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Monograph No. 2 

Monograph Series 


Theodor Just Bolanx^ 

Editor, University of Notre Dame 

Edward A. Chapin Enhmolog]) 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Kenneth W. Cooper Cp/o/ogu and Cenelics 

Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 

Carroll Lane Fenton Invertebrate Paleontology 

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J. 

John Hobart Hoskins Paleobotany 

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Remington Kellogg Mammalogy 

U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Jean Myron Linsdale Ornithology 

Hastings Reservation, Monterey, California 

George Willard Martin Mycology 

State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Karl Patterson Schmidt Ichthyology and Herpetology 

Chicago Natural History Museum, Chicago, Illinois 

Harley Jones Van Cleave Invertebrate Zoology 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

Monograph No. 2 

Edited by Theodot lust 

Published by the University oi Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Ind. 


Containing keys for identification of 
the flowering plants and ferns 


Assistant Professor of Botany 
University of Illinois 


The University Press 

Notre Dame, Ind. 

April, 1945 


Copyright, 1945 


The American Midland Naturalist 

University of Notre Dame 

Notre Dame, Ind. 


Introduction 1 

Flora and Vegetation 

Description of the Area 2 

Vegetational Divisions 4 

Systematic Treatment 

Key to the sections 8 

Key to the families 9 

Keys to the genera and species 32 

Glossary 274 

Bibliography 284 

Taxonomic Monographs and Revisions 286 

Author Index 298 

Index of Plant Names , 301 


Vegetational Map of Illinois vii 

County Map of Illinois 273 


VegetatioNAI. Map of Illinois. The boundaries of the principal geooraphical 
divisions of the state are indicated by sohd hnes, and their subdivisions by broken lines. 
Shading, as shown in the key, indicates approximately the areas that formerly were 
forested. (Reproduced by permission from A. G. Vestal's map of 1930, which was 
based on C. J. Telford's map in Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. vol. 16. 1926). 


ora ot Illinois 


The followmg synopsis of the flora of Ilhnois is based on field and 
herbarium studies carried on during the past five years. The principal objec- 
tives in its preparation have been to furnish a concise account of the vascular 
plants of Illinois, and to provide a convenient means of identifying them. No 
comprehensive treatment of the botany of this state has hitherto been pub- 
lished, and it is hoped that the present study may serve to stimulate further 
interest in the local flora. 

This study is based mainly upon material contained in the Herbarium of 
the University of Illinois, which consists of nearly 300,000 specimens from 
various parts of the earth, of which approximately one-fourth were collected 
in Illinois. These comprise all or part of the collections of many Illinois 
botanists, including M. S. Bebb, F. Brendel, Agnes Chase, V. H. Chase, H. 
A. Gkason, E Hall, E. J. Hill, F. E. McDonald, W. S. Moffat, H. N. 
Patterson, R. Ridgway, J. Schneck, and others. The writer's collections of the 
vascular plants of Illinois consist of approximately 15.0C0 shirts. In addi- 
tion, the herbaria of the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Missouri 
Botanical Garden, have been consulted. Mr. V. H. Chase of Peoria has gener- 
ously placed at the writer's disposal his rich personal collection and that of 
the Peoria Academy of Science. Dr. G. D. Fuller, Professor of Botany, Emer- 
itus, at the University of Chicago, and Curator of the Herbarium of the 
State Museum at Springfield, has contributed a number of specimens and has 
given valued help in other ways. Other specimens have been donated by 
several former students, including Mr. Robert Evers of Quincy, and Mr. 
Richard Schneider of Kankakee. 

During the preparation of these keys numerous sources of information 
have been drawn upon. The standard botanical manuals,* and monographs, 
have been of course a constant guide. Special mention should be made of 
Deam's excellent Flora of Indiana (1940). Parts of the keys to the families 

* Including: Robinson & Fernald, Cray's New Manual of BolanXi (ed. 7) 1908; 
Britten, Manual of the Flora of the Northern States and Canada (ed. 3) 1907; Britten 
& Brewn. Illustrated Flora of the Northern States (ed. 2) 1913; Rydberg, Flora of 
the Prairies and Plains, 1932; Bailey. Manual of Cultivated Plants, 1924; Small, 
Manual of the Southeastern Flora, 1933; Hitchcock, Manual of the Grasses of the 
United States, 1935; Rehder, Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs (ed. 2) 1940. 
The following publications of the Illinois Natural History Survey are useful: Illinois 
Wild Flowers, by W. B. McDougall; Trees of Illinois, by R. B. Mille. & L. R. 
Tehon ; and Shrubs of Illinois, by L. R. Tehon. Other works containing data of value 
te the student of the flora of Illinois are: Pepoon, H. S., Annotated Flora of the 
Chicago Area; Palmer, E. J., & Steyermark, J. A., Annotated Catalogue of the 
Flowering Plants of Missouri, and Steyermark, J. A., Spring Flora of Missouri; Fassett, 
N. C, Spring Flora of IVisconsin ; and Peattie, D. C, Flora of the Indiana Dunes. 


2 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

have been adapted (by permission) from a similar key prepared several 
years ago by Mr. P. C. Standley, and which appeared in volume 21 of the 
Contributions of the United States National Herbarium. For convenience, 
the keys to the families have been divided into sections. Trees and shrubs 
may be usually keyed out largely on vegetative characters — a considerable 
advantage in identifying those plants when flowering specimens are not avail- 
able. The keys to species include, in addition to diagnostic characters, a 
statement of habitat, time of flowering, suitable common name, and relevant 
synonymy, the intention having been to correlate the valid name of the plant 
with other names that may be found in the older manuals. The known distribu- 
tion in Illinois of the indigenous species was first plotted on a series of outline 
maps, the data in all instances having been compiled from duly visaed speci- 
mens, but on account of the necessity for extreme brevity it has been 
possible to include only the briefest summary of the geographical ranges of 
the species in Illinois. An attempt has been made to indicate frequency of 
occurrence by use of the terms common, local, infrequent, etc. For rare plants, 
specimens are often cited by collector and number or date, although exact 
localities, even when these are known, are for obvious reasons not mentioned. 
All species of vascular plants known to the writer to grow spontaneously in 
Illinois have been included. Further study, however, will probably reveal the 
presence of additional species. With few exceptions no species has been 
admitted unless authentic specimens from Illinois have been examined. For 
the sake of uniformity and convenience the sequence of families is chiefly that 
of Engler & Diels. 

Although it is now almost a century and a half since the first botanical 
explorers visited Illinois, our knowledge of the botany of this region is far from 
complete. In a few areas fairly adequate botanical collections have been made, 
but more than half of the 102 counties of Illinois, according to the records at 
present, are almost wholly unexplored botanically. The distribution of the 
"lower plants" of Illinois is comparatively unknown, and we lack even a check- 
list of the algae, fungi, and bryophytes. Obviously, much work remains to be 
done on the botany of Illinois. 

Thanks are due Professor A. G. Vestal of the University of Illinois for 
aid in writing the account of the vegetational divisions; to Florence Freenian 
Jones, for help in preparing manuscript; to Professor Alfred Rehder, and Mr. 
E. J. Palmer, of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, for identifica- 
tion of certain ligneous plants, and to Dr. Leon Croizat for bibliographical 
aid. The assistance of these persons is gratefully acknowledged. 

Flora and Vegetation 

Description of the Area 

Illinois is part of the Great Central Plain of North America, and is 
situated between 37° and 42^' N. lat., and 87' and 91'^ W. long. It is 
bounded on the north by Wisconsin, on the east by Indiana, on the west by 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 3 

Iowa and Missouri, and on the south by Kentucky. The maximum length is 
380 miles, and the width more than 200 miles. Its area is approximately 
57,926 square miles. Physiographically, most of this state except the southern 
portion lies in the Till Plains Section cf the Central Lowland Province. Bio- 
geographically, almost all of Illinois lies in the Austral Zone. The great 
majority of native species of plants are therefore of southern affinities, and the 
boreal element is extremely small. The Austroriparian Province enters the 
state only at its extreme southern end. The average elevation above sea level is 
about 600 feet. The highest point is 1257 feet altitude at Charles Mound in 
Jo Daviess county along the Wisconsin- Illinois boundary. Although most of 
the area has a low elevation and comparatively level surface there is a good 
drainage system with more than 275 streams, which may be grouped in two 
river systems, one having the Mississippi River, and the other the Wabash 
and Ohio rivers as its outlet. The soils of Illinois are remarkable for their 
fertility, and agriculture is one of the important occupations. The better agricul- 
tural districts are characterized by a black loam, and the alluvial soil of the 
river valleys is especially fertile. On many of the river bluffs the soil is loess. 
Nearly all the rocks of Illinois are sedimentary and belong to the Paleozoic 
era. Igneous rocks are found only in a few places, and metamorphic rocks 
are almost unknown. 

During the Glacial period there were four advances of the ice-sheet into 
Illinois. The ice of the third, or Illinoian, stage covered approximately nine- 
tenths of the state, and extended southward to the Ozark Ridge, the most 
southerly latitude reached by the North American ice-sheet. Hence, there are 
only three districts in Illinois that have remained untouched by the Pleistocene 
glaciation. These are 1) the seven southernmost counties of the state, 2) an 
area between the Mississippi and Illinois rivers in Calhoun County, and 3) 
Jo Daviess county and a small portion of Carroll County. The second and 
third districts are part of a much larger non-glaciated region known as the 
Driftless Area, which occupies adjacent portions of Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
and Iowa. 

The flora and fauna of Illinois are similar to those of adjacent states. 
Extensive forests and grasslands formerly covered the entire region. In the 
northern part there were large prairies with tongues of forest extending along 
the principal watercourses. At the present time^ although the vegetation has 
been greatly disturbed, the flora is still rich and varied, with a large number 
of species of grasses, as well as other herbs, and ligneous plants. The more 
extensive forested areas are chiefly in the southern counties, especially on the 
flood plains of the principal rivers, and in the Ozark Hills. These forests are 
composed almost entirely of hardwoods. Oak, hickory, maple, and ash are 
among the more common kinds of trees. 

Formerly one of the most remarkable features of the state of Illinois was 
its great stretches of prairies covered with rich growth of tall grasses and 
several hundred species of other herbaceous flowering plants. The most exten- 
sive of these prairies occurred in northern and central Illinois, and were inter- 
spersed with numerous swamps and shallow ponds which have long since 

4 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

disappeared. However, the original prairie has all but vanished from the Illinois 
landscape, and no typical area of upland prairie remains for botanical study. 
Extensive tracts of these upland prairies were swampy, but almost all have 
been drained and their natural vegetation has since disappeared except from 
roadsides and along the railroads. Other areas are covered chiefly with sand 
or sandy loam, and support a flora of psammophilous species, including Lepto- 
loma cognatum, Tephrosia virginiana, Helianthemum canadense, Oenothera 
rhombipetdla. Phlox bifida, Lithospermiim croceiim, and Chrysopsis rillosa. 
The principal sand-areas are in the northern half of the state. 

Statistical summary. — The total known number of native and naturalized 
species of vascular plants growing spontaneously in Illinois is 2124. Of this 
number, 1786 are indigenous, and 338 have been either adventive or intro- 
duced, and are now more or less established. Trees and shrubs belong to 49 
families, 111 genera, and 302 species. Salix has 17 species and Quercus 19. 
In the genus Crataegus, 14 species are recognized as occurring within the boun- 
daries of the state. Herbaceous plants belong to 113 families, 713 genera, and 
1822 species. Carex is the largest genus with 114 species. There are 70 genera 
and 215 species of grasses, of which 166 species are native. Panicum is the 
largest genus of grasses with 36 species. Twelve genera and 26 species of 
orchids are recorded for Illinois. Compositae is the largest family, with 63 
genera and 243 species. Aster is the largest genus in this family with 34 
species; Solidago comes next with 22 species. For a "prairie state" there is a 
surprisingly large number of ferns and fern-allies, and the number of species of 
ligneous plants is remarkably high. 

Families Genera Species 

Ferns and fern-allies 10 29 63 

Gymnosperms 4 7 11 

Monocotyledons 22 154 575 

Dicotyledons 116 526 1475 

Total 152 716 2124 

Vegetational Divisions 

The spontaneous flora of Illinois comprises a vegetation thit is rather 
sharply differentiated into prairie and forest. Each of these two types of 
vegetation includes a number of communities or associations, reflecting the 
transitions in tcmp'erature and minfall, ns well as the topographic and ednphic 
conditions. On the accompanying map the eco'o:;ical divisions are based prin- 
cipally upon the broader topographical features, including the effects of glacial 
geology. The area affected by the recent (Wisconsin) glaciation is mostly 
treeless, and extensive areas of upland prairie formerly occurred in the 
western division. It will be noted that the botanical areas are correlated with 
the various agricultural districts, and are thus intimately conn'ected with vari- 
ous phases of human geography. Moreover, it is obvious that faunal areas 
parallel the natural botanical divisions, and thus these divisions are useful to 
zoologists, as well as to students of the applied branches of biology, including 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 5 

plant pathology, agriculture, etc. The biotic divisions now recognized are 
as follows: 

Grand Prairie Division Southern Division 

Western Division Wabash Border 

Jo Daviess Hills Ozark Hills 

Mississippi Border Tertiary Division 


The term is applied to the eastern portion of Illinois, and includes all the 
area of recent or Wisconsin glaciation which is for the most part treeless. This 
area has the youngest soils of the state, in which leaching of dissolved mate- 
rials has not progressed to any great extent. Characteristic prairie-plants, 
including Silphmm terebinthinaceum, Eryngium yuccifolium, Sorghastruni 
nutans, Andropogon jiircatus, and Sporobolus heterolepis, are frequent in 
these areas of black prairie soil. The morainal country of Lake and McHenry 
counties is hilly, and was formerly extensively forested. Small tracts of timber 
still remain. Quercus macrocarpa is one of the conspicuous trees. Tilia ameri- 
cana and Quercus borealis are frequent in drier habitats. Many of the lower 
areas are occupied by marshes, bogs, and lakes, and in these places colonies of 
Larix laricina are to be found. 

The counties near Lake Michigan contain a number of northern species, 
including Larix laricina, Pinus banks'^ina, Scheuchzeria americana, Carex 
aurea, Eriophorum angustijolium, Betula pumila, Ribes bhtellum, Shepherdia 
canadensis, Cornus canadensis, Andromeda glaucophylla, and Chamaedaphne 
calyculata. The beach area of Lake Michigan has numerous sand-ridges and 
dunes, with intervening sand-prairies and sloughs. Several species are peculiar 
to this area, such as: Juniperus canadensis, J. horizontalis , Ammophda brevi- 
ligulata, Calamovdja longifolia, Salix cidenophylla, Cakde edentula, Potentilla 
anserina, Prunus pumila, Lathyrus maritimus , Chamaesyce polygonifolia, Arc- 
tostaphylos uva-ursi, and Artemisia caudata. 


This division includes most of the western part of Illinois. Much of the 
area is covered by relatively old glacial drift (Illinoian) with recent deposits 
of loess. These prairie areas contain several xerophytic western species, includ- 
ing Bouteloua gracilis, Stylisma pickeringii, Lesquerella argentea, Amorpha 
canescens, Opuntia rafnesquit, and Synthyris bullii. Areas of lower elevation 
include prairie sloughs. Southwest of the Grand Prairie, and west of the Illi- 
nois River, more than half the area is occupied by forest, and only a few flat 
upland prairies of fair size, such as the Bucknell and Carihipe prairies occur. 
This condition has been brought about by the extensive dissection of the 
country near the larger rivers. 


The Driftless Area in Jo Daviess County has served as a refuge for pre- 
glacial plants. At the present time there are several species of limited distribu- 

6 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

tion within the state, including Primula riiistassinica, Ranunculus rhomboideus, 
Anemone ludoviciana, and others. Much of the terrain is maturely dissected, 
and consists of steep, forested slopes. The tops of the plateaus are treeless 
or only sparsely forested. Along the cliffs of the larger streams there are several 
northern species of trees, including Pinus strobus, Taxus canadensis, and 
Betula papyrifera, as well as a number of herbaceous plants. 


The dry western-exposed bluffs of the Mississippi River and of the lower 
Illinois River have intermittent areas of grassland vegetation containing west- 
ern prairie species. Sand-prairies are present in the Hancock and Oquawka 
areas. In a few places sand has been carried by the wind from the river valley 
to the uplands. Along the northern and central river bluffs the terrain has 
been deeply eroded, with resultant interruptions of the mantle of loess, and 
are thus at present not continuously forested. The American beech, Fagus 
grandifoha, and the tulip tree, Liriodendron tidipijcra, extend northward to 
Randolph and Jackson counties. The common trees of the northern part of the 
river bottoms of the Mississippi River are A^er saccharinum, Ulmus americana, 
Betula nigra, Quercus palustns, and Fraxinus americana. In the southern part 
of this area Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus lyrata are common. 

southern division 

The Southern Division is the area of oldest Illinoian Drift. Later deposi- 
tions of loess with subsequent weathering have complicated the soil profiles. 
With the exception of the bottomlands, which have a vegetation similar to 
that of the alluvial soils of the Mississippi Border, the soils throughout the 
Southern Division are generally poor for plant growth on account of their 
fine texture and impervious subsoil. Thus they prevent good drainage and 
aeration, with the result that there is too much water in spring and early 
summer, and too little in late summer. The principal upland species of woody 
plants are Quercus palustns, Q. imbricaria, Q. stellata, and Gleditsia triacan- 
thos. Sassafras albidum and Diospyros virginiana are of not infrequent 


This division includes the bottomlands and bluffs of the Wabash and 
Ohio rivers, as well as the adjoining upland areas. A great variety of species 
of ligneous plants is to be found in the forested areas, including Celt is laevi- 
gata, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Quercus borealis, Nyssa aquatica, and 
Liriodendron tulipijera. Three species of oak, Quercus rubra, Q. prinus, and 
Q. shumardii, as well as Catalpa speciosa, are characteristic species of this part 
of the state. The sweet gum, Liquidambar styraciflua, extends northward to 
Crawford County, and the mistletoe, Phoradcndron flarescens, parasitic prin- 
cipally on elm and other bottomland trees, is known to occur as far north as 
Lawrence County. This bottomland vegetation extends many miles up the 
tributari'es of the Wabash River. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 7 

ozark hills 

The Ozark Ridge of southern IlUnois is the most conspicuous topographic 
feature in the state. The axis of the ridge hes along an east-west line across 
the southern part of the state from Jackson and Union counties to Gallatin 
and Hardin counties. The highest point is Williams Hill in Pope County, 
with an elevation of 1065 feet. The flora of the Ozark Hills has been little 
affected by the Illinois ice-sheet, which apparently did not reach beyond the 
northern edge of the area. There are several species of vascular plants which 
have not extended their ranges northward in Illinois and are therefore peculiar 
to this part of the state. Some of these plants are: PolypoSum ceteraccinum, 
Pinus echinata, Smilax bona-nox, Ulmtis alata, Magnolia acuminata, Sedum 
pulchellum, Rhododendron niidiflorum, Vaccinium arboreum, and Phlox 


The Mississippi Embayment of the Coastal Plain of the south Atlantic 
and Gulf states extends into Illinois as far as the southern base of the Ozark 
Hills. The Tertiary deposits in the bottomlands of Alexander, Pulaski, and 
Massac counties contain a number of austrcriparian species that have not 
migrated northward into the glaciated areas. Some of these are: Taxodium 
distichum, Arundinaria gigantea, Quercus phellos, Planera aquatica, Itea 
virginica. Wisteria macrostachya, Nyssa aquatica, Bumelia lycioides, and 
Bignonia capreolata. 

8 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Key to the Sections 

Group I. Seed Plants. Plants normally reproducing by seeds containing an embryo. 
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. 

A. Herbaceous Plants 

1. Plants grasses, sedges, or rushes; perianth green or absent Section I, p. 9 

1. Plants not grasses, sedges, or rushes. 

2. Terrestrial plants, not floating on or submerged in water; sometimes growmg at the 
edge of water but then usually erect. 
3. Leaves compound, composed of few or many leaflets, or divided to the midrib 

or base Section 2, p. 9 

3. Leaves simple, sometimes lobed, but the lobes not extending to the midrib or base 

(leaves rarely absent or reduced to spines or scales). 

4. Stems not climbing or twining; tendrils absent; plants never cacti or cactus-like. 

5. Plants green, normally possessing chlorophyll, not parasitic or saprophytic 

or noticeably so. 

6. Plants without a leafy stem, or the stems underground, the flower-stalks 

leafless, or with a single leaf or a pair or whorl of leaves subtending the 

inflorescence Section 3, p. 11 

6. Plants with leafy stems, the leaves sometimes reduced to scales; stem some- 
times with only a single leaf, but this borne far below the inflorescence. 
7. Leaves evidently parallel-veined; mostly Monocotyledons (except 
Er\]ngium and Tragopogon) with the floral parts, or some of them 
in threes, not in fives; stem in cross-section showing the vascular 
bundles irregularly distributed throughout the pith or around a central 

cavity; cotyledon 1 Section 4, p. 13 

7. Leaves not evidently parallel-veined, almost always net-veined (or 
sometimes apparently only 1 -veined); mostly Dicotyledons (except 
Trillium and Smilax) with the floral parts often in fives or fours, 
only exceptionally in threes; stem in cross-section showing a central 
pith (or, in hollow stems, a cavity) surrounded by a circle of vascu- 
lar bundles; cotyledons 2. 
8. Leaves, or at least some of them, opposite or whorled. 

9. Leaves entire Section 5, p. 13 

9. Leaves more or less toothed or lobed Section 6, p. 16 

8. Leaves alternate. 

10. Leaves entire Section 7, p. 17 

10. Leaves toothed (or sinuate) or lobed SECTION 8, p. 19 

5. Plants parasitic or saprophytic, without chlorophyll; leaves reduced to scales; 

fruit a capsule Section 9, p. 21 

4. Stems either twining or climbing (tendrils sometimes present) ; or else cactus 

plants with conspicuously jointed, succulent, spiny stems Section 10, p. 21 

2. Aquatic plants, floating on or submerged in water (or sometimes growing on muddy 
or sandy shores) Section II, p. 22 

B. Trees and Shrubs (including woody climbers and trailers) 

1 1 . Gymnosperms (except Huchonia) . Leaves needle-Iike (acicular), scale-like, or subu- 
late, evergreen (deciduous in Laiix and 1 axojiiini) SECTION 19, p. 31 

I 1 . Angiosperms. Leaves not as above; "broadleaf" trees and shrubs. 
12. Flowers appearing with or after the leaves. 

13. Leaves opposite or whorled SECTION 12, p. 23 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 9 

1 3. Leaves alternate. 

14. Leaves compound Section 13, p. 25 

14. Leaves simple. 

15. Leaves entire SECTION 14, p. 26 

15. Leaves toothed or lobed, not entire. 

16. Leaves lobed SECTION 15, p. 27 

16. Leaves toothed, but not lobed SECTION 16, p. 28 

12. Flowers on leafless or almost leafless twigs, appearing before the leaves (or in 
autumn when they are falling, in H amamelis) SECTION 17, p. 29 

Group II. Ferns and Fern-allies. Plants without flowers or seeds, reproducing by spores 
borne in sporangia Section 18, p. 30 

Key to the Families 

Section \. Grasses (or Grass-like Plants), or Sedges, and Rushes 

1. Flowers enclosed by chaffy scales; perianth none, or of bristles; fruit a grain or an 
2. Stem usually cylindrical, usually hollow except at the nodes; leaves in 2 rows on 
the stem, the sheaths usually split; fruit usually a grain 22. Gramineae 

2. Stem cylindrical or triangular, solid, the nodes usually not conspicuous; leaves in 3 

rows on the stem, the sheaths not split; fruit an achene 23. Cyperaceae 

1. Flowers not enclosed by chaffy scales; perianth 6-parted; stems terete; fruit a capsule. 

3. Stem not glandular 30. Juncaceae 

3. Stem glandular Tofieldia in 3 1 . LiLIACEAE 

Section 2. Herbs with Compound (or Deeply Divided) Leaves 

I . Plants without leafy stems, the leaves all basal and the flowering stems leafless. 

2. Leaves 2-cleft; flowers white; fruit a capsule opening by a lid 

Jeffersonia in 66. Berberidaceae 

2. Leaflets 3 or more; fruit not opening by a lid. 

3. Flowers on a spadix surrounded by a spathe ; fruit a berry 

Arisaema in 24. AracEAE 

3. Flowers in racemes or umbels. 
4. Leaflets 3. 

5. Leaflets entire; flowers regular; stamens 10 86. OXALIDACEAE 

5. Leaflets not entire. 

6. Flowers papilionaceous; stamens 10 84. Leguminosae 

6. Flowers regular; stamens numerous 83. RosACEAE 

4. Leaflets numerous; flowers irregular 70. FuMARIACEAE 

1 . Plants with stems bearing 1 or more leaves. 

7. Flowers borne in a dense head on a common receptacle surrounded or subtended by 

an involucre of bracts; fruit an achene; stipules none 152. CoMPOSITAE 

7. Flowers not borne in a dense head on a common receptacle surrounded or subtended 
by an involucre. 

8. Flowers on a spadix surrounded by a spathe; fruit a berry 

Arisaema in 24. Araceae 

8. Flowers not borne on a spadix surrounded by a spathe. 
9. Flowers in umbels; petals 5; stamens 5; ovary inferior. 

10. Fruit dry, composed of 2 carpels; styles 2 119. Umbelliferae 

10. Fruit a berry; styles 5. or 3, or 2 118. AraliacEAE 

9. Flowers not in umbels, or if so, the flowers not as above in all respects. 

11. Corolla papilionaceous; fruit a legume or loment; leaves alternate, usually 

stipulate 84. Leguminosae 

11. Corolla not papilionaceous. 

12. Stem bearing only a single leaf or a pair or whorl of leaves. 

13. Sepals and petals each 4; fruit a pod; leaflets 3 or 5, toothed 

Dentaria in 71. Cruciferae 

10 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

13. Sepals 5 or more; petals 5 or none. 

14. Pistils several to many, separate, simple; fruit achenes or follicles 

62. Ranunculaceae 

14. Pistil 1; fruit a succulent drupe, or the seeds berry-like; petals 

small, gland-like Caiiloph^llum in 66. Berberidaceae 

12. Stem with usually 2 or more alternate leaves, or 2 or more pairs of 
15. Leaves, or some of them, opposite. 
16. Leaves pinnate or pinnalely lobed. 

17. Sepals 4, purple, petaloid; petals none; stamens numerous; 

plants climbing; achenes with hairy persistent styles 

Clematis in 62. Ranunculaceae 

17. Sepals not as above; corolla present; stamens few; plants 
not climbing. 

18. Flowers blue or white; fruit a capsule. 

19. Corolla regular; stamens 5 

1 32. Hydrophyllaceae 

19. Corolla 2-lipped; stamens 4 

137. Scrophulariaceae 

18. Flowers yellow or pink. 

20. Flowers yellow; stamens 10; fruit 5-angled, spiny.... 

Trihulus in 90. ZvGOPHYLLACEAE 

20. Flowers pink; stamens 3; fruit 1 -seeded 

147. Valerian ACEAE 

16. Leaves palmately lobed, or digitate, or trifoliolate ; petals none; 
fruit an achene. 
21. Flowers small, green, unisexual; leaves digitately divided 

into 5-11 serrate, acuminate divisions 

45. Cannabinaceae 

21. Flowers not green; sepals petal-like 62. Ranunculaceae 

15. Leaves alternate. 

22. Stems climbing; flowers purple (or white) ; leaves ovate or has- 
tate, often 3-lobed or 3-divided 

Solanum dulcamara in 136. SoLANACEAE 

22. Stems not climbing. 

23. Corolla of united petals, blue or white; leaves pinnate or 
pinnately lobed; fruit a capsule. 
24. Leaflets entire; style 1 131. POLEMONIACEAE 

24. Leaflets toothed or lobed; styles 2, or style 2-cleft 

132. Hydrophyllaceae 

23. Corolla of separate or nearly separate petals, or petals none. 

25. Corolla irregular, yellow or pink, 1 -spurred; leaflets finely 

dissected; plants glabrous 70. Fumariaceae 

25. Corolla regular, or somewhat irregular, or absent, not 
26. Leaflets 3, obcordate, otherwise entire; flowers yel- 
low; fruit a capsule 86. OxALIDACEAE 

26. Leaflets not obcordate. 
27. Leaves with stipules. 

28. Flowers small, pink; plants annual, pubescent; 

leaves pinnate, the leaflets incised 

lirodiurn in 85. GlRANIACEAE 

28. Flowers yellow, white, or purple. 

29. Lcailets entire; fruit a legume 

84. Lecuminosae 

29. Leaflets toothed or lobed; fruit not a 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 11 

30. Stamens and petals perigynous 


30. Stamens and petals hypogynous, or 

flowers dioecious 

62. Ranunculaceae 

27. Leaves without stipules. 

31. Petals and sepals each 3; flowers very small, 
axillary; annual plants with pinnate leaves.. 

89. Limnanthaceae 

31. Petals and sepals 4 or more, or absent; or the 

sepals united, sometimes only 2. 

32. Sepals 2, caducous (falling as the flower 

opens) ; plants with milky or yellowish 

juice; stamens numerous, hypogynous; 

fruit a capsule 69. Papaveraceae 

32. Sepals 4 or 5 ; plants with watery juice. 
33. Petals and sepals each 4; fruit a pod. 
34. Leaves trifoliolate ; stamens 6 or 

more, exserted 

72. Capparidaceae 

34. Leaves not trifoliolate; stamens 6, 

four long and two short 

71. Cruciferae 

33. Petals 5 or none; sepals usually 5, 
sometimes 4; fruit an achene or fol- 
licle, or rarely a berry. 

35. Stamens and petals hypogynous, or 

flowers unisexual; sepals free -... 

62. Ranu.nculaceae 

35. Stamens and petals perigynous; 

sepals united at base 

83. Rosaceae 

Section 3. Herbs Without Leafy Stems; Leaves Simple 

1. Leaves either pitcher-like or covered with glandular appendages; petals 5; fruit a 
capsule; insectivorous plants growing \n bogs. 
2. Leaves large, pitcher-like; flower solitary, nodding 73. Sarraceniaceae 

2. Leaves small, covered with glandular appendages; flowers in a raceme 

- 74. Droseraceae 

1 . Leaves not as above; plants not insectivorous. 

3. Flowers sessile in dense heads, or in spikes. 
4. Flowers in heads. 

5. Leaves net-veined, or apparently 1 -veined; flower-heads surrounded by an 
involucre of bracts; stamens 5, inserted on the corolla, their anthers united 

in a tube; ovary inferior; fruit an achene 152. CoMPOSlTAE 

5. Leaves parallel-veined or somewhat translucent and showing many cross-veins. 
6. Leaves subulate, soft, translucent, loosely cellular, round in cross-section; 

flowers whitish, monoecious; capsule 2-3-seeded 26. Eriocaulaceae 

6. Leaves grass-like, stifl", flat, linear, twisted; flowers yellow, perfect; capsule 

many-seeded 27. Xyridaceae 

4. Flowers in spikes (or on a spadix). 

7. Flowers crowded on a cylindrical apparently lateral spadix 6-8 cm. long; 
petals 0; sepals 0; stamens 6; leaves linear; rhizomes thick, aromatic; 

plants of swampy ground Aconis in 24. Araceae 

7. Flowers not as above. 
8. Ovary superior. 

9. Stamens 6; leaves cordate; flowers blue or white, 2-lipped; fruit 1 -seeded 
29. Pontederiaceae 

12 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

9. Stamens 4, or rarely 2; flowers greenish; corolla 4-lobed; calyx of 4 

persistent sepals 144. Plantaginaceae 

8. Ovary inferior; flowers irregular; stamens 1 or 2 36. Orchidaceae 

3. Flowers not sessile in dense heads or spikes. 
10. Scapes with more than 1 flower. 
I 1. Leaves terete or nearly so. 

12. Flowers green, small, numerous, in elcngatcd, bractless, spike-like ra- 
cemes; perianth 6-parted 19. Juncaginaceae 

12. Flowers pink, not in racemes. 

13. Flowers in umbels; perianth 6-parted; stamens 6; plants with onion 

flavor and odor Allium in 31. LlLIACEAE 

13. Flowers in cymes; petals 5; sepals 2; plants inodorous 

Talinum in 57. PoRTULACACEAE 

1 1 . Leaves not terete. 

14. Corolla irregular, 2-lipped, often spurred; stamens 2 or I ; fruit a cap- 

15. Ovary superior; leaves absent, or dissected and bladder-bearing 

1 38. Lentibulariaceae 

15. Ovary inferior; leaves entire, parallel-veined 36. OrchidacEAE 

14. Corolla regular. 

16. Flowers or branches of the inflorescence in several or many whorls; 

achenes numerous, flattened; petals 3, white; leaves oval, cordate, 

hastate, or sagittate 20. Alismaceae 

16. Flowers not whorled; fruit a capsule. 

17. Leaves evidently parallel-veined, narrow; petals 3, or perianth 6- 
18. Leaves 2-ranked (equitant) ; flowers usually blue, sometimes 
white, rarely reddish brown; stamens 3; ovary inferior.... 

34. Iridaceae 

18. Leaves not 2-ranked. 

19. Flowers 4 or fewer, yellow or \\hite ; leaves sometimes 

pubescent; ovary inferior 33. Amaryllidaceae 

19. Flowers numerous, or if few, orange or pink; leaves gla- 
brous; ovary superior (or ^/i inferior) 

3 1 . LlLIACEAE 

17. Leaves nel-veined ; petals 5 or 4. 

20. Flowers in an umbel, or 1-3 on slender pedicels; petals 5; 

stamens 5; calyx 5-lobed 121. Primulaceae 

20. Flowers in cymes, panicles or racemes. 

21. Corolla of 4 petals; sepals 4; stamens 6....7I. Cruciferae 
21. Corolla of 5 petals; sepals 5. 

22. Styles 2; anthers opening longitudinally; leaves not 

evergreen; fruit 1-loculed 77. Saxifragaceae 

22. Style 1; anthers opening by terminal pores; leaves 
evergreen; fruit a 5-loculed capsule . . 120. ERICACEAE 
10. Scapes 1 -flowered. 

23. Leaves toothed or lobed; petals separate, or absent. 

24. Fruit an achene ; flowers yellow, bluish or white; petals sometimes 
absent, the sepals then petal-like; juice watery. ...62. RaNUNCUI.ACEAE 
24. Fruit a capsule; leaves toothed or with toothed lobes; petals present. 
25. Plants with red juice; leaves thickish; petals 4-15 (usually 8), white; 

flowers regular; capsule acute Sanguinaria in 69. Papaveraceae 

25. r^lants with colorless juice; leaves thin; petals 5; flowers irregular, 

blue, yellow, or white; capsule obtuse 108. VlOLACEAE 

23. Leaves entire. 

26. Leaves reniform, cordate, or ovate; fruit a capsule. 

27. Leaves pubescent beneath, reniform; flowers brownish purple; calyx 
3-lobed; petals none; stamens 12; ovary inferior; woodland 
plants Asarum in 49. Aristolochiaceae 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 13 

27. Leaves glabrous; flowers blue or wbile. 

28. Petals, sepals, stamens eacb 5; staminodia pt'esent ; stigmas 4; 

plants of bogs and springy places 76. Parnassiaceae 

28. Perianth 6-parted; staminodia none; stamens 3; stigmas 3; plants 

of muddy shores Heleranthera in 29. PoNTEDERIACEAE 

26. Leaves not as above. 

29. Flowers on a spadix surrounded by a spathe; fruit a berry 

24. Araceae 

29. Flowers not on a spadix; spathe none; fruit not a berry. 

30. Leaves orbicular, peltate; flowers 10-25 cm in diameter, pale 

yellow; petals and stamens numerous 

Nelumho in 63. Nelumbonaceae 

30. Leaves not peltate; flowers smaller. 

31. Flowers irregular; ovarry inferior; stamens I or 2 

36. Orchidaceae 

31. Flowers regular. 

32. Leaves equitant ; flowers blue or white; ovary inferior; 

stamens 3 34. Iridaceae 

32. Leaves not equitant; ovary superior; stamens 6 


Section 4. Mostly Monocotyledonous Herbs (Except Grasses, Sedges 
and Rushes) with Leafy Stems 

. Flowers in dense heads or spikes. 

2. Leaves cordate; flowers blue, 2-lipped; stamens 6 

- - Pontederia in 29. PoNTEDERIACEAE 

2. Leaves not cordate. 

3. Plants growing in wet places; flowers greenish. 

4. Spikes cylindrical, the upper part staminate, the lower pistillate; plants 2-3 m. 
tall 15. Typhaceae 

4. Heads spherical; plants not so tall ...16. SparganiacEAE 

3. Plants of dry ground; flowers not green. 

5. Leaves spiny- or bnstly-margined ; plants with watery juice 

Enngium in 119. Umbzlliferae 

5. Leaves smooth-margined; plants with milky juice 

Tragopogon in 1 52. CoMPOSlTAE 

Flowers not in dense heads. 
5. Ovary or ovaries superior. 

6. Carpels nearly separate; stamens 3 19. JuncagiNACEAE 

6. Ovary compound. 

7. Flowers irregular, blue, enclosed or subtended by a small spathe ; petals 3. 

unequal CommcUna in 28. CoMMELINACEAE 

7. Flowers regular; stamens 6. 

8. Flowers blue or purple; filaments pubescent; juice mucilaginous 

Tradescaniia in 28. CoMMELINACEAE 

8. Flowers not blue (sometimes lavender) ; filaments glabrous or nearly so.... 

3 1 . LlLIACEAE 

5. Ovary inferior, compound. 

9. Stamens 3; flowers regular; leaves equitant 34. IridacEAE 

9. Stamens 1 or 2 ; flowers irregular; leaves not equitant 36. OrchidacEAE 

Section 5. Dicotyledonous Herbs (except Trillium) With Opposite 
or Whorled Entire Leaves 

, Flowers sessile in dense heads on a common receptacle surrounded or subtended by an 

involucre of bracts; fruit an achene. [P\}cnanihemum (Labiatae), with flowers in 

dense head-like clusters, might also be sought here]. 

2. Stem with small prickles; chaff of the receptacle (among the flowers) with long 

rigid spine-like tips; stamens 4, distinct 148. DiPSACACEAE 

14 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Stem not prickly; chaff of the receptacle not as above, sometimes absent; stamens 

5, united by their anthers (syngenesious) 152. CoMPOSITAE 

1 . Flowers not sessile in dense heads on a common receptacle surrounded or subtended 
by an involucre of bracts. 

3. Corolla of separate petals (or apparently so), or corolla absent (the calyx sometimes 

4. Leaves with black or pellucid dots, opposite, entire; flowers yellow or pink. 
5. Styles 2-6 106. Hypericaceae 

5. Style 1 121. Primulaceae 

4. Leaves not punctate. 

6. Leaves with stipules; petals minute or absent; stigmas 2-4. 

7. Petals 2 or 3 ; capsule several-seeded, the seeds reticulated; leaves oblanceo- 
late or obovate ; small plants of wet ground 59. Elatinaceae 

7. Petals none; fruit a 1 -seeded utricle 55. Illecebraceae 

6. Leaves without stipules. 

8. Plants with milky juice; capsule deeply 3-lobed; upper leaves usually 

whorled; flowers small, white or greenish 94. EuPHORBIACEAE 

8. Plants with colorless juice. 

9. Flowers solitary; stamens 6; ovary superior, 3-loculed 

genera in 31. LiLlACEAE 

9. Flowers not as above. 

10. Flowers irregular, in spikes or racemes; sepals 5, three of them small, 

and two larger and colored like the 3 petals; fruit flattened 


10. Flowers regular, not in spikes or racemes. 
I I . Leaves in whorls. 

12. Flowers axillary; leaves in fives or sixes; petals none; sepals 
5; fruit a small 3-valved capsule; plants annual, prostrate 

12. Flowers in cymes or panicles; petals 5; plants perennial. 

13. Leaves (at least the lower) in threes; flowers in cymes; 

petals entire; fruit a follicle 

Sedum in 75. Crassulaceae 

13. Leaves mostly in fours, acuminate; inflorescence paniculate; 

petals laciniate; fruit a capsule 

5i7e/ie in 58. Caryophyllaceae 

I 1 . Leaves not whorled (or if so, not thick and succulent). 

14. Calyx and corolla absent; flowers small, green, solitary, axil- 
lary; leaves spalulate or linear; styles 2, filiform; fruit 

notched; small plants of wet soil 95. Callitrichaceae 

14. Calyx present; corolla present or absent. 
15. Sepals separate. 

16. Petals none; flowers crowded into an interrupted spike; 
calyx woolly; bracts scarious; leaves lanceolate, sessile 

52. Amaranthaceae 

16. Petals usually present; inflorescence not as above. 

1 7. Sepals 2; stem-leaves a single pair; petals pink or 

while; stamens 5; style 3-cleft 

Claptoitia in 57. PoRTULACACEAE 

17. Sepals 5; leaves more than I pair. 
18. Sepals equal or nearly so. 

19. Petals white (sometimes absent) ; leaves with 
ordinary flat blades; stems usually soft.... 

58. Caryopi iyi.i.aceae 

19. Petals yellow; leaves small, scale-like or sub- 
ulate, appressed or nearly erect 

Sarothra in 106. Hypericaceae 

18. Sepals unequal, the 2 outer much narrower than 
the 3 inner ones; [letals yellow, greenish, or 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 15 

purplish ; stems rigid and almost woody 


15. Sepals united at least below. 

20. Flowers surrounded by a calyx-like involucre, the calyx 
blue or pink, corolla-like; stamens 3-5, exserted.... 

54. Nyctaginaceae 

20. Flowers not surrounded by an involucre; calyx green. 

21. Petals and stamens hypogynous 

58. Caryophyllaceae 

21. Stamens inserted on the calyx. 

22. Stigma capitate; style 1; petals present (absent 

in Peplis) ; fruit a capsule 

113. Lythraceae 

22. Stigmas 2, sessile or nearly so; petals none; fruit 

a utricle Scleranthus in 55. Illecebraceae 

3. Corolla sympetalous (petals united, at least below). 
23. Corolla irregular (flowers zygomorphic). 

24. Fruit of 4 small nutlets; ovary 4-lobed; stem 4-angled; leaves usually gland- 
ular-punctate; plant usually with mint odor 135. Labiatae 

24. Fruit a capsule; ovary not 4-lcbed; plants without mint odor. 

25. Seeds few, borne on hooks in the elastically dehiscent capsule 

142. Acanthaceae 

25. Seeds numerous, not borne on hooks; capsule not elastically dehiscent. 
26. Ovary 1-loculed with 2 parietal placentae; corolla 3-5 cm. long, 
gibbous, campanulate, 5-lobed and somewhat 2-lipped; capsule 
10-15 cm. long, the beak longer than the body; odoriferous gland- 
ular annuals 141. Martyniaceae 

26. Ovary 2-loculed; placentae axial 137. SCROPHULARIACEAE 

23. Corolla regular or nearly so (flowers actinomorphic). 
27. Leaves in whorls. 

28. Flowers yellow; fruit a capsule 121. Primulaceae 

28. Flowers white or greenish. 

29. Flowers in umbels; corolla with 5 reflexed lobes; fruit a many-seeded 
follicle; seeds with a tuft of silky hairs; plants with milky juice.... 

129. Asclepiadaceae 

29. Flowers axillary or cymose; corolla 4- (or 3-)lobed; fruit of 2 

united indehiscent 1 -seeded nutlets; sap watery 


27. Leaves not whorled. 

30. Leaves evergreen, opposite; stems trailing; flowers axillary; plants 
31. Leaf-base narrowed; corolla blue, 5-lobed, 1.5-3 cm. long; calyx 

5-parted; stamens 5; stigma annular, its apex penicillate 

Vinca in 128. Apocynaceae 

31. Leaf-base rounded or cordate; corolla white or pink, usually 4-lobed, 

1-1.5 cm. long; calyx 4-toothed; stamens 4; stigmas 4; fruit a red 

or white double drupe Mitchella in 145. RuBlACEAE 

30. Leaves rarely evergreen; plants not as above in all respects . 

32. Leaves with stipules, or the petioles connected by a (sometimes bristle- 

bearing) stipular membrane or line. 
33. Ovary inferior 145. RUBIACEAE 

33. Ovary superior 126. LoGANIACEAE 

32. Leaves without stipules. 

34. Ovaries 2, or if 1, deeply lobed; fruit usually of 2 follicles; seeds 

with a tuft of silky hairs; plants usually with milky juice. 

35. Flowers in cymes, or solitary 128. Apocynaceae 

35. Flowers in umbels 129. AscLEPIADACEAE 

34. Ovary 1 ; fruit a capsule or drupe; plants with watery juice. 

16 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

36. Corolla about as long as the calyx; fruit a 3-seeded drupe 

Triosteum in 146. Caprifoliaceae 

36. Corolla much longer than the calyx; fruit dehiscent, usually 
more than 3-seeded. 
37. Stamens opposite the corolla-lobes; corolla-tube short or 
none; flowers bright yellow, or solitary in the axils.... 

121. Primulaceae 

37. Stamens alternate with the lobes of the corolla; flowers not 
38. Corolla-tube long and slender. 

39. Stamens 5; stigmas 3; pistil 3-carpellate; capsule 

3-loculed, 3-seeded 

Phlox in 131. POLEMONIACEAE 

39. Stamens 4; stigma simple or 2-lobed, the apex of 
the style recurved; pistil 2-carpellate ; capsule 

6-20-seeded Ruellia in 142. Acanthaceae 

38. Corolla-tube short or none; capsule 1-loculed, many- 
seeded; plants glabrous or nearly so 

126. Gentianaceae 

Section 6. Dicotyledonous Herbs With Toothed 
or Lobed Opposite or Whorled Leaves 

1 . Flowers sessile in dense heads on a common receptacle surrounded by an involucre of 
2. Stem with small prickles; chaff of the receptacle (among the flowers) with long 
rigid spine-like tips; stamens 4, distinct 148. DiPSACACEAE 

2. Stem not prickly; chaff of the receptacle not as above, sometimes absent; stamens 5, 

united by their anthers (syngenesious) 152. CoMPOSiTAE 

1 . Flowers not sessile in dense heads on a common receptacle surrounded or subtended 
by an involucre of bracts. 

3. Corolla of separate petals, or sometimes absent. 
4. Leaves deeply lobed. 

5. Plants glabrous; leaves 2, peltate; flower solitary; petals 6-9, white 

Podophyllum in 66. Berberidaceae 

5. Plants (at least the stem) pubescent; leaves 2 or more, not peltate; flowers 
usually more than 1 . 

6. Petals present; stamens 10; styles 5; fruit of 5 carpels 85. Geraniaceae 

6. Petals none, but the sepals colored and petal-like; stamens more than 10; 

fruit of numerous achenes 62. RanunculacEAE 

4. Leaves merely toothed. 

7. Plants with milky juice (or if with watery juice, the pubescence stellate) ; the 
fruit deeply 3-lobed; corolla none, but the flowers surrounded by an often 

corolla-like involucre 94. EuPHORBlACEAE 

7. Plants with watery juice; fruit not 3-lobed. 
8. Mowers green, without petals; fruit 1 -seeded. 

9. Plants scurfy with minute whitish scales; stipules none 

A triplex in 51. Ciienopodiaceae 

9. Plants glabrous, or pubescent with slender, sometimes stinging hairs, never 

scurfy or scaly; leaves stipulate 46. Urticaceae 

8. Flowers with white or colored [)etals; fruit usually with more than 1 seed. 

10. Petals large (1 cm. or more in length), pink or [nirphsh; leaves 3-4- 

ribbed; plants bristly-hairy 114. Melastomaceae 

10. Petals small (less than 1 cm. in length); leaves not ribbed; plants not 
II. Ovary inferior; seeds with a tuft of soft hairs, or else the fruit with 

short, hooked hairs 115. Onagraceae 

II. Ovary superior; seeds without hairs; fruit never bristly 

77. Saxifragaceae 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 17 

3. Corolla sympetalous, the petals united, at least below. 

12. Leaves evergreen. Email, oval or obovate, crenate above the middle; stems 
slender, trailing; flowers in pairs, nodding, pink, fragrant, about I cm. long..-. 

Liimaea in 146. Caprifoliaceae 

12. Leaves net evergreen; plants net as above. 

13. Fruit of 2 or 4 nutlets; stems usually 4-angled. 

14. Ovary not lobed, the style terminal on it; plants lacking a mint odor; 
corolla usually nearly regular 134. VerBENACEAE 

14. Ovary deeply 4-lobed, the style arising between the lobes; plants usually 

with a mint odor; corolla usually bilabiate, rarely nearly regular 

135. Labiatae 

13. Fruit of only 1 nutlet, or else a capsule with many seeds. 

15. Flcwers reflexed and becoming appressed to the stem in fruit; fruit a 

single nutlet in the bottom of the calyx; calyx-teeth hooked at the lip; 

coiolla purplish; leaves slender-petioled 141. PhrymacEAE 

15. Flowers not reflexed and appressed to the stem; calyx-teeth not hooked. 

16. Ovary inferior; stamens 3 147. Valerianaceae 

16. Ovary superior; stamens usually 2, or 4, rarely 5 


Section 7. Dicotyledonous Herbs (except Smilax) With Alternate Leaves 

I. Flowers sessile in dense heads on a common receptacle surrounded by an involucre of 

bracts 1 52. CoMPOSlTAE 

1. Flowers not sessile in dense heads on a common receptacle surrounded or subtended 
by an involucre of bracts. 
2. Stem-leaves reduced to minute scales; corolla irregular, spurred; plants small, grow- 
ing in wet soil 138. Lentibulariaceae 

2. Stem-leaves not all reduced to scales. 

3. Leaves with stipules, these sometimes united to form a sheath (sometimes fuga- 
4. Stipules united and forming a membranous sheath at the nodes; fruit an achene 


4. Stipules not sheathing; fruit a several-seeded capsule or pod. 

5. Petals none; fruit a small 3-loculed capsule 94. EuphorbiaceaE 

5. Petals present; plants pubescent; fruit a 1-loculed pod. 

6. Leaves sessile or nearly so; flowers yellow, papilionaceous 

Crolalaria in 84. Leguminosae 

6. Leaves petioled ; flowers greenish white H^banihus in 108. ViOLACEAE 

3. Leaves without stipules. 

7. Petals separate, or none; calyx sometimes petal-like. 

8. Plants with milky juics; stem umbellately branched above; upermost leaves 

whorled; involucres with white, petal-like appendages 


8. Plants without milky juice; stems and leaves not as above. 

9. Calyx and corolla absent; flowers in spikes; leaves cordate, petioled 

37. Saururaceae 

9. Calyx present; corolla present or absent. 
10. Flowers small, green. 

1 I . Flowers in umbels; perianth 6-parted; fruit a berry 

Smilax in 31. LiLIACEAE 

1 I . Flowers not in umbels; perianth not 6-parted; fruit not a berry. 
12. Plants perennial, pubescent; fruit a capsule, with more than I 

seed; leaves small and narrow 107. CiSTACEAE 

12. Plants annual, glabrous or pubescent; fruit an achene, or a I- 
seeded capsule. 
13. Flowers all in loose cymose axillary clusters; style I, not 

branched; plants pubescent 

Parietaria in 46. Urticaceae 

18 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

13. Flowers all or mostly in spikes or terminal cymes or pani- 
cles, or else all in dense, sessile, axillary clusters; styles 
2 or 3, or I and branched. 
14. Flowers subtended by scarious bracts, the sepals sharp- 
pointed; leaves not linear or with spiny tips; plants 

never white-mealy 52. AmaranthacEAE 

14. Flowers not subtended by scarious bracts; sepals not 
awn-pointed; leaves linear and with spiny tips, or the 
plants whitish-mealy at least about the inflorescence 

or the lower surface of the leaves 

51. Chenopodiaceae 

10. Flowers not green; petals present, or the calyx colored and petal-like. 
15. Leaves cordate, velvety-pubescent; petals yellow; carpels 12- 

15, pubescent, dehiscent at the apex 

Abutilon in 105. Malvaceae 

15. Leaves not cordate, or if so, not velvety-pubescent. 

16. Sepals 2 57. PORTULACACEAE 

16. Sepals more than 2 (rarely cohering in pairs). 

17. Flowers borne en the lower part of the stem near the 
ground; calyx S-shaped; petals none; leaves petioled, 

cordate or halberd-shaped 

Arisiolochia in 49. Aristolochiaceae 

17. Flowers borne on the upper part of the stem; calyx never 
18. Ovary inferior. 

19. Petals yellow or purplish; fruit a several-seeded 

capsule 115. Onagraceae 

19. Petals none, the sepals whitish and petal-like; fruit 
I -seeded, indehiscent; plants glabrous, glaucous 

47. Santalaceae 

18. Ovary superior. 

20. Petals none, the 5 sepals petal-like; flowers in 

racemes; fruit a juicy dark purple berry 

53. Phytolaccaceae 

20. Petals 4-6; fruit a capsule or pod. 

21. Flowers regular; anthers opening longitud- 
22. Style 1, or stigma sessile. 

23. Petals and stamens hypogynous. 

24. Sepals, petals, and stamens each 
5; fruit a 5-loculed capsule .. 


24. Sepals and petals each 4; stamens 
6, four long and two short; 
fruit a I- or 2-loculed capsule 

71. Cruciferae 

23. Petals and stamens inserted on the 
calyx; branches usually more or 

less angled 113. Lythraceae 

22. Styles 2; petals 5; sepals 5, reflexed; 

stamens 10; leaves chiefly basal 

77. Saxifragaceae 

21. Flowers irregular; anthers opening by termi- 
nal pores 93. Polygai.aceaE 

7. Petals united (the corolla sympetalous). 
25. Corolla regular (actinomorphic). 

26. Flowers 4-5 cm. long, white; calyx enclosed or subtended by a pair of 
broad bracts; leaves often more or less cordate at base; fruit a 
capsule; plants with milky juice 130. CoNVOLVULACEAE 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 19 

26. Flowers smaller; calyx not enclosed by a pair of bracts. 

27. Plants with milky juice; fruit of 1 or 2 large pods, the seeds with 
a tuft of silky hairs. 
28. Flowers in umbels ; filaments united into a tube enclosing the 

28. Flowers in cymes, purplish blue; stamens free 

Amsonia in 128. ApocYNACEAE 

27. Plants with watery juice; flowers not in umbels; seeds lacking a 
tuft of hairs. 

29. Fruit of 4 (or sometimes fewer) nutlets; plants rough-hairy, often 

bristly, or glabrous and with blue flowers.... 133. BoRAGINACEAE 
29. Fruit a capsule or berry; plants never rough-hairy. 

30. Flowers blue; styles 2; fruit a capsule 

132. Hydrophyllaceae 

30. Flowers not blue; style 1. 

31. Flowers white or pink or yellow; fruit a capsule; calyx 

not enlarged in fruit ...121. PrimulacEAE 

31. Flowers yellowish or whitish, often with a dark center; 
fruit a berry, enclosed by the 5-lobed, 10-ribbed, often 

5-IO-angled, reticulated, inflated calyx 

Phvsalis in 136. SoLANACEAE 

25. Corolla irregular (zygomorphic). 

32. Corolla spurred; stamens 4, inserted on the corolla; plants with watery 

juice Linaria in 137. ScROPHULARIACEAE 

32. Corolla somewhat 2-lipped, the tube split along the upper side; stamens 
5, free from the corolla, united by their anthers; plants with milky 
juice 151. LOBELIACEAE 

Section 8. Dicotyledonous Herbs With Toothed or Lobed Alternate Leaves 

1. Flowers sessile, small, in dense heads on a common receptacle surrounded or subtended 

by an involucre of bracts; fruit an achene 152. CoMPOSITAE 

I . Flowers not as above. 

2. Fruit and ovary covered with hooked bristles; corolla minute, greenish yellow; 

leaves deeply lobed; flowers in small compact head-like umbels 

Sanicula in 1 19. Umbelliferae 

2. Fruit and ovary never with hooked prickles. 
3. Leaves conspicuously lobed. 

4. Stems and leaves prickly; petals 5, united; fruit a berry 

Solatium in 1 36. Solanaceae 

4. Stems and leaves not prickly. 

5. Corolla of united petals; fruit a capsule. 

6. Flowers in spikes or panicles, or solitary in the axils; corolla irregular 

6. Flowers in scorpioid cymes or racemes; corolla regular 

132. Hydrophyllaceae 

5. Corolla of separate petals, or petals absent. 

7. Calyx-lobes 3; flowers small, sessile, axillary, greenish, apetalous ; upper 

leaves toothed, the lower ones deeply pinnately lobed; plants of wet 

habitats; fruit sharply angled Proserpinaca in 116. Haloragidaceae 

7. Calyx-lobes or sepals more than 3. 
8. Sepals and petals each 4. 

9. Ovary superior; stamens 6; capsule 2-valved 71. CrUCIFERAE 

9. Ovary inferior; stamens 8; capsule 4-valved 115. Onagraceae 

8. Sepals 5 or 6. 

10. Petals none; flowers small, green or greenish; fruit an achene or 


1 I . Leaves stipulate; sepals 6; stamens 6; fruit an achene 


20 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

11. Leaves without stipules; sepals 5; stamens 5; fruit a utricle 

51. Chenopodiaceae 

10. Petals usually present. 

12. Flowers regular; leaves stipulate. 

13. Stamens 10 (rarely 5), free or nearly so; ovary 5-!obed, 

each lobe becoming a I -seeded nutlet 85. GeraniacEAE 

13. Stamens more than 10. 

14. Stamens free, perigynous; anthers 2-loculed; fruit an 

achene 83. RosACEAE 

14. Stamens monadelphous ; anthers l-loculed; fruit a cap- 
sule, or of 5 or more carpels arranged in a ring 

1 05. Malvaceae 

12. Flowers irregular. 

I 5. Leaves with stipules; stamens 5; fruit a capsule 


15. Leaves without stipules; stamens many; fruit an achene, fol- 
licle, or berry : 62. Ranunculaceae 

3. Leaves not lobed, merely toothed, or sinuate. 

16. Petals more or less united (corolla sympetalous) ; fruit a capsule or berry. 
17. Ovary inferior; corolla blue or red (rarely white). 

18. Corolla split down one side, irregular; stamens united by their anthers 

18. Corolla not split, regular; stamens free 150. Campanulaceae 

17. Ovary superior; flowers not red or blue. 

19. Stamens 5. 

20. Calyx spurred, petal-like; flowers axillary; leaves exstipulate; 

plants smooth and succulent 88. Balsaminaceae 

20. Calyx not spurred or petal-like. 

21. Flowers in spikes or racemes; fruit a smooth capsule 

Verhascum in 137. ScrophulariaceaE 

21. Flowers axillary or in cymes; fruit a berry or a spiny capsule 

1 36. Solanaceae 

19. Stamens 4 or 2. 

22. Low branching odoriferous glandular annuals with cordate oblique 
leaves; calyx 5-cIeft; corolla 5-lobed; capsule 8-15 cm. long, 

the curved beak longer than the body 141. Martyniaceae 

22. Erect perennials; sepals 4; corolla campanulate, 2-3-lobed; stam- 
ens 2; capsule short, emarginate 

Spn</ipns in 137. Scrophulariaceae 

16. Petals separate or none. 
23. Petals none. 

24. Plants with stinging hairs; leaves petioled, serrate, stipulate; flowers in 
axillary cymes, unisexual; sepals 5; stamen 1; style I; fruit an 

achene Laportea in 46. Urticaceae 

24. Plants without stinging hairs. 

25. Styles 5 or 6; stamens twice as many as the sepals; flowers perfect, 
in I -sided spikes or cymes; stipules none; fruit many-seeded, 

dehiscent Peitlhonim in 75. Crassulaceae 

25. Styles 1-3. 

26. I' ruit a 3-lobed capsule; stigmas fringed; leaves with small 

stipules Acalvpha in 92. EuPHORBIACEAE 

26. Fruit a I -seeded utricle; stipules none 51. CuENOPODIACEAE 

23. Petals present. 

27. Ovary inferior; stamens usually twice as many (rarely the same num- 
ber) as the petals and calyx-lobes; fruit a capsule, rarely indehiscent 

115. Onagraceae 

27. Ovary superior. 

28. Corolla irregular. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 21 

29. One of the petals spurred. 

30. Stipules present; ovary 1-loculed 108. ViOLACEAE 

30. Stipules none; ovary 5-loculed; plants smooth and succulent 
88. Balsaminaceae 

29. Flowers not spurred; stipules none; ovary 2-loculed 


28. Corolla regular or nearly so, not spurred. 

31. Sepals and petals each 4; stamens 6, four long and two short; 

fruit a pod; stipules none 71. Cruciferae 

31. Sepals and petals each 5. 

32. Sepals separate; petals yellow; fruit achenes 

62. Ranunculaceae 

32. Sepals united, at least below; fruit not an achene. 

33. Leaves mostly basal, more or less hairy, the blades 
roundish, cordate at the base; flowers paniculate.... 

Heuchera in 77. SaxifragaCEAE 

33. Leaves mostly on the stem. 

34. Stipules none; leaves thickish ; plants glabrous; 

stamens free 75. CrassULACEAE 

34. Stipules present; leaves not at all succulent; plants 
usually more or less pubescent, often with stellate 
hairs; stamens monadelphous 105. Malvaceae 

Section 9. Parasitic or Saprophytic Herbs; Stems not Climbing or Twining 

1 . Flowers regular. 

2. Ovary superior; stamens 6-12; plant perennial, waxy-white or reddish, drying black 
Monotropa in 120. Ericaceae 

2. Ovary inferior; plants annual 35. BuRMANNlACEAE 

I . Flowers irregular. 

3. Ovary inferior; petals and sepals each 3, distinct 36. Orchidaceae 

3. Ovary superior; corolla 2-lipped 139. Orobanchaceae 

Section 10. Plants Twining or Climbing; or Cacti 

I . Cactus plants, with conspicuously jointed stems, the internodes flattened, succulent, 
bristly or spiny; leaves none, or reduced to bristles; flowers perfect, regular, soli- 
tary, showy; sepals, petals, and stamens numerous 110. Cactaceae 

I. Not cactus plants; stems twining or climbing; plants sometimes with tendrils. 
2. Plants with tendrils. 
3. Leaves entire. 

4. Flowers in umbels; perianth 6-parted; stamens 6; stigmas thick, almost sessile; 

fruit a berry; leaves with 3 or more principal veins from the base 

Smilax in 31. LiLlACEAE 

4. Flowers in slender axillary and terminal racemes; calyx 5-parted; stamens 8; 

styles 3; fruit an obtusely triangular achene enclosed in the indurated calyx; 

leaves with 1 main vein Brunnichia in 50. PoLYGONACEAE 

3. Leaves lobed or toothed; flowers not in umbels. 

5. Stipules present; petals separate; flowers solitary, perfect, greenish yellow.... 

109. Passifloraceae 

5. Stipules none; petals united; flowers unisexual, mostly in racemes or corymbs 

149. Cucurbitaceae 

2. Plants without tendrils. 

6. Leaves somewhat peltate, the petiole attached on the underside of the blade near 
the margin, the blades usually angled or lobed; fruit juicy, 1 -seeded; flowers 

small, in axillary panicles 67. Menispermaceae 

6. Leaves not peltate. 

7. Leaves opposite or whorled. 
8. Leaves entire. 

9. Plants with milky juice; petals 5, united; fruit a follicle; seeds with 
silky hairs. 

22 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

10. Stamens distinct; flowers cymose 128. Apocynaceae 

10. Filaments united into a tube enclosing the pistil, the anthers adnate 

to the stigma, and the pollen cohering in masses 


9. Plants with watery juice; seeds without hairs. 

11. Sepals 4, petal-like; petals 0; stamens numerous; style persistent on 

the achene, often pubescent Clemaiis in 62. Ranunculus 

1 1 . Perianth 6-parted; stamens 6; flowers dioecious; fruit a 3-angled 

capsule 32. DiOSCOREACEAE 

8. Leaves toothed or lobed. 

12. Leaves triangular-hastate; flowers pink, in small heads 

MHiania in 152. CoMPOSITAE 

12. Leaves not triangular-hastate; flowers green, dioecious, in catkins or 

panicles 45. Cannabinaceae 

7. Leaves alternate, or reduced to inconspicuous scales. 

13. Plants with chlorophyll, not parasitic; leayes not reduced to scales. 

14. Leaves with sheathing stipules; corolla none; calyx 5-lobed; flowers 

perfect; fruit an achene 50. PoLYGONACEAE 

14. Leaves without sheathing stipules. 

15. Flowers dioecious; perianth 6-parted; stamens 6. 

16. Flowers in drooping racemes or panicles; styles 3, distinct; 
fruit a 3-angled or -winged capsule 32. DiOSCOREACEAE 

16. Flowers in umbels; stigmas thick, almost sessile; fruit a small 

bluish black berry Smilax in 31. LiLIACEAE 

15. Flowers perfect; corolla sympetalous; stamens 5. 

17. Corolla funnelform; fruit a capsule; plants often with milky 

juice 130. Convolvulaceae 

17. Corolla rotate, purple or blue (or white); anthers yellow, con- 
nivent around the style, opening by apical pores; berries red; 

juice watery Solatium dulcamara in 136. SoLANACEAE 

13. Plants bright yellow or orange, parasitic on other plants and lacking chlor- 
ophyll; leaves reduced to scales; fruit a capsule 

Cuscuta in 1 30. CoNVOLVULACEAE 

Section H. Aquatic Plants, Floating on or Submerged in Water 

Plants very small, free-floating, thalloid, without stems and leaves 25. LemNACEAE 

, Plants larger, normally with leaves and usually with stems. 
2. Leaves entire or finely toothed. 

3. Blades deeply cordate at the base; flowers large, solitary 64. NymphaEACEAE 

3. Blades not deeply cordate, or peltate. 

4. Floating leaves spatulate; leaves opposite, small; flowers minute, monoecious, 
sessile, 1-3 in the axils; stamen 1; styles 2, filiform; fruit 4-lobed, notched 

at the apex 93. Callitrichaceae 

4. Leaves never spatulate. 

5. Plants acaulescent; leaves long, linear; fertile flowers on long, slender 

scapes; fruit many-seeded Vallisneria in 21. Hydrocharitaceae 

5. Plants with stems. 

6. Leaves alternate or imperfectly opposite. 

7. Flowers green, in si)ikes ; sepals 4; stamens 4; carpels usually 4; 
stipules present, membranous; fruit 1 -seeded.. 18. PoTAMOGETONACEAE 
7. Flowers not green. 

8. Flowers blue, white, or yellow, solitary; stipules none; fruit many- 
seeded Heteranthera in 29. PoNTEDERIACEAE 

8. Flowers rose-pink, in spike-like racemes; stipules united to form a 

cylindrical, membranous sheath; fruit 1 -seeded species of 

Pohgomim in 50. Polygonaceae 

6. Leaves opposite or whorled. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 23 

9. Perianth 3- or 6-parted; fruit several-seeded; leaves 5-15 mm. long, 

minutely spinulose-toothed Anacharis in 21. HydrocharitACEAE 

9. Perianth none; fruit 1 -seeded. 

10. Leaves spinulose-toothed; carpel 1 1 7. NaiadacEAE 

10. Leaves entire; carpels 2-5 18. PoTAMOGETONACEAE 

2. Leaves, or most of them, deeply lobed or divided. 

II. Leaves finely dissected (or sometimes root-like), often bearing small bladders; 

flowers (in our species) yellow, bilabiate; fruit a capsule 

138. Lentibulariaceae 

II. Leaves not bladder-bearing, all or most of them finely dissected. 
12. Flowers white or yellow, solitary. 

13. Floating leaves peltate, narrowly elliptical, 1.5-2 cm. long; submerged 
leaves opposite or verticillate, divided; petals 3; sepals 3; carpels 3 

Cabomba in 63. Nelumbonaceae 

13. Floating leaves, if any, not peltate. 

14. Leaves alternate; petals 5; sepals 5; carpels more than 3 

Ranunculus in 62. Ranunculaceae 

14. Leaves opposite, the upper lanceolate, serrate; heads solitary, radi- 
ate; rays 6-10, yellow; achenes 1-1.5 cm. long, with 3-6 slender 

awns Megalodonla in 152. CoMPOSlTAE 

12. Flowers small, green or whitish, not solitary. 

15. Flowers green, minute; leaves alternate or whorled. 

16. Flowers in spikes; blades of the uper leaves sometimes merely pec- 
tinate; fruit 4-lobed 116. Haloragidaceae 

16. Flowers not in spikes; leaves all dissected into rather rigid divisions; 

fruit 1 -seeded 65. Ceratophyllaceae 

15. Flowers whitish, whorled at the nodes of the erect, hollow, inflated, 
almost leafless flowering stem; corolla 5-lobed; sepals 5, linear; 

stamens 5, included; fruit a many-seeded capsule 

..Hotlonia in 121. PrIMULACEAE 

Section 12. Trees or Shrubs (Including Woody Climbers) 
With Opposite or Whorled Leaves 

Leaves compound. 
2. Leaflets 3 or 2. 

3. Stems climbing or trailing. 

4. Leaflets 2, ovate, cordate, acuminate, entire, dark green; tendrils branched; 
cymes 2-4-flowered; corolla red, 4-5 cm. long; stamens 4; capsules linear, 
10-20 cm. long; seeds winged, elliptical; cross-section of wood showing a 
cross Bignonia in 1 40. BiGNONIACEAE 

4. Leaflets 3. coarsely toothed; tendrils none; flowers dioecious, white, numerous 

in panicles; stamens numerous; achenes pubescent, plumose 

Clematis in 62. RanunculacEAE 

3. Stems not climbing or trailing. 

5. Leaflets coarsely toothed; flowers greenish, dioecious; fruit a pair of samaras 

Acer negundo in 100. AcERACEAE 

5. Leaflets finely serrate; flowers whitish, perfect; fruit an inflated, 3-lobed 

capsule 99. Staphyleaceae 

2. Leaflets 5-11 (rareiy 3-5). 

6. Leaves palmately compound, the leaflets serrate, straight-veined; flowers irregular, 
in large panicles, most of them sterile; capsule leathery, smooth or spiny, 

usually with a single large glossy seed 101. HiPPOCASTANACEAE 

6. Leaves pinnately compound. 

7. Plants climbing or trailing; leaflets 9-11, serrate, 3-6 cm. long; flowers perfect, 
the corolla red, 5-lobed, somewhat 2-lipped, 6-9 cm. long; capsules cylin- 
drical, 8-12 cm. long Campsis in 140. BiGNONIACEAE 

7. Erect trees or shrubs. 

24 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

8. Branches with a large pith; fruit a drupe; flowers regular, perfect, numerous, 

small, whitish, cymose ; stamens 5; ovary inferior 

Sambiicus in 146. Caprifoliaceae 

8. Branches with a small pith; fruit a samara; flowers small, greenish, dioe- 
cious, appearing before the leaves. 
9. Leaflets 3-5 (rarely 7-9), at least some of them usually coarsely toothed; 

samaras in pairs; stamens 4-6 Acer negundo in 100. AcERACEAE 

9. Leaflets 5-11, entire to shallowly serrate; samaras single; stamens 2.... 

Fraxiniis in 125. Oleaceae 

I. Leaves simple. 

10. Margins toothed or lobed. 

11. Margins toothed, not lobed; shrubs. 

12. Young branchlets more or less quadrangular; leaves serrulate; flowers per- 
fect, axillary, greenish or purplish; petals 4-6; calyx 4-5-cleft; stamens 

4-5, inserted on the disk; fruit deeply 3-5-lobed 

Euon\imus in 96. Celastraceae 

12. Branchlets terete or nearly so. 

13. Leaves evergreen, small, oval, crenate above the middle; stems slender, 
trailing; flowers in pairs, nodding, pink, fragrant, about 1 cm. long 

Linnaca in 146. Caprifoliaceae 

13. Leaves otherwise. 

14. Margins dentate or sharply serrate; ovary inferior. 

15. Principal lateral veins 1-5 pairs; corolla of 4 separate petals; 

stamens more than 5; capsule many-seeded 

79. Hydrangeaceae 

15. Principal lateral veins 5-10 pairs; corolla sympetalous, 5-lobed 

or 2-lipped, the 5 stamens inserted on the tube; fruit a 1- 

seeded drupe or a many-seeded capsule ... 146. Caprifoliaceae 

14. Margins crenate; ovary superior; stamens 4-5, inserted with the 

petals and opposite them; fruit a drupe 

Rhamnus in 102. Rhamnaceae 

1 1 . Margins lobed and often toothed. 
16. Lobes acute, toothed. 

17. Trees; styles 2; fruit a pair of samaras 100. AcERACEAE 

17. Shrubs; style 3-lobed; fruit a 1 -seeded drupe 

Vihurnimi in 146. Caprifoliaceae 

16. Lobes obtuse, entire; shrubs; stamens 5, inserted on the pink sympetalous 

corolla; fruit a 2-seeded drupe 

S^mphoricarpos in 146. CAPRIFOLIACEAE 

10. Margins entire, or merely undulate or slightly crenulate or denticulate. 

18. Plants parasitic on the branches of trees; leaves thick, leathery; fruit a berry 


18. Not parasitic. 

19. Leaves beneath, and branchlets covered with minute silvery scales; flowers 
small, axillary, dioecious; calyx 4-parted; corolla 0; stamens 8; fruit a 

drupe I 12. Elaeagnaceae 

19. Leaves not silvery. 

20. Leaves with small black dots; low shrubs; flowers yellow, cymose; 
sepals and petals each 4 or 5 ; stamens numerous; fruit a capsule 

106. Hypericaceae 

20. Leaves not black dotted. 

21. Leaves large (15-50 cm. long), ovate or cordate. 

22. Leaves visually in whorls of 3 ; flowers whitish, marked with 
yellow and purple; anther-bearing stamens 2; capsules cylin- 
drical Caialpa in 140. BiGNONIACEAE 

22. Leaves opposite; flowers purple; anther-bearing stamens 4; cap- 
sules ovoid Pauloxvnia in 140. BiGNONIACEAE 

21. Leaves usually smaller. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 25 

23. Twining shrubs; upper leaves connate-perfoliate ; flowers per- 
fect; corolla irregular, sympetalous, the 5 stamens mserted on 

its tube; ovary inferior; fruit a few-seeded berry 

Lonicera in 146. Caprifoliaceae 

23. Erect shrubs or small trees. 

24. Leaves slightly crenate near the middle, lanceolate, acuminate 
at each end; flowers dioecious or polygamous, apetalous, or 
petals small and deciduous; stamens 2-4; drupe with 1, or 

rarely 2 seeds Foresliera in 125. Oleaceae 

24. Leaves entire; ovary inferior. 

25. Leaves oval, short-petioled, not acuminate; flowers in 
axillary or terminal clusters; corolla and calyx usually 

5-lobed; stamens usually 5 146. Caprifoliaceae 

25. Leaves with petioles usually 1 cm. or more in length; calyx 
and corolla each 4-lobed; stamens 4. 
26. Leaves glabrous, or sparsely pubescent along the mid- 
vein, at least the upper ones usually in whorls of 

three; flowers in globose heads 

Cephalanlhus in 146. Rubiaceae 

26. Leaves pubescent, at least on the lower surface, never 
whorled; flowers in cymes 117. CoRNACEAE 

Section 13. Trees or Shrubs With Alternate, Compound Leaves 

, Leaves once compound, i.e., not decompound. 
2. Leaflets 3. 

3. Prickles present. 

4. Stipules adnate to the petioles; flowers rose; carpels enclosed in a hypanthium 

("hip") which becomes red and succulent in fruit; achenes bony 

Rosa in 83. Rosaceae 

4. Stipules not adnate to the petioles; flowers white; fruit of several or many 

fleshy drupelets inserted on a convex receptacle Rubus in 83. RoSACEAE 

3. Prickles none. 

5. Leaflets silky-pubescent; stipules present; flowers yellow, perfect; achenes 

densely pubescent - Poienlilla in 83. RosACEAE 

5. Leaflets not silky-pubescent, either glabrous or only short-pubescent; stipules 
absent; flowers greenish, polygamous or dioecious. 
6. Leaflets sessile, pellucid-punctate; fruit a finely pubescent, suborbicular 

samara, 1.5-3 cm. in diameter Plelea in 91. RuTACEAE 

6. Leaflets, at least the terminal one, petiolulate; fruit a drupe 

98. Anacardiaceae 

2. Leaflets more than 3. 

7. Leaves palmately compound. 

8. Stems prickly; tendrils none; stamens numerous Rubus in 83. RoSACEAE 

8. Stems not prickly; tendrils present; stamens 5..Parthenocissus in 103. VlTACEAE 
7. Leaves pinnately compound. 

9. Leaflets entire or undulate, or remotely denticulate. 

10. Leaflets 3-7, silky-pubescent, revolute-margined ; flowers yellow; fruit an 

achene; shrub 30-100 cm. tall Poienlilla in 83. RosACEAE 

10. Leaflets 5-51. 

II. Leaflets with pellucid dots; flowers greenish yellow in small axillary 
cymes, appearing before the leaves; branches often with sharp stout 
stipular prickles; fruit ellipsoid, 4-6 mm. long, 1 -seeded, spicy 

flavored Zanlhoxylum in 91. RuTACEAE 

11. Leaflets without pellucid dots. 

12. Fruit a pod; flowers often papilionaceous 84. Leguminosae 

12. Fruit a drupe; flowers never papilionaceous 98. Anacardiaceae 

9. Leaflets more or less toothed. 

26 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

13. Leaflets 11-41, entire except for two or more coarse teeth at the base, 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 7-15 cm. long; leaves 20-90 cm. long, 
ill-scented; flowers small, greenish, polygamous, in erect panicles 
10-30 cm. long; samaras 3-4 cm. long, twisted, with the compressed 

seed in the middle 92. SiMARUBACEAE 

13. Leaflets with numerous teeth. 

14. Stipules none; flowers greenish. 

15. Trees; staminate flowers in catkins; fruit a nut. ...40. JUGLANDACEAE 

15. Shrubs; flowers in panicles; fruit a drupe 98. AnacardiaceaE 

14. Stipules present (sometimes soon disappearing); flowers not green or in 

catkins 83. RosACEAE 

1 . Leaves 2-3-compound. 

16. Petioles and midribs often with small prickles; leaflets ovate, acute, serrate to 
entire; flowers small, white, in umbels; drupes numerous, small, black, ovoid; 

shrub or small tree with prickly branches Aralla spinosa in 118. Araliaceae 

16. Petioles and midribs never spiny; fruit a legume. 

17. Leaflets 12-28, obtuse, 2-3.5 cm. long, remotely denticulate; trees, usually with 

spines on the trunk and branches Cleditsia in 84. Leguminosae 

17. Leaflets 30-60, acute, 4-8 cm. long, entire; trees without spines 

C^mnocladus in 84. LegUMINOSAE 

Section 14. Trees or Shrubs (Including Woody Climbers) 
With Alternate Simple Entire Leaves 

1. Branches or stems more or less prickly or spiny. 

2. Leaves usually with a pair of tendrils at the base of the petiole 

Smilax in 31 . LiLIACEAE 

2. Tendrils absent. 

3. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; twigs with sharp spines; flowers 
small, greenish, dioecious; fruit yellow, as large as a grapefruit; trees with 

milky juice Madura in 44. MoRACEAE 

3. Leaves oblanceolate or lanceolate, often fascicled on short lateral branchlets. 
4. Trailing or climbing shrub with arching or spreading light gray angular 

branches; flowers greenish purple; berries red, many-seeded 

Lyciitm in 1 36. Solanaceae 

4. Erect shrub or small tree; flowers white; drupe black, 1 -seeded 

122. Sapotaceae 

1. Plants without spines or prickles. 
5. Plants prostrate or climbing. 

6. Stems prostrate; tendrils none 120. Ericaceae 

6. Stems climbing or twining. 

7. Tendrils usually present at base of petioles; flowers in umbels, greenish; fruit 

a berry Smilax in 31. LiLIACEAE 

7. Tendrils none; flowers axillary; leaves cordate; fruit a capsule 

49. Ari.stolochiaceae 

5. Plants erect; trees or shrubs. 

8. Leaves cordate, palmately veined, acute; pods 6-8 cm. long; shrub or small tree 

Cercis in 84. Leguminosae 

8. Leaves not cordate. 

9. Leaves bristle-tipped Qiiercii.s in 42. Fagaceae 

9. Leaves not bristle-tipped. 
10. Stipules usually present. 

11. Flowers large, greenish or yellowish, solitary; trees 

60. Magnoliaceae 

1 1 . Flowers not as above. 

12. Mowers in catkins; fruit a capsule 38. SalicacEAE 

12. Flowers axillary; fruit a drupe 102. RhamnaceaE 

10. Stipules none. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 27 

13. Leaves somewhat palmately veined with 3 principal veins from near 
the base, often with one or more lateral lobes; leaves and bark spicy- 
aromatic Sassafras in 68. Lauraceae 

13. Leaves pinnately veined or 1 -veined. 

14. Pith of the twigs chambered, or divided by woody plates; trees with 

imperfect flowers. 

15. Leaves crowded towards the ends of the branches; twigs soon 

glabrous; drupe ovoid or ellipsoid, 1 -seeded; flowers 5-merous 

Nyssa in 117. CoRNACEAE 

15. Leaves not crowded; young twigs pubescent; berry large, glo- 

bose, 4-12-seeded, reddish yellow and sweet when ripe, 

astringent when green 123. EbENACEAE 

14. Pith continuous; flowers perfect. 

16. Leaves large, 15-40 cm. long at maturity, oblanceolate ; buds 

naked, reddish-pubescent; flowers axillary, dark purple or 
green, 2-4 cm. in diameter; sepals 3; petals 6; stamens nu- 
merous, in a globose mass surrounding the pistils 

61 . Annonaceae 

16. Leaves smaller. 

17. Leaves evergreen 120. ERICACEAE 

1 7. Leaves deciduous. 

18. Base of petiole hollow, covering the lateral buds; termi- 
nal bud absent; leaves oval; bark tough and fibrous; 
flowers pale yellow, appearing before the leaves; fruit 

an ellipsoid drupe DiVca in 111. ThymeleACEAE 

18. Petioles otherwise; terminal bud present. 

19. Leaves glabrous or more or less pubescent, but not 
strigilose beneath. 
20. Leaves minutely resinous-dotted beneath, elliptical- 
obovate, ciliolate; flowers in axillary drooping 
racemes; corolla ellipsoid, greenish or pink.... 

Caplussacia in 120. ERICACEAE 

20. Leaves not resinous-dotted. 

21. Petioles usually 1 cm. or more in length; 
ovary superior. 
22. Bark spicy-aromatic; buds scaly; drupe 

red, 1 cm. long at maturity 

— Lindera in 68. Lauraceae 

22. Bark not aromatic; winter-buds naked; 
drupe 6-8 mm. in diameter, dark purple 

when ripe 

Rhamnus in 102. Rhamnaceae 

21. Petioles shorter; buds scaly; ovary inferior; 

fruit a several-seeded berry 

Vaccinium in 120. ERICACEAE 

19. Leaves strigilose and pale green beneath; lateral 
veins running parallel to the margins, the upper 
ones ending in the apex; petals 4; sepals 4; sta- 
mens 4; flowers white, cymose ; fruit a bluish black 

drupe 6-8 mm. in diameter 

Cornits aUemifoIia in 117. CoRNACEAE 

Section 15. Trees and Shrubs With Alternate, Simple, Lobed Leaves 

1. Leaves palmately veined and lobed. 

2. Plants climbing by tendrils 103. VlTACEAE 

2. Plants not climbing; tendrils none. 

3. Some of the leaves usually 3-lobed, not serrate, aromatic 

Sassafras in 68. Lauraceae 

28 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

3. Leaves usually serrate or smuale-dentate as well as lobed. 
4. Trees. 

5. Leaf -lobes not serrate or sinuate; blades white-tomentose beneath at first; 

flowers and fruits in catkins Populus in 38. Salicaceae 

5. Leaf-lobes serrate or sinuate-toothed. 

6. Flowers and fruits in dense, globose heads. 

7. Leaf-lobes serrate; leaves glabrous or pubescent, never white-tomentose; 

2-year old branchlets often corky-ridged 

Liquidambar in 81. Hamamelidaceae 

7. Leaf-lobes sinuate-toothed; blades white-tomentose beneath when young, 
becoming nearly glabrous at maturity; branchlets terete; bark ex- 
foliating 82. Platanaceae 

6. Flowers in catkins; pistillate flowers ripening into a succulent multiple fruit 

(a mulberry) ; leaf-lobes serrate-dentate Morus in 44. MoRACEAE 

4. Shrubs. 

8. Stamens 5; ovary inferior; fruit a berry; branches sometimes spiny or 

prickly 80. Grossulariaceae 

8. Stamens numerous; carpels 2-5, superior, separate, or united at the base, 

becoming follicles; branches never spiny; bark becoming shreddy 

- ....Phvsocarpus in 83. RoSACEAE 

1 . Leaves pinnately veined. 
9. Lobes of the leaves serrate or crenate. 

10. Fruit of 2-5 follicles; bark shreddy; flowers in corymbs; branches never spiny 

Phvsocarpus in 83. RosACEAE 

10. Fruit a pome; branches often spiny. 

II. Flowers in cymes; styles united below the middle; pome large, the carpels 
papery or leathery; branches (but not the twigs) sometimes with rather 

blunt spines Mains in 83. RosACEAE 

11. Flowers in corymbs; styles free; pomes small, the carpels bony; branches 

(and twigs) often with sharp spines Crataegus in 83. RosACEAE 

9. Lobes of the leaves not serrate. 

12. Leaves with a truncate apex and two broad lateral lobes; buds covered by the 

membranous stipules; flowers large Liriodendron in 60. MagNOLIACEAE 

12. Leaves not truncate at apex; flowers small. 

13. Leaves pmnatiftd with many rounded lobes on each side of the midvein; 
monoecious shrub with fragrant foliage; flowers in erect catkins; fruit an 

ovoid nutlet surrounded by subulate bracts 39. Myricaceae 

13. Leaves with few lobes. 

14. Leaves with three principal veins from the base, aromatic; flowers yellow, 
6-8 mm. broad, in racemes 3-5 cm. \ong-. -Sassafras in 68. Lauraceae 
14. Leaves with I principal vein from the base, not aromatic; flowers green- 
ish, the staminate in catkins; fruit an acorn. ...Qiicrciis in 42. Fagaceae 

Section 16. Trees and Shrubs With Alternate, Simple Leaves, 
the Blades Toothed but Not Lobed 

], Base of blade symmetrical or nearly so. 

2. Flowers, at least the staminate (except Fagus) in catkins. 

3. Fruit a small several-seeded capsule, the seeds with a tuft of silky hairs; both 
staminate and pistillate flowers m catkins; stigmas 2, often 2-lobed (sometimes 

3) ; dioecious shrubs or trees 38. Salicaceae 

3. Fruit not a capsule; seeds without a tuft of silky hairs; styles 2 or 3. 
4. Fruit a 1-loculed, 1 -seeded nut; i)lants monoecious. 

5. Styles 3 42. Fagaceae 

5. Style 2-cleft, or stigmas 2 41. BeTULACEAE 

4. Fruit a juicy multiple fruit; plants often with milky juice; styles 2 

44. Moraceae 

2. Flowers never in catkins. 

6. Leaves with 1 principal vein from the base. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 29 

7. Leaves with 15-25 pairs of nearly straight, conspicuous lateral veins; margins 

sharply double-serrate; fruit a samara 43. UlmaceaE 

7. Leaves with fewer, less conspicuous veins ; fruit not a samara. 
8. Stamens fewer than 15. 

9. Anthers opening by apical pores; pith of the branches solid 

120. Ericaceae 

9. Anthers opening lengthwise; flowers white or greenish. 
10. Pith chambered, or separated by woody plates. 

1 1 . Leaves stellate-pubescent beneath; flowers perfect, white, nodding, 
on slender pedicels; calyx 4-toothed; petals 4, united below; 

fruit dry, bony within, 1 -seeded, 4-winged 

Halesia in 124. StyracaceAE 

1 1. Leaves not stellate-pubescent. 

12. Flowers greenish, dioecious; fruit a drupe 

Nyssa in 117. CoRNACEAE 

12. Flowers white, perfect; fruit a 2-valved, ellipsoid, 2-loculed, 
several-seeded capsule tipped with the 2 styles 


10. Pith solid. 

13. Stems climbing, twining, or trailing; leaves elliptical, finely serrate, 
glabrous; flowers in terminal racemes; capsules subglobose, yel- 
low, with crimson seeds Celaslrus in 96. Celastraceae 

13. Stems erect. 

14. Flowers solitary or clustered in the axils; fruit a small, berry- 
like drupe with 4-8 bony nutlets. ...97. Aquifoliaceae 

14. Flowers in small dense panicles or corymbs; fruit a 3-loculed 

capsule 102. Rhamnaceae 

8. Stamens 15 or more; fruit a drupe, pome, or follicle 83. RoSACEAE 

6. Leaves with 3 or more principal veins from the base. 

15. Leaves cordate, slender-petioled, abruptly acuminate, sharply serrate; trees 


15. Leaves not cordate. 

16. Low shrubs; pith continuous; flowers white; fruit a capsule; leaves ovate 

or elliptic-lanceolate, short-petioled, finely toothed 

Ceanoihus in 102. Rhamnaceae 

16. Trees or shrubs; pith of branches chambered; flowers greenish, apetalous; 
fruit a red drupe ; leaves ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, acuminate, 

scabrous '. Ce//is in 43. Ulmaceae 

Base of blade noticeably asymmetrical. 

17. Leaves sinuately or obtusely toothed, obovate or oval; flowers appearing in autumn 
when the leaves are falling; petals 4, yellow, linear; calyx 4-parted; stamens 8, 

short; styles 2; fruit a capsule Hamamelis in 81. Hamamelidaceae 

17. Leaves serrate; flowers appearing in spring; fruit not a capsule. 

18. Leaves cordate, glabrous, or the lower surface pubescent or with tufts of hairs 
in the axils of the veins; flowers appearing after the leaves, in drooping 
cymes, small, fragrant, the jjeduncle united with the membranous bract; fruit 

small, globose, indehiscent 104. TiLIACEAE 

18. Leaves scabrous or hispidulous; flowers apetalous, appearing with or before 
the leaves. 

19. Flowers in catkins: leaf-buds acute Oslr^a in 41. Betulaceae 

19. Flowers not in catkins; leaf-buds obtuse 43. Ulmaceae 

Section 17. Flowers on Leafless (or Almost Leafless) Twigs 

, Leaf-buds and leaf-scars opposite; flowers dioecious, polygamous, or monoecious; 
styles or stigmas 2 ; fruit of samaras. 
2. Bud-scales scurfy brown or black; bundle-scars forming a crescent-shaped line; 

calvx small, 4-cleft or obsolete; stamens usually 2; fruit a single samara 

Fraxinus in 125. Oleaceae 

30 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Bud-scales not scurfy, paler; bundle-scars not forming a curved line; calyx usually 

5-Iobed; stamens 4-10, usually 8; fruit a pair of samaras 100. AcERACEAE 

1. Leaf-buds and leaf-scars alternate. 

3. Flowers (at least the staminate) in catkins, apetalous. 

4. Dioecious; ovary several-ovuled, 1-loculed; stigmas 2, often 2-lobed 

38. Salicaceae 

4. Monoecious. 

5. Styles or stigmas 3 (or 4) 42. Fagaceae 

5. Style 2-cleft, or stigmas 2 41. Betulaceae 

3. Flowers not m catkms. 

6. Branches with sharp stipular prickles; plants dioecious; sepals 0; petals 4-5, 

greenish yellow; stamens 4 or 5 ; pistils 2-5; leaves pinnate 

Zanthox^lum in 91 . RuTACEAE 

6. Branches not prickly; leaves simple. 

7. Flowers white (or pink), perfect; petals 5; sepals 5; stamens 15-25. 

8. Style 1 Prutius in 83. RosACEAE 

8. Styles 5 Amclanchier in 83. RosACEAE 

7. Flowers not white. 

9. Corolla papilionaceous, red-purple; flowers perfect, in umbel-like clusters; 

stamens 10; fruit a legume Cercis in 84. Leguminosae 

9. Corolla not papilionaceous; fruit not a legume. 

10. Corolla present, of 4 linear yellow petals; calyx 4-parted; stamens 8, 
short; styles 2; fruit a capsule; flowers appearmg m autumn when 

the leaves are falling Hamamelis in 81. Hamamelidaceae 

10. Corolla none; flowers greenish, purplish, or yellowish, appearing in 
1 1 . Flowers greenish or purplish; calyx 4-9-cleft; stamens 4-9, inserted 

on the calyx; styles 2; trees with serrate leaves 43. UlmacEAE 

11. Flowers yellowish or yellow; leaves entire. 

12. Calyx 6-parted; stamens 9, hypogynous; anthers opening by 
valves; flowers fragrant, in small, sessile clusters; twigs with 

spicy odor and flavor Lindera in 68. Lauraceae 

12. Calyx tubular, corolla-like, obscurely 4-toothed 

111. Thymeleaceae 

Section 18. Ferns and Fern- Allies 

1. Plants attached to the substratum by roots, either growmg on land or submerged in 
water, but not free-floating. 
2. Leaves not quadnfoliolate or clover-like. 

3. Leaves narrow, sessile, 1 -veined, subulate or linear or oval, simple, not "fern- 
4. Leaves not whorled ; stem solid, not conspicuously jointed. 
5. Stems elongated, leafy. 

6. Cones terete (or m some species the sporangia borne in the axils of ordin- 
ary leaves); spores of only one kind, small; leaves without a ligule 

1. Lycopodiaceae 

6. Cones more or less 4-angled; spores of two kinds, large (megaspores), 
and small (microspores), borne in different sporangia in the same cone; 

ligule present 2. Selaginellaceae 

5. Stem short, thick, corm-like; leaves rush-like, in a basal tuft; plants 

aquatic or growing in wet soil 3. IsOETACEAE 

4. Leaves whorled, united to form toothed sheaths at the conspicuous nodes on 

grooved, usually hollow stems; sporangia in a terminal cone 

4. Equisetaceae 

3. Leaves usually broad and "fern-like" in most spyecies, petiolate, often compound, 

with numerous or several free (rarely netted) veins. 

7. Small delicate ferns with filmy translucent leaves usually consisting of a single 

layer of cells; sporangia sessile on a filiform receptacle within a tubular or 

urceolate indusium 5. Hymenophyli.aceae 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 31 

7. Larger ferns with the leaves membranous to coriaceous, consisting of several 
layers of cells; sporangia not as above. 
8. Sporangia large, sessile, opening by a transverse slit, borne in a stalked 
terminal spike or loose panicle, the sterile blade appearing lateral; verna- 
tion erect or inclined 6. Ophioglossaceae 

8. Sporangia small, stalked, borne in clusters (sori) on the back of ordinary or 
modified foliar leaves, or in pod-like divisions of modified leaves; verna- 
tion usually coiled. 
9. Sporangia covering some or all divisions of the fertile leaves, densely 
crowded, short-stalked, globose, opening by a longitudinal slit into two 

valves; annulus none; veins free 7. OsMUNDACEAE 

9. Sporangia in sori on the back or margin of ordinary or modified leaves, 
long-stalked, opening by a nearly complete vertical ring (annulus).... 


2. Leaves quadrifoliolate, clover-like, long-petioled ; sporocarps ovoid, borne at the 
base of the petioles and containing both megaspores and microspores; plants 

perennial with slender rhizomes 9. Marsileaceae 

.Plants not attached by roots, minute (5-25 mm. broad), free-floating; leaves imbri- 
cated, 2-lobed; sporocarps in pairs beneath the stem 10. Salviniaceae 

Section 19. Gymnosperms (except Hudsonia) 

, Leaves glabrous. 

2. Leaves (and cone-scales) spirally arranged, i.e., fascicled or alternate, never op- 
posite or whorled. 
3. Fruit berry-like, red, 1 -seeded, the seed nearly enclosed by the pulpy aril; micro- 

sporophylls with 3-8 pollen-sacs; cotyledons 2; leaves linear, evergreen 

1 1 . Taxaceae 

3. Fruit a woody cone, or 1-3-seeded, bluish, berry-like. 

4. Seeds winged; microsporophylls with 2 pollen-sacs; cone-scales and bracts 

mostly distinct; branchlets not deciduous 12. PiNACEAE 

4. Seeds wingless; microsporophylls with 3-8 pollen sacs; cone-scales without dis- 
tinct bracts ; lateral branchlets (in our species) deciduous, the leaves light 

green, flattened, 2-ranked; bark fibrous 13. Taxodiaceae 

2. Leaves and cone-scales opposite or whorled, the leaves small, scale-like or subulate 

14. Cupressaceae 

.Leaves pubescent, subulate, numerous, 1-2 mm. long; low shrubs 10-20 cm. tall; 

flowers yellow; capsule ovoid, 3-angled, glabrous, l-2-seeded 

Hudsonia in 107. CiSTACEAE 

32 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Division I. Pteridophyta. Ferns and Fern-allies 

1. Lycopodiaceae Michx. — Clubmoss Family 

1. Lycopodium L. — Clubmoss 

1. Sporangia borne in the axils of foliar leaves, not in distinct terminal cones. 

2. Leaves linear-oblanceolate, glossy, widest above the middle, erose-denticu- 

late toward the apex; cool moist woods, rare; Cook Co., Vasey; Coles 

Co., E. L. Stover L. hicidnliim Michx. 

2. Leaves lanceol.-j.te-Iinear, widest at the base, nearly or quite entire; cool 

woods, rare; Lake, La Salle, and Ogle counties 

L. porophilum Lloyd & Underw. 

1. Sporangia borne in terminal cones; sporophylls similar to the foliar leaves; 
Evanston, Sept. 20, 1890, L. N. Johnson L. inundatum L. 

2. Selaginellaceae Underw. 

1. Selaginella Beauv. — Selaginella 

1. Leaves numerous, uniformly imbricated, many-ranked, subulate, short-awned; 
dry sandstone rocks, local; n. 111., extending southward to Henderson and 
La Salle counties. Rock Selaginella S. rupestris (L.) Spring 

1. Leaves of two kinds, 4-ranked, spreading in two planes, ovate, acute or 
cuspidate; moist soil, local. [S. apiis (L.) Spring}*.. .>S. apoda (L.) Fern. 

3. Isoetaceae Underw. — Quillwort Family 

1. IsoETES L. — Quillwort 

1. Leaf-bases blackish; megaspores 280-440 /i in diameter, nearly smooth, or 
with low tubercles; microspores finely spinulose, ashy-gray; wet meadows 
or shallow ponds, chiefly in the western part of the state, rare, or perhaps 
now extinct in 111 I. melanopoda Gay & Dur. 

1. Leaf-bases not blackish; megaspores 400-600 /i in diameter, honeycomb- 
reticulate; microspores smooth or nearly so; ponds, rare. St. Clair Co 

/. engelmauni A. Br. 

4. Equisetaceae Michx. — Horsetail Fainily 

1. Equisetum L. 

L Stems perennial, evergreen, all alike, stiff and harsh, usually simple; stomata 
in regular rows in the grooves; cones usually apiculate. 
2. Stems tall, 16-50-anglcd, hollow; teeth of the sheaths deciduous. 

* Synonyms appear in brackets. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 5. Ophioglossaceae 33 

3. Sheaths about as long as broad, short-cylindrical, appressed, ashy-gray, 
with a black band near the base; internodes rough-tuberculate; moist 
sandy soil, common. \E. rohustum A. Br ; E. hyemale of Am. auth., 
not L.; E. hyemale var. affi7ie (Engelm.) A. A. Eaton} Tall Scour- 
in'g-rush E. prealtum Raf. 

3. Sheaths slightly longer than broad, dilated upward and somewhat fun- 
nelform, green, and usually with a narrow black rim; internodes 

smooth; sandy soil, common. Smooth Scouring-rush 

E. laevigatum A. Br. 

2. Stems low, slender, usually 5-10-angled; teeth of the sheaths persistent. 

4. Stems 15-30 cm. tall, 2-4 mm. thick, 5-10-2rooved; central cavity 

one-third the diameter of the stem; sheaths 5-12-toothed; cones 

8-10 mm. long; moist sandy soil in the n. half of the state. [£. 

nelsoni (A. A. Eaton) Schaffnerj Variegated Scouring-rush 

E. variegatum Schleich. 

4. Stems 5-15 cm. tall, 1-2 mm. thick, 6-angIed and -grooved, tufted, 
slender, flexuous, solid; sheaths mostly-3-toothed; cones 3-5 mm. 
long; moist ground. Lake Co E. scirpoides Michx. 

1. Stems annual, flexible; stomata scattered; cor/as blunt. 
5. Stems all alike, green, usually branched at maturity. 

6. Stems 10-30-angled; central cavity one-half or more the diameter of the 
stem; sheaths tight; along ditches or in marshes. [E. limosum L.} 
Water Horsetail E. fluviatile L. 

6. Stems 5-10-angled; central cavity about one-sixth the diameter of the 
stem; sheaths loose; wet soil, not common. Peoria, Woodford, and 
Tazewell counties. Marsh Horsetail E. palustre L. 

5. Stems of two kinds, the sterile green and branched, the fertile whitish or 
brownish, appearing in early spring and soon withering; moist sandy 
soil, common, particularly on railroad embankments. Field Horsetail.... 
E. arvense L. 

5. Ophioglossaceae Presl — Adder's-tongue Family 

1. Sterile blade simple, entire; venation reticulate; sporangia in two rows in a simple 

slender spike 1 . Oph'wglossum 

1. Sterile blade pinnately divided; venation free; sporangia in a panicle.. ..2. Bolrvchium 

1. Ophioglossum L. — Adder's-Tongue 

1. Sterile blades usually 2-5, oval, apiculate, the principal veins 13 or more, 
forming broad areolae containing numerous included veinlets; spores 
pitted; hillsides, banks, thickets, chiefly on limestone, rare. Cave-in-Rock, 
Hardin Co., E. J. Palmer 15469 0. engelmanni Prand 

1. Sterile blades usually solitary, or sometimes 2, oval, obtuse, the principal 
veins 7-11, forming narrow areolae containing few included veinlets; 
spores reticulate; m-eadows, open woods, swamps, moist thickets, rare. 
Jackson and Union counties. [O. vulgatum of Am. auth., not L.; O. 
arenarium E. G. Britt.} O. pusillum Raf. 

34 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. BoTRYCHlUM Sw. — Grape Fern 

1. Sterile blade stalked, attached near the base of the plant; lateral veins of the 
leaf-segments forked; epidermal cells with straight walls. 

2. Leaf-segments incised; woods, local B. dissectum Spreng. 

2. Leaf-segments merely crenate or serrulate. 

3. Blades thin; segments acutish; woods, rare, s. 111.; also Lee Co 

B. obliqimm Muhl. 

3. Blades thick, somewhat coriaceous; segments obtuse; woods, rare, n. 111. 

[5. ternatiim var. intermedium D. C. Eaton; B. silaijolium of auth., 
not Presl} B. midtifidum (S. G. Gmel.) Rupr. 

\. Sterile blade nearly or quite sessile, attached near the middle of the plant, 
thin, membranous, the segments acute, incised; lateral veins of the leaf- 
segments unbranched; epidermal cells with flexuous walls; moist woods, 
common B. yirginianiim (L.) Sw. 

6. Hymenophyllaceae Gaud. — Filmy Fern Family 

L Trichomanes L. — Filmy Fern 

T. boschianiim Sturm. On sandstone near a spring, Jackson Hollow, Pope 
Co., Aug. 2, 1923, Mary M. Steagall 37 (Univ. 111. herb.). 

7. Osmundaceae R. Br. — Royal Fern Family 

1 . Leaves 2-pinnate, some of them fertile at the apex and forming an erect 

terminal panicle; swampy ground or wet woods. Royal Fern 

O. regalis L. 

L Leaves 1 -pinnate. 
2. Leaves of two kinds, the fertile and sterile ones separate; sterile leaves 
1-pinnate, longer than the fertile; each pinna with a tuft of tomentum 
at base; swampy ground n.e. 111. Cinnamon Fern O. citinamomea L. 

2. Leaves fertile at the tip, or wholly sterile, or some of the larger ones with 
some of the middle pinnae fertile; pinnae lacking tufts of tomentum; 
moist ground in woods. Interrupted Fern .O. claytomana L. 

8. Polypodiaceae R. Br. — Fern Family 

l.Sporani^ia enclosed in £;lobose or necklace-like brownish portions of the contracted and 
modified fertile leaves; fertile and sterile leaves dissimilar. 

2. Sterile leaves 1 -pinnatifid, the veins reticulate; fertile leaves 2-pinnate; rhizome 
horizontal, the leaves therefore solitary 1. Onoclea 

2. Sterile leaves 2-pinnatifid, the veins free; fertile leaves I -pinnate; rhizome short. 

erect, the leaves therefore tufted 2. Pierelis 

1. Sporangia on the margin or back of ordinary foliar or modified leaves. 

3. Indusium inferior or partly so (often evanescent). 

4. Sori marginal, in minute cup-like inferior indusia at the ends of the veins; leaves 

bipinnate, delicate, fragrant, sparsely glandular-pubescent beneath 

3. Dennstaedtia 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 8. Polypodiaceae 35 

4. Sori dorsal. 

5. Indusium wholly inferior, roundish at first, soon splitting 4. Woodsia 

5. Indusium partly inferior, delicate, hood-like, attached by its base at one side 
5. C^stopleris 

3. Indusium superior or none. 

6. Sori dorsal, i.e., on the back of the leaves away from the margin, or if apparently 
near the margin not covered by the revolute edge of the leaf-segments. 

7. Sori orbicular or nearly so. 

8. Indusium peltate or reniform, conspicuous, but often soon deciduous. 

9. Indusium peltate; leaves (in our species) 1 -pinnate, the stipe and rachis 
scaly, the pinnules spinulose-serrate, auriculate at the base of the 
upper side 6. Polyslichum 

9. Indusium reniform, attached at its sinus; leaves 1 -3-pinnately compound 

7. Dr^opleris 

8. Indusium none. 

10. Leaves 2-3-pinnatifid, not jointed to the rhizome; sori small, on the backs 

of the veins 8. Phegopieris 

10. Leaves pinnately lobed, jointed to and arising from roundish knobs on 

the chaffy rhizome; sori large 9. Pol\)podium 

7. Sori elongated, oval to oblong or linear, straight or curved, two or more times 

as long as wide. 

11. Leaves simple, entire, 5-30 cm. long, lanceolate, tapering from a truncate 

or cordate or even hastate base, rooting at the tip and thus giving rise to 

new plants; veins forking and anastomosing 10. Campiosorus 

1 1. Leaves pinnate or pinnatifld. 

12. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous, small (5-40 cm. long); petioles firm, 

slender, wiry, brown or black ]\. Asplemum 

12. Leaves not evergreen, herbaceous; petioles soft, stoutish, stramineous 
(when dry). 
13. Son in chain-like rows parallel to the midveins; veins united to 
form a series of narrow areolae along the midrib, elsewhere free 

14. IVoodwardia 

13. Sori and venation otherwise. 

14. Pinnae pinnate, the segments coarsely and irregularly toothed or 

incised 12. Alhy^rium 

14. Pinnae pinnatifid or merely undulate, or entire 13. Diplazium 

6. Sori marginal, i.e., borne at the edges of the lobes or segments of the leaves, 
either in definite sori or in a continuous line and covered by the revolute leaf- 
1 5. Leaves pedate, the petioles forked at the summit, dark brown or black, smooth, 

glossy; pinnules flabellate; sori several, distinct 17. Adianium 

15. Leaves pinnate, the petioles simple; sori apparently continuous along the 
margin of the pinnule. 
16. Petioles slender, less than 2 mm. thick; leaves small, ovate-lanceolate; 
rhizome erect, or short-horizontal, copiously scaly. 
17. Leaves glabrous. 

18. Leaves dimorphous, delicate, membranous; pinnules of the sterile 

leaves cuneate at the sessile or nearly sessile base 

1 4. Cr^plogramma 

18. Leaves uniform or nearly so, coriaceous; pinnules short-petiolulate 

at the rounded or truncate base 15. Pellaea 

17. Leaves pubescent, uniform; pinnules cuneate at the sessile or nearly 

sessile base 18. Cnetlanlnes 

16. Petioles coarse, 2-10 mm. thick; leaves large, coarse, triangular, 1-3-pin- 

nate, 30-100 cm. long; rhizomes horizontal, black, not scaly 

19. Pteridium 

36 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Onoclea L. 

O. sensibilis L. Sensitive Fern. Moist woods, or edges of meadows, 

2. Pteretis Raf. 

P. nodulosa (Michx.) Nieuwl. Ostrich Fern. Wet ground, not common; 
n. III., southwd. to Peoria Co. [Onoclea nodulosa Michx.; Matteuccia struthi- 
opteris and Onoclea struthiopteris of Am. auth.} 

3. Cystopteris Bernh. — Bladder Fern 

i. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, 30-120 cm. long when mature; axils of some of 
the upper pinnae usually bearing small bulblets on the lower surface; basal 

pair of pinnae the largest; on moist cliffs in shaded ravines 

" C. bulbijera (L.) Bernh. 

1. Leaves broadly lanceolate, acute, 20-40 cm. long, the basal pair of pinnae 

usually slightly shortened; bulblets none; moist soil in woods, common 

C. f'^agilis (L.) Bernh. 

4. WooDsiA R. Br. 

L Leaves 20-50 cm. long, minutely glandular; petiole not jointed; indusium 
ample, with few broad spreading jagged lobes; cliffs, not common. Cliff 
Fern W. obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. 

I. Leaves 5-15 cm. long, rusty-chaffy beneath; petiole jointed a short distance 
above its base; indusium inconspicuous, the divisions filiform; cliffs, rare. 
Ogle Co. Rock Woodsia W. ilvensis (L.) R. Br. 

5. Dennstaedtia Bernh. 

{Diclfsonia L'Her.) 

D. punctilobtila (Michx.) Moore. Hay-scented Fern. Sandstone cliffs in 
wooded ravines, rare. Wabash Co., Schneck. 


P. acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott. Christmas Fern. Common in wooded 

7. Dryopteris Adans. 

(^Aspidium Sw. ; Thelyipteris Schmidel) 

1. Leaves membranous, not evergreen; vascular bundles of the petiole 2, free 
or united; rhizomes slender, almost without scales. 

2. Lowest pinnae reduced in length, widely spaced, deffexed, the blade there- 
fore conspicuously narrowed at the base; margins of the pinnules flat; 
indusium glandular; veins mostly simple; vascular bundles usually 

united; woods and thickets, rare. New York Fern 

D. noveboracensis (L.) Gray 

2. Lowest pinnae only slightly reduced; margins of the pinnules revolute; 
indusium glandless; veins forked; vascular bundles 2, distinct; marshes, 
common. Marsh Fern D. thclypteris (L.) Gra) 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 8. Polypodiaceae 37 

1. Leaves of firm texture, often evergreen; vascular bundles of the petiole 5 
or more; rhizom3 stout, conspicuously scaly. 
3. Leaves 1 -pinnate, or nearly 2-pinnate. 

4. Sori along the margins of the obscurely crenate or entire pinnules; 
leaves coriaceous; sandstone cliffs and wooded ravines, not uncom- 
mon. Marginal Wood Fern D. marginalis (L.) Gray 

4. Sori near the midvein; pinnules toothed. 

5. Leaf-biades 20-40 cm. wide, ovate in outline, scarcely narrowed 
below; pinnae broadest near the middle; rich woods in ravines; 
rare; known from Fulton, McLean, Grundy, and La Salle coun- 
ties. Goldie's Fern D. goldiana (Hook.) Gray 

5. Leaf-blades narrower, elliptical in outline, narrowed at the base; 
lower pinnae broadest at the base; swampy woods, n. III., rare; 
known from Lake, Kankakee, La Salle, and Ogle counties. Crested 

Wood Fern D. cristata (L.) Gray 

3. Leaves 2-3 -pinnate, the pinnules spinulose-toothed. 

6. Pinnae at right angles to the rachis; inner pinnules of the basal row 
equalling or shorter than the next outer ones; leaves (at least the 
rachis) usually with a few small scattered stipitate glands; indusium 
with marginal glands; moist woods, locally throughout 111. except 

the e. and centr. counties. Common Wood Fern 

D. intermedia (Muhl.) Gray 

6. Pinnae oblique to the rachis; inner pinnules of the basal row longer 
than the next outer ones; leaves and indusia not glandular; woods, 
rare. Oregon, Ogle Co., M. B. Waite in 1883; Peoria, Brendel; 

Antioch, Lake Co., G. N. Jones 16507. Spinulose Wood Fern 

D. spinulosa (O. F. Muell.) Watt 

8. Phegopteris (Presl) Fee 

1. Leaves glabrous, ternate, the three divisions petioled; rachis not winged; 
wooded ravines, rare; Ogle Co.; St. Clair Co. Oak Fern [Dryopteris 

linnaeana C. Chr.; D. disjuncta (Ledeb.) Morton] 

P. dryopteris (L.) Fee 

1. Leaves twice pinnatifid, pubescent or glandular beneath, the pinnae all 
sessile, adnate to the rachis. 
2. Rachis terete and wingless above the lowest pair of pinnae, these separated 
from the next pair above; blades mostly longer than broad, short- 
pubescent, 'especially on the veins; moist ravines, cliffs, and woods, 
rare; Starved Rock, La Salle Co., Agnes Chase in 1901; "South Illi- 
nois," without definite locality, Vasey. Long Beech Fern {Dryopteris 
phegopteris (L.) C. Chr.; Thelypteris phegopteris (L.) Slosson; P. 

polypodtoides Fee} P. connectilis (Michx.) Watt 

2. Rachis winged above the lowest pair of pinnae by their adnate bases; 
blades about as wide as long, or wider, the lower surface finely glandu- 
lar, and often slightly pubescent; rich woods and ravines, not uncom- 
mon. Broad Beech Fern P. hexagonoptera (Michx.) Fee 

38 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

9. PoLYPODiUM L. — Polypody 

1. Leaves glabrous; rocky ledges, locally abundant. [P. yiilgare of auth., not L.} 
P. virginianum L. 

1. Leaves scaly beneath; on trees, rarely on rocks; Jackson Co., and southw. 
[Acrostichiim polypodio'ides L., ex p.; P. polypodioides (L.) Watt, var. 
michauxianum Weatherby] P. ceteraccinum Michx. 

10. CampTOSORUS Link 
C. rhizophylUis (L.) Link. Walking Fern. Moist rocky ledges, not rare. 

IL AsPLENiUM L. — Spleenwort 
1 . Rachis green, flat. 

2. Leaves pinnatifid, or pinnate below, lanceolate, tapering to a long narrow 
tip, the segments obtuse, crenate; sandstone cliffs, rare, s. III. Pinnatifid 
Spleenwort A. pinnatifidiim Nutt. 

2. Leaves 2-3-pinnate, rhombic in outline, the segments cuneate, finely 

toothed at apex; usually on calcareous cliffs; s. 111., without definite 
locality, Brendel. \_A. ruta-muraria of Am. auth, not L.] Rue Spleen- 
wort A. cryptolepis Fern. 

L Rachis black or brown, terete. 

3. Leaves pinnatifid, the apex caudate, the segments lanceolate, sessile, vari- 

able in size, more or less auricl'ed at base; on a rocky, wooded hillside 
along the Mississippi River near McClure, Alexander Co., E. J. Palmer 
in 1919. [Asplenmm platyneuron X Camptosorm rhizophyllus; X 

Asplenosorus ebenoides (R. R. Scott) Wherry] Scott's Spleenwort 

X -^- (^bcnoides R. R. Scott 

3. Leaves pinnate, with 15-40 pairs of leaflets. 

4. Leaflets auriculate on upper side near base, serrate; rocky woods, not 
common. Ebony Spleenwort A. platyneuron (L.) Oakes 

4. Leaflets crenate, oval, obtuse, not auriculate; sandstone cliffs, s. III., rare. 
Maidenhair Spleenwort A. trichomanes L. 

12. Athyrium Roth 

A. angustum (Willd.) Presl. Lady Fern. Woods, local. \_A. fltx-jcmma 
ex p. of Am. auth., not L.] 

13. DiPLAZIUM Sw. 
{Aspleuiiim ex p. of auth.) 

1. Pinnae entire or crenulate, the veins running into the sinuses; moist woods, 

common. [A. anguftifolium Michx.] Glade Fern 

D. pycnocarpon (Spreng.) Broun 

1. Pinnae deeply pinnatifid, the veins or veinlets running into the teeth; woods, 
not infrequent. Silvery Spleenwort D. acrostichoides {Sw) Butters 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 10. Salviniaceae 39 

(Anchistea Presl) 

W. virginicd (L.) Sm. Chain Fern. In an old tamarack bog 3 miles e. of 
Antioch, Lake Co., G. D. Fuller & G. N. Jones in 1944. 

15. Cryptogramma R. Br. 

C. stelleri (S. G. Gmel.) Prantl. Rock-brake. On damp, usually calcareous 
rocks, rare; n. III. 

16. Pellaea Link — Cliff -brake 

1. Stipes and rachises glabrous or nearly so; leaves 5-25 cm. long, pale bluish 
green; chiefly calcareous rocks, rare P. glabella Mett. 

1. Stipes and rachises with numerous jointed hairs; leaves 10-50 cm. long, 

grayish green; dry, calcareous recks, not common 

P. atropurpurea (L.) Link 

17. Adiantum L. — Maidenhair Fern 
A. pedatum L. Moist woods, common throughout 111. 

18. Cheilanthes Sw. — Lip Fern 

1. Leaves tomentose, 5-10 cm. long; indusia continuous; among rocks, not 
common; chiefly in the w. and s. parts of the state; known from Jo 
Daviess, Carroll, Jersey, Jackson, and Johnson counties C. jeei Moore 

1. Leaves hirsute and glandular, (5-) -10-20 cm. long; indusia discontinuous; on 
rocks, St. Clair Co. and southw C. lanosa (Michx.) D. C. Eaton 

19. Pteridium Scop. 

P. latiusculum (Desv.) Hieron. Bracken or Brake Fern. Open woods, 
common. \Pteris aquilina and Pteridium aquilinum of auth., not L.} 

9. Marsileaceae R. Br. 

1. Marsilea L. 

M. quadrifolia L. European Marsilea. Ponds, etc., introd. from e. U.S.; 
nativie of Europe. In strip-mine ponds near Oakwood, Vermilion Co., G. N. 
Jones 13052. 

10. Salviniaceae Reichenb. 

1. AzoLLA Lam. 

A. mexicana Presl. Mosquito Fern. Floating on still water, not common; 
w. and s. 111. [/I. caroliniana of auth., not Willd.} 

40 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Division II. Spermatophyta. Seed Plants 

Subdivision I. GYMNOSPERMAE. Gymnosperms 

11. Taxaceae Lindl. — Yew Family 

1. Taxus L. — Yew 

T. canadensis Marsh. Canada Yew. Ground-hemlock. Wooded hillsides 
near streams, rare; n. 111.; known from Jo Daviess, Winnebago, Carroll, Ogle, 
Lee, La Salle, and Kankakee counties. 

12. PiNACEAE Lindl. — Pine Family 

1 . Leaves in fascicles or clusters. 

2. Leaves evergreen, in fascicles of 2-5, surrounded at the base by a sheath; cones 

maturing the second year ....1. Pimis 

2. Leaves deciduous, in clusters of 25-50 on short lateral spurs; cones maturing the 

first year 2. Larix 

1 . Leaves scattered along the branchlets, evergreen; cones maturing the first year; 

branchlets roughened by the persistent, leaf-bases; leaves obtuse, flattened, short- 

petioled, soon deciduous from the twigs when dry 3. Tsiiga 

1. Pin US L. — Pine 

1. Leaves five in each fascicle, slender, bluish green, 6-12 cm. long; 'each leaf 
with one vascular bundle; cones cylindrical, often curved, pendent, 10-15 
cm. long; n. 111.; known from Lake, Jo Daviess, Carroll, Ogle, Lake, and 

La Salle counties. White Pine P. strobus L. 

1. Leaves two or three in a fascicle; each leaf with two vascular bundles. 

2. Leaves 2-4 cm. long, rigid, twisted, spreading; cone-scales spineless; n. 111., 

in Lake, Cook, and Ogle counties. Jack Pine P. banksiana Lamb. 

2. Leaves 7-12 cm. long, straight; cone-scales with a sharp prickle about 1 
mm. long; s. 111., in Union, Jackson, and Randolph counties. Short- 
l-eaf Pine P. echinata Mill. 

2. Larix Adans. — Larch 

L. laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch. Tamarack or American Larch. Bogs in Lake 
and McHenry counties. 

3. TsuGA Carr. — Hemlock 

T. canadensis (L.) Carr. Sandstone bluffs, western Indiana (Parke Co.), 
and in Wisconsin, but not yet discovered in Illinois. 

13. Taxodiaceae Neger 

1. Taxodium Rich. — Bald Cypress 

T. distichum (L.) Rich. Swampy ground in s. 111., extending northw. to 
Lawrence and Marion counties. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 16. Sparganiaceae 41 


l.BranchleU flattened in one plane; leaves all scale-like; cones woody 1. Thuja 

l.Branchlets not flattened; some or all of the leaves usually subulate; cones berry-like 
or drupe-like, bluish, glaucous 2. Juniperus 

1. Thuja L. 
T. occidentalis L. Arbor-vitae or Northern White Cedar. Ne. III., rare. 
In III., chiefly on chffs and bluffs of St. Peter sandstone; also in tamarack 
bogs. Known from La Salle, Kane, Cook, and Lake counties; also Peoria, 
Brendel in 1853, but now extinct there. 

2. Juniperus L. — Juniper 
1. Leaves all subulate, sharp-pointed, mostly in threes, 7-15 mm. long; low 
shrub with spreading or decumbent branches; sand dunes near Lake Mich- 
igan. [/. communis var. depressa Pursh; /. communis of auth., not L.; 

/. sibirica of auth., not Burgsd.} Low Juniper /. canadensis Burgsd. 

1. Leaves of two kinds, scale-like on the mature branchlets, subulate on the 

young growth, mostly opposite. 

2. Tree 10-25 m. tall; cones on straight peduncles; locally abundant on 

bluffs and wooded slopes. [/. virgimana var. crebra Fern. & Grisc] 

Eastern Red Cedar /. virginiana L. 

2. Prostrate shrub; cones on recurved peduncles; sand dunes near Wauke- 
gan and Lake Bluff, Lake Co., the most southerly stations for this 

species. [/. sabina of auth., not L.} Trailing Juniper 

/. horizontalis Moench 

Subdivision. 11. ANGIOSPERMAE. Flowering Plants 
Class I. Monocotyledoneae Juss. 

15. Typhaceae J. St. Hil. — Cat-tail Family 
1. Typha L. — Cat-tail 

1 . Staminate and pistillate parts of the spike usually contiguous, the latter 
becoming 2-3 cm. in diameter at maturity; pollen-grains in fours; stigma 
spatulate; marshes and margins of ponds, common. June-July. Common 
Cat-tail T. latifolia L. 

1. Staminate and pistillate parts of the spike separated by a short interval, the 
pistillate part only 1-2 cm. in diameter at maturity; pollen-grains simple; 
stigma linear; marshes, less common than the preceding species. Narrow- 
leaved Cat-tail T. angiistifolia L. 

16. Sparganiaceae Agardh — Bur-reed Family 
1. Sparganium L. — Bur-reed 

l.Achenes obpyramidal, truncate at the summit, sessile; stigmas usually 2; 

ditches and margins of ponds. June-July. Giant Bur-reed 

S. eurycarpum Engelm. 

42 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Achenes fusiform, stipitate; stigma 1. 

2. Pistillate heads all strictly axillary, 2-2.5 cm. in diameter at maturity; 
beak of the mature achene 2-3 mm. long; leaves 6-12 mm. wide. 

3. Inflorescence branched; stigmas 2-4 mm. long; ditches 

^S". androcladum (Engelm.) Morong 

3. Inflorescence usually simple; stigmas 1-2 mm. long; ditches 

S. americanum Nutt. 

2. Pistillate heads usually supra-axillary; leaves 3-7 mm. wide. 

4. Fruiting heads 2-2.5 cm. in diameter at maturity; beak of the mature 

achene 4 mm. long; ditches and ponds, not common 

S. chlorocarpum Rydb. 

4. Fruiting heads 1.5 cm. in diameter at maturity; beak of the mature 

achene 1-2 mm. long; ditches and ponds, not common 

S. acaule (Beebe) Rydb. 

17. Naiadaceae Lindl. — Naiad Family 
1. Naias L.— Naiad 

1. Fruit glossy, with 30-50 longitudinal lines; style 1-2 mm. long; leaves with 
20-30 minute teeth on each margin; ponds and slow streams, widely dis- 
tributed, but not common. June-Aug N. flexilis (Willd.) R. & S. 

1. Fruit dull, with 10-20 rows of distinct reticulations; style 0.2 0.6 mm. long; 
leaves with 40-50 minute teeth on each margin; ponds and shallow lakes, 

rare; Peoria and Macoupin counties. July-Sept 

N. giiadalupensis (Spreng.) Morong 

18. PoTAMOGETONACEAE Engler — Pondweed Family 

1. Flowers perfect, in spikes; leaves alternate, or the upper sometimes opposite 

1 . Poiamogelon 

1. Flowers unisexual, axillary; leaves opposite, filiform, I -veined, entire.. ..2. Zannichcllia 

1. PoTAMOGETON L. — Pondweed 

1 . Leaves uniform, all submerged. 
2. Leaves linear to filiform. 

3. Stipules free from the petioles and blades. 

4. Leaves 9-35-veined; fruits 3.5-5 mm. long; lakes, n.e. 111. [P. 
compressus Am. auth., not L.; P. zosterifolitis Am. auth., not 

Schum.] P. zosterijormis Fern. 

4. Leaves 1-7-veined; fruits 1.5-3 mm. long. 

5. Leaves 5-7-veined, with a pair of basal glands; stagnant water, not 
common. [P. mucronatus Schrad.} P. jriesii Rupr. 

5. Leaves 1-3-veined. 

6. Blades usually without basal glands; fruiting spikes subcapitate, 

2-8 mm. long; ponds, ditches, and streams, chiefly in the n. 

half of 111 P. foliosus Raf. 

6. Blades usually with a pair of small translucent glands at the 

base; lakes, etc. [P. panormitanus Biv.} P. pusillus L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 18. Potamogetonaceae 43 

3. Stipules adnate to the base of the leaves. 

7. Leaves filiform, less than 0.6 mm. wide, entire; lakes, rare 

P. pectinatus L. 

7. Leaves linear, 2-ranked, 3-6 mm. wide, the margin microscopically 

serrulate; lakes, rare P. robbinsii Oakes 

2. Leaves lanceolate to oval or ovate, L5-6 cm. wide. 
8. Leaves perfoliate. 

9. Leaves slightly clasping at base, cucullate at the apex, mostly 8-30 

cm. long; fruits 4-5 mm. long; lakes, n.e. Ill 

P. praelongus Wulfen 

9. Leaves mostly 2-8 cm. long, strongly clasping at the base, the apex 

flat, not cucullate; fruits 2.5-4 mm. long; lakes, n.e. 111., rare 

P. richardsonii (A. Benn.) Rydb. 

8. Leaves not perfoliate. 

10. Leaves oval or lanceolate, the margin often crisped; fruit merely 

apiculate; lakes, local P. lucens L. 

10. Leaves linear-oblanceolate, serrulate throughout; beak of fruit 2-3 
mm. long; ponds and streams, not common; known from Cook, 

Tazewell, and Vermilion counti'es; native of Eur P. aispus L. 

1 . Leaves of two kinds, broader floating ones, and narrower submerged ones. 

11. Submerged leaves lanceolate to elliptical, more than 5 mm. wide. 

12. Stem usually black-spotted; principal floating leaves somewhat 
cordate at base; fruit 3-3.5 mm. long; shallow water, n.e. 111., 
rare P. pulcher Tuckerm. 

12. Stem not black-spotted; leaves tapering at the base, or rounded. 

13. Floating leaves with 30 or more principal veins; lakes and 

ditches, local P. amplifolius Tuckerm. 

13. Floating leaves with fewer veins. 
14. Mature spikes 4-6 cm. long. 

15. Submerged leaves sessile, the apex mucronate; fruit dis- 
tinctly 3-keeled; lakes, local 

P. angustifolius Bercht. dC Presl 

15. Submerged leaves petioled, the apex acuminate. 

16. Floating leaves elliptical, not mucronate, 4-9 cm. 
broad; submerged leaves lanceolate; style prominent 
on the fruit; streams and ponds in the northern half 
of the state; first collected near Oquawka, Hender- 
son Co., by H. N. Patterson 

P. illinoensis Morong 

16. Floating leaves oval, mucronate, 1-3 cm. wide; sub- 
merged leaves narrowly lanceolate; fruit tipped by 
the nearly sessile stigma; ponds, ditches, and streams, 

not uncommon [P. nodosus Poir. (?)] -.- 

P. americanus C. & S. 

14. Mature spikes 1-2 cm. long; floating leaves oval, 1-3 cm. 
wide; submerged leaves lanceolate, acuminate or cuspidate; 

44 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

ponds or slow streams, chiefly in the eastern part of the 

state, rare P. gramineus L. 

11. Submerged leaves linear or filiform, not more than 5 mm. wide. 

17. Submerged leaves linear, 2-5 mm. wide, conspicuously reticulate 

along the midvein; ponds and lakes, not common 

P. epihydrus Raf. 

17. Sumberged leaves filiform, 1-2 mm. wide. 

18. Spikes of 2 kinds: one emersed, cylindrical, many-flowered, the 
other submerged, globose, few-flowered; ditches and slow 
streams, not uncommon, chiefly in w. and s. III. [P. hybridus 

of Michx. and Am. auth.] P. diversifolius Raf. 

18. Spikes all alike, cylindrical. 

19. Blades of the floating leaves less than 1.5 cm. long, equalling 
or longer than the petioles; spikes less than 1 cm. long; 

lakes, not common P. vaseyi Robbins 

19. Blades of the floating leaves 2.5 cm. or more in length, mostly 
shorter than the petioles; spikes 1.5 cm. or more in length; 
lakes, ponds, and ditches, not uncommon P. natans L. 

2. Zannichellia L. — Horned Pondweed 

Z.- palustris L. Ditches and ponds, not common. Peo*-ia and Henderson 

19. Juncaginaceae Lindl. — Arrow-grass Family 

I. Flowers numerous, greenish, in a long spike-like raceme; leaves all basal.. 1. Triglochin 
1. Flowers few, white, in a loose raceme 2. Scheuchzeria 

1. Triglochin L. — Arrow-grass 

1. Carpels usually 6, in fruit ellipsoid, 3-6 mm. long; sandy or marly swales, 

or in swamps or along ditches, n. 111., not common. June- July 

T. mar'thma L. 

1. Carpels 3, in fruit clavate, 7-8 mm. long; calcareous soil, rare, Peoria, Kane, 
and Lake counties. July-Sept T. palustris L. 

2. Scheuchzeria L. 

S. americana (Fern.) n. comb. Bogs, rare, n. 111. June-July. \_S. palustris 
of Am. auth., not L.; S. palustris var. americana Fern., in Rhodora 25:177. 
1923}. On the basis of shape and size of follicles, our plants appear .specifically 
distinct from the European 5. palustris L. 

20. Alismaceae DC. — Water-plantain Family 

1. Flowers numerous, small, perfect, in a compound panicle; leaves oval or ovate; 
stamens usually 6; carpels flattened, arranged in a ring on a small flat receptacle.... 
I . Alisma 

I. Flowers in whorls, fewer; stamens 9-many; carpels in a head on a convex receptacle. 
2. Leaves cordate or ovate, with 5-7 veins from the base; flowers [jerfect, 3-9 or more 

in each whorl ; plants annual 2. Echinodorus 

2. Leaves sagittate or lanceolate, more than 7-veined; plants perennial. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 21. H\'drocharitaceae 45 

3. Fruiting pedicels thickened, spreading or recurved; sepals suborbicular, surround- 
ing the mature fruit; lower flowers perfect, the upper staminate with 9-15 
stamens 3. Lophoiocarpus 

3. Fruiting pedicels not thickened, ascending; sepals spreading or reflexed in fruit; 

lower flowers pistillate, the upper staminate with numerous stamens 

4. Sagittaria 

1. Alisma L. — Water-plantain 

A. subcordatum Raf. Ditches and margins of ponds, common. July- Aug. 
[A. plantago-aquatica Am. auth., not L.} 


1. Scape erect, 10-30 cm. tall; stamens 12; style longer than the ovary; achenes 
with a straight beak; shores of ponds, rare. June-July. [E. rostratus 
Engelm.~\ E. cordifolius (L.) Griseb. 

1. Scape prostrate, proliferous; stamens about 21; style shorter than the ovary; 

beak of the achene incurved; swamps. June-July 

E. radicans (Nutt.) Engelm. 

3. LoPHOTocARPus T. Durand 

L. calycinus (Engelm.) J. G. Sm. Shallow water, rare. Peoria, Brendel. 

4. Sagittaria L. — Arrowhead 

1. Leaves sagittate; stamens with glabrous filaments. 

2. Bracts of the inflorescence ovate, obtusish; beak of tht achene horizontal; 
shallow water; July-Sept. Common Arrowhead S. latifolia Willd. 

2. Bracts lanceolate, acuminate; beak erect. 

3. Achenes 2 mm. long, with thin, unequal wings on both margins, the 

beak 0.5 mm. long; shallow water. July-Sept S. cuneata Sheld. 

3. Achenes 2.5-3 mm. long, with thick, equal wings; beak 1-2 mm. long; 

muddy shores, or in ditches, common. July-Sept 

S. brevhostra Mack. & Bush 

1. Leaves linear, lanceolate, or oval; filaments more or less glandular- pubescent. 
4. Achenes 3 mm. long, the beak 1.5 mm. long; pedicels very short, the 

pistillate flowers nearly sessile; ditches or muddy shores; June-Sept 

S. rigidd Pursh 

4. Achenes 2 mm. long, the beak less than 1 mm. long; pedicels of the pistil- 
late flowers equalling those of the staminate; shallow water. June-Sept. 
S. graminea Michx. 

21. Hydrocharitaceae Aschers. — Frogbit Family 

1 . Leaves cordate, petioled 1. Limnobhim 

1 . Leaves neither cordate nor petioled. 

2. Leaves basal, ribbon-like, elongated, floating 2. Vallisneria 

2. Leaves small, whorled or opposite, sessile, pellucid, 1 -veined; stems elongated, leafy, 
floating 3. Anacharis 

46 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. LiMNOBlUM Rich. — Frogbit 

L. spongia (Bosc) Steud. Shallow water and mud, rare. Union Co. June- 

2. Vallisneria L. — Eelgrass 

V. americana Michx. Wild Celery. Ponds and slow streams, mostly in the 
n. half of the state. July- Aug. [K. spiralis sensu auth., not L.] 

3. Anacharis Bab. & Planch. — Waterweed 
{Elodea sensu Michx., non Juss.) 

1. Leaves elliptical or oblong, obtuse, 1.2-4 mm. wide; slow streams, widely 
distributed. July-Aug A. canadensis (Michx.) Planch. 

1. Leaves linear, acute, 0.7- L8 mm. wide; ponds and slow streams. July-Aug. 
A. occidentalis (Pursh) Vict. 

22. Gramineae Juss. — Grass Family 


1. Plants woody; stems perennial Tribe 1. Bambuseae 

1. Plants herbaceous; stems annual. 

2. Spikelets 2-many-f lowered (except Hordeum and some Chlorideae). 
3. Inflorescense a panicle, this sometimes contracted and spike-like. 

4. Lemmas longer than the glumes, awnless or with a straight apical awn 

Tribe 2. Feskiceae 

4. Lemmas usually shorter than the glumes, usually with a bent awn arising from 

the back Tribe 4. Aveneae 

3. Inflorescence of solitary, racemose, or digitate spikes or racemes, the spikelets 
sessile or nearly so. 

5. Spikelets solitaiy, or in clusters of 2-6, arranged alternately on opposite sides 

of the axis; spike solitary, terminal Tribe 3. Horaeae 

5. Spikelets in one-sided spikes or racemes, the spikes or racemes solitary or 

several Tribe 6. Chlorideae 

2. Spikelets with only one perfect flower. 

6. Inflorescence not monoecious; flowers all perfect, or perfect and staminate or 
7. Glumes present; stamens 3 or L 
8. Glumes 2. 

9. Spikelets in pairs, one sessile and fertile, the other pedicelled and stam- 
inate or neuter, or rarely absent or reduced to a pedicel ; rachilla 
articulated below the glumes Tribe 10. Andropogoneae 

9. Spikelets not in pairs; rachilla disarticulating above the glumes 

Tribe 5. Agrostideae 

8. Glumes apparently more than 2 (except Paspalum). 

10. Glumes apparently 4, the second and third being sterile lemmas present 

below the fertile floret Tribe 7. Phalarideae 

10. Glumes apparently 3, the third being a sterile lemma, the two real glumes 

very unequal Tribe 9. Paniceae 

7. Glumes obsolete or minute Tribe 8. Orvzeae 

6. Inflorescence monoecious, the staminate and pistillate flowers in different parts 
of the same spike, or in different inflorescences, the staminate above the 
pistillate ones Tribe I 1. Tripsaceae 

Tribe L Bambuseae. — Bamboo Tribe 

One genus 1. Anmdinaria 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 47 

Tribe 2. Festuceae. — Fescue Tribe 

I. Plants 2-4 m. tall; rachilla plumose; panicles large 11. Phragmites 

I. Plants less tall; rachilla not plumose. 
2. Lemmas prominently 3-nerved. 

3. Lemmas more or less villous on the nerves. 

4. Stem-nodes glabrous; palet not ciliate 13. Trtodta 

4. Stem-nodes pubescent; palet conspicuously ciliate 14. Triplasis 

3. Lemmas glabrous, or merely scabrous on the nerves. 

5. Lemmas less than 5 mm. long 7. Eragrostis 

5. Lemmas about 8 mm. long; the upper 2-4 lemmas empty 8. Diarrhena 

2. Lemmas 5-many-nerved, (the nerves sometimes indistinct). 

6. Spikelets with sterile lemmas above or below the fertile florets. 

7. Sterile lemmas above the fertile florets 12. Melica 

7. Sterile lemmas below the fertile florets 9. Uniola 

6. Spikelets without sterile lemmas. 

8. Lemmas awned. 

9. Lemmas bifid at apex, awned just below the apex or behind the teeth 

- 2. Bromus 

9. Lemmas entire, with an apical point or awn.. 3. Fesluca 

8. Lemmas awnless. 

10. Spikelets nodding, as broad as long, on capillary pedicels in open panicles; 

lemmas papery, imbricated, scarious-margined, cordate at the base, the 

apex obtuse or acutish 6. Briza 

10. Spikelets not as above in all respects. 

1 I . Spikelets strongly flattened, crowded in 1 -sided clusters at the ends of 

long branches ; keels of the glumes and lemmas hispid-ciliale 

:- 10. Dacl}}lis 

11. Spikelets neither strongly flattened, nor in 1 -sided clusters. 

12. Lemmas with cobwebby hairs at base 5. Poa 

12. Lemmas without cobwebby hairs. 

13. Nerves of the lemma parallel and prominent; lemma obtuse, 
scarious at apex; tall perennials with flat leaves. ...4. Clvceria 

13. Nerves of the lemma converging at the apex (sometimes indis- 

14. Lemmas 8-11 mm. long; spikelets large 2. Bromus 

14. Lemmas less than 8 mm. long. 

15. Lemmas keeled on the back, the apex obtuse or acute 

5. Poa 

15. Lemmas convex on the back or subcarinate, acute or awn- 
tipped (obtusish in F. obtusa) 3. Fesluca 

Tribe 3. Horde ae. — Barley Tribe 

1. Spikelets solitary at each joint of the rachis. 

2. Spikelets placed edgewise to the rachis; first glume of the lateral spikelets absent 

21 . Lolium 

2. Spikelets placed flatwise to the rachis; glumes 2. 

3. Glumes 1 -nerved; spikelets with 2 perfect flowers 17. Secale 

3. Glumes 3-several-nerved. 

4. Glumes lanceolate or linear 15. Agrop^ron 

4. Glumes ovate 16. Triticum 

1. Spikelets 2-6 at each joint of the rachis. 

5. Spikelets 3 at each joint, 1 -flowered, the lateral pair usually aborted; glumes awn- 
like 20. Hordeum 

48 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

5. Spikelels usually in pairs, 2-6-flowered. 

6. Spike loosely flowered, the spikelets widely spreading; glumes obsolete or bristle- 
like 19. Hvstrix 

6. Spike densely flowered, the spikelets ascending; glumes well-developed 

18. Elvmus 

Tribe 4. Aveneae. — Oat Tribe 

1. Spikelets more than 5 mm. long. 
2. Lemmas awned from the back. 

3. Spikelets more than I cm. long; plants annual 25. Avena 

3. Spikelets less than I cm. in length; lower floret long-awned, the upper one 
usually awnless ; plants perennial 26. Arrhenatherum 

2. Lemma awned from between the apical teeth 27. Danlhonia 

1. Spikelets not more than 5 mm. long. 

4. Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes. 

5. Inflorescence contracted, spike-like; glumes unequal; plants of dry habitats 

22. Koeleria 

5. Inflorescence a spreading panicle; lemma awned from the middle or below; 

plants of moist habitats 24. Deschampsia 

4. Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes. 

6. Florets awnless, all perfect; glumes exceeded by the upper floret. .23. Sphenopholis 
6. Lower spikelet perfect, awnless, the upper staminafe and bearing a hooked awn ; 

glumes longer than the florets 28. Holcus 

Tribe 5. Agrostideae. — Timothy Tribe 

1. Lemma of more delicate texture than the glumes, not at all indurated. 
2. Inflorescence dense, spike-like; glumes keeled. 
3. Lemma awnless. 

4. Glumes short-awned; leaves flat 35. Phleum 

4. Glumes awnless. 

5. Tall perennials; florets bearing a tuft of hairs at base 30. Ammophila 

5. Low annuals; florets without hairs at base 38. Hcleochloa 

3. Lemma awned; glumes awnless 34. Alopecurus 

2. Inflorescence an open or somewhat spike-like panicle; glumes not keeled. 

6. Grain permanently enclosed in the lemma and palet; pericarp adherent to the 
7. Palet 1 -nerved, 1 -keeled; stamen I ; tall perennials with flat leaves and nodding 
panicles 33. Cinna 

7. Palet 2-nerved and 2-keeled; stamens 3. 
8. Lemma with long hairs at the base. 

9. Lemma and palet membranous; rachilla prolonged beyond the palet, 
bristle-like 29. Calamagroslis 

9. Lemma and palet chartaceous; rachilla not prolonged beyond the palet 

3 1 . CalamovUfa 

8. Lemma without a tuft of hairs at the base. 

10. Lemma with a terminal awn. or mucronate at apex 36. Muhlenbergia 

10. Lemma awnless or with a dorsal awn 32. Agrosiis 

6. Grain not permanently enclosed in the lemma and palet, readily separating from 
the pericarp 37. Sporobolus 

1 . Lemma indurated when mature, closely enveloping the grain. 

1 1 . Lemma awnless 40. Milium 

1 1 . Lemma awned. 

12. Lemma 3-awned 43. AristiJa 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 49 

12. Lemma 1-awned. 

13. Awn twisted or bent 42. Stipa 

13. Awn not twisted or bent. 

14. Lemma broad, the awn deciduous 41. Orpzopsis 

14. Lemma narrow, the tip awned or mucronate. 

15. Rachilla not prolonged behind the palet 36. Muhlenbergia 

15. Rachilla prolonged into a bristle behind the palet.. .. 39. Brac/il;e/p(rum 

Tribe 6. Chlorideae. — Grama Tribe 
l.Spikelets with more than 1 perfect floret; plants annual. 

2. Spikes numerous, slender, racemose 47. Leptochloa 

2. Spikes few, digitate. 

3. Rachilla prolonged beyond the spikelets 45. Daciyloctenium 

3. Rachilla not prolonged 44. Eleusine 

l.Spikelets with only one perfect floret. 

4. Spikelets with one or more modified florets above the perfect one. 

5. Spikes digitate 5 1 . Chloris 

5. Spikes racemose 52. Bouteloua 

4. Spikelets without additional modified florets. 

6. Spikelets falling entire, the rachilla articulated below the glumes. 

7. Spikelets narrow; glumes unequal 50. Sparlina 

7. Spikelets globose; glumes equal 49. Becl(mannia 

6. Spikelets with the rachilla articulated above the glumes, these therefore persistent. 

8. Spikes digitate 46. C'^nodon 

8. Spikes racemose 48. Schedonnardus 

Tribe 7. Phalarideae. — Canary Grass Tribe 

1. First and second lemmas oval. 

2. Glumes nearly equal; lower florets staminate; spikelets brown, o\ossy. . 53. Hierochloe 
2. Glumes very unequal; lower florets consisting of sterile lemmas.. ..54. Anthoxanthum 

1. First and second lemmas bristle-like 55. Phalaris 

Tribe 8. Oryzeae. — Rice Tribe 

l.Spikelets perfect; stamens 1-3 56. Leersia 

l.Spikelets unisexual; stamens 6 57. Zizania 

Tribe 9. Paniceae. — Millet Tribe 

l.Spikelets with an involucre of bristles or spine-bearing valves. 
2. Spikelets subtended by bristles; inflorescence a dense, spike-like panicle.. ..63. Selaria 

2. Spikelets in a spiny involucre 64. Cenchrus 

L Spikelets not involucrate. 

3. Glumes awned or awn-pointed 62. Echinochloa 

3. Glumes not awned. 

4. Glumes 2 60. Paspalum 

4. Glumes 3. 

5. Spikelets in slender, I -sided racemes 58. Digiiaria 

5. Spikelets in panicles. 

6. Margins of lemma hyaline, flat; ligule a scale 59. Lepioloma 

6. Margins of lemma not hyaline, more or less inrolled; ligule of hairs 

6 1 . Panicum 

50 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Tribe 10. Andropogoneae. — Sorghum Tribe 

1. Spikelefs In slender racemes, these single or 2 or 3 together, not panicled 

65. Andropogon 

l.Spikelets in open or contracted panicles. 

2. Panicle densely woolly; spikelets all perfect 66. Erianlhiis 

2. Panicle not woolly. 

3. Pedicelled spikelets staminate or neutral; panicle open; awns deciduous 

67. Sorghum 

3. Pedicelled spikelets reduced to a hairy pedicel; panicle narrow; awns persistent 
68. Sorghastrum 

Tribe 11. Tripsaceae. — Corn Tribe 

1. Pistillate and staminate spikelets in different parts of the same inflorescence, the pis- 
tillate below 69. Tripsaciim 

1. Pistillate spikelets in thick, axillary, solitary spikes ("cobs"); staminate spikelets in 
terminal paniculate spikes, forming the "tassel" 70. Zea 

1. Arundinaria Michx. — Cane 

A. gigantea (Walt.) Chapm. River banks and swamps, s. III., forming 
"cane-brakes." \_A. macros perma Michx.} 

2. Bromus L. — Brome Grass 
1. Plants perennial. 

2. Spikelets awnless or nearly so, 2-3.5 cm. long, nearly terete; panicle erect, 
10-20 cm. long, the branches spreading; plants with rhizomes; fields and 

roadsides, introd. from Eur. May-June. Hungarian Brome Grass 

..B. inemiis Leyss. 

2. Spikelets conspicuously awned; native species. 

3. Lemmas pubescent on the margins and sometimes near the base, other- 
wise glabrous; second glume 3-nerved; first glume 1-nerved; hillsides 

and open woods. June-Aug B. ciliatus L. 

3. Lemmas evenly pubescent. 

4. Panicle 10-30 cm. long; second glume 3-nerved; first glunie 1-nerved. 

5. Sheaths (except the lower one or two) shorter than the internodes; 

blades scarcely auriculate at base; meadows, woods, and banks. 

June-Aug. Canada Brome B. purgans L. 

5. Sheaths longer than the internodes; blades somewhat auriculate at 
base; meadows and open woods, not cominon; known from Jo 
Daviess, Kane, Stark, and Wabash counties. July-Sept. \B. alt'is- 

simus sensu Pursh, non Gilib.; B. incanus (Shear) Hitchc] 

B. latigliimis (Shear) Hitchc. 

4. Panicle 7-10 cm. long; second glume 5-7-nerved; first glume 3- 

nerved; dry ground. June-July B. kalmii Gray 

1. Plants annual; weedy species, adventive from Europe. 

6. Lemmas awnless or nearly so, scnrious-margined, glabrous or scaberulous, 
nearly as broad as long; .spikelets broadly oval, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; fields 

and waste places; introd. from Eur. June-July 

B. hrizaejorniis F. & M. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 51 

6. Lemmas awned, much longer than broad. 

7. First glume 3-nerved; second glume 5-7-nerved; lemmas broad, obtuse. 
8. Panicle open, the branches ascending or drooping. 

9. Sheaths glabrous; awns shorter than the lemmas; fields and waste 

places; introd. from Eur. May-July. Cheat B. secalinus L. 

9. Sheaths retrosely pilose. 

10. Awns straight, 7-9 mm. long; fields and waste places; adv. 

from Eur. May-July B. commutatus Schrad. 

10. Awns flexuose, divergent at maturity, 9-12 mm. long; waste 

places; adv. from Eur. May-July B. japonicus Thunb. 

8. Panicle small, dense, erect or nearly so, 5-10 cm. long; sheaths 
1 1 . Lemmas glabrous, 7 mm. long; roadsides and waste places; adv. 

from Eur. June-Aug B. racemosus L. 

11. Lemmas pubescent, 9-10 mm. long; roadsides, waste places, and 
fields, common; adv. from Eur. May-July. [5. hordeaceus 

sensu auth., non L.} B. mollis L. 

7. First glume 1 -nerved; second glume 3-nerved; sheaths pubescent; awns 
longer than the acuminate lemmas. 
12. Awns 10-17 mm. long; lemmas pubescent; panicle dense; roadsides 

and fields; adv. from Eur. May-July B. tectorum L. 

12. Awns 2-3 cm. long; lemmas scabrous; panicle loose; waste places; 

adv. from Eur. May-July. [5. villosiis Forsk., not Scop.} 

B. sterilis L. 

3. Festuca L. — Fescue Grass 

1. Lemmas awnless or merely mucronate; leaves flat, 3-7 mm. wide. 
2. Panicle narrow, erect; lemma 5-7 mm. long; meadows, roadsides, and 
waste places; nat. from Eur. June-July. Meadow Fescue ...F. elatior L. 
2. Panicle open; lemmas 4-5 mm. long. 

3. Panicle-branches elongate, slender, spreading, spikelet-bearing toward 
the ends or above the middle; woods, local. May-July. Nodding 

Fescue. [F. nutans Spreng., not Moench} F. obtusa Spreng. 

3. Panicle more compact, the few shorter branches spikelet-bearing from 
near the middle, the spikelets somewhat aggregate; woods, rather rare. 

June. [F. shortti Kunth] F. paradoxa Desv. 

1. Awn of lemma 1-7 mm. long; leaves involute, not more than 1 mm. wide. 
4. Perennial, tufted; spikelets 4-5-f lowered; stamens 3; fields and waste places; 

nat. from Eur. May-June. Sheep Fescue F. ovina L. 

4. Annual, not tufted; spikelets 5-13-flowered; stamen 1; sandy soil. May- 
June. Slender Fescue, [f . tenella Willd.J F. octoflora Walt. 

4. Glyceria R. Br. — Manna Grass 
{Panicularia Heist.) 

1. Spikelets linear, nearly terete, 1-2 cm. long; panicles narrow, erect. 

2. Spikelets 1-1.5 cm. long, distinctly pedicelled; in shallow water, or at the 

edges of streams or ponds, n. half, of 111., not common 

G. borealis (Nash) Batch. 

52 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Spikelets 1.5-2 cm. long, subsessile; in shallow water or wet soil. May- 

Aug. [G. fluitans of auth., not R. Br.} G. septentrionalis Hitchc. 

1. Spikelets ovate, more or less compressed, not more than 6 mm. long; panicles 
usually nodding. 

3. Lemmas broadly ovate, obscurely nerved; spikelets 3-4 mm. wide; wet 

ground in the n. part of the state. June-July 

G. canadensis (Michx.) Trin. 

3. Lemmas elliptical, the nerves prominent; spikelets 1-2.5 mm. wide. 

4. Spikelets 4-6 mm. long; wet ground, rare. Jo Daviess Co 

G. grandis S. Wats. 

4. Spikelets 2-3 mm. long; wet ground, common, June- July. [G. nervata 
(Willd.) Trin.] G. striata (Lam.) Hitchc. 

5. PoA L. — Blue Grass. Meadow Grass 

1. Perennials; stems (20-) 30-140 cm. tall. 
2. Plants with conspicuous horizontal rhizom'es. 

3. Stems terete, 30-120 cm. tall; leaves bright green; panicle open, 5-20 
cm. long, the ascending or spreadina branches in whorls of 3-5; lem- 
mas 3 mm. long, copiously webbed at base; roadsides, lawns, fields 

and woods, very common. May-June. Kentucky Blue Grass 

P. pratensis L. 

3. Stems compressed above, 20-40 cm. tall; leaves bluish green; panicle 

narrow, 3-8 cm. long; lemmas 2-2.5 mm. long, scarcely webbed; road- 
sides, cultivated ground, waste places, common; nat. from Eurasia. 

June-July. Canada Blue Grass P. compressa L. 

2. Plants without horizontal rhizomes. 

4. Lemmas glabrous, except the webbed base; damp woods, rare, n. 111. 

June-Aug. [P. debilis Torr., not Thuill.} P. langiiida Hitchc. 

4. Lemmas puberulent or pubescent, at least on the keel. 
5. Lemmas webbed, i.e., with a tuft of soft hairs at base. 

6. Marginal nerves of the lemmas glabrous; woods and thickets, rare. 
May-June P. alsodcs Gray 

6. Marginal nerves of the lemmas pubescent. 
7. Intermediate nerves of the lemmas obscure. 

8. Panicle 5-10 cm. long, the lower branches mostly in pairs; wet 
ground, rare P. paludigena Fern. & Wieg. 

8. Panicle 10-30 cm. long, the lower branches mostly fascicled; 

damp meadows. July-Aug. [P. triflora Gilib.} 

P. palustris L. 

7. Intermediate nerves of the lemmas prominent. 

9. Branches of the panicle spikelet-bearing from the middle; 

spikelets 3-4 mm. long; woods and thickets. May-July 

P. sylvestris Gray 

9. Branches of the panicle spikelet-bearing only near the ends; 
spikelets 5-6 mm. long; meadows, rare, w. III. Discovered 
at Canton by J. Wolf in 1882 ....P. nolfii Scribn. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 53 

5. Lemmas not webbed; nerves of the lemma pubescent; spikelets 6-8 

mm. long; moist woods, rare P. autumnalis Muhl. 

l.Low tufted annuals; stems 5-25 cm. tall. 

10. Lemmas distinctly 3 -nerved, the other nerves obscure; lemmas webbed at 

the base; anthers 0.2-0.3 mm. long; dry ground. May-Aug 

P. chctpmaniana Scribn. 

10. Lemmas 5-nerved, not webbed at the base; anthers 0.7-1 mm. long; 
common in waste places, lawns, cultivated ground; nat. from Eurasia. 
May-Oct P. annua L. 

6. Briza L. — Quaking Grass 
B. maxima L. Fields and waste places, occasional; adv. from Eurasia. 

7. Eragrostis Host 

1. Stems creeping, rooting at the nodes, the flowering branches erect; plants 

2. Lemmas 1.5-2 mm. long; anthers 0.2-0.3 mm. long; flowers perfect; sandy, 
gravelly, or muddy shores. July-Oct E. hypnoides (Lam.) BSP. 

2. Lemmas 3-4 mm. long; anthers 1.5-2 mm. long; plants dioecious; sandy 

soil, not common E. reptans (Michx.) Nees 

1. Stems erect or ascending, not rooting at the nodes. 

3. Spikelets 2-7- flowered, 2-4 mm. long. 

4. Panicle about as long as wide, the branches elongated, capillary; plants 

branched at the base; dry ground in open woods. July-Sept 

E. capillaris (L.) Nees 

4. Panicle much longer than broad, the branches short; plants branched 

from above the base; sandy soil and roadsides. Aug. -Oct 

E. jrankn C. A. Mey. 

3. Spikelets 5-35-flowered, 3-15 mm. long. 

5. Plants perennial, erect, 30-120 cm. tall. 

6. Panicle-branches spreading at maturity; spikelets 6-12-flowered; lem- 
mas 1.5-2 mm. long; sandy soil. July-Oct. [£. pectinacea of auth., 
not (Michx.) Nees} E. spectabilis (Pursh) Steud. 

6. Panicle-branches erect or ascending; spikelets 4-6-flowered; lemmas 

2.5-3 mm. long; sandy soil, chiefly in centr. and w. 111. [£. pilifera 

Scheele] E. trichodes (Nutt.) Wood 

5. Plants annual, usually 10-50 cm. tall, decumbent at base. 

7. Keels of glumes and lemmas with minute glands; spikelets 8-35- 

8. Spikelets 2.5-3 mm. wide; waste places and cult, ground; nat. from 

Eur. Stink Grass. June-Sept. \_E. megastachya Link} 

E. cilianensis (All.) Link 

8. Spikelets 1.5-2 mm. wide; waste places and cult, ground; nat. from 
Eur. [£. minor Host} E. poaeoides (L.) Beauv. 

54 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

7. Keels of glumes and lemmas glandless, scaberulous; spikelets usually 
3-9-flowered, 1-1.5 mm. wide; fields, waste places, roadsides, and 
cult, ground, common. July-Sept. [£. purshii Schrad.; E. pilosa of 
auth., not (L.) B'eauv.} E. pectinacea (Michx.) Nees 

8. DiARRHENA Beauv. 

D. americana Beauv. Woods, locally throughout III. June-Sept. [Diarina 
festucoides Raf.; Korycarpus cirundtnaceus Zea ex Lag.; Diarrhena diandra 
(Michx.) Wood; Diarrhena festucoides sensu Fern., non Raspail}. 

9. Uniola L. 
U. latifolia Michx. Open woods in s. and centr. III. June-Oct. 

10. Dactylis L. 

D. glomerata L. Orchard Grass. Fields and roadsides, very common; nat. 
from Eur. May- June. 

11. PhraGMITES Trin. 

P. communis Trin. Common Reed. Wet ground, n. and centr. 111. Aug- 

12. Melica L. 

1 . Glumes nearly equal and almost as long as the 2-flowered spikelet; leaves 

glabrous above, pubescent beneath; open woods. May-June 

M. miitica Walt. 

1. Glumes unequal, shorter than the usually 3-flowered spikelet; leaves pubes- 
cent above and glabrous or scabrous beneath; rocky woods, more common 
than the preceding species. May-June M. nttens Nutt. 

13. Triodia R. Br. 

{Tridens R. & S.) 

T. flava (L.) Smyth. Purpletop. Sandy soil and open woods in centr. and 
s. 111., and extending northw. to Peoria and Kankakee counties. July-Sept. 

14. Triplasis Beauv. — Sand Grass 
T. purpurea (Walt.) Chapm. Dry sand, centr, and n. III. Aug.-Sept. 

15. Agropyron Gaertn. — Wheat Grass 

1. Lemmas villous; plants with rhizomes; sandy shores of L. Michigan. July- 

Aug A. dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn. 

1. Lemmas glabrous or merely scabrous. 

2. Plants tufted, not stoloniferous; horizontal rhizomes absent; glumes 
scabrous on nerves and margins. 
3. Lemmas awnless or short-awned; spike slender, lax; glumes 10-12 mm. 
long; dry soil, rare. Cook Co., Agnes Chase; Stark Co., V. H. 

Chase. July-Aug. [/I. tenerum Vasey.} Slender Wheat Grass 

A. pauciflorum (Schw.) Hitchc. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 55 

3. Lemmas awned, the awn 1-3 cm. long; spike dense; glumes 7-9 mm. 

long; woods and meadows, rare. Ringwood, Vasey. July- Aug. [/4. 
caninum sensu auth., non (L.) Beauv.} A. caninoides (Ramaley) 

Beal} A. subsecundum (Link) Hitchc. 

2. Plants stoloniferous, with horizontal rhizomes; glumes smooth, except on 
the keel. 

4. Leaves glaucous; spikelets 7-13-flowered, L5-2.5 cm. long; along rail- 

roads, adv. from w. U.S. June-July. Bluestem A. stnithii Rydb. 

4. Leaves green; spikelets mostly 4-6-flowered, 1-L5 cm. long; waste 
ground and fields, common; nat. from Eur. June-July. Quack Grass. 
A. repens (L.) Beauv. 

16. Triticum L. — Wheat 
T. aestivum L. Roadsides and fields, occasionally spontaneous 

17. Secale L. — Rye 
S. cereale L. Occasionally spontaneous in fields and waste ground. 

18. Elymus L. Wild Rye 

1. Lemmas awnless; spike erect, dense, 7-25 cm. long; sand dunes along L. 
Michigan. Cook Co., Killip in 1916; also Lake Co., G. D. Fuller. June- 
July. [E, arenarius sensu Am. auth., non L.} Dune Grass 

E. mollis Trin. 

1 . Lemmas awned. 

2. Glumes subulate, obscurely nerved, 12-20 mm. long; spike nodding; 
woods. June-Aug. \E. strtatus sensu auth., non Willd.} Slender Wild 

Rye E. villosus Muhl. 

2. Glumes lanceolate, 3 to several-nerved. 

3. Awn of lemma straight, about 1 cm. long; spike usually erect; glumes 
strongly bowed out at base; roadsides and woods, common and 

variable. July-Aug E. virginicus L. 

3. Awn of lemma curved when dry, 2-3 cm. long; spike nodding; glumes 
not bowed out at base; roadsides and edges of woods, common. July- 
Aug. Nodding Wild Rye E. canadensis L. 

19. Hystrix Moench 

H. patula Moench. Bottlebrush Grass. Woods, common. June-July. [Hys- 
trix hystrix (L.) Millsp.} 

20. HoRDEUM L. — Barley 

1. Rachis of spike becoming disjointed. 

2. Spikes nodding, 6-16 cm. long; awns 2-6 cm. long; tufted perennials. 
3. Blades 2-4 mm. wide; awns 3-6 cm. long; roadsides and fields, common. 

June-Aug. Squirrel-tail Grass H. jubatum L. 

3. Blades 5-8 mm. wide; awns 2-3.5 cm. long; prairies and roadsides, 

chiefly w. 111. June-Aug. H. pammeli Scribn. dC Ball 

H. montanense Beal 

56 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Spilces erect, 2-6. cm. long; awns less than 1.5 cm. long; blades 2-4 mm. 
wide; plants annual; roadsides and fields. May-June. Small Wild 
Barley H. pusillum Nutt. 

1. Rachis of spike not disarticulating; blades flat, 5-15 mm. wide; plants an- 
nual; cult., and sometimes spontaneous; introd. from Eur. Barley 

H. vulgare L. 

21. LoLlUM L. — Rye Grass 
1. Glume shorter than the spiloelet; plants perennial. 

2. Lemmas awned; spikelets mostly 10-20-f lowered; lawns, roadsides, and 

fields; introd. from Eur. June-Aug. Italian Rye Grass 

L. multiflorum Lam. 

2. Lemmas awnless or short-awned; spikelets mostly 5-10-flowered; meadows, 

lawns, roadsides; native of Eur. June-Aug. English Rye Grass 

L. perenne L. 

1. Glume as long or longer than the spikelet; plants annual; lemmas awned; 
waste places, introd. from Eur. June-Aug. Darnel L. temulentum L. 

22. KoELERiA Pers. 

K. gracilis Pers. June Grass. Sandy soil, local. June-July. [K. cristata sensu 
auth., non (L.) Pers.] 

23. Sphenopholis Scribn. — Wedge Grass 

1. Panicle narrow, densely-flowered, spike-like, erect or nearly so; prairies and 

open woods. May-June S. obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. 

1. Panicle lax, nodding, not spike-like, the branches more or less spreading. 
2. Glumes subequal, the second broadly obovate, obtuse; lemmas obtuse, 

scabrous; woods. May-June S. nitida (Spreng.) Scribn. 

2. Glumes unequal, the first shorter than the narrowly obovate second one; 
lemmas acute, glabrous; woods, fields, and roadsides. May-June. \S. 
pallens sensu auth., non (Spreng.) Scribn.} S. intermedia Rydb. 

24. Deschampsia Beauv. — Hair Grass 

D. cespitosa (L.) Beauv. Moist soil along streams in the n. part of the 
state. June-July. 

25. Avena L. — Oat 

1. Lemmas bearing stiff brownish hairs, at least at base; awn stout, geniculate, 

strongly twisted; spikelets mostly 3-flowered; fields and waste places; nat. 

from Eur. May-July. Wild Oat A. jatua L. 

1. Lemmas glabrous; awn small, usually straight, or absent; spikelets mostly 

2-flowered; commonly cult., occasionally spontaneous. May July. Oat 

A. sativa L. 

26. Arrhenatherum Beauv. 
A. elatius (L.) Mert. & Koch. Tall Oat Grass. Fields, roadsides, and 
waste places; nat. from Eur. June-July. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 57 

27. Danthonia Lam. &: DC. — Oat Grass 
D. spicatd (L.) Beauv. Thin soil in open woods. June-July. 

28. HoLCus L. 

{Notholcus Nash) 
H. lanatus L. Velvet Grass. Roadsides and fields, occasional; nat. from 
Eur. June-Aug. 

29. Calamagrostis Adans. — Reed Grass 
1. Panicle narrow but loose, becoming somewhat open; spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long; 

blades flat, 4-8 mm. wide; marshy ground. June-July. Blue-joint Grass 

C. canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. 

1. Panicle contracted, spike-like; spikelets 4-4.5 mm. long; blades involute, sca- 
brous, 2-4 mm. wide; moist ground, n. III. June-Aug. Northern Reed Grass 
C. inexpansa Gray 

30. Ammophila Host 

A. breviligulata Fern. Beach Grass. Sand dunes along L. Michigan. July- 
Aug. [/I. ctrenaria sensu auth., non Link}. 

3L Calamovilfa Hack. 
C. longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. Sand dunes along L. Michigan. Aug-Sept. 

32. Agrostis L. — Bent Grass 
L Lemma awned; spikelets L5 mm. long; fields and open woods, s. 111. May- 
June A. elliott'tana Schult. 

L Lemma awnless; spikelets 2-3 mm. long. 
2. Palet evident, about half the length of the lemma; plants perennial, 30- 
120 cm. tall, with strong, horizontal rhizomes; roadsides and fields, 
very common. June-Aug. \_A. palustris sensu auth., non Huds.] Red- 
top A. alba L. 

2. Palet lacking or minute. 

3. Panicle very diffuse, 15-60 cm. long, the branches scabrous, 5-15 cm. 
long, spikelet-bearing near the ends; roadsides and fields. May-July. 

Tickle Grass A. scabra Willd. 

3. Panicle open but not diffuse, 10-20 cm. long, the branches smooth; 

woods. Aug.-Oct. Autumn Bent Grass 

A. perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm. 

33. CiNNA L. 
1. Spikelets 5 mm. long, the awn 0.5-1 mm. long; panicle rather dense, the 

branches ascending; moist woods and borders of streams. July-Sept 

C. arundinacea L. 

1. Spikelets 3-4 mm. long, the awn 1-2 mm. long; panicle loose, the branches 

spreading or drooping; moist woods, n. III. July-Sept 

C. latifolia (Trev.) Griseb. 

34. Alopecurus L. — Foxtail 
1. Spikelets 5-6 mm, long; plants perennial; fields and meadows; nat. from 
Eur. June-July. Meadow Foxtail A. pratensis L. 

58 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

l.Spikelets 2-3 mm. long. 
2. Awns scarcely exceeding the glumes; shallow water and wet banks. May- 
July. [A. aristulatus Michx.] A. aequalis Sobol 

2. Awn bent, exserted from the spikelet 2 mm. or more. 

3. Plants perennial; stems decumbent and rooting at the nodes; anthers 

1.5 mm. long; in water and wet ground. June-July. Water Foxtail 

A. geniculatus L. 

3. Plants annual; stems tufted, branched at the base; anthers 0.5 mm. 

long; ditches and fields. [A. ramosus Poir.} ....A. carolinianus Walt. 

35. Phleum L. 

P. pratense L. Timothy. Roadsides and fields, very common; nat. from 
Eur. June- July. 

36. Muhlenbergia Schreb. 

1. Panicles narrow, not diffuse or spreading. 

2. First glume obsolete or nearly so, the second minute, truncate; lemma 

long-awned; fields and dry woods. July-Oct. Nimble Will 

M. schreberi J. F. Gmel. 

2. Glumes at least half the length of the lemma, or longer. 
3. Plants with conspicuous scaly rhizomes. 

4. Lemma awnless or nearly so; anthers 0.5-1 mm. long. 

5. Glumes lanceolate or oval, cuspidate, about half or two-thirds the 

length of the lemma; rocky woods. July-Oct 

M. sobolifera (Muhl.) Trin. 

5. Glumes subulate. 

6. Glumes equalling the lemma, or somewhat shorter, awnless or 
7. Intemodes of the stem glabrous. 

8. Panicles shortly exserted or partly included in the sheath; 

fields, roadsides, waste places, common. Aug.-Sept 

M. mexkana (L.) Trin. 

8. Panicles usually well exserted; woods. Aug.-Oct 

M. brachyphylla Bush 

7. Internodes of the stem puberulent. 

9. Lemma short-pilose at base (on the callus) ; moist woods 

and thickets. Aug.-Oct M. foliosa (R. & S.) Trin. 

9. Lemma not pilose at base; woods, chiefly in the s. and 

centr. parts of the state M. glabriflora Scribn. 

6. Glumes much longer than the lemma, owned; panicle dense, 

somewhat interrupted; wet ground. Aug.-Sept 

M. racemusa (Michx.) BSP. 

4. Lemma long-awned. 

10. Spikelets 3-4 mm. long; glumes lanceolate, awn-pointed, shorter 
than the lemma; anthers 1-1.5 mm. long; rocky woods. July- 
Oct M. tcnuiflora (Willd.) BSP. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 59 

10. Spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long; glumes subulate-lanceolate, somewhat 
shorter than or nearly equalling the lemma; anthers 0.3-0.6 
mm. long; moist woods. Aug.-Oct. [M. torreyi (Kunth) 

Hitchc; M. umbrosa Scribn.] M. sylvatica Torr. 

3. Plants without scaly rhizomes; glumes lanceolate, shorter than the awn- 
less lemma; anthers 1-1.5 mm. long; dry ground, n. 111. July-Sept. 

[Sporobolus brevifolms (Nutt.) Scribn.] 

M. cusptdata (Torr.) Rydb. 

1. Panicles open, the slender branches widely spreading. 

11. Spikelets 3-4 mm. long, the awns 1-2 cm. long; stems 60-100 cm. tall, 

tufted; rhizomes none; sandy soil, s. 111. Sept.-Oct 

M. capillarts (Lam.) Trin. 

11. Spikelets 1.5-2 mm. long, awnless; stems 10-40 cm. tall; plants with 
creeping scaly rhizomes; sandy soil. June-Sept. [Sporobolus asperi- 
folius Nees & Mey.} M. asperifolia (Nees &: Mey.) Parodi 

37. Sporobolus R. Br. — Dropseed 
1. Plants perennial; leaf -blades much longer than the sheaths. 

2. Spikelets 1.5-2.5 mm. long; panicle either free and spreading at matur- 
ity or remaining partly or wholly included in the sheath; leaf-sheaths 
with a conspicuous tuft of whitish hairs at summit; sandy soil. Aug.- 

Sept S. cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray 

2. Spikelets 4-8 mm. long. 

3. Second glume shorter than the lemma; panicle contracted, more or less 
included in the sheath. 
4. Lemma glabrous, glossy; spikelets 5-6 mm. long; dry sandy soil. 

Sept.-Oct S. asper (Michx.) Kunth 

4. Lemma pubescent at base; spikelets 6-8 mm. long; sandy soil, s. 111. 

Aug. -Sept. [S. canovirens Nash} 

S. clandestinus (Spreng.) Hitchc. 

3. Second glume about as long as the glabrous lemma; spikelets 4-6 mm. 

long; panicle long-exserted at maturity; dry soil. Aug.-Sept 

S. heterolepis Gray 

1. Plants annual; sheaths enclosing the lateral panicles; leaf-blades short, scarce- 
ly longer than the sheaths. 
5. Lemma pubescent; spikelets 3.5-6 mm. long; dry sandy soil. Sept.-Oct. 

S. ragiiiiflorus (Torr.) Wood 

5. Lemma glabrous; spikelets 2-3 mm. long; dry sandy soil. Sept.-Oct. 

S. neglectus Nash 

38. Heleochloa Host 
H. schoenoides (L.) Host. Waste places, occasional; introd. from Eur. 

39. Brachyelytrum Beauv. 
B. erectum (Schreb.) Beauv. Woods. June- Aug. 

40. Milium L.— Wild Millet 

M. effusujn L. Moist woods. Kane Co., Vasey; Tazewell Co., Brendel. 

60 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

41. Oryzopsis Michx. — Rice Grass 

1. Leaves narrow, involute; spikelets (excluding the awns) 3-4 mm. long; dry 
soil, rare O. pungens (Torr.) Hitchc. 

1. Leaves flat, 4-15 mm. wide; spikel'ets (excluding the awns) 6-8 mm. long. 
2. Leaves scattered along the stem, the upper surface pubescent; panicle 

15-30 cm. long; rocky woods, not common. Aug.-Sept 

- O. racemosa (Sm.) Ricker 

2. Leaves mostly basal, merely scabrous above; panicle 5-8 cm. long. Cook 
Co., Shtpman in 1877 0. asperifolia Michx. 

42. Stipa L. 

S. spartea Trin. Porcupine Grass. Sandy soil, locally throughout 111., except 
the s. counties. May-June. 

43. Aristida L. — Three-awned Grass 
1. Awns jointed to the lemma. 

2. Awns united in a spiral column 6-15 mm. or more in length; sandy soil. 
Aug.-Sept A. tuberculosa Nutt. 

2. Awn-column about 2 mm. long; sandy soil, not common. Mason Co., 

Behb in 1861 A. desmaiitba Trin. & Rupr. 

1. Awns distinct, not jointed to the lemma. 

3. Central awn much longer than the lateral awns, these erect. 
4. Central awn spirally coiled at base. 

5. Second glume 7-9 mm. long, equalling or slightly longer than the 

first; roadsides and fields in centr. and s. 111. Aug. -Oct 

A. dichotoma Michx. 

5. Second glume 10-15 mm. long, much longer than the first. 

6. Lateral awns 1-2 mm. long, straight, erect; dry ground, not com- 
mon. Sept. -Oct A. curtissii (Gray) Nash 

6. Lateral awns 2-7 mm. long, spreading; dry ground, n.w. Ill 

A. basiramea Engelm. 

4. Central awn not coiled. 

7. Lemma 4-5 mm. long; fields and roadsides, chiefly in the s. and w. 
parts of the state. [A. gracilis Ell.} A. longespica Poir. 

7. Lemma 2-3 cm. long; fields and roadsides, in the s. half of the state. 
Aug.-Sept. A. ramosissivia Engelm. 

3. Central awn subequal in length with the lateral ones. 

8. Glumes 8-11 mm. long; awns not over 2.5 cm. long; sandy soil. Aug.- 
Sept A . purpurascens Poir. 

8. Glumes 2-3 cm. long; awns 4-7 cm. long; fields, open woods, and 
roadsides. Aug.-Oct A. oligaiitha Michx. 

44. Eleusine Gaertn. 

E. indica (L.) Gaertn. Goose Grass, Waste places, roadsides, and culti- 
vated ground; nat. from Eurasia. July-Oct. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 61 

45. Dactyloctenium Willd. 
D. aegypticum (L.) Riclit. Crowfoot Grass. Waste ground and fields, not 
common; nat. from the Old World tropics. 

46. Cynodon Rich. 

(Capriola Adans.) 
C. dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermuda Grass. Fields, roadsides, and waste places; 
nat. from Eur. July-Aug. 

47. Leptochloa Beauv. — Sprangie-top Grass 
1. Sheaths pubescent; spikelets 1.5-2 mm. long; sandy soil, s. 111. Aug.-Sept. 

L. filijormis (Lam.) Beauv. 

1. Sheaths glabrous; spikelets 6-10 mm. long; wet meadows and along ditches, 

s. Ill L. fascicularis (Lam.) Gray 

48. Schedonnardus Steud. 
S. paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel. Hancock Co., Mead in 1845; probably now 
extinct in 111. "It was found on the original prairie, especially around salt 
licks." — Mosher. 

49. Beckmannia Host — Slough Grass 

B. syzigachne (Steud.) Fern. Wet ground, rare; n.e. 111. "Clyde, III., fre- 
quent, Umbach; the only station of this interesting grass." — Pepoon. [B. 
erucaeformis sensu auth., non Host]. 

50. Spartina Schreb. — Cord Grass 

S. pectinata Link. Along ditches, moist ground along roads, in marshes, 
etc. July-Sept. \_S. michauxiana Hitchc.} 

51. Chloris Sw. 

C. verticiUata Nutt. Windmill Grass. Sandy soil, or along roads, occa- 
sional; adv. from w. of the Mississippi R. June-July. 

52. BouTELOUA Lag. — Grama Grass 

1. Spikes 1-4, usually curved, of 25 or more densely crowded spikelets. 
2. Rachis of spike projecting beyond the uppermost spikelet in a prominent 
point; keel of the second glume papillose-hispid; prairie soil, w. and 

n.w. 111. July-Sept B. hirsiita Lag. 

2. Rachis not projecting; keel of second glume g'abrous or with few hairs, 

these without papillose bases. Jo Daviess Co., Pepoon 173 

B. gracilis (HBK.) Lag. 

1. Spikes numerous (12 or more), each with 4-12 spikelets; prairie soil in the 
n. half of 111. July-Sept B. curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. 

53. HiEROCHLOE R. Br. 
{Savaslana Schrank; Torresia Ruiz & Pav.) 
H. odorata (L.) Beauv. Sweet Grass. Moist meadows, fields, and road- 
sides, n.e. III. May-June. 

62 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

54. Anthoxanthum L. 

A. odoratum L. Sweet Vernal Grass. Meadows, roadsides, waste places; 
nat. from Eurasia. May-July. 

55. Phalaris L. — Canary Grass 
1. Panicle 8-15 cm. long; spikelets 5-6 mm. long, the glumes not winged; 

marshes and wet meadows. May-July. Reed Canary Grass 

- P. arnndinacea L. 

1. Panicle ovoid, 1-4 cm. long; spikelets 6-8 mm. long; the glum'es winged; 

roadsides and waste places; nat. from Eur. June-July. Canary Grass 

P. canariensis L. 

56. Leersia Sw. 

(^Homalocenchnis Mieg.) 
1. Spikelets broadly oval, densely imbricate, 3-4 mm. wide; stem terete; moist 

ground. Aug.-Oct. Catchfly Grass L. lenticularis Michx. 

1. Spikelets elliptical, 1-2 mm. wide. 

2. Spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long; stamens 1 or 2; leaves nearly smooth; stem 

compressed; moist woods. July-Sept. White Grass. ...L. virginica Willd. 

2. Spikelets 4-4.5 mm. long; stamens 3; leaves very rough; stem terete; wet 

ground. Aug. -Sept. Cut Grass L. oryzoides (L.) Sw. 

57. ZiZANiA L.— Wild Rice 
1. Blades 4-10 mm. wide; body of the pistillate lemma 10-17 mm. long; usually 

in shallow water, July-Sept. [Z.. palustris sensu auth., non L.] 

Z.- aquatica L. 

1. Blades 1-5 cm. wide; body of the pistillate lemma 2-3 cm. long; shallow 

water. July-Sept Z.- interior (Fassett) Rydb. 

58. DlGlTARiA Heist. 
(Svnlherisma Walt.) 
1. Rachis of the racemes wingless; spikelets 1.5-1.8 mm. long; lower sheaths 
pilose, the upper ones glabrous; stems usually erect; sandy soil. Aug.-Sept. 

D. flijormii (L.) Koel. 

1. Rachis winged; stems spreading, often rooting at the lower nodes. 

2. Sheaths glabrous; pedicels terete or nearly so; spikelets 2 mm. long; fields, 
meadows, waste ground, roadsides, common; nat. from Eurasia. 

Smooth Crab Grass \^Syntherisma linearis (Krock) Nash] 

D. ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl. 

2. Sheaths pilose; pedicels 3-angled, scabrous; spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long; 
a common weed in cult, ground and waste places; nat. from Eur. July- 
Oct. Common Crab Grass D. sangiiinalis (L.) Scop. 

59. Leptoloma Chase 
L. cognatum (Schult.) Chase. Sandy soil. July-Sept. 

60. Paspalum L. 

1. Rachis of the spikes dilated, thin, more than 2 mm. broad, with membran- 
ous margins. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 63 

2. Spikelets pubescent, 1-1.5 mm. long; blades 6-15 mm. wide; muddy banks 
or in shallow water, s. and w. 111. Aug.-Oct. [P. re pens Berg.; P. mu- 
cronatum Muhl.} P. fliiitans (Eli.) Kunth 

2. Spikelets glabrous, 2 mjn. long; blades 2-5 mm. wide; in ditches or along 

muddy or sandy shores, s. Ill P. dissectum L. 

1. Rachis narrow, less than 2 mm. broad; spikelets glabrous. 

3. Spikelets not more than 2 mm. long; plant often with 1 — several a.xillary 

peduncles from the upper sheath. 
4. Spikelets orbicular; blades sparsely pilose and ciliate; sandy soil, road- 
sides, etc. July-Sept P. stramineum Nash 

4. Spikelets oval or somewhat obovate; blades softly pubescent on both 

surfaces; moist sandy soil, throughout 111., except the n. part. July- 
Sept. [P. rnuhlenbergii Nash] P. pubescens Muhl. 

3. Spikelets 2.8-3 mm. long; plant simple, without axillary peduncles from 
the upper sheath. 

5. Spikelets orbicular, arranged singly in 2 rows; wet ground, chiefly in 

the s. half of the state. July-Sept P. circulare Nash 

5. Spikelets oval or slightly obovate, borne in pairs and appearing as if in 
3 or 4 rows; ditches, rare, s. 111. Aug.-Sept. [P. pubiflorum var. 
glabnim Vasey; P. laeviglume Scribn.} P. geminiim Nash 

61. Panicum L. 
1. Spikelets glabrous. 

2. Spikelets 3 mm. or more in length. 

3. Plants glabrous, perennial, with rhizomes; panicle 15-50 cm. long; 
spikelets 4-4.5 mm. long-pedicelled; roadsides and fields, common. 
July-Sept. Switch Grass P. virgatum L. 

3. Plants pubescent. 

4. Spikelets 4-5 mm. long; panicles often drooping at maturity; waste 
places; cult, and occasionally spontaneous; native of the Old 
World. Broomcom Millet P. miliaceum L. 

4. Spikelets 3-3.8 mm. long, lanceoloid, pointed; panicles erect. 

5. Plants annual; panicles 10-30 cm. long; blades 2-5 mm. wide; 
sandy soil, common. July-Oct P. flexile (Gatt.) Scribn. 

5. Plants perennial. 

6. Panicle loose, open, 20-50 cm. long; blades 6-10 mm. wide; 
plants with long scaly rhizomes; along ditches, or in moist 
soil, or woods, in the s. and w. parts of 111., extending northw. 

to Peoria and Henderson counties. July-Sept 

P. anceps Michx. 

6. Panicle 4-8 cm. long, not much exceeding the leaves, few- 
flowered; blades 2-5 mm. wide; open woods. May-June 

P. depauperatum Muhl. 

2. Spikelets less than 3 mm. long. 
7. Sheaths glabrous. 

8. First glume not m.ore than one fourth the length of the spikelets, 

64 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

rounded at the apex; plants annual, mostly glabrous; spikelets 

2.5 mm. long; fields and waste places, common. Aug. -Oct 

P. dichotomiflorum L. 

8. First glume more than one fourth the length of the spikelet; plants 


9. Spikelets 1.5-1.6 mm. long; blades 10-12 cm. long, 8-15 mm. 
wide, ciliate at base, otherwise glabrous; panicle 8-12 cm. long; 
stem-nodes densely bearded with reflexed hairs; wet ground, 
local. June-Aug P. microcarpon Muhl. 

9. Spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long. 

10. Pedicels about half the length of the spikelets; panicles 10-30 
cm. long, the spikelets subsecund; plants in dense turfts; 

moist ground. July-Oct. Munro Grass 

P. agrostoides Spreng. 

10. Pedicels longer than the spikelets, which are not at all secund; 
panicles 4-12 cm. long. 

11. Sheaths bearing pale glandular spots, the margins gla- 
brous; blades 8-11 mm. wide; spikelets 2.3-2.5 mm. 
long, pointed; moist woods and thickets, s. 111. June- 
July P. yadhnense Ashe 

11. Sheaths not spotted, the margins pubescent; blades 4-8 
mm. wide; spikelets 2 mm. long, not pointed; open 
woods, more common in s. 111., but extending nortbw. 

to Peoria Co. May-July. [P. barbulatum Michx.} 

P. dichotomum L. 

7. Sheaths pubescent. 

12. Spikelets lanceoloid, acuminate; panicle diffuse, often half the length 
of the plant; sheaths copiously villous. 
13. Spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long; fields, roadsides, and waste places, 
common. July-Oct. Witch Grass P. capillare L. 

13. Spikelets 2.5-3 (-3.3) mm. long; moist sandy soil, occasional; w. 

111. July-Sept P. harbipulvinatuin Nash 

12. Spikelets elliptical, obtuse, 1.3-2.2 mm. long. 

14. Panicles 12-20 cm. wide, delicate, relatively few-flowered; blades 
2-6 mm. wide, villous on both sides; roadsides and waste 

places. July-Oct. [P. tuckermani Fern.} 

P. philadelphicum Bernh. 

14. Panicles narrower; blades about 1 cm. wide, nearly or quite gla- 
brous; plants much branched, with many axillary panicles; 
moist sandy soil, along roads, in fields, or along streams, s. and 

centr. III., extending northw. to Henry Co. Sept. -Oct 

P. gattingeri Nash 

!. Spikelets pubescent or puberulent (occasionally only sparsely so). 

15. Spikelets 3 mm. or more in length; sheaths more or less pubescent or 
16. Blades 1.5-4 cm. wide, ciliate, otherwise glabrous or nearly so. 

17. Spikelets 3.4-3.8 mm. long; nodes glabrous or puberulent; rocky 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 65 

or sandy woods. May-Aug P. latifolium L. 

17. Spikelets 4-4.5 mm. long; nodes retrorsely bearded; woods 

throughout III., except the n.e. counties. May-July 

P. boscii Poir. 

16. Blades 6-13 mm. wide; spikelets 3-4 mm. long. 

18. Sheaths with somewhat appressed or ascending hairs; spikelets 

3.5-4 mm. long, sparsely pubescent to nearly glabrous; blades 
glabrous or n'early so above, puberulent beneath; sandy soil. 
May-June P. oltgosanthes Schult. 

18. Sheaths with spreading hairs, or nearly glabrous. 

19. Spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long, sparsely pubescent to nearly 
glabrous; blades glabrous or nearly so; sandy soil. May- 
July P. scribiierianum Nash 

19. Spikelets 3.5-4 mm. long, papillose-pilos-e; blades mere or 
less papillose-hirsute on both surfaces, or glabrous above; 

dry sandy soil. June-July P. leibergii (Vasey) Scribn. 

15. Spikelets less than 3 mm. long. 

20. Sheaths glabrous or nearly so, or merely ciliate. 
21. Spikelets 2.1-2.9 mm. long. 

22. Blades 12-25 mm. wide, cordate at base; spikelets short-pubes- 
cent, 2.7-2.9 mm. long; woods, s. III. May-June 

P. commutatiim Schult. 

22. Blades 2-4 mm. wide, not cordate; spikelets sparsely pilose to 

nearly glabrous, 2.1-2 A mm. long; wooded slopes and 
ridges, rare. Starved Rock, G. N. Jones 15728. Perhaps 

merely a glabrous form of P. linearifolium Scribn 

P. werneri Scribn. 

21. Spikelets 1.3-1.9 mm. long, puberulent or nearly glabrous. 

23. Blades usually 1.5-2.5 cm. wide, ciliate toward the base, other- 

wise glabrous; nodes glabrous or nearly so; panicle 8-25 cm. 
long, not more than half as wide as long; moist ground, 

chiefly in s. 111., but extending northw. to Peoria Co 

P. polyanthss Schult. 

23. Blades usually 6-14 mm. wide; panicle often about as wide as 
24. Ligule of conspicuous hairs 3-5 mm. long; sandy soil in 
open woods. June-Sept P. lindheimeri Nash 

24. Ligule obsolete or nearly so; sandy soil, in the s. half of 
III. June-July P. sphaerocarpon Ell. 

20. Sheaths pubescent. 

25. Sheaths conspicuously retrorsely pilose; blades 3-7 mm. wide; 
panicle lax, few-flowered, 5-10 cm. long; spikelets 1.9-2 mm. 
long; wooded slopes, throughout III., except the n. counties. 
May-July P. xalapense HBK. 

25. Sheaths not retrorsely pilose. 
26. Spikelets 2.7-3 mm. long. 

66 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

27. Blades 12-30 mm. wide; stems 50-120 cm. tall; panicle 7- 
15 cm. long; sandy soil. June-Aug P. eland estiniim L. 

27. Blades 2-6 mm. wide; stems 8-40 cm. tall; panicles 2-8 cm. 

28. Blades copiously pilose on both surfaces; panicles 2-4 

cm. long; dry ground, n.w. 111., not common 

P. wilcoxianum Vasey 

28. Blades scabrellous above, pilose beneath; panicles 4-8 
cm. long, some of them usually more or less con- 
cealed among the basal leaves; dry soil. June-July .... 
P. perlongum Nash 

26. Spikelets less than 2.7 mm. long. 
29. Sheaths with spreading hairs. 
30. Spikelets 2.2-2.7 mm. long. 

31. Blades 2-4 mm. wide, 10-30 cm. long; spikelets 
sparsely pilosulous or nearly glabrous; dry 
woods, local. May-July.. P. linearifolmm Scribn. 

31. Blades 5-10 mm. wide, 6-10 cm. long; ligule 4-5 

mm. long; dry sandy soil. June-July 

P. villosisshnian Nash 

30. Spikelets 1.3-1.9 mm. long; ligule 3-5 mm. long. 

32. Upper surface of blades glabrous or with a few 

long hairs toward the base, the lower surface 
glabrous or puberulent; moist ground. June-July 
P. tennesseense Ashe 

32. Upper surface of blades not glabrous. 

33. Upper surface of blades pilose, the hairs 3-5 
mm. long. 

34. Stems conspicuously villous with horizontal 
hairs 4-5 mm. long; dry soil, chiefly in 

the n. half of the state. June-July 

P. praecochis Hitchc. & Chase 

34. Stems with shorter hairs. 

35. Axis of panicle pilose; the lowest pani- 
cle branches often tangled or impli- 
cate; wet mieadows or swamps in the 

n. half of the state. June-July 

P. tmpltcatiim Scribn. 

35. Axis of panicle puberulent; branches 
ascending, not tangled; sandy soil, n. 

111. June-July P. mcridtonalc Ashe 

33. Upper surface of blades with somewhat ap- 
pressed hairs 1-2 mm. long; meadows, com- 
mon. May-Sept P. huachucac Ashe 

29. Sheaths with appressed hairs; ligule 1-1.5 mm. long; 
blades glabrous or nearly so on the upper surface, puber- 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 22. Gramineae 67 

ulent beneath; spikelets 1.8-2 mm. long; sandy or grav- 
elly soil in the n. part of 111., not common. June-July .... 
P. tsugetorum Nash 

62. EcHiNOCHLOA Beauv. 
1. Sheaths glabrous; spikekts awnless or short-awned. 

2. Spikelets acute or short-awned; panicle green, the branches straight; leaves 
6-15 mm. wide; fields, roadsides, waste ground, common; nat. from 
Eurasia. July-Sept. Barnyard Grass E. crusgdli (L.) Beauv. 

2. Spikelets obtuse, awnless; panicle dense, usually dark purple or brown, 
the branches incurved; leaves 1.5-3 cm. wide; waste places and river 

banks; introd. from s.e. Asia. Japanese Millet. Billion dollar Grass 

E. frumentacea (Roxb.) Link 

1. Sheaths, at least the lower ones, papillose-hirsute; spikelets long-awned, the 

awns 1-5 cm. long, usually purple; wet ground. Aug.-Oct 

E. walteri (Pursh) Heller 

63. Setaria Beauv. 
{Chaelochloa Scribn.) 

1. Plants perennial with short, branched rhizomes; bristles below each spikelet 
8-12, yellowish or purplish, upwardly scabrous; waste ground, occasional. 
[5". imberbis R. fid S.} S. geniculata (Lam.) Beauv. 

1. Plants annual. 

2. Bristles 5-15 at the base of each spikelet, upwardly barbed; a common 
weed in waste ground and along roads; nat. from Eur. June-Sept. [5'. 

glauca of auth., not (L.) Beauv.} Yellow Foxtail 

S. lutescens (Weigel) F. T. Hubb. 

2. Bristles 1-3 at the base of each spikelet. 
3. Spikelets about 2 mm. long. 
4. Bristles 3-6 mm. long, retrorsely barbed; panicle 5-15 cm. long; weed 

in waste ground; nat. from Eur. July-Sept. Bristly Foxtail 

S. vertiallata (L.) Beauv. 

4. Bristles 7-12 mm. long, upwardly barbed; panicle usually less than 
7 cm. long; a common weed throughout III.; nat. from Eur. June- 
Sept. Green Foxtail S. yiridis (L.) Beauv. 

3. Spikelets 3 mm. long; bristles upwardly barbed; panicle thick, lobed or 
interrupted, purplish or yellowish; cult, and sometimes spontaneous; 
introd. from Eurasia. July-Sept. Italian Millet, or Hun3arian Grass 
S. italica (L.) Beauv. 

64. Cenchrus L. — Sandbur 

C. longiipinus (Hack.) Fern. Sandy soil, cult, ground, and roadsides. 
July-Sept. [C. tribidoides sensu auth., non L.; C. carolintanus sensu auth., 
scarcely Walt.; C. pauciflorus sensu auth., non Benth.} 

65. Andropogon L. 
1. Racemes usually borne singly on the few to many branches, 3-6 cm. long; 

68 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

joints of the rachis clavate; sandy or prairie soil and open woods. Aug.- 

Oct. Little Bluestem A. scoparius Michx. 

1. Racemes in fascicles of 2-7, the common peduncle enclosed in a bract-like 
sheath or spathe; joints of the rachis not clavate. 
2. Pedicellate spikelet staminate, as large as the sessile spikelet; racemes 5- 
13 cm. long, exserted on a naked peduncle, the uppermost sheath in- 
conspicuous, not inflated; rachis straight, the hairs inconspicuous and 
shorter than the spikelets; stamens 3; prairie soil. July-Sept. [A. provin- 

aalis Lam.} Big Bluestem A. furcatus Muhl. 

2. Pedicillate spikelet reduced to 1 or 2 empty glumes or a m'ere pedicel; 
racemes L5-4 cm^. long, from a broad, conspicuous, usually inflated 
spathe; rachis flexuous, the hairs as long as or longer than the spikelets; 
stamen 1; fields and roadsides in the s. half of the state. Sept. -Oct. 
Broom-sedge A . virginicus L. 

66. Erianthus Michx. 

E. alope cur aides (L.) Ell. Plume Grass. Open woods, s. 111., rare. Jackson 
Co., French in 1878; Union Co., Mulcaster in 1935. [E. divarkatus (L.) 

67. Sorghum Pers. 

1. Perennial with creeping rhizomes; spikelets readily deciduous at maturity; 
pedicellate spikelet usually staminate; fields and waste places, escaped 
from cult.; introd. from Eur. June-Oct. \^Holcus halepensis L.] Johnson 
Grass S. halepeyise (L.) Pers. 

1. Annual; spikelets persistent at maturity; pedicellate spikelet usually neutral, 
shorter than the sessile one; waste places, occasionally escaped from cult.; 
resembling Z^ea mays when not in bloom. [^Holcus sorghum L.; Sorghum 
saccharatum Moench] Sorghum S. vulgare Pers. 


S. nutans (L.) Nash. Indian Grass. Prairies, open woods, roadsides. Aug.- 

69. Tripsacum L. 

T. dactyloides L. Gama Grass. Wet ground, rare, chiefly in the s. half of 
the state. May-Sept. 

70. Zea L. Maize. Indian Corn 
Z.- mays L. Cult., and rarely spontaneous. July-Sept. 

23. Cyperaceae J. St. Hil. — Sedge Family 

1 . Spikelets all alike; flowers of the spikelet, or at least one of tiiem perfect. 
2. Glumes of the s[)ikelet 2-ranked; spikelets flattened or subterete. 

3. Perianth bustles none; s[)ikclets in umbellate clusters; stems mostly triangular. 

4. Spikelets several-many-f]owered ; glumes many 1. Cvperus 

4. Spikelets 1 -flowered; glumes 2-4 2. Kpllingia 

3. Perianth of 6-9 bristles; Inflorescence axillary; stem te»ete, hollow; achenes 

beaked 3. Diilichhim 

2. Glumes spirally imbricated. 

5. Spikelets with several to many perfect flowers. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 23. Cyperaceae 69 

6. Base of the style swollen, peisistent as a tubercle on the achene. 

7. Spikelet solitary; bristles usually present; stems leafless 4. Eleocharis 

7. Spikelets several; bristles none; leaves filiform, the sheaths pubescent 

5. Bulbost\^lis 

6. Base of style deciduous, sometimes enlarged. 

8. Flowers with a perianth of 3 stalked sepals, or of 1 or 2 hyaline glumes. 
9. Bristles 3; achene and glumes stipitate; plants perennial 6. Fuirena 

9. Bristles 0; achene and the solitary minute glume sessile; plants annual 

7. Hemicarpha 

8. Flowers without a perianth. 

10. Style conspicuously swollen at the base; bristles none 8. Fimbristvlis 

10. Style not at all or only slightly thickened at base; bristles usually present. 

II. Bristles few, short, not exceeding the glume 9. Scirpus 

II. Bristles apparently numerous, long, slender, silky 10. Eriophonim 

5. Spikelets 1-4-flowered, polygamous. 

12. Base of the style persistent as a tubercle on the achene; perianth bristles 

usually present; style 2-cleft II. Rh\)nchospora 

12. Style wholly deciduous; bristles 0; style 3-cleft 12. Cladlum 

1. Spikelets usually unisexual; plants monoecious, or rarely dioecious. 

13. Achenes v/hite, bony, globose, usually supported on a disk, not enclosed in a sac 

(perigynium) ; pistillate spikes I-flowered 13. Scleria 

I3.Achen2s not bony, enclosed in a perigynium 14. Carex 

1. Cyperus L. 

1. Glumes deciduous from the persistent rachilla of the spikelet. 
2. Style 2-cleft; achenes lenticular. 

3. Spikelets straw-colored or yellowish; achenes black, glossy, the super- 
ficial cells rectangular; wet ground. [C. flavescens sensu auth., non 
L.} C. poaejormis Pursh 

3. Spikelets green or brown; achenes brown, dull, the superficial cells 
4. Glumes glossy, subcoriaceous; style scarcely exserted; stamens 3; 
moist ground, in t!ie n. part of the state, often abundant and 

forming dense mats C. rivularis Kunth 

4. Glumes dull, reddish tinged, membranous; style conspicuously ex- 
serted; stamens usually 2; marshy ground, or margins of ponds 

and streams C. diandrus L. 

2. Style 3-cleft; achenes trigonal. 
5. Rachis prominently winged. 

6. Glumes straw-colored or pale brown, ovate acute; achenes ovoid; 
plants perennial with a scaly tuber-bearing rhizome; moist ground. 
[C. phymatodes Muhl.] Chufa or Nut Sedge C. esculentus L. 

6. Glumes dark brown, lanceolate, mucronate; achenes obovoid; plants 

annual; along streams and ditches, and in fields 

C. erythrorhizos Muhl. 

5. Rachis wingless or only very narrowly winged. 

7. Plants perennial; spikelets 8-16 mm. long; stamens 2 or 3. 

8. Stem rough; spikelets ascending; glumes 3-4.5 mm. long; achenes 
2.5-3 mm. long; sandy soil in the n. part of the state, extending 
southw. to Mason Co C. schweinitzn Torr. 

8. Stem smooth; spikelets spreading; glumes 2-2.5 mm. long; achenes 

70 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1.5-2 mm. long; sandy soil, rare. Lake, Kankakee, and Sanga- 
mon counties C. honghtonii Torr. 

7. Plants annual; spikelets 4-8 mm. long; stamen 1. 

9. Glumes long-acuminate, tapering to the recurved awn; wet sandy 
soil along streams or ditches; plants fragrant when dry. [C. m- 
flexus Muhl.} C. aristatus Rottb. 

9. Glumes merely acute; wet soil, chiefly in centr. and n. Ill 

C. acuminatns Torr. & Hook. 

1. Spikelets falling wholly away from the axis of the spikes, usually the 2 

lower glumes persistent; style 3-cleft; achenes trigonal. 

10. Plants perennial, with corm-like bases; spikelets more or less flattened. 

11. Spikelets 3-flowered; achenes 3-4 times as long as wide; inflore.scence 

composed of 5 or 6 globose heads; sandy borders of woods, or in 

old fields, chiefly in s. 111., but known also from Peoria Co. fC. 

woljii Wood} C. ovularis (Michx.) Torr. 

11. Spikelets 4-25-flowered. 

12. Leaves 4-6 mm. wide; achenes linear-oblong, acute; spikelets in 
large umbels; moist meadows and alluvial soil near streams .... 

C. strigosiis L. 

12. Leaves 2-4 mm. wide; achenes obovoid, apiculate; inflorescence 
consisting of 1-7 globose heads; dry sandy soil [C. filiculmis 

var. macilentus Fern.} C. filiculmis Vahl 

10. Plants annual; spikelets nearly terete. 

13. Glumes imbricated; achenes obovoid; wet ground, and sandy shores. 
[C. specwsus of auth , not Vahl; C. jerax sensu Britt., not Rich.} 

C. ferruginescens Boeckl. 

13. Glumes scarcely overlapping; achenes linear-oblong; wet ground, 
often on lake shores; Lake, McHenry, and Winnebago counties .... 
C engclmanni Steud. 

2. Kyllingia Rottb. 

K. piimda Michx. Moist ground, chiefly along streams and ditches; s. 111., 
extending northw. to Champaign Co. 

3. Dulichium Rich. 

D. arundinaceum (L.) Bntt. Wet ground, chiefly along borders of streams 
and ponds, local. 

4. Eleocharis R. Br. — Spike Rush 

1. Spikelet linear, scarcely thicker than the stem; glumes of the mature spikelet 
persistent; plants aquatic, about 1 m. tall. 
2. Stems terete, conspicuously nodo,sv;; achenes 2-2.5 mm. long (including 
the style-base); shallow water, n.w. 111. Wolf Lake, Hill in 1890. \E. 

intcrstincta sensu auth., non R. & S.} E. eqiinetoides (Ell.) Torr. 

2. Stems sharply 4-angled, continuous, not septate; achenes 2.5-4 mm. long, 
including the beak (1 mm. long); shallow water, not common. Wolf 
Lake, Hill; St. Clair Co., Brendcl. [E. mutata sensu auth., non R. &. 
S.] E. quadrangulata (Michx.) R. & S. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 23. Cyperaceae 71 

1 . Spikelet usually much thicker than the stem; glumes persistent. 
3. Style 2-cleft; achenes lenticular or biconvex. 
4. Perennials with rhizomes. 

5. Sheaths loose, hyaline and scarious at the summit; glumes hyaline- 
margined; wet soil, rare. Wolf Lake, Chicago, Hill 

E. olivacea Torr. 

5. Sheaths close, not hyaline at the summit. 

6. Basal glumes of the spikelets usually 2 or 3 below the thinner 
fertile glumes. 
7. Tubercle elongate, much longer than broad; achenes narrowly 
obovoid or pyriform; stems subterete, rather firm; ponds, 

swamps, and marshes, n. Ill E. pdustris (L.) R. & S. 

7. Tubercle depressed-deltoid, umbonate, or broadly ovate, as 
broad as or broader than long; achenes broadly obovoid or 
8. Stems firm, nearly terete; fertile glumes ascending, oval, acu- 
minate; marshes, ditches, shores, local throughout III 

E. smallii Britt. 

8. Stems soft, compressed; fertile glumes appressed, obtusish; 
wet ground, not common; chiefly in the s. half of the state, 

extending northw. to Menard Co E. mamillata Lindb. 

6. Basal glume solitary, spathiform, usually encircling the base of the 

spikelet; wet ground E. calva Terr. 

4. Annuals, with fibrous roots. 

9. Tubercle flattened or saucer-shaped; mature achenes black, 1 mm. 
long; wet ground. [E. capitata R. Br.; E. caribaea (Rottb.) Blake; 

E. dispar E. J. Hill} E. geniculata (L.) R. & S. 

9. Tubercle conical or deltoid, acute; mature achenes pale brownish. 
10. Tubercle conical, narrower than the top of the achene; wet 

ground in the n. half of the state E. ovata (Roth) R. & S. 

10. Tubercle depressed-deltoid, as wide as the top of the achene. 
11. Bristles about equalling the achene, or sometimes rudimen- 
tary; muddy shores and along ditches 

E. engelmanni Steud. 

11. Bristles much exceeding the achene; wet ground throughout 

111., not uncommon E. obtusa (Willd.) Schult. 

3. Style usually 3-cleft; achenes trigonal or turgid. 

12. Tubercle plainly distinguishable from the achene; achenes less than 
2 mm. long. 
13. Achenes cancellate and striate. 

14. Spikelet flattened, 3-9-flowered, the glumes 2-3-ranked; bristles 
3-4, fugacious; stems very slender, not more than 0.5 mm. 
in diameter, 5-20 cm. long; wet ground and shallow water .... 
E. acicularis (L.) R. &: S. 

14. Spikelet terete, the glumes many-ranked; bristles 0; stems 
about 1 mm. in diameter; wet ground; Fulton, Peoria, Stark 

72 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

and La Salle counties. Discovered at Canton by J. Wolf 

E. woljii Gray 

13. Achenes papillose or pitted. 

15. Tubercle depressed; achene about 1 mm. long; perennials with 
16. Stems filiform, about 0.5 mm. wide, angular; glumes obtuse; 
wet ground, local. {_E. elliptica Kunth; E. capltata var. 

borealis Svens.] E. tenuis (Willd.) Schult. 

16. Stems flattened, 1 mm. or more in width; glumes acuminate, 
often bifid; moist ground throughout 111. [E. acuminata 

(Muhl.) Nees} E. compressa Sulliv. 

15. Tubercle conical-subulate; achenes 1.5 mm. long (incl. the 

tubercle) ; glumes obtuse; tufted annuals with filiform stems; 

muddy shores, not common ...£. intermedia (Muhl.) Schult. 

12. Tubercle confluent with the top of the achene, long conical; achenes 

2-3 mm. long. 

17. Stems flattened, 1-2 mm. wide, 30-60 cm. long; marshes and 

shores, not common E. rostellata Torr. 

17. Stems somewhat 3-angled, filiform, less than 1 mm. wide, 5-30 cm. 
tall; marshes and shores, n.e. III. [Scirpus pauciflora Liphtf.^ .... 
E. pauciflora (Lightf.) Link 

5. BuLBOSTYLlS [Kunth] C. B. Clarke 

(Slenophplliis Raf.) 

B. capillaris (L.) C. B. Clarke. Sandy soil, n. 111., extending southw. to 
Henderson and Kankakee counties; also apparently in Pope Co. [^Stenophyllus 
capillaris (L.) Britt.} 

6. FuiRENA Rottb. — Umbrella Sedge 

F. pumila Torr. Shores, swamps, and wet meadows, n.e. 111. [F. squarrosa 
sensu auth., non Michx.} 

7. Hemicarpha Nees 8C Arn. 

1. Spikelets 2-4 mm. long; glumes elliptical, the tips somewhat recurved; wet 

sandy soil, chiefly in the n. half of the state 

H. micrantha (Vahl) Britt. 

1. Spikelets 4-7 mm. long; glumes broadly ovate, appressed; wet sandy soil, n. 
Ill M. drummondi Nees 


1. Style 2-cleft; achenes lenticular, about 1 mm. long, brownish; spikelets ovoid 
or ellipsoid, 5-10 mm. long; moist sandy soil, rare, n. 111. \F. puherula 
(Michx.) Vahl] F. caroliniana (Lam.) Fern. 

1. Style 3-cleft; achenes trigonal, about 0.5 mm. long, whitish, the 3 angles 
ridged; spikelets linear; moist sandy or alluvial soil, local. \F. autumnalis 
sensu auth., non R. & S.] F. mucronulata (Michx.) Blake 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 23. Cyperaceae 73 

9. SciRPUS L — Bulrush 

1. Involucral bract one, appearing like a continuation of the stem, or lacking. 
2. Spikelets soUtary, rarely two. 

3. Bract 1-5 cm. long, twice the length of the cylindrical or ovoid spikelet; 

in ponds and slow streams, or on muddy shores, rare. Cook Co 

S. subterminalis Torr. 

3. Bract shorter than or equalling the spikelet; bogs, n. 111. Ringwood, Mc- 

Henry Co., Vasey S. cespitosus L. 

2. Spikelets usually several to many. 

4. Spikelets few, 1-12, appearing lateral. 

5. Stems terete, or obtusely 3-angled; plants annual, tufted; bristles 

minute or absent, or equalling or exceeding the achene. 

6. Stems subterete with rounded sides; spikelets acutish; involucral 

bract always erect; achenes glossy, black, plano-convex; wet 

shores, rare ^S". smithit Gray 

6. Stems obtusely 3-angled with concave sides; spikelets blunt; invol- 

ucral bract usually divaricate at maturity; achenes dull, un- 
equally biconvex, or lenticular; wet soil, rare. Mason Co., Vasey 

in 1862. [S. debilis of Pursh, not Lam.] S. purshianus Fern. 

5. Stems sharply 3-angled; plants perennial, with rhizomes. 

7. Bristles longer than the trigonal achenes; glumes yellowish brown, 

entire, mucronate; swamps ..S. torreyl Olney 

7. Bristles not longer than the plano-convex achenes; glumes reddish 
brown, awn-tipped; shores and marshy ground throughout 111. 
S. americanus Pers. 

4. Spikelets numerous in small clusters in compound umbels; plants peren- 
nial with rhizomes, the terete stems 1-3 m. tall. 
8. Achenes 2 mm. long, nearly as long as the glumes; spikelets ovoid, 
5-10 mm. long; marshes and shallow water, throughout 111., except 
the s. part S. validus Vahl 

8. Achenes 2.5-3 mm. long, shorter than the glumes; spikelets ellipsoid, 
1-2 cm. long; shallow water in the n. half of the state. [5". occiden- 

talis (Wats.) Chase] 5. acutus Muhl. 

1. Involucral bracts several, foliaceous; stem 3-angled, leafy; plants perennial. 
9. Spikelets 3-15 in an irregular umbel; rays 5-12, elongated, recurved- 
spreading; spikelets ellipsoid, 1.5-4 cm. long; in the n. half of the state. 

S. fluviatilis (Torr.) Gray 

9. Spikelets numerous, umbellate or capitate. 
10. Bristles downwardly barbed. 

11. Style 2-cleft; achenes plano-convex; bristles usually 4; spikelets 4- 

9 mm. long; swamps, rare. Lake Co., Gates 2770, 3059 

S. rubrotinctus Fern. 

11. Style 3-cIeft; achenes trigonal; bristles 6. 

12. Bristles twice the length of the achene; leaves 4-6 mm. wide; 
spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long, commonly proliferous; wet ground 
in woods in the s. half of the state S. polyphyllus Vahl 

74 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

12. Bristles scarcely exceeding tbe achene; leaves 6- 16 mm. wide; 
spikelets 4-8 mm. long, several to many in dense glomerules; 

along ditches, streams, and lake shores, throughout 111 

S. atrovirens Willd. 

10. Bristles smooth, 6, flexuous. 

13. Bristles scarcely exceeding the glumes; spikelets cylindrical, 6-8 
mm. long; leaves 5-10 mm. wide; wet ground in woods, or along 
ditches, common S. lineatiis Michx. 

13. Bristles at maturity much longer than the glumes; spikelets sessile 
in glomerules of 3-15; leaves 4-6 mm. wide; wet ground, locally 

abundant, sometimes covering large areas 

S. cyperiniis (L.) Kunth 

10. Eriophorum L. — Cotton Sedge 

1. Leaves 1-1.5 mm. wide; involucral bract short, erect. 

2. Blade of the upper stem-leaf not longer than the sheath; swamps and 

bogs, Peoria, Brendel; Woodford Co., McDonald in 1887 

E. gracile Roth 

2. Blade of the upper stem-leaf much longer than the sheath; bogs, rare; 

Beardstown, Cass Co., Geyer E. tenelluyn Nutt. 

1 . Leaves broader, 2-6 mm. wide; involucral leaves 2 or more. 

3. Glume of the spikelets with several striations or ribs; stamen 1; plants 

flowering in July and Aug.; not uncommon in Lake Co 

E. virginiciim L. 

3. Glume with midvein prominent; stamens 3; plants flowering in May and 
4. Midvein of glume extending to the apex; upper leaf-sheaths not dark- 
girdled at the summit; bogs in n. Ill 

E. viridicar'tnatum (Engelm.) Fern. 

4. Midvein of glume not extending to the tip; upper leaf-sheaths dark- 
girdled at the summit; bogs, n.e. Ill E. angnstifolitim Honck. 

11. Rhynchospora Vahl — Beaked-rush 

1. Bristles downwardly barbed, or sometimes smooth. 

2. Glumes whitish; bristles 9-15; bogs, Lake Co., Gleason & Shobc 137; 
Peoria, Brendel R. Ma (L.) Vahl 

2. Glumes brown; bristles 6. 

3. Leaves filiform, less than 0.5 mm. wide; spikelets 3-6 in a terminal 

cluster; bogs and springy ground, n. III., rare R- capillacea Torr. 

3. Leaves linear, 4-7 mm. wide; spikelets numerous in clusters or heads; 

lake shores, and moist ground; Cook Co., Hill in 1906; Kankakee 

Co., Hdl in 1871, Sherff 1656. [R. glomcrata sensu auth.} 

R. capitellata (Michx.) Vahl 

1. Bristles upwardly barbed; leaves flat, 1-4 mm. wide; spikelets ovoid, sessile, 

in erect cymose clusters; wet sandy soil, Kankakee Co., Hdl in 1871 

R. cymosa Ell. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 23. Cyperaceae 75 

12. Cladium p. Br. — Twig-rush 
(Mariscus Zinn) 

C. mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr. Bogs, marshes, or wet shores, in Cook, Lake, 
jnd McHenry counties. 

13. ScLERiA Berg — Nut-rush 

l.Spikelets in terminal clusters; achenes supported by a basal disk (hypogyn- 
2. Achenes smooth, ovoid, 3 mm. long, the hypogynium covered with a 
rough white crust; leaves glabrous, 3-9 mm. wide; moist sandy soil in 

the n. half of the state, rare S. triglomerata Michx. 

2. Achenes papillose, subglobose, 1.5-2 mm. long; leaves puberulent, 1-2 

mm. wide; dry ground, s. 111.; Johnson Co., Brendel 

S. paitciflora Muhl. 

1 . Spikelets in an interrupted spike; hypogynium absent; achenes transversely 
wrinkled and reticulate; leaves glabrous, 1 mm. or less in width; moist 
meadows, Peoria, McDonald; Woodford Co., McDonald in 1887; Will 
Co., Hill in 1911 S. yerticillata Muhl. 

Carex L. — Sedge 

l.Pengynia glabrous. 

2. Stigmas two; achenes lenticular or plano-convex. 

3. Spikes of one kind, bearing both pistillate and staminate flowers; lateral spikes 
4. Spikes androgynous, i.e., with the staminate flowers at the apex Group I 

4. Spikes gynecandrous, i.e., with the staminate flowers at the base or middle of 
the spike Group II 

3. Spikes usually of two kinds, the terminal commonly staminate, the lower entirely 
or mostly pistillate Group III 

2. Stigmas three; achenes trigonal. 

5. Spike solitary, terminal, small, few-flowered, androgynous Group IV 

5. Spikes two or more. 

6. Beak of the perigynium (if present) small, entire or emargmate, or if bidenlu- 
late the short teeth soft and thin Group V 

6. Beak of the perigynium sharply bidentate Group VI 

I.Perigynia more or less pubescent or puberulent; stigmas 3; achenes trigonal 

Group VII 

Group I 

Spikes of one kind, bearing both pistillate and staminate flowers; lateral 
spikes sessile; stigmas 2; achenes lenticular or plano-convex. 

1 . Stems arising singly from long creeping rhizomes. 

2. Perigynia 3-5 mm. long, lanceoloid, strongly bidentate at apex: inflores- 
cence nodding; leaves flat, 2-5 mm. wide; marshes and bogs in the n. 
half of the state C. sartwellii Dewey 

2. Perigynia about 2 mm. long, ovoid, the apex entire; inflorescence stiff, 
erect, subcapitate; leaves narrow, involute; bogs, rare; McHenry and 
Lake counties C. chordorrhiza Ehrh. 

76 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Stems tufted. 

3. Perigynia subulate-lanceolate. 

4. Perigynia 4 mm. long, the beak about the length of the body; swamps 

and wet meadows C. stipata Muhl. 

4. Perigynia 5-7 mm. long. 

5. Perigynium about 5 mm. long, tapering gradually from base to apex; 
inflorescence 2.5-6 cm. long; leaves 3-6 mm. wide; swampy woods 

C. laevivaginata (Kiikenth.) Mack. 

5. Perigynium 6-7 mm. long, abruptly enlarged below into a disc-like 
base; inflorescence 7-17 cm. long; leaves 5-10 mm. wide; swampy 

ground C. cruscorvi Shuttlw. 

3. Perigynia oval, ovate-lanceolate, ovoid or ellipsoid. 

6. Spikes usually fewer than 12; inflorescence often capitate. 
7. Leaves 1-4 mm. wide; sheaths close. 

8. Perigynia spongy-thickened at the base. 

9. Perigynium with a minute beak 0.2 mm. or less in length; bogs, 

n.e. Ill C. dispertna Dewey 

9. Perigynium with a distinct beak 0.6-1 mm. long. 

10. Beak entire-margined; glumes acuminate or cuspidate. 

1 1 . Body of the perigynium broadly ovate, deep green, 

abruptly short-beaked; dry woods, not common 

C. retro flexa Muhl. 

1 1 . Body of the perigynium ovate-lanceolate, light green, 

tapering to the beak; dry woods, s. 111.; (fide Macken- 
zie; no 111. spec, seen) C. texensis (Torr.) Bailey 

10. Beak minutely serrulate along the edges. 

12. Broadest leaves 1-2 mm. wide; perigynium tapering into 

the beak; stigmas long, slender, usually not twisted; 
woods and thickets, common C. rosea Schk. 

12. Broadest leaves 2-3 mm. wide; perigynium abruptly con- 
tracted into the beak; stigmas short, stout, contorted, 
red; dry woods, common C. convoluta Mack. 

8. Perigynia not spongy-thickened at the base. 

13. Heads mostly 1.5-3.5 cm. long; leaves and stems stiff and wiry; 
perigynia oval, 3-3.5 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, the beak 0.5 
mm. long, serrulate; sandy soil, often in open woods, in the 
n. half of III. [C. plana Mack.] C. niuhlenbergii Schk. 

13. Heads mostly 8-15 mm. long; leaves and stems soft; perigynia 
2.5-3 mm. long. 
14. Perigynia oval, 1-1.5 mm. wide, the serrulate beak 1 mm. 

long; open woods or along roads, frequent 

C. cephalophora Muhl. 

14. Perigynia ovate, truncate at base, 2 mm. wide, the beak 0.5 
mm. long, entire or nearly so; meadows and open woods, 

not common. Jackson Co., French in 1905 

C. leavcnworthn Dewey 

7. Leaves 4.5-8 mm. wide; sheaths loose. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 23. Cyperaceae 77 

15. Stem about 2 mm. in diameter below the head, soft and wing- 
angled, flattened when pressed and dry. 
16. Beak of the perigynium about half the length of tha body, 
which is strongly nerved dorsally; sheaths rugose ventrally; 
woods and thickets, local C. conjuncta Boott 

16. Beak about as long as the body of the faintly nerved perigyn- 

ium; sheaths not rugose; meadows, not common 

C. alopecoidea Tuckerm. 

15. Stem 1 mm. in diameter below the head, not winged. 

17. Inflorescence elongate, interrupted, 3-9 cm. long; beak of the 

perigynium shorter than the body; glumes acute; woods and 

thickets, chiefly in the n. half of the state, common 

C. sparganioides Muhl. 

17. Inflorescence short, compact, 1-3 cm. long. 

18. Beak of the perigynium equalling the body; glumes acute; 

woods and thickets C. cephaloidea Dewey 

18. Beak of the perigynium shorter than the body; glumes 
19. Perigynium ovoid; sandy or gravelly ridges and banks 

C. gravida Bailey 

19. Perigynium ellipsoid. 

20. Perigynium not deep green at maturity; sandy soil 

C. lunelliana Mack. 

20. Perigynium deep green at maturity; dry woods, not 

common C. aggregata Mack. 

6. Spikes numerous (10 or more). 

21. Beak of the perigynium much shorter than the body; fields and 

pastures in the n. half of the state C. brachyglossa Mack. 

21. Beak equalling the body. 

22. Glumes awned; leaves 2-5 mm., wide; swampy ground, often 

along ditches, common throughout 111 

C. vulpinoidea Michx. 

22. Glumes acute; leaves 1-3 mm. wide. 

23. Perigynium 2-2.5 mm. long, glossy, not concealed by the 
glume; wet meadows; Stark, Peoria, and Fulton counties 

C. diandra Schrank 

23. Perigynium 2.5-3.5 mm. long, dull, nearly concealed by the 
glume; wet meadows, n. Ill C. prairea Dewey 

Group II 

Spikes of one kind, gynecandrous, bearing both pistillate and staminate 
flowers, the staminate occurring at the base or the middle of the spike; lateral 
spikes sessile; stigmas two; achenes lenticular or plano-convex; perigynia 
1. Perigynia not thin- or wing-margined. 

2. Perigynia 4-5 mm. long; beak serrulate, bidentate, 1.5-2 mm. long; wet 
ground C. bromoides Schk. 

78 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Perigynia 2-4 mm. long. 

3. Beak of the perigynium entire or emarginate, not more than 0.5 mm. 
long; perigynium oval, plano-convex; spikes 2 or 3, each 2-5-flowered; 

tamarack swamp, Lake Villa, Lake Co., Gleason & Shobe 

C. trisperma Dewey 

3. Beak of the perigynium bidentate, serrulate, 0.5-1 mm. long. 

4. Perigynia deltoid; spikes 4-6; anthers 1-2 mm. long; swampy mead- 
ows C. sterilis Willd. 

4. Perigynia ellipsoid; spikes 2-3, widely spreading at maturity; anthers 

0.7-0.9 mm. long; damp soil. [C scirpotdes Schk., ex p.} 

C. interior Bailey 

1. Perigynia thin- or wing-margined. 
5. Perigynia 1-2 mm. wide. 
6. Leaves 4-8 mm. wide. 
7. Perigynia 4-5 mm. long. 

8. Tips of the perigynia appressed; inflorescence compact, stiff; mead- 
ows and ditches, comm.on. [C. tribtiloides var. sangamonensis 
Clokey] C. trthuloides Wahl. 

8. Tips of the perigynia spreading; inflorescence fiexuous, nodding; 

moist ground. [C. tribuloides var. reducta Bailey] 

C. projecta Mack. 

7. Perigynia 3-4 mm. long. 

9. Margins of the perigynium abruptly contracted near the of 

the beak; meadows and thickets, chiefly in the n. half of the 

state. [C. cristata Schw., non Clairv.] C. cristatella Britt. 

9. Margins uniform, not at all contracted. 

10. Inflorescence moniliform; body of the perigynium suborbicular; 

woods and roadsides C. jestucacca Schk. 

10. Inflorescence an elongated (2.5-5 cm.) interrupted head; body 
of the perigynium oval; woods, common. [C. mirabilis 

Dewey, non Host} C. normally Mack. 

6. Leaves 0.5-4 mm. wide. 
11. Perigynia lanceolate. 

12. Perigynia 7-10 mm. long, bidentate at apex, longer than the 
glumes, appressed, straw-colored, flattened, the translucent 

margins finely serrulate; wet ground in woods 

C. mushngumensis Schw. 

12. Perigynia 4.5-6 mm. long. 

13. Plants strongly stoloniferous, the stems arising from an 
elongated rhizome; sandy soil, rare; Kankakee, Hill; Peoria 

Brcndel C siccata Dewey 

13. Plants not stoloniferous, the stems tufted; marshes and wet 

meadows, common C. scoparia Schk. 

1 1 . Perigynia oval or lance-ovate to obovate. 

14. Perigynia lance-ovate, widest near the middle or base. 

15. Perigynia 3-3.5 mm. long; spikes closely aggregated, not 

clavate at base; marshes and ditches, n. Ill 

C bebbii Olney 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 23. Cyperaceae 79 

15. Perigynia 3.5-4.5 mm. long; spikes clavate at base, not aggre- 
gated, usually in a flexuous, moniliform inflorescence; 

open woods [C. straminea of auth., not Willd.} 

C. teuera Dewey 

14. Perigynia rhombic-ovate to suborbicular, widest above the 
middle; open woods, rare [C. straminea sensu Mack., non 
Willd.] C. absolutescens Schw. 

5. Perigynia 2.3-4 mm. wide. 

16. Glumes aristate; perigynia obovate, 4-5 mm. long; swamps, rare, n.e. 
Ill C. alata T. & G. 

16. Glumes acute to obtusish; perigynia oval or ovate. 
17. Perigynia flat, thin, translucent. 

18. Perigynia 5.5-6.5 mm. long, 3-4 mm. wide; leaf-sheaths hya- 
line; dry soil in the n. half of the state C. bicknellii Britt. 

18. Perigynia 4-5 mm. long, 2.5-7 mm. wide; leaf-sheaths green; 

wet ground in the n. part of III., rare 

C. suberecta (Olney) Britt. 

17. Perigynia thick, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, plano-convex. 

19. Body of the perigynium ovate, broadest near the base, tapering 

into the beak; in woods and along ditches, not common 

C. molesta Mack. 

19. Body of the perigynium broadly ovate to suborbicular, abruptly 

contracted into the beak; open woods and roadsides 

C. brevior (Dewey) Mack. 

Group III 

Stigmas 2; achenes lenticular; perigynia beakless or short-beaked; spikes 
normally unisexual, i.e., the terminal spike commonly staminate, the lower 
spikes entirely or mostly pistillate. 

1. Perigynia obovoid or subglobose, beakless, yellowish or brownish, plump, 
nerved, about 2 mm. in length, longer than the obtuse, pale brown 

glumes; wet ground, n. Ill C. atirea Nutt. 

1. Perigynia compressed, short-beaked, the beak less than 0.5 mm. long. 
2. Glumes obtuse, approximately equalling the perigynia. 

3. Perigynium 2.7-3.2 mm. long, strongly flattened; stems strongly phyl- 
lopodic, the dried-up leaves of the previous year persistent; wet 
ground, n. Ill C. substricta (Kijkenth.) Mack. 

3. Perigynium 2.2-2.7 mm. long; stems aphyllopodic; leaves of the pre- 

vious year not persistent; swamps C. stricta Lam. 

2. Glumes acuminate or acute, longer than the perigynia; stems aphyl- 

4. Perigynia 2-2.5 mm. long, turgid; moist ground in woods 

C. haydenii Dewey 

4. Perigynia 1.5-1.7 mm. long, flattened; moist ground in woods 

C. emoryi Dewey 

80 American Midland Natliralist Monograph No. 2 

Group IV 

Spike solitary, terminal, small, few- flowered, androgynous; perigynia gla- 
brous; stigmas three; achenes trigonal. 

1. Perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm. long, beakless, ellipsoid; leaves 0.5-1.5 mm. wide; 
glumes obtuse; bogs and wet meadows C. leptalea Wahl. 

1. Perigynia 5-6 mm. long, globose, with a roughened entire beak 3 mm. long; 

leaves 2-3 mm. wide; glumes aristate, foliaceous; dry woods 

C. jamesii T. & G. 

Group V 

Stigmas three; achenes trigonal; spikes two or more; perigynia glabrous, the 
beak (if present) small, entire, emarginate, or bidentulate. the short teeth (if 
present) soft and thin. 

1. Leaves 1-3 cm. wide; beak of the perigynium abruptly bent. 
2. Perigynia sharply triangular, closely 30-50 nerved. 

3. Perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm. long; cauline sheaths blade-btaring, green; open 

woods, not common C. platyphylla Carey 

3. Perigynia 4-5 mm. long; cauline sheaths bladeless, ted-tinged; woods, 

rare C. plantaginea Lam. 

2. Perigynia obtusely triangular, tapering at the base, 3-4 mm. long, finely 
nerved; woods, not uncommon C. albursitia Sheldon 

1. Leaves usually less than 1 cm. wide. 

4. Leaves capillary, 0.5 mm. wide; perigynia 2 mm. long, minutely straight- 
beaked or beakless; glumes obtuse; rocky soil, or sandy thickets in the 

n. half of 111., rare C. eburnea Boott 

4. Leaves 1-9 mm. wide. 

5. Perigynium beakless, or the straight beak not more than 0.5 nim. long. 

6. Mature perigynia conspicuously nerved or ribbed. 
7. Spikes drooping on slender peduncles. 

8. Lateral spikes 3-6, linear-cylindrical, 2-3 mm. thick; perigynia 
twice the length of the obtuse glumes; leaves 3-7 mm. wide; 
moist woods and meadows, common C. graciUiina Schw. 

8. Lateral spikes 1-2, ellipsoid, 5-8 mm. thick; perigynia nearly 

equalling the acute or mucronate glumes; bogs, Peoria and 
Tazewell counties, Brendel C. limosa L. 

7. Spikes ascending or erect. 

9. Terminal spike gynecandrous; leaves and base of stem more or 

less pubescent. 

10. Perigynia beakless, 2-3.5 mm. long; leaves 1.5-4 mm. wide. 

11. Perigynia 2-2.3 mm. long, ellipsoid, appressed or ascend- 
ing, somewhat longer than or about equalling the 
glumes; dry woods and meadows throughout 111. [C. 

triceps sensu auth., not Michx., or Schrank] 

C. hirsutella Mack. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 23. Cyperaceae 81 

ll.Perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm. long, obovoid, squarrose-spreading, 

shorter than the glumes; meadows, s. Ill 

C. bushii Mack. 

10. Perigynia 4-6 mm. long, ellipsoid, ascending, the beak short, 
bidentulate; glumes awned, hyaline-margined; leaves 3-8 
mm. wide; roadside ditches and alluvial soil in woods, fre- 
quent C. davisii Schw. 8C Torr. 

9. Terminal spike staminate. 

12. Perigynia tapering at the base, triangular in cross-section. 
13. Pistillate glumes mucronate or awned; stems phyllopodic; 
stolons deep-seated; plants of open marly or sandy soil. 
14. Pistillate spikes cylindrical, 3-4.5 mm. thick; sandy 

soil C. tetanxa Schk. 

14. Pistillate spikes ellipsoid, 5-8 mm. thick; meadows 

and prairies C meadii Dewey 

13. Pistillate glumes obtuse; pistillate spikes 3-4 mm. thick; 
stems aphyllopodic; stolons superficial; woodland 

plants C. woodii Dewey 

12. Perigynia rounded at the base, nearly terete in cross-section. 
15. Pistillate glumes mucronate or awned. 

16. Leaves 5-10 mm. wide; perigynia 2-2.5 mm. long; 

plants cespitose; alluvial soil, n.e. Ill 

C. haleana Olney 

16. Leaves 1.5-3 mm. wide; perigynia 3-3.5 mm. long; 

plants stoloniferous; sandy flats, n.e. 111., rare 

C. crawei Dewey 

15. Pistillate glumes acute; leaves 3-9 mm. wide; perigynia 
2-3.5 mm. long; moist meadows and woods, common 

C. gramdar'is Muhl. 

6. Mature perigynia faintly impressed-nerved or nerveless; spikes erect 
or ascending. 
17. Terminal spike staminate; pistillate glumes mucronate or awned. 
18. Sheaths and lower blades pubescent; perigynia 2.5 3 mm. 

long; moist ground, rare. "N. 111.," Vasey 

C. pallescens L. 

18. Plants glabrous; perigynia 3.5-5.5 mm. long. 

19. Perigynia 1.5 mm. wide; bract-sheaths with serrulate mar- 
gins; peduncles of the pistillate spikes scabrous; mead- 
ows and ditches, not common C. conoidsa Schk. 

19. Perigynia 2-2.5 mm. wide; bract-sheaths and peduncles 

smooth or nearly so. 

20. Pistillate spikes 3-12-flowered; leaves thin, soft, not 


21. Perigynia 4.5-5.5 mm. long; awn of the pistillate 

glumes minutely serrulate; stems brownish at 

base; leaves 4-8 mm. wide; woods, thickets, and 

meadows, common C. grisea Wahl. 

82 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

21. Perigynia 3.5-4.5 mm. long; awn of the pistillate 
glumes smooth; stems reddish at base; leaves 2-4 
mm. wide; dry banks and wooded hillsides, rare; 
Stark Co., V. H. Chase C. amphibola Steud. 

20. Pistillate spikes 12-35-flowered; leaves strongly glau- 
cous, thick, firm; awn of the pistillate glumes 

smooth; open woods, and roadsides, local 

C. glaucodea Tuckerm. 

17. Terminal spike gynecandrous. 

22. Perigynia elliptical, light green, granular, much shorter than 
the purplish black cuspidate glumes; leaves 1.5-4 mm. 

wide; plants stoloniferous, growing in bogs, n. Ill 

C. biixbaumti Wahl. 

22. Perigynia obovate-orbicular, slightly wrinkled, about equalling 
the reddish brown acute or obtuse glumes; leaves 4-9 mm. 
wide; plants cespitose, growing in moist woods, thickets, 
and roadside ditches, common C. shortiana Dewey 

5. Beak of the perigynium curved, or if straight 0.7-1 mm. long; glumes 
mucronate or aristate. 
23. Beak oblique or abruptly curved, 0.3-0.5 mm. long. 

24. Stems purplish tinged at base; lower pistillate spikes en long 
capillary peduncles; perigynia 2.5-3.2 mm. long; woods, not 

uncommon. [C. laxiflora var. gracillima Boott} 

- C. gracilescejis Steud. 

24. Stems brownish at base; lower pistillate spikes short-peduncled; 

perigynia 3-4 mm. long, woods, common. [C. laxiflora var. 
blanda (Dewey) Boott] C. blanda Dewey 

23. Beak straight, 0.7-1 mm. long; perigynia 40-50-nerved. 

25. Sheaths pubescent; perigynia 4-5 mm. long; leaves 3-7 mm. 

wide; wooded hillsides, rare; near Peoria, Brendcl, McDonald; 
Stark Co., V . H. Chase C. hitchcockiana Dewey 

25. Sheaths glabrous; perigynia 3-4 mm. long; leaves 2-4.5 mm. wide; 
dry woods in tbe n. half of the state C. oligocarpa Schk. 

Group VI 

Stigmas three; achenes trigonal; spikes two or more; perigynia glabrous, 
the beak sharply bidentate. 

1 . Staminate spike solitary or none; sometimes th'e terminal spike bearing some 
pistillate flowers. 

2. Mature perigynia 1-2 cm. long. 

3. Pistillate spikes globose, the ellipsoid perigynia widely radiate-sp-ead- 
ing; beak of the perigynium 1.5-2.5 mm. long; moist woods, common 
C. grayii Carey 

3. Pistillate spikes ellipsoid to cylindrical, the ovoid-lanceoloid perigynia 
ascending; beak of the perigynium 5-10 mm. long. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 23. Cyperaceae 83 

4. Leaves 3-5 mm. wide; perigynia 10-12 mm. long, the beak smooth, 
not serrulate; pistillate spikes subglobose-ellipsoid, 2-3.5 cm. long; 
staminate spike 2-2.5 mm. wide; stems solitary or few from elon- 
gate rhizomes; achenes longer than wide, the angles not promi- 
nently thickened; wet ground in woods, s. 111. [C. halei sensu 
Carey, non Dewey] C. louisianica Bailey 

4. Leaves 5-15 mm. wide; perigynia 13-20 mm. long; pistillate spikes 
ellipsoid-cylindrical, 2-8 cm. long; staminate spike 3-5 mm. wide; 
stems cespitose. 

5. Beak of the perigynium serrulate; achenes longer than wide, the 
angles not thickened; swamps, common C. lupuUna Muhl. 

5. Beak of the perigynium smooth; achenes as wide as long, the an- 
gles prominently thickened; wet ground, local 

C. lupuliformis Sartw. 

2. Mature perigynia not more than 1 cm. long. 

6. Leaves involute-filiform; pistillate spikes 1 or 2, sessile, globose, few- 
flowered; perigynia ovoid, turgid, glossy, 4-7 mm. long, nearly twice 

the length of the obtuse glumes; bogs. Lake Co. Htll in 1908 

C. oligosperma Michx. 

6. Leaves flat. 

7. Perigynia obovoid, 4-5 mm. long, truncate above and abruptly subu- 
late-beaked; terminal spike often mostly pistillate. 

8. Perigynia shorter than the serrulate, linear-subulate glumes; ditches 

and swamps, extending northw. to McLean Co 

C. frankii Kunth 

8. Perigynia much longer than the glumes. 

9. Perigynia squarrose; glumes acute to mucronate; style strongly 
curved near the ovary; swampy ground and roadside ditches, 
common C. squarrosa L. 

9. Perigynia ascending; glumes obtusish or acutish; style straight 
throughout; swamps and roadside ditches, chiefly in the s. 
half of III., but extending northw. to Macon Co. [C. typhi- 
noides Schw.} C. typhina Michx. 

7. Perigynia lanceoloid, ellipsoid, or ovoid, more or less tapering into 
the beak. 

10. Glumes with a serrulate awn. 

11. Perigynia lanceoloid, strongly ribbed, soon reflexed. 

12. Teeth of the perigynium erect or slightly spreading, 0.5- 
1 mm. long; perigynium 4-5 mm. long, the beak shorter 
than the body; bogs and swamps, Kane and Du Page 
counties C. pseudocyperus L. 

12. Teeth strongly divergent, 1-2 mm. long; perigynium 5-7 
mm. long, the beak equalling or exceeding the body; 

swamps and ditches C. comosa Boott 

11. Perigynia ellipsoid or ovoid, often inflated, 5-9 mm. long. 

84 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

13. Perigynia 15-20-nerve(d, 1.5-2 mm. thick, the beak 2 mm. 
long; wet ground, common; chiefly in the n. half of the 
state C. hystricina Muhl. 

13. Perigynia 8-10-nerved, 2.5-3 mm. thick, the beak 3-4 mm. 

long; swamps, wet meadows, and ditches, common 

C. lurida Wahl. 

10. Glumes not serrulate. 

14. Beak of the perigynium 0.5-1 mm. long, minutely bidentate; 
perigynia ellipsoid, 2-3.5 mm. long; lake shores and river 
banks, n.e. 111. [C. oedert var. pumda (Coss. & Germ.) 
Fern.] C. viridula Michx. 

14. Beak of the perigynium 2-2.5 mm. long, equalling or exceed- 
ing the body. 
15. Pistillate spikes erect, sessile; perigynia spreading or re- 
flexed, 2-3 times as long as the glumes; beak of the 

perigynium sparsely serrulate; wet meadows, n.e. Ill 

C. viridula Michx. 

15. Pistillate spikes pendulous on slender peduncles; perigynia 
spreading-ascending, about as long as the glumes; beak 
smooth; alluvial soil in the n. half of the state. [C. 

longirostris sensu Torr., non Krock} 

C. sprengeln Dewey 

1. Staminate spikes two or more; perigynia ovoid or ovoid-lanceoloid, usually 
more or less inflated. 
16. Teeth of the perigynium short, not more than 0.5 mm. long. 

17. Perigynia fusiform or narrowly ellipsoid, short-beaked, the beak not 
more than 1 mm. long. 

18. Perigynia strongly nerved; swamps and ditches 

C. lacustris Willd. 

18. Perigynia impressed-nerved; ditches, and wet ground in woods... 
C. hyaltnolepis Steud. 

17. Perigynia ovoid-lanceoloid, inflated, papery, strongly nerved; beak 

2-3.5 mm. long; swampy ground, local C. retrorsa Schw. 

16. Teeth of the perigynium 0.5-2 mm. long. 

19. Perigynium 5-6.5 mm. wide, 7-10 mm. long, the teeth 0.5-1 mm. 
long; wet ground in woods; Lake Forest, Vasey; Cook Co., Gates 
C. tucker mam Dewey 

19. Perigynium 2-3.5 mm. wide. 

20. Teeth 1-2 mm. long; marshy ground C. laevicotiica Dewey 

20. Teeth 0.5-1 mm. long. 

21. Lower perigynia refle.xed or widely spreading; stems scattered, 
obtusely angled; plants stoloniferous; leaves 4-12 mm. wide; 

ditches and shores, n. Ill C. rostrata Stokes 

21. Perigynia ascending; stems cespitose, sharply angled; leaves 
3-5 mm. wide; swamps, and wet ground in woods, chiefly in 
the n. half of the state C vesicaria L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 23. Cyperaceae 85 

Group VII 

Perigynia more or less pubescent or puberulent (sometimes only slightly 
so); stigmas 3; achenes trigonal. 

1. Perigynium beakless, or the beak less than 0.4 mm. long. 

2. Terminal spike staminate throughout; perigynia 2.5-3 mm. long. 

3. Perigynia ellipsoid, 3-12 in a spike, longer than, or equalling the 
glumes; leaves 2.5-5 mm. wide; woods and thickets in the n. half of 
111 C. digitalis Willd. 

3. Perigynia obovoid, 10-25 in a spike, shorter than the obtuse, purple, 

hyaline-margined glumes; leaves 2-2.5 mm. wide; dry, rocky soil 

C. ricbardsonii R. Br. 

2. Terminal spike with some pistillate flowers. 

4. Perigynia 3.5-4.5 mm. long; dry woods C. pedunculata Muhl. 

4. Perigynia 2-2.5 mm. long. 

5. Stems usually shorter than the leaves; pistillate spikes ellipsoid; 

perigynia obovoid; woods and roadsides, not common 

C. swanii (Fern.) Mack. 

5. Stems usually longer than the leaves; pistillate spikes cylindrical; 

perigynia ellipsoid; woods, n.e. Ill C. virescens Muhl. 

1. Beak of the perigynium 0.4-2 mm. long; terminal spike (or spikes) wholly 
6. Mature perigynia 12-18 mm. long; leaves 5-15 mm. wide; moist woods, 

comm^on C. grayii Carey 

6. Perigynia shorter. 

7. Perigynia 9-10 mm. long; leaves 3-8 mm. wide; wet meadows 

C. trichocarpa Muhl. 

7. Perigynia 2.5-5 mm. long. 

8. Some, or all, of the spikes half hidden among the tufted leaf-bases; 
plants densely tufted, 5-15 cm. tall; pistillate spikes 5-10 mm. 
long; perigynia plump, stipitate, 2-keeled, 2.5-3.5 mm. long; dry 

sandy or gravelly soil, chiefly in the n. half of the state 

C. umbellata Schk. 

8. All the spikes near the summit of the stem. 

9. Leaves pubescent; woods, common. [C. pubescens sensu Muhl., 
non Poir.} C. hntijolia Mack. 

9. Leaves glabrous. 

10. Pistillate spikes 3-12 mm. long. 

11. Staminate spike stout, 2-4 mm. thick; body of the perigyn- 
ium suborbicular, about as long as wide; plants strongly 
stoloniferous, the stolons slender, reddish, fibrillose, scaly; 

dry open woods, common, flowering in early spring 

C. pennsylvanica Lam. 

1 1 . Staminate .spike 0.5-2 mm. thick; body of the perigynium 
ellipsoid, longer than wide. 

86 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

12. Mature leaves 3-5 mm. wide; dry woods, in the n. part 

of the state, flowering in early spring 

C. communis Bailey 

12. Mature leaves 1-2.5 mm. wide; dry woods, flowering in 
early spring. [C. yaria of Muhl., not Lumn., or 

Host] C. artitecta Mack. 

10. Pistillate spikes 1-7 cm. long. 

13. Leaves involute, 1-2 mm. wide; swamps and bogs, n. III. 

C. lasiocarpa Ehrh. 

13. Leaves flat, 2-6 mm. wide. 

14. Perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm. long, the beak 1 mm. long; pistil- 
late spikes 5-8 mm. thick; style straight, jointed with 
the achene; swamps, chiefly in the n. and centr. parts 

of the state C. lanuginosa Michx. 

14. Perigynium 5 mm. long, the beak 1.5 mm. long; pistil- 
late spikes 8-12 mm. thick; style flexuous, continuous 
with the achene; ditches and moist woods; Macon 

Co., Clokey 2338 (type collection) 

C. subimpressa Clokey 

24. Araceae Necker — Arum Family 

1. Leases with 3-1 I leaflets; spathe conspicuous, convolute at least below, enveloping 
the cylindrical or slightly flattened spadix which is flower-bearing near the base; 

flowers monoecious or dioecious, without perianth; plant cormose 1. Arisaema 

1. Leaves simple, or absent at flowering time. 

2. Leaves sagittate or cordate, or absent; spadix terminal. 

3. Spathe ovoid, fleshy, greenish or yellowish, purple-mottled; spadix globose, cov- 
ered by the perfect flowers; perianth of 4 hooded sepals; leaves appearing 
later, large, ovate, cordate; plant with a very fetid odor 2. Syimplocarpiis 

3. Spathe narrow, elongate, convolute, green; spadix cylindrical, bearing sfaminate 

flowers above and pistillate below; perianth none; leaves sagittate... .3. PeZ/a/n/ra 

2. Leaves linear, erect, equitanl; spathe merely a foliaceous prolongation of the scape; 

spadix cylindrical, borne laterally on the leaf-like, 3-angled scape; perianth with 

6 membranous concave divisions; rhizomes and leaves aromatic 4. Acorus 

1. Arisaema Mart. 
1. Leaflets 3; spadix terete, club-shaped, obtuse, overarched by the green or 
purpled-striped spathe; moist woods, common. Apr.-May. Jack-in-the- 

Pulpit. Indian Turnip. [A. triphyllum sensu auth., not Schott} 

A . atrorubens (Ait.) Blume 

1. Leaflets 7-11; spadix slender, projecting beyond the green spathe; moist 
woods, common. May-June. Green Dragon. Dragonroot [Mur'tcauda 
dracontium (L.) Small} A. dracontium (L.) Schott 

2. Symplocarpus Salisb. — Skunk-cabbage 
{Spalhyema Raf.) 
S. joetidus (L.) Nutt. Swamps, local; chiefly in n.e. and centr. 111., ex- 
tending southw. to Jasper Co.; apparently absent from the w. and s. counties 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 25. Lemnaceae 87 

3. Peltandra Raf. 

P. virginica (L.) Kunth. Muddy margins of ditches or ponds, or in shal- 
low water, or swamps, local; extending northw. to Kankakee and Peoria coun- 
ties. May-June. 

4. AcoRUS L. — Sweetflag 
A. calamus L. Swamps, or wet ground along streams, local. June-Aug. 

25. Lemnaceae Dumort. — Duckweed Family 

1 . Plants with roots. 

2. Root solitary, without vascular tissue 1. Lemna 

2. Roots several, each with a vascular bundle 2. Spnodela 

1. Plants without roots, ellipsoid, minute 3. Wolffia 

1. Lemna L. — Duckweed 
L Plants paddle-shaped, 6-10 mm. long, remaining connected, wholly sub- 
merged; ponds and ditches, local L. trisulca L. 

L Plants oval or roundish, 2-5 mm. long, soon separating, floating. 
2. Plant-body symmetrical or nearly so. 

3. Plant round to oval, indistinctly 3-veined, dark green, biconvex; utricle 
lenticular; stagnant water and slow streams, local L. minor L. 

3. Plant elliptical, indistinctly 1 -veined, pale green, nearly flat; utricle 

elongate; stagnant water, rare L. minima Phil. 

2. Plant-body asymmetrical. 

4. Plant obliquely obovate, 3-veined, thick, papillose on the median line; 

ponds and streams, local L. perpusilla Torr. 

4. Plant elliptical, often somewhat falcate, obscurely 1 -veined, smooth; 

ponds and swamps, rare. [L. cyclostasa of auth.} 

L. valdiviana Phil. 

2. Spirodela Schleid. 
S. polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Plants roundish-obovate, 3-8 mm. long, floating. 
Ponds, ditches, slow streams, locally abundant. 

3. Wolffia Horkel 

{Brwuera Franch) 
1. Plants globose or ellipsoid, not flattened, 0.5-1 mm. long, loosely cellular, 
not punctate, floating somewhat beneath the surface; locally abundant in 

stagnant water W. columbiana Karst. 

1 . Plants flattened on the upper surface, brown-punctate, compactly cellular, 
floating at the surface of the water. 
2. Plants 1-1.5 mm. long, rounded-ovate, strongly gibbous, the upper surface 
with a central conical papilla; in permanent pools of stagnant water, rare. 

Wabash Co., Schneck. W. papulifera Thompson 

2. Plants 0.5-0.8 mm. long, ellipsoid, slight gibbous, symmetrical, the upper 
surface flat or slightly convex, gradually rising to the acute apex; stag- 
nant water, rare; Sangamon Co., E. Hall W. punctata Griseb. 

88 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

26. Eriocaulaceae Lindl. — Pipewort Family 

1. Eriocaulon L. — Pipewort 

E. septangulare With. Borders of ponds and lakes. Pepoon says ". . . 
from East Chicago eastward." Locally abundant in northern Indiana, but no 
Illinois specimens seen. 

27. Xyridaceae Lindl. — Yellow-eyed Grass Family 
L Xyris L. — Yellow-eyed Grass 

X. torta Sm. Moist sandy soil, not common. July-Aug. [X. flexuosa of 
auth., not Muhl.] 

28. Commelinaceae Reichenb. — Spiderwort Family 

1 . Petals equal; perfect stamens 6; filaments pubescent 1. Tradescaniia 

I. Petals more or less unequal; perfect stamens 3; filaments glabrous 2. Cornmelina 

I. Tradescantia L. — Spiderwort 

L Leaves lanceolate, L5-5 cm. broad, not glaucous; margins ciliolate; sepals 
sparsely pilose or glabrous; cymes axillary and terminal; stems 40-80 cm. 
tall; woods, common in the central and s. part of the state. June-Aug. [T. 

pilosa Lehm.} T. subaspera Ker 

L Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate; cymes terminal. 

2. Leaves glaucous; sepals glabrous, or pilose at the tip; petals 12-16 mm. 
long; stems usually 40-90 cm. tall; prairies, roadsides, open woods, 
common. May-Sept. [T. reflexa Raf.} T. canaliculcita Raf. 

2. Leaves not glaucous; petals 16-20 mm. long; stem 10-30 cm. tall. 

3. Sepals and pedicels pubescent with non-glandular hairs; petals blue; 

meadows, open woods, and thickets, common. May-June 

T. virginiana L. 

3. Sepals and pedicels copiously glandular-villous; petals rose; meadows, 
thickets, roadsides, not common; w. 111. June T. hracteata Small 

2. Commelina L. — Dayflower 

1. Plants perennial, native; stems erect or nearly so, not decumbent and root- 
ing at the nodes; margins of the spathe connate at base; seeds smooth, 
2. Leaves lanceolate; sheaths ciliate with long, ferruginous hairs; all three 
petals blue; wet woods, rare, s. 111. Union Co., Seymour in 1880. Aug.- 

Sept C virghiica L. 

2. Leaves linear-lanceolate; sheaths not ferruginous-ciliate; two posterior 
petals blue, the anterior stnall, white; sandy soil, chiefly in w. 111. July- 
Sept. [C. virginica of auth., not L.; C. crispa Woot.} C. crccta L. 

1. Plants annual, nat. from e. Asia; stems decumbent, often rooting at the 
lower nodes; margins of spathe not united; two posterior petals blue, the 
anterior small, white; leaves lanceolate; moist shaded ground, not uncom- 
mon. July-Oct C. communis L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 30. Juncaceae 89 

29. PoNTEDERlACEAE Dumort — Pickerelweed Family 

1. Flowers 2-lipped; stamens 6; leaves large, cordate to lanceolate; fruit a 1 -seeded 
utricle I . Poniederia 

1. Flowers regular, salverform; stamens 3; leaves either reniform or linear; fruit a 
many-seeded capsule 2. Heleranthera 

1. PoNTEDERiA L. — Pickerelweed 
P. cordata L. Margins of ponds and streams. June-Sept. 

2. Heteranthera R. & P. 

1. Leaves reniform; flowers white or pale blue; stamens unequal; shallow water 

or muddy shores, s. 111. Aug.-Sept. Mud-plantain 

H. reniformis R. & P. 

1. Leaves linear, grass-like; flowers yellow; stamens equal; shallow water or 

muddy shores. July-Sept. [H. graminea (Michx.) Vahl; Zosterella dubia 

(Jacq.) Small] Water-stargrass H. dubia (Jacq.) MacM. 

30. Juncaceae Vent. — Rush Family 

1. Capsule many-seeded, 1- or 3-loculed, with axial or parietal placentae; plants glabrous 
; 1. J uncus 

1 . Capsule 3-seeded, 1-loculed, with basal placentae; plants often sparsely pilose 

2. Luzula 

\. Juncus L. — Rush 

L Inflorescence appearing lateral, the involucral bract erect, terete, simulating 
a continuation of the stem; leaves reduced to sheaths. 
2. Stamens 3; perianth 2.5-3.5 mm. long; anthers shorter than the filaments; 

stems densely tufted; ditches and marshy ground. Common Rush 

/. effusus L. 

2. Stamens 6; perianth 5-6 mm. long; anthers much longer than the fila- 

ments; stems usually arising singly from the rhizome and growing in 
a row; shores and wet ground, n. 111. [/. balticus sensu auth., non 
Willd.} /. litorum Rydb. 

L Inflorescence terminal. 

3. Leaves flat (or involute), not septate. 

4. Flowers borne singly on the branches of the inflorescence, not in heads. 

5. Annual; stem branched, the inflorescence more than half the height 

of the plant; sandy soil, roadsides, or ditches; June-Oct. Toad 

Rush /. btifonius L. 

5. Perennials; inflorescence less than half the length of the plant. 

6. Capsule longer than the perianth, reddish or dark brown; leaves 
nearly terete. 
7. Seeds cylindrical, 1 mm. or more in length, with caudate appen- 
dages half as long as the body; damp shores, rare. July-Aug. 
Cook Co., Bebb /. vaseyi Engelm. 

7. Seeds ellipsoid, 0.5 mm. long, short-pointed or obtuse; sandy 
soil, rare, n.e. Ill /. greenei Oakes 5C Tuckerm. 

90 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

6. Capsule shorter than or equalHng the perianth, greenish or pale 

brown; leaves flat. 

8. Auricles at the summit of the sheaths thin, scarious, hyaline, 

conspicuously extended beyond the point of insertion; fields, 

roadsides, open woods, very common. May-Sept. [/. tejiuis 

sensu Am. auth., non Willd.} /. macer S. F. Gray 

8. Auricles not conspicuously extended beyond the point of in- 
9. Sheaths and auricles membranous, hyaline; perianth erect, 

3-4 mm. long; sandy soil. May-Aug /. interior Wieg. 

9. Sheaths and auricles cartilaginous, yellowish; perianth spread- 
ing, 4-5 mm. long; meadows, common. May-Aug 

/. dudleyt Wieg. 

4. Flowers in heads (glomerules) . 

10. Heads few (2-20) ; stamens not persistent; meadows or ditches, not 
common. June-Sept /. marginatus Rostk. 

10. Heads numerous (20-100); stamens persistent, exserted; wet sandy 
soil in the s. half of the state, not common. [/. aristtilatus sensu 

auth., non Michx.} /. b'lflorus Ell. 

3. Leaves terete, hollow, more or less septate. 
1 1 . Stamens 6; seeds not caudate. 

12. Involucral leaf longer than the short-branched inflorescence; fila- 
ments longer than the anthers. 
13. Heads 7-10 mm. in diameter; flowers 3-4 mm. long, the petals 
equalling or exceeding the sepals; wet ground, rare, n. III. 
July-Aug /. nodosus L. 

13. Heads 1-1.5 cm. in diameter; flowers 4-5 mm. long, the petals 

much shorter than the sepals; ditches, common. July-Aug. 

/. torreyi Coville 

12. Involucral leaf much shorter than the long-branched inflorescence; 
filaments about as long as the anthers. 

14. Branches of the inflorescence widely divergent; sepals acumi- 

nate; sandy shores, n.e. III. July-Aug /. articidatui L. 

14. Branches of the inflorescence erect or closely ascending; sepals 
obtuse or mucronate; wet soil, n.e. 111. July-Aug. [/. alpinus 

var. instgnis Fries] /. richardsonianus Schult. 

11. Stamens 3. 

15. Seeds caudate. 

16. Perianth 3-4 mm. long, the segments acuminate; heads 5-50- 
flowered; wet ground. Aug. -Oct /. canadensis J. Gay 

16. Perianth 2-2.5 mm. long, the segments obtuse; heads 3-5-flow- 

ered; wet ground. July-Sept 

/. brachycephalns (Engelm.) Buch. 

15. Seeds not caudate; perianth-segments acuminate. 

17. Capsule acuminate or subulate, longer than the perianth; heads 

2-30, each 15-40- flowered; perianth 2.5-3 mm. long; wet sandy 
soil. July-Sept /. scirpoides Lam. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 31. Liliaceae 91 

17. Capsule obtuse or merely acute at the apex, about equalling or 
shorter than the perianth. 
18. Capsule about two-thirds the length of the perianth; sepals 

longer than the petals; wet ground. June-Aug 

/. brachycarpus Engelm. 

18. Capsule about equalling the perianth; sepals and petals 
nearly equal. 
19. Heads 1-50; branches of the inflorescence ascending; 

perianth 3-3.5 mm. long; wet ground. May-Aug 

/. acuminatus Michx. 

19. Heads more numerous; branches of the inflorescence 
widely divergent; perianth 2-2.5 mm. long; swampy 
ground, not common. June-July. [/. robustus sensu 
auth., non Wats.] /. nodatus Coville 

2. LuzuLA DC. — Woodrush 

(Juncoides Adans.) 

1. Flowers solitary (rarely 2) at the tips of the slender ascending or loosely 
spreading peduncles; inflorescence an umbel; perianth 3-4.5 mm. long, 
pale brown, shorter than the capsule; wooded banks, rare. Starved Rock 
State Park, G. N. Jones & G. D. Fuller 15746 L. saltuensu Fern. 

1. Flowers subsessile, crowded in small head-like clusters. 

2. Rays of the inflorescence erect or ascending; perianth 2-3 mm. long; heads 
mostly cylindrical. 

3. Base of plant commonly with small corms; perianth about 2.5 mm. 
long, slightly shorter than the capsule; stem-leaves 2-4 mm. wide; 

sandy soil in open woods, rare. Apr. -May. Kankakee Co., Hill 

L. bulbosa (Wood) Rydb. 

3. Plant not cormose; perianth about 3 mm. long, slightly exceeding the 
capsule; stem-leaves 4-8 mm. wide; dry open woods, chiefly n.e. 111. 
Apr.-May L. multiflora (Ehrh.) Lej. 

2. Rays of the inflorescence strongly divergent, unequal; plant without 
corms; perianth 3-4 mm. long, much longer than the capsule; dry open 
woods, rare. Apr.-May L. echinata (Small) Hermann 

31. Liliaceae Adans. — Lily Family 

l.Stem leafy (bearing one or more leaves). 

2. Flowers large, 4-10 cm. long; leaves alternate or whorled; fruit a capsule 

9. Lilium 

2. Flowers smaller. 
3. Leaves whorled. 

4. Flowers several; leaves in usually two whorls, parallel-veined 18. Medeola 

4. Flower solitary; leaves in one whorl, net-veined 19. Trillium 

3. Leaves alternate. 

5. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary or few, or in umbels. 

6. Leaves reduced to scales with filiform short branchlets appearing like leaves 
about I cm. long in the axils; flowers axillary, small, greenish, nodding, 
on slender, jointed pedicels; berry red, I -seeded 13. Asparagus 

92 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

6. Leaves foliaceous. 

7. Flowers in axillary umbels, dioecious; leaves net-veined; fruit a berry 

20. Smilax 

7. Flowers not in umbels. 

8. Stem simple; perianth-segments united below the middle; flowers green- 
ish; fruit a berry 17. Polygonaium 

8. Stem forked above; perianth-segments free; flowers yellowish; fruit a 
capsule 1 6. Uviilaria 

5. Flowers in a termmal raceme or panicle. 
9. Leaves linear; styles 3, separate. 

10. Stem puberulent above; perianth-segments clawed, and (in our species) 
bearing a pair of glands; plants with a rhizome 4. Melanihium 

10. Stem glabrous; plants from a bulb. 

I 1 . Perianth-segments lanceolate, acuminate, glandless; panicle many- 
flowered 1 . Slenaidhiiim 

1 I . Perianth-segments bearing a large obcordate gland; raceme simple 
or sparingly branched, few-or several-flowered 2. Zigadenus 

9. Leaves not linear. 

12. Leaves 2 or 3, cordate at base; perianth-segments 4, white; stamens 4; 
fruit a berry 15. Maianthemum 

12. Leaves several, lanceolate; perianth-segments and stamens each 6. 

13. Flowers (in our species) greenish purple; styles 3; leaves strongly 

veined; fruit a capsule 5. Veratrum 

13. Flowers white; style short, single; fruit a berry 14. Smilacina 

1. Leaves all or mostly basal, or apparently so, rarely absent at flowering time; fruit 
a capsule. 
14. Flowers 6-12 cm. long, orange; perianth-segments united below; leaves linear.... 

8. Hemerocallis 

14. Flowers smaller, not orange. 

15. Flower solitary, nodding; leaves 2 (or 1); plants from deep-seated corms 

10. Ervthrouium 

15. Flowers several. 

16. Flowers in racemes. 

17. Flowers whitish, small; leaves equitant; inflorescence glandular; plants 
with a short rhizome 3. Toficldia 

17. Flowers lavendar (rarely white); leaves not equitant; plants glabrous, 

from a bulb I I. Camassia 

16. Flowers in a corymb or umbel; plants with bulbs. 

18. Flowers in a corymb, greenish white; filaments flattened at the base; 

midvein of leaves whitish 12. Ornithogalam 

18. Flowers m an umbel. 

19. Plants with the odor and taste of onions (alliaceous) ; flowers often 
replaced by bulblets; seeds 1 or 2 in each locule of the capsule 
6. AUhim 

19. Plants not alliaceous; seeds several in each locule 

7. Noihnscordum 

I. Stenanthium (Gray) Kunth 
S. graimneum (Ker) Morong. Woods, and moist ground along creeks, 
rare, s. 111.; extending nortliw. to Richland, Fayette, and Pike counties. June- 

2. Zigadenus Michx. — Death Camas 

Z.. glaucus Nutt. Bogs, n. 111., not common. July-Aug. [Z- chloranthus of 
auth., not Richards.; Z. elegans of auth., not Pursh]. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 31. Liliaceae 93 

3. ToFiELDiA Huds. — Asphodel 
T. glutinosa (Michx.) Pers. Bogs in Lake, McHenry, and Cook counties. 

4. Melanthium L. 

M. virginicum L. Bunchflower. Meadows, rare, w. and centr. III. June- 

5. Veratrum L. 

V. woodii Robbins. Moist wooded ravines, rare. July-Sept. Bear Creek, 
Hancock Co., S. B. Mead in 1843; Burton Creek, Adams Co., G. D. Fidler 
in 1944. 

6. Allium L. — Onion 

1. Leaves two, elliptical-lanceolate, 3-6 cm. wide, disappearing before flowering 
time; perianth-segments white, obtuse, 6-7 mm. long; filaments subulate, 
equalling the perianth; capsule strongly 3-lobed; woods in the n. half of 111. 
June-Aug. Wild Leek A. tricoccum Ait. 

1 . Leaves linear, terete or flat, less than 1 cm. wide, present at flowering time. 
2. Leaves terete, hollow; umbels bulblet-bearing; filaments dilated, the alter- 
nate ones with a tooth on each side; ovary not crested; meadows and 
fields. June-July; nat. from Eur. Field Garlic A. vineale L. 

2. Leaves flat or concave, not terete; filaments not dilated. 

3. Umbel erect, usually with bulblets; scape terete; stamens included; 
capsule not crested; meadows, roadsides, and woods, common. May- 
June. Wild Garlic A. canadense L. 

3. Umbel not bulblet-bearing; capsule 6-crested; stamens exserted. 
4. Umbel nodding in flower; scape angular; banks, n. 111. July-Sept. 

Nodding Onion A. cernuiim Roth 

4. Umbel erect; scape terete; rocky slopes, w. 111.; Union Co., Earle; 

Jo Daviess Co., Pepoon. July- Aug A. stellatum Ker 

7. NoTHOSCORDUM Kunth — False Garlic 

N. bivalve (L.) Britt. Meadows, rare; apparently absent from the n. half 
of the state. Apr.-May. \^Allium striatum Jacq.J 

8. Hemerocallis L. — Day Lily 
H. fulva L. Roadsides, common; nat. from Eurasia. June-July. 

9. Lilium L. — Lily 

1. Flowers erect; perianth segments with oval or lanceolate blades and a slender 
claw; leaves mostly alternate, linear, 2-7 mm. wide; dry open woods in 
the n. half of 111. June-July. [L. philadelphicum var. andinnm (Nutt.) 
Ker} L. umbellatum Pursh 

1 . Flowers nodding; perianth-segments oblanceolate, not clawed, recurved; 
leaves mostly whorled, elliptic-lanceolate, 1-2 cm. wide; moist woods, 
thickets, meadows. June-July [L. canadense and L. superbum of auth., 
not L.} L. michiganense Farw. 

94 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

10. Erythronium L. — Trout Lily 

1. Perianth yellow; style clavate, the stigmas erect, united; woods apparently 
absent from the w. part of 111. Apr. -May E. amertcanum Ker 

1. Perianth white or pale lavender; style 3-cleft, the recurved stigmas 1-3 mm. 
long; alluvial soil in woods, common. Apr E. albidum Nutt. 

11. Camassia Lindl. — Camas 

(Quamasia Raf.) 

C. scillioides (Raf.) Cory. Wild Hyacinth. Moist woods or meadows, 
[C. esculenta (Ker) B. L. Robins.; Q. hyacinthma (Raf.) Britt.}. 

12. Ornithogalum L. 

O. umbellattim L. Star-of-Bethlehem. Roadsides, edges of fields, locally 
abundant; escaped from cult.; nat. from Eur. Apr.-May. 

13. Asparagus L. 
A. officinalis L. Garden Asparagus. Roadsides and fields, common; introd. 
from Eur. May-June. 

14. Smilacina Desf. — False Solomon's-seal 

(Vagnera Adans.) 

1. Flowers numerous in a panicle; perianth-segments 1-2 mm. long; woods, 
common. May-June S. racemosa (L.) Desf. 

1. Flowers few in a raceme; perianth-segments 3-5 mm. long; woods, common. 
May-June S. stellata (L.) Desf. 

15. Maianthemum Wigg. 

M. canadense Desf. Moist woods, n. 111. May-June. Our plants belong to 
the var. interius Fern. 

16. Uvularia L. — Bellwort 

(Oalfcsia Wats.; Oal^esiclla Small) 

1. Leaves perfoliate, puberulent beneath; capsules obtusely 3-angled, rounded 

or retuse at the ape.x; moist woods, not uncommon. Apr.-May 

U. grandiflora Sm. 

1. Leaves sessile, glabrous; capsules sharply 3-angled, acutish at each end; 
woods, rare. Wabash Co., H. Shearer in 1900. [Oak^sia sessilifolia (L.) 
Wats.} U. sessilijolta L. 

17. Polygonatum Hill — Solomon's Seal 

1. Leaves puberulent on the veins beneath; peduncles commonly 2-flowered; 
flowers 9-12 mm. long; woods. May-June. [P. biflorum sensu auth., non 
(Walt.) Ell.} P. pubescens (Willd.) Pursh 

1. Leaves glabrous; peduncles commonly 2-5-flowered; flowers 15-18 mm. long; 
woods, and roadsides, common. May-June. [P. commutatum (R. & S.) 
Dietr.; P. giganteum Dietr.} P. biflorum (Walt.) Ell. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 31. Liliaceae 95 

18. Medeola L. 

M. virginiana L. Indian Cucumber-root. Wooded ravines, rare. Evanston, 
Cook Co., L. N. Johnson in 1889. 

19. Trillium L. 

1. Flowers sessile; petals purple. 

2. Leaves sessile; sepals not reflexed; moist woods, local. Apr.-May 

T. sessile L. 

2. Leaves short-petioled; sepals reflexed; woods, common. Apr.-May. Purple 

Trillium T. recurvatum Beck 

1. Flowers peduncled; petals white (or purple). 

3. Leaves sessile or essentially so; fruit 6- angled, winged. 

4. Petals 4-6 cm. long, obovate or oblanceolate; peduncle erect or ascend- 
ing; woods, e. and n.e. 111., rare. Apr.-May 

T. grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. 

4. Petals 2-4 cm. long, oval; peduncle usually horizontal or declined, rare- 
ly erect; woods, common. Apr.-May. [T. declinatum (Gray) Gleas- 
on, non Raf.] Occasional purple-flowered plants are sometimes mis- 
taken for the eastern T. erectum L T. gleasoni Fern. 

3. Leaves short-petioled; petals white, 1.5-3 cm. long; peduncle erect; fruit 3- 
lobed, not winged; wooded slopes, local; known from Stark, Peoria, 
Sangamon, Piatt, and Champaign counties. Mar. -Apr. Snow Trillium 
T. nivale Riddell 

20. Smilax L. 

{Nemexia Raf.) 

1. Stems woody, usually more or less prickly, at least on the lower part; ovules 
solitary in each locule of the ovary. 
2. Leaves glaucous on the lower surface, ovate; umbels 6- 12 -flowered; open 
woods and sandy soil, s. 111. May-June. Sawbrier S. glauca Walt. 

2. Leaves green on both surfaces. 

3. Leaves more or less contracted near the middle or 3-lobed, commonly 
deltoid-hastate, often spinulose on the margins and veins beneath; 
umbels 15-45-flowered; fruit mostly 1 -seeded; thickets, s. 111. May- 
June. Fringed Greenbrier S. bona-nox L. 

3. Leaves ovate, cordate, or roundish. 

4. Leaves thin; branchlets terete; prickles black, terete (upper branches 
often without prickles); peduncles longer than the petioles; fruit 
black, not glaucous, usually 1 -seeded; woods and thickets, com- 
mon. May-June. Common Greenbrier S. hisp:da Muhl. 

4. Leaves firm; branchlets angular; prickles flattened, green; peduncles 
shorter than the petioles; fruit glaucous, 2- or 3-seeded; dry woods, 
s. 111. May-June S. rotundifolia L. 

1. Plants herbaceous, not bristly or prickly; ovules two in each locule. 

5. Leaves puberulent and green beneath; stem climbing; fruit black; wooded 
slopes, s. 111. May S. pulverulenta Michx. 

96 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

5. Leaves glaucous beneath; fruit bluish, glaucous, 2-5-sceded. 

6. Stem climbing, 1-3 m. long; tendrils present; umbels 25-100-flo\vered; 
peduncles in the axils of leaves; woods, common. May-June. [S. her- 
bacea vat. lasioneuron (Hook.) A. DC; S. herbacea sensu auth., not 
L.] Carrion Flower S. lasioneuron Hook. 

6. Stem erect, 40 60 cm. tall; tendrils usually absent; umbels with fewer 
than 25 flowers; peduncle in the axil of a bract below the leaves; 

moist woods, locally throughout III., except the s. counties. May 

S. ecirrhata (Engelm.) Wats. 

32. DioscoREACEAE Lindl. — Yam Family 
1. DioscoREA L. — Yam 

1. Petioles glabrous or nearly so at the insertion of the blade; mature capsules 
1.5-2.3 cm. long; all the leaves alternate (or the three lowest close to- 
gether or indefinitely whorled); blades glabrous or puberulent beneath; 
seeds (exclusive of the wing) 3-4.5 mm. broad; rhizome mostly 5-8 mm. 
thick (when dry), simple, or rarely branched; thickets or open woods, 
common. May-July [D. paniculata Michx.] D. vUlosa L. 

1. Petioles puberulent at the insertion of the blade; mature capsules 2.5-3 cm. 
long; lower leaves in whorls of 4-9 (usually 6) ; lower surface of blades 
glabrous or puberulent, glaucous or green; seeds (exclusive of the wing) 
5 6.5 mm. broad; rhizome stout, irregularly knotted, 1-1.5 cm. thick; 

woods, s. 111., not common. May-June. [D. glauca Muhl.} 

D. quaternata (Walt.) Gmel. 

33. Amaryllidaceae Lindl. — Amaryllis Family 

I. Bulbous herbs; flowers umbellate, on a solid scape; perianth white, the segments 

united below mto a cylindrical tube I. hfymenocallis 

I . Plants not bulbous. 

2. Flowers in a long spike or spike-like raceme; leaves basal. 

3. Perianth greenish yellow; leaves thick, succulent; anthers versatile; ovary wholly 

inferior 2. Agave 

3. Perianth white (in our species) ; leaves thin, flat, lanceolate; anthers not versatile; 

ovary half inferior 3. Alelris 

2. Flowers solitary or subumbellate, bright yellow; low mostly pubescent herbs with 
grass- like leaves 4. Hvpoxis 

1. Hymenocallis Salisb. 

H. occidentalis (Le Conte) Kunth. Spider Lily. Stream-banks, rare, "s. 
111.," M. Craig in 1890. 

2. Agave L. — American Aloe 
A. virginicd L. Sandy soil, s. 111. June-Aug. [Manjrcda rirginica (L.) 

3. Aletris L. — Colic-root 

A. jarinosa L. Sandy woods, Kankakee, Cook, and Lake counties, rare. 

4. Hypoxis L. — Star-grass 

H. hirsuta (L.) Coville. Meadows, sandy soil, open woods, common. Apr.- 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 34. Iridaceae 97 

34. Iridaceae Lindl. — Iris Family 

1. Leaves more than 1 cm. wide; flowers large; plants with rhizomes. 

2. Flowers blue or reddish; seeds flattened or angular; style-branches broad, petal-like, 
opposite the anthers 1 . Iris 

2. Flowers orange, mottled with purple; seeds globose, black, shining, succulent; style- 
branches filiform, alternate with the anthers 2. Belamcanda 

I. Leaves less than 7 mm. wide; flowers small; plants without rhizomes....3. Sis^rinchium 

1. Iris L. — Iris 

1. Flowers blue, variegated with yiellow and white. 

2. Leaves somewhat glaucous; sepals 5-8 cm. long; capsule obscurely 3- 
lobed, L5 cm. thick; ditches, wet meadows, moist woods, banks of 
streams, ponds, and sloughs, common. May-June. [/. versicolor sensu 
auth. ex p., non L.} /. shrevei Small 

2. Leaves green, not glaucous; sepals 8-10 cm. long; capsule strongly 6- 
angled, 2 cm. thick; meadows, swamps, and borders of woods, s. 111. 
May-June. [/. foliosa Mack. 8c Bush; /. hexagona sensu auth., non 
Walt.] /. brevicaulis Raf. 

L Flowers dull reddish brown, variegated with blue and green; leaves pale 
green and somewhat glaucous; sepals 3-5 cm. long; swamps, s. 111., rare. 
May 7. fuha Ker 

2. Belamcanda Adans. 

(Cemmingia Fabr.) 

B. chinensh (L.) DC. Blackberry-lily. Roadsides and banks, chiefly s. III., 
escaped from cult.; native of Asia. June- July. 

3. SiSYRlNCHlUM L. — Blue-eyed grass 

\. Spathes and flowers arising directly from apex of stem; leaves and stem 
glaucous, 1-2 mm. broad, the margins entire. 

2. Spathes usually 2, with a single outer leaf-like bract; margins of the outer 
bract free to the base; perianth usually white, or sometimes purple; 
capsules 3-4 mm. long, straw-colored; meadows and prairies, common. 
May-June S. albidum Raf. 

2. Spathe solitary; outer bract with the edges united 3-5 mm. above the 

base; perianth bluish purple; capsules 4-6 mm. long, dark brown; 
prairies, n. e. 111. May-June S. augustifoliiim Mill. 

1. Spathes peduncled from the axil of a leaf-like bract; leaves and stems dark 
green, glossy, 2-6 mm. broad, the margins usually minutely serrulate; 
perianth bluish purple; capsules 4-6 mm. long. 

3. Leaves and stems dark green, not glaucous; stem broadly winged, almost 

straight; inner bract of spathe 1.5-3 cm. long; moist meadows. May- 
June. \_S. gramineiim Curtis, not Lam.} S. graminoides Bickn. 

3. Leaves and stems glaucous; stem narrowly margined, curved or flexuous; 
inner bract of spathe 1-1.5 cm. long; sandy soil, local; Kankakee Co., 
R. A. Schneider. May-June S. atlanticum Bickn. 

98 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

35. Burmanniaceae Blume — Burmannia Family 

1. Thismia Griff. 

T. americana N. E. Pfeiff. "Chicago, 111., in open prairie," N. E. Pjeiffer. 
Known only from the original collection; type, herb. Field Mus.; isotype, herb. 
Univ. of III. Discovered in Aug. 1912; now probably extinct. [^Sarco siphon 
americanns Schlecht.j. 

36. Orchidaceae Lindl. — Orchid Family 

1 . Lip large, inflated, moccasin-shaped; leaves plaited; fertile anthers 2....1. C])pripedium 
1 . Lip concave or flat, not moccasin-shaped; fertile anther 1. 
2. Plants with ordinary green foliage at flowering time. 

3. Flowers distinctly spurred, the spur 2 mm. or more in length. 

4. Flowers bicolored, the lip white and the sepals and petals purple; leaves 2, 
basal, oval 2. Orchis 

4. Flowers concolored 3. Habenana 

3. Flowers spurless. 

5. Flowers large (more than 1 cm. broad), solitary or few. 

6. Leaves grass-like; flowers several, racemose, pink-purple 4. Calopogon 

6. Leaves not grass-like. 

7. Flowers axillary; lip not crested 5. Tnphora 

7. Flowers terminal, solitary or few; lip fringed and crested 6. Pogonia 

5. Flowers smaller, several to many, in spikes or racemes. 

8. Flowers sessile or nearly so, spicate, white or greenish white. 

9. Spike more or less twisted spirally; leaves alternate, not variegated, often 
soon withering 7. Spiranihes 

9. Spike not spiral; leaves basal, often whitish-variegated 8. Coodviera 

8. Flowers distinctly pedicelled, racemose, greenish or purplish. 

10. Leaf solitary near the middle of the stem, ovate or oval, clasping; 

flowers many, greenish, 2-3 mm. long 9. Malaxis 

10. Leaves two, basal; flowers few 10. Liparis 

2. Plants with leaves absent at least at flowering time (or with a single basal withered 
one persisting). 

1 1 . Inflorescence a spirally twisted spike; flowers white or greenish white 

7. Spiranthes 

1 I . Inflorescence not spirally twisted. 

12. Stem bulbous at base, with one basal, oval green leaf usually withering by 

flowering time.. I 1 . Aplectrum 

12. Plant lacking chlorophyll; rhizomes coral-like; leaves reduced to scales 
12. Corallorrhiza 

1. Cypripedium L. — Lady's Slipper 

L Sepals oval, not twisted, shorter than the white lip, which is 3-4 cm. long, 
tinged with purple; wet woods or springy places, rare. Peoria Co., Brendel; 
Lake Co., Gates. June-July. Showy Lady's Slipper. [C hirsutum sensu 
auth., haud Mill.; C. spcctabile Salisb.} C. reginae Walt. 

L Sepals lanceolate, attenuate, twisted, equalling or exceeding the lip. 

2. Lip white, 2-2.5 cm. long, purple-veined inside; sepals and petals greenish 
yellow, purple-lined; bogs, swamps, or wet ground on "original prairie," 
very rare. May-June. White Lady's Slipper C. candidiim Muhl. 

2. Lip yellow, 2-5 cm. long; wooded hillsides or in ravines, or bogs, rare. 
May-June. Yellow Lady's Slipper. [C. pubescens Willd.; C. hirsutum 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 36. Orchidaceae 99 

of auth., not Mill.; C. parviflorum var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight} ..-. 
C. parviflorum Salisb. 

X C. andrewsii Fuller (C. candidumyC^parviflorum) , with cream-colored 
lip 2-2.5 cm. long, and purple sepals and petals, has been collected near Spring 
Bay, Woodford Co., V. H. Chase 4024. 

2. Orchis L. 

O. spectabilis L. Showy Orchis. Woods, rare. May-June. [Gakorchis spec- 
tabiiis (L.) Rydb.} 

3. Habenaria Willd. 

(Perularia Lindl.; Platanthera Rich.; Coeloglossum Hartm. ; Denslovia 
Rydb.; Limnorchis Rydb.; Lvsias Salisb.; Blephariglottis Raf.) 

1. Lip not fringed or deeply lobed; flowers greenish. 
2. Stem with one to several leaves. 

3. Leaves several; bracts mostly longer than the flowers. 
4. Lip not entire, 6-8 mm. long. 

5. Lip 3-toothed at apex; spur shorter than lip; rich woods, n. 111., 

rare. May-June. Long-bracted Orchid 

H. bracteata (Muhl.) R. Br. 

5. Lip with a median tubercle and a tooth on each side near the base; 
spur longer than the lip; wet ground, rare, Lake, Cook, Peoria, 
Tazewell, and Wabash counties. June-July. Tubercled Orchid 
H. flava (L.) Gray 

4. Lip entire, shorter than the slender spur; swamps, rare; Lake, Peoria, 
Woodford and Tazewell counties. June-July. [H. hyperborea Am. 

auth., not Orchis hyperborea L.} 

H. huronensis (Nutt.) Spreng. 

3. Leaves 1 or 2; bracts shorter than the flowers; lip entire at base, cuneate, 
truncate, 3-5 mm. long; wet ground, rare, n.e. 111. July-Aug. Wood 
Orchid H. clavellata (Michx.) Spreng. 

2. Stem scapiform; leaves basal, orbicular, 3-10 cm. broad; lip lanceolate, 
entire, about 1 cm. long; flowers yellowish green; rich woods, n.e. 111., 
rare. Jime-July. Round-leaved Orchid H. hookeri Torr. 

L Lip fringed or deeply lobed; flowers large and showy. 

6. Flowers orange-yellow; lip oval, about 1 cm. long, the conspicuous fringe 
3-5 mm. long; swampy ground, n. 111., rare. July-Aug. Yellow Fringed 

Orchid H. ciltaris (L.) R. Br. 

6. Flowers whitish, greenish, or purplish; lip more or less 3-lobed, each lobe 
fringed or denticulate. 
7. Petals entire; flowers greenish; lobes of the lip narrow, few-fringed; 

swamps, rare, n.e. 111. June-July. Green Fringed Orchid 

H. lacera (Michx.) Lodd. 

7. Petals denticulate; lobes of the lip fan-shaped. 

8. Lip deeply fringed and 3-parted, the fringe 2-5 mm. long. 

9. Flowers white, the spikes relatively few-floweted; wet meadows. 

100 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

rare. June-July. White Fringed Orchid 

H. leucophaea (Nutt.) Gray 

9. Flowers lilac or purplish, crowded in the spilce; meadows and 
swamps, Lake and Cook counties, rare. July-Aug. Small Purple 

Fringed Orchid H. psycodes (L.) Spreng. 

8. Lip toothed but not fringed; flowers violet purple; moist woods, 

rare, s. 111. July-Aug. Fringeless Purple Orchid 

H. peramoena Gray 

4. Calopogon R. Br. 

(Limodonim L. ex p.) 

C. pulchellus (Salisb.) R. Br. Grass-pink Orchid. Meadows, in the n. half 
of 111. June-July. 

5. Triphora Nutt. 

T. trianthophora (Sw.) Rydb. Nodding Pogonia. Woods, not common. 
Aug. -Sept. [^Pogonia trianthophora (Sw.) BSP.] 

6. Pogonia Juss. 

P. ophioglossoides (L.) Ker. Swamps and meadows, n.e. III., not common. 

7. Spiranthes Rich. — Ladies' Tresses 

L Spike 8-12 mm. thick; flowers 4-5 mm. long, in a single spiral; rachis and 
upper part of stem glabrous; leaves oval, basal, soon withering, and usually 

absent at flowering time; open woods. July-Sept 

S. gracilis (Bigel.) Beck 

1. Spike 1.5-2.5 cm. thick; flowers 7-10 mm. long, in 2 or 3 spirals; rachis and 
upper part of stem pubescent; leaves linear; meadows and swamps. Aug.- 
Oct S. cernua (L.) Rich. 


{Peranuum Salisb.) 

G. piibescens (Willd.) R. Br. Rattlesnake-plantain. Woods, rare. July- 
Aug. [Epipactis pubcscens (Willd.) A. A. Eaton.] 

9. Malaxis Sw. 

M. untjolia Michx. Adder's-mouth Orchid. Woods, very rare. Athens, 
Menard Co., E. Hall in 1861. 

10. LiPARis Rich. — Twayblade 
{Lepiorchis Thouars.) 

1. Flowers few, greenish; lip about 5 mm. long, shorter than the petals; w\et 
ground in the n. half of the state, rare. June-July L. loesclii (L.) Rich. 

1. Flowers numerous, purple; lip 10-12 mm. long, about equalling the petals; 
woods, not common. June-July L. liliifolia (L.) Rich. 

JoNE: Flora of Illinois, 38. Salicaceae 101 

11. Aplectrum Nutt. 
A. hyemale (Muhl.) Torr. Puttyroot. Rich woods, rare. May-June. 

12. CoRALLORRHiZA R. Br. — Coralroot 
1. Lip with 2 basal lobes or teeth; mature capsules 1-1.6 cm. long; woods, rare. 

Peoria, Brendel; Forest Hill, Hill. July-Aug. Spotted Coralroot 

C. maculata Raf. 

1. Lip entire or denticulate; mature capsules not more than 1 cm. long; woods, 

rare. Menard Co., Hall; Peoria, Brendel; Carlinville, Andrews. Aug.- 

Sept. Late Coralroot C. odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt. 

37. Saururaceae Lindl. — Lizard-tail Family 

1. Saururus L. 

S. cernuus L. Lizard-tail. Wet ground in woods, or on muddy shores; 
locally abundant; extending northw. to Peoria and Vermilion counties. June- 

38. Salicaceae Lindl. — Willow Family 

1 . Catkin-scales fimbriate; leaves mostly broad, long-petioled ; buds with several scales 

1. Populus 

1. Scales entire; leaves usually narrow and short-pelioled; bud-scale one 2. Salix 

1. Populus L. — Poplar 

1. Petioles terete or nearly so, not strongly flattened lateral! v. 
2. Buds small, pubescent or glabrous, not viscid. 

3. Leaves sinuate-dentate to lobed; capsules 2-4 mm. long; catkin scales 
fringed with silky hairs; stigmas linear; bark smooth, whitish gray, 
rough only at the base of old trunks; introduced species. 
4. Leaves persistently densely white-tomentose beneath, 3-5-lobed or 
irregularly dentate; buds copiously white-tomentose; stigmas yel- 
low; roadsides and yards, often escaped from cult.; introd. from 
Eurasia. Apr. White Poplar P. alba L. 

4. Leaves glabrous at maturity, gray-canescent beneath when young, 
glabrate, the margins sinuate-dentate; bud-scalej ciliate or finely 
pubescent; stigmas purple; introd. from Eur.; cult., and persisting 
in a few places. Gray Poplar P. canescens (Ait.) Sm. 

3. Leaves crenate-serrate, ovate, cordate at base, long-petioled, tomentose 
when young, becoming glabrous or remaining floccose beneath; bark 
furrowed; capsules 7-9 mm. long; catkin-scales glabrous; stigmas 
broad; borders of swamps, local; s. 111., extending northw. to Craw- 
ford Co. Apr. -May. Swamp Cottonwood P. heterophylla L. 

2. Buds (at least the terminal) elongated, pointed, glabrous, glossy, resi- 
nous-aromatic; leaves pale beneath, crenulate-serrate; bark smooth; 
capsules on short stout pedicel,"^; catkin-scales with silky hairs; stigmas 

102 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

5. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, glabrous; river banks and wet ground, n.e. III. 

[P. balsamifera sensu auth., non L.] Balsam Poplar 

P. tacamahaca Mill. 

5. Leaves ovate, cordate; petioles, and veins on the lower surface of the 
blades puberulent or pubescent; planted and sometimes persisting; 
origin unknown. Athens, Menard Co., E. Hall in 1861; Waukegan, 
Gates 2780; Pecria, Brendel. Balm of Gilead P. candicans Ait. 

1 . Petioles strongly flattened laterally, at least near the blade. 
6. Buds pubescent or glabrous, not glutinous; catkin-scales with silky hairs; 
stigmas linear; leaves dull or gray-green. 

7. Leaves coarsely dentate, the blades 6-10 cm. long, white-tomentose be- 
neath when young, glabrate in age, broadly ovate, the base truncate 
to broadly cuneate; bud-scales finely appressed-pubescent, glabrate; 

river banks. Apr.-May. Large-toothed Aspen 

P. grandidentata Michx. 

7. Leaves finely crenate, glabrous from the beginning, ovate to orbicular, 

the blades 3-6 cm. long; buds glabrous (or merely ciliolate), glossy; 
thickets and margins of woods in the centr. and n. parts of the state. 
Apr. Quaking Aspen P. tremii'oidcs Michx. 

6. Buds viscid, glossy, glabrous; catkin-scales glabrous; stigmas broad; leaves 
bright or yellow green. 

8. Leaves rhombic-ovate, cuneate at base, crenate-serrate; petioles gland- 

less; branches closely ascending or nearly erct, forming a narrow 
tree; native of Eur.; cult, and sometimes found wild. Lombardy 
Poplar P. italica Moench 

8. Leaves broadly deltoid, mostly truncate at base, coarsely dentate with 
incurved teeth; petioles usually with a pair of glands at the base of 
the blade; branches widely spreading, forming a broad-crowned tree; 
along streams and in low ground, common. Mar. -Apr. [P. balsami- 
fera L.; P. vtrginiana Foug.; P. mondijera Ait.} Cottonwood 

P. dcltoides Marsh. 

2. Salix L.— Willow 

1. Scales of the catkins pale or yellowish, caducous; catkins on short leafy 
lateral branchlets. 
2. Style not more than 0.5 mm. long. 

3. Ovaries and capsules distinctly pedicelled. 

4. Ovaries and capsules glabrous; leaves lanceolate, petioled, finely 
serrate; stamens 3-9. 
5. Capsules 3-6 mm. long at maturity; trees 10-20 m. tall. 

6. Capsules 3 mm. long; leaves linear-lanceolate, green on both 
sides, the petioles 3-6 mm. long; common along streams. May. 
Black Willow S. nigra Marsh. 

6. Capsules 4-5 mm. long; leaves lanceolate, glaucous beneath, the 
petioles usually 5-15 mm. long; along streams. Apr.-May. 
Peach-leaved Willow S. amygdaloidcs Anders. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 38. Salicaceae 103 

5. Capsules 7-11 mm. long; shrubs 2-4 m. tall; swamps and bogs, 
Lake Co. June. Autumn Willow S. serissima (Bailey) Fern. 

4. Ovaries and capsules appressed-silky at first, soon glabrous; leaves 
linear, subsessile, remotely denticulate; stamens 2; shrub; common 
along streams. Apr.-June. \_S. longifolia of Muhl., not Lam.} 
Sandbar Willow S. interior Rowlee 

3. Ovaries and capsules nearly sessile, or very short-pedicelled, glabrous; 
stamens 2; tree; commonly planted and often spontaneous; introd. 
from Eur. May. White Willow S. alba L. 

2. Style distinct, 0.5-1 mm. long; ovaries and capsules glabrous. 

7. Catkins slender, 4-7 mm. in diameter at flowering time, 8-18 mm. thick 
in fruit; stamens 2; tree; nat. of Eur.; often planted, and self-propa- 
gating from broken branchlets. Apr.-May. Brittle Willow 

S. jragilis L. 

7. Catkins stout, 8-14 mm. in diameter at flowering time, 2-2.5 cm. thick 
in fruit; stamens 5; style almost 1 mm. long; shrubs; swamps, and 

along streams and lake shores. Shining Willow S. lucida Muhl. 

1. Scales of the catkins brown to black (except S. bebbiana), persistent; sta- 
mens 2. 
8. Ovaries and capsules glabrous. 

9. Style 0.5-1.5 mm. long; scales densely silky-villous; young twigs often 
more or less puberulent; leaves serrate or serrulate. 

10. Flowering catkins appearing before the leaves, sessile or nearly so, 
subtended by a few bracts; leaves pale green or more or less 
glaucous beneath, at least at maturity. 

11. Style 0.5 mm. long; capsules 4-7 mm. long, on pedicels 1-2 mm. 
long; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, becoming glabrous or near- 
ly so; wet ground, common. Apr.-May S. cordata Muhl. 

11. Style 1 mm. long; capsules 7-10 mm. long, on pedicels 2-4 mm. 
long; leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute; swamps in the n. third of 

the state. May. Blue-leaf Willow S. glaucophylla Bebb 

10. Flowering catkins on short leafy peduncles 1-2 cm. long; style 0.7- 
1.5 mm. long; capsules 5-8 mm. long, the pedicels less than 1 
mm. long; leaves ovate to oval, acute or abruptly acuminate, 
silky-pubescent, not glaucous; sandy shores, n.e. 111. \_S. syrticola 

Fern.} S. adenophylla Hook. 

9. Style 0.1-0.2 mm. long, the stigmas therefore sessile or nearly so; scales 
glabrous on the back, pilose within; twigs glabrous; leaves oblanceo- 
late or elliptical, entire, glaucous beneath; catkins appearing with the 

leaves; bogs and wet meadows, n. 111., rare. Apr.-May 

S. pedicellaris Pursh 

8. Ovaries and capsules pubescent. 

12. Catkins with some small leafy bracts at base, in flower as the leaf-buds 
are opening. 
13. Scales yellowish or pink- tipped, thinly villous, shorter than the 
pedicel; capsules 6-10 mm. long; stigmas nearly sessile; leaves 

104 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

elliptical, entire or nearly so, tomentose beneath; wet ground, 
chiefly n. III. May. Bebb Willow S. bebbiana Sarg. 

13. Scales dark brown or black. 

14. Style 1-1.5 mm. long; capsules white-tomentose, 6-8 mm. long 
at maturity; leaves thick, elliptical-lanceolate, the revolute 
margins entire or repand; bogs in the n. half of 111. May. 
Sage Willow S. Candida Fluegge 

14. Style less than 0.5 mm. long; ovaries and capsules strigose. 

] 5. Cap.sules acuminate, 6-8 mm. long, the pedicel 2.5-5 mm. 
long; catkins 10-15 mm. long; leaves linear-oblanceolate, 
glandular-serrulate; wet ground, chiefly in the n. third of 
the state. Apr.-May S. petiolaris Sm. 

15. Capsules obtuse, 3-5 mm. long, the pedicel 1-1.5 mm. long; 
catkins 18-30 mm. long; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, 

finely serrate; wet ground. Apr. Silky Willow 

S. sericea Marsh. 

12. Catkins sessile or nearly so, appearing before the leaves; young twigs 
glabrous or puberulent. 
16. Pistillate catkins 2-4 cm. long, becoming 4-6 cm. long in fruit; 
mature capsules 9-12 mm. long; pedicel shorter than the scale; 
leaves elliptical to obovate, glabrous or nearly so at maturity, 
glaucous beneath; tall shrubs (2-7 m. high) of wet ground; 
common. Apr.-May. Pussy Willow. [S. eriocepbala Michx.; 

S. prinoides Pursh; S. discolor var. latifolia Anders.] 

S. discolor Muhl. 

16. Pistillate catkins 1.5-2 cm. long, becoming 2-4 cm. long in fruit; 
mature capsules 6-9 mm. long; pedicel equalling or slightly 
longer than the scale; leaves linear-oblanceolate, pubescent be- 
neath; low shrubs of sandy or clayey soil, common. Apr.-May. 
Prairie Willow. [S. tristis Ait.} S. humilis Marsh. 


1 . Stamens 3 or more; scales yellowish, caducous; catkms on leafy branchlets. 
2. Catkins slender, 6-10 mm. thick; petioles not glandular; trees. 

3. Leaves linear-lanceolate, green on both sides; stamens more than twice the length 
of the scale; nectary yellow 5. uigra 

3. Leaves broadly lanceolate, paler and somewhat glaucous beneath; stamens not 

more than twice the length of the scale; nectary red S. anipgdalonjcs 

2. Catkins 1-1.5 cm. thick; petioles usually glandular at base of blade. 

4. Catkins 3-6 cm. long; leaves serrate, green on both surfaces S. hicida 

4. Catkins 1-1.5 cm. long; leaves serrulate, glaucous beneath 5. scrissima 

1. Stamens 2 (rarely 3 or 4). 
5. Filaments pilose. 

6. Filaments pilose half their length; leaves linear, subsessile, remotely denticulate; 

shrubs 5. interior 

6. Filaments pilose only near base; trees. 

7. Twigs pubescent; young leaves silky-pubescent 5. alba 

7 . Twigs and leaves glabrous 5. fragilis 

5. Filaments glabrous. 

8. Catkins on short Icafy-bracted branchlets. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 40. Juglandaceae 105 

9. Leaves entire 5. pedicellaris 

9. Leaves glandular-serrulate. 

10. Leaves sericeous above 5. adenophylla 

10. Leaves glabrous or nearly so from the first. 

1 1. Twigs puberulent 5. cordaia 

1 1. Twigs glabrous 5. glaucoph\)lla 

8. Catkins sessile or nearly so. 
12. Anthers red. 

13. Young twigs white-tomentose ; catkins about 2.5 cm. long 5. Candida 

13. Young twigs puberulent; catkins 1-1.5 cm. long 5. humills 

12. Anthers yellow. 

14. Scales yellowish or pink-fipped 5. bebbiana 

14. Scales dark brown. 

15. Catkins 10-18 mm. long 5. pellolaris 

15. Calkins 2-4 cm. long. 

16. Anthers 0.5 mm. long S. sericea 

16. Anthers 0.7-0.9 mm. long. 

17. Catkins slender, 5-8 mm. thick, with a few leafy-bracts at base 

5. cordata 

1 7. Catkins stout, dense, sessile, about 1 cm. thick, without leafy- 
bracts at base S. discolor 

39. Myricaceae Dum. — Bayberry Family 

L CoMPTONiA Banks 

C. peregrina (L.) Coult. Sweetfern. Open v^'oods, n.e. III., not common. 
Apr.-May. [^Myrica asplenifolia L.] 

40. Juglandaceae Lindl. — Walnut Family 

1 . Pith of twigs lamellate or chambered jstaminate catkins sessile or nearly so; leaflets 
conduplicate in vernation; nut enclosed in an indehiscent husk 1. Juglans 

1 . Pith solid; staminate catkins slender, long-peduncled ; leaflets involute in vernation; 
husk of nut splitting into 4 valves 2. Carya 

I. Juglans L. — Walnut 

1 . Lower surface of mature leaflets softly stellate-pubescent and somewhat 
glandular; leaflets 7-19; upper margin of leaf-scar pubescent, straight or 
curved; stamens 8-12; anthers brown; pith dark brown; fruit ellipsoid, 
acute, viscid-pubescent; woods, not common. May. Butternut..../, cinerea L. 

1 . Lower surface of mature leaflets glandular-puberulent, shortly-pubescent 
along the midvein, the terminal one rarely present; leaflets 11-23; upper 
margin of leaf-scar notched, not pubescent; pith light brown; fruit sub- 
globose, glandular; woods, common. May. Black Walnut. /. nigra L. 

2. Carya Nutt. — Hickory 
(Hicoria Raf.) 
1. Leaflets 9-17 (usually 13), lanceolate, acuminate, the lateral ones somewhat 
falcate; bud-scales 4 or 6, valvate. 

2. Rachis and lower surface of leaflets pubescent; staminate catkins fascicled; 
nut smooth, nearly terete; seed not bitter; river-bottom woods, com- 
mon; apparently absent from the n. part of the state. Apr.-May. Pecan. 

106 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

[C. olivaeformis Nutt.; C. pecan (Marsh.) Engler SC Graebn.} 

C. illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch 

2. Leaves glabrous; staminate catkins in threes on a common peduncle; nut 

sharply angled; seed very bitter; bark of trunk exfohating in long strips; 

river bottoms, rare, s. III. Mar.-Apr. Water Hickory. Bitter Pecan 

C. aquatica (Michx. f.) Nutt. 

1 . Leaflets 5-9 (or rarely 11). 

3. Bud-scales mustard-yellow, 4 or 6, valvate in pairs; leaflets lanceolate, 

acuminate, sessile or nearly so, the lateral ones somewhat falcate; stam- 
inate catkins in threes on a common peduncle; nut smooth, globose, 
acute, thin-shelled, whitish; seed becoming bitter; bark of trunk not 
exfoliating, gray, close, smooth or ridged, woods, common. May- June. 
Bitternut Hickory. Yellowbud Hickory. [C. atnara Nutt.; Hicoria 
minima Britt.} C. cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch 

3. Buds not yellow; bud-scales 6 or more, imbricated. 

4. Leaflets usually 7 (rarely 5 or 9) . 

5. Leaflets at maturity glabrous or nearly so; young twigs, and rachises 
of mature leaves glabrous; terminal bud 5-10 mm. long; bark close 
or scaly; nut 1.5-3 cm. long, compressed, round at the base; woods, 
centr. and s. III. May-June. [C. microcarpa Nutt.] Small-fruited 
Hickory C. ovaUs (Wang.) S.irg. 

5. Leaflets at maturity pubescent beneath; terminal bud 1-2.5 cm. long. 

6. Rachis and lower surface of mature leaflets stellate-tomentose; 

bark rather close, ridged; nut 1.5-3 cm. long, rounded at base; 

seed somewhat astringent; woods. May- June. [C. alba (L.) K. 

Koch, not Nutt.} Mockernut. Bigbud Hickory 

C. tomentosa Nutt. 

6. Rachis and lower surface of mature leaflets short-pubescent espe- 
cially along the veins; bark shaggy; nut 3-6 cm. long, cuneate at 
base; seed sweet, not astringent; woods, not common. Big Shag- 
bark Hickory C. lacinioia (Michx. f.) Loud. 

4. Leaflets usually 5 (rarely 3 or 4) . 

7. Terminal bud 1-2 cm. long, grayish-tomentulose; twigs stout; leaflets 
more or less pubescent beneath, at least on the veins; dry husk of 
fruit 4-10 mm. thick; bark shaggy; woods, common. [C. alba 
Nutt.] Shagbark Hickory C. ovata (Mill.) K. Koch 

7. Terminal bud 5-10 mm. long, glabrous or nearly so; twigs slender; 
mature leaflets glabrous except on the veins; bark shallowly ridged, 
tight; dry husk of fruit 1-3 mm. thick; woods, not infrequent. Pig- 
nut Hickory C. glabra (Mill.) Sweet 

41. Betulaceae Agardh. — Birch Family 

I. Nuts small, compressed and often wmged, without an involucre, borne in catkins; 

staminate flowers consisting of 2-4 stamens and a 2-4-parted calyx. 

2. Scales of the pistillate catkins 3-lobed, deciduous (sometimes only tardily so) ; 

stamens 2, bifid; leaf-buds sessile, with 3 or more scales; bark often peeling 

horizontally 1 . Be tula 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 41. Betulaceae 107 

2. Scales of the pistillate catkins 5-lobed, woody, persistent; stamens 4; buds usually 

stalked and with 2 valvate scales; bark not peeling horizontally 2. Altnis 

l.Nuts with a foliaceous involucre or subtended by or enclosed in a large bractlet, 
borne in clusters or catkins; stamens 3-10; calyx none; buds with several scales. 

3. Shrubs; leaves broadly cordate-ovate, doubly serrate usually with 5-8 pairs of 
veins; leaf-buds obtuse; nuts in clusters, each enclosed in a foliaceous involucre 
3. Cor\)lus 

3. Small trees; leaves oval or ovale, with 9 or more pairs of veins; leaf-buds acute; 

fruits in pendent catkins, the nut subtended by or enclosed in a large bractlet. 

4. Fruiting bracts foliaceous, 3-lobed; bark of the trunk and branches smooth; 
lower surface of leaves glossy green with small tufts of whitish hairs in the 

axils of the principal veins; lateral veins unbranched; anthers glabrous 

4. Carpinus 

4. Fruiting bracts becoming sac-like, inflated, enclosing the nut; bark rough, scaly; 
lower surface of leaves pale dull green, thinly short-pilose; lateral veins 
usually forked near the margin; anthers pilose at apex 5. Oslr\^a 

1. Betula L. — Birch 

1. Trees up to 30 m. tall, with acute or acuminate, serrate or double-serrate 

leaves; bark of trunk and large branches pe^Ung horizontally in thin strips. 

2. Bark of trunk gray or brown; fruiting catkins erect or suberect, the scales 

more or less persistent; wing of the fruit not broader than the nutlet. 

3. Fruiting catkins nearly sessile, ovoid or subglobose; bracts ciliate; leaves 

oval; bark of twigs with faint wintergreen flavor; locally in wooded 

areas in the n. half of III.; known from Lake and Lee counties. Our 

plants have been named var. macrolepis Fern. Yellow Birch 

B. lutea Michx. f. 

3. Fruiting catkins short-peduncled, ellipsoid; bracts tomentose; leaves 
rhombic-ovate; bark bitter, not aromatic; river banks, the common 
birch in III. May. River Birch B. nigra L. 

2. Bark chalky- or silvery-white; fruiting catkins cylindrical, slender-pedun- 
cled, usually pendulous, the scales deciduous; wing of the fruit distinct- 
ly broader than the nutlet; cold woods, local, n. III. May. Paper Birch. 

Canoe Birch B. papyrifera Marsh. 

I. Shrubs 0.5-4 m. tall; bark brown, not exfoliating; twigs of the season 
pubescent or puberulent, sometimes glandular. 

4. Leaves ovate, acute, 3-6 cm. long, serrate; fruiting catkins 1.5-2.5 cm. long, 

10-12 mm. thick; edge of boggy meadow. Beach, Lake Co., G. N. Jones. 
[5. glandultfera X lutea Rydb.; B. lutea X pumila var. glandulifera 

Rosend.} X ^- purpusii Schneid. 

4. Leaves obovate, obtuse, or acutish, mostly 1.5-3 cm. long, crenate-dentate; 
fruiting catkins about 1 cm. long, 6-8 mm. thick; bogs, n.e. III. May. 
Dwarf Birch B. pumila L. 

2. Alnus Hill— Alder 

1 . Leaves oval to ovate, doubly or coarsely serrate, usually rounded at the 
base; stipules lanceolate; nut orbicular; wet ground, rare; Lake, McHenry, 
and Boone counties. June. Speckled Aider A. incana (L.) Moench 

108 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Leaves obovate, finely serrate, tapering at the base; stipules oval; nut ovate; 
wet ground, s. III., as far n. as Wabash Co. Apr.-May. Smooth Alder .... 
A. rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng. 

3. CoRYLUS L. — Hazel 

C. americana Walt. Thickets, common; probably the only species in 111. 

4. Carpinus L. 

C. caroliniana Walt. Blue Beech. Muscle Tree. Woods, common. Apr.- 

5. OsTRYA Scop. 

O. virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch. Ironwood. Hop-hornbeam. Woods, com- 
mon. Apr.-May. 

42. Fagaceae a. Br. — Beech Family 

l.Stamlnale flowers in small pendent globose heads on slender peduncles; nuts sharply 

trigonal; winter buds lanceoloid, acuminate 1. Fagus 

I.Slammate flowers in slender catkms. 
2. Staminate catkins erect or ascending, 15-30 cm. long; involucre prickly, 2-7-flowered 

2. Castanea 

2. Staminate catkins pendent; fruit an acorn in a scaly involucre-cup; winter buds 
ovoid, obtuse or acute 3. C^uercus 

1. Fagus L. — Beech 

F. grandijolia Ehrh. American Beech. Woods, especially near streams, 
local; chiefly in the valleys of the Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash rivers; absent 
from centr. and w. 111. 

2. Castanea Hill — Chestnut 
C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. Rocky woods, s. 111., very rare. Pulaski and 
Union counties. June. 

3. QuERCus L. — Oak 

1 . Leaves entire, elliptical or oblanceolate, bristle-tipped. 

2. Leaves permanently stellate-tomentulose beneath; woods, common. Shin- 
gle Oak Q. imbricaria Michx. 

2. Leaves quite glabrous on both surfaces, or sometimes sparsely pubescent 

on the lower surface along the midvein; moist woods, rare. Massac Co., 

Teljord in 1924; Mermet, McDougall 145. Willow Oak 

Q. phellos L. 

1 . Leaves not entire. 

3. Leaf-lobes with bristle-tips; acorns maturing the second season. (Red or 

Black Oaks.) 

4. Leaves 3-5-lobed above the middle, obovate in outline. 

5. Leaves glabrous or nearly so beneath; buds ovoid, small; acorn-cups 
saucer-shaped, 1.5 cm. in diameter; woods, Crystal Lake Park, 
Urbana, G. N. Jones 12514; supposedly a hybrid between Q. 
borealis and Q. hnbricaria Q^. riincmata Engelm. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 42. Fagaceae 109 

5. Leaves brownish sfellate-tomentulose beneath; buds conical-fusiform, 

8-10 mm. long; acorn-cups turbinate, 1.5-2 cm. m diameter, enclos- 
ing half the acorn; upland woods, not common. Black Jack Oak 
Q. marilandica Muench. 

4. Leaves pinnately 5-9-Iobed or cleft. 

6. Leaves grayish-tomentulose beneath; lobes often falcate; acorn glo- 

bose; cup saucer-shaped; woods, s. III., not common. [Q. pagodae- 

folia Ashe; Q. falcata Michx.] Spanish Oak Q. rubra L. 

6. Leaves glabrous or nearly so, not grayish tomentulose beneath, but 
often with tufts of hairs in the axils of the principal veins. 

7. Leaves lobed about halfway to the midvein; acorn cup shallow, 
saucer-shaped; winter-buds nearly glabrous; inner bark gray or 
reddish; woods, common. [Q. rubra sensu DuRoi, non L.; Q. 

borealis var. maxima (Marsh.) Ashe}. Red Oak 

Q. borealis Michx. f. 

7. Leaves usually cleft more than half-way to the midvein. 

8. Acorn-cup shallow, saucer-shaped, enclosing not more than one- 
third of the acorn; inner bark gray or reddish; winter buds 
glabrous or sparsely pubescent. 

9. Acorn-cup 1-1.5 cm. in diameter, the rim only 3-4 mm. high; 

acorn 1-1.5 cm. long; woods along streams. Pin Oak 

Q. palustris Muench. 

9. Acorn-cup 16-22 mm. in diam-eter, the rim 5 mm. or more 

high; acorn 1.8-2.5 cm. long; woods near streams, s. III. 

[Q. schneck't Britt.] Q. shumardii Buckl. 

8. Acorn-cup hemispherical or turbinate enclosing about one-half 
of the mature acorn. 

10. Scales of the acorn-cup closely appressed; winter buds coni- 

cal, sparsely pubescent to glabrous. 

11. Acorn-cup 15-25 mm. in diameter, the scales glabrate, 
glossy; acorn ovoid; inner bark reddish or gray; upland 

woods, s. 111. Scarlet Oak Q. coccinea Wang. 

11. Acorn-cup 10-15 mm. in diameter, the scales puberulent; 
acorn ellipsoid; inner bark yellowish; upland woods, n. 
III. Northern Pin Oak. Hill's Oak. Discovered near 
Chicago in 1891, by the pioneer Illinois botanist, E. J. 

Hill Q. ellipsotdalts E. J. Hill 

10. Scales of the acorn-cup pubescent, loosely imbricated, the 
upper forming a fringed border; cup 18-25 mm. in diam- 
eter; winter-buds large, angular, densely grayish pubescent; 
inner bark yellowish or orange; upland woods, common. 

Black Oak Q. yelutina Lam. 

3. Leaf-lobes not bristle-tipped; acorns maturing in the autumn of the first 
12. Leaves irregularly deeply lobed, often somewhat lyrate. (White 

110 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

13. Mature leaves usually glabrous and glaucous beneath; winter-buds 
nearly or quite glabrous; acorns 1.5-2 cm. long, 3-4 times the 
length of the shallow cup; upland woods, common. White Oak 

Q. alba L. 

13. Mature leaves pubescent beneath; acorn-cup one-half to one-third 
the length of the acorn; buds ovoid, pubescent. 
14. Young twigs pubescent; lower surface of leaves grayish or 
brownish stellate-pubescent; mature acorns ovoid, 1-2 cm. 
long, about 1 cm. in diameter; cup one-third to one-half as 
long as the acorn, nearly sessile; upland woods, more com- 
mon in the s. part of the state, but extending northw. to 

Adams, Mason, Coles, and Clark counties. Post Oak 

Q. stellata Wang. 

14. Young twigs glabrous or nearly so; lower surface of leaves 
whitish tomentulose; mature acorns 2-3.5 cm. long, the cup 
2-5 cm. in diameter, short-peduncled. 
15. Upper scales of acorn-cup caudate-acuminate, forming a 
fringe around the acorn, which is half immersed in the 
cup; leaf-buds acutish, the terminal 5-8 mm. long; vigor- 
ous 1 -year-old twigs sometimes with corky ridges; upland 
woods, common. Bur Oak Q. macrocarpa Michx. 

15. Scales broad, not caudate-acuminate; acorn nearly or quite 
immersed in the cup; buds obtuse the terminal 2-4 mm. 
long; swamps and bottomland woods in the s. third of 
the state. Overcup Oak Q. lyrata Walt. 

12. Leaves angularly dentate, coarsely toothed or merely undulate, but 
not at all or only slightly lobed. (Chestnut Oaks.) 

16. Leaves elliptical or lanceolate, glossy dark green above, more or 
less whitish stellate-tomentulose beneath, with 8-13 pairs of 
lateral veins, each vein ending in an acutish, mucronate, often 
incurved tooth; acorns nearly sessile, or short-peduncled, 10-18 
mm. long; hillsides and wooded bluffs, common. [Q. acuminata 

(Michx.) Houba} Chinquapin Oak 

Q. muhlenbergii Engeim. 

16. Leaves obovate, cuneate toward the base, angularly shallowly 

coarsely dentate; acorns 2-3 cm. long. 

17. Leaves regularly obtusely dentate; lateral veins 9-12 pairs; fruit 

sessile or short-peduncled, the peduncles less than 1 cm. 

long; bottomlands and borders of streams, chiefly s. 111. [Q. 

michauxii Nutt.} Q. prinm L. 

17. Leaves undulate-crenate or coarsely sinuate. 

18. Lateral veins 10-16 pairs; fruit sessile or nearly so; hillsides 
and crests of ridges. Union Co. [Q prinus sensu auth., 
not L.] Chestnut Oak Q. montana Willd. 

18. Lateral veins 4-8 pairs; fruit on peduncles 2-6 cm. long- 
alluvial soil, throughout III., except the n.w. part. [Q. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 43. Ulmaceae HI 

platanoides (Lam.) Sudw.} Swamp White Oak 

Q. bicolor Willd. 

43. Ulmaceae Mirb. — Elm Family 

I. Leaves with I principal vein from the base, the lateral veins straight, parallel, usually 

more than 10 pairs; flowers m clusters on twigs of the preceding season; twigs with 

solid pith. 

2. Flowers appearing before the leaves; fruit a 1 -seeded, flat, thin-winged samara; 

leaves usually doubly serrate 1. Ulmus 

2. Flowers appearing with the leaves; fruit nut-like, muricate; leaves simply serrate 
2. Planera 

1. Leaves (at least when mature) with 3-5 veins from the base, the lateral veins curved, 
fewer than 10 pairs; flowers borne on the twigs of the season, appearing with the 
leaves; twigs with chambered pith; fruit a drupe; bark corky-ridged 3. Celtis 

I. Ulmus L. — Elm 

L Flowers drooping, on slender pedicels; calyx not ciliate; leaves gkbrous or 
nearly so above; nut scabrous. 

2. Branches not corky-winged; buds glabrous or nearly so; fruit glabrous ex- 
cept the ciliate margins; woods, very common. Apr. American or White 
Elm U. americana L. 

2. Branches (at least some of them) usually more or less corky- winged; 
fruit pubescent. 

3. Buds pubescent; leaves 5-13 cm. long; flowers racemose; woods, in the 
n. half of the state, not common. Apr.-May. Rock Elm. \{J . race- 
rnosa Thomas, not Borkh.} U. thomasi Sarg. 

3. Buds glabrous or nearly so; leaves 2-8 cm. long; flowers fascicled; hill- 
sides, cliffs, ridges, s. 111. Apr. Winged Elm U. alata Michx. 

L Flowers nearly sessile in erect dense clusters; calyx ciliate; leaves scabrous 
above; buds reddish-pubescent; branches not corky-winged; woods, com- 
mon. Apr. Slippery Elm U. fulva Michx. 

2. Planera J. F. Gmel. 

P. aqiiatica [Walt.} J. F. Gmel. Water Elm. Swamps, s. 111., not common. 
Apr.-May. A specimen without flowers or fruits collected at Mermet, July 18, 
1928 (McDougdll 142), may be this species, but sterile specimens often close- 
ly resemble smooth-branched material of Ulmus alata. 

3. Celtis L. — Hackberry 

1. Leaves sharply serrate; drupes 7-9 mm. in diameter at maturity; fruiting 
pedicels longer than the petioles: nutlet brownish, 6-8 mm. long, obovoid, 
pitted; tree, 10-20 m. tall; woods, usually near streams, common. Apr.- 
May. [C. crassifolia Lam.] Hackberry C. occidentalis L. 

1. Leaves entire or nearly so; nutlet 5-6 mm. long, globose, pitted. 
2. Leaves lanceolate, long-acuminate, usually broadly cuneate at base; fruit- 
ing pedicels longer than the petioles; drupes 4-6 mm. in diameter; tree, 
10-30 m. tall; woods and river banks, s. 111., in the valley of the 

112 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Wabash R., northw. to Lawrence Co., and the Mississippi valky 

northw. to Adams Co. [C. missis sippiensis Bosc] Sugarberry 

C. laevigata Willd. 

2. Leaves ovate, short-acuminate, usually rounded or subcordate at base; 
fruiting pedicels about as long as the petioles; drupes 6-8 mm. in diam- 
eter; shrub or small tree to 4 m. tall; sand dunes or rocky banks of 

streams, rare and local. Dwarf Hackberry 

C. pumila (Muhl.) Pursh 

44. Moraceae DC. — Mulberry Family 

I . Leaves serrate or lobed, 3-vemed at base; branches never spiny; flowers in spikes 
1. Morus 

L Leaves entire, pinnately veined; branches usually spiny; staminate flowers in loose 
racemes, the pistillate in globose heads; fruit large, globose, yellowish green. 8-12 
cm. in diameter 2. Madura 

1. MoRUS L. — Mulberry 

1 . Leaves scabrous above, the lower surface pubescent, or hispidulous 
along the veins; lateral lobes, if present, caudate; buds somewhat diver- 
gent, acute; fruit reddish purple, 2 cm. or more in length; native tree; 
woods, common. May-June. Red Mulberry M. rubra L. 

1. Leaves glabrous, somewhat glossy and nearly smooth above; lower surface 

glabrous or nearly so, except on the veins or in their axils; lateral lobes 

usually obtuse; native of Asia. 

2. Fruit whitish or pinkish, 1-1.5 cm. long; cult., and rarely escaped. May. 

White Mulberry M. alba L. 

2. Fruit dark red, smaller; a small bushy tree; leaves commonly much lobed; 
along fences and in woods, common. [M. alba var. tatarica (L.) Ser.} 
M. tatarica L. 

2. Maclura Nutt. 

M. pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. Osage-orange. Hedge-apple. Commonly 
planted for fences and windbreaks, sometimes spontaneous; native from Va. 
to Kans., and southw. M.iy-June. 

45. Cannabinaceae Lindl. — Hemp Family 

1. Erect herbs; pistillate flowers in spikes ..1. Cannabis 

1 . Stems twining; flowers in catkin-like drooping clusters (hops) 2. Hutnulus 

1. Cannabis L. — Hemp 

C. sativa L. Common Hemp. Marijuana. Moist soil, edges of fields, along 
roads, waste ground, locally common; nat. from Asia. July-Sept. 

2. HiJMULus L. — Hop 

H. americanus Nutt. Ainerican Hop. Sandy soil at edges of woods and 
along fences, coinmon. Aug. fW. lupulus sensu auth., non L.] 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 47. Santalaceae 113 

46. Urticaceae Reichenb. — Nettle Family 

1. Leaves mostly opposite. 

2. Plants with stinging hairs, perennial; stigma capitate-tufted I. Urtica 

2. Plants without stinging hairs. 

3. Plants perennial, more or less pubescent; stems opaque; petioles usually somewhat 

shorter than the blades; stipules separate; stigma filiform 2. Boehnteria 

3. Plants annual, glabrous; stems translucent; blades glossy above, about as long 

as the petioles; stipules united; stigma capitate-tufted 3. Pilea 

1 . Leaves alternate. 
4. Plants with stinging hairs; leaves ovate, 5-12 cm. broad; flowers in loose branched 

cymes 4. Laporlea 

4. Plants without stinging hairs; leaves lanceolate, less than 2.5 cm. wide; flower 
clusters sessile in the leaf-axils 5. Parietaria 

1. Urtica L. — Nettle 

1. Plants perennial, 0.5-3 m. tall; flower-clusters in branched paniculate spikes. 
2. Leaves lanceolate, firm, not cordate at base; alluvial soil, chiefly in the n. 
half of th'e state. July- Aug. [U. gracilis sensu auth., non Ait.} Com- 
mon Nettle U. procera Muhl. 

2. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or ovate, coarsely serrate, thin, cordate or rounded 
at base; waste places and roadsides, not common; nat. from Eur. July- 
Sept. Great Nettle ^- d'^oica L. 

1. Plants annual, 10-40 cm. tall; flower-clusters simple, two in each leaf-axil; 
leaves oval or ovate, 1-4 cm. long, acute, coarsely serrate or incised; waste 
places; nat. from Eur. May-Sept. Small Nettle U. urens L. 

2. BoEHMERiA Jacq. — False Nettle 
B. cylindrica (L.) Sw. Moist woods. July- Aug. 

3. PiLEA Lindl. — Clearweed 

1 . Fruit ovate, gt^en, irregularly roughened, purplish-marked, not margined; 
moist shaded ground, common. July-Sept P. pumila (L.) Gray 

1. Fruit shortly lanceolate, dull brownish, smooth, with a distinct narrow mar- 
gin; moist ground rare. July-Sept P. fontaiia (Lunell) Rydb. 

4. Laportea Gaud. 

{Urlicastrum Fabr.) 
L. canadensis (L.) Gaud. Wood Nettle. Woods, common. July-Aug. 

5. Parietaria L. — Pellitory 
P. pennsylvanica Muhl. Woods, common. May-Sept. 

47. Santalaceae R. Br. — Sandalwood Family 

1. Comandra Nutt. 

C. umbellata (L.) Nutt. Sandy soil or grassy roadsides, local. May-June. 
[C. richardsiana Fern.] 

114 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

48. Loranthaceae D. Don — Mistletoe Family 
1. Phoradendron Nutt. 

P. flavescens (Pursh) Nutt. American Mistletoe. Parasitic on American 
elm, black gum, oak, and other deciduous trees, s. III., northw. to Union and 
Lawrence counties. 

49. Aristolochiaceae Blume — Birthwort Family 

I . Stem prostrate, rooting at the nodes; flowers regular, 3-lobed; calyx persistent; 

stamens 12 1. Asanim 

1 . Stem erect or twinmg; flowers very irregular, the calyx deciduous; stamens 6 

- 2. Arisiolochia 

1. AsARUM L. — Wild Ginger 

1. Calyx-lobes deltoid-ovate, shortly acuminate, scarcely longer than the calyx- 
tube, spreading or reflexed at flowering time; woods, common. May 

A. reflexum Bickn. 

1 . Calyx-lobes lanceolate, caudate-acuminate, much longer than the tube, erect 
or spreading at flowering time; wooded hillsides, local; extending southw. 

to Knox, Peoria, and Kankakee counties. May-June 

A. acuminatum (Ashe) Bickn. 

2. Aristolochia L. — Birthwort 

l.Low herb; flowers purple, 1-1.5 cm. long, solitary on sl'ender basal scaly 
peduncles; calyx-tube curved like the letter S; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
cordate or hastate at base, thin, green on both sides; capsule subglobose, 
ridged, about 1 cm. in diameter; rich woods, s. 111., rare. Virginia Snake- 
root A. serpciitarta L. 

1. Twining shrub; flowers on axillary solitary pubescent bractless peduncles; 
calyx tomentose, the tube abruptly bent, yellowish green, about 3 cm. 
long, dark purple within; leaves suborbicular or broadly ovate, tomentose; 
capsule ellipsoid, 4-6 cm. long; rich woods, s. 111., rare; extending northw. 
to Wabash and Jackson counties. Dutchman's Pipe A. tomentosa Sims 

50. Polygonaceae Lindl. — Buckwheat Family 

I. Plants not climbing by tendrils; calyx-tube not enlarged in fruit; leaves with sheathing 
2. Sepals 6, the three inner ones becoming enlarged (valves) in fruit (except in the 

first species); stigmas tufted 1. Runwx 

2. Sepals 5, sometimes 4, nearly equal; stigmas capitate. 

3. Leaves not hastate-deltoid, or if so, the stems climbing by prickles or reclining. 
4. Branches not at all adnate to the stem; flowers clustered (or if solitary not 

pink and the leaves not linear) 2. Polpgoitiim 

4. Branches more or less adnate to the internodes of the stem; stipular sheaths 
oblique or truncate, glabrous; flowers solitary in the axils of the bracts in 
slender panicled racemes; calyx pink; stamens 8; slender annual wiith 

linear leaves 3. PoI\}f;<>inlla 

3. Leaves hastate-deltoid; stem erect, smooth; flowers while; mature achenes much 

exserted from the calyx 4. Fagopwum 

I. Plants climbing by tendrils; calyx-tube conspicuously enlarged in fruit, tnclosing the 

achene ; stipules obsolete; flowers in slender axillary and terminal racemes 

5. Brimim hia 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 50. Polygon aceae 115 

1. RuMEX L. — Dock 

1. Leaver hastate, sometimes linear or lanceolate; plants with acid juice, dioe- 
cious or polygamous; rhizomes horizontal. 

2. Calyx essentially unchanged in fruit; achenes granular, dull, much longer 
than the sepals; fields, roadsides, waste ground, common; nat. from 
Eur. May-July. Field Sorrel or Sour Dock R. acetorella L. 

2. Inner sepals winged in fruit, thin, reticulate, cordate, 3-4 mm. wide, en- 

closing the smooth, glossy achene; sandy soil; Madison Co., McDonald 

R. hastatulus Baldw. 

1. Leaves not hastate or markedly acid; flowers perfect; roots stout. 

3. Inner sepals (valves) entire or merely denticulate. 

4. Leaves flat, not crisped, pale green or glaucescent, acute at each end; 
native species. 

5. Pedicels about equalling or shorter than the valves, curved. 

6. Only one valve (rarely two or three) bearing a tubercle; valves 
4-5 mm. long; leaves lanceolate; roadsides and alluvial soil, 
common. June. Pale Dock R. altissimus Wood 

6. Usually all three (rarely only 2) valves bearing a tubercle; valves 
2.5-3 mm. long; leaves linear-lanceolate; sandy soil, not common. 

Chicago, Flick- June. [/?. viexicanus of auth., not Meisn.] 

R. triangulivahis (Danser) Rech.f. 

5. Pedicels several times longer than the valves, deflexed, nearly straight, 
jointed close to the base; wet ground, common. June-July. Swamp 
Dock R. verticillatus L. 

4. Leaves wavy-margined or crisped, dark green. 

7. Only one of the valves bearing a small or rudimentary tubercle; 
valves cordate, nearly or quite entire, 5 6 mm. broad; pedicels 
with a conspicuous joint; waste ground, occasional; nat from Eur. 
May-July. Patience Dock R. patientia L. 

7. Usually all three valves bearing well-developed tubercles. 

8. Pedicels obscurely jointed; leaves 5-10 cm. wide, the lower ones 
narrowed at the base; stem 1-2 m. tall; wet ground, not com- 
mon; chiefly in the n. half of the state; Aug. -Sept. Water Dock 
R. britannica L. 

8. Pedicels conspicuously jointed; leaves narrower, the lower ones 
truncate or cordate at the base; stem 30-90 cm. tall; cult, and 
waste ground, or roadsides, common; nat. from Eur. May-June. 
Curly Dock R. crispus L. 

3. Valves with spinulose teeth. 

9. Valves 3-4 mm. long, deltoid, reticulate, only one tubercled; pedicels 
jointed below the middle; lowest leaves broadly ovate, cordate at the 
base; plants perennial; fields and roadsides, common; nat. from Eur. 
July-Aug. Bitter Dock R. obtusifolius L. 

9. Valves 2 mm. long, with slender teeth, all three valves tubercled; pedi- 

116 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

eels jointed at base; leaves linear-IanceoIate, narrowed at base, undu- 
late or crisped; sandy shores, local. McHenry Co., Vasey; Cahokia, 

Eggert. July-Sept. [/?. per s tear io ides sensu auth., non L.} 

R. fneginus Phil. 

2. Polygonum L. 

(Persicaria Mill.) 
1 . Stems not twining. 

2. Stems not retrorsely bristly. 
3. Flowers axillary. 

4. Stems leafy throughout; achenes included in or only shortly exserted 
from the calyx. 

5. Sepals with yellowish green margins; stems erect or ascending. 
6. Leaves oval, obtusish; achenes dull; waste ground. Aug.-Oct. 
Erect Knotweed P. erectum L. 

6. Leaves lanceolate or narrowly oval, acute; achenes glossy; sandy 

soil. July-Sept P. ramosissimtim Michx. 

5. Sepals with pink or white margins; stems prostrate or spreading. 

7. Leaves thick, prominently veined, oval, pale green; stipules very 

conspicuous; achenes granular; waste ground, not common. 

Aug.-Oct P. buxijorme Small 

7. Leaves thin, not prominently veined, bright green, narrowly 
elliptical to linear; stipules not conspicuous; achenes striate; 
waste ground, very common; variable in appearance. July-Oct. 

Common Knotweed P. aviculare L. 

4. Stems with the upper leaves reduced in size. 

8. Achenes conspicuously exserted from the calyx; branches terete, 
striate; stamens 5 or 6; sandbars or rocky ground, not common. 
Aug.-Oct. Long-fruited Knotweed P. exsertuin Small 

8. Achenes included in the calyx; stem and branches angular, slen- 
der; leaves plicate; stamens 8; sandy soil. July-Sept. Slender 

Knotweed P. tenue Michx. 

3. Flowers in terminal or axillary panicles. 

9. Styles short; calyx not curved, the sepals usually 5. 

10. Panicle terminal, usually solitary; perennial marsh or aquatic or 
more or less amphibious herbs with long rhizomes. 
11. Panicle ovoid or ellipsoid, 1-3 cm. long. 

12. P'eduncle glabrous or nearly so; leaves elliptical, glabrous, 
glossy above, obtuse or acute; shallow water. June-Aug. 
[P. fluitans Eaton; P. amphibiuiii sensu Am. auth., 

non L.] P. natans (Michx.) Eaton 

12. Peduncle pubescent; leaves elliptical-lanceolate, pubescent, 
not glossy, acute or attenuate; swampy ground. June- 
Aug. [P. hartwrightii Gray; P. amphibium var. hart- 

wrightii Bissell] 

P. natans f. hartwrightii (Gray) Stanford 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 50. Polygonaceae 117 

11. Panicle linear-cylindrical, 3-9 cm. long, the peduncle glandular- 
hispidulous or strigose; leaves lanceolate, acuminate; wet 
ground, common. July-Oct. [P. emersum (Michx.) Eaton; 
P. muhlenbergii (Meisn.) Wats.] P. coccineum Muhl. 

10. Panicle usually several (except in depauperate plants), axillary as 
well as terminal; plants of moist rich soil. 

13. Sheaths not ciliate. 

14. Panicles erect; glands of the peduncles stipitate; stamens 8 
or fewer; achenes 2-3 mm. wic'e; cult, ground, roadsides, 

or along streams, common. Aug. -Oct 

P. pennsylvanicum L. 

14. Panicles drooping; glands of the peduncles sessile; stamens 

6; achenes 1.5-2 mm. wide; moist soil, common. July- 
Sept P- lapathijol'mm L. 

13. Sheaths ciliate. 

15. Stems and peduncles glandular-hispidulous; sandy soil, 

local. Aug.-Sept P. careyi Olney 

15. Stems and peduncles not glandular-hispidulous. 
16. Sepals glandular-dotted. 

17. Spikes drooping; stamens 4 or 6; achenes dull; 
along ditches, common. Aug.-Oct. Water-pepper 
P. hydropiper L. 

17. Spikes erect; stamens 8; achenes glossy; along 

ditches, common. July-Aug. Water Smartweed 
P. punctatum L. 

16. Sepals not evidently glandular-dotted. 

18. Leaves lanceolate, elliptical, or linear, 0.5-2 cm. 

broad; stems 15-100 cm. tall. 
19. Plants perennial, native; leaves not dark- 
blotched; stamens 8; panicles linear, slender, 
erect, often interrupted at base, 3-8 cm. long, 
less than 5 mm. thick. 
20. Leaves strigose on both surfaces, lanceolate; 
flowers white or pink; swamps, rare. June- 
Sept P- setaceum Baldw. 

20. Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

21. Leaves lanceolate; calyx white or pink; 
achene 2-2.5 mm. long, the tip covered 
by the calyx; wet ground or in water, 
common. July-Sept. Mild Water-pep- 
per P. hydropiperoides Michx. 

21. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate; calyx 
greenish white; achene 1.5-2 mm. long, 
the tip protruding beyond the calyx; 

swamps, s. III., rare 

P. opelousanum Riddell 

118 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

19. Plants annual, adv. from Eur.; leaves (when 
fresh) with a more or less evident dark blotch; 
calyx pink; stamens 6; cult, ground, waste 
places, roadsides, common. May-Sept. [Persi- 
caria persicaria (L.) Small; P. mitis Gilib.; 

P. maculosa S. F. Gray} Lady's Thumb 

P. persicaria L. 

18. Leaves broadly ovate, acuminate, long-petioled; 
stems 1-3 m. tall; garden escape, introd. from 

Asia. Aug.-Sept. Prince's Feather 

P. orientale L. 

9. Styles long, exserted, persistent, reflexed, becoming hooked in fruit; 
calyx curved; sepals 4; stamens 4; racemes slender, rigid, greenish; 
leaves ovate, acuminate; woods, common. July-Sept. [Torara vir- 

giniana (L.) Raf.] Virginia Knotweed P. virginianum L. 

2. Stems retrorsely bristly on the angles. 

22. Leaves sagittate; stem 4-angled; stamens 8; styles 3; achenes 3-angled; 
wet ground, not common. July-Oct. [Tracaulon sagittatiim (L.) 
Small] P. sagittatum L. 

22. Leaves hastate; stem ridged; stamens 6; styles 2; achenes lenticular; 
wet ground, not common. July-Oct. [Tracaulon arifolium (L.) 
Raf.] P. arifolium L. 

1. Stems twining, not prickly; flowers in panicled racemes; leaves ovate, cor- 
date; outer sepals winged or keeled at maturity. 
23. Outer sepals merely keeled at maturity. 

24. Achenes dull, minutely granular; stipules glabrous; plants annual; 
nat. from Eur.; fields and waste places, common. May-Sept. Black 
Bindweed P. convolvulus L. 

24. Achenes glossy, smooth; stipules with a fringe of stiff reflexed hairs 

at base; perennial; rocky soil, rare. June-Sept P. cilinode Michx. 

23. Outer sepals developing conspicuous wings; achenes glossy, not striate. 

25. Calyx 5-8 mm. long at maturity, flat-winged; achenes 2.5-3 mm. long; 

edges of woods, common. Aug.-Sept P. dumetorwn L. 

25. Calyx 10-12 mm. long when mature, undulate wing-margined; 
achenes 3.5-5 mm. long; woods and roadsides, common. July-Oct. 
P. scandens L. 

3. PoLYGONELLA Michx. — Jointweed 

{Conopyrum F. & M.; Dcloppnim Small) 

P. articulata (L.) Meisn. Sandy soil, local; n. 111. as far southw. as Peoria 
and Kankakee counties. July-Oct. 

4. Fagopyrum Gaertn. — Buckwheat 

F. esculentum Moench. Fields or roadsides, occasionally escaped from 
cult.; introd. from Eur. July-Sept. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 51. Chenopodiaceae 119 

5. Brunnichia Banks 

B. cirrhosa Gaertn. Banks of streams, s. III., not common. Pulaski Co., 
Brendel in 1860; Metropolis, Massac Co., Gleason in 1902. 

51. Chenopodiaceae Dumort. — Goosefoot Family 

1 . Leaves not spine-tipped or subulate. 

2. Flowers perfect, not enclosed in a pair of triangular bracts; perianth present. 
3. Flowers in clusters; fruit enclosed in the calyx. 

4. Calyx not horizontally winged 1. Chenopodium 

4. Calyx becoming horizontally winged. 

5. Leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, entire, yellowish green; flowers spicate 

2. Kochia 

5. Leaves sinuate-dentate; flowers paniculate 3. C\)cloloma 

3. Flowers solitary, axillary; fruit exserted from the marcescent calyx; leaves linear 

4. Corispermum 

2. Flowers unisexual, the pistillate enclosed by a pair of triangular bracts; leaves 

narrowly lanceolate to hastate 5. Atriplex 

1 . Leaves subulate, spinescent; stems branched, striate; flowers 1-3 in the axils 

6. Salsola 

1. Chenopodium L. — Goosefoot. Pigweed 
1 . Plants more or less glandular and aromatic, not at all farinose (mealy) . 
2. Leaves sinuate-pinnatifid; pericarp not gland-dotted; fruit only partly 
enclosed by the calyx; roadsides, waste ground, occasional, nat. from 
Eur. July-Aug. Jerusalem Oak C. botrys L. 

2. Leaves repand-dentate to subentire; pericarp gland-dotted; fruit complete- 

ly enclosed by the calyx; waste ground, common, nat. from S. Am. 
July-Aug. [C. anthelminticum L.} Mexican Tea C. ambrosio'tdes L. 

1. Plants not glandular or aromatic, but sometimes farinose. 

3. Flowers in globose clusters 1 cm. or more in diameter, forming an inter- 

rupted spike, the calyx becoming red, succulent, and strawberry-like at 
maturity; leaves triangular to lanceolate; seeds horizontal, dull, 0.8 mm. 
in diameter; sandy soil, occasional. May-Aug. [Blitum capitatum L.} 
Strawberry Pigweed C. capitatum (L.) Aschers. 

3. Flowers in smaller glomerules; calyx not succulent. 

4. Leaves sinuately dentate or entire. 

5. Sepals more or less prominently keeled in fruit. 

6. Pericarp loose, readily separating from the seed; leaves thin; seeds 


7. Leaves green and glabrous or nearly so on both surfaces when 

mature, slender-petioled, lanceolate to ovate, entire, or the 

lower ones sinuate-dentate; woods, common. June-Oct. [C. 

boscianum sensu auth. non Moq.} C. standleyanum Aellen 

7. Leaves densely farinose at least beneath, rather short-petioled, 
linear or lanceolate, often somewhat hastately toothed; sepals 
strongly carinate; sandy soil, occasional; native w. of the Mis- 
sissippi R.; probably adventive in 111. Urbana, G. N. Jones 
11813. July-Sept. [C. leptophyllum sensu auth., non Nutt.] 
Narrow-leaved Goosefoot C. praterlcola Rydb. 

120 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

6. Pericarp firmly adherent to the seed. 
8. Leaves more or less sinuately dentate. 

9. Leaves commonly densely farinose on the lower surface; seed 
1-L2 mm. in diameter; cult, ground and waste places, com- 
mon; nat. from Eur. July-Sept. Lamb's Quarter 

C. album L. 

9. Leaves green and glabrous on both surfaces. 

10. Leaves lanceolate to rhombic-ovate; seeds 1.5-1.7 mm. in 
diameter; stem 1-3 m. tall; plants often purplish in 
autumn; fields and roadsides, common; nat. from Eur. 

June-Oct. [C. missouriense Aellen} 

C. paganum Reichenb. 

10. Leaves triangular-ovate or somewhat deltoid-hastate, often 
truncate at base; seed 1 mm. in diameter; stem 30-90 
cm. tall; waste places, occasional; nat. from Eur. July- 
Sept. City Goosefoot C. urbiaim L. 

8. Leaves small, entire, or merely hastately toothed, the upper ones 
smaller, elliptical, cuspidate; seed puncticulate, 1 mm. in diam- 
eter; dry soil. July-Sept C. berlandieri Moq. 

5. Sepals only slightly or not at all keeled. 

11. Leaves bright green on both surfaces; seeds 1-1.5 mm. in diameter. 

12. Leaves rhombic-ovate, coarsely toothed; stem slender, erect or 
decumbent, 30-60 cm. long; seeds sharp-edged; waste places, 

nat. from Eur. July-Oct. Nettle-leaved Goosefoot 

C murale L. 

12. Leaves broadly triangular-hastate, entire or nearly so, 5-12 
cm. long; stem stout, erect; seeds obtuse-edged; waste 

places, nat. from Eur. July-Oct. Good-King-Henry 

C. bonus-henricus L. 

11. Leaves pale green, sinuate-margined, 1-3 cm. long, the lower sur- 
face whitish-mealy; stem low, spreading or prostrate; seeds 
6-0.8 mm. in diameter, sharp-edged; waste places, nat. from 
Eur. July-Sept. Oak-leaved Goosefoot C. glaucum L. 

4. Leaves sharply divaricately lobed or coarsely few-toothed, thin, large, 
green, glabrous; sepals slightly keeled, incompletely covering the 
seed; pericarp firmly adherent; seed 1.5-2 mm. in diameter; fields, 
woods, or waste ground, nat. from Eur. July-Sept. [C. gigantosper- 
mum Aellen] C. hybridum L. 

2. KoCHiA Roth 

K. scoparia (L.) Schrad. Summer Cypress. Frequently cultivated, and 
occasionally spontaneous in waste ground or along roads; introd. from Eur. 

3. Cycloloma Moq. 

C. atriplicijoltum (Spreng.) Coult. Winged Pigweed. Sandy soil, local. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 52. Amaranthaceae 121 

4. CoRiSPERMUM L. Bugseed 
C. nitidum Kit. Sandy soil, local. July-Sept. 

5. Atriplex L. 
1. Leaves lanceolate; bracts rhombic, cuneate at base; waste ground; nat. from 

Eur. July-Aug ^. patula L. 

1. Leaves hastate; bracts ovate, rounded at base; waste ground; nat. from Eur. 

Aug. -Oct ^- hastata L. 

6. Salsola L. — Saltwort 
S. pestijer A. Nels. Sandy soil, local; nat. from Asia. July-Sept. [S. kali 
var. tenuijolia G. F. W. Mey.} 

52. Amaranthaceae J. St. Hil. — Amaranth Family 

1. Leaves alternate; filaments separate and distinct; anthers 2-loculed. 

2. Flowers monoecious or polygamous; both staminate and pistillate flowers with 3-5 

sepals; fruit thin, dry, dehiscent 1. Amaranthus 

2. Flowers dioecious; pistillate flowers without a calyx; staminate flowers with 5 
conspicuous mucronate sepals longer than the bracts; fruit fleshy, 3-5-angled, 

indehiscent — 2. Acnida 

1. Leaves opposite; plants pubescent; flowers perfect; calyx 5-cleft; filaments united 
in a tube; anthers 1-loculed 3. Froelichia 

1. Amaranthus L. — Amaranth 
1. Flowers in dense terminal and axillary panicles; plants tall, erect. 

2. Leaves with a pair of rigid axillary spines; waste ground, common; nat. 

from trop. Am. July-Oct. Spiny Amaranth A. spinosus L. 

2. Leaves without spines. 

3. Spikes stout, 1-1.5 cm. thick; stem pubescent; common weed in fields 
and waste ground; nat. from trop. Am. Aug.-Sept. Rough Pigweed 

A. retroflexus L. 

3. Spikes slender, 4-6 mm. thick; stem glabrous. 

4. Bracts deltoid-lanceolate, half the length of the .sepals; river banks, 

rare A. ambigens Standi. 

4. Bracts subulate, twice the length of the sepals; weed in waste 

ground; nat. from trop. Am. Sept.-Oct A. hybridus L. 

1. Flowers in small axillary clusters; plants diffusely branched or prostrate. 
5. Stems prostrate or ascending, forming a loose mat; upper leaves scarcely 
reduced; sepals 4-5; utricle smooth or nearly so when dry; seeds about 
1 mm. in diameter; fields and roadsides, common. July-Sept. Prostrate 

Amaranth A . blitoides Wats. 

5. Stems erect, forming round, bushy-branched tumbleweeds in late summer; 
upper leaves much reduced; sepals 3; utricle rugose when dry; seeds 
about 0.5 mm. in diameter; waste ground and fields, common. July- 
Sept. Tumbleweed A. graecizans L. 

2. Acnida L. — Water-hemp 

l.Stem erect, 1-3 m. tall; leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate. 
2. Leaves obtuse or notched at the apex; pistillate inflorescence of slender in- 
terrupted spikes; fruit circumscissile; sandy soil. July-Sept 

A. tamariscina (Nutt.) Wood 

122 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Leaves acute or acuminate; pistillate inflorescence of closely clustered 
spikes; fruit indehiscent or splitting irregularly; seeds about 0.8 mm. in 

diameter; banks of streams. July-Sept. [A. tuberculata Moq.} 

A. altissima Riddell 

l.Stem slender, decumbent or prostrate, 10-40 cm. long; leaves obovate or 
spatulate, rounded or obtuse at the apex; pistillate inflorescence of closely 
clustered spikes; fruit indehiscent or irregularly splitting; seeds 1-1.2 mm. 

in diameter; banks of streams. July-Sept 

A. subnuda (Wats.) S'tandley 

3. Froelichia Moench 

F. campestris Small. Sandy soil, chiefly in the w. half of the state; also 
Kankakee Co. June-Sept. [F. floridana of auth., not Moq.} 

53. Phytolaccaceae Lindl. — Pokeweed Family 
1. Phytolacca L. — Pokeweed 
P. americana L. Woods and fields, common. June-Sept. [P. decandra L.} 

54. Nyctaginaceae Lindl. — Four-o'clock Family 

(^Allwnia Loefl.; Oxvbaphus L'Her.) 

1. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, all except the uppermost petiolate; gravelly 
or sandy soil, particularly along railroad embankments, common through- 
out 111. May-Aug. Umbrella-wort M. nyctaginea (Michx.) MacM. 

1. Leaves linear to lanceolate, sessile. 

2. Leaves lanceolate, 0.5-5 cm. wide; sandy meadow near lake, Hyde Park, 

Chicago, Aug. 8, 1889, Agnes Chase 1173 

M. hirsuta (Pursh) MacM. 

2. Leaves linear, thick, glaucous, usually not more than 5 mm. wide; road- 
side near Morgan Park, Cook Co., Aug. 16, 1898, Hdl 

M. linearis (Pursh) Heimerl 

55. Illecebraceae Lindl. — Whidow-wort Family 

1 . Leaves oval 1 . ParoiiMchia 

1. Leaves linear-subulate 2. Scleranihus 

1. Paronychia Adans. — Forked-chickweed 

(Anychia Michx.) 
l.Stem glabrous; sepals oval; utricle longer than the calyx; sandy soil. June- 

Aug P. canadensis (L.) Wood 

1. Stem puberulent; sepals ovate; utricle about as long as the calyx; sandy soil, 

not common. June-Sept. [Anychia polygonoides Raf.] 

P. jastigiata (Raf.) Fern. 

2. Scleranthus L. 
S. annuus L. Waste ground; nat. from Eur. Apr. -Oct. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 58. Caryophyllaceae 123 

56. AizoACEAE A. Br. — Carpetweed Family 

1. Mollugo L. 

M. verticillata L. Carpetweed. Fields, roadsides, and waste places, com- 
mon; nat. from the s. states. June-Oct. 

57. PoRTULACACEAE Reichenb. — Purslane Family 

1. Leaves several, clustered at the base of the stem, terete; petals rose; capsule papery, 

opening by 3 valves 1. Talinum 

I. Leaves not all clustered at the base of the stem. 

2. Leaves 2, linear-lanceolate; petals pink or white; capsule 3-6-seeded, opening by 

3 valves 2. Cla})tonia 

2. Leaves numerous, thick, spatulate; petals yellow (in our species); capsule circum- 
scissile, many-seeded 3. Poriulaca 

I. Talinum Adans. 
T. rugospermum Holz. Rock Pink. Sandy soil, rare; Henderson, La Salle, 
Lee, Ogle, and Jo Daviess counties. June- Aug. 

2. Claytonia L. 

C. virginica L. Spring Beauty. Woods and waysides, abundant throughout 
the state. Mar-. May. 


p. oleracea L. Purslane. Fields and waste ground, common; nat. from Eur. 

58. Caryophyllaceae Reichenb. — Pink Family 

1. Sepals separate or nearly so; petals without claws or appendages. 
2. Petals deeply 2-cleft or 2-parted. 

3. Capsules cylindrical, commonly curved, opening by a row of 10 (rarely 8) apical 
teeth; styles 5 1. Ceraslium 

3. Capsules ovoid or ellipsoid, splitting into usually 6 (rarely 8 or 10) valves; styles 

3 (except in S. aquatica) 2. Stellaria 

2. Petals entire or emargmate, or absent. 

4. Styles as many as the sepals 3. Sagina 

4. Styles fewer than the sepals 4. Arenaria 

1. Sepals united into a tubular calyx; petals clawed. 

5. Calyx-teeth much longer than the calyx-tube; styles 5 5. Agroslemma 

5. Calyx-teeth much shorter than the calyx-tube. 

6. Styles 5 or 3 (0 in the staminate flowers of L\]chnis). 

7. Styles 3, rarely 4; flowers perfect; capsule opening by 6 teeth 6. Silene 

7. Styles 5 (or flowers unisexual) ; capsule opening by 10 teeth 7. L))chtus 

6. Styles 2; calyx terete or 5-angled 8. Saponaria 

I. Cerastium L. — Mouse-ear Chickweed 
L Petals much longer than the sepals. 

2. Flowers L2-2 cm. broad; fruiting calyx 6-7 mm. long; capsule 12-14 mm. 
long; seeds 1 mm. in diameter; plants perennial; in thin soil, chiefly in 
limestone areas. May-June. [C. arvense sensu auth., non L.; C. arvense 
var. oblongifolium (Torr.) Hollick &C Britt.] Field Mouse-ear Chick- 
weed C. velutinum Raf. 

2. Flowers 5-8 mm. broad; fruiting calyx 4-5 mm. long; capsule 9-11 mm. 
long; seeds 0.4-0.6 mm. in diameter; plants annual; moist ground, com- 
mon. Apr. -May. Nodding Mouse-ear Chickweed C. nutans Raf. 

124 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Petals equalling or only slightly longer than the sepals. 

3. Pedicels longer than the sepals, the cyme therefore rather loose; sepals 
acutish or obtuse, 4-5 mm. long, elliptical-lanceolate, broadly scarious- 
margined; stems spreading, 10-30 cm. long; plants perennial or bien- 
nial; waste ground, lawns, fields, common, nat. from Eur. May-Aug. 
Common Mouse-ear Chickweed C. vulgatiim L. 

3. Pedicels scarcely longer than the sepals, the cyme therefore compact; 
sepals acuminate, 5-6 mm. long, linear-lanceolate, narrowly scarious- 
margined; stem erect, 10-25 cm. tall; plants annual; moist ground; nat. 
from Eur. Apr.-May C. viscosuf?i L. 

2. Stellaria L. — Chickweed 
(Alsine L. ex p., non Wahl.) > 

1 . Leaves oval or ovate. 

2. Petals shorter than the sepals; stem terete, with a single line of hairs; 
stamens 3-7; styles 3-4; plant annual; waste ground and fields, very 

common, adv. from Eur. Mar.-June. Common Chickweed 

S. media (L.) Cyrill. 

2. Petals much longer than the sepals; stem more or less angled, glabrous 

below, glandular-puberulent above; stamens 10; styles 5; plant peren- 
nial; waste places, occasional; adv. from Eur. Waukegan, Lake Co., 
July 1, 1908, Gates 2820; Jo Daviess Co., G. N. Jones 15861; Sanga- 
mon Co., G. D. Fuller 4460. Water Chickweed 

S. aquatica (L.) Scop. 

1 . Leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate. 

3. Pedicels erect; flowers few or solitary; leaves linear-lanceolate, widest near 

the base; seeds smooth; moist ground, not common. July-Aug. [5. 
longipes sensu auth., non Goldie} S. stricta Richards. 

3. Pedicels spreading, the cymes diffuse. 

4. Leaves linear, acute at each end; fruiting calyx 2-3 mm. long; seeds 
smooth; moist ground. May-June iS'. longifolia Muhl. 

4. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, broadest near the base; fruiting calyx 4-5 
mm. long; seeds rugulose; moist ground; adv. from Eur. May-June 
S. gramin-'a L. 

3. Sagina L. — Pearl wort 
S. decumbens (Ell.) Torr. & Gray. Dry ground, not common. Apr.-May. 

4. Arenaria L. — Sandwort 

{Moehringia L.) 
1. Leaves oval or ovate; valves of the capsules 2-toothed or 2-cIeft. 

2. Leaves oval, obtuse, 1-3 cm. long; sepals obtuse, shorter than the petals; 

seeds smooth; woods in the n. half of the state. May-June 

A. lateriflora L. 

2. Leaves ovate, acute, 2-8 mm. long; sepals acuminate, longer than the 
petals; seeds rough; waste ground; adv. from Eur. Apr.-June. Thyme- 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 58. Caryophyllaceae 125 

leaved Sandwort .' A. serpyllijolia L. 

1 . Leaves linear-filif orm or subulate; valves of the capsule entire. 

3. Leaves rigid, subulate, evergreen, with others fascicled in the axils; plant 
perennial, glabrous; capsule shorter than the sepals; dry wooded bluffs, 
and on rocks, rare; n. 111. May-July. [/4. mkhauxii (Fenzl) Hook, f.] 
A. stricta Michx. 

3. Leaves soft, linear-filiform; plant annual; pedicels glandular-puberulent; 
capsule nearly equalling the sepals; wooded slopes along streams, rare. 
May-June A . patula Michx. 

5. Agrostemma L. 

A. githago L. Com Cockle. An occasional weed in fields and waste ground; 
seeds poisonous; adv. from Eur. May-July. 

6. SiLENE L. — Catchfly 
1 . Leaves opposite, not whorled. 

2. Calyx ovoid or clavate, not becoming inflated in fruit or constricted at 
the mouth. 
3. Stem glabrous or nearly so, or the upper intemodes glutinous. 

4. Flowers 12-17 mm. in diameter, in flat-topped cymes; calyx clavate, 
1-1.5 cm. long; leaves ovate-lanceolate; waste places, adv. from 
Eur. June-July. Sweet William S. armeria L. 

4. Flowers 3-4 mm. in diameter, paniculate; calyx ovoid, 5-8 mm. long; 

upper leaves linear to lanceolate; roadsides and fields, not uncom- 
mon. May-July. Sleepy Catchfly .S". antirrhina L. 

3. Stem puberulent. 

5. Calyx 12-25 mm. long. 

6. Petals white or pink; calyx 12-16 mm. long; roadsides and fields, 

adv. from Eur. June-July. Forked Catchfly 

S. dkhotoma Ehrh. 

6. Petals crimson or scarlet; calyx 15-25 mm. long. 

7. Leaves ovate-lanceolate; petals mostly undivided; roadsides and 
prairies, s. 111., rare. July-Aug. Royal Catchfly S. regia Sims 

7. Leaves spatulate or oblanceolate; petals 2-cleft; woods. Apr.- 
July. Firepink S. virginici L. 

5. Calyx 3-4 cm. long, its lobes linear-lanceolate, 4-8 mm. long; petals 
white; cultivated ground or roadsides, adv. from Eur. June-July. 
Night- flowering Catchfly S. noct'tflora L. 

2. Calyx strongly inflated in fruit, more or less constricted at the mouth. 
8. Calyx campanulate or subglobosc, veiny; plants glaucous; flowers nu- 
merous in loose terminal panicles; fields or roadsides, adv. from Eur. 
May-July. [5'. inflata Sm.; S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke; S. lati- 

folta (Mill.) Britten & Rendle.} Bladder Catchfly 

S. cucubalus Wibel 

126 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

8. Calyx subcylindrical; plants not glaucous; flowers few, usually solitary; 

woods, not common. June-July. [5. alba Muhl.} 

S. nivea (Nutt.) Otth. 

1. Leaves mostly in whorls of four, acuminate; petals white, 1.5-2 cm. long; 
calyx campanulate, 1-1.5 cm. long; woods, common. June-Aug. [5. stel- 
lata var. scabrella Palmer & Steyerm.} S. stellata (L.) Ait. 

7. Lychnis L. — Campion 

{Melandrium Roehl) 
1. Flowers white or pink, fragrant, opening in the evening; similar in appear- 
ance to Silene noctiflora, but plants dioecious or monoecious, calyx-teeth 
triangular, 3-5 mm. long, styles 5, and the capsules with 5 bifid teeth; 

fields and roadsides; nat. from Eur. May-Aug. Evening Campion 

L. alba Mill. 

1. Flowers red, inodorous, opening in the morning; waste places, occasional; 
adv. from Eur. June-Aug. Red Campion L. dioica L. 

8. Saponaria L. 

{Vaccaria Medic.) 
1. Calyx terete; flowers 2-3 cm. in diameter (sometimes double), in dense 
corymbiform cymes; plants perennial; roadsides, common, adv. from Eur. 
June-Sept. Bouncing Bet S. officinalis L. 

1. Calyx sharply 5-angled; flowers 6-8 mm. in diameter, few, in a loose cyme; 
plants annual; roadsides and fields, adv. from Eur. June-Aug. [Vaccaria 
vulgaris Host} Cow-herb S. vaccaria L. 

59. Elatinaceae Lindl. — Waterwort Family 
1. Elatine L. — Waterwort 
E. brachysperma Gray. Shallow water, rare. Springfield, Bebb.; Athens, 

60. Magnoliaceae J. St. Hil. — Magnolia Family 

1. Leaves entire, acute or acuminate; buds pubescent; fruit a follicle \. Magnolia 

1 . Leaves with a truncate apex and two broad lateral lobes; buds glabrous; fruit a 
samara 2. LirioJendron 

1. Magnolia L. 

M. acuminata L. Cucumber Tree. Woods, s. 111., as far north as Union, 
Johnson, and Pope counties. May. 

2. Liriodendron L. — Tulip Tree 
L. tulipifera L. Woods, local; s. 111., extending northw. to St. Clair and 
Crawford counties. Apr.-June. 

61. Annonaceae DC. — Custard-apple Family 
1. AsiMiNA Adans. 

A. triloba (L.) Dunal. Pawpaw. Woods, nearly throughout 111., extending 
northw. to Cook and Lee counties. Apr.-May. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 62. Ranunculaceae 127 

62. Ranunculaceae Juss. — Buttercup Family 

1 . Flowers yellow. 

2. Petals none; sepals petal-like, yellow, deciduous; leaves crenate; carpels several- 
ovuled, becoming follicles I . Callha 

2. Petals present; sepals green; carpels I -ovuled, becoming achenes 9. Ranunculus 

I. Flowers not wholly yellow. 

3. Flowers white to pink. 

4. Stems climbing; leaves opposite; flowers in panicles, dioecious 15. Clemalis 

4. Stems not climbing; leaves not opposite. 

5. Flowers zygomorphic; upper petal spurred; leaves palmately divided or cleft; 

inflorescence a raceme 7. Delphinium 

5. Flowers actinomorphic, spurless. 

6. Aquatic plants with finely dissected leaves; sepals 5, green; petals 5, white; 

carpels I -ovuled, becoming achenes 9. Ranunculus 

6. Not aquatic, mostly woodland plants. 

7. Flowers racemose; petals small, stamen-like or none; leaves ternately 
8. Racemes simple, short; fruit red or white, berry-like 5. Aclaea 

8. Racemes paniculate, elongate; fruit a follicle 6. Cimicifuga 

7. Flowers solitary or in pairs, or 3 or 4 in an umbel, not racemose. 

9. Flowers with an involucre of 3 sepal-like bracts immediately beneath 

the calyx; leaves 3-lobed 14. Hepalica 

9. Flowers without an involucre, or the involucre similar to the leaves, and 

remote from the flowers. 

10. Sepals 3, petaloid, evanescent; petals none; carpels 2-ovuled, 

becoming berries ; leaves reniform, palmately lobed....2. Hydrastis 

10. Sepals 5 or more, petal-like; petals none; fruit of achenes or 


II. Leaves palmately lobed or cleft, the segments usually sessile; 

fruit of achenes; plants with a rhizome or caudex 

12. Anemone 

1 1 . Leaves ternately compound, the leaflets stalked. 

12. Flower solitary; leaflets mucronulate; carpels 3-4, each 2-3- 
ovuled, becoming divaricate, slender-beaked follicles 5 mm. 
long; style present; roots not at all or only slightly 

thickened 3. Isopyrum 

12. Flowers usually 3 or 4 in an umbel; leaflets not mucronulate; 
carpels 4-15, each 1 -ovuled, becoming ribbed achenes 8-12 
mm. long at maturity; stigma sessile; roots tuberous- 
thickened 13. Anemonella 

3. Flowers red, blue, purple, or greenish. 

13. Leaves entire, basal, linear; sepals minutely spurred at base; receptacle becom- 
ing conspicuously elongated 8. Myosurus 

13. Leaves lobed, parted, or compound. 

14. Flowers red, spurred, nodding so that the five spurs point upward; stamens 

exserted; anthers yellow 4. Aqudegia 

14. Flowers not red. 

15. Flowers spurred, blue; leaves alternate 6. Delphinium 

1 5. Flowers spurless ; petals none. 
16. Leaves alternate. 

17. Leaves simple, palmately lobed; flowers all perfect. 

18. Flowers solitary, subtended by 3 small sessile bracts simulating 

a calyx; sepals 6-12 14. Hepalica 

18. Flowers corymbose; involucres none; sepals 3-5, usually 4.... 

1 1 . Traulvetleria 

17. Leaves ternately compound; flowers polygamous or dioecious.... 

10. Thalictrum 

16. Leaves not alternate; flowers solitary. 

19. Leaves (of the stem) whorled, dissected 12. Anemone 

19. Leaves opposite 15. Clematis 

128 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Caltha L. — Marsh-marigold 
C. palustris L. Wet ground, centr. and n. III. Apr. -May. 

2. Hydrastis Ellis 
H. canadensis L. Goldenseal. Woods, not common. Apr.-May. 


7. b'lternatum (Raf.) T. & G. False Rue Anemone. Moist woods, common 
throughout 111., except the s. part. Apr.-May. 

4. Aquilegla L. — Columbine 
A. canadensis L. Wooded ravines, throughout III. Apr.-June. 

5. AcTAEA L. — Baneberry 

1. Pedicels in fruit nearly as thick as the peduncle; petals usually truncate at 
apex; fruit greenish white, tipp>ed with the sessile purple stigma; seeds 3- 
10, each 4-5 mm. long; rich woods, common. Apr.-June. \^A. pachypoda 

Ell.; A. "brachypoda" Rydb.} White Baneberry. Doll's Eyes 

A. alba (L.) Mill. 

1. Pedicels slender; petals spatulate, tapering to the tip; fruit red, poisonous; 

seeds 10-16, each 3-4 mm. long; woods, n. 111. Apr.-June 

...A. rubra (Ait.) Willd. 


C. racemosa (L.) Nutt. Black Cohosh. Bugbane. Woods, very rare, St. 
Clair and Wabash counties. June-July. 

7. Delphinium L. — Larkspur 

1. Carpel 1; follicle erect, pubescent; flowers blue, pink, or white; annual, nat. 
from Eur., frequently cult, and occasionally escaped to roadsides, fields, 
and waste places. June-Aug D. ajacis L. 

1. Carpels 3; native perennials. 

2. Follicles erect, puberulent; roots elongate; rac-emes 10-20 cm. long. 

3. Flowers white or bluish white; racemes virgate; seeds wingless; prairies 
and open woods, w. 111., rare. May-June. [D. albescens Rydb.; D. 
penardi of auth., not Huth} Prairie Larkspur D. vircscens Nutt. 

3. Flowers blue; raceme lax; seeds winged; "banks of the Mississippi near 

Oquawka," Patterson. [D. azureum Michx.} Blue Larkspur 

D. carolinianum Walt. 

2. Follicles wid'ely divergent; roots short, tuberous; racemes lax; flowers blue 
(rarely white); woods, local; apparently absent from the n. part of the 
state. May-June. Dwarf Larkspur D. tricorne Michx. 

8. Myosurus L. — Mousetail 

M. minimus L. Moist ground in woods, local. Apr.-June. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 62. Ranunculaceae 129 

9. Ranunculus L. — Buttercup 

{Datrachium S. F. Gray) 
1 . Petals white; achenes transversely wtiiikled; plants aquatic. 

2. Beak of achene 0.5-1 mm. long; leaves rigid, not collapsing when wirh- 
drav/n from the water; ponds and slow streams. May-July. [/?. circi- 
natiis sensu auth., non Sibth.} R. longirostrts Godr. 

2. Beak of achene minute; leaves soft, usually collapsing when withdrawn 

from the water; ponds and slow streams. May-July. {R. aquatilis L., 
var. capillaceus DC.} R. trichopbyllus Chaix 

1. Petals yellow; achenes not transversely wrinkled. 

3. Plants stoloniferous, the cordate or reniform crenate glabrous leaves 

basal and at the nodes of the stolons; flowers 6-8 mm. in diameter, the 
5-8 petals slightly shorter than the oval sepals; achenes thin-v/alled, dis- 
tinctly striate or ribbed, minutely apiculate, in ellipsoid heads 5-15 mm. 
long; wet sandy soil, n. 111., not common. May-July. \^Oxygraphis cym- 

balaria (Pursh) Prantl; Halerpestes cymbalaria (Pursh) GreeneJ 

R. cymbalaria Pursh 

3. Plants not stonoliferous; achenes not thin-walled or striate. 

4. Plants aquatic, immersed in water or creeping on mud, the leaves pal- 
mately lobed or divided, or finely dissected into filiform divisions. 
June-Aug. [R. delphinifolius Torr.} R. flabellaris Raf. 

4. Plants not floating; if stems creeping in mud and rooting at the nodes, 
the leaves not finely dissected. 

5. Basal leaves merely denticulate or crenate. 

6. Leaves lanceolate or oblong- lanceolate, remotely denticulate. 

7. Achenes compressed, the body 1-2 mm. long, the beak subulate, 
1 mm. long; head of achenes 6-8 mm. in diameter; plants 
perennial; swamps or ditches, local. June-Aug. [R. obtusius- 
cidus Raf. and R. laxicaulis (T. dC G.) Darby, are nomina 
dubia.} R. ambigens Wats. 

7. Achenes turgid, keeled, 0.7-1 mm. long, apiculate; head of 

achenes 3-4 mm. in diameter; plants annual; wet ground, s. 

III. May-June R. oblongijolius Ell. 

6. Basal leaves reniform or cordate, merely crenate (some of the 
later ones often lobed or cleft) ; stem-leaves cleft or lobed; 
achenes minutely beaked, in globose bear's. 

8. Petals much longer than the sepals; flowers 1.5 cm. or more in 

diameter; plant more or less pubescent; prairies, Jo Daviess 
Co., May 1891, Pepoon. [R. oralis Raf. (?); R. brevicaulis 

Hook.} Prairie Buttercup R. rhomboideus Goldie 

8. Petals shorter than the sepals; flowers less than 1 cm. in diam- 
eter; plant glabrous or nearly so; moist ground, very common. 

Apr. -May. Small-flowered Buttercup R. abortivus L. 

5. Leaves all lobed or divided. 

9. Petals not longer than the sepals; flowers less than 1 cm. in diam- 

130 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

10. Stem glabrous or nearly so, hollow; acbencs merely apiculate, 
in ellipsoid heads; along ditches, in the n. half of th? state. 
May-July. Celery-leaved Buttercup R. sceleratus L. 

10. Stem pubescent. 

11. Basal leaves slightly lobed; achenes with a short, recurved 
beak, in globose heads; woods, s. 111., not common. Apr.- 
May R. micranthus Nutt. 

11. Basal leaves deeply parted or divided. 

12. Leaf-divisions merely serrate; heads of achenes globose, 
the achenes with slender, hooked beaks; woods. Apr.- 
June R. recurvatus Poir. 

12. Leaf-divisions cleft or incised; heads of achenes ellip- 
soid, the achenes with short nearly straight beaks; wet 
ground. July-Aug R. pennsyhanicus L. £. 

9. Petals longer than the sepals; flowers 1.5-2.5 cm. in diameter. 

13. Beak of the mature achene less than 1 mm. long, recurved. 
14. Stem more or less cormose-thickened at base; leaves with 
the terminal division stalked; sepals reflexed; fields and 
roadsides, adv. from Europe. May-July. Bulbous Butter- 
cup R. bulbosus L. 

14. Stem not swollen at base; leaves with all the divisions ses- 

sile; sepals spreading; roadsides and fields, adv. from 
Europe. May-July. Tall Buttercup R. acris L. 

13. Beak of the mature achene 1 mm. or more in length. 

15. Petals broadly obovate; plants stoloniferous. 

16. Beak of the achene curved; mature achene 2-2.5 mm. 
in diameter; roadsides and fields, comm.on; adv. from 

Europe. Apr.-June. Creeping Buttercup 

R. repens L. 

16. Beak nearly straight; mature achene 3-3.5 mm. in diam- 

eter; wet woods, common. Apr.-June. Marsh Butter- 
cup R. septejitnonalis Poir. 

15. Petals oval or narrowly obovate; achenes 2-2.5 mm. in 
diameter; plants not stoloniferous. 

17. Stem strigose; leaf -lobes narrow; root tuberous-thick- 

ened; woods and meadows. Apr.-May. Tufted Butter- 
cup R. fascicularis Muhl. 

17. Stem villous; leaf-lobes oval to oblanceolate; roots not 
thickened; woods or roadsides. Apr.-May. Bristly 
Buttercup R. hispidus Michx. 

10. Thalictrum L. — Meadow-rue 

1. Leaflets glabrous on both surfaces. 

2. Leaflets thin, suborbicular in outline, obtusely 5-9-lobed; stem-leaves 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 62. Ranunculaceae 131 

slender-petioled; rich woods. Apr.-May. Early Meadow-rue 

T. dioicum L. 

2. Leaflets thick, oval, sharply 3-Iobed, revolute-margiri'ed; stem-leaves ses- 

sile or nearly so; moist thickets and hedge-rows. June-July 

T. hypoglaucum Rydb. 

1. Leaflets glandular or short-pubescent beneath; stem-leaves sessile. 

3. Leaflets finely glandular with short-stipitate or sessile glands on the lower 

surface; woods and roadsides, local. May-June. Waxy Meadow-rue 

T. revolutum DC. 

3. Leaflets finely short-pubescent on the lower surface, not glandular; moist 

ground, local. May-June. Purplish Meadow-rue 

T. dasycarpiim Fisch. 8C Lall. 

1 1 . Trautvetteria Fisch. & Meyer 

T. cawlinensis (Walt.) Vail. False Bugbane. Possibly along the Wabash 
River in s.e. 111.; near Beardstown, Cass Co., S. B. Mead. June-July. 

12. Anemone L. 

(Pulsatilla Adans.) 

1. Styles elongate, plumose; plant villous; leaf-segments linear; sepals 5-7, 
bluish-purple, 2-3.5 cm. long; prairie soil, n. 111. Mar. -Apr. [/4nemone 
patens var. woljgangiana of Gray, not Koch; Pulsatilla hirsutissima 
(Pursh) Britt.} Pasque Flower A. ludoviciana Nutt. 

1 . Styles shorter, glabrous or pubescent, not plumose; sepals white. 

2. Achenes villous. 

3. Stem-leaves siessile; stem arising from a small tuber; sepals 6-20, pubes- 
cent outside; bluflFs, rare; centr. and n. 111. Apr.-May 

A. caroliniana Walt. 

3. Stem-leaves stalked; plants with rhizomes. 

4. Fruiting heads cylindrical, more than twice as long as wide; style 1 
mm. long; leaf-segments toothed above the middle; roadsides or 
open woods, centr. and n. 111. May-July A. cyl.ndrlca Gray 

4. Fruiting heads ellipsoid, not more than twice as long as wide; style 
1.5-2 mm. long; leaf-segments sharply serrate to below the middle; 

woods, throughout 111. June-Aug. Tall Anemone 

A. virginiana L. 

2. Achenes not villous; plants with rhizomes. 

5. Stem-leaves sessile; basal leaves simple, deeply lobed; achenes wing- 
margined when mature; flowers 1-3; alluvial soil, centr. and n. III. 
May- July. Meadow Anemone A. canadensis L. 

5. Stem-leaves stalked; basal leaf solitary, compound, appearing later; 
achenes not wing-margined; flower solitary; rich woods, not common; 

chiefly n. and e.-centr. III. Apr.-May. Wood Anemone 

A. quinquefolia L. 

132 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

13. Anemonella Spach 

{Svndesmon Hoffmg.) 
A. thalictroides (L.) Spach. Rue-anemone. Dry open woods, local. Apr.- 
May. [Thalictrum anemonoides Michx.] 

14. Hepatica Hill 
1. Leaf-lobes acute or acutish; flowers varying from purplish to white; woods, 

not uncommon. Apr. -May [H. acuta (Pursh) Britt.] 

H. acutiloba DC. 

1. Leaf-lobes rounded at the apex; woods, n.e. III. [H. triloba sensu auth., 

non Chaix} H. americana (DC.) Ker 

15. Clematis L. 

{Viorna Reichenb.; Atragene L.) 
1. Flowers solitary, nodding; sepals purplish. 

2. Leaves conspicuously reticulate beneath; sepals thick, leathery, the tips 
recurved, marginless or only narrowly margined; fruiting styles glabrous 
or nearly so; moist woods and thickets, common. June-Aug. Leather- 
flower C. pitcheri T. &: G. 

2. Leaves thin, not conspicuously reticulate. 

3. Sepals thick, leathery, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; fruiting styles plumose; thickets 
and stream banks, rare, s. 111. June-July. [Viorna ndgwayi Standi.] 

C. viorna L. 

3. Sepals thin, 3-4.5 cm. long, with wide undulate or crisped margins; 
fruiting styles pubescent but not plumose; s. 111., not common. Pulas- 
ki Co., Brendel C. crispa L. 

1. Flowers panicled; sepals white, thin, spreading, 8-12 mm. long; moist 
ground, local. July-Aug. Virgin's Bower C. v'lrgintana L. 

63. Nelumbonaceae Lindl. — Lotus Family 

1 . Petals and sepals each 3-4. 

2. Leaves all peltate, entire, floating; stamens 12-18; carpels 4-18 1. Brasenia 

2. Submersed leaves dissected; stamens 6; carpels 2-3 2. Cahomha 

1. Petals and stamens numerous; sepals 4-5; leaves orbicular, 20-90 cm. broad; flowers 
pale yellow, 10-25 cm. in diameter; carpels immersed in a top-shaped receptacle 
3. N dumbo 

1. Brasenia Schreb. 

B. schreberi Gmel. Watershield. Ponds and slow streams, rare. Lnke and 
McHenry counties. June-July. 

2. Cabomba Aubl. 

C. caroliniana Gray. Ponds, s. 111., rare. Mt. Carmel, Oct. 12, 1876, 
Schneck 40. 

3. Nelumbo Adans. 

{I\chm)hitim Juss.) 
N. lutea (Willd.) Pers. American Lotus. Shallow water and muddy 
shores, local. July-Aug. [Nymphaea pentapetala Walt., based on a monstros- 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 66. Berberidaceae 133 

64. Nymphaeaceae DC. — Waterlily Family 

I . Leaves oval or ovate-lanceolate; flowers yellow; stamens hypogynous ; sepals 5-7; 

petals 10-20, small, filament-like 1. Niiphar 

I . Leaves orbicular; flowers white; stamens epigynous ; sepals 4; petals numerous 

- - 2. N^mphaea 

I. NUPHAR Smith 
(N^mphaea L., ex p.; Nymphozaiilhus Rich.) 
L Leaves oval; flowers 3-9 cm. in diameter; sepals 6; stamens in 5-7 rows; 
ponds and slow streams, rare. June-Aug. \N. advena var. brevtfolia 

Standi.] Yellow Pond Lily N. advena Ait. 

L Leaves ovate-lanceolate; flowers 2-3 cm. in diameter; sepals 5; stamens in 4- 
5 rows. Reported from the Lower Wabash Valley by J. Schneck in 1876. 
N. sagitttjolia (Walt.) Pursh 

2. Nymphaea L. — Waterlily 
(Casialia Salisb.) 

1. Flower not fragrant, 10-25 cm. in diameter; petals spatulate; leaves green 
beneath, prominently veined; rhizome with numerous self-detaching 
tubers; seeds 3-4.5 mm. long, globose-ovoid; ponds and slow streams, 
rare. June-Aug. White Waterlily N. tuberosa Paine 

1. Flower very fragrant, 6-12 cm. in diameter; petals elliptical; leaves purplish 
beneath, indistinctly veined; rhizome without tubers; seeds 1.5-2.5 mm. 
long, ellipsoid; lakes and shallow ponds, rare, n.e. 111. June-Sept. Fragrant 
Waterlily N. odorata Ait. 

65. Ceratophyllaceae Gray — Hornwort Family 

1. Ceratophyllum L. — Hornwort 

1. Leaf -divisions linear, rather rigid, flattened, serrate; achenes with a spine on 

each side at the base; ponds and slow streams, not uncommon 

C. demersum L. 

1 . Leaf-divisions filiform, flaccid, entire or with a few short bristles; achenes 
with 3-5 spines on each side; ponds and slow streams, local; Oquawka, 

Patterson; Kankakee De Selm; without locality, Mead in 1829 

C. echinatum Gray 

66. Berberidaceae T. & G. — Barberry Family 

I . Leaves simple ; flowers solitary, white ; petals 6-8. 

2. Leaves 7-9-lob£cl; berry yellowish green, pulpy, many-seeded, 4-5 cm. long 

I. Podophpllum 

2. Leaves 2-cleft; capsule obccnical, many-seeded, 1.5-2 cm. long, opening at the top 

by a lid 2. Jeffersonia 

I.Leaf ternately compound; flowers yellowish green, in a terminal panicle; sepals 6; 
petals 6, small, thick, spatulate, gland-like; seeds bluish-black, berry-like, about 8 
mm. in diameter 3. CaulophvUiim 

1. Podophyllum L. 
P. peltatum L. Mayappie or Mandrake. Woods, common, Apr. 

2. Jeffersonia Bart. 

r May 36\C>QS 

/. diphylla (L.) Pers. Twinleaf. Woods, local. Apr.-May. /Hq 

134 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

3. Caulophyllum Michx. 
C. thalictrotdes (L.) Michx. Blue Cohosh. Woods, common. Apr. -May. 

67. Menispermaceae DC. — Moonseed Family 

1 . Leaf-blades usually as broad as or broader than long; petioles 3-20 cm. long: drupe 


2. Leaf-blades reniform in outline, slightly peltate near the base, palmately 3-7-angled 

or shallowly lobed, dark green and glabrous above, paler and sparsely pilosulous 

along the veins beneath; panicles 2-6 cm. long; petals 6-9; sepals 4-10; stigma 

flabellate; stamens 12-18, or 24; drupe bluish black, about 1 cm. in diameter.... 

1 . Menispermiim 

2. Leaf-blades deeply palmately lobed, cordate at the base, the lobes acuminate; 
panicles 10-20 cm. long; sepals 9; petals 0; stamens 9 or 12; stigma radiate; 

drupe black, ovoid, 2-2.5 cm. long 2. Calvcocarpiim 

1 . Leaf-blades usually somewhat longer than broad, ovate or deltoid, sinuately lobed or 
entire, softly pubescent beneath; petioles 1-5 cm. long; petals, sepals, and stamens 
each 6, or the stamens in the pistillate flowers reduced or lacking; stigma subulate; 
drupe red, 6-8 mm. long 3. Cocculus 

I. Menispermum L. — Moonseed 

M. canadense L. In alluvial soil in woods, thickets, or along fences, com- 
mon. May-June. 

2. Calycocarpum Nutt. 

C. lyoni (Pursh) Nutt. Cupseed. Moist thickets, rich woods, and river 
banks, s. III., rare. June-July. 

3. Cocculus DC. 

{Cebatha Forsk. ; Epibaierium Forst.) 
C. carolinus (L.) DC. Carolina Snailseed. Banks of streams, s. 111., rare. 

68. Lauraceae Lindl. — Laurel Family 

1 . Flowers appearing with the leaves in corymbose racemes; anthers 4-loculed; leaves 
often lobed; fruit blue-black 1. Sassafras 

1. Flowers in small roundish nearly sessile umbel-like clusteis en ba:e twigs; anthers 
2-loculed; leaves always entire; fruit red 2. Lindcra 

1. Sassafras Nees — Sassafras. Ague-tree 

S. albidum (Nutt.) Nees. Rich woods, common throughout 111., except the 
n. counties. May. Variable as to pubescence. [S. variifoliui7i (Salisb.) Ktze; 
S. officinale Nees & Eberm.; S. alhidiini var. nioUc (Raf.) Fern.} 

2. LiNDERA Thunb. 
L. benzoin (L.) Blume. Spice-bush. In moist woods and along streams, 
common. Mar. -Apr. Specimens with petioles and lower surface of blades more 
or less pubescent [L. benzoin var. pubescens (Palmer & Steyerm.) Rehd.], 
have been mistaken for R. melissaefolium (Walt.) Nees, a species of more 
southerly range which probably does not occur in our limits. [^Benzoin aestivale 
(L.) Nees.} 

69. Papaveraceae B. Juss. — Poppy Family 

1. Flower white, solitary; petals 4-15 (usually 8), fugacious; leaves basal, glabrous, 
roundish, palmately lobed, glaucous beneath; plants perennial with horizontal 
rhizomes; juice red 1. Saugiilnarin 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 70. Fumariaceae 135 

1 . Flowers not white ; petals 4-6, fugacious. 

2. Flowers yellow; leaves pinnatifid; capsules dehiscent from the base; juice yellow. 
3. Petals 18-25 mm. long; buds erect, ovoid; capsules ovoid, acute at each end, 

bristly-hirsute 2. St\)lophorurn 

3. Petals 8-13 mm. long; buds nodding, obovoid; capsules linear, glabrous.. 

3. Chelidonium 

2. Flowers red or pink; juice milky; capsules globose or pyriform, opening by 4-20 
tooth-like lids under the margin of the discoid stigma 4. Papavcr 

1. Sanguinaria L. 
S. canadensis L. Bloodroot. Woods, common. Apr. 

2. Stylophorum Nutt. 
5". diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt. Celandine Poppy. Woods. Apr.-June. 

3. Chelidonium L. — Celandine 

C. ma'jus L. Occasionally found in waste places, roadsides, and woods, 
usually near towns; nat. from Eur. May-Aug. 

4. Papaver L. — Poppy 
1. Plant glaucous, glabrous; leaves lobed, clasping the stem; capsules globose; 

waste places, introd. from Eur. June- Aug. Opium Poppy 

P. somniferum L. 

1. Plant hirsute, not glaucous; leaves pinnate, tapering to the petioled base; 

capsules obovoid or turbinate; waste places, introd. from Eur. May-July. 

Com Poppy P. rhoeas L. 

70. Fumariaceae DC. — Fumitory Family 

1. Corolla with each of the two outer petals spurred or saccate at the base; capsules 

several-seeded 1 . Dicenlra 

1. Corolla with only one petal spurred. 

2. Flowers yellow or pinkish; capsules linear, several-seeded, dehiscent; style p)er- 

sistent 2. Cor^dalis 

2. Flowers deep purple tipped with crimson; pods globose, 1 -seeded, indehiscent, 
glabrous, minutely tuberculate; style deciduous 3. Fumaria 

1. Dicentra Bemh. 

{Bicuculla Adans.) 

1. Corolla with 2 divergent spurs; mner petals minutely crested; flowers not 
fragrant; stem from a bulb-like corm; woods, common. Apr.-May. 
Dutchman's-breeches D. cucullaria (L.) Bernh. 

1 . Corolla heart-shaped, the spurs short and rounded; crests of the inner petals 
conspicuous, projecting; flowers fragrant; stem from a short horizontal 
rhizome bearing small whitish or yellowish corms; woods, usually less 
common than the preceding species, beginning to flower a week or ten 
days later. Squirrel-corn D. canadensis (Goldie) Walp. 

(Capnoides Adans.) 

1. Flowers 5-9 mm. long, pale yellow; outer petals crested on the back. 

2. Crest of the petals dentate; capsules pendulous, on slender pedicels 1-1.5 

136 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

cm. long; seeds puncticulate, sharp-margined; moist woods, local. Apr.- 

May. [C. aurea of auth., not Willd.} Pale Corydalis 

C. flctvtda (Raf.) DC. 

2. Crest of the petals entire; capsules erect or ascending, the pedicels 2-3 

mm. long; seeds smooth, round-margined; woods, local. May-July. 

Small-flowered Corydalis C. micrantha (Engelm.) Gray 

1. Flowers 12-16 mm. long; outer petals not crested; capsules erect or as- 

3. Flowers orange-yellow; spur one-third to one-half the length of the corolla; 

capsules 1-1.5 cm. long, the pedicels 2-3 mm. long; seeds smooth; rocky 

woods in the n. third of 111. Apr.-May. Golden Corydalis 

C. montana Engelm. 

3. Flowers rose, tipped with yellow; spur short and rounded, less than I/4 
the l<ength of the corolla; capsules 3-4 cm. long; pedicels 6-10 mm. 
long; seeds slightly puncticulate; rocky woods, extending southw. to 
Morgan Co. May-Aug. Pink Corydalis C sempervirens (L.) Pers. 

3. FuMARiA L. — Fumitory 
F. officinalis L. Waste places, occasional; adv. from Eur. May-Aug. 

71. Cruciferae B. Juss. — Mustard Family 

1. Petals yellow, yellowish, or cream (sometimes fading whitish). 
2. Pods several times longer than wide. 

3. Pubescence of smiple hairs or plants glabrous. 
4. Pods with a distmct flattened or conical beak. 

5. Pods flattened. 2.5-4 cm. long, 2 mm. wide; petals twice as long as the 
sepals; leaves mostly basal, oblanceolate, smuate-dentate or pinnatifid.... 
4. Diplolaxis 

5. Pods terete, or slightly angular 3. Drassica 

4. Pods merely tipped with the style or stigma. 

6. Leaves lobed to pinnatifid; petals yellow. 

7. Pods 4-angled; seeds in I row in each locule; valves of the pod 1 -nerved 

5. Barbarea 

7. Pods terete or nearly so. 

8. Valves of the pod with 1-3 nerves; seeds in 1 row in each locule.... 

7. Sis\)mhriiim 

8. Valves nerveless; seeds in 2 rows in each locule 6. Rorippa 

6. Leaves entire, cordate-clasping the stem, glabrous, glaucous; petals cream, 

8-10 mm. long; pods linear, ascending, 8-10 cm. long 9. Connngia 

3. Pubescence (at least of the leaves) of branched hairs. 

9. Leaves entire to dentate; pubescence of appressed, 2-branched hairs which 
appear as if attached by the middle; petals more than 3 mm. long; pods 

4-angled 10. Erysimum 

9. Leaves bipinnatifid or Iripinnatifid, usually finely dissected, sparsely pubescent 
with short, branched hairs; petals 2-3 mm. long; pods terete or nearly so 

I 1 . Desciirainia 

2. Pods short, not more than three times as long as wide. 

10. Pods flattened parallel to the broad septum, orbicular, 3 mm. broad, shallowly 
notched at the apex; leaves linear-spafulate, entire, densely stellate-canescent 

21. Al'pssiitn 

10. Pods turgid, not compressed, or only slightly so, ellipsoid, obovoid, or globose. 

I 1 . Leaves plnnately parted or lobed; pods ellipsoid 6. Rorippa 

I 1 . Leaves entire or toothed, and except in Lesquerella, sagittate-clasping the 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 71. Cruciferae 137 

12. Pods globose. 

13. Pods reticulate when dry, indehiscent, 1-2-seeded; plant hispid with 

branched hairs 23. Neslia 

13. Pods smooth, dehiscent, 2-16-seeded; plant stellate-pubescent 

24. Lesquerella 

12. Pods obovoid 25. Camelina 

I. Petals white, pink, or purple (rarely absent), never yellow. 
14. Pods several times longer than wide (a silique). 

15. Pods indehiscent, cylindrical, several-seeded, with pith between the seeds but 
no true partitions, breaking at maturity into 1 -seeded segments; petals purple 
or white. 
16. Pod 2-seeded, 2-iointed 1. Cal(ile 

16. Pod several-seeded, several-jointed 2. Raphanus 

15. Pods dehiscent by 2 valves, without transverse partitions. 

17. Pods more or less flattened parallel to the septum. 

18. Leaves palmately cleft and divided 13. Dentaria 

18. Leaves otherwise. 

19. Pubescence of simple hairs or none; leaves simple or pinnately 
divided; valves of the pod nerveless, elastically dehiscent and 
recurving at maturity 15. Cardamine 

19. Pubescence, at least in part, of branched hairs. 

20. Pods slightly flattened, or nearly terete, more than 1.5 cm. long; 

stem leafy 1 6. Arabis 

20. Pods strongly flattened, 2-15 mm. long; leaves chiefly basal 

(except D. brachycarpa) 12. Draba 

17. Pods terete or tetragonal, net at all flattened. 

21. Valves of the pod conspicuously keeled, 3-nerved; leaves deltoid- 
cordate, dentate, petiolate; plant with garlic odor 8. Alliaria 

21. Valves of the pod rounded or flat. 

22. Leaves simple, pinnately lobed to entire. 

23. Petals white; plant sparsely pubescent with forked hairs; pods 
1-1.5 cm. long; stigma 2-lobed 17. Arabidopsis 

23. Petals purple; plant glabrous; lower leaves pinnatifid at the 
base, dentate, the upper ones lanceolate, dentate, tapering to 

an auriculate base; pods 2-3 cm. long; stigma entire 

14. lodanlhus 

22. Leaves odd-pinnate with 1-1 I roundish or oval leaflets; petals 
white; mature pods 1-2 cm. long, somewhat curved; aquatic 
glabrous perennial 1 8. Nasturtium 

14. Pods short, usually not more than three times as long as wide (a silicle). 
24. Pubescence, if any, of simple hairs. 

25. Pods terete, ellipsoid, or subglobose, not at all flattened; plants glabrous. 

26. Basal leaves 15-30 cm. long, oval or ovate, crenate; root large, thick, 

pungent; pods 2-loculed, seldom maturing, the style 0.5 mm. long 

- 20. Armoracia 

26. Basal leaves smaller, often finely divided (if in water) ; pods 1-loculed, 

the style 2-3 mm. long 19. Neobecl^ia 

25. Pods more or less compressed or flattened. 

27. Plants grayish pubescent; upp>er leaves ovate, clasping, dentate; the 

lower oblanceolate ; pods broadly ovate, indehiscent, papillose, 4 mm. 
broad, notched at the base, the style 1 -2 mm. long 26. Cardaria 

27. Plants green, pubescent or glabrous; pods suborbicular, dehiscent, 
notched at the apex. 

28. Pods 2-seeded, less than 5 mm. broad; branches puberulent 

- -.27. Lepidium 

28. Pods several-seeded, 1-1.5 cm. broad; plants glabrous.. ..28. Thlaspi 

138 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

24. Pubescence of forked or stellate hairs, at least on the stem. 

29. Petals deeply bifid; pods ellipsoid to nearly globose, scarcely flattened; 
seeds several in each locule, winged 22. Derteroa 

29. Petals entire or nearly so; pods strongly flattened. 

30. Plants densely stellate-pubescent; pods orbicular, 3 mm. broad, shallowly 

notched at the apex 21. Alvssum 

30. Plants nearly glabrous; pods triangular 29. Capsella 

1. Cakile Ludw. — Sea Rocket 

C. edentula (Bigel.) Hook. Shore of L. Michigan, not common. July- 

2. Raphanus L. — Radish 

1. Pods conspicuously torulose and longitudinally ridged when dry, 3-4 mm. 
thick; petals yellowish, spatulate, clawed, veiny, fading whitish or purplish; 
fields and waste ground, nat. from Eur. June-Aug. [^Raphanistrum inocuum 
Moench] Wild Radish R. raphanistrum L. 

l.Pods smooth, not torulose, 5-9 mm. thick; petals purple, less commonly 
white, 1.5-2 cm. long, conspicuously veined; fields and waste ground, 
escaped from cult. May-Sept. Radish R. sativus L. 

3. Brassica L. 
1 . Leaves not clasping the stem. 

2. Pods hispid, 3 cm. long, with a flattened beak half the length of the pod; 

fields and waste places, nat. from Eur. Apr.-Aug. White Mustard 

B. alba (L.) Rabenh. 

2. Pods glabrous. 

3. Pods ascending, 3-5 cm. long, 2-3 mm. thick, the beak 4-8 mm. long; 

pedicels ascending, 6-10 mm. long. 

4. Flowering pedicels 3-6 mm. long, shorter than the flowers; beak of 

the pod more or less flattened, usually containing a seed in the 

basal part; fields and waste places, nat. from Eur. May-Sept. Field 

Mustard B. arvensis (L.) Rabenh. 

4. Flowering pedicels 7-10 mm. long, equalling or exceeding the flowers; 
beak of the pod terete, seedless; fields and waste places, nat. from 
Eurasia. July-Sept. Indian Mustard B. juncea (L.) Cosson 

3. Pods 'erect, 1-1.5 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. thick; beak terete, 1.5-2 mm. 
long; pedicels erect, 3-5 mm. long; lielcb and waste places, nat. from 

Eur. Apr.-Sept. Black Mustard B. nigra (L.) Koch 

1. Upper leaves sessile and claspmg by the auriculate base. 

5. Leaves glaucous; petals pale yellow; fields and waste places, nat. from 

Eur. Apr.-Oct. Yellow Mustard B. campestris L. 

5. Leaves not glaucous; petals bright yellow; waste places, escaped from 
cult., native of Eur. Turnip B. rapa L. 

4. Diplotaxis DC. 

D. muralis (L.) DC. Sand Rocket. Waste places, occasional, adv. from 
Eur. June-Aug. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 71. Cruciferae 139 

5. Barbarea R. Br. — Wintercress 

1. Petals bright yellow, 6-8 mm. long; basal leaves with 2-8 lateral leaflets; 
mature pods 1.5-2.5 cm. long, the pedicel not as thick as the pod; road- 
sides, fields, and waste places, very common; nat. from Eur. Apr. -June 
[B. stncta of auth., not Andrz.; B. barbarea (L.) MacM.} Common 
Wintercress B. vulgaris R. Br. 

1. Petals pale yellow, 4-6 mm. long; basal leaves with 8-16 lateral leaflets; 
mature pods 5-6 cm. long; pedicels about as thick as the pods; waste 
places, occasional; nat. from Eur. May- June. [5. praecox R. Br.] Early 
Wintercress B. verna (Mill.) Aschers. 

6. RoRiPPA Scop. — Yellow Cress 

(Radicula Hill) 
1. Petals 3-5 mm. long; perennials with rhizomes. 

2. Leaves pinnately divided, not auriculate at base; pods linear, the style 0.5 

mm. long; moist ground, nat. from Eur. May-Sept 

R. sylvestris (L.) Besser 

2. Leaves pinnately lobed, auriculate at base; mature pods cylindrical, the 

style 2-3 mm. long; river banks. Apr.-Aug 

R. sinuata (Nutt.) Hitchc. 

1. Petals 1.5-2 mm. long; leaves with small auricles at base; style on mature 
pod not more than 0.5 mm. long; annual or biennial native species. 

3. Mature pods 6-12 mm. long, on pedicels 0.5-2 mm. long; stem glabrous; 

muddy creek banks, common. May-Oct 

R. sessiliflora (Nutt.) Hitchc. 

3. Mature pods 2-5 mm. long, on pedicels 3-10 mm. long. 

4. Stem glabrous or nearly so; wet ground or in water, common. May- 
Oct R. palustris (L.) Besser 

4. Stem hirsute; wet soil. June-Aug R. Inspida (Desv.) Britt. 

7. Sisymbrium L. 

1. Pods 1-1.5 cm. long, on very short pedicels closely appressed to the stem; 
petals 3 mm. long; stem divaricately branched above; leaves pinnatifid 
into 5-13 lobes; waste ground, common, nat. from Eur. May-Sept. Hedge 
Mustard S. officinale (L.) Scop. 

1. Pods 3-10 cm. long, spreading or ascending on slender pedicels; petals 5-8 
mm. long. 

2. Lower part of stem spreading-hirsute; upper leaves with linear divisions; 
petals pale yellow, 6-8 mm. long; pods 7-10 cm. long, the ascending 
pedicels 5-8 mm. long; a common weed in fields and waste places, nat. 
from Eur. May-Aug. Tumble Mustard S. altissimum L. 

2. Lower part of the stem retrorsely hirsute; upper leaves with lanceolate 
divisions; petals bright yellow, 5-6 mm. long; pods 3 cm. long, on 
spreading pedicels 1-1.5 cm. long; fields and waste places, adv. from 
Eur S. loeselii L. 

140 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

8. Alliaria Adans. — Garlic Mustard 

A. officinalis Andrz. Roadsides and waste places, adv. from Eur. May- 
June. lAlliaria alliaria (L.) Britt.] 

9. Conringia Link 

C. orientalis (L.) Dum. Hare's-ear Mustard. Waste places, occasional; 
adv. from Eur. May-July. 

10. Erysimum L. 

(Cheirinia Link) 
1. Petals more than 1 cm. long; pods 4-8 cm. long; plant biennial; sandy soil, 

Cass, Mason, and La Salle counties. May-June. Western Wallflower 

E. asperum DC. 

1. Petals 4-9 mm. long; annuals. 

2. Petals 4-5 mm. long; pods erect 2-2.5 cm. long, on ascending pedicels; 
leaves entire or nearly so; fields and waste places; chiefly in the n. half 
of the state. June-Aug. Wormseed Mustard E. cheiranthoides L. 

2. Petals 6-9 mm. long; pods spreading, 4-8 cm. long; leaves repand-dentate 
or denticulate; waste places, roadsides, fields, etc.; adv. from Eur. May- 
June E. repandum L. 

11. Descurainia Webb. &: Barth. — Tansy Mustard 

(Sophia Adans.) 

D. brachycarpa (Richards.) O. E. Schulz. Sandy soil or roadsides, com- 
mon. Apt. -June. [^Sisymbrium canescens Nutt., var. brachycarpon (Richards.) 

12. Draba L. — Whitlowcress 

1. Stem leafy -branched; pods narrowly oval, acute, 2-3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, 
glabrous, 6-16 seeded, equalling or exceeding the pedicels; petals entire, 

whitish, sometimes minute or none; dry soil, s. 111. Apr.-May 

D. brachycarpa Nutt. 

1. Stem scapose, the leaves chiefly basal; pods 15-60-seeded. 

2. Petals entire or emarginate, 3-5 mm. long: pods mostly longer than the 

3. Pods linear, 8-12 mm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, glabrous or hispidulous; 
rachis and pedicels glabrous; leaves entire or nearly so; sandy soil, 

locally abundant. Apr.-May. [D. caroliniana Walt.} 

D. rcptans (Lam.) Fern. 

3. Pods oval to linear-elliptical, 6-15 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, pubescent; 
rachis and pedicels pubescent; leaves dentate above the middle; sandy 

soil, s. 111. Mar.-May D. cuneifolia Nutt. 

2. Petals deeply 2-cleft; pods oval, glabrous, 4-10 mm. long, shorter than 
the pedicels; cultivated ground and waste places, occasional; nat. from 
Eurasia. Apr.-May D. verna L. 

13. Df.ntaria L. — Toothwort 
D. laciniata Muhl. Woods, common. Mar.-May. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 71. Cruciferae 141 

14. loDANTHus T. &: G. 
/. pinnatifidus (Michx.) Steud. Woods, especially near streams, common. 

15. Cardamine L. — Bittercress 
1. Leaves toothed or entire; petals 7-12 mm. long; plants perennial; stem with 
a tuberous base. 
2. Petals white; stem 15-50 cm. tall, puberulent at base, otherwise glabrous; 

basal leaves oval; cauline leaves 4-8; wet ground. May-June 

C. bulbosa (Schreb.) BSP. 

2. Petals pale lavender; stem 10-25 cm. tall, sparsely hirsute, varying to 

glabrous; basal leaves orbicular; cauline leaves 2-6; woods. Apr.-May .... 

C. douglassii (Torr.) Britt. 

1. Leaves pinnate or pinnatifid. 

3. Petals white or pink, 8-13 mm. long; plants perennial; wet ground, n. 

III., rare. Apr.-May C. pratensis L. 

3. Petals white, 2-3 mm. long; plants annual. 

4. Leaves nearly all basal, more or less pubescent; stamens 4; an occasional 

weed in cultivated ground; nat. from Eur. Apr.-May ....C. hirsuta L. 

4. Stem more or less leafy, the leaves glabrous; stamens usually 6; native 


5. Leaflets or leaf -segments of the median and upper leaves oblong to 

oval, often toothed, the terminal one larger; rachis narrowly 

winged; wet soil. Apr.-Aug C. pennsylvanica Muhl. 

5. Leaflets or leaf-segments of the median and upper leaves linear, 
entire, not decurrent, the terminal one similar; rachis not winged; 
moist soil. Apr.-May C arenicola Britt. 

16. Arabis L. — Rockcress 
1. Pods erect or ascending. 

2. Stem-leaves and basal leaves pinnatifid; pods ascending, 2-2.5 cm. long; 
petals 1.5-3 mm. long; rocky woods in the s. half of 111. Apr.-May 
[^Sibara yirginica (L.) Rollins} A. yirginica (L.) Poir. 

2. Stem-leaves entire or dentate. 

3. Stem-leaves not auricled at the base, spatulate or linear, 1-3 cm. long; 
basal leaves pinnatifid; pods ascending, 2-3.5 cm. long; petals 6-8 mm. 

long; rocky or sandy soil in the n. third of 111. May-July 

A. lyrata L. 

3. Stem-leaves auricled at the base; basal leaves entire or dentate. 
4. Mature pods erect or appressed, not more than 1 mm. wide. 

5. Pods 5-9 cm. long, nearly terete; seeds almost wingless, in two dis- 
tinct rows; petals 3-4 mm. long, cream or pale yellowish; waste 
places, nat. from Eur. May-July. [Turritis glabra L.} Tower 
Mustard A. glabra (L.) Bernh. 

5. Pods 4-5 cm. long, flat; seeds winged, in only 1 row; petals 4-5 
mm. long, white or pale pink; among rocks near streams. May- 
June. [A. hirsuta Am. Auth.; A. ovata (Pursh) Poir. (?)] 

A. pycnocarpa Hopkins 

142 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

4. Mature pods spreading or ascending, 1.5-2 mm. wide, flat; seeds 
winged, in two rows; petals 5-8 mm. long, pink; river banks, rare. 
Dixon, Lee Co., Vasey. June-July. [A. drummondii of auth., not 

Gray; A. divaricarpa of auth., not A. Nels.} A. confinis Wats. 

1. Pods divaricately spreading, or arcuate-recurved or pendulous at maturity. 
6. Leaves not auricled at base, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 3-12 cm. 
long; pods pendulous, falcate, 5-7 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide; seeds 
winged; petals 5-6 mm. long, greenish white; sepals pilosulous; wooded 

slopes. May-July. Sicklepod A. canadensis L. 

6. Leaves, at least the median and lower, auriculate at base; mature pods less 
than 2 mm. wide. 
7. Mature pods 2-2.5 cm. long, straight, spreading; seeds wingless; petals 
white or pale lavender, 2-3 mm. long; stem-leaves oblanceolate, ob- 
tusish, unequally dentate; moist woods near streams, common. May- 
June A. dentata T. & G. 

7. Mature pods 4-9 cm. long, arcuate-recurved; seeds winged; petals green- 
ish white, 4-6 mm. long; plant glabrous throughout; gravelly soil in 
woods. Apr. -June. Smooth Rockcress A. laevigata (Muhl.) Poir. 

17. Arabidopsis Heynh. 

(Sienophragma Celak.) 
A. thaliana (L.) Heynh. Mouse-ear Cress. Waste places, nat. from Eur. 
Apr. -June. \_Arabis thaliana L.; Sisymbrium thalianiim (L.) J. Gay] 

18. Nasturtium R. Br. — Watercress 
N. officinale R. Br. In clear water, especially in or near springs; nat. from 
Eurasia. May-Sept. [Sisymbriu7n nasturtium-aquaticum L.; Radicida nasturtium- 
aquaticum (L.) Britten & Rendle} 

19. Neobeckia Greene 

N. aquatica (Eaton) Greene. Ditches, ponds, or slow streams. June- Aug. 
\_Rorippa americana (Gray) Britt.; Radicida aquatica (Eaton) B. L. Robins.; 
Rorippa aquatica (Eaton) Palmer & Steyerm.; Nasturtium lacustre Gray; Ar- 
moracia aquatica (Eaton) Wieg.} 

20. Armoracia Gaertn. — Horseradish 
A. rusticana Gaertn. Waste places, ditches, roadsides, escaped from cult.; 
native of Eur. May-June. 

21. Alyssum L. — Sweet Alyssum 

A. alyssoides L. Fields and waste places, nat. from Eur. May-June. 

22. Berteroa DC. 

B. incana (L.) DC. Hoary Alyssum. Occasionally found in waste places, 
adv. from Eur. June-Sept. 

23. Neslia Desv. 
N. paniculata (L.) Desv. Ball Mustard. Waste ground, occasional; adv. 
from Eur. May-Sept. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 72. Capparidaceae 143 

24. Lesquerella Wats. — Bladder-pod 

1. Pods, as well as the whole plant, densely stellate-pubescent; plants perennial; 
in sand or sandy soil, w. III., rare. Havana, Mason Co., Aug. 22, 1904, 
Glectson [L. ludoviciana (Nutt.) Wats.] L. argentea (Pursh) MacM. 

l.Pods glabrous; plants annual, sparsely stellate-pubescent. "By the Chicago 
& Alton R.R. near Rock Bridge, s. of Willow Springs, June 9, 1894," 
Hill; east of Sag Bridge, June 9, 1894, Moffatt 172 ("only two plants 
found; fruit immature."); native in Okla. and Tex. [L. nuttallii Wats.} 
L. gracilis (Hook.) Wats.} 

25. Camelina Crantz 

l.Stem glabrous; leaves auriculate at base; petals yellow, 5-6 mm. long; pods 
6-9 mm. long, 5-6 mm. broad; pedicels 12-25 mm. long; an occasional 

weed in fields and waste places, adv. from Eur. June-July 

C. sativa (L.) Crantz 

1. Stem hirsute below; leaves sagittate at base; petals pale yellow, 3-4 mm. 
long; pods 4-6 mm. long, 4-5 mm. broad; pedicels 8-15 mm. long; fields 
and roadsides, nat. from Eur. May-July C. microcarpa Andrz. 

26. Cardaria Desv. 
C. draba (L.) Desv. Fields and waste places, nat. from Eur. Apr. -June. 
\_Lepidinm draba L.} 

27. Lepidium L. — Peppercress 

1 . Stem-leaves sagittate at base, oblanceolate, pubescent, dentate to entire; 
pods oval, papillose, 5-6 mm. long, in dense elongated racemes; pedicels 
puberulent, divaricate, 4-8 mm. long; fields and waste places, nat. from 
Eur. May-July. Field Peppercress L. campestre (L.) R. Br. 

1 . Stem-leaves merely sessile, not sagittate at base; stamens 2 or 4; pods sub- 
orbicular, 2-3 mm. in diameter; waste places, very common. May-Nov. 
Common Peppercress L. virginicum L. 

28. Thlaspi L. 
T. arvense L. Field Pennycress. Fields and waste places, nat. from Eur. 

29. Capsella Medic. 

(Bursa Weber) 
C. burs a- past oris (L.) Medic. Shepherd's Purse. Fields and waste places, 
very common; nat. from Eur. Mar.-Oct. 

72. Capparidaceae Lindl. — Caper Family 

1. Petals entire, or notched at the apex. 

2. Petals notched; pod sessile or nearly so on its pedicel; stamens more than 6 

1 . Polanisia 

2. Petals entire; pod long-stipitate on its pedicel; stamens 6 2. Clcome 

1. Petals laciniate, unequal; stamens 6-14; pod long-stipitate on its pedicel... .3. Crisiatella 

144 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Petals whitish, 4-5 mm. long; stamens 9-12; sandy soil, often along railroads. 

July-Aug. Clammyweed P. graveolens Raf. 

1. Petals pale yellow, 8-10 mm. long; stamens 12-16; sandy soil, not common; 

probably has spread eastw. into 111. along railroads. June-Aug 

P. trachysperma T. SC G. 

2. Cleome L. 

C. seniilata Pursh. Dry soil, w. 111.; Henderson Co., Patterson: adv. from 
w. U.S. July-Sept. [C. integrifolia T. 8C G.} 

3. Cristatella Nutt. 
C. jamesii T. & G. Sandy soil. Mason and Jo Daviess counties. June-Aug. 

73. Sarraceniaceae LaPyl. — Pitcher-plant Family 

1. Sarracenia L. — Pitcher-plant 
.5". purpurea L. Peat bogs. Lake and McHenry counties. May-June. [5'. 
purpurea subsp. gibbosa (Raf.) Wherry} 

74. Droseraceae S. F. Gray — Sundew Family 

1. Drosera L. — Sundew 

1. Leaf-blades suborbicular; seeds fusiform, striate, glossy, 1-1.5 mm. long; 
bogs, n. 111. July-Sept. Round-leaved Sundew D. rotundifolia L. 

1 . Leaf-blades linear-spatulate; seeds ellipsoid, papillose, 0.7-1 mm. long; bogs 

rare, n.e. III. July-Sept. [D. longifolia of auth.} Long-leaved Sundew 

D. intermedia Hayne 

75. Crassulaceae DC. — Stonecrop Family 

1. Petals 5, acute; plants succulent; pistils 5 or 4, distinct or nearly so, becoming 
follicles in fruit I . Sedum 

1. Petals none or linear and inconspicuous; plants scarcely succulent; pistils becoming 
united, and forming a 5-loculed capsule 2. Peulhonim 

1. Sedum L. — Stonecrop 
1. Leaves thick, terete or nearly so. 

2. Petals yellow; leaves obovoid, densely imbricated, about 3 mm. long; fol- 
licles 3-4 mm. long; plants perennial; rocky places and ro.ndsides, occa- 
sionally escaped from cult.; native of Eur. June-Aug. Mossy Stonecrop 
S. acre L. 

2. Petals rose-purple, pink, or white; leaves linear, crowded, 5-25 mm. long, 

about 2 mm. wide; follicles 4-6 mm. long; on rocks, .>. III. May-July .... 
S. pulchclluui Michx. 

1 . Leaves flat, broad. 

3. Petals white; leaves roundish-obovate, entire, chiefly in whorls of 3 or the 

upper alternate; rocky woods, and in moist soil in wooded ravines, 
local. May S. tematum Mich.v. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 77. Saxifragaceae 145 

3. Petals pink; leaves oval, dentate or entire, alternate 2-5 cm. long; cliffs, 

not common; chiefly in s. 111. Aug.-Sept S. telephioides Michx. 

2. Penthorum 
P. sedoides L. Ditch Stonecrop. Wet ground, common, July-Sept. 

76. Parnassiaceae Dum. — Grass- of- Parnassus Family 

1. Parnassia L. — Grass-of-Parnassus 

P. glauca Raf. Wet ground in the n. half of the state, rare. July-Sept. [P. 
caroliniana of auth., not Michx.} 

77. Saxifragaceae Dum. — Saxifrage Family 

1 . Ovary-) -loculed ; placentae parietal or nearly basal. 
2. Petals 5; stamens 5. 

3. Petals entire; inflorescence paniculate; leaves all basal 1. Heuchera 

3. Petals fringed; inflorescence racemose; stem with a pair of opposite, sessile leaves 

2. Milella 

2. Petals 0; stamens 10 or 8; flowers sessile, axillary, usually solitary 

3. Chr^sosplenium 

1. Ovary 2-loculed; placentae axial. 

4. Stamens 5; seeds wing-margined 4. SulUvanlia 

4. Stamens 10; seeds wingless 5. Saxifraga 

1. Heuchera L. — Alumroot 

1. Calyx m anthesis 6-8 mm. long, decidedly oblique; river banks, cliffs, or dry 
woods, not uncommon, extending southw. to Macoupin and Effingham 
counties. May-June. [H. cdiata Rydb.; H. richardsonii var. grayana 
Rosend., Butters, & Lakela] H. hispida Pursh 

1. Calyx in anthesis 2-5 mm. long. 

2. Calyx in anthesis 2-2.5 mm. long, nearly regular; petals white; shaded 

cliffs, s. 111. July-Sept. [H. rugelii Shuttlw.} H. parviflora Bartl. 

2. Calyx in anthesis 4-5 mm. long, oblique; petals greenish or purplish; bluffs 

and rocky banks, not common. May-June 

H. hirsuticaulis (Wheelock) Rydb. 

2. MiTELLA L. — Miterwort 

M. diphylla L. Bishop's-cap. Wooded ravines, not common; chiefly in the 
n. half of the state. May. 

3. Chrysosplenium L. — Golden Saxifrage 
C. amerkanum Schw. Wet ground, n. III., rare. May-June. 

4. Sullivantia T. & G. 

S. renifolia Rosend. Cliffs, rare. Jo Daviess, Carroll, and Ogl'e counties. 

5. Saxifraga L. — Saxifrage 

(Micranthes Haw.) 
1. Sepals becoming reflexed; plants 30-90 cm. tall; leaves 10-30 cm. long, 
entire or nearly so. 

146 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Leaves pilose beneath; petals white, longer than the elliptical sepals; fila- 
ments filiform; moist shaded sandstone cliffs, rare. Jackson Co.; La 
Salle, Ogle, and Jo Daviess counties. May S. forbesii Vasey 

2. Leaves glabrous or nearly so beneath; petals greenish, equalling the deltoid 

sepals; filaments subulate; meadows, local. May-Juni'. 

S. pennsylvanica L. 

L Sepals ascending; plants 8-30 cm. tall; leaves 2-10 cm. long, dentate or 
crenate; rocky bluffs. Reported from s. Ill S. virgitiiensis Michx. 

78. Escalloniaceae Dum. — Escallonia Family 
(Iteaccae Agardh) 

1. Itea L. 
/. virginica L. Virginia Willow. Swamps, rare, s. 111. May-June. 

79. Hydrangeaceae Dum. — Hydrangea Family 

1 . Flowers all fertile, solitary, or in cymes or racemes; stamens 15-60 1. Philadelphus 

1. Flowers in terminal corymbs, of 2 kinds, the marginal ones usually enlarged and 
sterile; stamens usually 10 2. Hvidrangea 

1. Philadelphus L. — Mock-orange 

1. Sepals glabrous outside. 

2. Flowers usually solitary or 2 or 3 together, scentless; sepals 5-7 mm. long, 
about equalling the calyx-tube; twigs glabrous; cult, and occasionally 

escaped; native southeastw. May. Scentless Mock-orange 

...P. inodorus L. 

2. Flowers in 5-9-flowered cymes, very fragrant; sepals 12-15 mm. long, ex- 
ceeding the calyx-tube; twigs pubescent; commonly cult., and sometimes 

escaped; native of Eur. May-June. Sweet Mock-orange 

P. coronarius L. 

1. Sepals pubescent outside; flowers scentless or slightly fragrant, in 5-7-flow- 
ered cymes; indigenous on the rocky bluffs of the Ohio River near Gol- 
conda, Pope Co., E. ]. Palmer 15438, 19581; collected in June 1919. and 
Oct. 1920; not otherwise known P. verrucosus Schrad. 

2. Hydrangea L. 

H. arborescens L. Wild Hydrangea. Ravines and wooded banks, through- 
out 111., except the n. part. As here treated including var. oblonga T. & G. 
with leaf-blades tapering at base, and var. deamii St. John (H. cinerea 
Small), with the blades more pubescent beneath. 

80. Grossulariaceae Dum. — Gooseberry Family 

1. RiBES L. — Gooseberry. Currant 
(Crossitlaria Mill.) 
1. Branches usually with spines or prickles. 

2. Ovary and fruit setose; calyx-lobes shorter than the tube; woods and river 

banks. Apr. -May. [^R. gracile Michx.} Pasture Gooseberry 

R. cynosbati L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 83. Rosaceae 147 

2. Ovary and fruit smooth; calyx-lobes equalling or exceeding the tube. 
3. Stamens exserted; flowers greenish while; spines 5-15 mm. long; woods 
and river banks, centr. and n. 111. Apr.-May. The common goose- 
berry in 111. \^R. gracile sensu Pursh, non Michx.} 

R. missouriense Nutt. 

3. Stamens included; flowers green or purplish; spines 3-8 mm. long; 
swamps and bogs, n. III. May- June. \_R. oxyacanthoides sensu auth., 

non L.] Wild Gooseberry R. hirtellum Michx. 

1. Branches not at all spiny or prickly. 

4 . Leaves minutely resinous dotted and more or less pubescent beneath; 
flowers greenish white; calyx campanulate; fruit black; thickets and 
moist woods, common as far s. as Christian Co. May-June. [^R. flori- 

dum L'Her.} American Black Currant R. amencanum Mill. 

4. Leaves not resinous dotted; shrubs escaped from cultivation. 

5. Flowers greenish; calyx saucer-shaped; fruit red; native of Eur. \R. 

rubriim sensu auth., non L.] Garden Currant R. sativum Syme 

5. Flowers yellow; calyx tubular; fruit black; cultivated ground and road- 
sides, occasional; native of centr. U.S. {^R. aureum sensu auth., non 
Pursh} Bufl-alo Currant R. odoratum Wendl. 

81. Hamamelidaceae Lindl. — Witch-hazel Family 

1. Leaves palmately veined and lobed; flowers apetalous L Liquidambar 

1. Leaves pinnafely veined, wavy-toothed; petals linear, yellow 2. Hamamelis 

1. Liquidambar L. — Sweet-gum 

L. stryaciflua L. Swampy woods, s. 111., extending northw. to Crawford 
Co. Apr.-May. 

2. Hamamelis L. — Witch-hazel 

H. virginiana L. Woods, local; n. 111., extending southw. to Peoria and 
Tazewell counties. Oct. 

82. Platanaceae Lindl. — Plane-tree Family 

1. Platan US L. — Plane-tree 

P. occidentalis L. Sycamore. In woods and along streams, common 
throughout III. May. 

83. Rosaceae Juss. — Rose Family 

{Malaceae Small ; Drupaceae DC.) 
1 . Trees and shrubs. 

2. Pistils several to many, simple, or pistil one, compound. 

3. Pistils 2-many, simple, superior; fruits achenes, drupelets, or follicles. 

4. Pistils 2-5, each becoming a 2-4-seeded follicle; shrubs with simple, serrate 
to entire, or slightly lobed leaves. 
5. Leaves palmately shallowly lobed; carpels 2-5, somewhat inflated at matur- 
ity; pubescence of stellate hairs 1. Phvsocarpus 

5. Leaves serrate to entire; carpels 5-8, not inflated; pubescence of simple hairs, 
or plant glabrous 2. Spiraea 

148 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

4. Pistils numerous, or rarely few. each becoming a 1 -seeded achene or drupelet. 
6. Branches usually with prickles; leaflets serrate. 

7. Flowers white (in our species) ; leaves palmately compound, the stipules 
not adnata to the petiole; fruit an aggregate of 1 -seeded drupelets form- 
ing a blackberry or raspberry II. Rubiis 

7. Flowers rose (in our species) ; leaves pinnate (rarely 3-foliolate), the 
stipules adnate to the petiole; fruit of seed-like achenes enclosed in the 
hypanthium (calyx-tube) 12. Rosa 

6. Branches not prickly; leaflets entire, silky-pubescent; flowers yellow (species 
of) 6. Potenlilla 

3. Pistil 1, compound, inferior, enclosed by the calyx-tube; styles 2-5; fruit a pome. 
8. Leaves simple. 

9. Flowers in racemes; petals narrow; fruit small, berry-like, sweet, with thin 

pulp, its locules twice as many as the styles; branches not spiny 

13. Amelanchier 

9. Flowers in cymes or corymbs; petals roundish; locules of the fruit (carpels) 
the same number as the styles. 
10. Midvein of the leaves with small dark colored glands on the upper sur- 
face; margins glandular-crenulate ; flowers in compound cymes; anthers 
purple; styles united below; fruit small, berry-like; endocarp of the 

ripe carpels leathery 1 5. Arouia 

10. Midvein not glandular; margins not glandular-crenulate; fruit large, 
I 1 . Inflorescence cymose; endocarp of the ripe carpels cartilaginous. 
12. Styles free; orifice of the receptacle closed by the disk; anthers 

pink or red; fruit containing numerous stone-cells 

- 16. P\}rus 

12. Styles united below the middle; orifice of the receptacle open; 

anthers white or yellow; fruit without stone-cells 17. Mains 

I 1 . Inflorescence corymbose; styles free; endocarp of the ripe carpels 

hard and bony; branches usually with spines 18. Crataegus 

8. Leaves pinnate; flowers in terminal compound cymes; petals roundish; styles 3, 
free; anthers white; pome small, berry-like, red, acid, 3-lcculed; branches 

not spiny 14. Sorhus 

2. Pistil 1, simple, superior, 2-ovuled; style I; fruit a I -seeded drupe; leaves simple 
19. Pnirnis 

I. Herbs; pistils several to many, simple, superior; fruit achenes, drujjelets, or follicles. 
13. Pistils 2-5, becoming 2-4-seeded follicles. 

14. Leaves trifoliolate or 3-parted, nearly sessile; stipules large; flowers white or 

pinkish, in loose terminal panicles 4. Cillenia 

14. Leaves pinnately compound. 

15. Leaves 2-3-pinnate; stipules minute or none; flowers numerous, unisexual, 
in a large panicle; petals white, about 1 mm. long; follicles reflexed, 

usually 2-seeded 3. Aruncus 

15. Leaves pinnately 3-9-lobed or -foliolate; flowers perfect, pink or purple, 
in dense cymose panicles 7. FilipcnJula 

13. Pistils one to many, becoming 1 -seeded achenes or drupelets. 

16. Pistils ripening into pulpy drupelets, forming a red raspberry; style terminal or 
nearly so; leaves 3-5-foliolate ; petals white or pink 11. Ruhus 

16. Pistils ripening into achenes. 
17. Calyx not bristly. 

18. Pistils several to many; petals present; calyx usually with 5 sepal-like 
bractlets alternating with the sepals. 
19. Style deciduous from the mature achene. 

20. Receptacle becoming succulent, red (or white), and edible in 
fruit (a strawberry); petals white (or pink), obtuse: leaves 

trifoliolate 5. Fragaria 

20. Plants not as above 6. Potenlilla 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 83. Rosaceae 149 

19. Style persistent on the achene, jointed or plumose 8. Ceiitn 

18. Pistils 1-3; sepals 4, petaloid; petals none; achene usually solitary, 
enclosed in the 4-angled calyx-tube; flowers (in our species) white, 
in a dense cylindrical spike 9. Sanguisorba 

1 7. Calyx-tube with hooked bristles; flowers yellow, in spike-like racemes; 
achenes 2 10. Agrimonia 

1. Physocarpus Maxim. 

(Opiilaster Medic; Phvsocarpa Raf.) 
P. opulijolius (L.) Maxim. Ninebark. River banks, local, n. III. May- 
June. Carpels 3-5, glabrous or pubescent. [P. intermedius (Rydb.) Schneid.J 

2. Spiraea L. 
1. Leaves tomentose beneath; sepals reflexed; wet ground. July-Aug.; known to 

occur in Lake, Cook, Kankakee, and Iroquois counties. Hardback 

S. tomentosa L. 

L Leaves glabrous or nearly so beneath; sepals spreading or erect; moist 
ground. July-Aug. \_S. salicijolia of auth., not L.] S. alba DuRoi 

3. Aruncus Adans. — Goat's-beard 
A. dioicus (Walt.) Fern. Wooded ravines. May- June. Of local occurrence 
throughout most of III., but apparently absent from the n. part of the state. 
[^Aruncus aruncus of auth., not Spiraea aruncus L.; A. Sylvester of auth., not 
Kostel.; A. pubescens Rydb.; A. allegheniensis Rydb.] 

4. GiLLENiA Moench — Indian Physic 
G. stipidata (Muhl.) Trel. American Ipecac. Rich woods; extending 
northw. to La Salle Co., more frequent southw. June- July. 

5. Fragaria L. — Strawberry 

L Robust, thick-leaved garden plants, often 20-40 cm. tall, sometimes escaped 
from cult.; petals 9-12 mm. long; fruit ovoid-globose, 2-3 cm. in diameter; 

achenes set in shallow pits; roadsides and waste places. May 

F. chUoensis Duch. var. ananassa (Duch.) Hort. ex Bailey 

1. Native wild plants; fruit 6-15 mm. in diameter; plants usually smaller. 

2. Leaflets firm, dull green above, petiolulate; flowers in corymbs; petals 5- 
10 mm. long; fruit ovoid or subglobose, 1-1.5 cm. in diameter at matur- 
ity, the achenes set in pits; calyx-lobes not reflexed; grassy banks and 
roadsides, or in open woods, very common. Apr.-June. [F. grayana 
Vilm.] Wild Strawberry F. virginiana Duch. 

2. Leaflets thin, light green, subsessile; inflorescence irregular, the branches 
unequal; petals 3-6 mm. long; fruit ovoid or conical, 6-9 mm. in diam- 
eter, 1-1.5 cm. long, the calyx-lobes spreading or reflexed; achenes super- 
ficial; rocky banks and open woods, n. III., local. May-June 

F. americana (Porter) Britt. 

6. POTENTILLA L. — Cinquefoil 

1. Shrubs 30-100 cm. tall, the bark shreddy; leaflets 5-7, elliptical, 1-2 cm. long, 
silky-pubescent, the margins entire, revolute; flowers 1.5-3 cm. broad, yel- 

150 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

low; in swamp, sandy, or limy soil, local, n.e. 111.; also in Jo Daviess Co. 

June-Aug. \Dasiophora jruticosa (L.) Rydb.} Shrubby Cinquefoil 

P. fniticosa L. 

1. Herbs; leaflets not entire. 

2. Petals maroon-purple, acute, shorter than the sepals; leaves pinnate, 5-7- 
foliolate, the leaflets oblanceolate, serrate, 3-8 cm. long, glaucous beneath; 
receptacle becoming spongy; bogs and swamps, Lake Co. June-July. 
[Comarum palustre L.} Purple Cinquefoil P. palustris (L.) Scop. 

2. Petals yellow, white, or cream, obtuse or retuse; receptacle not becoming 
enlarged and spongy. 
3. Leaves pinnate. 

4. Flowers solitary on long pedicels; petals yellow; plants stoloniferous; 
leaflets 7-21, with smaller intermediate ones, sharply serrate, whit- 
ish silky-pubescent beneath; wet ground. Lake and Cook counties. 

May-Aug. [^Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb.] Silverweed 

^...P. anserina L. 

4. Flowers cymose; leaflets not whitish pubescent beneath; plants not 

5. Petals white or cream; flowers 12-20 mm. in diameter: stamens 
30; style nearly basal; stem stout, 1-2 m. tall, glandular-pubes- 
cent; gravelly soil, not common. June-July. [Drymocallis agr't- 
monioides (Pursh) Rydb.; D. arguta (Pursh) Rydb.] Tail 
Cinquefoil P. arguta Pursh 

5. Petals yellow; flowers 6-10 mm. in diameter; stamens 20; style 
terminal; stem decumbent at base, 20-40 cm. tall; wet ground, 
rare. St. Clair Co., Brendel P. paradoxa Nutt. 

3. Leaves palmate. 
6. Flowers cymose. 

7. Leaflets silvery-pubescent beneath; petals 4-5 mm. long; sandy or 
gravelly soil. May-Sept. Silvery Cinquefoil P. argenta L. 

7. Leaflets green on both sides. 

8. Leaflets 5-9; petals pale yellow, longer than the sepals; stamens 
about 30; mature achenes reticulate; waste places and along 

roads; native of Eur. May-July. [P. sulphurea Lam.] 

P. recta L. 

8. Leaflets 3; petals deep yellow, shorter than the sepals; stamens 
10-25; moist ground, common. June-July. Rough Cinque- 
foil P- monspeliensis L. 

6. Flowers solitary, axillary, long-peduncled, 10-15 mm. in diameter; 
leaflets 5, oblanceolate, serrate; stem slender, ascending or trailing; 
roadsides, gravelly soil, etc., common. May-June. [P. canadensis 
of auth., ex p.] Common Cinquefoil P. simplex Michx. 

F. rubra (Hill) B. L. Robins. Prairie Meadowsweet. Moist ground, not 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 83. Rosaceae 151 

common. June-July. Known from Vermilion, Tazewell, and Peoria counties; 
probably occurring elsewhere in 111. 

8. Geum L. — Avens 

1. Sepals becoming reflexed; petals yellow or white; styles jointed, bent near 
the middle, the upper part deciduous, the lower persistent, hooked. 
2. Receptacle stalked in the calyx; petals yellow, 2 mm. long; fruiting heads 
at maturity about 1 cm. in diameter; achenes puberulent; woods, com- 
mon. Apr.-May. Spring Avens G. vernum (Raf.) T. dC G. 

2. Receptacle sessile; calyx with 5 bractlets alternating with the sepals. 
3. Petals white or cream, as long as the sepals or shorter. 

4. Peduncles softly velutinous-pubescent or puberulent; petals 5-7 mm. 
long, equalling or slightly exceeding the sepals; mature fruiting 
heads 1-1.5 cm. in diameter; receptacle copiously villous-hispid; 
woods, thickets, and roadsides, common. June-Aug. [G. alburn 

Gmel.j White Avens G. canadense Jacq. 

4. Peduncles hirsute; petals 3-4 mm. long, shorter than the sepals; ma- 
ture fruiting heads 1.5-2 cm. in diameter; receptacle glabrous or 
nearly so; wet ground in woods and thickets. June-July. [G. vir- 

ginianum sensu auth., non L.} G. laciniatum Murr. 

3. Petals golden yellow, 5-8 mm. long, exceeding the sepals; receptacle 
pubescent; moist thickets and roadsides. June-July. Yellow Avens .... 
G. strictum Ait. 

1. Sepals not reflexed; petals purplish, shorter than the sepals; styles persistent, 
plumose, not jointed; dry ground n. 111.. May-June. \_Sieversia triflora 
(Pursh) R. Br.] G. triflorum Pursh 

9. Sanguisorba L. 

S. canadensis L. Moist ground, rare. Ottawa, Sept. 28, 1882, Seymour; 
Joliet, Sept. 25, 1907, Hill; Troy, Sept. 25, 1907, Hill. 

10. Agrimonia L. — Agrimony 
1. Principal leaflets 5-9, oval to obovate. 

2. Axis of raceme and lower surface of leaflets pubescent; fruiting calyx 
3. Axis of raceme finely glandular and with a few long spreading hairs; 
leaflets glabrous beneath or merely sparsely hirsute on the veins; 
fruiting calyx 4-5 mm. long, with numerous radiating bristles; roots 
not tuberous; woods and thickets, centr. and n. 111. June-Aug. \_A. 
hirsuta (Muhl.) Bickn.] A. gryposepala Wallr. 

3. Axis of raceme softly appressed- pubescent, not glandular, and without 
longer spreading hairs; leaflets softly pubescent beneath, especially 
along the veins; fruiting calyx 2.5-3 mm. long, with few ascending 
or erect bristles; roots tuberous-thickened; open woods. July-Sept. 
{A. mollis (T. & G.) Britt.} A. pubescens Wallr. 

2. Axis of raceme glandular and puberulent, but not pubescent; lower sur- 
face of leaflets glabrous or nearly so, gland-dotted; fruiting calyx hemi- 

152 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

spherical, about 2 mm. long; roots tuberous-thickened; woods, chiefly in 

s. and w. III. July-Sept. [/I. striata sensu Bickn., non Michx.} 

A. rostellata Wallr. 

1. Principal leaflets 11-17, lanceolate, pubescent and glandular-granuliferous 

beneath; fruiting calyx 4-5 mm. long; moist ground. July-Sept 

A. parviflora Wallr. 

11. RuBUS L. — Bramble 

1. Stems herbaceous, not at all prickly; leaflets 3, rarely 5; fruit red, globose; 

bogs, n.e. 111. May-June. [R. triflorus Richards.} Dwarf Raspberry 

R. ptibescens Raf. 

1. Stems more or less woody, biennial or perennial, usually prickly or bristly. 

2. Leaves whitish-tomentulose beneath; petals 5-6 mm. long, not longer than 
the sepals; fruit red or purplish, easily separating from the receptacle. 

3. Stems glaucous, recurved, rooting at the tips, not stoloniferous, with 
stout hooked prickles; inflorescence corymbiform, the pedicels prick- 
ly; fruit purplish black; moist ground, common. May-June. Black 
Raspberry R. occidentalis L. 

3. Stems not glaucous, bristly-prickly, stoloniferous; inflorescence race- 
mose; fruit red. 

4. Pedicels and calyx glandular-setose; wet ground and thickets, n. HI. 
May-June. [R. idaeus L. var. aculeatissimus (C. A. Mey.) Regel 
& Tiling} Wild Red Raspberry R. strigosus Michx. 

4. Pedicels and calyx tomentulose and often with small recurved prick- 
les, not glandular; roadsides and near dwellings; occasionally per- 
sisting; nat. from Eur. May-June. Cultivated Raspberry 

R. idaeus L. 

2. Leaves variously pubescent or glabrous, but not whitish-tomentose beneath; 
fruit black when ripe, adhering to the cone-like receptacle. 
5. Stems erect or arching, mostly 1-2 m. tall; petals 1-1.5 cm. long. 
(Blackberries) . 
6. Stems more or less prickly, not bristly, the prickles not numerous, 
confined to the angles of the stem. 
7. Leaflets laciniate; panicle 5-30-flowered, prickly and pubescent. Of 
European origin; cult., and sometimes escaped to roadsides and 
waste places. Urbana, G. N. ]ones 16419. June-July. Evergreen 
Blackberry R. lacmiatus (West.) Willd. 

7. Leaflets serrate or lobed, not laciniate. 

8. Peduncles and pedicels with stalked glands, also usually pubes- 
cent, and sometimes bearing small prickles; inflorescence race- 
mose, not leafy, usually standing well beyond the foliage, each 
pedicel subtended by a bract; open woods, pastures, roadsides, 
and along fences, common. May-June. [R. nigrobaccus 
Bailey} R. allegheniensis Porter 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 83. Rosaceae 153 

8. Peduncles and pedicels pubescent and sometimes prickly, but 
without stalked glands. 
9. Inflorescence elongate-racemose, leafy-bracted only at the 
base; young stems (primocanes) angled and grooved; 

thickets. May-June. Tall Blackberry R. argutus Link 

9. Inflorescence short-corymbiform, conspicuously leafy-bracted 
throughout; primocanes nearly terete; thickets. May-June. 
[R. recurvans Blanch.} R. frondosus Bigel. 

6. Stems setose or hispid, not or only weakly prickly; sometimes nearly 
10. Leaflets glabrous, or sparsely pubescent on veins on lower sur- 
face; pedicels smooth or nearly so; sepals glandless; in sandy 
swales eight miles e. of St. Anne, Kankakee Co., R. A. 

Schneider 1661 (not seen) R. offectus Bailey 

10. Leaflets softly pubescent beneath; pedicels and calyx setulose 
and glandular; seven miles s.e. of Momence, Kankakee Co., 
R. A. Schneider 1689 (not seen) R. schneideri Bailey 

5. Stems trailing or decumbent, slender, only the floral branches erect 

11. Stems retrorsely bristly (or nearly unarmed), not prickly; leaflets 
firm, oblanceolate, glabrous on both sides, glossy above, paler and 
dull beneath; petals 5-8 mm. long; meadows or low woods, n. 111. 
June-July. Swamp Dewberry R. hispidus L. 

11. Stems usually with weak curved prickles; petals 10-15 mm. long; 
fields, roadsides and woods, common. Apr.-June. \R. villosus 

Ait., non Thunb.; R. procumbens Muhl., nom. nud.J 

R. flagellaris Willd. 

12. Rosa L. — Rose 

1. The leaflets 3 (or 5), ovate or lanceolate, acute, sharply serrate, glabrous 

above; stems trailing or climbing; flowers corymbose; styles cohering in an 

exserted column; hypanthium globose. 

2. Leaflets glabrous beneath, glossy above; moist thickets and hedgerows. 

June-July. Climbing Rose R. setigera Michx. 

2. Leaflets softly pubescent beneath, dull above; pastures and borders of 

woods, common. June-July. [^R. setigera var. tomentosa T. & G.} 

R. rubifolia R. Br. 

1. The leaflets 5-11; stems erect or arching; styles separate, not exserted or 
only slightly so. 

3. Leaflets glandular beneath, fragrant, the margins doubly serrate with 

gland-tipped teeth; sepals glandular-setose on the back, more or less 
lobed, in fruit spreading or reflexed and tardily deciduous; prickles 
curved, flattened; roadsides and fields, nat. from Eur. May-June. [R. 
rubiginosa L.} Sweetbriar R. eglanteria L. 

3. Leaflets pubescent or glabrous beneath but not noticeably glandular or 
fragrant; margins simply serrate. 

154 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

4. Leaflets not rugose or strongly reticulate; sepals more or less glandular 
on the back; native species. 

5. Tall shrubs 1-2 m. high. 

6. Hypanthium glandular-setose; leaflets closely serrulate, acute at 
each end; stipules narrow, more or less involute; prickles straight 
or usually more or less curved, flattened at the base; moist 
thickets, or swampy ground, local. June-July. \_R. Carolina of 
auth., not L.] Swamp Rose R. palustris Marsh. 

6. Hypanthium usually smooth; stipules flat; leaflets sharply serrate; 

branches usually without prickles; thickets and open woods, 

local. May-June. Meadow Rose R. blanda Ait. 

5. Low shrubs 20-75 cm. tall; leaflets rather coarsely serrate; prickles 
straight, or none. 

7. Stems woody; leaflets 5 or 7; dry soil along roads or edges of 

woods; the common species throughout 111. May-July. \R. 
humilis Marsh.} Pasture Rose R. Carolina L. 

7. Stems semi-herbaceous, weak and bristly; leaflets usually 9, some- 
times 7 or 11; roadsides and hedgerows, chiefly in n. and centr. 
111. June-July. [R. pratincola sensu Greene, non A. Br.; R. 

heliophila Greene} R. suffiilta Greene 

4. Leaflets rugose, thick, strongly reticulate, dark green above, grayish 

pubescent beneath; sepals 2.5-3 cm. long, tomentose, not glandular; 

pedicels velutinous; shrub 1-2 m. tall, the branches densely prickly 

and bristly; roadsides, escaped from cult.; native of e. Asia 

R. rugosa Thunb. 

13. Amelanchier Medic. — Shadbush. Serviceberry 

1. Blades short-acuminate or decidedly acute; petals 12-18 mm. long; trees or 
tall shrubs. 

2. Young leaves and racemes densely white-tomentose, soon glabrous; sepals 
triangular, acute; fruit somewhat dry and mealy, insipid and falling 
early; lowest fruiting pedicels 1-2.5 cm. long; wooded hillsides and 
banks throughout 111., not uncommon. Apr.-May [A. canadensis sensu 
auth., non L.} A. arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. 

2. Young leaves and racemes nearly or quite glabrous from the first; sepals 
lanceolate, acuminate; fruit sweet and juicy; lowest fruiting pe:^icels 

mostly 2.5-5 cm. long; wooded hillsides, n. 111. Apr -Mav 

A. laevis Wieg. 

1. Blades rounded at the apex, or merely or mucronate, oval, tomentose 
beneath at flowering time; petals 7-10 mm. long; shrubs 05-1.5 m. tall; 

rocky or sandy soil, n. 111. May. [A. hutnilis Wieg.] Low Shadbush 

A. spicata (Lam.) K. Koch 

14. Sorbus L. — Mountain-ash 

1. Winter-buds densely whitish villous, 5-10 mm. long; leaflets elliptical, acute, 
3-5 cm. long; flowers 8-9 mm. broad; fruits 9-11 mm. in diameter; native 
of Eur., cult., and occasionally escaping to woods or roadsides. European 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 83. Rosaceae 155 

Mountain-ash. Often mistaken for the following species 

S. aucuparm L. 

1. Winter buds glabrous, glutinous, 1-2 cm. long; leaflets lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, finely serrate, 5-9 cm. long; flowers 5-6 mm. broad; fruits 4-6 mm. 
in diameter; rocky woods, rare; near Oregon, Ogle Co., June 2, 1888, M. 
B. Wake. American Mountain-ash S. amerkana Marsh. 

15. Aronia Medic. — Chokeberry 

A. melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell. Moist sandy woods, and bogs, n. 111. May- 
June. Other species have been recorded from 111., but all specimens we have 
seen are of this species. 

16. Pyrus L. — Pear 

P. communis L. Cult, and found occasionally as an escape in woods or 
along roads; native of Eur. May. 

17. Malus Mill.— Apple 

1 Calyx glabrous outside (rarely somewhat villous) ; leaves glabrous or nearly 
so; mature fruit 1-3 cm. in diameter; woods. Apr.-May. [Pyrus coronaria 
L.; M. glance scens Rehd.; M. lancifolia Rehd.} Wild Sweet Crab-apple 
M. coronaria (L.) Mill. 

1. Calyx tomentose; leaves pubescent beneath, at least along the veins. 

2. Leaves irregularly toothed, notched, or lobed, narrowed at the base; calyx- 
lobes erect or spreading; fruit 2-4 cm. in diameter; woods, common. 

May. [Pyrus loensis (Wood) Bailey} Iowa Crab-apple 

M. ioensis (Wood) Britt. 

2. Leaves crenate-serrate, rounded or cordate at base; calyx-lobes usually 
reflexed at anthesis; fruit larger; cult., and not infrequently wild; native 
of Eur. and w. Asia. Apr.-May. [Pyrus malus L.; M. sylvestris of 
auth., not Mill.] Apple M. pumila Mill. 

18. Crataegus L. — Hawthorn 

1 . Leaves cuneate at the base, widest near the middle or toward the apex. 
2. Blades usually widest above the middle, mostly obovate or spatulate, the 
margins merely serrate or only obscurely lobed; calyx-lobes entire. 
3. Leaves firm, glabrous, glossy above, not impressed-veined. 

4. Pedicels glabrous; nutlets 8-9 mm. long; pastures and open woods, 
especially near streams, common. May-June. [C. arduennae Sarg.; 
C. attenuata Ashe; C. strongylophylla Sarg.; C. trahax Ashe} 
Cockspur Thorn C. crusgalli L. 

4. Pedicels pubescent; nutlets 4-5 mm. long; low ground. Type loc. : 

Wady Petra, Stark Co.; known also from Peoria and Marion 

counties. [C. palmeri Sarg.} C. pratensis Sarg. 

3. Leaves thinner, dull, impressed-veined above. 

5. Pedicels and leaves glabrous; open woods, usually along streams, n.- 

centr. 111. May-June. [C. dispersa Ashe; C. pausiaca Ashe; C. 

peoriensis Sarg.; C. praestans Sarg.} 

.C. cujieiformis (Marsh.) Egglest. 

156 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

5. Pedicels and leaves pubescent; blades obovate, irregularly serrate; 

pastures and open woods, throughout 111. May-June 

C. punctata Jacq. 

2. Blades prevailingly widest near the middle. 

6. Blades more or less pubescent beneath, at least in the axils of the veins; 
pedicels pubescent; calyx-lobes usually glandukr-serrulate. 
7. Lower surface of mature leaves sparsely pubescent along the sides of 
the veins with short, somewhat stiff hairs; corymbs sparingly 
pubescent; stamens mostly 10, the filaments short; thorns usually 
numerous, stout, 5-9 cm. long; banks of streams, chiefly in the n. 
half of 111. May. [C. corporea Sarg.; C. divida Sarg.; C. ensifera 
Sarg.; C. gaultii Sarg.; C. laxiflora Sarg.; C. longispina Sarg.; C. 
rutila Sarg.; C. vegeta Sarg.; C. illinoiensis Ashe; C. rieoflurialis 
Ashe; C. occidentalis Britt.; C. macracantha of auth., not Loud.] 
C. succulenta Schrad. 

7. Lower surface of leaves softly pubescent, especially on the veins; 

petioles wing-margined; corymbs tomentose; stamens mostly 20, 
the filaments slender; thorns few, slender, or none; thickets and 
open woods, generally distributed in 111., flowering in the latter 
part of May and early part of June. [C. structilis Ashe; C. tomen- 
tosa sensu DuRoi, non L.} C. calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medic. 

6. Blades glabrous or essentially so; pedicels glabrous; calyx-lobes entire 
or nearly so. 

8. Leaves oval or rhombic, acute or acutish, serrate, the base cuneate; 

lower surface with tufts of tomentum in the axils ol the veins; 
fruit 5-8 mm. in diameter; alluvial soil, w. and s. 111. [C. nitida 
sensu Egglest., ex p., non Sarg.; C. ovata Sarg.; C. acutifolia 
Sarg.] C. viridis L. 

8. Leaves short-obovate to suborbicular, usually incised with shallow 
lobes, these crenate; styles and nutlets usually 2; fruit 1-1.5 cm. 
in diameter; thickets and open woods, not uncommon. May-June. 
£C. brownii Britt.] C margaretta Ashe 

1. Leaves prevailingly widest below the middle or toward the subcordate, trun- 
cate, rounded, or broadly cuneate base. 
9. Leaves glabrous or nearly so at maturity, or only slightly pubescent be- 

10. Leaves deltoid-cordate (often conspicuously 3-5-Iobed); calyx-lobes 
deltoid, entire; fruit 5-7 mm. in diameter, the calyx deciduous; 
chiefly s. III., but extending northw. to Peoria Co. [C. cordata Ait.] 
C. phaenopyrum (L. f.) Medic. 

10. Leaves otherwise; calyx-lobes lanceolate; fruiting calyx usually persis- 

11. Calyx-lobes entire or nearly so; inflorescence glabrous. 

12. Leaves thin, scabrellous on the upper surface when young, soon 
glabrous; stamens 10 or fewer; fruiting calyx sessile; thickets, 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 83. Rosaceae 157 

pastures, or open woods, usually near streams, n.e. 111. May. 
[C. aptomorpha Sarg.; C. bella Sarg.; C. colorata Sarg.; C. 
cyanophylla Sarg.; C. depilis Sarg.; C. egani Ashe; C. fer- 
rissii Ashe; C. ignea Sarg.; C. liicorurii Sarg.; C. magniflora 
Sarg.; C. otiosa Ashe; C. paucispina Sarg.; C. sextilis Sarg.; 
C. taetrica Sarg.; C. tenera Ashe; C. trachypbylla Sarg.; C. 
M/>er Ashe} C. macros perma Ashe 

12. Leaves glabrous on both surfaces, firm to stibcoriaceous at ma- 

turity; stamens about 20; fruiting calyx with a distinct neck; 
common throughout 111. May. [C. dissona Sarg.; C. con- 

juncta Sarg.; C. patrum Sarg 

C. pruinosa (Wendl.) K. Koch 

1 1 . Calyx-lobes glandular-serrate throughout. 

13. Inflorescence glabrous; Wabash Co., Schneck- [C eggertii 

Britt.] - C. coccinioides Ashe 

13. Inflorescence with pubescent pedicels; thickets and borders of 
woods, usually near streams, in the n. half of 111. [C. accliva 
Sarg.; C. arcnata Sarg.; C. assurgens Sarg.; C. corusca Sarg.; 
C. delecta Sarg.; C. elongata Sarg.; C. pura Sarg.; C. sertata 
Sarg.} C. pedicelldta Sarg. 

9. Leaves persistently softly pubescent beneath; pedicels villous; anthers 
yellow; fruit usually more or less pubescent, at leapt toward the base, 
12-20 mm. in diameter; open woods, usually near streams, apparently 
the com.monest species in III. May. [C. lanigera Sarg.; C. lasiantha 

Sarg.; C. umbrosa Sarg.; C. valens Sarg.} 

C. jnollis (T. &: G.) Scheele 

19. Prunus L. — Plum. Cherry 

1. Flowers nearly sessile, solitary, large, pink; ovary and fruit densely tomen- 
tose; stone deeply pitted; leaves appearing later, lanceolate, acuminate, 
serrulate, glabrous, the upper surface glossy; cult, and sometimes spon- 
taneous; native of Asia. Apr.-May. Peach [^Airiygdaliis persica L.} 

P. persica (L.) Batsch. 

1. Flowers pedicelled, white; ovary and fruit glabrous. 

2. Flowers in small umbels or corymbs, usually 2-5 or solitary, or in 6-10- 
flowered racemes in P. mahaleb. 
3. Flowers small, the petals only 3-6 mm. long. 

4. Small trees or tall shrubs with relatively broad lanceolate to oval or 
obovate leaves toothed to the base, usually appearing after the 
5. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. 

6. Pedicels 3-6 mm. long, puberulent; fruit globose, 12-15 mm. in 
diameter; forming thickets in sandy soil, chiefly s. 111.; native 

southw. May. Chickasaw Plum P. angustifolia Marsh. 

6. Pedicels 8-14 mm. long, glabrous; fruit 6-7 mm. in diameter; 

wet woods, or in bogs, n. 111. Apr. Wild Red Cherry 

P. pennsylvanica L.f. 

158 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

5. Leaves ovate to suborbicular, apiculate, crenate, glandular between 
the teeth; fruit ovoid, black or nearly so, 7-10 mm. long; road- 
sides, occasionally escaped from cult.; introd. from Eur. May. 

Mahaleb Cherry P. mahaleb L. 

4. Dwarf shrubs; leaves oblanceolate, acute, serrate except toward the 
cuneate base; fruit nearly globose, black, acid, 1-1.5 cm. in diameter 

at maturity; sandy soil, n. 111. Apr. -May. Sand Cherry 

P. pumila L. 

3. Flowers larger, the petals 7-16 mm. long. 

7. Leaves serrate, the sharp teeth not ending in a gland; petals 8-10 

mm. long; calyx-lobes not glandular-serrulate. 

8. Petioles glabrous beneath; lower surface of mature blades glabrous 

except along the veins; young twigs glabrous; borders of woods, 

common. May. Wild Plum P. atnericana Marsh. 

8. Petioles pubescent all around; blades usually more or less softly 

pubescent beneath; young twigs puberulent; woods, and road- 
sides, common. Apr.-May. [P. americana var. mollis T. SC G.] 

P. lanata (Sudw.) Mack. & Bush 

7. Leaves crenate, the blunt teeth ending in a gland; calyx-lobes more 
or less glandular-serrulate; petioles glabrous beneath; twigs gla- 

9. Calyx-lobes pubescent on both sides; petals 8-10 mm. long; leaves 

lanceolate; roadsides and edges of woods, common. Apr.-May. 

Hortulan Plum P. hortnlana Bailey 

9. Calyx-lobes glabrous within; petals 12-15 mm. long; leaves broadly 
obovate or oval; river banks, woods, and roadsides thickets, n. 
111. May. Canada Plum P. nigra Ait. 

2. Flowers several to many, in elongate racemes. 

10. Leaves thin, obovate, sharply serrate with erect or spreading teeth; 
sepals nearly orbicular, glandular-serrate, deciduous; woods and 
thickets, chiefly in the n. and centr. parts of the state. May. [P. 
nana DuRoi} Common Chokecherry. The form with the lower sur- 
face of the leaves, young twigs, and rachis of inflorescence pubes- 
cent is f. deamti G. N. Jones P. virginiana L. 

10. Leaves firm, oval or lanceolate, crenulate-serrate with incurved teeth; 
sepals obscurely glandular, persistent; woods, and along fences, 
common throughout 111. May. [P. virginiana sensu Ehrh., non L.; 

Padus virgimana (L.) Mill.} Wild Black Cherry 

P. serotina Ehrh. 

84. Leguminosae Juss. — Pea Family 

1 . Trees or shrubs. 

2. Leaves simple, entire, suborbicular to reniform; flowers pink, jierfect, in sessile 
umbels, appearing before tbe leaves; pods 6-8 cm. long, pointed at eacli end.... 
3. Cercis 

2. Leaves compound. 

3. E.rect shrubs or trees. 

4. Shrubs: fjcx-ers in racemes. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 84. Leguminosae 159 

5. Twigs and petioles hispid; petals 5; pods linear, hispid, seveial-seeded 

- 20. Robinia 

5. Twigs and petioles not hispid; corolla of one purple petal; pods short, 

I -2-seeded 16. Atnorpha 

4. Trees ; petals 5. 

6. Leaves odd-pinnate, with 5-17 leaflets; flowers white, 1-2.5 cm. long. 

7. Stipules spiny, woody; stipels setaceous; bark rough; stamens diadelphous; 
racemes 7-15 cm. long 20. Robinia 

7. Stipules and stipels none; bark smooth; wood yellow; stamens distinct; 

inflorescence 15-50 cm. long 7. Cladrastis 

6. Leaves l-2-pinnate. 

8. Leaflets ovate, entire, acute or acuminate; flowers pinkish white, 1.5 cm. 

long, in many-flowered racemes; pods woody; trees without spines 

4. C\;nmocladus 

8. Leaflets oval, remotely denticulate, obtuse; flowers small, greenish yellow, 
in axillary spikes; pods leathery; trees usually with spines on the trunk 

and branches 5. Cledilsia 

3. Twining or climbing shrubs, not prickly; flowers purple, showy, racemose; petals 

5; leaflets 9-13; pods many-seeded 21. Wisteria 

. Herbs. 

9. Leaves simple; petals yellow 9. Crolalaria 

9. Leaves compound (rarely 1 -foliolate). 

10. Leaves even-pinnate (or bipinnate), or leaflets only 2. 
1 1 . Leaves ending in a tendril; flowers papilionaceous. 

12. Style terete, pubescent near the apex 27. Vicia 

12. Style flattened, pubescent along the inner side 28. Lalhyrus 

II. Leaves not ending in a tendril; leaflets numerous, small; flowers not at all 

papilionaceous, in globose heads. 

13. Leaves bipinnate. 

14. Plants glabrous or nearly so; flowers greenish white; petals distinct 

or nearly so; pods flat, smooth 1. Desmanihus 

14. Plants with recurved prickles; flowers rose colored; corolla funnel- 
form; pods prickly, 4-angled, or nearly terete 2. Schranl^ia 

13. Leaves pinnate; flowers yellow 6. Cassia 

10. Leaves not even-pinnate. 

15. Leaves trifoliolate, or digitate with usually not more than 5 leaflets (rarely 
16. Leaves (and other parts of the plant) more or less glandular-punctate; 

leaflets 3-5, entire 15. Psoralea 

16. Leaves not at all glandular-punctate. 
17. Leaflets toothed. 

18. Flowers in heads or spikes. 

19. Pods straight II. Trifolium 

19. Pods curved or coiled 13. Medicago 

18. Flowers reflexed in long slender racemes, white or yellow; pods 

small, straight, reflexed 12. Melilotus 

17. Leaflets entire. 

20. Fruit a loment, i.e., breaking transversely into I -seeded, inde- 
hiscent segments. 
21. Pods 1 -several-jointed and -seeded; leaflets usually stipellate; 

flowers purple or white 24. Desmodium 

21. Pods of a single 1 -seeded joint (the lower joint when present 

empty and stalk-like) ; leaflets without stipels, usually 

prominently veined. 

22. Flowers purplish or yellowish white; stamens diadelphous 

(9+ 1); anthers all alike; pods not longitudinally 

ribbed 25. Lespedeza 

22. Flowers yellow; stamens monadelphous ; anthers in 2 
series; pods longitudinally ribbed 26. Sli}losanthes 

160 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

20. Fruit a legume. 

23. Leaflets not slipellate. 

24. Flowers in heads; pods small, often mcluded m the calyx, 

1-6-seeded, not stipitate; stamens diadelphous 

1 I . TrifoUum 

24. Flowers m racemes, or solitary. 

25. Flowers whitish (or yellow) in racemes; stamens dis- 
tinct; pods stipitate, turgid or inflated; plants tending 

to turn black in drying 8. Dapiisia 

25. Flowers pink, solitary; stamens diadelphous; pods 

linear, somewhat compressed, not stipitate 

14. Hosacl^ia 

23. Leaflets stipeilate. 

26. Style glabrous; plants twining; flowers purplish or white. 

27. Calyx usually 5-toothed, not bracteolate; leaflets ovate 

35. Amphicarpa 

27. Calyx deeply 4-cleft, subtended by a pair of bractlets; 

leaflets oval 36. Calactia 

26. Style pubescent on the upper surface. 

28. Flowers yellow; stems twining; leaflets ovate; pods 

10-20 cm. long 32. Vigna 

28. Flowers bluish or nearly white. 

29. Flowers 4-5 cm. long, solitary or in pairs in the 
axils, pale blue and lilac, delicately veined; stem 

ascending or twining 34. Cliioria 

29. Flowers smaller, racemose or umbellate. 

30. Flowers in short sessile axillary racemes; stem 
erect; pods straight or nearly so, almost sessile, 

somewhat flattened 31. C/licine 

30. Flowers in racemes or umbels en long axillary 
peduncles; stems twining or trailing. 
31. Flowers in long loose racemes; keel of the 

corolla spirally coiled; pods falcate 

30. Phaseolus 

31. Flowers few, in umbel-like clusters; keel of 
the corolla strongly incurved but not 
spirally coiled; pods straight or nearly so 

33. Slrophost\}les 

I 5. Leaves with 5 or more leaflets. 

32. Leaves punctate; corolla indistinctly or imperfectly papilionaceous; pods 
1 -seeded, indehiscent. enclosed in the calyx. 
33. Stamens 5; leaflets (in our species) 6-35 mm. \ons,.. .. ]S. Pelalosiemum 

33. Stamens 10 or rarely 9; leaflets (in our species) 4-6 mm. long 


32. Leaves not punctate; corolla papilionaceous; pods several-seeded. 

34. Leaflets 5-11. 

35. Stems twining or climbing; leaflets 5-7 (rarely 3), ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate; flowers brownish purple, in axillary racemes 

29. Apios 

35. Stem erect; leaflets 7-11, oblanceolale ; flowers blue (or pink or 

white), in terminal racemes 10. Lupinus 

34. Leaflets 11-31. 

36. Plants hoary-pubescent; flowers in terminal racemes 

19. Tephrosia 

36. Plants strigose to glabrous; flowers in axillary racemes or head- 
like umbels. 

37. Flowers racemose; pods not 4-angled or jointed 

22. Astragalus 

37. Flowers umbellate, rose colored; pods Imear, 4-angled, jointed 
23. Coronilla 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 84. Leguminosae 161 

1. Desmanthqs Willd. 
D. illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. Illinois Mimosa. River banks or along 
railroads, local. \_Acua7i illinoensis (Michx.) Ktze.} Known from Cook, Kan- 
kakee, Grundy, La Salle, and Peoria counties; also in s. 111. July- Aug. 

2. Schrankia Willd. 

(Leplogloitis DC; Morongia Britf.) 
S. unc'mata Willd. Sensitive-brier. Dry sandy soil, rare. Peoria, Aug. 1901, 
and June 1903, McDonald. [L. nuttallii DC; M. nncinata Britt.; S. nuttallii 
(DC.) Standi.} 

3. Cercis L. — Redbud 

C. canadensis L. Woods, common throughout 111., except the n.w. counties. 

4. Gymnocladus Lam. — Kentucky CoflFee-tree 
G. dioica (L.) K. Koch. Woods, common throughout III. May-June. 

5. Gleditsia L. 

1. Pods 10-50 cm. long, many-seeded, indehiscent; spines stout, often com- 
pound, rarely absent; woods, common throughout 111. May-June. Honey 

Locust. The spineless form is /. inermis (Pursh) Fassett 

G. triacanthos L. 

1. Pods obliquely oval, 2-4 cm. long, 1 -seeded, at length dehiscent; spines 
slender, mostly simple; borders of swamps, s. 111., rare; known from Alex- 
ander, Johnson, Pulaski, Massac, Calhoun, Gallatin, and Lawrence coun- 
ties. Water Locust G. aquatica Marsh. 

6. Cassia L. 

{Chamae crista Moench ; Dilremexa Raf.) 
1. Corolla regular, the petals nearly equal; leaves not sensitive to the touch; 
stipules deciduous; leaflets 2-6 cm. long; calyx-lobes obtuse; stamens 10, 
the upper 3 imperfect. 

2. Leaflets 8-20; petiole with a gland near the base; pods 6-13 cm. long, 5- 
10 mm. wide. 
3. Leaflets lanceolate, acuminate; stipules lanceolate; petiolar gland glo- 
bose; petals 1.5-2 cm. long; plants annual; waste ground, occasional; 

native of the tropics. Chicago, Moffatt in 1897. Coff-ee-weed 

-C. occidentalis L. 

3. Leaflets elliptical, mucronate; stipules setaceous; petals 10-12 mm. long; 
plants perennial, native. 
4. Ovary villous; petiolar gland clavate; pods loosely villous, the seg- 
ments about as long as broad; seeds flat, suborbicular; alluvial soil, 
roadsides, or in open woods. July-Aug. [C. mardandica of auth., 

not L.} C. hebecarpa Fern. 

4. Ovary strigose; petiolar gland ovoid; pods glabrous or sparsely hir- 
tellous, the segments much shorter than broad; seeds plump, ellip- 
soid or obovoid; roadsides and alluvial soil. July-Aug. [C. meds- 
geri Shafer] C. mardandica L. 

162 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Leaflets 4-6, obtuse; gland between the lowest pair of leaflets; pods 10-15 
cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide; waste ground, occasional; native of the tropics. 

July-Sept C. tora L. 

1. Corolla irregular, the petals unequal; calyx-lobes acuminate; anthers all per- 
fect; stipules persistent; leaves sensitive to the touch; leaflets 12-28. 

5. Flowers 2-4 cm. broad, slender-pedicelled; anthers 10, unequal; fields and 
meadows, common. July-Sept. Partridge-pea. [C. chamaecrista of auth., 
not L.; C. robusta Pollard} C. jasciculata Michx. 

5. Flowers 5-10 mm. broad, short-pedicelled; anthers 5, nearly equal; woods 
and fields, Cass Co., and southw. July-Sept C. nictitans L. 

7. Cladrastis Raf. — Yellow-wood 

C. luted (Michx. f.) K. Koch. Rich woods, s. 111., rare. Alexander Co., R. 
B. Miller in 1928. 

8. Baptisia Vent. — Wild Indigo 

1. Leaves glabrous; racemes bractless or the bracts minute; calyx 6-8 mm. long; 
pods ellipsoid, 2-3 cm. long; prairie soil and open woods throughout 111., 
common. June-July B. leucantha T. & G. 

1. Leaves pubescent; racemes conspicuously bracted; calyx 8-10 mm. long; pods 
ovoid, 4-5 cm. long at maturity; prairie soil and open woods, throughout 
III. May-June B. leiicophaea Nutt. 

9. Crotalaria L. — Rattle-box 
C. sagtttahs L. Dry soil, locally throughout 111.; more common southw. 

10. Lupin us L. — Lupine 

L. perennis L. Sandy soil, local; n.e. 111., Lake, Cook, Kankakee, Grundy, 
and Ogle counties. May-June. 

11. Trifolium L. — Clover 

1. Flowers white, purple, or pink. 

2. Flowers short-pedicelled, becoming reflexed in age. 

3. Heads 2.5-3 cm. broad. 

4. Leaves pubescent; plants annual or biennial; woods and fields, local. 
May-June. Buffalo Clover T. reflexum L. 

4. Leaves glabrous; plants perennial, producing runners; roadsides and 

open woods, occasional. May-July T. stolonijerum Muhl. 

3. Heads less than 2.5 cm. broad. 

5. Flowers white; stems creeping and rooting, the peduncles arising 

from near the ground; fields, roadsides, waste places, lawns, open 

woods, common; nat. from Eur. May-June. White Clover 

T. repens L. 

5. Flowers pink or purple-tinged; stems erect or ascending, not rooting 
from the nodes; fields, roadsides, and waste places; nat. from Eur. 

June-Sept. Alsike Clover T. hyhridiim L. 

2. Flowers sessile or nearly so, not becoming reflexed. 
6. Heads cylindrical; calyx-teeth plumose-pubescent. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 84. Leguminosae 163 

7. Corolla white, shorter than the calyx; gravelly soil, roadsides, fields, 

or open woods; nat. from Eur. June-Sept. Rabbit-foot Clover 

T. arvense L. 

7. Corolla crimson, longer than the calyx; cult, and occasionally spont. 
in fields and waste places; introd. from Eur. June-July. Crimson 
Clover T. incarnatum L. 

6. Heads subglobose or ovoid, 2-3 cm. in diameter; celyx sparsely pilose, 
the teeth subulate; corolla magenta (or white), 12-15 mm. long; 
leaflets usually with a pale mark; roadsides, fields, and waste places, 

common; nat. from Eur. May-Aug. Red Clover T. pratense L. 

1. Flowers yellow, shortly pedicellate, becoming reflexed in age. 

8. Leaflets sessile; stipules linear; heads 1-2 cm. in diameter; roadsides, fields, 

and open woods; nat. from Eur. June-July. Yellow Hop-clover 

T. agrariiim L. 

8. Terminal leaflet petiolulate; stipules ovate-lanceolate; heads 4-12 mm. in 

9. Heads 20-40-flowered; standard distinctly striate; roadsides, fields, and 

waste places; nat. from Eur. June-Aug. Low Hop-clover 

T. prociimbens L. 

9. Heads 3-15-flowered; standard faintly striate; roadsides and waste 

places; nat. from Eur. June-July. Little Hop-clover 

T. dubium Sibth. 

12. Melilotus Hill — Sweet Clover 
1 . Corolla yellow, 5-7 mm. long; standard about as long as the wing-petals; 
pods 3-4 mm. long; waste places, fields, and roadsides; nat. from Eur. 
June-Sept. Yellow Sweet Clover M. officinalis (L.) Lam. 

1. Corolla white, 3-4.5 mm. long; standard slightly longer than the wing-petals; 
pods 2-3 mm. long; waste places and roadsides; nat. from Eur. May-Sept. 
White Sweet Clover M. alba Desr. 

13. Medicago L. 

1. Flowers bluish purple, 7-9 mm. long; pods spirally coiled, pubescent; leaflets 
oblanceolate, 1.5-3 cm. long; perennial; fields and roadsides, common; 
nat. from Eur. May-Sept. Alfalfa M. saliva L. 

1. Flowers yellow, 2-3 mm. long; pods 1 -seeded, reniform, curved, reticulate, 
pubescent, black when ripe; prostrate or ascending annual; fields and 

waste places, common; nat from Eurasia. May-July. Black Medic 

M. lupulina L. 

14. HOSACKIA Dougl. 
(Acmispon Raf.) 
H. americana (Nutt.) Piper. Dry soil, rare. Greene Co., McDonald; and 
westw. June-Aug. 

15. Psoralea L. 

1. Leaves pinnately 1-3-foliolate; pods rugose-reticulate. 

164 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Leaflets ovate, acuminate; pods 1 cm. long; stem 1-1.5 m. tall; river banks, 

not common. June-July. [^Orbexilum onobrychis (Nutt.) Rydb.} 

P. onobrychis Nutt. 

2. Leaflets elliptical; pods 4 mm. long; stem 30-60 cm. tall; wooded ridges 
and slopes, s. 111., not common. June-July. [Orbexilum pedunctilatum 
(Mill.) Rydb.} The plants of the Central States are less glandular 
and have been named P. psoralioides var. eglandulosa (Ell.) F. L. 

Freeman P. psoralioides (Walt.) Cory 

1. Leaves digitately 3-5-foliolate; leaflets oblanceolate; pods about 8 mm. long, 
not rugose-reticulate; dry soil, not common; McHenry, Kane, Cook, 
Will, and Peoria counties. June-Oct. [Psoraliditwi floribundum (Nutt.) 
Rydb.; P. floribunda Nutt.} P. tenuiflora Pursh 

16. Amorpha L. 

1. Leaflets 2-5 cm. long; shrubs 1.5-6 m. tall; pods usually 2-seeded, 6-8 mm. 

long; river banks and alluvial soil, locally throughout 111. May-June. 

False Indigo A. fruticosa L. 

1. Leaflets 9-18 mm. long; densely canescent shrubs less than 1 m. tall; pods 

1 -seeded, 3-4 mm. long; prairie soil and hillsides, locally throughout 111., 

except the s. counties. June-July. Lead-plant A. canescens Pursh 

17. Dalea Juss. 

D. alopecuroides Willd. Fields and roadsides, occasional. Aug. -Sept. 
[Parosela dalea (L.) Britt.} 

18. Petalostemum Michx. — Prairie-clover 

1. Calyx-tube densely silky-velutinous; leaflets 3-9; corolla rose-purple, rarely 
white; in sandy or gravelly soil along roads or in open woods, local. July- 

Aug. Purple Prairie-clover P. purpureutn (Vent.) Rydb. 

1. Calyx-tube glabrous. 

2. Leaflets 5-9; flowers white; in habitats similar to the preceding species, but 

of less frequent occurrence. June-Aug. White Prairie-clover 

P. candidum (Willd.) Michx. 

2. Leaflets 13-31; flowers rose-purple; river banks and gravelly soil, rare; Kan- 
kakee Co., Hdl; Kane Co., G. D. F idler. July-Sept P. joliosum Gray 

19. Tephrosia Pars. 

{Cracca L.) 
T. virginiana (L.) Pers. Goat's-rue. Dry sandy soil. June-July. 

20. RoBiNiA L. — Locust 

l.Tree 5-30 m. tall; twigs and petioles glabrous; flowers white, in pendulous 
racemes; pods glabrous; commonly cult., and abundantly naturalized 

throughout 111.; native of e. U.S. May-June. Common Locust 

R. pseudo-acacia L. 

1. Shrub 0.3-3 m. tall; twigs and usually the petioles glandular-hispid; flowers 
rose-purple, in erect racemes; pods hispid; cult., and occasionally spont.; 

native of the mts. of Va. and Ga. May-June. Bristly Locust 

_ R. hispida L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 84. Leguminosae 165 

21. Wisteria Nutt. 

(Kraunhia Raf.) 
1. Pods glabrous; pedicels 6-10 mm. long, glandular-pubescent; swampy woods, 
s. III., rare. Known from Pulaski, Alexander, Pope, and St. Clair coun- 
ties. June-July W. macrostachya Nutt. 

1. Pods velutinous; pedicels 1-3 cm. long, short- villous; cult.; native of China. 
May-June. [PF. chinensis DC.} W. sinensis (Sims) Sweet 

22. Astragalus L. — Milk-vetch 

1. Corolla purplish blue, 8-10 mm. long; leaflets oval, 4-10 mm. long; calyx 
minutely pubescent; pods glabrous, about 1.5 cm. long; dry soil, local. 
Cook, Cass, and St. Clair counties. [^Holcophacos dis tortus (T. dC G.) 
Rydb.] A. distortus T. & G. 

1. Corolla whitish or cream or greenish yellow, 1-2.5 cm. long; calyx pubescent, 
the teeth subulate or deltoid. 
2. Calyx-teeth subulate. 

3. Leaflets 1.5-4 cm. long; pods ellipsoid, glabrous; river banks and hill- 
sides throughout III., but not common. June-Aug 

A. canadensis L. 

3. Leaflets 5-15 mm. long; pods ovoid, pubescent; prairies, Will and Ogle 
counties. May-June A. plattensis Nutt. 

2. Calyx-teeth deltoid; leaflets 5-15 mm. long; pods glabrous, subglobose; 
prairies, rare. Macoupin Co. (?), Andrews. [Geoprumnon trichocalyx 
(Nutt.) Rydb.} A. trichocalyx Nutt. 

23. CoRONiLLA L. — Crown-vetch 

C. varia L. Roadsides and waste places, occasional; adv. from Eur. June- 

24. Desmodium Desv. — Tick-clover 
(Meibomia Heist.) 
1. Pods conspicuously long-stipitate, the stipe 2-3 times the length of the 
calyx; stipules small, inconspicuous, setaceous, deciduous. 
2. Panicle on a leafy stem; fruiting pedicels 5-8 mm. long. 

3. Leaves scattered along the stem; corolla white, 5-6 mm. long; woods, s. 
111. July-Sept D. pauciflorum (Nutt.) DC. 

3. Leaves clustered at the base of the peduncle; corolla rose-purple, 6-7 
mm. long; rich woods, common. June-Aug. [D. acuminatum DC; 
D. grandiflorum sensu Robins. 8C Fern., non DC; M. grandiflora 
sensu auth., non Ktze.} D. glutinosum (Muhl.) Wood 

2. Panicle on a long leafless peduncle; fruiting pedicels 1-2 cm. long; corolla 
rose-purple, 6-11 mm. long; leaflets oval or ovate, acute, glabrous or 

sparingly pubescent; woods, common. July-Aug 

D. nudiflorum (L.) DC. 

1. Pods short-stipitate or sessile. 

4. Stipules conspicuous, persistent, lanceolate to ovate, acuminate. 

166 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

5. Stems trailing, pilose; leaflets nearly orbicular, obtuse; stipules ovate- 
lanceolate, ciliate; woods, s. 111., extending northw. to Clark and St. 

Clair counties. Aug.-Sept. [M. michaiixii Vail} 

D. rotundijolhim (Michx.) DC. 

5. Stems erect or ascending. 

6. Joints of the pods rhombic, longer than broad. 

7. Leaflets obtusish, ovate or oval, somewhat rough-pubescent on 
both surfaces, pale and reticulate beneath, about the same length 

as the petiole; stem pubescent; open woods. July-Aug 

D. canescens (L.) DC. 

7. Leaflets acuminate, longer than the petiole. 

8. Leaves and stem glabrous; bracts of the inflorescence not ciliate; 

woods throughout 111., except the n. counties. July-Sept 

D. bracteosum (Michx.) DC. 

8. Leaves and stem glabrous; bracts of the inflorescence not ciliate; 

open woods. July-Aug D. longijolium (T. & G.) Smyth 

6. Joints of the pods oval; leaflets lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, reticu- 
late beneath, pilosulous; stem uncinate-pubescent; in woods and 
along roads throughout 111. July-Aug D. illinoense Gray 

4. Stipules small, inconspicuous, setaceous, usually soon deriduous. 

9. Leaves sessile or nearly so, the leaflets linear or lanceolate, obtusish, 
thickish, reticulate, pubescent beneath; stem puberulent; pods 1-3- 
jointed; open woods. July-Sept D. sessilijolium (Torr.) T. & G. 

9. Leaves petioled. 

10. Pods distinctly stipitate, the stipe exceeding the calyx. 
11. Stem and leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

12. Leaflets ovate or broadly oval, pale beneath; flowers pink, 9- 

14 mm. long; woods, chiefly in s. III. Aug.-Sept 

D. laevigatum Nutt. 

12. Leaflets elliptical-lanceolate; flowers violet-purple, 5-8 mm. 

long; open woods, common. July-Sept 

D. paniciilatum (L.) DC. 

11. Stem and leaves pubescent; flowers purple, 6-9 mm. long. 

13. Leaflets ovate, thick, coriaceous, velutinous beneath; wooded 

slopes and ridges, s. 111., not common. Aug.-Sept 

D. viridiflorurti (L.) Beck 

13. Leaflets elliptical or oval, appressed-pubescent beneath; dry 
soil, usually in open woods. Aug.-Sept ...D. dillenii Darl. 

10. Pods short-stipitate or sessile, the stipe not exceeding the calyx- 
14. Flowers showy, 8-12 mm. long, in dense panicled racemes; joints 

of the pods 3-5; prairie soil. July-Sept 

D. canadense (L.) DC 

14. Flowers small, 2-6 mm. long, in loose panicled racemes; joints 
of the pods 1-3. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 84. Leguminosae 167 

15. Leaflets scabrous, softly pubescent, pale green and reticulate 
beneath, 2.5-5 cm. long; stem puberulent; corolla 5-6 mm. 
long; sandy soil in open woods, chiefly in w. and s. 111. 

Aug.-Sept D. rigidum (Ell.) DC. 

15. Leaflets not scabrous, 1-2.5 cm. long, glaucous beneath; 
corolla 2-4 mm. long. 
16. Stem and leaves glabrous; wooded slopes and ridges, 
local; known from Peoria, Menard, and Macoupin 

counties. July-Sept D. marilandicum (L.) DC. 

16. Stem pubescent; leaves more or less pubescent; open 
woods in the s. half of the state. July-Sept. [D. obtu- 

sum (Muhl.) DC; M. ohtusa (Muhl.) Vail] 

D. ciliare DC. 

25. Lespedeza Michx. — Bush-clover 

1. Perennials with subulate stipules, minute bracts, and narrow calyx-lobes. 
2. Corolla purple; flowers of two kinds, some without petals. 

3. Flower-clusters on slender peduncles that are conspicuously longer than 
the subtending leaves. 
4. Stems trailing; inflorescence capitate or spicate. 

5. Stems glabrous or finely appressed-pubescent; sandy soil in woods, 

local. June-Sept. Creeping Bush-clover L. repens (L.) Bart. 

5. Stems softly pubescent with spreading hairs; >vooded slopes and 
ridges, s. 111., extending northw. to Perry and Wabash counties. 

July-Sept. Trailing Bush-clover L. procumbens Michx. 

4. Stems erect, sparsely appressed-pubescent; inflorescence loosely pa- 
niculate; in oak woods throughout the state exrept in the n. coun- 
ties. July-Sept L. violacea (L.) Pers. 

3. Flower-clusters sessile or nearly so. 

6. Leaflets densely velutinous beneath; woods, local. Aug.-Sept 

L. stuvei Nutt. 

6. Leaflets glabrous, or strigose beneath. 

7. Leaflets oval; sandy soil in woods, s. 111. Aug.-Sept 

L. intermedia (Wats.) Britt. 

7. Leaflets linear; sandy soil in woods throughout 111., except the n.w. 

counties. Aug.-Sept. Slender Bush-clover 

L. virginica (L.) Britt. 

2. Corolla white or yellowish white, with a purple spot on the standard; 
flowers all alike. 
8. Leaflets oblong or oval to suborbicular. 

9. Stem villous; peduncles conspicuously longer than the subtending 
leaves; spikes cylindrical, dense, 1-3.5 cm. long; sandy soil on 
wooded slopes and ridges, local; known in 111. from Lake, Cook, 

Jackson, Union, and Pope counties. Aug.-Sept 

L. hirta (L.) Hornem. 

9. Stem tomentose; peduncles not longer than the subtending leaves; 
spikes subglobose; sandy soil along roads and in open woods 
throughout 111. Aug.-Sept L. capitata Michx. 

168 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

8. Leaflets linear. 

10. Spikes dense, capitate; open woods in the n. half of the state. Aug.- 

Sept L. longijolia DC. 

10. Spikes slender, loose; prairie soil, rare; known in III. from Mc- 

McHenry and Winnebago counties. Aug.-Sept 

L. leptostachya Enge'm. 

1. Annuals with scarious ovate-lanceolate stipules and bracts; calyx-lobes as 
broad as long; stems erect; flowers solitary or 2 or 3 in the axils; roadsides 

and fields; introd. from Asia. Aug. -Oct. Japanese Bush-clover 

L. striata (Thunb.) H. & A. 

26. Stylosanthes Sw. — Pencil-flower 

S. biflora (L.) BSP. Dry soil in woods, s. Ill,; known from Saline, Gal- 
latin. Johnson, and Pope counties. June-Aug. 

27. ViciA L.— Vetch 

1. Flowers solitary or in pairs, axillary, nearly sessile; annuals. 

2. Flowers 2-2.5 cm. long; leaflets oblanceolate to oval; pods brown; fields, 
and waste places, escaped from cult.; introd. from Eur. July- Aug. 
Spring Vetch V. sativa L. 

2. Flowers 10-18 mm. long; leaflets linear to linear-oblong; pods black when 

mature; fields and waste places, escaped from cult.; introd. from Eur. 
July-Aug. Common Vetch V. angustifolia (L.) Reich. 

1. Flowers in 3-40-flowered racemes on axillary peduncles. 

3. Flowers 1-2 cm. long. 

4. Racemes 15-40-flowered, dense, unilateral. 

5. Calyx gibbous at base; leaflets narrowly elliptical; flowers 14-18 mm. 
long, crimson, fading to blue; pods 2.5-3.5 cm. long; seeds 3-4 
mm. in diameter, dark brown; roadsides and fields, common; nat. 
from Eur. June-Aug. Winter Vetch V. villosa Roth 

5. Calyx not gibbous; leaflets linear-oblong; flowers 9-12 mm. long, 

bluish-purple; pods 1.5-2 cm. long; seeds 2.5 mm. in diameter, 
black; roadsides and fields, occasional; introd. from Eur. June- 
Aug. Tufted Vetch V. cracca L. 

4. Racemes 3-20-flowered, loose; leaflets oval or elliptical. 

6. Corolla 1.5-2 cm. long, bluish purple; meadows and thickets, chiefly 

in the n. half of the state. June-July. American Vetch 

V. amcricana Muhl. 

6. Corolla about 1 cm. long, white; woods in the n. part of the state; 
known from Lake, McHenry, Cook, and La Salle counties. May- 
June. Carolina Vetch V. caroltn'iana Walt. 

3. Flowers 3-4 mm. long, pale bluish; pods 1-2-seeded; leaflets linear; waste 

places, occasional; nat. from Eur. May-Aug V. hirsuta (L.) Koch 

28. Lathyrus L.— Wild Pea 
1. Flowers purple, or purplish to pink or white. 
2. Leaflets 4-14. 

3. Stipules much smaller than the leaflets; corolla 1-L5 cm. long. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 84. Leguminosae 169 

4. Racemes 2-8-flowered; leaflets 4-8. 

5. Stem distinctly winged; leaflets linear to elliptical; flowers 1.5-2.5 
cm. long; moist ground and open woods. May- July. [L. palustris 
var. linearifolius Ser.} L. palustris L. 

5. Stem merely angled; leaflets elliptical to oval; flowers 10-15 nmi. 

long; moist ground and thickets. June-July 

L. myrtif alius Muhl. 

4. Racemes 10-24-flowered; leaflets 8-14, oval; stem 4-angled, puberu- 
lent or glabrous; open woods and moist thickets, n. and e. III. 

May-June. [L. venosus var. intonsus Butters & St. John] 

L. venosus Muhl. 

3. Stipules broad, foliaceous, nearly as large as the adjacent leaflets; stem 
glabrous; leaflets 6-10, thick, oval; racemes 6-10-flowered; flowers 
about 2 cm. long; sandy soil near Lake Michigan, rare. June-Aug. 

Beach Pea. [L. japonicus Willd. var glaber (Ser.) Fern.} 

L. maritimus (L.) Bigel. 

2. Leaflets 2; stem and petioles winged; frequently cult, and sometimes spont. 

in waste places and along roads; introd. from Eur. Everlasting Pea 

L. lat if alius L. 

1. Flowers yellowish white or yellow; stipules large. 

6. Leaflets 4-6, ovate or broadly oval; corolla yellowish white; peduncles 2-5 
cm. long; stem terete; woods, n. 111. May-July ...L. achroleucus Hook. 

6. Leaflets 2, lanceolate; corolla yellow; peduncles 5-10 cm. long; stem an- 
gled; fields and waste places, occasional; adv. from Eur. July-Aug 

L. pratensis L. 

29. Apios Ludw. — Groundnut 

A. americana Medic. Woods and thickets. July-Aug. [^Glycine apias L.; 
A. tuberosa Moench; A. apias (L.) MacM.] 

30. Phaseolus L. — Kidney Bean 

P. polystachyus (L.) BSP. Woods and thickets, s. III. July-Sept. 

31. Glycine L. — Soy Bean 

G. sa]a (L.) Sieb. 8i Zucc. Extensively cult., and sometimes spont.; native 
of Asia. [Saja max Piper; G. max Merrill} 

32. ViGNA Savi 

V. sinensis (L.) Endl. Cow Pea. Cult., and occasionally spont.; native of 
Asia. July-Sept. 

33. Strophostyles Ell. — Wild Bean 

1. Leaflets rhombic-ovate to 3-lobed; flowers 7-10 mm. long; calyx-tube 2-2.5 
mm. long; pods 5-9 cm. long, strigose to nearly glabrous; seeds 5-8 mm. 
long; sandy soil along roads or in open woods. July-Sept. \_S. angulasa 
Ell.; S. missouriensis (Wats.) Small} S. helvola (L.) Britt. 

170 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Leaflets lanceolate to elliptical; flowers 5-6 mm. long; calyx-tube 1-1.5 mm. 
long; pods 2.5-3.5 cm. long, strigose; seeds 2.5-3 mm. long; river banks. 
July-Sept. [5'. pauciflora (Benth.) Wats., not Phaseolus pauciflorus 
Don^ S. leiosperma (T. & G.) Piper 

34. Clitoria L. — Butterfly Pea 

C. mariana L. Dry banks, s. 111. June-Aug. \Martiusia mariana (L.) 

35. Amphicarpa Ell. — Hog-peanut 

(Falcaia Gmel.) 

1. Stem with closely reflexed hairs or glabrate; leaflets thin; inflorescence sim- 
ple, 1-8-flowered; pods pubescent on the margins; woods, common. Aug.- 
Sept. [/I. monoica (L.) Ell.; Falcata comosa sensu Britt., not Glycine 
comosa L.} A. bracteata (L.) Fern. 

1. Stem brownish hirsute-villous; leaflets firm; inflorescence branched, 7-17- 
flowered; pods pubescent throughout; woods, common. Aug. -Sept. \_A. 

bracteata var. comosa (L.) Fern.; Falcata pitcheri (T. & G.) Ktze.} 

A. comosa (L.) G. Don 

36. Galactia p. Br.— Milk Pea 

G. inississippiensis (Vail) Rydb. Dry soil. Union, Johnson, and Gallatin 
counties. July-Aug. 

85. Geraniaceae J. St. Hil. — Geranium Family 

1 . Leaves palmalely veined and lobed or divided; anthenferous stamens 10, rarely 5 

1 . Ceraniitm 

L Leaves pinnately veined and dissected; anthenferous stamens only 5 2. EroJnim 

1. Geranium L. — Cranesbill. Wild Geranium 

1. Petals 14-22 mm. long; plants perennial; moist woods, and along roads, 
throughout 111. May-June G. maculatum L. 

1. Petals 2-10 mm. long; plants annual or biennial. 

2. Leaves palmately lobed; carpels attached to the styles; petals 2-7 mm. 

3. Sepals awn-tipped (the tips 1-3 mm. long); seeds reticulate. 

4. Fruiting pedicels much longer than the calyx; beak of mature style- 
column 4-6 mm. long; fields and open woods, occasional. June- 
Aug G. bickncllii Britt. 

4. Fruiting pedicels shorter, or scarcely longer than the calyx; beak 

of mature style-column 1-2 mm. long; roadsides, fields, and open 
woods. May-July G. carolintanum L. 

3. Sepals merely callus-tipped; seeds smooth or nearly so. 

5. Carpels pubescent, not rugose; style-column beakless; waste places; 

nat. from Eur. May-Aug G. piisilltim Burm. f. 

5. Carpels glabrous, rugose; beak of the style-column 1-2 mm. long; 
waste places; nat. from Eur. May-July G. molle L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 87. Linaceae 171 

2. Leaves 3 -divided; carpels deciduous from the styles; petals 8-10 mm. 

long; moist ground, occasional; adv. from Eur. June-Sept 

G. robertianum L. 

2. Erodium L'Her. 
E. cicutarium (L.) L'Her. Storksbill. Waste places, occasional; nat. from 
Eur. May-Aug. 

86. OxALlDACEAE Lindl. — Wood-sorrel Family 

{Xanihoxalis Small ; lonoxalis Small) 
1. Flowers purple (rarely white), 14-20 mm. long; plants scapose, with a thick 
bulb-like or scaly rhizome; woods, common. Apr.-June. Violet Wood- 
sorrel O. yiolacea L. 

1. Flowers yellow; stems leafy; rhizomes slender. 

2. Stems creeping, rooting at the nodes, the pubescence of spreading hairs; 
pedicels strigillose; a weed in greenhouses and gardens; native of Eur. 

[O. repens Thunb.] Creeping Wood-sorrel O. cornicu'ata L. 

2. Stems erect, or decumbent at the base. 

3. Pedicels and stems strigillose; capsules finely grayish-pubescent, abrupt- 
ly pointed, the styles 1-2 mm. long; fruiting pe:!icels becoming de- 
flexed but the capsules erect; common in fields, alo: g roads, or in open 

woods. May-Sept. Upright Yellow Wood-sorrel O. stricta L. 

3. Pedicels and stems with spreading hairs, or the latter nearly g'abrous; 
capsules sparsely glandular-pilose to nearly glabrous, gradually 
pointed, the styles 2-3 mm. long; fruiting pedicels ascending or 
4. Petals 3-10 mm. long; seeds about 1.5 mm. long, with nearly con- 
tinuous ridges; roadsides and open woods, common. June-Nov. 
[O. rufct Small; O. corniculata sensu Robins. &: Fern., non L.; O. 
eiiropaea Jord. (?); O. europaea var. lanulosa Benke] Common 

Wood-sorrel O. cymosa Small 

4. Petals 12-16 mm. long; capsules 6-10 mm. long; seeds 2 mm. long, 
the ridges discontinuous; woods, s.e. 111., near the Wabash River, 
rare. Mt. Carmel, Schneck O. grandis Small 

87. Linaceae Dumort. — Flax Family 
1. LiNUM L. — Flax 

(Catharlolimim Reichenb.) 
1. Petals blue (or white), 1-1.5 cm. long; capsules 8-12 mm. in diameter. 
2. Perennial; flowers 2-3 cm. in diameter; sepals obtusish, ciliate; occasional- 
ly found as an escape from cult.; introd. from Eur. June-Aug 

L. perenne L. 

2. Annual; flowers 10-15 mm. in diameter; sepals acute, the inner often 
ciliate; roadsides and waste places, occasional; introd. from Eur. June- 
Aug L. usitatissimum L. 

172 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Petals yellow, 4-8 mm. long; capsules 3-6 mm. in diameter. 

3. Styles distinct; leaves without dark stipular glands; false septa of the cap- 
sule nearly complete, not ciliate; plants perennial. 
4. Inner sepals minutely glandular-ciliolate; sandy soil, local. July-Aug. 

[L. medium var. texanum (Planch.) Fern.] 

L. medium (Planch.) Britt. 

4. Sepals entire. 

5. Outer sepals 3-3.5 mm. long at maturity; dry open woods, local. 

June- Aug L. vhginianum L. 

5. Outer sepals 2-2.5 mm. long at maturity; damp ground, s. III., rare. 

July-Aug L. striatum Walt. 

3. Styles united below; outer sepals 4-6 mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate, 
strongly glandular-ciliolate; leaves with dark stipular glands; false septa 
of the capsule incomplete, conspicuously ciliate; plants annual; dry soil, 
local. July-Sept L. sidcatum Riddell 

88. Balsaminaceae Lindl. — Jewel-weed Family 

1. Impatiens L. — Jewel-weed 

1. Flowers orange, thickly red-dotted; spur strongly incurved; moist woods, 

common. June-Sept. Spotted Touch-me-not /. biflora Walt. 

1. Flowers pale yellow, sparingly red-dotted; spur bent at a right angle to the 

sac; moist woods, common. July-Sept. Pale Touch-me-not 

/. pallida Nutt. 

89. Limnanthaceae Lindl. 

1. Floerkea Willd. — False Mermaid 
F. proserpinacoides Willd. Wet ground, local. Apr.-June. 

90. Zygophyllaceae Lindl. — Caltrop Family 

1. Flowers (in our species) 1-1.5 cm. in diameter; carpels five, several-ovuled, at 
maturity bearing 2-4 prickles 1. Trlhiihis 

1. Flowers (in our species) 2-2.5 cm. in diameter; carpels ten, 1-ovuled. tuberculate. 
not spiny 2. Kalhtroemia 

I. Tribulus L. — Caltrop 

T. terrestris L. Puncture-weed. Waste places and sandy soil, occasional; 
nat. from s. Eur. June-Sept. 

2. Kallstroemia Scop. 

K. intermedia Rydb. Railroad yards, occasional; adv. from s. U.S. or trop. 

Am. Blue Island, near Chicago. Babcock- [K- maxima sensu auth., non T. &C 


9L Rutaceae Juss. — Rue Family 

1. Leaves pinnate; branches often prickly; fruit of 1-5 two-valved follicles 

1 . ZanihoxXilum 

1 . Leaves trifoliolale; branches not prickly; fruit a 2-seeded. suborbicular s;"^-'-- 

2. Pielea 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 93. Polygalaceae 173 

1. Zanthoxylum L. 

Z.. americaniim Mill. Prickly-ash. Woods and thickets, common through- 
out 111., except the s. counties. Apr. -May. 

2. Ptelea L. 

P. trifoliata L. Hop-tree. Wafer-ash. Along streams and at the edges of 
woods, not uncommon. May-July. Plants with pubescent branchlets have been 
named var. deamiana Nieuwl. [P. trifoliata var. mollis sensu auth., non T. 8C 


92. SiMARUBACEAE DC. — Quassia Family 
1. Ailanthus Desf. 
A. altissima (Mill.) Swingle. Tree of Heaven. Waste ground and edges 
of woods, common; native of China. June-July. [/I. glandulosa Desf.] 

93. Polygalaceae Reichenb. — Milkwort Family 
1. Polygala L. — Milkwort 

1. Plants perennial or biennial, usually several-stemmed (except P. pauci- 
folia) ; leaves alternate. 

2. Flowers 1-3, terminal, rose-purple to white, 1.5-2 cm. long; leaves oval, 
near the summit of the stem, the lower scale-like; rhizomes slender, 
bearing inconspicuous cleistogamous flowers; moist woods, n.e. 111., 

rare; without locality, Moffatt; Vasey. May-June. Fringed Polygala 

P. pauafolia Willd. 

2. Flowers several or many, 3-6 mm. long, in terminal racemes. 

3. Leaves lanceolate to ovate, acuminate, 5-20 mm. w'de; flowers greenish 
white; racemes compact; wings orbicular-ovate, 2-3 mm. long; plants 
perennial; cleistogamous flowers absent; wooded banks, or roadsides, 

locally throughout 111. May-Sept. Seneca Snakeroot P. senega L. 

3. Leaves linear-oblanceolate, acutish, 2-6 mm. wide; flowers rose-purple 
to pink; racemes loose; wings obovate, 4-6 mm. long; plants biennial, 
with small cleistogamous flowers usually present at base; sandy soil, 
n. III. June-Aug P. polygama Walt. 

1. Plants annual, single-stemmed; leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate. 
4. Racemes capitate, obtuse, more than 5 mm. thick. 
5. Leaves alternate. 

6. Stem glaucous; leaves linear-subulate, distant; petals united into a 
tube about 5 mm. long; wings linear, less than half the length of 

the keel; prairie soil, in the n. half of the state, rare. July-Sept 

P. incarnata L. 

6. Stem leafy, not glaucous; petals not united into a long tube; wings 
oval, equalling or exceeding the keel; fields, meadows, and open 

woods. July-Sept. [P. viridescens L.} P. sanguinea L. 

5. Leaves in whorls of four, linear-oblanceolate; wings acuminate; sandy 

soil in the n. half of the state. July-Sept P. cniciata L. 

4. Racemes slender, cylindrical or linear, tapering, less than 5 mm. thick. 

174 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

7. Branches mostly opposite or whorled; racemes short-peduncled; flowers 
green or greenish; dry soil throughout 111., except the s. counties. 
July-Sept P. verticdlata L. 

7. Branches mostly alternate; racemes long-peduncled; flowers purplish or 

greenish purple; woods and fields, s. 111. June-Aug 

P. ambigua Nutt. 

94. EuPHORBiACEAE J. St. Hil. — Spurge Family 

I. Flowers not in an involucre; calyx of 3-5 sepals; sap watery. 

2. Pubescence of stellate hairs. 

3. Flowers in spikes or glomerules; ovary 3-(2-4)-loculed 1. Crolon 

3. Flowers scattered on the branchlels; ovary 1-loculed 2. Croionopsis 

2. Pubescence, if any, of simple hairs. 

4. Leaves serrate; stamens usually 8; styles many-cleft; bracts of the pistillate 

flowers cleft 3. Acalvpha 

4. Leaves entire; stamens usually 3; styles simple; bracts of the pistillate flowers 

not cleft - 4. Ph\^llanlhus 

1. Flowers in a cup-shaped calyx-like involucre; sepals rudimentary; sap milky. 

5. Leaves opposite, oblique at base 5. Chamaes\)ce 

5. Leaves not oblique at base, alternate or opposite. 

6. Inflorescences in a several-rayed umbel; stipules none 6. Euphorbia 

6. Inflorescences cymcse ; stipules gland-like 7. Poinsetlia 

I. Croton L. 

1 . Leaves serrate; staminate flowers with a 4-parted calyx, 4 petals, a 4-rayed 
disk, and 8 stamens; pistillate flowers with a 5-parted calyx; styles 3, 

bifid; sandy soil, adv. from s. U.S. Aug. -Oct. Sand Croton 

C. glaiidulosiis L. 

1 . Leaves entire. 

2. Capsules clustered, erect, depressed-globose, 7-9 mm. in diameter; styles 

3, bifid or trifid; stamens 10-14; sandy soil, probably adv. from s. US. 

Aug. -Sept C. capitatiis Michx. 

2. Capsules mostly solitary, pendent, ovoid, 3-4 mm. long; style none, the 

stigmas 2, bifid; stamens 3-8; roadsides and fields, chiefly in the s. half 

of 111. July-Oct C. monanthogynus Michx. 

2. Crotonopsis Michx. 

1. Leaves lanceolate; fruit ovoid; fields and open woods, local. July-Sept 

C. elliptica Willd. 

1. Leaves linear-lanceolate; fruit ellipsoid; dry sandy soil, s. 111., rare. July- 
Sept C. linearis Michx. 

3. AcALYPHA L. — Three-seeded Mercury 
1. Leaves slender-petioled; pistillate bracts with lanceolate, acute lobes. 

2. Stem with short, curved hairs, or nearly glabrous; bracts of the pistillate 
flowers 5-7- (or rarely 9-) -lobed, bearing a few whitish stipitate glands 
(at least when young), or nearly glabrous; woods, fields, and roadsides, 

common. July-Oct. {_A. virginica sensu auth.^ex p.} 

A. rhomhoidea Raf. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 94. Euphorbiaceae 175 

2. Stem with straight spreading hairs in addition to the short curved ones; 
bracts with 9-15 lobes, hispid-pubescent on the veins and margins, not 
glandular; fields, roadsides, and wooded slopes, local. July-Oct. \_A. 
digyneia Raf.] A. virginica L. 

1. Leaves short-petioled (petiole V8"/4 ^^^ length of the blade), elliptic-lanceo- 
late to lanceolate, or linear; bracts with 9-11 ovate to deltoid teeth; stem 
with short, curved hairs; woods, fields, and roadsides, chiefly in the s. 
third of the state. June-Sept. [/I. gracilens var. fraseri (Muell. Arg.) 
Weatherbyj ...' A. gracilens Gray 

4. Phyllanthus L. 

P. caroliniensis Walt. Sandy soil; Peoria, Menard, Macoupin, St. Clair, 
and Wabash counties. May-Oct. 

5. Chamaesyce S. F. Gray 

{Euphorbia ex p.) 

1. Leaves entire; stems prostrate; whole plant glabrous. 

2. Leaves roundish-oval, 1-3 mm. long; sandy soil, local. July-Sept 

C. serpens (HBK.) Small 

2. Leaves oblong, longer than broad, 4-20 mm. in length. 

3. Seeds 2-3 mm. long; sandy soil. Lake and Cook counties. July-Sept 

C. polygonifolia (L.) Small 

3. Seeds 1.5 mm. long; sandy soil. June-Sept.; known from Jo Daviess, 
Lee, Henry, Henderson, Mason, and Cass counties. First collected 

at Beardstown, Cass Co., by C. A. Geyer in 1842 

C. geyeri (Engelm.) Small 

1 . Leaves toothed, at least at the apex. 

4. Capsules glabrous; seeds wrinkled. 

5. Capsules 2 mm. long; leaves obliquely oblong-Ianceolate, often red- 
marked, the larger ones 1-3 cm. long; stems erect or ascending; fields 
and roadsides, common throughout 111. July-Sept. \_E. preslit Guss.; 
E. nutans Lag.; E. hypericijolia sensu Am. auth., non L.; C. lansingii 
Millsp.} Nodding Spurge C. maculata (L.) Small 

5. Capsules 1.5 mm. long; leaves linear-oblong, the larger ones 4-10 mm. 

in length; stems spreading or prostrate; sandy or gravelly soil, not 
common; known from Cook, Lee, Henry, Peoria, and St. Clair coun- 
ties. June-Sept C. glyptospermn (Engelm.) Small 

4. Capsules pubescent; stems prostrate, villous. 

6. Leaves usually somewhat pubescent beneath; seeds 0.8-0.9 mm. long, 

minutely pitted and inconspicuously tranversely rugose; cult, ground 
and roadsides, common. July-Oct. [£. maculata of auth., not L.} 

Milk Spurge C. supina (Raf.) Moldenke 

6. Leaves glabrous beneath; seeds 1 mm. long, papillose, obscurely wrin- 
kled; sandy soil, local. July-Sept C. humistrata (Engelm.) Small 

6. Euphorbia L. — Spurge 
1. Glands of the involucres with petal-like appendages. 

176 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Leaves not white-margined; plants perennial with a deep root; roadsides, 
fields, and open woods, common throughout 111. June-Sept. [Titby- 
malopsis corollata (L.) Small} E. corollata L. 

2. Upper leaves conspicuously white-margined; plants annual; waste ground, 

escaped from cult.; native westw. July-Sept. \Lepadena marginata 
(Pursh) Nieuwl.} Snow-on-the-mountain E. marginata Pursh 

1. Glands of the involucres without petal-like appendages. 

3. Leaves entire. 

4. Plants perennial, with a rhizome; stems clustered; capsules granular; 
seeds smooth (seldom developing) . 
5. Leaves lanceolate to linear, 4-15 mm. wide; waste places; nat. from 
Eur. June-Sept E. esula L. 

5. Leaves linear, 1-3 mm. wide; roadsides and cemeteries; nat. from 

Eur. May-Sept. Cypress Spurge E. cyparissias L. 

4. Plants annual or biennial; capsules smooth; seeds pitted. 

6. Seeds finely pitted, 1-1.5 mm. long; lobes of the capsules 2-crested; 

waste places; nat. from Eur. June-Sept E. peplus L. 

6. Seeds coarsely pitted, 2 mm. long; lobes of the capsules rounded; 

wooded slopes and gravelly soil, local. May-June 

E. commutata Engelm. 

3. Leaves serrulate. 

7. Leaves spatulate; capsules warty; seeds smooth; moist ground in the n. 

half of the state. May-June E. obtusa Pursh 

7. Leaves obovate; capsules smooth; seeds reticulate; waste places; nat. 

from Eur. June-Oct. Wart Spurge E. helioscopia L. 

7. PoiNSETTiA Graham 
1. Leaves chiefly opposite; plants pubescent, dull green; glands of the involucres 

stipitate; roadsides and fields, probably adv. from w. U.S. July-Sept. 

P. dentata (Michx.) Small 

1. Leaves alternate; plants glabrous or nearly so, bright green; glands sessile; 
roadsides and waste places. June- Aug P. beterophylla (L.) Small 

95. Callitrichaceae Lindl. — Water-starwort Family 
1. Callitriche L. — Water Starwort 

1. Fruit short-peduncled; bracts absent; plants terrestrial, growing on moist 
soil, local; known from Champaign, Macoupin, St. Clair, and Wabash 
counties C. an stmt Engelm. 

1. Fruits sessile; plants aquatic or amphibious. 

2. Bracts present. 

3. Fruit oval, flat, longer than the styles; known from Cook, Menard, and 

St. Clair counties C. palustris L. 

3. Fruit obovate, convex, shorter than the styles; local, throughout 111 

C. beterophylla Pursh 

2. Bracts absent; leaves all linear, submerged; St. Clair Co 

C autiimnalis L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 98. Anacardiaceae 177 

96. Celastraceae Lindl. — Staff-tree Family 

1 . Leaves opposite; flowers axillary, cymose or solitary; capsules 4-5-loculed, usually 
lobed I . Euonvmus 

I . Leaves alternate; flowers in terminal racemes; capsules 3-Ioculed, subglobose 

- 2. Celastriis 

L Erect shrubs. 

2. Leaves petioled; flower-parts commonly in fours; capsules smooth; woods 

near streams, throughout III. May-July. Wahoo 

E. atropurpureus Jacq. 

2. Leaves nearly sessile; flower-parts commonly in fives; capsules rough- 
warty; woods, rare and local. May E. americanus L. 

L Decumbent shrubs, rooting at the nodes; woods, local E. obovatus Nutt. 

2. Celastrus L. 

C. scandens L. Climbing Bittersweet. Rich soil, common. May-June. 

97. Aquifoliaceae DC. — Holly Family 

(.Leaves usually entire; sepals minute, deciduous; petals linear 1. Nemopanihus 

I. Leaves (in our species) toothed; sepals persistent; petals oval 2. Ilex 

I. Nemopanthus Raf. — Mountain Holly 
N. mucronata (L.) Trel. Swamps, rare. Cook and La Salle counties. May. 

2. Ilex L.— Holly 

L Leaves obovate, rounded at the apex, crenate; calyx-lobes not ciliate;^ nutlets 
ribbed; edges of ponds and swamps, in the counties bordering the Mis- 
sissippi, Wabash, and Ohio rivers. May. Possumhaw. Swamp Holly 

/. decidiia Walt. 

L Leaves elliptical, acuminate, serrate; calyx-lobes ciliate; nutlets smooth; 

swamps, more frequent in the n. counties. Winterberry 

/. verticillata (L.) Gray 

98. Anacardiaceae Lindl. — Sumac Family 
L Rhus L. 

(Toxicodendron Mill.; Schmalizia Desv.) 
L Leaves with 7-31 leaflets. 
2. Leaflets decurrent on the rachis, which is therefore conspicuously winged; 
fruit red, pubescent; roadsides, fields, and open woods, s. 111., extend- 
ing northwestw. to Pike Co., and northeastw. to Lawrence Co.; also in 

Kankakee Co. July-Aug. Shining Sumac. Dwarf Sumac 

R. copallina L. 

2. Leaflets not decurrent; rachis not winged. 

3. Leaflets serrate; fruit red, in terminal clusters. 

178 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

4. Twigs and leaves glabrous; along roads and fences, and in open 

woods, common throughout 111. June-July. Smooth Sumac 

R. glabra L. 

4. Twigs and petioles villous-hirsute; woods, n. III., extending southw. 
to La Salle, Cass, Morgan, and Hancock counties, occasionally 
introd. elsewhere June-July. {^R. hirta (L.) Sudw.} Staghorn 
Sumac R. typhina L. 

3. Leaflets entire or nearly so; fruit glabrous, whitish or pale greenish, in 
axillary panicles; plants poisonous to the touch; tamarack bogs and 
swampy ground. Lake and Kankakee counties. June-July. Poison 
Sumac R. vernix L. 

L Leaves with 3 leaflets. 

5. Flowers in loose axillary panicles, appearing after the leaves; fruit gla- 
brous, greenish white; plants erect, trailing, or climbing, poisonous to 
the touch; along fences and in woods, or on sand dunes, common. May- 
July. [/?. toxicodendron of auth., not L.] Poison Ivy R. radicans L. 

5. Flowers in short dense panicled spikes, catkin-like before opening, appear- 
ing before or with the leaves; fruit red, pubescent; foliage not poison- 
ous, fragrant when bruised. 
6. Flowers nearly sessile, appearing before the leaves; leaflets 2-6 cm. long, 
rhombic-obovate to ovate, acute; petioles villosulous to nearly gla- 
brous; gravelly or rocky banks locally throughout 111., except the n. 
counties; more frequent southw. May. \R. canadensis Marsh.; R. 
crenata of Rydb., not Thunb.; Schmaltzia jormosa Greene; S. illino- 

ensis Greene] Fragrant Sumac R. aromatica Ait. 

6. Flowers on pedicels 2-3 mm. long, on leafy twigs; leaflets 1-2.5 cm. 
obtusish, crenately few-lobed or -toothed above the middle; petioles 
puberulent or tomentulose; sandy banks and dunes; known from 
Cook, Jo Daviess, Mason, and Hancock counties; also n. Ind. May. 

[^Schmaltzia arenarta Greene, Leaflets 1:130. 1905] 

R. arenaria (Greene) n. comb. 

99. Staphyleaceae DC. — Bladdernut Family 
1. Staphylea L. 

S. trifolia L. American Bladdernut. Moist woods and thickets, common. 

100. Aceraceae Lindi. — Maple Family 

1. Acer L. — Maple 

1. Leaves simple, palmately lobed; floral disk present; anthers ellipsoid, not 
2. Leaves silvery whitish on the lower surface; flowers i" dense sessile clus- 
ters, appearing before the leaves. 

3. Leaves 5-lobed, the lobes serrate or cleft or parted; petals none; ovary 
tomentose; samaras divergent, pubescent; chiefly in alluvial soil, com- 
mon. Mar. -Apr. Silver Maple A. saccharinum L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 102. Rhamnaceae 179 

3. Leaves 3-5-lobed, the lobes unequally crenate-serrate; petals 5; ovary 
glabrous; samaras incurved, glabrous at maturity. 
4. Leaves glabrous or nearly so on the lower surface at maturity; ma- 
ture twigs glabrous; samaras 18-25 mm. long, the wing 6-8 mm. 

wide; woods, local. Mar. -Apr. Red Maple A. rubrum L. 

4. Leaves permanently tomentose beneath; twigs more or less pubescent 
at maturity; samaras 3.5-6 cm. long, the wing 1-2 cm. broad at the 
middle; swamps, rare, s. Ill A. drummondii H. & A. 

2. Leaves not silvery-white beneath; flowers corymbose, unfolding with the 

5. Leaves flat, 3-5-lobed, the lobes coarsely dentate, more or less glabrous; 
stipules absent; woods, common. Apr. -May. [/I. barbatum Michx.; 
A. saccharophorum K. Koch.; Saccharodendron barbatum NieuwI.} 
Sugar Maple A. saccharum Marsh. 

5. Leaves with drooping sides, usually with 3 main lob^s, the lobes acumi- 
nate, entire or undulate or obtusely toothed; lower surface yellowish 
green and softly pubescent, at least along the veins, varying to nearly 
glabrous in age; stipules often present, large, enclosing the buci; 
woods, local. May. Black Maple A. nigrum Michx. f. 

1. Leaves 3-7-foliolate; flowers dioecious, drooping, appearing before the leaves; 
anthers linear, apiculate; disk none; petals none; alluvial soil, common. 

Apr. -May. [Negundo nuttallii (NieuwI.) Rydb.] Box-elder 

A. negundo L. 

101. HiPPOCASTANACEAE T. Sc G. — Horse-chestnut Family 
1. Aesculus L. — Horse-chestnut 

1. Ovary and capsule soft-spiny; flowers 12-18 mm. long, finely pubescent, 
greenish yellow; stamens exserted; calyx campanulate, 6-8 mm. long; 
woods, common. Apr.-May. Ohio Buckeye A. glabra Willd. 

1 . Ovary and capsule smooth; flowers about 3 cm. long, reddish purple or yel- 
lowish; stamens included; woods, s. 111. Apr.-May. Yellow or Sweet 
Buckeye A. octandra Marsh. 

102. Rhamnaceae Dum. — Buckthorn Family 

1. Leaves pinnately veined; flowers greenish yellow; fruit a drupe 1. Rhamnus 

1 . Leaves triple-veined ; flowers (in our species) white, fragrant; fruit a capsule 

2. Ceanolhus 

1. Rhamnus L. — Buckthorn 
1 . Winter buds scaly. 

2. Leaves opposite or subopposite, ovate, abruptly acute; twigs rigid, often 
spine-like; flowers usually 4-merous; petals present; drupe with 3 or 4 
nutlets; roadsides and edges of woods, occasional in n. III.; nat. from 
Eurasia. May-June R. cathartica L. 

2. Leaves alternate; native shrubs 1-2 m. tall; twigs not at all spine-like. 

180 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

3. Leaves elliptical, serrulate, pubescent beneath; twigs puberulent; flowers 
4-merous; petals present; drupe with 2 nutlets; alluvial soil, bluffs, 
river banks, the common species in 111. May R. lanceolate Pursh 

3. Leaves oval or obovate, strongly veined, glabrous, crenate-serrate; twigs 
glabrous; flowers 5-merous; petals none; drupe with 3 nutlets; 
wooded swamps, n. 111., in Lake and Peoria counties. Alder Buck- 
thorn R. alnifolia L'Her. 

L Winter buds naked; leaves alternate; flowers 5-merous; shrubs or small trees 
3-10 m. tall. 

4. Leaves serrate or serrulate; flowers in peduncled cymes, the pedicels pu- 
bescent; ralyx-Iobes lanceolate, acuminate; drupe 8-10 mm. in diameter, 
with 3 nutlets; wooded slopes, s. 111., rare; known from Jackson and 

Gallatin counties. May-June. Carolina Buckthorn 

R. caroliniana Walt. 

4. Leaves entire or undulate; flowers fascicled; pedicels glabrous; calyx-lobes 
ovate, acute; drupe 6-8 mm. in diameter, with 2 nutlets; woods and 
roadsides, nat. from Eurasia. Known in 111. from Lake, Cook, Sanga- 
mon, and Champaign counties. May-June. Alder Buckthorn 

R. fratigula L. 

2. Ceanothus L. 

1 . Leaves ovate, acute; seeds smooth; thickets and open woods, coinmon. June- 
July. New Jersey Tea C. americanus L. 

1. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate; seeds pitted; sandy soil in the n. third of III., not 
common. May-June C ovatus Desf. 

103. Vitaceae Lindl. — Grape Family 

1 . Leaves simple, or pinnately compound. 

2. Inflorescence longer than broad; petals united in a cap, falling away without sep- 
arating; pith interrupted at the nodes; fruit edible; leaves simple, palmately 

lobed or dentate 1. Vilis 

2. Inflorescence broader than long; petals separate, spreading; pith not interrupted at 

the nodes; fruit not edible 2. Ampelopsis 

1. Leaves palmately compound with usually 5-leaflets 3. Parihenocissiis 

1. Vitis L. — Grape 

1. Mature leaves grayish arachnoid-pubescent beneath. 

2. Twigs terete or nearly so, glabrate; fruit glaucous, about 1 cm. in diam- 
eter; woods, thickets, and river banks in the n. two-thirds of the state. 
June- July. [V. bicolor LeConte] Summer Grape ...V. aestivalis Michx. 

2. Twigs distinctly angular, permanently pubescent; fruit black, 6-8 mm. in 

diameter; woods and stream banks. June-July. Winter Grape 

V . cmerea Engelm. 

1. Mature leaves green beneath, short-pubescent along the veins, or nearly 

3. Leaves coarsely dentate or slighdy 3-lobed; fruit glaucous; in woods and 

along fences, common. May-June. [V . cordifolia Lam.] Frost Grape .... 
V. vulpina L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 105. Malvaceae 181 

3. Leaves sharply 3-5-lobed. 

4. Lobes acuminate, the sinuses rounded; fruit black, not glaucous; alluvi- 
al soil in the s., e., and n.e. parts of the state. June-July. Catbird 
Grape V. palmata Vahl 

4. Lobes and sinuses acute; fruit glaucous; alluvial soil throughout 111. 

May-June. [K. vulpina of auth., not L.} Riverbanlc Grape 

V. riparia Michx. 

2. Ampelopsis Michx. 

1. Leaves simple, ovate, serrate or slightly 3-lobed; woods, thickets, and along 
fences, s. 111., extending northw. along the river valleys to Hancock and 

Wabash counties. June-July. \Cissus ampelopsis Pers.} Racoon-grape 

A. cordctta Michx. 

1. Leaves bipinnate, the leaflets ovate, toothed; moist woods, s. III., known 
from Alexander, Pulaski, Union, and Jackson counties. July- Aug. l_A. bi- 

pinnata Michx.; Vit'ts arborea L.; Ctssus stans Pers.} Pepper-vine 

A. arborea (L.) Koehne 

3. Parthenocissus Planch. 

(Psedera Neck.) 
1. Leaflets dull above, pale beneath; tendrils with 5-8 branches ending in ad- 
hesive tips; cymes usually crowded into terminal panicles; fruit 5-7 mm. 
in diameter, 1-3-seeded; plants high-climbing; woods, and along fences, 
common. June-July. Virginia Creeper P. quinquefolia (L.) Planch. 

1. Leaflets somewhat glossy above, scarcely paler beneath; tendrils with 3-5 
branches, usually without adhesive disks; cymes solitary; fruit 8-10 mm. 
in diameter, 3-4-seeded; plants usually low and trailing; thickets and along 
fences, local; chiefly in the n. half of the state. June- July. [P. vitacea 
(Knerr) Hitchc] Woodbine P. inserta (Kern.) K. Fritsch 

104 Tiliaceae Juss. — Linden Family 

1. Tilia L. — Linden 
1 . Leaves glabrous beneath except for tufts of hairs in the axils of the lateral 
veins, coarsely serrate, abruptly short-acuminate; woods, common. June- 
July. [T. glabra Vent.} American Linden. Basswood T. americana L. 

1. Leaves tomentose beneath, finely serrate, gradually short-acuminate; woods, 
s. 111. June-July. White Basswood T. helerophylla Vent. 

105. Malvaceae Neck. — Mallow Family 

1. Calyx subtended by an involucre of bracts. 
2. Bracts 2 or 3. 

3. Flowers pink or purple; leaves not linear. 

4. Petals obcordate; stigmas linear; leaves roundish in outline, obtusely lobed 

or rarely dissected; carpels I -seeded I. Malva 

4. Petals obtuse or truncate at the apex. 

5. Leaves triangular-hastate; stigmas linear; carpels 1 -seeded 3. Callirhoe 

5. Leaves 5-7-lobed, maple-hke in appearance; stigmas capitate; carpels 2- or 
3-seeded 6. Sphaeralcea 

182 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

3. Flowers yellow; leaves linear; stigmas capitate; carpels I -seeded.. .3. Malvasinim 
2. Bracts 6-9. 

6. Stigmas linear; carpels I -seeded 2. Althaea 

6. Stigmas capitate; carpels united into a 5-valved capsule 9. Hibiscus 

1. Calyx without bracts. 

7. Petals yellow; flowers perfect; leaves not lobed. 

8. Leaves less than 3 cm. broad, ovate-lanceolate, serrate, and \vith a small tubercle 

at the base; petals less than 1 cm. long; carpels 5, each 1 -seeded 7. Sida 

8. Leaves 6-30 cm. broad, cordate, acuminate, velvety-pubescent, long-petioled; 

petals 10-15 mm. long; carpels 12-15, each several-seeded 8. Abuiilon' 

7. Petals white; plants dioecious; leaves orbicular, palmately 7- 1 I -lobed; carpels 
8-10, rugose-reticulate, each 1 -seeded 4. Napaea 

I. Malva L.— Mallow 

L Petals not more than twice as long as the sepals. 

2. Leaves crisped on the margins; carpels reticulate; stem stout, erect, 0.5-2 
m. tall; escaped from cult.; native of Eur. July-Sept M. crispa L. 

2. Leaves not crisped. 

3. Stems erect; petals 5 mm. long; carpels 8-11, more or less pubescent 
and rugose on the back; weed in waste places, native of Eur. July- 
Aug. [M. pHsilla With.} Round-leaved Mallow ..M. rotundifolia L. 

3. Stems prostrate or ascending; petals 10-12 mm. long; carpels 12-15, 
pubescent; waste places, adventive from Eur. May-Sept. [M. rotun- 
difolia of auth., not L.} M. neglecta Wallr. 

1. Petals 3-8 times as long as the sepals. 

4. Leaves 3-7-lobed; petals purple; carpels wrinkled; occasional in waste 
places as a garden escape. Aug. -Sept M. sylvestris L. 

4. Leaves deeply dissected; petals pink; carpels pubescent; roadsides, escaped 
from cult.; native of Eur. June. Musk Mallow M. moschata L. 

2. Althaea L. Hollyhock 
A. rosea Cav. Roadsides and waste ground; native of China. 

3. Callirhoe Nutt. — Poppy Mallow 

1. Leaves triangular or halberd-shaped, crenate; plants stellate-pubescent; car- 
pels pubescent, not rugose; petals 2-2.5 cm. long; sandy soil, rare. June- 
Sept C. triangidata (Leavenw.) Gray 

1. Leaves round-cordate, palmately 5-7-parted; plants glabrous, or sparingly 
pubescent at the base; carpels rugose, scarcely pubescent; petals 1.5-2 cm. 
long; dry gravelly soil, rare. Peoria (Brendel, McDo7iald) , where prob- 
ably adv C. digitata Nutt. 

4. Napaea L. — Glade Mallow 
N. dioica L. Alluvial soil, local, throughout the n. half of III. July-Aug. 

5. Malvastrum Gray 

(Sidopsis Rydb.) 
M. angustuDi Gray. Dry ground, rare. La Salle Co. July-Aug. [Sidopsis 
hispida (Pursh) Rydb.; S phaeralcea angusta (Gray) Fern.} 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 106. Hypericaceae 183 

6. Sphaeralcea St. Hil. 

S. remota (Greene) Fern. Kankakee Mallow. On an island in the Kanka- 
kee River; also in western Virginia; not otherwise known. June-July. 

7. SiDA L. 
S. spinosa L. Prickly Sida. Fields and waste ground, common; native of 
Trop. Am. July-Oct. 

8. Abutilon Mill. — Indian Mallow 

A. theophrasti Medic. Velvet-leaf. Butterprint. Fields and roadsides, com- 
mon; native of India. Aug. -Oct. 

9. Hibiscus L. — Rose Mallow 

1. Stems 1-2 m. tall; native species. 

2. Leaves glabrous throughout; muddy shores of streams and ponds locally 

throughout 111., except the n. counties. July-Oct H. mditaris Cav. 

2. Leaves pubescent at least beneath. 

3. Leaves glabrous or nearly so on the upper surface; borders of streams, 

ditches, and ponds, rare; n.e. 111. July-Aug H. moscheutos 

3. Leaves velvety-pubescent above; shores of ponds and streams, chiefly in 
the s. half of the state. Aug.-Oct H. lasiocarpos Cav. 

1. Stem 10-40 cm. tall; leaves 3-7-lobed; plants annual; roadsides, fields, and 

waste places; adv. from s. Eur. Aug.-Oct. Flower-of-an-hour 

H. trioniim L. 

106. Hypericaceae Lindl. — St. John's-wort Family 

I. Petals yellow. 

2. Sepals 4, in unequal pairs, the outer pair larger and bract-like; petals 4 

1. Ascyrum 

2. Sepals 5; petals 5. 

3. Leaves with ordinary flat blades, not reduced to scales 2. H\)pericum 

3. Leaves scale-like or subulate 3. Sarolhra 

1. Petals pink or greenish purple; sepals 5; leaves oval 4. Triadenum 


A. multicaule Michx. Thickets, s. 111. July-Aug. [_A. crux-andrae and A. 
hypericoides of auth., not L.j St. Andrew's Cross. 

2. Hypericum L. — St. John's-wort 

1. Stamens numerous (15-40). 

2. Shrubs, 0.5-1.5 m. tall. 

3. Styles 5; capsules ovoid, 6-9 mm. long; flowers 2-3 cm. broad; sandy 
soil, local; known from Lake, Cook, and Livingston counties; also 
in St. Clair and Pope counties. June-Aug. Kalm's St. John's-wort .... 
H. kalmianum L. 

3. Styles 3; capsules ellipsoid, 11-13 mm. long; flowers 1.5-2 cm. broad; 

moist woods. July-Aug. Shrubby St. John's-wort H. prolificurn L. 

2. Herbs, rarely shrubbly at base. 

4. Petals not at all black-dotted. 

184 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

5. Flowers 4-6 cm. broad, the petals 2-2.5 cm. long; capsules 1.5-2 cm. 
long; cyme few-flowered; stamens united into 5 sets; styles 5; 
banks of streams, locally throughout III., except the s. counties. 

July-Aug. Giant St. John's-wort H. ascyron L. 

5. Flowers 1-2 cm. broad, the petals 6-10 mm. long; capsules 4-6 mm. 

long; stamens distinct. 

6. Stems somewhat woody at base; sepals oval or ovate-lanceolate, 

plane or nearly so; capsules unilocular, ovoid, 4-6 mm. long; 

seeds rugulose and pitted; roadsides, open woods, river banks, 

throughout 111. June-Aug. \H. cistifolium of auth., not Lam.} 

H. sphaerocarpum Michx. 

6. Stem herbaceous throughout, from a slender, creeping, stolonifer- 
ous base; sepals lanceolate, the margins more or less revolute; 
capsules incompletely 3-5-loculed by the projecting placentae; wet 

ground, s. 111., rare. July-Aug H. adpressum Bart. 

4. Petals black-dotted, at least along the margin. 

7. Flowers 1.5-2.5 cm. broad; petals black-dotted along the margin; 
sepals lanceolate; leaves linear or oblong, 1-2 cm. long, 2-8 mm. 
wide, numerous, pellucid-dotted; stem with numerous basal sterile 
shoots; roadsides and fields, common; adv. from Eur. June-Aug. 

Common St. John's-wort H. perforatum L. 

7. Flowers 8-15 mm. broad; petals with several lines of black dots; 
sepals ovate; leaves oval, 2-8 cm. long, 8-16 mm. wide, conspicu- 
ously black-dotted; roadsides and open woods. July-Aug. [H. 

pseudo-maculatum Mack. & Bush} H. punctatum Lam. 

1. Stamens few (5-20); flowers small, the petals 3-6 mm. long. 

8. Capsules 3-3.5 mm. long; sepals linear, obtusish; leaves oval, obtuse, 5- 

veined; plants often diffusely branched; moist soil, local. July-Sept 

H. vnitdum L. 

8. Capsules 4-6 mm. long; sepals narrowly lanceolate, acuminate; branching 

strict, erect. 

9. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 3-7-veined, acutish at the apex, somewhat 

rounded at the clasping base, 3-10 mm. wide; sepals 5-6 mm. long, 

nearly equalling the capsule; moist ground, rare; n.e. 111., e.xtending 

southwestw. to Peoria Co. July-Aug H. majiis (Gray) Britt. 

9. Leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate, obtusish, 1-3-veined, slightly ta- 
pered at the sessile base, 1-3 mm. wide; sepals 2.5-3 mm. long, notice- 
ably shorter than the capsule; moist sandy soil, rare; known from 
Kankakee and Cook counties. July-Sept H. canadense L. 

3. Sarothra L. — Pineweed 
1. Leaves scale-like, 2-3 mm. long; capsules much longer than the sepals; 

flowers 4-8 mm. in diameter, nearly sessile; sandy soil, local. Aug. -Oct. 

[Hypericum gentiarioidcs (L.) BSP.} S. gentiaiioides L. 

1. Leaves subulate, 5-20 mm. long; capsules about as long as the sepals; flowers 

10-12 mm. in diameter, pedicelled; sterile soil in the s. half of the state. 

July-Sept. [Hypericum drummondii (Grev. & Hook.) T. & G.} 

S. drumvwndu Grev. & Hook. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 107. Cistaceae 185 

4. Triadenum Raf. — Marsh St. John's-wort 

T. virginicum (L.) Raf. Swamps, local. July-Sept. [^Hypericum virginicum 


107. Cistaceae Lindl. — Rockrose Family 

l.Low shrubs; leaves subulate; petals 5, yellow, fugacious; styles slender, elongate 

I. Hudsonia 

1. Herbs; leaves not subulate. 

2. Petals 5, yellow, fugacious; style short; pubescence stellate 2. Helianthemum 

2. Petals 3, greenish or red, persistent; style none; pubescence not stellate 3. Lechea 

1. Hudsonia L. 

H. tomentosa Nutt. Sandy soil, local. Jo Daviess, Lee, and Fulton coun- 
ties. May-July. 

2. Helianthemum Mill. — Frostweed 

(Crocanlhemum Spach) 

1. Petaliferous flowers 5-12, pale yellow, in a short terminal cymose raceme, 
their capsules 3-5 mm. in diameter; seeds reticulate; sandy soil in open 

woods, local. June-July. [H. majus sensu Biclcn., non (L.) BSP.] 

H. bicknellii Fern. 

1. Petaliferous flowers solitary (or rarely 2), bright yellow, their capsules 6-9 
mm. in diameter; seeds papillose; in similar habitats. June. [Lechea major 

L.; Cistus canadensis L.; H. majus (L.) BSP.} 

H. canadense (L.) Michx. 

3. Lechea L. — Pinweed 

1. Stem with spreading (villous) pubescence; leaves of the basal shoots oval; 
stem leaves oval, 10-25 mm. long, 6-12 mm. wide; sandy soil. July-Aug. 
L. villosa Ell. 

l.Stem with appressed (strigose) pubescence, or sometim*'^ nearly glabrous. 

2. The narrow outer sepals longer than the inner ones. 

3. Stem 25-70 cm. tall; leaves narrowly elliptical; sandy soil. July-Aug 

L. minor L. 

3. Stems usually 10-20 cm. tall; leaves linear; sandy or sterile soil in 

woods. July-Aug. [L. tenuifolia var. occidentalis Hodgdon] 

L. tenuifolia Michx. 

2. The narrow outer sepals shorter than or equalling the inner ones. 

4. Plants pale green, finely canescent; panicle strict, virgate; sandy soil. 

July-Aug L. stricta Leggett 

4. Plants dark green, more or less pubescent, but not canescent. 

5. Panicle strict, virgate; capsules globose, 2-3 mm. in diameter; sandy 
soil, rare. July-Aug L. intermedia Leggett 

5. Panicle-branches spreading; capsules ellipsoid, 1-1.5 mm. in diam- 
eter; sandy soil, n.e. 111.; known from Winnebago, Lake, Cook, 
Kankakee, and Iroquois counties. July-Aug. £L. moniliformis 
Bickn.] L. leggettii Britt. & Hollick 

186 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

108. Violaceae DC. — Violet Family 

1. Corolla merely gibbous at the base; sepals not auncled; stamens united into a sheath 
I . Hvihanihiis 

1. Corolla spurred; sepals more or less auncled at the base; stamens distinct or slightly 
cohermg 2. Viola 

1. Hybanthus Jacq. — Green Violet 

H. concolor (Forst.) Spreng. Moist ravines and rich woods.. Apr. -June. 
[Cubelium concolor (Forst.) Raf}. 

2. Viola L. — Violet 

1 . Plants acaulescent, or without manifest stems at flowering time, the leaves 
and pedicels arising directly from the rhizome or from stolons. 

2. Rhizome short, thick, stout (3-10 mm. in diameter); petals violet to 

3. Leaves more or less lobed or dissected. 
4. Leaves dissected into narrow divisions. 

5. Petals all glabrous within, lilac, or the upper two dark violet; 
style clavate, beakless, oblique at apex; plants without cleisto- 
gamous flowers; prairies and borders of woods, locally through- 
out III. Apr.-June. Bird-foot Violet V . pedata L. 

5. Lateral petals hirsute within; corolla violet; style capitate, with a 

conical beak on the lower side; plants producing cleistogamous 
flowers; prairies or dry open woods, locally throughout 111., ex- 
cept the s. counties. May. Prairie Violet V . pedatifida Don 

4. Leaves usually lobed or cleft; plants producing cleistogamous flowers. 

6. Leaves all 5-11-lobed or -parted; woods and prairie soil, n. 111., e.x- 

tending southw. to Peoria and Kankakee counties. Apr. -May. 
[K. papilionacea )^ pedatifida ?; V. palmata sensu auth.; V. 

perpensa Greene] X ^- bernardi Greene 

6. Leaves usually of two kinds, the earliest and latest not lobed, the 
others 5-7-parted; woods, s. 111., extending northw. to Macon 
and Peoria counties. May. [V . triloba var. dilatata Brainerd] .... 
V . falcata Greene 

3. Leaves merely crenate-serrate, not lobed. 

7. Leaves ovate-cordate to reniform or deltoid. 
8. Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

9. Hairs of the lateral petals not clavate; cleistogamous flowers on 
short prostrate or ascending pedicels. 
10. Leaves ovate-cordate to reniform, acute or obtuse; flowers 
violet-purple (except albinos) . 
11. Leaf-blades obtuse or obtusish, broadly cordate or reni- 
form at maturity; spurred petal glabrous or nearly so 
within; cleistogamous flowers on short prostrate pedi- 
cels; capsules 10-15 mm. long; seeds dark brown; 
woods and roadsides, common throughout III. Apr.- 
May. Butterfly Violet V. papilionacea Pursh 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 108. Violaceae 187 

11. Leaf-blades acutish, narrowly cordate, usually longer than 
broad; spurred petal hirsute within; cleistogamous 
flowers on ascending pedicels; seeds light brown; moist 
soil, not common; known from Cook, Henry, and 

Macon counties. May-June V. affinis Le Conte 

10. Leaves deltoid, acuminate; petals lilac; spurred petal gla- 
brous within; open woods. Apr.-May 

V. missouriensis Greene 

9. Hairs of the lateral petals conspicuously clavate-capitate; cleis- 
togamous flowers on slender erect pedicels; wet ground, not 

common. May-June. Marsh Blue Violet V. cucuUata Ait 

8. Leaves decidedly pubescent; petals violet or lavender, rarely white; 
sepals ciliolate; woods, common throughout 111. Apr.-May. 

Downy Blue Violet V. sororia Willd. 

7. Leaves sagittate-lanceolate. 

12. Leaves glabrous or nearly so; open woods. Apr.-May. Arrow- 
leaved Violet V. sagittata Ait. 

12. Leaves pubescent; hillsides, not common; known from Cook, Lee, 

Stark, and Grundy counties. Apr.-May. [V . ovata Nutt.] 

V. fimbriatula Sm. 

2. Rhizome slender (1-2 mm. in diameter); plants usually stoloniferous. 
13. Flowers small, white, the lower petals purple-veine:'; style not 
hooked; seeds brown or black; native species. 
14. Leaves tapering or truncate at base. 

15. Leaves lanceolate or elliptical-lanceolate, several times as long 
as broad and usually less than 2 cm. wide, tapering at the 
base; borders of swamps, local. May-June. Lance-leaved 

Violet V. lanceolata L. 

15. Leaves ovate, not more than twice as long as wide, usually 
more than 2 cm. broad, truncate at base; borders of swamps; 
known from Cook and Kankakee counties. May-June. Prim- 
rose Violet V. primulifolia L. 

14. Leaves cordate, glabrous; pedicels usually somewhat longer than 
the leaves; springy ground, n. 111., rare. Apr.-May. [V. blanda 

of auth., not Willd.] Smooth White Violet 

V. pallens (Banks) Brainerd 

13. Flowers large (1-2 cm. broad), violet, or sometimes white, very fra- 
grant; style hooked; leaves broadly ovate, cordate, crenate, finely 
pubescent; stolons rooting at the nodes; seeds cream colored; road- 
sides and waste places, occasional; introd. from Eur. and often cult. 

Apr.- June. Sweet Violet V. odorata L. 

1. Plants caulescent at flowering time; flowers axillary. 
16. Plants perennial; stipules small, toothed or entire. 
17. Petals yellow. 

18. Plants nearly glabrous; basal leaves usually present at flowering 
time; seeds 2-2.5 mm. long; woods, common. Apr.-May. [F. 

scabriuscida Schw.] Common Yellow Violet 

V . eriocarpa Schw. 

188 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

18. Plants decidedly pubescent; basal leaves usually absent at flower- 

ing time; seeds 2.6-3 mm. long; moist woods, rare. Apr. -May. 

Downy Yellow Violet V. pubescetis Ait. 

17. Petals violet or white. 

19. Stipules entire, scarious; petals violet or white; woods, rare. Apr.- 

June. Canada Violet V. canadensis L. 

19. Stipules dentate or fimbriate. 

20. Petals creamy white; sepals ciliolate; upper leaves acute; stip- 
ules 1.5-2.5 cm. long; alluvial soil, common. Apr.-June. 

Cream Violet V. striata Ait. 

20. Petals pale violet; sepals glabrous; leaves obtuse; stipules 
usually less than 1.5 cm. long; woods. Cook Co., A. Chase. 

Apr. -May. Dog Violet V. conspersa Reichenb. 

16. Plants annual; stipules large, pectinate; style enlarged at the hollow apex. 
21. Upper leaves entire or nearly so; flowers 7-10 mm. long; petals twice 
the length of the sepals; sandy soil in fields and open woods, com- 
mon. Apr.-June. Wild Pansy V. rafinesqiin Greene 

21. Upper leaves crenate-serrate. 

22. Petals shorter than or barely exceeding the sepals; fields and road- 
sides, occasional; adv. from Eur. May-July. Field Pansy 

V . arvensis Murr. 

22. Petals much longer than the sepals; occasionally found as an 

escape from cult.; native of Eur. Garden Pansy 

V. tricolor L. 

109. Passifloraceae Dum. — Passion-flower Family 

1. Passiflora L. — Passion-flower 

1. Leaves deeply 3-5-lobed, the lobes serrate; flowers subtended by a conspicu- 
ous involucre of 3 bracts; petals lavender or whitish; dry soil, s. 111. 

May-July P. incarnata L. 

1. Leaves obtusely 3-lobed above the middle, the lobes entire; flowers without 
an involucre; petals greenish yellow; thickets, s. HI., extending northw. to 
Pike and Wabash counties. May-July P. lutea L. 

110. Cactaceae Lindl. — Cactus Family 
1. Opuntia Mill. — Prickly-pear 

O. rafinesquii Engelm. Sandy soil, locally abundant; known from Lake, 
Cook, Mason, Adams, Jackson, Union, Johnson, and Pope counties. [(?) O. 
humijiisa Raf.] 

111. Thymeleaceae Reichenb. — Mezereum Family 
1. DiRCA L. 
D. pahistris L. Leatherwood. Woods and thickets, local. Apr.-May. 

112. Elaeagnaceae Lindl. — Oleaster Family 
1. Shepherdia Nutt. 
S. canadensis L. Canadian Buffalo-berry. Dry bluffs and banks or ravines, 
near L. Michigan; Lake Forest, HAl in 1904; Glencoe, G. D. Fuller in 1943. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 115. Onagraceae 189 

113. Lythraceae Lindl. — Loosestrife Family 

I. Flowers regular; petals equal. 

2. Flowers small, axillary, solitary or few. 

3. Calyx-tube campanulate or hemispherical, not striate. 
4. Petals 4; calyx-tube with appendages in the sinuses. 

5. Flowers solitary, sessile, axillary; capsules 4-loculed, septicidal I. Rotala 

5. Flowers usually more than I in each axil; capsules 2-4-loculed, irregularly 

dehiscent 2. Ammannia 

4. Petals absent; calyx-tube without appendages 3. Peplis 

3. Calyx-tube cylindrical, striate; petals 5-7, usually 6 4. LythTum 

2. Flowers large (2 cm. in diameter), in axillary clusters, trimorphous; petals usually 5; 

plants semi-shrubby 5. Decodon 

1. Flowers irregular and unsymmetrical ; petals unequal; plants glandular-pubescent.... 
- ...6. Cuphea 

1. Rotala L. 
R. ramosior (L.) Koehne. Wet ground, throughout 111. July-Sept. 

2. Ammannia L. 

A. cocc'mea Rottb. Muddy banks and shores, locally common throughout 
111. July-Aug. 

3. Peplis L. — Water-purslane 

{Didiplis Raf.) 
P. diandra Nutt. Wet ground or shallow water, rare. June-Aug. Known 
from Cook, Hancock, Henderson, Menard, Wabash, and St. Clair counties. 
lAmmannia nuttallii Gray; D. diandra (Nutt.) Wood} 

4. Lythrum L. — ^Loosestrife 
L. alatum Pursh. Meadows and moist ground, common June-Aug. 

5. Decodon J. F. Gmel. — Swamp Loosestrife 

D. verticillatus (L.) Ell. Swamps, not common; known in III. from Lake, 
Cook, Woodford, and Mason counties. 

6. Cuphea P. Br. — Waxweed 

C. petiolata (L.) Koehne. Dry soil, throughout 111., except the n.w. coun- 
ties. July-Oct. 

114. Melastomaceae R. Br. — Melastoma Family 
1. Rhexia L. — Meadow-beauty 
R. virginica L. Moist sand-barrens, or in peaty soil, locally throughout III.; 
known from Cook, Kankakee, La Salle, Mason, Cass, and Richland counties. 

115. Onagraceae Dum. — Evening-primrose Family 

I. Flowers with 4 petals (rarely 0) ; sepals 4-6 (rarely apparently only 2) ; stamens 4-12. 
2. Fruit a many-seeded capsule. 

3. Seeds with a tuft of silky hairs; flowers (in our species) not yellow 

I . Epilobium 

3. Seeds without hairs. 

4. Hypanthium scarcely or not at all extended beyond the ovary. 

5. Stamens 8-12, in two series _ 2. Jiissiaea 

5. Stamens 4 3. Ludmgia 

190 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

4. Hypanthium conspicuously extended beyond the ovary into a tube 

4. Oenothera 

2. Fruit indehiscent, deciduous; flowers pink 5. Caiira 

1. Flowers with 2 notched white petals, 2 sepals, and 2 stamens; fruit indehiscent, 
obovoid, with hooked bristly hairs 6. Circaea 

1. Epilobium L. — Willow-herb 

1. Petals 1-2 cm. long; stigma 4-Iobe(d; edges of woods and burned-over 
ground, local; known from Lake, McHenry, Cook, and La Salle counties. 

June-Aug. Fireweed [Chamaeiierion spicatum (Lam.) S. F. Gray} 

E. angustifolium L. 

1. Petals 3-8 mm. long; stigmas entire. 
2. Leaves lanceolate, denticulate. 

3. Seeds beakless, 1-1.5 mm. long; coma reddish brown; moist ground, 
local. Aug. -Sept E. coloration Muhl. 

3. Seeds short-beaked, 0.5-1 mm. long; coma whitish; moist ground, not 

common; chiefly in the n. and w. parts of the state. July-Sept 

E. adenocaulon Haussk. 

2. Leaves linear, or linear-lanceolate, mostly entire. 

4. Stems, leaves, and capsules copiously soft-pubescent with short, straight 

hairs; leaves mostly 4-8 mm. wide; petals 7-8 mm. long; seeds 2 mm. 
long; wet ground, rare. Lake Co., Gleason & Shobe 162; Woodford 
Co., June 1889, McDonald; McHenry Co., Vas^y. July-Sept. [£. 

niolle sensu Torr., non Lam.; E. dcnsiim Raf.] E. strictum Muhl. 

4. Stem, leaves, and capsules crisp-puberulent; leaves 1-4 mm. wide; petals 
3-5 mm. long; seeds 1.5 mm. long; wet ground, rare; known from 
Lake, Peoria, and Mason counties. Aug. -Sept. \_E. Imeare Muhl., 

nom. illegit.; E. densiirn sensu auth., non Raf.] 

E. leptophyllum Raf. 

2. JussiAEA L. — Primrose-willow 

1. Plants creeping or floating; petals 5; capsule cylindrical; leaves elliptical, 
tapering to a slender petiole; muddy banks, or in water, not common; 
chiefly s. 111. July-Aug /. diffusa Forsk. 

1. Plants erect; petals 4; capsules clavate, 4-angled; leaves lanceolate, decur- 
rent; wet ground, rare; s. III. July-Sept /. decurrens (Walt.) DC. 

3. LuDWiGiA L. — False Loosestrife 

1. Petals yellow, equalling or exceeding the sepals; leaves alternate; flowers 
peduncled; capsules opening by terminal pores; swamps. June-Sept. Seed- 
box _L. ahernjfolia L. 

1. Petals small, greenish, or absent; flowers sessile. 

2. Leaves opposite, ovate or oval; muddy shores and ditches, local. July- 

Aug. [Isnardia palustris L.] L. palnstris (L.) Ell. 

2. Leaves alternate. 

3. Capsules cylindrical; stem glabrous; bractlets minute; swamps, s. 111., 

rare. Massac Co. July-Sept L. glandulosa Walt. 

3. Capsules subglobose or turbinate; leaves lanceolate or linear. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 115. Onagraceae 191 

4. Stem glabrous; bractlets subulate; capsules longer than the calyx-lobes; 

muddy shores, local. July-Sept L. polycarpa Short & Peter 

4. Stem pubescent; bractlets minute, or none; capsules not longer than 

the calyx-lobes; muddy shores, s. 111., rare.July-Sept 

L. sphaerocarpa Ell. 

4. Oenothera L. — Evening-primrose 
1. Leaves not linear-filiform; stigma 4-lobed. 

2. Calyx-lobes reflexed; stamens equal in length; flowers more or less noctur- 
nal; petals yellow; capsules terete or round-angled; plants biennial or 
3. Capsules lanceloid-cylindrical, 4-7 mm. thick at maturity, slightly ta- 
pering from a thickish base; flowers many, in a terminal spike; leaves 
repand-denticulate; petals 1-2 cm. long, obovate; dry soil, common. 

June-Oct. Common Evening-primrose O. biennii L. 

3. Capsules linear-cylindrical, 2-3 mm. thick, essentially uniform in diam- 
eter throughout. 
4. Upper and median leaves remotely denticulate to entire; flowers 
many, in a terminal spike; petals 12-25 mm. long, rhombic-ovate; 
capsules 1-2 cm. long, strigose; sandy soil, local, chiefly in the n. 
half of 111., but extending southw. near the Mississippi R. June- 
Sept. [^Raimannia rhombipetala (Nutt.) Rose} 

O. rhombipetala Nutt. 

4. Upper and median leaves sinuately dentate or pinnatifid; flowers few, 
axillary; petals 5-12 mm. long, obovate; capsules 2-3 cm. long, 
pilose; sandy soil, chiefly in the s. half of the state, extending 
northw. to Peoria Co. May-July [RaitJiannia laciniata (Hill) Rose; 

O. sinuata L.] O. laciniata Hill 

2. Calyx lobes erect or ascending, cohering in pairs; stamens unequal in 
length, the alternate ones somewhat longer; flowers diurnal; capsules 4- 
angled; plants perennial. 
5. Petals yellow; capsules 4-winged; leaves entire or denticulate. 
6. Stem erect; petals 1.2-2.5 cm. long; capsules 1.5-2 cm. long. 

7. Capsules sparsely pilose, the hairs glandless; leaves lanceolate, 
hirsute on both surfaces; stem pilose; roadsides and fields, not 
infrequent. June-Oct. [O. pratensis (Small) B. L. Robins.; 
Kneiffia pratensis Small} Common Sundrops ...O. pilosella Raf. 
7. Capsules with a few gland-tipped hairs; leaves linear-oblanceolate, 
strigose; stem short-pubescent; dry soil, rare; Karnak, Pulaski 

Co., McDougall [O. fruticosa sensu auth., non L.} 

O. tetragona Roth 

6. Stem decumbent, strigilose; petals 5-7 cm. long; hypanthium 5-15 
cm. long; capsules 5-8 cm. long, 4-6 cm. wide; sandy or rocky soil, 
rare, s.w. 111.; St. Clair Co., Muljord; Washington Co., Vasey 

[Megapteriutn missouriense (Sims) Spach} 

O. missouriensis Sims 

5. Petals white or pink, 2.5-4 cm. long; buds nodding; capsules 4-angled 
and ribbed, canescent-strigose, stipitate; leaves dentate to pinnatifid. 

192 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

puberulent; roadsides, occasional; native w. of the Mississippi R. 
June-July. [Hartmannia speciosa (Nutt.) Small] White evening- 
primrose O. speciosa Nutt. 

1. Stem-leaves linear-filiform; stigma shallowly lobed; petals 3-4 mm. long; 
capsules ellipsoid, sessile, 4-angled, 4-6 mm. long; sandy soil, s. 111., rare; 
known from Jackson and Johnson counties. May-June. [^Kneiffia linifolta 

(Nutt.) Spach; Peniophylliun linifoliutn (Nutt.) Pennell} 

O. linifolia Nutt. 

5. Gaura L. — Butterfly-weed 
1. Petals 2-3 mm. long; anthers oval, attached near the middle; fruit fusiform, 
4-nerved, glabrous, 6-8 mm. long; roadsides, rare; adv. from w. U.S. 
June-July G. parvi flora Dougl. 

1. Petals 7-9 mm. long; anthers linear, attached near the base; fruit 4-angled, 

pubescent, 5-6 mm. long; fields and open woods. July-Sept 

G. biennis L. 

6. CiRCAEA L. — Enchanter's-nightshade 

1. Stem 30-60 cm. tall; leaves shallowly undulate-dentate, usually rounded at 
the base; fruit 2-Ioculed, 4 mm. long at maturity; woods, common. June- 
July. [C. lutettana of auth., not L.J C. latifolia Hill 

l.Stem 10-30 cm. tall; leaves sharply dentate, mostly cordate; fruit 1-locuIed, 
2 mm. long; moist banks and ravines in deep woods, n. 111. Lake BluflF, 

Hill; Elgin, Vasey; Jo Daviess Co., Pepoon & Moffatt. June-July 

_ C. alpina L. 

116. Haloragidaceae R. Br. — ^Water-milfoil Family 
1 . Leaves whorled (rarely subopposile or alternate). 

2. Leaves (at least the immersed ones) pmnately dissected; stamens 4-8; fruit 4-lobed 
1. M\!riophyllum 

2. Leaves entire, linear; flowers perfect; stamen I; sepals and petals none; fruit 1- 
loculed -..2. Hippuris 

1. Leaves alternate, dentate or pectinate-pinnatifid ; stamens 3-4; fruit 3-angled 

3. Proserpinaca 

1. Myriophyllum L. — Water-milfoil 

1. Carpels rounded and smooth on the back. 
2. Floral leaves (bracts) entire or denticulate. 

3. Leaves verticillate in fours or fives; lakes and slow streams, n.c. 111. \M. 

exalbescens Fern.} M. spicatum L. 

3. Leaves chiefly scattered, or absent from the flowering stems; muddy 

shores and shallow water, rare M. hiiniilc (Raf.) Morong 

2. Floral leaves pinnatifid or pectinate; leaves verticillate in threes and fours; 
lakes and slow streams, local M. verticillatum L. 

1. Carpels 2-keeled and roughened on the back; stamens 4. 

4. Floral leaves (bracts) ovate or lanceolate, serrate; ponds and slow 

streams, local M. hcterophylluni Michx. 

4. Floral leaves linear, pectinate; ditches and muddy shores, chieflv in w. 111. 

[M. scabratum Michx.] M. pinnatum (Walt.) BSP. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 117. Cornaceae 193 

2. HiPPURlS L. — Mare's-tail 

H. vulgaris L. Ponds and streams, rare. Known from Lake and McHenry 
counties. June-Aug. 

3. Proserpinaca L. — Mermaid-weed 
P. palustris L. Ponds and slow streams, n.e. 111. Known from Lake, Cook, 
and Du Page counties. July-Sept. 

117. Cornaceae Link — Dogwood Family 

1 . Flowers 4-merous, perfect; leaves opposite (except Cornus alfernifolia) I. Cornus 

1 . Flowers 5-merous, polygamous; leaves alternate 2. A/pssa 

1. Cornus L. — Dogwood 

(SviJa Opiz) 

1. Flowers cymose or paniculate, without an involucre; stone of the fruit sub- 

2. Leaves alternate; woods, usually near streams, chiefly in the n. two-thirds 

of the state. May-June. Alternate-leaved Dogwood 

C. alternifolia L. f 

2. Leaves opposite. 

3. Lower surface of blades pale, strigose, strigillose, or glabrescent, the 
trichomes wholly appressed. 
4. Leaves pale and microscopically farinose or pulverulent beneath. 
5. Young twigs strigillose to glabrous. 

6. Mature twigs bright red; cyme dense, flat-topped; stone com- 
pressed; swampy ground, local. June-July. Red-osier Dogwood 

C. stolonifera Michx. 

6. Mature twigs gray or brown; cyme loosely-flowered, convex; 

stone subglobose, not compressed; along roads, and in low 

ground along streams, common. May-June. [C. paniculctta 

L'Her.; C. femina Mill.} Gray Dogwood ..C. racemosa Lam. 

5. Young twigs tomentulose; moist ground, common. May-June. [C. 

amotnum sensu auth., non Mill.] Pale Dogwood 

_.-C. obliqua Raf. 

4. Leaves green beneath, not at all farinose, low woods, chiefly s. 111. 

June C stricta Lam. 

3. Lower surface of blades with loose, partly spreading pubescence, at 
least on the veins. 
7. Leaves roundish-ovate, woolly pubescent beneath at maturity; woods, 
n. 111., extending southw. to Kankakee and La Salle counties. May. 

[C. circinata L'Her.] Round-leaved Dogwood C. rugosa Lam. 

7. Leaves lance-ovate. 

8. Leaves finely pubescent above; lake shores, n. 111. May-June. 

Bailey's Dogwood C. baileyi Coult. & Evans 

8. Leaves scabrous above; moist ground on roadsides or along 
streams, common. May-June. Rough-leaved Dogwood. [C. as- 
perifolia of auth., not Michx.] C drummondi C. A. Mey. 

194 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Flowers capitate, with an involucre; stone ellipsoid. 

9. Tree; dry woods, local; more common southw. Apr.-May \Cynoxylon 

floridum (L.) Raf.} Flowering Dogwood C. florida L. 

9. Herb or subshrub; woods, n. 111., known from Lake, Cook, Ogle, and La 
Salle counties. May-June. [Chamaeper'icltmenum canadense (L.) 
Aschers. & Graebn.] Bunchberry C. canadensis L. 

2. Nyssa L. — Tupelo 

L Leaves entire; pistillate flowers 2-several together; fruit ovoid, 8-12 mm. 
long; rich soil, chiefly s. and s e. 111., but also in Cook and Kankakee 
counties. May. Most of the specimens examined belong, apparently, to 
the var. carolimana (Poir.) Fern. Black Gum N. sylvatica Marsh. 

1. Leaves more or less dentate with 1 or more large angular teeth, or entire; 
pistillate flower solitary; fruit ellipsoid, 1.5-3 cm. long; swamps and low 
woods, s. 111., northw. to Crawford Co. Tupelo Gum N. aquatica L. 

118. Araliaceae Vent. — Ginseng Family 

1 . Leaves alternate; carpels 5; fruit black 1. Aralia 

I. Leaves usually three in a whorl; carpels 2 or 3 ; fruit red or yellowish 2. Panax 

1. Aralia L. 

1. Shrub or small tree, prickly; woods, s. 111. July-Aug. Hercules'-club 

A. spmosa L. 

1. Herbs. 

2. Umbels numerous; woods, local. July-Aug. American Spikenard -... 

A. racemosa L. 

2. Umbels 2-7. 

3. Plant leafy-stemmed, prickly or bristly; woods, rare. June-July. Bristly 

Aralia A. hispida Vent. 

3. Plant acaulescent, not bristly; moist ground in woods, chiefly in the n. 
half of the state. May-June. Wild Sarsaparilla A. midicaulis L. 

2. Panax L. — Ginseng 

1. Leaflets sessile, obtuse; berry yellow; rhizome globose; woods; May-June. 
Not definitely known to occur in III., but to be expected in this state 
since it has been collected in n.w. Ind. Dwarf Ginseng P. trijoliiim L. 

1. Leaflets petiolulate, acuminate; berry red; rhizome fusiform; rich woods. 
July-Aug. Ginseng P. qianqnefolium L. 

119. Umbelliferae B. — Parsley Fainily 

1. Leaves simple, rigid, parallel-veined, remotely bristly on the margins; inflorescence 

capitate 1. Ervngiiim 

1 . Leaves compound; inflorescence umbellate. 

2. Ovary and fruit with straight or curved bristles or prickles. 

3. Ovary and fruit with straight bristles; fruit much longer than wide; leaves ter- 
nately decompound with lanceolate or ovate, toothed leaflets; flowers (in our 
species) white; roots aromatic 5. Osmorniza 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 119. Umbelliferae 195 

3. Ovary and fruit with hooked or barbed bristles. 

4. Plants glabrous; leaves palmately 3-7-foliolate ; ovary and fruit with hooked 

bristles 4. Sanicula 

4. Plants pubescent; leaves pinnately decompound. 

5. Ovary and fruit with hooked bristles; rays of the umbel short 3. Torilis 

5. Ovary and fruit with barbed bristles; rays long 2. Daiicus 

2. Ovary and fruit not at all bristly or prickly (rarely tuberculate) . 
6. Fruit 2-4 times longer than wide; flowers white. 

7. Leaves trifoliolate with ovate leaflets; mvolucels none 6. Cr^piolaenia 

7. Leaves ternately compound, the leaflets pinnatifid; involucels present 

10. Chaerophyllum 

6. Fruit less than twice as long as wide. 

8. Leaves palmately or ternately divided. 

9. Leaves copiously soft-pubescent; umbels 15-30 cm. broad; outer petals 

larger, 2-cleft 23. Heracleum 

9. Leaves usually glabrous; none of the petals enlarged. 

10. Plants annual; leaves divided into filiform segments; flowers white; fruit 

ovoid, tuberculate, 1 mm. long II. Spermolepis 

10. Plants perennial; leaf -segments broader; fruit not tuberculate. 

II. Central flower and fruit of the umbellet sessile; flowers yellow; fruit 

flattened laterally, the ribs filiform 12. Zizia 

I I. Central flower and fruit not sessile. 

12. Plants tall, with elongated roots; involucre absent or inconspicuous. 
13. Leaflets not entire. 

14. Flowers yellow; calyx-teeth prominent; fruit slightly 
flattened dorsally, the ribs strongly winged.... 18. Thaspiitm 
14. Flowers white; calyx-teeth small or obsolete. 

15. Leaves finely divided; plants of wet ground 

24. Conioselinum 

15. Leaves not finely divided 21. Angelica 

13. Leaflets entire; plants glaucous and glabrous 13. Taenidia 

12. Plants small, with a tuber, flowering early in spring; anthers 

purple; petals not mflexed at the tip; involucre present 

7. Erigenia 

8. Leaves pinnately divided. 

16. Involucre present, conspicuous; flowers white. 

17. Stem mottled with purple; leaflets ovate or lanceolate, incised or ser- 
rate; ribs of the fruit prominent; oil-tubes none 14. Conium 

17. Stem net purple-marked. 

18. Leaflets filiform 15. Plilimnium 

18. Leaflets linear to lanceolate or ovate. 

19. Leaflets regularly and sharply serrate to the base. 

20. Fruit with slender inconspicuous filiform ribs; stylopodium 

conical; oil-tubes numerous and contiguous 9. Deriila 

20. Fruit with equal, prominent corky ribs; stylopodium 

depressed; oil-tubes 1-3 in each interval 16. Sium 

19. Leaflets remotely and irregularly dentate usually only above the 
the mi(Sdle, or entire 25. Oxvpolis 

16. Involucral bracts none, or few and soon deciduous. 
21. Flowers white; fruit scmev.hat flattened laterally. 

22. Leaflets serrate 17. Cicula 

22. Leaflets not serrate 8. Eulophus 

21. Flowers yellow; fruit flattened dorsally. 

23. Leaf-segments filiform; slender annuals 19. Aneihum 

23. Leaf-segments broader. 

24. Stem terete; fruit with thick corky margin, obscure ribs, and 
numerous oil-tubes; plants perennial 20. Polylaenia 

24. Stem grooved; fruit with filiform dorsal ribs, thin wings, and 
solitary oil-tubes; stout biennial 22. Pastinaca 

196 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Eryngium L. — Rattlesnake-master 

E. yuccifolium Michx. Meadows, roadsides, and prairie soil, common. 

2. Daucus L. — Carrot 

D. carota L. Carrot. Fields and waste places, very common; nat. from Eur. 

3. ToRlLiS Adans. — Hedge Parsley 

7 . japomcus (Houtt.) DC. Waste ground and edges of woods, occasion- 
al; nat. from Eur. [T. anthriscus (L.) Gmel.} 

4. Sanicljla L. — Sanicle 

1. Styles longer than the bristles of the fruit, recurved. 

2. Petals greenish white; sepals subulate; fruit sessile, 6 mm. long; woods, 

local. May-June S. mardcindica L. 

2. Petals yellowish green; sepals oval or lanceolate; fruit pedicellate, 3 mm. 

long; woods, common. May-June 5. gregaria Bickn. 

1. Styles shorter than the bristles; fruit 3-6 mm. long; woods, local. June-Sept. 
S. canadensis L. 

' 5. OsMORHiZA Raf. — Sweet Cicely 

{IVashinglonia Raf.) 

1. Styles and stylopodium 1-1.5 mm. in length, not longer than the petals; 

stems and petioles villous; woods, common. May-June 

O. claytoni (Michx.) Clarke 

1. Styles and stylopodium 2-4 mm. long, e.xceeding the petals; stem and peti- 
oles glabrous or pubescent; woods, common. May-June. \0. longistylis 

var. villicaiilis Fern.; O. longistylis var. brachycoma Blake} 

O. longistylis (Torr.) DC. 

6. Cryptotaenia DC. — Honewort 
C. canadensis (L.) DC. Woods, common throughout 111. June-July. 

7. Erigenia Nutt. — Harbinger-of -spring 

E. bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt. Woods, locally throughout 111., except the n.w. 
counties. Mar. -May. 

8. EuLOPHus Nutt. 

(PcrideriJia Reichenb.) 
E. americanus Nutt. Thickets and edges of woods, local; apparently absent 
from the n. counties, and from the s. part of the state. July. 

9. Berula Hoffm. 
/). pusdla (Nutt.) Fern. Swamps, not common. Known in 111. from Peoria, 
Woodford, Tazewell, and Mason counties; also Kane Co. July-Sept. [B. erccta 
sensu Cov., non Sium crcctiim Huds.} 

10. Chaerophyllum L. — Chervil 
C. procumbcns (L.) Crantz. Moist ground, common. Apr. -May. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 119. Umbelliferae 197 

11. Spermolepis Raf. 

S. inermis (Nutt.) Mathias & Constance. Sandy soil, occasional. \_S. 
patens (Nutt.) B. L. Robins.] 

12. ZiziA Koch — Golden-alexanders 

1. Basal leaves ternately divided; fruit ellipsoid, 3.5-4 mm. long at maturity; 

roadsides, fields, meadows, open woods, common. May-June 

Z.- aurea (L.) Koch 

1. Basal leaves ovate or suborbicular, deeply cordate, crenate; fruit oval, 3 mm. 
long. Ringwood, McHenry Co., Vasey in 1858. [Thaspium trijoliatti7n 
(L.) Gray, var. apterum Gray; Z. cordata sensu auth., non (Walt.) Koch 
Z.- aptera (Gray) Fern. 

13. Taenidia Drude 

T. integernma (L.) Drude. Woods and thickets, common throughout 111. 
May- June. 

14. CoNlUM L. — Poison-hemlock 

C. maculatum L. Waste places, nat. from Eur. June-July. 
15. Ptilimnium Raf. — Bishops-weed 

(Discopleura DC.) 

1. Involucral bracts or some of them pinnately cleft or parted; calyx-teeth 
minute; fruit 2-3 mm. long, ovate, acute; marshy ground, s. 111., rare. 
June-Oct P. captlldceu7n (Michx.) Raf. 

1. Involucral bracts entire, linear, short; calyx-teeth prominent; fruit 1-1.5 mm. 

long, ovate-orbicular, obtuse; swamps, rare. May-Sept 

'. P. nuttallii (DC.) Britt. 

16. SlUM L. — Water-parsnip 
S. cicutaefoliuni Gmel. Wet ground, locally throughout 111. June-Aug. 

17. Cicuta L. — Cowbane 

1. Leaflets narrowly linear; axils of the upper leaves bearing bulblets; swamps, 
in the n. half of the state. July-Sept C. bulbijera L. 

1. Leaflets lanceolate; axils of the leaves never bearing bulblets; swamps and 
wet meadows, locally throughout III. June-Aug C. maculata L. 

18. Thaspium Nutt. — Meadow-parsnip 

1. Flowers deep yellow; stem glabrous; basal leaves either cordate or ternate; 
woods and river banks, common. May-June. [Thaspium trijoliatum var. 
flavum Blake; Zizia syhatica Benke in Rhodora 35:45. 1943; T. aureum 
sensu auth., non (L.) Nutt.] T. sylvaticum (Benke) n. comb. 

1. Flowers pale yellow or cream; stem puberulent at the nodes; leaves 1-3- 

ternate; woods near streams, local. May-June 

T. barbinode' (Michx.) Nutt. 

198 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

19. Anethum L. — Dill 

A. graveolens L. Waste ground, escaped from cult.; native of Eur. July- 

20. Polytaenia DC. 

{Pleiolaenia C. & R.) 
P. nuttallii DC. Prairie Parsley. Dry soil, locally throughout III. May-June. 

21. Angelica L. — Angelica 

l.Stem pubescent; fruit roundish, pubescent, 4 mm. broad; oil-tubes several, 

distinct; dry soil, s. 111. July. [A. villosa (Walt.) BSP., not Lag.] 

A. venenosa (Greenw.) Fern. 

l.Stem glabrous; fruit ellipsoid, 6 mm. long, glabrous; oil-tubes continuous; 
river banks, local. June A. atropiirpiirea L. 

22. Pastinaca L. — Parsnip 

P. sativa L. Roadsides, fields, and waste places, very common; nat. from 
Eur. June-Aug. 

23. HeracleUiM L. — Cow-parsnip 

H. latiatum Michx. Wet ground, local, throughout the n. two-thirds of 
the state. June-Aug. 

24. Conioselinum Fisch. — Hemlock-parsley 
C. chinense (L.) BSP. Wet ground, rare. Aug. -Sept. 

25. OxYPOLls Raf. 
O. rigidior (L.) Raf. Swamps, local. Aug. -Sept. 

120. Ericaceae DC. — Heath Family 

1 . Ovary superior. 

2. Plants saprophytic, without chlorophyll, white, pink, or tawny, turning black in 

drying 3. Monotropa 

2. Plants with ordinary green foliage. 
3. Corolla polypetalous. 

4. Leaves alternate or somewhat whorled; filaments dilated 1. Clumaphila 

4. Leaves all basal ; filaments subulate 2. Pxirola 

3. Corolla sympetalous. 

5. Leaves entire. 

6. Erect shrubs; fruit a capsule. 

7. Leaves short-petioled, deciduous, not revolute-margined ; flowers large, 
showy, somewhat irregular: anthers awnless 4. Rhododendron 

7. Leaves sessile or nearly so, revolute-margined, evergreen, pale beneath; 

flowers small, white, nodding; anthers awned 5. Andromeda 

6. Trailing shrubs; leaves petioled. 

8. Blades cordate at the base; corolla salverform; fruit a capsule.... 7. JEpigaea 
8. Blades cuneate at the base; corolla urceolate; fruit a drupe 

9. Arcioslaphxilos 

5. Leaves denticulate or serrate. 

9. Leaves resinous-dotted beneath; flowers in terminal leafy-bracted racemes; 

fruit a capsule 6. Chamaedaphne 

9. Leaves not resinous-dotted; flowers axillary; berries red 8. Caallhcria 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 120. Ericaceae 199 

I. Ovary inferior; fruit a berry; shrubs. 

10. Corolla sympetalous, urceolate or ovoid; erect shrubs; fruit black or bluish. 

I 1 . Leaves resinous-dotted; ovary lO-loculed; drupe with 10 nutlets 

10. Ca^lussacia 

II . Leaves not resinous-dotted; ovary 4-5-loculed; fruit a many-seeded berry 

1 I. Vaccinium 

10. Corolla deeply 4-cleft, the lobes reflexed; flowers nodding on slender pedicels; 
trailing shrubs with small evergreen leaves; berries red, acid 12. Oxvicoccus 

1. Chimaphila Pursh — Pipsissewa 

L Leaves lanceolate, whitish-variegated, acute or acuminate; flowers few (1-5); 
dilated portion of the filaments villous; dry woods, n.e. III., rare. June- 
Aug. Spotted Wintergreen C. ynaculata (L.) Pursh 

1. Leaves oblanceolate, green throughout, obtuse or acutish; flowers several 
(2-8) ; dilated portion of the filaments merely ciliate; dry woods, n.e. 111., 
rare. June-Aug. [C. nmbellata of auth., not Nutt.; C. umbellata var. 
cisatlantica Blake] C. corymbosa Pursh 

2. Pyrola L. — Wintergreen 

1 . Style curved downward. 

2. Petals greenish white; leaves oval, thin; woods, n. 111., rare; known from 
Jo Daviess, Ogle, Lee, McHenry, and Cook counties. June-Aug. 

Shinleaf P. elliptica Nutt. 

2. Petals pink or purple; leaves orbicular, coriaceous, the blades mostly 
shorter than the petioles; swamps and bogs, rare. McHenry Co., Vasey. 

June. Bog Wintergreen P. ultginosa Torr. 

1. Style straight; petals greenish white; leaves oval; raceme 1 -sided; woods, 
rare. Cook Co., Babcock- June-Aug P. secunda L. 


1. Flower solitary; plants glabrous, waxy-white or pink (drying black); stvle 
shorter than the ovary, glabrous; rich woods, rare or local throughout 111. 
June-Aug. Indian Pipe M. umflora L. 

1. Flowers several; plants pubescent, tawny or reddish; style longer than the 
ovary, pubescent; saprophytic on humus in woods, rare. June-Aug. Elk 
Grove, Cook Co., G. Pearsall 8333. Pinesap. [M. hypopitys sensu Gray, 
non L.; M. hypopitys var. rubra (Torr.) Farw.; Hypopitys lanuginosa 
(Michx.) Nutt.} M. lanuginosa Michx. 

4. Rhododendron L. 

{Azalea L.) 
R. roseum (Loisel.) Rehd. Pink Azalea. Rocky woods, rare. Union Co. 
May. [/I. nudtflora sensu auth., non L.; R. canescens sensu auth., non Sweet; 
A. prionophylla Small} 

5. Andromeda L. — Bog-rosemary 
A. glaucophylla Link. Bogs, rare. McHenry and Lake counties. May-June. 
\_A. polifolia of auth., not L.} 

200 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

6. Chamaedaphne Moench — Leatherleaf 
C. calyculata (L.) Moench. Swamps and bogs, Lake Co. May. 

7. Epigaea L. — Trailing Arbutus 
E. repens L. Woods, rare. "Illinois," without definite locality, Vasey. 

8. Gaultheria L. — Creeping Wintergreen 
G. procumbens L. Checkerberry. Woods, rare. June-Aug. Cook Co.: Glen- 
coe, Aug. 8, 1873, P. Blatchford; Elk Grove, Aug. 4, 1943, G. Pear sail. 

9. Arctostaphylos Adans. — Bearberry 

A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Kinnikinnick. Woods and dunes, local; known 
from Lake, Cook, Ogle, and Peoria counties. May-June. 

10. Gaylussacia HBK. 

G. baccaia (Wang.) K. Koch. Black Huckleberry. Rocky woods and hill- 
sides, chiefly in n. 111. May-June. 

11. Vaccinium L. 

(Cyianococcus Rydb.) 
1. Shrubs mostly 2-10 m. tall. 

2. Leaves glossy above, coriaceous, the margins narrowly revolute, usually 
bearing a few small glands; anthers 2-awned; berries black, inedible; 
open woods, s. 111. May-June. Farkleberry. [^Batodendroii arboretim 
(Marsh.) Nutt.] V. arboreiim Marsh. 

2. Leaves not glossy, entire or ciliolate-serrulate, acute; anthers awnless; 

berries glaucous; swamps and bogs, n.e. 111. May-June. Highbush Blue- 
berry V . corymbosiim L. 

l.Low shrubs usually less than 1 m. tall. 

3. Twigs densely pubescent; leaves entire, lanceolate, pubescent; shrubs 20- 

60 cm. tall; moist ground, rare, n. 111. May-June. Canada Blueberry 

V . canadense Richards. 

3. Twigs glabrous, or more or less puberulent in lines, rugulose; leaves 
mostly serrulate with bristle-tipped teeth. 

4. Leaves lanceolate or elliptical, sometimes glaucous beneath; shrubs 20- 
40 cm. tall; sandy soil or in open woods, Kankakee, La Salle, and 
Cook counties. May-June. \V . pennsylvanicum sensu Lam., non 

Mill.; V. nigrum (Wood) Britt.] Low-bush Blueberry 

V. angustifolium Ait. 

4. Leaves oval; shrubs up to 1.5 m. tall; sandy soil in open woods, locally 

throughout 111., except the n. counties. May-June. Hill Blueberry 

V. vacdlans Kalm 

12. OxYCOCCUS Hill Cranberry 

1. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, or elliptic-lanceolate (broadest near the base), 
acute or acutish; pedicels mostly terminal, the bracts attached near the 
middle; fruit 6-9 mm. in diameter, globose, usually spotted; bogs, n. 111., 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 121. Primulaceae 201 

rare. May-July. \^Vacciniu7n oxycoccus L.} Small Cranberry 

...O. palustris Pers. 

1. Leaves elliptical (broadest near the middle), obtuse; pedicels mostly lateral, 
the bracts attached above the middle; fruit 1-2 cm. in diameter, longer 
than broad, not spotted; bogs, n. 111. June-Aug. [K. macrocarpon Ait.] 
Large Cranberry O. macrocarpus (Ait.) Pers. 

121. Primulaceae Vent. — Primrose Family 

1 . Lobes of the calyx and corolla erect or spreading, not reflexed. 
2. Plants small scapose, acaulescent, terrestrial. 

3. Corolla-tube equalling or exceeding the calyx; plants perennial 1. PnTnula 

3. Corolla-tube shorter than the calyx; annuals 2. Androsace 

2. Plants with leafy stems. 

4. Plants aquatic; immersed leaves pectinate 3. Holtonia 

4. Plants not aquatic; leaves entire. 
5. Leaves alternate. 

6. Flowers solitary, axillary, sessile; capsule circumscissile 4. Cenlunculus 

6. Flowers in axillary racemes; capsules opening by 5 valves 5. Samolus 

5. Leaves mostly opposite or whorled. 

7. Flowers white; leaves mostly near apex of stem 6. Trientalts 

7. Flowers yellow or scarlet; stems leafy. 

8. Flowers scarlet (rarely white); capsules circumscissile; plants annual 

7. Anagallis 

8. Flowers yellow; capsules dehiscent by valves; plants perennial 

8. Lys'ivnachla 

1. Corolla-lobes reflexed; stamens exserted, connivent, forming a cone; leaves all basal 
9. Dodecalheon 

1. Primula L. — Primrose 

P. mistdssinka Michx. Limestone cliffs, Jo Daviess Co., rare. Apple River, 
Pepoon 272, G. N. Jones & G. D. Fuller 16351. Corolla-lobes pale lavender, 
the throat yellow. May-June. [P. mistassinica var. noveboracensis Fern.] 

2. Androsace L. 
A. occidentalis Pursh. Sandy soil, local. April. 


H. inflata Ell. American Featherfoil. In shallow water, s. 111., rare. June- 

4. Centunculus L. — Chaffweed 

C. minimus L. Moist ground, chiefly in the w. and s. counties. May-Sept. 

5. Samolus L. — Brookweed 

5. parviflorus Raf. Wet soil, throughout III., except the n. counties. June- 
Aug. [S. floribiindus HBK.; S. " pauctflorus" Deam] 

6. Trientalis L. — Star-flower 

T. borealis Raf. Woods and thickets, n.e. III.; known from Lake and Cook 
counties. June-July. [T. americana Pursh] 

202 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

7. Anagallis L. — Pimpernel 

A. arvensis L. Waste places, occasional; nat. from Eurasia and Africa. 

8. Lysimachia L. — Loosestrife 

(Sleironema Raf.) 
1. Leaves gland-dotted (sometimes obscurely so). 

2. Plants more or less pubescent; corolla not dark-streaked. 

3. Calyx 4-5 mm. long, often dark-margined; flowers in terminal leafy 
panicles; roadsides and waste places, occasional; adv. from Eur. July- 
Sept. Cook Co., Moffatt in 1906, Worthington in 1931; Antioch, 
Lake Co., G. N. Jones 16509 L. vulgaris L. 

3. Calyx 7-10 mm. long, not dark-margined; flowers in axillary whorls; 

roadsides and waste places, occasional; adv. from Eur. June-July. 

Chicago, Worthington in 1933 L. punctata L. 

2. Plants glabrous or nearly so. 

4. Stem erect; leaves lanceolate or elliptical; corolla with purple streaks or 

5. Leaves usually whorled; flowers axillary; fields and open woods. June- 
July. Known from Cook and Ogle counties. Whorled Loosestrife 

L. quadrifolia L. 

5. Leaves mostly opposite. 

6. Flowers in terminal racemes; corolla-lobes lanceolate; wet soil. 
June-July. Known from Cook, Ogle, and Henderson counties. 

Swamp-candle L. terrestris (L.) BSP. 

6. Flowers in small head-like axillary spikes; corolla-lobes linear; wet 
ground or shallow water in the n. third of the state. May-June. 

[Naumburgia thyrsiflora (L.) Duby] Tufted Loosestrife 

L. thyrsiflora L. 

4. Stem trailing; leaves opposite, roundish; flowers axillary; corolla not 
purple-marked; moist ground, common; nat. from Eur. May-July. 

Moneywort L. nummularia L. 

1. Leaves not gland-dotted; stem erect; flowers nodding, on slender axillary 
7. Leaves lanceolate to ovate, pinnately veined. 

8. Upper leaves broadly lanceolate to ovate, the long petioles conspicu- 
ously ciliate; moist ground, common. June-Aug. Fringed Loosestrife 

L. ciliata L. 

8. Leaves elliptical-lanceolate, short-petioled; woods and thickets, common. 

June-Aug L. lanceolata Walt. 

7. Leaves linear, 1-veined, not ciliate; moist ground, locally throughout 111. 
June-Aug. [L. longijolia Pursh] L. quadnflora Sims 

9. DoDECATHEON L. — ^Shooting-star 

1 . Leaves oblanceolate, tapering into the petiole. 

2. Mature capsules ellipsoid, thick-walled, reddish brown; anthers 7-10 mm. 
long; corolla lilac to white; leaves often reddish at base; meadows, often 
along railroads, throughout 111. May-June D. nieadia L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 125. Oleaceae 203 

2. Mature capsules cylindrical, thin-walled, light brown; anthers 5-7 mm. 
long; corolla rose-purple; leaves pale bluish green, not reddish at base; 
bluffs of the Mississippi River in s. Wise, and Minn., and n.e. Mo., 

and therefore to be expected in the Driftless Area of n.e. Ill 

D. aniethystinutn Fassett 

1 . Leaves broadly ovate, abruptly contracted at the base; corolla dark purple; 
rich woods and rocky ledges, s. 111., rare; Makanda, Jackson Co., G. H. 
French in 1871; Union Co., French in 1873; s. 111. (without definite local- 
ity), Seymour D. frenchii (Vasey) Rydb. 

122. Sapotaceae Reichenb. — Sapodilla Family 

1. Leaves, pedicels, and calyces glabrous or nearly so; clusters many-flowered; 

moist thickets, s. 111., in Hardin, Pope, Pulaski, and Alexander counties. 

June-Aug. Southern Buckthorn B. lycioides (L.) Gaertn. f. 

1. Leaves (beneath), pedicels, and calyces tomentose; clusters 6-12-flowered; 

woods and thickets; reported from s. III., but no authentic 111. specimens 

seen. June-July. Woolly Buckthorn B. lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. 

123. Ebenaceae Vent. — Ebony Family 
D. virginiana L. Persimmon. Woods, locally throughout 111., except the 
n.w. counties. May-June. 

124. Styracaceae A. DC. — Storax Family 

1. Ovary superior; fruits subglobose, drupaceous I. Slyrax 

1. Ovary inferior; fruit nut-like, elongate, winged 2. Halesia 

1. Styrax L. — Storax 
S. americana Lam. Swamps and banks of streams, s. III. Apr.-May. 

2. Halesia Ellis — Silverbell Tree 
H. Carolina L. Woods, and along streams, s.e. 111., rare. Apr.-May. 

125. Oleaceae Lindl. — Olive Family 

1. Leaves compound; fruit a samara I. Fraxinus 

I. Leaves simple; fruit a drupe 2. Foresiiera 

1. Fraxinus L. — Ash 

1. Petioles velvety-pubescent; calyx evident on the fruit; wing of the samara 

extending down the sides; twigs terete, pubescent when young. 

2. Samara 2.5-5 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, the body terete; calyx 1-2 mm. 

long; leaflets serrate or entire, acute at the base; leaf-scars nearly 

straight at the top; moist ground, local. Red Ash. [F. darlingtonlana 

Britt.l F. pennsylvanica Marsh. 

204 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Samara 5-7 cm. long, about 1 cm. wide, the body flattened; calyx 3-6 

mm. long; leaflets usually entire, the lower surface light green; leaf- 
scars deeply notched at the top; wet ground, locally in s. 111., and 
northw. to St. Clair, Richland, and Lawrence counties. Pumpkin Ash. 

[F. profunda (Bush) Britt.] F. tomentosa Michx. f. 

1. Petioles glabrous or nearly so; twigs glabrous. 

3. Calyx evident on the fruit; body of the samara terete or nearly so; 

leaflets 5-9, commonly 7, usually more or less petiolulate; twigs terete. 
4. Wing of the samara almost entirely terminal; leaflets ovate-lanceolate 
or oval, entire or nearly so, glabrous beneath or pubescent; leaf- 
scars deeply notched at the top; woods, common throughout 111. 
White Ash. This species has sometimes been mistaken for F. bilt- 

moreajia Beadle, which apparently does not occur in III. 

_ F . americana L. 

4. Wing extending down the sides of the samara; leaflets elliptic-lanceo- 

late, usually serrate, acuminate at each end, glabrous; leaf-scars near- 
ly straight at the top; low woods, and along roads, common. Green 

Ash F. laiiceolata Borkh. 

3. Calyx none or minute; body of the samara flattened, the wing decurrent; 
leaflets 7-11. 

5. Twigs terete; leaf -scars vertically oval; lateral leaflets sessile; flowers 

polygamous; wet ground, local. Black Ash. \F. famhucifolia Lam.] 

F. nigra Marsh. 

5. Twigs usually prominently quadrangular; leaf-scars lunate; lateral leaf- 
lets shortly petiolulate; flowers perfect; woods, local; chiefly through 
central 111. Blue Ash F. quadrangulata Michx. 

2. Forestiera Poir. 

{Adelia P.Br.) 

F. acuminata Poir. River banks and swamps, s. 111.; extending northw. to 
Wabash and Lawrence counties, and in w. III. to Fulton Co. Apr. -May. 

126. Gentianaceae Dum. — Gentian Family 

1 . Leaves not scale-like. 

2. Leaves opposite. 

3. Style filiform, mostly deciduous; anthers becoming twisted or revolute at maturity. 

4. Corolla salverform; stigmas roundish I. Ceniaurium 

4. Corolla rotate; stigmas linear 2. Sahaiia 

3. Style short or none; anthers straight; corolla funnelform or salverform, without 

glands 3. Ccntiana 

2. Leaves whorled; stem 1-3 m. tall; anthers straight; corolla rotate, with 4 lobes and 
1 or 2 nectariferous glands for each lobe 4. Frasera 

1. Leaves (at least the lower) reduced to scales; stem slender or filiform. 

5. Calyx-lobes 4; corolla 3-4 mm. long; leaves all reduced to scales 5. Darionia 

5. Calyx-lobes 2; corolla about 1 cm. long; upper leaves normal 6. Oholaria 

1. Centaurium Hill — Centaury 
C. pulchellum (Sw.) Druce. Wet ground, nat. from Eur. June-Sept. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 128. Apocynaceae 205 

2. Sabatia Adans. 
S. angularis (L.) Pursh. Rose-pink. Moist soil, local. July-Aug. 

3. Gentian A L. — Gentian 

1. Annuals; corolla without plaits or teeth in the sinuses. 
2. Corolla-lobes fringed or dentate; flowers 3-5 cm. long. 

3. Leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, with rounded or subcordate bases; 
corolla-lobes conspicuously fringed all around the summit, scarcely 
fringed on the sides; low ground, n. 111., rare. Sept. -Oct. Fringed 

Gentian G. crinita Froel. 

3. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate; corolla-lobes shortly fringed or 
merely dentate at the summit, fringed on the sides; meadows, n.e. 

111., rare. Aug.-Oct. Small Fringed Gentian G. procera Holm 

2. Corolla-lobes with entire or rarely denticulate margins; flowers 1-2.5 cm. 

long; dry soil. Aug.-Oct. Stiff Gentian G. quinquefolia L. 

1. Perennials; corolla with membranous toothed or lobed plaits in the sinuses. 

4. Margins of leaves and calyx-lobes scabrous or ciliate; corolla usually blue. 

5. Anthers separate or merely connivent; dry ground in the n. half of the 

state, rare. Aug.-Oct. Downy Gentian G. puberula Michx. 

5. Anthers cohering in a ring or short tube. 

6. Corolla-lobes distinct, longer than or equalling the plaits; wet ground, 

n.e. 111., rare. Aug.-Oct. Soapwort Gentian G. saponaria L. 

6. Corolla-lobes none or minute, the plaits very broad; moist ground, 

rare. Aug.-Oct. Closed Gentian G. andrewsii Griseb. 

4. Margins of leaves and calyx-lobes smooth or nearly so; corolla yellowish 
white; moist soil, rare. Aug.-Oct. Yellowish Gentian ....G. flavida Gray 

4. Frasera Walt. 

F. carolinensis Walt. American Columbo. Dry ground, rare; known from 
Cook, Coles, and Crawford counties. June-Aug. 

5. Bartonia Muhl. 

B. vlrginica (L.) BSP. Yellow Bartonia. Moist ground, n. 111., rare. Kan- 
kakee, Hill in 1873; Oregon, Ogle Co., Waite in 1885. 

6. Obolaria L. 

O. virginica L. Pennywort. Woods and thickets, s. 111., rare. Pulaski Co., 
Fricke; Cobden, Earle. 

127. Menyanthaceae G. Don — Buckbean Family 

1. Menyanthes L. — Buckbean 
M. trijoliatd L. In bogs, and shallow water, Lake, Cook, McHenry, and 
Peoria counties. May-June. 

128. Apocynaceae Lindl. — Dogbane Family 

1. Leaves alternate; flowers in terminal corymbiform cymes; corolla salverform, purple 
1. Amsonia 

206 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Leaves opposite. 

2. Leaves not evergreen ; flowers not solitary or blue. 

3. Climbing plants; corolla funnelform, yellowish; flowers fragrant 

2. Trachelospermiim 

3. Erect plants; corolla campanulate or cylindrical, pink or whitish 3. Apoc\inum 

2. Leaves evergreen; stems trailing; flowers solitary, axillary, blue ..4. Vinca 

I. Amsonia Walt. 

A. tabernaemontana Walt. Moist ground, locally throughout 111., except 
the n. counties. May-June. [^Amsonia amsonia (L.) Britt.; Tabernaemontana 
amsonia h.; A. salicijolia Pursh}. 

2. Trachelospermum Lem. 

T. difforme (Walt.) Gray. Moist woods and along streams, s. III., rare. 
Union Co., Brendel. June-July. 

3. Apocynum L. — Dogbane 

L Leaves drooping or spreading, pubescent; corolla 2-3 times as long as the 
calyx; roadsides and open woods, common. June-Sept. Spreading Dog- 
bane A. androsae77iijoliitm L. 

L Leaves ascending; corolla only slightly longer than the calyx. 
2. Leaves and inflorescence glabrous or nearly so. 

3. Leaves short-petioled, elliptical, acute at apex, narrowed at base; corolla 
nearly white; roadsides, fields, open woods, common. June- Aug. [A. 

alburn Greene} Hemp Dogbane A. camiabinum L. 

3. Leaves subsessile or sessile, oval or ovate, obtuse or acutish, the lower 
rounded, truncate, or subcordate and often clasping at base; corolla 
greenish white; roadsides and fields, more common than the preced- 
ing. June-Aug. [A. hypencijolmm Ait.] A. sibir'tcum Jacq. 

2. Leaves and inflorescence pubescent; roadsides and fields, common 
throughout 111. June-Aug. Velvet Dogbane A. pubescens R. Br. 

4. Vinca L. — Periwinkle 
V . minor L. Roadsides, woods, cemeteries; nat. from Eur. May-June. 

129. AscLEPlADACEAE Lindl. — Milkweed Family 

L Stem erect or decumbent, not twining. 
2. Corolla-lobes reflexed. 

3. Hoods of the crown each with a small incurved horn within 1. Asclcpias 

3. Hoods without a horn; flowers greenish 2. Aceralcs 

2. Corolla-lobes erect-spreading; hoods prominently crested within 3. Asclcpiodora 

I . Stem twinmg. 

4. Corolla-lobes erect 4. Ampclanms 

4. Corolla-lobes spreading 5. Conolobus 

\. AscLEPiAS L. — Milkweed 

L Flowers orange or yellow; plants hirsute; sap watery; umbels cymose, termi- 
nal, many-flowered; leaves lanceolate, acute, alternate or a few opposite; 
follicles tomentulose, 7-15 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. thick; roadsides or open 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 129. Asclepiadaceae 207 

woods, common. June-Aug. Butterfly-weed [/I. deciimbens L.} 

...A. tuber osa L. 

1. Flowers not orange or yellow; plants not hirsute; sap milky. 

2. Leaves narrowly linear, mostly in whorls of 4-6; flowers white; follicles 
erect, glabrous, narrowly lanceoloid, 6-9 cm. long, on erect pedicels; 
roadsides, or sandy soil in fields and open woods, common. June-Aug. 

Horsetail Milkweed A. verticillata L. 

2. Leaves not narrowly linear. 

3. Leaves sessile or clasping, opposite; plants glabrous, pale green, some- 
what glaucous. 
4. Follicles smooth; umbel solitary, terminal. 

5. Leaves elliptical, cordate-clasping, wavy-margined, obtuse, mucron- 
nulate, 7-15 cm. long; corolla pale greenish purple, 8-9 mm. 

long; sandy soil along roads and in open woods. June-July 

A. amplexicaiilis Sm. 

5. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, sessile, flat, acute or obtusish, 
3-7 cm. long, the margins minutely roughened; flowers greenish 

white; dry ground, rare. Peoria, Brendel; McDonald 

A. meadit Torr. 

4. Follicles somewhat echinate toward the apex with a few short blunt 
processes, glabrous, 8-13 cm. long, ovoid or lanceoloid; umbels 
terminal and lateral; leaves obtuse, mucronulate, elliptical, the 
margins flat; prairie soil, or along roads, extending southw. to Ma- 
coupin and Coles counties. July-Aug. Smooth Milkweed 

A. sullivantii Engelm. 

3. Leaves manifestly petioled. 

6. Leaves pubescent beneath; fruiting pedicels deflexed. 

7. Follicles tomentose, 2-3 cm. thick, warty with soft-spinulose subu- 
late processes; flowers lavender and green; roadsides, fields, and 
woods, common. June-Aug. Common Milkweed ....A. syriaca L. 
7. Follicles smooth, less than 2 cm. thick. 

8. Corolla-lobes dark purple, 8-10 mm. long; hoods red or purple; 
follicles 9-12 cm. long; leaves 10-20 cm. long; sandy soil, 
along roads, and in open woods, local. June-July. Purple Milk- 
weed A. purpurascens L. 

8. Corolla-lobes greenish white tinged with purple, 4-5 mm. long; 
hoods yellowish; follicles 6-8 cm. long; leaves 5-8 cm. long; 
open woods, rare. Cook Co., Babcock A. ovalifolia Dec. 

6. Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

9. Fruiting pedicels erect; leaves lanceolate, acuminate; corolla-lobes 
3-5 mm. long. 
10. Flowers rose-purple, rarely whitish; leaves all opposite; moist 
ground, roadsides, ditches, or in woods, common. July-Aug. 

Swamp Milkweed A. incarnata L. 

10. Flowers pink or white; leaves thin. 

11. Flowers pink; median leaves usually whorled; seeds with a 

208 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

coma; dry woods, chiefly in w. and s. III. May-June 

A. quadrijolia Jacq. 

11. Flowers white; leaves all opposite; seeds usually without a 

coma; wet ground in woods, rare. June-Aug 

A. pereimis Walt. 

9. Fruiting pedicels deflexed; corolla-lobes 6-8 mm. long. 

12. Umbel loose, the pedicels drooping, 2.5-5 cm. long; leaves thin, 
elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate; corolla-lobes obtusish, greenish, 
the hoods white or pink; stem 1-1.5 cm. tall; woods. June- 
July. Poke Milkweed {A. exaltata (L.) Muhl.J 

A. phytolaccoides Pursh 

12. Umbel compact, the pedicels erect or ascending, 1-2 cm. long; 
leaves oval, firm, obtuse and mucronate, or acute; corolla- 
lobes white, acute, the hoods purplish; stem 30-90 cm. tall; 
sandy soil, not common; s. 111., extending northw. to Wabash 

and St. Clair counties. June-July. White Milkweed 

- A. variegata L. 

2. Acerates Ell. — Green Milkweed 

1. Umbel solitary, terminal; plants hirsute; leaves lanceolate, acutish; stem 10- 
30 cm. tall; dry ground, n. 111., rare. June-Aug A. lanuginosa Nutt. 

1. Umbels several; plants puberulent or glabrate; stem 30-90 cm. tall. 

2. Umbels peduncled; leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; hoods 
entire; roadsides and fields. July- Aug. [_A. floridana of auth., not 

(Lam.) Hitchc] -A. htrtella Pennell 

2. Umbels sessile; leaves chiefly opposite. 

3. Leaves lanceolate; umbels many-flowered; pedicels pubescent; hoods 

entire; roadsides and fields, local. June-Aug 

A. viridi flora (Raf.) Eaton 

3. Leaves linear; umbels 10-15-flowered; pedicels puberulent; hoods 3- 
toothed; dry upland woods, Quincy, Adams Co., Rev. R. Brinker 
3495 [Asclepias stenophylla Gray] A. angustifolia (Nutt.) Dec. 


A. viridis (Walt.) Gray. Dry soil, s.w. 111., not common; known from 
Randolph, Perry, and Marion counties. June-July. 

4. Ampelamus Raf. 

A. albidus (Nutt.) Britt. Bluevine. River banks and thickets, or along 
fences, chiefly in the s. half of the state, but extending northw. at least to Pike 
and Champaign counties. July-Aug. [^Gonolobus laevis sensu auth., non Michx.j 

5. GoNOl.OBUS Michx. — Climbing Milkweed 

{() do nlo.'tie l^liana Alexander) 

1. Flowers greenish yellow; pedicels glabrous; follicles angular, smooth, gla- 
brous; along fences and in open woods. June-July. [V^incetoxicum gono- 
carpoi Walt.} G. gonocarpos (Walt.) Perry 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 130. Convolvulaceae 209 

1. Flowers reddish purple; pedicels pubescent; follicles pubescent, muricate; 
woods, s. 111., not common. July-Aug. '[Vincetoxicum obhquiim (Jacq.) 
Britt.; Matelea obliqua (Jacq.) Woodson] G. obliquus (Jacq.) R. Br. 

130. Convolvulaceae Vent. — Morning-glory Family 

1. Plants with chlorophyll and normal leaves, not parasitic. 

2. Style 2-cleft; flowers small; leaves narrow, sessile or short-petioled I. Slyl'tsma 

2. Style undivided. 

3. Calyx with a pair of subtending bracts (these in one species some distance 

below the calyx) 2. Convolvulus 

3. Calyx not subtended by a pair of bracts. 

4. Stamens and style exserted ; corolla salverform 3.Quamoclii 

4. Stamens and style included; corolla funnelform or campanulate 4. Ipomoea 

I. Plants leafless, parasitic, twining; corolla small 5. Cuscuta 

1. Stylisma Raf. 

^5". pickeringit (M. A. Curtis) Gray. Sandy prairie, rare; Oquawka, Aug. 
10, 1873, H. N. Patterson. [Breweria pickeringit (M. A. Curtis) Gray; Bo- 
namia pickeringit (M. A. Curtis) Gray}. 

2. Convolvulus L. — Bindweed 

1. Corolla 3-5 cm. long; calyx closely subtended and enclosed by two large 

2. Plants erect, ascending, or decumbent, finely pubescent; petioles about 
one quarter the length of the blades; dry sandy or rocky soil, local. 
June-Aug. Dwarf Bindweed C. spithamaeus L. 

2. Plants twining or trailing; petioles longer. 

3. Leaves triangular-hastate or sagittate; flowers single. 
4. Leaves hastate, the basal lobes angled. 

5. Leaves and stems glabrous or nearly so; peduncles usually longer 
than the petioles; roadsides, and along fences, common. June- 
Aug. [C. septum of auth., not L.} American Bindweed 

C. americanus (Sims) Greene 

5. Leaves and stems pubescent; peduncles usually not longer than the 

petioles, more or less wing-angled, often 2 in each axil; local, and 

in similar habitats. June-Aug C. fraterniflorus Mack. 8C Bush 

4. Leaves sagittate, the basal lobes rounded. 

6. Plants glabrous or glabrate; peduncles longer than the petioles; an 

occasional weed in cult, ground and waste places; introd. from 
Eur. June-Aug. European Bindweed C. sepium L. 

6. Plants copiously soft-pubescent; peduncles usually not exceeding 
the leaves; waste places, occasional; native of e. and s.e. U.S.; 
on railroad ballast, Diamond L., Lake Co., Gates in 1907. Trail- 
ing Bindweed C. repens L. 

3. Leaves narrowly hastate; flowers double, pink; plants pubescent; waste 

places, occasional; native of Asia. Japanese Bindweed 

C. japoniciis Thunb. 

210 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Corolla about 2 cm. long; bracts small, attached some distance below the 
flower; fields and waste places, common; nat. from Eur. June-Sept. Field 
Bindweed C. arve7isis L. 

3. Qu AMOCLIT Moench — Red Morning-glory 

Q. coccinea (L.) Moench. Fields and roadsides, occasional; native of trop. 
Am. July-Oct. 

4. Ipomoea L. — Morning-glory 

(Pharbttis Choisy) 

1. Calyx-lobes obtuse, glabrous, elliptical, 1.5-2 an. long; corolla 5-8 cm. long, 
white, the tube purple within; leaves ovate, cordate; stem glabrous; cap- 
sules ovoid, 2-4-seeded; seeds hairy; root perennial, often large; fields, 
thickets, and waste places throughout 111. June-Sept. Wild Sweet-potato 

/. pandurata (L.) G. F. W. Mey. 

1. Calyx-lobes acute or attenuate, pubescent; s':cm pubescent; capsules globose; 
seeds glabrous; plants annual. 
2. Calyx-lobes elliptical or lanceolate, acute or acuminate. 

3. Calyx 10-12 mm. long, the lobes ciliate, acuminate; corolla 1.5-2.5 cm. 
long, white; leaves entire or 3-angled; fields and along streams, s. III., 
extending northw. to Peoria and Hancock counties. July-Oct. Small- 
flowered Morning-glory /. laciinosa L. 

3. Calyx 12-16 mm. long, hirsute toward the base; corolla 5-7 cm. long, 
purple, pink, variegated, or white; leaves ovate, cordate, rarely 3- 
lobed; fields and waste places; native of trop. Am. Aug. -Oct. Com- 
mon Morning-glory /. purpurea (L.) Roth 

2. Calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, attenuate, copiously hirsute below, 1.5-2.5 
cm. long; corolla 2.5-4 cm. long, purple; leaves 3-lobed; fields and 
waste ground; native of trop. Am. July-Oct. Ivy-leaved Morning-glory 
/. hederacea Jacq. 

5. CUSCUTA L. — Dodder 
1. Sepals separate. 

2. Flowers cymose, pedicelled; scales short; bracts entire; on various herbs, 

s. 111. Aug.-Sept C. cuspidata Engelm. 

2. Flowers sessile in dense clusters; bracts serrulate. 

3. Styles as long as the ovary; bracts few, broad, appressed; parasitic on 

various shrubs and herbs. July-Oct C. covipacta Juss. 

3. Styles longer than the ovary; bracts numerous, narrow, their tips re- 
curved; chiefly on Solidago, Aster, Helianthus, and other genera of 
Compositae C. glonicrata Choisy 

1 . Sepals united below into a synsepalous calyx. 
4. Flowers nearly sessile. 
5. Corolla-scales fimbriate. 

6. Flowers 1.5 mm. long; calyx-lobes overlapping, forming angles at the 
sinuses; seeds depressed-globose, 1 mm. long; on various herbs and 
shrubs. lune-Oct. fC. arvensis Beyr.] C. pentagona Engelm. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 131. Polemoniaceae 211 

6. Flowers 2-3 mm. long; calyx-lobes not overlapping; seeds ovoid, 1.5 

mm. long; parasitic on various herbs. June-Oct 

C. campestris Yuncker 

5. Corolla-scales obsolete; calyx-lobes acutish; on Polygonum and other 

herbs. Aug. -Oct C. polygonorum Engelm. 

4. Flowers distinctly short-pedicelled. 
7. Corolla-lobes with incurved tips. 

8. Scales ovate, fimbriate; capsule enclosed by the corolla; on herbs and 
low shrubs, chiefly Compositae and Leguminosae; known from St. 
Clair and Wabash counties C. indecora Choisy 

8. Scales obsolete; withered corolla remaining at the base of the cap- 

sule; parasitic on hazel (Corylus) and other shrubs, and on 

various herbs. Aug. -Oct C. coryli Engelm. 

7. Corolla-lobes spreading or recurved. 

9. Scales small, irregularly fimbriate; capsule depressed-globose; on vari- 

ous herbs and shrubs. Aug. -Oct C. cephalanthi Engelm. 

9. Scales long, fimbriate toward the apex; capsule ovoid; parasitic on a 

number of different species of herbs and shrubs. July-Oct 

_..C. gronovii Willd. 

131. Polemoniaceae DC. — Phlox Family 

1 . Leaves opposite, simple, entire; corolla salverform 1. Phlox 

1 . Leaves alternate. 

2. Leaves simple, entire (our species); corolla salverform; stamens straight; plants 

annual 2. Collomia 

2. Leaves pinnate; corolla tubular-campanulate ; stamens declined; plants perennial 
(our species) 3. Polemonium 

1. Phlox L. — Phlox 

1. Stem erect or ascending, 30-120 cm. tall; corolla-lobes entire or notched. 
2. Lobes of the calyx not longer than the tube. 

3. Calyx-lobes subulate; panicle pyramidal; leaves often 3 cm. broad; 
alluvial soil; extending northw. to Vermilion, Champaign, and Ful- 
ton counties. July-Sept. Garden Phlox P. paniculata L. 

3. Calyx-lobes lanceolate; leaves usually less than 2 cm. broad. 

4. Flowers in an elongated panicle; stem often purple-streaked; moist 
woods along streams; known from Bureau, Stark, and Champaign 

counties. June-Aug. Sweet-william Phlox P. mactdata L. 

4. Flowers in corymbiform cymes; stem green; roadsides and open 

woods, common. May-July. Smooth Phlox P. glabernma L. 

2. Lobes of the calyx longer than the tube. 

5. Upper leaves linear or linear-lanceolate; stem erect or nearly so, with- 
out decumbent sterile leafy shoots; sandy soil in open woods and 
along roads, common. May-Aug. Downy Phlox. [P. argillacea Clute 

& Ferris] P. pdosa L. 

5. Upper leaves lanceolate or elliptical; stem decumbent at base, bearing 
sterile leafy shoots; moist woods, common. Apr -June. Blue Phlox 
P. divaricata L. 

212 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Stem diffuse, much-branched, 10-20 cm. long; corolla-lobes bifid. 

6. Corolla-lobes cleft to about the middle; calyx-lobes somewhat longer than 
the tube; plants puberulent; sandy soil, not uncommon. Apr. -June. 
Sand Phlox P. bifida Beck 

6. Corolla-lobes lobed at apex; calyx-lobes shorter than the tube; plants gla- 
brous; limestone cliffs, s. 111., rare; known from Jackson, Union, and 
Alexander counties. Apr. -May P. stellaria Gray 

2. COLLOMIA Nutt. 

C. linearis Nutt. Dry sandy soil, local; adv. from the West. May-Aug. 
Known in 111. from Cook, Henry, and Rock Island counties. 


P. reptans L. Thickets and open woods, locally throughout 111. May-June. 

132. Hydrophyllaceah Lindl. — Waterleaf Family 

1 . Leaves not entire. 

2. Flowers solitary; stamens included I. Ellisia 

2. Flowers in scorpioid cymes or loose racemes. 

3. Corolla-lobes convolute in the bud; placentae dilated, enclosing the ovules and 

seeds; plants perennial or biennial, with long-petioled basal leaves 

2. H^drophvllum 

3. Corolla-lobes imbricated in the bud; placentae not dilated merely forming ridges 
on the wall of the ovary; plants (in our species) annual (or biennial) with 
leafy stems, but no conspicuous basal leaves 3. PhacAia 

1 . Leaves entire 4. HvJrolea 

1. Ellisia L. 

E. nyctelea L. Woods, thickets, cult, ground, and waste places, common 
throughout 111. May. 

2. Hydrophyllum L. — Waterleaf 

1. Leaves pinnately divided; calyx without appendages between the lobes; 

plants perennial. 

2. Stem glabrous or strigilose; leaf-segments 5-7, acuminate; calyx-lobes 

linear, strigilose on the back, ciliate; corolla pale lavender; moist woods, 

common. May-June H. virgiuianum L. 

2. Stem retrorsely hirsute; leaf-segments 9-13, obtusish; calyx-lobes lanceo- 

late, short-pubescent, and hispidulous; corolla white; woods, local. May- 
June H. macrophylltim Nutt. 

1. Leaves (at least the upper ones) palmately 5-9-lobed. 

3. Pedicels glabrous or nearly so; calyx-appendages minute or none; corolla 

white; plants perennial; woods, local. June-July H. canadetisc L. 

3. Pedicels rather copiously pilose-hispid; calyx with reflexed appendages 
(1-2 mm. long) between the lobes; corolla lavender; plants biennial; 
woods, common. May- June. [^Decemnim appendicidatuvi (Michx.) 
Brand] M. appendiadalnui Michx. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 133. Boraginaceae 213 

3. Phacelia Juss. 
1. Stamens longer than the corolla, the filaments pilose; corolla blue, about 1 
cm. long, appendaged within, the lobes entire; inflorescence glandular, 
loosely many-flowered; plants biennial; moist thickets and along streams, 

s. 111. Apr.-June P. bipinnatifida Michx. 

1. Stamens not longer than the corolla, the filaments glabrous; corolla without 

appendages; inflorescence not glandular; plants annual. 

2. Corolla about 4 mm. long, the lobes entire; calyx-lobes pubescent on the 

back; racemes 2-5-flowered; reported from Mt. Carmel, Wabash Co., 

by Schneck, and by Gleason from Fall Creek, Adams Co. [P. covillei 

Wats.} P. ranunculacea (Nutt.) Constance 

2. Corolla 6-7 mm. long, the lobes fringed; calyx-lobes glabrous on the back, 
the margins ciliate; racemes 10-20-flowered, strongly 1 -sided; moist 

woods and thickets, usually in alluvial soil, local. May-June 

P. purshii Buckl. 

4. Hydrolea L. 

H. affinis Gray. Wet ground in woods, or in shallow ponds, s. 111., rare; 
Union Co., Bre7idel in 1860; Pulaski Co., Brendel in 1860; "S. 111." Vasey. 

133. Boraginaceae Lindl. — Borage Family 

I. Plants glabrous; corolla blue, tubular-funnelfcrm ; nutlets wrinkled when dry 

4. Meriensta 

1. Plants pubescent. 

2. Upper leaves long-petioled ; flowers small, white, in 1 -sided spikes; style terminal 

1. Heliolroplum 

2. Upper leaves sessile or short-petioled ; flowers pedicelled ; style arising between the 
lobes of the ovary. 
3. Racemes bractless. 

4. Leaves small; corolla salverform, the tube very short; nutlets smooth 

5. M^osolis 

4. Leaves large, usually more than 2 cm. wide; plants tall and coarse. 

5. Nutlets wrinkled 8. Symphytum 

5. Nutlets prickly 2. Cvnoglossum 

3. Racemes bracteate, each flower borne in the axil of a bract. 
6. Flowers regular. 

7. Stem-leaves petioled; nutlets with prickles 3. Lappula 

7. Stem-leaves sessile; nutlets not prickly. 

8. Corolla salverform, the lobes rounded, spreading; style included 

6. Lithospermum 

8. Corolla tubular, the lobes erect, acute; style long-exserted.... 7. OnosmoJ/um 
6. Flowers blue, more or less irregular; stamens exserted 9. Echium 

1. Heliotropium L. — Heliotrope 
H. indicum L. Waste places, occasional in the s. half of the state; adv. 
from India. June-July. 

2. Cynoglossum L. — Hound's-tongue 

l.Stem pilose; plant biennial; lower leaves spatulate; inflorescence many- 
flowered, leafy; corolla reddish or white; pastures and waste places, com- 
mon; nat. from Eur. June. Common Hound's-tongue C. officinale L. 

214 American Midland Naturalist MoNOGRAprf No. 2 

1. Stem hispidulous; plant perennial; lower leaves oval; inflorescence few- 
flowered, leafless; corolla blue; woods, s. 111. May. Wild Comfrey 

C. virgmianum L. 

3. Lappula Moench — Stickseed 
(Hacl(elia Opiz) 

1. Basal leaves ovate or cordate; flowers white; fruit globose, the nutlets prick- 
ly all over the back; woods and thickets throughout III. July-Sept 

L. virginiana (L.) Greene 

1. Basal leaves spatulate; flowers blue; fruit pyramidal, the nutlets prickly only 

along the margins; waste places; nat. from Eur. June-July 

L. echinata Gilib. 

4. Mertensia Roth 
M. virginica (L.) Link. Bluebells. Woods, common. Apr. -May. 

5. Myosotis L. — Forget-me-not 
1. Calyx strigose. 

2. Corolla 6-9 mm. broad; calyx-lobes shorter than the tube; wet ground, 

occasional; escaped from cult.; introd. from Eur. May-Sept 

M. scorpioides L. 

2. Corolla 3-5 mm. broad; calyx-lobes about equalling the tube; n.w. Ind., 

but no 111. specimens seen M. laxa Lehm. 

1 . Calyx-tube with uncinate or glandular pubescence, at least toward the base; 
corolla 2-3 mm. broad. 

3. Fruiting pedicels longer than the calyx; reported from Cook Co. by 

Pepoon M. arvensis (L.) Hill 

3. Fruiting pedicels not longer than the calyx. 

4. Calyx-lobes equal; corolla blue; nutlets about 1 mm. long; waste places, 

occasional; nat. from Eur -M. micrantha Pall. 

4. Calyx-lobes unequal; corolla white. 

5. Fruiting calyx 4-5 mm. long, bearing few hooked hairs; nutlets about 
1.5 mm. long; stem 5-30 cm. tall; sandy soil in open woods and 
fields. May-July. [M. virginica of auth., doubtfully Lycopsis vir- 
ginica L.} M. verna Nutt. 

5. Fruiting calyx 5-7 mm. long, with many hooked hairs; nutlets 2-2.5 
mm. long; stem 30-50 cm. tall; rich soil in woods, s. 111., not 
common. May-June M. macrosperma Engelm. 

6. Lithospermum L. — Gromwell 

1. Perennials; corolla yellow; nutlets white, smooth, glossy. 
2. Corolla greenish yellow, 4-5 mm. long. 

3. Leaves lanceolate, acute; nutlets ovoid, 3 mm. long; corolla longer than 

the calyx; waste ground, occasional; nat. from Eur. May-Aug 

L. officinale L. 

3. Leaves ovate, acuminate; nutlets globose-ovoid, 4 mm. long; corolla 

shorter than the calyx; dry soil. May-June L. latifo'inni Michx. 

2. Corolla bright yellow or orange, 1-2 cm. long. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 134. Verbenaceae 215 

4. Corolla-lobes erose-denticulate, the tube 1.5-3 cm. long; later flowers 
cleistogamous, smaller; leaves linear; prairie soil, chiefly in n.e. III., 
but extending southw. along the valley of the Illinois R. May-July. 

[L. incisum Lehm.; L. linear ijolium Goldie} 

L. angustifolium Michx. 

4. Corolla-lobes entire, the tube less than 1.5 cm. long; flowers all com- 
plete; leaves lanceolate. 
5. Stems and leaves hispid-pubescent; corolla light yellow, pubescent 
within at base; nutlets 3.5-4 mm. long; sandy soil. May-July. [L. 

gmelini and L. carolinense of auth.} L. croceum Fern. 

5. Stems and leaves soft-pubescent; corolla orange yellow, glabrous 

within; nutlets 2.5-3 mm. long; sandy soil. Apr. -June 

L. canescens (Michx.) Lehm. 

1. Annual; corolla white; nutlets gray, wrinkled and pitted; waste places and 
fields; nat. from Eur. May-Aug L. arvense L. 

7. Onosmodium Michx. — False Gromwell 
1. Leaves and stems shaggy-pubescent; stems 90-120 cm. tall; nutlets with a 
slight constriction or rim at base; dry banks and fields, local. June-July 

O. hispidissimum Mack. 

1. Leaves and stems grayish-pubescent with mostly appressed hairs; stems 40-60 
cm. tall; nutlets rounded at base, not at all constricted; hillsides, bluffs, 
and thickets, w. 111., local. June-July O. occldentale Mack. 

8. Symphytum L. — Comfrey 
S. officinale L. Roadsides and waste places, occasional; introd. from Eur. 
Urbana, Champaign Co., Waite; Algonquin, McHenry Co., Nason. 

9. EcHiuM L. 
E. vulgare L. Blueweed. Waste places, roadsides, and fields; nat. from 
Eur. June-Aug. 

134. Verbenaceae J. St. Hil. — Verbena Family 

1. Corolla 5-lobed. nearly regular; calyx tubular; fruit splitting into 4 nutlets 

I . Verbena 

1. Corolla 4-lobecl and 2-lipped; calyx short, 2-cleft; fruit splitting into 2 nutlets.. 

2. P/ip/a 

1. Verbena L. — Vervain 
1. Flowers 1.5-2.5 cm. long; bracts shorter than the calyx; leaves incisely lobed 
or toothed; open woods, occasional. Menard Co., and southw. May-Aug. 

V. canadensis (L.) Britt. 

1. Flowers 4-10 mm. long. 

2. Bracts longer than the flowers; stems decumbent, hirsute; roadsides and 

waste places. June-Sept. [V. bracteosa Michx.} 

V. bracteata Lag. & Rodr. 

2. Bracts shorter than the flowers; stem erect; spikes slender or filiform. 
3. Corolla white; spikes filiform; calyx in fruit 2 mm. or less in length; 
leaves serrate; roadsides and open woods, common. [V . urticaefolia 

216 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

var. leiocarpa Perry & Fern ] Said to hybridize with V. bracteata, V. 

hastata, and V. stricta. White Vervain V. urticaejolia L. 

3. Corolla blue; spikes slender; fruiting calyx more than 2 mm. long. 
4. Plants densely soft-pubescent; leaves oval or ovate, serrate; calyx 4-5 
mm. long; nutlets ellipsoid, 2.5 mm. long; roadsides and fields, 

common. June-Sept. Hoary Vervain V. stricta Vent. 

4. Plants glabrous, or sparsely rough-pubescent. 

5. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, petiolate, the petioles 1-2 cm. long; 
calyx 2-3 mm. long; nutlets smooth, 1.5-2 mm. long; roadsides 

and open woods, common. July-Sept. Blue Vervain 

V. hastata L. 

5. Leaves linear to oblanceolate, obtuse, sessile or nearly so; calyx 
3-4 mm. long; nutlets reticulate, 3 mm. long; roadsides and 
fields. June- Aug. \V . angustifolia Michx.} Said to hybridize 
with V. stricta, V. hastata, and V. bracteata. Narrow-leaved 
Vervain V. simplex Lehm. 

2. Phyla Lour. — Frog-fruit 

{Lippia Houst.) 

P. lanceolata (Michx.) Greene. River banks, shores, along ditches, and in 
wet meadows, common. June-Sept. 

135. Labiatae B. Juss. — Mint Family 
(Menthaceae L. F. Ward) 

1. Corolla nearly regular, almost equally 5- (or 4-) lobed. 
2. Leaves entire or essentially so; plants glandular-puberulent. 

3. Stamens included or only slightly exserted; calyx nearly equally 5-toothed 

2. Isanihus 

3. Stamens long-exserted and strongly upcurved; calyx with 3 long and 2 short teeth 

3. Trichosiema 

2. Leaves serrate, crenate, or pinnatifid. 

4. Fertile stamens 2; plants inodorous 26. Lvcopiis 

4. Fertile stamens 4; plants strongly aromatic 27. Mentha 

I. Corolla very irregular. 

5. Calyx with a small crest or callosity on the upper side, 2-lipped: stamens 4 

4. Sciilellaria 

5. Calyx not crested. 

6. Flowers in compact axillary whorls, or in terminal heads or capitate clusters. 
7. Bracts broad, conspicuous; corolla 2-3.5 cm. long; flowers in dense head-like 

clusters; calyx tubular, equally 5-toothed, I5-nerved; stamens 2 

18. Monarda 

7. Bracts smaller; corolla shorter. 

8. Stem corymbosely branched, stiffly erect; flower-heads clustered; leaves 
linear, lanceolate, or ovate; calyx nearly regular, 5-toothed, IO-13-nerved 

24. Pxicnanibemitm 

8. Stem simple or with few branches. 

9. Calyx with 10 recurved teeth; corolla white, 5-6 mm. long; leaves ovate, 

petioled, crenate, rugose; stem canescent 5. Marruhiiitn 

9. Calyx with fewer than 10 teeth. 

10. Stamens strongly exserted beyond the corolla; flowers in dense terminal 
heads or spikes 6. Agastache 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 135. Labiatae 217 

10. Stamens not strongly exserted. 

1 1 . Calyx-teeth rigid, spine-tipped; corolla 6-10 mm. long 

13. Leonurus 

1 1 . Calyx-teeth not spine-tipped. 

12. Corolla 12-24 mm. long 14. Lamium 

12. Corolla 7-12 mm. long. 

13. Calyx not 2-lipped. the 5 teeth nearly equal. 

14. Leaves coarsely crenate-denate ; corolla whitish, 7-9 mm. 
long; stem copiously finely pubescent 7. Nepela 

14. Leaves entire; corolla purple; stem puberulent 

2 1 . Satureia 

13. Calyx 2-lipped, the teeth conspicuously unequal. 

15. Stem erect or ascendmg. 

16. Stem glabrous or sparsely pubescent; flowers in dense 

terminal bracted spikes; stamens 4. 

1 7. Leaves entire or sparingly crenate; floral bracts 

ciliate; calyx reticulate-veiny, somewhat 10- 

nerved 12. Prunella 

17. Leaves coarsely sharply serrate; floral bracts 

pectinate; calyx 13-I5-nerved 

10. Dracocephalum 

16. Stem hirsute; calyx 13-nerved. 

18. Leaves 2-10 cm. long; stamens 2, exserted 

1 7. BlephiUa 

18. Leaves 5-10 mm. long; stamens 4 

22. CUnopodium 

15. Stems prostrate, the flowering branches erect or ascend- 
ing, pubescent; leaves oval, obtuse, entire, short- 
petioled, 6-15 mm. long; calyx 2-lipped, the linear 
teeth ciliate; stamens 4; corolla purplish.. ..23. Thymus 
6. Flowers in racemes or spikes, or solitary or few in the axils of the leaves. 

19. Calyx deeply 4-cleft; corolla greenish yellow, 3-4 cm. long; flowers solitary, 
axillary; leaves thin, palmately veined, the blade shorter than the petiole 

1 1 . S\^nandra 

19. Calyx 5-toothed or 2-lipped; corolla smaller. 

20. Leaves reniform, crenate, petioled; stems trailing; flowers blue, axillary 

8. Clecoma 

20. Leaves not reniform. 

21. Flowers 4-6 mm. long. 

22. Leaves linear or lanceolate, entire or sparingly serrate; stamens 2 
19. Hedeoma 

22. Leaves ovate, coarsely dentate; stamens 4 29. Perilla 

21. Flowers more than 6 mm. long. 

23. Corolla with the upper lip apparently obsolete; stamens erect, 

exserted; flowers in long racemes 1. Teucrium 

23. Corolla conspicuously bilabiate. 
24. Leaves toothed. 

25. Flowers in loose terminal panicles; corolla light yellow; 

fertile stamens usually only 2; calyx 2-lipped 

28. Collinsonia 

25. Flowers not in loose terminal panicles. 
26. Calyx nearly equally 5-toothed. 

27. Flowers 1.5-3.5 cm. long; spikes continuous, loosely 

flowered; fertile stamens 4 9. Physosiegia 

27. Flowers 1-1.5 cm. long. 

28. Fertile stamens 2, long-exserted ; plants very 

aromatic; corolla purple; stem glabrous 

25. Cunila 

28. Fertile stamens 4, not long-exserted; spikes com- 
posed of interrupted whorls 15. Slachys 

218 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

26. Calyx 2-lipped. 

29. Fertile stamens 2; corolla purplish 16. Salvia 

29. Fertile stamens 4; corolla white 20. Melissa 

24. Leaves entire; calyx 2-lipped; corolla purple, 8-10 mm. long, 
puberulent; stamens 4 22. Clinopodium 

1. Teucrium L. 

1 . Calyx and upper part of stem canescent-puberulent with short, somewhat 
curved, glandless hairs; corolla 1.5 cm. long; moist ground, common. 
June- Aug _T. canadense L. 

1. Calyx and upper part of stem short-villous with straight, often somewhat 
glandular hairs; corolla 1 cm. long; moist ground, locally in the n. two- 
thirds of the state. July-Sept. [T. boreale Bickn.] T. occidentale Gray 

2. Isanthus Michx. 

/. hrachiatus (L.) BSP. False Pennyroyal. Gravelly or sandy soil along 
roads or in fields or open woods, local. Aug. -Sept. 

3. Trichostema L. 

T. dichotoma L. Bluecurls. Sandy soil in open woods, rare. Ottawa, La 
Salle Co., Seymour in 1882; "S. 111.," without definite locality, Vasey. Aug.- 

4. Scutellaria L. — Skullcap 

1. Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes. 

2. Flowers 6-7 mm. long; plants glabrous throughout or puberulent above; 

moist ground, common. July-Sept S. lateriflora L. 

2. Flowers 12-25 mm. long. 

3. Stem-leaves cordate; stem puberulent or short-pilose; corolla puberu- 
lent, 2-2.5 cm. long; woods, locally throughout 111. June-July. [S. 
cordifolia Muhl., nom. subnud.; S. versicolor Nutt.} . S. ovata Flill 
3. Stem-leaves not cordate. 

4. Calyces short-pilose, the hairs gland-tipped; corolla 12-14 mm. long, 
puberulent or nearly glabrous; wooded slopes, s. 111. June-July. [S. 

ptlosa of Michx., not Hill; S. pdosa var. hirstita Gray} 

S. ovalifolia Michx. 

4. Calyces canescent, not glandular; corolla 18-20 mm. long, puberu- 
lent; woods, throughout 111., except the n. counties. June-Sept. [S. 

puhescens Muhl., nom. nud.; S. canescetjs Nutt.} 

S. incana Spreng. 

1. Flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves. 

5. Flowers 16-22 mm. long; wet ground, chiefly in the n. half of the state. 

June-Sept. \_S. galericulata of Am. auth., not L.} 

S. epdohiifolia A. Fiamilt. 

5. Flowers 5-10 mm. long. 

6. Leaves entire or nearly so; nutlets wingless; rhizomes moniliform. 
7. Pubescence of stem and pedicels spreading. 

8. Leaves gland-dotted beneath; wooded bluffs, local. May-July 

S. parvula Michx. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 135. Labiatae 219 

8. Leaves not glandular; wooded slopes and ridges, local. May- June 

S. ans trails Epling 

7. Pubescence of stem and pedicels appressed; wooded slopes and 
ridges, local. May-June. [5. parvula sensu auth., ex p., non 

Michx.; S. parvula var. ambigiia Fern.; S. leonardi Epling} 

S. ambigua Nutt. 

6. Leaves coarsely crenate; stem glabrous or sparingly pubescent; nutlets 

winged; rhizomes slender; woods, local. May-June 

S. nervosa Pursh 

5. Marrubium L. 

M. viilgare L. Common Horehound. Waste places, roadsides, fields, and 
open woods, common; nat. from Eur. June-Oct. 

6. Agastache Clayton — Giant Hyssop 
1. Stem glabrous or puberulent; corolla cream or greenish yellow; roadsides, 
fields, and open woods, common. Aug.-Oct A. nepetoides (L.) Ktze 

1. Stem finely hirsute; corolla purple; sandy soil in open woods and along 
roads, infrequent. Aug.-Sept A. scrophidariaefolia (Willd.) Ktze 

7. Nepeta L. 

N. cataria L. Catnip. Pastures, roadsides, waste places, and open woods, 
common; nat. from Eur. June-Sept. 

8. Glecoma L. 

1. Flowers 16-22 mm. long; waste ground, occasional; nat. from Eur. Peoria, 
Brendel; Naperville, Du Page Co., Kienholz in 1915. \Nepeta hederacea 
(L.) Trev.} G. hederacea L. 

1. Flowers 10-15 mm. long; a weed in waste places, lawns, along roads, and in 
moist open woods; nat. from Eur. Apr.-June. [^Nepeta glechoma var. 
parviflora Benth.] G. heterophylla Waldst. & Kit. 

9. Physostegia Benth. — False Dragonhead 
1. Corolla 18-22 mm. long; anthers 1.3-1.6 mm. long; calyx campanulate; 

leaves oblanceolate or lanceolate, thin; alluvial soil, local. Aug.-Oct. 

P. speciosa Sweet 

1. Corolla 2.5-3.5 cm. long; anthers 2 mm. long; calyx tubular-campanulate; 
leaves mostly linear-lanceolate, firm; prairie soil, often along railroads, 
local. July-Oct. [P. angustifolia Fern.} P. virginiana (L.) Benth. 

10. Dracocephalum L. — Dragonhead 

{Moldav'ica Adans.) 

D. parviflorum Nutt. Dry soil, rare. Athens, E. Hall; Wady Petra, V. H. 
Chase. May-Aug. 

11. Synandra Nutt. 

S. hispidula (Michx.) Britt. Wooded ravines, s. 111., not common. Jack- 
son Co., Clinton. May- June. 

220 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

12. Prunella L. — Selfheal 

P. vulgaris L. Carpenter-weed. Roadsides, waste places, fields, and open 
woods, common. June-Oct. 

13. Leonurus L. — Motherwort 

1. Calyx much shorter than the corolla; lower leaves palmately 3-5-lobed; corol- 
la purple, pubescent within, 9-10 mm. long; waste places, fields, roadsides, 
and open woods, common; nat. from Eur. May-Aug L. cardiaca L. 

1. Calyx as long as the corolla; lower leaves coarsely toothed; corolla pink, 
glabrous within, 7-8 mm. long; waste places, occasional; nat. from Eur. 
June-Sept L. marrubiastrum L. 

14. Lamium L. — Dead-nettle 

1. Upper leaves sessile or clasping; early flowers cleistogamous; cult, ground 
and waste places; nat. from Eur. Mar. -May. Henbit ...L. amplexicaule L. 
1. All the leaves short-petioled. 

2. Corolla 2-2.5 cm. long; leaves marked with a whitish blotch; waste places, 
occasional; nat. from Eur. Naperville, Moffatt in 1897; Geneva, Hig- 

gins. May-July L. maculatum L. 

2. Corolla 12-18 mm. long; leaves not blotched; waste places, occasional; 
nat. from Eur. Apr. -May L. purpureum L. 

15. Stachys L. — Hedge-nettle 

1. Stem glabrous, or hispidulous on the angles. 

2. Leaves sessile or nearly so; angles of the stem retrorsely hispid. 

3. Calyx glabrous, or with a few bristles toward the base; leaves nearly 
glabrous, lance-linear, narrowed at the base; moist ground, chiefly 
in the n. half of 111. July-Aug. \_S. atnbigua (Gray) Britt., not Sm.} 

S. aspera Michx. 

3. Calyx villous; leaves lanceolate, pubescent; moist ground, not common. 
July. [S. aspera sensu auth., non Michx.; S. tenuijolia var. aspera 

Fern.] S. hispida Pursh 

2. Leaves petioled; stem glabrous or merely with a few bristles on the angles; 
calyx glabrous or nearly so at maturity; moist ground, common. July- 
Sept. S. tenuijolia Willd. 

1. Stem retrorsely pubescent on the sides as well as the angles; leaves lanceo- 
late, sessile or nearly so; calyx hirsute; moist ground, common. June-Sept. 
[>S. palustris var. homotricha Fern.; S. anihigua sensu Epling, non Sm.] 
S. homotricha (Fern.) Rydb. 

16. Salvia L. — Sage 

1. Corolla 1.5-2.5 cm. long; leaves mostly basal, lyrate-lobed or pinnatifid; 
stem-leaves few, reduced; dry ground, rare; s. III. May- June ...S. lyrata L. 

1. Corolla 8-12 mm. long; stem more or less leafy, the leaves oval to linear, 
entire to remotely serrate, 2-8 cm. long; dry gravelly soil, Peoria, Stark, 
Cook, and Wabash counties; adv. from w. U.S. July-Sept. \S. lanceae- 
folia Poir.; S. lanceolata Willd.] S. reflexa Hornem. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 135. Labiatae 221 

17. Blephilia Raf. 

1. Leaves nearly sessile, cuneate at base, nearly odorless; bracts ovate; woods; 
apparently absent from the n.w. counties. May-July ...B. ciliata (L.) Raf. 

1 . Leaves petioled, rounded or subcordate at base, and with a strong pepper- 
mint odor; woods. June-Sept B. hirsuta (Pursh) Torr. 

18. MoNARDA L. — Bergamot Mint 

1. Heads (flower-clusters) solitary and terminal on the stem or branches; 
stamens longer than the upper lip of the corolla. 

2. Leaves sessile or nearly so; calyx-lobes 2.5-4 mm. long; corolla pale pur- 
plish or white, the lower lip spotted; roadsides, pastures, and open 
woods in the s. half of 111. May-June M. bradburiana Beck 

2. Leaves distinctly petioled; calyx-lobes 1-2 mm. long. 

3. Corolla lilac-purple, 2-3.5 cm. long; stem often branched; fields, open 

woods, and roadsides, common. June-Aug. \M. fistulosa var. mollis 

(L.) Benth.} M. fistulosa L. 

3. Corolla white or yellowish white, 2-2.5 cm. long; stem usually simple; 

woods, local, chiefly in the s. and centr. counties. June-Aug 

M. clinopodia L. 

1. Heads in several verticillate glomerules; corolla yellowish, the upper lip 
purple-spotted; stamens included; bracts yellowish and purple; sandy soil, 

local. Aug.-Sept. Our plants belong to subsp. rtllicaulis Pennell 

..M. punctata L. 

19. Hedeoma Pers. 

1. Leaves serrate; calyx with the upper lip triangular; dry soil in fields, along 

roads, and in open woods, common. July-Oct. American Pennyroyal 

H. pulegioides (L.) Pers. 

1. Leaves entire; calyx-teeth subulate; sandy soil in open woods, chiefly in the 
n. part of the state. June-July. Rough Pennyroyal H. hispida Pursh 

20. Melissa L. — Bee Balm 
M. officinalis L. Waste places, occasional; introd. from Eur. June-Aug. 

21. Satureia L. — Savory 
S. hortensis L. Summer Savory. Waste places, introd. from Eur.; an occa- 
sional garden escape. Peoria, Brendel. "Spreading in a field near Naperville. 
Seen in '97, '98, 1900 (Umbach) ." (Pepoon) No recent specimens seen. 

22. Clinopodium L. — Basil 

(Calamintha Moench) 
1 . Plants pubescent; leaves ovate. 

2. Flowers sessile in capitate clusters 2-3 cm. in diameter; floral bracts seta- 
ceous, villous; roadsides, fields, waste places, occasional; adv. from Eur. 
\^Satureia vulgaris (L.) Fritsch] C. vulgare L. 

222 American Midland Naturalist Monogra^'H No. 2 

2. Flowers few, in numerous loose, peduncled, axillary cymes; bracts minute; 
waste places, occasional; introd. from Eur. \_S. nepeta (L.) Scheele} .... 

C. nepeta (L.) Krze 

1. Plants glabrous; leaves linear, entire, sessile or nearly so; flowers 1-5 in the 
axils; plants often with short, basal, sterile stolons bearing oval leaves 
purplish beneath; rocky woods, or sandy ground, local; n.e. 111., extending 
southw. to Kankakee and La Salle counties. June-Aug. [^Satureia glabra 
(Nutt.) Fern.] C. glabrum (Nutt.) Ktze 

23. Thymus L. — Thyme 

T. serpyllum L. Roadsides and old fields and gardens, occasional; introd. 
from Eur. July-Aug. 

24. Pycnanthemum Michx. — Mountain Mint 

{Koellia Moench) 

1 . Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate. 

2. Upper leaves whitish; calyx-teeth and bracts pubescent and usually with 
long bristles; roadsides, fields, and open woods, s. 111., northw. to 

Jackson and Gallatin counties. July-Sept 

-P. pycnanthemoides (Leavenw.) Fern. 

2. Upper leaves not whitish; calyces and bracts canescent; s. 111., northw. to 

Marion Co. Aug.-Sept P. mcantim (L.) Michx. 

L Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate or linear. 

3. Stem glabrous throughout (or rarely with a few minute curved hairs); 

leaves linear; calyx-lobes subulate-lanceolate; dry soil in open woods, 

along roads, and in fields, common. June-Sept 

P. flexuosum (Walt.) BSP. 

3. Stem pubescent. 

4. Stem short-pubescent on the angles; leaves linear-lanceolate, glabrous 

or nearly so; moist ground in woods and along roads. July-Sept 

P. virginianum (L.) Dur. dC Jacks. 

4. Stem copiously short-pilose throughout, or at least above the middle; 
leaves elliptic-lanceolate, finely pubescent, at least on veins beneath; 

sandy soil along roads and in open woods, common. July-Sept 

P. pilosiim Nutt. 

25. CUNILA L. 
C. origanoides (L.) Britt. Stone Mint. Wooded ridges, s. III. Aug.-Oct. 

26. Lycopus L. — Water Horehound 

L Calyx-teeth lanceolate, shorter than or equalling the mature nutlets; leaves 
serrate, not incised; plants stoloniferous. 
2. Base of plant and stolons lacking tubers; nutlets sharply muricate on top, 

L7-2 mm. long at maturity; wet ground, not infrequent. July-Oct 

L. virginicus L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 135. Labiatae 223 

2. Base of rhizome and tips of stolons often bearing a tuber; nutlets smooth 

or merely rugulose on top, 1-1.5 mm. long when mature; moist ground 
in the n. part of the state, extending southw. to Stark Co. Aug. -Sept. 

L. uniflorus Michx. 

1 . Calyx-teeth subulate, much longer than the nutlets. 

3. Leaves merely coarsely serrate; corolla twice the length of the calyx; wet 

ground, locally throughout 111., except the n. counties. Aug. -Sept 

L. rubellus Moench 

3. Leaves (at least the lower) more or less incised or sinuately pinnatifid; 

corolla slightly longer than the calyx; wet ground, common. July-Sept. 
[L. siniiatus Ell.} L. americanus Muhl. 

27. Mentha L.— Mint 

1. Whorls of flowers mostly in terminal spikes. 
2. Leaves sessile. 

3. Stem finely canescent; calyx pubescent; corolla white, about 4 mm. 
long; roadsides and waste places, occasional; introd. from Eur. Fay- 
ette Co., Louise Odell in 1940 M. alopecuroides Hull 

3. Stem and calyx glabrous or nearly so; corolla pale pink, 2-2.5 mm. 
long; moist ground, occasional; introd. from Eur. July-Sept. Spear- 
mint M. spicata L. 

2. Leaves short-petioled, lanceolate, acute; stem glabrous; calyx-tube gla- 
brous, the teeth ciliolate; corolla 4 mm. long; waste places and along 
roads; nat. from Eur. July-Sept. Peppermint M. piperita L. 

1. Whorls of flowers all axillary. 

4. Calyx-tube glabrous, the teeth ciliate; stem sparsely pubescent; leaves oval; 

corolla deep pink, 2.5 mm. long; moist ground, not common; introd. 

from Eur. Aug.-Oct M. gentilis L. 

4. Calyx-tube more or less pubescent. 

5. Leaves ovate, rounded at the base; stem and leaves pubescent; waste 

places, occasional; introd. from Eur. July-Sept. Field Mint 

M. arvensis L. 

5. Leaves lanceolate, cuneate at the base; native species. 

6. Stem villous; leaves pubescent; moist ground, rare. Lake Co., Gleas- 
07i & Shobe; McHenry Co., Nason. [M. arvensis var. canadensis 

(L.) Briquet] M. canadensis L. 

6. Stem glabrous on the sides, sparsely retrorsely pubescent on the 
angles; leaves nearly glabrous; moist ground, common throughout 

111. July-Sept. [M. arvensis var. glabrata (Benth.) Fern.} 

M. glabrior (Hook.) Rydb. 


C. canadensis L. Richweed. Woods, s. 111., rare. July-Sept. 

29. Perilla L. 

P. frutescens (L.) Britt. Roadsides and waste places, rare; adv. from Asia. 
Known in 111. from Jackson, Union, Alexander, and Wabash counties. 

224 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

136. Solan ACEAE Pers. — Nightshade Family 

1. Trailing or climbing shrubs; leaves entire; fruit a berry 1. L^cium 

I. Herbs, usually erect, rarely climbing. 
2. Fruit enclosed in the inflated calyx. 

3. Flowers purple or blue; calyx split to the base 2. Nicandra 

3. Flowers yellowish, usually with a purplish center; calyx merely toothed, not split 

3. Ph\)salis 

2. Fruit not enclosed in an inflated calyx. 

4. Corolla rotate; fruit a berry 4. Solanum 

4. Corolla funnelform, 6-20 cm. long; fruit a more or less prickly capsule 

- 5. Datura 

1. Lycium L. 

L. halimifolium Mill. Matrimony-vine. Occasional about old dwellings and 
along roads, escaped from cult.; native of Eurasia. May -July. 

2. Nicandra Adans. — Apple of Peru 

N. physalodes (L.) Pers. Fields and waste places, occasional; native of 
Peru. July-Sept. {^Physalodes physalodes (L.) Britt.} 

3. Physalis L. — ^Ground-cherry 

1. Stems and leaves glabrous, or puberulent. 

2. Pedicels nearly as long as the flowers; calyx-lobes lanceolate; plants peren- 
nial with a horizontal rhizome. 
3. Pedicels upwardly strigilose; anthers 3 mm. long; fruiting calyx ovoid, 
nearly filled with the berry, scarcely impressed at the base; cult, 
ground and roadsides, common. June-Sept. [P. Philadelphia Lam. 

(?)] Smooth Ground-cherry P. subglabrata Mack. & Bush 

3. Pedicels retrorsely or spreading-hispidulous; anthers 2 mm. long; fruit- 
ing calyx pyramidal-ovoid, obtusely 5-angled, deeply impressed at the 
base; cult, ground and roadsides, common. May-July. [P. lanceolata 

of auth., not Michx.J Virginia Ground-cherry P. virginiana Mill. 

2. Pedicels much shorter than the flowers, glabrous or puberulent; calyx-lobes 
deltoid-ovate; anthers 3 mm. long; plants annual; waste places and cult, 
ground, occasional; native of s.w. U.S. and Mex. Thornton, Hill in 
1865; Wheaton, Moffatt in 1898. Tomatillo P. ixocarpa Brot. 

1. Stems and leaves viscid-pubescent. 

4. Corolla 15-25 mm. in diameter; anthers 3-4 mm. long; plants perennial 
with a horizontal rhizome; sandy or alluvial soil, or in cult, ground and 
along roads, common. June-Sept. [P. virginiana of auth., not Mill.^ .... 

P. hcterophylla Nees 

4. Corolla 5-10 mm. in diameter; anthers 1-2 mm. long; annuals with fibrous 
5. Leaves ovate, subentire at base; stem sharply angled; fields, waste places, 

and along roads, local. June-Oct P. puhcsccns L. 

5. Leaves cordate, oblique, sinuately toothed to the base; stem obtusely 

angled; alluvial soil, chiefly w. of the Illinois R. July-Sept 

P. pruinosa L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 137. Scrophulariaceae 225 

4. SoLANUM L. — Nightshade 

1. Plants more or less prickly; pubescence of stellate hairs. 

2. Flowers lavender or white, 1.5-2 cm. in diameter; berry not enclosed by 
the calyx; plants perennial; fields, roadsides, waste places, or in open 
woods, common. June-Sept.. Horse-nettle S. carolinense L. 

2. Flowers yellow, 2-2.5 cm. in diameter; berry enclosed by the prickly calyx; 

plants annual; cult, ground and roadsides, common; native of w. U.S. 

Buffalo-bur. \_Androcera rostrata (Dunal) Rydb.} 

S. rostratum Dunal 

1. Plants not prickly or stellate-pubescent. 

3. Plants perennial, climbing or twining; flowers purple or white; berries 

scarlet, poisonous; moist ground, common; nat. from Eur. June-Oct. 

Deadly Nightshade S. dulcamara L. 

3. Plants annual, erect or spreading; flowers white. 

4. Leaves pinnatifid; berries 1-1.5 cm. in diameter; an occasional weed in 
cult, ground or waste places. Cook Co., Mojfatt; Carroll Co., Clin- 
ton. June-Sept S. triflomm Nutt. 

4. Leaves entire or sinuate; berries 5-8 mm. in diameter; roadsides, river 
banks, and cult, ground; nat. from Eur. (?) June-Oct. Black Night- 
shade S. nigrum L. 

5. Datura L. 

1. Corolla 6-10 cm. long; plants glabrous or nearly so; leaves angle-toothed; 
waste places and cult, ground, not uncommon; nat. from Asia. July-Oct. 
Jimson-weed D. stramonium L. 

1. Corolla 10-20 cm. long; plants glandular-pubescent; leaves entire or undu- 
late; waste places, not common; nat. from trop. Am. July-Sept 

D. metel L. 

137. Scrophulariaceae Lindl. — Figwort Family 

{Rhinanihaceae Pennell) 

1. Anther-bearing stamens 5; corolla rotate; leaves alternate 1. Verbascum 

1. Anther-bearing stamens 4 or 2. 

2. Corolla spurred at base; stamens 4; capsules opening by one or more slits or pores 

near the apex 6. Linaria 

2. Corolla not spurred; capsules 2-4-valved. 

3. Fifth sterile stamen present: either elongated, or represented by a scale or small 
gland on the upper side of the corolla-tube. 
4. Sterile stamen elongated. 

5. Flowers in a dense spike; seeds winged; anthers woolly; leaves serrate, 
petioled; plants glabrous 2. Chelone 

5. Flowers in a terminal panicle or raceme; seeds wingless 3. Penslcmon 

4. Sterile stamens represented by a small gland or scale on the upper inner side 

of the corolla. 

6. Corolla maroon or purplish green; leaves petioled, sharply serrate or dentate; 

perennials 4. Scrophularia 

6. Corolla blue, pink, or white; upper leaves sessile; annuals 5. ColUnsia 

3. Fifth sterile stamen absent. 
7. Fertile stamens 2. 

226 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

8. Calyx 5-parted; two stamens anther-beaiing, and two sterile, or the latter 
sometimes absent. 
9. Corolla purplish; calyx without bracts; sterile filaments 2-forked, slightly 
exserted 7. Lindernia 

9. Corolla whitish oi yellow; calyx (in our species) subtended by a pair 

of sepal-like bracts; sterile filaments simple, included or lacking 

8. Cratiola 

8. Calyx 4-parted; stamens 2, both fertile. 

10. Leaves mostly in whorls of 3-6, rarely opposite; corolla tubular-funnel- 

form 13. Veronicaslrum 

10. Leaves opposite or alternate. 

1 1 . Leaves, at least the lower, opposite; corolla rotate, 4-lobed, blue or 

white 14. Veronica 

I 1 . Leaves alternate, mostly basal; in our species the corolla 2-lipped, 
and the flowers greenish yellow, in a terminal spike; basal leaves 

ovate 1 5. Svnthvris 

7. Stamens 4, all fertile. 

12. Stamens not inclosed in the upper lip of the corolla. 
13. Corolla distinctly bilabiate. 

14. Calyx 5-angled, 5-toothed; leaves serrate 9. Mimulus 

14. Calyx 5-parted, not angled. 

15. Leaves entire (in our species) 10. Dacopa 

15. Leaves not entire. 

16. Leaves pinnatifid; sepals distinct or nearly so, linear 

1 1. Leucospora 

16. Leaves toothed or incised; calyx campanulate, 5-lobed.... 

12. Mazus 

13. Corolla with a spreading, slightly unequally 5-lobed limb. 

17. Corolla somewhat campanulate or rotate; anthers 2-loculed. 
18. Anthers pubescent; style slender. 

19. Corolla yellow; capsule acute or acuminate; leaves 
petioled, pinnatifid (in our species) ; plants parasitic 

on the roots of oak trees 16. Aiireolaria 

19. Corolla purple, pink, or white; capsule obtuse, mucronate; 

leaves sessile, linear to filiform 17. Cerardia 

18. Anthers glabrous; style short; corolla yellow; leaves mostly 

pinnatifid, the upper alternate, lanceolate 18. Dasisioma 

17. Corolla salverform; anthers 1-lcculed; flowers in an elongated 

spike 19. Biichnera 

12. Stamens included in the upper lip of the corolla. 

20. Anther-sacs dissimilar, unequal ; leaves alternate, cleft or lobed (in our 

species) 20. Caslilleja 

20. Anther-sacs alike, parallel. 

21. Leaves pinnately lobed and crenate; floral bracts not spinulose- 

toothed 2 1 . Pedicularis 

21. Leaves entire; floral bracts spinulose-toothed 22. Mclampvriim 

1. Vf.RBASCUM L. — Mullein 

L Plants densely tomentose; flowers in a dense spike; leaves strongly decurrent; 
fields, roadsides, waste places, common; nat. from Eur. June-Aug. Com- 
mon Mullein V. thapsus L. 

L Plants glabrous below, glandular above; flowers racemose; corolla white or 
yellow; roadsides and pastures, common; nat. from Eur. June-Aug. Moth 
Mullein V. blattaria L. 

2. Chelone L. — Turtlehead 

L Corolla white or tinged with pink; sepals obscurely ciliolate; sterile filament 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 137. Scrophulariaceae 227 

green; wet ground in woods, local; chiefly in the n. two-thirds of the state. 
July-Oct. [C. imifolia (Cofeman) Pennell ex Rydb.; C. glabra var. elon- 
gata Pennell & Wherry] C. glabra L. 

1. Corolla rose-purple; sepals ciliolate; sterile filament whitish; low woods, in 
the s. and w. counties, local. Aug. -Oct. [C. obliqua var. speciosa Pennell 
& Wherry] C. obliqua L. 

3. Penstemon Mitch. — Penstemon 

1. Plants more or less glandular or pubescent, at least on the calyces and pedi- 
cels; corolla 1.5-3 cm. long; leaves denticulate or entire. 
2. Stem pubescent or puberulent. 

3. Corolla violet-purple, 2.5-3 cm. long, the lobes whitish; stem pubescent; 

bluffs, and dry woods and thickets, local. May-June 

P. hirsutus (L.) Willd. 

3. Corolla white, lined with purple within; stem puberulent. 

4. Corolla 2-2.5 cm. long, the throat narrow, flattened, narrowly ridged 
within, the anterior lobes projecting beyond the posterior ones; dry 

woods, local. May-June P. pallidus Small 

4. Corolla 1.5-2 cm. long, the throat inflated, only slightly ridged with- 
in, the anterior lobes scarcely exceeding the posterior ones; near 

Mt. Carmel, Schneck P- deamii Pennell 

2. Stem glabrous below the inflorescence. 
5. Inflorescence open, paniculate. 

6. Corolla white or tinged with purple; calyx-lobes lanceolate to ovate; 
sandy soil in fields and thickets, and open woods. May-July. Fox- 
glove Penstemon P. digitalis Nutt. 

6. Corolla purple; calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, attenuate; alluvial soil 

and wooded slopes. May-July P. calycosus Small 

5. Inflorescence narrow, interrupted; corolla white or purplish; calyx-lobes 
ovate, acuminate, 3-4 mm. long, glandular; sandy soil in open woods. 
May-July P. tubaeflorus Nutt. 

1. Plants glabrous throughout and somewhat glaucous; leaves entire; corolla 
4-5 cm. long, lavender; sandy soil. May-June. Henderson Co., Patterson 
P. grandiflorus Nutt. 


1. Corolla dull; sterile stamen brownish purple; capsules ovoid, glossy, 4-7 mm. 

long; woods, throughout 111. July-Sept S. marilandica L. 

1. Corolla glossy; sterile stamen greenish yellow; capsules subglobose, dull, 7-9 

mm. long; open woods, throughout 111., except the s. counties. June. \_S. 

leporella Bickn.] S. lanceolata Pursh 

C. verna Nutt. Blue-eyed Mary. Moist woods. Apr.-May. 

6. LiNARIA L. 
1. Flowers in terminal racemes; plants glabrous. 

2. Corolla yellow, 2-3 cm. long; calyx-lobes ovate; roadsides and fields; nat. 

228 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

from Eur. May-Sept. Butter-and-Eggs L. vulgaris Mill. 

2. Corolla blue or white, 10-12 mm. long; calyx-lobes lanceolate; sandy soil. 

May-June _L. canadensis (L.) Dum.-Cours. 

1. Flowers axillary; plants glandular or pubescent; corolla 5-10 mm. long. 

3. Leaves linear-spatulate to linear; stem erect, glandular; calyx-lobes linear; 

roadsides and waste places, adv. from Eur. May-Aug. {^Chaenorrhiniim 

minus (L.) Lange} L. minor (L.) Desf. 

3. Leaves hastate; stem prostrate, pubescent; calyx-lobes lanceolate; waste 
ground, nat. from Eur. Sangamon Co., G. D. Fuller & G. M. Link 

567. June-Sept. \^Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort.} 

_L. elatine (L.) Mill. 

7. Lindernia All. 

{Il^santhes Raf.) 

L. dubia (L.) Pennell. Moist ground, often along streams, ditches, and 
ponds, locally abundant throughout III. July-Sept. [/. anagallidea (Michx.) 
Raf.; /. attenuata (Muhl.) Small; /. dubia (L.) Barnh.} 

8. Gratiola L. 

1. Corolla golden yellow, 10-15 mm. long; sterile filaments 2, slender; capsule 
3 mm. long; seeds brown; leaves entire or remotely denticulate; plants 
perennial, with rhizomes; wet ground, rare. Forest Park, Cook Co., Sey- 
mour. [G. aurea Muhl.] G. lutca Raf. 

1. Corolla light yellow or white, 6-12 mm. long; sterile filaments minute or 
none; capsules 3-7 mm. long; seeds yellow; leaves repand to serrate; an- 
nuals with fibrous roots. 
2. Pedicels slender, 1-2.5 cm. long in fruit, equalling or exceeding the leaves; 
plants glandular-puberulent; capsules ovoid; wet ground and borders of 

ponds, not uncommon. May-Aug. [G. virginiana of auth., not L.l 

G. ncglecta Torr. 

2. Pedicels stouter, usually shorter than the leaves, less than 1 cm. long; 
plants glabrous; capsules globose; shores and ditches, less common than 
the preceding. May-June. [G. sphaerocarpa Ell.] G. virginiana L. 

9. MiMULUS L. — Monkey Flower 

1. Corolla violet; stem erect; leaves lanceolate to oval. 
2. Leaves sessile, clasping; pedicels longer than the calyx; along streams, not 

uncommon. July-Sept M. ringens L. 

2. Leaves short-petioled; pedicels shorter than the calyx; wet ground, 

throughout 111., except the n. counties. July-Sept M. alatus Soland. 

1. Corolla yellow; stems slender, creeping; leaves suborbicular; wet ground in 
the n. half of the state. June-Sept. [M. glabratus var. fremontii (Benth.) 
Grant; M. jamesii T. & G.] M. gcyeri Torr. 

10. Bacopa Aubl. 

(Ihuhantlu'liiim HBK.; Macuillanua Raf.) 

B. rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst. Water Hyssop. Margins of ponds, local. 
July-Sept. [Bramta rotundifolia (Michx.) Britt.] 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 137. Scrophulariaceae 229 

11. Leucospora Nutt. 

L. multijida (Michx.) Nutt. Sandy soil near streams, throughout III., ex- 
cept the n. counties. July-Oct. [Conobea multijida (Michx.) Benth.] 

12. Mazus Lour. 

M. japonicus (Thunb.) Ktze. Waste ground, or in lawns; adv. from e. 
Asia. Chicago, G. D. Fuller in 1943. [M. rugosus Lour.} 

13. Veronicastrum Fabr. 

(Leptandra Nutt.) 

V. virginicum (L.) Farw. Culver-root. Meadows and thickets, common. 
July- Aug. [^Veronica virginica L.] 

14. Veronica L. — Speedwell 

1. Flowers in racemes; perennials with rhizomes. 
2. Racemes in the axils of the leaves. 

3. Capsules pubescent; stems and leaves pubescent; blades oval, serrate, 

short-petioled; waste ground; nat. from Eur. May-Sept 

V. officinalis L. 

3. Capsules glabrous (or with a few gland-tipped hairs); stems and leaves 
glabrous or sparsely glandular-puberulent; plants of wet soil. 
4. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, entire or remotely denticulate; cap- 
sules much broader than long, notched at both ends, much shorter 

than the pedicels; along ditches and ponds. June-Aug 

V. scutellata L. 

4. Leaves lanceolate to ovate, serrate or crenate; capsules nearly or- 
5. Leaves short-petioled; plants glabrous throughout; swampy ground 

in the n. half of the state, rare. June-Aug 

V. americana (Raf.) Schw. 

5. Leaves sessile, clasping; plants minutely glandular, at least in the 

inflorescence; ditches and sloughs. June-Sept V. connata Raf. 

2. Racemes terminal; leaves ovate or oval, entire or obscurely crenate, gla- 
brous; capsules puberulent, orbicular, obcordate, 3-4 mm. broad; road- 
sides, fields, or lawns; nat. from Eurasia. May-June ....V. serpyllifolta L. 

1. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves; plants annual. 

6. Leaves oblanceolate or spatulate to linear, entire or shallowly toothed, 
glabrous; corolla whitish, 2-3 mm. in diameter; capsules emarginate, 3-4 
mm. broad, the style not more than 0.5 mm. long; stem glabrous or 
with gland-tipped trichomes; fields, gardens, and roadsides, common. 

May-June. [F. xalapensis HBK.} V . peregrina L. 

6. Leaves ovate or oval, serrate or dentate, pubescent; corolla blue; capsules 


7. Pedicels shorter than the leaves; corolla 2-3 mm. broad; capsules 3-4 

mm. broad; lawns, fields, and waste places, common; nat. from Eur. 

Apr. -June V. arvensis L 

230 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

7. Pedicels as long as the leaves or longer; corolla about 1 cm. in diam- 
eter; capsules 7-8 mm. broad; an occasional weed in lawns and waste 
ground; nat. from Eur. Apr. -Aug. [V. tournefortii sensu C. C 
Gmel., non Schmidt; V. buxbaumii Tenore; V. byzantina (Sm.) 
BSP.] V. persicd Poir. 

15. Synth YRis Benth. 

(Bessevia Rydb.) 
S. biillii (Eaton) Heller. Sandy or gravelly soil, n.w. 111., extending 
southw. to Henderson Co.; also in Cass and Menard counties. May-June. [5. 
hoiightoniana Benth.} 

16. AuREOLARiA Raf. — False Foxglove 
(Dasvstoma Benth.) 
1. Plants perennial, not glandular; corolla 3-5 cm. long; seeds winged. 

2. Plants glabrous or nearly so; stem glaucous; sandy soil in open woods. 
Aug. -Sept. [D. virginica ex p. sensu Britt.; D. qiiercifolia (Pursh) 

Benth.; Gerardia virginica of auth., not Rhinanthus virgimciis L.] 

A. flara (L.) Farw. 

2. Plants grayish puberulent; open woods. July-Oct. [A. grandi flora pulchra 
Pennell] A. grandiflora (Benth.) Pennell 

1. Plants annual, more or less glandular; corolla 2-3 cm. long; capsules ellip- 
soid, 1-1.5 cm. long; seeds wingless; dry open woods, n.e. 111., rare. Aug.- 
Sept. [/I. pedicularia intercedens Pennell} A. pedicularia (L.) Raf. 

17. Gerardia L. 

(Agalinis Raf.) 

1. Leaves auriculate at base, lanceolate; flowers 1.5-2 cm. long, nearly sessile; 
anthers of the shorter filaments smaller; fields and open woods. Aug.- 
Sept. [Tomanthera aiincidata (Michx.) Raf.; Otophylla auriculata 
(Michx.) Small} G. auriculata Michx. 

1. Leaves linear, entire, not auriculate; anthers uniform. 

2. Pedicels of the flowers less than twice the length of the calyx. 

3. Capsules ellipsoid, 8-10 mm. long; calyx-teeth triangular-lanceolate; 
corolla 18-25 mm. long; leaves scabrous; gravelly or sandy soil, local- 

Aug. -Sept ...G. aspera Dougl. 

3. Capsules subglobose, 3-6 mm. long; calyx-teeth subulate, short. 

4. Flowers 2-3 cm. long; moist sandy soil. Aug. -Oct G. purpurea L. 

4. Flowers 14-18 mm. long; ground. Aug. -Sept 

G. paupercula Gray 

2. Pedicels of the flowers more than twice the length of the calyx. 

5. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, flat; moist ground, and on wooded 
slopes, local. Aug. -Oct. Somewhat variable, and several varieties 

have been described G. tetiuifolia Vahl 

5. Leaves filiform-linear, the margins revolute. 

6. Stem strict, simple or few-branched, striatc-angled, the angles minute- 
ly scabrellous; dry sandy soil, local. Aug. -Sept 

G. skinneriana Wood 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 138. Lentibulariaceae 231 

6. Stem usually much-branched, nearly terete (at least below), smooth or 

nearly so; wooded slopes and ridges, local. Aug.-Oct 

G. gatt'tngeri Small 

18. Dasistoma Raf. 

D. macrophylla (Nutt.) Raf. Mullein Foxglove. Dry soil in woods near 
streams; often parasitic on the roots of Aesculus. July- Aug. 


B. americana L. Blue Hearts. Sandy soil, rare. July-Sept. Chicago, Bab- 
cock; Menard Co., Hall. 

20. Castilleja Mutis — Indian Paint Brush 

1. Plants perennial, 10-30 cm. tall; bracts green; corolla yellowish white, 4-5 
cm. long; gravelly or sandy soil, n. 111.; known from Winnebago, Mc- 
Henry, Lake, and Du Page counties. June-Aug C. sessiliflora Pursh 

1. Plants annual or biennial, 30-60 cm. tall, bracts scarlet or yellowish; corolla 
green, 2-2.5 cm. long; moist ground, throughout 111., except the most 
southerly counties. May-June C. coccinea (L.) Spreng. 

21. Pedicularis L. 

1. Stem glabrous or nearly so, 60-90 cm. tall; leaves opposite, nearly sessile, 
shallowly lobed; spikes 5-10 cm. long; lower lip of the corolla 10-12 mm. 
long, nearly as long as the upper; capsules ovoid, scarcely longer than the 
calyx; swampy ground. Aug.-Oct P. lanceolata Michx. 

1. Stem pubescent, 10-30 cm. tall; leaves alternate, petioled, deeply lobed; 
spikes 10-20 cm. long; lower lip of the corolla about 8 mm. long, much 
shorter than the upper; capsules lanceoloid, about three times as long as 
the calyx; sandy soil in open woods. May P. canadensis L. 

22. Melampyrum L. 

M. lineare Desr. Moist ground, rare. June-Aug. Cook Co., Moffatt. [M. 
americanum Michx.} 

138. Lentibulariaceae Lindl. — Bladderwort Family 

1. Utricularia L. — Bladderwort 

1. Pedicels recurved in fruit. 

2. Flowers 1-2 cm. long, the spur conspicuous, slightly curved upward; ponds 
and slow streams, chiefly in the n. half of the state; the common spe- 
cies in 111. July- Aug. \U. vulgaris var. americana Gray; U. macrorhiza 
Le Conte} U. vulgaris L. 

2. Flowers 4-6 mm. long; spur short, blunt, almost obsolete; lake shores or 

stagnant water. Lake Co., Hill; Ringwood, Vasey U. minor ^■^\g%^^ 

1. Pedicels erect or ascending in fruit; spur evident. y V>* ^ 

3. Stems slender, elongated, creeping in the mud or floating. y^^ 


232 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

4. Leaf-segments capillary; upper lip of the corolla equalling the lower; 
lake shores or shallow water, n.e. III.; also in St. Clair and Jackson 
counties. Aug.-Oct U. gibba L. 

4. Leaf-segments linear, flat, often minutely serrulate; upper lip of the 
corolla about half the length of the lower; shallow water. July-Aug. 

Peoria, Brendel; Waukegan, Hill U. intermedia Hayne 

3. Stems short, submerged in the mud; leaves rarely seen; corolla L5-2 cm. 
broad, the subulate spur 7-12 mm. long, pointing downward; lake 
shores and peat bogs, rare. Lake Co., Hill; Cook Co., Pear sail in 1943. 
July-Aug. [Stomoisia cornuta (Michx.) Raf.} Horned Bladderwort 
U . cornuta Michx. 

139. Orobanchaceae Lindl. — Broomrape Family 

I. Flowers of 2 kinds, the lower cleislogamous and fertile, the upper complete but usually 

sterile; stamens included; branches slender, ascending, simple 1. Epifagus 

1. Flowers all perfect and complete. 

2. Flowers in a thick scaly spike; stamens exserted; plants glabrous 2. Conopholis 

2. Flowers solitary or racemose; stamens included; plants glandular-puberulent 

- 3. Orobanche 

1. Epifagus Nutt. 

(Eptphegus Spreng. ; Lepiamniitm Raf.) 
E. virginiana (L.) Bart. Beech-drops. Parasitic on the roots of beech trees. 

2. Conopholis Wallr. — Squaw-root 

C. americana (L.f.). Wallr. In wooded ravines, parasitic on the roots of oak 
trees, not common. Cook Co., Hill; Vermilion Co., G. N. Jones 13346. 

3. Orobanche L. — Broomrape 
(Thalesia Raf.; Aphyllon Gray) 
1. Flowers numerous, sessile or short-stalked, spicate or racemose. 

2. Calyx 4-lobed, the lobes triangular-ovate, about as long as the tube; 
flowers subtended by 1 large and 2 small bracts; raceme loosely flow- 
ered; stem branched; parasitic on roots of herbaceous plants; adv. or 
nat. from Eur O. ramosa L. 

2. Calyx 5-cleft, the lobes linear-lanceolate, 7-8 mm. long, longer than the 

tube; flowers subtended by 1 or 2 bracts; spikes terminal, dense; stem 
simple; parasitic on various plants, including Ambrosia, Artemisia, and 
other Compositae in sandy soil, not common. Aug. -Sept. [Myzorrkiza 

ludoviciana (Nutt.) Rydb.} O. ludoviciana Nutt. 

1. Flowers few or solitary on bractless scapes; calyx 5-cIeft. 

3. Flowers 3-15; calyx-lobes triangular-lanceolate, shorter than the tube; para- 

sitic on Artemisia and other Compositae in sandy soil, local. Savanna, 
Carroll Co., July 10, 1909, H. C. Cowles O. fasciculata Nutt. 

3. Flower solitary; calyx-lobes subulate, longer than the tube; parasitic on 
various plants, not common. May-June. [Anoplanthiis uniflorns (L.) 
Endl.} O. uniflora L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 142. Acanthaceae 233 

140. Bignoniaceae Pers. — Trumpet-creeper Family 
I . Trees ; leaves simple, ovale. 

2. Leaves opposite; stamens 4; capsules ovoid; pith chambered or hollow 

1. PauloTunia 

2. Leaves usually in whorls of 3 ; stamens 2 ; capsules long-cylindrical ; pith continuous 

2. Calalpa 

1. Climbing or trailing shrubs; leaves compound; anther-bearing stamens 4. 

3. Leaflets 2. entire; leaves with a tendril; pods flat 3. Dignonia 

3. Leaflets 7-11, serrate; leaves without a tendril; pods cylindrical 4. Campsts 

1. Paulownia Sieb. & Zucc. 

P. tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. Princess Tree or Paulownia. Cultivated; 
native of China; sometimes apparently spontaneous in s. 111. Golconda, Pope 
Co., G. N. Jones 12012, 12013. [P. imperialis Sieb. & Zucc] 

2. Catalpa Scop. 

1. Leaves long-acuminate, inodorous; panicles few-flowered, about 15 cm. long; 
corolla about 6 cm. in diameter, the lower lobe emarginate; capsules about 

1.5 cm. thick; s. 111.; often planted elsewhere. June-July 

C. speciosa Warder 

1 . Leaves abruptly acuminate, with an unpleasant odor; panicles many-flow- 
ered, 20-25 cm. long; corolla 4-5 cm. in diameter, the lower lobe entire or 
nearly so; capsules 5-8 mm. thick; commonly planted; native of s.e. U.S. 
C. bignonioides Walt. 


B. capreolata L. Cross-vine. Alluvial soil, s. III. May. \^Anisostichus capre- 
olata (L.) Bureau] 

4. Campsis Lour. — Trumpet-creeper 

C. radicans (L.) Seem. Open woods throughout III., except the n. counties. 
June-Aug. [Bignonid radicans L.; Tecoma radicans (L.) Juss.] 

141. Martyniaceae Link — Unicorn-plant Family 

1. Martynia L. — Unicorn-plant 

M. louisianica Mill. River banks and waste ground, local. July-Sept. [M. 
proboscidea Glox.] 

142. Acanthaceae J. St. Hil. — Acanthus Family 

I. Plants growing in water or along muddy shores; leaves linear-lanceolate; corolla dis- 
tinctly 2-lipped; fertile stamens 2 \. Dianihera 

1. Plants of drier ground; leaves wider; corolla nearly regular; fertile stamens 4 

2. RuelUa 

1. Dianthera L. — Water-willow 

D. americana L. Common along muddy shores of streams. June-Aug. 

234 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. ruellia l. 
1. Flowers sessile or nearly so. 

2. Stem hirsute; calyx lobes linear-filiform, 0.5-1 mm. wide, exceeding the 
capsule; leaves nearly sessile; roadsides and open woods, common 

throughout 111. June-Aug. Hairy Ruellia R. ciliosa Pursh 

2. Stem glabrous or puberulent; calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, 2-4 mm. wide, 

about equalling the capsule; leaves petioled; alluvial soil throughout the 

state except the n. counties. June-July. Smooth Ruellia ...R. strepens L. 

1. Flowers on slender peduncles bearing a pair of leaf -like bracts at the apex; 

stem puberulent; calyx-lobes subulate-filiform, shorter than the capsule; 

dry open woods, s. 111. June-Aug. Stalked Ruellia ...R. peduticulata Torr. 

143. Phrymaceae Schauer — Lopseed Family 

1. Phryma L. — Lopseed 
P. leptostacbya L. Alluvial soil in woods, common. June-Aug. 

144. Plantaginaceae Lindl. — Plantain Family 

1. Plantago L. — Plantain 

1. Leaves ovate, oval, lanceolate or spatulate, not linear. 

2. Leaves narrowed at the base; veins free to the base. 
3. Spikes cylindrical. 

4. Capsules 4-18-seeded; corolla-lobes spreading or reflexed in fruit; 

leaves ovate or oval; plants perennial. 

5. Capsules ellipsoid, 4-5 mm. long; sepals elliptic, acutish, 2.5-3 mm. 

long; seeds 1.5-2 mm. long; leaves glossy green, the petioles 

usually purplish at base; waste places, roadsides, lawns, fields, 

and open woods, very common. June-Sept. Common Plantain 

P. riigelii Dene. 

5. Capsules ovoid, about 3 mm. long; sepals oval, obtuse, 1.5 mm. 
long; seeds 0.6-0.7 mm. long; leaves dull green; waste places in 
cities, not common; probably adv. from Eur.; known in III. from 
Chicago, Hill, Moffatt, and Peoria, Brendel, McDonald. Broad- 
leaved Plantain P. major L. 

4. Capsules 2-seeded, ellipsoid, 2 mm. long, circumscissile at the middle, 
tipped with the persistent corolla; seeds yellowish brown, concave 
on one side, 1.5 mm. long; sepals pubescent, scarious-margined; 
leaves spatulate or obovate; plants annual or biennial; fields and 

roadsides, not infrequent. May-July P. virginica L. 

3. Spikes ellipsoid; leaves lanceolate; seeds 2, hollowed on the inner sur- 
face; waste places, roadsides, fields, lawns, very common; nat. from 
Eur. May-Sept. Buckhorn Plantain P. lanceolata L. 

2. Leaves, or some of them, cordate at base; veins branching from the mid- 
rib; spikes cylindrical; capsules 2-4-seeded, 4-5 mm. long; along ditches, 
local. May-July. Heart-leaved Plantain P. cordata Lam. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 145. Rubiaceae 235 

1 . Leaves linear. 

6. Capsules 4-seeded; calyx-lobes erect and converging over the top of the 
capsule; stamens 2; fields, roadsides, and open woods, chiefly in the s. 

half of the state. Apr.-May P. pusitla Nutt. 

6. Capsules 2-seeded; calyx-lobes spreading or reflexed in fruit, not closed 
over the top of the capsule. 
7. Bracts much longer than the flowers; fields, roadsides, and open woods, 

common. June-Aug. Bracted Plantain P. aristata Michx. 

7. Bracts not longer than the flowers; sandy soil in fields and along roads, 
n. 111., local. May-Aug P. piirshii R. &: S. 

145. Rubiaceae B. Juss. — Madder Family 

1. Shrubs; leaves opposite or whorled; flowers in dense globose heads 2. Cephalanlhus 

I. Herbs. 

2. Leaves opposite. 

3. Flowers axillary, sessile or nearly so. 

4. Plants pubescent; fruit separating into 2 or 3 indehiscenf carpels 4. Diodia 

4. Plants glabrous; fruit a capsule of 2 carpels, one dehiscent, the other inde- 

hiscenl 5. Spermacoce 

3. Flowers pedicellate, cymose or solitary. 

5. Plants trailing; leaves evergreen, cordate at base; fruit a pair of united red 

drupes 3. Mitchella 

5. Plants erect; leaves not as above; fruit a capsule 1. Homlonia 

2. Leaves apparently in whorls of 4-8 6. Calium 

1. HousTONiA L. — Bluets 

1. Flowers cymose; stems 10-50 cm. tall; plants perennial. 

2. Calyx-lobes much exceeding the capsule, and about twice as long as the 
calyx-tube; stem-leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate; open rocky woods, 
local; chiefly in the centr. and s. parts of III., but also in Will and La 
Salle counties; May-July. [H. purpurea var. calycosa Gray; H. pur- 
purea of III. reports} H. lanceolata (Poir.) Britt. 

2. Calyx-lobes slightly if at all exceeding the capsule, about as long as the 

calyx-tube; stem-leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate; thin soil on wooded 
ridges and slopes, rare; s. 111., northw. to Jackson, Williamson, and 
Saline counties. May-July H. longijolia Gaertn. 

1. Flowers solitary; stems very slender, 1-5 (-10) cm. tall. 

3. Pedicels mostly 2-5 cm. long; flowers with a yellow center; plants peren- 

nial with a filiform rhizome; fields andopen woods, local; known from 

Cook, Kankakee, St. Clair, and Johnson counties. Apr.-June 

H. caerulea L. 

3. Pedicels mostly 0.5-2 cm. long; flowers without a yellow center; plants 
annual; dry ground, rare. Apr.-May. Truro, Knox Co., May 10, 1908, 
V. H. Chase 1632 H. minima Beck 

2. Cephalanthus L. — Buttonbush 

C. occidentalis L. Along streams and lake shores, and in swamps, common 
throughout III. June-Aug. 

236 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

3. MiTCHELLA L. — Partridge-berry 

M. repens L. Woods, local; known from Cook, La Salle, Clark, Jackson, 
Johnson, and Pope counties. May-July. 

4. DiODiA L. 
(Dioddla Small) 
D. teres Walt. Rough Buttonwecd. Fields, roadsides, and open woods, 
chiefly in centr. and s. 111. July-Aug. 

5. Spermacoce L. 

S. glabra Michx. Smooth Buttonweed. Muddy shores, river banks, and wet 
ground in woods in the s. and w. counties. July-Aug. 

6. Galium L. — Bedstraw 
1 . Ovary and fruit uncinate-hispid, or at least puberulent. 
2. Leaves cuspidate, 1 -veined, 6-8 in each whorl. 

3. Leaves narrowly oblanceolate to linear; stems long, weak, reclining, 
retrorsely hispidulous; corolla white; plants annual; woods and 

thickets, very common; nat. from Eur. May-June. Goose-grass 

G. aparine L. 

3. Leaves narrowly oval; corolla greenish white; plants perennial; damp 

woods. June-Aug. Sweet-scented Bedstraw G. trijlorum Michx. 

2. Leaves not cuspidate, 4 in each whorl. 

4. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, or linear, glabrous or nearly so, or the 

margins and midveins scabrous; flowers white, numerous in a ter- 
minal panicle; in sandy or rocky soil along roads or in woods and 
thickets, or occasionally in bogs; n. III. May-July. Northern Bed- 
straw G. boreale L. 

4. Leaves oval, more or less pubescent. 

5. Leaves 1 -veined, or obscurely 3-veined at base, oval; flowers greenish 
purple, pedicelled, paniculate; fruit 3-4 mm. in diameter; woods, 

chiefly in the w. and s. counties. June-Aug G. pilosutn Ait. 

5. Leaves 3-veined, oval-lanceolate; flowers greenish yellow, puberulent, 
sessile or nearly so, in few-flowered cymes; fruit 2-3 mm. in diam- 
eter; woods. May-July. Wild-licorice G. circaezcms Michx. 

L Ovary and fruit glabrous or nearly so; leaves 1 -veined; corolla white. 
6. Leaves cuspidate, 5-7 (usually 6) in each whorl. 

7. Leaves linear, 1-2 mm. wide, the margins sparsely antrorsely short- 
ciliolate or nearly smooth; stems clustered, nearly smooth, 15-30 cm. 
tall; dry woods, common. June-July G. coucinnuni T. &. G. 

7. Leaves narrowly elliptical-oblanceolate, 2.5-4 mm. wide, the margins 

retrorsely scabrellous; stems reclining or trailing, retrorsely scabrous 
on the angles, 0.5-2 m. long; swamps and thickets, n. 111. July-Aug. 

Rough Bedstraw G. asprellum L. 

6. Leaves blunt, linear or linear-spatulate. 

8. Corolla 4-lobed, the lobes acute; leaves mostly in fours; stem erect; 

pedicels smooth; moist ground, common. May-June. [G. tinctorium 
sensu auth., non L.] G. obtusum Bigel. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 146. Caprifoliaceae 237 

8. Corolla 3-Iobed, the lobes obtuse; leaves of the main stem mostly in 
sixes and fives; stems diffuse, slender. 
9. Pedicels smooth, straight, 2-6 mm. long; flowers in twos and threes; 

wet ground, rare; n.e. 111. May-Sept. [G. claytoni Michx.] 

G. tmctorium L. 

9. Pedicels scabrous, usually arcuate, 5-10 mm. long; flowers solitary; 
swamps and bogs, rare. July-Aug G. trifidum L. 

146. Caprifoliaceae Vent. — Honeysuckle Family 

I. Plants trailing; leaves roundish or oval, crenate, evergreen; flowers nodding in pairs; 
fruit ovoid, indehiscent, 1 -seeded 4. Linnaea 

1 . Erect or climbing shrubs, or herbs. 
2. Shrubs with erect or twining stems. 

3. Leaves pinnate; fruit berry-like, 3-5-seeded 1. Sambucus 

3. Leaves simple. 

4. Flowers in compound cymes; fruit a 1 -seeded drupe 2. Viburnum 

4. Inflorescence otherwise. 

5. Leaves not serrate; fruit a berry or drupe. 

6. Flowers regular or nearly so; fruit a berry-like drupe with 2 nutlets 

3. Sympboricarpos 

6. Flowers mostly irregular; fruit a few — many-seeded berry 5. Lonicera 

5. Leaves serrate; flowers yellow; fruit a capsule 6. Diervilla 

2. Herbs; flowers axillary; leaves connate or sessile; fruit a drupe 7. Triosleum 

1. Sambucus L. — Elder 

1. Inflorescence flat-topped, 10-40 cm. broad; fruit black (rarely greenish yel- 
low) ; pith white; moist ground along roads, in woods, or along streams 

and lakes, common throughout 111. June-July. Common Elder .. 

S. canadensis L. 

1. Inflorescence ovoid, 4-5 cm. broad; fruit bright red (rarely yellow); pith 
brown; moist rocky woods, rare; known from Cook and La Salle counties. 
Apr. -May. Red Elder. [S. racemosa of auth., not L.} ...S. pubens Michx. 

2. Viburnum L. — Viburnum 
1. Leaves not lobed. 

2. Leaves serrate or serrulate, the veins curving and anastomosing before 
reaching the margin; petioles flat or channelled and somewhat mar- 
gined; cymes sessile or nearly so. 
3. Winter buds scurfy- punctate, usually somewhat glossy; blades thin, 
acute or acuminate. 
4. Blades abruptly acuminate, sharply serrate; wet ground, chiefly in the 

n. half of the state. May-June. Nannyberry V. lentago L. 

4. Blades acute or obtuse at the apex, serrulate with incurved teeth; 
petioles glabrous or nearly so; moist woods, common. May-June. 

Blackhaw. [F. bushii Ashe} V. prunifolium L. 

3. Winter-buds dull, porous, puberulent; blades firm, obtusish; petioles 
more or less reddish-tomentulose; wooded ravines, s. 111., rare. Foun- 
tain Bluff, Cranwill; Gallatin Co., Mattoon. May. Southern Black- 
haw V. rufdtdum Raf. 

238 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Leaves coarsely dentate, the veins straight, ending in the teeth; petioles 
not margined; cymes peduncled. 

5. Leaves short-petioled, the petioles not more than 1 cm. long; blades 
usually with 7-10 teeth on each side; fruit ellipsoid, the stone flat- 
tened, sulcate on both sides. 
6. Lower surface of leaves softly pubescent over the whole surface; 
woods and river banks, n. 111., not common; known from Lake, 
Cook, Du Page, McHenry, Winnebago, and Jo Daviess counties. 
May-June. [V. villosuyn Raf. not Sw.; V. pubescens of auth., not 

Pursh; V. affine var. hypomalacum Blake] 

V . rafinesquianum Schult. 

6. Lower surface of leaves glabrous, except on the veins or in their axils; 
woods and thickets, locally throughout the n. half of the state 
from Vermilion and Peoria counties northw. May-June. [F. pu- 
bescens var. affine (Bush) Rehd.; V. rajinesquiajium var. affine 
(Bush) House] V. affine Bush 

5. Leaves longer-petioled, the petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; blades usually with 
10-15 teeth on each side; fruit globose-ovoid, the stone deeply sulcate 
ventrally, the back rounded; woods, rare. [F. pubescens var. deamii 
Rehd.; V . pubescens var. indianense Rehd.; V . dentatum var. deamii 
(Rehd.) Fern.] V. dentatum L. 

1. Leaves palmately veined, usually 3-lobed. 

7. Young twigs glabrous; petioles glabrous and with a pair of glands; mar- 
ginal flowers of the cyme neutral, with enlarged flat corollas; fruit red; 
moist woods, chiefly in the n. half of the state. May-June. American 

Cranberry-bush. [V . opulus var. americanuyn (Mill.) Ait.] 

V . trdobum Marsh. 

7. Young twigs pubescent; petioles pubescent, glandless; cyme with all the 
flowers alike and perfect; fruit black; dry woods, chiefly in the n e. 
counties. May-June. Maple-leaved Viburnum V. acerijolium L. 

3. Symphoricarpos Duham. — Snowberry 

1. Corolla 5-9 mm. long; fruit white or greenish white. 

2. Stamens and style included; twigs and leaves glabrous; petioles 2-4 mm. 
long; corolla 5-7 mm. long; style 2 mm. long, glabrous; fruits white, 
the larger ones 12-15 mm. in diameter; native of w. N. Am. and com- 
monly planted for ornament, but scarcely established in 111. Garden 
Snowberry. \_S. racemosus of auth., not Michx.; S. racemosus var. 
laevigatus Fern.] S. rivularis Suksd. 

2. Stamens and style shortly exserted; twigs puberulent; leaves pubescent; 
petioles 4-10 mm. long; corolla 6-9 mm. long; style 4-8 mm. long, 
pilose or glabrous; fruits pale greenish white, 6-8 mm. in diameter; dry 
soil, n. 111., rare, extending southw. to Kankakee and Hancock counties. 

June-July. Wolfberry S. occidentalis Hook. 

1. Corolla 3-4 mm. long; fruit red (rarely whitish), ellipsoid, glaucous, 5-7 
mm. long; stamens and style included; style 2 mm. long; petioles 2-4 mm. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 146. Caprifoliaceae 239 

long; river banks and woodland pastures, common. July. Coralberry. 
Buckbrush. [6". vulgaris Michx.] S. orbiculatus Moencb 

4. LiNNAEA L. — Twinflower 
L. americana Forbes. Winnetka, Cook Co., Vasey. Possibly now extinct in 
III. [L. borealis L. var. americatia (Forbes) Rehd.] 

5. LoNlCERA L. — Honeysuckle 

(Xp/o5(eo;7 Adans.) 

1. Erect shrubs; leaves opposite, not connate-perfoliate; berries red. 

2. Corolla pink or white; leaves ovate-lanceolate, glabrous; berries united at 
base; often planted and sometimes escaped from cult.; native of Asia. 
May-June. Tatarian Honeysuckle L. tatarica L. 

2. Corolla yellowish white; leaves elliptical, ciliate; berries not united; moist 

woods, rare, Cook and Lake counties. Apr. -June. American Fly Honey- 
suckle. [L. ciliata Muhl.J L. canadensis Marsh. 

1. Plants twining or trailing. 

3. Flowers in terminal clusters; upper leaves connate-perfoliate. 
4. Corolla 2-lipped, the upper lip 4-lobed, the lower entire. 

5. Corolla greenish yellow, the tube somewhat gibbous. 

6. Corolla-tube 6-10 mm. long; filaments hirsute at base; leaves green 
above, glaucous beneath; rocky soil, local; known from Lake, 
Cook, La Salle, and Sangamon counties. May-June. Glaucous 

Honeysuckle [L. glauca Hill} L. dioica L. 

6. Corolla-tube 10-14 mm. long; filaments nearly glabrous; leaves 
glaucous on both sides; woods; the common honeysuckle in 111. 
May-June. Sullivant's Honeysuckle [L. parviflora Lam.; L. 

sullivantii Gray} L. prolijera (Kirsch.) Rehd. 

5. Corolla bright yellow or orange, its slender tube not gibbous; rocky 

woods, occasional. Apr.-May. Yellow Honeysuckle 

L. flava Sims 

4. Corolla red, tubular, the short limb nearly equally 5-lobed; cult, and 

sometimes escaped. May-Oct. Trumpet Honeysuckle 

L. sempervirens L. 

3. Flowers in pairs from the upper axils, white or pink, turning yellow, 2.5- 
4 cm. long, fragrant; leaves ovate or oval, not connate-perfoliate; young 
branches villous; escaped from cult, and occasionally spontaneous; in- 

trod. from Asia. May-July. Japanese Honeysuckle 

L. japonica Thunb. 

6. DiERViLLA Mill. — Bush Honeysuckle 

D. lonicera Mill. Rocky woods in n. 111., extending southw. to Kankakee 
and La Salle counties. May-June. 

7. Triosteum L. — Horse-gentian 

1. Principal leaves with broadly dilated connate-perfoliate bases; corolla pur- 
plish or dull red, 12-15 mm. long; sepals finely and evenly pubescent; 

240 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

stem softly short-pubescent, the hairs 0.5 mm. long; woods and thickets. 

May-June _ T. perfoliatur72 L. 

1. Principal leaves narrowed to the sessile bases. 

2. Leaves ovate or oval; sepals finely and evenly pubescent; fruit 8-15 mm. 
in diameter; corolla purplish-red. 
3. Stem glandular-puberulent and hirsute; sandy soil in open woods, centr. 

and n. III. May-June T. aurantiacum Bickn. 

3. Stem rather sparsely hirsute with somewhat reflexed non-glandular 

hairs 1-2 mm. long; rich woods, local. May-June 

T. illinoense (Wieg.) Rydb. 

2. Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate; stem hirsute, not glandular; sepals cili- 
ate, otherwise glabrous; corolla greenish yellow; fruit 6-7 mm. in diam- 
eter; alluvial soil, s. 111., not common. May T. angustifoliuttJ L. 

147. Valerianaceae Batsch — Valerian Family 

1. Perennial, strong-smelling, mostly tall herbs; some of the leaves pinnatifid; calyx- 
lobes becoming pappus-like; fruit l-loculed 1. Valeriana 

I. Annual, dichotomously branched low herbs; leaves not pinnatifid; sepals minute or 
lacking; fruit 3-loculed 2. Valerianella 

1. Valeriana L. — Valerian 

1. Corolla 1-2 cm. long; basal leaves cordate; stem-leaves thin, with 3-7 ovate, 
toothed leaflets; root fibrous; woods and alluvial banks, chiefly in the s. 

part of the state, extending northw. to Vermilion Co. May-June 

V. paiiciflora Michx. 

1. Corolla 4-5 mm. long; basal leaves spatulate; stem-leaves pinnately parted 
into 3-7 lanceolate or linear divisions; root fusiform; wet ground, in Lake, 
McHenry, and Du Page counties. May-June. [V . edulis of auth., not 
Nutt.] V. ctliata T. 8C G. 

2. Valerianella Mill. 

1. Corolla blue, 1.5-2 mm. long; bracts ciliate, obtuse; fruits 2-4 mm. long, 
laterally coinpressed, obliquely rhomboidal, wider than long, the dorsal 
side of the fertile cell with a thick corky mass; waste places and cult, 
ground, occasional; introd. from Eur. Corn-salad. \_V. lociista (L.) 

Betcke] V. olitoria (L.) Poll. 

1. Corolla white or pinkish; bracts acute, usually not ciliate; fruit longer than 
wide; native species. 
2. Fertile carpel of the fruit narrower than the combined width of the diver- 
gent sterile carpels; corolla 3-4 mm. long. 
3. Fruit 3-3.5 mm. long, 3 mm. wide; sterile carpels divergent, the fruit 

becoming saucer-shaped. Ottawa, La Salle Co., Skeels 

V. patcllaria (Sulliv.) Wood 

3. Fruit 2 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide; sterile carpels inflated, curved to- 
gether at the ends, forming a deep cavity; moist ground, not com- 
mon. May-June. Kankakee Co., Hill 

V . nmhilicata (Sulliv.) Wood 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 150. Campanulaceae 241 

2. Fertile carpel of the fruit equalling or exceeding the width of the sterile 

4. Corolla 3-4 mm. long, the tube as long as the limb; blades of the 
rosette-leaves oval, abruptly petioled; moist ground in the n. part of 
the state, not common. May-June. Kankakee Co., Hill in 1873; La 
Salle Co., Greenman, Lansing, & Dixon 134; Joliet, Hill in 1907 
V. intermedia Dval 

4. Corolla 1.5-2 mm. long, the tube shorter than the limb; rosette-leaves 
spatulate; moist ground, chiefly in the s. half of 111., local. May-June. 
Johnson Co., Schneck; Jackson Co., Gleason in 1903; St. Clair Co., 
Eggert; Madison Co., McDonald in 1904 V. radiata (L.) Dufr. 

148. DiPSACACEAE Lindl. — Teasel Family 
1. DiPSACUS L. — Teasel 

D. iylvestris Huds. Roadsides, fields, pastures, and waste places, common; 
nat. from Eur. July-Sept. 

149. CucuRBlTACEAE B. Juss. — Gourd Family 

1. Corolla large, yellow, 6-15 cm. long; stem trailing 1. Cucurbita 

1. Corolla greenish white, small, less than 6 cm. long. 

2. Stem and leaves glabrous; fruit an inflated usually 4-seeded pod dehiscing at the 

apex and burstmg irregularly 2. Echinocvsiis 

2. Stem and leaves more or less pubescent; fruits indehiscent, 1 -seeded, usually 3-10 
together 3. Sicpos 

1. Cucurbita L. 

C. foetidissima HBK. Missouri Gourd. Dry ground, usually along rail- 
roads; adv. from w. of the Mississippi R.; Chicago, Moffatt in 1896; Sanga- 
mon Co. G. D. Fuller in 1941. [Pepo foetidissima (HBK.) Britt.} 

2. EcHiNocYSTis T. &: G. 

E. lobata (Michx.) T. dC G. Wild Balsam- apple. Alluvial soil, and waste 
places, local. July-Sept. {^Micrampelis lobata (Michx.) Greene} 

3. SiCYOS L. 

S. angulatus L. Alluvial soil, and in fields, throughout 111., except the n.w. 
counties. July-Sept. 

150. Campanulaceae Juss. — Bellflower Family 

1. Leaves petioled or tapering at the base; flowers in a terminal inflorescence 

I. Campanula 

I. Leaves sessile, clasping, cordate; flowers axillary, solitary, sessile 2. Specularia 

1. Campanula L. — Bellflower 

1. Flowers in spikes or racemes. 

2. Corolla rotate; style declined; capsule clavate, with apical pores; moist 
woods, common throughout 111. June-Sept. [Campanulastrum ameri- 
canum (L.) Small] C. americana L. 

242 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Corolla campanulate; style straight; capsule globose, opening by basal 

pores; roadsides and waste places, escaped from cult.; introd. from Eur. 

June-Sept C. rapunculoides L. 

1. Flowers in loose panicles, or solitary; corolla campanulate. 

3. Corolla 5-12 mm. long; leaves all linear or narrowly lanceolate; plants 

of wet ground. 
4. Leaves linear; corolla blue, 8-12 mm. long; marshy ground, wet mead- 
ows, and lake shores, not common; n. 111.; Lake Co., Gleason & 

Shobe in 1906. July-Aug C. uliginosa Rydb. 

4. Leaves lanceolate; corolla white, 5-8 mm. long; wet meadows, local, 

chiefly in the n. half of the state. June-July C. aparinoides Pursh 

3. Corolla 12-20 mm. long; basal leaves ovate or cordate; plants of sandy 
or rocky places; n. 111., not common. June-Aug. [C. rotundifolia of 
auth., not L.} C. intercedens Witasek 

2. Specularia Fab. — Venus' Looking-glass 
S. perfoliata (L.) A. DC. Dry sandy soil, common. May-June. 

151. LoBELIACEAE Dum. — Lobelia Family 

1. Lobelia L. — Lobelia 

1. Corolla red (rarely pink or white), 3-4 cm. long; wet ground, not uncom- 
mon. July-Oct. Cardinal-flower L. cardmalis L. 

1. Corolla blue or whitish. 
2. Corolla 1-2.5 cm. long. 

3. Corolla 2-2.5 cm. long; anthers glabrous at the tip; wet ground through- 
out 111. Aug.-Oct L. siphilitica L. 

3. Corolla 1-1.5 cm. long; anthers pubescent at the tip; wet ground, s. 111. 

Aug.-Oct L. puberula Mich.x. 

2. Corolla 6-10 mm. long. 

4. Leaves linear; wet meadows, local. July-Sept L. k<ilmii L. 

4. Leaves oblanceolate to ovate. 

5. Stem densely long-pubescent; capsule wholly inferior, inflated; open 

woods, locally throughout III. June-Oct L. inflata L. 

5. Stem glabrous or nearly so 

6. Sepals distinctly auricled at the base; dry soil, locally throughout 

111. June-Aug L. leptostachys A. DC. 

6. Sepals not auricled; dry sandy soil, common. July-Aug 

L. spicata Lam. 

152. CoMPOSiTAE Adans. — Composite Family 
{CarJuaccac Ncclc; Cichoriaccac Reichenb.; Amhrosiaceae Reichenb.) 

1. Heads composed of ray- and disk-flowers, or of disk-flowers only; juice not 
milky (e.xcept in Ccica'tcr) Series I. Tuhuliflorac, p. 243 

1. Heads composed wholly of perfect flowers with ligulate corollas; herbs usual- 
ly with milky juice; leaves alternate or sometimes all basal 

Series II. Ligidiflorae, p. 246 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 243 

Series I. Tubuliflorae DC. 

1 . Pappus of capillary bustles. 

2. Heads radiate (i.e., the outer flowers of the head with strap-shaped corollas). 

3. Rays yellow (whitish in one species of Solidago). 

4. Bracts in one series, about equal in length (a few short basal ones sometimes 
present) ; pappus single. 

5. Leaves opposite, dissected into linear lobes; bracts bearing 3-7 conspicuous 

glands; pappus of 8-15 scales, each dissected into 5-10 bristles 

38. Dvssodia 

5. Leaves alternate and basal; bracts glandless; pappus of numerous capillary 

bristles 47. Senecio 

4. Bracts in several series, very unequal, overlapping. 

6. Heads numerous, small; pappus single 12. Solidago 

6. Heads few, large, solitary, or corymbose. 

7. Leaves serrate, large; pappus single; stem 1-2 m. tall, usually simple 

19. Inula 

7. Leaves entire or nearly so; pappus double; stem 30-60 cm. tall, branched 

I 1 . Chnsopsis 

3. Rays not yellow. 

8. Bracts in 3-5 series; rays broad, few 14. Asler 

8. Bracts usually in 1 or 2 series; rays usually narrow and numerous 

15. Ertgeron 

2. Heads rayless (or apparently so), the flowers usually all tubular. 
9. Flowers white or whitish, or cream-color. 
10. Leaves pnckly. 

1 1 . Heads 1 -flowered, in capitate clusters 49. Echinops 

1 I. Heads many-flowered, distinct 50. Cirsium 

10. Leaves not prickly. 
12. Bracts scarious. 

13. Leaves mostly basal, spatulate or obovate, the stem-leaves small; plants 
perennial, sloloniferous, dioecious or polygamous 17. Anlenriaria 

13. Leaves all or mostly cauline; plants annual or biennial, not stolon- 

iferous or dioecious; all the flowers fertile, the central ones perfect, 

surrounded by pistillate ones 18. CnaphaliuTn 

12. Bracts not scarious. 

14. Bracts with tips hooke*! ; coarse biennial weeds with large ovale 

leaves; heads globose 48. Arctium 

14. Bracts not hooked. 

15. Principal bracts in only one series (often with a few small bractlels 
at the base of the head). 
16. Pappus scabrous; flowers all perfect; plants perennial, with 
milky sap 45. Cacalia 

16. Pappus smooth; marginal flowers pistillate, the disk-flowers 

perfect; plants annual, with watery sap and strong odor 

46. Erechtiles 

15. Bracts in more than one series. 

17. Leaves all or mostly opposite or whorled (or some of the upper 

ones alternate) 6, Eupaiorium 

17. Leaves alternate. 

18. Bracts striate, imbricated in 3 or more equal series; pappus 
plumose; achenes striate, nearly terete; leaves minutely 

resinous-dotted 8. Kuhnia 

18. Bracts not striate, in 1-3 series; achenes flattened; pappus 
merely scabrous; leaves not resinous-dotted. 
19. Heads racemose; outer bracts foliaceous; pappus copi- 

ious, of soft bristles; achenes terete 

species of 14. Aster 

244 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

19. Heads paniculate; bracts all narrow, not foliaceous; 

pappus-bristles short, brittle; achenes compressed 

species of 15. Erigeron 

9. Flowers pink, purple, blue, or yellow (rarely white). 

20. Stems twining; leaves opposite, triangular-hastate; flowers pink 7. Mil^ama 

20. Stems not twining. 

21. Leaves opposite or whorled, not prickly; flowers purple, blue, or white.... 

6. Eupalorium 

21. Leaves alternate or basal. 
22. Leaves prickly. 

23. Heads 1 -flowered, in capitate clusters 49. Echinops 

23. Heads many-flowered, distinct. 

24. Pappus bristles plumose 50. Cirsium 

24. Pappus bristles not plumose 51. Carduus 

22. Leaves not prickly. 

25. Bracts of the involucre pectinate, or tipped with a rigid spine 

51 . Centaiirea 

25. Bracts neither pectinate nor with a rigid spine. 

26. Bracts with hooked tips; coarse biennial weeds with large ovate 
chiefly basal leaves; heads globose; flowers purple (rarely 

white) ; receptacle bristly 48. Arclium 

26. Bracts not hooked; receptacle not bristly. 

27. Flowers yellow; bracts in 1 series 47. Senecio 

27. Flowers not yellow; bracts imbricated in 2-several series. 
28. Pappus bristles plumose or barbellate; heads in long 

racemes or spikes; leaves narrow, entire, rigid 

9. Lialris 

28. Pappus bristles not plumose. 

29. Pappus (in our species) double, the outer bristles 
short; heads many-flowered, in corymbose cymes; 

bracts imbricated in several series 4. Vernonia 

29. Pappus bristles approximately the same length, not in 
two series. 
30. Heads 2-5-nowered, aggregated into dense clus- 
ters subtended by foliaceous bracts; flowers all 

perfect and alike; bracts 8 5. Elephanlopus 

30. Heads many-flowered, corymbose; flowers of 2 
kinds in the same head; bracts imbricated; 
plants camphor-scented 16. Pluchea 

1. Pappus not of capillary bristles, either of rigid awns, small chaffy scales, or reduced 
to a mere crown, or entirely lacking. 
3L Heads radiate. 

32. Rays yellow. 

33. Pappus of 2-6 awns or bristles. 

34. Leaves all or mostly opposite or whorled; bracts not hooked. 

35. Terrestrial or marsh plants with one kind of leaves; achenes flat or 

angled 33. Bidens 

35. Partly submerged aquatics with the submerged leaves finely dis- 
sected; achenes terete 34. McgaloJonta 

34. Leaves alternate; bracts often gummy, with recurved or hooked ti[)s.-.. 

10. CrinJelia 

33. Pappus none, or of few short teeth or scales. 
36. Leaves all or mostly opposite or whorled. 

37. Achenes thick, not at all, or scarcely flattened. 

38. Leaves thin, deeply angulate-lobed or lyrate-pinnatifid ; rays 

small or none 20. Polymnia 

38. Leaves thick, entire or serrate; rays conspicuous. 

39. Bracts obtuse; ray-flowers pistillate, fertile, papery and per- 
sistent on the achene 23. Heliopsis 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 245 

39. Bracts acute or acuminate; ray-flowers neutral, deciduous.... 

.29. Helianlbus 

37. Achenes flattened. 

40. Rays numerous; bracts thick, in several rows; coarse herbs with 

resinous sap; disk flowers perfect but sterile 21. Silphium 

40. Rays mostly 8; bracts in two series; disk flowers fertile 

32. Coreopsis 

36. Leaves alternate or basal. 

41. Leaves or some of them deeply lobed or divided; stem not winged. 
42. Receptacle conical to columnar. 

43. Achenes flattened, broad-margined or winged 27. Ralibida 

43. Achenes 4-sided, not at all margined or winged 

25. Rudhec}(ia 

42. Receptacle flat or convex ; achenes flattened, 2-winged, notched 

at the apex 2l. Silphium 

41. Leaves serrate or entire. 

44. Stems scapose; leaves all basal, spatulate, entire 36. Aclinea 

44. Stems leafy. 

45. Stems more or less winged by the decurrent bases of the 
leaves (except Helenium tenuifolium). 
46. Rays 3-lobed, 10-18; pappus of 5-8 acuminate or aristate 

scales 37. Helenium 

46. Rays entire or emarginate; pappus of 1-3 subulate awns. 

47. Heads several to many, corymbose; rays 2-8 

30. Actinomeris 

47. Heads solitary or few; rays 8-15 31. Verbesina 

45. Stems not winged. 

48. Receptacle conical; pappus a mere crown, or none; disk 

flowers purple 25. Rudbeclfia 

48. Receptacle flat or convex; pappus of 2 deciduous, trans- 
lucent scales or awns; disk flowers yellow or brownish 
29. Helianihus 

32. Rays not yellow. 

49. Leaves opposite; ray-flowers small, white. 

50. Leaves angulate-lobed, thin, dilated at the base; plants glandular- 
pubescent; corolla-tube of the ray-flowers pubescent 20. Pol^mnia 

50. Leaves serrate. 

51. Leaves ovate, petioled 28. Calinsoga 

51. Leaves lanceolate, sessile 24. Eclipta 

49. Leaves alternate. 

52. Leaves dissected or incised; bracts scarious. 

53. Rays 4-6, short; heads numerous 39. Achillea 

53. Rays 10-30; heads fewer. 

54. Leaves cut into filiform divisions; receptacle chaffy 

40. Anihemis 

54. Leaves incised or coarsely and irregularly toothed 

42. Chrysanthemum 

52. Leaves entire to serrate or dentate. 

55. Receptacle conical or columnar; rays purple, reflexed 

26. Echinacea 

55. Receptacle fiat or convex; rays spreading, white or pink. 

56. Leaves entire, lanceolate; rays many, lilac or white... 13. 5o//onia 
56. Leaves ovate, dentate; rays 5, white, short 22. Parthenium 

31. Heads rayless. 

57. Flowers green or greenish. 

58. Staminate and pistillate flowers in the same head, or flowers all perfect. 
59. Heads few or solitary; receptacle conical; bracts short, oval, obtuse, 
scarious; leaves finely dissected, with pineapple odor when crushed.... 
41. Matricaria 

246 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

59. Heads numerous, in spikes, racemes, or panicles. 

60. Heads in long terminal bracted spikes; receptacle bristly or chaffy; 

leaves opposite, or the upper alternate, entire or serrate 1. /va 

60. Heads in panicles or racemes; receptacle smooth; leaves alternate, 

mostly lobed or incised; plants bitter aromatic 44. Artemisia 

58. Staminate and pistillate flowers in separate dissimilar heads; involucre of 
the pistillate heads woody or spiny. 
61. Pistillate heads 1 -flowered; fruit an achene with 4-8 tubercles or straight 

teeth 2. Ambrosia 

61. Pistillate heads forming an ovoid bur covered with more or less hooked 
prickles 3. Xanthnim 

57. Flowers yellow (or yellowish) or white. 

62. Flowers and bracts bright white; bracts petal-like, scarious-margined ; leaves 

alternate; stem woolly-pubescent; heads corymbose 35. H'^menopappus 

62. Flowers yellow or yellowish; bracts green. 

63. Heads numerous, in flat-topped corymbs; leaves alternate, pinnately 

dissected; plants bitter-aromatic 43. Tanaceiiim 

63. Heads few; leaves opposite. 

64. Pappus none; achenes thick, not flattened; disk-flowers perfect but 

sterile; plants glandular-pubescent 20. Polvmuia 

64. Pappus of 2-4 awns or teeth; achenes flattened; disk-flowers fertile; 
plants not glandular 33. Bidens 

Series II. Liguliflorae DC. 

65. Pappus none; low glaucescent branching annual herbs with alternate clasping entire 

or lobed leaves, and few small long-peduncled heads of yellow flowers 

53. Serinia 

65. Pappus present. 

66. Pappus composed of scales, or of scales and bristles. 

67. Flowers yellow; pappus double, the outer of short thin scales, the inner of 
bristles 55. Krigia 

67. Flowers blue (sometimes white or pink) ; pappus a short crown of numerous 

small chaffy scales 56. Cichorium 

66. Pappus consisting wholly of capillary bristles. 

68. Pappus plumose; leaves entire, grass-like; flowers yellow or purple 

54. Tragopogon 

68. Pappus not plumose. 

69. Heads usually several on each stem; leaves not all basal. 

70. Achenes more or less flattened; leaves usually lobed and often some- 
what soft-prickly. 

71. Achenes narrowed at the apex, or beaked; flowers blue or yellow 
57. Lactuca 

71. Achenes truncate, not teaked ; flowers yellow 58. Sonchus 

70. Achenes cylindric or prismatic. 

72. Flowers whitish or purjilish; heads jjendenl 59. Prcnanthcs 

72. Flowers yellow; heads erect. 

73. Achenes beakless 60. Hicracium 

73. Achenes t'lliform-beaked 62. Pyrrhopappiis 

69. Heads solitary; leaves all basal; flowers yellow. 

74. Achenes not muricate, 10-nerved; leaves (in our species) entire 

61. Agoseris 

74. Achenes muricate near the apex, 4-5-nerved; leaves lobed 

63. Taraxacum 

Jones: hLORA of Illinois, 152. Compositae 247 

Tribe 1. Ambrosieae 
1. IvA L. — Marsh-elder 

1. Heads in bracted spikes; stem hispid; fields and roadsides. Aug.-Oct 

/. altata Willd. 

1. Heads spicate-paniculate; stem puberulent; roadsides and fields. July-Seot. 

Horseweed. [Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Nutt.) Fresen.} 

I. xanthifolia Nutt. 

2. Ambrosia L. — Ragweed 
1. Leaves pinnatifid or bipinnatifid. 

2. Leaves petioled, bipinnatifid; fruit with 5-7 sharp tubercles; plants annual; 
fields and waste places, common. Aug.-Oct. Common Ragweed [A. 
artemisiifolia L.} A. elatior L. 

2. Leaves sessile, pinnatifid; fruit with unarmed or with blunt tubercles; 

plants perennial with a slender rhizome; roadsides and waste places, 
adv. from w. U.S. Western Ragweed. July-Oct. [A. psilostachya sensu 

Gray, non DC.} A. coronopifolia T. dC G. 

L Leaves 3-5-lobed or undivided; plants annual. 

3. Leaves opposite, 3-5-Iobed, or entire; stem stout, 1-4 m. tall; staminate 

heads peduncled; fruit with 5-7 sharp tubercles; fields and waste places, 

common. July-Oct. Giant Ragweed A. trifida L. 

3. Leaves chiefly alternate, lanceolate, hastately toothed at base; stem 30-90 
cm. tall, rough-hirsute; staminate heads sessile, the upper lobe of the 
involucre elongate, hispid; fruit with 4 teeth at the top; fields and waste 
places, chiefly in the s. half of 111., extending northw. to Menard Co. 
A. bidentata Michx. 

3. Xanthium L. — Cocklebur 

1 . Leaves lanceolate, acute at each end, white-canescent beneath, each with a 
3-parted spine at the base; waste ground, introd. from trop. Am. Aug.- 
Oct. Spiny Cocklebur X. spinosum L. 

1. Leaves cordate or ovate, the axils without spines. 

2. Body of the fruit and its prickles glandular and more or less hispidulous; 
waste places, cult, ground, and river banks. Aug.-Oct. [X. italicum of 

auth., not Mor.; X. saccharatum sensu Widder, ex p.} 

X. commune Britt. 

2. Body of fruit and its prickles merely glandular to glandular-puberulent, 
or nearly glabrous; waste places, fields, and along rivers. Aug.-Oct. [X. 
canadense of auth., not Mill.; X. pungens Wallr.; X. glabratum Britt.; 
X. americanum of auth., (?) not Walt.} X. pennsylvaniaim Wallr. 

Tribe 2. Vernonieae 

4. Vernonia Schreb. — Ironweed 

1 . Leaves glabrous beneath or merely puberulent. 

2. Leaves glabrous, linear-lanceolate, punctate beneath; inflorescence dense, 

fastigiate; moist ground, locally throughout 111. July-Aug 

V. fasciculata Michx. 

248 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, puberulent beneath; inflorescence loose, the 

branches spreading; woods, fields, and roadsides throughout 111. July- 

Oct V. altissima Nutt. 

1 . Leaves pubescent beneath. 

3. Bracts appressed, acute or obtuse; roadsides, pastures, and open woods, 

common. July-Sept. [V. illinoensis Gleason} V. missurica Raf. 

3. Bracts with acuminate, squarrose tips; open woods, local; chiefly in the s. 
half of the state. July-Sept V. baUwini Torr. 

5. Elephantopus L. — Elephant's-foot 

E. carolinianiis Willd. Sandy soil in woods, and along roads, s. 111., extend- 
ing northw. to Wabash and St. Clair counties. Aug. -Sept. 

Tribe 3. Eupatorieae 
6. Eupatorium L. 
L Leaves whorled. 

2. Stem green; leaves thin, sparsely puberulent on the veins beneath, not 
rugose; inflorescence convex; heads mostly 5-7-flowered, the corollas 
pinkish; woods throughout 111. July-Aug. Joe-pye Weed. [E. trijoliafum 
L.; E. falcatum Michx.} E. purpureum L. 

2. Stem purplish or speckled with purplish; leaves thickish, rugose, rather 

copiously short-pubescent beneath; inflorescence flattish-topped; heads 
mostly 9-15-flowered, the corollas rose purple; moist ground, more fre- 
quent in the n. half of the state. July-Sept. [E. purpureum sensu auth., 

non L.] E. maculatum L. 

1 . Leaves opposite, or the upper alternate. 

3. Flowers white (rarely purplish); receptacle flat. 

4. Leaves connate-perfoliate, lanceolate, attenuate, crenate-serrate, rugose- 
reticulate, pubescent beneath; wet ground, common. Aug. -Oct. Bone- 
set E. perjoliatum L. 

4. Leaves not connate-perfoliate. 

5. Stem pubescent; leaves lanceolate, 3-nerved, grayish-puberulent. 

6. Leaves conspicuously petioled, sharply serrate; heads 4-6 mm. high, 
7-15-flowered; moist ground, common. Aug. -Oct. Late Boneset 
E. serotinum Michx. 

6. Leaves sessile or nearly so, sparingly toothed above the middle, or 

entire; heads 6-8 mm. high, about 5-flowered; woods near 

streams, and along roads. Aug. -Oct. Tall Thoroughwort 

E. altisshnum L. 

5. Stem glabrous or nearly so; leaves all opposite. 

7. Leaves sessile, lanceolate, pinnately veined, serrate; heads about 5- 

flowered; woods, local. Aug. -Oct. Upland Boneset 

E. sessilifolium L. 

7. Leaves petioled, ovate, triple-nerved, coarsely dentate; heads 10-30- 
flowered; woods, common. July-Sept. White Snakeroot. [E. 

ageratoides L.f.; E. urticaefolium Reich.} E. rugosutn Houtt. 

3. Flowers bluish; receptacle conical; leaves ovate, petiolate, crenate-dentate. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 249 

more or less puberulent; moist ground in the s. half of the state, extend- 
ing northw. to Adams and Champaign counties. July-Oct. Mist Flower 
E. coelestinum L. 

7. MiKANIA Willd. 

M. scandens (L.) Willd. In alluvial soil, occasional. Aug. -Sept. 

8. KuHNiA L. — False Boneset 

K. eupatorioides L. Prairie soil, often along roads, common. Aug. -Oct. 
\K. suaveolens Fresen.} 

9. LiATRis Schreb. — Blazing-star 
(Lacinaria Hill) 

1. Pappus evidently plumose; heads few, racemose, cylindrical, 15-60- flowered, 
1.5-2 cm. high. 
2. Stems and leaves glabrous or nearly so; bracts glabrous on the back, thin, 
appressed, the inner ones mucronate; roadsides, prairie soil, or on hill- 
sides, throughout 111. except the s. counties. Aug.-Sept 

L. cylindracea Michx. 

2. Stems and leaves pubescent; bracts pubescent, lanceolate, acuminate, firm, 

rigid, more or less squarrose; dry soil, s. III., extending northw. to St. 

Clair and Wabash counties [L. hirsuta Rydb.} 

L. squarrosa (L.) Willd. 

1. Pappus barbellate or scabrous; heads numerous in elongate spikes. 

3. Heads ellipsoid, 3-15-flowered. 

4. Rachis of spike crisp-pubescent; bracts ciliate, acute, the tips spreading; 

prairies, rare. July-Aug. [L. pycnostachya of auth., not Michx.] 

L. bebbiana Rydb. 

4. Rachis of spike glabrous; bracts obtusish, appressed; prairies and inter- 

dunal flats, chiefly in the n. part of 111. July-Sept 

L. spicata (L.) Willd. 

3. Heads hemispherical or campanulate, 15-45-flowered; bracts oval or sub- 
orbicular, erose; rachis of inflorescence pubescent; roadsides, prairies, 
and open woods. Sept. -Oct. White-flowered plants occur. [L. scariosa 
of auth., not L.} L. aspera Michx. 

Tribe 4. Astereae 
10. Grindelia Willd. — Gumweed 

G. squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal. Waste ground, fields, and roadsides, occa- 
sional; adv. from w. U.S.; known in 111. from Cook, La Salle, Henry, and 
Fayette counties. July-Aug. 

11. Chrysopsis Nutt. — Golden-aster 
C. yillosa (Pursh) Nutt. Sandy soil, locally in the w. half of the state 
from Lee Co. to St. Clair Co. June-Sept. 

12. Solidago L. — Goldenrod 

(Euihamia Nutt.; Oligoneuron Small) 
1. Heads distinctly pedicellate; ray-flowers usually fewer than the disk-flowers; 
receptacle pitted; leaves not punctate. 

250 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Heads in panicles, racemes, or axillary clusters; bracts of the involucre 
not longitudinally striate. 

3. Heads in small axillary clusters or short racemes. 
4. Stem pubescent; achenes glabrous at maturity. 

5. Rays cream color or nearly white; involucres 3-5 mm. high; wooded 

slopes and ridges, local. Aug.-Oct. White Goldenrod 

S. bicolor L. 

5. Rays orange-yellow; involucres 5-6 mm. high; wooded slopes and 

ridges, rare. La Salle Co S. hispida Muhl. 

4. Stem glabrous; achenes puberulent; leaves sharply serrate. 

6. Stem more or less glaucous, terete; leaves sessile, lanceolate; woods, 

throughout 111., except the w. and n.w. counties. Aug.-Oct. 

Wreath Goldenrod S. caesia L. 

6. Stem angled, not glaucous; leaves ovate, the petioles winged; 
woods, throughout 111. Aug.-Oct. [S. flexicaulis L.] Broad- 
leaved Goldenrod S. latijolia L. 

3. Heads mostly in terminal panicles or racemes. 

7. Branches of the panicle spreading or recurved, the heads distinctly 

8. Stem glabrous or nearly so (rarely sparsely villosulous) . 
9. Branches of the inflorescence pubescent. 
10. Stem terete. 

11. Leaves pinnately veined, oval or elliptical, thin, serrate, 
sparsely hirsute along the veins beneath, the lower with 
margined petioles; racemes few, divergent, slender; rays 
1-6; wooded slopes and ridges, common. Aug.-Oct. 
Elm-leaved Goldenrod S. ulwifolia Muhl. 

11. Leaves (at least the median and lower) more or less 
distinctly 3-ribbed, lanceolate, sessile, sharply serrate, 
glabrous on both sides or sparingly hirsute or hirtellous 
on the veins beneath, the margins scabrous; inflores- 
cence a dense pyramidal panicle; rays 7-15; moist 
ground, common. Aug.-Oct. [S. gigantea Ait.; ^V. gi- 

gantea var. leiophylla Fern.} Late Goldenrod 

_ S. serotina Ait. 

10. Stem sharply angled; leaves oval or lanceolate, thick, gla- 

brous beneath, strongly scabrous above, serrate or entire, 
acute; heads 15-20-flowered, the involucres 3-4.5 mm. 
high; bracts obtuse; wet ground. Aug.-Oct. Spreading 

Goldenrod S. patula Muhl. 

9. Branches of the inflorescence glabrous or merely hirtellous. 

11. Panicles usually longer than broad, the branches erect or 

ascending; heads 4-6 mm. high; rays 2-8; bogs and 
swamps, local; known from Cook, Kane, La Salle. Peoria, 
and Woodford counties. Aug.-Sept. \S. tieglecta T. & G.; 

S. uliginosa of auth., not Nutt.} Swamp Goldenrod 

S. uniligulata (DC) Porter 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 251 

11. Panicles usually as broad as long, pyramidal, the branches 

becoming elongated and recurved; rays 8-13. 

12. Heads about 5 mm. high; plants strongly stoloniferous; 

prairie soil, local; July-Sept. [5'. moritura Steele; S. 

missouriensis of auth., not Nutt.] Prairie Goldenrod 

S. glaberrima Martens 

12. Heads about 3 mm. high; plants not strongly stolonifer- 
ous; roadsides, fields, and open woods. June-Aug. 

Early Goldenrod S. juncea Ait. 

8. Stem hirsute or puberulent (or glabrous toward the base); 
branches of the inflorescence pubescent. 
13. Leaves with 1 principal vein (i.e., not plainly 3-ribbed, the lateral 
veins, if present, weak). 
14. Stem more or less hirsute, or the lower part almost gla- 
brous; leaves lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, sharply 
serrate, sessile or nearly so, more or less rugulose, scaber- 
ulous above, short-hirsute on the veins beneath; moist 
ground, rare. Aug.-Oct. \_S. altissima of auth., not L.} 
Rough-leaved Goldenrod S. rugosa Mill. 

14. Stem grayish puberulent; leaves oblanceolate, crenate- 

dentate or entire, puberulent on both sides, the lower 
long-petioled; fields, roadsides, sand dunes, and open 
woods, common. Aug.-Oct. [S. longipetiolata Mack. 

& Bush] Field Goldenrod S. nemoralis Ait. 

13. Leaves (at least the median and lower) more or less plainly 

3-ribbed, two of the lateral veins becoming prominent (often 

only slightly so in the upper leaves.) 

15. Leaves broadly oval or ovate, sharply serrate, puberulent; 

blufTs, cliffs, or rocky woods, s.w. III.; known from Cal- 
houn, Jersey, and Jackson counties. Sept.-Oct. Drum- 

mond's Goldenrod S. drummondii T. & G. 

15. Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate. 

16. Leaves oblanceolate or elliptical, dentate-crenate, the 
upper smaller, entire; outer bracts oval, obtusish, 
firm; rays 3-7, short; stem 30-100 cm. tall; bluffs and 

dry soil, local. Aug.-Oct. Rough Goldenrod 

S. radula Nutt. 

16. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate or acute, sharply serrate or 
entire; bracts linear-lanceolate, thin; rays 9-15; in- 
volucre 2.5-4 mm. high; stem 1-3 m. tall; moist rich 
soil, chiefly along roads, and in thickets and woods, 
common. Aug.-Oct. \^S. gilvocanescens sensu auth.; S. 

canadensis sensu auth., non L.] Tall Goldenrod 

S. altissima L. 

7. Branches of the panicle ascending or erect; heads not secund; achenes 
glabrous; sandy or gravelly soil, or in dry open woods. Aug.-Oct. 

[5'. rigidiuscula (T. & G.) Porter.} Showy Goldenrod 

S. speciosa Nutt. 

252 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Heads in dense terminal compound corymbiform cymes (Oltgoneuron 
17. Leaves oval or elliptical, scabrous on both sides, crenate; stem pubes- 
cent or puberulent throughout; prairie soil, mostly along roads, 
throughout 111., except the s. counties. Aug. -Sept. Rigid Goldenrod 

S. rigida L. 

17. Leaves lanceolate or linear, glabrous; stem glabrous, or puberulent 
18. Inflorescence pubescent or puberulent; stem leaves entire, recurved, 
somewhat conduplicate, sheathing at the base; moist ground. 

Aug.-Sept. Riddell Goldenrod S. riddellii Frank 

18. Inflorescence, as well as the rest of the plant, glabrous; leaves flat; 

moist ground. Aug.-Sept. Ohio Goldenrod 

- S. ohioensis Riddell 

1. Heads sessile or subsessile, in flat-topped corymbs; ray- flowers more numer- 
ous than the disk-flowers; receptacle fimbriolate; leaves punctate (Eu- 
thamia Nutt.). 
19. Stem, leaves, and peduncles hirtellous; leaves distinctly 3-5-veined; moist 

ground. Aug. -Oct. [S. graminijolia var. nuttallii (Greene) Fern.] 

S. hirtella (Greene) Bush 

19. Stem glabrous; leaves glabrous, 1 -veined or obscurely 3-veined, the mar- 
gins scaberulous. 

20. Heads sessile, 3-7 in each glomerule; moist soil. Aug. -Oct 

S. media (Greene) Bush 

20. Heads nearly all shortly pedicellate, usually solitary; prairie soil, n. 
III., not common. Aug.-Sept S. remota (Greene) Friesner 

13. BoLTONiA L'Her. 

1. Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, 0.5-2 cm. wide, the upper smaller; disk 
5-8 mm. broad; alluvial soil, river banks, or wet ground in woods, locally 
throughout 111. Aug. -Oct B. asteroides (L.) L'Her. 

1. Leaves linear, 1-5 mm. wide, those of the branchlets subulate; disk 3-5 mm. 
broad; dry soil, s. 111., rare; St. Clair Co., Breiidel; Jackson, Marion, and 
Washington counties, Vasey B. diffusa Ell. 

14. Aster L. — Aster 

1. Lower leaves cordate or subcordate, long-petioled, serrate. 

2. Upper leaves cordate-clasping; stem pubescent, divaricately branched 
above; heads numerous; involucres 5 mm. high; bracts pubescent, green- 
tipped; rays 8-15, pale blue or violet, 6-10 mm. long; dry soil, open 

woods and thickets, rare. Sept. -Oct A. undidatus L. 

2. Leaves not clasping. 

3. Involucral bracts and peduncles glancular-pubcrulent; rays 12-16, pale 
purple, 10-14 mm. long; bracts green-tipped; open woods, in the n. 

half of 111. Aug.-Sept. Large-leaved Aster A. macrophyllns L. 

3. Involucres and peduncles not glandular. 

4. Bracts of the involucre puberulent or pubescent. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 253 

5. Rays white, 7-15, narrow, 1 cm. or more in length; heads few, 
large, 1-1.5 cm. high; bracts obtuse, appressed, puberulent, ciH- 
ate; leaves sharply serrate, scabrous on both sides; wooded bluffs, 
rare. Starved Rock, Thone. Aug.-Oct A. furcatus Burgess 

5. Rays usually purple; leaves entire or slightly dentate. 

6. Bracts short-hirsute, recurved, lanceolate, acuminate; rays 30-45; 
bluffs and rocky woods, Peoria and Woodford counties and 

southw. to the Mississippi R. Sept. -Oct 

A. anomalus Engelm. 

6. Bracts erect; rays 10-15; leaves often glabrous or nearly so above, 
finely and sparingly pubescent beneath; banks and dry open 
woods, local. Aug.-Oct A. shortii Lindl. 

4. Bracts glabrous or nearly so; rays 8-15, usually blue, 6-8 mm. long. 
7. Leaves firm, all entire or nearly so; involucres 6-7 mm. high, tur- 
binate, the bracts linear- spatulate, imbricate in several series, 
with green, abruptly acute tips; sandy soil, and in open woods, 
local. Sept.-Oct A. azureus Lindl. 

7. Leaves thin, nearly all sharply serrate. 

8. Involucres 4-6 mm. high, the bracts obtuse or obtusish, ap- 
pressed; stem glabrous or nearly so; dry woods, not infrequent 
throughout 111. Aug.-Oct A. cordif alius L. 

8. Involucres 6-10 mm. high, the bracts acute or acuminate. 

9. Stem densely and finely pubescent; tips of the bracts ap- 
pressed; dry open woods, local; apparently absent from the 

s. counties. Sept.-Oct. \_A. hirtellus Lindl.] 

A. drummondii Lindl. 

9. Stem glabrous or nearly so; tips of the bracts spreading; dry 

woods, common and variable. Aug.-Oct 

A. sagittifolius Wedem. 

1 . Lower leaves neither cordate at the base nor long-petioled. 

10. Stem-leaves clasping or auricled at the base. 
11. Stem pubescent throughout. 
12. Leaves essentially entire. 

13. Heads large; leaves strongly clasping. 

14. Stem hirsute; involucre 8-10 mm. high, the bracts loose, 
spreading; roadsides and moist ground, common. Aug.- 
Oct. New England Aster A. novae-angliae L. 

14. Stem hispidulous; involucres 6-7 mm. high, the bracts 
appressed, pubescent on the back; open woods, local; 

chiefly in the s. part of the state. Aug.-Oct 

A. patens Ait. 

13. Heads small; involucre 6 mm. high; stem hirsute; wooded 

bluffs, local. Aug. -Sept A. oblongijolius Nutt. 

12. Leaves, at least the lower, sharply toothed; bracts glabrous; in- 
volucre 8-10 mm. high; moist ground; local. Aug.-Oct 

A. puniceus L. 

254 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1 1 . Stem glabrous, or the upper part pubescent in lines. 
15. Stem-leaves toothed; rays purple (rarely white). 

16. Leaves oblanceolate, acuminate, sharply serrate, abruptly con- 
tracted into winged entire auriculate-clasping petioles; 
moist ground, often along streams or ditches, Fulton, 

Peoria, and Henry counties. Sept. -Oct 

_../4. prenanthoides Muhl. 

16. Leaves lanceolate, toothed, sessile, those of the branches 
smaller and entire; moist ground, n.e. 111., extending s.w. to 

Menard Co. Aug. -Oct A. lucidulus (Gray) Wieg. 

15. Leaves entire or nearly so, lanceolate or oblanceolate, glabrous 
and glaucous, the margins scabrous; sandy soil in woods, usual- 
ly near streams. Aug. -Oct. Smooth Aster A. laevis L. 

10. Leaves not clasping. 

17. Rays present, conspicuous; plants perennial. 

18. Leaves densely appressed silvery-silky on both sides; rays violet; 

sandy soil, often in open woods, local. Sept.-Oct 

_ A. sericeiis Vent. 

18. Leaves not silvery-silky. 

19. Heads not in flat-topped corymbs. 

20. Involucre conspicuously turbinate, 10-12 mm. high, the 
bracts linear-spatulate, obtuse, appressed, rounded on 
the back, imbricated in 5 or 6 series, their tips green 
only at the apex; rays violet-blue; prairie soil, local; 
chiefly in the s. part of the state, but extending northw. 

to Christian and Fulton counties. Sept.-Oct 

A. turbiriellus Lindl. 

20. Involucre hemispherical to campanulate; bracts not round- 
ed on the back. 
21. Involucres 3-7 mm. high. 

22. Bracts (at least the outer) bristly-ciliate, the tips 
recurved; heads small, densely clustered. 
23. Rays white. 

24. Stem with spreading or slightly reflexed 
hairs; bracts (at least the outer) hispidu- 
lous on the back; dry ground, prairie soil, 
often along roads, common. Sept.-Oct. 
[/I. multiflorus of auth., ex p. not Ait. 
A. ericoides var. prostrates (Ktze) 

Blake] A. exiguus (Fern.) Rydb. 

24. Stem with appressed or ascending short 
hairs, or the lower part glabrous; bracts 
smooth or nearly so on the back; in habi- 
tats similar to the preceding, but less 
common; chiefly in the n. half of 111. 
July-Oct. [A. 7ntdtiflorus Ait.; A. stricti- 
caulis Rydb.] A. ericoides L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 255 

23. Rays light blue (or pink), about 5 mm. long; 
stem pubescent; leaves linear, entire, 2-5 mm. 
wide, hirsutulous, cuspidate; heads numer- 
ous; involucres 4-5 mm. high; moist ground, 
rare. Sept. Chicago, Benke; Peoria, McDon- 
ald, Brendel. [A. ericoides X novae-angliae] 
X ^- arnethystinus Nutt. 

22. Bracts glabrous (or finely ciliolate), appressed; 
heads larger. 
25. Heads solitary at the ends of short leafy 
branchlets arranged along the upper side of 
wand-like branches. 
26. Outer bracts and uppermost leaves mucron- 
ate; leaves of the flowering branchlets ap- 
pressed or ascending; rays white; road- 
sides, fields, and open woods, common 
throughout HI. Aug. -Oct. [A. ericoides 
of auth., not L.; A. ericoides var. platy- 
phyllus T. &: G.; A. ericoides var. villosus 
T. & G.; A. pdosus var. platyphyllns (T. 

& G.) Blake; A. glabellus Nees} 

A. pilosus Willd. 

26. Bracts obtusish, the tips soft and thin; leaves 

of the flowering branchlets spreading; rays 
pale purple or white; moist sandy soil, 

rare. Aug. -Sept. Bushy Aster 

A. dumosiis L. 

25. Heads paniculate or racemose. 

27. Heads large, 15-25 mm. in diameter; rays 

6-12 mm. long. 
28. Leaves narrowly linear, entire, scabrous- 
margined; rays white; wet ground and 
in bogs, rare. Aug.-Sept. Lake Co., 
Hill; Peoria, Brejidel [/I. junceus 

sensu auth., non Ait.] 

A. junciformis Rydb. 

28. Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate. 
29. Rays usually bluish purple; leaves 
firm, thickish, rough; bracts acute; 
moist soil, local. Sept. -Oct. [_A. 

praealtus Poir., nom. illegit.] 

A. salicifolitis Lam. 

29. Rays usually white; leaves thin, 
smooth (except the margins) ; 
bracts acuminate; moist ground, 
especially along roads, local. Sept.- 
Oct A. paniculatus Lam. 

256 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

27. Heads smaller, 7-14 mm. in diameter; rays 
2-6 mm. long, lavender or white. 
30. Heads in a narrow or open panicle. 

3 1 . Leaves finely pubescent beneath, pu- 
berulent above, oblanceolate, or 
lanceolate, frequently serrate; road- 
sides, fields, river banks, common 
throughout 111. Sept. -Oct. [A. 
missouriensis of Britt., not A. niis- 

surtenus (Nutt.) Ktze} 

A. pantotrichus Blake 

3 1 . Leaves glabrous beneath, more or 

less scabrous above, entire or spar- 
ingly serrate; moist woods, local. 
Sept. -Oct. [A. tradescanti ex p. of 
auth.j A. interior Wieg. 

30. Heads unilaterally racemose. 

32. Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate, 

serrate; involucres 4-5 mm. high; 
rays 10-12, white or bluish; woods, 

common. Sept. -Oct 

A. latertflorus (L.) Britt. 

32. Leaves linear, denticulate or entire; 
involucres 3-4 mm. high; rays 15- 
25, white; fields, woods, and road- 
sides, local. Sept. -Oct 

A. vimineus Lam. 

21. Involucres 8-10 mm. high; bracts linear-lanceolate, 
keeled, appressed, imbricate in 4-5 series; rays 10-15, 
violet or rarely white, 8-10 mm. long; leaves numer- 
ous, linear, entire, sessile, 1 -nerved, rigid, usually 
ciliolate; sandy soil in woods in the n. half of the 
state. Sept.-Oct. [lonactis linariijolius (L.) Greene] 
A. linariijoliits L. 

19. Heads in flat-topped corymbs; rays white or whitish; involu- 
cres 4-5 mm. high. 

33. Leaves rigid, Hnear-lanceolate, acute; rays about 8 mm. 
long; achencs glabrous; pappus simple; sandy soil, Lake, 
Mchlenry, Du Page, Cook, and Kankakee counties; also 
Menard Co., Hall. Aug. -Sept. [A. ptarmkoides var. lii- 
tcscens (Lindl.) Gray; Unamia lutacens (Lindl.) 
Rydb.] A. ptarmicotdci (Nees) T. & G. 

33. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, not rigid; rays 4-6 mm. long; 
achenes slightly pubescent; pappus double; moist ground 
in the n. half of the state, local. Aug. -Oct. [Docllingeria 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 257 

umbellata (Mill.) Nees] Flat-top Aster 

A. umbellatus Mill. 

17. Rays none; plants annual; heads campanulate, 8-12 mm. broad; 
involucre 4-6 mm. high; pappus copious, soft; achenes appressed- 
pubescent; leaves linear, entire, sessile, ciliolate, acutish; roadsides 
and waste ground, local; adv. from the West. Cook Co., Moffatt, 
Hill, Agnes Chase. July-Sept. \_A. angustus sensu auth., non Nees; 
Brachyactis angustus (Lindl.) Britt.j A. brachyactis Blake 

15. Erigeron L. — Fleabane 

(Lepiilon Raf.) 

1. Rays conspicuous, longer than the pappus. 

2. Leaves clasping; rays lilac or purple; plants perennial. 

3. Stem simple; rays 50-75; involucre glandular-puberulent; open woods, 
common. April-June E. pulchellus Michx. 

3. Stem branched above; rays 150-200; involucre hirsute, not glandular; 

open woods, roadsides, and fields, common. May-June 

E. philadelphicus L. 

2. Leaves not at all clasping; rays white or pink-tinged; plants annual or 

4. Stem-leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, finely pubescent, usually 

entire; involucre hirsutulous; basal leaves spatulate; roadsides, fields, 
or dry open woods, chiefly in the n. half of the state. May-July. \E. 

ramosus sensu (Walt.) BSP., non Raf.} Daisy Fleabane 

E. strigosus Muhl. 

4. Stem-leaves lanceolate, ciliate, sparsely hirsute or glabrous, irregularly 
sharply toothed, or the upper ones entire; involucre glabrous or with 
a few hairs; basal leaves ovate, coarsely dentate, long-petioled, usually 
absent at flowering time; fields, roadsides, waste places, and open 

woods, common throughout 111. June-Oct. Whitetop 

E. annuus (L.) Pers. 

1. Rays inconspicuous, scarcely, if at all, exceeding the pappus. 

5. Rays purplish; involucre about 2 mm. high; stem diffusely or divaricately 

branched; leaves all linear, entire; dry soil, local. June-Sept 

E. divaricatus Michx. 

5. Rays white; involucre 3-4 mm. high; stem strict; lower leaves spatulate. 
toothed; common weed in cult, ground and along roads. Aug. -Oct. 
Horseweed E. canadensis L. 

Tribe 5. Gnaphalieae 

16. Pluchea Cass. — Marsh Fleabane 

P. camphorata (L.) DC. Swamps and sloughs, not common; s. III. July- 
Oct. [P. petiolata Cass.; P. viscida (Raf.) House.} 

258 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

17. Antennaria Gaertn. — Everlasting 

1. Rosette leaves comparatively small, usually less than 3 cm. long, 1 -ribbed, 
or indistinctly 3-ribbed. 

2. Rosette leaves obovate, abruptly contracted below the middle into a petiole- 
like base; roadsides and open woods. May-June ....A. neodtoica Greene 

2. Rosette leaves cuneate-spatulate, gradually tapering to the sessile base; dry 

soil on open wooded slopes. Apr.-May A. neglecta Greene 

1. Rosette leaves larger, distmctly 3-ribbed, 3-12 cm. long. 

3. Upper surface of leaves dark green and glabrous or nearly so from the 

beginning; dry soil in open woods and on bluffs. Apr.-May 

A. parl'mi'i Fern. 

3. Upper surface of leaves tomentose, tardily glabrate in age. 

4. Heads small, the involucres of the pistillate plants 5-7 mm. high; 

wooded slopes, common. Apr.-May A. plantaginijolia Hook. 

4. Heads larger, the involucres of the pistillate plants 8-10 mm. high. 

5. Rosette leaves rhombic-obovate, widest at or below the middle, usual- 
ly acutish at the apex; pastures and open woods, common. Apr.- 
May A. fallax Greene 

5. Rosette leaves spatulate or obovate, widest above the middle, rounded 

at the apex. Cook Co. [A. occidentalis of auth., not Greene} 

A. munda Fern. 

18. Gnaphalium L. — Cudweed 

1. Heads in cymose or paniculate clusters; pappus-bristles not united. 
2. Stems 30-90 cm. tall, simple below; bracts white; achenes smooth. 

3. Leaves not decurrent; plants not glandular; outer bracts obtuse; fields, 
roadsides, and open woods, common. Aug. -Oct. Sometimes mistaken 
for Anaphalis margaritacca (L.) B. & H., which is not known to 

occur in 111. [G. polyccphaluni Michx.} G. obttisifolium L. 

3. Leaves decurrent; stem glandular-pubescent; bracts acute; sandy soil in 

woods and fields, rare. July-Sept G. macounii Greene 

2. Stems 5-25 cm. tall, diffusely branched near the base; bracts brownish; 

achenes scabrous; dried mud, and along ditches, local. June-Aug 

G. iiliginosuni L. 

1. Heads in a narrow spike-like panicle; pappus-bristles united at base, falling 
away in a ring; leaves glabrate above; fields and open woods, local. May- 
July G. piirpureum L. 

Tribe 6. Iniileae 

19. Inula L. — Elecampane 

7. helcnmm L. Roadsides, fields, and open woods, occasional; introd. from 
Eur. July-Aug. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 259 

Tribe 7. Heliantheae 
20. PoLYMNiA L. — Leafcup 

I.Rays white, inconspicuous, 2-5 mm. long; leaves pinnately lobed; achenes 
3-5 mm. long, angular; woods, common. June-Nov P. canadensis L. 

I.Rays yellow, 1.5-2 cm. long; leaves palmately lobed; achenes 6-8 mm. long, 
black, flattened; woods and thickets, s. 111. July-Sept P. uvedalia L. 

21. SiLPHIUM L. 
1. Stem 1-3 m. tall, leafless or nearly so; leaves large, cordate, dentate, long- 

petioled; prairie soil, common. July-Sept. Prairie-dock 

S. terebinthinaceum Jacq. 

1. Stem leafy throughout. 

2. Leaves pinnately parted, large, alternate; prairie soil, common. July-Aug. 

Compass-plant S. laciniatum L. 

2. Leaves toothed or entire, chiefly opposite. 

3. Leaves merely sessile, 7-10 cm. long; stem nearly terete; prairie soil, often 
along railroads, common. July-Aug. [^. integrijolium var. deamii 
Perry]. Occasional plants with some of the leaves whorled have been 
mistaken for S. trifoliatum L., which is not known to occur in III. 

Rosin-weed S. integrifoliion Michx. 

3. Leaves connate-clasping, perfoliate, 20-60 cm. long; stem sharply 4- 

angled; alluvial soil, common. July-Aug. Cup-plant 

S. perfoliatum L. 

22. Parthenium L. 

P. integrijolium L. American Feverfew. Prairie soil, common. July-Sept. 

23. Heliopsis Pers. 

H. helianthoides (L.) Sweet. Open woods, and along roads, common. 
July-Aug. [H. scabra Dunal] 

24. Eclipta L. 
E. alba (L.) Hassk. Shores, sloughs, and fields, throughout III., except the 
n. counties. July-Sept. 

25. RuDBECKiA L. — Coneflower 

1. Peduncles glabrous; disk greenish yellow; rays 2.5-5 cm. long, soon droop- 
ing; lower leaves pinnately parted, the upper 3-lobed or entire; stem 1.5- 

3 cm. tall, glabrous; alluvial soil, common. July-Sept. Goldenglow 

R. laciniata L. 

1. Peduncles more or less pubescent; disk brown or purple; stem 30-150 cm. 


2. Chaff of the receptacle acuminate, glabrous; lower leaves, or some of 

them, 3-lobed or 3-parted, the upper lanceolate, entire or serrate; rays 

8-12, orange-yellow, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; woods, locally throughout III. 

Aug.-Oct. Brown-eyed Susan R. triloba L. 

2. Chaff obtuse or acutish, puberulent toward the tip. 

260 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

3. Stem (at least the upper part) tomentulose or puberulent; leaves thick, 
tomentulose beneath, the lower ones, or some of them, deeply 3-lobecl 
or 3-parted; rays 15-20, 2-3 cm. long; prairie soil, or in open woods, 

local. Aug. -Sept. Fragrant Coneflower R. subtomentosa Pursh 

3. Stem strigose or hirsute; leaves merely toothed, or entire. 

4. Leaves irregularly coarsely dentate, or serrate; stem hirsute; rays 2-4 
cm. long; plants perennial; moist ground, rare. Wabash Co., H. 

Shearer R. sulltvantii Boynton & Beadle 

4. Leaves denticulate or entire. 

5. Stem sparsely strigose; rays orange-yellow, 1-L5 cm. long; stigmas 
obtuse; pappus a minute crown; plants perennial; dry open 
woods, s. 111., rare. Herod, Pope Co., July 29, 1898, G. P. 

Clinton. Orange Coneflower R. fulgida Ait. 

5. Stem hirsute; rays bright yellow, 2-3.5 cm. lor.g; stigmas subulate; 
pappus none; plants annual or biennial; fields, roadsides, and 

open woods, common. June-Aug. Black-eyed Susan 

R. hirta L. 

26. Echinacea Moench 

{Brauneria Necker) 
1. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, serrate or dentate, or the uppermost entire; stem 

usually branched above; woods and thickets, not common. July-Aug. 

Purple Coneflower E. purpurea (L.) Moench 

1. Leaves oblanceolate or narrowly elliptical, entire; stem simple; prairie soil, 

local. June-July. Pale Coneflower E. pallida (Nutt.) Britt. 

27. Ratibida Raf. 

(Lepachps Raf.) 

1. Rays spatulate-elliptical, 2.5-5 cm. long; disk subglobose to short-ellipsoid, 
shorter than the rays, becoming 1-2 cm. long and 1-1.5 cm. thick in fruit; 
stigmas subulate; roadsides and prairie soil, common throughout III. July- 
Aug. Drooping Coneflower R. pinnata (Vent.) Barnh. 

I.Rays oval, 1.5-2 cm. long; disk cylindrical, equalling or e.xceeding the rays, 
becoming 2.5-4 cm. long and 7-10 mm. thick in fruit; stigmas short, ob- 
tuse; along railroads, occasional; adv. from w. U.S.; Cook Co., W. D. 
Barnes in 1898; Taylorville, Andrcn's in 1898; Peoria, McDonald in 1904 
R. columnijera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standi. 

28. Galinsoga Ruiz &: Pavon 

G. ciliata (Raf.) Blake. Peruvian Daisy. Waste places, cult, ground, road- 
sides; nat. from trop. Am. First collected in III. at Chicago by Moffatt in 
1891, now common throughout 111. June-Sept. [G. parviflora var. hispida 

29. Hhlianthus L. — Sunflower 
1. Plants perennial. 

2. Stem scape-like; leaves mostly near the base of the stem, oval, long- 
petioled, the upper ones bract-like; sandy soil in the n. part of the state. 
July-Sept. [H. illinocnsis Gleason] H. occidentalia Riddell 

JoNcS: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 261 

2. Stem usually leafy to the inflorescence. 

3. Heads small, 1.5-3 cm. broad, the rays about 1 cm. long, the disk 5-8 
mm. broad; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, petiolate, more or 
less scabrous on both surfaces; stem glabrous or nearly so; sandy soil 

in open woods, local, s. 111. Aug.-Oct H. microcephalus T. & G. 

3. Heads large, 4-8 cm. in diameter, the rays 2-4 cm. long. 

4. Bracts oval, acutish or obtuse, usually glabrous on the back, closely 
and evenly ciliolate, shorter than the disk, erect, closely appressed; 
disk usually purple-brown; leaves lanceolate, thick, scabrous, nar- 
rowed at the base; sandy or prairie soil, locally abundant. July- 
Sept. [W. scaberrimus Ell.; H. subrhotnboideus Rydb.} Prairie 

Sunflower H. rtgidiis (Cass.) Desf. 

4. Bracts lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acuminate; disk-flowers yellow. 
5. Leaves sessile or subsessile. 

6. Stem hirsute or hispidulous; leaves ascending. 

7. Stem villous-hirsute; leaves finely and densely grayish pubes- 
cent on both surfaces, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3- 
veined above the slightly clasping base, all opposite; bracts 
copiously pubescent; heads solitary or few; rays 2-3 cm. 

long; prairie soil, locally abundant. Aug. -Sept 

H. mollis Lam. 

7. Stem more or less hispidulous or scabrous; leaves lanceolate or 

ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; heads several, panicled. 

8. Leaves lanceolate, hirsutulous beneath, faintly 3-veined from 

the cuneate, somewhat ciliate base; rays 1-2 cm. long, pale 

yellow; moist ground, local. Peoria, Brendel; Woodford 

Co., McDonald H. giganteus L. 

8. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, finely and rather copiously grayish 
short-pubescent beneath, the lateral veins confluent some- 
what below the middle; rays 2.5-4 cm. long, bright yel- 
low; roadsides and fields, not common. Sangamon Co., E. 

Hall in 1860; Kankakee Co., G. N. Jones 

H. doronicoides Lam. 

6. Stem glabrous or nearly so, glaucous, slender; leaves divaricate, 
lanceolate, acuminate, 3-veined from the rounded base, sca- 
brous on both sides; roadsides and open woods, local. July- 
Sept W- divaricatus L. 

5. Leaves manifestly petioled. 

9. Stem smooth or nearly so, glaucous. 

10. Leaves triple-veined from near the base, chiefly opposite, at 
least below the inflorescence, abruptly contracted into mar- 
gined petioles. 
11. Leaves lanceolate, shallowly serrate to entire, firm, the 
lower surface hirsutulous or glaucous; roadsides and 
open woods, common. July-Sept. [H. arenicola E. E. 
Wats.; H. jormosus E. E. Wats.; H. leontnus E. E. 
Wats.} H. strumosus L. 

262 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1 1 . Leaves ovate-lanceolate, thin, conspicuously coarsely reg- 
ularly serrate-dentate, the lower surface glabrous, sca- 
brous, or puberulent; dry woods, local. July-Oct 

H. decapetalus L. 

10. Leaves 1 -veined or inconspicuously 3 -veined, the upper alter- 
nate, remotely denticulate or nearly entire, the lower ones 
opposite, coarsely serrate, all elongate-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, scabrous above, finely shortly whitish pubescent 
beneath; peduncles strigose; stem 2-4 m. tall; prairie soil, 
roadsides, borders of fields, common. Aug. -Oct. [H. m- 

stahilis E. E. Wats.] H. grosseserratus Martens 

9. Stem scabrous or hispidulous; leaves triple-veined from near the 
base, chiefly opposite below the inflorescence. 
12. Lower surface of leaves hispidulous or short-hirsute; stem 

hirsute; roadsides and fields, local. Aug. -Sept 

H. hirsutiis Raf. 

12. Lower surface of leaves rather copiously canescent-puberu- 
lent; stem hirsutulous or antrorsely scabrous-strigilose; 
rhizome short, often tuberous-thickened at apex; alluvial 
soil, common. July-Oct. [H. subcanescens (Gray) E. E. 
Wats.; H. mollissimus E. E. Wats.} Jerusalem Artichoke 

H. tuberosus L. 

1. Plants annual; leaves chiefly alternate; disk usually brownish purple; stem 
hispid or strigose. 

13. Leaves lanceolate, usually entire; stem 30-90 cm. tall; disk 1.5 cm. broad; 
bracts lanceolate, densely scabrous; sandy soil, roadsides, waste places, 

occasional; probably adv. from w. U.S. Aug. -Sept 

H. petiolaris Nutt. 

13. Leaves ovate, dentate; stem 1-4 m. ta'l; disk 2.5-4 cm. broad; bracts 
ovate-lanceolate, ciliate and hispid; fields and roadsides, and often 
cult.; native w. of the Mississippi R. Aug. -Sept. Garden Sunflower .... 
H. annnus L. 

30. Actinomeris Nutt. 

A. alternijolia (L.) DC. Yellow Ironweed. Alluvial soil and along roads, 
common. July-Sept. \^Verbesina alternijolia (L.) Britt.} 

31. Verbesina L. 

V. helianthoidei Michx. Open woods and along roads, throughout 111., 
except the n. counties. June-July. 

32. Coreopsis L. 

1. Leaves simple, entire or palmately cleft or divided; achenes wing-margined; 
plants perennial. 
2. Leaves entire, or rarely with 1 or 2 lateral lobes. 

3. Leaves mostly near the base of the stem; heads long-peduncled. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 263 

4. Plants glabrous, except the ciliate bases of the leaves; sandy soil. 

June-July C. lanceolata L. 

4. Plants pubescent; limestone ridges, Lockport, Hill in 1899; known 

also from Cook, Peoria, and Cass counties. [C. lanceolata var. 

villosa Michx.] C. crassifolia Ait. 

3. Stem leafy; plants pubescent; roadsides, fields, and woods, s. III. Pope 
Co., Clinton in 1898; St. Clair Co., Brendel in 1850; Jackson Co., 
Brendel, Gleason C. pubescens L. 

2. Leaves palmately cleft or divided, or the uppermost entire. 

5. Leaves petioled, 3 -divided into elliptic-lanceolate segments; heads many; 
stem 1-3 m. tall; rays entire; pappus none; open woods and along 
roads. Aug.-Sept. Tall Tickseed C. tripteris L. 

5. Leaves sessile, rigid, 3-cleft at or below the middle, the lobes linear- 
oblong; heads few or solitary; stem 30-90 cm. tall; rays mostly 3- 
toothed; pappus of 2 short teeth, or none; roadsides and open woods. 
June-July C. palmata Nutt. 

1. Leaves or most of them 1-2-pinnately parted. 

6. Heads 4-6 cm. broad; rays 1.5-2 cm. long, yellow throughout; disk yellow; 
achenes broadly winged; pappus of 2 short scales; plants perennial; 
roadsides and waste places, occasional; adv. from w.-centr. U.S. June- 
Aug C. grandi flora Hogg 

6. Heads 1.5-3 cm. broad; rays 8-12 mm. long, crimson-brown at base or 
throughout; disk brownish purple; achenes linear, wingless; pappus a 
mere border, or absent; plants annual; roadsides and waste places, 

escaped from cult.; native westw. and southw. June-Aug 

C. tinctoria Nutt. 

33. BiDENS L. — Beggar-ticks 

1. Rays inconspicuous or none. 

2. Leaves pinnately parted or dissected. 

3. Achenes linear-fusiform, with 3 or 4 short, retrorsely barbed awns; rays 
yellowish white; roadsides and open woods, chiefly in the s. half of 
111., but extending northw. to Champaign and Hancock counties. 

Aug.-Sept. Spanish Needles B. bipinnata L. 

3. Achenes flat, 2-awned. 

4. Outer bracts 10-16; achenes brown; involucres 10-20 mm. high; road- 
sides, fields, and woods, chiefly in the n. half of the state. Aug.- 

Oct B. viilgata Greene 

4. Outer bracts 4-8; achenes black. 

5. Involucres 5-7 mm. high; awns of the achenes upwardly barbed; 

wet ground, rare. Aug.-Oct B. discoidea (T. & G.) Britt. 

5. Involucres 10-15 mm. high; awns downwardly barbed; roadsides, 
fields, and open woods. Aug.-Oct B. frondosa L. 

2. Leaves simple, lanceolate, toothed or lobed, sessile or petioled; awns of 
the pappus 3 or 4. 

264 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

6. Outer bracts 4 or 5, rarely much exceeding the disk; achenes angled 4- 
6 mm. long; corollas 5-toothed; stamens exserted; wet ground 
throughout 111. Sept. -Oct B. connata Muhl. 

6. Outer bracts 6-8, foliaceous, exceeding the disk; achenes flat, 7-9 mm. 
long; corollas 4-toothed; stamens included; wet ground throughout 
111. Sept.-Oct B. comosa (Gray) Wieg. 

I.Rays present, conspicuous. 

7. Leaves simple, oblanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, con- 
nate at the base; heads nodding in fruit; achenes cuneate, 4-angled, the 
4 awns retrorsely barbed; wet ground, chiefly in the n. half of the 
state. July-Oct. [B. gracilenta Greene; B. glaucescens Greene; B. lepto- 
poda Greene; B. prionophylla Greene; B. filarnentosa Rydb.; B. elliptica 

(Wieg.) Gleason] B. cerniia L. 

7. Leaves pinnately parted or dissected; achenes flat. 

8. Outer bracts 8-10, ciliolate or glabrous, not exceeding the inner; (awns 
sometimes only 0.5 mm. long). 
9. Achenes obovate; moist ground along roads, or in swales and fields 

throughout 111., except the n.w. counties. Aug. -Oct 

B. aristosa (Michx.) Britt. 

9. Achenes cuneate; moist ground throughout 111. July-Oct. [5. tricho- 
sperma (Michx.) Britt.} Plants with narrow leaf-segments have 

been named B. coronata var. tenuiloba (Gray) Sherff 

B. coronata (L.) Britt. 

8. Outer bracts 12-20, coarsely hispidulous, mostly longer than the inner; 
swampy ground, not common; known from Cook, Kankakee, La 
Salle, Henry, and Henderson counties. July-Sept. [5. involucrata 
sensu Britt., non Phil.] B. polylepis Blake 

34. Megalodonta Greene — Water-marigold 

M. beckii (Torr.) Greene. Ponds and slow streams, rare. Aug. -Sept. 
Known in 111. from Lake and Cook counties [Bidens beckii Torr.} 

Tribe 8. Helenieae 

35. Hymenopappus L'Her. 

H. scabiosaeus L'Her. Open sandy woods, rare. Mason, Cass, and Kanka- 
kee counties. May-June. [H. carolinensis (Lam.) Porter}. 

36. Actinea Juss. 

(Picradeiiia Hook.) 

A. herbacea (Greene) B. L. Robins. Dry gravelly banks, .stony fields, and 
limestone hills, near Joliet, Will Co., Hill, May 9, and 27, 1902, June 8, 1907; 
H. C. Corvles, May 13, 1906; Manito, Mason Co., /. Voss. Also in Ottawa 
Co., Ohio, and s. Ontario, Canada. [Tetraneuris herbacea Greene; Actinella 
icaposa var. glabra Gray}. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 265 


37. Helenium L. — Sneezeweed 

1. Leaves lanceolate to elliptical, more or less decurrent on the angular stem; 
rays 1-2 cm. long; plants perennial. 

2. Disk yellow; leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate, mostly dentate; ray-flowers 
fertile; low meadows, and along ditches, streams, and ponds, common. 
[H. latifolitim Mill.; H. canaliculatum Lam.; H. altissimum Link ex 
Rydb.} Aug.-Oct H. dutumnale L. 

2. Disk brownish-purple; leaves linear-lanceolate, mostly entire; ray-flowers 
neutral, often brownish purple at base; roadsides, meadows, and pas- 
tures, chiefly in the s. part of the state. [H. polyphylliim Small]. July- 
Sept - H. nudiflorum Nutt. 

1. Leaves narrowly linear, numerous, entire, not decurrent; rays 6-10 mm. long; 
disk yellow; plants annual; moist ground, s. 111., rare; Jackson Co., Gleas- 
on'in 1900. Aug.-Oct H. tenuijoliutn Nutt. 

38. Dyssodia Cav. 

(Dochera Willd.) 

D. papposa (Vent.) Hitchc. Roadsides and fields. Sept. -Oct. 

Tribe 9. Anthemideae 

39. Achillea L. — Yarrow 

A. 77iillefoliU777 L. Roadsides, fields, lawns, etc., very common; nat. from 
Eur. May-Aug. Rays sometimes pink. 

40. Anthemis L. 

1. Rays 10-18, white; achenes not flattened. 

2. Chaff of the receptacle subulate, stiff, subtending only the inner flowers; 

rays neutral; achenes sparsely glandular-tuberculate, 1-1.5 mm. long; 

plants annual, ill-scented when fresh; fields and waste places, common; 

nat. from Eur. May-Sept. \Maruta cotula (L.) DC] Dog- fennel or 

Mayweed A. cotula L. 

2. Chaff membranous or absent; rays fertile. 

3. Chaff broad, obtuse, or absent; achenes obtusely 3-angled, 1-1.5 mm. 
long; plants perennial, tomentulose, pleasantly aromatic; cult., and 
occasionally spont.; introd. from Eur. June -Aug. Garden Chamomile 
A. nobilis L. 

3. Chaff linear-lanceolate, cuspidate; achenes 10-ribbed, 1.5-2 mm. long; 
plants annual; fields and waste places, nat. from Eur. May-Aug. 
Field Chamomile A. arvensis L. 

I.Rays 20-30, yellow, pistillate; achenes 4-angled and somewhat compressed: 
chaff lanceolate, acuminate, rigid; plants perennial, pubescent; fields and 
waste places, escaped from cult.; introd. from Eur. June-Sept. [Cota tmc- 
toria (L.) J. Gay] A. tinctoria L. 

266 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

41. Matricaria L. 

M. matricarioides (Less.) Porter. Pineapple-weed. Roadsides, farmyards, 
and waste places, not uncommon; adv. or nat. from the Pacific Coast. May- 
Aug. \_M. suaveoleris (Pursh) Buch.} 

42. Chrysanthemum L. 

1. Heads 3-5 cm. broad, few or solitary; rays 20-30; fields, roadsides, and waste 
places, common; nat. from Eur. May- Aug. [Leucanthemu?n vulgare 
Lam.; C. leiicanthemuni var. pinnatifidum Lecoq. & Lamotte} Ox-eye 
Daisy C. leucanthemiun L. 

L Heads 5-15 mm. broad, corymbose; rays 10-15, or absent; waste places, es- 
caped from cult.; nat. from Eur. Sept. -Oct. [Balsamita inajor Desf.; C. 
balsamita var. tanacetoides Boiss.} C. balsamita L. 

43. Tanacetum L. — Tansy 
T. vulgare L. Waste places, escaped from cult.,, nat. from Eur. July-Sept. 

44. Artemisia L. — Wormwood 
1. Leaves or their divisions linear to filiform, glabrous, or nearly so, green. 
2. Bracts of the involucre glabrous; heads 2-3 mm. broad; disk-flowers sterile. 
3. Leaves simple, all entire, or the lower trifid; plants perennial; prairie 

soil, rare. July-Sept. Lee Co., Vasey [A. cernua Nutt.} 

A. dracunculoides Pursh 

3. Leaves 1-3-pinnately divided; plants biennial; sandy soil in the n. part 

of the state, local. July-Sept A. caudata Michx. 

2. Bracts tomentulose; heads 3-4 mm. broad; disk-flowers fertile; leaves 1-3- 
pinnately parted; plants perennial, shrubby, often cult., and sometimes 

persisting; introd. from Eur. Aug. -Sept. Southernwood 

A. abrotanum L. 

1. Leaves or their divisions lanceolate to linear. 

4. Plants more or less whitish-tomentose; perennials. 
5. Leaves lanceolate or the uper linear. 

6. Leaves regularly serrate, lanceolate, acuminate, green above, whitish- 
tomentose beneath; alluvial soil in the n. half of the state, rare. 
Aug.-Sept A. serrata Nutt. 

6. Leaves entire or few-toothed, tomentose on both sides, but usually 

less so above; along railroads and river banks; adv. from w.- 

centr. U.S. Aug.-Sept. [A. ludoviciana of auth., not Nutt.] 

A. gnaphalode^ Nutt. 

5. Leaves all pinnatifid. 

7. Leaves green and glabrate above, the lobes acute; heads 3-4 mm. 

high; receptacle glabrous; waste places, occasional; escaped from 

cult.; introd. from Eur. July-Oct A. vulgaris L. 

7. Leaves canescent on both sides, the lobes obtuse; heads very numer- 
ous, about 2 mm. high; receptacle glabrous; roadsides and waste 
places, occasional; escaped from cult.; introd. from Eur. July-Sept. 
Common Wormwood or Absinth A. absinthium L. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 267 

4. Plants glabrous, annual or biennial. 

8. Heads 2-3 mm. high; leaf-divisions laciniate-dentate; plants biennial; 

cult, ground, waste places, or along railroads, in the n. half of the 

state. Aug. -Oct. Biennial Wormwood A. biennis Willd. 

8. Heads 1.5-2 mm. high; leaf-segments 1-3 mm. long; plants annual; 

roadsides and waste places, occasional; nat. from Eur. Aug. -Oct. 

Annual Wormwood A. annua L. 

Tribe 10. Senecioneae 
45. Cacalia L. — Indian-plantain 

(Mesadenia Raf.) 

1. Heads 20-30-flowered; bracts 12-15; receptacle flat; leaves hastate, dentate; 

woods, local. July-Aug. [Synosma suaveolens (L.) Britt.} 

C. suaveolens L. 

1. Heads 5-flowered; bracts 5; receptacle raised in the center to a conical point. 
2. Leaves thin, reniform or flabellate, lobed or sinuately dentate. 

3. Leaves green on both sides; stem grooved; woods. July-Sept. [C. reni- 

formis Muhl.} C. muhlenbergii (Sch.-Bip.) Fern. 

3. Leaves glaucous beneath; stem terete; open woods. July-Sept 

C. atiiplicijolia L. 

2. Leaves thick, oval, entire or denticulate, green on both sides; wet marly 
soil, local. June-Aug C. tuberosa Nutt. 

46. Erechtites Raf. 

E. hieracijolid (L.) Raf. Fireweed. In moist woods, recently burned clear- 
ings, along roads, or in bogs, local. Aug.-Oct. 

47. Senecio L. — Ragwort 

1. Basal leaves dentate or entire, the median stem-leaves often pinnatifid; 
plants perennial. 
2. None of the leaves cordate; basal leaves obovate or elliptical. 

3. Leaves and stems more or less floccose, tardily glabrate; involucre 
5-7 mm. high; achenes hispidulous on the angles; prairie soil, and 

in dry ground in oak woods, local. May-June S. plattensis Nutt. 

3. Leaves glabrous or nearly so; stem glabrous, or slightly floccose when 
young; involucre 4-5 mm. high. 
4. Basal leaves obovate or suborbicular; achenes glabrous; bluffs and 
open woods, not common. Apr.-June. {_S. rotundus (Britt.) 

Small} S. obovatus Muhl. 

4. Basal leaves oblanceolate; achenes often hispidulous on the margins; 

roadsides and open woods. May-June. [5. balsamitae Muhl.} 

S. pauperculus Michx. 

2. Basal leaves more or less cordate or subcordate, long-petioled, mostly 

glabrous; wet ground. Apr.-June. \_S. semicordatus Mack. & Bush} 

..S. aureus L. 

268 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

1. Leaves all pinnatifld or coarsely sinuate-dentate; plants annual. 

5. Rays conspicuous; bracts not black-tipped; fields, s. 111. May-June. [5. 
lobatus Pers.] Butterweed S. glabettiis Poir. 

5. Rays none; bracts often black-tipped; cult, ground and waste places, occa- 
sional; nat. from Eur. June-July. Groundsel S. vulgaris L. 

Tribe 11. Cynareae 

48. Arctium L. — Burdock 

1. Involucre 1-2 cm. broad; inner bracts not exceeding the €owers; heads race- 
mose; petioles hollow, not deeply furrowed; waste places, common; nat. 
from Eur. July-Sept. Common Burdock A. minus (Hill) Bernh. 

1. Involucre 2.5-3 cm. broad; inner bracts equalling or exceeding the flowers; 
heads corymbose; petioles solid, deeply furrowed; waste places, occasional; 
nat. from Eur. July-Oct. Great Burdock A. lappa L. 

49. EcHiNOPS L. — Globe-thistle 

E. sphaerocephalus L. Roadsides and waste places, occasional; introd. from 
Eur. Apparently established in Kankakee Co., near Manteno, July 14, 1938, 
Steyermark & Standley 1726. 

50. CiRSiUM Hill — Thistle 

1. Heads large, more than 2 cm. in diameter; flowers all perfect; plants bien- 
2. Leaves bristly on the upper surface, grayish arachnoid beneath, strongly 
decurrent; bracts of the involucre all spine-tipped; flowers violet-purple; 
fields, roadsides, and waste places, common; nat. from Eur. July-Aug. 

Bull Thistle [C. lanceolatum (L.) Hill] .- 

C. vtilgare (Savi) Airy-Shaw 

2. Leaves not bristly on the upper surface; outer involucral bracts spine- 
tipped, the inner acuminate, soft, or all the bracts spineless. 
3. Leaves white-tomentose beneath. 

4. Leaves pinnately parted into linear lobes, persistently white-tomen- 
tose on both sides; flowers cream color; sand dunes near Lake 
Michigan. June-July. Beach Thistle ...C. pitcheri (Torr.) T. & G. 
4. Leaves pinnately lobed or merely toothed. 

5. Leaves pinnately lobed, the margins revolute; rich soil along roads, 
in fields, or in woods, throughout III., common. Aug. -Sept 

Field Thistle C. discolor (Muhl.) Spreng 

5. Leaves merely toothed, or shal lowly lobed, the margins flat 

woods, locally throughout 111. Aug. -Sept. Tall Thistle 

C. altissimum (L.) Spreng 

3. Leaves not white-tomentose. 

6. Heads 5-10 cm. broad; stem stout, 30-60 cm. tall; bracts spine 
tipped and with a prominent glutinous midvein; gravelly soil, n 
111., extending southw. to Kankakee, Peoria, and Adams counties 
June-July. Hill's Thistle C. hillit (Canby) Fern 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 269 

6. Heads 2-3 cm. broad; stem 1-2.5 m. tall; bracts without prickle- 
points; wet ground, chiefly in the n. half of 111. Aug. -Sept. Swamp 

Thistle C. muticum Michx. 

1. Heads smaller, 1.5-2 cm. high and 1-1.5 cm. in diameter; flowers dioecious; 
perennials with spreading rhizomes; leaves glabrous or nearly so. 
7. Leaves deeply pinnately lobed; fields and waste places; nat. from Eur. 

June-Aug. Canada Thistle C. arvense (L.) Scop. 

7. Leaves entire or slightly lobed; occasional in fields and waste places; nat. 
from Eur. June-Aug. [C. arvense var. integrifolmm Wimm. & Grab.} 
C. setonun (Willd.) Bieb. 

51. Carduus L. 

C. nutans L. Musk Thistle. An occasional weed in waste places; introd. 
from Eur. June-Sept. 

52. Centaurea L. — Star-thistle 
1. Bracts of the involucre not spiny. 

2. Lower bracts pectinate or fringed to the middle or below; leaves entire or 


3. Bracts lanceolate, pale, without dilated tips; flowers blue, purplish, 

pink, or white, the marginal ones enlarged; plants annual; waste 

places, escaped from cult.; native of Eur. July-Sept. Bachelor's 

Button C. cyanus L. 

3. Bracts with abruptly dilated tips; flowers rose-purple; plants perennial. 
4. Flowers all alike, discoid, not enlarged; bracts regularly pectinate- 
fringed; fields and roadsides, occasional; adv. from Eur. July-Sept. 

Black Knapweed C. Jiigra L. 

4. Marginal flowers enlarged, showy; bracts irregularly lacerate to entire; 
fields and roadsides, occasional; adv. from Eur. June-Sept. Brown 

Knapweed C. jacea L. 

2. Lower bracts pectinate only near the dark-colored tip; leaves coarsely den- 
tate to pinnatifid; flowers rose-purple, the marginal ones radiant; plants 

perennial; waste ground, occasional; adv. from Eur. Aug.-Oct 

C. vochinensis Bernh. 

1. Bracts of the involucre tipped with a rigid spine; plants annual. 

5. Flowers purple; stem wingless; heads sessile; waste places, occas'onal; adv. 

from Eur. June-Oct C. calcitrapa L. 

5. Flowers yellow; stem winged by the decurrent leaf-bases; heads peduncled; 
waste places, occasional; adv. from Eur. July-Sept. Barnaby's Thistle 
C. sols tit talis L. 

Tribe 12. Cichorieae 
53. Serinia Raf. 
S. oppositijolia (Raf.) Ktze. Moist sandy soil, s. 111. Mar.-Apr. 

54. Tragopogon L. — Oyster Plant. Salsify 
1. Flowers yellow. 

270 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

2. Bracts 8-9, equalling or shorter than the flowers; peduncles scarcely or not 
at all thickened below the head; roadsides and fields, common; nat. 

from Eur. May-Aug. Yellow Goat's-beard T. pratensis L. 

2. Bracts 10-13, longer than the flowers; peduncles conspicuously thickened 

below the head; waste places, occasional; introd. from Eur. June 

T. diibius Scop. 

1. Flowers purple; bracts longer than the flowers; peduncles thickened below 
the head; roadsides and fields, occasional; nat. from Eur. June-Aug. Vege- 
table Oyster T. porrifolius L. 

55. Krigia Schreb. 

(^Adopogon Necker; Cynthia D.Don) 
1. Plants perennial; pappus of 10-15 minute scales, and 15-20 long bristles. 
2. Plants with a solitary head on a leafless scape; involucre 10-15 mm. high; 
plant bearing a small globose tuber; open woods in the s. half of 111., 
northw. to Fayette Co. Apr. -May. [C. dandelion (L.) DC; A. dande- 
lion (L.) Ktze] K. dandelion (L.) Nutt. 

2. Plants with 1-3 clasping stem-leaves, and several heads; involucre 8-10 
mm. high; plant without a tuber; wooded slopes and ridges. May-Sept. 
[K. amplexicaults Nutt.; C. virgmica (L.) D.Don; A. virginicum (L.) 

Ktze} K. biflora (Walt.) Blake 

1. Plants annual; pappus of 5-7 short rounded scales and an equal number of 
longer bristles; scapes slender, each with one head; leaves basal; involucre 
6-8 mm. high; dry soil in fields and open woods, chiefly in the valleys of 
the Illinois and Wabash rivers. May-July. [_A. carolinianum (Walt.) 
Britt.] K. yirgmtca (L.) Willd. 

56. CiCHORlUM L. — Chicory 

C. intybus L. Roadsides and fields, common; nat. from Eur. June-Nov. 
There are occasional white-flowered plants. 

57. Lactuca L. — Lettuce 

1. Achenes filiform-beaked; pappus white; flowers pale yellow. 

2. Heads 6-8-flowered; achenes light brown, 5-7-nerved but not transversely 
rugulose; leaves pinnatifid (or merely spinulose-denticulate in f. integri- 
jolia Bogenh.), tending to turn edgewise in a vertical position, the 
margins and midribs spinulose; stem 30-90 cm. tall; fields, waste places, 

and roadsides, common; nat. from Eur. July-Sept. Prickly Lettuce 

L. scariola L. 

2. Heads 12-20-flowered; achenes dark brown, 1-3-nerved, transversely 
rugulose; stem 1-3 m. tall; native species. 
3. Leaves entire to pinnatifid, not spinulose-toothed. 

4. Leaves sinuately pinnatifid, or the upper entire; open woods, and 

roadsides, common. Junc-Aug. Wild Lettuce L. canadensis L. 

4. Leaves all unlobed, lanceolate, entire or denticulate; woods and road- 
sides. June-Aug. \ L. intcgrijolia Bigel.] L. sagittijolia EH. 

3. Leaves spinulose-toothed, the midvein somewhat setose on the lower 
surface; prairie soil, rare. July. Wady Petra, Stark Co., V. H. Chase 

Jones: Flora of Illinois, 152. Compositae 271 

743; without locality, Vasey. Western Lettuce 

L. ludoviciana (Nutt.) DC. 

1 . Achenes not filiform-beaked. 
5. Pappus white; flowers blue. 

6. Leaves oval, coarsely and unevenly dentate; achenes 4 mm. long; 

woods, throughout 111., except the n.w. counties. Aug. -Sept 

L. vtllosa Jacq. 

6. Leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, the terminal segment larger, triangular; achenes 

5-6 mm. long; woods. July -Sept L. jloridana (L.) Gaertn. 

5. Pappus brown; flowers cream or bluish; leaves pinnatifid or merely sinu- 
ate; alluvial soil in woods, common. Aug.-Sept. [L. spicata of auth.} 
L. biennis (Moench) Fern. 

58. SoNCHUS L. — Sow-thisde 

1. Plants perennial, with rhizomes; heads 4-5 cm. in diameter, the flowers bright 
yellow; involucre 1.5 cm. high; achenes 2.5-3 mm. long, striate and papil- 
lose; fields and waste places; nat. from Eur. July-Sept. Field Sow-thistle 

S. arvensis L. 

1. Plants annual; heads 1-2.5 cm. in diameter, pale yellow; involucre 1 cm. 
high; achenes 2-2.5 mm. long. 
2. Leaves runcinate-pinnatifid, scarcely prickly, the terminal segment com- 
monly large and triangular; upper leaves clasping by an acute, sagittate 
base; achenes longitudinally striate and papillose; fields and waste 
places; nat. from Eur. June-Nov. Common Sow-thistle ...S. oleraceus L. 
2. Leaves toothed or more or less curled or lobed, harshly prickly, the basal 
auricles rounded; achenes longitudinally ribbed, otherwise smooth; 
fields and waste places; nat. from Eur. May-Aug. Spiny Sow-thistle 
S. asper (L.) Hill 

59. Prenanthes L. 

(^Nabalus Cass.) 
1. Involucre glabrous. 

2. Heads 5-7-flowered; pappus straw-colored; plants not glaucous; oak 
woods, local; apparently absent from the w. part of the state. Aug.- 
Sept P. altissima L. 

2. Heads 8-12-flowered; pappus reddish brown; plants glaucous; woods, n. 

111., southw. to Peoria Co. Aug.-Sept P. alba L. 

1. Involucre pubescent. 

3. Heads 12-16-flowered; basal leaves oblanceolate. 

4. Stem glabrous; upper leaves clasping; flowers purplish; moist ground, 

throughout 111., except the s.w. part. Aug.-Sept 

P. racemosa Michx. 

4. Stem hirsute; leaves not clasping; flowers cream; prairie soil. Aug.-Sept. 
P. aspera Michx. 

3. Heads 20-3 5 -flowered; basal leaves deltoid; stem glabrous or puberulent; 
flowers cream; banks of streams, locally throughout 111., but apparently 
absent from the n. counties. Aug. -Oct P. crepidinea Michx. 

272 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

60. Hieracium L. — Hawkweed 

1. Plants with stolons and slender rhizomes; leaves oblanceolate, hirsute, all 
basal; flowers orange; heads 1.5-2.5 cm. broad; fields and meadows, occa- 
sional, nat. from Eur. Lake Co. June-July. Orange Hawkweed 

H. aurantiacum L. 

1. Plants with short stout erect rhizomes; stolons none; flowers yellow; native 
2. Heads medium or small, 1-2 cm. in diameter; leaves entire or denticulate. 
3. Leaves and lower part of stem densely long villous-hirsute with brown- 
ish or whitish hairs 1-2 cm. long; achenes fusiform; fields and open 

woods, local. July-Sept H. longipilum Torr. 

3. Leaves and stem with shorter pubescence. 

4. Inflorescence leafy-bracted, the heads 40-50-flowered, on stout pedun- 
cles; achenes columnar, truncate; dry woods and fields, local. Aug.- 

Sept. Rough Hawkweed ti. scabrum Michx. 

4. Inflorescence not leafy-bracted, the heads 15-20-flowered, on slender 
peduncles; achenes fusiform; dry soil in woods, local. July-Sept. 
-.H. gronovii L. 

2. Heads large, 2.5-4.5 cm. in diameter; leaves dentate; stem leafy; dry 
woods and thickets in the n. counties. Aug. -Sept. Canada Hawkweed 
H. canadense Michx. 

61. Agoseris Raf. 

A. cuspidata (Pursh) D. Dietr. Dry soil in the n. half of the state, local. 
May-June. [Troximon cuspidatum Pursh; Notbocalais cuspidata (Pursh) 

62. Pyrrhopappus DC. — False Dandelion 

P. carolinianus (Walt.) DC. Dry soil, s. 111., extending northw. to Wa- 
bash and Jefferson counties. May-June. 

63. Taraxacum (Haller) Ludw. — Dandelion 

1. Achenes greenish brown, the beak 8-10 mm. long, 2-3 times longer than the 
body; heads usually 3-5 cm. in diameter, 150-200-flowered, the flowers 
orange-yellow; outer involucral bracts reflexed; leaves sinuate to coarsely 
pinnatifid, the terminal lobe large; waste places, fields, roadsides, lawns, 
etc., very common; nat. from Eur. Mar. -Nov. Common Dandelion. 

[Leontodon taraxacum L ; L. vulgare Lam.; 7. officinale Weber] 

T. vulgare (Lam.) Schrank 

1. Achenes red or reddish brown, the beak 5-7 mm. long, less than twice the 
length of the body; heads 2-3 cm. in diameter, 70-90-flowered, the flowers 
sulphur-yellow; bracts ascending or spreading; leaves deeply pinnatifid, the 
terminal lobe small; waste places, less frequent than the preceding; nat. 
from Eur. May-June. Red-seeded Dandelion. [T. erythrospernnim 

Andrz.; Leontodon erythrosperniuni (Andrz.) Eichw.] 

T. laeyigalnm (Willd.) DC. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 


274 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 


AcAULESCENT. Stemless or apparently so. 

AcHENE. A small, dry, hard, unilocular, indehiscent, 1 -seeded fruit in which the peri- 
carp and seed-coat are not fused. 
AciCULAR. Needle-shaped. 
AcTINOMORPHlc. Radially symmetrical; regular; capable of being divided vertically 

into similar halves through two or more planes. 
Acuminate. Tapering at the apex, and ending in a point or angle of about forty-five 

Acute. Sharp-pointed; ending in a point or angle of about ninety degrees. 
Adnate. United with a dissimilar part, as the calyx-tube to the ovary, or stamens to 

the corolla, etc. 
Adventive (adv.). Transient, not native or fully naturalized. 
Alternate. Any arrangement of leaves or ether parts not opposite or whorled; placed 

singly at different heights on the axis or stem. 
Annual. Of one year's growth; a plant that completes its life-cycle in one season. 
Annular. In the form of a ring. 
Annulus. a ring of thick-walled cells partly surrounding the sporangium of seme 

Anther. The pollcn-beanng part of the stamen. 
Antheriferous. Anther-bearing. 

Anthesis. The time at which a flower opens; or the act of expansion of a flower. 
Apetalous. Without petals. 

Apmyllopodic. With the basal leaves rudimentary or bladeless, as in species of Carex. 
Apiculate. With a small point or apiculus. 
Apopetalous. Having the corolla composed of several distinct petals; equivalent to 

the more common term polvpelalous. 
Aquatic. Living in water; said of plants which live in water, either floating at the 

surface or completely submerged. 
Anastomosing (veins). Connecting by cross-veins and forming a network. 
ANDROCiNOUS. With both staminate and pistillate flowers in the same inflorescence, in 

Carex, with the staminate flowers above the pistillate. 
Arachnoid. Cobwebby; with fine, grayish, entangled hairs. 
Arcuate. Curved or bent like a bow. 

Areola. A small angular space marked upon a surface; the meshes of cellular tissue. 
Aril. An appendage or an outer covering of a seed, growing out from the hilum or 

funiculus; sometimes it appears as a pulpy covering. 
Aristate. Awned; tipped by a bristle. 

Ascending. Growing somewhat obliquely and curving upward. 
Attenuate. Tapering to a narrow point. 
AuRICULATE. With ear-shaped appendages (auricles) ; said of leaves having a pair 

of short obtuse projections at base. 
Awn. a bristle-like appendage. 

AxiAi. (axile). With the [)lacentae in the axis or center of the ovary. 
Axil. The upper angle formed by a leaf or branch with the stem. 
Axillary. Situated in an axil. 

Barbellate. With small fine barbs or bristles. 

Basifixed. Attached or fixed by the base, as an anther upon the filament. 

Beak. A narrowed or prolonged tip; applied particularly to fruits and carpels. 

Berry. A many-seed fruit, in which the entire pericarp except the thin outer skin 

(epicarp) is succulent. 
Biconvex. Convex on both sides; doubly convex, as a lens; lenticular. 
BiDENTATE. Having two teeth. 
BiDENTULATE. Minutely bidentate. 
Biennial. Of two years' duration; a plant requiring two growing seasons to complete 

its life cycle. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 275 

Bifid. Two-cleft. 

Bilabiate. Two-lipped, referring especially to the corolla (or calyx). 

BiPlNNATE. Twice pinnate. 

BiPlNNATlFID. Twice pinnatifid, that is, having the primary divisions of the leaves again 

Bract. A reduced or more or less modified leaf, usually subtending a flower or a 
cluster of flowers. 

Bractlet. a small bract, particularly if borne on a secondary axis, as on a pedicel or 
even on a petiole; a bracteole. 

Branchlet. a small branch or twig. 

Bulb. A short thick bud or modified stem, usually underground, bearing fleshy scale- 
like leaves that are stored with reserve food. 

Bulbous. Resembling a bulb. 

Bundle-scars. Scars left in leaf-scars at time of leaf-fall by the breaking of the 
vascular bundles that pass from the stem mto the petiole. 

Caducous. Falling off early, or prematurely, as the sepals of the poppy; in distinction 

from deciduous, or persistent. 
Calyx. The outer perianth of the flower; a collective term for the sepals. 
Campanulate. Bell-shaped. 

Cancellate. Marked like lattice, with lines crossing each other. 
Canescent. With gray or whitish pubescence. 
CAPlLLAR"i". Fine, slender, hair-like. 

Capitate. Aggregated in a dense or compact head-like cluster. 
Capsule. A dry dehiscent fruit composed of two or more carpels. 
Carpel. A simple pistil or a member of a compound pistil; the ovulifeious organ of a 

Catkin. A bracteate, spike-like inflorescence bearing staminate or pistillate apetalous 

flowers ; the catkin falls as a whole. 
Caudate. Having a tail-like appendage. 
Cauline. Pertaining or belonging to the stem. 
Cespitose. Growing in tufts; forming mats. 

Chaff. A small thin scale or bract; particularly on the receptacle of the Compositae. 
Chartaceous. Papery; having the texture of writing paper. 

Chlorophyll. The green coloring matter of plants, occurring chiefly in chloroplasts. 
CiLlATE. Bearing cilia, a marginal fringe of hairs. 
CiLiOLATE. Minutely ciliate. 
Cinereous. Ash-colored; light gray. 

Clasping (leaf). With the base partly or completely surrounding the stem. 
Clavate. Club-shaped; gradually thickened upward. 
Claw. The narrowed base of the petals of some flowers. 
Cleistogamous (flowers). Small, closed, self-pollinated flowers, as in some violets and 

other plants; they are often underground. 
Climbing. Said of plants that ascend by means of tendrils, or by twining the stem or 

petiole around a support, or sometimes by other means. 
Coma. The hairs at the end of some seeds, as in Epilobium, or Asclepias. 
Complete (leaf). One consisting of blade, petiole, and stipules. 
Compound (leaf). One composed of two or more leaflets on a common petiole or 

Concolored. Of one color throughout; not variegated. 
Conduplicate. Folded together lengthwise. 

Connate. Similar parts fused together, e.g., a pair of leaves united by their bases. 
Convolute. Rolled up longitudinally. 
Cordate. Heart-shaped. 
Coriaceous. Of leathery texture. 

Corm. a short, erect, often globose underground stem. 
CoRMOSE. Resembling a corm. 

Corolla. The inner cycle of the perianth, composed of petals. 
Corymb. A flat-topped or convex indeterminate inflorescence with the pedicels arising 

from different points on the axis, the outer flowers opening first. 

276 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Corymbose (corymbiform). Like a corymb. 

Creeping (stem). Growing along the surface of the ground and rooting from the nodes. 

Crenate. Toothed with rounded shallow teeth. 

Crenulate. Finely crenate. 

CucULLATE. Hooded, or hood-shaped. 

CuNEATE. Wedge-shaped; broad at one end and tapering to a point at the other. 

Cuspidate. Sharp-pointed; ending in a sharp point or cusp. 

Cyme. A convex or flat flower-cluster of the determinate type, the central flowers 

opening first. 
Cymose. Arranged in cymes; cyme-like. 

Deciduous. Falling off at maturity, or at the end of the season. 

Declined. Bent downward or aside; applied to stamens or style when turned to one 

side of the flower. 
Decompound. More than once compound. 
Decumbent (stem). Reclining, but with apex ascending. 
Decurrent (leaf). Extending down the stem below the insertion. 
Deflexed. Deflected, or turned abruptly downward. 
Dehiscent. Splitting open along definite lines at maturity. 
Deltoid. Triangular, shaped like the Greek letter /\, as in the leaves of species of 

Dentate. Coarsely toothed, with the teeth directed outward. 
Denticulate. Minutely dentate. 
Determinate (inflorescence). One in which the terminal flower is the oldest and 

therefore the first to open, the order of flowering proceeding from the top down- 
Diadelphous. Having the stamens united by their filaments in two sets, as in almost 

all papilionaceous flowers. 
Diffuse. Loosely spreading or branching. 
Dimorphous. Occurring in two forms. 

Dioecious. Having the staminate and pistillate flowers on different plants. 
Discoid. Resembling a disk; a discoid head (in Compositae) is one without ray-flowers. 
Disk. A development of the receptacle about the base of the pistil ; the common 

receptacle of the heads of Compositae. 
Dissected. Divided into many narrow segments. 

Distinct. Separate; not united with parts of the same series; not connate. 
Divaricate. Spreading; widely divergent. 
Divided. Separated to the base or to the midvein. 
Drupe. A succulent mdehiscent fruit with a bony, usually one-seeded endocarp; a 

stone-fruit, like a plum. 
Drupelet. A little drupe, such as the individual carpels which together form the 

blackberry and similar fruits. 

EcHINATE. Beset with prickles or bristles. 

Ellipsoid. A solid body elliptical m longitudinal section. 

Elliptical. Having the form of an ellipse; nearly oblong. 

Emarginate. Deeply notched at the apex. 

Endocarp. The inner layer of the pericarp. 

Entire. With smooth margins, not toothed or lobed. 

EpigyNOUS. Borne on the ovary; applied to petals and stamens when the ovary is 

Epipetalous. Borne upon the corolla. 
Episepalous. Borne upon the calyx. 
Equitant. Said of conduplicate leaves which alternately enfold each other as in Iris, 

the upper part of the leaf being flat and vertical. 
Erose. With jagged margin, as if gnawed. 
Evanescent. Passing away; soon disappearing. 
Evergreen. Remaining green in Its dormant season; applied to plants whose leaves 

are green throughout the year. 
Exfoliating. Peeling off in thin layers. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 277 

E.XSERTED. Prolonged beyond the surrounding organs, as stamens from the corolla; 

not included. 
ExsTlPULATE. Lacking stipules. 

Falcate. Sickle- or scythe-shaped. 

Farinose. Covered with mealy powder. 

Fascicle. A compact cluster or bundle. 

Fastigiate. With stems or branches erect and close together. 

Ferruginous. Rust-colored. 

Filament. The stalk of a stamen, usually bearing an anther at its apex. 

Filiform. Thread-like; slender and terete. 

Fimbriate. Fringed. 

FlMBRlLLATE. Minutely fringed. 

Flabellate. Fan-shaped. 

Flexuous. Having a more or less zigzag form. 

Floccose. With tufts of soft woolly hairs. 

Floret. Individual flower of Compositae and grasses. 

FoLlACEOUS. Having the form or texture of a leaf; leafy. 

Follicle. A simple, dry dehiscent fruit, producing several or many seeds and com- 
posed of one carpel, which splits along one suture. 

Free. Said of floral organs which are not united with other floral organs. 

Fugacious. Falling or withering away very early; ephemeral. 

Funnelform. Said of a corolla with the tube gradually widening upward into the 
spreading limb. 

Fusiform. Spindle-shaped, narrowed toward the ends from an enlarged middle. 

Geniculate. Bent abruptly like a knee. 

Gibbous. Swollen on one side. 

GlabraTE. Nearly glabrous, or becoming glabrous. 

Glabrous. Not hairy; free from epidermal hairs. 

Glandular. Bearing glands or gland-like appendages or trichomes. 

Glaucescent. Becoming glaucous. 

Glaucous. Covered with a "bloom"; bluish white or bluish gray. 

Glomerule. An inflorescence condensed in the form of a small head or cluster. 

Glume. A chaff -like bract; particularly one of the two empty bracts at the base of 

the spikelet in grasses, or the single bract of sedges. 
Glutinous. Sticky; mucilaginous; covered with a sticky exudate. 
Grain. A dry, unilocular, 1 -seeded, indehiscent, superior fruit of grasses, in which 

the thin pericarp is adherent throughout to the seed; a caryopsis. 
Granular, Granulose. Composed of or appearing as if covered with minute grains. 
Gynecandrous. Having staminate and pistillate flowers in the same spikelet, as in 

sedges, the upper flowers pistillate and the lower staminate. 

Halberd-shaped. Hastate. 

Hastate. Halberd-shaped; like an arrowhead, but with the basal lobes pointing out- 
ward nearly at right angles. 

Head. A type of inflorescence in which numerous small flowers are crowded upon a 
common receptacle; the inflorescence or capitulum of Compositae; a compact 

Herb. A plant that has no perennial woody stem above ground, thus distinguished 
from a shrub or tree. 

Hirsute. Pubescent with rather coarse or stiff hairs. 

HiRSUTULOUS. Slightly hirsute. 

HiRTELLOUS. Minutely hirsute. 

Hispid. Beset with rigid hairs or bristles. 

HispiDULOUS. Minutely hispid. 

Hyaline. Thin and translucent. 

HypaNTHIUM. The cup-shaped or tubular receptacle on which the perianth and the 
stamens are inserted. 

Hypogynium. a structure supporting the ovary in some sedges. 

278 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Hypogynous. Borne on the receptacle beneath the ovary; said of stamens and petals. 

Imbricate. Overlapping, as shingles on a roof. 

Incised. Sharply and more or less deeply and irregularly cut. 

Included. Not at all exserted or protruded, as stamens not projecting from the corolla. 

Indehiscent. Not opening regularly. 

Indurate. Hardened. 

Indusium. The covering of the sori of some ferns. 

Inferior. Said of an ovary when the other floral parts appear to be inserted upon it. 

Inflorescence. The arrangement of the flowers on the stem. 

Internode. The portion of the stem between two nodes. 

Introduced. Brought mtentionally from another country or region. 

Involucel. a secondary involucre; that subtending the umbellets in the umbelliferae. 

Involucre. A whorl or group of bracts surrounding or subtending a single flower, or 

the collection of bracts aggregated at the base of an inflorescence, as the heads 

of Compositae, or in the umbels of Umbelliferae. 
Involute. A type of vernation, in which the margins are rolled inward or toward the 

upper side. 
Irregular (flower). See Zygomorphic. 

Keel. A central dorsal ridge like the keel of a boat; the structure formed by the 
two lower united petals of a papilionaceous flower; the midvein of a compressed 
floral bract m grasses and sedges. 

LaciNIATE. Cut into narrow pointed lobes. 

Lanceolate. Lance-shaped; much longer than broad, widening above the base, and 

tapering to the apex. 
Lanceoloid. a solid body lanceolate in longitudinal section. 
Leaflet. One of the blades of a compound leaf. 
Legume. The fruit of certain Leguminosae, a pod formed from a simple pistil, and 

dehiscent along both sutures. 
Lemma. The lower of the two bracts enclosing the flower in grasses. 
Lenticular. Lentil-shaped, that is, with the shape of a biconvex lens. 
Ligulate. Provided with or resembling a ligule. 
Ligule. a thin, often scarious projection from the top of the leaf-sheath in grasses 

and similar plants; the principal part of the corolla of ray-florets in numerous 

Compositae; the membranous structure on the adaxial surface of the leaf of 

Isoeies and Selaginella. 
Linear. Long and narrow with nearly parallel margins. 
Lip. Either of the divisions of a bilabiate corolla; the peculiar upper (apparently 

lower) petal in orchids. 
LocULE. One of the cavities or compartments of a pistil or anther. 
Lobe. Any part or segment of an organ; specifically, a part of a petal, calyx, or leaf 

that represents a division to about the middle. 
Loment. a jointed legume, usually constricted between the seeds, and at maturity 

breaking transversely into 1 -seeded, indehiscent segments. 
Lunate. Crescent- or half-moon-shaped. 
Lyrate. Lyre-shaped; descriptive of a pinnatifid leaf having a large, rounded terminal 

lobe, and the lateral lobes becoming gradually smaller toward the base. 

Megaspore. The larger of two kinds of spores of a plant, usually giving rise to a 

female gametophyfe. 
Membranous. Thin, soft, pliable, sometimes more or less translucent. 
Microspore. The smaller of two kinds of spores of a plant, usually giving rise to a 

male gametophyte. 
MiCROspoROPllYLL. A sporophyll that bears microspores. 

MoNADELPllOUS. Said of stamens when the filaments are united into one tube. 
MoNILlFORM. Resembling a string of beads, as the rhizome of certain species of 

Monoecious. Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers on the same plant. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 279 

MuCRONATE. Tipped with a short abrupt point or mucro. 

MuCRONULATE. Minutely mucronate. 

Multiple fruit. A cluster of matured ovaries produced by separate flowers. 

MuRlCATE. Roughened with short hard points. 

Naturalized (nat.). Although not native in the region, growing spontaneously and 

well established as a component of the flora. 
Neutral. Devoid of stamens and functioning pistil. 
Nodose. Provided with knots or internal transverse partitions, as the leaves of some 

species of Juticus. 
Node. The joint of a stem where the leaves are inserted. 
Nut. An indehiscent, dry, one-seeded, hard-walled fruit, produced from a compound 

Nutlet. A little nut; one of the achene-like parts of the fruit of Boraginaceae, 

Verbenaceae, Labiatae, etc. 

Ob — . A Latin prefix, usually signifying inversion, as obcordate (inversely heart- 
shaped), obianceolate (inversely lanceolate), obovate (inversely ovate), etc. 

Obtuse. Blunt, rounded. 

Opposite. Inserted on opposite sides of an axis, as leaves, when there are two at one 

Orbicular. Circular; round in outline. 

Oval. Broadly elliptical, with the width more than half the length. 

Ovary. The basal part of the pistil containing the ovules; the immature fruit. 

OvATi;. Having the outline like the median longitudinal section of a hen's egg, the 
broader end downward. 

Ovoid. A solid body ovate in longitudinal section. 

Ovule. The primordium of a seed in the ovary; the organ which may develop after 
fertilization into the seed. 

Palet. The upper bract which with the lemma encloses the flower in grasses. 
Palmate (leaf). Radiately lobed or divided, with three or more veins arising from 

one point. 
Panicle. A compound raceme. 

Paniculate. Borne in panicles, or resembling, a panicle. 
Papilionaceous. Referring to the peculiar irregular corolla of many Leguminosae, 

consisting of a lalrge upper petal f standard), two oblique lateral petals (rvings), 

and the two lower ones connivent into a f^eel. 
Papillose. Covered with papillae, which are small protuberances. 
Pappus. The modified limb of the calyx in Compositae, forming a crown of variable 

structure at the summit of the achene. 
Parasite. An organism which derives nourishment from another living organism. 
Parietal. Borne on or pertaining to the wall of the ovary or fruit. 
Pectinate. Comb-like; pinnatifid with narrow, closely set segments. 
Pedate. Palmately divided or parted, with the lateral divisions two-cleft. 
PeU)ICEL. The stalk of a single flower in a cluster. 
Peduncle. The primary flower stalk which supports either a cluster of flowers, or a 

single flower. 
Pellucid. Clear, transparent, or translucent. 
Peltate. Shield-shaped; said of a leaf when the petiole is attached to the under side 

away from the margin or usually not far from the center. 
Pendent. Hanging down ; pendulous. 

PeNICILLATE. Bearing a little tuft of hairs, especially at the tip. 
Perrennial. a plant, or part of a plant, which persists for more than two seasons. 
Perfect (flower). Having both stamens and carpels; bisexual. 
Perfoliate. Said of a leaf when the stem appears to pass through its base. 
Perianth. The floral envelope; a term commonly used when there is no clear distinc- 
tion between calyx and corolla. 
Pericarp. The wall of the ripened fruit. 
Perigynium. The inflated sac (bract) enclosing the pistillate flower in Carex. 

280 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Perigynous. Boine arcund the ovary and not at its base, as in flowers in which 

perianth and stamens are borne on the rim of the hypanthium. 
Petal. One of the parts of an apopetalous corolla. 
Petaliferous. Petal-bearing. 
Petiolate. Having a petiole. 
Petiole. A leaf-stalk. 
Petiolulate. Having a petiolule. 
Petiolule. Stalk of a leaflet. 
Phyllopodic. The basal leaves of the fertile stems normally blade-bearing, as in 

species of Carex. 
Pilose. Pubescent with soft long straight trichomes. 
PiLOSULOUS. Minutely pilose. 
Pinna. A primary division of a pinnate leaf. 
Pinnate (leaf). Compound, with the leaflets on each side of a common petiole or 

PiNNATIFID. Cleft or divided in a pinnate manner, the sinuses or lobes narrow or acute. 
Pinnule. One of the smaller subdivisions of the primary divisions of a pinnately 

compound leaf, especially of ferns. 
Pistil. The ovule-beanng part of a flower, comprising ovary, style, and stigma; con- 
sisting of a single carpel (simple pistil) or of two or more partly or wholly fused 
carpels (compound pistil). 
Pistillate flower. A flower with a pistil but no stamens. 
Placenta. Any part of the interior of the ovary which bears the ovules. 
Plano-convex. Plane on one side and convex on the other. 
Plicate. Folded like a fan. 
Plumose. Feathery; furnished with long hairs, as the beak of the achene in Clematis, 

or the pappus of some Compositae. 
Pollen. Microspores, or partially developed male gametophytes, formed in the anthers 

of seed plants; the powdery contents of an anther. 
Polygamous. Bearing unisexual and bisexual flowers on the same plant. 
PoLYPETALOUS. With petals separate. 
Pome. An accessory fruit composed of the pericarp and enlarged receptacle, as in the 

Prickle. A sharp-pointed outgrowth of the cortex and epidermis of a stem or leaf, 

as in rose, blackberry, etc. 
Procumbent (stem). Trailing on the ground, but not rooting at the nodes. 
Proliferous. Producing offshoots, sometimes abnormal, as when carpels or stamens 

give rise to leafy shoots. 
Prostrate. Lying flat on the ground. 
Puberulent. Minutely pubescent. 

Pubescent. Covered with pubescence, an indument of hairs (trichomes). 
Pulverulent. Appearing as if covered with powder or dust. 
Punctate. Marked with small dots or translucent glands. 
PuncticULATE. Minutely punctate. 

Pungent. Terminating in a rigid sharp point; also of acrid flavor. 
Pyriform. Pear-shaped. 

QuADRlFOLiATE. Four-leaved. 
QuADRIFOLIOLATE. Having four leaflets. 

Raceme. An indeterminate inflorescence with pedicellate flowers on a more or less 
elongated axis. 

Racemose. In a raceme, or resembling a raceme. 

Raciiilla. a secondary axis or rachis; in the grasses and sedges the axis that bears 
the flowers. 

Rachis. An axis bearing flowers or leaflets. 

Radiate. Spreading from a common center; in the Compositae, a head with ray- 

Ray. The branch of an umbel; the marginal flowers (ray-flowers) of an inflorescence 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 281 

if differentiated; the strap-shaped part of the corolla of the ray-flowers in 

Receptacle. The more or less expanded portion of an axis bearing the organs of a 

flower or the collected flowers of a head. 
Regular (flower). See Actinomorphic. 
Remform. Kidney-shaped; having the width greater than the length, and a wide 

sinus at the base. 
Repand. With a slightly sinuate margin. 
Reticulate. Net-veined; like a network. 
Retrorse. Turned backward or downward. 
Retuse. Slightly notched at the rounded apex. 
Revolute. Rolled backward from the margin or apex. 
Rhizome. A more or less elongated, usually underground, horizontal or ascending stem 

modified for food storage and asexual reproduction. 
Rhombic. Having the shape of a rhomb; oval, but somewhat angular at the sides; 

obliquely four-sided. 
Rotate, (corolla). Wheel-shaped; with a flat and circular limb, and a very short tube. 
Rugose. Wrinkled. 
RuGULOSE. Minutely rugose. 
Runcinate. Pinnatifid; cut into sharp triangular lobes, the points directed backwards. 

Sagittate. Shaped like en arrowhead, with the basal lobes directed downward. 
Salverform (flower). With the slender corolla-tube abruptly expanded in a flat limb. 
Samara. A dry indehiscent, one-seeded, winged fruit, such as that of elm, ash, or 

SAPROPH'iTE. A plant which derives its food from non-living organic matter. 
ScABRELLOUS. See Scabrid. 
ScABRID. Slightly rough to touch. 
Scabrous. Rough to the touch. 

Scale. A term applied to several kinds of small usually appressed leaves or bracts. 
Scape. A leafless peduncle arising from the ground; it may bear scales or bracts but 

no leaves and may be one- or several-flowered. 
Scapiform. Scape-like; having the form of a scape. 
ScAPOSE. Having a scape. 

ScARlOUS. Dry, thin, scale-like; membranous; not green. 
ScORPlOlD. Applied to inflorescences which are circinately coiled in the bud, unrolling 

as the flowers expand, as in some Boraginaceae. 
Secund. Turned to one side, as the flowers of an inflorescence. 
Sepal. One of the parts or lobes of a calyx. 
Septate. Divided by septa, or partitions. 
Septicidal. Dehiscing along or in the partitions; said of a fruit that opens between the 

Septum. A partition. 

Sericeous. Silky; pubescent with soft, shining, usually appressed hairs. 
Serrate. Saw-toothed; having small, forwardly-directed sharp teeth en the margin. 
Serrulate. Finely serrate. 
Sessile. Not stalked. 
Setaceous. Bristle-like. 
Setose. Beset with bristles. 
Setulose. Finely setose. 
Sheath. The basal part of a leaf of a grass; any long and more or less tubular 

structure surrounding an organ or part. 
Shrub. A woody plant which does not become tree-like and usually produces several 

stems from a common base. 
Simple (leaf). With the blade all in one piece; not divided into separate leaflets. 
Sinuate. With a strongly wavy margin. 

SoRUS. One of the fruit-dots or clusters of sporangia on the leaves of ferns. 
Spadix. a thick or fleshy spike of certain plants, as the Araceae, surrounded or sub- 
tended by a spathe. 
Spathaceous. Resembling a spathe; spathe-bearing. 

282 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Spathe. a large protecting bract, often colored or membranous, enclosmg the flower 

or inflorescence, especially of certain Monocotyledons. 
Spathiform. See spathaceous. 

Spatulate. Spatula-shaped; gradually narrowed from a rounded summit. 
Spike. An indeterminate inflorescence with sessile flowers on an elongated axis. 
Spikelet. a small spike; the unit of inflorescence of grasses and sedges. 
Spine. A sharp-pointed structure, usually the morphological equivalent of a leaf or 

part of a leaf. 
Spinescent. Becoming spiny; with short spine-like branchlets. 
Spinulose. Minutely spiny. 
Spontaneous (spont.). Growing as native: appearing by itself without having been 

Sporangium. The spore-sac, especially in ferns, in which spores are produced. 
Sporocarp. a pod-like structure containing one or more sporangia, as in Marsileaceae. 
Sporophyll. a specialized spore-bearing leaf, usually more or less modified and unlike 

the normal leaves. 
Spur. A sac-like or tubular extension of some part or parts of the peripnth, usuall> 

nectariferous; a short branchlet with much shortened internodes, usually bearint 

a cluster of leaves. 
Spurred. Provided with a spur. 

Squarrose. Spreading at the tip, at a right angle or more. 
Stamen. The pollen-bearing male organ of the flower. 
Staminate flower, a flower which bears stamens but no carpels. 
StaminodE. a sterile stamen, or a structure resembling such and borne in the staminal 

part of the flower; in some flowers staminodia are petal-like. 
Standard. The upper broad petal of papilionaceous flower. 
Stellate. Star-shaped; said of trichomas with radiating branches, or of a cluster of 

radiating trichomes. 
Stigma. The part of the pistil, usually the apex, which receives pollen and upon which 

pollen grains germinate. 
Stipe. The stalk of a pistil or similar organ. 
Stipel. a minute stipule on the petiolule of a leaflet. 
Stipitate. Having a stipe. 

Stipule. One of a pair of lateral appendages at the base of the petiole of many leaves. 
Stipulate (leaf). Possessing stipules. 
Stolon. In flowering plants, a slender modified stem or basal branch trailing along 

the ground and rooting at the nodes; a "runner. 
StoloNIFEROUS. Bearing stolons. 

Stramineous. Straw-like, especially of the color of straw. 
Striate. Marked with fine longitudinal lines. 
Strigilose. Minutely strigose. 

Strigose. With appressed straight and stiff hairs. 

Style. The usually attenuated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma. 
Sub — . A Latin prefix, usually signifying somewhat, or slightly. 
Subulate. Awl-shaped; slender, and tapering to a point. 
Succulent. Juicy; fleshy; soft and thickened. 

Superior (ovary). Borne above the insertion of the perianth and free from it. 
Sympetalous. Having the petals united into one jjiece by their margins. 
SyngENESIOUS. With stamens united by their anthers, as in Composifae. 

Tendril. A filiform organ used for climbing, and re[)resenting a modified leaflet, or 

leaf, or stipules, or branch. 
Terete. Circular in transverse section. 
Thalloid. Resembling or consisting of a thallus; said of Lemnaceae, a family of 

monocolyledonous aquatic plants distinguished by the absence of a distinct stem 

or foliage. 
ToMENTOSE. Densely woolly or pubescent; with matted soft wool-like hairiness. 
TomentulosE. Closely and finely tomentose. 
ToRULOSE. Diminutive of torose; cylindrical, swelling in knobs at intervals, somewhat 

moniliform, or like a string of beads. 

Jones: Fi.oka or Illinois 283 

Trailing. A plant unable to support itself, prostrate but not rooting at the nodes. 
Tree. A perennial woody plant, usually with an evident trunk, and attaining a height 

at maturity of not less than five meters. 
Trichome. An outgrowth from the epidermis of plants, as hair, scale, bristle, or 

Trifid. Divided into three parts; three-cleft. 
Trigonal. Triangular; the same as trigonous. 
Tripinnatifid. Thrice pinnatifid. 
Truncate. Ending abruptly, as if cut off. 

Tuber. Enlarged, fleshy, underground stem, commonly borne at the end of a rhizome. 
Tubercle. A small swelling, or a little tuber-like body; the persistent base of the 

style in certain Cyperaceae; the grain-like corky growths on the valves of 

Rumex ; enlargements on the roots of leguminous plants produced by symbiotic 

Tuberculate. Having tubercles. 

Tubular (corolla). Prolonged into a tube, without much spreading at the border. 
Twining. Climbing by twisting spirally around another stem or other support. 

Umbel. An indeterminate inflorescence with branches (rays) arising from a common 

point, resembling the framework of an inverted umbrella; characteristic of the 

Umbellate. Borne in umbels. 

Umbellet. a small umbel formed at the end of one of the rays of a compound umbel. 
Undulate. With wavy surface or margin. 
Unisexual. Of one sex, either staminate or pistillate. 
Urceolate. Urn-shaped; ovoid or shortly cylindrical and contracted or constricted 

at the mouth. 
Utricle. A fruit consisting of a single seed enveloped in a thin pericarp and enclosed 

by the persistent caljTC. 

Valve. The pieces into which a capsule splits or divides; of anthers which open by 

flaps or lids; the three inner accrescent sepals of Rumex. 
Velutinous. Velvety. 
Venation. Arrangement of veins. 
Vernation. The arrangement of leaves in bud. 

Versatile. Attached by the middle so as to swing freely, as an anther. 
Verticillate. Arranged in a whorl. 

Villous. Provided with long and soft, not matted, hairs; shaggy. 
ViLLOSULOUS. Minutely villous. 

\'lRG.\TE. Wand-like; with straight, stiff, erect branches. 
Viscid. Clammy; sticky; glutinous. 

Whorl. An arrangement of three or more leaves or other organs in a circle around 

the axis. 
Zycomorphic. Bilaterally symmetrical; irregular; applied to flowers capable of being 

bisected into similar halves along only one plane. 

284 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 


This is a list of the more important taxonomic articles dealing particularly with the 
flora (vascular plants) of Illinois. Monographs and manuals are not included. For an 
extensive bibliography of Illinois botany see A. G. Vestal, A Bibliography of the 
Ecology of Illinois (Part I) in Trans. 111. Acad. Sci. 27:163-261. 1934; Part II in 

Bebb, M. S. 1857-58 — List of plants occurring in the northern counties of the state of 
Illinois. Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc. 3:586-587. 

1860 — The flora of Ogle and Winnebago counties. Prairie Farmer 22:182-183. 

Beck, L. C. 1826-28 — Contributions toward the botany of the states of Illinois and 
Missouri. Am. Journ. Sci. 10:257-264. 1826; 11:167-182. 1826; 14:112-121. 


BogUSCH, E. R. and Ethel Molbv. 1930 — Grasses of Champaign County. Trans. 111. 
Acad. Sci. 23:104-116. 

BrENDEL, F. 1857-58 — Additions and annotations to Mr. Lapham's catalogue of Illinois 
plants. Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc. 3:583-585. 

• The trees and shrubs in Illinois. Op cit. 588-604. 

The oaks of Illinois. Op. cit. 605-631. 

1860 — Notices and additions to Illinois flora. Prairie Farmer 22:294-295. 

1887 — Flora Peoriana. 89 pp. Peoria. 

Buhl, C. A. 1934 — Supplement to an annotated flora of the Chicago area by H. S. 
Pepoon. Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 5:5-12. 

Croker, Dorothy M. 1942 — A key to the Illinois species of Solidago. Trans. 111. 
Acad. Sci. 35:62-63. 

Darlington, H. T. 1923 — The introduced weed flora of Illinois. Loc. cit. 15:171-184. 

Eaton, S. H. 1931 — The ligneous flora of Lawrence County. Loc. cit. 23:149-159. 

Evers. R. a. 1941 — The trees of Adams county. Loc. cit. 34:98-99. 

Engelmann, G. 1843 — Catalogue of a collection of plants made in Illinois and Missouri 
by Charles A. Geyer. Am. Journ. Sci. 46:94-104. 

Fassett, N. C. 1933. — Notes from the Herbarium of the University of Wisconsin. — ■ 
[corrections of Pepoon's Annotated Flora of the Chicago Area]. Rhodora 35: 

Feldman, a. W. 1942 — Trees and shrubs of Champaign County. Trans. III. Acad. 
Sci. 35:60-61. 

Fernald, Evelyn I. 1940 — Preliminary check list of herbaceous plants of Winnebago 
County. 45 pp. (Mimeographed). Rockford, 111. 

Flagg, W. C. 1878 — Catalogue of the flowering and the higher flowerless plants of 
Illinois. Rept. III. Industr. Univ. 9:221-297. 

Fuller, G. D. 1943 A preliminary check list of the vascular plants ol Sangamon 
County. Trans. III. Acad. Sci. 36:91-99. 

1925 — The vegetation of the Chicago region. 27 p[). University of Chicago Press. 

, G. M. Link. & A. J. Toma.sek. 1942 — Forest Trees of Illinois. Revised edit. 

70 pp. Springfield, 111. 

Gates, F. C. 1923 — Contributions to the flora of Cass County. Trans. III. Acad. Sci. 

1925 — Contributions to the flora of Hancock County. Loc. cit. 18:225-234. 

Glassman, S. 1942 — A taxonomic study of the Illinois species of Rumex. Loc. cit. 


Jones: Flora of Illinois 285 

Gleason, H. a. 1923 — The vegetalional history of the Middle West. Ann. Assoc. Am. 
Geogr. 12:39-85. 

Greene, E. L. 1869 — The botany of central Illinois. Am. Nat. 3:5-8. 

HiCLEY, W. K. & C. S. Raddin. 1891 — The flora of Cook County. Bull. Chicago 
Acad. Sci. 2: no. I, 168 pp. 

Hill, E. J. 1912— The fern flora of lUmois. Fern Bull 20:33-43. 

Jones, G. N. 1942 — A checklist of the vascular plants of the University of Illinois 
woodlands. Trans. 111. Acad. Sci. 35:71-72. 

LaPHAM, I. A. 1856-57. — Catalogue of the plants of the state of Illinois. Trans. III. 
State Agr. Sec. 2:492-550. 

1856-57 — The native, naturalized, and cultivated grasses of the state of Illinois. 

Loc. cit.: 551-613. 

Miller, R. B. & L. R. Teiion. 1929 — The native and naturalized trees of Illinois. 
III. State Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 18:1-339. 

MosHER, Edna. 1918 — The grasses of Illinois. Univ. III. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 

Palmer, E. J. 1921 — Botanical reconnaissance of southern Illinois. Jour. Arnold Arb. 

Patterson, H. N. 1874 — A list cf plants collected in the viciniily of Oquawka, Hen- 
derson County, 18 pp. 

1876 — Catalogue of the phaenogamous and vascular cryptogamous plants of 

Illinois, 54 pp. 

Pearsall, Gordon S. 1940 — List of the fauna and flora of the Forest Preserve, 
District of Cook County, 36 pp. 

Peattie, D. C. 1922 — The Atlantic coastal plain element in the flora of the Great 
Lakes. Rhodora 24:57-70; 80-88. 

Pepoon. H. S. 1927 — An annotated flora of the Chicago area. Chicago Acad. Sci. 
Bull. 8:1-554. 

RiDGV.'AY, R. 1928 — The ligneous flora of Richland County. Trans. III. Acad. Sci. 

Robertson, C. 1928 — Flowers and Insects. 221 pp. Science Printing Co., Lancaster, 

ScHNECK, J. 1876 — Catalogue of the flora of the Wabash Valley. Geol. Surv. Indiana 
Ann. Rept. 7:504-579. 

Smith, Isabel. 1909 — Native trees of Morgan County. Trans. III. Acad. Sci. 2:15-18. 

Steagall, Mary M. 1927 — Some Illinois Ozark ferns in relation to soil acidity. Trans. 
111. Acad. Sci. 19:113-136. 

Stover, E. L. 1930 — A mesophytic ravine. Rocky Branch. Bull of the Eastern 111. 
State Teachers Coll., Charleston. 110:1-26. 

Thone, F. 1925 — Preliminary check list of the vascular plants of Illinois Stat: Park 
at Starved Rock, La Salie Co. Trans. 111. Acad. Sci. 17:100-106. 

Vasey, G. 1859-60--Additions to the flora of Illinois. Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc. 

Vestal, A. G. 1931 — A preliminary vegetation map of Illinois. Trans. 111. Acad. Sci. 

1934 — A bibliography of the ecology of Illinois. Loc. cit. 27:163-261. 

Voss, J. 1935 — Actinea herhacea. Torreya 35:61-62. 

286 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 


The following list of taxonomic monographs and revisions includes those that are of 
value to students of the vascular plants of Illinois and adjacent areas. When the latest 
definitive monograph of a group is listed, earlier works often are not mentioned, since it 
is usually possible to trace these, if necessary, through the monograph cited. For con- 
venience, an author-index is appended. 



Pax, F., Aceraceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 163:1-89. 1902.— Rousseau, J., Histoire 
de la nomenclature de VAcer saccharophorum, Contrib. Inst. Bot. Univ. Montreal 
35:1-66. 1940. 


Wilson, P., Teiragoniaceae [Aizoaceae], N. Am. Fl. 21:267-277. 1932.— Pax, 
F. & K. Hoffmann, Aizoaceae, in Engler & PrantI, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 16c: 
179-233. 1930. 

Buchenau, Fr., Alismalaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 15:1-66. 1903. — Small, J. K., 
Alismaceae, N. Am. Fl. 17:43-62. 1909. — Samuelsson, G., Die Arten der Gattung 
AUsma, Arkiv f5r Bot. 24:1-46. 1932. 

Standley, p. C, Amaranthaceae, N. Am. Fl. 21:95-169. 191 7.— ScHINZ, H., 
Amaranthaceae, in Engler & PrantI, Die Nat. Pflanzenf., 2 ed. 16c:7-85. 1934. 

BracKETT, Amelia E., Revision of the American species of Hypoxis, Rhodora 25: 
120-147. 1923. — Pax, F. & K. Hoffmann, AmarxilUdaceae in Engler & PrantI, Die 
Nat Pflanzenf., 2 ed. 15a:391-431. 1930. 

Barkley, F. a., a monographic study of Rhus and its immediate allies, Ann. Mis- 
souri Bot. Gard. 24:265-498. 1937. 

Woodson, R. E., A monograph of the genus Amsonia, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 
15:379-434. 1928; Apocynaceae, m N. Am. Fl. 29:103-192. 1938. 

Loesener, Th., Aquifoliaceae in Engler & PrantI, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 
20b:36-86. 1942. 

Engler, A., Araceae-Aroideae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 23f: 1-274. 1920. — Fernald, 
M. L. What is Arisaema Iriphvllnm? Rhodora 42:247-253. 1940. 

Schmidt, O. C, Aristolochiaceac in Engler & PrantI, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 
16b:204-242. 1935. 

Vail, Anna M., A revision of the genus Acerates in the United States, Bull. Torr. 
Club 25:30-38. 1898. — Perry, Lily M., Conolohus within the Gray's Manual range, 
Rhodora 40:280-287. 1938.— Woodson, R. E., The N. Am. Asdepiadaceae, I. Per- 
spective of the genera, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 28:193-244. 1941. 

Rydberg, p. a. Balsaminaceae, N. Am. Fl. 25:93-96. 1910. 

Winkler, H. Betulaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 61:1-149. 1904. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 287 

Brand, A., Boraginaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 252:1-183. 1921; 1-236. 1931.— 
Johnston, I. M., Restoration of the genus Hacl^elia, Contr. Gray Herb. 68:43-48. 
1923; A synopsis of the Am. native and immigrant borages of the subfam. Boraginoi- 
deae, op. cit. 70:3-44. 1924. — Mackenzie, K. K., Onosmodium, Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club 32:495-506. 1905. — Williams, L. O., A monograph of the genus Mertensia in 
N. Am., Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 24:17-159. 1937. 

JoNKER, F. P., A monograph of the Burmanniaceae, Meded. Bot. Mus. Ryks*. 
Univ. Utrecht 51:1-279. 1938. — Pfeiffer, Norma E., Morphology of Thismia amer- 
icana, Bot. Gaz. 57:122-135. 1914. — ScHLECHTER, R., Die Thismieae. Notizbl. Bot. 
Gart. Berlm 8:31-45. 1921. 

Britton, N. L. & J. N. Rose, The Cactaceae, in Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 
248, 1:1-236, 1919; 2:1-239, 1920; 3:1-255, 1922; 4:1-318, 1923. 

Pax, F., & K. Hoffmann, Callilrichaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 
2 ed. 19c:236-240. 1931. 

Pax, F., & K. Hoffmann, Capparidaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 
2 ed. 17b: 146-223. 1936. 

Jones, G. N., A monograph of the genus Symphoricarpos, Journ. Arnold Arb. 21: 
201-252. 1940. — Rehder, A. Synopsis of the genus Lonicera, Ann. Rept. Missouri 
Bot. Gard. 14:27-232. 1903. — WiEGAND, K. M., Notes on Triosteum perfolialum and 
related species, Rhodora 25:199-203. 1923. 

ROSSBACH, Ruth P., Spergularia in N. & S. Am.. Rhodora 42:57-83; 105-143. 
1940. — Pax, F. & K. Hoffmann, Caryophyllaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. 
Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 16c:275-364. 1934. 


Loesener, Th., Celaslraceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 20b: 
87-197. 1942. 


Aellen, p., Beitrag zur Systematik der C/ienopoJium-Arten Amerikas, Rep. Spec. 
Nov. Reg. Veg. 26:31-64, 119-160. 1929.— Aellen, P. & Th. Just, Key and 
Synopsis of the Am. Species cf the Genus Chenopodium, Am. Midi. Nat. 30: 
47-76. 1943. — Hall, H. M., & F. E. Clements, The genus Alriplex, Carnegie Inst. 
Washington Publ. 326:235-346. 1923. — Just, Th., Chenopodiaceae in Deam, Flora 
of Indiana 418-427. 1940.— Standley, p. C, Chenopodiaceae, N. Am. FI. 21:1-93. 
1916. — Ulbrich, E., Chenopodiaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 
16c:379-584. 1934. 


Grosser, W., Cislaceae. Das Pflanzenr. IV. 193:1-161. 1903.— Hodgdon, A. R., 
A taxonomic study of Lechea, Rhodora 40:29-69; 87-131. 1938. — Janchen. E., 
Cislaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf., 2 ed. 2 1 : 289-313. 1925. 

Anderson, E., & R. E. Woodson, The species of Tradescanlia indigenous to the 
U. S. Contr. Arnold Arb. 9:1-132. 1935. — Fernald, M. L., The varieties of Com- 
melina erecia. Rhodora 42:435-441. 1940. — Pennell, F. W., The genus Comn^elina 
in the U. S., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 43:96-111. 1916. 

Cronquist, a.. The separation of Erigeron from Con^za. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 
70:629-632. 1943. — Fernald, M. L., TT>e dwarf Antennarias of n.e. Am., Rhodora 
26:95-102. 1924; Taraxacum in e. N. Am., loc. cit. 35:369-386. 1933.— A synopsis 

288 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

of Bohonia, loc. cit. 42:482-492. 1940. — Friesner, R. C, The genus Solidago in n.e. 
N. Am., Butler Univ. Bol. Studies 3:1-64. 1933. — Gleason, H. A., Vernonieae, 
N. Am. FI. 33:47-110. 1922.— Greene, E. L., Anlerwaria in the Middle West, 
Am. Midi. Nat. 2:73-90. 1911.— Greenman, J. M., Monograph of the N. & 
Centr. Am. species of the genus Senecio, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 2:573-626. 1915, 
3:85-194. 1916. — Hall, H. M., & F. E. Clements, The genus Artemisia, Carnegie 
Inst. Washington Publ. 326:31-156. l923.--MiLLSPAUGH, C. F., & E. E. Sherff, 
Xanthium. N. Am. FI. 33:37-44. 1922.— Pkrry, Lily M., Notes on Silphiiim, Rhodora 
39:281-297. 1937. — Petrak, F., Die nordamerikanischen Arten der Gattung Cirsium, 
Bot. Centralbl. Beihefte 35:223-567. 191 7.— PoPHAM, R. A., A key to the genera 
of the Compositales of n.e. N. Am.. Ohio Biol. Surv. Bull. 7:103-129. 1941.— RvD- 
BERG, P. A., CarJuaceae : Helenieac, N. Am. FI. 34:1-75. 1914; Tageieae, op. cit. 
81-180. 1915; Anlhemideae, op. cit. 181-288. 1916; Amhrosiaceae, Carduaceae, loc. cit. 
33:1-37. 1922.— St. John, H., & D. White, The genus Calimoga in N. Am., Rho- 
dora 22:97-101. 1920. — Sharp, W. M., A critical study of certain epappose genera 
[incl. Ralihida, Echinacea, Balsamorhiza, et al.] of the H ehaulheae-V erhesinineae, Ann. 
Missouri Bot. Gard. 22:51-152. 1935.— Sherff, E. E., The N. Am. species of 
Taraxacum, Bot. Gaz. 70:329-359. 1920; The genus Bidens, Publ. Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Bot. Series 16:1 709. 1937; Revision of the genus Coreopsis, loc. cit. 11: 
279-475. 1936. — Shinners, L. H., The genus Aster in Wisconsin, Am. Midi. Nat. 
26:398-420. 1941.— A revision of the Lialris scariosa complex, loc. cit. 29:27-41. 1943. 
— Standley, P. C A revision of the cichoriacrous genera Krigia, Cxjnthia, and 
Adopogon, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13:351-358. 191 1 .— Steyermark, J. A., 
A monograph of the N. Am. species of Crindclia, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 
21 :433-608. 1934. — Watson, E. E., Contributions to a monograph of the genus 
H"lia„tlms, Papers Michigan Acad. Sci. 9:305-475. 1929.— Widder, F. J., Die Arten 
der Gattung Xanthium, Rep. Spec. Nov. Reg. Veg. Beihefte 20:1-222. 1923. — WlE- 
cand, K. M., Eupatorium purpureum and itb allies, Rhodora 22:57-70. 1920; Aster 
laetiflorus and some of its relatives, loc. cit. 30:161-179. 1928; Aster paniculalus and 
some of its relatives, loc. cit. 35:16-38. 1933. — WiEGAND, K. M., & C. A. Weather- 
BY, The nomenclature of the verticillate Eupatoria, loc. cit. 39:297-306. 1937. 


House, H. D., Studies in the N. Am. ConYohulaceae. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34: 
143-149. 1907; loc. cit. 36:595-603. 1909; The N. Am. species of the genus Ipomaea. 
Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 18:181-263 1908.- Tryon, R. M., The varieties of 
Convolvulus spithamaeus and of C. sepium. Rhodora 41:415-423. 1939. YuNCKER, T. 
G., The Convolvulaceae of Indiana, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 1922:273-280. 1923; 
Revision of the N. Am. and West Indian species of Cuscuta, Univ. of Illinois Biol. 
Monogr. 6:1-141. 1921; The genus Cuscuta, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 18:113-331. 1932. 


Wangerin, W., Nyssaceae [Cornaceae]. Das Pflanzenr. IV'. 56a : 1 -20. 1910; 
Cor;icjccae loc. cit. 1-110. 


Berger, a., Crassulaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. F^flanzenf. 2 ed. 18a: 
352-483. 1930. -Britton, N. L., & J. N. Rose, Crassulaceae, N. Am. FI. 22:1-1 A. 
1905.— Rydberg. p. a., Penlboraceac, N. Am. FI. 22:75. 1905. 

Bailey, L. II., The cultivated brassicas, Gentes Herb. 1:53-108. 1922; loc. cit. 2: 
211-267. 1930.-, L. li.., A revision of the N. Am. species of Descurainia, 
Am. Midi. Nat. 22:481-520. 1939.— Fern ALD, M. L., Some variations of Ca/('.7e 
cdentula, Rhodora 24:21-23, ]922;Draba in temperate e. N. Am., loc cit. 36:241-261 ; 
285-305; 314-344; 353-371; 392-404. 1934.- Hitchcock. C. Leo, The genus Lepid- 
ium in the U. S., Madrono 3:265-320. 1936. — HoPKlNS, M., Arahis in e. and centr. 
N. Am., Rhodora 39:63-98; 106-148; 155-186. 1937.— Payson. E. B., A monograph 
of the genus Lesquerella, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 8:103-236. 1922. — RoLLlNS, R. 
C Systematic study of lodanthus, Contr. Dudley Herb. Stanford Univ. 3:209-239. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 289 

1942; A monographic study of Arahis in w. N. Am., Rhodora 43:289-325; 348-411; 
425-481. 1941.— ScHULZ. O. E.. Cmciferae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 105:1-290. 1919; 
1-100. 1923; 1-388. 1924; 1-396. 1927; also in Enaler & Ptantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 

2 ed. 17b:227-658. 1936. 

Bailev, L. H., Species of Cuciirbila, Gentes Herb. 6:265-322. 1943. 


PiLGER, R., Cupressaceae in Engler & PrantI, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 13: 
361-403. 1926. 


Bush, B. P.. The N. Am. species of Fuirena, Ann. Rept. Missouri Bot. Gard. 16: 
87-99. 1905.— Core. E. L., The Am. species of Scleria. Bnttonia 2:1-105. 1936. 
— Fernald, M. L., The N. Am. species of Eriophonim, Rhodora 7:81-92; 129-136. 
1905; Studies in N. Am. species of Scirpus, loc. cit. 45:279-296. 1943. — Fernald, M. 
L., & Amelia E. Brackett, The representatives of Eleocharis paluslris in N. Am., 
Rhodora 31:57-77. 1929. — Friedland, S., The Am. species of Hemtcarpha, Am. Jour. 
Bot. 28:855-861. 1941. — Gale. Shirley, Rhvnchospora, sect. Eurbxinchospora in 
Canada, U. S. & W. Ind., Rhodora 46 :89- 134 ; 'l59- 197 ; 207-249; 255'-278. 1944.— 
KiJKENTHAL, G., Cvperaceae — Scirpoideae — Cvpereae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 20:1-671. 
1935'. — McGivNEY, Sr. M. Vincent de Paul, A revision of the subgen. Eucvpems 
found in the U. S., Contr. Biol. Lab. Catholic Univ. Amer. 26:1-74. 1938.— Macken- 
zie. K. K., C^peraceae—Cariceae, N. Am. Fl. 18:1-478. 1931-1935; Keys to the 
N. Am. species of Carex, 80 pp.. New York Bot. Gard., 1941 ; N. Am. Cariceae, pi. 
1-539. 1940. — Svenson, H. K., Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis, Rhodora 
31:121-135; 152-163: 167-191; 199-219: 224-242. 1929; 34:193-203; 215-227. 
1932; 36:377-389. 1934; 39:210-231; 236-273. 1937; 41:1-19; 43-77; 90-110. 


Bartlett, H. H.. Dioscoreaceae in the U. S., U. S. Dept. Agr. Plant Ind. Bull. 
189:1-25. 1910.— Knuth, R., Dioscoreaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 43:1-387. 1924, 
Dioscoreaceae in Engler & PrantI, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 15a: 438-463. 1930. 

DiELS, L. Droseraceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 112:1-136. 1906; also in Engler & 
PrantI, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 17b:766-784. 1936.— Wynne, Frances E., Drosera 
m eastern N. Am., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 71 :166-174. 1944. 

Fernald, M. L.. The genus Elatine in N. Am.. Rhodora 19:10-15. 1917; Elaline 
americana and E. triandra. Ice. cit. 43:208-211. 1941. — NlEDENZU, F., Elatinaceae in 
Engler & PrantI. Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 21:270-276. 1925. 


Adams. J. E., A systematic study of the genus Arctoslaphylos, Journ. Elisha Mit- 
chell Sci. Src. 56:1-62. 1940. — Camp. W. H., The g^nus Ca^^lussacia in N. Am. n. 
of Mexico, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 62:129-132. 1935.— PoRSlLD, A. E., The cranberry 
in Canada, Can. Field Nat. 52:116-118. 1938.— RydbERG, P. A., Pvrolaceae, N. Am. 
Fl. 29:19-32. 1914.— Small, J. K., Monofropaceae, N. Am. Fl. 29:11-18. 1914; 
Ericaceae, op. cit. 33-102. 


Moldenke, H. N., Eriocaidaceae, N. Am. Fl. 19:17-50. 1937. — Ruhland, W.. 
Eriocaidaceae in Engler & PrantI, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 15a:39-58. 1930. 

Britton, N. L., Ileaceae [Escalloniaceae], N. Am. Fl. 22:181. 1905. 

Ferguson, A. M., Crotons of the U. S., Ann. Rept. Missouri Bot. Gard. 12:33- 
73. 1901. — Pax, F., & K. Hoffmann, Euphorbiaceae in Engler & PrantI, Die Nat. 
Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 19c:l 1-233. 1941. — Weatherby, C. A., The group of Acahpha 

290 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

virginica in e. N. Am., Rhodora 29:193-204. 1927, also loc. cit. 39:14-16. 1937.— 
Wheeler, L. C,, Euphorbia, subgenus Chamaesvce in Canada and the U. S., Rhodora 
43:97.-154; 168-205; 223-286. 1941. 

Dyal, Sarah C, A key to the species of oaks of eastern N. Am., Rhodora 38:53- 
63. 1936. — Palmer, E. J., The red oak complex in the U. S., Am. Midi. Nat. 27: 
732-740. 1942.— Trelease, W., The American oaks, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. 20:1- 
255. 1924. 

Card, H. H., A revision of the genus Frasera, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 18:245- 
282. 1931. — St. John, H., Revision of the genus Steeriia of the Americas and the 
reduction of Frasera, Am. Midi. Nat. 26:1-29. 1941. 

Fernald, M. L., Ceranium caroliniarmm and allies of northeastern N. Am., Rho- 
dora 37:295-301. 1935.— Hanks, L. T., & J. K. Small, Ceraniaceae, N. Am. Fi. 
25:1-24. 1907. — Jones, G. N., & F. F. Jones, A revision of the perennial species of 
Ceranium of the United States and Canada, Rhodora 45:5-26; 32-53. 1943. — Knuth, 
R., Ceraniaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf., 2 ed. 19a:43-66. 1931. 

Fernald, M. L., Five common rhizomatous species of Muhlenbergia, Rhodora 45: 
221-239. 1943.— Hitchcock, A. S.. Manual of the Grasses of the U. S., U. S. Depf. 
Agr. Misc. Publ. 200:1-1040. 1935; Poaceae (Cramineae), N. Am. FI. 17:289-354. 

1931; 355-482,483-542. 1935; 543-638. 1939. 

Berger, a., a taxonomic review of currants and gooseberries. New York Agric. 
Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 109:1-118. 1924.— CoviLLE, F. V., & N. L. BritTON, Cros- 
sulariaceae, N. Am. Fl. 22:193-225. 1908. 

ScHlNDLER, A. K., Halorrhagaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 225:1-133. 1905. 

H amamelidaceae 
BritTON, N. L., H amamelidaceae, N. Am. Fl. 22:185-187. 1905.— Harms, H., 
H amamelidaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 18a:303-345. 1930.— 
Wilson, P., Aliingiaceae, op. cit. 189. 1905. 

St. John, H., A critical revision of Hydrangea arborescens, Rhodora 23:203-208. 
1922. — Rehder, a., Phdadelphus verrucosus spontaneous in Illinois, Jour. Arnold Arb. 
2:153-156. 1921.— Small, J. K., & P. A. Rydberg, Hvdrangeaceae, N. Am. Fl. 
22:159-178. 1905. 

Marie-VictoriN, P"r., Anacharis canademis, Contr. Inst. Bot. Univ. Montreal 18: 
1-43. 1931; Les Vallisneries Americaincs, loc, cit. 46:1-38. 1943. Rydberc, P. A., 
Elodeaceae, N. Am. Fl. 17:67-71. 1909; Hydrocharilaceae. op. ciL 17:73-74. 1909. 
—St. John, H., The genus Elodea in New Engl., Rhodora 22:17-29. 1920. 

Brand, A., Hydroplndlaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 251:1-210. 1913.— Chitten- 
den, R. J., & W. B. TuRRiLL, Taxonomic and genetical notes on some species of 
Nemophila, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1926:1-12. 1926.- -CoN.'^TANCE, L., The genus N em- 
ophila, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 19:341-398. 1941; The genera of the tribe H\uJro- 
phylleae, Madrom, 5:28-33. 1939; The genus Ellisia, Rhodora 42:33-39. 1940; The 
genus Hydrophyllum, Am. Midi. Nat. 27:710-731. 1942. 

SVENSON, II. K., Woody Species of Hypericum. Rhodora 42:8-19. 1Q40. 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 291 

Core, E. L.. The N. Am. species of Paronychia, Am. Midi. Nat. 26:369-397. 

Anderson, E,., The problem of species in the northern blue flags. Iris versicolor and 
[ris virginica. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 15:241-332. 1928. — Foster, R. C. A cyto- 
taxonomic survey of the N. Am. species of Iris, Contr. Gray Herb. 119:1-82. 1937. 

Little, E. L., Notes on the nomenclature of Car\}a, Am. Midi. Nat. 29:493-508. 
1943.— Sargent, C. S., Notes on N.'Am. Trees, if, Car^a, Bot. Gaz. 66:229-258. 
1918. — Trelease, W., Juglandaceae of the U. S., Ann. Rept. Missouri Bot. Gard. 
7:25-46. 1896. 

Buchenau, p., Juncaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 36:1-284. 1906. Hermann, F. J., 
Juncaceae in Deam, Flora of Indiana, 290-302. 1940. — WiEGAND, K. M., Juncus tenuis 
and some of its N. Am. allies. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 27:511-527. 1900. 

BiCKNELL, E. P., The genus Teucrium in the e. U. S., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 28: 
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Blake, S. F., Notes on Am. Lespedezas, Rhodora 26:25-34. 1924; — Britton, 
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Hicks. L. E.. The Lemnaceae of Indiana. Am. Midi. Nat. 18:774-789. 1937.— 

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Anderson, W. A., Notes on the flora of Tennessee: the £ienus Trillium, Rhodora 
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KOLHNE, E., Lylhraceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 216:1-326. 1903. 

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Kearney, T. H., The N. Am. species of Sphaeralcea, subgen. Eusphaeralcea, 
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Van EsELTINE, G. P., A preliminary study of the unicorn plants. New ^'ork Slate 
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Fernald, M. L., Rhcxia in n.e. N. Am., Rhodora 37:169-173. 1935. 

DiELS, L., Menispermaceac, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 94:1-345. 1910. 

Clausen, R. T., Studies in the genus Naja.s in the n. U. S., Rhodora 38:333-345. 
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Heimerl, a., Nvctaginaceae in Engler & PrantI, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 16c: 
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Ames, O., The genus Habenaria in N. Am., Orchidaceae, fasc. 4, 1910; An enu- 
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AcHEY, Daisy M., A revision of the sect. Cvmnocaidis of the genus Orobanche, 
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Knuth, R., Oxalidaceae. Das Pflanzenr. IV. 130:1-481. 1930; also m Engler & 
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Fedde, F., Papaveraceae. Das Pflanzenr. IV. 104:1-430. 1909; also in Engler & 
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Pace, Lula, Pamassia and seme allied genera. Bot. Gaz. 54:306-329. 1912. — 
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KiLLiP, E. P., The Am. specie? of Passifloraceae. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Bot. 
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Heimerl, a., Phvtolaccaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 
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Pilger, R., in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 13:271-342. 1926. 

Pilger, R., Plantaginaceae. Das Pflanzenr. IV. 269:1-466. 1937. 

Glf.ASON, H. a., Plalanaceae. N. Am. Fl. 22:227-229. I9C8. 

294 American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Brand, A., Polemomaceae. Das Pflanzenr. IV. 250:1-203. 1907.— Wherry, E. 
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Alexander, E. J., Ponlederiaceae, N. Am. Fl. 19:51-60. 1937. — Schwartz, O., 
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Pax, F., & K. Hoffmann, Porlulacaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 
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Fassett, N. C, Dodecatheon in e. N. Am., Am. Midi. Nat. 31:455-486. 1944.— 
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Ben.son, L., The N. Am. subdivisions of Ranunculus, Am. Jour. Bot. 27:799-807. 
1940; N. Am. Ranunculi, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 68:157-172; 477-490. 1941; loc cit. 
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46:337-377, 391-445, 453-487. 1944.— Drew, W. B., N. Am. representatives of 
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Van ReNNSELALR, M., & H. E. McMinn. A systematic study of the genus Ccano- 

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Bailey, L. H., Enumeration of the Eubati (dewberries and blackberries) native in 
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Standley, p. C., Rubiaceae, N. Am. Fl. 32:1-86. 1918; 87-158. 1921; 159-300. 

Engler. a., Rulaceae in Die Nat. Pflanzenf.. 2 ed. 19a: 187-359. 193 I .— WiLSON. 
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Schneider, C., Notes on American willows, Bol. Gaz. 67:309-346. 1919; Jour. 
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PilgER, R., Sanialaceae in Engler & Prantl. Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. l€b:52-91. 

Clark, R. B., A revision of the genus Dumelia in the U. S., Ann. Missouri Bot. 
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Macfarlane, J. M., Sarraccniaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 110:1-38. 1906. — 
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Engler, A.. & E. Irmscher, Saxifraga, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 117:1-709. 1916; 
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Olga Lakela, a monograph on the genus Heuchera, Minnesota Studies PI. Sci. 2:1- 
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Britton, N. L., Scheuchzeriaceae, N. Am. Fl. 17:41-42. 1909. — BuCHENAU, Fr., 
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Grant, Adele L., A monograph of the genus Mimulus, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 
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Engler, a., Simarubaceae. in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 19:359-405. 
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Hitchcock., C. Leo, A monographic study of the genus Lvcium of the western 

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— Safford, W. E., Synopsis of the genus Datura, Jour. Washmgton Acad. Sci. 11: 

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Fernald, M. L., Notes on Sparganium, Rhodora 24:26-34. 1922. — Graebner, P., 
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Krause, J., Siaphvleaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 20b: 
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Perkins, J., Slvracaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 241:1-111. 1907. 

PlLGER, R.. Taxaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 5:1-24. 1903; Taxaceae in Engler & 
Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 13:199-211. 1926. 

PiLGER. R., TaxoJiaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 13:342-360. 

Bush, B. F., The glabrate species of Tilia. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 54:231-248. 
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Graebner. P.. T\)pbaceae, Das Pflanzenr. IV. 8:1-18. 1900.— Wilson. P. T\,pha- 
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Coulter, J. M., & J. N. Rose, Monograph of the N. Am. Umbelliferae. Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 7:9-256. 1900; suppl., loc. cii. 12:441-451. 1909.— Mathias, Mil- 
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1-398. 1927. 

V alerianaceue 
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Perry, Lily M., A revision of the N. Am. species of Verbena, Ann. Missouri Rot. 
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Baird, Viola B., Wild Violets of N. Am. 1-225. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley, 
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Bailey, L. 1 1., The species of grapes peculiar to N. Am., Gentcs Herb. 3:151-244. 


Jones: Flora of Illinois 297 

Malme, G. O. a., Xyridaceae, N. Am. Fl. 19:3-15. 1937. 


Engler, a., Z\igophvllaceae in Engler & Prantl, Die Nat. Pflanzenf. 2 ed. 19a: 
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Benedict, R. C, OsmimJaceae, N. Am. Fl., 16:27-28. 1909.— Broun, M., Index 
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Ferns and fern allies of Missouri. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 20:45-78. 1933. — Pfeiffer, 
Norma E., Monograph of the Isoetaceae. loc. cit. 9:79-232. 1922. — Schaffner, J. H., 
N. Am. species of Eqiiiseium, Am. Fern. Journ. 11:65-75. 1921; Diagnostic key 
to the species of Equiselum, loc. cit. 22:69-75; 122-128. 1932. — SvENSON, H. K., The 
New World species of Azolla, loc. cit. 34:69-84. 1944. — Tryon, R. M., A 
revision of the genus Pieridiiim, Rhodora 43:1-31. 1941. — Underwood, L. M. & R. 
C. Benedict, Ophioglossaceae, N. Am. Fl. 16:1-13. 19C9. Weatherby, C. A., 

A list of vprieties and forms of the ferns of e. N. Am., Am. Fern Jour. 25:45-51, 

95-100. 1935; loc. cit. 26:11-16. 60-69. 94-99. 130-136. 1936; loc. cit. 27:20-24, 51- 
56. 1937; A new variety of C\)stopkns fragiUs. Rhodora 37:373-378. 1935; The 
group of Pol\]podiiim pohpodioides, Contr. Gray Herb. 124:22-35. 1939. — Wherry, 
E. T., Guide to eastern ferns, (ed. 2) 1-252. 1942. — WiLSON. L. R., The spores of 
the genus Lvicopodiiim in the U. S. and Canada, Rhodora 36:13-19. 1934. 

Author Index 

AcHEY, Daisy M. — Orobanchaceae....293 

Adams, J. E. — Ericaceae 289 

Aellen, p. — Chenopodiaceae 287 

, & Th. Just — Chenopodiaceae 287 

Alexander, E. J. — Pontederiaceae....294 

Ames, O. — Orchidaceae 293 

Anderson, E. — Iridaceae 290 

, & R. E. Woodson — 

Commelinaceae 287 

Anderson, W. A. — Liliaceae 292 


Potamogetonaceae 294 

Bailey, L. H. — Cruciferae, Cucurbita 
ceae, Liliaceae, Rosaceae, Vitaceae 

288, 292, 295, 296 

Baird, Viola B. — Violaceae 296 

Barkley, F. a. — Anacardiaceae 286 

Barksdale, L. — Liliaceae 292 

Bartlett, H. H. — Dioscoreaceae 289 

Beck-Mannagetta, G. — Oroban- 

chaceae 293 

Benedict, R. C. — Pteridophyta 297 

Benson, L. — Ranunculaceae 294 

Berger, a. — Crassulaceae, Grossulari- 

aceae 288, 290 

BiCKNELL, E. P. — Labiatae, Rosa- 
ceae 291, 295 

Blake, S. F. — Leguminosae, Poly- 

galaceae 291, 294 

BoLLE, F. — Rosaceae 295 

Brackett, Amelia E. — Amarylli- 

daceae 286 

Brainerd. E. — Violaceae 296 

Brand, A. — Boraginaceae, Hydro- 

phyllaceae, Polemoniaceae 

287, 290, 294 

Britton, N. L. — Hamamelidaceae, 
Escalloniaceae, Scheuchzeriaceae 
290. 289, 295 

, & J. N. Rose — Cactaceae, 

Crassulaceae, Leguminosae 287, 288, 291 

Broun, M. — Pteridophyta 297 

BucHENAU, F. — Alismaceae, Junca- 
ceae, Scheuchzeriaceae.. .286, 291, 295 

Bush, B. F. — Cyperaceae, Liliaceae, 
Tiliaceae 289, 292. 296 

Butters, F. K. — Liliaceae 292 

Camp. W. H. — Ericaceae 289 

Card, H. H. — Gentianaceae 290 

Chittenden, R. J., & W. B. Turrill 

— Hydroiihyllaceae 290 

Clark, R. B- Sapotaceae 295 

Clausen, R. T. — Gentianaceae, Nai- 

adaceae, Pteridophyta 290, 292, 297 

Coker, W. C. — Liliaceae 292 

CoNARD, H. S. — Nymphaeaceae 293 

Constance, L. — Hydrophyllaceae 290 

Core, E. L. — Cyperaceae, Illecebra- 

ceae 289. 290 

Coulter, J. M., & J. N. Rose — 

Umbelliferae 296 

CoviLLE. F. v.. & N. L. Britton^ — 

Grossulariaceae 290 

Cronquist. a. — Compositae 287 

Dandy, J. E. — Magnoliaceae 292 

DetLING, L. E. — Cruciferae 288 

DiELS, L. — Droseraceae. Menisperm- 

aceae 289. 292 

Drew, W. B. — Ranunculaceae 294 

Drummond. J. R., & J. Hutchinson 

— ■ Ranunculaceae 294 

Dyal, Sarah C. — Fagaceae, Valeri- 

anaceae 289, 296 

Engler, a. — Araceae, Rutaceae, Sim- 
arulaceae, Zygophyllaceae 

286, 295, 296, 297 

, & E. Irmscher — Saxifraga- 

ceae 295 

, & K. KrAUSE — Loranthaceae 292 

EpliNG, C. — Labiatae 291 

. & W. S. Stewart — Labiatae 291 

Erickson. R. O. — Ranunculaceae 294 

Fassett, N. C. — Leguminosae, Primu- 

laceae 291, 294 

Fedde. F. — Papaveraceae 293 

Ferguson, A. M. — Euphorbiaceae 289 

Fernald, M. L. — Araceae, Comme- 
linaceae, Compositae, Cruciferae, 
Cyperaceae, Elatmaceae, Gerania- 
ceae, Grammeae, Labiatae, Leg- 
uminosae, Melastomaceae, Onagra- 
ceae, Potamogetonaceae, Primula- 
ceae. Pteridophyta, Ranunculaceae. 
Rosaceae, Sparganiaceae 

286, 287, 288, 289. 289, 290, 
291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297 

, & Amelia E. Brackett — 

Cyperaceae 289 

, & C. A. Weatherby — Ros- 
aceae 295 

Foster, R. C. — Iridaceae 290 

Freeman, Florence L. — Legumin- 
osae 291 

Friedi.AND. S.- Cyperaceae 289 

FriesNER. R. C. — Compositae. Pteri- 
dophyta 287, 297 


Jones: Flora of Illinois 


Gale, Shirley — Cyperaceae 289 

Gates, R. R. — Liliaceae 292 

Gleason, H. a. — Compositae, Lilia- 
ceae, Platanaceae 287, 292, 293 

Gould, F. W. — Liliaceae 292 

Graebner, p. — Sparganiaceae, Ty- 

phaceae 296 

Grant, Adele L. — Scrophulariaceae 295 

Greene, E. L. — Compositae 287 

GreeNMAN, J. M. — Compositae 287 

Grosser, W. — Cistaceae 287 

Hall, H. M., & F. E. Clements — 

Chenopodiaceae, Compositae 287 

Hanks, L. T., & J. K. Small — 

Geraniaceae 290 

Harms, H. — Hamamelidaceae 290 

Heimerl, a. — Nyctaginaceae, Phyto- 

laccaceae 292, 293 

Hermann, F. J. — Juncaceae, Labiatae 291 

Hicks, L. E. — Lemnaceae 291 

Hitchcock, A. S. — Gramineae 290 

Hitchcock, C. Leo — Cruciferae, So- 

lanaceae 288, 296 

HoDGDON, A. R. — Cistaceae 287 

Holm, Th. — Polygonaceae, Violaceae 

294, 296 

Hopkins, M. — Cruciferae, Legumin- 

osae 288, 291 

House, H. D. — Convolvulaceae 288 

Hutchinson, J. — Papaveraceae, Ran- 

unculaceae 293, 294 

Janchen, E. — Cistaceae 287 

Johnson, A. M. — Saxifragaceae 295 

Johnston, I. M. — Boraginaceae 287 

Jones, G. N. — Caprifoliaceae, Rosa- 

ceae 287, 295 

, & Florence F. Jones — 

Geraniaceae 290 

Jonker, F. p. — Burmanniaceae 287 

Just, Th. — Chenopodiaceae 287 

Kearney, T. H. — Malvaceae 292 

KiLLiP, E. P. — Passifloraceae 293 

Knuth, R. — Dioscoreaceae, Gerani- 
aceae, Oxalidaceae 289, 290, 293 

KoEHNE, E. — Lythraceae 292 

KrAUSE, J. — Staph yleaceae 296 

Larisey, Mary M. — Leguminosae 291 

Leonard, E. C. — Labiatae 291 

LiNGELSHElM, A. — Oleaceae 293 

Little, E. L. — Juglandaceae 291 

Lloyd, F. E., & L. M. Underwood 

— Pteridophyta 297 

LoESENER, Th. — Aquifoliaceae, Celas- 

Iraceae 286, 287 

Macfarlane, J. M. — Sarraceniaceae 295 

Mackenzie, K. K. — Boraginaceae, 

Cyperaceae 287, 289 

McClintock, E., & C. Epling — 

Labiatae 291 

McGivNEY, Sr. M. Vincent de Paul 

— Cyperaceae 289 

McVaugh, R. — Lobeliaceae 292 

Malme, G. O. a. — Xyridaceae 296 

Marie-Victorin, Fr. — Hydrochari- 

taceae, Liliaceae, Pteridophyta 

290, 292. 297 

Mathias. Mildred, & L. Constance 

Umbelliferae 296 

Miller, G. S., & P. C. Standley- — 

Nymphaeaceae 293 

MiLLsPAUGH, C. F., & E. E. Sherff 

— Compositae 287 

MoLDENKE, H. N. — Eriocaulaceae— .289 
Morton, C. V. — Malvaceae, Viola- 
ceae 292, 296 

MuNZ, p. A. — Onagraceae, Oroban- 
chaceae, Scrophulariaceae 293, 295 

Newsom, Vesta M. — Scrophularia- 
ceae 295 

NiEDENZU, F. — Elatinaceae 289 

NiEUWLAND, J. A. — Polygonaceae 294 

Ogden, E. C. — Potamogetonaceae 294 

Pace, Lula — Parnassiaceae 293 

Palmer, E. J. — Fagaceae, Legumin- 
osae, Rosaceae 289, 291, 295 

Pax, F. — Aceraceae 286 

, & K. Hoffmann — Aizoaceae, 

Amaryllidaceae, Callitrichaceae, Cap- 
paridaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Eu- 
phorbiaceae, Portulacaceae 

286, 287, 289, 294 

, & R. Knuth — Primulaceae 294 

Payson, E. B. — Cruciferae, Ranun- 

culaceae 288, 294 

Penland, C. W. — Labiatae 291 

Pennell, F. W. — Commelinaceae, 

Scrophulariaceae 287, 295 

Perkins, J. — Styracaceae 296 

Perry, Lily M. — Asclepiadaceae, 

Compositae, Verbenaceae 286, 287, 296 

Petrak, F. — Compositae 287 

Pfeiffer, Norma E. — Burmanniaceae, 

Pteridophyta 287, 297 

PiLGER, R. — Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, 
Plantaginaceae, Santalaceae, Taxa- 
ceae, Taxodiaceae 289, 293, 295, 296 
Pinkerton, M. Elizabeth — Pterido- 
phyta 297 

PoELLNlTZ, K. — Portulacaceae 294 

Popham, R. a. — Compositae 287 

Porsild, a. E. — Ericaceae 289 

Rechinger, K. H. Polygonaceae 294 


American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Rehder, a. — Caprifoliaceae, Hydran- 

geaceae 287, 290 

Rendle, a. B. — Naiadaceae 292 

RoBBlNS, G. T. — Primulaceae 294 

Rollins, R. C. — Cruciferae 288 

RoSENDAHL, C. O. — Saxif ragaceae 295 

, F. K. Butters, & Olga La- 

KELA — Saxif ragaceae 295 

RosSBACH, Ruth P. — Caryophylla- 

ceae 287 

Rousseau, J. — Aceraceae 286 

Ruhland, W. — Eriocaulaceae 289 

Rydberg, p. a. — Caprifoliaceae, 
Composifae, Crassulaceae, Ericaceae, 
Hydrocharitaceae, Leguminosae, Lim- 
nanthaceae, Orchidaceae, Parnassi- 
aceae, Portulacaceae, Rosaceae, Sol- 
anaceae, Sparganiaceae 287, 288, 

289, 290, 29], 292. 293, 294, 295, 296 

St. John, H. — Gentianaceae, Hy- 

drangeaceae, Hydrocharitaceae 290 

, & D. White — Compositae.. .287 

Safford, W. E. — Solanaceae 296 

Samuelsson, G. — Alismaceae 286 

Sargent, C. S. — Juglandaceae, Tilia- 

ceae .^ 291, 296 

Schaffner, J. H. — Pteridophyla 297 

ScHINDLER, A. K. — Haloragidaceae. .290 

Schlechter, R. — Burmanniaceae 287 

SCHINZ, H. — Amarantfiaceae 286 

Schmidt, O. C. — Arislolochiaceae 286 

Schneider, C. — Salicaceae 295 

Schubert, Bernice G. — Leguminosae 291 

SciiULZ, O. E. — Cruciferae 288 

SciiULZE, G. K. — Violaceae 296 

Sci IWARTZ, O. — Ponlederiaceae 294 

Senn, H. a. — Leguminosae 291 

Shafer, j. H. — Leguminosae 291 

Sharp, W. M. — Compositae 287 

SllERFF, E. E. — Compositae 287 

Shinners, L. H. — Compositae 287 

Small, J. K. — Alismaceae, Ericaceae, 
Linaceae, Oxalidaceae, Polygona- 

ceae, Simarubaceae 

286, 289, 292, 293, 294. 296 

, & P. A. Rydberg — Hydran- 

geaceae, Saxif ragaceae 290, 295 

Standley, p. C. — Amaranthaceae, 
Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Nyc- 
taginaceae, Rubiaceae 286, 287, 292, 295 

Stanford, E. E. — Polygonaceae 294 

Steyermark, J. A. — Compositae 287 

SvENSON, H. K. — Cyperaceae, Hyper- 
icaceae, Pteridophyta 289, 290, 297 

Taylor, N. — Naiadaceae, Polamoge- 

tonaceae 292. 294 

Thompson, C. H. — Lemnaceae 291 

Trelease, W. — Fagaceae, Juglanda- 
ceae, Loranthaceae, Onagraceae 

289, 291, 292, 293 

Tryon, R. M. — Convolvulaceae, Pteri- 
dophyta 288, 297 

UlbricH, E. — Chenopodiaceae 287 

Underwood, L. M. & R. C. Bene- 
dict — Pteridophyta 297 

Uphof, J. C. Th. — Sarraceniaceae....295 

Vail, Anna M. — Asclepiadaceae, Le- 
guminosae 286, 291 

, & P. A. Rydberg — Zygophyl- 

laceae 297 

Van Eseltine, G. P. — Marlyniaceae 292 

Van Rensselaer, M., & H. E. Mc- 
MiNN — Rhamnaceae 294 

Walter, H. — Phytolaccaceae 293 

Wangerin, W. — Cornaceae 288 

Watson. E. E. — Compositae 287 

Weatherby, C. a. — Euphorbiaceae, 

Pteridophyta 289, 297 

Wheeler. L. C. — Euphorbiaceae 289 

Wherry, E. T. — Polemomaceae, Pteri- 
dophyta, Sarraceniaceae 294, 297, 295 

WiDDER, F. J. — Compositae 287 

Wiegand, K. M. — Caprifoliaceae, 
Compositae, Juncaceae, Oxalidaceae, 

Rosaceae 287, 291, 293, 295 

, & C. A. Weatherby — Com- 
positae 287 

Wight, W. F.— Rosaceae 295 

Williams, L. O. — Boraginaceae 287 

Wilson. L. R.— Pteridophyta 297 

Wilson. P. — Aizoaceae. Hamameli- 
daceae, Phytolaccaceae, Portulaca- 
ceae, Rutaceae, Typhaceae 

286, 290, 293. 294. 295. 296 

Winkler. H. — Betulaceae. Linaceae 

286, 292 

Wolf. C. B.- Rhamnaceae 294 

Wolff. H.^Umbelliferae 296 

Woodson. R. E. — Apocynaceae, As- 
clepiadaceae 286 

Wynne, Frances E. — Droseraceae 289 

YuNCKER, T. G. — Convolvulaceae 288 

Index of Plant Names* 

Absinth 266 

Abutilon 183 

Acalypha I 74 


Acanthus Family 233 

Acer I 78 


Acerates 208 

Achillea 265 

Acmispon 163 

Acnida 121 

Acorus 87 

Acrostichum 38 

Actaea 129 

Actinea 264 

Aclinella 264 

Actinomeris 262 

Acuan 161 

Adders-tongue 33 

Adders-tongue Family 33 

Aclelia 204 

Adiantum 39 

Adopogon 270 

Aesculus 1 79 

Agalinis 230 

Agastache 219 

Agave 96 

Agoseris 272 

Agrimonia 1 5 1 

Agrimony I 5 1 

Agropyron 54 

Agrostemma 125 

Agrostis 57 

Ague-tree 1 34 

Ailanthus 1 73 


Alder 107, 108 

Aietris 96 

Alfalfa 163 

Alisma 45 

Alismaceae 44 

Alliaria 1 40 

Aliionia 122 

Allium 93 

AInus 107 

Aloe 96 

Alopecurus 57 

Alsine 124 

Althaea 182 

Alumroot 145 

Alyssum 142 

Amaranth 121 

Amaranthaceae 121 

Amaranth Family 121 

Amaranthus 121 

Amaryllidaceae 96 

Amaryllis Family 96 

Ambrosia 247 

Amhrosiaceae 242 

Amelanchier 1 54 

Ammannia 1 89 

Ammophila 57 

Amorpha 164 

Ampelamus 208 

Ampelopsis 181 

Amphicarpa I 70 

Amsonia 206 

Am^gdalus 157 

Anacardiaceae 1 77 

Anacharis 46 

Anagallis 202 

Anaphalis 258 

Anchistea 39 

AnJrocera 225 

Andromeda 199 

Andropogon 67 

Androsace 201 

Anemone 131 

Anemonella I 32 

Anethum 198 

Angelica 198 

Aiiisoslichus 233 

Annonaceae 126 

Anoplanthus 232 

Antennaria 258 

Anthemis 265 

Anthoxanthum 62 

An^chia 122 

Aphelion 232 

Apios 169 

Aplectrum 101 

Apocynaceae 205 

Apccynum 206 

Apple 155 

Apple of Peru 224 

Aquifoliaceae 1 77 

Aquilegia 128 

Arabidopsis 142 

Arabis 141. 142 

Araceae 86 

Aralia 194 

Araliaceae 194 

Arbor-vitae 41 

Arctium 268 

Arctostaphylos 200 

Arena ria 124 

Argentina I 50 

Arisaema 86 

* Family names appear in caps and small caps; synonyms are indicated by italic type. 



American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Aristida 60 

Aristolochia 1 14 

Aristolochiaceae 1 14 

Armoracia 142 

Aronia 1 55 

Arrhenatherum 56 

Arrow-grass 44 

Arrow-grass Family 44 

Arrowhead 45 

Artemisia 266 

Arum Family 86 

Aruncus 149 

Arundinaria 50 

Asarum 1 14 


Asclepias 206, 208 

Asclepiodora 208 

Ascyrum 183 

Ash 203 

Asimina 126 

Asparagus 94 

Aspen 102 

Asphodel 93 

AspiJium 36 

Asplenium 38 

Asplenosorus 38 

Aster 252 

Astragalus 1 65 

Athyrium 38 

Atragene 132 

Atriplex 121 

Aureolaria 230 

Avena 56 

Avens 151 

Azalea 199 

Azolla 39 

Bachelor's Button 269 

Bacopa 228 

Bald Cypress 40 

Balm of Gilead 102 

Balsam-apple. Wild 241 

Balsaminaceae 1 72 

Dahamiia 266 

Baneberry 129 

Baplisia 162 

Barbarea 1 39 

Barberry Family 133 

Barley 55 

Barlonia 205 

Basil 221 

Basswood 181 

BatodeuJron 200 

Datrachiiim 129 

Bayberry Family 105 

Beaked-rush 74 

Bean 169 

Bearberry 200 

Beckmannia 61 

Bedstraw 236 

Bee Balm 221 

Beech 108 

Beech-drops 232 

Beech Family 108 

Beggar- ticks 263 

Belamcanda 97 

Bellflower 241 

Bellflower Family 241 

Bellwort 94 

Benzoin 1 34 

Berberidaceae 133 

Bergamot Mint 221 

Berteroa 142 

Berula 196 

Besseva 230 

Betula 107 

Betulaceae 106 

Bicuculla 1 35 

Bidens 263 

Bignonia 233 

Bignonia 233 


Bindweed 118. 209 

Birch Family 106 

Birch 107 

Birlhwort 114 

Birlhwort Family 114 

Bishop's-cap 145 

Bishop's-weed 197 

Bittercress 141 

Bittersweet 1 77 

Blackberry 152, 153 

Blackberry-lily 97 

Black Cohosh 128 

Black-eyed Susan 260 

Black Gum 194 

Black-haw 237 

Black Medic 163 

Bladdernut 178 

Bladdernut Family 178 

Bladder-pod 143 

Bladderwort 231 

Bladderwort Family 231 

Blazing-star 249 

Blepliar'igloHis 99 

Blephilia 221 

Blilum 119 

Bloodroot 1 35 

Blue Beech 108 

Bluebells 214 

Blueberry 200 

Blue Cohosh 133 

Bluecurls 218 

Blue-eyed grass 97 

Blue-eyed Mary 227 

Blue Hearts 231 

Bluestem 55, 68 

Bluets 235 

Bluevine 208 

Blueweed 2 1 5 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 


Boebera 265 

Boehmeria 1 13 

Bog-rosemary 199 

Boltonia 252 

Bonamia 209 

Boneset 248 

Borage Family 213 


Botrychium 34 

Bouncing Bet 126 

Bouteloua 61 

Box-elder 1 79 

Brachvactis 257 

Brachyelylrum 59 

Bracken 39 

Bramble 1 52 

Bramia 228 

Brasenia 1 32 

Brassica 1 38 

Brauneria 260 

BreTveria 209 

B istly Aralia 194 

Briza 53 

Bromus 50 

Brookweed 201 

Broomcorn Millet 63 

Broomrape 232 

Broomrape Family 232 

Broom-sedge 68 

Brown-eyed Susan 259 

Bruniera 87 

Brunnichia 1 19 

Buchnera 23 1 

Buckbean 205 

Buckbean Family 205 

Buckbrush 239 

Buckeye 1 79 

Buckthorn 179. 180, 203 

Buckthorn Family 179 

Buckwheat 1 18 

Buckwheat Family 114 

Buffalo-berry 188 

Buffalo-bur 225 

Bugbane 128 

Bugseed 121 

Bulbostylis 72 

Bulrush 73 

Bumeha 203 

Bunchberry 194 

Bunchflower 93 

Burdock 268 


Burmannia Family 98 

Bur-reed 41 

Bur-reed Family 41 

Bursa 143 

Bush-clover 167 

Bufter-and-Eggs 228 

Buttercup Family 127 

Buttercup 129, 130 

Butterfly Pea 170 

Butterfly-weed 192, 207 

Butternut 105 

Butferprmt 1 83 

Butterweed 268 

Buttonbush 235 

Bultonweed 236 

Cabomba 1 32 

Cacalia 267 

Cactaceae 188 

Cactus Family 188 

Cakile _ 138 

Calamagrostis 57 

Calaminlha 221 

Calamovilfa 57 

Callirhoe 182 

Callitrichaceae 1 76 

Callitriche 1 76 

Calopogon 100 

Caltha 128 

Caltrop 1 72 

Caltrop Family 172 

Calycocarpum 1 34 

Camas 94 

Camassia 94 

Camehna 143 

Campanula 241 

Campanulaceae 241 

Campanulasirum 24 1 

Campion 126 

Campsis 233 

Camptosorus 38 

Cane 50 

Cannabinaceae 1 12 

Cannabis 1 12 

Caper Family 143 

CapnoiJes 1 35 

Capparidaceae 143 

Caprifoliaceae 237 

Capriola 61 

Capsella 143 

Cardamine 141 

Cardaria 143 

Cardinal-flower 242 

Carduaceae 242 

Carduus 269 

Carex 75 

Carpenter-weed 220 

Carpetweed 123 

Carpetweed Family 123 

Carpinus 108 

Carrion Flower 96 

Carrot 1 96 

Carya 1 05 

Caryophyllaceae 123 

Cassia 1 61 

Castalia 1 33 

Castanea 1 08 

CastiUeja 23 1 


American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Catalpa 233 

Catchfly 125 

CalhartoUnum 1 71 

Catnip 219 

Cat-tail 41 

Cat-tail Family 41 

Caulophyllum 133 

Ceanothus 180 

Cehaiha 134 

Cedar 41 

Celandine 135 

Celastraceae 1 77 

Celasti us 1 77 

Celtis 11 1 

Cenchrus 67 

Centaurea 269 

Centaunum 204 

Centaury 204 

Centunculus 201 

Ceanothus 180 

Cephaianthus 235 

Cerastium 123 

Ceratcphyllaceae 133 

Ceratophyllum 1 33 

Cercis 161 

Chaenorrhtnum 228 

Chaerophyllum 196 

Chaelochloa 67 

Chaffweed 201 

Chamaecrista 161 

Chamaedaphne 200 

Chamomile 265 

Chamaenerion 190 

Chamacpericlimenum 194 

Chamaesyce 1 75 

Cheat 51 

Checkerberry 200 

Cheilanthes 39 

Cheirinia 1 40 

Chelidonium 1 35 

Chelone 226 

Chenopodiaceae 1 19 

Chenopodium 1 19 

Cherry 1 57 

Chervil 196 

Chestnut 108 

Chicory 270 

Chickweed 124 

Chimaphila 199 

Chloris 61 

Chokeberry 1 55 

Chokecherry 1 58 

Chrysanthemum 266 

Chrysopsis 249 

Chrysosplenium 145 

Chufa 69 

Cichoriaceae 242 

Cichorium 270 

Cicuta 197 

Cimicifuga 128 

Cinna 57 

Cinquefoil 149. 150 

Circaea 192 

Cirsium 268 

Cissus 181 


Cisius 185 

Cladium 75 

Clammyweed 144 

Claytonia ....123 

Cladrastis 1 62 

Clearweed ....1 13 

Clematis I 32 

Cleome 144 

Cliff-brake 39 

Climbing Bittersweet 177 

Clinopodium 22 1 

Clitoria 1 70 

Clover 162, 163 

Clubmoss 32 

Clubmoss Family 32 

Cocklebur 247 

Cocculus 1 34 

Cocloglossum 99 

Coffee-weed 161 

Cohosh 128, 133 

Colic-root 96 

Collinsia 227 

Collinsonia 223 

Collomia 2 12 

Columbo 205 

Columbine 128 

Comandra 1 13 

Comarum 1 50 

Comf rey 21 5 

Ccmmelina 88 


Compass- plant 259 


Composite Family 242 

Comptonia 105 

Ccneflower 259, 260 

Conioselinum 198 

Conium 197 

Conobea 229 

Conopholis 232 

Conringia 1 40 


Convolvulus 209 

Coralberry 239 

Corallorrhiza 101 

Coralroot 101 

Coreopsis 263 

Corispermum 121 


Corn Cockle 125 

Corn-salad 240 

Cornus 193, 194 

Coronilla 165 

Corydalis 135. 136 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 


Corylus 1 08 

Cota 265 

Cotton Sedge 74 

Cottonwood 101, 102 

Cowbane 197 

Cow-herb 126 

Cow-parsnip 198 

Cow Pea 169 

Crab-apple 1 55 

Cracca 1 64 

Cranberry 200 

Cranberry-bush 238 

Cranesbill -.... 1 70 

Crassulaceae 1 44 

Crataegus 1 55 

Cristatella 1 44 

Crocanlhemum 185 

Cross- vine 233 

Crotalana 162 

Croton - 1 74 

Crotonopsis 1 74 

Crown- vetch 165 

Cruciferae 136 

Cryptogramma 39 

Cryptotaenia 196 

Cubelium 186 

Cucumber Tree 126 

Cucurbita 241 


Cudweed 258 

Culver- root 229 

Cunila 222 

Cuphea 1 89 

Cup-plant - 259 


Cupseed 1 34 

Currant 147 

Cuscuta --.-2 1 

Custard-apple Family 126 

Cvanococcus 200 

C^clachaena 247 

Cycloloma 120 

Cynodon 61 

Cynoglossum 2 1 3 

C\^nox\}lon 194 

C})nlhia 270 

Cyperaceae 68 

Cyperus 69 

Cypripedium 98 

Cystoptens 36 

Dactylis 54 

Dactyloctenium 61 

Dalea 164 

Dandelion 272 

Danthonia 57 

Darnel 56 

Dasiphora 1 5 1 

Dasistoma 23 1 

Das\istoma 230 

Datura 225 

Daucus 196 

Dayflower 88 

Day Lily 93 

Deadly Nightshade 225 

Dead-nettle 220 

Death Camas 92 

Decemium 212 

Decodon 189 

Delopyirum 1 18 

Delphinium 128 

Dennstaedtia 36 

Denslovia 99 

Dentaria 1 40 

Deschampsia 56 

Descurainia 140 

Desmanthus 161 

Desmodium 165 

Dianthera 233 

Diarina 54 

Diarrhena 54 

Dicenfra 135 

Diclfsonia 36 

Didiplis 189 

Diervilla 239 

Digitaria 62 

Diodella 236 

Diodia 236 

Discopleura 197 

Dioscorea 96 


Diospyros 203 

Diplazium 38 

Diplotaxis 1 38 


Dipsacus 241 

Dirca 188 

Discopleura 197 

Ditremexa 161 

Dock 115 

Dodder 210 

Dodecatheon 202 

Doellingeria 256 

Dogbane Family 205 

Dogbane 206 

Dog- fennel 265 

Dogwood 193, 194 

Dogwood Family 193 

Doll's Eyes 128 

Draba 140 

Dracocephalum 219 

Dragonhead 219 

Dragonroot 86 

Dropseed 59 

Drosera 144 

Droseraceae 144 

Drupaceae 147 

Drvmocallis 1 50 

Dryopteris 36, 37 

Duckweed 87 


American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Duckweed Family 87 

Dulichium 70 

Dutchman's-breeches 135 

Dutchman's-pipe 1 14 

Dyssodia 265 

Ebenaceae 203 

Ebony Family 203 

Echinacea 260 

Echinochloa 67 

Echinops 268 

Echinocystis 241 

Echinodorus 45 

Echium 21 5 

Eclipia 259 

Eelgrass 46 

Elaeagnaceae 1 88 

Elatinaceae 126 

Elatine 126 

Elder 237 

Elecampane 258 

Elephanfopus 248 

Elephant's- foot 248 

Eleocharis 70 

Eleusine 60 

Ellisia 212 

Elm 1 1 1 

Elm Family Ill 

Elodea 46 

Elymus 55 

Enchanter's-nightshade 1 92 

Epibaleriiim 1 34 

Epifagus 232 

Epigaea 200 

Epilobium 190 

Epipaclis 100 

Epiphegits 232 

Equisetaceae 32 

Equisetum 32 

Eragrostis 53 

Erechtites 267 

Erianthus 68 

Ericaceae 198 

Erigenia 196 

Erigeron 257 

Eriocaulaceae 88 

Eriocaulon 88 

Eriophorum 74 

Erodium 1 7 1 

Eryngium 196 

Erysimum 140 

Erythronium 94 

Escalloniaceae 1 46 

Escallonia Family 146 

Eulophus 196 

Euonymus 1 77 

Eupatorium 248 

Fuphorbia 1 75 


Euthamia 249 

Evening-primrose 191 

Evening-primrose Family 189 

Everlasting 258 

Fagaceae 108 

Fagopyrum 1 18 

Fagus 108 

Falcata 1 70 

False Boneset 249 

False Bugbane 131 

False Dandelion 272 

False Dragonhead ....219 

False Foxglove 230 

False Garlic 93 

False Gromwell 215 

False Indigo 164 

False Loosestrife 190 

False Mermaid 172 

False Nettle 113 

False Pennyroyal 218 

False Rue Anemone 128 

False Solomcn's-seal 94 

Farkleberry 200 

Featherfoil 201 

Fern. Bladder 36 

Brake 39 

Broad Beech 37 

Chain 39 

Christmas 36 

Cinnamon 34 

Cliff 36 

Common Wood 37 

Crested Wood 37 

Family 34 

Filmy 34 

Glade 38 

Goldie's 37 

Grape 34 

Hay-scented 36 

Interrupted 34 

Lady 38 

Lip 39 

Long Beech 37 

Maidenhair 39 

Marginal Wood 37 

Marsh 36 

Mosquito 39 

New York 36 

Oak 37 

Ostrich 36 

Royal 34 

Sensitive 36 

Spinulose Wood 37 

Walking 38 

Festuca 51 

Feverfew 259 

Figwort 227 

Figwort Family 225 

Fihpendula 150 

lihiiy I' em Family 34 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 


Fimbnstylis 72 

Firepink 125 

Fireweed 267 

Flax 171 

Flax Family 171 

Fleabane 257 

Floerkia 1 72 

Flower-of-an-hour 183 

Forestiera 204 

Forget-me-not 2 1 4 

Forked-chickweed 1 22 

Four-o'clock Family 122 

Foxtail 57, 67 

Fragaria 149 

Frasera 205 

Fraxinus 203 

Froelichia 1 22 

Frogbit 46 

Frogbit Family 45 

Frog- fruit 216 

Frostweed 185 

Fuirena 72 

Fumaria 136 


Fumitory 136 

Fumitory Family 135 

Galactia 1 70 

Caleorchis 99 

Gahnsoga 260 

Galium 236 

Garlic 93 

Gaultheria 200 

Gaura 192 

Gaylussacia 200 

Cemmingia 97 

Gentian 205 

Gentiana 205 

Gentian ACEAE 204 

Gentian Family 204 

Geraniaceae 1 70 

Geranium 1 70 

Geranium Family 170 

Gerardia 230 

Geum 151 

Gillenia 149 

Ginseng 194 

Ginseng Family 194 

Glecoma 219 

Gleditsia .161 

Globe-thistle 268 

Glyceria 51 

Glycine 169, 170 

Gnaphalium 258 

Goat's-beard 149. 270 

Goats-rue 164 

Golden-alexanders 197 

Golden-aster 249 

Goldenglow 259 

Goldenrod 249 

Goldenseal 128 

Gonolobus 208 

Conopxirum 1 18 

Good-King-Henry 120 

Goodyera 1 00 

Gooseberry 146, 147 

Gooseberry Family 146 

Goose-grass 236 

Goosefoot 119, 120 

Goosefoot Family 119 

Gourd Family 241 

Gramineae 46 

Grape 180, 181 

Grape Family 180 

Gratiola 228 

Grass, Autumn Bent 57 

Barnyard 67 

Beach 57 

Bent 57 

Bermuda — 61 

Billion-dollar 67 

Blue 52 

Blue-joint 57 

Bottlebrush 55 

Brome 50 

Canada Blue 52 

Canary 62 

Catchfly 62 

Common Crab 62 

Cord 61 

Crowfoot 61 

Cut 62 

Dune 55 

Family 46 

Fescue 51 

Gamma 68 

Goose 60 

Grama 61 

Hair 56 

Hungarian 67 

Indian 68 

Johnson 68 

June 56 

Kentucky Blue 52 

Manna 51 

Meadow 52 

Munro 64 

Northern Reed 57 

Oat 57 

Orchard 54 

Plume 68 

Porcupine 60 

Quack 55 

Quaking 53 

Redtop 57 

Reed 57 

Reed Canary 62 

Rice 60 

Rye 56 

Sand : 54 


American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Slough 61 

Smooth Crab 62 

Sprangle-top 61 

Squirrel-tail 55 

Stink 53 

Sweet - 61 

Sweet Vernal 62 

Switch - 63 

Tall Oat _ 56 

Tickle 57 

Three-awned 60 

Velvet 57 

Wedge 56 

Wheat 54 

White 62 

Windmill 61 

Witch 64 

Grass-of- Parnassus 145 

Grass-of-Parnassus Family 145 

Gratiola 228 

Greenbrier 95 

Green Dragon 86 

Green Violet 186 

Grindelia 249 

Gromwell 214 

Crossularia 146 

Grossclariaceae 146 

Ground-cherry 224 

Ground-hemlock 40 

Groundnut 169 

Groundsel 268 

Gum weed 249 

Gymnocladus 161 

Habenaria 99 

Hackberry Ill, 112 

Hackdia .2 1 4 

Halerpcsles 129 

Halesia 203 

Haloracidaceae 192 

Hamamelidaceae 147 

Hamamelis 147 

Harbinger-of-spring 196 

Hardback 1 49 

Hartmannia 191 

I lawkweed 272 

Hawthorn 1 55 

Hazel 108 

Heath Family 198 

Hedge-apple 1 12 

Hedge-nettle 220 

Hedge Parsley 196 

I ledeoma 221 

1 lelenium 265 

Heleochloa 59 

Hehanthemum 185 

Helianthus 260 

Heliopsis 259 

Heliotrope 2 1 3 

Heliotropium 21 3 

Hemerocallis 93 

Hemicarpha 72 

Hemlock 40 

Hemlock-parsley 198 

Hemp 112 

Henbit 220 

Hepatica 1 32 

Heracleum 198 

Hercules-club 194 

Heteranthera 89 

Heuchera 145 

Hibiscus 183 

Hieracium 272 

Hierochloe 61 

Hickory 106 

Hicoria 105 


Hippuris 193 

Hog-peanut 1 70 

Holcus 57, 68 

Holly 177 

Holly Family 177 

Hollyhock 182 

Homalocenchnis 62 

Honewort 196 

Honey Locust 161 

Honeysuckle 239 

Honeysuckle Family 237 

Hop 112 

Hop-clover 163 

Hop-hornbeam 108 

Hop- tree I 73 

Hordeum 55 

Horehound 219 

Horned Pondweed 44 

Horn wort 133 

Hornwort Family 133 

Horse-chestnut I 79 

Horse-chestnut Family 179 

Horse-gentian 239 

Horse-nettle 225 

Horseradish 142 

Horsetail 33 

Horsetail Family 32 

Horseweed 257 

Hosackia 163 

Hottonia 201 

Hound's-tongue 2 1 3 

Floustonia 235 

Huckleberry 200 

Hudsonia 185 

Humulus 1 12 

Hybanthus 186 

Hydrangea 146 


Hydrangea Family 146 

Hvdranlhelium 228 

Hydrastis 128 


Hydrolea 213 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 


Hydrophyllaceae 2 1 2 

Hydrophyllum 212 

Hymenocallis 96 

Hymenopappus 264 

Hymenophyllaceae 34 

Hypericaceae 183 

Hypericum 183 

Hypopitys 1 99 

Hypoxis — 96 

Hyssop - - 219 

Hystnx 55 

Illecebraceae 1 22 

Ilex - 1 77 

Il\}santhes 228 

Impatiens 1 72 

Indian Corn 68 

Cucumber-root 95 

Mallow 183 

Paint Brush 231 

Physic 149 

Pipe 199 

Plantain 267 

Turnip 86 

Inula 258 

lodanlhus 1 4 1 

lonactis 256 

lonoxalis 1 7 1 

Ipecac 149 

Ipomoea 210 

Iridaceae 97 

Iris 97 

Iris Family 97 

Ironweed 247 

Ironwood 108 

Isanthus 2 1 8 

hnardia 1 90 

Isoetes - 32 

Isoetaceae 32 

Isopyrum 128 

Italian Millet 67 

Itea 1 46 

lieaceae 1 46 

Iva 247 

Jack-in-the-Pulpit 86 

Japanese Millet 67 

Jeffersonia 133 

Jerusalem Artichoke 262 

Jerusalem Oak 119 

Jewel-weed 1 72 

Jewel-weed Family 172 

Jimson-weed 225 

Joe-pye Weed ...248 

Jointweed 1 18 

Juglandaceae 105 

Juglans 105 



Juncoides 91 

Juncus 89 

Juniper 41 

Juniperus 41 

Jussiaea 190 

Kallstroemia 1 72 

Kentucky Coffee-tree 161 

Kicffxia 228 

Kidney Bean 169 

Kinnikinnick ..200 

Knapweed 269 

Kneiffia 191, 192 

Knotweed 116. 118 

Kochia 120 

Koelena 56 

Koellia .222 

Korycarpus 54 

Kraunhia 1 65 

Krigia 270 

Kuhnia 249 

Kyllingia 70 

Labiatae 216 

Lacinaria 249 

Lactuca 270 

Lady's Slipper 98 

Lady's Thumb 118 

Ladies' Tresses 100 

Lamb's Quarter 120 

Lamium 220 

Laportea 1 13 

Lappula 214 

Larch 40 

Larkspur ....128 

Larix 40 

Lafhyrus 168 

Lauraceae 134 

Laurel Family 134 

Lead-plant 164 

Leaf cup 259 

Leather-flower 1 32 

Leatherleaf 200 

Leatherwood 1 88 

Lechea 1 85 

Leersia 62 

Leguminosae 158 

Lemna 87 

Lemnaceae 87 

Lentibulariaceae 23 1 

Leonurus 220 

Leontodon 272 

Lepachvs 260 

Lepadena 1 76 

Lepidium 143 

Leptamium ; 232 

Lepiandra 229 

Leplilon 257 

Leptochloa 61 

Leptogloltis 161 

Leptoloma 62 

Lepiorchis 100 


American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Lespedeza 1 67 

Lesquerella 143 

Lettuce 270 

Leucanthemum 266 

Leucospora 229 

Liatris 249 


Lilium 93 

Lily 93 

Lily Family 91 


Limnobium 46 

Limnorchis 99 

Limodorum 100 


Linaria 227 

Linden 181 

Linden Family 181 

Lindera 1 34 

Lmdernia 228 

Linnaea 239 

Lmum 1 71 

Liparis 100 

Lippia 216 

Liquidambar 147 

Linodendron 126 

Lithospermum 214 

Lizard-tail 101 

Lizard-tail Family 101 

Lobelia 242 


Lobelia Family 242 

Locust 164 

Lolium 56 

Lonicera 239 

Lophotocarpus 45 

Lopseed 234 

Lopseed Family 234 

Loosestrife 189. 202 

Loosestrife Family 189 


Lotus 1 32 

Lotus Family 132 

Ludwigia 190 

Lupine 162 

Lupinus 162 

Luzula 91 

Lychnis 126 

Lycium 224 

Lycopodiaceae 32 

Lycopodium 32 

Lycopsis 214 

Lycopus 222 

Lysias 99 

Lysimachia 202 

Lytiiraceae 189 

Lythrum 189 

Madura 1 12 

MacuUlamia 228 

Madder Family 235 

Magnolia 126 

Magnoliaceae 126 

Magnolia Family ..126 

Maianthemum 94 

Maize 68 

Malaceae ...147 

Malaxis ...100 

Mallow 182 

Mallow Family 181 

Malus 1 55 

Malva 182 

Malvaceae 181 

Malvastrum 182 

Mandrake ...133 

Manfreda 96 

Maple 178. 179 

Maple Family 178 

Mare's-tail 193 

Marijuana 1 12 

Mariscus 75 

Marrubium 219 

Marsh-elder 247 

Marsh-marigold 128 

Marsilea 39 

Marsileaceae 39 

Marthisia 1 70 

Manila 265 

Martynia 233 

Martyniaceae 233 

Matdea 209 

Matricaria 266 

Matrimony- vine 224 

Matteiiccia 36 

Mayapple 1 33 

Mayweed 265 

Mazus 229 

Meadow-beauty 189 

Meadow-parsnip 197 

Meadow-rue 130. 131 

Meadowsweet 1 50 

Medeola 95 

Medicago 163 

Megalodonta 264 

Meibomia 1 65 

Mcgapleriiim 191 

Melampyrum 23 1 

Mclaiulrium 126 

Melanthium 93 

Melastomaceae 189 

Melastoma Family 189 

Melica 54 

Melilotus 163 

Melissa 22 1 

Menispermaceae 1 34 

Menispermum 134 

Mentha 223 

Meiilhaceae 216 

Menyanthaceae 205 

Menyanthes 205 

Mermaid-weed 193 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 


Merlensia 2 1 4 

Mesadenia 267 

Mexican Tea 119 

Mezereum Family 188 

Micrampelis 24 1 

Micrantbes 145 

Mikania 249 

Milium - 59 

Milk Pea 170 

Milk-vetch 165 

Milkweed 206. 207, 208 

Milkweed Family 206 

Milkwort 1 73 

Milkwort Family 173 

Mimosa - 161 

Mimulus 228 

Mint 223 

Mint Family 216 

Mirabilis 122 

Mist Flower 249 

Mistletoe 1 14 

Mistletoe Family 114 

Mitchella 236 

Mitella 145 

Miterwort 145 

Mockernut 106 

Mock-orange - 146 

Moehringia 124 

Moldavica 219 

Mollugo 123 

Monarda 221 

Moneywort 202 

Monkey Flower 228 

Monotropa 199 

Moonseed 1 34 

Moonseed Family 134 


Morongia 161 

Morus 112 

Morning-glory 210 

Morning-glory Family 209 

Motherwort 220 

Mountam-ash 1 54 

Mountain Holly 177 

Mountain Mint 222 

Mouse-ear Chickweed 123, 124 

Mouse-ear Cress 142 

Mousetail 1 28 

Mud-plantain 89 

Muhlenbergia 58, 59 

Mulberry 112 

Mulberry Family 112 

Mullein 226 

Mullem Foxglove 231 

Muricauda 86 

Muscle Tree 108 

Mustard 138. 139, 140. 142 

Mustard Family 136 

Myosotis 2 1 4 

Myosurus 128 

Myrica 105 

Myricaceae 105 

Myriophyllum 192 

Myzonhiza 232 

Nahalm 271 

Naiad 42 

Naiadaceae 42 

Naiad Family 42 

Naias 42 

Nannyberry 237 

Napaea 182 

Nasturtium 142 

Negundo 1 79 

Nelumbium 1 32 

Nelumbo 1 32 

Nelumbonaceae - 1 32 

Nemexia 95 

Nemopanthus 1 77 

Neobeckia 142 

Nepeta 2 1 9 

Neslia 1 42 

Nettle 1 13 

Nettle Family - 113 

New Jersey Tea 180 

Nicandra 224 

Nightshade 225 

Nightshade Family 224 

Nimble Will 58 

Nmebark 1 49 

Nothocalais 272 

Nolholcus 57 

Nothoscordum 93 

Nuphar 133 

Nut-rush 75 

Nyctaginaceae 122 

Nymphaea 132, 133 

Nymph aeaceae 1 33 

Nvmphozaulhus 133 

Nyssa 194 

Oak 108. 109, 110, 111 

Oakesia 94 

Oakesiella 94 

Oat 56 

Obolaria 205 

Odontostephana 208 

Oenothera .....191 

Oleaceae 203 

Oleaster Family 188 

Oligoneuron 249 

Olive Family 203 

Onagraceae 189 

Onion 93 

Onoclea 36 

Onosmodium 215 

Ophioglossaceae 33 

Ophioglossum 33 

Opulasler 149 

Opuntia 188 


American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Orbexilum 1 64 

Orchid 99, 100 

Orchidaceae 98 

Orchid Family 98 

Orchis 99 

Ornithogalum 94 

Orobanchaceae 232 

Orobanche 232 

Oryzopsis 60 

Osage-orange 1 12 

Osmorhiza 196 

Osmunda 34 

Osmundaceae 34 

Ostrya 108 

Otophvlla 230 

Oxalidaceae 171 

Oxalis 171 

Ox-eye Daisy 266 

Oxvbaphiis 122 

Oxycoccus 200 

Oxxigraphis 1 29 

Oxypolis - 198 

Oyster Plant 269 

Padus 1 58 

Panax 194 

Panicularia 51 

Panicum 63 

Pansy 188 

Papaver 1 35 

Papaveraceae 1 34 

Panefana ....1 13 

Parnassia 145 

Parnassiaceae 145 

Paronychia 122 

Parasela 164 

Parsley Family 194 

Parsnip 198 

Parthenium 259 

Parthenocissus 181 

Partridge-berry 236 

Partridge-pea 162 

Paspalum 62 

Pasque-flower 1 3 1 

Passiflora 188 

Passifloraceae 1 88 

Passion-flower 188 

Passion-flower Family 188 

Pastinaca 198 

Paulo wnia 233 

Pawpaw 126 

Pea 1 58 

Peach 1 57 

Pea Family 158 

Pear 1 55 

Pearlwort 124 

Pecan 105 

Pedicularis 23 1 

Pellaea 39 

Pellitory 113 

Peltandra 87 

Pencil -flower 168 

Peniophyillum 192 

Pennycress 143 

Pennyroyal 221 

Penstemon ...227 

Penthorum 145 

Peplis 189 

Pepo 241 

Peppercress 143 

Peppermint 223 

Pepper-vine 181 

Peramium 100 

Perideridia 196 

Perilla 223 

Periwinkle 206 

Persicaria 1 16 

Persimmon 203 

Perularia 99 

Peruvian Daisy 260 

Petalostemum 164 

Phacelia 2 1 3 

Phalaris 62 

Pharhiiis 2 1 

Phaseolus 169. 170 

Phegopteris 37 

Philadelphus 1 46 

Phleum 58 

Phlox 211 

Phlox Family 211 

Phoradendron 1 14 

Phragmites 54 

Phryma 234 

Phrymaceae 234 

Phyla 216 

Phyllanthus 1 75 

Physalis 224 

Ph\}salodes 224 

Ph\nocarpa 1 49 

Physocarpus 149 

Physostegia 219 

Phytolacca 122 

Pi I vtolaccaceae 1 22 

Pickerelweed 89 

Pickerelweed Family 89 

Picradenia 264 

Pigweed 119. 120. 121 

Pilea 1 1 3 

Pimpernel 202 


Pine 40 

Pineapple-weed 266 

Pine Family 40 

Pinesap 199 

Pineweed 184 

Pink Family 123 

Pinweed 185 

Pinus 40 

Pipewort 88 

Pipewort Family 88 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 


Pipsissewa 199 

Pitcher-plant 144 

Pitcher-plant Family 144 

Planera - H I 

Plane-tree 147 

Plane-tree Family — .....147 

Plantaginaceae 234 

Plantago 234 

Plantain - 234 

Plantain Family 234 

Platanaceae - 1 47 

Plalanlhera 99 

Platanus 147 

Pleiolaenia 198 

Pluchea 257 

Plum 1 57 

Poa 52 

Podophyllum 1 33 

Pogonia 100 

Poinsettia 1 76 

Poison-hemlock 197 

Poison-ivy 1 77 

Pokeweed - 122 

Pokeweed Family 122 

Polanisia 144 

Polemonium 21 2 

Polemoniaceae ..: 21 1 

Polygala I 73 

polygalaceae i 73 

Polvgonaceae 1 14 

Polygonatum 94 

Polygonella 1 18 

Polygonum 1 Id 

Polymnia 259 

Polypodiaceae 34 

Polypodium 38 

Polypody 38 

Polystichum - 36 

Polytaenia 198 

Pond-lily 133 

Pondweed 42 

Pondweed Family 42 

Pontederia 89 

Pontederiaceae 89 

Poplar 101, 102 

Poppy 1 35 

Poppy Family 134 

Populus 101 

Portulaca 123 

Portulacaceae 123 

Possumhaw 1 77 

Potamogeton 42 

Potamogetonaceae 42 

Potentilla 1 49 

Prairie-clover 1 64 

Prairie-dock 259 

Prairie Meadowsweet 150 

Prenanthes 271 

Prickly-ash I 73 

Prickly-pear 188 

Prickly Sida 183 

Primrose 201 

Primrose Family 201 

Primrose-willow 190 

Primula 201 

Primulaceae .201 

Prmce's- feather 1 18 

Princess Tree 233 

Proserpinaca 193 

Prunella 220 

Prunus 1 57 

Psedera 181 

Psoralea 163 

Psoralidhim 1 64 

Ptelea -1 73 

Pteretis 36 

Pteridium 39 

Pteris 39 

Ptilimnium 197 

Pulsalilla 1 3 1 

Puncture-weed 1 72 

Purpletop 54 

Purslane 123 

Purslane Family 123 

Puttyroot 101 

Pycnanthemum 222 

Pyrola 199 

Pyrrhopappus 272 

Pyrus 1 55 

Quamasia 94 

Quamoclit 210 

Quassia Family ....173 

Quercus 108 

Quillwort 32 

Quillwort Family 32 

Racoon-grape 181 

Radicula 139, 142 

Radish 138 

Ragweed 247 

Ragwort 267 

Raimannia 191 

Ranunculaceae 127 

Ranunculus 129 

Raphanislrum 1 38 

Raphanus ...138 

Raspberry 152 

Ratibida 260 

Rattle-box 162 

Rattlesnake-master 196 

Rattlesnake-plantain 100 

Redbud 161 

Redtop 57 

Reed 54 

Rhamnaceae 1 79 

Rhamnus 1 79 

Rhexia 189 

Rhinanlhaceac 225 

Rhinanihus _ 230 


American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Rhododendron 199 

Rhus 1 77 

Rhynchospora 74 

Ribes 146 

Rich weed 223 

Robinia 1 64 

Rock-brake 39 

Rockcress 141, 142 

Rockrose Family 185 

Rock Pink 123 

Rorippa 139, 142 

Rosa 1 53 


Rose 153, 154 

Rose Family 147 

Rose Mallow 183 

Rose-pink 205 

Rosmweed 259 

Rotala 189 

Royal Fern Family 34 


Rubus 1 52 

Rudbeckia 259 

Rue-anemone 1 32 

Rue Family 172 

Ruellia 234 

Rumex 1 15 

Rush 89 

Rush Family 89 


Rye 55 

R\inchospora 74 

Sabatia 205 

Saccharodendron 1 79 

Sage 220 

Sagina 124 

Sagittaria 45 

St. Andrews-cross 183 

St. John's-wort 183, 184, 185 

St. Johns-wort Family 183 

Salicaceae 101 

Salix 1 02 

Salsify 269 

Salsola 121 

Saltwort 121 

Salvia 220 

Sai.viniaceae 39 

Sambucus 237 

Samolus 201 

Sandalwood Family 113 

Sandbur 67 

Sandwort 124 

Sand Rocket 138 

Sanguinaria 135 

Sanguisorba 1 5 1 

Sanicie 196 

Sanicula 196 

Santalaceae 1 13 

Sapodilla Family 203 

Saponana 126 

Sapotaceae 203 

Sarcosiphon 98 

Sarothra 184 

Sarracenia 1 44 

Sarraceniaceae 144 

Sassafras 1 34 

Satiireia 221, 222 

Saururaceae 101 

Saururus 1 01 

Savastana 61 

Savory 221 

Sawbrier 95 

Saxifragaceae 145 

Saxif raga 145 

Saxifrage 145 

Saxifrage Family 145 

Schedonnardus 61 

Scheuchzeria 44 

Schmallzia 1 77 

Schrankia 161 

Scirpus 72, 73 

Scleraiithiis 122 

Selena 75 

Scouring-rush 33 

Scrophulana 227 

Scrophulariaceae ...; 225 

Scutellaria 218 

Sea Rocket 138 

Secale 55 

Sedge 69, 72, 74, 75 

Sedge Family 68 

Sedum 144 

Seedbox 190 

Selaginella 32 

Selaginellaceae 32 

Selfheal 220 

Seneca Snakeroot 173 

Senecio 267 

Sensitive-brier 161 

Serinia 269 

Serviceberry I 54 

Setaria 67 

Shadbush 1 54 

Shepherdia 188 

Shepherd's Purse 143 

Shinleaf 199 

Shooting-star 202 

Sihara 141 

Sicklepod 142 

Sicycos 24 1 

Sida 183 

Sidopsis 1 82 

Sieversia 1 5 1 

Silene 125 

Silphium 259 

Silverbel! Tree 203 

Silverweed 1 50 


Sisymbrium 139, 142 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 


Sisyrinchium 97 

Sium 197 

Skullcap 218 

Skunk-cabbage 86 

Smartweed 1 1 7 

Smilacina 94 

Smilax - 95 

Snailseed ...135 

Snakerool 114. 249 

Sneezeweed 265 

Snowberry 238 

Snow-on-the-Mountain 1 76 

Soja 169 

SOLANACEAE .....224 

Solanum 225 

Solidago 249 

Solomon's-seal 94 

Sonchus 271 

Sophia 1 40 

Sorbus 1 54 

Sorghastrum 68 

Sorghum 68 

Sorrel 115, 171 

Southernwood 266 

Sow-thistle 271 

Soy Bean 169 

Spanish Needles 263 

Sparganiaceae 41 

Sparganium 41 

Spartina 61 

Spaihxiema 86 

Spearmint 223 

Specularia 242 

Speedwell 229 

Spermacoce 236 

Spermolepis 1 97 

Sphaeralcea 182, 183 

Sphenopholis 56 

Spice-bush 134 

Spider Lily 96 

Spiderwort 88 

Spiderworf Family 88 

Spikenard 194 

Spike Rush 70 

Spiraea 1 49 

Spiranthes 1 00 

Spirodela 87 

Spleenwort 38 

Sporobolus 59 

Spring Beauty 123 

Spurge 175. 176 

Spurge Family 174 

Squawroot 232 

Squirrel-corn 135 

Stachys 220 

Staff-tree Family 177 

Staphylea 1 78 

Staphyleaceae 1 78 

Star-flower 201 

Star-grass 96 

Star-of-Bethlehem 94 

Star-thistle 269 

Steironema 202 

Stellaria 124 

Stenanlhium 92 

Slenophragma 142 

SterwphxiUus 72 

Stickseed 2 1 4 

Stipa 60 

Slomosia 232 

Stonecrop 144. 145 

Stonecrop Family 144 

Stone Mint 222 

Storax 203 

Storax Family 203 

Storksbill 171 

Strawberry 1 49 

Strophostyles 1 69 

Stylisma 209 

Stylophorum 135 

Stylosanthes 1 68 

Styracaceae 203 

Styrax 203 

Sugarberry 1 12 

Sullivantia 145 

Sumac 177, 178 

Sumac Family 177 

Summer Cypress 120 

Sundew 144 

Sundew Family 144 

Sundrops 191 

Sunflower 260. 261. 262 

SviJa 193 

Swamp-candle 202 

Sweet Alyssum 142 

Sweetbriar 153 

Sweet Cicely 196 

Sweet Clover 163 

Sweet fern 105 

Sweetflag 87 

Sweet-gum 147 

Sweet William 125 

Sycamore 147 

Symphoricarpos 238 

Symphytum 2 1 5 

Symplocarpus 86 

Synandra 219 

SxinJesmon 132 

Spnosma 267 

S\)niherisTna 62 

Synthyris 230 

Tabernaemonlana 206 

Taenidia 197 

Talinum 123 

Tamarack 40 

Tanacetum 266 

Tansy 266 

Taraxacum 272 

Taxaceae 40 


American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 2 

Taxodiaceae 40 

Taxodium 40 

Taxus 40 

Teasel 241 

Teasel Family 241 

Tecoma 233 

Tephrosia 164 

Tetraneitris 264 

Teucnum 218 

Thalesia 232 

Thalicfmm 130, 132 

Thaspium 197 

Thehpteris 36, 37 

Thismia 98 

Thistle ....268 

Thiaspi 1 43 

Thorough wort 248 

Three-seeded Mercury 174 

Thymeleaceae 188 

Thyme 222 

Thymus 222 

Thuja 41 

Tick-clover ....165 

Tickseed 263 

Tilia 181 

Tiliaceae 181 

Timothy 58 

Tilhvmalopsis 1 76 

Tofieldia 93 

Tomanihera 230 

Tomatillo 224 

Toothwort 140 

Torilis 196 

Torresia 61 

Touch-me-not 1 72 

Toxicodendron 1 77 

Tracaulon .,] 18 

Trachelospermum 206 

Tradescantia 88 

Traaopogon 269 

Trailing Arbutus 200 

Trautvetferia 13 1 

Tree of Heaven 173 

Triadenum 1 85 

Tribulus 1 72 

Trichomanes 34 

Trichostema 218 

Tridens 54 

Trientalis 201 

Trifolium 162 

Triglochin 44 

Trillium 95 

Triodia 54 

Triosteum 239 

Triphora 100 

Triplasis 54 

Tripsacum 68 

Triticum 55 

Trout Lily 94 

Troximnn 272 

Trumpet-creeper 233 

Trumpet-creeper Family 233 

Tsuga 40 

Tulip Tree 126 

Tumbleweed 121 

Tupelo ...194 

Tupelo Gum 194 

Turnip 1 38 

Turrilis 141 

Turtlehead 226 

Twayblade 100 

Twig-rush 75 

Twinf lower 239 

Twinleaf 133 

Typha 41 

Tvphaceae 41 

Ulmaceae 1 1 1 

Ulmus 11 1 

Umbelliferae 194 

Umbrella Sedge 72 

Umbrella-wort 1 22 

Unamia 256 

Unicorn-plant 233 

Unicorn-plant Family 233 

Uniola 54 

Urtica 1 1 3 

Urticaceae 1 13 

Urticaslrum 1 13 

Utricularia 23 1 

Uvularia 94 

Vaccaria 126 

Vaccinium 200 

Vagnera 94 

Valerian 240 

Valeriana 240 

Valerianaceae 240 

Valerianella 240 

Valerian Family 240 

Vallisneria 46 

Vegetable Oyster 270 

Velvet-leaf 183 

Venus' Looking-glass 242 

Veratrum 93 

Verbascum 226 

Verbena 215 

Verbena Family 215 

Verbenaceae 2 1 5 

Verbesina 262 

Vernonia 247 

Veronica 229 

Veronicastrum 229 

Vervain 21 5 

Vetch - 168 

Viburnum 237 

Vicia 168 

Vigna 169 

VInca 206 

V'tncetoxicum 208, 209 

Jones: Flora of Illinois 


Viola 186 


Violet 186. 187, 188 

Violet Family 186 

Viorna 1 ^■^ 

Virginia Creeper 181 

Virginia Snakeroot '14 

Virginia Willow 146 

Virgin's-Bower 1^2 


Vitis 180. 181 

Wafer-ash - - '73 

Wahoo 1 77 

Wallflower 140 

Walnut - 1 05 

Walnut Family - 105 

Washingionia 1 "6 

Watercress 1 4^ 

Water Elm HI 

Water-hemp - 1-^' 

Water Horehound 222 

Water Hyssop 228 

Waterleaf 2 1 2 

Waterleaf Family 212 

Waterlily - 133 

Waterlily Family 133 

Water Locust - 161 

Water-marigold 264 

Water-milfoil - - 192 

Water-milfoil Family 192 

Water-parsnip 197 

Water-pepper - 1 17 

Water-plantain 45 

Water-plantain Family 44 

Water-purslane 189 

Watershield 1 32 

Water-stargrass 89 

Water-starwort 1 76 

Water-starwort Family 176 

Waterweed 46 

Water-willow 233 

Waterwort 126 

Waterwort Family 126 

Waxweed 1 89 

Wheat - 55 

Whitetop 257 

Whitlowcress 1 40 

Whitlow-wort Family - - 122 

Wild Balsam-apple 241 

Barley 56 

Bean 169 

Celery 46 

Comf rey 2 1 4 

Geranium 1 70 

Ginger ' 14 

Hyacinth 94 

Indigo 162 

Leek 93 

Licorice 236 

Millet 59 

Oat 56 

Pansy 188 

Pea 168 

Rice 62 

Rye 55 

Sarsaparilla 194 

Sweet-potato 210 

Willow 102 

Willow Family 101 

Willowherb 190 

Winterberry 1 77 

Wlntercress 1 39 

Wlntergreen ...199. 200 

Wisteria 165 

Witch-hazel 147 

Witch-hazel Family 147 

Wolfberry 238 

Wolffiia 87 

Woodbine 181 

Woodrush 91 

Woodsla 36 

Wood Nettle 113 

Wood-sorrel 171 

Wood-sorrel Family 171 

Woodwardla 39 

Wormwood 266 

Xanthium 247 

Xanthoxalis 171 

Xvlosleon 239 

Xyridaceae 88 

Xyris 88 

Yam 96 

Yam Family 96 

Yarrow 265 

Yellow Cress 139 

Yellow-eyed grass 88 

Yellow-eyed grass Family 88 

Yellow Ironweed 262 

Yellow-wood 1 62 

Yew 40 

Yew Family 40 

Zanichellla 44 

Zanthoxylum 1 73 

Zea 68 

Zlgadenus 92 

Zizia 197 

Zizania 62 

Zosterella 89 

Zygophyllaceae 172