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. up to 2700 m. 
Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray. 

5. Draba lutea Gilib. (D. nemorosa leiocarpa, in part) On hillsides from 
Hudson Bay to Alaska, Mich., Colo, and Ore. Idaho Springs; Georgetown; 
Rabbit-Ear Range, Routt Co. 

6. Draba nitida Greene. (D. stenoloba Wats. & Brew.; not Ledeb.) On 
hillsides from Wyo. to Ore., Colo, and southern Calif. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft 
Near Teller, North Park ; Tennessee Pass ; Cameron Pass ; mountains east 
of Cameron Pass ; Grayback mining camps ; Flat Top Mountains ; Marshall 
Pass; Sargent's; South Park; near Chambers' Lake. 

7. Draba crassifolia Graham. On exposed mountain-tops from Greenl. to 
B. C., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 10,000-14,000 ft. Mountains northeast of 
Boreas; near Ironton, San Juan Co.; vicinity of Como; Leroux Creek, Delta 
Co.; Sierra Blanca ; Massif de 1'Arapahoe; summit of North Park Range, 
Larimer Co. 

8. Draba Parryi Rydb. On alpine peaks of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 10,000- 
13,000 ft. Foot of Gray's Peak ; Cameron Pass ; Cumberland Basin, La Plata 
Mountains ; Red Mountain ; Alpine Tunnel. 

9. Draba fladnizensis Wulf. In arctic regions and on alpine peaks, on 
wet rocks, from Lab. and B. C. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 13,000 ft 
Gray's Peak trail ; Gray's Peak ; West Spanish Peaks ; Parlin. 

10. Draba cana Rydb. (D. incana confusa of Coult. Man.; not Poir.) In 
the mountains, among rocks, from Lab. and Yukon to Colo. Alt. 11,000-12,000 
ft. Massif de 1'Arapahoe ; northeast of Boreas ; Red Mountain ; Pike's Peak. 



BRASSIACEAE. 163 

11. Draba chrysantha S. Wats. On alpine peaks of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 
12,000-13,000 ft. Gray's Peak. 

12. Draba graminea Greene. On alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. about 12,500 
ft. Telluride; Carson. 

13. Draba crassa Rydb. On alpine peaks of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. Sooo- 
12,500 ft. Cumberland Mine, La Plata Mountains. 

14. Draba streptocarpa A. Gray. On alpine peaks and rocky places in the 
higher mountains of Colo. Alt. 6000-13,000 ft. Pike's Peak; headwaters of 
Clear Creek; South Park; Gray's Peak; West Indian Creek; West Spanish 
Peak ; near Colorado Springs ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; moun- 
tains near Veta Pass ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Robinson ; northwest of 
Como ; east of Cameron Pass ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; Beaver Creek ; 
Chambers' Lake ; Crystal Park ; Gentian Ridge ; headwaters of Clear Creek 
and alpine ridges east of Middle Park ; Gray's Peak ; South Park ; Empire ; 
Eldora to Baltimore. 

Draba streptocarpa Grayana Rydb. Alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. 12,000- 
13,000 ft. Mountains northwest of Como ; Gray's Peak trail. 

15. Draba spectabilis Greene. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
9000-12,000 ft. Near Ironton, San Juan Co. ; Cumberland Basin and Bob 
Creek, La Plata Mountains ; Upper La Plata Canon ; Mt. Hesperus ; moun- 
tains about Ouray ; Red Mountain. 

16. Draba Helleriana Greene. (D. oxyloba Greene.) In the mountains of 
Colo, and N. M. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Sargent's ; Van Boxle's ranch, above 
Cimarron ; Grayback Mining Camps ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; 
Ojo; Silverton. 

17. Draba luteola Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. 
Cumberland Basin, La Plata Mountains ; Idaho Springs ; Upper Canon of 
the La Plata ; near Pagosa Peak ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

1 8. Draba aureiformis Rydb. (D. Bakcri Greene.) In the mountains of 
Colo, and the Black Hills of S. D. Alt. 9000-11,000 ft. Near Graymont; 
headwaters of Pass Creek ; Carson ; Palsgrove Canon. 

19. Draba aurea Wahl. Among rocks in the higher mountains and in sub- 
arctic regions from Greenl. to B. C. to Colo, and Ariz. ; also in northern 
Europe. Alt. 9000-13,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Massif de 1'Arapa- 
hoe ; Battlement Crag, Pike's Peak; Como; West Spanish Peak; near Iron- 
ton, San Juan Co. ; between Bald Mountain and Seven Lakes ; Dark Canon ; 
Cripple Creek road ; vicinity of Como ; Boreas ; Silverton ; Leroux Creek ; 
Chambers' Lake ; Graymont ; Alpine Tunnel ; Grand Lake ; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray; Mt. Baldy; Mt. Garfield; Middle Park; Eldora to Baltimore. 

20. Draba decumbens Rydb. Alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. 12,000-13,000 ft. 
Gray's Peak. 

22. CARDAMINE L. BITTER-CRESS. 

Leaves all entire ; blades more or less cordate, dentate. 

Plant glabrous or nearly so. i. C. cordifolia. 

Plant, at least the stem, densely pilose ; leaves also hairy. 2. C. infausta. 
Leaves, at least some of them, pinnate. 

Petals about 5 mm. long; leaflets 1-7; the terminal much larger, cordate, ovate 
or reniform, sinuately toothed. 3. C. vallicola. 

Petals 2-4 mm. long; leaflets 5-15, from linear to obovate. 



164 BRASSIACEAE. 

Plant perfectly glabrous ; beak of the pod less than i mm. long. 

4. C. pennsylvanica. 
Plant more or less hairy, at least on the lower part of the stem or the base of 

the petioles; beak of the pod over i mm. long. 5. C. acnminata. 

1. Cardamine cordifolia A. Gray. In brooks and on shady banks from Wyo. 
to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7500-11,000 ft. Rico; Gore Pass; Graymont : 
Chambers' Lake ; Villa Grove ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; 
Marshall Pass; canons and adjoining meadows west of Ouray; Idaho 
Springs; Clear Creek; Ironton; Tennessee Pass; near Pagosa Peak; on Bob 
Creek, West La Plata Mountains; Como; Silver Plume; Gray's Peak; Ojo; 
Pass Creek ; Cariboti ; Eldora to Baltimore ; summit of North Park Range, 
Larimer Co. ; Spicer. 

2. Cardamine infausta Greene. (C. cardiophylla Rydb.) In brooks in 
Colo. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Above Beaver Creek ; Tennessee Pass. 

3. Cardamine vallicola Greene. In shady wet woods and on river banks 
in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Bank of Poudre River, Ft. Collins ; 
Columbine ; Dale Creek. 

4. Cardamine pennsylvanica Muhl. On shaded banks from Newf. to Wash., 
Fla., Kans. and Ore. Walton Creek ; North Park. 

5. Cardamine acuminata Nutt. On shaded banks from Mont, to Alaska, 
Colo, and Ore. Alt. about 5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

23. ARABIS L. ROCK-CRESS. 

Pods erect or nearly so. 

Leaves coarsely hirsute ; the cauline ones cordate or auricled at the base. 

i. A. ovata. 
Leaves not coarsely hirsute. 

Pubescence if any sparse and consisting of 2-forked hairs. 

Plant perfectly glabrous. 2. A. pliilonipha. 

Lower leaves more or less hairy. 

Lower leaves narrowly oblanceolate ; cauline narrow and acuminate ; pods 

about 1.5 mm. wide. 3. A. o.vyphylla. 

Lower leaves spatulate ; cauline not long-acuminate ; pods about 2 mm. 

wide. 4. A. commixa. 

Pubescence of the lower leaves distinctly stellate. 

Stem over 3 dm. high; basal leaves 3-10 cm. long; petals purple. 

5. A. oblanceolata. 
Stem usually less than 3 dm. high ; basal leaves 1-2 cm. long ; petals white 

or pinkish. 6. A. Crandalii. 

Pods spreading or reflexed. 
Leaves more or less stellate. 

Leaves finely stellate without coarser simple hairs. 

Stem 3-5 dm. high, branched; basal leaves oblanceolate, 5-10 cm. long, 

denticulate. 7. A. Selbyi. 

Stems 1-4 dm. high, simple ; basal leaves 1-5 cm. long. 

Plant green, minutely stellate or sometimes glabrate ; basal leaves usu- 
ally entire. 12. A. lignifera. 
Plant densely stellate ; basal leaves dentate. 

Petals about 8 mm. long ; sepals and upper leaves usually glabrous. 

13. A. rhodantha. 
Petals about 6 mm. long ; sepals stellate ; leaves usually all stellate. 

8. A. consangitincii. 

Leaves hispid on the margins as well as stellate. 9. A. Fendlcri. 

Leaves not stellate, perfectly glabrous or with ciliate margins. 



BRASSIACEAE. 165 

Plants not densely cespitose ; stem-leaves lanceolate-sagittate ; basal leaves 
oblanceolate or spatulate. 10. A. divaricarpa. 

Plants densely cespitose ; stem-leaves oblong or lance-oblong, indistinctly 
auricled ; basal leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate. u. A. oxylobula. 

1. Arabis ovata (Pursb) Poir. (A. liirsuta Hook., in part; not L.) In 
waste places and sandy or rocky soil from N. B. and Alb. to Ga. and Calif. 
Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Boulder Canon; Mancos; Ojo; Cucharas River, below La 
Veta; Pagosa Springs; West Indian Creek; South Park; Chicken Creek, La 
Plata Mountains; North Cheyenne Canon; Williams' Canon; butte, 5 miles 
southwest of La Veta ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Horsetooth Gulch ; gulch 
south of Boulder ; Spring Canon ; Moon's ranch ; Dixon Canon ; gulch west of 
Soldier Canon; Rustic; Cache la Poudre ; South Park; Colorado Springs; 
Castle Canon; Cimarron; Lake City; Eldora to Baltimore. 

2. Arabis philonipha A. Nelson. On hillsides from Mont, and Wash, to 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. up to 9500 ft. Breckenridge; Villa Grove; mountains 
between Sunshine and Ward. 

3. Arabis oxyphylla Greene. On hillsides and in canons from Wyo. to 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. 7000-11,500 ft Cucharas River, below La Veta; 
Chicken Creek, West La Plata Mountains; Hounold; Cripple Creek road; 
near Pagosa Peak; near Chambers' Lake; Carson; Cerro Summit; Van 
Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron ; Dark Canon ; Alpine Tunnel ; Empire ; Camp 
Creek, and Beaver Creek, Larimer Co. 

4. Arabis connexa Greene. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. 9000-11,000 ft. Lake City; near Pagosa Peak; headwaters of 
Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

5. Arabis oblanceolata Rydb. On mountains in Colo. Alt. about 10,000 
ft. Valley Spur. 

6. Arabis Crandalii Robinson. (A. stcnoloba Greene) In the mountains of 
Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. Cimarron. 

7. Arabis Selbyi Rydb. (A. recondita Greene, in part) On mountains of 
Colo. Alt. 7000-9500 ft. West of Ouray; Glenwood Springs (the last speci- 
men included by Dr. Greene in A. recondita Greene, but does not agree with 
the description). 

8. Arabis consanguinea Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000-9000 
ft. Los Pinos; headwaters of Pass Creek; Van Boxle's ranch, above 
Cimarron. 

9. Arabis Fendleri (S. Wats.) Greene. (A. Hoelboellii Fendleri S. Wats.) 
In the mountains of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Georgetown ; 
Como; butte, 5 miles southwest of La Veta; Wahatoya Canon; river bluffs 
north of La Veta; hills southeast of La Veta; Mancos. 

10. Arabis divaricarpa A. Nels. On dry hills from Ass. to Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 8000-9500 ft. Mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

11. Arabis oxylobula Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Leadville; Trap- 
per's Lake ; Glenwood Springs. 

12. Arabis lignifera A. Nels. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
about 8000 ft. Columbine. 

13. Arabis rhodantha Greene. In the mountains of Colo, and Utah. Alt. 
up to 8000 ft. Mancos; Ojo. 



166 BRASSIACEAE. 

24. CONRINGIA Heist. 

i. Conringia orientalis (L.) Dum. Introduced from Europe; from Me. and 
Alb. to Del. and Colo. Minnehaha. 

25. STREPTANTHUS Nutt. 

i. Streptanthus wyomingensis A. Nels. On dry hills of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. about 7000 ft. Palisades, Mesa Co. ; Cimarron ; Glenwood Springs, Gar- 
field Co. 

26. EUKLISIA (Nutt.) Rydb. 

Stem leaves oblong or ovate, with cordate base. 

Leaves thick; sepals with bristles near the apex. i. E. crassifolia. 

Leaves thin ; sepals without bristles. 2. E. cordata. 

Stem leaves linear. 3. E. longirostris. 

1. Euklisia crassifolia (Greene) Rydb. (Streptanthus crassifolius Greene) 
On dry hills from Colo, to Utah, N. M. and Ariz. Alt. about 7000 ft. 
Grand Junction ; Cimarron. 

2. Euklisia cordata (Nutt.) Rydb. (Streptanthus cordatus Nutt.) On dry 
hills from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. McCoy's, Eagle Co. ; Mesa Verde. 

3. Euklisia longirostris (S. Wats.) Rydb. (Arabis and Streptanthus longi- 
rostris S. Wats.) In valleys from Wyo. to Utah, N. M. and Ariz. Palisades. 

27. THELYPODIUM Endl. 

Plant glabrous or with simple hairs. 
Upper leaf-blades auricled at the base. 
Petals rose-color, purplish or white. 

Pods 7-10 cm. long. i. T. elegans. 

Pods 3-5 cm. long. 

Stem-leaves lanceolate-sagittate ; petals rose or purplish. 

2. T. paniculatum. 
Stem-leaves ovate-sagittate ; petals white or straw color. 

3. T. Bakcrl. 
Petals bright yellow. 4. T. anreitin. 

Upper leaf-blades attenuate at the base. 

Some of the leaves sinuately toothed or laciniate. 

Pedicels slender, 6-15 mm. long; upper leaves entire or slightly toothed; 

pods divergent. 5. T. Wrightii. 

Pedicels short and stout, 2-5 mm. long ; most of the leaves laciniate ; 

pods reflexed. 6. T. utahensis. 

Leaves all entire or the lower sometimes repand. 

Inflorescence dense ; stigma truncate ; lower leaf-blades obovate or 

oblanceolate. 
Inflorescence very short ; stipes i mm. long ; pod rather stout. 

7. T. intcgrifolium. 
Inflorescence more elongated ; stipes 2-3 mm. long ; pod very slender. 

8. T. gracilipes. 
Inflorescence very slender and lax ; stigmas conical ; leaves all linear. 

9. T. linearifolinm. 
Plant pubescent with branched hairs. 10. T. micranthum. 

i. Thelypodium elegans M. E. Jones. On adobe plains in Utah and Colo. 
Southwestern Colorado. 



BRASSIACEAE. 167 

2. Thelypodium paniculatum A. Nels. (T. sagittatum Endl. ; T. torulosum 
Heller) On dry hills from Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 7000-9500 ft 
On Grizzly Creek ; Pearl North Park ; Canadian River. 

3. Thelypodium Bakeri Greene. On dry hills in Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. 
Cimarron. 

4. Thelypodium aureum Eastw. On dry hills in Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft 
Durango. 

5. Thelypodium Wrightii A. Gray. In the mountains of Colo., Utah, N. M. 
and Ariz. Durango; Glenwood Springs, Garfield Co. 

6. Thelypodium utahense Rydb. In river valleys of Colo, and Utah. 
Minturn, Eagle Co. 

7. Thelypodium integrifolium (Nutt.) Endl. (T. lilacinum Green.) On 
plains and in river-valleys from Mont, to Wash., Neb. and Calif. Alt. 4000- 
8000 ft. Miller's ranch; Ft. Collins; Poudre Canon; Villa Grove; meadows, 
Lake John, Middle Park; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Doyle's; Hayden, 
Routt Co. 

8. Thelypodium gracilipes (Robinson) Rydb. In valleys of Colo. Alt. 
about 7000 ft. Durango. 

9. Thelypodium linearifolium (A. Gray) S. Wats. In river valleys and on 
hillsides from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz.; also in Mex. Alt. 8000-9000 ft 
Sangre de Cristo Creek. 

10. Thelypodium micranthum S. Wats. Rocky hills from western Tex. and 
Colo, to Ariz, and Mex. Alt. about 7000 ft. Manitou. 

28. STANLEYA Nutt. 

Blades of the petals linear-oblong to elliptic ; flowers bright yellow. 
Blades of the petals one-third to one-half as long as the claws. 

Pod decidedly tortuose. i. S. bipinnata. 

Pod arcuate, not tortuose. 2. S. glauca. 

Blades of the petals about as long as the claws. 

Leaf-blades broadly lanceolate, the lower with short, broad lobes ; blades of the 

petals oblong ; pod ascending. 3- S. integrifolia. 

Leaf-blades linear-lanceolate, all often entire ; blades of the petals broadly 

elliptic ; pod recurved. 4. 5". arcuata. 

Blades of the petals rounded oval ; flowers ochroleucous. 5. S. albescens. 

1. Stanleya bipinnata Greene. In dry places of Wyo. and Colo. North 
Fork, Larimer Co. 

2. Stanleya glauca Rydb. In dry soil from N. D. to Wyo., Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Entrance of Soldier Canon to Sulphur Springs ; north of 
Ft. Collins ; Arkansas River ; Cedar Hills ; Ft. Collins ; Florence ; Dixon 
Canon; Spring Canon; near Badito, between La Veta and Gardner; Mancos ; 
McElmo Canon; Garden of the Gods; Pueblo; Pike's Peak. 

3. Stanleya integrifolia James. (S. pinnatifida integrifolia Robinson) In 
dry soil from S. D. to Wyo., Kans. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Hochkiss, 
Delta Co. ; Cimarron. 

4. Stanleya arcuata Rydb. In dry soil from Wyo. to Nev., Colo, and Calif. 
Grand Junction. 

5. Stanleya albescens Jones. On river banks in western Colo, and N. M. 
Along Gunnison River, above Delta; Grand Junction. 



168 CAPPARIDACEAE. 

Family 60. CAPPARIDACEAE Lindl. CAPER FAMILY. 

Pods elongated ; receptacle with an appendage or gland. 

Appendage tubular ; petals cuneate-flabelliform, laciniate, very unequal. 

i. CRISTATELLA. 

Appendage solid ; petals entire, emarginate or 3-toothed, but not laciniate. 
Stamens 12-24; capsule sessile or short stipitate. 2. POLANISIA. 

Stamens 6 ; capsule long-stipitate. 3. PERITOMA. 

Pods short, broader than long, more or less flattened contrary to the partition ; 
receptacle without appendage. 4. CLEOMELLA. 

i. CRISTATELLA Nutt. 

i. Cristatella Jamesii T. & G. In sandy soil from Neb. and Colo, to Tex. 
Sterling, Logan Co. 

2. POLANISIA Raf. 

i. Polanisia trachysperma T. &. G. In sandy soil from Ass. to Tex. and 
Nev. Alt. 4000-7000 ft.- Canon City; plains and foot-hills near Boulder; 
New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Ft. Collins ; Salida ; Howe's Gulch ; Mason's river- 
front farm; Rocky Ford; Soldier Canon; Poudre Canon. 

3. PERITOMA DC. 

Petals yellow. i. P. lutciiui. 

Petals purple, pink or white. 

Petals 8-12 mm. long, usually 3-toothed. 

Stamens exserted ; petals usually rose color or purplish. 2. P. serrulatinn. 

Stamens included ; petals white, 3. P. inornatum. 

Petals about 4 mm. long, entire. 4. P. Sonorac. 

1. Peritoma luteum (Hook.) Greene. (Clcome lutca Nutt.) In sandy soil 
from Wyo. and Wash, to Colo., Ariz, and Ore. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Grand 
Junction; Cimarron and Squaw Hill; Gunnison Valley, above Delta. 

2. Peritoma serrulatum (Pursh) DC. (Cleome scrrulata Pursh.) In val- 
leys, especially in light or sandy soil, from Sask. and Ida. to Mo. and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Boulder ; Colorado Springs ; Gunnison ; Sapinero ; Du- 
rango; Manitou; along Uncompahgre River, near Ouray; Crow Creek; along 
Platte River, Denver; Ft. Collins; Poudre flats, north of Ft. Collins; Trini- 
dad; near Badito, between La Veta and Gardner; Sangre de Cristo Creek; 
Redstone; Pueblo; Dixon Canon; Ft. Collins; Cache la Poudre; Walsen- 
burg; Manitou. 

3. Peritoma inornatum Greene. In dry soil in western Colo. Grand 
Junction. 

4. Peritoma Sonorae (A. Gray) Rydb. (Clcome Sonorae A. Gray.) In 
saline soil from Colo, to N. M. and Sonora. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Saguache ; 
San Luis ; Alamosa. 

4. CLEOMELLA DC. 

Capsule rhomboidal with more or less distinct conical or horn-like projections; 

stipe shorter than the pedicels ; style obsolete ; seeds rugulose. 

i. C. angustifolia. 
Capsule obscurely rhomboidal, merely gibbous on the back ; stipe equalling the 

pedicels ; style conspicuous ; seeds smooth and shining. 2. C. oocarpa. 



CAPPARIDACEAE. 169 

1. Cleomella angustifolia Torr. In valley, especially in sandy or alkaline 
soil, from Neb. and Utah to Tex. Headwaters of Clear Creek ; Julesburg. 

2. Cleomella oocarpa A. Gray. In alkaline plains and desert regions from 
Colo, to Calif. Mesa Verde, about Rio Mancos (Brandegec). 

Order 27. ROSALES. 

Flowers regular or nearly so (actinomorphic). 

Endosperm present usually copious and fleshy ; stipules mostly wanting. 
Herbs. 

Carpels as many as the sepals ; succulent plants. 

Fam. 61. CRASSULACEAE. 
Carpels fewer than the sepals ; plant scarcely succulent. 

Staminodia wanting ; carpels 2 or rarely 3, distinct or only partly united. 

Fam. 62. SAXIFRAGACEAE. 
Staminodia present ; carpels 3 or 4, wholly united into a i -celled gynoecium. 

Fam. 63. PARNASSIACEAE. 
Shrubs or trees. 

Leaves opposite ; fruit a leathery capsule, more or less adnate to the hypan- 

thium ; stipules wanting. Fam. 64. HYDRANGIACEAE. 

Leaves alternate. 

Fruit thin-walled follicles, free from the hypanthium ; stipules present 

(Opulaster in) Fam. 66. ROSACEAE. 

Fruit a berry ; hypanthium adnate to and prolonged beyond the ovary. 

Fam. 65. GROSSULARIACEAE. 
Endosperm wanting or scant ; stipules mostly present. 

Carpels several or numerous, or, if solitary, becoming an achene. 

Carpels distinct, free from the hypanthium ; fruit achenes, follicles or 

drupelets. Fam. 66. ROSACEAE. 

Carpels united, enclosed by and adnate to the hypanthium ; fruit a pome. 

Fam. 67. MALACEAE. 
Carpel solitary, not becoming an achene. 

Ovary 2-ovuled ; fruit a drupe ; leaves simple. Fam. 68. AMYGDALACEAE. 
Ovary several-ovuled ; fruit a legume ; leaves pinnately compound. 

Fam. 69. MIMOSACEAE. 
Flowers irregular (mostly zygomorphic). 

Upper petal enclosed by the lateral ones in the bud ; corolla not papilionaceous. 

Fam. 70. CASSIACEAE. 
Upper petal enclosing the lateral ones in bud ; corolla papilionaceous. 

Fam. 71. FABACEAE. 

Family 61. CRASSULACEAE DC. ORPINE FAMILY. 

Stamens as many as the sepals; minute herbs. i. TILLAEASTRUM. 

Stamens twice as many as the sepals ; succulent herbs. 

Flowers axillary in dense congested racemes ; petals rose-colored. 

2. CLEMENTSIA. 
Flowers terminal, arranged in one-sided raceme-like branches. 

Carpels erect ; flowers polygamous or dioecious ; petals in ours purplish. 

3. RHODIOLA. 
Carpels spreading ; flowers perfect ; petals in ours yellow. 4. SEDUM. 

i. TILLAEASTRUM Britton. PIGMY-WEED. 

i. Tillaeastrum aquaticum (L.) Britt. (Tillaea aquatica L. ; T. angusti- 
folia Nutt.) On muddy shores from N. S. and Wash, to Md., La. and Lower 
Calif. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Twin Lakes. 



170 CRASSULACEAE. 

2. CLEMENTSIA Rose. RED ORPINE. 

i. Clementsia rhodantha (A. Gray) Rose. (Sedum rhodanthum A. Gray) 
In meadows and along streams from Mont, to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 10,000- 
13,000 ft. Gray's Peak ; headwaters of Clear Creek ; Caribou ; Pike's Peak ; 
Gore Pass; Cameron Pass; Pagosa Peak; Villa Grove; Dark Canon; Mar- 
shall Pass ; near Georgetown ; Twin Lakes ; Chambers' Lake ; Berthoud Pass. 

3. RHODIOLA L. ROSE-ROOT, ROSE-WORT. 

Flowers dioecious ; carpels 3-5 mm. long, abruptly contracted into a short di- 
vergent or reflexed beak. i. R. ititegrifolia. 

Flowers polygamous ; carpels 6-8 mm. long, gradually tapering into a long 
ascending beak. 2. R. polygama. 

1. Rhodiola integrifolia Raf. (Sedum rhodiola Coult, in part; not DC.; 
Sedum frigiditm Rydb.) On high alpine peaks from Alb. and Alaska to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 9000-14,000 ft. Pike's Peak ; Mount Garfield ; Gray- 
back mining camps ; West Spanish Peak. 

2. Rhodiola polygama (Rydb.) Britt. & Rose. (Sedum polygamum Rydb.) 
On alpine peaks of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 9000-13,000 ft. Engineer Moun- 
tain; headwaters of Clear Creek; Carson; Basin Creek, La Plata Mountains; 
Mount Hesperus ; near Ironton ; Pike's Peak ; Chambers' Lake ; Mt. Lincoln ; 
West Spanish Peak; South Park; Leroux Park; Estes Park; Bethoud Pass. 

4. SEDUM L. STONE-CROP, ORPINE. 

i. Sedum stenopetalum Pursh. On dry rocky or gravelly hills from Alb. 
and B. C. to . N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-12,000 ft. Gray's Peak; Pike's 
Peak ; Clear Creek Canon ; Colorado Springs ; headwaters of Clear Creek ; 
Cameron Pass ; Larimer Co. ; Hamor's Lake ; Bald Mountain ; Mt. Garfield ; 
Grayback mining camp ; Silver Plume ; Morrison ; Telluride ; Minnehaha ; 
Cimarron ; Denver ; West Spanish Peak ; Ft. Collins ; Ironton ; Green Moun- 
tain Falls ; Howe's Gulch ; mountains southeast of Cameron Pass ; forks of 
Poudre and Big South ; gulch west of Pennock's ; Horsetooth Gulch ; near 
Narrows ; Dixon Canon ; Table Rock ; mountains between Sunshine and 
Ward. 

Family 62. SAXIFRAGACEAE Dumort. SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. 

Placentae parietal, sometimes nearly basal. 

Flowers solitary and axillary to leaf-like bracts, or 2-4 in small corymbs, each 
subtended by a leaf-like bract. i. CHRYSOSPLENIUM. 

Flowers in more or less elongated racemes or panicles. 

Flower-stalk axial from a slender bulbiferous rootstock ; gynoecium 3-car- 

pellary. 2. LITHOPHRAGMA. 

Flower stalks a lateral shoot from a stout scaly rootstock ; gynoecium 2-car- 

pellary. 
Inflorescence racemose. 

Petals pinnately cleft or pinnatifid. 3. PECTIANTIA. 

Petals entire, toothed or 3-cleft above. 4. OZOMELIS. 

Inflorescence paniculate ; petals broadened upward. 5. HEUCHERA. 
Placentae axial. 



SAXIFRAGACEAE. 171 

Hypanthium well developed and accrescent, at maturity longer than the sepals. 
Stamens 5 ; sepals imbricated ; petals marcescent. 6. SULLIVANTIA. 

Stamens 10; petals not marcescent. 

Petals clawed ; styles partially united ; plants with thick rootstocks. 

-. TELESONIX. 
Petals clawless ; styles distinct ; plants with slender rootstocks or with 

offsets. 
Plants without caudices, only producing annual flowering stems. 

8. SAXIFRAGA. 

Plants with perennial, very leafy caudices, often with offsets ; the flow- 
ering stems very different. 9. MUSCARIA. 
Hypanthium only slightly developed, unchanged at maturity, or if slightly 

accrescent flat and plants acaulescent. 
Plants acaulescent. 

Corolla essentially regular, the petals about equal in shape and length. 

10. MlCRANTHES. 

Corolla irregular, 3 petals with blades of an ovate or lanceolate type and 

2 narrower and longer. n. SPATULARIA. 

Plants caulescent. 12. LEPTASEA. 

i. CHRYSOSPLENIUM L. GOLDEN SAXIFRAGE. 

i. Chrysosplenium tetrandrum Fries. In wet places from Greenl. and 
Alaska to Alb. and B. C. ; also in Colo, and northern Europe. Upper Platte 
(Hall & Harbour). 

2. LITHOPHRAGMA Nutt. 

Hypanthium campanulate, with a rounded base, adnate only to the base of the 

ovary. 

Stem-leaves rarely bulbiferous in the axils ; stipules long and narrow ; free por- 
tion triangular or lanceolate, not fimbriate. I. L. australis. 
Stem-leaves usually bulbiferous in the axils ; stipules short and broad ; free por- 
tion round and fimbriate. 2. L. bulbifera. 
Hypanthium turbinate or obconic, adnate to the lower half of the ovary. 

3. L. parviflora. 

1. Lithophragma australis Rydb. In sandy mountain valleys and hillsides 
from Wyo. and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. Platte Cafion ; 
headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron. 

2. Lithophragma bulbifera Rydb. (Tellima tcnella S. Wats.) On hillsides 
from the Black Hills of S. D., Mont, and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. up 
to 11,000 ft. Tennessee Pass. 

3. Lithophragma parviflora (Hook.) Nutt. (Tellima parviftora Hook.) In 
rocky and gravelly places from Alb. to B. C., Colo, and Calif. Locality not 
given. 

3. PECTIANTHIA Raf. MITRE-WORT. 

i. Pectianthia pentandra (Hook) Rydb. (Mitella pentandra Hook.) In 
springy places in the woods and along streams, from Alb. and Alaska to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Beaver Creek; Marshall Pass; Red 
Mountain ; Slide Rock Canon ; Empire ; Estes Park ; Berthoud Pass ; Cam- 
eron Pass ; Ruby ; Damfino Creek ; headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine 
ridges east of Middle Park; Empire; Caribou; Golden. 



172 SAXIFRAGACEAE. 

4. OZOMELIS Raf. MITRE-WORT. 

Petals 3-fid to the middle ; hypanthium with the sepals 3-5 mm. long. 

i. O. stauropetala. 

Petals entire or 3-fid only at the apex ; hypanthium with the sepals 1.5-3 mm. long. 
Hypanthium with the sepals 2-3 mm. long ; leaf-blades indistinctly lobed and 

with shallow crenulations : petals often entire. 2. O. stenopetala. 

Hypanthium with the sepals 1.5-2 mm. long; leaf-blades distinctly lobed and 
deeply crenate ; petals 3-cleft. 3. O. Parryi. 

1. Ozomelis stauropetala (Piper) Rydb. (Mitella stauropetala Piper; M. 
trifida Coulter, in part.) In springy places in the woods from Mont, and 
Wash, to Colo, and Ore. Alt. about 10,000 ft. Mt. Hesperus. 

2. Ozomelis stenopetala (Piper) Rydb. (Mitella stenopetala Piper) In 
springy places in Utah and Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Mt. Hesperus ; Eldora 
to Baltimore. 

3. Ozomelis Parryi (Piper) Rydb. (Mitella stenopetala Parryi Piper) 
Mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. about 9500 ft. Trapper's Lake. 

5. HEUCHERA L. ALUM-ROOT. 

Stamens equalling or exceeding the sepals. 

Panicle open, not spike-like ; plant tall ; hypanthium very oblique. 

1. H. hispida. 
Panicle contracted, dense, spike-like ; plant low ; hypanthium not very oblique. 

2. H. bracteata. 
Stamens much shorter than the sepals. 

Hypanthium campanulate, yellowish or pinkish ; sepals almost erect. 

3. H. Hallil. 
Hypanthium saucer-shaped, greenish ; sepals spreading. 4. H. parvifolia. 

1. Heuchera hispida Pursh. In woods and on hillsides, Ont. to Ass., Va. 
and Colo. Edgerton. 

2. Heuchera bracteata (Torr.) Ser. On rocky ridges in Colo, and northern 
Wyo. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Rist Canon; Grand Lake; Georgetown; Andrew's 
Shetland ranch ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Gray's Peak ; North Cheyenne 
Canon ; Boulder Canon ; road between Denver and Idaho City ; Horsetooth 
Mountain; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Eldora to Baltimore; 
Berthoud Pass ; between Denver and Idaho City ; Golden ; Empire. 

3. Heuchera Hallii A. Gray. On rocky ridges in Colo. Alt. 7000-12,000 ft. 
Mt. Garfield ; Cameron's Cone ; Pike's Peak ; Rock Mountain Pass ; George- 
town ; Ruxton ; Pike's Peak ; Cheyenne Mountain ; Bald Mountain ; Grand 
Canon of the Arkansas ; Graymont. 

4. Heuchera parvifolia Nut. On hills from Alb. and Ore. to N. M. and 
Ariz. Alt. 6000-13,000 ft. Mt. Abram, Ouray ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; 
Cameron Pass ; Howe's Gulch ; Minnehaha ; Marshall Pass ; Colorado 
Springs ; Douglass Mountain, Georgetown ; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimar- 
ron ; Halfway House; Chicken Creek, West La Plata Mountains; 
Grizzly Creek; near La Veta; Ojo; Cumberland Basin; Upper La Plata 
Canon ; North Cheyenne Canon ; near Pagosa Peak ; Ironton ; Wahatoya 
Canon ; Veta Pass ; Mt. Princeton ; West Spanish Peak ; Ward, Boulder Co. ; 
Red Mountain; Manitou ; Lake City; Caribou; Dillon Canon, Trinidad; Estes 
Park; Empire; northeast of Boreas; Spring Canon; Dixon Canon; Horse- 



SAXIFRAGACEAE. 173 

tooth Gulch; Mancos ; Ute Pass; Golden; Sangre de Cristo; Hahn's Peak; 
Fish Creek Falls, Routt Co. 

6. SULLIVANTIA T. & G. 

i. Sullivantia Hapemanii (Coult. & Fish.) Coulter. (Boykinia Purpusi 

Brandegee.) In rocky places from Wis. and Wyo. to Colo. Black Canon 
of the Gunnison. 

7. TELESONIX Raf. 

i. Telesonix Jamesii (Torr.) Raf. (Saxifraga Jaincsii Torr.) On exposed 
mountain-tops in Colo. Alt. 8000-13,000 ft. Mt. Garfield ; Pike's Peak; Min- 
nehaha. 

8. SAXIFRAGA L. SAXIFRAGE. 

Flowers normal, none of them represented.by clusters of bulblets. i. S. debilis. 
Flowers below the terminal one replaced by clusters of bulblets. 

Lobes of the stem-leaves linear to triangular lanceolate ; petals cuneate. 

2. 5". cernua. 

Lobes of the stem-leaves broad and rounded, as broad as long or broader ; petals 
fiddle-shaped. 3. 5". simulata. 

1. Saxifraga debilis Engelm. Among wet rocks, on alpine peaks, from Mont, 
to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 9000-13,000 ft. Mt. Hesperus; Sierra Blanca; Mt. 
Abram, Ouray; Front Range, Larimer Co.; Redcliffe, Eagle Co.; West 
Spanish Peak; Gray's Peak; Cameron Pass; Bottomless Pit, near Pike's 
Peak; Ruby; Massif de 1'Arapahoe ; mountains above Beaver Creek. 

2. Saxifraga cernua L. Among wet rocks, on alpine peaks, from Greenl. 
and Alaska to Lab. and Colo; also in Europe. Alt. about 13,000 ft. Mt. 
Abram, Ouray. 

3. Saxifraga simulata Small. Among rocks, on the higher peaks, in 
the Black Hills of S. D. and Colo. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. West Spanish 
Peak. 

9. MUSCARIA Haw. 

Leaves of the caudex with entire or slightly 3-toothed blades. i. M. adsccndcns. 
Leaves of the caudex with 3-cleft or prominently 3-lobed blades. 

2. M. delicatula. 

1. Muscaria adscendens (L.) Small. (Saxifraga adscendens L.) Among 
rocks, on alpine peaks, from Alb. and B. C. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 10,000- 
13,000 ft. Gray's Peak; Deep Creek Lake; West Spanish Peak; Pike's Peak. 

2. Muscaria delicatula Small. On alpine peaks from Alb. to Colo, and 
Utah. Gray's Peak. 

10. MICRANTHES Haw. 

Filaments subulate or filiform-subulate, or rarely narrowly linear. 

Cymules wholly or mainly aggregated into a head, or one or two lower ones 
remote or peduncled ; leaves petioled ; blades rhombic ovate. 

i. M. rhoinboidea. 
Cymules in narrow pyramidal or corymb-like panicles ; leaves subsessile, oblan- 

ceolate-oblong. 

Panicle wide, peduncles of the lower cymules elongated. 2. M. arnoglossa. 
Panicle narrow ; peduncles permanently very short. 3. M. brachypus. 

Filaments clavate or spatulate ; petals spotted. 4. M. arguta. 



174 SAXIFRAGACEAE. 

1. Micranthes rhomboidea (Greene) Small. (Saxifraga rhomboidea 
Greene.) Among rocks in the mountains from Mont, and Ida. to Colo. 
Alt. 5000-12,000 ft. Gray's Peak; West Spanish Peak; near Ironton; Grand 
Mesa; Marshall Pass; Seven Lakes; Black Rock Creek; Pike's Peak; Ft. 
Collins ; Georgetown ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Tennessee Pass ; Bear Creek 
Divide, West La Plata Mountains; Iron Mountain; headwaters of Beaver 
Creek; gulch west of Dixon Canon; Massif de 1'Arapahoe; near Pagosa 
Peak ; Rist Canon ; mountains west of Cameron Pass ; Soldier Canon ; Boreas ; 
Beaver Creek ; Eldora to Baltimore ; Berthoud Pass ; Rabbit-Ear Range, 
Routt Co. 

2. Micranthes arnoglossa (Greene) Small. (Saxifraga arnoglossa Greene.) 
On hills and mountains from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 9000- 
12,000 ft. Mountains of Delta Co.; Marshall Pass; Silver Plume. 

3. Micranthes brachypus Small. In the mountains from Colo, to Nev. 
Alt. 11,000-12,000 ft. Half-Moon Creek; Berthoud Pass. 

4. Micranthes arguta (D. Don.) Small. (Sa.rifraga arguta D. Don.; 5". 
dcnudata Nutt. ; i\ punctata Hook., in part; not L.) In springy places and 
along streams from Mont, and B. C. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 8000-12,000 
ft. Mountains between Sunshine and Ward : Villa Grove ; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray; Dark Canon; Wyoming line in North Park; Georgetown; Middle 
Park ; Grayback mining camps ; near Pagosa Peak ; Pike's Peak ; Rabbit- 
Ear Range ; headwaters of Clear Creek ; Silver Plume ; Clear Lake ; Berthoud 
Pass ; Upper La Plata Canon ; Cameron Pass ; Ruby ; headwaters of Pass 
Creek; Massif de 1'Arapahoe; Beaver Creek; Leroux Park, Graymont; 
Gore Pass; Anita Peak. 

ii. SPATULARIA Haw. 

i. Spatularia Vreelandii Small. On the higher peaks of Mont, and Colo. 
Mt. Evans. 

12. LEPTASEA Haw. 

Leaf-blades not spine-tipped at the apex, more or less ciliate. 

Petals suborbicular or oval, 5.5-6.5 mm. long, abruptly narrowed into short 

claws. i. L. chrysantha. 

Petals elliptic to oblong, 9-13 mm. long, clawless. 2. L. Hirculus. 

Leaf-blades spine-tipped at the apex. 

Petals white, usually spotted, oblong or oblong-lanceolate or elliptic ; plant ces- 
pitose, not stoloniferous. 3. L. austroinontana. 

Petals yellow, broadly obovate ; plant with flagelliform stolons. 

4. L. flagellaris. 

1. Leptasea chrysantha (A. Gray) Small. (Saxifraga chrysantha A. Gray) 
On alpine peaks, among rocks, of Colo. Alt. 11,000-14,000 ft. Pike's Peak; 
Mt. Bartlett; Central City; Gray's Peak; mountains of Estes Park; Massif 
de 1'Arapahoe ; Berthoud Pass. 

2. Leptasea Hirculus (L.) Small. (Saxifraga Hirculus L.) On the higher 
mountains, in wet places, from Greenl. and Alaska to Colo, and B. C. ; also 
in Europe and Asia. Alt. 9000-11,000 ft. Beaver Park; Twin Lakes; 
Caribou. 



SAXIFRAGACEAE. 175 

3. Leptasea austromontana (Wieg.) Small. (Saxifrage, bronchioles Torr. ; 
not L. ; 5". austromontana Wieg.) On rocks and stony hills from Alb. and 
B. C. to N. M. and Wash. Alt. 6000-13,000 ft. Red Mountain; Ouray; 
Minnehaha; Mt. Garfield; Halfway House, Pike's Peak; Central City; West 
Spanish Peak ; Little Veta Mountain ; Black Canon ; Upper La Plata Canon ; 
Como; Silver Plume; near Colorado Springs; Pagosa Peak; El Paso Co.; 
Georgetown ; near Denver ; Andrew's Shetland ranch ; Caribou ; South 
Boulder Peak; Massif de 1'Arapahoe; Palmer Lake; headwaters of Clear 
Creek ; Lake City ; near Empire ; west of Cameron Pass ; Graymont ; Ragged 
Mountain, Gunnison Co. ; Estes Park ; Cameron Pass ; mountains above 
Ouray; Buffalo Pass; Pennock's mountain ranch; Devil's Causeway; Twin 
Lakes ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; Anita Peak. 

4. Leptasea flagellaris (Willd.) Small. (Saxifraga Aagellaris Willd.) On 
alpine peaks, among rocks, from Greenl. and Alaska to Colo, and Ariz.- 
Alt. 10,000-14,000 ft. Red Mountain; summit of Pike's Peak; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray; Cumberland Basin, La Plata Mountains; Mt. Harvard; Pike's Peak: 
West Spanish Peak; Gray's Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek; Massif de 
1'Arapahoe. 

FAMILY 63. PARNASSIACEAE Dumort. GRASS-OF-PARNASSUS 

FAMILY. 

i. PARNASSIA L. GRASS OF PARNASSUS. 

Petals fimbriate on the sides ; basal leaf-blades reniform. 

Petals obovate, s-nerved ; staminodial scales with 5-9 lobes ; sepals elliptic. 

1. P. fimbriata. 
Petals oblong, 3-nerved ; staminodial scales 3-s-lobed ; sepals narrowly lanceolate. 

2. P. riviilaris. 
Petals not fimbricate ; basal leaf-blades tapering at the base. 3. P. parviflora. 

1. Parnassia fimbriata Banks. On banks of streams and in springy places 
from Alb. and Alaska to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 9000-11,000 ft. Twin Lakes; 
North Park ; Ruby ; Ragged Mountain, Gunnison Co. ; near Pagosa Peak ; 
Cameron Pass ; Marshall Pass ; Caribou. 

2. Parnassia rivularis Osterhout. Along mountain brooks in Colo. North 
Park, near Wyoming line. 

3. Parnassia parviflora DC. In wet places from Que. and Alaska to Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. North Park; Gypsum Creek; canon, Eagle 
Co.; Pagosa Springs; Wahatoya Creek; Marshall Pass; Tola; Parlin; La 
Veta; Lake John, North Park; Buena Vista; Big Muddy, Gunnison Co. 

Family 64. HYDRANGEACEAE Dumort. HYDRANGEA FAMILY. 

Stamens 15 or more; ovary inferior. i. PHILADELPHUS. 

Stamens 8-10; ovary mostly superior. 

Hypanthium adnate to the base of the i-celled ovary or incompletely 3-7-celled 

capsule ; petals 5. 2. EDWINIA. 

Hypanthium adnate for half its length to the 4-celled ovary and capsule ; petals 4. 

3. FENDLERA. 



176 PARNASSIACEAE. 

i. PHILADELPHUS L. SYRINGA, MOCK ORANGEG. 

Hypanthium 4-5 mm. long ; sepals acuminate ; leaves much paler beneath ; styles 
united. i. P. microphyllns. 

Hypanthium about 2 mm. long or in fruit 3-4 mm. long ; sepals acute. 
Styles wholly or nearly wholly united ; stigmas usually oblong. 

2. P. occidentalis. 
Styles with the upper half distinct ; stigmas decidedly clavate. 

3. P. minutus. 

1. Philadelphia microphyllus A. Gray. Mountains of N. M. and Colo. 
Brantly Canon; Canon City (Brandcgce), "Colorado." 

2. Philadelphus occidentalis A. Nels. Mountains from Wyo. to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Canon City; Glenwood Springs (A. Nelson). 

3. Philadelphus minutus Rydb. Canons of Colo. Alt. 7000 ft. Black 
Canon of the Gunnison. 

2. EDWINIA Heller. 

i. Edwinia americana (T. & G.) Heller. (Jamcsia americana T. & G.) 
On cliffs, mountain sides and in canons, from Wyo. and Utah to N. M. 
Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Rist Canon ; Minnehaha ; Pike's Peak ; Rock Mountain 
Pass ; Ward ; West Spanish Peak ; Central City ; Engelmann's Canon ; North 
Cheyenne Canon ; Green Mountain Falls ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; George- 
town ; Canon City ; headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine ridges east of Mid- 
dle Park ; Manitou ; Graymont ; Narrows, Moon's ranch ; Horsetooth Gulch ; 
Soldier Canon ; Howe's Gulch ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; mountains be- 
tween Sunshine and Ward; Eldora to Baltimore. 



3. FENDLERA Engelm. & Gray. 

i. Fendlera rupicola Engelm. & Gray. On hills from Colo, to N. M. and 
Ariz.; also in Mex. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Durango; Mancos; Cerro Summit; 
Los Pinos ; Hotchkiss, Delta Co. ; Dolores. 



Family 65. GROSSULARIACEAE. GOOSEBERRY FAMILY. 

i. RIBES L. GOOSE-BERRY, CURRANT. 

Leaves plicate in vernation. 

Stems usually with subaxillary spines. 

Racemes i-4-flowered ; hypanthium campanulate to tubular. 

Calyx and tube of hypanthium externally glabrous or the former with a few 

scattered hairs. 
Peduncles and bracts more or less glandular or pubescent ; leaves finely 

puberulent. i. R. Purptisi. 

Peduncles and bracts glabrous or the latter ciliate ; leaf-blades cordate 

at the base, in age glabrose and shining. 2. R. vallicola. 

Calyx and hypanthium pubescent. 3. R. leptanthnni. 

Racemes several-flowered ; hypanthium saucer-shaped. 

Leaves densely pubescent ; fruit red. 4. R. lentum. 

Leaves glabrate ; fruit black. 5. R. parvulum. 

Stem unarmed ; raceme many-flowered. 



GROSSULARIACEAE. 177 

Hypanthium campanulate. 
Berry glandular-bristly. 

Leaves glabrous ; fruit spherical. 

Tube of the hypanthium saucer-shaped ; bracts minute, lanceolate to 

linear ; fruit without a bloom. 6. R. coloradense. 

Tube of the hypanthium campanulate ; fruit black with a bloom ; bracts 

conspicuous oblong, spatulate or obovate. 7. R. Wolfii. 

Leaves pubescent and often very glandular ; fruit ovoid ; tube of hypan- 
thium deeply campanulate. 8. R. viscosissimum. 
Berry glabrous ; tube of the hypanthium deeply campanulate ; fruit black ; 

bracts persistent. 9- R- fioridum. 

Hypanthium tubular. 

Petioles and veins of the leaves with stalked glands. 

10. R. pumilum. 

Petioles and veins with sessile glands or glandless. n. R. inebrians. 
Leaves convolute in bud, stem unarmed ; hypanthium tubular. 

12. R. longifolium. 

1. Ribes Purpusi Koehne. In the mountains from Wyo. to N. M. Alt. 
5000-10,000 ft. Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; Ojo; foot-hills west of Ft. 
Collins; Sierra Blanca; near Steamboat Springs; West Indian Creek; Villa 
Grove ; Grand Lake ; Dillon ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; 
Soldier Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; Rist Canon; Dixon Canon; Cheyenne 
Canon. 

2. Ribes valicola Greene. (R. sax o sum Coville; not Hook; R. oxycan- 
thoides of Coulter's Man.) In the mountains from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Upper Canon of the West Mancos ; Los Pinos ; 
Cerro Summit ; Steamboat Springs. 

3. Ribes leptanthum A. Gray. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo, and 
Ariz. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; Ute Pass ; 
foot-hills. Sierra Blanca; Buena Vista; North Cheyenne Canon; Crystal 
Lake ; Manitou ; South Cheyenne Canon ; Canon City ; Poncha Pass ; Garden 
of the Gods ; Mancos. 

4. Ribes lentum (Jones) Coville & Rose. (R. lacustre molle A. Gray.) In 
the mountains from Wyo. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Mount 
Ouray; Windy Point; Lake City; Veta; Georgetown; Cameron Pass; 
Canon of the Cache la Poudre ; near La Plata Post Office ; Bob Creek ; 
Pagosa Peak ; West Indian Creek ; Wahatoya Canon ; near Empire ; Seven 
Lakes; four miles west of Cameron Pass; Telluride; Grand Mesa; Cotton- 
wood Lake; Jack Brook; mountains near Seven Lakes; Pike's Peak; Hahn's 
Peak ; Red Mountain, south of Ouray ; headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine 
ridges east of Middle Park ; Empire ; near Buffalo Pass, Park Range ; 
Eldora to Baltimore; Berthoud Pass; Graymont. 

5. Ribes parvulum (A. Gray) Rydb. (R. lacustre parvulum A. Gray.) In 
the mountains from Alb. and Yukon to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 7000-12,000 ft. 
Black Caiion ; Ouray ; Red Mountain, south of Ouray ; Berthoud Pass ; 
Silverton ; Big Creek; Anita Peak; Pinkham Creek. 

6. Ribes coloradense Coville. In the mountains from Colo, to N. M. 
Alt. 9000-11,000 ft. Silverton; Marshall Pass; Slide Rock Caiion; near 
Pagosa Peak; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Silver Plume; Telluride; Twin 
Lakes; Berthoud Pass; Cameron Pass; Rabbit-Ear Range, Routt Co. 

12 



178 GROSSULARIACEAE. 

7. Ribes Wolfii Rothrock. (R. mogollonicum Greene) In woods from 
Colo, and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7500-12,000 ft. Van Boxle's ranch, 
above Cimarron; Redcliffe, Eagle Co.; canons near Ouray; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray; Box Canon; Bear Creek Divide; Wahatoya Canon; Hinsdale Co.; 
Buffalo Pass, Park Range ; Leroux. 

8. Ribes viscosissimum Pursh. On wooded hillsides from Mont, and Wash. 
to Colo, and Calif. Steamboat Springs, Routt Co. 

9. Ribes floridum L'Her. In wet woods from N. S. and Mont, to Va. and 
Colo. Notch Mountain. 

10. Ribes pumilum Nutt. (R. cere um Coulter, in part.) On dry hills from 
Mont, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-10,0000 ft. Foot-hills west of Ft. Col- 
lins; Larimer Co.; Ute Pass, Walsenburg; Colorado Springs; Turkey Creek 
and tributaries; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; near Boulder; Horsetooth 
Gulch; La Porte; Rist Canon; Howe's Gulch; Soldier Canon; Stove Prairie; 
Trinidad ; Ute Pass ; Beaver Creek. 

11. Ribes inebrians Lindl. (R. cereum Coulter, in part.) On hills from 
Mont, to N. M. and Utah. Alt. 5000-11,000 ft. Ouray; Buena Vista; Cerro 
Summit; hills about Box Canon, west of Ouray; Bob Creek, West La Plata 
Mountains; West Mancos Canon; mesas near Colorado Springs; Minturn; 
Lake City; Pike's Peak trail. 

12. Ribes longifolium Nutt. (R. aureum T. & G., mainly; not Pursh.) On 
the plains and in the foot-hills from S. D. and Wyo. to Kans. and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Ft. Collins; near Denver; Steamboat Springs; West 
Soldier Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; Manitou; Boulder; Villa Grove; Rocky 
Mountains. 

Family 66. ROSACEAE Juss. ROSE FAMILY. 

Hypanthium neither fleshy nor prickly nor strongly constricted at the throat, if at 

all inclosing the fruit merely loosely investing it. 

Carpels few, becoming 2-4-seeded follicles, more or less united at the base and 
opening along both sutures ; shrubs with palmately veined leaves. 

1. OPULASTER. 
Carpels usually many, rarely few, becoming i -seeded (rarely 2-seeded) achenes 

or drupelets. 
Carpels becoming more or less fleshy drupelets. 

Styles club-shaped ; stigmas 2-lobed ; receptacle flat ; unarmed shrubs with 

shreddy bark and digitately veined, maple-like leaves. 
Drupelets capped by hard hairy cushions ; style glabrous ; erect shrubs. 

2. RUBACER. 
Drupelets without cushions ; styles hairy ; prostrate or reclining shrubs. 

3. OREOBATUS. 
Styles filiform, glabrous ; stigmas capitate : receptacle hemispherical, conical 

or nipple-shaped ; drupelets without cushions ; leaves in our species pin- 
nate and stem prickly. 4. RUBUS. 
Carpels dry achenes. 

Style articulated to the ovary and deciduous. 

Style terminal or nearly so ; ovules pendulous and anatropous. 

Stamens inserted very near the base of the receptacle on a more or less 

evident annular thickening. 5. POTENTILLA. 

Stamens separated from the receptacle by a wide open space : no indica- 
tion of an annular thickening. 6. HORKELIA. 
Style lateral or basal ; ovules not pendulous. 



ROSACEAE. 179 

Style lateral ; ovules ascending and amphitropous. 
Achenes glabrous ; herbs. 

Achenes numerous ; stamens about 20. 

Receptacle neither enlarged in fruit nor becoming pulpy ; leaves 

interruptedly pinnate; petals yellow. 7. ARGENTINA. 

Receptacle much enlarged in fruit and becoming red and pulpy ; 

leaves trifoliate ; petals white or pinkish. 8. FRAGARIA. 
Achenes 10-15; stamens 5; leaves trifoliate; petals yellowish. 

g. SIBBALDIA. 

Achenes hairy; shrubs with pinnate leaves. 10. DASIPHORA. 

Styles nearly basal ; ovules ascending or erect, orthotropous. 

Stamens 5; pistils 5-10; bractlets wanting; leaves twice ternate. 

11. CHAMAERHODOS. 
Stamens and pistils numerous ; bractlets present ; leaves pinnate. 

12. DRYMOCALLIS. 
Style not articulated to the ovary, persistent, at least the lower portion. 

Style geniculated above, the upper hairy portion deciduous ; herbs. 

13. GEUM. 
Style not geniculated above, wholly persistent. 

Petals normally 5 or none. 

Herbs with woody rootstocks and pinnate leaves ; bractlets present ; 

carpels numerous. 14- SIEVERSIA. 

Shrubs or trees. 

Bractlets present ; carpels numerous with plumose styles. 

15. FALLUGIA. 
Bractlets wanting ; carpels solitary or few. 

Hypanthium saucer-shaped or hemispherical ; carpels 5 ; flowers 

panicled. 16. HOLODISCUS. 

Hypanthium funnel-form or tubular ; carpels solitary ; flowers 

solitary. 
Petals 5 ; style not elongated in fruit ; calyx persistent ; leaves 

3-cleft. 17- KUNZIA. 

Petals wanting ; style elongated and plumose in fruit ; calyx 
deciduous from the hypanthium ; leaves toothed. 

18. CERCOCARPUS. 
Petals 8-9 ; dwarf matted undershrubs with solitary flowers and simple, 

in ours crenate leaves. 19. DRYAS. 

Hypanthium constricted at the throat, wholly enclosing the achenes. 

Hypanthium dry, turbinate ; upper portions armed with hooked prickles ; herbs ; 

carpels few; flowers racemose. 20. AGRIMONIA. 

Hypanthium in fruit becoming fleshy ; carpels numerous ; shrubs with large 
flowers solitary or in small corymbs. 21. ROSA. 

i. OPULASTER Medic. NINE-BARK. 

Carpels 3-5, united only at the base. i. O. intermediiis. 

Carpels 2, united at least half their length. 

Bracts obovate or spatulate, often foliaceous and more persistent. 

2. O. Ramaleyi. 
Bracts linear or linear-oblanceolate, membranous and caducous. 

Pedicels and hypanthium almost glabrous. 3. 0. glabratus. 

Pedicels, hypanthium. and sepals decidedly stellate. 4. O. monogymts. 

1. Opulaster intermedius Rydb. (Physocarpus opiilifolius Coulter, in part.) 
On river banks and hillsides from 111. and S. D. to Mo. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-7000 ft. Pike's Peak; North Cheyenne Canon; Colorado Springs; 
Lower Boulder Canon. 

2. Opulaster Ramaleyi Aven Nelson. (O. bracteatus Rydb.) In the foot- 
hills of Colo. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. New Windsor; Buckthorn Creek, Larimer 
Co.; Cheyenne Canon; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins. 



180 ROSACEAE. 

3. Opulaster glabratus Rydb. Along streams in the mountains of Colo. 
Alt. 5000-11,000 ft. West Spanish Peak; Turkey Creek and tributaries; Rist 
Canon; North Poudre; Boulder. 

3. Opulaster monogynus (Torr.) Kuntze. (Physocarpus Torreyi Max.) 
On the mountain tops from S. D. and Wyo. to N. M. and Nev. Alt. 6000- 
9000 ft. Denver; Cheyenne Canon; Colorado Springs; Flouissant; Upper 
Bear Creek ; Pike's Peak ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Glen Eyrie ; Livermore, 
Larimer Co. ; Idaho Springs ; Cascade Canon ; Engelmann Canon ; near 
Georgetown ; Minnehaha ; Black Canon ; headwaters of Pass Creek ; Stove 
Prairie Hill ; North Poudre ; Table Rock ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; Howe's 
Gulch ; Rist Canon ; Baxter's ranch. 

2. RUBACER Rydb. FLOWERING RASPBERRY, SALMON-BERRY. 

i. Rubacer parviflorus (Nutt.) Rydb. (Rubus Nutkanus MOQ.) On 
wooded hillsides from Ont. and Alaska to N. M. and Calif. ; also in Mex. 
Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Four-Mile Hill; La Plata Canon; Steamboat Springs; 
Redcliffe ; Eagle Cliff; Box Canon, west of Ouray; Ouray; near Pagosa 
Peak; Fish Creek; Rico; Rabbit-Ear Range, Routt Co. 

3. OREOBATUS Rydb. 

i. Oreobatus deliciosus (James) Rydb. (Rubus deliciosus James) On 
the mountains of Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Pike's Peak ; Manitou ; head- 
waters of Clear Creek ; Apex ; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins ; Colorado 
Springs ; Cheyenne Canon ; near Manitou ; Cheyenne Mountain ; Turkey 
Creek and tributaries ; Georgetown ; Bear Canon ; Ute Pass ; Rist Canon ; 
Howe's Gulch; Palmer Lake; Spring Canon; Dixon Canon; Stove Prairie 
Hill; Horsetooth Gulch; gulch south of Boulder; Engelmann Canon. 

4. RUBUS L. RASPBERRY, BLACKBERRY, BRAMBLE. 

Stems, pedicels and petioles glandular bristly, not prickly ; fruit red. 

1. R. strigostis. 
Stems, pedicels and petioles more or less prickly, not bristly ; fruit black. 

2. R. occideiitalis. 

1. Rubus strigosus Michx. On hills and in rocky woods from Lab. and 
Mackenzie to N. J. and Neb. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Minnehaha; Box Canon, 
west of Ouray; Ouray; Manitou; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; 
Cheyenne Canon ; Chambers' Lake ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Upper West 
Mancos Canon ; Campton's ranch ; Cache la Poudre ; Fish Creek Falls, 
Routt Co. 

2. Rubus occidentalis L. In open woods and among bushes from Que. and 
Minn, to Ga. and Colo. Locality not given, perhaps doubtful. 

5. POTENTILLA L. FIVE-FINGER, CINQUEFOIL. 

Flowers many in very leafy cymes ; annuals or biennials or short-lived perennials ; 

style fusiform. I. SUPINAE. 

Flowers cymose, but cymes not very leafy, generally rather few-flowered ; peren- 
nials with a strongly developed rootstock. 



ROSACEAE. 



181 



II. 
III. 
IV. 



CONCINNAE. 
AUREAE. 

GRACILES. 



V. SUBJUGAE. 
VI. NlVEAE. 



Leaves mainly digitate, rarely pinnate with approximate leaflets or with a pair 

of small leaflets on the petioles. 
Leaves or at least the basal ones 5-g-foliolate. 

Additional smaller leaflets on the petioles not present. 
Plants less than 2 dm. high. 

Leaves tomentose at least beneath. 
Leaves not tomentose. 
Plants more than 2 dm. high. 

Additional smaller leaflets on the petioles present. 
Leaves 3-foliolate, tomentose beneath. 
Leaves manifestly pinnate. 

Style not longer than the mature achenes, thickened or glandular below ; leaves 
more or less tomentose, but not necessarily white beneath. 

VII. MULTIFIDAE. 

Style much longer than the mature achenes, filiform. 
Leaflets approximate, 3-7. 

Leaves tomentose beneath. VIII. 

Leaves not at all tomentose. III. 

Leaflets rather distant 7-21. 

Leaves green on both sides and only slightly hairy. 

IX. 
Leaves grayish or whitish, silky or tomentose. 

I. SUPINAE. 



RUBRICAULES. 

AUREAE. 



MULTIJUGAE. 
LEUCOPHYLLAE. 



Achenes with a corky gibbosity on the upper suture ; leaves pinnate with 3-5 
pairs of leaflets. i. P. paradoxa. 

Achenes not gibbous. 

Leaves pinnate, with 2 approximate pairs of leaflets ; the upper ternate. 

2. P. rivalis. 
Leaves all ternate (or the lower rarely digitately s-foliate). 

Petals shorter than the sepals ; achenes whitish. 

Stem diffusely branched, spreading ; leaflets cuneate ; inflorescence cymose. 

3. P. leticocarpa. 
Stem erect, strict ; leaflets broadly obovate ; inflorescence falsely racemose. 

4. P. laterifiora. 
Petals about equalling the sepals ; stem stout, strict ; achenes brownish. 

5. P. monspeliensis. 

II. CONCINNAE. 

Middle leaflet sessile. 

Leaflets obovate or cuneate, deeply toothed or incised. 6. P. concinna. 

Leaflets oblong, with entire margins, only 3-toothed (rarely s-toothed) at the 

very apex. 7. P. bicrenata. 

Middle leaflet petioled. 8. P. quinquefolia. 



Only one species. 



III. AUREAE. 



IV, GRACILES. 



9. P. dissecta. 



Leaves green on both sides, not at all tomentose beneath. 

Leaflets cuneate at the base, usually toothed only above the middle ; plants low, 

usually less than 3 dm. high. 9. P. dissecta. 

Leaflets oblanceolate, toothed to near the base ; plants 3-6 dm. high. 

Stem glabrous or appressed-pubescent ; leaflets coarsely toothed or cleft half- 
way to the mid-rib or less. 
Slender; leaves thin, not strongly ribbed; inflorescence open; bracts small. 

10. P. jucunda. 

Stout ; leaves thick and strongly ribbed ; inflorescence dense ; bracts con- 
spicuous, ii. P. Nuttallii. 



182 ROSACEAE. 

Stem with spreading hairs ; leaflets cleft to near the mid-rib. 

12. P. brunnescens. 
Leaves more or less tomentose beneath. 

Leaves sparingly tomentose and grayish beneath ; leaflets dissected about three- 
fourths to the mid-rib. 13. P. Bakeri. 
Leaves densely white-tomentose beneath ; leaflets merely crenate or toothed. 
Lower stem-leaves s-foliolate ; plant 3 dm. or more high. 

Hypanthium and calyx not tomentose, as well as the pedicels more or less 
viscid ; pubescence of stem and petioles usually loose. 

14. P. filipes. 
Hypanthium and calyx more or less tomentose, not viscid ; pubescence of 

the stem and petioles usually appressed. 15. P. pulcherrima. 

Stem-leaves all ternate ; plant 1-2 (seldom 3) dm. high. 

8. P. quinquefolia. 

V. SUBJUGAE. 
One species. 16. P. subjiiga. 

VI. NIVEAE. 

Stem 1-2 dm. high, more or less leafy, several-flowered. 17. P. nivea. 

Stem less than i dm. high, subscapose, usually 1-2 flowered. 18. P. uniflora. 

VII. MULTIFIDAE. 
Pubescence not silvery white. 

Plant dark green ; branches of inflorescence rather long, erect. 

19. P. atrovirens. 
Plant usually yellowish green ; branches of inflorescence short and ascending. 

20. P. pennsylvanica. 
Pubescence silvery white, at least beneath. 

Leaves white-silky on both sides ; lobes of the leaflets linear. 

21. P. bipinnatifida. 
Leaves greenish above ; lobes of the leaflets oblong or lanceolate. 

22. P. platyloba. 

VIII. RUBRICAULES. 

Sepals lanceolate to linear, acuminate. 

Leaves densely silky or tomentose on both sides. 23. P. filicaulis. 

Leaves greenish above. 

Segments of the leaflets oblong to orbicular in outline. 

Stems decumbent or prostrate ; segments of the leaves oblong. 

24. P. rtibripes. 
Stems ascending ; segments of the leaves orbicular or nearly so. 

25. P. minutifolia. 
Segments of the leaflets linear ; stems erect. 26. P. tenerrima. 

Sepals broadly ovate or ovate-triangular, obtusish or abruptly mucronate. 
Plant densely cespitose ; leaves silky and finely tomentose beneath. 

27. P. saximontana. 
Plants with a few spreading branches ; leaves floccose beneath. 

6. P. concinna. 

IX. MULTIJUGAE. 

Leaflets dissected to near the mid-rib. 

Stem erect, with 1-3 small leaves. 28. P. pinnatisecta. 

Stem decumbent or ascending, leafy. 29. P. plattensis. 

Leaflets merely coarsely toothed ; stem erect. 30. R. rupincola. 

X. LEUCOPHYLLAE. 

Leaves white-tomentose, floccose or silky, at least beneath. 

Bractlets nearly equalling the acute sepals ; leaves silky as well as tomentulose ; 
hence shining. 



ROSACEAE. 183 

Leaves nearly equally white on both sides ; upper leaflets not decurrent. 

31. P. Hippiana. 
Leaves greener above ; upper 3 leaflets more or less decurrent on the rachis. 

32. P. propinqua. 
Bractlets much shorter than the acuminate sepals ; leaves merely floccose ; hence 

dull. 

Leaves thick, densely floccose; pistils numerous. 33. P. effusa. 

Leaves thin ; tomentum sparse and more or less deciduous ; pistils few. 

34. P. coloradensis. 
Leaves grayish silky. 

Stem stout, erect, 6-7 dm. high ; leaflets obovate or oblong, coarsely serrate, the 

upper decurrent on the rachis. 35- P- ambigens. 

Stem 1-4 dm. high ; leaflets cuneate, toothed at the apex only, conduplicate, 
none decurrent. 36. P. crinita. 

1. Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. (P. supina Am. auth. ; not L.) In wet places 
from Ont. and Wash, to N. M. ; also Mex. and western Asia. Steamboat 
Lake. 

2. Potentilla rivalis Xutt. In wet places from Sask. and Ore. to Mex. 
Alt. up to 8000 ft. Lee's Lake; along the Conejos River, north of Antonito; 
Ft. Collins; Quimby; along the Platte River, Denver; Georgetown; New 
Windsor. 

3. Potentilla leucocarpa Rydb. (P. milligrana Engelm. ; not Dougl.) In 
wet meadows from 111. and Wash, to N. M. and Calif. Poudre Canon; Mid- 
dle Park; Steamboat Springs. 

4. Potentilla lateriflora Rydb. (P. bicnnis Rydb., in part; not Greene) In 
loose soil from Ass. and B. C. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. about 8000 ft. 
Gunnison. 

5. Potentilla monspeliensis L. (P. norvegica hirsuta T. & G.) In fields 
and waste places from Lab. and Alaska to D. C. and Mex. Alt. up to 8000 
ft. Along Conejos River, north of Antonito; Rist Canon; Soldier Canon; 
Gypsum ; La Porte ; Ft. Collins ; Rocky Ford ; near Boulder ; Gunnison ; Iron- 
ton Park; Ruxton Park; New Windsor; Pagosa Springs; Green Mountain, 
Falls ; Pike's Peak ; Placer Gulch ; Beaver Creek. 

6. Potentilla concinna Richardson. (P. humifusa Nutt.) Dry hills and 
mountains from Sask. and Alb. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. 
Devil's Causeway; North Park; Empire; Lake City; Georgetown; Cameron 
Pass ; Mt. Abram ; Cumberland Mine, La Plata Mountains ; Little Kate 
Mine ; West Spanish Peak ; Little Veta Mountain ; headwaters of Sangre de 
Cristo Creek; Spicer, Larimer Co. 

7. Potentilla bicrenata Rydb. Dry mountains of N. M. and Colo. 
" Colorado." 

8. Potentilla quinquefolia Rydb. (P. nivca subquinata Lange; P. nivea 
pentaphylla Lehm.) On dry mountains from Greenl. and B. C. to Colo. 
Alt. 10,000-14,000 ft. Cumberland Mine, La Plata Mountains ; West Spanish 
Peak; Mt. Hesperus; Hahn's Peak. 

9. Potentilla dissecta Pursh. (P. diversifolia Lehm.) On hills and moun- 
tain sides from Sask. and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. up to 13,000 ft. 
Lake City; headwaters of Clear Creek; Cameron Pass; Lake City; Caribou; 
Willis Gulch ; Pagosa Springs ; Carson ; Alpine Tunnel ; Buffalo Pass Park ; 
Mt. Princeton; Little Kate Mine; Ouray; Estes Park; Spicer. 



184 ROSACEAE. 

Potentilla dissecta glaucophylla (Lehm.) S. Wats. A taller and more glab- 
rous variety. Boreas ; Beaver Creek Canon ; above Beaver Creek ; Beaver 
Creek; camp on Little Beaver; Graymont; Cameron Pass; Lake City; Cari- 
bou ; Red Mountain ; Alpine Tunnel ; Silver Plume ; Camp Creek. 

10. Potentilla juncunda A. Nels. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Chambers' Lake ; Beaver Creek ; Cameron Pass ; Little 
Kate Mine. 

11. Potentilla Nuttallii Lehm. (P. gracilis rigida S. Wats.) In mountain 
valleys from Sask. and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Sheephorn Divide, Middle 
Park ; Grizzly Creek ; northwest of North Park. 

12. Potentilla brunnescens Rydb. In dry mountain meadows from Mont, 
to Colo. Alt. about 8000 ft. Columbine; Grizzly Creek; Steamboat Springs; 
Walden. 

13. Potentilla Bakeri Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000-9000 
ft. Grizzly Creek; southwest North Park; Doyle's; Gunnison watershed. 

14. Potentilla filipes Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 
ft. Forks of Poudre and Big South; above Ouray; along Bear River; Como; 
Chambers' Lake; Dolores. 

15. Potentilla pulcherrima Lehm. In mountain meadows from Sask. and 
Alb. to N. M. and Nev. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Lake City ; mountains above 
Denver; Larimer Co.; near Empire; Como; Silverton; Beaver Creek; along 
the Conejos River, north of Antonito; Rico; Stove Prairie Hill, Larimer 
Co. ; Campion's ranch ; Dolores ; headwaters of Clear Creek. 

1 6. Potentilla subjuga Rydb. Mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. 
Near Empire. 

17. Potentilla nivea L. In alpine-arctic situations from Lab. and Alaska 
to Colo.; also in Europe and Asia. Alt 10,000-13,000 ft. Devil's Causeway; 
Empire; Ouray; West Spanish Peak; Cumberland Mine, La Plata Mountain; 
mountains of Estes Park. 

18. Potentilla unifiora Ledeb. In alpine-arctic situations from Greenl. and 
Alaska to Colo, and Ore. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. High mountains about Em- 
pire; Hinsdale Co.; Cameron Pass; Estes Park; Boreas. 

19. Potentilla atrovirens Rydb. On plains and hills from Minn, and Wyo. 
to Colo. Williams' Canon, Pike's Peak. 

20. Potentilla pennsylvanica strigosa Pursh. On plains from Hudson Bay 
and Alb. to Kans. and N. M. (the true P. Pensylvanica L. is not found in 
Colo.). Alt. up to 8000 ft. Antonito; West Mancos Canon; Central City; 
Empire. 

Potentilla pennsylvanica arachnoidea Lehm. On high plains from Mont, 
and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Lake City; Sangre de 
Cristo Creek; Chicken Creek; Ouray; near Boulder; mountains of Estes 
Park. 

21. Potentilla bipinnatifida Dougl. On plains from Sask. and Alb. to Neb. 
and Colo. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Larimer Co. ; Como ; Antonito ; Higho ; Ute 
Pass ; Indian Creek Pass ; Gunnison. 

22. Potentilla platyloba Rydb. (P. bipinnatifida platyloba Rydb.) On 
plains from Hudson Bay and Alb. to Neb. and Colo. Mountain View ; Gun- 
nison ; Pitkin ; Empire. 



ROSACEAE. 185 

23. Potentilla filicaulis (Nutt.) Rydb. (P. cffusa filicanlis Nutt.) In the 
mountains from Colo, to Ida. Beaver Creek. 

24. Potentilla rubripes Rydb. (P. riibricanlis Rydb., mainly; not Lehm.) 
In the higher mountains from Alb. to Colo. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Estes 
Park; Mt. Abram, Ouray; Pike's Peak; Little Kate Mine, La Plata Moun- 
tains; Cameron Pass; Berthoud Pass; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

25. Potentilla minutifolia Rydb. On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt. 9000- 
13,000 ft. Graymont ; Georgetown ; Saddle, Pike's Peak ; mountains of Estes 
Park; Cumberland Mine; Eldora to Baltimore. 

26. Potentilla tenerrima Rydb. On the higher mountains of Colo. Alt. 
10,000-13,000 ft. Pike's Peak; West Spanish Peak. 

27. Potentilla saximontana Rydb. On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt. 
10,000-13,000 ft.- Pike's Peak; West Spanish Peak. 

28. Potentilla pinnatisecta (S. Wats.) Rydb. In the mountains from Alb. 
to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Little Kate Mine, La Plata Moun- 
tains ; mountains of Estes Park. 

29. Potentilla plattensis Nutt. In mountain meadows from Sask. to Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Platte River, South Park; Tobe Miller's 
ranch; Walden; Gunnison; Ojo; Placer Gulch; headwaters of Sangre de 
Cristo Creek; Buena Vista. 

30. Potentilla rupincola Osterh. Mountains in Colo. Dale Creek, Larimer 
Co. 

31. Potentilla Hippiana Lehm. On plains and in meadows from Minn., 
Sask. and Alb. to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Near Empire ; Trap- 
per's Lake ; Estes Park ; Willow Creek ; Georgetown ; Gunnison ; Colorado 
Springs ; South Park ; Chambers' Lake ; Upper Laramie River ; Forrester's 
ranch, Larimer Co. ; North Park ; Indian Creek Pass. 

32. Potentilla propinqua Rydb. (P. Hippiana diffusa Lehm.) In meadows 
from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Rico; Como; near Nar- 
rows ; Durango ; Chambers' Lake ; near Pagosa Peak ; Mancos ; Pagosa 
Springs; Ruxton Dell; Chicken Creek; Pitkin; Mt. Hesperus; North Park; 
Grizzly Creek, southwest of North Park. 

33. Potentilla effusa Dougl. On plains and hills from Ass. and Mont, to 
N. M. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Crow Creek ; near Empire ; Bosworth's ranch ; 
Poudre flats, above Ft. Collins; Estes Park, Larimer Co.; Table Rock; 
Moore's ranch ; Manitou ; Cameron Pass ; Cascade ; Indian Creek Pass ; 
Sangre de Cristo Creek ; near Boulder. 

34. Potentilla coloradensis Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000- 
10,000 ft. Georgetown ; South Park ; Estes Park, Larimer Co. ; Empire ; 
Chambers' Lake ; Minnehaha ; Silver Plume ; Como. 

35. Potentilla ambigens Greene. In the mountains of Colo, and N. M. 

36. Potentilla crinita A. Gray. On dry hills of Colo., Utah, N. M. and 
Ariz. Piedra. 

6. HORKELIA C. & S. 

i. Horkelia Gordonii Hook. On dry mountains from Mont, and Wash, to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 11,000 ft. Buffalo Pass; summit of North 
Park Range, Routt Co.; Ethel Peak. 



186 ROSACEAE. 

7. ARGENTINA Lam. SILVER-LEAF, GOOSE-TANSY. 

Leaves green and glabrate above. i. A. anserina. 

Leaves silvery-white on both sides. 2. A. argentea. 

1. Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb. (Potentilla anserina L.) Wet soil from 
Greenl. and Alaska to N. J., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Bear 
River ; Steamboat Springs ; Ft. Collins ; Como ; Platte Canon. 

2. Argentina argentea Rydb. (A. anserima concolor Rydb. ; not Potentilla 
anserina concolor Ser.) In wet mountain meadows from Ass. and Wash, 
to N. M. and Ariz. Black's Lake ; Upper Sangre de Cristo Creek. 

8. FRAGARIA L. STRAWBERRY. 

Pubescence of the scape and petioles spreading or reflexed ; achenes superficial. 
Calyx in fruit spreading; scape usually with a leafy bract. i. F. bracteata. 
Calyx in fruit reflexed ; scape generally without a leafy bract. 

2. F. americana. 
Pubescence of the scape and petioles appressed or ascending ; achenes set in pits. 

Plant not glaucous ; scape densely strigose. 

Leaflets over 3 cm. long, very veiny beneath ; runners numerous. 

3. F. prolifica. 
Leaflets 1-3 cm. long, not very veiny; runners few. 4. F. pitmila. 

Plant more or less glaucous. 
Leaves thin. 

Leaflets obovate ; scape several-flowered. 5. F. glauca. 

Leaflets oblong-cuneate ; scape i-4-flowered. 6. F. paucMora. 

Leaves rather thick, firm ; leaflets oblong-cuneate. 7. F. ovalis. 

1. Fragaria bracteata Heller. In meadows and open copses from Mont, 
and B. C to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. Minnehaha ; Little Veta 
Mountain ; Pike's Peak ; Georgetown. 

2. Fragaria americana (Porter) Britton. (F. vesca Pursh, in part; not 
L.) In meadows and woods and on hillsides from Newf. and Man. to Va. 
and N. M. Dillon Canon; Pennock's mountain ranch; Rist Canon; Boulder; 
Ute Pass. 

3. Fragaria prolifica Baker & Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000- 
10,000 ft. Cameron Pass ; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch ; Pike's 
Peak ; Seven Lakes ; bank of Poudre ; near Silverton ; Como ; Chambers' 
Lake ; Columbine ; Red Mountain ; Breckenridge ; Wahatoya Canon ; Pike's 
Peak ; Cheyenne Canon. 

4. Fragaria pumila Rydb. On hillsides from S. D. and Wyo. to Colo. 
Pike's Peak ; Gunnison ; Seven Lakes. 

5. Fragaria glauca (S. Wats.) Rydb. In meadows and open woods from 
Mackenzie and Mont, to S. D., Colo, and Nev. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. Pike's 
Peak ; Veta Mountain ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Pass Creek ; East 
Indian Creek; Andrew's ranch, Larimer Co.; Little Kate Basin, La Plata 
Mountains ; bank of Poudre ; Howe's Gulch ; Como. 

6. Fragaria pauciflora Rydb. On hills from Hudson Bay and Alb. to Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. North Boulder Peak ; below Halfway House, 
Pike's Peak ; Andrew's Shetland ranch ; North Park, near Teller ; Pennock's 
mountain ranch; along the Conejos River, north of Antonito ; Minnehaha. 

7. Fragaria ovalis (Lehm.) Rydb. (Potcntilla ovalis Lehm. ; Fragaria 
firma Rydb.) On dry hills from Colo, and Utah to Cent. Mex. Bear Creek 
Divide, La Plata Mountains. 



ROSACEAE. 187 

g. SIBBALDIA L. 

i. Sibbaldia procumbens L. On alpine peaks and in arctic regions from 
Greenl. and Alaska to N. H., Colo, and Calif.; also in Europe and Asia.- 
Alt. 10,000-14,000 ft Massif de 1'Arapahoe; Red Mountain, south of Ouray; 
Silver Plume; Mt. Harvard; West Spanish Peak; Tennessee Pass, seven 
miles west of Leadville ; near Pagosa Peak; Boreas; Cameron Pass; Little 
Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains; Beaver Creek; Leroux Creek; Rabbit-Ear 
Range; Berthoud Pass. 

10. DASIPHORA Raf. SHRUBBY CINQUEFOIL. 

i. Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rydb. (Potentilla fruticosa L.) In meadows 
and on rocks from Lab. and Alaska to N. J., N. M. and Calif. Alt. about 
10,000 ft. Vicinity of Como ; North Park; Berthoud Pass. 



ii. 



CHAMAERHODOS Bunge. 



i. Chamaerhodos erecta (L.) Bunge. On dry plains from Sask. and Alaska 
to Colo. Alt. up to 9000 ft. South Park, southeast of Jefferson. 

12. DRYMOCALLIS Tourr. 

Petals white; leaves densely and coarsely hairy. i. D. arguta. 

Petals yellow ; leaves sparingly and finely pubescent. 

Corolla 15-20 mm. in diameter; petals much exceeding the sepals. 

2. D. fissa. 
Corolla 10-15 mm. in diameter; petals slightly if at all exceeding the sepals. 

3. D. glandulosa. 

1. Drymocallis arguta (Pursh) Rydb. On prairies, plains, meadows and 
hillsides from N. B. and Mackenzie to D. C. and Colo. Table Rock; Steam- 
boat Springs. 

2. Drymocallis fissa (Ntttt.) Rydb. (Potentilla fissa Nutt.) In the moun- 
tains from Mont, to Colo. Alt. 6000-12,000 ft. Near Narrows, Rist Canon; 
Horsetooth Gulch ; Dixon Canon ; Beaver Creek ; Table Rock ; Empire ; Bear 
Creek Canon ; Wyoming State line ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; Beaver 
Creek; summit of North Park Range, Larimer Co. 

3. Drymocallis glandulosa (Nutt.) Rydb. (Potentilla glandulosa Nutt.) 
In the mountains from Alb. and B. C. to S. D., N. M. and Calif. Leroux 
Creeks, Delta Co. ; Rist Canon. 

13. GEUM L. AVENS. 

Petals yellow, clawless. 

Upper internode of the style long-hairy ; lower not glandular ; petals 5-7 mm. 

long. i. G. strictnm. 

Upper internode of the style sparingly short-hairy ; lower more or less glandular- 
puberulent ; petals 4-5 mm. long. 2. G. oregoncnse. 

Petals pink or purplish, more or less clawed. 3. G. rivals. 

i. Geum strictum Ait. In low meadows and among bushes from Ne\vf. 
and B. C. to Pa., Mo. and Mex. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Headwaters of Sangre 
de Cristo Creek ; Mancos ; Stove Prairie, Larimer Co. ; Moon's ranch ; Buena 
Vista; Victoria; Piedra ; Gunnison; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Silver Plume; 



188 ROSACEAE. 

Soldier Canon ; Graymont ; Ft. Collins ; Happy Hollow ; Elk Canon ; Bos- 
worth's ranch; Boulder. 

2. Geum oregonense (Scheutz) Rydb. (G. urban um oregonense Scheutz; 
G. macro phyllitm Coulter, in part; not Willd.) In mountain meadows from 
Mackenzie and B. C. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. La Plata 
Canon ; Veta Pass ; Marshall Pass ; Cascade Canon ; Chicken Creek, west of 
Mt. Hesperus; Grizzly Creek; Chambers' Lake; White River Plateau; 
Hounold ; Yampa; Victoria; Ironton Park, nine miles south of Ouray; Man- 
cos ; Castle Canon ; Arapahoe Pass ; Elk Canon ; Beaver Creek ; Rico ; foot- 
hills, Larimer Co. ; Medicine Bow Mountains ; Arapahoe Pass ; Empire ; 
Eldora to Baltimore ; Steamboat Springs. 

3. Geum rivale L. In swamps and wet meadows from Newf. and B. C. 
to N. J. and Colo. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Estes Park; Twin Lakes; headwaters 
of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Indian Creek Pass; Victoria; Parlin, Gunnison 
Co. ; Ironton Park, nine miles south of Ouray ; Crystal Park ; Empire ; 
Walden. 

14. SIEVERSIA R. Br. MOUNTAIN AVENS. 

Petals light purple; styles in fruit much elongated, plumose. i. 5\ ciliata. 

Petals yellow ; styles scarcely elongating in fruit, appressed hairy. 

2. 5 1 . turbinata. 

1. Sieversia ciliata (Pursh) Don. (Geum ciliatum Pursh; G. triflorum 
Pursh) On hills from Lab. and B. C. to N. Y. and Calif. ; also in Mex. 
Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Como, South Park ; Mt. Harvard ; Chicken Creek, West 
La Plata Mountains ; North Park ; Twin Lakes ; Pike's Peak ; Pagosa ; near 
Graymont; Marshall Pass; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron; west of 
Ouray; Red Mountain road, south of Ouray; Dead Lake; Palsgrove Canon; 
Arapahoe Pass; on the Michigan; Big South; near Silverton; Beaver Creek. 

2. Sieversia turbinata (Rydb.) Greene. (Geum turbinatum Rydb.; G. 
Rossii T. & G. ; not Ser.) On the higher peaks from Wyo. to N. M. and 
Ariz. Alt. 10,000-14,000 ft. Gray's Peak ; Uncompahgre Peak ; Cameron 
Pass; Pike's Peak; West Spanish Peak; near Pagosa Peak; Cumberland 
Basin, La Plata Mountains ; Bear Creek Divide, West La Plata Mountains ; 
Flat Top Mountains ; Alpine Tunnel ; Carson ; Beaver Creek ; Boreas ; 
Devil's Causeway; Graymont; Berthoud Pass; Ethel Peak. 

15. FALLUGIA Endl. 

i. Fallugia acuminata (Woot.) Rydb. (F. paradoxa Coult, in part; and v. 
acuminata Woot.) On dry hills from Colo, and Utah to Tex and Ariz. Alt. 
8000-9000 ft. Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Cimarron. 

16. HOLODISCUS Max. 

Leaf-blades broadly rounded ovate-spatulate, more or less double-toothed, with 

rounded teeth. i. H. dumosus. 
Leaf-blades oval or obovate, with simple ovate teeth. 

Leaf-blades 1.5-4 cm. long; panicle open, with spreading or reflexed, long 

branches. 2. H. australis. 

Leaf-blades 1-1.5 cm. long; panicle contracted, with short few-flowered 

branches. 3. H. microphyllus. 



ROSACEAE. 189 

1. Holodiscus dumosus (Nutt.) Heller. (Spiraea dumosa Nutt.) On hills 
and mountains from Wyo. and Utah to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. 
Cheyenne Mountain ; near Georgetown ; Grand Junction ; Glenwood Springs ; 
Idaho Springs; Black Canon; southeast of Ouray; Ragged Mountain, Gun- 
nison Co. ; Ute Pass ; North Cheyenne Canon ; vicinity of Pine Grove ; 
Empire. 

2. Holodiscus australis Heller. On hills from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. 
Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Colorado Springs; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Cheyenne 
Canon ; Georgetown ; Minnehaha. 

3. Holodiscus microphyllus Rydb. On dry hills from Ida. and Ore. to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. about 9000 ft. Chicken Creek; Mt. Harvard. 

17. KUNZIA Spreng. 

i. Kunzia tridentata (Pursh) Spreng. (Purshia tridentata DC.) On dry 
hills from Mont, and Wash, to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Liver- 
more, Larimer Co. ; Dolores ; Walcott ; divide road to Steamboat Springs ; 
Pearl; between Pallas and Sydney; Rist Canon; Stove Prairie Hill; Horse- 
tooth Gulch ; north of Poudre ; Pinkham Creek. 

18. COLEOGYNE Torr. 

i. Coleogyne ramosissima Torr. From southwestern Colo, and Nev. to 
Ariz, and Calif. Alt. 5250 ft. Near Hovenweep- Castle (Brands gee). 

19. CERCOCARPUS H. B. K. MOUNTAIN HOLLY. 

i. Cercocarpus parvifolius Nutt. On hills from S. D. and Mont, to N. M. 
and Utah. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Golden; Colorado Springs; Boulder; Cerro 
Summit ; Manitou ; Cucharas River, above La Veta ; Livermore, Larimer Co. ; 
Mancos ; Trail Glen, Pike's Peak ; North Cheyenne Canon ; foot-hills, Lari- 
mer Co. ; Horsetooth Gulch ; gulch west of Pennock's ; Rist Canon ; Pen- 
nock's mountain ranch; Poudre Canon; Trinidad; Ft. Collins; Eldora to 
Baltimore. 

20. DRYAS L. 

i. Dryas octopetala L. On alpine peaks and in arctic regions from Greenl. 
and Alaska to N. H., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 11,000-14,000 ft. Mt. Bartlett, 
Robinson ; Bottomless Pit ; Silver Plume ; Mt. Harvard ; mountains south 
of Ward ; Front Range, Larimer Co. ; above Beaver Creek ; Cameron Pass. 

21. AGRIMONIA L. AGRIMONY. 

i. Agrimonia Brittoniana occidentalis Bickn. Among bushes from S. D. 
and Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. The type-species extends east to Que. and 
W. Va. Alt. about 5000 ft. Ft. Collins; North Cheyenne Canon; Poudre 
flats; Table Rock; Redstone. 



190 ROSACEAE. 

22. ROSA L. ROSE, BRIER. 

Infrastipular spines not present. 
Stems bristly or prickly. 

Flowers corymbose at the end of the stems or of almost erect branches. 

Leaf-blades glabrous ; stipules, leaf-stalks and sepals more or less glandular. 

i. R. arkansana. 

Leaf-blades densely pubescent, at least beneath. 2. R. pratincola. 

Flowers solitary at the ends of spreading branches. 
Leaflets finely but distinctly pubescent beneath. 

Leaflets rather firm, coarsely serrate ; fruit spherical or nearly so. 

3. R. Sayi. 
Leaves thin, sharply serrate ; fruit elongated-ellipsoid. 

4. R. Engelmannii. 
Leaflets glabrous ; fruit rounded-obovate or spherical. 5. R. melina. 

Stem unarmed. u. R. Bakeri. 

Infrastipular spines present. 

Hypanthium and fruit bristly. 6. R. Underwoodii. 

Hypanthium and fruit glabrous. 
Leaflets glabrous or nearly so. 
Spines curved. 

Leaflets 1-2 cm. long; spines stout; fruit i cm. or less in diameter. 

7. R. manca. 
Leaflets 2-3.5 cm - long; fruit 1-1.5 cm - in diameter. 

Spines slender ; leaves not bluish green, thin. 8. R. melina. 

Spines stout ; leaves bluish green, thick. 9. R. pandorana. 

Spines straight or nearly so. 10. R. Macounii. 

Leaflets decidedly pubescent beneath. 

Fruit over i cm. broad ; leaflets large ; flowers solitary ; spines stout. 

ii. R. Bakeri. 
Fruit less than i cm. broad ; spines weak, slightly curved or straight ; flowers 

often corymbose. 

Petioles and stipules densely glandular. 12. R. Fendleri. 

Petioles not glandular ; stipules merely glandular-toothed or entire. 
Spines very slender and straight. 13. R. aciculata. 

Spines stouter and somewhat curved. 14. R. Ma.vimilliani. 

1. Rosa arkansana Porter. In the Arkansas Canon of Colo. 

2. Rosa pratincola Greene. (R. Arkansana S. Wats. ; also Coult. Man. ; 
not Porter.) On prairies and plains from Minn, and Alb. to Kans. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Veta Pass ; Colorado Springs. 

3. Rosa Sayi Schweinitz. On hills and mountains, in open woods, from 
Que. and Alb. to Mich, and Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. North Cheyenne 
Canon ; Cottonwood Lake ; Ruxton Park, Pike's Peak ; Front Range, Lari- 
mer Co.; Blue River, above Kremmling; Minnehaha; Hounold; Boulder; 
Columbine ; Marshall Pass ; falls of Poudre ; west of Steamboat Springs ; 
Campton's ranch ; Beaver Creek ; Horsetooth Mountain ; gulch west of Pen- 
nock's ; Boulder; Eldora to Baltimore. 

4. Rosa Engelmannii S. Wats. In open woods from Upper Mich, and N. D. 
to Tex. and Colo. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Manitou ; headwaters of Pass Creek; 
Minnehaha Falls. 

5. Rosa Underwoodii Rydb. In canons of Colo. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Box 
Canon, west of Ouray; La Plata Canon. 

6. Rosa manca Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 7500-9000 ft 
Mancos; southeast of Ouray. 

7. Rosa melina Greene. In the mountains of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 6000- 
10,000 ft. Chambers' Lake ; West Spanish Peak ; southeast of Ouray ; Cerro 
Summit ; Black Canon. 



ROSACEAE. 191 

8. Rosa pandorana Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Pandora. 

9. Rosa Macounii Greene. In valleys and along streams from S. D. and 
Alb. to Kans. and Colo. Colorado Springs ; Pike's Peak ; Mancos ; New- 
Windsor ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Horsetooth Mountain. 

10. Rosa Bakeri Rydb. In canons and on hillsides from Mont, and Ida. 
to Colo. Alt. 7500-9000 ft. Box Canon, west of Ouray; Dix Post Office; 
Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co.; Parlin. 

11. Rosa Fendleri Crepin. In valleys and along streams from S. D. and 
Mont, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Blue River, above Kremmling; 
Golden ; Twin Lakes ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; Boulder. 

12. Rosa aciculata (Cockerell) Rydb. (R. blanda aciculata Cockerell) In 
rich valleys of Colo and N. M. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Walsenburg; moun- 
tains between Sunshine and Ward. 

13. Rosa Maximiliani Nees. ( ? Rosa Woodsii Lindl.) In valleys and on 
foot-hills from Sask. and Wash, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. 
Gunnison ; Blue River, above Kremmling; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Sangre 
de Cristo Creek; Pagosa Springs; southeast of Ouray; New Windsor; Horse- 
tooth Mountain ; Steamboat Springs. 



Family 67. MALACEAE Small. APPLE FAMILY. 

Cavities of the ovary becoming twice as many as the styles by a false, complete or 

incomplete partition ; leaves simple, toothed. 

Styles 5 ; flowers racemose. i. AMELANCHIER. 

Styles 2 ; flowers solitary or in sessile 2-3-flowered corymbs. 2. PERAPHYLLUM. 

Cavities of the ovary as many as the styles ; flowers in corymbiform, compound 

cymes. 
Leaves simple, but more or less lobed ; ovules solitary in each carpel. 

3. CRATAEGUS. 
Leaves pinnate : ovules 2 in each carpel. 4. SORBUS. 

i. AMELANCHIER L. JUNE-BERRY. 

Leaf-blades obtuse to truncate at the apex. 

Leaf-blades orbicular or nearly so, truncate at the apex. 
Mature leaves glabrous or sparingly and loosely villous. 

Whole plant perfectly glabrous; bud-scales glabrous. i. A. polycarpa. 

Inflorescence and lower surface of the leaves white-villous when young ; 

bud-scales hairy. 
Petals 12-15 mm. long; mature leaves perfectly glabrous. 

Leaf-blades elliptic. 2. A. elliptica. 

Leaf-blades suborbicular or broadly oval. 3. A. alnifolia. 

Petals about 8 mm. long ; mature leaves often somewhat villous beneath. 

4. A. oreophila. 
Mature leaves finely pubescent on both sides, or rarely glabrate above. 

5. A. Bakeri. 
Leaf-blades oval or obovate, obtuse or rounded at the apex, more or less glaucous 

beneath, entire or slightly toothed. 6. A. pruni folia. 

Leaves more or less ovate, acute. 7. A. rubescens. 

i. Amelanchier polycarpa Greene. Hills of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 7000- 
11,000 ft. Piedra; Mt. Abram, Ouray; Hounold; Twin Lakes; Bob Creek, 
west of La Plata Mountains; Cerro Summit; Ojo. 



192 MALACEAE. 

z. Amelanchier elliptica A. Nels. Hills from S. D. to Colo. Alt. 6000- 
8000 ft. Cerro Summit; Crystal Creek; Beaver Creek. 

3. Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Dry hills and rolling plains from N. D. 
and Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt 4000-8000 ft. Poverty Ridge, near Ci- 
marron ; Cerro Summit; Hounold; Glenwood Springs; Horsetooth Gulch; 
Hounold ; Central City; Four-Mile Hill; Parlin; Pallas; Pandora. 

4. Amelanchier oreophila A. Nelson. Hills of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 5000- 
8000 ft. Willow Creek; Camp Creek; Ojo; hills southeast of La Veta; 
Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron; Los Pinos (Bayfield); Cottonwood 
Lake; City Creek Canon; Minturn. 

5. Amelanchier Bakeri Greene. Dry hills of Colo. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. 
Cedar Creek; Mancos; Los Pinos (Bayfield); Wolcott; Twin Lakes. 

6. Amelanchier prunifolia Greene. Dry hills and mountains of Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Mancos ; Cerro Summit. 

7. Amelanchier rubescens Greene. Dry hills of Colo, and N. M. Between 
Rifle and Meeker; Cedar Creek. 

2. PERAPHYLLUM Nutt. 

i. Peraphyllum ramosissimum Nutt. Dry hills and mountains from Ore. 
to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6500-8000 ft. Mancos; Los Pinos (Bayfield) ; Cerro 
Summit; Cimarron; Durango; Dolores. 

3. CRATAEGUS L. HAWTHORN. 



Inflorescence pubescent ; leaves hairy beneath, at least on the veins. 

Leaf-blades orbicular or broadly obovate, abruptly contracted at the base, 5-7 
cm. wide, less distinctly lobed, toothed to near the base. 

i. C. coloradensis. 
Leaf-blades obovate or rhombic, with a cuneate base, 5-9 lobed, with triangular 

acute lobes, 3-5 cm. wide. z. C. occidentalis. 

Inflorescence glabrous ; leaves glabrous beneath. 

Leaf-blades serrate or incised; fruit 8-10 mm. broad. 

Leaf-blades rhombic, incisedly lobed with acute serrate lobes. 

3. C. cerronis. 
Leaf-blades oblanceolate or rhombic-oblanceolate, merely irregularly serrate. 

4. C. Wheeleri. 
Leaf-blades crenate ; fruit 6-7 mm. long. 5. C. saligna. 

1. Crataegus coloradensis Aven Nelson. Canons of Colo. Alt. 5000-6000 
ft. Colorado Springs ; Boulder. 

2. Crataegus occidentalis Britton. River-banks from N. D. and Mont, to 
Neb. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Golden; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Boulder; 
Lower Boulder Caiion ; Horsetooth Gulch. 

3. Crataegus cerronis A. Nels. Along streams in Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. 
Colorado Springs ; Larin ; Golden ; Livermore ; Boulder ; Cerro Summit. 

4. Crataegus Wheeleri A. Nels. Along streams from Wyo. to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. about 6000 ft. Wolcott ; Steamboat Springs ; between Pallas and 
Sydney; Steele Canon; Villa Grove; Dix; between Meeker and Craig; be- 
tween Rifle and Meeker; Spring Creek, above Uncompahgre River. 

5. Crataegus saligna Greene. Hillsides of Colo. Alt. up to 7000 ft. 
Cimarron; Gypsum Creek Canon; Meeker; Wolcott; Gunnison ; Parlin. 



MALACEAE. 

4. SORBUS L. MOUNTAIN ASH. 

i. Sorbus scopulina Greene. (Pyrus sambucifolia T. & G. ; not C. & S.) 
In moist ground and hillsides from Alb. and Wash, to Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Near Ouray; Upper La Plata Canon; Four-Mile Hill, 
Routt Co.; Pagosa Peak; Box Canon, west of Ouray; Victoria; North 
Cheyenne Canon; west of Palmer Lake; Buffalo Pass; Empire; Rabbit-Ear 
Range, Routt Co. 

Family 68. AMYGDALACEAE Reichenb. PLUM FAMILY. 

i. PRUNUS L. PLUMS, CHERRIES. 

Flowers in lateral scaly umbels or corymbs, expanding with or before the leaves. 
Pits of the fruit flattened; leaves convolute in vernation. i. P. americana. 
Pits globose, not flattened ; leaves conduplicate in vernation. 

Low, decumbent shrubs ; inflorescence strictly sessile and umbel-like. 

2. P. Besseyi. 
Erect shrubs or trees ; inflorescence corymbiform, more or less peduncled. 

3. P. pennsylvanica. 
Flowers in long racemes, ending leafy branches of the season. 

4. P. melanocarpa. 

1. Prunus americana Marsh. Along streams from N. Y. and Mont, to 
Fla. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Boulder; foot-hills of Larimer Co.; Wal- 
senburg; plains near Denver; gulch west of Dixon Canon; vicinity of Horse- 
tooth; Rist Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; Trinidad; Cache la Poudre; Manitou. 

2. Prunus Besseyi Bailey. On sand-hills from N. D. to Kans. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Ft. Collins ; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins ; north of 
La Porte ; Horsetooth Mountain ; Black's Lake. 

3. Prunus pennsylvanica L. f. In rocky woods and on hillsides and along 
streams from Newf. and N. D. to Ga. and Colo. Alt. 4000-9500 ft. Estes 
Park, Larimer Co.; Ft. Collins; Minnehaha; gulch west of Pennock's; 
Pike's Peak; Rist Canon; Stove Prairie Hill; Redstone; mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward ; Eldora to Baltimore ; Manitou. 

4. Prunus melanocarpa (A. Nels.) Rydb. (P. demissa Torn, in part; not 
Walp. ; Cerasus demissa melanocarpa A. Nels.) On hillsides from N. D., Alb., 
and B. C. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Lake City; foot-hills, Lari- 
mer Co. ; Estes Park ; Mancos ; Cheyenne Canon ; butte, five miles southwest 
of La Veta; Cucharas River, below La Veta; Dillon Canon; Trinidad; Ft. 
Collins; Cache la Poudre; Bosworth's ranch; gulch west of Pennock's; 
Horsetooth Gulch; Dixon Canon; Purgatory River, Trinidad; Pinkham 
Creek. 

Family 69. MIMOSACEAE Reichenb. MIMOSA FAMILY. 

Valves of the pod not separating from the continuous margin, not prickly ; stems 
erect, unarmed. i. ACUAN. 

Valves of the pod separating from the continuous margin ; pod 4-angled, prickly ; 
stems prostrate, prickly. 2. MORONGIA. 

13 



194 MIMOSACEAE. 

i. ACUAN Medic. PRAIRIE MIMOSA. 

i. Acuan illinoensis (Michx.) Kuntze. (Desmanthus brachylobus Benth.) 
In rich bottom lands from Ind. and S. D. to Fla., Tex. and Colo. Sterling. 

2. MORONGIA Britton. SENSITIVE-BRIER. 

i. Morongia uncinata (Willd.) Britton. (Schrankia uncinata Willd.) On 
prairies from 111. and S. D. to Fla. and Tex. Exact locality not given. 

FAMILY 70. CASSIACEAE Link. SENNA FAMILY. 

Leaves simply pinnate ; corolla very irregular ; one of the lateral petals (standard) 
and the lowest petal larger than the rest. i. CHAMAECRISTA. 

Leaves twice pinnate ; corolla regularly zygomorph, the upper petal only differing 
materially from the rest. 2. HOFFMANSEGGIA. 

i. CHAMAECRISTA Moench. 

i. Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene. (Cassia fasciculata Michx.; 
C. Chamaecrista Walt.; not L.) In prairies from Me. and S. D. to Fla., Tex. 
and Colo. Denver. 

2. HOFFMANSEGGIA Cav. 

Leaves, flowers and pods with black glandular dots ; pods short, 2-2.5 cm. long, 

straight on the back or nearly so. i. H. Jamesii. 

Dark glandular dots none ; pods 3-4 cm. long, strongly arcuate. 

2. H. drepanocarpa. 

1. Hoffmanseggia Jamesii Torr. In dry soil from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Rocky Ford; Colorado City; Arkansas River; Wray. 

2. Hoffmanseggia drepanocarpa A. Gray. In dry soil from Colo to Tex. 
and Ariz. Canon City. 

Family 71. FABACEAE Reichenb. PEA FAMILY. 

Filaments distinct. 

Leaves pinnate. Tribe I. SOPHOREAE. 

Leaves digitately 3-foliate. Tribe II. PODALYRIEAE. 

Filaments monadelphous or diadelphous. 

Rachis of the leaves not produced into a tendril or bristle-like appendage, repre- 
senting the terminal leaflet. 
Fruit 2-valved or indehiscent, not a loment. 
Foliage not glandular-dotted. 

Anthers of 2 kinds ; filaments monadelphous ; leaves digitate ; calyx 2- 

lipped. Tribe III. GENISTEAE. 

Anthers all alike ; filaments diadelphous ; calyx s-toothed. 

Leaflets toothed. Tribe IV. TRIFOLIEAE. 

Leaflets not toothed. 

Leaves irregularly pinnate ; leaflets even in number, 4 or 6 ; stip- 
ules gland-like ; flowers umbellate. Tribe V. LOTEAE. 
Leaves odd-pinnate ; stipules not gland-like ; flowers racemose or 

capitate. Tribe VI. GALEGEAE. 

Foliage glandular-dotted. 

Pod prickly. Tribe VII. GLYCYRRHIZEAE. 

Pod not prickly, indehiscent. Tribe VIII. PSORALEAE. 



FABACEAE. 



195 



Pod a loment, i. e., breaking up transversely into i-seeded indehiscent 

reticulate internodes. Tribe IX. HEDYSAREAE. 

Rachis of the leaves produced into a tendril or bristle-like appendage. 

Tribe X. VICIEAE. 



One genus. 
One genus 
One genus 



TRIBE I. SOPHOREAE. 
TRIBE II. PODALYRIEAE. 
TRIBE III. GENISTEAE. 
TRIBE IV. TRIFOLIAE. 



Leaves digitate ; in ours 3-foliolate. 
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate. 

Pod curved or coiled. 

Pod straight. 



One genus. 



TRIBE V. LOTEAE. 



TRIBE. VI. GALEGEAE. 



1. SOPHORA. 

2. THERMOPSIS. 

3. LUPINUS. 

4. TRIFOLIUM. 

5. MEDICAGO. 

6. MELILOTUS. 

7. ANISOLOTUS. 



I. Leaves pinnate or unifoliolate. 

A. Blade of the standard as broad as long, spreading ; trees. 
Leaflets with stipels ; pod broad, margined on one edge. 

8. ROBINIA. 
Leaflets without stipels ; pod narrow. 9. PETERIA. 

B. Blade of the standard relatively narrow, mostly erect ; herbs. 
i. Keel (lower petals) not produced into a beak. 

a. Pods 2-celled, with a perfect partition. 

Pods fleshy, indehiscent or very tardily dehiscent. 10. GEOPRUMNON. 
Pods membranous, leathery or woody, dehiscent. 
Pods not inflated. 

Pods ovoid or oblong, rarely almost didymous, terete or vertically 

flattened, leathery or woody. n. ASTRAGALUS. 

Pods linear, somewhat laterally flattened, membranous. 

12. HAMOSA. 
Pods strongly inflated, papery. 13. CYSTIUM. 

b. Pods i -celled, the partition, if any, rudimentary. 

Lower suture strongly intruded, making the pod sagittate or obcordate 
in cross-section ; pod membranous, rarely leathery. 

14. TIUM. 
Lower suture not intruded or merely slightly so ; pods in the latter case 

woody. 

Pods strongly inflated, papery. 25. PHACA. 

Pods not inflated, or slightly so, membranous to woody. 

Pods with a partial partition, formed by the inflexion of the lower 

suture. 

Pods membranous. 15. ATELOPHRAGMA. 

Pods woody. 

Pods stipitate : leaves unifoliolate. 16. JONESIELLA. 

Pods sessile ; leaves pinnate. 

Calyx-tube short, campanulate, equalling or shorter than the 

lobes; tall glabrous plants. 17. PHACOPSIS. 

Calyx cylindrical, longer than the lobes ; low cespitose, ciner- 

ous or villous plants. 18. XYLOPIIACOS. 

Pods without a vestige of a partition. 



196 FABACEAE. 

Pods not with two grooves on the upper side (or if slightly 

grooved, sessile). 

Pods with a fleshy epicarp, in fruit cross-ribbed ; leaflets ob- 
scurely articulated to the rachis, fleshy, narrow. 

19. CTENOPHYLLUM. 
Pods without fleshy epicarp ; leaflets distinctly articulated to 

the rachis. 
Pods woody or at least leathery, flattened or slightly intruded 

on the lower side. 
Calyx cylindrical ; flowers large ; plant mostly low and 

cespitose. 18. XYLOPHACOS. 

Calyx campanulate ; flowers small. 

Corolla yellow ; calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, equalling 
the tube ; stipules united ; stem low. 

20. CNEMIDOPHACOS. 
Corolla purple ; calyx-lobes triangular ; much shorter than 

the tube ; stipules free or nearly so ; stem tall and 
slender. 21. MICROPHACOS. 

Pods membranous, usually more or less flattened laterally, with 

both sutures prominent. 
Leaflets spinulose-tipped ; pod i-2-seeded. 

23. KENTROPHYTA. 
Leaflets not spinulose-tipped ; pods several-seeded. 

24. HOMALOBUS. 
Pods with two grooves on the upper side, stipitate. 

22. DIHOLCOS. 

2. Keel (lower petals) produced into a beak. 27. ARAGALLUS. 

II. Leaves digitately 3-foliolate. 

Flowers racemose. 26. OROPHACA. 

Flowers capitate (some species of). 4. TRIFOLIUM. 

TRIBE VII. GLYCYRRHIZEAE. 
One genus. 28. GLYCYRRHIZA. 

TRIBE VIII. PSORALEAE. 

Petal i (standard) ; leaves odd-pinnate. 29. AMORPHA. 

Petals 5. 

Wings and keel free from the filament-tube ; leaves in our digitate. 

30. PSORALEA. 
Wings and keel adnate to the filament-tube ; leaves odd-pinnate. 

Stamens 9 or 10. 31. PAROSELA. 

Stamens 5. 32. PETALOSTEMON. 

TRIBE IX. HEDYSAREAE. 

Pod 4-several-seeded, neither spiny nor toothed. 33. HEDYSARUM. 

Pod i-2-seeded, more or less spiny or toothed. 34. ONOBRYCHIS. 

TRIBE X. VICIEAE. 

Style filiform, hairy all around and below the apex ; stamen-tube usually oblique 
at the summit. 35. VICIA. 

Style flattened towards the apex, hairy on the inner side ; stamen-tube usually 
truncate or nearly so. 36. LATHYRUS. 

i. SOPHORA L. 

i. Sophora sericea Nutt. Dry prairies from S. D. and Wyo. to Tex. and 
Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Colorado Springs ; Ft. 
Collins; mesas near Pueblo; Walsenburg; Poudre Flats; Trinidad; Boulder; 
Colorado City. 



FABACEAE. 197 

2. THERMOPSIS R. Br. 

Pods erect or ascending. 
Pods straight. 

Pods strictly erect and appressed, densely pubescent ; stipules narrow. 

1. T. montana. 
Pods ascending-erect, sparingly pubescent ; stipules broad. 

2. T. pinetorum. 
Pods arcuate, with spreading tips. 3. T. divaricarpa. 

Pods strongly divaricate or reflexed, curved. 

Pods mostly horizontal, arcuate. 4. T. arenosa. 

Pods reflexed, curved in a half-circle or more. 5. T. rhornbifolia. 

1. Thermopsis montana Nutt. (T. stricta Greene) In meadows from 
Mont, and Wash, to Colo., Utah and Ore. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Hounold; 
Larimer Co.; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; along Conejos 
River, north of Antonito ; Sapinero ; Gunnison. 

2. Thermopsis pinetorum Greene. In open woodlands and on hillsides in 
Colo, and N. M. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Chicken Creek, West La Plata Moun- 
tains; East Indian Creek; Los Pinos (Bayfield) ; Grayback mining camps 
and Placer Gulch; Table Rock; foot of Horsetooth Mountain; Rist Canon; 
Boulder; Colorado Springs; Marshall Pass. 

3. Thermopsis divaricarpa A. Nels. In valleys and on foot-hills in Wyo. 
and Colo. Alt. 5000-11,000 ft. Denver; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; 
Veta Mountain ; Ute Pass ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; mountain near Veta 
Pass; Ft. Collins; Howe's Gulch; Beaver Creek; Horsetooth Mountain; 
Cache la Poudre ; foot-hills near Boulder; Eldora to Baltimore; Rist Canon; 
Anita Peak. 

4. Thermopsis arenosa A. Nels. In sandy soil from Sask. and Mont, to 
Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Empire ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

5. Thermopsis rhornbifolia (Nutt.) Richardson. In sandy soil from Sask. 
and Mont, to Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Manitou ; butte five miles southwest 
of La Veta; mesas near Colorado Springs; Black's Lake; west of Soldier 
Canon ; north of La Porte ; north of Ft. Collins ; Trinidad. 

3. LUPINUS L. LUPINE. 

A. Perennials ; cotyledons petioled after germination. 
I. Stems tall, 3 dm. or more, scarcely cespitose. 
i. Leaves glabrous above, at least in age. 

Stem pubescent with long and spreading hairs or glabrous. 

Banner not with a dark spot ; leaflets of the basal leaves oblanceolate, 

acute. i. L. ampins. 

Banner with a dark spot ; leaflets of the basal leaves spatulate, obtuse, 

mucronate. 2. L. ammopliilus. 

Stem appressed-pubescent, at least above. 

Flowers large, over 12 mm. long; banner with a dark spot. 

3. L. plattensis. 
Flowers small or middle-sized, 12 mm. or less long; banner not with a 

dark spot. 

Plant green ; stem and lower surface of the leaves sparingly appressed- 
pubescent. 

Flowers middle-sized, 8-12 mm. long. 

Plant purplish ; calyx strongly gibbous at the base. 

4. L. rubricaulis. 
Plant green; calyx not strongly gibbous. 5. L. alpestris. 

Flowers very small, 6-8 mm. long. 



198 FABACEAE. 

Flowers about 8 mm. long. 6. L. parviflorus. 

Flowers about 6 mm. long. 

Plant vivid green, not at all canescent. 7. L. floribimdus. 
Plant dark green ; inflorescence and young leaves canescent. 

8. L. myrianthus. 
Plant light green ; stem more strigose ; leaves more or less silvery ; 

flowers light blue or white. 

Flowers about 8 mm. long; leaflets linear. n. L. tenellus. 

Flowers 10-12 mm. long; leaflets oblanceolate. 

12. L. decumbens. 
2. Leaves permanently pubescent above. 

Plant green ; leaves appressed-pubescent or slightly silky ; pubescence of 

the stem long, spreading. q. L. comatus. 

Plants more or less canescent or silvery ; at least the upper part of the stem, 
inflorescence and the lower surface of the leaves densely silky or villous. 
Stem appressed-pubescent. 

Calyx distinctly spurred at the base. 10. L. argophyllus. 

Calyx not spurred, but sometimes rather strongly gibbous at the base. 
Flowers less than 12 mm. long; banner not conspicuously light- 
spotted. 

Pubescence of the leaves finely silky, short, not dense, and per- 
fectly appressed. 
Pubescence of the inflorescence finely appressed-silky ; leaflets 

oblanceolate. 13. L. argenteus. 

Pubescence of the inflorescence looser and spreading. 

12. L. decumbens var. 
Pubescence of the leaves dense, longer and often looser. 

14. L. oreophilus. 
Flowers 12 mm. or more long; banner with a large conspicuous light 

spot. 
Stem few-leaved, only slightly exceeding the long basal leaves. 

15. L. humicola. 
Stem very leafy, many times exceeding the basal leaves. 

1 6. L. sericeus. 
Stem with dense pubescence of spreading usually short hairs. 

Corolla blue; banner with a light spot. 17. L. Bakeri. 

Corolla at first white ; the banner changing into purple ; no light spot. 

1 8. L. dichrous. 
II. Stem low, less than 3 dm. high, densely cespitose. 

Inflorescence much exceeding the leaves. 19. L. psoralioides. 

Inflorescence not exceeding the leaves. 

Racemes very dense and short, sessile ; bracts lanceolate, about equalling 

the flowers ; pubescence rather appressed. 20. L. caespitosus. 

Racemes elongated ; bracts subulate, exceeding the flowers ; pubescence 

loose. 21. L. Watsoni. 

B. Annuals ; cotyledons after germination sessile, clasping the stem ; pod 2-seeded. 
Raceme dense, subcapitate ; lower lip of the calyx 2-3-toothed. 
Plant almost stemless ; lower lip of the calyx oval or ovate. 

22. L. brevicaulis. 
Plant with a distinct leafy stem ; lower lip of the calyx oblong-lanceolate. 

23. L. Kingii. 
Racemes more elongated and less dense ; lower lip of the calyx entire. 

24. L. piisillits. 

1. Lupinus amplus Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 8000 
ft. Cerro Summit ; below Steamboat Springs. 

2. Lupinus ammophilus Greene. (L. Sitgreavcsii Coult. Man., in part.) 
In the mountains of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. Los Pinos (Bay- 
field) ; Mancos ; Durango. 



FABACEAE. 199 

3. Lupinus plattensis S. Wats. On hillsides in western Neb., Wyo. and 
Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Walsenburg; Denver; La Veta; butte five miles 
southwest of La Veta. 

4. Lupinus rubricaulis Greene. Hills in Colo. Alt. about 9000 ft. Custer 
Butte. 

5. Lupinus alpestris A. Nels. (L. alsophilus Greene.) In mountain val- 
leys from Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. North fork of 
Cache la Poudre; divide above Steamboat Springs; Grizzly Creek; Little 
Veta Mountain ; Four-Mile Hill ; North Park ; Buffalo Pass ; mountains 
above Ouray; summit of North Park Range, Routt Co. 

6. Lupinus parviflorus Nutt. In open woods, on hillsides, among bushes, 
S. D. and Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Near Empire; 
Red Mountain road, south of Ouray ; Pearl ; North Park, near Teller ; 
Berthoud Pass ; Breckenridge. 

7. Lupinus floribundus Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Upper Bear 
Creek. 

8. Lupinus myrianthus Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000- 
9000 ft. Pitkin ; Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; Jack's Cabin. 

9. Lupinus comatus Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 8000 
ft. Lake City; Chicken Creek, La Plata Mountains; Gunnison Co. 

10. Lupinus argophyllus (A. Gray) Cockerell. (L. decumbens argophyllus 
A. Gray; L. Helleri Greene; L. aduncus Greene) Valleys and river banks 
from Neb. and Colo, to N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Durango; Sangre de 
Cristo Creek; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; Mancos; Mesa 
Verde; Colorado Springs; Antonito; bank of Conejos River. 

11. Lupinus tenellus Nutt. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo, and 
Calif. Estes Park ; Mt. Harvard ; Middle Park ; Twin Lakes ; Kremmling. 

12. Lupinus decumbens Torr. (L. argenteus decumbens A. Gray; L. lep- 
tostachys Greene) On prairies and hillsides from Neb., Mont, and Ore. to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft Boulder ; Douglass Co. ; foot-hills, 
Larimer Co. ; Colorado Springs ; Wahatoya Creek ; La Veta ; Mosquito Pass ; 
Moon's ranch ; Victoria ; Veta Mountain ; North Park ; Trail Creek ; Rist 
Canon ; Sapinero ; New Windsor ; Bosworth's ranch ; Pennock's mountain 
ranch ; Horsetooth Mountain ; Callaway ; Redcliffe. 

Lupinus decumbens argentatus Rydb. Leaflets broader than in the type and 
not conduplicate. On prairies and hillsides in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 
ft. High mountains, Larimer Co. ; between Sunshine and Ward ; foot-hills 
near Boulder. 

13. Lupinus argenteus Pursh. On prairies from Mont, to Colo. Glen- 
wood Springs. 

14. Lupinus oreophilus Greene. In the mountains from Wyo. to Utah and 
Colo. West Cliff ; Cimarron ; Steamboat Springs ; Meeker ; Rio Blanco Co. 

15. Lupinus humicola A. Nels. In rich soil in Colo, and Wyo. Near 
Ironton, San Juan Co. 

16. Lupinus sericeus Pursh. On prairies from Ass. and Wash, to Wyo. 
and Nev. A doubtful specimen has been collected in Colo. Minturn. 

17. Lupinus Bakeri Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000-8500 
ft. Hesperus; Los Pinos (Bayfield) ; Cedar Edge. 



200 FABACEAE. 

18. Lupinus dichrous Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 7000 
ft. Cedar Edge. 

19. Lupinus psoralioides Pollard. Open gravelly soil in Colo. Gunnison. 

20. Lupinus caespitosus Nutt. On hillsides from Mont, to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. about 8000 ft. Hinsdale Co.; North Park, near Teller; twelve 
miles below Grand Lake ; Gunnison ; Kremmling. 

21. Lupinus Watsoni Heller. (Lupinus aridus Utahensis S. Wats.) In 
sandy soil from Ida. to Colo, and Utah. North Park ; Gunnison. 

22. Lupinus brevicaulis S. Wats. On hills from Colo, and Utah to N. M. 
and Ariz. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Arboles ; Hotchkiss, Delta Co. 

23. Lupinus Kingii S. Wats. (L. Sileri S. Wats.) In dry soil from Utah 
and Colo, to Ariz. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Mancos ; Garland ; Piedra ; Thomp- 
son's Park, La Plata Mountains ; Gunnison. 

24. Lupinus pusillus Pursh. On dry plains from Mont, and Ore. to Kans., 
N. M. and Utah. Alt. 1500-1600 m. Mesas near Pueblo ; New Windsor ; 
Crow Creek; La Porte, Larimer Co.; Wray; Hotchkiss; Lamar; Rocky 
Ford; Ft. Collins; Walsenburg. 

4 . TRIFOLIUM L. CLOVER. 

Heads not involucrate. 

Plants mostly tall ; stem leafy. 
Calyx hairy. 

Heads sessile ; corolla red-purple ; free portion of the stipules ovate. 

i. T. pratense. 
Heads long-peduncled ; corolla white or pink ; free portion of the stipules 

elongated-lanceolate. 

Plants cespitose from a woody root ; stems ascending ; corolla salmon- 
color. 2. T. Rusbyi. 
Plant erect from a creeping rootstock ; corolla white. 

3. T. Rydbergii. 
Calyx glabrous ; peduncles axillary ; corolla white or rose-color. 

4. T. repens. 
Plants low, cespitose ; stems scapiform. 

Calyx glabrous. 

Heads i-3-flowered : flowers not reflexed ; calyx-teeth lanceolate ; caudex 

thick, densely cespitose with short branches. 5. T. nanum. 

Heads several-flowered ; flowers reflexed ; calyx-teeth subulate ; branches of 

the caudex more slender and elongated. 6. T. Brandegei. 

Calyx pubescent. 

Leaflets oval or obovate, strongly veined and sharply dentate. 

Flowers 10-12 mm. long. 7. T. subacaulescens. 

Flowers about 8 mm. long. 8. T. gymnocarpon. 

Leaflets lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, entire and not strongly veined. 
Flowers reflexed in fruit ; bracts minute, truncate and toothed. 

Calyx Yz~y^ as long as the corolla ; its teeth fully twice as long as the 

tube. 9. T. stenolobitin. 

Calyx about half as long as the corolla ; its teeth only slightly longer 

than the tube. 

Banner acuminate; leaflets linear-lanceolate. 10. T. attenuation. 
Banner obtuse, minutely mucronate ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate to 

elliptic. ii. T. bracteolatiiin. 

Flowers not reflexed in fruit ; bracts more conspicuous, lanceolate to 

subulate, long-attenuate. 

Bracts narrowly linear-lanceolate or subulate, much exceeding the 
calyx-tube and often almost equalling the calyx-teeth ; plant bright 
green. 12. T. lividum. 



FABACEAE. 201 

Bracts slightly, if at all, exceeding the calyx-tube, distinctly scarious- 
margined and abruptly contracted into a long acumination ; plant 
grayish. 13. T. dasyphyllitin. 

Heads more or less involucrate by more or less united bracts. 

Plants low, cespitose ; stem scapiform ; bracts united only at the base. 
Bracts lanceolate to linear-subulate; leaflets entire (see No. 9-13). 
Bracts oblong, oval, ovate or obovate ; leaflets dentate. 

Banner long-acute, much exceedings the wings. 14. T. salictontin. 

Banner blunt, slightly exceeding the wings. 15. T. Parryi. 

Plants with elongated leafy stem ; bracts united to a monophyllous involucre. 
Corolla 12-15 mm. long. 16. T. Fendleri. 

Corolla about 10 mm. long. 17. T. oxydon. 

1. Trifolium pratensis L. Cultivated and escaped along roads, around 
dwellings and in waste places from Newf. and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. 
Ft. Collins. 

2. Trifolium Rusbyi Greene. In meadows from Colo, to Ariz, and Calif. 
Mancos. 

3. Trifolium Rydbergii Greene. (T. longipcs A. Gray and Coult., in part; 
not Nutt.) In meadows from Mont, and Ida. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 
6000-10,000 ft. Chicken Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; mountain near 
Veta Pass ; Pearl ; Elk River, Routt Co. ; West Indian Creek ; Gore Pass ; 
Dolores ; Holdredge's ranch, North Park ; Camp Creek. 

4. Trifolium repens L. Cultivated and escaped in waste places and mead- 
ows from Newf. to B. C. to Fla. and Calif. Alt. up to 7000 ft. Cucharas 
Valley, near La Veta. 

5. Trifolium nanum Torr. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo. Alt. 
9000-14,000 ft. Mt. Evans ; Lake City ; Pike's Peak ; near Empire ; Carson ; 
Gray's Peak; mountains above Como; West Spanish Peak; Hayden Peak; 
near Pagosa Peak; Cameron Pass; Berthoud Pass. 

6. Trifolium Brandegei S. Wats. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. up to 
12,500 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; Cumberland Basin, La Plata Mountains. 

7. Trifolium subcaulescens A. Gray. (T. nemorale Greene) In dry soil 
in Colo, and N. M. Los Pinos ; Glenwood Springs ; Mancos. 

8. Trifolium gymnocarpon Nutt. In arid places from Wyo. to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. up to 8000 ft. North Park ; Cerro Summit. 

9. Trifolium stenolobum Rydb. On alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. 9000- 
12,000 ft. Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains ; Upper La Plata Cation ; 
near Ironton, San Juan Co. 

10. Trifolium attenuatum Greene. On alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. about 
11,500 ft. Near Pagosa Peak. 

11. Trifolium bacteolatum Rydb. (T. lilacinnm Rydb.; not Greene; 6". 
petraeum Greene) On mountain peaks of southern Colo. Alt. 9000-10,000 
ft. West Spanish Peak. 

12. Trifolium lividum Rydb. On alpine peaks of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
10,000-12,000 ft. Massif de 1'Arapahoe; Graymont; Alpine Tunnel. 

13. Trifolium dasyphyllum Torr. On alpine peaks from Mont, to Colo. 
Alt. 7000-13,000 ft. Berthoud Pass; Eldora to Baltimore; Lake City; 
Pike's Peak; Hinsdale Co.; headwaters of Clear Creek; Cameron Pass; 
Bald Mountain; Mt. Harvard; Silver Plume; mountains above Boreas; 
Twin Lakes ; mountains of Larimer Co. ; Flat Top Mountains, Routt Co. ; 



202 FABACEAE. 

mountains south of Ward, Boulder Co. ; Devil's Causeway ; above Beaver 
Creek ; Leroux Creek ; Twin Lakes ; Spicer. 

14. Trifolium salictorum Greene. Mountains of Colo. Alt. about 12,000 
ft. Carson. 

15. Trifolium Parryi A. Gray. In the mountains of Wyo., Utah and Colo. 
Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Twin Lakes ; headwaters of Clear Creek ; Tennes- 
see Pass, seven miles west of Leadville ; Cameron Pass ; Buena Vista, Chaf- 
fee Co. ; Marshall Pass ; mountains above Boreas ; Estes Park ; Silver 
Plume ; Gray's Peak ; Robinson ; Chambers' Lake ; Graymont ; Leroux 
Creek; above Beaver Creek; Berthoud Pass. 

16. Trifolium Fendleri Greene. In meadows from Colo, to N. M. and 
Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. up to 8000 ft. -Wahatoya Creek ; Gunnison ; La 
Veta ; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Buena Vista; along the Conejos River, north 
of Antonito; Monte Vista. 

17. Trifolium oxyodon Greene. In meadows from Colo, to Ariz. Alt. up 
to 7700 ft. Gunnison. 

5. MEDICAGO L. ALFALFA, LUCERNE, MEDIC. 

i. Medicago sativa L. Cultivated from Europe and escaped from Me. and 
Ida. to Va. and Utah. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Ft. Collins ; 
Boulder. 

6. MELILOTUS Juss. SWEET CLOVER. 

Corolla white; banner a little longer than the wings. i. M. alba. 

Corolla yellow ; banner about equalling the wings. 2. M. officinalis. 

1. Melilotus alba Desv. In waste places from N. S. and D. C. to Ida. 
and Nev. Naturalized from Europe ; also cultivated. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. 
Cucharas Valley, near La Veta. 

2. Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. In waste places from N. S. and La. 
to Ida. and Colo. Naturalized from Europe ; occasionally cultivated for 
bees. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Ft. Collins ; Boulder. 

7. ANISOLOTUS Bernh. BIRD'S-FOOT TREEFOIL. 

i. Anisolotus Wrightii (A. Gray) Rydb. (Hosackia Wrightii A. Gray) 
In dry soil from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Dolores; 
Mancos. 

8. ROBINIA L. LOCUST-TREE. 

i. Robinia neo-mexicana A. Gray. Along streams from Colo, to N. M. 
and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Trinidad ; Walsenburg; La Veta; Denver. 

9. PETERIA A. Gray. 

i. Peteria scoparia A. Gray. Dry regions from Colo, and Utah to N. M. 
and Ariz. La Plata Valley (Brandegee). 

10. GEOPRUMNON Rydb. BUFFALO BEANS, GROUND PLUMS. 

Corolla yellowish white, with purple-keel ; leaflets oval or obovate. 

i. G. succulentitni. 
Corolla purple; leaflets oblong to linear. 2. G. crassicarpum. 



FABACEAE. 203 

1. Geoprumnon succulentum (Richardson) Rydb. (Astragalus succulentus 
Richardson; A. prunifer Rydb.) On plains and hills from Sask. and Mont, 
to S. D. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Ft. Collins ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; 
Colorado Springs; Cucharas River, below La Veta; Walsenburg; bank of 
Cache la Poudre ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Velmont. 

2. Geoprumnon crassicarpum (Nutt.) Rydb. {Astragalus crassicarpus 
Nutt. ; A. caryocarpus Ker) On prairies and plains from Man. and Mont, 
to Mo. and Tex. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Plains near Denver; South Park; 
Lamar; Ft. Collins; Howe's Gulch. 

ii. ASTRAGALUS L. Loco WEED, MILK VETCH. 

Plants cespitose, subscapose, villous-pubescent ; pods sulcate on both sutures. 
Pod glabrous, deeply sulcate. i. A. mollissimus. 

Pod villous, slightly sulcate. 

Calyx densely villous; leaflets 6-12 pairs. 2. A. Bigelovii. 

Calyx sparingly nigrescent ; leaflets 3-6 pairs. 3. A. anisus. 

Plants with elongated leafy stems. 

Pods not sulcate or slightly so on the lower suture, round or nearly so in 

cross-section. 

Bracts linear-lanceolate, long-attenuate ; the lower almost as long as the 
calyces ; calyx-teeth all narrow, subulate, fully half as long as the tube ; 
pod glabrous. 4. A. canadensis. 

Bracts ovate to lanceolate, scarcely half as long as the calyces ; calyx-teeth 
short, less than half as long as the tube ; the upper broader ; pod more or 
less hairy. 5- A. oreophilus. _ 

Pod deeply sulcate on the lower suture, cordate or triangular in cross-section. 
Pod with appressed gray or black pubescence. 

Corolla purple or pink, seldom white ; calyx-teeth much shorter than the tube. 

6. A. nitidus. 
Corolla sulphur-yellow ; calyx-teeth almost equalling the tube. 

7. A. sulphurescens. 
Pod villous with long spreading hairs. 

Corolla ochroleucous ; bracts broadly spatulate, very obtuse. 

8. A. virgultatus. 
Corolla purple ; bracts ovate-lanceolate or oblong, often acutish. 

9. A. goniatus. 

1. Astragalus mollissimus Torn On prairies from Neb. and Wyo. to 
Tex. and N. M. At. 4000-5000 ft. Ft. Collins; Lamar. 

2. Astragalus Bigelovii A. Gray. In dry soil from Colo, to Tex. and 
Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Grand Junction. 

3. Astragalus anisus Jones. On dry mesas of Colo. Pueblo. 

4. Astragalus canadensis L. Among bushes and in meadows from Que. 
and B. C. to Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. La Veta; Roswell; Lower 
Boulder Canon, Boulder Co. ; Ft. Collins ; Poudre flats ; between Ft. Col- 
lins and La Porte; gulch west of Soldier Canon; along Conejos River. 

5. Astragalus oreophilus Rydb. (A. Mortonii Coulter, in part; not Nutt.) 
Among bushes in Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Pagosa Springs ; mountains, 
Larimer Co.; Wahatoya Creek; Trimble Springs, above Durango; Stove 
Prairie, Larimer Co. ; plains and foot-hills near Boulder ; Walsenburg. 

6. Astragalus nitidus Dougl. (A. adsurgcns Hook., and Am. auth. ; not 
Pall.) On hills and plains from Minn., Sask. and Alb. to Colo, and Oregon. 
Alt. 4000-11,000 ft. South Park; Manitott Springs; Platte River; Chey- 



204 FABACEAE. 

enne Canon ; Walsenburg ; Little Veta Mountain ; Colorado Springs ; Mt. 
Harvard; west of Soldier Canon; La Porte; Como; Redcliffe. 

7. Astragalus sulphurescens Rydb. On hills and mountains of Colo. 
Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Boulder Canon; Georgetown; Platte River, Denver; 
Estes Park ; vicinity of Como ; Long Gulch ; near Boulder ; Empire. 

8. Astragalus virgultatus Sheld. (A. hypoglottis bractcosus Osterh.) In 
mountain meadows of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. -Boulder; Gunnison. 

9. Astragalus goniatus Nutt. (A. hypoglottis polyspermus T. & G. ; A. 
hypoglottis Richardson; not L.) In meadows and river valleys from Sask. 
and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Boulder ; Valmont ; Ala- 
mosa ; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Cimarron ; Salida; butte five miles southwest 
of La Veta ; Ft. Collins ; Dillon ; Buena Vista ; Arboles ; Cucharas River, 
below La Veta ; Pagosa Springs ; Stove Prairie, Larimer Co. ; near La Plata 
Post Office ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Table Rock ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Do- 
lores ; Como ; Colorado City. 

12. HAMOSA Medic. 

Plant acaulescent, silvery-white. i. A. scaposa. 
Plant caulescent, not silvery. 

Pods curved. 2. H. Nuttalliana. 

Pods straight. 3. H. leptocarpa. 

1. Hamosa scaposa (A. Gray) Rydb. {Astragalus scaposus A. Gray.) 
On dry hills from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. McElmo Canon. 

2. Hamosa Nuttalliana (DC.) Rydb. (A. Nuttallianus DC.) In dry soil 
from Colo, and Ark. to Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Palisades. 

3. Hamosa leptocarpa (T. & G.) Rydb. (A. leptocarpus T. & G.) In dry 
soil from Tex. to Colo. Lake City. 



13. CYSTIUM Stev. 

i. Cystium diphysum (A. Gray) Rydb. (Astragalus diphysus A. Gray) 
On hills from Colo, and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. " Southwestern Colo- 
rado " (Brandcgee} ; exact locality not given. 



14. TIUM Medic. 

Stipe equalling or exceeding the calyx ; pod not incurved. 
Pods not black-hairy ; corolla white or ochroleucous. 

Plant villous ; pod cordate in cross-section. i. T. Druinmondii. 

Plant appressed-pubescent or glabrous ; pod more or less triangular or inverted 

V-shaped in cross-section. 

Calyx not black-hairy; pod straight. 2. T. racemosum. 

Calyx black-hairy ; pod arcuate. 3. T. scopulorum. 

Pod black-hairy ; corolla purple. 4. T. alpinum. 

Stipe shorter than the calyx or almost none ; pod incurved. 

Pod mottled; plant green. 5. T. sparsiflonun. 

Pod not mottled ; plant cinereous. 

Pod appressed-pubescent. 6. T. huministratinn. 

Pod hirsute-villous with spreading hairs. 7. T. desperatnm. 



FABACEAE. 205 

1. Tium Drummondii (Dougl.) Rydb. (Astragalus Drummondii Dougl.) 
On hills, plains and valleys from Sask. and Alb. to Neb. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-8000 ft. Southeast of La Veta; Cimarron; La Veta; Cheyenne Canon; 
Ft. Collins ; Colorado Springs ; Horsetooth Gulch ; east of Soldier Canon ; 
Boulder. 

2. Tium racemosum (Pursh) Rydb. (Astragalus racemosus Pursh.) On 
plains and hills, N. D. to Kans. and N. M. Oak Creek; Apishipa Creek, 
Otero Co. ; east of Soldier Canon. 

3. Tium scopulorum (Porter) Rydb. (Astragalus scopulorum Porter; A. 
rasus Sheldon) On hills and open woods in the mountains of Colo. Alt. 
5000-9000 ft. Grand Junction ; Mancos ; Grayback mining camps and Placer 
Gulch; Los Pinos; Cerro Summit; Cimarron; Dolores. 

4. Tium alpinum (L.) Rydb. (Astragalus alpinus L.) In the moun- 
tains and in open woodlands from Lab. and Alaska to Vt. and Colo. Alt. 
6000-11,000 ft. Lake City; Boulder Canon; near Empire; Carson; Twin 
Lakes ; Veta Pass ; North Park ; Twin Lake Creek ; near La Plata Post 
Office ; Mt. Harvard ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Como, South 
Park; Piedra; North Park, near Teller; Leroux Park; Michigan River; 
Chambers' Lake ; Graymont. 

5. Tium sparsiflorum (A. Gray) Rydb. (Astragalus sparsifiorus A. 
Gray) In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 8000 ft. Cascade Canon. 

6. Tium huministratum (A. Gray) Rydb. (Astragalus huministratus A. 
Gray) In the mountains from Colo, and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 
about 7000 ft. Los Pinos. 

7. Tium desperatum (Jones) Rydb. (Astragalus dcsperatus Jones) In 
the mountains of Colo, and Utah. Grand Canon. 

15. ATELOPHRAGMA Rydb. 

Pods stipitate, flat. 

Pod long-stipitate, glabrous, at least in age. i. A. aboriginum. 

Pod short-stipitate, hairy. 2. A. Macounii. 

Pod sessile, more turgid. 

Racemes many-flowered ; leaflets oblong ; septum narrow. 

Racemes elongated ; pod short obovate. 3. A. elegans. 

Racemes short ; pod oblong. 4. A. Shearis. 

Racemes few-flowered ; leaflets linear ; septum broad. 5. A. Brandegei. 

1. Atelophragma aboriginum (Richardson) Rydb. (Phaca aboriginorum 
Richardson) On mountain sides and in open woods from Alb. and Yukon 
to Colo, and Nev. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Mountain near Veta Pass. 

2. Atelophragma Macounii Rydb. (Astragalus Macouni Rydb.) In the 
mountains from Alb. and B. C. to Colo. Exact locality not given. 

3. Atelophragma elegans (Hook.) Rydb. (Phaca elegans Hook.; Astra- 
galus oroboides americanus A. Gray) In the mountains from Que., Sask. 
and Idaho to Colo. Alt. 7000-13,000 ft. Georgetown; Mt. Lincoln; Lake 
City; headwaters of Clear Creek; near Empire; South Park; Mancos; 
North Park; Empire. 

4. Atelophragma Shearis Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Twin Lakes. 

5. Atelophragma Brandegei (Porter) Rydb. (Astragalus Brandegei Por- 
ter) In the mountains from Colo, and Utah to Ariz. Alt. about 6500 ft. 
Arkansas River bluffs ; Pleasant Valley. 



206 FABACEAE. 

1 6. JONESIELLA Rydb. 

i. Jonesiella asclepiadoides (Jones) Rydb. (Astragalus asclepiadoides 
Jones) In arid soil of Colo, and Utah. Southeast of Hotchkiss; Grand 
Junction. 

17. PHACOPSIS Rydb. 

Plant perfectly glabrous; leaflets oval, retuse or obtuse. i. P. praclongus. 

Plant hispidulous-strigose on the upper part of the stem and the lower surface of 

the leaves. 2. P. Pattersonii. 

1. Phacopsis praelongus (Sheldon) Rydb. (A. procerus A. Gray) From 
Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 2500-6500 ft. Arboles; Cimarron. 

2. Phacopsis Pattersonii (A. Gray) Rydb. (A. Pattersonii A. Gray) On 
plains and open ground in Colo, and Utah. Alt. up to 7000 ft. Mancos ; 
Wolcott, Eagle Co. ; Grand River Canon ; Hotchkiss ; Grand Junction ; 
Ridgeway. 

1 8. XYLOPHACOS Rydb. 

Pod short-hairy or glabrous. 

Plant villous ; both of the sutures inflexed. i. X. Parry i. 

Plant cinereous ; none of the sutures or only the dorsal one inflexed. 
Pod at first somewhat fleshy, in age spongy ; plant acaulescent. 

2. X. pygmaeus. 
Pod coriaceous. 

Pods straight or nearly so. 

Pods when mature somewhat compressed laterally. 3. X. missouriensis. 
Pods when mature compressed vertically. 4. X. vespertinus. 

Pods more or less curved. 

Pods obtuse at the base ; dorsal suture strongly inflexed ; leaves white- 
silky on both sides. 5. X. Shortianus. 
Pods tapering at both ends. 

Pod over 3 cm. long ; upper suture strongly arched ; calyx-teeth short, 

triangular. 6. X. amphioxus. 

Pod less than 3 cm. long ; upper suture straight or slightly curved ; 

calyx-teeth linear-subulate. 7. X. uintensis. 

Pod long-hairy, densely villous ; corolla yellow or keel purple. 

Leaflets broadly obovate, appressed-silky. 8. X. Newberryi. 

Leaflets elliptic or oblanceolate, long-villous. 9. X. Purshii. 

1. Xylophacos Parryi (A. Gray) Rydb. (Astragalus Parryi A. Gray) 
On mountain ridges of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Near Empire ; 
Turkey Creek and tributaries ; Ft. Collins ; Wahatoya Canon ; headwaters 
of Sangre de Cristo Creek; headwaters of Pass Creek; Estes Park; Bijou 
Basin ; Platte Canon ; Rist Canon ; Chambers' Lake ; vicinity of Como ; near 
Boulder. 

2. Xylophacos pygmaeus (Nutt.) Rydb. (Phaca pygmaca Nutt. ; A. 
chamaeluce A. Gray; A. Cicadae Jones) Dry hills and arid plains of Colo., 
Wyo. and Utah. Grand Junction. 

3. Xylophacos missouriensis (Nutt.) Rydb. (A. Missouriensis Nutt.) 
On plains from Sask. and Mont, to Kans. and N. M. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. 
Ft. Collins; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Arboles; Walsenburg; river bluffs 
north of La Veta; mesas near Pueblo; Turkey Creek and tributaries; Grand 
Junction. 



FABACEAE. 207 

4. Xylophacos vespertinus (Sheld.) Rydb. (A. vespertinus Sheld.) In 
arid places of W. Colo, and N. Mex. Grand Junction. 

5. Xylophacos Shortianus (Nutt.) Rydb. {A. Shortianus Nutt.) On 
plains and dry hills from western Neb. and Wyo. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 
4000-9000 ft. Ute Pass ; plains near Denver ; Clear Creek Canon ; Ft. Col- 
lins; Rist Canon; Spring Canon; west of Dixon Canon; Hotchkiss; Table 
Rock ; Soldier Canon ; vicinity of Horsetooth ; Grand Junction ; north of La 
Porte; near Boulder; Sapinero; Arboles. 

6. Xylophacos amphioxus (A. Gray) Rydb. (A. amphioxus A. Gray) 
On dry plains and hills from southwestern Colo, to Utah and Ariz. Exact 
locality not given. 

7. Xylophacos uintensis (Jones) Rydb. (Astragalus Uintensis Jones) 
On dry mesas from Colo, to Utah and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Mancos ; 
mesas near Pueblo ; Cimarron ; Grand Junction. 

8. Xylophacos Newberryi A. Gray. Dry hills from southwestern Colo, 
and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Exact locality not given. 

9. Xylophacos Purshii Dougl. On plains and hills from Mont, and B. C. 
to northern Colo, and Calif. Along North Platte. 

19. CTENOPHYLLUM Rydb. 

i. Ctenophyllum pectinatum (Hook.) Rydb. (Phaca pectinata Hook.; 
Astragalus pcctinatus Dougl.) On dry plains from Alb. and Sask. to Kans. 
and Colo. Ft. Collins. 

20. CNEMIDOPHACOS Rydb. 

i. Cnemidophacos flavus (Nutt.) Rydb. (Astragalus flavus Nutt.) On 
dry mesas from Wyo. to N. M. Alt. about 6000 ft. Grand Junction ; Man- 
cos; Arboles. 

21. MICROPHACOS Rydb. 

i. Microphacos microlobus (A. Gray) Rydb. (Astragalus microlobus A. 
Gray) On plains and hills from S. D. and Mont, to Kans. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-7000 ft. Ft. Collins; Walsenburg; New Windsor; mesas near Pueblo; 
Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; Denver; Colorado City. 

22. DIHOLCOS Rydb. 

Corolla over i cm. long ; calyx-teeth nearly as long as the tube. 

Corolla purplish or pinkish; pod strigose. i. D. bisulcatus. 

Corolla whitish ; pod glabrous. 2. D. decalvans. 

Corolla whitish or straw color, less than i cm. long ; calyx-teeth much shorter than 

the tube. 3. D. Haydenianus. 

i. Diholcos bisulcatus (Hook.) Rydb. (Phaca bisulcata Hook.; Astragalus 
bisulcatus A. Gray) On plains and in river valleys from Sask. and Mont, to 
Neb. and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Pueblo; between La Veta and Gardner; 
Ft. Collins; mesas near Pueblo; Lamar; Spring Canon; Platte River; 
Colorado Springs. 



208 FABACEAE. 

2. Diholcos decalvans (Gandoger) Rydb. (A. bisulcatus decalvans Gan- 
doger) River valleys of Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft. New Windsor, Weld 
Co. ; Ft. Collins ; Dixon Canon ; Quimby. 

3. Diholcos Haydenianus (A. Gray) Rydb. (A. Haydenianus A. Gray) 
In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. Rio Blanco, south 
of Pagosa; Mancos; Pagosa Springs; Montrose; La Veta; Gunnison; 
Ridgeway. 

23. KENTROPHYTA Nutt. 

Stipules united only at the base, more or less herbaceous. 

Plants 3-4 dm. high, usually erect ; stipules with long spinulose tips. 

2. K. impensa. 

Plant low ; stipules not spinulose-tipped. 3. K. viridis. 

Stipules united for about half their length, scarious. 

Corolla ochroleucous, about 4 mm. long ; leaflets less than 5 mm. long. 

4. K. Wolfii. 
Corolla purple, about 6 mm. long; leaflets over 5 mm. long. 5. K. aculeata. 

1. Kentrophyta impensa (Sheldon) Rydb. (Astragalus viridis impensus 
Sheldon; A. Kentrophyta elatus S. Wats.) In canons and bad-lands from 
Colo, to Nev. and Ariz. Grand River Canon. 

2. Kentrophyta viridis Nutt. (Astragalus Kentrophyta A. Gray, in part.) 
In canons and bad-lands of Wyo. and Colo. Palisades. 

3. Kentrophyta Wolfii Rydb. (Homalobus Wolfii Rydb.) On dry hills of 
Colo. South Park. 

4. Kentrophyta aculeata (A. Nels.) Rydb. (A. tegetarius implexus Canby; 
A. aculeatus A. Nels.) On dry hills and mountains from Mont, to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Chambers' Lake; Georgetown. 

24. HOMALOBUS Nutt. 

Leaves simple or some rarely pinnately 3-foliolate ; plants pulvinate-cespitose. 

SIMPLICIFOLII. 
Leaves pinnately s-many-foliolate. 

Pods sessile or short-stipitate ; stipe seldom exceeding the calyx. 
Pods more or less compressed. 

Pods oval, ovate, broadly oblong or elliptical TENELLI. 

Pods linear, 1.5 cm. or more long. CAMPESTRES. 

Pods terete or nearly so. FLEXUOSI. 

Pods long-stipitate ; stipe many times as long as the calyx. MACROCARPI. 

SIMPLICIFOLII. 
One species. i. H. caespitosus. 

TENELLI. 
Pods strictly sessile. 

Pods erect on long pedicels. 2. A. grallator. 

Pods spreading or reflexed on short pedicels. 

Pods glabrous ; plant canescent. 3. H. Wingatanus. 

Pods hairy ; plant green. 4. H. dementis. 

Pods short-stipitate. 

Leaflets broadly linear or oblong; corolla ochroleucous. 5. H. tenellus. 

Leaflets narrowly linear ; corolla whitish, tinged with purple. 

6. H. acerbus. 

CAMPESTRES. 
Calyx-teeth lanceolate to subulate, half as long as the tube or longer. 

Pods arcuate. 7. H. decinnbeiis. 

Pods straight. 



FABACEAE. 209 

Leaflets linear or linear-oblong, acute, ascending. 
Leaflets narrowly linear, silvery-canescent. 

Low and very cespitose, 1-2 dm. high; pods about 1.5 cm. long; keel 

with a very narrow end. 8. H. camporum. 

Tall, 3-4 dm. high, more simple ; pods 2-2.5 cm. long ; keel with a 

broader end. g. H. campestris. 

Leaflets oblong or lanceolate, strigose but not canescent ; terminal leaflet 
longer, tapering into the rachis without a distinct articulation ; racemes 
long and lax. 10. H. decurrens. 

Leaflets, at least of the lower leaves, oval or elliptical, spreading. 

ii, H. hylophiliis. 
Calyx-teeth triangular, l /4- l A as long as the tube ; leaflets linear. 

Low, depressed; pods 12-15 nim. long, sessile. 12. H. tenuifolius. 

Taller, 2 dm. or more high; pods over 15 mm. long, often slightly stipitate. 

13. H. junciformis. 
FLEXUOSI. 

Pod oblong, over 5 mm. in diameter. 

Inflorescence short; flowers about 15 mm. long; pod glabrous. 

14. H. Hallii. 
Inflorescence elongated and lax; flowers about 10 mm. long; pod pubescent. 

15. H. Fendleri. 
Pod linear. 2-3 mm. thick. 

Pod abruptly contracted into a short or obsolete stipe. 

Stem decumbent; stipe minute or obsolete. 16. H. fiexuosus. 

Stem erect; stipe almost equalling the calyx. 17. H. proximns. 

Pod gradually tapering into the short stipe. 18. H. Salidae. 

MACROCARPI. 
One species. 19. H. macrocarpus 

1. Homalobus caespitosus Nutt. (Astragalus cacspitosus A. Gray.) On 
dry hills from Ass. and Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 4000-6000 ft 
Livermore, Larimer Co. ; north of La Porte. 

2. Homalobus grallator (S. Wats.) Rydb. (A. grallator S. Wats.) On 
river banks from Colo, to Nev. Steamboat Springs. 

3. Homalobus wingatanus (S. Wats.) Rydb. (A. Wingatanus S. Wats.) 
On dry hills in S. Colo, and N. Mex. Mancos. 

4. Homalobus Clementis Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. up to 
10,000 ft. Marshall Pass ; Sangre de Cristo ; Big Creek Gulch. 

5. Homalobus tenellus (Pursh) Britton. (Astragalus tcncllus Pursh : As- 
tragalus mitltiflorus (Pursh) A. Gray) On plains and hills from Minn., Sask. 
and Yukon to Neb., Colo, and Nev. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Near Empire; 
Ward, Boulder Co.; Swallows, between Canon City and Pueblo; Estes 
Park; near mouth of Leroux Creek; Middle Park; Ft. Collins; near Boul- 
der; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Marshall Pass. 

6. Homalobus acerbus (Sheld.) Rydb. (A. accrbus Sheld.) In the 
mountains of Colo. Alt. about 8000 ft. Glemvood Springs. 

7. Homalobus decumbens Nutt. (A. dcciimbcns A. Gray) Tn the moun- 
tains of Colo, and Wyo. Steamboat Springs. 

8. Homalobus camporum Rydb. On plains and hills from Alb. to Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch ; 
North Park. 

9. Homalobus campestris Nutt. (A. campestris A. Gray; A. convallarius 
Greene) On plains from Mont, and B. C. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. up to 

14 



210 FABACEAE. 

10,000 ft. Lake City ; Canon City ; Como, South Park ; Big South ; Stove 
Prairie Hill; Gore Pass; Rabbit-Ear Range; North Park; Estes Park; 
forks of Poudre and Big South ; mountains of Larimer Co. ; Pinkham Creek. 

10. Homalobus decurrens Rydb. On wooded hills in Colo. Alt. 8000- 
10,000 ft. Estes Park; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; Como; 
Stove Prairie Hill. 

11. Homalobus hylophilus Rydb. On wooded hillsides from Mont, and 
Ida. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 8000 ft. Cerro Summit ; North Park, 
near Teller; Leadville ; Empire. 

12. Homalobus tenuifolius Nutt. From the Canadian Rockies to the 
mountains of Colo. Lake City. 

13. Homalobus junciformis (A. Nels.) Rydb. (Astragalus junciformis A. 
Nels.) On dry plains and hills from Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 
7000 ft. Glenwood Springs ; Cedar Edge. 

14. Homalobus Hallii (A. Gray) Rydb. (Astragalus Hallii A. Gray) In 
the mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. South Park ; Garland ; Como, 
South Park ; Leadville ; Alamosa ; Dolores ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Como, South 
Park ; Black Canon. 

15. Homalobus Fendleri (A. Gray) Rydb. (A. Fcndlcri A. Gray) On 
dry hills of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Mancos; Los Pinos. 

16. Homalobus flexuosus (Dougl.) Rydb. (Pliaca ftcxuosa Hook; A. ftex- 
uosus Dougl.) On dry plains and hills from Minn., Sask. and Alb. to Kans. 
and Colo. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Upper Arkansas ; South Park ; Los Pinos ; 
Salida; Gunnison; New Windsor; Buena Vista; Veta Pass; Idaho Springs; 
Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Cucharas River, below La Veta ; foot-hills, Larimer 
Co.; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; Ft. Collins; northwest of 
Soldier Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; Almelia ; Estes Park; near Boulder; Em- 
pire. 

17. Homalobus proximus Rydb. On dry hills of Colo. Arboles. 

18. Homalobus Salidae Rydb. On hills in Colo. Salida. 

19. Homalobus macrocarpus (A Gray) Rydb. (Pliaca macrocarpa A. 
Gray; A. lonchocarpus Torr.) In open woods from Colo, and Utah to N. 
M. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Pagosa Springs ; Thompson Park, La Plata Moun- 
tains; Turkey Creek and tributaries; Arboles; Durango. 



25. PHACA L. 

Upper suture not acute ; pod circular or oval in cross-section. 
Pod short-stipitate. 

Pod not mottled, erect or ascending. 

Pod ashy, with minute white hairs. n. P. Wethcrillii. 

Pod glabrous. i. P. Eastu'oodiae. 

Pod mottled, spreading or reflexed. 

Leaflets linear or none ; plant grayish-pubescent. 

Terminal leaflet none, represented by the much produced rachis ; lateral 

leaflets also often absent. 2. P. longifolia. 

Leaflets present ; rachis not produced. 3. P. picta. 

Leaflets broadly oval or obcordate ; plant glabrous. 4. P. artipcs. 

Pod sessile. 



FABACEAE. 211 

Pod over 1.2 cm. long. 

Pod 2-2.5 cm - long; corolla ochroleucous. 5. P. Candolleana. 

Pod 12-15 mm. long; corolla purple. 6. P. cerussata. 

Pod 3-12 mm. long. 

Pod ovoid ; plant 3-6 dm. high ; raceme many-flowered. 

7. P. Bodinii. 

Pods ellipsoid ; plant usually less than 3 dm. high ; raceme few-flowered. 
Plant cespitose ; stem slender, 1-2 dm. high, slender ; leaflets 0.5-1 cm. 

long. 8. p. paiiciilora. 

Plant pulvinate-cespitose, almost stemless : leaflets minute. 

9. P. humillima. 

Upper suture of the pod straight or curved upwards, acute ; pod in cross-section 
obovate. 10. P. elatiocarpa. 

1. Phaca Eastwoodiae (Jones) Rydb. (Astragalus Prcussii sulcatus 
Jones; A. Eastivoodiac Jones) In Utah and Colo. Westwater. 

2. Phaca longifolia (Pursh) Nutt. (A. foetus filifolius A. Gray) On 
sandy soil from S. D. and Wyo. to Colo, and N. M. Salida ; Manitou ; Mani- 
tou Junction. 

3. Phaca picta A. Gray. (A. Rictus foliosus A. Gray) In sandy soil from 
Colo, and Utah to N. M. Denver ; Colorado Springs. 

4. Phaca artipes (A. Gray) Rydb. (Astragalus artipcs A. Gray) In the 
mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000-8000 ft.- Cerro Summit ; Cedar Edge ; Leroux 
Creek. 

5. Phaca Candolleana H. B. K. (Astragalus triflorus A. Gray) In dry 
places from Colo, to N. M. and Calif. ; also Mex. Canon City. 

6. Phaca cerussata (Sheld.) Rydb. (Astragalus ccrusatus Sheld.) Moun- 
tain sides in Colo. Canon City, Fremont Co. 

7. Phaca Bodinii (Sheld.) Rydb. (Astragalus Bodinii Sheld.) In val- 
leys from Mont, to Neb. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. North Park, Larimer 
Co. 

8. Phaca pauciflora Nutt. (A. leptalcus A. Gray) In the mountains of 
Colo. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Mt. Harvard ; North Park, Larimer Co. ; Como, 
South Park ; Gunnison ; Laramie River. 

9. Phaca humillima (A. Gray) Rydb. (A. hiiiiiilliinus A. Gray) On arid 
table-lands of Colo. Mesa Verde, near Mancos River. 

10. Phaca elatiocarpa (Sheld.) Rydb. (Astragalus lotiflonts brachypus 
A. Gray; A. clatiocarpus Sheld.) On plains from Minn, to Ass. to Mo., 
Tex. and Calif. Canon City ; Colorado Springs. 

11. Phaca Wetherillii (Jones) Rydb. (Astragalus H'etherillii Jones) 
Dry hills and mesas of Colo. Grand Junction. 

26. OROPHACA Britton. 

Densely cespitose; flowers 8-10 mm. long; inflorescence not exceeding the leaves. 

Flowers about 10 mm. long; pods puberulent. i. O. tridactylica. 

Flowers about 8 mm. long ; pods hoary. 2. O. aretioidcs. 

Broadly cespitose with prostrate branches ; flowers about 6 mm. long ; peduncles 

usually exceeding the leaves ; pods hoary. 3. O. sericea. 

i. Orophaca tridactylica (A. Gray) Rydb. (Astragalus tridactylicus A. 
Gray) On plains and hills of Colorado. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Livermore ; 
St. Vrain's Canon; Ft. Collins; plains near Denver; foot-hills west of Ft. 
Collins; east of Black's Lake; near New Windsor. 



212 FABACEAE. 

z. Orophaca aretioides (Jones) Rydb. (Astragalus scricoleucus aretioidcs 
Jones) On dry hills and plains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft. Ft. 
Collins; vicinity of Horsetooth ; plains near Denver. 

3. Orophaca sericea (Nutt.) Britton. (Phaca sericcus Nutt. ; A. sericolcu- 
cits A. Gray) On plains and hills from Neb. to Wyo. and Colo. Julesburg. 

27. ARAGALLUS Necker. OXYTROPE, LOCO-WEED. 

Stipules adnate to the petioles only slightly at the base ; pods pendant, i-celled, 

many times exceeding the calyx. i. A. deflc.vus. 

Stipules decidedly adnate to the petioles ; pods not pendant. 
Leaves strictly pinnate ; leaflets opposite. 

Fruiting calyx inflated, enclosing the fruit ; plants densely cespitose, less than 

1.5 dm. high. 2. A. multiceps. 

Fruiting calyx not inflated, much exceeded by the pod. 
Inflorescence i-3-flowered; plants dwarf, pulvinate. 

Pods inflated, i -celled, ovoid. 3. A. Hallii. 

Pods not inflated, oblong, almost 2-celled. 4. A. Parryi. 

Inflorescence many-flowered; plants mostly over 1.5 dm. high and pod 

oblong, not inflated. 
Corolla purple, rarely white. 

Leaflets linear or linear-lanceolate, not silvery-canescent. 

5. A. Lambertii. 

Leaflets oblong-lanceolate to oval, silvery-canescent. 6. A. sericeus. 
Corolla yellow or white with a purple spot on the keel. 
Flowers 12-15 mm. long; pods semi-membranaceous. 

7. A. monticola. 

Flowers 18-25 mm. long; pods coriaceous. 8. A. albiflorus. 

Leaflets verticillate. 9. A. Richardsonii. 

1. Aragallus deflexus (Pall.) Heller. (Oxytropis dcftcxa (Pall.) DC.) In 
the mountains from Sask. and Alaska to N. M. Alt. 6000-11,000 ft. Near 
Empire ; Lake City ; Como, South Park ; North Park, near Teller ; George- 
town ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Sargent ; Twin Lakes ; Alamosa ; Kremm- 
ling; Carson; North Park; Arboles; Dolores; along the Conejos River, 
north of Antonito ; Buena Vista ; Empire ; Hahn's Peak. 

2. Aragallus multiceps (Nutt.) Heller. (Oxytropis multiceps Nutt.) On 
dry hills and mountains from western Neb. to Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 4000- 
10,000 ft. Table Rock; Calhan ; Manitou golf links; Colorado Springs. 

Aragallus multiceps minor (A. Gray) Rydb. (Oxytropis multiceps minor 
A. Gray) In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Mountains be- 
tween Sunshine and Ward; Empire; mountains of Estes Park; headwaters 
of Clear Creek; Caribou. 

3. Aragallus Hallii (Bunge) Rydb. (Oxytropis Hallii Bunge) On high 
mountains of Colo. Alt. 10,000-11,000 ft. Little Veta Mountain. 

4. Aragallus Parryi (A. Gray) Greene. (Oxytropis Parryi A. Gray) In 
high mountain valleys of Colo. Georgetown. 

5. Aragallus Lambertii (Pursh) Greene. (O. Lambertii Pursh) On 
plains, prairies, hills and table-lands from Minn, and Mont, to Mo. and 
Colo. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Boulder; Colorado Springs; Cheyenne Canon ; 
headwaters of Pass Creek ; Cucharas River, below La Veta ; mesas near 
Colorado Springs ; between Colorado Springs and Cripple Creek ; Horsetooth 
Gulch ; Palmer Lake ; Howe's Gulch ; Poudre Flats ; mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward ; near Boulder ; Eldora to Baltimore ; Hardin's ranch ; 
Table Rock. 



FABACEAE. 213 

6. Aragallus sericeus (Nutt.) Greene. (Oxytropis scricca Nutt.) On 
hills and table-lands from N. D. and Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 4000- 
9000 ft. Estes Park; Sargents ; La Veta; Cimarron; Grayback mining 
camps and Placer Gulch; Platte Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; Campton's 
ranch ; west of Rist Canon ; Wray ; Pinkham Creek. 

7. Aragallus monticola (A. Gray) Greene. (O. monticola A. Gray) On 
mountain ridges from Sask. and Wash, to Colo." Colorado " ; exact locality 
not given. 

8. Aragallus albiflorus A. Nels. In mountain valleys of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 5000-11,000 ft. Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; butte five miles 
southwest of La Veta; Iron Mountain; Placer; Ft. Collins; Buena Vista; 
Chambers' Lake; west of Rist Canon; Palmer Lake; Pennock's mountain 
ranch ; Campton's ranch, North Poudre. 

9. Aragallus Richardsonii (Hook.) Greene. (Oxytropis splendcns 
Richardsonii Hook.) In mountain valleys from Sask. and Yukon to Colo. 
Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. North Park; Georgetown; Middle Park; Como, 
South Park; mountain near Veta Pass; Twin Lakes; Indian Creek Pass; 
Arkansas Junction, near Leadville; Eldora to Baltimore; Empire. 

28. GLYCYRRHIZA L. WILD LIQUORICE. 

i. Glycyrrhiza lepidota Nutt. Among bushes and in rich meadows from 
Ont. and Wash, to N. Y. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Colorado 
Springs; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Alamosa ; Grand Junction; Huerfano Val- 
ley, near Gardner; Arboles; Ft. Collins; Walcott; Pueblo; Denver; Poudre 
Canon ; Rist Canon ; near Boulder. 

29. AMORPHA L. FALSE INDIGO, LEAD-PLANT. 

Tall shrub; leaflets 2-5 cm. long; pods usually 2-seeded. i. A. angustifolia. 

Low shrubs; leaflets 5-1.5 cm. long; pods i-seeded. 

Glabrous or nearly so ; spike usually solitary at the ends of the branches. 

2. A. nana. 

Densely canescent ; spikes usually clustered. 3. A. canescetis. 

1. Amorpha angustifolia (Pursh) Boynton. (A. fruticosa angustifolia 
Pursh ; A. fruticosa James; not L.) Along streams from S. D. and Mont, to 
Fla. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Sterling, Logan Co. ; river flats and plains 
east of Ft. Collins. 

2. Amorpha nana Nutt. (A. microphylla Pursh) On dry prairies from 
Man. to Iowa and Colo. Palmer Lake. 

3. Amorpha canescens Pursh. Sand-hills and prairies from Ind. and Man. 
to La., Tex. and Colo. Along Platte River. 

30. PSORALEA L. POME BLANCHE, INDIAN BREAD-ROOT. 

Flowers small, less than 8 mm. long, in racemes or interrupted spikes ; root not 

tuberous. 
Flowers in racemes ; leaves not silvery. 

Racemes short and dense, elliptic or oblong; fruit globose, i. P. lanccolaln. 
Racemes lax, more elongated; fruit ovoid. 2. P. teiniiflora. 

Flowers in interrupted spikes ; leaves silvery. 3. P. argophylLi. 

Flowers large, over i cm. long, in dense head-like spikes ; plant with a deep-seated 
tuberous, farinaceous root. 



214 FABACEAE. 

Plants with long scattered hairs, not cinereous ; leaflets linear to obovate. 

4. P. liypogaea. 

Plant cinereous, with short appressed pubescence ; leaflets broadly obovate or 
rounded-spatulate. 5. P. mephitica. 

1. Psoralea lanceolata Pursh. In sandy soil from Sask. to Colo, and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Wray ; Manitou Junction ; La Veta. 

2. Psoralea tenuiflora Pursh. On dry plains and hills from S. D. and 
Mont, to Ark. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Golden ; Cucharas Valley, near 
La Veta ; Canon City ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Eads ; Crow Creek ; Chey- 
enne Canon; Colorado Springs; Ft. Collins; plains and foot-hills near 
Boulder. 

3. Psoralea argophylla Pursh. On plains and prairies from Wis. and 
Sask. to Mo. and N. M. Denver. 

4. Psoralea hypogea Nutt. On dry plains from Neb. and Colo, to Tex. 
and N. M. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Denver; Colorado Springs. 

5. Psoralea mephitica S. Wats. In arid soil from Colo, to N. M. and 
Calif. Grand Junction. 

31. PAROSELA Car. 
Perennials. 

Stem and leaves perfectly glabrous. 

Stem herbaceous ; bracts obovate, persistent, enclosing the calyx. 

1. P. lasianthera. 
Stem low, suffruticose, branched ; spikes 2-6 flowered ; bracts ovate, deciduous. 

2. P. formosa. 
Stem and leaves more or less hairy. 

Spike dense, crowded ; petals yellow, at least at first ; plant herbaceous. 
Leaves digitately tri-foliolate ; plant low and cespitose. 3. P. Jamesii. 
Leaves pinnately 3-7-foliolate. 

Leaflets of the stem-leaves at least only 3 ; petals turning purplish ; spike 

in fruit about 10 mm. thick. 4. P. clatior. 

Leaflets 5-7 ; petals not turning purple; spike in fruit about 15 mm. thick. 

5. P. aitrea. 
Spike lax ; petals purple. 

Leaves pinnately 3-13 foliolate : stem scarcely spinose. 6. P. lanata. 
Leaves uni-foliolate or none : plant very spiny. 7. P. spinosa. 

Annual ; leaves glabrous. 8. P. Dalea. 

1. Parosela lasianthera (A. Gray) Heller. (Dalea lasianthera A. Gray) 
In dry soil from Colo, to Tex. and N. M. Reported from Colorado, but 
doubtful. 

2. Parosela formosa (Torr.) Vail. (Dalea formosa Torr.) In dry soil 
from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and Ariz. Platte River. 

3. Parosela Jamesii (T. & G.) Vail. (Dalea Jamesii T. & G. ; Parosela 
Porter i A. Nels.) In dry soil from Colo, to Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000- 
6000 ft. Rocky Ford, Otero Co.; Walsenburg; Canon City; Florence. 

4. Parosela elatior (A. Gray) Vail. (Dalea nana clatior A. Gray; D. 
rubesccns S. Wats.) Dry places from Colo, to Tex. " Southeastern Colo- 
rado." 

5. Parosela aurea (Nutt.) Britton. (Dalea aurea Nutt.) On plains from 
S. D. to Texas. "Northeastern Colorado." 

6. Parosela lanata (Spreng.) Britton. (Dalea lanata Spreng.) In dry soil 
from Kans. and Utah to Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. On the Platte. 



FABACEAE. 215 

7. Parosela spinosa (A. Gray) Vail. (Dalea spinosa A. Gray) In arid 
places from Colo, to Calif, and Ariz.; also Mex. "Colorado"; exact locality 
not given. 

8. Parosela Dalea (L.) Britton. (Dalea alopecuroides Willd.) Prairies 
from 111. and Minn, to Tex. and Mex. Denver (Eastwood). 

32. PETALOSTEMON Lam. PRAIRIE CLOVER. 

Calyx glabrous; corolla white. i. P. oligophyllus. 

Calyx pubescent. 

Corolla white or yellow ; spike long and compact. 2. P. compactus. 

Corolla rose or purple, very rarely white. 
Leaflets usually 5. 

Stem and leaves glabrous or sparingly hairy. 3. P. purpurens. 

Stem rather densely short-hairy. 4. P. pubescens. 

Leaflets 7-17, oblong. 5. P. villosus. 

1. Petalostemon oligophyllus (Torn) Rydb. (P. graciles oligophyllus 
Torr.) On plains from Ass. to Iowa, Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. 
Ft. Collins; east of Colorado Springs; Canon City; New Windsor, Weld Co.; 
Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Pueblo; Poudre River; Arkansas River; 
Fossil Creek ; Dixon Canon ; Boulder. 

2. Petalostemon compactus (Spreng.) Sweezy. (Dalea compacta Spreng. ; 
P. macrostachyus Torr.) On dry plains from Neb. to Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Denver ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; near Timnath ; Ft. 
Collins. 

3. Petalostemon purpureus (Vent.) Rydb. (P. violaccus Michx.) On plains 
and prairies from Ind., Sask. and Alb. to Mo. and N. M. Alt. 4000-7000 
ft. Colorado Springs; Boulder; La Porte, Larimer Co.; Sterling, Logan 
Co. ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Denver ; Ft. Collins ; Spring Canon ; 
Horsetooth Gulch ; Boulder. 

4. Petalostemon pubescens A. Nelson. Plains of Colo. Berwind. 

5. Petalostemon villosum Nutt. In sandy soil from Sask. and Mont, to 
Mo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Sterling, Logan Co. 

33. HEDYSARUM L. 

Calyx-teeth shorter than the tube ; reticulations of the pod polygonal. 

1. H. marginatnin. 
Calyx-teeth longer than the tube ; reticulations of the pods transversely elongated, 

usually reaching from the middle to the margins, without cross-veins. 
Leaflets elliptic-oblong, not fleshy; flowers 12-15 mm. long, purple; bracts lan- 
ceolate-subulate, 3-5 mm. long; internodes of the fruit 3-5. 

2. H. pabulare. 
Leaflets linear-oblong, somewhat fleshy; flowers about 10 mm. long, rose-purple; 

bracts lanceolate, 1.5-2 mm. long; internodes of the fruit 1-3. 

3. H. carnosulwn. 

1. Hedysarum marginatum Greene. (H. uintahcnsc A. Nels.) On wooded 
hillsides of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Near La Plata Post Office ; 
Pagosa Springs ; Hesperus. 

2. Hedysarum pabulare A. Nelson. (H. Bakcri Greene) On hills of 
Colo, and N. M. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. Mancos ; Cimarron ; Canon City, Fre- 
mont Co. ; Dolores ; Palisades. 



216 FABACEA.E. 

3. Hedysarum carnosulum Greene. On dry hills from Colo, to N. M. and 
Ariz. Canon City; Cedar Hills. 

34. ONOBRYCHIS Scop. SAND-FOIN. 

i. Onobrychis Onobrychis (L.) Rydb. (O. sativa Lam.) Cultivated and 
occasionally escaped from Mont, to Colo. Alt. about 8000 ft. Walsenburg. 

33. VICIA L. VETCH. 

Racemes 3-4o-flowered ; flowers 1-2.5 cm. long. 
Leaves decidedly pubescent. 

Stipules semi-sagittate, not toothed. i. V. caespitosa. 

Stipules broadly semi-hastate, strongly toothed. 2. V. trifida. 

Leaves glabrous or sparingly pubescent when young. 
Leaflets linear or oblong to oval, not toothed. 

Leaflets oblong or linear, rather thick and strongly veined. 
Stipules narrowly semi-sagittate ; often entire. 

Leaflets elongated, narrowly linear ; plant low. 3. V. sparsifolia. 

Leaflets, at least the upper ones, oblong or linear-oblong; plant tall, 
climbing. 4. V. dissitifolia. 

Stipules broadly semi-hastate or semi-orbicular in outline, sharply toothed. 

5. V. oregana. 

Leaflets usually oval, thin and not strongly veined. 6. V. americana. 

Leaflets obovate-cuneate, truncate and toothed at the apex. 7. V. californica. 
Racemes i-2-flowered ; flowers 5-6 mm. long. 8. l r . producta. 

1. Vicia caespitosa A. Nelson. In mountain valleys of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 5000-7500 ft. Dixon Canon Creek ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Cache la Poudre ; 
Ft. Collins ; Manitou ; Colorado City. 

2. Vicia trifida D. Dietr. In river valleys from Minn, and Mont, to Neb. 
and Colo. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Mesas near Pueblo ; Cucharas River, below 
La Veta ; Veta Pass ; butte five miles southwest of La Veta ; mesas near 
Colorado Springs ; Ft. Collins ; Routt Co. ; Campton's ranch. North Poudre ; 
Moon's ranch ; Spring Canon ; Empire. 

3. Vicia sparsifolia Null. (Lathynts Uncarts Nutt. ; }'. lincaris Greene) 
On prairies and in valleys from Man., Alb. and Ida. to Kans. and Calif. 
Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Florissant; Denver; Arboles ; Turkey Creek and tribu- 
taries; Roswell; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; Table Rock. 

4. Vicia dissitifolia (Nutt.) Rydb. (Lathyrus dissitifoliits Nutt.) In val- 
leys of Neb. and Colo. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Lake City; Bob Creek, West La 
Plata Mountains ; Colorado Springs ; Mancos Canon ; Roswell ; Green Moun- 
tain Falls; Walcott ; New Windsor; Dillon Canon, Trinidad; Empire. 

5. Vicia oregana Nutt. (V. Americana tnincata Port. & Coult., in part.) 
On river banks from Minn., Sask. and Wash, to Kans. and Calif. Alt. 4000- 
10,000 ft. Palmer Lake; Denver; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; 
Upper La Plata Canon ; Mancos. 

6. Vicia americana Muhl. On prairies and in rich river valleys from N. 
B. and Ida. to Va. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Cucharas River, below 
La Veta ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Glenwood Springs ; White River Plateau ; 
Walsenburg; Walcott, Eagle Co.; Cerro Summit; southeast of Ouray; Big 
Creek Gulch ; Empire. 

7. Vicia californica Greene. In river valleys from Calif, and Wyo. to 
Colo. Alt. about 7500 ft. A doubtful specimen from Ridgeway. 



FABACEAE. 217 

8. Vicia producta Rydb. On gravelly hills and sides of canons from Colo, 
and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Butte five miles southwest 
of La Veta; Brandy Canon, Las Animas Co.; Spring Caiion. 

34. LATHYRUS L. VELCHLING, MARSH PEA. 

Flowers less than 18 mm. long; corolla white. 

Leaflets oval to oblong. i. L. Icitcanthus. 

Leaflets linear. 2. L. arizonicus. 

Flowers about 2 cm. or more. 

Corolla purple. 

Stipules large and broad, about half as long as the leaflets. 

3. L. utahensis. 
Stipules narrow, less than half as long as the leaflets. 

Leaflets elliptic to oval ; upper leaves at least with well deveoped tendrils. 

4. L. decapetalus. 
Leaflets linear or nearly so ; tendrils reduced to cusps or small appendages. 

Plant glabrous or nearly so. 5. L. ornatus. 

Plant decidedly villous-pubescent. 6. L. incanns. 

Corolla white or yellowish. /. L. laetivirens. 

1. Lathyrus leucanthus Rydb. Hillsides, among bushes and open woods, 
in Colo, and N. M. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. Empire; Veta Pass; Ojo; above 
Mancos; Boulder; Tennessee Pass, Lake Co.; Pass Creek; mountain near 
Veta Pass; Rico, Dolores Co.; West Indian Creek; Los Pinos (Bayfield) ; 
North Park, near Teller ; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron ; Victoria ; 
Leroux Creek; Michigan Fork; Spicer. 

2. Lathyrus arizonicus Britton. On wooded hillsides from Colo, to Ariz. 
Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. West Mancos Canon; Mt. Hesperus; Grayback mining 
camps and Placer Gulch; Pass Creek; Iron Mountain; West Indian Creek. 

3. Lathyrus utahensis Jones. In valleys of Utah and Colo. Parrott ; 
Durango. 

4. Lathyrus decapetalus Pursh. On plains and table-lands from Colo, and 
Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Cato ; Cucharas River, below 
La Veta ; Calhan ; Mancos ; Palmer Lake ; Robinson ; Mancos Caiion ; Swal- 
lows, between Pueblo and Canon City ; Gunnison ; Sapinero. 

5. Lathyrus ornatus Nutt. On prairies and plains, S. D. and Wyo. to Ind. 
Terr, and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Mesas near Colorado Springs ; Dillon 
Caiion; along Conejos River, north of Antonito ; Dolores; Colorado City. 

6. Lathyrus incanus (Rydb. & Smith) Rydb. (L. ornatus incanns Rydb. 
& Smith.) On sandy plains from Neb. and Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 
4000-8000 ft. Table Rock ; Palmer Lake ; Calhan. 

7. Lathyrus laetivirens Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 
8000 ft. Cerro Summit; Steamboat Springs. 

Order 28. GERANIALES. 

Plants destitute of secreting glands or cells in the tissue. 

Styles united around a central column from which they break at maturity. 

Fam. 72. GERANIACEAE. 
Styles distinct or permanently united. 

Styles distinct or partly .united ; the tips and the stigmas free. 

Leaves simple ; stamens 5. 73. LINACEAE. 

Leaves compound; stamens 10-15. 74. OXALIDACEAE. 

Styles and stigmas permanently united. 75. ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. 

Plants with secreting glands often in the leaves or only in the bark. 

76. RUTACEAE. 



218 GERANIACEAE. 

Family 72. GERANIACEAE J. St. Hill. GERANIUM FAMILY. 

Leaves in ours digitately divided or lobed ; tails of the ripening carpels dehiscent, 
merely arched, glabrous on the inner face. i. GERANIUM. 

Leaves pinnately dissected ; tails of the ripening carpels, if dehiscent, twisted 
below and bearded on the inner face. 2. ERODIUM. 

i. GERANIUM L. CRANEBILL, GERANIUM. 

Petals 1-2 cm. long. 

Plant erect, tall, scarcely cespitose ; divisions of the leaves rhombic in out- 
line ; the terminal tooth much longer than the rest; petals white (some- 
times slightly tinged with rose) and purple-veined. 
Lower part of the stem glabrous or with scattered spreading villous or 

glandular hairs. i. G. Richardsonii. 

Lower part of the stem with short reflexed and appressed hairs. 

Slender; leaves and calyx sparingly pubescent. 2. G. gracilentuni. 

Stout ; calyx and leaves densely pubescent, the latter almost grayish. 
Veins of the petals weak ; calyx only sparingly glandular. 

3. G. Cowenii. 
Veins of the petals very strong ; calyx densely glandular. 

4. G. nervosiDii. 
Plant more or less cespitose ; stems ascending or spreading ; divisions of the 

leaves obovate-cuneate ; the terminal tooth only slightly longer than the 
rest ; petals purplish. 

Petals broadly obovate to obcordate ; light purple with darker veins. 
Stem glandular-villous with long spreading hairs. 

Teeth of the leaves ovate to lanceolate, acute. 5. G. Parryi. 

Teeth of the leaves broadly ovate, abruptly short-acuminate. 

6. G. Pattersonii. 
Lower part of the stem grayish-pubescent with reflexed hairs, not glandular. 

Teeth of the leaves very short and broad ; stem diffuse ; petals obcordate. 

7. G. Fremontii. 
Teeth of the leaves elongated, lanceolate ; stem more upright ; petals 

obovate. 8. G. caespitosum. 

Petals narrowly obovate, dark purple ; plant not at all glandular. 

9. G. atropHrpnreum. 
Petals 5-7 mm. long. 10. G. Bicknellii. 

1. Geranium Richardsonii Fish. & Traut. In meadows from Sask. and B. C. 
to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Honnold ; Rabbit-Ear Pass ; Bob 
Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co. ; camp on 
Grizzly near foot of Rabbit-Ear Range. 

2. Geranium gracilentum Greene. In mountain valleys from Colo, to N. M. 
and Ariz. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Pike's Peak; 
Piedra ; Mancos ; 4 miles west of Cameron Pass ; near Veta Pass ; near La 
Plata Post Office; La Plata Canon; Columbine, Middle Park; Box Canon, 
west of Ouray ; Bosworth's ; Beaver Creek ; bank of Elk River, Routt Co. ; 
Trail Creek bottom ; Rico ; Silverton ; northwest of Dolores. 

3. Geranium Cowenii Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. 
Hills, Larimer Co. ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Rist Canon ; La Veta. 

4. Geranium nervosum Rydb. In the mountains of Wyo. and Ida. to Utah 
and Colo. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Pike's Peak; Grizzly Creek; Continental Di- 
vide, Routt Co. ; Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co. ; Steamboat Springs. 

5. Geranium Parryi (Engelm.) Heller. (G. Fremontii Parryi Engelm.) In 
the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Pike's Peak: head- 



GERANIACEAE. 219 

waters of Clear Creek ; Colorado Springs ; Idaho Springs ; Manitou ; Platte 
Canon ; vicinity of Arthur's Rock ; near Boulder. 

6. Geranium Pattersonii Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000-12,000 
ft. Near Empire; Douglas Mountain. Empire; Gray's Peak; Ute Pass; North 
Cheyenne Canon ; Palmer Lake ; near Narrows ; Platte Canon ; Eldora to 
Baltimore. 

7. Geranium Fremontii A. Gray. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. up to 
9000 ft. Sand Creek Pass. 

8. Geranium caespitosum James. On hills and in dry mountain valleys 
from Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000. Grayback mining camps and Placer 
Gulch; foothills of Larimer Co.; Turkey Creek and tributaries; Sangre de 
Cristo Creek ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Dixon Canon. 

9. Geranium atropurpureum Heller. On hills from Colo, to N. M. and 
Ariz. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Box Canon, west of Ouray ; Arboles ; Ouray ; 
Mancos ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Dixon Canon Creek ; Dolores. 

10. Geranium Bicknellii Britton. In waste places and on hillsides from 
N. S. and B. C. to N. Y. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Fish Creek Falls. 

2. ERODIUM L. 

i. Erodium cicutarium L. In waste places from N. S. and Ore. to N. J., 
Colo, and Calif. ; also Mex. Introduced from Europe. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. 
Cucharas River, below La Veta ; South Cheyenne Canon ; Colorado Springs ; 
Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co.; Deer River; Palisades; Hotchkiss; Ft. Col- 
lins ; Boulder. 

Family 73. LINACEAE Dumont. FLAX FAMILY. 
i. LINUM L. FLAX. 

Petals blue ; sepals not glandular-ciliate. 

Annual. i. L. usitatissimum. 

Perennial. 2. L. Lewisii. 

Petals yellow ; sepals usually glandular-ciliate. 

Sepals long-acuminate-aristate, twice as long as the pod. 3. L. aristatiim. 
Sepals not more than half longer than the pod. 

Petals less than i cm. long : sepals merely keeled or slightly wing-crested. 
Stem glabrous or slightly and minutely puberulent. 

Lateral veins of the sepals indistinct at least below ; petals 6-7 mm. long. 

4. L. australe. 
Lateral veins of the sepals strong ; petals about 8 mm. long. 

5. L. rigidum. 
Stem densely puberulent. 6. L. puberulnm. 

Petals over i cm. long: sepals strongly wing-crested. 7. L. arkansanum. 

1. Linum usitatissimum L. In waste places, escaped from cultivation; 
native of Europe. Ft. Collins. 

2. Linum Lewisii Pursh. (L. pcrcnnc of Coult. Man.; not L.) On dry 
plains and hills from Mackenzie and Yukon to Tex. and Calif.; also Mr\. 
Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Cimarron ; mesas near Pueblo; Ft. Collins; Los Pinos 
(Bayfield) ; Mancos; West Mancos Carion ; Veta Pass; New Windsor, Weld 
Co.; Palmer Lake; north of La Porte; Dixon Canon; foot-hills, Larimer 
Co. ; Spring Canon ; Harm's Peak. 



220 LINACEAE. 

3. Linum aristatum Engelm. In arid places from Colo, and Utah to Tex. 
and Ariz. " Colorado " ; exact locality not given. 

4. Linum australe Heller. On dry plains and hills from Colo, to N. M. 
and Ariz. ; also Mex. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Arboles ; La Veta ; Mancos Canon ; 
Dixon Canon ; Durango. 

5. Linum rigidum Pursh. On dry plains and hills from Sask. and Alb. to 
Mo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Livermore, Larimer Co. ; foot-hills western 
Larimer Co. ; Dillon ; Durango. 

6. Linum puberulum (Engelm.) Heller. (L. rigidum pubendiim Engelm.) 
On dry plains and hills from Colo, and Nev. to Tex. and Calif.- Alt. 4000- 
6000 ft. Grand Junction ; Walsenburg. 

7. Linum arkansanum Osterh. Sandy soil from Neb. and Colo, to Kans. 
and Tex. Rocky Fork, Otero Co. 

Family 74. OXALIDACEAE Lindl. WOOD-SORREL FAMILY. 

Plants acaulescent, perennial with bulb-like rootstock; corolla rose-violet, 

i. IONOXALIS. 

Plants caulescent, not succulent, annuals or perennials with slender rootstock ; 
corolla yellow. 2. XANTHOXALIS. 

i. IONOXALIS Small. VIOLET WOOD-SORREL. 

i. lonoxalis violacea (L.) Small. (Oxalis z'iolacea L.) On prairies and in 
valleys from New England and Minn, to Fla. and Colo. Glen Eyrie. 

2. XANTHOXALIS Small. YELLOW WOOD-SORREL, SOURGRASS. 

Inflorescence umbellike ; pods pubescent. i. X. stricta. 

Inflorescence dichotomous-cymose ; pods glabrous. 2. X. coloradensis. 

1. Xantoxalis stricta (L.) Small. (Oxalis stricta L.) In woods, culti- 
vated soil and roadsides, from N. S. and S. D. to Fla., Tex. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-8000 ft. Boulder; Pagosa Springs; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; gulch west 
of Pennock's ; mountains northeast of Dolores ; Howe's Gulch ; Redstone ; 
Horsetooth Gulch. 

2. Xantoxalis coloradensis Rydb. In gulches and in river valleys of Colo, 
and Black Hills of S. D. Alt 5000-9000 ft. Gulch in foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; 
Sangre de Cristo Creek ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; along Poudre ; Redstone ; 
Ft. Collins ; Mason's river-front farm. 



Family 75. ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Lindl. CALTROP FAMILY. 

Herbs; albumen none; fruit not villous ; carpels 10-12. i. KALSTROEMIA. 

Shrubs ; albumen horny ; fruit villous ; carpels 5. 2. COVILLEA. 

i. .KALSTROEMIA Scop. 

Sepals lanceolate, appressed-pubescent. i. AT. maxima. 

Sepals linear-subulate, bristly hirsute. 2. K. hirsntissima. 

i. Kalstroemia maxima (L.) T. & G. (T rib id us ina.riiiius L.) Waste 
places and sandy soil in the Gulf States. Rocky Ford. 



ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. 221 

2. Kalstroemia hirsutissima Vail. On plains and prairies from Kans. and 
Colo, to Tex. and N. M. ; also Mex. Canon City ; Pueblo. 

2. COVILLEA Vail. CREOSOTE BUSH. 

i. Covillea tridentata (DC.) Vail. (Larrca mexicana Moricand) Arid 
districts from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and S. Calif." So. Colo.," exact 
locality not given. 

Family 76. RUTACEAE Juss. RUE FAMILY. 

Fuit a capsule; leaves unifoliolate ; stamens 8. i. THAMNOSMA. 

Fruit an indehiscent samara ; leaves 3-foliolate ; stamens 4-5. 2. PTELEA. 

i. THAMNOSMA Torr. & Frem. 

i. Thamnosma texanum Torr. Dry plains from Colo, to Tex. and N. 

Mex. ; also in Alex. Alt. up to 5400 ft. Soda spring ledge, Canon City 
(Brandegce). 

2. PTELEA L. HOP-TREE, WATER ASH. 

Samara truncate at the apex. i. P. angustifolia. 

Samara emarginate at the apex. 2. P. crenulata. 

1. Ptelea angustifolia Benth. Along streams from Colo, to Tex. and N. 
M. ; also in Mex. Canon City ; Florence. 

2. Ptelea crenulata Greene. Along streams from Colo, to N. M. and Calif. 
Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co. 

Order 29. POLYGALALES. 

Family 77. POLYGALACEAE Reichenb. MILK.WORT FAMILY. 
i. POLYGALA L. MILKWORT. 

Stems herbaceous, unarmed ; keel with a fimbriate crest. 

Perennial ; leaves alternate. i. P. alba. 

Annual ; leaves verticillate. 2. P. verticillata. 

More or less spiny undershrubs ; keel not crested, but with a beak. 

Plant 5-15 cm. high; flowers 7-10 mm. long. 3. P. subspinosa. 

Plant 6-10 dm. high; flowers 3-4 mm. long. 4. P. acanthoclada. 

1. Polygala alba Nutt. On plains from S. D. to Tex. and Ariz. Exact 
locality not given. 

2. Polygala verticillata L. On grassy places from Que. and Sask. to Fla. 
and Colo. Clear Creek. 

3. Polygala subspinosa S. Wats. On dry mesas from Colo and Nev. to 
N. M. and Ariz. Alt. about 5000 ft. Grand Junction ; Gunnison Mesa. 

4. Polygala acanthoclada A. Gray. In dry valleys from Colo, and Nev. to 
Ariz. San Juan Valley. 

Order 30. EUPHORBIALES. 

Styles and stigmas distinct or mainly so, cleft or foliaceous ; ovary 3-celled (rarely 

2-celled); land-plants. 78. EL-IMIOKHIAI i \i . 

Styles united by pairs ; ovary 4-celled ; small water- or mud-plants. 

79. CALLITRICUACKAE 



222 EUPHORBIACEAE. 

Family 78. EUPHORBIACEAE St. Hill. SPURGE FAMILY. 

Flowers not in an involucre ; calyx of several sepals. 
Petals present, at least in the staminate flowers. 

Stamens 6; filaments distinct. i. CROTOX. 

Stamens 10; filaments monadelphous. 2. DITAXIS. 

Corolla wanting; stamens 1-3. 3. TRAGIA. 

Flowers in involucres ; calyx represented by minute scales at the base of filament- 
like pedicels. 
Glands of the involucres with petal-like appendages ; these however sometimes 

much reduced. 
Leaves all opposite. 

Glands of the involucres 4 ; leaves inequilateral, usually oblique at the base. 

4. CHAMAESYCE. 
Glands of the involucres 5 ; leaves equilateral, not oblique at the base. 

5. ZYGOPHYLLIDIUM. 

Leaves alternate or scattered, at least below the inflorescence ; bracts petal- 
like. 6. DlCHROPHYLLUM. 

Glands of the inflorescence without petal-like appendages ; entirely naked 

or with a crescent-like horn. 
Stem topped by an umbel ; stipules none ; involucres in open cymes, each 

with 4 glands and entire or toothed lobes. 7. TITHYMALUS. 

Stem not topped by an umbel ; stipules gland-like ; involucres in cluster-like 
cymes ; each with a single gland or rarely with 4 glands and fimbriate lobes. 

8. POINSETTIA. 
i. CROTON L. 

i. Croton texensis (Klotzsch) Muell. Arg. In sandy soil from 111. and 
Wyo. to Ala. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. New Windsor ; 
Crow Creek ; Canon City ; Longmont ; Boulder ; La Salle. 

2. DITAXIS Vahl. 

i. Ditaxis humilis ( Engelm. & Gray) Pax. (Argythamnia humilis Muell.) 
On prairies from Kans. and Colo, to La. and Tex. " Southern Colorado." 

3. TRAGIA. 

i. Tragia ramosa Torr. In dry soil from Mo. and Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; 
also Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Boulder; Denver; Castle Rock; Larimer Co.: 
Arboles; Walsenburg; Trinidad; Horsetooth Gulch; Spring Canon; gulch 
west of Pennock's ; Ute Creek; Pennock's ; Spring Canon. 

4. CHAMAESYCE S. F. Gray. SPURGE. 
Leaves entire. 

Annuals or biennials. 

Plants prostrate; leaf-blades nearly orbicular. i. C. serpens. 

Plants more or less ascending or erect ; leaf-blades linear or linear-lanceolate. 
Capsule less than 1.5 mm. long. 2. C. revoluta. 

Capsule about 2 mm. long or more. 

Appendages of the glands conspicuous, white. 3. C. petaloidea. 

Appendages inconspicuous, greenish-white, or obsolete. 

4. C. flagelliformis. 
Perennials. 

Leaves glabrous. 

Glands transversely oval ; appendages fan-shaped, white, petalloid. 

5. C. albomarginata. 
Glands oval ; appendages crescent-shaped, much narrower than the gland. 

greenish. 6. C. Fendleri. 

Leaves pubescent. 7. C. lata. 



EUPHORBIACEAE. 

Leaves toothed, but sometimes only at the apex. 
Capsule, stem and leaves glabrous. 

Seeds strongly transversely wrinkled. 8. C. glyptosperma. 

Seeds pitted or irregularly and faintly wrinkled. 

Seeds deeply and irregularly pitted. 9. C. rugulosa. 

Seeds faintly pitted or wrinkled. 

Leaves oblong ; seeds usually with a white bloom. 

10. C. serpyllifolia. 
Leaves linear; seeds brownish, usually without bloom. 

11. C. albicaulis. 
Capsule, stem and leaves pubescent. 12. C. stictospora. 

1. Chamaesyce serpens (H. B. K.) Small. (Euphorbia serpens H. B. K.) 
On prairies from Ont. and S. D. to Fla. and Ariz. ; also Mex. New Windsor, 
Weld Co. 

2. Chamaesyce revoluta (Engelm.) Small. (E. revolnta Engelm.) On hill- 
sides from Tex. and Colo, to N. M. ; also northern Mex. Canon City. 

3. Chamaesyce petaloidea (Engelm.) Small. (E. petaloidea Engelm.) On 
prairies and hillsides, especially in sandy soils, from Iowa and Wyo. to Tex. 
and Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Boulder ; La Veta ; Crow Creek ; Longmont ; 
Boulder Canon. 

4. Chamaesyce flagelliformis (Engelm.) Rydb. (E. petaloidea flagelliformis 
Engelm.; E. flagelliformis Engelm.) In dry soil from Colo, to Tex. and N. 
M. " Southwestern Colorado." 

5. Chamaesyce albomarginata (T. & G.) Small. (E. alb o mar gin at a T. & 
G.) In dry soil from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and Calif.; also Mex. Upper 
Platte. 

6. Chamaesyce Fendleri (T. & G.) Small. (E. Fendleri T. & G.) On 
dry hills, in sandy soil, from Neb. and Wyo. to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 
ft. Foot-hills near Boulder; Trinidad; Canon City; Black's Lake; Cedar 
Hills. 

7. Chamaesyce lata (Engelm.) Small. (E. lata Engelm.) On plains and 
prairies from Kans. and Colo, to Tex. and N. M. " Southwestern Colorado." 

8. Chamaesyce glyptosperma (Engelm.) Small. (E. glyptosperma Engelm.) 
In sandy soil from Ont. and B. C. to Tex. and Mex. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. 
Colorado Springs; Denver; Deer Run; Canon City: Pueblo; Boulder; Fort 
Collins ; Manitou ; New Windsor ; gulch west of Soldier Canon ; Miller's 
ranch, between Fort Collins and La Porte ; Horsetooth Gulch. 

9. Chamaesyce rugulosa (Engelm.) Rydb. (E. serpyllifolia rugulosa 
Engelm.) In sandy soil from Wyo. to N. M. and Calif. Mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward ; gulch west of Soldier Canon ; between Porter and 
Durango. 

10. Chamaesyce serpyllifolia (Pers.) Small. (E. serpyllifolia Pers.) In 
dry soil from Mich, and Wash, to Tex. and Calif. ; also Mex. Alt. 4000-8000 
ft. Antonito ; Lyons ; Arboles ; Gunnison ; Durango ; Manitou ; Parlin ; 
Boulder Co.; Box Canon west of Ouray; between Fort Collins and La Porte; 
Rocky Ford. 

11. Chamaesyce albicaulis Rydb. (E. albicaulis Rydb.) In old fields and 
sandy soil from Neb. and Mont, to N. Mex. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Foot-hills 
west of Fort Collins. 



224 EUPHORBIACEAE. 

12. Chamaesyce stictospora (Engelm.) Small. (E. stictospora Engelm.) 
On prairies and plains from Kans. and Colo, to Mex. and Ariz. Alt. 5000- 
7000 ft. Canon City; Pueblo; south of Fort Collins. 

5. ZYGOPHYLLIDIUM Small. 

i. Zygophyllidium hexagonum (Nutt.) Small. (Euphorbia hexagona Nutt.) 
In river valleys from Iowa and Mont, to Tex. and Colo. Plains near Denver. 

6. DICHROPHYLLUM Kl. & Garcke. SNOW-ON-THE-MOUNTAIN. 

i. Dichrophyllum marginatum (Pursh) Kl. & Garcke. (Euphorbia mar- 
ginata Pursh) In pastures from Minn, and Mont, to Tex. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-7000 ft. Rocky Mountains ; Boulder ; sources of the Platte ; Fort Col- 
lins ; New Windsor ; Dry Creek, Larimer Co. ; La Veta ; Denver ; Nepesta. 

7. TITHYMALUS Kl. & Garcke. SPURGE. 

Leaves entire ; glands of the involucres with processes. 
Plants perennial ; processes short and blunt. 

Stem-leaves linear; capsule rough; seeds smooth. i. T. Cyparissias. 

Stem-leaves from oblong or oblanceolate to orbicular ; capsule smooth ; 

seeds pitted. 

Bracts rhombic-ovate, cuspidate ; stem rather slender. 2. T. montaiius. 
Bracts rhombic-reniform, mucronate ; stem stout. 3. T. robtistus. 

Plants annual ; processes of the glands long and horn-like ; seeds pitted. 

4. T. crenulatus. 
Leaves distinctly serrulate ; plants annual or biennial ; glands without processes. 

Upper stem-leaves merely sessile ; bracts manifestly longer than broad. 

5. T. arkansanus. 
Upper stem-leaves with small basal lobes : bracts mostly broader than long. 

6. T. inissonriensis. 

1. Tithymalus Cyparissias (L.) Lam. (Euphorbia Cyparissias L.) Escaped 
from cultivation from Mass, and Colo, to Va. Fort Collins. 

2. Tithymalus montanus (Engelm.) Small. (Euphorbia montana Engelm.) 
On dry hills from Colo, and Utah to Tex and Ariz. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. 
Cimarron ; Buena Vista. 

3. Tithymalus robustus (Engelm.) Small. (E. montana robusta Engelm.) 
On dry hills from Mont, and S. D. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8000 ft 
Cimarron ; Cucharas River, La Veta ; Colorado Springs ; Alamosa ; Larimer 
Co. ; Gunnison ; Arboles ; Fort Collins ; Longmont ; Pike's Peak trail ; Poudre 
River; Fort Collins; along Purgatory River; Fossil Creek; Rist Canon; 
Colorado Springs. 

4. Tithymalus crenulatus (Engelm.) Heller. (E. crcnulata Engelm.) On 
hillsides from Colo, to Calif, and Ariz. Mancos ; Horsetooth Gulch. 

5. Tithymalus arkansanus (Engelm. & Gray) Kl. & Garcke. (E. arkansana 
Engelm. & Gray) In dry soil from Mo. and S. D. to Ala. and Ariz. Alt. 
4000-6000 ft. Larimer Co. ; Boulder ; Horsetooth Gulch. 

Tithymalus arkansanus coloradensis (Norton) Rydb. Floral leaves ellip- 
tical. McElmo Canon ; Larimer Co. 

6. Tithymalus missouriensis (Norton) Small. (Euphorbia dictyospenna 
Coulter; not F. & M. ; E. arkansana missouriensis Norton) In sandy soil 
from Iowa and Wash, to Kans. and N. M. Denver. 



EUPHORBIACEAE. 225 

8. POINSETTIA Graham. SPURGE. 

Seeds not prominently tubercled ; glands of the involucre 3-4 ; leaf-blades linear 
or linear-lanceolate. i. P. cuphosperma. 

Seeds prominently tubercled ; gland of the involucre solitary ; leaf-blades ovate 
to lanceolate (linear-lanceolate only in one variety). 2. P. dentata. 

1. Poinsettia cuphosperma (Boiss.) Small. (Euphorbia cuphosperma Boiss.) 
In canons and hillsides from S. D. and Wyo. to Tex. and Ariz. ; also Mex. 
Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Manitou ; Canon City. 

2. Poinsettia dentata (Michx.) Small. (Euphorbia dentata Michx.) In 
moist soil from Pa. and S. D. to La., Mex. and Utah. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. 
Boulder ; Fort Collins ; New Windsor. A rare variety with nearly linear 
leaves. Fort Collins. 

Family 79. CALLITRICHACEAE Lindl. WATER STARWORT FAMILY. 
i. CALLITRICHE L. WATER STARWORT. 

i. Callitriche palustris L. In shallow running water from N. S. and B. C. 
to Fla. and Calif. ; also Europe, Asia and S. Am. Leroux Parks, Delta Co. ; 
Ft. Collins; Boulder. 

Order 31. SAPINDALES. 

Low annual herbs ; stamens twice as many as the sepals and petals. 

So. LlMNANTHACEAE. 

Shrubs or trees ; stamens usually as many as the petals or sepals. 
Stamens opposite the sepals. 

Plants with resiniferous tissue ; fruit drupaceous ; seeds without aril ; leaves 

in ours compound. 81. SPONDIACEAE. 

Plants without resiniferous tissue ; fruit a loculicidal capsule ; seed with a 

fleshy aril ; leaves simple. 82. CELASTRACEAE. 

Stamens alternate with the sepals ; fruit a double samara ; leaves opposite.. 

83. ACERACEAE. 

Family 80. LlMNANTHACEAE Lindl. FALSE MERMAID FAMILY. 

i. FLOERKIA Willd. FALSE MERMAID. 

i. Floerkia occidentalis Rydb. In wet soil from Wyo. and Wash, to Colo, 
and Utah. Steamboat Springs ; Gunnison Co. 

Family 81. SPONDIACEAE Kunth. SUMAC FAMILY. 

Drupe with glabrous outer coat ; stone ribbed ; plants poisonous to touch. 

1. RHUS. 
Drupe with pubescent outer coat ; stone smooth ; plants not poisonous. 

2. SCHMALTZIA. 

i. RHUS L. POISON OAK, POISON IVY. 

i. Rhus Rydbergii Small. On plains, hills and among bushes from Mont, 
and B. C. to Nebr. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Ft. Collins ; foot-hills near 
Boulder. 

15 



226 LIMNANTHACEAE. 

2. SCHMALTZIA Desv. SUMAC. 

Leaflets 9-31 ; flowers appearing after the leaves. i. 5". glabra. 

Leaflets 1-3 ; flowers appearing before the leaves. 2. S. trilobata. 

1. Schmaltzia glabra (L.) Small. (Rims glabra L.) Along streams, in 
thickets and on hills from N. S. and B. C. to Fla. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 
ft. Cheyenne Canon, near Pike's Peak; Lower Boulder Canon, Boulder Co.; 
foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; vicinity of Arthur's Rock ; gulch west of Pennock's. 

2. Schmaltzia trilobata (Nutt.) Small. (Rhus trilobata Nutt.) On dry 
hills from Ass. and Wash, to Mo., Tex. and Calif. ; also Mex. Alt. 4000-8000 
ft. Boulder; Colorado Springs; Buena Vista; Trinidad; southeast of La 
Veta ; Manitou ; Ft. Collins; Cedar Hills; along Poudre; Rist Canon; Horse- 
tooth Gulch; gulch west of Soldier Canon; Spring Canon; Howe's Gulch. 

Family 82. CELASTRACEAE Lindl. STAFF-TREE FAMILY. 

Petals, sepals and stamens 4 ; ovary 2-celled ; each cell with 2 ovules ; depressed 

or trailing evergreen shrubs, not spiny. i. PACHYSTIMA. 

Petals and sepals 5; stamens 5-10; ovary i -celled with 2 ovules; small erect 

shrubs with angled, green, often spinescent branches. J. FORSELLESIA. 

i. PACHYSTIMA Raf. 

i. Pachystima Myrsinites (Pursh) Raf. In woods from Mont, and B. C. 
to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; near 
Empire ; Mt. Ouray ; Crystal Creek ; East and West Indian Creek ; near La 
Plata Post Office ; Steamboat Springs ; Glenwood Springs ; Four-Mile Hill, 
Routt Co. ; west and southeast of Ouray ; Rico ; Big Creek Gulch, Routt Co. ; 
Trapper's Lake ; Black Canon of Gunnison ; Ragged Mountain, Gunnison Co. ; 
mountains near Silverton; bank of Fish Creek; Hematite. 

2. FORSELLESIA. Greene. 

Stamens 5-7. i. F. meionandra. 

Stamens 10. 2. F. spinescens. 

1. Forsellesia meionandra (Koehne) Heller. (Glossopetalon meionandrum 
Koehne) In arid regions of southern Colorado. Exact location not given. 

2. Forsellesia spinescens (A. Gray) Greene. (Glossopetalon spinescens A. 
Gray) In desert regions from Ore. to Tex. and Calif. Grand Junction; 
Hovensweep Castle (Brandegee). 



Family 83. ACERACEAE J. St. Hil. MAPLE FAMILY. 

Leaves with simple or rarely digitately divided blades ; flowers polygamo-dioecious. 

i. ACER. 
Leaves with pinnately compound blades ; flowers dioecious. 2. RULAC. 

i. ACER L. MAPLE. 

Flowers polygamous in racemes or corymbs ; petals and sepals both present ; 

disk well developed; lobes of the leaves toothed. i. A. glabrum. 

Flowers monoecious, in umbels ; petals lacking ; lobes of the leaves sinuate. 

2. A. grandidentatum. 



ACERACEAE. 227 

1. Acer glabrum Torr. In canons, on hillsides and along streams, from 
W. Neb. and Wyo. to N. M. and Utah. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Headwaters of 
Clear Creek; Hinsdale Co.; Pike's Peak; near Pagosa Peak; near La Plata 
Post Office ; Idaho Springs ; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins ; South Cheyenne 
Canon ; Colorado Springs ; Wahatoya Canon ; Ute Pass ; southeast of Ouray ; 
along Uncompahgre River near Ouray; Rist Canon; Dillon Canon; gulch 
west of Pennock's ; hills northwest of Soldier Canon ; Howe's Gulch ; Baxter's 
ranch ; Big Narrows on Poudre ; Ft. Collins ; Dolores ; North Poudre River ; 
Campton's ranch ; Horsetooth Gulch ; gulch west of Dixon Canon ; Redstone ; 
mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Eldora to Baltimore. 

2. Acer grandidentatum Nutt. In wooded valleys and canons from Mont, 
to Tex. and Ariz. Pike's Peak. 

2. RULAC Adans. BOX-ELDER, ASH-LEAVED MAPLE. 

Twigs and petioles essentially glabrous ; leaflets thin, coarsely toothed. 

i. R. Negundo. 
Twigs and petioles copiously pubescent ; leaflets thick, lobed. 2. R. texana. 

1. Rulac Negundo (L.) Hitchc. (Acer Negundo L. ; Negundo aceroides 
Moench. ) In low ground and along streams from Vt. and Ida. to Fla. and 
Tex. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. South Cheyenne Canon ; Colorado Springs. 

2. Rulac texanum (Pax.) Small. (Acer texanum Pax.) Along rivers from 
Sask. and Mont, to Mo. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-8500 ft. Southeast of Ouray ; 
Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Ft. Collins ; Walsenburg ; Cache la Poudre ; 
foot-hills near Boulder. 

Order 32. RHAMNALES. 

Sepals manifest ; petals involute ; fruit capsular or drupaceous ; ours shrubs or 

trees. 84. FRANGULACEAE. 

Sepals minute or obsolete ; petals valvate ; fruit a berry ; ours vines with tendrils. 

85. VITACEAE. 

Family 84. FRANGULACEAE DC. BUCKTHORN FAMILY. 

Fruit pulpy; petals small, clawless or wanting ; stigmas usually 2. 

i. I^HAMNUS. 
Fruit dry ; petals hooded and long-clawed ; stigmas 3. 2. CEANOTHUS. 

i. RHAMNUS L. BUCKTHORN. 

Leaves broadly elliptic or ovate ; flowers solitary in the axils ; carpels 3 or 4. 

i. R. cathartica. 
Leaves lanceolate ; flowers 2 or 3 in each axil ; carpels 2. 2. R. Smithii. 

1. Rhamnus cathartica L. Cultivated for hedges and escaped; native of 
Europe. Ft. Collins. 

2. Rhamnus Smithii Greene. Along streams in Colo, and N. Mex. Alt. 
about 7000 ft. Pagosa Springs. 

2. CEANOTHUS L. NEW JERSEY TEA. 

Leaf-blades rounded-oval, often cordate at the base, very shining above ; closely 

glandular-dentate. i. C. velutinus. 

Leaf-blades oblong to elliptic or ovate, glandular-serrate or sub-entire. 



FRANGULACEAE. 

Umbels mostly terminal ; leaves dull beneath, glabrate or villous. 

2. C. pnbescens. 
Umbels mostly axillary ; leaves silky beneath. 

Leaf-blades distinctly glandular-serrate ; plant not spiny. 3. C. subsericeus. 
Leaf-blades obsoletely denticulate or entire ; branches often ending in spines. 

4. C. Fendleri. 

1. Ceanothus velutinus Dougl. On hillsides from Mont, and B. C. to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; near Empire; 
Steamboat Springs; Walton Creek; Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co.; Sheephorn 
Divide ; between Pallas and Sydney ; Poudre Canon ; mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward; Pinkham Creek; Beaver Creek. 

2. Ceanothus pubescens (T. & G.) Rydb. (C. ovatus pubescens T. & G.) 
In sandy soil from Mich, and S. D. to Mo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. 
Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Colorado Springs ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; 
Horsetooth Mountain; Monument; Boulder. 

3. Ceanothus subsericeus Rydb. Foot-hills of Colo. Alt. about 6000 ft 
Larimer Co. 

4. Ceanothus Fendleri A. Gray. In woods and on hillsides from S. D. and 
Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-9000 ft.- Headwaters of Clear Creek ; 
Denver to Idaho Springs ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Mancos ; Pagosa Springs ; 
Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; Boulder; west of Ouray; Mt. 
Harvard; southeast of Ouray; Rist Canon; vicinity of Arthur's Rock, Lari- 
mer Co. ; Leroux Creek ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; 
Horsetooth Mountain ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 



Family 85. VITACEAE Lindl. GRAPE FAMILY. 

Hypogynous disk present; leaf-blades simple. i. VITIS. 

Hypogynous disk wanting or obsolete : leaf-blades digitately s-7-foliolate. 

2. PARTHENOCISSUS. 

i. VITIS L. GRAPES. 

i. Vitis vulpina L. (Vitis riparia Michx.) Along streams from N. B. 
and N. D. to W. Va., Tex. and Colo. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. W T alsenburg; Dixon 
Canon, Larimer Co.; Ft. Collins; banks of Cache la Poudre; Rist Canon; 
gulch west of Pennock's ; Boulder. 

2. PARTHENOCISSUS Planch. VIRGINIA CREEPER, AMERICAN IVY. 

Aerial rootlets present; tendrils with disks. i. P. quinquefolia. 

Aerial rootlets lacking; tendrils without disks. 2. P. laciniata. 

1. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. In woods and on banks from 
Que. and Man. to Fla. and Tex. Reported from Colorado (Meehan), but 
doubtful. 

2. Parthenocissus vitacea Hitchc. (P. quinquefolia laciniata Planch. ; P. 
lacinata Small) On river banks and in woods from Mich, and Wyo. to Ohio 
and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Cheyenne Canon ; Ft. 
Collins; North Cheyenne Canon ; Golden; vicinity of Arthur's Rock; near 
Boulder. 



MALVACEAE. 

Order 33. MAL VALES. 
Family 86. MALVACEAE Neck. MALLOW FAMILY. 

Style-branches filiform, longitudinally stigmatose anteriorly ; carpels numerous, 

indehiscent, containing a single ovule and a reniform seed. 
Stamens simply monadelphous ; flowers involucelled. 

Petals notched at the apex ; carpels beakless without internal processes. 

i . MALVA. 
Petals erose at the apex ; carpels beaked, with an internal process above 

the seed. 2. CALLIRRHOE. 

Stamens united in a double series ; flowers without involucels. 

3. SIDALCEA. 
Style-branches terminated by a capitate stigma. 

Lower seed at least from an ascending ovule ; calyx more or less bractioled. 
Ovule and seed solitary, conformed to the rounded cavity of the carpel. 

4. MALVASTRUM. 
Ovules 1-3 and seeds 1-2 ; the cells of the carpels more or less extended 

and empty above. 5- SPHAERALCEA. 

Lower seed at least resupinate-pendulous ; no involucels under the calyx, or 

these represented by 1-3 setaceous bractlets. 

Carpels i-ovuled, the cell filled with the seed. 6. SIDA. 

Carpels 3~9-ovuled, dehiscent apically and dorsally. 7. ABUTILON. 

i. MALVA L. MALLOW. 

Calyx not reflexed in fruit. 

Plant erect; leaves crisp. i. M. crispa. 

Plant procumbent ; leaves not crisp. 2. M. rotundifolia. 

Calyx large, reflexed-spreading in fruit. 3. M. parviflora. 

1. Malva crispa L. In waste places, escaped from gardens, from N. S. 
and S. D. to N. J. and Colo. Ft. Collins. 

2. Malva rotundifolia L. In waste places, naturalized from Europe; from 
Mass, and Minn, to Ga. and Utah. Alt. up to 7500 ft. North of La Veta; 
Hotchkiss; near Boulder; Denver. 

3. Malva parviflora L. In waste places, naturalized from Europe; from 
Mont, and B. C. to Fla., Tex. and Calif. Hotchkiss. 

2. CALLIRRHOE Nutt. POPPY MALLOW. 

i. Callirrhoe involucrata (T. & G.) A. Gray. On plains and in sandy 
soil from Mo. and Wyo. to Tex. and Utah. Ft. Collins; Cheyenne Cation; 
Yuma ; Colorado Springs. 

3. SIDALCEA A. Gray. 

Inflorescence and calyx densely stellate ; corolla cream-colored. 

1. S. Candida. 
Inflorescence and calyx sparingly hirsute ; corolla purple or white. 

2. S. neo-mexicana. 

i. Sidalcea Candida A. Gray. Along streams and in wet meadows from 
Wyo. to N. M. and Utah. Alt. 7000-13,000 ft. Lake City; La Veta; Steam- 
boat Springs; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Grizzly Creek; Cameron Pass; above 
Dix Post Office; Wahatoya Creek; West Spanish Peak; Cucharas Valley; 
Michigan Hill. 



230 MALVACEAE. 

2. Sidalcea neo-mexicana A. Gray. (S. malvae folia of Coult. Man.) In 
mountain valleys from Wyo. and Utah to N. M. and southern Calif. ; also 
Sonora. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Pitkin; La Veta; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Grizzly 
Creek; Marshall Pass; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; Sangre 
de Cristo Creek; Piedra; valley of Arkansas; Calhan; Buena Vista; Bear 
River, Routt Co. ; North Park ; Soda Spring near north fork of the Platte ; 
Bear River at Steamboat Springs; Grizzly Creek 16 miles north of Walden; 
Elk River. 

4 . MALVASTRUM A. Gray. FALSE MALLOW. 

Plant canescent with stellate hairs ; leaves 3-s-divided with 2-3-cleft divisions. 
Plant low, 1-2 dm. high ; middle segment of the leaves slightly longer than 

the others ; raceme crowded. i. M. coccineum. 

Plant tall, 3-4 dm. high ; middle segment of the leaves usually half longer 

than the others ; raceme elongated. 2. M. datum. 

Plant lepidote and silvery with scale-like peltate hairs ; leaves 3-parted with nar- 
rowly linear divisions or the upper simple and filiform. 3. M. leptopliyllum. 

1. Malvastrum coccineum (Pursh) A. Gray. On plains and in sandy valleys 
from Sask. and Ore. to Iowa, Tex. and Utah. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Ft. Col- 
lins ; Cimarron ; Deer River ; Manitou ; Canon City ; Arboles ; Cucharas 
River below La Veta ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; mesas near Pueblo ; Trinidad ; 
along Platte River, Denver ; Mancos ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Rocky 
Ford; Montrose; Lamar; Quimby; Ouray; Horsetooth Gulch; Grand 
Junction; Colorado City. 

2. Malvastrum elatum (Baker) A. Nelson. (M. coccineum elatum Baker) 
In dry valleys from southern Colo, and Utah to N. Mex. Salida. 

3. Malvastrum leptophyllum A. Gray. In dry places from western Texas 
to southern Utah. Valley of San Juan and La Plata (Brandegee) ; McElmo 
Creek (Eastwood). 

5. SPHAERALCEA St. Hil. GLOBE-MALLOW. 

Carpels glabrous or canescent, not hirsute, lower part reticulated ; leaves small, 

not maple-like. 

Leaves lanceolate; fruit not depressed; carpels with cusp. i. S. cuspidata. 
Leaves round-ovate to reniform in outline ; fruit depressed globose ; carpels 

not cuspidate-tipped. 2. S. marginata. 

Carpels thin, hirsute, the lower portion not reticulate ; leaves large, maple-like. 

Sepals lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate ; bractlets subulate, three-fourths as long 

as the sepals or more. 3. A. Crandallii. 

Sepals broadly triangular-ovate ; bractlets scarcely more than half as long 

as the sepals. 
Calyx and pedicels finely stellate ; bractlets subulate ; petals 2-2.5 cm. long. 

4. A. rivularis. 

Calyx and pedicels hirsute with branched hairs ; bractlets lanceolate ; petals 
3 cm. or more long. 5. A. grandiflora. 

1. Sphaeralcea cuspidata (A. Gray) Britton. (S. angustifolia cuspidata 
A. Gray; S. stellata T. & G. ; Sida stellata Torr. ; not Cav.) In dry ground 
from Kans and Colo, to Tex. and Ariz.; also Sonora. Canon City; Pueblo; 
Rocky Ford. 

2. Sphaeralcea marginata York. (Malvastrum Munroanum S. Wats., in 
part; not Malva Munroana Dougl.) In dry places in western Colo, and 
northern N. M. Alt. up to 6000 ft. McElmo Canon ; Grand Junction. 



MALVACEAE. 231 

3. Sphaeralcea Crandallii Rydb. Mountains of Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. 
Steamboat Springs. 

4. Sphaeralcea rivularis (Hook.) Torr. (Malva rivularis Hook.; Sphaeral- 
cea acerifolia Nutt.) Along streams from Alb. and B. C. to S. D., Colo, and 
Nev. Four-Mile Hill, Routt Co. ; Ragged Mountain, Gunnison Co. ; Buffalo 
Pass; Park Range; Fish Creek Falls. 

5. Sphaeralcea grandiflora Rydb. Mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. 
Mesa Verde; west of Ouray. 

6. SIDA L. 

i. Sida sagittaefolia (A. Gray) Rydb. (Sida lepidota sagittaefolia A. 
Gray) Plains from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. " Southern 
Colorado." 

7. ABUTILON Gaertn. VELVET-LEAF, INDIAN MALLOW. 

i. Abutilon parvulum A. Gray. In dry soil from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. 
Canon City. 

Order 34. HYPERICALES. 

Styles wanting ; stigma introrse ; ours small water-plants. 87. ELATINACEAE. 
Styles present ; stigmas capitate or nearly so. 
Styles in ours distinct. 

Sepals persistent, united into a tube ; leaves not pellucid-dotted. 

88. FRANKENIACEAE. 

Sepals distinct ; leaves pellucid-dotted. 89. HYPERICACEAE. 

Styles wholly united. 

Corolla regular or nearly so ; stamens 8. 90. CIST'ACEAE. 

Corolla irregular; one petal spurred; stamens 5. 91. VIOLACEAE. 

Family 87. ELATINACEAE Lindl. WATER-WORT FAMILY. 

i. ELATINE L. WATER-WORT, MUD PURSLANE. 

Leaves oblanceolate ; flowers usually 3-merous. i. E. triandra. 

Leaves obovate ; flowers 2-merous. 2. E. americana. 

1. Elatine triandra Schkur. In shallow water from Ills, and Wyo. to Colo. 
Platte River. 

2. Elatine americana Arn. In mud and shallow water from Que. and B. C. 
to Va., Colo, and Calif. Platte River. 

Family 88. FRANKENIACEAE. 

i. FRANKENIA L. 

i. Frankenia Jamesii Torr. On saline plains from Colo, to Tex. and Son- 
ora. Bluffs about Pueblo ; Rocky Ford, Otero Co. ; Canon City. 

Family 89. HYPERICACEAE Lindl. ST. JOHN'S WORT FAMILY. 

i. HYPERICUM L. ST. JOHN'S WORT. 

Petals more than twice as long as the sepals ; both usually margined with black 
glands. i. H. fortnosum. 

Petals slightly exceeding the sepals ; black glands none. 2. H. majus. 



HYPERICACEAE. 

1. Hypericum formosum H. B. K. On hillsides and mountain valleys from 
Colo, and Utah to Mex. and S. Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. South Park; 
Pagosa Springs ; Colorado Springs ; Mancos ; Elk River, Garfield Co. ; Mar- 
shall Pass ; near Manitou, El Paso Co. ; Chambers' Lake ; Wahatoya Creek ; 
Gypsum Creek Canon ; Poudre Canon. 

2. Hypericum majus (A. Gray) Britton. In wet meadows from Me. and 
B. C. to N. J. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Foot-hills, near Boulder. 

Family 90. CISTACEAE Lindl. ROCK-ROSE FAMILY. 
i. HELIANTHEMUM Pers. FROSTWEED. 

i. Helianthemum majus (L.) B. S. P. (H. canadense Walkerae Evans) 
On hillsides from N. S. and S. D. to N. C. and Colo. Douglas County. 

Family 91. VIOLACEAEDC. VIOLET FAMILY. 

Sepals more or less auricled at base. i. VIOLA. 

Sepals not auricled at base. 2. CALCEOLARIA. 

i. VIOLA L. VIOLET. 

Acaulescent ; flowers scapose. 

Plant stoloniferous, at least so after the flowering period. 

Flowers pale blue or lilac. i. V. falustris. 

Flowers white. 

Upper and lateral petals twice as long as broad ; petioles not red-spotted. 
Leaves ovate, pointed, green ; lateral petals veined with purple. 

2. V . blanda. 
Leaves reniform, not pointed, glaucous ; lateral petals not veined. 

3. V. Macloskeyi. 
Upper and lateral petals three times as long as broad ; petioles and scapes 

red-spotted. 4. V. LeConteana. 

Plant not stoloniferous ; flowers blue. 

Leaf-blades divided into linear lobes. 5. V. pedatifida. 

Leaf-blades entire. 

Blade strongly decurrent upon the petiole ; cleistogenes horizontal. 

6. V. refitsa. 
Blade not decurrent ; cleistogenes erect or ascending. 

Sepals lanceolate, pointed ; leaves herbaceous. 7. V. cognata. 

Sepals oblong, obtuse, 3-nerved ; leaves subcoriaceous. 

8. V. nephrophylla. 
Caulescent, leafy-stemmed. 

Flowers yellow or tinged with brown. 

Stems short or subacaulescent at flowering time. 

Leaf-blades pedately divided into narrow segments ; petals tinged with 

brown beneath. 9. V. Sheltonii. 

Leaf-blades entire or merely toothed. 

Blades lanceolate, tapering to a margined petiole, pubescent. 

10. V. Nuttallii. 
Blades ovate to oblong-ovate, scarcely or not at all tapering to the petiole. 

n. V. linguae/olio. 
Stems erect or ascending, bearing scattered long-petioled orbicular leaves. 

12. V. biflora. 
Flowers blue, purple or white. 

Flowers white or tinged with purple beneath. 13. V. canadensis. 

Flowers blue. 

Plant rough-pubescent, 1-2 dm. high. 14. V. retroscabra. 

Plant glabrous, 2-6 cm. high. 15. V. bellidifolia. 



VIOLACEAE. 

1. Viola plustris L. Wet soil, Lab. and Alaska to N. Y. and Colo. Alt. 
8500-10,000 ft. Grayback mining camps; Beaver Creek; banks of Michigan 
River; Eldora to Baltimore. 

2. Viola blanda Willd. Swamps and wet meadows, Newf. and B. C. to N. 
C. and Utah. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Caribou; headwaters of Clear Creek; 
Columbine. 

3. Viola Macloskeyi F. E. Lloyd. Subalpine situations, Mont, and Ore. to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 9000 ft. North Park, Larimer Co. 

4. Viola LeConteana G. Don. (V. blanda amoena LeConte) Moist wood- 
lands. N. S. and Ida. to N. C. and Colo. Alt. about 9000 ft. Chicken Creek. 

5. Viola pedatifida G. Don. Prairies, 111. to B. C. and Ariz. Alt. about 
8000 ft. Wahatoya Canon. 

6. Viola retusa Greene. Woodlands and meadows, S. D. to Kans. and Colo. 
Alt. about 5000 ft. New Windsor ; Ft. Collins ; Timnath, Larimer Co. 

7. Viola cognata Greene. Wet meadows, Alb. and S. D. to N. M., Ariz., 
Utah and Calif. Alt 5000-10,000 ft. Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains; 
headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; mountain near Veta Pass; West 
Indian Creek; Cucharas Valley near La Veta; Timnath, Larimer Co.; Lake 
City; Ft. Collins; plains and foot-hills near Boulder. 

8. Viola nephrophylla Greene. Meadows and thickets, Ida. and Wyo. to 
Colo., Ariz, and Nev. Los Pinos. 

9. Viola Sheltonii Torr. Western Colo, to Calif. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Grand 
Mesa ; Cerro Summit. 

10. Viola Nuttallii Pursh. Prairies, plains and foot-hills, Man. and Mont, 
to Mo., N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Walsenburg; southeast of La 
Veta; Cucaras Valley and river near La Veta; Ft. Collins; southwest of La 
Veta ; Rist Canon, Larimer Co. ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; plains near Den- 
ver ; Grand Mesa ; plains and foot-hills near Boulder. 

11. Viola linguaefolia Nutt. (V. vallicola A. Nels. ; V. physalodes Greene) 
Foot-hills and mountains, N. D. and Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. up to 
7000 ft. Between Meeker and Craig ; mountains east of Steamboat Springs ; 
Minturn, Eagle Co. ; Cimarron ; Dixon Creek ; Trinidad. 

12. Viola biflora L. Mountains of Colo.; also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 
8000-10,000 ft. Jack Brook; headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine ridges 
east of Middle Park; Argentine Pass; Eldora to Baltimore. 

13. Viola canadensis L. The typical V. canadensis of the east is repre- 
sented in Colorado by the following subspecies : 

Viola canadensis Rydbergii (Greene) House. (V. Rydbergii Greene) 
Radical leaves subreniform, as broad as long or broader, on elongated petioles; 
pubescent at least on the veins beneath. Rocky Mountains, Alb. and Ida. 
to S. D. and Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Ouray; Van Boxle's ranch above Ci- 
marron ; near Pagosa Peak ; Mancos ; Steamboat Springs ; gulch of Bear 
River, Routt Co. ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Ft. Collins ; Apex ; Villa 
Grove; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Rico; Boulder. 

Viola canadensis neo-mexicana (Greene) House. (V. neo-mexicana Greene) 
Southern Colo, and N. M. Alt. 7500-12,000 ft. Idaho Springs; Wahatoya 
Canon; Mt. Abram; about Ouray; Rico; Eldora to Baltimore. 



234 VIOLACEAE. 

Viola canadensis scopulorum A. Gray. (V. scopulorum Greene) Colo, and 
N. M. Low, tufted and spreading, more or less pubescent ; the stipules very 
large, scarious. Horsetooth Gulch. 

14. Viola retroscabra Greene. Mountains, Colo, and N. M. to southern 
Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Grayback mining camps; Cerro Summit; Cameron 
Pass; Cimarron ; Mancos ; along Uncompahgre River near Ouray; Brecken- 
ridge ; Bob Creek ; West Indian Creek ; Pagosa Springs ; Minturn, Eagle Co. ; 
mountain near Veta Pass; Chambers' Lake; mountains of Estes Park, 
Larimer Co. 

15. Viola bellidifolia Greene. High mountains, Wyo. and Colo. Alt. Sooo- 
12,000 ft. Marshall Pass ; Slide Rock Canon, West La Plata Mountains ; 
Alpine Tunnel; Bob Creek Divide; Graymont; Cameron Pass; Columbine; 
mountains of Estes Park; Chambers' Lake; Red Mountain; Gunnison; source 
of Leroux, Delta Co. ; Eldora to Baltimore ; summit of North Park Range, 
Larimer Co. ; Rabbit-Ear Range, Routt Co. 

2. CALCEOLARIA Loefl. NODDING VIOLET. 

i. Calceolaria verticillaria (Ortega) Kuntze. (lonidium polygalae folium 
Vent.; lonidium linear e Torr.) Plains, Colo, and Kans. to Tex., Ariz, and 
Mex. Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co. ; Canon City. 

Order 35. OPUNTIALES. 

Sepals and petals 4 or 5 very unlike ;* leaves ample ; plants erect, not succulent, 
with rigid hairs. 92. LOASACEAE. 

Sepals and petals nearly alike, at least the latter numerous ; leaves typically and 
in all ours mere scales or wanting ; succulent plants armed with spines. 

93. CACTACEAE. 

Family 92. LOASACEAE Reichenb. LOASA FAMILY. 

Placentae with horizontal lamellae between the seeds ; these in two rows, 

flat, more or less winged. i. TOUTEREA. 

Placentae without lamellae ; seeds usually prismatic. 

Placentae slender, filiform; ovules in one row, 10-40; seeds minutely muricate, 
not striate ; filaments free or nearly so. 2. ACROLASIA. 

Placentae broad, band-like ; ovules in 1-2 rows, few ; seeds distinctly striate, 
often rugose ; filaments at the base united with the petals into a ring. 

3. MENTZELIA. 

i. TOUTEREA Eat. & Wright. 

Upper leaves entire. i. T. multicaulis. 

All leaves pinnatifid, lobed or toothed. 

Petals obtuse, spatulate, 1-2 cm. long. 2. T. multinora. 

Petals acute. 

Petals greenish-yellow ; seeds irregularly angled on the face. 

3. T. lutea. 

Petals golden yellow to straw color ; seeds not angular on the face. 
Petals golden yellow, about 2 cm. long or less. 

Low, less than 3 dm. high ; leaves less than 6 cm. long. 

Seeds merely margined. 4- T. chrysantha. 

Seeds winged. 

* Many species of Touterea have petaloid staminodia of which the outer 5 
sometimes are as broad as the petals and resemble them. 



LOASACEAE. 235 

Leaves sinuately dentate or crenate ; the lower oblanceolate-spatu- 

late ; the upper ovate-lanceolate. 5. T. Integra. 

Leaves mostly pinnately lobed ; lobes of the leaves narrow, linear 

or lanceolate. 6. T. densa. 

Tall, usually 4 dm. or more high ; leaves often i dm. long. 

Leaves divided to near the base into linear-oblong or lanceolate 

narrow lobes. 7. T. laciniata. 

Leaves sinuate or lobed half-way to the midrib or less ; lobes triangu- 
lar or ovate or broader. 
Plant erect ; leaves tapering at the base, acutely lobed. 

8. T. speciosa. 
Plant ascending or decumbent ; leaves sinuately round-lobed, at 

least the upper cuneate or rounded at the base. 

9. T. sinuata. 
Petals straw-color. 

Outer filaments dilated ; petals 2-3 cm. long. 

Petals about 2 cm. long; upper leaves with broad bases, long-acuminate. 

10. T. Rusbyi. 
Petals about 3 cm. long ; none of the leaves broad at the base. 

Plant branched below ; flowers subtended by single entire bracts. 

11. T. nuda. 
Plants simple below ; flowers subtended by several toothed bracts. 

12. T. stricta. 
Filaments all filiform; petals 4-5 cm. long. 13. T. decapetala. 

1. Touterea multicaulis Osterhout. On plains of Colo. Wolcott, Eagle Co. 

2. Touterea multiflora (Nutt.) Rydb. (Mentzelia multi-flora A. Gray) On 
dry plains from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; also Mex. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. 
Salida ; Platte Canon ; Pine Grove ; Artist Glen ; Palmer Lake ; Grayback 
mining camp and Placer Gulch. 

3. Touterea lutea (Greene) Rydb. (Mentzelia lutea Greene) In dry soil 
in Colo. Canon City. 

4. Touterea chrysantha (Engelm.) Rydb. (M. chrysantha Engelm.) On 
hills, mesas and canons from Colo, and Utah to Ariz. Canon City. 

5. Touterea Integra (Jones) Rydb. (Mentzelia multiflora intcgra Jones) 
In arid soil of southern Utah and southwestern Colo. Mesa across Gunni- 
son from Grand Junction. 

6. Touterea densa (Greene) Rydb. (M. densa Greene) In gulches and 
canons and on dry table-land of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. Canon 
City; Salida; Gunnison; gulch west of Palmer Lake; Smith's Fork Canon, 
Delta Co. ; Hotclikiss. 

7. Touterea laciniata Rydb. On plains and in canons of Colo. Alt. 5000- 
7000 ft. Durango ; Pagosa Springs ; Canon City ; Antonito. 

8. Touterea speciosa Osterh. (Mentzelia speciosa Osterh.) On hills and 
in dry valleys from Wyo. to Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Estes Park, Larimer 
Co. ; west of Loveland, Larimer Co. ; Veta Pass ; Idaho Springs ; near 
Boulder; near Badito, between La Veta and Gardner; Turkey Creek and 
tributaries; Ute Pass; Dillon Canon ; Livermore; Arthur's Rock; Dixon 
Canon ; between Sunshine and Ward ; Ft. Collins. 

9. Touterea sinuata Rydb. In canons of .Colorado. Boulder. 

10. Touterea Rusbyi (Wooton) Rydb. (Mentzelia Rusbyi Wooton) On 
plains and in valleys from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. 
Wolcott ; Glenwood Springs ; Durango ; Black Canon ; between Porter and 
Durango; Salida Canon. 



236 LOASACEAE. 

11. Touterea nuda (Nutt.) Eat. & Wr. (Mentzelia nuda Nutt.) On plains 
and hillsides from western Neb. and Wyo. to Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft 
Livermore, Larimer Co. ; gulch west of Pennock's ; Platte Canon ; valley of 
upper Arkansas River; Boulder. 

12. Touterea stricta Osterh. (Hesperaster strictus Osterh.) On plains, 
hillsides and dry valleys from western Neb. and Wyo. to Kans. and Tex. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Colorado Springs ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Ft. Collins ; 
near Manitou ; Denver; Arboles; Pueblo; along the Poudre; Spring Canon, 
Lyons ; Boulder. 

13. Touterea decapetala (Pursh) Rydb. (Bartonia decapetala Pursh; 
Mentselia ornata Pursh) In canons from S. Dak. and Alb. to Tex. and Nev. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Ft. Collins; west of Loveland; Huerfano Valley, near 
Gardner; near Boulder. 

2. ACROLASIA. 

Sepals lanceolate-subulate, half as long as the petals or longer, acute ; seed rather 

strongly muriculate. 

Leaves ovate in outline, entire or merely coarsely toothed. i. A. latifolia. 
Leaves lanceolate in outline ; stem-leaves, except the uppermost, pinnately 

divided or lobed. 
Petals 5-7 mm. long, about twice as long as the sepals. 

Leaves divided to near the midrib with ascending lobes ; plant erect. 

2. A. gracilis. 

Leaves divided Y2- 2 /3 to the midrib, with divergent lobes ; plant ascend- 
ing or diffuse. 3- A. ctenophora. 
Petals 2-4 mm. long. 4- A. albicanlis. 
Sepals linear-oblong, obtusish, only y 3 as long as the petals, which are 3-4 
mm. long ; seeds minutely muriculate (tubercles seen only by very strong 
magnifications) ; leaves entire or dentate ; the upper broadly ovate. 
Tall, 3-5 dm. high ; capsules 2-3 cm. long ; lower leaves lanceolate or linear- 
lanceolate, some of them usually toothed. 5- A. dispersa. 
Low, less than 2 dm. high; capsules 12-15 nim. long; leaves all ovate, entire. 

6. A. compacta. 

1. Acrolasia latifolia Rydb. On hillsides in Colo. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. 
Boulder ; between Sunshine and Ward ; Larimer County. 

2. Acrolasia gracilis Rydb. (Trachyphytum gracilis Nutt.) In sandy soil 
from Wyo. and Ore. to Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co.; 
mesas near Pueblo; Salida; Tobe Miller's ranch. 

3. Acrolasia ctenophora Rydb. On dry hills and on railroad banks in 
southern Colo. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. Walsenburg; Cucharas River below La 
Veta. 

4. Acrolasia albicaulis (Dougl.) Rydb. (Mentzelia albicaulis Dougl.) On 
sandy soil from Neb., Mont, and B. C. to N. M. and Utah. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. 
Mesa, Gunnison River; Hotchkiss ; Rist Canon; near Boulder; Los Pinos ; 
Mancos; Glenwood Springs; Sunset Canon. 

5. Acrolasia integrifolia (S. Wats.) Rydb. (M. albicaulis integrifolia S. 
Wats.; M. dispersa S. Wats.) In sandy soil from Mont, and B. C. to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. Glenwood Springs, Garfield Co.; Horsetooth 
Gulch. 

6. Acrolasia compacta (A. Nels.) Rydb. (M. compacta A. Nels.) In 
sandy soil in Wyo. and Colo. Steamboat Springs. 



LOASACEAE. 237 

3. MENTZELIA L. 

i. Mentzelia oligosperma Nutt. On dry prairies, plains and hills from S. D. 
and Colo, to La. and Tex. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Foot-hills, 
Larimer Co. ; southwest of Soldier Canon. 

Family 93. CACTACEAE H. B. K. CACTUS FAMILY. 

Stems continuous or not conspicuously jointed ; leaves obsolete ; spines not 

barbed ; spine-bearing and flower-bearing areolas distinct. 
Flowers not arising from the tubercles, but from their axils ; ovary naked. 

i. CACTUS. 
Flowers arising from the tubercles or ribs ; ovary scaly. 

Flowers nearly terminal, i. e., arising near the areolas which later develop 

spines ; stem never jointed. 2. ECHINOCACTUS. 

Flowers lateral, i. e., arising near the fully developed spine-bearing areolas. 

3. ECHINOCEREUS. 

Stems conspicuously jointed; leaves evident, but deciduous; spines barbed; 
flowers arising from spine-bearing areolas. 4. OPUNTIA. 

i. CACTUS L. BALL-CACTUS. 

Central spine visually solitary ; corolla greenish. 

Plant simple or nearly so; central spine robust, porrect. i. C. missouriensis. 

Plant cespitose ; central spine often lacking. 2. C. similis. 

Central spines 3-12; petals purple. 

Plant usually cespitose, depressed-globose ; central spines 3-4. 

3. C. viviparus. 
Plant usually simple, ovate to cylindric ; central spines 4-12 (rarely 3). 

4. C. radiosus. 

1. Cactus missouriensis (Sweet) Kuntze. (Mamillaria missouriensis 
Sweet) On dry plains and hills from S. D. and Mont, to Kans. and Colo. 
Como. 

2. Cactus similis (Engelm.) Rydb. (Mamillaria similis Engelm. ; M. 
missouriensis caespitosa S. Wats.) On dry hills from Kans. and Colo, to 
Tex. " Colorado " (Greene}. 

3. Cactus viviparus Nutt. (Mamillaria vivipara Haw.) On dry hills and 
plains from Neb. and Mont, to Colo. Ft. Collins. 

4. Cactus radiosus (Engelm.) Coulter. On plains from Colo, and Utah 
to Tex. and Ariz. In Colorado it is only represented by the var. neo- 
mexicanus (Engelm.) Coulter, lower than the type and with more numerous 
central spines. "Colorado"; Ft. Collins; Hermosa. 

2. ECHINOCACTUS Link & Otto. HEDGEHOG-THISTLE, CACTUS. 

Stems with tubercles, resembling Cactus in habit. 

Radiating spines 8-9; central ones 1-3. i. E. glauciis. 

Radiating spines about 20; central ones 8-10. 2. E. Simpsoni. 

Stems with definite ridges, scarcely tubercled. 3. E. Whipplei. 

1. Echinocactus glaucus K. Sch. In dry places in Colo. Alt. about 6000 
ft. Mesa Grande on Dry Creek ; Gunnison. 

2. Echinocactus Simpsoni Engelm. (Mamillaria Simpsoni M. E. Jones ; 
M. Purpusi K. Sch.) On dry table-lands of Utah and Colo. Alt. 7500-11,000 
ft. Clear Creek, Sangre de Cristo Pass; Veta Pass; Veta Mountain; Empire; 
Dolores. 



238 CACTACEAE. 

3. Echinocactus Whipplei Engelm. & Big. On dry plains from Colo, and 
Utah to N. M. and Ariz. In Colorado has only been found the var. spinosior 
Engelm. with more numerous, 9-11, radiating spines. La Plata Valley; 
Mesa Verde. 

3. ECHINOCEREUS Engelm. CEREUS. 

Ribs about 13; corolla greenish or yellowish. i. E. viridifiorus. 

Ribs 5-12; corolla red or purple. 

Plant light green; corolla violet-purple; central spine i, terete, nearly black, 

curved above. 2. E. Fendleri. 

Plant dark green ; corolla scarlet (except perhaps in the first). 
Ribs 5-7. 

Central spine o ; radiating ones 3-5, almost terete. 3. E. paucispinus. 
Central spine 8 cm. long, angled and grooved ; radiating ones 6-8, strongly 
angled. 4. E. gonacanthus. 

Ribs 9-1 i. 

Central spines all terete ; flowers 4-6 cm. long, usually yellowish inside. 

5. E. aggregates. 
Lower central spines quadrangular; flowers 8-10 cm. long. 

6. E. Roemeri. 

1. Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelm. (Ccreus viridifiorus Engelm.) On 
high plains and hills from Wyo. to Tex. and N. M. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Tobe 
Miller's ranch ; Veta Mountain ; Manitou ; Colorado Springs ; near Bouider. 

2. Echinocereus Fendleri (Engelm.) Riimpl. (Cereus Fendleri Engelm.) 
On dry plains from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and Ariz. " So. Colorado." 

3. Echinocereus paucispinus (Engelm.) Rumpl. (Cereus paucispinus 
Engelm.) On rocks and limestone hills from Tex. to Colo. Durango. 

4. Echinocereus gonacanthus (Engelm. & Big.) Lehm. (Cereus gona- 
canthus Engelm. & Big.) On sandy bluffs in Colo, and N. M. Florence; 
Arboles. 

5. Echinocereus aggregatus (Engelm.) Rydb. (Mamillaria aggregata En- 
gelm.; Cereus phoeniceus Engelm.) On plains and hillsides from Colo, to 
Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 5000-7500 ft. La Veta ; Badito. 

6. Echinocereus Roemeri (Muhlenf.) Rydb. (Cereus Roemeri Muhlenf. ; 
C. conoideus Big.) On plains from Colo. (?) to N. M. and Calif. "So. 
Colorado." 

4. OPUNTIA Mill. PRICKLY PEAR. 

Internodes of stem short, more or less flattened. 

Internodes of the stem oval or orbicular, decidedly flattened. 
Fruit fleshy and juicy, spineless or nearly so. 

Spines none, or a solitary strong one reflexed and 1-2 small ones at its 

base, all white or gray. i. O. mesacantha. 

Spines 1-8, not very unlike in length. 
Spines not twisted. 

Spines 1-3, brownish; internodes orbicular or obovate, 11-15 cm. wide. 

2. O. camanchica. 
Spines 5-7, white or gray ; internodes oblong, 5 cm. long and 3.5 cm. 

wide. 3. O. Schweriniana. 

Spines twisted, 3-5, white; internodes 13-17 cm. long and about as wide. 

4. O. tortispina. 
Fruit dry and usually with spine-bearing areolas. 

Corolla yellow. 5. O. polyacantha. 

Corolla red. 



CACTACEAE. 239 

Filament red ; fruit very prickly. 6. O. rhodantha. 

Filaments yellow ; fruit scarcely prickly. 7. O. xanthostemma. 

Internodes oblong or nearly cylindrical, turgid and nearly terete, easily break- 
ing off, 2-4 cm. long. 8. O. fragilis. 
Internodes of stem elongated, cylindric or prismatic. 

Tubercles of the stem sharp and comb-like ; erect shrub. g. O. arborcscens. 

Tubercles neither prominent nor comb-like ; plant decumbent. 

10. O. Davisii. 

i. Opuntia mesacantha Raf. (O. Rafinesqui Engelm.) On plains and 
prairies especially in sandy soil from Wise, and Minn, to Ky. and Ariz. Alt. 
4000-5500 ft. Fort Collins; Denver; Boulder. 

z. Opuntia camanchica Engelm. On plains from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. 
Alt. up to 6000 ft. Colorado Springs. 

3. Opuntia Schweriniana K. Sch. In dry places in Colo. Sapinero. 

4. Opuntia tortispina Engelm. On plains from Neb. and Colo, to Ind. Terr. 
Exact locality not given. 

5. Opuntia polyacantha Haw. (O. missouriensis DC.) On plains and 
hills from N. D. and B. C. to Ind. Terr., N. M. and Ore. Alt. 4000-7000 ft 
Quimby; Ft. Collins; Denver; Walsenburg; North Cheyenne Canon. 

6. Opuntia rhodantha K. Sch. On plains of Neb. and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 
ft. "Colorado"; Grand Junction; Boulder. 

7. Opuntia xanthostemma K. Sch. On plains of western Colo. Mesa 
Grande. 

8. Opuntia fragilis Haw. On prairies and plains from Wise, and B. C. 
to Kans. and Colo. Denver; Boulder. 

9. Opuntia arborescens Engelm. On plains and hills from Colo, to Tex. 
and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft Pueblo ; Piedra. 

10. Opuntia Davisii Engelm. In dry soil from Colo, to Tex. and Calif. 
La Plata Valley, Mancos and McElmo (Brandegee}. 

Order 36. THYMELIALES. 

Family 94. ELAEAGNACEAE Lindl. OLEASTER FAMILY. 
i. LEPARGYRAEA Raf. BUFFALO-BERRY. 

Leaves ovate or oval, green above; shrub thornless. i. L. canadensis. 

Leaves oblong, silvery on both sides ; shrub thorny. 2. L. argentea. 

1. Lepargyraea canadensis (L.) Greene. (Shepherdia canadensis L.) In 
woods from Newf. and Alaska to N. Y., Colo, and Ore. Alt. 6500-12,000 ft. 
Villa Grove, Black Canon ; Georgetown ; Bear Creek Divide, West La 
Plata Mountains; southeast of Ouray; Box Canon, west of Onray; Cham- 
bers' Lake; Graham's Park; mountains of Larimer Co.; Stove Prairie Hill; 
Bosworth's ranch ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

2. Lepargyraea argentea (Nutt.) Greene. (Shepherdia argentea Nutt.) 
On sandy river banks and islands from Man., Sask. and Alb. to Kans., N. M. 
and Nev. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Grand Junction ; Cimarron ; Mancos ; La 
Porte, Larimer Co. ; Wolcott ; Hotchkiss ; Dolores ; Durango. 



240 LYTHRACEAE. 

Order 37. MYRTALES. 

Styles present ; mostly land-plants. 

Hypanthium merely enclosing the ovary. 95. LYTHRACEAE. 

Hypanthium adnate to the ovary. 96. EPILOBIACEAE. 

Styles wanting; stigma sessile; aquatics. 97. GUNNERACEAE. 

Family 95. LYTHRACEAE Lindl. LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY. 
Hypanthium cylindric. i. LYTHRUM. 

Hypanthium campanulate or hemispheric. z. AMMANIA. 

i. LYTHRUM L. LOOSESTRIFE. 

i. Lythrum alatum Pursh. In swamps from Mass, and S. D. to Ky. and 
Colo. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Near Boulder. 

2. AMMANIA L. 

i. Ammania coccinea Rottb. In swampy places from Ind. to S. D., Fla. and 
Mex. ; also S. Am. Denver. 

Family 96. EPILOBIACEAE DC. EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. 

Flowers 4-merous. 

Fruit a many-seeded capsule, opening by valves. 
Seeds with a tuft of silky hairs. 

Hypanthium not prolonged beyond the ovary ; flowers large. 

1. CHAMAENERIOX. 
Hypanthium somewhat prolonged beyond the ovary ; flowers small. 

2. EPILOBIUM. 
Seeds without a tuft of silky hairs, naked or tuberculate. 

Hypanthium not produced beyond the ovary ; flowers minute. 

3. GAYOPHYTUM. 
Hypanthium produced beyond the ovary into a long tube. 

Stigma divided into 4 linear lobes. 

Stamens equal in length ; capsule terete or round-angled. 

Ovules and seeds horizontal, inserted in 2. or rarely more rows, 

prismatic-angled ; petals yellow. 4. ONAGRA. 

Ovules and seeds ascending, in one row, not angled ; buds drooping ; 

petals white or pink. 5. ANOGRA. 

Stamens unequal in length, the alternate longer ; capsule crested or 

winged ; plant acaulescent or low-stemmed. 
Capsules with more or less distinct double crests on the angles ; 

seed furrowed along the raphe. 6. PACHYLOPHUS. 

Capsules winged or at least sharply angled on the angles. 
Plants acaulescent, cespitose. 7. LAVAUXIA. 

Plants caulescent with wiry diffuse stems. 8. GAURELLA. 

Stigma discoid or capitate. 

Stigma discoid ; hypanthium-tube funnelform above. 
Hypanthium-tube longer than the ovary ; stigma entire. 

9. GALPINSIA. 
Hypanthium-tube shorter than the ovary ; stigma 4-toothed. 

10. MERIOLIX. 
Stigma capitate. 

Plant acaulescent ; capsules 4-winged ; hypanthium-tube tubular- 

cylindric. n. TARAXIA. 

Plant caulescent ; capsules not winged ; hypanthium-tube obconic or 
funnelform. 



EPILOBIACEAE. 241 

Capsule linear, sessile, narrowed above. 12. SPHAEROSTIGMA. 

Capsule more or less clavate, pedicelled and obtuse. 

13. CHYLISMA. 
Fruit indehiscent, nut-like. 

Hypanthium-tube filiform; filaments unappendaged ; ovary i -celled . 

14. STENOSIPHON. 
Hypanthium-tube obconic : filaments with scales at the base ; ovary 4-celled. 

15. GAURA. 
Flowers 2-merous : fruit indehiscent, obovoid and bristly with hooked hairs. 

1 6. CIRCAEA. 

i. CHAMAENERION Adans. FIRE-WEED. 

Style pubescent at the base ; leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate with the 

lateral veins confluent in marginal loops. i. C. angustifoliuni. 

Style glabrous ; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate ; lateral veins obsolete, not looped. 

2. C. lati folium. 

1. Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. (Epilobium angustifoliuni L.) 
On hills, in open woods and copses, especially on burnt areas from Greenl. and 
Alaska to N. C., Ariz, and Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000. Caribou ; foot-hills, 
Larimer Co. ; Oro City ; Estes Park, Larimer Co. ; Pagosa Peak ; near La 
Plata Post Office; La Plata Canon; Marshall Pass; Cameron Pass; Pike's 
Peak; Red Mountain, south of Ouray; Jack's Cabin; Artist's Glen; Como'; 
Larimie River at Sherwood's ; Baxter's ranch ; Bosworth's ranch, Stove 
Prairie ; Boulder Canon ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

2. Chamaenerion latifolium (L.) Sweet. (E. latifolium L.) In wet ground 
from Greenl. and Alaska to Colo, and Wash. Alt. 7500-10,000 ft. Graymont ; 
Ruby; Gunnison; near La Plata Post Office; La Plata Canon; Clear Creek; 
Empire. 

2. EPILOBIUM L. WILLOW-HERB. 

Perennials ; stigma entire or merely notched. 

Leaves oblong, oval, ovate, or lanceolate, usually dentate or denticulate. 

Plants with rosettes or turions ; leaves ovate or lanceolate, usually broadest 

below the middle and distinctly denticulate or dentate. 
Stem pubescent throughout. i. E. Palmeri. 

Stem glabrous except sometimes the upper portion and the decurrent lines. 
Flowers 7-8 mm. long ; petals purple or dark pink ; leaves ovate- 
lanceolate. * 
Leaves sessile or nearly so ; innovations by turions. 

Seeds without apiculations ; coma sessile. 2. E. ovati folium. 

Seeds with a pale hyaline beak at the apex. 3. E. brevistylum. 
Leaves short-petioled ; innovations by rosettes. 4. E. occidentale. 
Flowers 3-5 mm. long. 
Leaves all except the uppermost short-petioled. 

5. E. adenocaulon. 
Leaves all sessile or only the very earliest sometimes short-petioled. 

Leaf-blades rounded at the base, broadly lanceolate to ovate. 
Petals purple, 5-8 mm. long ; leaf-blades usually ovate. 

2. E. ovatifolium. 
Petals white, 4 mm. long ; leaves lanceolate. 

6. E. rubescens. 
Leaf-blades acute at the base. 

Leaf-blades ample, ovate or broadly lanceolate. 

7. E. stramineum. 
Leaf-blades narrow lanceolate, almost erect ; plant slender, 1-3 

dm. high. 8. E. Drummondii. 

Plants with stolons or soboles, low, 1-2 (seldom 3) dm. high. 

16 



242 EPILOBIACEAE. 

Petals white ; plant 1-3 dm. high, stoloniferous. 9. E. alpinum. 

Petals purple or pink. 

Plant 1-3 dm. high, soboliferous ; flowers 5-7 mm. long. 

10. E. Hornemannii. 
Plant usually less than i dm. high, stoloniferous ; flowers less than 5 

mm. long. 
Flowers nodding in bud ; pod cylindrical ; seeds smooth. 

11. E. anagallifolium. 
Flowers ascending in bud ; pod somewhat clavate ; seeds papillose. 

12. E. clavatum. 
Leaves narrowly linear, entire ; innovations of long subterranean shoots, 

bearing at their ends ovoid turions ; petals white ; capsule cinereous. 
Leaves and lower part of the stem glabrous. 13. E. wyomingense. 

Leaves and stem crisp-pubescent. 14. E. lineare. 

Annuals with more or less sheddy, straw-colored bark ; stigma 4-cleft. 

Pedicels and pods sparingly glandular, the former long. 15. E. paniculatum. 
Whole inflorescence densely glandular ; pedicels very short, scarcely exceeding 
the bracts. 16. E. adenocladon. 

1. Epilobium Palmeri Rydb. In wet places from Mont, and Ida. to Utah 
and Colo. Tobe Miller's ranch. 

2. Epilobium ovatifolium Rydb. In wet ground in Colo, and Utah. Alt. 
8000-13,000 ft. Lake City; head of Bard Creek; mountains above Ouray; Bob 
Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; near 
Pagosa Peak; Red Mountain, south of Ouray; Ironton Park, 9 miles south 
of Ouray; Columbine; west of Ouray; Grayback mining camps and Placer 
Gulch. 

3. Epilobium brevistylum Haussk. Along streams from Mont, and Wash, 
to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-9000 ft Veta Pass; headwaters of Pass Creek; 
near Pagosa Peak ; north of Steamboat Springs. 

4. Epilobium occidentale (Trelease) Rydb. (E. adcnocaulon occidental 
Trelease) In wet ground from Mont, and Alb. to S. D. and Colo. Alt. 
5000-10,000 ft. Caribou ; Boulder ; Van Boxle's ranch above Cimarron. 

5. Epilobium adenocaulon Haussk. (E. coloratum Torr. ; not Muhl.) In 
swamps and wet meadows from N. B. and Wash, to Pa., Colo, and Nev. 
Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Cheyenne Mountain ; near Empire ; Pagosa Springs ; 
Mountain View; Engelmann Canon; William's Canon; Parlin, Gunnison 
Co.; North Cheyenne Canon; Spring Canon; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; South 
Park; Ft. Collins; Grizzly Creek; Dark Canon, Pike's Peak; Durango; 
South Park ; Boulder. 

6. Epilobium rubescens Rydb. In wet places of Colo. Alt. up to 9000 ft. 
Pagosa Springs ; Middle Park ; Engelmann Canon. 

7. Epilobium stramineum Rydb. In wet places of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 
8000-11,000 ft. Sangre de Cristo Creek; Chicken Creek, West La Plata 
Mountains ; Bob Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus ; Idaho Springs ; near Pagosa 
Peak ; Ruxton. 

8. Epilobium Drummondii Haussk. Along brooks from Sask. and Wash, 
to S. D. and Colo. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek ; South 
Park ; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron ; Sargent's ; headwaters of Sangre 
de Cristo Creek ; Walton Creek, Routt Co. ; summit of North Park Range, 
Larimer Co. 

g. Epilobium alpinum L. On mountain sides in wet places from Greenl. 
and Alaska to N. H.. Colo, and Calif. Alt. 9000-11,000 ft. Head of Bard 



EPILOBIACEAE. 243 

Creek; mountains above Ouray; Cameron Pass; Front Range, Larimer Co.; 
Gore Pass ; Chambers' Lake ; Graymont. 

10. Epilobium Hornemannii Reichenb. On mountain sides in wet places, 
from Greenl. and Alaska to N. H., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. 
Near Empire ; Mt. Harvard ; head of Bard Creek ; Marshall Pass ; Cameron 
Pass ; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch ; Estes Park, Larimer Co. ; 
Silver Plume; Beaver Creek; Buffalo Pass; summit of North Park Range, 
Larimer Co. 

11. Epilobium anagallifolium Lam. In wet soil from Lab. and Alaska to 
Colo, and Nev. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Caribou ; near Pagosa Peak ; Silver 
Plume; west of North Park. 

12. Epilobium clavatum Trelease. On alpine peaks from Mont, and B. C. 
to Colo. Summit of North Park Range, Larimer Co. 

13. Epilobium wyomingense A. Nels. (E. palustris albiftorum Hook.) In 
swamps from Sask. and Yukon to Colo. 

14. Epilobium lineare Muhl. In swamps from N. B. and B. C. to Del., 
Ind. Terr, and Colo. New Windsor. 

15. Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. In sandy soil from Alb. and B. C. to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Gregory Canon ; headwaters of Clear 
Creek; Ft. Collins; Doyle's; Marshall Pass; south of Ouray; Cimarron ; 
Ruxton Park; Piedra ; mountains, Larimer Co.; Horsetooth Gulch; between 
Porter and Durango ; Gunnison Co. ; gulch west of Soldier Canon ; Steam- 
boat Springs; Boulder; Elk River, Routt Co. 

16. Epilobium adenocladon (Haussk.) Rydb. (E. paniculatum adenocladon 
Haussk.) In sandy soil from S. D. and Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 5000- 
8500 ft. Boulder; southeast of Ouray; Horsetooth Gulch; Soldier Canon; 
Cassel's. 

3. GAYOPHYTUM Jnss. 

Capsules torulose, less than 3 times as long as the stipes, usually more or less 

clavate. 
Petals 1.5-2.5 mm. long, rose with yellow base: capsules 8-12 mm. long. 

nearly tiwce as long as the stipes. i. G. intermedium. 

Petals about i mm. long, rose or white. 

Capsules decidedly clavate, rounded at the apex, seldom longer than the 

stipes, spreading or reflexed. 2. G. rainosissiniuni. 

Capsules only slightly if at all clavate, narrow, usually longer than the 

stipes and erect. 3. G. Ntittallii. 

Capsules neither torulose not clavate ; stipes very short. 4. G. racemosinu. 

1. Gayophytum intermedium Rydb. On hillsides in sandy soil from Mont, 
and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Caribou; near Empire; 
west of Ouray; Chambers' Lake; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; 
Veta Pass ; Ward, Boulder Co. ; between Sunshine and Ward ; Boulder ; 
North Park; Table Rock. 

2. Gayophytum ramosissimum T. & G. On hillsides, especially in sandy 
soil, from Mont, and Wash, to Colo., Ariz, and Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. 
Headwaters of Clear Creek; Lake City; Grayback mining camps and Placer 
Gulch; Mt. Harvard; Veta Pass; Turkey Creek and tributaries; Pagosa 
Springs ; Calhan ; Rabbit-Ear Pass ; Los Pinos ; Black Canon ; La Veta ; Dillon ; 
Valley Spur; west of Ouray; Baxter's ranch; Chambers' Lake; Walton 
Creek; Table Rock; Dolores; gulch west of Soldier Canon. 



244 EPILOBIACEAE. 



3. Gayoyhytum Nuttallii T. & G. On hillsides from S. D. and Wash, to 
Colo., Ariz.- an d Calif. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. Parlin, Gunnison Co.; foot-hills, 

Larimer Co. 

4. Gay ophy turn race*? 1 osum T- & G. In sandy soil from Wyo. and Wash, to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. soooXJ 2 . 000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Veta 
Pass; above Mancos; along the t?P_udre. 

*-, 

4. ONAGRA Adans. EVENING PRIMROSE. 

Hypanthium slender, 2.5-5 cm - long. 

Petals 1-2 cm. long, yellow ; pubescence rarely hirsute. 

Plant green; capsule 3-4 cm. long. ' O. Oakesiana. 

Plant grayish strigose ; capsule 2-3 cm. long. 2 - O. strigosa. 

Petals 2-3.5 cm. long, often pinkish ; plant more or less*. nirsute - 

. 3- O. Hookeri. 

Hypanthium stout, 6-13 cm. long. 4.- O. Jamesii. 

1. Onagra Oakesiana (A. Gray) Britton. (Oenothera OakesianP A. Gray) 
In rich valleys from Que. and S. D. to N. Y. and Colo. Alt. up to ic 1 - 000 ft. 
Salida ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Valley Spur. 

2. Onagra strigosa Rydb. In valleys and on plains from Minn, and Wash. 
to Kans., N. M. and Utah. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Ft. Collins ; Colorado Springs ; 
Gunnison ; Elk River, Routt Co. ; Engelmann Canon ; Poudre Canon ; G~yP~ 
sum ; soldier Canon. 

3. Onagra Hookeri (T. & G.) Small. (Oenothera Hookeri T. & G. ; 0- 
biennis hirsutissima A. Gray) In valleys from Ida. to N. M. and Calif.; 
also Mex.- Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Black Canon of Gunnison; Canon City, 
Fremont Co. ; Pagosa Springs ; Parrott Post Office ; west of Ouray ; Waha- 
toya Creek; Pike's Peak; Durango; along Conejos River north of Antonito. 

4. Onagra Jamesii (T. & G.) Small. (Oenothera Jamesii T. & G.) In 
dry soil from Okl. and Utah to Tex. and Ariz. On Platte River (?). 

5. ANOGRA Spach. WHITE EVENING PRIMROSE. 

Calyx in bud merely acutish ; tips not free. 

Capsule divergent or reflexed. i. A. violacea. 

Capsule erect or ascending. 2. A. albicaulis. 

Calyx in bud acuminate or acute ; tips free. 

Capsule linear-cylindric ; throat of the calyx glabrous. 

Calyx sparingly long-hairy, glandular-puberulent or glabrous, not strigose. 
Leaves deeply pinnatifid. 3. A. rhizomata. 

Leaves subentire, dentate or short-lobed. 

Capsules strongly ascending, straight ; leaves linear, entire or nearly so, 

strigose beneath. 4. A. Nuttallii. 

Capsules divergent, usually curved upwards ; leaves usually denticulate 

or sometimes lobed. 

Leaves glabrous, except the margins. 5. A. Vreelandii. 

Leaves pubescent on both sides. 6. A. cinerea. 

Calyx and hypanthium densely grayish strigose ; leaves cinerous. 

7. A. latifolia. 
Capsules oblong ; throat of the calyx hairy ; leaves deeply pinnatifid. 

8. A. coronofifolia. 

i. Anogra violacea A. Nels. In sandy soil of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 4000- 
5500 ft. Deer River; Palisades; Hotchkiss. 



EPILOBIACEAE. 24:> 

2. Anogra albicaulis (Pursh) Britton. (Oenothera pinnatinda Nutt.) On 
hillsides from N. D. and Mont, to Tex. and Sonora. Alt. 4000-7000 ft.- 
Denver; Ft. Collins; Rist Canon; river-bluffs north of La Veta ; Cucharas 
Valley near La Veta; Larimer Co.; McElmo Canon; Purgatory River, Trini- 
dad; Horsetooth Gulch; Palisades; Grand Junction, mesa across Gunnison 
River; Boulder; Ft. Collins. 

3. Anogra rhizomata A. Nels. In sandy soil in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. about 
7500 ft. Gunnison. 

4. Anogra Nuttallii (Lindl.) A. Nels. (O. Nuttallii Lindl.) In sandy soil 
from Minn, and Ida. to Colo. Alt. 4000-9000 ft Denver; La Porte; Fossil 
Creek, Larimer Co.; Grizzly Creek; Manitou ; Table Rock; Baxter's ranch; 
Colorado Springs; Boulder; Buena Vista; Ivywild. 

5. Anogra Vreelandii Rydb. In canons of Colo. Alt. about 6000 ft. 
McElmo Canon. 

6. Anogra cinerea Rydb. In dry soil from western Neb. and Wyo. to Colo.- 
Denver; between Bent's Fort and Pueblo. 

7. Anogra latifolia Rydb. (Oenothera pallida latifolia Rydb.) On sandy 
soil from Neb. to Colo, and Kans. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Gunnison; Marshall 
Pass ; Sterling, Logan Co. 

8. Anogra coronopifolia (T. & G.) Britton. On prairies and plains from S. 
D. and Wyo. to Kans. and N. M. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Cheyenne Mountain ; 
Moon's ranch, Larimer Co. ; plains west of Ft. Collins ; Denver ; Clear Creek 
Station; along the Platte ; Pike's Peak; Idaho Springs; Piedra; Mancos ; 
Cucharas River below La Veta; Gunnison; Manitou; Buena Vista; Palmer 
Lake; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; North Park; Spring 
Canon; Baxter's ranch; road to Soldier Canon; vicinity of Pine Grove; 
Estes Park; Boulder; Como; Hayden. 

6. PACHYLOPHUS Spach. 

Plant glabrous. i. P. caespitosus. 

Plant more or less hairy. 

Hypanthium, calyx and fruit glabrous, slightly strigose or with a few scat- 
tered long hairs. 
Tube of the hypanthium 3-6 cm. long ; pubescence (except on the margins 

of the leaves) short and usually appressed. 2. P. montamts. 

Tube of hypanthium 6-12 mm. long. 

Plant acaulescent, cespitose ; pod short conic-ovoid, with very thick ridges. 

3. P. macroglottis. 
Plant more or less caulescent ; pod elongated conic-ovoid, with low ridges. 

4. P. caulescens. 
Hypanthium, calyx and fruit densely hirsute. 

Pod stipitate. 5- P- marginatus. 

Pod sessile. 

Plant acaulescent ; ridges of the fruit slightly tuberculate. 

6. P. hirsutus. 

Plant more or less caulescent ; ridges of the fruit with lobed, more or less 

foliaceous crests. 7- P- exigiuts. 

i. Pachylophus caespitosus (Nutt.) Raim. (Oenothera caespitosa Nutt.) 
On dry hills from N. D. and Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. 
Grizzly Creek; foot of Horsetooth Mountain. 



246 EPILOBIACEAE. 

2. Pachylophus montanus (Nutt.) A. Nels. (Oenothera montana Nutt.) 
On dry hills from Ass. and Ida. to Colo, and Nev. Alt. up to 7500 ft. 
Mancos ; Palisade ; mesa across Gunnison River from Grand Junction ; Elk 
Canon ; Dillon Canon, Trinidad. 

3. Pachylophus macroglottis Rydb. On hillsides in Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 
ft. Red Rock Canon; Turkey Creek and tributaries; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; 
Horsetooth Gulch ; gulch west of Pennock's ; Narrows, Poudre Canon ; 
Pennock's mountain ranch ; Dolores ; Manitou ; Hotchkiss ; Pike's Peak ; 
butte, 5 miles southwest of La Veta ; Cerro Summit ; Arboles ; Boulder. 

4. Pachylophus caulescens Rydb. On hillsides and river banks in Colo. 
Alt. 4500-9000 ft. Palisade, bank of Grand River; Dolores. 

5. Pachylophus marginatus (Nutt.) Rydb. (Onothera marginata Nutt.; 
O. idalwensis Mulford) On hills from Ida. and Ore. to Utah and Colo. 
Glenwood Springs. 

6. Pachylophus hirsutus Rydb. On hillsides from Wyo. to N. M. and Utah. 
Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Empire ; above Como, South Park ; Pennock's moun- 
tain ranch ; Georgetown ; South Park ; Ruxton ; near Mancos ; Pike's Peak ; 
mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

7. Pachylophus exiguus (A. Gray) Rydb. (Oenothera exigua A. Gray) 
On plains from Colo, to N. Mex. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Rocky Ford, bank of 
Arkansas River; mesas near Pueblo; Garden of the Gods. 

7. LAVAUXIA Spach. 

Leaves strigose-canescent. i. L. brachycarpa. 

Leaves green, glabrous or puberulent with ciliate margins. 2. L. flava. 

1. Lavauxia brachycarpa (A. Gray) Britton. (Oenothera brachycarpa A. 
Gray) On plains from Kans. and Colo, to Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-6000 
ft. Loveland ; Denver; west of Ft. Collins; Ft. Collins; Fossil Creek; north 
of La Porte; Tobe Miller's ranch; Boulder. 

2. Lavauxia flava A. Nels. (Oenothera triloba S. Wats., in part; not Nutt.) 
In valleys from Ass. and Ore. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. 
Leadville; North Park; Arboles; Egeria Park; headwaters of Sangre de 
Cristo Creek ; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch ; near Parrott Post 
Office ; Rabbit-Ear Range ; Table Rock ; Leroux Creek ; Steamboat Springs ; 
north of La Porte; Alamosa. 

8. GAURELLA Small. 

i. Gaurella guttata (Geyer) Small. (Oenothera canescens Torn) On 
dry plains from Neb. and Colo, to Okl. and N. Mex. Purgatory River. 

9. GALPINSIA Britton. 

i. Galpinsia lavandulaefolia (T. & G.) Small. (Onoethera lavandulaefolia 
T. & G.) On plains and prairies from Neb. and Wyo. to Tex. and Mex. 
Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Mesas near Pueblo; Grand Junction. 



EPILOBIACEAE. 247 

10. MERIOLIX Raf. 

Throat of the hypanthium dark-purple within. i. M. nielanoglottis. 

Throat of the hypanthium orange within, sometimes with a darker ring at the 
base of the stamens. 2. M. serrulata. 

1. Meriolix melanoglottis Rydb. On plains from Tex. to Colo. " Colo.," 
exact locality not given. 

2. Meriolix serrulata (ix'titt.) Walp. (Oenothera serrulata Nutt.) On 
plains and hills from Alan, and Sask. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. 
Boulder; Denver; first range of foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Ft. Collins; Palmer 
Lake; Ouray; Monument; Manitou Junction; Pennock's mountain ranch. 

ii. Taraxia Nutt. 

Leaves linear, silky-hirsute. i. T. graciliflora. 

Leaves oblanceolate, glabrous. 2. T. subacaulis. 

1. Taraxia graciliflora (H. & A.) Raim. Hillsides in California. One 
specimen collected by Fremont is labeled " Arkansas River, above Pueblo." 
This may have been a mistake in labeling, as the species is not known east 
of the Great Basin. 

2. Taraxia subacaulis (Pursh) Rydb. (Jussiaea subacaulis Pursh; Oeno- 
thera heterantha Nutt.) In valleys from Mont, and Ida. to Colo, and Calif. 
Steamboat Springs. 

12. SPHAEROSTIGMA Nutt. 

Corolla yellow, turning reddish or greenish ; plant hirsutulous below ; often 

glandular above. i. 5". pubens. 

Corolla white or rose-color; plant stigulose or puberulent. 2. S. minntifloruin. 

1. Sphaerostigma pubens (S. Wats.) Rydb. (Oenothera strigulosa pubens 
S. Wats.) In sandy soil from Ida. and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Arkansas 
River above Pueblo. 

2. Sphaerostigma minutiflora (S. Wats.) Rydb. (Oenothera allysoidcs 
ininutiflora S. Wats.) In sandy soil from Wyo. to Colo, and Nev. Grand 
Junction. 

13. CHYLISMA Nult. 

i. Chylisma scapoidea (Nutt.) Small. (Oenothera scapoidea Nutt.) In 
arid soil from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 4500-7000 ft. Palisade, bank of 
Grand River ; Cimarron ; Grand Junction ; Hotchkiss ; Canon City. 

14. STENOSIPHON Spach. 

i. Stenosiphon linifolium (Nutt.) Britton. (S. virgatus Spach.) On prai- 
ries from Neb. and Colo, to Ark., Tex. and Mex. Exact locality not given. 

15. GAURA L. 

Anthers oval, attached near the middle ; fruit fusiform, sessile, almost equally 
8-ribbed. i. G. parviftora. 

Anthers linear or nearly so, attached near the base ; fruit strongly 4-angled, 

at least above. 

Fruit sessile, broadly fusiform ; tall biennials. 2. G. neo-mexicana. 

Fruit prolonged below into a stipe-like base. 



248 EPILOBIACEAE. 

Stipe-like base slender ; fruit fusiform ; tall herbaceous plants. 

3. G. coloradensis. 
Stipe-like base thick ; body of the fruit pyramidal-ovoid ; low plants with 

subligneous base. 
Plants more or less pubescent. 

Stem hirsute as well as strigose, at least below. 4. G. coccinea. 

Stem merely strigose or glabrous below. 

Leaves canescent, the lower usually oblong and sinuately toothed. 

5. G. margin at a. 

Leaves sparingly strigose ; all linear and entire. 6 G. parvifolia. 
Plant glabrous or nearly so, except the strigose hypanthium. 

7. G. glabra. 

1. Gaura parviflora Dougl. In valleys from S. D. and Wash, to La. and 
Ariz. ; also Sonora. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Cucharas Valley, 
near La Veta; Durango; Ft. Collins; William's Canon; Deer River; along 
the Platte River; Boulder. 

2. Gaura neo-mexicana Wooton. In valleys of Colo, and N. M. Alt. about 
7000 ft. Pagosa Springs ; Piedra. 

3. Gaura coloradensis Rydb. On hills of Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft. Ft. 
Collins; east of Poudre and east of College. 

4. Gaura coccinea Nutt. On plains and prairies from Mont, to Tex. and 
Ariz. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Denver ; Pike's Peak ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; 
mesas near Pueblo; Ead's; Ft. Collins; Quimby ; Ouray; Platte River. 

5. Gaura marginata Lehm. On plains and prairies from Man., Sask. and 
Mont, to Kans. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Ft. Collins; W r alsenburg. 

6. Gaura parvifolia Torr. On dry plains of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 4000- 
7000 ft. Durango; Pueblo; Colorado Springs; Ft. Collins. 

7. Gaura glabra Lehm. On plains from S. D. and Mont, to Colo, and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Trail Glen; Gunnison ; Ft. Collins; Durango; Boulder. 

16. CIRCAEA L. ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE. 

Plant 1-2 dm. high; leaves sharply dentate, usually cordate at the base 

i. C. alpina. 

Plant 3-6 dm. high ; leaf-blades sinuately denticulate, usually truncate or rounded 

at the base. 2. C. pacifica. 

1. Circaea alpina L. (C. pacifica Coulter; not Aschers. and Magn.) In 
moist woods from Lab. and Alaska to Ga. and Colo. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. 
Green Mountain Falls ; Estes Park, Larimer Co. ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; 
gulch, Soldier Canon ; vicinity of Pine Grove ; Stove Prairie Hill ; Rist 
Canon ; Bosworth's ranch, Stove Prairie. 

2. Circaea pacifica Ach. & Magn. In wet woods from Mont, and Wash. 
to Colo, and Calif. Locality not given; probably doubtful. 

Family 97. GUNNERACEAE Endl. WATER MILFOIL FAMILY. 

Stamen i; ovary i-celled; leaves entire. i. HIITURUS. 

Stamens 4-8 ; ovary 4-celled, splitting into 4 nutlets ; at least the submerged 
leaves pinnatifid. 2. MYRIOPHYI.LUM. 



GUNNERACEAE. 249 

i. HIPPURUS L. MARE'S-TAIL, BOTTLE-BRUSH. 

i. Hippurus vulgaris L. In water from Greenl. and Alaska to Mich., N. M. 
and Calif. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray; 
Gunnison; Laramie River near Colorado line; Wahatoya Creek; Hamor's 
Lake above Durango ; Hotchkiss. 

2. MYRIOPHYLLUM L. WATER- MILFOIL. 

i. Myriophyllum spicatum L. In water from Newf., Sask. and Ida. to 
Fla. and Calif. Alt. up to 8000 ft. Gunnison. 

Order 38. UMBELLALES. 

Fruit drupaceous or baccate ; gynoecium i-several-carpellary ; if 2-carpellary, 

stigmas introrse. 

Ovule with a ventral raphe ; leaves mostly alternate ; blades lobed or compound. 

98. HEDERACEAE. 
Ovule with a dorsal raphe ; leaves mostly opposite ; blades entire or merely 

toothed. 99- CORNACEAE. 

Fruit dry, a cremocarp ; gynoecium 2-carpellary ; stigmas terminal. 

100. AMMIACEAE. 

Family 98. HEDERACEAE L. IVY FAMILY. 
i. ARALIA L. WILD SARSAPARILLA. 

i. Aralia nudicaulis L. In woods from Newf. and Ida. to N. C., Mo. and 
Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Mountains of Estes Park, Larimer Co. ; mountains, 
Larimer Co. ; north of Cheyenne Canon ; Engelmann's Canon ; Colorado 
Springs; Jack Brook; Boulder. 

Family 99. CORNACEAE Link. DOGWOOD FAMILY. 

Flowers in open cymes, not subtended by an involucre; shrubs. i. SVIDA. 
Flowers in a head or umbel subtended by a large white involucre ; herbs. 

2. CORNELLA. 

i. SVIDA Opis. DOG-WOOD, CORNEL. 

Young branches and inflorescence villous. i. 5". interior. 

Young branches appressed strigose or nearly glabrous. 2. 5". stolonifera riparia. 

1. Svida interior Rydb. On river banks in Neb., S. D., Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Canon City ; Meeker ; Walsenburg ; 
gulch west of Pennock's. 

2. Svida stolonifera riparia Rydb. On river banks from Man., Mackenzie 
and Alaska to Neb., Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Lake City; Ouray; 
6 miles below Hot Sulphur Springs; Walsenburg; Minnehaha; Upper La 
Plata Canon; Box Canon, west of Ouray; Pass Creek; Ft. Collins; Crystal 
Creek; Redstone; Gunnison; Mancos; Turkey Creek and tributaries; Par- 
lin, Gunnison Co.; gulch south of Rist Canon; Bosworth's ranch; near 
Narrows of Cache la Poudre; gulch west of Pennock's; Stove Prairie. 

2. CORNELLA Rydb. BUNCH-BERRY, DWARF CORNEL. 

i. Cornelia canadensis (L.) Rydb. (Cornus canadensis L.) In woods 
from Lab. and Alaska to N. J., Minn., Colo, and Calif. North Park. 



250 AMMIACEAE. 

Family 100. AMMIACEAE Presl. CARROT FAMILY. 

Fruit bristly or spiny. 

Fruit subglobose, covered with hooked spines ; leaves palmately divided. 

i. SANICULA. 
Fruit linear or linear-oblanceolate, attenuate at the base, bristly on the angles ; 

leaves twice to thrice ternate. 2. WASHINGTOXIA. 

Fruit neither spiny nor bristly. 

Fruit not strongly flattened dorsally, usually more or less laterally flattened. 
Oil-tubes obsolete in the mature fruit, which is linear ; leaves twice or thrice 

ternate. 3. GLYCOSMA. 

Oil-tubes present. 

Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals ; petals white. 
Stylopodium conical. 

Divisions of the leaves linear to filiform ; ribs of the fruit filiform. 

4. CARUM. 
Divisions of the leaves lanceolate ; ribs of the fruit thick obtuse wings. 

5. ClCUTA. 

Stylopodium flat or wanting ; petals yellow. 
Ribs broad and corky. 

Dwarf cespitose alpine subacaulescent plants ; fruit not tuberculate. 

6. OREOXIS. 
Tall plants, 3 dm. high or more ; fruit tuberculate-roughened. 

7. HARBOURIA. 
Ribs not corky. 

Tall and branching, leafy-stemmed plants with broad leaf-divisions ; 

ribs inconspicuous. 8. ZIZIA. 

Acaulescent and cespitose plants ; ribs of the fruit prominent. 

9. ALETES. 

Oil-tubes more than one in the intervals. 
Stylopodium conical. 

Fruit round, with globose carpels and very slender inconspicuous ribs. 

10. BERULA. 
Fruit ovate or oblong, with prominent equal ribs. 

11. LlGUSTICUM. 

Stylopodium flat or wanting. 

Seed-face sulcate or decidedly concave. 

Ribs filiform. 12. MUSENIOX. 

Ribs with broad thin wings. 13. AULOSPERMUM. 

Seed-face plane or but slightly concave. 
Ribs all conspicuously winged. 

Leaves pinnate with short crowded and more or less confluent 
segments ; flowers usually purple or white. 

14. PHELLOPTERUS. 
Leaves ternate-pinnate with short linear and pungent segments ; 

flowers usually yellow. 15. PTERYXIA. 

Ribs not winged. 

Lateral ribs thick and corky ; the dorsal ones filiform. 

1 6. OROGENIA. 
Ribs all corky and equally prominent. 

Plant tall and leafy ; oil-tubes never present in the dorsal ribs. 

17. SIUM. 

Plant low, acaulescent ; oil-tubes present in the dorsal ribs. 

6. OREOXIS. 

Fruit strongly flattened dorsally, with the lateral ribs more or less promi- 
nently winged. 
Stylopodium present. 
Stylopodium conical. 

Plant glabrous with linear to lanceolate leaf-segments. 

Sepals evident ; leaves in our species simply pinnate ; oil-tubes solitary 
in the intervals. 18. OXYPOLIS. 



AMMIACEAE. -'51 

Sepals obsolete ; leaves in ours three to four times compound ; oil- 
tubes 2 or more in the lateral intervals. 19. CONIOSELINUM. 
Plant villous ; leaves ternate with rounded-cordate, lobed leaflets ; sepals 

obsolete. 20. HERACLEUM. 

Stylopodium depressed. 

Dorsal ribs prominent or winged. 

Plant caulescent, branched ; sepals mostly obsolete ; petals white. 

21. ANGELICA. 

Plant acaulescent or nearly so ; sepals evident ; petals in most yellow. 

22. CYNOMARATHRUM. 
Dorsal wings filiform ; petals yellow ; sepals obsolete ; plant caulescent. 

23. PASTINACA. 
Stylopodium wanting ; plant acaulescent or nearly so. 

Lateral wings of the fruit thin. 24. LOMATIUM. 

Lateral wings of the fruit thick. 

Dorsal ribs very prominent or winged. 25. PSEUDOCYMOPTERUS. 

Dorsal ribs filiform. 

Dwarf plants with pinnate or bipinnate leaves and conspicuous in- 

volucels. 26. CYMOPTERUS. 

Tall and stout plants with three or four times compound leaves and 
involucels of small bractlets. 27. LEPTOTAENIA. 

i. SANICULA L. SNAKE-ROOT. 

i. Sanicula marilandica L. In rich woods from Newf. and Wash, to Ga. 
and Colo. Alt. 4000-6500 ft. Pike's Peak ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; mouth 
of Cheyenne Canon ; Spring Canon ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; Dixon Canon. 

2. WASHINGTONIA Raf. SWEET CICELY. 

Involucels of several bractlets. i. W. longistylis. 

Involucels lacking or of a single small bractlet. 2. W. obtusa. 

1. Washingtonia longistylis (Torn) Britton. (Osmorrhiza longistylis Torr.) 
In woods and copses from N. Sc. and Ass. to Ga. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 
ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Horsetooth Gulch; Buckthorn Creek, Larimer Co. 

2. Washingtonia obtusa C. & R. (Osmorrhisa nuda Porter; not Torr.) 
In woods from Alb. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 6000-12,000 ft. South Chey- 
enne Canon; Rifle, Garfield Co.; headwaters of Pass Creek; four miles west 
of Cameron Pass ; Cedar Edge ; Jack Brook ; Upper West Mancos Canon ; 
near La Plata Post Office ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; near 
Pagosa Peak ; Wahatoya Canon ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; gulch east 
of Stove Prairie; above Beaver Creek; Rabbit-Ear Range. 

3. GLYCOSMA Nutt. 

i. Glycosma occidentalis Nutt. (Osmorrhisa occidcntalis Torr.) On hill- 
sides and valleys from Alb. and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. up to 10,000 
ft. Mountains north of Bear River below Steamboat Springs, Routt Co. ; 
Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

4. CARUM L. CARAWAY. 

Leaves twice pinnately divided. i. C. Carui. 

Leaves once pinnately divided. 2. C. Gairdneri. 

i. Carum Carui L. Escaped from cultivation, in waste places from Newf. 
and Mont, to Pa. and Colo. Alt. up to 9500 ft. Ft. Collins ; mountains 
between Sunshine and Ward. 



252 AMMIACEAE. 

2. Carum Gairdneri (H. & A.) A. Gray. In valleys from Alb. and Wash, to 
Colo., Ariz, and Calif. Steamboat Springs; near Bear River, above Hayden, 
Routt Co. 

5. CICUTA L. WATER HEMLOCK, MUSQUASH ROOT. 

i. Cicuta occidentalis Greene. (C. maculata Coulter; not L.) In water 
and wet meadows from N. D. and Ida. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. 
-Trinidad; lola ; Pagosa Springs; Ft. Collins; Wahatoya Creek. 

6. OREOXIS Raf. 

Involucels linear, entire. 

Oil-tubes more than one in the intervals; plant glabrous. i. O. hiiinilis. 

Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals ; plant usually puberulent. 2. O. alplna. 
Involucels ovate or lanceolate, toothed. 3. O. Bakeri. 

1. Oreoxis humilis Raf. On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt. 11,000-13,000 
ft. Pike's Peak; Bear Creek Divide; West La Plata Mountains; Mount 
Garfield. 

2. Oreoxis alpina (A. Gray) C. & R. (Cymopterus alpiniis A. Gray) On 
the higher peaks of Colo, and Utah. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Georgetown; 
headwaters of Clear Creek; Gray's Peak; mountains above Boreas; mountain 
near Veta Pass ; Mount Ouray ; Bob Creek Divide, West La Plata Mountains ; 
above Beaver Creek ; Cameron Pass ; Berthoud Pass. 

3. Oreoxis Bakeri C. & R. On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt. 10,000-13,000 
ft. Alpine Tunnel; Mt. Hayden; near Pagosa Peak; West Spanish Peak; 
Mount Ouray. 

7. HARBOURIA C. & R. 

i. Harbouria trachypleura (A. Gray) C. & R. (Cicuta trachypleura S. 
Wats.) In mountains from Wyo. to N. M. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Foot-hills 
near Golden ; Bosworth's ranch, Stove Prairie ; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins ; 
foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Horsetooth Gulch; Rist Canon; Howe's Gulch; gulch 
west of Pennock's ; west of Soldier Canon ; mountains between Sunshine and 
Ward; Boulder; Empire. 

8. ZIZIA Koch. MEADOW PARSNIP, ALEXANDERS. 

i. Zizia cordata (Walt.) Koch. In wet meadows and woods from Conn., 
Sask. and Wash, to Ga., Ala. and Utah. South Park; Pinkham Creek, 
Larimer Co. 

9. ALETES C. & R. 

Peduncles longer than the leaves ; branches of the umbels short. 

Leaflets rounded-obovate in outline; their teeth ovate. i. A. obovata. 

Leaflets rhombic-cuneate in outline, incised-toothed with lanceolate acuminate 

teeth. 2. A. acaulis. 

Peduncles shorter than the leaves ; branches of the umbels nearly as long as 

the peduncles. 3. A. humilis. 

1. Aletes obovata Rydb. On the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. 
Golden; Lower Boulder Canon, Boulder Co.; near Morrison. 

2. Aletes acaulis (Torr.) C. & R. (Deiveya acanlis Torr. ; Carum Hallii 
S. Wats.) In the mountains of Colo, and N. M. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Near 
Morrison; South Table Mountain; Golden; gulch south of Boulder; moun- 
tains between Sunshine and Ward. 



AMMIACEAE. 253 

3. Aletes humilis C. & R. In the mountains of Colo. Dale Creek, Larimer 
Co. 

10. BERULA Hoffm. CUT-LEAVED WATER PARSNIP. 

i. Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville. (B. angusti folia Koch) In water from 
Ills., Minn, and B. C. to Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Ft. Collins; 
Poudre flats ; Boulder. 

ii. LIGUSTICUM L. LOVAGE, ANGELICA. 

Leaves twice or thrice compound ; first divisions ternate. 
Stem leafy ; divisions of the leaves not filiform. 

Leaves thin, dark green. i. L. Porteri. 
Leaves thicker, pale green. 2. L. affine. 
Plant subscapose or with a single leaf ; ultimate divisions of the leaves linear- 
filiform. 3. L. tenuifolinm. 
Leaves once pinnate ; plant scapose. 4. L. Eastivoodii. 

1. Ligusticum Porteri C. & R. In mountain woods from Wyo. to N. M. 
and Ariz. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Lake City; near La Plata Post Office; Engel- 
mann Canon ; Georgetown ; headwaters of Pass Creek ; headwaters of Sangre 
de Cristo Creek ; Turkey Creek and tributaries ; Veta Mountain ; Mirror Lake ; 
near Pagosa Peak ; Columbine ; Cerro Summit ; Crested Butte ; mountains 
west of Steamboat Springs ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

2. Ligusticum affine A. Nels. Open, moist hillsides in Wyo. and Colo. 
Summit of North Park Range, Larimer Co. 

3. Ligusticum tenuifolium S. Wats. In mountain woods from Ida. and Ore. 
to Colo. Middle Park; South Park. 

4. Ligusticum Eastwoodii C. & R. In the mountains of Colo, and S. 
Wyo.- Alt. 10,000-11,000 ft.- Mountains above Ouray; Bear Creek Divide; 
Pagosa Peak; Keblar Pass; La Plata Mountains. 

12. MUSENION Raf. 

Fruit glabrous or slightly puberulent. i. M. divaricatum. 

Fruit strongly scabrous puberulent. 2. M. angusti folium. 

1. Musenion divaricatum (Pursh) C. & R. In dry ground from Ass. and 
Alb. to S. D. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. North Denver; outside of Dixon 
Canon ; north of La Porte ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Spring Canon ; west 
of Loveland ; Boulder. 

2. Musenion angustifolium Nutt. In arid valleys in hard ground of Ass. 
and Alb. to Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Plains near Denver. 

13. AULOSPERMUM C. & R. 

Clusters of leaves and peduncles borne at the summit of a more or less elongated 

stem. 
Corolla yellow. 

Rachis of the primary leaf-segments dilated ; secondary segments confluent, 

broad, toothed or merely cleft. i. A. longipes. 

Rachis of the primary leaf-segments not dilated ; secondary segments distinct, 
finely dissected into small oblong lobes. 2. A. angustion. 

Corolla purple. 3. A. planosnm. 

Leaves clustered at the base ; plant acaulescent. 4. A. pnrpnreum. 



254 AMMIACEAE. 

1. Aulospermum longipes (S. Wats.) C. & R. (Cymopterus longipes S. 
Wats.) In dry soil from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. Yampa River. 

2. Aulospermum angustum Osterhout. In dry places of Colo. Steamboat 
Springs ; Hayden. 

3. Aulospermum planosum Osterhout. In dry places of Colo. Minturn ; 
Steamboat Springs. 

4. Aulospermum purpureum (S. Wats.) C. & R. (Cymopterus pur pur ens 
S. Wats.) In dry places from Colo, and Utah to N. M. and Ariz.- Alt. 
6000-7000 ft. Mancos ; Cimarron ; Durango ; Ridgway. 

14. PHELLOPTERUS Nutt. 

Peduncles, even in fruit, shorter than the leaves : fruit 6-8 mm. long. 

i. P. montanus. 
Peduncles, at least in fruit, equalling or exceeding the leaves ; fruit over 8 mm. 

long. 

Involucels i-3-nerved. 2. P. purpurascens. 

Involucels s-g-nerved. 3. P. camporum. 

1. Phellopterus montanus Nutt. (Cymopterus montanus T. & G.) In dry 
places from S. D. and Wyo. to Ark. and Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Colorado 
Springs ; Ft. Collins ; Pueblo ; New Windsor ; Denver. 

2. Phellopterus purpurascens (A. Gray) C. & R. (Cymopterus montanus 
purpurascens A. Gray) In dry places from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and Ariz. 

In Colorado it is represented only by the var. Eastwoodiae (Jones) C. & R. 
which is more robust, with more open inflorescence and narrower wings to 
the fruit. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. Hermosa ; Mancos ; Cerro Summit. 



3. Phelopterus camporum Rydb. Dry mesas of S. Colo. Alt. about 5000 
ft. Mesas near Pueblo. 

15. PTERYXIA Nutt. 

i. Pteryxia foeniculacea Nutt. (Cymopterus foeniculaceits T. & G.) In 
dry places from Ida. and Wash, to Colo., Utah and Ore. Alt. about 8500 ft. 
Columbine ; Steamboat Springs. 

16. OROGENIA S. Wats. TURKEY PEA. 

i. Orogenia linearifolia S. Wats. On mountain ridges from Ida. and Wash, 
to Colo, and Ore. Mancos ; Rabbit-Ears, Routt Co. ; Steamboat Springs. 

17. SIUM L. WATER PARSNIP. 

i. Slum cicutaefolium Gmelin. In water from Newf. and Mackenzie to 
Va. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; Gunnison ; San 
Luis Valley. 

18. OXYPOLIS Raf. 

i. Oxypolis Fendleri (A. Gray) Heller. (Archcmora Fcndleri A. Gray) 

Along brooks and in springy places from Wyo. to N. M. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. 

Headwaters of Clear Creek ; Upper Corral Creek ; Idaho Springs ; Marshall 

Pass; Ruby; Robinson; near Pagosa Peak; East Indian Creek; mountain 

near Veta Pass ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Grayback mining 



AMMIACEAE. 255 

camps and Placer Gulch ; Cameron Pass ; headwaters of Pass Creek ; Bob 
Creek ; Gypsum Creek Canon, Eagle Co. ; Beaver Creek ; Berthoud Pass ; 
between Sunshine and Ward. 

19. CONIOSELINUM Hoof. HEMLOCK PARSNIP. 

i. Conioselinum scopulorum (A. Gray) C. & R. (Ligusticum scopulorum A. 
Gray) In mountain wood from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-11,000 
ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; near Empire; Ironton Park, 9 miles south 
of Ouray; Robinson; Red Mountain road south of Ouray; Alpine Tunnel; 
Marshall Pass; mountains, Larimer Co.; Crested Butte; Cumbres ; Rabbit- 
Ear Pass; Palmer Lake; Breckenridge; canon west of Palmer Lake; Elk 
Canon; Ouray; Empire. 

20. HERACLEUM L. 

i. Heracleum lanatum Michx. In wet ground from Vt. and Alaska to 
N. C. and Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Ruxton Brook; west of Ouray; Gun- 
nison ; Pagosa Springs ; north Cheyenne Canon ; Ft. Collins ; Mancos ; Baxter's 
ranch ; along the Poudre ; between Sunshine and Ward. 

21. ANGELICA L. ANGELICA. 

Oil-tubes mostly solitary in the intervals, not continuous around the seed ; 

rays of the umbels ascending. 

Involucels of many-lanceolate, long-acuminate bractlets. i. A. Grayi. 

Involucels none, or a few linear-subulate or filiform bractlets. 2. A. pinnata. 
Oil-tubes continuous around the seeds : rays of the umbels widely spreading. 

3. A. ainpla. 

1. Angelica Grayi C. & R. In the mountains of Colo, and S. Wyo. Alt. 
9000-13,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek ; Pike's Peak ; Silver Plume ; 
near Pagosa Peak ; Cameron Pass ; Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains ; 
Graymont ; West Spanish Peak ; Keblar Pass ; Boreas ; Beaver Creek. 

2. Angelica pinnata S. Wats. In wet meadows from Alb. to N. M. and 
Utah. Alt. 7000-8500 ft. Gunnison Co. ; Squaw Hill above Cimarron ; 
Empire. 

3. Angelica ampla A. Nels. In wet meadows of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
about 7000 ft. Cheyenne Mountain ; north of Cheyenne Canon ; southeast of 
Jefferson, South Park. 

22. CYNOMARATHRUM Nutt. 

i. Cynomarathrum Eastwoodii C. & R. Low plains of western Colo. 
Grand Junction ; Mesa County. 

23. PASTINACA L. PARSNIP. 

i. Pastinaca sativa L. Cultivated and escaped around dwellings from Vt. 
and Wash, to Fla. and Calif. Boulder. 



256 AMMIACEAE. 

24. LOMATIUM C. & R. 

Plants slender with thick rounded corms ; corolla yellow. i. L. leptocarpum. 
Plant generally stouter from a thickened root or rootstock, rarely corm-like. 
Bractlets lanceolate, oblong or linear ; corolla white. 

Bractlets scarious-margined, as well as the whole plant puberulent or rarely 

glabrate. 2. L. orientale. 

Bractlets not scarious-margined, villous. 3. L. macrocarpum. 

Bractlets of the involucels none or very few, linear or subulate ; corolla yellow. 
Leaves finely dissected with numerous small divisions. 4. L. Grayi. 
Leaves once to thrice ternate with comparatively large divisions. 

5. L. platycarpum. 

1. Lomatium leptocarpum (Nutt.) C. & R. (Peucedanum leptocarpum 
Nutt.) On plains and hillsides from Ida. and Ore. to Colo, and Calif. 
Steamboat Springs. 

2. Lomatium orientale C. & R. (Peucedanum midicaule Nutt, mainly) On 
dry plains from S. D., Mont, and Ida. to Kans., N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 4000- 
8000 ft. Plains near Denver; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins; mountains, 
Larimer Co.; Calhan ; vicinity of Horsetooth ; Horsetooth Gulch; Dixon 
Canon ; Empire. 

3. Lomatium macrocarpum (Nutt.) C. & R. (Peucedanum macrocarpum 
Nutt.) Dry hills and plains from Sask. and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. 
Egeria Park, Routt County. 

4. Lomatium Grayi C. & R. On dry plains and hills from Wyo. and 
Wash, to Colo, and Ore.- Alt. up to 7000 ft. Mancos ; Durango; Los Pinos ; 
Glenwood Springs. 

5. Lomatium platycarpum (Torr.) C. & R. (Peucedanum simplex Nutt.) 
On hillsides from Alb. and Wash, to Colo, and Ore. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. 
Above Mancos ; Mancos ; Cerro Summit ; Glenwood Springs ; Fort Lewis. 

25. PSEUDOCYMOPTERUS C. & R. 

Plant more or less caulescent ; leaves thin. 
Petals yellow. 

Ultimate divisions or teeth of the leaves short, ovate to lanceolate ; leaves 

ovate in outline. i. P. wont anus. 

Ultimate divisions of the leaves linear, elongated. 

Leaves ovate in outline, at least the basal ones. 2. P. sylvaticus. 

Leaves, at least the basal ones, broadly rhombic in outline. 

Plant slender ; leaves mostly twice compound with very long and few 
divisions. 3. P. tenuifolius. 

Plant low ; leaves thrice pinnate with shorter, crowded numerous 
divisions. 4. P. multifidits. 

Petals purple. 5. P. pnrpureus. 

Plants acaulescent with thick or firm leaves. 

Primary divisions of the leaves once or twice dissected with narrowly linear 

divisions. 6. P. anisatus. 

Primary divisions broad, cuneate-flabellate, cleft and toothed with short ovate 
or lanceolate teeth. 7. P. aletifolius. 

i. Pseudocymopterus montanus (A. Gray) C. & R. (Ligusticuni inon- 
tanum B. & H.) In mountain woods from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 
8000-12,500 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Clear Creek Canon; Cumbres ; 
Cumberland Basin, La Plata Mountains; Los Pinos; hills above Mancos; 
West Indian Creek ; Sangre de Cristo Canon ; Cameron Pass ; Alpine Tunnel ; 



AMMIACEAE. 257 

Idaho Springs; Larimer Co.; Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray; moun- 
tain near Veta Pass; Pass Creek; Piedra; near Pagosa Peak; Gore Pass; 
Rico ; Leroux Creek, Delta Co. 

2. Pseudocymopterus sylvaticus A. Nels. In woods of Colo, and Wyo. 
Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Gulch, Mt. Harvard ; Clear Creek Canon near George- 
town ; Keblar Pass ; Pike's Peak ; Veta Pass ; Hahn's Peak ; mountains, Lari- 
mer Co.; West Indian Creek; Turkey Creek and tributaries; Veta Mountain; 
Seven Lakes ; Bosworth's ; William's Canon above Manitou ; above Beaver 
Creek; Dillon Canon; Empire; mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

3. Pseudocymopterus tenuifolius (A. Gray) Rydb. (Thaspium montanum 
tenui folium A. Gray) In mountain woods from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. 
Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Engelmann Canon; William's Canon; Minnehaha; East 
Indian Creek; Lake City; vicinity of Como. 

4. Pseudocymopterus multifidus Rydb. (P. montanus multifidus Rydb.) 
In mountain woods of Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Lake City ; Ironton, San 
Juan Co.; Wahatoya Canon; Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray; Seven 
Lakes. 

5. Pseudocymopterus purpureus (C. & R.) Rydb. (P. montanus purpureus 
C. & R.) In the mountains of Colo., Utah, N. M. and Ariz. Alt. about 11,500 
ft. Mt. Ouray; Garfield. 

6. Pseudocymopterus anisatus (A. Gray) C. & R. (Cymopterus anisatus A. 
Gray) On mountains among rocks from Wyo. and Nev. to Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 9000-11,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Ute Pass, Colorado Springs; 
Silver Plume ; Little Veta Mountain ; West Spanish Peak. 

7. Pseudocymopterus aletifolius Rydb. In the mountains of Colo, among 
rocks. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Minnehaha; Cheyenne Mountain.; Pike's Peak; 
Ruxton; North Cheyenne Canon; Manitou; South Cheyenne Canon. 

26. CYMOPTERUS Raf. 

Umbels dense, globular ; petals white ; involucre wanting. 

Ultimate divisions of the leaves linear or linear-oblong, acutish. 

1. C, acaulis. 
Ultimate divisions of the leaves short, broadly oblong, obtuse. 

2. C. Parryi. 
Umbels open ; petals yellow ; involucre present, although often a mere, vestige. 

Divisions of the leaves narrow. 3. C. Fendleri. 

Divisions of the leaves broad. 4. C. Neivberryi. 

1. Cymopterus acaulis (Pursh) Rydb. (C. glomeratus DC.; C. campestris 
T. & G. ) In dry arid places from N. D. and Ass. to Ark. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-8000 ft. Larimer Co.; Walsenburg; plains near Denver; mesas near 
Pueblo ; Cucharas Valley near La Veta ; butte 5 miles southwest of La Veta ; 
Ft. Collins ; Poudre River. 

2. Cymopterus Parryi (C. & R.) Jones. (Coloptera Parryi C. & R.) In 
dry places from Mont, to Neb. and Colo. McCoy's, Eagle Co. 

3. Cymopteris Fendleri A. Gray. In dry places of Colo., Utah and N. 
M. Westwater; Mancos; Grand Junction. 

4. Cymopterus Newbenyi (S. Wats.) Jones. In dry places of Colo., Utah 
and N. M. Westwater. 

17 



258 AMMIACEAE. 

27. LEPTOTAENIA Nutt. 

Fruit 8-12 mm. long, usually without oil-tubes; leaves finely dissected into linear 

divisions. i. L. multifida. 

Fruit 15-18 mm. long, with oil-tubes; leaves less dissected into oblong divisions. 

2. L, Eatoni. 

1. Leptotaenia multifida Nutt. In rich soil from Alb. and Wash, to Colo, 
and Calif. Near Dix Post Office; Durango; Glenwood Springs; Baldwin; 
Spicer. 

2. Leptotaenia Eatoni C. & R. In rich soil from Wyo. and Ida. to Utah 
and Colo. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Los Pinos ; Cerro Summit ; Minturn. 



Order 39. ERICALES. 

Gynoecium superior ; fruit usually capsular. 

Herbaceous saprophytes without green leaves. 101. MONOTROPACEAE. 

Herbs or shrubs with green leaves. 

Corolla of essentially distinct petals ; herbs with rootstocks. 

102. PYROLACEAE. 

Corolla of more or less united petals; shrubs. 103. ERICACEAE. 

Gynoecium inferior; fruit baccate or drupaceous. 104. VACCINIACEAE. 

Family 101. MONOTROPACEAE Lindl. INDIAN-PIPE FAMILY. 
i. PTEROSPORA Nutt. PINE DROP, GIANT BIRD'S-NEST. 

i. Pterospora andromedea Nutt. In rich woods from Que. and B. C. to 
Pa., Ariz, and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Bosworth's ranch, Stove Prairie; 
mountains, Larimer Co. 

Family 102. PYROLACEAE Agardh. WINTERGREEN FAMILY. 

Plants leafy-stemmed ; flowers corymbose ; style very short and covered by the 

peltate stigma; filament dilated and hairy at the middle. i. CHIMAPHILA. 

Plants scapiferous with a basal rosette of leaves ; flowers racemose or solitary ; 

style evident ; filaments subulate, naked. 
Flowers solitary ; petals spreading ; valves of the capsule not cob-webby on the 

edges. 2. MONESES. 

Flowers racemose ; petals more or less converging, concave ; valves of the 
capsule cob-webby on the edges when opening. 3. PYROLA. 

i. CHIMAPHILA Pursh. PIPSISSEWA. 

i. Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt. In woods from N. S. and Alaska 
to Ga. and Calif. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. Estes Peak, Larimer Co.; North and 
South Boulder Peak; Bierstadt Lake; Beaver Creek. 

2. MONESES Salisb. ONE-FLOWERED WINTERGREEN. 

i. Moneses uniflora (L.) S. F. Gray. In wet woods from Lab. and Alaska 
to Pa., Colo, and Ore. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Silverton ; Marshall Pass; Front 
Range, Larimer Co.; Ruby; Caribou; Steamboat Springs; camp on Little 
Beaver Creek; Berthoud Pass. 



PYROLACEAE. - : > !) 

3. PYROLA L. WlNTERGREEN. 

Flowers with a lo-lobed hypogynous disk; stigma peltate, 5-lobed ; petals with a 

pair of tubercles at the base. i. P. secunda. 

Flowers without hypogynous disk and petals without tubercles. 

Style straight and short ; stigma peltate ; stamens equally connivent around 

the pistil. 2. P. minor. 

Style and stamens declined ; stigma much narrower than the concave apex of 

the style, which forms a collar or ring. 
Leaves not mottled. 

Petals pink or purplish. 

Leaf-blades round-reniform. 3- P- asarifolia. 

Leaf-blades orbicular or round-ovate. 4. P. uliginosa. 

Petals white or greenish. 5- P- chlorantha. 

Leaves mottled. 6. P. picta. 

1. Pyrola secunda L. In damp woods from Lab. and Alaska to D. C. and 
Calif. Alt. 6000-12.000 ft. Grand Lake; Mt. Abram, Ouray; Echo Canon; 
Box Canon, west of Ouray; Pagosa Peak; Steamboat Springs, Routt Co.; 
Mt. Harvard; Cheyenne Mountain; Beaver Creek; mountains between Sun- 
shine and Ward; Fish Creek Falls. 

2. Pyrola minor L. In woods from Greenl. and Alaska to Conn, and 
Calif. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Grand Lake; Mar- 
shall Pass; chaparral-covered hills southeast of Ouray; Artist's Glen, near 
Pike's Peak; Silver Plume; La Plata Canon; Cameron Pass; Graymont; 
Beaver Creek. 

3. Pyrola asarifolia Michx. In damp woods from N. B. and Alb. to N. Y. 
and Colo. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. West Spanish Peak; Graymont. 

4. Pyrola uliginosa Torr. (P. rotundifolia uliginosa A. Gray) In wet 
rich woods and swampy places from N. S. and B. C. to N. Y., Colo, and 
Calif. Alt. 7000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; South Boulder Peak; 
Grand Lake; Marshall Pass; Ouray; Berthoud Pass, near Cozzens; Keblar 
Pass ; Steamboat Springs ; Beaver Creek. 

5. Pyrola chlorantha Swartz. In woods from Lab. and B. C. to D. C., Colo, 
and Calif.; also in Europe. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Marshall Pass; Hamor's 
Lake, north of Durango ; 4 miles west of Cameron Pass ; Cheyenne Moun- 
tains ; Front Range, Larimer Co. ; Gore Pass ; swamp above Beaver Creek. 

6. Pyrola picta Smith. In woods from Ida. and Wash, to Colo., Ariz, and 
Calif. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Canons and adjoining meadows west of Ouray. 

Family 103. ERICACEAE DC. HEATH FAMILY. 

Fruit more or less fleshy or surrounded by a fleshy calyx or hypanthium ; plants 

prostrate, evergreen ; corolla without sacs. 

Fruit a berry or drupe, not enclosed in the calyx. i. ARCTOSTAPHYLOS. 
Fruit a loculicidal capsule, enclosed in the accrescent fleshy calyx and 

hypanthium. 2. GAULTHERIA. 
Fruit dry, a septicidal capsule ; erect bog-shrubs. 

Corolla saucer-shaped with 10 sacs for the anthers. 3. KALMIA. 

Corolla campanulate without sacs. 4. PHYLLODOCE. 

i. ARCTOSTAPHYLOS Adans. BEAR-BERRY, KINNIKINIC. 

i. Arcostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. In woods, on hillsides and sandy 
soil from Lab. and Alaska to N. J., Colo, and Ore. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. 



260 ERICACEAE. 

Arkansas Junction near Leadville; Dillon; Idaho Springs; South Cheyenne 
Canon; mountains north of Cascade; West Mancos Canon; mountains, Lari- 
mer Co. ; Golden ; west of Ft. Collins ; Stove Prairie, Larimer Co. ; Pike's 
Peak ; Manitou ; Eldora ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; Bear 
Creek Canon. 

2.. GAULTHERIA L. CREEPING WINTERGREEN. 

i. Gaultheria humifusa (Graham) Rydb. (V actinium humifusum Graham; 
Gaultheria Myrsinitis Hook.) On wooded hillsides from Mont, and B. C. 
to Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 11,000 ft. Buffalo Pass, Park Range; head- 
waters of Clear Creek ; summit of North Park Range, Larimer Co. 

3. KALMIA. AMERICAN 01 SWAMP LAUREL. 

i. Kalmia microphylla (Hook.) Heller. (K. glauca microphylla Hook.) 
In mountain swamps from Alb. and Alaska to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 10,000- 
11,000 ft. Caribou; Long's Peak; Buffalo Pass; summit of North Park 
Range, Larimer Co. 

4. PHYLLODOCE Salisb. 

i. Phyllodoce empetriformis (Smith) Don. Swamps and mountain sides 
from Alaska to northern Calif., Colo, and Alb. Alt. up to 11,000 ft. Grizzly 
Gulch, near Gray's Peak. 

Family 104. VACCINIACEAE Lindl. HUCKLEBERRY FAMILY. 
i. VACCINIUM L. BLUE-BERRY, HUCKLEBERRY, BILBERRY. 

Branches not angled. i. V. caespitosum. 
Branches angled. 

Fruit purplish-black ; leaves over i cm. long. 2. V . oreophilum. 

Fruit bright red ; leaves usually less than i cm. long. 3. V '. erythrococcum. 

1. Vacciniura caespitosum Michx. In arctic and alpine regions from Lab. 
and Alaska to N. H., Colo, and Wash. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of 
Clear Creek, near Empire; Middle Park; Mirror Lake; Tennessee Pass, 7 
miles west of Leadville ; Damfino Creek ; Cameron Pass ; Leroux Creek ; El- 
dora to Baltimore; Buffalo Pass; summit of North Park Range, Larimer Co. 

2. Vaccinium oreophilum Rydb. (V. Myrtillus A. Gray; not L.) In woods 
from Alb. and B. C. to N. M. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Front Range, Larimer 
Co. ; Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; near Pagosa Peak ; Keblar Pass ; 
East Indian Creek; mountain near Veta Pass; Valley Spur; Red Mountain, 
south of Ouray; head of Bear Creek; Beaver Creek. 

3. Vaccinium erythrococcum Rydb. (V. Myrtillus microphyllum Hook.) 
On hillsides from Alb. and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8500-12,000 ft. 
Headwaters of Clear Creek, near Empire; Alpine Tunnel; Little Veta Moun- 
tain; Beaver Creek; above Cameron Pass; Baltimore; Buffalo Pass; summit 
of North Park Range, Larimer Co. 



PRIMULACEAE. 2(51 

Order 40. PRIMULALES. 

Family 105. PRIMULACEAE Vent. PRIMROSE FAMILY 

Corolla present. 

Corolla-lobes erect or spreading ; stamens distinct. 

Corolla salverform or funnelform, its lobes imbricated ; stamens included ; 

plants scapiferous ; leaves basal. 
Corolla-tube equalling or exceeding the calyx ; style filiform ; flowers 

conspicuous. i. PRIMULA. 

Corolla-tube shorter than the calyx ; throat constricted ; style very short ; 

flowers minute. 2. ANDROSACE. 

Corolla rotate, its lobes convolute or involute in the bud ; stamens exserted ; 

plants leafy-stemmed. 
Flowers axillary, solitary ; corolla-lobes broad, curved around the stamens ; 

staminodia conspicuous. 3. STEIRONEMA. 

Flowers in axillary short spikes ; corolla-lobes long and linear ; tube very 

short ; staminodia tooth-like. 4. NAUMBURGIA. 

Corolla-lobes reflexed ; stamens more or less monadelphous ; plants scapiferous. 

5. DODECATHEON. 

Corolla wanting ; calyx with 5 petaloid lobes ; flowers solitary, sessile in the axils 
of the opposite stem-leaves. 6. GLAUX. 

i. PRIMULA L. PRIMROSE. 

Bracts of the involucre more or less gibbous at the base ; lobes of the corolla 
deeply 2-cleft, i. e., at least one-fourth their length ; leaves densely mealy 
beneath. i. P. americana. 

Bracts of the involucre not gibbous below ; lobes of the corolla merely emarginate 

or notched, rarely entire ; leaves not mealy. 
Plant less than i dm. high, i -few-flowered ; flowers less than 2 cm. long. 

2. P. angustifolia. 
Scape 1.5-5 dm. high, many-flowered; flowers over 2 cm. long. 

3. P. Parry i. 

1. Primula americana Rydb. (P. farinosa Hook.; not L.) In swamps and 
wet meadows from Ass. and Alb. to Colo. Alt. about 8000 ft.' Near Lake 
John, North Park; Gunnison. 

2. Primula angustifolia Torr. On alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. 9000-14,400 ft. 
Saddle, Pike's Peak; Marshall Pass; Gray's' Peak; Pike's Peak; Berthoud 
Pass near Georgetown; West Spanish Peak; Sierra Blanca ; headwaters of 
Clear Creek. 

3. Primula Parryi A. Gray. Along cool mountain streams from Mont, to 
Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 9000-13,000 ft. Bottomless Pit, Pike's Peak; Berthoud 
Pass, near Georgetown ; Cameron Pass ; Tennessee Pass, 7 miles west of 
Leadville ; tributaries of South Fork of Cache La Poudre River, Larimer 
Co. ; Elk Mountains ; Gray's Peak ; Slide Rock Canon ; timber line above 
Cameron Pass ; mountains south of Ward, Boulder Co. ; Carson ; summit of 
Mt. Garfield ; headwaters of Clear Creek ; Lake City ; Caribou ; Graymont ; 
Beaver Creek; Berthoud Pass. 

2. ANDROSACE L. 

Perennials, cespitose and proliferous ; corolla 5-8 mm. in diameter. 

i. A. carinata. 

Annuals, not cespitose-proliferous, or the last one may be perennial by rosettes ; 
corolla 3-4 mm. wide. 



262 PRIMULACEAE. 

Calyx-tube in fruit obpyramidal, its green teeth surpassing the capsule. 

Bracts of the involucre ovate or oblong. 2. A. occidentalis. 

Bracts of the involucre lanceolate or subulate. 

Calyx-teeth erect, lanceolate, usually shorter than the tube. 

Peduncles, pedicels and calyx-lobes densely puberulent, the latter ex- 
ceeding the fruit. 3. A. puberulent a. 
Peduncles and pedicels sparingly puberulent or glabrous ; calyx-lobes 

glabrous or nearly so, not exceeding the fruit. 
Corolla longer than the calyx. 

Peduncles 1-2 dm. high, many times longer than the strongly 

ascending or suberect pedicels. 4. A. pinetorum. 

Peduncles less than 3 cm. high, often equalled or exceeded in 
length by the spreading pedicels. 5. A. subumbellata. 

Corolla shorter than the calyx. 6. A. diffusa. 

Calyx-teeth more or less spreading, ovate-triangular, foliaceous, equalling 
or exceeding the whitish tube ; corolla shorter than the calyx. 

7. A. siiblifera. 
Calyx-tube in fruit hemispherical; teeth broadly triangular. 

8. A. filiformis. 

1. Androsace carinata Torr. (A. Chamacjasne A. Gray; not Host.) On 
alpine peaks from Alb. to Colo. Alt. 9000-13,000 ft. Mt. Evans; Pike's Peak; 
near the summit of the Rocky Mountains ; Bottomless Pit ; West Spanish 
Peak; Iron Mountain. 

2. Androsace occidentalis Nutt. In dry soil from Ills., Man. and Mont, to 
Mo., Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Mancos; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; 
Los Pinos (Bayfield) ; Empire. 

3. Androsace puberulenta Rydb. On plains and hills from Man., Mackenzie 
River and Alb. to N. Mex. Alt. 5000-12,000 ft. Plains near Boulder; 
Pike's Peak ; Seven Lakes ; Wahatoya Canon ; mountain near Veta Pass ; 
headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Gentian Ridge; Veta Mountain; 
Ribbon Lake ; Marshall Pass ; Cucharas River, above La Veta ; Little Veta 
Mountain ; near Ironton, San Juan Co. ; Mt. Hesperus ; Bear Creek Divide, 
west of Mt. Hesperus; Iron Mountain; Carson. 

4. Androsace pinetorum Greene. In the mountains from Mackenzie and 
Yukon to Colo, and Ariz. Scarcely distinct from A. septentrionalis L. 
Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Los Pinos (Bayfield); Graham's Park; hills southeast 
of La Veta ; Georgetown ; Boulder ; Soldier's Canon ; Dolores. 

5. Androsace subumbellata (A. Nelson) Small. Along mountain streams 
from Mont, to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Berthoud Pass, near 
Georgetown ; Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray ; Pike's Peak ; Gore Pass ; 
source of Leroux, above Graymont ; Beaver Creek ; Cameron Pass ; Grizzly 
Creek; Deep Creek. 

6. Androsace diffusa Small. In the mountains mostly along rivers from 
Mackenzie and B. C. to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 6000-11,000 ft. Massif de 
1'Arapahoe; Pike's Peak; Upper La Plata River; Veta Pass; North Park 
near Teller; along the Michigan; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron; Silver 
Plume ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Mancos ; Georgetown ; Mt. Harvard ; on 
Turkey Creek and tributaries; Glemvood Springs, Garfield Co.; hills above 
Mancos; Pennock's mountain ranch; vicinity of Como ; Bosworth's ranch, 
Stove Prairie; along Purgatory River, Trinidad; Rist Canon; above Manitou; 
gulch west of Pennock's ; Dolores. 



PRIMULACEAE. 263 

7. Androsace subulifera (A. Gray) Rydb. (A. septentrionalis subulifera A. 
Gray) In the mountains from Mont, to Colo. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Cascade; 
Minnehaha ; Cameron Pass; Steamboat Springs; Cimarron; Beaver Creek; 
Mancos; Durango; Pennock's; Dillon Canon, Trinidad. 

8. Androsace filiformis Retz. (A. capillaris Greene) Along mountain 
streams from Wash, and Mont, to Colo. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Gore Pass; 
Middle Park; Grand River, 12 miles below the lake; Steamboat Springs. 

3. STEIRONEMA Raf. FRINGED LOOSESTRIFE. 

i. Steironema ciliatum (L.) Raf. In swamps and wet meadows from N. 
S. and Wash, to Ga. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. New Windsor, Weld Co. ; 
Alamosa; Wahatoya Creek; Ft. Collins; Mason's river-front farm; Rist 
Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; La Porte ; Boulder. 

4. NAUMBURGIA Moench. TUFTED LOOSESTRIFE. 

i. Naumburgia thyrsiflora (L.) Duby. In shallow water and swamps 
from N. S. and Alaska to Pa., Colo, and Ore. ; also in Europe. Alt. about 
5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

5. DODECATHEON L. AMERICAN COWSLIP, SHOOTING STAR. 

Anthers subsessile or nearly so ; tube of the filaments, if any, less than 0.5 mm. long. 

i. D. multiflorum. 

Anthers not subsessile ; filaments united into a distinct tube, 1-3 mm. long. 
Anthers more than twice as long as the short filaments. 
Leaves entire. 

Leaf-blades oval or oblong ; bracts oblong, mostly obtuse ; plant slender ; 

flowers 1-3 (rarely 4-5). 2. D. philoscia. 

Leaf-blades oblanceolate ; bracts lanceolate, acute ; plant usually stout 

and many-flowered. 3. D. radicatum. 

Leaves sinuately dentate. 4. D. simiatum. 

Anthers less than twice as long as the filaments. 5. D. pauciHorum. 

1. Dodecatheon multiflorum Rydb. In wet meadows of Colo, and Wyo. 
Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Sangre de Cristo Creek. 

2. Dodecatheon philoscia A. Nels. In wet meadows of Colo, and Wyo. 
Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. William's Canon, near Pike's Peak; Walton Creek; 
Sargent's; Pike's Peak; Ft. Collins. 

3. Dodecatheon radicatum Greene. In wet meadows from S. D. and Wyo. 
to Kans. and N. Mex. Alt. 7000-11.000 ft. Eldora to Baltimore; Berthoud 
Pass ; Dark Canon ; Bear Creek Canon ; Grayback mining camps and Placer 
Gulch ; Walden ; below Colorado Springs ; Idaho Springs ; West Indian 
Creek; Veta Mountain; South Park; East Indian Creek; Lake City; Horse- 
tooth Gulch ; forks of Poudre and Big South ; gulch west of Dixon Canon ; 
Pennock's mountain ranch ; Hematite ; Pike's Peak. 

4. Dodecatheon sinuatum Rydb. (D. radicatum sinuatum Rydb.) Shady 
wet banks and wet meadows in Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer 
Co. ; Buena Vista ; foothills west of Ft. Collins. 

5. Dodecatheon pauciflorum (Durand) Greene. In wet meadows and along 
streams from Mackenzie and Sask. to Colo. Alt. about 8500 ft. Columbine. 



264 PRIMULACEAE. 

6. GLAUX L. SEA MILKWORT, BLACK SALTWORT. 

i. Glaux maritima L. On beaches and in salt marshes from Newf. and 
Alaska to N. J., Colo, and Ore. Alt. about 5000 ft. New Windsor, Weld 
Co.; Ft. Collins; Cache la Poudre. 

Order 41. OLEALES. 

Family 106. OLEACEAE Lindl. OLIVE FAMILY. 

Fruit a samara. i. FRAXINUS. 

Fruit a drupe. 2. ADELIA. 

i. FRAXINUS L. ASH. 

i. Fraxinus anomala Torr. In canons from western Colo, and Utah to 
Ariz. Alt. 4500-5000 ft. Grand Junction; Deer River; between Hotchkiss 
and Smith's Fork. 

2. ADELIA P. Br. 

i. Adelia neo-mexicana (A. Gray) Kuntze. (Forestiera neo-mexicana A. 
Gray; F. acuminata parvifolia A. Gray) On hills from Colo, to Tex. and N. 
M. San Juan (Brandegee). 

Order 42. GENTIANALES. 

Corolla-lobes convolute or imbricated in the bud ; leaves typically opposite and 
simple. 107. GENTIANACEAE. 

Corolla-lobes induplicate-valvate in the bud ; leaves alternate, in ours mostly 
basal and trifoliolate. 108. MENYANTHACEAE. 

Family 107. GENTIANACEAE Dumont. GENTIAN FAMILY. 

Style filiform, mostly deciduous ; anthers recurving or twisted at maturity. 

Corolla small, red, rose or yellowish ; tube surpassing the calyx ; filaments 

spirally twisted. i. ERYTHRAEA. 

Corolla large, blue, purple or white ; tube much shorter than the calyx ; 

stamens recurved. 2. EUSTOMA. 

Style stout and short or none, persistent. 

Corolla without nectariferous pits, glands or scales. 

Corolla campanulate, funnelform or salvershaped ; calyx 4-s-lobed ; stamens 

inserted in the corolla-tube. 
Corolla without plaits or lobes at the sinuses ; calyx without an intercalycine 

membrane ; sepals imbricated. 

Flowers 4-merous, rather large, usually over 3 cm. long ; corolla-lobes 
more or less fringed or toothed ; inner sepals broader, membraneous- 
margined. 3. ANTHOPOGON. 
Flowers small, s-merous (seldom 4-merous), less than 2 cm. long; 
outer sepals the broader ; corolla-lobes never fringed, rarely toothed. 

4. AMARELLA. 

Corolla plicate in the sinuses ; the plaits more or less extended into mem- 
braneous lobes or teeth ; calyx with an intercalycine membrane ; its 
lobes valvate. 

Dwarf annuals or biennials ; flowers solitary, terminal ; anthers cordate- 
versatile. 5. CHONDROPHYLLA. 
Perennials; flowers short-peduncled, at least some of them axillary; 

anthers linear or oblong, extrorse. 6. DASYSTEPHANA. 

Corolla rotate ; calyx 4-s-parted to near the base ; stamens inserted on the 
base of the corolla. 7. PLEUROGYNE. 



GENTIANACEAE. 265 

Corolla with nectariferous glands, pits or scales. 

Style none ; leaves opposite, rarely alternate ; corolla without a crown at 

the base. 8. SWERTIA. 

Style manifest ; leaves in ours verticillate ; corolla with a crown at the base. 

9. FRASERA. 

i. ERYTHRAEA Neck. CENTAURY, CANCHALAGUA. 

i. Erythraea arizonica (A. Gray) Rydb. (E. calycosa arizonica A. Gray) 
In sandy soil from Colo, and Utah to Ariz. Hotchkiss, Delta Co. 

2. EUSTOMA Salisb. 

i. Eustoma Russellianum (L.) Griseb. In wet meadows from Neb. and 
Colo, to La. and N. M. ; also Mex. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Tobe Miller's ranch; 
La Porte, Larimer Co.; Ft. Collins; Denver. 

3. ANTHOPOGON Neck. FRINGED GENTIAN. 

Annuals or biennials ; flowers on naked long peduncles terminating the branches, 

not bracteate. i. A. elegans. 

Perennials ; flowers short-peduncled in the axils of two bract-like leaves. 

2. A. barbellatus. 

1. Anthopogon elegans (A. Nels.) Rydb. (Gentiana elegans A. Nels.) In 
wet places from Mackenzie to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 8000-13,000 ft. Goose 
Creek; Westcliffe ; 4 miles west of Cameron Pass; White River Plateau; Twin 
Lakes ; McCoy ; Columbine ; Keblar Pass ; North Park ; near Pagosa Peak ; 
Grand Lake; Mt. Bartlett; Robinson; Mt. Harvard; North Park near Teller; 
Long's Peak; Medicine Bow Mountains; Chambers' Lake; South Park at 
Jefferson ; Breckenridge. 

2. Anthopogon barbellatus (Engelm.) Rydb. (Gentiana barbellata Engelm. ; 
G. Moseleyi A. Nels.) In mountain meadows and in wet places on the peaks 
of Colo. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Mt. Harvard; Pike's Peak; Gentian Dell; 
near Breckenridge; Gray's Peak; Vance Junction; Cameron Pass. 

4. AMARELLA Gileb. GENTIAN. 

Flowers solitary on long peduncles ; stems depressed, cespitose. 

i. A. monantha. 
Flowers numerous, short-peduncled ; stems erect, leafy, more simple. 

Calyx-lobes very unequal ; two of them large, foliaceous, ovate or oval, much 
broader than the rest and covering them. 2. A. heterosepala. 

Calyx-lobes somewhat unequal, but all oblong, lanceolate or linear. 

Flowers numerous, crowded, very short-peduncled ; the whole inflorescence 
dense and spike-like ; leaves usually equalling or exceeding the internodes. 

3. A. strictiflora. 
Flowers rather few, distinctly peduncled ; middle internodes elongated and 

usually longer than the leaves. 
Larger sepals usually half as long as the corolla or longer; plant stout, 

2-4 dm. high; stem-leaves lanceolate. 4. A. scopulorum. 

Sepals less than half as long as the corolla ; plant slender, 1-2, seldom 3 
dm. high ; stem-leaves usually ovate-lanceolate. 5. A. plebeja. 

i. Amarella monantha (A. Nels.) Rydb. (Gentiana tenella A. Gray, in 
part; not Rottb. ; G. monantha A. Nels.) In wet places of Colo. Alt. 8000- 
12,000 ft. Mirror Lake; headwaters of Clear Creek, near Empire. 



266 GENTIANACEAE. 

2. Amarella heterosepala (Engelm.) Greene. (Gentiana heterosepala 
Engelm.) In damp ground in Utah and Colo. Alt. about 9000 ft. Near 
Pagosa Peak ; divide road to Steamboat Springs ; western Gunnison Co. 

3. Amarella strictiflora (Rydb.) Greene. (Gentiana amarella stricta S. 
Wats.; G. strictiflora Rydb.) On hillsides and damp places from Sask. and 
Alaska to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 7500-12,000 ft. Empire ; mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward; Gunnison; Lake John; North Park; Mt. Harvard; 
Ribbon Lake; Estes Park, Larimer Co.; Seven Lakes; Chambers' Lake; 
Bottomless Pit, Pike's Peak ; headwaters of Clear Creek near Empire ; Bergen 
Park ; South Park, southeast of Jefferson ; Baxter's ranch. 

4. Amarella scopulorum Greene. (Gentianella dementis Rydb.) In damp 
places from Mont, and S. D. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. 
Clear Lake ; Idaho Springs ; Palsgrove Canon ; Ruxton Dell ; Minnehaha ; 
Middle Park; below Half-way House, Pike's Peak; Graymont; Hamor's 
Lake above Durango; Artist's Glen near Pike's Peak; Pike's Peak; Silver 
Plume; headwaters of Clear Creek; Bosworth's ranch. 

5. Amarella plebeja (Cham.) Greene. (Gentiana plebeja Cham.; G. 
Amarella acuta A. Gray; not Hook.) In wet places from Mackenzie and 
Alaska to Colo, and Calif. (?). Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Georgetown; Middle 
Park, near Cozzens ; Marshall Pass ; Grand Lake ; Deep Creek Lake ; north 
of Steamboat Springs ; vicinity of Pine Grove. 

Amarella plebeja Holmii (Wettst.) Rydb. (Gentiana plcbeja Holmii 
Wettst. ; G. Amarella nana Engelm.) A low alpine variety. Alt. 10,000- 
12,000 ft. Caribou; Buffalo Pass; Breckenridge. 

5. CHONDROPHYLLA (Bunge) A. Nels. 

Leaves and calyx-lobes with broad scarious margins ; the capsule long-stipitate 
and at last exserted from the corolla. i. C. Fremontii. 

Leaves and calyx-lobes slightly scarious-margined ; capsule short-stipitate, not 
exserted. 2. C. americana. 

1. Chondrophylla Fremontii (Torr.) A. Nels. (Gentiana humilis Engelm.; 
not Stev. ; G. Fremontii Torr.) On alpine wet brook-banks in Wyo. and 
Colo. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Gunnison; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; 
headwaters of Clear Creek; Georgetown; Como. 

2. Chondrophylla americana (Engelm.) A. Nels. (Gentiana prostrata 
Hook; not Henke. ; van Americana Engelm.) In wet places along streams 
from Alb. and Alaska to Colo. Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Wilson, San Miguel 
Co. ; " Colorado " ; northeast of Boreas. 

6. DASYSTEPHANA Adans. CLOSED GENTIAN. 

Testa of the seeds lamellose-rugose ; the lamellae white, forming hexagonal 
areolas ; basal leaf-rosette remaining at flowering time. i. D. Romanzovii. 
Testa of the seeds smooth, but often produced into wings ; basal rosette none. 
Floral leaves more or less broadened and more or less scarious ; seeds usually 

wingless. 2. D. Parry i. 

Floral leaves narrow, not scarious ; seeds winged. 

Leaves all except the floral ones ovate, oblong or lanceolate. 
Calyx-lobes well developed ; calyx-tube truncate at the apex. 

3. D. affinis. 

Calyx-lobes none or minute ; calyx-tube irregular, more or less lobed or 
cleft. 4. D. Forit'ooiiii. 



GENTIANACEAE. 267 

Upper stem-leaves linear or lance-linear. 

Flower-cluster dense ; its branches and internodes very short. 

5. D. Bigelovii. 
Flower cluster lax, its branches and internodes elongated. 

6. D. interrupta. 

1. Dasystephana Romanzovii (Ledb.) Rydb. (Gentiana Romansovii 
Ledeb. ; G. frigida A. Gray ; not Haenke) On alpine peaks and in arctic 
regions from Mont, and Alaska to Colo, and Utah; also Asia. Alt. 11,000- 
14,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek ; Gray's Peak ; Gentian Ridge ; Saddle 
Cliffs ; Mt. Harvard ; Alpine Tunnel ; Mt. Ouray ; Seven Lakes, near Pike's 
Peak; Georgetown; near Pagosa Peak; Dead Lake, near Pike's Peak; Devil's 
Causeway, White River Plateau ; Cameron Pass ; Berthoud Pass ; Ethel Peak. 

2. Dasystephana Parryi (Engelm.) Rydb. (Gentiana Parryi Engelm.) In 
the mountains from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Trapper's 
Lake; Pike's Peak between Half-way House and Lake Mer; near Pagosa 
Peak ; Westcliffe ; Mt. Harvard ; Artist's Glen near Pike's Peak ; Georgetown ; 
Seven Lakes ; Marshall Pass ; Ruxton Park ; Grand Lake ; Ironton Park, 
9 miles south of Ouray; Red Mountain road, south of Ouray; Crested 
Butte; headwaters of Clear Creek; Red Mountain; Breckenridge ; Sprague's, 
Estes Park; Leroux Parks, Delta Co.; Buffalo Pass; Empire; mountains 
between Sunshine and Ward. 

3. Dasystephana affinis (Griseb.) Rydb. (Gentiana affinis Griseb.) In 
the mountain meadows from Sask. and Alb. to Colo. Alt. 7000-12,000 ft. 
Mountain meadows, Twin Lakes ; Sand Creek Pass ; Pike's Peak ; Trail 
Glen; Crystal Park; Lake John, North Park; Colorado Springs; headwaters 
of Clear Creek, near Empire; between Porter and Durango; Sprague's, Estes 
Park; Medicine Bow Mountains. 

4. Dasystephana Forwoodii (A. Gray) Rydb. (Gentiana Forwoodii A. 
Gray) On hills from Alb. to Colo. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Gray's Peak; Sar- 
gent; Westcliffe; Twin Lakes; headwaters of Clear Creek near Empire; 
Pearl; Wolcott ; Gunnison; Mt. Harvard; Lake City; Buena Vista; Gypsum 
Creek Canon. 

5. Dasytephana Bigelovii (A. Gray) Rydb. (Gentiana Bigelovii A. Gray) 
In the mountains from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. about 6000 ft. Col- 
orado Springs; Pike's Peak; Sprague's; Estes Park; west of Soldier Canon. 

6. Dasystephana interupta (Greene) Rydb. (Gentiana interupta Greene) 
In the mountains from Colo, to Nev. Alt. about 8000 ft. Kremmling; Pa- 
gosa Springs; Parlin, Gunnison Co. 

7. PLEUROGYNE Eschsch. 

i. Pleurogyne fontana A. Nels. (P. rotata Hook., in part; not Griseb.; 
P. rotata tcnuifolia Griseb.) In damp places from Hudson Bay and Alaska 
to Colo. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. Twin Lakes; near Lake John, North Park; 
Jefferson, South Park; Caribou; headwaters of Clear Creek, near Empire; 
Beaver Creek. 

8. SWERTIA L. 

Flowers 4-merous. i. .5". scopulina. 

Flowers 5-merous. 

Inflorescence elongated ; corolla-lobes linear or oblong. 2. .S". palitstris. 

Inflorescence congested ; corolla-lobes oval-elliptic. 3. 6". congesta. 



268 GENTIANACEAE. 

1. Swertia scopulina Greene. In mountain meadows of Colo. Alt. about 
10,000 ft. Keblar Pass. 

2. Swertia palustris A. Nels. (S. percnnis Am. auth. ; not L.) In wet 
places from Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-13,000 ft. Pike's Peak; near 
Pagosa Peak; Stephen's Mine; 4 miles west of Cameron Pass; Crested Butte; 
Marshall Pass ; near Ironton, San Juan Co. ; Clear Lake ; Gray's Peak ; Artist's 
Glen near Pike's Peak ; Georgetown ; Hamor's Lake above Durango ; Alpine 
Tunnel ; Mt. Harvard ; Ruxton Dell ; above timber line, Silver Plume ; Breck- 
enridge; headwaters of Clear Creek; Ragged Mountain, Gunnison Co.; 
Georgetown; Berthoud Pass; Buffalo Pass. 

3. Swertia congesta A. Nels. In wet places in the alpine regions from 
Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 12,000 ft. Seven Lakes. 

9. FRASERA Walt. 

Petals about 2 cm. long, usually exceeded by the long sepals. 

Plant glabrous ; inflorescence simple with verticillate pedicels ; basal leaves 

over i dm. wide. i. F. macrophylia. 

Plant puberulent : inflorescence compound ; some branches simple, others again 

branched ; basal leaves about 5 cm. wide. 2. F. scabra. 

Petals about 15 mm. long or less; inflorescence compound. 

Sepals narrowly linear, usually much exceeding the petals ; floral leaves nar- 
rowly linear-lanceolate, very long. 3. F. stenosepala. 
Sepals linear-lanceolate, scarcely equalling the petals ; floral leaves similar to 

the upper stem-leaves, but smaller and narrower. 

Stem-leaves oblanceolate. 4- F. speciosa. 

Stem-leaves linear-lanceolate. 5- F. angiistifolia. 

1. Frasera macrophylia Greene. On hills from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 9000-10,000 ft. Pagosa Springs ; Keblar Pass ; Ironton Park, 9 miles 
south of Ouray. 

2. Frasera scabra (Jones) Rydb. (F. speciosa scabra Jones) On hills 
from Colo, to Ariz. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Bob Creek, West La Plata Moun- 
tains ; Abiqua Peak. 

3. Frasera stenosepala Rydb. On the hills from Wyo. to N. Mex.- Alt. 
6000-9500 ft. Foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Ward, Boulder Co. ; The Crags, 
Pike's Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek, near Empire; Pike's Peak trail. 

4. Frasera speciosa Dougl. On hills from S. D., Mont, and Ore. to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Sand Creek Pass; Manitou; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray; Cheyenne Mountain; Howe's Gulch; Bosworth's ranch, Stove Prairie; 
gulch west of Pennock's ; Rist Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Ute Pass. 

5. Frasera angustifolia Rydb. On dry hills from Mont, to Colo. Moun- 
tains between Sunshine and Ward. 



Family 108. MENYANTHACEAE G. Don. BUCKBEAN FAMILY. 
i. MENYANTHES L. BUCKBEAN, MARSH TRIFOIL. 

i. Menyanthes trifoliata L. In water from Greenl. and Alaska to Pa. and 
Calif.; also in Europe and Asia. Estes Park, Larimer Co. 



APOCYNACEAE. 269 

Order 43. ASCLEPIADALES. 

Styles united ; stamens distinct or gynandrous ; pollen loosely granular. 

109. APOCYNACEAE. 

Styles distinct; stamens monadelphous ; pollen united into waxy masses or the 
grains in groups of 4. 110. ASCLEPIADACEAE. 

Family 109. APOCYNACEAE Lindl. DOGBANE FAMILY. 

Anthers unappendaged at the base, not connected with the stigma ; flowers without 
a disk; leaves alternate. i. AMSONIA. 

Anthers appendaged at the base, converging around the stigma and slightly 
adhering to it ; calyx-tube partly attached to the gynoecium by the thick disk ; 
leaves opposite. 2. APOCYNUM. 

i. AMSONIA Walt. 

i. Amsonia texana (A. Gray) Heller. (A. angusiifolia texana A. Gray) 
In rocky places from Texas to Colo. Grand Junction. 

2. APOCYNUM L. DOGBONE, INDIAN HEMP. 

Corolla fully twice as long as the calyx ; its lobes spreading in anthesis. 
Leaves more or less pubescent beneath. 

Sepals broadly lanceolate ; corolla open campanulate ; leaves thick, dark 

green, decidedly pubescent beneath. 
Leaves oval, acute at both ends ; plant usually tall. 

i. A. androsemaefolinin. 
Leaves more or less ovate, rounded, truncate, or cordate at the base ; 

plant low, diffuse. 2. A. scopulontm. 

Sepals narrowly lanceolate ; corolla narrower, almost cylindro-campanulate ; 
leaves pale green, pubescent merely on the petioles and the veins beneath, 
the lower truncate, the upper acute at the base. 3. A. lividum. 
Leaves perfectly glabrous. 4. A. ambigens. 

Corolla less than twice as long as the calyx ; its lobes erect or nearly so. 
Leaves acute at the base, petioled. 5. A. cannabinum. 

Leaves, at least those of the main stem, truncate or subcordate at the base and 
subsessile. 6. A. hypericifolium. 

1. Apocynum androsemaefolium L. In copses and borders of woods from 
Anticosti and Ida. to Ga. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-9500 ft. Artist's Glen ; Engel- 
mann Canon; Wahatoya Creek; mountains, Larimer Co.; Stove Prairie 
Hill; Horsetooth. 

2. Apocynum scopulorum Greene. In the mountains from Sask. and Yukon 
to Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Pagosa Springs ; Mancos ; Roger's, Gunnison 
watershed. 

3. Apocynum lividum Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 
ft. Black Canon ; mouth of Cheyenne Canon ; Mancos ; Piedra ; Palisade ; 
Clear Creek Canon ; Ft. Collins. 

4. Apocynum ambigens Greene. In the mountains from Mont, and Wash, 
to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6000-0000 ft. West of Ouray; Black Canon; 
Boulder Canon ; Rist Canon ; Horsetooth Mountain ; Montrose ; Steamboat 
Springs. 

5. Apocynum cannabinum L. On banks of streams from Anticosti and 
Wash, to Fla. and L. Calif. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Deer River; New Windsor, 
Weld Co.; Boulder; along the Poudre; Ft. Collins. 

6. Apocynum hypericifolium Ait. In sandy soil from Ont. and B. C. 
to Ohio and N. M. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Plains and foot-hills near Boulder. 



270 ASCLEPIADACEAE. 

Family no. ASCLEPIADACEAE Lindl. MILKWEED FAMILY. 

Corolla-lobes reflexed during anthesis. 

Hoods of the crown crestless within or with an obscure crest-like midrib. 

i. ACERATES. 

Hoods of the crown each with a horn-like process within. 2. ASCLEPIAS. 
Corolla-lobes erect-spreading during anthesis ; hoods with a crest at least above. 

3. ASCLEPIODORA. 

i. ACERATES Ell. GREEN MILKWEED. 

Auricles of the hood, when present, concealed within ; leaves oval to linear- 
lanceolate, i. A. viridiflora. 
Auricles of the hoods conspicuously spreading ; umbels lateral ; leaves narrowly 

linear. 

Hoods emarginate or truncate at the summit, crestless within ; umbels dis- 
tinctly peduncled. 2. A. auriculata. 
Hoods trilobed at the summit with an internal crest-like midrib terminating in 
the middle lobe ; umbels subsessile or on very short peduncles. 

3. A. angustifolia. 

1. Acerates viridiflora (Raf.) Eat. In dry or sandy soil from Mass, and 
Mont, to Fla. and N. M. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Fossil Creek, Larimer Co. ; 
Horsetooth Mountain; Boulder; Berkeley; Valverde. 

2. Acerates auriculata Engelm. On dry plains from Neb. and Colo, to 
Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Canon City ; Ft. Collins ; Horsetooth 
Gulch; Denver; Valverde; Montclair. 

3. Acerates angustifolia (Nutt.) Decaisne. (Asclepias stcnophylla A. 
Gray) In sandy soil from S. D. and Colo, to Mo., Tex. and N. M. Exact 
locality not given. 

2. ASCLEPIAS L. MILKWEED, SILKWEED. 

Leaves orbicular to linear-lanceolate, opposite. 

Follicles with soft spinulose processes, tomentose ; leaves large and broad, 

tomentose, transversely veined, oval or ovate. i. A. speciosa. 

Follicles without processes. 

Flowers very large ; petals over i cm. long ; column none ; horns included in 
the hoods ; leaves almost orbicular, subcordate at the base. 

2. A. cryptoceras. 
Flowers middle-sized or small ; petals much less than i cm. long ; column 

usually present and horns exserted. 
Leaves broadly oval or rectangular oval or nearly orbicular, obtuse or 

retuse at both ends ; umbels sessile. 
Plant puberulent when young, glabrate in age ; column very short. 

3. A. latifolia. 
Plant tomentulose ; column half as long as the anthers. 

4. A. arenaria. 
Leaves ovate or lanceolate, or rarely oval, acute. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, more or less tomentose at least when 
young ; hoods ovate-oblong to lanceolate, much exceeding the stamens. 

5. A. Hallii. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate ; hoods truncate, little if any longer than the 

anthers. 

Column short ; leaves pale, tomentose or puberulent when young. 
Hoods about half as long as the anthers ; umbels peduncled. 

6. A. brachystephana 
Hoods only slightly shorter than the anthers ; umbels subsessile. 

7. A. uncinalis. 
Column more than half as long as the anthers ; corolla purple ; leaves 

glabrous. 8. A. incarnata. 



ASCLEPIADACEAE. 271 

Leaves narrowly linear, verticillate or scattered. 

Plant tall, 4-6 dm. high from a rootstock ; leaves verticillate. 

Hoods entire. 9. A. verticillata. 

Hoods dorsally hastate-sagittate. 10. A. galioides. 

Plant low, 1-2 dm. high, bushy from a ligneous base ; leaves scattered. 

ii. A. pumila. 

1. Asclepias speciosa Torr. On river bottoms and in fields from Man. and 
B. C. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Ft. Collins; Mancos; Denver; 
Wahatoya Canon ; Piedra ; Colorado Springs ; Grand Junction ; Boulder. 

2. Asclepias cryptoceras S. Wats. In dry soil from Ida. and Ore. to Colo. 
Grand Junction. 

3. Asclepias latifolia (Torr.) Raf. (A. obtusifolia latifolia Torn; A. 
Jamesii Torr.) On plains from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. Hotchkiss; Canon 
City. 

4. Asclepias arenaria Torr. In sandy soil from Neb. and Colo, to Okl. 
and N. M. Locality not given. 

5. Asclepias Hallii A. Gray. In gravelly soil in Colo. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. 
Calhan ; Veta Pass ; Gunnison ; La Veta ; Buena Vista ; Arkansas River. 

6. Asclepias brachystephana Engelm. In sandy soil from Wyo. to Tex. 
and Ariz. " On the plains." 

7. Asclepias uncialis Greene. In sandy soil from Wyo. to N. M. and 
Ariz. " Colorado " (Hall & Harbour}. 

8. Asclepias incarnata L. In swamps and wet meadows from N. B. and 
Man. to Fla. and N. M. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Ft. Collins ; Timnath, Larimer 
Co. ; Denver ; Cache la Poudre ; Boulder. 

9. Asclepias verticillata L. In dry fields and on hills from Me. and N. D. 
to Fla. and Ariz. Rocky Ford ; Paonia ; Colorado Springs. 

10. Asclepias galioides H. B. K. In dry soil from Kans. and Colo, to 
Ark. and Ariz. ; also Mex. Exact locality not given. 

11. Asclepias pumila (A. Gray) Vail. (A. verticillata pumila A. Gray) 
Dry plains and in sandy soil from S. D. and Mont, to Ark. and N. M. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Near Ft. Collins ; East Park, Denver ; headwaters of 
Clear Creek; Boulder; Colorado Springs; along Platte River, Denver; 
Ft. Collins; Manitou ; gulch, Soldier Canon; Boulder. 

3. ASCLEPIODORA A. Gray. 

i. Asclepiodora decumbens (Nutt.) A. Gray. In dry sandy soil from Kans. 
and Nev. to Ark., Tex. and Ariz.; also Mex. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Near 
Badito, between La Veta and Gardner; Arboles; Hortense Springs; Durango; 
Walsenburg; Dolores. 

Order 44. POLEMONIALES. 

Stamens 5, if only 4, not didynamous. 

Fruit a capsule or berry ; ovary not 4-lobed. 
Styles or stigmas usually distinct. 

Parasitic twining plants with scale-like leaves. in. CUSCUTACEAE. 

Plants not parasitic ; leaves normal. 

Inflorescence not scorpoid ; flowers cymose or solitary ; ovary 2-3-celled ; 
micropyle of the seed turned downward. 



272 ASCLEPIADACEAE. 

Corolla plaited and the plaits convolute in the bud ; flowers axillary, 
solitary or cymose-conglomerate ; plants usually twining. 

112. CONVOLVULACEAE. 

Corolla merely convolute in the bud, not plaited ; flowers cymose ; 
plants never twining. 113. POLEMONIACEAE. 

Inflorescence more or less distinctly scorpoid ; ovary in ours i -celled or 
imperfectly 2-celled ; micropyle of the seed turned upwards. 

114. HYDROLEACEAE. 
Styles and stigmas wholly united. 

Ovules few. 112. CONVOLVULACEAE. 

Ovules numerous. 

Median axis of the gynoecium in the same plane as the axis of the 

stem; seeds mostly pitted. 119. SOLAN ACEAE. 

Median axis of the gynoecium not in the same plane as the axis of the 
stem; seed tuberculated (Verbascum). 120. RHINANTHACEAE. 

Fruit of 1-4 nutlets (in all our genera) ; ovary more or less distinctly 4-lobed. 
Style or stigma furnished with a glandular ring. 115. HELIOTROPACEAE. 

Style or stigma not furnished with a glandular ring. 116. BORAGIN ACEAE. 
Stamens 4 and didynamous, or 2 or i. 

Carpels ripening into 4 nutlets, an achene or a drupe. 

Style apical on the lobeless ovary. 117. VERBENACEAE. 

Style arising between the 4 lobes of the ovary. 118. LAMINACEAE. 

Carpels ripening into a capsule. 
Placentae of the ovary axile. 

Ovary 2-celled, rarely 3-s-celled ; land-plants. 120. RHINANTHACEAE. 

Ovary i-celled; ours submerged water-plants. 121. PINGUICULACEAE. 

Placentae of the ovary parietal. 

Herbs parasitic on the roots of other plants ; leaves scale-like, not green. 

122. OROBANCHACEAE. 
Herbs with green leaves ; not parasitic. 123. MARTYNIACEAE. 

Family in. CUSCUTACEAE Dumont. DODDER FAMILY. 
i. CUSCUTA L. DODDER. 

Styles equal with elongated stigmas. i. C. epithymum. 

Styles unequal ; stigma capitate. 

Capsules circumscissile ; calyx- and corolla-lobes acuminate ; inflorescence um- 
bel-like. 2. C. umbellata. 
Capsule indehiscent or bursting irregularly. 
Calyx gamosepalous, usually not bracted. 
Corolla-lobes not incurved. 

Scales of the corolla incurved upon the ovary ; styles about half as long 

as the ovary or longer. 3. C. Gronovii. 

Scales of the corolla appressed to the corolla-tube ; styles V^-Vz as long 

as the ovary. 4- C. curia. 

Corolla-lobes incurved at the apex. 

Capsuk 4 mm. or less broad ; inflorescence rather open. 

5. C. mdecora. 
Capsule 5-6 mm. broad ; inflorescence globular clusters. 

6. C. megalocarpa. 
Calyx of 5 almost distinct and overlapping sepals, subtended by 2 or more 

similar bracts. 7- C. cuspidata. 

1. Cuscuta epithymum L. On clover, alfalfa, etc. ; introduced from Eu- 
rope. Ft. Collins. 

2. Cuscuta umbellata H. B. K. On low herbs, especially on Portulaca, 
from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz.; also in Mex. Hovenweep Canon (Brandegee). 

3. Cuscuta Gronovji Willd. On low shrubs and coarse herbs from N. S. 
and Man. to Fla., Tex. and Colo. Manitou. 



CUSCUTACEAE. 273 

4. Cuscuta curta Engelm. (C. Gronovii curia Engelm.) On coarse herbs 
in sandy soil in Utah and Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. Dome Rock in Platte 
Canon. 

5. Cuscuta indecora Choisy. On herbs, mostly composites and leguminous 
plants, commonest on Ambrosia art etnisiaef olia and GlycyrrJiiza Icpiota; 
from Ills, and Neb. to Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

6. Cuscuta megalocarpa Rydb. On willows; in Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 
about 7000 ft. Cucharas Creek near La Veta. 

7. Cuscuta cuspidata Engelm. On Ambrosia, Iva and some leguminous 
plants from Mo. and Neb. to Tex. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

Family 112. CONVOLVULACEAE Vent. MORNING-GLORY FAMILY. 

Styles distinct, each 2-cleft. i. EVOLVULUS. 
Styles united up to the stigmas. 

Stigmas ovoid or subglobose. 2. IPOMOEA. 

Stigmas filiform to oblong-cylindric. 3. CONVOLVULUS. 

i. EVOLVULUS L. 

i. Evolvulus Nuttallianus R. & S. (E. argenteus Pursh; not R. Br. ; E. 
pilosus Nutt. ; not Lam.) In sandy soils and on sterile plains from S. D. and 
Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; also Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Canon City ; along 
Platte River, Denver; Fossil Creek, Larimer Co.; Trinidad; Ft. Collins; near 
Boulder; Ouray; Dixon Canon. 

2. IPOMOEA L. MORNING-GLORY. 

i. Ipomoea leptophylla Torr. On plains and hillsides from S. D. and 
Wyo. to Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Denver ; Rocky Ford ; bank of 
Arkansas River. 

3. CONVOLVULUS L. WILD MORNING-GLORY, BINDWEED. 

Bracts small, remote from the calyx. 

Plant not canescent ; leaf-blades hastate, but otherwise entire. 

Whole plant glabrous or nearly so. i. C. ari'cnsis. 

Stem and lower surface of the leaves with scattered long hairs. 

2. C. anibigens. 
Plant more or less canescent ; leaves usually lobed or dissected. 

Main divisions of the leaf-blades ovate or oblong, obtuse, lobed. 

3. C. hermannioides. 
Main divisions of the leaf-blades linear, entire ; the basal lobes usually cleft 

deeply. 4. C. incamts. 

Bracts large, close under the calyx and enclosing it. 

Leaf-blades hastate ; the basal lobes often sinuate-dentate, acute ; stem and 

leaves glabrous or slightly hairy. 5. C. americamis. 

Leaf-blades more sagittate ; basal lobes rounded, entire : stem and leaves 
densely pubescent. 6. C. interior. 

1. Convolvulus arvensis L. Naturalized from Europe, growing in fields 
and waste places from N. S. and Mont, to N. J. and Colo. Durango. 

2. Convolvulus ambigens House. In loose or sandy soil from Colo, to N. M. 
and Calif. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Plains near Boulder; Ft. Collins. 

18 



274 CONVOLVULACEAE. 

3. Convolvulus hermannioides A. Gray. Dry plains and in sandy soil from 
Neb. and Colo, to Tex. Trinidad. 

4. Convolvulus incanus Vahl. On dry plains from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; 
also Mex. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Canon City; Brantly Canon, Las Animas Co.; 
Trinidad. 

5. Convolvulus americanus (Sims) Greene. (C. septum americanus Sims) 
Among bushes from N. S. and Wash, to N. C. and N. M. Alt. 4000-7000 
ft. Walsenburg; Cucharas Valley near La Veta; Colorado Springs; Denver; 
Ouray; Ft. Collins. 

6. Convolvulus interior House. In sandy soil from Neb. and Colo, to Ind. 
Terr, and Ariz. Ft. Collins. 

Family 1 13. POLEMONIACEAE Vent. PHLOX FAMILY. 

Calyx at length ruptured by the maturing capsule. 

Calyx-tube more or less scarious between the lobes distended and then ruptured 

by the capsule. 
Corolla strictly salver-shaped with a narrow throat ; leaves proper opposite ; 

seeds without spiracles. 
Seeds not altered when wetted ; our species all perennials with all the 

leaves opposite. i. PHLOX. 

Seeds mucilaginous when wetted ; annuals with floral leaves alternate. 

2. MlCROSTERIS. 

Corolla funnelform or tubular with an open funnelform throat ; seeds muci- 
laginous when wetted. 
Stem leafy ; bracts not connate. 

Leaves opposite ; inflorescence cymose and dichotomously branched ; 

seeds without spiracles. 3. LINANTHUS. 

Leaves alternate ; inflorescence paniculate or capitate ; seeds usually 
producing spiracles (spirally twisted threads) when wetted. 

4. GlLIA. 

Stem without proper leaves, but with persistent connate cotyledons ; 
bracts of the capitate inflorescence leaf-like and connate at the base. 

5. GYMNOSTERIS. 
Calyx-tube not at all scarious, early splitting without being distended ; lobes 

and leaves more or less spinulose-pointed ; seeds without both spiracles and 

mucilage. 6. LEPTODACTYLON. 

Calyx not ruptured by the capsule ; leaves alternate ; seeds with mucilage and 

spiracles when wetted. 
Calyx-teeth spinulose-tipped ; leaves pinnatifid ; flowers capitate. 

7. NAVARRETIA. 
Calyx-teeth herbaceous, not spinulose-tipped. 

Stamens straight ; leaves simple, in ours entire. 8. COLLOMIA. 

Stamens declined; leaves pinnate. 9. POLEMONIUM. 

i. PHLOX L. PHLOX. 

Intercostal portion of the calyx not replicate. 

Leaves beset with cob-webby hairs ; plants densely pulvinate-cespitose. 

Leaves ovate to lanceolate, densely arachnoid-lanate, mucronate-tipped, but 

scarcely acerose. i. P. bry aides. 

Leaves subulate, acerose, sparsely arachnoid. 2. P. canescens. 

Leaves not cob-webby, except sometimes slightly so at the base. 

Leaves glabrous, or merely cob-webby at the base, not glandulose. 
Calyx over 8 mm. long ; its teeth longer than the tube. 
Calyx and the bases of the leaves arachnoid-hairy. 

3. P. andicola. 
Calyx and stem finely villous or glabrous ; leaves not arachnoid. 



POLEMONIACEAE. 275 

Calyx over i cm. long; leaves flat; margins not revolute ; stem 5-10 

cm. high. 4- P- multiflora. 

Calyx less than i cm. long ; leaves very narrow with revolute margins. 

5. P. deprcssa. 
Calyx less than 8 mm. long ; its lobes much shorter than the tube. 

6. P. scleranthifolia. 
Leaves hispid-ciliate on the margin, usually with more or less glandular hairs. 

Leaves linear to subulate, not with thickened margins. 

Leaves less than i cm. long ; plant densely pulvinate-cespitose ; limb of 

corolla seldom over i cm. broad. 
Leaves almost erect, appressed ; corolla-limb 6-8 mm. wide. 

7. P. condensata. 
Leaves ascending-spreading; corolla-limb about 10 mm. wide. 

8. P. caespitosa. 
Leaves over i cm. long ; plant cespitose, but not pulvinate ; corolla-limb 

12-20 mm. wide. 9- P- Kelseyi. 

Leaves oblong or broadly linear with a more or less thickened and car- 
tilaginous margin. 
Leaves linear, 1-2 cm. long ; margins not very thick ; corolla-tube twice 

as long as the calyx ; young stems white-angled. 9. P. Kelseyi. 
Leaves oblong with very thick margins, 7-12 mm. long; corolla-tube 
not twice as long as the calyx ; young stems not white-angled. 

10. P. alyssifolia. 
Intercostal portion of the calyx replicate. 

Leaves long-attenuate, not thick ; only upper portion of the plant glandular ; 

corolla scarcely twice as long as the calyx. n. P. longi folia. 

Leaves obtusish or abruptly acute, thick and firm ; corolla-tube fully twice as 
long as the calyx; plant conspicuously glandular. 12. P. Stansburyi. 

1. Phlox bryoides Nutt. On dry hills from Neb. and Wyo. to Colo, and 
Utah. Livermore, Larimer Co. 

2. Phlox canescens T. & G. On dry hills from Mont, to Colo, and Calif. 
Colorado, according to Gray, but doubtful. 

3. Phlox andicola Nutt. In sandy soil and on hills from S. D. and Ida. 
to Colo. Pike's Peak; Ouray. 

4. Phlox multiflora A. Nelson. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo.- 
Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. North Boulder Peak; mountain near Veta Pass; Jack's 
Cabin, Gunnison watershed; Columbine; west of Ft. Collins; Rist Canon; 
North Park; Minturn; Beaver Creek. 

5. Phlox depressa (E. Nels.) Rydb. (Phlox multiflora depressa E. Nels.) 
In the mountains from Mont, and Ida. to Colo. " Colorado." 

6. Phlox scleranthifolia Rydb. On mountain sides from S. D. and Mont, 
to Colo. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. West Spanish Peak. 

7. Phlox condensata (A. Gray) E. Nelson. (P. caespitosa condensata A. 
Gray) In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 12,000-13,000 ft. Uncompahgre 
Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek; Sierra Blanca ; mountains above Como; 
Alpine Tunnel ; northwest of Como ; Boreas. 

8. Phlox caespitosa Nutt. On rocky hills and mountains from Mont, and 
B. C. to Colo, and Ore. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. West Spanish Peak; 
Mt. Hesperus ; northwest of Como. 

9. Phlox Kelseyi Britton. In valleys from N. D. and Mont, to Colo. Alt. 
up to 12,000 ft. Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains. 

10. Phlox alyssifolia Greene. On hills from S. D. and Ass. to Colo.- 
Exact locality not given (Hall & Harbour). 



276 POLEMONIACEAE. 

11. Phlox longifolia Nutt. In valleys and on hills from Mont, and Wash, 
to Colo, and Ore. Mancos ; Leroux Creek, Delta Co. ; Palisade, Mesa Co. ; 
Minturn. 

12. Phlox Stansburyi (Torr.) Heller. (P. speciosa Stansburyi Torn) In 
dry regions from Colo, to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Los Pinos 
(Bayfield) ; Middle Park; Cerro Summit; Mancos; Hotchkiss; Cimarron; 
Palisades; Dolores. 

2. MICROSTERIS Greene. 

i. Microsteris micrantha (Kellogg) Greene. (Collomia micrantha Kellogg; 
C. gracilis A. Gray, in part) In sandy soil from Neb. and Wyo. to Colo, and 
Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Los Pinos (Bayfield); Veta Pass; headwaters of 
Sangre de Cristo Creek; west of Ft. Collins; southeast of La Veta; Mancos 
Canon; Cedar Edge, Gunnison watershed; near Denver; Horsetooth Gulch; 
gulch west of Soldier Canon; Trinidad; Boulder; Buena Vista. 

3. LINANTHUS Benth. 

i. Linanthus Harknessii (Curran) Greene. (Cilia Harknessii Curran ; 
G. pharnaceoides A. Gray, in part) In sandy or loose soil from Mont, and 
B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Middle Park; Steamboat Springs. 

4- GILIA R. & P. 


Flowers capitately or spicately glomerate. 

Perennials ; flowers in dense heads or spikes. 

Leaves entire. i. G. spergulifolia. 

Leaves at least some of them pinnatifid. 

Plant branched only at the base or simple ; stem or branches strict, with 

a single head-like or spike-like inflorescence. 

Inflorescence spike-like, more or less interrupted ; corolla greenish- 
white, its lobes acute. 2. G. spicata. 
Inflorescence head-like ; corolla white, its lobes obtuse. 

3. G. cephaloidca. 
Plants branched above as well as the base ; inflorescence of several heads, 

more or less corymbosely arranged. 
Corolla-lobes about 2 mm. long ; calyx-teeth and bracts green with very 

short spine-tips ; branches straw-color. 4. G. iberidifolia. 

Corolla-lobes 4-5 mm. long ; calyx-lobes and bracts rose-tinged with long 

spine-tips ; stems tinged with purple. 5. G. roseata. 

Annuals, repeatedly branched, with small clusters of flowers in the axils 

of the leaves, more capitate at the ends of the branches. 
Divisions of the leaves linear-filiform ; floral leaves similar ; corolla twice 

as long as the calyx. 6. G. pumila. 

Divisions of the leaves very short, oblong ; floral leaves broader and shorter, 
more entire ; tube of the corolla slightly exceeding the calyx. 

j. G. polycladon. 

Flowers openly paniculate or thyrsoid-paniculate. 
Leaves pinnately divided. 

Corolla-tube over i cm. long ; corolla salver-form ; calyx-lobes lanceolate, 

attenuate and spine-tipped. 
Inflorescence thyrsoid, narrow. 

Corolla-lobes acute or acuminate : corolla usually scarlet or pink. 

Calyx only slightly scarious at the angles ; its lobes lanceolate-attenu- 
ate, longer than the tube. 



POLEMONIACEAE. 277 

Calyx and inflorescence glandular-puberulent, not long-hairy. 

8. G. aggrcgata. 
Calyx and usually also the inflorescence with long white flat hairs 

as well as glandular-puberulent. 9. G. pitlchella. 

Calyx very scarious at the angles ; its teeth shorter than the tube ; 

corolla-lobes acute. 10. G. scariosa. 

Corolla-lobes rounded or obtuse at the apex ; corolla white. 

ii. G. Candida. 
Inflorescence open and inclined to be flat-topped. 

Corolla-tube 3-4 cm. long; its lobes obtuse. 12. G. longiftora. 
Corolla-tube 1.5-2.5 cm. long; its lobes acute. 13. G. laxiflora. 
Corolla-tube less than i cm. long. 
Stamens exserted ; corolla salverform. 

Divisions of the leaves all linear-filiform, not wider than the rachis ; ' 

corolla about i cm. long. 14. G. polyantlia. 

Divisions at least of the lower leaves obovate or oblong, much broader 

than the rachis; corolla 5-7 mm. long. 15. G. pinnatifida. 

Stamens not exserted ; corolla more or less funnelform. 
Corolla 7-12 mm. long; plant leafy throughout. 

Corolla-tube distinctly exserted from the calyx ; leaves mostly basal or 

the stem-leaves reduced. 16. G. sinuata. 

Corolla-tube scarcely exserted from the calyx ; plant more leafy. 

17. G. inconspicua. 
Corolla 4-5 mm. long. 

Plant leafy only at the base ; divisions short and broad ; corolla about 

twice as long as the calyx. 18. G. siibacaulis. 

Plant leafy throughout ; divisions of the leaves narrow, filiform ; 

corolla only slightly exceeding the calyx. 19. G. minutiflora. 
Leaves entire or the lower ones toothed or lobed. 
Basal leaves toothed or lobed. 
Flowers i cm. long or more. 

Stem-leaves oblanceolate, often toothed ; stem rather stout ; capsule 5 

mm. long, acute. 20. G. Crandallii. 

Stem-leaves lanceolate-subulate, entire; stem very slender; capsule 3.5 

mm. long, obtuse. 21. G. Haydeni. 

Flowers less than i cm. long. 22. G. leptomcria. 

Basal leaves entire. 

Basal leaves oblanceolate or spatulate. 

Leaves petioled : corolla much exserted. 23. G. pentstemonoides. 

Leaves sessile, fleshy ; corolla scarcely exserted. 24. G. sedifolia. 
All leaves filiform or the lower 3-parted with filiform lobes. 

19. G. minutiflora. 

1. Gilia spergulifolia Rydb. On dry hills in Wyo. and Colo, to Utah. 
Arboles. 

2. Gilia spicata Nutt. On dry hills from Neb. and Wyo. to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Livermore, Larimer 
Co. ; Turkey Creek and tributaries ; mesas near Pueblo ; Ft. Collins ; plains, 
Larimer Co. ; Morrison ; Tobe Miller's ranch ; mountains between Sunshine 
and Ward. 

3. Gilia cephaloidea Rydb. On dry hills from Mont, to Colo. Alt. 11,000- 
12,000 ft. Mountains above Como ; above Boreas. 

4. Gilia iberidifolia Benth. In " bad lands " and on dry hills from S. D. and 
Mont, to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 5000-7500 ft. Grand Junction ; Dolores. 

5. Gilia roseata Rydb. In arid soil, western Colo. Grand Junction. 

6. Gilia pumila Nutt. In dry soil from Wyo. to western Texas and 
Ariz. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Mancos ; Grand Junction ; Apishipa Creek, Otero Co. 



278 POLEMONIACEAE. 

7. Gilia polycladon Torr. In canons from Colo, and Nev. to W. Tex. Alt. 
4000-5000 ft. Canon of Grand River; Grand Junction. 

8. Gilia aggregata (Pursh) Spreng. In open glades and on hills from B. 
C. and Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. Black Canon, Gunnison 
watershed ; Larimer Co. ; West Mancos Canon ; Rabbit-Ear Pass ; Dolores ; 
Medicine Bow Mountains; Dillon Canon, Trinidad; Hotchkiss; Sherwood; 
Steamboat Springs ; Brant's Soda Springs. 

9. Gilia pulchella Dougl. (G. aggregata attenuata A. Gray) On open 
hills and plains from Ida. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. Middle Park ; 
Arboles ; West Indian Creek ; Grizzly Creek ; Pinkham Creek ; Rabbit-Ear 

Range, Routt Co. 

10. Gilia scariosa Rydb. On open hills in Colo. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. Head- 
waters of Clear Creek near Empire ; Pike's Peak ; Grizzly Creek ; Garden of 
the Gods ; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch ; Minnehaha, Pike's 
Peak ; Veta Pass ; Mancos Canon ; divide between Colorado Springs and 
Denver ; Empire ; Table Rock ; Denver ; Palmer Lake. 

11. Gilia Candida Rydb. In open valleys of Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. 
South Boulder Peak; Calhan; Veta Pass; Colorado Springs; mountains 
between Sunshine and Ward. 

12. Gilia longiflora Don. In sandy soil and on plains from Neb. and Colo, 
to Tex. and Ariz. ; also Mex. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Sterling, Logan Co. ; 
Alamosa ; Ft. Collins ; Pike's Peak ; Salida. 

13. Gilia laxiflora (Coult.) Osterh. (G. longiflora la.riflora Coult.) On 
plains from Colo, and Utah to N. M. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. New Windsor ; 
Denver ; Walsenburg ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Trinidad ; Ft. Collins. 

14. Gilia polyantha Rydb. (G. exserta A. Nels.) In dry places, in Colo. 
Pagosa Springs ; Hotchkiss, Delta Co. 

15. Gilia pinnatifida Nutt. In sandy soil from Neb. and Wyo. to N. M. 
Alt. 4000-14,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Cheyenne Canon, near 
Pike's Peak; Colorado Springs; Georgetown; Sangre de Cristo Creek; In- 
dian Creek Pass ; Middle Park ; Calhan ; Manitou ; Boulder ; canon of the 
Cache la Poudre; west of Ouray; Mt. Harvard; Uncompahgre River near 
Ouray; Pike's Peak; Ouray; Colorado Springs; Marshall Pass; Gunnison; 
below Carson; Boreas; Palmer Lake; Manitou Junction; Table Rock; 
forks of Poudre and Big South; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; 
Boulder. 

16. Gilia sinuata Benth. In sandy soil from Colo, to N. M. and Calif. 
Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Walsenburg; Arboles; foot-hills near Golden. 

17. Gilia inconspicua Dougl. On hillsides from Colo, and Utah to Ariz. ; 
also Mex. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. Butte 5 miles southwest of La Veta; Waha- 
toya Canon ; Crystal Creek ; Larimer Co. ; Rist Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; 
Spring Canon; Boulder; Palmer Lake; Hotchkiss. 

18. Gilia subacaulis Rydb. In sandy soil from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. 
Gunnison River ; Grand Canon. 

19. Gilia minutiflora Benth. On plains and in sandy soil, from Mont, and 
Ore. to Colo. Steamboat Springs. 

20. Gilia Crandallii Rydb. Sage plains from Colo, and Nev. to N. M. 
Alt. about 7000 ft. Durango ; Mancos. 



POLEMONIACEAE. 279 

21. Gilia Haydeni A. Gray. Dry plains of Colo. Plains of the Mancos; 
San Juan; Mesa Verde and El Late (Brandegee). 

22. Gilia leptomeria A. Gray. In dry soil from Colo, and Utah to N. 
M. and Calif. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Deer Run, Gunnison watershed; Grand 
Junction. 

23. Gilia pentstemonoides M. E. Jones. On rocks in Colorado. Cimarron. 

24. Gilia sedifolia Brand. On mountains in Colo. Sheep Mountain, Un- 
compahgre Range. 

5. GYMNOSTERIS Greene. 

i. Gymnosteris nudicaulis (H. & A.) Greene. In sandy soil from Ore. to 
Nev. and Colo. (Gray}. 

6. LEPTODACTYLON Nutt. 

Leaves alternate; stem woody throughout. i. L. pungent. 
Leaves opposite ; stem woody only at the base. 

Leaves decidedly pungent; ovules numerous. 2. L. IVatsonii. 

Leaves scarcely pungent ; ovules 2-3 in each cell. 3. L. Nuttallii. 

1. Leptodactylon pungens (Torr.) Nutt. (Cantua pungens Torn; Gilia 
pungens Benth.) In sandy valleys and on hillsides, Mont, and Wash, to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Black Canon; Gunnison; New Windsor, 
Weld Co.; mountains, Larimer Co.; Walsenburg; headwaters of Sangre de 
Cristo Creek; Denver. 

2. Leptodactylon Watsonii (A. Gray) Rydb. (Gilia Watsonii A. Gray) 
Rocky hills in Utah and Colo. Alt. up to 5000 ft. Grand Junction; Glen- 
wood Springs. 

3. Leptodactylon Nuttallii (A. Gray) Rydb. (Gilia Nuttallii A. Gray) 
In the mountains from Wyo. and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Alt 9000-11,000 
ft. Arkansas Junction, near Leadville ; Robinson ; Tennessee Pass, Lake Co. ; 
near Pagosa Peak; Oro City; Continental Divide, Routt Co.; Rabbit-Ear 
Pass ; La Plata Canon ; Ragged Mountain ; Florence ; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

7. NAVARRETIA R. & P. 

i. Navarretia minima Nutt. In dry soil from Sask. and Wash, to Neb., 
Ariz, and Calif. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Steamboat Springs; Bear River; Delta 
Co. ; Hebron. 

8. COLLOMIA Nutt. 

i. Collomia linearis Nutt. In dry and sandy soil from N. D. and B. C. 
to Neb. and Calif; also introduced in N. B. and N. Y. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. 
Larimer Co. ; Chicken Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; Mancos ; North 
Park, near Teller; Steamboat Springs; Poverty Ridge, near Cimarron; 
Ward, Boulder Co. ; Jack's Canon, Gunnison watershed ; divide road to 
Steamboat Springs; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; La Veta; Idaho Springs; Du- 
rango ; headwaters of Pass Creek ; Pagosa Springs ; Grayback mining camps 
and Placer Gulch ; Mt. Richtofen on the Michigan ; Platte Canon ; Table 
Rock; the Narrows; Dolores; Rist Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; Monument; 
Poudre River; Boulder. 



280 POLEMONIACEAE. 

9. POLEMONIUM L. JACOB'S LADDER. 

Corolla campanulate ; filaments with pilose appendages at the base ; inflorescence 

usually open ; leaflets never verticillate. 

Low, 1-3 dm. high, cespitose ; basal leaves numerous and stem-leaves few. 
Stem and leaves viscid-pubescent with long flat hairs. 

Calyx-lobes broadly lanceolate ; pedicels in anthesis shorter than the flowers. 

i. P. scopulinum. 
Calyx-lobes narrowly lanceolate ; pedicels in anthesis usually equalling or 

exceeding the flowers. 2. P. delicatum. 

Stem and leaves viscid-puberulent ; the latter often glabrate. 

3. P. parviftorum. 

Stem tall, leafy, usually solitary from the rootstock, 4-10 dm. high. 
Inflorescence narrow, dense, thyrsoid. 

Plants with a slender rootstock, not long-villous. 4. P. occidentale. 

Plants with a woody base ; stem and leaves long-villous. 

. 9. P. foliosissimuin. 

Inflorescence open and broad. 

Corolla 2 cm. high or nearly so ; leaves glabrous. 5. P. grande. 

Corolla 8-15 mm. high; leaves pubescent. 

Stem and inflorescence long-villous, scarcely at all viscid. 

6. P. molle. 

Stem and inflorescence short-hairy ; the latter at least distinctly viscid. 
Corolla over i cm. long ; inflorescence conical or obovoid in outline ; 

main peduncle usually exceeding the branches. 

Sepals oblong-lanceolate ; flowers few. 7. P. Archebaldiae. 

Sepals lanceolate ; flowers numerous. 8. P. robustum. 

Corolla less than i cm. long ; inflorescence flat-topped ; main peduncle 

exceeded in length by the branches. 9. P. foliosissimuin. 

Corolla funnelform ; filaments without appendages at the base ; inflorescence 

dense, spiciform ; leaflets (except in the first species) verticillate. 
Corolla purple. 

Leaflets not verticillate. 10. P. speciosum. 

Leaflets more or less verticillate. 

Corolla less than 2 cm. long, campanulate-funnelform with a rather broad 

tube. ii. P. Grayiannin. 

Corolla 2-3 cm. long, funnelform with a narrow tube. 

12. P. confertuin. 
Corolla yellow, ochroleucous or greenish. 

Corolla funnelform ; stamens adnate to the middle of the corolla-tube. 

13. P. mellitum. 
Corolla almost tubular ; stamens almost wholly adnate to the corolla-tube. 

14. P. Brandcgei. 

1. Polemonium scopulinum Greene. (P. humile pulchellum A. Gray, in 
part) On mountain sides of Colo. Alt. 8000-14,000 ft. Lake City ; head- 
waters of Clear Creek ; Mt. Hesperus ; Iron Mountain ; Tennessee Pass, Lake 
Co. ; Seven Lakes ; Cameron Pass ; Georgetown ; Gray's Peak ; Silverton ; 
Mt. Abram, Ouray; Alpine Tunnel; Pike's Peak; Bob Creek; Mt. Baldy; 
Bottomless Pit ; Cottonwood Lake ; Red Mountain road, south of Ouray ; 
Carson; near Pagosa Peak; near Ironton, San Juan Co.; Silver Plume; 
Grand Mesa, Gunnison watershed ; above Graymont ; Beaver Creek ; Empire ; 
Buffalo Pass ; Eldora to Baltimore ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

2. Polemonium delicatum Rydb. On high mountains in Colo, and N. M. 
Alt. 10,000-12,000 ft. Marshall Pass (?); West Spanish Peak; Silver 
Plume; Bob Creek; Berthoud Pass. 

3. Polemonium parviflorum Nutt. (P. viscosum A. Gray, in part ; not 
Nutt.) On hills from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. "Colorado." 



POLEMONIACEAE. 281 

4. Polemonium occidentale Greene. (P. coeruleum A. Gray, in part ; not 
L.) In valleys and open woods from Ass. and Alaska to Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek; Chambers' 
Lake; Indian Creek Pass; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Breckenridge; Gunnison; 
Ironton Park, 9 miles south of Ouray; Durango; Empire; Walden. 

5. Polemonium grande Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 
9000 ft.- Near Pagosa Peak. 

6. Polemonium molle Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000-9500 
ft. Piedra ; near La Porte; Eldora to Baltimore. 

7. Polemonium Archebaldiae A. Nels. Mountains of Colo. Berwind. 

8. Polemonium robustum Rydb. In the mountains of Colo., especially along 
streams. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains; Keb- 
lar Pass ; Veta Pass ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; headwaters of Clear Creek 
at Dumont ; Leroux Creek. 

9. Polemonium foliosissimum A. Gray. In the mountains of Colo, and N. 
M. Alt. 6000-11,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Estes Park, Larimer 
Co.; La Veta; Veta Pass; Oak Mesa, Delta Co.; Durango; Berthoud Pass; 
Empire; Willow Creek; Graymont; Sargent. 

10. Polemonium speciosum Rydb. On the highest peaks of Colo. Alt. 
about 13.000 ft. Pike's Peak; Mt. Garfield; Gray's Peak. 

11. Polemonium Grayianum Rydb. On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt. 
9000-13,000 ft. Gray's Peak; Graymont; Central City. 

12. Polemonium confertum A. Gray. On the higher mountains among 
rocks in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 9000-13,000 ft. Mt. McClellan; Pike's Peak; 
Cameron Pass; Lake City; Gray's Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek; Sangre 
de Cristo Range; West Spanish Peak; Seven Lakes; near Pike's Peak; near 
Ironton, San Juan Co. ; mountains above Boreas ; Little Kate Basin, La Plata 
Mountains; Ragged Mountain; Gunnison Co.; Argentine Pass; tributaries 
of South Fork of Cache la Poudre River, Larimer Co. ; Beaver Creek ; Mt. 
Abram, Ouray ; mountains near Mt. Harvard ; Mt. Hesperus ; Devil's Cause- 
way ; Graymont ; Berthoud Pass ; Spicer, Larimer Co. 

13. Polemonium mellitum (A. Gray) A. Nels. (P. confertum mellitum A. 
Gray) On the higher mountains from Wyo. and Nev. to Colo. Alt. 8000- 
9500 ft. Eldora to Baltimore. 

14. Polemonium Brandegei (A. Gray) Greene. (Cilia Brandegei A. Gray) 
On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt. 6000-12,000 ft. Sierra Blanca; West 
Spanish Peak; Big Creek Gulch, Routt Co.; mountains between Sunshine 
and Ward ; W 7 agon- wheel Gap. 

Family 114. HYDROLEACEAE H. B. K. WATER-LEAF FAMILY. 

Ovary i -celled; style 2-cleft ; leaf-blades usually toothed, lobed or dissected. 
Corolla-lobes convolute in the bud ; placentae dilated. 

Stamens exserted ; calyx not enlarged in fruit ; leaves alternate. 

1. HYDROPHYLLUM. 

Stamens included. 

Calyx enlarged in fruit, not appendaged ; leaves opposite. 

2. MACROCALYX. 



HYDROLEACEAE. 

Calyx not much enlarged in fruit with appendages in the sinuses. 

3. NEMOPHILA. 

Corolla-lobes imbricated in the bud ; placentae narrow. 4. PHACELIA. 

Ovary imperfectly 2-celled ; styles 2, distinct ; leaf-blades entire. 

5. MARILAUNIDIUM. 

i. HYDROPHYLLUM L. WATERLEAF. 

Peduncles shorter than the petioles and mostly shorter than the flower-clusters ; 
anthers oblong. i. H. capitatum. 

Peduncles longer than the petioles ; anthers oblong-linear. 2. H. Fendleri. 

1. Hydrophyllum capitatum Dougl. In wet places on hillsides from Mont, 
and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 9000 ft. Grand Mesa, Gunnison 
watershed ; Rabbit-Ear Range, Routt Co. ; Steamboat Springs. 

2. Hydrophyllum Fendleri (A. Gray) Heller. (H. occidentale Fendleri 
A. Gray) Along streams and among bushes from Wyo. and Ida. to Colo, 
and N. M. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. West of Ft. Collins ; near Pagosa Peak ; 
Apex ; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron ; Villa Grove ; Idaho Springs ; 
Ojo; East Indian Creek; Pass Creek; Chicken Creek, West La Plata Moun- 
tains ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Rist Canon ; Dixon Canon ; mountains between 
Sunshine and Ward ; Empire. 

2. MACROCALYX Trew. 

i. Macrocalyx Nyctelea (L.) Kuntze. (Ellisia Nyctelea L.) In damp 
places from Sask. and Mont, to Va. and Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Ft. Col- 
lins ; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Cerro Summit, Gunnison watershed; Sangre 
de Cristo Creek ; Cucharas River below La Veta ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Spring 
Canon. 

3. NEMOPHILA Nutt. 

i. Nemophila breviflora A. Gray. In rich soil from Mont, and Ida. to 
Colo, and Ore. Steamboat Springs. 

4. PHACELIA Juss. 

Leaves all simple and entire or some of the lower pinnately 3-5-divided with 

entire divisions ; capsule acute ; ovules 4. 

Plant densely whitish canescent. i. P. leucophylla. 

Plant pubescent but not canescent. 

Plant decumbent or ascending, slender, 1-3 dm. high ; inflorescence open 

with a few branches. 2. P. alpina. 

Plant erect or sometimes ascending, 3-5 dm. high, stout and more leafy ; 

inflorescence dense with numerous short branches. 3. P. heterophylla. 

Leaves from sinuate-crenate to twice-pannatifid. 
Plant annual, not cespitose. 

Corolla-lobes entire or merely sinuate-crenate. 

Leaves sinuate-crenate to lobed half-way to the midrib. 

Stem-leaves ovate, oval or elliptic in outline ; edges and ridge of the 

seeds not with cross ridges. 4. P. integrifolia. 

Stem-leaves, oblong in outline ; edges and salient ventral ridge of the 

seeds with rounded cross-ridges. 5. P. corrugata. 

Leaves pinnately divided to the midrib. 

Terminal divisions of the leaves large and obovate in outline. 

6. P. splendens. 

Terminal divisions of the leaves not much enlarged, ovate, lanceolate 
or oblong in outline. 7. P. glandulosa. 



HYDROLEACEAE. 

Corolla-lobes distinctly dentate or erose. 

Corolla white ; stamens about twice as long as the corolla. 

8. P. alba. 
Corolla purplish or pink ; stamens slightly exceeding the corolla. 

g. P. neo-mexicana. 
Plant perennial, cespitose ; inflorescence spicate-thyrsiform. 

Plant equally sericeous throughout ; segments of the leaves narrowly linear. 

10. P. sericea. 

Plant finely pubescent, hirsute-c'iliate on the petioles ; segments of the 
leaves oblong. n. P. ciliosa. 

1. Phacelia leucophylla Torr. On dry hills from S. D. and Wash, to Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. up to 8000 ft. Horsetooth Gulch; mountains between Sun- 
shine and Ward. 

2. Phacelia alpina Rydb. On mountains from Mont, to Colo, and Nev. 
Alt. 7000-12,500 ft. Steamboat Springs; Silver Plume; Mt. Harvard; near 
Ironton, San Juan Co. 

3. Phacelia heterophylla Pursh. On hills from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Near Empire; Ironton Park, 9 miles south 
of Ouray; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Narrows, Poudre Canon; Howe's Gulch; 
Dixon Canon ; gulch west of Pennock's ; Horsetooth Mountain ; Rist Canon ; 
Rabbit-Ear Range, Routt Co.; Platte River; Colorado Springs; Eldora to 
Baltimore; Ft. Collins; Amelia; Table Rock; Ute Pass, near Pike's Peak; 
Pagosa Peak ; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron ; Ouray ; Upper West 
Mancos Canon ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; East Indian Creek ; Lake Moraine ; 
William's Canon, near Pike's Peak; Trail Glen; Boulder; Rist Canon; 
Ragged Mountain. 

4. Phacelia integrifolia Torr. In gypsum soil from Colo, and Utah to 
western Tex. and Ariz. ; also Mex. " Southwestern Colorado." 

5. Phacelia corrugata A. Nels. In dry soil from Colo, and Utah to western 
Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Grand Junction ; Rifle, Garfield Co. ; 
Palisade. 

6. Phacelia splendens Eastw. In dry ground in Colo, and Utah. Alt. 
5000-8000 ft. Ouray; Cimarron; Hotchkiss, Delta Co.; Grand Junction; 
Lake City. 

7. Phacelia glandulosa Nutt. In gravelly soil from Mont, to western Tex. 
and Ariz. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Mt. Harvard ; Cheyenne Canon ; West Span- 
ish Peak; Walsenburg; Lake City; Cumbres; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Howe's 
Gulch. 

8. Phacelia alba Rydb. In valleys from Wyo. to N. M. Alt. 8000-10,000 
ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; La Veta ; Placer ; 
Doyle's ; Georgetown ; Marshall Pass ; Graymont ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

9. Phacelia neo-mexicana Thurber. In sandy soil from Colo, to N. M. 
Alt. 4500-7500 ft. Georgetown ; between La Veta and Gardner, near Badito ; 
Trinidad ; Salida ; La Porte, Larimer Co. ; Dillon Canon. 

10. Phacelia sericea Hook. In the mountains from Mont, and B. C. to 
Colo, and Nev. Alt. 9000-13,000 ft. Lake City; mountains south of Ward, 
Boulder Co.; Mt. Garfield; Tennessee Pass, 7 miles west of Leadville; Lead- 
ville, Lake Co.; Mt. Harvard; Larimer Co.; Silverton; Medicine Bow Moun- 
tains ; above Graymont ; above Como ; Beaver Creek ; Larimer Co. ; Eldora 
to Baltimore. 



284 HYDROLEACEAE. 

ii. Phacelia ciliosa Rydb. In the mountains from Alb. and B. C. to Colo, 
and Nev. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft.' Between Bald Mountain and Seven Lakes ; 
near Pagosa Peak ; Cameron Pass ; Hahn's Peak ; Clear Creek Canon ; 
mountains above Boreas ; Berthoud Pass, near Georgetown ; Little Kate Basin, 
La Plata Mountains ; Carson ; Silver Plume. 

5. MARILAUNIDIUM Kuntze. 

i. Marilaunidium angustifolium (A. Gray) Kuntze. (Nama dichotomum 
angustifolium A. Gray) In cultivated ground and waste places from Colo, 
to N. M. Colorado Springs. 

Family 115. HELIOTROPACEAE Small. HELIOTROPE FAMILY. 

Cone of the stigma penicillate-setose ; fruit didymous ; each of the two carpels 
splitting into two almost hemispherical nutlets. i. EUPLOCA. 

Cone of the stigma not penicillate-setose ; fruit in ours 4-lobed, splitting into 
four i-seeded nutlets. 2. HELIOTROPIUM. 

i. EUPLOCA Nutt. 

i. Euploca convolvulacea Nutt. (Heliotr opium convolvulaceum A. Gray) 
Sandy plains from Neb. and Wyo. to Tex. and Calif. ; also Mex. Arkansas 
River; sandy plains of Platte. 

2. HELIOTROPIUM L. HELIOTROPE. 

i. Heliotropium spathulatum Rydb. (H. Curassavicum Hook.; not L.) In 
river valleys from Ass. and Wash, to N. M. and Calif. South of New 
Windsor, Weld Co. 

Family 116. BORAGINACEAE A. Gray. BORAGE FAMILY. 

Nutlets with hooked prickles at least on the margin. i. LAPPULA. 

Nutlets unarmed or if prickly, the prickles not curved. 

Receptacle conic or elongated ; the nutlets attached laterally. 

Nutlets attached below the middle, with an oblique truncate back, which is 
surrounded by an entire or toothed margin ; low pulvinate-cespitose per- 
ennials. 2. ERITRICHIUM. 
Nutlets attached at the middle or with an elongated scar reaching from the 
base to above the middle, not with a truncate margined back ; plants 
not pulvinate-cespitose. 
Pedicels and calyx persistent in fruit. 

Calyx circumscissile ; plants dichotomously branched. 

3. PIPTOCALYX. 
Calyx not circumscissile ; plants not dichotomously branched. 

Calyx-lobes spreading in fruit ; leaves alternate ; perennials. 

4. OKEOCARVA. 
Calyx nearly closed in fruit ; leaves proper opposite ; annuals. 

5. ALLOCARYA. 
Pedicels in fruit falling off with the calyx ; the latter closed ; branched 

but not dichotomous annuals. 6. CRYPTANTHE. 

Receptacle flat or merely convex. 

Scar of the nutlets large and excavated, bordered by a prominent margin. 

7. ANCHUSA. 
Scar of the nutlets small and marginless. 



BORAGINACEAE. 285 

Nutlets obliquely attached ; flowers mostly bractless ; corolla blue or white 

with funnelform throat. 8. MERTENSIA. 

Nutlets attached by the very base. 

Corolla salverform or funnelform ; its lobes rounded and spreading. 
Racemes not bracted ; corolla in ours blue ; its lobes convolute in bud. 

9. MYOSOTIS. 
Racemes bracted ; corolla yellow or yellowish ; its lobes imbricated in 

bud. IO. LlTHOSPERMUM. 

Corolla tubular ; its lobes erect, acute, otherwise as in Lithospermum. 

ii. ONOSMODIUM. 

i. LAPPULA Moench. STICK-SEED. 

Inflorescence leafy-bracted only at the base ; bracts minute above ; gymnobase 
short-pyramidal ; scar of the nutlets ovate or triangular ; perennials or 
biennials. 

Corolla 1.5-6 mm. wide, blue; stem very leafy. 
Marginal prickles free to the base or nearly so. 

Corolla 1.5-3 mm. wide. i. L. Besseyi. 

Corolla 4-6 mm. wide (leaves firmer). 2. L. fioribunda. 

Marginal prickles united for l /3~ l /2 their length into a distinct wing. 

Stem-leaves linear-lanceolate, densely strigose. 3. L. angustata. 

Stem-leaves oblong-lanceolate, hispidulous ; the hairs with papillose bases. 

4. L. scaberrima. 
Corolla 6-8 mm. wide, blue with white center ; stem very leafy at the base. 

5. L. gracilenta. 
Inflorescence leafy ; the floral leaves, although smaller, resembling those of the 

stem ; annuals. 
The annular margin connecting the bases of the prickles inconspicuous in all 

four nutlets. 
Calyx-lobes more than twice as long as the fruit, reflexed-spreading ; floral 

leaves broadly lanceolate. 6. L. calycosa. 

Calyx-lobes less than twice as long as the fruit ; floral leaves linear or linear- 
lanceolate. 7. L. occidentalis. 
The annular margin connecting the bases of the prickles at least in three of 

the nutlets broadened and forming a cup. 
Plant diffusely branched, at flowering time without basal rosette. 

8. L. cupulata. 

Plant at flowering time with a basal rosette of spatulate leaves ; stems 
more simple. 9. L. collina. 

1. Lappula Besseyi Rydb. In wooded canons of Colorado. Alt. about 
8000 ft. Mouth of Cheyenne Canon near Pike's Peak. 

2. Lappula fioribunda (Lehm.) Greene. (Echinospermum floribundum 
Lehm.) On hillsides and among bushes from Man. and Alb. to N. M. and 
Calif. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Boulder Canon ; New Castle ; Twin Lakes ; 
La Veta ; Gunnison; Valley Spur; Pagosa Springs; near Dix Post Office; 
Wahatoya Creek; mountains, Larimer Co.; Four-mile Hill, Routt Co.; North 
Poudre ; Empire ; Poudre Canon ; Como. 

3. Lappula angustata Rydb. Foot-hills of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 5000-6000 
ft. La Veta; foot-hills and plains near Boulder; Rist Canon ; Halm's Peak. 

4. Lappula scaberrima Piper. In sandy soil from Wyo. and Neb. to Colo. 
Cripple Creek ; Idaho Springs. 

5. Lappula gracilenta Eastw. In canons of southwestern Colo. Navajo 
Canon ; Mesa Verde. 

6. Lappula calycosa Rydb. In waste places and fields in Colo. Alt. 5000- 
6000 ft. Pike's Peak; Mancos; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Walsenburg; 
Glenwood Springs ; Ft. Collins. 



286 BORAGINACEAE. 

7. Lappula occidentalis (S. Wats.) Greene. (Echinospermum Redowskyi 
occidentalis S. Wats.) In sandy places and on dry plains from Sask. and 
Wash, to Mo. and N. M. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Twin Lakes; mesas near 
Pueblo ; South Cheyenne Canon ; Colorado Springs ; plains near Denver ; 
Mancos ; Cimarron ; river-bluffs, north of La Veta ; Mountain View ; An- 
tonito; Valley Spur; along Uncompahgre River near Ouray; Los Pinos ; 
Ft. Collins ; Howe's Gulch ; bank of Arkansas River ; Quimby ; Spring Canon ; 
Manitou. 

8. Lappula cupulata (A. Gray) Rydb. In river valleys from S. D. and 
Ida. to Tex. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. New Windsor, Weld Co. ; mesas 
near Pueblo; Hotchkiss, Delta Co.; Canon City; Denver; Ft. Collins. 

9. Lappula collina Greene. On dry hills from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and 
Ariz. Palisades. 

2. ERITRICHIUM Schrader. MOUNTAIN FORGET-ME-NOT. 

Dorsal surface of the nutlets margined with a ridge-like ring, but not toothed. 

1. E. elongatum. 
Dorsal surface of the nutlets with a toothed border ; corolla 4-5 mm. wide. 

2. E. argenteum. 

1. Eritrichium elongatum (Rydb.) White. (E. aretioides elongatum 
Rydb.) On high mountain tops from Mont, and Ore. to Colo. Alt. 11,000- 
12,000 ft. Headwaters Clear Creek; above Beaver Creek. 

2. Eritrichium argentum White. (Omphalodes nana aretioides A. Gray) 
On alpine peaks from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 11,000-14,400 ft. 
Gray's Peak ; mountains above Como ; mountains of Estes Park, Larimer Co. ; 
Pike's Peak; Chicago Lake; Argentine Pass; Bald Mountain; Bush Creek, 
Custer Co. 

3. PIPTOCALYX Torr. 

i. Piptocalyx circumscissa Torr. (Krynitzkia circumscissa A. Gray) In 
dry soil from Ida. and Wash, to Colo., Ariz, and Calif. Routt. Co., near 
Wyoming line. 

4. OREOCARYA Greene. 

Fruit depressed ; nutlets at the margin separated by an open space. 
Leaves appressed-canescent, not hispid ; corolla 5-7 mm. wide. 

1. O. cinerea. 
Leaves with a fine canescence intermixed with hispid hairs ; corolla less than 

5 mm. wide. 
Plant low, grayish, not yellowish-hispid above ; racemes short, 2-ranked. 

2. O. siiffmticosa. 
Plant tall, yellowish-hispid above; racemes in fruit elongated, i-ranked. 

3. O. miilticaulis. 
Fruit conical or ovoid ; nutlets touching each other. 

Corolla-tube not exserted. 

Floral leaves long, many times longer than the short flower-clusters. 

4. O. virgata. 

Floral leaves comparatively short, little if at all surpassing the flower- 
clusters. 

Sepals ovate-lanceolate, only slightly exceeding the mature nutlets ; in- 
florescence a panicle with rather few branches. 



BORAGINACEAE. 287 

Corolla 7-8 mm. broad ; nutlets muricate and cross-ridged, but not honey- 
comb-crested. 5. O. data. 
Corolla 4-5 mm. broad ; nutlets honey-comb-crested. 

6. O. Bakeri. 
Sepals lanceolate to linear, much exceeding the nutlets ; inflorescence 

thyrsoid. 
Inflorescence a broad open round-topped thyrsus ; branches usually 

again branched. 

Tall, 2-4 dm. high ; nutlets with acute backs and sharply acute or 
slightly winged margins ; tubercles united into more or less dis- 
tinct cross-ridges. 

Plant light yellowish-green ; nutlets more or less distinctly winged ; 
cross-ridges of the nutlets rather regular and uniting on the back. 

7. O. hispidissima. 
Plants dark green ; nutlets merely acute-angled and irregularly 

cross-ridged. 8. O. thyrsiflora. 

Low, 1-2 dm. high ; nutlets with rounded backs and merely acutish- 

margined ; muriculations united into almost star-shaped tubercles. 

9. O. aperta. 
Inflorescence, at least in flower, a narrow, almost spike-like thyrsus ; 

if more open, branches simple. 

Plant green, very hispid ; only the basal leaves canescent ; bristles with 
very conspicuous pustulate bases, much longer than the short 
strigose or tomentose pubescence. 

Corolla 7-10 mm. wide ; nutlets ovate, more than half as wide as long; 
basal leaves broadly spatulate densely canescent. 

10. O. glomerata. 

Corolla 5-7 mm. wide ; nutlets lanceolate, less than half as wide as 
long ; basal leaves broadly oblanceolate, somewhat canescent ; 
plant 1.5-2 dm. high. n. O. perennis. 

Plant canescent ; basal leaves at least with inconspicuous bristles, 
which are scarcely longer than the other pubescence ; pustulate 
bases inconspicuous. 
Plant stout, 3-4 dm. high, rather simple; corolla 7-10 mm. wide. 

12. O. argent ea. 
Plant low, less than i dm. high, densely cespitose. 

13. O. nana. 
Corolla-tube long-exserted. 

Corolla white. 

Nutlets more or less distinctly rugose with irregular cross-ridges as well 

as muricate. 
Ridges of the nutlets honey-comb-crested ; inflorescence a narrow thyrsus ; 

leaves canescent and hispid. 14. O. eulophus. 

Ridges of the nutlets neither much interlacing nor crested. 

Inflorescence at least in fruit open with elongated branches ; stem stout. 

15. O. longifiora. 

Inflorescence narrow; stem slender. 16. 0. cristata. 

Nutlets finely muricate ; inflorescence at last more or less yellowish ; leaves 

finely canescent. 

Plant cespitose, low, 1-1.5 dm. high; basal leaves 2-3 cm. long, 3-7 mm. 
wide. 17. O. fulvocanescens. 

Plant 2-3 dm. high; basal leaves 4-8 cm. long, 7-15 mm. wide. 

1 8. O. nitida. 
Corolla yellow. 19. O. fiava. 

1. Oreocarya cinerea Greene. On dry plains of Colo. Alt 5000-7000 ft. 
Mesas near Pueblo; Cafion City; Arkansas River; Rocky Ford. 

2. Oreocarya suffruticosa (Torn) Greene. (Krynitzkia Jamesii A. Gray) 
On plains and foot-hills from S. D. and Wyo. to Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. 
Plains and foot-hills near Boulder; Gtmnison ; Colorado Springs; Denver; 



BORAGINACEAE. 

Salida; on the Platte; headwaters of Clear Creek; Manitou Junction; Lasalle; 
Morrison ; Pueblo ; Ouray. 

3. Oreocarya multicaulis (Torr.) Greene. (Eritrichium multicaule Torr.) 
In arid lands from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Gunnison ; 
Arboles. 

4. Oreocarya virgata (Porter) Greene. (Krynitskia virgata A. GrayJ On 
dry hills in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Plains and foot-hills near 
Boulder; Green Mountain Falls; Pike's Peak; Clear Creek Canon; Larimer 
Co.; foot-hills near. Golden; Ft. Collins; Manitou; headwaters of Clear 
Creek; Denver; Rist Canon, Barnes' camp; Horsetooth Gulch; Soldier 
Canon ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Artist's Glen ; Wood's ranch ; Narrows. 

5. Oreocarya elata Eastw. In arid places of western Colo. Grand Junction. 

6. Oreocarya Bakeri Greene. Sage plains of southern Colo. Mancos. 

7. Oreocarya hispidissima (Torr.) Rydb. (Eritrichium glomeratum hispi- 
dissimum Torr.) In river valleys and on hills from Neb. and Wyo. to N. M. 
and Utah. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Sangre de Cristo Creek; Calloway. 

8. Oreocarya thyrsiflora Greene. On sandy hillsides from Neb. and Wyo. 
to Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Cripple Creek; Salida; Colorado Springs; 
Livermore ; Badito ; Platte bottom. 

9. Oreocarya aperta Eastw. On arid hills of western Colo. Grand Junction. 

10. Oreocarya glomerata (Pursh) Greene. (Krynitskia glomerata A. Gray) 
Dry hills from Sask. and Ida. to Utah. It has been reported from Colorado, 
but doubtful. 

11. Oreocarya perennis (A. Nels.) Rydb. (O. affinis perennis A. Nels.) 
Dry rocks from S. D. and Ida. to Colo. Cheyenne Mountain. 

12. Oreocarya argentea Rydb. On dry hills in Colo. Rifle, Garfield Co.; 
Steamboat Springs. 

13. Oreocarya nana Eastw. On dry table lands in western Colo. Grand 
Junction. 

14. Oreocarya eulophus Rydb. On gravelly hills in Colo, and Utah. 
McCoy's, Eagle Co. ; Dolores. 

15. Oreocarya longiflora A. Nels. On dry table-lands and plains of Utah 
and Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft. Hotchkiss ; Grand Junction. 

16. Oreocarya cristata Eastw. On arid hills of western Colo. Grand 
Junction. 

17. Oreocarya fulvocanescens (A. Gray) Greene. (Krynitskia fulvocancs- 
cens A. Gray) On hills from Wyo. to N. M. Locality not given. 

18. Oreocarya nitida Greene. On dry hills in Colo. Alt. about 5000 ft. 
Deer River ; Grand Junction. 

19. Oreocarya flava A. Nels. On hills from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. 
Grand Junction. 

5. ALLOCARYA Greene. 

i. Allocarya scopulorum Greene. (Krynitskia californica A. Gray, in part) 
In sandy soil from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. 
Near Empire; Grizzly Creek; Calhan ; Georgetown; Steamboat Springs, 
Routt Co.; Cerro Summit; Gunnison; Veta Pass; Alamosa ; Hubbanl Creek; 
Buena Vista; along the Conejos north of Antonito; Boulder; North Park. 



BORAGIXACEAE. 289 

6. CRYPTANTHE Lehm. 

Nutlets not winged. 

Nutlets dissimilar, 3 of them tubercled, the fourth smooth or nearly so. 

Sepals in fruit strongly thickened on the back. i. C. crassisepala. 

Sepals in fruit not strongly thickened on the back. 

Plant 1-2 dm. high; calyx in fruit 6-8 mm. long. 2. C. Kelseyana. 

Plant a few cm. high ; calyx in fruit less than 5 mm. long. 

3. C. minima. 

Nutlets all smooth. 

Nutlets usually all four maturing. 

No open areola between the forks of the groove of the acute nutlets. 

4. C. Torrcyana. 
A distinct open areola between the forks of the groove of the lanceolate, 

acuminate nutlets. 
Leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, or the upper sometimes linear. 

5. C. Pattcrsonii. 
Leaves narrowly linear. 6. C. Fendlcn. 

Only one nutlet maturing. 7- C. gracUis. 

Nutlets wing-margined. S. C. 



1. Cryptanthe crassisepala (T. & G.) Greene. (Krynitzkij 

A. Gray) In loose soil, " prairie-dog towns " and waste places from Sask. 
and Mont, to Tex. and Utah; also Mex Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Walsenburg; 
foot-hills west of Ft. Collins; Colorado Springs; Ft. Collins; Deer River; 
Trinidad; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Ouray; Boulder. 

2. Cryptanthe Kelseyana Greene. In dry and sandy soil from Ass. and 
Mont, to Colo. Alt. about 6000 ft. Pike's Peak; Walsenburg. 

3. Cryptanthe minima Rydb. In river valleys of Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. 
Cucharas River above La Yeta. 

4. Cryptanthe Torreyana (A. Gray) Greene. On hillsides from Ida. and 
Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Idaho Springs. 

5. Cryptanthe Pattersonii ^A. Gray) Greene. (Krynitckia Pattersoni A. 
Gray) On hillsides in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. River-bluffs north 
of La Veta ; South Cheyenne Canon. 

6. Cryptanthe Fendleri (A. Gray) Greene. (Krytiitzkia Fendlcri A. Gray). 
In river valleys and on sandy places, from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 
5000-8000 ft. Denver; Cheyenne Mountain; Antonito; Salida; Gunnison; 
Colorado Springs ; Palmer Lake. 

7. Cryptanthe gracilis Osterhout. In dry soil, in Colorado. Glenwood 
Springs. 

8. Cryptanthe pterocarya i^Torr.) Greene. (Eritrichium picrccaryum 
Torn") On plains and in dry places from Wash, to N. M. Palisades ; 
Grand Junction. 

7. ANCHUSA L. 

i. Anchusa officinalis L. Introduced from Europe in waste places. Ft. 
Collins. 

8. MERTENSIA Roth. LUNGWORT. 

Filaments equalling or exceeding, and usually broader than the anthers. 
Calyx-lobes rounded-ovate, shorter than the ample, campanulate tube. 

BRACHYLOBAE. 
Calyx-lobes longer than the short tube. 

Calyx-lobes linear or oblong, obtuse. CILIATAE. 

Calyx-lobes triangular-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute. 

19 



290 BORAGINACEAE. 

Plant tall, usually over 4 dm. high ; leaves distinctly veined, in most 
feather-veined, but in a few triple-veined with anastomosing veins. 

MEMBRANACEAE. 

Plant low, usually less than 4 dm. high ; leaves with a strong midrib, 
without distinct lateral veins (except sometimes the basal leaves, which 
then, however, are thick and firm). LANCEOLATAE. 

Anthers subsessile or on very short narrow filaments inserted in the tube or the 
throat of the corolla ; low plants, 1-3 dm. high, of the habit of the lanceolata 
group. ALPINAE. 

BRACHYLOBAE. 

One species. i. M. brachyloba. 

CILIATAE. 

Corolla 9-12 mm. long; limb not longer than the tube. 

Sepals thickened and pale on the back. 2. M. picta. 

Sepals neither thickened nor pale on the back. 3. M. ciliata. 

Corolla 12-15 mm. long; limb longer than the tube. 
Sepals oblong, 1.5-2 mm. long. 

Leaves dark green, rough with large muricate points ; pedicels with larger 

white murication. 4. M. punctata. 

Leaves more glaucous, smooth or with minute callous murication ; pedicels 

almost smooth. 5. M. polyphylla. 

Sepals linear, 3 mm. long. 6. M. platensis. 

MEMBRANACEAE. 

Corolla i cm. or less long. 

Corolla-tube over 4 mm. wide ; calyx bristly-ciliate. 7. M. cynoglossoides. 

Corolla-tube 2-3 mm. wide. 

Plant stout ; pedicels bristly hispid with spreading hairs. 

8. M. muriculata. 
Plant slender; pedicels strigose. 15. M. viridula. 

Corolla about 1.5 cm. long. 

Calyx not white-hairy, about half as long as the tube of the white corolla. 

9. M. alba. 

Calyx densely white-hairy, especially near the margins of the lobes, ^ as long 
as the blue corolla. 10. M. pratensis. 

LANCEOLATAE. 

Pedicels distinctly strigose or hirsute. 

Calyx and pedicels densely pubescent all over. 

Stems from a more or less woody caudex or rootstock ; leaves pubescent on 

both sides. 

Leaf-blades linear or only the uppermost lanceolate, u. M. lateriftora. 
Blades of the basal leaves ovate, lanceolate or spatulate. 

Plant more or less grayish and densely pubescent throughout, especially 

on the calyx. 12. M. Bakeri. 

Plant green ; pubescence long and loose, even on the stem. 

13. M. myosotifolia. 
Stems from a fusiform root ; leaves glabrous beneath. 

14. M. fusiformis. 
Calyx externally glabrous except on the ciliate margins, and sometimes on the 

midveins and angles. 
Leaves glabrous beneath. 

Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate; inflorescence open. 15. M. viridula. 

Calyx-lobes narrowly or linear-lanceolate ; inflorescence dense. 

Leaves narrowly linear. 16. M. lineariloba. 

Leaves oblong, lanceolate to ovate. 

Stem-leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate ; corolla-limb about equalling 

the tube. 17. M. Parryi. 

Stem-leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate ; corolla-limb shorter than the 

tube. 1 8. M. ovata. 

Leaves hairy on both sides. 



BORAGINACEAE. 291 

Leaves narrowly linear. n. M. lateriflora. 

Leaves oblong or oblanceolate. 19- M. amoena. 

Pedicels glabrous or pustulate ; calyx glabrous except the ciliate-margined calyx- 
lobes. 

Upper surface of the leaves short-pubescent. 20. M. lincaris. 

Upper surface of the leaves not hairy ; merely pustulate. 

21. M. lanceolate. 
ALPINAE. 

Calyx ciliate on the margins ; leaves ovate, lanceolate or oblanceolate. 
Corolla 5-7 mm. long. 22. M. alpina. 

Corolla over i cm. long. 23. M. perplexa. 

Calyx villous-ciliate all over ; corolla 7-8 mm. long. 

Leaves oblong or oblanceolate, glabrous beneath. 24. M. brevistyla. 

Leaves linear, densely hairy on both sides. 25. M. canescens. 

1. Mertensia brachyloba Greene. On foot-hills of Colorado. Alt. about 
5500 ft. West of Ft. Collins; Mt. Harvard. 

2. Mertensia picta Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 12,000 ft. 
Mt. Baldy; Estes Park. 

3. Mertensia ciliata (Torn) Don. (Pulmonaria ciliata Torr.) Along 
streams from Wyo. and Ida. to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 6000-13,000 ft. Head- 
waters of Clear Creek; Pike's Peak; South Park; North Cheyenne Canon; 
Colorado Springs; Cascade; Green Mountain Falls; Peak Valley; George- 
town; Gray's Peak; Boreas; Cameron Pass; Michigan Hill; Beaver Creek; 
Campton's Ranch; Poudre River; summit of North Park Range, Larimer Co. 

4. Mertensia punctata Greene. Along streams in the mountains of Colo. 
Alt. 9000-10,000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; Chambers' Lake. 

5. Mertensia polyphylla Greene. Along streams in the mountains of Wyo. 
and Colo. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak; mountains, Larimer 
Co.; Pike's Peak; near Ironton, San Juan Co.; headwaters of Pass Creek; 
Eldora to Baltimore ; Hotchkiss ; Cameron Pass ; Marshall Pass ; Van Boxle's 
ranch above Cimarron; Dark Canon; Black Canon; Ward, Boulder Co.; 
West Indian Creek. 

6. Mertensia platensis Rydb. (Mertensia polyphylla platensis Rydb.) 
Along streams in mountains of Colo. Alt. about 10,000 ft. Bob Creek, 
West La Plata Mountains. 

7. Mertensia cynoglossoides Greene. Along streams in Colo. Alt. about 
7000 ft. Black Canon. 

8. Mertensia muriculata Greene. Along streams in Colo. Alt. about 7000 
ft. Black Canon. 

9. Mertensia alba Rydb. Along mountain streams in Colo. Alt. about 
10,500 ft. La Plata River. 

10. Mertensia pratensis Heller. In wet meadows and along streams from 
Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-12,000 ft. Cucharas River, above La 
Veta; Dolores; Mt. Hesperus; Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains; Man- 
cos; mountains above Ouray. 

11. Mertensia lateriflora Greene. On hillsides in Colo. Alt. 5000-11,500 
ft. Near Empire; Ojo; Veta Mountain; Palsgrove Canon; headwaters of 
Sangre de Cristo Creek; Carson; Estes Peak, Larimer Co.; South Park; 
Eldora to Baltimore; Estes Park; Cascade; Ruxton. 

12. Mertensia Bakeri Greene. On the higher mountains of Colo. Alt. 
11,000-13,000 ft. Horse-shoe Mountain; Marshall Pass; Hayden Peak; 
Carson; mountains above Como; Iron Mountain; Spicer. 



292 BORAGINACEAE. 

13. Mertensia myosotifolia Heller. On mountains in Colo. Red Cliff, 
Eagle Co. 

14. Mertensia fusiformis Greene. (M. congesta Greene) On hillsides in 
Colo. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Graham's Peak ; Bob Creek, West La Plata Moun- 
tains ; Cimarron ; Minturn ; Poverty Ridge. 

15. Mertensia viridula Rydb. Along mountain streams in Colo. Alt. 
6000-12,000 ft. Jack Brook; North Cheyenne Canon ; Cascade Canon; Col- 
orado Springs ; Ruxton ; West Spanish Peak. 

16. Mertensia lineariloba Rydb. On hillsides in Colo. Alt. 8000-9000 ft. 
West Indian Creek; near Empire. 

17. Mertensia Parryi Rydb. On the higher mountains of Colo. Alt. 
11,000-12,000 ft. Alpine ridges east of Middle Park; Cameron Pass; Alpine 
Tunnel ; Estes Park ; Beaver Creek ; Gray's Peak ; Ethel Peak. 

18. Mertensia ovata Rydb. On high mountains among rocks in Colo. Alt. 
9000-10,000 ft. West Spanish Peak; Anita Peak. 

19. Mertensia amoena A. Nels. On hills in Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 5000- 
10,000 ft. Montezuma; Boulder; Eldora to Baltimore. 

20. Mertensia linearis Greene. On dry hillsides from Ass. to Neb. and 
Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Georgetown ; 
plains near Denver; South Cheyenne Canon, Colorado Springs; Platte 
Canon ; Manitou ; El Paso Co. ; Wahatoya Creek ; near Livermore, Larimer 
Co. ; Clear Creek Canon ; hills southeast of La Veta ; Boulder ; Malta station, 
near Leadville; Eldora to Baltimore. 

21. Mertensia lanceolata (Pursh) DC. On hills in damp places from Mont, 
to Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Foot-hills west of Ft. Collins ; Howe's Gulch ; 
north of La Porte; Rist Canon; gulch west of Soldier Canon; Eldora to 
Baltimore; Boulder; vicinity of Horsetooth. 

22. Mertensia alpina (Torr.) Don. On alpine peaks of Colo. Alt. 11,000- 
14,000 ft. Massif de 1'Arapahoe; Pike's Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek; 
Argentine Pass ; Garden of the Gods ; Saddle cliffs. 

23. Mertensia perplexa Rydb. On high mountains of Colo. Mountains 
south of Ward, Boulder Co. 

24. Mertensia brevistyla S. Wats. In the mountains of Utah, Wyo. and 
Colo. Exact locality not given. 

25. Mertensia canescens Rydb. On alpine peak of Colo. Alt. 11,000-12,000 
ft. Berthoud Pass ; mountains southwest of Como. 

9. MYOSOTIS L. FORGET-ME-NOT. 

i. Myosotis alpestris Schmidt. In mountain meadows from Alb. and 
Alaska to Colo. Devil's Causeway. 

10. LITHOSPERMUM L. CROMWELL, PUCCOON. 

Corolla-lobes neither fimbriate nor toothed ; flowers all well developed. 

Corolla greenish or pale yellow, i cm. or less long ; crest in the throat obsolete. 
Corolla-limb 3-5 mm. wide ; tube not longer than the calyx ; stem grayish 

strigose, but scarcely hispid. i. L. Torreyi. 

Corolla-limb 5-8 mm. wide ; tube longer than the calyx ; stem more or less 
hispid. 2. L. pilosnm. 



BORAGINACEAE. 293 

Corolla bright yellow or orange, 12 mm. or more long; crest of the tube 

prominent. 
Floral leaves of the later flowers small, shorter than the flowers ; limb of the 

corolla 6-8 mm. wide. 3. L. multiliorum. 

Floral leaves of the later flowers not reduced ; limb of the corolla 8-20 mm. 

wide. 
Hispid pubescent ; corolla-tube bearded at the base within. 

4. L. Gmelini. 
Canescent ; corolla-tube not bearded at the base within. 

5. L. canescens. 
Corolla-lobes fimbriate or dentate ; later flowers cleistogamous. 

Corolla 2.5-3 (rarely only 2) cm. long; lobes distinctly fimbriate. 

6. L. linearifolium. 
Corolla 2 cm. or less long ; lobes dentate. 

Corolla 15-20 mm. long; limb 8-20 mm. wide. 7. L. mandanense. 

Corolla 10 mm. or less long; limb 6-8 mm. wide. 8. L. breviflorum. 

1. Lithospermum Torreyi Nutt. On hills and in canons from Mont, and 
Ida. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-8600 ft. Poverty Ridge, near Cimarron ; 
below Parrott Post Office; Steamboat Springs. 

2. Lithospermum pilosum Nutt. On hills from Alb. and B. C. to Colo, and 
Nev. Leroux Creek, Delta Co. ; Minturn ; Denver. 

3. Lithospermum multiflorum Torn On hills and mountain sides and in 
canons from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. 
Thompson's Park, La Plata Mountains ; Crystal Park ; Colorado Springs ; 
Estes Park, Larimer Co. ; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch ; mouth 
of Cheyenne Canon ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Artist's Glen ; Como, South 
Park; Canon City; southeast of Ouray; Piedra; above Mancos; Pike's Peak; 
headwaters of Clear Creek ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Table Rock ; Northwest of 
Soldier Canon ; Hotchkiss; Rist Canon; Seven Lakes; Empire. 

4. Lithospermum Gmelini (Michx.) Hitchc. (L. hirtum Lehm.) In sandy 
places and dry plains from N. Y. and Mont, to Fla. and N. M. Denver 
(Eastwood). 

5. Lithospermum canescens (Michx.) Lehm. On plains and in open 
woods from Ont. and N. D. to Ala., Tex. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. 
Boulder. 

6. Lithospermum linearifolium Goldie. (L. angustifolium Michx.) On 
prairies and plains from 111., Man. and B. C. to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000- 
7000 ft. Mt. Harvard; Colorado Springs; river-bluffs, north of La Veta ; 
mesas near Pueblo; Cucharas River below La Veta; Trinidad; plains near 
Denver ; Ft. Collins ; Lamar ; Durango ; Spring Canon ; Boulder. 

7. Lithospermum mandanense Spreng. On dry plains from N. D. and 
Alb. to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Larimer Co. ; Colorado City. 

8. Lithospermum breviflorum Engelm. & A. Gray. (L. albescens Greene) 
On dry plains from Ark. and Colo, to Tex. and N. M. ; also Mex. Alt. 
4000-6000 ft. Arboles; Boulder. 



ii. ONOSMODIUM Michx. FALSE CROMWELL. 

i. Onosmodium occidentale Mackenzie. On plains and in sandy soil from 
Man. and B. C. to Mo., Tex. and Utah. Alt. 3500-5000 ft. Along Platte 
River, Denver; Ft. Collins; Boulder; Golden; Longmont. 



294 VERBENACEAE. 

Family 117. VERBENACEAE St. Hil. VERVAIN FAMILY. 

Flowers in terminal spikes; corolla-limb s-lobed ; nutlets 4. i. VERBENA. 

Flowers in axillary peduncled short spikes ; corolla-limb 4-lobed ; nutlets 2. 

2. PHYLA. 

i. VERBENA L. VERVAIN. 

Anthers not appendaged ; flowers in elongated spikes, less than 8 mm long. 

Plant tall, erect, strict ; leaves not pinnatifid, only sometimes lobed at the base 

in the first species. 

Bracts shorter than the calyx. i. V. hastata. 

Bracts one-third longer than the calyx ; pubescence dense, soft. 

2. V. MacDougalii. 
Plant low, diffuse ; leaves more or less pinnatifid ; bracts much longer than 

the calyx. 3. V. bracteosa. 

Anthers of the longer stamens appendaged by a gland on the connective ; corolla 

8 mm. long or more. 3. V. ciliata. 

Calyx-lobes subulate. 5. V. ambrosifolia. 

Calyx-lobes setaceous. 

1. Verbena hastata L. In river valleys and moist meadows from N. S. 
and B. C. to Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Timnath, Larimer Co. ; 
foot-hills near Golden; Ft. Collins; Mason's river-front farm, Larimer Co.; 
Boulder. 

2. Verbena MacDougalii Heller. In river valleys from Colo, to N. M. and 
Ariz. Alt. about 7000 ft. La Veta ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Ar- 
boles ; Palmer Lake. 

3. Verbena bracteosa Michx. (V. rudis Greene) On prairies and plains 
and in waste places from 111., Alb. and B. C. to Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000- 
7500 ft. Colorado Springs; Manitou ; Arboles; Walsenburg; Platte River; 
Ft. Collins; Deer River; Cimarron; Rist Canon; Dixon Canon; Boulder. 

4. Verbena ciliata Benth. On plains from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; also 
Mex. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Mesas near Pueblo ; Durango ; Trinidad. 

5. Verbena ambrosifolia Rydb. On plains from S. D. and Colo, to Tex. 
and Ariz. ; also Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Boulder ; Walsenburg ; Rocky Ford, 
Otero Co.; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Boulder Co.; La Porte; Soldier Canon; 
Florence; Quimby. 

2. PHYLA Lour. 

i. Phyla cuneifolia (Torr.) Greene. (Lippia cuneifolia Torr.) On plains 
from S. D. and Wyo., to Tex and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Greeley, Weld 
Co. ; Ft. Collins ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Boulder Canon ; banks of Arkansas 
at Pueblo ; Rocky Ford ; Boulder. 



Family 1 1 8. LAMIACEAE Lindl. MINT FAMILY. 

Ovary of 4 united carpels ; style not basal ; nutlets laterally attached. 

Flowers in small congested cymes, axillary to small bracts, and forming a 
raceme-like panicle ; calyx-lobes shorter than the tube ; leaves toothed. 

i. TEUCHRIUM. 
Flowers solitary in the axils of bracts similar to the leaves ; calyx-lobes longer 

than the tube ; leaves laciniate. 2. MELOSMON. 

Ovary of 4 distinct or nearly distinct carpels ; styles basal ; nutlets basally attached. 
Corolla bilabiate. 



LAMIACEAE. 295 

Calyx 2-lipped ; both lips entire ; stamens 4. 3. SCUTELLARIA. 

Calyx either 2-lipped and at least one of the lips toothed, or regularly 4-5 

toothed. 

Stamens included in the corolla-tube. 4. MARRUBIUM. 

Stamens exserted. 

Upper lip of the corolla concave. 
Anther-bearing stamens 4. 

Upper stamens longer than the lower. 
Calyx s-toothed. 

Anther-sacs parallel or nearly so ; stamens divergent. 

5. AGASTACHE. 

Anther-cells divaricate ; anther approximate in pairs. 
Calyx regularly s-toothed ; plants erect. 6. NEPETA. 
Calyx irregularly s-toothed ; plant trailing. 

7. GLECOMA. 

Calyx distinctly 2-lipped. 8. DRACOCEPHALUM. 

Upper stamens shorter than the lower. 

Calyx distinctly 2-lipped, closed in fruit. g. PRUNELLA. 

Calyx s-toothed, not 2-lipped, open in fruit. 

Calyx membranous, inflated in fruit, faintly nerved. 

10. PHYSOSTEGIA. 
Calyx not membranous, not inflated in fruit, strongly 5-10- 

nerved. 

Nutlets 3-sided, truncate above. u. LEONURUS. 

Nutlets ovoid, nearly terete, rounded above. 

12. STACHYS. 
Anther-bearing stamens 2. 

Connective of the anthers very long, articulated to the filaments, 
bearing a perfect anther at the ascending end and a reduced one 
or none at the other; calyx 2-lipped. 13. SALVIA. 

Connective of the anther short ; anther-cells confluent ; calyx equally 

5-toothed. 14. MONARDA. 

Upper lip of the corolla flat. 

Stamens curved, often converging. 

Calyx regularly s-toothed ; anther-bearing stamens 2. 

15. POLIOMINTHA. 

Calyx 2-lipped or irregularly s-toothed. 

Anther-bearing stamens 2. 16. HEDEOMA. 

Anther-bearing stamens 4. 17. CLINOPODIUM. 
Stamens straight, distant and diverging ; calyx almost regularly 5- 

toothed ; anther-bearing stamens 4. 18. MADRONELLA. 
Corolla nearly regular, 4-s-toothed. 

Anther-bearing stamens 2. 19. LYCOPUS. 

Anther-bearing stamens 4. 20. MENTHA. 



i. TEUCRIUM L. GERMANDER. 

i. Teucrium occidentals A. Gray. In thickets and among bushes in rich 
soil from Ont. and B. C. to Pa., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. New 
Windsor, Weld Co.; Canon City; Ft. Collins; Rocky Ford; Boulder. 

2. MELOSMON Raf. 

i. Melosmon laciniatum (Torr.) Small. {Teucrium laciniatum Torr.) 
On plains from Kans. and Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. St. Charles River, 
Pueblo Co.; Walsenburg; Apishapa Creek, Otero Co.; Carton City; Trini- 
dad ; Cedar Hills. 



296 LAMIACEAE. 

3. SCUTELLARIA L. SCULLCAP. 

Perennials with horizontal rootstock. 

Leaf-blades lanceolate or ovate, more or less distinctly toothed, at least the 

lower ones. L 5-. galericulata. 

Leaf-blades entire or nearly so, oval, oblong or linear. 2. S. Brittoni. 

Perennials with a woody caudex. 3. 5 1 . resinosa. 

1. Scutellaria galericulata L. Along streams and in swamps from Newf. 
and Alaska to N. C. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Gunnison ; near Ouray; 
along Poudre; Ft. Collins; Mason's river-front farm; Alamosa; Andrew's 
Shetland ranch; Gunnison; Boulder; Estes Park, Larimer Co.; Ft. Collins. 

2. Scutellaria Brittoni Porter. On hillsides and river valleys from Wyo. 
to Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Eldora to Baltimore; Boulder; Fossil Beds; 
foot-hills near Boulder; Pike's Peak; near Denver; Green Mountain Falls; 
near Pike's Peak; Cucharas River below La Veta; New Windsor, Weld Co.; 
Ft. Collins; Ute Pass; Howe's Gulch; Dillon Canon, Trinidad; Manitou; 
Dixon Canon; Horsetooth Gulch; Spring Canon; Soldier Canon; Cache la 
Poudre; Table Rock. 

Scutellaria Brittoni virgulata (A. Nels.) Rydb. (S. virgulata A. Nels.) 
A luxuriant variety with larger and thinner leaves. Veta Pass; West 
Spanish Peak; Dillon Canon. 

3. Scutellaria resinosa Torr. On plains and hills from Kans. and Colo, 
to Tex. and Ariz. " Plains of Colorado." 

4. MARRUBIUM L. WHITE HOARHOUND. 

i. Marrubium vulgare L. In waste places from Me. and B. C. to N. C. 
and Calif. ; naturalized from Europe. Ft. Collins. 

5. AGASTACHE Clayt. GIANT-HYSSOP. 

Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute. 

Leaves glaucous beneath ; calyx tinged with blue ; stem glabrous. 

i. A. anethiodora. 
Leaves not glaucous beneath ; calyx green, yellowish or rarely pinkish ; stem 

puberulent. 2 . A. pallidiflora. 

Calyx-lobes elongated lanceolate, acuminate, rose-tinged. 3. A. urticifolia. 

1. Agastache anethiodora (Nutt.) Britton. (Lophanthus anisatus Benth.) 
Among bushes from Ont., Mackenzie River, and Alb. to Neb. and Colo. 
Alt. 3700-7000 ft. Rist Canon, Larimer Co.; Dome Rock in Platte Canon; 
mountains, Larimer Co.; Bosworth's Ranch, Stove Prairie. 

2. Agastache pallidiflora (Heller) Rydb. (Brittonastrum pallidiflorum 
Heller; B. Greenci Briquet; A. montana Greene) In the mountains from 
Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Near Pagosa Peak. 

3. Agastache urticifolia (Benth.) Kuntze. (Lophanthus urticifolius Benth.) 
On hillsides and valleys from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 
7000-8500 ft. Four-mile Hill, Routt Co.; Glenwood Springs, Garfield Co.; 
Sierra Madre Range; Hamor's Lake, above Durango; Cerro Summit; Hon- 
nold ; divide road to Steamboat Springs ; Red Mountain road south of Ouray ; 
Ouray; Steamboat Springs; summit of North Park Range, Routt Co. 



LAMIACEAE. 297 

6. NEPETA L. CATNIP, CATMINT. 

i. Nepeta Cataria L. In waste places and around dwellings from N. B. 
and Ore. to Va. and Utah; naturalized from Europe. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. 
Along Uncompahgre River near Ouray; Ft. Collins; Boulder. 

7. GLECOMA L. GROUND IVY. 

i. Glecoma hederacea L. In waste places from Newf. and Minn, to Ga. 
and Colo. ; introduced from Europe. Boulder. 

8. DRACOCEPHALUM L. DRAGON'S-HEAD. 

i. Dracocephalum parviflorum Nutt. On hillsides and in valleys from N. Y. 
and Alaska to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Dry rocks, Cheyenne 
Mountain; mountain sides near Empire; Twin Lakes; Idaho Springs; foot- 
hills, Larimer Co.; Front Range, Larimer Co.; Mancos; Breckenridge ; La 
Veta; Gunnison; Arboles; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Mt. Harvard; Palmer 
Lake; Grand Junction; Beaver Creek; Stove Prairie Hill; Empire; Boulder. 

9. PRUNELLA L. SELF-HEAL, HEAL-ALL. 

i. Prunella vulgaris L. In woods, among bushes and in wet places; 
naturalized from Europe. Alt. 4000-9000 ft. Arboles ; Colorado Springs ; 
Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Ft. Collins ; Mancos ; Palmer Lake ; Sargent ; 
Steamboat Springs ; Boulder. 

10. PHYSOSTEGIA Benth. LION'S-HEART, FALSE DRAGON'S-HEAD. 

i. Physostegia parviflora Nutt. Among bushes from Minn, and B. C. to 
Colo, and Ore. Exact locality not given. 

11. LEONURUS L. MOTHER WORT. 

i. Leonurus Cardiaca L. In waste places from N. S. and Mont, to N. C. 
and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Cucharas Creek near La Veta; Lower Boulder 
Canon, Boulder Co. 

12. STACHYS L. HEDGE NETTLE. 

Leaf-blades oblong-ovate or cordate; corolla 12-15 mm. long; calyx-lobes almost 
equalling the calyx-tube. i. 5". teucrifolia. 

Leaf-blades oblong-lanceolate; corolla 10-12 mm. long; calyx-lobes decidedly 
shorter than the calyx-tube. 2. 5. scopulorum. 

1. Stachys teucrifolia Rydb. In wet meadows in Colo, and Wyo. New 
Windsor, Weld Co. ; Colorado Springs ; McCoy ; Arboles. 

2. Stachys scopulorum Greene. In wet meadows from Minn., Mackenzie 
River, and Alb. to N. M. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; 
Grizzly Creek; Colorado Springs; South Park; Trimble Springs above Du- 
rango ; Steamboat Springs, Routt Co. ; Gunnison ; Marshall Pass ; Parlin, 
Gunnison Co.; along Conejos River north of Antonito; Dillon Canon; 
Campton's ranch ; Longmont ; Ft. Collins ; Table Rock. 



298 LAMIACEAE. 

13. SALVIA L. SAGE. 

Corolla 15-30 mm. long; tube exserted. i. ^. Pitcheri. 

Corolla 8-12 mm. long; tube included in the calyx. 2. S. lanceolata. 

1. Salvia Pitcheri Torr. (S. azurea grandMora Benth.) On prairies from 
Mo. and Neb. to Tex. and Colo. " Eastern Colorado." 

2. Salvia lanceolata Willd. On prairies, plains and hillsides from S. D. 
and Mont, to Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Colorado 
Springs; hills about Box Canon west of Ouray; Cucharas Valley, near La 
Veta ; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins; Ft. Collins; Boulder. 



14. MONARDA L. HORSE-MINT, WILD BERGAMOT. 

Heads solitary at the ends of the stem and branches ; stamens conspicuously ex- 
ceeding the acute upper lip of the corolla. 
Petioles and stem more or less hirsute-villous or lanate, the latter especially 

so under the nodes. 

Leaves hirsute; stem and petioles hirsute-ciliate. i. M. comata. 

Leaves softly pubescent, especially below ; stem, petioles and veins of the 

leaves lanate. 6. M. Ramaleyi. 

Whole plant finely strigose or puberulent. 
Petioles seldom over 5 mm. long. 

Leaf-blades ovate-cordate ; plant pale, more or less cinereous. 

2. M. menthaefolia. 
Leaves lanceolate with rounded or truncate base ; plant green. 

3. M. strict a. 
Petioles 1-3 cm. long. 4. M. mollis. 

Verticillate glomerules several in the upper axils of the leaves ; stamens scarcely 
exceeding the emarginate or cleft upper lip. 5. M. pectinat'a. 

1. Monarda comata Rydb. On hillsides in Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Pike's 
Peak; Wahatoya Creek; Ft. Collins; La Veta. 

2. Monarda menthaefolia Benth. On hillsides and in valleys, especially 
among bushes from 111., Man. and Ida. to Tex. and Colo. Alt. 4000-9000 
ft. West Mancos Canon; Pike's Peak; Hughes' Lake, Ouray; Canon City; 
Redstone ; Rist Canon ; Boulder ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

3. Monarda stricta Wooten. On hillsides from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. 
Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Boulder ; Durango ; Piedra ; Rist Canon ; Redstone. 

4. Monarda mollis L. On prairies and among bushes from S. D. and 
Mont, to Ga. and Tex. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. Boulder; Four-mile Hill, Routt Co. 

5. Monarda pectinata Nutt. (M. citriodora Coulter; M. Nuttallii A. Nels.) 
On plains, especially in sandy soil from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Durango; New Windsor, Weld Co.; Denver; foot-hills, 
Larimer Co. ; Soldier Canon ; Spring Canon ; Platte Canon ; Tobe Miller's 
ranch ; vicinity of Horsetooth Mountain ; Poudre Canon, near Narrows ; 
along Poudre River; Boulder. 

6. Monarda Ramaleyi A. Nels. In sandy soil in Colo. Boulder Creek, 
near Boulder. 

15. POLIOMINTHA A. Gray. 

i. Poliomintha incana A. Gray. Dry places from western Tex. to southern 
Utah and Ariz. San Juan Valley (Brandegcc). 



LAMIACEAE. 299 

1 6. HEDEOMA Pers. PENNYROYAL. 

Calyx-teeth about equal in length ; floral leaves spreading or reflexed, hispid-ciliate. 

1. H. hispid a. 
Calyx-teeth of the lower lip much longer than those of the upper ; floral leaves 

mostly erect, cinereous-hispidulous. 
Floral leaves longer than the subtended calyces; plant 1.5-4 dm. high. 

2. H. sancta. 
Floral leaves scarcely exceeding the subtended calyces; plant 1-1.5 dm. high. 

3. H. nana. 

1. Hedeoma hispida Pursh. In sandy soil from Ills, and Ass. to Ky and 
Colo. Golden. 

2. Hedeoma sancta Small. (H. Drummondii A. Gray, in part; not Benth.) 
On dry plains from Colo, to Tex. and N. Mex. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Durango ; 
Manitou ; Glen Eyrie ; Dolores. 

3. Hedeoma nana (Torr.) Greene. (H. dentata nana Torn; H. Drum- 
mondii A. Gray, in part) On dry plains and hills from Colo, and Utah to 
Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Manitou ; Fossil Creek ; between Hotch- 
kiss and Smith's Fork; Durango. 

17. CLINOPODIUM L. BASIL- WEED. 

i. Clinopodium vulgare L. In thickets from N. S. and Colo, to N. C. and 
N. M. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Sierra Madre ; Steamboat Springs. 

18. MADRONELLA Greene. 

Bracts thin and pale, oval to orbicular. i. M. parvifolia. 

Bracts thick, resembling the leaves, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse. 

2. M. dentata. 

1. Madronella parvifolia (Greene) Rydb. (Monardella parvifolia Greene) 
In canons of Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. Black Canon. 

2. Madronella dentata Rydb. (Monardella dentata Rydb.) On mountains 
of Colo. Gray's Peak. 

19. LYCOPUS L. WATER HOAR-HOUND. 

Stem and lower surface of the leaves densely and finely pubescent, the former 
often velvety. 'i. L. velutinus. 

Stem sparingly and coarsely pubescent or glabrous ; leaves glabrous or nearly so. 
Leaves merely coarsely serrate. 2. L. lucidus. 

Leaves sinuately pinnatind. 3. L. americanus. 

1. Lycopus velutinus Rydb. In wet places among bushes from Ark. and 
Colo, to Tex. Base of the Rocky Mountains. 

2. Lycopus lucidus Turcz. In wet soil, especially in woods and thickets 
from Neb. and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Ft. Collins; 
Mason's river- front farm; Poudre flats. 

3. Lycopus americanus Muhl. (L. sinuatus Ell.) In swamps and wet 
meadows from Newf. and B. C. to Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Tim- 
nath, Larimer Co. ; Cheyenne Mountain ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Table 
Rocks; Redstone; Ft. Collins; Poudre flats; Boulder. 



300 LAMIACEAE. 

20. MENTHA L. MINT. 

Whorls of flowers forming terminal spikes. i. M. spicata. 

Whorls of flowers axillary. 

Leaf-blades thin, dark green, not strongly veined, tapering gradually into slen- 
der petioles, which equal or exceed the flower-clusters. 2. M. borealis. 
Leaf-blades thick, strongly veined, abruptly contracted into short petioles, 
which are much shorter than the flower-clusters. 3. M. Penardi. 

1. Mentha spicata L. (M. viridis L.) Moist fields and waste places, from 
Me. and Minn, to Fla. and Colo. Introduced from Europe. North Denver 
(Eastwood). 

2. Mentha borealis Michx. (M. canadensis glabrata Benth ; not M. glab- 
rata Vahl.) In wet places from N. B. and Mont, to Va. and Utah. Alt. 
6500-7500 ft. Cimarron and Squaw Hill. 

3. Mentha Penardi (Briq.) Rydb. (M. arvensis Penardi Briq.) In wet 
places, especially among bushes, from Neb., Mackenzie River and B. C. to 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Canon City ; along Uncompahgre River, 
near Ouray; Durango; Montrose; Gunnison; Pagosa Springs; Cucharas 
Valley, near La Veta ; Ft. Collins; Kremmling; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; 
Alamosa ; Walsenburg ; Boulder. 

Family 119. SOLANACEAE Pers. NIGHT-SHADE FAMILY. 

Fruit a berry. 

Corolla plicate ; lobes usually induplicate ; all our species herbs. 
Calyx inflated and bladder-like in fruit. 

Corolla open-campanulate, yellow or whitish, often with a dark center ; 

seeds finely pitted; flowers nodding in anthesis. i. PHYSALIS. 

Corolla rotate, violet or purple ; seeds rugose-tuberculate ; flowers erect in 

anthesis. 2. QUINCULA. 

Calyx not inflated and bladder-like in fruit. 
Calyx closely investing the berry. 

Stamens alike, not declined ; low unarmed perennials. 

3. CHAMAESARACHA. 

Stamens dissimilar, declined ; prickly annuals. 4. ANDROCERA. 

Calyx not inclosing the berry. 5. SOLANUM. 

Corolla little if at all plicate ; its lobes valvate ; shrubs. 6. LYCIUM. 
Fruit a capsule. 

Capsule circumscissile near the top, which separates as a lid ; corolla irregular. 

7. HYOSCYAMUS. 
Capsule opening by valves ; corolla regular. 

Capsule prickly ; seeds flat. 8. DATURA. 

Capsule not prickly; seeds scarcely flattened. 9. NICOTIANA. 

i. PHYSALIS L. GROUND-CHERRY, STRAWBERRY TOMATO. 

Annuals with branching roots ; fruiting calyx cordate-ovoid, acuminate, strongly 

5-angled. 

Leaf-blades very oblique, cordate, sinuate-dentate. i. P. pruinosa. 

Leaf-blades orbicular or broadly ovate, sinuately crenate, scarcely cordate and 
scarcely oblique at the base. 2. P. -iieo-mexicana. 

Perennials with horizontal rootstock or rarely with woody caudices. 

Pubescence if any not stellate, although in P. pumila with some branched hairs. 
Leaves and stem glabrous or the veins of the former and the upper part of 

the latter with scattered appressed hairs. 

Leaf-blades ovate, ovate-lanceolate or oval. 3. P. subglabrata. 

Leaf-blades lanceolate, oblanceolate or linear. 4. P. longifolia. 

Leaves and stem more or less pubescent with spreading hairs. 



SOLANACEAE. 301 

Pubescence sparse, consisting of flat, sometimes jointed hairs, scarcely viscid. 
Fruiting calyx ovoid, scarcely angled and scarcely sunken at the base ; 

leaves thick, oblanceolate or spatulate to rhombic, subentire. 
Leaves oblanceolate or spatulate ; hairs all simple. 
Pubescence very short ; leaves narrowly oblanceolate. 

5. P. polyphylla. 

Pubescence long ; leaves spatulate. 6. P. lanceolata, 

Leaves broader, often rhombic ; hairs on the lower surface branched. 

7. P. pumila. 
Fruiting calyx pyramidal-ovoid, obtusely s-angled and deeply sunken at the 

base ; leaves ovate to lanceolate, generally more or less toothed. 

8. P. virginiana. 
Pubescence dense, viscid, partly of fine and short, partly of long flat 

jointed hairs. 
Leaves large ; blades over 5 cm. long, more or less cordate ; long flat 

hairs numerous. 9- P- heterophylla. 

Leaves smaller ; blades less than 5 cm. long ; long flat hairs few, mostly 

confined to the calyx. 
Plant erect or ascending. 

Leaf-blades reniform or rounded cordate, coarsely sinuately toothed. 

10. P. hederaefolia. 

Leaf-blades rounded ovate or rhombic. n. P. comata. 

Plant prostrate, diffuse ; leaf-blades nearly orbicular. 

12. P. rotitndata. 
Pubescence fine, grayish, at least in part stellate. 13. P. Fendleri. 

1. Physalis pruinosa L. In cultivated soil, from Mass, and Iowa to Fla. 
and Mo. ; introduced in Colo. Ft. Collins. 

2. Physalis neo-mexicana Rydb. (P. pubescens Coult. ; not L.) In loose 
soil from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. about 6000 ft. Colorado Springs. 

3. Physalis subglabrata Mack. & Bush. In river valleys and cultivated 
grounds from Ohio and Mont, to Pa. and Colo. Alt. up to 7000 ft. Dome 
Rock in Platte Canon. 

4. Physalis longifolia Nutt. (P. lanceolata lacvigata A. Gray) In river 
valleys and rich soil from Iowa and Mont, to Ark. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. 
Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Gunnison ; Berkeley Lake, Denver ; Pueblo ; Ft. Collins ; 
Boulder. 

5. Physalis polyphylla Greene. On plains of Colorado. Walsenburg; 
Piedra. 

6. Physalis lanceolata Michx. On plains and prairies from Ills, and S. D. 
to S. C. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Ft. Collins ; Colorado 
Springs ; Boulder. 

7. Physalis pumila Nutt. (P. lanceolata hirta A. Gray) Prairies and 
river valleys from Mo. and Colo, to Tex. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. La Veta; Sul- 
phur Spring, Soldier Canon. 

8. Physalis virginiana Mill. (P. lanceolata A. Gray, in part; not Michx.) 
On prairies, in river valleys and cultivated ground from N. Y., Mich, and 
Mont, to Fla. and Tex. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Boulder Canon ; between Sunshine 
and Ward. 

9. Physalis heterophylla Nees. (P. virginiana A. Gray; not Mill.) In culti- 
vated fields and sandy or loose soil from N. B. and Sask. to Fla., Tex. and 
Utah. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Timnath, Larimer Co. ; Red Rock Canon ; New 
Windsor, Weld Co. ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; gulch west of Pennock's ; 
Dixon Canon; Howe's Gulch; Ft. Collins; Boulder; Longmont. 



302 SOLANACEAE. 

10. Physalis hederaefolia A. Gray. On plains and rocky hills from Colo, 
to Tex. and Calif. Exact locality not given. 

11. Physalis comata Rydb. On hillsides from Neb. and Colo, to Tex. 
Alt. 4000-5500 ft. New Windsor, Weld Co. 

12. Physalis rotundata Rydb. On plains from N. D. and Colo, to Tex. 
and N. M. Sandy valleys, Larimer Co. ; along Poudre River. 

13. Physalis Fendleri A. Gray. On rocky hills and plains from Colo, and 
Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. Canon City; near Badito, be- 
tween La Veta and Gardner; Piedra; Durango; Mancos; Walsenburg; 
Dolores. 

2. QUINCULA Raf. PUPLE GROUND-CHERRY. 

i. Quincula lobata (Torr.) Raf. (Physalis lobata Torr.) On plains and 
river bluffs from Kans. and Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 
4000-6000 ft. Rocky Ford ; Cheyenne Canon ; Spring Canon ; Ft. Collins ; 
Dixon Canon ; Boulder ; Longmont. 

3. CHAMAESARACHA A. Gray. 

Pubescence dense, hirsute as well as puberulent. i. C. conioides. 

Pubescence sparse, puberulent or stellate, hirsute if at all only on the calyx. 

2. C. Coronopus. 

1. Chamaesaracha conioides (Moric.) Britton. (C. sordida A. Gray) In 
clayey soil from Kans. and Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. 
up to 5000 ft. Lamar; Pubelo. 

2. Chamaesaracha Coronopus (Dunal) A. Gray. On clayey soil from Kans. 
and Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Canon City ; McElmo Canon ; 
mesas near Pueblo; Walsenburg; Trinidad. 

4. ANDROCERA Nutt. 

i. Androcera rostrata (Dunal) Rydb. (Solatium rostratum Dunal; Andro- 
cera lobata Nutt.) On plains and in river valleys from N. D. and Wyo. to 
Tex. and N. M. ; also in Mex. ; introduced eastward to N. H. and Fla. Alt. 
4000-6000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Golden ; New Windsor, Weld Co. ; Ft. 
Collins; Denver; foot-hills west of Ft. Collins; Boulder. 

5. SOLANUM L. NIGHTSHADE, POTATO. 
Annuals. 

Leaves pinnatifid. i. 5". trifiornm. 

Leaves sinuately dentate or entire. 

Plant strigose or glabrous ; berry black. 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so ; calyx-lobes obtuse. 2. S. tiigrum. 

Leaves decidedly strigose beneath ; calyx-lobes abruptly acutish. 
Corolla-lobes 3-4 mm. long. 3. S. interior. 

Corolla-lobes 6-8 mm. long. 4. S. Douglasii. 

Plant more or less viscid-villous ; fruit greenish or yellowish. 

5. S. villosnm. 
Perennials. 

Plant green, glabrous or pubescent, but not stellate, never prickly ; perennial 

with tubers. 6. 5". Jamesii. 

Plant silvery-white with stellate hairs; stem often prickly. 7. S. claeagnifolium. 



SOLANACEAE. 303 

1. Solanura triflorum Nutt. On prairies and waste places, and especially 
in " prairie-dog towns " from Ont. and Alb. to Kans. and Ariz. Alt. 4000- 
10,000 ft. Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Colorado Springs ; Durango ; 
Ft. Collins; Walsenburg; Ouray; Mountain View; along Uncompahgre 
River, near Ouray; Rocky Ford; Boulder. 

2. Solanum nigrum L. In waste placeSj from N. S. and Wash, to Fla. 
and Tex. ; introduced from Europe. College lawn, Ft. Collins. 

3. Solanum interior Rydb. In river valleys among bushes from Neb. and 
Colo, to Tex. and Calif. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Canon City; Timnath, Larimer 
Co.; along the Platte River, Denver; Bent's Fort. 

4. Solanum Douglasii Dunal. In valleys of Calif., Ariz, and northwestern 
Mex. A specimen collected by Fremont is labelled : " Probably from the 
sources of the Platte, near the mountains." This is probably an error and 
very likely the specimen came from California. 

5. Solanum villosum (Mill.) Lam. (S. nigrum villosum Mill.) In sandy 
soil from Wyo. and B. C. to Colo, and L. Calif. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Boulder. 

6. Solanum Jamesii Torn In the mountains from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. La Veta; Trinidad; Ft. Collins. 

7. Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. On plains from Mo. and Colo, to Tex. 
and Calif. ; also in Mex. Pueblo ; Brantly Canon, Los Animas Co. 

6. LYCIUM L. MATRIMONY VINE. 

i. Lycium pallidum Miers. On arid hills from Colo, and Utah to N. M. and 
Ariz.; also in Mex. McElmo Creek; San Juan Valley. 

7. HYOSCYAMUS L. BLACK HENBANE, HOG'S-BEAN. 

i. Hyoscyamus niger L. In waste places from N. S., Mich, and Mont, to 
N. Y. and Colo.; introduced and naturalized from Europe. Alt. up to 8000 
ft. Along Uncompahgre River, near Ouray. 

8. DATURA L. THORN-APPLE, JIMSON-WEED. 

Corolla 1.5-2 dm. long; capsule more or less fleshy, bursting irregularly. 

i. D. meteloides. 

Corolla about i dm. long ; capsule dry ; 4-valved. 
Capsule erect ; plant glabrous. 

Corolla white; lower prickles of the capsule shorter. 2. D. Stramonium. 

Corolla violet ; prickles all alike. 3. D. Tatula. 

Capsule nodding ; plant more or less cinerous. 4. D. discolor. 

1. Datura meteloides DC. Along streams from Colo, to N. M. and Calif.; 
also in Mex. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. McElmo Canon ; Montezuma Co. ; Hoven- 
weep Canon ; Grand Canon. 

2. Datura Stramonium L. In waste places from N. S. and Minn, to Fla., 
Tex. and Colo.; naturalized from Asia. Boulder Canon; Denver; Cherry 
Creek ; Golden. 

3. Datura Tatula L. In waste places from Ont. and Minn, to Fla., Tex. 
and Colo.; naturalized from tropical America. Ft. Collins. 

4. Datura discolor Benth. In river valleys from Colo, to Ariz, and Calif.; 
also in Mex. Colorado, according to Gray, no specimens seen. 



304 SOLANACEAE. 

9. NICOTIANA L. TOBACCO. 

Leaves clasping at the base; flowers diurnal. i. N. trigonophyUa. 

Leaves petioled, not clasping at the base ; flowers nocturnal. 2. N. attenitata. 

1. Nicotiana trigonophyUa Dunal. In dry grounds from Colo, and Utah 
to Tex. and Calif.; also in Mex. "Southern Colorado" {Parry). 

2. Nicotiana attenuata Torr. In dry or sandy ground from Mont, and 
B. C. to N. M. and Calif. Alt. 6000-7000 ft. Gypsum, Eagle Co.; Black 
Canon; Salida; Glen wood Springs, Garfield Co.; Montrose; McElmo Canon; 
Hotchkiss; Rustic; mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 



Family 120. RHINANTHACEAE St. Hil. FIGWORT FAMILY. 

Anther-bearing stamens 5. 

Corolla rotate. i. VERBASCUM. 

Corolla funnelform, 2-lipped. (Occasional forms of) 5. PENTSTEMON. 

Anther-bearing stamens 4 or 2. 

Corolla spurred or saccate at the base on the lower side. 2. LINARIA. 
Corolla neither spurred nor saccate on the lower side. 

Stamens 5, 4 anther-bearing, the fifth sterile and often rudimentary. 

Sterile stamen rudimentary, represented by a scale or gland on the upper 

inside of the corolla-tube or throat ; corolla short. 
Corolla gibbous at the base on the upper side ; ovules and seeds few or 

solitary; annuals. 3. COLLINSIA. 

Corolla not gibbous at the base, but more or less ventricose especially 
on the lower side ; ovules and seeds numerous ; perennials. 

4. SCROPHULARIA. 

Sterile stamen elongated, filiform to spatulate ; corolla-tube elongated, 

tubular or funnelform. 

Inflorescence thyrsoid-paniculate ; seeds not with an ariliform, cellular- 
reticulate outer coat ; corolla not gibbous at the base above ; calyx 
deeply cleft. 5. PENTSTEMON. 

Inflorescence racemose or spiciform ; seeds with an ariliform, cellular- 
reticulate outer coat, calyx obtusely s-lobed. 6. CHIONOPHILA. 
Stamens 4 or 2. 

Upper lip or lobes of the corolla external in the bud. 
Anther-bearing stamens 4. 

Corolla more or less bilabiate ; sepals united into an angled tube ; 

plants leafy-stemmed. 7. MIMULUS. 

Corolla nearly regular ; flowers solitary on scape-like peduncles from 

the basal rosette of leaves ; plant acaulescent. 8. LIMOSELLA. 
Anther-bearing stamens 2 ; calyx of 5, almost distinct sepals ; sterile 

filaments short or wanting. 9. GRATIOI.A. 

Lower lip or lobes of the corolla external in the bud. 
Stamens 2. 

Corolla almost regularly 4-lobed. 10. VERONICA. 

Corolla none or 2-lipped, cleft to near the base ; upper lip entire ; 

lower irregularly cleft or toothed. n. BESSEYA. 

Stamens 4. 

Corolla slightly 2-lipped ; stamens not ascending under the upper lip. 

12. GERARDIA. 

Corolla distinctly 2-lipped ; stamens ascending under the upper lip. 
Anther-sacs dissimilar ; the inner one pendulous by its apex ; leaves 

mostly alternate. 

Calyx gamosepalous, i. e., all the sepals united below into a tube. 
Calyx deeply cleft in front and behind, less deeply so (some- 
times not at all) on the sides ; upper lip of the corolla much 
longer than the 3-lobed lower one. 13. CASTILLEJA. 



RHINANTHACEAE. 305 

Calyx almost equally 4-cleft ; upper lip of the corolla slightly 
if at all longer than the 1-3 saccate lower one which is 
minutely or obsoletely toothed. 14. ORTHOCARPUS. 

Calyx 2-phyllous, i. e., cleft to the base on the sides, or, by 

absence of the lower part, i-phyllous. 15. ADENOSTEGIA. 

Anther-cells alike, parallel ; leaves mostly opposite. 

Calyx split below, or below and above, not inflated ; capsule ovoid 

or oblong, oblique. 

Galea prolonged into a filiform recurved beak ; throat with a 

tooth on each side. 16. ELEPHANTELLA. 

Galea not prolonged into a beak or this not filiform, straight 

or incurved; throat without teeth. 17. PEDICULARIS. 

Calyx 4-toothed, inflated and veiny in fruit ; capsule orbicular. 

18. RHINANTHUS. 

i. VERBASCUM L. MULLEN. 

Plant densely woolly; flowers in dense spikes. i. V. Thapsus. 

Plant glabrous or sparingly glandular ; flowers racemose. z. V. Blattaria. 

1. Verbascum Thapsus L. In waste places and cultivated ground from 
N. S. and B. C. to Fla. and Calif.; naturalized from Europe. Alt. 5000-6000 
ft. Boulder; 12 miles above mouth of Leroux Creek. 

2. Verbascum Blattaria L. In waste places from Que. and B. C. to Fla. 
and Calif.; naturalized from Europe. Boulder. 

2. LINARIA Mill. BUTTER-AND-EGGS, TOAD-FLAX. 

Corolla blue or white, 12 mm. long or less. i. L. canadensis. 

Corolla yellow, 2-3 cm. long. 2. L. Linaria. 

1. Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. In dry soil from N. S. and Wash, to 
Fla. and Calif. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Boulder; Table Rock; Loveland; Spring 
Canon. 

2. Linaria Linaria (L.) Karst. (L. vulgaris Mill.) In waste places and 
fields from Newf. and Man. to Va. and Colo. ; naturalized from Europe. 
Gimnison ; North Platte. 

3. COLLINSIA Nutt. BLUE-EYED-MARY. 

i. Collinsia parviflora Dougl. On shaded hillsides from Ont. and B. C. to 
Ariz, and Calif. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Foothills, Larimer Co.; Veta Mountain; 
west of Ft. Collins ; near Golden ; Chicken Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; 
Ward; Cimarron; North Boulder Peak; Palmer Lake; Rist Canon; vicinity 
of Horsetooth; Beaver Creek; Trail Creek; Horsetooth Gulch; hills west of 
Soldier Canon ; Boulder. 

4. SCROPHULARIA L. FIG-\VORT, HEAL-ALL. 

i. Scrophularia occidentalis (Rydb.) Bickn. In woods and among bushes 
from N. D. and Wash, to Ind. Terr, and Calif. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. George- 
town ; South Cheyenne Canon ; Turkey Creek and tributaries ; near Parrott, 
La Plata Mountains ; Cache la Poudre ; Baxter's ranch ; Moon's ranch ; 
Horsetooth Gulch ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; Rist Canon ; gulch west of 
Soldier Canon; Trail Creek; Boulder. 
20 



306 RHINANTHACEAE. 

5. PENTSTEMON Soland. BEARD-TONGUE. 

Corolla blue, purple, white or yellowish, more or less funnelform or salverform. 
Anthers bearded. I. GLABRI. 

Anther glabrous or merely hirtello-ciliate along the line of dehiscence. 
Plant not suffruticose at the base. 
Leaves not linear-filiform. 

Corolla decidedly funnelform, i. e., throat much wider than the tube. 
Sterile stamen glabrous ; plant tall, perfectly glabrous. 

I. GLABRI. 
Sterile stamen bearded. 

Plant perfectly glabrous, or slightly puberulent above. 

Corolla strongly ventricose-gibbous ; tube proper very short. 
Corolla over 3 cm. long ; stem-leaves clasping ; plant tall. 

II. GRANDIFLORI. 
Corolla about 2 cm. long ; leaves linear or oblanceolate, not 

clasping; plant low. III. HALLIANI. 

Corolla not ventricose-gibbous ; tube gradually dilated into a 

funnelform throat. IV. ACUMINATI. 

Plant glandular at least on the inflorescence. 

Stem glabrous below. V. GLAUCI. 

Stem glandular or puberulent. VI. CRISTATI. 

Corolla-tube almost cylindrical or slightly widening upwards ; corolla 

less than 2 cm. long. 
Stems several from a branching rootstock, low and weak. 

VII. HARBOURIANI. 
Stems solitary or a few from a taproot or short caudex. 

VIII. CONFERTI. 
Leaves linear-filiform. 

Corolla-limb not strongly oblique : sterile stamen bearded. 

IX. LARICIFOLII. 
Corolla-limb strongly oblique ; sterile stamen glabrous. 

X. AMBIGUI. 

Plant suffruticose at the base. XI. CAESPITOSI. 

Corolla red, almost tubular. 

Anthers opening for nearly their whole length. XII. BARBATI. 

Anthers opening only on their proximal part. XIII. BRIDGESIANI. 

I. GLABRI. 

Anthers bearded with long villous hairs. 
Leaves and stem glabrous. 

Calyx-lobes acute or obtuse. i. P. strict us. 

Calyx-lobes long-acuminate. 2. P. strictiformis. 

Leaves and lower part of the stem densely and minutely puberulent. 

3. P. comarrhenus. 

Anthers glabrous or sparingly short-hirsute. 
Anthers sparingly bearded. 

Stem-leaves all narrowly lanceolate. 

Calyx-lobes with narrow scarious margins, not auricled. 

Corolla about 1.5 cm. long; plant puberulent. 4. P. Fremontii. 

Corolla about 2 cm. long; plant glabrous. 5. P. utahensis. 

Calyx-lobes with very broad scarious margins, forming erose auricles. 
Stem and leaves glabrous. 6. P. oreophilus. 

Stem and leaves more or less puberulent. 7- P- alpinus. 

Upper stem-leaves broadly ovate or cordate. 8. P. Brandegel. 

Anthers and sterile filaments glabrous. 9. P. unilateralis. 

II. GRANDIFLORI. 
One species. 10. P. grandiflonis. 

III. HALLIANI. 
One species. n. P. Hallii. 



RHINANTHACEAE. 307 

IV. ACUMINATI. 

Inflorescence interrupted ; bracts except the lowermost shorter than the flowers ; 

basal leaves spatulate or oblanceolate. 

Bracts ovate to almost orbicular. 12. P. cyathophonis. 

Bracts lanceolate to linear-lanceolate. 

Calyx-lobes broadly obovate, scarious, erose, abruptly contracted into a 

very short acumination. 13. P. Watsonii. 

Calyx-lobes ovate or lanceolate, acute or gradually acuminate. 

Calyx-lobes lanceolate; plant 3-4 dm. high. 14. P. secu-ndiflorus. 

Calyx-lobes ovate; plant 2 dm. high or less. 15. P. Fendleri. 

Inflorescence dense ; bracts large, long-acuminate, most of them exceeding the 
flowers ; basal leaves linear or nearly so, narrower than the stem-leaves. 

1 6. P. angustifolius. 
V. GLAUCI. 

One species. 17. P. glaucus. 

VI. CRISTATI. 

Corolla-tube decidedly gibbous-ventricose ; sterile stamen densely yellow-villous ; 

corolla purplish. 
Basal leaf-blades obovate or spatulate or ovate, broader than the cauline leaves ; 

corolla about 1.5 cm. long. 18. P. Moffattii. 

Basal leaf-blades linear to linear-oblanceolate, usually narrower than the upper 

cauline leaves; corolla 2-3 cm. long. 19. P. Jamesii. 

Corolla-tube funnelform, scarcely gibbous ; sterile stamen sparingly yellow-villous ; 
corolla white. 20. P. albidus. 

VII. HARBOURIANI. 

One species. 21. P. Harbourii. 

VIII. CONFERTI. 

Leaves more or less dentate. 

Calyx-lobes elongated-lanceolate, not scarious ; flowers ascending ; stem-leaves 

linear-lanceolate or linear. 22. P. gracilis. 

Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, scarious-margined below and usually toothed ; 

stem-leaves oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate. 23. P. hum His. 

Leaves entire. 

Calyx glabrous or puberulent, but not at all glandular ; its lobes with very 

broad, erose, scarious margins and abrupt acumination. 
Corolla over i cm. long ; upper stem-leaves broadly lanceolate, often rounded 

at the base ; plant 3 dm. high or more. 24. P. Rydbergii. 

Corolla less than i cm. long ; upper stem-leaves linear-lanceolate ; plant 

seldom over 3 dm. high. 25. P. procerus. 

Calyx and inflorescence more or less glandular. 

Plant glabrous or nearly so. 22. P. gracilis. 

Plant decidedly puberulent. 26. P. radicosus. 

IX. LARICIFOLII. 
One species. 27. P. laricifolius. 

X. AMBIGUI. 
One species. 28. P. ambignus. 

XL CAESPITOSI. 

Leaf-blades obovate, spatulate or broadly oblanceolate. 

Leaves green and glabrous or slightly puberulent ; calyx-lobes oblong-lanceolate. 

29. P. suffrutescciis. 
Leaves densely grayish or whitish puberulent ; calyx-lobes lanceolate. 

30. P. caespitosus. 
Leaf-blades narrowly oblanceolate to linear or filiform. 

Calyx-lobes scarcely scarious-margined, entire ; inflorescence few-flowered ; 
floral leaves like the rest. 

Leaves green and glabrate. 31. P. .ryliis. 

Leaves densely canescent-puberulent. 32. P. teucrioides. 

Calyx-lobes scarious-margined, dentate or erose ; inflorescence many-flowered, 

racemiform ; floral leaves reduced. 33. P. linarioides. 



308 RHINANTHACEAE. 

XII. BARBATI. 

Lower lip bearded within. 34- P- barbatus. 
Lower lip glabrous within. 

Anthers glabrous ; leaves usually glabrous. 35. P. Torreyi. 

Anthers long-bearded ; leaves puberulent. 36. P. trichander. 

XIII. BRIDGESIANI. 
One species. 37- P- Bridgesii. 

1. Pentstemon strictus Benth. On hills from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah- 
Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Cimarron ; Chicken Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; Elk 
River, Routt Co. ; Cerro Summit ; La Plata River ; Pearl ; Hotchkiss ; between 
Porter and Durango; North Park; Walton; Steamboat Springs; Walden. 

2. Pentstemon strictiformis Rydb. On hills and plains of Colo. Alt. 
7500-9000 ft. Mesa Verde; hills about Box Canon, west of Ouray; Arboles ; 
Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch; Mancos; Sangre de Christo 
Creek; Antonito; Redcliffe. 

3. Pentstemon comarrhenus A. Gray. On dry hills in Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Mancos ; Cedar Edge ; Piedra. 

4. Pentstemon Fremontii T. & G. On dry hills from Wyo. to Colo, and 
Utah. Meeker, Rio Blanco County. 

5. Pentstemon utahensis (S. Wats.) A. Nels. (P. glaber Utahensis S. 
Wats.) In the mountains from Wyo and Ida. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. up 
to 10,000 ft. Hahn's Peak; Marshall Pass; Hotchkiss; Horsetooth Gulch; 
Leroux Creek; Anita Peak. 

6. Pentstemon oreophilus Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000- 
10,000 ft. Mountain sides near Empire; Bald Mountain; Halfway House; 
Larimer Co.; Manitou ; South Cheyenne Canon; Eldora to Baltimore; Bos- 
worth's ranch; Horsetooth Mountain; Stove Prairie. 

7. Pentstemon alpinus Torr. (P. glaber alpinus A. Gray; P. riparius A. 
Nels.) In the mountains of Colo, and Wyo., especially along streams. Alt. 
6000-10,000 ft. Flagstaff Hill; mountain sides near Empire; Bosworth's 
ranch; Stove Prairie; Horsetooth Mountain; Ward; Empire. 

8. Pentstemon Brandegei Porter. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo. 
Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Dry rocks, Cheyenne Mountain ; Colorado Springs ; 
Pueblo; Pike's Peak. 

9. Pentstemon unilateralis Rydb. (P. secundiHonts A. Gray; not Benth.) 
In the mountains from Wyo. to N. M. Alt. 5500-10,000 ft. Near Empire; 
Georgetown; Douglass Co.; Sangre de Cristo Creek; Gunnison ; Central 
City; Manitou; Ft. Collins; Golden; Idaho Springs; Como, South Park; 
Mt. Harvard; Colorado Springs; Leroux Creek; gulch west of Pennock's; 
Hayden's ranch ; Clear Creek ; Spring Canon ; Poudre River ; La Porte ; 
Empire; Eldora to Baltimore; Boulder. 

10. Pentstemon grandiflorus Nutt. On prairies and plains from Ills., Wise, 
and Ore. to Ind. Terr, and Utah. Gray's Peak. 

11. Pentstemon Hallii A. Gray. On the higher mountains of Colo. Alt. 
10,000-14,000 ft. Pike's Peak; Seven Lakes; Dead Lake; Mount Garfield; 
mountains above Como; Argentine Pass; Gray's Peak; above Boreas. 

12. Pentstemon cyathophorus Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 
about 8500 ft. Pearl ; Grizzly Creek ; North Park. 



RHINANTHACEAE. 309 

13. Pentstemon Watsonii A. Gray. In the mountains from Colo, to Nev. 
and Ariz. Glenwood Springs. 

14. Pentstemon secundiflorus Benth. (P. acuminatus A. Gray, mainly; not 
Dougl.) On dry plains and hills from Wyo. to N. Mex. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. 
Near Empire; Manitou; Colorado Springs; Ft. Collins; foothills, Larimer 
Co. ; Denver ; South Park ; Crystal Park ; North Park, near Teller ; north 
of La Porte; Horsetooth Gulch; Wray; Platte Canon; Dixon Canon; Trail 
Creek ; Camp Creek. 

15. Pentstemon Fendleri A. Gray. On high plains of Colo, and to N. M. 
and Calif. Arboles ; Salida. 

16. Pentstemon angustifolius Pursh. (P. coeruleus Nutt.) On plains 
from S. D. and Mont, to Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Ft. Collins ; New Wind- 
sor; Redcliffe; Colorado Springs. 

Pentstemon angustifolius caudatus (Heller) Rydb. (P. caudatus Heller) 
A taller variety with broader leaves from Colo, and N. Mex. Livermore; 
Cucharas River, below La Veta; Ojo; butte, 5 miles southwest of La Veta ; 
Walsenburg; river-bluffs north of La Veta; mesas near Pueblo; Colorado 
College. 

17. Pentstemon glaucus Graham. In the mountains from Wyo. and Utah 
to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Half- 
moon Creek ; Dark Caiion, Pike's Peak ; Chambers' Lake ; mountains south 
of Ward, Boulder Co. ; Berthoud Pass, near Georgetown ; Pike's Peak ; Sil- 
ver Plume; Cameron Pass; near Graymont; near Pagosa Peak; Salida; 
Gore Pass; Anita Peak; Hahn's Peak; Red Mountain road, south of Ouray; 
near La Plata ; Palsgrove Canon ; Marshall Pass ; Argentine Pass ; near 
Seven Lakes, Pike's Peak ; Villa Grove ; Silverton ; Robinson ; Alpine Tun- 
nel ; Gray's Peak ; Little Kate Mine, La Plata Mountains ; Steamboat Springs. 

Pentstemon glaucus stenosepalus A. Gray. A variety with long-attenuate 
calyx-lobes. Graymont ; Ragged Mountain ; Michigan Hill ; Boreas ; Beaver 
Creek; Gore Pass; Four-mile Hill, Routt Co.; Seven Lakes, Pike's Peak; 
Eldora to Baltimore; Chambers' Lake; Spicer. 

18. Pentstemon Moffattii Eastw. On dry table-lands of western Colo. 
Mancos. 

19. Pentstemon Jamesii Torr. On plains and dry valleys in Colo, and S. D. 
Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; Swallows, between 
Pueblo and Caiion City; mesas near Pueblo; near Badito; Sangre de Cristo 
Creek ; Walsenburg ; Rocky Ford. 

20. Pentstemon albidus Nutt. On prairies and plains from Ass. and Ida. 
to Kans. and Colo. Near Denver; Eads; Sterling; Grand Junction. 

21. Pentstemon Harbourii A. Gray. On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt. 
9000-13,000 ft. Rock-slide at the foot of Mt. McClellan; Kelso Valley; Little 
Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains ; West Spanish Peak ; mountains above 
Ouray; Mt. Richtofen. 

22. Pentstemon gracilis Nutt. On plains and prairies from Man. and Sask. 
to Tex. and Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Divide west of salt-works, South 
Park; north of Cheyenne Canon; Wahatoya Creek; Brantly Canon; Table 
Rock; Dillon Canon, Trinidad; Palmer Lake. 

23. Pentstemon humilis Nutt. On plains and hills from Mont, and Alb. to 
Colo, and Nev. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. South Park; near Denver; headwaters 



310 RHINANTHACEAE, 

of Clear Creek ; Crystal Park ; Cheyenne Mountain ; North Cheyenne Canon ; 
Turkey Creek and tributaries ; Wahatoya Canon ; near Georgetown ; foot- 
hills west of Ft. Collins ; foot-hills below Colorado Springs ; Dale Creek, 
Larimer Co. ; Dixon Caiion ; Rist Canon ; gulch west of Pennock's ; gulch 
south of Boreas ; Horsetooth Gulch ; gulch south of Boulder ; Platte Canon ; 
Empire; Eldora to Baltimore; Camp Creek. 

24. Pentstemon Rydbergii A. Nels. (P. erosus Rydb.) In the moun- 
tains from Wyo. and Wash, to Colo. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Steamboat 
Springs ; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. ; South Park ; Sargent's ; Gunnison ; 
Marshall Pass ; Chicken Creek, West La Plata Mountains ; Pitkin ; Colum- 
bine; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Robinson; Sheephorn Divide, Middle Park; 
Rabbit-Ears Pass ; Salida ; Walton Creek ; Como ; Mt. Richtofen on the 
Michigan ; Big South ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

25. Pentstemon procerus Dougl. On hills and mountains from Sask. and 
B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; 
Bard Creek Valley, near Empire ; Chambers' Lake ; North Park ; Mt. Har- 
vard ; Twin Lakes ; Como ; between Como and Boreas ; Walden. 

26. Pentstemon radicosus A. Nels. On plains from Ida. and Mont, to Colo. 
Pinkham Creek. 

27. Pentstemon laricifolius H. & A. On dry hills from Wyo. and Ore. to 
Colo. Medicine Bow Mountains, Larimer Co. 

28. Pentstemon ambiguus Torr. On plains from Colo, and Utah to Tex. 
and Ariz.; also in Mex. Rocky Ford; Sterling. 

29. Pentstemon suffrutescens Rydb. (P. cacspitosus suffruticosus A. Gray; 
P. procumbens Greene) On dry hills and mountains of Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Keblar Pass; Ridgway. 

30. Pentstemon caespitosus Nutt. On dry hills from Wyo., Utah and Colo. 
McCoy's, Eagle Co. ; north of Craig. 

31. Pentstemon xylus A. Nelson. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 6500- 
10,000 ft. Cimarron; South Cottonwood Gulch, Chaff ee Co.; Como; Man- 
cos; Gunnison. 

32. Pentstemon teucrioides Greene. On dry hills in Colo. Alt. about 7250 
ft. Sapinero. 

33. Pentstemon linarioides A. Gray. (P. Coloradoensis A. Nels.) On dry 
hills and plains from Colo, and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. ; also in Mex.- 
Alt. 6500-7500 ft. Dolores; Mancos Canon; Durango. 

34. Pentstemon barbatus Nutt. In the mountains from Colo, to Ariz. ; also 
in Mex. " Mountains of Colorado." 

35. Pentstemon Torreyi Benth. (P. barbatus Torreyi A. Gray) On hill- 
sides in the mountains from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz.; also in Mex. Alt. 
7000-10,000 ft. Lake City; Artist's Glen; Placer; mesas near Buena Vista; 
Sangre de Cristo Creek; Salida; North Cheyenne Canon; Black Canon; 
Dillon Canon. 

36. Pentstemon trichander (A. Gray) Rydb. (P. barbatus trichander A. 
Gray) In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Mesa Verde ; Piedra ; 
Buena Vista ; Durango. 

37. Pentstemon Bridgesii A. Gray. Rocky banks from Colo, to Ariz, and 
Calif. Alt. 6000-8000 ft El Late (Brandegcc). 



RHINANTHACEAE. 

6. CHIONOPHILA Benth. 

i. Chionophila Jamesii Benth. In the higher mountains of Colo, and 
Southern Wyo Alt. 11,000-14,000 ft. Mt. Hayden; near Pagosa Peak; 
Pike's Peak; Gray's Peak; mountains above Boreas; Massif de 1'Arapahoe; 
Douglass Mountain, Georgetown ; Beaver Creek ; Mt. Bartlett ; Mt. Robinson ; 
Red Mountain; Ethel Peak. 

7. MIMULUS L. MONKEY-FLOWER. 

Calyx oblique, decidedly inflated in fruit ; upper tooth much larger than the 

rest ; corolla yellow. 
Calyx-teeth acute ; stem neither rooting at the nodes nor floating. 

Perennials, usually tall and erect, 3-6 dm. high ; corolla 2-3 cm. long ; 

calyx-teeth not much unequal. 

Leaves glabrous; stem pubescent only above. i. M. Langsdorfii. 

Leaves and stem pubescent throughout. 2. M. puberulus. 

Annuals, slender or low ; corolla 2 cm. or less long ; upper calyx-tooth much 

elongated. 
Corolla 1.5-2 cm. long, at least twice as long as the calyx. 

3. M. nasutus. 

Corolla 5-8 mm. long, about half longer than the calyx. 4. M. Hallii. 
Calyx-teeth obtuse ; stem decumbent or floating, rooting at the nodes. 

5. M. Geyeri. 
Calyx neither oblique nor inflated ; its lobes nearly equal. 

Perennials; flowers 1-4 cm. long; sepals linear-lanceolate. 

Tall, with erect stem, 3-10 dm. high; corolla crimson or rose. 

6. M. Lewisii. 
Low or slender, weak ; corolla yellow. 7- M. moschatus. 

Annuals; flowers 0.5-1 cm. long; sepals ovate, triangular or broadly lanceolate. 
Leaves petioled ; blades cordate to ovate-lanceolate. 8. M. floribundus. 

Leaves sessile, oblong, lanceolate or linear. 9. M. gratioloides. 

1. Mimulus Langsdorfii Sims. (M. luteus A. Gray; not L. ; M. minor A. 
Nels.) In swamps and along streams, especially in muddy places, from Ass. 
and Alaska to N. M. and Calif.; also in Mex. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Hahn's 
Peak; Chambers' Lake; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron; Grayback min- 
ing camps and Placer Gulch ; Manitou ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo 
Creek ; Ouray ; Twin Lakes ; bank of Michigan ; Cameron Pass ; Twin Lakes ; 
Four-mile Hill ; Gypsum Creek Canon ; Berthoud Pass ; Empire ; between 
Sunshine and Ward; Gray's Peak; Veta Pass; Silver Plume. 

2. Mimulus puberulus Greene. In wet places in the mountains of Colo. 
Alt. 7500-10,000 ft. Four miles west of Cameron Pass ; Villa Grove, Steele 
Canon; Breckenridge; Dix; Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains; Red 
Mountain ; Pagosa Springs ; west of Ouray. 

3. Mimulus nasutus Greene. In wet places in the mountains from Ida. 
and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 9000-10,000 ft. Rico; Ouray; Horsetooth 
Gulch; Pennock's. 

4. Mimulus Hallii Greene. In wet places in the mountains of Colo. Alt. 
up to 8500 ft. Georgetown ; Piedra ; Horsetooth Gulch ; gulch west of Pen- 
nock's. 

5. Mimulus Geyeri Torn (M. Jamesii T. & G.) In water from Mich, 
and N. D. to Ills, and Colo. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Boulder ; Colorado Springs ; 
Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; Montrose ; Spring Canon ; New Windsor. 

6. Mimulus Lewisii Pursh. Along streams from Minn., Mont, and B. C. 
to Colo., Ariz, and Calif. North Park. 



312 RHINANTHACEAE. 

7. Mimulus moschatus Dougl. In wet places from Ont. and B. C. to Colo, 
and Calif. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Continental Divide, Routt Co. ; Steamboat 
Springs. 

8. Mimulus floribundus Dougl. In wet places, especially in sandy soil, from 
Mont, and B. C. to Ariz, and Calif. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Boulder; Lower 
Boulder Canon ; Cimarron ; Black Canon ; Golden ; mountains, Larimer Co. ; 
Ft. Collins ; west of Soldier Canon ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Cache la Poudre ; 
mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

9. Mimulus gratioloides Rydb. On hillsides in southern Colo. Alt. 7000- 
8000 ft. Butte, 5 miles southwest of La Veta; Crystal Creek. 

8. LIMOSELLA L. MUDWORT. 

i. Limosella aquatica L. In shallow water and mud from Lab. and B. C. 
to Colo, and Calif. ; also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Ft. Col- 
lins; Denver; North Platte, below Hebron; Parlin ; Estes Park. 

9. GRATIOLA L. HEDGE HYSSOP. 

i. Gratiola virginiana L. In \vet places, especially around springs, from 
Que. and B. C. to Fla. and Calif. Alt. 5000 ft. Garland ; Boulder; Ft. Col- 
lins ; Alamosa. 

10. VERONICA L. SPEEDWELL, BROOKLIME. 

Flowers in axillary racemes. 

Leaves all short-petioled ; leaf-blades ovate, oblong or oval. 

1. V. americana. 
Leaves of the flowering shoots at least sessile, lanceolate to linear. 

2. V. Anagallis. 
Blowers in terminal spikes or racemes, or solitary in the axils of the leaves. 

Perennials ; flowers in terminal spikes or racemes ; bracts reduced and unlike 

the leaves. 
All leaves sessile, ovate or ovate-oblong ; capsules obovate or oval, merely 

emarginate. 3. V. Wormskjoldii. 

Lower leaves petioled ; blades rounded-oval or the upper oblong ; capsule 

obcordate. 4. V. serpyllifolia. 

\nnuals ; flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves, i. e., bracts resembling 

the other leaves and only slightly reduced. 

Peduncles shorter than the oblong to linear stem-leaves. 5. V. xalapensis. 
Peduncles longer than the ovate stem-leaves. 6. V. Buxbaumii, 

1. Veronica americana Schwein. In water from Anticosti and Alaska to 
Pa., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of Sangre de Cristo 
Creek; headwaters of Pass Creek; Mancos ; Ft. Collins; Green Mountain 
Falls ; Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron ; La Veta ; Red Mountain ; Horse- 
tooth Gulch ; Twin Lakes ; Trail Creek ; Poudre Canon ; Gore Pass ; gulch 
west of Pennock's ; Howe's Gulch ; Boulder. 

Veronica americana crassula Rydb. (V . crenatifolia Greene) A low va- 
riety with fleshy entire leaves. From S. D. and Mont, to Colo, and Utah. 
Red Mountain. 

2. Veronica Anagallis L. In water from N. S. and B. C. to N. C. and 
Ariz. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Wahatoya Creek; Ft. Collins. 

3. Veronica Wormskjoldii R. & S. (V. alpina A. Gray, in part; not L.) 
In wet places from Greenl. and Alaska to N. H., Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 9000- 



RHINANTHACEAE. 

12,000 ft. Summit of North Park Range, Routt Co.; four miles west of 
Cameron Pass; Silver Plume; Little Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains; Trap- 
pers' Lake; near Pagosa Peak; Seven Lakes; Marshall Pass; Tennessee Pass; 
Mirror Lake; Alpine Tunnel; Silverton; Beaver Creek; Leroux Creek; 
Berthoud Pass. 

4. Veronica serpyllifolia L. In fields, thickets and open woods from Lab. 
and Alaska to Ga., Colo, and Calif. ; also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 8000- 
11,000 ft. Caribou; Marshall Pass; Red Mountain, south of Ouray; Gray- 
back mining camps and Placer Gulch ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; 
Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains; Silverton; Beaver Creek; Hotchkiss; 
Gore Pass. 

5. Veronica xalapensis H. B. K. (V. peregrina A. Gray, in part; not L.) 
In sandy soil from Sask. and B. C. to Tex. and Calif. Alt. 5000-8500 ft. 
Ft. Collins ; Table Rock ; Manitou ; foothills, Larimer Co. ; Mancos ; Pagosa 
Springs; Ft. Collins; Idaho Springs; Cerro Summit; Veta Pass; Boulder; 
Grizzly Creek. 

6. Veronica Buxbaumii Tenare. In waste places from N. S. and N. Y. to 
Colo. ; adventive from Europe and Asia. Boulder. 

ii. BESSEYA Rydb. 
Corolla present. 

Flowers not reflexed ; calyx-lobes 3-4. 

Upper lip of the purple corolla twice as long as the calyx; plant 1-1.5 dm. 

high. i. 5". alpina. 

Upper lip of the corolla only slightly longer than the calyx; plant 1.5-3 

dm. high. 
Corolla purple or pink, not ciliate ; divisions of the lower lip obtuse. 

2. S. plantaginea. 
Corolla white or yellowish, ciliate on the margin ; divisions of the upper 

lip acute. 3. S. Ritteriana. 

Flowers reflexed ; calyx-lobes 2 ; corolla greenish-white. 4. 5". reflexa. 

Corolla lacking. 5- S. gymnocarpa. 

1. Besseya alpina (A. Gray) Rydb. (Synthyris alpina A. Gray) On the 
higher mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 10,000-14,000 ft. Mt. Harvard; 
West Spanish Peak; Gray's Peak; Massif de 1'Arapahoe; headwaters of 
Clear Creek; Ethel Peak. 

2. Besseya plantaginea (Benth.) Rydb. (Synthyris plantaginea Benth.) 
On hillsides and mountains from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 6000-13,500 
ft. Mountain near Veta Pass; Pike's Peak; mountains above Ouray; hills 
southeast of La Veta; mesas near Colorado Springs; South Cheyenne Canon; 
butte, 5 miles southwest of La Veta ; Wahatoya Canon ; Manitou ; Gray's 
Peak; Minnehaha; Cascade; Artist's Glen; Mt. Garfield; headwaters of Clear 
Creek ; Como ; Bear Creek Canon. 

3. Besseya Ritteriana (Eastw.) Rydb. (Synthyris Ritteriana Eastw. ; 5". 
flavesccns A. Nelson) On the higher mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000-12,000 
ft. Red Mountain ; Bear Creek Divide, West La Plata Mountains ; Cimar- 
ron ; Cumberland Basin. 

4. Besseya reflexa (Eastw.) Rydb. (Synthyris reflexa Eastw.) On the 
mountains of Colo. Kendall Basin, near Silverton. 

5. Besseya gymnocarpa (A. Nels.) Rydb. (JVulfenia gymnocarpa A. 
Nels. ; Synthyris rubra A. Gray, in part; not Benth.) On hills from S. D. 
and Alb. to Colo, and Utah. Wood's ranch. 



314 RHINANTHACEAE. 

12. GERARDIA L. 

i. Gerardia Besseyana Britton. On prairies and river bottoms from Iowa 
and Wyo. to La. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Boulder; Platte River, Den- 
ver; Ft. Collins; Longmont; along the Poudre; Longmont; Cherry Creek. 

13. CASTILLEJA Mutis. PAINTED CUP, PAINTER'S BRUSH. 

Annuals or biennials. I- STENANTHAE. 

Perennials. 

Galea several times longer than the very short lip, usually at least 2 /3 as long 
as the corolla-tube ; bracts in most species tinged with scarlet, crimson 
or rose. 

Calyx cleft much deeper in front than behind. II. LINARI^FOLIAE. 

Calyx about equally cleft in front and behind. 

Stem villous-canescent ; bracts entire, or trilobed with broad, rounded 

middle lobe. III. INTEGRAE. 

Stem glabrous or pubescent, but not canescent. 

Leaves entire or the uppermost rarely slightly 3-lobed ; corolla-lip very 

short and callous. 
Bracts usually entire and obtuse, oblong to obovate, if 3-lobed with 

a broad middle lobe. IV. RHEXIFOLIAE. 

Bracts 3-cleft with lanceolate lobes, if entire very acute. 

V. LANCIFOLIAE. 

Leaves, at least the upper, pinnately cleft ; bracts also cleft ; lower corolla- 
lip not callous, larger. VI. HISPIDAE. 
Galea less than 3 times as long as the lip, rarely half as long as the corolla- 
tube ; bracts in most species tinged with yellow or brown. 
Leaves entire ; bracts also entire or slightly 3-lobed. VII. PALLIDAE. 
Leaves pinnately divided, at least the upper ones. 

Whole plant white-woolly. VIII. LINEATAE. 

Plant not white-woolly. 

Corolla 1.5-3 cm. long, slightly exceeding the calyx. 

IX. BRACHYANTHAE. 
Corolla 4-5 cm. long, almost twice as long as the calyx. 

X. SESSILIFLORAE. 

I. STENANTHAE. 
One species. i- C. exilis. 

II. LlNARI^FOLIAE. 

Bracts crimson or pink. 

Leaves all narrowly linear. 2. C. linariafolia. 

Upper leaves lanceolate. 3- C. Crista-galli. 

Bracts yellow. 4- C. cognata. 

III. INTEGRAE. 
Leaves entire. 

Bracts oblong. 5- C. Integra. 

Bracts obovate. 6. C. gloriosa. 

Leaves pinnatifid. / C. Lindheimeri, 

IV. RHEXIFOLIAE. 

Upper stem-leaves at least broadly lanceolate or oblong-ovate. 

8. C. rhe.vifolia. 

Leaves all narrowly lanceolate. 

Bracts acute and usually deeply cleft, scarlet or crimson. 9. C. confusa. 
Bracts rounded at the apex, entire or with a short tooth on each side. 

Bracts brownish or yellowish ; leaves lanceolate, acute, densely puberulent. 

10. C. brunnescens. 

Bracts crimson or rose-color ; leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous 
or nearly so at maturity. n. C. lauta. 



RHINANTHACEAE. 315 

V. LANCIFOLIAE. 

Calyx and upper part of the stem densely white-woolly. 12. C. trinervis. 

Calyx and upper part of the stem sparingly hirsute-villous. 
Plant growing more or less in clumps, with a short caudex. 

9. C. confusa. 
Stems solitary from a horizontal or ascending rootstock. 

13. C. lancifolia. 

VI. HISPIDAE. 

Galea longer than the corolla-tube. 14. C. chromosa. 

Galea shorter than the corolla-tube. 

Bracts or their middle lobe very broad and rounded ; calyx-lobes very short 

and rounded at the apex. 15. C. obtitsiloba. 

Bracts with narrow, lanceolate, oblong, or linear lobes. 

Plant glabrous up to the inflorescence, 1-2 cm. high. 16. C. Haydeni. 
Plant more or less pubescent, 3-6 dm. high. 

Lobes of calyces, bracts and leaves narrowly linear ; bracts brick-red. 

17. C. linearis. 
Lobes of bracts and calyces broader, lanceolate or oblong ; bracts crimson. 

1 8. C. hispida. 

VII. PALLIDAE. 

Plant 5-15 cm. high, densely villous above; corolla less than 2 cm. long; bracts 

varying from brownish-crimson to greenish-yellow. 19. C. occidentalis. 

Plant 2-4 dm. high, slightly if at all villous ; corolla usually 2 cm. long or more. 
Stems solitary from a creeping rootstock ; plant darkening in drying. 

20. C. luteovirens. 

Stems growing in clums with a short caudex ; plant rarely darkening in drying. 
Upper leaves broadly lanceolate ; all 3-ribbed ; plant glabrous up to the 

inflorescence. 21. C. sulphurea. 

All leaves linear, i -ribbed or the uppermost linear-lanceolate and indistinctly 
3-ribbed; plant puberulent. 22. C. wyoiningensis. 

VIII. LIN T EATAE. 

One species. 23. C. liueata. 

IX. BRACHYANTHAE. 

Lower lip of the corolla fully half as long as the galea ; plant less than i dm. high. 

24. C. pttberula. 
Lower lip 1 A- 1 A as long as the galea ; plant 3-4 dm. high. 

Lower lip about ^-3 as long as the galea ; its lobes lanceolate, acuminate. 

25. C. brachyantha. 
Lower lip J^-K as long as the galea ; its lobes ovate, acute. 

26. C. flava, 

X. SESSILIFLORAE. 
One species. 27. C. sessiliflora. 

1. Castilleja exilis A. Nels. (C. stricta Rydb. ; not DC.) In wet ground 
from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, and Nev. Las Animas ; Hotchkiss. 

2. Castilleja linariaefolia Benth. In the mountains from Wyo. to N. M. 
and Calif.; also in Mex. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Pike's Peak; near Empire; 
North Boulder Peak; headwaters of Clear Creek; southeast and west of 
Ouray ; Parlin ; Honnold ; north of Mancos ; Jack's Cabin ; Cascade Canon ; 
Cerro Summit ; West Indian Creek ; Elk River, Routt Co. ; Chicken Creek, 
West La Plata Mountains ; Idaho Springs ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; 
Twin Lakes ; Veta Pass ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Pagosa Springs ; La Veta ; 
Soldier Canon; Hotchkiss; Gypsum Creek Canon; Baxter's ranch; Steam- 



316 RHINANTHACEAE. 

boat Springs; Narrows; Dolores; Beaver Creek; Horsetooth Gulch; Du- 
rango ; Rist Canon ; Trapper's Lake ; Graymont ; Grand Lake ; Poudre Canon, 
Larimer Co. ; Silverton ; Empire. 

3. Castilleja Crista-galli Rydb. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo.- 
Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Green Mountain Falls; South Cheyenne Canon; Gray- 
back mining camps and Placer Gulch; Eldora to Baltimore. 

4. Castilleja cognata Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 8280 
ft. Jack's Cabin. 

5. Castilleja integra A. Gray. Dry ground from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. ; 
also Mex. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Colorado Springs; Trail Glen; La Veta; 
Red Rock Canon; Ojo; river-bluffs north of La Veta; Calhan; butte, 5 miles 
southwest of La Veta; hills southeast of La Veta; Piedra; Salida; near 
Denver; Como; Purgatory River, Trinidad; Palmer Lake; Table Rock; 
Cheyenne Canon; Eldora to Baltimore; Colorado City. 

6. Castilleja gloriosa Britton. In dry places from Colo, to Ariz. Brantly 
Canon. 

7. Castilleja Lindheimeri A. Gray. In dry places from Colo, to Tex. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Mancos ; Grand Junction. 

8. Castilleja rhexifolia Rydb. In the mountains from Alb. and Alaska to 
Colo. Alt. 7000-14,000 ft. Mt. Hesperus; Cameron Pass; Echo Creek, near 
La Veta; Marshall Pass; Mt. Hayden, La Plata Mountains; Mt. Harvard; 
Berthoud Pass. 

9. Castilleja confusa Greene. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
6000-11,000 ft. Georgetown ; Red Mountain, south of Ouray; Bob Creek, 
west of Mt. Hesperus; Ruxton Park; Colorado Springs; Pike's Peak; Elk 
River, Routt Co.; Chicken Creek, west of Mt. Hesperus; Como; Little Veta 
Mountain; Upper La Plata River; Minnehaha ; Little Kate Basin; moun- 
tains above Ouray; Beaver Creek; Rico; Michigan Hill; gulch east of Stove 
Prairie; Bosworth's ranch; Steamboat Springs; Empire; Eldora to Balti- 
more; Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. 

10. Castilleja brunnescens Rydb. In the mountains of Colo, and Wyo. 
Alt. 9000-11,000 ft. Bush Creek, Custer Co.; Gray's Peak; Mancos; Red 
Mountain, south of Ouray; Pike's Peak; Taylor River; Cameron Pass; 
Hahn's Peak. 

11. Castilleja lauta A. Nelson. (C. oreopola subintegra Fernald.) In 
the mountains from Mont, and Ore. to Colo. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft. Marshall 
Pass; Mt. Hesperus; Little Kate Basin; Cameron Pass; Alpine Tunnel; 
Graymont; Beaver Creek; Rico; Anita Peak. 

12. Castilleja trinervis Rydb. In the mountain woods of Colo. Alt. 8500- 
10,000 ft. Columbine ; headwaters of Pass Creek; headwaters of Sangre de 
Cristo Creek; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch. 

13. Castilleja lancifolia Rydb. In mountains from Mont, and Alaska to 
Colo, and Ore. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Near Ironton, San Juan Co.; near 
Pagosa Peak; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Berthoud Pass. 

14. Castilleja chromosa A. Nelson. (C. Stokesii Brand.) In the moun- 
tains of Wyo. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 8000 ft. Cerro Summit. 

15. Castilleja obtusiloba Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 
9000 ft. Leroux Parks, Delta Co. 



RHINANTHACEAE. 317 

16. Castilleja Haydeni (A. Gray) Cockerell. (C. pallida Haydeni A. Gray) 
On the higher mountains of Colo. Alt. about 12,300 ft. Cumberland Mine, 
La Plata Mountains. 

17. Castilleja linearis Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8500-12,000 
ft. Gibb's Peak, Custer Co.; West Spanish Peak. 

1 8. Castilleja hispida Benth. On hills and mountains from Mont, and 
Wash, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 7500 ft. Mountains, Larimer Co.; 
Dolores ; Cimarron ; Pinkham Creek. 

19. Castilleja occidentalis Torr. (C. pallida occidentalis A. Gray) On 
the higher mountains from Alb. and B. C. to Colo. Alt. 11,000-14,000 ft. 
Near Empire; Pike's Peak; Gray's Peak; Ward; Mt. Ouray; Alpine Tunnel; 
Cameron Pass; Mt. Garfield; Berthoud Pass; Beaver Creek; Ethel Peak; 
summit of North Park Range, Routt Co. 

20. Castilleja luteovirens Rydb. In mountain meadows from Wyo. and 
Colo. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Seven Lakes, near 
Pike's Peak; Veta Pass; Hamor's Lake, north of Durango; Chicken Creek, 
west of Mt. Hesperus ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Wahatoya Creek. 

21. Castilleja sulphurea Rydb. In the mountains from S. D. and Wyo. to 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Rabbit-Ears, Larimer Co. ; Mt. Har- 
vard; Georgetown; Andrews' Shetland ranch; Grayback mining camps and 
Placer Gulch; Steamboat Springs; Cameron Pass; Columbine; Denver; Gun- 
nison; Chambers' Lake; Ward; Ruxton Dell; North Park; Empire; Lake 
Moraine, Pike's Peak; Silver Plume; Graymont ; Rico; Twin Lake; Walton 
Creek; Leroux Creek. 

22. Castilleja wyomingensis Rydb. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. 7500-9000 ft. Wahatoya Creek; Red Mountain road, south 
of Ouray. 

23. Castilleja lineata Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 9000-10,000 
ft. West Spanish Peak; Pagosa Springs. 

24. Castilleja puberula Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000-12,000 
ft. " Colorado " ; Empire ; Berthoud Pass. 

25. Castilleja brachyantha Rydb. (C. breviflora A. Gray) In the moun- 
tains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; 
North Park, near Teller; Grizzly Creek. 

26. Castilleja flava S. Wats. In dry valleys from S. D., Mont, and B. C. 
to Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 8000 ft. Upper Laramie River; Pinkham 
Creek. 

27. Castilleja sessiliflora Pursh. On dry plains from Ills, and Ass. to Mo., 
Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Table Rock; Ft. Collins; Colorado 
Springs ; near Pueblo ; Tobe Miller's ranch ; Colorado City. 

14. ORTHOCARPUS Nutt. 

Corolla yellow; spike densely flowered; seeds costate. i. O. lutens. 

Corolla white, turning rose-purple ; spike lax ; seeds with a loose reticulate coat. 

2. O. purpureo-albus. 

i. Orthocarpus luteus Nutt. On dry plains and in sandy soil from Sask. 
and Wash, to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Grizzly Creek; South 
Park; Georgetown; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Pagosa Springs; Trimble 



318 RHINANTHACEAE. 

Springs, above Durango ; Veta Mountain ; Villa Grove ; Garland ; Silverton ; 
Ruxton Dell; near Steamboat Springs; La Veta, west of Ouray; Gunnison ; 
Table Rock; Middle Park; Horsetooth Gulch; Long Gulch; west of Soldier 
Canon ; Empire ; between Sunshine and Ward. 

2. Orthocarpus purpureo-albus A. Gray. In dry places from Colo, and 
Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Durango ; Piedra ; La Plata and Mancos. 

15. ADENOSTEGIA Benth. 

i. Adenostegia Kingii (S. Wats.) Greene. (Cordylanthus Kingii S. Wats.) 
Dry ridges from Nev. to Colo. Alt. 5500 ft. San Juan Valley (Brandegee). 

16. ELEPHANTELLA Rydb. LITTLE RED ELEPHANT. 

i. Elephantella groenlandica (Retz.) Rydb. (Pedicularis groenlandica 
Retz.) In swamps and wet meadows from Greenl. and B. C. to Colo, and 
Calif. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; Cameron Pass; Sil- 
ver Plume ; Gray's Peak ; Hamor's Lake, above Durango ; Trapper's Lake ; 
Seven Lakes ; Central City ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; near 
Pagosa Peak; Pike's Peak; Alpine Tunnel; Cabin Canon; Mirror Lake; 
Veta Pass; Mt. Harvard; Gore Pass; Eldora to Baltimore; Van Boxle's 
ranch, above Cimarron; Beaver Creek; summit of North Park Range, Routt 
Co. 

17. PEDICULARIS L. LOUSEWORT. 

Galea produced into a distinct beak. 

Beak long, strongly incurved ; lip very broad, meeting or inclosing the tip 

of the beak. i. P. racemosa. 

Beak short and straight ; lip narrower and not meeting the tip of the galea. 

2. P. Parry i. 
Galea not produced into a distinct beak; but often with two lateral teeth near 

the apex. 
Leaves pinnately divided or lobed. 

Leaves divided to the midrib or nearly so into narrow, acute, dentate. 

serrate or incised divisions. 
Galea toothless; plant 4-10 dm. high; lip not reaching the tip of the galea. 

3. P. bracteosa. 
Galea with two lateral teeth. 

Plant tall, 3-15 dm. high; corolla sordid yellow, 3-3.5 cm. long; lip 

almost reaching the tip of the galea. 4- P- Grayi. 

Plant lower, 1-4 dm. high ; corolla purple, 2-2.5 cm. long ; lip not reach- 
ing the tip of the galea. 5- P. scopulorum. 
Leaves pinnately lobed (two-thirds to the midrib or less) with broadly 
oblong or rounded, obtuse and crenate lobes. 6. P. canadensis. 
Leaves merely crenate. /. P. crenulata. 

1. Pedicularis racemosa Dougl. On wooded mountain sides from Mont. 
and B. C. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear 
Creek; Cameron Pass; Trapper's Lake; Berthoud Pass; Douglass Mountain, 
Georgetown; near Pagosa Peak; Marshall Pass; Mt. Abram, Ouray; Beaver 
Creek ; Boreas ; bank of Michigan ; Leroux Park ; Eldora to Baltimore ; Buf- 
falo Pass; Anita Peak; Rabbit- Ear Range. 

2. Pedicularis Parryi A. Gray. On the higher mountains from Wyo. to 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. South Park; Pike's Peak; headwaters 
of Clear Creek; Empire; North Park near Teller; Como, South Park; Little 



RHINANTHACEAE. 319 

Kate Basin, La Plata Mountains; Seven Lakes; Cameron Pass; Marshall 
Pass; Alpine Tunnel; Beaver Creek; Berthoud Pass. 

3. Pedicularis bracteata Benth. In wet places in the mountains from Alb. 
and B. C. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 9000-12,000 ft Marshall Pass; Cameron 
Pass; near Pagosa Peak; Tennessee Pass, 7 miles west of Leadville; Mt. 
Hesperus; Leroux Parks, Delta Co.; Upper La Plata River; Beaver Creek: 
Berthoud Pass ; summit of North Park Range, Larimer Co. 

4. Pedicularis Grayi A. Nels. (P. procera A. Gray) In wooded ground 
in the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 8000-13,000 ft Near Empire; 
Cameron Pass; headwaters of Clear Creek; Andrews' Shetland ranch; Bear 
Lake Canon; Georgetown; Silver Plume; Upper La Plata Canon; Como; 
South Park; West Spanish Peak; near Pagosa Peak; Bear Creek Canon, 
near Colorado Springs; Buena Vista; Veta ; Pike's Peak; Hamor's Lake; 
Ruxton Park; gulch south of Steamboat Springs; Hotchkiss; Bosworth's 
ranch; Stove Prairie; Empire. 

5. Pedicularis scopulorum A. Gray. On the higher peaks of Colo. Alt. 
10,000-13,000 ft. South Park; Mt. Abram, Ouray; Gray's Peak. 

6. Pedicularis canadensis L. In mountain meadows and moist woodlands 
from N. S., Man. and Wyo. to Fla. and N. M. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Pike's 
Peak ; North Cheyenne Canon ; headwaters of Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Crys- 
tal Park ; Veta Pass ; Cucharas River, below La Veta ; Table Rock. 

7. Pedicularis crenulata Benth. In meadows and parks of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Gunnison ; Sapinero ; Parlin ; South Park ; Westcliffe ; 
Buena Vista ; Como, South Park ; Sand Creek Pass ; Walden. 

1 8. RHINANTHUS L. YELLOW-RATTLE. 

i. Rhinanthus Crista-galli L. On wooded hills and in meadows from Lab. 
and Alaska to N. Y., N. M. and Ore. ; also in Europe. Pagosa Springs. 

Family 121. PINGUICULACEAE Dumort. BLADDERWORT FAMILY. 

i. UTRICULARIA L. BLADDERWORT. 

Leaves 2-3 times pinnately divided with long divisions; corolla about 12 mm. 

wide ; spur prominent, elongated-conical, curved. i. U. vulgaris. 

Leaves dichotomously divided with very short divisions ; corolla 4-6 mm. wide ; 

spur a mere protuberance. 2. U. minor. 

1. Utricularia vulgaris L. In water from Newf. and Alaska to Fla. and 
Calif.; also in Europe. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft Rio Grande, Alamosa; Parlin; 
Seven Lakes; Estes Park. 

2. Utricularia minor L. In water from Greenl. and B. C. to N. J., Colo, 
and Calif. ; also in Europe. Near Grand Lake. 

Family 122. OROBANCHACEAE Lindl. BROOM-RAPE FAMILY. 

Flowers subtended by bractlets. i. MYZORRHIZA. 

Flowers without bractlets. 2. THALESIA. 



320 OROBANCHACEAE. 



i. 



MYZORRHIZA Philippi. BROOM-RAPE. 



Corolla 20-25 mm. long; anthers woolly. i. M. multiflora. 

Corolla 15-18 mm. long; anthers glabrous. 2. M. ludoviciana. _ 

1. Myzorrhiza multiflora (Nutt.) Rydb. (Orobranche multiflora Nutt. ; 
Aphyllon multiflorum A. Gray) In sandy soil from Colo, and Utah to Tex. 
and Ariz. Along the McElmo; Dixon Canon. 

2. Myzorrhiza ludoviciana (Nutt.) Rydb. (0. Ludoviciana Nutt.; Aphyl- 
lon Ludovicianum A. Gray) In sandy soil from Ills, and Wash, to Tex. and 
Calif. North Denver, near Argos (Eastzvood). 

2. THALESIA Raf. CANCER-ROOT. 

i. Thalesia fasciculata (Nutt.) Britton. Parasitic on Composites, espe- 
cially Artemisia frigida, from Ind. and Yukon to Colo, and Calif. ; also Mex. 
Alt. 4000-11,000 ft. Near Boulder; Silver Plume; West Spanish Peak; 
Como, South Park; Salida; Garden of the Gods; Table Mountain; Golden; 
Arboles; Ft. Collins; Dolores; Table Rock; Fossil Creek; Quimby; Soldier 
Canon. 

Family 123. MARTYNIACEAE Link. UNICORN-PLANT FAMILY. 

i. MARTYNIA L, UNICORN-PLANT; RAM'S-HORN. 

i. Martynia Louisiana Mill. (M. proboscoidea Glox.) In waste places 
from Me. and Iowa to N. C. and Colo. Ft. Collins ; Canon City. 

Order 45. PLANTAGINALES. 

Family 124. PLANTAGINACEAE Lindl. PLANTAIN-FAMILY. 
i. PLANTAGO L. PLANTAIN. 

Flowers all perfect ; corolla not closed over the fruit ; stamens 4. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate ; neither leaves nor spike silky-pubescent ; stamens 

in all the flowers long-exserted. 
Spike cylindrical ; seeds not concave on the faces. 

Leaves ovate, abruptly contracted at the base ; seeds more than 2 in 

each cell. 
Pyxis dehiscent at the middle, rounded-ovoid, obtusish ; leaves usually 

thick and the dense spike obtuse. i. P- major. 

Pyxis dehiscent far below the middle, elongated-ovoid, very acute ; 

leaves thin and the lax spike acute. 2. P. asiatica. 

Leaves lanceolate, gradually tapering into the petioles ; seed not more 

than 2 in each cell. 

Leaves thin ; plant not woolly at the base. 3- P- Tweedyi. 

Leaves thick ; plant with red or brown wool at the base. 

4. P. eriopoda. 

Spike short, oblong, 1-3 cm. long; seeds concave on the faces; leaves nar- 
rowly lanceolate. 5- P- lanceolate. 
Leaves linear ; leaves and peduncles pubescent with long silky hairs ; anther 
in the more fertile flowers included ; seeds solitary in each cell ; concave on 
the faces. 6. P. Purshii. 
Flowers subdioecious or polygamo-dioecious ; corolla in the fertile plant remain- 
ing closed or early closing over the capsule ; stamens 2 ; leaves filiform. 

7. P. myosuroides. 



PLANTAGINACEAE. 321 

1. Plantago major L. In waste places and around dwellings from Newf. 
and B. C. to Fla. and Calif.; naturalized from Europe. Georgetown; along 
Uncompahgre River, near Ouray ; Ft. Collins. 

2. Plantago asiatica L. In waste places and sandy soil from Ass. and B. C. 
to Colo.; also Eastern Asia. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Parlin; Arboles ; Ft. Collins. 

3. Plantago Tweedyi A. Gray. On grassy slopes from Mont, to Colo, and 
Utah. Alt. up to 10,000 ft. Chambers' Lake ; Rabbit-Ears Pass ; Buffalo 
Pass ; Gore Pass. 

4. Plantago eriopoda Torr. (P. rctrorsa Greene) In saline soil from Que. 
and Mont, to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 4000-8500 ft. La Porte ; Doyle's ; bank of 
Canadian River. 

5. Plantago lanceolata L. In waste places and around dwellings from N. B. 
and Wash, to Fla. and Calif. ; naturalized from Europe, but rare in the Rocky 
Mountain region. Alt. up to 5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

6. Plantago Purshii R. & S. On plains, prairies and in river valleys, espe- 
cially in sandy or poor soil from Ont, Ass. and Wash, to Mo., Tex. and 
Ariz. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Golden ; Ft. Collins ; Colorado Springs ; Monu- 
ment Park; Denver; Trinidad; West Spanish Peak; Veta Pass; Walsenburg; 
New Windsor ; Pueblo ; Quimby ; Wray ; Table Rock ; Grand Junction. 

7. Plantago myosuroides Rydb. In sandy soil from Ass. and S. D. to Neb. 
and Utah. Grand Junction. 

Order 46. RUBIALES. 

Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes. 

Leaves with stipules (in ours leaf-like and usually regarded as leaves) adnate 

to the stem between the leaf bases. 125. RUBIACEAE. 

Leaves without stipules or if present these adnate to the petioles. 

126. CAPRI FOLIACEAE. 

Stamens twice as many as the corolla-lobes ; low herbs with ternately dissected 
leaves. 127. ADOXACEAE. 

Family 125. RUBIACEAE Juss. MADDER FAMILY. 

i. GALIUM L. BEDSTRAW. 

Flowers perfect ; fruit hirsute with uncinate hairs or glabrous. 
Annuals. 

Stem coarse, reclining; leaves (i. e., leaves and stipules), 6-8 in the whorls. 
Leaves linear or oblanceolate. 

Leaves 2-7 cm. long ; nutlets when ripe 3-5 mm. in diameter ; flowers 

white. i. G. Aparine. 

Leaves 0.5-2 cm. long ; nutlets when ripe 2-3 mm. in diameter ; flowers 

ochroleucous. 2. G. Vaillantii. 

Leaves elliptic. 9. G. flaviflorum. 

Stem slender, erect or ascending ; leaves 4 in the whorls. 
Leaves ovate or oblong, 5-7 mm. long ; fruit nearly sessile. 

3. G. proliferum. 
Leaves linear-oblong or linear, often 10-20 mm. long; fruit distinctly 

peduncled. 4. G. bifolium. 

Perennials. 

Leaves not cuspidate-pointed. 

Stem stout ; leaves thick, 3-nerved. 5. G. boreale. 

Stem very slender ; leases i-nerved. 

21 



322 RUBIACEAE. 

Leaves obovate to broadly oblong-obovate, somewhat fleshy. 

Petals almost i mm. long ; pedicels and generally also stem glabrous. 

6. G. Brandegei. 
Petals about 0.5 mm. long ; pedicels and stem more or less scabrous. 

7. G. sitbbifloriiin. 
Leaves linear-oblong or linear-oblanceolate. 8. G. triiiduin. 

Leaves cuspidate-pointed. 

Stem retrorse-bristly ; pedicels scarcely exceeding the bracts. 

9. G. flaviflomm. 
Stem glabrous or sparingly hirsute ; pedicels much exceeding the small bract. 

10. G. triflorum. 
Flowers in ours dioecious ; fruit with long hairs, not uncinate ; perennials. 

11. G. coloradense. 

1. Galium Aparine L. In shady places from N. B. and Alaska to Fla. and 
Calif.; also in Europe and Asia. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Horsetooth Gulch; Rist 
Canon; Ft. Collins; foot-hills, Larimer Co. 

2. Galium Vaillantii DC. (G. Aparine Vaillantii Koch.) Among bushes 
and in shady places from Mont, and B. C. to Mex. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. 
Spring Canon; Rist Canon; butte, 5 miles southwest of La Veta. 

3. Galium proliferum A. Gray. On stony hills from Colo, to Tex. and 
N. M. ; also Mex. Locality not given. 

4. Galium bifolium S. Wats. In wet places in the mountains from Mont, 
and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 7500 ft. Honnold; Steamboat 
Springs. 

5. Galium boreale L. On rocky banks and hillsides, especially among 
bushes, from Que. and Alaska to N. J., Mo., Colo, and Calif. Alt. 4000- 
10,000 ft. Rist Canon ; foot-hills, Larimer Co. ; Hotchkiss ; Baxter's ranch ; 
Barnes' Camp; Table Rock; Ft. Collins; Stove Prairie Hill; gulch west of 
Pennock's; Pike's Peak; west of Ouray; Dillon; Veta Pass; Parlin; Gun- 
nison ; Minnehaha ; Pagosa Springs ; Grayback mining camps and Placer 
Gulch ; Narrows ; Andrews' Shetland ranch ; Four-mile Hill, Routt Co. ; Man- 
cos ; Golden ; Clear Creek Canon ; North Cheyenne Canon ; Bear Creek Canon ; 
Cumbres ; Moon's ranch ; Glenwood Springs ; between Sunshine and Ward ; 
Fish Creek Falls. 

6. Galium Brandegei A. Gray. In moist ground from Wyo. to N. M. and 
Calif. Alt. 6000-10,000 ft. Columbine; twelve miles below Grand Lake; 
Steamboat Springs ; Chambers' Lake. 

7. Galium subbiflorum (Wieg.) Rydb. (G. trifidmn subbiflonitn Wieg.) 
In cold bogs and wet places from Minn, and Ida. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 
8000-10,000 ft.- Beaver Creek ; Empire. 

8. Galium trifidum L. In swamps and wet meadows from Newf. and Ida. 
to Colo, and Utah. Alt. up to 8000 ft. Parlin ; Beaver Creek. 

9. Galium flaviflorum Heller. In canons of Colo, and N. M. Alt. 7500- 
8500 ft. Box Canon, west of Ouray. 

10. Galium triflorum Michx. In open woods from Newf. and Alaska to Ala. 
and Calif. Alt. 6000-9000 ft. Boulder Canon ; Red Mountain road, south of 
Ouray; Ruxton Brook; headwaters of Pass Creek; near Pagosa Peak; Col- 
umbine; vicinity of Pine Grove; Bosworth's ranch; Four-mile Hill; Ouray. 

11. Galium coloradense Wright. (G. Mathewsii A. Gray, in part) On 
arid grounds in southern Colo. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Black Canon; Mesa 
Verde ; Mancos ; Glenwood Springs. 



CAPRIFOLIACEAE. 
Family 126. CAPRIFOLIACEAE Vent. HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. 

Style deeply 3-5-cleft ; shrubs or trees with compound cymose inflorescence and 

drupaceous fruit. 

Leaves pinnate; ovary 3-s-celled, each cell with i ovule, i. SAMBUCUS. 
Leaves simple ; ovary i-celled and i-ovuled. 2. VIBURNUM. 

Style slender, undivided ; stigma capitate. 

Trailing evergreen herb ; flowers long-peduncled, geminate ; stamens 4, 

didynamous. 3- LINNAEA. 

Shrubs ; stamens generally 5. 

Corolla rarely gibbous at the base, regular or nearly so. 4. SYMPHORICARPOS. 
Corolla gibbous at the base, irregular and bilabiate. 5. DISTEGIA. 

i. SAMBUCUS L. ELDER. 

Cyme not flat-topped, thyrsoid-paniculate ; the axis continuous. 

Fruit red or rarely yellow. i. S. microbotrys. 

Fruit black. 2. 5. melanocarpa. 

Cyme flat-topped, umbelliform, 4~s-rayed ; the rays again variously compound; 

fruit blackish. 3- S. neo-mexicana. 

1. Sambucus microbotrys Rydb. On hillsides from S. D. and Wyo. to Colo, 
and Ariz. Alt. 7500-12,000 ft. Gore Pass ; above Beaver Creek ; Marshall 
Pass; Bob Creek, West La Plata Mountains; Jack Brook; west of Ouray; 
Ironton Park, nine miles south of Ouray; Front Range, Larimer Co.; Ojo; 
Villa Grove; Halfway House; Pike's Peak; Gray's Peak; Little Veta Moun- 
tain; East Indian Creek; Bottomless Pit, Pike's Peak; Lake City; Red River, 
Franklin Co. ; between Sunshine and Ward. 

2. Sambucus melanocarpa A. Gray. In canons and ravines from Alb. and 
Ida. to Colo, and Ore. Alt. about 9000 ft. Headwaters of Pass Creek ; Clear 
Creek Canon ; Fish Creek Falls ; Pinkham Creek. 

3. Sambucus neo-mexicana Woot. In the mountains of Colo., N. Mex. 
and Ariz. Silver Plume. 

2. VIBURNUM L. ARROW-WOOD, SNOW-BALLS. 

Leaves palmately reined, usually 3-lobed ; fruit red. i. V. pauciflorum. 

Leaves pinnately veined, not lobed ; fruit blue or black. 2. V. Lentago. 

1. Viburnum pauciflorum Pylaie. In woods from Lab. and Alaska to Pa., 
Colo, and Wash. Alt. about 8000 ft. Grand Lake ; Minnehaha ; Clear Creek. 

2. Viburnum Lentago L. In wood and on banks of streams from Me. and 
Man. to Ga. and Colo. Gulch south of Boulder. 

3. LINNAEA Gron. TWIN-FLOWER, GROUND-VINE. 

i. Linnaea americana Forbes. (L. borealis Michx. ; not L.) In cold woods 
from Greenl. and Alaska to N. J., Mich., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000- 
13,000 ft. Beaver Creek; Graymont ; Grand Lake; Chambers' Lake; Gray's 
Peak ; West Spanish Peak ; Front Range, Larimer Co. ; South Boulder Peak. 

4. SYMPHORICARPOS L. SNOW-BERRY, CORAL-BERRY. 

Corolla short ; open-campanulate. 

Fruit red; style bearded. i. S. Symphoricarpos. 

Fruit white ; style glabrous. 

Style and stamens somewhat exserted ; leaves thick. 2. S. occidentalis. 
Style and stamens not exserted ; leaves rather thin. 3. 5". pauciflonts. 

Corolla elongated, oblong-campanulate to salverform. 



324 CAPRIFOLIACEAE. 

Corolla oblong-campanulate, 6-8 mm. long. 

Leaves decidedly pubescent ; stem puberulent ; leaves rounded-oval, obtuse or 

rounded at the apex. 4. S. rotundifolius. 

Leaves glabrate or slightly pubescent. 

Leaves rounded-ovate or rounded-oval, 3-4 cm. long. 

5. 5". ittahctisis. 

Leaves oval, acute, 1-2 cm. long. 6. S. 'vaccinioides. 

Corolla tubular-funnelform, 8-12 mm. long. 7. 5". oreophilus. 

1. Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos (L.) MacM. (S. vulgaris Michx.) 
Along rivers and in rocky places from N. Y. and Wyo. to Ga., Tex. and 
Colo. Manitou. 

2. Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. Hillsides from Mich., Mackenzie 
and B. C. to Mo. and Colo. Alt. 4000-^000 ft. Poudre Canon; Baxter's 
ranch ; Ft. Collins ; Stove Prairie Hill ; Pueblo ; Canon City ; Denver ; Ft. 
Collins; Livermore; Echo Creek; Colorado Springs; Boulder; between Sun- 
shine and Ward. 

3. Symphoricarpos pauciflorus (Robbins) Britton. (S. racemosus pauci- 
florus Robbins) In rocky places and on hillsides from Vt. and B. C. to Pa., 
Colo, and Calif. Gypsum; Howe's Gulch; Horsetooth Mountain; North 
Cheyenne Canon ; west of Ft. Collins ; Middle Park ; Dillon Canon. 

4. Symphoricarpos rotundifolius A. Gray. In the mountains from Wyo. and 
Ida. to N. M. Spicer, Larimer Co. 

5. Symphoricarpos utahensis Rydb. On hillsides from W r yo. and Ida. to 
Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 8000 ft. Van Boxle's ranch, above Cimarron. 

6. Symphoricarpos vaccinioides Rydb. On hillsides from Mont, and Wash, 
to Colo, and Nev. Alt. about 7000 ft. Wolcott, Eagle Co. ; Cimarron. 

7. Symphoricarpos oreophilus A. Gray. In the mountains from Colo, and 
Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 7500-10,000 ft. Divide road to Steamboat 
Springs; near Ouray; Pitkin ; southeast of Ouray; Durango; Georgetown; 
West Mancos Canon ; Grayback mining camps and Placer Gulch ; on Turkey 
Creek and tributaries; near Pagosa Peak; Gunnison ; Wolcott, Eagle Co.; 
Clear Creek ; Eldora to Baltimore. 

5. DISTEGIA Raf. 

i. Distegia involucrata (Richardson) Rydb. (Lonicera involucrata Banks) 
In wet woodlands from Que. and Alaska to Mich., Colo, and Calif. ; 
also Mex. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. Gulch south of Rist Canon; Mancos; Gun- 
nison; Mt. Hesperus; Los Pinos (Bayfield) ; near Pagosa Peak; Glen- 
wood Springs; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; Andrews' Shetland ranch; Wahatoya 
Canon; East Indian Creek; South Park; near Ironton, San Juan Co.; Sap- 
inero; Gunnison; Parlin ; Box Canon, west of Ouray; Red Mountain road, 
south of Ouray; Veta Pass; Eldora to Baltimore; mountains between Sun- 
shine and Ward ; Beaver Creek. 



Family 127. ADOXACEAE Fritch. MOSCHATEL FAMILY. 
i. ADOXA L. MUSK-ROOT, MOSCHATEL. 

i. Adoxa Moschatellina L. In shady, wet, rocky places from Arctic Amer- 
ica to Wise, and Colo. Alt. 7000-12,000 ft. Carson; Seven Lakes; Gentian 



ADOXACEAE. 325 

Ridge; Pike's Peak; West Spanish Peak; Bottomless Pit, Pike's Peak; near 
Pagosa Peak; Tennessee Pass, seven miles west of Leadville; Front Range, 
Larimer Co.; Mt. Hesperus; Clear Creek; Boulder Canon. 

Order 47. CAMPANULALES. 

Endosperm wanting ; flowers monoecious or dioecious ; plant mainly vines with 
tendrils. 128. CUCURBITACEAE. 

Endosperm present; flowers perfect; plants (at least ours) not vines. 

Corolla regular. 129. CAMPANULACEAE. 

Corolla split on one side and more or less irregular. 130. LOBELIACEAE. 

Family 128. CUCURBITACEAE Juss. GOURD FAMILY. 

Ovary i-celled with 3-5 placentae ; ovules numerous ; corolla campanulate ; fruit 

fleshy, indehiscent. i. CUCURBITA. 

Ovary 2-celled ; ovules few ; fruit opening at the top ; corolla rotate, small. 

2. MlCRAMPELIS. 

i. CUCURBITA L. GOURD, PUMPKIN. 

i. Cucurbita foetidissima H. B. K. (C. frerennis A. Gray) On plains 
from Mo. and Neb. to Tex. and Calif. Bank of Arkansas River. 

2. MlCRAMPELIS Raf. BALSAM APPLE; MOCK APPLE. 

i. Micrampelis lobata (Michx.) Greene. (Echinocystis lobata T. & G.) 
On river banks among shrubs from Me. and Mont, to Va. and Colo. Ft. 
Collins; Cache la Poudre ; Platte River, near Denver. 



Family 129. CAMPANULACEAE Juss. BELLFLOWER FAMILY. 

Corolla campanulate or funnelform ; inflorescence racemose or paniculate ; flow- 
ers complete throughout. i. CAMPANULA. 

Corolla rotate ; inflorescence spicate ; flowers of two kinds ; the earlier cleis- 
togamous. 2. SPECULARIA. 

i. CAMPANULA L. BELLFLOWER, BLUEBELL, HAREBELL. 

Flowers over i cm. long ; plant simple or with erect or ascending branches. 
Capsule erect, opening by pores near the summit, just below the base of the 

sepals. 
Hypanthium and pod club-shaped, constricted just below the sepals, often 

hairy; leaves entire; sepals obtuse. i. C. uniflora. 

Hypanthium and pod turbinate, not constricted ; sepals acuminate. 

2. C. Parry i. 

Capsule nodding, opening by pores near the base. 3. C. petwlata. 

Flowers 5-8 mm. long ; stem retrorse-hispid with divaricate branches. 

4. C. aparinoides. 

1. Campanula uniflora L. In arctic-alpine localities from Greenl. and 
Alaska to Lab., Colo, and Utah. Mountains of Estes Park. 

2. Campanula Parryi A. Gray. In mountain valleys from Wyo. and Utah 
to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. Table Rock ; Sand Creek ; Como 
and vicinity ; Happy Hollow ; Beaver Creek ; Clear Creek, near Elizabethtown ; 
Hematite; Eldora to Baltimore; Empire. 



326 CAMPANULACEAE. 

3. Campanula petiolata DC. (C. rotundifolia American authors, in part; 
not L.) On hills and mountains from Mackenzie and Wash, to N. M. and 
Utah. Alt. 5000-12,000 ft. Gunnison Co. ; Gray's Peak ; Rist Canon ; Breck- 
enridge; Narrows; near Ft. Collins; Horsetooth Gulch; Palmer Lake; Dillon 
Canon ; Trinidad ; Howe's Gulch ; gulch west of Soldier Canon ; Boulder. 

4. Campanula aparinoides Pursh. In wet meadows from N. B. and Sask. 
to Ga. and Colo. Along Platte, near Denver (Eastivood.). 

2. SPECULARIA Heist. VENUS' LOOKING-GLASS. 

Leaves cordate-clasping; capsule oblong. i. 5". perfoliata. 

Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate ; capsule linear-cylindric. 2. S. leptocarpa. 

1. Specularia perfoliata (L.) A. DC. On hillsides from Me. and B. C. to 
Fla., Ariz, and Ore.; also in Mex. Spring Canon ; Howe's Gulch; Horse- 
tooth Gulch; Platte River. 

2. Specularia leptocarpa (Nutt.) A. Gray. In dry soil from Mo. and Mont. 
to Tex. and Colo. Locality not given. 

Family 130. LOBELIACEAE Dumort. LOBELIA FAMILY. 
i. LOBELIA L. LOBELIA, CARDINAL-FLOWER. 

i. Lobelia syphilitica L. In wet places from Me. and S. D. to Ga., La. 
and Colo. West of the Missouri River it is only represented by the smaller 
var. Ludoviciana A. DC. Vicinity of Ft. Collins; hills north of La Porte; 
Denver. 

Order 48. VALERIANALES. 

Family 131. VALERIAN ACEAE Batsch. VALERIAN FAMILY. 

i. VALERIANA L. VALERIAN. 

Leaves thick, entire or with linear, entire divisions ; veining almost parallel. 
Fruit and ovaries pubescent ; bracts in the staminate plant linear-lanceolate. 

i. V. ednlis. 
Fruit glabrous, scurfy, muricate or rugose. 

Basal leaves oblanceolate ; fruit broadly ovate ; corolla of the staminate 

plant 2.5-3 mm. wide ; root thick. 2. V. trachycarpa. 

Basal leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate ; fruit narrowly ovate ; corolla of 
the staminate flowers less than 2 mm. wide ; root rather slender. 

3. V. furfurascens. 
Leaves thin ; the cauline ones pinnate ; veining distinctly pinnate. 

Ovary and fruit at least when young pubescent. 4. V. micron t ha. 

Ovary and fruit glabrous. 

Basal leaf-blades ovate-cordate. 5- V- ovata. 

Basal leaf-blades spatulate, oval or lanceolate, tapering at the base. 

Lateral leaflets or lobes of the stem-leaves small, linear-lanceolate, acuminate. 

6. V. acittiloba. 
Lateral leaflets of the stem-leaves ample, ovate to lanceolate, acute. 

7. V. occidentalis. 

i. Valeriana edulis Nutt. On hillsides and dry meadows from Ida. and 
Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Alt. up to 11,000 ft. Berthoud Pass; Continental 
Divide; Columbine; Conejos River, north of Antonito. 



VALERIANACEAE. 327 

2. Valeriana trachycarpa Rydb. In the mountains of Colo, and N. M. 
Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Red Mountain; Alpine Tunnel; Marshall Pass; Rabbit- 
Ears Pass. 

3. Valeriana furfurascens A. Nelson. On hillsides and mountains of Wyo. 
and Colo. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Bosworth's ranch; Narrows; Pike's Peak; 
Ruxton Dell ; Indian Pass Creek. 

4. Valeriana micrantha A. Nelson. In the mountains from Mont, and Ida. 
to Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 9000 ft. West Mancos Canon ; Rabbit-Ears, 
Larimer Co. 

5. Valeriana ovata Rydb. In the mountains of Colo, and N. Mex. Alt. 
up to 9500 ft. Cameron's Cone. 

6. Valeriana acutiloba Rydb. (V. oreophila Greene) In the mountains 
from Wyo. and Utah to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 8000-13,500 ft. Silverton ; 
Beaver Creek ; mountains about Ouray ; mountains above Graymont ; Ragged 
Mountains ; Cameron Pass ; Pike's Peak ; Clear Creek ; mountain near Veta 
Pass ; near Pagosa Peak ; Bear Creek Canon ; Mt. Hesperus ; Mt. Abram, 
Ouray; Ruxton Dell; Gray's Peak; Carson; Grayback mining camps and 
Placer Gulch ; Salida ; Boreas ; Mt. Richtofen. 

7. Valeriana occidentalis Heller. In wet places in the mountains from Ida. 
and Mont, to Colo, and Utah. Canon of Cache la Poudre; Poverty Ridge, 
above Cimarron ; Anita Peak; Beaver Creek. 

Order 49. CARDUALES. 

Flowers all with tubular corollas or none, or only the ray-flowers with ligulate 

corollas. 

Stamens distinct; flowers unisexual. 132. AMBROSIACEAE. 

Stamens united by the anthers, or if distinct (in Kithnia) the flowers her- 
maphrodite. 133. CARDUACEAE. 
Flowers all with ligulate corollas. 134. CICHORIACEAE. 

Family 132. AMBROSIACEAE Reich. RAGWEED FAMILY. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers in the same heads ; the latter few (rarely 

solitary or none), at the margins. 
Achenes turgid, ovoid or pear-shaped, marginless. 

Involucres of 5 dilated ovate, rigidly acuminate bracts ; achenes with a 

large terminal areola, surrounded by a disk. i. OXYTENIA. 

Involucres not with dilated rigidly acuminate bracts ; terminal areola minute. 

2. IVA. 

Achenes flattened, wing-margined ; involucres of 5 ovate or oblong herbaceous 
bracts and within them 1-2 large scarious bracts subtending the pistillate 
flowers. 3. DICORIA. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers in different heads ; the latter 1-4, without corolla, 

and enclosed in a nut-like or burr-like involucre. 

Involucres of the Staminate heads with united bracts ; receptacles low ; rudi- 
mentary styles penicillate or fimbriate at the apex. 
Spines or tubercles of the i -flowered pistillate heads in a single row. 

4. AMBROSIA. 
Spines of the i-4-flowered pistillate heads in more than one row. 

5. GAERTNERIA. 
Involucres of the Staminate heads with distinct bracts : receptacle cylin- 

draceous ; spines of the 2-flowered pistillate heads in several rows, uncinate. 

6. XANTHIUM. 



328 AMBROSIACEAE. 

i. OXYTENIA Nutt. 

i. Oxytenia acerosa Nutt. On dry plains from Colo, to N. M. and Ariz. 
Alt. about 4500 ft. San Juan Valley. 

2. IVA L. MARSH ELDER. 

Heads paniculate; leaves ovate, canescent beneath. i. /. xanthifolia. 

Heads axillary ; leaves obovate or oblong, green. 2. I. axillaris. 

1. Iva xanthifolia Nutt. In moist soil, along streams and in waste places 
from Mich., Sask. and Wash, to Neb. and N. M. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Sun- 
set Canon ; Cheyenne Mountain ; Ft. Collins ; Huerfano Valley, near Gardner ; 
Poudre River. 

2. Iva axillaris Pursh. In alkaline or saline meadows from Sask. and B. C. 
to Ind. Terr, and Calif. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Gunnison; near Greeley; Grand 
Junction ; Calhan ; Ft. Collins ; Lamar. 

3. DICORIA T. & G. 

i. Dicoria Brandegei A. Gray. On sandy bottoms from Colo, and Utah to 
Ariz. San Juan River; between McElmo and Recapture Creeks. 

4. AMBROSIA L. RAG-WEED, HOG-WEED. 

Involucres of the staminate heads 3-ribbed ; leaves palmately 3-s-cleft or entire. 

i. A. trifida. 
Involucres of the starainate heads not ribbed ; leaves once to thrice pinnatifid. 

Annual ; fruit with acute teeth. 2. A. artemisifolia. 

Perennial ; fruit with blunt teeth or unarmed. 3. A. psilostachya. 

1. Ambrosia trifida L. In moist soil from Que. and Ass. to Fla. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-5000 ft. East of Windsor ; Ft. Collins ; Dixon Canon ; Poudre 
Canon. 

Ambrosia trifida integrifolia (Muhl.) T. & G. A variety with entire leaves. 
Together with the species. Cache la Poudre River. 

2. Ambrosia artemisifolia L. In dry soil, waste places and fields from N. S. 
and B. C. to Fla. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Ft. Collins; banks of the 
Poudre. 

3. Ambrosia psilostachya DC. On prairies and plains from Ills., Sask. and 
Ida. to La. and Calif. ; also in Mex. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Golden ; New Wind- 
sor; Garden of the Gods; Pagosa Springs; Boulder; Lyons; Ft. Collins. 

5. GAERTNERIA Med. 

Leaves twice or thrice pinnately dissected. 

Leaves regularly pinnate with linear or oblong divisions. 

Staminate involucres cleft below the middle ; root mostly annuals. 

1. G. acanthocarpa. 
Staminate involucres not cleft to the middle ; perennials. 

Divisions of the leaves oblong or oblong-linear, acute. 

2. G. tenuifolia. 
Divisions of the leaves linear, obtuse. 3. G. linearis. 

Leaves interruptedly pinnate ; divisions ovate or triangular. 

4. G. tomentosa. 
Leaves simply pinnate or simple. 5. G. Grayi. 



AMBROSIACEAE. 329 

1. Gaertneria acanthocarpa (Hook.) Britton. (Franseria Hookeriana 
Nutt.) On plains and in sandy valleys from Sask. and B. C. to Tex. and 
Calif.- Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Denver ; Huerfano Valley, near 
Gardner; Buena Vista; Grand Junction; Delta; Rocky Ford; Grand River. 

2. Gaertneria tenuifolia (A. Gray) Kuntze. (Franseria tenuifolia A. Gray) 
In moist ground from Kans. and Colo, to Tex. and Calif. ; also in Mex. 
Exact locality not given. 

3. Gaertneria linearis Rydb. Dry plains of Colo. Alt. about 7000 ft. 
Calhan. 

4. Gaertneria tomentosa (Nutt.) Heller. {Ambrosia tomentosa Nutt.; 
Franseria discolor Nutt.) In dry soil from S. D. and Wyo. to Kans. and 
N. M. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. Platte River; Ft. Collins; New Windsor; Boulder. 

5. Gaertneria Grayi Heller. (Franseria tomentosa A. Gray) River val- 
leys in Kans., Neb. and Eastern Colo. Exact locality not given. 

6. XANTHIUM L. COCKLEBUR. 

i. Xanthium commune Britton. In valleys from Que. and N. Y. to Utah and 
Ariz. Ft. Collins. 

Family 133. CARDUACEAE Necker. THISTLE FAMILY. 

Stigmatic lines at the base of the stigmas or below the middle ; heads always 

discoid, never yellow or brown ; anthers not caudate at the base. 
Stigma filiform or subulate, hispidulous. Tribe i. VERNONIAE. 

Stigmas more or less clavate, papillose-puberulent. Tribe 2. EUPATORIAE. 
Stigmatic lines extending to the tips of the stigmata or to the appendage thereof, 

if present. 
Anther-sacs not tailed at the base ; heads most commonly radiate and with 

yellow or brown disk-flowers. 

Stigmata of the perfect flowers with more or less distinct appendages ; these 
usually strongly hairy outside, glabrous inside, but never with a ring 
of longer hairs. Tribe 3. ASTEREAE. 

Stigmata of the perfect flowers without appendages ; or if with appendages, 

these hairy on both sides and with a ring of longer hairs. 
Pappus never capillary ; stigma rarely appendaged. 
Bracts of the involucres herbaceous or foliaceous. 

Receptacle with chaffy scales, subtending the flowers. 

Tribe 5. HELIANTHEAE. 
Receptacle naked, or in Gaillardia with bristles, but not chaffy-bracted. 

Tribe 6. HELENIAE. 

Bracts of the involucres dry and scarious. Tribe 7. ANTHEMIDEAE. 

Pappus capillary ; stigma often appendaged. Tribe 8. SENECIONEAE. 

Anther-sacs caudate at the base ; heads never radiate and corollas yellow only 

in a few species of Carduus. 

Anthers not appendaged at the top ; heads heterogamous or dioecious ; pis- 
tillate flowers with filiform corollas. Tribe 4. GNAPHALIAE. 
Anther with elongated cartilaginous, mostly caudate appendages at the top ; 
flowers all hermaphrodite or the marginal neutral ; corolla not filiform. 

Tribe g. CYNAREAE. 

TRIBE i. VERNONIAE. 

One genus. i. VERNONIA. 

TRIBE 2. EUPATORIAE. 

Achenes s-angled without intervening ribs ; pappus of wholly capillary bristles, 

mostly uniserial. 2. EUPATORIUM. 

Achenes 8-io-ribbed or 8-io-striate. 



330 CARDUACEAE. 

Bracts of the involucre herbaceous or partly colored, not striate. 

5. LACINIARIA. 

Bracts of the involucres not herbaceous, striate-nerved. 
Pappus-bristles plumose ; anthers distinct ; bracts few. 

3. KUHNIA. 
Pappus-bristles scabrous or barbellate ; anther united ; bracts usually many. 

4. COLEOSANTHUS. 

TRIBE 3. ASTEREAE. 
A. Plants not dioecious. 

I. Marginal pistillate flowers, if present, ligulate. 
a. Ray-flowers yellow or none. 

1. Pappus consisting of scales or awns or lacking, never of numerous 

capillary bristles. 
Heads small, not over 4 mm. high, few-flowered ; pappus more or less 

paleaceous. 6. GUTIERREZIA. 

Heads large, many-flowered ; involucre in all except one species viscid ; 

pappus of a few deciduous awns. 7. GRINDELIA. 

2. Pappus at least in part of numerous capillary bristles. 

a. Pappus double, the inner of capillary bristles ; the outer of scales or 
short bristles ; involucres many-flowered, hemispherical with narrow 
imbricated bracts. 8. CHRYSOPSIS. 

b. Pappus wholly of capillary bristles. 

* Heads discoid. 

Involucres narrowly turbinate ; its bracts more or less chartaceous, 
keeled, arranged in definite (usually 5) vertical ranks; achenes 
elongated-linear ; stigma-tips subulate-filiform. 

9. CHRYSOTHAMNUS. 

Involucres broadly turbinate to hemispherical ; its bracts more or 
less imbricated, but not in definite vertical ranks ; achenes 
scarcely elongated-linear. 
Stigma-tips obtuse ; involucral bracts narrow, poorly imbricated. 

(Rayless species of) 31. ERIGERON. 

Stigma-tips acute ; bracts either broad or well imbricated or both. 
Achenes truncate at the top, gradually tapering towards the 
base, usually cinereous-pubescent ; bracts neither broad nor 
abruptly acuminate. 

Appendages or tips of the styles filiform : undershrubs with 
white-tomentulose stems and glandular-hairy foliage ; leaves 
entire-margined. 15. MACRONEMA. 

Appendages or tips of the stigmas subulate to ovate. 

Leaves with spinulose-tipped teeth ; corolla-tube slender. 

(Rayless species of) n. SIDERANTHUS. 

Leaves not spinulose, in ours entire-margined ; corolla- 
tube dilated above. 10. ISOCOMA. 
Achenes elongated, obovoid, . c., tapering at both ends, but 
more so below, multi-striate, glabrous or slightly hairy ; 
bracts of the involucres broad and abruptly acuminate ; ap- 
pendages of the stigmas ovate to short-subulate. 

13. OONOPSIS. 

* Heads radiate. 

Leaves pinnately cleft or toothed ; lobes or teeth spinulose-tipped. 
Pappus of the fertile achenes deciduous in a ring ; annuals, 
equally leafy throughout ; bracts more or less foliaceous. 

14. PRIONOPSIS. 
Pappus persistent. 

Bracts chartaceous. not foliaceous, merely with green tips; 
plants annual or perennial with a caudex, equally leafy 
throughout : pappus in age more or less spreading ; achenes 
turbinate and densely silky. 11. SIDERANTHTS. 

Bracts more or less foliaceous, at least above ; plants perennial 
with taproots, large basal leaves and few and rather small 



CARDUACEAE. 331 

stem-leaves ; pappus not spreading ; achenes oblong, glabrous 
or sparingly pubescent. 12. PYRROCOMA. 

Leaves entire or toothed, but teeth not spinulose-tipped. 
Bracts not longitudinally striate. 

Bracts abruptly acuminate ; stems leafy up to the sessile heads. 

13. OONOPSIS. 
Bracts not abruptly acuminate. 

Appendages of the stigma filiform, much longer than the 
stigmatic portion ; low shrubs with whitish bark and foli- 
aceous outer bracts. 15. MACRONEMA. 

Appendages of the stigmas ovate or triangular, not longer 

than the stigmatic portion. 

Plants low cespitose evergreen undershrubs with more or 
less evergreen leaves and solitary peduncled heads. 

1 6. STENOTUS. 
Plants with wholly herbaceous stem, if at all woody only 

at the caudex ; leaves not evergreen. 
Bracts, at least the outer, foliaceous or with foliaceous 

tips. 
Disk-flowers tubular ; plants with a taproot. 

12. PYRROCOMA. 
Disk-flowers more or less widened upwards ; plants 

with rootstock or short caudex. 
Heads corymbiform-cymose ; rays small and few ; 

plants leafy. 17. OREOCHRYSUM. 

Heads solitary ; rays numerous ; plants dwarf. 

1 8. TONESTUS. 
Bracts of the inflorescence not at all foliaceous or merely 

with green tips. 

Rays not more numerous than the disk-flowers ; re- 
ceptacle alveolate. 
Inflorescence racemose or paniculate ; bracts not in 

vertical rows. 19. SOI.IDAGO. 

Inflorescence corymbiform ; bracts in distinct ver- 
tical rows. 20. PETRADORIA. 
Rays more numerous than the disk-flowers ; receptacle 
fimbriolate ; heads corymbose. 

21. EUTHAMIA. 

Bracts of the involucres longitudinally striate ; heads in con- 
gested corymbs. 22. OLIGONEURON. 
b. Ray-flowers blue, pink or white. 

1. Pappus a mere crown or of a few scales or awn-like bristles. 

23. TOWNSENDIA. 

2. Pappus of numerous capillary bristles. 

a. Rays only slightly if at all exceeding the pappus ; all annual. 
Bracts in 2-3 series, the outer foliaceous ; stigma-tips acute. 

24. BRACHYACTIS. 
Bracts in 1-2 series, narrow, not foliaceous ; stigma-tips obtuse. 

32. LEPTILON. 

b. Rays conspicuous, longer than the pappus, usually equalling or ex- 

ceeding the width of the disk. 
Stigma-tips lanceolate or oblong to filiform. 
Perennials with a rootstock or caudex. 

Bracts acuminate, as well as the leaves tipped with callous points 
or spines ; plants with cespitose caudices and solitary heads 
at the ends of the stems or branches. 

25. XYLORRHIZA. 
Bracts not acuminate, or if long-attenuate, with soft tips. 

Pappus dilated at the apex ; bracts narrow, more or less keeled. 

26. UN AM i A. 
Pappus not dilated at the apex. 



CARDUACEAE. 

Bracts broad with a distinct keel or mid-vein, not at all 

foliaceous. 27. EUCEPHALUS. 

Bracts usually narrow, when broad neither keeled nor with a 

prominent mid-vein. 28. ASTER. 

Annuals or biennials, or if short-lived perennials, not with root- 
stocks ; bracts in many series, with herbaceous spreading or re- 
flexed tips ; stigma-tips linear to filiform. 

29. MACHAERANTHERA. 
Stigma-tips triangular or ovate, obtuse or rarely acutish ; bracts not 

foliaceous. 
Involucres turbinate ; bracts well imbricated in several rows. 

30. LEUCELENE. 
Involucres hemispherical or broader ; bracts in 1-3 series. 

31. ERIGERON. 

II. Marginal pistillate flowers not ligulate, reduced to a filiform or narrow 

short tube. 33. ESCHENBACHIA. 

B. Heads unisexual, dioecious, discoid ; pappus of the staminate flowers with 
clavate tips. 34. BACCHARIS. 

TRIBE 4. GNAPHALIAE. 

Shrubs ; bracts coriaceous ; receptacle naked ; pistillate flowers numerous ; corolla 
reduced to a short slender tube ; hermaphrodite flowers few and sterile ; 
their pappus with clavate tips. 35. BERTHELOTIA. 

Herbs, if at all shrubby only at the base ; bracts more or less scarious. 

Receptacle chaffy ; stigmas of the hermaphrodite sterile flowers not truncate. 

36. FILAGO. 

Receptacle not chaffy : stigmas of the hermaphrodite flowers mostly truncate. 
Plants dioecious, or the pistillate heads with a few hermaphrodite flowers 

in the center. 

Pappus-bristles of the pistillate flowers falling off in a ring ; those of the 
staminate flowers clavellate or apically barbellate, crisp ; central 
hermaphrodite flowers none. 37. ANTENNARIA. 

Pappus-bristles of the pistillate flowers falling off separately ; those of the 
staminate flowers scarcely clavellate ; central hermaphrodite flowers pres- 
ent in the pistillate heads. 38. ANAPHALIS. 
Plants not dioecious ; flowers fertile throughout the heads. 

39. GNAPHALIUM. 
TRIBE 5. HELIANTHEAE. 

A. Bracts not enclosing the achenes of the rays ; plants not glandular-viscid. 

I. Disk-flowers hermaphrodite but sterile. 

Marginal pistillate flowers with conspicuous rays ; involucres of very dis- 
similar sets of bracts. 40. MELAMPODIUM. 

Marginal pistillate flowers reduced to a truncate or obliquely cleft tube ; 
the ligule, if any. reduced to 2 or 3 small teeth. 41. PARTHENICE. 

II. Disk-flowers fertile. 

a. Ray-flowers fertile, with very short tube, persistent on the achenes and 

becoming papery in texture. 

Achenes of the disk compressed ; leaves entire. 42. CRASSINA. 
Achenes obtusely 4-angled ; leaves toothed. 43. HELIOPSIS. 

b. Ray-flowers deciduous from the achenes or wanting. 

i. Pappus a crown or none, or of a few scales on the angles of the 

achenes and rarely minute ones between. 
a. Achenes of the disk-flowers not obcompressed (except in RATIBIDA) : 

chaffs usually more or less concave and clasping. 
Receptacle conic, subulate or columnar. 
Achenes 4-angled. 44. BRAUNERIA. 

Achenes quadrangular-compressed ; apex of the achenes covered 

by the base of the corolla-tube. 45. GYMNOLOMIA. 

Achenes nearly equally 4-angled ; apex not covered by the base 

of the corolla. 46. RUDBECKIA. 

Achenes flattened, broad-margined or winged. 

47. RATIBIDA. 



CARDUACEAE. 333 

Receptacle from flat to convex. 

Achenes of the disk neither sharp-angled, margined nor winged. 
Rays fertile ; their achenes commonly 3-angled or obcompressed ; 

plants with thick balsamiferous tap-roots. 
Pappus none ; stem scapiform or with reduced leaves. 

48. BALSAMORRHIZA. 
Pappus a lacerate chaffy crown or of distinct chaffs ; stem 

low but leafy. 49. WYETHIA. 

Rays sterile or wanting ; plants not with fleshy tap-root. 
Pappus none or a minute ring. 45. GYMNOLOMIA. 

Pappus of 2 scarious awns. 50. HELIANTHUS. 

Achenes of the disk thin-edged, margined or winged. 
Ray-flowers neutral ; achenes scarcely winged. 

51. HELIANTHELLA. 

Ray-flowers fertile ; achenes winged. 52. XIMENESIA. 

b. Achenes obcompressed ; chaffs flat or hardly concave ; involucres 

distinctly double. 
Bracts of the involucres distinct or nearly so. 

Pappus in ours of small teeth, a mere border, or wanting. 

53. COREOPSIS. 

Pappus of 2-4 barbed or hispid awns. 54. BIDENS. 

Bracts of the inner involucre united at least to near the middle. 

55. THELESPERMA. 
2. Pappus of s-many, linear to lanceolate scales with thickened axis and 

hyaline margins. 74. GAILLARDIA. 

B. Bracts of the involucres uniserial, partly or wholly enclosing the achenes of 
the fertile ray-flowers ; plants glandular-viscid. 56. MADIA. 

TRIBE 6. HELENIAE. 

A. Plant-tissues without oil-glands. 

I. Ligules persistent and becoming papery on the striate achenes ; plants more 
or less woolly. 57. PSILOSTROPHE. 

II. Ligules deciduous or none. 

a. Achenes flat with only marginal nerves ; disk-corollas 4-toothed. 

58. PERICOME. 

b. Achenes angled, not flat, nerved or striate. 
i. Receptacle naked. 

a. Bracts of the involucres pale or colored, at least the margins and 

tips scarious. 
Corollas of the disk-flowers with reflexed or spreading lobes ; bracts of 

the broadly campanulate involucres obovate or broadly oblong. 
Heads discoid. 59. HYMENOPAPPUS. 

Heads radiate ; ligules obscurely toothed, yellowish or white. 

60. LEUCAMPYX. 
Corolla of the disk-flowers with linear, erect lobes : bracts of the 

turbinate involucres spatulate to linear-oblanceolate in two series ; 
heads in our species radiate ; ligules deeply cleft, purple. 

61. POLYPTERIS. 

b. Bracts of the involucres neither colored nor scarious. 
Achenes 4-angled. 

Foliage impressed punctate ; leaves, at least the lower, opposite. 
Perennials, suffruticose at the base ; leaf-segments oblong to 

linear. 62. PICRADENIOPSIS. 

Annuals ; leaf-segments filiform or nearly so. 

63. ACHYROPAPPUS. 

Foliage not impressed-punctate : leaves alternate. 
Bracts obovate, cuneate or oblanceolate. 

Perennials with a woody caudex ; leaves entire; pappus of 10 

scales. 64. PLATYSCHKUHRIA. 

Annuals ; leaves dissected ; pappus in our species wanting. 

65. BAHIA. 
Bracts linear. 66. CHAENACTIS. 



334 CARDUACEAE. 

Achenes s-io-ribbed. 

Bracts of the involucre erect, not spreading nor reflexed. 

Involucres many-flowered ; pappus present ; achenes tapering below. 

Bracts of the involucres nearly equal and similar, all distinct. 

Leaves simple ; stem scapiform or with a few small leaves ; 

heads long-peduncled. 
Corollas yellow ; bracts numerous ; leaves linear to oblong. 

67. TETRANEURIS. 

Corollas flesh-colored; bracts about 12; leaf-blades from 
orbicular to oblong. 68. CHAMAECHAENACTIS. 

Leaves dissected into linear lobes ; stem low but leafy. 

69. RYDBERGIA. 

Bracts of the involucres unequal ; the outer united at the base. 

70. HYMENOXYS. 
Involucres few-flowered: pappus wanting: achenes linear, S-io- 

striate. 71- FLAVERIA. 

Bracts of the involucres spreading or reflexed. 

Leaves not decurrent on the stem ; tubes of the disk-flowers 

moderately long. 72. DUGALDIA. 

Leaves decurrent on the stem ; tubes of the disk-corollas very 

short or reduced to a ring. 73- HELENIUM. 

2. Receptacle with bristle-like chaffs. 74- GAILLARDIA. 

B. Plant-tissues, especially the leaves and involucres with oil-glands ; plants 

heavy-scented. 
Bracts of the involucres more or less united ; stigmas of the disk-flowers 

elongated. 
Bracts of the involucres united only at the base ; stigmas with conical tips. 

75- BOEBERA. 

Bracts of the involucres united into a cup ; stigmas obtuse. 

76. LOWELLIA. 

Bracts of the involucres distinct ; stigma very short, obtuse, without an 
appendage. 77- PECTIS. 

TRIBE 7. ANTHEMIDEAE. 

Receptacle chaffy- 

Achenes terete, at least not flattened ; involucres hemispherical, large. 

78. ANTHEMIS. 
Achenes flattened ; involucres campanulate or obovoid, small. 

79. ACHILLEA. 
Receptacle naked or merely pubescent. 

Heads radiate. 80. CHRYSANTHEMUM. 
Heads discoid. 

Plants spiny; achenes and corollas cobwebby. 81. PICROTHAMNUS. 

Plants not spiny ; achenes not cobwebby. 82. ARTEMISIA. 

TRIBE 8. SENECIONEAE. 

Plants scapiferous, dioecious or nearly so, with large basal leaves appearing after 
flowering ; hermaphrodite flowers usually sterile. 83. PETASITES. 

Plants not scapiferous, not dioecious ; disk-flowers hermaphrodite, fertile. 
Involucres of many or several bracts. 

Involucres of commonly much overlapping or unequal bracts. 

84. HAPLOESTES. 
Involucres of connivent erect herbaceous equal bracts, with or without 

smaller calyculate ones below. 
Leaves mostly opposite ; pappus of a single series of rigid bristles. 

85. ARNICA. 
Leaves alternate ; pappus of numerous soft bristles. 

86. SENECIO. 
Involucres of 4-6, firm, concave, erect and strongly overlapping bracts ; shrubs 

with alternate leaves and discoid heads. 87. TETRADYMIA. 



CARDUACEAE. 335 

TRIBE 9. CYNAREAE. 
One genus. 88. CARDUUS. 

Tribe i. VERNONIAE. 

i. VERNONIA Schreb. IRON WEED. 

i. Vernonia Jamesii T. & G. (V. marginata (Torr.) Britton) On plains 
from Neb. and Colo, to Ark. and Tex. " On the Arkansas." 

Tribe 2. EUPATORIAE. 

2. EUPATORIUM L. JOE-PYE WEED, THOROUGH-WORT. 

Leaves verticillate in whorls of threes. 

Leaves ovate, acute. i. E. maculatum. 

Leaves lanceolate, acuminate. 2. E. Brunen. 

Leaves opposite. 3- E. texense. 

1. Eupatorium maculatum L. In moist soil from N. Y. and B. C. to Ky. 
and N. M. Along river east of Ft. Collins. 

2. Eupatorium Bruneri A. Gray. (Eupatorium Rydbergii Britton) In 
moist soil from Io\va, Sask. and B. C. to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 4000-5000 ft- 
Canon City ; Ft. Collins ; La Poudre near La Porte. 

3. Eupatorium texense (T. & G.) Rydb. (E. ageratifolium texense T. & 
G. ; E. ageratifolium A. Gray, mainly; not DC.) Rocky hills from Colo, to 
Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 7000-8500 ft. Canon City; Box Canon, west of Ouray; 
Trail Glen. 

3. KUHNIA L. 

Leaves oblong or lanceolate, 3-ribbed, more or less toothed. 

Bracts narrowly linear, acuminate. i. K. Hitchcockii. 

Bracts linear, abruptly acute. 2. K. glutinosa. 

Leaves linear, i -ribbed, entire. 3- K. Goodingii. 

1. Kuhnia Hitchcockii A. Nelson. Plains of Kans. and Colo. Alt. 4000- 
5000 ft. Denver. 

2. Kuhnia glutinosa Ell. (K. eupatorioides corymbulosa T. & G.) On dry 
prairies and plains from Ills, and Mont, to Ky. and Colo. Alt. about 5000 
ft. Boulder; New Windsor; Ft. Collins; Spring Canon. 

3. Kuhnia Goodingii A. Nels. On rocky hills and plains from Colo, to 
Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Engelmann Canon; Granite; Manitou ; 
Durango; Hotchkiss ; Pagosa Spring. 

4. COLEOSANTHUS Cass. 

Leaf-blades ovate or deltoid. 

Leaves slender-petioled, not spinulose-toothed ; bracts thin, 2 mm. or less wide. 
Heads 3o-so-flowered. 

Leaves thin, minutely puberulent ; teeth usually broadly triangular, acute ; 

peduncles usually longer than the heads. i. C. grandiflorus. 

Leaves thick, densely scabrous-pubescent, very veiny ; teeth rounded-ovate, 
obtuse or mucronate ; peduncles shorter than the subumbellate heads. 

2. C. innbellatns. 
Heads io-25-flowered. 



336 CARDUACEAE. 

Tips of the bracts not spreading ; leaf-blades 2-4 cm. long. 

3. C. albicaulis. 
Tips of the bracts spreading, squarrose ; leaf-blades less than i cm. long 

4. C. scaber. 
Leaves subsessile or very short-petioled, spinulose-toothed : bracts firm, 3-6 

mm. wide. 6. C. atractyloides. 

Leaves linear or oblong, sessile. 5- C. linifolius. 

1. Coleosanthus grandiflorus (Hook.) Kuntze. (Brickellia grandinora 
Nutt.) In canons, "bad-lands"' and draws from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, 
and Ore. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Columbine; Trappers' Lake; canon north of 
Palmer Lake ; bank of Poudre, La Porte. 

2. Coleosanthus umbellatus Greene. (Brickellia grandifiora minor A. Gray; 
Coleosanthus congestus A. Nels.) On hillsides and in canons from Wyo. to 
N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. Colorado Springs; near Empire; 
Boulder Canon, Boulder Co.; Pike's Peak; foot-hills, Larimer Co.; George- 
town; Trout Creek; Jefferson Co.; Golden; Canon City; near Pagosa Peak; 
southeast of Ouray; Black Canon; Idaho Springs; La Poudre; Redstone; 
mountains between Sunshine and Ward ;. Steamboat Springs ; Elk Canon ; 
Powder River ; Table Rock ; Hayden ; Roaring Fork, Larimer Co. 

3. Coleosanthus albicaulis Rydb. (Brickellia Wrightii Gray, in part.) In 
canons and on foot-hills from Colo, and Utah to N. M. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. 
Lower Boulder Canon; Trail Glen; Manitou ; Golden; Mt. Harvard; foot- 
hills, Larimer Co.; near Boulder; Spring Canon; Glenwood Springs. 

4. Coleosanthus scaber Greene. On dry soil in Colo. Alt. about 4700 ft.- 
Deer River; Mesa Verde. 

5. Coleosanthus linifolius (D. C. Eaton) Kuntze. (Brickellia linifolia D. C. 
Eaton; C. humilis Greene.) In arid soil from Colo, and Nev. to Calif. Alt. 
4000-7000 ft. Arboles; Grand Junction; canon of Smith's Fork; between 
Porter and Durango. 

6. Coleosanthus atractyloides (A. Gray) Kuntze. (Brickellia atractyloides 
A. Gray.) In desert regions from Colo, and Nev. to Ariz, and Calif. 
Southwestern Colo. 

5. LACINIARIA Hill. BLAZING STAR. 

Pappus plumose: leaves strongly punctate. i. L. punctata. 

Pappus merely barbellate. 

Heads in a short raceme-like inflorescence ; bracts obovate with dark rose- 
purple, laciniate apices. 2. L. ligiilistylis. 
Heads in a long raceme-like inflorescence ; bracts spatulate or obovate-oblan- 
ceolate with pale, merely erose apices. 3- L. scariosa. 

1. Laciniaria punctata (Hook.) Kuntze. (Liatris punctata Hook.) On 
dry plains and hills from Iowa, Sask. and Mont, to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 
4000-9000 ft. Miller's ranch ; north slope of Cheyenne Mountain ; Ft. Collins ; 
Boulder; Denver; Pike's Peak; dry plains northwest of Denver; Westcliffe; 
Manitou ; Livermore, Larimer Co. ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta ; New 
Windsor; Gunnison ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Table Rock; 
Poudre Canon; Ft. Collins; Golden; Colorado Springs; Salida. 

2. Laciniaria ligulistylis A. Nels. On hills from Sask. to Colo. Alt. 4000- 
8000 ft. Head of Redstone; Table Rock; La Veta; Alamosa; Twin Lakes; 
Pagosa Springs ; Larimer Co. ; Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; Westcliffe ; Jack's 
Cabin ; Trout Creek ; Sugar Loaf Mountain. 



CARDUACEAE. 337 

3. Laciniaria scariosa (L.) Hill. (Liatris scariosa Willd.) On prairies 
from Me. and S. D. to Fla. and Kans. It has been reported from Colorado, 
but all specimens seen so named belong to the preceding. 

Tribe 3. ASTEREAE. 

6. GUTIERREZIA Lag. 

Disc- and ray-flowers in each head 3-7 each. 

Surface of the leaves marked with large dots, each bordered by a hyaline scale. 

i. G. lepidota. 
Surface of the leaves not lepidote, either puberulent or glabrous. 

Axils of the leaves with fasciculate branches. 2. G. fasciculata. 

Axils of the leaves without fasciculate branches. 
Plant shrubby. 

Involucres elongated, clavate-turbinate, 2-3 mm. wide ; bracts oblong 

or lanceolate. 3. G. longifolia. 

Involucres campanulate, only slightly turbinate at the base, 3-4 mm. 

wide ; bracts ovate or obovate. 4. G. linearis. 

Plant ligneous only at the short persistent caudex. 
Leaves linear, usually 1.5-4 mm. wide. 

Involucres oblong-turbinate, over 5 mm. long ; outer bracts lanceo- 
late ; stems 3-4 dm. high. 5. G. scoparia. 
Involucres campanulate, somewhat turbinate only at the base ; bracts 
ovate ; stems 1-2 dm. high. 6. G. diversifolia. 
Leaves linear-filiform, less than i mm. wide. 

Ligules of the rays fully as long as the involucre. 7. G. filifolia. 
Ligules of the rays about half as long as the involucre. 

Heads usually peduncled and solitary at the ends of the branches. 

8. G. divaricata. 
Heads usually subsessile in clusters of 3-4 at the ends of the 

branches. 
Plant low, 1-2 dm. high ; branches green ; leaves 1-2 cm. long. 

9. G. juncea. 
Plants 3-4 dm. high ; branches with straw-colored bark ; leaves 

3-4 cm. long. 10. G. Sarothrae. 

Disc- and ray-flowers in each head only 1-2 each. 11. G. glomerella. 

1. Gutierrezia lepidota Greene. On dry plains of western Colo. Grand 
Junction. 

2. Gutierrezia fasciculata Greene. On dry plains in western Colo. Grand 
Junction. 

3. Gutierrezia longifolia Greene. On dry hills and plains from Colo, and 
Utah to N. M. Alt. 4000-5500 ft. Canon City; Westcliffe; Boulder. 

4. Gutierrezia linearis Rydb. On plains from Neb. and Colo, to Kans. and 
N. M. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. Gunnison ; Red Rock Canon, near Pike's Peak. 

5. Gutierrezia scoparia Rydb. On dry plains from Wyo. to Colo. Alt. 
5000-7000 -ft. Colorado Springs ; Manitou ; Boulder. 

6. Gutierrezia diversifolia Greene. On plains from Sask. and Mont, to 
N. M. and Utah. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Upper Larimer River; Ft. Collins; 
Gunnison; Muddy River, Middle Park; Parlin ; Manitou; west of Loveland; 
La Veta ; Timnath. 

7. Gutierrezia filifolia Greene. On dry plains from Ida. to N. M. and 
Nev. Alt. about 7000 ft. Cucharas Valley, near La Veta. 

8. Gutierrezia divaricata Nutt. On plains from Wyo. to Tex. and Utah. 
San Juan Co. 

22 



338 CARDUACEAE. 

g. Gutierrezia juncea Greene. On dry hills and plains from Okl. and Colo, 
to Ariz. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Garden of the Gods; Twin Lakes; Westcliffe. 

10. Gutierrezia Sarothrae (Pursh.) B. & R. (G. Euthaniac T. & G.) On 
plains from Neb. and Wyo. to Kans. and Utah. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Colorado 
Springs; Salida. 

11. Gutierrezia glomerella Greene. On dry plains from Colo, to N. AL- 
AR, about 4700 ft. Deer Run. 

7. GRINDELIA Willd. GUM PLANT, RESIN-WEED. 

Tips of the outer bracts spreading; none reflexed. i. G. decumbens. 

Tips of the bracts squarrose ; those of the outer ones strongly reflexed. 
Heads radiate. 

Pappus-awns apparently smooth ; barbules seen only under a compound 

microscope. 
Stem-leaves oval, ovate, or ovate-oblong with a broad base. 

Leaves bluish-green, spinulose-dentate ; heads very broad and flat ; its 

bracts broad and even the squarrose tips flattened. 2. G. texana. 
Leaves yellowish-green, merely dentate ; heads hemispherical ; its bracts 

narrow and with terete squarrose tips. 3. G. squarrosa. 

Stem-leaves oblanceolate, rarely oblong. 

Leaves all finely serrate, dentate or subentire. 

Leaves finely and closely serrate. 4- G. serrulata. 

Leaves rather remotely dentate or subentire. 5. G. perenms. 

Leaves coarsely toothed ; the basal ones sub-laciniate. 6. G. subincisa. 
Pappus-bristles distinctly barbellate ; barbules distinctly seen with a com- 
mon pocket-lens. 

Stem tall, 4-6 dm. high, usually solitary ; stem-leaves broadly oblong or 
obovate ; bracts broad, only the outer ones squarrose-reflexed. 

7. G. erecta. 

Plant low, about 3 dm. high ; usually several stems from the base ; stem- 
leaves oblanceolate or oblong; all bracts squarrose. 8. G. subalpina. 
Heads discoid. 

Stem-leaves oval or obovate. 9- G. inornata. 

Stem-leaves oblanceolate or oblong. 

Outer bracts strongly recurved; inner not squarrose. 10. G. fastigiata. 
All bracts squarrose. n. G. aphanactis. 

1. Grindelia decumbens Greene. On plains from Kans. and Colo, to N. M. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Durango; Ignacio; Pagosa Springs; Mancos ; Cimarron. 

2. Grindelia texana Scheele. (G. grandiflora Gray, in part; not Hook.) 
On plains from Colo, to Tex. and N. Mex. Alt. about 5000 ft. Lower 
Boulder Canon. 

3. Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal. On prairies and plains from Iowa 
and Wyo. to Kans. and Ariz. Alt. up to 6000 ft. Colorado Springs. 

4. Grindelia serrulata Rydb. On plains and hills from Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. about 5000 ft. Denver; Ft. Collins. 

5. Grindelia perennis A. Nels. On plains and hills from Sask. and Ida. to 
Colo. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. New Windsor; Boulder; Ft. Collins. 

6. Grindelia subincisa Greene. On hills from Colo, and N. M. Durango. 

7. Grindelia erecta A. Nels. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
7000-10,000 ft. Near Empire; Georgetown; Huerfano Valley, near Gardner; 
Cerro Summit ; mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

8. Grindelia subalpina Greene. In the mountains from Mont, to Colo, and 
Utah. Boulder ; head of Lone Pine Creek. 

9. Grindelia inornata Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Canon City. 



CARDUACEAE. 339 

10. Grindelia fastigiata Greene. On dry hills of western Colo. Alt. about 
4600 ft. Grand Junction. 

11. Grindelia aphanactis Rydb. In sandy soil in southwestern Colo. 
Durango. 

8. CHRYSOPSIS Nutt. GOLDEN ASTER. 

Leaves at least when young appressed canescent. 

Stem-leaves, except the lower ones sessile or nearly so. 

Stem-leaves oblong to lanceolate, decidedly acute. i. C. hirsntissima. 

Stem-leaves obovate or obovate-lanceolate, mostly obtuse and mucronate or 

more seldom acutish. 

Leaves usually less than 3 cm. long; those of the branches short, 1-1.5 
cm. long ; heads small ; involucres seldom i cm. broad, usually sub- 
tended by leaves. 2. C. foliosa. 
Leaves 3-6 cm. long ; those of the branches not reduced ; heads larger ; 

involucres over i cm. broad. 
Inner bracts with subulate usually brownish and spreading tips ; heads 

sessile. 3. C. caudata. 

Inner bracts merely acute. 

Heads peduncled, naked or subtended by 1-2 small linear or oblong 
leaves ; leaves neither cordate nor truncate at the base. 

4. C. villosa. 
Heads sessile, subtended by ample oval leaves ; upper stem-leaves 

cordate or truncate at the base. 5. C. amplifolia. 

Leaves all except the uppermost petioled, oblanceolate, obtuse or acutish. 
Heads short-peduncled or sessile. 

Stem 3-5 dm. high ; heads peduncled. 6. C. Bakeri. 

Stems low, scarcely over i dm. high ; heads sessile. 7. C. alpicola. 
Heads long-peduncled ; peduncles 3-7 cm. long. 8. C. pedunculata. 

Leaves hispid or hirsute with a spreading pubescence. 
Leaves copiously hairy, only slightly viscid. 

Leaves obovate, broadly oblanceolate or rarely oblong, subsessile except the 

lower; pubescence short. g. C. horrida. 

Leaves oblanceolate, all except the uppermost distinctly petioled. 
Plant tall, 34 dm. high ; heads more or less peduncled. 
Plant densely cespitose ; but stems simple to near the top. 

10. C. arida. 

Plant profusely branched. u. C. floribunda. 

Plant low, 1-2 dm. high : heads sessile. 12. C. pumila. 

Leaves sparingly hairy, decidedly viscid. 

LTpper leaves obovate, sessile, obtuse ; lower oblanceolate, petioled. 
Involucres over i cm. broad, subtended with obovate or oblong leaves. 

13. C. resinolens. 
Involucres less than i cm. broad, naked or subtended by small linear leaves. 

14. L. viscida. 
Leaves all oblanceolate, acute. 15. C. hispida. 

1. Chrysopsis hirsutissima Greene. In sandy soil from Sask. and N. D. to 
Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 7000-9000 ft. Arboles ; Veta Pass ; Mancos. 

2. Chrysopsis foliosa Nutt. In sandy soil from Minn, and Wash, to 
Kans. and Colo. Cheyenne Mountain ; Red Rock Canon ; Spring Canon ; 
North Cheyenne Canon. 

3. Chrysopsis caudata Rydb. On hills and mountains of Colorado. Alt. 
5000-10,000 ft. Ruxton Dell ; near Boulder. 

4. Chrysopsis villosa (Pursh) Nutt. (C. imbricata A. Nels. ?) On dry 
hills from Minn, and Ida. to Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Mt. Har- 
vard ; Tennessee Pass, Lake Co. ; Trail Glen ; Chambers' Lake ; New Wind- 
sor ; mountains, Larimer Co. ; Pike's Peak ; Clear Creek ; Middle Park ; 
Steamboat Springs. 



340 CARDUACEAE. 

5. Chrysopsis amplifolia Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 
ft. Ward ; Longmont ; Manitou. 

6. Chrysopsis Bakeri Greene. (C. incana Greene; C. compacta Greene) 
On hills from Mont, and Ida. to N. M. Alt. 4000-10,000 ft. Columbine; 
Montrose; Jack's Cabin, Gunnison watershed; Box Canon, west of Ouray; 
Redcliffe ; Big Creek Gulch ; Marshall Pass ; Lone Pine Creek, Larimer Co. ; 
Red Mountain road, south of Ouray; Sangre de Cristo; Deer River; Black 
Canon ; Cedar Edge ; Rogers ; near Pagosa Peak ; Tennessee Pass, Lake Co. ; 
Rist Canon ; Graymont. 

7. Chrysopsis alpicola Rydb. On the higher peaks of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 11,000-13,000 ft. Clark's Peak; South Park; Gray's Peak; Graymount. 

8. Chrysopsis pedunculata Greene. On hills in Colo. Pagosa Springs. 

9. Chrysopsis horrida Rydb. On hills from Neb. and Colo, to Tex. Alt. 
about 5000 ft. New Windsor. 

10. Chrysopsis arida A. Nels. On dry hills from Kans. and Mont, to N. M. 
and Ariz. Alt. 5000-12,000 ft. Twin Lakes ; Mount Ouray ; Boulder. 

11. Chrysopsis floribunda Greene. In sandy soil in Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 
ft. New Windsor; Black Canon. 

12. Chrysopsis pumila Greene. In canons of Neb. and Colo. Alt. 10,000- 
11,000 ft. Near Empire. 

13. Chrysopsis resinolens A. Nels. In sandy soil of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
5000-6000 ft. Chambers' Lake ; Boulder. 

Chrysopsis resinolens obtusata A. Nels. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Mountains 
between Sunshine and Ward. 

14. Chrysopsis viscida (A. Gray) Greene. (C. villosa viscida A. Gray) 
In the mountains from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. Manitou; Breckenridge ; 
summit of North Park Range. 

15. Chrysopsis hispida (Hook.) Nutt. (C. villosa hispida A. Gray) In 
sandy river valleys from Sask. and Alb. to N. M. and Ariz. Black Canon 
of the Gunnison. 

9. CHRYSOTHAMNUS Nutt. RABBIT-BRUSH. 

Bracts of the involucre acuminate. 
Achenes glabrous. 

Leaves oblanceolate or spatulate, puberulent ; plant less than 2 dm. high. 

i. C. dcprcssits. 
Leaves narrowly linear, slightly tomentulose or glabrous. 

Bracts thick, strongly carinate, glabrous. 2. C. pulchclliis. 

Bracts thin, not strongly carinate, arachnoid-ciliate. 3. C. Bigelovii. 
Achenes pubescent. 

Bracts 4-6 in each vertical row. 2. C. pulchellus. 

Bracts 2-3 in each vertical row. 

Outer bracts long-acuminate, produced and more or less foliaceous. 
Leaves linear, more or less distinctly 3-nerved. 4. C. Parryi. 
Leaves very narrowly linear, i -nerved. 

Leaves mostly erect ; the upper reduced, not exceeding the heads. 

5. C. Neu'berryi. 
Leaves arcuate-spreading ; the upper longer than the heads. 

6. C. Howardi. 
Outer bracts short, neither produced nor foliaceous. 

Heads 5-8 mm. high ; bracts thin, glabrous ; leaves filiform. 



CARDUACEAE. 341 

Leaves 2-3 cm. long, over i mm. wide, light green. 

7. C. Greenei. 
Leaves 1-2 cm. long, less than i mm. wide, dark green. 

8. C. filifoliits. 
Heads about i cm. long ; bracts thicker, arachnoid-ciliate. 

Leaves 1-2 cm. long ; involucres lanate as well as arachnoid. 

9. C. colliiuts. 

Leaves 3-4 cm. long ; involucres somewhat viscid, merely arachnoid- 
ciliate on the margin. 10. C. wyomingensis. 

Bracts not acuminate. 

Achenes pubescent ; bracts acute or obtuse. 

Branches at least when young more or less whitened with a pannose to- 
mentum ; style-appendages longer than the stigmatic portion ; corolla 
7-10 mm. long. 
Bracts and mature leaves perfectly glabrous. 

Bracts ovate, or the outer triangular ; involucre about half as long as 

the flowers. 1 1 . C. virens. 

Bracts lanceolate to linear ; involucre more than half as long as the 

flowers. 

Lobes of the corollas lanceolate, mostly acute, in age spreading. 
Leaves nearly erect or strongly ascending, straight, 1-2 mm. wide. 

12. C. graveolens. 
Leaves spreading or reflexed, more or less falcate, about i mm. wide. 

13. C. patens. 
Lobes of the corolla ovate, obtuse, about 0.5 mm. long, erect in age. 

Leaves about 0.5 mm. wide. 14. C. pinifolius. 

Leaves about 2 mm. wide. 15. C. confinis. 

Bracts erose-ciliate on the margin, or tomentose, or both. 

Leaves i mm. or less, spreading. 16. C. plattensis. 

Leaves 1-2.5 mm. wide. 

Bracts narrow, linear-lanceolate, strongly carinate, almost glabrous, 
except the erose-ciliate margins. 17. C. pulcherrimus. 

Bracts usually broader, more or less densely tomentose and viscid 

as well as ciliate. 18. C. frigid us. 

Branches green, without tomentum ; style-appendages shorter than the stig- 
matic portion ; corolla 5-7 mm. long. 

Leaves and stem glabrous or nearly so, except the hispidulous-ciliate mar- 
gins of the former. 
Leaves narrowly linear, 1-2 mm. wide, strongly twisted. 

19. C. elegans. 
Leaves linear to lance-linear or oblanceolate, 2-8 mm. wide, not twisted. 

Bracts linear, oblong, or lanceolate. 

Bracts at least the outer ones with thick green tips. 

20. C. linifolius. 
Bracts comparatively thin, not green-tipped. 21. C. semdatiis. 

Bracts ovate, oval or the inner broadly elliptic. 

22. C. latifolius. 
Leaves and stem decidedly puberulent. 

Leaves 3-6 mm. wide, rarely twisted. 23. C. lanceolatus. 

Leaves 1-2.5 mm. wide, usually twisted. 24. C. pubeniliis. 

Achenes glabrous; bracts rounded at the apex. 25. C. J'ascyi. 

1. Chrysothamnus depressus Nutt. (Bigeloi'ia depressa A. Gray) Plains 
of Utah, Colo, and N. M. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Gunnison ; Squaw Creek, above 
Cimarron. 

2. Chrysothamnus pulchellus (A. Gray) Greene. (Bigelovia pulchella A. 
Gray) On dry hills from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and N. M. ; also in Mex. 
Exact locality not given. 



342 CARDUACEAE. 

3. Chrysothamnus Bigelovii (A. Gray) Greene. (Bigelovia Bigelovii A. 
Gray) On dry plains from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and N. M. Alt. about 
7000 ft. Huerfano Co. ; mesas, La Veta ; Buena Vista. 

4. Chrysothamnus Parryi (A. Gray) Greene. (Bigelovia Parryi A. Gray) 
On hills and in dry valleys from Wyo. to Colo. Alt. 7500-10,000 ft. Gray's 
Peak; Georgetown; South Park; near Empire; Lake City; southeast of 
Ouray; North Fork; Pitkin ; mesa, Yampa; Parlin; Cottomvood Lake; Twin 
Lakes; Steamboat Springs; Marshall Pass; Cerro Summit; Cumbres ; Mt. 
Harvard; on Grizzly Creek; near Empire; Middle Park; Black Canon of the 
Gunnison; Little Muddy, Gunnison Co.; Breckenridge; Hayden. 

5. Chrysothamnus Newberryi Rydb. On dry hills of N. M. and Colo. 
Mesa Verde. 

6. Chrysothamnus Howard! (Parry) Greene. (Bigelovia Howardii A. 
Gray) On dry hills from Neb. and Wyo. to Colo. Middle Park; Greene, 
North Park; near Walden. 

7. Chrysothamnus Greenei (A. Gray) Greene. (Bigelovia Greenei A. Gray; 
C. scoparius Rydb.) On plains of Colo. Alt. 5000-7500 ft. Huerfano Co. ; 
La Veta; Hugo. 

8. Chrysothamnus filifolius Rydb. On plains of Colo. Antonito; Granite. 

9. Chrysothamnus collinus Greene. On hills of Wyo. and Colo. West- 
cliffe. 

10. Chrysothamnus wyomingensis A. Nelson. On dry plains of Wyo. and 
Colo. South Park at Jefferson. 

11. Chrysothamnus virens Greene. Plains of southern Colo. Pike's Peak; 
Canon City. 

12. Chrysothamnus graveolens (Nutt.) Greene. (Bigelovia graveolens A. 
Gray) In canons, on " bad-lands," and dry hills from Neb. and Mont, to 
N. M. and Utah. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. New Windsor; Golden; Grand Junc- 
tion ; near Denver ; Grizzly Creek ; Canon City ; Idaho Springs ; Egeria Park ; 
Breckenridge; Ft. Collins; Boulder; Delta; Jefferson Co. 

13. Chrysothamnus patens Rydb. On dry plains and hills in Colo. Alt. 
4600-7500 ft. Grand Junction ; Alamosa ; Manitou ; lola. 

14. Chrysothamnus pinifolius Greene. On dry hills and plains in Colo. 
Alt. 7000-13,000 ft. Gunnison; Doyles ; Mt. Abram. 

15. Chrysothamnus confinis Greene. On arid plains of Colo, and N. M. 
Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Grizzly Creek ; Huerfano Valley, near Gardner. 

16. Chrysothamnus plattensis Greene. On plains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-5000 ft. Denver ; New Windsor ; near Hebron ; Ft. Collins. 

17. Chrysothamnus pulcherrimus A. Nels. On plains from Mont, to Colo. 
North Park ; Pagosa Springs ; near Hebron ; Grand River, near State 
Bridge ; Trimble Springs ; Poudre Canon ; forks of Poudre and Big South ; 
Gypsum. 

18. Chrysothamnus frigidus Greene. On plains from Ass. to Colo. Alt. 
8000 ft. Buena Vista. 

19. Chrysothamnus elegans Greene. On plains of Colo. Alt. 7500-8500 
ft. Gunnison ; Doyles ; South Park. 

20. Chrysothamnus linifolius Greene. On dry plains of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Deer Run; Grand Junction; Hotchkiss, Delta Co.; Olathe. 



CARDUACEAE. 343 

21. Chrysothamnus serrulatus (Torr.) Rydb. (Bigelovia Douglasii ser- 
rulata A. Gray; C. glaucus A. Nels.) On dry plains of Wyo. and Utah to 
Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Gypsum ; road to Steamboat Springs ; Cottonwood 
Lake ; South Park, near Jefferson ; North Park ; headwaters of Clear Creek ; 
Twin Lakes ; Middle Park. 

22. Chrysothamnus latifolius (D. C. Eaton) Rydb. (Bigelovia Douglasii 
latifolia A. Gray) On dry plains from Mont, and Wash, to Colo. 

23. Chrysothamnus lanceolatus Nutt. (Bigelovia Douglasii lanceolata A. 
Gray) On dry plains and hills from Mont, and Wash, to Colo. Alt. 7000- 
8500 ft. Cottonwood Lake; Grizzly Creek; Black Canon; Cerro Summit; 
North Park, near Walden ; Hayden, Routt Co. 

24. Chrysothamnus puberulus (D. C. Eaton) Greene. (Linosyris viscidi- 
flora puberula D. C. Eaton) On dry plains and hills from Mont, and Wash, 
to Colo, and Utah. Alt. 8000-9500 ft. Pitkin ; Parlin ; South Park, south- 
east of Jefferson. 

25. Chrysothamnus Vaseyi (A. Gray) Greene. (Bigelovia Vaseyi A. Gray) 
In the mountains of Wyo., Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 7500 ft. Middle 
Park; Greene, North Park; Gunnison; Squaw Hill, above Cimarron. 

10. ISOCOMA Nutt. 

Bracts acute, linear-lanceolate. i. I. pluriflora. 

Bracts obtuse or obtusish, linear, oblong or oblanceolate. 2. I. Wrightii. 

1. Isocoma pluriflora (T. & G.) Greene. (Bigelovia pluriflora A. Gray) 
On plains of Colo. " On the Arkansas." 

2. Isocoma Wrightii (A. Gray) Rydb. (Bigelovia Wrightii A. Gray) On 
banks and in saline soil from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. 
San Juan Valley (Brandegee). 

ii. SIDERANTHUS Nutt. 

Leaves spinescently toothed, not pinnatifid. 

Heads discoid; perennial with woody caudex. i. 5". grindelioides. 

Heads radiate ; annual. 2. S. annuus. 
Leaves pinnatifid at least the lower ones. 

Stem more or less floccose or cinereous, especially when young. 

Plant cinereous-pubescent, more or less glandular. 3. 5. australis. 

Plant more or less floccose, not at all glandular. 4. S. spinulosus. 
Plant neither floccose nor cinereous. 

Plant glabrous or slightly glandular-puberulent. 5. 5". glaberrimus. 
Plant decidedly pubescent. 

Plant finely puberulent. 6. 5". puberulus. 

Plant hispid-strigose. 7. S. gracilis. 

1. Sideranthus grindelioides (Nutt.) Britton. (Aplopappus Nuttallii T. 
& G.) On dry plains and hills from Ass. and Nev. to Neb. and Ariz. Alt. 
4000-5500 ft. Grand Junction; Rifle; Hotchkiss. 

2. Sideranthus annuus Rydb. (Aplopappus rubiginosus A. Gray; not T. 
& G.) On sandy soil from Neb. and Colo, to Kans. and Tex. Alt. 4000- 
5000 ft. Platte Valley, Julesburg ; New Windsor ; Ft. Collins. 

3. Sideranthus australis (Greene) Rydb. (Aplopappus australis Greene) 
On dry soil from Colo, to Tex. and N. M. ; also in Mex. Alt. about 4700 ft. 
Deer Run. 



344 CARDUACEAE. 

4. Sideranthus spinulosus (Pursh) Sweet. (Aplopappus spinulosus DC.) 
On dry plains and prairies from Minn., Sask. and Mont, to Tex. and Ariz. 
Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Cheyenne Mountain ; Denver ; Arboles ; Manitou ; Ft. Col- 
lins ; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta; Greeley; Canon City; New Windsor; 
Spring Canon; Hotchkiss; Boulder; roadside near Rocky Ford; Ft. Collins; 
Wray; Raton Range. 

5. Sideranthus glaberrimus Rydb. On dry plains from S. D. and Wyo. 
to Ind. Terr, and Colo. Table Rock. 

6. Sideranthus puberulus Rydb. On dry hills in Colo. Alt. up to 8000 ft. 
Salida; Buena Vista. 

7. Sideranthus gracilis (Nutt.) Rydb. (A. gracilis A. Gray) On dry 
hills from Colo, and Utah to Tex. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Alt. about 6700 
ft. Durango; between Porter and Durango ; Mancos. 

12. PYRROCOMA Nutt. 

Bracts except the innermost obtuse, obovate or oblong. i. P. crocea. 

Bracts mostly acute or acuminate. 

Heads large ; disk 2 cm. or more in diameter ; bracts in about 3 series. 

Upper part of stem and involucre decidedly villous ; bracts wholly foliaceous. 

2. P. dementis. 

Stem and involucre almost glabrous ; bracts chartaceous at the base, with 
foliaceous tips. 3. P. ititegrifolia. 

Heads smaller ; disk less than 2 cm. in diameter. 
Bracts in 2-3 unequal series. 

Stem and bract more or less white-woolly. 4. P. lagopus. 

Stem and bracts glabrous or nearly so. 5. P. Vaseyi. 

Bracts nearly of the same length. 

Plant villous. 6. P. inuloides. 

Plant, except the upper parts, glabrate in age. 7. P. uninora. 

1. Pyrrocoma crocea (A. Gray) Greene. (Aplopappus croceus A. Gray) 
In the mountains from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Doyle's ; 
Cerro Summit; North Park; La Plata Canon; Steamboat Springs; between 
Pallas and Sydney ; Egeria Park ; Little Muddy ; Gunnison Co. ; Walton 
Creek; Boulder; North Park, along the Michigan; Willow Creek, Routt Co. 

2. Pyrrocoma dementis Rydb. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. 
Tennessee Pass ; Robinson ; Mt. Harvard. 

3. Pyrrocoma integrifolia (Porter) Greene. (Aplopappus integrifolius Por- 
ter) In the mountains from Sask. and B. C. to Colo. Rabbit-Ear Range. 

4. Pyrrocoma lagopus Rydb. On dry plains and alkali flats in Wyo. and 
Colo. North Park. 

5. Pyrrocoma Vaseyi (Parry) Rydb. (Aplopappus lanceolatus Vaseyi 
Parry) In the mountains from Wyo. to Colo, and Utah.- Alt. up to 9000 
ft. Middle Park ; Lake John, North Park ; North Fork, Larimer Co. 

6. Pyrrocoma inuloides (Hook.) Greene. (Aplopappus inuloides Nutt.) 
Plains from Mont, and Ida. to Colo. North Park, near edge of Wyoming. 

7. Pyrrocoma uniflora (Hook.) Greene. (Aplopappus uniflorus Nutt.) In 
river valleys from Sask. and Mont, to Colo, and Utah. 

13. OONOPSIS Greene. 

Dwarf; stem less than i dm. high; heads 6-10 dm. high. i. O. Engehnannii. 
Plant robust, 1.1-3 dm. high; heads 15-20 mm. high. 



CARDUACEAE. 345 

Heads several. z. O. foliosa. 

Head solitary. 3. O. monocephala. 

1. Oonopsis Engelmannii (A. Gray) Greene. (Bigelovia Engclmannii A. 
Gray) On dry plains from Kans. to Colo. Hugo Station. 

2. Oonopsis foliosa (A. Gray) Greene. (Aplopappus Fremontii A. Gray) 
On mountains of Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Pueblo; Fremont Co.; Canon 
City ; Florence ; Rocky Ford. 

3. Oonopsis monocephala A. Nelson. Only known from the type locality at 
Berwind, Colorado. 

14. PRIONOPSIS Nutt. 

i. Prionopsis ciliata Nutt. (Aplopappus ciliatus DC.) On hillsides and 
banks from Mo. and Colo, to Tex. Exact locality not given. 

15. MACRONEMA Nutt. 

Outer bracts oblong, acute. i. M. discoideion. 

Outer bracts broadly oblong, obtuse. 2. M. obtusum. 

1. Macronema discoideum Nutt. (Aplopappus Macronema A. Gray) On 
the mountains from Colo, and Utah to Calif. Alt. up to 12,000 ft. George- 
town ; Marshall Pass; Mt. Harvard; Sangre de Cristo; Mt. Ouray. 

2. Macronema obtusum Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 8000 
ft. South Cottonwood Gulch, Chaffee Co. ; Twin Lakes. 

16. STENOTUS Nutt. 

Bracts lanceolate, acute. i. 5". acaulis. 

Bracts oval or oblong, very obtuse. 2. S. armerioides. 

1. Stenotus acaulis Nutt. (Aplopappus acaulis A. Gray) On hills from 
Sask. and Wash, to Colo, and Calif. Meeker, Rio Blanco Co. 

2. Stenotus armerioides Nutt. On dry hills and " bad lands " from Man. 
and Ass. to N. M. Alt. up to 7000 ft. Cimarron. 

17. OREOCHRYSUM Rydb. 

i. Oreochrysum Parryi (A. Gray) Rydb. (Aplopappus Parryi A. Gray; 
Solidago Parryi Greene) On mountains from Wyo. to N. M. and Ariz. 
Alt. 7000-12,000 ft. Villa Grove; Silver Plume; southeast of Ouray; Cam- 
eron Pass; Ruby; Marshall Pass; Minnehaha ; Buffalo Pass, Park Range; 
Cottonwood Lake ; Grizzly Creek ; Pagosa Peak ; Devil's Causeway, White 
River Plateau ; Berthoud Pass ; Georgetown ; Silverton ; Mt. Harvard ; moun- 
tains between Sunshine and Ward ; Vance Junction ; Bitter Creek ; Gray's 
Peak ; Lake City ; Clear Creek. 

1 8. TONESTUS A. Nelson. 

Bracts acute; plant viscid-puberulent. i. T. Lyallii. 

Bracts obtuse ; plant soft-pubescent or glabrate, scarcely viscid. 2. T. pygmaens. 

i. Tonestus Lyallii (A. Gray) A. Nelson. (Aplopappus Lyallii A. Gray; 
Pyrrocoma Lyallii Rydb.) On high mountains from Mont, and Wash, to 
Colo. Clear Creek. 



346 CARDUACEAE. 

2. Tonestus pygmaeus (T. & G.) A. Nels. (Aplopappus pygmaeus A. 
Gray; Macronema pygmaeum Greene) On mountains of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Clear Creek; Gray's Peak; Little Kate Mine, La Plata 
Mountains ; Mt. Princeton ; Cameron Pass, Larimer Co. ; Pike's Peak ; Bald 
Mountain; Silver Plume; Mt. Garfield; near Pagosa Peak; Beaver Creek; 
Raton Range; Middle Park. 

19. SOLID AGO L. GOLDEN ROD. 

Leaves glabrous or slightly pubescent along the veins and on the margins. 

Leaves not triple-veined ; branches of the inflorescence not recurved-spread- 

ing ; heads not secund. 

Bracts of the inflorescence lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute or acuminate. 
Leaves ciliate at the base. I. VIRGAUREAE. 

Leaves not ciliate at the base. IV. GLABERRIMAE. 

Bracts of the inflorescence oblong or linear-oblong, obtuse. 

Leaves, at least the basal ones, toothed ; stem-leaves few ; plants 1-4 dm. 

high. II. HUMILES. 

Leaves all entire ; stem very leafy, 4-8 dm. high. III. SPECIOSAE. 

Leaves triple-veined ; heads more or less secund on recurved-spreading branches. 
Plants slender, not very leafy, 2-4 dm. high ; stem-leaves narrowly oblan- 
ceolate or linear. IV. GLABERRIMAE. 

Plant tall, leafy, 4-10 dm. high; stem-leaves lanceolate. V. SEROTINAE. 
Leaves densely canescent. 

Leaves lanceolate ; bracts narrowly linear-lanceolate. VI. SEROTIXAE. 

Leaves, at least the lower ones, oblanceolate or obovate. VII. INCAN T AE. 

I. VIRGAUREAE. 

Plant low and slender, 1-3 dm. high ; inflorescence corymbiform ; branches with 

a single or a few corymbose heads. 
Heads 7-9 mm. high ; inner bracts linear-lanceolate, of about the same length 

as the flowers and pappus; plant 2-3 dm. high. i. S. scopulorum. 

Heads 5-7 mm. high ; bracts lanceolate ; the inner shorter than the flowers and 

the pappus ; plant usually less than 2 dm. high. 2. 6". ciliosa. 

Plants stout, 3-4 dm. high ; inflorescence paniculate ; branches racemiform : heads 

7-9 mm. high. 
Basal leaves broadly oblanceolate, acute ; stem pubescent. 

3. S. rubra. 

Basal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, obtuse ; stem glabrous up to the inflorescence. 

4. S. laericanlis. 

II. HUMILES. 

Plant low, 1-1.5 dm. high; inflorescence with few heads, short, congested. 

5. .5". decumbcns. 
Plant taller, 2-4 dm. high ; inflorescence with many heads, elongated. 

Leaves not ciliate ; bracts oblong ; inflorescence usually narrow. 

6. S. oreophila. 
Leaves ciliate at the base ; bracts linear ; inflorescence open. 

7. -5". dilatata. 

III. SPECIOSAE. 

One species. 8- $" pallida. 

IV. GLABERRIMAE. 

Heads less than 5 mm. high ; stem slender. 

Inflorescence decidedly viscid ; leaves indistinctly triple-veined. 

9. 5". viscidula. 
Inflorescence not viscid ; leaves distinctly triple-veined. 



CARDUACEAE. 347 

Inflorescence narrow, scarcely secund ; bracts linear-lanceolate. 

10. 5". missouriensis. 
Inflorescence usually open and more or less secund ; bracts oblong-lanceolate. 

11. .S. glaberrima. 
Heads 6-7 mm. high; stem stout. 12. S. concmna. 

V. SEROTINAE. 

Leaves green, sparingly pubescent or glabrous ; pubescence scabrous, mostly 

confined to the margins and the veins. 

Stem usually glabrous up to the inflorescence ; heads 5 mm. high or more ; 
leaves glabrous except on the margins and on the mid-veins. 

13. 5". Pitcheri. 
Stem more or less pubescent. 

Heads 5 mm. or more high ; leaves pubescent ; plant stout. 

14. 5". polyphylla. 
Heads about 4 mm. high ; plant comparatively slender. 

Leaves pubescent at least on the veins. 15. S. canadensis. 

Leaves glabrous, except the scabrous-ciliolate margins. 

1 6. S. serra. 
Leaves densely canescent, especially beneath. 

Leaves usually broadly lanceolate, scabrous above. 17. S. scabriusciila. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, finely and rather softly canescent on both sides, more 
or less yellowish-gray. 18. S. gilvocanescens. 

VII. INCANAE. 

Plants low, 1-2 dm. high ; inflorescence corymbiform ; branches not secund. 

19. 5". nana. 
Plants tall, 2-6 dm. high ; inflorescence narrow, or if open with distinctly secund 

branches. 
Bracts oblong of linear, obtuse ; stem-leaves scarcely triple-veined ; inflorescence 

usually narrow. 

Stem-leaves oblanceolate. 20. 5". pulcherrima. 

Stem-leaves spatulate or elliptic. 21. S. radulina. 

Bracts lanceolate or ovate, acute ; stem-leaves distinctly triple-veined ; in- 
florescence usually more open. 
Stem-leaves oblanceolate or elliptic ; bracts lanceolate. 

22. S. trinervata. 
Stem-leaves obovate, thick ; bracts ovate. 23. 5". inollis. 

1. Solidago scopulorum (A. Gray) A. Nels. (S. multiradiata scopulorum 
A. Gray) On hills and mountains from Alb. and B. C. to Colo, and Utah. 
Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Bard Creek, near Empire; Lake City; Grizzly Creek; 
White River Plateau ; Robinson ; Mt. Harvard ; Big South ; Gore Pass. 

2. Solidago ciliosa Greene. In the higher mountains from Alb. to Colo, 
and Ariz. Alt. up to 13,000 ft. Ironton, San Juan Co.; Seven Lakes; Gray's 
Peak. 

3. Solidago rubra Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. North Park; Grizzly 
Creek, Larimer Co. 

4. Solidago laevicaulis Rydb. In the mountains of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 
up to 11,000 ft.- North Park; Berthoud Pass. 

5. Solidago decumbens Greene. (S. humilis nana A. Gray) On the higher 
mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 10,000-13,000 ft. Gray's Peak; near Em- 
pire; Mt. Harvard; Mt. Garfield ; near Pagosa Peak; Bottomless Pit; Cam- 
eron Pass; Berthoud Pass. 

6. Solidago oreophila Rydb. (S. humilis A. Gray, in part; S. humilis Pat- 
tcrsonii Gandoger) In the mountains from Mackenzie to Colo. Alt. 7000- 
11,000 ft. Clear Creek; near Empire; near Pagosa Peak; Minnehaha; Estes 



348 CARDUACEAE. 

Park ; Grizzly Creek ; Villa Grove ; Bear Creek Canon ; Crystal Park ; Wil- 
low Creek ; La Plata Canon ; Cripple Creek road ; Marshall Pass ; Cottomvood 
Lake; Chambers' Lake; Twin Lakes; South- Park; Mount Baldy; Ruxton 
Dell ; The Crags ; Steamboat Springs ; Baxter's ranch ; Table Rock ; between 
Sunshine and Ward; Palmer Lake; Beaver Creek; Bosworth's ranch; Stove 
Prairie. 

7. Solidago dilatata A. Nels. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. 
8000-9500 ft. Mountains between Sunshine and Ward. 

8. Solidago pallida (Porter) Rydb. (S. spectabilis Coulter; not A. Gray; 
S. speciosa pallida Porter) On hills from N. D. to Neb. and Colo. Alt. 
5000-6500 ft. Lower Boulder Canon ; Manitou ; Bosworth's ranch, Stove 
Prairie ; Bergen Park. 

9. Solidago viscidula Rydb. In the mountains of Colo. Grand Lake. 

10. Solidago missouriensis Nutt. (S. Tolmieana A. Gray) On hills and 
mountains from Wyo. and Ida. to Colo. Clear Creek; North Park; Middle 
Park. 

11. Solidago glaberrima Martens. (5". Missouriensis A. Gray; not Nutt.) 
On plains and hills from Mich., Alb. and Ida. to Mo., Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 
4000-9000 ft. Pike's Peak ; New Windsor ; Cheyenne Mountain ; Durango ; 
near Empire ; Mt. Harvard ; Boulder ; Ft. Collins ; Long Gulch ; Horsetooth 
Mountain ; Georgetown ; falls of Poudre River ; Stove Prairie Hill. 

12. Solidago concinna A. Nels. (S. Missouriensis extraria A. Gray) In 
the mountains from Alb. and B. C. to Colo. Alt. 5000-9000 ft. Pike's Peak; 
Ft. Collins; New Windsor; Gunnison ; lola; North Park; Minnehaha; Crys- 
tal Park; Ruxton Park; Durango; Dillon; Englemann Canon; Breckenridge; 
Soldier Canon. 

13. Solidago Pitcher! Nutt. (S. serotina A. Gray, in part) Along streams 
from Minn, and Wash, to Ark. and Colo. Alt. 4000-6000 ft. New Windsor; 
Lower Boulder Canon ; La Porte, Larimer Co. ; North Cheyenne Canon ; 
Colorado Springs; Williams' Caiion; Ft. Collins; Soldiers' Canon; Pleasant 
Valley ; Poudre Flats ; La Porte ; Denver. 

14. Solidago polyphylla Rydb. (S. Canadensis procera A. Gray, in part) 
Along streams from B. C. to N. M. and Wash. Alt. about 7000-8000 ft. 
Englemann Canon ; Gunnison ; Canon City. 

15. Solidago canadensis L. Among bushes from Lab. and Mackenzie to 
Colo. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Gypsum. Eagle Co.; Parlin ; Dillon; Denver; Ches- 
ter ; Twin Lakes ; Gunnison ; Gunnison Co. ; North Park ; Gypsum Creek 
Canon ; Elk River ; Ft. Collins. 

16. Solidago serra Rydb. Along streams, Wyo. and Colo. Yampa. 

17. Solidago scabriuscula (Porter) Rydb. (S. Canadensis scabriuscula 
Porter; var. scabra T. & G., in part) In dry soil from N. D. and Wyo. to 
Mo. and Tex. Alt. 5000 ft. Ft. Collins. 

18. Solidago gilvocanescens Rydb. (S. Canadensis gilvocanescens Rydb.) 
In sandy soil from Minn, and N. D. to Neb. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. 
Ft. Collins ; Redstone. 

19. Solidago nana Nutt. On high, dry plains from Mont, to Colo, and Ariz. 
Alt. up to 9000 ft. Pagosa Springs ; source of Leroux Creek. 

20. Solidago pulcherrima A. Nels. (S. nemoralis A. Gray, in part; not 
Ait.) Dry plains from Minn, and N. D. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 6000-10,000 



CARDUACEAE. 349 

ft. Pike's Peak ; Bpsworth's ranch, Stove Prairie ; mountains between Sun- 
shine and Ward; Soldier Canon. 

A variety with linear bracts was collected in Sheep Canon. 

21. Solidago radulina Rydb. In the mountains of Utah and Colo. Alt. 
6000-8000 ft. Meadow Park; Gunnison Co. 

22. Solidago trinervata Greene. On dry plains and hills from S. D. and 
Wyo. to Colo, and Ariz. Alt. 7000-9500 ft. Lower Boulder Canon ; Idaho 
Springs ; east of Laramie River ; New Windsor ; along Bear River, below 
Steamboat Springs; Durango; near Mancos; lola; southeast of Ouray; Wol- 
cott; west of Ouray; between Porter and Durango; Elk Canon; Ft. Collins; 
Poudre River; Black Canon of the Gunnison. 

23. Solidago mollis Bartl. (S. nemoralis incana A. Gray) On plains from 
N. D. and Mont, to Colo, and Tex. Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Ft. Collins; New 
Windsor; Cucharas Valley, near La Veta. 

20. PETRADORIA Greene. 

i. Petradoria pumila (T. & G.) Greene. (Solidago puinila T. & G.) On 
high mountains from Wyo. and Nev. to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 5000-8000 ft'. 
Durango ; Grand Junction ; Cerro Summit. 

21. EUTHAMIA Nutt. 

i. Euthamia occidentalis Nutt. (Solidago occidentalis Nutt.) In moist 
ground from Mont, and Wash, to N. M. and Colo. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. 
Hotchkiss, Delta Co.; Sterling; Deer Run; Olathe, Delta Co.; Hotchkiss; 
Delta. 

22. OLIGONEURON Small. 

i. Oligoneuron canescens Rydb. (Solidago rigida humilis Porter) On 
prairies and river valleys from Sask. and Mont, to Neb. and Colo. Pagosa 
Springs ; Hayden. 

23. TOWNSENDIA Hook. 

Bracts acuminate. 

Stems low with spreading basal branches, which surpass it in length. 

i. T. grandiftora. 
Stems erect or nearly so, wholly simple below. 

Involucre about 1.5 cm. broad, naked. 2. T. eximia. 

Involucre about 2-3 cm. broad, generally subtended by leaves. 

3. T. Vreelandii. 
Bracts acute or obtuse. 
Stems evident, leafy. 

Stems 5-20 cm. high ; annuals and biennials. 

Bracts of the involucre 3-ranked ; pubescence of the stem appressed ; 

leaves linear. 4. T. Fendleri. 

Bracts 2-ranked ; pubescence of the stem not strictly appressed ; earlier 

leaves spatulate. 5. T. strigosa. 

Stem usually evident, but short, 1-5 cm. long; perennials. 
Leaves more or less cinereous. 

Pappus of the rays consisting of bristles Yz-V^ as long as those of the 

disk-flowers. 6. T. incana. 

Pappus of the rays reduced to a crown of short squamellae. 

5. T. strigosa. 
Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 7. T. glabella. 



350 CARDUACEAE. 

Plant acaulescent ; heads sessile among the rosulate leaves. 

Plant glabrate, cinereous only when young ; leaves oblanceolate or spatulate. 
Bracts broadly lanceolate, tinged with red. 

Bracts obtuse ; ray-flowers with a very short pappus. 

8. T. Rothrockii. 

Bracts acute ; pappus of disk-and ray-flowers alike. g. T. Wilcoxiana. 
Bracts narrowly lanceolate, mostly green. 10. T. intermedia. 

Plant permanently cinerous ; leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate. 

ii. T. exscapa. 

1. Townsendia grandiflora Nutt. On plains and hills from S. D. and Wyo. 
to Ind. Terr, and Colo. Alt. 4000-11.000 ft. Morrison; Manitou ; South Table 
Mountain ; Ft. Collins ; Larimer Co. ; Red Rock Canon ; Garden of the 
Gods ; Spring Canon ; Boulder ; Horsetooth Gulch ; Pennock's mountain ranch ; 
Soldier Canon. 

2. Townsendia eximia A-. Gray. On mountain sides from Colo, to Tex. and 
Ariz. " Colorado." 

3. Townsendia Vreelandii Rydb. In mountain sides and in valleys of 
southern Colo. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Veta Pass ; Veta Mountain ; West Span- 
ish Peak. 

4. Townsendia Fendleri A. Gray. Gravelly hills in N. M. and Colo. 
Roubadeaux Pass ; Salida ; Arkansas River, near Poncha Pass. 

5. Townsendia strigosa Nutt. On gravelly hills from Wyo. to N. M. and 
Ariz. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Silver Plume ; Mancos ; Hotchkiss. 

6. Townsendia incana Nutt. Mountains and hills from Wyo. and Utah to 
N. M. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Grand Junction; Rifle; Palisades. 

7. Townsendia glabella A. Gray. (T. Bakeri Greene) On dry hillsides 
of Colo. Alt. about 8500 ft. La Pagosa; Dix; Los Pinos (Bayfield). 

8. Townsendia Rothrockii A. Gray. On mountains of southern Colo. 
Alt. up to 13,000 ft. South Park. 

9. Townsendia Wilcoxiana Wood. On dry plains and hills from Ind. Terr, 
to Colo. San Louis Range. 

10. Townsendia intermedia Rydb. On dry plains and hills from Neb. and 
Wyo. to Kans. and Ariz. Alt. about 5000 ft. Lake City; Ft. Collins; 
South Park; Colorado City. 

11. Townsendia exscapa (Richardson) Porter. (T. scricea Hook.) On 
dry plains from Sask. and Mont, to Tex. and N. M. Alt. 4000-8000 ft. 
Uncompahgre Mountains, near Los Pinos ; Denver ; New Windsor ; Central 
City ; butte five miles southwest of La Veta ; mesas near Colorado Springs ; 
La Veta; Ft. Collins; Los Pinos (Bayfield); plains near Denver; Dixon 
Canon ; hills near Arthur's Rock; Horsetooth Gulch. 

24. BRACHYACTIS Ledeb. 

Bracts oblong or oblong-linear, obtuse. i. B. frondosa. 

Bracts narrowly linear, acute. 2. B. angusta. 

1. Brachyactis frondosa (Nutt.) A. Gray. (Aster frondosus T. & G.) 
Along streams and pools from Wyo. and Ida. to Colo, and Calif. Hotchkiss, 
Delta Co. 

2. Brachyactis angusta (T. & G.) Britton. (Aster angustus T. & G.) In 
wet saline soil from Ills., Sask. and Alb. to Mo., Colo, and Utah. Blue River, 
above Kremmling; New Windsor; Hotchkiss. 



CARDUACEAE. 351 

25. XYLORRHIZA Nutt. 

Leaves not spinulose-toothed. 

Leaves spatulate, cuspidate. i. X. venusta. 

Leaves linear-oblanceolate, acute. 2. X. villosa. 
Leaves spinulose-toothed. 

Ligules 8-10 mm. long. 3. X. coloradensis. 

Ligules 15-20 mm. long. 4. X. Brandegei. 

1. Xylorrhiza venusta (Jones) Heller. (Aster venustus Jones) In dry 
places in Colo, and Utah. Alt. about 7000 ft. Cimarron ; Hotchkiss. 

2. Xylorrhiza villosa Nutt. (Aster Xylorrhiza T. & G.) In rocky places 
and clayey soil in Wyo. and Colo. North of Craig, Routt Co. 

3. Xylorrhiza coloradensis (A. Gray) Rydb. (Aster coloradensis A. Gray) 
In the higher mountains of Colo. South Park. 

4. Xylorrhiza Brandegei Rydb. On high peaks in southern Colo. Alt. 
12,000 ft. San Juan Pass. 

26. UNAMIA Greene. 

i. Unamia ptarmicoides (Nees) Greene. (Aster ptarmicoides T. & G.) 
On rocky banks and bluffs from Mass, and Sask. to N. Y. and Colo. Alt. 
4000-7000 ft. Canon on east side of Cheyenne Mountain ; Horsetooth Moun- 
tains ; Soldier Canon ; Table Rock. 

27. BUCEPHALUS Nutt. 

Bracts all thin and acute, villous-ciliate on the margins ; style-appendages subulate. 

i. E. Engehnannii. 
Bracts firmer, merely ciliolate ; the outer obtuse ; style-appendages obtuse. 

Inner bracts acute. 2. E. glaucns. 

All bracts obtuse or mucronate. 3. E. formosus. 

1. Bucephalus Engelmannii (A. Gray) Greene. (Aster Engehnannii A. 
Gray) In the mountains from Mont, and B. C. to Colo, and Wash. Alt. 
6000-10,000 ft. Sierra Madre ; Steamboat Springs; Crested Butte; Four-mile 
Hill, Routt Co.; between Pallas and Sydney; Maclntyre Creek, Larimer Co.; 
Ruby; Fish Creek Falls; summit of North Park Range, Routt Co. 

2. Bucephalus glaucus Nutt. (Aster glaucus T. & G.) In the mountains 
of Wyo., Colo, and Utah. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Headwaters of Clear Creek; 
Gray's Peak ; Bosworth's ranch ; Black Canon ; Durango ; chaparral-covered 
hills southeast of Ouray; about Ouray; Grand Lake; Home; Pagosa Springs; 
mountains between Sunshine and Ward ; Roaring Fork, Larimer Co. 

3. Bucephalus formosus Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 
9500 ft. Near Pagosa Peak. 

28. ASTER L. 

Involucres and peduncles glandular. 

Bracts narrowly linear, almost equal in length. I. CAMPESTRES. 

Bracts thick, oblanceolate, well imbricated. II. OBLOXGIFOLII. 

Involucres and peduncles not glandular. 

Outer bracts neither foliaceous nor equalling or surpassing the inner. 
Bracts more or less pubescent on the back. 
Bracts not bristle-pointed. 

Heads solitary ; plant less than 3 dm. high ; leaves oblanceolate or the 

upper linear. III. ALPIM. 

Heads corymbose or paniculate. 



352 CARDUACEAE. 

Plants less than i dm. high, glabrous up to the villous inflorescence. 

IV. ANDINI. 
Plants 2-6 dm. high ; pubescence of the stem and leaves hirsute or 

strigose, usually scant. V. GRISEI. 

Bracts bristle-pointed. VI. MULTIFLORI. 

Bracts glabrous, except the ciliate margins. 

Bracts linear, oblong or lanceolate, all acute or acutish. 

Lower leaves long-petioled ; blades cordate or ovate (rarely broadly 

lanceolate), usually more or less serrate. VII. SAGITTIFOLII. 

Lower leaves oblanceolate, linear, or lanceolate. 
Plants perfectly glabrous throughout. 

Bracts whitish-coriaceous below and with a distinctly rhombic 
green tip above ; upper leaves auriculate-clasping. 

VIII. LAEVES. 
Bracts linear-subulate, green throughout ; leaves narrowly linear, 

not clasping. IX. PORTERIANI. 

Upper part of the stem and peduncles with at least pubescent lines. 
Heads usually numerous in a leafy panicle or compound corymb. 
Stem only with pubescent lines. 

Bracts narrowly oblanceolate with rhombic tips ; leaves thickish, 

the lower often triple-nerved. X. SUBRACEMOSI. 

Bracts linear to subulate with narrow linear-oblanceolate green 
backs or the outer wholly green ; leaves thin, never triple- 
nerved. XI. SALICIFOLII. 
Stem at least above pubescent on all sides. XII. LONCHOPHYLLI. 
Heads few in a naked small corymb. XIII. OCCIDENTALES. 
Bracts oblanceolate, the outer obtuse. XIV. ADSCENDENTES. 
Outer bracts foliaceous, equalling or surpassing the inner. 

Heads rather numerous in an open leafy panicle. XV. FULCRATI. 

Heads few, in a usually simple, racemose or corymbose inflorescence with 
nearly erect branches. XVI. FOLIACET. 

I. CAMPESTRES. 

Leaves oblong to linear-lanceolate. i. A. Novae-Angliae. 

Leaves linear. 2. A. campestris. 

II. OBLONGIFOLII. 

Leaves oblong or lanceolate. 

Leaves scabrous-hirsutulous, mostly spreading or reflexed. 

3. A. Kumleinii. 
Leaves glabrous, except the bristly-ciliate margins, ascending. 

4. A. Fendleri. 
Leaves linear or the lower ones oblanceolate. 5. A. paiiciflonts. 

III. ALPINI. 

One species. 6. A. alpinns. 

IV. ANDINI. 

One species. 7. A. andinus. 

V. GRISEI. 

Leaves rather copiously and permanently appressed-hirsutulous. 

Plant 3-4 dm. high ; stem retrorse-hirsute below. 8. A. griseus. 

Plant 1-1.5 dm. high; hairs of the stem not retrorse. 9. A. griseolus. 
Leaves sparingly strigose and glabrate in age, or perfectly glabrous, except the 

hispidulous-ciliate margins. 
Bracts with green tips and mid-veins. 

Stem stout ; leaves oblanceolate. 10. A. Undcrzvoodii. 

Stem slender ; leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate or linear. 

Leaves firm; bracts with thick tips. n. A. vallicola. 

Leaves and bracts thin. 12. A. Nelsonii. 

Outer bracts green almost throughout. 13. A. violaceus. 



CARDUACEAE. 353 

VI. MULTIFLORI. 

Pubescence of the stem spreading or reflexed. 

Heads less than 5 mm. high. 14- A. exiguus. 

Heads 6-8 mm. high. 15- A. crassnlus. 

Pubescence of the stem appressed or ascending. 

Bracts very unequal in length, well imbricated, the outer much shorter. 
Bracts narrowly oblanceolate, acutish, especially the inner. 

1 6. A. multiflorus. 
Bracts broadly oblanceolate or the outer spatulate, very obtuse. 

17. A. polycephalus. 
Bracts almost equal in length or the outer sometimes longer ; heads few or 

solitary at the ends of the branches. 
Bracts thick, very squarrose ; leaves thick, densely strigose. 

1 8. A. cornmutatus. 
Bracts thin, not squarrose ; leaves sparingly strigose, in age often glabrate. 

19. A. falcatus. 

VII. SAGITTIFOLU. 

One species. -20. A. Lindleyanus. 

VIII. LAEVES. 

Green tips of the bracts broadly rhombic ; leaves of the branches much reduced. 

21. A. laevis. 

Green tips of the bracts narrowly rhombic or rhombic-oblanceolate ; leaves of 
the branches gradually but not conspicuously reduced. 22. A. Geyeri. 

IX. PORTERIANI. 

One species. 23. A. Porteri. 

X. SUBRACEMOSI. 

Inflorescence falsely racemose ; leaves linear to oblanceolate. 

24. A. subracemosus. 

XI. SALICIFOLII. 

Inflorescence elongated, not flat-topped. 

Heads numerous in a much branched panicle ; bracts not with white mid-ribs. 
Leaves distinctly toothed. 

Disk of the head about i cm. high and broad ; leaves thickish. 

25. A. salicifolins. 
Disk 6-8 mm. high and broad; leaves thin. 26. A. paniculatus. 

Leaves entire, rarely denticulate. 

All bracts narrowly linear ; branches ascending ; rays purplish. 
Bracts almost linear-filiform, more or less squarrous. 

27. A. hesperius. 

Bracts linear, erect. 28. A. coerulescens. 

Outer bracts broader than the inner, oblanceolate ; branches more di- 
vergent. 

Rays usually white. 29. A. Osterhoutii. 

Rays purple. 30. A. fiuviatilis. 

Heads fewer; bracts with white mid-ribs. 31. A. laetevirens. 

Inflorescence more or less flat-topped. 

Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, firm ; heads numerous. 

32. A. corymbiformis. 
Leaves narrowly linear, thin ; heads few. 33. A. longulus. 

XII. LOXCHOPHYLLI. 

One species. 34- A. lonchophylhts. 

XIII. OCCIDENTALES. 

One species. 35- A. Fremontii. 

23 



354 CARDUACEAE. 

XIV. ADSCENDENTES. 

Heads few in a simple corymb, less than i cm. high ; upper leaves much reduced ; 
stem 2-3 dm. high, slender. 36. A. armcriaefolius. 

Heads many in a leafy panicle. 

Heads about i cm. high ; stem-leaves thick, lanceolate or oblanceolate. 

37. A. T^i'eedyi. 

Heads less than i cm. high ; stem-leaves linear or narrowly linear-oblanceolate. 
Lower leaves oblanceolate ; bracts glabrous, except the ciliate margins ; 

plant 1-3 dm. high. 38. A. adscendens. 

Lower leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate. 

Plant low, 2-3 dm. high, with a ligneous caudex ; bracts usually hairy on 

the back. n. A. vallicola. 

Plant 3-6 dm. high, from a more or less branched rootstock. 

Bracts more or less hairy on the back. 12. A. Nelsonii. 

Bracts glabrous except the ciliate margins. 39. A. Nuttallii. 

XV. FULCRATI. 

Outer bracts much exceeding the disk ; some twice as long. 

40. A. fnlcratus. 
Outer bracts seldom exceeding the disk. 41. A. Eatonii. 

XVI. FOLIOSI. 

Plant tall, 4-8 dm. high. 

Bracts mainly linear or linear-lanceolate. 42. A. frondeus. 
Outer bracts broadly lanceolate or oblanceolate. 

Outer bracts mostly acute. 43. A. Canbyi. 

Outer bracts mostly obtuse. 44. A. Burkei. 

Plant low, 1-2 dm. high. 45. A. apricus. 

1. Aster Novae-Angliae L. Low ground from Canada to S. C, Colo, and 
Sask. Canon City. 

2. Aster campestris Ntitt. In valleys from Mont, and Wash, to Colo, and 
Ore. Alt. up to 9000 ft. Breckenridge ; Dillon ; Manitou ; Laramie River, 
Larimer Co. 

3. Aster Kumleinii Fries. (A. oblongifolius rigidulus A. Gray) On dry 
plains and prairies from Minn, to S. D. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Near Bent's Fort ; 
Cucharas Valley, near La Veta. 

4. Aster Fendleri A. Gray. On plains and sandhills from Kans. and Colo, 
to N. M. Alt. up to 7000 ft. Arkansas River, above Canon City. 

5. Aster pauciflorus Nutt. Wet saline soil from Sask. to S. D., N. M. and 
Ariz. Warm soda springs in Animas Valley. 

6. Aster alpinus L. In arctic and alpine places from Mackenzie and Alaska 
to Colo. Alt. 12,000 ft. Berthoud Pass. 

7. Aster andinus Nutt. On alpine peaks from Mont, to Colo. Gray's Peak ; 
Mt. Harvard. 

8. Aster griseus Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. about 8000 ft. 
Doyles. 

9. Aster griseolus Rydb. On the higher mountains of Colo. Mt. Harvard ; 
Twin Lakes ; Breckenridge. 

10. Aster Underwoodii Rydb. On high mountains of Colo, and Wyo. 
Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Ironton Park, nine miles south of Ouray ; Eldora and 
Baltimore. 

11. Aster vallicola Greene. In the mountains from Wyo. and Nev. to Colo. 
Alt. 7000-8500 ft. Alamosa ; Sargent ; Pagosa Springs ; southeast of Ouray. 

12. Aster Nelsonii Greene. In the mountains of Colo, and Wyo. Alt. 7000- 
8000 ft. lola; Buena Vista. 



CARDUACEAE. 355 

13. Aster violaceus Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Mt. Harvard. 

14. Aster exiguus (Fern.) Rydb. (A. ciliatus Muhl.) On prairies and 
plains from Vt. and Wash, to Pa. and Ariz. ; also in Mex. Ft. Collins ; 
Olathe ; Gypsum ; Sunset Canon. 

15. Aster crassulus Rydb. On plains from N. D. and Ida. to Colo, and 
Calif. (?) Alt. 4000-8000 ft. Near Denver, Platte River; La Veta ; Gun- 
nison; Parlin, Gunnison Co.; Seldon ; along Bear River, below Steamboat 
Springs ; Pagosa Springs ; Gypsum ; Ft. Collins ; Hotchkiss. 

16. Aster multiflorus Ait. On prairies and sterile ground from Me. and 
Mont, to Ga. and Mex. Alt. 4000-5000 ft. Near Bent's Fort ; Ft. Collins. 

17. Aster polycephalus Rydb. (A. scoparius D. C. ; not Nees) On plains 
and hills from Alb. and Neb. to Tex. and Ariz. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Colorado 
Springs; McCoy; Twin Lakes; Ft. Collins; Trail Glen; Westcliffe ; Salida; 
Olathe; Poudre River; Baxter's ranch; Poudre Canon. 

18. Aster commutatus A. Gray. On plains and river banks from Minn, to 
Wyo., to Kans. and Nev. Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Gunnison ; 
Westcliffe. 

19. Aster falcatus Lindl. In valleys from Mackenzie and Alaska to Colo. 
Alt. about 8000 ft. Doyles ; Gunnison Co. ; near Colorado City. 

20. Aster Lindleyanus T. & G. In valleys from Lab. and B. C. to N. H. 
and Colo. Poudre near La Porte. 

21. Aster laevis L. In open woodlands from Ont. and Sask. to La. and 
N. M. Westcliffe ; Tobe Miller's ranch; Poudre River; Ft. Collins; Ruxton 
Dell. 

22. Aster Geyeri (A. Gray) Ho well. (A. laevis Geyeri A. Gray) Valleys 
from Alb. and Wash, to Colo. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. Cheyenne Mountain ; 
North Cheyenne Canon ; Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; mountains, Larimer Co. ; near 
Pagosa Peak; Engelmann Canon; Box Canon, west of Ouray; Ft. Collins; 
Redstone; Poudre River; Bosworth's ranch; Palmer Lake. 

23. Aster Porteri A. Gray. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 5000-10,000 ft. 
Golden ; Lower Boulder Canon ; Minnehaha ; Idaho Springs ; North Chey- 
enne Canon ; Ft. Collins ; Bosworth's ranch ; Cheyenne Mountain ; between 
Sunshine and Ward ; canon west of Palmer Lake. 

24. Aster subracemosus Rydb. In valleys from Mont, and Colo. Alt. 7500- 
8500 ft. Southeast of Ouray; North Park. 

25. Aster salicifolius Lam. On wooded banks from Me. and Ass. to Fla., 
Tex. and Colo. New Windsor; North Park; Ft. Collins. 

26. Aster paniculatus Lam. On wooded banks from N. B. and N. D. to 
Va., Kans. and Colo. Gypsum. 

27. Aster hesperius A. Gray. Along streams from Colo, to N. M. and Calif. 
New Windsor. 

28. Aster coerulescens DC. (A. salicifolius coerulcsccns A. Gray) On 
rocky banks from Wyo. to Tex. and Colo. New Windsor; Ft. Collins; 
Olathe, Montrose Co.; Gypsum; Poudre River; Home. 

29. Aster Osterhoutii Rydb. Along ditches in northern Colo. New Wind- 
sor. 

30. Aster fluviatilis Osterhout. Along streams in Colo. New Windsor. 

31. Aster laetevirens Greene. Along streams in Colo, and Wyo. Home; 
Dale Creek, Larimer Co. 



356 CARDUACEAE. 

32. Aster corymbiformis Rydb. In meadows in Colo. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. 
Parlin, Gunnison Co. ; Ft. Collins ; Westcliffe ; Denver. 

33. Aster longulus Sheldon. In wet meadows from Minn, and Alb. to Neb. 
and Colo. Twin Lakes ; Westcliffe. 

34. Aster lonchophyllus Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. Sooo- 
10,000 ft. Crested Butte ; Gore Pass. 

35. Aster Fremontii A. Gray. In valleys from Mont, to Colo. Alt. 9000- 
12,000 ft. Cameron Pass; Breckenridge ; Michigan; Trappers' Lake; Ironton 
Park, nine miles south of Ouray; Sherwood's; Laramie River; Robinson; 
Twin Lakes; Marshall Pass; Ruxton Park; Lake City. 

36. Aster armeriaefolius Greene. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 8000-10,000 ft.- Doyles ; Marshall Pass ; Laramie River, Larimer Co. ; 
Grizzly Creek; Bosworth's ranch, Stove Prairie. 

37. Aster Tweedyi Rydb. In valleys of Wyo. and Colo. Alt. about 5000 
ft. Near Laramie River, Larimer Co. 

38. Aster adscendens Lindl. In valleys from Ass. to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 
8000-10,000 ft. Near Empire; mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Ft. 
Collins ; Grizzly Creek. 

39. Aster Nuttallii T. & G. (A. orthopliyllns Greene) In the mountains 
from Wyo. to Colo, and Calif. Alt. 5000-8000 ft. Gunnison; Ft. Collins; 
Cerro Summit ; Montrose. 

40. Aster fulcratus Greene. In valleys of Colo. Alt. about 9000 ft. Near 
Pagosa Peak. 

41. Aster Eatonii (A. Gray) Howell. (A. foliaceus Eatonii A. Gray; 
Brachyactis hybrida Greene) In the mountains from Mont, and B. C. to 
Colo, and Calif. Alt. about 5000-8000 ft. Poudre River; Gunnison; Upper 
Arkansas ; Cheyenne Canon. 

42. Aster frondeus (A. Gray) Greene. (A. foliaceus frondeus A. Gray; 
Aster glastifolius Greene) In the mountains from Ida. and B. C. to Colo, 
and Nev. Alt. 8000-10,000 ft. Empire; near Laramie River, Larimer Co.; 
Ruxton Dell ; near Pagosa Peak ; Mt. Harvard. 

43. Aster Canbyi Vasey. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000-11,000 ft. 
Crested Butte; McCoy; near Grand Lake; Mt. Harvard; mountains between 
Laramie River and North Park; Gypsum; Berthoud Pass; canon west of 
Palmer Lake. 

44. Aster Burkei (A. Gray) Howell. (A. foliaceus Burkei A. Gray) In 
the mountains from Wyo. and Wash, to Colo, and Ariz. Robinson ; Steam- 
boat Springs ; Hotchkiss. 

45. Aster apricus (A. Gray) Rydb. (A. foliaceus apricus A. Gray) On 
alpine peaks from Mont, and B. C. to Colo, and Ore. Alt. 8000-12,000 ft. 
Gray's Peak; Twin Lakes; Westcliffe; Boreas; Buffalo Pass; Empire; Bert- 
houd Pass ; Grizzly Creek. 

29. MACHAERANTHERA Nees. 

Leaves twice pinnatifid ; root annual; achenes terete. i. M. tanacetifolia. 

Leaves spinulose-toothed ; plant perennial or biennal ; achenes compressed. 

Bracts linear-subulate ; green tips of most of them longer than the straw- 
colored lower portion, squarrose-reflexed. 
Stem and inflorescence distinctly viscid. 



CARDUACEAE. 357 

Stem-leaves lanceolate or oblong, usually distinctly triple-veined. 

Leaves thin, coarsely but not saliently toothed ; bracts over i mm. wide. 

2. M. Bigelovii. 
Leaves thick with salient teeth ; plant very glandular ; bracts less than 

i mm. wide. 
Achenes glabrous or minutely pubescent ; stem glabrous below. 

3. M. various. 
Achenes strigose ; stem glandular hispid throughout. 

4. M. aspera. 
Stem-leaves linear or oblanceolate, i-veined. 

Plant 2-5 dm. high ; heads numerous or several in a panicle or raceme. 
Basal leaves spatulate, coarsely but not saliently toothed or entire ; 

inflorescence divaricate. 5. M. viscosa. 

Basal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, saliently toothed ; inflorescence 

narrow : plant about 2 dm. high. 6. M. viscosnla. 

Plant 1-2 (seldom 3) dm. high; heads solitary or few; basal leaves 

broadly spatulate, toothed. 7. M. Pattersonii. 

Stem strigose-puberulent ; involucre slightly if at all viscid. 

8. M. rubricaulis. 
Bracts linear with lanceolate or rhombic green tips, which are usually much 

shorter than the straw-colored lower portion. 
Leaves cinereous. 

Bracts Qanescent, -scarcely at all viscid or glandular. 9. M. canescens. 
Bracts densely viscid or glandular, especially the tips. 

10. M. pulverulent a. 

Leaves glabrous, or glandular-hispid or scabrous, not cinereous. 
Stem puberulent or glabrate, glandular only on the inflorescence. 
Bracts slightly if at all squarrose. 

Stem slender with strongly ascending branches ; leaves subentire. 

n. M. glabrella. 
Stem divaricately branched ; lower leaves sharply toothed. 

12. M. ramosa. 
Bracts strongly reflexed-squarrose. 

Leaves all, except those of the smaller branches, toothed. 

13. M. Selbyi. 
Leaves all entire. 14. M. spectabilis. 

Stem densely glandular-hispid. 

Bracts more or less glandular-pubescent and with squarrose tips. 

15. M. cichoriacea. 
Bracts grayish puberulent; tips not squarrose. 16. M. Fremont ii. 

1. Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (H. B. K.) Nees. (Aster tanacetifoliiis 
H. B. K.) In moist sandy soil from S. D. and Mont, to Tex. and Ariz. 
Denver; Wyoming line; foothills, west of Ft. Collins; New Windsor; Pueblo; 
Rocky Ford ; Spring Canon. 

2. Machaeranthera Bigelovii (A. Gray) Greene. (Aster Bigelovii A. Gray) 
On plains and foot-hills of Colo, and N. Mex. Alt. 5000-6000 ft. Boulder. 

3. Machaeranthera varians Greene. On plains and mountains of Colo, and 
N. M. Alt. 6000-8000 ft. Hinsdale Co. ; Colorado Springs ; near Pagosa 
Peak; Bottomless Pit, Pike's Peak. 

4. Machaeranthera aspera Greene. On the mountains of Colo. Alt. 8000- 
10,000 ft. Manitou ; Ute Pass; Hinsdale Co.; Colorado Springs; Pike's Peak; 
Engelmann Canon; Como; Georgetown; mountains between Sunshine and 
Ward. 

5. Machaeranthera viscosa (Nutt.) Greene. (Aster canescens viscosus A. 
Gray) On dry hills and plains from Wyo. to Colo, and Calif. (?) Alt. 
6000-10,000 ft. Colorado Springs ; Sangre de Cristo Creek ; Rogers ; Grecian 
Bend, Pike's Peak ; Trail Glen ; Twin Lakes ; Mt. Harvard ; Table Rock. 



358 CARDUACEAE. 

6. Machaeranthera viscosula Rydb. On plains and mountains of Colo. 
Veta Pass; South Park; southeast of Jefferson. 

7. Machaeranthera Pattersonii (A. Gray) Greene. (Aster Pattersonii A. 
Gray) In moist places in the mountains of Colo. Alt. 10,000-14,000 ft. 
Caribou ; Gray's Peak and vicinity ; Silver Plume ; Berthoud Pass. 

8. Machaeranthera rubricaulis Rydb. On plains, table lands and hills of 
Colo. Alt. 5000-7000 ft. Platte River; Denver; Colorado Springs; La Veta; 
mountain above Andrews' ranch ; south of Antonito. 

9. Machaeranthera canescens (Pursli) A. Gray. (Aster canescens Pursh) 
On sterile ground and sandy banks from Sask. and B. C. to Colo. North 
Park ; Honnold. 

10. Machaeranthera pulvemlenta (Nutt.) Greene. On dry plains from 
Mont, to Colo. Gypsum ; North Fork, Larimer Co. 

11. Machaeranthera glabella Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 7000- 
10,000 ft. Black Canon; Gunnison ; southeast of Ouray; White River Pla- 
teau; Parlin; Cerro Summit. 

12. Machaeranthera ramosa A. Nels. In the mountains of Wyo. and Colo. 
Alt. 8000-9500 ft. Pitkin; Grizzly Creek; Gypsum. 

13. Machaeranthera Selbyi Rydb.' In canons and meadows in Colo. Alt. 
7500-9500 ft. West of Ouray; Mt. Harvard. 

14. Machaeranthera spectabilis Greene. In the mountains of Colo. Alt. 
up to 10,000 ft. Marshall Pass; Gypsum. 

15. Machaeranthera cichoriacea Greene. On hills and mountains from Wyo. 
to N. M. Alt. 4500-7500 ft. Trail Glen; Westcliffe; Ft. Collins; Twin 
Lakes ; Deer Run. 

16. Machaeranthera Fremontii Rydb. In black soil of river bottoms, Colo. 
-" Platte Waters." 

30. LEUCELENE Greene. 

Upper leaves strigose, slightly glandular and not conspicuously hispid-ciliate. 
Lower leaves broadly spatulate ; upper linear-subulate ; branches long and 

slender. i. L. arcnosa. 

Leaves all linear-spatulate ; branches short. 2. L. serotina. 

Upper leaves conspicuously hispid-ciliate, copiously glandular. 

Upper leaves linear-oblanceolate ; the lower spatulate. 3. L. hirtella. 

Upper leaves linear-subulate ; the lower linear or linear-oblanceolate. 

Leaves of the branches 6-12 mm. long. 4. L. alsinoides. 

Leaves of the branches 2-5 mm. long. 5. L. cricoides. 

1. Leucelene arenosa Heller. (Aster ericaefolius tennis A. Gray) On dry 
hills from Colo, to Tex. and Ariz. ; also Mex Alt. 4000-7000 ft. Cimarron ; 
Hotchkiss. 

2. Leucelene serotina (Greene) Rydb. On arid hills from Colo, and Utah 
to Tex. and Ariz. Canon City. 

3. Leucelene hirtella (A. Gray) Rydb. (Aster ericaefolius hirtella A. Gray) 
On dry hills from Wyo. and Utah to Tex. and Ariz. Arboles ; Leroux Creek ; 
mountain above Manitou ; Palisades ; Grand Junction. 

4. Leucelene alsinoides Greene. On dry hills from Colo, to Tex. and N. M. 
Alt. up to 8000 ft. Salida ; Rocky Ford, Otero Co. ; Walsenburg. 

5. Leucelene ericoides (Torr.) Greene. (Aster ericaefolius Rothr.) On 
dry hills from Colo, to Tex. and N. M. " Colorado " (James). 



CARDUACEAE. 359 



31. ERIGERON L. FLEABANE. 

Bracts of the involucre in 1-2 series of almost equal length, not thickened on 

the back. 

Rays inconspicuous, erect or ascending, usually involute and incurved, numer- 
ous ; often inside them a series of rayless pistillate flowers ; leaves entire. 

I. ACRES. 

Rays conspicuous, spreading, flat ; no rayless pistillate flowers inside. 
Plant without runners. 
Perennials. 

Leaves dissected or deeply cleft. II. MULTIFIDI. 

Leaves entire or merely toothed. 

Stems low, less than 2 dm. high, scapiform, usually bearing only one 

head ; stem-leaves usually reduced. 
Involucres and peduncles villous with many-celled hairs ; bracts 

comparatively broad. III. UNIFLORI. 

Involucres and peduncles hirsute to glandular-puberulent or glabrate, 

not long-villous. IV. RADICATI. 

Stem leafy, 2-10 dm. high, if lower bearing several heads; stem- 
leaves ample. 
Stems densely cespitose from a thick tap-root ; heads small ; disk 

rarely over i cm. wide. 

Pappus double ; stem hirsute. V. PUMILI. 

Pappus simple ; stems strigose. VI. DECUMBENTES. 

Stems usually solitary from the ends of distinct (sometimes branched) 

rootstocks ; heads large ; disk over i cm. wide. 
Bracts loose with reflexed tips ; rays broad ; pappus simple ; lower 

leaves broadly oblanceolate, the upper often reduced. 
Bracts villous. VII. ELATIORES. 

Bracts glandular-puberulent or glabrous. 

VIII. SALSUGINOSI. 
Bracts appressed, except the very tips ; rays narrow ; pappus 

double. 

Upper stem-leaves ample, ovate to lanceolate, not much smaller 
than the lower, which are more or less distinctly 3-nerved ; 
peduncles usually short, ascending. IX. MACRANTHI. 

Upper stem-leaves reduced, linear-lanceolate ; none of the 
leaves 3-nerved ; peduncles long and erect. 

X. GLABELLI. 
Annuals or biennials. 

Stem-leaves not cordate-clasping. 

Stems rather simple with a few large heads ; disks about i cm. or 

more broad. X. GLABELLI. 

Stems much branched, leafy, with numerous small heads ; disk 6-9 

mm. broad. 
Stems strigose, except at the base ; pappus-bristles of the rays 

usually lacking. XI. RAMOSI. 

Stems and leaves densely short-pubescent with spreading hairs ; 

pappus-bristles of the rays present. 

Annuals ; pappus scant and simple. XIII. BELLIDIASTRA. 

Biennials (rarely perennials) ; pappus double, the outer of short 

subulate squamellae. XIV. DIVERGENTES. 

Stem-leaves broad, cordate-clasping. XII. PHILADEI.PHICI. 

Plants first with a scapiform, naked peduncle, later producing lateral runner- 
like branches. XV. FLAGELLARES. 
Bracts of the involucre in 3-4 series, more or less imbricated, thickened on the 

back ; the outer usually successively shorter. 

Achenes terete or nearly so, several-nerved. XVI. CANI. 

Achenes flattened or quadrangular, 2-4-nerved. XVII. CAESPITOSI. 



360 CARDUACEAE. 

I. ACRES. 

Bracts of the involucre linear, abruptly acute, never glandular ; inflorescence 

racemiform with almost erect branches. 
Low, 1-2 dm. high ; stem-leaves sessile ; peduncles short. 

i. E. minor. 
Taller, 3-6 dm. high, lower stem-leaves petioled ; basal leaves oblanceolate ; 

peduncles elongated. 2. E. lonchophyllus. 

Bracts of the inflorescence linear-subulate, long-attenuate, and more or less 
glandular-puberulent : inflorescence inclined to be corymbiform or paniculate ; 
branches ascending. 

Bracts glandular-puberulent, rarely with a few hairs. 3. E. droebachiensis. 
Bracts hirsute or both hirsute and glandular-puberulent. 

Plant tall, 3-6 dm. high, apparently only biennial ; heads numerous. 

4. E. yellozvstonensis. 
Plant low, 1-3 dm. high, perennial ; heads few. 5. E. jucundus. 

II. MULTIFIDI. 

Leaves pinnately divided. 6. E. pinnatisectns. 
Leaves once to thrice ternately divided. 
Leaves twice or thrice ternate. 

Ultimate divisions of the leaves narrowly linear ; peduncles with long linear 

leaves. 7. E. compositns. 

Ultimate divisions of the leaves spatulate or broadly oblanceolate : peduncles 

naked above or with very short leaves. 8. E. mnltifidus. 

Leaves once ternate or quinate. 9. E. trifidits. 

III. UNIFLORI. 

Involucres and peduncles with black-purple hairs. 10. E. melaiwcephalus. 
Involucres and peduncles white-hairy. 

Plant 5-8 cm. high; disk 10-12 mm. wide. u. E. uniflorus. 

Plant i dm. high or more; disk 13-15 mm. wide. 12. E. leucoirichus. 

IV. RADICATI. 
Involucre glandular-puberulent or glabrate, not hirsute. 

Stem and leaves glabrous or nearly so. 13. E. leiomcris. 

Stem and leaves pubescent and somewhat glandular. 36. E. viscidus. 
Involucre more or less hirsute or strigose ; in some also slightly glandular- 
puberulent. 
Leaves and stem glandular-scabrous as well as hirsute. 

14. E. glandnlosus. 
Leaves and stem hirsute or strigose, not glandular. 

Stem i dm. or more high, appressed-pubescent : disk over i cm. wide : 

branches of the caudex rather slender, purplish. 
Leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate. 1-3 mm. wide, strigose. 

23. E. Eiigelmannii. 
Leaves oblanceolate to linear-oblanceolate, 3-8 mm. wide, glabrous above 

except the margins. 15. E. ttrsitius. 

Stem 4-7 cm. high ; disk less than i cm. wide ; caudex and its branches stout 

and short, not purplish. 
Leaves linear-oblanceolate to spatulate. 

Stem with appressed hairs. 16. E. Peasei. 

Stem with more or less spreading hairs. 17. E. vetensis. 

Leaves linear-filiform. 18. E. nematophyllus. 

V. PUMILI. 
Rays present. 

Ray-flowers white ; the outer pappus of small inconspicuous bristles. 

19. E. pumilus. 
Ray-flowers blue or purplish ; outer pappus conspicuous and squamellate. 

20. E. conciiinus. 
Rays wanting. 21. E. aphanactis. 



CARDUACEAE. 361 

VI. DECUMBENTES. 

Leaves i -nerved, linear-oblanceolate ; the lower usually obtusish. 
Plant 1.5-2 dm. high; pubescence of the leaves sparse, loose. 

22. E. simtilans. 
Plant i dm. high or less, usually monocephalous ; pubescence dense and 

appressed. 23. E. Engelmannii. 

Leaves 3-nerved, at least at the base, equally long-acuminate at both ends. 

24. E. microlonchus. 

VII. ELATIORES. 

Bracts very densely villous ; leaves entire. 25. E. elatior. 

Bracts sparingly villous ; leaves usually dentate. 26. E. Coulteri. 

VIII. SALSUGINOSI. 

One species. 27. E. salsuginosits. 

IX. MACRANTHI. 

Basal leaf-blades broadly obovate-spatulate, often denticulate ; stem-leaves dis- 
tant, shorter than the internodes, not ciliate on the margins ; bracts glandular- 
puberulent, seldom with a few hairs. 28. E. superbus. 

Basal leaf-blades oblanceolate, entire ; stem-leaves usually longer than the inter- 
nodes, usually ciliate on the margins. 
Bracts glandular-puberulent, not at all hirsute ; leaves glabrous. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, dark bluish green and shining, minutely ciliolate. 

29. E. salicinus. 

Leaves not dark-green, dull, strongly hirsute-ciliate. 30. E. macranthus. 
Bracts more or less hirsute. 

Stem and leaves glabrous or nearly so ; the latter ciliate only on the margins 
and the veins below ; bracts glandular-puberulent and with scattered hairs. 

31. E. speciosus. 
Stem and leaves hairy ; bracts hirsute or both hirsute and glandular. 

Leaves hirsute. 

Pubescence scant ; that of the stem long ; leaves linear-lanceolate. 

32. E. conspicuus. 
Pubescence of the leaves and the involucres dense ; that of the stem short. 

Plant tall, green ; upper stem-leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, dis- 
tinctly triple-nerved. 33. E. subtrinervis. 

Plant low, canescent ; upper stem-leaves lanceolate, scarcely triple- 
nerved. 34. E. incanesccns. 
Leaves glandular-puberulent. 35. E. Vreelandii. 

X. GLABELLI. 

Involucres glandular-puberulent, sparingly if at all hairy. 

Stem with long white hairs ; the upper portion glandular-hirsute. 

Lower leaves hairy ; stem low, stout. 36. E. viscidiis. 

Leaves merely ciliate; stem slender. 37. E. e.vimiits. 

Stem glabrous ; upper portion glandular-puberulent ; leaves glabrate. 

38. E. Smithii. 

Involucre densely hirsute or strigose. 
Bracts hirsute. 

Leaves glabrate ; plant evidently a perennial. 39. E. glabcllus. 

Leaves more or less hairy ; plant in most cases apparently only biennial. 

40. E. consobriniis. 
Bracts strigose ; basal leaves linear-oblanceolate, denticulate. 

41. E. strigulosits. 

XI. RAMOSI. 

One species. 42. E. ramosns. 

XII. PHILADELPHICI. 
One species. 43. E. philadelphicus. 



362 CARDUACEAE. 

XIII. BELI,IDIASTRA. 

One species. 44. E. Bellidiaslrum. 

XIV. DlVERGENTES. 

Stem simple below. 45. E. Wootonii. 

Stem branched at the base. 46. E. divergens. 

XV. FLAGELLARES. 

Leaves and stem appressed-hairy. 47. E. flagellaris. 

Leaves and stem densely short-pubescent with spreading hairs. 

Basal leaves oblanceolate, entire, or 3-lobed at the apex ; leaves of the stolons 

linear ; plant gray. 48. E. cinereus. 

Basal leaves obovate-spatulate, entire, or with several lateral lobes or teeth ; 
leaves of the stolons oblanceolate ; plant greener. 49. E. nitdiflorits. 

XVI. CAN i. 

Disk of the heads fully i cm. high and about 1.5 cm. wide; basal leaves spatulate, 
obtuse. 50. E. argentatns. 

Disk of the heads 7-8 mm. high and about i cm. wide ; basal leaves oblanceolate, 
mostly acutish. 51. E. canus. 

XVII. CAESPITOSI. 

Stem erect, about 3 dm. high, usually with several heads ; stem-leaves linear. 

52. E. subcanescens. 

Stem decumbent at the base, 1-2 dm. high, with 1-3 (seldom more) heads; 
stem-leaves oblong. 53. E. caespitosus. 

1. Erigeron minor (Hook.) Rydb. (E. anneriacfolius A. Gray, in part; 
not Turcz.) In damp places in the mountains from Sask. and B. C. to Colo, 
and Utah. Alt. 7000-10,000 ft. Lake City ; Democrat Mountain ; George- 
town ; South Park; Twin Lakes; Westcliffe; Red Mountain road, south of 
Ouray ; Gunnison ; Palsgrove Canon ; Clear Lake ; Grand River, above Kremm- 
ling; Grizzly Creek; Pagosa Springs; Buena Vista; Buffalo Pass; near 
Como ; Trappers' Lake. 

2. Erigeron lonchophyllus Hook. (E. arineriaefolius A. Gray, in part) In 
wet places in the mountains from Sask. and Mont, to Colo, and Nev. Alt. 
8000-9000 ft. Parlin ; Ruxton Park, Pike's Peak; Higho; Table Rock; 
Gypsum Creek ; Buena Vista ; Grizzly Creek ; Twin Lakes. 

3. Erigeron droebachiensis Muell. (E. acris Drocbachiensis Blytt) In 
dry woods from N. B. and Alaska to Colo. Breckenridge; Mt. Harvard; 
A